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Full text of "Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia"

PROCEEDINGS 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



PHILADELPHIA. 



1888. 



committee of publication: 
Joseph Leidy, M. D., Geo. H. Horx, M. D., 

Edw. J. Nolan, yi. D.. Thomas Meehan, 

John H. Redfield. 

Editor: EDWARD J. NOLAN, M. D. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 

LOGAN SQUARE, 
1889. 



AcAOEMY OF Natural Sciences of Philadrlphia, 

February 6, i?83. 

I hereby certify that copies of the Proceedings for 188S have been presented 
at the meetincrs of the Academy as follows: 



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EDWARD J. NOLAN, 

Recording Secretary. 



rHILADELPHIA : 
HORACE BINDER, PRINTER. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 

With reference to the several articles contributed by each. 



For Verbal Communications see Cieneral Index. 



PAGE. 

Allen, Harrison, M. D. The distribution of the color-marks of the Mammalia. S-t 

The palatal rugae in Man 254 

Chapman, Henry C, M. D. Observations on the female generative apparatus 

of Hyaena crocuta. (Plates X, XI.) 189 

Chapman, Henry C, M. D. and Albert P. Brubaker M. D. Researches upon 

the general physiology of nerve and muscle. No. 1 106 

Researches upon the general physiology of nerve and muscle. No. 2.... 15-5 
Fielde, Adele M. Notes on an aquatic insect, or insect-larva, having jointed 

dorsal appendages. (Plate \'III.) 129 

Ford, John. Description of a new species of Ocinebra 188 

Hartman, \\'m. D., M. D. .\ bibliographic and synonymic catalogue of the 

Genus Auriculella Pfr 14 

A bibliographic and synonymic catalogue of the < lenus Achatinella, 

(Plate I.) 16 

New species of shells from the New Hebrides and Sandwich Islands, 

(Plate XIII.) 250 

Heilprin, Angelo. Contributions to the natural history of the Bermuda Is- 
lands. (Plates XIV, XV, XVI.) 302 

Ives, J. E. On two new species of Starfishes 421 

Jordan, David Starr. Description of a new spegies of Etheosloma (E. longi- 

mana) from James River, Virginia 179 

On the generic name of the Tunny ISO 

Kelley, Edwin A. Notes on the Myology of Ursus maritimus 141 

Keyes, Charles R. On the fauna of the lower coal measures 222 

Descriptions of two new fossils from the Devonian of Iowa. (Plate 

XH.) 247 

Leidy, Jos., M. D. Distinctive characters of Odontaspis littoralis 162 

Parasitic Crustacea 165 

Meehan, Thomas. Contributions to the life-histories of plants. No. II. Some 
new facts in the life history of Vucca. A study of the Hydrangea in 
relation to cross-fertilization. On the forms of Lonicera Japonica ; 
with notes on the origin of the forms 274 



/<f i :l ^ 



Contributions to tlie life-histories of plants, No. III. Smilacina bifolia. 

Dichogamy and its significance. Trientalis Americana. On the 

glands in some Caryophyllaceous flowers 391 

McCook, Rev. Henry C, D. D. Descriptive notes on new American species 

of Orb- weaving spiders 193 

A new fossil spider, Eoatypus Woodwardii 200 

Nesting habits of the new American Purse web Spider 203 

Ochsenius, Carl. On tiie formation of rock-salt beds and mother liquor salts. 181 
Osborn, Hemy Fairfield. Additional observations upon the structure and 

classification of the Mesozoic Mammalia 292 

Pilsbry, Henry A. On the Helicoid land Mollusks of Bermuda, (Plate 

XVII.) 28.> 

Kingueberg, Eugene N. S., M. D. Some new species of fossils from the 

Niagara Shales of Western New York. (Plates VII.) 131 

Ruschenberger, W. S. W., M. D. Biographical notice of Geo. W. Tryon Jr. 

(With portrait.) 399' 

Wachsmuth, Charles and Frank Springer. Discovery of the ventral structure 

of Taxocrinus an.d Haplocrinus and consequent modification in the 

classification of the Crinoidea. (Plate XVIII.) 337 

Crotalocrinus : its structure and zoological position. (Plates XIX, XX.) 364 
Wright, Berlin Hart. Description of new species of Uniones from Florida. 

(Plates II, HI, IV, V, VI.) 113 



\ 



^ 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



OF 



PHILADELPHIA. 



1888. 



■ January 3, 1888. 

The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-one members present. 

The death of Andrew Garrett, a correspondent, was announced. 



January 10, 
The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty-four persons present. 

On a fossil of the Puma. — Prof. Leidy directed attention to a spec- 
imen recently sent to him for identification from Sparta, Illinois. 
It is the cranial portion of a skull of the Puma, Felis concolor, and 
was found under about thirty feet of earth, when digging in the bed 
of the Kaskaskia river, for a bridge pier. It accords with the cor- 
responding part of recent animals, though presenting some slight 
ditferences from a number of skulls of our museum. The most strik- 
2 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

ing difFei-ence is in the interparietal crest which is higher and of 
more uiiit'oriu height and is especially higher in front. The narrow 
part of the cranial case is narrower and the forehead is more mesially 
depressed between the angular processes. Comparative measure- 
ments with two recent skulls of about the same size are as follows : 

Fossil Recent Recent 
Length of interparietal crest 
Height of interparietal crest 
Height, on line of lower part of coronal 

suture 
Breadth at narrow part of cranium 
Breadth at centre of squamosals 
Breadth at zygomata 
Breadth at frontal angular processes 
Breadth of narrow part of forehead 
Length of forehead to post-nasal depression 
Height of iniou from occipital foramen. 



98 


108 


94mm 


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8-12 


15 


10 


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42 


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41 


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48 


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62 



January 17. 
Dr. A. E. FooTE in the chair. 

Eight persons present. 

A paper entitled "Some new fossils from the Niagara Shales of 
"Western New York" by Eugene N. S. Ringueberg M. D., was 
presented for publication. 



January 24. 

Mr. Geo. W. Tbyon, Jr. in the chair. 

Twenty persons present. 

A paper entitled "The Distribution of the Color Marks of the 
Mammalia" by Harrison Allen ^I. D., was presented for publica- 
tion. 

The death of Wm. L. Mactier, a member, was announced. 

On the relation of Sarracenia purpurea to Sarracenia variolaris. 
— Prof. W. P. Wilson remarked that Sarracenia purpurea produces 
two kinds of leaves. As the young plantlet first develops itself from 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 11 

the seed it forms a few leaves which differ widely from those which 
appear on the same plant a little later. The adult stage of these 
first leaves is from a twentieth to a tenth smaller than the adult 
stage of the second or later developed leaves. Generally only from 
five to ten of these first-leaves are produced. 

After the second leaves begin to appear, then no more of the first 
form are grown by the plant. 

In the ordinary leaves of S. purpurea it is well known that the 
hood surmounting the hollow leaf is erect and in no wise protects 
or covers its opening. In S. variolaris this is just the opposite — 
here the hood, a little above and back of the opening, makes a 
sharp bend forward and not only covers over the whole orifice but 
projects beyond it on all sides nearly 2 inch. 

These first or seedling leaves oi' S. purpurea reseirfble in form not 
the later and adult leaves on the same plant, but those of /S. vario- 
laris. The hood is not erect but arches over the hollow leaf in pre- 
cisely the same manner as in the adult leaves of ;iS. variolaris. 

There are also two forms of leaves in ^S'. variolaru. In this plant, 
however, the difi^erences are not so much a matter of shape as appar- 
ently of arrested development. The first leaves are very much like 
the adult form on the same plant only being from ten to twenty 
times smaller. 

But the important fact remains to be stated : — ^the first leaves from 
each of these plants are perfect miniatures of each other. It would 
be next to impossible for an expert to separate them, should they 
happen to become mixed, and to accurately say which belonged to 
the one or which to the other of the two species. 

The production of this first set of leaves by S. purpurea which so 
very closely resemble the ordinary leaves of S. variolaris had led him 
to believe that the species pu?'pwrea Ls a retrograde development from 
variolaris. 

Misbelief in this is, however, not wholly based on the production of 
the early leaves, but rests upon several other important facts. 

8. variolaris is a very highly specialized plant for the purpose of 
catching and digesting insects. Up and down the margin of the 
wing and around the mouth of the protected pitcher are numerous 
honey glands. In the interior is the smooth surface and also the 
hairy ones to prevent the escape of insects which have fed up to the 
top of the leaf and then fallen into this treacherous opening. These 
special adaptations are all present in >S'. purpurea, but the honey 
glands seldom secrete any nectar and are sometimes even rudi- 
mentary. Again the fluid found in S. variolaris contains a consider- 
able quantity of a digestive ferment which acts directly upon the 
entrapped insects. This is not so in the fluid excreted by the leaves of 
S. purpurea. Only a trace of this ferment could be found after the 
most careful chemical search for it. 



12 proceedings of the academy op [1888. 

January 31. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 

Twenty-eight pei-sons present. 

Mimicry among Plants. — Prof. J. T. Rothrock remarked that 
among animals mimicry is usually related to the safety of the indi- 
vidual, or less frequently to the ease by which it may conceal itself 
and thus more readily capture its food. Whatever may be the cause 
of mimicry among plants, or by whatever governing forces one plant 
in the long run, may come to resemble another more or less remotely 
related to it, it is clear that neither of the causes which are associated 
with mimicry among animals can obtain in the vegetable kingdom. 

These mimetic cases ma}^ conveniently be ranged under two heads. 

1. Those in which we find the resemblances between plants in 
groups clearly distinct. The lower of these may sometimes well be 
called anticipating or prophetic types. 

2. Those found between plants in the same natural family, where 
the descent within recent period, of one from the other, may rea- 
sonably be supported by all who admit the doctrine of evolution. 
This resemblance is of course often merely external, disappearing 
under even the slightest examination ; as, for example, when one 
glances hastily at a specimen, particularly an herbarium specimen, 
oi Zygadeniis elegans Pursh, and then compares it with a narrow- 
leaved specimen of Sivertia perennis. There are few who will not be 
struck with the likeness, yet the former is a well njarked represen- 
tation of the monocotyledonous group, and the other as evidently one 
of the dicotyledonous plant. It is somewhat startling to find 
along with marked points of distinction that there exist certain struct- 
ural resemblances ; thus one may well compare the unusual mark- 
ings found on the bases of the perianth divisions in Zygadenus 
with the equally unusual gland found at the base of the petals in 
Swertia. There is in these resemblances nothing which can in any 
sense be called prophetic, because the relationship between the ex- 
amples is quite too remote. 

The case is, however, somewhat different when one compares the 
shape of some of the young liverwort with the prothallus of some 
ferns. Here the resemblance is often very marked and the line of 
relationship not so distant. It might almost be said that the perma- 
nent form of the liverwort clearly resembled the early, transient 
form of the fern. 

Or, as another instance, compare the protonema of a moss before 
the shoot appears which is to develop into the erect aerial branch, 
with one of our filamentous algse. Here again we have so marked 
a general resemblance that it may well enough be classed with the 
prophetic types. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 13 

The second group to which allusion has been made — those in which 
the resemblance is between related plants, may be fairly illustrated 
by the resemblance between Nepeta Gleclioma and Lamium am- 
plexicaule, especially when (as is often the case in Nepeta) the petioles 
are very much reduced in length. 

Another unusual resemblance comes to mind. One may easily 
understand why the cup found about the base of the stigma in so 
many of the Lobeliaceae should be so exactly repeated in the allied 
order of Goodeniaceae. But how are we to explain its appearance 
in Gaura (one of the Onagraceae) which can hardly be regarded as 
closely related to either of the above orders. These resemblances 
and the questions growing out of them are to be further considered 
in a paper in course of preparation. 

Messrs Lawrence J. Morris, Stewart Cidin and Roberts LeBoutil- 
lier were elected members. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

A BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF THE 
GENUS AURICULELLA, PFEIFFER. 

BY W. D. HARTMAN, M. D. 

Genus AURICULELLA, Dr. L. Pfeiifer. 

A. amoena, Pfeifter. (Frickella.) Proc. Zool, Soc. t. 30, p. 3, 1855. 
Frickella amoena, Pfeiffer, Mai. Bliitt. ii-1855, 166-1856. 
Auriculella amcena, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. 91,-1873. 

Sandwich Islands. 

A. ambusta, Pease. Jour. Conch. 345, 1869. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649, 1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 
fA. auricula, Pfr. (Partula.) Per. System, 66, No. 6. 
Auriculella Auricula, Kust. t. 3, p. 14-16. 
Auriculella Oivaihiensis, Chem. 
Tornatella Owaihiensis, Pfeiffer, 1842. 
Partula Dumartroy, Souly. 
Partula Auricula, Albers. 
Achatinella Auricula, Pfeiffer, 1855. 
Axiricula Sinistrorsa, Chem. In Kiist. t. 7, p. 14—16. 
Bulimus Armatis, Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc. II, p. 19, 1845. 
Tornatella Sinistrorsa, Pfr., Mon. Hel. viv ; 652. 

Ha.wai, Sandwich Islands. 

fA. brunnea. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 23-1873. 

Molokai, and Kauai. 

fA. Cerea, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 20, f. 21-1855. 

Achatinella Cerea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt,-1855. 
Auriculella Cerea, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

A. Chammissoi, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 98-1853. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Pfr. Mall. BUitt, 1855. 
Auriculella Chammissoi, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

A. Crassula, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 22-1873. 

Mahawao, East Maui. 
fA. diaphana, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 25-1873. 

Oahu. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 15 

fA. expausa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. Jour. Conch, xvi. t. 14, f. 8. 

Sandwich Islands. 

A. jecunda, Smith. Nomen in Ann. Lye. N. Y. x. .331-332-1873. 

West Maui. 
fA. lurida, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iii, 552. 

Tornatellina Castanea, Pfr. Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 570. 
Balea Castanea, Adams. 

Tornatella Castanea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 166-1856. 
Auriculella lurida, Pfr. Nomeu. Hel. Viv. 304-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 
A. Obeliscus, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iii, 563. 
Balea Newcomhia, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 67-1852. 
Temesia Neivcombia, Bourg. 
Auriculella Obeliscus, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 166-1856. 

Sandtvich Islands. 

A. patula, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 24-1873. 

Sandivich Islands. 
fA, petetiana, Pfr. (Tornatellina.) Mon. Hel. Viv. ii, 399. 
Auriculella Petetiana, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 4-1855. 

Sandwich Islands. 

A. perpusilla, Smith. Proc. Zool Soc. t. 10, f. 26-1873. 

Sandwich Islands. 

f A. pulchra, Pse. Jour. Conchyl. xvi, t. 14, f. 6-1869. 

Sandivich Islands. 
There is little difference between type examples of >S'. pulchra, Pse. 
and A. auricula, Fer. ; the former are somewhat larger in size. 

A. pusilla, Gia. (Partula.) Expd. Shells, t. 9, f. 90. 

Achatinella ptisilla, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 166-1856. 
Auriculella jnisilla, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 304-1881. 

Matea Island. 

A, solida, Gul. Nomen in Ann. Lye. N. Y. x, 331-332-1873. 

Kanailola, Oahu. 

A. solidissima, Smith. Nomen m Ann. Lye. N. Y. x. 331-332-1873. 

Makawao, Oahu. 

A. tenuis, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 27-1873. 

Sandwich Islands. 

A. triplicate, Pse. Jour. Conch. 346-1869. 

3Iaui. 

fA. uniplicate, Pse. Jour. Conehyl. xvi, t. 14, f. 7-1869. 

Maui. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND SYNONYMIC CATALOGUE OF THE 
GENUS ACHATINELLA, 

BY W. D. HARTMAN, M. D. 

The genus Achatinella,^ embraces a group of small, beautiful and 
variously colored land shells, peculiar to the Sandwich Islands. 
Mr. Swainson first introduced the genus to the notice of naturalists 
in Brand's Journal, in 1828, and in 1831 the same author assigned 
it a position in the systematic arrangement of species, under the 
above name. Since that period manj^ new species have been describ- 
ed by naturalists. Dr. L. Pfeiffer in the Malakozoologische Blatter, 
and subsequently others have proposed sub-divisions for the numer- 
ous and diversified forms embraced by the genus. In some 
instances the lines of these sub-divisions are well-defined, while in 
others they are less marked. They have been generally adopted by 
conchologists, as they are found convenient for the arrangement of 
a collection. Mr. Thomas Bland says "the distinctions derived 
from the consideration of the form of the shells are arbitrary, and the 
limits are not well defined." His classification of the sub-divisions 
of the genus, is chiefly founded on the structure of the lingual den- 
tition, "which indicates three groups, a. Partulina and Achatinella 
h. Newcomhia and Laminella, and c. Leptachatina ; judging from the 
shells alone, Bulimella and Apex belong to group a, while Labiella 
belongs to group 6 or c rather than to a." This arrangement is 
chiefly in accord with that of Dr. Pfeifler and Mr. William H. Pease, 
for the details of which I must refer the reader to their several pa- 
pers. I agree with Dr. Pfeiffer in eliminating Carelia and Auricu- 
lella as separate genera from Achatinella, and I also concur with 
Dr. Gulick in the opinion that Frickella should be added to Auri- 
culella. I am also in accord with Mr. Lovell Eeeve in the opinion 
that the small common shells for which Dr. Gould proposed tho 
name of Leptachatina, should be removed from Achatinella, as they 
are mox'e nearly allied to the Oleacinidte than to the Bulimidie, and 
they differ from Achatinella in being oviparous while the latter are 
viviparous. In consequence of the connection heretofore existing be- 

* Although AtiHculella possesses the same form of dentition as Partula 
and Achatinella, Dr. Pfeiffer has placed it in a separate genus, on conchological 
grounds, in which I concur. These minute shells, would seem to have no place 
in a serial arrangement of the genus Achatinella. Species marked f are in the 
author's collection. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCE^ OF PHILADELPHIA. 17 

tween Achatinella and Leptachatina, the latter has received especial 
attention in the preparation of this paper, and for the present it has 
been retained in the genus Achatinella. In analyzing the species 
of Leptachatina proposed by Dr. Gould, of which L. acuminata Gld. 
was designated as the type, they are found to be divisible into three 
groups. In the first may be placed the elongate or cylindrical and 
semi-transparent varieties, as L. acuminata, striatula and cerealis 
Gould, gracilis PfeifFer, tenebrosa Pease, terehralis and exilis Gul., 
and /tfsca Newc. In the second, the short oval clear and polished va- 
rieties, as cingula Migh. saccata Hartm. brevicula Pse. and nitida 
Newc. And in the third, the larger inflated and more stout species, as 
Sartmanii Newc. M. S. sacclncta, Jumosa, and vitrea Newc, fusca and 
resinw/a Gul. together with corneola and pyramis Pfr. The major 
part of the species are terrestrial in their habits, while a few are 
arboreal. In my examination of the Achatinellse, I have also inclu- 
ded the allied genus Aurmilella. The generic name of Achatinella 
has been used by all authors previous to Dr. Pfeiffer's sub-division 
of the genus in Malakozocilogische Blatter in 1854 and 1856. Owing 
to several causes the species have been burthened with numerous 
synonyms, many of which have been hei-ein omitted, to avoid a 
needless repetition of names. Their variability in form, age and 
color, has misled naturalists into the error of multiplying the spe- 
cies, and a change of environment Dr. Newcomb informs us, is 
known to so alter the appearance of some, as to cause them to be 
mistaken for distinct species. A change of environment and mal- 
nutrition materially modifies the growth of all animals, and no- 
where is it more observable than in the molluscan fauna. The 
diflferent appearance of depauperized or aberrant forms of shells is a 
prolific source of error, and often of embarrassment to the student of 
natural history, since corrections can only be made by the examin- 
ation of types in scattered collections. Mr. Geo. W. Tryon Jr. in 
Ms recent books on conchology, has relegated to synonymy many 
shells heretofore considered of specific value, some of which are 
doubtless the result of environment or hybridization. In the early 
history of the genus Achatinella, naturalists in different parts of the 
world were engaged at the same time in describing the species, and 
some of the names then given have only been established by priority 
of publication. The application of boiling water to remove the an- 
imal, materially alters the color of the shell, changing a green or 
bright green to a dirty yellow ; and the manufacture of species by 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

scraping, has also been resorted to, to increase the number of com- 
mercial species. 

Hybridization may have been a factor in the origin of some va- 
rieties as occurs in the allied genus Partula. The preservation of 
the species in the lower animals is due in a great measure to animal 
instinct, but where nearly allied species are thrown together, as often 
happens in the involuntary change of position of Achatinella, or the 
proximity of broods, as occurs with Partula, hybridization may take 
place. It is well known that embryonic young are priceless to the 
biologist, and since the tissue cells of species evolute from pre-exist- 
ing germs and do not originate cle novo, the shape of the embryonic 
or apical fold of each species of viviparous moUusk, should be the 
true index of a species, except in the case of hybrids, when it would 
take the form of one or the other of the parents, and would be far- 
ther distinguished in the adult, by the form, size and color of the 
predominating parent, a law always observable in hybrids. 

Dr. Isaac Lea has always maintained the importance of the shape 
of the apical fold, for a correct determination of a species of IJnio, 
I have said elsewhere, that viviparous hermaphrodite mollusca (being 
■cold blooded animals) would probably more readily hybridize than 
warm blooded, which might in a measure account for the numerous 
forms and varieties of Unionidse and Strepomatidse in the rivers of 
the United States. The late Prof Haldeman believed that liybrid 
Unios existed, and farther that individuals between Melantho decisa 
sxnd M. ponderosa Qnj are often found, which look very much like 
hybrids of these species. It is well-known that fish, frogs and toads 
(which are cold blooded animals) hybridize, and recently some spe- 
cies of salmon have been successfully and profitably hybridized. 

So far as known the food plants of the Achatinella have no in- 
fluence in the coloration of the shell ; those species possessing a 
black, dark or slate colored mantle, secrete a variegated shell, while 
others with a greenish, bluish, light yellow or flesh-colored mantle, 
secrete a shell with different shades of yellow. The varied and gor- 
geous tints of the shells of Achatinelhe, are probably owing to the 
action of light and oxygen on the secretions from the glands of the 
mantle ; the striations and variations of color, are probably due to 
the chemical composition of a fluid from a different set of glands ; 
hence the painting of the arboreal species is more bright and pleasing 
than that of the terrestrial, which are generally of uniform and somber 
hues. The surface of all the porphyroid and gaily painted species, 
exhibit under a glass, waved spiral striae, similar to Partuhe. These 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 19 

lines commence at the termination of the first one-and-a-half whorls 
of the apex, which corresponds to their embryonic age. The apices 
of some of the Amastra are coarsely plicate, in this respectresem- 
bling Laminella. This is especially noticeable in the elongate spe- 
cies, as A. magna, assimilis, biplicata, Hitchinsonii, turritella and some 
others which have been classed Avith Laminella by Dr. Pfeifier ; in 
others the plica of the apex are small Avrinkles, and in A. farcimen, 
reticulata, tristis, elliptica, and some others, the apex is smooth and 
rounded, forming a sub-group of Amastra. A more constant char- 
acter is found in the species of Amastra being destitute of spiral 
striae, differing in this respect from the ])orj)hyroid Achatinellse. 
The Amastra being ground species and living beneath dead leaves 
and other debris, when the shells are deprived of the animal and are 
exposed to the atmosphere, the ejiidermis is more readily detached 
than in other Achatinelke. 

"The facts relating to the geographical distribution of Achati- 
nella, and the development of so large a number of species within 
the limits of small areas, are very remarkable and interesting, 
and have presented problems bearing or. the theories of evolu- 
tion. Each island has its own peculiar species, and not only species^ 
lout its own peculiar types, or groups of species, of similar form. 
Again, on islands where there has been a full development of Acha- 
tinella, each principal mountain ridge and valley has its own pecu- 
liar species which are found nowhere else; the species of each ridge 
or valley being often connected with those of the next — by intermediate 
varieties. Another important fact observed in the distribution of the 
Achatinella is. that on a mountain chain with many culminating 
peaks, the tendency is to divergence of species, while on an indi- 
vidual mass of mountains concentrating towards a single culminating 
peak, the tendency is to a convergence of species." "The structure 
of the Hawaian Islands is volcanic ; and in studying the distribution 
of shells over them, it is important to note the relative ages of the 
several islands. Geologically speaking, Kauai is the oldest ; next 
in the series is Oahu ; then jNEaui with the adjoining islands of 
Molokai and Lanai ; and last comes Hawaii, in the southern por- 
tion of which volcanic fires are still raging." 

" Oahu. The development of Achatinella on this island, both as 
regards number and variety of form and color, has been greater than 
on any other island of the group. Unlike most of the other islands 
which have individual mountain masses, Oalm has two true ranges 
or chains of mountains, a longer and a shorter one, with many in- 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

dependent culminating peaks. The aggregate length of the two 
ranges is 50 miles. The sides of these ranges, their entire length, 
are furrowed by deep valleys separating lofty ridges. These val- 
leys and ridges are the home of Achatlnella : each valley and 
ridge has its own distinct species which are connected with those of 
the next valley and ridge, by a multitude of intermediate varieties, 
presenting minute gradations of form and color. These two ranges 
of mountains have already furnished 227 distinct described species 
of Achatinella, the number of varieties has been estimated as high as 
800 or 900. All these species and varieties, are found in an area of 
less than 120 square miles ; and a considerable portion of the longer 
range remains yet to be explored. These species have all the va- 
rious shapes from globose to conic, ovate and elongate-conical, and 
present almost eveiy possible shade and variety of coloring, from 
pure white to jet black, and all the shades of green, rose, yellow, 
brown and ash ; sometimes several of these colors are combined in 
one species, either in regular or irregular bands, or tessellated, mar- 
bled or zigzaged designs." 

"West Maui. On this part of Maui we have the converse of 
Oahu. Its individual mass of mountains, clustering around one com- 
mon centre peak, 2000 feet higher than any part of Oahu, furnishes 
only 30 described species of Achatinella, each principal valley and 
ridge has its own peculiar species or varieties ; but all the arboreal 
species can be referred to seven leading types, these differ much from 
the Oahu types, and do not present the same varieties of form or 
color. The prevailing colors are white and dark brown with all the 
intervening shades ot either, plain or variously arranged in bands 
or zigzaged lines." 

" East Maui. The distribution of Achatinella on this part 
of Maui is not fully known. All its mountain gorges and ridges 
concentrate around the rim of the immense crater of Haleakala, a 
circumscribing bound of nearly thirty miles in extent. The almost 
impenetrable forest on the mountain slopes to the east and south 
of the crater comprising a belt of twenty miles long and six miles 
wide, remain unexplored, and its molluscan life is unknown. The 
woodlands on the north-west slope of the mountain facing West 
Maui furnish 29 described species of Achatinella ; but they are the 
same or unmistakable counterparts of those found on West Maui. 
The narrow depression of land between East and West Maui has 
led many to infer that they were originally separate islands, this 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 21 

similarity of shell-types would seem to indicate that, if ever separate, 
they must have been united before the development of molluscan 
life ; otherwise we should expect to find the types of East and West 
Maui differing as much from each other as do those of Maui and 
the contiguous islands of Molokai and Lanai." 

" Molokai. The distribution of Achatinella on this island pre- 
sents some new features not observed on any other island. The 
island is forty miles long with a width of only seven miles, it is 
about one-third the size of Oahu, and like it has a mountain range 
extending nearly thirty miles through its length. The range is fur- 
rowed on each side by deep valleys. Some of these mountain 
gorges are very wide and cut deep into the narrow axis of the island. 
The larger ones have proved an effectual barrier to the migration 
of the shells. The island is thus divided into three natural sections, 
and each section retains its own peculiar species without intermin- 
gling with those of the next section." " Molokai furnishes 25 de- 
scribed species which are about equally divided between the three 
sections of the island, these shells exhibit more variety of form and 
color than those of Maui, and have peculiarities which separate 
them entirely from types of other islands." 

" Lanai. Thi» is the smallest and most arid of the shell produc- 
ing islands. Its area is 100 square miles, of which probably not 
over one tenth is suited for the support of mollusks. The island is, 
however notable as the home of A. magna Adams, the largest shell 
of the whole Achatinella family. Specimens in our cabinet measure 
I5 inches long, the whole number of species of Achatinella on Lanai 
is 13, and they exhibit peculiarities of type." 

" Kauai. This is the oldest and most verdant island of the group. 
It lies to the west of Oahu, and is separated from it by a channel 
wider than occurs between any of the other islands. Its extensive 
forests, luxuriant vegetation and moist climate render it peculiarly 
adapted for the abode of Achatinella ; and one would naturally ex- 
pect to find here a larger, and if possible, higher development of the 
family. But we are doomed to disappointment, the island yields no 
arboreal species, the shells are terrestrial, and those classed with 
Achatinella belong to the plainest forms of the Amastra and Lepta- 
chatina groups; 5 species to the former and 18 to the latter. 
Kauai, however, does furnish a very peculiar and interesting group 
of large terrestrial shells, remarkable for their elongate turretted 
form. The generic name of Carelia has been provided for the group; 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

it embraces some seven species. Specimens of Carelia turricula 
Migli. in my cabinet measure three inches long. This group has no 
place in the AchatineUa family, as classed by M. Gulick. It lacks 
the peculiar spiral twist of the columella and other generic charac- 
ters of that family ; living specimens of Carelia are now very 
rare, but at some period in the history of Kauai they were exceed- 
ingly abundant. The alluvial deposits near the coast portions of 
the island, contain multitudes of these shells in a semi-fossil state, 
which have been washed from the mountains by the freshets of ages 
past. The small neighboring island of Niihau also has a single 
species of Carelia found in sand and mud deposits ; no living speci- 
mens are found there now." 

" Hawaii. This island embraces within its bounds two-thirds of 
the total area of the whole group. It is also supposed to be the most 
recently formed of the islands. The volcanic forces are still at work 
here. The extensive forests are as well adapted for the support of 
AchatineUa, as those of any of the other islands, but it furnishes 
only a single arboreal species, and five terrestrial. The arboreal 
species is A. physa; it was first described by Dr. Newcomb in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London in 1853. In a sub- 
sequent number of the same Journal, Mr. Wm. H. Pease refers to 
this same shell as a "species rarely met with on the mountains of 
Hawaii." The centre of production is the Kohala range of moun- 
tains, notably the most ancient portion of the island ; and it exists 
there now in unparalled abundance. During a recent visit to the lo- 
cality in a few minutes I collected several hundred specimens, picking 
them from trees and low bushes as rapidly as one would gather huckle- 
berries from a prolific field. The shell appears to be slowly migra- 
ting into the adjoining districts of Hamakua and Kona, and assu- 
ming new shapes and varieties of coloring. One of these varieties 
in our cabinet is almost worthy of assignment as a new species. The 
conchologist of a few centuries hence will no doubt be naming A chati- 
nella from the difterent districts of Hawaii of manifold forms and 
gaudy colors, which have developed through the mysterious pro- 
cessses of evolution from the humble A. physa of the Kohala Moun- 
tains." 

" The discovery of so large a number of land shells of the same 
genus within limited island areas was unprecedented, and at once 
induced the belief that the " completion of a collection of the genus 
had been sealed," this is a mistake. The homes of AchatineUa 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 2ii 

are on rugged mountains, densely covered by vegetation and their 
sides furrowed by deep and almost inaccessible ravines and large 
districts on Oahu and East Maui wliicli have never been visited by 
white men, remain yet to be explored. It will require years of re- 
search and study, before the number and exact distribution of the 
remaining sj^ecies can be ascertained. It is also generally supposed 
that these shells are becoming extinct by the ravages of cattle through 
our forests. This is true in respect to a limited number of species 
on the island of Oahu whose habitats were the forests on the lowest 
range of hills. Some of these hills have been denuded of woods, not 
only by cattle, but the woodman's axe, and certain species are be- 
coming rare. The favorite resorts of many species are the Ki (Dra- 
cena terminalis) and the Olona (Boehmeria stipularis) both excellent 
fodder plants. But in localities where these plants have been entirely 
destroyed by cattle, the shells have generally selected homes on other 
adjoining plants. The ravages particularly of wild cattle in our 
mountain forests are certainly to be deprecated, nevertheless by 
clearing the under brush they render the forests more accessible for 
the collection of known species ; and by opening the paths to higher 
and more dense forests they facilitate the discovery of new species. 
The agencies now threatening the wholesale destruction of these little 
gems of the forest are the rats and mice, which have become very 
abundant in mountain forests, particularly where there are no cattle. 
Their ravages are not confined to the shells whose habitats are on the 
ground, but extend to those found on trees. It is not uncommon to 
find around the charnal cells of these noxious little animals hundreds 
of empty, mutilated shells. Not^Vithstanding these threatening agen- 
cies, the Achatinellffi are still quite abundant on Oahu and Molokai, 
where cattle have the widest range, though not so abundant as for- 
merly on West Maui where the cattle ranges are somewhat limited 
and the mice enjoy greater immunity. In a recent excursion with 
a friend through a portion of the mountain forests between Ewa and 
Waialuaon Oahu more than 3000 shells were collected in a few days 
embracing over fifty species of Achaiinella, some of them new to 
science. In a similar trip around Molokai nearly 5000 were collec- 
ted, embracing thirty species, some new."^ 

To Wesley Newcomb, M. D. more than to any author on Acliati- 
nella, we are indebted for a correct knowledge of the described spe- 
cies of this beautiful genus of shells. During a residence of nine 



1 Mr. D. D. Baldwin in Hawaian Almanac and Annual. 



24 . PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

years in the Sandwich Islands he collected and reared large numbers 
of the different species and observed the numerous varieties from a 
common parentage. When in Europe in company with the late 
Dr. A. A. Gould he examined the types of Dr. L. Pfeiffer and others 
which enabled him to correct the synonymy of many doubtful spe- 
cies ; all of which he has embodied in his Synopsis of the Genus, 
which entitles him to the designation of authority on Achatinella 
" par excellence." 

For convenience of reference I have arranged the species alpha- 
betically under the several sections, rather than in a connected series, 
as was attempted by Mr. Pease. The sections of Achatinell^e being 
more or less artificial, authors are not always in accord as to which 
certain species should be assigned. In the majority of instances, I 
have followed Dr. Pfeiffer or Mr. Pease in the distribution of the 
species among the sections, being guided in the main by authentic 
examples, or by figures and descriptions of authors; the sub-section 
Helicterina adopted by Mr. Pease from Baron Ferussac, has been 
supplanted by Partulina, the former having been preoccupied. 

In the pi-eparation of this paper I am indebted for aid to several 
friends. To Prof. A. Agassiz for the loan of the entire Pease collec- 
tion of Achatinella together with all his duplicates amounting to 
near two bushels of examples, I have had in my possession several 
entire suites of Achatinell?e, kindly loaned to me by Prof James Hall, 
Dr. Lea, Mrs. George Andrews and INIr. P. Ellsworth Call, by which 
I was enabled to identify types from authors hands. Recently, at 
the invitation of Dr. Newcomb I spent the greater part of two days 
in the examination of his collection oi Achatinella made some years 
ago in the Sandwich Islands. My acknowledgements are also due him 
for assistance in the determination of many varieties. When in 
Europe in 1883 I purchased some of the species of Messrs Gulick and 
Smith from G. B. Sowerby Jr. Recently I have been favored by 
Mr. D. D. Baldwin of the island of Maui with written catalogues of 
the localities of the Achatinellse of the Sandwich Islands, together 
with numerous examples of Achatinella and especially with spec- 
imens taken from the determined type examples of Mr. Gulick, in 
the Hawaiau JMuseum. The geographical distribution of the Acha- 
tinella; in those islands together with their habits, which has been 
embodied in this paper was expressly prepared by Mr. Baldwin for 
the Hawaian Almanac and Annual. I am also under obligations 
to Mr. Geo. W. Tryon Jr., for his uniform courtesy in aiding me in 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. " 25 

the examination of books and examples belonging to the Academy 
of Natural Sciences. 

The following references have been abbreviated in the Catalogue: — 
Monogi'aphia Heliceorum viventium and Nomenclator Heliceorum 
viventium by Dr. L. PfeifTer; Proceedings of the Zoological Society 
of London, containing the papers of Drs. Newcomb, Pfeiffer and 
Gulick ; Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
containing the papers of Drs. Gould and Mighels ; Contributions to 
Conchology by C. B. Adams; Proceedings of the California Academy 
of Sciences; the American Journal of Conchology, containing the 
papers of Dr. Newcomb, and also the Journal de Conchyliologie, 
containing many of the papers of Mr. Wm. H. Pease. 

Species marked f are in the author's collection. 

The arrangement of the sub-groups of Achatinella herein adopted 
is as follows: — 



A 



' Partulina 
Bulimella 
A chatinellastrum 
Eburnella 
Apex 



B 



Perdicella 

Newcomhia 

Labiella 

Laminella 

Amastra 

Carinella 



C } Leptachatina 

Section PARTULINA Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

P. aptycha, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 30, f. 1-1855. 
Newcomhia aphjcha, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 165, 1856. 
Hellder aptyclia, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc, 615-1869. 
Perdicella aptycha, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 315-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 

tP. cinerosa, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 30, f. 5,-1855. 

{Helicter perversa, Vse.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869, (Non Swains.) 

Sandwich Islands. 
fP. compta, Pse. (Partulina.) 

Partulina compta, Pse. Jour. Conchyl. xvii-1869. 

Molohai. 
fP. crassa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 71-1853. 

Bulimella crassa, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 124-1854, 163-1856. 

Partulina crassa, Pse. Proc, Zool. Soc. 647-1869, 

Lanai. 
3 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

P. dolium, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Pioc. Zool. Soc. tab. 30, f. 15-1853. 
Bulimella dolium, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 
Partulina dolium, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

fP. duMa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 24, f. 65-1853. 

Achatinella radiata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 116-1854. Non Gould. 

Bulimella dubia, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 162-1856. 

Achatinellastrum dubium, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Partulina dubia, Pfr. Nom. Helic. Viv. 305-1881. 

Maui. 

P. Dwightii, Newc. (Achatinella.) Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 19, f. 9. 

Partulina JDwightii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 162-1856. 

3folokai. 
fP. Gouldii, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 1-1853. 

Achatinella talpina, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, 138-1856. 
Partulina Gouldii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 116-1854; 162-1856. 

Waialuku Maui. 

■j-P. grisea, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 60-1853. 

Achatinella dubia, Pfr. Var. /5. 1854. 

Partulina grisea, Pfr. iNlall. Blatt. 117-1854. 

Achatinellastrum grisea, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869. 

East Maui. 

tP. marmorata, Gld. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. p. 200-1847. Espd. Shells 
tab. 7, f. 94. 

f Achatinella Adamsii, Newc. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 19-1853, Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 
20-1853. 

Achatinella induta, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 207-1856. 

■\ Achatinella ustulata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 11, p. 37-1856, 
(reversed ex.) 

Achatinella plumbea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 11, f. 39, 1856. 

Laminella marmorata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 126-1854. 

Bulimella marmorata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1854. 

Bulimella marmorata, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 306-1856. 

Partulina marmorata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Partulina perdix, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 116-1854. (Non Rve.) 

Haleakala Waialuku and Kida E. Maui. 

Obs. The variable coloration of this species has been the source 
of its numerous synonymy. 

P. morbida, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. Helic. vi-167, 

Helicter morbida, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Achatinellastrum morbida, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 306-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 27 

fP. perdix, Eve. (Achatinella.) Mon. tab. 6, f. 43a, 43b, 1850. 

Achatinella pyramidalis, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, p. 32-1856. 

Achatinella undosa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 33-1856. 

Partulina perdix, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 116-1854.=marmorato, Newc. 

Partiilina marniorata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Lahaina and Kula, E. Maui. 

Obs. Dr. Newcomb in his excellent synopsis of the genus Acha- 
tinella, has described the animal oi A. perdix Pfr. which materially 
differs from that oi A. perdix Rve. ; they are doubtless specifically 
different. 
fP. proxima, Pse. (Partulina.) PI. f. 1-2. 

Partulina proxima, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 6-1862. 

Bulirnella proxina, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 307-1881. 

3Iolokai. 
fP. radiata, Gld. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 27-1845. 

Partula radiata, Pfr. Mon. Helic. Viv. iii, 454. 
Partula densilineata, Rve. Mon. Part. pi. 2, f. 9-1850. 
Bulimus Gouldii, Pfr. Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, p. 74. 
Achatinella duhia, Pfr. (Non. Newc.) Mall. Blatt. 116-1854. 
Achatinella grisea, Pfr. (Non. Newc.) Mall. Bliitt. 117-1854. 
Achatinellastrum radiatum, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 
Partulina radiata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 162-1854. 

Maui. 
fP. Redfieldii, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 22, f. 5-1853. 

Partulina Redfieldii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 115-1854. 
Bulirnella Redfieldii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. 

Molohai. 

P. rufa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 3-1853. 

Achatinellastrum rufa, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 137-1854-164-1856. 
Partulina rufa, Pse, Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Molohai, E. Maui. 

fP. splendida, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 22, f. 4-1853. 

Achatinella Bayleana, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ; 202, pi. 7b, 31a. 
31b-1858. 

Partulina splendida, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 115-1854, 162-1856. 

Waialuku, Maui. 
fP. Tappaniaua, C. B. Adams. (Achatinella.) Conch. Cont. 126-1850. 

"^ Achatinella eburnea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 199, 1 28a, 28b, 1856. 

■\ Achatinella ampulla, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 200, f. 29, 1856. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

fAchatijiella fasciata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 201, f. 30, 1656. 
BuUmella Tappaniana, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Maui. 
fP. tessalata, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 2'S, f. 28-1863. 

Achatinella insignis, Mis,'hls. ? (Pfr.) 

Parhdina tessalata, Pfr. Mall. Bliltt. 115-1854, 162-1856. 

Molokai. 
fP. virgulata, Mighl. (Partula.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 20-1845. 

Bidivius Rohri, Pfr. Zeitsch. 1846. 

Achatinella Rohri, Rve. Tab. 1, f. 3-1850. 

Achatinella insignis, Pfr. (Newc.) In schedule. (Pfr. & Rve.) 

Partulina Rohri, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 114-1854, 162-1856. 

Partulina virgulata, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 305-1881. ^ 

Molokai. 
Section BTJLIMELIA, Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

tB. abbreviata, Rve. (Achatinella.) Mon. pi. 3, f. 19, April 1850. 

Achatinella Clementina, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205-1855. 

Achatinella nivosa, Newc. Proc. Zool, Soc. pi. 12, f. 6-1853. 

(Manufactured.) 

BuUmella abbreviata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 135-1854. 

Achatinellastrum abbreviata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164-1856. 

BuUmella abbreviata,=^bacca, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Palolo, Oahu. 
B. bacca, Rve. (Achatinella.) Mon. pi. 6, f. 45. 

Laminella bacca, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 135-1854. 

Achatinellastrum bacca, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 

BuUmella bacca, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

^ Palolo, Oahu. 

■fB. bulimoides, Swains. (Achatinella.) Zool. Illus. ii, 450. 

Achatinella bidimoides, Rve. Mon. t. 4, f. 28. 
Achatinella obliqua, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 245, f. 63, 1858. 
Achatinella oomorpha, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 246, f. 64, 1858. 
BuUmella bulmoides, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 119-1854, 162-1856. 

Kahana, Oahu. 

fB. Byronii, Gray. (Helix.) AVoods Index, Suppl. pi. 7, f. 30. 

Achatinella melanostoma, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 7,-1853. 
Achatinella limbata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f 70-1858. 
Achatinella pxdcherrima, Rve. (Non Swains.) Mon. pi, 3, f. 23. 
Laminella Byronii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 136-1854. 
BuUmella Byronii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 346-1869. 

Ewa, Oahu. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 29 

fB. decipiens, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 68-1863. 

Achatinella planospira, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 8-1855. 

-\ Achatinella cuneus, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205, 1858. Sinistral. 

■\ Achatinella torrida, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 68-1858. 

Sinistral. 

Achatinella corrugata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 66, 1858. 

(Short var.) 

Achatinella scitula, Gul. Ann. Lye. IST. Y. pi. 8, f. 61. (Reversed 

smoothe var.) 

Achatinella herbacea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 52. Var. 

Bulimella viridans, Pfr. (Non Miglil.) Mall. Bliitt. 121-1854, 

163-1856. 

Bulimella decipiens, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Bulimella decipiens, Pfr. Nomen. Helie. Viv. 306-1881. 

Koolauloa, Oahu. 

Obs. This is a species affected by environment, hence its protean 
forms. 

fB. elegans, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 24, f. 57-] 853. 

(Bidiviella elegans, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. 

Hanula, Oahu. 
B. faba, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 30-1859. 

Bulimella faba, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Sandivich Islands. 

B. Forbsiana, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 16-1855. 

Bulimella Forbsiana, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. 

Palolo Oahu. 
fB. glabia, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 23, f. 23-1853. 

Achatinella elegans, Pfr. (Non Newc.) Mon. Helic. iv-520. 
Achatinella 2)latystyla, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. PL 6,'f. 25-1856. 
Bulimella glabra, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 124-1854. 

Kawaiawa Oahu. 
B. Hanleyana, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 202-1855. 

Bulimella Hanleyana, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. 
Bidimella Hanleyana, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 
B. Lehuiensis, Smith. (Achatinellastrum.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 8-1873. 
Achatinellastrum Lehuiensis, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv, 308-1881. 

Lehui Oahu. 
Obs. This shell may equal Bulimella multicolor, Pfr. 

B. morbida, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 30-1859. 
Helicter morbida, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 
Bulimella morbida, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 306-1881, 

Sandwich Islands. 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

fB. multicolor, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 11, Jan'y 1865. 
Achatinella oviformis, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. 208, Nov. 1855. 
Bulimella multicolor, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 165-1856. Oahu. 

tB. multlineata, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 23-1853. 
Helider multilineata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Achatinella mouacha, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 9-1855, var. 
Bulimella multilineata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. 

Kolaupoco Maui. 

fB. ovata, Newc. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. 22-1863. Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 
22, f. 2-1853. 

Achatinella Wheatleyi, Newc. Ms. Syn. Ann. Lye. N. Y, 147- 

1855. 
'\Achatinella Candida, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 4, 4a-1855. 
\ Achatinella Frickii, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f 7, 1855. 

small var. 
-\ Achatinella vidua, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 10-1855. 
'\ Achatinella rotunda, Giil. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 249, pi. 8, f 67- 

1868. 
Achatinella eervina, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 241, pi. 8, £ 62-1868. 
f Achatinella spadicea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 214, pi. 7, f. 65- 

1868. 
Achatinella phaeozona, Gul. Ann. Lye. N, Y. 214, pi. 7, f. 40, 

1865, immature. 
Achatinella lorata, Rve. Non Fer. Mon. pi. 1, f. 6. 
Bulimella ovata, Pfr. Mall. BUitt. 119-1854, 163-1856. 

Koolauloa Oahu. 
Obs. This is a very variable species in size and coloration. 

fB. rosea, Swains. (Achatinella.) Zool. Illus. ii, tab. 123. f. 1. 

Bulimella rosea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 119-1854, 163-1856. 

Obs. Recently I have received from Mr. D. D. Baldwin of 
Honolulu a small white variety with a yellow lip, see pi. I, fig. 4. 

Waialua, Oahu. 
tB. rutila, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. j)!. 22, f. 21-1853. 

Achatinella macrostoma, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 6-1855. 
Achatinella viridans, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 120-1854. Non Mighl. 
Bulimella rutila, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Palolo and Niu, Oahu. 
fB. rugosa, Newc (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 22, f. 22-1853. 
Bulimella rugosa, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 123-1854, 163-1856. 

Ewa, Oahu. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 31 

B. solitaria, Newc. (Acliatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 60-1853. 
Achatinellastrum solitaria, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. 

Bulimella solitaria, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Palola, Oahu. 

■fB. sordida, Newc. (Acliatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 27-1853. 

Acliatinella Sioaimonii, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 13-1855. 

Bulimella sordida, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1856. Lehid, Oahu. 

Obs. I have followed Dr. Newcomb in placing Swainsonii as a 
synonym of sordida, Dr. Pfeiffer in Nomen. Helic. Viv. gives it as 
a variety of sordida. 
fB. Sowerbiana, Pfr. (Acliatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 14-1855. 

■f Bulimella fuscobasis. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 15-1873. 

Bulimella Sowerbiana, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 163-1856. Oahu. 

fB. subvirens, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 21-1853. 

Bulimella viridans, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 163-1856. Non Mighls. 

Bulimella subvirens, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Niu, Oahu. 
fB. taeniolata, Pfr. (Acbatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 38-1846. 

Achatinella rubixjinosa, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 59-1853. 
Bulimella taeniolata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 124-1854, 163-1856. 

Palolo, Oahu. 
fB. terebra, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 40-1853. 

Achatinella attenuata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 12-1855. 

Achatinella lignaria, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 35. (Var.) 

Achatinella crocea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 36. 

Bulimella attenuata, Pfr. Nom. Helic. Viv. 307-1881. 

Bulimella terebra, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Waialuka, Maui. 

Obs. I have followed Dr. Newcomb in referring Mr, Gulick's 
species to terebra, it varies in size and color ; some are attenuate 
while others are large and inflated. 

fB. viridans, Migh. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. Jan'y 1845. 

Achatinella radiata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Aug. 1845. 
Achatinella cuneus, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205-1855. Sinistral. 
Achatinella rutila, Pfr. Var. /?. Mall. Bliitt. 1854. Non Newc. 
Achatinella subvirens, Pfr. Var. ft (Non Newc.) Mall. Bliitt. 

1854. 
Achatinella decipiens, Pfr. Var. /3. (Non Newc.) Mall. Bliitt. 

1854. 
Bulimella viridans, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1868. 

Kouahuanui, Oahu. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Section ACHATINELLASTRUM, Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

fA. adusta, Rve. (Achatinella). Mon. tab. 4, f. 30-1850. 

Achatimllastrum adusta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 138-1854.=164-1856. 

Oahu. 
tA. ampla, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 22, f. 10-1853. 

Achatinellastrum ampla, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 135-1854.-164-1856. 

Kolau Oahu. 
fA. bella, Rve. (Achatinella). Mon. Tab. 3, f. 17-1850. 

Achatinellastrum bella, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 135-1854-165-1856. 
Achatinellastrum pulcherrimum, Pfr. Mon. Helic. B. ii, 237.? 
Laminella bella, Ilve.=Polita, Newc. Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648- 
1869. Molohai. 

fA. bellulae, Smith. (Achatinellastrum). Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 9, f. 8-1873. 

Sandivich Islands. 

fA. Buddii, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. Tab. 9, f. 8-1873. 

Achatinella pexa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 196-pl. 6, f. 26-1856. 
, ^Achatinella plumata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 217. pi. 7 £ 41- 
1856. 

Achatinella papyracea, Gul. Ann. Lye. IS". Y. 207, pi. 8, f 48, 
1856. 

Achatinella caesia, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 234, pi. 8, f. 53, 1856. 
(Junior Ex.) 

Laminella Buddii, Pfr. Mall. BKltt. 138-1854. 

Achatinellastrum Buddii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164-1856. 

Achatinellastrum fuscozona. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9-f. 9- 
1873. Pololo Oahu. 

Obs. This species is very variable in texture and coloration. 

tA. castanea, Rve. (Achatinella). Mon. Tab. 2, f. 24-1850. 

Achatinellastrum castanea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 139-1854,-164- 
1856. 

Achatinellastrum castanea, Rve.=«(it(sto, Rve. (Pse). Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 646-1869. Oahu. 

tA. colorata, Rve. (Achatinella). Mon. Tab. 3, f. 18-1850. 

Achatinellastrum colorata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 134-1854. 
Laminella colorata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164-1856. 
Laminella ustulata, Newc. M. S. (Pfr.) Mall. Bliitt. 136-1854. 
BuUmella colorata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 
Achatinellastrum colorata, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 308-1881. 

Ahuimanu Oahu. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 33 

fA. concinna, Ncwc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. PI. 24, f. 79-1853. 

AchatineJlastrum concinna, Ffr. Mall. Blatt. 137-1854.-164 
=1856. 

Laminella concinna, Pse. Proc, Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Lanai. 
fA. consanguinea, Smith. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. PI. 9, f. 3-1873. 

A. concolor, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc.^ PI. 9, f. 1-1873. 

Ahuimanu Oahu. 
Obs. These two species of Mr. Smith, are probably only varieties 
of colorata. 

fA. cucumis, (Jul. (Achatinella). Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 45-1858. 

Achat biellastrum cucumis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869, 

Kaliua Oahu. 

A. formosum, (iul. (Achatinella). Ann. Lye N. Y. pi. 8, f. 55-1858. 

Achatinellastrum formosum, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Oahu. 

JA. fulgens, Xewc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 24-24a, 1853. 

Achatinella diversa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 222-1858. (Junior 

Ex.) 

XAchatinellastrum angusta, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. 74, pi. 9, f. 7- 

1873. 

Achatinellastrum fulgens, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 137-1854, 164-1856. 

Waialua, south east end of Oahu. 

fA. fuscolineata, Smith. (Achatinellastrum.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 75, pi. 9, f. 2- 
2a-1873. 

Achatinellastrum fuscolineatum, Pfr. • Nomen. Helic. Viv, 307- 

1881. 

Kaialua, Oahu. 

Obs. A large quantity of duplicates of this species was contained 

in the collection of Wm. H. Pease. Mr. Smith designates versipellis 

Gul. as its nearest affinity, while Dr. Newcomb thinks it is one of 

the innumerable varieties of vulpina Fer. 

f A. fuscozona, Smith. (Achatinellastrum.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 9-1873. 

Mahiki and Palolo, Oahu. 
Obs. Judging from a suite of all ages, this may be a good species, 
although it approaches very near to fuscolineata. Smith. 

fA. germana, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 62-1863. 

Achatinellastrum germana, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 135-1854, 156-1856. 
Bulimella germana, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Makatvao, Maui. 



34 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

tA. Johnsoni, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 2.'?, f. 50-1853. 

Achatinella aplustre, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 51-1853. 
AchatineUastruin Johnsoni, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 134-1854. 

Palolo Crater and Kolau, Oahu. 

A. lilaceum, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. Helic. Viv. vi 17.3. 

AchatineUastrum lilaceum, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 308, 1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 
fA. ligatum, Smith. (Acliatinellastrum.) Proc Zool. Soc. t. 9, f. 13-1873. 
A. diluta. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 9, f. 14-1873. 

Waimula, Oahu. 
Obs. Examples of the above in the Pease collection marked "new 
species" equal a dextral variety of vulpina, Fer. 

fA. Nattii, Baldw. iSTobis. (AchatineUastrum.) pi. I, f. 3. 

Shell dextral, turbinate, spire half the length ; Avhorls 5, polished, 
the two last rapidly enlarged and inflated. Suture impressed, col- 
umella yellow, stout and twisted. Color bright gamboge yellow, 
with one white and three wide chestnut bands beneath the suture, 
the latter visible from within the aperture ; aperture round ovate, 
white, labium white, slightly thickened within, L. 16, D. 10, L, Ap 
8, D. 5 mill. 

Malcaxvao, E. Maui. 

Ohs. This shell was found at the above locality by D. D. 
Baldwin, Esq. of Lahaina Maui, who has devoted much time and at- 
tention to the Achatinella of the Sandwich Islands. He has known 
of similar examjiles being found at the same locality. The shell is 
not quite mature, and at first sight has the facies of an Apex. 

fA. olivaceum, Kve. (Achatinella.) Mon. tab. 3, f. 20-1850. 
Achatinella prasinus, Rve. Mon. Tab. 4, f. 27. 
AchatineUastrum olivaceum, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 138-1854, 164-1856. 

iSandivich Islands. 

fA. polita, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 37-1853. 

Achalinellastrum polita, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 134-1854, 164-1856. 

Laminella polita, =htlla, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Molokai. 
Obs. Polita Newc. and bella Rve. are doubtless distinct, 
fA. productum, live. (Achatinella.) Mon. tab. 2, f. 13-1850. 

Achatinella venulata, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 48-1853. 
Achatinella hybrida, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f 52-1853. 
Achatinella bilineata, Rve. Mon. Tab. 3, f. 22, 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 35 

Achatinella Dunkeri, Cum. (Pfr.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 208-1855. 
Achatmellastrum produdum, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 134-1854, 163 
— 1856. Kolau, Oahu. 

fA. pulcherrimum, Swains. (Achatinella.) Zool. Illus. pi. 123, f. 2. 

Achatinella napiis, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. f. 19-1855. 
Achatinella mahogani, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. f. 72-1858. 
Laminella pulcherrima, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 135-1854. 
Achatinellastrum pulcherrima, Pfi. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 

Ahonui, Oahu. 

fA. trilineatum, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 46-1858. 

Achatinella zonata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 58-1858, (var.) 
Achatinellastrum trilineatum, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Oahu. 
fA. versipellis, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vi, pi. 7, f. 44a, b. 

Achatinellastrum versipellis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 646-1869. 

Kailua, Oahu. 
■fA. vulpinum, Fer. (Helix.) Hist. Mol. tab. 155, f. 1. 

Achatinella vulpina, Rve. Mon, Tab. 4, f. 29. 

Achatinella livida, Pfr. Non Swains. 

Achatinella Steivartii, Green. Maclur. Lye. i, pi. 4, f. 1-2. 

Achatinella Stewartii, Rve. Mon. tab, 4, f. 26, 

Achatinella virens, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj, f. 47. 

Achatinella varia, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj f. 43. 

Achatinella crassidentata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 23-1855.. 

Achat inellastru'ia tricolor, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 6-1873. 

Achati7iellastrum ligatum. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 12-13, 

1873. (Dextral var?) 
Achatinellastrum longispira. Smith. Proc. Zool Soc. pi. 9, f. 2— 

1873. (Var. Stewartii.) 
Ehurnella vulpina, Pfr. Mall. BKitt. 139-1854. 
Achatinellastrum vulpinum, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 139-1854. 

Oahu. 
A. zebra, Newc. (Achatinella). Ann. Lye. N. Y. 142-1853. 

Achatinellastrum zebra, Pfr. ISTomen. Helic. Viv. 308-1881. 
Laminella zebra, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

East MauL 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Section EBURNELLA, Wm. H. Pease. 

fE. casta, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 22, f. 12-185.3. 

Achatinella dimorpha. Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 56-1858. 

Achatinella juncea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 49-1858. 
(Dwarf.) 

Achatinella eognata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 7, f. 60-1858 

Achatinellastrum casta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 138-1854,-164-1856. 

Ehurnella casta, Pse. Proe. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Ewa, Oahu. 

Obs. I have followed Dr. Neweomb in assigning Mr. Gulick's 
species to casta, Mr. Gulick admits E. dimopha as a synonym, see 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 90-91-1873. 

fE. curta, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. tab. 23, f. 43-185.3. 

fAchatiiiella delta, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 231, pi. 8, f. 50-1858. 

Achatinella contracta, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 237, pi. 8, f. 57, 
1858. 

'\ Achatinellastrum rhodoraphe, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soe. 74, pi. 9, 
f. 10-1873. 

Eburnella pygmea Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. 75, pi. 9, f 11-1873. 

Laminella curta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 139-1854. 

Achatinellastrum curta, Pfr. INIall. Bliitt. 164—1856. 

Eburnella curta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Waialua, Oahu. 

Obs. In a large number of duplicates, contained in the collection 
of the late Wm. H. Pease, the above synonymy was illustrated. 

fE. livida, Swains. ( Achatinella). Zool. Illus. p. 108, f. 2. 

^Achatinella viridans, Rve. Mon. Tab. 4, f 25. (Non Migh.) 
Achatinella Reevii, C. B, Adams. Conch. Gout. 128. 
'\ Achatinella Emersonii, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 74-1853. 
Achatinella glauca, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. f 47-1858. 
Eburnella livida, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Kalaikoa and Waialua, Oahu. 

Obs. About two quarts of duplicates, in the collection of Wm. 
H. Pease, exhibited considerable inosculation of the above so called 
species, A. vulpina Fer. which Dr. PfeifFer places under Eburnella 
as a synonym of livida Swains, has no affinity therewith. 

tE. porcellana, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc pi. 23, f. 27-1863. 
Btilimella porcellana, Ffv. Mall. Blatt. 123-1854. 
Eburnella porcellana Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

East Maui. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 37 

IE. recta, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 45-1853. 
Laminella recta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 136-1854. 
Achatinella nympha, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 251, pi.- 8, f. 9-1858. 
Eburnella recta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Waialua, Oahu. 
E. saccata, Pfr. (Achatinella). Mon. Helic. vj.-175. 

Eburnella saccata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 
E. semicarinata, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 76-1853. 
BuUmella semicarinata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 124-1854. 
Eburnella semicarinata, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 309-1881. 

Lanai. 
fE. undulata, Newc. (Achatinella). Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist. 218-1855. Amer. 
Jour. Conch, pi. 13, f. 15-1866. 

Laminella curta, Pfr, Mall. Bliitt. 139-1854. 
Achatinellastrum curta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164—1856. 
Eburnella curta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Waialua, Oahu. 
Obs. I think this a variety of E. curta, Newc. 

fE. variabilis, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 70-1853. 
Achatinella falva, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. 208-1855. 
Achatinella lactea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 27-1856. 
BuUmella variabilis, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 124-1854. 
Eburnella variabilis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 647-1869. 

Lanai. 
Section APEX, « Albers.-1860. 

*The species of tlie Section Apex, are involved in almost inextricable confusion. 
Autlinrs in many instances, liave not f^iven the li;calilies of the species, and the 
great vmiahility in si/e and ci/lor of many species, added to the many intermediate 
varieties, entails an almost endless task to sei)arate them. To arrive af a certainty, 
the ci.lor of the animal and mnniel must be observed, and local suites should be 
colli.ciefl liy which critical comparisons could be instituted. It is to be re<^retted, 
that species have been multiplied on slight "grounds. In my endeavours to arrive 
at a correct synonymy. I may have erred by restricting the species within too 
narrow limiis, which will be for future observers to correct. The Section Apex 
exhiliiis four prevailing type-, as illustrated by the ^ptc\es iurg-ii/a,»iusU//uia, per- 
versa and Sivi/tii, from which all others seem but modifications. 

fA. cestus, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 22, f. 8-1853. 

BuUmella cestus, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 125-1854. 
Helicter cestus, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Apex cestus. Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 310. 

Palolo, Oahu. 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

fA. concavospira, Pfr. Proe. Zool. Soc. 36-1859. 

Laminella concavospira, Pse, ' Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Achatinellastrum concavospira, Pse. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 307. 

Sandwich Islands. 
fA. decora, Fcr. (Helix). Hist. Moll. t. 155, f. 5-7. 

Achatinella decora. Gray. 

Bulimus decorus, Beck, and Anton. 

Achatinella vestita, Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc. 1845. 

Achatinella laguhris, Pfr. Non. Rve. 

Achatinella vittata, Pfr. ISTon. Rve. 

Achatinella simulans, Pfr. Non. Rve. 

Laminella decora, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 140-1854. 

Hellcter decora, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex decora, Pfr. JSTomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Kaliakoa and Ahouin, Oahu. 
fA. flavida, Gul. (Apex). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 1-1873. 

A2}ex iuberans, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 3-1873. 

Kaliakao, Ahouin and Waialua, Oahu. 

Obs. This shell may^=dextral Swijtii which often varies greatly 
in color. 

fA. Gulickii, Smith. (Apex). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9. f. 7-1873. 

■fApex albofasciata, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f 29-1873. 

fApex innotabilis. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 23-1873. 

-fApex neglectus, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 22-1873. 

fApex coniformis, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 17-1873. 

fApex versicolor, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 18-1873. 

Kalikoa and Ahouin, Oahu. 

Obs. About two quarts of the variety albofasciata was represen- 
ted in the Pease collection. As I possess the other varieties, I can see 
no difference in them. Dr. Newcomb places the above v/ith perversa 
of which he considers them only varieties. 
tA. lorata, Fer. (Helix). Hist. Moll. t. 156, f. 9-10. 

f Achatinella pallida, Nutt. Rves. Mon. pi. 1, f. 2a 2b. 

Achatinella alba, Nutt. Jays Cat. 

Helieteres loratus, Beck and Anton. 

\ Achatinella ventrosa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 6-1855. 

Achatinella nohilis, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 220-1855. 

Achatinellastrum lorata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 134-1854. 

Bulimella lorata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 163-1856. 

Ilelicter lorata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 39 

Obs. Lorata and alba represent the elongate varieties, and ven- 
trosa with nobilis the short and inflated varieties. 
tA. lugubris, Chem. (Turbo.) No. 2059-60, t. 8, f. 9-10. 

Achatinella pica, Swains. Zool. 111. pi. 99, f 1. 

Monodonta seminigra, Lam. vii— 37. 

Bulimus seviinigra, Menke. Syn. 26. 

Helix apex-fulva, Dix, Voyage around the World, 1789. 

Helix lugubris, Fer. Hist. Moll. t. 155, f. 8. 

Helicter lugubris, Beck. 

Achatina lugubris. Gray. 

Achatinella lugubris, Pfr. 1841. 

Achatinellastrum lugubris, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 140-1854, 164-1856. 

Helicter lugubris, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex lugubris. Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310, 1881. 

Apex bicolor, Gul. Mon. Hel. Viv. 529. 

Apex polymorp>ha, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 5-1873. 

Apex leucozonus, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 10, f. 6-1873. 

Oahu. 
fA. mustellina, Migh. (Achatinella.) Pro. Bost. Soc. 21-1845, Rve. Mon. t. 3, 
£ 20-21EU 

Bulimella mustellina, Pfr. Mall. Blatt, 125-1854, 163-1856. 
Helicter mustellina, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Apex mustellina, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 309. 



ovum, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 336-1856. 
Helicter ovum, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Apex ovum, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 



W%ianea, Oahu. 



Oahu. 



fA. perversa, Swains. (Achatinella.) Zool. 111. pi. 99, f. 2. 

Achatinella concidens, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, f. 54, 

Achatinella cinnamomea, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 22-1858. 

Apex leucophea, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 16-1873. 

Helicter perversa, Pse.=^ cwerosa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex decora, Pfr. Var. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Waianea, Oahu. 

Obs. Dr. Newcomb remarks, " there are several varieties of this 
species, one of which has a near affiinity to decora which has led to 
their having been confounded with each other." 

fA. pulchella, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 30, f. 2-1855. 
Helicter pulchella, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Apex pulchella, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Sandwich Islands. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

fA. simulans, Rve. (Achatinella.) Mon. pi. 2, f. 15. 

Achatlnella decora, Pfr. Mon. Hel. iv, 528. (Non Fer.) 

BuUmella simulans, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 125-1854, 163-1856. 

Apex tumefadns, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 9, f. 20-1873. 

Apex simulans, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Wahiawa, Oahu. 
fA. Swiftii, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 9-1853. 

Achatinella apicata, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. 210-1855. 

Achatinella valida, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 54-1855. 

BuUmella apicata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 125-1854. 

Eelicter Swiftii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 

Apex Swiftii, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 

Apex fiavidus, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. x, f. 1-1, a-1873. 

Apex lilacea, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. x, f. 4-1873. 

Apex leucoraphe, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. x. f. 2-1873. 

Ewa, Oahu. 
fA. turgida, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 10-1853. 

Achatinellastrum turgida, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 138-1854, 164-1856. 
Apex turgida, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 310. 
"fApex turhinijormis, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. x, f. 7-1873, 
Apex albospira, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. x, f. 8-1873. 

Ahouni, Oahu. 

Obs. The two species of Mr. Gulick seem to be dextral varieties 
of turgida. 

fA. vittata, Rve. (Achatinella.) Mon. No. 9, Mus. Cunning. (Newc.) 

Achatinella decora, Pfr. Var. Non. Fer. Mon. Hel. iii-465. 
Achatinella glohosa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 25-1855. 
Helicter globosa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 645-1869. 
Apex vittata, Rve. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 310. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Section PERDICELLA, Wm. H. Pease. 
fP. Helena, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 63-1853. 

Newcombia Helena, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 117-1*854. 
Perdicella Helena, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Molokai. 

fP. Mauiensis, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. 207-1855. Amer. Jour. 
Conch, pi. 13, f. 16-1866. 

Partulina Mauiensis, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. 91-1873. 
Perdicella Mauiensis, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 315-1881, 

Maui. 



2888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 41 

P. minuscula, Pfr. (Perdicella). Mon. Helic. Viv. iv. 562. 
Perdicella minuscula, Pse. Proc Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

'f'P. ornata, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 55-1853. 

Neivcombia ornata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 118-1854.-165-1856. 

Perdicella ornata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

3faui. 
P. zebrina, Pfr. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. 202-1855. 

Newcomhia zebrina, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 
Perdicella zebrina, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Section NEWCOMBIA, Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

fN. cinnamomea, Pfr. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. 22-1858. 
Newcombia cinnamomea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 230-1853. 

Molokai. 
tN. Cumingii, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 59-1853. 

Newcombia Cumingii, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 118-1854.-165-1856. 

Halea-Kala, Maui. 
fN. Newcombia, Pfr. (Bulimus). Mall. Blatt. 119-1854.-165-1856. 

Achatinella Pfeifferi, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 58-1853. 

3Iolokai. 
tN. plicata, Migh. (Achatinella). Proc. Bost. Soct.-1848. Rve. Mon. pi. 6, f. 44. 
Bulimus liratus, Pfr. Mon. Helic. Viv. ii, 235. 
Newcombia liratus, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 

Molokai. 
N. Philippiana, Pfr. (Achatinella). Mon. Helic. Viv. iv, 559. 

Newcombia philippiana, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 315-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 
tN. sulcata, Pfr. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. 22-1858. 

Newcombia sulcata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Section LABIELLA, Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

X. callosa, Pfr. (Achatinella). Mon. Helic. Viv. iv. 531. 

Labiella callosa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Oahu. 
tL. labiata, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 33-1853. 

Labiella dentata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 27-1855. 
Achatinella Icegena, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 3-1855. 
(=:var.) 
4 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

LaUella dentata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 142-163.-1856. 

Lehui, Oahu. 
L. pachystoma, Tsc. (Labiella). Jour. Conch, xviij, 171-1869. 

KauaL 
Section LAMINELLA, Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 
fl. Alexandria, Ncwc. (Achatinella.) Cal. Nat. Hist. Soc iii-182-1865. 

Achatinella Alexandria, Newc. Amer. Jour. Conch, pi. 13, f. 14- 

1866. 
Perdicella Alexandri, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 
Laminella Alexandri, Pfr, Nomen. Helic. Viv. 312-1881. 

West Maui^ 
fl. citrina, Migh. MS. (Achatinella.) 

Achatinella citrina, Rve. Men. tab 5, fig. 33-1850. 

Laminella citrina,=vemista, Pse. var. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Laminella citrina, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 312-1881. 

Oahu. 
L. erecta, Pse. (Laminella.) Jour. Conch, xvij-174-1869. 

Maui. 
fl. fusoidea, Newc. (Achatinella.) Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi, 13, f. 8-1866. 

Achatinellastrumfusoidea, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 309. 

Laminella fusoidea, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869, 

3faiii.. 
fl. gravida, Fer. (Helix.) Hist. Moll, tab 155, f. 3. 

Achatinella Dimondii, C. B. Adams. Concli. Cont. 126. 

Laminella gravida, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 126-1854, 164-1856. 

Sandwich Lslands. 
L. lutcola, Fer. (Helix.) Hist. Moll, tab 155, f. 12. 

Bulimus lutcolus, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii, 234-1841. 

Amastra turritella, FeT.=lutcola, Fer. (Pse.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 650- 

1869. 
Laminella lutcola, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 312-1881. 

Sandioich Islands. 
Obs. The small yellow shell figured by Ferussac as lutcola, has 
never been identified by conchologists. 

L. Mighelsiana, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 231-1849. 
Laminella Mighelsiana, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 136-1854. 
Achatinellastrum Mighelsiana, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 308- 

1881. 
Laminella Mighelsiana, Pse. Proc, Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

MoloTcai. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 43 

fL. physa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Pro. Bost. Soc. 218-1853. Proc.Zool.Soc.pl. 
24, f. 64-185.3. (Junior.) Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 13, f. 10 (adult). 

Newcombia physa, Pfr. Mall. Bliltt, 117-1854, 165-1856. 

Laminella physa, Pse. Proc. Zool, Soc. 648-1869. 

Haivai. 

Obs. Mr. Pease observes, " this shell has no distinct allies " how- 
ever he places it amongst the Laminella to which I assent. This is 
an instance which exhibits the difficulties in many of the attempts 
to classify these heterogeneous forms. 

fL. picta, Mighl. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. January 1845. 

Achatinella bulbosa, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 8, £ 71-1858. 
Achatinella picta, Rve. Mon. tab 67, f. 28, 

Laminella picta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

East Maui. 
L. Remyi, Ncwc. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. 146-1855. Amer. Jour. Conch, 
pi. 13, f. 13-1866. 

Laminella Remyi, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 165-1856. 

Lanai. 
tL. sanguinea, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 15-1853. 

Achatinella Ferussaci, Pfr. (var.) Mon. Helic. Viv. iv, 546. 

Laminella Ferussaci, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 164-1856. 

Laminella sanguinea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 156-1854, 

Lehui, Oahu. 
-fL, straminea, Rve. (Achatinella.) Mon. pi. 5, f. 38. 

Laminella straminea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 126-1854. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Obs. This shell in the collection of the Jardin des Plants, is la- 
belled A. gravida, Fer. var. ; it is certainly distinct from gravida. 

fL. subrostrata, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 31-1839. 
Labiella subrostrata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Laminella subrostrata, Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Viv. 314-1881. 

Oahu. 

Obs. My examples of this species, obtained in London, and said 
to have been compared with the type, equals albolabris Newc. and 
is an Amastra. 
L. tetrao, Newc. (Achatinella.) Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 13, f. 11-12-1866. 

Laminella tetrao, Pfr. Nomen, Helic. Viv. 314-1881. 

Lanai. 
fL. venusta, Mighl. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soct. 21-1825. 

Laminella venusta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 127-1854. 

Laminella venusta,=^citrina, Mighl, Pse, Proc. Zool. Soc, 648- 

1869. 

West Molohai. 



44 PROCEEDINGS- OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

L. zebra, Newc. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. 142-1855. 
Achatinellastrum zebra, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 308. 
Laminella zebra, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 



Maui. 



Section AMASTR'A, H. and A, Adams. 



A. accincta, Gld. (Achatina.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 20-1845. Gld. Expd. Sh. tab. 7, 
f. 97. 

Leptachatina accincta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 
Amastra accincta, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 31-1881. 
Obs. The figure of this shell in Chemnitz, represents an Amastra. 

Oahu. 
fA. affinis, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 35-1853, 

fAchati)iella goniostoma, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 203-1855. 
Laminella affinis, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 165-1856. 
Amastra affinis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

fA. albolabris, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc, pi. 24, f. 56-1853. 

Achatinella nucleola, Rve. (Nou Gld.) Mon. pi. 5, f. 39. 

Laminella albolabris, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 132-1854, 165-1856. 

Labiella albolabris, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Oahu. 

fA. amicta, Smith. (Laminella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 20-1873. 

Laminella amicta, Pfr. Nomen, Hel. Viv. 314-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 
Obs. This shell may equal A. petricola, Newc. 

fA. Anthonyi, Newc. (Achatinella). Proc. Cal. Nat. Hist. Soc. ii, p. 93-1860. 
Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 13, f. 2-1866. 

Amastra Anthonyi, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Koloa. 
A. assimilis, Newc. (Achatinella..) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 53-1853. 

Laminella assimilis, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 129-1854. 

Amastra assimilis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Amastra conicospira, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 10-1873. 

East Maui. 
Obs. Dr. PfeifTer considers this species to be a small variety of 
A. nubilosa, Migh. 

fA'biplicata, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 75-1853. 
Laminella biplicata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 128-1854, 165-1856. 
Amastra biplicata, Pse. Var. Deshaysii Morelet, Proc. Zool Soc. 
649-1869. 

Lanai. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 45 

A. brevis, Pfr (Achatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iii, 558. 

Laminella brevis, Pfr. Nomen. Hel, Viv. 315-1881. 

Sandwich Islands. 

fA, crassilabrum, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 31-1853. 
Labiella crassilabrum, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 
Laminella crassilabrum, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 130-1854-165-1856. 

Waianea, Oahu. 

fA. cylindrica, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 11-1863. 
Laminella cylindrica, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164-1856. 
Amastra cylindrica, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Waiaiiea, Oahu. 

A. conifera, Smith. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. jjl. 10, f. 11-1873. 

Amastra conifera, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 314-1881. 

Kxda, East Maui. 

fA. cornea, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 32-1853. 

Laminella cornea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 132-1854, 165-1856. 

Leptachatina cornea, Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Sandivich Islands. 

Obs. Dr. Newcomb pronounces this shell an Ainastra, in which 
I concur. 

fA. ellipsoidea, GUI. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 200-1847. Exped. Sh. tab. 
7, f. 90. 
Achatinella decorticate, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 14-1873. 
Achatinella pupoidea, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 42-1853. 
Amastra ellipsoidea, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 311-1881. 

Maui. 
tA. elliptica, Gul. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 15-1873. 

Laminella elliptica, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

Waianea, Oahu. 

fA. elongata, Newc. (Achatinella.) PI. I, f. 9, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 26-1863. 

Achatinella acuta, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. 142-1853. 

Laminella acuta, Pfr. = elongata. Mall. Bliitt. 127-1854, 165- 
1856. 

Helicter Hutchinsonii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 7-1862. 

Neivcombia Hutchinsonii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Amastra elongata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

MaTcatoao, Maui. 

Obs. Mr. Pease observe^ this shell is the analogue of Amastra 
ohscura, Newc; like many other species of Amastra, it possesses the 



46 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

plicate apex of Laminella, but wants the spiral striae, Avliich is the 
best evidence that it belongs to the section Ainastra. 

fA. farcimen, Pfr. (Achatinella.) PI. I, f. 5. Mon. Ilel. Viv. iv, 552. 
Laminella far cimen, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

Amastra farcimen, Pse. Proc, Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Maui. 
fA. flavescens, Newc. (Acliatinella.)Proo. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 62-1853. 

Achatinella tenuilabris, Giil. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 16-1873. 

Laminella fiaveseens, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 130-1854, 165-1856. 

Amastra fiaveseens, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Hawaii, (Baldwin.) Wanoa, Oahu, (Newcomb.) 

Ohs. A comparison of types exhibits A. tenuilabris, Gul.= 
fiaveseens, Newc. The latter in the collection of the Jardin des 
Plantes, is erroneously labelled A. modesta, C. B. Adams. 
A, gigantea, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 20, f. 17-1853. 

Laminella violacea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 141-1854. 

Laminella gigantea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 140-1854. 

Laminella gigantea, =violacea, var. Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648- 
1869. 

Amastra violacea, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 

Haleakala, Maui. 

Ohs. The only example of gigantea ever found is in the British 

Museum. It probably equals a large example of A. violacea, Newc. 

fA. humilis, Newc. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. 143-1855. Amor. Jour. 
Conch. 211, pi. 13, f. 4-1866. 

Laminella Immilis, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313. 

Amastra humilis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

3Iolokai. 

fA. intermedia, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc, pi. 22, f. 13-1853. 

Laminella intermedia, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 165-1856. 

Amastra intermedia, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Wainoe, Oahu. 
A. irregularis, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 564. 

Amastra irregularis, Pfr. JNIall. Blatt. 164—1854. 

Sandwich Islands. 
A. inflata, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. IIol. Viv. iv, 549. 

Laminella inflata, Pfr, Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313. 
Amastra inflata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 
A. luctuosa, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 204-1855. 

Sandwich Islands. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 47 

tA. magna, C. B. Adams. (Aohatinella.) Conch. Cont. 125-1850. 

Acliatinella Balchoinii, Newc. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 72-1853. 

Achatinellastruvi Baldtvinii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 140-1854. 

A^nastra Baldwinii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164-1856. 

Laminella Grayana, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 204-1855. (Junior.) 

Amastra magna, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 311-1881. 

Lanai. 
Obs. Examples compared with Grayana, Pfr. in the British 
Museum, exhibit Grayana as the junior of magna. Numerous ex- 
amples of all ages in the Pease collection, confirm the diagnosis. 

A. malleata. Smith. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 18-1873. 

Kula, East MauL 
fA. Mastersii, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 67-1853. 
A. rubens, var. Pfr. (non Gould.) Mon. Helic. iv, 552. 
Laminella Mastersii, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 129-1854. 
Amastra Mastersii, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Maui. 
^A. melanosis, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 41-1853. 

Laminella melanosis, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 182-1854, 165-1856. 
Amastra melanosis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Haioai. 
fA. micans, Pfr. (Laminella.) PL I, f. 10. Mon. Hel. Viv. vj, 179, 

Amastra micans, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

"fA. modesta, C. B. Adams. (Achatinella.) Conch. Cont. 128-1850. 
Laminella modesta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 129-1854, 165-1856. 

Amastra modesta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Molokai. 
A. moesta, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 77-1853. 

. Laminella moesta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 128-1854. 
Newcombia obscura, Newc.=?)ioesto, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649— 
1869. 

Lanai. 
fA. mueronata, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 49-1853. 

Laminella mueronata, Pfr. INIall. Bliitt. 129-1854-165-1856. 

Aynastra mueronata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Maui. 

f A. nigra, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 219-1855. Amer. Jour. Conch. 
ii, pi. 13, f. 3. * 

Amastra nigra, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164-1856. 

Maui. 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

fA. nigrolabris, Smith. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 11-1873. 
Laminella nigrolabris, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

Wahiawa, Oahu, 
fA. nubilosa, Migh. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soct. 20-1845. 
A. nubilosa, Rve. Mou. pi. 1, f. 1-1850. 
Laminella nubilosa, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 129-1854, 165-1856. 
Aviastra nubilosa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Molohai, 
Obs. Dr. Newcomb says nnbilosa comes from Molokai, while 
Mighels, Reeve, and Gould give Oahu as the locality. I have never 
seen a shell that equals in size Dr. Mighels' figure in Reeve's Mono- 
graph, and with Dr. PfeiiFer I incline to the opinion that it equals- 
assiniilis, var. 

fA. nucula, Smith. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 19-1873. 

Lanai^ 
fA. nucleola, Gld. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 28-1845. 
A. brevis, Pfr.? Proc. Zool. Soc, 1845. 

Laminella nucleola, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 142-1854, 165-1856. 

Amastra nucleola, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Kavai^ 

fA. obesa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. 24-1853. Proc.Zooi.Soc.pl.. 
24, f. 39-1853. 

Amastra obesa, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. . 
Amastra obesa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Haleakala, Maui^ 
fA. Peasii, Smith. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 13-1873. 
Laminella Peasii, Pfr. Nomenc. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

Sandwich Islands ~ 

fA. petricola, Newc. (Achatinella.) Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 13, f. 6. 

Laminella petricola, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 

Amastra j^stricola, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

3Iolokai^ 

fA. porphyrea, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 22, f. 16-1853. 
A. grassa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 204-1855. (Var.) 
Laminella porphyrea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 130-1854-165-1856. 
Amastra porphyrea, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Manoa, Oahu^ 

fA. porphyrostoma, Pse. (Amastra.) PI. I, f. 6. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Amastra porphyrostoma, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 311-1881. 

Oahu. 

Obs. This shell resembles examples of ^. farcimen, Pfr. in Coll, 

Newcomb, from the Coll. Cuming. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 4^ 

fA. pusilla, Newe. (Achatinella.) Proe. Zoo). Soc. i.l. 2.S, f. 39-1853. Amer. Jour. 
Conch, ii, jil. x, iij, f. 5. 

A. pulla, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 209-1855. 
Laminella pusilla, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 334. 
Amastra pusilla, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Lanau 
fA. reticulata, Xewc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 24, f. 54-185.3. 

A. transversalis, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 204-1855. 

A. conspersa, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30, f. 26-1853. 

Achatinellastrum reticulata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 141-1854. 

Amastra reticulata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164-1856. 

Amastra reticulata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Waianoe, Oahiu 
fA. rubens, Gkl. (Achatinella.) Pro. Bost. Soc. 27-1845. Rve. Mon. pi. 6, f. 42b. 

Laminella ruhens, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 129-1854-165-1856. 

Amastra Mastersii, Pfr. (Non Newc.) 

Amastra ruhens, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Oaliu, 
fA. rubida, Gul. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 12-1873. 

Laminella rubida, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313-1881. 

Kahuku, Oahu 
fA. rudis, Pfr. (Achatinella,) Proe. Zool. Soc. pi. .3, f. 17-1855. 
A. chlorotica, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205-1855. 
A. albida, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 202-1855. (Eudis var. B.) 
Laminella rudis, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 165-156. 

Oahu. 
fA. rustica, Gul. (Amastra.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 10, f. 17-1873. 

Kula, East Maui. 
Ohs. This species may be only a variety of variegata, Pfr. Mr. 
Smith says rustica is allied to confiera, which latter may be another 
variety of variegata. 

fA. rugulosa, Pse. (Amastra.) Jour. Conch, xvij 95-1870. 

Kula, East Maui. 
Obs. This shell is near sphoerica, but the latter is larger and more 
depressed than rugulosa. 

fA. sericea, Pfr. (Laminella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 179. 

Sandwich Islands. 
fA. spirozona, For. (Helix.) Mon. tab. 155, f. 14-15. 

A. boetica, Migh. 

Laminella spirozona, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 127-1854-156-1856. 

Amastra spirozona, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Oahu. 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

A. sphoerica, Pse. (Amastra.) Jour. Conch. 1870. Jour. Conch, pi. 1, f. 5- 

5a-18r6. 

Lanai. 

A. solida, Pse. (Amastra.) Jour. Conch, xviij 173-1869. 

Oahti. 

tA. textilis, Fer. (Helix.) Pl.I,f. 8. Tab. Syst. Animal Moll, p. 56, No. 436-1819. 

A. ventulus, Kve. Mon. No. 31 (non Fer). 

A. microstoma, Gld. Proe. Bost. Soc. 25-1845, 

Luminella textilis, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 126-142-1854-164-1856. 

Amastra textilis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 

-{■A. tristis, Fur. Helix (Cochlogena). Tab. Syst. Animal. Moll. p. 56, No. 435 
1819. 

Bidimus tristis, Pfr. Mon. Hel. Viv. ii, 240-1842. 
A. fuliginosa, Gld. Proc. Bost. Soc. 28-1845. 
Laminella tristis, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 141-1854-164-1856. 
Amastra tristis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 649-1869. 

Palolo, Oahu. 
tA. turritella, Fer. (Helix.) Hist. Moll. pi. 155, f. 13. 

A. OaJmensis, Green. Mai. Lye. 1827. 
Laminella turritella, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 313. 
Amastra turritella, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Sandwich Islands. 
tA. umbilicata, Pfr. (Achatinella.) PI. I, f. 11. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205-1855. 

Laminella petricola, Pfr. Var. Mall. Bliitt. 165-1856. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Ohs. When in London I liad the good fortune to obtain this rare 
shell, for G. M. Sowerby Esq. Dr. Newcomb affirms it to be a good 
species, in which I concur. 

tA. uniplicata, Nobis. (Amastra.) PI. I, f. 7. 

Shell dextral, solid, elongate oval, occasionally cylindrical, whorls 
7, slightly rounded, the last somewhat inflated, suture impressed, 
longitudinally striate, aperture sub-oval, white ; a single white elon- 
gate twisted plicae within ; outer lip acute, color of the shell a pale 
ochre-yellow, concealed by a black epidermis. 

L 20. D 9. Aperture 28. D 4. mill. Molokai. 

Ohs. This shell is from a different island from A. biplicata, Newc. 
which it resembles, the latter possesses more coarse longitudinal 
strise, and has a double plicse within,' and the aperture is red, while 
uniplicata has a single plicse, and the aperture is white. The Pease 
collection contained a large number of duplicates marked "new 
species" by Mr. Pease. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 51 

fA. variegata, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Zeitsch. 90-1849. 

A. variegata, Chem, Tab. 67, f. 14-15. 

A. rubens, var. Rve. Mon. pi. 6, f. 42a. 

A. decejyta, C. B. Adams. Conch. Cont. 127-1850. 

Laminella variegata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 128-1854-165-1866. 

Amastra variegata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Head of Bootlies Valley, Oahu. 

Obs. This is a very variable species and the name may embrace 
others herein enumerated as distinct species. 

fA. ventulus, Fer. (Helix). Tab. Syst. Animal. Moll. p. 56, No. 437-1819. (Non 
Rve). 

Achatinella melampoides, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851. 
Amastra melavxpoides, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. viv, 311-1881. 
A7nastra ventulus, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 648-1869. 

Manoa, Oahu. 

Section CARINELLA, Dr. L. Pfeiifer. 

-fC. Kauaiensis, Newc. (Achatinella.) Syn. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 13, f. 1-1860. 
Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, pi. 13, f. 1-1866. 

Leptachatina Kauaiensis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 
Carinella Kauaiensis, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 312-1881. 

Kauai. 
tC obesa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 23, f. 59-1853. 

A. obesa, var. aggUdinans, Newc. 

Amastra carinata, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. 83-1873. 

Carinella carinata, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 312. 

East Maui. 
Obs. Dr. Newcomb informs me that agglutinans and carinata are 
local varieties of obesa. 

Section LEPTACHATINA, Dr. A. A. Gould. 

fL. acuminata, Gkl. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 200-1848. Expd. Shells t. 
7, f. 100. 

Leptachatina acuminata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 154-1854, -166-1856. 
Leptachatina acuminata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Kauai. 
fL. antiqua, Pse. (Leptachatina.). (Sub fossil.) Jour. Conch, t. 13, f. 6-1876. 

Kauai. 

tL. balteata, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch, t. 4, f. 4-1876. 

Kauai. 
tL. brevioula, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch. 169-1869. 

Kauai. 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

fl. cerealis, iild. ^Aohatinella.) PI. I. f. 13. Proc. Bost. Soc. 201-184S. 

Neu'comhia cerealis, Pfr. ^Mall. Bliitt. 119-1854. 

Ainastm cerealis, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 164-1856. 

Leptachatina cerealis, Pfr. :Mall. Blatt. 166-1856. 

Waianea, Oahu. 
fL. cingula. Migb. (,Achatinella.) PI. I. f. 14. Proe. Bost. Soo. 21-1S45. 

Achatinella dimidiata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 205-1855. 

Bidimus cinffida, Chem., t. 67, f. 57. 

Leptachatina cingula, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 144-1854-166-1856. 

Oahu. 

Obs. Achatinella dimidiata, Pfr. equals cingula, !Migh. iu Coll. 
Newcomb, ex Auct. The figure of this shell in Chemuitz does not 
represent the species, but equals an Amastra. 

L. clausiana. Migh. (Bulimus.) Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist. 20-1S45. 

Hawaii. 
fL. compacta, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch. XTiij-lS69. 

Labiella compacta, Pfr. Mon. Hel. Yiv. viij 219. 

Maui. 
fL. corneola. Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 90-1S45. 

Leptachatina corneola, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 144-1854, 166-1856. 
Labiella corneola, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Sandicich Islands. 
fL. cornscans. 2s obis. PI. I. f. 16. 

Shell dextral. ovate, very thin and polished, spire one third the 
length ; apex obtuse, whorls 4?, rounded, the last one and a half in- 
flated; suture impressed, aperture semi-ovate, with a very thin white 
lamellar tooth near the base ; labium slightly thickened within and 
white, color amber. 

L 9. Diam 4]. L. apt. 3^. Diam. apt. 2*. 

Molol-ai. 

Obs. This shell was received from Mr. D. D. Baldwin, it has the 
outline of L. brevicula, Pse. but is much larger and more polished. 

tl. costulosa. Pse. (Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch. xviij-90-lS70, t. 3, f. 4-1876. 

Kauai. 
Obs. Kear L. striatula, Gld. 

L. cylindrata, Pse. ^Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch. 1S69. 



L. exilis, Gul. ^AchatineIla.) Ann. Lvc. N. Y. vj t. 6 f. 15. 
Leptachatina exilis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 



Ka uai. 



Oahu. 



1888,] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 53 

L. extensa, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. Jour. Conch. 1870. 

Kauai. 
fL. fumosa, Newc. (Achatinella,) Proc. ZooL Soc. t. 23, f. 28-1853 

Leptachatina Jumosa, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 143-1854-166-1856. 
Labiella fumosa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Manoa, Oahu. 

■f. L. fusca, Xewc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 33, f. 44-1853. 
Achatinella strialella, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. t. 6, f. 6-1856. 
Achatinella petila, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. t. 6, f. 17-1856. 
Laminella fusca, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 
Leptachatina fusca, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Manoa, Oahu. 
L, fuscula, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj, f. 8. 

Leptachatina fuscula, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Molokana, Oahu. 

fL. gracilis, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 30. f. 22-1855. 

Achatinella elevata, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 209-1855. 

Achatinella suhula, Gul. Ann. Lye. N, Y. vj, f. 19-1856. 

Leptachatina elevata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1856. 

Achatinellastrum elevata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 164-1854. 

Leptachatina gracilis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Oahu. 
X- glutinosa, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 204^1855. 

Achatinella lachryma, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f 4-1858. 
Achatinella glutinosa, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 165-1856. 
Leptachatina glutinosa, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Lehui, Oahu. 

fL. guttula, Gld. (Achatinella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 201-1845. Expd. Shells, t. 7, f. 
98. 

Leptachatina guttula, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 144-1854-166-1856. 
Achatinella gummea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ^vj pi. 6, f. 10. 
Achatinella fragilis, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj pi. 6, f. 11. 

East Maui. 

tL. grana, Newc. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj 29-1853. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
pi. 23, f. 46-1853. 

Achatinella granifera, Gul. Ann. Lye. IsT. Y. pi. 6, f 13-1858. 
Achatinella vitriola, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 23-1858. 
Achatinella parvula, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 24-1858. 
Leptachatina grana, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 144-1854, 166-1856. 

East Maui. 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

fL. Hartmani, Ncwc. (Leptachatina.) Ms. Coll. Newcomb. 

Achatinella extinda, Pfr. (sub fossil.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 204-1855. 

Laminella extinda, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 165-1856. 

Leptachatina extinda, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Oahu. 

Obs. Dr. Newcomb having recent examples of this shell, has 

changed the name, the former being a misnomer. 

fL. laevis, Pse. (Leptachinata.) Jour. Conch, xviij-91-1870. 97, pi. 4, f. 6- 
1876. 

Kauai. 
fL. lineolata, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 2?,, f. 29-1863. 

Laminella lineolata', Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 128-1856. 

Amastra lineolata, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 

Maui. 

Obs. Examples of this shell from Dr. Newcomb, exhibits it as 
a Leptachatina. 
S. lucida, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 



fL. margarita, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 206-1S55. 
Achatinella granifera, Gul. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873. 
Leptachatina viargarita, Pfr. Mall. BlJitt. 166-1856. 



Kauai. 



Oahu. 



fL. nitida, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 23, f. 30-1853. 

Achatinelia crystallina, Gul. Ann. Lye. N, Y. \] pi. 6, f. 14. 

Leptachatina nitida, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 144-1854-166-1856. 

3Iaui and Oahu. 
tL. obclavata, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 568. 

Achatinella octogyrata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f. 18-1856. 

Achatinella turrita. Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. pi. 6, f 20-1856. 

Leptachatina obclavata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 166-1856. 

Oahu. 
L. obtusa, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 209-1855. 

Leptachatina obtusa, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 166-1856. 

Sandwich Islands. 
L. oryza, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 206-1855. 

Achatinella tritacea, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj t. 6, f. 12. 

Leptachatina oryza, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt, 166-1856. 

Oahu. 
fL. pyramis,) Pfr. Achatinella,) Proc. Zool. Soc. 90-1845. 

Achatinella pyr amis, Rve. Mon. t. 6, f. 41-1850. 

Achatinella leucocheila, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj t. 6, £ 1. (dwarf) 

Leptachatina 2yyramis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Kauai. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 55' 

L. resinula, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. Vj. t. 6, f. 2. 

Leptachatina resinula, Pse. Proc. Zool, Soc. 651-1869. 

Oahu. 
L. saccula, Nobis. (Leptachatina.) pi. I, f. 15. 

Shell dextral, ovate conic, thin and semi-pelliicid, spire more than 
half the length. AVhorls 6, slightly convex, the last inflated, suture 
Avell impressed, surface coarsely striate. Aperture roundly ovate, 
sub-umbilicate, columella white, with an oblong plicpe within ; inte- 
rior of labium white and slightly thickened ; color pale green. 

L 10. Diam. 6. L aft. 4. Diam. 2 J mill. 

Hob. Sanchvich Islands. 

Obs. Three examples of this species were found amongst the du- 
plicates of the Pease collection. 

"fL. succinata, Newc. (Achatimella.) Proc. Bost. Soc. 220-1855. Amer. Jour. 
Concli. ii, t. 13, f. 7. 

Achaiinella marginata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj pi. 6, f. 7. 
Labiella suceincta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 
Leptachatina suceincta, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 166-1856. 

Wahai, Oahu. 
L. saxitilus, Gul. (Achatinella,) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj. t. 6, f. 15. 
Leptachatina saxitilus, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 



L. sculpta, Pfr. (Achatina.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 609. 

Leptachatina sculpta, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 650-1869. 



Oahu. 



Oahu. 



L. semicostata, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, 565. 

Achatinella costulata, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj t. 6, f. 5. 

Leptachatina semicostata, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 166-1856. 

Oahu. 

Obs. Dr. Newcomb thinks it questionable if this species is not a 
synonym of L. fusca, Newc. 

fL. simplex, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch. 1869-70. 

Hawai. 
Obs. Examples L. niticla, Newc. (coll. Newc.) and L. simp)lex, 
Pse. (coll. Pse.) are similar. 

L. stiria, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj. t. 6, f. 22-1855. 

Leptachatina stiria, Pfr. Nomen. Hel. Viv. 316-1881. 

Oahu. 
fL. striatula, Gkl. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soe. 28, January 15-1845. 

Achatinella clara, Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc. August, 1845. 
Leptachatina striatula, Pfr. Mall. Blatt. 143-1854, 166-1856. 

Katcai. 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

"fL. tenuicostata, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch. 170-1869. 
Leptachatina tenuicostata, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 166-1856. 

Haivai. 
i"L. tenebrosa, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch, t. 3, f. 5-1876. 

Ivauai. 
L. terebrans, Gul. (Achatinella.) Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj t. 6, f. 21. 

Leptachatina terebralis, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869, 

Oahu. 
X. teres, Pfr. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. 206-1855. 

Leptachatina teres, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Sandxoich Islands. 
fL. turgidula, Pse. (Leptachatina.) Jour. Conch, xviij-87-1870. 
Labiella turgidula, Pse. Jour. Conch, xviij-167. 
Leptachatina turgidula, Pse. Jour. Conch. 96-1876. 

KauaL 
tL. vitrea, Newc. (Achatinella.) Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 23, f. 24^1853. 

Achatinella fumida, Gul. Ann. Lye. N. Y. vj t. 6, f. 9-1853. 

(Dwarf.) 

Leptachatina vitrea, Pfr. Mall. Bliitt. 144-1854-166-1856. 

Labiella vitrea, Pse. Proc. Zool. Soc. 651-1869. 

Manoah, Oahu. 

Explanation of Plate I. 

No. 1 Partulina ]jroxima, Pse. Typical. 

" 2 Partulina jyroxivia, Pse. Variety. 

" 3 Achatinellastrum Nealii, Bald. Nobis. 

" 4 B'ulimella rosea. Swains. Variety, 

" 5 Amastra farcimen, Pfr. Typical. 

" 6 Amastra j)orphyro8toma, Pse. Type. 

" 7 Amastra uniplicata, Nobis. Type. 

*• 8 Amastra textilis, Fer. Typical, 

" 9 Aviastra Huchinsonii, Pse. Typical. 

" 10 Amastra micans, Pfr. Typical. 

" 11 Amastra umoilicata,, Newc. Typical. 

" 12 Jjeptachatina Hartmanii, Newc. Type. 

*' 13 Leptachatina cerealis, Gould. Type. 

" 14 Leptachatina cingida, Mighls. Typical. 

''' 15 Jjeptachatina saccula. Nobis. 

" 16 Leptachatina coruscans, Nobis. 



1888.] NATURAL 8CIENCI-:S OF PHILADELPHIA. 57 



February 7. 
Mr. Thomas Meeiian, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

The death of Geo. AV. Tryon, Jr. on the 5th inst. having been 
annoimced the following minute was adopted : — 

While this may not be the time to fully set forth the services 
which liave been rendered to this Academy and to the scientific 
world by our departed member Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., yet it is fitting 
that the sad announcement of his death should be followed by im- 
mediate though brief expression of our sorrow. — Therefore be it 

Resolved — That by the death of Mr. Tryon, the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia is bereft, of one of its most faithful 
and useful workers — one whose devotion to the interests of the in- 
stitution has been proven during nearly thirty years in varied and 
responsible positions of trust, by repeated and generous gifts, and 
above all, by untiring labor for its advancement; and whose earnest- 
ness and assiduity in his chosen field of study have been rewarded 
with a w^ell-earned celebrity which will forever connect his name 
with the history and progress of conchological science. 

Resolved — That we are enabled by our owft knowledge of his 
kindly, helpful and endearing qualities to sympathize heartily with 
his fimily in their irreparable loss. 

Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger was appointed to prepare a bio- 
graphical notice of Mr. Tryon for publication in the Proceedings. 



Februry 13. 

Meeting of the Botanical Section. 

The Director, Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger, in the chair. 

The death of Dr. Asa Gray, on January 30, was announced and 
the following minute which had been adopted by the Academy at 
the meeting held February 7, Avas read : — 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has lejirned 
with deep sorrow of the death of Professor Asa Gray of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, who was elected a correspondent in 1836. In plac- 
ing this record in our Proceedings we are unable to give adequate 
expression to our sense of the great loss which we, in common with 
5 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the whole world of science, have sustained. A life extending to nearly 
four score years has been wholly devoted to scientific investigation, 
mainly in his chosen department of Botany, in which his labors and 
philosophic insight have been attended with results that do honor 
to him and to his country. In entering upon the study of the flora 
of his native land, he early realized the imperfect character of its 
existine: literature and turned his attention to the examination of 
the original types of various authors as found in the herbaria of 
North America and Europe. His ultimate object seems to have 
been the production of a complete flora of North America, which, 
though he lived to see far advanced, he was not permitted to 
entirely finish. 

In the course of his studies his far reaching mind found deep in- 
terest in the difficult questions pertaining to the geographical dis- 
tribution of plants, and he was led to the discovery of the remarkable 
analogies between the flora of the Eastern United States and that of 
Eastern Asia. His reasoning upon this and kindred subjects pre- 
pared his mind to give respectful attention to the deductions made 
by Darwin, when they were first published, and though never a 
blind follower, he was one of the earliest scientists of our land to 
uphold the idea of progressive development, always maintaining its 
perfect harmony with theistic belief. Thus his labors in the botanical 
field have been utilized for the entire scientific \vorld. 

His interest in this Academy never abated ; our library bears 
abundant evidence of his researches; our herbarium has been great- 
ly enhanced in value by his studies of its types, and by his generous 
contributions; whilst his kind, genial and attractive presence at 
many of our meetings has endeared him to us all. — Therefore be it 

Resolved — That this expression of our sorrow be communicated to 
his immediate family with the assurance of our deep sympathy with 
them in a loss which is so widely felt. 

Resolved — That this record be entered .in full upon our minutes 
and published in the Proceedings. 

Mr. Redfield offered at the meeting of the Section, the following 
preamble and resolutions which were unanimously adopted: — 

When in due course of nature a man eminent in his calling, con- 
spicuous as a large minded citizen and remarkable for his private 
virtues is taken from us it is a duty which his colleagues owe, not 
only to the memory of the departed, but to themselves that they 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 59 

should recognize by public expression the value of so distinguished 
a life to the times in which it was cast: — Therefore be it resolved, — 

1st. That in the death of Professor Asa Gray, the Botanical 
Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia recogni- 
zes the removal of one who stood without a rival in his chosen field. 
The magnitude of his work, the industry and ability with which 
it was executed, the clearness of insight, the truthfulness and accu- 
racy displayed in all that he undertook, have done more to .elucidate 
the flora of North America, than the labors of any of his predeces- 
sors or cotemporaries. 

2nd. That we desire here to record the fact, that as he was ever 
ready to aid his co-workers however humble, by his extensive know- 
ledge, his removal is deplored as a loss to the whole scientific com- 
munity. 

8rd. That w'hile his great intellectual attainments w^ere combined 
with the charms of a pure life, a warm heart and a charitable dis- 
position Avhich gave a rare loveliness to his whole character, — there 
were also added an inflexible purpose, an unyielding devotion to duty, 
and an allegiance to all right principle. 

4th. That we will cherish his memory, and endeavor to follow 
the spirit and purpose of his life in science, by fostering that frater- 
nal feeling which he did so much to create among the botanists of 
our country. 

5th. That while we trust that his removal hence is but the en- 
trance upon a nobler field of action, we desire to offer to Mrs. Gray 
and to other relatives our most profound sympathy in their be- 
reavement. 

6th. That these resolutions be entered in full upon the minutes 
of the Section, be printed in the Proceedings of the Academy, and 
that a copy of them be transmitted to Mrs. Gray. 

Mr. Wm. M. Canby in seconding the resolutions said: — 
One of the most remarkable men of our country and, as a scientist, 
the best known and most esteemed abroad of any American of our 
day, has passed from among us. The early advantages of Asa 
Gray were not many. He was not a college-bred man in the ordi- 
nary acceptation of the term and his rise was due to his own genius 
and energy. It falls to me to-night to speak of him as a systematic 
botanist. It is difficult for our younger botanists to comprehend the 
low state of the science when Dr. Gray first became interested in it. 
Nothing of any moment had as yet been done except in systematic 



60 PROCEEDIMGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

botany. True there had been good workers in this department^ 
and the labors of Bartram and Marshall, of Walter and Michaux, 
of Muhlenberg and Elliott, of Schweiuitz, Pursh, Nuttall and others^ 
have always been highly esteemed. ^lany foreign botanists, from 
the time of Linnreus onward, had described American species. The 
labors of tliese had laid a foundation for Xorth American botany. 
But many of the descrij^tions were in diverse and scattered pu1)lica- 
tions and were often incomplete or faulty. The synonymy had become 
much confused. Vast regions now well known, Avere then terroe 
incognitie. Even the flora of so near a district as the pine lands 
of New Jersey was almost unknoAvn. 

Xothing daunted, the young botanist, encouraged by the late Dr. 
Beck of Albany and yet more by his life-long friend and associate 
Dr. Torrey, gave up the practice of medicine and devoted his whole 
time to his tavorite science. So far as I know he was the first 
American to fully do this. Almost at once the eflect of his careful 
and excellent labor began to appear and much preliminary work 
was soon done. Dr. Torrey had seen the manifest need of a new and 
better "Flora of Noi-th America." Here was one wdio could not 
only assist him but take the main burden of the work ; and soon the 
now classic "Torrey and Gray's Flora" began to appear. Any one 
familiar with this work must have noticed hoAV rapidly the descrip- 
tions improved as the work went on, and what a vast amount of new 
material the collections of Js'uttall, Fremont, James and other explor- 
ers of our western Territories brought into it. While the species 
were thus well studied and the new ones admirably described, the 
fullest and most generous credit was always given to the discoveries 
and labors of others. But collections of the plants of the great 
western regions, from public and private sources, began to come, in 
most embarrassing richness. It became evident that the further 
publishing of the "Flora" must be delayed until the floral wealth of 
the great interior could be better known. It was also necessary that 
the synonymy of the earlier described species should be settled. Bo, 
for a brief period, Dr. Gray studied these in European herbaria and 
gardens. Twice afterward he made similar studies with most im- 
portant results. Soon after his return from his first visit abroad, 
came the call to Cambridge and his settlement at the Botanic 
Garden there. From this time onward he stood in the very front 
rank as a botanist. His energy and industry were unceasing, and 
Jiis work, by no means confined to systematic botany or to the plants 



LS88.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 61 

■of our own countrv, went forward rapidly and well. Less than a 
year ago I was told by the Governor of the Fiji Islands that Dr. 
Gray's work upon the flora of those distant lands was still the foun- 
dation of their systematic botany. His researches into the flora of 
Jaj)an and China are well known. Soon the "Manual of Botany" 
appeared with its excellent arrangement and its clear and accurate 
descriptions. Who can measure the influence of that work upon 
the botany of our country or the effect it has had to create and 
increase an interest in the science. At last, after an amount of 
well directed labor and research which could have been applied 
by no other man, and after very many "contributions" of new species 
and "monographs" of difficult and little known genera had come 
from his pen, the time seemed ri2)e for a real ami comparatively 
complete "Flora of North America" to appear. We all know" how 
two volumes of this were issued and, in a second edition, extended 
and improved ; and how fondly we had hoped, knowing how- un- 
impaired was his mental and physical vigor, that the whole might 
have been finished before death claimed him. This w^as not to be; 
but we can never be sufficiently thankful that so much which he 
alone could give was made free to all. 

What estimate shall we place upon his work in this department 
of the science? None but the very highest would be just. To me 
it seems as if the systematic botany of our country owes nearly every 
thing to Dr. Gray. Much that he did not do personally was done 
under his eye or by his advice and approbation. He it was who 
broucrht order out of confusion and bavins^ made stable and secure 
the foundation of this branch of the science, erected thereon a noble 
edifice Avhich his tireless energy well nigh completed. 

But no man could have done this who was less richly gifted than 
Asa Gray, for he had that clear insight and prescience which is 
genius rather than talent. In him, with eminent ability to detect 
the relations of genera and species, were combined a rare faculty of 
conveying his own knowledge to others by felicitous and accurate 
description, and the conscientious truthfulness which would allow 
no work to be carelessly or incompletely done. 

Would that it were my place also to bear testimony to his great- 
ness of soul. But this I must leave to others, — only saying, what 
all will recognize as true, that in the death of Dr. Gray we have, 
in the largest sense, lost the best as well as the greatest of American 
botanists. 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888- 

Prof. J. T. RoTHEOCK then saiil : — 

I desire here to speak of Asa Gray simply as a teacher, and shall 
not allude to his rich and rounded career in any other relation, 
except so far as may be required to bring out the teacher more fully. 
His work as a systematist will receive fuller and better consideration 
from others, than I could hope to give it. 

Directly or indirectly almost all the botanical teachers and in- 
vestigatoi's of this country owed their training, or their inspiration 
to Professor Asa Gi'ay. If they had not been directly trained under 
his eye, they Avere at least taught by those who had been, or luid 
used the text-books prepared by him for the special purpose of 
diffusing a popular knowledge of botany. Two of his least preten- 
tious books, — "How Plants Grow" and "How Plants Behave" are 
veritable missionaries which daily impart some worthy lesson to 
thousands of children all over the land. We can hardlv think of 
a time when these books will cease to be read, or to be popular. 

In each generation there are a few men to whom "the world owes 
its most notable impulses." One may well say that the life and 
labors of Charles Darwin illustrate this statement fully ; and with 
equal propriety we may claim, that so far as our own country is con- 
cerned, the teaching and example of Asa Gray were no less note- 
worthy. 

There comes a time in the history of almost every ambitious youthr 
bent upon an intellectual life, when he is called upon to decide what 
special career he will select. His earliest ambition to become a master 
in the whole realm of knowledge is found to be woi^se than a dream. 
His first intention was to have devoted a year to one celebrated in- 
structor and another year to a second, and so on, until he should lav 
the broad and soKd foundation upon Avhich his great learning and 
reputation might rest. I have known such ambitious students, and 
I have known them to become pupils of Professor Gray, with the 
ftdl intention of leaving him at the end of a year or two, to seek 
instruction in another department of Science, from another teacher: 
but of that number, very few ever completed their proposed course of 
study. The charm of Professor Gray's manner, his kindness of 
heart, no less than the constantly widening views which unfolded 
under his instruction, Avedded them to botany for life. Yet I 
neA^er knew him to say, or even intimate, that one should elect hU 
branch OA'er anothers. There have been students to Avhom botany 
Avas far from a favorite branch, but in less than six months, tlie 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 63 

great, warm-hearted teacher had won the pupil to himself and to 
botany forever. Had Asa Gray been a man of but medium attain- 
menis, his transparent and unselfish goodness would alone have 
made him a model teacher, whose example and whose memory a 
student must have revered to the end. 

Yet of all this personal power which Gray the teacher wielded, not 
a trace was due to toleration of half done work. On the contrary 
if he had a characteristic which absolutely predominated, it was 
thoroughness. Not once in years did I ever know him to rest satis- 
fied until he had obtained from a pupil the best results possible 
under the circumstances. From the outset he not only encouraged, 
but required a student to see, think and conclude for himself: often 
without aid from books and always without unnecessary aid from 
him. This may appear to many as harsh treatment, but systems of 
teaching can only be judged by their result, and in this light Pro- 
fessor Gray's method stands abundantly vindicated. How wretched 
the system of education which "crams" a lad with facts and leaves him 
unable to stand alone when beyond the authority of the preceptor. 
To the fullest extent Doctor Gray recognized this, and to prevent 
such a result insisted on mental discipline which left the student 
with a Avell-grounded confidence in his own powers. But on the 
other hand a student never could learn presumptuous trust from a 
teacher who had nothing of the kind himself Those who received 
from Professor Gray the largest share of judicious "letting alone" 
were the ones disposed to hunt an easy solution to their problems. 
It was never enough to simply reach a result in work. His common 
custom Avas to question and cross question until there could be no 
doubt in the mind of either teacher or taught, that the result Avas 
fairh^ obtained. Often the conclusion of the student Avas treated as 
a thesis to be sustained. 

