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Full text of "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society : held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge"








FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 





PROCEEDINGS 

V 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 



HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, 



PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOL. I. 

FOR THE YEARS 1838, 1839 & 1840. 



■"**+*• 9>mm)++t* 



PHILADELPHIA: 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 

By John C. Clark, 60 Dock Street. 

1840. 



yfo. *t<?fot~®4t^- 



NOTICE. 

Legacies should be bequeathed to the Society by its corporate title — " The 
American Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for Promoting Useful 
Knowledge." 

Donations intended for the Society, should be addressed to " The American 
Philosophical Society; care of John Vaughan, Esq., Librarian, Philadel- 
phia." 







PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 



Vol. I. JAN. FEB. & MAR. 1838. No. 1. 

Stated Meeting, January 5. 

Present, fourteen members. 

Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 

The result of the annual election for officers, held this day, 
was reported by the judges and clerks as follows: — ■ 

President. 
Peter S. Du Ponceau, LL. D. 

Vice Presidents. 
Nathaniel Chapman, M. D., 
Joseph Hopkinson, LL. D., 
Robert M. Patterson, M. D. 

Secretaries. 
Franklin Bache, M. D., 
John K. Kane, 
Alexander D. Bache, LL. D., 
J. Francis Fisher. 

Counsellors for Three Years, 
Robert Hare, M. D., 
William Meredith, 
William Hembel, Jun., 
Charles D. Meigs, M. D. 

Curators. 
Isaac Lea, 
Isaac Hays, M. D., 
Franklin Peale. 

Treasurer. 
John Vaughan. 



The. following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Annual Discourse delivered before the Ohio Historical and Philoso- 
phical Society, at Columbus, December 23, 1837. By Timothy 
Walker. Cincinnati, 1838. — From the Author. 

Address delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, Alpha of 
Maine. By J. R. Ingersoll. Brunswick, Me., 1837. — From the 
Author. 

Logic, or the Art of Reasoning simplified. By S. E. Parker. Pub- 
lished by Robert Davis. Philadelphia, 1837. — From the Pub- 
lisher. 

Essay on the Veterinary Art, giving an Account of the Veterinary 
Colleges of France and England, &c. By P. A. Browne. Phila- 
delphia, 1837. — From the Author. 

Researches on the Cheiroptera of the United States. By William 
Cooper. New York, 1837. — From the Author. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

Neptune's punch bowl (Gigantia Alcyonia), from Singapore. — From 
Captain Story, through Messrs. Eyre dp Massey. 

Two specimens of a new mineral from the neighbourhood of Char- 
lotte, N. C, proposed by Mr. Featherstonhaugh to be called 
leopardalite. — From Mr. Franklin Peale. 

A specimen of augite in steatite, from Oxford, N. H. — From Dr. 
James Mease. 

Mr. Lea read a paper in continuation of his Memoir on fresh 
water and land shells, which was referred. 



Stated Meeting, January 19. 
Present, thirty-two members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received : — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Philadelphia Practice of Midwifery. By Charles D. Meigs, M. D. 
Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Author. 



Congressional Documents of the First Session of the Twentv-fifth 

Congress. 4 vols. Washington, 1837-8. — From the Hon. John 

Forsyth, Secretary of State. 
Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, Vol. IT. Part I. 

London, 1836. — From the Society. 
A Comprehensive Minute, commemorative of Philip Syng Physick, 

M. D., Emer. Prof, of Anatomy and Surgery in the University 

of Pennsylvania. Prepared by direction of the Trustees. Phila- 
delphia, 1838. — From William Meredith, Esq. 
Journal fur die Baukunst. Herausgegeben von Dr. A. L. Crelle. 

Vols. I. & II. Berlin, 1829-30.— From Prof. Henry Vethake. 
Journal fur die reine und angewandte Mathematik. Herausgegeben 

von Dr. A. L. Crelle. 5 vols. Berlin, 1826 to 1830.— From 

the same. 
A Catalogue of Plants, native and naturalized, in the vicinity of New- 

bern, N. C. By H. B. Groom. New York, 1837.— From Dr. 

John Torrey. 
Introductory Lecture on the Dignity of the Law. Delivered before 

the Cincinnati College, November,- 1837. By Timothy Walker. 

Cincinnati, 1837. — From the Author. 
Annales des Mines. Vol. XI. Paris, 1837. — From the Engineers 

of Mines. 

Mr. Lea read a paper in further continuation of his Memoir 
on fresh water and land shells, which was referred. 

Mr. Walker presented to the notice of the Society, the 
drawings of a self-registering anemometer and rain gauge, in- 
vented by Mr. Follett Osier, of Birmingham, England, of 
which he explained the character and advantages. 

The Society elected John Vaughan librarian. 

Mr. Vaughan announced the death of Joshua Humphreys, 
a member of the Society, aged 86. 

The following candidates were elected members: — 

Captain Andrew Talcott, late of the U. S. Engineers. 

Thomas W. Griffith, Esq., of Baltimore. 

Charles G. B. Daubeny, M. D., of the Univ. of Oxford. 

Henry Reed, Esq., of the University of Pennsylvania. 

William Norris, of Philadelphia County. 

William Sullivan, Esq., of Boston. 



Stated Meeting, February 2. 
Present, twenty-three members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Laws of Wages, Profits, and Rents investigated. By George 
Tucker, Professor of Political Economy in the University of Vir- 
ginia. Philadelphia, 1837.-— From the Author. 

The Select Medical Library. Edited by John Bell, M. D. Nos. 
13, 14, 15. Philadelphia, 1837-8.— From the Editor. 

History of the Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical 
Sketches, &c. By Thomas L. M^Kenney & James Hall, Esq. 
Nos. 1 to 9. Philadelphia, 1838.— From Messrs. E. C. Biddle 
and F. W. Greenough. 

Life and Services of Commodore William Bainbridge, of the United 
States Navy. By Thomas Harris, M. D. Philadelphia, 1837.— 
From the Author. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

Theodolite which belonged to William Penn, and was used in laying 
out the City of Philadelphia. — From Mr. Philip Physiclc. 

Press used in making impressions from the Great Seal of Pennsylva- 
nia under the Proprietary Government. — From the same. 

A letter was read from John K. Townsend, dated January 
20th, 1838, announcing the transmission of the Indian Voca- 
bularies collected for the Society, and of certain shells and 
geological specimens, selected for its use by Mr. Peale. 

A communication from the late Joshua Humphreys, Esq., 
dated December 23d, 1837, was read, on the subject of the 
early history of the naval construction of the United States, 
tending to correct an erroneous impression as to the opinions 
and wishes of President Washington on the subject of the 
navy, which had found place in Professor Tucker's Biography 
of Mr. Jefferson, and which had been the subject of remark by 
Dr. Harris in his Life of Bainbridge. This communication 
was referred to the Historical Committee. " 

The president communicated a letter to him from Mr. Ty- 



son, of the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, dated 
Jan. 29th, 1838, giving intelligence in relation to the ancient 
records of the State, and of the proposed publication of them at 
the public expense. 



Stated Meeting, February 16. 
Present, sixteen members. 
Dr. Patterson, Vice President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Patologio Generate di Lorenzo Martini. 2 vols. Capolago, 1834. — 
From the Avthor. 

Polizia Medica di Lorenzo Martini. Capolago, 1834. — From the 
Author. 

Constitution of the United States, Rules of the Two Houses of Con- 
gress, and Jefferson's Manual. Printed by C. Sherman & Co. 
Philadelphia, 1837. — From Mr. C. Sherman. 

Familiar Letters on Public Characters and Public Events. By Wil- 
liam Sullivan. Boston, 1834. — From the Author. 

The Political Class-book, intended for the Higher Classes in Schools. 
By William Sullivan. With an Appendix upon the Studies of 
Practical Men. By G. R. Emerson. Boston, 1837. — From the 
Author. 

Historical Causes and Effects, from the Fall of the Roman Empire 
in 476, to the Reformation in 1517. By William Sullivan. Bos- 
ton, 1838. — From the Author. 

A View of the Land Laws of Pennsylvania, with Notices of its early 
History and Legislation. By Thomas Sergeant. Philadelphia, 
1838. — From the Author. 

Transactions of the Royal Academy of Berlin for 1835. Berlin, 
1837. — From the Academy. 

Bericht liber die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der 
Konigl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zii Berlin. Berlin, 
1836-7. — From the same. 

Weekly Register. Edited by William O. Niles. Vol. LI. Balti- 
more, 1836-7. — From the Editor. 



6 

Original Notes of M. de la Palun on Father Morrone's Cochinchinese 

Vocabulary. — From P. S. Du Ponceau, Esq. 
Dissertation on the Nature and Character of the Chinese System of 

Writing. Being Vol. II. of the Historical Transactions of the 

Society. By P. S. Du Ponceau. Philadelphia, 1838. — From 

the Author. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A Collection of South American copper coins. — From Mr. Condy 
Raguet. 

Professor Henry, of Princeton, made a verbal communica- 
tion on the lateral discharge of electricity, while passing along 
a wire as in the Leyden experiment, or communicated directly 
to an insulated wire, or to a wire connected with the earth ; 
and detailed various experiments, proving that free electricity 
is not, under any circumstances, conducted silently to the 
earth. 

Dr. Bache announced the death of Dr. John Eberle, a mem- 
ber of the Society, who died at Lexington, Ky., on the 2d of 
February, aged 54. 



Stated Meeting, March 2. 
Present, twenty-three members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Atlas of Europe, executed at the Geographical Establishment of Brus- 
sels in 1833. Containing 165 Maps. By Vandemaden. Brus- 
sels, 1833. — From Mr. H. S. Tanner, and twenty-one other 
members of the Society. 

Autographs of the Members of the Pennsylvania Convention for 
amending the Constitution. 1837-8. — From J. K. Kane, Esq. 

The Principles of Political Economy. By Henry Vethake. Phila- 
delphia, 1838. — From the Author. 



Magazine of Natural History. Edited by Edward Charlesworth. 

Vol. I. Nos. 10, 11, & 12. London, 1837.— From the Editor. 
American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Edited by Isaac Hays, 

M. D. No. 42, for February. Philadelphia, 1838.— From the 

Editor. 
Etats Unis d'Amerique. Par M. Roux de Rochelle. Paris, 1837. 

From the Author. 

The Historical Committee announced that they had com- 
pleted the publication of Mr. Du Ponceau's Dissertation on the 
Nature and Character of the Chinese System of Writing, form- 
ing volume second of the Historical Transactions of the So- 
ciety. 

Mr. Walker read a paper, entitled "Determination of the 
Longitude of several Stations near the Southern Boundary of 
Michigan; calculated from Transits of the Moon and of moon 
culminating Stars, observed in 1835 by Andrew Talcott, late 
Captain of United States Engineers." 

The longitude of places in the United States, north of the Ohio, 
had hitherto depended on the observations of Ellicott and De Ferrer, 
made at points on the banks of the Ohio river, and on meridian lines 
drawn from this river, several hundred miles northward, by the de- 
puty surveyors. From Mr. Walker's computations, it appears that 
Turtle Island., Lake Erie, has been placed only 1.7 geographical 
miles too far east on Tanner's Map. Its true place is 41° 45' 9" N. 
latitude ; and 5 hours, 33 min. 34.3 sec. W. longitude from Green- 
wich. Also, South Bend Lake, Michigan, has been placed 3.9 
miles too far east; its true place being N. 41° 37' 6" ; W. 5 hours, 
49 min. 15.3 sec. These observations of Capt. Talcott will prove 
highly useful to geographers, by furnishing standard points of refer- 
ence in the northernmost part of the United States. 

Mr. Vaughan announced the death of Benjamin Dearborn, 
of Boston, a member of the Society, who died on the 22d of 
February, 1838, aged 83. 



Stated Meeting, March 16. 

Present, seventeen members. 
Dr. Patterson, Vice President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Statutes at Large of South Carolina. Edited under the Autho- 
rity of the Legislature. By Thomas Cooper. Vol. II. Colum- 
bia, S. C, 1837.— From Dr. Philip Tidyman. 

Speech on the Bill to suspend the Payment of the Fourth Instalment 
of the Surplus Revenue of the United States. By Charles F. 
Mercer. Washington, 1837. — From the Author. 

Statistical Tables, exhibiting the Condition and Product of certain 
Branches of Industry in Massachusetts, for the Year ending the 
1st of April, 1837. By John P. Bigelow, Seci*etary of the Com- 
monwealth. Boston, 1838. — From Josiah Quincy, Jun., Esq. 

Reports of the Engineers of the Western Rail Road Corporation, 
made to the Directors in 1836-7. — From the same. 

Fourth Annual Report on the Common Schools, Academies, and Col- 
leges of Pennsylvania. By T. H. Burrowes, Secretary of the 
Commonwealth. Harrisburg, 1838. — From the Author. 

Mr. Lea invited the attention of the Society to certain facts, 
mentioned in a " Memoire sur quelques Acephales d'eau douce 
du Senegal," by Mr. Rang, in relation to the torpidity of the 
Anadonta Chaiziana. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 



Vol. I. APRIL, MAY, & JUNE, 1838. No. 2. 

Stated Meeting, April 6. 

Present, twenty-one members. 

Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 

The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Form of Prayers, according to the Customs of the Spanish and Por- 
tuguese Jews. Edited by Isaac Leeser. Six Vols. Printed by 
Haswell, Barrington, and Haswell. Philadelphia, 1838. — From 
the Printers. 

Elementary Treatise on the Strength of Materials, being the Sub- 
stance of Lectures delivered in the School of Engineers of the 
University of Virginia. By W. B. Rogers. Charlottesville, Va., 
1838. — From the Author. 

Proyecto del primer Camino de Hierro de la Republica, desde el 
Puerto de Veracruz a la Capital de Mexico. Mexico, 1837. — 
— From M. Ygnatio Cumplido. 

Calendano Portatif por ano 1838. Mexico, 1837. — From the same. 

Calendano de Madrid y C4uia de Forasteros, para el alio de 1835. 
Madrid, 1835, — From M. Chacon, Consul General of Spain. 

Esq uisse Generale de l'A frique. Par D'Avezac. Paris, 1 837. — From 
the Author. 

Notice des Travaux de la Societe Geographique de Paris, et du Pro- 
gres des Sciences G6ographigues pendant 1836. Par D'Avezac. 
Paris, 1836. — From the Author. 



10 

Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de France. Tome XIII. 
Paris, 1837. — From the Society. 

Second Annual Report on the Geological Exploration of Pennsylva- 
nia. By H. D. Rogers, State Geologist. Harrisburg, 1838. 
— From the Author. 

Writings of George Washington. Vols. I. & XII. Edited by Jared 
Sparks. Boston, 1837. — From the Editor. 

Remarks on Literary Property. By P. H. Nicklin. Philadelphia, 
1838.— From the Author. 

Magazine of Natural History. Edited by Edward Charlesworth. 
For 1837, complete; and Nos. 1 & 2, for 1838. London, 1837-8. 
— From the Editor. 

Oration at the Celebration of the First Centennial Anniversary of the 
South Carolina Society, in Charleston, March 28th, 1837. By 
Joshua W. Toomer. Charleston, 1837. — From Mr. Josiah Tay- 
lor. 

Discovery of Vauquelinite, a rare ore of Chromium. Also an Ac- 
count of several new Genera and Species of N. A. Plants. By 
John Torrey, M. D. New York. — From the Author. 

Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Vols. III. 
IV. V. & VI. Cambridge, 1833-5-7.— From the Society. 

Laws and By-Laws of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Cam- 
bridge, 1837. — -From the same. 

Catalogue of the Collection of British Quadrupeds and Birds in the 
Museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, &c. Cam- 
bridge, 1836. — From the same. 

First Report on the Agriculture of Massachusetts, County of Essex, 
1837. By Henry Coleman. Boston, 1838. — From the Author. 

Dr. Patterson announced the death of Dr. Nathaniel Bow- 
ditch, a member of the Society, who died on the 16th of March 
last, aged 63. Dr. Patterson was appointed to prepare a ne- 
crological notice of the deceased. 

Mr. Du Ponceau mentioned the death, not heretofore re- 
ported, of Mr. Adet, a member of the Society, who died in 
March, 1834. 



11 

Stated Meeting, April 20. 
Present, thirty-four members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIREARY. 

Flora Batava. Nos. 111,112, &113. Amsterdam, 1838.— From 

the King of the Netherlands. 
Tijdschrifl voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie. Uitgegeven 

door J . Van der Hoeven, M. D., en W. H. de Vriese, M. D. Vol. 

IV. Part I. & IT. Ley den, 1837. — From the same. 
Asiatic Researches of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Vol. XIX. 

Part I., and Vol. XX. Part I. Calcutta, 1836.— From the So- 
ciety. 
Journal of the Asiatic Society. Edited hy James Prinseps, Secretary. 

Vol. V. Calcutta, 1836.— From the Editor. 
Useful Tables, forming an Appendix to the Journal of the Asiatic 

Society. By H. Piddington. Part IV. Calcutta, 1836. — From 

James Prinseps, Esq. 
Useful Tables. Part II. Indian Chronological and Genealogical 

Tables. Calcutta, 1836. — From the same. 

Mr. Kane deposited with the Society the writing chair used 
by Mr. Jefferson at his lodgings, during the Congressional Ses- 
sion of 1776. 

Mr. Lea read a Note supplementary to his Memoir, now 
in the Society's press, on the subject of the Uniones, and per- 
mission was given to add the same to the principal commu- 
nication. 

The following candidates were elected members : — 

William Harris, M. D., of Philadelphia. 

Robert Treat Paine, of Boston. 

John P. Emmet, M. D., of the University of Virginia. 

Hugh S. Legare, of Charleston, S. C. 

Samuel Breck, of Philadelphia. 

Col. Sylvanus Thayer, U. S. Engineers. 

Francis Wayland, D. D., of Brown University. 

Henry Baldwin, of Pennsylvania. 

William II. Prescott, of Boston. 



12 

Stated Meeting, May 4. 
Present, twenty-one members. 
Dr. Patterson, Vice President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

O Auxiliador da Industria Nacional. Rio Janeiro, 1837. — From 
Mr. J. S. Rebello. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society. Edited by James Prinseps, Sec. 

Nos. 61 to 67. Calcutta, 1837.— From the Society. 
Address to the Royal Society, at its Anniversary Meeting, November 

30, 1837. By the Duke of Sussex, President. London, 1837. 

From Mr. William Vaughan. 
Transactions of the Royal Society. Parts I. & II. for 1837. Lon- 
don, 1838. — From the Society. 
Catalogue of Members of the Royal Society, November 30, 1837. 

London, 1837. — From the same. 
Astronomical Observations, made at the Royal Observatory, Green- 
wich, in the year 1836. By George Biddel Airy, Astron. Roy. 

London, 1837. — From the same. 
Appendix to the above. London, 1837. From the same. 
Proceedings of the Royal Society, Nos. 29 & 30. London, 1837. — 

From the same. 
Abstract of Papers in the Transactions of the Royal Society. Vol. III. 

From 1830 to 1837. London, 1838. — From the same. 
Defence of the Resolution for omitting Pannizzi's Bibliographical 

Notes from the Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Society. 

London, 1838. From the same. 
Memoires couronnes par l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles 

Lettres de Bruxelles. Tome XI. Brussels, 1837. — From the 

Academy. 
Nouveaux Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles 

Lettres de Bruxelles. Tome XIV. Brussels, 1837. — From the 

same. 
Annales de l'Observatoire de Bruxelles. Par le Directeur A. Que- 

telet. Tome I. Deuxieme Partie. Brussels, 1837. — From the 

same. 



13 

Bulletin de la Science Generate, Nos. 5 to 9. Brussels, 1837. — From 
the same. 

Report of the Sixth Meeting of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement -of Science, held at Bristol in August 1836. London, 
1837. — From the Association. 

Speech on the Judicial Tenure, delivered in the Convention of Penn- 
sylvania for revising the Constitution. By J. Hopkinson. Phila- 
delphia, 1838. — From the Author. 

Speech in the Convention on the same subject. By Charles Chauncey. 
Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Hon. J. Hopkinson. 

Speech in the Convention on Banks and Currency. By Thomas P. 
Cope. Philadelphia, 1838. — From J. R. Tyson, Esq. 

Tenth Report of the House of Refuge, with an Appendix. Philadel- 
phia, 1838. — From J. J. Barclay, Esq. 

Le Sourd-Muet et l'Aveugle. Journal Mensuel, par l'Abbe Carton. 
Brussels, 1837. — From the Editor. 

Lucani Pharsalia, cum Notis Hugonis Grotii et Ricardi Bentleii. 
Glasgow, 1816. From J. F. Fisher, Esq. 

M. Valerii Martialis Epigrammata. Leipsic. No date. — From the 
same. 

C. Crispus Sallustius. No imprint. — From the same. 

Antiquities of Greece. By John Robinson. London, 1807. — From 
Mr. John Vaughan. 

Roman Antiquities. By Alexander Adam. With Notes by P. Wil- 
son. New York, 1819. — From the same. 

Compendium of Ancient Geography. By M. D'Anville. Translated 
from the French, with Maps, &c, by John Horsley. Two Vols. 
New York, 1814. From the same. 

Formula for the Announcement of the principal Phases of the Annular 
Eclipse of the Sun, September 18, 1838. By E. O. Kendal. 
Philadelphia, 1838.— From Mr. S. C. Walker. 

Arte de los Metales, &c. Por Alv. Alonso Barba. Lima, 1817. — 
From Mr. J. B. Quinby. 

Essai stir la Vie et les Ouvrages de M. S. F. Schoell. Par A. P. de 
la Forest. Paris, 1835. — From the Author. 

Catalogue de Plantes cultivees par J. Sisley-Vandael et C ie - Paris, 
1838. — From the Publishers. 

Pursuant to appointment, Dr. Horner read a necrological 
notice of Dr. Philip Syng Physick, late a member of the So- 
ciety. Dr. Horner having expressed a wish to make the same 



14 

public, permission was granted to him to withdraw it from the 
files of the Society for publication. 

Dr. Patterson read a letter from Professor Henry, of Prince- 
ton, dated May 4, 1838, announcing that, in recent experi- 
ments, he has produced directly from ordinary electricity, 
currents by induction analogous to those obtained from gal- 
vanism; and that he has ascertained that these currents possess 
some peculiar properties, that they may be increased in inten- 
sity to an indefinite degree, so that if a discharge from a 
Leyden jar be sent through a good conductor, a shock may 
be obtained from a contiguous but perfectly insulated conduc- 
tor, more intense than one directly from the jar. Professor 
Henry remarks that he has also found that all conducting sub- 
stances screen the inductive action, and that he has succeeded 
in referring this screening process to currents induced for a 
moment in the interposed body. 

Dr. Hare exhibited to the Society fourteen and a half ounces 
of platinum, fused by his hydro-oxygen blowpipe, and a speci- 
men of pure platinum, freed from iridium by the process of 
Berzelius. 

Dr. Patterson submitted to the Society's inspection the log- 
book of the steam-ship Savannah, Capt. Moses Rogers, launched 
at New York on the 22d of August, 1S18; from which it ap- 
pears that, after repeated voyages between New York, Savan- 
nah, and Charleston, this vessel left Savannah on the 24th or 
25th of May 1819 for Liverpool, saw Land's End on the 
17th of June, and arrived at Liverpool on the 20th of June, 
having used steam thirteen days, and having exhausted her 
fuel (coal) three days before arrival. It also appears from the 
log-book that she left Liverpool on the 23d of July, arrived at 
Elsineur on the 9th of August, left Elsineur on the 14th of 
August, arrived at Stockholm on the 22d of August, left 
Stockholm on the 5th of September, arrived at Cronstadt on 
the 9th of September, and after several excursions between 
Cronstadt, &c, and Copenhagen, &c, left Arundel, Copen- 
hagen, on the 23d of October, and arrived at Savannah on the 
30th of November; that she subsequently arrived at Washing- 
ton from Savannah on the 16th of December, after a passage 
of eleven days; that she was sold at Washington in September, 



15 

1820, and her engine taken out, after which she sailed as a 
packet, from New York to Savannah, until September, 1822, 
when she was lost. This log-book was supposed to derive 
additional interest from the recent arrival of the Sirius and 
Great Western, steam-ships, at New York, from England. 

Dr. Mitchell repeated before the Society Thilorier's pro- 
cess for solidifying carbonic acid, with an apparatus, made 
under his direction in Philadelphia, somewhat modified from 
that employed by Thilorier, and froze a quarter of a pound of 
mercury by the admixture of the solidified acid with nitrous 
ether. 



Stated Meeting, May 18. 
Present, fifteen members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Transactions of the Geological Society of London. Vol. V. Part I. 
London, 1838. — From the Society. 

A Catalogue of the Circumpolar Stars, deduced from the Observa- 
tions of Stephen Groombridge. Edited by Sir George -B. Airy. 
London, 1838. — From the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Part VIII. London, 1837. — Frcm the Society. 

American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Edited by Isaac Hays, 
M. D. No. 43, for May. Philadelphia, 1838.— From the Editor. 

Fables and Phrases in the Seneca Language. 1836. — From Na- 
thaniel J. Strong, a Seneca Chief. 

Report of the Directors of the Little Schuylkill and Susquehanna 
Rail Road Company. Philadelphia, 1838. — From J. C. Mont- 
gomery, Esq. 

C. Hugenii Aliorumque Seculi XVII Virorum Celebrium Exercita- 
tiones Mathematics et Philosophies. Ex MSS. in Bibliotheca 
Academiee Lugduno-Batavte servatis edidit P. J. Uylenbroek. 
Fasc. I. & II. Hague, 1833. — From the Leydcn Academy. 



16 

The Librarian read the translation of a letter from Pierre de 
(loetz to Mr. Du Ponceau, dated St. Petersburg, August 17th 
(29th) 1837, on behalf of the Imperial Russian Academy, an- 
nouncing the transmission to the Society of the works which 
have been published by the Academy, numbering fifty-seven 
volumes, and also of a donation of several volumes from him- 
self personally. 

Dr. Bache announced the death of Thomas Bradford, the 
latest survivor of the original members of the Society, who 
died on the 7th of May, 1838, aged 93 years and 3 days. 

Dr. Hare communicated orally, that he has found that when 
the elements of water are exploded in contact with certain 
gases or essential oils, the aqueous elements, instead of con- 
densing, combine with the hydrogen and carbon, and form a 
permanent gas. 

On motion of Dr. Bache, a committee was appointed to con- 
sider the expediency of publishing, from time to time, a brief 
abstract of the proceedings of the Society. Committee, Dr. 
Bache, Dr. Dunglison, and Mr. Kane. 



Stated Meeting, June 15. 
Present, seventeen members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
- The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Colleccion de obras y documentos relativos a la Historia antigua y 
moderna de las Provincias del Rio de la Plata. Por Pedro de 
Angeles. Vols. III. IV. & V. Buenos Ayres, 1836. — From the 
Author. 

Bulletin de la Societe Geographique de Paris. Deuxieme Serie. Vol. 
VIII. Paris, 1837.— From the Society. 

Annales des Mines. Vol. XII. No. 5. Paris, 1837.— From the 
Engineers of Mines. 

Magazine of Natural History. Edited by Edward Charlesworth. 
Nos. 3 & 4, for 1838. London, 1838.— From the Editor. 



17 

Jahrbuch fiir 1837, von H. C. Schumacher. Stuttgart und Tubin- 
gen, 1838. — From President A. D. Bache. 

Academical Lectures on the Jewish Scriptures and Antiquities. By 
John Gorham Palfrey, D. D. Vol. I. Boston, 1838.— From 
Mr. M. Burns. 

Memoir of the Life and Writings of the Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, 
D. D. By Alden Bradford. Boston, 1838.— From the Author. 

Catalogue and Specimen Book of Oxford and Polyglot Bibles, and 
Theological Works. By Bagster and Marshall. London and 
Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Publishers. 

Popular Essay on subjects of Penal Law, Solitary Confinement with 
Labour, and Joint Labour by day. By Francis Lieber. Phila- 
delphia, 1838. — From the Author. 

Annual Report of the Geologist of Maryland. By J. T. Ducatel, 
M. D. Annapolis, 1837. — From the Author. 

First Report on the Agriculture of Massachusetts, County of Essex, 
1837. By Henry Coleman. Boston, 1837.— From T. G. Brad- 
ford, Esq. 

Report and Resolves of the Joint Committee of the Legislature of 
Massachusetts on Public Lands, in relation to the North-eastern 
Boundary. Boston, 1838. — From the same. 

First Annual Report of the American Board of Education of Massa- 
chusetts. Boston, 1838. — From the same. 

St. Luke in the Chippewa Language. By George Copway and S. 
Hall. Boston, 1837. — From John Pickering, Esq. 

Choctaw Arithmetic. Boston, 1835. — From the same. 

Choctaw Spelling Book. Third Edition revised. Boston, 1835. — 
From the same. 

Journals of the Select and Common Councils of Philadelphia, for 
1835-6 & 1836-7. Philadelphia, 1836-7.— From Mr. J. P. 
Wetherill. 

Third Annual Report of the Directors of the Ohio Lunatic Asylum. 
Columbus, 1837.— From Mr. William M. Awl. 

American Medical Library and Intelligencer. Edited by R. Dun- 
glison, M. D. Vol. I. Nos. 19 to 24; and Vol. II. Nos. 1 to 7. 
Philadelphia, 1837-8. (Presented at various times since the be- 
ginning of the year). — From the Editor. 

Report to the Secretary of War on the Harbour of Provincetown, 
Cape Cod, Mass. By Col. J. J. Abert, Topog. Engineer. Wash- 
ington, 1838. — From the Author. 



18 

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the Light Houses of the 
United States. With Communications from the Messrs. Blunt of 
New York, pointing out Defects. Washington, 1838. — From 
Messrs. E. <$f G. W. Blunt. 

Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou. Nos. 1, 
2, & 3. Moscow, 1837. — From the Society. 

Report to the Senate of the United States, by Senator Linn, on the 
Memorial of Dr. Henry Perrine, applying for a tract of land in 
Florida for the cultivation of Tropical Plants. Washington, 
1838. — From Dr. Henry Perrine. 

Memoire sur le Systeme Grammatical des Langues de quelques Na- 
tions Indiennes de PAmerique. Ouvrage qui a remporte le prix 
Volney adjuge par PInstitut de France. Par P. S. Duponceau. 
Paris, 1838. — From the Author. 

Expose Sommaire de la Constitution des Etats Unis de PAmerique. 
Par P. S. Du Ponceau. Traduit de PAnglois par M. d'Homergue. 
Paris, 1837. — From the Author. 

Atlas Classica. By H. S. Tanner. Nos. 4 to 7. Philadelphia, 1838. 
From the Author. 

Boston Journal of Natural History. Published by the Boston Society 
of Natural History. — Vol. II. No. 1. Boston, 1838. — From the 
Society. 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting to consider the 
expediency of publishing from time to time, a brief abstract of 
the proceedings of the Society, reported in favour of its expe- 
diency, and in order to carry the measure into effect, proposed 
the following resolutions, which were adopted. 

1. That the Secretaries be authorized to choose one of their 
number as Reporter of the Society, whose duty it shall be to 
prepare and print, from time to time, a brief abstract of its 
proceedings. 

2. That the Reports shall commence with the first proceed- 
ings of the present year. 

3. That the Librarian be charged with the duty of their dis- 
tribution. 

And it was directed that the Reports be published at least 
once in every three months, if the state of the materials shall 
permit. 

Dr. Hays, from the Committee of Publication, announced 



19 

that Vol. VI. Part L, N. S., of the Society's Transactions, has 
been printed, and is now ready for distribution. 

A communication was read, dated Cincinnati, May 7th, 
1838, from Dr. John Locke, on the subject of Magnetic Obser- 
vations, which was referred. 

Dr. Dunglison announced the death of Thomas W. Griffith, 
of Baltimore, a member of the Society. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol. I. JULY & AUGUST, 1838. No. 3. 

Stated Meeting, July 20. 
Present, thirteen members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

for the library. 
Memorias da Academia R. das Sciencias de Lisboa. Tomo XII. 

Parte I. Lisbon, 1837. — From the Academy. 
Roteiro geral dos Mares, Costas, Ilhas, &c. Por Antonio Lopes da 

Costa Almeida. Tomo I. Parte III. Lisbon, 1837. — From the 

same. 
Compendio de Botanica do Doutor Felix de Avellar Brotero. Tomo I. 

Lisbon, 1837. — From the same. 
Principios geraes de Castrameta9ao, applicados ao Acampamento 

das Tropas Portuguezas. Por F. J. Barreiros. Lisbon, 1838. — 

From the same. 
Manual de Instruccoes praticas sobre a Sementeira, Cultura e Corte 

dos Pinheiros, &c. Por F. L. G. de Varnhagen. Lisbon, 1836. — 

From the same. 
Glossario de Vocabulos Portuguezes derivados das Linguas Orientaes 

e Africanas, excepto a Arabe. Por D. F. de S. Luiz. Lisbon, 

1837. — From the same. 
Ensaio sobre os Principios geraes de Strategia, e de Grande Tactica. 

Por F. J. Barreiros. Lisbon, 1837. — From the same. 
Collec$ao de Noticias para a Historia e Geografia das Nacoes Ultra- 
marinas, que vivem nos Dominios Portuguezes. Tomo V. Lis- 
bon, 1836. — From the same. 



22 

Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences Morales et Politiques 
de l'Institut de France. Tome I. Deuxieme Serie. Paris, 
1837. — From the French Institute and Academy. 

North American Herpetology. By J. E. Holbrook, M. D. Phila- 
delphia, 1836. — From the Author. 

Atlas Classica. By H. S. Tanner. No. 8. Philadelphia, 1838. — 
From the Author. 

Illustrations of the Atmospherical Origin of Epidemic Diseases. By 
T. Forster. Chelmsford, 1829. — From the Author. 

Medicina Simplex; or the Pilgrims Waybook. By T. Forster. 
London, 1832. — From the Author. 

Observations sur l'Influence des Cometes sur les Phenomenes de 
1' Atmosphere. Addresses a M. Arago. Par T. Forster. Aix- 
la-Chapelle, 1836. — From the Author. 

Recueil de ma Vie, mes Ouvrages et mes Pensees. Opuscule Philo- 
sophique. Par T. Forster. Brussels, 1837. — From the Author. 

The Credit System of France, Great Britain, and the United States. 
By H. C. Carey. Philadelphia, 1838.— From the Author. 

Darlegung des Verfahrens der Preussischen Regierung gegen den 
Erzbischof von Coin. Berlin, 1837. — From the Berlin Aca- 
demy. 

Beilagen zu der Darlegung des Verfahrens der Preussischen Regie- 
rung gegen den Erzbischof von Coin. Berlin, 1837. — From the 
same. 

Ueber die Berechnung der Sonnenfinsternisse, von C. Riimker. 
Hamburg, 1837. — From President A. D. Bache. 

Ftirenta Staterna och Canada, Aren 1832, 1833 och 1834, af C. D. 
Arfwedson. Two Vols. Stockholm, 1835. — From the Author. 

Scener i Nord-Amerika, af C. D. Arfwedson. Stockholm, 1836. — 
From the Author. 

Minnen fran Europa och Amerika, af C. D. Arfwedson. Stockholm, 
1837. — From the Author. 

The Transylvania Journal of Medicine. Vol. XI. No. I. For 
January, February, and March. Lexington, Ky., 1838. — From 
the Editors. 

Periodical Collection, published by the Imperial Academy of St. Pe- 
tersburg. Four Vols. (In Russian.) St. Petersburg, 1829-32. — 
From the Academy, transmitted by Mr. P. von Goetze through 
the Russian Minister. 

Memoirs of the Russian Academy. Twelve Vols. (In Russian.) 
St. Petersburg, 1815 to 1828. — From the same. 



23 

Continuation of the Memoirs of the Russian Academy. Three Vols. 
(In Russian.) St. Petersburg, 1834-5. — From the same. 

Works and Translations, published by the Russian Academy. Seven 
Vols. (In Russian.) St. Petersburg, 1805 to 1823. — From the 
same. 

Dictionary of the Russian Academy. Six Vols. (In Russian.) St. 
Petersburg, 1806 to 1822. — From the same. 

Complete Works of Admiral Schischkoff, President of the Academy. 
Sixteen Vols. (In Russian.) St. Petersburg, 1818 to 1834. — 
From the same. 

On the Affinity of the Russian and Greek Languages. Three Vols. 
(In Russian.) St. Petersburg, 1828. — From the same. 

Recherches sur les Racines des Idiomes Slavons. Par lAmiral 
Chichekof. Traduit du Russe. Part I. St. Petersburg, 1832. — 
From the same. 

Relation of the Maritime War between Russia and Sweden, in the 
years 1788, 89, & 90. By Admiral Schischkoff. (In Russian.) 
St. Petersburg, 1826. — From the same. 

Popular Songs of the Greeks. (In Russian.) St. Petersburg, 1825. — 
From the same. 

Memoirs of Admiral Schischkoff for the year 1812. (In Russian.) 
St. Petersburg, 1831. — From the same. 

A brief and true Relation of Napoleon. (In Russian.) St. Peters- 
burg, 1814. — From the same. 

Proceedings of the Russian Academy at their Sitting, January 18th, 
1836, for the Reception of the Prince of Oldenburg as an -Hono- 
rary Member. (In Russian.) St. Petersburg, 1836. — From the 
same. 

Untersuchungen liber die Sprache, mitgetheilt in den Nachrichten 
der Russischen Akademie, von Alexander Schischkow. Aus dem 
Russischen Libersetzt von P. von Goetze. Three Vols. St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1826-7 & 1837. — From the same. 

Serbische Volkslieder, in's Deutsche Ubertragen von P. von Goetze. 
St. Petersburg, 1827. — From the Translator. 

Stimmen des Russischen Volks in Liedern. Gesammelt und iiber- 
setzt von P. von Goetze. Stuttgart, 1828. — From the Trans- 
lator. 

Reports of the Trustees of the Philadelphia Gas Works. Philadel- 
phia, 1838. — From the Trustees. 

Observations Meteorologiques et Magnetiques, faites dans l'Empire 
de Russie, redigees et publiees par A. T. Kupffer. No. 1. St. 
Petersburg, 1837. — From the Russian Academy. 



-'- 






24 

Plaza Universal de Todas Ciencias, y Artes. Por el Doctor C. Suarez 
de Figueroa. Perpignan, 1630. — From Mr. E. C. Wines. 

Weekly Register. Edited by William O. Niles. Vol. LIL— From 
the Editor. 

Necrological Notice of Dr. Philip Syng Physick; delivered before the 
American Philosophical Society, May 4, 1838. By W. E. Hor- 
ner, M. D. Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Author. 

Mr. Kanej from the Secretaries, reported that they had 
chosen Dr. Franklin Bache to be the Reporter of the Society. 

The Committee, appointed on the Communication of Dr. 
John Locke, of Cincinnati, read at the last meeting, made 
the following Report, which was adopted. 

" The Committee to whom was referred the Communication of Pro- 
fessor John Locke, of Cincinnati, report that it gives the details of a 
series of experiments, made for the purpose of determining the mag- 
netic intensity and dip for certain positions in Ohio. For these ex- 
periments he had furnished himself, in London, with the best appa- 
ratus, and had vibrated there two needles of the form recommended 
by Hansteen, and one in the form of a small flat bar. Five months 
afterwards, namely on the 17th of January, 1838, he again vibrated 
these needles at Cincinnati, and found the ratio of horizontal inten- 
sity at the former place to that at the latter, as follows : by needle 
No. 1, as 1 to 1.1624; by needle No. 2, as 1 to 1.1639; by No. 3, 
as 1 to 1.2037. Of these results, the author prefers the last; inas- 
much as the magnetism of needles is liable to decrease, but not to 
increase. 

"On the 20th of August, 1837, he made experiments with his dip- 
ping needle, to determine the dip at Westbourn Green, near London, 
the mean of which gives 69° 23'. 3. 

" On the 26th of Nov. 1837, the mean of a series of experiments 
made at Cincinnati, in lat. 39° 6' N., and long. 84° 27' W.. gave 
the dip = 70° 45'.75. 

"At Dayton, Ohio, in lat. 39° 44' N., and long. 84° 11' W., the 
dip was found to be 71° 22'.75. on the 26th of March, 1838. 

"At Springfield, Ohio, in lat. 39° 53' N., and long. 83° 46' W., 
the dip was found, on the 29th of March, 1838, to be 71° 27'.375. 

"At Urbana, lat. 40° 03' N., long. 83° 44' W., March 30, 1838, 
the dip was found = 71° 29'.94. 

" At Columbus, the seat of government of Ohio, lat. 39° 57' N., 
long. 83° W., April 3d, 1838, the dip was found = 71° 04'. 875. 



25 

u The interest of this paper is much increased by the circumstance 
that no accurate experiments on the intensity and dip of the needle 
have heretofore been made in the United States, west of the Alleghany 
mountains. 

" The Committee conclude their Report by recommending that Pro- 
fessor Locke's Communication be printed in the Society's Transac- 
tions." 

" Peter S. Du Ponceau, 
R. M. Patterson, 
J. Saxton." 

Dr. Patterson laid before the Society, copies of a Memorial 
presented to Congress by Dr. Henry Hall Sherwood, and of a 
Report thereon by the Committee on Naval Affairs of the 
Senate, in which are set forth Dr. Sherwood's "claims to have 
made new and important discoveries in magnetism generally, 
and more paiiicularly in the magnetism of the earth; and to 
be the inventor of an instrument called the geometer, whereby, 
without the aid of the quadrant or sextant, or chronometer, and 
without taking a celestial observation, it is practicable and easy, 
at sea and on land, and in all weathers, to determine, merely by 
the dip of the needle, the variation of the needle, and the lati- 
tude and longitude of any place on .the surface of the globe." 

Dr. Patterson called the attention of the Society to some 
further extracts from the Report of the Naval Committee, in 
which it is stated that from the opinions obtained from scien- 
tific men, " as well as from their own examination, they are 
fully persuaded that the discoveries and invention of Dr. Sher- 
wood are entitled to the most serious consideration of the pub- 
lic, and to the encouragement and patronage of Congress;" that 
they " regard them as highly interesting and important to the 
navigation and commerce of the United States, and as bidding 
fair to open a new era in the history of the science of magnet- 
ism." Of this Report 5000 additional, copies were ordered to 
be printed by Congress. 

Dr. Patterson remarked that the imposing circumstances un- 
der which Dr. Sherwood's extraordinary claims were brought 
forward, might make a brief review of them worthy of the 
Society's attention. 

1. The first of Dr. Sherwood's asserted discoveries is the 



26 

communication of magnetism to a steel plate or ring, which 
he supposes others had failed to do. Dr. Patterson observed 
that, on the contrary, nothing is better known in experimental 
science than that magnetic polarity can be given to steel in any 
form, and with as many poles as the operator pleases. In 
illustration of this remark, he exhibited to the Society a steel 
plate, prepared some years ago by Mr. Saxton, who was then 
in London, according to an experiment first made by Chladni, 
on which polar lines were traced, so as to mark on one side the 
word ' magnet j and on the other the date '24th of February, 
1836;' the position of the lines being made apparent by strew- 
ing steel filings over the plate. 

2. Dr. Sherwood asserts that, if a steel ring, marked in two 
opposite points, have magnetism communicated to it by passing 
it over a magnet from one of those points to the other, in a way 
which he describes, the magnetic poles will be found to reside, 
not in the marked points which he styles the poles of the ring, 
but in other points distant from them 23° 2S', thus exhibiting 
a correspondence with the obliquity of the ecliptic. On this 
fact he founds his theory of the magnetism of the earth. 
Dr. Patterson mentioned that Mr. Saxton and himself had 
carefully repeated this experiment, and had found, without 
surprise, that the assertion of Dr. Sherwood was entirely 
erroneous. When the magnetism was communicated in the 
awkward manner used by Dr. Sherwood, the poles were not 
indeed at the points of the first and last contact of the mag- 
net; but the deviation was irregular, was different at the differ- 
ent poles, and bore no relation to the obliquity of the ecliptic. 
When the magnetism was communicated to the ring by care- 
fully setting two opposite points on the poles of a horse-shoe 
magnet, the magnetic poles of the ring coincided exactly with 
those points. This fact was shown in an experiment made 
before the society. 

3. As to the hypothetical deductions of Dr. Sherwood, " that 
the magnetic poles of the earth are 23° 28 : from its poles, and 
of course within the polar circles," "that the magnetic and 
polar axes cross each other at the same angle of 23 p 28'/' 
"that the magnetic and terrestrial meridians of every place 
cross each other at angles dependent on the angles of the two 



27 

axes," and " that the line of no variation is a great circle of the 
earth, and is that magnetic meridian which, after cutting the 
magnetic pole, passes at the distance of 6° 28' from the pole of 
the earth," — Dr. Patterson remarked that these notions were 
directly contradicted by well observed facts, that there are more 
than two magnetic poles, that the magnetic poles are not in the 
polar circles, that there are several lines of no variation, and 
that those lines are not great circles, but are altogether irregu- 
lar in their course. 

4. The practical applications of Dr. Sherwood's theory are 
announced in these terms: "With the correct dip given him, 
observed at a given time, he works out either or all of the fol- 
lowing results: the variation of the needle, the distance of the 
circle of no variation from the place, and its angle with the 
meridian, and the latitude and the longitude. With the va- 
riation given him, in the same manner, he determines the 
dip and the other results. He must know, however, if the 
dip be given, whether the place of observation is east or west 
of the circle of no variation; and if the variation be given, 
whether it is north or south of the magnetic equator, and near 
the arctic or antarctic semicircle of no variation." 

It is sufficient to remark, said Dr. Patterson, on this train of 
assertions, that they necessarily assume the truth, within the 
limits which are stated, of two positions; 1st, that the same dip 
will always correspond with the same variation, and 2d, that 
every place on the earth's surface has a different dip from all 
others, — both of which are notoriously untrue. The various 
examples, contained in the Report, of calculations made from 
the single datum of the dip or the variation, and which give for 
results all the other particulars with an accuracy extending not 
to seconds merely, but to thirds, must be regarded as illusory. 

Mr. Walker also made a verbal communication on the sub- 
ject of Dr. Sherwood's alleged discoveries. He remarked that 
even admitting the correctness of the Doctor's hypothesis, as 
stated in his Memorial to Congress, still his method would be 
of no use for nautical or geographical purposes, for the follow- 
ing reasons: — 

1. The apparatus for determining the dip and variation of 



28 

the compass is more costly than a common sextant and mercu- 
rial horizon. 

2. The observations of the dip and variation of the compass 
are more difficult to be made with accuracy than a common 
lunar observation. 

3. The reduction of these magnetic observations, on the Doc- 
tor's hypothesis, would be more laborious than the working of 
a lunar observation. 

4. Mr. Walker proceeded to show, in conformity with the 
remarks of Dr. Patterson, that Dr. Sherwood's assertion that 
he can determine the latitude and longitude from the dip alone, 
or from the variation alone, was contrary to the first principles 
of the geometry of position; since a point, in order to be deter- 
mined, in space, must be referred to three given surfaces. If 
one of them is the surface of the spheroid as in geography, then 
the point must be referred to two other given surfaces; where- 
as, by the dip alone, Or the variation of the compass alone, a 
point can only be referred to one of these two surfaces, and the 
resulting locus is a line and not a point. Hence, if latitude and 
longitude are determined by magnetic observations, it must be 
by both the dip and variation. Dr. Sherwood's method, there- 
fore, could be of no use for nautical purposes, from the im- 
possibility of observing the variation of the compass at sea with 
any tolerable degree of accuracy. 

5. Dr. Sherwood's assertion that the magnetic method could 
be used in cloudy weather is inaccurate; since the variation of 
the compass cannot be ascertained without astronomical obser- 
vations. 

6. Restricting then the use of magnetic observations to those 
made on land in fair weather, still, owing to local pertur- 
bations, the probable discrepancy of the mean of many obser- 
vations at one place from the theoretic dip and variation, may, 
at a low estimate, be assumed to be ten minutes of space, and, 
as the resulting errors of latitude are of the same order, we 
should have ten miles for its probable error, which is twenty 
times that of a common sextant and mercurial horizon. 

7. Owing to the proximity of the north pole to Dr. Sher- 
wood's assumed magnetic pole, the probable error in the result- 
ing longitude would far exceed that of the dip and variation 



29 

themselves, and would amount to forty miles on the average, 
and between the tropics, near the line of greatest variation, to 
several degrees; whereas it is well known that by the lunar 
method, the probable error in longitude is less than six miles, 
and may be reduced to four by means of half a dozen ob- 
served eclipses of Jupiter's first satellite. 

Mr. Walker concluded by remarking that although, in stat- 
ing the practical objections to the method, he had taken Dr. Sher- 
wood's postulates for granted, yet he considered every one of 
them as contrary to facts, observation, and experience. 

Dr. Bache announced the death of Charles Maurice Talley- 
rand, Prince of Benevento, a member of the Society, who died 
on the 17th of May, 1838, aged 83. 



Stated Meeting, August 17. 
Present, eighteen members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Communication from Governor Marcy to the Legislature' of New 

York, relative to the Geological Survey of the State, for the year 

1837. With Plates. Albany, 1838.— From Messrs. L. Vanuxem 

and T. A. Conrad. 
The same work. — From William Meredith, Esq. 
The Light-Houses, Beacons, and Floating Lights of the United 

States, for 1838. Prepared by order of Stephen Pleasonton, 

Fifth Auditor. Washington, 1838. — From Stephen Pleasonton, 

Esq. 
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Edited by Isaac 

Hays, M. D. No. XLIV, for August. Philadelphia, 1838— 

From the Editor. 
The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. Edited by R. 

Dunglison, M. D. Vol. II. Nos. 8, 9, & 10. Philadelphia, 

1838 — From the Editor. 



30 

American Quarterly Register. Conducted by B. B. Edwards and 

W. Cogswell. Vol. X., and Vol. XI. No. 1. Boston, 1838 

From Mr. W. Cogswell. 

Twenty-second Annual Report of the Directors of the American 
Education Society. May, 1838. Boston, 1838. — From the 
same. 

Notes respecting certain Indian Mounds and Earthworks, chiefly in 
the Wisconsin Territory. U. S. By Richard C. Taylor, Esq. 
Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Author. 

Alphabetical and Analytical Catalogue of the New York Society 
Library. New York, 1838. — From Mr. Philip I. Forbes. 

An Eulogy on the Life and Character of Nathaniel Bowditch, LL. D., 
F.R.S. By Daniel Appleton White. Salem, 1838.— From the 
Author. 

A Discourse on the Life and Character of the Hon. Nathaniel Bow- 
ditch, LL. D., F.R.S. By Alexander Young. Boston, 1838.— 
From the Author. 

Atlas Classica. By H. S. Tanner. No. 9. Philadelphia, 1838. — 
From the Author. 

Twentieth Annual Report of the American Bible Society. New 
York, 1836.— From J. J. Barclay, Esq. 

Journal of the Proceedings of the Fifty-fourth Convention of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church in the State of Pennsylvania. Phila- 
delphia, 1838. — From the same. 

Annual Report of the Regents of the University of the State of New 
York. Made to the Legislature, March 1, 1838. Albany, 1838.— 
From the Albany Institute. 

Journal of the Senate of Pennsylvania, Session 1837-38. Vols. I. & 
II., and Appendix to Vol. II. Harrisburg, 1837-8. — From the 
State of Pennsylvania. 

Journal of the Forty-eighth House of Representatives of Pennsylva- 
nia. Vols. I. & II., and Appendix to Vol. II. Harrisburg, 
1837-8. — From the same. 

Report of the State Treasurer, showing the Receipts and Expendi- 
tures of Pennsylvania for the year ending on the thirty-first of 
October, 1837. Harrisburg, 1837. — From the same. 

Letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting a Report of a Survey 
around the Falls of Niagara, with a view to a Ship Canal, made, 
in 1835, under the direction of Capt. W. G. Williams, of the 
U. S. Topog. Engineers. With numerous Maps. Washington, 
1836.— From Col. J. J. Abert. 



31 

Report from the Secretary of War, transmitting the Report of Lieut. 
R. E. Lee, U. S. Engineers, on the Rock River and Des Moines 
Rapids of the Mississippi River, and on the Harbour of St. Louis. 
With Maps. Washington, 1838. — From the same. 

Maps of the Kennebeck and Androscoggin Rivers, and of Wilson's 
and Winthrop Ponds, &c. Washington, 1838. — From the same. 

Report from the Secretary of War, transmitting Reports of the Sur- 
veys of the Mouths of Milwaukie, Root, Manitowoc, Sheboygan, 
and Kewaunee Rivers, and of Havre Bay. Washington, 1838. — 
From the same. 

Map of Cape May Roads, including Crow Shoal, Delaware Bay. By 
Hartman Bache, Major of Topog. Engineers. September, 1836. — 
From the Author. 

Chart of the Entrance of Sandusky Bay. By Lieut. C. Graham. 
1826. — From Major Hartman Bache. 

Map of the Mouth of the Connecticut River and Saybrook Harbour. 
Reduced from the original Survey of J. W. Adams. Washing- 
ton, 1838. — From the same. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Benja- 
min Silliman, M. D., LL. D., aided by Benjamin Silliman, Jr., 

A. B. Vol. XXXIII. No. 2, and Vol. XXXIV. Nos. 1 & 2 

From the Conductors. 

On motion of Dr. Patterson, a Committee was appointed to 
observe the eclipse of the Sun of the 18th of September next. 
Committee, Dr. Patterson, Mr. Walker, Mr. Paine, and Capt. 
Talcott. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol. I. SEPTEMBER & OCTOBER, 1838. No. 4. 

Stated Meeting, September 21. 
Present, nineteen members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

for the library. 

Archaeologia : or Miscellaneous Tracts relating to Antiquity. Pub- 
lished by the Society of Antiquaries of London. Vol. XXVII. 
London, 1838. — From the Society. 

The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. XVIII. Part 1. 
Dublin, 1838. — From the Academy. 

The Magazine of Natural History. New Series. Conducted by 
Edward Charlesworth, F. G.S., &c. Vol.,11. Nos. 17 & 18. 
For May and June. London, 1838. — From the Conductor. 

Almanacco della Real Casa e Corte per l'anno bisestile 1832. Na- 
ples, 1832.— From the Chev. Morelli. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. • . Edited by R. 

Dunglison, M. D. Vol. II. Nos. 11 & 12. Philadelphia, 1838 

From the Editor. 

Observations relative to Lymphatic Hearts. By Joseph J. Allison, 
M. D. Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Author. 

Transylvania Catalogue of Medical Graduates, with an Appendix, 
containing a concise History of the School. By Thomas D. 
Mitchell, M. D. Lexington, 1838. — From the Author. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Nos. 68 & 69. For 
August and September. Calcutta, 1837. — From the Society. 



34 

A Genieida. Poema filosofico, e allegorico sobre a Lucta da Liber- 
dade contra a Tyi'annia. Composto por Joa5 de Souza Pacheco 
Leitao. Two Vols. Lisbon, 1835-6. — From the Author. 

The Anglo-Arabic Primer and Vocabulary. Malta, 1832. — From 
Lieut. P. Drayton, U. S. Navy. 

A Complete Collection of all the Protests made in the House of 
Lords, from their Original in the Year 1641 to the present Year 
1745. London, 1745. — From Mr. John Penington. 

Observations on the Winds and Monsoons. By James Capper. 
London, 1801. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 

Bija Ganita : or the Algebra of the Hindus. By Edward Strachey.. 
London, 1812. — From the same. 

Algebra, with Arithmetic and Mensuration, from the Sanscrit- 
Translated by Henry Thomas Colebrooke, Esq. London, 1817. — 
From the same. 

Grammaire des Grammaires, ou Analyse Raisonnee des meilleurs-- 
Traites sur la Langue Francoise. Par Girault Duvivier. Two 
Vols. Paris, 1822. — From the same. 

A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their Localities. By 
Samuel Robinson, M.D. Boston, 1825. — From the same. 

An History of the Parliament of Great Britain, from the Death of 
Queen Anne, to the Death of King George IL London, 1764. — 
From the same. 

The Poetical Works of John Trumbull, LL. D. Two Vols. Hart- 
ford, 1820.— From the same. 

The Reign of Doctor de Francia in Paraguay ; being an Account of 
a Six Years' Residence in that Republic, from July 1819, to May 
1825. By Messrs. Rengger and Longchamps. Translated from 
the French. London, 1827. — From the same. 

Memoir on the Topography, Weather, and Diseases of the Bahama 
Islands. By P. S. Townsend, M.D. New York, 1826.— 
From the same. 

The Campaign of 1781 in the Carolinas. By H. Lee. Philadelphia, 
1824. — From the same. 

A Historical Sketch of the Formation of the Confederacy, &c. By 
Joseph Blunt. New York, 1825. — From the same. 

A View of the Constitution of the United States of America. By 
William Rawle. Philadelphia, 1825. — From the same. 

An Analysis of the Galic Language. By William Shaw, A.M. 
Edinburgh, 1778. — From the same. 



35 

The Charter, granted by his Majesty, King Charles II. to the Gover- 
nor and Company of the English Colony of Rhode-Island and 
Providence-Plantations, in New England. Newport, 1767. — ■ 
From the same. 

The New Testament, translated into the Greenland Language by the 
Missionaries of the Unitas Fratrum. London, 1822. — From the 
same. 

Description Geographique des Isles Antilles possedees par les An- 
glois. Paris, 1758. — From the same. 

The Select Medical Library. Edited by John Bell, M. D. Vol. II. 
Nos. 1 to 11. Philadelphia, 1837-8.— From the Editor, 

Memorial of Facts connected with the History of Medallic Engraving 
and the Process of M. Collas. By V. Nolte. London, 1838.— 
From Mr. Thomas Sully. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A mummy of the Ibis, in an earthen jar, taken from one of the cata- 
combs of Egypt. — From Lieut. P. Drayton, U. S. Navy. 

Four small models of human mummies; two of wood, and two of 
baked clay. — From the same. 

Several suites of minerals, comprising 33 specimens. Nos. 1 to 18, 
rocks and ores from the Island of Cuba; Nos. 19 to 31, minerals 
from the mineral region of Missouri; No. 32, sulphuret of cop- 
per, from Flemington, N. J. ; No. 33, bituminous coal, from the 
banks of the Black Warrior river, Alabama.— From Mr. Thomas 
G. Clemson. 