Dr. Gray not seldom assigned to his advanced students, subjects 
for original investigation and of course required a Avritten report, 
often for publication. Nothing shows more clearly his conscien- 
tiousness as a teacher than his strictness concerning these reports. 
It Avas not sufficient that the conclusions should be correct, but they 
must be stated in exactly the right Avay. An artistic turn of a sen- 
tence, making it graceful as avcII as logical, was in his CA^es of the 
utmost importance. "There noAv, that is neatly stated," is an ex- 
pression Avhich yet rings in my ears. It was uttered by Doctor 
Gray, when at last I had succeeded in "putting a point" as he thought 



04 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

it should be. 1 had written my first tscientific paper at least six times, 
and each time thought it was as well done as could be; certainly as 
well done as I was capable of doing it. But my critic was merciless. 
I mentally resolved each time, that I would not re-write it; but I 
did re-write it ; and was obliged to continue doing so until he thought 
it might be allowed to pass. I can see now the benefit of all that 
criticism. It was the most helpful lesson I ever received in the art 
of stating things. How much easier it would have been for Professor 
Gray to have made a mere perfunctory criticism, and then allowed 
the paper to have gone, with the statement, — it will do, but it should 
have been better! The fact that he did not do so, however, is just 
the point that I desire to bring out in illustration of his conscientious 
discharge of duty. I have no doubt he sighed more over having to 
take time to re-read it, than I did over having to re-write it. But, 
though to him lost time, he was good enough to regard it as a duty, 
and as such he did it. His chai-acter as a teacher came out in the 
fact that he did not allow it to ])ass. It was this disregard of his 
own time when a duty to a student was apparent, which jjlaces him 
now so high in the esteem of scores of ])upils. 

During working hours Professor Grvj would allow no talking for 
talk-sake, at least but for a moment. He would, howevei', volunteer a 
hint, to place a student on the track in a difficult problem, or if 
necessary he would cheerfully give an hour for the same purpose, 
though he would not reveal anything which it were better that the 
student should discover for himself 

So far as I am aware he never forgot or lost interest in any one 
whom he had instructed. This is certainly true of those who had 
spent any considerable period with him. Time and time again, 
have I known him to be on the watch for a chance to help a student 
make an honorable name. Is it strange then that all over the land 
there are those who have heart aches when it is remembered we 
shall see that loved teacher no more? 

When a great, good leader has been taken it hardly alters the 
case that he went full of years and honor. We are even then not 
ready to spare him. We never would have been ready to spare 
Asa Gray. 

Each year the aspect of a science changes and some new phase 
becomes the popular one : and this for the time being is apt to be re- 
garded, as, if not the whole, then at least as the better or the major 
part of the science. It is simply the expression of an old human 



1888.] NATURAI, SCIENCES OF PHIEADET-riTIA. fi5 

weakness, which tries to make a part appear greater than the whole 
of a thing. An individual of great force of character, may if he 
desires, impress his associates with an idea of the supreme impor- 
tance of his i)articular, partial line of study. But after all we only 
discover the solid bulk of anvthiug when it is viewed from all sides. 
This is intended to hear especially upon the fact that Professor 
Gray's teaching lay mainly, but by no means exchisively in the line 
of systematic botany. Just now there is a decided tendency to give 
more attention to morphological and })hysiological botany than ever 
before, which is right ; and to discourage systematic botany, which 
is wrong. It is merely a temporary swing of the pendulum. Gravity 
will at length place all these lines of botanical thought, as they de- 
serve to be, on an even plane. It should, however, be said that those 
who disparage the systematic side to which Doctor Gray leaned, and 
on which he mainly taught, have as a rule had so little training in 
it, that they fail to comprehend its full meaning. Even mere analy- 
sis of a plant may, nay must, if properly taught, indicate beside the 
name, those broader relationships which express, or suggest the lines 
of descent by which the plant has come down to us. If it is a grand 
study, and it surely is, to follow the development of the individual 
from the egg or cell to the adult condition, is it not a much grander 
and broader problem to follow the evolution of the species or the 
genus ? 

Further, it should be stated that Professor Gray's work and teach- 
ing was directly in the natural sequence of events. Above all, it is 
to be remembered that the most timely work is ahvays the most 
valuable. The first, most pressing task in the botany of any country 
is to correctly name and arrange its plants. This is a pre-requisite 
condition upon which the record of all other botanical studies then, 
and the diffusion of all know^ledge thence, must rest. J t was to the 
completion of this great, this necessary work that Professor Gray 
was bending all his strength. 

It is well, however, to come to the clear statement, that no one in 
America, and but vexy few in Europe were so fully and practically 
acquainted with the latest thought and latest observations in all de- 
partments of botany as was the subject of this sketch. He could 
discuss just as clearly the functions of chlorophyll, or the dual nature 
of lichens, or the relation of a plant to its environment, as he could 
the relation of one American species to another, or of an Eastern 
United States plant to one from far away Jai)an. Let it then be 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

stated, that judged by the broadest standard, as a teacher, Asa Gray 
stood perfectly rounded in his knowledge. If any one can doulit 
this, let him but read the critical reviews which during the ])ast 
twenty years Professor Gray has written for the American Journal 
of Science, and be convinced. Indeed the wide range of his exact 
knowledge was wonderful. But vast as were his attainments, and 
vast as was the sum of all that he has written, his strongest claim to 
a perpetual remembrance does not rest there. His was the task of 
starting a generation of teachers in the right direction. True, the 
times were ripe for the coming of Professor Gray; but how nuich 
more meagre the harvest would have been if he had not come I 
Certainly it could not have been what his care and culture have 
made it! It is a great thing to write a good book. It is a greater 
thing to write a clearer book for a country than had been produced 
before. But it was greatest of all, to take the young, ambitious na- 
turalists of this growing and educationally immature country and 
teach them how to teach others, not only as to facts, but as to 
methods. The value of this labor passes comprehension, for its 
ultimate effects ever widening, reach far out into the future. Facts 
may be lost sight of, theories disproven, hypotheses rejected as insuffi- 
cient, but men will henceforth never lose a key Avhich unlocks 
realms of knowledge. Asa Gray's whole life as teacher and as inves- 
tigator has been the model of a master key. Those who have his 
patience, his honesty, his genial fiiith in his associates will best un- 
lock the secrets of our flora so long as any remain unrevealed. 

Tliink of him in what relation we may, he stands out in strong 
light for inspection, the picture of a "manly man.'' Was he with- 
out fear? It was because he was without reproach. If to the 
last, his cheerfulness and mental buoyancy anuized even those wiio 
knew him best, it was because the elasticity of his love of God and 
man enabled him to reach beyond the limits which age usually im- 
poses, clear into the sunlight of eternal youth. 

Asa Gray has gone to his rest. We mourn his removal from our 
midst : but we are thankful for the honor he cast upon this land, 
throughout the length and breadth of which his name is revered. 
More than this, we his associates and puj)ils are especially grateful 
for the example of kindness and conscientious devotion which he 
has left us ; as well as for the methods of study which he inculcated 
and so well illustrated in his own daily life and labor. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 67 

Prof. W. P. Wilson said :— 

I wish to offer a few words on the relation sustained by Dr. Asa 
Gray to the various leading scientific societies and naturalists of the 
old world. I do this all the more gladly because like some others 
of our true scientific men he was known better abroad than in his 
own land. I do not wish to say that Dr. Gray was not well known 
at home, for he Avas. His series of text-books, eight in all, has in- 
troduced his name Avherex'er botany is Avell taught, but had hi& 
celebrity in this country depended on his scientific papers and books 
not intended for the general reader, he might have been almost a& 
unknown to the masses as Jeffries Wyman, who wrote no text-books 
but made some very important additions to science and consequently 
was much better known in England and on the Continent than here. 
In this country, to the great majority of individuals who had seen or 
heard of Dr. Gray, his name was inseparably connected with the finest 
set of text books ever issued in the English language. Only a few 
botanists and friends knew of his incessant labor on original ques- 
tions, and that the results of this work were frequently published in 
the proceedings of the difl^erent societies. It was this latter kind of 
work which rapidly gained for him abroad a great recognition. 

While Dr. Grav in his early career labored incessantlv at his 
chosen work, went on numerous collecting tours, prepared important 
papers on the Grasses and Sedges, gave lectures on botany in two or 
three schools and colleges, published several minor papers in differ- 
ent societies and made himself indispensable in the early work of the 
Flora of North America Avhich Dr. Torrey had already begun — he 
was known only to a vei'y limited circle at home. 

This activity, accuracy and ability in botany had already made 
him through his collecting and papers quite a reputation abroad and 
had as early as 1836 secured for him membership in three foreign 
societies: The Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm in 1829, 
the Imperial Academy Naturse Curiosorum, Warsaw, 1885, and the 
Royal Botanical Society of Regensburg (Ratisbon) 1886. 

Dr. Gray's visits to Europe were in all six. He first went for 
botanical study in Xovember 1838, returning in the November or 
the following year. The progress of the North American Fhjra re- 
quired the study and comparison of the many collections which in 
earlier times had been sent over from America to the European 
herbaria. 



^'^ PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

In Glasgow he was the guest of Dr. W. J. Hooker. Among these 
whom he met in England at this time were George Bentham, Roht. 
Brown, Balfour, Lindley, Boott, Bauer, Lambert, Greville and a 
vscore of others. Upon finishing his work in England he went to 
the Continent pushing his undertaking with great vigor. In the 
course of his extended tour he visited Paris, Lyons, Vienna, Munich, 
Geneva, Halle, Berlin, Hamburg and other cities, and made the ac- 
quaintance of such men as Jussieu, Brongniart, Decaisne, IVIirbel, 
Adrien, Gaudichaud, Gay, Delile, Duval, Endlicher, von Martins, 
Zuccarini, the De Candolles, Ehrenberg, Schlechtendal, Klotzsch, 
Kunth, Link, Lehmann and many more. 

It will be seen that in this, his first visit to Europe, he made the 
acquaintance of many botanists already eminent, and others who 
like himself were later to become so. This was one of the most im- 
portant years in his life. Acquaintances were made which were 
life-long ; correspondences were opened and exchanges of plants 
and works begun which were alike helpful to all parties. It must 
be admitted that in America Dr. Gray had no equal, but in 
Europe there were many who were working on kindred problems 
and to whom he might turn for scientific companionship. L^pon 
returning home he prosecuted the work on the " Flora" with his ac- 
customed energy and by the spring of 1841 had issued the first 184 
pages of Vol. II. 

Passing over ten years of hard work in collecting, writing and 
teaching at Cambridge, we find him in June of 1850 in a sailing 
vessel for a second time on his way to Europe. His object now was 
a study of the plants of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition. 

After travelling in Switzerland, working for a time in DeCandolle's 
hei'barium at Geneva and visiting von Martins at Munich, he went 
with Mrs. Gray to the country place of Mr. George Bentham in 
Hertfordshire and spent two months there, going over in company 
with Mr. Bentham, the entire collection which had been sent out 
from America. 

He next went to Sir "NVni. Hooker's house at Kew, London, to 
study collections there. 

A visit of six weeks to Paris with work in P. Barker Webb's 
herbarium and at the Jardin des Plantes was followed by nearly 
four months stay in London with study at the British Museum. 
Robert Brown was then living. For him Dr. Gray entertained the 
most profound respect, rating him as he ever after did, as one of the 
greatest of philosophical botanists. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF rillLADELPHIA. G9' 

In 1855 he made his third journey, visiting some of his old friends 
but remaining from home but six Meeks. His fourth trip to Enghmd 
and the Continent ^vas made in 1868. Between the years 1856, the 
date of the hist visit, and 1868 much valuable work had been done. 
He had issued his "Structural and Morphological Botany" which had 
no rival in America, and no superior in Europe. It was a model 
of clearness and conciseness in its methods of treating the general 
morphology of the plant and especially that of the flower. 

The "Manual" had been published and was already recognized as 
worthy a place by the side of Koch's German Flora. No higher praise 
could have been given to it. The two JManuals were regarded as 
models of clearness and brevity in description. 

The work, also that on the Flora of North America, had been con- 
stantly carried on, besides the jDublication of various papers on botan- 
ical subjects, the most important of which was: "Relation of the 
Japanese Flora to that of North America." This had been a very 
remarkable piece of work, requiring close reasoning and comj^arisou, 
all the more remarkable because the geological and palaeontological 
work on the fossil flora of the North by Heer had then not been 
done. The "Principles of Variation in Species" soon to be made 
known by Charles Darwin's " Origin of Species " was yet unpub- 
lished. Both of these works might have given great help toward 
the solution of the problem in hand. It is safe to say that this last 
work made him known to every active thinker in Europe. 

What wonder is it then, that after the very successful issue of his 
valuable text-books, after many additions to the North American 
Flora and the publication of numerous papers including the last one 
mentioned on geographical distribution, this fourth visit abroad in 
1868, should have been one continued ovation? Leaving home in 
September he spent this and the following autumn at Kew, hard at 
work. In the interim, visiting Paris, he renewed old acquaintances ; 
worked with von Martius in JNIunich and with DeCandolle in Geneva, 
and visited various herbaria all over the Continent before returning 
to England. 

So:nething of the high regard in which his scientific labors were 
held at this time may be gathered from the fact that when he sailed 
for home in 1869 he had been made a member of nearly every Royal 
Scientific Society in Europe. 

He was in Europe twice after this ; first in 1880, remaining about 
a year. He visited Paris, the Herbarium at Madrid, Spain, most of 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the Italian herbaria and then settled down at Kew for hard work, 
receiving plants for comparison from many of the German and other 
continental herbaria. Some time was, however, given to the visiting 
of old friends. 

The last visit to Europe was made in April, 1887, returning in 
October of same year. A little work was done at Kew, and the 
Lamarck Herbarium at the Jardin des Plantes was carefully ex- 
amined. Otherwise the time was devoted to pleasant travel and old 
friends. Returning in October, he had planned among other work 
the writing of his Recollections of European Botanists. 

Dr. Gray was known both in England and on the continent not 
alone as a botanist, but as one of the ablest exponents of evolution. 
In the early times after the publication of the " Origin of Species " 
he was its most out-spoken defender in America. His articles at 
this time were often copied by the English journals. He did not 
accept the theory in its entirety. Many letters of Darwin's attest 
how fully the latter relied on his judgment and support — Darwin 
.says in one of his letters to Dr. Gray " you never touch the subject 
without making it clearer," " I look at it as even more extraordinary 
that you never say a word or use an epithet which does not fully ex- 
press my meaning," "others who perfectly understand my book, yet 
sometimes use expressions to which I demur." And again in the 
same letter he writes " I hope and almost believe that the time will 
come when you will go further, in believing a much larger amount of 
modification of species, than you did at first or do noAV." 

When the history of the development theory is written no small 
part will be given to him whom we commemorate. 

More than one continental botanist has had reason to venerate 
our teacher and leader in botany fully as much as Mr. Darwin. 
His criticism and kindly advice was freely given when asked and 
often proved invaluable. 

Prof Thomas Meehan remarked that he desired to dwell some- 
what more fully upon a trait of Dr. Gray's character which the 
previous speakers had touched only incidentally. The whole world of 
science owed a debt to Dr. Gray for his botanical labors ; but he was 
not sure but the greater debt was due to his un])ublished work, namely 
his kind helpfulness to other workers. Many had been made scientific 
students, many had even become eminent in usefulness, solely by 
the early encouragement received from Dr. Gray. If he might be- 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 71 

pardoned for referring to his own history, he would say that few 
have had better opportunity of knowing Dr. Gray in this respect 
than he himself. In 1857, at the instance of a friend he was led to 
open a correspondence with Dr. Gray upon the constant differences 
between the European and American forms of Sjniaea salicifolia. 
Nothing could be kinder than the reply which urged him to continue 
his observations, saying that former authors had made the American 
form a distinct species under the name of S. carpinifolia and that 
Dr. Gray jiiight probably adopt this name in the next edition of the 
Manual. The subsequent appearance of Darwin's "Origin of Species" 
so changed the hitherto prevailing idea of specific types that it is 
no wonder that it did not appear in the next edition under a dis- 
tinct name. But the encouragement given to the obscure young 
man was not lost. It led to a closer observation of similar phenom- 
ena, and the paper on the relative characters of American and Eu- 
ropean species, which subsequently received the approval of Darwin, 
Mivart and others, was the result of the encouragement given in that 
letter. That and many subsequent papers were submitted to Dr. 
Gray before publication, and not presented without his approval ; 
and it was not till later, after he had caught up with the whole lit- 
erature of the subject, that he ventured to stand alone without the 
aid of his early friend and monitor. 

Prof. Meehan then spoke of his long and frequent correspondence 
with Dr. Gray, growing out of his own editorial position. From 
month to month Dr. Gray would send his criticisms upon his edito- 
rial work. These were occasionally sharp and adverse, but always 
judicious, encouraging and kind, and Mr. Meehan cited many in- 
stances illustrative of this. 

It was characteristic of Dr. Gray to give the same attention to the 
poorest and most obscure, as to the most prominent, if only he found 
them to be earnest searchers for truth. It had been said that he was 
hard to convince, but this was because he himself had taken so much 
pains to reach the truth. Nothing but positive evidence would lead 
him to set aside a conclusion at which he had arrived ; but when 
once such evidence was produced, no one accepted it more readily 
or gracefully, and hence he was even more merciless in judging 
of his own work, than that of others. Of this readiness to re- 
verse his own decisions, and do justice to others, Prof. Meehan gave 
many pleasant instances. Few men could have a warmer heart 
towards friends than Dr. Gray — but this did. not lead him to ig- 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

iiore their faults, nor jirevent him from expressing his A'ieAvs of 
them. Tender, loving and considerate as he always was, he 
could be caustic and severe when he believed the good of science 
demanded it. Once a very zealous collector to whom science was 
under many obligations, described and published a large number of 
plants, from imperfect material, with undue haste and without com- 
petent knoAvledge. Dr. Gray had to show that really there were 
very few new species among them, and in so doing his criticism was 
unusually severe. Mr. Meehan in writing to Dr. Gray ventured to 
remonstrate with him upon the severity which he had used. The 
reply was, " In my heart, I would have been more tender than you, 
but I cannot afford to be. I am, from my position before the world, 
a critic, and I cannot shrink from the duty Avhich such a position 
imposes upon me. If you were in the position that I am, witli a 
short life and a long task before you, and just as you chought the 
way was clear for progress, some one should dump cart loads of rub- 
bish in your path, and you had to take off your coat, roll uj) your 
sleeves and spend weeks in digging that rubbish away befoi'e you 
could proceed, I should not suppose you would be a model of amia- 
bility." 

In giving these recollections Prof. Meehan hoped that he should 
be pardoned for so much allusion to his own history, but it was be- 
cause that history bore such full and rich testimony to the critical 
acumen, the kind judgment, the friendly aid and the warm and lov- 
ing heart of the man as well as the scientist, whom we this evening 
commemorate. 

Mr. Isaac C. Martindale then spoke of Professor Gray's en- 
couragement to young students, and of his willingness always to aid 
them in their studies ; this he was able to testify from his own exper- 
ience, having been again and again assisted while engaged with 
perplexing botanical problems: he also spoke of the genial, kind 
and social dispi-sition ever displayed, and which made the name of 
Professor Gray a household word in so many homes. He gave an 
interesting account of a botanical excursion to the mountains of 
North Carolina made in 1884 in company with this greatest of 
American botanists, referring to the readiness with which he I'ecalled 
the names of all the ])lants met with during the journey, showing 
not only his perfect familiarity with the names of the species but 
also his most remarkable memory. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 73 

FeBRUAPvY 14. 

The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-two persons present. 

On the resevihlanee of the primitive foravibiifera and of ovarian 
Ova. — Prof. Ryder remarked that upon cutting sections of nearly 
mature ovarian ova with their investing membrane, zona radiata, in 
place, it was found that, in quite a number of cases, fine protoplas- 
mic processes or pseudopods extended from the peripheral layer of 
protojilasm of the e.gg, through its capsule or zona and joined the 
cells of the granulosa or discus proligerus. This arrangement re- 
minded one forcibly of the filamentous pseudppods extended from a 
Heliozoon or of the slender pseudopods extended through the per- 
forations in the walls of the single chambers of Glohigerina. This 
resemblance was all the more suggestive if one will compare a 
section of one of the chambers of a Glohigerina made through the 
calcareous shell and its contained protoplasm with a similar section 
through the ovum of the Gar Pike, where the zona is formed of 
pillars of homogenous matter. Such prolongations of pseudopods 
through the investing zona radiata in the case of many species of ani- 
mal forms, shows fairly well that this must be the principal means 
by which new matter is taken up from without and incorporated, as 
there is no direct extension of the vascular system into the egg, by 
which it can take up nutriment. It is thus seen that the early 
stages of the growing ovum, not only resemble some of the lower 
forms of Helizoa and Foraminifera as respects the grade of their 
morphological differentiation but also as to the mode in which they 
exhibit their nutritive or physiological activities. This resemblance 
is still further heightened if a form like OrhuUna is compared with 
certain stages of the development of ova. It is thus seen that, in 
many cases, the ovarian germ, at least, passes through a stage which 
may be morphologically as well as physiologically compai-ed with 
some of the lowest 2:rades of the Protozoa. 



b^ 



Chaetopterus from Florida: — Prof Leidy directed attention to 
specimens which were collected in the trip of Prof Heilprin and Mr. 
Willcox, at the mouth of the Manatee River. The species appears 
to be the Chaetopterus pergamentaceus of Cuvier, originally des- 
ci'ibed from specimens from the AVest Indies. It is a remarkable 
form. It belongs to the Tubicolae or tube-living worms, but unlike 
most of these, is devoid of the numerous cephalic appendages, or 
tentacles and gills. The tube is membranous and laminated in 
structure and it has the appearance of parchment. The two tubes 
collected are 16 inches long by fths of an inch in diameter, and 
tapering towards the ends. An incomplete worm, not well preserved 
•on account of its delicacy, in its present condition is 9 inches long, 
6 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888^ 

and appears very narrow in comparison with the capacity of its tube. 
The anterior division of tlie body, about an inch long, is flattened, 
and about half as wide, but narrowing behind, and is composed of 
eight podal segments provided with dense bunches of lustrous, golden 
setae. The succeeding segment, long and narrow, is provided with a 
pair of wing-like appendages an inch long, and each furnished with 
two bundles of diverging setae. Then follow five long narrow seg- 
ments with large membranous appendages, without setae. The^ 
terminal segments, of which 15 remain in the specimen, are furnish- 
ed with pairs of long pointed appendages with bundles of setae. 



February 21. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty-one persons present. 
The following papers were presented for publication : — 

"Researches upon the general physiology of Nerves and Muscles."" 
By Henry C. Chapman M. D. and A. P. Brubacker M. D. 

"Notes on an aquatic insect larva with jointed dorsal appendages."" 
By Adele M. Fielde. 

Necessity for Revising the Nomenclature of Avierican Spiders. — Dr., 
McCoOK remarked that during the summer of 1887, while visiting 
the Zoological Library of the British Museum of Natural History, 
he gained information which may revolutionize, or at least compel 
a radical revision of the nomenclature of American spiders. 

His interest in these animals being known by some of the zoolo- 
gists in the room, his attention was called to a volume of unpublished 
figures of American spiders then in the library. These drawings 
were made by Mr. John Abbot, an Englishman settled in Savannah 
during the latter part of the eighteenth century. The figures were 
made as early as 1792. At least they bear that date. Mr. Abbot 
is well known to entomologists by his work upon lepidoptera, pub- 
lished in connection with Mr. Smith. ^ This book proved to be the 
volumes, long supposed to be lost, of original drawings from which 
Baron Walckenaer described the numerous species from Georgia 
which are found rn his Natural History of Apterous Insects.^ 

1 "The Natural History of the rarer lepidopterous insects of Georgia. Including 
their systematic characters, the particulars of their several metamorphoses and the 
plants on which they feed. Collected from the observations of Mr. John Abbot, 
many years resident in that country, by James Edward Smith M. D. 2 Vol's, fol. 
London, 1797." 

2 Histoire Naturclle dcs Insectes. Apl^res. Vols. I. and 11. Suites a Buffon. 
1837. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 75 

It was known, of course, from Walckenaer's introduction to his 
descriptions that he had purchased Abbot's' drawings of over five 
hundred species of spiders and other arachnids; that he also had the 
manuscript drawings made by Bosc of South Carolina spiders. But 
Americans seem to have been in ignorance of what had become of 
these drawings, and the fact that they were in the Zoological Lib- 
rary appears to have escaped the observation of the little circle of 
British students of araneads; at least the speaker could recall no 
reference made to them in current literature. It was not until the 
above incident that an American student was known to have a clew 
to the whereabouts of the valuable volume which the British Mus- 
eum is so fortunate as to possess.^ How the book happened to come 
into its present place, or in what manner it was procured from Baron 
Walckenaer or his executors. Dr. McCook was not able to say. 

On the day when the discovery was made, he had engagements 
which prevented him giving more than an hour or two to the study 
of the figures, and as he was about to leave London, no further oppor- 
tunity presented for making extended notes. However, he was able 
at once to recognize a number of species which have long and fa- 
miliarly been known under the names published by Hentz. He took 
notes of a number of these species, principally among the orbweav- 
ers, a group with which he was at })resent particularly engaged. 
He also took the numbers under which the figures are listed by 
Abbot. 

After returning to America Dr. McCook went over Walckenaer's 
descriptions, comparing them witli his own notes, and found that 
there is no doubt at all as to the identity of these drawings with the 
original ones from which Walckenaer described his published spe- 
cies. The number of Abbot's figures as they appear in the manu- 
scripts correspond with the numbers cited by Walckenaer in his 
references to the same. Moreover, Walckenaer's descriptions, view- 
ed in the light of the speaker's recollection of the drawings, together 
with his own notes and identification on the spot, remove all doubt 
as to the identity of at least a considerable number of the species. 

The importance of this discovery is seen in view of the following 
facts: Walckenaer published his descriptions of Georgia species in 
1837; Professor Hentz, the father of American Araneology, made 
his publications in the Proceedings and Journal of the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History beginning with the year 1841, and con- 
tinued until 1850. The latter have been gathered together and 

^ Walckenaer erroneously refers to the author as "Thomas" Abbot; his name is 
"John." 

2 The full title of the book is "Drawings of the Insects of Georgia in America 
by John Abbot of Savannah. Vol. XIV, 1792." Zoological Library of the 
British Museum of Natural History, London. 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

published in book form under the title of "The Spiders of the United 
States," edited by Edward Burgess and with notes by Mr. Emerton.^ 

Hentz had some previous papers of no very great consequence, 
and in 1835 he published a simple list of 125 species arranged under 
the gehera to which he supposed that they belonged. This was in 
the Second Edition of Hitchcock's Report of the Geology of Massa- 
chusetts, (1835.) An examination of this list shows that it includes 
a number of the species which Walckenaer described in 1837 from 
the drawings of Abbot. So far then as the bai-e publication of these 
names is concerned Hentz has a priority of two years. 

The question of priority involved is yet more complicated by the 
fact that the second volume of Walckenaer's work, containing many 
of the American sj)ecies and all the orbweavers, bears a date whose 
integrity is seriously questioned. The title page gives "1837" as the 
year of publication, the same as that i-ightly borne by the first vol- 
ume; but Dr. T. Thorell, who is one of the highest living authorities 
in Araneology, declares that this volume "did not come out till 
1841."'^ This fact, however, does not seriously effect the points in 
issue, as only a few species of the Mygalidae were published by 
Hentz in 1841;'' all the remaining species were published during 
and subsequent to 1842. 

The attitude of American students of spider fauna toward Walck- 
enaer's descriptions alluded to above has been something after the 
fashionof the famous Scotch verdict "not proven." In other words, 
in the absence of any types or specimens anywhere existing to which 
his descriptions might be referre"cl; in the absence of the original 
drawings from which his descriptions were made, for none (or only 
one) of them were made from the specimens themselves ; and in the 
absence of any knowledge as to whether those drawings anywhere 
existed, it was generally conceded, so far as there was any thought 
or action on the matter at all, that Walckenaer's descriptions must 
be considered as non-existent. The priority, therefore, of all the 
descriptions made by Hentz has been heretofore universally allowed, 
even thougli some of Walckenaer's descriptions are sufficiently clear 
to show without the aid of figures that he had in mind the same 
species covered under different names by Hentz. Dr. McCook be- 
lieved that on the whole this decision was a righteous one, and that 
up to this date no claim could have been established in favor of 
Walckenaer's priority. 

However, a question now arises which it is necessary to face and 
in some way settle. Does not the discovery of the original drawings 
in the Zoological Library of the British Museum put an entirely 

' Boston : Boston Society of Natural History, 1875. 

2 Thorell: "On European Spiders," Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsaliensis; Scr. 
3rd, Vol. VII., p. 15, foot note. The text indicates that he knows "with certainty 
that such date was incorrectly given." 

^ Mygale truncata, so/stitia/is, carolinensis, gracilis and unicolor. See Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. I, pp. 41-42. 



1888.] NATURAL SC1EN(,'ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 77 

new phase upon the matter? Shall we not be compelled, in view of 
the fact that tiiere can now be no doubt of the identity of Walcken- 
aer's species, to give the priority to him ? 

The very few American students of our spider fauna have become • 
so familiar with many of Walckenaer's species under Hentz's names, 
that it will be difficult to throw those names out of mind. Moreover 
they have entered into all our literature up to this date, and there 
will be o-reat confusion in makino; the corrections. Besides, it must 
be allowed that Hentz's names are better chosen then Walckenaer's. 
If Abbot, whose patient, long continued and intelligent labors de- 
serve the real honor, could receive the credit of entitulation, one 
migiit, at least on the ground of sentiment, feel more reconciled to 
seeing the priority pass from flentz; especially as Baron Walcken- 
aer was often indifferent to the prior rights of fellow naturalists. 
But the laws of priority must be considered, and honesty and justice 
can give no room for considerations of convenience and sentiment. 

Many of Walckenaer's descriptions may be considered as fairly 
good, and indeed they have all along been recognized as clearly 
Covering some of Hentz's species. But when those descriptions are 
placed alongside of Abbot's drawings, from which they were made, 
all doubt is removed as to the identity. For the most part, Abbot's 
drawings are tolerably accurate, Avell finished, are colored after 
nature, and there was no difficulty at first sight in identifying a 
large number of our well known species, under the names published 
bv Professor Hentz. It seems unfortunate that such good work 
should have remained so long unnoticed, and that credit for the same 
should liave been so wholly lost to the author. It is at least some 
satisfaction to be able to render such justice and honor as this notice 
may bring, to one who barely escaped the distinction of being the 
father of American araneology by inability to publish or procure 
the publication of his faithful labors. 

There are thus raised very delicate points as to the law of priority, 
concerning which Dr. McCook desired to obtain the judgment of his 
associates: — first, in view of the fact that Walckenaer's species were 
described not from the spiders themselves, but from the drawings of 
them made by another hand, can we be permitted to give priority 
to Hentz, whose descriptions were made from the animals them- 
selves? Second, does the fact that two years previous to Walcken- 
aer's descriptions, Hentz published the names of one hundred and 
twenty five sjiecies. manv of which are identical with those of Abbot's 
drawings and Walckenaer's descriptions, entitle the American au- 
thor to priority as to these species? Under ordinary circumstances 
it would perhaps be at once admitted that Hentz could have no 
claim, but in view of the special circumstances alluded to may there 
not be some departure from the strict construction of the lex prlorita- 
iist The inconvenience of overthrowing Hentz's names would be 
a peculiar hardship to American araneologists, unless the original 
or a fac-simile of Abl)ot's Drawings could be obtained and made ac- 
cessible on this side of the Atlantic. With the book in the British 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Museum, there is no final court, before wliicli to test the integrity 
of species, avaiUible for the bulk of American students. While 
Walckenaer's descriptions are generally intelligible with the draw- 
ings in hand, many are obscure without them. This is equally true 
of Hentz's descriptions; but then we have his figures to interpret the 
descriptions sufficiently well to enable us to identify the species.* 

Dr. McCook presented a list of a few of the best known species, 
especially among the orb weavers, of those which were recognized 
by him as identical with the corresponding uumliers in Abbot's 
drawings, and which, if Walckenaer's claim to priority be conceded, 
must hereafter be known under the names assigned by that natural- 
ist. A reading of this brief list will give araneologists some idea of 
the serious labor that must be wrought by them before fixed and 
satisfactory results can be evolved from the confusion into which our 
existing nomenclature has been startled by the unexpected reappear- 
ance of Abbot's long lost manuscripts. 

These species are here given in the following tabulated form. 
The first column shows the name given by Hentz. The second shows 
Walckenaer's names. The third column gives the names of the 
species as thev must hereafter be known if Walckenaer's names are 
to be accepted. 

Table of Revised Nomenclature of American Spiders. 

Hentz. Walckenaer. Revised. 

Epeira insularis Epeira conspicellata ' Epeira conspicellata. 

Epeira trivittata Epeira arabesca '' Epeira arabesca. 

" Epeira Pegnia ^ Epeira arabesca. 

Epeira domiciliorxim Epeira benjamina * Epeira benjaviina. 

Epeira p)arvida Epeira eustala " Epeira eustala. 

Epeira thaddeus Epeira cepina * Epeira thaddeus. 

Epeira verucosa Epeira arenata ' Verucosa arenata. 

*In the discussion which followed the remarks of Dr. McCook the opinion was 
expressed by Professors Leidy, Lewis and Dall that the earlier names should in all 
cases be adopted, no matter how much inconvenience might be entaded thereby, 
if the descriptions were recognizable. Prof. Heilprin held that such cases should 
be decided so as to cause the least embarrassment to naturalists and therefore the 
least detriment to Science. 

I Walck. Nat. Ilisl. Apteres. Vol. II, p. 58. = id p. 74. ^ id p. 80. * id p. 42. 

s id p. I>7. This species, whose remarkable variations have attracted the atten- 
ion of all who know it, is described by Walckenaer under several names, as it was 
by HlmUz. 

® id p. 38. Walckenaer confounds thaddeus \\\\.\\ parvulu of which he makes 
it a variety. Ilentz's name may therefore stand. 

' id p. 133. 



^peira stellata 



JEpeira riparia 
Ej)eira fascinta 
Epeira cancer 



NATURAL SCIENCP:S OF PHILADELPHIA. 



79 



Epeira rugosa 
Epeira spinea 
Epeira mitrata 
Ep>eira caudata 



Plectana stellata * Plectana stellata. 
Epeira nobilis ' 
Epeira cerasiae ' 
Epeira iris ^° 

Epeira cophinaria " Argiope cophinaria. 
Epeira argyraspides ^'^ Argiope argyraspides. 
Plectana ellipsoides ^^ Gasteracantha ellipsoi- 

des. 
A crosoma gracilis. 

Acrosoma sagittata. 
A crosoma reduviana. 
Cyrtophora turbinata. 



Tetrag)iatha fulva. 



Plectana gracilis " 

Plectana sagittata ^'' 

Plectana reduviana '® 

Epeira turbinata " 
" Epeira glomosa " 

'Tefragnatha grallator Tetragnatha fulva ^' 
Phyllyra riparia Uloborus Americamis'° Uloborus Americanus 

The imuibers under which the species described by Walckenaer 
.and listed in Abbot's figures are here given for the convenience of 
those who wish to refer to the originals. The reference numbers 
attaclied to them correspond with the reference numbers in the 
isecond column of the table and in the foot notes. 

Abbot's Manuscript Numbers.— 116, 121'; 331, 346''; 375, 
389, 484^ 126*; 119, 120^; 117"; 181, 182, 183'; 161^ 166 ^ 
336, 341'°; 151"; 156''^; 118 '^• 47, 48"; 50 '^ 49'«; 79, 80''; 
77, 78'«; 211, 216, 221="; 44^". 

8 id II, 171. This is probably the figure to which Hz. refers (Sp. U. S. p. 125) 
when he cites Bosc as authority for the name. The species which Walck. has 
named nobilis, iris and cerasiae all seem to me to be stellata, and it is odd that 
AValck. should have put them even into a different genus from stellata which is 
described in his "Tabl. des Araeides" p. fi,5, fig. 54. If this spider is to be placed 
in a genus otlier than Epeira, it might retain the now aljandoned name of Flectana, 
which is here provisionally revived to receive it. Emerton gives the species to 
Hentz. ("New Eng. Epeiridae," p. 319). 

9 id p. 119. 10 id p. 120. " id p. 109. 12 id p. 110. i3 id p. 1-55. 
1* id p. 193. 15 id p. 174. 16 id p. 201. " id p. 140. 

18 id p. 144. Tiiis bears some likeness to my species Cyrt. bifurca and may 
•prove to be the same. 

19 id p. 212. Abbott figures a number of Tetragnathas including what appears 
to be Emerton's T. caudata ( T. lacerta Wlk) ; but a careful study will be re- 
quired to determine which are simply variations. Hentz's grallator is probably 
the one here designated. Walckenaer's Tetragnatha zorilla (Aptr. II, p. 221 and 
Pi. 19, 2 B) which is figured from Abbot's mss., belongs to his own genus Latro- 
dectiis [Lath?-odectiis), and is Hentz's Theriaion verecnndum and Hneaturn. It 
is also the Latrodectiis formidahilis and L. variolus of Walk. (Apt. Vol. I, p. 
<)47, f)48.). The name of this interesting spider will now be Lathrodecttis form- 
.ida bills Walck. 

'0 id p. 212. 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888^ 

Clrolana feasting on the Edible Crab. — Prof. Leidy stated that 
on last Saturday, having occasion to go to Beach Haven, N. J. dur- 
ing a leisure half hour stroll along shore, he noticed, here aud there 
a dead crab, Callinedes hastatus, h'ing on the sand, near the last 
high tide mark. The crabs observed happened to be all females and 
they appeared to have died recently as some were quite fresh and; 
showed no signs of decomposition. Others, broken open by I'emov- 
ing the carapace, were found to have the l)ody cavity swarming with 
a living isopod, the Clrolana concharum, which had preyed upon the 
organs and were variously colored by the food with which they were 
gorged. From a single crab there were taken 108 of the Cirolana 
ranging from 15 to 22 mm. in length by 5 to 7 mm. in breadth. 

The isopod is grayish translucent above and whitish ti-anslucent 
beneath, aud centrally variously colored, brown, black, red or yellow, 
from the food contents. The dorsal plates are minutely dotted, black 
or brown, in bands. The eyes are triangular with rounded angles,. 
and black. The antennae are nearly double the length of the anten- 
nules. The mandibles are furnished with a strong, brown, tricuspid 
molar. The caudal plate or telson is triangular with a blunt, slightly 
emarginate apex and with a pair of spines each side of tlie latter. 
The isopod has been observed by Stimpson at Charleston, S. C. and 
by Harger at Vineyard Sound, Mass., l)ut has not previously been 
reported from the coast of New Jersey. Three isolated specimens 
of the same were picked up on the shore of Beach Haven, the last 
summer. 

On Bopyrus palaemonetlcola. — Prof. Leidy also presented numer- 
ous specimens of the prawn, Palaemonetes vulgaris, infested with the- 
parasite, Bopyrus palaemonetlcola, obtained at Beach Haven, N. J. 
From about two quarts of the prawn, caught for fish-bait, upwards 
of fifty contained the Bopyrus. 



February 28. , 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-five persons present. 

The death of James S. Mason, a member, was announced. 

Note on Lepas faseicularis. — Prof. Leidy remarked that while- 
stopping at Beach Haven, N. J., the last summer he had observed 
that from time to time the debris thrown on shore would differ accord- 
ing to the direction of the wind. On one occasion a strong wind from 
the north cast up a considerable quantity of material consisting of frag- 
ments of wood, grass, fucus, etc., to most of Avhich was attached a pro- 
fusion of goose-barnacles, Lepas faseicularis. Among the materials 
observed were apples and cranberries, which also liad bundles of 
barnacles attached, and as the fruit was not decomposed, it appar- 



1888.J NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 81 

ently indicated a rapid development and growth of the animaL 
Portions of apples were exhibited with dense hemispherical groups 
of attached barnacles an inch and a half in diameter with the barna- 
cles from 2 to 8 lines long, and several cranberries with bunches in 
which the barnacles are from 2 to G lines long. 

Reputed Tape-worm in a Cucumber. — Prof. Leidy stated that 
several years ago, his colleague in the University, Prof. Wm. Goodell,. 
submitted to his examination a tape-worm, which he received from a 
correspondent, with the label "From the middle of a cucumber pre- 
served in brine. S. E. Robinson, West Union, Iowa, May 29, 1876." 
The specimen appears to be complete and in its present condition, 
preserved in alcohol, is about eight inches long. The head is large, 
spheroid, provided with four, small, equi-distant hemispherical both- 
ria, and surmounted by a prominent crown with a double circle of 
strong hooks. The neck is a slight constriction whence the body 
rapidly widens and again tapers behind. The anterior segments are- 
transversely linear with a gradually increasing length and more 
acute and prominent lateral ends; the middle segments are about 
twice the breadth of the length and slightly companulate; and 
the posterior segments are proportionately longer and narrower. In 
the latter, the uterus is distended with eggs only at their anterior 
portion. 

The hooks are partially lost on one side of the crown ; and it is 
estimated that there were about 40 or more. 

The head is •875 mm. broad; the crown of hooks '625 mm.; the 
neek '8 mm. ; at the middle of the body six segments together are 
1 cm. long and o'5 mm. wide; the terminal segments are about 4 mm. 
long and 2*5 mm. wide. The eggs measure from '032 to '036 mm. 

While it cannot be admitted that the worm belonged to the cucum- 
ber, nor is it clear how it reached this position, it is a question as to 
the species. It bears a near resemblance to the Taenia crassicollis of 
the Cat, but is not more than half the size of this as it ordinarily 
occurs. 

In comparison with a complete specimen of the latter, six inches 
in length in the contracted condition as preserved in alcohol, we find 
the following measurements. 

T 

Breadth of head 

Breadth of crown of hooks 

Breadth of neck ... 

Breadth of middle segments 

Length of middle segments 

Breadth of terminal segments - 

Length of terminal segments 

Diamonds in Meteorites. — Professor Carvill Lewis exhibited a 
small fragment of a meteorite which had fallen in the district of 
Krasnoslobodsk, Government of Penza, Siberia, on September 4, 1886, 



' the cucumber 


T. crassicollis. 


•875 


mm. 


1-875 


mm. 


•625 


(< 


1- 




•8 


u 


1-25 




3-5 


a 


6 to 8 




1-66 


a 


1- 




2-5 


(( 


3-5 




4^ 


a 


5- 





■82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

and which he had obtained through the kindness of Mr. George F. 
Kunz. The specimen was of especial interest on account of the re- 
port (see Nature. Dec. 1, 1887. xxxvii, p. 110) that Professor Lat- 
chinof and Jerofief had detected in the insoluble residue small cor- 
puscles having all the characters of diamonds. 

The speaker had extracted from the fragment in his possession 
two small oval bodies with extremely high index of refraction and 
showing only slight traces of polarization, such as is common to 
many diamonds. They Avere colorless and transparent, resembling 
certain specimens of Brazilian "bort." Having been able to dis- 
tinctly scratch a polished sapphire with portions of the meteorite, he 
was disposed to agree with Professor Latchinoff and Jerofief that 
these bodies were true diamonds. The olivine in this meteorite was 
also in the form of oval grains and had a deep yellow color and 
bright polarization. The rounded form of the olivine and the dia- 
monds may have been due to corrosion of the igneous mass. This 
rounded form is very commonly shown by the olivines in basic erup- 
tive rocks. 

AVhile diamonds have never before been found in meteorites, car- 
bon has long been known in them in its graphitic or amorphous form. 
Recently Fletcher ' has described under the name of Cliftonite a 
cubical form of carbon, somewhat harder than ordinary graphite, 
which he found in an Australian meteorite. 

The important bearing of the present discovery upon the vexed 
question of the diamond is evident. The speaker had recently en- 
deavored to show that the commonly received notion that itacolumite 
was the original matrix of the diamond is a mistake, and that dia- 
monds really occur in, or in the neighborhood of, basic eruptive 
rocks.^ The facts regarding the associations of the diamond in 
Africa, Borneo, New South Wales, California and elsewhere all 
point to peridotites or allied rocks as the matrix of the diamond. 
The similarity, both in structure and composition, of the diamond- 
bearing Kimberlite of South Africa to meteorites had been pointed 
out by the speaker previously, and he had, in view of this fact, sug- 
gested the search for diamonds in meteorites. 

Ctenophores in Fresh Water: — Dr. Benjamix Sharp reported 
that he had observed in a fresh water pond at Sachecha, Nantucket, 
a great number of Ctenophores, in apparently good condition. This 
pond is occasionally opened to the sea to allow the escape of the percli 
that breed there is great numbers. The Ctenophores without doul)t 
found their way into the pond at such time. As far as he could de- 
termine they were the common Mnemlopsis Leidyi, unchanged by 
their strange environment. They not only appeared perfectly healthy 
and active but were highly phosphorescent at night. He was not 

' Jour. Mineralog. Soc. vii, p. 121, 1887. 

•^ Proc. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Science. Manchester, 1887. (See Geolog. Magazine, 
March. 1888.) 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 83 

able to say whether they bred there or not, aud until this is proven 
it is not possil)le to say that they have become perfectly adapted to 
the new condition of life. Many observers have noticed that Coe- 
lenterata move up rivers, but this is an interesting case, as the transi- 
ition from the salt to the fresh water must have been very sudden. 
At the time of observation Dr. Sharp said that on drinking the 
water he could not notice the slightest trace of salt. 

Messrs Henry A. Pilsbry and S. G. Morton Montgomery were 
elected members. 

The following papers were ordered to be printed : — 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE COLOR-MARKS OF THE MAMMALIA.^ 
BY HARRISON AELEN, M. D. 

The variations in the colors of the hair and the skin are of a char- 
acter and importance ^vhich warrant a systematic study. I have 
ventured to fornuilate my impressions on this subject, and -wliile de- 
parting in some degree from the directions.of approach which zool- 
ogists have developed, I have not I trust, stated the case without 
due regard to the views of others on this perplexing phase of obser- 
vation. 

My main object has been to contemplate color marks as the result 
of nutritive processes controlled by recognized biological forces both 
in health and disease. I Avill not hesitate to treat of a perverted 
growth in the human subject as comparable to a normal growth in 
any member of the mammalian series. 

Statements will be made respecting the distribution of colors of 
hair, (the superficial color, or rather the effect of the main color of 
the hair upon the eye being here intended) of the colors of pigment 
marks on the skin, of localized hypertro})hies and atrophies, of vi- 
brissie, of pilose and naked warts, as though they were co-ordinates 
of equal value. 

I have examined the museums at Philadelphia, New York, New- 
Haven and Washington. I have consulted the illustrations of 
works on Natural History and have made extended observations on 
the domesticated animals especially of dogs, horses, cattle, guinea- 
l^igs and rabbits. 

Tlie conclusions drawn at this time have stood the test of repeated 
re-examinations and while they are not all susceptible of being held 
as rigid deductions from the premises, they present, I think, a group 
of tenets which may prove of interest to working zoologists. 

The subject of distribution of the hair in the human subject has 
received attention from D. F. Eschricht" and C. A. Voigt.^ 

Both writers have taken the new-born child as a standard and 
have described the directions of the hair in two Avays : first as it is 

^ This paper is an elaboration of a portion of an essay which constituted 
the presidential address at the annual meeting of the American Society of Natural- 
ists, December, 1887. 

2 Miiller's Archiv. 1837, Vol. IV, 37. 

3 Denkschr. Wein. Akad. d. Wissenschaft. 1857, Vol. XII, III Abth. p. 1. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 85 

observed radiating from certain points, and second as it is seen to 
converge to certain points. 

The following are the main points of radiation. The parietal bone, 
a short distance to the right of the obeleou, and the axilla. The pa- 
rietal centres may be symmetrical. 

The following are the main points of convergence. The head at 
the obeleon and directly above the auricle ; the face at the inner end 
of the eyebrow, and at the root of the nose ; the neck over the cen- 
tre of the hyoid bone ; the sternum at its upper third ; the abdomen 
at the summit of the bladder ; the under surface of the penis at the 
base ; the nape of the neck on each side of the vertebral column ; 
the trunk over the lower part of the coccyx ; the side of the trunk ; 
the arm at the insertion of the deltoid muscle ; the elbow at the ob- 
cranon ; the wrist at the head of the ulna ; the ilium over the ante- 
rior superior process; the thigh at the lower end of the femoral artery; 
and the ham at the inner border. 

It will be found in the course of the ensuing statements that the 
points of convergences are often found associated with the regions of 
markings which contrast with the ground-color. Thus the obeleon 
is the site of brown or black spots in the dog ; in the same animal 
the tan-colored wart is found in black and tan dogs ; the centre of 
the hyoid bone is also the centre of the gular white or gorget in many 
carnivorous and quadrumanous animals ; the sternal point is often 
white in the horse and dog ; the lower end of the back at the sacrum 
and coccyx is black or brown in ordinarily parti-colored dogs ; the 
insertion of the deltoid is the lower end of the epaulette-region which 
is frequently of a contrasted color to that of the rest of the limb ; the 
spot over the head of the ulna is in the line of the fringe of the fore- 
leg in the setter-dog and in some lemurs. The nape of the neck, the 
root of the nose, the summit of the bladder, the base of the penis, 
the olecranon, the anterior prominence of the ilium, the femoral 
point and the inner border of the ham are not found associated with 
color-marks. These cannot in turn be entirely separated according 
to Eschricht from being in the line of union of parts Avhich unite late 
in the development of the foetus. A complicated disposition at the 
upper lip is held by the same writer to result from the union of the 
right and left halves at the median line. Some points, as for exam- 
ple the olecranon and the iliac process, answer to bony surfaces 
which are near the skin. The femoral point is also the region at 
which the long saphenous nerve pierces the fascia. The point on the 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

side of the trunk is associated with the naked trunk surfaces of birds, 
and the colored area in Indris brevicaudatus. (See infra.') 

In men who are notably hairy (the cases of universal hyper- 
trichosis are not here included) the hair is chiefly deveh:)ped on the 
breast and the anterior wall of the abdomen at its upper part,-on the 
region over the trapezius muscle near the scapula- and on the lower 
part of the loin and the shoulder. In a number of examinations I 
have made of hirsute men, I have never found the teeth defective 
unless a disposition to universal hypertrichosis was present. This 
disposition is shown (in addition to the dental defect) by great shag- 
giness and looseness of contour of the eye-brows. They meet across 
the inter-orbital space and straggle off" toward the temjioral side of 
the forehead. The best marked of the naked places of the body in 
the hirsute men are the forehead, and the side of the trunk. Eschricht 
mentions having found but a single example of the trunk being 
naked at the side. His observations appear to have been made in 
Copenhagen and may perhaps exhibit a national peculiarity. In 
America I am sure such naked places are frequently seen. I can 
confirm Eshricht's statement that hirsute individuals usually have 
black hair, are of stalwart build and do not of necessity have strong 
beards or more than ordinary growths from the head. 

An instructive analogy can be detected to exist between the na- 
ked surfaces on the sides of the trunk and the great lateral feather- 
less spaces (apterylia) of most birds. Above I have invited atten- 
tion to the fact that in Indris brevicaudatus^ the side of the trunk 
possesses hair of a different color from that covering the ventre or 
the dorsum. 

The literature of the subject of color-marks is scanty. The papers 
here given in abstract are of importance. 

Th. Eimer^ believes the striped forms of the mammalia antedated 
the spotted, and the retention of color obey phylogenetic laws. He 
traces the markings of Viverra through the varieties of the genus 
Canis. Faint traces of the transverse marks of Hyena can be detec- 
ted in the wolf The black spot at the root of the tail is mentioned 
as occurring in all dogs. The presence of a dorsal stripe is mentioned 
as being commonly present. In vertebrates generally the posterior 
parts of the body is more strongly marked than the anterior. This 
is evident in mammals though less marked than in the lower classes. 



^ American Museum of Natural History at New Vorl<, No. 260. 
2 Zool. Anzeiger 1882, V. 685; 1883, 690. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 87 

The transverse body stripes are the highest form of development of 
a body-mark, and succeeds in phylogeny the series of dotted-marks. 
This order is the reverse of that suggested by Darwin. A paper by 
G. T. Rope' describes two varieties of coloring in the English form 
of the domestic cat viz : transverse stripes or rows of dots on a white 
ground and white markings of a more or less longitudinal direction 
on a black ground. 

The following list includes the arrangement of the subject-matter 
of the present essay. 

1. The " break " from the prevailing or ground color compared 
with the positions at which hair is retained in nearly hairless animals. 

2. Briudles. 

3. The regions in which color-marks are found regularly disposed. 
These are : the dorsal line of the trunk ; the back of the neck ; the 
the dorsi-facial line ; the ventre and limbs ; the ulnar border of the 
foreleg ; the axilla and pudenda ; the "collar;" the regions of the spe- 
cial senses ; the sides of the body ; the regions of nerve-endings ;; 
nuiscle-regions ; regions which are rich in seba and moisture. 

4. The effects of age. 

5. Bilaterality. 

6. Antero-posterior symmetry. 

1. The "Break" from the ground Color, or prevalent 
Color, compared avith the Positions at which Hair is re- 
tained IN NEARLESS HAIRLESS Animals. — When an animal of 
a single color changes (even in a slight degree) the uniformity of 
the tint, the new color will appear in an order definite enough 
for the variety, species, and sometimes for the family to which 
the animal belongs. A black, gray or chestnut colored dog when 
thus changing almost invariably has a white spot appear at one of 
the following localities : The tip of the tail,^ the breast, the dorsal 
surfaces of the feet, and the tips of the ears. I have observed these 
changes in the New Foundland dog, the greyhound, the Irish setter 
and the collie. In the sunbear ( Ursus malayanus) the prevailing 
black is relieved by a crescentic whitish-yellow spot on the breast. 
Sarcophilus when varying from its prevalent color exhibits a spot of 
white in the same region. Horses having white feet and a white 

1 Zoolagist, 1881,353. 

* According to Gervais the first white appears at the tip of the tail. G. T. 
Rope (Zoologist, 1881, 353) states that where only a very minute portion of white 
occurs, it is most likely to be found on the chest. 



^8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

star on the breast while the remainder of the bodies are dark are 
objects of common observation. It cannot be an accidental circum- 
stance that animals that are nearly hairless retain sparse clumps in 
the same localities. Rhinoceros lasiotis is hairless except at the tip 
of the tail, the dorsal surfaces of the feet and the tips of the ears. 
Rhinoceros indicus shows the same peculiarities to a less marked 
extent. In Elephas the tip of tail is similarly furnished. In the 
Mexican variety of the so-called hairless dog the same regions named 
in Rhinoceros are alone hairy. In another variety the breast is 
furnished with an abundant growth of hair. Men, who are more 
than usually hairy, yet who do not belong to the grouj) of univei'sal 
hypertrichosis, possess hair on the pectoral region, and are apt to 
have a sparse growth of hair at the upper margin of the auricle and 
a similar but separate line of hair along the posterior border, as well 
as a patch on the loin or near the coccyx in the median line of the 
trunk. 

It may be said that the regions named tend to behave differently 
from the prevailing disposition in hair-nutrition. In breaking from 
a uniform color these regions present a contrasted color, and the 
same regions tend to retain hair which elsewhere for the most part 
is lost. 

But it must be acknowledged that in animals which are for the 
most part hairless, clumps are seen which do not belong to the above 
category. These are discussed under other heads. See hair at junc- 
tion of limbs to trunk, (p. 94) hairs on dorsal line (p. 89) hair at nerve 
■ends. (p. 98) 

2. Bkindles. — In some animals the break from the prevalent 
color assumes another disposition of a widely spread character. I 
allude to the plan by which the entire pelt is covered by alternations 
of black with brown or chestnut : these embrace the "brindles." The 
wolf (Cams lujyus) is often a brindle. Many varieties of dogs e. g. 
some of the mastiffs and bull dogs are brindles. It is often seen in 
the female of the domestic cat. The prevalent color remaining black 
the break is seen in dogs to take place to "tan" and to be localized 
to the feet to the supra-orbital hair clumps and to the hairy wart on 
the side of the face. The prevalent color being white, black sjiots 
are apt to have "tan" margins as is well seen in the fox terrier. 

3. The regions in which Color-Marks are found reg- 
ularly DISPOSED. — I will now treat of the manner in which the 
color of a hue which is contrasted to the prevalent color is apt to 
occur along definite lines or regions of the body. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PIIILADELPHIA. 89 

The Dorsal line of the Trunk. The Hue of the dorsal spines of the 
Tertebral column (iucludiug the head as far as the parietal foramina/) 
is one of the most instructive of these. The black line in the ass 
and the horse has especially received the attention of Darwin. 
Prof. Jno. Ryder'' detected a doi'sal arrangement of hairs in an 
embryo of the domesticated cat. It retains the same color in many 
carnivores. In the domestic cat two pairs of black stripes are often 
found on either side. In domesticated cattle these are supplanted by 
a white line. In piebald rats the stripe is commonly black. 

Lemur collaris,* has a prevalent squirrel gray color, while the head 
is black and a black spot is seen at the root of the tail on the dorsal 
surface. In Propithecus diadema,^ a conspicuous dorsal line is con- 
tinuous with a black sacral region and tail. In Lemur varius^ the 
same character of dorsal line is seen as in the foregoing animal but 
is not so marked. In the parti-colored Lndris hrevlcaudatus' the 
region of the back of the sacrum is distinguished from the rest of the 
fur by being a uniform dull ochreous hue — a hue unlike that met 
with in any other region of the body. In Propithecus verreauxi 
coquerelii^ the dorsum near the lower part of the thorax is marked 
by a dark spot, which is in contrast to the surrounding color. The 
sacrum and loin are of a dirty gray color. In animals w^hich ex- 
hibit spots on the line which are in contrast to the prevalent color 
the retained colors may be looked upon as persistencies which for 
some reason have resisted the forces which have displaced the line 
itself. Such a view is in harmony with Darwin's statement* that 
dappled and spotted animals were originally striped. One of the 
numerous forms of Lemur varius exhibits a white circle at the base 
of the tail the prevalent color being light brown. This does not of 
necessity correlate with the dark sacral spot. But distinctive kinds 
of marking at the root of the tail in the dog are of the same signifi- 

1 These are persistent in the human cranium near the sagittal suture a short 
^iistance in advance of the lamdoidal suture. 

2 Animals under Domestication pov. 

3 Proc. of Acad, of Nat. Sci. 1887, 56. 

* American Museum of Natural History at New York. 

5 Ibid. No. 263. 

6 Ibid. No. 266. 
1 Ibid. No. 260. 
8 Ibid. No. 973. 

3 Animals under domestication I. p. 6o.(Eng. Ed.) 



90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

cauce as the sacral spot. In Dldelphys a dark pigment ring eneircle& 
the base of the tail. In roan horses a ■white ring is occasionally 
found which also encircles the base of the tail. 

In Thijlaeinus, Felis matnd,^Htjcna striata, Mi/nneeohlns, and in some- 
of the viverrine genera, the line is interrupted and a number of sad- 
dle marks are seen which are best marked posteriorly. In the dog 
when the black and tan colors are bred out, as in the English setter,, 
the bull terrier and the fox terrier, the dorsal line is retained only at 
the sacrum and at the root of the tail. It often forms an irregular 
mark which may extend upon the tiaidvs. In the " Chester reds," 
a variety of hog bred in Eastern Pennsylvania, black is persist- 
ently bred out, yet a small black spot is commonly found at the sac- 
rum. In Phoca fasciata a broad white band crosses the trunk at the 
sacral region. 

In Cercopithecus diana, the greater pai't of the dorsal region and 
all the sacral region are of a red color which extends downward upon 
the outer surface of the flank. 

This disposition is seen in a number of the quadrumana. It ap- 
pears to be repeated in many dogs (as already mentioned) in which 
a flank mark is continuous with the sacral spot. The mark may be 
homologous with the sacral saddle mark of Thylacinus and Felis tigris* 
In a colony of piebald rats observed at the Zoological Garden, 
Philadelphia, the sacral region was black while the prevalent hue 
Avas white. 

I will now attempt to explain the persistence of color marks at the 
region of the sacrum and the root of the tail, though the varieties of 
the colors themselves are not at present susceptible of demonstration. 
In the range of human observation, L. Tait' records the frequent 
possesssion — nearly 45 per cent — of a pit, or " sacral dimple," over 
the sacral region in women. 

A. Ecker^ describes the frequent appearance of pits or depressions 
in the region of the coccyx, in the foetus and in new-born infants. 
The spot is associated with various pilose conditions. Max Bartels* 
describes a tail-like formation in man from the lower part of the 
same region. Virchow^ fluds the pilose spots co-ordinated with 

1 A. Milne Edwards, Recherches sur les Mammiferes, Paris, 1868 to 1874, 
PI. 31. 

2 Nature, 1878 XVIII, 481. 

3 Archiv. f. Amhropologie, 1880, XII, 129. 
* Ibid, 1881, XIII, 1. 

5 Zeitsclir f. Ethnologic 1875, VII 280. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIEN'CES OF PHILADELPHIA. 91 

occasional deformity of the sacral spinal processes and he ar- 
rives at the conclusion that the sacral pilosity is often connected with 
attempts at formation of spina bifida. Both Tait and Ecker con- 
nect the presence of the sacral depression with the formation of an 
exserted tail. I make the suggestion that the retention of white/black, 
tan or lemon colored patches at the sacral and lumbar region is an 
evidence in "tailed quadrupeds of the great activity of nutritive pro- 
cesses between the superficies and deep-seated parts. It is but a 
step further, and a legitimate step I think, to connect the sacral pig- 
ment patches with the subject of sacral tumors which has been so ably 
elucidated by R. Middeldorpf.' This writer traces the congenital 
sacral tumors to retention-cysts of the neuro-enteric canal of the em- 
bryo, as defined by Kowalensky. The canal is the same as the post- 
anal gut of Balfour. It has been identified in Ascidians, Aviphioxus, 
and in plagiostome and teleostean fishes. Should the retention of 
the pigment patch at the superficies of the region where such pro- 
found changes are seen to occur be proved to be associated with 
minor degrees of interference at the same region, it follows that in 
the individuals thus marked, minor changes in the sacral elements, 
and possibly in the condition of the lumbar swelling of the spinal 
cord, might be sought for. 

The Back of the Neck. — The region of the back of the neck inclu- 
ding the withers is well known to be often furnished with a mane of 
long or short hair. It is of interest to note that in a case of trichosis 
circumscripta recorded by Virchow'' a distinct pilose growth lay over 
the region of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae. 

As already remarked p. 88 the breast may be hairy in an animal 
which in other respects is nearly naked. It remains to mention the 
gnu in which form a pendant growth of hair from the same region 
is found associated with an animal having short hair — and a long 
tail furnished with a terminal brush. 

The dorsi-facial Line. — The region of the head as far as that of 
the parietal foraminal belongs to the trunk while that in front is 
distinctive. A white median stripe is commonly found in the region 
last named in parti-colored dogs. In some varieties a spot of the 
prevalent color lies directly at the beginning of the trunkal region 
near the occiput which interrupts the dorsal white line, in the rare 
instances of its backward prolongation or may be enclosed by it. 
Mephitis may exhibit a white spot on the dorsum of the face especially 

1 Virchow's Archiv 1885, 101, 37. 

2 Zeitsch f. Ethnologic VII, 279. 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

ill the young. Horses commonly show a white mark, the " star," 
in the middle of the forehead between the eyes. In Cercopithecus a 
median white spot is often seen on the dorsum of the nose. 

The Ventre and Limbs. — The hair of the under part of the trunk 
is in all animals less thick than that of the upper and is apt to be of 
a liofhter shade of color. The color of the ventre is continuous with 
the inner sides of the limbs, and with the throat where it is apt to 
pass in Quadrumana to the crown. The account of the color-marks 
of the limbs cannot be disassociated from that of the trunk. The 
hair of the outer surfaces of the limbs extends to the sides and dor- 
sum of the trunk and neck, while the inner surfaces extend to the 
ventre. " Stockings," by which term is meant patches of white color 
which pass entirely round the manus or pes above the palm or sole, 
are exceptions to the rule. 

The feet of an animal are liable to be of the same color and this 
color to be black or a break from this color to a contrasted one (see 
p. 88). In the horse this is notably the case — a bay horse has 
black feet or exhibits a break from the black color to white. Both 
fore and hind feet of the Thibetan hear, Ailui'opus melanoleiicus, are 
black, the rest of the animal being white, wdth faint shades of brown. 
The fore foot in mammals is apt to a greater degree than is the case 
with the hind foot to retain the same color for the arm and the re- 
gion of the scapula. This is remarkably well seen in AUuropus, in 
which form the entire fore limb including the shoulder is black, 
while the hind limb and region of pelvis (excepting the foot) is white. 
The region of the scapula in many animals is distinctively patterned 
as is seen in the tiger (Felis tigris) and the leopard (Felis pardus). 
In the dog the prevalent color of the neck and the trunk is rarely 
continuous over the region of the scapula, which is usually of the 
contrasted color. The spots on the side of the trunk in white dogs 
appear to be arrested by the region of the scapula. A post-scapular 
spot of an opposed color is commonly seen in dogs. 

P. Michelson^ describes cases of trichosls circumscripta in which 
clumps were found above and below the region of the scapula but 
not upon it. I have often found similar clumps in hirsute men. In 
the horse and its allies the stripes when sparsely distributed are con- 
fined to the region of the scapula or lie in front of it. The region 
of the scapula is apt to be white in Pecora. The region of the 
shoulder, i. e. the region of the humero-scapular joint, is separately 

1 Virchow's Archiv. 1883, Vol. C. 66. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 93 

marked in a number of diverse forms. In many bats a tuft of white 
color distinguishes this region. In the llama, camel and bison 
shaggy tufts of hair adorn it. Cynocephahis hamadryas exhibits on 
both shoulders conspicuous growtlis of hair which extend back- 
ward. In a specimen of Cohibns gxierza} the shoulder was found 
furnished with an epaulet of long white hair. In other examples of 
this species the epaulet extends backwards. B. Ornstein^ describes 
an instance of trichosis circumscripta, in an adult man in which a 
clump of hair was found on both shoulders. 

In Quadrumana the colors of the limbs are apt to be differently dis- 
posed from the arrangement in quadrupeds. In Lemur catta the 
colors are much like those in lower animals and in all varieties white 
stockings may be seen in the fore arm and leg. The inside of the 
limb is apt to be of a lighter color than the outer. 

With this qualification I think I may say that the outer surface 
and anterior surface of the thigh to a point answering to the prox- 
imal third or fourth of the tibia is differently colored in Quadrumana 
from the leg and the foot. This is noticeable in Indris hrevicauda- 
tus^ and Pr§pithecus verreauxi-coquereli.* 

The manus is commonly black in Quadrumana. In Indris hrev- 
ieaudatus^ the outer side of the arm is black, while the entire fore- 
arm is white. 

In the figures of Audebert" the separate color marks of the limbs 
often correspond to the regions of manus, fore-arm, arm, pes, leg 
and thigh especially for the outer surfaces. From the well known 
artistic abilities of Audebert these figures may be accepted as au- 
thoritative.' 

The xdnar Border of the Foreleg. — The ulnar border of the fore- 
leg often displays hypernutritive characters. The disposition is not 
confined to the mammalia. In this class the growth is most likely 
a survival of the natatorial form of foot and is at best an adaptative 

1 Am. Mus. No. 298. 

2 Arch. f. Anthropologic 1S86, 507. 

3 Am. Mu;. No. 260. 

* Ibid. No. 973. 
5 Ibid. No 260. 

* L'Histoire Nalurelle des Singes, des Makis, et des Galeopitheques, 1800. 

7 C. F. Maynard (Quarterly Journ. Boston Zool. Soc, 1883, II, 18) states that 
in the variety of bear ( Ursus Americanus) met with in Florida "brownish lines" are 
seen "starting from the point of each shoulder and extending down the legs on the 
inside." This disposition is certainly exceptional. 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF • [1888. 

effort to extend a fold of skin from the sides of the limb. A skin- 
fold is demonstratable in 3Ienopovia (where it is supplied by a 
branch of a nei*ve) as well as in Ernys and its allies. It is the be- 
ginning of the hair-covered membrane in the flying squirrel {Sciur- 
opterus) and in Belideus; it is enormously disj)layed in the bat. 

The long fringe on the ulnar border of the fore-arm in the setter 
dog may be named as an example of its occurrence in a terrestrial 
mammal. 

The fold corresponding to it is not so evident in the hind leg — 
where it would naturally be sought for on the inner border. The 
line of feathers seen in some varieties of the pigeon and of the domes- 
tic fowl on the outer border of the leg may be associated with a 
similar proclivity to that above named. 

In a case of trichosis circumscripta recorded by B. Ornstein^ in an 
adult male a growth of hairs was found on the ulnar border of the 
fore-arm of both sides. 

In some species of Quadrumana the hair of the arm and the fore- 
arm inclines tow'ard the elbow. Wallace'^ and Darwin^ describe this 
arrangement in connection with the use made of it by t^e animal in 
shedding the water falling upon the flexed limb. That the hair in 
Hylobates agilis should be directed toward the wrist is evidently an 
aberrant arrangement if we are to follow the distribution of the 
lanugo as outlined by Eschricht and Voigt. 

A marked instance of growth of the hair from ulnar border of the 
fore-arm and the corresponding border of the arm is met wdth in 
Propithecus verreauxii-coquerelii.^ A long brilliant fringe of orange 
and white colors equals in width the arm at its greatest diameter. 

The Axilla and Pudenda. — The presence of hair in the axilla and 
pudenda in man is not without interest in connection with the pilose 
regions of the newly born infant. It will be noticed that both Esch- 
richt and Voigt separated the pudenda and the entire perineum from 
the rest of the body. 

In Lemur varius^ the prevalent color being a light brown the per- 
ineum is black. The axilla is often of the same color as the inside 
of the entire fore-leg in Indris brevicaudatus.^ 

1 Arch. f. Antliropologie, 1S6G, 507. 

2 On Natural Sekclion, 344. 

3 On Descent of Man. Am. Ed. I. 1S5. 
* Am. Mus. No. 973. 

5 Ibid. No. 268. 

6 Ibid. No. 260. * 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 95 

It would appear that retention of hair at both junction of the fore 
and hind leg with the body is in someway connected with se- 
cretion and with retention of heat at these localities. (See p. 94.) 
The black stripe which is well defined in many examples of Lemur 
varius may extend as far as the patella or a little distal of that Ijone. 
In the case of the child exhibiting circumscribed trichosis reported 
by H. Ranke' a large j^ilose patch occurred at the front ot the pa- 
tella and the upper part of the leg to its distal side. Two small 
patches were found in line with the front of the thigh. 

The position of the pilose marks above mentioned can be consist- 
ently placed in the same category as the thigh marks in the lemurs. 

The Collar. — The region of the head is distinguished in some of 
the more specialized mammals by a transverse band extending from 
the vertex down over or near the auricle (commonly in front of this 
-appendage) and is variously dispersed on the neck. It is an inter- 
esting region since it affords some of the most striking superficial 
color-marks of the Quadrumana and is the probable precursor of the 
hair of the crown of the head and of the beard in man. 

In the figures of Eschricht's and Voigt's papers on the lanugo al- 
ready quoted, the outlines of the region of the color are clearly deter- 
mined. 

In many species of Q uadrumana the region of the vertex of the head 
to near the occiput, the auricle, the region below the auricle and the 
throat and submaxillary regions are white. This disposition is con- 
spicuous in Hylohates lar.'^ In Colobus guereza, the prevalent color 
I)eing black, a white color is disposed as above and extends down 
the neck to the clavicle. In Colobus vellerosus the collar is white 
and includes the gular region. In Cercojyithecus diana, the white 
collar is interrupted by Ijlack at the side ; the chin is furnished with 
a Avhite goatee. The prevalent color is a squirrel gray. In Cehus 
.hypoleucus the collar is continuous down the neck and is continuous 
with the white scapular region and with the outside of the arm to a 
little below the elbow. The prevalent color is black. 

In Lemur varius^ the ears, retromaxillary region and the neck 
uniting the head lines, are white. In Lemur albifrons^ a white band, 
'extends from the white crown over the head and thence to the 
neck. 

1 Archiv. f. Anthropologic, 1883, 339, XIV. 
■^ American Museum of Natural History, No. 953. 
3 Ibid. No. 266 
< Ibid. No. 275. 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

In Lemur catta^ the prevalent color being squirrel gray, the white- 
color between the eyes unites with the color round the eyes and 
thence passes to the front of the neck. In another individual of the 
same species (No. 268) the crown remains black, while the rest of 
the collar is white. In Phoca fasciata a white band encircles the 
head and neck at the region of the auricle. 

It will be seen from these examples that the color of the vertex 
which may be defined as the crown of the head, excepting the mar- 
gin near the occiput, is often white ; that this color tends to pass 
down over the region of the ear to the neck, where it may unite 
with the white of the ventre and embrace more or less of the arm. 
With the exception of Phoca fasciata I have not met with this color 
mark outside of the Quadrumana. Within the group last named 
the band appears to be homologous with the hair of the crown and 
the whiskers of the human subject. In the Saki the color is black 
in this region and inclines forward to the submandibular growth 
or the beard proper. 

The abruptness of termination of the white patch on the crown as 
it approaches the occiput, appears to relate to the limitation of 
baldness of the human subject, and explains the common retention 
of hair at the line of the occiput. The occiput is under the control 
of the causes which maintain the body color as distinct fi*om that of 
the rest of the head. 

The Regions of the Special Senses — In addition to the dorsi-facial 
stripe in the carnivores and the "collar," the mammalian head dis- 
plays a very noteworthy feature in the retention of a contrasting- 
color to the prevalent one of the body, about the nostrils, the eye- 
lids and the auricles. Such a style of coloration is typically rep- 
resented in Ailuropus melanoleucus, in which form the body color is 
a dull white. According to Darwin^ the Himalayan rabbit at birth is 
white, but in the course of a few months it gradually assumes dark 
eyes, nose, feet and tail. The circumpalpebral black is found in many 
animals Avhen the ear is imi^erfectly pigmented, as in Didelphys and 
Solenodon. In Nycticehus javanicus the circle is brown. In Nycti- 
pitheciis and Loris the two circumpalpebral circles unite in a median 
dorsal line. In Nasua the circle is white. In Cercopithecus aethiops,. 
C. collaris and C. fuliginosus the eye-lids are white. In many dogs 
which are otherwise black or black and tan — a conspicuous black 

„ • 

1 Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 270. 

2 Animals under Domestication I, 109. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 97 

patch surrounds one eye and includes one or both ears. Such are fox 
terriers, bull terriers and bull dogs. The two patches of circumpal- 
pebral black may interrupt the dorsi-facial white stripe as is seen 
occasionally in the beagle. 

Both the eyelids and the auricle may be included in the same patch 
of black as is seen in many dogs especially in pointers. The same 
is noticed in the Japanese dog. This disposition leads the observer 
to note that the same black patch may extend still farther backward 
and be found on the sides of the body. A typical example of such 
an arrangement is seen in Myrmecoj^haga jubata. In Myrmccohius- 
the circle extends backward in a stripe. I have seen a similar stripe 
in the Scotch collie. In Procyon the patch is for the most part in- 
fra-orbital and extends backward to include the ear. In one of the 
many varieties of Mephitis the ear and auricle are included in a 
line of black, while the rest of the head is furnished with white lon- 
gitudinal stripes ; more commonly, however, the entire head is black 
exce])t a jugal stri})e which is white and extends down on the side.s 
of the trunk but inclining toward the dorsum as in Myrmecophaga. 
When the auricle is black the tip may be furnished Avith a pencil of 
white hairs which suggest the reversion to the plan of coloration de- 
scribed on page 88. 

The region of the nostrils or the muzzle is pigmented black in 
most mammals an exception being found in the Quadrumana as in 
Semnonith ecus nasalis. 

It is interesting to find that in the bull terrier the black may dis- 
appear in whole or in part from the muzzle. 

The special organs containing as they do black pigment often ap- 
pear to determine retention points of the same color at the periphery. 

The breaks in the circumpalpebral color determine the disappear- 
ance of the color from the region in hairless animals excepting the 
brov/ where it is apparently caused by the presence at that point of 
the circumorbital wart. The eyebrow in man is in reality a stripe 
which tends to pass backward in obedience to the tendency of the 
stripe in animals generally. 

But the direction taken by the eyebrow is not a guide to all the 
transitions in the form of the black about the eyes. A vertical 
black stripe extends from the eye to the mouth in the cheetah ( Cyn- 
cblurus jnhntus). The same patch includes the lip in some New 
Foundland and pointer dogs. 



/ 



D8 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

The auricle and the hair growing from it need not be entirely 
black. The margin only is black in the hoary bat (AtalajyJia cinerea) 
and in Dldelphys. The hair upon the auricle may be entirely white 
instead of black as in the North American badger (Taxiclea amer- 
icana). The base of the auricle may be alone covered with black 
hair as in the fox-terrier, or with tan as in the beagle. 

The auricular black in the dog may include the skin of the side 
of the head for a variable distance and may cross the vertex and be 
in common with the corresponding patch of the opposite side. This 
arrangement interrupts the dorsi-facial white stripe. Tlie appear- 
ance of black, tan or white spots on the vertex surrounded by patches 
of a contrasted color form "points" of breeding in some of the var- 
ieties of the dog.^ 

May it not be expected that a connection can be traced between 
the region of the obeleon and the pineal eye ? Embryology teaches 
that the j^resence of various color marks of the skin appear before 
many of the more important deej^jcr organs, and that the species 
to wdiich an embryo belongs can be determined before the genus. 
The occasional reappearance in the dog of a patch of pigment at 
the spot at which an organ of special sense appeared in a remote 
ancestor, but which has no functional expression in the living de- 
scendant, is in harmony with many of the conclusions drawn from the 
data presented in this paper. 

The Sides of the Body. — In Pecora tlie sides of the abdomen and 
chest are variously stripped and spotted when the body elsewhei'e, 
is diffei'ently marked. The young of the boar (Sus scroja) is striped 
on the body. Lateral stripes are also seen in Coelogenys, and 
in Tamias and Spermophilas. JNIany varieties of domestic cattle 
show white spots extending up from the sides of the body from the 
ventre to variable distances. 

Is it likely that the dorsal marks of the horse and carnivores, 
and the saddle marks of Thyalcinus, extending as they do downward 
are opposed in Pecora'^ by the disposition of ventral marks which 
extend upward? 

Nerve-Endings. — The white stripes on the foce in many South 
American bats, in Lophiomys, in Taxidea, and in some varieties of 
Mephitis, appear to be distinct from the simple contrast of color of 

' In a recent exhibition of dogs in Pliiladelpliia the vertex spot of the contrasted 
color was seen in the pointer, the Irish setter and the beagle each twice, in the 
spaniel and fox terrier each once. 

' An exception is seen in Antilope scriptus, which has white saddle marks. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 99 

the black of the special organ above mentioned. In the tiger's marks, 
as seen on the mnzzle, they are undoubtedly correlated to the distribu- 
tion of the infra-orliital nerves. It is probable that similar patches 
of color, either black or white, are related to similar causes. Among 
them may be mentioned the black oral angle in Felis onca, the white 
lips of Tapir pinchaque, and the black lower lip in some varieties 
of the bull terrier and the fox terrier. In the ground hackie 
{Tamias striata) I have demonstrated that the main longitudinal 
body stripe answer to the terminal filaments of the intercostal nerves 
and to those nerves which are in serial homology with them.^ I have 
found the spots on the fawn of the Virginian deer ( Cariacus virginia- 
nus) answer to the ])laces at which the cutaneous nerves pierce the 
fascia. 

The papilla on the flexor aspect of the fore-arm which is seen in 
the domestic cat, the sciurmorph and myomorph rodents, and in 
some of the lemurs, is furnished with bristle-like hairs with the ex- 
ception of the last named animals. It is supplied by a separate 
nerve in the domestic cat. The length of the hairs correlate with 
the length of the vibrissse of the labial set, and are used (as I have 
observed in the common mouse) for cleansing the face and especially 
in combinf;: the labial bristle?. J. Bland 8utton '^ found a small 
bristle-bearing wart on the flexor surface of the the fore-arm in 
Lemur catta, Ch irogaleus coquerli and Hapalemur griseus. No special 
pigment patches or hair clumps have been found associated with 
this papilla. 

The so called "chestnut" of the fore-leg of the horse is probably 
homologous with this growth. Owing to the changes in the limb 
coincident with the reduction of the toes the growth assumes a more 
posterior position. 

All warts and skin caruncles are best developed on the naked 
spaces at or near the margins of hairy surfaces. They are well seen 
on the margins of the regions of the whisker and the moustache in 
the human subject. They are found about the mandibles in the 
moose {Alces canadensis) and the hog. The same positions are 
seen occupied by warts in the bat where the face is sj^arsely haired. 
P. Michelson^ found warts on the margins of the pilose patches in 
trichosis circumscripta. 

^ Science 1887. 

2 Proc. Zool. Sue. Lond. 1887, 372. 

3 Virchow's Archiv. 1885, C, 66. 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Animals which are uniformly furred carry occasional warts on 
the face — one of these is always supra-orbital and another is on the 
cheek, and forms in the dog the so-called " kiss mark." It is often 
separately marked by tan in the black and tan terrier, when it con- 
stitutes a "point" for the breeders of this animal. 

Virchow' expresses the opinion that retention of lanugo upon the 
face may be confined to the distribution of the fifth pair of cranial 
nerves. 

Muscle-Regions. — The stripes and spots on the limbs and the dap- 
ple-marks on the trunk, as well as some of the broader sheets of color, 
appear to be related to the intervals between muscle-masses or to 
the extent of skin-sui'faces which corresponds to muscles. 

The depression between the radial and digital extensors in the 
Felidffl is often marked by a black stripe. Fells chaus of India ac- 
cording to Sir W. Elliot' exhibits a brown bar on the inside of the 
arm. This writer assumes that the mark is distinctive of the East 
Indian sj^ecies. I have seen a black mark in the same locality, in 
many examples of the varieties of the domestic cat in or near 
Philadelphia. 

The black mark on the front of the thigh in lemurs (see p. 93) is 
limited distally to the region of the tibia at which the gracilis, semi- 
tendinosus and sartorius muscles are inserted. The region of the 
back which answers to the lower trapezius sheet is abruptly outlined 
in pure black, in contrast to the white color of the loin and of the 
lower distal region, in Indris hrevimudaius? H. Ranke^ reports a case 
of trichosis circimiscripta, in which a patch yvns found in front of and 
below the right knee and a second over the front of the left knee. 
These marks may be held to be homologous with the distal ends of 
the black femoral stripe in Indris brevicaudatus .as already stated 
above. 

Regions which are rich in Seba and Moisture. — Eschricht^ called 
attention to the fact of the early appearance of the sebaceous glands 
in connection with the development and distribution of the hair. 
While the presence of seba is found associated with hair-growth 
the fact that some clumps of hair are found in regions which 
are especially rich in the secretions poured from the skin, form a 

I Berliner Klin. Wochenschr. 1873, No. 29. 

"^ Darwin, An. under Domestication. Eng. Ed. I. 44. 

3 Am. Mus. No. 260. 

^ Archiv. f. Anthropologie, 1883, taf. XIII. 

5 Miiller's Archiv. 1837, 44. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 101 

separate group of the localities which show special cjisposition to re- 
tain abundance of hair. Such regions are illustrated by the hairy 
warts about gular pouches, by the hair of the axilla, of the pudenda 
and of the perineum. 

The hair of the perineum is commonly distinctly colored in the 
dog and in some of the lemurs. The highly colored and vascular 
surfaces of the region of the perineum in the Cynopithecoids are 
probably created by the same cause. 

The hair of the external auditory canal is associated with ceruni- 
inous glands. The coarse hair at the base of the nipple may be 
included in the same category. 

I have found the wrinkles of the skin of the head of the wart-hog 
(^Phacochoerus aethyojncus) correspond to the black stripes seen in 
the zebra (Equus zebra). I have no proof, however, that this mark- 
ing is caused by influence of seba or of moisture. 

The roof of the mouth being black in many mammals induces the 
observer of pigment patches to include this region under the head- 
ing of the distribution of color marks on the general integument. 
It is interesting to note that the efforts of breeders to run out the 
black from the integument will often result in the loss of pigment 
from the roof the mouth. That the oral surface is capable of 
yielding special outgrowths which are comparable to those of the 
skin is shown in Balaena and many rodents. 

4. Effects of Age. — That the color marks of young animals 
frequently differ from the adult forms is a matter of common obser- 
vation. The relations existing between the young of one species and 
the adult form of others have been often observed but need further 
elucidation. The white collar at the base of the neck in some dogs 
is seen in the young form only of the bear. The change in the 
Himalayan rabbit from white, to white with dark markings has 
been already noted. 

The corresponding changes which take place in the animal in old 
age has received much less attention than it deserves. The few ob- 
servations I have made confirm the statements made elsewhere 
respecting the orientation of pigment patches. Horses often 
become gray in the circumpalpebral regions before they change 
elsewhere. An Italian gray-hound, which I have observed for a 
number of years, displays as it advances in senility a dorsal white 
stripe, a white star on the breast, a circumpalpebral gray patch and 



102 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

Avhite feet. In- a word the fawn gray of adult life turns to white in 
the same regions (with the exception of the tip of the tail and the tip 
of the ear) that an animal is apt to break from its prevalent color. 
(See p. 88) 

The loss of hair from the crown in man is the loss of tlie dorsal 
part of the "collar" of the Quadrumana as already mentioned on 
p. 95. 

The growth of the hair from the tragus in man is more decided in 
middle life than at an earlier period and turns gray at a later period 
than the whisker. 

5. BiLATERALiTY. The study of color marks in connection 
Avith the law of asymmetry yields many attractive results. Prof. 
Wm. H. Brewer^ found the white marks on the feet of horses more 
developed on the left than the right side. In Nyctipithecus I have 
found the left supra-orbital region white, and a white spot detected 
on the left cheek, while the remainder of the fur was gray. H. 
Ranke'' describes a case of trichosis circximscripta in which a pilose 
patch was seen on the left cheek in advance of the region of the 
whisker but none corresponding to it on the right. The left arm, 
according to R. Hilbert,^ may be alone pilose and a patch of icthyosis 
be confined to the shoulder of the same side. Dr. Henry H. Donald- 
son found as the result of many observations on the human subject 
in the south of Germany, the wart on the nasio-labial groove 
to be much more frequent on the left than the right side. He 
found a similar disposition in numbers of engraved portraits of 
distinguished men of all nationalities. I have frequently found the 
black circumpalpebral patch in the fox-terrier and the bull-terrier 
confined to the left side, or when the patches are found on both sides 
the left patch to be the larger. According to W. H. Flower* the 
color-marks of Lycaon are remarkable for being different on the two 
sides of the body. Prof Brewer states^ that in man the beard com- 
monly turns gray first on the left side. It cannot be a coincidence 
that the left side in all the above instances shows the greatest disposi- 
tion to variation. I have found a similar disposition to exist in the 
antlers of the Virginian deer. 

^ Proc. Am. Assn_ for Advancement of Science ISSl, XXX, 246. 

2 Archiv. f. Anthropologie 1883, XIV, 339. 

3 Virchow's Archiv.1885, XCIX, 569. 

* Article " Mammalia" British Encyclopedia, IX edition. 
5 1. c. 249. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 105 

Naevus bearing abundant growths of hair has been found by J, 
Nevins Hyde ^ confined to the left side of the body in tlie form of 
three bands which followed in the direction of the intercostal nerves; 
a fourth band extended from the perineum to the scrotum and 
penis. 

6. Antero-posterior Asymmetry. — The anterior half of the 
body may be disposed with reference to the color marks and the 
quantity or kind of hair, in a manner different from the posterior. 
This disposition is strikingly seen in many specimens of the tapir, 
the anterior part (with the exception of the lips which are white), 
being dark, while the posterior is white. In Hystrix the posterior 
half of the body alone bears the quills. In Phascolardos the poster- 
ior half of the body is white. In Hapale hicolor a similar coloration 
is seen. In Chrysochloris aurata the posterior half only of the body 
justifies the name. 

Concluding Remarks. — In reviewing the subject of the distribution 
of color marks in mammals it is evident that the causes of the ar- 
rangements are various, and do not admit of easy solution. The 
points which I have attempted to elucidate do not invalidate biolog- 
ical principles already established, while it must be acknowledged 
that some of them do not remain explained by these principles alone. 
That variations of deep lying structures will influence the periphery 
which over-lie them is a well established law. Illustrations are seen 
in the relations which exist between the true organs of generation 
and the skin coverings over them. It is but another application of 
the principle to find the sacral spot correlating to conditions of the 
neuro-enteric canal, and yet another in the skin about the nostril, 
the eye and the auricle remaining black because the true organs of 
olfaction, vision and audition also contain black pigment. The 
principle of antero-posterior symmetry — of bilateral symmetry and 
asymmetry are also illustrated. 

The general contrasts of the color marks of the head as opposed 
to those of the body, which are so common in parti-colored animals, 
may be explained by the enormous influence which the brain must 
exert over the nutrition of the entire region. That nerve-endings 
can influence the color of the integument near them is abundantly 
proven. From the lateral line of teleostean fishes to the ground 
hackie is a long series in which the influence of nerve endings on 
the sides of the trunk can be associated with color marks. Sebaceous. 

1 Chicago Med. Journ. and Examiner, Oct. 1877. 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

secretion and sweat conjoined with elevation of temperature appear 
to explain the retention of hair at the pudenda and axilla. Dr. Geo. 
Dimmick of Cambridge, Mass., has informed me that he has iuflu- 
-enced the arrangement of color marks on the elytra of Coceinella 
by varying the temjoerature to which the insects had been subjected. 
According to H. Pryer^ "temperature has a great evolutionary value 
in insects." 

That margins of nutritive regions afford the conditions favorable 
to the appearance of warts agrees with what is known in a osseous 
system Avith resi:)ect to erostosis and absorption. In a growing 
cranial bone I have found its greatest thickness in the position of 
its centre of ossific deposit ; in the adult bone the thickness is great- 
est at the margins. When sutures are well defined vascular activity 
is most marked along their lines. In atrophy an area of deficiency 
always occurs lying at a point somewhere between the centre of 
, ossification and the borders of the bone.^ 

It is probably in obedience to the same law that in baldness a 
lock of hair commonly persists at the bregma and in the upper part 
of the metopic line. With respect to skin folds it must he said that 
the disposition is caused primarily by the jDosition of the skeleton of 
the limbs to that of the trunk, head and neck. In Rhinoceros and 
Armadillo the folds answer pretty exactly to the divisions above 
named. But the folds on the side of the trunk between the limbs in 
Armadillo appear to be caused by muscular action if one can 
accept the conclusions drawn from the appearances seen in the in- 
stantaneous photographs of the hog as taken by j\Ir. IMuybridge.^ 

If motion can originate skin folds it can also determine color- regions, 
and the category of the pigment patches in the intervals between 
muscle-masses and the limitation of color-areas to muscle sheets be- 
come practicable.* 

The history of each mammalian embryo must present many phases 
of nutrition — especially of precocity and of retardation — which de- 
termine individuality. In a litter of two or more individuals the 
changes due to temperature, to motion, to rate of local blood iuter- 

1 Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, 489. 

2 Am. Journ. Med. Sci. 1870, 405. 

•* Photographs issued under the auspices of the University of Penna, series 673. 

i It is a tempting subject for study to elucidate the distribution of skin 
diseases I)y the application of the same methods undertaken in this essay. 
The margins of the areas of the lanugo, — the course of distribution of nerves or of 
vessels, the influence of the bone lying in close juxtaposition to the skin, the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPPIIA, 105 

clianoje must cause variations in the rates of growth in accession or 
repression of force which will call into activity one or more of the 
proclivities above named. The extreme variety of this individual 
experience doubtless explains, the great difference seen in the ways 
that animals are colored. 

The fact that coloration is limited, or that it is apt to be limited, 
to the points of convergence of Eschricht and Voigt would appear 
to be a tentative conclusion. The careful study of the peculiarities 
of the animals which are born naked would probably greatly 
strengthen it. 

I will conclude by making the suggestion that the distribution of 
color-marks along the directions already indicated is a larger phase 
of the subject of evolution than is outlined by "mimeticism" and by 
"natural selection." I assume that Ailuropus doeS not, for the reason 
that it cannot, change the black feet, the black auricle and the black 
circum-ocular region for one in harmony with the ground color, not- 
withstanding the disadvantage to which the contrast between the 
black and white subjects him. I also assume that the breeders of the 
dog cannot run out the black from the skin over the sacrum and 
the root of the tail with the same ease he can determine many other 
colors. According to natural selection and domestication the vari- 
ous regions above named explain the frequent occurrence of colors 
which are of great use to the individual but they often meet with 
abrupt limitation owing to the influence of deep-lying restraining 
causes. 



occurrence of acne pustules or syphilitic papules in positions in which the marginal 
warts occasionally appear, — the retention of the hair near the bregma and at the 
occiput m instances of loss of hair other than from age, can be noted in studying 
the distribution of eruptions upon the skin and of naevi as well as of color marks. 
But the field of observation is difficult when the conditions are often so fleeting. 
The impressions of a single observer are not sufficient to secure definite conclusions: 
For information, including literature of this phase of the subject, the reader may 
refer to the experimental researches of A. Irsai and V. Babesin i upon the influence 
of the nervous system upon the pathological conditions of the skin, and to T. 
S. Dowse on the nervous affections of the skin and its appendages.2 

1 Vierteljahresschr. f. Dermatol, u. Syphil. 1882, IX, 433. 

2 Med. Press and Circular 1879, I, 499. 



8 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



EESEARCHES UPON THE GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY OF NERVE 

AND MUSCLE. 

BY Dr. HENRY C. CHAPMAN AND Dr. ALBERT. P. BRUBAKER. 

No. 1. 

Electrical currents and Electro-motive force of Muscle and Nerve in 
frog. Whatever view may be entertained as to the nature of the 
electrical currents present in injured muscle or nerve, whether the 
same be regarded as pre-existing in the uninjured condition, or as 
being developed through injury, there can be no difference of opinion 
as to the fact that such currents exist, at least in the injured condi- 
tion. In as much,, however, as so far known to the authors of this 
communication, all researches hitherto undertaken with the object 
of demonstrating the presence of electrical currents in muscle and 
nerve, and of more particularly determining the electi-o-motive force 
of the same, have been made by Prof. Du Bois Reymond it does 
not appear superfluous to bring before the attention of the Academy 
the results of some recent investigations made by the authors in the 
Laboratory of Jefferson Medical College upon large specimens of our 
our common frog, Rana. Cateshiana. That the presence of electri- 
cal currents in nerve and muscle should have long escaped the notice 
of physiologists was doubtless due, not only to the imperfect forms of 
galvanometers formerly in use, but also to the fact of electrical cur- 
rents being developed whenever two electrodes were placed in contact 
with organic tissues. With the construction of delicate galvanom- 
ters, like those of Wiedemann, and of non-polarizable electrodes, that 
is of electrodes that will convey or divert an electrical current present 
in a muscle or nerve to a galvanometer, without generating one, it 
became possible to demonstrate without cavil that injured muscle and 
nerve are seats of electro-motive force. The instruments made use of 
in obtaining the results tabulated below, were of the convenient form 
devised for this purpose by Prof Du Bois Reymond,^ to whom this 
branch of science is so much indebted, and consisted of a Wiedemann 
galvanometer with telescope and scale, around compensator, mercurial 
keys and whippe and non-polarizable diverting cylinders and divert- 
ing vessels ^ the latter or non-polarizable electrodes being always 

1 Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Leipzig, 1875, Band I. 

2 A description of these instruments will be found in Chapman's Physiology 
1887, Chap. XXXVIII. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



107 



1888.] 

applied to the equator and transverse section of the muscle and nerve 
respectively. The methods made use of by the authors in determin- 
incr the electro-motive force of the gastrocnemius muscle and sciatic 
nerve of the frog as given in the synopsis below is essentially that of 

Scheme of Determination of Electro-Motive Force with 
Round Compensator. 
L 




IVII Wire of round compensator. 

N Number of its divisions 1000. 

L Resistance offered by same. 

S Switcher. 

K Key. 

D Daniell Element. 

W Resistance oflered by D IVII B P' D and by IVII F P' D. 

P' Whippe. 

B Coils. 

F Coils. 

Y" Commutator. 

G Galvanometer. 

E Electrodes. 

M Muscle or Nerve. 

K Key. 

Ill Wheel. 

1 Fractional portion of wire of compensator. 

n Number of the division necessary to compensate. 
PoggendorfF with the difference that the round compensator was 
used instead of the long rheocord. This method^ consists essentially in 

1 Du Bois Reymond, op. cit. S 257. 
Archiv fiir anat. u. Phys. 1885 S. 381. 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888^ 

shuntiug off from the circuit of a standard element, a Dauiell's cell 
for example,\vhose electro-motive force is kno\vn= 1 -08 Volt, an amount 
of current sufficient to neutralize or compensate the current deflect- 
ing the magnet, the latter due to the electro-motive force of the- 
muscle or nerve and which is to be determined. Thus, for example, 
let us suppose that the electrical current diverted by the non-polari- 
zable cylinders or electrodes, Fig. 1 (E) from the nerve or muscle (]\I)- 
to the galvanometer (G) be sufficient to deflect the magnet to an 
extent corresjjonding to 267 divisions of the scale. If now the 
compensator be moved so that the wheel III be opposite (n) 
for example, part of the current from the Daniell element will return 
through IVII F whence it came and part through III P" to the 
muscle (M) and, being in the reverse direction to that of the current 
from and due to the muscle, the magnet will be slowly brought back 
from the the 267th division of the scale to zero, the wheel III then 
standing at (n), or the 820th division of the wire of the compensa- 
tor, the latter (N) being divided into 1000 parts. Such being the 
case it is evident that the electro-motive force of the muscle or X is to 
that compensating it, or to (1), (the amount of the compensating 
force depending upon the resistance oflfered by the fractional j^or- 
tion of the wire L) as the electro-motive force of the Daniell element 
or (E) is to the whole resistance or W-fL, or more briefly: — 

X : 1 : : E : W+L 
or 

In as much, however, as the fractional portion of the wire (1) is to 
the number of its divisions or (n) as the whole wire (L) is to the 
number of its divisions X we shall have 

1 : n : : L : X 



1 



or 
nL 



X 

If now this value of 1 be substituted in equation (1) we shall 
obtain 

"^ - X (1 + W) X E (2) 
L 
and it only remains, n and X being known, to determine the ratio of 
W to L to obtain the value of X or the electro-motive force of the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 109 

-muscle as a fractional portion of E, the latter being the electro-motive 
force of a Daniell element. To accomplish this let the circuit M 
G P" IV III F' K M and the circuit D K I, III, IV II F F D, 
be opened and the circuit D S IV II B P' D offering a resistance 
W be closed, D being put in communication with IV by the 
switcher S, B being a coil of Avire offering the same resistance as 
F and brought sufficiently near the galvanometer G to slightly af- 
fect it, the intensity of the current will then be equal to the ratio of 

E . 
E to W or I = ^r^^ or if we call J the number of the divisions of the 

E 

scale corresponding to the deflection of the magnet, then J =^^ 

Let now D be put in communication by means of the switcher S, with 
I, the beginning of the wire of the compensatoi', that is the Cur- 
rent D K S I III IV II B P' D be closed and offering a resistance 
W+L, L being the resistance offered by the wire I II of the compen- 
sator, the intensity of the current will then be equal to the ratio of 

E 
E to W+L, that is I == „ or if we call J^ the number of divis- 

E 

ions corresponding to the deffection of the magnet, then J^= 



W+L 
or -jY= yr = T Y whence W^ — W+L or 



W+L 



W 1 J^ 



If now this value of _ be substituted in equation (2) we will obtain 

L 

X=^X^XE(3) 

in which equation 

X = the electro motive force of muscle. 

n = the number of divisions of the graduated scale of the wire 
of the compensator necessary for compensation. 

N == 1000 ; the number of divisions of the wire of the compen- 
sator. 

J = Number of divisions of scale corresponding to deflection 
of magnet excluding the wire of the compensator. 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888^ 

J^ = Number of divisions of scale corresponding to deflection; 
of magnet including the wire of the compensator. 

E = The electro motive force of the Daniell element. 
Substituting the value of n and of J and J' obtained experiment- 
ally as described above and equation (3) becomes: — 

820 90-81 

^~ 1000 ^90 ^ 
or 

X= -^j E = 0-0833 D. 

that is to say the electro motive force of the muscle or X that 
deflected the magnet to an extent corresponding to 267 dimensions 
of the scale is equal to 0"0833 of a Daniel element. 

Finally it will be observed that the graduating of the compensa- 
tor or the determining the amount of the iractional portion of the Dan- 
iell necessary to compensate the muscle current is accomplished imme- 

j ji I 

diately after compensating or before, since -^ j from (3) ~ 



N J ^ ' 10000 

of the Daniell, that is each division of the wire of the compensator 
at that moment switches oft* the roOToth of a Daniell and as it required 
820 such to compensate, yf f o o ^=t2 was the fractional portion of the 
Daniell element needed. It need hardly be added that in determin- 
ing the electro-motile force of a nerve, we proceed in exactly 
the same way except that we make use of the diverting vessels as 
electrodes instead of diverting cylinders. 

It may be mentioned incidentally that in all of the experiments 
performed in the above manner the telescoi)e and scale were 
placed at a distance of 2'5, met (8 feet) from the galvanometer, the 
coils lay close up to the magnet, that the temperature of the lab- 
oratory was about 70°F. (38-9 C) the season January and February, 
the time of day noon. The following table gives the results synop- 
tically arranged of 25 experiments performed upon the gastrocnemius 
of the frog and of 25 experiments upon the sciatic nerve of the same 
animal. Resuming, it will be observed that the average deflection 
of the magnet due to the electrical current of the muscle corresponded 
to 217 divisions of the scale, the electro-motive force causing the same- 
thc fith of a Daniell or 0'0696 D. a greater electro-motive force 
than that yet obtained, the same amounting according to Du Bois 
Key mond ^ to 0-035— 0-075 D. the mean of which is 0-055D. It juay 
be also mentioned incidentally in this connection that the electro- 

1 Op. cit. Band II, S. 243. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. Ill 

motive force of the semi-membrauous muscle was found in several 
instances to amount to as much as the j\ih. of a Daniell or 0*1 D. 
The deflection of the magnet due to the electrical current of the 
sciatic nerve corresponded on an average to 21 divisions of the scale, 
the electro-motive force giving rise to it to the ^th of a Daniell or 
0*0237 D. a result agreeing closely with that of Du Bois Reymond^ 
viz : — 0'022 D. In conclusion it is worthy of observation that the 
electro-motive of the muscle is more than three times as great as that 
of the nerve. 

Synopsis of results of observations upon the electrical currents and 
electro-motive force of muscle and nerve in frog. 

Gastrocnemius Muscle. 



Observation. 


Magnetic Deflection. 


Electro Motive Force. 


1 


186 div. 


of scale. 


0-0625 D. 


2 


141 


(( 




0-0666 


a 


3 


155 


(( 




0-0769 


a 


4 


170 


<( 




0-0714 


ii 


5 


190 


<( 




0-0588 


a 


6 


197 


a 




0-0666 


ii 


7 


165 


ti 




0-0714 


li 


8 


255 


ii 




0-0714 


ii 


9 


217 


i( 




0-0588 


li 


10 


225 


li 




0-0588 


ii 


11 


191 


Ii 




0-0555 


li 


12 


245 


ti 




0-0769 


ii 


13 


225 


a 




0-0625 


ii > 


14 


211 


li 




0-0769 


li 


15 


270 


ii 




0-0833 


it 


16 


266 


(I 




0-0625 


a 


17 


216 


ii 




0-0833 


a 


18 


267 


ii 




0-0833 


li 


19 


266 


a 




0-0833 


li 


20 


258 


a 




0-0833 


ii 


21 


207 


ii 




0-0625 


a 


22 


230 


a 




0.0588 


(t 


23 


200 


a 




0-0588 


a 


24 


225 


a 




0-0714 


a 


25 


260 


ii 




0-0769 


a 


mean = 


= 5438 
25 


= 217 div. 


1-7424 
25 


— 0.0696 D. 



iQp. cit. Band II, S. 250. 



112 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888. 





Sciatic Nerve. 




Observation. 


Magnetic Deflection. 


Electro Motive Fore 


1 


25 cliv. 


of scale. 


0-0277 D. 


2 


15 


i( 




0-0212 " 


3 


19 


(i 




0-0217 " 


4 


20 


il 




0-0222 " 


5 


30 


(( 




0-0333 " 


6 


30 


(< 




0-0333 " 


7 


27 


le 




0-03^3 " 


8 


28 


iC 




0-0333 " 


9 


19 


li 




0-0200 " 


10 


17 


a 




0-0208 " 


11 


19 


a 




0-0208 " 


12 


16 


a 




1-0180 " 


13 


17 


a 




0-0181 " 


14 


26 


iC 




0-0256 " 


15 


23 


(C 




0-0250 " 


16 


18 


l( 




0-0185 " 


17 


19 


a 




0-0185 " 


18 


22 


(C 




0-0185 " 


19 


27 


i( 




0-0294 " 


20 


15 


iC 




0-0181 " 


21 


18 


il 




0-0200 " 


22 


20 


iC 




0-0250 " 


23 


19 


a 




0-0192 " 


24 


20 


(I 




0-0263 " 


25 


24 


ic 




0-0270 " 


mean 


533 




21 


«f!!« 0-0237 D. 



25 



25 



1888.] NATURAL SCIKXCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 113 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF UNIONES FROM FLORIDA. 
BY BERLIN HART WRIGHT, PENN YAN, N. Y. 

TTnio Fryanus. Plate II, fig. 1. 

Sliell elliptical, very smooth, very inequilateral, substance of the 
shell thin, inflated in the umbonial region, beaks projecting very 
slightl}^ beyond the hinge line, ligament short, thin and light brown. 
Epidermis yellowish red and covered with liright green rays which 
are so thickly set upon the upper portion of the shell as to give that 
part, a bright green color: the young are of a bright shining green 
over the entire surface, the green being interrupted by heavy lines 
of growth of a light red color. Ligamental margin sub-angular 
before and slightly arched, posterior margin disposed to be slightly 
bi-angular and quite uniformly rounded above, anterior margin 
abruptly rounded ; basal margin uniformly rounded ; cardinal and 
lateral teeth double in the left and single in the right valves, the 
cardinal teeth short, oblique stout and crenulate, lateral teeth slightly 
and uniformly curved, dorsal cicatrices deep and slightly posterior 
to the cavity of the beak, anterior cicatrices slightly impressed and 
distinct. Nacre quite uniformly purplish. 
Diameter .60. Length 1.00. Breadth, 1.75 inches. 

Habitat. Lake Ashby, Volusia County, Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences. Phila. Newcomb Coll., Cornell Univ. 
National Museum, 

Remarks. This species is highly polished, and the young are 
rich in lustrous rays. The strongest affinity is with TJ. spams Lea. 
It approaches TJ. fuscatus Lea, but is thicker through the umbonial 
elevation, and the umbos are farther forward, and its valves thicker, 
heavier, and not so flat. The dorsal view shows it is enlarged anteriorly, 
while that of Juscatus is not so. It can not be mistaken for U. per- 
lucens or U. micans Lea. Abundant on the muddy bottom of the 
outlet of Lake Ashby, Volusia Co. Fla. 

Named for Mr. T. Marshall Fry, of Syracuse, N. Y. who is an 
enthusiastic collector and student of the Unionidse. 

TJnio Websterii Plate II, fig. 2. 

Shell oblong, inequilateral, considerably inflated, rounded at the 
sides, surface roughened by numerous obtuse irregular lines of 
growth, substance of the shell thin, ligamental margin moderately 
arcuate and rather short, posterior margin slightly biaugular, liga- 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

mental area narrow, umbonial slope subangular, anterior margin 
projecting and uniformly roimded, basal margin slightly and uni- 
formly curved. Epidermis reddish, interrupted by coarse, distant 
radiating lines of a blackish color. Greatest length near the 
middle of the shell, beaks eroded and ornamented Avith three to 
five radiating elevations. Umbos broad and rounded: nacre delicate 
flesh color to pink, usually clear, rarely mottled with waxy spots ; 
cardinal teeth disposed to be double in both valves, slender, ob- 
lique, long and delicately crenulate, lateral teeth long and heavy, 
curved; cavity of the beak deep and rounded, cavity of the shell 
deep, and occasionally the surface is interrupted with undulating 
ridges near the anterior portion of the cavity; dorsal cicatrices 
forming a continuous line extending from the base of the ])osterior 
cardinal tooth backward for one half inch and directly under 
the edge of the roof to the beak cavity; anterior cicatrices small, 
the superior one undermining the anterior portion of the cardinal 
tooth, posterior cicatrices confluent. 
Diameter 1^. Length 2.50. Breadth 4] inches. 

Habitat. Lake Woodruff^ Volusia Co. Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences. Newcomb Coll., Cornell L^niv. Na- 
tional Museum. 

Remarks. This is the largest Unio yet found in Florida waters. 
Its place is between JJ. Savamiahensis Lea and U. Mechlenhurgensis 
Lea. It is more inflated than the former, thinner, has more promi- 
nent and narrower beaks, higher and more rounded umbos, deeper 
and smaller anterior cicatrices and the teeth are lighter. 

We are pleased to name this species after our botanical friend 
Mr. Buchard Webster of Lake Helen, Florida, who, with his father, 
often made our collecting trips more pleasant. 

TJnio Waltoni. Plate II, fig. '.>,. 

Shell compressed on the posterior slope, transversely elongated, 
very inequilateral; valves rather tliin, beaks not prominent and 
eroded ; epidermis brownish black, apparently rayless, valves ante- 
riorly rounded and oblique upward and sharply angled above, obtusely 
rounded behind ; cardinal teeth nodulous, small, complex and serra- 
ted; lateral teeth lamellar and slightly curved upwards; nacre purple. 
Basal margin very nuich excurvated. 

Diameter 1.00. Length 1.50. Breadth 4 inches. 

Habitat. Lake Woodruff, Volusia Co., Florida, 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sci. Newcomb Coll. Nat. Mus. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 115 

Remarks. This species has the general form of U. Emmonsii Lea, 
and is more in affinity with that species, than with U. Shepherdianus 
Lea. The former is a much heavier species, and with coarse heavy 
teeth. U. Shepherdianus Lea, is deeply emarginate on its basal 
margin, and the sides of its valves are very much constricted ob- 
liquely from its projecting umbos down, while U. Waltoni, is very con- 
Tea; in its basal Jiiargiu and its umbos not projecting, and its anterior 
end very obliquely rounded, instead of evenly rounded, and a thin 
shell. It can not be confounded with U. perlatus, Lea, though the 
obliquity of the anterior end is much alike in both. It is witli much, 
pleasure that we name this curious species, after Mr. John Walton, 
a zealous and working conchologist, and artist of Rochester N. Y. 

TJnio Dorei. Plate III, fig. 1, 

Shell ovate, heavy; polished, rayless; epidermis reddish, with 
brownish colored elevations or growth-ridges; beaks blunt and mas- 
sive, dorsal margin very broad, short and slightly arched; posterior 
margin quite straight; Umbonial angle sharp and supplemented by 
two parallel elevations which are more or less broken by undulations; 
basal margin slightly rounded, anterior margin truncate and angu- 
lated above; cardinal teeth with a tendency to being double in both 
valves, very massive, smoothish; lateral teeth very long, heavy and 
uniformly curved; nacre a rich salmon color; cavity of the beaks 
almost wanting: of the shell considerable. Named for Mr. H. E. 
Dore, and enthusiastic collector of mollusca of Portland Oregon. 

Diameter 1.25. Length 1.6. Breadth 2.60 inches. 

Habitat. Lake Monroe, Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Sciences ; Coll. B. H. AV right. 

Bemarks. The affinity of this species is with U. Conasaugaensis 
Lea, but the teeth differ, the umbos of the latter are not so broad 
and blunt, anrl are farther from the anterior end, and has a white 
nacre. Tliere is much disparity between it and U. Bucklyi Lea. 

Unio Averellii. Plate ITI, fig. .1. 

Shell obovate, thin, fragile, slightly inflated, inequilateral, smooth^ 
polished, interrupted by numerous green capillary rays arranged in 
fascicles which are narrowest at the anterior end of the shell, and broad- 
en gradually until near the umbonial angle where they merge together, 
giving the posterior portion of the shell a dark green color; epider- 
mis yellowish; beaks flattened, rather blunt, slightly and coarsely 
undulated; dorsal margin nearly straight; ligament short, horn 
colored, thin; anterior margin short and gracefully rounded; posterior 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

margin bluntly rounded, basal margin witli a tendency to emargina- 
tion in old females; quite uniformly curved in males; greatest 
diameter near the middle of the ligament, greatest length at posteri- 
or end of dorsal line; cardinal teeth double in both valves, compress- 
ed, very oblique, crenulate, the anterior tooth in the right valve is 
much the smaller, as is the posterior one of the left valve; lateral 
teeth single in the right and double in the left valve, curved and 
slender; nacre light purple and spoted with a few dark-waxy spots; 
•dorsal cicatrices two to four and in a diagonal row from the base of 
the anterior cardinal tooth across the centre of the cavity of the 
beak, anterior cicatrices distinct and well impressed. 

Diameter .8. Length 1.2. Breadth 2i inches. 

Habitat. Lake Ashby, Volusia County, Florida. 

Museum Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Newcoml) Coll., Cornell Univ. 
Nat. Museum. 

Remarks. This delicate species, is possibly related to U. jjapyra- 
cem Gould. But Dr. Gould in his description of that species, says 
that "it resembles Anodonta Coujoeriana Lea, in shape, delicacy and 
even color." 

But there is nothing in U. Averellii to remind one of An. Coiqjeri- 
ana Lea. It has the outline of U. occitltus Lea, but its affinity is 
with U. rutilans Lea, but differs in being very thin, almost paper- 
like, less blunt at each end, and without a depressed area at the 
anterior ligament. Named for Mr. Wm. D. Averell publisher of 
the Conchologist's Exchange, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Unio Nolani. Plate IV, fig. 1. 

Shell wide, smooth, rather thick, beautifully polished throughout, 
and entirely covered with heavy greenish rays; epidermis yellowish 
and often olivaceous ; dorsal margin arcuate, anterior margin grace- 
fully and perfectly rounded, l)asal margin subemarginate, posterior 
margin uniformly rounded from the end of the ligament to the base 
with no tendency to biaugulation; umbonial angle flatly rounded; 
umbonial slope flattened, depressed in the middle; beaks small, 
pointed, undulated, and rather prominent; cavity of the shell small ; 
cardinal teeth heavy, erect, grooved, double in the left and single in 
the right valve ; lateral teeth curved, heavy and much roughened ; 
nacre beautiful pink and iridescent. 
Diameter .9 Length 1.5. Breadth 3 inches. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences. My own cabinet. 

Habitat: A creek flowing into St. John's River, near Palatka, Fla. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF nilLADELPHIA. 117 

Bemarhs. This beautiful shell was found by Mr. J. B. U})sor/ 
several years ago. Its affinity is with U. cornetts Lea, and witli C7. 
Fostellii Lea. From the hitter itdifiersin not having a striated and 
scaly epidermis, and in not having thick, but con;pressed cardinal 
teeth. The former has much heavier teeth, the groove of the lateral 
teeth being shorter and much farther from the cardinal teeth, and 
the beaks farther from the anterior end, and the post-ligamental area 
much more conspicuous. It can not be taken for U. jAan'dateris 
Con. which has a stramineus epidermis. 

We name this peculiar species for Dr. Edw. J. Nolan, Librarian, 
to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Unio Hinkleyi. Plate IV, fig. 2. 

Shell oblong, trapezoidal, attenuated and pointed behind, smooth,, 
slightly inflated, and often flatish ; rather thin, polished above. 
Epidermis black, thickly covered with brown, indistinct fine rays, 
visible with transmitted light. Posterior margin subemargiuate, 
raised into a compressed wing. Anterior margin rounded and slightly 
oblique. Dorsal margin a slightly arched curve. Basal margin, 
slightly convex. Umbonial slope raised and obtusely rounded^ 
Cardinal teeth compressed, thin, very oblique and grooved, double 
in both valves. Lateral teeth very long, slender and undvdating, 
nearly straight. Dorsal cicatrices four or more in one or two 
rows. Nacre pinkish, and iridescent. Umbonial region broad and 
blunt, very slightly projecting, but often deep. 
Diameter 1.00. Length 1.50. Breadth 3.00. 

Habitat. Lake Monroe, Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences. National Museum. 

Remarks. In outline this species is similar to that of U. deelivis- 
Say, but its black epidermis, its pinkish or purplish nacre, readily 

distinguishes it from that species. 

It is dedicated to Mr. A. A. Hinkley, of Dubois Illinois, an ac- 
tive collector of Unionidse. 
Unio Simpsoni. Plate V, fig. 1. 

Shell oblong-ovate, pointed behind, and often very slightly unci- 
nate below the point, inequilateral, remarkably smooth and polished. 
Valves thin, slightly inflated, and rarely with a few coarse, perpen- 
dicular, impressed grooves near the centre. Sometimes the valves 
are very flat. Ligamental margin higher behind, and straight 
or slightly arched. Posterior slope biangular below, straight or 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

slightly emarginate, and raised into a distinct and angled carina, 
which is thin and compressed. Ligamental area often with several 
small plicfe. The posterior end is generally sharply compressed 
above and below, giving it a lance-shaped and ancipital appearance. 
Urabonial ridge depressed, narrow, and rounded. Anterior margin 
rounded and slightly oblique, basal margin convex. Epidermis 
yellowish-brown or olive colored, or even bright green, with slender 
green rays in uneven fascicles, or rayless and reddish-brown all over. 
Umbos very much flattened, and beaks very small and pointed, hav- 
ing a few concentric folds. Cavity of the beaks nearly obsolete. 
Dorsal cicatrices small and deep. Cardinal teeth oblique and very 
small. Lateral teeth long, thin, undulated and nearly straight. 
Nacre salmon or purple, or both mixed. Shell darker behind and 
at the base. 
Diameter .75. Length 1.12. Breadth 2.30 inches. 

Habitat. Lake Woodruff', Volusia Co., Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences. Cornell University. National Mus. 

lieinarks. The left beak is often shorter than the other. Its affin- 
ity is with U. viridicatus Lea, which has much larger cavities under 
the beaks, the lateral teeth coarser and not undulating and the an- 
terior end not obliquely rounded, and is not rayed. It cannot be 
mistaken for U. Jayanus Lea. We have great pleasure in dedica- 
ting this species to Mr. Charles T. Simpson of Ogallala, Nebraska, 
who has done very much in studying the mollusca of Florida. 

Unio Marshii. Plate V, fig. 2. 

Shell somewhat narrow-elliptical, transverse, veutricose and very 
inequilateral, smooth, incremental lines close and slightly raised. 
Substance of the shell rather thin, and of very uniform thickness; 
swollen in the umbonial region ; umbonial slope rounded ; posterior 
slope compressed and rounded ; dorsal margin nearly straight ; an- 
terior margin abruptly rounded ; basal mai'gin much excurvate and 
slightly constricted near the posterior extremity ; posterior margin 
bluntly rounded and emarginate above ; turned up, raised into a 
very small, depressed, and thin carina. Beaks blunt, broad, with- 
out concentric undulations but possessing three or four raised, radiat- 
ing lines; epidermis remarkably thin, reddish brown below and green- 
ish above, indistinctly and closely rayed over the anterior portion, and 
very darlc or black on the posterior slope; nacre, a beautiful salmon 
varying to ])urple ; cardinal teeth compressed, erect, striate, very 
oblique and disposed to be double in both valves ; lateral teeth long. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIEKCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 119 

solid and curved ; dorsal cicatrices four, well impressed and situated 
under the base of the anterior end of the lateral teeth which continue 
almost to the cardinal teeth. 
Diameter 1.3. Length 2.00. Breadth 3| inches. 

Habitat. Lake Woodruff, Volusia Co., Florida. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phihx. Coll. of Berlin H. Wright and 
]\rr. W. A. Marsh, Aledo, Illinois. 

Remarks. This species, though belonging to the Buckleyi group, 
has specific characters distinguishing it from U. Buckleyi Lea ; the 
adult is very excurvate on the basal margin, has a very smooth and 
polished epidermis, filled with obscure rays, the anterior end being 
directed obliquely upwards, characters not pertaining to adult U. 
Buckley i. The symmetry of the dorsal and basal curves is peculiar, 
being in this character like the same curves of U. symmetricus Lea. 
Its affinity is with U. Buddianus Lea, differing in the teeth and 
other characters. Dedicated to Mr. Wm. A. Marsh, of Aledo Illinois, 
an amateur of the Unionidae. 

TJnio Dallii. Plate VI, fig. 1. 

Shell ovate, pointed and flattened behind, the point being directed 
downward, in an uncinate manner. Polished above, and lustreless 
below, valves not thick, thicker before, epidermis black, rayless, 
with numerous strise of scaly plicss below the umbonial region. Lig- 
amental margin much arched, with an angle at each end. Posterior 
margin usually slightly and evenly convex. Basal margin emar- 
ginate near the posterior end, anterior margin nearly truncated, or 
abruptly rounded. Umbonial slope very depressed, obtuse and 
scarcely carinate, and the sides of the valves are decidedly flattened 
just forward of the umbonial slope. Greatest diameter in the mid- 
dle of the shell. Umbos broad and flattened, obtuse, projecting, 
and vei'y much eroded. Sides with numerous close coarse lines of 
growth. Nacre salmon or pink, varying to copper color, iridescent 
and usually with wax-colored spots, which often are confluent and 
cover the interior. Cavity of the shell, and of the beaks shallow. 
Lateral teeth long, heavy and much curved. Cardinal teeth coarse, 
deep, divergent. Anterior cicatrices distinct, the . larger are deep. 
Posterior cicatrices confluent, well impressed. The type specimen 
is about two-thirds the full size. 
Diameter 1.00. Length If. Breadth 1h inches. 

Habitat. Lake Beresford, Volusia Co., Florida. 

Mus. Acad. TSTat. Sciences. Newcomb Coll. National Museum. 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Bemarl:^. Tliere is an iiffinity of this species 'svith U. venustus 
Lea, but is more comjiressed behind and is larger. It has been 
largely distributed as U. Bnck/eyi, thus causing much confusion as 
to what the latter really i'^. U. Buchleyl Lea, is more pointed be- 
hind, not uncinate there nor emarginate on the basal margin. Its 
umbos are farther forward and less elevated. Its greatest diameter 
as Avell as greatest length, is just behind the beaks, while in XJ.DalUi 
the greatest length is through the summit of the umbo 



It is named for Mr. W. H. Dall of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Unio Tryoni. Plate VI, fig. 2. 

Shell wide, narrow-elliptical, compressed posteriorly, thin, polished 
above. Umbos slightly elevated, the beaks being close to the ante- 
rior end, and in the young undulated ; epidermis brownish or grayish 
black, raised into numerous fine scaly stride, roughish, rayless, or with 
some capillary obscure rays near the centre of the valves. Dorsal 
margin straight, posterior margin bluntly rounded or truncate, and 
triangular ; often subemarginate above, basal margin slightly convex, 
anterior margin broadly rounded. Cardinal teeth of the left valve 
are long, erect and widely separated to receive the single wide tooth 
of the right valve. The anterior tooth is shorter and less pointed 
than the posterior one, and the lattq;.' is curved upward. Lateral 
teeth very long, rather slender and nearly straight. Nacre livid or 
light salmon colored and often with several dark-brown circular 
spots. Cavity of the beaks very shallow. 
Diameter 1.25. Length 1.75. Breadth 4 inches. 

Habitat. Lake Woodruff, Volusia Co., Florida, near De Leon 
Springs. 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences. Newcomb Collection. National Mus. 

BemarJcs. This species is much thinner and lighter than U. Oc- 
mulgeensis Lea, with Avhich there is the affinity of outline. It is 
much narrower than U. Buddkmus Lea, and its cardinal teeth are 
not oblique as in the latter. It is lighter, more rounded before and 
more attenuated behind, and has a much shorter hinge line. Some 
forms of it approach U. Jayanus Lea. 

It gives us much pleasure to dedicate this species to the late Mr. 
Geoi-ge W. Tryon Jr., author of " Manual of Conchology" and other 
conchological works. 



Proc.Acad.Nat.Sci.Phila.1888. 



P1.L 




Hartman on Achatmella. 



Proc.AcaclNat.Sci.Phila.1888. 



pi.m. 





lob. 




2 ex. 




1 f *,-^ A \ a ^ ^^ X. 




Wright on New Lfniones. 



Proc.Acad.Nat.Sci.Phild.1888. 



/ 



\'^' 

>«". 



^ 




pi.iv: 




la. 




2 OL. 




^ ~,ii!r!Vj,^5jg«5^.-'<^'-»'-. 



V/ri gh t on PF e v/ Un i o n e s. 



Pro c.Acad.NatSci.Phila. 1888. 



PIV, 





W ,J hl>- 



fir: f;< ^t' 



.sUf-'^^-^ 



Wright on PFewUniones. 



Proc.Acad.NatSc:i.Phila.l( 



o o .;_i 



PlVl 




__..„> 



la. 




^'^^t 




cL. 



Wright on 'NewUniones. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 121 

March 6. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

Action of Hydrofluoric Acid on a Sphere of Quartz. — Dr. Otto 
Meyer reported an experiment, which he had undertaken in con- 
nection with Mr. Sam'l. L. Penfield. A sphere of quartz was sub- 
jected to the action of hydrofluoric acid for more than two months. 
The acid dissolved the quartz, princii^ally in the direction of the 
main axis and thus flattened the sphere. In the direction of the 
lateral axes the etching action proceeded with much less activity and 
at three places on the periphery the acid had not eaten away any of 
the material, but left the original surface of the sphere intact. These 
three places were situated at one end of each of the lateral axes, the 
result being a triangular disc. This experiment shows that a mineral 
may be soluble in a liquid in certain directions and on certain planes 
while at the same time insoluble in other directions and on other 
planes. Dr. Meyer exhibited the result, the object resembling a 
three cornered lens. — A more detailed account will be given else- 
where. 

Remarks on the Phylogeny of the Lamellihranchiata. — Dr. Ben- 
jamin Sharp brought forward some points regarding the classifica- 
tion of the Lamellihranchiata, and stated that in considering this 
group, a diversity of type was to be found that is equal to, if not 
greater than that found in any class of the animal kingdom, with 
the possible exception of the Hexipoda. 

In examining the different forms, he pointed out two well marked 
extremes, Ostrea and Aspergillum. In the former as is well known, 
the two large unequal shells entirely cover the body, and they are 
closed by one large muscle, the adductor. The large and important 
organ, so common in the Lamellihranchiata generally, the foot, is 
entirely absent. The mantle edges are separated for nearly their 
whole extent, and there is no indication whatever of the mantle 
uniting to form a siphon. 

In Aspergillum, on the other hand, the two shells are so diminu- 
tive, that they only cover an exceedingly small area of the animal's 
body, the siphon is enormously developed, and it is protected by a 
secretion of carbonate of lime, in which the shells are immovably 
embedded; the mantle is closed throughout its entire length, except 
at the anterior end, where there is a minute opening, and at the 
mouths of the two siphonal tubes. 

His object in making the communication was to prove that these 
two very marked and different types of Lamellihranchiata arose 
9 



X 



/■ 



122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888« 

from a coinmou or what might be called a central type, and that a 
divergence from some cause set in, producing on one side the Ostrea,. 
and on the other the AsperglUum. 

As regards the whole class, he said there is no doubt, in his mind 
at least, that it is a degenerate one. ^lany anatomical and embryolog- 
ical facts, as Avell as their life habits, point to this, it being an acknow- 
ledged fact that fixed or stationary animals are as a rule deg-enerate. 
The loss of the head in all adult forms, the presence of eyes in the 
head area of some free swimming embryos, and their later total dis- 
appearence, are some facts that point unquestionably to the degenerate 
condition of the whole group. 

As to the facts of geology pointing to this conclusion, he quoted 
from Prof. Heilprin's work on the "Distribution of Animals," p. 265. 
"Almost everywhere, the Cephalophora, or head-bearing mollusks, 
antedate by one full period the Acephala, or headless forms, which 
indisputably represent a lower grade of organism." By considering 
the group as degenerate, the conditions of the case are answered, for 
the Lamellibranchiata certainly came off* from the Gastropoda, after 
the latter had become W'cll established, as the anatomical and embry- 
ological facts show, and the geological evidence would seem to 
indicate this to be the case. 

Assuming then, that the Lamellibranchiata have come off" from 
the Gastropoda, Dr. Sharp then considered what was the form of the 
primitive type. It probably had a more or less developed foot, an 
organ that is present in all the Gastropoda, that it possessed gills on 
each side of the foot, that the mantle edges were separate and that 
two adductors were present of about equal size. This type has sur- 
vived to the present day and, according to Lankaster (Art. Mollusca, 
Brit. End. jd. 685), is represented by forms like Nucida and Trigo- 
nia. The former belongs to the family Arcidae {Glaus) which 
is the oldest type that we know of, being found in the Silurian and 
Devonian. The shells of this' family are equal ; the adductor mus- 
cles of the same size, the mantle free, not being closed to form 
tubes like a siphon, foot well developed. The fulcrum of the shell 
is about equi-distant from the adductoi's. In following one branch 
from this toward Ostrea, it is found that one muscle, the anterior, 
gradually gets smaller, as is the case in Mytilis, and exceedingly 
small in Pinna, until in Ostrea but one muscle is present. From 
the fact that in this advance the animal becomes more and more 
fixed first by a secretion of the foot, the byssus, then by the shell it- 
self, the foot gradually is less and less used as an organ of locomo- 
tion, until it entirely disappears in Ostrea. The retractor muscles of 
the foot, now practically useless organs, are however, still present. 

The loss of one adductor muscle can probably be referred to me- 
chanical causes. In studying the change of relation of the fulcrum 
to the adductors, he found that as the fulcrum moved forward (an- 
teriorly) it increased the distance from the posterior, and lessened the 
the distance from the anterior muscle. As this took place, the muscle 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 123 

farthest from the fulcrum was always the larger, in fact it must of 
necessity be so, as more power was needed at this point, while the 
near one, from tlie fact that it does not require much power, dimin- 
ishes in size. In Pinna, one muscle is very much, in fact four or 
five times, larger than the other ; the smaller being close to the apex 
of the shell, in other words, close to the fulcrum. 

As the fulcrum passes still farther forward, a point is soon reached 
wdien both muscles come in line with the fulcrum, the larger one in 
this case takes all the work from the smaller one, which from its now 
useless position degenerates to disappearance. 

A proceedure from regular to irregular shell is to be seen in the 
fresh water forms. Unio, he held, is probably a fresh water Mijtilis^ 
which does not have any byssus present in the adult, but has one in 
the embryo. A form that closely resembles the oyster can be trac- 
ed through Aetheria to Muellerla, the so-called fresh-water oyster. 
The later has both adductors ill the embryo, but only one, like 
Ostrea, in the adult. 

In passing now in the other direction, Dr. Sharp pointed out the 
stages connecting the central type to the extreme in AspergUlum. 

In passing out from the central type, the Areas, the group known 
as the Syphonata appear, where besides the large foot, it is found 
that the aboral portion of the mantle has united at two or three 
points, forming one or two tubes. In some forms of Lucina, by the 
union of the mantle a single tube is formed, the so-called anal siphon, 
Avhich corresponds to the superior one when two are present ; through 
this passes the water outwards, the inflowing water passing in through 
the large space between the mantle edges, as in the asiphonated 
forms. In this form of Lucina, specialization has only determined 
the direction of the out-flowing current, which carries off the deoxy- 
genated water and the excreta. 

In Cardium the siphon is made up of two tubes; in other words, 
the ingoing and outgoing currents are now determined. The edges 
of the mantle commence to adhere, leaving room only for the pro- 
trusion of the foot. In Venus the arrangement is practically the 
same: — a well developed siphon, large wedge-like foot, which is a 
locomotor organ, a shell entirely covering the animal when it is 
closed and two well developed adductors, equal in size. The speciali- 
zation in this line of development is in the direction of the siphon 
and closure of the mantle. ATija would represent a form, leading to 
Solen, here the siphon is large, the mantle more or less adherent, 
but the foot has degenerated to a useless organ and the form of the 
body still some what resembles Vemis, the shell, however, gaj)ing at 
the aboral or siphonal end. 

In Solen the edges of the shells cannot be brought together, or 
they gape, as it is said. In this form the neAv type has become es- 
tablished, and the animal resembles a cylinder ; the large siphon fills 
up the aboral or gaping portion of the shell, while the boring foot 
fills up the oral pole of the, shell, the mantle being nearly closed 
between the foot and the siphonal openings. 



12-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The shells of Maelia are small for the body, and the siphons are 
so large that they cannot in any way be drawn into the shell, a large 
portion of the mantle also is without the limits of the shell, so that 
the edges of the shell do not even touch in life. 

In Teredo, no hinge teeth are present, nor is even a ligament formed, 
an organ that is present in all other Lamellibranchs, except the 
members of this family and the next one to be considered ; besides 
this a new element is found, namely accessory shell pieces. The 
enormously developed siphon, is four or five times the size of the 
rest of the body. The mantle edges are firmly united except at the 
oral pole where the boring foot protrudes, and at the openings of 
the siphon. The true shells as well as the accessory pieces are 
movable, that is, not united with the calcareous secretion of the 
mantle. 

In GastrocJiaena the shells are very small, but still movable, the 
animal being enclosed in a calcarfous shell, the secretion of the 
siphon. In Clavagella, a similar form, one shell is welded to the 
siphon shell, the right one only being free, and in the extreme form 
of Aspergillum, both shells are immovably fixed in the shelly tube 
that encloses the animal. 

The fresh-water forms Cyclas, Cyprina etc., are probably related 
to Cardiimi and have received their new forms by moving into fresh 
water. 

In summing up. Dr. Sharp showed two branches in the Lamelli- 
branchiata, one going off from a form related to Area the other 
toward Ostrea, the fulcrum moving from a position between tlie two 
equally large adductors, toward the oral pole of the body. This 
brought the anterior adductor in a line with the fulcrum and poste- 
rior adductor, where, being of no use, it disappeared. 

In the other direction, development is in the antero-posterior 
direction, the shell, however, not taking part in the growth until a 
form is reached where the shell is exceedingly small and the animal 
protected by a supplementary deposit of carbonate of lime. 



March 13. 
Mr. Charles Roberts, in the chair. 
Seven persons present. 



March 20. 

The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 

Habit of Oirolana concharum. — Prof. Leidy said that he yesterday 
went to Atlantic City, in the expectation of finding interesting speci- 
mens cast ashore in the recent storm; biit there proved to be nothing. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 12.5 

He picked up a few recently dead Lady-crabs, Platyonichus oceUafus, 
and found in them a number of the Cirolana concharum, feasting- 
upon tlie flesh and other parts, as he had previously noticed them 
feeding on the edible crab. See page 80. From these observations 
it would appear to be the usual habit of the Cirolana to i^rey on 
dead crabs and j^robably other animals. 

Parasites of the Striped Bass. — Prof. Leidy exhibited numerous 
specimens of a minute crustacean parasite from, the gills of the Striped 
Bass or Rock-fisl), (Lahrax litieatus), brought to our market. He 
said it is a common parasite and he had been familiar with it since 
1851. It was described by the Danish naturalist. Dr. Henrik 
Kro3"er, under the name ot Ergasiluf< labricis, obtained from the same 
fish at Baltimore, (Danske Naturh. Tids. 1868-4, 303, Tab. xi, fig. 2). 
Common as it seems to be Mr. R. Rathbun, in his published list of 
the parasitic Cojiepoda from American waters, says he had not ob- 
served it, (Proc. U. S. Nat. ^NIus. 1881, 483). The little crustacean 
lives suspended on the outer surfaces of the gills, where it is conspic- 
uous, from the white color of its thorax and egg-pouches on the red 
cohjr of the gills. The length of the parasite together with its egg- 
pouches is 2-125 mm; without the latter 1*25 mm. 

Prof. Leidy further exhibited portions of two intestines of the 
same fish with numerous attached worms pertaining to Echiuorlnjn- 
chiis proteus, which infested many fishes, both of fresh and salt water, 
of Europe. It is not only a frequent and abundant but a constant 
parasite of our Striped Bass. It ranges from 5 lines to an inch in 
length. The young ones are white; the older have the body yellow, 
bright orange, or brownish orange, with a white neck and proboscis, 
which together are one fourth the entire length. Diesing attributes 
to the ])r()l)oscis 8 to 10 rows of hooks, but Dujardin gives double 
the number, and this accords with the condition observed in our 
specimens. The parasite lives in the large intestine with the pro- 
boscis and neck together embedded in the wall and the body sus- 
pended in the cavity. The proboscis and bulbous commencement 
of the neck together protrude externally and form on the outside 
of the intestine brown pyriform tumours, giving to the organ a 
peculiar tubercular appearance. The worms exhil)it the following 
characters: Body widest at the commencement, where it is rounded 
and slightly constricted from the rest, which tapers to the posterior 
obtuse end. Proboscis cylindrical but expanded at the middle and 
base. Neck verv lono:, bulbous at the commencement becominsc 
narrow and cylindrical and a little dilated at the base; smooth 
throughout. Length of a large one 24 mm ; proboscis and neck 6 
mm ; proboscis 1-25 mm long, 0-175 thick, 0-25 at middle expansion ; 
bull) of the neck 1 mm, narrow part below 0'375 thick, at base 0'5 
thick. Body at com.mencemeut 2 mm thick, near posterior end 
1 mm thick. 



126 proceedings of the academy of [1888. 

March 27. 

The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-tive persons present. 

A paper entitled "Notes on the Myology of Ursus maritimiis," 
hj Edw. A. Kelly, was presented for ^publication. 

Trematodes of the Mushrat: — Prof. Leidy stated that in the collec- 
tion of the Academy there is a vial labelled "worms from the duo- 
denum of the Muskrat." There are 25 worms, and in their present 
condition they are pale brown bordered by dark brown, and measure 
from 12 to 18 mm long by 1 to 1"5 mm broad. If -not identical, 
they are closely allied to Distomum echinatuni, which in the mature 
state lives in ducks and other water birds and in the larval state 
in fresh water snails. The Muskrat eats the latter so that it may 
likewise become infested in the same manner as the ducks and this 
would also seem to make it probal)le that the parasite is the same. 
Dujardin, Wedl, and others describe D. echinatuin as having the 
fore-})art of the body echinate, which is not the case with the Distome 
of the Muskrat, though in both the head is armed in the same 
manner and with the same number of spines. Its characters are as 
follow. 

Body long, flattened, baud-like, with the neck tapering and the 
tail obtusely rounded. Head reniform, with a coronet of strong- 
straight spines, from 30 to 36. Ventral acetabulum much larger than 
the head, situated at the base of the neck a short distance behind 
the latter, spherical. Body of nearly uniform width. Oral aceta- 
bulum small; pharynx oval; intestines simple and narrow. Genital 
orifice immediately in advance of the ventral acetabulum; cirrus 
exsert to one side, curved and smooth ; testes situated almost mid- 
way between the ventral acetabulum and tail; oviducts median be- 
hind the ventral acetabulum ; ova oval, yellow; vitelline glands large 
and conspicuous, racemose, extending along the intestines from the 
ventral acetabulum to the end of the tail. 

Plead 0"5 to 0'6 broad; spines about 0"1 long by 0*02 thick; oral 
acetabulum 0-25 ; pharynx O'o long, 0'225 wide; ventral acetabulum 
0"875 to 1-25 mm. Ova 0*1 long by 0-072 broad. 

Since the above communication a collection of worms, from the 
small intestine of a Muskrat, has been received. Eighteen of the 
worms pertain to the supposed Distomum echlnatum, and range from 
18 to 25 mm long. In all, the fore part of the body to a short dis- 
tance behind the ventral acetabulum is finely echinate, while the 
rest is smooth. Two other worms appear to belong to Amphlstoviuvi 
siihtriquetrum., 12 and 15 mm long, a parasite previously observed 
only in the Beaver of Europe. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 127 

Entozoa of the Terrapin. — Prof. Leidy stated that he had on one ■ 
occasion examined eight of our much esteemed food Terrapins, to 
ascertain the character of their parasites. All were found to be in- 
fested with an Echinorhynchus, living in the small intestine and 
clinging by the thorny head to any part of the canal. The worms 
ranged from six to sixteen lines in length and in numbers from five 
to upwards of two hundred. The species is Echinorliynchus havmla- 
tus originally described from several of our fresh water turtles. 
{See these Proceedings 1856, 48.) 

In three of the Terrapins occurred a red thread worm, also living 
in the small intestine and associated with the former, and like them 
clinging, by their armed mouth, to the mucous membrane. The 
species is the Ouculanus microcephalus, the males up to nine lines, 
the females from twelve to sixteen lines. In one Terrapin there 
"were eight, in a second over a hundred, and in the third upwards of 
several hundred. They extended all along the intestine but were 
most numerous at its upper part. The females are viviparous and 
contained living young. 

In one Teri-apin only, also in the intestine, there were two flukes, 
the Amphidomum grande, about half an inch long. 

In the bladder of another Terrapin there was a single Polystomum, 
3'5 mm long, probably P. ohlongum, first described by Prof Wright, 
of Toronto, from an individual obtained from the bladder of the 
Musk Turtle, Aromochelys odoratus. 

In another Terrapin he had found four Polystomes of which three 
Avere in the throat and the other in the nose. These pertain to a 
different species from the former and may prove to be the Polystomum 
ocellatum, found in a similar position in the European Turtle, Emys 
europaea. At the genital outlet of Polystomum situated ventrally 
at the fore-part of the body, the cirrus is surrounded by a circle of 
hooks. In P. integerrimum, the species best known, and found in 
in Europe, living in the bladder of Frogs, the genital circle is com- 
posed of eight hooks. Prof. Wright ascribes sixteen hooks to the 
circle of P. ohlongum, and this accords with the number in the 
Polystomum fi-om the bladder of the Terrapin. In the other Poly- 
stomes of the latter he found the circle to be composed of thirty-two 
hooks. Siebold says there are forty hooks to the circle in P. ocella- 
tum. Dr. Zeller figures the latter, from a sketch of Siebold, in 
which the caudal disk is represented as having two large hooks and 
eight small ones between the posterior j)air of bothria. In the allied 
Polystomes of the Terrapin the number and arrangement of the hooks 
of the caudal disk is the same as represented in Prof Wright's figure 
of P. ohlongum,. If then we have a correct record of the facts, the 
Polystome of the fauces of our terrapin may be regarded as another 
species which may be distinguished as follows : — 

Polystomum coronatum. Body Avhen elongated lanceolate. 
Caudal disk wider than the body, cordiform, with three pairs of 
bothria and with the body attached between the anterior two pairs ; 
changeable in form to oblong, circular or quadrate ; with three pairs 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888^ 

of miuute hooks between the anterior pair of the bothria and with 
a hirger pair and two small pairs between the hast pair of bothria. 
Genital aperture with a circular or a transverse oval coronet of 
thirty-two hooks of equal length. No eyes visible. Length elonga- 
ted from 4 to (5 mm. ; contracting to about half the length and 
widening proportionately. 

Besides the foregoing there was found in the intestine of one of 
the Terrapins a little Distome, of 3 mm. length, which though mature 
he had not the leisure to examine. He also observed in the throat 
of one a number of little anguillula-like worms which he likewise 
did not examine. 

In all the Terrapins the flesh, liver, and other parts than those 
above mentioned were entirely clear of parasites; therefore in pre- 
paring these animals for food it is easy to free them from the latter 
by rejecting the head, intestines and bladder ; or if it is thought de- 
sirable to use the intestines they should be slit open and cleansed of 
the contents. 

Prof Leidy added that he had recently found in the collection of 
the Academy, a bottle labelled " alimentary worms in terrapin." 
These proved to be seven bot-larvse like those described and exhib- 
ited at a former meeting. (See Proc. 1887, 393.) 

Messrs Lancaster Thomas, John B. Deaver and Gerritt H. Weav- 
er were elected members. 

The following were ordered to be printed: — 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 129 



NOTES ON AN AQUATIC INSECT, OR INSECT-LARVA, HAVING 
JOINTED DORSAL APPENDAGES, 

BY ADELE M. FIELDE. 

I have found liere (at Swatow, China) in May and June, the tem- 
perature of the air being about 80° F., in still pools of fresh, living 
water, an insect or insect larva, having upon its back four longitu- 
dinal rows of jointed ap]:»endages, of nearly the same length as the 
body of the insect, and capable of being raised, lowered or bent, 
either by the insect or by external pressure. During this year and 
last year, I have found over a hundred specimens, varying from i 
to 8 of an inch in length. Botifera, Vorticella and Oscillatoria with. 
shreds of vegetable fibre, were attached upon and among the appen- 
dages. The color varies with the habitat, from pale green to black. 
As it slowly crawls upon water-plants, it resembles a minute porcu- 
pine; but it is discerned with difficulty, because of its similarity to 
its vegetable environment. I have caught my specimens in only 
one wa}'^ — by taking from the pool, in which I hoped to find them,. 
a quantity of the water and algse, and keeping these in a basin till 
the staleness drove the insects to the sides of the vessel, where they 
escaped the sinking, decaying raft in which they liad been concealed. 
Several of the larger specimens found have been kept alive for more 
than a month, in a soup plate in which tlie water was daily changed. 
They appeared to feed on microscopic objects, probably the heliozoans, 
rotifers and infusorians, which swarmed on the plate. They neither 
grew nor moulted within the month, and finally died, oppressed and 
perhaps suflTocated by the diatoms that stood out like branches from 
all their appendages, making them look like moss. That these 
creatures moult in growing is ])roven by the exuviffi of varying size,, 
found in the waters they naturally inhabit. 

The head is flat, with a pair of large eyes, made up of clusters of 
six ocelli, projecting from the sides. The antennje are short, six 
jointed, and just in front of the eyes. The biting mouth-23arts are 
strong and horny. The three thoracic segments bear three pairs of 
six-jointed legs, ending in a long claw. All are used deftly in 
clearing the back from parasites. The second pair is double the 
length of the first pair, and the third pair a little longer than the 
second. The abdomen has nine segments, with tlie prominent vent 
on the ventral side of the posterior segments, which bears two sharp 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

jointed styles, nearly as long as the body. The number of joints in 
the anal styles vary from 7 in an individual l of an inch long to 11 
in an individual 1 of an inch long. The general shape of the body 
is cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, with the ventral surface flattened. 
All the segments, except the last, bear, on the dorsal half, four taper- 
ing, jointed tubes, containing bi'anches of the trachea. The number 
of joints in each of these appendages vary from 12 to 17 in a speci- 
men i of an inch in length. In a specimen I of an inch long there 
were 7 joints in each dorsal appendage. The main tracheal trunks 
Tun one on each side, between the proximal ends of the two roAvs of 
:appendages, through which they send long, straight branches. 

Plate VIII. 
Pig. 1. The insect, or larva; actual length i inch; anal style 

and dorsal appendages about i inch; first pair of legs 

jso inch; second pair ^VV inch; third pair; 2V0 inch. 
" 2. Jointed dorsal appendage, showing the relative length of 

the joints; actual length 2V0 inch; width of basal joint 

^55 inch; number of joints, fourteen. 
" o. A joint highly magnified, showing the tracheal tube 

which runs to the distal extremity of the appendage. 

Antenna, six jointed ; total length sV inch. 

Dorsal aspect of head ; actual width 200 inch. 

Ventral aspect of head ; actual length 2to inch. 
8. 9. 10. Oral appendages, magnified. 

One of the first pair of legs, actual length 2I0 inch. 

One of the second pair of legs ; actual length 2V0 inch. 

Anal style, actual length ^Vo inch, on specimen A of an 





4. 




5. 




6. 




7. 




11. 




12. 




13. 


inch long. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 131 



SOME NEW SPECIES OF FOSSILS FROM THE NIAGARA SHALES 
OF WESTERN NEW YORK. 

BY EUGENE N. S. RINGUEBERG M. D. 

In the following descriptions of seven new species from this vicin- 
ity will be found representations from the three divisions of the 
Niagara Shale including three genera which I believe to be new to 
the Niagara of this State i. e. Mariacrinus, HijoUthes, and Plumuli- 
tes. The specimens were all collected at Lockjiort and the types 
are in my collection. 

Buthotrepis greg-aria. (n. sp.) PI. YII, fig. 1. 

Plants small, gregarious, each separate plant growing in an irregu- 
larily radiating manner from a central ix)int, commencing in several 
original trunks which rapidly branch out without any system or 
observable regularity, by bifurcations and lateral shoots. Diameter 
of the radiating fronds as spread out, from two to three and at times 
four c. m. It is however hard to get accurate measurement on 
account of the habit of this fucoid of growing in little clumps con- 
taining many individual plants, whose branches often interlace in 
a confusing manner. Its growth in different directions is rather 
irregular ; sometimes one branch seems to out-grow all the rest, or 
again two opposite will spread out till the plant is twice as wide in 
one direction as in the other. The radiate arrangement, however, 
seems to be quite constant. Thickness of the branches averages 
about one millimeter. 

This curious little fucoid is readily recognized by its radiate growth, 
which together with the size of the branches seems to be quite in- 
variable — -and also by its habit of growing in little clumps, occasion- 
ally specimens may be found which seem to grow upon the branches 
of some of the stouter fucoids; such as Buthotrepis gracilis var. 
crassa, Hall. 

Found in the harder shale bands from the' middle third of the 
shale at Lockport N. Y. 

Inocaulis anastomotica (n. sp.) PL VII, fig. 2. 

Frond flabelliform or possibly circular or cyathiform in the per- 
fect state. 

It is composed of large coarse branches, the principal ascending 
ones of which are from two to three millimeters in width, with 
smaller lateral branches and tips. Whole frond united by frequent 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

anastomoses into an irresrular network. The branches seem to 
anastomose as frequently by the growing towards each other of two 
adjacent branches ; these unite whenever they chance to meet into 
a common branch, which grows upwards and bifurcates as before » 
as by the more slender diagonal connecting filaments. 

By reason of this peculiar mode of growth no single bi'anch can, 
as a rule, be traced for any considerable distance as maintainino; its 
identity, for as it bifurcates each bifurcation is often met by that 
from the adjoining two branches and they, by unitiug, form a single 
branch ; at the outer margin the branches taper down and terminate 
in from two to more sharp points, or serrations. 

Surfiice of the branches marked by strong, irregular longitudinal 
Avrinkles, which at times seem to assume a semi-scabrous character. 
Margins of branches rarely present a slight serration or roughness j 
and in places where portions of the black corneous branches have 
scaled off the cast shows the obverse sidft to have the same character 
as the other. 

The openings in the network are of various sizes and shapes but 
mostly oval or fusiform, no two being alike. 

The type specimen presents about one third of the circumference 
of a circle and measures nine c. m. from the niai'gin to as near the 
center as is preserved and which judging from the angle of radiation 
of the branches could not be more than one c. m. further. 

There is some hesitancy in placing this species in this genus l)e- 
cause all the forms which we are acquainted with are rather loosely 
branching with few if any anastomoses or reticulations. Still the 
character of the branches so closely resembles those belonging to 
this genus that I am constrained to place it here. 

From the lower third of the shale at Lockport ranging as high 
as the Homocrinus band. 

Only two fronds have been found in which the margin is preserved, 
and both seem to represent portions of a quite regular circle. 

Dendrocrinus celsus (n. s. p.) PI. VII, fig. 3. 

Calyx elongate, cylindrical, slender, quite evenly tapering from 
the insertion of the brachials to the base which is of the same size 
as the last joint of the column. 

Height to top of first radials seven millimeters. Width of base 
two millimeters. Width of top of calyx not quite six millimeters. 
Arms branched, without pinnules. Under-basals much higher than 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PPIILADELPHIA. 133 

wide, slightly arched transversely giving the base of the calyx a 
moderately pentagonal form which is shared by a few of the upper 
joints of the column. 

Basals long. ^ 

First radials wide and short with a deep horse-shoe shaped articu- 
lar facets in the center of the upper margin which arches strongly 
•outward to conform to this facet which is directed upward and out- 
ward for the reception of the brachials. These are about eleven in 
number before any bifurcation takes place. One ray is observed to 
bifurcate twice above this point. Only the anterior sides is as yet 
known. 

Column round, long, thick in its lower portion where it is quinque- 
partite ; it gradually tapers as it ascends till within a short distance 
below the calyx where it is less than half of its original thickness, 
and here its quinque-partite character disappears; and it continues 
of the same thickness for some distance till within four millimeters 
below^ the cup when it again? commences to enlarge, finally becoming 
sub-pentagonal just before reaching the calyx. Length of column 
twenty centimeters — diameter near base about two and one half 
millimeters; at a short distance below calyx about one millimeter. 

Radix tapering, inclined to one side and throwing off lateral root- 
lets from the under half; it has been traced for about two centime- 
ters but evidently was somewhat longer. 

This species is readily distinguished from D. longidactylus Hall, 
which is found in this group by the elongated calyx with its much 
higher basals and underbasals also by having about twice as many 
brachials before the first bifurcation takes place, and by having a 
sharper ridge in the first series; being there much like those above 
the first bifurcation in the former. The peculiar character and 
appearance of the brachials are almost sufficient to mark it as a 
Dendrocrinus. 

The calyx was carefully scaled out of its matrix but unfortunately 
the posterior side was found to be so crushed in as not to admit of 
an accurate discription. 
Mariacrinus warreni (n. sp.) PI. VII, fig. 4. 

Calyx inverted peuta-pyramidal, irregularily expanding from the 
base to the second bifurcation of the radials, at which point it is, in 
the type specimen, thirteen millimeters high; angles sharp with 
strongly projecting, heavy, rounded carinae, the surface of which is 
crossed by well defined, and generally transverse, rugae. 



134 PROCEKDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Surface of tlie radial plates transversed hy coarse radiating ridges 
of which there are four or five on both sides of the central elevation 
in each of the radials, surface between the ridges seems to be quite 
smooth, although so much difficulty was experienced in removing 
the adherent shale that this point could not be decided accurately. 
The interradial and inter-axillary plates have less prominent ridges 
ornamenting their surface. 

Arms long, slender, of nearly equal diameter till near the tip, 
where they are very gradually tapering to a quite acute termination; 
surface smooth. Length about six centimeters, pinnules very deli- 
cate from five to seven millimeters long at the lower portion; rapidly 
shortening at the tip of the arm. 

Column stout, as thick as the base of the calyx, at that point, 
from which it evenly tapers as far as it is preserved, which is about 
twelve centimeters, to one half its diameter at the calyx. Joints 
with rounded central projections, which are not quite so wide as the 
joint is long. 

This species differs from 31. carleyi, Hall, wath which it agrees in 
the general size and contour of the calyx, principally in the surface 
ornamentation ; it having a smoother surface and more numerous 
radiating ridges on the radial plates, and they are also thicker than 
in the former and the base is somewhat wider. 

This specimen is from the upper third of the shale, and is associa- 
ted on the same slab with the Dendrocfrlnus just described, its column 
lying across that of the former. This unique slab was found and 
presented to the author by W. H. Warren Esq. of Lockport, after 
whom the species is named. 

OrtMs acutiloba (n. sp.) PI. VII, fig. 5. 

Shell bilobate, obversely cordate in outline, apex semi acute. Both 
valves have a deep and sharp mesial depression thus forming an 
acute notch in the anterior margin. Hinge line very short, termina- 
ting in small sloping auricles which are scarcely noticeable when 
the shell is viewed from the ventral side. 

A profile view shows the ventral side to be strongly convex with 
the beak of that valve projecting far beyond the other and somewhat 
outward, while the dorsal profile is sinuous, being slightly concave 
immediately behind the umbo and convex anteriorly. Length and 
breadth each five millimeters. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 135 

Dorsal valve with umbo but slightly projecting beyond the hinge 
line, outer profile having an S like or line of beauty curve, with the 
concavity at the apical end and the convexity anteriorly; inner 
or marginal profile regularly convex. Area small. Ventral valve 
strongly convex in profile, inner profile concave ; area triangular, as 
high as wide, with the foramen occupying one-half of its width. 
Surface marked by strong radiating striations which seem to increase 
mostly by interstriation : they are from ten to twelve to fifteen in num- 
ber on each lobe at the margin. These are crossed by lines of growtk 
which vary in distance from each other and increase in definition as 
they approach the margin. 

This little shell belongs to the same group of orthidean forms as 
Orthls hiloha Lin. PI. VII, fig. 6. and 0. varica Con., and when 
first fomid was regarded as an example of the former, but upon com- 
2)arison with some Wolcott, N. Y. specimens it was found to differ much 
more from that and 0. varica than they do from each other. The 
principal points of specific distinction are the more elongate outline 
of the shell with longer and more pronounced lobes ; a deeper anterior 
sinus, more acute rostrum and a greater disparity between the size 
and curvature of the two valves ; and a hinge line which is compara- 
tively only about one-half as long as that of the species under com- 
parison. Only two perfect si^ecimens have been found, but occasion- 
ally a single valve is seen imbedded in the shales of the middle and 
lower thirds at Lockport. 

Not a single individual of 0. hiloha has fallen under my observa- 
tion from this vicinity. 

Hyolites subimbricatus, (n. sp.) PI. VII, fig. 7. 

Shell conical, sides regularly sloping from acute apex, aperture 
about half as wide as height of shell. Surface marked by very faint 
and closely arranged minute longitudinal strise, which are crossed 
by irregular transverse strife placed at various distances apart, with 
occasional stronger lines of growth which at times take on a sliglitly 
imbricating character. 

On account of the partly flattened condition of the only exami^le 
thus far secured, the exact angle of divergence of the sides from each 
other, and the outline of the aperture cannot be ascertained. 

This species bears some x'esemblance to H. columnuris of Barrande, 
as figured by him, but the longitudinal stri^ are very much finer and 
more closely arranged, so that they are hardly noticeable except 
under a lens, and the shell is not so tapering. 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Plumulites gracilissimus, (n. sp.) PL VII, fig. 8. 

Plate exceedingly frail and delicate. Phylliforni base broad, 
evenly tapering to an acute apex, curved laterally, one margin 
slightly concave or nearly straight, the other quite convex ; this lat- 
ter side is considerably shorter than the other, thus giving an up- 
Avard slope to the base towards this side. Surface ornamented by a 
median narrow ridge which follows the same general curve as the 
plate and tapers to a point at the apex. On the longer half of the 
plate, as divided by the median elevation, there is a secondary fili- 
form ridge or striation subdividing that portion into two equal halves ; 
it extends from the base upwards towards the apical end, finally be- 
coming lost before reaching it. 

These two longitudinal cariuse are crossed by twelve or more 
transverse lines which curve downwards in the centre from the two 
sides towards, and having the same contour as, the margin of the 
base ; they are equi-distant and are placed about as fixr apart as the 
width of the central elevation. Length six millimeters. 

This species approaches P. mininius Barr., in size, but is more elon- 
gate like P. delicatus Barr., from which it differs in having a nar- 
rower central elevation. Its fine lateral striation which again sub- 
divides the longer lateral half is quite distinctive. 

From the lower third of the shale at Lockport only separate plates 
have as yet been found. 

Explanation of Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Buthotrepis gregaria, n. sp. One individual from the type 

slab. 
Fig. 2. Inocaiilis anastomotica, n. sp. Portion of the type frond. 
a. Terminal of a branch from another portion of the 

frond enlarged. 
Fig. 3. Dendrocrinus celsus, n. sp. Specimen with only a portion 

of the column represented. 

a. Fusiform enlargement observed near the centre of 
the column. 

b. Portion of column near root. 

c. Root. 

Fig. 4. Mariacrinus ivarreni, n. sp. Calyx with a portion of the 
column; the rest has been omitted, except: — 

a. The portion at its termination sho^ving its peculiar 
spiral ending. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 137 

Fig. 5. Orthis acutiloba, n. sp. 

a. Ventral view enlarged three diameters. 

c. Dorsal view enlarged three diameters. 

d. Profile view enlarged three diameters. 

Fig. 6. Orthis hiloba Lin. Outline of a species from Walcott, 
N. Y. in my collection to show the difference in contour from 
0. acutiloba. 

Fig. 7. HyolithU subimbrimtus, n. sp. 

Fig. 8. Plumulites gracilissimus, n. sp. 

a. Same enlarged three diameters. 



^* 



10 



138 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP 



[1888. 



April 3. 
The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-two persons present. 

A paper entitled " Researches on the General Anatomy and 
Physiology of Nerves and Muscles, No. II. " By Henry C. Chap- 
man M. D. and Albert P. Brubacker, M. D. was presented for pub- 
lication. 

A Crustacean Parasite of the Red Snapper. — Prof. Leidy remarked 
that in the examination of the fish called the Red Snapper, Lutjanus 
Blackjordi, brought to our market from Florida, he had observed a 
curious crustacean parasite adhering to the throat about the pharyn- 
geal bones. It appears to be an undescribed species of Anchorella, 
which, from its having a bundle consisting of half a dozen posterior 
appendages, including a pair of large egg pouches, may be named 
A. FAscicuLATA. The animal is milk white, though in the fresh con- 
dition the egg pouches are slightly reddish, 
and it is about half an inch long, including 
the latter. The body is pyriform with its 
long axis in the same line with the single 
(suspensory arm, and with the head and neck 
curved outward and a little downward to 
one side. The head is bird-head-like in 
shape, with beak directed upward and fur- 
nished Avith two pairs of minute maxillipeds. 
The suspensory arm, or brachium, about as 
long as the head and neck together, is straight 
and is surmounted by a button, which is ses- 
sile and internally striated. At the base of 
the brachium on each side there is a minute 
papilla. The posterior appendages consist 
bf two long cylindrical egg pouches and on 
each side two much shorter sausage-like 
pouches. The adjoining figure is an outline 
of the parasite magnified six diameters. 
Twenty-five were obtained from one fish. 
Measurements of a specimen are as follow : 
Length of body with brachium 2-5 mm ; 
length of brachium 1-25 ; of head and neck 
1-75 ; head 1' by 0-625 ; breadth of body 
. , ,, ^ . , , 1-375 ; leng-th of egg pouches 4-, thickness 

Anchorella faiciculata ^ t^i", i>- t, t^^ I n /inc i 

(6 diam.) 0-625 ; length of short pouches 1-625 and 

1-25. Clinging to the head of one of the females of the Anchorella 
was a minute male measuring 1-125 mm. in length. With the Ancho- 
rellae was found a single specimen of Caligus which closely resembles 




1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 139 

the C. nanus, Kroyer, if it is not identical with it. It is 1-125 
mm. long. The cephalothorax is about as wide as it is long 1*875 
mm.; the first abdominal segment is obcordate 1*5 long and 1-25 
wide ; and the second long and narrow 1-375 long and 0-375 wide. 
The cephalic bothria 0*25 diameter. 



April 10. 
Mr. UsELMA C. Smith, in the chair. 
Nine persons present. 



April 17. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Twenty-nine persons present. 
The following papers were presented for publication : — 

" Distinctive Characters of Odontaspis littoralis. " By Joseph 
Leidy, M. D. 

" Parasitic Crustacea. " By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Note on Eleonorite from Sevier Co., Arkansas. — Prof. George A. 
KoENiG submitted his identification of Eleonorite. This species oc- 
curs in cavities of Dufrenite and likewise intimately interlaminated 
with it. It is of deep blood red color and gives a yellowish streak. 
The habitus is prismatic columnar, the prisms showing strong vit- 
reous lustre and pleochroism — light yellow, in one direction, deep 
red brown in a direction at right angles. On the very scant mate- 
rial at the author's disposal, no planes are sufficiently developed to 
allow of an identification of the crystallographic characters. The 
specific gravity was found = 2*949. The crystals can be heated in 
a mattras to red heat without decrepitation, without change of color, 
lustre and shape, while yielding a strong condensation of water. 
Reactions for iron and phosphoric acids. The mineral is slowly 
dissolved in nitric acid, rapidly in hydrochloric acid. The iron is 
entirely /erric. The water is completely expelled at 250°C. Owing 
to the scantiness of the material, the analysis was made with only 
54 mg. of the mineral. 

This quantity yielded : water = 8 mg ; Mg^ P'' 0' = 26-3 mg. 
Fe' O' = 26-8 mg.; AP O' = 2 mg. In percentage 

WO = 14-81 

P^O' ^ 30-93 

Fe^O' = 49-60 

APO' = 4-50 
99-84 



1 40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



This furnislies the ratio 

P^O^ : (Fe, A1)'0' : H^O = 1 

= 2 
= 2 



1-625 : 3-78 

3-23 : 7-56 

3 : 8 



hence the formula FeT*0^« + 8 H'O. This is the formula estab- 
lished by A. Streug (Zeitschr. f Kryst. and Min. Vol. 7, p. 398). 
Groth deduced from it the theoretical formula Fe' (HO)' (PO*)'. 
2\ WO. (Tabell. Uebers. d. Mineral. Braunschweig 1882.) In 
view of the fact tliat the whole of the water escapes at 250°C. with- 
out change of color or structure, Groth's foi-mula, assuming three 
molecules of hydroxyl, can not well be sustained. The water must 
be considered wholly as water of crystallization. 

Eleonorite has heretofore been known but from one locality, the 
" Eleonore " iron mine near Giessen, in Germany. Some specimens 
are in Mr. C. S. Bement's collection, with which the author compared 
the mineral from this new locality. It Avas first announced by A. 
Nies in 1880 (Ber. d. Oberhess. Ges. fuer Natur. u. Heilk. No. 19.) 
and subsequently studied by A. Streng, who determined the sym- 
metry as monosymmetric and established the formula given above. 



April 24. 

Mr. John H. Redfield, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

Samuel H. Friend, M. D. was elected a member. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



1888] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 141 

NOTES ON THE MYOLOGY OF URSUS MARITIMUS. 
BY EDWIN A. KELLEY. 

The subject of these notes was a young female polar bear, probably 
about three years old, which recently died at the Zoological Gardens 
in Philadelphia, and was received at the University through the 
courtesy of Mr. A. E. Brown, Superintendent of the gardens. The 
animal measured about four and a-half feet from nose to root of tail; 
it had been rather roughly skinned and eviscerated, so that little 
could be ascertained concerning the panniculus, abdominal and peri- 
neal muscles. My attention was given mainly to the limbs, and I 
have here mentioned only such muscles as seemed to present note- 
worthy characters. 

Neck. Splenius commences in fascia at the second dorsal ver- 
tebra and its muscular area diverges from the middle line until at 
the point of insertion, on the lambdoidal ridge, it is over two inches 
distant from its fellow of the opposite side. 

Trachelo-mastoid rises from the fourth cervical to the first dorsal 
vertebra, blends more or less with the splenius anteriorly and shows 
a tendinous inscription opposite the axis. 

Complexm has a small separate slip from the fourth cervical, and 
behind that rises in common with the trachelo-mastoid to the first 
dorsal. 

Transversalis cervicis inserts as usual into the last five cervicals 
and a complexus tertius runs from the second, third and fourth 
cervicals to the transverse process of the atlas. 

Sterno-mastoid is a stout muscle which blends with its fellow for 
about a third of the way up the neck ; at the level of the shoulder 
it divides into two bellies, a postero-internal one which continues to 
the mastoid process, and a more slender antero-external head which 
runs forward and outward, crossing obliquely the cleido-mastoid, 
and blends with the adjacent cephalo-humeral. 

Cleido-mastoid has its usual relations, rising in common with the 
sterno-mastoid and diverging from it about the middle of the neck, 
to insert into the deep face of the cephalo-humeral at the shoulder; it 
is much more slender than the sterno-mastoid. 

Omo-hyoid is a well developed ribbon about three quarters of an 
inch in width, which rises from tlie anterior border of the scapula, 
some distance back from the coracoid process, and follows a gently 
curved line to the basi-hyal bone. 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Stylo-hyoid pursues its usual course transversely across the surface 
of the digastric, to insert into fascia, just anterior to the basi-hyal 
bone, being at that point over an inch in width. On the left side 
there was inserted in common Avith it, a muscular slip about i in. 
wide, which ran outward beneath the digastric and finally was seen 
to rise in common with the latter ; this little band was not present 
on the right side. 

Shoulder and Arm. Rhomboideus major and r. capitis are 
united for half way up the neck; the former continues by fascia to 
the region of the atlas. 

Cephalo-humeral as it proceeds towards the arm receives first the 
slip from the sterno-mastoid and then the insertion of the cleido- 
mastoid ; it shows at the latter point no tendinous intersection and 
consequently the insertion of the muscle is the only indication of a 
distinction between trapezial and deltoid elements. Further down 
it blends with the pectoralis and scapular deltoid, and inserts on 
the lower half of the humerus, without showing any tendency to fuse 
with the brachialis anticus. 

Aero mio-tr ache lien, inserting on the metacromion, rises not only 
from the transverse process of the atlas, but also by a separate belly 
IJ in. long from the rectus anticus major. 

Teres minor was stated by Professor Shepherd^ to be indistin- 
guishable from the infra-sjiinatus in his specimen of the American 
black bear. In the present subject this muscle was quite distinct, 
running more than half way back on the axillary border of the 
scapula ; it inserted into the centre of the outer side of the great 
tuberosity, while the infra-spinatus ran about an an inch further on. 
I also found the muscle distinct in a young black bear, which I had 
the opportunity of examining. 

The common tendon of teres major and latissimus dorsi shows very 
clearly up to its insertion the distinction between the two elements 
composing it. 

Pectoralis. At first sight the superficial aspect of the pectoral 
seems to be formed by one unbroken muscular mass (pectoralis major) 
which rises along the entire length of the sternum, a distance of 13 
inches, and behind this for several inches on the abdomen, where its 
inner border diverges somewhat from the middle line. From this 
extensive origin, its fibres converge toward the middle of the hu- 



1 Myology of ihe American Black Bear. Jour. Anat. and Phys. Vol. XVIII, 
p. 108. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIEKLCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 143 

rnerus, and blending with the cephalo-humeral at a point 3 J inches 
from the head of the humerus, are inserted in common with the lat- 
ter on the outer lip of the bicipital groove for a distance of 4 inches. 
Beginning at a point 8 inches from the manubrium and 3 inches 
from the middle line of the sternum, its posterior border begins to be 
involuted, and this fold becoming deeper as it goes outward is finally 
inserted by an aponeurosis 2 inches wide, immediately beneath the 
superficial layer. 

The posterior (" deep") division of the anterior thoracic nerve 
appearing at the anterior edge of this fold, runs backward over its 
superficial aspect to the line of folding and then turns forward on 
the deep surface of the main snj^erficial mass, where it is finally lost. 

Upon close inspection the posterior border of this mass is seen to 
be split ofi" as a separate band, which is several inches wide at its 
origin, comprising most of the part rising from the abdominal mus- 
cles, but rapidly narrows as it passes outward until it is only about 
f inch wide. This ventro-humeral slip is carried under with the 
fold just mentioned, forming at first its anterior edge ; out toward 
the insertion, however, the widening fold extends itself between the 
ventro-humeral and the superficial pectoralis major, so that for a 
space its edge coincides with that of the former, and finally, the ven- 
tro-humeral, instead of forming the anterior border of the involution, 
comes to occupy the middle of its deep surface; the two blend and 
insert in common. The fold is thus seen to be complete without 
the ventro-humeral slip, though the latter appears to be an intrinsic 
part of it. The ventro-humeral and the main superficial mass (p. 
major) are quite distinct down to their origins, but the line between 
them is so obscure as to have escaped my notice at first. 

The concavity of the involution shows a disposition to split off a 
number of narrow fasciculi. The outer edge of the posterior end of 
the ventro-humeral approaches closely to the latissimus dorsi, but 
there appears to be no connection between them. As, however, the 
skinning had been I'ather deep behind the axilla, there might have 
been connecting slips in that region which did not show in the spec- 
imen. 

The distal end of the pectoralis minor (see below) lies immediately 
anterior to the involuted fold and in the same plane with it. The 
muscle rises from the sternal ends of the costal cartilages, from the 
second to the seventh inclusive, and pursuing an oblique course out- 
ward and forward, inserts by a thin aponeurosis which partly at- 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

taches to the outside of the great tuberosity and partly reaches the 
surface of the supra-spinatus muscle and the coracoid process. It is 
between this muscle and the involuted fold of the p. major that the 
deep anterior thoracic nerve issues. 

Beneath the anterior portion of the pectoralis major and superficial 
to the p. minor, lie two muscular ribbons. The more anterior {sterno- 
scapularisf) rises for \\ inches on the manubrium and inserts, ante- 
riorly by fascia and posteriorly by muscular fibres, into the great 
tuberosity and bicipital ridge for a distance of 3 inches. It thus 
increases in width outwards. The other band lies immediately 
posterior to this in the same plane, rising on the first three sternebrie ; 
anteriorly it is quite distinct from the p. major, but its posterior 
border fuses more or less with the latter. Its anterior fibres have an 
independent insertion on the bicipital ridge, while posteriorly it 
inserts in common with the p. major and cephalo-humeral. 

The diverse ideas concerning the homologies of the pectoral ele- 
ments, and the consequent confusion of nomenclature are well-known. 
In the Carnivora, for instance, Cuvier^ denies the existence of a 
pectoralis minor— though as remarked by Murie, the " Planches de 
Myologie " of Cuvier and Laurillard represent it as present ; this 
opinion is supported by MeckeP and many recent investigators. 
Others who admit the presence of the muscle differ considerably in 
the element to which they apply the name. Wilder^ believes the 
superficial backwardly directed layers to be the pectoralis major, 
and all of the deep forwardly directed bands, with apparently the 
exception of the most posterior (" xiphi-humeral ") to be homologous 
with the human pectoralis minor. Owen* seems to consider that in 
the dog only the most anterior of these deep bands represents the 
p. minor, while Shepherd^ applies the name to the muscle which has 
here been described as sterno-scapular. 

The muscle which I have described as the pectoralis minor appears 
to me to be such, not only in the bear, but throughout the Carniv- 
ora, from its general position, from the usual continuation of its 
fascial insertion to the coracoid process, and from its relations to 

1 Lemons d'Anat. Comp. Tome 1, p. 256. 
Syst. vergleich. Anat. Theil 3, pp. 49(1-1. 

2 The Pectoral Muscles of Mammalia. Proc. Am. As. Ad. Sci. 1873, p. 3U7- 

Also, Anatomical Technology, p. 235. 
* Anat. Vert. Vol. Ill, p. 50. 
5 Loc. Cit. p. 105. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 145' 

the two anterior thoracic nerves, which embrace and supply it much 
as in the human subject. 

In most mammals there are behind the pectoralis minor, certain 
other muscular elements — " pectoralis quartus " " xiphi-sterno-hu- 
meral, " " ventro-humeral, " etc. — wljich have been the subject of 
much discussion. Wilder, as mentioned above, considers most of 
these as parts of the p. minor, but the most posterior slips he speaks 
of ^ as probably " differentiated portions of the main pectoral mass. " 
In the Carnivora, Macalister^ alludes to the "fourth pectoral or 
brachio-lateral part of the panniculus." As regards the Marsupialia, 
Cunningham^ remarks : " There is a diversity of opinion regarding 
the character of the pectoralis quartus. Owen looks upon it as ' a 
dismemberment of the pectoralis major.' Humphrey and Macalis- 
ter believe that it is in an ' intermediate piece of the superficial ex- 
ternal muscular sheet between the pectoralis major and latissimu& 
dorsi. ' Its close connection in many cases with the panniculus 
carnosus would almost seem to indicate that it is merely a portion of 
this muscle. In Cuscus, indeed, it appeared to be simply the thick- 
ened lower margin of the panniculus, the connection between them 
is so intimate. " 

It appears to me almost unquestionable that, as implied in the 
above statement, the posterior slips of the more deeply inserting 
pectoral mass are phylogenetically different from the more anterioi' 
portion of the same layer. The opinions just quoted as to 
the derivation from panniculus or latissimus, may each of them be 
correct in different types, but the structui'e of the present specimen 
suggested to me an explanation, a development of the idea of Owen, 
which seems to be sustained by the series of Carnivora, and which 
would well explain the oblique position of these posterior elements. 

According to this view, the structure in the polar bear would in- 
dicate that an originally simple and unsegmented pectoralis major 
muscle has gradually encroached backward upon the abdomen ; that 
during this process its axillary border has become folded under and 
acquired a retrogressive attachment to the humerus beneath the 
parent mass ; that finally, the entire posterior border of the muscle 

1 Loc. Cit. 

^ Muscular Anatomy of the Civet and Tayra. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 

Vol. I, Ser. 2, p. 508. 
3 Report on the Marsupialia. Challenger Rep. Zool. Vol. V, p. 8. 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

has become segmented off as a distinct band, which consequently 
forms the posterior boundary of the p. major and the anterior border 
of its involuted fold. 

Such an explanation would derive probability from the mechan- 
ical relations of the parts. As the original pectoral mass travelled 
backward, and its posterior border came, as in this specimen, to lie 
more nearly in a longitudinal than in a transverse line, it would 
encroach more and more upon the axilla, that is, it would deepen 
the anterior axillary fold. As this fold began to project from the 
general contour of the body, there would be a tendency, especially 
during anterior extension of the arm, for it to be repressed by fold- 
ing in, and the backward direction of this fold would be determined 
by the general curve of the integument. Such involutions of the 
posterior border of the pectoralis major occur in many mammals, 
and often, as in the human subject, in a form which makes it ap- 
pear improbable that they can have been the result of fusion. This 
view is also favored in the present subject by the course of the deep 
anterior thoracic nerve, which, as mentioned above, runs completely 
around the concavity of the fold. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Harrison Allen, I was enabled to 
examine the pectoral in a young Ursus americanus. In this spec- 
imen the first striking character was the much greater thickness and 
power of the entire mass. The concavity of the fold was partially 
obliterated by narrow fasciculi extending between its walls, but the 
type of the polar l)ear Avas still easily seen ; the ventro-humeral slip 
wa.s much stouter and separated from the rest of the muscle by a 
ver}' distinct line. The p. minor was as in U. maritimus; of the two 
remaining divisions, the more posterior was so intimately fused with 
the p. major, as to be scarcely distinguishable. The fasciculi run- 
ning from inside the fold to the sternum, began to give the idea of a 
separate muscle lying immediately behind the pectoralis minor, in 
the same plane. The thoracic nerve ran about as before. 

In an alcoholic, probably new born, specimen of Melursus libyvs 
in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia, the modification of these parts had gone so far that they closely 
resembled the condition in the Cat, though still considerably simpler 
than in that animal. The most superficial division was a nari'ow 
ribbon (evidently the "first division of the pectoral" of Mivart,* or 
the cephalic " pecto-antebrachialis " of Wilder and Gage') rising 



1 The Cat. 

' Anatomical Technology. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 147 

from the manubrium and running obliquely ontward and backward 
to blend with the eephalo-humeral and insert in common with it on 
the middle of the humerus. Beneath this and crossed oblicjuely by 
it was a large square mass (" ectopectoralis " of Wilder ; " second 
division" of Mivart) which rose along somewhat less than the anterior 
half of the sternum and inserted into the proximal half of the 
humerus. 

Upon reflecting this, three deep divisions were exposed. The 
most antei'ioi", p. minor, rose on the middle third of the sternum, 
and inserted as in the bear ; it would evidently correspond to that 
section in the cat, which is termed by Mivart the " third division, " 
and by Wilder the " entopectoralis, div. cephalica. " The next di- 
vision, which immediately adjoined the last, rose along the remainder 
of the sternum and posterior costal cartilages and inserted by apon- 
eurosis into the pectoral ridge of the humerus at the middle of the 
insertion of the " ectopectoral. " It occupied the position of the 
"entopectoralis, div. caudalis" of Wilder and seems to correspond 
to the pectoralis quartus of Marsupials. The thoracic nerve, coming 
out behind the p. minor, ran backwards a short distance over the 
surface of this muscle and then dipped into its substance where it 
could be traced between two ill-defined laminae almost to its posterior 
border. This muscle seems to be the realization of the tendency 
which was showing itself in the two other bears. The position of the 
mass, its partial separation into two laminae, the relation to these of 
the thoracic nerve, and a certain greater obliquity of its antero- 
external than its antero-internal fibres, all appear to indicate that 
it is the representative of the involuted fold of the pectoralis major 
of the polar bear, which has been split off from the main mass and 
had its two layers nearly combined. According to the provisional 
hypothesis of Wilder this division would be part of the pectoralis 
minor, but the present comparisons indicate it rather to be an inde- 
pendent derivative of the pectoralis major. 

The remaining slip, which was quite delicate, rose for a short 
distance along the linea alba and inserted beneath the last, which 
also received the insertion of the panniculus and a slip from the 
latissimus dorsi. I suppose it to be the ventro-humeral division of 
the two bears and to answer to the " xiphi-humeral " of the cat, 
which would then, according to this theory, owe its origin to the 
pectoralis major and not to the latissimus or panniculus. 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1888. 

The " entopectoralis, div. caudalis" in the cat is penetrated by 
the thoracic nerve in exactly the same manner as in this Melursus, 
and would of course be assigned the same origin. 

Coraco-brachialis, as in the black bear, rises from the coracoid 
process and as it passes over the head of the humerus, divides into a 
deep belly (coraco-brachialis brevis), which inserts beneath the com- 
mon tendon of the latissimus dorsi and teres major, and into a more 
superficial strand, which, opposite the latissimus tendon, further sub- 
divides into a branch which joins the biceps (short head of biceps) 
and another which runs to the internal condyle and ridge (coraco- 
brachialis longus). 

Triceps shows only three distinct heads. The outer humeral head 
has the form of a triangular prism, with a long sharp angle, which 
penetrates deeply between the scapular head and the humerus, and 
ends in a narrow plane truncation, which is closely applied through 
the whole length of the arm against a similar plane surface on the 
outer side of the inner humeral head. The two thus form an al- 
most continuous mass. 

Anconeus rises in a triangle whose apex is four inches above the 
condyles, and inserts on the entire width of the back of the olecranon 
and for 2 2 inches on its outer side. It exhibits a splitting into two 
layers which are separate along its outer border and unite at a1)0ut 
the axial line of the humerus. 

Epitrochleo-anconens small and narrow. 

Fore-arm. Flexor carpi ulnaris. The ulnar head is four inches 
long (distance from elbow to wrist being nine inches) and inserts by 
fascia on the outside of the humeral head. The ulnar nerve is vis- 
ible between the heads for only about one inch from the elbow and 
then dips deeply between the humeral head and flexor profundus. 

Flexor profundus rises by five heads, three from the internal con- 
dyle, one from the radius and one from the ulna. 

Flexor suhlimk rises from the internal condyle and proceeding 
down the arm as a very broad band, ends in four stout, flat tendons, 
which supi)ly the four ulnar digits in the usual manner. Rising 
from its ulnar side is a fusiform accessory muscle, four inches long, 
which ends in a slender tendon that fuses near the metacarpo-pha- 
langeal joint with the under surface of the sublimis tendon going to 
the 5th digit. Another accessory muscle rises from the most ulnar 
of the three condylar heads of the flexor profundus, 2 2 in. from the 
wrist; its belly, 1 in. long, divides into two slender tendons, which 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 149 

fuse like the other with the inferior surface of the sublimis tendons 
of the 3rd and 4th digits. I have called the present muscle flexor 
sublimis because of the direct continuance of its tendons into the 
digits, the small accessory tendons seeming merely to insert upon the 
under surface of the broader tendons of the large muscle. In the 
cat, on the other hand, it is the accessory tendons which have a di- 
rect connection with the phalanges, and the tendons of the long con- 
dylar muscle, relatively more delicate and more intimately blended 
with the palmar fascia than in the bear, appear to insert upon the 
surface of the perforatus sheaths formed by the " accessory " mus- 
cles. Mivart hence calls the long muscle "palmaris longus, " but 
in the numerous and often reciprocal variations existing in the 
palmaris longus, flexor sublimis and accessory flexor sublimis 
throughout the mammalian series, questions of homology would ap- 
pear to be very uncertain. 

Lumhricales four in number with their usual relations. 
Sujnnator longus rises by two heads, one from the supinator ridge 
immediately above the extensor carpi radialis, and the other, which 
can be traced more than two-thirds of the way up the humerus, from 
out the substance of the brachialis anticus. The two unite before 
reaching the elbow, and the resultant belly runs down the fore-arm 
as a ribbon about 2 in. wide, to insert by fascia on the lower end of 
the radius. 

Supinator brevis reaches to within H in. of the distal end of the 
radius. 

Extensor commimis digitorum and extensor minimi digiti as in the 
cat or black bear. 

Extensor indicis fused with ex. secundi inter nodii pollicis. 
Hand. According to the " typical arrangement " of intrinsic 
nmscles, so admirably presented by Cunningham, the elements in 
the hand are as follows : 

In the right hand the palmar layer consisted of adductor jjollicis, 
|in. wide, adductor indicis, I in., ad. annularis, i in., and ad. minimus, 
I in. The adductor annularis was a very delicate slip and did not 
appear in the left hand. Adductor minimus divides before reaching 
the base of its digit into three portions, of which only one inserts into 
the digit ; of the other two, the more radial ends in a long tendon, 
which runs toward the end of the digit to insert into the extensor 
tendon, and the ulnar turns directly backwards and inserts fleshily, 
also into the extensor system, opposite the end of the metacarpal. 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The intermediate and dorsal layers are closely fused, as in Car- 
nivora generally. The combined systems apparently send a flexor 
brevis head to the sesamoid and phalanx, on each side of each digit, 
but the exact homology of the long tendons which run back to the 
extensor system is, with the exception of abductor minimi digiti, not 
easily interpreted. These latter are two to every digit, one on each 
side, and as a rule, show no superiority in size or distinctness on 
either side ; they are inserted into the extensor tendon near the end 
of the finger, and are commonly derived from that portion of the 
muscle which lies nearest the bone, so that they wind around the 
palmar surface of the flexor brevis in their course. Which repi'eseut 
interossei and which do not, is not plain. 

In the pollex, the long tendon of the radial side inserts partly on 
the base of the proximal phalanx, and partly continues as a cord, 
which quickly changes to yellow elastic tissue and inserts into the 
distal phalanx as a retractor ligament, in common with the main ex- 
tensor tendon. On the ulnar side the corresponding band seems to 
contract no tendinous union with the proximal phalanx, but contin- 
ues directly to the distal as the elastic retractor ligament — very 
suggestive facts, especially as most of the " long tendons " in the other 
fingers terminate in the extensor system just at the point where the 
retractor ligaments commence, while in the foot as mentioned below, 
several of them are more or less continuous with the retractors. 

In the minimus the place of the ulnar long tendon is taken by the 
abductor 7nimimi digiti, which rises from the pisiform bone and ac- 
quiring scarcely any union with the phalanx, inserts into the tendon 
of the extensor minimi digiti. The long tendon on the radial side 
is more delicate than usual. 

The flexor brevis pollicis and the outer flexor muscle of the 3rd, 
each derive, in the left hand at least, a small head of origin from 
the adductor mass. 

Hip and Leg. Of the proximal muscles, only a few show points 
worthy of mention. 

Gluteals maximus sends both of its divisions to the great trochan- 
ter, there being no continuation by fascia down the thigh. 

Gemellus anterior remains distinct from the tendon of the obtura- 
tor internus, and inserts separately into the anterior border of the 
great trochanter in common with the pyriformis. The posterior 
gemellus, however, joins the obturator tendon, and is quite distinct 
from the anterior. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 151 

Semi-memhranosus, as usual, sends its tibial tendon under the in- 
ternal lateral ligament, Avhich, in position, is mainly continuous with 
the peroneus quinti digiti. 

Extensor longus cUgitorum exhibits more surface on the front of 
the leg than the tibialis anticus, which latter extends under it as a 
thin sheet. The tendon of origin of the extensor perforates the 
capsule of the knee joint to rise in front of the outer condyle of the 
femur. 

Peroneus longus rises partly on the fibula, partly on the tibia, ex- 
tending its origin under the ex. longus digitorum. 

Plantaris rises as usual from the external femoral condyle in com- 
mon Avith the gastrocnemius, but contracts no union with that muscle 
on its way down the leg. In passing over the heel into the foot, it 
is much less firmly tied to the calcaneum than is the ease in the cat. 

Salens rises almost entirely from the tibia. 

Gastrocnemius. The inner head rises from a pit behind the inter- 
nal condyle of the femur, extending. up vmder the insertion of the 
semi-membranosus, and showing no sesamoid bone. The outer head 
has its origin in common with the plantaris from the femur and 
sesamoid above the external condyle, sending also a delicate tendi- 
nous band, g in. wide, over the sesamoid to the patella. 

These two heads extend about half way to the heel and then run 
out into a common thin aponeurosis, which is joined 2^ in. above 
the heel by the narrow tendon of the biceps, and then thickening it- 
self, receives the soleus, as already stated ; on the inner side it be- 
comes especially thick, forming a distinct cord, which near the heel 
crosses the tendo Achillis to the outer side. 

In dissecting these muscles I was impressed Avith the smallness of 
the gastrocnemius in the bear as compared Avith that in the digiti- 
grade Carnivora, and Avas reminded that I had been much more 
struck by the same circumstance about a year ago, while dissecting 
the limbs of the Indian Elephant, in Avhich animal, as is well known, 
the gastrocnemius is of singularly slight dimensions. The physiolog- 
ical reason for such a relation in these two plantigrade animals, 
where the heel does not have to be kept off the ground by a contin- 
uous muscular exertion, is evident, and I regret that no com- 
parative Aveights of the masses in the elephant were preserved. 

I, hoAvever, selected a slightly built cat from a number preserved 
in alcohol at the Biological Laboratory of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and Avith it made comparisons in Aveight with the bear. 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The leg in each case was disarticulated at the knee and ankle, and 
the crus thus obtained cleared from fascia and the extrinsic ham- 
string muscles. The test was perhaps not entirely fair, as the cat 
was probably older in proportion than the bear, but it was quite a 
spare specimen and cannot have much increased the proper differ- 
ence. 

The results were as follows: 



100 % 





Ursiis maritimus. 


Entire crus 


29 oz. or 


Gastrocnemial system 




(gast., solens, and plantaris) 10 " " 


Gastrocnemius 


4 " « 


Soleus 


3 " " 


Plantaris 


3 " " 




Felis domestica. 


Crus 


46*5 grams, or 


Gastrocnemial system 


18-5 " " 


Gastrocnemius 


12-3 " " 


Soleus 


2-2 " " 


Plantaris 


4-0 " " 



34-4 


% 


13-8 


% 


10-3 


% 


10-3 


% 


100 % 


39-8 


% 


26-5 


% 


4-7 


% 


8-6 


% 



A large muscular cat gave 43*5 % for the gastrocnemial system 
and 28'5 % for the gastrocnemius, so the difference is not great. 
In the above examples, it will also be seen that in the bear the 
gastrocnemius constitutes 40 % of its own system, while in the cat 
it is 66-5 %. 

Foot. Extensor hrevis digitorum divides into three muscular 
bellies, of which the outer one sends a tendon to the outer side of the 
4th digit, the next divides into two tendons which supply the inner 
side of the 4th and the outer side of the 3rd, and the third siiuilarly 
divides to supply the outer side of the 2nd and the hallux. As 
usual, the peroneus quinti digiti takes the place of the short extensor 
in the 5th digit. 

Flexor hrevis slips to the index and medius come from a muscular 
belly, but on the outer side, the muscle has degenerated into a broad 
thick aponeurosis, so that the tendons to the 4th and 5th do not run 
back into muscle, but are continuous through this fibrous mass with 
the plantaris tendon. 

Accessorius rises on the posterior and external edges of the calca- 
neum and inserts on the deep flexor tendon formed by the union of 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 153 

flexor longus digitorum and flexor longus hallucis. Its muscular 
fibres are restricted to the side of the foot, all that portion on the 
sole being tendinous. 

Lumhricales four, a.s usual ; the one inserting in the fifth digit 
rises from the 4th deep tendon. 

Rising from the 5th deep flexor tendon, beside the lumbricals, is a 
simihir but somewhat longer belly, whicli blends with the 5th flexor 
brevis tendon. This seems to correspond to what Mivart describes 
as " accessorius " in the third and fourth digits of the cat.^ The cat, 
however, has a distinct accessorius similar to the one in the present 
specimen. 

In the plantar layer of adductores we have adductor hallucis, ad. 
indicis, and ad. minimi digiti, which rise in common from the bases 
of the 2nd and 3rd metatarsals and are united for a third of the way 
out towards the phalanges. The adductor minimi digiti soon di- 
vides into two heads, of which the outer inserts into the inner side 
of the distal end of the 5th metatarsal, constituting the opponens 
minimi digiti. The other head again divides into two slips, of which 
the more distal becomes the normal adductor, while the more prox- 
imal runs around to blend with the extensor system at the metatarso- 
phalangeal joint. 

The intermediate and dorsal systems are fused, as in the hand, 
and terminate in a similar maimer. Flexor brevis slips appear to 
be given to each side ot each digit ; the flexor brevis hallucis rises by 
a number of small heads from the cuneiform and ligaments at the 
base of the hallux. 

In the dorsal sj'stem there is a slender abductor ossis metatarsi 
minimi digiti, from the postero-external part of the plantar surface 
of the calcaneum to the tuberosity at the root of the 5th metatarsal, 
and a stout abductor minimi digiti, which was much cut on both 
sides by the skinning. 

The " long tendons " described in the hand appear on both sides 
of each digit except the 1st and 5th. There is none on the outer 
side of the 5th, its place being taken by the regular abductor, and 
there appeared to be no representative on the tibial side of the hallux 
in either foot, though the mutilation of that region in the skinning 
might have destroyed it. That on the fibular side of the hallux in- 



' I have recently seen a cat which lacked the connecting muscles in the third 
and fourth digits and possessed one on the fifth, thus repeating the structure shown 
here in the polar bear. 

11 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [I8880. 

serts partly into the proximal phalanx, sending also a few fibres to 
the extensor tendon at that point, and partly continues as a yellow 
elastic cord to form the retractor ligament of that side. 

The relation of these long tendons to the retractor ligaments was 
also more or less evident in the other digits, especially in the 4th of 
one foot. On the outer side of that digit the long tendon, after giv- 
ing a slip to the extensor system at the metatarso-phalangeal joint, 
ran on to join the extensor tendon near its insertion, but before do- 
ing this gave off a broad band which blended with the entire width 
of the normal retractor ligament of that side. On the inner side the 
long tendon joined the extensor, but some fibres immediately left it 
again to become elastic and form the dorsal border of the retractor 
ligament. 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



155 



RESEARCHES UPON THE GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY OF NERVE 

AND MUSCLE. 



BY Dr. HENRY C. CHAPMAN AND Dr. ALBERT P. BRUBAKER. 

No. 2. 

Resistance offered by Nerve and Muscle to the passage of an Elec- 
trical Current. It was shown by the authors in a previous communi- 
cation made to the Academy, No. 1, that both muscle and nerve are the 
seats of electro-motive force amounting in the case of muscle to the 
0*0696, of nerve to the 0*0237 of a Daniell, capable of deflecting the 
magnet of a Wiedemann galvanometer as indicated by the scale to 
an extent of 217 and 21 divisions respectively. Now since the 
current after passing from the muscle or nerve to and through the 
galvanometer, in returning to the point from which it started, must 
pass through the muscle or nerve, it becomes a matter of importance 
as well as of interest to determine the resistance offered by the latter 
which must be overcome by the muscle and nerve current as the 
internal resistance of the battery must be overcome in order that the 
electrical circuit may be completed. The method made use of 
by the authors in determining the resistance offered by muscle, 
nerve etc. to the passage of an electrical current is that known as 
the Wheatstone bridge method, a brief account of which is indis- 
pensable to the proper understanding of the apparatus to be presently 
described and by which the results to be communicated were ob- 
tained. To illustrate the theory of the Wheatstone bridge let us 

T ^ suppose that a current 

from a Daniell element D 
enters the wire A B Fig. 
1 at A, the wire being 

A I m — ^ |b graduated into 1000 parts 

and along which the slid- 
er S can be moved ; such 
being the case if the slider 
be pushed along the wire 
Fig. 1. close up to A, then of the 

current entering at A, part returns through the galvanometer G and 
part returns through A S B to the Daniell element whence it came. 




156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Suppose, however, that the slider be pushed from B only as far as S, 
then the current entering at A will divide into two branch currents 
passing respectively to S and X. The one branch current on reach- 
ing S will subdivide again into two currents one of which will return 
through S B to the Daniell element the other passing into the galva- 
nometer G and deflecting the needle to the left for example, supposing 
it to be unopposed by the current which we shall see passes into the 
galvanometer G in the opposite direction from T. The other branch 
current on passing through X, the muscle or nerve whose resistance 
is to be determined, on reaching T will similarly divide into two 
currents, one of which passing through the resistance box R will re- 
turn through B to the Daniell element ; the other passing into the 
galvanometer will deflect the needle to the right supposing it to be 
unopposed by that passing into the galvanometer G from S in the 

opposite direction. The resis- 
tance box just referred to. Fig. 
2, is so called on account of 
its offering a resistance to the 
passage of an electrical cur- 
rent the amount of resistance 
offered being determined by 
Pj^j 2 ^"^^^-"^ the number of plugs out. Let 

us suppose for example, the slider being at B, that we make 
the resistance box offer a resistance of 100 ohms (1) by taking 
out the plug numbered 100, Fig. 2 a, the effect of this will be 
that of the current which would otherwise return through R to the 
Daniell, part now passes into the galvanometer and deflects the nee- 
dle to the right. Let now, however, the slider be moved from B to S, 
that is to exactly the middle of the wire or to its 500th division, it 
will be observed that the needle of the galvanometer G is deflected 
back to zero, proving that of the current which, when the slider was 
at B, returned to the Daniell element, part now passes into the 
galvanometer G opposite in direction to that passing in the galva- 
nometer from T, but with an equal electro-motive force since the 
needle of the galvanometer is brought to zero. Let us suppose in 
order to illustrate graphically the relation of the forces involved in 

An ohm is the resistence offered by a copper wire 1 mm. in diameter and 
46'25 mm. in length. 




1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



157 



the preceding experiment that the vertical line A E Fig. 3 repre- 
sents the electro-motive force of the current as it enters A Fig. 1 
from the Daniell and that the horizontal line A S B Fig. 3 represents 
the resistance offered by the wire A S B Fig. 1, S representing in 
Fig. 3 the point where the current passes into the galvanometer 
from S in Fig. 1, S G in Fig. 3 will then represent the electro-motive 
force of the current at the point S. It need hardly be added that 
S G must be shorter than A E since the electro-motive foi'ce at S is 
necessarily less than at A, the electro-motive force diminishing 
gradually from A to B. Similarily A E Fig. 4 representing tlie 
electro-motive force at A Fig 1, let A T B represent the resistance 
offered by A X R B Fig. 1 to the passage of the current. The line 
A T B Fig. 4 being shorter than the line A S B, the resistance being 

greater, the elec- 
tro-motive force 
will be diminished 
more suddenly and 
the point T where 
the current from T 
Fig. 1 passes into 
^ the galvanometer 
will consequently 
be nearer A, and T G Fig. 
4, will then represent the 
electro-motive force at that 
point and being equal to the 
electro-motive force at S Fig. 
3 it must be equal to S G. 
But if S G be equal to T G, 
which must necessarily be 
the case since they represent 
the electro-motive forces through whose equal and opposed effects 
the galvanometer needle remains at zero, it follows that A T : T B 
: : A S : S B or what is the same thing that X : R : : A S : S B (1). 
Substituting in (1) the values of R, A S, S B as experimentally 
determined and we obtain X : 100 : : 500 : 500 or X = 100 ohms. 
That is to say that X the nerve or muscle offers a resistance to the 
passage of an electrical current that is equal to 100 ohms. In deter- 




FiG. 3. 




158 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888. 



mining the resistance offered by muscle and nerve to a current of 
electricity as in the case of the determination of the electro-motive 

force of the same, 
the authors made 
use however of the 
round compensa- 
tor Fig. 5 with 
Christiani's modi- 
fication, that is 
with the addition 
of the binding 
screw O, a much 
more reliable and 
convenient instru- 
ment than the 
long rheocord. 
The relations ex- 
isting between the 
resistance to be 
determined or X 
and that of the 
resistance box R 
and the portions 
of the wire A S 
S B on either side 
of the wheel S 
are, however, pre- 
cisely the same as 
Pj^ 5 in the case of the 

long rheocord since in both cases the ratio obtains of X : R : : A S 
: S B as may be at once seen by a comparison of Figs. 5 and 1. 

In order that the amount of muscular and nervous tissue used in 
the different experiments should be the same the authors made use 
of the method employed by Hermann (1) of enclosing the tissue 
between two plates (in the present instance of ebonite instead of 
glass) to the four corners of one of which were cemented pegs so 
that when the other plate rested on the latter a definite space was 
included. It would have been desirable if practicable that the same 
amount of nerve had been used as muscle but on account of the 
scarcity of frogs, the season being winter and the great number of 




1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 



159 



sciatic nerves that would have been required to have filled up the 
space, amounting in the case of the muscle to 2 cent, in length and 
breadth and 1 mm in thickness, a smaller space was made use of in 
the case of nerve, namely of 2 cent, in length 1 cent, in breadth and 
0'5 mm in thickness. It will be observed from the tabulated results 
given below of the resistance offered by muscle and nerve to the pas- 
sage of an electrical current, that the resistance varied with the 
amount of the resistance offered by that of the resistance box. At 
first sight it might appear that such variations vitiated entirely the 
result. It must be borne in mind, however, that the polarization due 
to the passage of the current through the tissue offers a resistance 
as well as the tissue itself and that this polarization varies with the 
current, the latter varying in turn according to the resistance box. 
Such being the case the variations in the resistance offered by the 
same amount of tissue according as the resistance of the resist- 
ance box is modified, may be attributed to the polarization set up in 
the tissue. It may be mentioned incidentally in this connection that 
in the absence of a round compensator the resistance of muscle, 
nerve etc. can be determined, though not so conveniently or accurately, 
by means of that form of resistance box in which the latter is provided 
with the Wheatstone bridge arrangement as represented in Fig. 6 and 




which was made use of by the authors with the view of comparing the 
results as obtained by it and by the compensator. After what has 
been said as to the general theory of determining resistance it will he 

1 Pflugers Archiv. B and V. 



160 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888. 

seen that by this particular method the proportion of X : R : : AS 
: S B obtains as when the round compensator is used, the only 
difference being that in making at once A S = S B, the value of X 
is inferred from that of R. In conclusion it may be pointed out 
that while the resistance offered by the human body to the passage 
of an electrical current is very great in astate of health, it appears 
to be diminished in a state of disease, notably in Graves disease, in- 
deed so much so as to constitute an important diagnostic symptom 
of that condition. 

Tabulated results of resistance offered by muscle and nerve of a frog 
to a current of electricity. 

Muscle. 

Sartorius, length and breadth 2 cent, thickness 1 millim. Resist-^ 
ance of 70 ohms offered by pads including shields in each case 
deducted from result. 



Formula for experiments X : R 

1st Series 
Longitudinally X : 2000 

Longitudinally X : 4000 

Longitudinally X : 5000 



: A S : S B, X = Resistance 

[in ohms. 
478 : 512, X = 1836 
318 : 682, X = 1795 
271 : 729, X =:. 1788 



Mean 










1806 


Transversely 


X: 


2000: 


: 857 


: 143, X == 


: 11916 


Transversely 


X: 


10000 : 


: 540 


: 460, X = 


11670 


Mean 


11793 


2nd Series of exper 


iments. 






1 




Longitudinally 


X 


: 2000 : 


:515 


485, X = 


2053 


Longitudinally 


X 


: 4000 : 


:334 


666, X = 


: 1936 


Longitudinally 


X 


: 5000 : 


:290 


710, X = 


1972 


Mean 


1987 


Transversely 


X 


: 2000 : 


: 890 


110, X = 


16111 


Transversely 


X 


: 5000 : 


: 730. 


270, X = 


13448 



Mean 14779 

Ratio of mean longitudinal to transverse resistance as shown by 

1st series of experiments 1 to 6-5. 

Ratio of longitudinal resistance to that of mercury taken as unity 

2006000 to 1, of transverse resistance 13103000 to 1. 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



161 



Nerve. 

Sciatic, length 2 cent, breadth 1 cent, thickness 0"5 mm. Resist- 
ance of 47 ohms offered by pads etc. deducted from result. 
Formuhi of experiments X : R : : A S : S B, X = Resistance 



1st Series 
Longitudinally 
Longitudinally 
Longitudinally 

Mean 

Transversely 
Transvei-sely 
Transversely 



[in ohms, 
X : 2000 : : 840 : 160, X = 10453 
X : 4000 : : 735 : 265, X = 11047 
X : 5000 ; : 690 : 310, X = 11082 



X : 2000 
X : 4000 
X : 5000 



880 : 120, X 
785 : 215, X 
745 : 255, X 



Mean 
2nd Series of experiments. 
Longitudinally X : 2000 



Longitudinally 
Longitudinally 

Mean 
Transversely 
Transversely 
Transversely 



X : 4000 
X : 5000 



X : 2000 
X : 4000 
X : 5000 



845 : 155, X 
725 : 275, X 
680 : 320, X 



860 : 140, X 
740 : 260, X 
685 : 315, X 



10860 

14619 
14557 
14160 

14445 

10856 
10498 
10578 

10644 
12251 
11038 
11156 



Mean 11481 

Ratio of mean longitudinal to transverse resistance as shown by 
1st series of experiments 1 to 3. 

Ratio of longitudinal resistance to that of mercury taken as unity 
12066000 to 1 of transverse resistance 32099000 to 1. 

It will be observed that the ratio of the longitudinal to the trans- 
verse resistance in nerve as well as the ratio of both the longitudinal 
and transverse resistance in nerve as compared with mercury taken 
as unity differ from the same ratios obtaining in muscle. It must 
be borne in mind, however, that this difference is due to some extent 
at least to the amount of nerve tissue used, being less than that of 
muscle. 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERS OF ODONTASPIS LITTORALIS. 
BY JOSEPH LEIDY, M. D. 

In the collection of the Academy is a shark, 85 feet long, which 
'was caught some years ago at Beesley's Point, New Jersey. I was 
present when the shark was caught, and helped to land it and pre- 
pare the skin and jaws for preservation. Attached to the shark were 
a number of lernean parasites, subsequently to be described. Re- 
cently, wishing to know the exact name of the shark, I determined 
it to be the Odontaspis littoralis, but found its distinctive characters 
rather vaguely indicated by authorities. The shark is not uncom- 
mon on our coast ; and is commonly called the " man-eater. " In 
color it is iron grey above, paler at the sides and dusky white beneath. 
In the form, relative position of the fins, and other external characters, 
it clearly accords with the figure 1, of plate 36, of Storer's Fishes of 
Massachusetts, referred to Carcharias griseus of Ayres. In the fig- 
ure the branchial clefts are represented as being placed well in 
-advance of the pectoral fin, as in our specimen, and not close to the 
latter as indicated by Miiller and Henle in the figure of Odontaspis 
taurus. 

Dr. Abbott (Proc. 1861, 400), in describing our specimen named it 
Odontaspis americamis and gives the dental characters as follows : — 
" Teeth with a single toothlet on either side, but occasionally one 
wanting. Upper and lower first tooth smaller than the adjoining 
teeth ; then follow above two very long teeth ; then another pair of 
:Somewhat smaller teeth ; then two somewhat increase in length ; then 
the remainder gradually decrease. In the lower jaw the teeth grad- 
ually decrease from the first pair. " 

Prof Gill, in a Synopsis of the Eastern American Sharks, (Proc. 
1864, 260,) names the same species Eugomphodus littoralis, and gives 
as its synonyms Squalus amerlcanus, littoralis and macrodus of Mitch- 
ell ; Carcharias littoralis, Dekay ; C. griseus, Ayres ; Eugomphodics 
griseus, Gill ; and Odontaspis amerlcanus, Abbott. He says that 
Eugomphodus is distinguished from Carcharias (Raf ), Triglochis or 
Odontaspis "by the simple first and fourth teeth of the upper jaw, as 
well as the first of the lower. " 

Giinther, in the Catalogue of Fishes in the British Museum, names 
the same shark Odontaspis americanus, and includes the other names 
above given as synonymous, to which is added the Odontaspis taurus 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 163 

of Miiller and Henle. He gives as characters of the dentition, 
" upper first tooth not smaller than the second ; one or two small 
teeth between the upper third and fourth long teeth ; large teeth 
with a single small cusp on each side. As localities, he gives the 
Atlantic and South Pacific. 

Jordan and Gilbert, in the Synopsis of the Fishes of North Amer- 
ica, for Odontaspiti littoralis, also include all the other names men- 
tioned as synonymous except the 0. taurus. As distinctive characters 
they adopt the diagnosis of Evgomphodus of Gill — "first and fourth 
teeth of the upper jaw and first of the lower simple, without basal 
cusps. " Miiller and Henle gives as characters of Odoiitasjjis taurus 
" upper first tooth smaller ; then follow two very long teeth ; then one 
or two smaller ones ; then again large ones from which they grad- 
ually decrease. The lower teeth gradually decrease from the second." 
Besides the specimen of Odontaspis littoralis from Beesley's Point, 
we have at command half a dozen sets of jaws of the same species. 
Of these one is from Nantucket, and another from Townsend's Inlet, 
N. J. ; the others have no locality marked. In all the essential 
characters of the dentition are alike ; but they do not accord with 
those w'hich have been given as distinctive of the species. The 
number of teeth varies according as there are a few or more of the 
rudimentary ones at the ends of the series, but this is a difference of 
no diagnostic value as a like variation occurs on the two sides of the 
same jaw. In all our specimens, without exception, the teeth are 
provided with a pair of denticles ; none being simple as intimated 
by Gill, and by Gilbert and Jordan, in the diagnosis of Eugompho- 
dus. The anterior teeth in general are long, narrow, and sigmoid, 
and their denticles are curved. The more posterior, lateral and 
larger teeth are shorter than the former and proportionately wider, 
and have also shorter and wider denticles. In different specimens 
they exhibit a variable disposition to the production of a second 
smaller denticle. In five of the sets of jaws in which the teeth are 
well displayed throughout, we find the following range of numbers : 

19—17, 19—22, 2 0—18, 22—23, 24—24. 

18—18 18—17 18—14 19—19 22—24 
The distinctive dental characters are as follows : — In the upper 
jaw, three large teeth, of which the first and third are nearly equal 
and the second is slightly larger; fourth tooth very small, about 
one third the size of the former ; then follows a considerable hiatus ; 
fifth to the seventh teeth nearly equal and smaller than the third 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

tooth ; the remaining teeth successively decreasing. In the under 
jaw the first tooth is small, about one-half the size of the next, which 
is the largest ; and then the others successively decrease. 

Miiller and Henle, Abbott, and Giinther intimate that in Odon- 
taspis, in the upper dental series, there are one or two small teeth 
after the third large tooth. In none of our specimens are there two 
small teeth in this position, but after the single small tooth there is 
a hiatus, in different jaws ranging from a third to more than half an 
inch, which presents no trace of a tooth. This hiatus is unusual in 
the dental series of sharks ; and it perhaps gave rise to the inference 
and consequent assertion that it is normally occupied by a second 
small tooth. In the figure of the dentition of Odontaspis taurus as 
given by Miiller and Henle, notwithstanding their statement, a single 
small tooth appears after the upper third large tooth, in accordance 
with what we observe in 0. Uttoralis. In 0. taurus, the first tooth 
in both jaws is represented as being nearly equal and about a third 
less than the adjoining teeth ; and the upper third and lower second 
teeth appear as the largest of the series. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 165 

PAKASITIC CRUSTACEA. 
BY JOSEPH LEIDY, M. D. 

Attached to the Shark, Odontaspis littoralis, caught at Beesley's 
Point, N. J., above indicated, on each side of the mouth, hanging 
from the upper lip, were a number of lernean parasites, and these 
were thickly covered with a hydroid parasite. The lernean appears 
to be an undescribed species, and may therefore be distinguished by 
the following name and characters. 

Lerneonema procera. 

Animal pale yellowish. Head horizontal, semi-oval, convex 
above, with three, short, blunt occipital tubercles, fore part convex, 
excavated beneath and enclosing the mouth, antennae and maxilli- 
peds ; neck long, linear, cylindrical ; body short, fusiform, and trun- 
cated behind ; tail longer than the body, linear, cylindrical. Egg 
pouches, long, linear, cylindrical. Length 70 mm. ; including egg 
pouches 90 mm. Head 3 mm. long ; neck 30 to 45 mm. long. 0"375 
thick ; body 10 to 12 mm. long, I'TS thick ; tail 12 to 15 mm. long, 
0'5 thick. Egg pouches 20 mm. long, 0"25 thick. 

The hydromedusarium appears to belong to Uucope parasitica, 
found in the same manner, by A. Agassiz, on a lernean of Ortha- 
goriscus mola. Some of the stems rise from the creeping root from 
5 to 8 millimeters, with short branches, two or three ringed. The 
polyp-cups are 0*375 mm. long by 0*25 wide. The stems are O'l 
mm. thick, and the alternate lateral branches about 0'2 long. 

From the fin of a Shark, also caught at Beesley's Point., but the 
name not ascertained, there was obtained a single specimen of a 
lernean, which nearly resembles the Perrisopus dentatus, of Steen- 
strup and Liitken. It is 5 mm. long. The cephalothorax is a little 
smaller than the abdominal segment, and between them are three 
pairs of dorsal lobes which completely cover the space. The egg 
pouches are linear and 0*25 mm. thick. 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



May 1. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. ' 
Twenty-six persons present. 

Parasites of the Rock Fish. — Dr. Leidy stated that he recently had 
examined the gills and entrails of a Rock-fish, Lahrax lineatiis, 
weighing 20 pounds, on which he made the following remarks. The 
gills Avere swarming with the little crustacean parasite Ergasilus 
labracis. In many of these the thorax and egg-sacs were opaque 
milk-white, but in most of them the latter were more translucent 
and of a blue color. This diiference is due to the devolopment of the 
embryos, within which there appears blue pigment. 

Attached to the gills there were three opaque milk-white fluke- 
worms and a fourth of the same kind was embedded in the muscular 
coat of the pharynx. These appear to pertain to an undescribed 
species, and may therefore be distinguished by the following name 
and description : — 

DiSTOMUM gai.actosomum. Opaque milk-white, depressed, spat- 
ulate, narrowest in advance, obtusely rounded at both extremities, 
dorsally convex, ventrally flat. Head rounded truncate or trans- 
versely oval discoid, with prominent margin, unarmed ; neck short, 
slightly widening to the ventral acetabulum, which is sessile, larger 
than the oral acetabulum, and with its orifice appearing triangular ; 
posterior part of the body elliptical, in movement expanding and 
becoming thinner and translucent, and concave beneath with 
the opaque Avhite intestine on each side shining through. At rest 
about 6 mm. long by 2 mm. wide ; elongating to 12 mm. by 2*5 mm. 
wide posteriorly, and 1 mm. at the base of the neck. 

After being killed in dilute alcohol, the specimens remained of 
spatulate shape, 6 to 8 mm. long, 2 mm. wide behind. The oral 
acetabulum 0'625 broad ; the ventral acetabulum situated 1"375 
mm. back of the summit of the head, was 0'875 broad. 

When the animal was in motion and expanded the posterior por- 
tion of the body to such an extent as to render it translucent, the 
intestine on each side became especially conspicuous through its 
white opacity. The intestines extended directly from the minute 
pharynx to the caudal extremity, more or less tortuous according to 
the degree of elongation or shortening of the animal. They are 
widest back of the ventral acetabulum and are sacculated. In the 
expanded condition of the body, by transmitted light, it exhibited a 
minutely reticular appearance, the lines of the rete being more opaque 
white and apparently according with a capillary net communicating 
laterally with the vessels proceeding from the caudal vesicle. The 
opaque white appearance of the body seems to be due to the presence 
of granules of calcium carbonate, for the application of acetic acid 
caused their disappearance with the evolution of bubbles of gas, and 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 167 

the body became more uniformly translucent, without however af- 
fecting the white opacity of the intestines. The generative apparatus 
appears to be undeveloped, as no distinct organs were observable. 
At the middle of the posterior portion of the body, in the usual posi- 
tion of the testes, there appeared a single clearer spot, and in advance- 
of it a clearer streak. The character of these he had not determined. 

Many worms, the Echinorhynchus proteus, clung to the interior of 
the intestine its whole length, but they were not so numerous as, nor 
larger than, they are commonly found to be in smaller individuals 
of the same fish. 

Of two other large Rock-fish examined, weighing each about a 
dozen pounds, one was free of parasites of all kinds, and in the other 
there were only a few of the little crustacean, Ergasilus, adhering to 
the gills; and within the abdominal cavity, adherent to the stomachy 
closely coiled and encysted, a dozen nematoid worms, the Agamo- 
nema capsularia, a common parasite of the shad and herring. Neither 
of the fish contained a single Echinorhynchus, a remarkable cir- 
cumstance, for he had never before examined a Rock-fish without 
finding this parasite present. 

Louse of the Pelican. — Prof. Leidy remarked that the admirable- 
monograph of E. Piaget, " Les Pediculines," a large work with sup- 
plement, in 3 quarto volumes, illustrated, and published in Leyden 
from 1880 to 1885, presented to night, had reminded him that he 
had formerly made a communication to the Academy on an insect of 
the kind, Avhich was remarkable on account of its living in the pouch 
of the Pelican. A brief description of the louse, under the name of" 
Menopon perale is given in the Proceedings 1878, p. 100. Mr. Piaget 
describes two species of Menopon from Pelicans, M. titan, living on 
PeUcanus onoci-otalus and M. consanguineum, which he observes ap- 
pears by preference to infest the interior of the great pouch of P.. 
erythrorhynchns. He remarks of the latter that it probably has some 
relation with Menopon perale, and regrets the insufficient description 
of this species for comparison. Prof. Leidy continued that M. Piaget's 
figures of Menopon titan and M. consanguineiim appear so nearly 
alike and resemble so closely M. perale that from his own judgment, 
he would have regarded them as all of one species. In 1878 he had 
prepared a more detailed description with figures o^ Menopon perale^ 
intended for publication in one of the government reports, but as it 
was not called for, it was forgotten until he was reminded of it by the 
appearance of the great work of M. Piaget. Menopon perale was 
named from specimens submitted to him by Prof. Wyman, who ob- 
tained it from the pouch of Pelicaims trachyrhynchus, in Florida, and 
others obtained by Dr. E. Coues, from the same bird, on the Red 
River, near Pembina, Dakota. Dr. Coues in his " Birds of the 
North West," U. S. Geol. Surv. 1874, 587, says of the White Pel- 
ican : " I took a female in very poor flesh, with worn, harsh, plu- 
mage, which was attributable to a disease of the pouch. On the 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

inside of this organ were fastened in patches, great numbers of a 
louse, which produced an induration, ulceration, and finally perfor- 
ation of the membrane." 

The characters of Mencpon perale as drawn from his original 
manuscript are as follow : Head wider than long, transverse reni- 
form, pale brown with a darker patch and a crescentoid lilack spot 
between the clypeus and temple, fringed in front with short hairs, 
with a longer tuft at the posterior lateral lobe, and a roAv of eight 
along the posterior concave border. Antennae concealed beneath the 
head, with the terminal joint largest and oval. Maxillary palpi 
cylindrical, reaching to the lateral border of the head, four-jointed. 
Mandibles strong, deeply two-toothed, black. Eyes two, close 
together on each side at the lateral border of the head. Prothorax 
narrower than the head, rounded hexagonal in outline and produced 
laterally in a strong conical point, pale brown above with a darker 
baud crossing the middle and darker at the lateral borders, smooth. 
Metathorax as wide as the head, bell-shaped in outline, with lateral 
rounded angles ; crossed by a row of hairs. Limbs well produced ; 
anterior femora short and robust ; the posterior two nearly twice as 
long as the former and darker brown in color. Tibise with a spur 
at the distal extremity. Tarsus with an ovate appendage at the 
proximal extremity, and a single hair at the distal extremity. Un- 
gues strong, black. Abdomen long elliptical, nearly twice the length 
of the head and thorax and widest at the fourth segment. Ses:ments 
of nearly equal length, the last one mammiliform, all with a wide 
chestnut brown band, and a row of short hairs emanating from clear 
circular bases. Last segment with an additional tuft of hairs on 
•each side. 

Entire length 21 lines ; color translucent whitish and transversely 
striped with chestnut brown. Smaller individuals paler in color 
with narrower stripes of brown. 

In an individual 4"75 mm. long, the head was 0*75 long and 1 
mm. broad ; the prothorax 0*55 long and 0'825 broad ; the meta- 
thorax 0'625 long and 1 mm. broad ; the abdomen 2*875 long and 
1"25 m. broad. 

Attached singly or in groups up to fifteen or more between the 
folds of the lining membrane of the pouch of Pelicanus trachyrhyn- 
chus. 

The President was authorized to execute on behalf of the Academy 
an acceptance of a Deed of Trust, by which Mrs. Emma W. Hayden 
conveys to the Society in trust the sum of $2500.00, to be known as 
the Hayden Memorial Geological Fund, in commemoration of her 
husband the late Prof Ferdinand V. Hayden M. D., LL.D. 

According to the terms of the deed, a bronze medal and the bal- 
ance of the interest arising from the fund are to be awarded annually 
for the best publication, exploration, discovery or research in the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 169 

sciences of geology and paleontology, or in such particular branches 
thereof as may be designated. The award and all matters connected 
therewith are to be determined by a committee to be selected in an 
appropriate manner by the Academy. 



May 8. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Eighteen members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 
"On the formation of rock-salt beds and mother-liquor salts."' 
By Dr. Carl Ochsenius. 

" Description of a new species of Ocinebra." By John Ford. 

Parasites of the Pickerel. — Dr, Leidy remarked that among the 
numerous parasites which are mentioned as infesting the Pike, Esox 
lucius, of Europe, no Taenia is indicated. In the Pickerel, Esox retic- 
ttlatus brought to our market, a species of the latter appears to be 
common. In two fishes he found half a dozen, in the intestine and 
stomach; and in another a single individual two feet in length. It 
resembles closely the Tcenia amhloplitis, noticed in the Rock Bass, 
Amhloplitis rupestris (Proc, 1887, 23) and may be the same. Dis- 
tinguishing it with the name of Taenia leptosoma, its characters 
are as follow : Body long, and thin, and at the fore-part thread- 
like. Head unarmed, without rostellum, with four equidistant 
hemispherical bothria ; neck very short or none ; anterior segments 
transversely linear, many times wider than long ; posterior segments 
gradually becoming proportionately longer and quadrate and barrel 
shaped ; genital apertures marginal, alternating irregularly. Ova 
spherical. 

Length from six to nine and twenty six inches, shortening to one- 
half or less ; breadth to 2 and 2-5 mm. Head 0*25 to 0-5 mm. broad ; 
bothria 0"125 to 0"175 mm. Anterior segments an inch from the 
head 0"175 mm. long by 1 mm. broad; posterior segments 0"5 to 
0-75 mm. long by 2 to 2-5 mm. broad. Ova 0*028 to 0-032 mm. in 
diameter. 

A single slender Scolex associated with the longest Taenia was 4 
mm. long by 0*25 wide, but elongated to 8 mm. by 0"1 wide. The 
head was of tiie same form as that of the Tcenia. After being in 
alcohol, the head of the Scolex was 0"225 mm. wide with the bothria 
0"1 mm. in diameter. The posterior part of the body exhibited traces 
of segmentation, with the segments 0"075 mm. long by 0"25 wide. 

12 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Upper Ter-tiary Invertebrates from West side of Chesapeake Bay. — 
Dr. Otto Meyer made some remarks on Upper Tertiary inverte- 
brates. Dr. Benjamin Sharp had given him for examination a 
specimen of Balanus eoncavus Bronn, which had been collected by 
Dr. J. Alban Kite, on the west side of Chesapeake Bay. The 
Balanns has a diameter of two inches. Its tergum has a long 
spur as in the specimens of Balanus eoncavus from the English Crag ; 
the parietes, however, are smooth, while the Crag specimens are rib- 
bed. The scutum is less elaborately sculptured than a scutum of 
the same species from Yorktown Va. in his collection. 

The inside of this Balanus was filled with sand containing shells 
etc. From this sand he had picked out the following species. 

GASTROPODA. 

Crucibiilum costatum Morton, Adeorbis concava H. C. Lea, sp., 

Crepidula fornicata Lam., Cerithiopsis terebralis Adams, 

Natica sp. = G. clavulus H. C. Lea, sp. 

Caecum trachea Montagu, Eulima eborea Conr., 

= C. annulatum Emmons, Urosalpinx cinereus Say, 

= C. pulchellum Stimpson, Pleurotoma marylandica Conr.? 

Nassa trivittata Say, Tornatella ovoides Conr. 
Trochus lens H. C. Lea, sp., 

LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 

Pecten eboreus Conr., Cardium sp., 

Lucina crenulata Conr., Mactra sp., 

Venus cortinaria Rogers, Aligena laevis H. C. Lea, 

'Corbula cimeata Say, Aligena Sharpi n. sp. 

BALANIDAE. 

balanus eoncavus Bronn. 
■Cythere sp. 



OSTRACODA. 



FORAMINIFERA. 

(Determined by Mr. A. Woodward.) 
Miliolina seminuluni Linn, sp., Gaudryina pupoides d'Orbigny. 
Polymorjohina compressa d'Or- 
bigny, 

These determinations were made partly from fossil specimens in 

Dr. Meyer's collection, partly from recent species in the collection 

■X)f the Academy and he is obliged to the Conservator of the Con- 

,chological Department of the Academy, Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, for 

giving him the opportunity to compare them with the recent 

forms. The names are not intended to be the final ones, for most 

..species of shells have not only been described as recent forms but 

-..they have frequently had other names as fossils given them, and 

.sometimes quite a number of names, and it will be a very great 

rtask to determine the final synonymy of the tertiary and recent 

species. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 171 

In two cases only did he try to give synonyms and definite 
names. The species of Ccecum of which he found nearly a dozen 
specimens, agrees with a specimen of Cceewn anmdatum Emmons, 
in the collection of the Academy, which species has been described 
from the Tertiary of North Carolina. He was unable to distinguish 
the form specifically from specimens of Ccecum jndchelium Stimpson, 
from the Atlantic coast of America, and considers specimens of 
Ccccuvi trachea Mont., from the Atlantic coast of Europe as belong- 
ing to the same species. 