The Committee on the solar eclipse of the 18th of Septem- 
ber made a Report in part, comprising the Observations made 
at Philadelphia, the principal results of which are as follows: 

The observations made at Philadelphia are fifteen in number. A 
list of observers, telescopes, &c, is given in the following table. The 
correction in the third column is to be added algebraically to the lati- 
tude of the place of observation, to obtain that of the State House, 
+ 39° 56' 58". The correction in the fourth column is likewise to 
be added to the local longitude in time, to obtain that of the State 
House, — 5h Om 39.2s. 



36 







o £ 


2*o a 


.s 


















tj) 








T3 




OBSERVER. 


O o o 
".£ ^3 £3 


013 


c 


Maker of 


Description. 


Screen 


5 £ 






"Si 3 


^ c d 


St! 


Telescope. 




Glass. 


£ 




P3^02 


tf^OQ 


£.S 








H£ 


1 


E. J. Beans 


— 70'.'0 


s 

+ 1.70 


2.5 


Unknown 


Spy-glass 


Smok'd 


15 


2 


Wm. Penn Cresson 


— 1.8 + 5.20 


25 


Jones 


Achromatic 


Red 


30 


3 


Prof. W. R. Johnson 


- 1.8 


+ 5.20 


3.5 


Dollond 


do. 


do. 


100 


4 


George M. Justice 


— 10.0 


+ 2.S6 


2.5 


Jones 


Gregorian 


do. 


80 


5 


E. O. Kendall 


— 10.0 


+ 2.86 


2.5 


Plossl 


Dialytic 


Green 


50 


6 


Joseph Knox 


— 21.0 


— 1.39 


3.5 


Dollond 


Achromatic 


Red 


80 


7 


Isaiah Lukens 


— 9.0 


+ 0.86 


1.8 


Plossl 


Dialytic 


Yellow 


20 


8 


Thomas M'Euen 


+ 0.4 


+ 2.33 


2.5 


Dollond 


Achromatic 


Red 


60 


9 


Prof. Roswell Park 


— 6.5 


+ 1.30 


2.5 


do. 


Gregorian 


do. 


50 


10 


Dr. R. M. Patterson 


— 1.1 


+ 1.20 


5.0 


do. 


Equatorial 


do. 


100 


11 


Wm. H. C. Riggs 


+ 0.4 


+ 2.33 


3.5 


do. 


Achromatic 


do. 


50 


12 


Samuel Sellers 


— 7.5 


+ 0.05 


2.5 


Jones 


do. . 


do. 


40 


13 


Tobias Wagner 


— 10.0 


+ 2.86 


3.5 


Dollond 


do. 


do. 


80 


14 


Sears C. Walker 


— 10.0 


+ 2.86 


5.0 


Tulley 


do. 


do. 


100 


15 


William Young 


+ 21.0 


— 1.39 


7.0 


Holcomb 


Herschelian 


do. 


200 



Phase? Observed, in Mean Times of 


the Places of 


Observati 


on. 




A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


F. 


H. 


I. 


K. 


L. 


M. 


N. 


O. 


P. 




h m 


h m 


h m 


h m 


h m 


h m 


h m 


/* m 


A in 


h m 


h m 


h m 


h m 


No. 


3 13 


4 30 


4 31 


4 31 


4 31 


4 35 


4 35 


4 35 


4 35 


4 41 


5 45 


5 45 


5 45 


1 






3:9 






s 

28.4 
















2 


s 




-7.0 




s 


27.8 


s 


s 






s 


s 




3 


10.7 




10.5 


s 


15.5 


23.5 


27.5 


29.0 






4.2 


12.2 




4 


7.4 




63 


12.8 




27.3 












11.3 




5 


8.3 






10.9 




28.4 












12.9 




6 


12.8 


























7 








21.7 








36.2 












8 


*3.0 






18.1 




29.1 












13.2 




9 




s 




19.1 




29.1 








s 






s 


10 


7.0 


39.1 




19.1 




30.1 








23.1 




16.1 


19.1 


11 


7.3 


39.2 


2.3 


16.3 




29.4 




36.3 








7.8 




12 


6.0 






16.0 




31.0 












16.0 




13 


6.1 
















s 










14 


5.6 


36.7 




15.6 


23.0 


23.0 


29.5 


37.0 


42.0 




10.0 


13.0 


16.0 


15 








12.9 








3S.9 








15.0 





A. Beginning. Prof. Johnson noticed dark indentations for eight 
seconds after the first disturbance of the limb. 

B. Arch of faint light, with speck or brush in centre, round the 
moon's limb beyond the cusps ,* brush or blaze in centre, between 
cusps, extending outwards about two digits. One cusp broken 
at end, presenting a bright bead. 

C. Arch of light much increased in brightness; the brush or blaze,, 
at first in the centre, now extends from cusp to cusp ; radiation 
outwards, nearly three digits; cusps distant 30° on sun's limb, a 

* Doubtful. 



37 

broken point or bead at each end. This phase noted as that of 
the formation of the ring by Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 11. 

D. Formation of ring, or instant of osculation of limbs. This 
phase noticed as the approach of two sharp well defined points 
to a contact by Nos. 5 and 15. It was observed at the instant 
when the cusps, apparently 20° of the sun's limb apart, suddenly 
united by the extension of four or five luminous beads, or rounded 
portions of the sun's disc, by Nos. 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, and 14. 

E. Omitted in the table. This letter refers to the time when the 
dark lines, described by Van Swinden and Bailey, should have 
appeared. They were not seen by any observer, though care- 
fully searched for. 

F. Perfect ring, the beads of light having united, or run into each 
other suddenly. 

G. Counterpart of E, not observed though looked for. 

H. Rupture of ring, counterpart of D. Took place at a point, and 
so noted by all the observers. 

I. Appearance of beads, five or six in number, extending from cusp 
to cusp. 

K. Counterpart of G in every respect. 

L. Counterpart of appearance just preceding C. Brush or blaze of 
light, narrowed down to a small space, 3° or 4° on the moon's 
border, extending outwards 2§ digits; cusps still broken, as seen 
by most of the observers. Nos. 5 and 15, however, saw no ir- 
regularity of cusps, no beads of light. 

M. Final disappearance of arch of faint light, with brush -of light 
extending beyond the middle, having previously become very faint. 
This phenomenon observed with great care and certainty by No. 
10. 

N. Appearance o^ dark lines extending into the sun's disc, noticed 
by Nos. 3, 4, 10, and 14. The time noted by Nos. 3 and 14 as 
the end of the eclipse. 

O. End of eclipse, inferred by each observer from his notes. 

P. Final disappearance of the dark lines, the sun's disc having re- 
sumed its natural shape. Nos. 3, 4, 10, and 14 inferred the 
time of O as at some instant intermediate between N and P. 
The time of external contact difficult to determine, on account of 
this irregularity. 
For the convenience of computers, the local times above given have 

been reduced to their corresponding value for the State House by E. 

O. Kendall, by means of his formula?, in Vol. XX. of the Journal of 



h 
3 


m 
13 


s 
10.06 


4 


31 


18.76 


4 


35 


31.35 


5 


45 


15.46 


2 


32 


5.40 




4 


12.59 



38 

the Franklin Institute, p. 125, which gives the following values for 
the variation of the local times of the several phases, for a small va- 
riation of terrestrial latitude or longitude, as follows : — 

Beginning. Ring. End. 

Variation for + or north 1" terr. lat. = — 0.0397 — 0.0382 — 0.0343 

Do. + or east Is of terr. Ion. in time = + 1.2600+ 1.1400+0.9925 

The means of his results for the State House, giving to each obser- 
vation its proper weight, in mean time of the State House, are, 

Beginning, 

Formation of ring, 

Rupture of ring, 

End, -.-. 

Duration of eclipse, 

Duration of ring, - 

Mr. Du Ponceau presented a communication, entitled "A 
Vocabulary of the Language of the Valiente Indians, who in- 
habit the State of Costa Rica, in Central America, by Col. D. 
Juan Galindo, of Guatemala." Referred to the Historical and 
Literary Committee. 

Mr. Nulty read a mathematical paper, entitled "New For- 
mulas relative to Comets, by E. Nulty, of Philadelphia." Re- 
ferred to Dr. Patterson, Mr. Walker, and Capt. Talcott. 

The subject of this paper was the component velocities of a comet, 
observed at three consecutive and moderately small intervals of time. 
In a preliminary notice of his subject and the means employed in its 
■ development, the author mentioned some advantages which he con- 
ceived to be attached to his peculiar mode of investigation. He 
alluded to different results already known, and, with several novel 
and general formulas comprised in his paper, he announced two new 
sets of expressions which he represented as being directly applicable 
to the exceptive cases, in which particular observations render the 
forms hitherto given, doubtful or indeterminate. He also noticed a 
numerical application which he made of his formulas and of others con- 
nected with the method of Laplace, to the data of the comet of 1803; 
and he intimated that a comparison of the results obtained by him in 
that and other instances, had led him to some remarks, which he in- 
serted towards the close of his paper, from his opinion of their ana- 
lytical and practical importance. 



39 

Dr. Patterson read a paper by Professor Charles Bonny- 
castle, of the University of Virginia, containing "Notes of Ex- 
periments, made August 22d to 25th, 1838, with the view of 
determining the Depth of the Sea by the Echo." 

This paper, which was not offered for publication in the Society's 
Transactions, states that the generally received notions in regard to 
the intensity of sound in water, and the distance to which it is con- 
veyed, had suggested to Mr.- Bonnycastle, some years ago, the idea 
that an audible echo might be returned from the bottom of the sea, 
and the depth be thus ascertained from the known velocity of sound 
in water. The probability of this view was deemed at least sufficient 
to justify an experiment; and accordingly the Navy Commissioners 
authorized the construction of the necessary apparatus, and Captain 
Gedney, of the U. S. Brig Washington, attached to the coast survey, 
volunteered his services and the use of his vessel, and authority to 
this effect was liberally granted by the Secretary of the Treasury, 
Mr. Woodbury. 

The apparatus, which is fully described in Mr. Bonnycastle's 
paper, consisted, first, of a petard or chamber of cast iron, 2| inches 
in diameter and 5 J inches long, with suitable arrangements for firing 
gunpowder in it under water; secondly, of a tin tube, 8 feet long and 
Ijj inches in diameter, terminated at one end by a conical trumpet- 
mouth, of which the diameter of the base was 20 inches, and the 
height of the axis 10 inches; thirdly, of a very sensible instrument 
for measuring small intervals of time, made by J. Montandon of 
Washington, and which was capable of indicating the sixtieth' part of 
a second. Besides these, an apparatus for hearing was roughly 
made on board the vessel, in imitation of that used by Colladon in 
the Lake of Geneva, and consisted of a stove-pipe, 4^ inches in di- 
ameter, closed at one end, and capable of being plunged four feet in 
the water. The ship's bell was also unhung, and an arrangement 
made for ringing it under water. 

On the 22d of August, the brig left New York, and in the evening 
the experiments were commenced. In these, Mr. Bonnycastle was 
assisted by the commander and officers of the vessel, and by Dr. 
Robert M. Patterson, who. had been invited to make one of the party. 

In the first experiments, the bell was plunged about a fathom 
under water and kept ringing, while the operation of the two hearing 
instruments was tested at the distance of about a quarter of a mile. 
Both instruments performed less perfectly than was expected; the 



40 

noise of the waves greatly interfering, in both, with the powers of 
hearing. In the trumpet-shaped apparatus, the ringing of the metal, 
from the blow of the waves, was partly guarded against by a wooden 
casing; but, as it was open at both ends, the oscillation of the water, 
in the tube was found to be a still greater inconvenience, so that the 
sound of the bell was better heard with the cylindrical tube. At the 
distance of a quarter of a mile this sound was a sharp tap, about 
the loudness of that occasioned by striking the back of a penknife 
against an iron wire: at the distance of a mile the sound was no 
longer audible. 

In the second experiments, the mouth of the cone, in the trumpet 
apparatus, was closed with a plate of thick tin, and both instruments 
were protected by a parcelling of old canvas and rope-yarn, at the 
part in contact with the surface of the water. In these experiments 
the cone was placed at right angles to the stem, and the mouth di- 
rected toward the sound. The distances were measured by the in- 
terval elapsed between the observed flash and report of a pistol. At 
the distance of 1400 feet, the conical instrument was found consider- 
ably superior to the cylindrical, and at greater distances the supe- 
riority became so decided, that the latter was abandoned in all 
subsequent experiments. At the distance of 5270 feet, the bell was 
heard with such distinctness as left no doubt that it could have been 
heard half a mile further. 

The sounds are stated in the paper to have been less intense 
than those in air, and seemed to be conveyed to less distances. 
The character of the sound was also wholly changed, and, from 
other experiments, it appeared that the blow of a watchmaker's ham- 
mer against a small bar of iron gave the same sharp tick as a heavy 
-blow against the large ship's bell. It is well known that Franklin 
heard the sound of two stones struck together under water at half a 
mile distance; yet two of the boat's crew, who plunged their heads 
below the water, when at a somewhat less distance from the bell, 
were unable to hear its sound. 

On the 24th of August, the vessel having proceeded to the Gulf 
Stream, experiments were made with the view for which the voyage 
was undertaken ; that is, to ascertain whether an echo would be re- 
turned, through water, from the bottom of the sea. Some difficulties 
were at first presented in exploding the gun under water, but these 
were at length overcome. The hearing-tube was ballasted so as to 
sink vertically in the water. The observers then went, with this in- 



41 

strument, to a distance of about 150 yards from the vessel, and the 
petard was lowered over the stern, about three fathoms under water, 
and fired. The sound of the explosion, as heard by Mr. Bonnycastle, 
was two sharp distinct taps, at an interval of about one-third of a 
second. Two sounds, with the same interval, were also clearly 
heard on board the brig ; but the character of the sounds was different, 
and each was accompanied by a slight shock. Supposing the second 
sound to be the echo of the first from the bottom of the sea, the depth 
should have been about 160 fathoms. 

To ascertain the real depth, the sounding was made by the ordi- 
nary method, but with a lead of 75 pounds weight, and bottom was 
distinctly felt at 550 fathoms, or five furlongs. The second sound 
could not, therefore, have been the echo of the first; and this was 
proved, on the following day, by repeating the experiment in four 
fathom water, when the double sound was heard as before, and with 
the same interval. 

The conclusion from these experiments is, either that an echo 
cannot be heard from the bottom of the sea, or that some more effec- 
tual means of producing it must be employed. 

Dr. Hare suggested the expediency of employing the Gal- 
vanic fluid to fire gunpowder below the surface of water, in 
experiments similar to those of Professor Bonnycastle. 

The President laid on the table for the inspection of the 
members, an English and Japanese, and Japanese and English 
Vocabulary, by the Rev. W. H. Medhurst, late of Batavia, now 
in London, and a "Translation of a comparative Vocabulary 
of the Chinese, Corean, and Japanese Languages, to which are 
added the thousand Characters classic, in Chinese and Corean; 
the whole accompanied by copious Indexes of all the Chinese 
and English Words occurring in the Work," by the same author, 
under the name of Philo-Sinensis. 

These two books, the President said, throw considerable 
light on the various graphic systems of the Indo-Chinese 
nations; they had been communicated to him by our associate, 
Mr. Pickering, of Boston, to whom they must be returned: 
he, therefore, recommended to the society to take measures to 
procure them for the library. 

The recommendation of the President was then adopted, 
and the books referred to, ordered by the society. 



42 

Dr. Hare laid before the society a specimen of platinum, 
weighing between twenty-two and twenty-three ounces, being 
part of a mass of twenty-five ounces, fused by him in May 
last, by means of his compound blowpipe. 

Dr. Hare also mentioned that he had observed, during a 
recent tornado at Somerset, Mass. various circumstances, which 
he detailed, all leading to the conclusion that a hiatus or place 
of rest exists at the centre of motion of the tornado. 



Stated Meeting, October 5. 

Present, twenty-nine members. 

Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 

The following donations were received: — 

for the library. 

Inquisitionum in Officio Rotulorum Cancellarise Hibernise asserva- 

tarum, Repertorium. Dublin. Vol.I., 1826; Vol. II., 1829.— 

From the Honourable Board of Commissioners on the Public 

Records of Great Britain. 
Rotulorum Patentium et Clausorum Cancellarise Hibernise Calenda- 

rium. Vol. I. Part I. Dublia, 1828. — From the Same. 
Rotuli de Oblatis et Finibus in Turri Londinensi asservati, Tempore 

Regis Johannis. London, 1835. — From the same. 
Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council of England. Lon- 
don. Vol. V., 1835; Vol. VI. & VII., 1837.— From the same. 
Excerpta e Rotulis Finium in Turri Londinensi asservatis, Henrico 

Tertio Rege. Vol. II. London, 1836. — From the same. 
The Ancient Kalendars and Inventories of his Majesty's Exchequer. 

Three Vols. London, 1836. — From the same. 
Documents and Records illustrating the History of Scotland. Vol. I. 

London, 1837. — From the same. 
Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi asservati. Vol. I. Part. I. 

London, 1837. — From the same. 
General Report to the King in Council from the Honourable Board 

of Commissioners on the Public Records. London, 1837. — 

From the same. 
Reo-istrum vulgariter nuncupatum " The Record of Caernarvon ;" e 

Codice Ms to . Harleiano 696. descriptum. London, 1838. — From 

the same. 



43 

The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge, for 
the jrear I 839 - Boston, 1838.-— From Mr. J. E. Worcester. 

Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Vol. VII. of 
the third Series. Boston, 1838. — From the Society. 

History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic. By 
William H. Prescott. Three Vols. Third Edition. Boston, 
1838. — From the Author. 

Human Physiology; illustrated by Engravings. By Robley Dun- 
glison, M.D. Two Vols. Third Edition. Philadelphia, 1838.— 
From the Author. 

The Magazine of Natural History. New Series. Conducted by 
Edward Charlesworth, F. G. S. &c. Vol. II. Nos. 19 & 20, 
for July and August. London, 1838. — From the Conductor. 

The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Vol. XVIII. 
Part the First. London, 1838. — From the Society. 

New Testament in the Chippewa Language. Albany, 1833. From 
the Hon. William C. Frazer. 

North American Herpetology ; or, a Description of the Reptiles in- 
habiting the United States. By John Edwards Holbrook, M. D. 
Vol. II. Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Author. 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, for the year 1837-8.. Part 
II. Dublin, 1838. — From the Academy. 

Note on the Solar Eclipse of May, 15, 1836. By Sears C. Walker. 
(From the Journal of the Franklin Institute.) Philadelphia, 1836. — 
From the Author. 

Note sur le Magnetisme Terrestre, suivie des Resultats des Obser- 
vations Horaires, faites a l'Equinoxe du Printemps de 1838, par 
A. Quetelet. Brussels, 1838. — From the Author. 

Note sur le Magnetisme Terrestre, par A. Quetelet. Suivie des Re- 
sultats des Observations Horaires, faites a l'E'poque du dernier 
Solstice d'E'te, en 1838. Brussels, 1838. — From the Author. 

A Collection of Interesting French Pamphlets. — From D. B. War- 
den, Esq. 

Catalogue of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, with a Calendar 
prefixed. (In Hungarian.) Buda,1838. — From Mr. Charles Nagy. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

Three hundred copper coins, medals, and tokens, and other articles 
of interest. — From Mr. James Linah, of Charleston, S. C. 
The Committee on Mr. Nulty's paper, read at the last 
meeting, recommended that it be printed in the Society's 
Transactions; and its publication was ordered accordingly. 



h 

3 


m 
6 


s 
9.58 


4 


24 


28.15 


4 


30 


18.55 


5 


39 


54.89 


2 


33 


45.31 




5 


50.40 



44 

The Committee on the solar eclipse of the 18th of Septem- 
ber, made a further Report in part. 

This portion of the report embraced the observations made in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia, of which the following are the principal re- 
sults, arranged in the order in which they were received, and, with 
one exception, in mean time of the place of observation; the longi- 
tudes being reckoned from Greenwich. 

No. 16, by Robert Treat Paine, Esq., at the west front of the 
Capitol, Washington. Latitude 38° 53' 23", as determined by Mr. 
Paine, with his Troughton's sextant. Longitude 5h 8m 8s west. 
With 3^ feet equatorial, green screen glass. Time by three chrono- 
meters, regulated by eastern and western altitudes of sun and stars, 
with his Troughton's sextant. 

Beginning, .... 

Formation of ring, 

Rupture of ring, 

End, 

Duration of eclipse, 
Do. of ring, 

"The ring formed instantaneously, and broke nearly so. No 
beads were seen, nor the dark lines mentioned by Mr. Bailey, nor 
the light round the moon, although all were looked for. No distor- 
tion of the moon's limb could be seen, and the cusps of the sun, be- 
fore the ring formed, were as sharp as needles." 

No. 17, by Lieut. Gilliss, U. S. N., at the Marine Observatory, 
Washington City, N. 8", W. 0.08s in time, from the Capitol, with a 
3^ feet achromatic, green screen glass, power 50. Astronomical 
clock regulated by a five feet transit instrument. 

h 

Beginning, - - - 3 

Formation of ring, - - 4 

Rupture of ring, ... 4 

End, - - - - - 5 

Duration of eclipse, - - 2 

Do. of ring, 

" At beginning of eclipse, limbs sharp and well defined. The same 
at formation and rupture of the ring, only in the former the light 
seemed to flash round the moon's limb." Two detached arched por- 
tions of the ring were seen separated from the cusps, " while the 
space between presented points of light (beads) only." 



m 
6 


s 
10.4 


24 


28.4 


30 


18.9 


39 


56.4 


33 


46.0 


5 


50.5 



45 

No. 18, by Prof. Elias Loomis, at the Observatory of the Western 
Reserve College, Ohio. Latitude 41° 14' 42" N. Longitude 5/i 
25m 35s W. With a five feet equatorial, mounted on a stone pier 
under a revolving dome, with yellow screen glass, power 150, nearly. 
Astronomical clock regulated by a 30 inch transit circle by Simms. 
Beginning 14A 27m 26.7s siderial time. 
Other phases lost by clouds. 

Nos. 19 and 20, by J. Gummere and his son S. J. Gummere, at 
the Haverford School Observatory, Chester County, Pa. Latitude 
41° 1' 12" N. Longitude 5/t. \m. 16s. W. With two 3| feet teles- 
copes by Tulley, with red screen glasses, powers 75, nearly. As- 
tronomical clock regulated by a Dollond's portable transit instru- 
ment. 

h 
Beginning, .... 3 
Formation of ring, - - 4 

Rupture of ring, - - - 4 
End, ..... 5 
Duration of eclipse, - - 2 

Do. of ring, - - 

Arch of faint light, with brush in centre, seen before the formation 
of the ring. Arch seen after rupture, brush of light not recollected. 
Formation and rupture of the ring, by broken portions of the sun's 
border, several in number, not round like beads, but arched portions 
of the ring. These continued several seconds, and then suddenly 
united in the first instance, and separated in the last, without, how- 
ever, exhibiting the dark lines figured by Bailey. 

Nos. 21 and 22, by Charles Wister and his son Caspar E. Wister, 
at the Observatory of the former, Germantown. Latitude 40° 1' 59". 
Longitude 2.7s in time west of the State House. With 2 J and 2 feet 
Gregorian reflectors. Astronomical clock regulated by a 3 feet 
transit instrument. 



m 
12 


s 
17.2 


30 


29.2 


34 


44.8 


44 


28.7 


32 


11.5 


4 


15.6 





C. Wister. 


c. 


E. Wister. 

A ^ 




h m 


s 


m s 


Beginning, 


3 12 


55.4 


3 


12 54.4 


Formation of ring, 


4 31 


9.4 


4 


31 8.4 


Rupture of ring, 


4 35 


18.4 


4 


35 18.4 


End, 


5 45 


8.4 


5 


45 7.4 


Duration of eclipse, 


2 32 


13.0 


2 


32 13.0 


Do. of ring, 


4 


9.0 




4 10.0 



h 


m s 


3 


12 18.6 


4 


30 31.6 


5 


44 26.6 


2 


32 8.6 



46 

" The lucid points and dark intervening spaces corresponded 
closely to Bailey's description." 

No. 23, by John Griscom. Latitude 9.7" N. Longitude 0.3s in 
time west of the Observatory of Haverford School. With a 3£ feet 
Dollond achromatic, power 80. 

Beginning, .... 

Formation of ring, 

Rupture of ring, (not reported.) 

End, 

Duration of eclipse 

Do. of ring, (not reported.) 
No. 24, by Prof. James Hamilton, of Burlington, New Jersey. 
Latitude 40° 5' 10" N., 69.1s in time east of State House, Philada. 
With a five feet achromatic, power 80. Clock regulated by equal al- 
titudes with a sextant. 

Beginning, 
Formation of ring, 
Rupture of ring, 
End, 

Duration of eclipse, 
Do. of ring, 

"The phases of the ring are the perfect formation and perfect 
rupture, without reference to beads. No dark lines seen." 

The President presented a letter from Mr. S. P. Hullihen, 
dated Wheeling, Sep. 27, 1838, addressed to Dr. Harlan, 
giving an account of an inscription on a stone, found in a tu- 
mulus at Grave Creek, near that place. Referred to the Presi- 
dent, Dr. Dunglison, and Dr. Emerson. 

The President communicated a MS. book, entitled "Voca- 
bularies of the Languages of the Indians inhabiting the N. W. 
Coast of America." Collected by John K. Townsend during 
the years 1834, '35, and '36. Referred to the Historical and 
Literary Committee. 

The President also communicated a MS. book, entitled "A 
Grammar of the Iroquois Language. By Eleazer Williams." 
Referred to the same Committee. 

Mr. Strickland presented a specimen of the asphaltic rock 
from the mines of Seyssel, in France, and a disc or tablet of 



h 
3 


VI 

14 


s 
23.7 


4 


32 


32.6 


4 


36 


19.6 


5 


46 


8.5 


2 


31 


44.8 




3 


47.0 



47 

Mosaic work made of the same mineral, and briefly explained 
the process of its manufacture. 

Dr. Mitchell presented to the notice of the society, Jeffrey's 
oral respirator, and explained its structure and uses. 



Stated Meeting, October 19. 
Present, seventeen members 
Dr. Chapman, Vice President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Principles of Political Economy. Part the Second. By H. C. Carey. 
Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Author. 

Supplemental Annotations to the Book of the New Covenant. Lon- 
don, 1838. — From Granville Penn, Esq. 

Letters from the English Kings and Queens to the Governors of the 
Colony of Connecticut, from 1635 to 1749. By R. R. Hinman, 
A. M. Hartford, 1836. — From A. Winthrop, Esq. 

The Blue Laws of New Haven Colony, usually called Blue Laws of 
Connecticut; Quaker Laws of Plymouth and Massachusetts, &c. 
Hartford, 1838. — From the same. 

Arte de la Lengva Moxa. Compuesto por el M. R. P. Pedro Mar- 
ban. Lima, 1702. — From W. B. Hodgson, Esq. 

Views on the Improvement of the Maltese Language. By the Rev. 
C. F. Schlienz. Malta, 1838.— From W. W. Andrews, Esq. 

Svensk Botanik, utgifven af J. W. Palmstruch. Vols. II. III. IV. V. 
& VI. Stockholm, 1803-4-5-7-9— From Mr. John Vaughan. 

Svenska Lafvarnas F'arghistoria. Af Joh. P. Westring. Vol. I. 
Stockholm, 1805.— From the same. 

E'lemens de Philosophic Chimique, par H. Davy. Traduit de 
l'Anglais, avec des Additions, par J.-B. Van Mons. Two Vols. 
Paris, 1826. — From the same. 

Essai sur la Theorie des Proportions Chimiques. Par J. J. Berzelius. 
Paris, 1819. — From the same. 

The History of Kentucky. By H. Marshall. Two Vols. Frank- 
fort, 1824. — From the same. 



48 

Personal Narrative of the First Voyage of Columbus. Boston, 1827. — 

From the same. 
The Select Medical Library. Edited by John Bell, M. D. Vol. II. 

No. 12. Philadelphia, 1838.— From the Editor. 
The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. By Robley Dun- 

glison, M. D. Vol. II. Nos. 13 & 14. Philadelphia, 1838.— 

From the Editor. 
Transactions of the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. 

Vol. LI. Part II. London, 1838. — From the Society. 

The Committee on the solar eclipse of the 18th of Septem- 
ber, made a further Report in part, comprising the following 
observation : — 

No. 25, by F. R. Hassler, Esq., at Weasel Mountain, N. J., lati- 
tude 40° 52' 35", approximate longitude Ah 57m 25.7s W., being one 
of the stations of the coast survey, with telescopes of the large theo- 
dolite, powers 116 and 151. 

h m s 
First contact, - - - 3 15 56.98 

Inner contact, - - - 4 35 57.09 

End, - .... 5 47 13.10 

Duration of eclipse, - - 2 31 16.12 

Do. of ring, - - 1.00 

From a drawing, accompanying Mr. Hassler's communication, it 
appears that several broken portions of the ring, or beads of light, for 
a second only, extended from cusp to cusp, presenting a most beauti- 
ful appearance. During the rest- of the eclipse, except this single 
second, the cusps were dull and rounded off at the end. 

Dr. Hare read a paper on the Tornado which passed over a 
suburb of Providence, R. I., in August last; accompanied by a 
description of the phenomenon, by Mr. Z. Allen, of Provi- 
dence. Referred to President Bache, Dr. Patterson, and Mr. 
Espy. 

President Bache reported the decease of M. Stainsby, Pro- 
fessor of Natural Philosophy at Prague, and of Dr. Martinus 
Van Marum, of Haarlem, both members of the Society. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 



Vol. L NOVEMBER & DECEMBER, 1838. No. 5. 



Stated Meeting, November 2. 
Present, twenty-eight members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received : — 

FOE THE LIBRARY. 

Nieuwe Verhandelingen der Eersteklasse van het Koninklijk-Ne- 
derlandsche Instituut te Amsterdam. Vols. VI. & VII. Amster- 
dam, 1837 & 1838. — From the Institute. 

Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiederris en Physiologie. ■ Uitge- 
geven door J. van der Hoeven, M. D. en W. H. de Vriese, M. D. 
Vol. IV. Leyden, 1837 & 1838.— From the Minister of the 
Interior of the Netherlands. 

Flora Batava. Nos. 108 & 114. Amsterdam. — From the same. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Benja- 
min Silliman, M. D., aided by Benjamin Silliman, Jr., A. B. Vol. 
XXXV. No. 1. New Haven, 1838. — From the Conductors. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. Vol. IV. 
Nos. 1, 2, 3 & 4. New York, 1837.— From the Lyceum. 

A View of the Commerce between the United States and Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil. By John M. Baker, late U. S. Consul for Rio de 
Janeiro. Washington, 1838. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 

Museum Ichthyologicum, sistens Piscium qui in Museo L. T. Gronovii 
adservantur, Descriptiones. Amsterdam, 1754. — From the same. 



50 

Eulogy on Nathaniel Bowditch, LL. D. Delivered before the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences, May 29, 1838. By John 
Pickering, Cor. Secretary of the Academy. Boston, 1838.— 
From the Author. 

Nouveau Procede pour la Conservation des Grains ; par M. le ge- 
neral Demarcay. — From M. Hersant, French Consul. 

A Bibliographical Account and Collation of la Description de PEgypte, 
presented to the Library of the London Institution, by Sir Thomas 
Baring, Baronet, President. London, 1838. — From Mr. Wil- 
liam Vavghan. 

FOE THE CABINET. 

A collection of shells from the Island of Malta ; also four images cut 
from Malta stone, taken from " St. Paul's Cave," at Citta Vecchia. — 
From William Winthrop Andrews, Esq., U. S. Consul at 
Malta. 

The Committee on the solar eclipse of the 18th of Septem- 
ber, made a further Report in part, comprising the following 
observations: — 

Nos. 26 and 27. Observations of Professors Alexander and Henry, 
at the house of the latter, (lat. 40° 20' 50", Ion. \h 58m 37.2s W. 
of Greenwich, being 0.1s in time W. of Nassau Hall), Princeton Col- 
lege, New Jersey ; with a five feet Fraunhofer, yellow screen glass, 
power 60 for beginning and end, and 40 for the ring, and with a 
three and a half feet Dollond, dark red screen glass, power 80. 





km s 




Beginning, 


3 14 42.71 


Henry. 


Do. 


3 14 43.31 


Alexander. 


Formation of ring, 


4 33 11.27 


Both observers 


Rupture of ring, 


(not observed.) 




End, 


5 46 38.54 


Henry. 


Do. - 


5 46 39.24 


Alexander. 



Mean duration of eclipse, 2 31 54.88 

Do. of ring, (not observed) less than tabular duration. 

About two minutes before the formation of the ring, Prof. Henry 
saw, in the Dollond telescope with a red screen glass, an arch of 



51 

faint light between the cusps, and shortly afterwards a brush of 
greater intensity, projecting from near the lower cusp. This pheno- 
menon was not seen by Prof Alexander in the Fraunhofer with 
green screen glass, till 61 seconds before the formation of the ring, 
and then only as a luminous spot. This difference could not have 
been the result of any oversight on the part of Prof. Alexander; as 
Prof. Henry, immediately on seeing it, called out to Prof. Alexander, 
and described its appearance. The optical capacity of the Fraun- 
hofer is superior to that of the Dollond. Prof. Alexander is well 
known for his nice observations of the annular eclipse of the 13th Feb- 
ruary, 1831, and of the total eclipse of the 30th November, 1834. Its 
explanation must be sought for in the nature of the rays of which 
this arch and brush of light are composed ; rays absorbed by the 
green screen glass, and transmitted by the red. The moon's limb 
became brightly illuminated at 4ft 32m 53.28s. "An appearance, 
similar to a row of beads, was regarded as the formation of the ring." 
" The drops endured for a second or two." Expecting a longer dura- 
tion of the ring, the attention of the observers was not directed to the 
sun's limb at the instant of the rupture. The light succeeding the 
rupture of the ring was visible in the Dollond telescope till 4ft 41 m 
16.27s, (the minute uncertain, perhaps a minute earlier), having dis- 
appeared several minutes earlier in the Fraunhofer refractor. 

No. 28. The beginning of the eclipse was observed by William 
Cranch Bond, at his private Observatory, with a two feet Gregorian, 
power 44; latitude 45° 19' 15", longitude 4ft 44m 17.29s west of 
Greenwich, (or 0.69s in time west of Boston State House by Mr. 
Paine's trigonometrical survey) as follows : — 

Beginning, 3ft 28m 10.90s mean time of place of observation. 
End, lost by clouds. 

No. 29. The beginning was observed at 3ft 28m 11.6s at the 
State House, Boston, by Mr. Borden, with a 3^ feet refractor. Clouds 
prevented its observation at Cambridge. 

The Committee also reported the following observations of R. T. 
Paine, Esq., on the occasion of his journey to Washington to observe 
the eclipse. These were made with his sextant, constructed by Trough- 
ton for the chronometrical survey of Massachusetts, and carefully 
corrected by that artist for all sensible error of eccentricity; and 
with three excellent chronometers used by Mr. Paine in the survey. 



52 

Latitude of the Capitol. 
Sep. 17th, by 21 observed altitudes of both limbs 



22d 







of the sun, 38° 53' 


23.39" 


16 


do. 


/3 ceti, 


22.75 


22 


do. 


Polaris, 


21.77 


12 


do. 


both limbs of the sun, 


22.31 


12 


do. 


Polaris, 


22.70 


7 


do. 


j8-ceti, 


24.89 



By mean of 56 altitudes of sun and southern stars, 23.16 

Do. of 34 do. Polaris, 22.24 



Latitude of the Capitol, 38° 53' 22.7" 



The corrections of the chronometers were determined by Mr. 
Paine for Boston State House, from transit observations of Mr. 
Bond, at Dorchester ; those for Philadelphia State House, by eastern 
and western altitudes of stars, observed at the High School Observa- 
tory, by Messrs. Paine, Riggs, Walker, and Kendall, with the Trough- 
ton's sextant, circle, a Pistor's sextant, and a sextant (maker's name 
unknown) reading to 10". Those for Washington were made by 
Mr. Paine. The daily rates of the chronometers for Washington 
were on mean time, 

s 

151 Barraud — 14.27 

682 do. -f 1.67 

1678 Arnold + 8.46. 
With these rates, the condition of the chronometers at the beginning 
- of the eclipse was as follows : — 

151 Barraud. 682 Barraud. 1678 Arnold. 



to s 
+ 31 46.21 by 8 W. alt's of sun, Sep. 17. 



18. 



r~~ - ■■ i 


' ' 


to s 


TO S 


+ 19 31.59 


+ 25 11.27 


31.18 


11.52 


30.96 


11.61 


31.70 


11.20 


32.65 


12.13 


31.70 


11.38 



46.43 


9E. 


)! 


& Tauri, 


46.34 


4E. 


1> 


a. Orionis, 


46.12 


12 E. 


); 


sun, 


47.14 


8E. 


» 


a. Androm 


46.34 


12 E. 




sun, 



+ 19 31.68 + 25 11.48 + 31 46.41 Mean of 53 altitudes. 



The longitude of the State House, Boston, is stated by Mr. Paine 



53 

to be Ah 44m 16.6s, as the result of all the observations yet made. 
It is the same as that which Dr. Bowditch had deduced from those of 
1811 and previous. The longitude of the State House, Philadelphia, 
obtained by Mr. Walker from the principal observations made at 
Philadelphia to this time, is hh Om 39.2s. With these longitudes as 
standards, Mr. Paine's chronometric observations give, 

m s 
Boston — Philadelphia by 151 Barraud 16 24.27 going from Boston to Phila. 

682 . do. 22.30 do. 

1678 Arnold 24.03 do. 

1 51 Barraud 23.33 returning from Phila, to Boston. 

682 do. 23.60 do. 

1678 Arnold 23.76 do. 
Philadelphia — Capitol by 151 ^ 

682 > Mean 7 26.43 going from Phila. to Capitol. 
1678 3 
151 ^ 

682 > Mean 7 26.50 returning from Capitol to Phila. 
1678 3 

h m s m s k m s 

Hence, longitude of Capitol =4 44 16.6 + 23 50.01 = 5 8 6.61 

= 5 39.2+ 7 26.46 = 5 8 5.66 



Mean =58 6.14 



Mr. Walker, in a paper read before the Society, March 2, 1838, 
from a discussion of all the observations then made at Washington, 
finds the longitude of the Capitol 5h 8m 7s, a value which is pro- 
bably not far from the truth. 

Thus we have an additional proof, if any were needed, of the error 
of 25 seconds in time of Lambert's longitude of the Capitol, reported 
to Congress and adopted by that body. 

The coincidence between the interval from Boston to Philadelphia, 

viz. 

m s 
By celestial phenomena, 16 22.60 

By chronometers, 16 23.55 

shows that the error of either is reduced within narrow limits. 

The Mansion House, Northampton, Mass., lat. 42° 19' 4.6" by 
327 altitudes of northern and southern stars, has the following longi- 
tude : — 

m s 
Boston — Northampton, 6 17.72 by 74 chronometers. 

Do. 6 17.89 by immersion r Sagittarii. 

Northampton— Philad. 10 4.06 by do. 



54 

This immersion of t Sagittarii was observed, Aug. 22d, 1836, as 

follows : — 

h m s 
By R. T. Paine, at 10 14 57.46 at Mansion House, Northampton. 
By W. C. Bond, at 10 23 20.90 at his Observatory. 
By S.C.Walker, at 10 1 7.30 at N. 4.4", W. 1.06s of S. House, Ph. 

Again, for the longitude of Brown University, Providence, Mr. 
Paine finds, 

m s 
Boston — Providence, 1 22.64 by 40 chronometers. 

Do. 1 22.29 by eclipse of May 15th, 1836. 

Mr. Paine's observations of the eclipse of Sep. 18th have already 
been reported. Those for latitude and regulation of chronometers 
have been stated more at length, in order to furnish examples of the 
method pursued by that gentleman in the chronometric survey of 
Massachusetts, the only work of the kind of much extent hitherto 
performed in this country. Some idea of the labours of Mr. Paine 
may be formed from the fact, that, during its progress, he has been 
under the necessity of making and reducing more than 100,000 ob- 
servations of altitudes of the sun and stars, without any assistance. 

It is proper to add that Mr. Gilliss' observations, already reported, 
appear to require a subtractive correction of 1.95s. Thus Mr. Paine's 
observations give, 

h m 
Sep. 18th, 21 25, Barraud 151 fast by its own rate -f- 19 
by comparison with 682 Barraud, 
1678 Arnold, 
by mean of three chronometers, 
by Mr. Gilliss' transit observations, 
Discrepancy, 

Professor Henry read a paper entitled " Contributions to 
Electricity and Magnetism, No. 3. On the Phenomena of 
Electro-dynamic Induction." Referred to Prof. A. D. Bache, 
Dr. Patterson, and Dr. Hare. 

The primary object of the investigation undertaken by the author, 
was the discovery of induced currents from ordinary electricity, simi- 
lar to those produced by galvanism. Preparatory to this, a new 
investigation was instituted of the phenomena of galvanic induction, 
and the result of this forms, perhaps, the most important part of the 
communication. 



m 
19 


s 
20.80 




20.91 




20.89 


19 


20.87 


19 


22.82 




1.95 



55 

The first section of the paper refers to the conditions which infill* 
ence the induction of a current on itself, as in the case of a long 
wire and a spiral conductor. These are shown to depend on the 
intensity and quantity of the battery current, and on the length, thick- 
ness, and form of the conductor. 

The next section examines the conditions necessary to the produc- 
tion of powerful secondary currents, and also the changes which take 
place in the same, when the form of the battery, and the size and form 
of the conductor are varied. The important fact is shown, that not 
only a current of intensity can be induced by one of quantity, but 
also the converse, that a current of quantity can be produced by one 
of intensity. 

The third section relates to the effect of interposing different sub- 
stances between the conductor which transmits the current from the 
battery, and that which is arranged to receive the induced current. 
All good conducting substances are found to screen the inducing ac- 
tion, and this screening effect is shown, by the detail of a variety of 
experiments, to be the result of the neutralizing action of a current, 
induced in the interposed body. This neutralizing current is sepa- 
rately examined, and its direction found to be the same as that of the 
battery current. The question is then raised, how two currents in 
the same direction can counteract each other? An answer to this 
question is given in a subsequent part of the paper. 

The fourth section relates to the discovery of induced currents of 
the third, fourth, and fifth orders; — that is, to the fact that the second 
current is found capable of inducing a third current, and this latter 
again another, and so on. The properties of these new currents are 
next examined, and the screening influence is found to take place be- 
tween them; quantity is induced from intensity, and conversely; 
magnetism is developed in soft iron; decomposition is effected, and 
intense shocks are obtained, even from the current of the fourth or- 
der. A remarkable and important fact is stated in reference to the 
direction of these currents. If the direction of the battery current 
and that of the second be called plus, then the direction of the third 
current will be minus, of the fourth current plus, of the fifth minus, 
and so on. The application of the fact of these alternations is made 
to the explanation of the phenomenon of screening before mentioned, 
and also to the improvement of the magneto-electrical machine. 

The last part of the paper relates to the discovery of secondary 
currents, and of currents of the several orders, in the discharge of 



56 

ordinary electricity. Shocks are obtained from these ; the screening 
influence of good conductors is shown to take place; magnetism is 
developed ; and the alternations in the direction are found to exist as 
in the currents from galvanic induction. Some remarkable results 
are given in reference to the great distance at which the induction 
takes place. Experiments are detailed in which needles were made 
magnetic, when the conductors were removed to the distance of 
twelve feet from each other. 

Prof. Henry made a verbal communication, during the course 
of which he illustrated, experimentally, the phenomena deve- 
loped in his paper. 



Stated Meeting, November 16. 
Present, twenty-four members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE XIBBABY. 

The Good Fellow, by Paul de Kock. Translated from the French 

by a Philadelphian. Two Volumes. Philadelphia, 1837. — From 

Daniel J. Desmond, Esq. 
Allgemeiner Hand-Atlas der Ganzen Erde. Weimar, 1811. — 

From the same. 
Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, for Aor 1836. Stock- 
holm, 1838. — From the Academy. 
Aorsberattelse om Framstegen i Fysik och Kemi afgifven den 31 Mars 

1836; af Jac. Berzelius. Stockholm, 1836 — From the Royal 

Swedish Academy. 
Aorsberattelse om Technologiens Framsteg afgifven den 31 Mars 

1836; af G. E. Pasch. Stockholm, 1836. — From the same. 
Aorsberattelse i Astronomien af S. A. Cronstrand. Den 31 Mart. 

1836. Stockholm, 1836. — From the same. 
Aorsberattelse r om Nyare Zoologiska Arbeten och Upptackter, afgifne 

den 31 Mars 1835 och 1836, af B. Fr. Fries. Stockholm, 1837. 

— From the same. 



57 

Aorsber'attelse om Botaniska Arbeten och Uppfackter for Aor 1835. 

Afgifven den 31 Mars 1836. Af Joh. Em. Wikstrom. Stock- 

holm, 1837. — From the same. 
Tal om Hydraulikens n'arvarande tillstand m. m. Af P. Lagerh- 

jelm. Stockholm, 1837. — From the same. 
Aminnelse-Tal 6'fver Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academiens Framlidne 

Ledamot Friherre Lars A. Mannerheim, af A. G. Morner. 

Stockholm, 1837. — From the same. 
Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 

Berlin. Aus dem Jahre, 1836. Berlin, 1838. — From the Ada- 
demy. 
Bericht iiber die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der 

Kdnigl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. For 

July, Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. & Dec. 1837; and Jan. Feb. 

March, April, May, & June, 1838. Berlin, 1837-38.— From 

the same. 
Essai sur le Madar, (Calotropis Madarii Jndico-Orientalis) contenant 

l'Histoire naturelle de cette Plante, ses proprietes physiques, 

chimiques, et medicinales. Par J. N. Casanova, C. M. D. Tra* 

duit de PAnglais par L. A. Richy. Calcutta, 1833. — From the 

Author. 
General Observations respecting Cholera Morbus. By J. N. Casa* 

nova, C. M. D. Philadelphia, 1834. From the Author. 
A Lecture on the Social and Moral Influences of the American Re- 
volution. By Job R. Tyson. Philadelphia, 1838. — From the 

Author. 
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Edited by Isaac 

Hays, M. D. No. XLV, for November. Philadelphia, 1838.— 

From the Editor. 
Transactions of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India. 

Vol. V. Serampore, 1838. From the Society. 
Agricultural Society of India. Proceedings. Four numbers. From 

Jan. to April. Calcutta, 1838. — From the same. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

Three specimens of quicksilver ores, eight of silver ores, and fourteen 
of copper ores, from 'different localities in Chili; six specimens of 
various ores and minerals, also from Chili; eight fossils from the 
Cordillera ; an ostrich egg from the Pampas of Buenos Ayres. — 
From Dr. J. N. Casanova. 



58 

The Committee on the solar eclipse of the 18th of Septem- 
ber, made a further Report in part, comprising the following 
observations : — 

No. 30. Observation of A- Holcomb, at his Observatory, South- 
wick, Mass., with a seven feet Herschelian of his own construction, 
power 225, with red screen glass. Southwick is in latitude 42° 0' 
41" north; longitude Ah 51m 12s, by Mr. Holcomb's triangulation 
with Springfield Court House, one of the points determined by Mr. 
Paine. Mr. S. C. Walker finds, from Mr. Holcomb's observation of 
the solar eclipse of 1836, for this longitude Ah 51m 13.2s. Mean 
yalue Ah 51m 12.6s. 

h m s 

Beginning, 3 20 19 Mean time. Observation satisfactory. 

End, 5 50 27 Do. Doubtful one second. Sun's limb 

Duration, 2 30 8 tremulous, and near horizon. 

No. 31. Observation of Prof. Albert Hopkins, at the Observatory 
of Williamstown College, Mass. Latitude, 42° 42' 44", longitude Ah 
52m 52s. Astronomical clock regulated by a four feet transit instru- 
ment. 

h m s 
Beginning, 3 17 19.9 Mean time. Good observation. 
End, (not observed) Sun too near the horizon. 

The Committee on Dr. Hare's paper on the Tornado which 
passed over a suburb of Providence, R. I., in August last, re- 
ported in favour of publication, and the Report was adopted. 

The phenomena and facts, stated in this paper, are quite consistent 
with those mentioned upon the authority of Prof. Bache, Mr. Espy, 
and other observers, relative to the Tornado which took place in New 
Jersey, at or near New Brunswick, in June, 1835, and of which an 
account will be found in the last volume of the Transactions of the 
Society. This paper embraced a letter from Zachariah Allen, Esq., 
a highly respectable gentleman of Providence, who was an eye-wit- 
ness of the Tornado, having been quite as near to it as was consistent 
with safety. One of the facts noticed by Mr. Allen, Dr. Hare con- 
siders as tending to justify his opinion, that the exciting cause of these 
meteors is electrical attraction. Mr. Allen alleged that, as soon as 
the Tornado came into contact with the surface of the river, the 
water rose in a foam; that, under these circumstances, two flashes 
pf lightning passed between the water and the overhanging clouds; 



59 

and that, after each flash, there was a perceptible subsidence of the 
foam. This result is precisely what Dr. Hare conceives would en- 
sue, if the foam arose from an attraction between the water and the 
stratum of air above, caused by opposite states of electrical excite- 
ment. In such case, the passage of sparks always necessarily tends 
to restore the equilibrium between the electrified masses, and conse- 
quently to lessen their reciprocal attraction. 

Dr. Hare made a verbal communication in relation to his 
compound blowpipe. He stated that, having, in a letter to the 
chemical section of the British Association, mentioned the fu- 
sion of twenty -five ounces of platinum, of which he had already 
informed the Society, a Mr. Maugham, who is employed at 
the Adelaide Gallery in London to exhibit the hydro-oxygen 
microscope, had asserted that the fusion in question had been 
accomplished by a blowpipe of a kind which he had contrived, 
and of which one had been bought by Dr. Hare when in Lon- 
don. 

Dr. Hare said he would not have considered this ridiculous 
and groundless allegation worthy of notice, had it not been 
made before the chemical section of the British Association, 
and had not the individual, by whom it was made, been ho- 
noured by a British society with a premium for the instrument 
which he miscalled his blowpipe. This blowpipe differed im- 
materially from one of which he, Dr. Hare, had published an 
engraving and description in Silliman's American Journal of 
Science for 1820, (Vol. II., page 29S, fig. 3;) being a modifi- 
cation of his blowpipe described in Vol. XIV. of Tilloch's 
Philosophical Magazine for 1802. 

The only difference between the instruments described and 
represented in those publications, and that employed by Maug- 
ham, was that the latter formed near the apex an acute angle, 
so as to be convenient for directing the flame upon a cylinder 
of lime for producing the lime-light. 

With a view to show this method of illumination, agreeably 
to the process in which, a revolving cylinder of lime is em- 
ployed, Dr. Hare stated that he had purchased one of the 
crooked blowpipes alluded to; but he had never used it for 
any purpose, having found his own blowpipe abovementioned 
preferable, when the jet was directed obliquely upwards. 



60 

Unless cured of the crookedness, which was its only essen- 
tial distinguishing attribute, the blowpipe used by Maugham 
was evidently unfit for the fusion of any metal. Dr. Hare 
stated that he would not undertake the fusion with it of an 
ounce of platinum ; and concluded by saying, that, whenever the 
process by which he had lately extended the power of his blow- 
pipe should be published, it would be seen, that, however it 
might differ from those which he had previously contrived, 
it differed still more from that which Maugham had appro- 
priated to himself. 

Prof. Bache informed the Society, that, in conjunction with 
Prof. Rogers and Mr. Saxton on the nights of the 12th and 
13th of November, and with Prof. Rogers and Mr. Walker on 
the 13th and 14th, he had observed the number of meteors or 
shooting stars. The first night was clear for only about an 
hour, viz., between three-quarters past one and two, when but 
one meteor was seen. The second was clear until half past 
two; but not even an ordinary average number of meteors 
was seen. 

On the authority of a letter from Mr. Levett Harris, Dr. 
Bache reported the decease of Mr. F. H. Le Comte, of Paris, 
a member of the Society. 



Stated Meeting, December 7. 
Present, twenty-seven members. 
Dr. Patterson, Vice President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received:— 

for the library. 

Memoires Couronnes par l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles- 
Lettres de Bruxelles. Vol. XII. Brussels, 1837. — From the 
Academy. 

Bulletin de l'Academie Royale de Bruxelles. Nos. 10, 11, & 12. 
Brussels, 1837. — From the same. 



61 

Annuaire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de 

Bruxelles. Quatrieme Annee. Brussels, 1838. — From the same. 
Notes sur la Structure des Hydatides et de l'Epiderme dans quelques 

Animaux; par M. Gluge. Brussels, 1838. — From the Author. 
Note sur la Terminaison des Nerfs et sur les Canaux Nerveux dans 

les Moignons des Amputes; par M. Gluge. Brussels, 1838. — 

From, the Author. 
Annuaire de PObservatoire de Bruxelles, pour PAn 1838, par le Di- 

recteur A. Quetelet. Brussels, 1838. — From the Director. 
Observations Horaires faites au dernier Solstice d'Hiver (1837), a 

Bruxelles, Louvain, Alost et Londres, &c. Brussels, 1838. — 

From A. Quetelet. 
Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie. Deuxieme Serie. Vol. IX. 

Paris, 1838. — From the Society. 
Annates des Mines. Troisieme Serie. Vol. XIII. Parts 1 & 2 of 

1838. Paris, 1838. — From the Engineers of Mines. 
The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. No. 9. London, 1838. — From the Society. 
Catalogue of the Chinese Library of the Royal Asiatic Society. By 

the Rev. S. Kidd. London, 1838. — From the same. 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Nos. 73, 74, 75, & 76. 

Calcutta, 1838. — From the Society. 
An Account of the Experiments made in the French Navy for the 

Trial of Bomb Cannon, etc. By H. J. Paixhans, Lieut. Col. of 

Artillery. Translated from the French, by John A. Dahlgren, 

Lieut. U. S. Navy. Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Translator. 
American Quarterly Register. Conducted by B. B. Edwards and 

W. Cogswell. Vol. XI. No. 2. For November. Boston, 1838. 

— From Mr. W. Cogswell. 

Dr. Hare presented several papers on subjects relating to 
Chemistry and Galvanism. Referred to Dr. Bache, Professor 
Bache, and Mr. Lukens. 

Mr. Raguet read, with concluding remarks by himself, an 
Obituary Notice of the late Chevalier Lorich, Charge d' Affaires 
of Sweden to the United States, which had been communi- 
cated to Mr. Vaughan by the brother of the deceased. 

Mr. C. J. Ingersoll read an Obituary Notice of the late presi- 
dent Madison. 

Mr. Raguet reported the death of Don Jose Bonifacio de 



62 

Andrada e Silva, of Brazil, and Dr. Bache, the decease of Dr, 
Alexander Pearson, formerly of Canton, both members of the 
Society, 



Stated Meeting, December 21. 
Present, twenty-eight members. 
Dr. Patterson, Vice President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received r — 

for the library. 

Malay Bible. Serampore, 1821. — From Mr. L. B. Stone. 

Part of a Malay MS., entitled " History of the Prophets." — From the 
same. 

A MS. copy, in Malay, of the Credentials, called the " Tromba Me- 
nangcarbowe" carried by the Prince Raja Laboo, last deputed by 
the States of Sumatra to the Court of the Sultan on the Penin- 
sula. — From the same. 

Gospel of St. John, in Malay. Press of the American Missionaries. 
Singapore, 1837. — From the same. 

The Gospels and Acts, in Malay. Revised Edition. Printed at the 
Mission Press, for the British and Foreign Bible Society. Singa- 
pore, 1831. — From the same. 

Story of Abdullah and Sabat, in Malay. Singapore, 1837. — From 
the same. 

Romans. Chapters 1 to 16, in Tamul. — From the same. 

Gospel of St. John, in Hindustani. — From the same. 

Mr. Bruckner's Version of St. John, in Javanese. — From the same. 

Acts of the Apostles, in Arabic. — From the same. 

Acts of the Apostles, in Hinduwee. — From the same. 

Proverbs, in Oordoo. — From the same. 

Book of Genesis, in Bengalee. Calcutta, 1833. — From the same. 

Three Missionary Tracts in Chinese. — From the same. 

Chinese Almanac. — From the same. 

Chinese Testament. — From the same. 

The Gospels and Epistles of St. John, in Japanese. — From the same* 

Gospel of St. John, in Siamese. — From the same. 

A Tract in Bugis, a language of Celebes. — From the same. 



63 

Annals and Memoirs of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries. 
First Series, 1836-37. Copenhagen, 1837. — From the Society. 

Memoire sur la Decouverte de l'Amerique au Dixieme Siecle. Par 
C. C. Rafn. Traduit par Xavier Marmier. Paris, 1838. — From 
the Author. 

Journal of the Select Council of Philadelphia. 1837-8. Philadelphia, 
1838.— From Mr. J. P. Wetherill. 

Report of the Committee on Prison Discipline, to the Governor Ge- 
neral of India in Council, dated the Eighth of January, 1838. 
Calcutta, 1838. — From Mr. William Adam. 

Second Report on the State of Education in Bengal. District of 
Rajshahi. Calcutta, 1836. — From the same. 

Third Report on the State of Education in Bengal, &c. By William 
Adam. Calcutta, 1838. — From the Author. 

The Magazine of Natural History. New Series. Conducted by 
Edward Charlesworth, F. G. S., &c. No. XXI. For Septem- 
ber. London, 1838. — From the Conductor. 

Caspari Frederici Wegener, D. de Aula Atalica Literarum Artiumque 
Fautrice Libri Sex. Volumen I. Copenhagen, 1836. — From the 
Author. 

The Elements of Arithmology; being a Treatise on Arithmetic. By 
Charles Nagy. (In Hungarian.) Bees, 1835. — From the Au- 
thor. 

The Elements of Arithmography ; being a Treatise on Algebra. By 
Charles Nagy. (In Hungarian.) Bees, 1837. — From the Au- 
thor. 

A Treatise on Arithmetic. (In Hungarian.) Bees, 1837. — From 
Mr. Charles Nagy. 