Cerithiopsis davnlus H. C. Lea, sp., of which species he found a 
specimen with smooth embryonic whorls in material from York- 
town, Va., agrees with the recent Cerithiopsis terebralis Adams, 
from the Atlantic coast, Florida specimens of which show three 
and a half smooth embryonic whorls. If the nucleus of Ceonthiopsis 
ierehralis should agree with the nucleus of the European Cerithioj)- 
sis trilineata Phil , the two species would be identical and the name 
■of Phili])pi would have the priority. 

Aligena sharpi, n. sp. Convex, subrotund, somewhat oblong, 
posterior margin slightly truncated. Beak small. Hinge with one 
small cardinal tooth. Ligament internal in a shallow sulcation, 
running from the beak past the dorsal margin obliquely posteriorly 

and interiorly. Anterior muscular impression 
much elongated ; posterior muscular impression 
oval. Pailial line apparently entire. Surface 
with irregular prominent strise of growth. 
Only the figured specimen was found. 
The genus A ligena is not mentioned in the 
Manuals of Conchology of Tryon and of Fisch- 
er. It was founded by H. C. Lea (Trans. 
. — . Amer. Philos. Soc. (2)' vol. IX, p. 238.) in 

1843, and was defined by him in the following way: — "Shell equi- 
valve? subequilateral, closed posteriorly and anteriorly; hinge with 
one cardinal tooth and a long shallow sulcation under the beaks. 
The cardinal tooth is in general rather small. The sulcus appears 
to have received the ligament. It commences at the beak and runs 
■obliquely past the dorsal mai-gin into the cavity under the beak." 

The two species of H. C. Lea have been placed by the authors 
after him, in the genus Kellia. In accordance with it Dr. Meyer 
has (at another place) enumerated Kellia laevis H. C. Lea, among 
the fossils which occur at Yorktowu Va. But an examination of 
recent species of Kellia, especially of Kellia siihorhicularis Mont., 
made him believe that these Miocene shells should not be placed in 
this genus. 

The two species Aligena leavis H. C. Lea, and Aligena striata 
H, C. Lea, do not differ in shape from each other and are probably 
identical. A. Sharpi, however, differs from them greatly in shape, 
being more rounded and more inflated. 




172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



May 15. 

Rev. H. C. McCook, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Eighteen persons present. 

The deaths were announced of Caleb Cope, a member, on the 
12th, inst. and Dr. Gerhard Vom Rath, a correspondent, April 23. 

A paper entitled " Notes on new species of Orb-weaving Spiders." 
By Rev. Henry C. McCook was presented for publication. 

Notes on the Relations of Structure and Function to Color 
'Changes in Spiders. — Rev. Dr. Henry C. McCook submitted the 
following remarks on color changes in spiders, which he Avished to 
be understood as in jiart, at least, tentative. They were intended to 
evoke suggestions and helpful information from members of the 
Academy and others, rather than to present final conclusions on a 
most interesting subject. 
I. On the Relation of Structure to Color he observed that : — 

1 The color of young spiders is almost without exception light 
yellow, or green, whitish or livid, tints that blend very well with the 
prevailing greens of foliage, young twigs and the grays of bark of 
trees, of rocks and soil. This is due largely to the fact that the tis- 
sues are at that time translucent, allowing a free play of light through 
them. The effect is also, probably, caused by the absence of food in 
the alimentary tract and lack of distribution of nutriment throughout 
the system. 

As young spiders advance in age the color deepens, which is 
caused no doubt by gradual hardening of the tissues, thus making 
them more opaque. Up to this period no food has been taken, hence 
the absence of food alone is not sufficient to account for the light 
colors of the first stages after exode. Yellows and browns in vari- 
ous tints occur at this period, and in some cases, not generally he 
believed, color patterns which are characteristic of the various spe- 
cies in adult life begin to appear with more or less distinctness, or 
at least suggestively. It is not until sedentary spiderlings have es- 
tablished themselves upon their own webs, and so to speak, have set 
up housekeeping for themselves, that the characteristic colors of the 
species begin to appear with any positive degi-ee of distinctness. 

2 As the spide];s further advance in age and make their success- 
ive moults, various color changes may be noted. Immediately after 
moulting the color is always lighter, which is probably due to the 
fact that the harder skin, just cast off, jireveuted the passage of light 
through the tissues. The new skin is probably thinner, and more 
translucent. Dr. McCook believed that moulting produces changes 
in color patterns of a very decided kind, at least in certain species. 
Apparently some organic change occurs which is the cause of this 
phenomenon. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 173 

3 In old age the color changes are very decided in almost all 
species. In some, as Eperia trifollum and Epeira thaddeus, the 
changes give added brilliancy to the color at certain parts of the 
bod3\ Some of the color changes oftrifolium are very beautiful and 
the same is true of thaddeus. 

But advanced age, as a rule, makes the colors darker. Orange 
and brown then have a ruddier hue ; yellows darken into orange and 
brown. Sometimes the yellow patterns are entirely lost, and the 
spider becomes very dark, almost black. There is a grizzled appear- 
ance about the animal in this stage which reminds one of the corre- 
sponding condition of man and lower vertebrate animals. These 
last named changes are manifest in the spider after the final deposit 
of eggs. 

4 In gravid females the changes of color are often very decided. 
Some of the bright colors upon trijol'ium and thaddeus are doubtless 
•due to this condition. Most spiders during gestation have a lighter 
color, which may be the result of mechanical changes in structure. 
The skin becomes distended and more transparent, the pigment is 
thereby distributed, and thus centres of color are broken up and the 
color matter diffused. Not only the skin, but other parts of the ab- 
domen are distended during gestation, and this distension produces 
changes in the color of the animal by modifying in some way the 
various secretions from the liver and other organs. 

5 The little pits or dark spots u|)on the dorsum of the abdomen 
which mark the attachment of the muscles Avithin, appeared to him 
to be centres for aggregation of coloring material. At least the 
dorsal patterns seem to be grouped in some regular way around 
these muscular attachments. Thus the action of the muscles on the 
skin and chitinous shell or walls serves to compel certain aggrega- 
tions along the lines of use, that form these colors and patterns. 
It might be important in this connection to consider what is the 
ordinary effect of muscular action upon the distribution of pigment 
in the human system or with vertebrate animals ? * 

The color rings or annuli around the joints of the limbs of spiders 
may also be produced by action of the muscles. It is noticeable 
that the tendency of these darker and more vivid colors is towards 
the ends of the joints, as though by the outward action of the mus- 
cles the pigment were forced mechanically or otherwise attracted 
toward these points. 

In the cephalthorax may be noted the same tendency of color to 
group itself around the points of muscular attachment, particularly 

* After the remarks here recorded, Dr. Nolan, the Secretary, called attention to 
the fact that he then had in hand for publication a paper by Dr. Harrison Allen, 
on " The Distribution of the Color Marks of the Mammalia." This paper has 
now appeared, and is a most valuable and interesting one. (See Proceed. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1888, pp. 85-105). The following sentence is quoted therefrom as 
bearing upon the above suggestion : " The stripes and spots on the limbs and the 
dapple-marks on the trunk, as well as some ot the broader sheets of color, a]ipear 
to be related to the intervals between the muscle-masses or to the extent of skin 
surfaces which correspond to muscles." p. 100. 



174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the central depression. Dr. McCook added that, as far as he knew^ 
no araneologist had suggested the tlieory of niusicular attachment 
and action as effecting color distribution, and he did not -svish his 
opinion for the present to be considered as fixed ; but he thought 
the theory probable, at least. 

II. On the Relation of Environment and Habit to Color Changes, 
it was observed : 

1 Spiders that live upon plants as a rule have colors that are 
harmonious with the prevailing greens and yellows, and admixtures 
thereof, of branches, leaves and flowers. 

2 Spiders that nest in stables, houses, on fences etc., ordinarily 
have dusky colors, harmonious with the environment. Examples, 
Theridion vidgare, Agalena ncevia, Tegenaria medieinalis {Durhamiy 
etc. However, the speaker di<l not find that any great difference in 
color is observable in the above species when they are found nesting 
in foliage, as is often the case, at least with Agalena and Theridion. 
It might be said, perhaps, that there is a slight tendency to darker 
and a more uniform color when the spiders are found in the first 
named locations. 

3 Ground spiders (the Lycosids etc.) generally have colors of 
neutral grays that blend well either with the soil, with rocks or with 
stalks of grass etc., especially Avheu the latter are somewhat dry.* 
Lycosids found in the neighborhood of streams do not seem to be es- 
pecially influenced by the natural color of water ; but Dolomedes 
sexpunctatus, which is so constantly found on the water, frequently 
has a tint like that of the stream itself. 

4 Saltigrades follow the rule of the Lycosids as to color. Their 
colors harmonize well with the surface of rocks, trunks of trees etc., 
upon which they habitually seek their prey. They are also sufl&- 
ciently harmonized with the color of leaves and the ground. 

The metallic green on the fangs of some Saltigrades seems almost 
like a green leaf-ambush to the body of the creature as it is observed 
stalking its prey. This suggests the strategy most familiar from its 
association with the lines of Shakespeare : 

" Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until 
Great BirnamAvood to the Dunsinane hill 
Shall come against him." 
Of course this suggestion is fanciful ; but of what use to the crea- 
ture can such a provision be if it serves not as an aid in securing 
its prey or protecting it against enemies? One might almost be jus- 
tified for asking : can there possibly be anything in the above idea? 

5 Are the brightest colored spiders, which one would suppose 
naturally to be most exposed to enemies like birds, and raiding ich- 
neumon-flies and mud-dauber wasps, commonly protected by their 
industry? Dr. McCook cited a few examples as bearing upon this 

* It is a fact that the darker colors of most spiders are found contemporaneously 
with the autumn changes of the foliage to a duskier hue, but the two facts are 
probably due to the same cause, viz., the advancement of decay and the changes 
■which result from this last named stage of vitality. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 175 

iuquiiy. Argiope riparla and /aseiato have protective wings of reti- 
telarian lines tlirowu out on each side of their nets, Avhich protect 
the exterior of their bodies; and a thick shield-like sheeting which 
protects the underside of the body. These spiders are highly colored 
and conspicuous by size ; they dwell in shrubs, bushes, grasses, low 
trees, and commonly are stationed in the centre of their round webs,, 
having no domicile or tent to which they retire. 

The very bright colored spiders Epeira insularis and trifollum, do- 
not hang habitually in the centre of their webs, but live in leafy 
tents and their habitat is among shrubs and trees. Inndaris inclines- 
to groves etc., much more strongly than trifollum. Epeira thaddeus 
has the same habit. 

Per contra, Eperia strix, which is not a bright colored spider, by 
any means, is one of the most secretive orb-weavers in its habits,, 
dwelling in a domicile of rolled leaves, shrinking away into cavitics- 
and holes, under bark etc., and only occupying its snare during th& 
night. 

Epeira domiciliorum and cinerea (Harrisonai) are also spiders of 
rather inconspicuous colors, and both of them screen themselves in 
tents, though domiciliorum, at least, not so habitually as insidaris and 
trifolimn. 

Epeira labyrinthea and triaranea are among the most strongly 
protected by industry, having besides their orb and thick reti- 
telarian snare, a dome-shaped silken tent as a domicile, and lab- 
ryinthea in addition a dry leaf as shelter above her body or tent. 
These spiders are strongly marked as to their patterns but do not 
have the bright hues which characterize Argiope, Epteira insidaris 
and others. 

Meta hortorum is one of the most brilliantly colored of our indig- 
inous spiders. Although its colors harmonize, particularly its green 
and metallic silver, with its leafy surroundings, it rests beneath it& 
horizontal orb, and has straggling, pyramidal, retitelarian lines be- 
neath it. It dwells mostly in wooded places, at least in this neigh- 
borhood. Epeira gibberosa is also a bright colored spider. It dwells- 
beneath a sort of hammock or stretcher of lines woven between the- 
edges of a leaf. It is thus very well protected. 

Our three indiginous species of Acrosoma, rugosa, spinea and 
mitrata are all, particularly the first two, well marked spiders. They 
are protected, mitrata least conspicuously, by spinous processes, (if 
such can be called protections). They live in the centre of their 
orbs as a rule, and their webs are most frequently found stretched 
between the trunks of young trees, in openings of groves, woods, and 
like spots. 

Gasteracaniha, with its strongly developed spines has very much 
the same habit as our indiginous Acroso7na, but the spines appear to 
be wanting in the young of this genus, the very age, one would 
think, at which they are most needed. However, the young of 
Gasteracaniha, at least w'ith numerous specimens sent from the Pa- 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP' [1888. 

cific coast, are almost black in color, a feature which may certainly 
be regarded as protective if bright colors best invite the observation 
of enemies. 

On the whole, the conclusion seems justified that many spidei-s 
that appear to be more exposed to enemies by reason of bright colors 
or greater size, have developed, or at least possess, special variations 
in industry and habits that in some degree are protective. But 
there are a number of apparent exceptions which require more care- 
ful study before any general deduction can be warranted. 



May 22. 
Mr. J. H. Redfield, in the chair. 
Twenty-one persons present. 



May 29. 

Mr. J. H. Redfield, in the chair. 

Eleven persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 
" Description of a new species of Etheostoma (E. longimana)." 
By David Starr Jordan. 

" On the generic name of the Tunny." By David Starr Jordan. 



June 5. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

0)1 an Insect-Larva Hthitation. — A communication was read from 
Miss Adele M. Fielde stating that during June of last year there 
were found near her house at Swatow, China, two specimens of an 
insect larva-habitation, of a sort that she had not seen there before, 
during a residence of a dozen years. The one was attached to an 
exotic oak-leaved geranium, the other was crawling upon a path 
under a Plnus sinensis. The first, some days later, gave issue to a 
small brown moth. She opened the second and found the occupant 
to be three-fourths of an inch in length, and black, with white specks 
on the head and thorax. It had three pairs of short legs, ten ab- 
dominal segmeuts, and l)iting mouth-parts. Its house was builded 
from small dry stalks of plants, cut evenly and laid side by side in 
SL spiral of expanding whorls, the larger coils overlapping the smaller 
£Lt the lower edge, showing the lower ends of the straws. The coloi-s 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 177 

varied from pale green to dark brown, and were laid in such a way 
as to indicate that one straw had been used up before another was 
sought for the building. There were a hundred and tw-enty pieces 
in the structure, the lower small end being open as well as the upper. 
The house was lined with a brown silk cocoon, upon wdiich the straws 
were very tightly and evenly cemented. 

Hoping to see the method in which the creature w^orked, she re- 
moved from the upper jwrtion of the truncate inverted cone, half a 
whorl of its straws, put the larva back, closed its house, put it under 
a wire screen, on a plate of tender rose leaves, and stuck through the 
screen several dry, small stalks of grass. The active and shy larva 
would never emerge from its domicile when she was looking at it, 
but she managed to surprise it at its work so many times as to make 
sure of its method. The holes made in the rose leaves indicated that 
they furnished food for the worker. The dry straw was drawn into 
such a position that its end could be laid upon the house, and 
cemented, with silken lining, into its place at the upper, enlarging 
end of the spiral layers. When laid and fastened, the lower end 
being exactly in line with previously laid stalks, the upper end was 
made by biting off the straw in the line of the upper edge of the 
structure. Thirteen new straws were thus laid on to replace what 
she had violently removed, and, after two weeks of active life under 
the wire screen, the larva closed the upper aperture (its front door 
and place of egress) by fastening it with a veil of silk, to the top of 
the screen, from which it hung suspended. She did not perceive that 
it had ever voluntarily departed from its house, though its head and 
thorax often projected beyond its front door. By the small loAver 
aperture refuse was cast out. This specimen died without having 
reached its metamorphosis. 



June 12. 
Eev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Fifteen persons present. 



June 19. 

Mr. Charles Morris, in the chair. 

Thirteen persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

"Observations on the Female Generative Apparatus of Hysena 
crocuta." By Henry C. Chapman M. D. 

" A new Fossil Spider, Eoatypus Woodwardii." By Rev. Henry 
C. McCook, D. D. 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The deaths were announced of S. Fisher Corlies and Rachel L. 
Bodley, M. D., members, on the 13th and 15th inst. respectively. 



June 26. 

Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Forty persons present. 

A paper entitled " Nesting habits of the American Purseweb 
Spider." By Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., was presented for pub- 
lication. 

The death of Dr. J. L. Ludlow, a member, on the 21st. inst. was 
announced. 

Mr. Wm. W. JefFeris was elected a member of the Council, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. S. Fisher Corlies. 
Mr. Benjamin P. Wilson was elected a member. 
Mr. John Donnell Smith of Baltimore was elected a correspondent. 
The following wei'e ordered to be printed : — 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 179 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF ETHEOSTOMA (E. LONGIMANA) 
FROM JAMES RIVER, VIRGINIA. 

BY DAVID STARR JORDAN. 

Subgenus IMOSTOMA, Jordan. 

Head 4 in length to base of caudal: depth 5. D. IX or X, — 
12 or 13. A. II, 8; scales 6-43-7. Type No. 24619. Mus. Comp. 
Zool. ; 8 specimens, the largest 2^ inches long. 

Body moderately elongate, not much compressed; head rather 
long, somewhat blunt anteriorly, convex above the eyes, profile of 
the snout steep and nearly straight; premaxillaries protractile; 
lower jaw included; maxillaries reaching front of orbit, about as 
long as eye which is 4 in head, and about as long as snout; teeth 
rather strong; gill membranes very slightly connected ; cheeks nearly 
or quite naked ; opercles with some scales. 

Lateral line complete; scales rather large; nape naked; belly 
naked anteriorly, with ordinary scales posteriorly. Pectorals ex- 
tremely long, reaching front of anal, about 1* times as long as head; 
ventrals long, but not reaching tips of pectorals. Dorsal spines 
high, the longest li in head ; soft dorsal very high, ItV in head; anal 
rather large, but smaller thau soft dorsal; anal spines small, the 
first longest ; caudal subtruncate. 

Color in spirits, olivaceous; traces of about 5 dark cross-shades 
which extend on the dorsal fin; fins nearly plain, the spinous dorsal 
somewhat mottled; snout and suborbital Avitli some dusky; a dark 
spot at base of caudal. 

The types of this interesting species were taken by Professor 
Baird, about 1855, in a tributary of the James River, Virginia. 
They were found by me in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
bearing the Mss. name (from Professor Agassiz or Prof. Putnam,) 
of Cottogaster longimanus. 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

ON THE GENERIC NAME OF THE TUNNY. 
BY DAVID STARR JORDAN. 

In the first edition of the Regne Animal, 1817, pp. 313, 314, the 
generic names, Thynnus and Orcynus, were proposed for the Tun- 
nies. The former name was given to the short-finned tunnies, type 
Scomber thynnus L., and the latter to the species with long, ribbon- 
shaped pectorals, type Scomber germo J^siC.=Scomber alatunga (al- 
<tIonga) Gmelin. 

It has been generally agreed that these two groups are generically 
identical. Many European writers have continued to use the name 
Thynnus for both, although this name was much earlier preempted, 
by Fabricius, for a genus of Insects, 

The name Orcynus is however also preoccupied having been pro- 
posed by Rafinesque in 1815, in his worthless "Analyse de la Nature," 
as a substitute for Scombroldes Lacep^de. 

According to current rules of nomenclature, the group of Tunnies 
is left without a tenable generic name. I therefore propose the name 
Albacora, for the group of which Scomber thynnus is the type, this 
species being with others, widely known as Albacore. The subgenus 
or genus distinguished by the elongate pectorals may be called Germo, 
its types being Sc. alalonga Gmelin. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 181 



ON THE FOEMATION OF ROCK-SALT BEDS AND MOTHER. 

LIQUOR SALTS. 

BY DR. CARL OCHSENIUS. 

As is well known that ocean-water, from which all primitive rock- 
salt masses have been formed, contains on the average 82 % fixed L 
e. saline constituents, of which 2^ % is sodium chloride, the remain- 
der consisting of magnesium compounds, calcium sulphate, potassium 
chloride, sodium bromide and small quantities of boron, iodine and 
lithium salts, as well as traces of every other element, of which indeed 
there exists one or the other compound, soluble in water and much 
more so in salt-water. 

The open sea precipitates no salt, but in bays partially cut off 
from it, a deposition can take place under certain circumstances, in 
such a way that gypsum forms the base, and anhydrite the upper- 
most layer of the salt deposit; this is plainly seen in every large 
rock-salt bed. In considering the mode of formation of such deposits 
we are' met on all sides by three questions, which hitherto have re- 
mained somewhat inexplicable: — 1st the absence of fossils in the 
salt, whilst the neighbouring rocks often contain them well preserved 
and in abundance, 2nd the small quantities of easily soluble mag- 
nesium and potassium salts, though they were contained in the sea- 
water, and .3rd the replacement of these latter by one of the most 
insoluble constituents, viz. sulphate of lime in the form of a cap of 
anhydrite, the so-called Anhydrithut. These facts can, however, be 
explained, if we take a hydrographical element, viz. the bar, into 
account in the process of formation. When a nearly horizontally 
running bar cuts off a bay from the sea, so that only as much sea- 
water runs in over it as is compensated by evaporation from the 
surface of the lagoon, and the so partially separated portion receives 
no large additions of fresh — , i. e. rain or running water a deposition 
of salt takes place in the Avay to be described. 

In such a bay the following phenomena may be observed : — The 
sea-water running in evaporates, and by the amount of salt it adds, 
the solid constituents of the bay are continually increased. The 
upper sheets of water, warmed by the sun, sink as they get specific- 
ally heavier from the larger amount of salt, and in the course of time, 
a vertical circulation setting in, the whole aqueous contents become 



5-82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

enriched in saline matter and rise in temperature.^ The greater 
part of the deliquescent magnesium salts however remains in the 
upper layers, while chloride of sodium is found preponderating below. 
As the saltness increases, organisms possessing free locomotive 
power, are compelled to seek a new habitat and make their escape 
Into the open sea against the currents and waves sweeping over the 
bar ; those without free movement die off and generally leave only 
indistinct remains in the strata, which are nest deposited. The 
formation of the latter commences with the precipitation of oxide of 
iron and carbonate of lime, as soon as the concentration has pro- 
ceeded so far as to double the amount of saline matter in the lagoon 
and then ceases until the solution contains five times as much salts, 
when a second layer of carbonate of lime settles, this being brought 
iibout by a double decomposition between the soda and gypsum held 
in solution in producing calcium carbonate and sodium sulphate. 
At the same time gypsum begins to deposit and constitutes the basis 
proper. As soon as the saline solution has increased its weight of 
salts eleven times, its specific gravity reaches r22 and the precipita- 
tion of chloride of sodium begins in the form of the well know foliated 
crystalline masses, accompanied by some calcium sulphate etc., added 
from the sea-water running in. 

Though generally speaking the sediments follow in reverse order 
of their solubilities, as Usiglio ^ has shown in his exhaustive experi- 
ments, it often happens that small quantities of easily soluble salts 
are mechanically included in the others; thus magnesium sulphate 
is frequently found contaminating rock-salt, and especially there, 
■where clayey mud washed in, and was deposited at the same time. 
Then again some substances, only scantily represented in sea-water, 
remain longer in solution than we should be led to expect from labo- 

^ By this interchange of heat downwards the constant temperature of 14C°. to a 
depth of 4000 meters in the Mediterranean can be accounted for, the high barrier 
at the Straits of Gibraltar cutting this sea off from the Atlantic ; westwards of the 
entrance to the Mediterranean on the other hand, we find extending to the same 
depth, an icy temperature of 0° to 40°. Accordingly deep sea currents rich in 
chloride of sodium flow from the Mediterranean into the Atlantic as well as the 
Black Sea, and are compensated by return surface currents. As a result of this 
circulation, the surface water of the Mediterranean is rich in magnesium salts, 
whilst the Black Sea, analogous to the Baltic, does not contain ocean water diluted 
%vith fresh-water as one might at first be led to expect from the great influx of river- 
water, but shows a preponderating amount of sodium chloride. 

2 Ann. Chim. et Thys. 27, 172. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 183 

ratory experiments. This is especially the case with borates, mague- 
sium borate in particular, as well as with silica and titanic acid. As 
the depositing process continues, the greater part of the deliquescent 
salts remains dissolved in the upper layers and constitutes the mother- 
liquors (ifzt/ierZaw^'eji), which contain, along Avith sodium chloride, 
the potassium and magnesium compounds etc. We have then in the 
mother-liquors above the rock-salt, approximately arranged in order 
of solubility : sulphateof magnesium, chloride of potassium, chloride 
of magnesium, borates, bromides, lithium salts, an iodine compound 
probably magnesium iodide, and calcium chloride. In the course 
of the continued growth of the rock-salt beds and likewise of the 
mother-liquors, the latter attain the level of the bar and commence 
flowing out seawards directly over it, as soon as their specific gravity 
can overcome the current of the inflowing sea-water. After this 
stage is reached, ordinary sea-water can only have access through 
the upper portion of the bar-mouth, the lower part being occupied 
by the outgoing mother-liquors. 

At this point the last.stage of the process begins viz., the deposition 
of the uppermost bed of sulphate of calcium in the form of the 
Anhydrithut Portions of the concentrated mother-liquors get mixed 
with surface-water washed in, and this, from the increased amount 
of the hygroscopic chlorides of magnesium and calcium, lessens the 
superficial evaporation of the bay, and hence the influx of sea water 
diminishes gradually. The sulphate of lime in the sea-water that 
has flown in, is now precipitated, the other salts mixing with the 
mother-liquors and flowing out with them over the bar. As the 
gypsum falls through the concentrated mother-liquors, its water of 
combination gets abstracted, and a seam of anhydrite is by degrees 
deposited. Sometimes a compound is formed of gypsum with the 
sulphates of magnesium and potassium (the latter by double decom- 
position of sulphate of magnesium and chloride of potassium) viz., 
polyhalite, a mineral occurring in the upper strata of many salt 
deposits. The bay meanwhile assumes the character of a bitter-lake 
and influences the surrounding shores, the organisms inhabiting the 
littoral waters dying oflT, and the neighboring rock disintegrating to 
dust, which is blown into the lake, forming the material for the 
salt-clay ; this offers a good explanation for the increased thickness 
of salt-clay seams often observed in the upper layers of salt deposits. 

A regular succession of these briefly described phenomena will 
rarely be found in nature. Every alteration in height of the bar, 



184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

resulting from storms and other disturbances, naturally affects the 
precipitations about to take place, by accelerating or retarding them, 
or even redissolviug some of the layers already in situ. In some 
cases where the Anhydrithut was never formed, the bar not having 
retained its original height long enough, the salt- clay plays the 
part of protecting covering ; however, even under these circumstances 
the resulting series of deposits are so characterised as to point clearly 
to their mode of origin. 

Salt beds deposited from aqueous solutions under the above-named 
conditions, are found in all geological epochs as far back as the 
Archaean rocks ; this is shown by the super-position of Silurian strata 
to the salt in Salt Range in India. The existence of primitive salt 
beds points conclusively to the presence of shores, i. e., terra firman 
at the time of formation. At the present day the first of the above 
stated agents is found in operation in several localities on the East 
coast of the Caspian, especially in the great bay of Adschi Darja, 
whose narrow mouth, Karaboghaz (" black abyss "), is partially cut 
off from the Caspian by a bar. The bay is one of the saltiest of this 
inland sea, and receives no supplies of water at all from the land, 
only its evaporation being balanced by a corresponding influx of 
sea-water. Under these circumstances no animal can live in the 
Adschi Darja Avaters, and the bottom is covered with a layer of salt 
of unknown thickness ; in a specimen of this dej5osit dredged up by 
Abich, the latter found gypsum intermixed with rock-salt. C. 
Schmidt* in 1876, found no trace of potassium in the salt bed of 
Karaboghaz. On the other hand the Avater contained in 100 parts : — 
8"33 sodium chloride 
I'OO potassium chloride 
12"94 magnesium chloride 
•02 magnesium bromide 
6'19 magnesium sulphate, etc., 
in all 28*50 per cent, of salts ; this composition is nearly identical 
with that found by Usiglio in mother-liquors, when they give off no 
more water at the ordinary temperature. Similar conditions have 
been noticed at Tjuk-Karagan, Mertwy-Kultuk and Karassee, Kras- 
norvodosk, etc. The Caspian then gives up its chloride of sodium 
to the salt-pans on its east coast and in return receives only mother- 
liquors, accounting for the character of the water in the principal ba- 
sin, which contains less salt than the ocean, but much more magne- 

* J. Roth, Chem. Geol. I, 467. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 185 

sium compounds, and hence causes a degeneration in the marine 
fauna and flora on the East coast. The Oxus (Amu Darja), which 
two centuries ago poured its waters into Adschi Darja prevented a 
deposition of salt there, hut since sand-storms have diverted this 
stream into the Aral, the change of the Caspian into a bitter-lake 
has been accelerated by the formation of sand-bars along the East- 
coast bays, which are converted into salt-pans. 

The above description of the processes now being carried out on 
the East coast of the Caspian will suffice to illustrate the origin of all 
rock-salt deposits, from the Silurian down to the present era, and 
further, the occurrence in each of gypsum, as basis and the Anhydrite- 
cap with salt-clay as cover. Fossils are hardly ever present, and 
mother-liquor salts rarely in large amounts. 

To go back to the time when the first signs of the anhydrite-cap 
make their apjjearance, we find that an increase in altitude of the 
bar, sufficient to cut off" the influx of sea-water, causes the mother- 
liquors to stagnate and under favorable conditions of temperature to 
solidify. Such a process has taken place in the Egeln-Stassfurt ba- 
sin, and in some other localities of the old North-German Permian 
salt-sea. The potassium and magnesium salts, together with boron 
and bromine compounds, have crystallized out and been exception- 
ally well protected against re-solution by a clay seam imj^ermeable 
to water. There are to be seen lying on a rock-salt bed many hun- 
dred yards thick, consecutive zones of carnallite, kieserite and poly- 
halite ; the latter generally encloses the sulphate of lime, which was 
still contained in the waters of the bay at the time of the closing in' 
by the bar, magnesium sulphate occurs especially in the second, and 
in the zone of carnallite are found the chlorides of magnesium and 
potassium, borates and magnesium calcium bromide (brom-car- 
nallite). Calcium chloride is also met with in certain minerals, 
such as tachhydrite etc., and in some cases undergoes in presence of 
magnesium sulphate a double decomposition, calcium sulphate and 
magnesium chloride being formed. 

The total quantity of chloride of magnesium occurring in the 
Stassfurt beds does not correspond to the normal amount ; portions 
of this substance must have made their exit over the bar with the 
lithium and iodine salts, or have been absorbed by the upper beds 
(N. B. lithium is found in the salt-clays above, but not iodine) or 
were carried away in solution later on. Hence the succession of 
mother-liquor salts in Stassfurt is not quite complete ; on the other 

13 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1<S88. 

hand the saltpetre fields of Tai'apaca and Ataeania in Chile, now 
resting on lower levels to those of the original salt-pans, afford an 
example of an entire series of beds. In the reopening of the bar in 
the Stassfurt basin, the process of salt deposition came again into 
operation above the stratum of clay protecting the mother-liquor or 
Abraum-solts ; this is proved by the occurrence of an upper salt bed, 
with anhydrite-cap etc. 

The lowest division of the whole series there, though the name 
does not correspond very well, is known as the Anliydrltregion, or 
zone of anhydrite, on account of thin j^arallel bands of sulphate of 
lime transversing it at regular intervals ; they are called annual rings 
(Fahresringe), but cannot be explained by the direct influence of 
the seasons, e. g. in winter, because they are not found in other salt 
deposits, which have been formed under similar climatic conditions. 
It is more probable that a process, similar to that in the dej^osition 
of the second lot of calcium carbonate of Usiglio, has taken place in 
their formation. Some agent or other, related to that, which caused 
the conversion of gypsum and soda into carbonate of lime and sul- 
phate of soda, must also have been at work here. Most likely the de- 
composition took place at first gradually, whereas towards the end 
it was rapid, from which can be explained the " rings " being ramified 
below and level above. Local peculiarities may also have been the 
cause, for instance, periodic supplies of water coming from the land, 
but it was certainly not of a purely climatic nature. This might 
be a probable explanation for the exceptional case of Stassfurt de- 
posits, where the mother-liquors were dried uj) above the salt beds 
proper and not afterwards removed by external agencies. 

As the process of filling up of a salt-pan with gyj^sum, rock-salt, 
anhydrite and salt-clay has proceeded so far that the anhydrite-cap 
reaches the height of the bar, the latter deposit naturally retains 
cavities and irregularities in its surface, occupied by fluid residues 
of mother-liquors. These residues must often have been pretty consider- 
able, and they represent a most important geological agency ; for 
rock-salt formations can only occur on the sea-coast, and it is here 
that volcanic action has its sway, so that we often find the neptunis- 
tic and volcanic forces cooperating. Through displacement in the 
beds, the residual mother-liquors are set free and flow to lower levels, 
where on reaching an impervious stratum they collect and form a 
salt-lake ; or if brought to the surface again appear as brine and 
mineral springs more or less removed from the original source. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 187 

During their flow or collection the sulphates often separate from 
the chlorides ; borates, once precipitated, remain so, and give rise to 
snffioni ; carbonic acid decomposes saline solutions more or less, but 
chloride of sodium is scarcely ever entirely absent, and boron, iodine, 
bromine and lithium are represented by traces. On account of this 
remarkable action of carbonic acid on mother-liquor salts, the min- 
erals accompanying troua thermonatrite etc., must be principally 
sodium compounds, (chloride, sulphate, borate, silicate etc.) the car- 
bonates of calcium and magnesium being separated out as fairly 
insoluble precipitates. The carbonates of the alkalis decompose 
silicates of lime in the rocks around forming carbonate of lime and 
silicates of sodium and potassium as intermediate products, which 
easily undergo decomposition, silica thereby being separated out in 
the hydrated state : allowed to remain in contact with animal det- 
ritus, saltpetre is produced ; magnesium chloride and sulphate con- 
vert limestone into dolomite and certain silicates to serpentine ; the 
sulphates of magnesium and lime also are often decomposed by cer- 
tain organisms, giving rise to sulphuretted-hydrogen and a separation 
of sulphur; lastly magnesium chloride dissolves all metallic com- 
pounds, and even gold, hence mother-liquors with or without the 
aid of water impregnated with carbonic acid, must have played a 
great part in the deposition of most of our ores, by dissolving out the 
metals contained in the different rocks around and concentrating 
the same in cavities of various kinds. 

As the bituminous matter contained in brine-springs doubtless is 
a 25roduct of decomj^osition of organic substances met by the mother- 
liquors on their way, so the origin of petroleum, which is always 
intimately connected with salt districts, can be accounted for by the 
sudden destructive action of an overflow of mother-liquors over a 
rich marine fauna and flora, the accompanying mud serving to shut 
off access of air from the cadaverous remains, and the presence of 
some chloride of aluminum enabling the formation of all the repre- 
sentatives of the hydrocarbon series from the small particles of 
anthracite occurring in lodes, to the masses of volatile hydrocarbons 
of the vast oil districts. In short, in most littoral districts of past 
and present oceans, from the depths of our mines to the summits of 
the mountains, which ocean-water has not reached, but where mother- 
liquor residues have been transported, do we find tangible proofs of 
the remarkable effects of which mother-liquors have been the primary 
cause. 



188 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF OCINEBRA. 
BY JOHN FORD. 
Ocinebra Michaeli, Ford. 

Shell fusiform, rather slender, turreted, light gray, with a narrow 
median brown band ; whorls 5, convex, shouldered above, the upper 
ones carinate ; sculptured with numerous rather coarse revolving 
lirations, the interstices with riblets bearing crowded festooned 
lamellae of growth, which are also prominent below the sutures; 
longitudinally prominently plicate, with about seven folds to each 
whorl; aperture oval, white within, angular above; anterior canal 
quite long, open, straight; outer lip thickened within, bearing six 
small tubercles; columella nearly straight ; with a whitish callus 





projecting slightly at beginning of canal. Length of shell 16, diam. 
8 mill. Length of n perture 9 mill. Hab., Cayucos, San Luis Obispo 
Co., California. Differs from 0. intei-fossa Cpr., in having open canal. 
0. subangulata Stearns, is somewhat related, but is much longer, 
ess angulated, aperture more rounded and .without the internal 
tubercles shown by 0. Michaeli. So far as can be learned, this small, 
but distinct species, has been found only by Mr. Geo. W. Michael, 
Jr., after whom it is deservedly named ; the gentleman being not only 
an efficient collector, but a careful student of science also. Al^out 
forty specimens have been secured alive by him at the locality 
mentioned, which is the only one known at present. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 189 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE FEMALE GENERATIVE APPARATUS OF 

HY^NA CROCUTA. 

BY HENRY C. CHAPMAN, M. D. 

The Hyaena, as well known, was regarded by many of the ancients 
as being a hermaphrodite. Thus Aelian^ observes " if you see a 
male hysena one year the next year you will see a female, if now 
truly a female, afterwards a male, for it partakes of both sexes," 
Avhile according to Pliny'' " the vulgar believe that the hytena is of 
both natures and are on alternate years male and female, and bring 
forth without a male." The same opinion appears also to prevail 
to a considerable extent even at the present day among the natives 
and settlers in South Africa. Like many other pojDular opinions 
and superstitions the view of the sexes being united in the same in- 
dividual in the hysena is based to a certain extent upon fact, as in 
one species at least, the Hycena crocuta, or spotted hyaena, the 
male and female individuals resemble each other so closely that 
naturalists as well as animal dealers and showmen find it impossible, 
Avithout dissection, to distinguish one sex from the other. Such 
being the case it might naturally have been supposed that the at- 
tention of anatomists would long since have been called to the con- 
sideration of the generative apparatus in Hycena crocuta, especially 
as in the other two species and Hyoeiia striata, Hyctna hrxmnea, 
the disposition of the generative apparatus is normal. It is only, 
however, within recent years that it was shown by Prof. Watson 
of Manchester, England, that in the female of Hycena crocuta 
the uterus passes directly without an intervening vagina into the 
urethra to form a uro-genital canal which, perforating the clitoris, 
offers a passage-waj^, not onl}'' for the urine but also for the 
foetus. Such a disposition would naturall}^ suggest without dissec- 
tion the idea of the animal being a hermaphrodite — especially as 
not only are the vulva and vagina entirely absent, (Plates IX 
and X), but there are present in addition to the large and well de- 
veloped clitoris two projections below the anus simulating a condition 

1 Hyaenam si videas uno t[uidem anno marem altera videbis foeminam, si vero 
nunc foeminam, postea marem, utruisque enim sexas particeps est. Claudii Aeliani, 
De Animalium natura. Ludguni, 161 B, Lib. 1, Cap. xxv. 

2 Hyrenis utraqua esse natura et altenus annis mares alteris foemias fieri, 
parere sine mare vulgus credit. C. Plinii Secundi Naturalis Historia;. Venetiis 
1559, Lil3. viii, Cap. xxx. 



190 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

of the scrotum, obtaining in many of the carnivora. As my dis- 
section of the female generative apparatus of Hycena crocufa that 
recently died at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden agrees in 
every respect^ with that of Prof Watson, and as the description of 
the parts given by that anatomist is excellent, my dwelling further 
upon the same in detail apart from confirmation, would be super- 
fluous. I will limit myself therefore, rather to the consideration 
of how such an extraordinary disposition of generative appara- 
tus might be brought about and to pointing out its significance in 
the determination of the homologous parts of the male and female 
generative organs of the mammalia generally. It is well known 
that at an extremely eai'ly period of intra-uteriue life, about six 
weeks, for example, in the case of the human embryo, (Plate XI, 
fig. 2.) the sex is undistinguishable, ovaries or testicles are undevel- 
oped, the MuUerian and Wolfiian ducts, bladder and rectum ter- 
minate in a common receptacle or cloaca, Avhile no external gener- 
ative organs are observable. As the development of the mammal 
advances, however, the rectum and bladder separate and open by 
distinct openings, the anus and urethra, the cloacal condition being 
retained through life only in Ornithorynchus and Echidna, the 
Wolfiian ducts become the vasa deferentia, the Mullerian ducts 
atrophying, supposing the individual to become a male or the 
Wolffian ducts atrophying and the ^Nlullerian ducts become trans- 
formed into Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina, supposing the indi- 
vidual to become a female, the two bodies up to this moment, indif- 
ferent functionally, becoming testicles or ovaries respectively — the 
testicles usually in time descending into a scrotum, the urethra 
passing through the penis. It is well known that in the female 
of certain shrews, moles and lemurs and, as recently observed by the 
author in the South American hare. Capromys pilorides, (Plate XI, 
fig. 1.) the urethra passes through the clitoris as through the penis 
in the male of these animals. The fact of the clitoris being traversed 
by the urethra in the of female Hycena crocuta is, therefore, not such 
an uncommon condition as at first sight it might appear and confirms 
the view held by morphologists of the clitoris being the homologue 
of the penis. Indeed the clitoris only differs from the penis in being 
smaller and in the fact that the labia minora do not unite under- 
neath the urethra in the middle line to form what would correspond 



1 It need hardly be mentioned that the contracted kidney and dilated ureter, 
the latter due to impacted calculi, observable in my dissection, are pathological 
conditions. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 191 

to the skin on the under surface of the penis. It has already been 
mentioned that an early stage in the development of the mammalian 
embryo the rectum, bladder, Mullerian ducts (the latter in the female 
becoming the vagina and uterus) pass into the cloaca, and that as 
development advances the rectum sepai-ates from the cloaca, open- 
ing by the anus. With a still further advance in development the 
uterus separates from the uro-genital canal and opens by a distinct 
canal, the vagina, the bladder opening through the urethra. While 
such is the normal order of develoiDmeut of the female generative 
apparatus in the mammalia, it may be readily conceived that, should 
the develoi^ment be arrested at the stage in which the uterus and the 
bladder still pass together into a uro-genital sinus and should the 
latter traverse the clitoris in the same manner as the urethra does in 
the case of Capromys etc., a disposition precisely similar to that found 
by Prof. Watson and the author, in the female of Hyaena crocuta 
would result. If the above view be admitted, then the peculiar ar- 
rangement of the female generative apparatus in Hyoena ei^ociUa 
may be regarded as due to an arrest of development. One of the 
most remarkable peculiarities of the female generative apparatus of 
Hycena crocuta, to which we have hitherto only incidentally alluded, 
is the entire absence of a vagina, the uterus passing directly into 
the urogenital canal in which respect the animal differs from 
all other mammalia, except perhaps the elephant. In the latter an- 
imal in both the Indian and African species, as observed by the 
author^ a long and capacious urogenital canal leads into the bladder 
on the one hand and on the other into a cavity which the author 
regarded either as corresponding to a vagina or to the neck of 
the uterus, this cavity leading in turn into the body of the uterus. 
Should the latter view be accepted, that is if the cavity in question be 
regarded morphologically as uterine, then the vagina would be ab- 
sent in the elephant, as it is without doubt in the hysena. In con- 
clusion it may be mentioned that the fact of the vagina being undoubt- 
edly absent in Hyeena crocuta and probably also in the elephant 
settles definitely, at least for these animals, the question as to whether 
the utriculus or sinus pocularis of the male should be regarded as 
the homologue of the uterus or the vagina of the female, since if the 
vagina be absent in the female hysena and elephant the utriculus of 
the male of these animals must necessarilv be homolocrous Avith the 
uterus of the female. 

1 On the Placenta and female generative apparatus of the Elephant. Toumal 
of Acad, of Nat. Sci. of Philad., n. s. VIII p, 413. 



192 proceedings of the academy of [1888. 

July 3. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Ten persons present. 

Note on Mazapilite, a new species. — Prof. Geo. A. Koenig an- 
nounced the occurrence of this mineral at Zacatecas, Mexico, in the 
mineral district of Mazapil. The crystals are well developed in 
all directions. They are of orthorhombic symmetry exhibiting a 
flat prism in combination with a brachy dome and a pyramid. The 
color is deep brown red, nearly black, but transparent at the edges. 
The hardness is nearly 7, its streak greenish yellow. The specific 
gravity 3*567. In closed tube a white crystalline sublimate is pro- 
duced (As ^ O ^) and water, while the powder turns dark brown. 
B. B. fuses at 3 to a black globule. On charcoal the odor of arsenic 
is observed. With borax only iron reaction. Easily soluble in 
in warm HCl. A preliminary analysis proves the mineral to be 
a calcium ferric arsenite. The structural formula must be made the 
subject of a moi'c thorough investigation, which the speaker pro- 
poses to carry out in the fall. Tliis mineral is the first representa- 
tive of the class of pure arsenites in nature and is therefore of mark- 
ed interest. For the material the author is indebted to the indefat- 
igable zeal of Dr. F. A. Foote, who is now in Mexico. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



193 



DESCRIPTIVE NOTES OF NEW AMERICAN SPECIES OF 
ORB-WEAVING SPIDERS. 



BY HENRY C. MCCOOK, D. D. 
Epeira gemma, n. sp. 

1. (Fig. 1.) This is one of the largest orbweavers of the Pacific 
coast, and is found from San Diego northward as far as Victoria, 
British Columbia. The species varies a good deal in size and mark- 
ings, but the largest s^dult female (a gravid specimen) measures 

over 20 mm. in length. The abdomen 
is 15*5 mm. long ; the base of the abdo- 
men is crowned with two large conical 
processes. The markings upon the abdo- 
men are as follows : The forepart which 
rises quite abruptly from the cephalotho- 
rax is of a blackish brown color, inter- 
spersed at irregular periods with yellow 
spots. Along the median line extends a 
narrow baud of yellow, upon which are 
placed two angular or lance head mark- 
ings, the first of which is j)laced about 
the middle of the basal part, and the sec- 
Epeira gemma, female, v 2. o^ifl near the crcst. This baud continues 
more or less regularly along the dorsum to the apex. About 
the middle of the dorsum is a shield-shaped figure with scol- 
loped edges, blackish brown in color for the most part, though in- 
terrupted by yellow lines of a herring-bone pattern, A narrow 
yellow border encompasses the shield. The color of the abdomen is 
yellow, and this color extends to the posterior half of the abdom- 
inal processes, the anterior half of the same being darkish brown. 
Dark brown waving and interrupted lines extend along the sides, 
and between these are small round spots, which are distributed 
laterally along the sides with more or less regularity. A brownish 
band extends along the ventral part of the abdomen from the spin- 
nerets to the epigynum, bordered on either side by a yellowish band 
and with two short parallel yellowish longitudinal lines drawn equi- 
distant between these two. 

The epigynum is comparatively small, and between and slightly 
bent over the dark lateral lobes is a short flat flap ; it is thickened 





194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

on the edges and viewed from the front, the tip is somewhat hooded. 

(See fig. 2.) A broad central patch marks 
the sternum, and the tongue and mandibles are 
tipped with yellow. 

The cephalothorax is about 5 mm. long ; is 
ratlier small as compared with the immense ab- 
domen, and is marked with two broad yellowish 
bands extending along the sides and broadening 
over the dorsum. The head is a brownish color. 
The legs are marked strongly with annuli. 

Ep. grmma. Epigynum Their rcspcctivc lengths are as follows : 1st 

lowerligure, view from apex; . £-jr) o "1 -01 o- oi 

upper figure, side view. pair, 2o mm.; id pair, 2r2o mm.; od pair, 
14'75 mm.; 4th pair, 21"25 mm. The spider makes a large circular 
web of the usual character of the group of Angulata, to which it 
belongs, and rests in a nest of rolled leaves or dome shaped rubbish 
placed on the upper side of its snare. The cocoon is a round flossy 
ball of a darkish yellow color, about three-fourths of an inch in di- 
ameter. A number of cocoons sent to me by Mrs. C. K. Smith from 
San Diego, California, were found during the month of Ajiril to con- 
tain well developed young spiders. These spiders are of a quite 
uniform light yellow color, with a brown, well marked shield-shaped 
figure upon the dorsum of the abdomen, which is without the conical 
prominences that characterize the adult. Several of these cocoons 
were hung in an arbor upon the 1st of May, and the spiderlings im- 
mediately issued therefrom in great numbers, following the usual 
habit of their kind to ascend for a considerable distance, and then 
gather in small clumps or balls closely packed together.' It is no- 
ticable that the spiders from the various cocoons mingled together 
without any hostility, climbed together the various bridge lines 
which immediately issued from the spinnerets, and snugged together 
in balled groups under the leaves, as though they all belonged to one 
brood. The month being cold and very rainy, they remained thus 
clustered throughout the entire month, and were not fully dispersed 
until the first week in June. 

Specimens received from Mrs. Rosa Smith Eigenmann, and Mr. 
Charles R. Orcutt. 

Epeira bicentennana, n. sp. 

2. (Fig. ;>.) In the summer of 1882 I found in iiurtii-western 
Ohio and in the Alleghany mountains of Pennsylvania, specimens 
of a species apparently new, which I named Epeira hicentennaria. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



195 



1888.] 

This spider I described in a verbal coiiimunication to the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The speci- 
mens wei'e found in nests of rolled leaves, 
after the manner of JEpeira insularis and 
kindred spiders, and were attached by a taut 
trapline to the centre of its adjoining snare. 
Thespecimens then obtained were not mature 
and on the appearance of Mr. Emerton's de- 
scriptions of New England Epeiroids I con- 
cluded that my species was identical with his 
Epeira silvatica, which it greatly resembles in 
external form. Subsequently, I received a 
number of adult specimens from Professor 
Peckham of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, collected 
by him in that state, and thereafter, (1886) 




I myself collected a number of the same 
species in the Adirondack mountains of 




Epeira bicentennaria, female, 
X "^^ 

New York, in the neighborhood of the Sarauac lakes and elsewhere 
A study of these led me to conclude that these ex- 
amples differ from E. silvatica. The species is 15 mm. 
in length ; is distinguished by two processes on either 
side of the dorsum of the abdomen at the base. The 
markings are not unlike those of Epeira silvatica, 
Fig e i<r.num ^^^^ ^^^^ cpigyuum of the female, differs from that 
of Epeira silvatica. organ as represented by Emerton.* This is shown 
by a comparison of Fig. 4, with Fig. 5. This 
appears to indicate a specific, or at least, a varietal 
difference between the two animals. According 
to Emerton in adult females of silvatica "the under 
side of the abdomen is dark brown without mark- 
ings;" but the adults of bicentennaria have a 
yellow lunette on each side of the venter below 
Fig. 5- Epigynum of the gills, and a yellow circular patch on each side 

E. bicentennaria, lower ~ •in i ^ 

figure side view; upper, of thc mcdiau luie, both at the middle and at trie 

view from the front . i ■ i 

above. spmneret^. The abdomen is somewhat triangular 

in shape. The breadth at the base is a little less than the length ; 
the color is a yellowish gray with brownish markings. On the 
basal part is a yellow mark, often assuming the shape of a lyre 

* See Emerton, "New England Spiders of the Family Epeiridae." Trans, 
Conn. Acad. Vol. vi 1884, PI. xx.xv, fig. 6. 




196 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



L1888. 



or the letter "U." A shield-shaped figure Avith scolloped edges occu- 
pies the middle of the dorsum. On each side is a broad, light un- 
dulating band, with five or six folise of unequal length. See fig. 3. 
The cephalothorax is 5 mm. long ; is smooth and marked by brown- 
isli bands along the sides and middle. The legs are strongly annu- 
lated with brown rings about the joints and also in the middle of 
the thigh, tibia and metatarsus. Length : 1st pair, 22*5 mm. ; 2nd 
pair, 21"75 mm. ; 3rd pair, 16 mm. ; 4th pair, 20'5 mm. 

Epeira vertebrata, n. sp. 

o. A number of specimens of both sexes and various ages of this 
.spider have been received from Mrs. Rosa Smith Eigenmann, San 
Diego, California, at which point the species seems to be abundant, 
and indeed is distributed to some extent northward along the Pacific 
coast. The specimens include two forms, which are very distinct 
in their shades and coloring, one form being darker than the other, 
so dark indeed, that some examples seem quite black. 

Female. (Fig. 6.) Length of body, ab- 
domen, 11 mm.; cephalothorax 4"5 mm. 
The abdomen is of a yellowish brown col- 
or ; a V-shaped whitish figure opening pos- 
teriorly, extends from the cephalothorax to 
the crest of the abdomen. The margins of 
tliis figure are broad and irregular. A series 
of irregular white spots extends across the 
base and around the sides which are marked 
by three rather regular rows of black spots. 
W^r '' \^kj ^^^¥ "^^^ V-shaped figure is followed by a shorter 
iv., OZi iSLi^^ .J W similar figure, and this again by three circu- 
lar patches of diminishing size, the whole 
series terminating near the apex with a tri- 
angular patch. The whole median line of 
the abdomen from cephalothorax to abdo- 
men is thus marked by this series of distinct figures which are 
broken through the centre and along the line by a scolloped band 
of yellowisli brown color. At regular intervals on each side of 
these vertebrae-like median markings, are circular and triangular 
patches of a whitish yellow color. The outlines of the whitish 
patches are marked by strong lines of rosy brown hue. The 
abdomen is strongly reticulated and the whole appearance is 




Fig. 6. Epeira vertebrata 
Female, light variety, X 3- 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



197 




Epigyiium of 
vertebrata. 



very beautiful. Underneath the abdomen, between tlie spinnerets 
and the epigynum are three broken patches of whitish yellow color, 
enclosing a dark brown band. 

The epigynum is marked by a hooked process or finger, hollowed 
like a spoon at the tip. On the anterior side, the stem or base of the 
finger rises from a white circular cushion that extends beyond the 

body. The end of the process is black, slightly 
tipped with yellow, and the base is yellowish 
brown in color. (See Fig. 7.) The sternum is 
shield-shaped, of a blackish brown color, with 
a broad yellow lance-head figure in the middle. 
Slight processes on either side of this band 
mark the points at which the legs are inserted. 
The cephalothoi'ax is a yellowish brown color, 
marked hj bands of brown on either side, and 
a narrow band along the median line to the 
summit of the caput. The head is a very little depressed and nar- 
rows towards the face. The palps and legs are of the same color as 
the cephalothorax ; the legs somewhat darker, and with dark brown 
rings at the ends of the joints. Length, 1st j)air, 23'5 mm. ; 2nd 
pair, 21"25 mm. ; 3rd pair, 14"5 mm. ; 4th pair, 23.5 mm. 

]Male : length of abdomen 7 mm. ; cephalothorax, 4*75 mm. 

The male differs very little in length, and in 
the general character of the markings from the 
female. The herring-bone or vertebrate figures 
along the median line of the abdomen are com- 
monly more closely united than in the female. 
The w'aving marks along the side are less bro- 
ken and of a duller color. The general color 
of the abdomen is gray, with the central mark- 
ings of a w^hitish yellow. The abdomen and 
legs are a yellowish brown color. The cephalo- 
thorax is broad, the caput narrowing towards 
the face : the central band of lighter color quite 
broad. Length of legs, 1st pair 24"5 mm. ; 2nd 
pair, 21*75 mm.; 3rd pair, 13"5 mm. ; 4th pair, 
20'5 mm. The tibia of the second pair of legs 
is slightly curved, and is armed on the lower 
and inside part with strong rows of thick black spines. 




Fig. 9. 
male. 



Epeira vertebrata, 
< 3- 




Male palps of 
vertebrata. 




198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The dark variet}" of this species resembles in 
the markings of the abdomen the lighter variety, 
the abdomen, however, in the specimens pos- 
sessed by me, appears to be of a more uniform 
oval shape throughout. The colors of the ab- 
domen are black, with yellow markings. On 
either side are two broad broken bands of cir- 
cular and irregular waving figures, which meet 
in front and at the apex. The cephalothorax 
and the legs are of a dark reddish brown or even 
blackish. The bands on the cephalothorax are 
also quite black, as are the tips of the palps. 
This may be the normal color of the female 
Fig s ""^^nebrata. after depositing the cocoon, but I have so many 
Female, dark variety. X 3- spccimeus that are marked in this way, that 
it seems well to note the difference. (See Fig. 8.) (Ep. vertehrata, 
var. pidlus.) 

Epeira balaustina, n. sp. 

4. I have three female sj'jecimens of this beautiful spider, one of 
which I collected in Florida ; another was sent by ]Mr. C. A. Townsend, 
from Swan Island, Caribbean Sea, and a third was sent to me by the 
late Mr. William M. Gabb, from Santo Domingo. 

The sjDiders differ little in size, and measure in length 15 mm. 
The abdomen is of a slightly triangular shape, in this I'espect approx- 
imating Ejyeira domiciUorum. The abdomen is a bright yellow color, 
somewhat mottled upon the sides and around the ventre with a 
darker shade of yellow or yellowish brown. The markings are a 
quadruple series of lines drawn from the pits that indicate the mus- 
cular attachments, longitudinally, to the apex. The spinnerets, legs, 
sternum and cephalothorax are of a bright orange, except where the 
abdomen overhangs the latter, which is yellow. 

The palps are a lighter shade inclined to yellow. The legs are 
without distinct annuli, except the Florida specimen, which has a 
broad black ring around the upper part of the thighs of the first, 
second and fourth pairs of legs. The cephalothorax and abdomen 
are covered with white hairs, and the leg armature is of the same 
color, and rather weak and sj^arse. 

The epigynum consists of a short flap, tri-lobed at the tip, which 
is slightly separated from a thicker flap of similar shape, but which 
consists ai)parently of three folds. Viewed from the side the epigy- 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 199 

num presents somewhat the appearance of the thnmb of a human 
hand chisped over the closed fingers ; the thumb representing the 
posterior flap and the knuckles the folds and rugosities of the thick 
anterior one. 
Epeira parvula. Var. conclilea. 

5. There are few spiders that present such striking variation in 
markings upon the dorsum of the abdomen as Epeira parvula. It 
is a curious problem, which remains yet to be solved, what causes 
this variety. It is probably due in some degree to those changes 
which in certain species are evidently effected by the various moult- 
ings which spiders undergo. But that this cannot be the sole cause 
is shown by the fact thut the varied markings appear even among 
mature specimens, particularly of the females. In a quite large 
collection received from Wisconsin, through Prof. Peckham, and 
from California through Mrs. Rosa Smith Eigenmann, I observed a 
number of individuals upon whom a further and even more striking 
change was manifest. 

The abdomen of Epeira parvula is triangular shaped upon the 
dorsum, and the apical part, instead of rounding into an oval, ends 
perpendicularly ; that is to say, is a straight wall from the spinnerets 
to the top. In the variety alluded to, which I have named Epeira 
coiichlea, the terminal part of the dorsum of the abdomen assumes 
the shape of a caudal process, resembling Uiat which is characteristic 
of the tailed spider, Cyclosa caudata. (See Fig. 6, a.) 
This peculiarity I have traced in about a dozen spe- 
cies, and in some much more decidedly than in others. 
In other respects the specimens appear to be nearly 
identical with Epeira parvula. The epigynum is in 
form the same, although larger, the finger being very broad at the 
base, and rapidly terminating in a point that is slightly curled. In 
front of the base is a tri-lobed black corneous flap. (Fig. 
6,e.) 

The body length is about 7 mm. The maxillae are 
Fig. 6, e. broader or as broad as long and subtriangular at the tip. 
Habitat, AVisconsin, California. 




200 PROCEEDIKGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

A NEW FOSSIL SPIDER. EOATYPUS WOODWARDII. 
BY HENRY C. MCCOOK, D. 1). 

While visiting the Bi'itish ]Museum of Xatural History at South 
Kensington, London, in the summer of 1887, 1 was permitted to ex- 
amine some fossil insects and fossil spiders thereiti contained, under 
the kind direction of Dr. Henry Woodward, the Keeper of the 
Geological Department. Among the aranead fossils I observed one 
which appeared to me to be new to science, and closely related to 
the genus Atypus. The fossil is a tolerably well preserved impres- 
sion, taken from the Eocene Tertiary at Garnet Bay, Isle of Wight. 

After my return to America, Dr. Woodward sent me casts both 
in wax and plaster, from which the appended description has been 
made. These impressions somewhat shook the view which I was at 
first inclined to take as to the systematic place of the specimen. 
But on the whole, I am inclined to adhere, though with some qual- 
ification, to my original judgment. 

The only hesitation that an araueologist Avould feel in placing the 
species would be as to whether it belongs with the Saltigrades or 
jumping spiders, among the Attida^ perhaps, or with the Territelaria? 
among the Atypiua\ Those who have examined fossils of insects and 
other small arthropods, especially of the order Aranese, will under- 
stand the difficulty in determining with absolute accuracy their gen- 
eric and specific rank, and will, therefore, not be sur])rised at this 
hesitation concerning the above named specimen. 

The shape of the cephalothorax to some extent, especially as viewed 
from the original fossil in the British Museum, and more particularly 
the character of the falces as noted in a side view of the specimen 
shown at Fig. 1, indicate that the fossil may belong to the family 
Atypinae and be closely related to Aiypus. The name Eocdypns 
Woochvardii is therefore suggested for the species. If this inference 
is correct, we may possibly have in this new fossil the distant pro- 
genitor of the present British species of Atypus, Atypus piceus. 

Order ARANEAE. 
Family ATYPINAE. 
EOATYPUS, Xov. Gen. 
Eoatypus Woodwardii. 

The total length of body, including mandibles is, 8 mm. ; length 
of abdomen 4 mm ; length of cephalothorax 3 mm. ; of mandibles 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIEiJCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



201 



1 m. ; width of abdomen at the base 3-5 mm.; width of abdomen at 
the apex 1-75 ; width of the eephalothorax at the caput 2-25 ; width 
•of cephalothorax from margin to margin across the middle 3-5 mm. ; 
length of palps 2 mm. Both palps are represented by rather thin 
lines, showing slight marks of joints, and on one palp is a suggestion 
of a terminal bi!lb which might indicate it to be a young male. 

The caput and median part of the cephalothorax as viewed from 
the cast, are well elevated and defined ; the cephalothorax narrows 
towards the abdomen. But in the original imjjression in the rock 





Fig. 2. Eoaiypus Wood- 
wardii x 4 Outline side view 
of body. 



I K. 1 i o , ^ ■.run, X 1 

and less distinctly on the casts, there ai:)pear outlines on either side 
of the margin of the cephalothorax, as though by pressure those 
parts had been flattened, and only the caput and a part of the dor- 
sum of the cephalothorax along the median line had withstood the 
pressure and had been pushed upward into the matrix by the same. 
These outlines are visible, but not as distinct in the plaster cast. 
It is at this point that one experiences difficulty in determining 
•whether the specimen is related to Attus or Atypus. If the broader 
marginal markings are impressions of the original cephalothorax, 
the inference would be that the spider represented by this fossil be- 
longed to the Atypinae. That such is the case, I am strongly in- 
clined to believe, both on the ground just named, and the charac- 
teristics of the mandibles, as well as the general facies of the impres- 
sion and cast. (See Fig. 1.*) In the absence of the characteristic 
eyes and long, jointed superior spinners it would be impossible to 
relegate the specimen to the genus Atypus with absolute authority. 

* This figure has been drawn from the cast and compared carefully with one 
kindly made for me in the Geological Department of the British Museum, and fur- 
nished by the Keeper, Dr. Woodward, 

14 



202 • PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Neither would one be Avarrauted to characterize a new genus by the 
absence of eyes and spinners, since these organs were doubtless 
present but have simply failed to impress themselves upon the 
matrix. I have, therefore, felt compelled, on the one hand to pro- 
pose a new generic place for this fossil, and on the other, to present 
no sharply defined generic characteristics. Inde*ed, it must be 
admitted that besides expressing the general facies of the fossil, as 
above described, the generic value of the name Eoatypns consists 
largely in assigning the specimen rank as a fossil spider. 

On one side, portions of all the four legs are preserved, the first 
three showing the articulations at the trochanter, femur and patella.. 
The second leg shows also the patella entire, indicating the articula- 
tion with the metatarsus. On the other side a portion of the femur 
of the first leg is shown with the patella and its articulations. Both 
hind legs are represented by the apical parts of the femora. 

The horizon from which this new fossil was obtained is that from 
which most European fossil spiders have been taken, viz., the Eocene 
Tertiary. It is also that from which have come our American ara- 
nead fossils as recently studied by Mr. S. H. Scudder from specimens- 
collected at Florissant, Colorado. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. • 203 

NESTING HABITS OF THE AMERICAN PURSEWEB SPIDER.i 
BY REV. HENRY C. MCCOOK D. D. 

Genus ATYPUS. 
Atypus Abbotii <AValck). 

1792. Purse Web Spider Abbot. Mss. drawings of Georgia In- 
sects, Vol. xiv, PI. 8, No. 36, 
Zool. Lib. Brit. Mas. Nat. 
Hist. 
1837. Sphodros Abbotii Walk. His. Nat. des Ins. Apt. Vol. i, 

p. 247. 
1842. Atypus niger Hentz. Jour. Bost, Soc. Nat. Hist. Vol. iv, 

p. 224, p. 2, viii. 
1875. Atypus niger Hentz, Spid. of the U. S. p. 19, PI. ii, fig. 1. 

During a visit to Florida in April 1886, I had the pleasure of 
observing in natural site for the first time the nests of Abbot's 
Atypus, an aranead heretofore known as the black Atypus, or Atypus 
niger of Hentz. I had possessed for a number of years specimens 
of the long tubes in which this creatui-e dwells ^ concerning Avhich I 
only knew that they were reported as being spun along the outside 
of the trunks of trees. 

I. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The field of observation was on the plantation of Dr. William 
Wittfeld,^ at the lower part of Merrit's Island, which is situated be- 
tween the Indian and Banana Rivers, a few miles south of Cape 
Canaveral. A large number of specimens were collected, some of 
which are submitted for insj^ection. The species is distributed 
widely throughout the state of Florida, is found in Georgia, and 
probably in the Southern Atlantic States. 

The female of this Atypus has not heretofore been described, al- 
though it has recently come to light that it was known and figured 
nearly a century ago by Mr. John Abbot, an Englishman settled 
in Savannah, Georgia, during the latter part of the last century * 

^ The substance of this paper was given as a verbal communication before the 
last meeting (1887) of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, at 
Manchester, England. 

^ I had Floridian examples of the nest from Professor Riley the Entomologist 
of the Agriculture Bureau; and also from Dr. George Marx of Washington. 

* Fairyland, Georgiana, Brevard Co. Fla. 

* See the author's paper in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 74, on Necessity 
for Revising the Nomenclature of American Orbweaving Spiders. 



204 , PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Among Mr. Abbot's figures is one of this Atypus which he quite 
happily describes as "the purse web spider", (a popuhxr name which 
I cordially adopt), and makes a brief and correct note of its habits. 
"This singular species," he says, "makes a web like a money purse 
to the roots of large trees in the hammocks or swamps, five or six 
inches out of the ground, fastened to the tree, and the other end in 
the ground about the same depth or deeper. To the bottom of that 
part in the ground the spider retreats. I imagine they come out 
and seek their food by night as I never observed one out of its web. 
In November their young ones in vast numbers cover the abdomen 
of the female and the abdomen then appears very much shrunk. 
The male is the smallest, but has the longest nippers. Taken in 
March and is not common." ^ 

The description of Hentz " was made from a single specimen, a 
male, found in June on newly turned soil at North- 
^ / ,\ ^ „ ampton, Mass. Mr. AVilliam Holden reports it as 
collected in Ohio.^ The spider ought therefore to be 
found in the Middle and Atlantic States of America, 
but I have never been so fortunate as to see it therein, 
and have never heard of any one who happened 
Fig. 1. Atypus upon it. It probablv is not abundant, or its nesting 
habits must be greatly modified by change of latitude ; 
otherwise one would suppose that its very conspicuous nest would 
not have escaped notice. Or, may we suppose that it is disappear- 
ing, perhaps has disappeared before the progress of human civiliza- 
tion ? 

II. DESCEIPTIOX OF THE NESTS. 

The Florida nests are silken tubes of various lengths and sizes, 
ranging from ten inches long and three-fourths inch in diameter, to 
minute silken pipes a few inches long, and about one-eighth inch in 
diameter. Externally most of them present a dark, weather beaten 
appearance and are covered with more or less sand. Inside, the 
silk is white and clean. The texture of the material of which the 
nest is spun is quite close, resembling a rough-finished bit of silk 
cloth. 

1 Manuscript Drawings of the insects of Georgia in America by John Abbot of 
Savannah. Vol. xiv, 179:2. Zoological Librarj- of the British Museum of Natural 
History. 

2 Spiders of the United States, p. 19. Plate ii., fig. 1. Hentz knew nothing of 
the habits of his species. 

3 Id. Emerson's note. 




1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



205 



These tubes are found attached to the trunks of trees, alons: which 
they extend upwards for various distancesjaccording to their size; 
the size being evidently determined by the age of the occupant. 
The young spiders have very small tubes. Tlie adults occupy la^e 
tubes. The nests are fastened to the bark of the trees at several 
points l)y white threads. They are often open at the top, that is, 
there is no designed closure like a lid or door ; but for the most part 
- >;^» the top edge of the tube drops in 



or folds over, making an accident- 
al closure. Beneath the surface of 
the ground the tubes extend into 
the sandy soil around the root 
of the tree for various distances, 
sometimes equalling the length 
above the surface, and in one or 
two cases even exceeding it. 

The spider seems to have no 
preference for any special tree 
against which to spin its tubes. 
The palmetto was frequently 
chosen, and I counted as many 
as thirteen tubes, great and small, 
long and short, extending around 
a large portion of the base of one 







Fig. 2. Purseweb Spider's Nest with under- 
surface part exposed by removing the sand 



neighborhooi 



■Vi/^-, 






palmetto trunk. Some of these may have been the nests of a 
brood the individuals of which had estal)lished themselves in close 
Very frequentl}' these tubes were found attached 
to small trees or bushes. AVhen 
the trunks of the saplings have a 
slanting position, as occasionally 
happens by reason of external pres- 
sure of some kind, the tube gener- 
ally drops straight down to the 
ground, forming an angle with the 
point of attachment instead of hug- 
|j^{ ; A. g^ r ,.' -H,/ ging the bark of the plant. Most 
|ife"(l-|v 'l\^% i- ^PS^ of the tubes which I followed be- 
W^im^jL^^^^]^^'yc^s&'^'^ neath the sui-face terminated in a 
#^^i^^i£igg^g|g.^^^^|»sS:-' point or had a club-shaped termi- 



W 



point or had a club-shaped 
nus; but in one case at least the 
tube broadened out into an irregu- 
lar chamber with two short branches constructed like the main stem. 



Fig. 3. Colony of Purseweb spider's nest 
on a palmetto tree. 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

III. USE AND MANNER OF SPINNING THE TUBULAR NEST. 

Immense numbei-s of these nests were found throughout the woods 
on the grounds of Dr. Wittfeld. Spiders when found within the 
tuBes were usually clinging to the inside, a short distance from the 
top, or were found in the same position underneath the soil. The 

most persistent observation 
at various hours, night and 
day, failed to uncover any 
of the spider's habits as to 
capture of pi'ey, the mode 
of building the tube, or the 
uses of the tube in the life 
economy of the creature. 
I have no doubt, however, 
that in the uses of its pecu- 
liar web the Purseweb spi- 
der will be found to resem- 
ble closely her British 
congener, Atypus piceus. 
According to Mr. Fredrick 
Enock,^ this aranead cap- 
tures the insects that crawl 

Fig. 4. An underground terminus or den, wiih branches. upOU the OUtCr SUrfaCC of 

her tube by striking them through the silk from the inside, and 
when they are thus secured cutting a vent in the tissue large enough 
to drag the prey through into the tube. This is a most curious and 
interesting habit, the existence of which was established with toler- 
able certainty by Mr Enock by various observations and experi- 
ments. I may venture to repeat the substance of one of these. 

A large blow fly was held by its wings and permitted to crawl 
upon a bank until it walked upon one of the tubes of Atypus. The 
spider ascended a little distance and returned. The head of the fly 
was then rubbed against the tube a number of times, the tube mean- 
Avhile becoming impercej)tably distended, indicating the spider's 
approach. After a moment's pause the fimgs were thrust through 
the fly, followed by a crunching sound as the spider closed and 
almost crossed the top fangs around its prey. The observer released 
his hold upon the fly, and immediately the left hand fang was with- 
drawn just into the tube which was torn, and the fang refixed into 
the Hy. The right fang was then withdrawn and quickly seized the 




1 The Life History of Atypus piceus Sulz., by Fiedc. Enock. 
actions of the Entomological Society of London, 1885, p. 389. 



The Trans- 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



207 



1888.J 

fly through the opening, and after several tugs the insect was pulled 
Avithin the tube, and the spider backed downward holding its prey- 
fast in its falces, leaving a rent a quarter inch long by three-sixteenth 
inch wide. After an interval of three minutes the spider cautiously 
reascended the tube to the opening, and taking hold of the ragged 
■edges of the rent, drew them towards each other until they almost 
touched. She then backed a little and turned her abdomen so that 
the spinners approximated the united edges. Then by a number of 
zigzag movements with the spinners across the juncture, she com- 
pletely closed the rent, and when it was neatly repaired returned 
apparently to feed upon her prey. The next morning the rent was 
covered with sand so carefully that Mr. Enock could scarcely detect 
where it had been. When the spider was satisfied with food, it 
would draw in the tube in a determined manner, and would retain 
her hold in this position sometimes for several hours. 

1. A time-measure of the spinning-work. — Being foiled by the 
persistent secretiveness of this spider in natural sites, I captured sev- 
eral specimens and placed them within glass jars in order to observe 
their behavior under these artificial conditions. Some important 
facts resulted, particularly as to the mode of constructing the tubu- 
lar nests. The bottom of each jar was filled with sand, and a stick 

inserted within, in order to give a 
natural position for the establish- 
ment of a nest if the spider should 
be inclined to weave one. One indi- 
vidual, after long continued explo- 
ration of its quarters, at last estab- 
lished itself at the foot of the stand- 
ing stick and began to burrow a 
little hole. I was compelled to 
leave at this point, and did not re- 
turn to my room until evening, after 
twelve hours absence. During this 
time a vertical tube of white silk 
one and one-fourth inch long and 
about the thickness of the spider 
had been spun along the side of the 
stick. The outside of the tube was 
sparsely covered over with particles 
of sand which of course had been 
brought from below. 

A unit for measuring the time re- 
quired to construct a tube was also obtained. The inch and a 




Fig. 5. First section of Purseweb spider's 
tubular nest. 



208 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888.. 



quarter tubing was built Avithin twelve hours, although of course it 
cannot be determined how much of this time was actually consumed 
in spinning work, probably not more than two hours. It is at least 
evident that a length of two inches or more a day is quite within the 
spinning capacity of Atypus, 

2. The Foundation Frame and mode of Spinning the Exterior 
Tube. — Another specimen gave a very satisfactory clew to the entire 
mode of constructing a tube. It first took its position at the foot 
of the stick in the centre of the jar and wove a small lateral tube 
extending partly around the base. (See fig. 7.) At 9 o'clock in 
the evening this tube was pierced at the top, and the creature begao 

to erect a vertical tube along the sur- 
face of the stick. The mode of pro- 
ceeding was substantially as follows: 
Single threads were attached to the 
stick about two inches above the sur- 
face. These threads were stretched 
downward and over a lateral space 
about the width of the tube to be spun, 
extending to the little opening which 
had been made in the tube at the base 
of the stick. The lines were repeated 
and over laid until at last tliey ac- 
quired considerable consistency of tex- 
ture. At the top terminus they were 
attached to the stick or to one another. 
At the bottom the point of attachment 
was a little distance from the surface 
of the stick so that most of the lines 
had a slanting position. Their appear- 
ance might be compared t(» that of 
a number of poles leaned against a tree. The structure thus gradu- 
ally assumed a skeleton tubular form which was increased by the 
pressure of the spider against the lines as it moved back and forward 
within them upon the surface of the stick. When the scaffolding 
was completely overspun the section appeared as a close silken tube. 

3. Mode of Spinning binder ground. — A third specimen enabled 
me to determine the manner in which this rough frame was com- 
pleted so as to give it the close texture of the tubes found in Nature. 
This specimen had excavated a tunnel against the inner surface of the 




Fig. 6. Purseweb Spider, 
lines of frame for a tube. 



Foundation 




1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 209 

glass jar. Its movements were thus entirely open to observation. 
.-•• ,'.''■- .- .'- f Along this subterranean way or tun- 
nel the spicier strung fine threads cov- 
ering the bottom, the side and the top, 
forming a frame quite resembling the 
founds tion seaifolding used in spin- 
ning the vertical tube. (See fig. 6). It 
then proceeded to thicken these lines- 
in the following manner. The bottom 
parts were overspun by emitting from 
the long inferior spinnerets numerous 
^>,.- ■ 'iirn'w, ; . fiuc threads whicli wcrc beaten down 

i' '' '' against the surface by dropping the. 

' spinnerets, and were spread around 
by a lateral movement of the ab- 
domen, which of course carried with 
- . - it the spinnerets and the threads issii- 

Fig. 7. Purseweb Spider's tube. Sec- i"g thcrcform. The auimal's motiott 

tion after frame is overspun. reminded ouc of a plastcrcr usiug his 

trowel to spread mortar rather than a weaver spinning cloth. The. 
space covered by these movements having been sufficiently thicken- 
ed, the sjoider proceeded to another spot and went through the same 
process. When it came to thickening the upper portion of its tube it 
turned its abdomen upward resting its body upon the dorsum of the 
cephalothorax. In other words the creature laid upon its back. Its 
abdomen was well turned over so that in this position the spider was 
almost in the form of a semicircle. The pressure of the abdomen, 
upwards forced the lines at the point of impact into a little bay, the 
concavity of which was thickened over with threads spun from the 
spinnerets Avhich were managed in the way already described. That 
is, the spinnerets were moved back and forward, and the out spun- 
threads were beaten upwards into the lines already formed. 

This procedure very closely resembles the manner of spinning 
which I have often observed in Mygale Hentzii the large tarantula 
of our southwestern States. This mode of thickening over the foun- 
dation lines of the tube also closely resembles the behavior of orb- 
weaving and other spiders when constructing the thick padding 
which surrounds their eggs, forming their eggsacs or cocoons. I 
have seen it notably in the case of Lycosa. It is without doubt the 
way in which the trap-door spider of California {Cteniza Californica,'} 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

spins the silken lining of her well known and much admired trap 
■door nest. 

4. The Nesting Tube Spun in Sections. — It was further determin- 
•ed with reasonable certainty that the spider builds its tube in sec- 
tions. A letter from Miss Anna Wittfeld, after I returned from 
Florida, informed me that the spiders had spun complete tubes with- 
in the jars which I had left under her care. The question was at 
once raised, were these tubes completed by adding to the section 
which had already been observed? From correspondence with Miss 
Wittfeld the information was obtained that the tubes had been 
finished as I had conjectured, by adding to the portions previously 
formed. We may, therefore conclude first, (1) that the mode of 
constructing these tubes is for the first time fully determined ; sec- 
ond, (2) that the original section, of greater or less length as the 
■case may be, is spun in the manner now determined and described ; 
and third, (3) that additional sections, of probably about the same 
length, are added thereto according to the fancy or necessity of the 
builder, and constructed in the same manner as the preceeding one. 
It is thus within the power of Atypus to lengthen out her tube and 
■extend along the trunk to any desirable height, the web surface 
available as a snare for taking food. Thus, also, as she ascends along 
her arboreal hunting ground she carries with her the protecting 
"walls of her tubular home, which is truly her castle. 

A large number of tubes was collected, and these I cut open with 
the view of determining whether any trace of this mode of spinning 
by sections had been left in the form of seams or joints ; but nothing 
of the sort was found. The points of juncture were so skilfully 
•covered over that they differed in no respect from the texture of 
other portions of the tube. The silk on the inside, however, was of 
beautiful smooth white color, decidedly in contrast with the appear- 
ance of the outside. In many specimens examined the upper ex- 
tremity of the tube was made of perfectly white silk which apparent- 
ly had been quite recently spun, showing an addition to the tube 
-either for the purpose of repairing and strengthening, or else of ex- 
tending the old nest. This observation upon the nests spun in nat- 
ural site quite harmonizes with the conclusion reached from the ac- 
tion of Atypus in confinement.^ 

' For an account of the English Atypus piceus making a new nest as observed 
by Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, See Annals and Mag. of Natural History, Vol. 
viii., p. 241, 187G. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 211 

5. Doors. — An examination of the numerous nests shows that 
openings are usually but not always left at the top of the tube. 
These openings are placed indifferently beneath, at the side and 
above. When the spider is not near the upper portion of its tube, 
the silk naturally collapses, and the opening is not apjjarent. How- 
ever, it must be remembered that a very slight stroke of the mandi- 
bles would open the tube at any part and give the spider egress. 
So also a few movements of the spinnerets would close the aperture. 
Moreover, if we accept the conclusion that the mode of capturing 
prey is the same as that of Atypus piceug (as above described) there 
appears to be no special need for a door for the main necessity of 
life, since the spider has little or no occasion ever to go outside her 
own tower or cave. 

IV. SANDING THE OUTSIDE OF THE TUBE. 

It has been stated that one of the individuals put under observa- 
tion, after having spun her snare, covered it more or less thickl}'' 
with grains of sand. It Avas thus indicated that the sanded condi- 
tion of the tubes found in natural positions is the result of purpose 
on the part of the builder. What purpose does it serve? Many 
spiders of various fiimilies are in the habit of protecting their cocoons 
or eggsacs by covering them with mud, with particles of soil, with 
bits of decayed wood and bark scraped or broken off, with various 
minute chippage, and even with the debris of insects' wings, heads, 
legs etc., captured for food. In this behavior the purpose is obvi- 
ously to protect the enclosed eggs from hurtful weather changes and 
various enemies, cheifly the parasitizing ichneumon-fly, Pezomachus. 

The use of the sand deliberately placed upon the outside of the 
nest of Atypus is not so obvious, although it perhaps serves to 
toughen it, and jiossibly protects its inmate from the assaults of 
certain enemies as yet unknowm. In natural site the sand and 
weathering give the tubes almost the exact appearance of the out- 
side of the tree along which it is placed. In a large proportion 
of my specimens the sand was intermingled with brown wood-dust 
from decayed bark and the dark colored vegetable mold which was 
heaped around the base of the trunk, and into which the spiders 
had excavated. 

It has been conjectured that this is an example of so called mimi- 
cry. Some observations made by Mr. Frederick Enock on the 
habits of Atypus piceus, the British congener of our Florida spe- 
cies, raise a doubt upon this supposition, at least indicate another 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

solution. The mode of constructing the tube as observed by Mr. 
Enock is substantially that which I have above described as prac- 
ticed by our Purseweb Atypus. After the completion of her tube 
Piceus was seen' to take a load of sand between its falces, every grain 
of which it deftly guided with its fi\ngs, literally pushing the grains 
through the side of the tube. Having exhausted its supply it 
reversed its position, returned to the bottom, and repeated the action 
of gathering and distributing the sand. At the end of an hour and 
a half it had completely covered the silken tube with sand, every 
grain of which it had brought up from the surface of the ground, 
thrust it through the silken tube from the inside, and afterwards, as 
the occasion required, smoothed over the rent Avith newly extruded 
silk. The next morning a small quantity of sand had been forced 
out at the top of the tube, showing that the industrious creature had 
continued its labor during the night; and this, indeed, was pro- 
longed during the greater part of the day. The following night it 
had lengthened the aerial portion of the tube and covered it with 
sand.^ We may perhaps, conclude from these facts that the spider 
had apparently simply endeavored to save itself the labor of carry- 
ing sand to the top of its tube, by pushing it through the rent sides, 
a method which would be naturally suggested by its custom of 
opening the tube to take in its prey. 

Mr. Moggridge attributed this sanding of the exterior to a pro- 
tective purpose, and alludes to the fact that while tubes of Atypus 
piceus found on sandy banks were covered with sand, a nest takeji 
at Troyes, France, in a mossy site, had moss and plant fibres woven 
upon it.' But as the spider in such environment would be compelled 
to clear away particles of moss, root fibres etc., in extending the 
nest over the surface and through the close standing stems, there 
appears to be no reason why it might not treat this chippage pre- 
cisely as it did the sand in Mr. Enock's examples. No doubt these 
spiders, as well as our Purseweb, while in the act of deporting the 
sand excavated from beneath, frequently leave grains attached to 
the inside of the tube. Indeed, it would be difficult to prevent this, 
as ,the sand readily entangles with the silken fibres; but as such a 
rough coating would be unpleasant to the creature in its frequent 
passing to and fro, it would overspin all these inside droppings. 
Indeed, in this very fact we may see a sufficient reason for the 

' The Life-History of Atypus piceus, page 397. 

2 Harvesting Ants and Trap-Door Spider. Supplement. ]). 188. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 213 

habit of getting the sand out at a point nearer the ground than the 
top of the tube. On the contrary the particles dumped from the 
top or through slits in the side, and which al&o readily entangle 
within the silk strands as they fall, are permitted to remain inas- 
much as they are not inconvenient. The idea of a protective pur- 
pose cannot, however, be wholly excluded ; for it is found that in 
repairing the rents made in the tube in order to draw in the strick- 
en prey, the new material spun over the rent is quite invariably 
sanded. This indicates a deliberate intention. 

On the whole, in view of the above facts, and reasoning from 
them by analogy it appears that (1) much of the sand and bark- 
dust which covers the outside of the nests of Atypus is an incidental 
result of the act of excavation ; (2) that, however, the spider does 
at times deliberately add to this coating; (3) that the purpose of 
this act is probably i)rotective at least in the way of strengthening 
the tube; (4) that there is no positive proof that protective mimic- 
ry has any part in the habit ; yet (5) as a matter of fact this exterior 
coating does better adapt the tube as a snare both to decoy insects 
to a light and enable them to travel upon it. 

V. MATERNITY HABITS. 

Much remains to be determined of the life-history of the Purseweb 
spider, but we may venture the prediction that in many points it 
will be found to difler little from the habits of its British cono-ener 
as described by various observers. We know from Abbot's note 
above cited that the young, like the offspring of Lycosids, domicile 
upon the back of the mother after they are hatched. The cocoon 
containing the eggs is of course retained within the purseweb, and 
probably in that portion which is beneath the surface of the ground. 
Atypus piceus suspends her egg-cocoon in a pretty hammock of silk 
an inch long, attached to the top and bottom of the pouch.^ The 
number of eggs within the cocoon of Piceus is from one hundred to 
one hundred and fifty. They are deposited in midsummer, July or 
early August, and the young issue from the cocoon about the latter 
part of September. They remain with their mother in the maternal 
nest during the winter, and Mr. Enoch found the female and her 
young together March 31st, and again as late as April 5th, About 

1 See Mr. Knock's paper, p. 392. See also a good figure representing the same 
habit in Mr. Simon's paper, Annals Entomological Society of France, 5th Series 
torn. 3, 1874, plate 4; also "Spiders of Dorset", Rev. O. P. Cambridge, page 
xxxiii, Introduction. 



214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the last named dates the younglings make their exode, and after be- 
ing dispersed in the manner usual to spiderlings, proceed to make 
tiny tubes which are miniatures of the parent nest. As the develop- 
ment of spider life in Great Britain is later than in the United 
States the tubelets of the young of Abbot's Atypus may be looked 
for in the early autumn. Some of the Florida specimens which I 
collected in April within their tubes, I judge to be members of the 
preceding autumn broods. 

VI. ORIGIN AND RELATIONS OF THE TUBEWEAVING HABIT. 

The tube-making faculty appears to be, as far as secondary causes 
are concerned, the natural result of the instinct of self-protection. 
It is perhaps most natural that the lower animals should seek to 
protect themselves within barriers formed by their body secretions, 
as is the case among the larvre of many insects. The restless move- 
ments of the body characteristic of these creatures, conjoined with 
the instinct to cover themselves up, to protect themselves from un- 
favorable weather changes and from the ap])roach of' enemies, may 
be a sufficient natural explanation of the origin of the tube-making 
habit. Thus the silk moth larva while secreting silk from the 
glands which open on the under lip, moves backward and forward 
continually distributing its secretions, and at the same time by the 
motion of its body limits them to the borders of the space around 
which it moves. In the same way the social caterpillars have 
learned to shut themselves within their Avell known tent, which 
presents so largely the appearance of a designed structure, but which, 
in its origin, at least, may have been quite as much the result of 
accident, the silken secretion simply hardening around the limits of 
the space through which the restless creatures move, and which by 
their motions they keep free from threads. In like manner the 
larva of the ant, at the moment when Nature brings upon it the 
sense of the great change from its larval to its pupal estate, moves 
backward and forward within a narrow space secreting its delicate 
silk, which by its movements is pushed from direct contact with its 
body, and hardens into the little case or pouch in which itself at 
last is encompassed. Thus, in an entirely natural way, we may 
suppose that the Great Over-Force while planning and directing, 
preserving and governing all creatures and all their actions, has 
developed the interesting habit of sjiinning tubes or cylinders as a 
protection to the body. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 215- 

Among the spicier fauna this habit is particularly i:)roniinent. It 
does not exist as with insects in a larval estate, but in the pei'fect 
animal, the only one, Avith possibly one exception,' of which we have 
knowledge, the tube-making instinct of insects being confined to the 
larval period. This habit, which characterizes the larvre of insects 
is carried forward to the perfect animal among the Aranere. The 
habit of protecting themselves by tubular spinning work in one 
form or another exists among some species of every section or tribe 
of the spiders. 

Among the Orbw'eavers we have such examples as Epeira strix, 
which spins a tough silken cylinder, open at one end. Within this 
she makes her home, and holds a connection with her round snare 
by means of a thread. This tube is spun within cavities of various 
sorts, and often wdthin a curled leaf The habit is again illustrated 
among the Orbweavers by the beautiful silken domes or tents with 
or without a leafy covering, such as are formed by the Insular spi- 
der, Epeira insularis or the Shamrock spider, Epeira trifolium. 

Among the RetitelarijB or Lineweavers we have such examples 
as the pretty tubular tent of Theridium zelotyppmn which I have- 
found swinging among pine leaves in the Adirondack forests contain- 
ing the mother and young. The Saltigrades or Vaulting spiders- 
spin thick silken tubes within which they shelter themselves during 
summer and winter, and in which also they bestow their egg-sacs. 
The Laterigrades I have found sheltered underneath a little tubular 
tent, guarding their cocoons, although the tube making habit seems 
to be least decided among these of all the aranead families. The 
Tubeweavers, of course, as their name implies, have a strong ten- 
dency in this direction. Indeed, some remarkable examples of 
tubular nests may be found among them, as in the case of our 
Medicinal spider {Tegenaria medidnalis), and the funnel-shaped 
snare of the Speckled tubeweaver (Agalena ncevia), which is one of 
the most common spiders of America. 

The nest of this Agalena is a tube, oftentimes of considerable 
length, which broadens out from the top-opening into a sheeted 
snare that is spread over surrounding surfaces, and is usually guyed 
or supported by lines reaching upward. It may be seen extending- 
within little cavities and openings, insect burrows, gopher holes and 
the like, and in some cases I have thought that I have seen indica- 

1 Psocus. See my "Note on a Web-spinning Neuropterous Insect, Psocus 
sexpunctatus." Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia 1883, pp. 278-9. 



216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

tions that the occupant had assisted in accommodating her spinning 
work to her usurped quarters by widening and deepening the hole. 
At all events, the snare when seen in such sites presents a very 
striking appearance of having been a work of design, both in the 
burrow and in the inter-spun tube, precisely as in the case of the 
Tunnelweavers. Agalena has one remarkable physical character- 
istic in common with Atypus and other Theraphosids, namely, the 
long jointed spinnerets which are used so actively in spinning her 
characteristic tube. 

When we come to the two remaining tribes, the Lycosids and 
Tunnelweavers, (Territelarise) we see this habit possessing special 
developments, and here also we see it associated with the burrowing 
habit which is such a marked characteristic of many of the higher 
.animals and even of man himself. 

The nest of Cyrtauchenius elongatus as described by M. Eugene 
Simon closely resembles that of Agalena ncevia in the character of the 
tube alone ; but this tube is enclosed within a deep cylindrical bur- 
row, and is prolonged upward for about three inches above the sur- 
face of the ground, and enlarged into a funnel-shape, so that it be- 
comes from tM'o to three inches across at the orifice. This aerial 
portion is snow white, and at once attracts the eye even from a con- 
siderable distance ; the nests, rising up amid sparse grass which 
serves to support but not conceal them, present the appearance of 
scattered white fungi. Cyrtauchenius belongs to the Territelarire, 
and appears to be nearly related to Atypus and Nemesia. Mr. 
Moggridge classifies its nest among those of the trap-door spiders, 
characterizing it as the funnel-shaped nest.^ 

The nest of Cyrtauchenius even more closely resembles that of 
certain Lycosids found in the United States ; 'for example, iycosa 
tigrina^ is quite abundant in the Atlantic States of America. It con- 
structs a nest wdiich answers closely to Simon's description of Cry- 
tauchenius, the only exception being that the portion of the nest 
above ground quite invariably forms an oblique angle wath the tun- 
nel within the ground, and the burrow is not lined with spinning 
work below the mouth. The aerial portion of this spider's nest is 
sometimes formed into a beautiful vestibule above the mouth of the 
burrow, and as the winter season advances is occasionally shielded 

1 Harvesting Ants and Trap-Door Spiders, Supplement p. 190. Mr. Mogg- 
ridge gives a diagramatic figure of this Spider's nest from the description of M. 
Simon. See pi. 13, p. 183. 

^ Tarentula tigrina McCook. Proceed. Am. Entom. Soc. 1879, p. xi. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 217 

with a sort of swinging door. Hentz says that one winter he found 
a burrow of a Lijcosa (species not named) supplied with a lid, and 
he thinks it j^robable that all Lycosids close the orifice of their holes 
for hibernation.^ I may say here that probably all burrowing Ly- 
cosids close the openings of their nests as the cold season approaches, 
and it is possible that the same habit Avill be found to prevail as a 
protection against heavy rains even in the summer and autumn. 
Mrs. Mary Treat says that certain Lycosids thus shut themselves in 
just before moulting, and remain so until quite recovered from the 
after debility^ 

Another interesting Lycosid tubemaker is the turret spider.^ This 
creature constructs above the surface of the ground to the height of 
one or two inches a little tower which is in form an irregular penta- 
gon, and is composed of bits of straw, stalks of grass etc. It is quite 
like the old fashioned mud-chimneys which I have often seen at- 
tached to the gables of log cabins in the far Avest.* Unlike the sur- 
face nest of Tigrina, the tower of Arenicola is invariably built in the 
line of the burrow, the whole forming a straight perpendicular tube. 
We have thus established, through the nest of Cyrtauchenius, a very 
close connection between the nesting habits of the Lycosids and that 
of the Territelarise. 

In the case of Atypxis sukeri, as it is seen in England and de- 
scribed by its first observer, Mr. Joshua Brown, the nest assumes the 
shape of a pendant inflated tube, covered with particles of sand, 
closed at the top, extending nine inches more or less above the silk- 
lined burrow of like depth, and attached to surrounding foliage. 
In this form it cannot differ largely from that of our Pursevveb 
spider except that the former is stayed among the grass-stalks and 
the latter is fastened to the tree trunks. It would be interesting and 
perhaps highly suggestive were Abbot's Atypus to be domiciled in 
a grassy site away from trees, to note its behavior. Would it make 
a nest quite like that of the English Atypus? * 

^ Spiders U. S. p. 25. 

2 « My Garden Pets," p. 82. 

3 Lycosa arenicola, Scudder. Psyche. Vol. II, p. 2, 1887. 

* McCook, " Tenants of an Old Farm," figs. 44, 45, p. 131-5. 
5 Efforts to pursue my studies of the Purseweb spider were prevented by the loss 
of the living specimens sent me by Miss Wittfeld from Florida. We exhausted 
our ingenuity in providing protection for packages sent through the mail, but not 
a spider lived. Evidently the species is more sensitive to such confinement than 
many others. I regret to record that since writing this note, the young lady here men- 
tioned has died. Her keen and intelligent interest in insect life are well known 
and were highly appreciated not only by myself but by others entomologists. 

15 



218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1888, 

The nests of the same spider ^ according to other observers have 
the projecting part trailed along the ground or surface growth of 
grass or moss. Thus the tube differs from that of the Purseweb 
Atypus simply in that it is spun horizontally along the surface in- 
stead of being attached in a perpendicular position to a tree. M. 
Eugene Simon says that Atypus piceus conceals herself in dry locali- 
ties, partly vmderground ; sometimes in woods, principally the plan- 
tations of evergreens. Its retreat is altogether hidden, sometimes 
by the stones, at other times by the moss, so that it is necessary to 
search with care and over large spaces in order to discover it. This 
Atypus burrows obliquely a deep tunnel of 15 to 20 centimetres of 
the size of its body. It constructs part of its tube quite straight and 
of a tissue very thick, of which the upper part is longer than that 
within the subterranean gallery. It is continued horizontally upon 
the soil and terminates in a tapering closed point. Near its lower 
extremity, the tube presents a large expansion where it dilates into 
the form of a chamber quite spacious, within which the spider dwells. 
It is at the entrance of the contraction that it suspends by a few 
threads the cocoon containing its eggs. Simon presents a drawing 
in site of the nest of Atypus,^ and a good figure of a collected speci- 
men is given by Moggridge.^ 

These comparative results suggest a very interesting analogy be- 
tween the spinning industry of the two aranead tribes, the Citi- 
gradse and Territelarise, which I venture to present in diagrammatic 
outlines at Fig. 8 and 9. The first figure in the cut (Fig. 8, 1) rep- 
resents the simple burrow of the Mygalidce, which, in many species 
and especially our own American tarantula, is a tubular hole in the 
ground without any silken tube or lining. This quite corresponds 
with the unlined tubular burrow which is the typical nest of the 
Citigrades as represented by most of the Lycosids (Fig, 9, 1.) 
The second figure of the series (Fig. 8) shows the silken tubular 
nest of the Atypime, as represented by the American and European 
species considered in this paper. Here we have the ground burrow 

1 Note on Alypus sulzeri, Mr. Edward Newman, Linnean Society. See also 
Zoologist, Vol. xiv., 1856. p. 5021. See also Moggridge, Trap-Door Spiders, 
p. 185. 

2 Annals Entomological Soc. of France, 5th Series, Tome 3, 1873, Plate 4. 
' Harvesting Ants and Trap Door Spiders, Supplement, p. 183, PI. xiii. 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



219 



of Mygale with the addition of a silken lining^ which also is carried 
above the surface and attached to trees (a) or to the adjacent herb- 
age either in a straight tube (6) or a curved one (c). 








Fig. 8. Nesting Industry of the Territelarise. 
1. Mygale. 2. Atypus a, A, Abbotii, b, c, A. piceus. 3. Cyrtauchenius. Cteniza 
and Nemesia. 




Fig. 9. Nesting Industry of the Citigradae. 
I. Lycosa. 2. L. arenicola. 3, 4. L. tigrina. 

Turning to the corresponding number in the Citigrade series 
(Fig. 9, 2) we see the burrow slightly silk lined at the mouth, and 
carried upward above the surface where it is supported by a rude 
turret. The silken tube is, however, open and is rudimentary as 
compared with that of Atypus, 

The third members of the two series show a yet closer likeness in 
in the nest forms viz., that of Cyrtauchenius (Fig. 8, 3) and that of 
Lycosa tigrina (Fig. 9, 3). The last named spider by that form of 
surface nest described above (Fig. 9, 4), shows us a rude suggestion 
of the trap-door spider's nest which, whether spun within a ground 
burrow (Fig. 8, 4, a), or within the ridges of bark upon a tree (4, b) 
as with certain Mexican species, has attracted the admiration not 
only of naturalists but of all observers. It is curious to note, by the 
way, the tendency of these accomplished nest builders to domicile 
upon a tree like their American tribal associates, the Purseweb 
lers. 



1 Some of the large creatures known generally as the Mygalidae or tarantulas 
I have no doubt silk line their burrows. We might therefore add to this series 
another and intermediate form of nest between Mygale (1) and Atypus (2) as here 
givea. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

From this comparison these conclusions and inferences appear: 
First, (1) Tunnelweavers and Citigrades have several well marked 
common characteristics in their nesting industry that suggest a close 
relation in spinning economy. Second, (2) the two tribes furnish 
examples of nests that may be arranged in series of advanced indus- 
trial skill, from a simple burrow to the highly specialized nest of 
the Trap-door spider on one side and, on the other, to the rude door 
or lid of Tigrina's silk-lined vestibule. Third (3), the most perfect 
manifestation of nesting industry is found with the Tunnelweavers, 
who are more dependent upon spinning-work for sustenance (and 
probably i)rotection) than the Citigrades. Fourth (4), there appears 
to be some, although no very marked relation between the animal 
organization and the quality of the spinning work of the two tribes. 
The greatest development in size, as well as in spinning function, 
has been reached among the Tunnelweavers ; but most araneologists 
would consider the Lycosids the more highly organized spiders. 
Moreover, the Tunnelweavers are provided with long, jointed supe- 
rior spinners (lacking in Lycosids) specially adapted for weaving 
their more perfect nests. 

Finally, as the result of a comparative study of the nesting indus- 
try of all the si^ider fauna, we may conclude that there is one 
germinal or typical form of nest among all the tribes, Avhich form is 
the tube. Around this common and rudimentary form, which has 
been shown to be the one most natural to all animals possessing the 
spinning function, the greatly varied and widely divergent nests of 
spiders, — whether known as domiciles, dens, tents, tunnels, or caves, 
—may be grouped in series of more or less modified forms. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 221 

July 10. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Eleven persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

"On the Fauna of the Lower Coal Measures of Central Iowa." 
By Charles R. Keyes. 

"Descriptions of two new Fossils from the Devonian of Iowa." 
By Charles R. Keyes. 

The death of Edwin L. Reakirt, a member was announced. 



July 24. 

Mr. Isaac C. Maetindale in the chair. 

Nine persons present. 

A paper entitled "New Species of Shells from the New Hebrides 
and Sandwich Islands." By W. D. Hartman M. D. was presented 
for publication. 

The death of Henry Carvill Lewis, Professor of Mineralogy in 
the Academy, was announced. 



July ,31. 
Mr. Charles Roberts in the chair. 
Thirteen persons present. 
The following were ordered to be published : — 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



ON THE FAUNA OF THE LOWER COAL MEASURES 
OF CENTRAL IOWA. 

BY CHARLES R. KEYES. 

The carboniferous rocks of the region in the immediate vicinity 
of Des Moines have, until quite lately, yielded only fragmentary 
remains of fossils. Recent investigations, however, have disclosed 
a rich fauna embracing, as hereafter enumerated, more than 35 
genera and nearly 60 species, the majority of them in a most perfect 
state of preservation. In Iowa the lower coal measures present, 
lithologically, a marked contrast with both the under-(subcarbonif- 
erous) and the over-lying (middle and upper coal measures) strata 
which are pre-eminently calcareous, while the lower coal measures 
are characterized by an almost total absence of the calcareous 
divisions, which are represented only by a few thin bands of impure 
limestone, local in distribution. A section of the rocks at Des 
Moines presents : 

Drift 20 feet. 

Loss 15 " 

Middle coal measures 40 " 

Lower coal measures . . . . . 160 " 
St. Louis limestone (not exposed in Polk county.) 

The superficial deposits have been quite thoroughly studied by 
McGee and Call,^ but the palaeozoic rocks have in Polk county 
received but a passing notice. Though economically of far greater 
importance than any other formation in the state, the lower coal 
measures have received comparatively little geologic attention ; and 
the two attempts at an exhaustive and detailed survey of this 
formation in Iowa, and a correlation of the different coal horizons 
was unfortunately rendered abortive by circumstances entirely 
beyond the control of those engaged in the study of the Des Moines 
valley region. In Iowa the lower coal measures probably have a 
maximum thickness of more than tAvo hundred feet, but notwith- 
standing the fact that at Des Moines the entire formation underlies 
the city, which is situated just at the eastern border of the middle 
coal measures, this maximum is nowhere, in Polk county, attained. 
The base of the middle coal measures as characterized by Mr. St. 
John^ and as is clearly shown in several localities in the immediate 
vicinity of Des Moines, is composed of variegated clays and shales, 

1 Vide Am. Jour. Sci., vol. xxiv, Sept. 1882. 
^ White's Geol. Iowa, vol. I, p. 272. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 223 

with one or two intercalated bands of impure nodular limestone. 
These variegated shales have a thickness of forty or more feet, and 
are easily recognizable at numerous exposures in the bluffs of the 
vicinity by the thin limestone bands, which within the city limits 
have yielded twenty or more species of fossils. There are also 
included in the middle coal measures some local depositions of 
micaceous sandstone, usually soft, and unfit even for the roughest 
masonry ; some of it, however, is concretionary and quite durable. 
Formerly these portions were quarried for local use, but of late no 
attempt has been made for its utilization. At the southern extrem- 
ity of Capital Hill this sandstone reaches a thickness of more than 
twenty-five feet. A short distance north of the city a sandstone 
having a thickness of twelve feet caps the bluff, and forms a high 
mural escarpment along the south side of the Des Moines river. 
Although the Des Moines and Racoon rivers have, in Polk county, 
corraded their channels through the upper strata, the lower coal 
measures are fully represented from the underlying St. Louis lime- 
stone^ — the nearest exposure of which is about thirty miles below 
Des Moines — to the superimposing variegated shales just mentioned. 
This formation as represented in this vicinity is composed almost 
entirely of clays and shales, with a few thin layers of soft sandstone, 
and at least three workable beds of coal. The relative positions of 
the latter are shown in the following sections at the Giant Coal 
Mine where the fossil forms hereafter mentioned were chiefly 
collected : 

Drift clay and carbonaceous shales . . 56 feet 

Coal No. 1, 

Shales, etc. ...*.. 

Coal No. 2, 

Shales, lower layers fossiliferous. 

Coal No. 3 4* to 6 " • 

To the southwest, from Capital Hill, the distance between coals 
No. 2 and No. 3 appears to increase, and the latter vein attains a 
thickness in some places of seven feet. The coal measures of Iowa 
have a general dip to the south and west. To the northeast from 
Des Moines, the coal veins appear to thin out and finally are want- 
ing, as shown in the accompanying sections ; the first at Altoona, 

1 Vide White on the Unconformability of the coal measures upon the older 
rocks, etc. Geology of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 225 et seq. 



4 

If 

35 



20i " 
41 " 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888.. 

nine miles from Des Moines, and the second three miles north of 
Mitchellville, or sixteen miles from Des Moines. 

Drift and carbonaceous clays . . . 110 feet. 

Shale 60 " 

Sandstone 15 " 

Coal IJ " 

Shale ........ 15 " 

Coal 4 " 

A boring near INIitchellville at the eastern border of Polk county 
shows an almost entire absence of coal. 

Drift 64 feet. 

Blue and black shales with a thin band of 

limestone and one of sandstone . . 17^ " 

Impure coal . . . . . . lo: " 

Gray, black, blue and sandy shales with two 

layers of sandstone .... 141 i^ '' 

Limestone, Avith marly partings . . . 392 " 

Coals No. 2 and especially No. 3, are the most profitably worked 
and furnish nearly all the coal mined in the county. Immediately 
overlying, and thus forming the roof of, coal No. 3 is a soft black 
clayey shale often slaty in places, highly fossiliferous and containing 
much iron pyrites in the form of crystals and nodules ; many cubes 
of the former being over an inch along the edges, and the hitter often 
containino: shells of mollusca. The shell substance of the fossils 
from these shales, aside from those contained in the pyritiferous nod- 
ules, is replaced more or less completely by pyrite. In some speci- 
mens the replacement is complete ; in others only a thin film of 
pyrite covers the shell, leaving the interior of the shell substance 
Avith the original calcareous constituents ; between the two extremes 
all degrees of replacement by pyrite occur. In a few instances — 
Lophopliyllum, fish-teeth and the remains of crinoids — no replacement 
has taken place. These fossiliferous shales are, vipon exposure to the 
weather, easily and speedily disintegrated into a fine black clay, 
and the iron pyrite contained quickly decomposes; thus render- 
ing it extremely difiicult to obtain good specimens of fossils, unless- 
the shales are examined immediately upon being taken from the 
mines. This fact may account, in part, for the apparent rarity of 
fossils from the lower coal measures of Central Iowa, as all traces of 
fossil remains are quickly obliterated after the shales have been 
disturbed. 

Independent of its biological and geological relations, the fauna of 
the lower coal measures of Des INIoines is of considerable interest in 
its bearing upon the geographical distribution during carboniferous 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. '225' 

times of certain species ; and also on account of the close similarity 
in many respects, of this and the fauna of the lower coal measures 
of eastern Illinois, particularly that of the superimposing black 
shales of the "Danville" coal, or coal "No. 7" of the general 
Illinois section. Stratigraphically the relations of these two fossilif- 
erous shales to the principal coal-beds are the same — each forming 
the roof of the most extensive coal stratum in their respective 
localities ; lithologically the two shales are apparently identical. 

CCELENTERATA. 

Lophophyllum proliferum McChesney. 

Cyathaxonia prolifera McChesney, 1860. Disc. New Palseo. Fos. 

p. 60. 
Cyathaxonia sj)'?. Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, 

pp. 65, 66, tab. v, figs. 3-4. 
Lophophyllum proliferum Meek, 1872. U. S. Geol. Surv. of 

Nebraska, p. 144. 
This species though a characteristic, and usually one of the most 
abundant, fossils of the coal measures is extremely rare in the lower 
coal measures of central Iowa; however, it is not to be expected 
that the remains of coelenterates would occur very abundantly in 
bituminous shales. 

Rhombopora lepidodendroides Meek. 

Rhomhopora lejndodendroides Meek, 1872. U. S. Geol. Sur. of 

Nebraska, p. 144. 
Rliomhopora lepidodendroides White, 1875. Expl. and Sur. W. 

100 merid. Vol. IV, pt. 1, p. 99. 

From the lower coal measures but a single specimen of this species 

has been collected. In a thin band of limestone of the middle coal 

measures about one hundred feet higher than the horizon from 

which this specimen was found, this species occurs quite abundantly. 

ECHINODERMATA. 

Eupachycrinus (sp. ?). 

The only remains of echiuoderms as yet discovered in the black 
shales are a few stem joints and a brachial plate which evidently 
belong to one of the coal measure species of this genus. 

BRYOZOA. 

Synocladia biserialis Swallow. 
Synocladia biserialis Swallow, 1858. Trans. St Louis Acad. Sci.,. 
Vol. I, p. 179. 



■226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Sijnocladia virgulacea Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, 
p. 70. 

The only bryozoan remains from tbe black shales consist of a few 
well preserved specimens of this species. From the investigations of 
Meek and Ethridge it would appear that Front's genus Setopora is 
synonymous with Synocladia, and according to the former writer 
S. cestriensis from the Chester limestone is very closely allied to, if 
not identical with, S. biserialis. This would give Synocladia biserialis 
a much more extensive vertical range than has hitherto been sup- 
posed. 

BRACHIOFODA. 

Xingula umbonata Cox. 

Lingula umbonata Cox, 1857. Geol. Surv. Ky., Vol. Ill, p. 576, 
pi. X, fig. 4. 

Lingula umbonata "White, 1884. 13 Ann. rep. Geol. Ind., pt. II, 
p. 120, pi. XXV, fig. 14. 

The specimens from Des Moines are somewhat larger than the 
one originally figured by Cox {loc. cit.), and like that are broader 
posteriorly to the mid-length than anteriorly. The posterior mar- 
gin is broadly rounded instead of being obtusely angular as it is 
often said to be, and as is shown in some figures of this species. 
None of the specimens under consideration are, therefore, so promi- 
nently subangular on the posterior margin, and broader anteriorly 
to the mid-length as those shown in the figures of Meek and Worthen^ 
of a form which they call L. mytiloides Sowerby, while specimens of 
Sowerby's species figured by Ethridge^ have the posteripr margin 
even more sharply rounded or obtusely angular. No opportunity 
has been offered for directly comparing the American with the 
European forms and consequently their exact specific relations have 
not been sufficiently considered. 

Biscina nitida Phillips. 

Orbicula nitida Fhillips, 1836. Geol. Yorks., II, p. 221, pi. xi, 

figs. 10-13. 
Discina nitida Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. Ill, Vol. V, p. 

572, pi. XXV, fig. 1. 
This species is common at the Folk county coal mine but has not 
as yet been discovered elsewhere in the county. The specimens 

1 Geol. Illinois, Vol. V, p. xxv, figs. 2a, 2b, 2c, 

« Proc. Nat. His. Soc. Glasgow, Vol. IV, pi. v, fig. 3. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 227 

collected are, on the average, smaller than those from other localities. 
Meek and Worthen regard D. missouriensis Shumard a synonym of 
this species. 

Productus nanus Meek and Worthen. 

Productus nanus Meek and Worthen, 1860. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci.' Phila., p. 450. 

Productus nanus Meek and Worthen, 1866. Geol. 111., Vol. II, 
p. 320, pi. xxvi, figs. 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d. 

This species was described from the lower coal measures of Jeffer- 
son county, and inasmuch as the St. Louis limestone is exposed in 
many of the creeks of that locality, its horizon is near the base of 
the coal measures ; the horizon at Des Moines from which the spec- 
imens under consideration were obtained is somewhat higher. 
Though quite rare it will doubtless be found in other localities in 
the Des Moines valley. It is associated with P. muricatus N. and 
P. to which it presents differences that are both characteristic and 
constant. The almost total absence of spines in this species forms a 
marked contrast with the congeneric species of the same locality. 