A Treatise on Geometry. (In Hungarian.) Bees, 1838. From 
the same. 

Bibliotheca Numismatica. Collecta et Indice Rerum Instructa a Joh. 
Christ. Hirsch. Nuremberg, 1760. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 

Storia Naturale e Generale Dell'Etna del Canonico Giuseppe Recu- 
pero. Two Volumes. Catania, 1815. — From the same. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. By Robley Dungli- 
son, M. D. Vol. II. Nos. 15 to 18. (Presented at this and 
preceding meetings.) ■ Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Editor. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A Specimen of pine-apple hemp, made from the stalk of the pine- 
apple. — From Mr. L. B. Stone. 



64 

A brush from Japan, made of the fibres of the cocoa-nut. — From the 
same. 

The Committee on the solar eclipse of the 18th of Septem- 
ber, made a further Report in part, comprising the following 
observations, received through the attentions of their corres- 
pondent, Prof. S. Alexander, of Princeton College, New Jer- 
sey:— 

No. 32, by Prof. Augustus A. Smith, of the Wesleyan University, 
Middletown, Con. Latitude 41° 33' 8"; longitude, as deduced by 
himself from this observation, by the method of Woolhouse, in the 
Nautical Almanac for 1837, 4A 50«i 2s. 

h m s 
Beginning, - - 3 22 0.81 Mean time. 
End, - - - 5 52 1.46 Mean time. 

His telescope was a Herschelian, by Holcomb, seven feet in length, six 
inches in aperture, with a deep red screen glass, power 150. " There 
was nothing unusual in the appearance, except, perhaps, about the 
time of greatest obscuration. At first were seen two or three brushes 
or pencils of light, streaming out from that border of the moon, which 
was not projected on the sun's disc, about equidistant from each 
other, and from the higher cusp of the sun. These soon disappeared, 
and were succeeded by a faint diffuse light, bordering two-thirds of 
the lower part of the sun's limb. The duration of this appearance 
was not noted." 

Prof. Smith also noticed an indentation in the sun's limb, which he 
attributes to the protrusion of a lunar mountain, before any other 
portion of the moon was visible on the sun's disc. The Committee 
are of opinion that this appearance should be referred to that class of 
phenomena which usually precede and follow a central eclipse, and 
which are to be ascribed to some optical cause rather than to the 
protrusion of lunar mountains. 

No. 33, by Mr. I. N. Z. Blaney, at New Castle, Del., latitude 
39° 40', longitude 5h 2m 8s, W.; observation of the duration of the 
ring with a spy-glass, with smoked glass screen. 

m s 
From the appearance of the drops to the rupture of the ring, 4 47 
From the perfect formation of the ring to the perfect rupture, 4 45 

Prof. Alexander remarks that the luminous arch round the moon's 



65 

dark limb, and the brush of light were only partially visible in his 4 
feet Fraunhofer, with a yellow screen glass, having a slight tint of 
green. He saw them distinctly in the 3| feet Dollond, with a red 
screen glass, used by Prof. Henry, for some four minutes after the 
rupture of the ring, though none was visible in the Fraunhofer tele- 
scope ; at least none is recollected to have been seen, though he ex- 
amined the sun in the direction in which the ring broke. The testi- 
mony of so experienced an observer, who, in examining this arch and 
brush of light, used, interchangeably, the yellow and red screen 
glasses, in favour of their far greater visibility through the red screen 
glass, appears to be conclusive on the subject. This remarkable cir- 
cumstance, not hitherto noticed in European observations, and first 
suggested by Robert Treat Paine, Esq., from his observations at 
Washington, appears to be now confirmed. It is one of great im- 
portance ; as it seems to furnish evidence of the existence of a lunar 
atmosphere, through which, as through our own, the red rays have 
the greatest penetrative power. It also leads to new views concern- 
ing the cause of the remarkable appearances of the beads of light, 
and the dark lines frequently noticed; since it shows that their ap- 
pearance may be completely modified by a change in the colour, and, 
consequently, in the absorbing power of the screen glass through 
which they are observed. 

The fact, noticed by most of the observers, that before the forma- 
tion and after the breaking of the ring, the edge of the moon off the 
sun was distinctly visible, and illuminated for some distance within 
the moon's surface, is just such as would be presented by ^..twilight 
caused by a lunar atmosphere; nor does there seem to be any other 
plausible explanation of this phenomenon. 

The Committee on Prof. Henry's paper, entitled " Contribu- 
tions to Electricity and Magnetism, No. 3. On Electro-dy- 
namic Induction," reported in favour of publication, and the 
Report was adopted. 

The Committee on Dr. Hare's papers, entitled, 1. " Rotary 
Multiplier or Galvano-motive needle;" 2. "Apparatus for 
showing on a large scale the Decomposition and Recomposi- 
tion of Water by Galvanism;" 3. " Improved Process for Po- 
tassium," reported in favour of publication, and the Report was 
adopted. 



66 

Mr. Lea submitted the following description of a new shell, 
recently taken in the vicinity of Cincinnati by Mr. T. G. Lea. 

MELANIA CINCINNATIEJfSIS. 

" Testa valde depress!, inferne compressa, fusca, trifasciata, bicari- 
nata, apice acuminata; anfractibus quaternis ; apertura subrotunda." 

This is a very minute species, and very remarkable for its roof- 
shaped spire, and two carina? which are coloured. 

On motion of Dr. Patterson, the Committee appointed on 
the late eclipse, were instructed to make and collect observa- 
tions in relation to the occultation of stars in the constellation 
of the Pleiades, which will occur on the 27th instant. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol. I. JAN. FEB. & MAR. 1839. No. 6. 

Stated Meeting, January 4. 

Present, fifteen members. 

Dr. Patterson, Vice President, in the chair. 

The result of the annual election for officers, held this day, 
was reported as follows: — 

President. 
Peter S. Du Ponceau, LL. D. 

Vice Presidents. 
Nathaniel Chapman, M. D., 
Joseph Hopkinson, LL. D., 
Robert M. Patterson, M. D. 

Secretaries. 
Franklin Bache, M. D., 
John K. Kane, 

Alexander D. Bache, LL. D., 
J. Francis Fisher. 

Counsellors for Three Years. 
William Short, 
William H. Keating, 
George Ord, 
C. C. Biddle. 

Curators. 
J. P. Wetherill, 
Isaac Hays, M. D., 
Franklin Peale. 

Treasurer. 
John Vaughan. 



The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

On the Functions of the Cerebellum, by Drs. Gall, Vimont, and Brous- 
sais. Translated from the French, by George Combe : also an- 
swers to the objections urged against Phrenology by Drs. Roget, 
Rudolphi, Prichard, and Tiedemann. By George Combe and 
Dr. A. Combe. Edinburgh, 1838. — From Mr. George Combe. 

Magazine of Natural History. Edited by Edward Charlesworth. 
Vol. II. New Series. Nos. 22, 23, & 24. London, 1838.— 
From the Editor. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. By Robley Dun- 
glison, M. D. Vol. II. Nos. 19, 20, & 21. Philadelphia, 
1839.— From the Editor. 

Railway Map of England and Wales. London, 1838. — From Mr. 
William Vaughan. 

Chart of George's Shoal and Bank. Surveyed by Charles Wilkes, 
Lieut. Commandant, and the officers of the U. S. Brig Porpoise, 
and of the Schooners Maria and Hadassah, by order of the Hon. 
Mahlon Dickerson, Secretary of the Navy. — From the Athe- 
nceum. 

Panorama and Views of Philadelphia, and its vicinity. From Paint- 
ings by J. C. Wild. With poetical illustrations by Andrew 
M'Makin. Philadelphia, 1838.— From the Publisher. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

An Ibis from Egypt. — From V. L. Godon, M. D. 

Dr. Dunglison made a verbal communication on the subject 
©f the vaccine virus and its alleged liability to lose its protec- 
tive character under certain circumstances. 

He stated that, in consequence of severe epidemic small-pox having 
recently occurred in England, from which many who had been pre- 
viously vaccinated had suffered severely, it had been a matter of so- 
licitude with many medical practitioners to revert to the original 
source for vaccine virus. Mr. Estlin, of Bristol, having succeeded in 
obtaining some lymph from a cow labouring under cow-pox, inserted 
it in the arm of a young lady, in August last, and from her the dis- 
ease was subsequently propagated. Some of the virus, obtained at 
ten removes, was sent to Dr. Dunglison by Messrs. Estlin and Car- 



69 

penter, of Bristol. This has been used in several cases, and the dis» 
ease produced by it appeared to him to be more satisfactory than that 
which results from the old virus. 

Dr. Dunglison stated that there was reason to believe that a suffi- 
cient supply of the new virus would soon be obtained for distribution 
through the country. 

Professor A. D. Bache stated to the Society that observations 
had been made on the night of the 12th — 13th of November 
last, by Professor Henry, at Princeton, Professor W. B. Ro- 
gers, at the University of Virginia, and Professor R. P. Smith, 
at Kenyon College, Ohio, neither of whom had noted an 
unusual number of the meteors commonly called " shooting 
stars." 

The Committee on the paper entitled Contributions to the 
Geology of the tertiary formations of Virginia, by Professor 
William B. Rogers, and Professor Henry D. Rogers, reported 
in favour of its publication, and the publication was ordered 
accordingly. 

The resolutions presented on the 16th of November last, by 
Mr. Kane, relative to the distribution of the Society's Pro- 
ceedings, were adopted as follows: — 

That the Librarian be instructed to retain twenty copies of the 
Society's Proceedings, for the use of the Society; and that as soon as 
published he transmit one copy, 

1. To each subscriber to the Transactions. 

2. To each of the Societies in correspondence with this Society. 

3. To each of the principal Colleges, Athenaeums, and public li- 
braries in the United States. 

4. To the editors of each of the Scientific Journals in the United 
States, and of the principal Scientific Journals elsewhere ; 

That he transmit to all donors to, and correspondents of, this So- 
ciety, copies of the numbers in which their donations or communica- 
tions are noticed; 

And that he distribute the remaining copies, at his discretion, to 
such members as may apply for them. 



70 

Stated Meeting, January 18. 
Present, twenty -two members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie. Uitgegeven 
door J. Van der Hoeven, M. D. Prof, te Leiden en W. H. de 
Vriese, M. D. Prof, te Amsterdam. Ley den, 1838. — From the 
Minister of the Interior of the Netherlands. 

Flora Batava, of afbeelding en beschrijving van Nederlandsche Ge- 
wassen, door Jan Kops, en H. C. Van Hall. No. 115. Amster- 
dam. — From the same. 

Verzeichniss der Koniglich Sachsischen Gem'alde-Galerie zu Dres- 
den, von Friedrich Matthai, Director etc. Dresden, 1837. — 
From Mr. Thomas Sully. 

Letter from the Secretary of War, the Hon. Lewis Cass, transmit- 
ting Captain Turnbull's Report on the Survey and Construction 
of the Alexandria Aqueduct. Document of the House of Re- 
presentatives, No. 459. 1838. — From. Col. J . J . Abert. 

The Committee appointed to describe the Coins and Medals 
presented by Colonel Linah, reported and was discharged. 

Professor A. D. Bache and Mr. Walker were added to the 
Committee on the Observatory. 
- Mr. John Vaughan was elected Librarian. 

The Standing Committees for the year were appointed. 

Professor A. D. Bache made a verbal communication rela- 
tive to an extraordinary instance of the rapid corrosion of a 
chain cable in sea-water, reported to him by Lieutenant George 
M. Bache, of the United States Navy, and showed the Society 
a link from a portion of the cable. 

The chain cable, of which this was a part, was used to anchor the 
Light-boat off Bartlett's reef, near New-London, Connecticut. The 
portion between the hawse-hole and the bridle of the anchors, about 
eleven fathoms in length, is particularly exposed to corrosion. In a 



71 

few months the links, or the keys of the shackles attaching the chain 
to the bridle, become so much oxidated as to lose the requisite tenacity. 

The link, presented as a sample of the chain, is irregularly oxida- 
ted and worn, presenting semi-spheroidal cavities, and the fibrous 
structure of the iron is very distinctly developed. While this is the 
case with the wrought iron part of the link, the cast iron stud which 
strengthens it is not materially acted on. The raised letters upon the 
stud are perfect. 

The circumstances in which this chain is differently situated from 
others, used in similar situations, result from the peculiar construction 
of the Light-boat, by which the copper sheathing rises above, and is 
in contact with, the cast-iron hawse-pipe, through which the cable 
passes. This cast-iron pipe has on its exterior a lead pipe. The 
copper sheathing is bright. 

This action being attributed by Lieutenant Bache, to the contact 
of the copper and iron in presence of sea-water, he had ordered the 
copper to be removed from around the hawse-hole, the result of which 
experiment would test the truth of the supposition. 

Professor Bache stated his wish to call special attention to the en- 
tire soundness of the cast-iron, while the wrought-iron was corroded ; 
as if the latter had acted as a protector to the former. He believed 
that some general laws of interest would be made out by the Com- 
mittee of the British Association engaged in investigating the subject 
to which this fact appeared to belong. 

The Committee on making and collecting observations of 
Celestial Phenomena, reported in part, that they had received 
the following observations of Lunar Occultations of the fixed 
stars, in mean time of the places of observation. 





1838. 




h m s 








1. 


No\ 


.2, 


d Pleiadum, Era. 


13 53 11.10 d. 1. 


Phila. Obs'y, 


w. 


and K 


2. 






h Im. 


13 18 12.10 b. 1. 


!) 




a 


3. 






Em. 


14 34 50.60 d. 1. 


;j 




)> 


4. 






/ Im. 


14 9 53.60 b. 1. 


)) 




v> 


5. 






Em. 


15 19 25.10 d. 1. 


!) 




3) 


6. 






h Em. 


15 26 34.40 d. 1. 


J) 




J) 


7. 


;? 


2] 


58 a> Sagittarii, Im. 


6 1 24.30 d. 1. 


)! 




)> 


8. 






„ Em. 


7 13 20 00 b. 1. 


;> 




;> 


9. 






* 8th mag. „ Im. 


6 9 12.30 d. 1. 


» 




)) 


10. 






60 a. Sagittarii, Im. 


7 43 5.10 d. 1. 


>; 


J. 


and K 


11. 


Dec. 


27, 


« Pleiadum, Im. 


8 34.70 d. 1. 


;j 


R. and W 


12. 






Em. 


9 17 33.80 b. 1. 


>) 




>•? 



72 





181 


58. 








h m s 




13. 


Dec 


27, 


/ 




Im. 


8 53 5670 d. 1. 


Philad. Obs'y. P. and W 


14. 












57.60 d. 1. 


„ K. and R 


15. 






h 




Im. 


8 54 10.80 d. 1. 


„ P. and W 


10. 












12.20 d. 1. 


„ K. and R 


17. 


Nov 


2, 


d 


Pleiadum 


Im. 


12 34 26.10 b.l. Wagner's House, T.Wagner 


18. 










Em. 


13 53 28.80 d. 1. 


n n 


19. 






a 




Im. 


13 18 48.80 b. 1. 


n n 


20. 










Em 


14 34 38.60 d. 1. 


>) jj 


21. 






f 




Em. 


15 19 24.40 d. 1. 


Y> 5J 


22. 






h 




Em. 


15 26 32.40 d. 1. 


11 11 


23. 


Dec 


27, 


d 


Pleiadum 


Em. 


8 34 35.00 b. 1. 


11 >; 


24. 






f 




Im. 


8 54 00 d. 1. 


11 5) 


25. 










Em. 


10 1 17.90 b. 1. 


11 11 


26. 






h 




Em. 


10 11 59.90 b. 1. 


11 55 


27. 


Nov 


21, 


58 &> Sagittarii 


Im. 


6 3 57.35 d. 1. 


Princeton Coll'e. Alexander 


28. 






60 


* Sagittarii 


, Im. 


7 44 37.49 d. 1. 


11 11 


29. 


Dec 


24, 


i 


Piscium, 


Im. 


9 35 30.80 d. 1. 


?» !> 


30. 


n 


26, 


47 


Arietis, 


Im. 


14 20 54.50 d. 1. 


11 j) 


31. 


n 


27, 


« 


Pleiadum 


Im. 


8 4 0.35 d. 1. 


)> >> 


32. 










Em. 


9 21 30.40 b. 1. 


„ A. and B 


33. 






d 




Im. 


7 21 33.50 d. 1. 


;; u 


34. 










Em. 


8 38 38.00 b. 1. 


;; ii 


35. 






p? 




Im. 


7 59 20.10 d. 1. 


A. 


36. 






f 




Im. 


8 57 7.85 d. 1. 


A. 


37. 










Im. 


8.15 d.l. 


B. 


38. 










Em. 


10 6 11.30 b. 1. 


A. 


39. 






h 




Im. 


8 57 32.76 d. 1. 


„ A. and B 


40. 










Em. 


10 21 31.55 b. 1. 


A. 


41. 


Nov. 


13, 


d. 


Virginis, 


Im. 


20 32 38.40 b. 1. 


Dorchester Obs'y. Bond. 


42. 


Dec. 


2, 


C 


Auriga?, 


Em. 


17 32 19.00 d. 1. 


Paine's House, Boston. Paine 


43. 


n 


24, 


e 


Piscium, 


Im. 


9 53 16.84 d. 1. 


>> a 


44. 


n 


27, 


f 


Pleiadum 


, Im. 


9 18 43.28 d. 1. 


a n 



45. Nov. 21, 58 a, Sagittarii, Im. 6 12 33.20 d. 1. Holcomb's Obs'y. Holcomb. 
46: Dec. 24, e Piscium, Im. 9 44 29.50 d. 1. „ „ 

47. „ 27, » Pleiadum, Im. 8 16 43.10 d. 1. „ „ 

No. 1, at the Philadelphia Observatory of the Central High School. Lat. 39° 
57' 8"; longitude 5/t Ora 42s west of Greenwich. 

No. 2, good observation. No. 3, doubtful, eye not directed to the exact place 
of emersion. Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14 and 15, good observations. 
No. 10, doubtful. No. 12, star reappeared in contact with bright limb. 

No. 16, doubtful Is. 

No. 17, at T. Wagner's house, 2.16s in time, east of the Philadelphia Obser- 
vatory, with 5 feet equatorial. No. 18, probably too late several 
seconds. 

No. 19, doubtful. No. 20, good observation, preferable to No. 3. Nos.^1, 22 
and 24, good observations. Nos. 23, 25 and 26, uncertain, from bright- 
ness of moon's limb. 



73 

No. 27, at Prof. Stephen Alexander's house, 6" north, 0.3s in time, east of 

Nassau Hall, Princeton College, New Jersey. 
Nos. 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37 and 39, satisfactory observations. 
Nos. 34, 38 and 40, uncertain from brightness of moon's limb. 
No. 35, doubtful Is. Nos. 33 and 36 appeared to be followed by a slight brush 

of light. 
No. 41, at William Cranch Bond's observatory, Dorchester, Mass. Lat. 42° 

19' 15"; longitude 4/t 44m 17.3s W. of Greenwich. 
No. 42, at R. T. Paine's house, Boston. Lat. 42° 20' 56"; long. 4/t 44m 16.3s. 

Observation uncertain. Nos. 43 and 44, very good observations. 
No. 45, at A. Holcomb's observatory, Southwick, Mass. Lat. 42° (f 41" ; 
long. Ah 51m 15.5s. 
The initials denote respectively, 
W. Sears C. Walker. 
K. E. O. Kendall. 
J. George M. Justice. 
R. William H. C. Riggs. 
P. Robert M. Patterson. 

A. Stephen Alexander. 

B. J. V. Z. Blaney. 

b. 1. and d. 1. denote respectively the bright and dark limbs of the moon. 

The following candidates were elected members of the So- 
ciety: — 

James Prinsep, of Calcutta. 

John Edwards Holbrook, M. D., of Charleston, S. C. 

John C. Cresson, of Philadelphia. 

James C. Booth, of Philadelphia. 

Edward Coles, of Philadelphia. 

J. F. Encke, of Berlin. 

A. Quetelet, of Brussels. 



Stated Meeting, February 1. 
Present, twenty members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received : — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

L'Art de verifier les dates, depuis l'annee 1770, jusqu'a nos jours. 
Publie par M. le Marquis de Fortia, membre de I'Institut. Paris, 
1837.— From Mr. D. B. Warden. 



74 

Extrait d'un Memoire sur la distribution Geographiquc des Crustaces ; 
par M. Milne-Edwards. 1838. — -From the same. 

Explication de la pierre de Taunton, dans l'Amerique Septentrionale ; 
par Moreau de Dammartin, membre de l'Institut Historique. Paris. 
— From the same. 

Notice necrologique de M. le Professeur Rask, de Copenhague. Paris, 
1838. — From the same. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Benjamin 
Silliman, M. D., LL. D., aided by Benjamin Silliman, Jr., A. B. 
Vol. XXV. No. 2. New Haven. — From the Conductors. 

Caroli Francisci Joseph Bellingeri e S. Agatha Derthonensi Philoso- 
phise et Medicinse Doctoris, amplissimi Medicorum Collegii Candi- 
dal, Dissertatio inauguralis. Turin, 1818. — From the Author. 

Ragionamenti, Sperienze ed Osservazioni Patologiche comprovanti 
PAntagonismo Nervoso esposti, e raccolte da Carlo Francesco 
Bellingeri. Turin, 1833. — From the same. 

Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino. Tomo XL. 
Turin, 1838. — From the Academy. 

Catalogue and collection of Political Tracts relating to the History of 
the Colony of Pennsylvania, from 1681 to 1770. — From Mr. J. 
Francis Fisher. 

Mr. Vaughan announced the decease, on the 14th of March, 
1837, of Count Prospero Balbo, of Turin, a member of the 
Society. 

Dr. Bache announced the decease of Mr. John Wickham, of 
Richmond, Virginia, also a member of the Society. 

Dr. Bache's resignation as Reporter of the proceedings of 
the Society, was announced by the Secretaries, and the appoint- 
ment, in his place, of Professor A. D. Bache. 



75 

Stated Meeting, February 15. 
Present, twenty-three members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. Vols. I, 

II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, & VIII. London.— From the Society. 
Memoires couronnes par l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles 

Lettres de Bruxelles. Vol. XIII. Brussels, 1838. — From the 

Academy. 
Bulletin de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres de Brux- 
elles. Nos. 1 to 8, inclusive. Brussels, 1838. — From the same. 
Annuaire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres de 

Bruxelles. Quatrieme Annee. Brussels, 1838. — From the same. 
De l'lnfluence des Saisons sur la Mortalite aux differens Ages dans 

la Belgique, par A. Quetelet. Brussels, 1838. — From Mr. Que- 

telet. 
American Quarterly Register. Conducted by B. B. Edwards and 

W.Cogswell. Vol. XI. No. 3, for February. Boston, 1839— 

From Mr. W. Cogswell. 
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Edited by Isaac 

Hays, M. D. No. XLVI, for February. Philadelphia, 1839.— 

From the Editor. 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Edited by the Secretary. 

No. 78, for June. Calcutta, 1838. — From the Society. 
Journal of the Proceedings of the Bishops, Clergy and Laity of the 

Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in 

a General Convention, held in the City of Philadelphia, A. D. 

1838, together with the Constitution and Canons for the govern-' 

ment of the Protestant Episcopal Church. New York, 1838. — 

From the Rev. Mr. Dorr. 
Sermon preached at the opening of the General Convention of the 

Protestant Episcopal Church, in Philadelphia, September the 5th, 

1838. By the Right Rev. William Meade, D. D. Philadelphia. 

— From the same. 
Twenty-seventh Annual Report of the Trustees of the Society of the 



76 

Protestant Episcopal Church, for the advancement of Christianity 
in Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the same. 

Proceedings of the Board of Missions of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the United States of America, at their third Annual 
Meeting, etc. New York, 1838. — From the same. 

On the courses of Hurricanes; with notices of the Tyfoons of the 
China sea, and other stoirns. By W. C. Redfield. — From the 
Author. 

A Treatise on Mechanics, by Francis Joseph, Chevalier de Gerstner; 
edited and considerably augmented by Francis Antony, Chevalier 
de Gerstner. The commencement of the first chapter. Vienna, 
1834.— From the Editor. 

First Russian Rail Road from St. Petersburg to Zarscoe, Selo and 
Pawlowsk. By Francis Antony de Gerstner. London. — From 
the same. 

An Appeal to the People of Pennsylvania on the subject of an Asy- 
lum for the Insane Poor. Philadelphia, 1838. — From Dr. Dun- 
glison. 

Navigation Made Easy, or Mariner's Complete Guide. By Francis 
Hoskins. (M. S.) 1803.— From Mr. W. J. Duane. 

Memoires de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint Peters- 
bourg. VIme. Serie. Sciences Mathematiques, Physiques et 
Naturelles. Vol. Ill, part fourth, and Vol. IV, part third. St. 
Petersburg, 1835 & 1836. — From the Academy. 

Memoires de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint Peters- 
bourg. VIme. Serie. Sciences Politiques, Histoire, Philologie. 
Vol. Ill, part sixth, and Vol. IV, part second. St. Petersburg, 
1836 & 1837.— From the same. 

Recueil des Actes de la Seance Publique de l'Academie Imperiale des 
Sciences de Saint Petersbourg, tenue le 30 Decembre, 1836. 
St. Petersburg, 1837. — From the same. 

Etwas liber die Natur Wunder in Nord America. Zusammen getra- 
gen, von Charles Cramer. St. Petersburg, 1837.— From the 
Author. 

Narrative of an Expedition to the East Coast of Greenland, sent by 
order of the King of Denmark, in search of the lost colonies, 
under the command of Capt. W. A. Graah, of the Danish Royal 
Navy. Translated for the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don. London, 1837. — From the Society. 



77 

The Indian Tribes of North America. Nos. 10 & 11. Philadel- 
phia. — From Mr. F. W. Grecnough. 

The officers and council to whom was referred the letter of 
Doctor Warren, of Boston, inclosing a circular from a meeting 
of gentlemen at Boston, on the subject of the formation of an 
American Association for the Promotion of Science, submitted 
the following resolution, which was adopted by the Society. 

Resolved, That the American Philosophical Society, having given 
the most respectful attention to the letters laid before them by Doctor 
W. E. Horner, and to the circular letter from the Committee of gen- 
tlemen of Boston, by referring the first letter to a Special Committee, 
and the second, with the circular, to the Board of Officers, are of the 
opinion, founded on the Reports of the Committee and of the Officers, 
that it is inexpedient for this Society to undertake the organization of 
an Association, such as is alluded to in these communications. 

Doctor Patterson read an extract from a letter from Mr. T. 
R. Peale, dated November 13th, 1838. 

In this letter Mr. Peale states, that observations had been made 
on the night of the 12th — 13th of November, on board of the ex- 
ploring vessel, the Peacock, (place not given,) relating to the number 
of meteors. The greatest number supposed to have been observed 
in any one hour was seventy-one. Mr. Peale expresses his doubts 
whether, from the motion of the vessel on the night in question, it 
was possible to be accurate on this point, and believes the number to 
have been much overrated. 

A display of the Aurora Australis had been witnessed a few weeks 
before the date of the letter. 

Professor A. D. Bache called the attention of the Society 
to a very convenient method for determining the magnetic 
dip and intensity, by one instrument, proposed by Professor 
Lloyd, of Dublin, and used by him, Major Sabine, and Captain 
James Ross, in the recent magnetic surveys in Great Britain. 

The approximate dip is observed without disturbing the magnetism 
of the needle. The angle with the horizon, when the centre of 
gravity of the needle is removed from the axis by a small weight, is 
also observed, the needle being in the plane of the magnetic meridian. 



78 

To the first observation, a correction is applied, from observation at a 
station where the dip is accurately- known, to obtain the true dip. 
The second being repeated at different places, the elements necessary 
to determine the relative intensities are known ; and the approximate 
formula, connecting these observed elements with the relative intensi- 
ties of the magnetism of the places where the change of intensity is 
not great, is very simple. 

Prof. Bache showed an instrument, made by Robinson, of London, 
of the usual construction, for determining the magnetic dip, with 
needles for the employment of Professor Lloyd's method. He also 
referred to a method proposed by Professor Christie, of Woolwich, 
similar in principle, but differing in detail, and showed the needles 
for applying this method. 

Prof. Bache further stated, that he had caused the method of heat- 
ing these needles to the temperature of boiling water, to bring them 
to a permanent magnetic condition, as proposed by Prof. Christie, to 
be tried by Mr. Robinson. It had not proved successful. 

Mr. S. C. Walker made a verbal communication on the 
parallax of the star, 61 Cygni, recently investigated by Mr. 
Bessel, and described the nature of the researches by which 
this important point had been established. 



Stated Meeting, March 1. 
Present, eighteen members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Life of George Washington. By Jared Sparks. Boston, 1839. — 

From Mr. Sparks. 
The Library of American Biography, conducted by Jared Sparks. 

Vols. VIII, IX, & X. Boston, 1837 & 1838— From the same. 
The Transylvania Journal of Medicine. Vol. XI. No. 2. For 

April, May, and June. Lexington, Kentucky, 1838. — From the 

Editors. 



79 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. Edited by Rob- 
ley Dunglison, M. D. Vol. II. No. 22. Philadelphia, 1839.— 
From the Editor. 

Annual Report of the Watering Committee, for the year 1836, to 
the Select and Common Councils of the City of Philadelphia: to 
which are prefixed the Report for the year 1822, and an extract 
from the Report for 1823. Philadelphia, 1837.— From Mr. Fre- 
derick Graff. 

Annual Reports of the Watering Committee, for the years 1837 & 
1838, to the Select and Common Councils of the City of Phila- 
delphia. Philadelphia, 1838 & 1839. — From the same. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part V. London, 
1837. — From the Society. 

Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. Vol. II. Parts 
2 & 3. London, 1838 & 1839. — From the same. 

Proceedings of the Conventions of the Province of Maryland, held 
at the City of Annapolis in 1774, 1775 & 1776. Baltimore, 
1836. — From the State of Maryland. 

The History of Maryland, from its first settlement in 1633, to the 
restoration in 1660. By John Leeds Bozman. Vols. I. & II. 
Baltimore, 1837. — From the same. 

Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar. For 1835. Stock- 
holm, 1836. — From the Academy. 

Aorsberattelser om Vetenskapernas Framsteg, afgifne af Kongl. Ve- 
tenskaps-Academiens Embetsm'an. Stockholm, 1835. — From 
the same. 

Second Annual Report of the Board of Education, together with the 
Second Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board. Boston, 
1839.— From Mr. I. P. Davis. 

Second Annual Report of the Geology of the Public Lands belong- 
ing to the States of Maine and Massachusetts. By C. T. Jack- 
son. Boston, 1838. — From the same. 

Letters on the Internal Improvements and Commerce of the West. 
By Hon. David Henshaw. Boston, 1839. — From the same. 

Sixth Annual Report of the Trustees of the State Lunatic Asylum, 
at Worcester, Massachusetts. Boston, 1838. — From the same. 

Address of the Duke of Sussex, the President, read at the Anniver- 
sary Meeting of the Royal Society, 1839. London. — From Mr. 
William Vaughan. 



80 

The Light-Houses of the British Islands. Corrected to July 1836. 

Hydrographic Office, Admiralty. London, 1836 From the 

same. 

French Light-Houses: translated from the "Description Sommaire 
des Phares et Fanaux, &c." Corrected to 1836. — From the 
same. 

Letters to denote the State of the Weather, and Figures to denote 
the Force of the Wind. Proposed as a convenient mode of re- 
gistry in the Log-book of a ship. By F. B. London. — From 
the same. 

Draft of a Revised Common School Law, and of a Law relative to 
the preparation of Common School Teachers ; with explanatory 
remarks, and a set of District Regulations. Prepared by Tho- 
mas H. Burrowes, Superintendent. Harrisburgh, 1839. — From 
Mr. Frederick Fraley. 

A deposite for the Library was made by Mr. B. F. Menden- 
hall, being an illuminated manuscript in the Pali language. 

Professor H. D. Rogers read a paper entitled " Contributions 
to the Geology of the Tertiary formation of Virginia. Second 
Series. By William B. Rogers, Professor of Natural Philo- 
sophy in the University of Virginia, and H. D. Rogers, Pro- 
fessor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Penn- 
sylvania." Referred to a Committee consisting of Mr. Lea, 
Dr. Hays, and Dr. Patterson. 

On motion of Dr. Patterson, the President of the Society 
was directed to unite with the Presidents of the City Councils, 
and with the President of the Board of Controllers of the Pub- 
lic Schools, in an application to the State Legislature to au- 
thorize the appointment by the Controllers, in conjunction with 
the American Philosophical Society, of a Director of the Phi- 
ladelphia Observatory, at the Central High School. 

The purchase of the bust of Doctor Nathaniel Bowditch, 
executed by Mr. Ball Hughes, was ordered for the Society. 



81 

Stated Meeting, March 15. 
Present, twenty-five members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Statutes at Large of South Carolina, edited, under authority of 
the Legislature, by Thomas Cooper, M.D. LL. D. Vols. III. & 
IV. Columbia, 1838 From Dr. Tidyman. 

Laws of Maryland at large, with proper Indexes. To which is pre- 
fixed the Charter, with an English translation. By Thomas Ba- 
con. Annapolis, 1765. — From Mr. M. Carey. 

Laws of Maryland, made and passed at a Session of Assembly, in 
the year of our Lord, 1783. Annapolis. — From the same. 

Congressional Documents for 1826. Two volumes. Washington, 
1826. — From the same. 

Discourse delivered before the Law Academy of Philadelphia, at the 
opening of the Session, September 5, 1838. By P. M'Call, Esq. 
Philadelphia, 1838. — From the Author. 

On the relative strength and other mechanical properties of Cast 
Iron, obtained by hot and cold blast. By Eaton Hodgkinson, 
Esq. London, 1838. — From the Author. 

On the strength and other properties of Cast Iron obtained from the 
hot and cold blast. By W. Fairbairn, Esq. London, 1838. — 
From the Author. 

Address of the General Secretaries at the Eighth Meeting of the 
British Association for the advancement of Science. 1838. — 
From Professor A. D. Bache. 

Catalogue of the Philosophical Instruments, Models of Inventions, 
Products of National Industry, &c. &c, contained in the first 
exhibition of the British Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence. Newcastle upon Tyne, 1838. — From the same. 

Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the Medical Institute of 
the city of Louisville. 1839. — From Dr. C. W. Short. 

Report of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, containing a description 
of the Swatara Mining District, illustrated by diagrams. Har- 
risburg, 1839. — From Mr. F. Fraley. 



82 

Report of the Superintendent of Common Schools, accompanied with 
Bills relating to the Common School System. Harrisburg, 
1839.— From Mr. Joseph C. Fisher. 

Reports relative to the Geological Survey of the State of New-York, 
for 1837. Albany. — From Mr. Seabury Brewster. 

Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Science and Literature. 
Vol. I. Part I. Baltimore, 1837. — From the Academy. 

Anales de Ciencias Naturales. Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, & VI. Madrid, 
1799 to 1803.— From Mr. John Vaughan. 

Descripcion de las Plantas que D. Antonio Josef Cavanilles demostrd 
en las Lecciones Publicas del Ano 1801, precedida de los princi- 
ples elementales de la Botanica. Madrid, 1802. — From the 
same. 

Curso elemental de Botanica, dispuesto para la enseiianza del real 
Jardin de Madrid, por el Dr. Don Casimiro Gomez de Ortega. 
Madrid, 1795. — From the same. 

Voyage de l'Ambassade de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales Hol- 
landaises, vers l'Empereur de la Chine, dans les annees 1794 et 
1795. Vols. I, & II. Philadelphia, 1798.— .From the same. 

Memoirs comprising the navigation to and from China, by the China 
Sea and through the various Straits and Channels in the Indian 
Archipelago; also the navigation of Bombay Harbour. London, 
1805. — From the same. 

A journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts. By 
William Nicholson. Vols I, II, & III. London, 1797 to 1800— 
From the same. 

Calculations relating to the Equipment, Displacement, etc. of Ships 
and Vessels of War. By John Edye. London, 1832. — From 
" Mr. William Strickland. 

Professor Henry, of Princeton, made a verbal communica- 
tion relating to a phenomenon of capillary action which had 
fallen under his notice. 

A lead tube, of about half an inch in diameter, and eight inches 
long, happened to be left with one end immersed in a cup of mercury ; 
and on inspection a few days afterwards it was observed that the 
mercury had disappeared from the cup, and was found on the floor 
at the other end of the tube. Struck with the phenomenon, the 
cup was again filled with mercury: the next morning the same effect 
was exhibited. The mercury had again passed over through the 



83 

tube, apparently like water through a capillary siphon, and was 
again found on the floor. 

On cutting the tube into pieces, it was evident that the mercury 
had not passed along the hollow axis, but had, apparently, been trans- 
mitted through the pores of the solid metal. To determine this, 
a lead rod of about seven inches long and a quarter of an inch 
in diameter, was bent into the form of a siphon. The shorter leg 
was immersed in a watch-glass filled with mercury, and a similar glass 
placed under the end of the longer leg, to receive the metal which 
might pass over. At the end of twenty-four hours, a globule of mer- 
cury was perceived at the lower end ; and in the course of five or 
six days, all the mercury passed over, leaving a crop of beautiful ar- 
borescent crystals, of an amalgam of lead, in the upper glass. 

The mercury did not pass along the surface of the wire, since the 
lead exhibited, externally, but little change of appearance ; although 
the progress of the penetration could be traced by a slight variation 
of the colour of the oxide on the surface. 

The action is much influenced by the texture of the lead. When 
a rod of cast lead, of the same size and form, was substituted for the 
one before described, the globule of mercury did not make its ap- 
pearance at the lower end until about forty days ; and all the mer- 
cury of the upper glass had not yet (after three months) entirely dis- 
appeared. 

The penetration takes place much more readily in the direction of 
the laminae of the metal than across them A plate of thick sheet 
lead was formed into a cup, and mercury poured into this ; and it was 
found that before a drop had passed directly through, the mercury 
oozed out all around the edge of the plate. 

Professor Henry stated that he had in progress a variety of ex- 
periments to investigate this action; and if any results of import- 
ance were obtained he would communicate them to the Society. 

Dr. Hare made a verbal communication to the Society, by 
which it appears that he has obtained brilliant metallic spangles 
of calcium. 

His processes have been the deflagration of the phosphuret of cal- 
cium in an atmosphere of hydrogen ; the exposure of the anhydrous 
iodide of calcium to a current of hydrogen,* or ammonia in an incan- 

* By a deflagrator of one hundred pairs of plates, fourteen inches long by 
eight broad. 



84' 

descent tube ; the ignition of the pure earth or its carbonate or nitrate 
with sugar ; or of the tartrate and acetate per se. Hence resulted 
carburets, which, after washing with acetic acid and rubbing on a 
porcelain tile, display the lustre of plumbago, intermingled with metal- 
lic spangles, of a brilliancy rivalling that of the perfect metals. The 
carburets, or the spangles thus obtained, are insoluble in acetic or 
chlorohydric acid, but yield to aqua regia. The carburets are 
excellent conductors of the voltaic fluid, as evolved by a series of 
100 pairs; and, by deflagration in a receiver filled with hydrogen, 
yield metallic particles, which, rubbed on a porcelain tile, form spangles 
of a metallic brilliancy. By igniting antimony with tartrate of lime, 
Dr. Hare had procured an alloy of that metal with calcium, and ex- 
pected by analogous means to alloy the metals of the earths with 
various metals proper. He believed that no effort to obtain calcium 
prior to his, had been more successful than the abortive experiment 
of Sir H. Davy, in which the tube broke before the distillation of the 
mercury was completed, with which the calcium had been amalga- 
mated in the voltaic circuit, agreeably to the process previously em- 
ployed by Berzelius. Dr. Hare had produced amalgams by ex- 
posing the chloride, or sulphide of calcium to the circuit; and, by 
distillation in an iron alembic, under the protection of a current of 
desiccated hydrogen, had isolated a portion of calcium, not however 
endowed with the whiteness or the lustre of that metal, as when 
otherwise fairly evolved. When distilled in glass tubes or retorts, 
he had found the amalgam to leave only a film upon the glass, de- 
void of any metallic attribute; although in one instance, to secure the 
absence of oxygen, he had mixed an amalgam of ammonium with that 
of calcium. Hence he inferred, that even though the tube of Davy had 
remained unbroken, that distinguished chemist would not have found a 
residue of calcium, uncombined with the elements of the glass. That 
the spangles obtained by Dr. Hare from lime, were calcium, was 
ascertained by their solution in aqua regia, and the successive subse- 
quent addition of ammonia and oxalic acid ; the resulting precipitate 
being ignited, then redissolved and again precipitated as at first. No 
precipitate ensued from the addition of ammonia prior to that of the 
oxalic acid. Sulphydric acid produced a slight discoloration, but 
gave no precipitate. That the substances, resulting from the ignition 
of the carbonate with sugar, and washing with acetic acid, contained 
calcium in the metallic state, combined with carbon, was evident from 
their being insoluble in acetic or chlorohydric acid ; from the deposi- 



• 85 

tion of carbon, and giving a precipitate of oxalate of lime on being 
subjected to aqua regia, ammonia, and oxalic acid ; from their metallic 
brilliancy, when burnished, and from their being excellent conductors 
of the voltaic fluid. By the ignition of the carbonates of baryta and 
strontia severally with sugar, Dr. Hare had attained analogous results 
to those abovementioned in the case of the similar ignition of car- 
bonate of lime. 

The extreme avidity of calcium for iron was quite striking ; since, 
when a crucible was inclosed in a clean iron case without a cover, 
the mass, swelling up so as to reach the iron, became slightly imbued 
with it. By intensely igniting the carburet of calcium, obtained from 
the carbonate and sugar, with an equal weight of dry tanno-gallate 
of iron, the whole of the aggregate became so magnetic that every 
particle was transferred from one vessel to another by means of a 
magnet. The mass was filled with minute metallic globules, which 
yielded only partially to chlorohydric acid, and which, when dis- 
solved in aqua regia, gave, after adding ammonia and filtration, a 
precipitate with oxalic acid. 

Dr. Hare was aware that it did not seem consistent that spangles 
of calcium, burnished upon porcelain, should retain their lustre; 
as, under other circumstances, and especially when amalgamated, 
that metal was found to oxidize as soon as exposed to the air. He 
had, however, through the kindness of Mr. Booth, a pupil of Wohler, 
procured a specimen of magnesium evolved by that celebrated chemist. 
This specimen yielded, under the burnisher, spangles of a lustre 
as enduring as that observed by Dr. Hare in the case of- calcium. 
It should be recollected that slight causes may affect the oxidability 
of substances, as has been lately seen in the case of the reaction of 
iron with nitric acid; and it is well known that silicon, boron, and 
some other substances have two distinct states, in one of which 
there is a greater susceptibility of combination with other bodies than 
in the other. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol. 1. APRIL, MAY, JUNE, JULY & AUG. 1839. No. 7- 

Slated Meeting, April 5. 
Present, nineteen members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana por la Academia Espanola. 
Eighth edition. Madrid, 1837. — From the Academy. 

Derrotero de las Islas Antillas de las Costas de Tierra-Firme, y de 
las del Seno Mejicano. Third edition. Madrid, 1837. — From 
the Hydrographical Depot of the Spanish Navy. 

Coleccion do los Viages y Descubrimientos que hicieron por mar 
los Espanoles desde fines del Siglo xv. Por Don Martin Fer- 
nandez de Navarrete. Vols. I., II., III., IV., & V. Madrid, 
1825 to 1837. — From the same. 

Discurso leido a la Academia de la Historia, por su Director el 
Excmo Selior D. Martin Fernandez de Navarrete, en Junta de 
24 de Noviembre, de 1837. Madrid, 1838.— From the Author. 

Essays on unexplained Phenomena. By Graham Hutchinson. 
Glasgow, 1838. — From the Author. 

Observations on the Justificative Memorial of the Court of London. 
Translated from the French original, by Peter S. Du Ponceau. 
Philadelphia, 1781. — From the Translator. 

An Alphabetical Catalogue of Shells, Fossils, Minerals, and Zoophites, 
in the Cabinet of Joseph Sullivant. Columbus, Ohio, 1838,— 
From Mr. Sullivant. 



88 

The Magazine of Natural History. New Series. Edited by Edward 

Charlesworth. Vol. II., No. 25. London, 1839. — From the 

Editor. 
Communication relative to the West Branch and Alleghany Canal. 

By B. Aycrigg. Harrisburg, 1839. — From the Author. 
The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. By Robley 

Dunglison, M. D. Vol. II. No. 24, and Vol. III., No. 1. 

Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Editor. 
The Augustan Age. A Lecture before the Athenian Institute. By 

Charles D. Meigs, M. D. Philadelphia, 1839.— From the 

Author. 
Statistical Tables, exhibiting the Condition and Products of certain 

branches of Industry in Massachusetts, for the year ending April 

1, 1837. By John P. Bigelow. Boston, 1838 From Mr. 

Elliot Cresson. 
Real Museo Borbonico. Nos. 37 to 47. Naples, 1833 to 1836.— 

From the King of the Two Sicilies. 
Vocabolario Universale della Lingua Italiana. Nos. 31 to 35. 

Naples, 1837 and 1838.— From the Chevalier Morelli. 

The Committee to whom was referred a paper, entitled. 
" Contributions to the Geology of the Tertiary Formations of 
Virginia. Second Series. By Professor William B. Rogers, 
and Professor Henry D. Rogers," reported in favour of the 
publication of the Memoir, which was ordered accordingly. 

The object of this communication is to describe the Geology of the 
Peninsula embraced between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, 
extending from the Chesapeake Bay to the limit of tide water, near 
Fredericksburg. 

This area consists almost exclusively of the two great divisions of 
the Tertiary Deposites of Virginia, namely, the Eocene and Miocene 
formations. 

The paper commences with a sketch of the topographical features 
of the peninsula, making allusion, among other points, to the interest- 
ing terraced configuration of the land bordering the valleys of the 
two rivers. It then proceeds to delineate the boundaiies of the 
Eocene and Miocene formations. The Eocene is shown to occupy 
the western part of the peninsula, overlapping at its western edge the 
secondary sandstone of Fredericksburg, and extending eastward 
with a very gentle eastern dip beneath the overlying Miocene deposites, 



89 

until it finally disappears below the level of the tide near the mouth 
of Chingoteague creek on the Rappahannock, and Mathias's Point 
on the Potomac. The Miocene spreads eastward from the line con- 
necting these two localities to the termination of the peninsula ; while 
some of its lower beds extend west of the same line into the Eocene 
district, where they are confined, however, to the highest portions of 
the land. 

After offering numerous details relating to the range and limits of 
these two divisions of the Tertiary Deposites, the paper treats in the 
next place of the arrangement and composition of the Miocene strata, 
which are shown to possess a close general analogy in these respects 
to the Miocene beds of the peninsula of the York and James rivers, 
described in a former communication. The two most interesting 
points of agreement are the occurrence of the blue marls low down in 
the series, and the presence of the thin band of ferruginous rock sepa- 
rating the Miocene from the overlying diluvium. 

In general the blue marl at the base of the Miocene, is the most 
replete in fossils, though towards the eastern extremity of the penin- 
sula, shells, &c, abound in the upper sands and clays. Usually the 
tipper beds of the Miocene in this district are destitute of fossils, 
though full of their casts and impressions. 

These strata consist generally of light coloured sandy clays, distin- 
guished by a sulphurous smell, and an acid and styptic flavour. 
Carbonate of lime is not abundant, but the sulphate of lime occurs 
sometimes in valuable proportion. Sulphate of iron, sulphate of 
alumina, free sulphuric acid, sulphur, and even an appreciable amount 
of sulphate of magnesia are also met with. 

The fossil impressions in these beds are beautifully distinct, and 
appertain to all the species of shells which are found in perfect condi- 
tion in the subjacent strata. In the blue clayey marl beneath, there 
often occurs a notable proportion of green sand, which is also found 
in some of the other Miocene strata, mixed pretty largely with com- 
mon sand and clay, in beds destitute of fossils. 

The paper treats in detail of many of the more interesting localities 
in the Miocene district, describing the stratification, and presenting 
evidence of the relative fertilizing agency of the several beds. 

The fossil species which characterize the Miocene strata, are next 
enumerated. 

In the next section, an account is given of the arrangement and 
composition of the Eocene strata of the peninsula. 



90 

In general, the lowest bed of the series is a dark greenish-blue 
mass, composed of clay, fine sand, and a little green sand; while 
above it, the strata are of various shades, yellow, greenish-gray, and 
brown. Little uniformity prevails in their arrangement at different 
localities. 

A thin band of ferruginous gravel frequently overlies the Eocene 
strata, and forms a distinct line of demarcation between them and the 
bottom of the Miocene. 

The stratification of the Eocene at various localities is exhibited in 
detail, and the characteristic fossils specified, while the curious 
chemical changes which these have undergone, are also discussed. 

Professor Bache presented the printed number of the So- 
ciety's proceedings for the past three months, No. 6. 

Dr. Hays stated that he had received through a friend some 
of the vaccine virus, recently obtained by Mr. Estlin, of 
Bristol, from the cow, and had used it with the most satisfac- 
tory results. He exhibited a scab, which presented all the 
characters described by Jenner, as appertaining to the genuine 
vaccine scab. 



Slated Meeting, April 19. 
Present, thirty-eight members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Memoires de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint-Peters- 
bourg. VIme. Serie. Sciences Mathematiques, Physiques et 
Naturelles. Vol. IV. Premiere Partie: Sciences Mathema- 
tiques et Physiques. Vol. II. Parts first and second. St. Peters- 
burg, 1838. — From the Academy. 

Memoires de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint-Peters- 
bourg. VIme. Serie. Sciences Mathematiques, Physiques et 



91 

Naturelles. Vol. IV. Seconde Partie: Sciences Naturelles. 

Vol. II. St. Petersburg, 1838. — From the same. 
Memoires de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint-Peters- 

bourg. VIme. Serie. Sciences Politiques, Histoire, Philologie. 

Vol. IV. Part third. St. Petersburg, 1838. — From the same. 
Memoires presentees a l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint- 

Petersbourg par divers Savans, et lues dans ses Assemblies. Vol. 

III. Parts third to sixth, and Vol. IV. Parts first and second. 

St. Petersburg, 1837. — From the same. 
Recueil des Actes de la Seance Publique de l'Academie Imperiale des 

Sciences de Saint-Petersbourg tenue le 29 Decembre, 1837. St. 

Petersburg, 1838. — From the same. 
Second Report on the Agriculture of Massachusetts. By Henry 

Colman, Commissioner for the Agricultural Survey of the State. 

County of Berkshire, 1838. Boston, 1839. — From the Author. 
Copy of the Acts incorporating the Sandusky, Toledo, and Michigan 

City Rail Road Company, with the Report of the Survey of the 

Road. By John Hopkins, Esq. Also, the Report of the Survey 

of the Buffalo and Mississippi Rail Road, through the State of 

Indiana. By James Seymour, Esq. To which is added, the 

Circular of the Directors, and the Company's Charter. Toledo, 

1839.— From Mr.Elisha Wliittlesey. 
The Charter and By-Laws of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust 

Company. Cincinnati, 1838. — From the same. 
An Essay on the Development and Modifications of the External 

Organs of Plants, &c. By William Darlington, M. D. West 

Chester, 1839. — From the Author. 
O Auxiliador da Industria Nacional, ou Colleccao de Memorias e 

Noticias interessantes aos Faziendeiros, Fabricantes, etc. Perio- 

dico Mensal publicado pela Sociedade Auxiliadora da Industria 

Nacional, estabelecida no Rio de Janeiro. Vlth. Year. No. 7. 

Rio Janeiro, 1838. — From the Society. 
Reports and other Documents relating to the State Lunatic Hospital, 

at Worcester, Mass. Printed by order of the Senate. Boston, 

1837.— From Mr. I. P. Davis. 
Draft of a revised Common School Law, and of a Law relative to 

the Preparation of Common School Teachers ; with explanatory 

Remarks, and a set of District Regulations. Prepared by 

Thomas H. Burrowes, Superintendent. Harrisburg, 1839. — ■ 

From Mr. R. Conyngham. 



92 

Report' on Elementary Public Instruction in Europe, made to the 

thirty-sixth General Assembly of the State of Ohio, December 

19, 1837. By C. E. Stowe. Reprinted by order of the House 

of Representatives of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, 1838. — From 

the same. 
Berichten iiber die Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 

in Basel, vom August, 1834, bis Juli, 1838. Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

Basel, 1835 to 1838.— From L. de Wette. 
Annual Report of the Geologist of Maryland, 1838. Annapolis, 

1839. — Fromthe Author. 
A Further Report on the Survey of a Rail Road from Chambersburg 

to Pittsburg. By Charles De Hass, Engineer. Harrisburg, 

1838. — From Mr. R. Conyngham. 
Geology of Upper Illinois. By Charles U. Shepard, M. D. New 

Haven, 1838. — From Mr. E. Whittlesey. 
First Report of Edward Miller, Engineer in Chief of the Sunbury 

and Erie Rail Road. Philadelphia, 1839.— From Mr. F. 

Fraley. 

The Committee of Publication, reported the publication of 
Part Second, Vol. VI., of the Society's Transactions. 

Professor Bache communicated at the request of the Com- 
mittee on the Observatory, the following translation of a 
letter addressed to him by Professor Encke, Director of the 
Observatory of Berlin. 

The nature of the operations of an Observatory must depend 
more upon the individual taste and qualifications of the Director than 
those of any other scientific establishment. There is still so much to 
be done in every department of Astronomy, in any one of which 
there is sufficient employment, that if the Director shows a particular 
disposition for certain lines of research, it would be most profitable for 
science that he should be allowed to follow them, and not be tied 
down to other observations. It would be best, therefore, that the 
Director should be allowed to regulate his own establishment. 

Large Observatories, like those of Greenwich, Konigsberg, and 
Dorpat, require, in the present state of science, large telescopes, the 
art of dividing having been carried so far, that small instruments will 
not answer. The necessity for large telescopes for the meridian 
instruments, as well as for other uses, renders such an establishment 
very costly, and requires that it shall be independent of others. It 



93 

appears not to be the intention, at present, to erect such an Observa- 
tory in the United States, and details in regard to it are therefore 
unnecessary. 

But smaller Observatories may also be useful to science, especially 
for geographical purposes. Such a one, for example, as would be 
furnished by a room with a solid foundation, connected with a second 
having a free horizon. The first to have cuts north and south and 
east and west, the second to have a turning dome. The following 
named instruments would be suitable for such an Observatory. 

1. A meridian circle with a 42 inch telescope and 

20 inch circle, - - - 1,000 Rix Dolls. 

2. A telescope of 72 inches focal length, - 900 „ 

3. An astronomical clock, - - 400 „ 

4. A chronometer, - - - 500 „ 

5. Small transit instrument, - - 350 „ 

6. Small telescopes, barometers, thermometers, 

&c, a theodolite, &c. - - 750 „ 

3,900 „ 
or about $3,000. 

A small Observatory would thus be furnished for about three 
thousand dollars. 

Determinations of the places of stars and planets, and even of the 
asteroids may be made with the circle as far as the power of the 
telescope permits. Director Hansen, at Seeberg, and Professor 
Schwerdt, at Spire, have made excellent observations with a similar 
instrument. Observations of moon culminating stars for longitude 
may be also made with it. 

Observations of more difficult objects, except perhaps the nearest 
double stars, of comets, for the exterior of the planets, &c, may be 
made with the larger telescope. 

The small transit instrument, placed east and west, will give the 
latitude within limits depending upon the accuracy to which the 
declinations of the stars is determined, and in conjunction with the 
chronometer, will serve to determine the geographical positions of 
places which may be selected. For longitude, observations are made 
of the moon culminating stars, which are observed at the same time 
with the meridian circle. For latitude the transit is placed east and 
west. 

The Altona Observatory may serve as a model of such a small 



94 

Observatory, and the yearly journeys of the Russian Astronomers 
from Dorpat, as models for the use of the instruments in determining 
geographical positions. The observations of Professor Schwerdt, of 
Spire, will be found useful in the application of the meridian circle. 

Such a small Observatory will be well adapted to form observers ; 
as the art of handling instruments so as to obtain accurate results is 
only to be acquired by practice. 

Dr. Patterson made the following verbal communication: — 

That the use of the wax tablet written on with an iron stylus, as 
practised by the ancient Romans, had been tried, for the first time, 
this day, at the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the 
Blind, and that the success had been perfectly satisfactory. The 
blind read, with ease, the words written, traced geometrical figures, 
&c. It is confidently believed that the Roman tablet will prove of 
great importance in the instruction of the blind. 

Professor H. D. Rogers made a verbal communication, in 
which he called the attention of the Society to a new com- 
pound of platinum, discovered by himself and his friend, 
Martin H. Boye; upon the further investigation of which they 
are at present occupied. 

It is a well characterized salt, composed of the deutochloride of 
platinum, and the binoxide of nitrogen, in which the former may be 
conceived, in accordance with the views of Professor Hare, to act the 
part of an acid, while the binoxide of nitrogen is in the relation of a 
base. It is of a bright gamboge yellow, is distinctly crystalline, 
though, in consequence of the minuteness of the crystals, their form 
has not been determined. It is highly deliquescent, absorbing water 
at ordinary temperatures, with great avidity, from the atmosphere. 

It is rapidly decomposed by the mere addition of water, which 
causes an active effervescence; the binoxide of nitrogen being 
copiously evolved, and the deutochloride of platinum remaining in 
solution. 

This interesting compound is best procured by evaporating a solu- 
tion of platinum in aqua regia nearly to dryness, and then adding a 
large excess of fresh nitro-muriatic acid by small quantities at a time. 
The compound may thus be readily procured by filtering and press- 
ing the powder between folds of bibulous paper. Should the con- 
centration of the liquid be carried too far, it is requisite to add a little 



95 

water, just sufficient in quantity to preserve the mass in a semifluid 
condition, and to prevent the precipitation of any deutochloride of 
platinum. 

Specimens of the salt were exhibited, together with the apparatus 
•employed in the qualitative examination of the compound, the con- 
stitution of which was made manifest by proper chemical re-agents. 