Productus cora D'Orbigny. 

Productus cava d'Orbiguy, 1842. Voyage dans I'Amerique 

Meridionale. 
Productus prattenianus Norwood, 1854. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., Vol. Ill, p. 17. 
Productus cequicostatus Shumard, 1855. Geol. Rep. Missouri, p. 

201, pi. C, fig. 10. 
Productus flemingi Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, 

p. 52, tab. iv, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Productus cora White, 1884. Ind. Geol. Kept, for 1883, p. 126, pi. 

xxvi, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
A single specimen from the Polk County coal mine. This species 
was originally described from South America ; but with the exception 
of Owen' and Marcou,^ American paleontologists have until quite 
recently adopted for this form Norwood's name of P. prattenianus. 
A Productus collected from the Kinderhook in the vicinity of 
Burlington, and from the same horizon in Marshall county, unques- 
tionably belongs to this species ; if, however, this is the form de- 
scribed by White^ as P. Icevicostus, the latter is certainly synonymous 

^ Geol. Rep. Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 1852. 

2 Geology of North America, 1858. 

3 Boston Jour. Nat. His., Vol. VII, p. 230, I860. 



228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

with P. cora; the vertical range of which would extend downward 
to the base of the subcarboniferous. 

Produotus muricatus Norwood and Pratten. 

Productus muricatus Norwood and Pratten, 1854. Jour. Acad, 
Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. Ill, p. 14, pi. i, fig. 8. 

Productus muricatus White, 1875. Exp. and Sur. w. 100 merid. 
vol. IV, pt. I, p. 120, pi. viii, fig. 4. 

In the geology of Yorkshire, (p. 214, jil. viii, fig. 3) Phillips in 
1836 described Producta muricata: but the description is very brief 
and his figure would indicate that he had in hand a specimen of 
less than average size of P. costatus described by Sowerby nine 
years before. In Iowa, Dr. White found Norwood and Pratten's 
P. muricatus, most characteristic of the middle coal measures ; the 
recent discoveries, however, show that it is the most abundant 
brachiopod of the lower coal measures in the region around Des 
Moines, yet the average size is somewhat less than that of the 
same species from the calcareous strata of the middle coal measures 
of the same locality. Both Davidson and Meek regard P. muricatus 
N. and P. identical with P. longispinus of Sowerby. Throughout 
Iowa at least, P. imiricatus N. and P. presents characteristics that 
are remarkably constant ; and when associated with P. longispinus 
no hesitancy whatever would be entertained in separating the two 
forms. The species of Prodi<cft(s described have been numerous, as 
is attested by an extensive and remarkable synonymy, which is only 
too apparent to those who have given the subject careful attention. 
The wide geographical distribution of some sj)ecies, and the extensive 
vertical range of others, together with the concomitant differences 
of environment at the time when the species were living, readily 
accounts for the extreme variations presented. Inattention to this 
important factor has often led to the basis of species upon super- 
ficial characters which are relatively unimportant as classificatory 
criteria, and the confusion arising therefrom has rendered the study 
of this group extremely unsatisfactory. 

Chonetes mesoloba Norwood and Pratten. 

Chonetes mesoloba Norw^ood and Pratten, 1854. Jour. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. Ill, p. 27. 

Chonetes mesoloba White, 1875. Expl. and Surveys w. 100 me- 
rid.. Vol. IV, p. 123, pi. ix, fig. 7a. 

This species is one of the most abundant of the brachiopods 
occurring in the bituminous shales of this locality. The average 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 229 

width of fifty specimens is nine millimeters, much below normal ; 
specimens very much larger occur in other horizons. Here it is 
generally perfectly preserved in all its details ; the mesial fold is 
more sharply defined, and the depressions on each side of the fold 
relatively deeper than is usual Avith this species. The depauperate 
condition of this, and in fact of all the brachiopods from the same 
horizon, is suggestive of an environment, at the time these animals 
lived, that was extremely unfavorable to the full development, and 
to the attainment of a normal size that would be rendered possible 
by a more congenial habitat. 

Chonetes laevis nov. sp. (Plate XII, figs. 3a, 3b.) 

Shell small ; much wider than long ; transversely semi-elliptical ; 
the cardinal line as long as the greatest width of the shell, or often 
slightly extended beyond the lateral margins. Ventral valve con- 
vex, with no indication of a mesial sinus ; beak not prominent ; 
cardinal area rather narrow but Avell denned centrally, becoming 
linear toward the extremities ; foramen moderately wide ; cardinal 
margin bearing from four to seven oblique spines on each side of the 
beak. Dorsal valve flat or very slightly concave ; with no mesial 
fold. Surface of both valves apparently perfectly smooth ; but 
under a magnifier it is seen to be marked by numerous fine concen- 
tric striae, and more j^rominent, often somewhat imbricated, lines of 
growth ; these are sometimes crossed by fine nearly obsolete radia- 
ting strise. 

Length 7 mm. ; breadth 12 mm. 

This species is found in the superimposing black shales of coal 
No. 3 at Des Moines; and is associated with Chonetes mesoloba, 
Productus muricatus, and the minute gasterpods hereafter mentioned. 
The glabrate character, and the absence of a mesial fold and sinus, 
as is constant iu all eight of the specimens found, forms a marked 
contrast with the associated congeneric forms, in which the radiating 
strise are unusually sharp and well defined ; and also with the other 
carboniferous forms of the same genus. This species is closely allied 
to, and perhaps identical with, the form described by Geinitz' as 

1 Carbon formation und Dyas in Nebraska, 1866, p. 60. 
Chonetes glabra; but this name, however, was preoccupied by Hall 
in 1857, for a species from the Upper Helderburg. 

Streptorhynchus crenistria Phillips. 

Spirifera crenistria Phillips, 1836. Geol. Yorks., II, p. 216, pi. 
ix, fig. 6. 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Ortkisina crassa Meek and Hayden, 1858. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., p. 260. 
Orthis robusta Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, pt. II, p. 713. 
Orthis lasallensis McChesney, 1860. New Palseo. Foss., p. 32. 
Orthis richmondi McChesney, 1860. New Palreo. Foss., p. 32. 
Hemipronites crassus Meek and Hayden, 1864. Palse. Upper 

Missouri, p. 26. 
Orthis crenistria Geinitz, 1866. Garb, und Dyas in Nebraska, p. 

46. 
Hemipronites crassus McChesney, 1867. Trans. Chicago Acad. 

Sci., p. 28. 
Hemipronites crassus Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. 

V, p. 570. 
At the Pioneer mine several moderately larger specimens have 
been obtained. This species has been more generally known as 
Hemipronites crassus M. and H. It is a common and characteris- 
tic fossil of the coal measures throughout Iowa and the contiguous 
states, and presents many varietal phases. Hall's Orthis robusta 
described from this state is unquestionably identical with this species. 
There is also associated with the Des Moines specimens a smaller 
form, about five millimeters in width, which appears to differ very 
materially from any forms of S. crenistria examined. 

Spirifera camerata Morton. 

Spirifer cameratus Morton, 1836. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. XXIX, p. 
150. 

Spirifer cameratus Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. V, 
p. 573. 

Though a most abundant and characteristic species of the coal 
measures of the west, this species is represented in the Des Moines 
collections by only two specimens, one fairly good though somewhat . 
crushed, and the other fragmentary, yet they exhibit distinctly the 
peculiar fasciculated costse, as in the typical specimens. 

Spirifera lineata Martin. 

Spirijer lineatus Martin, 1809. Petrif. Derb. Coal Meas. 

Spirifer perplexa McChesney, 1860. New Palte. Foss. 

Spirifera lineata White, 1884. Geol. Rep. Ind. for 1883, p. 133. 

Pioneer mine; six or eight specimens were obtained, associated 
•with Athyris subtilita. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 231 

Spirifera rockymontana Marcou. 

Spirifer rochymontanus Mavcou, 1858. Geol. N. A., p. 50. 

Spirifer opirmis Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, pt. II, p. 711. 

Spirifer subventricosus McChesney, 1860. Disc. New Palae. Fos. 
p. 44. 

Pioneei' mine : three specimens. This and S. opimus Hall are 
unquestionably synonymous ; and though both names were proposed 
the same year, Marcou's has priority as has been shown by White 
(^Vide under Betziamormoni). McChesney in 1860 described this 
form as Spirifer subventricosus, but in the revision of his first paper 
he makes his species synonymous with Hall's S. opimus. 

Spiriferina kentuckensis Shumard. 

Spirifer kentuckensis Shumard, 1855. Geol. Sur. Missouri, p. 203. 

Spiriferina kentuckensis Meek, 1872. U. S. Geol. Sur. Neb., p. 
185. 

Pioneer mine ; two specimens. This species is quite common in 
the calcareous strata of the middle coal measures of the same locality. 

Athyris subtilita Hall. 

Terebratula subtilita Hall, 1852. Stans. Exp. Gt. Salt Lake, p. 
409. 

Athyris subtilita Newberry, 1861. Ives Exped. Colorado River 
p. 126. 

Not common; in fact, brachiopods are comparatively rare in thp 
lower coal measures of the region under consideration, and with two 
exceptions the species are represented by few examples. In the 
limestones of the middle coal measures this species is quite abundant, 
and often attains a large size. As is well known it has a wide 
geographical and vertical distribution, being found from the Appa- 
lachian to the Rocky Mountain regions ; it also occurs in the sub- 
carboniferous of Europe and India. In all probability several species 
described from the subcarboniferous of this country Avill prove 
synonymous with this form. In North America its vertical range 
would then extend from the subcarboniferous through the coal 
measures into the permian. 

Eetzia mormoni Marcou. '^ 

Terebratula mormonii Marcou, 1858. Geology N. A., p. 51. 
Retzia punctilifera Shumard, 1858. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci.^ 
vol. I, p. 220. 
• Retzia mormonii Meek and Hay den, 1859. Proc. Acad. Nat, 
Sci. Phila., p. 27. 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

This species is represented by two specimens, one of which is 
somewhat crushed. There appears to be satisfactory evidence that 
Marcou's name has priority. Dr. White says in a foot note on p. 
125, volume IV, of Explorations and Surveys west of the 100th 
meridian : 

" Orthis pecosi, Retzia mormoni, Mhynchonella iita, li. rocJcpnon- 
tana, and Spirifer rockyinontana were jiublished by Marcou in his 
Geology of North America. I have obtained satisfactory evidence 
that the work was published as early as March 1, 1858. Vol. XV, 
of the Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France contains a 
statement that a copy of the book was sent to that society on April 
20, 1858. In the same year Shumard and Swallow published a 
paper containing descriptions of the three first named species, under 
other names, in the transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Sci- 
ences, but that publication was not made until about the first of 
June. In December of the same year, Hall published in the 
Geological Report of Iowa, Spirifer a rockymontana as S. opimus; and 
in 1860, McChesney published R. rockymontana as R. etoniaformis. 
It thus appears clear that Marcou is entitled to priority of all five 
of the names given above, as stated in the synonymy heading the 
descriptions of those s^iecies in this report," 

LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 

Myalina swallovi McChesney. 

Myalina swallovi McChesney, 1860. New. False. Foss., p. 57. 

Myalina swallovi Meek and Worthen, 1866. Geol. 111., II, p. 
341. 

Giant mine : not common ; some, of those obtained are in an ex- 
cellent state of preservation. 

Aviculopecten coxanus Meek and Worthen. 

Aviculopeden coxanus Meek and Worthen, 1860. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 453. 
Aviculopecten coxanus Meek and Worthen, 1866. Geology 111., 

vol. II, p. 326. 
Of this little species six good specimens have been obtained at 
the Pioneer mine ; none of them are larger than that figured by 
Meek and Worthen (loc. cit). 

Aviculopecten negleotus Geinitz. 

^ Pecten neglectus Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Net)raska, p, 
33. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 233 

Aviculopecfen neglectus Meek and Wortlien, 1873. Geol. 111., 
• vol. V, p. 589. 

The specimens referred to this species are somewhat larger than 
either of those figured by Geinitz, or Meek and Worthen, but other- 
wise correspond in every particular. It is without ornamentation 
excepting concentric lines of growth and the folds or wrinkles of 
the ear. 

Nuculana bellistriata Stevens. 

Leda bellistriata Stevens, 1858. Am. Jour. Sci., 2nd series, vol. 

XXV, p. 261. 
Nuculana bellistriata White, 1884. Geol. Kep. Ind. for 1883, p. 

146. 
At Des Moines this species is not common; but in the black 
shales oyerlying the workable coal seams at Van Meter in Dallas 
county it is very abundant, often being found in " nests " closely 
packed together. 

ITucula parva McChesney. 

NuGula parva McChesney, 1860. Disc. New False. Foss., p. 54. 

Nucula parva Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. V, p. . 
589. 

Giant mine ; quite rare. Owing to its small size it might easily 
escape notice and this fact may partly account for the apjiarent 
rarity of this sj^ecies. 

Nucula ventricosa Hall. 

Nucula ventricosa Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, pt. ii, p, 716. 

Nucula ventricosa White, 1884. Geol. Kep. Ind. for 1883, p. 146. 

Many of the specimens collected exhibit the internal characters of 
the shell — the characteristic and well defined muscular impressions, 
and the small prominent teeth along the hinge line. 

Schizodus (sp. und.) 

This genus is represented by casts which occur in nodules of iron 
pyrites, but the specific characters have not as yet been made out. 
Clinopistha radiata Hall. 

Edmondiaf radiata Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, p. 716. 

Clinopistha radiata Meek and Worthen, 1870. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., p. 44. 

Some of the Des Moines specimens exhibit no radiating strise 
\Thatever,*though the concentric lines of growth are often quite con- 
spicuous. Inasmuch as the smooth forms and those having distinct 
16 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

radiating strire, and between the two extremes every degree of 
gradation occur associated, it is questionable whether the variety 
Icevis M. and AV. can be considered as having even the value of a 
variety ; but is to be regarded rather as an individual and not a. 
varietal difference. 

Solenomya soleniformis Cox. 

Solenomya solenlfonnis Cox, 1857. Geol. Sur. Kentucky, vol. III,, 
p. 573. 

At the Giant mine the form which is here referred to the species 
described in the Kentucky Geological report, vol. Ill, p. 573, is not 
common ; it is considerably larger than that figured by Cox, but 
otherwise corresponds in all other observable particulars. It is by 
far the largest lamellibranch yet found at Des Moines, but the shell 
is very thin and easily detached from the matrix. 

GASTEROPODA. 

Dentalium meekianum Geinitz. 

Dentalmm meekianum Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Ne» 

braska, p. 13. 
Dentalium meekianum f Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., 

vol. V, p. 590. 
This species is represented by numerous specimens, but none of 
them having both extremities perfectly preserved. The ornamenta- 
tion in some of the specimens is well preserved, in others it is obsolete, 
and a few are perfectly glabrate. 

Dentalium annulostriatum Meek and Worthen. 

Dentalium f annulostriatum Meek and Worthen, 1870. Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 45. 
Dentalium f annulostriatum Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111.,, 

vol. V, p. 589. 
This species is represented by six specimens ; in four of these the 
charactei'istic annular costre are very prominent and the furroAVS 
separating the costse are correspondingly quite deep. 

Bellerophon percarinatus Conrad. 

Bellerophon percarinatus Conrad, 1842. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., vol. VIII. 
Bellerophon percarinatus Meek, 1872. U. S. Geol. Sur. Nebraska, 

p. 227. 
Rather common and in a fine state of preservation. It is associa- 
ted with the two other congeneric species here mentioned. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA, 235 

Belleroplion monfortianus Norwood and Pratten. 

Bellerophon monfortianus Norwood and Pratten, 1855. Jour. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. Ill, p. 74. 
Bellerophon monfortianus Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in 

Nebraska, p. 8. 
Giant mine; a highly ornamented species, but not as common as 
its associated congeners. 

Bellerophon urii Fleming. 

Belleroplion urii Fleming, 1828. Brit. Anim., p. 338. 
Bellerop)hon urii Keferst, 1834. Naturg. des Erdk., II, p. 430. 
B. urii Phillips, 1836. Geol. Yorks., II, p. 31, pi. 17, figs. 11-12. 
B. atlantoides d'Orbigny, 1840. Monog. des Cephalop. Cryptodibr., 

pi. 4, figs. 14-19. 
B. urii Phillips, 1841, Palae. Foss. Cornwall, etc., p. 106, pi. 

xl, fig. 199. 
B. tirii d'Arch. et de Vern, 1842. Geol. Trans., (2), vol. VI, pt. 

ii, p. 386. 
B. urii Fleming et Portlock, 1843. Rep. on the Geol. of the 

County of Lond., p. 400, pi. XXIX, fig. 9. 
B. cVOrhlgnyi Portlock, 1843. Rep. Geol. Lond., p. 401, pi. 

XXIX, fig. 12. 
B. (Euphemus) urii McCoy, 1844. Syn. Carb. Fos. Ireland, p. 

26. 
B. urii de Koninck, 1844. Descriptions des Animaux Fossiles 

(de Belgique), p. 356, pi. XXX, fig. 4. 
. B. urii J. Morris, 1854. Cat. Brit. Fossils, p. 288. 
• B. urii Norwood and Pratten, 1854. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

vol. Ill, p. 75, pi. IX, fig. 6. 
B. urii McCoy, 1855. Brit. False. Foss., p. 555. 
B. carbonarius Cox, 1857. Palaeont. Rep. Ky. Geol. Sur., vol. 

Ill, p. 562. 
B. blaneyanus McChesney, 1860. New False. Foss., p. 60. 
B. urii F. Romer, 1863. Zeitschr. d. d. geol. Ges., vol. XV, p. 

582, taf. XV, f. 4. 
B. carbonarius Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, p. 6, 

tab. i, fig. 8. 
B. blaneyamis McChesney, 1867. Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., vol. 

I, p. 45, pi. ii, fig. 5. 
B. urii Armstrong, 1871. Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. Ill, 

supp. p. 61. 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

B. carhonanus Meek, 1872. U. S. Geol. Sur. Nebraska, p. 224, 
pi. iv, fig. 16 ; et pi. xi, tig. 11. 

B. urii de Kouiiick, 1873. Recherches sur les Auimaux Fossiles, 
p. 98, pi. iv, tig. 2. 

B. carbonarius White, 1884. Geol. and Nat. His. Sur. Indiana, 
13 rep., p. 158, pi. xxxiii, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Abundant at the Giant mine. The shell is of medium size ; sub- 
globose ; dorsum broadly rounded. Umbilici closed. Aperture 
transversely semilunate, but not expanding more rapidly than the 
uniform increase in the size of the volutions; imier lip but slightly 
developed ; outer lip thickened and rounded towards the umbilici, 
but becoming very attenuated towards the middle ; its medial sinus 
rather broad, rounded and not very deep. Medial band obscure on 
the costate portion of the shell, but on the terminal half of the body 
whorl more or less distinct and in some specimens bordered on each 
side by a low, narrow, yet well defined, ridge. Surface except the 
last half of the outer whorl ornamented with from fifteen to thirty 
or more sharp, simple, nearly 2)arallel costa?. Terminal half of body 
whorl smooth, except along the medial portion which is often marked 
by lines of growth, and sometimes by the low ridges, to which 
reference has already been made. 

The form considered here under the name of Bellerophon urii is 
the one usually designated by American pala?ontologists as B. car- 
bonco'lus Cox. A careful comparison of the descriptions and figures 
of the various writers on this group of Gasteropoda, and a large 
series of specimens fails to furnish any valid reason for separating 
specifically the American from the European form described by 
Fleming in 1828 as Bellerophon nrii. Norwood and Pratten referred 
Cox's specimens to B. nrii ; but Cox in 1857 made it the type of a 
species Avhich he called B. carbonarius, distinguishing it from the 
European form by the slight lateral expansion of the mouth and 
particularly by the less number of revolving costje, which in B. 
carbonarius Avere said to vary fi'om nineteen to twenty-five, while 
according to deKoninck B. urii had from thirty-six to thii-ty-eight. 
Though de Koninck does make this latter statement in his earlier^ 
work, his later Recherches' state that the number varies from twenty- 
two to thirty. McChesney in the description of his B. blaneyamis 
seems also to have made the chief distinctive character between his 

1 Descriptions des Animaux Fossiles, p. 356. (1844.) 
' Recherches sur les Animaux Fossiles, p. 9S. (1873). 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 237 

species and the European foi'm the possession by the former of only 
sixteen eostse, or about half the number ascribed to B. urii by de 
Koninck. 

Pleurotomaria brazoensis Shumard. 

Pleurotomaria brazoensis Shumard, 1860. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
Sci., vol. I, p. 624. 

Pleurotomaria brazoensis f Meek and Worthen, 1866. Geol. 111., 
vol. II, p. 354. 

The specimens of this species collected do not present much varia- 
tion. The two peripheral carinse are nearly equal and between them 
is located the concave band of the sinus. The whorls are orna- 
mented by sixteen or seventeen strong filiform lines — nine below the 
lower carina, upon which there are two filiform lines ; three above 
the upper carina upon which there are two and sometimes three 
lines; and a single line on the sinal band. Crossing the revolving 
lines are numerous prominent, equidistant transverse lines which 
give to the whole ornamentation a peculiarly yet regularly cancella- 
ted appearance ; between, and parallel to, these transverse raised strise 
are also from three to six microscopic, yet sharp and distinct raised 
strice. Meek and Worthen refer with a query to Shumard's species 
a form from Macoupin county, Illinois, having about twenty-five 
revolving lines (twelve of which occupy the lower side of the body- 
Avhorl) instead of thirteen or fourteen as ascribed by Shumard to 
this species. Shumard says : " surface of volutions ornamented with 
from thirteen to fourteen rather strong filiform strise which are 
crossed by sharp transverse strise ; " if by this he intends to convey 
the idea that this is the entire number of lines including those on 
the under side of the bo<ly whorl, Meek and AVorthen remark that 
they " should scarcely entertain a doubt in regard to our [their] 
shell being a distinct species, since it uniformly has about double 
that number of revolving strise on the last whorl." In this and 
some other groups of gasteropods much classificatory importance 
appears to have been attached to the number of revolving costse ; 
and sometimes a variation of three or four in the number has been 
almost the only basis for specific distinction. After a critical exam- 
ination of a large series of different species presenting these characters, 
the question has arisen relative to the value of the number of costse 
as a classificatory criterion. In some gasteropodous groups it has, 
within certain limits of course, small value ; its exact importance 
in Pleurotomaria and some allied genera has not as yet been satis- 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

factorily made out, but it is certain, however, that in some groups at 
least, it does not possess specifically such an important classificatory 
value as has been generally supposed. 

Pleurotomaria modesta nov. sp. (Plate XII, figs. 2a, 2b.) 

Shell small, sublenticular, spire greatly depressed, volutions six, 
obliquely flattened above; body whorl very large, rapidly increasing 
in size, sharply angular on the periphery, flattened or very slightly 
concave above, prominently rounded below, suture line linear ; 
spiral band very narrow almost linear, very slightly impressed and 
occupying a position just above the peripheral angle ; on the spire 
the band is obscured by a single series of conspicuous nodes ; aper- 
ture subquadrate, or subrhombic ; umbilical region slightly im- 
pressed, but not perforated ; surfjice glabrate ; under a glass exhib- 
iting fine lines of groAvth ; the last whorl with a series of small 
transverse folds, or wrinkles, toward the tuberculated margin ; each 
fold apparently originating at a node and extending about one-half 
or two-thirds the distance to the periphery. 

Twenty or more specimens of this beautiful little species have 
been obtained from the black superimposing shales of coal No. 3. 
It approaches more closely than to any other the form described by 
Cox as P. depressa and may eventually prove identical with that 
form. P. depressa, however, was preoccupied by Phillips in 1836; 
and this name was also used by de Koninck and by Passy. 

Pleurotomaria grayvillensis Norwood and Pratten. 

Pleurotomaria grayvillensis Norwood and Pratten, 1855. Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. Ill, p. 75. 

Pleurotomaria grayvillensis Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in 
Nebraska, p. 9. 

Shell rather small, conical subovate, longer than wide ; spire 
moderately elevated ; whorls five to seven, obliquely flattened above. 
Body whorl large, rapidly increasing in size, rounded below ; bian- 
gular around the periphery, both angles being visible on the spire. 
Aperture subrhombic ; outer margin sharp. Columella extended 
below. Surface ornamented by from twenty-five to forty revolving 
lines, of which twenty or more occupy the inferior surface of the 
body whorl ; some of the lines are much more prominent than 
others, and there is a more or less regular alternation of the more 
prominent ones with less prominent raised stride; these are 
crossed by numerous somewhat regular lines of growth, giving a 
more or less tuberculate appearance, which is most conspicuous 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 239 

toward the suture. The number of raised revolving lines appears to 
vary with the size of the specimens, and the maximum given is for 
the largest specimens collected. This species was originally de- 
scribed from Pasey county, Indiana, and Grayville, Illinois. 

Pleurotomaria carbonaria Norwood and Pratten. 

Pleurotoviaria carbonaria Norwood and Pratten, 1855. Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., (2), vol. Ill, p. 76. 

This is by far the largest gasteropod yet discovered at Des Moines, 
and the test, as compared with that of the associated species, is ex- 
tremely thick and heavy. A closely allied species has been described 
from the coal measures at Newport, Indiana, as P. newporteusis 
White. According to Dr. White it differs from P. carbonaria in 
having " its revolving band ample and raised instead of concave, 
with revolving lines within it, as in that species ; and also in having 
its aperture subcircular instead of semicircular." 

Macrocheilus humilis, nov. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 1.) 

Shell very small, short, subfusiform, or elongate-subovate ; spire 
j)rominent, forming one-third or more of the entire length of the 
shell ; volutions about six, increasing moderately in size, slightly 
convex. Test rather thin. Columellar fold distinctly visible within 
the aperture, which is subelliptical ; callosity clearly defined but 
not conspicuous ; outer lip thin, sharp. Suture well-defined but 
not deeply impressed. Surface smooth, but under a glass exhibiting 
lines of growth. Length 6 mm. ; width 3'5 mm. 

This little species is from the superimposing black shales of coal 
No. 3, at the Giant mine ; and is found associated with the numerous 
other small gasteropods mentioned hereafter, 

Macrocheilus gracilis Cox. 

Macrocheilus gracilis Cox, 1857. Geol. Sur, Kentucky, vol. III, 
p. 570, 

The roof shale of coal No. 3, has furnished a good series of this 
species, representing all stages of development up to those fifteen 
millimetres in length. The smaller specimens are less ventricose 
and have the spire proportionally higher than in the older ones, 
which approach nearer the form described as M. ventricosus Hall, 
and there is therefore reason to believe that the two species will 
eventually prove identical. Cox states in his description that his 
.species was most likely a young shell. White^ considers Soleuiscus 

1 Geol. Ind., Rep. for 1883, p. 155. 



240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

{Macrocheilus) brevis White, described in the supplement to voL 
III, of the Expl. and Surv. west of the 100 merid. synonymous 
with M. ventricosus Hall. 

Macrocheilus newberryi Stevens. 

Loxonema newberryi Stevens, 1858. Am. Jour. Sci,, (2), vol. XXV,. 
p. 259. 

Macrocheilus newberryi Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa., vol. I, p. 719. 

The specimens collected at Des Moines present considerable 
variation : some are typical M. neivberryi, from which others gradate 
into forms more nearly approaching that described by Hall from 
Alpine Dam as 31. fusiformis ; hence their identity is not improbable. 
This is also in corroboration with the suggestion of Dr. White in the 
Indiana geological report for 1883 that " with full collections at 
hand, it will be difficult to clearly define the specific characters 
between M. newberryi, 31. planus and 31. fusiformis." 

Orthonema conica Meek and Worthen. 

Orihonema conica Meek and Worthen, 1866. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., p. 270. 
Orthonema conica Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geology 111., vol. 

V, p. 390. 
This species is represented by only two specimens, both somewhat 
smaller than those figured by Meek and Worthen. 

Actaeonia minuta Stevens. 

Loxonema minvta Stevens, 1858. Am. Jour. Sci., (2), vol. XXV, 

p. 260. 
Actoeonia minuta Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 

594. 
This is one of the most abundant of the small gasteropods occur- 
ring in the bituminous shales overlying coal No. 3. 

Aclisina minuta Stevens. 

Aclis minuta Stevens, 1858. Am. Jour. Sci., (2), vol. XXV, p. 
259. 

Common ; associated with A. robusta, compared with which it is 
much more slender, and the spire possesses three or four more 
volutions. 

Aclisina robusta Stevens. 

Aclis robusta Stevens, 1858. Am. Jour. Sci., (2), vol. XXV, p. 
259. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 241 

AcUs robusta Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 
596. 

Abundant. This and the preceding species were described by 
Stevens under Aclis, but in 1881 de Koniuck established the genus 
Aclmna which now includes the four American carboniferous species 
originally described under the former genus. 

Streptacis whitfieldi Meek. 

Streptacis whitfieldi Meek, 1871. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 

173. 
Streptacis xoUtfieldi Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. 

V, p. 596. 
This species is very rare, and is found associated with the four 
preceding species. 
Anomphalus rotulus Meek and Worthen. 

Anomphalus rotulus Meek and Worthen, 1866. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 268. 
Anomphalus rotulus Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. 

V, p. 597. 
One of the most abundant species occurring in superimposing 
shales of coal No. 3. In some of the specimens there is a tendency 
to become angular around the periphery toward the terminus of the 
body-whorl. 
Euomphalus rugosus Hall. 

Euomphalus rugosus Hall, 1858. Geol. Iowa, vol. I, p. 722. 
Straparollus (Euomphalus) subrugosus Meek and Worthen, 1873. 

Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 607. 
Euomphalus rugosus White, 1884. 13th Kep. Geol. Indiana, p. 

161. 
This species is quite common. 

Euomphalus pernodosus Meek and Worthen. 

Straparollus (Euomphalus) pernodosus Meek and Worthen, 1870. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 45. 
Straparollus (Euomj^halus) pernodosus Meek and Worthen, 1873. 

Geol. 111., vol. V, p. 604. 
But a single specimen of this large Euomphalus has been found 
at Des Moines. 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

CEPHALOPODA. 

Orthoceras rushensis McChesney. 

Orthoceras rushensis McChesney, 1860. New Palse. Fossils, p. 68. 

Orthoceras rushensis AVliite, 1884. Geol. Report Ind. for 1883, p. 
164. 

Specimens of this, and perhaps other species, often occur quite 
abundantly. The specific characters of the described species of 
this genus are so obscure that all attempts to separate many of the 
so-called species prove futile. A careful comparison of the carbon- 
iferous forms Avill doubtless lead to a considerable increase in the 
synonymy of this group, and a reduction of the number of species to 
four or five. 

Orthoceras (sp. und.) 

A single specimen from the Pioneer mine ; it is nearly 50 cm. in 
length and has a diameter at the larger extremity of about 5 cm. 
It is by far the largest specimen of this genus yet observed in the 
carboniferous rocks of Iowa. 

Nautilus lasallensis Meek and Worthen. 

Nautilm lasallensis Meek and Worthen, 1866. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., p. 261. 
Nautilus lasallensis Meek and Worthen, 1873. Geol. 111., vol. V, 

p. 610. 
Quite common at the Giant mine ; but few of the specimens are 
in a very good state of preservation. 

Nautilus oocidentalis Swallow. 

Nautilus occidentalis Swallow, 1858. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., 

vol. I, p. 196. 
Nautilus quadrangularis McChesney, 1860. Disc. New. Palse. 

Foss., p. 65, 
Nautilus nodocarinatus McChesney, 1860. Disc. New False. Fos., 

p. 66. 
Nautilus hiserialis Hall, 1860. Geol. Iowa, Supp., p. 92. 
Nautilus occidentalis McChesney, 1867. Trans. Chicago Acad. 

Sci., p. 57. 
Only a single specimen has thus far been found at Des Moines. 

Nautilus winslovi Meek and "Wortlien. 

Nautilus (Teimiocheilus) winslovi Meek and Worthen, 1870. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 50. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 243 

Nautilus (TemnocJieilus') winslovi Meek and Wortlien, 1873. 

Geol. Ill, vol. V, p. 609. 
Nautilus ivinslovi White, 1884. Geol. Ind., Kept, for 1883, p. 

165. 
Not common, and usually fragmentary. 

CRUSTACEA. 

Cythere nebracensis Geinitz. ? 

Cythere nebracensis Geinitz, 1866. Carb. und Dyas in Nebraska, 
p. 2. 

It is with some doubt that the form from Des Moines is referred 
to Geinitz's species ; it is much smaller than that Avhich he described, 
and also differs in other particulars. A dozen or more good speci- 
mens were collected at the Pioneer mine where they were associated 
with Synocladia biserialit. This and a trilobite are the only crusta- 
cean remains thus far discovered in the carboniferous strata at Des 
Moines. The remains of articulates in the lower coal measures of 
Iowa are exceedingly rare, and the only hitherto known specimens 
of this group are more or less fragmentary remains of a single genus 
of trilobites. Prior to this, ostracoid crustaceans have been collected 
in Iowa in the upper and middle coal measures, and now is recorded 
their presence in the strata of the lower coal measures of the state. 

Phillipsia (sp. ?) 

Of the trilobites only a single pygidium of a Phillipsia has been 
collected, and this at the Pioneer mine. 

VERTEBRATA. 

Petrodus occidentalis Newberry and Worthen. 

Petrodus occidentalis Newberry and Worthen, 1866. Geol. 111. 
vol. Ill, p. 70. 

From the Pioneer mine have been collected nearly all the remains 
of fishes that have been found in the carboniferous strata of this re- 
gion. It is with some little doubt that the dermal tubercles that are 
here referred to this species really belong to it. The base is subquad- 
rate in outline; and the thin abruptly sharpened edge is broader 
than in the one figured by Newberry and Worthen ; the ridges ex- 
tending downward towards the obtuse angles of the base are much 
more prominent than the others, which do not extend to the top of 
the crown. There has also been collected at this mine the fin spines 
of two species ; one about two centimeters, and the other four centi- 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

meters in length ; the former is the more common and in a very- 
perfect state of preservation. 
Diplodus sp. ? 

From the superimposing shales of coal No. 3 at the Giant mine. 
The specific characters of the teeth collected have not been satisfac- 
torily made out. They are evidently not far removed from D. 
amplicattis M. and Worthen, but the denticles are larger, more 
slender and much longer than in that species. 

Synoptical Table of Genera and Species. 

Coelenterata Polypi genera 1 species 1 

Echinodermata Crinoidea 1 1 

Vermes j Brachiopoda 9 14 

( Bryozoa 1 1 

JLamellibranchiata 7 9 

Gasteropoda 10 20 

Cephalopoda 2 5 

Crustacea. 2 2 

Vertebrata 2 2 

Summing up the predominant faunal features as presented in the 
accompanying synoptical table, it appears (1) that in those groups 
having an optimum habitat marine there was not only a fewness of 
species but also an extreme paucity of individuals ; (2) that braeh- 
iopods though well represented in both genera and species were in 
fact not as proportionately abundant as might be expected when it 
is remembered that this type of life had now nearly reached its 
greatest expansion and culmination, and (3) that the fauna was 
predominately molluscan — nearly two-thirds of the entire number 
of species. 

The Coelenterata, Bryozoa and Echinodermata form indeed a very 
inconspicuous proportion of this local fauna, only three or four spe- 
cifically distinguishable traces of each group being obtained. 
Though the Brachiopoda are represented by fourteen species, in- 
cluded in nine genera, they were with three exceptions of compara- 
tively rare occurrence — Productus murieatus, Chonetes mesoloha and 
D'iscina nitida only being abundant. The brachiopods are also all 
depauperate, attesting conditions at the time that they lived ex- 
tremely unfavorable to their full development and to the attainment 
of a normal size that under more cong-enial circumstances would 
have been rendered possible. Molluscan life, while the black shales 
forming the roof of coal No. 3 were being laid down, flourished 
luxuriantly, especially the gasteropods which in number of species 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 245 

composed more than one-third of the entire fauna. Not only did 
they exceed in species but they far outnumbered all others in indi- 
viduals, and while as a rule they were small and some of them even 
minute their great numbers made up, in great part at least, for the 
conspicuity of larger but few forms. Though the majority of the 
forms of this group are small it is not a depauperation as among the 
brachiopods, as is shown by the average size of the individuals of 
each species being normal, and in some instances even considerably 
above. Some of the species are also of interest because of their 
recognition for the first time within the limits of the state, and thus 
to a considerable extent their known geographical range is increased. 
Others of the species enumerated are now known to have a wide 
geographical distribution which is suggestive of a somewhat ex- 
tended vertical range. Among recent mollusca and especially land 
forms a wide geographical distribution, as has been remarked by 
Binney, appears to be indicative of a high antiquity for the group. 
The corroborative evidence is abundant : a notable instance is the 
living Zonites, four or more species of which are circumpolar in their 
distribution; and the genus — even a subgenus Conulus to which 
one of these living forms belongs — ranges back to the carboniferous, 
Avhile the genus Pupa is represented in the carboniferous by four 
species. Cephalopods are not abundant in the region under consid- 
eration and are represented by only two genera and five species, yet 
a Nautilus attained a diameter of twenty centimetres, and an Or- 
thoceras was fifty centimetres in length with a diameter at the 
larger extremity of five centimetres. Of the lamellibranchs the 
majority are small, though two of them are comjiaratively large, 
attaining a length of nearly ten centimetres, yet having an extremely 
thin and fragile shell. One of the specimens collected is of especial 
significance as exhibiting in all its details the intetnal features of 
the shell— the characteristic well-defined muscular scars and the 
edentulous hinge margin ; in fact, so closely does it resemble in 
these characters, the general form and external appearance, a mod- 
ern Anodonta that it is difficult to see how it can be generically 
separated from it ; and should further investigation prove that the 
specimens under consideration really belong to that genus, it would 
be of unusual interest in its bearing upon the distribution of fresh- 
water or non-marine mollusca during geologic times. The modern 
TJnio and allied genera certainly have both a wide geographical and 
geological distribution, as is shown by the rich discoveries of Union- 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

idee in the Mesozoic strata of the west : and the genus Anodonta is, 
if the opinion of Hall is adhered to, represented in the Devonian by 
two species, but that these two forms really belong to Anodonta is 
still questioned. Dawson has described several allied forms from 
the carboniferous of Nova Scotia ; their family position is as yet 
also unsettled. With these considerations in view, the evidence 
thus far obtained points to a high antiquity for this group of bivalves 
which now is so abundantly represented in all our streams and 
ponds. As will be noted Crustaceans are represented by a species 
of Cythere ; and a trilobite of which a single pygidium only has 
been discovered. Vertebrates are rare also, a few fish spines about 
two centimetres in length, and several teeth, and dermal tubercles 
are the only remains of this class found. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 247 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW FOSSILS FROM 
THE DEVONIAN OF IOWA. 

BY CHARLES R. KEYES. 

Conocardium altum nov. sp. (Plate XII, figs. 4a and 4b.) 

Shell of medium size, subtrigonal, anterior view broadly cordate* 
Anterior end truncate, with a forward slope from the umbones to 
the lower anterior sharply rounded extremity. Dorsal margin 
behind the beaks slightly curved, with the edges of the valves 
incurved, while in front of the beaks it is jiroduced forward into a 
more or less prominent alate extension ; basal margin crenate within ;; 
posterior extremity at the hinge line decidedly angular. Beaks 
rather prominent, gibbous, incurved. Hiatus lanceolate ; occupying 
about two-thirds of the lower posterior margin. Surface marked by 
simple, regular, radiating costse, about forty in number, twenty-five 
of which occupy that portion of the shell behind the umbonal slope ; 
the umbonal slope is broad, bordered on each side by a prominent 
icosta .which gives it a decided biangular appearance ; the costse are 
crossed by numerous fine, crowded concentric lines; and a few larger 
somewhat imbricated lines of gi'owth. 

Length 24 mm. ; breadth 21 mm. ; height 20 mm. 

Horizon and locality. Limestones of the Hamiltonian at lowai 
City, Iowa. 

This species somewhat resembles certain forms of C. trigonale of 
Hall, but the very broad strongly biangular umbonal slope readily 
distinguishes it from that species. It also approaches some congen- 
eric forms from the Devonian of Europe, especially certain species 
from the western part of France, recently described by M. CEhlert^ 
Cyrtoceras opimum nov. sp. (Plate XII, fig. 5.) 

Shell rather large, strongly curved, gradually expanding toward 
the outer chamber, but enlarging more rapidly transversely than in 
the opposite direction ; transverse section broadly elliptical, slightly 
flattened on the ventral side. Distance between the septa about one- 
fifth or one-sixth the transverse diameter. 

Horizon and locality. Hamiltonian of Johnson county, Iowa. 

This is a large and robust species from the Iowa Devonian, hav- 
ing a length along the dorsum of probably forty or forty-five 
centimetres, and a transverse measurement of eighteen or twenty 

1 Etude sur quelques Fossiles Devoniens de I'ouest de la France. 



■248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

centimetres ; dorso-ventral diameter of outer chamber nearly six 
centimetres. It has been found at various exposures of Hamiltonian 
limestone in Johnson and the contiguous counties. It appears to 
be closely related to certain species from the Niagarian of the west- 
ern states. 

Explanation of Plate XII. 



Fig. 1. Macrocheilus humilis n. s page 

Enlarged about 5 diameters. 
Fig. 2. Pleurotomaria modesta n. s 

2a. View from above, X 2. 

2b. Profile, X 2. 
Fig. 3. Chonetes Icevis n. s 

3a. An average sized specimen, X 2. 

3b. Longitudinal section, X 2. 
Fig. 4. Conocardium altum n. s 

4a. Lateral view. 

4b. Dorsal outline. 
Fig. 5. Cyrtoceras ojnmum n. s « 

Reduced to f natural size. 



• • 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 249 

August 7. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Twelve persons present. 



August 14. 
Mr. Chas. H. Pennypacker in the chair. 
Six persons present. 



August 21. 
Dr. A. E. FooTE in the chair. 
Seven persons present. 



August 28. 
Mr. Isaac C. Martindale in the chair. 
Ten persons present, 
Mr. John Shallcross was elected a member. 



September 4. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Fourteen persons present. 



September 11, 

Dr. J. B. Brinton in the chair. 

Seven persons present. 

The following was ordered to bejprinted: — 
17 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



NEW SPECIES OF SHELLS FROM THE NEW HEBRIDES 
AND SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

BY W. D. HARTMAN, M. D. 

Partula auraniana, Nobis. PI. XIII, fig. 1. 

Shell dextral, ovate, solid, smooth, spire short, one-fourth the 
length, whorls 5, rounded, body whorl large, suture deeply impressed, 
spiral strife numerous and very fine ; umbilicus slightly compressed, 
aperture somewhat oblique, lip white expanded and slightly concave, 
peritreme not connected by callus, shell pale horn color, spire in 
most examples denuded of epidermis, presenting a white aj^pearance. 

L. 16. Diam. 10. L. apt. 8. Diam. 5 mill. 

Hab. Aura Island in the Malo Pass, Santo Espirito group New 
Hebrides. A common species. 

Ohs. Received from E. L. Layard, Esq., H. B. M. Consul at 
New Caledonia. 

Partula carnicolor, Nobis. PI. XIII, fig. 2. 

Shell dextral, ovate elongate, spire attenuate, acute, more than 
half the length, whorls 5, rounded, suture impressed, spiral striae 
very fine ; umbilicus compressed, aperture ovate, slightly oblique, 
columella wide at base. Lip white, expanded and slightly concave, 
shell a pale flesh color, with wide darker strise running obliquely 
through it. 

L, 26. Diam. 10. L. apt. 20. Diam. aj^t. 5 mill. 

Hab. Aura Island, with the preceding species. 

Ohs. I am indebted to Mr. Layard for this rare species. It has 
the general facies of P. Caledonica, but wants the very oblique semi- 
quadrate aperture of that species. 

Partula fraterna, Nobis. PI. XIII, fig. 3. 

Shell dextral, conic, solid ; spire half the length, couvexly conical ; 
whorls 5, rounded, suture well impressed, surface smooth and shin- 
ing, umbilicus compressed. Aperture ovate, subvertical, labium 
moderately expanded and slightly concave ; columella wide at base, 
color reddish brown, lighter at the suture, with darker striae running 
obliquely through the shell ; apex light purple. 

L. 21. Diam 11. L. apt. 8. Diam. apt. 5 mill. 

Hab. Aura Island, with the preceding species, E. L. Layard, Esq. 

Obs. A shorter and more stout shell than the P. carnicolor, from 
the same island. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 251 

Partula albescens, Nobis. PI. XIII, fig. 4. 

Shell dextral, ovate elongate, spire acute, regularly tapering, 
equal to one half the length, whorls 5, rounded. Suture impressed, 
body whorl somewhat inflated, spiral strige numerous, regular and 
very fine, umbilicus open, aperture ovate, oblique, peritreme connect- 
ed by a thin callus, columella wide at base, lip white, expanded, 
and concave, color a clear white and translucent. 

L. 25. Diam. 13. L. apt. 8. Diam. apt. 5. 

Hab. Aura and Satova Islands, N. Hebrides, E. L. Layard, Esq. 

Ohs. A pretty species, resembling Partula alahastrina Pfr. 

from Figii Isles, except that it is larger and the spire is more acute. 

Trochomorpha rubens, Xobis. PI. XIII, figs. 5, 5a, 5b. 

Shell sub-lenticular, translucent, convex above, whorls 5, acutely 
carinate, compressed, planulate, lightly striate beneath the suture, 
which is margined by the acute carina, base convex, Avith very fine 
transverse strise, umbilicus large, perspective one fifth the diameter 
of the shell, aperture oblique, diagonal, peritreme simple, except near 
the base, color reddish brown, with a darker revolving line at the 
periphery, visible within the aperture, and extending to the apex. 

H. 5. Diam. 15. H. apt. 2*. Diam. apt. 6 mill. 

Hab. Aura Islands, N. Hebrides. 

Ohs. Mr. Layard observes, " this shell has a general range 
throughout the N. Hebrides," it differs from all others with which 
I am acquainted. T. planorhis is thinner, more translucent, and 
more depressed, with a wider umbilicus exhibiting the whorls to the 
apex. 

Helicina Layardi, Nobis. PI. XIII, figs. 6, Ga. 

Shell dextral, orbiculate, thin, spire convex, whorls 4, compressed, 
the first one and a half foveate, with thin indistinct elevated spiral 
strise, the remainder transversely and finely striate, suture distinct, 
umbilical region covered by an elevated vitreous callosity which is 
foveate, aperture triangularly lunate, peristome slightly revolute, 
moderately thickened, emarginate at base, color pale lemon yellow, 
with two blood-red bands, one above, the other beneath the periph- 
ery, and visible within the apertui-e. 

H. 4i. Diam. 7. H. apt. 3]. Diam. apt. 2 mill. 

Hab. Aura Islands, New Hebrides, E. L. Layard. 

Obs. Resembles H. jyrimeana Gass. from New Caledonia. 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Amastra simularis, Nobis. PL XIII, fig. 7, 

Shell dextral, ovate conic, whorls 5i, slightly rounded, body whorl 
somewhat inflated, two thirds the length, the first one and a half 
composed of slightly curved plicse, suture lightly impressed, epiderm- 
is dark brown with black zig-zagged lines and linear striae, body whorl 
a dark red color beneath the epidermis, aperture semi-ovate, dark 
red, columella straight, with a white twisted plait near the base, 

L. 15. W. 7. L. apt. 6. Diam. apt. 3 mill. 

Molokai. 

Obs. Received from D. D. Baldwin, Esq., and so called from its 
size and resemblance to A. mucronata Newc. 

Melania abberans Brot ms. Nobis. Plate XIII, figs. 8, 8a. 

Shell solid, elongate, the last one fourth of the spire, rapidly taper- 
ing to the acute apex, whorls 16 or more, horn color, with numerous 
longitudinal plicae over the whole surface, which are decussated by 
transverse lines giving it a granulated appearance, the base of the 
plicae of the last whorl, are spinous, which are sometimes absent. 
The surface of the shell between the plicae is smooth ; base spirally 
striate ; aperture rounded ovate, white within ; a heavy callus de- 
posit on the columella, which is incurved and twisted, opercle with 
the polar point near the base. 

Length, 44 mill. 

Hab. Vati, New Hebrides. 

Obs. I have received a number of examples of this shell, from 
Mr. E. L. Layard, under the name of Pirenopsis costata; Dr. Brot 
informs me it is a true Melania in which I concur. It is nearly re- 
lated to Mel. fastigiella, Reeve. Mons. Marie, a dealer in Paris, sent 
it to Dr. Brot, some years ago, for identification, and he gave it the 
provisional name of abberans ; these were obtained by Mons. Ross- 
itie in the New Hebrides. It is now described and figured for the 
first time. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 253 

September 18. 

Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 

Fourteen persons present. 

A paper entitled "The Palatal Rugse in Man," by Harrison Allen 
M. D., was presented for publication. 



September 25. 
Dr. J. B. Brinton in the chair. 
Nine persons present. 
The following was ordered to be printed: — 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



THE PALATAL EUG^ IN MAN. 
BY HARRISON ALLEN, M. D. 

The structures of the body which are the most constant and 
those which are the most variable have alike an interest to the 
biologist and to the physician. When constant they present char- 
acters which may be employed in classification, and when variable 
they are accepted as delicate tests for the activity of the nutritive 
and developmental processes. I propose in the connections last 
named to study the folds or rugse of the hard palate as they are 
seen in the human subject after the period of infancy, especially in 
subjects who have reported to me for the treatment of chronic 
nasal catarrh. A group of minor structures is here met with which 
can be presented in a systematic manner notwithstanding the wide 
range of variation they exhibit. 

What variations from the type met with in the lower animals are 
seen in man ? How do these variations in turn associate themselves 
Avith morbid states? With what structures do these variations 
correlate ? What forces are at work to produce in man results so 
different from those seen in the animals related to him ? 

I will attempt to answer these questions. I will also give among 
related appearances those which may have a clinical significance. 

In the main it may be said that the rugse of the lower animals 
form a constant series. But instances of irregularity can be given. 
They are much broken up in the posterior part of the palate of the 
hog. A slight asymmetry often exists in the horse ; and instead of 
being in opposite, may be in alternate series. For a full discussion 
of the subject with literature, especially for the description of the 
human rugse in the embryo and infant, see Carl Gegenbaur. Mor- 
pholog. Jahrbuch, IV, 673. 

The following embraces a brief description of the rugse in man 
and a list of names which will be employed in this paper. 

Two kinds of rugse are recognized, the longitudinal and the 
transverse. The longitudinal lie in the median line and answer to 
the line of union between the right and left maxillae and premax- 
illse ; the transverse lie across the palate and are composed of a 
right and left set. 

The longitudinal kind is divided into two parts, viz. : the raphe, 
or tiie seam-like line which occupies the middle of the palate at the 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



255 



maxillse, and the mcisive pad which is an elliptical or pear-shaped 
body which answers to the position of the incisive foramen. 

The raphe is ordinarily composed of two parts, one of which 
represents the median line and the other is deflected from it to the 
left at the posterior free end. (See figs. 2, 4, 7.) 

The rugte extend back no farther than the first molar tooth. The 
region answers to an imaginary plane which bisect the infra-orbital 
foramina. The rugie are composed of papules which are arranged 
in series, an arrangement which is most evident in the posterior 
folds. The folds are smallest where the membranes are the thin- 
nest and are the largest where they are the thickest. 

As a rule the incisive pad is in line with the raphe, but it may 
be deflected (see fig. 3) or continued forwards between the central 
incisors (see fig. 5). Occasionally the anterior end can be seen from 
the front lying in the interval between the teeth named. It may 
persist in the aged long after the loss of the incisors. When the 
deflection is decided it enters into the causation of torus palatinus} 




Figure i. 
The arch is wide and moderately arched. The rugse as a rule are 
entire, — the exceptions being both first post-sutural rugx — and the 
last postsutural on the left side. The neck folds are conspicuous. 

The largest transverse fold lies between the canine teeth or be- 
tween them and the first bicuspid and answers to the suture between 
the maxilla and the premaxilla. It will receive here the name of 

^ For reference to iorus palatinus see W. Sommer, Virchow's Archiv. 1883, 
vol. 94, 21. 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the sutural ruga. The sutural ruga is the widest of any in the 
entire series. It is usually inclined somewhat backward, but never 
forward. A deep sulcus is often seen at the base of the sutural fold 
anteriorily. 

The sutural fold divides the hard palate into two parts, the pre- 
sutural and the post-sutural. The pre-sutural space thus answers to 
the premaxilla and has but one ruga^ (see fig. 2). The post-sutural 
space has four to seven rugse and are named in order from before 
backward the first, second, third, fourth, etc. Of these folds the third 
is the best developed. As a rule the first and the second are the 
least so and are represented usually by small nodules, or by groups 
of papules, at the outer portion of the vault. They are often aborted. 
The fifth, sixth, and seventh are also often aborted or represented by 
faintly expressed broken sinuate lines. The presutural portion of 
the vault is nearly flat and is of a special use in presenting a firm 
surface for the tip of the tongue to press against in mastication and 
in speech. The post-sutural space is concave with an abrupt declivity 
forwards. The alveolar processes of the molar range and the declivity 
named bound tlie true palatal vault. It presents extraordinary 
varieties, no two subjects being in all respects the same. 

The pre-sutural rugse were found in an examination of 90 ex- 
amples of hard palates, present on the right side alone in 11, on 
the left side alone in 1, on both sides, 17, absent in 50, doubtful in 
11. Occasionally a system of minute raised folds extends from the 
raphe outward in the spaces between the rugne. 

The roof of the mouth at the region of the incisors and the bicus- 
pids is distinguished from that of the molars by the presence of folds 
of gum-tissue placed at the necks of the teeth. These may receive 
the names of the neck-folds. They indicate a disposition of the 
mucous membrane to be in excess at the parts where the palate is 
the narrowest. They often entirely occupy the pre-sutural space. 
The rugte as a whole, are the best developed in the regions where 
the neck-folds are found. 

Each palatal ruga is divided into a median and a lateral part. 
The median part, as a rule, is crescentic in outline with the convex- 
ity directed forwards. The lateral is directed forwards. Taken 
together the last named folds are arranged in vertical series, (i. e. with 
the main axes of the crowns of the teeth) and are either separated by 



1 Some of the figures show neck-folds which must not be confounded with rugae. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



257 



1888.] 

intervals of equal size or are clustered at the alveolar border op- 
posite the bicuspids. 




P'iGUKE 2. 

The arch is flat and wide, the ruga; entire; no hyperostosis is 
present ; moderate lateral concresence is seen on the left side. 

When the two parts, (the median and the lateral) are contiguous 
the rugoe may be said to be entire. But when they are separated 
by intervals more or less appreciable they may be said to be broken. 
In palates of a moderate curvature i. e. midway between the flat and 
the high vaults, the folds may be evenly disposed and be without break 
on one side while they are irregular and broken on the other. The 
left side is commonly the most developed, a feature which the rugae 
exhibit in common with the mandible, the left ramus of which is 
commonly the larger. 

An elliptical exostosis which i(s often met with on the roof of the 
mouth is almost always larger on the left side. The left sutural 
ruga (see fig. 3) is generally prolonged back farther than is the 
right. A similar disposition is seen in the first post-sutural ruga 
but to a less degree. The post-sutural rugae especially on the right 
side (see fig. 9) may extend obliquely forward. The third is com- 
monly so placed, but the fourth, fifth and even the second may il- 
lustrate this disposition (see fig. 8). As opposed to exostosis the 
term hyperostosis will be employed to denote the general excess of 
bone deposition along the line of the intermaxillary suture. It is a 



258 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888. 



common form of hypertrophy in the Anglo-American and one which 
has a distinct clinical significance (see fig. 5). 




Figure 3. 

The palate is moderately high arched. The lateral elements are 
elongated. The median elements are either two faint to be apparent 
or are absent. 

The right lateral incisor is absent and the incisive pad shows an 
inclination to the side of defect. The left sutural fold is directed 
backM-ard at the raphe. 

The union of the right sutural and post-sutural rugse so as to 
present a fork-like figure, the arms of the fork projecting outwards, 
is frequently seen. 

The incisive pad, the raphe and the two sutural rugse in rare 
instances may coalesce and give rise to a conspicuous cruciform 
figure. 

The vertically placed lateral ends of the rugte are by far the 
most constant of any parts of the series. They are especially well 
developed in high narrow vaults.' 

The course of the posterior palatine vessels and nerves serve as a 
guide to interesting conditions of the hard palate. 

The mucous membrane is pale where it overlies tissues which are 
not in contact with the bone. The interval between the raphe and 



1 In the horse the roof of the mouth is very vascular. In Mephitis the pre- 
sutural portion appears to be in a similar condition. The exact limitation of this 
part of the roof is of interest and, so far as it goes, supports the position taken that 
the rugLie are naturally divided into a pre-sutural and a post sutural set. 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



259 



the sides of the vault is marked by a whitish surface which yields 
to pressure. In some individuals this motion can, be traced as far 
forward as the first post-sutural fold. The tract is best developed 
when the roof is normally formed. With a flat arch and a median 
exostosis present, the track is small. With rugse well shown, but 
broken, the place of the interruption occurs across the track. The 
pale tracks appear to be entirely absent in high, acute arches. An 
association of the track and the color marking of the hard palate 
can also be detected, The high-arched palates are uniformly of a 
red color, while the flat arches are red only along the median line 
and at the region of the gum. A test exists here for the rate of 
blood vessel activity of the palatine structures and, by inference, of 
the rates of development of the maxilla. 




Figure 4, 
The palate is normal in curvature. The incisive pad and raphe are 
continuous. The sutural folds are entire, the left fold extending 
farther up along the raphe than does the right. Median concresence 
is seen on the left side. 

Variations of the Rug^. 

At the risk of repeating some of the facts of the preceding 
description it is proposed to discuss under this head the principal 
variations of the rugae. They will be included under the following 
propositions : 

I. The rugse of the lett side tend to be the better developed (see 
figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,). 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1888. 

II. The rugfe of high Literally compressed as well as the wide, 
flat vaults are apt to be entire. (See fig. 8.) 

III. The rugre of vaults whose median suture has become the 
seat of general hyperostosis are always broken. (See. fig. 5.) 

I. Not only is the group of rugae on the left side more prominent 
than on the right, but the distance from the median line to the 
canine tooth is greater on the left than on the right side. The 
pre-sutural space is slightly the more prominent on the left. The 
left sutural rugse is apt to be inclined backward as it approaches 
the median line to a point beyond that reached by the right. The 
right side exhibits a forked sutural ruga, and a larger first post- 
sutural fold than is seen on the left (see p. 261). The obliquely 
placed last post-sutural fold is as peculiar to the right side as the de- 
flected sutural is to the left. 

II. The rugse of the high compressed vaults not only tend to 
remain unbroken but are well developed. The membranes are 
thick, cushiony and vascular. The incisors are thrown forward, 
since they cannot be accommodated in the narrow space between 
the canines, or the teeth last named remain out of the arch. 

The skeleton is slight and the tonsils large if not hypertrophied. 

The hard palate with a wide, flat arch is associated with thin 
rugse whose intervals are wide (see figs. 2 and 9). The sutural 
rugse tend to be deflected less than in the other types. A hyperosto- 
sis is common. 

III. The form of the wide arch which is modified by the hyper- 
ostosis of the median structures of the palate is an illustration of 
the disposition of the bones where they unite one to another by 
suture to exhibit excess of nutrition.^ 

The raphe is exaggerated, a median bony ridge extends along its 
line, the pre-sutural region is occupied by thick membranes and 
prominent neck-folds. The left sutural ruga is apt to incline back- 
ward at the median line. The right sutural fold is united with the 
third near the raphe. This group is frequently met with in subjects 
of nasal catarrh. • 

The rug^ of man as compared with those of the 

lower animals. 
A generally accepted method of study embraces the variations of 
human structures and those of the lower animals in which these 
" variations " are constant. 

1 See a paper by the writer, Am. Journ. of the American Sciences, 1870, 405. 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



261 



Most variations in human anatomy are said to be reversions. 
While this method is a most valuable one it has a limited use when 
applied to the study of the rugse, excepting in the instance of the 
broken rugse, and even here the comparison is not exact. 

The human rugse derive their peculiarity from two causes : 
First, the divergence from the median line of the dental arches as 
they are traced from before backward ; this is much greater in man 
than it is in the lower animals. Out of 96 examples of dental 
arches examined by rae 58 were found to be deflected more on the 
left than on the right (see figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 9,), 21 deflected more on 
the right than the left, (see figs. 1, 2) while 17 only were symmetrical. 
If, as I have assumed, the folds in part at least are the result of compres- 
sion it follows that abrupt and varying deviations of the boundaries 
of the palate must greatly disturb the harmonious development of 
its rugse. 

The deviations of the curves of the vault especially when inter- 
rupted by a disposition to hyperostosis must also be a disturbing 
influence. In 90 examples of palates the hyperostosis itself was 
found in 51. This is certainly a remarkably high proportion and 
when it is remembered that the specimens were from the mouths of 
patients who were suffering from chronic nasal catarrh, the associa- 
tion is suggestive of a relation between coincident causes. 




■'"mi 

Figure 5. 
The arch is wide. The raphe hes on a conspicuous ridge which 
forms a hyperostosis. The rugte are irregular, while some in advance 
are long and entire, others are converted into clusters of. coarse 
papillce. 

Again, in 90 examinations the sides of the vaults along the range 
of the bicuspids and molars was in 27 instances, both right and left, 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

nearly vertical, in 47 both sides inclined moderately outward, 3 had 
right side vertical and left inclined, 4 had the left side vertical and 
right inclined, and in 9 the inclination was undetermined. 

Second, the extraordinary modifications in the proportions of the 
face. The face stunted as it is in its anteroposterior dimensions 
compensates for this defect in a great tendency to downward growth. 
The premaxilla is enormously thickened as it enters into the com- 
position of the mouth ; the sides of the vault including the alyeolar 
processes are greatly elongated ; and the sutural line of the maxillse 
tends to become hyperostosed in the region of the rugse or a separate 
exostosis forms back of it on the free surface of the palate. It has 
been seen how the presence of the hyperostosis modifies the shapes 
of the ruga\ The firm suture between the premaxilla and the 
maxilla determines the greater size of the ruga which answers to it. 
The sides of the vault drag the lateral part of the rugie of the post- 
sutural set from a horizontal to a vertical and forward position. 
The median hyperostosis breaks the rugse into parts, — a condition 
never seen so far as I know in any quadruped. The changes are in 
illustration of the well known law that peripheral structures are 
conformable to the deeper lying tissues with which they are in 
correlation. 

One of the most conspicuous appearances in the human rugie is 
the approach of two or three folds towards one another either at the 
median or lateral ends. It is most marked in children in the lat- 
eral ends (where they are clustered toward the deciduous canines 
and molars) and in the adults at the median ends anteriorly. 

The third and fourth rugse of the right side have marked special 
dispositions to incline forward and inward, often cutting off the first 
and second folds or causing them to disappear. The convergence may 
go so far as to effect union between the different folds. Especially 
is this the case between the sutural fold and the third on the right 
side, by means of which the forked appearance is seen (see fig. 8). 
In some examples the sutural fold is united with the third be- 
hind, and with the pre-sutural in front. 

In 90 specimens examined I found the lateral ends of the left rugae 
convergent in 19; the lateral ends of those of the right side in 10; 
and on both sides in 11. 

In the same number of specimens I found the median ends con- 
vergent in the lefl side in 6, on the right side in 4, and on both 
sides in 5. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 263 

The rugse may be convergent on one side and transverse on the 
other. It is thus seen that the disposition of the rugae to form little 
clusters is noticeable. 




fiGURB 6. 

The palate is wide but with deep recesses from a moderately high 
arch back of the sulural rug^. The lateral elements on the left are 
regular and elongated; those on the right are unusuaUy irregular, 
and first and second post-suturals very oblique. The median ele- 
ments on both sides are strangely disturbed. Median concresence 
exists on both sides. 

The inclination for the third, fourth and fifth rugse on the right 
side to incline forward is especially marked. 

In 90 specimens I found the right rugse thus inclined in 33, the 
left only in 2 while in both right and left, 16. In the whole number 
the inclination of the third rugae is the rule. The disposition is 
marked in palates with hyperostosis. 

The median half of each ruga may incline independently of the 
lateral, but the inclined fold is, as a rule, entire. The degree of incli- 
nation is variable but it may be expected to be so great that the 
sutural and post-sutural folds may unite. 

The approach of the rugae one to another their entire length is 
much less frequently seen than the foregoing. The sutural, the 
third and the fourth post-suturals may be coalescent. In 90 ex- 
amples this was noted on the right side 9 times, on the left 6 and 
on both 2. 

The union of the sutural and pre-sutural I have seen but once. 
It was symmetrical. 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The folds may be contiguous only. In 90 examples I found the 
arrangement on the right side 3 times, on the left 1, and for both 5. 

It is probable that some forces create the variations above noted, 
which are distinct from those already named. They are evidently 
often out of harmony with one another,-the right side exhibiting 
their effects oftener tliau the left. Sometimes they are operating 
on the ends of the folds, sometimes in their entire length of the median 
halves. That they are correlative with morbid phenomena is un- 
doubted (see p. 269). For the clumping of the rugse their entire 
length is often found in atrophic foetid catarrh, and in the senile 
state. Butit may be so by coincidence. No data exists which covers 
the entire range of appearances. Certainly nothing comparable to 
such dispositions are seen in the lower animals. 

The term concresence is an exact and convenient term to use in 
describing this class of modification of the rugifi. 

The common abortion of the first and second post-sutural rugae 
is not the least instructive of the changes affected by concresence. 




, Figure 7. 

The incisorial pad is divided by a transverse groove. The raphe 
shows'a tendency to right and left subdivision. The left sutural ruga 
is deflected backward along the raphe. The post-sutural rugae are 
irregular. A small pre-sutural ruga is evident. The right post- 
sutural rugae tend to be oblique, especially in their displaced median 
^ elements. Median and lateral concresence is shown on the right side. 
The deflection of the left sutural fold backward along the raph6 
is probably also an example of concresence. But for some reason 
it does not tend to unite with the post-sutural. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 265 

Of 90 examples I found the left sutural ruga thus deflected in 49 
instances, the right, in 3 instances only, and on both right and left, 
5 instances. In all the other examples the fold was transverse. In 
deflection it must be noted that the ruga after reaching the raphe 
is thence abruptly turned so as to be parallel v/ith that structure. 
Both the right and the left fold may be inclined back before ap- 
proaching the raphe or may not reach it at all. 

The forms of the rugse are never pathological as I venture to 
define that term. The question to what extent variations of struct- 
ure may be said to be pathological is no longer a novel one. The 
fact that the forces operating in the economy often antagonize is 
generally accepted. Upon this antagonism the approach to sym- 
metry as seen in the paired structures alone depends. In the 
plastron of a turtle ( Chrysemys pida) in my possession, the plates 
exhibit a constant disposition for those of the right side to crowd 
and minimize those of the left. The same disposition for one side to 
gain ascendency is seen in all paired structures which form by their 
growth inward a median suture or raphe. If such minor variations 
were to be called pathological every living creature would be an 
epitome of morbid anatomy. Anatomical variation I assume to be 
a better term for such deviations unless the structures are hurtful to 
the individual or at least tend to be so. A pathological condition 
is one in which the final effect is to create distress or to excite 
lesion. Prof Alpheus Hyatt has described certain distorted shells 
found by him as constituting pathological species. Are not such 
species degraded, or reverted rather than pathological forms? The 
comparison sometimes made between the horn of the rhinoceros 
and the epidermic hypertrophies which appear upon the surface of 
n;ian and some of the lower animals, is based upon the conception 
that the outgrowths are in both instances of the same nature, — that 
they are both pathological and differ only in the single feature that 
the rhinoceros by the law of selection has utilized a horn which 
happened to appear at a convenient locality. To my mind the 
structure is not pathological unless it expresses perverted function 
or interferes with a function ; not only this but that it interferes in 
an abrupt, obstructive manner. If it does not so appear but in 
such guise as to encourage the animal to use it; the organ should 
be named an anatomical variation. 

The word pathology is an anachronism in a system of biology. 
It originated at the hands of observers who had imperfect concep- 

18 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

tions (if indeed they may be said to h,ave any at all) on the general 
physiological laws operating in all the tissue changes of the body. 
What was once " morbid " is now natural. If the word is to be 
retained by naturalists, it should have a strictly medical application 
— the one originally designed for it by practical men. 

The correlation between the RuoiE and the interior 

OF THE NOSE. 

I have met with ten examples in which the left side of the nose 
was smaller than the right and in which the same side of the hard 
palate was also the smaller. Care must be taken to distinguish the 
common variety of narrowing of the nose by a deflection of the 
septum from the much rarer form or reduction of the chambers in 
all directions. 

In six cases the right side of the nasal chamber was the larger 
and a corx^esponding increase in size of the right half of the palate 
was detected. 

But the association between palatal and nasal conditions is by no 
means uniform and at the same time I cannot conclude that the 
cases brought forward in evidence were coincidences. I have stud- 
ies of individual cases in which not only was harmony present 
between the proportions of the nose and the hard palate but between 
these structures and the cranium as well. 

It may be said that, in a manner, the law of symmetry is not with- 
out exemplifications in the harmonies of the arrangement of the 
sides of the hard palate, with the nasal chambers and with the cor- 
responding side of the head but that this exemplification is subject 
to so many exceptions by the operation of minor disturbing factors 
as to be rarely present. 

In examples of hyperostosis of the iuter-maxillery suture the in- 
ferior turbinated bones are high and appai-entl}^ compressed. This 
condition is often associated with imperfect devfclopment of the vomer 
at the choana. The same peculiarity is found in high V-shaped 
vaults. 

A well defined group of subjects exhibit intumescent states of the 
membranes of the premaxillary portion of the nasal chamber, a 
rounded nodule projecting from the floor of the vestibule, a prom- 
inent anterior end of the inferior turbinated bone, and a tumid state 
of the membrane covering the septum. While such pronounced 
morbid appearances are seen in the front of the chamber the remain- 
der of the nasal surface is perfectly healthy. Coincident with these 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 



267 



peculiarities of the nose the roof of the mouth is distinguished by a 
small incisive pad and coalescence of the sutural and the third post- 
sutural folds. The tonsils are moderately enlarged. 




Figure 8. 
The arch is narrow and high, the pre maxillary portions being 
thrown forward. Hence the space between the sutural rugje and the 
incisorial pad and all the parts in advance of the sutural rugse are 
exceptionally open. The third post ruga; is confluent with the sutural 
on both sides. The pre sutural ruga; are absent. 

The Relation between the Rug.e and the Teeth. 

The relation existing between the rugpe and the teeth is not as 
important as would at first sight nppear. For the pre-maxilla it 
may be said that no influence is exerted by the incisor teeth over 
the pre-sutural rugae. The sutural ruga is directly opposite the 
canine teeth, the first post-sutural, directly between the canine and 
the first bicuspid, the second ruga opposite the bicuspid, etc. In 
the Proceedings of the Acad, of Nat. Sci. of Phila. p. 310, 1882, I 
proposed a system of naming of the parts in accordance with these 
facts. But it is less satisfactory than the one used in this paper. 

Nevertheless the following statements would confirm the position 
assumed that some connection between the rugse and the teeth must 
be accepted to exist. 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The axis of the incisive pad when deflected from that of the 
median line is inclined toward the side which is minimized by the 
non-appearance or extraction of one of the incisor teeth of the per- 
manent set, by the eruption of a tooth on the buccal or labial side 
of its arch, or by some third related cause (see fig. 3). 

In one adult subject whose palatal vault exhibited straight, reg- 
ular, unbroken rug?e on the right side retained on the left all the 
rugse broken and parts of two entering into the composition of the 
pre-sutural and the sutural. Tlie left side was narrower than the 
right. It is not likely that the irregularity of the rugse on the left 
side was independent of the fact that the lateral incisor and the 
second bicuspid were absent from the upper jaw, and that the sec- 
ond bicuspid on the same side of the lower jaw was also absent, its 
place being taken by the second milk molar which had never been 
changed from the time of its eruption and was in all respects a 
normal, healthy tooth. The left side of the face was slightly small- 
er than the right. 

In a girl of twelve years the rugse were normal on the left but on 
the right the sutural fold Avas forked and the remaining folds broken. 
On the left side the left second bicuspid tooth was absent, while 
on the right both teeth were in position. 

It is always of importance to remember that the mouths of chil- 
dren in whom the deciduous canines and molars are yet in position 
at a time when the permanent incisors and the first permanent 
molar have been erupted, that the rugse exhibit a disposition to 
approach one another toward these teeth. Is it possible that the 
change from the infantile arrangement where the folds are entire, 
regular and symmetrical to that of the older child, where the ac- 
quired variations take place, is due either to the retention of the 
deciduous canines and molars, or to the retardation in development 
of the permanent bicuspid teeth? 

The region of these teeth is an exceedingly active one within the 
maxilla since the germs of the permanent canine and of the bicus- 
pids are well advanced to completion. At the same time the pe- 
ripheral structures are not changing in correspondence. Hence an 
element of disturbance is created. 

Clinical applications. 

It is evident that if, as has been claimed, the rugse are modified by 
nutritive and developmental processes they will have clinical signif- 
icance also. The application will be especially evident in the 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



269 



manner in which the rugse are aborted by protusion of the premax- 
illary elements, and of the hyperostosis of the structures at the 
raphe. When the vault is flat — the rugse tending to be symmeLrical 
though feebly developed, — a condition is present which is often 
found associated with chronic nasal catarrh of the atrophic type. 
If the arch is wide the sides of the palate and the alveolar processes 




Figure g. 
The hard palate is without neck-fol<is, is of low arch and is wide. 
The raphe is nearly obliterated, The rugte are broken. The lat- 
eral half of the third post-sutural fold extends obliquely forward and 
is in line with one of the median elements (probably of the second). 
No similar disposition is seen on the left. Lateral concresence is 
seen on the left side. 
are not well developed, the rugse are gathered in a clump upon an 
anterior declivity of low inclination, the turbinal scrolls are .small, 
and the membranes nonerectile. The teeth in such individuals are 
large especially the incisors, the patient is predisposed to premature 
recession of the gums from about the necks of the teeth and to 
suppurative affections of their roots.^ 

The Incisive Pad. The pad is often of a bluish red color when 
the palate elsewhere is of a pale hue. At other times the pad is of 
pink color and the base surrounded by a deep blue line. Thus the 
pad may be congested either in whole or in part while the rest of 

1 For the connection between atrophic catarrh and premature recession of the 
gum see a paper by the author in Dental Cosmos, 1885, xxvii, 329. 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the hard palate be entirely free. In a man fifty six years of age 
from whom I had removed a number of polypi the pad was the 
seat of soreness and pain for a week after the operation. It consti- 
tuted the only annoyance which followed upon an operation of 
exceptional extent. In children who have been operated upon for 
deflected septum the necks of the teeth are surrounded by a pur- 
plish red line as long as the plug is worn in the nose. 

Absence of Ruga:. The rugte may disappear by pressure from 
within, as from a usevus or a fibrous tumor, and from without, as 
from the pressure from a plate for artificial teeth. The absorption 
of the alveolar process after the extraction of teeth, as a rule, induce 
the absorption of the rugte, but occasionull}' the rugje persist and 
are found lying directly across the position of the former dental 
arch. 

Medico-Legal Value of the JRugce. The persistence of the rug^ 
after death leads to the conclusion that they may afford valual)le 
signs by which the body can be identified, for during the processes 
of decomposition the mucous membrane of the hard palate is 
among the last to be lost. When the positions of the rug?e are re- 
corded (as in the event of a patient having been recently under the 
care of a dentist and the impression of the rugae having been taken 
in plaster,) it is certainly true that the folds could be used in connec- 
tion with the teeth, or even in the absence of these organs, in 
identifying the subject. 

Congenital Syphilis. In congenital syphilis I have often observed 
that while the roof of the mouth especially at the anterior part was 
of a deep red color from inflammation that the rugje were milk white. 
The folds become swollen and painful in acute inflammati(.n of the 
roof of the mouth and infiltrated in cases of prolonged suppuration 
from the alveolar processes. 

In the diagnosis of syphilis this appearance is of importance. 
While the characters of the teeth as caused by scarlet fever may be 
much the same as those produced by syphilis yet in the sequelaj of 
the disease first named the hard palate yields no characters. In 
syphilis more or less congestion if not inflammation appears to be 
constantly present. 

The study presented in the foregoing pages is based entirely ujion 
examinations made upon living subjects. Forms of mouths which 
occurred to me as interesting were selected and casts of the ru 2,03 



.J, ,,v..v. ^v..v-x..,v.^. .v^^> v.....^.. ^* ...^ - "O' 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 271 

and teeth taken in plaster with great care.' The material therefore 
is not of the average. It is based upon the hard palate of individ- 
uals known to have some disease associated with disturbed states of 
secretion of the nasal chambers. 

In order that the study should have a more extended application 
it was thought to be desirable before any exact clinical conclusion 
could be drawn that a study of similar extent be based on material 
known to be derived from entirely healthy individuals. 

To make such examinations I visited the State Eastern Peniten- 
tiary in this city and by the courtesy of Dr. W. D. Robinson, the 
physician of the Institution, was enabled to fctuby the mouths and 
nasal chambers of the inmates. In this way ninety examinations 
were recorded. 

In no instance was hyperostosis present in the form spoken of in 
the foregoing pages. Nor was a single case of hyperostosis of the roof 
of the mouth back of the region of the rugae seen. In a word no form 
of rugae was detected which was broken by the descent of the median 
structures. 

In twenty-two examples the raphe was sufficiently prominent to 
form a slight fullness which could be felt by the finger. The re- 
maining fifty-eight examples were perfectly smooth. 

The inigae were very commonly of the form exhibited in Figs. 1 
or 2 with a disposition for the folds to be concrescent at their outer 
ends. The examples of the left sutural rugae deflected along the 
line of the raphe, were but six in number ; moderate degree of 
asymmetry of the sides of the roof in seven ; concresence of the 
right sutural and post-sutural as to form a fork-like figure in but 
three. 

It is evident that the variations of the arrangement of the rugae 
were within a much narrower range than in the ninety cases from 
subjects from other sources. 

The roof of the mouth presented no narrowing of the vault with 
compression as seen in Fig. 8, and no flat wide palate as seen in 
Fig. 9. Thus the extremes of variation — viz., of the high narrrow 
vault and the low, wide vault were absent. But one instance of a 
moderately compressed vault was seen and in this example the 
pre-maxillae w^ere not thrown forward. 

1 I desire in this connection to acknowledge my indebtedness to many of my 
friends especially to Dr. L. Ashley Faught, Dr. E. C. Kirk and Dr. J. M. McGrath. 
Dr. J. W. White and Dr. W. Storer How of the S. S. White Dental iMfg. Co,, also 
greatly aided me in the investigation. 



272 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Respecting the presence of catarrhal affections in the cases it is 
necessary to say that not a single man among the entiTe number ex- 
amined had complained to Dr. Robinson of any of the symptoms of 
these diseases. I detected small quantities of secretion in the nasal 
pharynx in fifteen instances. I cannot admit that this circumstance 
had any significance in the absence of any of the usual appearances 
of the membranes. 

The teeth and nasal chambers were also examined but nothing- 
found which is of special mention. 

Cohcliisions. The following conclusions may be drawn from the 
statements made in tlie paper. 

(1) That the range of variation in the roof of the mouth and its 
folds is greater in subjects of nasal catarrh than in those who are 
free from this disease. 

(2) That the variations of the rugae are different on the two 
sides of the roof. 

(3) That excess of development of the pre-maxilla and the hori- 
zontal plate of the maxilla, especially at the anterior portion, con- 
stitutes a condition which is found in about fifty per cent, of cases of 
chronic nasal catarrh. 

(4) That chronic nasal catarrh is found associated with so many 
phases of asymmetry of the rugae of the hard palate and the dental 
arches that the disease should be studied as a morbid action which 
is based upon morphological elements and not alone upon climatic 
conditions. 



Proc.Acad.Nat.Sci.Phi]a.l888. 



P1.VII. 




'4;, 

8 



ii^Si 



Em^uePer^, Fossils from Niagara Shale. 



Pro c.Acad.KatSci.Phila. 1888. 



PIVIII. 




12 



A.M.F. iel 



A-MPielde on Aquatic Larva. 



Explanation of Plates IX, X, XI. 

The lettering is the same on all the figures. 

A. Anus. 

Agl. Anal Glands. 

B. Bladder. 
CI. Clitoris. 

F. Fallopian Tube. 

k. Kidney. 

m. Miilleriau Ducts. 

MG. Mammary Glands. 

o. Ovary. 

R. Rectum. 

S. Scrotal Pouches. 

Sr. Supra-renal Capsules. 

t. Testicle. 

U. Urethra. 

Ugc. Urogenital Canal. 

Ur. Ureter. 

Ut. Uterus. 

V. Vagina. 

W. Wollfiau Ducts. 

Corrections. Page 189, line 19, omit "and." 

Note, line 3 from bottom for "altenus" read "alternis," 
for "alteris" read "alternis," for "foemias" read "foe- 
minas." 



Proc.Acdd.Nat.Sci.Phila.1888. 



PI IX 








i^ f / 



Chapman on Hyaena &c. 



Proc.Acad.Nat.Sci.Phila.1888. 



Pl.X 



J^' 




ChapTnan on Hyaena ficc. 



Proc.Acad.Nat.Sci.Phi]a.l88r^ 



Tl.Xl 




Chapman on Hyaena See. 



PROG. ACAD. NAT. SCI. PHILADA. 1888. 



PL. Xll. 




KEYES, ON IOWA FOSSILS. 







^n^fr 



»Noioi»Pi rauiCKUNST t-mLAO'*. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 273 

October 2. 
The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 

Fifteen persons present. 

Megalonyx Jeffersonii. — Prof. Leidy exhibited an ungual phalanx 
of Mega/onyx Jeffersonii, submitted to his examination by Prof. J. 
E. Todd, of Tabor, Indiiuia, who informed him tliat it was found in 
a sand bed, below the drift, in Mills Co., Iowa. 

Anomalies of the human skull. — Prof. Leidy exhibited the right 
half of a skull, from France, in the maxilla of which, besides the 
usual number of incisors, the canine and premolars, there is a series 
of four molars, of w'hicli the last one is about half the size of the 
others. In the same skull the fore part of the middle turbinal is in- 
flated and forms a large sinus forming part with the anterior eth- 
moidal sinuses. 

Further, in the same specimen the venous portion of the jugular 
foramen is nearly obsolete, and its inner portion forms a distinct 
foramen for the inferior petrosal sinus. The descending portion of 
the groove for the lateral sinus, about the eighth of an inch wide, 
ends in a large mastoid foramen. 



October 9. 
Mr. John H. Redfield in the chair. 
Eighteen persons present. 

A paper entitled "Contributions to the Natural History of the 
Bermuda Islands," by Angelo Heilprin, was presented for publica- 
tion. 

The following, received through the Botanical Section, was order- 
ed to be printed: — 



J 9 



274 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888„ 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE HISTORIES OF PLANTS, NO. II, 
BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 

The leading tacts, given in these papers, have been communicated: 
verbally during the year 1888 to the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia or its Botanical Section. In })reparing them for 
publication, it was believed they might add to the interest of the meet- 
ing of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at 
Cleveland, if read thei-e prior to a full publication here. This state- 
ment is necessary to explain the somewhat controversial manner, 
intended to excite debate, in which the facts are presented. The 
remarks of those who discussed the papers, are briefly given in the 
Botanical Gazette, for September 1888. 

Some new facts in the life History of Yucca. — In the extremely 
ftiscinating subject of the relation of insects to flowers no plant 
possesses a greater interest than the Yucca. It is assumed that in- 
sects' visits are arranged for cross-fertilization, and this again on the 
assumption that cross-fertilization must in some way, be a great 
benefit to the species or to the race. This conclusion is a fair one. 
Some good has been found from cross-fertilization, and some flowers 
seem only to produce seed when cross-fertilized -but in Yucca we 
have the anomaly of a floral structure so arranged that it can scarcely 
pollinate itself or in any way receive pollen except by artificial aid 
and yet that arrangement results, in so far as we can see, simply from 
the use of its own pollen. There is in Yucca a more wonderful rela- 
tion between the insect and the flower fertilized than possibly in any 
other case. Professor Kiley, to whom the great credit of this 
wonderful discovery is mainly if not wholly due, has well expressed 
this intimate relation in the insects name Prouuba yucco.sella, and 
yet it is evident to those who observe closely the working of this 
wonderful arrangement, that it has no relation to cross-fertilization, 
but results in self-fertilization. In most cases, as clearly shown by 
the observations of Prof. Kiley, the pistil receives through the medium 
of the insect the pollen' from its own flower, or at best the pollen 
from the flowers on the same or adjacent plants; which is equally 
self-fertilization. Just why this plant should be put to all this 
trouble to get results through an agent, with no other result than it 
would obtain if it did the work itself, is surely a problem worthy of 
any endeavor to solve. ^lankind has servants and slaves, and even 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 275 

small insects, drone bees, and other creatures live in indolence by 
the sweat of other brows. Tliere are nian}^ parallels between plants 
and animals. Is Yucca to be a case of absolute servitude on the 
part of the insect, from sheer indolence on the part of the Yucca to 
do its own work? It seems to me we shall not be able to draw the 
veil from this great mystery till we make continuous and careful 
observations of all the facts in its history, and place them on record 
for comparison with those which others maj'^ make. 

Prof. Riley once made the remarkable statement that he had seen 
the Yucca Moth collect pollen, and thrust it down the tube of the 
stigma, as if it knew that some such process was necessary to insure 
fertilization. Dr. En2:elmann had found in the Yuccas he examined, 
that the apex of the pistil was not stigmatic, — the receptive portion 
was low down in the tube. The two observations, taken together, 
gave color to the supposed object of the insect. I have shown, (see 
Proceedings of the Meetings at Cincinnatti, Saratoga and Buffalo,) 
that pollen applied to the apex in Y. angustifolia, and protected by 
gauze from the insect, resulted in seed just as well as Avhen the work 
.was done by an insect. The tubular character noted by Dr. Engel- 
mann cannot therefore be a constant one; and we shall have to 
admit that the reasoning of the insect which led it to thrust the 
pollen down the tube in the other species, leads it to perceive there 
is no tul)e in Y. angustifolia, and that the application of pollen to 
the bare apex is sufficient in this species. 

Up to this season I had never been able to detect the insect be- 
have in the plants around my house, as Professor Riley saw them 
behave; but I have always conceded that he is too careful and too 
close an observer to have been mistaken in such an observation. 
The record of the act of the insect thrusting its tongue down the 
stigmatic tube, from so accurate a naturalist, needs no confirma- 
tion from any one, however one may be allowed to hold his judgment 
in suspense as to the object of the insect in such behavior ; not then 
as confirming Prof. Riley, but as part of my observations of this year, I 
desire to say that I have recently seen an insect at the same task. It 
worked its proboscis up and down the tube of the pistil, much as a 
sportsman would load his gun. 

I find, in this region Yucca filamentosa commenced to bloom this 
year about the end of June. Some plants will bloom a full week, or 
occasionally ten days before others, though years ago, all the plants 
under my notice came from root cuttings of one stock and not from 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

seed. The flowers begin to expaud an liour before sun-down, assum- 
ing a canipanulate form by dark. By sunrise the next morning 
they are closed, and they remain closed till an hour before sun-i-et 
when they again expand, and go through another day as 
before. But at the third evening's expansion they become almost 
rotate, closing again the next morning but only to wither and foil 
away. The flower opens and fades within three days. 

During the first week or ten days of the flowering period, an 
enormous amount of moisture exudes from every part of the flower. 
It trickles down the outer surface of the [)erianths, collecting in 
drops at the apices of the lobes, sometimes almost covering the leaves 
with spots where the drops have fallen and indicating a somewhat 
gummy character. The pistil is completely covered with minute 
bullae, from which the same kind of liquid exudes. It is not a sweet 
liquid, indeed differs from pure w^ater only in having a very slight 
trace of bitterness. The moths become very active just after sun- 
set, traveling up and down rapidly over the moistened stigma, 
my idea being that they were feeding on the moisture, and that this 
probability also included the case of the one noted a])ove as thrust-, 
ing its proboscis down the tube of the stigma. But the insect's 
motions are so rapid that in the twilight I could not feel absolutely 
sure of the oljjects for which they were laboring so hard.^ 

The most interesting part of my observations comes in here. "When 
about half the blossoms on the huge ])anicle had matured, the pro- 
duction of moisture ceased. On the evening of the eighth of July I 
tx)uld find no trace of an exudation of moisture, nor was there during 
the whole remainder of the flowering period. Strange to say my 
friends whose attention was called to this sudden cessation of a 
watery overflow all suggested, "did you note an}' peculiar condition 
of the atmosphere ?" I call attention to this here l)ecause it is so 
common in reasoning on similar phenomena to say the atmosphere 
was so-and-so therefore this or that resulted. It is the bane of 
exact philosophical deductions that such hasty assumptions are com- 
mon. We nuiy with more propriety remember that in trees and 
plants generally a large amount of moisture is stored in the tissue 

' Tliis paper was read at the Cleveland meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, where Prof. Riley was present and it is due to 
this eminent naturalist to say that he insisted on his former view that the sole ob- 
ject of the insect in working down the pistil, was to ensure the fertilization of the 
flower. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 277 

during winter, apparantly ready for the enormous draft on the stor- 
age basins whicli the sudden burst of masses of young foliage must 
entail in spring. All know how maples and (jther trees bleed on the 
slightest wound before the bursting of the leaf, — and how completely 
destitute of moisture the tissue seems a short time afterwards. All 
bleeding ceases as the young leaf has fully expanded. Will not the 
same necessity exist for a provision of moisture for the enormous 
number of juicy succulent flowers the Yucca has suddenly to pro- 
duce? May there not be enough and to spare in the earlier period, 
with none to waste towards the last? These suggestions are all useful 
as clews to further discoveries. The danger in science is that we 
rest satisfied with plausibilities, and mistake them for facts. 

My object is to show that the much discussed Yucca is yet 
a comparatively unexplored field; and that its unknown life- 
history yet promises to be one of the most interesting subjects \ho 
teleologist can possibly give his attention to. 

A dndy of the Hydranfiea in relation, to eros-'^-fertUization.- — That 
many flowers are arranged for cross-fertilization needs no argu- 
ment to sustain it, nor is it less certain that some floAvers can only 
be fertilized through the aid of wind or insects. Spi-engel, it is well 
known in the early part of the present century, placed this beyond 
doubt. The great question is not. do plants generally cross-fertilize, 
but why do they do it? ^Iv. Darwin's great work in this connection 
h.as been to ])rove that plants abhor in and in breeding, that the 
struggle for life is necessarily the chief object of existence, and that 
cross-fertilization tends to make the race stronger and better fitted 
to engage in this struggle than close breeding would do. The results 
of many of Mr. Darwin's experiments sustain his views, as do those 
of many others; but to my mind just as large a number do not 
sustain them. Mr. Darwin himself has candidly .stated that con- 
tinuous self fertilization does not in the least impair the fertility of 
the race. Mere negative vigor is the leading advantage he finds 
in crossed plants. (Cross and Self-fertilization, Chap. IX, p. 'P>2~.) 

It is not my object now to controvert the views of Mr. Darwin, or 
or of his numerous followers. My view of one object of nature in 
cross fertilization is to aid in production of variety. I have shown 
ever since discussion grew warm on these subjects, that variation is 
essential to the present order of thing?, — that nature, to be consistent 
with herself, must provide for variations if for no other purpose than 
to make variety. I now propose to show l)y some studies in 



278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Hydrangea, that the variations in the species are of tlie most con- 
tradictory character taken from the stand-point of benefits in the 
struggle for life; while they ate entirely consistent with my view of 
variation for variety's sake. Our garden Hydrangea from Japan, 
Hydrangea hortensis^ has the ray florets sterile, or rather it is the 
lateral florets of the compound cyme, that give the enlarged sepals, 
and fail to perfect the gynoecium. The terminal florets are fertile. 
In H. qnercifolia, all the lateral florets are fertile, and it is only the 
terminal one that has petaloid sepals and is barren. Will any one 
assert that these exactly opposite conditions can have any bear- 
ing whatever as aids in a struggle for life? Suppose we say that the 
attractive sepals are given to these species for the purpose of attract- 
ing insects, and thus aiding cross-fertilization. With this view we 
examine the American species //. arborescent, and we find barely 
an attempt to make these enlarged petaloid sepals. There are 
small ones on a few terminals and this is all. It has made out 
certainly as well in the great struggle as either of its two brethren. 
But is it a fact that the showy sepals are given to the plant to attract 
insects? There is neither pollen nor nectar in the nuile flowers of 
H. hortensls. They conceal the terminal hermaphrodites, and it is 
scarcel}"^ probable many insects, if any, visit the flowers. In the 
other two, many insects visit the flowers-so far as my observations 
go, as many visit the H. arborescens without the attractive sepals, as 
the H. quercifol'm that makes such a show of them. 

Turning to the minute fertile flowers on these two species, we are 
struck by the immense number of stamens and the enormous num- 
ber of pollen grains one of these racemose cymes gives us. I estimat- 
ed the number of stamens on one of H. (jnerelfolia at 18,000 ; shaken 
over a slieet of dark paper it completely whitens it. It can be carried 
by the wind everywhere, why sliould it develop ])elatoid sepals to at- 
tract insects? Both species have the odor of Hawthorn, but in addi- 
tion H. qnercifolia has an enormous yield of nectar, which is apparent- 
ly not abundant in H. arborescens. In spite of all the attractions, the 
petaloid sepals, the a])undance of pollen, the delightful fragrance, 
the super-abundance of nectar, and the actual visits of numerous 
insects, the flowers are soU'-fertiliziug. The outer row of five stamens 
mature })ollen siiuultaneously with the expansion of the petals, whicli 
falls at once ou tiie receptive stigmas, some hours after the inner 



1 yranchel nnrl S.ivaticr, iii^i>i thai Siiiitli's name of //. //(^r/c-w.t/V, has piiority 
over H. Horlensia. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCKS OF PHII.ADKT.PIIIA. 270 

series mature, and ensures that self-fertilization which tlie pollen 
from the first series may possibly have missed. The only possible 
aid insects can give is in self-fertilization. 

It is broadly asserted that we owe to the existence of 'insects the 
various forms and colors of flowers with their grateful odors and 
sweet secretions. Here we have illustrations of the most dissimilar 
and contradictory variations in a single genus, variations which 
cover all the leading points called for by the insect-adai)tationists, 
and so far as any argument in common use goes, could have occurred 
with as much reason if not a single insect ever existed. The facts 
are absolutely inexplicable on any theory of the survival of the 
fittest in the struggle for life, — but on niv view of the absolute 
necessity of variation for its own sake, the explanation seems simple 
enough. 

Variation is inseparable from even the closest in-and-in 
b)-eeding. We are as fully justified in saying that nature abhors a 
■ perpetuity of form as that she abhors in-and-in breeding, and we 
■can just as earnestly claim cross-fertilization as an agent in bringing 
about variation for the sake of variety, as for the reasons usually 
given, and which we find we cannot apply with consistency in so 
many cases. 

That cross-fertilization aids variation, we may well believe is a 
sufficient reason for its existence, — without assuming that it has 
no other office to jierform. 

Oil the forms of Lonicera Japonica ; tvith notes on the origin of the 
forms. — The well-known honeysuckle of our gardens, Lonicera Ja- 
ponica Thunberg, gives three forms of this in general cultivation, 
supposed to be distinct species. One, known as L. Halleana, intro- 
duced into America about a quarter of a century ago, I take to be 
the plant so intended by the author of the original name. It is the 
plant figured in Botanical Register, plate 70. Another isi. braehy- 
botri/a Asa Gray, , a well-known form, preferring to creep and root 
in the ground, to climbing. The third has been long in cultivation 
as " Chinese woodbine," a favorite for its rosy, sweet flowers, and is 
the L.flexuosa of Loddiges. All the characters given by the authors 
of the several names, can be found in difierent stages and conditions 
of the same ])lant. The segments of the corolla in L. ftexiiona are 
somewhat narrower than in the other two; and it has a rosy ])ur- 
ple tint in the stems, leaves and flowers. The leaves in L. brachy. 
■botrya are shining, and the hair, being a little shorter, makes the 



280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

plant seem different. Tlie flowers in all three turn yellow soon after 
they open. 

On account of this change, the plant is known as "Silver and 
Gold " in Japan. 

The floAvers open towards evening. At the expansion of the co- 
rolla, the stamens and pistil are of equal length. The flower is pro- 
terogyuous. In the morning the stigmas Avill adhere, if brought 
together l)y their viscid secretions; but the anthers do not disperse 
pollen till later. The expanded flower remains white or I'osy-tinted 
all the day after opening, and turns yellow the second day, fading 
the third. The tube of the corolla is about an inch long. On the 
evening of expansion it contains no honeyed secretion. In the 
morning the production of nectar is coeval with the bursting of the 
anther cells, by noon the sweet liquid has risen up the tube for about 
one-third its length. It continues to flow after the change to yellow; 
and by evening, the tube is full for half its length, or half an inch. 
When the flower Avholly fades, the sweet secretion, which gives the 
name of honeysuckle to the family is still there. Amid all these points 
of uniformity", there are differences in productiveness. The form 
known as L. braehybotrya is abundantly fertile ; in occasional in- 
stances only do the others bear fruit. This is worth noting. Plants 
twining on trellises, under exactly the same conditions, vary re- 
markably in their reproductive powers. Such observations have 
been made before on other plants, and are the facts regarded as puz- 
zling. Mr. Darwin savs : — " Thev make me believe that some indi- 
viduals of a species differ from others in their sexual afKnities (to 
use the term employed by (raertner) like closely allied species of 
the same genus." (Cross and Self-fertilizatiov, Chap, vi, p. 209.) 

As the expression "sexual affinity" does not explain anything, 
and as these three honeysuckles are such very distinct individuals 
as to have been regarded as distinct species of the same genus, they 
suggested themselves as offering excellent o])portunities for observa- 
tion as to the influence of anything that could be ufiderstood as being 
in the nature of environment that might account for the origin of their 
several forms; and especially what pai-t the visiis of insects might have 
had in developing the general form of the whole flower. In the hon- 
eysuckle, the tube of the flower attracts prominent attention. The 
large amount of nectar it contains, gives the name of honeysuckle to 
the family as already noted, and one cannot help referring to the ac- 
cepted explanation of the origin of tubular forms. "]t may be 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 281 

admitted as almost certain that some structures, such as .... a long 
tubular corolla have been developed in order that certain kinds of 
insects alone should obtain the nectar." ( Cross-and Self-fertiliza- 
tion, Chap. X, p. 382.) The honey-bee visits all these forms freely. 
The honey nearly fills the tube, and bees have no difficulty in col- 
lecting freely. It can scarcely be believed that the plant made an 
effort to exclude short tongued visitors, and that the long tube Avas 
the result of that effort, and then secreted so much nectar as to 
nearly fill the tube by which the short tongued insects could get as 
much as before the effort was made. 

Nor must we lose sight of the supposed objects for which insect 
visitors are to be encouraged, namely, cross-fertilization. 

In order to make no mistake in our conclusions, it is proper to 
note hei'e, that modern literature has misconceived the whole idea of 
cross-fertilization. There cannot possibly be any physiological bene- 
fit from one flower crossing another on the same plant; but this is 
about all that is involved in much that is written in connection 
with the visits of insects. Yet Darwin takes especial pains to ex- 
plain that this is not cross-fertilization. He says : " cross fertiliza- 
tion always means a cross between distinct plants raised from seeds" 
(p. 10). Even distinct plants, unless under distinct conditions 
scarcely constitute crossings in his mind. "The mere act of crossing 
two distinct plants, which are in some degree inter- related, and 
which have long been subject to the same conditions does little good" 
(p. 61). Referring to Composite (p. 173) he notes that the florets 
were " self-fertilized " though with different florets from the same 
head. On p. 345 he declares " pollen from the same plant is equally 
injurious or nearly so, as from the same flowers." And, after all, it is 
difficult to tell what i\tr. Darwin really means by " injurious," for 
tlie most of his experiments, when in his mind resulting beneficially, 
referred to vegetative luxuriance, in many little related to those 
greater vital questions on which the good of the race depends. He 
distinctly states (p. 327) " tliere is therefore, no evidence at present, 
that the fertility of plants goes on diminishing in successive self- 
fertilized generations, althougli, there is some rather weak evidence- 
that this does occur with respect to height and growth." Still 
it is clearly his idea, and evidently the proper one, that the cross- 
fertilization can only be fairly entertained wlien the physi- 
olocfical conditions varv in the individuals crossed. Thousrh the- 
honevsuckles referred to are all from cuttings from the one in- 



■282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

dividual in each case introduced, yet being three distinct ones from 
seed originally, there might be a chance for cross-fertilization when 
three kinds grew altogether, as in those under my observation. 

But I found that the bees, and other short-tongued visiting in- 
sects, could not, in any Avay, aid in fertilizing the flower, when gath- 
ering nectar. In these forms, the stamens and pistil are curved 
upward, so that anthers and stigma are far above the lower lip, on 
which the insect alights. If any insects aid in cross-fertilization, it 
must be the ])ollen-gathering bees, and others ; but this will render 
the speculation in connection with the development of nectar, and 
the prolongation of the tube in favor of certain classes, of no value, 
especially in connection with the fact noted, that the short-tongued 
insects can get the liquid in spite of the prolonged tube. 

It is usual, when similar instances in other plants have been noted, 
to weaken the force of the lessons they teach, by objecting, that 
many things "may have happened." In this case, it would be 
urged, that there might be some insects in the native country of 
these honeysuckles, that we have not here where the plant is intro- 
duced ; but this would not change the fact, that whatever they may 
be, they would still be divided into long-tongued and short-tongued 
classes ; and that some bees gather honey only, while others are de- 
voted to collecting pollen; nor would it ignore the fact that the sta- 
mens and style are out of the reach of the short-tongued class. It 
"may be" also urged that after the tube had been lengthened to ex- 
clude the short-tongued insect, the plant had subsequently, under 
•excessive excitation from the long-tongued visitors, overdone its 
work, and supplied more nectar than it had originally given'; and 
then, among the " may he's " often indulged in, is that of a " con- 
tinuation of effort after the reasons therefor have ceased to exist," 
and the " progress of development towards a new stage of self-inter- 
est." 

No one could rationally deny that in the functions of plants, 
self-interest karoelv enters. Nor can it be successful! v controverted 
that flower are often wholly dependent on insects for their fertiliza- 
tion. Tlie })oint I have for some years contended for is, that we 
•need not necessarily be forced to assume that every variation in a 
plant, or every function in its life-work, is for its special interest. 
It seems to me absolutely essential to the present order of things, 
that variety, for mere varieties' sake, should exist quite independently 
of any other consideration. This may involve the necessity of chang- 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 283 

ing the term " adaptation " to " design " in many cases. At any rate, 
I am unable to see a reason for the special form and arrangement 
of })arts in the honeysuckle flower, that will accord with prevalent 
speculations, and am constrained to to believe the plant has been 
forced to assume them for variety's sake. 



284 proceedings of the academy op [1888^ 

October 16. 
Rev. H. C. McCooK, D. D., Vice-Presideut, in the chair. 
Twenty-two persons present. 
The following papers were presented for publication : — 

"Additional Notes on the Structure and Classification of the 
Mesozoic Mammalia." By Henry Fairchild Osborn. 

"On the Helicoid Land Mollusks of Bermuda." By H. A.. 
Pilsbry. 



October 23. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication: — 

"Crotalocrinus. Its Structure and Zoological Position." By 
Charles Wachsmuth and Frank Springer. 

"On a New Species of Starfish of the genus Pteraster." By J. E.. 
Ives. 



October 30. 
The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 
Fifty persons present. 
The following papers were presented for publications: — 

"Discovery of the Ventral Structure of Taxocrinus and Hai)lo- 
crinus and consequeni modifications in the Classification of the 
Crinoidea." By Charles Wachsmuth and Frank Springer. 

"Observations on the Development of the Skull in Neotoma 
fuscipes, a contribution to the INIorphology of the Rodentia." By 
K. W. Shufeldt. 

The following wei'e ordered to be printed: — • 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 285 

ON THE HELICOID LAND MOLLUSCS OF BERMUDA. 
BY H. A. PILSBRY. 

Tlirougli the courtesy of Professor Angelo Heili)rin I have been 
enabled to study the Bermudan hind shells, collected by the party 
conducted 1)y him during the past summer. Among them were ex- 
amples of all the Helicoid species which have been reported by pi-e- 
vious observers from the island, some containing the living animal. 
The species, with the exception of a number of artificially intro- 
duced European shells, are mostly forms well-known from various 
West Indian localities ; such as Helix cereolus var. microdonta Desh., 
H. vortex Pfr. and others ; but besides these, there are a number of 
shells peculiar to Bermuda ; and these last have furnished material 
for the following notes. 

The helicoid species confined to Bermuda are as follows: H. ber- 
mudensis Pfr., H. nelsoni Bid., H. reiuiana Pfr., H. circumfirmata 
Redf, H. discrepant Pfr. As to the systematic position of these 
forms there has been considerable difference of opinion among au- 
thors ; the first, H. benniidends, has been ])laced in Caracolushj 
Von Martens, in Hyalina by Clessiii. in Zouites by Bland ; H. rein- 
laiia has been considereil a J^afuia by Pfeiffer, Clessin, Tryon and 
Fischer ; and H. circumjiyinutu and diserepans have been placed in 
Micvophysa by Von Martens and Binney, in Hyalomgda by Cles- 
sin^ Tryon and others. 

Thus it will be seen that these s})ecies have been distiibiited into 
several genera in two distinct families. Upon examining the soft 
parts, however, I find that all have essentially the same organization 
and without doul)t l)elong to the same genus. 

Dr. (). Boettger proposed in 1884, for the Lower Miocene fossil 
Helix imhricata Braun, and the H.- bermudensis Pfr. the name of 
Paicilozouites. lie gave no diagnosis of the new group, but assigned 
it a position between the typical pahearctic Zouites and the American 
groups Zonyalina and Moreletia, a position which the anatomical 
characters prove to be erronetnis.' 

1 " * * * Endlich sei noch einer nahen Verwandten der Hoclieim- 
er muermiocaner //f/ix ///il>//i-a/a Al. Biaun gedacht, die Saiidberger bekanntlich 
zu Trochoinorpha [Discus) geslellt hat. Ich gebe die Aehnlichkeit zu ; aber zur 
Section Videna H. u A. Adams, Discus Alb., mochte ich die betreftende fossile Art 
nur ungern stellen, da alle mir bekannten lebenden Arten dieser Gruppe zum min- 
dester einer verdichter basalrand, der oft recht erheblich Helix-artig umgeschlagen 



286 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

By ei-ror, the genus avms quoted " Poecilozonites Sandherger" in 
the Zoological Record for 1884, and this error was repeated by 
Tryon' who gives the first diagnosis of the group published, giving 
H. bei-mudensis as the type and only species. "We may, then, con- 
sider the H. bermudensis Pfr., the t3'pe species of the genus. Wheth- 
er the H. imbricata Braun be associated Avith the Bermudan shells 
or not is a point still to be settled. The superficial resemblance is 
marked; but as the history of the species of Pcecilozoiiites teacher \\s, 
" systematizing " helicoid land mollusks by the shells alone is the 
merest guess-Avork. 

The fact that the fossil species which Dr. Boettger proposes to 
unite with the Bermudan form is from the Lower Miocene forma- 
tion of Germany, is in itself no great objection to the view that they 
are congeneric; for no fact is better established in malaco-geotri'a- 
phy than the close affinity existing between the European Tertiary 
land mollusca and those now' inhabiting the West Indies.'^ To ex- 
plain this relationship existing between two regions separated by the 
whole expanse of the Atlantic, various theories have been offered. 
One of the most plausible is that which bridges the Atlantic by an 
ancient (Eocene, Early and Middle Miocene) continent — an Atlantis, 

ist (wie z. B. bei 7>', merziana Pfr.) besitzen. Viel niiher liegt daher wohl tier 
vergieich der Helix imbricata mit der etwas kleineren, niit zwei braunen bandern 
gezierten IJyalinia bermudensis Pfr. von den Bermudas, deren Uebereinstimmung 
in alien wesentlichen charackteren bei directem Vergieich sofort in die Angen 
springen diirfte. Freilich kommen wir liier fast von dem Regen in die Traufe, da 
die systematische stelliing dieser lebenden Art selbst noch in holien Grad unsicher 
ist, was ihr Autor durch ein vorgesetzes ' ? ' sehr richtig selbst schon angedeutet 
hat. Bei Hyalinia kann sie unmoglich bleiben. Da sie nieiner Ansicht nach 
audi nicht in die indische, indo malayische und polynesische gattung Trocho- 
ntorpha passt, so diirfte eine eigene Gruppe fiir Hyal. Berfimdensis und Helix 
imbricata zu errichten sein, fiir welche ich den Namen Poecilozonites vorschlage, 
und die ich am liebsten zwisclien die'achten paliiarktischen Zonites und die tiop- 
isch-amerikanischen Gruppen Moreletia und Zonyalina vorliiufig als section in der 
Gattung Zonites Mtnitf. einreihen mochte, bis die Anatomic der lebenden Art eine 
mehr gesicherte Slellung im System an die Hand geben wird." O. Boettger in 
Neiies Jahrbtich fur Mineralogie, Geologie ii. Palaeontologie, 1884, ii Bd., s. 
139. 

' Manual of Conchology, 2d, series, iii, p. 19, 95. 

''■ This affinity although doubtless very great, has been considerably exaggerat- 
ed. There is, for instance, no warrant for referring European tertiary species to the 
exclusively New World genera Pleurocera, Anculosa, Tulotoma, Mesodon, Carini- 
fex, Melantho, and others. There seems to have been no infusion of European 
Tertiary types into the North American snail fauna east of the Califoinian region- 
This fauna is truly autochthonous. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 287 

This view has been advocated by the well-known conchologist Dr, 
W. Kohelt' and by others. 

But although this theory explains many anomalies in the distribu- 
tion of molluscs, I must freely confess that the objections to it seem 
to me almost insurmountable. The recent work of the Challenger, 
Blake, and other deep-sea explorations, all tend to confirm the view 
held by Guyot, Dana, Agassiz and others, that the great oceanic 
basins, practically as they exist to-day, are of great antiquity; and 
render the existence of a former Atlantic continent with any con- 
siderable ^Yestern extension, highly improbable. 

A view more in accordance with the facts* with which we are at 
present acquainted, seems (o me to be the following: It is a well 
ascertained truth that until toward the close of the Miocene, large 
portions of Nothern Africa as well as Europe were submerged ; and 
it appears probable that the westward flowing Equatorial current of 
the Indian Ocean extended across northern Africa, and united with 
the Atlantic northern equatorial current, which now flows westward 
from northern Africa, through the Antilles into the Gulf of Mexico.. 
This current would afford a means of transport not only for the free 
swimming embryos of marine molluscs, (and there are not a few 
forms both of gasteropods and pelecypods, common to the Mediter- 
ranean and Gulf Provinces,) Init also, through the agency of floating 
materials, trees, etc., swept from rivers, land mollusks may have 
been transported across the Atlantic, just as they have been carried 
by the Gulf Stream from the West Indies to the outlying island of 
Bernuida," a distance of over 700 miles. 

A further development of the same idea explains certain peculiari- 
ties in the distribution of species common to the Pacific and the 
Gulf of Mexico. The presence of Miocene and Pliocene deposits 
render it certain that there was communication between the Gulf 
and the Pacific across the isthmus of Panama as late as the Pliocene. 
And a portion of tlie equatorial current probably swept directly 
through to the Pacific. Thus it is likely that those forms common 
to both sides of the isthmus, will prove to be of Atlantic origin, and 
to have been distributed westward. 

The indigenous Bermudan mollusc-fauna, marine as well as terres- 
trial, has undoubtedly been derived wholly from the West Indies. 

1 Nachricht.sblatt d. deutschen Malak. Gesell., J8S7, p. J47. 

2 See Darwin, Origin of Species, Gth ed., p. 353. Also a paper by Mr. C. T. 
Simpson, On tlie Distribution of Land and Fresh-water Shells in the Tropics, 
Conch. Ex. ii, p. 37, 50. 



288 FROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

And since the island is typically oceanic, "a solitary peak rising 
abruptly from a base only 120 miles in diameter" surrounded on all 
sides by between 2500 and oOOO fathoms depth, we have an indica- 
tion here that land raollusks of many families, Helicidce, Zonitidce, 
Siieeliiidw, FupidiE, Hclicinida:, even Vagiiiu/uke, (for a large uudes- 
cribed species of Vaghmlas exists upon the island) may be trans- 
ported very great distances by sea, by, in all i)robability, the agencies 
mentioned above. 

The considerable divergence existing between the vai'ious species 
of the Zonitoid genus peculiar to Bermuda, Poecilozoiiites, indicates 
that the island is of considerable antitiuitv. 

AVe may define the genus as follows : 

POECILOZONITES. 