Dr. Patterson called up the amendment to the by-laws pro- 
posed by him on the 15th of March last, and in regard to 
which due notice had been given. The amendment was 
adopted as follows: — 

If any member shall pay into the hands of the treasurer the 
sum of fifty dollars, he shall thenceforward be exempted from 
all annual contributions. 

The following candidates were elected Members of the 
Society: — 

Humphrey Lloyd, A. M., of Trinity College, Dublin. 

J. K. Paulding, Secretary of the Navy of the United States. 

John Ludlow, D. D. Provost of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, 

Benjamin W. Richards, of Philadelphia. 

George W. Bethune, D. D. of Philadelphia. 

George M. Justice, of Philadelphia. 



Stated Meeting, May 3, 
Present, twenty-two members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. Vol. X. London. 
1838. — From the Society. 

Transactions of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manu- 
factures, and Commerce. During the session of 1837-8. Vol. 
HI. Part first. London, 1838, — From the Society. 



96 

Transactions of the Albany Institute. Vol. II. Nos. 3 and 4. 

Albany. — From the Institute. 
Collections of the Rhode Island Historical Society. Vol. IV. Pro- 
vidence, 1838. — From the Society. 
Elements of Civil Engineering : for the use of Students, and those 
who may be about to embark in the profession. By John 
Millington, Civil Engineer, &c. Philadelphia, 1839. — From 
Mr. Judah Dobson. 
A Geographical, Commercial, and Agricultural View of the United 
States of America, forming a complete Emigrants' Directory, 
&c. By Daniel Blowe. Liverpool, 1820. — From Mr. John 
Vaughan. 
Remarks on the Statistics and Political Institutions of the United 
States, with some Observations on the Ecclesiastical System of 
America, her Sources of Revenue, die. By William G. Ouseley, 
Esq. Philadelphia, 1832. — From the same. 
Sketches, Historical and Topographical, of the Floridas. By James 

Grant Forbes. New York. — From the same. 
Remarks during a Journey through North America, in the years 
1819, 1820, and 1821. By Adam Hodgson, Esq. New York, 
1823. — From the same. 
Statistics of South Carolina, including a View of its Natural, Civil, 
and Military History, general and particular. By Robert Miles. 
Charleston, 1826. — From the same. 
Correspondencia que ha Mediado entre la Legacion Extraordinaria 
de Mexico y el Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos 
sobre el Paso del Sabina por las Tropaz que mandaba el General 
. Gaines. Philadelphia, 1836. — From Mr. Gorostiza. 
Tables of the Self-registering Anemometer and Rain Gauge, with 
drawings, and a description. By Mr. Follett Ostler. — From Mr. 
G. M. Justice. 
A Peep at China in Mr. Dunn's Chinese Collection ; with Miscel- 
laneous Notices relating to the Institutions and Customs of the 
Chinese, and our Commercial Intercourse with them. By E. C. 
Wines. Philadelphia, 1839. — From Mr. Nathan Dunn. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

Models of a regular dodecahedron and of a triangular pyramid, in 
which the planes of cleavage upon the solid angles are shown, 
executed in mica. By Professor Stephen Alexander, of Princeton. 
From the Maker. 



97 

Professor Bache called the attention of the Society to the 
donation of transparent models of crystals, presented to the 
Cabinet by Professor Alexander. 

He stated that these models had all the advantages of those made 
from glass, with greater convenience in the construction of them. 
The thin plates of mica are readily marked with a sharp instrument, 
and easily cut. The parts are put together with diamond cement, it 
having been found that this is a much better method of connecting the 
pieces composing the model, than by cutting the sheets partly through 
and using the mica as a hinge, which renders the sheets liable to 
split. The forms resulting from the cleavage of crystals, &c, may 
be represented in these models as in those of glass. 

Dr. Hays made a verbal communication relative to the 
catoptric examination of the eye, as a means of distinguish- 
ing the morbid conditions of the transparent tissues of that 
organ. 

He stated that when a lighted candle is held before an eye, the 
pupil of which is dilated, and in which there is no obscurity of the 
transparent tissues, three distinct images of the flame is visible ; two 
upright and one inverted, the latter appearing between the two 
former. 

Experiments made to determine the causes of these reflected 
images, and the changes which occur in their number, position, &c. 
have shown that if a light be placed before the convex face of a single 
watch glass, or of several of them superimposed, one or more up- 
right images of the flame will be seen, according to the number of 
glasses employed.* Now in the eye there are two superimposed 
convex surfaces, viz. — 1st. the cornea; and 2d. the anterior capsule 
of the crystalline lens. Thus the formation of the two upright images 
is explained. Again, if a light be placed before the concave surface 
of a watch glass, an inverted image is seen. Such a surface exists 
in the eye, in the posterior capsule of the lens ; and thus the third 
image is accounted for. 

M. Sanson, a distinguished French surgeon, has taken advantage 
of the above facts, to distinguish cataract from amaurosis, and has 

* To be strictly accurate, it should be said that each of these images is 
double, for one is reflected from each surface of the glass, and these images 
are the more distinctly double, the thicker the glass. 



98 

been enabled to determine by this means some cases of supposed 
amaurosis to be in fact cataract, and has treated them successfully 
by operation. 

Dr. Mackenzie, an eminent ophthalmologist of Glasgow, has also 
employed this means to determine the condition of the eye in glau- 
coma. Dr. Hays remarked that he had resorted to the catoptric 
examination of the eye in many cases, and believed that it would 
prove as valuable a means of diagnosis in some of the diseases of the 
eye, as auscultation is in those of the chest. 

Dr. Hays exhibited and explained several models, designed and 
constructed by Dr. John Neill, resident surgeon at Wills' Hospital, 
for the purpose of illustrating the catoptric phenomena just explained. 

Dr. Patterson communicated verbally a method of using 
thin sheets of lead by the blind, in writing, reading, and 
musical notation, invented by Mr. Joseph Saxton. The sheets 
of lead are three thousandths of an inch in thickness. Dr. 
Patterson presented specimens of the writing and musical 
notation. 

Dr. Bache communicated the decease of Mr. George 
Pollok, a member of the Society, who died in April last. 



Stated Meetings May 17. 

Present, twenty members. 

Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 

Letters were received from Mr. Thomas Townsend, and 
Mr. G. Riboni, and referred to committees. 

The following donations were received : — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Proceedings of the Committee of Agriculture and Commerce of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, from April, 1837, to November, 1838, 
London, 1837-38.— From the Society. 



99 

The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. Vol- 
IX. Parts first and second. London, 1839. — From the Society. 

Experimental Researches in Electricity. Eleventh, Twelfth, Thir- 
teenth and Fourteenth series. By Michael Farady, Esq., D.C.L. 
London, 1838. — From the Author. 

The History of the Navy of the United States of America. By J. 
Fenimore Cooper. Two Vols. Philadelphia, 1839. — From 
the Author. 

A Memoir of the Life and Character of Philip Syng Physick, M.D. 
By J. Randolph, M. D. Philadelphia, 1839.— From the Author. 

Experimental and Theoretical Researches in Electricity. First 
Memoir. By William Sturgeon, Esq. London, 1839. — From 
the Author. 

Facts and Inquiries respecting the source of Epidemic. By T. 
Forster, M. B. London, 1832 — From the Author. 

Observations on the Brumal Retreat of the Swallow. By Thomas 
Forster. London, 1817. — From the Author. 

Third Annual Report on the Geological Survey of the State of Penn- 
sylvania. By Henry D. Rogers, State Geologist. Harrisburg, 
1839. — From the Author. 

A Catalogue of the Shells arranged according to the Lamarckian 
System, together with descriptions of new or rare species, con- 
tained in the collection of John C. Jay, M.D. New York, 1839. 
From the Author. 

Mecanique Celeste. By the Marquis de la Place. Translated, with 
a Commentary, by Nathaniel Bowditch, LL. D. Vol. IV. 
With a Memoir of the Translator, by his son, N. Ingersoll 
Bowditch. Boston, 1839. — From the Children of the Trans- 
lator. 

Report on the Variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at differ- 
ent points on the Earth's Surface. By Major Edward Sabine, 
R.A. London, 1838. — From the Author. 

Dr. Hare made the following verbal communication relative 
to the blasting of rocks, by the aid of galvanic ignition in firing 
the charge. 

The Doctor called the attention of the Society to the fact, that he 
had, so long ago as the summer of 1831, demonstrated the safety, 
certainty, and facility, which would arise in rock-blusting, whether 



100 

under water or otherwise, from a resort to galvanic apparatus as the 
means of igniting the gunpowder employed. His efforts had been 
incited originally by those of a person named Shaw, who had pro- 
cured a patent for employing mechanical electricity for the purpose ; but 
who, finding that method of operating too precarious to be useful, had 
applied to Dr. Hare to acquire a knowledge of more effectual means. 
This led to the experiments of which the result has been published, 
both in the newspapers, and in the Journal of the Franklin Institute. 
The subject was now referred to, in consequence of the recent publi- 
cation of analogous experiments by his friend, Professor Daniell, of 
King's College, London, who, in the case in point, no doubt as in that 
in which he had " reinvented''' Dr. Hare's concentric blow pipe, was 
ignorant of the results previously obtained in this country. 
Professor Daniell had, in blasting, used the highly ingenious appa- 
ratus known as "Darnell's sustaining battery" the contrivance of 
which had done him great honour; but Dr. Hare conceived that how- 
ever preferable might be a battery of that kind, in processes requiring 
a permanent current; for a transient energetic ignition, such, as is most 
suitable for blasting, the calorimotors which he had contrived, would 
be decidedly more efficacious. 

Dr. Hare further communicated the results of his recent ex- 
periments to obtain calcium, as follows : — 

By igniting an equivalent weight of lime with an equivalent and a 
half of cry stallized bicyanide of mercury , in two successive experiments, 
residual masses were obtained, which, within a small fraction, had the 
weight which would have resulted from the union of an equivalent of 
calcium, with an equivalent of cyanogen. A portion of the compound 
thus made, was placed between electrodes of charcoal, the lower piece 
being excavated slightly to receive it, and the upper one being so shaped 
as to enter the cavity. The electrodes were severally supported by cop- 
per rods passing through stuffing boxes, so as to be included within a 
glass receiver, ground to fit air tight upon an extra air-pump plate. 
In consequence of this arrangement, the receiver could be exhausted 
of air, and the electrodes consequently situated in vacuo, or in an at- 
mosphere of hydrogen, as might be deemed preferable. The lower 
electrode formed the cathode, the upper the anode, of two hundred 
pairs, each comprising one hundred square inches of zinc surface. 
Under these circumstances, when the circuit was completed, by 
throwing the usual charge of acid upon the plates, the most intense 



101 

ignition ensued. The supposed compound of cyanogen appears to be 
an excellent conductor, and nothing could exceed the splendour of the 
purple light emitted during its deflagration. It was too vivid, how- 
ever, for more than a transient endurance by an eye unprotected by 
deep coloured glasses. After the compound was adjudged to be suf- 
ficiently deflagrated, and time had been allowed for refrigeration, on 
lifting the receiver, masses were found upon the coal, which had a 
metallic appearance, and which, when moistened, produced an efflu- 
vium, of which the smell was like that which had been observed to be 
generated under like circumstances, by the siliciuret of potassium. 

Similar results had been attained by the deflagration, in a like 
manner, of a compound procured by passing cyanogen over quicklime, 
enclosed in a porcelain tube heated to incandescence. 

Phosphuret of calcium, when carefully prepared, and subsequently 
well heated, was found to be an excellent conductor of the voltaic 
current, evolved from the apparatus abovementioned. Hence it was 
thought expedient to expose it in the circuit of the deflagrator, both in 
an atmosphere of hydrogen, and in vacuo. The volatilization of 
phosphorus was so copious as to coat throughout the inner surface of 
the glass receiver, with an opake film, in colour resembling that of 
the oxide of phosphorus, generated by exposing this substance under 
hot water, to a current of oxygen. 

The phosphuret at first contracted in bulk, and finally was for the 
most part volatilized. On the surface of the charcoal adjoining the 
cavity in which the phosphuret had been deflagrated, there was a light 
pulverulent matter, which, thrown into water, effervesced, and when 
rubbed upon a porcelain tile, appeared to contain metallic spangles, 
which were oxidized by the consequent exposure to atmospheric 
oxygen. 

In one of Dr. Hare's experiments with the apparatus desci-ibed, 
portions of the carbon forming the anode appeared to have undergone 
complete fusion, and to have dropped in globules upon the cathode. 

When rubbed, these globules had the colour and lustre of plumbago, 
and by friction on paper, left traces resembling those produced by 
that substance. They were insusceptible of reaction with chloro- 
hydric or nitric acid, or with aqua regia. They were not, in the 
slightest degree, magnetic. 

About 1822, Professor Silliman had obtained globules which were 
by him considered as fused carbon, by others were deemed to be de- 



102 

positions of carbon carried from one electrode to the other. Professor 
Silliman had at that time sent Dr. Hare several nodules for examina- 
tion, of which none, agreeably to his recollection, appeared so much 
like products of fusion as those lately obtained. 

Formerly, plumbago had been considered as a carburet of iron, 
but latterly, agreeably to the high authority of Berzelius, should be 
viewed as carbon holding iron in a state of mixture, and not in that 
of chemical combination. It would not then be surprising, if the 
globules in question furnished an instance of the conversion of char- 
coal into plumbago. 

Since the abovementioned experiments were made, Dr. Hare has 
had reason to believe that the compound obtained as above described, 
by heating lime with bicyanide of mercury, contains fulminic acid, or 
an analogous substance. The compound being dissolved in acetic 
acid, and the filtered solution subjected to nitrate of mercury, a 
copious white precipitate resulted. This being desiccated, proves to 
be a fulminating powder. It explodes between a hammer and anvil 
like fulminating mercury, or rather with the sharp sound of fulmi- 
nating silver. 

Dr. Hays made a verbal communication of a case of the appli- 
cation of the catoptric method of examining the eye, by which 
he had detected the destruction of the lens and of its capsule, 
under circumstances which would not otherwise have led to 
the conclusion that they had been destroyed, and where vision 
had been obtained by the use of a cataract lens. 



Stated Meeting, June 21. 

Present, twenty-four members. 

Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 

The following donations were received: — 

for the library. 
Proceedings of the Royal Astronomical Society. Vol. IV. Nos. 1 
to 21, and No. 23. London, 1839.— From the Society. 



103 

Reports of the Geological Survey of the State of New York. Albany, 

1839.— From Mr. Z. Barton Stout. 
Notice Historique sur la Vie et les Voyages de Rene Caillie. Par M. 

Jornard. Paris, 1839. — From the Author. 
Remarks upon the North American Insects belonging to the Genus 

Cychrus of Fabricius ; with descriptions of some newly detected 

species. By T. W. Harris, M. D. Boston, 1839.— .From the 

Author. 
Political Sketches of Eight Years in Washington. By Robert Mayo, 

M. D. Baltimore, 1839. — From the Author. 
Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania. From the Organ- 
ization to the Termination of the Proprietary Government. 

Vols. I. and II., containing the Proceedings of Council from 

1683 to 1717. Harrisburg, 1838.— From the State of Penn- 
sylvania. 
Die Werke des Flavius Josephus und Das Leben des Josephus von 

ihm selbst geschrieben. Das Ganze vonNeuem nach dem Grie- 

chischen bearbeitet; mit erkl'arenden Anmerkungen, durch C. R. 

Demme. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Editor. 
Annales des Mines. Troisieme Serie. Vol. XIV., parts fourth and 

sixth. Paris, 1838. — From the Council of Mines. ' 
Storia della Scultura del Conte Cicognara. Vols. I. to VII. Prato, 

1824. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 
Recherches sur l'Histoire Naturelle et I'Anatbmie des Limules, par 

J. Van Der Hoeven. Leyden, 1838. — From the Minister of the 

Interior of the Netherlands. 
Flora Batava, of af beelding en beschrijving van Nederlandsche Ge- 

wassen, door Jan Kops, en H. C. Van Hall. Nos. 116 and 117. 

Amsterdam. — From the same. 
Essay on Meteorological Observations. By J. N. Nicollet, Esq. 

Printed by order of the War Department. Washington, 1839. — 

From Col. Abert, U. S. Topographical Engineers. 
Les Trois Ages ou les Jeux Olympiques, l'Amphitheatre, et la Che- 

valerie. Par Roux de Rochelle. Paris, 1838. — From the 

Author. 
Fernand Cortes, Poeme. Par Roux de Rochelle. Paris, 1838. — 

From the same. 
Chinese Magazine, edited by the Rev. Charles Guzlaff. Canton. — 

From the Editor. 
Missionary Tracts in Chinese. Canton. — From the same. 
c 



104 

Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic. Deuxieme Serie, Vol. X* 

Paris, 1838. — From the Society. 
The Oxford University Calendar. Oxford, 1838.— From- Mr. John 

Vaughan. 
The Cambridge University Calendar. Cambridge, 1838. — From the 

same. 
Memorie e Lettere di Galileo Galilei, dal Cav. Giambatista Venturis 

Vols. I. and II. Modena, 1821. — From the same. 
An Inquiry into the Origin of the Antiquities of America. By John 

Delafield, Jr., with an Appendix, by James Lakey, M. D. of 

Ohio. New York, 1839 From Mr. M. T. Williams. 

The librarian was authorized to take order in relation to an 
exchange of the transactions of the Society, for the Journal of 
the Boston Natural Historical Society. 

The committee on the letters of Mr. J. P. Hulliken and Dr. 
Townsend reported, and was discharged. 

The committee to whom was referred the publication of cer- 
tain meteorological tables, accidentally omitted in their place in 
the Transactions, and the journal of Dr. Thomas Hewson, re- 
ported in favour of the publication of certain of the former and 
of the latter. 

Dr. Bache presented a translation of an obituary notice of 
Professor Rask of Copenhagen, late a member of the Society, 
to be deposited in the archives of the Society. 

Mr. Vaughan informed the Society of the decease of Doctor 
Thomas Cooper, a member of the Society, who died on the 
eleventh of May last. 

Dr. Hays communicated verbally the case of a woman la- 
bouring under an affection of the optic nerve, in which a defect 
in the recognition of colours was developed, according to her 
statement, at the same time with the affection of the general 
vision, and in which a partial recovery of the power of vision 
had been attended with the recovery of the power to distin- 
guish colours. 

Dr. Hare laid before the Society portions of barium, stron- 
tium and calcium, and stated the considerations which led him 
to attempt their extrication, and the means by which he had 



105 

succeeded. These communications it is not deemed expedient 
to insert, as the whole process will soon be presented for 
publication in the Transactions of the Society, when an ab- 
stract will be given. Meanwhile, a notice of the results will 
appear in Silliman's Journal. 

One of the copies of the Colonial Records, presented to the 
Society by the Legislature of the State, was offered to the 
acceptance of the President, Mr. Du Ponceau. 

The thanks of the Society were returned to Mr. George 
Ord, for his attention to their request in relation to the pur- 
chase of books while abroad. 



Stated Meeting, July 17. 
Present, twenty -two members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Proceedings of the Geological Society of London. Vol.' II. and 

Vol. III. Nos. 59 to 62 inclusive. London, 1838 and 1839. 

From the Society. 
Proceedings of the Numismatic Society. 1836-37. London, 1837. 

From the Society. 
The Institutes of the Numismatic Society of London. London, 1838. 

From the same. 
A Discourse on the Life and Services of Stephen Van Rensselaer. 

By Daniel D. Barnard. Albany, 1839. — From the Albany 

Institute. 
Memoires de la Societe. Roy ale des Antiquaires de France. Vol. 

XIV. Paris, 1838. — From the Society. 
Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologic Uitgegeven 

door J. Van dor Iloeven, M. D. Prof, te Leiden en W. II. de 

Vriese, M. D. Prof, te Amsterdam. Vol. V. No. 4. Leyden, 

1839. — From the Minister of the Interior of the Netherlands. 



106 

Sur les Avantages qu'on pourrait tirer de la Lecture des Anciens 

Ecrivains Francais. Par Theod. Lorin. Cambray, 1839. — 

From the Author. 
Epitres, Fables et Poesies Fugitives. Par Theodore Lorin. Paris, 

1839. — From the same. 
A Report upon the Military and Hydrographical Chart of the Ex- 
tremity of Cape Cod. By James D. Graham, Major U. S. Corps 

of Topographical Engineers. — From the Author. 
Chronometer Accuracy. Verification of the Longitude of Paris. 

London, 1839. — From Dr. Lee. 
Letter to the Secretary of the Treasury on the History and Causes 

of Steamboat Explosions and the means of prevention. By W. 

C. Redfield. New York, 1839.— From the Author. 
The English Instructor. In the Burman Language. — From the Rev. 

J. P. Engles. 
Jeremiah, in the Persian Language. — From the same. 
Harmony of the Gospels, in the Choctaw Language. Utica, 1831. 

From the same. 
Novum Testamentum ad Exemplar Millianum. Editionem Primam 

Americanam recensuit Josephus P. Engles, A. M. Philadelphia, 

1839. — From the same. 
Sermones Pomerii fratris Adelbarti de Themcswar. Hagenau, 1498. 

From the same. 
Observations Meteorologiques et Magnetiques faites dans l'Etendue 

de l'Empire de Russie, redigees et publiees par A. T. Kupfier. 

St. Petersburg, 1837. — From the Author. 
Documents of the Kentucky Legislature. Session of 1837-38. — 

From Mr. Edward Jarvis. 
Report of the Board of Internal Improvement of Kentucky, 1837. — 

From Mr. E. Whittlesey. 
The Statutes of Ohio and of the North Western Territory. Vols. 

I., II., and III. Edited by Salmon P. Chase. Cincinnati, 1833. 

From Mr. M. T. Williams. 
An Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of the United States, 

for the Year 1837. Washington, 1838. — From the Treasurer 

of the United States. 
Boston Journal of Natural History. Vol. II. Nos. 1 and 2. Bos- 
ton, 1838 and 1839. — From tlie Boston Society of Natural 

History. 
The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. Edited by Robley 



107 

Dunglison, M. D. Vol. III. Nos. 2 to 8. Philadelphia, 1839. 

From the Editor. 
The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Benjamin 

Silliman, M.D. LL. D., aided by Benjamin Silliman, Jr., A. B. 

January to July, 1839. Vol. XXVI. New Haven, 1839.— 

From the Conductors. 
The Transylvania Journal of Medicine and the Associate Sciences. 

Vol. XII. No. 1. Lexington, 1839. — From the Conductors. 

The Committee on the observations of the Solar Eclipse of 
May 14-15, 1S36, reported, and their report was ordered for 
publication. 

The American observations, 28 in number, were given at length. 
At the invitation of Mr. C. Rumker, Director of the Hamburg Obser- 
vatory, conveyed through Prof. A. D. Bache, 21 of these observa- 
tions had been forwarded by Mr. John Vaughan to that distinguished 
Astronomer, for comparison with those which had been made in 
Europe. The report contained a letter from Mr. Rumker, in which 
the time of ecliptic conjunction, with its variations for the small errors 
of the tables, was deduced from each of the European and American 
observations. Mr. Rumker remarks, that the corrections of this 
time for the corrections of the moon's declination and parallax, ap- 
pearing with opposite signs in the observations on the two continents, 
afford unusual facilities for determining these corrections, particularly 
the latter. Mr. Rumker's letter not having given the final results 
deducible from his equations of condition, the committee appended a 
letter from Mr. Sears C. Walker, in which he deduces from Mr. 
Rumker's equations, the following corrections of the solar and lunar 
elements, as given in the N. Almanac. 

d (Q -f- (§) = — 2" .279 = correction of sum of semidiameters. 
d(Q — (|>) = — 1".750 = ,, difference of semidiameters. 

d fi = — 6" .736 = „ moon's latitude. 

dw = -f- l".516 = „ moon's parallax. 

d x = — 2" .276 = ,, moon's longitude. 

These corrections being referred to the moon's orbit and its 
secondaries, give, after Bessel's notation (Astr. Nachr. 320.) 
i = — 2".934 =±= cor. moon's place in true orbit. 
£ = — 7"198 = „ on secondary to do. 

Mr. Peters, (Astr. Nachr. 326) without the American observations, 

had obtained. 

< = — 3" .650. 
£= — 5" .472. 



108 



Walker from 


Walker 


from 


Rumker's 


Peters 


' co- 


equations. 


ordinates. 


h. m. s. h. m. 


s. 


5 8 13.83 5 8 


13.45 


5 1 16.53 5 1 


15.05 


5 40.615 


40.94 


5 38.89; 5 


39.60 


4 53 41.114 53 


42.05 


4 51 12.89 4 51 


1325 


not reduced. 


4 45 


38.33 


>J 


4 44 


16.92 



Mr. Walker having previously reduced the American observations 
with Peters's co-ordinates and corrections, furnishes a comparison of 
the longitudes from Greenwich, derived by different computers from 
this eclipse. 



Washington (Capitol,) 

Haverford School, Delaware Co., Pa. 
Germantown, C. Wister's private Observatory, 
Philadelphia, (State House) .... 
West Hills, (Coast Survey,) - 
Southwick, Mass., A. Holcombe's p. Obs. 
Providence, Brown University, - . 

Dorchester, Mass., Wm. C. Bond's p. Obs. 

Mr. Walker finds from the resolution of Rumker's equations of 
condition, -\- 1".516 for the correction of Burckhardt's constant of 
the moon's equatorial parallax. In the Memoirs of the Astronomical 
Society, Vol. X., Mr. Henderson gives -(- 1".5 as the value of this 
correction, derived from Plana's Theorie de la Lune, and + 1".3 as 
the value of the same, derived from a discussion of all the meridian 
observations of the moon made in 1832 and 1833, with the mural 
circles at Greenwich, Cambridge, and the Cape of Good Hope. This 
correction had hitherto been derived chiefly from theory and meridian 
observations. It is seldom that an eclipse or occultation has been so 
extensively observed as to furnish a determination of this element. 
In the present instance, the results by the three independent methods, 
present a close agreement. 

Dr. Chapman, one of the Vice-Presidents of the Society, 
stated that he had received a letter from the Prince of Musig- 
nano, informing him that a meeting of the scientific men of 
Italy would be held at Pisa, in October next, and inviting the 
Society to send a delegate to the meeting. 

Dr. Patterson communicated the decease of Mr. Francis 
Nichols, a member of the Society, on the 7th of July. 

Dr. Bache also announced the decease of Dr. John Newnam, 
formerly of Salisbury, N. Carolina, a member of the Society. 

The following candidates were declared duly elected mem- 
bers of the Society: — 

Theod. Romeyn Beck, M. D., of Albany. 

Richard 0. Taylor, of Philadelphia. 



109 

Stated Meeting, August 16, 
Present, sixteen members. 
Dr. Patterson, Vice-President, in the Chair- 
The following donations were received : — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Documents of the Second Session of the Twenty-fifth Congress, 
1837-38. Twenty-four volumes. Washington, 1838. — From 
John Forsyth, Secretary of State of the United States. 

Chart of Georges Shoal and Bank. Surveyed by Charles Wilkes., 
Lieutenant Commandant, 1837. — From the same. 

A Narration of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Dela- 
ware and Mohegan Indians, from 1740 to 1808. By John 
Heckewelder. Philadelphia, 1820. — From Mr. P. S. Du Pon- 
ceau. 

Johann Heckewelder's Nachricht von der Geschichte, der Sitten, und 
Gebrauchen der Indianischen Volkerschaften. Aus den Englis- 
chen Ubersetzt, von Fr. Hesse. Nebst einem Zusatze von G. E. 
Schulze. Gottingen, 1821. — From the same. 

A Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut. By Charles U. 
Shepard, M.D. New Haven, 1837. — From Professor Silli- 
man. 

Suggestions relative to the Philosophy of Geology. By Professor B. 
Silliman. New Haven, 1839. — From the same. 

Catalogus Senatus Academici, in Collegio Yalensi. New Haven, 
1838. — From the same. 

Catalogue of the Library belonging to the Society of Brothers in 
Unity of Yale College. New Haven, 1838. — From the same. 

Catalogue of the Library of the Linonian Society, Yale College. 
New Haven, 1837.— From the same. 

Catalogue of Books in the Library of Yale College. New Haven, 
1823. — From the same. 

A New Dictionary of Medical Science, second edition. By Robley 
Dunglison, M. D. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Author. 

A Manual of Conchology. By Thomas Wyatt, M.A. New York, 
1838. — From the Author. 



110 

Sur la Possibility de Mesurer l'Influence des Causes qui modifient les 
Elemens Sociaux. Par A. Quetelet. Brussels, 1832. — From the 
Author. 

Observations horaires faites au dernier Solstice d'Hiver, 1837. Par 
M. Quetelet. — From the same. 

Note sur le Magnetisme terrestre, suivie des Resultats des Observa- 
tions Meteorologiques horaires faites a Bruxelles a l'Equinoxe 
du Printemps de 1838, et a PEpoque du Solstice d'Ete de 1838. 
Par A. Quetelet. — From the same. 

A Universal History, in Chinese, accompanied by a Map of both He- 
mispheres. By the Rev. Charles Guzlaff. Canton, 1838. — 
From the Author. 

Jahrbucher der Literatur. Vols. 77 to 80 inclusive. Vienna, 1837. 
From Baron von Hammer Purgstall. 

Moral Reflections on the actual Condition of the Animal Kingdom. 
By T. Forster. Brussels, 1839. — From the Author. 

Outlines of Physiology, with an Appendix on Phrenology. Philadel- 
phia, 1839. — From Dr. Dunglison. 

The Colonial Policy of Great Britain. London, 1816. — From Mr. 
John Yaughan. 

Notes on the Medical Topography of the interior of Ceylon. By 
Henry Marshall. London, 1821. — From the same. 

Jay's Treaty, with an Appendix. Philadelphia, 1795. — From the 
same. 

A Practical Treatise on Rail Roads and Carriages. By Thomas 
Tredgold. New York, 1825. — From the same. 

Memoirs of the Rev. David Brainerd, Missionary to the Indians. By 
' S. E. Dwight. New Haven, 1822. — From the same. 

Compendio das Eras da Provincia di Para. Por A. L. M. Baena. 
Para, 1838. — From the Author. 

Magazine of Natural History. Edited by Edward Charlesworth. 
Vol. II. New Series. Nos. 26, 27, 29, and 30. London, 
1838 From the Editor. 

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Edited by Isaac 
Hays, M.D. No. XL VIII, for August. Philadelphia, 1839.— 
From the Editor. 

A communication from the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
was received, under date of the 23d of July, relating to a pro- 



Ill 

posed National Museum in connexion with the Smithsonian 
legacy. Whereupon it was 

Resolved, That the Academy of Natural Sciences be respect- 
fully informed that their communication has been carefully 
considered by the American Philosophical Society, and that 
the Society has to regret that in view of the indirect and unof- 
ficial manner in which the wishes of one of the members of 
the Government at Washington has been conveyed to them, 
respecting the disposition of the Smithsonian legacy, the So- 
ciety does not feel at liberty, at the present time, to take action 
upon this subject. 

A communication from the foreign Secretary of the Royal 
Society of London, in relation to magnetic observations was re- 
ferred to the astronomical committee. 

Dr. Dunglison described the appearances which he had 
witnessed, in company with Professor Silliman, after the tor- 
nado of the 31st ultimo, at New Haven. The evidences appear- 
ed to him to favour the idea of a gyratory motion. The direc- 
tion of the storm was from south-west to north-east. 

Mr. Justice described a similar tornado which had occurred 
on the same day, fifteen miles north of Philadelphia, showing 
evidence, in his opinion, of a similar movement of gyration. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol.1. SEPTEMBER & OCTOBER, 1839. No. 8. 

Stated Meeting, September 20. 
Present, twenty-eight members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

for the library. 

Me moires couronnes par l'Academie Roy ale des Sciences et Belles 

Lettres de Bruxelles. Vol. XIV. Part I. Brussels, 1838 

From the Academy. 

Nouveaux Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles 
Lettres de Bruxelles. Vol. XI. Brussels, 1838. — From the 
same. 

Annuaire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres de 
Bruxelles. Cinquieme Annee. Brussels, 1839. — From the 
same. 

Bulletin de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres de Brux- 
elles. Nos. 9 to 12. Brussels, 1838. — From the same. 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for the 
year 1838. Two parts. London, 1838. — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Nos. 32 to 36 inclu- 
sive, and No. 38.— From the same. 

List of the Council, Scientific Committees, Fellows, and Foreign 
Members, of the Royal Society of London, 1839. — From the 
same. 

Astronomical Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Green- 
wich, in the year 1837. London, 1838. — From the same. 

A 



114 

Appendix to the Greenwich Observations, 1837. London, 1838 

From the same. 

The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. Vol. 
IX. Part II. London, 1839. — From the Society. 

Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Vols. I. 
to IV., inclusive. London, 1818, and Penzance, 1822, 1828, 
and 1832. — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Botanical Society of London. London, 1839. — 
From the Society. 

Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou. No. IV. 
Moscow, 1837. — From the Society. 

Catalogue of the officers and students of the Medical Institute of the 
City of Louisville. Louisville, 1839.— From Dr. C. W. Short. 

Periodical Accounts relating to the Missions of the Church of the 
United Brethren, established among the Heathen. Vol. XIV. 
Nos. 156 to 160 inclusive. London, 1837. — From Mr. James 
J. Barclay. 

The twentieth Report of the Committee of the London Association, in 
aid of the Missions of the United Brethren, commonly called Mo- 
ravians. For the year 1837. London, 1838. — From the same. 

Particulars of recent Intelligence respecting the Missions of the United 
Brethren. Nos. 36 and 37. London, 1837 and 1838.— From 
the same. 

Proceedings of the Church Missionary Society for Africa and the 
East. Thirty-eighth year. London, 1838 — -From the same. 

Thirty-fourth Report of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Lon- 
don, 1838. — From the same. 

Proceedings of the Prayer Book and Homily Society, during its 
twenty-fifth year. London, 1837. — From the same. 

Report of the Proceedings of the Naval and Military Bible Society. 
London, 1838. — From the same. 

Extracts from the Second and Third Reports of the Inspectors of Pri- 
sons for the Home District. Two Vols. London, 1837 and 
1838. — From the same. 

Seventh Annual Report of the Trustees of the New England Institu- 
tion for the Education of the Blind. Boston, 1839. — From Dr. 
Hoive. 

Second Annual Report of the Geological Survey of the State of Ohio. 
By W. W. Mather. Columbus, 1838.— From the Author. 

Documents relating to the Improvement of the Navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi River. New Orleans, 1837. — From Mr. Leicis Troost. 



115 

The Indian Tribes of North America. No. 13. Philadelphia, 1 839. 

From Mr. F. W. Greenough, Publisher. 
Some Account of the Art of Photoginic Drawing. By Henry Fox 

Talbot, Esq. F.R.S. London, 1839.— From the Author. 
Vocabolario Universale della Lingua Italiana. Vol. VI. Part XXXVI. 

Naples, 1839. — From the Chev. Morelli. 
Di Quattordici Vasi d'Argento discotterati in Pompei nel 1835. Dis- 

corso del Cavalier Bernardo Quaranta. Naples, 1837. — From 

Mr. Du Ponceau. 
Di un Vaso Greco Dipinto che si conserva nel Real Museo Borbonico. 

Discorso del Cavalier Bernardo Quaranta. Naples. — From the 

Author. 
Fo'rsok til en Flora Oeconomica Sveciee. Af A. J. Retzius. Two 

Parts. Lund, 1806. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 
Life of Arthur Lee, LL. D. By Richard Henry Lee, A. M. Boston, 

1839. — From the same. 
Rapport fait a l'Academie des Sciences, par M. Arago, sur des Appa- 

reils de Filtrage de M. Henri de Fonvielle. Paris, 1837. — From 

Professor A. D. Bache. 
Statistique de la Peine Capitale en Belgique, en France, en Angleterre 

et en Prusse, par Ed. Ducpetiaux. Brussels. — From the same. 
A Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of New Zealand. 

London, 1820. — From the Ren. J. P. Engles. 
Directions for rightly offering up Secret Prayer. (In Armenian.) — 

From the same. 
Proverbs in Hinduwee. — From the same. 
A Spelling Book written in the Chahta (Choctaw) Language, with an 

English Translation. Cincinnati, 1827. — From the same. 
L'Exercise du Microscope, par Francois Watkins. London, 1754. 

From the same. 
West Port Murders. Report of the Trial of Burke and M'Dougal. 

Edinburgh, 1829. — From the same. 
Bibliotheca Sanscrita. Literatur der Sanskrit Sprache von Fried- 
rich Adelung. St. Petersburg, 1837. — From the Author. 
O Kind ! Die berlihmte ethische Abhandlung Ghasalis. Von Ham- 

mer-Purgstall. (Arabisch und Deutsch.) Vienna, 1838. — From 

the Author. 
Facts and Reasons in support of Mr. Rowland Hill's plan of a Uni- 
versal Penny Postage. By W. H. Ashurst. — From Mr. Wm. 

Brown. 



116 



An Elementary Treatise on the Tides. By J. W. Lubbock, Esq. 
Treas. R. S. etc. London, 1839. — From the Author. 

Note sur lesEtoiles Filantes du 12 Novembre, 1838, par M. A. Que- 
telet. Brussels, 1839. — From the Author. 

Note sur les Tableaux Meteorologiques pour l'Annee 1838, a Bruxel- 
les, par M. A. Quetelet. Brussels. — From the same. 

Experimental Researches in Electricity. By Michael Faraday, 
D. C. L. &c. Fifteenth series, and Index to series I. to XIV. in- 
clusive. London, 1839. — Frojn the Author. 

An Inquiry into the Nature of the Numerical Contractions, found in a 
passage on the Abacus, in some MSS. of the Geometry of Anicius 
Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boetius, and Notes on Early Calen- 
dars. By James O. Halliwell, Esq. London, 1839. — From the 
Author. 

Tracts on Docks and Commerce, with an Introduction, Memoir, and 
Miscellaneous Pieces. By William Vaughan, Esq. F. R. S. Lon- 
don, 1839. — From the Author. 

Narrative of a Journey across the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia 
River. By John R. Townsend. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the 
Author. 

The American Journal of Science and the Arts. Conducted by Ben- 
jamin Silliman, M. D., LL. D., aided by Benjamin Silliman, Jr., 
A.B. Vol. XXVII. No. 1. New Haven, 1839.— From the 
Conductors. 

Professor Bache, on behalf of the Committee appointed on 
the paper of Professor Elias Loomis, of Western Reserve Col- 
lege, Ohio, entitled " Observations to determine the Magnetic 
Dip at various places in Ohio and Michigan/' reported in 
favour of publication, and the Report was adopted. 

The observations recorded in this paper were made with a dipping 
needle by Gambey. The results are contained in the following table. 



Place. 


Laiitude. 


Longitude. 


Date. 


Magnetic Dip. 


Hudson, Ohio, . . . 


410 


15' N. 


81° 


24' W. 


September, 1838. 


72° 


48' .2 


Do. ... 


?> 


» 


>> 


!J 


April, May, 1839. 


72 


46.8 


Cleveland, Ohio, . . 


43 


30 


81 


51 


May, „ 


73 


26.0 


Detroit, Michigan, 


42 


19 


83 


03 


)! » 


73 


42.6 


Ann Arbor, „ 


42 


18 


83 


45 


5) ;> 


73 


13.9 


Ypsilanti, ,, 


42 


14 


83 


38 


j> ?; 


73 


18.0 


Monroe, „ 


41 


55 


83 


28 


?? ?? 


73 


32.3 


Toledo, Ohio, . . . 


41 


41 


83 


33 


J? ?; 


73 


06.1 


Maumee City, Ohio, . 


41 


34 


83 


38 


)> )! 


72 


49.1 


Sandusky, „ 


41 


29 


82 


48 


)> >i 


72 


57.8 



117 

Professor Loomis infers from a comparison of these observations 
with others made in the eastern part of the United States, that the 
lines of equal dip intersect the parallels of latitude, their direction 
being from about N. 82° W. to S. 82° E. 

Dr. Chapman, from the Committee appointed to apply to 
Mrs. Madison, for certain meteorological observations made by 
the late President Madison, reported that a number of docu- 
ments had been received, and presented them to the Society. 
The Secretaries were directed to return thanks to Mrs. Madi- 
son for this donation. 

A necrological notice of the late Bishop White, prepared in 
pursuance of the request of the Society, by Bishop De Lancey, 
was read. 

Dr. Chapman announced the death of Matthew Carey, of 
Philadelphia, a member of the Society, and Mr. Lea was re- 
quested to prepare an obituary notice of the deceased. 

Dr. Bache announced the decease of Dr. Robert Perceval, of 
Dublin, a member of the Society. 

The Librarian of the Society was authorized to furnish to 
the family of the late Dr. Bowditch, to be placed in the library 
of the deceased, any volumes of the Transactions which may 
be deficient in the set belonging to Dr. Bowditch, and the 
future volumes, so long as the library shall be kept open for 
public use. 

Dr. Hays presented a table, compiled by him, of the pecu- 
liarities in various cases of individuals not able properly to dis- 
tinguish colours. Mr. Kane added the comparisons which he 
had made, in the case of a friend, with the specimens named 
by Dr. Dalton, of Manchester, in the possession of Professor 
Bache. 

Professor Bache made a verbal communication of the mea- 
sures taken by the British government, on the recommenda- 
tion of the British Association, and under the advice of the 
Ro} r al Society, for obtaining a series of magnetic observations 
in different quarters of the globe, in conjunction with a naval 
expedition in the southern hemisphere, under the command 
of Capt. James Clark Ross, and read extracts from letters of 



118 

Professor Lloyd and Major Sabine, relating to the preparation 
for the undertaking. 

Professor Bache further stated, that on submitting the circular ad- 
dressed to him by the Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, with 
extracts from the letters before referred to, and other information as 
to the nature and importance of the results to be obtained by this 
combined system of magnetic observations, to the Building Com- 
mittee of the Girard College, through their Architect, they had, with 
creditable liberality, given orders for the erection of an observatory 
suited to the observations contemplated, and to the instruments already 
in the possession of the Trustees of the College. 

Professor Bache submitted the plans of the observatory, drawn by 
Thos. U. Walter, Esq. Architect. 

Mr. Justice made some remarks in continuation of those 
offered at the last meeting of the Society, in support of his 
opinion of a gyratory motion in the tornado of the 31st July, 
the destructive effects of which were felt about seventeen miles 
north of Philadelphia. 



Stated Meeting, October 4. 
Present, twenty-one members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences Morales et Politiques de 
l'Institut de France. Vol. II. Second series. Paris, 1839. — 
From the Academy. 

Institut Royal de France. Seance Publique Annuelle des Cinq Aca- 
demies, 1839. Paris, 1839.— From Mr. D. B. Warden. 

Institut Royal de France. Seance Publique Annuelle de l'Academie 
des Sciences Morales et Politiques, 1839. Paris, 1839. — From 
the same. 

Recueil de Voyages et de Memoires publie par la Societe de Geogra- 
phic. Vol. IV. Paris, 1839.— From the Society. 



119 

Transactions of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manu- 
factures, and Commerce, for the Session 1831-32. Vol. XLIX. 
Part I. London, 1832. — From the Society. 

The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Vol. XVII. 
Part IV., and Vol. XVIII., part II. London, 1837 and 1839.— 
From the Society. 

List of the Linnean Society of London, 1839. London, 1839 — From 
the same. 

Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London. Second series. 
Vol. II. Part III. and IV. London. — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Horticultural Society of London. Nos. 1 to 6 in- 
clusive. London 1838 and 1839. — From the same. 

Proceedings of the Committee of Commerce and Agriculture of the 
Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. London, 
1839 — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part VI. London, 
1838. — From the Society. 

Reports of the Council and Auditors of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don, 1839. London, 1839. — From the same. 

Histoire du Regiment de Champagne, par Roux de Rochelle. Paris, 
1839. — From the Author. 

Elements of Geology, by Charles Lyell, F.R.S. First American from 
the first London edition. Philadelphia, 1839. — From James Kay, 
Jr. and Brother. 

A Bengalee Almanac. — From the Rev. J. P. Engles. 

Maps to illustrate the Easy Introduction to Astronomy in Hindustani. 
From the same. 

Assolements et Culture des Plantes de 1' Alsace, par J. N. Schwerz. 
Traduit de PAllemand etannote par Victor Rendu. Paris, 1839. 
From Mr. D. B. Warden. 

L'Art de verifier les Dates, depuis lAnnee 1770, jusqu'a nos jours. 
Vol. XVII. (Vol. IX. of the series relating to America.) Paris, 
1837. — From the same. 

Fragments sur l'Histoire Politique et Litteraire de l'ancienne Repub- 
lique de Raguse et sur la Langue Slave. Par le Comte Due de 
Sorgo. Paris, 1839. — From the same. 

Chemical Diagrams, or Concise Views of many interesting Changes 
produced by Chemical Affinity. By Jacob Green, M. D. Phila- 
delphia, 1837. — From the Author. 



120 

Remarks on the Trilobite, and Description of a New Trilobite. By- 
Jacob Green, M.D. New Haven, 1839. — From the same. 

London Catalogues of Books for 1839. Two Vols. — From Mr. Ed- 
ward D. Ingraham. 

Popular Lectures on Geology, by R. C. Von Leonhard. Translated 
by the Rev. J. G. Morris, A.M., and edited by Professor F. Hall, 
M.D. Baltimore, 1839.-— From the Editor. 

The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge, for the 
year 1840. Boston, 1839. — From the Editor. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A specimen of Iron Ore from the Island of Cuba. — From Mr. R. C. 
Taylor. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Dunglison, Mr. Kane, and 
Mr. Lea, to whom were referred a letter of the Rev. Charles 
Gutzlaff to John Vaughan, Esq. dated Macao, January 2, 1839, 
and the letter of Peter S. Du Ponceau, Esq. to the same gen- 
tleman, dated Philadelphia, September 20, 1839, made their 
report, which was read and accepted. 

The communication of Mr. Gutzlaff was suggested by the disserta- 
tion of Mr. Du Ponceau, " On the nature and character of the Chinese 
system of writing." As the results of his reflection and observation, 
Mr. Gutzlaff affirms, that China was the great centre of civilization, 
whence it diverged to all the countries of Eastern and Southern Asia ; 
the colonists from China driving the autochthonous tribes into the 
mountains, and incorporating the country itself, including Tunkin and 
Annam, with the central kingdom. A constant influx of Chinese also 
took place into Korea, but the emigration to Japan and the Loo Choo 
Islands was less extensive. 

Chinese words, and the Chinese art of writing, were thus introduced 
into these countries: Chinese books became their literature; and, like 
the Latin in the middle ages, the Chinese was the language of the 
learned. Yet all the nations that have adopted the Chinese mode of 
writing, speak a language more or less distinct from the written idiom. 
The different nations, too, who employ the Chinese characters, call 
them differently, using their own language to designate them, and 
they, as well as the Chinese themselves, have to learn the meaning of 
the characters from teachers, who explain them in the dialect spoken 
amongst the people. The dialects spoken by the different nations, 



121 

who use the Chinese character, are very distinct from the language of 
China proper. The Koreans and Japanese, whilst they transact all 
important business in the Chinese character, have a syllabary with 
which they write their own language. The Cochin Chinese occa- 
sionally use the Chinese in a contracted form, without any reference 
to its meaning, to express sound, but they have no syllabary. 

It is not strictly true that sound is not inherent in the Chinese cha- 
racter. A majority of the signs are not pronounced by the Chinese 
at random, nor do the nations abandon all analogy in reading them, 
although they vary much. Mr. Gutzlaff has been struck with the 
ease with which communication may be held with the Cochin Chinese, 
Japanese and Koreans, by means of the Chinese character, even 
without comprehending a word of their idiom. This, he says, does 
not refer to the learned classes only, but to the very fishermen and 
peasants, with some exceptions only. In the Loo Choo Islands, men of 
distinction talk Chinese with great fluency, but the mass of the people 
speak a dialect of the Japanese, and employ the Chinese character as 
well as the Japanese syllabary. Mr. Gutzlaff considers it certain, that 
the nations who have adopted the Chinese character, attach the same 
meaning to it as the natives from whom it was originally derived, and 
that its construction is likewise retained with scarcely any alterations. 

The communication of Mr. Du Ponceau, is a rejoinder to that of 
Mr. Gutzlaff. Mr. Du Ponceau repeatedly combats the notion enter- 
tained by some, that the superiority of the Chinese alphabet is such, 
that it forms a kind of pasigraphic system, which may be adapted to 
every language. He admits, to a certain extent, what he was dis- 
posed at one time to doubt, that the Chinese characters do actually 
serve as a means of communication between different nations, who can 
neither speak nor understand each other's oral language, and he inves- 
tigates, at some length, the causes by which this effect is induced ; 
but he expresses himself at a loss to understand how the fishermen 
and peasants of Japan, Korea and Cochin China, " with only some ex- 
ceptions," can be readily communicated with by means of Chinese 
characters, even by a person who does not understand a single word 
of their spoken language. The remark of Mr. Gutzlaff, he conceives, 
cannot be meant to imply that all, or nearly all the fishermen and 
peasants of the countries referred to, can read and write the Chinese ; 
for, on the authority of Mr. Medhurst, there are villages, even on the 
coast of China, where few, if any, of the inhabitants can either read 
or write. If, however, the assertion of Mr. Gutzlaff be assumed to 

B 



122 

be rigorously accurate, it will have to be explained by the circum- 
stance, that as the Chinese is esteemed a universal medium of commu- 
nication between the people referred to, it is more extensively taught 
amongst them than even amongst the Chinese themselves. 

Mr. Du Ponceau enters, at some length, into the nature of the four 
languages, or classes of languages which are embraced in the commu- 
nication of Mr. GutzlafF. 1. Of the various dialects of the Chinese. 
2. Of the Annamitic languages. 3. Of the languages of Japan and 
the Loochoo Islands ; and 4. Of the Korean; the two first of which 
are monosyllabic, the two last polysyllabic; and from all the facts and 
reflections, he concludes, that the circumstance of the Chinese cha- 
racters being understood so extensively amongst these people, is not 
owing to any thing inherent in the Chinese characters, in their shape 
or greater perspicuity, but to their connexion with the languages from 
which they were formed, and to the mode in which they have been 
adapted to them. The vernacular languages of Japan, the Loochoo 
Islands, and Korea, are so different from the Chinese, that it was found 
impossible to apply to them the Chinese system of writing; conse- 
quently, when the people of these countries read the Chinese charac- 
ters, they do not read them in their native language, but in the Chi- 
nese, which they have acquired, but pronounce differently from the 
Chinese themselves. This is not the case with the people of Tunkin 
and Cochin China — the Annamites ; their language or languages being 
formed on the model of that of China, with some variations, which 
they learn, in their schools, to correct, and to employ the proper cha- 
racters as a superior orthography, by which they are enabled to read 
the Chinese as well as their own language. 

The Committee recommended that the interesting commu- 
nications of Mr. GutzlafF and Mr. Du Ponceau, tending as they 
do, to elucidate a contested topic of Oriental Philology, be pub- 
lished in the transactions of the Society. 

Dr. Hare made a verbal communication on the subject of 
tornadoes, and on his electrical theory of their formation, sup- 
porting his views by reading an extract from a Memoir by M. 
Peltier, describing a destructive tornado which occurred near 
Paris, in June last. 

Dr. Hare stated that agreeably to a publication in the Journal des 
Debats for the 19th of July, some losers by this tornado having effect- 
ed insurance against damage from thunder gusts, applied to the insurers 



123 

for indemnity, which was refused, upon the plea that a tornado was 
not a thunder gust (orage). The question having heen submitted to 
Arago, it was by him referred to Peltier. 

Peltier, after due investigation, came to the conclusion that a tor- 
nado is a modification of the thunder gust, in which, in lieu of passing 
in the form of lightning, electricity passes through a cloud, acting as 
a conductor between the terrestrial surface and the sky. It will be 
perceived that this view of the subject differs but little from that 
which, in a memoir in the transactions of the Society, had been pre- 
sented by Dr. Hare, in the following language: — " A tornado is the 
effect of an electrified blast of air, superseding the more usual means 
of discharge between the earth and clouds, in the sparks and flashes 
which we call lightning. I conceive that the effect of such a current 
would be to counteract, within its sphere, the pressure of the atmos- 
phere, and thus to enable this fluid, in obedience to its elasticity, to 
rush into the rarer medium above." 

Dr. Hare went on to say, that the only difference arises from the 
omission of the Parisian philosopher to call in the electricity of the air 
in aid of the electrical forces, and his assigning to a cloud the agency 
which Dr. Hare had attributed to a vertical blast of electrified air, min- 
gled with every species of moveable matter coming within the grasp 
of the meteor; and that it would seem, from a subsequent communi- 
cation made by Peltier to the Institute, that he had so entirely misap- 
prehended Dr. Hare's theory, as to ascribe to it deficiencies for which 
it was not amenable, but which had existed in his own explanation, as 
stated in his report. 

The fault of Dr. Hare's explanation was, according to him, " en 
ne tenant pas compte des forces nouvelles que la premiere, (that is 
to say, the electric attraction,) acquiert par le mouvement gyratoire 
qui accompagne souvent la coulonne de nuages et d^eau qu'on ap- 
pelle trombeP 

As the most appropriate refutation of this mistatement, Dr. Hare 
stated that he would quote a paragraph from his Memoir. 

" When once a vertical current is established, and a vortex pro- 
duced, I conceive that it may continue after the exciting cause may 
have ceased. 

" The effect of a vortex in protecting a space about which it is 
formed, from the pressure of the fluid in which it has been induced, 
must be familiar to every observer. In fact, Franklin ascribed the 
water spout to a whirlwind. 



124 

" His hypothesis was, I conceive, unsatisfactory, because it did 
not assign any cause for the concentration of the wind, or for the 
hiatus presumed to he the cause. This deficiency is supplied, if my 
suggestions he correct.'''' 

On reading this passage, after previously hearing or reading the 
allegation above quoted, that Dr. Hare's hypothesis was defective 
in not appealing to a gyratory movement, it was presumed that it 
would be perfectly evident to every one, that, from ignorance of Eng- 
lish, or inattention, Mr. Peltier's statement was the reverse of the re- 
ality. 

In proof of a gyratory force having been exercised during the New 
Brunswick tornado, Dr. Hare referred to his having, in his Memoir, 
cited the case of a chimney, of which the upper portion had been so 
twisted upon the lower portion, as to have its corners projecting 
over the sides of the latter ; but he had now taken a different view of 
that fact, which had since struck him as being of much higher impor- 
tance than he had formerly considered it. 

During an examination of the track of the tornado which lately 
ravaged the suburbs of New Haven, Dr. Hare had been led to infer 
that the electrical discharge is concentrated upon particular bodies, 
according to their character, or the conducting nature of the soil; so 
that the vertical force arising from electrical reaction, and the elasti- 
city of the air, acts upon them with peculiar force. Hence, while 
some trees were borne aloft, others, which were situated very near 
them, on either side, remained rooted in the soil. In two instances 
at New Haven, wagons were especially the victims of the electro- 
aerial conflict. In the case of one of these, the axletree was broken, 
and while one wheel was carried into an adjoining field, the other 
was driven with so much force against the weather-boarding of a 
barn, as to leave both a mark of the projecting hub, and of the greater 
portion of the periphery. The plates of the elliptical springs were se- 
parated from each other. During the tornado at New Brunswick, 
the injury done to some wagons in the shop of a coach-maker, ap- 
peared, at the time, inexplicable. Tt was now inferred, that the four 
iron wheel tires, caused, by their immense conducting power, a con- 
fluence of the electric fluid, producing a transient explosive rarefaction, 
and a subsequent afflux of air with a local gyration of extreme vio- 
lence. 

It may be reasonably surmised, that the excessive injury done to 
trees results, not from the general whirl, but from a local gyration to 



125 

which they are subjected, in consequence of the multiplicity of points 
which their twigs and leaves furnish for the emission of the electrical 
fluid. The fact that the leaves of trees thus injured, appear after- 
wards as if they had beeen partially scorched, seems to countenance 
this idea. The twisting of the chimney at New Brunswick, as above 
mentioned, seems difficult to explain, agreeably to the idea of a gene- 
ral whirl throughout the' whole area of the tornado track. The 
chances are infinitely against any chimney having its axis to coincide 
with that of a great whirlwind, forming a tornado; and it must be 
evident, that in any other position, it could only be subjected to the 
rotary force on one side at a time. But if this were adequate to twist 
the upper upon the residual portion, the former would necessarily be 
overthrown. Evidently, it could not be left, as was the chimney 
which called forth these remarks. 

During the tornado at New Haven, chimneys seemed to be espe- 
cially affected. One, after being lifted, was allowed to fall upon a 
portion of the roof of the house to which it belonged, at a distance from 
its previous situation too great to have been reached, had it been 
merely overthrown. In the case of a church which was demolished, 
a portion of the chimney was carried to a distance greater than it 
could have reached without being lifted by a vertical force. 

It appeared quite consistent that chimneys should be particularly 
assailed, since that rarefaction, which, by operating upon the roofs of 
houses, carries them away, must previously cause a great rush of 
air through the chimney flues. But this concentration of the air must 
tend to facilitate the " convective"* discharge in that direction ; since 
an electrical discharge by a blast of air, is always promoted by any 
mechanical peculiarities favouring an aerial current, or jet. 

That during a recent tornado in France, articles were carried from 
the inside of a locked chamber to a distance without, when no opening 
existed besides that afforded by a chimney, seemed to justify the sug- 
gestion that there must be a great rush of air through such openings.! 

* A "convective" discharge, or a discharge by "convection," in the very 
appropriate language of the celebrated Faraday, is a process by which electri- 
city is conveyed by the transfer of electrified bodies from one excited surface 
to another in an opposite state. This is conceived to be a good definition of 
the discharge which produces a tornado. 

t Dr. Hare did not conceive it proper to trespass upon the time of the So- 
ciety, to make any allusion to that part of his Memoir, in which the three 
enormous concentric spaces occupied by the earth, the denser non-conducting 
atmosphere, and the rare conducting medium beyond the denser atmosphere, 



126 

Dr. Hare also made some remarks on the aurora which oc- 
curred on the third of September, in which he suggested that 
the electric fluid, producing the phenomena then observed, 
might have been derived from remote parts of space. 