Generic characters : Shell helicoid, subtrochiform, depressed conic, 
or subdiscoidal, perforate or umbilicate, obliquely striate, ornament- 
ed with radiating zigzag flammules or spiral bauds of chestnut color 
on a lighter ground ; whorls numerous (7-10) very slowly widening ; 
body whorl more or less flattened or compressed below the usually 
cariuate periphery, not descending anteriorly ; aperture more or 
less irregularly lunate ; peristome simple, the columellar margin 
slightly ex})an(led and thickened with a white callus which encircles 
the pillar within. Animal similar in form to Helix; foot narrow, 
short posteriorly, scarcely reaching behind the shell, without longi- 
tudinal furrows above its margin or caudal nuicous pore; orifice of 
genitalia on the right side of neck, near, but not under tlic mantle; 
mantle margin simple; jaw like t)iat of Limax, very thin, arcuate, 
with a broad Iilunt median projection anteriorly ; radula with 
tricuspid central teeth having quadrate basal plates, the central 
cusps })rqiecting beyond the anterior margins of the basal plates, the 
side cusps rather short, with well reflexed cutting points ; lateral 
teeth similar but asymmetrical, lacking the inner cusps ; marginal 
teeth aculeate, with simple thorn-shaped cusps and oval basal plates. 
It will be seen by the above definition that the genus cannot be 
included in any of the groups with which its species have been 
associated by authors ; the Zonitoid dentition at once removing it 
from the Helicidce, and the absence of a caudal mucous pore, the 
more anterior position of the orifice of the genitalia and the coloration 
• of the shell, separating it from Zonites and its subgenera. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIEXCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 289 

The relationship of the species of Poecilozonites to one another is 
shown by the similarity of the radulse and jaws, and of the external 
characters of the animal ; and in the shells, which at first glance 
seem to be a heterogeneous assemblage, by the callus which coats 
the columella, the compression of the whorl below the periphery, and 
especially by the color-pattern, Avhich is the same in all the species, 
consisting of zigzag flammules radiating from the sutures. In P. 
bermudensis the flammules coalesce into continuous bands above and 
below the periphery in the adult ; but an examination of young 
specimens reveals the same pattern that is found in P. circumfirmata, 
P. reiiiinna, etc. The internal spiral lamella of P. circumfirmata 
would incline one at first to separate it from the other species ; but it 
is scarcely of generic importance, in view of the fact that in all other 
characters the species is very similar to P. bermudensis, etc. 

The following analysis shows the inter-relations of the various 
species : 

A. Base of shell with a revolving lamina within 

circumfirmatus, discrepans. 

B. Base of shell without lamina. 

a. Aperture rounded below ; umbilicus wide reinianiis. 

b. Aperture angulate below ; umbilicus narrow 

bermudensis, nelsoni. 

Poecilozonites bermudensis PtV. (pi. xvii, figs. e. c.) 

The typical species is a form of about twenty-five mill, diameter, 
solid, coarsely irregularly striate and acutely carinate at the per- 
iphery ; a broad chestnut band usually encircles the shell above 
the periphery, and another below it ; but these are sometimes 
absent ; the inner whorls of the spire usually retain traces of the 
original color-pattern of radiating flames, and the base in young 
examples, is radiately streaked (pi. xvii, fig. e). The base is con- 
vex, and not indented around the narrow and deep umbilicus, but 
is angulated at its margin ; the parietal wall is generally covered 
by a shining white layer with which the interior of the shell is lined. 
Reeve, Tryon and other authors have figured the shell of this 
species. 

The jaw is like that of P. circumfirmata. 

The radula (pi. xvii, fig. c) is rather long. The central teeth have 
basal plates almost as broad as long, the median cusps projecting 
below their lower margins, with well-developed cutting points, the 
side cusps short, attaining about the middle of the basal plate, and 

20 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

directed outward ; the lateral teeth are f^imilar, ])ut lack inner cusps ; 
they are about eight in number, and are followed by about four 
transition teeth ; the marginals number about fifty on either side, and 
their cusps become more slender toward the outer edge, and the basal 
plates shorter. A central Avith five adjacent lateral teeth, and a 
group of transition teeth witli a true marginal tooth are shown in the 
figure. 

Helix albella of Chemnitz, (not of Linna:;us), and H. ochroleuca of 
Pfeifier, (not Ferussac) are, I believe, synonymous with this species. 
The former is placed in Eurycratera in Pfeiffer's Nomenelator, and 
the latter has been compared to Pachystyhi rufozonata, a form some- 
what similar in characters of the shell, but belonging, of course, to a 
distinct group. 

Poecilozonites nelsoni Bland, (jil. xvii, figs, j, k, l). 

A fossil form, differing from bermudensis in the much greater size, 
greater number of whorls, more convex base, coarser striation, im- 
j)ressed sutures, and especially in the peculiarly prominent dome- 
shaped upper whorls. These are, indeed, so closely coiled as to 
resemble a specimen of P. cirewnjirmata. The coloration,. imperfect- 
ly shown in several specimens before me, is that of bermudensis; 
and whilst its affinities are with the latter species, I regard it as a 
divergent branch, rather than as an ancestor of that form. 

As has been observed in other cases of species approaching extinc- 
tion, and probably subject to some decided and unfavorable change 
in environment, (in this case, perhaps, due to the comparatively 
recent subsidence and partial submergence of the island') the shell 
exhibits great mutations and distortions of form ; sometimes the spire 
is elevated conical, sometimes much depressed ; frequently the planes 
of the upper and lower volutions are not parallel, and the spire con- 
sequently is canted to one side. The species is remarkably large, 
solid and roughly sculptured for a Zonitoid. 

Poecilozonites reinianus I'tV. (]il. xvii, figs. i). 

This heretofore unfigured species is discoidal in form, widely 
umbilicate, the umbilicus about one-third the diameter of the base, 
exhibiting all the whorls ; the apical whorl is smooth and whitish ; 
the following whorls are quite convex, with deep sutures, l)rownish, 
very prettily zigzagly flammulate with chestnut color, like many of 
ihe species of Pahila. The body-whorl in adult examples is round- 

1 See Challenger Report, Narrative, vol. i, p. 138. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 291 

ed ; the base concave around the umbilicus, and the general asjiect 
that of Patula. 

The jaw is like that of cimimfirvicda. 

The radula (2:»1. xvii, fig. d) is similar to that of hermndensis except 
in the following points : the cusps are larger, with much more widely 
reflexed cutting points ; the perfect lateral teeth are seven on either 
side ; the change to marginals is quite abrupt, as there are but two 
real transition teeth ; the marginals number about sixteen on each 
side, the inner six or seven of about equal size, the outer ones rapidly 
•decreasing toward the edge. The basal plates are longer than in the 
other species. A central tooth witli two adjacent laterals and one 
marginal are shown in the figure. 
Poecilozonites circumfirmatus RedMeld. ({il. xvii, figs. r). 

A form with much the appearance of Hxjalosagda, a group with 
which it has been classed by some authors. It is a delicate subtranslu- 
•cent yellowish l)i-own shell, marked with brown streaks, spots and 
flammules ; the whorls are separated by moderately impressed sut- 
ures ; the apex is like that of reinicma ; the last whorl is more or less 
angulate around the periphery, rather flattened below the angle, then 
convex, indented around the narrow deeply perforating umbilicus ; 
there is a white calcareous deposit around the columella, inside, as 
in the other species, and an acute white lamella which revolves 
within the base near to the periphery, a character which none of the 
preceding species possess. The variation in form is very great — spec- 
imens more elevated than my figure v being nut infrequent, and 
these are connected by examples more and more depressed (fig. g) 
-with the flattened lenticular form called by Pfeiffer H. discrepaus. 
This extremely depressed variety, now figured for the first time, (PI. 
xvii, fig. H.) cannot be considered specifically distinct from the P. 
circumfirmata. 

Jaw (pi xvii, fig. b) transparent, very thin, arcuate, with blunt 
■extremities and a wide obtuse median projection below. 

Radula (pi. xvii, fig. a) as described for P. bermudensis, but with 
only seven laterals, two or three transition teeth, and about twenty- 
eight marginals. The marginals have longer basal plates than in P. 
bermiidensis. 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS UPON THE STRUCTURE AND CLASSI- 
FICATION OF THE MESOZOIC MAMMALIA. 

J!Y HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN. 

In coimectiou -with a visit to the recent Geological Congress in 
London the writer reviewed the British ]Mnseum collection of Meso- 
zoic Mammals which formed the principal basis of a recently pub- 
lished Memoir' and examined also the valuable specimens at Oxford, 
Bath and York which had previously .been studied merely from 
the descriptions and figures of Professor Owen and others. Also 
the NeoplagiauJax specimens in the collection of Dr. Lemoine at 
Rheims. There are two uudescribed sjoecimens in the Oxford Museum 
and since the Avriter worked upon the collection in the British 
Museum, (in- 1886), many of the Purbeck fossils have been much 
more fully exposed by the further removal of the matrix. Impor- 
tant features have been brought to light, not visible previously, 
which lead to a revision of some of the conclusions which were 
reached upon the evidence then at hand. Greater familiarity with 
the minute Mesozoic types of molars sharpens the powers of obser- 
vation and one is more apt to discover new points when on the 
lookout for them. Thus many inconspicuous but important featui-es 
were noticed which formerly escaped attention. Some of these, such 
for example as the identity oi Amhlotherium diViA Stylodon, had been 
already anticipated, but others, such as the tritubercular molars 
oi Amjjhdhermm wei'e entirely unexpected. 

The following notes are in abstract from a Postscript to the ^Memoir, 
which is in preparation, and are not to be considered as final. 

AMPHILESTES, 
Besides Professor Owen's tyjie, which is preserved in the York 
Museum,' there are tAVO specimens belonging to this genus at Oxford. 
In the type, it is somewhat difficult to determine the number of the 
teeth, as described by Owen, since the incisor and canine alveoli are 
indistinct, l)ut the Oxford specimens show that there were but six 
molars instead of seven as conjectured in Lydekker's Catalogue, 
Part V, p. 271, and adopted by myself, (op. cit., p. 193). In fact, 
one well preserved specimen, a right ramus seen upon the outer 
surface, shows but five molars. If this specimen be adult, as seems 
improbable, it may i*epresent a new genus transitional between 

1 '"'The Structure and Classification of the Mesozoic Mammalia." Journ. of 
the Acad, of Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. i.\, no. 2, July 1888. 

'■^ I am indebted to Mr. Plattnauer, the Curator of this Museum, for the oppor- 
tunilv of freely examininy; this sjiecimen. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 293 

Amphilestes with six molars and Triconodon Avith four. The second 
specimen, a left ramus also seen upon the outer surface, has three 
premolars f». situ and the space for a fourth, (7?3»i ); in front of 
this is a deeper alveolus, probably for the canine, preceded by the 
alveoli of at least three incisors, so that the lower dental formula 
may now be given Avith considerable certainty as follows: 

i- h-, CuPi, me. 
The canine is not preserved. The premolars as viewed upon the 
outer surface have prominent cingules but not the true basal cusps 
seen in Triconodon. The outer face of the molars is entirely devoid 
of a cingulum. None of the specimens give any evidence that the 
angle is distinct, but indicate that the lower border rises to the level 
of the condyle precisely as in PhascoJotheriuvi, Spahicotherium and 
Triconodon. This strengthens the writer's reference of these genera 
to one family as opposed to the views of Marsh and Lydekker; never- 
theless, as shown below, Spalacotherium is a more specialized type 
than the others. 

PHASCOLOTHERIUM. 

Besides the type in tlie British ^Museum there is a beautifully 
preserved specimen belonging to this genus in the Oxford Museum 
and through the kindness of Mr. James Parker of Oxford the writer 
had an opportunity of examining a third specimen in his private 
collection. The latter, which has been figured in Phillips' "Geology 
of Oxford," is remarkable for the extension of the coronoid beyond 
the vertical line of the condyle. The Oxford INEuseum specimen^ 
contains only the four posterior molars, probably nii — m-; with the 
fangs of 5)1.2 iind m;^. It may however be readily distinguished from 
the Amphilestes specimens by the stout cones and by the fact that 
the internal cingulum rises in two points upon the inner faces of 
the molars instead of in a single point beneath the protocone; also 
by the stout character of the jaw\ 

A renewed study of the molar teetli in the type specimen shows 
that all the post-canine teeth present the characters of molars in 
some re-ipects. The first tooth behind the canine has a main cusp 
like that of the posterior molars and an internal cingulum horizontal 
and rising in two points instead of showing the sweep downwards and 
backwards which is so characteristic of premolar cingula. The 
accessory cusps are either covered Avith matrix or broken off. The 
second tooth has a fractured cingulum so that one cannot determine 

1 The cavt of this specimen in the Natural Histury Museum (m. 230(1) has been 
mistakenly referred to AmphiUstes by Lydekker, op. cit., p. 272, on the ground of 
■"the small development of the accessory fore-and-aft cusps." The basal cusps of 
the molars are quite as prominent as in the type. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888.. 

whether the anterior cusp is a cingule or a true paracoue. The 
posterior cusp or metAcone is prominent and distinct as in the pre- 
molars of Tricoiiodon. The chief interest lies in the main cusp which 
is loftier and more pointed than the protocone of the tJiird tooth 
Avhich in turn has all the characteristics of a molar. This is an 
important point which has been overlooked previously, since it ap- 
pears to indicate an available line of division in the functional 
adaptation of the series, i. e. a line between premolar and molariform 
teeth. If such a division be confirmed by further examination of the 
first and second teeth, it will lessen the gap between Amphilestes and 
this genus and remove what has been considered an entirely excep- 
tional feature, viz. a type with no premolariform teeth. The mandib- 
ular formula may then be provisionally written thus: %, Ci, p.,, 

The crowns of this front pair of teeth have never been correctly 
represented. The writer's figure (op. cit., PI. 8, fig. 3) is incorrect 
in restoring the cingulum of the second tooth and the basal cusps 
of the first tooth. In this Buckland's figure was followed, believing 
it probable that the jaw was in better condition when he figured it 
than now, for the last molar was then present. Another error in 
the drawing is the high position of the dental foramen, to wliich 
Professor Marsh kindly directed attention. 

AMPHITYLUS.' 

In the type of this genus at Oxford the teeth are so fractured that 
it is impossible to form any idea of their full structure. There is 
some doubt whether the deutal formula, ("4, Cj, ^4, m-, as gener- 
ally given, is correct; one cannot be positive, for the 4th and 5th post- 
canine teeth are much mutilated; the characters of the condyle and 
angle, however, separate this specimen clearly from Amphilestes. 
At the time this genus was jiroposed the writer supposed we had in 
No. 36822 (Brit. Mus. Coll.) a ramus showing the outer face of 
the Amphitherium molars, but this ])roves to have been a mistake. 
The crowns of the last three molars in Amphifylus show a jjromi- 
nent posterior or tliird cusp, of wliich there is no evidence upon the 
molars o^ Amphitherinm, as seen upon the inner face. The penulti- 
mate and ante-penultimate molars also retain this third cus)). The 
fourth, fifth and sixth molars counting from the last, show the trifid 
division of the crown characteristic of the tric(modont type, then 
follow the tAvo mutilated teeth with bifid crowns which may represent 
either premolars or molars. Thus the formula may read either 

1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. June 21, IS87. 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



295 




,A 






^ 



U, Ci, Pi, !U,;, ov p^, m^, as given by Lydekker and adopted by the 
writer. Owen's formula, jh,, 5»g, includes the canine in the pre- 
molar series. 

PERAMUS. 

We are fortunately able to greatly increase our knowledge of 
this genus. Upon uncovering the anterior molars of the type speci- 
men of Leptocladus, an antero-internal cusp came into view, leading 
to the discovery that the latter genus is identical with Peramus, 
and still more interesting is the fact that the type specimen 

of Spalacotherium minus, 
(Owen) presents the much de- 
^-x -f sired internal view of the 
( Peramus molars. A third 
'■-''-"^^ specimen confirms the facts 
derived from tlie second and 
shows that altogether there 
are six or, possibly, seven 
specimens in the British 
Museum collection which 
should be referred to this 
genus, giving us nearly all 
the characters of the mandib- 
ular dentition. These are: 

The type, No. 4774i^, also 
No's, 47744, 47754, 47743. 
All except the last, portions of 

/'. /e/iu/ros/ns Owen. Outer face of anterior the left mandibular ramus 
portion of left ramus. Also, Second Molar geen upon the outer face. 
of Amphilheriuvi Prevoslii Owen, inteinal j>gfgj.j,g(| j^y Owcn tO PeramUS 
view. Also, Second molar of P. tniniis, i ]„,,+„^i u,, T ^..^1^1-1-.^,. 

'and so adopted bv L/yaeKker 

cnlarCTed from fi". 1 a aliove ; internal vie\\'. , . „„_ , " 

^ , 1 / -A , -A (op. Clt., p. 277.) 

/r, protoconid./^, paraconid, me, metaconid. ■ ^ ' ^ ^ 

/Jj', hypoconid.w^r, mylohyoid groove. Much To which should be added: 

enlarged. No. 47,739. the type of 

Leptocladus dubhis, (Owen, op. cit., p. 58, PI. Ill, fig. 4 ; Os- 
born, op. cit., p. 289, PI. 9, fig. 10 ; Lydekker, op. cit, p. 291.) 
A left mandibular ramus seen upon the outer surface. 
No. 47,751, tlie tyjie of Spalacotherium viinus. (Owen, op. cit., 
p. 28, PI. I, fig. 39.) A left ramus seen upon the inner 
face.^ 
The heel upon the molars of S. minus and the antero-internal 

cusp upon the antepenultimate molar of Leptocladus suggested a 

^ Also possibly, No. 47799, referred by I-ydekker to Spalacolheritint tniiius, 
op. cit., p, i!04. 




Fig. ]. 

a. Pdrauius {^Spalacoiherium^ minus 

Owen. Internal view of left mandilndar 

ramus. h. P. [Lefloclin/tis] ihihiits Owen. 

External view of left mandibular ramus, c, 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

fiirtlier examination which developed the fact that all the specimens 
of the oiiove list agree in the folloAving particulars: 1. In evidence 
of the presence of three incisors, (No's 47744, 47739, 47743). 2, In 
evidence, direct and indirect, of the presence of six j^i'^'^nolariform 
teeth, (No's 47743, 47739, 47742). 3, In evidence of the pres- 
ence of but three molariforni teeth. 4, In the fact that the mylo- 
hyoid groove does not terminate at the dental canal but extends 
back beneath the lower border of the pterygoid fossa, (No's 47751, 
47754). All the specimens which do not directly bear upon these 
four features of agreement support them indirectly, or at least pre- 
sent no negative evidence. 

The formula, pm^, vi^, is very exceptional, and Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas, who kindly examined these specimens and discussed the 
dentition with the writer, suggested a different division of the series. 
In No. 47739 the third and fourth premolars present lower crowns 
than the succeeding tooth, fig. 1 b, but this is apparently because 
the tips are not fully exposed. And as we have at present uo other 
data than the mere form of the teeth, it seems that we are bound 
to take the dentition as it stands, exceptional as it is, and divide 
it provisionally as follows: 

The almost invariable presence of four premolars among the 
Mesozoic and recent mammals is a very difficult fa-ct to explain. 
This genus and apparently Ampliitlierium are among the few 
exceptions. Why was the line drawn exactly to include five teeth 
behind the incisor series, the first of these developing into a canine? 

In describing Peramus (op. cit., p. 2()3), the writer questioned the 
reference of the anterior portion of the jaw, (No. 47743) to iton several 
grounds, but now considers this less doubtful, as the single incisor 
preserved is very similar to that in No. 47744., and both differ from 
those of Stylodo)i, the only other type which this specimen resembles. 
The last premolar has a heel very similar to that of the molars. The 
molars, fig. 1 a, are very simihvr to those of some of the eocene Creo- 
donta, presenting the primitive tuber cxdar- sectorial type. Among 
the Jurassic INIammals, they apparently approach most closely the 
molars of Amplutherlmn. 

AMPHITHERIUM. 
A comparison of the three specimens belonging to this genus, two 
in the Oxford collection, and the one previously studied in the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 207 

British jMuseum, has enabled the writer to determine fully the struc- 
ture of the molars and premolars and to correct a previous error. 

In examining the first and second molars of the type specimen 
under a strong lens, an external cusp was detected directly between 
the internal pair, a discovery of great interest, since, in connection 
with the last genus, it adds two important types to the tritu])ercular 
series. This external cusp is probably the one referred to by Owen, 
(op. cit., p. 14) in describing the penultimate molar of the second 
specimen of Amphithermm.^ He si:»eaks of the latter tooth as the 
posterior molar, but one can detect the tips of a molar behind this, 
just bi'eaking through the jaw. 

The molar of Amphitherium is thus apparently similar to that of 
Peramus wuth the exception that the external cusp, in the type species 
at least, is less lofty. This observation led to a reexamination of the 
jaw in the British ^luseum, No. 36822. This unquestionably belongs 
to Amphitherium, as previously determined, (Osborn, op. cit., p. 192, 
fig. 2.; Lydekker, op. cit., p. 374), but presents the inner face of the 
right ramus instead of the outer face of the left ramus as previously 
described. This is proved by the double internal cusps, l)y the cin- 
gulum upon the premolar, and by the faint mylohyoid groove,' near 
the lower border, Avhich was previously overlooked. The individual 
is much smaller and younger than the two Oxford types, which are 
nearly of the same size, and the tips of the para- and metacone? are 
entirely unworn." 

In the Memoir, the formula of ^4?jy9/iifAermm was doubtfully given 
as p)ih, »*6- (following Lydekker). An examination of the 
Oxford types shows that Prof. Owen was more nearly correct in 
putting it, jrwg, m^. If we deduct the foremost bifanged tooth 
which he naturally reckoned with the premolar series, but which is 
probably the canine, we have Ci, pm-^, vig. In the second Oxford 
specimen there are undoubted traces of three premolars in front of 

1 "The posterior molar shows a middle internal and part of a larger external 
cusp." This observation shows the keenness of the observer, for the molar referred 
to is in a very fractured condition. 

- The teeth in the Stonesfield Slate specimens are much more brittle than those 
in the Purbeck series, but it would 1 e well to run the risk (if injuring one of these 
molars to expose the external cone. 



298 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

the two complete ones. In front of these, Prof. Owen describes 
sockets for a bifanged tooth, (the canine), and for four single incisor 
fangs. 

PERALESTES. 

A reexamination of the superior molars in the type maxilla of 
this genus reveals an inconsi^icuous but important feature in tlie 
crown which escaped Professor Owen's notice as well as the writer's. 
That is, the presence of a low transverse crest connecting the antero- 
internal and antero-external cusps. This puts the functional adapta- 
tion of the Peralestes molar in a different light from that described 
in the Memoir, since it shows that this molar is subtrenehant. A 
close examination of the anterior faces of these crests, moreover, 
yields some evidences of wear Idv the crown of an inferior molar. 
These crowns ai'e placed somewhat obliquely, but when the jaw is 
tilted so that the teeth can be viewed directly upon end, they are 
seen to have a triangular section, with the base with its lesser cusps 
directed outwards, and the main cone directed inwards, precisely as 
in the primitive tritubercular crown. When viewed in this w'ay,. 
this pattern at once suggests that of the Spalacotherium lower molars,. 
Avhich consists of a triangle reversing the al)ove, /. e. with the main 
cone external and the base internal. Mr. Lydekker was the first to 
reach this conclusion as to the probable identity of these two genera 
but upon different grounds,^ and the writer has hitherto held quite- 
an opposite opinion,'- which is now withdrawn. 

The premolar formula of Peralestes is somewhat uncertain and the 
molars agree in number and size with those of Spalaeotherinm. At 
present, however, the evidence for the union of these genera is hardly 
sufficient to justify more than the placing of Peralestes in brackets 
with the above genus. 

STYLACODONTIDAE. 

After all tlie systematic work which Iuts been done upon the genera 
embraced in this family, there are none in greater confusion as to no- 

' " The true molars {o( Ferakstes) agree so closely in structure with those of 
Chrysochloris tliat there is every probahility that the specimen belongs to Spalaco- 
therium triciispiiiens''' op. cit., p. 294 : In the writer's opinion, the molars of Chrys- 
ochloi-is bear only a remote resemblance to those of Spalacotheiinni. 

2 " A review of Mr. Lydekker's Arrangement of the Mesozoic Mammalia." 
American Naturalist, March, 188S, p. 23'), " The molars of this genus are widely 
different from those of Spalacotherium etc." 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



299 




menclature. As the writer anticipated after examining Prof. Marsh's 

Dryolesies, (Am. Naturalist^ 
March 1888, p. 234 and Mem- 
oir, p. 236.) the genera Amblo- 
therium and Aehyrodon prove 
upon further examination and 
exposvire of the crowns to be- 
long to the Stylodon type. 

It further appears that Mr. 
Lydekker was correct in plac- 
ing Peraspalax with Ainblo- 
thermm (op. cit., p. 275), 
although he did not recognize 
the trituberculate character 
of the crown with the styloid 
external cone and two internal 
cusps and heel. The writer 
was in error, first in describ- 
ing the external cusp of the 
molars of this genus (Peras- 
palax) as separated by a valley 
from the internal cusps, for 
there proves to be a distinct 
transverse crest; probably also, second, in associating this jaw with 
the Peralestes maxilla, (op. cit., p. 233). 

It is now evident that the molars of Professor Owen's types of 
Amblotherlum soricinvm (Mes. Mamm., 1871 p. 29) of ^1. mustelula 
(ihid.,p. 31.), of Phasct)Iestes longirostris (ibid., p. 35.), of Aehyrodon 
nanus (ibid., p. 37.), of A. pnsillus (ibid., p. 39.), of Peraspalax; 
talpoides (ibid., p. 40.), all present substantially the same crowns, 
(see Fig. 2). It is also^probable, but not actually demonstrated, that 
Sfi/lodon pusillus (Geol. Mag., 186G, p. 199.) and S. robiistus (ibid.) 
have the same molar pattern. Professor Marsh has further applied a 
series of generic and specific names to the closely allied American 
genera. Altogether it will prove a difficult matter to clear up the 
synonomy of these numerous species and will require a close exam- 
ination and revision of all the material available. 

It is singular, in view of the probable similarity of many of these 
species, that all the specimens referred to Stylodon, because exposing 
the external face, possess but seven molars, with one possible excep- 



Fig 2. 
a, Kiirlodon. Superior molar series of 
the left maxilla, viewed upon the wearing 
surface, b, Antblotherium soricinttm, infe- 
rior molar series, viewed from above. In 
A. [Peraspalax) talpoides. A lower molar 
viewed upon the internal face. c. The 
same. A lower molar viewed from above. 
d, Aehyrodon nanus. A lower molar 
viewed from above. Much enlarged. 
Abbreviations as in lig. 1. 



300 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

tion, while three of the specimens shown upon the inner face have 
eight moLirs. As derived from a study of Professor Marsh's collec- 
tion, the basis of distinction between these genera will depend: 1, 
upon the numlier of the teeth in the adult condition; 2, upon the 
presence of a heel, which is apparently wanting in Asthenodon ; 3, 
upon the presence of one or of two transverse crests connecting the 
external with the pair of internal cones. 

The name Stylodon is preoccupied, but Amblotherium has the pre- 
cedence of *S%^acodo?t, (Marsh) and A. soricinum can probably be 
retained for the larger species with seven molars, thus embracing S. 
7'obustus with which it agrees closely in measurement. Pkascolestes 
would then embrace the species with eight molars. But these ques- 
tions can only be finally determined by a careful revision of all the 
material. 

It now seems probable that the type maxilla of Kurtodon (IS^o. 
47755.) fig. 2 a, should be placed somewhere in this series, as held by 
Owen and not represent a distinct family as maintained by the writer. 
Since the original study and figuring of the molars, the matrix has 
been extensively removed, so that the outer faces of the crowns are 
exposed and show a low antero-internal cusp near the base of the 
crown ; tliis cusp is very important because it is apparently homol- 
ogous with the postero-internal cusp of the Amblotherium louver molar. 
Further, as Mr. Lydekker has ^^ointed out (op. cit., p. 291) the 
block No. 47786 (S. pudllusf) contains upper molars of a very 
similar nattern associated with lower teeth, resemblino; those of 
Stylodon. It is freely admitted that the views before expressed by 
the writer are not sustained by this additional evidence, although as to 
the more definite question, it is not as yet evident with which of these 
jaws the Kurtodon maxilla should be placed. The question will l)e 
settled by the exposure and study of the crowns of the numerous 
specimens referred to Stylodon. The Kurtodon crowns are unlike 
those of Amblotherium soricinum or of Achijrodon since the summit 
is much broader and the wearing surface, instead of being trenchant, 
is grinding, as previously described, (op. cit., p. 109). 

Summary. 
The principle features of the present contribution are the follow- 
ing: 1, Additional characters of Amphilestes and the probable 
determination of the premolar-molar formula. 2, Additional char- 
iicters of Phascolotheriwn, suggesting a division between molars and 
premolars. 3, A review of the Jm^^Ai^?/^^^ ^^^ntition. 4, The union 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 301 

of Leptocladus dnbiiis and Sjxdacotherium minns W\i\\ Percmms, and 
determination of the mandibular dentition of the latter o-enus. The 
molars are tritubercular. 5, The discovery also of apparently tritu- 
bercular molars in Amphitherium and probable determination of the 
premolar- molar formula, (confirming Owen's views). 6, Confirming 
Lydekker's suggestion of the probable union of Peralestes with Spala- 
cotherium, and of Peraspalax with Amhlotherium. 7, The probable 
union of Peraspalax, Amhlotherium, Achyrodoii, Phascolestes, Stylodon, 
and Kurtodon, into two or three genera with a substantially similar 
molar structure. 8, Th» correction of the writer's former views as 
to the family separation of the Peralestidce and probably of the 
Kurtodontidce. 

The general result of the renewed and more extended study of these 
mammals has thus been, first to reduce the number of genera and 
eliminate tw^o of the families proisosed in the Memoir ; second, by the 
discovery of the molar structure of Amjohitherium and Peramns, to 
substantially reduce the number of molar types among the English 
genera to two, viz. : the triconodont in Amj)hilestes,Phascolotherium, 
Tricoiiodon and probably AmiMtijlus, and the tritubercular in all the 
remaining genera. 

This latter result is of great interest in its bearing upon the theory 
that the molar teeth of all the mammalia have either passed through 
the tritubercular stage or have been arrested at one of the steps in. 
tooth development leading to this stage. 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 
BERMUDA ISLANDS. 

BY PEOF. AXGELO HEILPEIX. 

The following notes on the zoology of a group of islands but little 
known to the naturalist are based on personal observations, and on 
collections made during a brief sojourn on the islands during the 
past summer, in company with a class of students from the Academy 
of Natural Sciences. But little systematic' work, other than that in 
the departments of orinthology, ichthyology, and botany, had hith- 
erto been done in this remarkal)ly interesting, and typically oceanic, 
island group, and it was thought that a more critical survey misht 
bring out facts of general interest to the zoological student, and 
throw some additional light upon the intricate subject of zoogeogra- 
phy. In the results obtained I have not been disappointed. The 
exuberance of animal life has yielded much that has proved to be new 
to the systematist, while certain remarkable peculiarities in the dis- 
triliution of a number of well-known types of animals open up vistas 
in geograjihical distribution which appear to me at present to recede 
into darkness, and, perhaps, tend to draw only more closely the veil 
over this mysterious subject. 

Much of my time was devoted to an examination of geological 
features, and, indeed, the special object of the journey Avas to 
ascertain, in the light of more recent inquiry, what evidence could 
be obtained from the Bermudas bearing upon the question of the 
growth and develojiment of coral islands. The substance of my 
observations in this field will be presented in a future paper. Only 
a portion of the zoological results is here published, inasmuch as 
additional material "in certain departments, intended to fill in gaps 
in the inquiry, has been promised by local collectors. 

The specimens noted or described in the following pages were 
mainly obtained through dred^ings, which were carried on as well 
in the outer water as in the smaller interior sounds and lagoons. 
As might have been anticipated the greatest profusion of animal 
life was found on the edge of the growing reef itself, the shoals 
surrounding the cluster of rocks on the northern barrier known as 
the North Rock. The wealth of forms occui-ring here almost tran- 
scends belief; unfortunately, the combination of limited time at our 
command and the state of the weather prevented more than a cursory 



1888.] NATURAL SCIEN'CES OF PHILADELPHIA. 303 

examination of'this locality, which is made comfortable for collecting 
and wadini^ during a partial exposure above water of some three 
hours. All the dredgings were conlined to depths within 16 fathoms, 
Avhich also represents the greatest sounding made by us in the la- 



goons. 



ACTINOZOA. 



Tiie true stone corals of the Bermudas are comprised, as far as we 
now know, in some twenty-live species, the greater number of which are 
represented l)y identical forms in the Bahaman or West Indian seas. 
The genera thus for indicated are Oculina, Mycediimi, Astrcea, 
SiderastrtBci, Porites, Isojihyl/ia, Mceandrina, and Dlploria. The 
genus Madrepora, one of the commonest of the Bahaman and Flor- 
idian corals, appears to be absent. On the south and east side of the 
island group the outer margin of the growing reef, largely covered 
by a serpuline and vermetus growth, approaches to within a few 
hundred feet of the shore, where it breaks the inflowing surf into a 
white crest. Within the line of these breakers the depth of water is 
in places as much as ten or twelve fathoms. The brain coral (Dijylo- 
ria) and various gorgonians develop here in great profusion, the huge 
yellow masses of the former aj)pearing almost everywhere at depths 
of from ten to twenty feet. Vast growths of millepore also cover the 
-shallower bottou)s, presenting in the ensemble a wonderful garden of 
animal development. ' This profusion of coral growth is, however, 
surpassed on the north side, where the reef recedes to a distance of 
some eight or nine miles from the island- shores, enclosing an exten- 
sive body of water whose depth is in general about eight or ten fath- 
oms, and more rarely twelve fathoms. Much the same coral growth 
is indicated here as on the south side, the large brain corals pre- 
ponderating l)y their masses. While, prolDably, the greatest profusion 
of animal life is really met with on the actual edge of the growing 
reef, this does not appear to be the case with the corals themselves. 
At any rate, I was unable to satisfy myself that there was any marked 
■difference to be observed between the marginal growth and that which 
extends gradually backward from the margin into deep water. 
Indeed, as far as the brain-corals themselves are concerned, it ap- 
peared to me that their largest masses were to be found some distance 
within the bounding reef, and consquently beyond the breaking 
action of the surf. This condition is again shown in the compar- 
atively quiet and sheltered waters of Castle Harbor, wdiere portions 
of the platform-bottom may be said to constitute one almost connect- 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

ed mosaic of huge Diplorias. In so far, therefore, the Bermudas 
differ from the greater number of coral islands, in which, as is com 
monly stated, there is a marked deficiency in the coral growth 
within the bounding area, and an equally marked luxuriance on the 
crest and outer slope of the reef 

In most places the largest corals do not come nearer than a foot or 
two feet of the surfjice of this water, the massive brain-corals rarely 
appearing in water of less depth than rive or six feet. But in the 
shallows off the North Rock we found Porites astra'oides almost 
at the surface in low water, and just off the entrance to Harrington 
Sound, on the north shore, Siderasfnea galaxea was covered by only 
about two inches of water. The borders of Harrington Sound are 
largely overgrown with species oflsophyllia, which likewise approach 
to within a short distance of the surface. In the greater depths of the 
Sound we found only Oculina, down to ten fathoms, the dredge-net 
being frequently caught and reversed by their ramose stems ; beyond 
ten fiithoms the dredge usually came up empty. 

The following species were obtained by us : 

Mycedium fragile, Dana. 

Two specimens. North Rock ? 
Oculina diffusa, Lamk. 

Harrington Sound. 
Oculina varicosa, Lesueur. 

Harrington Sound. 
Oculina pallens, Ehrenberg. 

Harrington Sound. 

I feel satisfied that' this species is identical with the preceding, the 
same stock bearing what might be considered to be typical repre- 
sentatives of both forms. 

The amount of variation in the disposition of the calyces, as well 
as in their individual shape, is very great in this genus, and I am 
by no means sure that two or three of the other forms of Ocnlina 
here enumerated represent anything more than varietal modifi- 
cations. Pourtales, in his illustrations of the CQrals of the Florida 
reefs (Mem. Mus. Comp. Zoology, VII, plates I and II) correctly 
refers, it seems to me, both types to a single species (A. varicosa.) 

Oculina speciosa. Edwards and Ilaime. 

Harrington Sound. 
Oculina recta, Qucleh. 

One specimen, from Harrington Sound, which agrees in the special 
characters of the species from St. Thomas (Quelch, Challenger 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 305 

Reports, Zoology, XVI, p. 51.) The species does not appear to have 
been hitherto observed in the Bermudian waters. 

Oculina coronalis, Queleh. 

Harrington Sound. First described from the Bermudas (Challen- 
ger Reports, Zoology, XVI, p. 49.) 

Queleh, in his report on the reef-building corals of the Challenger 
{op. cii., pp. 9 and 49), enumerates as an additional member of the 
Bermudian fauna the Oculina JBermudiana of Duchassaing and 
Michelotti. I have been unable to find anything in the description 
or figures ftirnished by these authors (Supplement au Mhnoire sur 
lea Coralliaires des Antilles, p. 162, pi. IX, figs. 1, 2 — Memorie 
della Reale Accad. Seienze di Torino, Ser. Sec, XXIII, 1866) to 
distinguish their species from Oculina sjyeciosa, nor does it appear 
to me to be distinct. The characters upon which the form is sep- 
arated are exceedingly trivial, and well within the amount of 
variability which is presented by individual specimens of nearly all 
the species of Oculina. I further believe that 0. coronalis, and 
possibly also 0. recta, will have to be united with 0. speciosa. 

Isophyllia australis ? Edwards and Haime. 

Three specimens from the North Rock, doubtfully identified with 
this species. 

Isophyllia fragilis T Dana. 

I am unable to satisfy mj self as to the positive existence of this 
species in Bermuda, although Queleh refers to a single specimen 
having been obtained there by the Challenger party. This author- 
ity doubtfully refers one of the forms figured by Pourtales (op. cit., 
pi. VII, fig. 3) as I. dipsacea to Dana's species, but from an 
examination of a number of Bermudian specimens which agree 
absolutely with Pourtales's figure I am fairly convinced that this 
identification is incorrect. The specimens do certainly not agree 
sufiiciently with Dana's description, and if they are not the types of 
a distinct species, then they represent probably only a certain phase 
of development of /. dipsacea, as in indicated by Pourtales. 

Isophyllia dipsacea, Dana. 

Three specimens, from Castle Harbor. 

Isophyllia strigosa, Duchai^saing and Michelotti. 

A number of specimens, from Harrington Sound, which agree 
with the description of this species. I am doubtful as to the species 
being distinct from Isophyllia dipsacea ; possibly, however, some of 
21 



306 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

tlie varieties (so-called) of the latter species figured by Pourtales are 
really members of this sj)ecies. Its principal distinguishing char- 
acters appear to be the thinner and more irregular septa, and the 
terminal cleft that indents or separates the septa of opposing calyces 
where they cross the common wall. It also presents a more bristling 
iipjjearance than I. dijisacea. 

Isophyllia Guadeloupensis, Pourtales. 

One specimen. This appears to be a good species, although by 
'Quelch it is referred lo Isoj^hyllia strigosa. 

In addition to these forms Quelch enumerates Isophyllia {Sym- 
phyll'.a) marginata, I. cylindrica, and I. Knoxi, all of Duchassaiug 
and Michelotti, as having been obtained at the Bermudas, but I 
have failed to detect any specimens among our collections Avhich can 
be confidently referred to these species. On the other hand, I find 
■one or two forms which I have not yet been able to identify with 
any described forms. 

Siderastrsea galaxea, Ellis and Solander. 

Abundant on the shoals of Gallows Island, near the mouth of 
Flatts Inlet, where the colonies come to within about two inches of 
the surface; also on the borders of Harrington Sound. 

Porites clavaria, Lamk. 

Two specimens, dredged in Harrington Sound. 
Torites astraeoides, Lamk. 

We found this species very abundantly along the outer reef, 
-especially on the flats of the North Rock, where it is the dominant 
form of coral. The species appears to have been overlooked by the 
Challenger party, and indeed, the only reference that I have been 
able to find indicating the occurrence of this common West Indian 
form among the Bermudas is contained in Mr. Rathbun's list of 
the species of Porites in the United States National Museum (Proc. 
U. S. National Museum, 1887, p. 354). 

Mseandrina labyrinthica, Ellis and Solander. 

Three specimens, from the North Rock. 
Mseandrina strigosa, Dana. 

This form is represented by large, sub-globose specimens, one of 
which, obtained through purchase, and probably from Castle 
Harbor, has an exceedingly attenuated base of attachment. The 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 307 

corallum is thus openly turbinate, or even pediculate, and exhibits 
in regularly scalariform outline the successive stages of outward 
development. 

Diploria cerebriformis, Lamk. 

This species is exceedingly abundant in the shoals lying to the 
leeward of the marginal reef, where its huge hemisi^herical or reni- 
form masses of bright orange, measuring as much as four or five 
feet in diameter, can be distinctly seen through the transparent 
waters at depths of from six to fifteen or twenty feet. I cannot say 
how much farther down the species extends. It is equally abundant 
in Castle Harbor, where it is largely instrumental in building out 
the shore-platform which, at a moderate distance from the shore, 
descends vertically into deeper water. When attached by a con- 
tracted base, the brain-coral may be readily removed from its moor- 
ings; but where the base is largely co-extensive with the under-surface 
of the corallum the difficulties of removal are very great, neces- 
sitating much undercutting with a chisel. The largest specimen 
obtained by us measured about 28 inches across ; our efforts to 
dislodge a specimen about four feet in diameter proved unsuccessful. 

Diploria Stokesi, Edwards and Haime. 

We obtained a number of specimens of this species in Castle 
Harbor and through presentation ; for the latter my thanks are due 
to Miss A. Peuiston, of Penistons. The habitat of the species, as 
far as I am aware, had not hitherto been noted. Edwards and 
Haime in their description of the species (Hist. Nat. des Coralliaires, 
II, p. 403, pi. T>, fig. 3) state " Patrie inconnue. " I believe it may 
be assumed that this species is the form described and figured by 
Knorr as 3fadrepora labyrinthiformis (Delicice Natures. Selectee, I, p. 
18, PI. A 4, fig. 1). In our collections we have a closely related, 
and possibly identical species, which assumes a ring form, and in 
which the peculiar calycular hollows of D. Stokesi run out into 
parallel transverse grooves on the inner side of the ring. 

ALCYONARIA. 

The gorgonians are abundant in the waters inside of the bounding 
reef, whence nearly all our specimens were obtained. A few were 
nipped up on the south side of Castle Harbor, and at the passage way 
conducting from the north into that body of water. 



308 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Rhipidogorgia flabellum, Valenciennes. 

The purple variety of this species is abundant more particuhirly 
in the northern waters, both near the outer reef and on the shallows 
known as Devonshire Flats. We failed to obtain any of the yellow 
forms, and I am not positive that this vai'iety has ever been found 
at the Bermudas. 

Gorgonia (Plexaura) purpurea, Pallas. 
Gorgonia (Plexaura) flexuosa, Lamouroux. 

This species, of which we obtained several S2:)ecimens, is, I believe, 
without doubt the Gorgonia anguiculus of Dana (U. S. Exploring 
Expedition, Zoophytes, p. 668). It is referred to under Lamouroux's 
name as a member of the Bermudian fauna in Dana's " Corals and 
Coral Islands, " p. 114, 1872. 

Gorgonia (Plexaura) liomomalla, Esper. 
Gorgonia (Plexaura) multicauda, Lam. 

( Gorgonia crassa, Ellis and Solander.) 

(G. verviiculata, 'Edwards and Haime.) 

The exact limitations and synonymy of this species are difficult to 
make out, but as far as my studies have permitted me to analyze 
the forms above indicated from the rather insufficient or deficient 
descriptions that have been furnished by their authors, they appear 
to represent an identical form. As such as I have accordingly 
referred them in this list. 

Gorgonia (Plexaura) dichotoma, Esper. 

A single specimen, measuring about a foot and three-quarters in 
height, with the main stems somewhat over a half-inch in diameter. 

Gorgonia (Eunicea) pseudo-antipathes, Lam. 

One much branched specimen, and another, slightly differing, 
which appears to belong to the same species. 

Pterogorgia acerosa, (?) Pallas. 

A single specimen of a large Pterogorgia, entirely stripped of 
coenenchyma, and measuring about two and a-half feet in height, 
was obtained through purchase at the Crawl. The axial skeleton is 
yellowish, or of the color of earth. The terete branches are much 
more broadly spreading than in P. setosa, and unite into a common 
basal stalk which is upwards of two inches in thickness. The pinn- 
ules are very numerous, exceedingly slender, and pendulous, giving 
to the whole organism the decided appearance of a weeping-willow. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 309 

I have not been able to satisfy myself as to the exact affinities of 
this species. It appears to differ broadly from the common purple 
sea-feather of the West Indies, and does not have the depressed 
branches which are assumed for Esper's Pterogorgia acerosa. It is, 
however, with little doubt one of the forms that are included by 
Pallas in his Gorgonia acerosa {Qiiercus marina Theophrasti), and 
may be the one that is referred to by Milne-Edwards as Pterogorgia 
Sloanei. 

Of the species of gorgonians above enumerated Dana indicates 
Rhiindogorgia flahellum, Gorgonia flexuosa, G. homomalla, and G. 
crassa as coming from the Bermudas (" Corals and Coral Islands, " 
p. 114). I find no mention in any more recent work of the occurence 
there of either Gorgonia j^seudo-antipathes or G.dichotovia. On the 
other hand, we failed to obtain the Pterogorgia Americana mention- 
ed by Dana. 

ZOANTHIDJE. 

Of the zoanthoid forms of actinians we collected three species, 
Palythoa (Corticifera) glareola, Lesueur, P. ocellata, Ellis and 
Solander, and a species of Zoantha, closely related to Z. sociata, but 
possibly new. The first of these species was found in large encrusting 
masses at the North Rock, partially exposed at low water. The 
glary white or yellowish crusts were nearly half an inch in thickness. 
Palythoa ocellata also occurs, but more sparingly, at the same local- 
ity ; on the western exposure of Gallows Island, at the entrance to 
Elatts Inlet, it was much more abundant, forming large patches in 
association with Siderastrcea galaxea. The species of Zoantha was 
sparingly developed off" Gallows Island, but in one or more rock- 
hollows in Tucker's Town Bay, Castle Harbor, the bright green 
colonies of this beautiful polyp were plentiful. 

ECHINODERMATA. 

HOLOTHURIA. 

The animals of this order are in places excessively abundant ; in- 
deed, excepting the corals, they may be said to constitute the most 
distinctive feature of the fauna of the sand bottoms. Where other 
forms are apparently entirely a])sent, the black masses of the great 
Stichopus stand out in ])rominent relief over the white bottom. 
Motionless, seemingly, during the greater part of their existence, 
these singular creatures present the appearance of big black blotch- 
es on the sand, of which they consume, whether for nourishment or 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

otherwise, vast quantities. All the individuals that were opened 
had their intestinal canal, or more jiroperly, their entire digestive 
tracts, completely choked with calcareous particles. 

The following are the species of holothurians observed by us, 
only one of w^hich, I believe, had hitherto been noted from the 
Bermudas : 

Holothuria Floridana, Pourtales. (Holothuria atra, Jager.) PI. 14, figs. 6, 6a, 
7, 7a. 

I identify with this species five small individuals of an olive-green 
color which were obtained in Castle Harbor, and which in a general 
way agree with the description of the species given by Pourtales 
(Proc. American Assoc, 1851, p. 12). Unfortunately, no figure 
accompanies the description, and that part which pertains to the 
calcareous bodies embodied in the skin is too vague to permit of spe- 
cific determination. Selenka (Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftlklie Zool- 
ogie, xvii, p. 324, 1867) has supplemented the original description 
with furtlaer details of structure and with illustrations of the spicules, 
which practically leave no doubt in my mind that the Bermudian 
forms, even though differing somew^hat from the type described by 
Pourtales, are really that species. I have examined the spicular 
bodies of all the individuals, and find that they exhibit considerable 
variation (PI. 14, figs. 6, Qa, 7, 7a). This is especially noticeable in 
the form of the stools. I really doubt if very much dependence can 
be placed upon these bodies as furnishing characters for specific 
distinction. I also find a certain amount of variation in the num- 
ber of tentacles. Thus, while four of the individuals have the 
normal number I'f tentacles, 20, one has only 10, although in all 
other essentials of structure it agrees with the remaining four. The 
dorsal surface is distinctly papillate. The elongated yellowish pedi- 
cels of the ventral surface are irregularly distributed, as stated by 
Selenka, and I could not determine any strictly linear disposition 
such as in indicated by Pourtales. 

The largest specimen measures about two and a half inches. 

Semper, Ludwig, and Lampert (Die Seewalzen, Semper's JReisen 
im Archipel der Philippinen., 1885, p. 86) identify this species with 
the Holotlmria atra of Jiiger (1833), whose range is made to be 
practically cosmopolitan — extending from the Radack Archipelago 
and the Sandwich Islands to Adelaide, Zanzibar, the Ked Sea, and the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 311 

West Indies — but on this point I can offer no satisfactory evidence, 
never having had an opportunity to examine authentic specimens of 
Jiiger's species. 

Holothuria captiva, Ludwi^. (PI. 14, figs. 4, 4a) 

Two individuals, agreeing with the species described by Ludwig 
from the Barbados. 

Holothuria abbreviata, n. sp. (PI. 14, figs. 5, 8, 8a.) 

Among the smaller forms of holothurians is one which in many 
of its characters agrees most closely with Ludwig's H. captiva, but 
yet differs to such an extent as to compel me to recognize it as a 
distinct species. Indeed, by many systematists it would probably be 
made the type of a distinct sub-genus or genus. The distinguishing 
peculiarity is the abrupt truncation of the body, which carries the 
vent on the dorsal surfoce, immediately about the extremital border. 
In the single specimen before me I could determine only 17 tentacles, 
with as many tentacular vesicles, and but a single Polian body. A 
large Cuvierian bundle is present. The pedicels are arranged ven- 
trally in three more or less distinct rows. Color olive green. 
Length about two inches. 

The stools, buttons, and fenestrated plates of the pedicels are 
figured on plate 14. It will be seen that in general they bear a close 
resemblance to those o? Holothuria captiva, but the rounded sum- 
mits of the stools serve readily to distinguish them from the some- 
what similar, but more strictly castellated, bodies of the other spe- 
cies. 

SEMPEKIA. 
Semperia Bermudensis, n. sp. (PI. 14, figs. 2, 2a, 3.) 

Body cylindrical, spindle-shaped, tapering almost equally to both 
extremities. Tentacles 10, of which 4 are shorter than the remain- 
ing 6 ; pedicels crowded, arranged in five broad rows, and scattered 
over the interambulacral areas ; two genital bundles, with very 
numerous non-divided, and greatly elongated filaments ; two Polian 
vesicles ; two long respiratory trees. Color greyish white, minutely 
speckled with brown ; five narrow longitudinal brown bands sepa- 
rating the ambulacral areas. Length about 05 inches. 

Calcareous bodies consisting of baskets, knotted and smooth but- 
tons, and perforated more or less circular disks ; pedicels with fen- 
estrated plates. Calcareous ring with long back processes for the 
attachment of the powerful retracted muscles. 



312 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

One specimen, from the north shore about a half-mile west of 
Flatts Village. 

I first mistook this species for the Semperia (ColocJiirus) gemmata 
of Pourtales (Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1851, p. 11), described from Sul- 
livan's Island, coast of South Carolina, but the more exact descrip- 
tions and figures of that species given by Selenka and Lampert 
convince me that it is quite distinct. Both species are of a greyish- 
white color, but no mention is made by either of the authors above 
quoted of the existence in the Carolinian form of the five longitudi- 
nal brown bands which extend over the entire length of the Bermu- 
dian species. Apart from this, Semjjeria Bermudensis differs in the 
disposition of the tentacles, the greater number of Polian vesicles, 
and the character of the spicular buttons, which are in the greater 
number of instances strongly knotted. The posterior processes of 
the calcareous ring appear also to be much more elongated. 

From Semperia (Cueumaria) punctata, described by Ludwig from 
the Barbados {Arheiten aus clem zoolog. zootom. Instituts in Wurz- 
burg, ii, 1875, p. 82) the species differs, apart from the general 
scheme of coloring — tentacles as well as body — in the different dis- 
position of the tentacles (9 equal in S. punctata, according to Lud- 
wig), the smaller number of Polian vesicles (5 in iS. punctata^, and 
in the much greater number of filaments composing the genital bun- 
dles. The vent does not appear to have been rayed. 

Ludwig states that there are in his species no calcareous eeth 
aboui the anal aperture, whereas Lampert just as positively asserts 
that they are present (Semper, Philippiiien, 1885, p. 152). None 
such were detected in the Bermudian form. 

STICHOPUS. 

Stichopus diaboli, n. sp. (PI. 1.5, Figs. 1, la. lb, 2.) 

Body stout, more or less quadrangular, flattened ventrally, .and 
bearing two rows of prominent marginal, wart-like, tubercles ; 
sometimes two additional rows of minor tubercles are noticeable on 
the lateral margins of the dorsum. Tentacles 20, unequal. Dorsal 
papillae scattered, not prominent, leaving the surfixce nearly smooth. 
Pedicels and papillae on ventral surface arranged in three broad 
bands, which are more or less distinct for the entire length of the 
body, but most distinct near the extremities ; numerous in each 
transverse row. 

The body-cavity is largely occupied by the greatly developed, and 
finely dissected, respiratory apparatus, and by the loops of the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 313 

variously branched genital organs, which are disposed in two 
great bundles. Tentacular vesicles jiresent. Two Polian vesicles. 
Calcareous ring with long back processes. 

Calcareous bodies in the form of stools very numerous (PI. 15, 
fig. 16.) C-shaped bodies very scanty, and possibly in some cases 
entirely wanting. 

Color black, somewhat more intensely so on the dorsal surface, 
becoming Vandyke brown or chocolate in alcohol. 

Length, about one foot ; width of corresponding animal about 
three inches. 

Abundant over the sandy floor of the entrance to Harrington 
Sound, opposite Flatts Village, in Harrington Sound, and in Castle 
Harbor, whence it was obtained in several of our dredgings. 

I have little doubt that this species is the dark-brown form 
which is referred to by Theel as having been obtained by the 
officers of the Challenger at the Bermudas, and which is doubt- 
fully referred by that authority to Semper's Stichopus Haytlensis 
(Report on the Holothuroidea, Challenger Re^jorts, Zoology, XIV, 
p. 162.) But a single specimen appears to have been obtained, 
which when examined was too deformed to permit of positive spe- 
cific determination. I cannot agree with Theel's determination. 
Apart from the differences which Theel himself points out, is the 
great diffierence in coloring. Semper {Reisen, Philippinen, Holo- 
thurlen, 1868, p. 75) states that his species is dark chocolate-brown, 
blotched with yellow spots, which form five longitudinal bands, 
corresponding to the interradii. No such coloration is visible in our 
species, although probably -vve observed as many as a hundred indi- 
viduals, all of which were uniformly black. Semper's description of 
the coloring of Stichopus Haytiensis is restated by Lampert. 

Stichopus xanthomela, n. sp. (PI. 14, fig. 1 ; PL 15, fig. 3.) 

Body stout, flattened ventrally, and bearing on the basal margin 
two rows (one row on each side, as in the preceding species) of prom- 
inent wart-like processes. Tentacles 18, unequal, Avhitish or gray, 
edged with brown. . Dorsal papilhe fairly prominent, scattered. 
Pedicels on ventral surface crowded, arranged in three longitudinal 
series, five to eight, or more, in each transverse row. 

Body-cavity, as in the preceding, largely occupied by the respira- 
atory tree and the double genital bundle, the filamental processes of 
the latter much finer than in S. diaboli. Tentacular vesicles present. 
One (?) Polian vesicle. 



314 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Calcareous bodies, in the form of stools (PI. 15, fig. 3), very 
numerous. C-shaped bodies scarce, in the form of broadly-opened 
calipers. Ground-color reddish-yellow, irregularly blotched with 
black or very dark brown. The spots on the ventral surface more 
or less coalescent in the median line, forming there a broad longitud- 
inal band, or entirely united to form a uniformly dark-colored 
base ; on the back, united into two irregularly ramifying or wander- 
ing bands. 

Length of longest specimen about ten inches ; width about two 
and a-half or three inches. 

The same habitat as that of the preceding species, although appa- 
rently much less abundant. 

I strongly suspect that this is the form which Theel, in his report 
on the Challenger holothurians (loc. clL, p. 159), identifies with 
Siichopus Mohii (Semper), one specimen of which, " rather deformed 
and compressed " when examined by Theel, was obtained at the 
Bermudas. I assume the identity in this case, as well as in that of 
the preceding species, on the ground that the two species here de- 
scribed are the characteristic forms of the archipelago, and it is 
barely possible that they could have escaped the attention of the 
Challenger people. But the identification with Semper's species 
appears to me to be erroneous. The resemblance to Stichopns Mobil 
appears to rest almost wholly upon the form of the spicules, which 
are largely similar in many very distinct forms of Siichopus, and in 
a general scheme of coloring. But Semper distinctly states (Holo- 
thurien, loc. ciL, p. 246) that the characteristic spots are almost wholly 
wanting on the ventral surface, and no mention is made of their 
occurrence there by Lampert, in his revision of the species of the 
genus (op. cif., p. 108.) Moreover, Semper affirms that the body is 
devoid of wart-like tubercles, whereas such are quite prominent in the 
Bermudian form, although not as prominent as in Siichopus diaholi. 
Theel, however, makes no mention of the occurrence of tubercles in 
his single specimen, but probably through contraction in alcohol 
their existence had been effaced. The number of pedicels in each 
transverse row seiems also to be much more numerous in the Ber- 
nnidian species than iu Siichopus Mobii. 

Another apparently related form is Siichopus errans of Ludwig 
(Arbeiieu zoolog. zooiom. Insi., Wurzburg, 1875, p. 97), described 
from a specimen in the Hamburg Museum, reputed to have come from 
the Barbados. But in this species there appear likewise to be no 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 315 

lateral tubercles, nor is the coloring like that of our species, although 
in this regard there may be considerable variation. The number 
of tentacles is stated by Ludwig to be 19, and their color yellow. 
The form from the Barbados which is somewhat doubtfully referred 
by Theel {loc. cit., p. 191) to Ludwig's S. errans would seem to be 
more nearly related to the Bermudian species. 

ASTEROIDEA. 

We obtained but a single species of star-fish on the Bermudian 
coast. This is the Asterias Atla)dica of Verrill, a form which had 
already been previously noted from the Bermudas (Trans. Conn. 
Acad. Sciences, i, p. 368), and whose range extends to the Abrolhos 
Reef, Brazil. With very few exceptions the rays were either six or 
eight in number, and of the total number of individuals examined I 
believe that not over two had five arms. The species exhibits a marked 
want of constancy in ornamentation and coloring, the dorsal spines 
being in some cases acute, while in others they are terminated by a 
minute bead ; again, while the maculation is brown in some individ- 
uals, in others it is blue, or of both colors combined. 

Asterias Atlantica, VerrilL 

Common in the entrance to Harrington Sound, opposite Flatts 
Village — under stones ; dredged in Harrington Sound. 

Ophidiaster Guildingii, Gray. 

This species, which was first described from St. Thomas, is appar- 
ently a member of the Bermudian fauna. A single specimen, marked 
as having been collected by Mr. Janney in the Bermudas, is in the 
possession of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 

OPHIUROIDEA. 

Six species of ophiurians wei-e obtained in our dredgings and 
under rock shelters, the greater number of which, as far as I am 
aware, had not hitherto been reported from the Bermudas. For a 
critical examination and review of the species I am indebted mainly 
to my assistant, ]Mr. J. E. Ives, who has made a careful study of all 
the species in the collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
From an examination of many of these forms I feel satisfied that 
too much dependence should not be placed upon the constancy in 
minute details of either the form or relative size of the arm plates 
and their appendages, nor upon an exact scheme of coloration. 
These characters, and others that may be added, which have been 



316 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

drawn in very close limits by Mr. Lyman in his several memoirs, 
vary materially within the limits of the same individual, and render 
the discrimination of species which have been most "elaborately " 
defined as to exact lengths and breadths of the arm-shields and oval 
plates, the precise form and number of the arm spines, etc., a mat- 
ter of almost hopeless possibility. 

OpMocoma crassispina, Say. 

One specimen, taken at low water from the North Rock, which 
agrees perfectly with the species described by Say from the coast of 
Florida (Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. v, p. 147). This species is 
generally considered to be identical with the Ophiocoma ( Ophiurd) 
echinata of Lamarck, but I am disposed to consider this identification 
erroneous, unless, indeed, several distinct forms, as has been averred 
by Miiller and Troschel (System der Asteriden, 1842, p. 98), were 
included by Lamarck in his species. Two distinct forms, closely re- 
lated to each other, certainly do occur in the West Indies, one of 
which, with more blunt arm spines, is dearly Say's species, wdiile the 
other, with more elongated arm spines, and much less stoutly 
developed uppermost spine, more nearly corresponds to the general 
type of Lamarck's species. 

Ophiocoma pumila, Liitkcn. 

A fragmentary specimen ; exact locality unknown. This species 
had been recorded by the Challenger from Bermuda. 

OpMostigma isacantha, Say. 

Two very young specimens, dredged in Harrington Sound. 
Ophiactis Krebsii, Liitken. 

0. MuUerl, Lfitken ? 

Two very young specimens, dredged on the north shore between 
Bailey's Bay and Shelly Bay, which manifestly belong to one or the 
other of the above species, although partaking of the characters of 
both. They agree with 0. Krebsii in having a lobe to the outer edge 
of some of the upper arm plates, and in the banded character of the 
arms, while they differ from that species in having but four arm 
spines. In this respect they agree with 0. Mulleri. Possibly the 
two species are only varieties of the same form. 

Ophionereis reticulata, LUtken. 

Very abundant at low tide ^i the rock shelters of Shelly Bay ; 
also under stones at the entrance to Harrington Sound. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 317 

Ophiomyxa flaccida, LUtken. 

Oue specimen, dredged in Bailey's Bay. 

ECHINOIDEA. 

The number of species of echinoids observed by us is six, of which 
five had already previously been ascribed to the archipelago ; Cidaris 
tribuloides, as far as I am aware, had not hitherto been collected — 
at any rate I have been unable to find any mention of its occurrence 
there. One species, Mellita sexforis, we did not ourselves collect, the 
specimens in our possession having been kindly donated to us by 
local collectors. 

Cidaris tribuloides, Bl. 

Fairly abundant among the coral shelters of the North Rock. 

Diadema setosa, Gray. 

This species, one of the gems among sea-urchins, is exceedingly 
abundant in the flats about the North Rock, where, in magnificent 
contrast to the wealth of color by which it is surrounded, its ebony- 
black masses stand out in prominent relief from the coral shelters 
which it inhabits. All the individuals occupied recesses in the coral 
growth, which they had by some means probably managed to keep 
open. It seems hardly likely that they should have crept into these 
shelters after they had been already formed, and that the association 
is one of mere selection. It is a noteworthy fact that while most of 
the animal forms inhabiting this portion of the growing reef were 
brilliantly colored, harmonizing with, and shielding, one another by 
their party tints of red, yellow, purple, and green, these urchins were 
alone conspicuous by the absence of any such protective cloak ; but 
just in their case no protective guise in the form of coloring would 
be needed, inasmuch as these animals are abundantly able to shield 
themselves by means of their extremely attenuated spines. 

This species is also abundant in the moderately deep water that 
lies within the reef border. 

Hipponoe esculenta, Leske. 

North Rock, and the deeper water within the growing reef. 
Echinometra subangularis, Lcske. 

Several specimens from the flats about the North Rock. There 
is a certain amount of variation in the coloration of the spines, 
which ranges from olive or sea-green to purple. 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Toxopneustes variegatus, Lamk. 

We found this species very abundantly in Harrington Sound, 
where it rarely escaped being hauled up in our dredge. It seems to 
frequent the calcareous bottom to a depth of 10-12 fathoms, or even 
more. Probably the species is equally abundant elsewhere. 

Mellita sexforis, Agassiz. 

As before remarked, we did not ourselves obtain any specimens of 
this species. It is said to be abundant along the calcareous bottoms 
of some of the inlets, as, for example, opposite Flatts Village. 

CRUSTACEA. 

For the following notes on the Crustacea I am principally indebt- 
ed to Mr. Witmer Stone, one of my assistants on the trip, who has 
made a careful study of all our specimens, as well as of the allied 
and identical species contained in the collections of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences. In the case of in any way doubtful forms I have 
personally satisfied myself as to the determinations, and particularly 
in cases where the geographical range appeared to indicate possible 
or probable error. The occurrence in the Bermudas of a number of 
what had hitherto been considered to be distinctively Pacific or Old 
World types, as for example, Palemonella tenuipes (Sooloo Sea), Pale- 
mon affinis (Pacific), Penceus velutinus (Pacific) — may be considered 
positive, even though it be opjDosed to the common facts of zoogeogra- 
phy. But this anomaly in distribution is again repeated among the 
mollusca, as will be seen in the enumeration of species in a future 
paper. 

The total number of species here enumerated is not very large, 
but yet it is considerably in excess of the number published in any 
previous paper, probably one-half of the species being now for the 
first time credited to the Bermudas. The species of some of the re- 
maining groups — the Isopoda, Anqihi^^oda — still await analysis and 
determination. 

BRACHYURA. 

Microphrys bicornutus, Latr. 

Three females and one male, collected on the beach at the entrance 
to Harrington Sound. 

Mithraculus hirsutipes, Kingsley. 

Two males and one small female, which agree in every way with 
the description of the species given by Kingsley (Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., 20, p. 147), except in the number of teeth on the fingers, 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 319 

a character which appears to be very variable. The three individ- 
uals differ in this respect among themselves. 

Actaea setigera, Milne-Edwards. 

One male dredged off Shelly Bay. The individual differs from 
the description given by Milne-Edwards (Notiv. Arch, du Mus. 
d'Hist. ^a^., i, p. 271, pi. xviii, fig. 2) in having the color of the out- 
side 01 the hands red, instead of black. It however agrees precisely 
with specimens attributed to jNIilne-Edwards' species in the collec- 
tions of the Academy, and labeled as coming from the Florida reefs. 
The species has also been recorded fi om Cuba. 

Panopaeus Herbstii, var. serrata, De Sausscn. 

Numerous small specimens, both male and female, from under 
stones on the beach of St. George's Causeway, and at the mouth of 
Harrington Sound. The specimens vary greatly in color, some be- 
ing very light, others dark brown, while a few are reddish ; other- 
wise they are identical in structure. 

The species, described in the Hist, Nat. du Mexique et des Antil- 
les (Cnistac, p. 16, pi. 1, fig. 7), had previously been recorded from 
the Bermudas. 
Lobopilumnis Agassizii, Stimpson. 

One small male, agreeing well with Stimpson's description (Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, p. 142) except in that it lacks the subhepatic 
spine. Recorded from Bermuda and Florida. 
Neptunus hastatus, L. 

(^N. dicanthus.) 

Two small males. 

Geocarcinus lateralis, Frem. 

Numerous large specimens, from the banks and fields near the 
south shore. We found them specially abundant near the locality 
known as Spanish Mark or the Chequer Board, and again not far 
from Penisk)n Pond. The burrows in places extend diagonally three 
or four feet, or even more, beneath the surface, and the animals, 
rapidly retreating into these, are frequently difficult of capture. 

This is, doubtless, the species that is referred to by Willemoes 
Suhm in the Challenger narrative as Gecarcinus lateralis, and is 
apparently the G. lagostoma (?) described by Miers in the systematic 
portion of the Challenger Reports (Zoology, XVII, p. 218), in so far 
as this description applies to the single Bermuda specimen. 



320 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Nautilograpsus minutus, L. 

One small specimen dredged off Shelly Bay. 
Grapsus maculatus, Catesby. 

One large female, and numerous empty shells from Harris's Bay, 
south shore. 

Pachy grapsus transversus, Gibbes. 

Numerous specimens, including ovigerous females ; very abundant 
on the rocks about the mouth of Harrington Sound, and also on the 
Pigeon Rocks, Bailey's Bay. 

Recorded from Florida, West Indies, Australia. 

Cyclograpsus integer, Milne-Edwards. 

One small female. Species recorded from Brazil and Florida. 
Goniopsis cruentatus, Latr. 

One female, from the mangrove swamp of Hungary Bay, south 
shore. Although the species was very abundant at this locality we 
only succeeded in catching a single individual. The mangrove crab, 
or " mangrove climber " as the animal is sometimes called, burrows 
among the thickets of mangrove stems and roots, up which it not 
infrequently climbs to a height of several feet. The great similarity 
existing between its coloring aud that of the bright and partially 
withered leaves of the mangrove, especially in the shades of yellow 
and red, renders the animal difficult of detection, and often at a 
distance of only a few feet, buried among the fallen leaves, these 
agile creatures escaped observation, even when attentively sought 
after. We have here one of the most remarkable instances of 
protective coloring, or semi-mimicry, with which I am acquainted. 

Sesarme cinerea, Bosc. 

Numerous specimens, from the beach of Flatts Village. The 
species was seen almost everywhere scampering over the rocks. 

Calappa fiammea, Herbst. 

A single male individual obtained through purchase. Species pre- 
viously recorded from the Bermudas. 

ANOMURA. 

Petrolisthes armata, Gibbes. 

Five specimens., obtained on the beach of Flatts Village, appear to 
be identical with the form described under this name from Florida, 
(Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1850, p. 190.) 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 321 

Cenobita Diogenes, Latr. 

A number of living sj^ecimens obtained at Wistowe, opposite 
Flatts Village, and kindly presented to us by Miss Edith Allen, 
daughter of the American Consul. Most of the animals are still liv- 
ing (October), and apparently flourishing, three months after their 
capture. The shells occupied by the largest individuals are those of 
Natica catenoides. 
Calcinus obscurus, Stimiison. 

Several specimens obtained on the beach of Flatts Village. 
Clibenarius (Pagurus) tricolor, Gibbes. 

Numerous on the beach of Flatts Village and at the St. George's 
Causeway ; under stones, etc. 

MACRURA. 

Palinurus Americanus, Lamk. 

We observed a number of specimens of the large Bermuda cray- 
fish, but unfortunately obtained none. I am unable, therefore, to 
state positively if the species is correctly referred, but in all prob- 
ability it is the same as the common West Indian form. 

Scyllarus sculp tus, Milne-Edwards. 

One specimen, purchased at the Crawl, which agrees with Milne- 
Edwards' description {Hist Nat. des Crust., ii, p. 283) and Lamarck's 
illustration in iha Encijdopklie, pi. 320. The locality of the origin- 
al specimen appears to have been unknown, nor have I been able 
to obtain data regarding this species from any of the later writers, 
by many of whom it is entirely ignoi^ed. 

Alpheus avarus, Pabr. 

(J.. Edwardsii, Audouin.) 

(J.. Bermudensis, Spence Bate.) 

A series of some twenty specimens collected at the same locality 
shows considerable variety of form. The smaller specimens are 
evidently the A. Bermudensis of the Challenger Reports, while the 
larger ones, agreeing with these in the structure of the head, etc., 
more nearly approximate in the configuration of the hand A. avarus 
and A. Edivardsii, the former a common Old World species, and 
the latter, a species described from the Cape Verde islands. Our 
series contains what might be considered undoubted representatives 
of all three (so-called) species, showing all the gradations that unite 
or separate the forms from one another. Hence, I am constrained 

22 



322 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

to look upon tliem as mere varietal forms of a single species, the Al- 
pheus avarus of Fabricius. The older the specimens, the more 
deeply grooved is in most cases the hand. 

Alpheus minus, Bay. 

A number of species taken from sponges and tunicates collected 
in Harrington Sound. All the individuals were of small size, meas- 
uring rather less than an inch in length, although the females were 
abundantly provided with eggs. 

Alpheus formosus, Gibbes. 

One specimen (dredged) which agrees well with Gibbes' descrip- 
tion (Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1850, p. 196), and seems to indicate that 
the species is distinct from Alpheus minus, witlr which it is united 
by Kingsley. The specimen is larger than any of the individuals of 
A. minus, and is also differently colored, although appearing identi- 
cal in alcohol. 

Palsemonella tenuipes, Dana. 

Several specimens dredged off Shelly Bay, which agree perfectly 
with the species described by Dana from the Sooloo Sea (U. S. Ex- 
ploring Expedition, Crustacea, p. 582). The remarkable distribu- 
tion here indicated induced me to make a very careful examination 
of the Bermudian species, which has left no doubt in my mind as to 
the identity of the forms from the antipodal region of the earth's 
surface. The only other known species of Palsemonella, P. orientalis 
(Dana), is likewise an inhabitant of the Sooloo Sea (Dana, op. cit. ; 
Spence Bate, Challenger Reports, Zoology, XXIV, p. 786). 

Palaemon affinis, Milne-Edwards. 

Numerous specimens from shallow water, Castle Harbor. All are 
exactly like one another, except in the number of teeth on the beak, 
which may be 8 above and 4 below, or in the relations of 8-3, 7-3, 
9-3, and 9-4. This character is manifestly a very variable one, and, 
therefore, of little or no value from a classificatory point of view. 
The specimens agree well with the descriptions and figures of A. 
affinis, although that species has hitherto been recorded, as far as I 
am aware, only from the Pacific (obtained by Dana off New Zealand) 
The species is near to the Eurafrican P. squilla, but yet sufficiently* 
distinct to permit of ready recognition as only an allied form. 

It is remarkable, in view of the distribution and the number of 
specimens that we obtained of this species, and the position of the 
island group, that we should have failed to obtain any individuals 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 323 

of the common form of the eastern United States, Pakemon vulgaris. 
Whether the species is entirely absent or not I cannot of conrse say, 
but it is surprising that it should not have been observed by us. 
Penaeus velutinus, Dana. 

One specimen, which agrees with the figure and description of the 
species obtained by Dana off the Sandwich Islands (U. S. Exploring 
Expedition, Crustacea, p. 604), and which was subsequently collect- 
ed by the Challenger party at various points in the Pacific, and be- 
tween Australia and New Guinea (Challenger Reports, Zoology, 
XXIV, p. 253). This species, as well as all the immediately related 
forms, has, as far as I know, been found thus far only in the Pacific. 
The case is, therefore, another example of remarkable geographical 
distribution. 

STOMATOPODA. 

Gonodactylus chiragra, Latr. 
One specimen from the beach of Flatts Village. 

MOLLVSCA. 

The enumeration of species of molluscous animals is left for a 
future paper, as our collections, large as they are, are doubtless in 
great part deficient. Through the kind energies of local collectors 
I hope to supplement at an early day the material obtained by us 
and to present, as nearly as is possible, a full list of the species 
inhabiting the Bermudian waters. We ourselves collected some 110 
or 120 marine species, which is largely in excess of the number 
that has thus far l)een chronicled in any list of Bermudian species, 
but the examination of private collections in the islands satisfies me 
that there must be an additional 30 or 40 species, or more, that are 
common to the island group. 

It is a well-known fact that the Bermudian molluscan fauna 
is distinctly, and it might be said, overwhelmingly Antillean in 
character, by far the greater number of species being found in 
the Bahaman and West Indian Seas, or along some part of the coast 
of Florida. The practically total absence of species of the Eastern 
United States which are not found in the Floridian waters is aston- 
ishing, and shows how insuperable is the barrier which the waters of 
the Atlantic, and of the Gulf Stream particularly, offer to a free 
migration or dispersion of the species. This, again, appears the more 
remarkable in the light of certain anomalies of distribution which a 
critical examination of the species reveals, and which had already 



324 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

in many cases been noted as a characteristic of the West Indian 
fauna. Thus, of the various species of Triton, Triton chlorostoma and 
T. tuberosus are members of the Mauritian fauna, and Triton cyno- 
cephalus and T. pileare of the fauna of tlie Philippines ; Ranella 
cruentata crops up in the variety R. rhodostoma, from Mauritius. 
Again, Epidromus concmnus, from the Philippines, is represented in 
our collections by a number of individuals which are absolutely 
undistinguishable, both in shell ornamentation and color-markings, 
from the Pacific specimens, although they differ somewhat from the 
closely related^. Sivifti, from Antigua. A number of other forms, com- 
mon to the west coast of Africa and to the southern waters of Europe, 
also occur. Among a number of American west coast species which, 
I believe, have not hitherto been recorded from the Atlantic may be 
mentioned Chama exogyra and Telllna Gouldii, both from the 
Californian coast. In the case of both of these forms I have very 
carefully satisfied myself as to absolute identity. Area solida from 
the west coast does not appear to differ measurably from A. Adamsii^ 
a West Indian form which has its representative in the Bermudian 
fauna. 

The following notes on new species are given in advance of the 
publication of the full list. 

CEPHALOPODA. 

Cuttle-fishes are said to be abundant in the Bermudian waters, but 
we Avere not very successful in our search after these animals. Two 
moderately large octopods, Avhich we could only see, but not obtain, 
may possibly be the common AVest Indian Octopus vulgaris, or one 
of the forms that have been separated off from it as a distinct species. 
We made considerable efforts to capture one of these, but all 
our attempts to dislodge the creature from its hold upon the interior 
of a rock crevice were unavailing. The following species Avas ob- 
tained beneath a stone on the beach of Flatts Village. 

Octopus chromatus, n. sp. (PI. 16, ffg. 1.) 

Body spheroidal, somewhat acuminate behind, and impressed, but 
not furroAved, ventrally; mautle opening extending about one-half 
around the circumference of the body, and terminating some distance 
below and back of the eyes. The head not much narrower than the 
body ; eyes not conspicuous, with a Avart above each ; funnel largely 
free, reachiug about half way to the base of the web, Avhich is about 
as long as the body and head combined. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 325 

Arms longest as 1. 3. 2. 4, althoiigli possibly the second pair 
outmeasured the third pair previous to contraction ; slender, very 
tapering, and exceedingly attenuated toward the apex ; suckers fairly 
large, closely placed, and in regular zigzag alternation from the base, 
contracting with a quadrangular outline. 

Body granulated posteriorly, and to a less extent in the region of 
the neck. Color milky, closely blotched or speckled with ochre, 
giving a yellowish appearance, and sprinkled with brown. 

Length of specimen about nine or ten inches. 

The only form with which I can closely compare this species is the 
Octopus Bermudensis of Hoyle (Challenger Reports, Zoology, XVI, 
p. 94, PI. II, fig. 5), which is described from a single young specimen, 
measuring, including the arms, not more than two and a-half or three 
inches. It differs from this form in the extremely tapering and 
attenuated arms, their relative lengths (1. 3. 2. 4 instead 1. 2. 3. 4), 
and in the disposition of the acetabula, which are in zigzag alterna- 
tion from first almost to last ; the body is also in part granulated, 
and the siphon, instead of being attached for nearly its full length, 
is largely free. 

I should have hesitated perhaps in describing this as a new species, 
distinct from 0. Bermudensis, and preferred supposing that the 
characters indicated by Hoyle were not very clearly marked, or that 
they possibly represented only the immature form, but Hoyle dis- 
tinctly states that while his specimen is probably immature, the 
characters are so well marked as to safely permit of their recognition 
as typical of a new species {op. cit., p. 95). 

GASTEROPODA. 

Aplysia aequorea, n. sp. (PI. 16, figs, 2, 2:i, 2b). 

Body broadly oval, w^ith a moderately elongated neck ; tentacles 
cylindrical, slit at the extremity; buccal lobes broad, infolded; 
mouth between fairly developed lips ; aperture to opercular cavity on 
a slightly raised papilla. 

Color drab or greenish ; exterior'surface with thin black annula- 
tions and irregular markings, which are few and scattered ; the inside 
of the mantle-lobes, as well as the cover to the opercular cavity, al- 
most free of blotches. 

Shell narrowly-elongate, somewhat oblique, and calcareously lined ; 
longitudinally radiated, and transversely finely striated. 

Length of animal about four and a-half inches. 

A single specimen, found in shallow water on the south side of 
Castle Harbor, opposite Tucker's Town. 



326 TEOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1-888. 

The nearest ally of this sjjecies is probably the Aplysia ocellata of 
D'Orbigny, from the Canary Islands, or the common A. dactylomela, 
from the eastern Atlantic, of which the former is by some authors 
considered to be only a local variety (Rochebrune, Nouvelles Archives 
du Museum, 1881, p. 264). From both of these forms, apart from 
other characters, it differs in the absence of the heavy opellation, and 
from A. dactylomela in lacking the purple lining on the mantle 
margins. From A. ocellata, again, it is clearly marked off by the 
non-maculated surfiice of the interior of the mantle lobes and of the 
opercular covering. The shell in the Bermudian form is compar- 
atively narrower than in any other large species of Aplysia. with 
which I am acquainted, and wholly different in outline from that of 
either of the two species above referred to. I have fully satisfied my- 
self on this point through an examination not only of the figures 
furnished by Rang and D'Orbigny, but of actual specimens. 

Dobson, in a communication made before the Linna3an Society of 
London (Journ. Linn. Soc, Zoology, xv, p. 159, et seq., 1881), iden- ' 
tifies a specimen of Aplysia from the Bermudas with the A. dacty- 
lomela, and describes the color as being " a rich drab, marked all 
over with circles and streaks of velvet black, the latter most abund- 
ant on the mantle covering the shell and on the lateral swimming 
lobes. The shell agrees in all respects with that of A. dactyloviela as 
figured by Rang, and the only difference observable is that the mai'- 
gins of the swimming lobes are not tinged with violet. This might 
be accounted for by supposing that such a fugitive color had disap- 
peared in the alcohol, but the captor does not remember to have 
seen it in the living animal." This may be the true A. dactylomela 
or A. ocellata, but it is, doubtless, distinct from the species above de" 
scribed. I am confirmed in this supposition by the examination of a 
specimen recently collected by Prof Dolley in the Bahamas, and which 
has been placed in my hands through the kindness of Prof Leidy. This 
Bahaman form has the massive ocellation and blotching distinctive 
of A. ocellata or A. dactylomela,* and further agrees Avith these two 
species (or varieties) in the form of the shell. The stellate opening 
to the opercular cavity appears to be destitute of a papilla. This is 
the form, probably, that Mr. Dobson received through Surgeon R. 
Vacy Ash. 

Deshayes described some years ago an Aplysia, ocellated and of a 
yellowish color, fx-om Guadeloupe (Jour)ial de Conchyliologie, 2d. ser., 
ii, p. 140) under the name oi' Aplysia Schrammii, but the species is 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 327 

SO imperfectly characterized that it is almost impossible to determine 

its exact relationships. 

Chiomodoris zebra, n. sp. (PI. 16, figs. 3, .3a.) 

Animal of the form typical of the gemis ; head portion consider- 
ably extended and expanded in motion ; caudal portion moderately 
elongated ; base flattened ; mantle beaded immediately over the tail. 

Color bright blue above, variously lined and streaked with light 
yellow ; on the dorsal surface the yellow markings are disposed in 
longitudinal wavy or nearly straight lines, one or more specially 
prominent lines along the dorso-lateral border. Sides of animal ir- 
regularly reticulated or angulated with yellow markings ; under 
surface pale blue, bordered with faint yellow. 

Rhiuophores deep indigo or black, the rhinophoral aperture border- 
ed with yellow ; gills 12 or 13, black, bordered with yellow, and carry- 
ing blue cilia ; under surface of head blue, Avith yellow spots. 

Length, when expanded, three and a-half inches. 

Three specimens, dredged in about ten fathoms on the north side 
of Harrington Sound. I dissected one of these and found that the 
stomach is lodged entirely within the mass of the liver. The ali- 
mentary canal is sharply deflected forward (dorsally) beyond the 
buccal or oesophageal tracts, and is caught up in a nerve ring pro- 
ceeding from the supra-oesophageal ganglia. 

This species appears to be third or fourth of the genus found in 
the western Atlantic. It differs clearly from the C. picturata of 
Morch ( C. Morchii, Bergh, 3Ius. Godef., part xiv) and C. gonafophora 
of Bergh, two West Indian species. In the scheme of coloring the 
species appears to be nearest to Doris pulcherrwia of Cantraine {Mal- 
acologie Mediterraneenne, p. 57, PI. 3, fig. 6, = D. Villafranca f of 
Risso), from which, however, it differs in a number of details, such 
as the number of gills, etc. 
Onchidium (Onchidiella) trans-Atlanticum, n. sp. (PI. 16, figs. 4, 4a.) 

Body convex, smoke color or dark olive ; lighter, dirty or greyish 
green on the under surface ; pedal disk considerably more than one- 
third the width of base, yellowish green ; mouth margin papillose, 
bunchy ; under surface obscurely or obsoletely tuberculose ; dorsal 
surface closely verrucose, with finer granules interspersed between 
the warts. 

Anal aperture immediately beyond the extremity of foot, infra- 
marginal to a raised border; respiratory orifice between the anal 
pore and the apex of l)ody. 



328 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Length about three-quarters of an inch. 

About a dozen specimens, found in a rock hollow on the north 
shore just beyond Wistowe, near Flatts Village, at an elevation 
of about two feet above the water. 

This is, as far as I am aware, the only species of Onchidium that 
has thus far been recorded from the western Atlantic. Its occurrence 
is, therefore, of considerable interest as bearing upon the subject of 
geographical distribution. Nearly all the species of the genus are 
confined to the Eurafrican and Indo-Pacific waters, although one 
species is known from Arctic America, one from the Californian 
coast, and one from the west coast of South America (Bergh, 
in Semper's Reisen im Archipel d. Philipjiinen, Land Mollusks, 

VI). 

The Bermudian species appear to be most nearly related to 
0. Carpenteri, from the Californian coast, but differs from it in color. 
The positions of the anal and respiratory apertures differ from what 
is indicated by Stearns (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1878) to 
exist in the west American form, although agreeing with the deter- 
minations made by Bergh for manifestly the same species. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 329 

November 6. 
The President, Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 
Forty-nine persons present. 



November 13. 
Mr. Charles Morri§ in the chair. ' 

Thirty-six persons present. 

A paper entitled "Contributions to the Life History of Plants, 
No. III." By Thomas Meehan, was presented for publication. 



November 20. 

Rev. Henry C. ]\IcCook D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons })resent. 

The President was directed to convey to Mrs Clara Jessup 
Bloomfield Moore the thanks of the Academy for her gift of Five 
Thousand Dollars as an addition to the fund endowed by her father, 
the late Augustus E. Jessup. 



November 27. 
The President Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-four persons present. 

Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger read his biographical notice of the 
late Geo. W. Tryon Jr. prepared at the request of the Academy. 

RemarlcH on the fauna of Beach Haven, iV. J. — Prof. Leidy stated 
that he had spent the last two summers at Beach Haven, on which 
he made the following remarks : The place, a summer resort, is 
situated on the island of Long Branch, a sand bar but a few feet 
above the ocean level, 22 miles long and little more than half a mile 
wide, off the New Jersey coast, from which it is separated by Little 
Egg Harbor and Barnegat Bays. The island consists of the ocean 
beach, flanked by long low sand hills and meadows extending to the 
bays. It is treeless, but produces frequent patches of wax-myrtle, 
Myrka cerifera. While the variety of marine animal life in the 
vicinity is comparatively small, a few forms adapted to the special 
localities are abundant. The ocean beach consisting mainly of fine 
silicious sand without pebbles, between tides, swarms with the mole 



380 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

crab, Hippa talpoidea, and the little mollusk, Donax Jossor. Above 
tides, the beach oft-times is lively with sand-fleas, among which are 
conspicuous the Talorchestia macrophfhalma, and less commonly the 
T. lonr/icomis. Still higher extending to the sand-hills, the sand- 
crab, Ocypoda areuarla, is frequent. The mud of the bays and 
sounds swarms with the scavenger snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta, while 
the meadows abound -with the marsh snail, Melavipus bidentatus. 
The borders of the meadows are thickly planted with the horse- 
mussel, Modiola pllcatula, or are honey-combed by the tidier crab, 
Gelasimus pulgihitor. The bays supply the market with abundance 
of the oyster, which is extensively cultivated for the ])urpose. The 
clam, Venus mercen.aria, also occurs in the greatest abundance, and 
is constantly gathered for the market. The squirt-clam, 3{ya 
arenaria, is likewise sui)plied from mud flats of the bays. The 
edible crab, Callinedes hastntus, often occurs in the bays in great 
numbers. The previous summer, the bottom appeared to swarm 
with them, but the last summer they were less numerous, in conse- 
quence, as the fishermen report, of great numbers having been de- 
stro3'ed by the severe cold of last winter. In a visit to Beach 
Haven, in February, I observed many recently dead crabs thrown 
up on the ocean beach, and feasted on by multitudes of the isopod 
crustacean, Cirolana conchariim. 

The previous summer also, the lady-crab, PMyonichus oeellatus, 
was frequent on the ocean beach near low tide, but during last sum- 
mer was almost absent. It probably, also suffered from the cold of 
last winter, for in February, at Athvntic City, I found a number 
recently dead, and likewise feasted on by the Cirolana. 

In the bays the spider crab, Lihinia canaliculafa, the shrimp, 
Palaemoneies vulgaris, and the hermit crab, Pagurus longicarpus, 
are in abundance, and the P. pollicaris is not infrequent. The 
shrimp is infested to a wonderful degi'ee witii a parasitic crustacean 
Bopyrus palaemoiidicola. The horse-shoe crab, Limulus polyphem- 
us also occasionally occurs on the ocean beach. 

The sand of Beach Haven is remarkably sonorous ; when scraped 
in walking, it emits a sound like that produced by sliding a rubber 
shoe on the pavement. 

The condition of the ocean beach varies with the direction of the 
winds and violence of the waves. Mostly, it is remarkably uniform 
and free from organic debris, and is composed of fine, white quartz 
sand without {)ebbles, and with streaks and ])atches of black sand, 
W'hich from its greater specific gravity is incessantly sifted from the 
white sand by the winds and waves. On one occasion, during the 
prevalence for several days, of a strong north-east wind, the beach 
above high tide was covered with a broad stratum of black sand 
from a fourth to an inch thick, over whicli the white sand was 
blown like columns of smoke and accumulated at the base of the 
sand hills where it looked by contrast likcsnow drifts. The organ- 
ic debris cast ashore mostly consists of materials carried out from 
the bays, commonly, masses of eel-grass, Zostera marina, and bunch- 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 331 

es of bladder-wrack, Fucus vesiciilosus ; the latter often attached to 
a horse mussel, on which the plant grew. Frequently attached to 
the plants are various animals, especialh^ Bugida turrita, Obelia 
covimissuralis, Perophora viridis, Lepas fascicular is, etc. Occasion- 
ally there ai'e thrown ashore a live beach-clam, Mactra solidissima, 
a dead shell of the same with attached branches of Sertu/aria argen- 
tea, the collar-like sand egg-cases of Natica and the chaplet ones of 
Fulgur. In the experience of two summers medusae were rarely 
wafted ashore, and these were in fragments and pertained to Cyanea 
arctica and apparently Aurelia flavidula. 

Goose barnacles, iyepws /ascKU(/aris occasionally are not infrequent; 
and more rarely L. anatifera, attached to fragments of timber, is 
thrown on the sands. High up on the beach, at the base of the 
sand-hills and often extending iuto the valleys between them are 
multitudes of bleaching shells, the remains of occasional severe 
storms. Most of the shells are those of the beach clam, Mactra sol- 
idissima, which, everywhere on the open coast of New Jersey, ap- 
pears to be the most common lamellibranch, except the little Donax 
fossor. The younger shells of the Mactra are often observed along 
shore, with a circular hole through the umbo, made by Natica. 
Some years since, at Atlantic City, I observed a number of beach 
clams, in the sand between tides, which were in possession of Natica 
heros in the act of boring the shell. 

Among the occasional shells on the beach, fragments of large ones 
of Pholas costata are not infrequent, and yet an experienced clam 
catcher, who is familiar with the ordinary animals of the locality 
informed me that he had never found a living one. 

My friend Joseph Willcox and I made several attempts at dredg- 
ing in Little Egg Harbor, but with very little result of interest. 
Near the mouth of the bay, Ave drew u}) great quantities of Jlytil- 
us edulis, less than half grown, accom2:)anied by many star-fishes, 
Asterias arenicola. In some positions we took numerous dead shells 
of the oyster and clam, Venus mercenaria, preyed upon by the sul- 
phur colored boring sponge, Cliona sidphurea. This, after drilling 
and tunneling the shells in all directions, continues to gi'ow into 
masses from the size of one's fist to that of the head, in which condi- 
tion it is known to the clam-catchers as the " bay pumpkin." The 
skeleton of this sponge is constructed of calcareous pin-like spicules. 
It also attacks and preys on the shell of the living oyster, but ap- 
pears not to do so on the living clam. The sedentary habit of the 
former, no doubt, facilitates its attacks. The shells of the oyster 
and clam, Venus, bored in a sieve-like manner, and freed fi-om the 
sponge, are frequently thrown on the ocean beach, and with them 
rarely the shell of a Mactra bored in the same manner, but I could 
not ascertain whether the Cliona lived on the shore of the open 
ocean. 

Another sponge frequently observed growing on living oysters 
and on dead shells of the same and of the clam, Venus, is called by 
the catchers the " red beard, " Microciona prolifera. It is bright 



332 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888. 



vermilion color when alive, but brown when dead, and masses of it 
in the latter condition are often found on the ocean beach. It is a 
silicious sponge and does not prey on the shells of mollusks. 

From an oyster bed we took up some young oysters, an inch to 
two inches long, with the shell perforated by the *' drill," Urosalpinx 
cinerea. The perforation, made in the vicinity of the adductor mus- 
cle, about admits an ordinary bristle. An oyster catcher, James R. 
Gale informed us that the " drill " was introduced into the locality, 
with spat brought from the coast of Virginia. With the Urosal- 
pinx we took another snail, Anachis similis, which Mr. Gale assured 
us was more destructive, as a borer, to young oysters than the form- 
er. Another snail which we took, the Eupleura caudata, Mr. Gale 
says has the same habit. 

Attached to oysters were also found a great profusion of the poly- 
zoon Vesicularia dicJiotoma. 

Of the mollusca of the vicinity of Beach Haven I observed the 
following : 

Gasterpoda. 



Ilijanassa obsoleta. 
Melampus bidentatus. 
Fulgur carica. 
Fulgur canaliculata. 
Natica heros. 
Natica duplicata. 
Urosalpinx cinerea. 
Eupleura caudata. 
Anachis similis. 
Bittium nigrum. 
Crep idula Jorn icata. 
Grepidula conve.va. 
Crepidula plana. 



Exceedingly abundant. 
Exceedingly abundant. 



Lamellibranchiata. 



Mactru: solidissima. 
Donax fossor. 
Venus mercenaria. 
Mya arenaria. 
Solen americanus. 
Tagellus gibbus. 
Ceronia deaurata. 
Cochlodesma, carum. 
Thracia leana. 
Cyclocardia borealis. 
Astarte nndata. 
Astarte castanea. 
Petricola pholadiformis. 
Pholas truncata. 
Phohis eostata. 
Cyclas dentata. 



Exceedingly abundant. 
Exceedingly abundant. 
Exceedingly abundant. 
Abundant. 
Common. 

One dead specimen. 

One dead specimen. 
One dead specimen. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 333 

Scapharca transversa. 

Area pexata. Common. 

Area transversa. 

Mytilus edulis. Abundant. 

Modiola plicatula. Exceedingly abundant. 

Pecten irradians. Common. 

Ano7nia glabra. Abundant. 

Ostrea virginiana. Exceedingly abundant. 

Teredo navalis. 
Of Crustacea the following were observed : 

Callineefes hastatus. 
Platyoniehus ocellatus. 

Cancer irroratus. 

Ocypoda arenaria. 

Gelashnus pugnax. 

Gelasinms pugilator. 
LihUiia canaliculata. 
Panop)eus Sayi. 
Pinnotheres ostreum. 

Eupagurus poUicaris. 

Eupagurus longicarpus. 

Hijjpa talpoldea. 

Gebia affinis. 

Palaemonetes vulgaris. 

Orchestia jyahtstris. 

Or chest la agilis. 

Talorehestia longirostris. 

Talorchestia, maerophthalma. 

Gaw.marus ornatus. 

Unciola irrorata. 

Caprella geometrica. 

Erichsonia attemiata. 

Cirolana concharum. 

Bopyrus palaemoneticola. 

Livoniea ovalis. 

Lepas Jaseicularis. 

Lepas anatifera. 

Lirmdus pohjphemus. 

The Turret Spider on Coffin's Beach. — Dr. Henry C. McCook 
remarked that he had spent July and August, 1888, at Annisquam, 
Mass., a port of Cape Ann at the mouth of the Squam river where it 
enters into Ipswich Bay. The eastern shore of the bay opposite 
Annisquam consists in part of a stretch of sand hills, known as 
Coffin's beach. The sand is of a beautiful white color and is massed 
at places in elevations of considerable height, constituting what is 
known as the " sand hill, " or '' the dunes. " The fragrant bay bush 
grows in clumps along the edges and summits of these irregular sand 
elevations, and this is intermingled with patches of tough grass. 



334 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888- 

At his first visit to this beach he discovered several burrows of 
Lycosa arenicola Scudder,^ popularly kuown as the Turret spider. - 
Subsequently he explored the field aud found numbers of these 
Lycosids domiciled in the sand and spread very generally over 
the dunes. They came down very close to the high water mark. 
Thirteen burrows were found quite near together, seven in a circle 
of six feet in diameter. Most of these burrows were about dialf an 
inch in diameter. Two were located within twelve inches, and sev- 
eral others within two feet of the edge of the sandy ridge which 
marks the point of highest tide. The tubes vary in size and depth. 
Some are scarcely larger than a quill, some, indeed, not much larger 
than a good big darning needle. These were occupied by young 
spiders. The adult spiders occupy burrows in the sand about twelve 
inches or less in depth ; the younglings make holes four inches deep 
or less. 

In digging for spiders Dr McCook began to remove the sand ten 
inches or more from the opening of the burrow. Thus the dry sand 
immediately surrounding dropped away into the excavation, leaving 
the silken tube which lined the burrow adhering to the arrass stalk 
or twig which he had inserted within it. The buri-ows proved to be 
silk-lined for j' space of from four to seven inches, the lining however, 
being of a very thin texture, not like the tough silken tube with which 
the Trap-door spider lines her nest, oi- which the Purseweb spider 
erects along the trunks of trees. Below that point the burrow enters 
into the sand unlined. The top of the sand is quite dry, but the 
bottom part, wherein the lower portions of the burrows are made, 
was invariably found to be damp, and of course closely packed, so 
that it was not very liable to fall into the excavation. A little cir- 
cular ridge of sand ordinarily surrounds the opening of the burrow, 
but he saw in no instance anything like the tower of straws and sticks 
which this spider builds in the meadows and fields of New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania and other points where it has been observed. The 
drifting of the sand before the wind seemed to have little or no effect 
upon the burrows which were always found quite open aud free around 
the mouth. Heavy rains which fell during the season had no apj)re- 
ciable effect upon the burrows or their inmates although the tubes 
must often have been filled with water. 

The spiders captui-ed were all of a light hue as compared with the 
same specimens found in our vicinity. Specimens almost identical • 
with these were found by Dr. Joseph Leidy in the sand at Beach 
Haven, New Jersey ; and this pale coloring appears in all other littoral 
.specimens examined. The influence of environment, manifest in the 
lighter coloring of this spider, was also seen in a grasshopper or locust 
which is quite abundant on Coffin's beach. It is almost as white as 

' Psyche, vol. 11, p. 2, 1877. 

^ Emerton ("New England Spiders of the Family Lycosidn;" Trans. Conn. 
Acad. vol. vi, 1885) describes liie species as Lycosa nidifex Marx, for what reason 
he does not state. Scudder made the spider known in 1877; I^r. Marx gave his 
description in the " American Naturalist" May 1881. The priority is undoubtedly 
with Scudder's name. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 835 

the sand over which it was found hopping. These grasshoppers 
probably furnish food for the S2)iders, but the only remains of animal 
food found within the burrows were those of a large brownish 
beetle, several specimens of which were picked up on the beach. 

Among the other denizens of the beach are ants of a small species 
whose nests are well nigh numberless. They are made in the sand, 
but it seemed that the little creatures must have considerable diffi- 
culty in preserving their galleries and rooms from continual destruc- 
tion by the caving in of the incoherent particles. However, they do 
manage it, although in digging to find the character of their galleries 
the speaker could not so manipulate the sand as to prevent it from 
tumbling into the formicaries and thus hindering him from studying 
of the interior. He did not know what the ants feed upon, although 
he found some of them engaged at the carcass of one of the brown 
beetles above alluded to, and no doubt the flotsam of the sea thrown 
upon the beach affords them abundant material for food. He made 
a number of visits to these sand dunes both by day and night, pro- 
longing his stay to a late hour in the evening in order to discover 
.something of the outdoor habits of the colony of Turret spiders, but 
succeeded in learning very little that is new. 

A lady artist who with some companions was sketching upon the 
beach, (for Annisquam is a favorite field for painters,) informed Dr. 
McCook that about dusk a large spider was seen moving over the 
sand towards the water. Supposing this to be one of the above colony 
the question at once arose, do they come down from the dunes to the 
wide flat stretch of beach, that is covered at flood and that is uncov- 
ered at ebbtide, in order to prey upon the sea life that may be left 
at the retiring of the waters? Two afternoons and nights were spent 
from five until nine and ten P. M.endeavoring to solve this prob- 
lem, but without any results. He then tried another method. Visit- 
ing the beach in day-time he captured a couple of mature spiders ; 
placed them upon a smooth stretch of clean sand and permitted them, 
and when necessary compelled them by prodding, to move over the 

ft B surface. They left upon the sand a 

, ' *> peculiar track which is here roughly 

I I y« f represented by two sections taken 

•*• / ^» from different parts of the trail. 

*• •• , Having made a careful sketch of 

t these foot prints he returned early 
I next morning and made a careful 
examination of the beach for a cou- 
' • * siderable distance along the shore. 

Many tracks of various kinds of creatures, including such insects 
as beetles and grasshoppers, and also of some small vertebrate 
animals, were found. 

But by far the greatest number were tracks which correspon- 
ded precisely with those made on the previous day by the captured 
Arenicolas. Multitudes of these were seen upon the sand covering 
the surface and slopes of the hills and extending to the very border 



•r .i. y 



336 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

of the surf line. They traversed the ground which had been cover- 
ed by the tide, but which for a considerable distance is there exposed 
at the ebb. These foot-prints could be traced everywhere as issuing 
from and returning to the burrows which he had marked by flagging 
the grass stalks in their neighborhood. It was thus demonstrated, in 
this indirect way, that the narrative of his artist friend was correct, 
and that the Turret spiders do issue from their burrows during the 
night and perhaps at other periods and traverse the sandy flats, no 
doubt in search of prey. One half grown spider was captured while 
wandering on the flat. 

These 'spider tracks were in themselves an interesting study, and 
Dr. McCook expressed regret that he did not sketch a longer consec- 
utive series. The motion of the feet was so rapid that he could not 
determine the order in which they were placed down, nor identify the 
mark made by any particular foot. The scratch in the figures he 
thought might have been made by .the spinnerets at the apex of the 
abdomen trailing in the sand. 

Dr. Charles S. Dolley had observed similar tracks upon the 
sandy beach of Lake Ontario, near Rochester, which were made by 
the same spiders that dwell in that vicinity. He had found the spi- 
ders sheltered under the drift on the very edge of the shore whither 
they had doubtless gone in pursuit of prey or to drink. 

Messrs Auguste Salle of Paris, Louis Bedel of Paris and Dr. 
David Sharp of Wilmington, England were elected correspondents. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 337. 



DISCOVERY OF THE VENTRAL STRUCTURE OF TAXOCRINUS AND 

HAPLOCRINUS, AND CONSEQUENT MODIFICATIONS IN 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE CRINOIDEA. 

BY CHARLES WACHSMUTH AND FRANK SPRINGER. 

Since the publication of our paper "on the Summit Plates of 
Blastoids, Crinoids and Cystids, and their Morphological Rela- 
tions," ^ we have made several important discoveries bearing on this 
subject, which have materially modified some of the views expressed 
therein, as well as at some places in the Revision of the Paloeocri- 
noidea. 

Hitherto we have recognized in the summit of the Palseocrinoids 
a central plate, surrounded by four large jDroximals and two small- 
er ones, with anal plates interposed between them. In our earlier 
writings we regarded the two small proximals as representing pos- 
teriorly a fifth plate; but these, as we have explained (Revision Pt. 
Ill, p. 47), are really the two posterior radial dome plates, pushed 
in by the anal structures, the three other radial dome plates being 
placed at the re-entering angles of the four larger proximals. This 
was clearly pointed out on PI. VII, in figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 
on Plate VIII, figs. 1, 3, in which the plates formerly considered as 
the smaller proximals were marked as actinal radials, and designated 
by the letters "x r." In fig. 7, PI. VII, they correspond to, and prob- 
ably are, the first or inner covering pieces of the ambulacra. After 
discovering that these plates are situated radially and not inter- 
radially, we met with frequent difficulty in identifying the two small- 
er proximals, and mistook for them some of the plates which we 
now clearly see are anal pieces. In some cases, and especially in 
veiy complicated forms, we observed intercalated between the prox- 
imals, touching the central piece, certain plates which we regarded 
as the representatives of the first and second radials of the dorsal 
cup, absent in the vault of simpler forms ; while we considered those 
underneath which the bifurcation of the ambulacra takes place — 
being the radial dome plates in the simpler forms — as the representa- 
tives of the third or axillary radials. 

From the internal structure we found that the radiation of the 
ambulacra was from underneath the central plate, in a similiar man- 
ner as the ambulacra from beneath the five orals in the Neocriuoidea, 

1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, March, 1887. 

23 



338 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

and it was this, principally, that led us to the supposition that the 
central plate, and this only, represented in the vault of the Palseocri- 
noids the five orals collectively, and that the four large and two 
smaller proximals were interradial vault plates, corresponding to the 
interradials of the abaetinal side (Rev. III., pp. 44-59). The latter 
was contrary to the views originally expressed by us (Kev. II, pp. 15 
and 16), when we supposed that "the six proximals surrounding 
the central plate represented the basals or genitals." The gi'eat 
objection to this interpretation was that it involved a homology 
between six plates and five, and we were so greatly impressed with 
the force of it, that we wei'e afterwards led to consider these plates 
as interradials, as to which on the dorsal side a division of the pos- 
terior interradial into two plates by the interposition of an anal 
plate is a frequent occurrence in Pala^ocrinoids. It seemed to us 
therefore very natural that a similar division of the posterior plate 
should be found on the ventral side. 

Dr. P. Herbert Carpenter, like ourselves, recognized a central plate 
and six proximals, but he regarded the former as the actinal representa- 
tive of the dorso-central or terminal plate of the column in the Peii- 
tacrinoid larva, and established for it the term "oro-central," as a 
distinct element in the vault of the Palaiocriuoids, unpresented in 
other Echinoderms. He adopted the theory that the surrounding 
six proximals are the homologues of the basals, and as such are the 
oral plates — he considering that the posterior one was divided by 
anal plates into two. His views on this subject are fully set forth 
in the Challenger Report on the Stalked Crinoids, pages 158 to 184, 
and the same interpi-etation of the plates in question was reasserted 
by Etheridge and Carpenter in the Catalogue of the Blastoidea in 
the Geological Department of the British Museum, pages 66 to 75. 

Although this conception of the morphological relations of the 
proximals agreed with the ideas we originally entertained, as before 
mentioned, we found ourselves unable to reconcile it with the diffi- 
culty arising out of a homology of six plates which surround but do 
not cover the oral center, with a set of five closed oral plates which 
cover the mouth. This objection did not exist as to the central 
plate which covers the oi'al center, and it seemed to us, therefore, 
more reasonable to regard that plate, though undivided, as the re- 
presentative of the five orals, than to consider it an entirely new ele- 
ment in Echinoderm morphology, which the so-called "oro-central" 
of Carpenter certainly was. Our theory of the relations of the sum- 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 339 

rait plates, in conformity with these ideas, was discussed in the Ke- 
vision of the Palreocriuoidea, Part. Ill, pages 44 to 59, and after- 
ward in greater detail in our paper on the Summit Plates, above 
referred to. 

Another consideration which strongly influenced us in adopting 
this view was the supposed presence of a central plate in Haplocri- 
mis, to which considerable importance was attached both by Car- 
penter and ourselves in our discussions of the oral question, though 
leading us to very different conclusions. On page 56, Kevision, 
III, we said : "A far less objectionable interpretation of the central 
plate than that given by Carpenter would be to regard it as a pos- 
terior oral. In this case the orals would be represented by five 
plates, and not by six ; the anus would be placed outside the oral 
ring, and the radial dome plates would occupy the same position to- 
ward the orals as the calyx radials toward the basals. But it would 
place the mouth underneath the posterior oral, and it offers no ex- 
planation of the central piece in Haplocrinus" 

This theory seemed to us at that time very plausible, and we 
should have advocated it, if it had not been for the central plate 
in Hafplocrinas, which we discovered, as we supposed, in a speci- 
men of H. niespiliformis, our observation being verified by Carpenter, 
to whom we sent the specimen for examination, (Challenger Report, 
page 158). 

When we took up a year ago, the investigation of the Larvi- 
formia, the group to which Haplocrinus belongs, we had before us 
the original specimens of H. \'lio from New York, and found 
ourselves unable to discover any suture between the so-called central 
plate, and the posterior vault plate, and we began to suspect there 
was something wrong about the central plate. During a visit of one 
of the writers to Europe in the winter of 1887-8, he procured in the 
Eifel mountains a very large series of good specimens of H. mes- 
piliformis, with a view to ascertaining if possible the real fact about 
the central plate, and also the anal opening which was fully as great 
a mystery. These specimens at once disclosed the fact that the 
"central plate" is a myth, and that what had before been taken for 
it was simply a more or less tongue-like or polygonal prolongation 
of the posterior plate, sometimes surmounted by a small node — the 
"knopf" of Goldfuss. We had mistaken a fracture in our original 
specimen for a suture on the posterior side, and have seen another 
in which a similar mistake might have been made if one had that 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

specimen alone. The real structure of the vault of Haplocrinus is 
as follows : The five triangular plates composing the ventral pyramid 
meet in the center by sutures which are often difficult to see. The 
posterior plate is the largest, and jirojects in between the two postero- 
lateral ones, completely separating them, and interlocking wdth the 
antero-lateral plates by a variety of plans, from a simple zigzag suture 
to a triangular or dovetailed insertion, or a long slender tongue ex- 
tending into the latter plates, which are cut away to fit it (PI. XVIII, 
figs. 6^ and 61). This projection stands sometimes at a lower level 
than the other part of the plate and the adjoining plates, leaving a 
depression in the center which is sometimes partially occupied by a 
small node. In other cases a high ridge runs from the posterior 
plate over the central space, branching to the two antero-lateral 
plates (PI. XVIII, fig. 61). It thus appears that the whole ventral 
surface in Haj)locrinu8 is covered by five large plates which meet in 
the center as in Allagecrinus. 

The anal opening in Haplocrinus has not heretofore been correct- 
ly identified, but it lias been generally claimed to be located at the 
suture between two radials and the posterior vault plate. In the 
Revision III, pp. 157 and 162, we alluded to a small pore we had 
observed in one specimen of H. mesplliformis, the position of which 
is indicated in fig. 1, on PI. V, of that work. We afterward became 
satisfied that this pore was due to chemical action, or some im- 
perfection in the test and was not organic, as subsequent examina- 
tion of a very large number of specimens of the same species, better 
preserved, failed to disclose any opening in that position. After we 
discovered that the so-called central plate was nothing but a pro- 
longation of the posterior vault plate, it became easy to distinguish 
that plate in the specimens, and we began a careful search upon that 
side, from the radials up, for the anal opening. We soon found a 
small, scar-like opening or pit, with a slightly thickened and well 
defined rim, situated just within the upper angle of the triangular 
depression on the posterior plate (PI. XVIII, fig. 61). A similar 
structure was observed in a large number of specimens, varying in 
form from that above described to a small tubercle in which no 
opening could be detected. It was always in the same position, and 
Ave have been unable, after the closest examination, to discover any- 
thing like it upon either of the other four plates in any of the 
specimens. We gi'ound down a number of specimens on the pos- 
terior side, and in every one found that this was an actual opening, 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 341 

piercing the plate, in a similar manner, and in the same position as 
the anal opening pierces the deltoid in Orophocrinus, and we could 
not find on these ground specimens, any indications of another open- 
ing lower down. These facts led us to the conclusion that the above 
described opening must be the anus, and that it Avas probably closed 
by minute pieces as in OropJiocrimis. We think it quite probable 
that the tubercular elevation which appears in several of the speci- 
mens, may represent the closed condition, the plates being too smajl 
to be distinguishable, especially in fossils whose preservation is so 
peculiar that the suture lines between the large vault plates are 
often invisible.^ 

So long as the central plate in Haplocrinus was recognized, we 
saw good reason to believe in the existence of a similar plate in 
other groups of the Pala^ocrinoidea, especially as a plate similarly 
situated over the center of radiation was so conspicuous a feature in 
the vault of many different genera. But after it became evident 
that no such plate in fact existed in Haplocrinus and allied forms, 
the idea recurred to us that the plate, so apparently central in 
many Platycrinidae and Actinocrinidae, might after all be the pos- 
terior oral, pushed inward to a central position by anal structures, 
which we had formerly suggested. With the objection arising out 
of the supposed condition of Haplocrinus removed, this interpreta- 
tion seemed to us to be one of the greatest force, more likely than 
any other to answer the conditions of a valid homology, and to 
obviate the principal objections urged by Carpenter and ourselves, 
respectively, to other theories. 

Upon comparing the summit plates of the Platycrinidae and 
Actinocrinidae, it will be seen that the so-called central plate is 
always inserted between the four large proximals, so that in most 
cases it occupies, more or less, the center of figure, being enclosed on 
the posterior side by anal plates, and abutting against them. In 
Dorycrinus (PI. XVIII, fig. 2), an enormous development of the 
central plate is shown. In Agaricocrinus (PL XVIII, fig. 3), the four 
proximals have been separated from it by the intercalation of other 

1 Upon our communicating to Dr Carpenter several months ago our observalions 
upon Haplocrimis as above set forth, he informed us tliat Prof. Beyrich, of litrlin, 
had independently discovered the same facts, both as to the construction of the 
ventr.d pyramid, and tlie location of the opening which we consider to be the anus, 
and that Beyrich also regards this as the anal opening, while he (Carpenter) thinks 
it an open question whether it be the anus or a water pore, in which latter ca^e 
the anus would remain undiscovered. 



342 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

jilates; while in the later Talarocrinus (PI. XVIII, fig. 7) they seem 
to have disappeaied entirely, leaving only the central plate, from 
which the covering plates to the ambulacra pass directly out. In 
forms like Batocrinus (fig. 5), and Eretmocrimis (fig. 10), where 
there is a strong, nearly central anal tube, we find the central plate 
resting against, and forming the base of the tube, and the four prox- 
imals pushed far over to the anterior side, and greatly displaced. 

In some forms of Platycrinus the central position of the posterior 
plate is well marked (Rev. III. PL, VII, figs, 5, 6, 7, 8, and PI. 
VIII, fig 6), varying somewhal in degree. Some recently acquired 
specimens of this genus exhibit most clearly a transition from a 
centrally located plate surrounded by proximals and anals, char- 
acteristic of the foregoing figures, to a set of five nearly equal 
j:)lates, occupying the center of figure in the vault, and from whose 
five re-entering angles the ambulacra pass out to the arms, as shown 
by the beautiful specimen in fig. 15, (and also by figs. 4, 8, and 9). 

In all these cases it will be observed that the posterior plate is in- 
serted between the four proximals to a greater or less extent, sepa- 
rating the postero-lateral ones, so that the five plates meet in the 
vault in a manner substantially similar to the five plates composing 
the ventral pyramid of Ifaplocrinus. No one who is acquainted 
with the structure of palaeozoic crinoids will doubt that the five 
unsynimetrically arranged plates in the vault of Dorijcrinus, Batocri- 
nus, etc, are structurally identical with the five nearly equal plates 
centrally located in the specimens of Platycrinus above mentioned. 
And it will be seen at once that all the disturbance observable in 
diflJerent degrees in these various forms was primarily caused by 
the anal structures, which pushed the plates — especially the posterior 
one — out of their primitive position. Regarding these five plates as 
the orals, it will be found that the five radial-dome-plates lie within 
the re-entering angles all around, and that the two rings of plates 
thus correspond exactly in their relative position with the basals and 
radials upon the dorsal side in the Crinoidea, and the genitals and 
oculars in the Echini. 

The above interpretation of the plates meets with no serious diffi- 
culty from a morphological point of view. The only objections 
occuring to us that might be urged au:ainst it are: 1. that the mouth 
would be situated beneath the posterior oral ; and 2. that some 
species of Talarocrinus andDlchocrinus have in the summit in place 
of five orals a single very large plate, from underneath which the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 343 

ambulacra pass out to the rays. The first of these objections, which 
was raised by us already in Revision III, p. 56, is readily explained 
if we suppose that the posterior oral was pushed inward over the 
mouth by the plates connected with the anus, and that this became 
a constant character in palaeontological time. The presence of a 
single large central plate in Talarocrvius, etc, may be accounted for 
by resorption of the four anterior orals, the posterior plate actually 
performing the functions of all. It might also be possible that this 
large plate in these forms represents the whole oral pyramid, five 
plates coalesced, in a similar manner as the basals in some instances 
at the dorsal side. 

These considerations were quite sufficient to convince us that the 
five orals of Neocrinoids were represented in the Palaeocrinoids by 
both the central plate and four large proximals taken together ; 
thus in a large measure reconciling the conflicting views of Carpen- 
ter and ourselves upon this question — the orals being found at last 
to consist of a portion of the proximals which he has claimed, with 
the addition of the central plate which we have contended for. 
This rational result, as often happens in such cases, adopts Avhatw^as 
sound, and rejects the errors in the views of both parties. 

The evidence which we had obtained was entirely satisfactory to 
ns, and we were prepared upon the foregoing facts to announce our 
final conclusion, as above stated, when we made a most unexpected 
discovery, which in oar judgment not only settles the oral question 
in conformity with these views beyond all controversy, but bears so 
strongly upon questions of classification, that it may justly be regard- 
ed as one of the most important discoveries ever made in palaeozoic 
crinoids. 

In the Ichthyocrinidae the ventral structure has been hitherto 
almost totally unknown. Some small plates had been seen on the ven- 
tral side in a few instances, apparently belonging to a plated integ- 
ument, but not in a condition to afford much information, and its 
real nature has been a matter of conjecture and theory. We have 
been of the opinion that it was a vault, covering a subtegminal 
mouth and ambulacra, but pliant, yielding to motion in the calyx 
and arms; while Carpenter believed that it Avas a disk paved by 
plates as in some of the Neocrinoidea. It was evidently of the most 
fragile construction, and this, together with the fact that in this 
family the arms are generally found closely folded and firmly im- 
pacted over the vault, was strongly against the probability of ever 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

finding the ventral covering in place. We had seen, however, in 
some specimens of Taxocrinus from the Kinderhook beds at Le 
Grand, Iowa, that there was an integument of some kind taking 
the form of pouches along the ventral side of the rays, and this in- 
duced a faint hope, in vie\A{k0f the unusually fine preservation of the 
fossils at that locality, that something more might eventually be 
found out about it. 

On the 9th of August last, we made an excursion to Le Grand, 
for the purpose of obtaining some needed material for our work on 
the Crinoids of North America now in progress. Upon arriving at 
the station we met Mr. George (^Jull, the agent of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railway, to whom we were already indebted for many 
favors. While exhibiting to us some interesting fossils collected 
by him in that vicinity, he produced a specimen of Taxocrinus with 
the greater part of the rays broken off. We saw at once that it had 
the ventral covering preserved in place, though largely imbedded in 
a matrix of exceedingly fine calcareous mud. Upon being inform- 
ed that the specimen possessed especial value as throwing light upon 
important scientific questions, he presented it to us, with the re- 
mark : "I will donate it to Science." For the valuable assistance 
he thereby afforded us he has our grateful thanks, and in this we are 
sure that every naturalist who is interested in the morphological 
study of Echinoderms will join us. 

Although we saw at once that there was an integument of very 
small pieces, with covered ambulacral furrows running toward some 
large plates in the center, it was not until we had with great labor, 
and the most delicate manipulation, cleaned the specimen from the 
fine adherent matrix, that we discovered the extraordinary fact 
that it has an external mouth, surrounded hj five parted oral plates, 
with the ambulacra converging to it and passing in between the orals. 

The specimen belongs to a species which we have described and 
figured for the 8th volume of the Illinois Geological Survey, now in 
press, as Taxocrinus intermedius. It represents a form of Taxo- 
crinus in which tliere is a strong tendency toward the free and 
spreading rays of Onyehocrinus, to which genus, indeed, we were for 
some time inclined to refer it. Several specimens of it have been 
found before, but all of them had the arms closely folded, and were 
more or less flattened by pressure. This individual, exceptionally, 
■was deposited with the rays Avell extended and without any flatten- 
ing, leaving the ventral side in an almost natural position. Most 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 345 

of the rays are broken off a little above the first bifurcation, so that 
the whole structure is plainly visible, and, except in one or two 
places, is in the most perfect condition (PI. XVIII. figs. 11 and 11). 

The ventral surface is covered by an integument of very small^ 
irregular plates, attached to some larger plates within the dorsal cup, 
and the marginal plates along the free rays, forming in connection 
with the latter along the rays pouches or sacs which extend far up 
along the arms, being traced in other specimens to the second and 
third bifurcation. Along the median radial portions of this integu- 
ment rest the ambulacra, which pass from the middle of the disk to 
the rays, following their bifurcations. There are two rows of sub- 
ambulacral pieces, transversely elongate and alternately arranged, 
forming the floor of the groove. The groove is bordered by side 
pieces, and roofed over by two rows of interlocking covering plates, 
which seem to have been moveable, as they are open in several places 
in the specimen, — indeed they appear to be mostly in that condition. 
The anterior ambulacrum is perfect, with the covering pieces in place, 
and slightly gaping. In the right antero-lateral ambulacrum the 
covering plates and side pieces have slipped off from the subambu- 
lacral plates, and lie interradially to the left of them, but are other- 
wise not much disturbed. In the other three ambulacra the covering 
pieces for the most part are gone, leaving only the floor with the 
subambulacral plates in position. The plates covering the interpal- 
mar areas are also well shown in the specimen at three sides; at the 
two others the integument is not intact, and the plates lie scattered 
upon the surface. When one sees the exceedingly frail character of 
this covering, he may well wonder at the exceptional good fortune 
by which it is preserved in this specimen, and will not expect to find 
it soon again. 

The central region is occupied by five rounded or very obtusely 
polygonal plates, interradially disposed, rather elliptic in outline. 
The two antero-lateral plates are tolerably good-sized, and the 
postero-lateral ones slightly smaller. All four of them have a con- 
siderable thickness, extending downward below^ the level of the 
ambulacra, and also rising somewhat above it. The posterior plate 
is nearly three times as large as any of the others, and almost twice 
as long as wide, extending well in between the two postero-lateral 
plates. 

The relative positions of these plates are exactly like those of the 
five plates at the summit of the forms of Platycrinus illustrated on 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Plate XVIII, figs, 4, 8, 9, 10, 15, except that they do not meet in the 
center, but leave a slightly excenti'ic, obtusely pentagonal oral opening, 
transversely elongated, its longest side next to the posterior oral plate. 
Into this opening, which is deep, and contains at the bottom some 
dark-colored substance, converge the ambulacra, their lips turning 
downward at the five corners. They enter between the five plates, 
touching them, and completely separating the visible portions of 
those plates from each other. Whether there is any lateral projec- 
tion beneath the ambulacra, by which they come in contact again, 
cannot be seen, but from the form of the exposed portions we should 
think not. 

That the five plates around the center, although somewhat unequal 
in size, represent the five orals of the recent genera Rliizocrinus, 
Hyocrintis, and Holopus, and that the integument of small pieces is 
a disk and not a vault, nobody will deny after seeing the specimen. 
And a comparison of the parts in Taxocrinus with the summit plates 
in Platycrinus, Actlnocrinus, etc, leaves no room for doubt that these 
are likewise orals. In the posterior interradius (PI. XVIII, fig. 1, 
c), there is a small lateral appendage or proboscis composed of a row 
of rounded quadrangular plates gradually tapering upward. This 
appendage is supported by a small anal plate, which rests upon the 
right upper corner of the posterior basal and the right posterior 
radial, both of which are somewhat indented to receive it. The ap- 
pendage seems to be attached by its inner side to the integument, and 
there are to the right of it, within the posterior interradius three 
small tapering ridges composed of very small plates, which look like 
branches from it; upon close inspection, however, they are seen to be 
folds in the perisome, into which they are incorporated at their upper 
ends, in a similar manner as the row of larger plates. At the upper 
end of the appendage there are a great many minute pieces closely 
packed together, and we think it probable there was an opening at 
this point. In the two other specimens (PI. XVIII, figs. \h, and Id), 
the structure is more clearly shown. Xeither of them has supple- 
mentary ridges or folds, and it is plainly seen thai the large plates 
composing the proboscis are. bordered by numerous small pieces, by 
means of which they are connected with, or incorporated into the 
perisome. The upper end of the appendage is rounded off", and stands 
well out from the perisome, but we have been unable to ascertain 
' from the specimens whether it is perforated by a canal, or solid as in 
the remarkal)le recent genus Thaumatocrinus, Avhich in the structure 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 347 

■of its posterior side bears a striking resemblance to the form under 
consideration. From all that we can see on our three specimens, and 
.some examples of Onychocrimis exsculptm, in which a similar set of 
pLites and parts of the perisome are preserved, we do not believe that 
there was a second appendage in the disk as in Thaumatocrinus, but 
think that the row of large plates supported the anus. The shape 
of the visible portions of the disk varies in the three specimens, and 
it is evident that the whole perisome was pliant and could be expand- 
ed or contracted. 

A similar integument has been found betw^een the rays in Taxocrinus 
rohustus W. and Sp. from the same locality, a new Taxocrinus from 
the St. Louis limestone, and in Onychocrinus asteriaeformis from the 
Burlington limestone. In a specimen of Onychocrinus diversus 
lying on the ventral side, and from which we removed the basal and 
some of the radial plates, giving an inner view from below, we can 
see in two rays the alternating subambulacral plates converging near 
the center, but not the orals nor any part of the perisome. In one 
of Onychocrinus exsculptus we find remnants of the perisome and 
traces of the oral plates, however not in position. The last two 
specimens are those mentioned by us in Revision Pt. I, p. 32, on 
one of which we based our statement (Rev. I, p. 54), under Onycho- 
crinus, that "in the median portion of the vault there are six rather 
thin but large apical dome ])lates", '^vhich we were afterwards in- 
clined to modif}^ as we could not make out satisfactorily the ar- 
rangement of the plates (Rev III. pp 20, and 67). In several speci- 
mens of the last named species we have seen the anal appendage, 
with the integument extending either way to the rays, and the 
same thing was long ago observed by Meek and Worthen (Geol. 
Rei). Illinois., Vol. Ill, p. 494.). 

It is thus evident that the ventral covering of Taxocrinus consist- 
ed of perisomic plates with external mouth and food grooves, and 
five oral plates, surrounding the mouth and separated by the ambu- 
lacra. We have now very little doubt that the structure thus dis- 
covered is substantially that of the Ichthyocrinidae generally, and 
that the ventral side of the calyx in this family is morphologically 
in the condition of Thaumatocrinus, and similar to that o^Hyocrinus 
and Rhizocrinus. 

Although we have heretofore entertained a different opinion, we 
yield most cheerfully to the proofs, and we are heartily glad to be 
the means of bringing to light one substantial fact to take the place 



348 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

of theories, even though some of our own views suffer in consequence. 
We also take pleasure in bearing this testimony to the soundness of 
Dr. P. H. Carpenter's views as to the nature of the ventral covering 
in the Ichthyocrinidae. He always considered that this family rep- 
resented an approximation to the Neocrinoids, and that the integu- 
ment was comparable to a disk and not to a vault.' 

This discovery is also a confirmation of the opinion always insist- 
ed upon by us, as a conclusion necessarily following from the struct- 
ure of the calyx and arms, that the ventral covering of the Ichthyo- 
crinidae was pliable, yielding to motion in the calyx and arms, and 
emphasizes the distinction between this group and other Palaeozoic 
Crinoids based on the summit structure, as pointed out by us at the 
beginning of our writings (Rev. I, p. 5), although, we admit, to a 
higher degree than we ever anticipated. 

Recurring now to the orals, it is easy enough to understand from 
the structure of Taxocrinus how a set of five equal plates, symmet- 
rically disposed over the mouth as in the larva of Antedon, could be 
so altered by the presence of anal structures, as to bring the mouth 
beneath the i^osterior plate. It is readily conceivable, that by the 
encroachment of the anal plate, the posterior oral was pushed to a 
central position, and remained permanently in that condition. The 
transition from five unequal to five equal orals through such forms a& 
Platycrinus (PI. XVIII, fig. 15), seems also quite apparent. The 
fact that the covering plates of the ambulacra in our specimen rest 
against the lateral edges of the orals, is contrary to the observations 
heretofore made among recent crinoids in which orals have been 
observed. In all of them the ambulacra pass in at their outer mar- 
gins, and the plates are parted so as to form open slits. In the 
Camarata the orals remain closed, and the ambulacra, — when ex- 
posed at all, — with their food grooves closed, enter the vault on or 
before approaching the orals. 

We therefore consider the evidence entirely conclusive that the- 
homologues of the five oral plates of the young Antedon and tlie 
adult Holopus, Hyocrimis, Rhizocrinus and ThaumatoGnnus are to be 
found in the so-called central plate and four large proximals in all 
Camarata in which these are developed — the two smaller proximals, 
heretofore considered as the equivalent of a fifth, being anal plates. 

The question now naturally arises, what are the morphological 

1 Challenger Report on the Stalked Crinoids, pp. 42, 181 and 182, and else- 
where. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 349 

relations of the ventral plates in Haplocrmus, in view of the discov- 
ery that it has no central plate? Those plates meet in the center, 
and cover the mouth substantially in a similar manner as the five 
orals in Platycrimis ; being, however, more alike in form and size, 
and more regular in their arrangement. They also closely resemble 
the five orals of the Pentacrinoid larva of Antedon, but, unlike 
them, are suturally connected with one another as well as with the 
radials. The plates also occupy the position of the five interradials 
of Cyathocrinus and the deltoids of the Blastoidea ; resting like the 
latter upon the limbs or upper extensions of the radials. 

We have heretofore contended, against the views of Carpenter 
and others, that the ventral plates of Haplocrimis are interradials 
and not orals, believing the latter to be represented by the "central 
plate," which we took to be the homologue of the so-called central 
plate of Actinocrinidae and Platycrinidae. 

It would seem to follow naturally that with the elimination of the 
central plate from the question, the chief objections to considering 
the five summit plates as orals, which impressed us so strongly 
before, would now be removed. A serious morphological difficulty, 
however, is still found in the position of the opening which we 
suppose to be the anus. This, as we have already described, pene- 
trates the middle portion of one of the vault plates — a structure not 
found in any other known Crinoid, either in the adult or larval 
state. The position is the same as that of the anus in the deltoid of 
the Blastoid genus Orophoc7'inus, which complicates the case still 
more. 

It is further a fact that in the low^est Silurian Camarata inter- 
radials ai-e more profusely repi-esented than among Carboniferous 
forms, frequently extending over the whole ventral surfiice of the 
calyx, while the orals apparently are unrepresented. From this it 
would seem to follow that if Haplocrinus represented a larval form 
of the Palaeocrinoidea, the plates in question could not be orals, or 
the structure would appear to be at variance with the palaeontolog- 
ical development of the group. 

For these difficulties we are unable at 2:)resent to offer any ex- 
planation, but nevertheless we admit that there are very strong rea- 
sons for regarding those plates as orals. They present a striking- 
resemblance to the five plates composing the unopened oral pyramid 
of the Pentacrinoid larva before its separation from the radials 
by perisome, and there are unquestionably very strong grounds 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

for considering Haplocriims and allied genera as larval forms. 
Taking iiito consideration all the facts as now disclosed, and espe- 
cially the non-existence of a central plate, we must admit the weight 
of the evidence is in favor of the supposition that thf plates cover- 
ing the ventral surface in Haplocrmus, and Allagecriniis are orals, 
and that these orals are permanently closed in the Haplocrinidae 
without the assistance of interradial plates. In accepting this as 
probably the correct interpretation of those plates, we now recognize 
also in Symbathocrinus and Plsocrmus five large orals as covering 
the greater part if not all of the ventral surface, more or less similar 
to those of Haplocrinus, though with a very different anal arrange- 
ment in Symbathocrinus, and probably also in Pisocrinus. 

A still broader question remains to be considered, viz : the effect 
of the late discoveries upon the classification of the Crinoidea, gener- 
ally. In proposing the Palaeocrinoidea as a distinct order of the 
Crinoids, we considered the presence of a subtegminal mouth, and 
the closed state of the food-grooves, as the most important char- 
acters by which they were distinguished from Mezozoic and more 
recent forms. But it is evident that since the discovery of an open 
mouth in the Palaeozoic genus Taxocrinus, we can no longer by this 
means separate the earlier from the later crinoids. Carpenter did 
not agree with us as to the importance of the subtegminal mouth, 
and he proposed to separate the Palaeocrinoids from the Neocri- 
noids principally upon other features which he discussed in detail in 
the Challenger Report on the Stalked Crinoids, pages 149-155. A 
sliirht examination will show that all these other characters meet 
with so frequent and important exceptions in both groups, that it 
is not safe to depend upon them. 

According to Carpenter, in the Neocrinoidea underbasals are re- 
presented rarely, in the Palaeocrinoidea frequently (Challenger 
Report, p. 149). Several years ago we discovered that there is a 
regular alternation in the arrangement of the successive parts of 
crinoids below the radials, which furnishes a most important guide 
for distinguishing between monocyclic and dicyclic crinoids, by the 
structure of the column and cirri. It was stated on page 7 of the 
Revision, Part III, — with a most unfortunate transposition of terms 
in printing, which we corrected on page 294, — and which may be 
grai)hically expressed by the following sketch: — 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



351 





Dicyclic. 


Monocyclic. 


1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 


Basals. 


Interradial. 


Interradial. 


Underbasals. 


Radial. 




Column.^ Exterior angels of. 
Column. Sections of. 


Interradial. 

Interradial. 


Radial. 
Radial. 


Column. Sutures. 
Column. Sides. 
Cohmm. Cirri when present. 
Column. Axial canal. 


Radial. 
Radial. 
Radial. 
Radial. 


Interradial. 
Interradial. 
Interradial. 
Interradial. 



We have found this rule to be without exception among palseozoic 
crinoids, and upon the strength of this, and an examination of the 
column of such Neocrinoids accessible to us as possessed an angular 
column, or cirri, we came to the conclusion, as stated in the Revision 
III, p. 8, that "probably many Neocrinoids either possess small 
underbasals, or these were jDresent in their larval form. " We became 
more and more of the opinion that the Neocrinoids, for the most part, 
were built on the plan of dicyclic crinoids, and we again stated (Rev 
III, p. 7 1 ), that "all Neocrinoidea, or at least the most of them, in their 
larval state may have possessed rudimentary underbasals, hidden by 
the column. " On pages 294-299, we discussed this question more 
at length, and stated our conclusion to be (p. 298) that "either the 
rules which meet with no exceptions among Palaeocrinoidea, as far 
as we know, do, not hold good for the Neocrinoidea, or the genera to 
which we alluded, and which are built otherwise upon the plan of 
dicyclic crinoids, really possessed rudimentary underbasals during 
life, as Extracrinus and certain species of Millericrinus, or that 
perhaps underbasals were present in their larva. The ventral surface 

1 Our observations respecting the column were naturally restricted to species 
in which the stem and axial canal are angular, and in alluding to the sections and. 
sutures of the column we refer to species with a pentapartite stem. In cases in 
which only basals are visible, and the angles of the stem are interradial, underba- 
sals invariably are present beneath the column. 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

of the centro-dorsal in some species of Antedon is almost identical 
with that of the top stem joint of Mi Her icrijius ; the plate is also 
interradial (PI. 6, fig. 11), and i-ests, as in the Apiocrinidae, against 
the outer face of the basals, not within the basal ring. It is similar, 
in other Comatulae, in all of which the centro-dorsal is interradial, 
and upon this, mainly, we base the opinion that perhaps also the 
Comatulae in their early larva had rudimentary underbasals. That 
these plates if present were not observed, is not surprising, as they 
may have been very minute, and been covered entirely by the 
column." 

So strongly were we impressed with the conviction that the Com- 
atulae were dicyclic crinoids, that we urged European investigators 
to make a fresh search for the underbasals in the larva, notwith- 
standing that no trace of them had been found by Wy ville Thomson, 
the two Carpenter, Gotte and others, who had extensively studied 
the embryology of Antedon. 

It was therefore with no little satisfaction that we received the 
information in July 1887 that the underbasals, whose existence we 
had thus predicated upon palaeontological evidence, had actually 
been discovered in the early larva of Antedon rosacea. This import- 
ant discovery was made by Mr. H. Bury, who announced it at the 
Manchester Meeting of the British Association in 1887. Mr. Bury's 
paper giving the full details of his investigations, has not yet appeared, 
although understood to be in press. The results, however, are stated 
by Carpenter^ as follows : " while this paper was in press an important 
discovery was announced by Mr. H. Bury at the Manchester Meeting 
of the British Association. He has found the underbasals in the 
ciliated larva of Antedon rosacea: but they soon fuse with the top stem 
joint (centro-dorsal), and all trace of them is lost when the cirri 
appear. This is a very striking confirmation of the views of Messrs. 
Wachsmuth and Springer, whose palaeontological studies had led 
them to express the belief that the underbasals might be present in 
the early larva of Comatulae. " 

Upon the same grounds, we think, we may safely postulate a 
dicyclic base in the extensive families of Apiocrinidae and Pentacrin- 
idae, and all other Neocrinoid families in which the so-called centro- 
dor,sal or top stem joint is described as forming an integral ])art of 
the calyx as in the Comatulae, and whose stem, when angular, is 

' Notes on Echinodeim Morphology, No. XI, Quart. Journ. Microscop. Sci., 
Vol. XXVIII, New. Sen p. 311. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 353 

directed interradially. In two species of MiUericrinus rudimeutaiy 
Underbasals have already been found by De Loriol/ and in both of 
them the plates in question are attached to the top stem joint. 

From these facts we may fairly say that the dicyclic plan prevails 
far more generally among Neocrinoidea than among Palaeocri- 
noidea. 

It is very interesting to note, in this connection, that the under- 
basals in many of the Ichthyocrinidaeare of an exceedingly rudiment- 
ary nature. In IcJithyocrinus they are scarcely ever seen at all, being 
usually visible only on the interior of the dorsal cup. In Taxocrimis 
they are always hidden by the column, and sometimes visible only 
within the calyx, which led Schultze to call them " cryptobasalia. " 
In Forbes iocrmus and Onyehocrinus they are nearly always concealed 
by the column, and furthermore in some cases they seem to be fused 
with the upper joint of the column, for they separate from the 
basals and remain attached to the column when the latter is broken 
off. It is thereftTre a suggestive fact that in 3f{llericriniis polydactylus 
and 3f. Orhlgnyi, the two species in which De Loriol discovered 
underbasals, these were in a precisely similar way separated from the 
basals and firmly attached to the column. 

Another distinction relied on by Carpenter is that in Neocrinoids 
" by far the greater number of genera have five equal and similar 
basals, with five equal and similar radials resting upon them. " He 
excepts Syocrimis, which has three basals, and Ho/opus and Eudesi- 
crinus in which the radials are not symmetrical; and he adds: "but 
this want of symmetry is not due to the intercalation of any anal 
plates as in nearly all Palaeocrinoids. " He therefore admits a certain 
amount of asymmetry in Neocrinoids, so long as not due to anal ])lates, 
though he elsewhere attaches some importance to a similar irregularity 
in some Palaeocrinoids, when confined to basals and radials only, and 
not in any way connected with anal plates, as for example Eucalypto- 
crinus? 

Another point characteristic of the later crinoids brought out by 
Carpenter is that " the articular flicets of the first radials occupy the 
whole width of their distal faces, so that the lowest parts of the rays, 
whether divided or not, are of nearly the same width as the radial 
plates which bear them (Chall. Rep. p. 155). Exceptions to this are 
found in Hyocrinus, Plicatocrinus and Marsupites. It is true that 

1 Paleont. Franc, Vol. XI, Crinoides Pts. 110 and 116. 

2 Challenger Report, p. 151. 

24 



354 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

in the Palaeocrinoids there are many families in which the articular 
facet of the first radial simply occupies the middle of its distal edge,- 
but this is not the case with the Ichthyocrinidea, the most of the 
Poteriocrinidae, Cupressocrinidse, and Symbathocrinidae. 

The main point, upon which Etheridge and Carpenter/ and after- 
wards Carpenter aloue,'^ distinguished the two groups was stated to 
be the regularly pentamerous symmetry of the calyx in Neocrinoids 
contrasted with the asymmetry of the Palaeocrinoids, in which " the 
pentamerous symmetry of the calyx^ is almost always disturbed by a 
greater or less modification of the plates on the anal side. " From 
this Carpenter was obliged to except the genus Thaumatocrinus, as to 
the Neocrinoidea, which has well developed anal plates. 

A far greater number of exceptions are found in the Palaeocrinoidea, 
among the Camarata as well as the Inadunata and Articulata. 
Among the first may be mentioned Dolatocrinus, Stereocrinus, Centro- 
crmus, Technocrimis, Corymbocrinus,Eucalyptocrinusand Callicrinus, 
in which the anal interradins cannot be distinguished in the dorsal 
cup from the four others; Lyriocrinus, Ripidocrinus, Thylacocriims, 
Rhodocrinus, and Gilbertsocriiius, in which it is rarely distinct ; and 
Briaroatnnus whose irregularity is not caused by anal plates. Among 
the Inadunata there are Codiacrinus, Lecythiocrinus, Stemmatocrmus 
and Erisocrinns, in none of which the usual anal plate is known to 
exist. Among the x4.rticulata, we note Ichthyocrlnus and Niptero- 
crinus as being in a similar condition as Briarocrinus. In some of 
the above genera, however, there is an ii-regularity in the basals; yet 
this is not due to anal plates, but to a coalescence of two or more 
of the plates, a variation which is also found in the recent genus 
RJiizocrinus, and among the underbasals in the Antedon larva. 

i"On Allagecrinus, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Apr. 1881, pp. 295 and 
296. 

2 Challenger Report on Stalked Crinoids, p. 150. 

3 It must be observed that the term " calyx " was used by Dr. Carpenter in the 
Challenger Report, and by us at that time, to designate the part of the test below the 
arm bases. Findmg more and more the necessity of having a more stable terminol- 
ogy, which would be applicable to the Crinoids generally, we have agreed with Dr. 
Carpenter upon the following terms, which will be used by both of us hereafter for 
descriptive purposes, viz : — 

Crmoid minus the stem = Crown. 

Crinoid minus stem and arms = Calyx. 

All parts of the calyx below the arm bases := Dorsal cup. 

The ventral perisome with mouth and ambulacra = Disk, 

All parts covering the disk ^ Vault. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 355 

111 alluding to the symmetry or asymmetry of the calyx, we must 
consider only the arrangement of the plates in the dorsal cup, as the 
ventral covering in all crinoids, whether composed of vault or disk, 
is more or less disturbed by the anus. 

We do not regard it as a good distinctive character that in the later 
crinoids the basals are generally pierced by interradial canals or 
grooves in connection with the chambered organ, when not a vestige 
of them is seen in 3Iarsupites, and similar grooves are found in 
Catillocrinus, Mycocrinus, Grotalocrinus and many Fistulata. Nor 
do we think it of much importance that in some palaeozoic forms the 
first division of the rays does not take place upon the third radial, or 
that in one or two cases the first radials themselves are axillary, when 
among Neocrinoids Metacrinus, as well as Plicatocrinus, form excep- 
tions to this rule. 

Another of Carpenter's distinctions is that in the Neocrinoidea 
with the exceiDtion of Thaumatocrinus, the primary radials are in 
contact with one another by the entire length of their sides ; but the 
fact is that there are also among the Palaeocrinoidea a number of 
genera, both of the Ichthyocrinidae and Inadunata, in which a 
similar structure is found. 

Now to the presence of interradials, a character upon which we 
placed so much importance as separating the older from the later 
crinoids. We held that interradials were present in all groups of 
the Palaeocrinoidea, but among the Neocrinoideaonly in Thaumato- 
crinus. This applies very well to the Camarata and perhaps to all 
Fistulata, but it is possible that among the latter, in certain Carbon- 
iferous genera, especially within the Poteriocrinidae, their interradials 
became resorbed. Interradials are also absent in the Larviformia, 
if we regard their large ventral plates as orals. We also doubt if 
the so-called interradials of the Ichthyocrinidae are the homologues 
of the interradials in the Camarata, but rather regard them as com- 
parable \yith the unevenly distributed, interradially disposed plates, 
which occur in some of the Apiocrinidae, and which we take to be 
lierisomic. 

The so-called interradials of the Apiocrinidae, which occur only in a 
few species, vary among individuals and are irregular in their ar- 
rangement. According to De LorioP they are represented various- 
ly by one or three plates in the lower row, even in the same species. 
Owing to this irregularity they have been regarded by us as "enor- 

1 Paleont. Francaise, 1st Serie Anim. invertebr., Ciinoides, p. 272. 



356 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

mously developed perisomic plates" (Revision, Pt III, p. 63), and 
not as true interradials, although they present a more rigid appear- 
ance than perisomic plates generally have. Our views have been 
strengthened by De Loriol's important discovery of the plates cover- 
ing the ventral surface in Apiocrinus roissyanus. ^ According to 
his description the space between the rays, from the first or the first 
two interradial pieces up, are occupied by transverse series of tw'O or 
three small, somewhat regular plates, which gradually lose their reg- 
ularity, and at the top of the third radial become for the most part 
entirely irregular and unequal. They differ in their form and 
arrangement in every one of the interradial spaces, and pass into 
a conical "ventral sac," which rises to the top of about the ninth 
brachial piece. The plates composing this ventral covering are 
equally irregular, and, though tolerably strong, are not absolute- 
ly rigid. De Loriol considers them as constituting a pliable integu- 
ment, and not a solid vault like that of Actinocrinus, but in the 
specimen the central jDortion was not preserved and he could not dis- 
cover the condition of the mouth, nor could he find traces of the 
ambulacra. In the same paper, on page 14, De Loriol also describes 
a specimen of Apiocrhms magmficus, in which the interradial 
spaces between the third radials, and up to the first brachial piece, 
are occupied by numerous irregular plates, dissimilar in the different 
spaces. He considers these interradial plates, in both species as be- 
longing to the "ventral sac," which was capable, in his opinion, of 
contraction or expansion. 

A similar irregularity in the interradials exists among the Ichthyo- 
crinidae. In Ichthyocrinus interradials and interaxillaries are gen- 
erally wanting, but in the one species in which they have been found 
their arrangement seems to be rather uniform in the different spaces. 
In Forhesiocrinus, which also has interradials, we frequently find two 
plates in the first row at the azygous side, in other cases but one. In 
Taxocrinns, when the rays are close together, there are sometimes no 
interradials at all, or, when there are more than one, the first is 
followed by one or two smaller plates. In Taxomnus Thiemei, the 
type specimen has neither interradials nor interaxillaries, while other 
si:)ecimens in our collection, not otherwise distinguishable, have one 
to three interradials. In Taxocrinns inter scapular is (Iowa Geol. 
Rep. 1858, Vol. L, Pt II, PI. 1, fig. 3), we find. a single plate inter- 

^ Note sur Quelques Echinodermes Fossils des Environs de la Roclielle. 1887. 
p. 11. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 357 

calated opposite the second and third radials and an interaxilhwy 
between the second secondary radials. In Onychocrmus, and those 
forms of Taxocrinus which resemble it in the expansion of the rays, 
like T. ivtermedius, there is frequently a large first interradial, suc- 
ceeded by a variable number of smaller ones ; while in other cases 
(PI. XVIII, figs. 1 a, b, c) the lower plates themselves are quite 
irregular,' following the curvature of the rays. They are connected 
with their fellows in the same interradius by the plates of the disk, 
which are attached to their inner edges. In both these genera the 
structure of the posterior interradius resembles that of the recent 
genus Thaumatocrinus in having a succession of anal plates forming 
a lateral proboscis-like projection, connected for nioi-e or less of its 
length with the perisome. Lecanocrinus, Pyaiosaccus, Cyrtldocriniis 
and Mespilocrinus have an azygous and anal plate, but as a rule no 
interradials. Lecanocrinus m(( crop eta I us of New' York has no 
interradial plates ; while a specimen from Sweden, which agrees with 
the genus otherwise, has at each side one large interradial. Calpio- 
crinus^ has an azygous plate passing well down between the basals 
toward the underbasals, and from one to four interradials in the 
same species. Sagenocrinus^ has a remarkable azygous plate in line 
with the basals — the sixth parabasal of Angelin — and some varia- 
bility in the other interradial spaces, although on the whole it is a 
rather symmetrical form. 

The irregularity in the arrangement of the interradials, so frequent- 
ly found in this group, their presence between the higher radials, 
and absence upon the first primary radials in species, and even among 
individuals of the same species, has always presented to us a difficulty 
in classifying the Ichthyocrinidae with the Palaeocrinoids. 

^ Calpiocrinus is not tlie aberrant genus which we supposed from Angelin's 
figures (Rev. I, p. 30, S8). A good series of specimens from Dudley, not other- 
wise distinguishable from C. fimbiiatus and C.heterodoctylus, — which are probably 
synonymous — shov\s tliat it has the usual calyx plates of the family — three under- 
basals and five basals. In a specimen of C. ovatus, the underbasals are concealed 
by the column, and it is probable that this is the case in most of the Swedish speci- 
mens, and that in some instances the peculiar azygous plate, in line with the basals 
has led to a misconception of the latter plates. 

2 Examination ol the specimens leaves little doubt XhzX Sagenocrinush€\ox\g?, 
to the Ichthyocrinidae. We noted its resemblance to Taxocrinus (Rev. 11, p. 
202), and it always appeared to us out of place in the family Rhodocrinidae, 
which is greatly improved by its removal. Our generic diagnosis, made entirely 
from the figures and insufficient descriptions, is defective and incorrect in some 
particulars, and will be improved hereafter, as the genus has been discovered in 
America. 



358 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The iiiterradials in the Apiocrinidae, extending up between the 
rays, connecting with, and forming a part of the ventral covering, 
find a close parallel in those of many of the Ichthyocrinidae, and 
since the discovery of a disk and open mouth in Taxocriiais, we 
have not the slightest doubt, that these plates represent the same 
elements in both groups, forming in both of them parts of the disk, 
and that perhaps the same is the case with the interradials and 
interaxillaries of Uintacrinus, which in many respects resemble those 
of the Ichthyocrinidae. 

The subtegminal mouth, which we supposed to be the best char- 
acter of the Palaeocrinidea, proves to be subject to exceptions fully 
as great as the others. Our recent discoveries show that in some 
palaeozoic crinoids, and probably in the Ichthyocrinidae generally, 
the mouth is exposed, and there is no vault aside of the orals; and 
we are not certain but that we may find other exceptions among 
the later Poteriocrinidae and Encrinidae. We now know that there 
are no additional elements in the oral system of palaeozoic crinoids, 
but that the mouth opens out in a very similar manner by the part- 
ing of the orals as in the larva of recent forms, and this leads us to 
put less faith than before in the condition of the mouth as a char- 
acter for the subdivision of the Crinoidea. For these may well be 
different stages in the development of the mouth, represented in 
palaeontological time, and we need not be surprised to find at some 
time a Silurian Ichthyocrinoid with the orals closed, or a Haplo- 
crinoid with the orals parted. 

From this review of the principal characters relied upon to dis- 
tinguish the earlier from the later crinoids, it will be apparent that 
the exceptions are so numei'ous as to leave nothing stable or definite 
on which to base such important primary divisions, and we are again 
confronted with the problem of rectifying the classification of the 
Crinoidea, or proposing a new one. It is true that many of these 
exceptions are due to differences which tend to se|)arate the Ichthyo- 
crinidae from the Palaeocrinoids, and unite them with the Neo- 
crinoids ; and it might be the simplest, as well as the least radical 
change, to modify the definition of the Neocrinoidea so as to admit 
the Ichthyocrinidae, which would thus fall exactly into that place 
among them, for which Carpenter was always obliged to make an ex- 
ception in favor of Thaumatocrinus. In so doing, however, we 
would be bringing together some of the earliest and latest forms* 
which would render the name Neocrinoidea wholly inappropriate. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 359 

The two groups would be separated chiefly upon the condition of the 
mouth, and the name "Stomatocrinoidea," which we proposed in 
1879 (Revision I, p. 22), might be revived. The greatest objection 
to this plan, however, lies in the possibility, as before mentioned, of 
finding an Ichthyocrinoid with closed mouth, or a Haplocrinoid 
with parted orals, wdiich w^ould upset the whole arrangement. 

To attempt to modify the definition of the Palaeocriuoidea so as 
to admit forms with an external mouth, is in our opinion entirely 
out of the question, and would simply increase the difiiculties now 
encountered, because there could not be pointed out a single reliable 
character by which the two groups could be distinguished. 

After considering the question in all its new aspects, as presented 
by the facts recently brought to light, it is our best judgment, that 
all attempts to subdivide the Crinoidea by separating the palaeozoic 
from the mesozoic and later forms as natural divisions, will have to 
be abandoned, and some mode of separation sought for, entirely in- 
dependent of geological age. In that case, the names Palaeocrinoidea 
and Neocrinoidea — unless in the sense of mere conventional terras 
for designating the palaeozoic and later crinoids — will have to be 
laid aside. 

To this end we think that four w^ell defined groups can be dis- 
tinguished as independent primary divisions of the Crinoidea, viz : 

1. Camarata. 

2. Inadunata, including the branches Larviformia and Fistulata. 

3. Articulata, ^ including the Ichthyocrinidae, and possibly Uin- 
tacrinus and Thaumatocrimis. 

4. A fourth division to include the most of the mesozoic and re- 
cent crinoids, for which the name Canaliculata^ might be xevy ap- 
propriately adopted. These divisions will be subordei'S or orders, 
depending upon the rank which may be ultimately assigned to the 
Crinoidea — a question we think still open for discussion. In the 
definition of them many classificatory criteria, such as the condition 
of the mouth, the presence or absence of interradials, the relative 
proportions of the actinal and abactinal regions in the calyx, which 

^ The Crotalociinidae, which we formerly assigned to the Articulata, have 
been found to i^elong to the Camarata, as we have shown at length in another 
paper. 

2 This name was proposed by frof. E. J. Chapman in a paper entitled -'A 
classification of Crinoids," Toronto, 1874, to include the genera Penlacrinus, 
Antedon, Encrinus, Eugenia crinns, Apiocrinus, Botirgiieticrinus, and Rhizo- 
crinus. 



360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

when applied to the okler and later crinoids seem to lose much of 
their significance, will form strong and distinctive characters. Pa- 
laeozoic and recent crinoids may, if necessary, be brought together in 
the same group, according to their zoological characters, free from 
embarrassment arising from restrictions as to geological age. 

The Camarata, Inadunata and Articulata would be defined, as to 
their most general characteristics, substantially as we have already 
defined them in the Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea, with some 
modifications as to the ventral structure in the Inadunata and Ar- 
ticulata, to conform to recent discoveries. 

We are strongly of the opinion that the recent genera Holopus, 
Batliycrinus and Hyocrlnus might very properly be arranged under 
the Larviformia. All three are monocyclic, and like the Haplo- 
crinidae and Symbathocrinidae retain through life large oral plates. 
But while the orals in these two fimilies are closed and rest direct- 
ly upon the radials, in the above named recent forms they are part- 
ed, and separated from the radials by a narrow band of perisome, 
which, we strongly suspect, was also the case in the Gasterocomidae. 
The aberrant genus Thmimatocrinus might be referred to the Ar- 
ticulata, with which, for the most part, it agrees in the asymmetry 
of the calyx and the construction of the azygous side. Uintacrinns 
will very likel}- fill into the same group ; while the Encrinidae will 
jDrobably find a resting place among the Fistulata, and perhaps also 
3Ia7'supites. 

The removal of these genera would leave the Canaliculata as a 
very compact, well defined group. It would contain only crinoids 
"which are dicyclic, or built upon the dicyclic plan, and in which the 
underl)asals are anchylosed to the top-stem-joint, the two together 
forming the centro-dorsal. All of them would be free from any 
disturbance by anal plates, and the basals in all of them, so far as 
known, would be perforated by interradial canals or furrows in con- 
nection with the chambered organ. 

The disposition of the later crinoids, as herein indicated, is mere- 
ly suggestive, as we prefer to leave their arrangement to Dr. P. H. 
Carpenter, who has made them a special study. 

We shall not at present undertake more than to submit for the 
consideration of our fellow naturalists the conclusions to which we 
have been led by the evidence of recent discoveries, leaving to a 
future occasion the framing of detailed definitions of the divisions 
we have proposed in case they should meet with favor, A con- 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 361 

sensus of opinion on this subject is much to be desired, and would 
greatly facilitate future studies. 

From an interchange of notes with Dr. Carpenter we understand 
that we are now in substantial agreement upon the oral question, but 
he will shortly state his own views at length in a paper now in prepa- 
ration. Should the views herein set forth contribute toward the es- 
tablishment of a sound classification, we shall consider that our long 
controversy with Dr. Carpenter, both in print and by letter, has borne 
good fruit, and we shall waste no regrets over the fact that in some 
points the result has proved that he was right and we were wrong. 

We give herewith a corrected diagnosis of the family Ichthyo- 
crinidae to conform to the ventral structure as we now know it. 

Family ICHTHYOCRINIDAE. 

Test pliable. Symmetry of the calyx in-egular and usually dis- 
turbed by anal plates. Base dicyclic. Underbasals three, unequal, 
rarely visible beyond the column ; the smaller one directed toward 
the right postero-lateral radial, ^ frequently anchylosed to the upper 
stem joint. Primary radials perforate ; variable in number among 
species and individuals from two upward ; either abutting laterally, 
or separated by one or more ])lates. Radials and arm joints united 
by muscles and ligaments ; line of union more or less undulating, 
frequently with patelloid projections from the proximal margins of 
the plates; ai'ticular surface usually occupying the Avhole distal face 
of the first and succeeding radials. Arms uniserial, apparently 
without pinnules. Interradials irregular in form, size and arrange- 
ment, sometimes entirely wanting in species in which they are usually 
present ; their lateral faces provided with deep ligamentous fossae. 
Posterior interradius with or without anal plates ; the latter, when 
present, frequently associated with an azygous plate. Disk, so far as 
known, paved with irregular perisomic plates, and larger plates 
between the rays. The center of the disk occupied by five unequal 
orals surrounding the mouth. ^Nlouth exposed, at least in the later 
forms. Food grooves lined by moveable covering pieces. Column 
large, decreasing in size rapidly near the calyx. Geological Position: 
Palaeozoic. From the Lower Silurian to the Upper Coal Measures. 

1 In the Revision, Pt. III., PL, VI, fig. 23, we represented the underbasals of Ick- 
thyocriniis incorrectly as directed anteriorly. We have since examined numer- 
ous specimens of various genera, and find the small underbasals located, as above 
stated, in all of them. 



362 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Explanation of Plate XVIII. 

Fig. 1. Taxocrinus intermedius W. and 8p. 

ll Specimen sliowing the irregularly arranged interradial 
plates and pouches along the free rays ; V!i posterior view 
of the same sjDecimen, showing the lateral proboscis, and 
the perisomic plates ; 1!: posterior side of another speci- 
men, showing the proboscis and folds in the perisome ; 1^ 
the proboscis and ventral perisome in another specimen ; 
l!l ventral view of the same specimen as 11, showing the 
ventral perisome, the ambulacra, mouth and parted orals. 

Fig. 2. Vault of Dorycrinus mississippiensis with an extremely 
large posterior oral. 

Fig. 3. Vault of Agaricocrimis Wortheni. The orals very irregu- 
lar and separated by small accessory pieces. 

Fig. 4. Vault of Platycrinus discoideus with more regularly ar- 
ranged oral plates. 

Fig. 5. Vault of Batocrinus dypeatus, the orals pushed over to the 
anterior side by the subcentral anal tube. 

Fig. 6!: Haploerinus mespiliformis, posterior aspect, showing the po- 
sition of the anal opening ; 61 showing the 5 large anal 
plates, and the tongue-like projection of the posterior 
oral ; 61 another specimen, showing the "knopf" of Gold- 
fuss at the upper end of the posterior oral, and the proxi- 
mal arm joints. 

Fig. 7. Vault of a new species of Talarocrinus, with a single large 
plate in the center. 

Fig. 8. Vault of Platycrinus Yandelli, the posterior oral pushed 
out of place by the proboscis. 

Fig. 9. Vault of Platycrinus americanus with more regular orals. 

Fig. 10. Vault of Eretmocrinus coronatus. The orals very much 
displaced by the proboscis. 

Fig. 11. Vault of Rhodocrinus Whitei, ap23arently without oral 
plates. 

Fig. 12. Vault of a new Rhodocrinus from New JNIexico, like the 
preceding species apparently without orals. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 363 

Pig. 13. Oral plates of Amphoracrinus quadrispinus. 

Pig. 14. Inner floor of the orals of a Plsocrinus from Indiana. 

Pig. 15. Vault of a young Platycrmus symmetricus W. and Sp., with 
almost uniform orals. 
(All specimens in the collection of Wachsmuth and Springer) 



364 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

CROTALOCRINUS : ITS STRUCTURE AND ZOOLOGICAL POSITION. 
BY CHARLES WACHSMUTH AND FRANK SPRINGER. 

The tyi^e of Crinoids that has been described under the name 
Crotalocrintis, is one of the most extraordinary yet brought to light 
from palaeozoic rocks. Its net-formed radial appendages, so widely 
different from those of any other known Echinoderm, and resem- 
bling rather the fronds of a Bryozoan than the arms of a Crinoid, 
have long made it a puzzle to naturalists, and the efforts of all 
writers up to the jDreseut time — ourselves included — have contribu- 
ted but little toward any satisfactory determination of its systematic 
relations. Though so highly differentiated in its structure, the 
genus is confined to the upper Silurian, so far as known. It ha& 
been found in the island of Gothland, Sweden, where it was first 
noticed by Hisinger in 1828, and afterwards described by him as a 
Cyathoerinus in 1837. It was also found at Dudley, England by 
Parkinson in 1808, who called it the Turhan or Shropshire Encri- 
iiite ; and it was redescribed by J. S. Miller in 1821, as Cyathoerinus 
rugosus. No trace of it has ever been discovered at any other locality. 
Good specimens are rare and diflScult to obtain, so thai the facili- 
ties for its study, outside of the countries where it occurs, have 
hitherto been practically nil. 

The arm structure was not understood until 1854, when Johannes- 
Miiller figured and described under the name xinthocvinus Loveni 
the principal Swedish species, although Austin had established the 
genus Crotalocrinus in 1843, for the English form, without figure 
and with a very meagre description. Angelin's elaborate work on 
the Swedish Crinoids in 1878, contained numerous beautiful figures 
of apparently perfect specimens, and seemed to give the most ample 
illustrations of every part elucidating the structure of this curious 
fossil. Upon these descriptions and figures, and without any oppor- 
tunity to study even a single specimen, we prepared our descrij)tion 
of the genus, and discussions relating to it, as they ajipeared in Part 
III of our Revision of the Paljeocrinoidea. 

Not long after the publication of this work, w^e found reason to 
believe that our interpretation of the structure and affinities of 
Crotalocrinus was erroneous, and that much of what we had written 
on the sul)ject was altogether worthless. During a visit of one of 
us to Europe last winter, he had an opportunity of examining the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 365 

best known English specimens, in the British Museum and other 
collections, and by considerable effort succeeded in obtaining some 
excellent material for more detailed study, both from England and 
Sweden. Besides this we have enjoyed the unexpected privilege of 
studying a number of the original specimens used by Angelin. For 
this we are indebted to Dr. Gustav Lindstrom, Curator of the 
Palisontological Department of the National Museum at Stockholm, 
who on being informed of our perplexity regarding this genus, upon 
his own motion, sent us these and other specimens, with liberty to 
study them at our leisure; and also furnished us most important 
information in the way of drawings and observations upon other 
specimens. It was an act of thoughtful kindness for which we find 
it difficult to adequately express our gratitude, and if this paper 
shall be found to be of any value to our fellow naturalists, it will be 
in a very large measure due to the facilities thus generously afforded 
us. 

In the Revision of the Palseocrinoidea, Part III, pp. 140-143, we 
referred Crotalocrinus and Enallocrinus to the Articulata, and at 
various places (pp. 18, 19, 56, 64, 65) based some of our arguments 
as to the character of this suborderHipon the supposed structure of 
these two genera. On pages 18 and 19 of Part III, we stated that "In 
the Crotalocrinidae, which include Crotalocrinus and Enallocrinus, 
the whole ventral surface, in what appear to be the best preserved 
specimens, is composed of strong, convex plates, without definite 
arrangement. In these specimens there is no central plate, nor 
proximals, nor traces of ambulacra (Icon. Crin. Suee., PI. VII, fig. 3a; 
PL VIII, figs. 6, 7, and PI. XXV, fig. 2.); there are, however, other 
figures of Angelin, apparently of a closely allied species (ibid. PL, 
XVII, fig. 3a), in which the plates paving the ventral surface are much 
more delicate, and consist of a central plate, large proximals, and sev- 
eral rows of covering pieces, without the intervention of either anam- 
bulacral or interradial plates. It would be difficult, with the utmost 
stretch of our imagination, to recognize in the former figures either 
proximals or central piece, which, as admitted by Carpenter, are 
present in all these crinoids, and we think there can be little doubt 
that the two sets of figures represent different parts of the animal, 
the one the disk, the other the vault, and that the one covered the 
other. A similar opinion was evidently entertained by Zittel 
(Handb. d. Palaeont. I, p. 357), who stated that Crotalocrinus pos- 
sessed five 'grosse Orali:)latten, bald unter der Decke, bald ausserlich 



366 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

sichtbar.' According to our interpretation, the calyx of the Crotalo- 
criuidae extends ventrally to the oral pole, and the ambulacra, 
central piece, and proximals are subtegminal, covered by interradial 
plates, which extend out to the lower rows of covering plates and 
side pieces (Icon. Criu. Suec, PI. VIII, fig. 6, and PL XXV, fig. 2). 
A similar condition probably prevailed in the Ichthyocrinidae, with 
which the Crotalocrinidae have close affinities." 

As our reference of these genera to the Articulata was based ex- 
clusively upon the figures, especially those of Angelin, it will be well 
to examine them now in the light of the knowledge we have since 
obtained. The only figure of those quoted that gives the vault 
structure correctly, is fig. 3a, on Plate XVII. It shows very plainly 
four large proximals and a large plate toward the posterior side, 
which, according to the terminology we then employed, we regarded 
as a central plate. The proximals are elongate-nail-shaped, and 
two of them touch the incurved ends of the upper faces of the first 
radials, while two others abut against a small interradial plate, and 
the larger posterior plate against small plates around the anus. 
Within the re-entering angles, between every two of the large plates, 
there are several series of small j^ieces ramifying toward the arm 
oj^enings and laterally connected. Dr. Lindstrom has sent us a 
very carefully prepared drawing of a specimen which he thinks is 
the original of the above mentioned figure. This is rei)roduced by 
us on PL XX, fig. 4. The structure appears substantially the same, 
but the details are better defined in this figure than in the former, 
showing that the proximals touch the fii'st radial only at one side, 
while at the other sides one, two, or three small interradial plates 
are interposed. Within the five re-entering angles formed by the 
five orals (central plate and four large proximals),* rest five com- 
paratively large radial-dome-plates, Avhich are followed by several 
rows of small alternating pieces. That the latter are covering 
plates which were continued along the arms is well shown in both 
figures. 

A totally different structure was exhibited by figs. 6 and 7, PL 
VIII, of Crotalocrinns pulcher, and by fig. 3a, PL VII, and fig. 2 
PL XXV, of Enallocrinus scriptus, all purporting to show the plates 
of the ventral side completely. In all of these figures the arrange- 

*The so-called '• proximals" and "central plate," as we have shown else- 
where, are now regarded by us as representing the five oral plates, the central 
plate being the posterior oral, modified and displaced by anal struclures. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 367 

ment of the plates covering the visceral cavity is extremely irregular, 
scarcely any two plates being alike. There is neither a central 
plate, nor anything that might be compared with the four large 
proximals, and no plates corresponding to, or which might be identi- 
fied as covering plates until the region of the arms is reached. In 
PI. VIII, fig. 6, the plates appear ornamented by small nodes up to 
the second bifurcation of the ray, and a similar ornamentation cov- 
ers the anal structure, of which portions are visible. This ornamen- 
tation is so marked, .and gives to this part of the figure such a total- 
ly different aspect from the higher branches of the rays, in which it 
is entirely absent, that we regarded it as a vault, from underneath 
which the covering plates emerged. The whole figure gives one the 
impression that it was made from a very perfect specimen, in which 
the minutest details of structure were exceptionally well preserved. 
The other figure-7-on the same plate exhibits a similar vault, but 
with less elaboration of ornament and surface details. Covering 
plates are here visible only upon the parts which extend beyond the 
limits of the calyx, nor is there any trace of proximals or central 
plate. 

Figure 3a, of PI. VII, which is said to represent " j)ars perisomatis 
ventralis " of Enallocrinus scriptus, shows a complete uninterrupted 
covering of the whole ventral surface of the calyx and portions of 
the rays. As in the other figures, the plates are wholly wanting in 
definite arrangement, no summit plates can be discovered, and the 
covering pieces, as before, begin at the periphery of the calyx. 

Another figure of the same species, apparently from a most beau- 
tifully perfect specimen, to judge from the drawing, is given on PI. 
XXV, fig. 2. It is stated in the explanation of the plate to be the 
same specimen as fig. 1, seen from above, and there is no reference to 
any imperfection or restoration. It appears to show all the plates 
of the ventral covering from the center of the summit to a long dis- 
tance out upon the arms. In this figure, as in the preceding, there is 
a complete absence of any regular plan of arrangement among the 
plates forming the ventral part of the calyx. It would be impossi- 
ble by any degree of imagination, to identify among them anything 
like summit plates or covering pieces, the latter commencing beyond 
the limits of the calyx. The plates are generally represented as no- 
dose, and those toward the middle as the largest, but beyond this 
there is nothing in the figure to distinguish any of them. 



•368 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

It was upon the information derived from these figures that we 
based our conclusion — hasty as it may have been — that there were 
two_integuments in these genera, one above the other ; one representing 
the perisome containing the ambulacra, the other a vault of iri-eg- 
ular pieces, and to some degree pliable. 

We could not see how two such totally different structures as those 
shown by PI. XVII, fig. 3a, and PI. VIII, fig. 6, could represent the 
same elements in one and the same genus, and we therefore adopted 
the idea of a double covering as the only solution we could find, al- 
though after considerable hesitation, feeling that such an arrange- 
ment was quite anomalous, and without a parallel elsewhere. We 
were also influenced in no small degree by the fact that Prof. Zittel, 
who had the opportunity to see the Swedish collections, interpreted 
the structures in a similar way.^ 

We could not, of course, imagine that such magnificent figures as 
are represented in Angelin's work^ in the absence of any explana- 
nation to that effect, could be wholly imagiiiary as to the most im- 
portant parts of the structures illustrated. The fact is, however, as 
we now know, that all these important figures are to a large extent 
fictitious ; that the middle portions of them, where the summit plates 
and covering pieces of the vault shoidd have been found, were not 
shown in the specimens at all, but were filled in by the artist accord- 
ing to his own motion of their probable structure. 

The only specimen in the National Museum at Stockholm w^hich 
shows any part of the vault structure of Crotalocrinus, aside from 
the original of fig. 3a, PI. XVII, has been sent to us for examination. 
It is evidently the original from which fig. 7, PI. VIII was composed ; 
for Dr. Lindstrom informs us that there is no other which can be 
regarded as the type of that figure. It shows the lanceolate areas 
and covering plates along the arms beyond the calyx very well, but 

1 Handl). d. Pal. Vol. i, p. 357. 

2 It is but justice to tlie distinguished Swedish paleeontologist to remark tliat 
his worl.; on tlie Crinoids of Sweden was not complete at the time of his death. 
His descriptions seem to be rather preliminary notes niaile for his own use, pre- 
paratory to a more detailed study. These were collected after his death and 
publislied, together with twenty-nine plates illustrating them, under the direction of 
the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden. It is not strange under such circum- 
stances there should be errors, and in pointing out some of them in this paper we 
have no intention of discrediting a work which has been of great service to 
palaeontology by bringing to notice one of the most magnificent cnnoidal faunae 
■ever discovered. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 369 

the middle is entirely broken away, leaving, however, partially in 
place a few plates around the anal opening. There is nothing in the 
specimen from which the form and arrangement of the summit plates 
could be even inferred. 

Of fig. 3a, PI. VII, Dr. Lindstrom writes : " The figure is not 
correct. The central plates are totally wanting, as in all specimens 
ol Enallocrinus I have seen, and there are no vestiges left to infer 
its true nature. There can be no satisfactory drawing made of it." 

Among the specimens sent us from Stockholm was one labeled 
" VII 3, " which we suppose to be one of the originals from which 
Angelin's PI. VII, fig. 3a, Avas in part deduced. We have figured 
it to illustrate our description of Ennllocrinus (PI. XX, figs. Qa,b\ 
and we learn that there are no other specimens of Enallocrinus 
which show any more of the summit than this. 

As to fig. 2, PI. XXV, Dr. Lindstrom writes: "I cannot con- 
ceive how such a drawing could have been executed out of it. The 
upper side is so badly preserved that no good figure can be taken." 

The original of the splendid figure 6, PI. VIII — Crotalocrinus pul- 
cher — which was from the Markliuean Museum at Upsala, cannot 
be found, and we are therefore unable to give any particulars aljout 
it. We have not the least doubt, however, that this figure, which is 
stated to be enlarged (how much, we do not know), is even a greater 
fiction than the others. In our own specimen of C. pulcher from 
Sweden (PI, XIX, figs, la, b, c), we succeeded in exposing enough 
of the summit, while cleaning around the ventral tube, to show that 
it is composed of covering pieces, interradials and summit plates, 
just like the Cambridge specimen (PI. XIX, fig. 3). 

These four figures, thus shown to be to a large extent incorrect and 
misleading, were the ones on which we entirely relied in the statement 
above quoted from Part III of the Revision. That statement was 
critized by Dr. P. Herbert Carpenter in a paper " On the structure 
of Crotalocrinus," in which he asserts, that " in their [our] statement 
that ' there is no central piece, nor proximals, nor traces of ambulacra ' 
in the figures of Crotalocrinus pulcher and Enallocrinus scriptus, they 
appear to me to be seriously in error."^ 

It must be observed first, that in this portion of the paragraph 
quoted, we were speaking solely of the vault proper, and not of the 
rays and arms beyond the limits of the calyx. We distinctly 
refer to the existence of " covering plates and side pieces to which 

1 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1886, p. 339. 

25 



370 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

the iiiterradials extend " (p. 19), and on page 143, in our diagnosis 
of the Crotalocrinidae, we stated : " Ambulacral furrow deep, rami- 
fying with the arm branches, covered by alternating plates, and 
bordered by side pieces." The ambulacra and covering pieces over 
them, in the arms, which those figures all show, were therefore clear- 
ly recognized by us always. 

It is worthy of note, however, that Carpenter, while pronouncing 
us " seriously in error " in saying that there is no central piece, nor 
proximals, nor traces of ambulacra in the figures of Angelin above 
referred to, does not undertake to point out the presence or location 
of either one of those elements upon the figures in question, although 
he expresses on p. 403 his belief " that the small covering plates of 
CrotaloGrimis rugosus are the representatives in a smaller crinoid^ 
' of the large rigid plates' shown in figures 6 and 7, * * * * while 
I shall also continue to believe, until the contrary is demonstrated, 
that the central plate and proximals are among the irregular pieces 
occupying the oral pole in the originals of these two figures." Nei- 
ther does he inform us that the figures themselves are totally incor- 
rect and fanciful, although at that time fresh from an examination 
of the type specimens at Stockholm. 

Carpenter says (oj) cit. p. 399) that " while the summit plates are 
clear and well defined in some species and genera, there are other 
closely allied forms, in which these plates are almost or entirely un- 
disthiguishable among the large number of plates to be found in the 
vault. I will only mention one instance in illustration of this state- 
ment, viz. Cyathocrinus iowensis and C. multibrachiatus, both of 
which are figured by Wachsmuth and Sj^ringer (Revision Part. Ill, 
p. 65, PL IV, fig. 6, and PI. V, fig. 7), the former with, the latter 
without any distinct summit plates. " 

These two figures, as the explanation shows, represent specimens 
in which the summit plates were in an imperfect condition, indica- 
ting a process of resorption or modification going on, and were 
expressly given for the purpose of illustrating this fact. The summit 
plates, as we stated on page 49 (Rev. Pt. Ill), " are in their arrange- 
ment, as a rule, very regular, and only disturbed by the anal tube." 
We stated further on the same page that the apparent disturbance 
in some species with a large number of arms was due to a misconcep- 
tion of the plates. It is true that in some forms the summit plates 
are not so readily distinguished as in others, and there are some genera, 

* C. rugosus appears generally to be a much larger species than C. pulcher. 



J 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 371 

mostly Silurian, of different families, in which the vault is composed 
of an integument of innumerable minute pieces in Avhich they are 
undistinguishable, and, in our opinion, do not exist. But we know 
of no other case of a vault composed of well defined and even 
ornamented plates, in which in the same genus there was a total 
absence of plan of arrangement in one species, and well defined 
summit plates and covering pieces in another. It seemed to us 
impossible that the summit plates and ambulacra, which were so 
distinct and conspicuous in the one specimen, should be entirely absent 
in another species of the same genus ; and the only solution of the 
mystery which we could arrive at, was that in the latter they must 
be subtegminal, and that the covering of irregular pieces, shown in 
the four figures above quoted, was broken away in the specimen 
which exhibited the summit plates. * 

As we have said before, we had no opportunity to study the 
Crotalocrinidae from actual specimens when we prepared the 
Revision. It required but a single glance at the specimens from 
Dudley and Gothland coming under our observation lately, to show 
us that our conception of the structure and relations of Crotalocrinus, 
and its congener, was completely erroneous, and that our views 
respecting the subtegminal summit plates and double covering are 
without foundation in the facts. We now renounce them altogether, 
and all conclusions or arguments based upon the supposed existence 
of these structures are hereby withdrawn. The same inspection of 
specimens that disclosed to us our error, revealed with equal clear- 
ness the real nature of those plates, and left not the least necessity 
for inferring the existence of summit plates among the irregularly 
arranged vaults of Angelin's restorations. 

While it is of course unpleasant to be obliged thus to correct 
descriptions and repair arguments upon which we have laid consider- 
able stress, we regret it in this case the less, because the result at 
which we have arrived regarding the systematic position of Crotalo- 
crinus and Enallocrinus, confirms in a most satisfactory manner the 
validity of the great groups which we have recognized as subdividing 

* The references to these figures in Part III of the Revision were unfort- 
unately mixed up in the printing. They should be corrected as follows: on page 
64, 7th line from bottom, for " PI. 6, " read " PL 8, " and for " figs. 15 and 25, " 
read figs. 2 and 75 ; " and in the 6th line from bottom, for "PI. 13, " read " PL 
8. " On p. 65, 6th line from top, for " PI 6, " read " P/. 8. " We also misunder- 
stood Angelin's fig. 15, PI. 25, and Joh. Miillers' fig. 10, PI. 8, and our references 
to them should therefore be ignored. 



372 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the palaeozoic crinoids, and proves that, while the groups themselves 
are entirely correct, our error consisted simply in a wrong under- 
standing of the fiimily, which led us to assign it to a group to which 
it does not belong. 

Let us now proceed to ascertain to what group Crotalocrinus 
should be assigned. 

We established the suborder Articulata to include the grouj^ 
defined by us under the family name Ichthyocrinidae with the addi- 
tion of Crotalocrinns and Enallocrwus, (Revision III, p. 140). It is 
clear from what we now know of their structure, that the two latter 
cannot remain among the Articulata as that suborder has been 
defined by us. * 

There is no doubt that Crotalocrinus possesses some characters 
belonging to each of the three groups which we introduced in the 
third part of the Revision. It resembles the Articulata in the peculiar 
articulation of the arms. In the arrangement of some of its calvx 
plates it bears a very close relation to the Inadunata, especially 
Cyathocrinus, to which genus J. S. Miller referred it. Like that it 
has three rings of plates, the upper one including a single anal plate. 
A casual glance at the structures succeeding these would lead one to 
think them somewhat similar to the unconnected rays of the Inadu- 
nata, but a more careful study will show that they are constructed upon 
the same princij^le as the same parts in some groups of the Camarata. 
They are actually neither true radials nor free arm plates, but, as in 
the Platycrinidae, represent a transition between them. As in Platy- 
erinus there are but two primary radials, the upper one a small 
triangular axillary, to both sides of which the secondary radials are 
attached, resting both against its sloping sides and upon the first 
radial. They are overlaid by the tertiary radials, of which the lower 
ones often, in a similar way, rest upon the secondary radials and the 
first primary. 

All these plates, in a most peculiar and unique manner, are solidly 
fitted together with each other and the first primary radial, and have 
at their ventral face a wide, deep, diverging groove, arched by strong, 
rigid covering plates, with a large tubular cavity underneath, which 
in reality forms a part of the cavity of the calyx, like in the free 
radial appendages in some forms of the Platycrinidae and Actino- 

* The actual discovery by us of the disk of Taxocriniis witli an external 
mouth, which we have elsewhere described, has settled all debate as to the summit 
structure of the Ichthyocrinidae. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 373 

criuidae. The mode of insertion of the higher radials upon the first 
primary is similar to that found in Pterotocrinus (PI. XIX, fig. 6), 
and Marsupiocrinus (PI, XIX, fig. 7, and also Angelin's PI. XXII, 
figs. 1, and 28, PI. XXVII, fig. 4), and is upon the very same 
principle that prevails in the Platycrinidae generally. 

A further striking resemblance to the Platycrinidae is to be 
observed in the structure of the vault. We give for comparison fig- 
ures of three of the most perfect vaults of Crotalocrinus ever found. 
Fig. 4, on PI. XIX is from the Swedish specimen already described 
as the original of Angelin's PI. XVII, fig. 3a. Fig. 3 is from a 
specimen formerly in the Fletcher collection at Dudley, but now be- 
longing to Cambridge University. It differs somewhat from the 
others in the form of the four smaller orals, which are nearly equi- 
lateral instead of clavate, and in having a few more interradials. 
Fig. 2!!. is from a Dudley specimen in our own collection. We can 
see enough of the vault in our specimen of G. pulcher from Gothland 
to show that it is built upon the same plan as in the three specimens 
of C. rugosus illustrated, but it cannot be exposed sufficiently to afford 
a good figure without mutilating the specimen more than is justi- 
fiable. 

Taking all these facts together, the vault of Crotalocrimis seems 
to have been composed of well developed oral plates (four proximals 
and a central), large interradials, several anal plates, with anus in 
form of a subcenti-al opening or a tube, and covering plates. The 
latter are solidly inserted in the vault between the other plates, so as 
to form a part of the wall, contrary to the Inadunata, in Avhich the 
covering plates, and the ambulacra generally, rest ^lpon the edges of 
the other vault plates. 

Taking now for comparison the vault of Marsnpiocrinus tennes- 
seejisis (PI. XIX, fig. 7), we find the same arrangement of oi'als; the 
same solid covering pieces incorporated into, and forming part of the 
vault, originating at the re-entering angles of the five orals, and pass- 
ing outward to the arm bases ; we also find a system of interradial 
and anal plates substantially like that of the Cambridge specimen of 
Crotalocrinus (PI. XX, fig. .3). Indeed, if we had the vaults alone 
of these two specimens under examination, it would not be a very 
easy matter to point out why they might not belong to the same ge- 
neric type. Certainly no one can look at the two figures, and not be 
entirely convinced that they represent the same plan of summit 
structure. And if we then compare the parts above the first radials 



374 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

in the two forms, there cannot be the slightest doubt that they be- 
long to the same group, and that that group is the Camarata. It 
might indeed be fairly said that the calyx of Crotalocritius, in all 
that determines its subordinal rank, is nothing more than a dicyclic 
Marsupiocrinus. The mode of union of the plates in the dorsal cup 
is also somewhat similar in the tw'O genera. There are in both of 
them along the suture lines small conical pits, which penetrate a 
short distance inward but do not pass through the test (PI. XIX, fig. 
5) ; the inner half of the apposed faces is jjeculiarly striated, indicat- 
ing a sort of syzygial union. On the other hand, the vast multipli- 
cation of arms, with their lateral connection into a net-work, con- 
stitutes a wide differentiation of this type from any other group of 
the Camarata, and is without a parallel among crinoids generally. 
But this is a character which does not affect the fundamental plan 
of structure, which unites it unquestionably with the Camarata. 

Another very remarkable character of this fjimily is the perfora- 
tion of the higher radials and arm joints by a dorsal or axial canal, 
which in the higher radials is very large, ramifying to the arms, and 
in Crotalocrinus extends to their extremities. The canals of each 
ray unite into one on the inner surface of the first radials, and pass 
downward toward the base. This perforation, and the fact that the 
arm joints are united also by muscles instead of ligaments only, dis- 
tinguishes the family sharply from all other Camarata. It was this 
mainly that led us to place them among the Articulata not knowing 
the solid structure of the vault. The arms in this group must 
have possessed a higli degree of flexibility, being found sometimes 
closely folded together lengthwise, often spread out horizontally — 
even dropping over the calyx — and sometimes compactly inrolled 
for a considerable distance from the ends, as shown in our figure (PI. 
XIX, fig. la). 

There is one point in Crotalocrinus which is not clear to us, and 
on which our specimens do not seem to throw much light. Johannes 
Miiller^ gives the following description of the ventral structure of 
the arms. " Dieser Canal [speaking of the ventral furrow along the 
the arm joints] ist queriiber von kleinen Pliittchen verdeckt, welche 
meist alternirend" in einander greifen. Zu den Seiten stehen auf der 
Volarseite der Glieder, die Ambulacra einfassend, iiusserst zarte 
Pinnulae oder schmale .Saumpliittchen, von denen mehrere (3-4) 
auf die Liinge eines Gliedes kommen. Diese Pinnulae sind unge- 

1 Ueher den Ban der Echinod. Abh. Bed. Akad. d. Wissenscli. 1853, p. 189. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 375 

ffliedert, nur an dev Basis scheint sich zuweilen ein Stiickchen 
abzusetzeii. Die Hohe der Piimulae gleicht am breiteren Theil der 
Hand der Dicke der Glieder." 

In the specimens which we have examined, the small alternating 
plates which cover the ventral furrow are very plainly seen, but we 
find no trace of the so-calJed "pinnules or saumpliittchen," which 
were figured and described by Miiller and Angelin. It is evident 
that the alternating inner plates, covering the ventral furrow, are 
the "saumpldttchen" or covering pieces, and not the OM^er ones along 
the lateral margins of the furrow, which, if they exist at all, proba- 
bly are ad-ambulacral plates ; they cannot be pinnules in the ordi- 
nary sense, for there are, according to Miiller, 3 to 4 to each arm- 
joint. In one of our specimens (PI, XIX, figs, la, b), high up along 
the arms, the covering plates are perfectly seen in place, and there 
appear at their sides in some places, along the margin of the furrows, 
what seem like serrated edges, several to a joint, and it may be that 
Miiller and Angelin took these edges, which rise somewhat above 
the level of the covering plates, for pinnules. If these are the struct- 
ures figured by Miiller and Angelin (Bau. d. Echinod. PI. VIII, figs. 
7 and 8 ; and Icon. Crin. Suec, PL XXV, figs. 19, 19a), then the 
projecting parts are mostly broken away in our specimens, and in all 
others we have seen. 

The arms of the species named by Miiller Anthocr'mus Loveni — 
but which Angelin considered to be a synonym of Crotalocrinus 
pulcher — were described by him as resembling the five leaves of a 
flower, which when spread out would not connect, but when closed 
were folded up, and overlapped each other. It is possible that this 
is the case in that species, and in fact his cross-section ( Op. cit. PI. 
VIII, fig. 4) clearly indicates it. But we have had before us three 
specimens from Sweden and one from England, considered to be 
C. rugosus, all having the arms completely spread, in some cases 
bending downward, and in these the arms are certainly in lateral 
contact, not only within the rays, but continuously all around. Also 
the cross-section of the arms of this species, given in Murchison's 
Siluria (3rd Ed. p. 247, fig. 4a), shows the continuous connection of 
the arms, and how they fold in upon themselves when closed. The 
specimen figured in PI. XX, fig. 4, which, in our opinion, is not G. 
rugosus but an undescribed species, represents a form in which the 
rays may have been disconnected as in C. pulcher. It differs widely 
from Ijoth species in the first radials, which are excavated and have 



376 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

large, limb-like projections, deeply incurved between the bases of the 
rays. This form which occurs also at Dudley, associated with C. 
Tugosus, is usually labeled as such in collections. 

The reticulate arm structure, which distinguishes Crotalocrinus 
from all other crinoids, is its most interesting character. The arms 
are deeper (from the dorsal to the ventral side) than they are wide, 
they extend to a great length, and bifurcate just often enough, and 
at such intervals in C. rugosus, to fill up the sjDaces necessary to form 
a complete circle with the arms in lateral contact out to the periph- 
ery, and the number of branches in the adult specimen, when perfect 
must have been enormous. In our specimen of C. rugosxis (PI. XIX, 
fig. 1), at the height of the fifteenth joint, there are fortj- rami to 
each ray, and this is not more than one third their full length, so 
that the number of ultimate divisions would amount in this speci- 
men to at least five or six hundred. The joints at the same height 
are of the same length, and the sutures are in the same line all 
around, so that they form regular concentric circles. Each joint has 
tv/o lateral projections given ofi'from the middle part of each side, 
which meet with those of adjacent branches, forming points of union 
by which the arms are connected throughout, but leaving oj^en 
spaces or meshes which j^roducethe reticulate appearance. The arms 
of JEnallocrinus resemble those of Crotalocrinus in their mode I'f bi- 
furcation and extraordinary length, but are not connected laterally 
except for a few of the lower joints. They have, however, frequent- 
ly, if not always, lateral projections along the joints on each side, and 
hence possess the cross-shaped arm joints of Crotalocrinus (PL XIX, 
fig. 6°''^"). The sutures between the joints are also in the same line, 
and do not alternate as we formerly supposed. 

The mode of insertion of the higher radials upon the first radial 
is very peculiar, and has not hitherto been understood. We might 
have still remained in ignorance about it, had it not been for the 
fortunate discovery among our Dudley specimens of an isolated first 
radial with the succeeding radials attached, so that we could see 
them from all sides (PI. XX, fig. 4). By the aid of this, and a 
very interesting, much weathered specimen, loaned us by Dr. 
Lindstrom, we are enabled to describe and illustrate the position of 
these parts quite satisfactorily. The plates frouL the second radial 
up are of considerable size, but they are not always visible on the 
dorsal side. In C. pnlcher they are plain enough (PI. XX, fig. 1), 
but in C. rugosus they often appear as mere points or thin edges 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 377 

(PI. XX, rig. 21). The other ends emerge upon the ventral side, 
where they present a considerable surface, containing a large ambu- 
lacral groove. In order to attain this position, the plates, which are 
wedge-shaped, bend inward and upward until their opposite ends 
stand nearlv at right angles to each other, and the arms at their 
origin pass out in a horizontal position. This can be seen in fig. 21 
PL XIX, which represents a vertical section, giving a side view of 
the same succession of plates as is shown dorsally by fig. 21, and 
ventrally by fig. 21 on the same plate. The successive pieces are 
numbered in each figure to correspond, and by comparing them, 
and remembering that they present three different views of the same 
elements, we think there will be no difficulty in understanding them. 
We cannot see the least evidence of mobility of these plates until 
they become free from the first radial, and thus attain the rank of 
arm plates. Whenever the arms are found folded up, the bending 
from a horizontal to a vertical position takes place in the lower 
arm plates, and not in the higher radials. The lanceolate areas, 
which are such a conspicuous feature of the ventral surface, and 
extend from the second axillary to the fifth or sixth bifurcations, 
are formed by a great thickening along the outer edges of the 
marginal plates of two adjacent rays, and therefore consist of two 
rows of arm plates, respectively radials, decreasing in width in their 
upward arrangement. 

The anus is excentric, and in C. pulcher takes the form of a large 
tube, while in all authentic specimens of C. rugosus it seems to be a 
simple opening. The form and position of the tube have been 
wrongly described by us. Angelin's beautiful looking figure, pur- 
porting to show it to its full length (Icon. Crin. Suec, PI. XVII, 
fig. 1), originating at the edge of the calyx, and lying outside the 
arms, proves to be an ideal figure, based upon the erroneous inter- 
pretation of some fragmentary pieces. Our specimen (PL XX, fig. 
11) shows the base of the tube very well, but not its full length. To 
judge from the fragments, shown by Angelin's PL XXV, figs. 8 — 
13, it must have been of considerable length in some specimens. It 
seems to have been somewhat more highly organized than the anal 
tube of the Camarata generally, and to approach the ventral sac of 
the Fistulata. The actual length has not been observed, but from 
the manner in which the large cavity within tapers in different speci- 
mens, we have no doubt that the opening is at the upper end, and 



378 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

represents a true anal tube, whatever otlier function it may have 
possessed. Nothing is known of the anal opening of EnaUocrinus. 

We give herewith new definitions of the Crotalocrinidae and their 
two genera Crotalocrinus and EnaUocrinus, to take the place of 
those given by us in the Revision, Part III, p. 143, and pp. 147 — 
152, and we request all who may be using the Revision to substitute 
them at once. 

We now direct attention to another point of considerable interest 
which has been developed by this investigation. A very perplex- 
ing figure was given by Angelin (PL XVII, fig. 2b), and a some- 
what similar one by Murchison (Siluria, 8rd Ed., p. 247, fig. 5),. 
Avhich show certain extensions apparently from the inner rim of the 
first radials, and which superficially resemble the so-called "consoli- 
dating apparatus" of Cupressocrinus. A closer examination of 
Augelin's figure shows these extensions to be composed of small 
plates ; both figures, however, are misleading, for our specimens 
show that the plates forming those extensions do not rest against 
the inner edges of the first radials as represented, but upon their 
upper faces, as correctly shown in Angelin's PI. XVII, fig. 2a. 
They are nothing but the exposed ventral surfaces of the second 
primary and succeeding radials, the elevations being the projecting- 
margins along the ambulacral grooves. Neither do they extend so- 
far inward as would seem from Angelin's figure, they project in- 
ward only for a short distance, and form underneath a surface of at- 
tachment for certain organs hereafter described. 

Miiller described and figured correctly (0/;. cit. p. 189, PL VIII,. 
fig. 5), the inward curvature of the plates, but we cannot agree with 
him in his statement that bv means of this curvature a roofing is- 
formed over the periphery of the calyx. This is not confirmed by 
the specimens, in which the calyx is covered by summit plates, in- 
terradials, etc., and the grooves around the periphery are roofed over 
by solid covering plates — leaving onl) the lateral margins exposed 
— in connection with, and forming part of the calicular cavity. The 
structure is clearly seen in our fig. l!_, PL XIX, in which the grooves 
are shown open except in one ray, where the covering plates are 
restored from the same part in another specimen. 

Another figure of Angelin (Tab. VII., fig. 7a) gives an inner 
view — that is, from below ; not "superne visits," as erroneously stated 
in the explanation of the plate — of a specimen of C. pulcher of 
which he speaks as showing the so-called "consolidating apparatus." 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 379 

Carpenter in his paper on Crotalocrinus^ explains that "the calyx is 
broken across near the level of the top of the basals, so that the inter- 
nal faces of the radials and the following plates are exposed to view, 
with the remai-kable striations upon them, which were regarded by 
Angelin as corresponding to the consolidating apparatus of Cupress- 
ocrinus," and he proceeds : "It is possible that, like this structure, 
they may represent an uneven surface for the attachment of muscles 
and ligaments, but whatever else they may be, the strise are certain- 
ly not hydrospire slits, as supposed by Wachsmuth and Springer in 
1879 **=!<*. But in any case they will no longer be able to re- 
fer to this family as Palpeocrinoids which 'probably have hydro- 
spires within the calyx,' and to use this supposed fact as an illustra- 
tion of their theory that Blastoids, Cystids and Crinoids are so close- 
ly linked together that they are not entitled to rank as Classes of 
Echiuoderms equivalent to the Urchins and Starfishes." 

We have been able to study the organs in question in our speci- 
men from Gothland (PI. XIX, fig. 1), and in two of those used by 
Angelin, loaned to us from the National Museum of Stockholm, in 
all of which they are very well shown. They are totally diflferent 
structures from the so-called consolidating apparatus of Gupresso- 
crinus, which we regard as muscle plates for the attachment of 
muscles and ligaments to move its huge arms. The muscle plates 
of Cupressocrinus are appendages of the first radials, and form part 
of the upper surface of the vault, similar to the muscle plates of 
Symbathocrimis, in which we know from direct observation that they 
constitute parts of the vault, only the central space being closed by 
additional plates. In both genera those plates are apposed by cor- 
responding faces upon the first brachials, and there is no roof or 
covering of any kind above them, they being necessarily external if 
they served for places of nuiseular attachment to move the arms. 
The case is totally different in Crotalocrinus in which the parts in 
question are roofed over by very solid covering plates, leaving little 
more than the faces forming the lanceolate areas exposed. Angelin 
applies the name "consolidating apparatus" not only to the over- 
hanging margins of the radials, but also to the lamellae under- 
neath, to which Carpenter refers as "remarkable striations," possi- 
bly for "the attachment of muscles and ligaments." These so-call- 
ed striations consist of parallel lamellose walls or partitions, located 
in regular sets within chambers or recesses, Avhich underlie partly 

1 Op. cit, p. 406. 



380 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the overhans'ino; maro;ins of the his/her radials constitutiuo- the 
lanceolate areas, partly the outermost interradial, and are limited on 
either side by the inward extensions of the second and succeeding 
radials. There are two sets of these lamellse to each interradius, 
those of adjacent rays meeting laterally and entering the same 
chamber where they are closely connected ; while those of the same 
ray stand at an angle from each other, and are apparently disconnect- 
ed except by a mere point. Each set is composed of five to seven 
folded lamellae, with continuous walls forming loops at each end. 
They stand upright, and seem to be attached at their lower ends to 
the inner surface of the first radials, and those in the same ray come 
together by their upper ends at a small angle under the small trian- 
gular second radial, where it projects farthest inward. The upper 
ends are further attached along the inner walls of the higher radials 
and the outer interradials, underneath Avhich the two adjacent sets 
meet by parallel plates and form a close connection. The arrange- 
ment at the anal side is not clearly shown in any of the specimens. 
In Enallocrinus we have not been able to discover anything of the 
lamellae, but we had for examination but a solitary specimen show- 
ing the interior of the calyx. There are seen, however, the same 
chambered spaces in which they might rest, and we have little doubt 
they existed in that genus also. Their position and structure in 
Grotalocrinus rngosus are shown in our figures 11 and 1^. on Plate 
XIX. 

From our description it must be clear that these laminated struct- 
ures do not possess any of the characteristics of muscle-plates. Their 
position in paired sets is interradial ; they are completely internal, 
and have no visible connection with the arms, nor do they present 
anv surface for the attachment of muscles or ligaments; but on the 
contrary are very frail structures, having in some places little parti- 
tions connecting the walls, and giving the whole a somewhat porous 
appearance. On the other hand if we compare them with the hydro- 
spires in the Blastoid genus Orophocrinus, one cannot help being 
struck with the resemblance in form, position and arrangement. We 
will not assert unqualifiedly that they are hydrospires, but we are 
very confident that they are not muscle-plates, nor anything of that 
nature, and if they are not of the same character as the similar 
organs in Orophocrinus, which have been universally considered to 
be hydrospires, then we must acknowledge ourselves completely at a 
loss for anything in echinoderm morphology with which to compare 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 381 

them. There is nothing else like them in any known crinoid. If 
they are hydrospires, then they certainly do afford a strong illustra. 
tion of the close alliance between Blastoids, Cystids and Crinoids. If 
they are not hydrospires, we should like to know what they are. 

Enallocrinus is evidently very closely allied to Crotalocrinus. The 
genus occurs at Dudley, England, whence we obtained specimens 
showiuo; the arms better than the Swedish ones, but nevertheless our 
material for the study of this type was by no means so satisfactory 
as that of Crotalocrinus. The English specimens are all more or 
less crushed, and do not throw much light on the structure of the 
calyx. 

Angeliu's figures purporting to show the vault are imaginary, as 
we have before shown. The only specimen in the Stockholm Muse- 
um showing any part of the ventral covering has been sent to us for 
examination, and we give two views of it (PI. XX, figs 5 t^). It 
is somewhat abnormal, two of the rays being grown together in 
such a way as to modify the arrangement of some of the plates. It 
is one of the specimens from which it is supposed Angelin's figure 
3a, PL VII was constructed. The insertion of the higher radials 
upon the first radials is upon the same plan as in Crotalocrinus, es- 
pecially the species shown by Angelin's PI. XVII, fig. 3a, and our 
PI. XX, fig. 4, and from this, and what little we can see of the ventral 
covering in the specimen above alluded to, we conclude that the 
vault must have been constructed substantially like that of Crotalo- 
crinus. 

We figure a flattened specimen from Dudley (PI. XX, fig. 6!l), 
which shows the arrangement and bifurcations of the arms, but not 
by any means to their full length. We have another set of arms 
Avhich seem to have their filiform extremities nearly complete, and 
from this we should infer that the specimen we have figured shows 
but little over half the length of the arms. Figs. 61 and 6i illus- 
trate the projections from the sides of the joints, in the same speci- 
men. We consider them important characters, perhaps representing 
the projections on the arms of Crotalocrinus, and indicating a tend- 
ency toward the reticulate arm structure, which is the only well 
marked distinction between the two genera. 

The specimen represented by Angelin's PI. XV, figs. 1, la, and 2, 
as Enallocrinus assulosus, and which Dr. Lindstrom assui'es us is 
correctly figured, represents in the reduced lateral connection of the 
arm bases, and the presence of small interradials on the dorsal side. 



382 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

a considerable departure from the typical form of the genus. It is 
inconsistent with the generic definition of Angelin, who described it 
as having 'Hnterracllalla nulla." It is a variation in the direction 
of the English form of Marsxipiocrinus — M. coelatus — (PL XX, fig. 
7), which differs in its dorsal interradials from M. tennesseensis in al- 
most the same way. 

Crotaloerlnus and Enallocrmus form a good family, which is con- 
nected through Marsupiocrinus ^ with the other Camarata. 

Suborder CAMARATA. 

Family CROTALOCRINIDAE. 

Base dicyclic, symmetry bilateral. Calyx throughout composed 
of rigid plates. Dorsal cup constructed almost exclusively of under- 
basals, basals, the first radials, and a small anal j^late. Higher 
radials uj) to the third or fourth order irregularly Avedge-shaped, 
their sharp ends directed outwards or sometimes hidden from view, 
their larger ends, wdiich curve upwards, grooved for the ambulacra. 
The plates rest partly upon the first radials, partly against the radials 
of the preceding ()rder, being with the former, and with one another, 
and laterally with those of adjoining rays, firmly united by suture. 
Arms capable of great mobility ; uniserial ; long ; dividing into very 
numerous branches, wdiich are free, or connected laterally by tis- 
sues so as to form a net-work around the calyx, either continuous, or 
limited to the rays and forming five reticulate leaf-like arms. The 
arm branches are perforated by large axial canals, which penetrate 
also the higher radials. 

Ventral surface of calyx flat, composed of five unequal orals — the 
posterior one the larger — five radial dome plates, one or more inter- 
radials, and several series of covering pieces which take the rigid 
form of vault plates. 

Column large, round ; central cavity extremely large. 

CROTALOCRINUS Austin. 

1842. Austin, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, Vol. X, p. 109. 

1843. Austin, ibid., Ser. 1, Vol. XI, p. 198. 

1848. Morris, Cat. Brit. Fos. (Ed. 1), p. 50 ; (Ed. 2), p. 75. 

1 It is an interesting fact as showing the keen perception of that veteran 
English naturalist, that Th. Austin in 1843 (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. Sen, II, Vol. 
XI, p. 198) referred C. rtcgosiis to the Marsupiocrinidae, a family named, but not 
defined by him. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 383 

1854. Salter, apud Murchison, Siluria, (Ed. 2), p. 219 ; (Ed. 3), p. 
247, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

1855. McCoy, Brit. Pal. Foss., p. 54. 
1873. Salter, Cat. Mus. Cambr., p. 1 23. 

1878. Angelin, Icon. Crin. Siiec, p. 26, PL 7, PI. 8, PI. 17, PL 25. 

1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Palaont., I., p. 356, fig. 244. 
1882. De Loriol, Pal. de France, tome 11, Crin., p. 51. 

1886. Wachsmuth and Springer, Kev. Palceocr., Pt. III., p. 165. 
1886. P. H. Carpenter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, for November, 

p. 397. 
Syn. Cyathocrinus, 1821, J. S. Miller, Nat. Hist. Crin., p. 89, with 

plate; Antliocrinus, 1853, Joh. Miiller, Abli. Akad. Berlin, 

pp. 188-192, PL 8 ; 
1855. Roemer, Lethrea. Geogn. (Ausg. Ill), p. 255. 
1855. Quenstedt, Handb. d. Petref., IV, p. 943, PL 75. 
1857. Pictet, Traite. de Paleont., IV, p. 312, PL 100. 
1860. Bronn, Klassen. d. Thierreichs., (Actiuozoa), PL 27. 
1862. Dujardin and Hupe, Hist. Nat. Zooph. Echinod., p. 117. 

Generic diagnosis. 

When the arms are closed the crinoid resembles an elongate bud 
with folded leaves ; when these are spread, it is wheel shaped, with 
five lanceolate areas between the bases of the rays. Calyx sub- 
globose, flattened above. 

Underbasals 5, large, pentangular, of uniform size. Basals 5, very 
large, extending three fourths the height of the calyx, all hexagonal 
except the posterior one, which is higher and has the upper angle 
truncated for the reception of a comparatively small, quadrangular 
anal plate, which rests between the first radials. 

First radials much wider than high, their distal faces thickened, 
either concave or straight, and occupied by small, shallow depres- 
sions for the reception of the second and higher radials, which to the 
third or fourth order rest partly upon this plate. The second radial 
occupies a very small space at the middle of the first, where it ap- 
pears as a small, trigonal bifurcating plate, sometimes scarcely visible 
dorsally. From its dorsal or outer side to its ventral side, the plate 
is very long and slender, bent upwards almost to a right angle, so as 
to bring the face opposite to that exposed dorsally into a horizontal 
position, and on a level with the vault. The secondary radials rest 
against the sloping faces of the second primary, and upon the first ; 
they are bifurcating plates, and as such support immediately the ter- 



384 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

tiary radials, which in C. rugosus, sometimes together with the first 
plate of the fourth order, rest partly upon the first radial. All of 
these plates, in various ways, are firmly attached to the first radial, 
and united suturally with one another, and all of them, by curving 
upwards and inwards, extend from the dorsal to the ventral surface 
of the calyx, forming as such a sort of transition between true radi- 
als and arm plates, in a similar manner as the higher radials of the 
Platycrinidae, which they resemble in their arrangement. The plates 
are wedge-form, thinning out toward the dorsal cup, where they are 
seen as mere points or lines, or one or more of them are invisible al- 
together. Their lai"ger upper faces, which are exposed ventrally, are 
deeply grooved for the i*eception of the ambulacra, and, when the 
covering plates are in position are only partly exposed. The plates 
above the fourth order are not in contact with the first radials, and 
may be regarded as true arm-plates, which they resemble in form 
and in point of mobility. 

The arms are long and branch frequently ; they are connected lat- 
erally by points of attachment from near the middle of each joint, 
with open spaces between them, forming together a sort of network 
around the calyx with innumerable elongate meshes. In C. rvgosus 
the network is continuous around the calyx, but in C. pulcher the 
rays are separated, and form five broad reticulate leaves, which, when 
closed over the calyx, overlap each other, contrary to the case of C. 
rugosus in which the undivided network is closely plicated and fold- 
ed. The lower plates of the rays, to the third or fourth order, are 
immovably connected among each other and with the first radials ; 
but higher up in the rays, where the plates are no longer in contact 
with the first radials, an articulation by strong muscles and fossse 
takes the place of suture. The arm joints, owing to their lateral pro- 
jections, have the form of a cross with short arms : they are long flat 
on the dorsal surface, laterally compressed, with straight sides, and 
deeply grooved on the ventral surface for the reception of the am- 
bulacra. 

The ambulacral furrows are arched by covering pieces, 3 to 4 
to each side of the arm joint, alternately arranged. The arm 
joints are disposed in regular dichotomizing longitudinal rows, 
as well as in regular concentric transverse rows, the points of union 
occupying the same line all around. Each arm plate is pierced with 
a very large dorsal canal, and the bifurcating ones with two, which 
meet in the middle of the plate ; they ramify to the ends of the arms, 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 385 

and all converge into one in the second radials, thence passing down- 
Avard along the inner surface of the first radials toward the basals. 
The bifurcations near the calyx are unequal, the sloping faces of the 
axillaries next the outer margins of the rays being considerably 
wider than the inner ones, and the plates which they support are as 
large in proportion. This continues on to about the sixth axillary, 
above which the bifurcations gradually become regular, and the 
outer plates attain the same width as the inner ones. By this peculiar 
arrangement there appear, when the arms are spread, along the outer 
plates of adjacent rays, five well marked lanceolate areas, to the top 
of which the rays remain in lateral contact. The bifurcations along 
the arms are extremely numerous, and take place at various inter- 
vals, sufficient to fill up the full segments of the circle when the arms 
are extended ; they taper but slightly, are very long, and become 
thread-like at the ends. 

The higher radials from the first primary up project inwards, beyond 
the periphery of the calyx ; the second projects the farthest, and the 
plates of the second order slope away from it, as also those of the 
third. The latter form the proximal ends of the lanceolate areas 
whose overhanging margins, together with the outermost interradial, 
form a roof, under which are located five large recesses or chambers, 
interradial in position, each of which is occupied by two sets of lami- 
nated structures, in form and arrangement closely resembling the 
hydrospires of the Blastoid genus Oropkocrinus. Each set apparently 
is composed of five to seven folded lamellae with continuous walls 
and loops at each end ; they stand upright, face laterally the inner 
walls of the overhanging primary radials, their upper ends attached 
to the inner floor of the outer interradial, being thus completely 
covered by vault structures. 

Vault flat, on a level with the spreading arms ; composed of five 
oral plates (the so-called central plate and the four large proximals). 
The posterior oral (central plate) is large, somewhat elongate, its an- 
terior end resting between the truncate faces of the four others, the 
posterior end againt small anal plates. The four small orals vary 
from elongate-clavate (PI. XX, figs 2^ and 4) to almost regularly 
hexagonal (PL XX, fig. 3). Outside the orals, and alternating with 
them, are five somewhat irregular radial plates, which are axillary, 
giving off" two sets of covering pieces, two rows of plates to each set, 
all in lateral contact ; they are heavy, convex plates, a little wider 
than high, alternately arranged, and solidly inserted into the vault. 

26 



386 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Between the covering plates, and abutting against the four smaller 
orals, are two or more interradials, the inner ones the larger. Be- 
tween the radial-dome-plates, and against the large posterior oral, 
are numerous small anal plates which embrace the anus, and of 
which the outer ones face the anal plate of the dorsal cup. The anus 
is excentric, and its form varies among species, being either extended 
into a tube, or placed at the top of a small protuberance. The tube 
apparently reached considerable length, and seems to have been 
composed of several rows of transverse pieces longitudinally ar- 
ranged, with a large octagonal cavity. 

Column very large ; terminating in numerous rootlets. Canal 
large, round. 

Geological Position, etc. Upper Silurian of England and Sweden. 
List of Species : — 
1840. Crotalocrinus jndeher Hisinger, ( Cyathocrinus jyulcher), Leth. 
Suec, Supp. II., p. 6, PI. XXXIX, figs. 5 a. b.-1878, Angelin, 
Iconogr. Crin. Suec, p. 26, PI. VII, figs. 5—7 a, b ; PI. VIII, 
figs. 1— 9a ; PI. XVII, figs. 1, la— d ; PI. XXV, figs. 8— 
20.-1879, Zittel, Handb. d. Palaeont., Vol. I, p. 357, figs. 2, 
4, 4 a — e. — 1886, W. and Sp., Revision Palseocr., Pt. Ill, p. 
150. 
Syn. Anthocrinus Loveni Joh. Miiller, 1853, Abh. d. Berl. Akad. d. 
Wissensch., p. 192, PI. VIII, figs. 1— 11.— Pictet, 1857,Traite 
de. Paleont., Vol. IV, PI. c, figs. 8 a, b, c. — Dujardin and 
Hupe., Hist. uat. Zooph. Echinod., p. 117. — Quenstedt, 1885, 
Handb. d. Petrefactenk., IV, p. 943, PL 15, fig. 4. 
Upper Silurian, Gothland, Sweden, and Dudley, Eng. 
1821. Crotalocrinus rugosus Miller, {Cyathocrinus rugosus), Nat. 
Hist. Crin., p. 89., with plate. — 1837, Hisinger, ( Cyathocrinus 
rugosus), Leth. Suec, p. 89, Tab XXV, fig. 3 ; also Antckn, 
Heft IV, p. 217, PI. VII, fig. 3.-1839, Phillips (Cyatho- 
crinus rugosus), Murchison's Silur, System, p. 672, PI. 18, fig. 
1. — 1843, Austin, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, Vol. XI, 
p. 198.— 1843, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss., (Ed. I), p. 50.— 1850, 
D'Orbigny, ( Cyathocrinus rugosus), Prodr. d. Paleont., Vol. 
I, p. 46. — 1854, Salter, apud Murchison, Siluria, (Ed. 2), p. 
219, (Ed. Ill, p. 247), figs. 4—7, and PI. 13, fig. 3.— 1855, 
McCoy, Brit. Pal. Foss., p. 55.-1873, Salter, Cat. Mus. 
Cambr., p. 123.-1878, Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 26, PI. 
VII, fig. 4; PI. XVII, tigs. 8, 8a. (not figs. 3, 3^).— 1879, 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 387 

Zittel, Handb. d. Palreont., I., p. 357, fig. 244.-1885, Quen- 

stedt, ( Cyathocrinus, rugosus), Handb. d. Petrefactenk., IV, p. 

943, fig. 349.— 1886. W. and Sp., Rev. Palreocr., Pt. Ill, p. 

150. 

Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden and Dudley, Eng. 
1878. Crotalocrinus superhus Angelin, Iconogr. Crin. Suec., p. 26, 

PI. XVII, figs. 2, 2 a, b.— 1886, W. and Sp., Rev. Palseocr., 

Pt. Ill, p. 150. 

Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden. 
Crotalocrinus (undescribed species). PI. Ill, fig. 4 (Referred by 

Angelin, PI. XVII, figs. 3, 3 a, b, to C. rugosus). 

Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden and Dudley, Eng. 

ENALLOCRINUS D'Orbigny. 

1850. D'Orbigny, Prodr. d. Pal., 1., p. 46 ; Cours. elem., II, p. 142. 

1854. Salter, apud Murchison, Siluria, (3rd Ed.), p. 247. 

1857. Pictet, Traite d. Pal., IV., p. 320. 

1862, Dujardin and Hupe, Hist. nat. Zooph. Echin., p. 134. 

1878. Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 25. 

1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Pal., I., p. 356. 

1886. Wachsmuth and Springer, Rev. Palaeocr., Pt. Ill, p. 150. 

Syn. Apiocrinites (Hisinger) in part ; 

Millericrinus (D'Orbigny) in part ; Anihocrinus (Quenstedt) in part. 

Generic Diagnosis. — Calyx similar in fiorm and construction to 
that of Crotalocrinus; interradials sometimes appearing dorsally. 
Arms not reticulate. 

First radials wide, their distal faces usually occupied by a deep 
lunate excavation in Avhich the second primary and one or two higher 
radials rest ; sometimes, however, truncate. Second primary and 
higher radials inserted and connected as in Crotalocrinus, curving 
upward and appearing on the ventral side in a similar way. Rays 
completely disconnected from the first radials up, and the arms be- 
coming free variously between the first to the fourth bifurcation. 
Second radials perforated by a large axial canal which passes down- 
ward ; it ramifies within the higher radials, and passes into the 
arms, but apparently does not extend to their full length. 

Arms uniserial, very long, tapering little, bifurcating at lengthen- 
ing intervals toward the upper parts into very numerous equal 
branches, the ultimate divisions being extremely attenuate ; the arms 
capable of being spread out horizontally. Arm joints shorter than 
in Crotalocrinus, with parallel sutures; those of adjacent branches 



388 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

opposite each other not alternating. Toward the upper ends of the 
arm joints there are more or less conspicuous transverse projections 
— one from each side of the joint — which are more prominent and 
elongate at the ventral side. They border the arm furrow, and give 
to the arm, when viewed from the side, a pectinate appearance, 
which is more strongly marked toward the distal ends of the arms 
(PL XX, tigs (jLil). Ambulacral farrows shallow, with covering 
plates arranged in the usual way. ^ 

Vault apparently similar to that of Crotalocrinus ; median part 
unknown ; ambulacra toward the periphery roofed over by convex 
alternating pieces having the form of vault plates, which pass out 
over the arms. Anal opening unknown. 

Column round, very large, with short joints and thin walls; canal 
round and of extremely large size. 

Geological Position, etc. Upper Silurian of Sweden and England. 
List of Species : — 
1878. Enallocrinus assulosus Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 26, PL 

XV, figs. 1 — 4. Upper Silurian, Gothland, Sweden. 
1828. E. scriptus Plisinger (CyathocrinitesT), Anteckn IV, p. 217; 
PL V, fig. 9 ; PL VII, fig. 1.— 1831. {Apiocriiiites (?) scrip- 
tus), Anteckn V, p. 123, Esquisse d'un tableau des Petref. 
de la Su6de, p. 23.— 1837. Leth. Suec, p. 89, PL XXV, figs. 
1 and 2. — D'Orbigny, 1840 (Miller icrinus scriptus), Hist. 
Nat. Crin., p. 94, PL XVI, fig. 29.— 1850. Prodr. d. Pal., I, 
p. 46. — Angelin, 1878, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 25, PL VII, figs, 
1— 3a; PL IX, figs. 18 and 19 ; PL XXV, figs. 1—7 ; PL 
XXVII, figs. 17— 20a. 

Syn. — Enallocrinus punetatus Hisinger, Leth. Suec, p. 89. — 
3filler icrinus punetatus D'Orbigny, Hist. Xat. Crin., p. 94, 
PL XVI, fig. 30. — Enallocrinus punetatus Salter, apud 
Murchison, Siluria, (Ed. 2), j). 218. — Anthocrimis scriptus 
and A. punetatus, Quenstedt, Handb. d. Petref, IV, p. 944, 
PL 75, figs. 6, 7. 
Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden and Dudley England. 

1 We have observed these projections on the arms only in the Enghsh specimens. 
We give it as a generic character, as we think it hkely the Swedish ones will show 
it also when sufficiently well preserved ; and because we consider it of some im- 
portance, as representing the projections on the arms of Crotalocrinus by which 
these M'ere connected, and thus exhibiting a tendency toward the reticulate struct- 
ure. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia." 389 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate XIX. 
Fig. It: Crotalocrimts rugosus. Ventral aspect of a large specimen 
from Sweden, showing the inner floor of the calyx, the 
lanceolate areas, and the outstretched arms with their deep 
ventral grooves, and in places their covering pieces ; the 
tips of the arms coiled up so as to expose their dorsal face. 
The covering pieces at the lower right hand corner re- 
stored from another specimen. 

(Collection of Wachsmuth and Springer.) 

Fig. 1^ Oblique view of a portion of the same specimen, showing 
the lamellae beneath the overhanging margins of the high- 
er radials. 

Fig. It Ventral view of a portion of the arms enlarged. 

Figs. 2f:^ Diagramatic figures showing the arrangement of the high- 
er radials in Crotalocrinus rugosus ; 2!: the dorsal side ; 2^ 
the ventral side ; 21 a vertical section through the dotted 
line in 2^. The numbers refer to the same plates in all 
three figures, i. e. IL and i!_ to the first and second prima- 
ry radials, 2L to the secondary radials, 3!_ and 3!_ to the 
tertiary radials, 4l_ and 4!_ to the quaternary radials; 
the succeeding plates are brachials. 

Fig. 3. Ventral aspect of the same species from a specimen in the 
National Museum of Stockholm, showing the rigid cover- 
ing jjlates around the margin of the calyx. 

Fig. 4. A portion of a first primary radial of the same species with 
the higher radials in place resting upon it. 
(Collection of Wachsmuth and Springer.) 

Fig. 5. Enlarged view showing the markings on the lower face of 
a fii'st radial of the same species. 

Fig. 6. Radials and lower arm plates in Fterotocrinus. 

Fig. 7. The radials and lower arm joints in 3farsupiocrimis ten- 
nesseensis. 

Plate XX. 

Fig. Vt Crotalocrinus pulcher. Anterior view of a specimen with 
arms from Gothland, Sweden. 

(Collection of Wachsmuth and Springer.) 



390 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Fig. 1^ Posterior view of the same specimen, showing the base of 
the proboscis. 

Fig. 2!: Calyx of a small specimen of Crotalocrimis rugosus from 
Dudley, England. 

(Collection of Wachsmuth and Springer.) 

Fig. 2!!: Ventral aspect of the same specimen. 

Fig. 3. Ventral aspect of Crotcdocriniis sp. ? 

(Drawn from a gutta percha cast. Original in the Muse- 
um at Cambridge, England.) 

Fig. 4. Crotalocrimis sp. und., from Sweden. Ventral view, from 
a fine drawing by Mr. G. Liljevall. (Original in the 
National Museum at Stockholm). 

Fig. 5!: Enallocrinus scriptus. Posterior view of a specimen from 
Sweden in the National Museum at Stockholm. 5^ ventral 
view of same specimen, showing portions of the covering 
plates in some places; the middle of the vault broken 
away. 

Fig. 61 Enallocrinus scriptus. Anterior vieAv of a nearly complete 
specimen from Dudley, England (Collection of Wach- 
smuth and Springer), 61 transverse section of column of 
same specimen, showing the large central canal ; 61 en- 
larged side view of a portion of the arm, showing the 
pectinated projections ; 61 Dorsal view of same. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 391 

CONTKIBTJTIONS TO THE LIFE HISTORIES OF PLANTS. No. III. 
BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 

Smilacina bifolia. Observing in a large tract of Smilacina bifolia 
that the leaves were for the most part at a very light angle, indeed 
almost vertical, it seemed to afford a good opportunity to test a 
prevalent idea that, in such cases, the stomata are nearly equal in 
numbers on each surface of the leaf. Dr. J. B. Brinton kindly made 
a careful microscopical examination of some leaves I furnished him 
with, but he found no difference in this respect to leaves with a 
purely horizontal direction. On a small section, of which he hands 
me a drawing, there was only one stoma on the upper surface, 
while there were fifteen on the under surface. 

Dichogamy and its significance. Dichogamy has reference to the 
relative period of maturity of stamen and pistil. When the stamens 
are in the advance the flowers nre said to be proterandrous ; when the 
pistil is mature before the stamens, the flower is proterogynous. Usu- 
ally the term is employed in connection with hermaphrodite flowers. 
But as it is a mere question of the time required for the development of 
the sexual organs necessary to the perfecting of a complete individual, 
it is obvious that we may extend the term so as to include monoecious 
and dioecious plants. 

The law under which the separate sexual organs are retarded in 
their growth in some instances and accelerated in others, cannot 
but have supreme importance in the study of vegetable biology. If 
we can trace the working of this law in the hermaphrodite flower to 
the extent of acceleration or retardation for but a single day, we can 
easily get to understand how some plants may come to have the 
maturity of these organs days apart, and to finally divide into 
monoecious or dioecious classes. 

Among the contributions I have made to botanical science, few 
impress me with more importance than the determination of the fact 
that a degree or measure of heat capable of exciting the male organs 
to growth, may yet be wholly inadequate to start growth in the 
female (see Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 1885, p. 
1.17.) 

I observed that the aments of walnuts, hazel-nuts and similar 
plants were often perfected weeks and occasionally months before 
the female flowers were in conditon to receive pollen, and that it 



392 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

was only in seasons when the stamens and pistils matured simulta- 
neously, that large crops of nuts followed. I had overlooked at that 
time, the fact that something similar had been placed on record be- 
fore. In the Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, 
vol. V, 1824, is a pajjer by Rev. George Swayne, showing that the 
filbert crop in Kent fails two years out of five ; that some seasons 
the catkins mature before the female flowers open, and at others not 
till afterwards, and that failure to produce a crop results from the 
absence of pollen at the period when the female flower is in receptive 
condition. All I can, therefore, claim as original is the formula that 
varying measures of heat influence variously the separate sexes, — 
the smaller measure influencing the male, while the female still con- 
tinues to rest. 

Since my observations were made on the hazel, I have extended 
them to other plants. It has long been known that in many of the 
Central States coniferous trees that produce seeds abundantly farther 
north, rarely have one perfect seed in those regions. I know this is 
so in the vicinity of Philadelphia. The Norway spruce may pro- 
duce cones by the cart-load, with not an ounce of seed in the lot. 
Since the observations above cited I find that the male flowers ma- 
ture long before the female, and affords a satisfactory reason for the 
failure. Further north, where winter does not coquette with spring 
as here, they remain in rest equally, and advance together. In their 
gregarious, forest condition, no doubt the extent of surface conduces 
to an equilibrial condition of climate not surrounding isolated trees 
in a cultivated state. 