Stated Meeting, October 18. 
Present, thirty-one members. 
Mr. Du Ponceatj, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Nova Acta Regime Societatis Scientiamm Upsaliensis. Vol. X. Up- 
sala, 1832. — From the Society. 

Memoires publies par la Societe Royale et Centrale d'Agriculture. 
Annee, 1838. Paris, 1838.— From Mr. D. B. Warden. 

Extraits des Proces-Verbaux de la Societe Philomathique de Paris, 
1836, 1837, 1838.— From the same. 

Academie Royale des Sciences de Turin. Classe des Sciences Phy- 
sique et Mathematiques. Question de Physique, pour l'annee 
1841. Turin, 1839. — From the Academy. 

Triennial Catalogue of the Theological Seminary, Andover, Massa- 
chusetts. Andover, 1839. — From the Rev. Oliver A. Taylor. 

Report on the Magnetic Isoclinal and Isodynamic Lines in the Bri- 
tish Islands. By Major Edward Sabine, R. A. F. R. S. London, 
1839. — From the Author. 

Allgemeines Bibligraphisch.es Lexikon. Von Friedrich Adolf Ebert. 
Leipsic, 1821. — From Mr. John Penington. 

are represented as competent to perform a most important part in the produc- 
tion of electrical storms ; nor did he feel at liberty to make any remarks in 
support of an opinion which he had recently formed, that a hurricane is a gi- 
gantic tornado. Neither had he time to cite the evidence furnished by Reid's 
work upon storms, in favour of a local force or gyration, like that of which he 
had seen proofs, arising from the New Haven tornado. 



127 

A System of Anatomy for the Use of Students of Medicine. By 

Caspar Wistar, M. D. With Notes and Additions by William E. 

Horner, M. D. Seventh Edition. By J. Pancoast, M. D. Two 

Vols. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Editor, 
A Sketch of Chinese History, Ancient and Modern. By the Rev. 

Charles Gutzlaff. Two Vols. New York, 1834.— From Mr. 

John Vaughan. 
Catalogue of the Library of the Theological Seminary in Andover, 

Massachusetts. By Oliver A. Taylor, M. A. Andover, 1838. — 

From the Trustees of the Seminary. 
Rapport sur les travaux dans la vue de determiner la marche du temps 

dans les principales localites du Royaume de Belgique, par A. 

Quetelet, Directeur de l'Observatoire de Bruxelles. Brussels, 

1839. — From the Author. 
Synopsis Reptilium Sardinian Indigenorum. Auctore Josepho Gene. 

Turin, 1839. — From the Author. 
Osservazioni Mineralogiche e Geologiche per servire alia Formazione 
della Carta Geologica del Piemonte di Angelo Sismonda. Turin, 
1839— From Prof. A. D. Bache. 
Historical Account of Massachusetts Currency. By Joseph B. Felt. 

Boston, 1839. — From Mr. T. L. Winthrop. 
Institut Royal cle France. Funerailles de M. Langlois. Discours de 

M. Le Bas. Paris, 1839.— From Mr. D. B. Warden. 
Institut Royal de France. Academie Francaise. Translation des 

Restes de la Harpe. Discours de M. Tissot. Paris, 1839. — 

From the same. 
L'Echo du Monde Savant. Nos. 450 and 451. Paris, 1839.— 

From the same. 
Description d'un Colorimetre a Double Lunette, par M. Collardeau. 

Paris, 1839. — From the same. 
Discours de M. le Baron Thenard, a l'occasion des recompenses de- 

cernees le 28 Juillet, 1839. Paris, 1839. — From the same. 
Description d'un nouveau Procede pour prevenir les Explosions des 

Chaudieres a Vapeur. Par M. Felix Passot. Paris. — From the 

same. 
Filiations Publiques. Reponse aux Detractcurs du Systemc Fon- 

vielle. Paris, 1839. — From the same. 
Notice sur les Embaumements, procedes de M. Gannal. Paris. — 

From the same. 
Osteographie ou Description Iconographiquc Comparee du Squelette ct 



128 

du Systeme Dentaire des cinq Classes d'Animaux vertebres recents 
et fossiles. Par M. H. M. Ducrotay de Blainville. (Prospectus.) 
Paris, 1839. — From the same. 

Note sur l'Origine de nos Chiffres et sur 1' Abacus des Pythagoriciens. 
Par. A. J. H. Vincent. Paris. — From the same. 

Compte Rendu des travaux de la Societe Royale et Centrale d' Agri- 
culture. Annee 1837-38. Par M. Soulange Bodin. Paris, 1838. 
From the same. 

Histoire de l'Jntroduction et de la Propagation des Merinos en France ; 
ouvrage posthume de M. Tessier. Paris, 1839. — From the same. 

Question des Sucres. Nouvelles Considerations. Par C. J. A. Ma- 
thieu de Dombasle. Paris, 1838. — From the same. 

Societe Royale et centrale d'Agriculture. Rapport sur le Concours 
pour les Ouvrages, Memoires et Observations de Medecine Vete- 
rinaire pratiques. M. Girard, rapporteur. Paris. — From the same. 

Pamphlets relating to Agriculture and on Miscellaneous Subjects, (in 
French and English.) Paris. — From the same. 

The National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans. Part 
XLII. Biography of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Philadelphia, 
1839. — From the Author. 

Third Specimen of a New Method of Printing Music for the Blind, in- 
vented by M. Snider. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Inventor. 

Legenda Svecana Vetusta S. Magni Comitis Orcadensium. Upsala. 
From President John Henry Schroder. 

Numi Ducum Reipublicae Venetae in Numophylacio Academico Up- 
saliensi. Upsala. — From the same. 

Mahmud Schebisteri's Rosenflor des Geheimnisses. Persisch und 
Deutsch. Von Hammer-Purgstall. Pest, 1838. — From the 
Author. 

Hindustani Atlas. — From the Rev. J. P. Engles. 

Biblical Apparatus, in four Parts : Designed to Assist in the Correc- 
tion of Present, and the Preparation of Future Versions of the 
Sacred Scriptures. By the Rev. W. Yates. (Prospectus.) Cal- 
cutta, 1837. — From the same. 

Jahrbiicher der Literatur. Nos. 81 to 84, inclusive. Vienna, 1838. — 
From Baron Von Hammer-Purgstall. 

Chinese Magazine. Edited by the Rev. Charles Gutzlaff. (Chinese.) 
Nos. 6 to 9, inclusive. — From the Editor. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. By Robley Dungli- 
son, M.D. Nos. 11 to 14 Philadelphia, 1839.— From the Editor. 



129 

Specimen of the Transfer Process invented by Joseph Dixon of Taun- 
ton, Massachusetts. Boston, 1839. — From the Author. 

Mr. S. C. Walker, in behalf of the Committee on the paper 
entitled, "Astronomical Observations made at Hudson Obser- 
vatory, &c. by Elias Loomis, Professor of Nat. Philos., &c. in 
the Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio," made the fol- 
lowing report: — 

The memoir of Prof. Loomis contains a description of the Hudson 
Observatory, erected at the expense of the Western Reserve College, 
at Hudson, Ohio. The building consists of a central portion, fifteen 
feet square upon the inside. From a circular platform of ten feet 
diameter, rise twelve small cherry columns, that sustain a hemis- 
pheric dome of nine feet internal diameter, covering a five and a half 
feet equatorial of 3.8 inches aperture, by Simms. The dome rotates 
on ten lignumvitse wheels of five inches diameter. The equatorial 
rests on an insulated pier, descending six feet below the surface of the 
ground, and rising three feet above the platform, which is, itself, 
about six feet above the surface of the ground. 

The eastern wing is ten feet by twelve, and seven and a half feet 
high, and covers a Simms' transit circle of eighteen inches diameter, 
graduated on platinum to 5', and reading to single seconds by three 
Troughton's microscopes. The telescope has a focal length of thirty 
inches and an aperture of 2.7 inches. The transit circle, and a 
clock by Molyneux are each mounted on separate insulated piers. 
The western wing contains no instruments; but serves for a lodging- 
room, computing-room, &c. 

Prof. Loomis gives the following results for the latitude of the Hud- 
son Observatory. 



By u. c Polaris, 



Aug. 8, Latitude 41 14 39.8 

10, 36.7 

13, 36.8 

14, 37.8 

15, 40.8 
17, 36.6 



mean 41 14 38.1 



130 



By u. c J" ursse minoris, Aug. 13, Latitude 41 14 35.1 

„ 17, 36.2 



mean 41 14 35.7 



From which he concludes that the latitude is 41° 14' 37." nearly. 
The paper contains a series of fifty moon culminations, one eclipse, 
and six occultations, observed in 1838 and 1839. These furnish 
data for determining the longitude of the Hudson Observatory when 
corresponding European and American observations shall have been 
obtained. Prof. Loomis gives for the approximate longitude bh 25m 
4.2s. It may be proper to add, that one of the undersigned, S. C. 
Walker, having reduced the six occultations contained in this paper, 
and compared them with four corresponding observations at the 
Philadelphia Observatory, four at the Dorchester Observatory, two 
at Mr. Paine's House, Boston, and one at Princeton College, New 
Jersey, finds for the longitude of the Hudson Observatory, 5h 25m 47s. 
The instruments for this observatory were selected by Professor 
Loomis during his late journey in Europe. This economical estab- 
lishment appears to be more complete than any of the kind now 
known to be in operation in the United States, and the Committee 
cordially recommend the example of the Western Reserve College, 
as worthy of being followed by those Universities which are desirous, 
at moderate expense, of inculcating practical astronomy, of making 
observations highly useful for geographical purposes, and of prose- 
cuting interesting researches connected with the progress and advance- 
ment of astronomy. 

The Committee recommend the paper for publication. 

Seaks C. Walker, 
R. M. Patterson, 
Geo. M. Justice, 

Committee. 

The recommendation in favour of publication, was adopted. 

Dr. Bache, on behalf of the Committee on Dr. Hare's paper, 
entitled "On the extrication of Barium, Strontium and Cal- 
cium," reported in favour of publication in the Society's 
Transactions, which was ordered accordingly. 

In this paper Dr. Hai*e first calls attention to the following pheno- 
menon observed by him almost twelve years since, and published. 



131 

When the circuit in a galvanic battery, the deflagrator of the author, 
was completed through a saturated solution of chloride of calcium, 
the anode being formed by a coarse, and the cathode by a fine plati- 
num wire, the latter was rapidly fused, while, when the situation of 
the wires was reversed, the ignition was comparatively feeble. It 
having occurred, some months since, to Dr. Hare, that this phenome- 
non might be <lue to the evolution and combustion of calcium at the 
cathode, he proceeded to apply a galvanic deflagrator of three hun- 
dred and fifty pairs of plates, in the process of Berzelius and Pontin, 
for preparing the amalgams of the metallic radicals of the earths. 
The author gives a sketch of the present state of our knowledge in 
relation to the metallic bases of the alkaline earths, as derived from 
the experiments of Davy ; adding his own observations, in confirmation 
of the declaration of Davy, that the substances obtained by him from 
baryta and strontia, were amalgams of their metallic bases, and not the 
bases themselves; and, further, that the process employed for obtain- 
ing calcium, by Davy, was really incompetent to effect the desired 
result. He then proceeds to describe the peculiar apparatus by which 
amalgams of barium, strontium and calcium were procured; the 
chlorides of the respective alkaline radicals being exposed to galvanic 
action, the cathode being mercury, and the anode a coil of platinum 
wire. The details of the apparatus cannot be properly understood 
without the figure which accompanies Dr. Hare's communication : its 
chief peculiarities are the following: 1st. It furnishes the means of 
keeping the mercury, forming the cathode, at a temperature nearly as 
low as 32° Fah. 2d. It prevents exposure of the amalgam of the 
radical, to the direct action of the chlorine from the chloride used. 
3d. The alternate and successive, or the simultaneous action of two 
galvanic deflagrators, was conveniently obtained. 

Dr. Hare states, that after operating with a series of two hundred 
pairs of plates of one hundred square inches each, for twenty minutes, 
unaided by these improvements, he had found the proportion of cal- 
cium to be but one six-hundredth part of the amalgamated mass. 

An apparatus for distilling the amalgam is also described and 
figured in Dr. Hare's memoir. It consists of an iron alembic, con- 
nected with a glass receiver, and an adopter communicating with a 
reservoir of hydrogen, and containing chloride of calcium and quick- 
lime. Within the alembic, an iron crucible, containing the amalgam, 
was placed, the crucible being closed by a capsule, in which was a 
portion of caoutchoucine, and by its cover. Naphtha was poured into 



132 

the alembic. The air from the apparatus was expelled by hydrogen, 
desiccated by passing through the chloride of calcium and quick-lime 
in the adopter. The distillation was conducted by applying heat 
principally to the upper part of the amalgam, to prevent an explosive 
ebullition. The mercury being distilled off, which requires a bright 
red heat in expelling the last portions, the metallic radical remained 
in the crucible. 

The metals oxidize rapidly in water; are brittle, fixed, and require 
a good red heat for fusion. They sink in sulphuric acid. By keeping 
in naphtha, they "acquire a coating which renders them less active when 
exposed to water. 

Dr. Hare attempted to separate the mercury from the amalgams 
when solidified by the use of solid carbonic acid, by straining them 
through leather, but the result did not answer his expectations. 

By using solid carbonic acid and hydric (sulphuric) ether, Dr. 
Hare solidified a mass of the amalgam of ammonium. He considers 
that in this case a portion of ether combines with the alloy, without 
impairing its metallic character. 

Professor Bache, Reporter, informed the Society, that No. 7 
of the Society's Proceedings, was now printed. 

Professor Bache, in behalf of Professor Alexander, of Prince- 
ton, made a verbal communication of a description of the aurora 
borealis, of September 3d, 1839, as it appeared at Princeton. 

At about ten or fifteen minutes past eight, P. M. an ill-defined, but 
considerably bright light was seen to extend for some distance above 
the horizon, in a direction nearly due east; it was similar, in intensity 
and appearance, to a lunar twilight. Soon after this, a continuous 
arch or zone of light was manifest, extending from the same spot to 
the opposite, or nearly opposite portion of the western horizon. This 
soon separated into two parts,* and, after a short interval, beams of 
light shot up from the eastern portion of the arch, which were speedily 
multiplied in every direction around the observer, except within about 
thirty degrees of the true (or, it might be, magnetic) south. 

A corona was soon formed, which was at first quite indistinct, and 
was not continuous for any great length of time, during the existence 

*Two arches, it is believed, were at this time formed, and either separated 
throughout their entire extent, or united only near their extremities; but this 
my notes do not explicitly state. 



133 

of the aurora, except at the period of its greatest brilliancy. At about 
twenty minutes past eight, this corona was situated in a line with, and 
about midway between a Aquilse and a. Lyras. This may be considered 
as a very tolerable approximation to its position, though, from the 
apparent intersection, or, as it might almost be termed, interweav- 
ing of the beams which "composed it, it was not often easy to fix upon 
the place of its centre with much precision, if indeed that which seemed 
its centre, did not really change its place ; since, at times, it seemed 
to occupy a position very sensibly lower than that which the pre- 
ceding observation would indicate. 

At about half past eight, the appearance of the aurora was superb. 
The radiations which extended from the corona, nearly reached the 
horizon in every direction, with the exception of those which tended 
toward the southern space beforementioned, which, it is believed, was 
even at this time bounded by something like an arch, that was convex 
toward the zenith. The aurora was often party-coloured ; frequently 
of a rose-red, especially in spots, in that portion of the sky which might 
be supposed to be near the plane of the dipping needle ; and also about 
the centre of the corona. It was in the part of the heavens here de- 
scribed, that the arch of greatest intensity could most commonly, if 
not uniformly, be traced : though the crown of it frequently faded 
away, or became excessively faint. 

Between the spots, of red light, or beams of the same tint, others 
were observed, which, either from the effect of the first mentioned 
colour, or something peculiar to themselves, appeared of a colour ap- 
proaching to a bottle-green. 

At times, again, when the corona was deficient, the appearance of 
what remained on each side of the vacant spot, was not unlike that of 
two immense comets ; their heads some small distance asunder, and 
their tails turned eastward and westward. 

The light of the corona, Avhen most perfect, was quite dense, not 
only at the central point, but also near to what seemed to be the outer 
limits of its radiations, at which the tint commonly exhibited the 
nearest approach to white. 

Two meteors or shooting stars were seen, which in both cases 
appeared to pass between the aurora and the eye of the observer; 
one nearly in the direction of the arch of greatest intensity, and the 
other almost perpendicular to it. The precise times of their appear- 
ance were not noted, though they fell within that period in which the 
phenomena already described were exhibited. 



134 

The corona formed again at nine ; and, though again broken, was 
imperfectly visible after that time. 

At half past nine, the eastern portion of the sky became tinted with 
intense red and green ; but at half past ten, little else remained than 
the appearance of bright horizontal beams of a white colour in the 
north. 

If it be admitted that the centre of the aurora was precisely midway 
between a. Aquilse and a, Lyrse, at twenty minutes past eight, its azi- 
muth must have been 1° 14' 42" E. of S., and its altitude 73° 27' 6"; 
the latitude of the observer being 40° 20' 47" N. The point thus 
designated, would be very nearly in the direction of the dipping 
needle; the dip being, by observation, 72° 47' 6" (72° 47.1') and 
the variation (though not accurately determined,) some 4° W. or 
that of the S. end of the needle, of course, the same extent to the east. 
The degrees of azimuth, reckoned on a parallel to the horizon at an 
altitude of 72° and more, being small, the deviation from the direc- 
tion of the dipping needle, measured on the arc of a great circle, would 
be scarcely more than 1° towards the N. W. 

Professor Bache stated that his own observations near Philadelphia, 
of the altitude of the apparent converging point of the auroral beams, 
at nine, P. M. made it but about 69°. He had witnessed a case of 
the appearance of a dark spot of irregular shape, between two beams 
of light, which was certainly not a cloud, as the stars were not at all 
obscured by it, and which he' supposed to be the phenomenon referred 
to recently by Professor Lloyd. No mottled clouds, such as usually 
attend the aurora, were visible during the period between nine and 
ten o'clock, when he had been able to observe. Professor Bache 
stated that he did not place much stress upon his measurements, as 
he had been prevented from sustained observation by indisposition. 
There had been, in the newspapers, an account of an auroral display 
visible at London, on the morning of the fourth of September, at 
about the same absolute time as at Princeton, according to Professor 
Alexander's observations. It was said to have been accompanied by 
a very unusual number of shooting stars, compared in one statement 
to the splendid display of November 13th, 1833. 

Professor Henry had examined the light of this aurora by the 
polariscopes of Savart and Arago, but had not been able to detect 
the slightest trace of polarization. 

The following extract from a letter, addressed by Professor 
Henry, of Princeton, to Professor Bache, was read, announc- 



135 

ing the discovery of two distinct kinds of dynamic induction^ 
by a galvanic current. 

" Since the publication of my last paper, I have received through 
the kindness of Dr. Faraday, a copy of his fourteenth series of expe- 
rimental researches ; and in this I was surprised to find a statement 
directly in opposition to one of the principal results given in my paper. 
It is stated in substance, in the 59th paragraph of my last communi- 
cation to the American Philosophical Society, that when a plate of 
metal is interposed between a galvanic current and a conductor, the 
secondary shock is neutralized. Dr. Faraday finds, on the contrary, 
under apparently the same circumstances, that no effect is produced 
by the interposition of the metal. As the fact mentioned forms a very 
important part of my paper, and is connected with nearly all the phe- 
nomena described subsequently to it, I was anxious to investigate the 
cause of the discrepancy between the results obtained by Dr. Faraday 
and those found by myself. My experiments were on such a scale, 
and the results so decided, that there could be no room for doubt as 
to their character; a secondary current of such intensity as to pa- 
ralize the arms having been so neutralized, by the interposition of a 
plate and riband of metal, as not to be perceptible through the tongue. 
I was led by a little reflection to conclude that there might exist a 
case of induction similar to that, of magnetism, in which no neutrali- 
zation would take place; and I thought it possible that Dr.- Faraday's 
results might have been derived from this. I have now, however, 
found a solution to the difficulty in the remarkable fact, that an elec- 
trical current from a galvanic battery exerts two distinct kinds of dyna- 
mic induction : one of these produces, by means of a helix of long wire, 
intense secondary shocks at the moment of breaking the contact, and 
feeble shocks at the moment of making the contact. This kind of in- 
duction is capable, also, of being neutralized by the interposition of a 
plate of metal between the two conductors. The other kind of induc- 
tion is produced at the same time from the same arrangement, and 
does not give shocks, but affects the needle of the galvanometer; it is 
of equal energy at the moment of making contact, and of breaking 
contact, and is not affected by the introduction of a plate of copper or 
zinc between the conductors.* The phenomena produced by the first 

* Since writing the account of the two kinds of induction, I have found that 
the second kind, although not screened by a plate of copper or zinc, is affected 
by the introduction of a plate of iron. In the cases of the first kind of indue 
tion, iron acts as any other metal, 



136 

kind of induction form the subject of my last paper as well as that 
of the one before; while it would appear from the arrangement of Dr. 
Faraday's experiments, that the results detailed in his first series, and 
those in the fourteenth, were principally produced by the second kind 
of induction. Although I may be too sanguine in reference to the 
results of this discovery, yet I cannot refrain from adding that it ap- 
pears to lead to a separation of the electrical induction of a galvanic 
current from the magnetical, and that it is a step of some importance 
towards a more precise knowledge of the phenomena of magneto-elec- 
tricity." 

Dr. Bache announced the death of William Sullivan, Esq., 
late a member of the Society, and Dr. Hare was requested to 
prepare an obituary notice of the deceased. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected members of the 
Society: — 

Thomas U. Walter, of Philadelphia. 

John Penington, of Philadelphia. 

Eugene A. Vail, of Paris. 

Charles Rumker, of Hamburgh. 

Charles Gutzlaff, of Macao. 

John Washington, Captain R. B. N. 

Elias Loomis, of the Western Reserve College, Ohio. 

Stephen Alexander, of Princeton College, N. J. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol. I. NOVEMBER & DECEMBER, 1839. No. 9. 

Stated Meeting, November 1. 
Present, twenty-two members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Astronomical Observations, made at the Royal Observatory, Edin- 
burgh. By Thomas Henderson, F.R.S.E., &c. Vol. II. For 
the year 1836. Edinburgh, 1839. — From, the Royal Society of 
London. 

Nieuwe Verhandelingen der Eerste Klasse van het Koninklijk- 
Nederlandsche Instituut van Wetenschappen, Letterkunde en 
Schoone Kunsten te Amsterdam. Vols. I. to V. inclusive. Am- 
sterdam, 1827 to 1836. From the Royal Institute. 

Proceedings and Debates of the Convention of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, to propose Amendments to the Constitution, com- 
menced and held at Harrisburg, on the second of May, 1837. 
Thirteen Volumes. Harrisburg, 1837 to 1839.— From Mr. C. 
J. Ingersoll. 

Journal of the Convention of the State of Pennsylvania, to propose 
Amendments to the Constitution, commenced and held at the state 
capitol in Harrisburg, on the second of May, 1837. Two Vols. 
Harrisburg, 1837, and Philadelphia, 1838. — From the same. 

Third Annual Report on the Geology of the State of Maine. By 
Charles T. Jackson, M. D. Augusta, 1839.— From Mr. John 
Sergeant. 



138 

Reports on the Ichthyology and Herpetology of Massachusetts. By 
D. Humphreys Storer, M. D. — From the Author. 

Carte Generate de l'Empire d'Allemagne, par M. Chauchard. Paris, 
1791. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Carte de la Partie Septentrionale de l'ltalie, par M. Chauchard. 
Paris, 1791. — From the same. 

Renati Descartes Principia Philosophise. Amsterdam, 1692. — From 
Mr. William Kintzing. 

Friderici Wilhelmi Pestel Commentarii de Republica Batava. Ley- 
den, 1782. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 

Meteorological Essays and Observations. By J. Frederic Daniell, 
F.R.S. London, 1827. — From the same. 

New Remedies : the Method of preparing and administering them ; 
their Effects on the healthy and diseased Economy, &c. By Rob- 
ley Dunglison, M. D. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Author. 

The Select Medical Library. Six Volumes. Philadelphia, 1838 and 
1839. — From the Editor. 

The Eclectic Journal of Medicine. Edited by John Bell, M. D. Vol. 
III. Philadelphia, 1839.— From the Editor. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Benja- 
min Silliman, M. D., LL. D., aided by Benjamin Silliman, jr., 
A.B. Vol. XXXVII. Nos. 1 and 2. For July and October. 
New Haven, 1839. — From the Conductors. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the Geographical 
Society of Paris, announcing the purpose of that society to 
form a Geographical Museum, and inviting contributions from 
the members of this society. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Bache, Dr. Patterson and 
Mr. Booth, to whom the paper of Doctor Hare, read at the last 
meeting of the society, was referred, entitled, "Description of 
an Apparatus for deflagrating carburets, phosphurets, or cya- 
nides, in vacuo, or in an atmosphere of hydrogen, between elec- 
trodes of charcoal; with an account of the results obtained by 
these and other means, especially the isolation of calcium, and 
formation of a new fulminating compound. By R. Hare, 
M. D., Professor of Chemistry in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania," reported in favour of publication in the Society's 
Transactions. The publication was ordered accordingly. 



139 

The apparatus is of a convenient construction for the purposes de- 
signated in the title of the paper. The lower electrode or cathode is 
a parallelopipedon of charcoal, on which the body is placed, to be sub- 
jected to the influence of one or more batteries; and tubes, with valve- 
cocks, communicating with an air-pump, a barometer-gauge, and a 
reservoir of hydrogen, open into the interior of a ground plate, on 
which a bell-glass is fitted, air tight. In the experiments of the 
author, an equivalent of lime was heated with one equivalent and a 
half of bicyanide of mercury, in a porcelain crucible, enclosed in 
the alembic made for this purpose, and described in a former paper. 
(See p. 131 of these Proceedings.) The weight of the residue was 
such as would result from the union of an equivalent of calcium with 
an equivalent of cyanogen. This was then subjected to galvanic 
action on the cathode of the apparatus, the anode being brought in 
contact with it, and the result was the production of masses on the 
charcoal, having a metallic appearance. 

Phosphuret of calcium, exposed in the same manner, in the gal- 
vanic circuit, left pulverulent matter which effervesced in water, and, 
when rubbed on porcelain, appeared to contain metallic spangles, 
which were rapidly oxidized in the air. 

In one experiment, particles of charcoal, apparently fused or re- 
sembling plumbago, dropped from the anode. 

After heating lime with bicyanide of mercury, the mass was dis- 
solved in acetic acid, in which nitrate of mercury produced a copious 
white precipitate, that detonated under the hammer like fulminating 
silver. 

Doctor Coates announced the formation of the Pathological 
Society of this City, and adverted to some of its labours. 

Doctor Hare made some observations on the method of ob- 
taining oxygen from nitre. 

He stated that the usual opinion of chemists, that the residuum is a 
hyponitrite in case the process is stopped during the extrication of 
pure oxygen, is erroneous ; as he found that it always contained, under 
these circumstances, a considerable portion of undecomposed nitre. 
If the heat was pushed in order fully to change the nitre into hypo- 
nitrite, there was always an extrication of nitrogen. 






140 

Stated Meeting, November 15. 
Present, twenty-nine members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received : — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Vol. V. No. 10. London, 1839. — From the Society. 

Journal of the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania. Session of 
1838-39. Three Volumes. Harrisburg, 1838-39.— From the 
State of Pennsylvania. 

Journal of the Senate of Pennsylvania. Session of 1838-39. Two 
Volumes, with an Appendix in one Volume. Harrisburg, 1838- 
39. — From the same. 

Report of the State Treasurer, showing the Receipts and Expendi- 
tures at the Treasury of Pennsylvania, from the first day of No- 
vember, 1837, to the thirty-first day of October, 1838. Harris- 
burg, 1838. — From the same. 

Obras Completas de Luis de Camoes, correctas e emendadas pelo cui- 
dado e diligencia de J. V. Barreto Feio e J. G. Monteiro. Three 
Volumes. Hamburg, 1834. — From Mr. E. F. Franca, Minis- 
ter from Brazil. 

Storia dei Progetti e delle Opere per la Navigazione-Interna del Mi- 
lanese di Giuseppe Bruschetti. Two Volumes. Milan, 1830. — 
From Mr. Lewis Tinelli. 

Catalogo delle Opere piu o meno estese in otto diverse Lingue pubbli- 
cate dal Conte Cavaliere Jacopo Graberg da Hemso. Florence, 
1837. — From the Author. 

Various Tracts relating to the Inhabitants, Geography, Agriculture, 
and Commerce of Marocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tuscany, by 
Count Jacob Graberg da Hemso. — From the Author. 

Memoria sulla Scoperta dell' America nel Secolo Decimo dettata in 
Lingua Danese da Carlo Cristino Rafn e tradotta da Jacopo Gra- 
berg da Hemso. Pisa, 1839. — From the Translator. 

L'Hivernage des Hollandais a la Nouvelle-Zemble, 1596, 1597, tra- 
duit de Tollens, par Auguste Clavareau. Maestricht, 1839. — 
From M. Martini, Minister from Holland. 



141 

Caspipina's Letters, to which are added the Life and Character of Wil- 
liam Perm. By the Rev. Jacob Duche. Two Volumes. Bath, 
1777. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Conjugation of the Verb "to hear," in its various forms in the Chip- 
peway Language, by Dr. Edwin James, of Albany. — From the 
same. 

Coleccion de los Tratados de Paz, Alianza, Comercio etc. ajustados 
por la Corona de Espana con las Potencias Estrangeras desde el 
Reynado del Seiior Don Felipe Quinto hasta el Presente. Three 
Volumes. Madrid, 1796 to 1801. — From the same. 

Translation of a Comparative Vocabulary of the Chinese, Corean, and 
Japanese Languages. Batavia, 1835. — From Mr. W. H. Med- 
hurst. 

An English and Japanese, and Japanese and English Vocabulary. 
Compiled from Native Works, by W. H. Medhurst. Batavia, 
1830. — From the same. 

Chinese Testament. — From the same. 

Three Missionary Malay Tracts. — From the Rev. Charles Gutzlaff. 

The Proceedings relative to calling the Conventions of 1776 and 1790. 
The Minutes of the Convention that formed the present Constitu- 
tion of Pennsylvania, together with the Charter to William Penn, 
the Constitutions of 1776 and 1790, and a View of the Proceed- 
ings of the Convention of 1776, and the Council of Censors. Har- 
risburg, 1825. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 

Enactments by the Rector and Visiters of the University of Virginia. 
Charlottesville, 1825. — From Dr. Dunglison. 

Annales des Mines, ou Recueil de Memoires sur 1'Exploitation des 
Mines. Troisieme serie. Vol. XV. No. 2, for 1839. Paris, 
1839. — From the Council of Mines. 

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Edited by Isaac 
Hays, M. D. No. XLIX, for November, 1839. Philadelphia, 
1839. — From the Editor, 

The committee, consisting of Dr. Patterson, Mr. Justice, 
and Prof. A. D. Bache, on Mr. E. Otis Kendall's paper, read 
November 1, and entitled "On the longitude of several places 
in the United States, as deduced from the observations of the 
Solar Eclipse of September 18th, 1838. By E. Otis Kendall, 
Professor of Mathematics in the Central High School of Phila- 
delphia," reported in favour of publication in the Society's 



142 

Transactions. The publication was ordered accordingly. The 
following abstract of the paper was contained in the report of 
the committee. 

The paper contains the reductions of all the observations of the 
Annular Eclipse of the Sun, September 18th, 1838, yet reported to 
the Society : together with those of Mr. Hallowell at Alexandria, D.C. ; 
of Messrs. Olmsted, Mason and Smith, at New Haven; and of Mr. 
J. Blickensderfer, jr. of Dover, Tuscarawas county, Ohio. The com- 
putations were made after Bessel's method. 

The corrections of the elements in the Nautical Almanac as de- 
rived from eight equations of condition, from the durations of the 
ring, and twelve from that of the eclipse, were 

e = — 14."782 = correction of moon's place on true orbit. 

g = — 7. "310 = correction of do. on a secondary to do. 

sj = — 3. "198 = correction of sum of semi-diameters. 

«' = + 0."515 = correction of difference of do. 

In which y and j/ refer to Burckhardt's semidiameter of the moon 
and Bessel's semidiameter of the sun. The value of e is obtained by 
assuming the longitude of the State House, Philadelphia, to be 
5h 0m 39s, west of Greenwich. After applying these corrections of 
the elements, Mr. Kendall deduces the following longitudes of the 
places of observation. 

The constant value of a was 2.2035 whence, as = — 32s. 571. 
The values in the last column are, calling d' the resulting longitude, 
not corrected for the errors of the tables. 

d = d' + ae + &£ + en for beginning or end. 
d = d' + ae + H + en' for the annular phase. 



143 



Place of Observation. 


Mean Time of 
Observation. 


b 


c 


Longitude4East 
— West from 
Greenwich. 




h m s 






h m s 


Western Reserve College, ) 
Hudson, Ohio, 5 


B. 2 33 17.02 


—0.355 


4-2.332 


—5 25 40.70 


Dover, Tuscarawas Coun- } 
ty, Ohio, 5 


B. 2 39 38.82 


—0.372 


4-2.235 


—5 25 52.71 


F. R. 4 25.71 


—0.848 


+2.361 


45.44 




R.R. 4 6 9.63 


4-0.302 


—2.224 


59.60 




E. 5 18 3.64 


—0.151 


—2.209 


59.45 


Alexandria, D.C. 


B. 3 5 52.00 


—0.298 


4-2.223 


—5 8 24.44 




F. R. 4 24 6.00 


—0.093 


+2.205 


29.16 




R.R. 4 30 13.00 


—0.345 


—2.229 


16.46 




E. 5 39 25.00 


—0.131 


—2.208 


38.79 


Washington Capitol, 


B. 3 6 9.23 


—0.294 


+2.223 


—5 8 3.25 




F. R. 4 24 27.61 


—0.014 


+2.204 


2.72 




R.R. 4 30 18.05 


—0.405 


—2.240 


2.73 




E. 5 39 54.76 


—0.134 


—2.208 


1.96 


Haverford School, Pa. 


B. 3 12 17.59 


—0.231 


+2.216 


—5 1 12.03 




F. R. 4 30 29.63 


4-1.412 


+2 617 


13.98 




R. R. 4 34 44.80 


—1.961 


—2.949 


13.71 




E. 5 44 28.24 


—0.165 


—2.210 


17.73 


Philadelphia State House, 


B. 3 13 10.06 


—0.229 


+2.215 


—5 37.79 




F. R. 4 31 18.76 


4-1.420 


+2.621 


38.72 




R. R. 4 35 31 .35 


—1.965 


—2.952 


40.16 




E. 5 45 15.46 


—0.164 


—2.210 


39.32 


Germantown, Pa. 


B. 3 12 54.90 


—0.228 


+2.215 


~5 40.99 




F. R. 4 31 8.90 


4-1.501 


+2.665 


40.75 




R. R. 4 35 18.40 


—2.070 


—3.023 


38.83 




E. 5 45 7.90 


—0.166 


—2.210 


36.06 


Burlington, N. J. 


B. 3 14 23.70 


—0.220 


+2.214 


—4 59 24.69 




F. R. 4 32 32.60 


4-1.743 


+2.810 


28.99 




R.R. 4 36 19.60 


—2.350 


—3.222 


29.55 




E. 5 46 8.50 


—0.168 


—2.210 


30.35 


Princeton, N. J. 


B. 3 14 43.01 


—0.167 


+2213 


—4 58 43.69 




F.R. 4 33 11.27 


4-2.245 


+3.146 


43.68 




E. 5 46 38.89 


—0.174 


—2.210 


30.70 


Weasel Mountain, N.J. 


B. 3 15 56.98 


—0.189 


+2.211 


—4 56 46.75 




F. R. 4 35 57.09 


4-6875 


+7.220 


48.26 




R. R. 4 35 58.09 


—6.912 


_7.255 


49.10 




E. 5 47 13.10 


—0.187 


—2.213 


51.34 


Brooklyn, N. Y. 


B. 3 17 18.80 


—0.189 


+2.211 


—4 56 0.02 




F. R. 4 36 47.30 


4-5.329 


+5.766 


0.80 




E. 5 48 23.63 


—0.184 


—2.211 


2.31 


New Haven, 


B. 3 21 14.47 


—0.155 


+2.209 


—4 51 47.65 




E. 5 51 17.00 


—0.199 


—2.213 


56.82 


South wick, Mass. 


B. 3 20 19.00 


—0.139 


+2.208 


—4 51 16 92 




E. 5 50 27.00 


—0.215 


—2.214 


20.16 


Wesleyan University, Co.nn. 


B. 3 22 0.81 


—0.145 


+2.208 


—4 50 43.62 




E. 5 52 1.46 


—0.205 


—2.213 


41.73 


Williamstown College, Mass. 


B. 3 17 19.90 


—0.132 


+2.206 


—4 52 26.93 


Dorchester Observatory, 


B. 3 23 10,90 


—0.099 


+2.206 


—4 44 22.76 



144 

The Committee, consisting of Prof. A. D. Bache, Dr. Pat- 
terson, and Mr. Walker, on Prof. Loomis's paper, read Octo- 
ber 18th, and entitled "Additional Observations of the Mag- 
netic Dip in the United States, by Elias Loomis, Prof, of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Western Reserve 
College," reported in favour of publication in the Transactions 
of the Society. The publication was ordered accordingly. 
The following abstract was given in the report of the Com- 
mittee. 

The paper of Prof. Loomis contains the result of his observations 
of the magnetic dip at twenty-two places in the United States. The 
stations, with the latitude and longitude of each, the date of the obser- 
vations for dip, and the determinations resulting from them, are as 
follows : 1. Hudson, Ohio, lat. 41° 15' N., long. 5h. 21m. W., August 
16th and 19th, 1839, A. M. Dip 72° 48'.4. Buffalo, New York, 
lat. 42° 53' N., long. 5h. 16m. W., August 31st, A. M. Dip 74° 
40'.8. Oswego, New York, lat. 43° 26' N., long. 5h. 6m. W., 
September 1st, A. M. Dip 75° 11 '.3. Syracuse, New York, lat. 
43° N., long. 5h. 5m. W., September 2d, A. M. Dip 74° 50'.9. 
Utica, New York, lat. 43° 9' N., long. 5h. lm. W., September 3d, 
P. M. Dip 74° 57'. 2. Schenectady, New York, lat. 42° 48' N., 
long. 4h. 56m. W., September 4th, P. M. Dip 74° 36'.1. Albany, 
New York, lat. 42° 39' N., long. 4h. 55m. W., September 4th, noon. 
Dip 74° 51'.3. West Point, New York, lat. 41° 25' N., long. 4h. 
56m. W., September 5th, P. M. Dip 73° 27'.4. New York City, 
lat. 40° 43' N., long. 4h. 56m. W., September 9th, A. M. Dip 72° 
52'.2. New Haven, Connecticut, lat. 41° 18' N., long. 4h. 52m. 
W., September 11th, A. M. Dip 73° 26'.7. Hartford, Connecticut, 
lat. 41° 46' N., long. 4h. 51m. W., September 13th, A. M. Dip 73° 
58'.1. Springfield, Massachusetts, lat. 42° 6' N., long. 8h. 50m. 
W., September 14th, A. M. Dip 74° 06'. 9. Longmeadow, Massa- 
chusetts, lat. 42° 2' N., long. 4h. 50m. W., September 14th, P. M., 
74° 05'.3. Worcester, Massachusetts, lat. 42° 16' N., long. 4h. 47m. 
W., September 16th, P. M. Dip 74° 20' .6. Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, lat. 42° 22' N., long. 4h. 44m. W., September 17th, P. M. Dip 
74°20'.l. Providence, Rhode Island, lat. 41° 50' N., long. 4h. 
46m. W., September 19th, P. M., 73° 59'.6. Princeton, New Jer- 
sey, lat. 40° 22' N., long. 4h. 58m. W., September 21st, A. M. Dip 
72° 47'. 1. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, lat. 39° 57' N., long. 5h. 



145 

lm. W., September 23d, A. M. Dip 72° 7'.1. Baltimore, Mary- 
land, lat. 39° 17' N-, long. 5h. 7m. W., September 25th, A. M. Dip 
71° 50'.3. Washington City, lat. 38° 53' N., long. 5h. 8m. W., 
September 25th, P. M. Dip 71° 21 '.4. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
lat. 40° 32' N., long. 5h. 20m. W., September 30th, A. M. Dip 72° 
38'.9. Beaver, Pennsylvania, lat. 40° 44' N., long. 5h. 22m. W., 
October 1st, A. M. Dip 72° 40'.3. Hudson, Ohio, lat. 41° 15' N., 
long. 5h. 26m. W., October 7th, P. M. Dip (observations repeated) 
72° 45 '.9. 

These observations were made with the instrument by Gambey, 
with which the results contained in Prof. Loomis's former paper were 
obtained. The series is the most extensive yet made in the United 
States, with which the Committee are acquainted. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Hare, Dr. Bache, and Mr. 
Booth, on a paper entitled "On a new compound of deuto- 
chloride of platinum, nitric oxide, and hydrochloric acid ; by 
Henry D. Rogers, Professor of Geology in the University of 
Pennsylvania, and Martin H. Boye, Graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Copenhagen," reported in favour of publication in the 
Transactions of the Society. The publication was ordered 
accordingly. 

This substance is procured by dissolving platinum in an excess of 
nitromuriatic acid, and evaporating nearly to dryness ; after which it 
is treated with aqua regia, freshly prepared, from concentrated hy- 
drochloric and nitric acids. A little water is afterwards added, drop 
by drop, just sufficient to keep the chloride of platinum dissolved, 
when the compound will remain in the form of a gamboge yellow 
powder. It is then separated by decanting and filtering, and pressed 
between the folds of bibulous paper, and dried in vacuo over sulphuric 
acid. 

The precipitate is a yellow, minutely crystalline powder, which ab- 
sorbs water with great avidity. It may be preserved, without decom- 
position, in dry air, or in vacuo. It is decomposed by water, alcohol, 
&c, with extrication of nitric oxide, chloride of platinum remaining in 
solution. A concentrated solution of chloride of platinum has, how- 
ever, no action on it. Heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen, it gives 
off a large amount of chloride of ammonium, leaving a residuum of 
metallic platinum. 

Analysis. — The salt analysed, was prepared and kept in the man- 

B 



146 

ner described. Heated to the temperature of 212° F., it does not 
part with any of its water of combination. For estimating the amount 
of platinum and chlorine, the salt was fused with carbonate of potassa, 
&c, and the platinum, thus obtained, weighed by itself, and the chlo- 
rine precipitated from the solution by nitrate of silver. 

The quantity of nitric oxide was determined by introducing a por- 
tion of the salt into a graduated tube, inverted over mercury, and 
decomposing it by letting up the requisite proportion of water. 

The mean of a series of experiments, varied in different ways, gave 

Platinum, - 41.26 per cent. 
Chlorine, - 43.89 « 
Nitric oxide, 4.98 " 

The above results correspond to five atoms of bichloride of plati- 
num ; five atoms of hydrochloric acid, and two atoms of nitric oxide. 
The water was calculated from the loss, in the analysis, to be equiva- 
lent to ten atoms. 

Respecting the chemical nature of this compound, it may be re- 
garded, either as a chloride of platinum, with a muriate of nitric ox- 
ide, represented by the following formula, (Pt CI 2 ) 5 -f- [(CI H) 5 
+ (NO 9 ) 3 ] + 10 Aq, or as a double chlorosalt, a chloroplatinate of 
nitrogen, with a chloroplatinate of hydrogen, represented by the for- 
mula, [(Pt CI 2 ) 3 + N CI 2 ] 3 + (Pt CI 2 + H CI) + 14 Aq. 

Professor A. D. Bache made a verbal communication in which 
he compared the observations on the magnetic dip by Pro- 
fessor Loomis, contained in his paper ordered this evening for 
publication, with those given in a paper by Professor Courtenay 
and himself, read before the Society in 1834. 

Professor Bache remarked, that as some of the stations of a series 
of observations for magnetic dip made by Professor Courtenay and 
himself, and published in the fifth volume of the Society's Transac- 
tions in 1835, were the same as those of the series of Professor 
Loomis, about to be published, it might be of interest to compare the 
results. The annexed table was given as containing the places, dates, 
and results of observations in the two series. 



147 



Place. 


Series by Professors Bache and 
Courtenay. 


Series by Professor 
Loomis. 


Magnetic 
Dip. 


Date. 


Magnetic 
Dip. 


Date. 


Baltimore, 
Philadelphia, 
New York, 
West Point, 
Providence, 
Springfield, Mass. 
Albany, 


70° 58'.6 
72 00.2 

72 51.7 

73 37.2 

74 02.8 
74 10.7 
74 40.1 


1834. 
July 19, P. M. 
July 25, August 4, P.M. 
August 7, A. M. 
April, May, June, July. 
August 8, P.M. 
August 10, A. M. 
August 11, P.M. 


71° 50.3 
72 07.1 

72 52.2 

73 27.4 

73 59.6 

74 06.9 
74 51.3 


1839. 
Sept. 25, A. M. 
Sept. 23, A. M. 
Sept. 9, A. M. 
Sept. 5, P.M. 
Sept. 19, P. M. 
Sept. 14, A.M. 
Sept. 4, noon. 



Professor Bache further remarked, that in regard to the results for 
Baltimore, he had at first supposed that an error of a degree had 
occurred in recording or transcribing the observations of one or other 
series. The difference of dip between New York and Philadelphia 
was nearly fifty minutes ; and it was, therefore, not probable that that 
between Philadelphia and Baltimore should be only seventeen minutes, 
according to the numbers of Professor Loomis as they now stand. 

On the other hand, the dip reported by Professor Loomis agrees 
better with the determination of Professor Patterson at Charlottesville, 
and of Lieutenant Wilkes at Washington. The discrepancy thus not 
being easily reconciled, it is much to be desired that other observa- 
tions should be made at Baltimore. 

The agreement of the results for New York, Providence and Spring- 
field, is reasonably close ; though, if the diminution of dip in the inter- 
val of the two series be considered, the agreement at New York will 
not be so close. At Philadelphia, Professor Bache has ascertained by 
recent experiments made for the purpose, that the difference between 
Professor Loomis and himself might be explained by the difference in 
the stations used ; there being considerable local attraction at one or 
the other, though he had not yet ascertained which represented most 
properly the dip due to the position of Philadelphia. The difference 
at West Point certainly, and that at Albany probably, resulted from 
using different stations for observation. Professor Courtenay had 
found the magnetic dip at the middle of the plain at West Point, to 
differ several minutes from that at his house to the west of the 
plain. Professor Loomis had used a station near the steamboat land- 
ing. At Albany, he had observed near the station formerly used by 
Professor Henry in the Academy Park ; and as the dip found by him in 
1839, was nearly the same as that found by Professor Henry in 1834, 
the discrepancy between them might be considered as amounting 



148 

to the diminution of dip in the interval. Professor Bache stated that 
it was so desirable that each succeeding observer in a given place 
should, when a well selected site had been employed for observations, 
use the same, that he had only left the position used by Professor 
Henry on account of changes which had been made by putting up an 
iron railing about the Park. In the case of the two series by Pro- 
fessor Loomis, and by Professor Courtenay and himself, the stations 
did not appear to have been generally in common. 

Professor Bache further observed that the diminution of dip at New 
York, according to his observations, compared with those of Major 
Sabine, had been at the rate of nine minutes in twelve years, between 
1822 and 1835; while those of Professor Loomis would give but eight 
minutes in seventeen years. Both results are probably too small. 

Professor Bache concluded by stating, that the general tenor of the 
comparison between these two series of observations, indicates that the 
relative correction for the two pairs of needles was subtractive for 
those of Professor Loomis, and additive for those which he had used ; 
but that as they had been furnished by the same maker, and were of 
similar dimensions, there was, until they had been compared with 
other needles, no just ground of preference for either. 

The following resolutions in relation to combined magnetic 
observations were adopted: 

Resolved, That in the opinion of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, it is highly desirable that the combined series of magnetic ob- 
servations now in progress under the direction of the British govern- 
ment, should be extended to the United States, by the establishment 
of Magnetic Observatories at suitable places. 

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed, with authority, on be- 
half of the Society, to invite the attention of one of the departments 
of the Government of the United States to the plan for combined 
magnetic observations, a sketch of which was presented in the docu- 
ments from a Committee of the Royal Society of London, and to urge 
co-operation in the plan as a national undertaking, in every way 
worthy of the United States. 

The Committee under the above resolution, consists of Pro- 
fessor Bache, Doctor Patterson, Professor Henry, Mr. Kane, 
and Colonel Totten. 

Professor Bache, reporter, stated that No. 8 of the Proceed- 



149 

ings of the Society was in the hands of the Librarian for dis- 
tribution. 

Mr. Fisher reported the decease of Mr. Levett Harris, a mem- 
ber of this Society". 



Stated Meeting, December 6. 
Present, thirty-two members. 
Dr. Patterson, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. XVIII. Part 
Second. Dublin, 1839. — From the Royal Irish Academy. 

Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 
Berlin. Aus dem Jahre, 1837. Berlin, 1838. — From the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Berlin. 

Bericht liber die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der 
Konigl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, im Mo- 
nat Juli, 1838. Berlin, 1838.— From the same. 

Roteiro Geral dos Mares, Costas, Ilhas, e Baixos reconhecidos no 
Globo. Extractado per Ordem da Academia Real das Sciencias, 
por Antonio Lopes da Costa Almeida. Vol. II. Part Third. 
Lisbon, 1838. — From the Royal Academy of Lisbon. 

Compendio de Botanica do Doutor Felix de Avellar Brotero. Apre- 
sentado a Academia Real das Sciencias. Vol. II. Lisbon, 1839. — 
From the same. 

Astronomia Spherica e Nautica, por Mattheus Valente do Couto. Lis- 
bon, 1839. — From the same. 

Memoria sobre os Pesos e Medidas de Portugal, Espanha, Inglaterra, 
e Fraiwja. Por Fortunato Jose Barreiros. Lisbon, 1838. — From 
the same. 

Annaes da Marinha Portugueza. Por Ignacio da Costa Quintella. 
Vol. I. Lisbon, 1839.— From the same. 



150 

Reports on the Fishes, Reptiles, and Birds of Massachusetts. Bos- 
ton, 1839. — From Mr. G. B. Emerson. 

Histoire Militaire du Piemont par le Comte Alexandre de Saluces. 
Five volumes. Turin, 1818. — From the Author. 

Tableau Statistique et Politique des Deux Canadas. Par M. Isidore 
Lebrun. Paris, 1833. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Memoirs of the Hon. Thomas Jefferson. Two volumes. New York, 
1 809. — From the same. 

La Revue Americaine. Vols. I. II. & III. Paris, 1826 and 1827.— 
From the same. 

Archives of Useful Knowledge. By James Mease, M. D. Philadel- 
phia, 1813. — From the Editor. 

Annals of Tryon County, or the Border Warfare of New York, dur- 
ing the Revolution. By William W. Campbell. New York, 
1831. — From the same. 

Memoir of Nathaniel Bowditch. By Nathaniel Ingersoll Bowditch. 
Boston, 1839. — From the Author. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of the Chinese Collection in Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia, 1839.— From Mr. Dunn. 

Discourse on the Integrity of the Legal Character. By Job R. Ty- 
son, Esq. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Author. 

General Karte der sichtbaren Seite der Mondoberflache. Von W. 
Beer und J. H. Madler. Berlin, 1837. — From Professor A. D. 
Bache. 

Sopra una Meteora luminosa osservata in Filadelfia dal Regio Con- 
sole delle Due Sicilie negli Stati Uniti di America. Naples, 1839. 
— From the Chev. Morelli. 

Magazine of Natural History. Edited by Edward Charlesworth. 
Vol. II. New Series. Nos. 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35. London, 
1839.— From the Editor. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A Bust of Simeon De Witt, late Surveyor General of the State of New 
York.— From Mr. Richard V. De Witt. 

The Librarian presented to the Society, in the name of the 
Rev. James P. Engles, a manuscript Treatise on the Means of 
extending the Learning and Civilization of Europe to the 
English Empire in India. By C. E. Trevelyan, at Kotah, which 
was ordered to be deposited in the Archives of the Society. 



151 

The Committee of Publication reported, that the sixth 
volume of the Transactions of the Society was completed. 

Professor A. D. Bache made a verbal communication, accom- 
panied by a chart, showing the changes of magnetic variation 
on the last two terms of the German Magnetic Association; 
namely, the 30th of August and 30th of November, of the pre- 
sent year. 

Professor Bache also presented, on behalf of the Committee 
on Magnetic Observations, appointed at the last meeting of the 
Society, a Memorial, addressed to the Secretary of War of the 
United States, inviting the establishment of Magnetic Observa- 
tories, and co-operation in the system of magnetic and meteor- 
ological observations now in progress under the direction of 
the British Government. 

Hall of the American Philosophical Society, 

Philadelphia, December, 1839. 
To the Hon. Joel R. Poinsett, Secretary of War, tyc. Sfc. 

Sir : — The undersigned have been appointed a Committee of the 
American Philosophical Society, to call your attention to, and to in- 
vite, through the medium of your department, co-operation in, the 
extensive system of magnetic and meteorological observations about 
to be made under the direction of the British Government, and in con- 
nexion with their Antarctic expedition, particularly directed towards 
magnetic investigations. 

The science of terrestrial magnetism has of late years made great 
advances, through the instrumentality of Humboldt, Hansteen, Gauss 
and others, and has now reached that point where a system of com- 
bined observations at widely distant points over the surface of the 
globe, appears to be necessary to its further progress : desultory effort 
has already done all that it is competent to effect. Such a series of 
systematic observations has now been set on foot by the British 
Government, directed to a better determination of the magnetic lines, 
for the use of navigators, and to the accurate investigation of the 
magnetic elements for theoretical purposes. The objects embraced 
are the measurement of the magnetic intensity, dip, and variation, at 
different stations, by a nautical expedition, and at fixed observatories, 
and especially the investigation of the variations of these elements at 
the latter points. As subsidiary to these objects, combined meteorolo- 



152 

gical observations are to be made, which cannot fail to elucidate some 
of the most important questions in this useful science. 

The magnetic changes to be investigated are of three kinds : first, 
those which, depending upon a cause not yet satisfactorily explained, 
take place slowly but regularly, causing a general displacement of 
the lines of equal variation and dip ; secondly, those which, depend- 
ing upon the position of the sun, run through their period of change 
in a year or day, producing different values in the magnetic elements, 
according to the season or to the hour of the day; and thirdly, the 
small disturbances which appear to be constantly taking place, and 
which require for their measurement continued observation with the 
most accurate instruments. 

The striking fact was proved in 1818, by the observations of Arago 
at Paris, and of M. Kupffer at Kasan, that the large changes which 
take place in the position of the horizontal needle during the day, are 
simultaneous at these places, so distant from each other ; and a con- 
firmation of the fact as applying to even more distant stations, resulted 
from the system of observations established by Humboldt and others 
in 1830, and extended, through the influence of the Imperial Academy 
of Sciences of St. Petersburg, to the most remote parts of the Russian 
empire, and even to Pekin. In 1834, the celebrated German philoso- 
pher Gauss, invented an instrument for measuring the variation of the 
needle and its changes, which introduced into these determinations an 
accuracy similar to that attainable in astronomical measurements. 
This instrument was soon furnished to different observatories, and 
a- concerted system of observations of the minute changes of varia- 
tion was introduced, which is now going on at no less than twenty- 
three places in Europe, the smaller and larger states having vied 
with each other in providing the means of executing them. The 
stations include Altona, Augsburg, Berlin, Bonn, Brunswick, Breda, 
Breslau, Cassel, Copenhagen, Cracow, Dublin, Freyberg, Gottingen, 
Greenwich, Halle, Kasan, Leipsic, Marburg, Milan, Munich, Naples, 
St. Petersburg, and Upsala. 

The results already obtained and published by the German Mag- 
netic Association, have proved satisfactorily that the minute changes 
in the direction of the needle, as well as the larger ones, are simulta- 
neous at the different stations, varying however in amount, and the 
variation appearing to decrease in passing southward ; but the influ- 
ence of the position of the place, whether depending upon geographical 
or magnetic position, not having yet been fully determined, and being 



153 

probably determinable only by observations at places even more dis« 
tant from each other than those now embraced in the German series. 

The invention of an instrument by Gauss, for determining the changes 
in horizontal magnetic intensity with the same accuracy as those of 
the direction of the needle, will give rise to interesting developments 
in regard to them; and the changes of the three elements of horizontal 
direction, and horizontal and vertical intensity are all included by the 
two instruments before referred to, and a third invented by Professor 
Lloyd, of Dublin. It is the object of the series now projected, to em- 
brace these three elements; to extend the number of stations with 
special reference to their distribution at points of the earth interesting 
in their magnetic relations ; to keep up a constant series of simulta- 
neous observations for three years; and thus to effect, on an extended 
scale, what the German Magnetic Association has so well begun. 
The execution of this plan, with observations of an appropriate kind, 
directed also to magnetic research, by a naval expedition, was recom- 
mended to the British Government by the members of the British 
Association, including men of science from different countries, in 
1838. It subsequently received the sanction of the Royal Society 
of London, was adopted by the Government, and is now in course 
of execution. It may be considered, therefore, to have been ap- 
proved by the highest scientific authorities. In pursuance of this 
plan, stationary observatories are to be established, and regular obser- 
vations made, for the next three years, at Toronto in Upper Canada, 
at St. Helena, at the Cape of Good Hope, and at a station in Van 
Dieman's Land. The East India Company have also undertaken to 
furnish the means of observation at nine points in their dominions. 
European Governments, who have not hitherto joined in the German 
system, with which this will be in connexion, have also promised 
similar aid. It is this extended scheme, to which our attention has 
been specially invited by a circular from the Royal Society of Lon- 
don, and in which the American Philosophical Society desires that 
our country should co-operate. It is on a broad scale, worthy of all 
encouragement, and the magnitude of the scheme, the objects for 
which it is undertaken, and the possibility of its execution, all mark 
the character of the period in which we live. 

The Society would propose, in furtherance of this plan, that five 
magnetic observatories should be established in the N. E., N. W., 
S. E., S. W., and at some central point of the United States, furnished 
with the instruments and observers necessary, fully to carry out the 



154 

proper plan of combined magnetic and meteorological observations. 
Should the proposition to make this co-operation truly national, be 
acceded to, the details in relation to it can easily be arranged, and the 
Society will, the undersigned confidently believe, feel proud to lend 
any aid in their power, in planning or executing them. It may per- 
haps be more satisfactory however, to state briefly, beforehand, the 
nature of the observations to be made, and the means required for 
their execution. 

The magnetic observations to be undertaken at the fixed observato- 
ries are, first, of the variation (declination), absolute horizontal inten- 
sity and dip; second, of the changes of the variation of the horizontal 
intensity, and of the vertical intensity. The regular observations for 
changes in these elements, are to be made every two hours every day, 
(with the exception of Sundays,) for the next three years, beginning 
as soon as the several observatories can be arranged. To these are 
to be added more frequent observations on one day of each month, 
including the four terms during the year, fixed by the German Mag- 
netic Association. At each station, a building of stone or wood will 
be required, in the construction of which no iron must be employed. 
The instruments adopted by the British observers are the following : 
A magnetometer for the declination, one for the horizontal force, one 
for the vertical force, a dipping needle, azimuthal transit, two reading 
telescopes, and two chronometers. The estimated cost of each set of 
these, is about fourteen hundred dollars. The cost of the observatory 
must vary with the place at which it is erected, and the material 
chosen for it, but may be estimated at from one thousand to fifteen 
hundred dollars. One principal and three assistants will suffice for 
making and reducing the observations at each station, and for carry- 
ing on a supplementary series of meteorological observations. The 
meteorological observations proposed, are on the pressure, tempera- 
ture, and moisture of the air; on the direction and force of the wind; 
on the quantity of rain ; on the temperature of the ground at different 
depths; on solar and terrestrial radiation; besides a few miscellaneous 
and occasional observations, not necessary to be here stated. Regu- 
lar observations are to be made on these points, four times every clay, 
and every hour on one day in each month. The instruments re- 
quired at each station, are a barometer, a standard thermometer, a 
maximum and minimum thermometer, a hygrometer, an anemome- 
ter, several extra thermometers, an actinometer, and an apparatus for 
atmospheric electricity. The probable cost of each set of these would 



155 

not exceed two hundred and fifty dollars. The value of the results 
would be much increased, by providing a self-registering anemometer 
and rain-gauge, instead of the common ones, which would increase 
the cost of each set of instruments to five hundred and seventy dol- 
lars. The whole cost of erecting the five observatories, and providing 
them with excellent instruments, will pi-obably not exceed sixteen 
thousand dollars ; and if the observatory already existing at Philadel- 
phia, and provided with the necessary instruments, should be adopted 
as one of the five, and four others be erected and furnished, the 
expense to the United States would not exceed twelve thousand 
dollars. 

No estimate is made of the cost of the principal and assistants for 
the proposed observatories. In the organization of the new British 
stationary observatories, these persons are taken, in part, if not alto- 
gether, from the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates of 
the artillery. The acquirements of the graduates of our Military 
Academy, admirably fit them for directing the observatories, which 
might be appropriately placed at military posts ; so as to provide the 
officers and men necessary for making the observations, without addi- 
tional expense. The direction thus given to the views of the Com- 
mittee ; the fact that you have long been enrolled as a member of the 
American Philosophical Society; and the interest which you have 
always manifested, both as an individual and in a public capacity, in 
all enterprises calculated to shed a lustre upon your country, have 
induced the Society to direct us to address ourselves particularly to 
you on this subject. 

With the hope that your views may coincide with those of the So- 
ciety, in regard to the plan now presented for your consideration, 
we are, 

Very respectfully, yours, 

A. D. Bache, *] 

R. M. Patterson, | 

Joseph Henry, )■ Committee. 

J. K. Kane, | 

JOS. G. TOTTEN, J 

Dr. Patterson laid before the Society a specimen of the 
Daguerreotype, by Mr. Robert Cornelius, of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Hays communicated a case of perverted vision, in which 
all perpendicular lines appeared double, while horizontal ones 



156 

were seen accurately. This occurred in a gentleman who was 
labouring under catarrhal inflammation of the conjunctiva, and 
ceased with the removal of the disease. 

Dr. Hare made the following verbal communications. 

For effecting the congelation of water by the evaporation of ether, 
it had been usual to expose a bulb, containing water and moistened 
by the ether, to a current of air. Recently Dr. Hare had succeed- 
ed far more satisfactorily by exposing a quantity of water, twenty 
times as large as that usually employed, covered by ether in a capsule 
to a blast of air, proceeding from a vessel in which it had been con- 
densed by a pressure equal to one or two atmospheres. By these 
means, the freezing of the water might be seen by five hundred spec- 
tators. 

Having mentioned that the pure hyponitrous ether recently obtained, 
caused a cold of 15° by its evaporation, it would of course be inferred, 
as he had found to be the fact, that this last mentioned ether might 
be advantageously employed. 

When hydric ether is employed, it should not exceed 730 in spe- 
cific gravity. 

Dr. Hare further said, that it would probably be remembered, 
that about two years since, he had published an account of a new 
process for freezing water by the evaporation of ether, caused 
by a diminution of atmospheric pressure. In the process then 
described, concentrated sulphuric acid was interposed between the 
retort holding the water and ether, and the air pump. Since that 
time he had rendered the process more rapid and interesting by 
interposing an iron mercury bottle, with two cocks between the re- 
ceiver holding the acid and the pump. The ether and water were 
introduced into the retort. The beak of the retort, pi-operly bent, 
entered the receiver, through the tubulure to which it was luted. 
The beak was of such a length and curvature, as to cause its orifice 
to be below the surface of the acid. The neck of the receiver com- 
municated with the cavity of the bottle, that of the bottle with the 
pump. The apparatus being thus arranged, the bottle was exhausted, 
and the cock, communicating with the pump, closed. Under these 
circumstances, on opening a communication between the bottle and re- 
ceiver, the pressure in that vessel and in the retort was so much 
reduced as to cause the instantaneous ebullition of the ether, so that 
little, if any subsequent aid, was required from the pump. But the 



157 

result which gave increased interest to the process, was the in- 
conceivable rapidity with which the acid, under these circumstances, 
absorbed the ethereal vapour, which it appeared to do with greater 
avidity as the process advanced. 

In fact, the water, in the act of congealing, flew all over the 
inner surface of the retort, in consequence of an explosive evolution 
of ethereal vapour, generated amid the aqueous particles. The conge- 
lation of the water was rendered evident to the ears as well to the 
eyes of his class of more than three hundred students. 

Doctor Bache communicated the decease of the Hon. Jona- 
than Sewell, of Quebec, a member of the Society. 



Stated Meeting, December 20. 
Present, forty members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

for the library. 

Appendix to Part V. of the Greenwich Observations, for the year 1834. 
(A missing number.) London, 1834. — From the Royal Society 
of London. 

The Statutes at Large, of South Carolina. Edited under the author- 
ity of the Legislature. By Thomas Cooper, M. D., LL.D. Vol. 
V. Columbia, 1839. — From Dr. Tidyman. 

A Map of the Extremity of Cape Cod. Executed under the direction 
of Major J. D. Graham, U. S. Top. Engrs. — From the Author. 

Crania Americana; or. a Comparative View of the Skulls of various 
Aboriginal Nations of North and South America. By Samuel 
George Morton, M. D. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Author. 

Medical and Topographical Observations upon the Mediterranean; 
and upon Portugal, Spain, and other Countries. By G. B. R. Hor- 
ner, M. D., U. S. N. Philadelphia, 1839.— From the Author. 

The State of the Prisons in England and Wales. By John Howard, 
F. R. S. Warrington, 1784. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 



158 

State of the Prisons in England, Scotland, and Wales. By James 
Neild, Esq. London, 1812. — From the same. 

The Natural History of British Insects. By E. Donovan, F.L.S. Ten 
Volumes. London, 1793 to 1802. — From the same. 

The Natural History of British Birds. By E. Donovan, F.L.S. 
London, 1794 to 1798. Five Volumes. — From the same. 

The Natural History of British Fishes. By E. Donovan, F.L.S. 
Vol. I. London, 1802. — From the same. 

Biographical Sketches of distinguished American Naval Heroes in 
the War of the Revolution. By S. Putnam Waldo, Esq. Hart- 
ford, 1823. — From the same. 

An Account, Historical, Political, and Statistical, of the United Pro- 
vinces of Rio de la Plata. Translated from the Spanish of Ignacio 
Nunes. London, 1825. — From the same. 

Flora Caroliniensis, or an Historical, Medical, and Economical Dis- 
play of the Vegetable Kingdom. By John L. E. W. Shecut. 
Vol. I. Charleston, 1806. — From the same. 

Travels in Brazil, in the Years from 1809 to 1815. By Henry 
Koster. Two Vols. Philadelphia, 1817. — From the same. 

History of Spain, from the establishment of the Colony of Gades, by 
the Phoenicians, to the death of Ferdinand, surnamed the Sage. 
Two Volumes. Dublin, 1793. — Fromthe same. 

History of the County of Worcester, in the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts. By Peter Whitney, A. M. Worcester, 1793. — From 
the same. 

The First Settlers of Virginia. New York, 1806. — From the same. 

An Introduction to the Knowledge of Rare and Valuable Editions of 
the Greek and Latin Classics. By the Rev. Thomas Frognall 
Dibdin, F.S.A. Two Volumes. London, 1808. — From the 
same. 

Repertorium Commentationum a Societatibus Litterariis Editarum. 
Secundum Disciplinarum Ordinem Digessit, J. D. Reuss. Historia, 
etc. Gottingen, 1810. — From Mr. P. S. Du Ponceau. 

Historisch Statistische Darstellung des No'rdlichen Englands. Von 
E. F. Rivinus. Leipsic, 1824. — From the same. 

The Ruins of Psestum and other Compositions, in verse. Salem, 
1822. — From the same. 

Athens, and other Poems. Salem, 1824. — From the same. 

Academical Catalogues. — From the same. 



159 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. By Robley 
Dunglison, M. D. Nos. 15, 16, 17 and 18. — From the Editor. 

The Committees of Finance and Publication, respectively 
made their Annual Reports, which were, on motion, accepted. 

Doctor Hare made the following verbal communication 
relative to the application of radiant heat to glass. 

Dr. Hax'e said, it did not appear to him that sufficient attention had 
been paid by artists or men of science, to the great difference which 
existed between the effect upon glass of heating it by radiation and 
by conduction. When exposed to radiant heat alone, unaccompanied 
by flame, or a current of hot air, glass is readily penetrated by it, and 
is heated, within and without, with commensurate rapidity; but, in 
the case of its exposure to an incandescent vapour or gas, the caloric 
could only penetrate by the process of conduction ; and, consequently, 
from the inferior conducting power of glass, the temperature of the 
outer and inner portions of the mass would be so different, as by the 
consequent inequality of expansion to cause the fracture, which was 
well known, under such circumstances, to ensue. 

The combustion of anthracite coal, in an open grate, in his labora- 
tory, having four flues of about 4.12 by 2.12 inches each, in area, 
just above the level of the grate, (the upper stratum of the fire, having 
nothing between it and the ceiling,) had allowed him to perform some 
operations with success, which formerly he would have considered 
impracticable. The fire having attained to that state of incandes- 
cence to which it easily arrives when well managed, he had, on open- 
ing a hole by means of an iron rod, so as to have a perpendicular 
perforation extending to the bottom of the fire, repeatedly fused the 
beaks of retorts of any capacity, not being more than three gallons, 
causing them to draw out, by the force of gravity, into a tapering 
tube; so that, on lifting the beak from the fire, and holding the body 
of the retort upright, the fused portion would hang down so as to form 
an angle with the rest of the beak, or to have any desired obliquity. 
By these means, in a series of retorts, the beak of the first might be 
made to descend through the tubulure of a second; the beak of the se- 
cond through that of a third, and so on ; the beak of the last retort 
in the row being made, when requisite, to enter a tube passing through 
ice and water in an inverted bell-glass. 

By means of the anthracite fire, as above described, thick rods, as 



160 

well as stout tubes, might, as he had found, be softened and extended, 
or bent into suitable forms. 

The lower end of a green glass phial, such as is used usually for 
Cologne water, might be made to draw out into a trumpet-shaped extre- 
mity. A Florence flask might be heated, and made flat, so as to an- 
swer better for some purposes. The drawing out of tubes into a 
tapering form, suitable for introducing liquids through retort tubulures, 
was thus easily effected; and in all cases the sealing of large tubes 
was better commenced in this way, although the blowpipe might be 
necessary to close a capillary opening which could not be closed by 
the fire. 

Dr. Hare further communicated a method of preparing 
pure chlorohydric acid, from the impure muriatic acid of com- 
merce, by the action of sulphuric acid. 

It is known, said Dr. Hare, that concentrated sulphuric acid, when 
added to liquid chlorohydric acid, expels more or less of it as a gas, 
in consequence of its superior affinity for water. At the present low 
price of the ordinary acid of commerce, Dr. Hare had found it ad- 
vantageous to procure the latter in purity, by subjecting it to the for- 
mer. 

A tubulated glass retort, having been half-filled with chlorohydric 
acid, sulphuric acid was allowed to drop from a glass funnel, with a 
cock, into a tube descending into the acid in the retort through the tu- 
bului'e, to which it was luted by strips of gum-elastic. The tube ter- 
minated in a very small bore. The beak of the retort, bent in the 
fire, as he had just described, descended through the tubulure into 
the body of a small retort containing water not refrigerated. The 
beak of the latter descended into a larger one, half full of water, to 
which ice was applied. Of course the beak of the third might, in like 
manner, enter the body of a fourth. After an equivalent weight of 
sulphuric acid had been introduced, and the evolution of gas was no 
longer sufficiently active, heat might be applied until nearly all the 
chlorohydric acid should come over. 

The residual diluted sulphuric acid was, with the addition of nitrate 
of soda or potassa, or nitric acid, as serviceable for galvanic purposes, 
as if it had not been thus used. 

Dr. Hare further communicated a method of preparing hy- 
drochloric acid and chlorine in the self-regulating reservoir 



161 

invented by him, and spoke of some of the applications of the 
gases thus prepared. 

Dr. Hare was under the impression that few chemists were aware 
of the great advantage of the self-regulating reservoirs of gas, to 
which he had resorted. He was enabled, by means of them, to keep 
hydrogen, carbonic acid, nitric oxide, chlorine, chlorohydric acid, 
sulphydric acid, and arseniuretted hydrogen, so as to use any of these 
gases at pleasure. He had kept these reservoirs in operation for 
months, without taking the constituent vessels apart. 

By means of the reservoir of chlorohydric acid he had been en- 
couraged to make an effort which proved successful ; to form artificial 
camphor by the impregnation of oil of turpentine with that gas. 

Subjecting an ingot of tin to a current from his reservoir of chlo- 
rine, it was rapidly converted into the bichloride, or fuming liquor of 
Libavius. To his surprise the ingot was fused by the heat generated. 
In the last mentioned reservoir the materials were manganese, in 
lumps, and concentrated chlorohydric acid, diluted sulphuric acid 
being also introduced; as the reaction of this last mentioned acid with 
the manganese was more active than that of the chlorohydric acid. 
In fact, sulphuric acid, diluted with its weight of water and common 
salt, might be used without chlorohydric acid. In the reservoir for 
chlorohydric acid, the materials were sal ammoniac and sulphuric 
acid, to which some water was added, but not so much as to prevent 
the chlorohydric acid from assuming the gaseous state. 

He had found it preferable to keep the sulphydric acid reservoir in 
a flue, the gas being drawn, when wanted, through a globe of water, 
by means of a leaden tube, at a convenient place. It would be de- 
sirable that the reservoirs of chlorine and chlorohydric acid should 
be similarly situated. 

Mr. Sears C. Walker made an oral communication on the 
subject of determining longitudes from corresponding observa- 
tions of meteors. 

It had been recently remarked by Prof. Schumacher, Astr. Nachr. 
No. 283, that, so far as his information extended, no trial had been 
made of the observation of meteors for determining longitude; though 
the subject had been proposed long since by Prof. Benzenberg. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 11th of August, 1839, observations, chiefly of the 
instant of vanishing of meteors were made at the observatories of 
Altona, Bremen, Konigsberg, Breslaw, &c. with such success as to 



162 



lead Dr. Olbers to the conclusion announced in a succeeding No. (284) 
that observations of this kind are adequate for the complete determi- 
nation of longitudes of places. By means of twelve coincidences on 
the same night, Prof. Boguslawski found the Breslaw Observatory to 
be 28m 22s.07 east of Altona, differing less than a second from that 
which had been previously adopted. 

As the subject of priority in this inquiry might be considered im- 
portant, Mr. Walker deemed it his duty to communicate the substance 
of a letter from Prof. Alexander, of Princeton College, New Jersey, 
dated January 14th 1839, in which is contained the result Of seven 
coincidences of observations of meteors, made 25th Nov. 1835, by 
Messrs. A. D. Bache and J. P. Espy, at the house of Prof. Bache, in 
Philadelphia, and by Professors Henry and Alexander, at the Philoso- 
phical Hall, 0.1s. east of Nassau Hall, College of New Jersey, at 
Princeton. As the time referred to by the Philadelphia observers is 
that of the University of Pennsylvania, which is about 0.7s, west of 
the State House, Philadelphia, the differences of longitude, given by 
Prof. Alexander, have been diminished by 0.6s. to reduce them to 
the State House , Philadelphia, and Nassau Hall, Princeton. The re- 
sults are contained in the table. The time of the disappearance of 
the meteors was noted. 



Meteor. 

a 
b 
c 
d 
e 
f 
g 


N. Hall, East of 
State House. 


Comparative 
Weight. 


Observers. 


-{-2m. 0.45sec. 
+2 „ 0.30 „ 
-f 1 ,,59.20 „ 
+2„ 20 „ 
+2 „ 1.00 „ 
+2 „ 0.80 „ 
+2 „ 2.60 „ 


1 
1 

0.5 
1 
1 
1 

0.5 


Espy and Alexander. 

" and " and Henry, 

" and Henry, 

" and " 
Bache and " 

" and Alexander, 
Espy and Henry. 


Mean according to weights + 2 m 0.61 sec. 

S. House, W. of Greenwich — 5k. „ 39.12 „ 

N. Hall, W. of Greenwich — 4„ 58 „ 38.51,, No. 1. 



In order to judge of the degree of precision of this result, an extract 
of a letter from Robert Treat Paine, Esq. dated June 10th, 1839, was 
read, giving his determination of the same by transportation of three 
chronometers in May last, from Princeton to Castle Garden, New 
York, and thence to Boston, as follows : 

State House, Boston — 4h. 44m. 16.60sec. 
Castle Garden, West — 11 „ 46.33 „ 

Nassau Hall, W. of C. Garden — 2 „ 35.14 „ 

Nassau Hall, W. of Greenwich — 4„ 58 „ 38.07 „ No. 2. 



163 

A further comparison was furnished from the observations of the 
solar eclipse of Sept. 18th, 1838, as reduced by Prof. Kendall, and 
from those of several occultations reduced by Mr. Walker. 

Comparisons with the High School Observatory. Assumed longi- 
tude — 5h. Om. 42s. Resulting longitude of Nassau Hall, 

h. m. s. 

1838, Sept. 18th. Solar Eclipse four phases,— 4 58 37.64 weight 2.0 
Nov. 21, Irn. a Sagittarii, 34.62 1.0 

h. in. s. 

Dec. 27, Im. >; Pleiadum, — 4 58 39.42 ) 

" " f " 36.35 V 36.80 1.7 

" « h " 34.62 ) 

1839, April 19, " c Geminorum, 39.84 1.0 



No. 3, Mean according to weights, — 4 58 37.25 5.7 
Comparisons with the State House, Boston. Assumed longitude 
— 4h. 44m. 16.6s. 

h. in- s. 

1838, Dec. 24, Im. t Piscium, -— 4 58 39.56 weight 1.0 

27, Im. f Pleiadum, 36.35 1.0 

h. in. s. 

1839, April 19, Im. c Geminorum, — 4 58 39.31 ) 0097 -1 * 

Do. at Dorchester Obs'y. 39.22 $ dy,<57 1#4 



No. 4. Mean according to weights — 4 58 38.49 3.4 

The Immersion of f Pleiadum was also observed by Prof. Boguslawski 
at the Breslaw Observatory, longitude -f- Ih. 8m. 10.4s., whence 
Nassau Hall — 4h. 58m. 41.15s. No. 5, weight 1. This result is 
somewhat uncertain, from the variation of the co-efficient of the un- 
known error £ of the moon's tabular place on a secondary to its orbit ; 
since we have for the longitude, d = — 4h. 58m. 41.15s. — 2.353 
X f — 0.406 x k, according to Bessel's Notation. 
The mean results taken with their weights gave, 

li- m. s. 

No. 1 — 4 58 38.51 weight 6.0 

2 38.07 3.0 

3 37.25 5.7 

4 38.49 3.4 

5 41.15 1.0 



Mean according to weights — 4 58 38.20 19.1 



Thus it appears that the observations of the 25th November, 1835, 
lead to the same conclusion as that which was subsequently in 1839, 
obtained by the European astronomers. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol. 1. JANUARY & FEBRUARY, 1840. No. 10. 

Stated Meeting, January 3. 

Present, twenty-seven members. 

Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 

The Judges and Clerks of the Election, held this day, re- 
ported the appointment of the following officers: — 

President. 
Peter S. Du Ponceau, LL. D. 

Vice Presidents. . 
Nathaniel Chapman, M. D., 
Joseph Hopkinson, LL. D., 
Robert M. Patterson, M. D. 

Secretaries. 
Franklin Bache, M. D., 
John K. Kane, 

Alexander D. Bache, LL. D., 
Robley Dunglison, M. D. 

Counsellors for Three Years. 
Nicholas Biddle, 
Thomas Biddle, 
Gouverneur Emerson, 
J. Francis Fisher. 

Curators. 
John P. Wetherill, 
Isaac Hays, M. D., 
Franklin Peale. 

Treasurer. 
John Vaughan. 



166 

The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Gradmessung in Ostpreussen und ihre Verbindung mit Preussischen 
und Russischen Dreiecksketten ; ausgeftihrt von F. W. Bessel, 
Director der Konigsberger Sternwarte u. s. w. — From the Au- 
thor. 

Address at the Annual Meeting of the Pennsylvania Colonization 
Society, Nov. 11, 1839. By R. R. Gurley. Philadelphia, 1839. 
From Mr. Elliot Cresson. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A Donation of Mastodon Bones, procured by a subscription of mem- 
bers of the Society ; — the head perfect. 

Drs. Horner and Hays were appointed a Committee to report 
a description of the same. 

Mr. Henry Seybert, at the time in Paris, transmitted to the 
Society a specimen of the Daguerreotype. 

Mr. Du Ponceau made a verbal communication respecting 
the publication of the Cochin Chinese Dictionary of the late 
Bishop of Adran, and also of a Latin and Cochin Chinese Dic- 
tionary by the Bishop of Isauropolis, and announced that the 
Grammar of the Berber language, by M. Venture, was about 
to be published. 

Dr. Hare produced a remarkably beautiful specimen of po- 
tassium, in the globular form, assumed by falling into naphtha. 

This specimen was a part of the product of one process which 
yielded him six ounces, two hundred and sixty-three grains, avoirdu- 
pois. 

The process, and the apparatus by which this large amount of po- 
tassium was procured, had been described in the last volume of the 
Society's Transactions. 

The quantity of materials employed, was 8 lbs. cream of tartar, 
reduced to 47 oz., by carbonization ; and 3 oz. of coarsely powdered 
charcoal, from which the finer part had been sifted. 

Notwithstanding the employment of a tube of two inches in diame- 
ter, it became choked with the potassium, carbon, and other volatile 
products, which were sublimed; and in the effort to open a passage, 
a steel rod, employed for this purpose, became so firmly fastened as 
to render its extrication impracticable by the force of two men. 



167 

In the effort to withdraw it, the tube was detached from the bottle. 
As the rod had been rendered smooth and cylindrical by the wire- 
drawing process, it could not have been thus held, upon any other 
view than that of its being soldered to the potassium. 

The iron casing, used to protect the bottle, had been exposed to 
the fire during three processes ; yet, excepting at the lower corner, it 
did not appear to be injured. With slight emendation, and with the 
protection of a stout disk of malleable iron, situate so as to form a 
basis, Dr. Hare had no doubt it might be used for several more ope- 
rations. 

In distilling the potassium from the tube, " per descensum," as de- 
scribed in his account of the process already referred to, the cap con- 
verging to a tapering tube was screwed on to that end of the receiver 
which was nearest the bottle ; and, of course, this end was the lower- 
most in the distillatory process. This arrangement was preferable, 
as it prevented the loose deposition always found at the end of the 
tube farthest from the fire, from falling into the naphtha employed 
together with the potassium. 

Dr. Hare hoped to lay before the Society a drawing of his appara- 
tus, under the impression that it would be deemed worthy of being 
published among the Transactions of the Society. 

The purchase of the Reports on Prisons, printed by- order of 
the House of Commons of Great Britain, was directed by the 
Society. 



Stated Meeting, January 17. 
Present, thirty-three members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received. 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

A History of the Heathen Mythology ; or the Fables of the Ancients, 
elucidated from Historical Records, an Important Key to the Clas- 
sics. To which is added, an Inquiry into the Religion of the 
first Inhabitants of Great Britain, and a particular Account of the 



168 

Ancient Druids. Translated from the French of M. l'Abbe de 
Tressan. By H. North. 2d Edition, embellished with 75 engra- 
vings. London, 1806 — -From Mr. Vaugkan. 

The Life of John Jay, with Selections from his Correspondence, and 
Miscellaneous Papers. By his Son, William Jay. Two Vols. 8vo. 
New York, 1833.-- From the same. 

Vies des Peintres, Sculpteurs et Architectes les plus celebres, par G. 
Vasari, Peintre et Architecte Aretin ; traduites de PItalien, avec 
des notes, particulierement celles de Bottari, et les portraits de 
chaque artiste, graves a l'eau forte par G. Boichot, correspond, 
de i'lnstitut National. Three Vols. 8vo. Paris, 1803.— From 
the same. 

Scriptores Rerum Mythicarum Latini tres Romse nuper reperti. Ad 
fidem Codicum MSS. Guelferbytanorum Gottingensis, Gothani et 
Parisiensis integriores edidit ac Scholiis illustravit Dr. Georgius 
Henricus Bode, ordinis Philos. Gotting. Assessor Societatis 
Litterar. qua? Cantabrigiae Americanorum floret Socius. Two 
Vols. Cellis, 1834. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Observations on the Sugar Beet and its Cultivation. Philadelphia, 
1840. — From Mr. James Ronaldson. 

Annuaire Magnetique et Meteorologique du Corps des Ingenieurs des 
Mines de Russie ou Recueil d'Observations Magnetiques et Mete- 
orologiques faites dans l'etendue de l'empire de Russie et publiees 
par ordre de S. M. 1'Empereur Nicolas I., et sous les auspices de 
. M. le Comte Cancrine, Ministre des Finances, par A. T. Kupffer, 
membre de l'Academie des Sciences de St. Petersbourg. Annee, 
1837. 4to. St. Petersbourg, 1839. — From the Imperial Aca- 
demy of Sciences of St. Petersburg. 

Catalogue of Columbia College in the City of New York ; embracing 
the Names of its Trustees, Officers, and Graduates; together with 
a List of all Academical Honours conferred by the Institution, from 
A. D. 1758 to A. D. 1826, inclusive. New York, 1826.— From 
Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Circular Letter addressed to the Trustees of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, by the Professor of Botany, (Dr. W. P. C. Barton,) on 
the introduction of that Branch into the Curriculum of Study for a 
Medical Degree. Philadelphia, 1825. — From the same. 

Sundry recent English Catalogues of Books. — From Mr. E. D. In- 
graham. 



169 

Prof. Bache read extracts from a letter from Major Sabine, 
of England, describing the progress of measures for contempo- 
raneous magnetic and meteorological observations for the next 
three years, urging a concert of observations in the United 
States, and stating that a magnetic survey of the British domi- 
nions north of the United States would be made, and suggesting 
a similar survey of the United States. Prof. Bache remarked, 
that steps had been taken some months since, by several gen- 
tlemen who have heretofore been engaged in magnetic re- 
searches, to procure such a survey, the result of which, how- 
ever, was yet uncertain. 

A circular relating to the term observations, proposed by 
the Royal Society, was also read. 

Mr. John Vaughan was re-elected Librarian. 

The following standing committees were appointed for the 
year. 

Of Finance.— My. C. C. Biddle, Mr. George Ord, and Dr. 
R. M. Patterson. 

Of Publication. — Mr. Lea, Dr. Hays, and Mr. J. F. Fisher. 

On the Hall. — Mr. Strickland, Mr. Kane, Mr. Vaughan. 

On the Library. — Mr. Ord, Dr. Hays, Mr. Geo. Campbell. 

Agreeably to a provision of the by-laws, the list of surviving 
members of the Society was read. The number is 316; 216 
of whom are residents of the United States, and 100 in foreign 
countries. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the So- 
ciety: — 

Judah Dobson, of Philadelphia. 

John Forbes, M.D. F. R. S. of Chichester, England. 

Michael Faraday, D. C. L. F. R. S. of London. 

Rev. C. R. Demme', D.D. of Philadelphia. 

John J. Vanderkemp, of Philadelphia. 

Rev. Philip Milledoler, D.D. of New Jersejr. 

Don Pedro de Angelis, of Buenos Ay res. 

Isaac Wayne, of Pennsylvania. 

Samuel D. Ingham, of Pennsylvania. 

George M. Dallas, of Philadelphia. 

Martin Boye , of Philadelphia. 



170 

Stated Meeting, February 6. 
Present twenty-five members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Kong. Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, for Ar 1837. 8vo. Stock- 
holm, 1838. — From ike Royal Swedish Academy. 

Aorsberattelse om Framstegen i Fysik och Kerai afgifven den 31 Mars, 
1837; af Jac. Berzelius K. V. Acad. Seer. 8vo. Stockholm, 
1837. — From the same. 

Aorsberattelse om Technologies Framsteg till Kongl. Vetenskaps- 
Academien afgifven den 31 Mars, 1837, af G. E. Pasch. 8vo. 
Stockholm, 1837. — From the same. 

Aorsberattelse om Botaniska Arbeten och Uppfaekter for Ar 1836, till 
Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academien afgifven den 31 Mars, 1837, af 
Joh. Em. Wikstrom. 8vo. Stockholm, 1838. — From the same. 

Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, found- 
ed January 6, 1824. Vol. II. 8vo. Quebec, 1831.— From 
Mr. C. D. Forbes, of Montreal. 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, for the Year 1837-38. 
-Part II. 8vo. Dublin, 1838 ; and for the Year 1838-9. Part III. 
8vo. Dublin, 1839. — From the Royal Irish Academy. 

The Life of Daniel, the Prophet of God, with a Bengali Translation. 
By the Rev. Wm. Morton, of the London Missionary Society. 
12mo. Calcutta, 1837. — From the American Sunday School 
Union, of Philadelphia. 

O Auxiliador da Industria Nacional, ou Colleccao de Memorias e 
Noticias interressantes aos Fazendeiros, Fabricantes, Artistas, e 
Classes industriosas no Brasil, tanto originaes, como traduzidas das 
melhores Obras que neste genero se publicao. Periodico Mensal, 
publicado pela Sociedade Auxiliadora da Industria Nacional, esta- 
belecida no Rio de Janeiro. Anno. VII. No. i. — vi. Janeiro. — 
Junho de 1839. 8vo. Rio Janeiro, 1839.— From Mr. J. S. 
Rebello. 

Discurso lido em 15 de Maio de 1838 na Sessao publica da Acade- 



171 

mia real das Sciencias de Lisboa por Joaquim Jose da Costa de 
Macedo, do Conselho de S. M. e Commendador da Ordem de N. 
Senhora da Conceicao de Villa Viciosa, &c. &c. 8vo. Lisboa, 
1838. — From the Author. 

Answers to the Questions : What constitutes Currency ? What are 
the Causes of Unsteadiness of the Currency? and What is the Re- 
medy? By H. C. Carey, author of " Principles of Political Eco- 
nomy," &c. &c. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Author. 

An Address to the Members of the Mississippi Legislature on the 
subject of the Geological Survey of the State. By C. G. Forshey. — 
From the Author. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Benja- 
min Silliman, M. D. LL. D., &c. &c. Aided by Benjamin Silli- 
man, jr., A. B., &c. &c. Vol. xxxviii. No. 1. Jan. 1840. — 
From the Editors. 

A Monograph of the Limniades and other fresh water Univalve Shells 
of North America. By S. Stehman Haldeman, Member of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, &c. &c. (Speci- 
men number.) 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Author. 

Rapports a M. le Comte de Montalivet, Pair de France, Ministre 
Secretaire d'Etat au Departement de l'Interieur, sur les Peniten- 
ciers des Etats-Unis, par M. Demetz, Conseiller a la Cour Roy- 
ale, Membre du Conseil General du Departement .de Seine-et- 
Oise, et par M. G. Abel Blouet, Architecte du Gouvernement, Di- 
recteur de la Section des Beaux Arts de l'Expedition Scientifique de 
Moree. Folio. Paris, 1837. — From Dr. Bache. 

Mr. Saxtoh laid before the Society several copies of medals, 
produced by the galvanic process of Prof. Jacobi, of St. Pe- 
tersburg, and a small vase, obtained by a similar process, using 
a fusible metal matrix, which was removed when the form was 
obtained. 

Mr. Lea exhibited nearly forty specimens of representations 
of plants and shells, by the photographic process of Talbot, 
modified by Mr. Mungo Ponton, of Edinburgh. They were 
prepared by his son, Mr. Carey Lea, and were entirely suc- 
cessful; the minute parts of the plants, and the outlines being 
perfect. 



172 

Stated Meeting, February 21. 
Present, twenty -two members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Vol. 
VIII. P. I. 8vo. Philad. 1839.— From the Academy of Nat. 
Sciences. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer, a concentrated 
Record of Medical Science and Literature. By Robley Dunglison, 
M. D., Sec. A. P. S., &c. &c. Vol. III. Nos. 21 & 22. Feb. 
1 & 15, 1840. Philadelphia. — From the Editor. 

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. No. L. Feb. 1840. 
Philadelphia. Edited by Dr. Hays. — From the Editor. 

Two Letters on the Chinese System of Writing. By the Rev. Charles 
Gutzlaff, Missionary at Canton, and Peter S. Du Ponceau, LL.D., 
President of the American Philosophical Society. Extracted from 
the 7th Vol. (New Series) of the Society's Transactions. 4to. 
Philadelphia, 1840. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

A Condensed Geography and History of the Western States, or the 
Mississippi Valley. By Timothy Flint, Author of Recollections 
of the Last Ten Years in the Mississippi Valley. 2 vols. 8vo. 
Cincinnati, 1828. — From Mr. Vaughan. 

Democracy in America. By Alexis de Tocqueville, Avocat a la Cour 
Royale de Paris, &c. &c. Translated by Henry Reeve, Esq. 
With an Original Preface and Notes. By John C. Spencer, Coun- 
sellor at Law. 8vo. New York, 1838. — From the same. 

The Speeches of Henry Clay, delivered in the Congress of the United 
States ; to which is prefixed, a Biographical Memoir ; with an Ap- 
pendix, containing his Speeches at Lexington and Lewisburg, and 
before the Colonization Society at Washington : together with his 
Address to his Constituents on the Subject of the late Presidential 
Election: with a Portrait. Philadelphia, 1827. — From the same. 

Travels in the Central Portions of the Mississippi Valley : comprising 
Observations on its Mineral Geography, Internal Resources, and 



173 

Aboriginal Population (performed under the sanction of Govern- 
ment, in the year 1821). By Henry Schoolcraft, U. S. I. A., &c. 
8vo. New York, 1825. — From the same. 

A Collection of Original Papers relative to the History of the Colony 
of Massachusetts Bay. By Lieut. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson. Bos- 
ton, 1769. — From the same. 

A Complete Collection of Scottish Proverbs, explained and made in- 
telligible to the English Reader. By James Kelly, M. A. Lon- 
don, 1721. — From the same. 

The History of the Province of New York, from the First Discovery 
to the Year 1832 ; to which is annexed, a Description of the Coun- 
try, with a Short Account of the Inhabitants, their Trade, Reli- 
gious and Political State, and the Constitution of the Courts of 
Justice in that Colony. By William Smith, A. M. 4to. London, 
1757. — From the same. 

Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologic Uitgiven 
door J. Van der Hoeven, M. D. Prof, te Leiden, en W. H. de 
Vriese, M. D. Prof, te Amsterdam. Zesde Deel le, 2e en 3e 
Stuk. Leiden, 1839.-— From the Minister of the Interior of the 
King of the Netherlands. 

Mr. Lea read a paper entitled, "Description of Nineteen 
New Species of Colimacea," from his Collection. These were 
recently received, and chiefly from Mr. W. W. Wood, now of 
Manilla. 

Bulimus Woodianus. Testa ovato-conica, orassa, rufo-fusca, im- 
perforate,; anfractibus quinis, convexis; apertura magna, ovata; 
labro incrassato, reflexo, margine purpurato ; columella incrassata, 
laevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. W. Wood. 

Bulimus Bicoloratus. Testa turrita, supra rufo-fusca, subtus vi- 
ridi, imperforata, carinata; anfractibus septenis, subconvexis ; 
apertura subrotundata; labro reflexo, margine subnigro; colu- 
mella lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. W. Wood. 

Bulimus Subglobosus. Testa globoso-turbinata, subtenui, rufo-fusca, 
fasciata, imperforata; anfractibus quinis, ventricosis; apertura 
subrotundata; labro subreflexo, margine tenebroso; columella 
lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. W. Wood. 

Bulimus Gracilis. Testa ovato-conica, tenui, imperforata; an- 
fractibus senis; subconvexis; apertura parva, subrotundata; 
labro subreflexo, acuto; columella lcevi. Habitat. Philippine 
Islands.— W. W. Wood. 



174 

Bulimus Carinatus. Testa acuminato-conica, subtenui, rufo-fusca, 
imperforata, carinatl; anfractibus septenis, subplanulatis ; aper- 
tura ovata; labro reflexo, margine tenebroso; columella lsevi. 
Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. W. Wood. 

Bulimus Virido-Striatus. Testa turbinato-conica, subcrassa, vi- 
ridi, albo fasciata, nitida, imperforata; anfractibus quinis, ventri- 
cosis; apertura subrotunda; labro reflexo, margine albo; colu- 
mella lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. W. Wood. 

Bulimus Virgineus. Testa, ovato-conica, albida, tenui, tenuissime 
striata, imperforata ; anfractibus quinis, convexis ; apertura ovata ; 
labro simplici; columella leevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — 
W. W. Wood. 

Bulimus Liberianus. Testa elevata, lactea, pellucida, nitida, mi- 
nute striata, perforata; anfractibus senis; apertura longula; labro 
incrassato, reflexo; columella lsevi. Habitat. Liberia, Africa. — 
Dr. Blanding. 

Cyclostoma Woodiana. Testa orbiculata, subdepressa, rufa, 
albo maculata et cincta, striata, late et profunde umbilicata; 
anfractibus quinis; apice acuminato; labro incrassato, reflexo, 
albo. Habitat. Philippine Islands — W. W. Wood. 

Carocolla Bifasciata. Testa orbiculari, supra convexa, subtus 
sub-planulata, luteo-alba, nitida, minutissime longitudinaliter 
striata, viridi-bifasciata ; anfractibus quaternis; labro acuto, re- 
flexo. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. W. Wood. 

Helix Cepoides. Test! globosa, conico turbinata, subtenui, lon- 

- gitudinaliter striata, supra rufo-fusca, subtus luteo-fusca, infra peri- 
phasriam fasciata, ad basim uniplicata, imperforata ; anfractibus sep- 
tenis, inflatis; apertura lunata; labro irregulariter reflexo, acuto, 
margine rufo ; columella lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — 
W. W. Wood. 

Helix Blainvilliana. Testa obtuso-convexa, superne granulata, 
inferne lsevi, infra periphseriam unifasciata, minute perforata; 
anfractibus senis, convexis; apertura parva, transversa; labro 
acuto; columella lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. W. 
Wood. 

Helix Lamarckiana. Testa orbiculato-convexa, subcarinata, rufo- 
fusca, subtenui, irregulariter striata, minute perforata; anfrac- 
tibus quaternis, superne planulatis; apertura magna, transversa; 
labro acuto; columella lrevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. 
W. Wood. 



175 

Helix Luteo-Fasciata. Testa orbiculato-conoidea, superne minute 
cancellata, inferne lsevi, tenebroso-castanea, luteo-uni vittata, mi- 
nute perforata ; anfractibus senis, convexis; apertura parva, trans- 
versa; labroacuto; columella lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. 
— W. W. Wood. 

Helix Ferruginea. Testa globoso-conoidea, ferruginea, trans- 
versim striata, solida, ventricosa, interdum vittata, imperforata; 
anfractibus quaternis, convexis; apertura magna, obliqua; labro 
incrassato, reflexo ; columella lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — 
W. W. Wood. 

Helix Cuvieriana. Testa orbiculato-convexa, carinata, tenui, lon- 
gitudinaliter minute striata, infra periphseriam tenebrosa, superne 
pallida ; minute perforata ; anfractibus quinis, subplanulatis, supra 
suturis impressis ; apertura parva, transversa ; labro acuto ; colu- 
mella lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — W. W. Wood. 

Helix Blandingiana. Testa subglobosa, cornea, longitudinaliter 
striata, imperforata, oblique depressa.; anfractibus senis; aper 
tura oblique rotundata; labro incrassato, reflexo; columella lsevi 
Habitat. Banks of the River St. Paul, Liberia, Africa. — Dr 
Blanding. 

Helix Humphreysiana. Testa orbiculato-conoidea, subtus con 
vexa, minute rugosa albido-fulva, ad periphseriam fasciata, late 
umbilicata, profunde perforata ; anfractibus senis, convexis; aper 
tura submagna, obliqua ; labro acuto ; columella lsevi. Habitat 
Specimens received of Mr. Humpheys were marked Pondicherry 
Subsequently I received it from Mr. Balastier, of Singapore. 

Helix Balasteriana. Testa orbiculato-conoidea, sinistrorsa, sub- 
carinata, subtenui, castanea, inferne inflata, prope periphseriam 
tenebrosiori, minute rugoso-striata, perforata ; anfractibus senis 
convexis; apertura parva ; labro incrassato, subreflexo; columella 
lsevi. Habitat. Philippine Islands. — Mr. Balastier. 

Dr. Hare described a mode of procuring silicon by an easy 
process. 

In the year 1833, Dr. Hare had published an engraving and de- 
scription of an apparatus for evolving silicon or boron from their 
gaseous fluorides. In operating with the apparatus alluded to, a 
wire rendered incandescent by a calorimotor was made to ignite po- 
tassium while surrounded by fluosilicic or fluoboric acid gas. Conse- 
quently the potassium and fluorine entered in combination with pheno- 



176 

mena of combustion, while the silicon was deposited or left in combi- 
nation with potassium and its fluoride. 

Lately he had resorted with success to a much simpler process, by 
which the evolution of silicon or boron might be made easy to any 
person possessing a sufficiently large mercurial reservoir. 

A bell glass, over mercury, was filled with fluo-silicic acid, and by 
means of a bent wire, a cage of wire gauze, containing a suitable 
quantity of potassium, was introduced through the mercury into the 
cavity of the bell, and supported in a position nearly in the centre of it. 
A knob of iron was made at the end of the rod, so recurved as 
to reach the cage with ease. The knob, having been heated nearly 
white hot, was passed through the mercury, so as to touch the cage, 
and cause the combustion of the potassium and evolution of the silicon. 
Of this, much remains attached to the cage, in combination with the 
fluoride of potassium, from which the silicon may be separated by wash- 
ing in cold water and digestion in nitric acid. 

Dr. Hare exhibited a specimen of the silicon obtained by the 
means above described, weighing seventeen grains. 

Dr. Hare made some observations on certain products from 
the formation of hyponitrous or nitric ether, and its decompo- 
sition by various agents, one of which he exhibited to the 
Society. 

This was an extremely acrid liquid, obtained from the last ethereal 
products of the distillation of hyponitrite of soda, with equivalent 
measures of alcohol, sulphuric acid and water. The products thus 
procured, being agitated with green sulphate of iron, until no further 
portion was absorbed, the aggregate was washed with hydric ether. 
The resulting ethereal solution, being separated by a funnel and the 
finger, was subjected to the air in an open vessel. The hydric ether 
soon evaporating, the residue was the acrid liquid in question, which 
might be inferred to be a peculiar ether. Its boiling point did not ap- 
pear to be inferior to that of water. It was soluble in ether and 
alcohol, but insoluble in water. Caustic potash appeared to cause its 
decomposition. 

As Dr. Hare had elsewhere stated, the effects of this liquid upon 
the organs of taste and smell, resembled those of mustard or horse- 
radish: upon the eyes its influence was equally distressing. Dr. 
Hare believed this acrid principle might always be generated at the 
close of the process for obtaining sweet spirits of nitre by distilling 



177 

alcohol from sulphuric acid and nitrate of potassa,* if the process were 
continued beyond certain limits. 

Mr. Lea exhibited a specimen of photographic represen- 
tation of a plant which had been coloured, together with the 
original plant, and made some remarks on the useful purposes 
to which this art might be applied in facilitating the objects of 
the botanist, &c. 

Dr. Patterson, from the committee appointed to correspond 
with the Secretary of War relative to a system of magnetic and 
meteorological observations, reported that the subject had been 
referred to a select committee of Congress, in consequence of 
the representations of the Secretary. 

Mr. S. C. Walker communicated an extract from a letter 
received from Mr. Edmund Blunt, detailing his observations 
of the Solar Eclipses of May 14th, 1836, and September 18th, 
1838. 

These were made at his private Observatory, Brooklyn, New York. 
Latitude 40° 42' 0". Longitude 4h. 56m. 0s., nearly, west of Green- 
wich, being 4.36s. east of the City Hall, New York. They are given 
in mean time of the place of observation. 

Begin. Solar Eclipse, May 14th, 1836, 

End „ 

Begin. „ Sept. 18th, 1838, 

Formation of Ring „ 

End of Eclipse „ 

)5 55 

Mr. Blunt used a five feet Dollond's achromatic belonging to the 
coast survey. Mr. Page saw the end of the eclipse of 1836 with an- 
other telescope, within half a second of the time stated by Mr. Blunt. 
In the eclipse of 1838, the time noted for the formation of the ring 
was when the cusps were separated only by a few dark intervening 
spaces. Of these, Mr. Blunt counted six in number. The instant of 
rupture of the ring was not noted. Mr. Blunt thinks that the luminous 

* One of the members of the Society, J. Price Wethevill, Esq. whose know- 
ledge and skill, as a manufacturing chemist, are well known, informed Dr. Hare 
that in the manufacture of sweet spirits of nitre upon a large scale, he had 
always been careful not to have the process continued after the products began 
to show a certain degree of acridity. 



h. m. s. 

19 10 1.30 


E. 


Blunt. 


21 40 31.20 




?J 


3 17 18.80 




5? 


4 36 47.30 




5? 


5 48 23.63 




J5 


5 48 17.63 


T. 


I. Pao-e. 



178 

points connecting the cusps, continued twelve or fifteen seconds. Mr. 
Blunt did not see the dark lines described by Francis Bailey, Esq. 
though favourably circumstanced for such an observation. Mr. Walker 
had found for the longitude of Mr. Blunt's observatory, from the be- 
ginning of the eclipse of 1836, 4h. 55m. 52.95s. and 4h. 56m. 2.07s. 
from the end:— Mean result, 4h. 55m. 57.51s. Mr. E. O. Kendall 
had found from the eclipse of 1838, a mean result of 4h. 56m. 1.16s. 
The mean, by the two eclipses, was 4h. 55m. 59.34s.; which makes 
the longitude of the City Hall, New York, 4h. 56m. 3.7s. Mr. Paine, 
in the American Almanac, makes the same 4h. 56m. 4.5s.; and 
Mr. E. I. Dent, by transportation of four chronometers from the Green- 
wich Observatory to New York, and again to Greenwich, finds for 
the same 4h. 56m. 4.42s. The mean of the three determinations is 
4h. 56m. 4.2s. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol.1. MARCH & APRIL, 1840. No. 11. 

Stated Meeting, March 6. 
Present, thirty-one members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Nouvelle Formule, pour trouver la hauteur des lieux par celles du 
Barometre et du Thermometre, avec laquelle on determine, pour la 
premiere fois, le degre du Thermometre centigrade ou le froid est 
absolu. Par M. Du Villard de Durand, Ancien Depute, membre 
de la Societe de Harlem, &c. 8vo. Paris, 1826. — From Mr. 
Pennington. 

Vues Prophylactiques et Curatives sur la Fievre Jaune, extraites 
d'un Memoire en date de Decembre, 1823, intitule; Topographie 
Physique et Medicate de Florence et d'une partie de la Toscane. 
Par le Chev. Foureau de Beauregard, Docteur en Medecine de 
la Faculte de Paris, &c. &c. Presentees a 1'Academie Royale 
de Medecine, &c. &c. 8vo. Paris, 1826. — From the same. 

A Collection of the Publications, relative to Slavery, Temperance, the - 
Indian Natives of this Continent, &c. &c. of Anthony Benezet. 
12mo. Philadelphia, 1762 to 1784.— From Mr. J. F. Fisher. 

Tomb of Washington at Mount Vernon. By William Strickland. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1840.— From Mr. J. Struthers. 

The History of Hindostan, translated from the Persian. Second 
edition. Revised, altered, corrected and greatly enlarged. By 
Alex. Dow, Esq. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1770. — From Mr. 
Vanghan. 

A 



180 

Journal of a Residence in China, and the Neighbouring Countries, 
from 1829 to 1833. By David Abeel, a Minister of the Re- 
formed Dutch Church in North America, &c Small 8vo. New 
York, 1834.° — From the same. 

Flora Scotica, or a Systematic Arrangement, in the Linnean method, 
of the Native Plants of Scotland and the Hebrides. By John 
Lightfoot, A.M. Second edition. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1789. 
From the same. 

A Memoir of the Life of Daniel Webster. By Samuel L. Knapp. 
Small 8vc. Boston, 1831. — From the same. 

A Sketch of the Laws relating to Slavery in the several States of 
the United States of America. By George M. Stroud. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1827. — From the same. 

History of the late Polish Revolution, and the Events of the Cam- 
paign. By Joseph Hordynski, Major of the late Tenth Regiment 
of Lithuanian Lancers. Fourth edition. 8vo. Boston, 1833. 
From the same. 

Essai Statistique sur le Royaume de Portugal et d'Algarve, compare 
aux autres Etats de l'Europe, et suivi d'un Coup d'CEil sur l'Etat 
actuel des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux- Arts parmi les Por- 
tugais des Deux Hemispheres. Dedie a sa Majeste tres-fidele. 
Par Adrien Balbi, Ancien Professeur de Geographie, &c. &c 
2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1822. — From the same. 

The Lottery System in the United States. By Job R. Tyson, Esq. 
Third edition. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1837. From the Author. 

Codex Juris Gentium recentissimi, e Tabulariorum Exemplorumque 
Fide Dignorum Monumentis Compositus. 3 vols. 8vo. 1735 et 
1772. Leips. 1781 & 1795.— From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Tableau de l'Histoire Generale des Provinces-Unies. Par A. M. 
Cerisier. 10 vols. 12mo. Utrecht, 1777 et 1784.— From the 
same. 

Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy. Promulgated at Cadiz on 
the 19th of March, 1812. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1814.— From 
the same. 

Exposition d'une Nouvelle Methode pour 1'Enseignement de la Mu- 
sique. Par P. Galin, Instituteur a l'Ecole Royale des Sourds- 
muets de Bordeaux. 8vo. Paris, 1818. — From the same. 

Fundamenta Jurisprudential Naturalis a Fred. Gulielm. Pestel de- 
lineata, in usum auditorum. Edit. 3tia aucta. 4to. Lugd. Batav. 
1777. — From the same. 



181 

The Magazine of Natural History. New Series. December, 1839. 

Conducted by Edward Charlesworth, F. G. S. &c. — From the 

Editor. 
The Charge delivered (by Judge Logan,) from the Bench to the 

Grand Jury, at the Court of the Quarter Sessions, held for the 

County of Philadelphia, the second day of September, 1723. 

Published at the desire of the said Grand Jury. Together with 

their Address. 4to. Philadelphia, 1723. — From J. J. Smith, 

Jun. 

Mr. Geo. M. Justice presented an original document con- 
taining William Penn's objections to the accounts of his stew- 
ard, Philip Ford, which exhibited overcharges on Ford's part 
to the amount of 9697 pounds, and stating William Penn's 
reasons why he submitted himself to their "unnatural confine- 
ment of him to the Fleet." 

Mr. Lea read a paper on the Patella Amsena of Say, which 
was referred to a Committee. 

Professor Bache read a paper entitled " Observations of the 
Magnetic Intensity at twenty-one Stations in Europe," which 
was referred to a Committee. 

A communication was read from Dr. Locke, of Cincinnati, 
containing an account of magnetic observations at several 
places in the north-west of the United States, which was re- 
ferred to a Committee. 

Dr. Patterson exhibited some specimens of the Heliographic 
Art (Daguerreotype) of a large size, executed by Mr. Robert 
Cornelius, of Philadelphia; and stated to the Society, that Mr. 
Cornelius had succeeded in obtaining beautiful representations 
upon highly polished silver plate. 

Mr. Saxton exhibited additional medals obtained by the gal- 
vanic process of Professor Jacobi; and likewise pieces of char- 
coal and anthracite, which he had used as substitutes for the 
forms of fusible metal ordinarily employed. These were per- 
fectly coated with copper, a fact which shows it to be but 
necessary, that the substance at the negative electrode should 
be a conductor of electricity. 



182 

Stated Meeting, March 20. 
Present, twenty-seven members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The Present State of Nova Scotia, with a Brief Account of Canada, 
and the British Islands on the Coast of North America. 3d edi- 
tion. 8vo. Edinburg, 1787. — From Mr. Vaughan. 

Reports of the Committee of the House of Assembly, on that part of 
the Speech of His Excellency the Governor in Chief, which relates 
to the Settlement of the Crown Lands, with the Minutes of Evi- 
dence taken before the Committee. 2 vols. 8vo. Quebec, 1821. — 
From the same. 

The History of Hindostan; translated from the Persian : the second 
edition; revised, altered, corrected, and greatly enlarged. By 
Alexander Dow, Esq. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1770. — From the 
same. 

The History of Hindostan, from the Death of Akbar to the Complete 
Settlement of the Empire under Aurungzebe. To which are pre- 
fixed, 1. A Dissertation on the Origin and Nature of Despotism 
in Hindostan. 2. An Inquiry into the State of Bengal; with a 
Plan for restoring that Kingdom to its former Prosperity and 
Splendour. By Alexander Dow, Esq. Lieut. Col. in the Com- 
pany's Service. 4to. London, 1772. — From the same. 

Motifs des Guerres et des Traites de Paix de la France, pendant les 
Regnes de Louis XIV., Louis XV., et Louis XVI., depuis la Paix 
de Westphalie, en 1648, jusqu' a celle de Versailles, en 1783. 
Par le Chev. Anquetil, &c. 12mo. Paris, An 6 de la Repub- 
lique. — From the same. 

Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life. By Erasmus Darwin, 
M.D., F.R.S. 2 vols. 8vo. Dublin, 1800.— From the same. 

Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on Natural and Experimental Phi- 
losophy. By Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S. Professor of Natu- 
ral Philosophy in the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 8vo. 
London, 1802. — From the same. 



183 

Journal Historique de la Revolution tie la partie Francaise de Saint- 
Domingue, commence le 10 Aout 1808, avec des Notes Statis- 
tiques sur cette partie. Par Gilbert Guillermin, Chef d'Escadron 
attache a l'Etat-major de l'Armee de Saint-Domingue. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1810. : — From the same. 

Guida da Milano a Ginevra pel Sempione ; con 30 Vedute ed una 
Carta Geografica. 8vo. Milano, 1822. — From the same. 

Dissertation Second: exhibiting a General View of the Progress of 
Mathematical and Physical Science, since the revival of Letters 
in Europe. By John Playfair, Late Professor of Natural Philo- 
sophy in the University of Edinburgh, &c. (From the Supple- 
ment to the Encyclopaedia Britannica.) 8vo. 2 vols. — From the 
same. 

Dissertation Third : exhibiting a General View of the Progress of 
Chemical Philosophy, from the Early Ages to the End of the 
Eighteenth Century. By William Thomas Brande, Secretary of 
the Royal Society of London, &c. (From the Supplement to the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica.) 8vo. — From the same. 

Original Papers, relating to the Expedition to Panama. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1744. — From the same. 

Le Conservateur de la Vue, suivi du Manuel de l'Ingenieur-opticien, 
4eme edit, par l'Ingenieur Chevallier (le Chev.) Membre de la So- 
ciete Royale Academique des Sciences de Paris, &c. 8vo. Paris, 
1820.— From the same. 

Abrege d'un Cours Complet de Lexicologie a 1' Usage des Eleves de 
la Quatrieme Classe de l'Ecole Polymathique : par P. R. F. Bu- 
tet (de la Sarthe) Directeur de cette Ecole, &c. 8vo. Paris, 
An. IX. 1801. — From the same. 

Essai sur la Theorie des Proportions Chimiques et sur 1'Influence 
Chimique de l'Electricite : par J. J. Berzelius, Membre de l'Aca- 
demie des Sciences de Stockholm. Traduit du Suedois sous les 
yeux de PAuteur, et publie par lui-meme. 8vo. Paris, 1819. — 
From the same. 

Dictionnaire Raisonne de Botanique, contenant les Termes Tech- 
niques, Anciens et Modernes, consideres sous le Rapport de la 
Botanique, de l'Agriculture, de la Medecine, des Arts, des 
Eaux et Forets, &c, par Sebastien Gerardin (de Mirecourt), Ex 
Professeur a l'Ecole Centrale du Departement des Vosges, &c. 
Publie, Revu et Augmente de plus de Trois Mille Articles, par M. 