In brief, I may enumerate a number of coniferse, alders, Avalnuts, 
chestnuts, oaks, hickories and the hazel-nut as among those that I 
carefully watched for the few years past, noting a wide range of 
difference each season between the times of maturing of the male 
and female flowers. The season of 1887-8, I noticed was favorable 
to a simultaneous maturity of the sexes. I exhibited specimens in 
the spring of 1888, to the Botanical Section of the Academy, and 
had no difficulty in predicating on the fact of simultaneity an 
abundant harvest of nuts, which has been fully realized. I have 
since been observing the working of this principle in elms and 
maples — hermaphrodite plants ; the species under observation being 
Ulnius americana, and J.cer dasycarpum. The trees of the former 
were comparatively young, but had flowered the first three years 
without perfecting more than a seed here and there. I had no 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 398 

difficulty in perceiving in these elms and maples in the spring of 
1887, that the pollen had been dispersed weeks before the pistil was 
mature. The past season (1888) examination showed the anthers 
bursting simultaneously with the receptive conditions. There was 
an abundant crop of seeds. The maple is usually inclined to dioecism. 
Although the flowers may seem perfect, the stamens in some fertile 
flowers never proceed beyond anthers that give no pollen, while in 
other cases perfect stamens with filaments and fertile anthers are 
produced, Avhen the gynoecium seems unable to fulfil its functions. 
But the elm, at least here, seems a full hermaphrodite, yet only this 
season of three successive ones, had it full hermaphrodite functions. 
In the two first it was so very proterandrous as to be barren. It 
was not proterandrous this year, though I cannot say it was pro- 
terogynous. It was, in fact as Avell as in name, hermaphrodite. 

Surely I am warranted in presenting the formula, that varying 
measures of temperature variously affect the separate sexual organs, 
and that the dichogamy has its origin in this simple circumstance. 

It is interesting to note how near we may get to a great truth 
without actually perceiving it till long afterwards. In 1868, I 
announced, through the Proceedings of the Academy, my discovery 
that Mltchella repens was not merely heterostyled but practically 
dioecious. I had subsequently found a white-berried variety which 
bore berries freely when surrounded by its companions, but I never 
had one during the many years it was under culture in my 
garden. Up to that time and subsequently, the course of these 
phenomena was obscure. Mr. Darwin, in Forms of Floivers (Chap. 
A"II), observes : " But according to Mr. Meehan Mltchella itself is 
dioecious in some districts. * * ^ Should these statements be 
confirmed, Mitchella will be proved to be heterostyled in one district 
and dioecious in another." With our present light we can readily 
see how this may easily be. 

Now what is the significance of dichogamy ? The general view at 
the present time is substantially the same as given in the work 
above quoted. There Darwin expresses it in these words : " Va- 
rious hermaphrodite plants have become heterostyled, and now ex- 
ist under two or three forms ; and we may confidently believe that 
this has been effected in order that cross-fertilization should be as- 
sured." 

With the new light I have thrown on the origin of dichogamy, I 
am sure the great Darwin would be ready to modify this view. It 
cannot have the significance we all thought it had at that time. 



394 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

We now see that a plant may find itself in a climate or in sur- 
roundings favorable to an early development of stamens ; in anoth- 
er case in a locality or country where the reverse will prevail. 
Dichogamy will then vary. TVe also know that heredity plays a 
j^art in fixing a constantly recurring local tendency, so that a plant 
having acquired a tendency to proterandy or it may be to proter- 
ogyny, would continue to carry the habit long after the superinduc- 
ing causes had passed away. Plants remaining for ages in a local- 
ity where the conditions Avould be favorable to a wide difference 
between simultaneity, would probably become in time monoecious 
or dioecious, and all this, as we see, from no particular assurance 
that cross-fertilization would thereby be affected. 

In trying to reach generalizations of this character, we should 
not, however, forget that in nature, things seldom follow from a 
single cause, but from the operation of united forces. In this con- 
nection I have shown, (see Proceedings of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, Salem, and subsequent meetings,) that 
sex itself is largely influenced by the amount of nutrition available 
when the primordial cell is fertilized. If sex itself may be influ- 
enced by nutrition, the subsequent growth of its repi'esentative or- 
gans may still further be influenced, which would introduce into 
the consideration an additional element aside from temperature 
alone. 

I have my own postulate as to the significance of dichogamy. 
I rest here by the simple proposition that whatever its significance, 
it arises from no effort innate to the plant itself, but from an outside 
force that can have little interest in ci'oss-fertilization. 

(It is proper to say that an abstract of this paper was read before 
the American Association for the Advancement oj Science, at Cleve- 
land. See Botanical Gazette for September 1888.) 

Trientahs Americana, Pursh. There can be but little doubt that 
Trientalis Americana grew freely over what is now the city and 
county of Philadelphia. It is still found in adjoining counties, and 
here and there are old botanists who remember having collected it 
on the confines of the county ; but it is not included in Barton's 
Flora, now over 60 years old, — nor in Darrach's Catalogue, or any 
published list so far as I know. In an old chestnut wood at Chest- 
nut Hill, my brother Joseph detected a small patch this summer, 
that has evidently been there for ages, but overlooked, — and this 
suggests some thoughts on its habits and past geographical record of 
general interest. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 395 

I have collected this plant in its various forms over widely sepa- 
rated portions of the American continent, — Canada, the Alleghanies, 
California and Alaska, — and though holding its own wherever 
found, it does not show evidences of the extension that must have 
characterized it in the past, when, with no remarkably special- 
ized organs favoring distribution, it managed to travel in its various 
forms — as T. JEuropcea, T. Americana and T. Arctica — over the whole 
north of Europe and across the American continent to Behring's 
Straits. So far as I have seen in the localities named, the plants 
seem to produce seeds, though not abundantly ; but there are no 
evidences of seedlings. In the Chestnut Hill location, the only tract 
on which the plant is found is but a few hundred square feet, yet 
though unnoted, it must have been confined to this limited area foj- 
at least a hundred yeai's, or perhaps for many centuries. The piece 
of wood is a favorite botanical hunting ground. I myself have 
wandered through it for over a quarter of a century, and the early 
Philadelphia botanists — sharp-eyed as they were — would surely have 
seen it here if at all common in those times. It is worth while 
considering how so great a wanderer in remote ages should 
have acquired such remarkable stay-at-home habits in recent times. 
Some conditions favorable to distribution must surely have existed, 
which have disappeared in modern ages. What can these changes 
be? 

So far as persistency is concerned I note a fact, not recorded any- 
where, that the plant is stoloniferous, bearing a small tuber at the 
end of a slender thread, which reproduces the plant next year, the 
whole of the previous years' plants, except these little tubers, dying 
away. In this way the plant, through its progeny, can be a traveler 
at the rate of two or three inches a year. It is remarkable that this 
character is not noted by systematic authors, for the specimens in the 
herbarium of the Academy taken at various times during the flowering 
period, from difierent parts of the world, exhibit traces of the little tu- 
bers at the ends of stolons that have evidently been passed over tor 
true roots. It is hardly to be supposed that the plants have wan- 
dered wholly by the aid of these little tubers, valuable as they 
must be for persistency when once a foot-hold has been obtained. 
We are forced to the conclusion that at some former period it re- 
ceived much more aid from seed and seedlings than it receives in^ 
modern times. 



396 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

As we are often aided in the study of the geographical wanderings 
of phints, a list is appended of comparatively local plants, found in 
companionship with Irientalis on the 8rd of June. 
Allium Canadense Pogonia vertieillata 

Amelanchier Botryapium Polemonium rejitans 

Cypripedmm pubescens Pyrola elliptica 

Hypoxys erecta Pyrus arbuUfolia 

Medlola Vlrginiea Viburnum acerifolium 

Mitchella repens Viola px^bescens 

Goodyera pubescens Veratrum viride , 

Osmunda spectabilis Aspidium cristaium. 

Oxalis violacea 

On the glands in some Caryophyllaceous flowers. It cannot he 
said that the existence of glands near the base of the common 
chickweed and its allies, has been wholly overlooked, but they are 
seldom referred to, and no attempt has been made to read their 
significance. 

In regard to the chick-weed, Stellaria media. Withering notes in 
the British Fhra (p. 547) "stamens glandular at the base." Dr. 
Bromfield notes of a closely related species, Stellaria ulignosa, 
" stamens 10, those alternating with the petals inserted on shortish, 
flattened glands ; near, but not close to the base of the germen ; 
being, in fact, above the latter and at the top of the conical enlarge- 
ment of the calyx below the sepals" (Flora Vectensis 71). At p. 
75, the same author notes oi Arenaria serpxjllijolia " stamens 5 to 10, 
those alternating with the sepals placed on a projecting glandular 
base, five shorter, having apparently abortive anthers." Of Sonek- 
enya peloides, both Torrey and Gray and Withering note the ten 
glands alternating with the stamens ; and Hooker remarks of Cher- 
leria sedoides that it has glands inside the five stamens. 

Examining with a pocket lens, some flowers of the chickweed, 
between two and three o'clock in the afternoon early in May, I 
noticed the glands had secreted an enormous amount of liquid. 
The little globules were nearly as large as ordinary pin heads. 
It did not occur to me, at that time, that the period of the day 
had anything to do with the phenomena, but I w'as led to ex- 
amine other allied species of plants the next day. I did not detect 
any, and I particularly examined Cerastiiim viscosum and had about 
concluded that the existence of prominent glands and a free exudation 
of liquid was peculiar to the chickweed, when, examining about the 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 397 

same time of day as in the former case, I found the exudation as 
abundant in the Cerastium also. Profiting by this hint, and exam- 
ining at this time of day all species coming under my notice, I can 
say that glands exist in Cerastium viscosum, C. arvense, Arenaria 
serpyllifoUa, Stellaria longifolia, S. media; I could not find the 
glands in Stellaria jnibera. 

It is well known that in Caryophyllace?e generally, there are 
usually ten stamens, in two series, — the outer alternate with the 
petals, — the inner five alternate with the outer, and opposite the 
petals. There are often less by abortion, in which case it is the 
members of the inner series that disappear. No glands are between 
the stamens of the inner series. There are never but five, and these 
alternate with outer stamens. The outer series mature the anthers 
a day before the inner series mature them (except, I believe, in S 
puhera) ; but the liquid exudation occurs with the maturity of the 
anthers of the first series. 

The liquid (in the chickweed) has a slightly sweet taste, and is 
very viscid, as a little taken out with the point of a pen-knife and 
rubbed between finger and thumb, testifies. 

The five outer stamens in Arenaria serpyllifoUa bend inwards, and 
the abundantly polliniferous anthers rest on the apex of the stigmas, 
completely covering the stigmas with own-pollen. The inner ones 
turn outwardly, resting on the petals or nearly so, and seem to have 
anthers wholly destitute of pollen. In Cerastium viscosum., the pollen 
matures before the pistils. At the time the pollen scatters, the fiisicle 
of pistils are keeping close company. Soon afterwards they diverge, 
push themselves up among the pollen-clothed stamens, and are cer- 
tainly self-fertilized in most, if not absolutely in all cases. 

Examining the chickweed as it grew over a very large tract of 
waste ground, and soon after noon, when with a close naked-eye ob- 
servation the comparativelv large globules can be seen glistening in 
the sun, — one can scarcely neglect asking nature the chief object of 
this enormous production of sweet liquid, — for the collective quan- 
tity from these millions of flowers may be truly styled enormous. 
It has been asserted that nectar is given to flowers to attract insects 
for the purpose of cross-fertilization, and many observations confirm 
the deduction in numerous instances. Certainly the nectar attracts 
and as certainly the visits often result in fertilization — sometimes 
by the flowers' own pollen, oftener by the pollen from flowers on the 
same or neighboring plants, and occasionally from flowers from 



398 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

plants under different conditions, the true Darwinian idea of cross- 
fertilization. But I could see no bees visiting the chickweed for 
this banquet of nectar set before them. As the flowers are arranged 
for self-fertilization, there could be no assistance to the flowers in 
this work even did bees visit them. If insects came, in no way does 
it appear they could be of any advantage. Because I did not see 
any bees using the nectar during warm days following the first ob- 
servations, it does not follow that they never resort to it. Bees go 
to those flowers where their hard task is the easiest. I have often 
seen them collecting pollen from chickweed, when a few warm early 
spring days attracted them from the hive, but at soon as the male 
catkins of the willow mature, with their very abundant crop of pollen, 
they leave the chickweed, and indeed most other flowers, while the 
willow pollen lasts. 

Later on, about the middle of May, I found nectar-collecting 
honey bees working freely on Cerastium viseosmn. It is never safe 
to say bees or other insects do not visit certain flowers. It depends 
largely on the supply of material. When abundant they evidently 
have preferences, and let the more difficult tasks alone. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 399 

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF GEORGE W. TRYON, Jr. 

BY AV. S. W. RUSCHENBERGEPv, M. D. 

" for, go at night or noon, 

A friend, whene'er he dies, has died too soon, 
And, once we hear the liopeless He is dead. 
So far as flesh hath knowledge, all is said." 

yatnes Russell Lowell — Agassiz. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia requested me, 
February 7th, 1888, to prepare a biographical notice of the late 
George W. Tryon, Jr. for publication in its Proceedings. He died 
February 5. The suddenness of the event shocked all his personal 
and many of his merely scientific friends, far and near. One (Mr- 
C. E. Beddome), who is in every sense qualified to justly appraise 
his worth, said to me in a note, dated Tasmania, April 4, not very 
long since received, — " I have respected him as one of the grandest 
conchologists of the day. I feel that I have lost my most valued 
correspondent ; but what must be the loss of your academy and the 
conchological world. His great Avork * Manual of Conchology,' not 
yet finished, will be the grandest monument that could be erected to 
his memory." 

Eminence, fairly acquired by a toiler on any path of learning or 
scientific research, wins admiration, especially from those moving 
forward on the same quest, Avhether in his neighborhood or in places 
widely remote ; and after he dies, they become more or less curious 
about his origin and career. Some are pleased to seek causes of his 
success in the circumstances of his life, assuming that social environ- 
ment sways the formation of character, just as physical conditions 
surrounding certain organisms are supposed to influence their de- 
velopment. Students of this class ask where the eminent man was 
born and raised and trained, as well as what notable features char- 
acterized the locality where he grew to be distinguished among his 
associates. Those of another sort, who confide almost entirely in 
the doctrines of heredity, are disposed to ascribe the notable qualities 
of a contemporary to his parents and their ancestors, thus failing to 
recognize in him any merit wholly and clearly his own. They seem 
to forget that uncommon intellectual force, mental capability is not 
always traceable to heredity or to environment in any considerable 



400 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

extent. All the great heroes of science and literature did not have 
scientific ancestors or scientific environment. The genius of neither 
Franklin nor Shakespeare was an inheritance. 

George Washington Tryon Jr. the eldest son of Edward K. Tryon 
and his wife, nee Adeline Savitd, was born May 20, 1838, on Green 
street between Front and Newmarket sti-eets, then in the district of 
the Northern Liberties. The place of his birth is about twelve or 
fifteen liuudred yards, to the northward and eastward of the State 
House of Philadelphia, — Independence Hall. The locality Avas 
never a fashionable quarter of the city. It abounds in alleys and 
courts of small tenements, having small windows glazed with eight 
by ten inch panes, and roofs of cedar shingles, as may be seen to-day. 
A substantial, industrious people, most of them engaged in mechan- 
ical pursuits, inhabited the neighborhood, the alleys and streets of 
which were the play-grounds of their many children. It is now as 
it was fifty years ago, only the signs of age in some spots are prob- 
ably more apparent. 

George Washington Tryon, a gunsmith, had trained his son, 
Edward K. Tryon in the manufacture and trade in fire-arms and 
sportmen's accoutrements, a business which he had established and 
conducted successfully during a quarter of a century or more. He 
retired in 1837, leaving his son in possession of the establishment. 

George W. Tryon Jr. at an early age manifested a retiring, cheer- 
ful and considerate disposition. His interest in the sports and 
games of boys was not sufficient to divert him from books. When 
about seven years old he began to collect specimens of natural his- 
tory. The taste was encouraged by giving him a room at home in 
which to displa}^ them to members of a society of infant naturalists 
which he formed. From the start, shells received most of his atten- 
tion. 

The obseVvant and reflective character of the child's mind is 
notable. He early discovered that a nomenclature was necessary to 
satisfactorily arrange even a small collection of specimens. He in- 
vented one. He named shells according to their shapes or colors, as 
the round shell, the white shell ; one of such irregular form as puz- 
zled him to designate he called the funny shell. The habit of gath- 
ering specimens of natural history begun without method in infancy, 
and more and more systematized as his experience and observation 
matured, was life-long. His first and predominant love for shells 
increased with his years and made him an industrious Vv)tary of 
conchology. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 401 

He was taught the rudiments of learniug at home. After he had 
passed through one or two private schools for children, it was detere 
mined that he should receive academic instruction in the Friends' 
Central School, because it was regarded to be the best available. It 
was then in Race between Fourtli and Fifth streets, and now is at 
the S. W. corner of Race and Fifteenth streets. 

He became a pupil of the institution in October 1850, and con- 
tinued till his school days ended, June 1853. During the almost 
three years here his attention was given only to English studies 
and drawing. The transfer of the family residence, in 1852, to 
Pittville, one of the purlieus of Germantown, live or six miles 
from the business centre of Philadelphia, did not interrupt his regu- 
lar attendance at school, nor hinder the growth of his museum. 
The family returned to, and was permanently established in the city, 
in 1869. 

Very soon after leaving the Friends' Central School he employed 
tutors in the city and studied French, German, and Music until he 
had acquired knowledge enough, to write and speak the languages 
sufficiently well for practical purposes, and to understand the princi- 
ples of musical composition. About this time with some of his 
young friends he formed a musical society or club. Their perform- 
ances enlivened the evenings at their country homes. 

His interest in books created in him a desire to be an author. 
His first effort in this direction was a history of the United States 
finished when he was twelve years old, but not printed. A few 
years later he announced that literary and scientific work would be 
his permanent occupation. But, at the earnest request of his parents, 
he relinquished the project, for a time, and engaged in mercantile 
work in his father's establishment. At the age of nineteen, 1857, 
he was given a share in the business, and on the retirement of his 
father in 1864, he became the principal of the firm, and so contin- 
ued till 1868, when he retired with a modest income, sufficient in 
his estimation to justify indulgence in unrestrained pursuit of science 
and letters. 

He found relaxation from business cares in music. Though not a 
notably skilful player on any instrument, he was acquainted with 
the science of music. 

He wrote a comic opera in three acts, entitled. Amy Cassonet or 
the Eloj^ement, which was acted at the Amateur Drawing Room, 
and published ; but it was in no sense successful. The copyright is 
dated 1875. 
27 



402 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

He sought to spread a love of music among the people and to 
elevate their taste. With this in view he joined in the management 
of the Germania Orchestra for a season. It was a failure. His 
partner disappeared, and Mr. Tryon had to supply pecuniary defi- 
ciencies. 

In connection with a musical-publication firm — Lee and Walker, — 
he edited and j)ublished, prior to 1873, librettos of fifty-two stand- 
ard and popular operas. During 1874 and 1875, he revised and 
edited the sheet-music publications of Lee and Walker, and in the 
sam?, years edited The Amateur ; a monthly magazine of music and 
literature. He also arranged a series of operatic songs which were 
published, in 1875, under the title of Operatic Gems. In 1884, he 
published " Sacred Songs for Choir and Home Circles, a Collection 
of Solos, Concerted Pieces, Hymns, etc.," the music of which consist- 
ed largely of selections from the scores of the more popular operas. 

Mr. Tryon was a warm admirer of the fine arts, and occasionally 
amused himself with painting. 

Music and the fine arts were secondary occupations ; they never 
diverted him from the pursuit of'natural history. 

He w'as elected a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, June 1859. From that time till the end of his life no 
one did more to promote the interests of the institution. His ser- 
vices were many and important. The society is largely indebted to 
Mr. Tryon for the edifice which it now occupies. On his motion, 
November 14th, 1865, a committee was formed " to devise methods 
for advancing the prosperity and efficiency of the academy, by the 
erection of a building " etc. He w^as appointed chairman of the 
committee. The measures recommended by it were adopted. The 
election of a Board of Trustees of the Building Fund followed, Jan. 
11, 1867. Mr. Tryon was appointed Secretary and held the ofiice 
till he died, twenty-one years. He w^as a member of the building 
committee. No one labored more assiduously in every way to pro- 
mote the completion of the enterprise which he had started. He 
gave SoOOO to the building fund ; and his generosity enabled the 
Conchological Section of the Academy to give to it as much more. 

Mr. Tryon was elected a Curator of the academy, January, 1869, 
and resigned July, 1876. Under his direction and personal attention 
the numerous collections of the museum were safely transferred, in 
January 1876, from the old, and arranged in the new building. This 
arduous task was admirably performed. 



I 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADEl.PHIA. 403 

At his instigation the Conchological Section of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences was founded, December 26, 1866. He was a con- 
stituent member, and its Conservator from December, 1875, thir- 
teen years. His skill in conchology is manifest in the admirable 
arrangement and classification; and his incessant carefulness, in the 
excellent condition of the collections which were under his official 
charge. According to the annual report of the Section, December 
1887, they consisted of 189,150 sjjecimens, contained in 51,327 trays 
each with an appropriate label. This enormous collection, and an al- 
most complete conchological library of 954 volumes, besides 455 
pamphlets, bound in 26 volumes, all accessible under one roof, render 
the facilities of study of the subject in the academy unsurpassed. 

Aj^ril 9, 1867, he made a special deposit of more than ten thousand 
species of shells and more than a hundred jars of specimens, chiefly 
of naked moUusks, in alcohol, gathered during his life-long devotion 
to the subject, on condition that none should be loaned. They were 
appropriately intercalated with the academy's collection. The dupli- 
cates were sold, by his direction, and the proceeds of sales covered 
into the treasury of the Conchological Section. It is nrotable that 
he did not stipulate that this very large contribution — the largest 
private collection in this country — should be kept separate from the 
rest of the museum and designated by his name, which is a 
usual condition attached to donations of private natural-history 
cabinets to public museums. It was his opinion that it is unwise to 
accept cabinets on such terms, because it must result sooner or later, 
in encumbering the museum Avith the care of numberless and useless 
duplicates, for which space cannot be easily afforded. 

The records show that Mr. Tryon contributed valuable specimens 
to the museum every year during the remainder of his life. 

He gave, May 7, 1867, 119 volumes and 56 pamphlets on conchol- 
ogy to the library. 

The first number of the American Journal of Conchology, of 
which Mr. Tryon was the editor and proprietor, was issued, Febru- 
ary 1865, Seven volumes were published, the last number in May, 
1872. After the institution of the Conchological Section of the 
Academy it was issued, nominally, by the publication committee of 
the Section, of which Mr, Tryon was chairman, but he was still the 
editor. The third and subsequent volumes contain summaries of 
the proceedings of the Section at its stated meetings. 



404 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

To the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, and to 
the American Journal of Conchology Mr. Tryon contributed sixty- 
four papers, between 1861 and 1873, inclusive, a list of which is ap- 
pended. 

In conjunction with Mr. Wm. G. Binney,in 1864, Mr. Tryon edited 
the complete writings of C. S. Rafinesque on recent and fossil conch- 
ology. In 1866, he published A Monograph on the terrestrial mol- 
lusca of the United States; in 1870, A Monograph of the Fresh- 
water univalve mollusca of the United States ; in 1873, American 
Marine Conchology, and A Monograph on the Streptomatidse (Amer- 
ican Melanians) of North America. This work was prepared at the 
instance of the Smithsonian Institution, and published in its Miscel- 
laneous Collections, in December. It was a result of several years' 
study. The manuscript was completed in 1865, and laid aside. At 
the end of seven or eight years, he again took up the subject, which 
he regarded as " one of the most interesting and difficult branches of 
American Conchology," and found himself " inclined to question 
many of the conclusions " which he had reached. In the preface of 
the work he says: — "A more enlarged acquaintance with fresh- 
water shells convinces me that a much greater reduction of the 
number of species than I have attempted must eventually be made; 
but until the ])rolific waters of the Southern States liave been sys- 
tematically explored, and a great collection of specimens obtained, 
which shall represent every portion of those streams and include as 
many transitional forms as can be procured, a definite monograph 
of our Melanians cannot be written." 

More conclusive evidence of Mr. Tryon's habitual devotion 
to accuracy in all his work than is contained in thfe history of the 
j)reparation of this monograph is not required. 

Mr. Tryon, for the sake of relaxation, left Philadelphia, May 
1874, and returned September 19. During an absence of four 
months, he visited England, Holland, Belgium, Germany, France, 
Switzerland, Italy. 

In a series of letters he wrote good-humored, cheerful sketches of 
his impressions of people and places at which he halted on his way. 
They were published in the Amateur; a monthly magazine of Music 
and Literature. 

He visited England and the continent of Europe again in 1877. 
His route included Liverpool, London, Paris, Marseilles, and thence 
along the coast of the Mediterranean to Nice, San Remo, Genoa, 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 405 

Pisa, Rome, Naples, Sorrento : returning through Venice, Florence, 
Turin, Geneva, Chamouni, Berne, Mayence ; the Rhine, Cologne, 
Brussels, Antwerp and back to London, Liverpool and home, in the 
autumn. 

Now, naturally imbued with the love of truth exclusively for the 
truth's sake; possessed of the true methods of scientific inquiry, and 
equipped with the results of his life-long home studies of the mol- 
lusca, as well as of his observations in the European museums and 
cabinets, Mr. Tryon devised the plan of his greatest work — Manual 
of Conchology — and promptly began its execution. 

The plan embraced four series of volumes. The first series of 
♦eleven or twelve volumes is devoted to the marine univalves ; the 
second, of six or seven, to the terrestrial mollusca ; the third, of four 
or five, to the marine bivalves, and the fourth, of four or five vol- 
umes, to the fluviatile genera. 

The Manual of Conchology, completed according to the author's 
plan, will consist of from twenty-one to twenty-nine octavo volumes, 
all fully illustrated. 

The scope of this great work is described in the " advertisement " 
or preface of the first number, which was finished and ready for pub- 
lication in the last week of December, 1878. Mr. Tryon says, the 
Manual " will include, in systematic order, the diagnoses of all the 
genera and higher divisions of the mollusca, both recent and fossil, 
and the descriptions and figures of all the recent species ; together 
with the main features of their anatomy and physiology, their em- 
bryology and development, their relations to man and other animals, 
and their geological and geographical distribution." 

The numbers of tlie first series were issued quarterly. Volume 
IX was completed December 1887. The nine volumes include 3125 
pages of text, illustrated by 680 plates of 12.055 figures. 

The first number of the second series — terrestrial mollusca — was 
distributed January 1885, and thereafter quarterly to the close of 
Vol. Ill, December 1887. The three volumes contain 942 pages of 
text, illustrated by 187 plates of 6,434 figures. 

Conscious that he probably might not live to complete his enter- 
prise, but without foreboding, Mr. Tryon interested Mr. H. A. Pils- 
bry in it. To him he freely imparted his purposes and views in 
connection Avith it, so that he might continue the publication, should 
it become necessary. Mr. Pilsbry, who had the unreserved confi- 
dence of the author, has succeeded him in his ofiice and will edit 



406 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

the work according to the plan. It will be published by the Conch- 
ological Section of the Academy, of which Mr. Pilsbry is the Con- 
servator, 

Mr. Tryon published the first volume of Structural and System- 
atic Conchology, in 1882 ; the second, in 1883, and the third and 
last volume, in 1884. The three volumes contain 1195 octavo pages 
of text, illustrated by 140 plates of 3,087 figures. 

During the last ten years of his life, Mr. Tryon wrote 5262 octavo 
pages on conchology, illusti-ated by 1007 plates of 21,576 figures. 
To the labor of composition the business cares of publication were 
added : he was the publisher of his own works. 

Until his admission into the Friends' Central School, October 
1850, whatever religious impressions he may have imbibed in child- 
hood, if any, came from the Sunday School and the example and 
teaching of his parents who w^re Lutherans. After leaving school, 
June 1853, he became interested in the Society of Friends and reg- 
ularly attended its meetings during several years. For reasons, no 
doubt conclusive and satisfactory to himself, he left the meetings of 
the Friends, and, from about the year 1876, he was usually present 
at the stated services of the First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia. 
When it was proposed, about 1883, to construct a new building for 
the church Mr. Tryon was chosen one of its trustees. The work 
interested him. He gave very generously ($1000) in aid of its com- 
pletion. He was long chairman of the Society's committee on 
music, and, until his death, was prominent among those who, in 
various ways, actively promoted the interests of the church. 

He was not, however, rigidly sectarian. Knowing that there is 
difference on every question that interests men, his natural spirit of 
tolerance swayed his views and conduct relatively to those holding 
opinions opposite to his own. 

He printed for private circulation, a pamphlet entitled. Church 
and Stage, with the motto, Fiat justitia, mat ccelum. It contains 
twelve octavo pages, and is dated March 15, 1880. 

The object of the paper is to uphold the drama as a proper means 
of popular instruction in spite of its general condemnation by 
clergymen. 

After stating substantially that, in western Europe as well as in 
ancient Greece, the stage is the ofF-spring of the ceremonies of public 
worship — that the mystery play, which followed the liturgical drama, 
was the first form of the serious national stage in England, France, 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 407 

Italy, Spain and Germany/ he contends that in as much as the 
theatre has originated independently and exists under many types 
of civilization — Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Greek, Roman and niod- 
ern European — and the influence of the Christian Church exerted 
against it through so many centuries has failed to extirpate it, the 
institution is likely to continuously thrive. Therefore, instead of 
persistently denouncing the stage, it would be more politic to 
kindly endeavor to point out and eliminate from it all acting that 
is, in any degree, detrimental to morality. 

His manner of treating the subject may be seen in the following 
quotations : 

" The first charge is, ' that dramas are frequently immoral stories, 
abounding in covert or open indecencies of language or action — 
sometimes actually blasphemous,' We appeal to any regular theatre 
goer whether his experience does not partially confirm this. Even 
those who frequent dramatic representations with the intention of 
encouraging only meritorious and unobjectionable plays, occasionally 
through ignorance of the matter of some new drama, or misled by 
uncandid notices of the press, find themselves ' assisting ' at repre- 
sentations, quite bad enough to destroy their faith in the theatre. 
Our own experience, however, and we believe that it will be borne 
out by the experience of every play-goer who has not depraved in- 
stincts, is that plays are usually entirely innocent, and those of a 
serious character are intended to and do inculcate good morals and 
right living, that they teach man's whole duty with, (no Avords are 
more expressive), dramatic force ; that is to say, they make an im- 
pression such as can never be made by either reading or lecture ; 
for, to the power of trained declamation is added the verisimilitude 
of scenery and action. The eye as well as the ear receives and 
transmits the lesson to the brain and heart. No sermon can be 
so effectual for good, simply preached from the pulpit as when it is 
embodied in appropriate action : — that brings it home to us in all 
its reality ; it is no longer a mere abstraction. 

The play's the thing 
Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the kino:. 

" Such is a good play, better than the best sermon, not only more 
powerful but more far-reaching in its beneficent mission. 

" Then if we take up the clerical charge once more, and agree 
that the amount of evil done by conveying this indecency or blas- 
1 See Harper's Magazine, Dec. 1888, p. 62. 



408 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

phemy through the vividness of dramatic portrayal is incalcuahle ; 
that it familiarizes the auditors with wrong thinking, speaking and 
doing, and thus lowers the moral tone of the community,' on the 
other hand, a good play, by parity of reasoning, should have an 
equally incalculable good influence, and we believe that it has. The 
vast majority of men [who] are not attracted towards the church, 
find themselves unable to comprehend its methods, endure its limita- 
tions, or perhaps appreciate its motives — and for these, else left 
without moral instruction, the play yields along with its human 
interests and entertainment, its realistic teaching by example as 
well as precept. 

" Nay more, the clergyman who objects to the representation of 
the prayer scene in ' Hamlet,' does not hesitate to read the passage, 
or to hear it read, perhaps by the very actor who is accustomed to 
play the part, and who will throw into it all the emotion and all 
the action that the lecture platform permits him. He will even 
listen to this recital in the opera house probably, and without 
alarming his conscience ' because it is not a dramatic performance, 
but only a recital.' 

" Thus, to be consistent, it seems that we must at least tolerate 
upon the stage, that which we approve in the library or lecture 
room. But this point is not yet exhausted : there are various con- 
ceptions of morality perhaps, and that of the churchman is not 
necessarily the highest. No one will deny that among theatre-goers 
are to be found persons who are as cultivated in religion, morals 
and manners, as tender of conscience, as responsive to the call of 
duty as any of the abstainers. Is it not rather illiberal then to 
assume that these persons only visit the theatre because they, in this 
particular, disregard the voice of conscience? Again, the lower 
classes of mankind, who frequent the sensational second-class play, 
who read the equally sensational second-class ' weekly ; ' are they to 
be frowned down on account of the vulgarity of their amusements? 
The uncultured cannot become educated christian people at a bound : 
generations of refining influences are required to effect the transfor- 
mation. For these men and women in process of enlightenment, 
with yet unformed, or badly formed tastes, the theatre is a civilizing 
agent of far greater power than it is for their betters. 

" It may be taken for granted that actors as well as audiences are 
susceptible to the moral or immoral lessons of the drama, and if. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 409 

as Ave assert, the vast majority of plays exert great, though un- 
obtrusive moral influence, then so far as their profession may be 
supposed to affect their conduct we should expect to find actors 
respectable and worthy the acquaintance of the pure and noble. 
But, it will be said, there is abundant evidence that at least many 
actors are dissolute people, that they live low, vagabond lives, are 
indecent in language and conduct, drunkards, gamesters, irreligious. 
The evidence, alas ! is abundant, and if it could be proven that the 
proportion of actors wdio are disreputable is larger than in other 
professions, we might accept the fact as some evidence of the cause 
assigned for it ; but it is notorious that in all public professions 
lapses from rectitude are numerous. 

" A word in conclusion concerning those wdio, whilst despising 
the stage and its associations, yet avail themselves of its fruits. They 
owe their best music to its inspiration ; their best choir singers there 
received their education ; their minister is himself indebted to it, 
either directly or indirectly, for the force and grace of style and dec- 
lamation which render him so impressive. Without the stage you 
would not be possessed of Shakespeare — whose single influence for 
good has certainly far outweighed all the evil which the theatre has 
ever done mankind. Those who while discountenancing the theatre, 
read Shakespeare or hear him read ; who listen with delight to the 
operatic overture or aria ; who hang entranced upon the eloquence 
of the rostrum, are meanly, (I had almost Avritten dishonestly) 
enjoying the fruits of an institution which they condemn." 

Whether Mr. Tryon's championship of the stage be acceptable 
or not, few jDersons will fail to perceive in it his philantrophic dis- 
position and love of justice, as well as the degree of his inclination to 
render homage to the Muses. 

To those who would withhold all such matters from a biographical 
account of a scientist as not pertinent, and to those whose hostility 
to the theatre is relentless, the above citations may seem too long ; 
but they ma}^ be excused. They prove that his mental scope took in 
very much more than the truths of natural science; that the com- 
paratively inferior and ignorant classes of society had his symjmthy, 
and that he was ready to help improve their mental and moral level. 
Thus, they indicate a feature of his character not portrayed else- 
where in his writings. None will deny that a feature partly or 



410 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACAPBEMY OF [1888. 

wholly left out obscures or spoils the likeuess, even in a iinished 
painting of a friend. 

Mr. Tryon was notably cautious and conservative in scientific 
work. The personal reputation incident to success he did not appre- 
ciate very highly, nor regard to be among the objects of scientific 
research. Just as a private in the ranks, forgetful of all the labor 
and perhaps blood he has contributed towards it, delights in the 
glory of his regiment, wholly unmindful of the personal distinction 
he may have fairly earned for himself, so INIr. Tryon toiled to pro- 
mote the welfare and fame of the academy, within the bounds of 
which he seemed to have merged his scientific aspirations. Few 
have been like him in this respect; but his example may have fol- 
lowers. Natural modesty, an almost reclusive disposition made him 
reluctant to hold office. He often refused to permit friends to nom- 
inate him for prominent positions in the society, and was apparently 
indifl^erent to the honor of membership in other associations. He 
did not care to publish that he was a corresponding member of the 
California Academy of Natural Sciences, from December 1862 ; of 
the Boston Society of Natural History, from March 1864 ; of the 
Royal Society of Tasmania, from June 1886, nor of any other in 
Avhich his name had been enrolled. 

Mr. Tryon's good sense and unselfish nature ; his cheerful, unpre- 
tentious deportment at all times, won for him affectionate respect 
and enduring friendships. Because he was punctual, prompt and 
efficient in doing, within the limits of official duty, whatever con- 
cerned the interests of the acadeiny, he deserved and had the 
unreserved confidence of all. 

The quantity and quality of work done during his hapjiy career 
are perennial vouchers of his unremitting industry and varied abil- 
ity. It is doubted whether a collegiate training and the Master's 
degree would have facilitated his progress and enabled him to ac- 
quit himself better in any sense. A genius for discovering his own 
deficiencies, and then filling them by opportune self-help, was a 
practical substitute for an Alma Mater. 

Mr. Tryon's abiding desire to increase our knowledge of conchol- 
ogy, which he has done so much to advance, is manifest in his last 
will and testament, dated March 18th, 1886. 

He bequeathed to the Conchological Section of the Academy cer- 
tain real estate to be a source of a permanent trust fund, the income 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 411 

from which is to be applied to augment the Conservator's salary, to in- 
crease the collection of shells, as well as to other purposes, at the 
discretion of the Section. All profits which may be derived from 
his couchological works and from his conchological publication bus- 
iness are to be added to the fund. 

This provision, in connection with the present vast collections and 
an almost perfect library, goes far towards establishing in the United 
States the centre of conchology at the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Tryon was methodical in all his ways, and unswervingly firm 
of purpose. He always did what he believed to be right in face of 
all opposition ; but he tranquilly considered argument against his 
opinions, and gracefully yielded them whenever he could not answer 
it. He passed much of his time in the academy at work among its 
collections and books. For health's sake he appropriated time for 
daily exercise in the open air, without much regard to the state of 
the weather. On Saturday, January 28, 1888, while the temperature, 
ranged between 12° and 17° F. and the Avind was blowing freshly 
from the north-west, he walked briskly in an easterly direction more 
than a mile, and returning faced the wind. Paroxysms of difficult 
breathing forced him to stop many seconds, and several times. On 
reaching home he was much depressed physically ; his circulation 
was abnormally slow and weak, but he soon rallied and seemed to 
be surely recovering. In the course of two or three days a kind of 
roseola, to which he had been liable at times since an attack of scar- 
let fever in childhood, apj^eared, and towards the last became hem- 
orrhagic. He died February 5, the eighth day after his cold walk. 

His fiither, a brother and a sister survive him. His mother died 
December 23, 1869. He was a bachelor. As far as known he was 
at no time inclined to change his celibate condition. 

Accepting a definition that poetry is merely the blossom and 
bloom of human knowledge, Mr. Tryon was Laureate of the king- 
dom of the mollusca. He well knew all its inhabitants — they were 
thousands — and characterized every typical one in descriptive lines 
— full of knowledge but without poetic cadence or poetic measure of 
any kind. But his whole attention was not given to those mollusks. 
He had eyes for all natural objects. He was fond of flowers, had 
studied botany successfully, and learned to botanize. In the summer 
it was his custom to take long walks in the country. On reaching 
home from those walks he was almost sure to be laden with flowers 



412 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

and grasses, gathered by the way, some for study in connection with 
his herbarium, which was large, and others to bedeck certain rooms 
in the house. And now and then a mineralogist was surprised to 
hear him talk so knowingly about minei'als. Indeed, his acquaint- 
ance Avith natural history, generally, was sufficiently intimate to 
make the title of naturalist appropi'iate to him. His knowledge of 
nature and natural things was a pure accomplishment, in no sense 
associated with his bread-wining work while he was the successful 
man of business. 

This imperfect sketch of an eminent benefactor of the academy 
is fittingly closed with the following tributary stanzas, written by 
his friend, our fellow member, Mr. John Ford, Feb. 15, 1888. 



In memoriam. 

As falls the oak, mature and strong in limb, 
A giant 'mong its fellows tall and grand, — 

So fell the peer of those whom Science crowns, 
Th' immortal Tryon, type of noblest men. 

Not human hearts alone do feel the blow 
That struck him down in life's jueridian, — 

The leafy woods, the vales, and quiet streams 

"Where Nature's gems he sought, alike are grieved. 

E'en Neptune mourns the loss of one who knew 
His sea-born children all by sight and name ; 

And from their games the Tritons sadly turn 
To breathe a requiem through horns of pearl. 

His form is gone, but deathless evermore 
On pages manifold his thoughts remain ; 

And there, like ripened fruits, they wait the hands 
Of all who would their charming flavor prove. 

Though well we know the victor's fadeless crown 
His brow adorns, and that he dwells in peace, 

Yet do our hearts, remembering the past. 
Still long to meet him face to face again. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 413 

List of Papers and Books written 
BY George W. Tryon Jr. 

On the raollusea of Harper's Ferry, Va. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Philad. 1861, pp. 396-399. 

Synopsis of the recent species of Gastrochrenidpe, a family of 
acephalous mollusca. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1861, pp. 465- 
494. 

On the classification and synonymy of the recent species of Pliola- 
didre. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, pp. 191-220. 

Description of a new genus, (Diplothyra) and species of Phola- 
didoe, (Dactylina Chiloensis.) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, 
pp. 449-450. 

Notes on American Fresh Water Shells, with descriptions of two 
new species (Vivipara Texana, Amnicola depressa.). Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, pp. 451-453. 

Monograph of the family Teredidse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 

1862, pp. 453-482. 

Contributions towards a monography of the order of Pholadacea, 
with descriptions of new species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 

1863, pp. 143-146. 

Descriptions of two new species of Fresh Water mollusca, from 
Panama, (Planorbis Fieldii, Amnicola Panamensis,). Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, p. 146. 

Description of a new Exotic Melania, (M. Helense.). Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, pp. 146-147. 

Descriptions of new species of Fresh Water Mollusca, belonging 
to the families Aranicolidje, Valvatidse, and Limnteidse, inhabiting 
California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, pp. 147-150. 

Description of a new species Pleurocera (P. j)licatum.). Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, pp. 279-280. 

Description of a new species of Teredo, (T. Thomsonii) from New 
Bedford, Mass. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, pp. 280-281. 

Descriptions of two new species of Mexican Land-Shells, (Helix 
Remondi, Cyclotus Cooperi.). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1863, 
p. 281. 

Synonymy of the species of Strepomatidie, a family of Fluviatile 
Mollusca, inhabiting North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 
1863, pp. 306-322. # 



414 PROCEEDINES OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Synonomy of the species of Strepomatidse, a family of Fluviatile 
Mollusca inhabiting North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Philad. 1864, pp. 24-48, 92-104; 1865, pp. 19-36. 

Description of two new species of Strepomatidre ; Goniobasis 
Haldemani, Pleurocera Conradi. Amer. Journ. Conchol. I, 1865, 
p. 38. 

Descriptions of new species of Pholadidae. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
I, 1865, pp. 39-40. 

Observations of the new genus lo. Amer. Journ. Conchol. I, 
1865, pp. 41-44. 

Catalogue of mollusca, collected by Prof. D. S. Sheldon, at Dav- 
enport, Iowa. Amer. Journ. Conchol. I, 1865, pp. 68-70. 

Observations on the family Strepomatidae. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
I, 1865, pp. 97-135. 

Catalogue of the sjoecies of Physa, inhabiting the United States. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. I, 1865, pp. 165-173. 

Descriptions of new species of Melania. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
I, 1865, pp. 216-218. 

Descriptions of new species of Amnicola, Pomatiopsis, Somato- 
gyrus, Gabbia, Hydrobia, and Rissoa. Amer. Journ. Conchol. i, 
1865, pp. 219-222. ♦ 

Descriptions of New Species of North American Limnseidre. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. i, 1865, p. 223-231. 

Review of the Goniobases of Oregon and California. Amer. 
Journ. Conchol. i, 1865, pp. 236-246. 

Catalogue of the species of Limnsea inhabiting the United 
States. Amer. Journ. Conchol. i, 1865, pp. 207-258. 

Description of a new species of Mercenaria; (M. fulgurans,) 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. i, 1865, p. 297. 

Monograph of the family Strepomatidre. Amer. Journ; Conchol. 
i, 1865, pp. 299-341 ; ii, 1866, pp. 14-52, 115-133. 

An abnormal specimen of Planorbis bicarinatus. Amer. Journ. 
Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 3. 

Descriptions of new fresh-water shells of the United States. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 4-7. 

Descriptions of new exotic fresh-water Mollusca. Amer. Journ. 
Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 8-11. 

Description of a new species of Rissoa ; R. exilis. Amer. Journ. 
Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 12. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 415 

Note on Mr. Pease's species of Polynesian Phaneropneuraoua. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 82. 

Description of a new species of Vivipara ; V. Waltonii. Amer. 
Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 108-110. 

Descriptions of new Fluviatile Mollusca. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
ii, 1866, pp. 111-113. 

Observations on an abnormal specimen of Physa gyrina. Amer. 
Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 114. 

Note on the lingual dentition of the Strepomatidse. Amer. Journ. 
Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 134-135. 

Monograph of the terrestrial mollusca of the United States. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. II, 1866, pp. 218-277, 306-327 ; iv, 1869, 
pp. 5-22. 

Description of a new species Colimina ; C. Leai. Amer. Journ. 
Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 297-298. 

Descriptions of new species of Melaniidre and Melanopsidse. 
Amer. Jour. Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 299-301. 

Description of a new species of Septifer ; S. Trautwineana. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 301. 

Description of a new species of Helix ; H. Bridgesi. Amer. 
Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, p. 303. 

On the terrestrial Mollusca of the Guano Island of Navassa. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. ii, 1866, pp. 304-305. 

Notes on Mollusca collected by Dr. F. V. Hayden in Nebraska. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. iv, 1869, pp. 150-151. 

Catalogue of the families Saxicavidae, Myidse, and Corbulidse. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. iv, 1869, (Append.), pp. 59-68. 

Catalogue of the family Tellinidre. Amer. Journ. Conchol. iv, 
1869, (Append.), pp. 72-126. 

Descriptions of new species of terrestrial Mollusca from Anda- 
man Islands, Indian Archipelago. Amer. Jour. Conchol. v, 1870, 
pp. 100-111. 

Descriptions of new species of marine bivalve mollusca in the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. v, 1870, p. 170-172 ; vi, 1871, pp. 23-24. 

Note on Cyclophorus foliaceus. Reeve (non Chemnitz) and C. Leai, 
Tryon. Amer. Journ. Conchol. vi, 1871, pp. 25-26. 

Notes on Dr. James Lewis' paper "On the shells of the 
Holston River." Amer. Journ. Conchol. vii, 1872, pp. 86-88. 

Catalogue of the family Cyprinidse. Amer. Journ. Conchol. 
vii, 1872, p. 252. 



416 PROCEEDINGS CP THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Catalogue of the recent species of the family of Glaucononiyidse. 
Amer. Journ. Conchol. vii, 1872, pp. 253-254. 

Catalogue of the recent species of the family Petricolidse. Amer. 
Journ. Conchol. vii, 1872, pp. 255-258. 

Catalogue of the recent species of the family Cardiidse. Amer. 
Journ. Conchol. vii, 1872, pp. 259-275. 

Catalogue and synonymy of the recent species of the family 
Lucinidje. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1872, pp. 82-96. 

Catalogue of the family Chamidse. Proc, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 
1872, pp. 116-120. 

Catalogue of the family Chametrachteidre. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sc. Philad., 1872, pp. 120-121. 

Descriptions of three new species of marine bivalve mollusca; 
Crassatella Adelina), Lucina distinguenda, Circe bidivaricata. Proc. 
Acad. <Nat. Sc. Philad., 1872, p. 130. 

Catalogue and synonymy of the family Galeommidse. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1872, pp. 222-226. 

Catalogue and synonymy of the family Leptonidce. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad., 1872, pp. 227-229. 

Catalogue and synonymy of the family Laseidae. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad. 1872, pp. 229-234. 

Catalogue and synonymy of the family Astartidse. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Philad. 1872, pp. 245-258. 

Catalogue of the family Solemyidse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 
1872, p. 258. 

On a series of land and fluviatile Mollusca from Utah. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1873, pp. 285-286. 

The complete writings of Constautine Smaltz Raiinesque on Re- 
cent and Fossil Conchology. Edited by William G. Binney, and 
George W. Tryon Jr., members of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 8vo, pp. 96-|-40-|-8 = 144; plates 3; figures 69. 
Bailliere Brothers, New York ; J. B. Bailliere et Fils, Paris ; H- 
Bailliere, London ; C. Bailly Bailliere, Madrid. 1864. 

A Monograph of the Terrestrial Mollusca inhabiting the United 
States. With illustrations of all the species. By George W. Tryon 
Jr., editor of the American Journal of Conchology; member of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ; corresponding 
member of the Boston Society of Natural History ; the Lyceum of 
New York ; the California Academy of Natural Sciences ; the 
Zoologischen botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, etc. Published by 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 417 

the author, 625 Market street, Philadelphia, 1866. 8vo, pp. 159-j- 
XLIV; i^lates 18, with colored duplicates; figures, 430. Bailliere 
Brothers, New York; J. B. Bailliere, et Fils, Paris; Triibner & 
Co., London ; C. Bailly-Bailliere, Madrid ; Asher & Co., Berlin. 

A Monograph of the Fresh water univalve mollusca of the 
United States, in continuation of Prof S. S. Haldeman's work, pub- 
lished under the above title. By George W. Tryon Jr. Published 
by the Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia,. 1870. 8vo, pp. 238, plates 32. 

Amex'ican Marine Conchology : or descriptions of the shells on 
the Atlantic coast of the United States, from Maine to Florida. 
By George W. Tryon Jr.. member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. Published by the author. No. 19 N. 
Sixth street, Philadelphia, 1873. 8vo, pp. 208 ; plates 44 ; figures 
550. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, (253). Land and Fresh- 
Water Shells of North America. Part IV. Strepomatidse (Ameri- 
can Melanians). By George W. Tryon Jr.. Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Washington, December, 1873. 8vo, pp. LV+435 ; 838 
figures, intercalated with the text. 

Manual of Conchology ; Structural and Systematic; with illustra- 
tions of the species. By George W. Tryon Jr., Conservator of the 
Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. Published by the authoi\ Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Corner Race and Nineteenth streets. 

Vol. I, 1879. Cephalopoda. 8vo, })p. 316; plates 112; figures 
671 

Vol. II, 1880. Muricidre including Purpurinse, 8vo, pp. 289 ; 
plates 70 ; figures 977. 

Vol. Ill, 1881. Tritonidse, Fusidne, Buccinidae. 8vo, pp. 310; 
plates 87 ; figures 1287. 

Vol. IV, 1882. Nassidfe, Turbinellidttj, Volutidse, Mitridse. 8vo, 
pp. 276; plates 58; figures 1345. 

Vol. V, 1883. Margiuellidte, Olividie, Columbellidse. 8vo, pp. 
276; plates 63; figures 1351. 

Vol. VI, 1884. Conidse, Pleurotomidse. 8vo, pp. 400 ; plates 
65 ; figures 1550. 

Vol. VII, 1885. Terebridre, Cancellariidre, Strombidse, Cyprseidse, 
Ovulidse, Cassididse, Doliidse. 8vo, pp. 309 ; plates 75 ; figures 
1301. 

28 



418 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

Vol. VIII, 1886. Naticidte, Calyptrreidre, Onustida?, Turritel- 
Hdre, Vermetidte, Ciiecidse, Eulimidre, Pyramidellidfe, TurbonillidDe.. 
8vo, pp. 461 ; plates 79 ; figures 1582. 

Vol. IX, 1887. Solariidte, lanthinidie, Tricliotropidje, Scalariidfe, 
Cerithiid?e, Rissoidre, Littorinidte. 8vo, pp. 488 ; plates 71 ; figures 
1991. (The first series will be completed iu eleven or twelve 
volumes). 

Second series Terrestrial Mollusca. 

Vol. I, 1885. Testacellidre, 01eacinid?e, Streptaxidre, Helicoidea, 
Vitrinidje, Limacid?e, Arionidte, etc. 8vo, pp. 364 ; plates 60 ; fig- 
ures 1698. 

Vol. II, 1886. Zonitidfe. 8vo, pp. 265 ; plates 64 ; figures 2072. 

Vol. Ill, 1887. Helicidse (begun ; to be completed in three or 
four volumes). 8vo, pp. 313 ; plate 63 ; figures 2664. 

Third series — Marine Bivalves — 4 or 5 volumes. 

Fourth series — Fluviatile genera — 4 or 5 volumes. 

Note — The second, third and fourth series will be continued 
and completed by H. A. Pilsbry, Conservator of the Conchological 
Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Church and Stage, Philadelphia, INIarch 15, 1880, (printed for 
private use). 8vo, pp. 12. 

Structural and Systematic Conchology : An introduction to the 
study of the Mollusca. By George W. Tryon Jr. Conservator of 
the Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. Published by the author, and issued from the 
Academy. 

Vol. I, 1882. 8vo, pp. 312 ; plates 22 ; figures 256. 

Vol. II, 1883. 8vo, pp. 430 ; plates 69 ; figures 1339. 

Vol. Ill, 1884. 8vo, pp. 453 ; plates 49 ; figures 1492. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 419 

December 4. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 
Twenty-five persons pressnt. 

Theories of the Formation oj Coral Islands. — Mr. Charles Morris 
remarked that there exist, as is ,well known, two theories of the 
formation of coral islands, the subsidence theor}' of Charles Darwin, 
and the recent theory propounded by John jNIurray and others, 
which claims that the phenomena can be explained without calling 
in the aid of subsidence. It was not his purpose to offer an}- argument 
on this controverted question, and he would simply say that the 
Darwin theory seemed to him much the most probable, the objec- 
tions to it being, in his view of the case, far less cogent than those 
to the Murray theory. 

If the subsidence theory were accei^ted, however, there was one 
consequence necessarily deducible from it which, so far as he was 
aware, had not yet been definitely considered, and which was not 
without scientific importance. 

The area occupied by coral islands in the Pacific is, as stated by 
Dana, 6000 miles in length and from 2000 to 2500 miles in width, 
thus covering from 12,0t)0,000 to 15,000,000 square miles. This 
includes a blank central area of 1,000,000 square miles in which the 
subsidence is supposed to have been too rapid to permit coral growth, 
beyond which is a region of small atolls, and outside this the region 
of ordinary atolls. Outside this again is a region in which bari'ier 
and fringing reefs replace atolls, and if this region be included the 
total area of subsidence must have been, according to Le Conte, 
about 20,000,000 square miles. 

The depth of subsidence is variously stated. Dana considers that 
the extreme subsidence was at least 9000 or 10,000 feet. Later 
authorities o-ive it at about three miles. As resrards the averasre sub- 
sidence of the whole area it may perhaps be safely assumed as not less 
than 5000 feet, possibly considerably more. If the Darwin subsidence 
theory be accepted, then, an area of sea bottom equal to that of the 
largest continent must have sunk bodily to a depth of at least a 
mile. 

This subsidence may have been correlative with a considerable 
elevation of the land surface, but there is no reason to believe that 
there was any equal elevation of other portions of the ocean bed. 
There are many evidences of local elevation, but all of them taken 
together are unimportant as compared with the great subsidence 
over the coral islana area, and may have been balanced bv local 
subsidence elsewhere. Yet such an immense subsidence, with no 
corresponding elevation of the ocean bottom, could not take place 
without adding greatly to the capacity of the ocean basin. It formed 
what we may speak of as a huge valley in the ocean bed, of 20,000,000 



420 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

square miles iu area and one mile in average depth. The filling of 
such a valley with water must necessarily have caused a marked 
lowering of the general ocean level. If the figures above given be 
assumed as correct it is easy to calculate the amount of depression 
of sea level. 

The area iu question is equal to that of Asia and Europe combined, 
and the effect of its sinking would be equivalent to that of tiie sink- 
ing of the Eurasian continent till covered with water to the averaire 
depth of one mile; since to fill such a valley in the ocean bed would 
require as much water as to cover a continent sinking to the same 
depth. The area named is very nearly one seventh of the whole 
ocean area, and to fill it to a depth of one mile would cause a general 
oceanic depression of one-seventh of this depth, or about 750 feet. 
If the average subsidence be taken at a somewhat greater figure, say 
7000 feet, the consequence Avould be a depression of the ocean level 
of 1000 feet. 

This is no fanciful conclusion. If the subsidence stated really 
took place, without important elevation of the ocean bed elsewhere, 
such a lowering of the general ocean level must necessarily have 
occurred to an extent governed by the average extent of subsidence. 
The effect on the relations of land and ocean altitude would be 
equivalent to an elevation of the whole land surface of the earth to 
a height of 750 or 1000 feet, or some other height dependant on the 
real degree of subsidence. 

Such an effect must have left its marks, in the exposure of con- 
siderable areas of new land along sloping shores, in the draining of 
hays and estuaries, the possible conversion of bays into partly or 
fully land-locked seas, and other drainage results. In fact if such a 
virtual elevation of all the shore regions of the earth took place it 
would seem as if it must have left some generally traceable indica- 
tions, which would furnish an argument in favor of the subsidence 
theory. Yet it may have been so complicated w'ith actual elevations 
and d.^pressions of the land surface as to destroy evidences of its 
existence in most localities. That land drainage and shore eleva- 
tion did take place to a considerable extent during the Tertiary 
epoch is acknowledged, but whether these were due to actual eleva- 
tion, or to a sinking of the ocean level, is a problem which cannot 
be de'iiiitely solved without much fuller evidence than we possess 
at pn^sent. 

The following was ordered to be printed: — 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



421 



ON TWO NEW SPECIES OF STARFISHES. 

BY J. E. IVES. 

While engaged in reviewing the starfishes in the collection of the 
Academy, I found two forms belonging to the genera Pteraster and 
Coronaster which do not appear to have been described. They may 
be thus characterized: 

Pteraster tesselatus, n. sp. , 

Dorsal surface very convex : arms tapering at their aboral ends, 
and much recurved. Rupradorsal membrane regularly reticulated ; 
reticulation forming obliquely arranged hexagonal areas, which are 
very apparent upon the sides of the arms. No spicules found in the 
supra-dorsal membrane. Paxillse about 2 mm. high. Each paxil- 
la surmounted by eight radiating spinelets enclosing a number of 
.smaller ones. 

The spinelets when examined under the mi- 
croscope are found to be composed of two or more 
connected many-sided hollow^ cylinders, the sides of 
which are perforated by elongated apertures as shown 
in the figure representing a portion of a cylinder 
highly magnified. The distal ends of the spinelets 
are inserted into the delicate membranous bands which 
form the reticulation of the supra-dorsal membrane. 
Some of the spinelets perforate this membrane in the 
centres of the hexagonal areas, projecting slightly on 
the surface. On the dorsal surface of the disk and arms, especially 
in the hollows of the inter- radial portions of the disk and of the 
recurved arm, there are numerous minute folds of the integument 
that produce a somewhat granulate appearance of the membrane. 
There are 25-30 spiracula in each hexagonal area. The oscular 
orifice is surrounded by a number of webbed spinelets. 

On the ventral surfiice the actino-lateral spines are short, about 
70 on each side of the ambulacra! furrow. There are a correspond- 
ing number of ambulacral combs. At the base of the arm each 
comb has 6 spines ; the three outer spines are the longest and about 
equal ; the fourth (counting from the outside) rather smaller, the 
fifth very small, and the rudimentary sixth spine very minute, and 
directed towards the aboral end of the arm. The number of spines 







422 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

in a comb decreases towards the end of the arm. The ambulac- 
ral feet are in two rows, 80-90 feet in each ray. There are twelve 
spines at each angle of the mouth forming a single web. The four 
central spines are the longest, the first pair of spines on the outside 
of these rather smaller, the next half the size of the last pair, and the 
two outermost pairs very short. Two large well developed secondary 
mouth-spines in each interradial angle. 

Greatest diameter of specimen from tip of one arm to tip of an 
opposite arm 100 mm. ; proportion of radius of disk to radius of arm 
as 1 to 2 : height of disk 35 mm. 

A single specimen ; color in alcohol, dull yellowish grey. 
This species differs from Pter aster pulv ill us, Sars, to which it appears 
to be closely allied, by its longer arms; the absence of large conical 
papilltTe upon the supra-dorsal membrane ; its greater size, being 
about half as large again; the relatively much greater number of am- 
bulacral combs and actino-lateral spines, and the different size and 
number of tlie spines of the ambulacral combs. It also appears to 
be closely allied to PL semireticulatus, Sladen, but may be distin- 
guished from it by the prominent central spinelets of the paxillaj, 
which perforate the supra-dorsal membrane; the greater number 
and difference in size of the spiracula ; the absence of any tendency 
towards a quadruple arrangement of the ambulacral feet — the great- 
er number of ambulacral and mouth spines, and in its greater size 
being about oi times as large as Pt. semireticulatus. It differs al- 
together from Pteraster aporus, described by Dr. H. Ludwig from 
Behring Sea, — Pt. aporus having no oscular orifice. Pt. aporus ap- 
pears to be the only species of Pteraster that has hitherto been de- 
scribed from that region. 

Below, I give a list of the species of Pteraster that have been 
described up to the ])resent time. 
P. militaris, 0. F. Miiller. Zool. Dan. Prodr. p. 234; Muller and 

Troschel, System der Asteriden, })p. 44, 128, pi. VI, fig. 1 ; 

Sars, Oversigt af Norges Echinodermer, }). 48, Tab. iv, v, 

vi, fig. 1-13. 
P. militaris, O. F. Miiller, var. prolata, Sladen. Trans, Roy. Soc. 

Ediub. xxxii, p 153. 
P. puvillus, Sars. Oversigt af Norges Echinodermer, p. 62, Tab. vi, 

figs. 14-18, Tab. vii, viii, ix, figs. 1-6. 
P. multipes, Sars. Vidensk. Selskabs. Forliaudlinger, 1865, p. 200; 

Fauna litloralis Norvegiae p. (55. Tab. viii, figs. 1-17. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 423 

P. Dance, Verrill. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vol. xii, p. 386 ; 

Trans. Conn. Acad. vol. i, p. 568, pi. IX, figs. 11, 11a. 
P. affinis, E. A. Smith. Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. xvii, p. 108. 
P. rugatus, Sladen. Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xvi, p. 195. 
P. stellifer, Sladen. Journ, Linn. Soc. vol. xvi, p. 195. 
JR. semireticulatus, Sladen. Journ. Linn, Soc. vol. xvi, p. 195. 
P. carlbbceus, Perrier. Comptes Rendus xcii, p. 59 ; Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. ix, p. 13 ; Nouv. Arch. Mus. (2) vi, p. 216. 
P. ajwrus, Ludwig. Zoologische Jahrbiicher 1886, p. 293. 

Coronaster bispinosus, n. sp. 

Twelve long slender arms. 
. Dorsal skeleton of disk reticulated ; formed of imbricated ossicles, 
and enclosing irregularly shajied meshes in which are found from 
four to ten respiratory tubes. Distributed irregularly on the skele- 
ton of the disk are short spines, each bearing a little cluster of cross- 
ed pedieellarise. Madreporic plate small and submarginal. 

Dorsal skeleton of arms reticulated : Reticulation formed by 
five longi'tudinal bands of imbricated ossicles, connected at about 
•every fourth plate by similar transverse bands, forming large rec- 
tangular meshes. Meshes longest in the direction of the arms, con- 
taining a large number of tentacular papillse. Sometimes closer and 
irregular in shape at the base of the arms. At the junction of the 
longitudinal and transverse bands, stand long pointed spines, each 
spine surrounded about its middle by a closely packed cluster of 
crossed pedieellarise. 

Each of the adambulacral plates carries an inner and outer spine, 
the outer spine being slightly more adoral than the inner one, thus 
showing a tendency of the two spines to alternate. 

Length fz-om centre of disk to end of arm, 140m; radius of disk, 
12m. 

Color of the single specimen in alcohol pale flesh color, with the 
skeletal portions white. 

This form undoubtedly belongs to the genus Coro?ia5fer of Perrier 
(Echinodermes du Travailleur et du Talisman, Annates des Sciences 
Naturelles, VI? Serie, T. XIX, No. 8, 1885.) He gives, however, as 
a character of the genus the existence of a single spine on each ad- 
ambulacral plate, wdiereas in Coronaster bispinosus there are two 
such spines to each plate. This character of the genus must there- 
fore be modified in order to admit this species. 



424 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888^ 

The form described differs from Coronaster Parjaiti, Perrier, the 
only other species of the genus, principally by the character above 
mentioned, viz, the existence of two spines on each adambulacral 
plate. It also differs by its greater size, the radius of the disk being 
twice as great, and the arms from the centre of the disk to their tips,, 
three times as long. 



1888.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 425- 

December 11. 
The President, Dr. Jog. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-three persons j^resent. 

A paper entitled "Description of a New Species of Orithopristis 
ffom the Galapagos Islands." By David S. Jordan and Burt 
Fesler, was presented for publication. 

Double Cocooning in a Spider. — Dr. Henry C. McCook remarked 
that spiders may be divided into two grouj)S in relation to their 
cocooning habit. The individuals of one grou^) habitually spin 
several cocoons. Those of the other group habitually spin but one. 
The latter, however, are subject to some variation, the reasons for 
which have not been satisfactorily explained. Epeira diademata 
for example, habitually spins but one cocoon, and yet the Spanish 
investigator Termeyer,^ in the early part of this century, discovered 
and announced that she would spin as many as six cocoons when 
specially nourished. The fact struck the speaker as an extraordinary 
one, and he had never yet quite obtained consent to fully admit it. 

There are some facts, however, which have recently been uncovered 
that show a tendency to a variation of habit in tliis line in one of 
our familiar orb-weavers. Several years ago a clerical friend, the 
Rev. Dr. P. L. Jones, had brought him two cocoons of Argiope 
cophinarla ( Walck.)'^ Avhich had been spun on his premises by the 
same spider. The fact seemed to him strange and interesting, and 
he reported it. About a year ago, Mrs. Mary Treat brought to 
Dr. ]\IcCook's notice the fact that she had discovered what appeared 
to be a variety of Argiope cophinaria, which makes four cocoons, 
and which she had accordingly named Argiope imdtichoncha.^ She 
sent him a string of these cocoons of which there were four of the 
usual shape and about the usual size, strung within a few inches of 
each other. They wei'e spun on the wall of a kitchen in a house in 
western Missouri. Mrs. Treat also sent the spider which spun the 
cocoons. The specimen was very much dried up and in such a con- 
dition that the speaker could not make a very satisflictory study of 
it, but he found nothing in it differing in the least degree from 
Argiope cophinaria. If it be the same species, what are the peculiar 
circumstances that have caused such a remarkable variation in the 
habit? or is it true that this species does, more frequently than has 
been supposed, indulge herself in the luxury of an additional egg- 
sac ? Two cocoons of this lot were opened and found to contain 
young spiders that had hatched, but died within the egg-sac probably^ 



1 See Walckenaer's Apteres Vol. I, p. 152. 

^ Arg. ri/iai-iti (Hentz). 

3 American Naturalist, December 1S87, p. 1122. 



426 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

because of their unnatural condition. The spiderlings were not 
counted but they were very numerous. 

Througli information kindly given by Dr. Leidy, the President of 
the Academy, Dr. McCook was permitted to study on the olst 
•October last, (1888,) an example of this duplex cocoonery which 
occurred in the Farmer's Market of Philadelphia. He visited the 
market house at 12th and Market Streets, which is one of the largest 
and best of its sort in our city. He had no difficulty in finding the 
■cocoons which had been preserved, and made a study of them which 
is here submitted. The facts are as follows : Some time during the 
.-summer of the present year, Mr. Charles Moore observed upon his 
meat stall a spider whose beauty attracted his attention, and which 
proved to he a female of Argiope cophiiiaria. She had probably 
been brought into the market from the country, hidden among the 
leaves of some vegetable, as the huge Tarantula and the large Lateri- 
grade spider, Ileterapoda vemitoria, are brought to our port from the 
West Indies in bunches of banannas and other fruits. However, 
:she may have floated in as a young balloonist from some city garden, 
for the species is very abundant in open grounds within city limits. 
Instead of brushing her down and killing her after the usual manner 
of dealing with such creatures, Mr. jMoore took a fancy to preserve 
lier, and would allow no one around his stall to inflict any injury 
upon her. Her movements were necessarily somewhat impeded and 
modified by the business of the place, and several times she changed 
her web until at last she spun it in a position that was practically 
free from interruption. This was quite at the top of the stall, the 
main foundation line, two feet long, was stretched from a standard 
beam to the end of a projecting iron hook-rod. The spider became 
quite a favorite and those around the stall amused themselves by 
feeding her with flies. She would take the flies thrown into her web, 
-coming down from her habitual perch against the central white 
:shield which characterizes her snare, to get them. 

Sometime between the 10th and 20th of August she began to make 
her first cocoon. jNIr. INIoore, of course, made no careful study of the 
process; but he said that it was spun early in the morning; that at 
^irst the spinning work thrown out was as white as snow; that the 
•spider then began to wrap it up, and it grew smaller and smaller as 
.she wrapped, rolling it around with her feet. After the white ma- 
terial had been s{)un, a brownish silk was used, and when the spider 
had completed her task, the ball was not more than half as big as 
it seemed to him at first. About a week or ten days thereafter, she 
made a second cocoon, placing it in a position 15 inches above the 
other. Both of the cocoons were in site precisely as left by the 
.spider. The web, however, had been destroyed, but the speaker 
noticed that an irregular mass of spinning work was laid along the 
beam between the two cocoons, which after a little observation 
proved to be the last snare which the spider had made in a collapsed 
•condition. The foundation line had been broken and the web had 
thus shrunken up against the post. By delicate and careful mauipu- 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 427 

latioii, he was able to draw out this mass, and was delighted to find 
that he could restore with very little damage the spider's orb, the 
central shield and zigzag ribbons being quite intact. 

The cocoons were both of them spun within tents of crossed lines 
five or six inches long and four or five wide, and had a thickness of 
between two and three inches. The lines constituting the under 
edges ot the tents were attached to the post of the stall on which the 
web was spun. The lower cocoon which was spun first, had the top 
lines of the surrounding tent stayed against an iron bar used to 
support meat hooks. The upper tent has its roof lines sustained and 
drawn out from the post by the foundation line of the orb. The 
lines of which these tents were spun were of a greenish yellow silk, 
similar to that which the spider uses in preparing the cocoon. He 
took the cocoons home and dissected them. The lower one was one 
and one-fourth inches long, seven-eighths inch wide; was composed 
of a soft yellow silken plush, and inside was constructed precisely 
like the ordinary egg-sac of this species. It contained 120 eggs, all 
■of tliem sterile. The only peculiarity in the cocoon was that the 
stem which one usually finds at the top was missing. The second 
cocoon was not quite so large, one inch long, and five-eighths inch 
■wide, but it was more perfect in shape, containing the usual stem. 
The eggs within this cocoon were also sterile, and the number did 
not exceed 50. As he had on several occasions counted over a 
thousand eggs in the cocoon of this species, it will be seen that the 
spider was not in a normal condition. Indeed he had concieved the 
idea that in most cases where this spider spins more than one cocoon, 
it will be found that the eggs are not fertile, and that on the con- 
trary when the eggs are in the normal condition, but one cocoon 
will be made. 

We may probably account for the making of the second cocoon 
by some abnormal condition of the ovaries which prevented the ovi- 
positing of all the eggs at once. The first lot when extruded were 
protected in the usual way; subsequently Nature compelled the 
mother to get rid of the remaining eggs, and, moved by the same 
impulse that caused her to cover the first lot, she was excited to 
overspin the second also. 

Tliis species will make an imperfect or but part of a cocoon in 
confinement, and Dr. McCook exhibited a specimen which shows 
that she sometimes does likewise in natural site. This is a branch 
which in one place shows the beginning of a cocoon, being the little 
cup against which the eggs are always spun, and also what appears 
to be the inner egg-bag. There is nothing more, and the whole is 
stayed and shut in by the usual tent-like spinning work. Near by 
is a perfect cocoon secured in quite the same manner. If we suppose 
that those two were made by the same spider (as is highly probable) 
we may infer that the original cocooning purpose of the mother was 
diverted in some manner, perhaps by alarm, w'hich drove her from 
the spot. She returned to enclose the work partially done; but 
moved by the urgency of motherhood, presently found a neighboring 
site and finished her maternal duty. 



428 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888, 

Ihe Value of Abbofs ^fauuscript Drawings of American Spiders. — 
Dr. Henry C. McCook reviewed some recent criticisms upon a 
commuiiicatiou presented by him to this Academy. He spoke as 
follows: 

In the last number of "Psyche, " ^ Mr. J. H. Emerton prints a 
criticism upon my paper in the Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," based upon the recent discovery 
of Mr. John Abbot's drawings of American spiders. This criticism 
requires some comment. 

1. Mr. Emerton intimates doubt of what he calls my "off-hand 
identifications." I spent between one and two hours in the Zoologi- 
cal Library of the British Museum, aided by the courteous officials. 
I confined my attention almost wholly to the one tribe with which 
I am most familiar, the Orbweavers. Of those I published in my 
paper twenty one (21) numbers, embracing seventeen species. Mr. 
Emerton says: In 1875 I looked over these same drawings at the 
British Museum "I, like Mr. McCook, made hasty identifications of 
such few of them as I could." It might have been true thirteen 
years ago that Mr. Emerton was unable to determine accurately that 
number of common species within the time whicli I gave to them, 
but I do not hesitate to say that he could not plead such inability 
now after his study and publication of the New England Epeiridse. 
At least, I should have small upiiiion of my own attainments if I 
could not identify "off-hand," from the admirabje drawings of John 
Abbot, such familiar species as most of those named in my list. I 
think that any entomologist, familiar with j\Ir. Abbot's work, who 
will substitute for spiders seventeen species of insects with which he 
is most familiar, will quite agree with me that such determination is 
not one of great difficulty. 

2. Mr. Emerton does scant justice to inv paper by leaving tlie 
impression that its conclusions arc based wholly upon the ofi'-liand 
identifications of an hour or two. On the contrary, that was a 
small part of my work. I took carefully the numbers of Abbot's 
drawings with his notes thereon, as w^ell as my own notes upon the 
same made on the spot. After my return home, I diligently com- 
pared these with Walckenaer's number, and satisfied myself tliat 
the two exactly corresponded. I then went over WalckcMiaor's des- 
criptions in the original (French),'' and con)])ared them with the 
species themselves in my collection, verifying thus my first identifica- 
tion. This occupied the leisure hours of several months; and the 
indications and, in part, results of all this work may be seen in my 
pa])er, where I give the evidence and references by which the student 
can test my work if he will take the pains to do so. 

3 Mr. Emerton institutes a comparison between my published 
list and a few numbers identified by him, from which he derives a 

1 Psyche, the organ of the "Cambridge Entomological Club," Vol, 5, No. 149- 
150, Sept.— Oct. 1888. 

^ 1888, pp. l-6,"Necessity for Revising the Nomenclature of American Spiders." 
s Histoire Nalurelle des Insectes Apteres, Vol. II. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 429 

moral as to "the uncertainty of ofF-hand identifications of these draw- 
ings by two persons both familiar with the common spiders of the 
Z^orthern States." But the inference is wholly deceptive, for the 
basis of his comparison is entirely faulty and unfair. He published 
a list of thirteen (13) numbers, noted by him as identified thirteen 
years ago when he visited the British Museum. Of these, four 
numbers are of other species than Orbweavers ; two other 
numbers are Orbweavers which I did not notice or did not list. 
Emerton includes all these in his estimate; but it is manifest that 
any comparison, in order to yield just results, should throw out these 
six numbers not listed or considered by me, and should be con- 
fined wholly to the seven numbers which both of us attempted 
to identify. Such a comparison justifies a conclusion quite the 
reverse of Mr. Emerton's. We agree as to the following: Nos. 121, 
116, 117, 79 and 80 — five out of the seven. How stands it as to the 
remaining two numbers, (one species) 77 and 78? Mr. Emerton 
marks them with a generic name, " Uloborus." I list them as 
*' Cyrtophora caudata Hentz, " but in a secondary place, and in a 
foot-note express my uncertainty as to the identification, and think 
they may prove to be my own species C. bifurca. Concerning the 
only species, (embraced in these two numbers) about which we differ, 
I express my uncertainty, and Emerton merely gives a generic name, 
showing his uncertainty as to the species. In other words, we are 
both more or less uncertain, and thus we agree in that respect also. 
I submit, therefore, that instead pf justifying Mr. Emerton's inference 
of uncertainty, and thus casting cloubt upon my identifications, the 
contrary is shown, for we actually agree in one way or another on 
every number concerning which both give an opinion. In other 
words, we absolutely agree concerning five-sevenths of the numbers 
mutually identified, and agree to be uncertain concerning the other 
two-sevenths. 

As to which list is nearer the truth in the one uncertain fiictor, 
I do not venture to decide. Turning to the original description of 
Walckenaer,^ one finds that he is left in doubt, and the doubt can per- 
ha})s not be removed. Walckenaer makes one of the numbers a variety 
of the other. If we read the description of the animal itself, INIr. 
Emerton's identification as Uloborus is well justified; but when we 
turn to Abbot's account of the habits of the spider, we find that 
they differ entirely from all we know of Uloborus, and correspond 
exactly with the peculiar habits of Cyclosa caudata, especially the 
habit of covering the central diameter of its vertical net with pellets 
of silk mixed with insect detritus. Uloborus spins a horizontal 
snare; has many ribboned decorations as caudata frequently has, 
but never has been observed, so far as I know, to decorate her orb 
with insect scalpage. 

1 Op. cit., p. 144. 



430 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

4. Mr. Emerton's conclusion concerning the questions raised by ray- 
paper is that we should wait until all the common spiders of America 
are described before attempting to determine priority of names. 
This seems to me very curious reasoning. Emerton has described 
and figured all but two of the spiders contained in my list of Abbot's 
drawings. Does lie intend us to count his work as worthless for 
comparative service? I think better of it than that. With his 
New England "Epeiridte" and Hentz's "Spiders of the United States" 
in my hand, I have no doubt at all of my ability to determine 
positively therefrom the ultimate names of many species by comparing- 
the same with Walckenaer's descriptions and Abbot's drawings. 
What we need chiefly is a facsimile copy of the latter somewhere in 
America; but in lieu of that, that some one should take up the 
matter in London with a good collection of American spiders. 

Meanwhile, no naturalist ought to doubt that it is our duty to recog- 
nize the Walckenaer species which we know by whatever means to 
be identical with descriptions made by Hentz, repeated by Emerton 
and others, and now thoroughly familiar and recognizable. As to 
the doubtful species, there can, of course, be no question that they 
had better remain as named by Hentz and more fully described by 
others. AValckenaer's descriptions are undoubtedly incomplete and 
some are positively l>ad, but they are no worse in this respect than 
many of Hentz's, and in my opinion are just as readily identified l)y 
the aid of Abbot's di-awings as are Hentz's descriptions by the aid of 
his own drawings. 

At this point I may submit the opinion of one who stands at the 
very head of living araneologists, Professor T. Thorell, who thus 
writes me from Italy in a letter dated April 7th, 1888: "The dis- 
covery of Abbot's drawings of American spiders is indeed a fact of 
the greatest interest, not only to American but to all arachnologists, 
and I congratulate you upon having had the luck to make this 
discoverv. Of course I have read with great attention what you 
have said on the subject, As to me, I do not entertain the least 
doubt that you and Professors Leidy, Lewis and Dall are right, and 
that the earlier names should in all cases be adopted. The law of 
priority must be respected, and is the only one that prevents arbi- 
trariness and that gives stability to nomenclature. I think, then, 
that in all such cases, in which Walckenaer's species can with toler- 
able certainty be recognized, his names should be preferred to names 
more lately published, even if these names are more commonly used, 
or the species better described or figured under these newer names." 
The weight of this distinguished authority can not be questioned, 
and I place it in the scale against the judgment of Mr. Emerton. 

I venture to add from the same letter the following sentence, with 
the earnest expression of hope that the suggestion therein may be 
realized: "Would it not be possible to have Abbot's work publish- 
ed ? There are in America so many Avealthy citizens who are 
willing to make sacrifices for scientific purposes; and in this case an 
appeal to the national feeling of your countrymen, would not, I 



1888.] NATUEA.L SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 431 

think, be out of place." Over against such an expression as this I 
am willing to place my critic's words, "'Mr. INIcCook is inclined,, 
however, to set too high a value on these drawings." 

0. Finally, I think I may say under all the circumstances that 
I am excusable for believing that my so called "discovery" of 
Abbot's drawings was a genuine novelty. I cannot remember a 
single allusion in any araneological literature to the existence in the- 
British ^Museum or elsewhere of those drawings. The last reference 
made to them of which I have knowledge was Dr. L. M. Underwood's 
paper on the "Progress of Arachuology in America," in the American 
Xaturalist of November 1887. The author alludes to Abbot's 
manusci'ipts (miscalling him "Thomas," by the way, instead of 
"John"), and- adds. "Knowledge of the date of preparation of this 
series of drawings, as well as its present place and condition is want- 
ing. But it was in London as early as 1802, and was purchased by 
Baron Walekenaer in 1821." Mr. Emerton, in his several admira- 
ble monographs, makes no reference to the fact that he knew of the- 
existence of the drawings, and does not make the slightest attempt 
to compare the list in his possession with the descriptions of Walek- 
enaer. This seems to me all the more remarkable in view of the 
tact, as above sliown, that he had accurately determined some of 
Hentz's species as identical with some of Abbot's numbers, and could 
readily have made the further step of determining their correspond- 
ence witli Walckenaer's descriptions. His reasons for this reserve 
are doubtless satisfactory to himself, and I will iiot venture to criti- 
cize tljcin; Init will say that I am quite satisfied with having taken 
the opposite course and given to the world, at the earliest available 
opportunity, the information which had accidentally been placed in 
my possession, and which I believed at the time to be new and 
valuable. That it was new to most students of spiders has been 
made very certain by the responses to my paper. That it is valuable 
may in some minds admit of doubt; but, on the whole, I think that 
I have shown here, if not before, that the measure of doubt is very 
small. 

Food of Barnacles. — Prof Lfidy stated that last summer, in 
June, while walking on shore at Beach Haven, N. J., he picked up 
a bunch of Goose-barnacles, Lepas faselcularis, attached to a frag- 
ment of a grass stem, Spartina. Finding at the time nothing else 
of interest, he examined the specimens, not having previously dissec- 
ted a Barnacle since 1848, when he observed the eyes in Balunus 
rugosus (See Proc. 1848, 9). 

All the specimens of Lepas, of which there were nine, had the 
body distended with a brownish-yellow Cyclops, in large number,. 
fresii in appearance and generally entire. Under the circumstances 
he at first suspected that they might be a larval form of the Lepas^ 
though aware of the fact that the cirripeds proceed from a Nauplius 
embryo, which passes through a Cypris stage before assuming the- 
Barnacle condition. On further investigation he was convinced 



432 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

that the Cyclops were food and filled the stomach. ^It appeared 
remarkable that they should haye been so well preserved and not 
crushed by the strongly, six-toothed mandibles of the Barnacle. 
Some additional specimens of this species and a few of Lepas anati- 
fera, subsequently examined did not contain such an accumulation 
of similar food; but usually the contents of the stomach consisted 
from two to half a dozen small gastropods with the shell, several 
species of entomostraca, some sand grains and a few vegetable fibres. 
In all, the brood-capsule^ a thin elliptical lamina, situated between 
the body and the shell, contained Nauplius larvae. 



DecembePv 18. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 
Sixteen persons present. 



December 25. 
The President, Dr. Joseph Leidy, in the chair. 

A paper entitled "Notes on Geology and Mineralogy" by John 
Eyerman was presented for publication. 

The death of Dr. Casper Wister, a member, Dec. 20, was an- 
nounced. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 43S 



The following animal reports were read and referred to the Pub- 
lication Committee: — 

REPORT OF RECORDING SECRETARY. 

In view of the full reports of the Treasurer, the Curators, the 
Librarian and the various sections of the Academy, the Recording 
Secretary has, as heretofore, but little to report apart from the 
statistics of the meetings of the society and the operations of the 
Publication Committee. 

One hundred and sixty-eight pages of the Proceedings for 1887 
and two hundred and seventy-two pages of the current volume have 
been issued and distributed. Provision has been made for twenty 
plates in illustration of the papers presented for publication during 
the year. These number thirty- four and are by the following au- 
thors: — 

Rev. H. C. McCook 3, W. D. Hartraan 3, Jos. Leidy 2, D. S. Jordan 
2, Harrison Allen 2, Angelo Heilprin, 2, Thomas Meehan 2, Charles 
Wachsmuth and Frank Springer 2, H. C. Chapman and A. P. 
Brubacker 2, H. C. Chapman 1, Otto Meyer 1, B. H. Wright 1, A. 
M. Fielde 1, E. N. S. Ringueberg ], E. A. Kelly 1, C. Ochsenius 1, 
John Ford 1, C. R. Keyes 1, H. F. Osborn 1, H. A. Pilsbry 1, J. E. 
Ives 1, John Eyerman 1, R. W. Schufeldt 1. One of these has been 
withdrawn by the author and the others are all in course of publica- 
tion although two or possibly four will have to be held over until 
the issue of the first sheets of the volume for 1889. 

Eighteen additions have been made to the list of foreign corre- 
spondents to whom the issues of the Proceedings are distributed, the 
number being now four hundred. The domestic exchanges are 
now sixty-eight, an increase of seven over last year. The subscrip- 
tion list remains the same, so that five hundred and eighty-two 
copies of the one thousand printed are promptly distributed. 

The second part of the ninth volume of the quarto Journal con- 
sisting of one hundred and ten pages and five lithographic plates 
was distributed, after much vexatious delay in the printing office, on 
the sixth of August. Fifty copies were sent to foreign and twelve 
copies to domestic exchanges, while thirty-nine copies were supplied 
to subscribers, making a total distribution of one hundred and one 
copies of the five hundred printed. 
29 



434 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

The average attendance at the meetings has been about the same 
as last year. Communications, which have been interesting and 
varied, have been made by Messrs Leidy, Heilprin, Lewis, Meehan, 
Chapman, McCook, Koenig, Dolley, Ryder, Horn, Brooks, Dall, 
Rothrock, Binder, "Willcox, Morris, Wilson, Kelly, Foote, Sharp, 
Meyer, Woolman, McKean, Robinson, Ford, Brinton, Redfield, V. 
C Smith, Ives, Holstein and Le Boutillier. 

Eleven members and four correspondents have been elected. The 
deaths of thirteen members and two correspondents have been an- 
uounced and two members, Messrs C. L. Kilburu and Rev. Geo. 
D. Boardman, have resigned. 

The vacancy in the Council caused by the death of Mr. S. Fisher 
Corlies was filled June 26, by the election of Mr. Wm. "W, Jefferis. 

The following extract from the will of the late Geo. AY. Tryon Jr. 
was read at the meeting of Feb. 14, 1888 : — "I give to the Academy of 
2s^atural Sciences of Philadelphia my collection of shells now deposited 
with that society conditioned that they .shall not be loaned or re- 
moved from the immediate custody of the said Academy and of its 
Conchological Section. "' The bequest was accepted on the condition 
as stated. 

A bond of indemnitv having been given Feb. 14 to the executors 
of the estate of the late Mary R. D. Smith, the Academy was placed 
in possession of the sum of 81201. 4U the proportion of said estate 
bequeathed to the society by Miss Smith. 

The thanks of the Academy were voted to Dr. Charles Schaffer for 
his gift of 84939. 58, the amount received by him as commissions 
while acting as executor under the will of the late John Bryden to 
whose estate, in accordance with the wish of Dr. Schafl'er, the gift 
has been credited. 

A like vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. Theodore D. Rand for 
the gift of 8100.00, the amount received by him for professional 
services in connection with the same estate. 

The Academy having considered a deed of trust executed by Mrs. 
Emma W. Hayden for the endowment of the Hayden Geological 
Fund of Two Thousand Five Hundred Dollars, in memory of her hus- 
band the late Prof. Ferdinand V. Hayden, the interest of which to- 
gether with a bronze medal is to be awarded annually for the best 
publication, exploration, discovery or research in the .sciences of 
geology and paleontology, by a committee to be appointed by the 
Academy, the said deed of trust was accepted by and ordered to be 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 435 

executed on behalf of the Academy, May, 1, 1888, and the following 
resolution for the appointment of the required committee was 
adopted : — 

Resolved — That a committee not exceeding five, to be appointed 
under the deed of trust of ^Nlrs. Emma W. Hayden, shall first be rec- 
ommended by the Council of the Academy and shall be selected 
from the members at larsre and their names submitted to a vote of 
the Academy annually, and if said vote of the Academy shall show 
their election, they shall act as such committee under said deed. 

The thanks of the Academy were ordered, November 20, to be 
conveyed to Mrs. Clara Jessup Bloomfield Moore for her liberal addi- 
tion of 85000.00 to the Jessup Fund endowed by her father, the late 
A. E. Jessup. By subsequent action of the Council the entire amount 
was ordered to be placed to the credit of that portion of the fund 
which is appropriated to the assistance of young naturalists. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Edw. J. XOLAX. 

Recording Secretary. 



REPORT OF CORRESPOXDIXG SECRETARY. 

The duties of the Corresponding Secretary during the past year 
have been neither important nor onerous. 

The correspondence has related mainly to the publications of the 
Academy, being either acknowledgments from corresponding socie- 
ties or the usual letters transmitting their publications. 

The acknowledgments number sixty by letter and forty-three by 
card, divided as follows : 

By card, American societies 23, Foreign 20. 
By letter, American societies 15, Foreign 45. 

The letters of transmittal represent thirty-eight bodies, of which 
but one is American. These, with the latter exception, are very 
nearlv all those continuing their sendings through the International 
Exchange Agency. 

During the past year the duties of the office were kindly perform- 
ed bv the Curator-in-charge for five months in the interval of the 
Secretary's absence abroad. 

An opportunity was aiforded of seeing personally the officers 
in charge of the libraries of some of our corresj^onding societies, and 



436 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888. 



of examining tlie series of our publications on their shelves. The 
deficiencies which we could probably supply were indicated, as well- 
as those not at our disposition. 

All expressed themselves satisfied with the sending of our publica- 
tions by mail and promised to do the same when the size of their 
volume permitted. 

During the year there have been elected four Correspondents of 
the Academy all of whom have been promptly notified. 

The duty of acknowledging donations to the museum which by the 
by-laws, devolves on the Corresponding Secretary, has been assum- 
ed by the Curator-in-charge. The Corresponding Secretaiy 
would again suggest such modification of the laws as will render 
this legal. The reasons for the change are too obvious to need ex- 
planation. 

Resj^ectfully submitted, 

George H. Horn, M. D., 

Corresponding Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 

The additions to the library recorded since November 30, 1887 
amount to 3957, an increase of 577 over those received during the 
preceding year. They consisted of 659 volumes, 3284 pamphlets 
parts of periodicals and instalments of continued works and 14 
maps. 

The Accessions have been received from the following sources: — 



Societies, 

Editors, 

I. V. Williamson Fund, . 

Authors, 

'I'homas Meehan, 

Geological Survey of Sweden, 

Geological Survey of Russsin, 

Wilson Fund, 

Australian Museum, . . 

In Exchange, 

Government of Victoria, . 
Treasury Department, . . 
Department of Agriculture, 
Department of the Interior, 
Geological Survey of India, 
Department of State, . . 
Hon. Chas. M. BeUs, . . 
Engineer Department U. S. A., 



1619 

838 

952 

203 

47 

29 

25 

23 

21 

21 

15 

12 

12 

10 

10 

9 

7 

7 



Geological Survey of Minnesota, 
IS'iinistry of Public Works in 

France, 

Geological Survey of New South 

Wales, 

Geological Survey of Canada, 

Mr. Wm. J. Potts 

Geological Survey of New Jersey, 
Executors of the late Dr. Geo. 

Martin, 

Prof. Angelo Heilpnn, . . . 
Geological Survey of Kentucky, 

Mrs. L. Fox, 

Mr. Charles E. Smith, .... 

Mr. J. H. Redt^eld, 

Mrs. Dr. C. Hering, .... 
South African Museum, . . , 
Indian Museum at Calcutta, . . 



4 

4 

3 
3 
3 
3 

3 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



4pT 



-Oi 



■Geological Survey of New Zealand, 

■Geolojjical Survey of Roiimania, 

•Geological Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania, 

Her Britannic Majesty's Govern- 
ment, 

Smithsonian Institution, . . . 

British Museum, 

War Department, 

University of Aberdeen, 

■Geological Survey of Portugal, . 

They were assigned to the 



foil 



ows: 



7 Henry C. Gibson, 1 

6 DepartmentofMines,NovaScotia, 1 

Dr. Benjamin Sharp, .... 1 

California Slate Mining Bureau, 1 

Prince Albert of Monaco, ... 1 

6 United States Coast Survey, . . 1 

5 M. Marlet, 1 

5 Boston City Hospital, .... ] 

5 Dr. Charles Schaffer, .... 1 

4 East Indian Government, ... 1 

4 Dr. J. W. Eckfeldt, 1 

several departments of the library as 



Journals, 3034 

Geology, 267 

Botany, 13-5 

■General Natural History, . . . 107 

Conchology, 43 

Mineralogy, 42 

Entomology 41 

Medicine, 35 

Anatomy and Pysiology, ... 34 

Physical Science, 32 

Voyages and Travels, .... 30 

Public Documents, 28 

Chemistry, 22 



Ornithology 22 

Anthropology, 21 

Encyclopedias, 9 

Ichthyology, 

Bibliography, 

Languages, 

Helmimhoiogy, 

Geography 

Mammalogy, 

Herpetology, 

Agriculture, 

Unclassified, 



S 

S 

7 



5 

4 

3 
2 

12 



The appended list of additions will indicate more specifically the 
nature of the year's increase. 

We have procured from the publishers in Germany the parts 
lacking- in the set of De Martins, Flora Brasiliensis, received last year 
from the Brasilian Government, and the work is now complete as 
far as issued. 

The revision of the catalogue of Journals, commenced last year, has 
been completed with the exception of the Scandinavian and Russian 
publications. It is hoped that the entire work may be finished be- 
fore the end of the year. 

AVith the assistance of Signor Fronani, whose services I have been 
again enabled to secure, two hundred and thirty-four letters asking 
for supply of deficiencies, were sent in September to foreign societies. 
Seventy-four answers have already been received and the increase of 
accessions over those recorded last year is mainly, if not altogether, 
due to the liberality of our correspondents in supplying us with the 
volumes and parts asked for. 

The card catalogue, exclusive of periodicals, was completed early 
in the year and the geographical entries of journals have also been 
finished. Cross references and title entries of the latter are now in 
course of preparation. This will complete the catalogue within its 



438 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1888. 



present scope wliicli, it will be remembered, provides for author en- 
tries only in the special departments, with a few exceptions such as 
official geological reports and scientific explorations Avhich are also 
catalogued under the names of the regions described. It is of the 
utmost importance that the preparation of a subject catalogue be un- 
dertaken as soon as possible, for while most of our readers know 
their authors, a properly classified index to the broader subdivisions 
of specinl departments of the library would result not only in a sav- 
ing of time but in a more thorough and reliable acquaintance with 
the work already done. To complete such a catalogue within any 
reasonable limit of time, the employment of skilled assistance will be 
absolutely necessary, and, it is to be regretted, the Academy at pre- 
sent is unable to incur this expense. An effort will be made, how- 
ever, with such clerical aid as the librarian may be able to secure, to 
go on as far as possible with the work in the time at his disposal 
during the year. Progress \vill necessarily be very slow, in conse- 
quence of many unavoidable interruptions. 

Since the last report 321 volumes have been bound, including 08 
volumes of pamphlets, and 45 volumes are now in the hands of the 
binders. 

A careful enumeration of the library Avas made at the beginning 
of November. There are, bound and unbound, 30831 volumes at 
present on the shelfs, including 615 bound volumes of pamphlets, 
The latter embrace 8621 separate titles. To these may be added 
1445 volumes in the library of the Entomological Section. Many 
of these are, however, duplicates of those in the main library. The 
latter are divided as follows : — 



VoLUMKS Pamphlets 



Journals : — • 

Germany 3430 

France 2ol5 

Great Britian & Ireland 2433 
N. America 1012 

Scandinavia & Russia 1302 



Austiia 


900 


Italy 


025 


Switzerland 


4.59 


Belgium 


378 


Asia 


328 


Spain and Portugal 


106 


Africa and Australia 


143 


South America 


100 


General Natural Histo 


■y 


Geology 




Botany 




Voyages and Travels 




Entomology 




Anatomy and Physiolc 


gy 



14391 


1 
1 

1 
1 


2350 


56* 


2205 


1997 


1867 


768 


1532 


67 


1114 


832 i 


1020 


781 11 



Conchology 

Ornithology 

Bibliography 

Mineralogy 

Physical Science 

Anthropology 

Kncyclopedias, Dictionaries 

Helminthology 

Public Documents 

Ichthyology 

Agriculture 

Mammalogy 

Medicine 

Chemistry 

Geography 

Antiquities and Fine Arts 

Herpetology 

Microscopy 

Miscellaneous 



Volumes Pamphlet 

455 
319 



980 
737 
584 
489 
454 
376 
369 
268 
264 
262 
252 
246 
236 
226 
203 
361 
i6t 
48 
36 



All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Edavard J. Nolan, 



30831 



345 
493 
180 

263 

174 
184 
184 
645 
227 



143 



8621 



Librarian. 



1<S88.] NATURAL SCIKNCKS OK I'lIILADKLPIIIA. 489 

Rf]PORT OF THE ("URATORS. 

The Curators present the following statement of the Curator-in- 
Charge, Prof. Heilprin, as their report for the year 1888 : — 

The Curator-in-Charge resiiectfully reports that the collections of 
the Academy are in good condition, and that their status, as far as 
classification and arrangement are concerned, has been materially 
improved during the year As heretofore, the Academy has prof- 
ited largely through the work ol volunteer specialists, and is 
hence placed under special obligation to those who have thus gen- 
erously contributed their time and assistance. To Mr. J. H. Red- 
field. Conservator of the herbarium, and to Mr. Thomas Meehan, it 
is almost wholly indebted for the careful work that is being system- 
atically applied toward the expansion and proper distribution of the 
botanical collections; while to the officers of the Entomological Sec- 
tion and of the American Entomological Society it is placed under 
obligation for work done in connection with the department of ento- 
mology. In the death of Mr. George W. Tryon, Jr., its Conservator 
in the department of conchology for thirteen years, the Academy 
has lost one of its truest and most efficient members — one who had 
for a full quarter of a century given much of his daily time to the 
interests of the institution. That the department will feel for some 
time the want of his vast experience, and the absence of his governing 
influence, there can be no question ; but it is hoped that under 
the special direction of the new conservator, Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, 
and of the Conchological Section, it will be kept in that command- 
ing position which it has so firmly and justly held. 

In the departments other than those here specified the work has 
been done almost wholly under the direction of the Curator-in- 
Charge and his assistant, Mr. J. E. Ives. As in preceding years the 
alcoholics have been completely overhauled, and it is satisfactory 
to be able to report that there has been practically no loss in this part 
of the Academy's collections since the preparation of the last annual! 
statement. It is less agreeable to report that during the latter part 
of the" present year several attempts to force the ornithological eases 
have been made, with the result of robbing the collection of some 200 
specimens of South American and Australian birds, mainly repre- 
sentatives of the family Tanagridie. The greater number of these 
have been recovered, and it now seems that the full loss resolves it- 
self to jDossibly not more than a half-dozen specimens. A change 



440 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

in the construction of the locks is urgently needed, and it is recom- 
mended that steps looking toward the greater security of the cases 
be immediately taken. The ornithological collections have largely 
profited during the year through the labors of Mr. Witmer Stone, 
who has, amidst other work, very carefully reviewed the extensive 
and intricate family of the Tanagridae, and determined the greater 
.number of the species that belong to this group. His work shows 
that the Academy's representation is a very full one, falling, in point 
■of species, but little short of that of the British Museum. A nu- 
merical estimate of the entire collection of mounted birds in the 
Academy shows it to comprise somewhat more than 28,000 speci- 
mens ; in addition to this there is a collection of some 3000 skins. 

The work of systematically cataloguing this vast collection has 
been begun, but much time must necessarily elapse before such a 
catalogue can be satisfactorily completed. 

The entire museum collection of minerals has been rearranged 
during the year, the specimens of the different mineral species being 
distributed strictly according to geographical position. This meth- 
od, it is believed, will largely facilitate com])arative study. The 
Wm. S. Vaux collection continues to receive the close and valuable 
.-superintendence of its special Conservator, Mr. Jacob Binder, through 
whom it has been brought into a condition of rare complete- 
ness. A large proportion of the more commanding specimens which 
now distinguish the collection have been obtained through purchase 
■on the special selection and recommendation of the Con.servator. 

In most of the other departments of the museum the work has 
been mainly of a general character. Mr. Ives, under the direction of 
the Curator-in-Charge, has very carefully reviewed and redetermined 
the species of Ophiuroidea and Asteroidea, and thereby added very 
materially to the extent of the collection represented. Two new 
nspecies, a Pteraster and a Coronaster, were determined. 

By a resolution of Council of April it was recommended that a 
hand-book of the jSIuseum be prepared by the Curator-in-Charge, in 
•conjunction with the members of the Board of Curators. In 
.conformity with this recommendation the Curator-in-Charge has de- 
voted much time toward the preparation of such a hand-book, and it 
^ives him pleasure to report that the same is now almost finished 
iind ready to go to press. It is hcrcwitli submitted for approval to 
the Board of Curators. 

The additions to the museum dui'ing the yoai- — lictailed iu the ac- 
companying list of donations — have been both abundant and import- 



1888.] XATURAL SCIENCES OF rillLADELPHIA. 441 

ant. Through the kindness of Dr. H. C. Chapman the Academy has 
received a fine selection of marine invertebrates from Bar Harbor, 
Maine, many species of which had not hitherto been represented in the 
general collection. The Zoological Society of Philadelphia has also 
contributed largely in material from their gardens, and thereby filled 
in many gaps that c6uld not otherwise be readily closed. 

The trip to the Bermuda Islands which was planned by the Cura- 
tor-in-Charge, and toward which the Academy generously contrib- 
uted its assistance, proved successful beyond anticipation, and 
has resulted in placing in the Academy's museum a large and im- 
portant collection of sub-tropical marine forms, the greater number 
•of which are now for the first time represented, and many of 
which are new to science. The results of the expedition, which 
are now in course of publication in the Academy's Proceedings, 
prove what benefits may be derived from zoo-geographical research 
•of this kind, undertaken with only moderate expense, and with 
110 special preparation. The value of this form of scientific re- 
search has been indicated in previous reports, and attention is once 
more directed to the advisability of endowing a moderate zoo-geo- 
gra|)hical research fund, the interest from which should be expended 
annually in the exploration of the numerous regions which still 
await investigation. It is believed that no other method could be 
suggested which would yield such important scientific results, and at 
the same time render the Academy a virtual centre of scientific ac- 
tivity in the country. 

The Curator-in-Charge again desires to call attention to the ab- 
solute need of an extension to the i)resent accommodations ; the exist- 
ing conditions are becoming more serious every year, and render a 
change, if the efficiency of the institution is not to be lessened, im- 
perative. The collections can no longer be advantageously increased, 
nor can they be satisfactorily cared for in their restricted quarters. 
Portions of the library are being gradually encroached upon, and 
the work-rooms are all filled. The need for a suitable lecture-hall 
or amphitheatre is pressing, and the same is true of special students' 
rooms and laboratories. It is earnestly hoped that the generous 
public of this city, who have so kindly lent their assistance before, 
will not allow the most important institution of the kind in the 
country to go in want. The attempts to obtain aid from the State, 
although often repeated, have thus far proved abortive ; but an ef- 
fort will again be made during the coming session of the Legisla- 
ture. 



442 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [ISSS. 

Attention is again called to the important question of Sunday 
opening. The numerous requests for admission into the nuiseum on 
Sundays clearly speak the public mind, («• at any rate, the wish of a 
large number of the city's inhabitants. The Academy of the Fine 
Art and the Zoological Society have set an example in the right . 
direction, and there seems to be no reason, beyond an inadequacy of 
funds to maintain such opening, why our Academy should not fol- 
low the lead. Sunday-opening would certainly be a charity to that 
large body of useful citizens whose daily employment debars them 
from the advantages which the institution otherwise offers. 

During the year specimens for study have been loaned to Prof. 
R. P. AVhitfiefd, of New York ; to Prof's. Osborn and Scott, of 
Princeton ; to Dr. G. Baur, of New Haven ; to Dr. George ]Marx, of 
Washington ; and to Dr. Harrison Allen, of this city. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Angelo HEiLppax, 

Curator-in- Charge. 
Joseph Leidy, 

Ch'n Curators. 



REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF THE WILLIAM S. 
YArX COLLECTIONS. 

The Curator of the AVilliam S. Yaux Collections respectfully sub- 
mits his sixth annual report to the Council of the Academy. 

The collections are in good order and condition, the only change 
made since the report of 1887, being the introduction of one hundred 
and two specimens purchased within the year and added to the 
collection. These specimens have been purchased at a cost of 
$420.10. 

The collections now consist of the following: — 

No. of minerals reported 1887, 6,786 

No. of minerals purchased 1888, ..... 102 



Total, 6,888 

Archseological si:)ecimens (same as reported in 1887), . 2,940 



1888.] 



XATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



443: 



The growth of the collection, since it came into the Academy's 
possession is as follows : — 

Specimens iiurchased in 1884, ..... 60 



Specimens purchased in 1885, 
Specimens purchased in 1886, 
Specimens purchased in 1887, 
Specimens purchased in 1888, 

Total, 



104 
114 

156 
102 



536 

The aggregate cost of the 536 specimens has been . $2506.80 

Most worthy of mention among the additions of the year are a 
fine specimen of Calcite in Malachite, a superb Vanadinite and 
Wulfenite from Arizona ; these specimens, in color and crystalo- 
graphic form, are the finest ever brought to the city. Other inter-^ 
esting specimens are a single crystal of Gadolenite 6 inches in width 
by 9 inches in length, said to be the largest crystal ever found ; 
fine large crystals, of Troostite, Tryolite, Erenite, Opal, Turquoise^ 
Thenardite, Troua, Hyalite, Colemauite and others. 

A number of species not heretofore represented in the collection 
have been added. 

The visitors to the collection have not been as numerous as in 
former years ; it may be remarked, however, that those who do visit 
it are i:)ersons especially interested in mineralogy or archaeology 
who have made use of it more for the purpose of study than for the 
gratification of mere curiosity. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Jacob Binder, 

Curator. 



REPORT OF THE BIOLOGICAL AXD :\[ICRO- 
SCOPICAL SECTION. 

During the year thirteen stated meetings were held with an 
average attendance of ten members. 
Four public lectures were given. 

The following gentlemen were elected members and contributors^ 
Members. John T. Penuypacker, 

" Lancaster Thomas. 



4-i4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 



• 



Contributors. Dr. Xavier Suddutli, 
" Frank Zentmayer, 

" Edwd. Bancroft. 

Honorary Member. Dr. J. Gibbons Hunt. 

The section lost the following by death and resignations. 

By death. — Paul P. Keller, Joseph Zentmayer, S. Fisher Corlies. 

Bv resiofnation. — Members, J. D. Sergeant, Dr. Carl Seiler, Charles 
T. Banes, John Lambert. 

Contributor, AV alter Banes. 

Communications were made upon the following subjects : — 

December 5, 1888. Orthochromatic plates in differentiating 
•details of color in photographing microscopic objects, by Mr. W. 
H. Walmsley. 

December 5, 1888. Some new results in removing embryos from 
the uterus, by Prof. John Ryder. 

December 5, 1888. Upon the fungus Rhytisma acerina, by 
Dr. L. Brewer Hall. 

December 5, 1888. Upon the fungus Badhamia fasciculata, by 
IVIr. Harold Wingate. 

January 16, 1888. Public lecture, by Rev. Dr. H. C. McCook upon 
spiders and spiderlings. 

February 3, 1888. Public lecture, by Prof. W. P. Wilson upon 
plants that feed on insects. 

Februarv 6, 1888. Presentation of a number of slides, by Dr. 
Isaac Norris Jr. 

February 6, 1888. A series of slides illustrating the anatomy of 
the mouse's head, by Prof. Ryder. 

March 5, 1888. Lecture by Professors Wilson and Ryder assisted 
by Mr. Holman with the projecting microscope, upon Celloidin 
mounts and the method of making sections of delicate tissues. 

April 2, 1888. Upon the sexual habits of the Scale insects by 
Dr. L. Brewer Hall.' 

April 2, 1888. ^lolluscum contagiosum, by Dr. M. B. Hartzell. 

April 2, 1888. The histology of the Skate with special reference 
to the formation and growth of the thymus gland and of peculiar 
sense organs, by Prof. Ryder. 

April 2, 1888. Upon some interesting forms of fungi, by Dr. J. 
B. Briutoii. 

May 7, 1888. Upon Enterideum, by ]Mr. Harold Wingate. 



1888.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



445- 



May 7, 1888. Upou insect fertilization of plants Avitli special 
reference to the common chick weed and the glands found at the 
base of the stamens, by Mr. Thomas Meelian. 

May 7, 1888. Upon the formation of vessels in the corion and 
amnion, by Prof. Ryder. 

May 21, 1888. Upon the specific differences between Larapo- 
derma and Comatricha, by Harold Wingate. 

April 21, 1888. Upon Cribraria argillacea by Dr. George A.. 
Rex. 

June 4, 1888. Upou two new species of Badhamia, B. reniformis 
and B. claviceps. 

June 4, 1888. Upon the pollen of Cyrpripedium acaule, by T>r^ 
L. Brewer Hall. 

June 18, 1888. Upon the use of the parabolic reflector, by 
Harold Wingate. 

October 1, 1888. Upon the pollen of Cobea scaudens, by Dr. G.. 
A. Rex. 

October 1, 1888. Upou Bacillus tuberculosis, by Dr. G. A. Rex. 

October 15, 1888. Upou Analine staining, by Prof. Ryder. 

October 15, 1888. Upon chicken and hog cholera, by Dr. J.. 
Cheston Morris. 

November 5, 1888. Public lecture, by Prof John Ryder upon 
the claims of biological research. 

November 19, 1888. Upon the methods of teaching topographi- 
cal histology, by Prof Ryder. 

November 19, 1888. Upon the formation of cartilage and bone,, 
by Prof Ryder. 

The officers of the Section for the ensuing year are : — 
Director, .... Harold Wingate. 



Vice Director, 
Recorder, 
Corresjionding Sec. 
Treasurer, 
Curator, 

Yev 



resi 



John C. Wilson. 
Dr. Robert J. Hess. 
Dr. Charles Schaffer. 
Dr. Isaac Noi'ris, Jr. 
Chas. P. Perot, 
ectfully submitted, 

Robert. J. Hess, M. D.,. 
Recoi'der. 



446 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1888. 

REPORT OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The Recorder of the Coiichological Section respectfully reports 
that during the year ending Dec. 1st, 1888, the Academy has con- 
tinued to publish such conchological papei's as have been offered. 

Two members have been elected. The loss to the section by 
■death has been the severest in its history. On January 21st, 1888, 
our honored Treasurer, Mr. Wm. L. Mactier, was called from works 
to reward, and we had hardly turned from paying our last tribute 
of respect to his memory, when we were again summoned to perform 
the same service for our beloved Conservator, the eminent Conchol- 
•ogist, George W. Tryon Jr. who died February 5th, 1888, while 
yet in the prime of life. 

At a special meeting of the Section called for the purpose and 
held February 22nd, 1888, appropriate minutes prepared by the 
Director were adopted and by direction sent to the families of the 
deceased. 

William Laurence Mactier, a member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia since Jan. 1860, was born in the city of 
New York, May 28, 1818, and died at his home in this city Jan. 21, 
1888. 

His father, Henry Mactier, was a native of Scotland, and his 
mother, a daughter of Augustine Hicks Laurence and Catherine 
Luquer, was born in New York. 

Mr. Mactier had been prepared for admission into the College of 
New Jersey, intending after completing his general education there 
to devote himself to the medical profession. But unexpectedly, 
conclusive reasons forced him to abandon the project, and seek a 
more speedy route to a livelihood in mercantile affairs — he became 
ix man of business. The extent and character of his preliminary 
education fostered in him a taste for letters which he cultivated 
during his leisure so well that the College of New Jersey conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts. 

Mr. Mactier was one of the constituents of the Conchological Sec 
tion of the Academy ; and from the date of its institution, Dec. 26, 
1866, was its treasurer. During twenty-two years he discharged all 
the duties of the office efficiently and promptly. 

He served in the Council of the Academy, and was a member of 
its Committee on Instruction and Lectures. 

He contributed $285 to the building fund, and was a member of 
the Board of Trustees thereof. 



1888.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 447 

He was a nieinbei^of the Musical Fund Society of Philadelphia, 
and read a historical sketch of the institution before the Society 
Jan. 29, 1885, which was published. He was treasurer of the So- 
ciety from 1864 to 1880, — sixteen years — and vice-president since 
1881. 

He Avas long a member of the Philadelphia Atheneum. At forty- 
six consecutive annual elections of the Philadelphia and Reading 
Railroad Company he was one of the judges of the election. 

He was active in the Board of Publication of the Presbyterian 
Church ; a Director of the " Mercer Home ;" Secretary of the Pres-