184 

N. A. Desvaux, Professeur de Botanique, &c. Nouvolle edition. 
8vo. Paris, 1822. — From the same. 

The Works of John Locke, Esq. Three vols, folio. Second edition. 
London, 1722. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

A New Atlas of the Mundane System ; or of Geography and Cosmo- 
graphy ; describing the Heavens and the Earth, the Distances, 
Motions, and Magnitudes of the Celestial Bodies: the various 
Empires, Kingdoms, States, and Republics throughout the Known 
World : with the Particular Description of the Latest Discoveries. 
The whole elegantly engraved on Sixty-four Copperplates ; with a 
General Introduction to Geography and Cosmography, in which 
the Elements of these Sciences are compendiously deduced from 
Original Principles, and traced from their Invention to the latest 
Improvements. The fourth edition, with Additions, Corrections, 
and veiy great Improvements. By the late Mr. Samuel Dunn, 
Mathematician and Member of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, at Philadelphia, &c. Folio. London, 1796. — From the 
same. 

A' Kave, The es Csokolade Torteneti, Termeszethistoriai Diaeteticai 
es Orvosi Tekintetben. F. Almasi Balogh pal altal. 12mo. 
Pesten, 1831. — From the Author. 

De Evolutione et Vita Encephali. Auctore Paulo Balogh de F. Al- 
mas. 8vo. Pestini, 1823. — From the same. 

Philosophiai Palyamunkak. Kiadja A' Magyar Tudos Tarsasag. 
8vo. Budan, 1835. — From the same. 

Report by the Board of Directors of the Transactions, Affairs and Ac- 
counts of the New Orleans and Nashville Rail Road Company, 
from its Organization to the present Time. New Orleans, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1840. — From Mr. Merrick. 

Manuel General pour les Arbitrages de Changes, et pour beaucoup 
d'autres Calculs Necessaires chez les Negocians, par Nombres 
fixes ou par Logarithmes, &c. Suivi de Logarithmes depuis 1 
jusqu'a 10400, &c. Par Felix Reishammer. 8vo. Paris, An. 
VIII. (1800)— From Mr. J. P. Engles. 

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a Re- 
port from the Secretary of State upon the subject of the Law 
for taking the Sixth Census. December 31, 1839. — From Dr. 
Patterson. 

Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting a Report of 
F. R. Hassler, upon the subject of the Coast Survey, and the Pro- 



185 

gress of Preparing Standard Weights and Measures. December 
30, 1839. — From the same. 
A Bill to Provide for the Disposal and Management of the Fund be- 
queathed by James Smithson to the United States, for the Esta- 
blishment of an Institution for the Increase and Diffusion of 
Knowledge among Men. Reported to Congress by Mr. Adams. — • 
From the same. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A Specimen of Native Platinum, from Russia, weighing one ounce and 
twenty grains. — From Col. Melnikoff, of the Russian Service. 

The Committee, consisting of Professor Henry, Dr. Patter- 
son, and Mr. Walker, to whom was referred a paper entitled, 
" Observations of the Magnetic Intensity at twenty-one Sta- 
tions in Europe. By A. D. Bache, LL.D. President of the 
Girard College for Orphans, &c," reported in favour of the 
publication of the paper in the Society's Transactions. The 
Report was adopted, and the publication ordered accordingly. 

The stations at which the observations, recorded in this memoir, 
were made, were twenty-one in number : three in Great Britain, and 
the others on the continent of Europe. They include Edinburgh, 
Dublin, London, Brussels, Berlin, Paris, Vienna, the Flegiere,. 
Brientz, the Faulhorn, Geneva, Chamberi, Chamouni, Lyons, Milan, 
Venice, Trieste, Florence, Turin, Rome, and Naples. The author 
remarks, that the magnetic dip and intensity are so well known at some 
of these places, that he produces his results for them, in order that, 
by comparison with those of other observers, the value of his determi- 
nations for other places may be judged of. The observations were of 
the horizontal intensity and dip, except in the comparison of the in- 
tensities at London and Paris, where, in addition, the statical me- 
thod devised by Prof. Lloyd was used. At three of the stations the 
dip was not observed. The horizontal intensities were generally com- 
pared by oscillating two different needles in a rarefied medium, ac- 
cording to the method described by the author in a former paper 
(Am. Philos. Society's Transactions, Vol. V). At London and Paris, 
two additional needles were employed. The dip was observed in the 
usual way, with an instrument by Robinson, by whom also the nee- 
dles for Prof. Lloyd's method were made. The corrections required 
for temperature in the horizontal needles had been previously obtain- 



186 

ed. The correction, for loss of magnetism by the needles, was 
ascertained from observations at Philadelphia, London, and Paris, 
and curves traced representing the loss, from which the specific cor- 
rection, to be applied at any epoch, was readily obtained. The curve 
for one of the needles, showed a tendency towards a permanent 
state, and for the other was nearly a straight line. Irregular changes 
took place in neither needle. The author's experience with these 
needles, induces him to give a preference to the method of placing the 
needles in pairs, over that which he has hitherto employed, of keeping 
each needle separate from the other. A suggestion also results in 
the use of the dipping needle, of the necessity of ascertaining that the 
needles have, in the reversal of the poles, been charged nearly, or 
quite, to saturation. The author takes occasion to correct his state- 
ment in regard to the inefficacy of heating needles in boiling water 
in producing an approach to a permanent magnetic state. The ob- 
servations at each station, with the corrections employed, are given 
in tables; and the number observed for the dip, or calculated for the 
horizontal or total intensities, are compared with the results of other 
observers. 

The Memoir concludes with the following Abstract of the numeri- 
cal results. 









Long. 












No. 


P.aces. 


Latitude. 


from 
Paris. 




Date. 


Horizontal 
Intensity. 


Dip. 


Total 

Intensity. 






O ' 


o ' 






Paris =1 


o ' 


Paris =1 


1 


Edinburgh 


55 57 N. 


5 32W. 


Feb. 


3, 1837 


0.841 


— — * 





2 


Dublin - - 


53 23 „ 


8 4l„ 


Nov. 


20, 1836 


0.879 


* 





3 


London - 


51 31 „ 


2 26 „ 


June 


16, 1837 


0.939 1 


69 16.0 


1.021 


4 


Brussels 


50 51 „ 


2 02E. 


July 


25, 1838 


0.969 


■* 





5 


Berlin 


52 32 „ 


11 02 „ 


Dec. 


16, 1837 


0.979 


68 08.5 


1.014 


6 


Paris 


48 50 „ 


00 „ 


Aug. 


17, 1837 


1.000 


67 20.8 


1.000 


7 


Vienna - 


48 13 „ 


14 02 ., 


March 23, 1838 


1.090 


64 49.7 


0.989 


8 


The Flegiere 





' 


Aug. 


26, 1837 


1.099 


64 35.8 


0.987 


9 


Brientz - 








Sept. 


<£L, ,, 


1.078 


65 06.7 


0.987 


10 


The Faulhorn 








Sept. 


20, „ 


1.082 


65 01.7 


0.987 


11 


Geneva - 


46 12 „ 


3 49,, 


Aug. 


25, „ 


1.086 


64 49.8 


0.984 


12 


Chamberi 







June 


21, 1838 


1.089 


64 35.0 


0.979 


13 


Chamouni 








Aug. 


26,1837 


1.088 


64 38.2 


0.979 


14 


Lyons 


45 46 „ 


2 29 „ 


June 


25, 1838 


1.078 


64 49.0 


0.978 


15 


Milan - - 


45 28 „ 


6 51 „ 


June 


10, „ 


1.111 


63 54.7 


0.972 


16 


Venice 


45 26 „ 


10 10,, 


April 


H, „ 


1.129 


63 21.9 


0.971 


17 


Trieste 


45 38 „ 


11 27 „ 


April 


4, „ 


1.128 


63 20.5 


0.970 


18 


Florence 


43 47 „ 


8 55„ 


May 


28, ii 


1.170 


62 05.5 


0.965 


19 


Turin - - 


45 04 „ 


5 20 „ 


June 


17, „ 


1.094 


63 52.2 


0.959 


20 


Rome 


41 54 „ 


10 10 „ 


May 


18, ,, 


1.225 


60 14.0 


0.952 


21 


Naples 


40 52 „ 


11 57 „ 


May 


7, „ 


1.249 


59 05.1 


0.938 



* Dip not observed. 

t Mean of results in June, July and Aug. 1837, and in July and Aug. 1833. 



187 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Nicklin, Prof. Bache, and 
Dr. Hays, to whom was referred a Paper entitled " On the Pa- 
tella Amasna of Say, by Isaac Lea," reported in favour of 
publication, which was ordered accordingly. 

In this Paper Mr. Lea gives a Synonymy, showing that the 
Patella Amama of Say was first described by Midler, under the spe- 
cific name of Testudinalis : Zool. Dan. p. 237,' and Mr. Couthouy, 
having lately given an elaborate description of the animal, in the 
Boston Journal of Natural Science, showing that it belongs to the 
new genus Patelloida, recently established by Quoy and Gaimard; 
Mr. Lea argues that it should henceforth be called Patelloida Tes- 
tudinalis. 

A Communication was read, entitled, " On the Storm which 
was experienced throughout the United States, about the 20th 
of December, 1836; by Elias Loomis, Professor of Mathema- 
tics and Natural Philosophy in Western Reserve College," 
which was referred to a Committee. 

Dr. Hare read a Communication, entitled, " 1. The Well- 
known Features of the Climate of the Atlantic States. 2. On 
Certain Facts and Inferences respecting the Origin and the 
Effects of the Trade Winds, and the Westerly Breezes which 
they must induce, or into which they must be deflected. 3. Of 
Certain Facts or Laws of Electrical Reaction, which have been 
ascertained experimentally, and which render it irrational not 
to consider Electricity as the Principal Instrument of Nature 
in the Production of Storms." 

The Paper was referred to a Committee. 

Mr. Peale exhibited specimens of Medals, obtained by the 
process of Professor Jacobi. He stated, that Mr. Eckfeldt, of 
the Mint, had found the specific gravity of the copper, thus 
procured, to be as high as that of rolled copper; that is, 8.95. 

Mr. Peale also exhibited a diaphragm of parchment, which 
had been used in the battery employed in the process; and 
upon which metallic copper had been precipitated. He farther 
exhibited specimens of Metallic Silver, reduced, by a similar 
process, from the chloride of silver: but remarked, that it was 
not likely to lead to any useful analogous result, owing to the 
silver being deposited in a granular state. 

B 



188 

Mr. Sears C. Walker read an extract from a letter^ of Prof. 
S. Alexander, of Princeton, giving a Description, with Draw- 
ings, of two Appearances of Lateral and Vertical Mirage, no- 
ticed by him. 

The thermometer, in both instances, was nearly at 0° Fahrenheit. 
The first was of the rising of the sun, seen in the winter of 1834-5, 
across the valley of Stony Brook, through which the Delaware and 
Raritan Canal passes. The distorted and ragged shape of the 
sun resembled a sketch, made by Mr. Head, of the moon's appear- 
ance several minutes before setting, Jan. 7th, 1825, at Port Bowen, 
in Captain Parry's third voyage. The other phenomenon was ob- 
served by Prof. Alexander, at sea, off Cape May, Dec. 15th, 1834. 
The preceding night had been severely cold, and the surface cf the 
ocean was covered with a thin cloud, denominated by the Green- 
landers, " Port Smoke." In the afternoon, as the sun approached 
the horizon, a brilliant and distinct image of himself arose to meet 
him. After the apparent contact of the two discs, the two centres ap- 
proached and passed each other, leaving visible, however, only the 
lower segment of the image, and the upper segment of the sun's disc, 
which double segment became more and more narrow, till it vanished; 
thus presenting the phenomenon of sunset, at about 15' above the 
horizon. 

A similar appearance is described in Parry's second voyage, at 
Winter Island, Dec. 20th, 1821 , when an inverted image of the moon 
appeared just after she had risen. 

Dr. Bache reported the decease of John Frederick Blumen- 
bach, on the 22d of January, 1840; and of Joseph Parrish, 
M. D., on the 18th of March, 1840— members of the Society. 

Dr. Dunglison, Reporter, stated that No. 10, of the Bulletin 
was ready for distribution. 



189 

Stated Meeting, April 3. 
Present, twenty-one members. 
Judge Hopkinson, Vice President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Proceedings of the Royal Astronomical Society. Vol. II. No. 2. — 
From the Society. 

Address of the Most Noble the Marquis of Northampton, &c. &c, 
the President, read at the Anniversary Meeting of the Royal So- 
ciety, on Saturday, Nov. 30, 1839. — From the Royal Society. 

Transactions of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India. 
Vol. VI. 8vo. Calcutta, 1839. — From the Society. 

The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. Vol. IX. 
1839. Part 3. 8vo. London, 1839. — From the Society. 

Notes, taken during Travels in Africa, by the late John Davidson, 
F.R.S. F.S.A., &c. Printed for private circulation only. 4to. 
London, 1839. — From Cap,. John Washington, of London. 

Voyages of the Dutch Brig of War Dourga, through the Southern 
and little-known Parts of the Mohiccan Archipelago, and along 
the previously unknown Southern Coast of New Guinea, per- 
formed during the Years 1825 and 1826. By D. H. Kolff, Jun. 
Lieutenant ter Zee, le Klasse, en Ridder van de Militaire Wil- 
lems Orde. Translated from the Dutch, by George Windsor 
Earl, Author of the "Eastern Seas." 8vo. London, 1840. — 
From the same. 

The Statutes at Large of South Carolina; Edited under Authority of 
the Legislature, by David J. M'Cord. Vol. VI. Containing the 
Acts from 1814, exclusive, to 1838, inclusive. 8vo. Columbia, 
1839.— From Dr. P. Tidyman. 

Select American Speeches, Forensic and Parliamentary, with Pre- 
fatory Remarks : being a Sequel to Dr. Chapman's " Select 
Speeches." By S. C. Carpenter. Two Vols. 8vo. Philadelphia, 
1815. — From Mr. Vaughan. 

Sermons, Orations, and Eulogiums, by Various Individuals, in 1799 
and 1800. Two Vols. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1800.— -From the 
same. 



190 

A Voyage Round the World ; including an Embassy to Muscat and 
Siam, in 1835, 1836 and 1837. By W. S. W. Ruschenberger, 
M. D-, Surgeon U. S. Navy, &c. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1838. — 
From Mr. Lea. 

The Philadelphia Book; or Specimens of Metropolitan Literature. 
12mo. 1836. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Praktische Deutsche Sprachlehre zum Selbstunterricht und fiir Schu- 
len. 12mo. Leipzig, 1801. — From the same. 

My Prisons, Memoirs of Silvio Pellico of Saluzzo. Two Vols. 12mo. 
Cambridge, 1836. — From the same. 

Ethnological Extracts from the Monthly Chronicle; containing a 
Paper, by Dr. Prichard, on the Extinction of Human Races, 
&c, and a Communication on the Practicability of Civilizing Abo- 
riginal Populations. — From, Dr. Hodgkin. 

The London Athenaeum, for December 28, 1839, containing the Me- 
teorological Observations at the Apartments of the Royal Society, 
for Twenty-five Successive Hours, commencing at 6 A. M. Dec. 
21, 1839, and ending at 6 A. M. of the following day. By Mr. 
J. D. Roberton, Assistant Secretary Royal Society. — From Mr. 
Wm. Vaughan. 

Address, delivered by the Actuary, (Mr. Morgan) to the General 
Court of the Equitable Society, on Thursday, the 5th Dec. 1839, 
with Tables and Statements of Insurance on Lives, by the So- 
ciety. — From the same. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. By Robley Dun- 
glison, M. D., &c. Vol. III. Nos. 23 and 24, (which conclude 
the year) March 1 & 15. Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Editor. 

Lecture on the Advantages derived from Cultivating the Arts and 
Sciences. By G. Emerson, M.D. Delivered before the Phila- 
delphia Mercantile Library Association. Dec. 8, 1839. 8vo. 
pp. 22. Philadelphia, 1840. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A Musical Reed Instrument, consisting of fourteen Bamboo Reeds, 
invented at Laos, and described in Ruschenberger's Voyage 
Round the World. — Presented by Dr. Ruschenberger. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Patterson, Dr. Hare, and 
Prof. Bache, to whom was referred a paper entitled " On a 
new Principle in regard to the Power of Fluids in Motion to 



191 

produce Rupture of the Vessels, which contain them, and on 
the Distinction between Accumulative and Instantaneous Pres- 
sures; by Charles Bonny castle, Professor of Mathematics in 
the University of Virginia," reported in favour of its publica- 
tion in the Transactions of the Society, which was ordered ac- 
cordingly. 

Mr. Bonnycastle's investigation was suggested by a paper read by 
Dr. Hare, and printed in the Transactions of the Society, entitled 
" On the Collapse of a Reservoir, whilst apparently subject within to 
great Pressure from a Head of Water." Dr. Hare pointed out the 
circumstances attendant upon this curious occurrence, and showed 
how the vessel might have been momentarily relieved from the pres- 
sure of the water within, so as to make that of the surrounding air 
efficient in producing the collapse. The principal object of Mr. Bon- 
nycastle's paper is to investigate the precise nature and degree of the 
forces brought into action in this and similar cases. 

The results at which Mr. Bonnycastle arrived, are stated by him 
as follows : — 

1. It is convenient to distinguish between accumulative and in- 
stantaneous loads, or between those which are gradually increased 
until the deflection due to the ultimate load is obtained, and those 
which commence in full efficacy from the initial position of the sup- 
port. 

2. Within the limits of perfect elasticity, instantaneous pressure 
produces twice the effect of that which is accumulative, whether the 
result be to produce deflection or fracture. 

3. In regard to supports perfectly elastic in one direction, and per- 
fectly flexible in the other, instantaneous action, at right angles to the 
axis of elasticity, produces a deflection which is to that of accumula- 
tive action as >/4 to 1, whilst the tendencies to fracture are as 4 to 1. 
But should any case, occur when the law of elasticity follows an ex- 
tremely high power of the deflection, then the singular result will 
follow, that the deflections are the same, whether the force be exerted 
from the initial state or the state of load, but that the tendency to 
fracture will be immensely greater in the former case, than in the 
latter. 

4. In producing the fracture of natural substances, which all de- 
part from the law of perfect elasticity as we approach the limit of 



192 

fracture, the ratio of the effect of instantaneous and accumulative ac- 
tion will vary with the nature of the .substance, never being less, for 
elastic bodies, than 2 to 1, nor for flexible than 4 to 1, and more 
usually approaching 3 or 4 to 1 for the former case, and 5 or to 1 
for the latter. 

5. Let a vase or conduit be acted upon by a load which is alone 
sufficient to break it, and let this load be partly balanced by a small 
exterior force : should the great interior force suddenly cease, the 
small exterior action may crush the vase or conduit inward ; its ener- 
gy in such case being the sum of the interior and exterior forces. 

6. Should the interior force be a vibration of the kind already ex- 
plained, and should the exterior action be extremely feeble, and act 
on a very great mass, this extremely feeble action may crush the 
vase inward, with a power that shall exceed in any degree the enor- 
mous action of the interior or explosive vibration. The comparison 
of the interior and exterior actions is best effected in this case, by 
finding the modulus of elasticity of a material spring that shall coin- 
cide most nearly in effect with the interior tremor. For putting e and 
e' respectively for the modulus of the spring and of the support, and 
a- and t for the deflections resulting from the tremor acting alone, 

and the reaction as it does act, we have — = * /— , or, in other 

o- yl e 

words, the deflection produced by the reaction, is to the deflection 

that would be produced by the interior tremor alone, in the inverse 

proportion of the square roots of the moduli of tremor and support. 

7. Combining what is here said with the known laws of fluids 
moving in pipes, and whereby they necessarily produce hydraulic 
shocks, it follows, that any vessel connected with such a train of 
pipes, and plunged at some little depth in a considerable mass of wa- 
ter, or other heavy fluid, will occasionally be subject to a crushing 
and exterior force vastly greater than the interior strain due to the 
constant head of fluid. 

In illustration of the principles thus developed, Mr. Bonny castle 
details some experiments, and mentions a phenomenon which oc- 
curred under his own notice, and is analogous to the one described 
by Dr. Hare. In making experiments on the propagation of sound 
through water, he had occasion to cause an explosion of gunpowder 
within a hollow metallic cylinder, open at the lower end, and im- 
mersed under the liquid ; and, although the strength of the cylinder 



was abundantly sufficient to bear the statical pressure of the sur- 
rounding water, he found it crushed inward after the explosion. 

Judge Hopkinson deposited with the Society, the Log Book 
of the first voyage in a steam vessel across the Atlantic, by 
Captain Rogers, in the year 1819; an account of which was 
given in the Proceedings of the Society, No. 2, p. 14. 

In a written communication, Judge Hopkinson stated, amongst other 
matters in reference to Captain Rogers's priority, that he was on 
board the steam ship, lying at the City of Washington, after her re- 
turn from the voyage. She was built and rigged like one of the 
Liverpool packets ; and her wheels were made to fold up at her 
sides, when the wind permitted her sails to be used. 

The Log Book states, among the occurrences usually noted, the 
days when the steam was used. 

Dr. Hare made some observations on Professor Loomis's 
views of storms, read at the last meeting; also, oh the mode in 
which storms may be induced by the meeting of opposite cur- 
rents, and the ascent of an intervening mass of air; on the 
agency of electricity in their production, &c. &c. 

Dr. Hare asked permission to withdraw his paper, presented 
at the last meeting of the Society, which was agreed to. 

He stated that he was about to perform some experiments, the re- 
sults of which it. appeared to him desirable to publish with his essays, 
and he was fearful that the subject could not be described satisfac- 
torily without quotations from previous publications, which might 
not be consistent with the limits allowed to articles published in the 
Transactions. 



194 

Stated Meeting, April 1 7. 
Present, twenty-nine members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received. 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Sundry Chinese Works, consisting of 29 volumes, or pamphlets, 8vo. 
From the Rev. Mr. Gutzlaff, Missionary at Canton. 

Flora Batava, of Afbeelding en Beschryving van Nederlandsche 
Gewassen, door Jan Kops, Hoogleeraar te Utrecht; en F. A. W. 
Miquel. 118 aflevering, 4to. Te Amsterdam, 1839. — From 
His Majesty the King of the Netherlands. 

Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie, Deuxieme Serie. Tom. 
Heme. 8vo. Paris, 1839.— .From the Society of Geography of 
Paris. 

Charles d'Este, ou Trente Ans de la Vie d'un Souverain. 2 Tom. 
Paris, 1836 — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution, 
Posthumous Work of the Baroness de Stael. Edited by the 
Duke de Broglie, and the Baron de Stael. 8vo. 2 vols. New 
York, 1818. — From the same. 

The History of the Origin, Progress, and Termination of the Ameri- 
"can War. By C. Stedman, who served under Sir W. Howe, Sir 
H. Clinton, and the Marquis Cornwallis- 2 vols. 4to. London, 
1794. — From Mr. Vaughan. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Ben- 
jamin Silliman, M.D., LL.D., aided by Benjamin Silliman, Jr., 
A. B., &c. &c. Vol. XXXVIII. No. 2. April, 1840.— From 
the Editors. 

Annales des Mines, ou Recueil de Me moires sur l'Exploitation des 
Mines, &c. &c. redigees par les Ingenieurs des Mines, &c. &c. 
Tom. XVI. 5 e Livraison de 1839. 8vo. Paris, 1839.— From 
the Ingenieurs des Mines. 

Catalogue of the Library of the late Dr. Thomas Cooper. 8vo. Co- 
lumbia, 1839. — From Dr. Hays. 

A Report on the History and Causes of the Strangers', or Yellow 
Fever of Charleston, read before the Board of Health. By 



195 

Thomas Y. Simons, M. D., Chairman of the Board. — From the 
same. 

The Committee, consisting of Professor Bache, Dr. Patter- 
son, and Mr. Walker, to whom was referred a paper entitled 
" On the Storm which was experienced throughout the United 
States, about the 20th of December, 1836, by Elias Loomis, 
Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Western 
Reserve College," reported in favour of publication in the So- 
ciety's Transactions, which was ordered accordingly. 

The memoir of Prof. Loomis first describes the sources of informa- 
tion to which he has had access, consisting of various published or 
private meteorological journals. The principal phenomena occurred in 
the eastern states, within the period recommended by Sir John Her- 
schell for hourly meteorological observations ; and were, of course, 
accurately noted at the stations where these observations were made. 
From various sources, Prof. Loomis has obtained observations of the 
barometer at twenty-seven different stations in the United States and 
the neighbouring British possessions, and records of the thermometer 
and weather from twenty-eight military stations of the United States, 
from forty-two academies of the state of New York, and from five 
other stations within the probable limits of the storm, besides others 
beyond it. In some cases two sets of observations were made at the 
same station. 

The phenomena are discussed by the author under the following 
heads. 1. A remarkable oscillation of the barometer. 2. A sudden 
depression of the thermometer. 3. The amount, and the time of be- 
ginning and ending of the rain. 4. The direction and velocity of the 
wind. 

1. The observations of the barometer show that during the storm 
there was a sudden depression of the barometer immediately suc- 
ceeded by a sudden rise; that the minimum of pressure occurred 
first in the western states, and passed in a wave over the United States, 
moving eastwardly. The curves drawn to represent the heights of 
the barometer illustrate this fact in a very striking manner. Prof. 
Loomis has attempted to determine, from the observations, the 
amount of depression of the barometer, the form and velocity of the 
atmospheric wave, the progress of which, over the United States, he 
has represented upon a chart. 
c 



196 

2. A comparison of the observations of the thermometer and baro- 
meter, shows that while the pressure was diminishing the temperature 
was increasing, and vice versa. The very remarkable diminution of 
temperature of 48° Fah. in six hours and a half, occurred at one station 
in the N. W. of the United States. The commencement of the dimi- 
nution of temperature is shown to coincide with the minimum of the 
barometer, and hence is used when barometric observations were 
not made, to point out the probable time of the occurrence of this 
minimum. The average of the maxima of the thermometer at the 
eastern stations was about 3^° Fah. greater than at the western, and 
the average of the minima 14° Fah. greater. 

3. Rain or snow fell during the storm within the limits of about 
latitude 28° N. to latitude 48° N., and from longitude 52° to 96° W. 
The average amount at fifty-nine stations was seven-eighths of an 
inch. The author is led to remark upon the great discrepancies 
in the statements of the fall of rain at places very near each other, 
and upon defects in the registers in not stating the time of beginning 
and ending of the rain. 

4. The epoch of the minimum of pressure at the several places of 
observation was marked by a change of wind from a southern quar- 
ter, generally the south-east, to a northern quarter, almost uniformly 
the north-west. This sudden change of wind was every where one 
of the most prominent features of the storm, the wind having been 
violent both before and after the change ; but more violent from the 
north-westerly direction, except perhaps at New York and in the 
north-eastern states. 

The author sums up thus the characteristic of the storm. After a 
cold and clear interval, with the barometer high, the wind commenced 
blowing from a southerly quarter; the barometer fell rapidly, the 
thermometer rose, and rain fell in abundance. The wind subsequently 
veered suddenly to the north-west, and blew with great violence ; the 
rain was succeeded by hail or snow, which continued but for a short 
time. The changes thus described occurred, not simultaneously, 
over the United States, but progressively from west to east. 

The author next endeavours to determine the limits of the storm, 
using for this purpose other meteorological registers in addition to 
those before noticed, and of which he gives a particular account. 
From these, and theoretical considerations, he places the Rocky Moun- 
tains as the western limit, the parallel of 25° N. lat. as the southern 
limit, the middle of the Atlantic as the eastern limit, and the northern 



197 

as altogether conjectural, but probably as remote as the arctic circle, 
thus extending over 70° of longitude and 40° of latitude. The 
question whether the remarkable storm which occurred in Europe, 
about the 25th of December, was a continuation of this storm, is exa- 
mined, and the author concludes, from a discussion of its peculiarities, 
that it was not — the progress of the barometric minimum in Europe 
being from north to south, inclining a little to the west. 

The author next proceeds to generalize the deductions in regard to 
the circumstances of this storm, and to apply them as tests to the dif- 
ferent theories of wind, rain, &c. 

He first endeavours to show how far registered observations of the 
wind may be influenced by localities, and their accuracy affected by the 
mode of observing, and the transcribing of the registers ; and con- 
cludes that it is indispensable to regard the average of directions at 
near stations, and not those at individual ones, and gives some exam- 
ples of discrepancies at places near each other, in support of this opi- 
nion. The anomalies presented by the stations in the state of New 
York are very curious. 

The causes assigned by theory for the production of winds are next 
enumerated and discussed. Recurring to the observations, the author 
traces a connexion between the direction of the surface wind on the 
18th and 19th of December, and a maximum of the barometer exist- 
ing on a line nearly north and south, moving eastwardly, and pass- 
ing, on the morning of the 20th of December, nearly through the east- 
ern extremity of the State of Maine. At this period a minimum of 
the barometer existed nearly on the line of the river Mississippi, and 
the winds blew towards this line. This minimum is traced in its 
motion eastward ; and in connexion with it, the change of wind from 
the easterly to the westerly quarter. On the afternoon of the 21st, 
the line of minimum pressure had reached Boston; and on the 22d, 
the north-westerly wind now prevailed at nearly all the stations. The 
direction and approximate force of the wind, on the morning of the 
21st, are represented upon a map of the United States, accompanying 
the memoir. From an examination of a phenomenon of the wind, 
Prof. Loomis concludes that the south-easterly current rose, so that 
the north-westerly wind thus became the lowermost current; and 
subsequently, from an examination of the phenomenon of the rain, 
snow, and hail, that the rising current was, in part at least, deflected 
back upon itself. The immediate cause of the south-easterly wind is 



198 

traced to the existence of a minimum of pressure, at some point north 
of the United States. 

The author next examines the various causes which have been, or 
may be, in his opinion, assigned as producing rain, and infers that 
the most common cause of rain, in these latitudes, is the sudden lift- 
ing up of warm air into regions about the earth's surface, by its dis- 
placement by a cold current originally above it, and from an oppo- 
site direction; and that such was the actual cause of the rain in 
question, a warm current from the south having been displaced, and 
caused to rise to a considerable elevation by a cold current from the 
west. The mixture of the warm and cold air is inadequate, in the 
author's opinion, to account for the phenomena. 

The author then explains the causes of the observed rise of the 
thermometer to be due to the warm south-east wind, and the subse- 
quent depression to the cold north-west wind. 

The author next examines the causes which have been assigned 
for the fluctuations of the barometer during this storm, selecting, as 
applicable to the present case, the following: — "The south-east wind, 
which accompanied the rain, moved with an accelerated velocity. 
The particles, therefore, of air, at one extremity of the current, must 
have left those of the other extremity at an increased distance. 
Hence a mechanical rarefaction, and, of course, diminished pressure. 
The reverse effect must have taken place after the storm had passed.. 
A north-west wind sets in with great violence. A vast body of air 
is precipitated toward the south-east. The partial vacuum which at 
first existed, is very soon supplied : yet, though the first impelling 
cause has ceased to act, the momentum of the excited current still 
urges it onward, and a condensation results, which continues the rise 
of the barometer." 

The author concludes by remarking, that he has availed himself 
in these discussions of the suggestions of writers on meteorology, and 
is especially indebted to the labours of Messrs. Redfield, Espy, and 
Reid. 

Dr. Hare read a communication entitled "Engraving and 
description of an apparatus and process for the rapid congela- 
tion of water, by the explosive evolution of ethereal vapour, 
consequent to the combined influence of rarefaction and the 
absorbing power of sulphuric acid, by Robert Hare, M. D.," 
which was referred to a Committee. 



199 

Mr. Walker read a communication, entitled " Observations 
on Nebulas with a fourteen feet Reflector, by H. L. Smith and 
E. P. Mason, during the year 1839, by E. P. Mason," which 
was referred to a Committee. 

Dr. Hare made a verbal communication in reference to the 
extent at which the galvanic influence could be extended 
through a coil of wire. 

Dr. Hare stated, that he had prepared a coil of copper wire, No. 
26, nearly a mile in length, by means of which, and a strap of copper, 
three inches in width, and 196 feet in length, he had been enabled to 
repeat the experiment of Professor Henry, for exciting a Faradian 
current. The wire was covered with cotton, and was coiled upon a 
wooden sieve hoop. Being suspended over a pulley, and counter- 
balanced by a weight over the strap, when this was placed in the cir- 
cuit of a calorimotor, so that the circuit might be broken by drawing 
one of the electrodes over a rasp or ratchet wheel, communicating 
with the coil, shocks were felt, when the distance of several feet in- 
tervened, and they became intolerable when the coil and strap were 
nearly in contact. Having this coil at command, it occurred to Dr. 
Hare, to ascertain how far it would be competent to act as a multi- 
plier. It seemed to be a problem which was yet to be solved, how 
far the extension of the length of the coils employed would affect 
their efficacy. He had not heard of any one in which resort had 
been had to an extension so great as a mile. Actuated by these con- 
siderations, Dr. Hare supported his coil in a vertical plane, and 
placed upon the lower and under surface of the hoop, the magnetic 
needle of an ordinary multiplier. A five cent piece, and a disk of 
zinc of the same size, being separated by a piece of moistened paper, 
when one of the ends of the coil was made to touch the silver disk 
and the other the zinc, the needle moved nearly a quadrant at every 
contact. When the disk was divided into four parts, every one of 
them was adequate to produce a movement in the needle, when the 
coil was made the medium of discharge. That such minute portions 
of metal should be capable of creating an electrical current in so long 
a coil, and sufficiently copious to influence a magnetic needle, would 
have appeared incredible to him, had it not been thus proved experi- 
mentally. 

Dr. Hare stated the general results of some experiments, 



200 

made since the last meeting of the Society, on the rarefaction 
of moist and dry air. 

Prof. Bache presented a chart of the magnetic observations 
made on the 2Sth of February last, in which he was assisted 
by Mr. Walker and Mr. Kendall. He farther called the at- 
tention of the Society to the recent publication of Prof. Gauss, 
in regard to the simultaneous changes of magnetic intensity at 
places as far apart as Gottingen and Munich. 

Dr. Dunglison read a letter from the Rev. James T. Dickin- 
son, of Singapore, to Mr. Du Ponceau, dated Nov. 25, 1839, 
expressing his satisfaction with the views of Mr. Du Ponceau, 
as contained in his " Dissertation on the Chinese System of 
Writing." 

When Mr. Dickinson commenced the study of the Chinese lan- 
guage, nearly four years ago, he attempted to learn the written 
language by the eye merely, without connecting sounds with the 
characters. To this course he was led by the fact, that the Hok- 
kien dialect, the one he studies, differs very much, as spoken, from 
the sounds given to the characters as read. His plan was to learn 
the colloquial language by itself, and to defer the learning of the 
sounds given to the characters in reading, while, in the meantime, he 
endeavoured to learn to read the characters independently of all 
sounds. In this way he would have succeeded in learning to read 
Chinese books, had the common hypothesis, that the Chinese charac- 
ters are addressed directly to the mind, and not to the mind through 
the medium of sounds, been correct. Mr. Dickinson, however, found 
himself always translating either into English or the colloquial 
Chinese. All his efforts to transfer the ideas represented in Chinese 
books to his own mind, without the help of words, either Chinese or 
English, were fruitless. 

Mr. Dickinson considers the work of Mr. Du Ponceau " a most 
valuable gift to the world, and an honour to American learning." 

Dr. Dunglison referred to a curious but not unique case, of a 
worm in the eye of a horse now in Baltimore. 

The particulars were contained in a letter to him, from Dr. Joshua 
J. Cohen, of Baltimore. This entozoon is a species of filaria, (see Fila- 
ria Papillosa, Rudolphi, Synops. p. 213) probably from 3J to 4 inches 



201 

in length, and situate in the aqueous humour, in which it moves about 
with great activity, but its motions are so constant, that it is difficult 
to appreciate its exact length. The great size of the anterior cham- 
ber of the horse's eye, affords it ample space; and through the trans- 
parent cornea, it can be observed as well as if it were in a glass 
vessel. The horse was sent up from Calvert county, Maryland. 

Dr. Dunglison made some observations on the difficulty of ac- 
counting for its presence in this shut sack, and alluded to the different 
views of distinguished naturalists as to the generation of many of the 
lower tribes of the animal kingdom, — some presuming that they may 
be formed spontaneously, whilst others consider that the germs must 
always be received from without. The difficulty, he observed, ap- 
plied to all the entozoa that infest the animal body ; and this case 
was certainly not more difficult of explanation, than that of entozoa 
found in the intestines of the foetus in utero. 

Dr. Bache referred to a similar case, which was published 
in an early volume of the Transactions of the Society, (Vol. II. 
p. 183, by F. Hopkinson, Esq., and Ibid. p. 383, by Dr. Mor- 
gan.) 

Mr. Walker referred to a letter which he had received from 
Prof. Loomis, containing two observations of Galle's second 
comet, and stated, that he (Mr. Walker) had been engaged in 
deducing the elements of the orbit of the comet, which accord- 
ed with results of European observers, but did not perfectly 
correspond with those of Prof. Loomis. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected members of the 
Society: — 

Paxil Beck Goddard, M. D., of Philadelphia. 

W. H. C. Bartlett, Professor of Natural and Experi- 
mental Philosophy, West Point. 

Wm. R. Fisher, M. D., of Philadelphia. 

George M. Wharton, of Philadelphia. 

Friedr. Wilhelm Bessel, Director of the Observatory, 
Konigsberg. 

Rev. Wm. H. Furness, of Philadelphia. 

Captain Francis Beaufort, R. N., Hydrographer to the 
Admiralty of Great Britain. 

Hartman Kuhn, of Philadelphia. 

George Washington Smith, of Philadelphia. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol. I. MAY, JUNE & JULY, 1840. No. 12. 

Stated Meeting, May 1. 
Present, twenty-one members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, publiees par les Profes- 

seurs-Administrateurs de cet Etablissement. Tom. I. 4to. Paris, 

1839. — From the Professors. 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, edited by the Acting Secre- 
taries, and circulated gratis to the Members of the Society. Nos. 

88 and 89, for April and May, 1839.— From the Society. 
Report of the Committee of Physics and Meteorology of the Royal 

Society, relative to the Observations to be made in the Antarctic 

Expedition, and in the Magnetic Observatories. 8vo. London, 

1840. — From the Royal Society. 
Fifty-third Annual Report of the Regents of the University of the 

State of New York, made to the Legislature, March 2, 1840. 

8vo. Albany, 1840. — From the Regents. 
Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York. Vol. 

IV. In Three Parts. 8vo. Albany, 1838-9-40.— From the 

Society. 
C. Cornelii Taciti quae extant, Marcus Zuerius Boxhornius recensuit, 

et Animadversionibus illustravit, &c. &c 24mo. Amstelodam. 

1664. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 
Joannis Seldeni Mare clausum, seu de Dominio Maris, Libri duo. 

24mo. Londins. 1636. — From the same. 
A 



204 



Juris et Judicii Fecialis sive Juris inter Gentes, et Qusestionum de 
eodem Explicatio, qua quse ad Pacem et Bellum inter diversos 
Principes aut Populos spectant, ex Prsecipuis Historico-jure-peritis 
exhibentur. Opera R. Z. (Ricard. Zouch) Auctoris Elementorum 
Jurisprudential. 24mo. Hagse Comitis, 1669. — From the same. 

Kong Christian den Femtes Danske Lov paa nye oplagt ved Casper 
Peter Rothe, efter Kongl. Allernaadigst meddelt Privilegium, 1753. 
From the same. 

Litteratur des gesammten sowohl natiirlichen als positiven Volker- 
rechts. Von Diedr. Heinr. Ludw. Freyherrn von Ompteda, 
Konigl. Grosbritt. Churfursll. Braunschweig. Liineb. Comitial- 
Gesandten bey der Reichsversammlung zu Regensburg, u. s. w. 
2 Theil. 8vo. Regensburg, 1785. — From the same. 

Saggio di Poesie Alemann erecate in versi Italiani da Antonio Bellati. 
Edizione nuovissima. 12mo. Milano, 1832. — From the same. 

Minshsei Emendatio, vel a Mendis Expurgatio, seu Augmentatio sui 
Ductoris in Linguas. The Guide into Tongues. Cum illarum 
Harmonia et Etymologiis, Originationibus, Rationibus et Deriva- 
tionibus in omnibus his novem Linguis, viz. — 1. Anglica; 2. Bel- 
gica; 3. Germanica; 4. Gallica; 5. Italica; 6. Hispanica; 7. 
Latina; 8. Grseca; 9. Hebrsea, &c. &c. &c. Opera, Studio, 
Industria, Lahore et Sumptibus Johannis Minshgei in lucem edi- 
tum et impressum, 22 Julii, Anno, 1625. 2da Editio, folio. 
London, 1627. — From Mr. Vaughan. 

A Memoir of William Rawle, LL.D., President of the Historical So- 
ciety, die. By T. I. Wharton, Esq. Read at a Meeting of the 
Council, held on the 22d day of February, 1837, and printed by 
order of the Society ; with a Letter from Peter S. Duponceau, 
Esq., to the Author, containing his Recollections of Mr. Rawle's 
Life and Character. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From Mr. 
Wharton. 

The Magazine of Natural History. New Series. Conducted by 
Edward Charles worth, F. G. S. &c. Jan. and Feb. 1840. Lon- 
don. — From the Editor. 

Fourteenth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Prison 
Discipline Society, Boston, May, 1839. 8vo. Boston, 1839.-— 
From Mr. J. P. Davis. 

Answer to the Whig Members of the Legislature of Massachusetts, 
constituting a Majority of both Branches, to the Address of His 
Excellency, Marcus Morton, delivered in the Convention of the 



205 

two Houses, Jan. 22, 1840. 8vo. Boston, 1840. — From the 
same. 

Abstract of the Return of the Overseers of the Poor in Massachusetts, 
for 1839; prepared by the Secretary of the Commonwealth. 8vo. 
Boston, 1840. — From the same. 

Third Annual Report of the Board of Education, together with the 
Third Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board. 8vo. Bos- 
ton, 1840. — From the same. 

Seventh Annual Report of the Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital 
at Worcester, December, 1839. 8vo. Boston, 1840. — From 
the same. 

Abstract of the Massachusetts School Returns for 1838-9. 8vo. 
Boston, 1840. — From the same. 

Report of the Geologists of the State of New York. In Assembly. 
January 24, 1840. 8vo. — From Mr. Vanuxem. 

Review of Morton's Crania Americana, from the American Journal 
of Science and Arts, No. 2, Vol. 38. — From Prof. Silliman. 

The Farmer's Register, a monthly publication, devoted to the Im- 
provement of the Practice and Support of the Interests of Agri- 
culture. Edmund Ruffin, Editor and Proprietor. Vol. VII. 
8vo. Petersburg, 1839. — From the Editor. 

Supplement to the Farmer's Register, containing the Essay on Cal- 
careous Manures. Second edition, greatly enlarged. 8.vo. Prince 
George County, Va. — From, the same. 

Instruction sur la Fabrication du Sucre de Betteraves par le Procede 
de Maceration, a l'usage des Fabriques Rurales: par C. J. A. 
Mathieu de Dombasle. 12mo. Paris, 1839.— From Mr. D. B. 
Warden. 

Question des Sucres. Indemnite aux Fabricans : par C. J. A. Ma- 
thieu de Dombasle. — From the same. 

Societe Royale et Centrale d'Agriculture. Coup d'oeil sur l'Agricul- 
ture de la Sicile; par M. le Cte. de Gasparin, Pair de France. 
From the same. 

Observations Meteorologiques faites a Flacq, He Maurice, par M. Ju- 
lien Desjardins, pendant les annees, 1836, 1837, 1838. — From the 
Author. 

Notice Historique sur Charles Telfair, Esq., Fondateur et President 
de la Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de l'lle Maurice, &c. &c, lue 
a la 4me Seance Annuelle de la Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de 
l'lle Maurice, le Samedi, 24 Aoiit, 1833, par M. Julien Desjar- 



206 

dins, Secretaire et 1'un des Membres Fondateurs de cette Societe, 
&c. &c. 4to. Port-Louis, He Maurice, 1836. — From the same. 

Liste des Membres qui component la Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de 
l'lle Maurice, ler September, 1836. — From the same. 

Huitieme Rapport Annuel sur les Travaux de la Societe d'Histoire 
Naturelle de l'lle Maurice, lu a la Seance Anniversaire du Jeudi, 
24 A out, 1837, par M. Julien Desjardins, &c. &c. 8vo. Mau- 
rice, 1837. — From the same. 

Proceedings of the Numismatic Society of London, 1837-8, contain- 
ing the Address of the President, Dr. Lee. 8vo. London, 1838. 
From Dr. Lee. 

Sir James Clark's Statement of the Case of the late Lady Flora Has- 
tings, &c. &c. — From Dr. Dunglison. 

The Works of Benjamin Franklin ; containing several Political and 
Historical Tracts not included in any former edition, and many 
Letters, Official and Private, not hitherto published ; with Notes, 
and a Life of the Author. By Jared Sparks. Vols. 1, 8, 9, and 
10, which complete the Work. Royal 8vo. Boston, 1839-40. — 
From Mr. Sparks. 

The Orderly Book of the American Army, under the immediate 
Command of Cen. Washington at Valley Forge. MS. — From Col. 
Hugh Mercer, of Fredericksburg, Va., through Dr. Mease. 

Mr. Vaughan, on presenting a transfer of page 524 of 
Schaaf's Syriac Lexicon (Leyden edition, 1717), &c, by Mr. 
Joseph Dixon, of Taunton, Massachusetts, on the plan of the 
transfer process of Mr. Dixon's invention, read sundry extracts 
of letters from him on the subject. 

A notice of this invention was first published in the Salem Gazette, 
by the editor of that paper, on the 25th day of May, 1832; but the 
inventor has not yet made the process public. 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Walker, Dr. Patterson, 
and Mr. Bache, to whom was referred a paper, entitled "Ob- 
servations on Nebula?, with a Fourteen Feet Reflector, by H. 
L. Smith and E. P. Mason, during the year 1839, by E. P. 
Mason," reported in favour of publication in the Society's 
Transactions, which was directed accordingly. 

The object of Messrs. Smith and Mason was to furnish a minute 
description of some of the principal nebula? in the heavens, in order 



207 

that future changes in their appearance, should any occur, may be 
detected. The process employed was — 1st. To prepare an accurate 
chart of all the stars in and about the nebula, capable of micrometri- 
cal measurement. 2dly. To fill in with the smaller stars down to the 
minimum visibile, by estimation. 3dly. To lay down the nebula on 
this chai't with such care and precision, that the errors of its delinea- 
tion may not far exceed those of original vision. The author, Mr. 
Mason, states at length the expedients used to effect the latter pur- 
pose, viz. — the drawing of lines of equal brightness, as a guide to 
the engraver ; the examination of each portion of the nebula by seve- 
ral persons; and, lastly, the repeated comparison of the drawings 
with the original, on successive evenings, till no further improvement 
seemed to be practicable. 

The telescope, used by Messrs. Smith and Mason, was of their own 
construction. It was 14 feet in length, and had 12 inches clear aper- 
ture, being a Herschelian, mounted somewhat rudely on the plan of 
Mr. Ramage. The difficulties experienced by Messrs. Smith and 
Mason, as amateur artists in casting and polishing specula at New 
Haven, are stated in detail. The telescope was capable of sepa- 
rating f Orionis, p? Bootis, y Virginis in 1838, AOphiuchi, and others 
of a distance of less than 1". For such purposes, however, the use 
of diaphragms was necessary, owing to an imperfection of the cast- 
ing, and the full light of the telescope could not be employed. This 
circumstance directed their attention to the subject of this paper. 

A cursory examination of the principal nebulas described, and, in 
some instances, figured by the Herschels, pointed out discrepancies 
between their descriptions and present appearances, which must be 
attributed either to a change in the nebulas themselves, or to the want 
of sufficient minuteness of examination on the part of the Herschels, 
whose object was rather the formation of a complete catalogue of the 
nebulas in the heavens, than the full and perfect description of any of 
the individuals. Thus, the paper contains a drawing of the "nebula 
trifida," h. 1991: the triple star does not occupy the same position in 
the cleft as given in the figure in Sir J. F. W. Herschel's paper, Phil. 
Trans. 1833, but rather adheres to the left of the three divisions; 
and what is more remarkable, the small star about 30' north of this 
triple star was surrounded with a nebula not much inferior in size 
and brilliancy to the " nebula trifida." A drawing is also fur- 
nished of the nebula, h. 2008, (the shape of which resembles the 



208 

capital Greek O) with a critical examination of Herschel's figure of 
the same. 

The most remarkable discovery of Messrs. Smith and Mason, was 
that of the junction of the two nebulse, h. 2092 and 2093. These 
great nebulae, or "milky xvays" are described on several occasions 
by the elder Herschel, and are also described and figured by the 
younger. They are distant about two-thirds of a degree from each 
other. Messrs. Smith and Mason, however, distinctly saw the nebu- 
lous matter extending from one to the other, making the whole one 
conspicuous nebula of more than a degree in length, being among the 
most remarkable in the heavens, and inferior only to the great nebulse 
of Orion and Andromeda. 

Mr. Mason remarks, that it is difficult to conceive how the com- 
panion of the nebula trifida, and the junction of the two last men- 
tioned, should have been overlooked by such observers as the Her- 
schels, with instruments so far superior to his in optical capacity. 
The supposition that the nebulous space, noticed by Messrs. Smith 
and Mason, was not brought under the immediate inspection of the 
Herschels, seemed inadmissible. That the greater clearness of the 
atmosphere of New Haven should more than compensate for the in- 
ferior light of the telescope employed was hardly probable; the only 
remaining supposition was, that the nebulous matter, in the space 
examined by all these observers, has recently undergone a change in 
shape and brilliancy. 

In making the chart of the stars to which the nebulous space is re- 
ferred, Mr. Mason used the ten feet Dollond refractor, of five inches 
aperture, belonging to the Philosophical Department of Yale College, 
with a Dollond's illuminated line micrometer. With this he has de- 
termined the relative position of the stars down to the 16th magni- 
tude, by repeated observations, and has furnished a catalogue of the 
correct places of 15 stars in the first chart, 30 in the second, and 182 
in the third. 

Dr. Dunglison stated, that the horse, with the filaria in the 
aqueous humour of the eye, to which allusion was made at the 
last meeting (See Proceedings, p. 200), was in the city, and 
that he had had an opportunity of verifying the statement then 
made. Dr. Dunglison referred to several similar cases, — most 
of the observers believing the entozoon to be a filaria papillosa, 
but some a lesser strongylus. 



209 

Dr. Hays referred to cases of entozoa found not only in the 
eye, but in other parts of the body, and alluded briefly to the 
practicability of the germs being received from without. 

Dr. Chapman, as chairman of the Committee to collect docu- 
ments connected with the political and historical state of the 
country, reported that he would be able to procure for the So- 
ciety the Correspondence of Robert Morris. He farther stated 
his expectation to be able to present important documents from 
Virginia, calculated to throw valuable light on the history of 
the colony and the country. 

Mr. Vaughan reported the death of Mr. Wm. Maclure, a 
member of the Society, who died in Mexico on the 23d of 
March last. 

Dr. Dunglison, reporter, presented No. 11 of the printed 
Bulletin. 



Stated Meeting, May 15. 
Present, twenty-six members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President^ in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

for the library. 

Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou. Nos. 
2 & 3. Annee, 1838. 8vo. Moscou, 1838.— From the So- 
ciety. 

Communication from the Governor, transmitting several Reports re- 
lative to the Geological Survey of the State. 8vo. New York, 
1840. — From the State. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society. Nos. 41 and 42. December 5, 
1839, to March 26, 1840, inclusive. — From the Royal Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Astronomical Society. Vol. V. No. 4. 
February 14, 1840. (Annual meeting). — From the Society. 

Public Documents, printed by order of the Senate of the United States, 



210 

Third Session of the 25th Congress, begun and held at the City 
of Washington, December 3, 1838, &c. In 5 vols. 8vo. Wash- 
ington, 1839. — From the Secretary of State. 

Executive Documents, 25th Congress, 3d Session, 1838. In 6 Vols. 
8vo. — From the same. 

Reports of Committees, 25th Congress, 3d Session, 1838. In 2 Vols. 
8vo. — From the same. 

Journal of the Senate of the United States of America, 3d Session, 
25th Congress, &c. &c 8vo. Washington, 1838.— -From the 
same. 

Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 3d Ses- 
sion, 25th Congress, &c. &c. 8vo. Washington, 1839. — From 
the same. 

Experimental Researches on Electricity. By Michael Faraday, 
D. C. L., F. R. S., Fullerian Professor of Chemistry in the 
Royal Institution, &c. &c 8yo. London, 1839. — From Mr. 
Bancker. 

De la Bienfaisance Publique : par M. le Baron de Gerando, Pair de 
France, Membre de PInstitut, &c. &c. 4 Vols. 8vo. Paris, 
1839. — From Dr. Harlan. 

L'figypte et la Turquie de 1829 a 1836: par MM. Ed. de Cadalvene 
et J. de Breuvery, avec Cartes et Planches. 2 Vols. 8vo. Paris, 
1836. Avec Atlas in fol. — From Mr. Vaughan. 

A Treatise on the Mulberry Tree and Silkworm, and on the Produc- 
tion and Manufacture of Silk, embellished with appropriate En- 
gravings. By John Clarke, Superintendent of the Morodendron 
- Silk Company of Philadelphia. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1839. — 
From Mr. Duponceau. 

A Manual, containing Information respecting the Growth of the Mul- 
berry Tree, with suitable Directions for the Culture of Silk. In 
three parts. By J. H. Cobb, A. M. Originally published by 
direction of His Excellency, Governor Lincoln, agreeably to a 
Resolve of the Commonwealth. Fourth edition, enlarged. 12mo. 
Boston, 1839. — From the same. 

A Manual, containing Directions for Sowing, Transplanting, and 
Raising the Mulberry Tree ; together with proper Instructions for 
Propagating the same by Cuttings, Layers, &c. &c, as also In- 
structions for the Culture of Silk: to which is added, Calculations 
showing the Produce and probable Expense of Cultivating from 
one to ten Acres, as tested by actual Results. By Edward P. 



211 

Roberts, Editor, Farmer and Gardener. Third edition, with 
Improvements and Additions. 8vo. Baltimore, 1838. — From 
the same. 

The History of the United States for 1796 ; including a Variety of In- 
teresting Particulars relative to the Federal Government previous 
to that Period. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1797. — From the same. 

The American Monthly Magazine, from January to Jane, 1824. 
Edited by James M'Henry. Vol. I. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1824. — 
From the same. 

Tracts and other Papers relating principally to the Origin, Settle- 
ment and Progress of the Colonies in North America, from the 
Discovery of the Country to the Year 1776. Collected by Peter 
Force. Vol. I. Washington, 1836. — From the same. 

The Original Letters written by the Rev. John Heckewelder, from 
the 3d of April, 1816, to the 5th of May, 1822, on the Indian 
Languages, &c. Collected by Peter S. Du Ponceau. 1840. — 
From the same. 

Berichte aus den Vereinigten Staaten Von Nord America, iiber Ei- 
senbahnen, Dampfschiffahrten, Banken und Andere Oeffentliche 
Unternehmungen. Verfasst von Franz Anton Ritter von Gerst- 
ner, Landstand im Konigreiche Bchmen, emer. Professor der 
Mathematik am K. K. Polytechnischen Institute in Wien, u. s. w.; 
wahrend dessen Aufenthaltes in Nord America, im Jahre, 1838 
und 1839. 4to. Leipzig, 1839.— From Dr. T. G. Fltigel, 
U. S. Consul at Leipzig. 

North American Herpetology, or a Description of the Reptiles in- 
habiting the United States. By John Edward Hoi brook, M. D. 
Professor of Anatomy in the Medical College of the State of 
South Carolina, dec. &c. Vol. 3. 4to. Philadelphia, 1838. — 
From the Author. 

Report of a Geological, Mineralogical, and Topographical Examina- 
tion of the Coal Field of Carbon Creek, the Property of the To- 
wanda Rail Road and Coal Company, Bradford County, Pa. with 
an Analysis of the Minerals, accompanied by a Map of the Sur- 
veys, Profile of the Road, and Sections of the Mineral Ground. By 
Walter R. Johnson, A. M., Civ. and Min. Engineer, Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural Philosophy in Pennsylvania College, 
Philadelphia, dec. dzc. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From the 
Author. 

Petrifications Recueillies en Amerique, par M. Alexandre de Hum- 



212 

boldt, et par M. Charles Degenhardt ; decrites par Leopold de 
Buch. Fol. Berlin, 1839.— From M. de Buck. 

Explication de Deux Planches de Spirifer et d'Orthis. Par Leopold 
de Buch. Fol. — From the same. 

Explication de Trois Planches d'Ammonites. Par Leopold de Buch. 
4to. — From the same. 

Lecture on the Advantages derived from Cultivating the Arts and 
Sciences. By G. Emerson, M.D. Delivered before the Phila- 
delphia Mercantile Library Association, &c. Dec. 8, 1839. 8vo. 
From the Author. 

Synopsis of a Meteorological Journal, kept in the city of New York 
for the Years 1838 and 1839, including also the Mean Results of 
the last Seven Years. By W. C. Redfield. — From the Author. 

New Zealand in 1839, or Four Letters to the Right Hon. Earl Dur- 
ham, Governor of the New Zealand Land Company, &c &c. 
on the Colonization of that Island, and on the Present Condition 
and Prospects of its Native Inhabitants. By John Dunmore Lang, 
D.D., Principal of the Australian College, and Senior Minister of 
the Church of Scotland in New South Wales. 8vo. London, 
1839. — From the Author. 

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. No. LI. May, 
1840. — From the Editor, Dr. Hays. 

Report of the Directors of the Thames Tunnel Company to the Ge- 
neral Assembly of Proprietors, held at the London Tavern, on 
the 3d day of March, 1840; — with a Plan. — From Mr. William 
Vaughan. 

Sundry Pamphlets, 1. Exposition of the Plan and Objects of the 
Greenwood Cemetery, chartered by the State of New York. 8vo. 
New York, 1839. 2. Report of the Committee on the New 
Haven Burying Ground. 8vo. New Haven, 1839. 3. A Ser- 
mon, by Thomas F. Davies ; published by request of the Congre- 
gational Society in Green's Farms. 8vo. New Haven, 1839. 
4. Annual Address to the Candidates for Medical Degrees and 
Licenses in Yale College, Feb. 26, 1839. By Dr. Thomas 
Miner. Second edition. 8vo. New Haven, 1839. 5. Annual 
Address on a Similar Occasion, Jan. 21, 1840. By Dr. Dyar T. 
Brainard. 8vo. New Haven, 1840. 6. Report of a Commit- 
tee on the State of the Prisons of Fairfield County. 8vo. Bridge- 
port, 1839. 7. The Completion of two Centuries, a Discourse 
preached in Fairfield, Nov. 28, 1839. By Lyman H. Atwater„ 



213 

Pastor of the First Church in Fairfield. 8vo. Bridgeport, 1839. 
8. Report of the Agricultural Meeting held in Boston, Jan. 13, 
1840, containing the Remarks of Mr. Webster and Prof. Silliman, 
with Notes by Henry Colman, Commissioner for the Agricultural 
Survey of the State. 8vo. Salem, 1840. A Discourse delivered 
in Norfield, May, 29, 1836. By John Noyes, at the close of the 
50th year of his Ministry. 8vo. New Haven, 1839. — From 
Prof. Silliman. 

Tableau Theorique de la Succession et de la Disposition la plus 
generate en Europe des Terrains et Roches qui composent 
l'Ecorce de la Terre ; ou Exposition Graphique du Tableau des 
Terrains, public en 1829; par M. Alexandre Brongniart, Pro- 
fesseur de Mineralogie au Museum d'Histoh'e Naturelle de Paris. 
From the Author. 

Third Annual Report of the Board of Education, together with the 
Third Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board. 8vo. Bos- 
ton, 1840. — From Dr. Thomas H. Webb, of Boston. 

Original Journal of a Council of War, held at Perth Amboy, Sept. 
17, 1776 ; General Mercer, President, in which he proposed an 
Attack on the British Posts at Staten Island. MS. — Fro?n his Son, 
Col. Hugh Mercer. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A Plaster Bust of Alexander Hamilton. — From Mrs. Astley. 

Specimens of Crystallized Carbonate of Lime and Pipe Iron Ore ; 
found at the Iron Works of William Reed, Perrysville, Mifflin 
County, and. by him deposited at the Bank of the United States, 
with N. Biddle, Esq. — From Mr. Durilap, with the assent of 
Mr. Biddle. 

Two Daguerrotype Portraits, the one of Mr. Du Ponceau, the other 
of Mr. Vaughan, taken by Mr. Cornelius. — From Dr. Goddard. 

The Committee to whom was referred the paper of Dr. 
Hare, entitled "Engraving and description of an apparatus and 
process for the rapid congelation of water," &c. reported in 
favour of its publication in the Society's Transactions, which 
was ordered accordingly. 

A communication was read from Professor Bonnycastle, of 
the University of Virginia, entitled " On the insufficiency of 
Taylor's Theorem, as commonly investigated, with objections 



214 

to the demonstrations of Poisson and Cauchy, and the assumed 
generalization of Mr. Peacock, to which is added a new in- 
vestigation, and remarks on the development and continuity 
of functions;" which was referred to a Committee. 

Mr. Lea read a paper, entitled "Notice of the Oolitic forma- 
tion in America, with descriptions of some of its organic re- 
mains, by Isaac Lea;" which was referred to a Committee. 

A communication was read from Prof. Locke, of Cincinnati, 
the objects of which are, " 1. To determine more accurately the 
relation, magnetic dip and intensity at Cincinnati, and at Louis- 
ville, Ky., by making observations as near together, in point 
of time, as possible. 2. To determine the horary changes of 
horizontal intensity at Cincinnati, and 3. To ascertain more 
accurately the effect of changes of temperature on the needles 
used by the author, and to deduce a constant coefficient for each 
of them." The paper was referred to the same Committee to 
whom Professor Locke's previous paper on the same subject 
was referred, (proceedings of March 6, 1840.) 

Mr. Du Ponceau made a verbal communication on the sub- 
ject of the silk culture in India. 

It appears from the sixth volume of the Transactions of the Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society of India, Calcutta, 1839, which is 
in the library of the Society, that the English are extending the cub 
tore, of silk to the Deccan and the Western Coast of India, and have 
an establishment for that purpose, under the direction of Signor 
Mutti, an Italian gentleman, who resides at Bombay, and is styled 
" Superintendent of the Silk Culture in the Deccan." Two letters 
addressed by him to John Bell, Esq. Secretary of the Agricultural 
Society of India, Mr. Du Ponceau considered to be worthy of the at- 
tention of those who feel an interest in the promotion of the silk cul- 
ture in this country. A treatise by that gentleman on the various 
branches of the silk culture, is subjoined to, and published with, his 
letters. The chapter or division concerning the art or method of 
reeling or winding silk from the eocoons, Mr. Du Ponceau regards 
as replete with valuable practical instruction. 

On this last subject, (the art of reeling,) the correspondent at Paris 
of the National Intelligencer asserts, that an excellent Treatise has been 
lately published, in that capital, by Mons. Ferrier, which has been re- 



215 

published in the third volume of the Annals of the Sericole. Society, 
specially instituted for the promotion of the culture of silk in 
France. 

As instruction is much wanted in this country, on this particular 
subject, while the culture of silk engages the general attention, Mr. 
Du Ponceau expressed a" hope that M. Ferrier's Treatise would be 
translated, and published for the benefit of his fellow citizens. 

Mr. Du Ponceau farther stated, that from the volume of Transac- 
tions above cited, it appears that the English are making great exer- 
tions to introduce the culture of cotton into India. Specimens of the 
best soils for growing cotton in this country, particularly those of 
Georgia, have been sent to the Agricultural and Horticultural So- 
ciety, and analyzed by them. The descriptions accompanying the 
specimens have not been found sufficiently, particular, nor have their 
analyses yet led to any decided conclusions. They seem to think, 
that the abundance and fineness of good cotton depend on the quanti- 
ty of carbon in the soil, and the solubility of that carbon. But with 
this theory they do not appear to be entirely satisfied. They find 
that all the American, the Mauritius, and the best Singapore soils, 
producing the finest cotton, contain a considerable per centage of 
vegetable matter under the form of peat or lignite, in a state of ex- 
ceedingly minute division, and in many of them, some part of it is 
readily soluble in cold water. They find, again, that the Indian soils 
contain very little vegetable matter, and this wholly insoluble in 
water, but that the best contain a far larger proportion of carbonate 
of lime, and some of them the iron in a different state from the others. 
It would seem, however, that the plant is somewhat indifferent about 
the iron ; yet, as it is not known what part the iron plays in soils 
(which may influence their electricity as well as their tenacity and 
relations to moisture), they consider it a matter to be borne in mind 
and to be subjected to farther inquiries. 

The culture of the vine in India, Mr. Du Ponceau added, appears 
also to engage much of the attention of the Society; and, on the whole, 
the useful arts and sciences seem to be cultivated in that country to 
a degree which deserves to be particularly noticed. 

Mr. Walker stated the results of Professor Loomis's farther 
observations on the subject of Galle's second comet, which 
Prof. L. intends hereafter to lay before the Society. He 
further stated, that Galle had discovered a third comet, which 



216 

was of great interest to the astronomer; as it was likely to add 
another to the number of comets of known period. 

Mr. Walker mentioned the receipt of European observations of 
Galle's second comet, as late as the 21st of February, and those of 
Prof. Loornis of the 18th and 19th of March. From. these, he had 
selected the observations made Jan. 25th and Feb. 21st. at the Ber- 
lin Observatory, and that of Prof. Loornis at the Hudson Observa- 
tory, on the 19th of March; and had computed the elements of its 
orbit. 

The comet's observed geocentric longitude and latitude, cleared of 
aberration and parallax, and referred to the mean equinox of Jan. 
1840, were as follows: — 

M. T. Berlin. Longitude. Latitude. 



25.^49021 2° 57' 26.8" +75° 9' 42.1" 

52. 47442 28 44 0.6 + 33 42 26.1 

79. 59679 35 47 34.8 -f 9 22 20.4 

from which he had obtained for the elements of the comet ; — 
Perihelion Pass. March 13. d 07523 Berlin mean time. 
SI 236° 49' 8.0" 
/ 59 15 8.9 
7T 80 14 52.8 
log. q 0.086798 

Motion retrograde. 

■Dr. Dunglison gave the particulars of a case, in which blood 
that flowed, on dissection, from the arteries of the brain, coa- 
gulated fifteen hours after the death of the individual. 

The patient died after a severe agony, and after an illness of 
some duration, for which mercury had been administered so as to af- 
fect the system freely. On opening the head, the arteries of the 
brain were found turgid with blood ; and on removing the brain, the 
blood flowed from them, and coagulated. 

Dr. Dunglison made some remarks on the singularity of this phe- 
nomenon, and its relations to physiology and medical jurisprudence, 
and stated that it completely overthrew the views of those, who be- 
lieve that the blood is either possessed of a vital influence, or re- 
ceives some influence from the living vessels that contain it, which 
maintains its fluidity, and that so soon as it is removed from these 



217 

influences it coagulates or dies. In this case the blood remained 
fluid, and coagulation took place fifteen hours after the total cessation 
of respiration and circulation, and after the blood had become cold ; 
circumstances showing that the phenomenon is wholly physical in 
its nature. 

Mr. Vaughan reported the death of Benjamin Allen, LL. D., 
a member of the Society, who died on the 20th of July, 
1836, aged 64 years. 

On motion of Mr. Vaughan, it was Resolved, That Prince 
Maximilian of Neuwied should be presented with the volumes 
of the Transactions of the Society since the fourth volume. 

Mr. Vaughan further stated, that Prince Maximilian had 
intimated his intention of presenting to the Society a copy of 
his Voyage to America, with accompanying Atlas, &c. 

The Librarian, in accordance with a resolution of the So- 
ciety,* presented, for approval, a list of Societies to whom it is 
proposed to send the proceedings of the Society. 

* The resolutions, adopted at a recent meeting (April 3d, 1840,) for the dis- 
tribution of the Society's proceedings, are as follows : — 

First. Twenty copies to be furnished to the Librarian to be retained in the 
Library. 

Secondly. A copy to be sent regularly 

a. To members qualified to vote at elections, and to such other members as 
the Secretaries may think proper. 

b. To each of the Societies in correspondence with this Society. 

c. To the Editors of such Scientific Journals of the United States and of 
foreign countries as may be determined upon by the Secretaries. 

d. To each subscriber to the Transactions of the Society, not otherwise en- 
titled to a copy. 

Thirdly. A copy of the number of the Bulletin, in which their communica- 
cations are noticed, to be sent to correspondents, not members of the So- 
ciety. 

Fourthly. Any person to be permitted to subscribe for the year, with the Li- 
brarian, at such annual subscription price as shall be affixed by the Secretaries. 

Fifthly. It shall be the duty of the Librarian to transmit regularly, and as 
early after the date of publication as practicable, the copies for the various So- 
cieties, at home and abroad, which copies shall be furnished him by the Secre- 
taries, duly enveloped, according to a list sanctioned by the Society. 

Sixthly. It shall be the duty of the Secretaries to attend to the conservation 
and distribution of the remainder, as above directed, and they shall be au- 
thorized to take such measures for this purpose as they may deem expedient. 



218 



The following list was sanctioned. 



Albany, Institute. 
Boston, Bowditch Library. 

,, Academy of Sciences. 

„ Historical Society of Massa- 
chusetts. 

,, Athenaeum. 

,, Society of Natural History. 

,, Statistical Society. 
Cambridge, Library of Harvard Uni- 
versity. 
Georgia Historical Society. 



UNITED STATES. 

Harrisburg, Library of State of Penn- 
sylvania. 
Hartford, Society of Natural History. 

,, Historical Society. 

Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences. 
,, Athenaeum. 

,, Franklin' Institute. 

Providence, Rhode Island Historical 

Society. 
Washington City, Library of Congress. 
Worcester, Antiquarian Society. 
EUROPE.— 1. Great Britain. 



Bath, Bath and West of England So- 
ciety. 
Cambridge, Philosophical Society. 
Dublin, Royal Irish Academy. 

,, Dublin Society. 
Edinburgh Royal Society. 

,, Society of Antiquaries. 

London, Royal Society. 

„ Astronomical Society. 

,, Greenwich Observatory. 

„ Horticultural Society. 

,, Society of Arts, Manufac- 
tures and Commerce. 



London, Geological Society. 
„ Zoological Society. 
„ Linnaean Society. 
,, Royal Geographical Society. 
,, Royal Asiatic Society. 
„ Antiquarian- Society. 
,, London Institution. 
,, Royal Institution. 
,, British Association. 

Manchester, Literary and Philosophi- 
cal Society. 

Penzance, Royal Cornwall Geologi- 
cal Society. 



2. Continent. 



Amsterdam, Netherlands Institute. 

Haarlem, Hollandish Society of Sci- 
ences. 

Rotterdam, Batavian Society of Sci- 
ences. 

Brussels, Royal Academy of Sciences 
and Belles Lettres. 

Berlin, Royal Academy of Sciences, 

Copenhagen, Royal Academy of Sci- 
ences. 

Gottingen, Royal Academy of Sci- 
ences. 

Lisbon, Royal Academy of Sciences. 

Madrid, Royal Academy of History. 

Moscow, Imperial Society of Natural 



St. Petersburg, Imperial Academy of 

Sciences. 
Paris, Institute and Royal Academy 
of Sciences. 
,, School of Mines. 
„ Royal Asiatic Society. 
,, Museum of Natural History. 
,, Society of Antiquaries. 
,, Geographical Society. 
Pesth, Hungarian Academy of Sci- 
ences. 
Stockholm, Royal Academy of Sci- 
ences. 
Turin, Royal Academy of Sciences. 
Upsal, Royal Academy of Sciences. 



History. 

INDIA. 
Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Ben- Calcutta, Horticultural and AgricuItU' 
gal. ral Society. 



219 

Stated Meeting, June 19. 
Present, twenty-four members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Transactions of the Geological Society of London. Second series. 
Vol. V. Part 2. 4to. London, 1840. — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Astronomical Society. Vol. V. No. 5. 
March 13, 1840. — From the Society. 

Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie. Deuxieme Serie. Tom. xii. 
8vo. Paris, 1839. — From the Society. 

Physicorum Aristotelis Libri. Argumenta in singulos Libros, ex Op- 
timis Grsecorum Commentariis conversa jam recens adjecimus. 
Catalogum vero Librorum in hoc Opere contentorum sequenti 
Pagella reperies. 8vo. Lugduni, 1554. — From Mr. Pening- 
ton. 

Lapis Philosophicus sive Commentarius in octo Libros Physicorum 
Aristot. in quo Arcana Physiologic examinantur. Auctore Jo- 
anne Caso, in Medicina Doctore Oxoniensi, &c. Accedit in Fine 
Ancilla Philosophise, seu Epitome in octo Libros Aristot. Phy- 
sicorum, eodem Auctore, cum Indicibus Locupletissimis. 8vo. 
Francof. ad Mcenum. 1600. — From the same. 

Fourth Annual Report on the Geological Survey of the State of 
Pennsylvania. By Henry D. Rogers, State Geologist. Read in 
the House of Representatives, Feb. 8, 1840. 8vo. Harrisburg, 
1840 — From Mr. Frederick Fraley. 

A Description of the Canals and Rail Roads of the United States, 
comprehending Notices of all the Works of Internal Improvement 
throughout the several States. By H. S. Tanner. 8vo. New 
York, 1840. — From the Author. 

The American Traveller, or Guide through the United States: con- 
taining Brief Notices of the several States, Cities, principal 
Towns, Canals, and Rail Roads, &c, with Tables of Distances 
by Stage, Canal, and Steamboat Routes : the whole Alphabeti- 
cally arranged, with direct reference to the accompanying Map 
of the Roads, Canals, and Railways of the United States. Sixth 



220 

Edition. By H. S. Tanner. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1840.-— Frews 
the Author. 

Sketch of the Geology of North America, being the Substance of a 
Memoir read before the Ashmolean Society, November 26, 1838. 
By Charles. Daubeny, M. D., F. R. S., L. S., G. S., M. R. I. A., 
Member of the American Philosophical Society, &c. &c. 8vo. 
Oxford, 1839. — From the Author. 

Fifth Geological Report to the Twenty-third General Assembly of 
Tennessee, made November, 1839. By G. Troost, M. D., Geo- 
logist to the State, &c. 8vo. Nashville, 1840. — From the Au- 
thor. 

Pamphlets. 1. Journal of a Voyage from Okkak, on the Coast of 
Labrador, to Ungana Bay, westward of Cape Chudleigh; under- 
taken to Explore the Coast, and Visit the Esquimaux in that Un- 
known Region. By Benjamin Kohlmeister and George Kmoch, 
Missionaries of the Church of the Unitas Fratrum or United 
Brethren. 8vo. London, 1814. 2. Authentische Relation von 
dem Anlass, Fortgang und Schlusse der am lsten. und 2ten. Ja- 
nuarii, Anno 174J, im Germantown gehaltenen Versammlung 
einiger Arbeiter derer meisten Christlichen Religionen und vieler 
vor sich selbst GoTT-dienenden CHRisTEN-menschen in Pennsyl- 
vania: aufgesetzt in Germantown am Abend des 2ten. obigen 
Monats. 4to. Philadelphia. 3. Defensive War, in a Just Cause, 
Sinless: a Sermon preached by the Rev. David Jones, A. M. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1775. 4. A Lecture on the Excellence of 
. the Gospel of Christ, &c. By John Stanford, M. A. 12mo. 
New York, 1791. 5. Report of the Preliminary Survey of the 
Route of the Hudson and Delaware Rail Road. By James B. 
Sargent, Esq., Civil Engineer, &c 8vo. Newburgh, 1836. — 
From Mr. John Jordan, Jr. 

Twelve Views of Churches, Schools, and other Buildings, erected by 
the United Brethren in America, with Descriptions, History, &c. 
New York, 1836. — From the same. 

Frank; or Dialogues between a Father and Son, on the Subjects of 
Agriculture, Husbandry, and Rural Affairs. By the Author of 

"The Yellow Shoestrings." Small 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840 

From the Author. 

View of the Origin and Migrations of the Polynesian Nation; demon- 
strating their Ancient Discovery and Progressive Settlement of 



221 

the Continent of America. By John Dunmore Lang, D. D., &c 
&c. 8vo. London, 1834. — From the Author. 

Transportation and Colonization ; or the Causes of the Comparative 
Failure of the Transportation System in the Australian Colonies: 
with Suggestions for Insuring its Future Efficiency in Subser- 
viency to Extensive Colonization. By John Dunmore Lang, D. D., 
Principal of the Australian College, &c 12mo. London, 1837. — 
From the same. 

Annual Report of the Geologist of Maryland (Dr. J. T. Ducatel). 
8vo. 1839. — From the Author. 

On the Mutual Action of Permanent Magnets, considered chiefly in 
Reference to their best Relative Position in an Observatory. By 
the Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, A. M., Fellow of Trinity College, Pro- 
fessor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Dublin, &c. &c, 
Honorary Member of the American Philosophical Society. (Pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. XIX. 
Part I.) 4to. Dublin, 1840. — From the Author. 

A Discourse pronounced at Barnstable on the 3d of September, 1839, 
at the Celebration of the Second Centennial Anniversary of the 
Settlement of Cape Cod. By John Gorham Palfrey. 8vo. Bos- 
ton, 1840. — From the Author. 

The Study of the Celtic Languages. (From the New York Review 
for April, 1840.) By A. B. Chapin, M. A., Mem. Conn. Acad. 
Arts and Sciences, and Rector of St. James' Church, New Haven. 
8vo. New York, 1840.^ — From the Author. 

The Twenty-fourth Report of the Directors of the American Asylum 
at Hartford, for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and 
Dumb. Exhibited to the Asylum, May 16, 1840. 8vo. Hart- 
ford, 1840.— From Mr. Lewis Weld. 

Researches on the Gale and Hurricane in the Bay of Bengal on the 
3d, 4th, and 5th of June, 1839. By Henry Peddington. (From 
the Journal of the Asiatic Society.) 8vo. Calcutta, 1839. — 
From Dr. Harlan. 

The Bhaguat-geeta, or Dialogues of Kreeshna and Arjoon, in eighteen 
Lectures ; with Notes. Translated from the Original in the San- 
skreet, or Ancient Language of the Bra.hma.ns. By Charles Wil- 
kins, Senior Merchant in the Service of the Honourable East 
India Company, &c. 4to. London, 1785. — From Mr. Vaughan. 

Memorials of Columbus : or a Collection of Authentic Documents of 
that Celebrated Navigator, now first published from the Original 



222 

Manuscripts, by Order of the Decurions of Genoa ; preceded by a 
Memoir of his Life and Discoyeries. Translated from the Spanish 
and Italian. 8vo. London, 1823. — From the same. 

Necessity of Popular Education as a National Object ; with Hints on 
the Treatment of Criminals, and Observations on Homicidal In- 
sanity. By James Simpson. 12mo. New York, 1834. — From 
the same. 

A Biographical Memoir of the late Commodore Joshua Barney, from 
Autographical Notes and Journals in Possession of his Family, 
and other Authentic Sources. Edited by Mary Barney. 8vo. 
Boston, 1832. — From the same. 

The Universal Cambist and Commercial Instructor: being a Full 
and Accurate Treatise on the Exchanges, Moneys, Weights, and 
Measures of all Trading Nations and their Colonies ; with an Ac- 
count of their Banks, Public Funds, and Paper Currencies. By 
P. Kelly, LL.D., Master of the Finsbury Square Academy, Lon- 
don, &c. &c. 2 Vols. 4to. The Second Edition, including a 
Revision of Foreign Weights and Measures, from an Actual Com- 
parison of their Standards, by the Order and Aid of the British 
Government. London, 1821. — From the same. 

Description de l'Egypte, contenant plusieurs Remarques Curieuses 
sur la Geographie Ancienne et Moderne de ce Pais, sur ses Monu- 
mens Anciens, sur les Moeurs, les Coutumes, et la Religion des 
Habitans, sur le Gouvernement et le Commerce, sur les Animaux, 
les Arbres, les Plantes, &c Composee sur les Memoires de M. 
de Maillet, Ancien Consul de France au Caire, par M. l'Abbe le 
Maserier. Ouvrage enrichi de Cartes et de Figures. 4to. Paris, 
1735. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Indian Biography, containing the Lives of more than Two Hundred 
Indian Chiefs ; also such others of that Race as have rendered 
their Names conspicuous in the History of North America, from 
its first being known to Europeans, to the present Period ; giving, 
at large, their most Celebrated Speeches, Memorable Sayings, 
Numerous Anecdotes, and a History of their Wars; much of 
which is taken from Manuscripts never before published. By 
Samuel G. Drake. 12mo. Boston, 1832. — From the same. 

An Original Letter of William Smith, Secretary of the American 
Philosophical Society, before its Union with the Junto in 1769, to 
Governor Hamilton, October 18, 1768, relative to the Transit of 
Venus. — From the same. 



223 

A Discourse on the Life and Character of the Reverend John Thorn- 
ton Kirkland, D. D., LL.D., formerly Pastor of the Church on 
Church Green, Boston, and late President of Harvard University ; 
delivered in the Church on Church Green, May 3, 1840. By 
Alexander Young. 8vo. Boston, 1840. — From the Author. 

Two Reports on the Coal Lands, Mines, and Improvements of the 
Dauphin and Susquehanna Coal Company, and of the Geologi- 
cal Examinations, Present Condition, and Prospects of the Stony 
Creek Coal Estate, in the Townships of Jackson, Rush, and Mid- 
dle Paxtang, in the County of Dauphin, and of East Hanover 
Township, in the County of Lebanon, Pennsylvania: with an 
Appendix, containing numerous Tables and Statistical Informa- 
tion, and various Maps, Sections, and Diagrams, chiefly in Illus- 
tration of Coal and Iron. Addressed to the Board of Directors 
of the Dauphin and Susquehanna Coal Company, &c. &c. By 
Richard C. Taylor, President of the Board of Directors. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Author. 

Index Monasticus ; or the Abbeys and other Monasteries, Alien Pri- 
ories, Friaries, Colleges, Collegiate Churches, and Hospitals, with 
their Dependencies, formerly established in the Diocese of Nor- 
wich and the Ancient Kingdom of East Anglia; systematically 
arranged and briefly described, according to the respective Orders 
and Denominations in each County, and Illustrated by Maps of 
Suffolk, Norfolk, and the City of Norwich, and the Arms of Re- 
ligious Houses. By Richard Taylor, of Norwich. Folio. Lon- 
don, 1821. — From the same. 

On the Geology of East Norfolk : with Remarks upon the Hypothesis 
of Mr. J. W. Robberds, respecting the former Level of the Ger- 
man Ocean. By Richard C. Taylor, F. G. S., Author of the In- 
dex Monasticus. 8vo. London, 1827. — From the same. 

Pamphlets. 1. Notes respecting Certain Indian Mounds and Earth- 
works, in the Form of Animal Effigies, chiefly in the Wisconsin 
Territory, U. S. By Richard C. Taylor, Esq. 2. Sundry Com- 
munications. — a. The Natural History of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains, b. The American Fucoides. c. The Natural History of 
Cuba. d. The History and Progress of Geology, e. Reviews 
of Martin's Geological Memoir, and of Professor Buckland on 
the Formation of the Valley of Kingsclerc, &c. f. Introduction 
to Geology, g. Antediluvian Zoology and Botany, h. Illustra- 
tions of Antediluvian Zoology, i. Geological Arrangement of 



224 

Fossil Shells, j. On part of the Mineral Basin of South Wales. 
By R. C. Taylor. — From the same. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer for May 15, and 
June 1, 1840. Vol. IV. Nos. 4 and 5.— From the Editor, Dr. 
Dunglison. 

Pamphlets. 1. Notice of the Daguerreotype. By William E. A. 
Aikin, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy in the Uni- 
versity of Maryland. 8vo. Baltimore, 1840. 2. Report of a 
Committee of the Medical Society of the State of New York, on 
the Subject of Medical Education. 8vo. Albany, 1840. 3. Phi- 
losophy of Mind, developing New Sources of Ideas, designating 
their Distinctive Classes, and Simplifying the Faculties and Ope- 
rations of the whole Mind. By John Stearns, M. D., of the City 
of New York, late President of the Medical Society of the State. 
8vo. New York. 1840. 4. A Letter to William E. Channing, 
D. D., in Reply to one addressed to him by R. R. Madden, on 
the Abuse of the Flag of the United States in the Island of Cuba, 
for Promoting the Slave Trade. By a Calm Observer. 8vo. 
Boston, 1840. 5. An Account of the Visit of the French Frigate 
L'Artemise to the Sandwich Islands, July, 1839. 8vo. Hono- 
lulu, 1839. — From the same. 

Sundry Engravings. 1. James Madison. 2. Governor Strong. 
3. Robert Morris. 4. Charles Dickens. 5. Rev. John Fletcher. 
6. A Lady from Franca. 7. J. Rusling. 8. Rev. C. Wesley, 
by T. B. Welch. From Mr. Welch. 

Report of the Select Committee of the House of Representatives of 
the United States (J. Q.. Adams, Chairman), on the Smithsonian 
Bequest, March 5, 1840. — From Mr. Sergeant. 

Memoir, Historical and Political, on the North-west Coast of Ame- 
rica, and the adjacent Territories : Illustrated by a Map, and a 
Geographical View of those Countries. By Robert Greenhow, 
Translator and Librarian to the Department of State. (Submit- 
ted by Mr. Linn to the Senate of the United States.) 4to. Wash- 
ington, 1840. — From the same. 

The Prospects of Art in the United States : an Address before the 
Artists' Fund Society of Philadelphia, at the Opening of their Ex- 
hibition, May, 1840. By George W. Bethune. (By request.) 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Society. 

The History of the Royal Society of London, for the Improving of 



225 

Natural Knowledge. By Thomas Sprat. 4to. London, 1667.- — 
From Dr. Hare. 

Trois Planches d' Ammonites, par Leopold de Buch. Folio. — From 
the Author. 

Observations of the Magnetic Intensity at Twenty-one Stations in 
Europe. By A. D. Bache, LL.D., President of the Girard Col- 
lege for Orphans, one of the Secretaries of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, &c. (From Vol. VII. of the Transactions of 
the Society.) 4to. — From the Author. 

Boletin Enciclopedico de la Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais, 
&c. &c. «Sz;c. Numerol. Enero, 1840. 8vo. Valencia, 1840. — 
From the Society. 

A Discourse on the Death of General Washington, late President of 
the United States; delivered on the 22d of February, 1800, in the 
Church in Williamsburg. By James Madison, D. D., Bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in Virginia, and President of 
William and Mary College. Third Edition, with Additions. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1Q31. —From Col. Hugh Mercer, of Fredericks- 
burg. 

Sundry Biographical Notices of Brigadier General H. Mercer, and 
Accounts of the Battle of Trenton. — From the same. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

Several Stones, worked by the Indians with Stone Hammers, found 
in an Indian workshop, five miles from Paradise, near Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania. — From Mr. Redmond Conyngham. 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Taylor, Mr. Booth, and 
Dr. Hays, to whom was referred a Communication, entitled 
" Notice of the Oolitic Formation in America, with Descrip- 
tions of some of its Organic Remains, by Isaac Lea," reported 
in favour of publication, which was ordered accordingly. 

In this paper Mr. Lea describes a number of fossils from New 
Granada and Cuba, which he considers to belong properly to the 
forms resembling those well known to exist in the Oolites (Jura for- 
mation) of Europe. In a note Mr. Lea mentions, that after his paper 
was written, the work of the distinguished geologist, Von Buch, was 
received by him from the author. In this work, Von Buch describes 
and figures some of the fossils from the same formation in New 
Granada, taken by Humboldt nearly forty years since to Europe, 



226 

which that learned traveller, in his " Essay on the Superposition of 
Rocks," considered to belong to the Jura Formation. Von Buch takes 
a different view, and places them higher up in the series ; that is, in the 
Chalk Formation. After a careful perusal of Von Buch's work, and 
a re-examination of the specimens, Mr. Lea still holds to his previous 
opinion, that these forms belong properly to the Oolitic series, and 
not to the Chalk. He is the more confirmed in this opinion from 
having since been enabled to examine Captain Grant's Memoir on 
the Geology of Cutch, recently published in the Geological Society's 
Transactions of London, Second Series, Vol. V. Part 2 ; where the 
forms represented have a strong alliance to those described by Mr. 
Lea. Captain Grant states, that the miner alogical character of the 
rock " greatly resembles the English Lias ; but its fossils have been 
found, after a careful examination by Mr. James Sowerby, to assimi- 
late very closely to those of the Oolitic beds," &c. 

Mr. Lea's paper contains descriptions of the following species : — 

Orthocera Humboldtiana. Testa recta, elongato-conica, subcylin- 
dracea; articulis transversis, subdistantibus. 

Ammonites Tocaimaensis. Testa orbiculari; anfractibus planula- 
tis, transversim costulatis ; costis planulatis ; periphasria minute sul- 
cata. 

Ammonites Occidentalis. Testa orbiculari, utrinque umbilicata; 
anfractibus rotundatis, transversim costulatis; periphasria rotunda, 
sulco circulari destituta. 

Ammonites Gibboniana. Testa orbiculari; anfractibus compres- 
sis; costis elevatis, carinatis, remotiusculis ad periphaeriam. 

Ammonites Vanuxemensis. Testa orbiculari, utrinque umbili- 
cata; anfractibus convexo-cylindraceis, transversim crebrissimeque 
costulatis; periphasria rotunda, sulco circulari destituta. 

Ammonites Americana. Testa orbiculari; anfractibus subplanis, 
oblique costulatis; periphasria sulcata. 

Trigonia Gibboniana. Testa ovato-trigona, multicostata; costis 
transversis, subtuberculato-asperis ; area postica carinata. 

Trigonia Tocaimana. Testa trigona, postice producta inflata; 
costis transversis laevibus. 

Trigonia Hondaana. Testa ovato-trigona, inflata, multicostata; 
costis transversis, tuberculato-nodosis ; area postica elevata, crebris- 
simeque nodosa. 

Natica Gibboniana. Testa ovata, ventricosa; spira productius- 
cula ; anfractibus quinis, subplanulatis ; apertura contracts., elongata. 



227 

Spatangus Colombianus. Sp. ovato-cordatus, gibbus, convexus, 
antice planulato; ambulacris quinis, lanceolatis, transversim punc- 
tatis. 

Terebratula Tayloriana. Testa triangulari, sulcis Iongitudinali- 
bus impressis ; valva inferiore in superiorem reflexa ; margine bipli- 
cato. 

Terebratula Poeyana. Testa elongato-ovata, Isevi, inflata; nate 
producta, incurva; foramine submagno. 

Tellina [?] Humboldtiana. Testa scalenia, inflata, antice trun- 
cate ; striis transversis, elevatis, remotiusculis, rotundatis. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Patterson, Prof. Bache, 
and Mr. Walker, to whom was referred a paper, entitled, "On 
the Insufficiency of Taylor's Theorem as commonly investi- 
gated, with Objections to the Demonstrations of Poisson and 
Cauchy, and the assumed Generalization of Mr. Peacock; to 
which is added, a New Investigation and Remarks on the De- 
velopment and Continuity of Functions, by Charles Bonny- 
castle, Professor of Mathematics in the University of Virgi- 
nia," reported in favour of its publication in the Transactions 
of the Society, which was ordered accordingly. 

The paper of Professor Bonnycastle is composed of three sections. 
In the first, which is on the "Development of Functions," he points 
out and discusses what he considers to be " the errors and conflicting 
views resulting from the vague manner in which mathematical writers 
have usually conceived the ultimate object of their peculiar logic." 
The second section is on the " Continuity of Functions," and the di- 
vision of this continuity into classes; a subject heretofore touched upon 
only incidentally by other writers. The principal object of the paper 
is presented in the third section, which treats of "Functions consi- 
dered in the order of their magnitude," and particularly of "Taylor's 
Theorem;" and the author discusses this subject with the care de- 
manded by a theorem which forms the basis of the differential and 
integral calculus, and which acts so important a part in all the higher 
mathematics. 

Mr. Walker, from the Committee on making and collecting 
observations of Celestial Phenomena, reported, in part, that 
they had received observations of Lunar Occultations of the 
Fixed Stars, which are given in the mean time of the respec- 

D 



228 



tive places of observation, being a continuation of the list pub- 
lished in No. 6, pages 71 and 72, of the Society's Proceed- 
ings; and, on motion, the Report was accepted. 

h m s 

19 31 8.55 d. 1. Hudson Obs'y. Loomis 
Boguslawski 



1838. 

48. Nov. 13, a. Virginis, Im. 

49. Dec. 25, 57 Mayer, 1m. 

50. „ 102 5T Piscium, Im. 
51* „ „ „ Em, 
52. 26, 274Arietis, Im. 

„ „ Em 

„ „ Im. 

„ „ Im. 

» Pleiadum, Im. 
/ „ 



27, 



53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 

1839. 

61. Jan. 10, 

62. „ 

63. 21, 
64. 



Im 



/ „ 

t Virginis, 
7t Piscium, 



„ „ „ Im - 

65. April 19, c Geminorum, lm. 

66.* „ „ „ 

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70. „ „ „ 

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74. 20, y Cancri 

75. ,, ;, „ 

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'7. ,, ,, ,, 

• O. ,, si ,, 

79. 

80. 



25, 91 

„ 50 



„ Im. 

Virginis, Im. 

Virginis, Im. 

81. June 20, 68 i Virginis, Im. 

82. „ „ „ Im. 

83. „ „ „ Im. 

84. June 23, b Scorpii Im. 

85. „ „ „ Im. 

86. 30, D Aquarii Im. 

87. July 6, b Pleiadum, Im. 
88.* „ „ „ Im. 

"y. }> i) ii 



7 7 48.95 d. 1. Breslaw 

7 22 46.22 d. 1. „ „ 

7 34 37.10 b. 1. „ „ 

6 15 46.34 d. 1. „ „ 

7 23 24.12 b. 1. „ „ 

5 31 35.90 d. 1. Elberfeldt, Hulsman. 

6 27 50.28 d. 1. Cracow Obs'y. Weisse. 

7 29 19.80 d. 1. „ „ 

8 13 3.00 d. 1. „ „ 
Im. 16 25 37.94 d. 1. Breslaw Obs. Boguslawski. 
Im. 7 29 19.80 d. 1. Dover, Blickensderfer. 
Im. 8 15 3.00 d. 1. „ „ 

Im. 18 19 19.00 d. 1. Southwick, Holcomb. 

Em. 18 34 15.00 d. 1. „ „ 

Im. 6 18 58.44 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. W. and K. 

6 31 44.00 d. 1. Southwick, H. 

7 17 35.38 d. 1. Hudson Obs'y. L. 
Em. 8 25 35.42 b. 1. „ „ 
Im. 7 55 51.65 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. W. and K. 
Im. 7 58 46.10 d. 1. Princeton, N. J. A. 
Em. 8 57 43.20 b. 1. „ „ 
Im. 8 9 42.90 d. 1. Southwick, H. 
Im. 8 20 31.90 d. 1. Dorchester, Bond. 
Im. 8 20 31.70 d. 1. „ „ 
Im. 8 20 33.96 d. 1. Boston, Paine. 
Im. 10 6 3.13 d. 1. Hudson Obs'y. L. 
Em. 10 53 51.08 b. 1. „ „ 
Im. 10 44 24.80 d. 1. Dorchester, B. 
Im. 10 44 24.70 d. 1. „ „ 

10 44 21 .70 d. 1. Boston, P. 

8 13 47.20 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. W. P. & K. 
8 25 59.50 d. 1. „ 
7 46 28.80 d. 1. Washington, 

7 57 42.88 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 

8 11 57.25 d. 1. Southwick, 
8 39 53.90 d. 1. Washington, 
8 50 52.07 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 

10 58 50.54 d. 1. „ 

15 29 49.49 b. 1. „ W. 

15 29 43.49 b. 1. „ R. 



Gilliss. 
W. and K. 

H. 

G. 
W. and K. 



Em. 16 24 6.99 d. 1. 



229 





1839. 






h m s 




90 


July 6 


6 Pleiadum, Era. 16 14 7.10 d. 1. Washington, 


G. 


91 


* 


jj 


Anony. 7th ma 


g. Im. 15 55 4.49 b. 1. Philad. Obs'y. , 


W 


92 


* 


jj 


jj 


>> 


Im. 15 55 4.07 b. 1. „ 


R. 


93. 




jj 


d 


j: 


Im. 16 21.49 b. 1. „ 


W. 


94. 




jj 


JJ 


53 


Im. 16 18.69 b. 1. „ 


R. 


95. 




jj 


JJ 


!J 


Im. 15 32 34.56 b. 1. Hudson Obs'y. 


L. 


96. 




jj 


jj 


» 


Em. 16 22 28.85 b. 1. „ 


j» 


97. 




jj 


c 


J> 


Im. 16 14 45.29 b. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


W. 


98. 




jj 


1) 


» 


Im. 16 14 44.29 b. 1. „ 


R. 


99. 




jj 


JJ 


J> 


Im. 16 5 49.10 b. 1. Washington, 


G. 


100. 




jj 


jj 


j; 


Em. 16 33 41.10 d. 1. „ 


jj 


101. 


( 


jj 
jj 


jj 




Im. 16 30 24.79 K L Philad . 0b- . 
Im. 16 30 26.49 5 J 


W. 


102. 


{ 


j> 
jj 


JJ 
J) 




Im. 16 30 24.49 } b j 

Im. 16 30 25.79 5 " 


R. 


103. 




JJ 


JJ 


jj 


Im. 16 20 17.40 b. 1. Washington, 


G. 


104. 


July 14, 


59 c 


Leonis, 


Im. 8 2 44.25 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


W. 


105. 


Sep 


.14, 


T 


Scorpii, 


Im. 6 19 51.92 d. 1. „ 


K. 


106. 




jj 


J) 


jj 


Im. 6 19 51.72 d. 1. „ 


W. 


107. 




jj 


JJ 


jj 


Em. 7 47 5.84 b. 1. „ 


jj ' 


108. 




jj 


JJ 


jj 


Im. 6 42 13.71 d. 1. Dorchester, 


B. 


109. 




20, 


42 


Aquarii, 


Im. 12 24 39.75 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


K. 


110. 




JJ 


jj 


jj 


Im. 12 24 40.15 d. 1. „ 


W. 


111. 




JJ 


jj 


jj 


Im. 12 45 12.40 d. 1. Boston, 


P. 


112. 




26, 


i 


Pleiadum 


, Im. 9 41 49.68 b. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


W. 


113. 




JJ 


jj 


jj 


Im. 9 41 49.18 b. 1. „ 


M. 


114. 




JJ 


jj 


jj 


Em. 10 32 4.73 d. 1. „ 


W. 


115. 




JJ 


>t 


jj 


Em. 10 32 7.97 d. 1. „ 


K. 


116. 




JJ 


i> 


jj 


Em. 10 32 5.78 d. 1. „ 


R. 


117. 




JJ 


» 


jj 


Em. 10 32 5.13 d. 1. „ 


M. 


118. 




JJ 


j> 


jj 


Im. 9 54 6.00 b. 1. Southwick, 


H. 


119. 




JJ 


» 


jj 


Em. 10 53 6.90 d. 1. Boston, 


P. 


120. 




JJ 


>> 


jj 


Em. 10 22 52.60 d. 1. Washington, 


G. 


121. 




JJ 


g 


jj 


Im. 9 45 5.88 b. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


M. 


122. 




)) 


» 


jj 


Em. 10 39 57.09 d. 1. „ 


W. 


123. 




JJ 


>> 


jj 


Em. 10 39 57.67 d. 1. „ 


K. 


124. 




JJ 


7) 


jj 


Em. 10 39 58 95 d. 1. „ 


R. 


125. 




JJ 


>> 


jj 


Em. 10 39 57.04 d. 1. „ 


M. 


126. 




JJ 


i> 


jj 


Em. 11 1 45.27 d. 1. Boston, 


P. 


127. 




JJ 


J> 


jj 


Em. 10 30 20.20 d. 1. Washington, 


G. 


128.* 




JJ 


e 


jj 


Im. 10 6 37.75 b. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


K. 


129. 




JJ 


» 


jj 


Im, 10 6 39.61 b 1. „ 


R. 


130. 




JJ 


)» 


jj 


Im. 10 6 42.35 b. 1. „ 


M. 


131. 




JJ 


» 


jj 


Em. 10 49 58.93 d. 1. „ 


W. 


132. 




JJ 


» 


jj 


Em. 10 49 59.52 d. 1. „ 


K. 


133. 




JJ 


)> 


jj 


Em. 10 50 0.36 d. 1. 


R. 


134. 




JJ 


»> 


?? 


Em. 10 49 59.33 d. 1. „ 


M- 



230 





1839. 








km s 




135. Sep. 26, 


e 


Pleiadum 


Em. 


11 12 36.43 d. 1. Boston, 


P. 


136. 


ii 


n 


ii 


Im. 


9 57 40.60 b. 1. Washington, 


G. 


137. 


ii 


ii 


ii 


Em. 


10 39 59.40 d. 1. „ 


>) 


138.* 


ii 


n 


ii 


Im. 


17 58 17.77 b. 1. Breslaw Obs'y. 




139. 


17 


c 


ii 


Im. 


10 9 11.23 b. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


W. 


140. 


}7 


ii 


ii 


Im. 


10 9 11.83 b. 1. „ 


M. 


141* 


1} 


;, 


ii 


Im. 


10 9 7.40 b. 1. „ 


R. 


142. 


11 


5, 


ii 


Em. 


11 6 34.69 d. 1. „ 


W. 


143. 


17 


if 


ii 


Em. 


11 6 35.04 d. 1. „ 


R. 


144. 


11 


11 


ii 


Em. 


11 6 35.29 d. 1. „ 


M. 


145. 


11 


11 


ii 


Im. 


10 22 2.00 b. 1. Southwick, 


H. 


146. 


11 


17 


;> 


Em. 


11 28 58.98 d. 1. Boston, 


P. 


147. 


11 


17 


ii 


Im. 


9 59 56.20 b. 1. Washington, 


G. 


148. 


11 


11 


ii 


Em. 


10 56 42.40 d. 1. „ 


ii 


149.* 


11 


n 


ii 


Im. 


18 23 53.51 b. 1. Breslaw Obs. Bog 


uslawski. 


150.* 


„ 


36 


Arietis, 


Im. 


9 55 48.14 b. 1. „ 


ii 


151.* 


11 


11 


ii 


Im. 


9 55 56.85 b. 1. „ 


ii 


152. 


n 


11 


ii 


Em. 


10 8 36.22 d. 1. „ 


ii 


153. 


ii 


11 


ii 


Im. 


9 22 21.03 b. 1. Hamburg Obs'y. 


Rumker. 


154.* 


n 


11 


ii 


Em. 


9 54 22.77 d. 1. „ 


ii 


155. Oct. 14, 


T 


Sagittarii, 


Im. 


8 21 56.26 d. 1. Roscoe, O. Blickensderfer. 


156. 


17, 


<f Capricorni 


, Im. 


8 28 11.50 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


W. 


157* 


n 


ii 


ii 


Im. 


8 40 10.52 d. 1. New Haven, 


Mason. 


158.* 


n 


11 


ii 


Em. 


9 32 1.04 b. 1. „ 


j) 


159. 


n 


11 


ii 


Im. 


8 18 19.10 d. 1. Washington, 


G. 


160. 


>> 


y 


Capricorni 


,1m. 


12 11 46.80 d. 1. Breslaw, 


B. 


161. 


18, 


58 


Aquarii, 


Im. 


12 5 44.71 d. 1. „ 


ii 


162. 


28, 


y 


Cancri, 


Im. 


14 8 30.10 d. 1. Washington, 


G. 


163. Dec. 12 


* 


A.quarii, 


Im. 


9 22 24.02 b. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


W. 


164. 


n 


11 


ii 


Im. 


9 22 24.45 b. 1. „ 


R. 


165. 


)> 


11 


ii 


Im. 


8 25 48.24 b. 1. New Haven, ' 


Mason. 


166. 


n 


11 


ii 


Im. 


8 25 48.39 b. 1. „ 


Bradle} r 


167. 


a 


11 


ii 


Em 


9 31 57.38 d. 1. „ 


Mason. 


168. 


n 


17 


ii 


Em 


9 31 57.78 d. 1. „ 


Bradley 


169. 


11 


78 


ii 


Im. 


9 33 36.20 d. 1. Philad. Obs'y. 


W. 


170. 


ii 


;; 


ii 


Im. 


9 33 38.45 d. 1. „ 


R. 


171. 


it 


!> 


ii 


Im. 


9 43 26.84 d. 1. New Haven, 


Mason. 


172. 


>i 


ii 


ii 


Im. 


9 43 26.89 d. 1. „ 


Bradley. 


173. 


July 6, 


b 


Pleiadum 


, Em 


15 56 22.65 d. 1. Hudson Obs'y. 


L. 


174. 


j) 


« 


ii 


Im. 


16 2 21.67 b. 1. „ 


ii 



231 

The longitudes and latitudes of the American places of observation, as far 
as they can be determined from a reduction of these and former American 
observations, have been furnished by Messrs. Walker and Kendall, as follows : 







Lon. 


ritude from 


Longitude west 


Place of Observation. 


N. Latitude. 


Philad. Obs'y. 


from Greenwich. 




o ' " 




in s 


h m s 


Boston State House 


42 21 22.7 


E. 


16 24.77 


4 44 17.13 


,, Paine's House 


42 20 56 


E. 


16 25.10 


4 44 16.80 


Dorchester, Bond's private Obs. 


42 19 15 


E. 


16 24.09 


4 44 17.81 


Southwick, Holcomb's ,, 


42 41 


E. 


9 24.83 


4 51 17.07 


Yale College, New Haven 


41 17 58 


E. 


8 51.00 


4 51 50.90 


City Hall, New York 


40 42 40 


E. 


4 37.54 


4 56 4.36 


Brooklyn, Blunt's private Obs'y 


40 42 


E. 


4 41-90 


4 56 0.00 


Nassau Hall, Princeton College 


40 20 50 


E. 


2 3-70 


4 58 38.20 


Alexander's House ,, 


40 20 56 


E. 


2 4-00 


4 58 37.90 


Philadelphia High School Obs'y 


39 57 8 




* o. 


5 41.90 


,, State House 


39 56 57.9 


E. 


2-86 


5 39.04 


Washington, Capitol 


38 53 23 


W. 


7 24.10 


5 8 6.00 


,, Marine Obs'y 


38 53 31 


W. 


7 24.18 


5 8 6.08 


Hudson Observatory 


41 14 37 


w. 


25 5.56 


5 25 47.46 


Dover, Ohio 


40 30 52 


w. 


25 14.02 


5 25 55.92 



The details of the computations on which these results are based, are too 
extensive for the limits of this Report. The separate results for the longitude 
of the Capitol, on account of its importance as being our prime meridian, are 
here appended. 



232 



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233 



NOTE BY THE COMMITTEE. 

The observations at the Hudson Observatory are made by Prof. E. Loomis. 

„ ,, Washington Marine Obs'y. Lieut. S. M. Gilliss. 

„ „ Boston, R. T. Paine, Esq. 

„ „ Dorchester Obs'y- Wm. Cranch Bond 

„ „ Southwick Mass. Mr. A. Holcomb. 

„ „ Princeton, Prof. S. Alexander. 

,, ,, Dover, Ohio, Mr. J. Blickensderfer, jr. 

„ „ Brooklyn Obs'y. Mr. E. Blunt 

„ „ New Haven, Mr. E. P. Mason and Mr. Bradley. 

„ „ Philadelphia Obs'y. W is for Mr. S. C. Walker. 

„ „ „ K „ Prof. E.O.Kendall. 

„ „ „ R „ Wm. H. C. Riggs. 

„ „ „ . M „ Mr. E. P. Mason 

„ „ „ P „ R. T. Paine, Esq. 

The numbers which have an asterisk (*) prefixed to them are considered by 
the observers as somewhat doubtful, from brightness of the moon's limb or 
other causes. The European observations have been selected from those pub- 
lished in Schumacher's Astronomische Nachrichten, on account of their coin- 
cidence in date with the American observations. Ihe immersion and emer- 
sion of rar Piscium, January 10th, 1839, took place both at the moon's dark limb. 
At the immersion of » Pleiadum, July 6th, 1839, the star appeared to hang on 
the moon's bright limb about 1.7s; or rather, the star appeared to have a sen- 
sible disc taking that time to immerge. 

Professor Henry presented a communication, entitled " Con- 
tributions to Electricity and Magnetism, Fourth Series. — On 
Electro-dynamic Induction, Magnetic Distribution, &c, — by 
Joseph Henry, Professor of Natural Philosophy, College of 
New Jersey, Princeton;" and accompanied the presentation of 
the same with sundry verbal and graphic illustrations. 

The communication was referred to a committee. 

Mr. Du Ponceau presented a communication, entitled "An 
Historical Account of the Origin and Formation of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for promoting 
Useful Knowledge;" when, in consequence of the lateness of 
the hour and the amount of unfinished business, it was resolved, 
that the Society do adjourn to meet again on Friday evening 
next, and that due notice thereof be given in the public papers 
by the Librarian. 



234 

Adjourned Meeting, June 27. 

Present, twenty-four members. 

Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 

The communication of Mr. Du Ponceau relative to the ori- 
gin and formation of the Society, which was presented at the 
last meeting, was read, and referred to a committee. 

A letter was read from Mr. Fisher to Mr. Kane, one of the 
Secretaries, in relation to the subject of Mr. Du Ponceau's 
communication, and explanatory of a communication on the 
same subject from Mr. Fisher, which was afterwards read. 
The letter and communication were referred to the committee 
who had charge of the communication of Mr. Du Ponceau. 

On motion, it was resolved, that the Maryland Academy of 
Science and Literature, and the Sociedad Economica de Ami- 
gos del Pais de Valencia, should hereafter be furnished regu- 
larly with a copy of the published proceedings of this Society. 

Mr. Vaughan announced the death of Mr. Wm. H. Keating, 
a member of the Society, which took place in London, on the 
17th May; and, on motion of Mr. Kane, it was resolved, that 
a member of the Society be requested to prepare an Obituary 
Notice of the deceased. Dr. Hays was appointed to that of- 
fice. 

In consequence of unfinished business still remaining, it was 
resolved, that the Society should adjourn to meet again on 
Friday evening next, and that due notice thereof be given in 
the public papers by the Librarian. 



Adjourned Meeting, July 3. 

Present, twenty members. 

Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 

Professor Bache read a letter from Mr. Rumker, of Ham- 
burg, acknowledging the honour of his election as a member 



235 

of the Society, and containing astronomical observations in 
reference to Galle's comets. 

The communication was referred to the Committee on As- 
tronomical Observations. 

Mr. Breck, after some prefatory remarks, presented for the 
Library, and read, a Manuscript Essay, written by him for the 
Society, and entitled "Historical Sketch of the Continental 
Bills of Credit, from the year 1775 to 1781, with Specimens 
thereof;" which was referred to the Historical Committee. 

Mr. Du Ponceau announced that the Society would receive 
at their next meeting, the Anamitic and Latin, and Latin and 
Anamitic Dictionaries, lately published by the Right Reverend 
Father Taberd, Bishop of Isauropolis, and Vicar General of 
Cochin China, which he had mentioned to the Society at a 
former meeting, as in course of publication. 

This valuable work was printed at Serampore, under the auspices, 
and, it is understood, at the expense, of the British Government in 
India, and of the East India Company, to whom the' learned world 
are already indebted for the publication of the important labours of 
the late Dr. Morrison, and other works, which have thrown conside- 
rable light on the Chinese language, and who are now, with the same 
liberality, extending the knowledge of the Indo-Chinese idioms, which, 
until lately, were entirely unknown in America and Europe. It will 
not be forgotten, Mr. Du Ponceau added, that this Society was the 
first to make known the Anamitic language, by the publication of 
Father Morrone's French and Cochin Chinese Vocabulary, and of 
the Latin and Cochin Chinese Dictionary, in use among the Mission- 
aries in Cochin China, which works, though not so full and so com- 
plete as those published by Bishop Taberd, were the first to shed 
light on that branch of philological science. 

Mr. Du Ponceau further observed, that these publications have set- 
tled a point, which has been warmly contested by travellers, and 
others who have contended (and the view has even gained belief 
among sinologists) that not only the Anamites, whose languages are 
monosyllabic, and formed on the model of that of China, but the Japa- 
nese and Loo Chooans, whose idioms are polysyllabic and formed on 
quite different principles, could converse with the Chinese and with 
each other, without knowing one word of each other's spoken lan- 
guage, by means of the Chinese characters, which presented (it was 

E 



236 

affirmed) to their minds, ideas unconnected with words. Bishop 
Taberd asserts, on the contrary, that the Cochin Chinese and Chinese 
cannot understand each other, either orally or in writing; and that the 
Chinese is, in Cochin China, a learned language, which is studied 
by the better class, who, by that means, can communicate with the 
Chinese, but not by means of the vulgar language, spoken or writ- 
ten.* 

The following extract contains a statement of these facts in Bishop 
Taberd's own words. 

" Prsecipuum nunc nobis incumbit pauca de characteribus nee non 
de lingua Anamitica delibare. Dubium non est quin Anamitarum lingua 
a Sinensi ortum ducat. Ipsorum enim characteres non tantum mag- 
nam habent affinitatem cum Sinensibus, sed vel integre vel particu- 
latim ab ipsis mutuantur. Attamen utriusque gentis characteres seu 
hieroglyphi talem subiere commutationem, ut neque legendo, neque 
loquendo se invicem intelligant. Qui ex honesta oriuntur familia 
Sinensibus characteribus dant operam, illi enim characteres in usu 
sunt apud Anamitas turn in legibus turn in supplicibus libellis et aliis. 
Qui magna spectant, vel honoribus dignitatibusque inhiant, toto pec- 
tore animique impetu in characterum Sinensium studium incumbere 
debent, et hos scribendo characteres cum Sinensibus colloqui possunt, 
adeo diversus est pronunciationis modus inter utramque gentem, ut 
aliter sermonem mutuum habere nequeant. Unde duse linguae usur- 
pantur in Cocincina ; scilicet, lingua Doctorum, seu lingua Sinensis, 
et lingua communis quse in usu quotidiano ab omnibus adhibetur et 
de-qua nunc sermonem habemus." Monit. p. 1. 

Dr. Hare presented copies of a French translation of a Com- 
munication, which he had made to the Society, on the subject 
of Tornadoes, and in reference to a Memoir, by M. Peltier, on 
the Cause of these Meteors. (See Proceedings of the Society 
for October 4, 1839, No. 8. p. 122.) The Communication 
had been translated by him into French, and sent to each 
member of the National Institute, with the object of showing 
that the view of M. Peltier, as contained in the Journal des 
Debuts of the 17th of July last, was essentially the same as 
the one which he (Dr. Hare) had offered relative to these me- 
teors; and also that the allegation made before the Academy, 

* This, as the Transactions and Proceedings of the Society testify, has al- 
ways been the opinion of Mr. Du Ponceau; but it has been much combated 
both in Asia and Europe, 



237 

by M. Peltier, that Dr. Hare's hypothesis was defective in not 
taking into account other co-operating forces, as well as those 
of electricity, was incorrect. 

Dr. Hare made some observations on the effect of the rare- 
faction of air, on its desiccation and refrigeration, and on other 
phenomena connected with the presence of aqueous vapour in 
the atmosphere. He also detailed some experiments, showing 
that the phenomena of air, heated by re-entering a receiver 
partially exhausted, were more consistent, in some respects, 
with the idea that a vacuum has a capacity for heat, than that 
it is destitute of any appropriate portion of caloric. 

Dr. Hare adverted to the fact, that in an essay, published in Silli- 
man's Journal in 1822, he had, agreeably to the authority of Dalton 
and Davy, stated, that the cold consequent on the rarefaction of air 
in its ascent towards the upper strata of the atmosphere, was one of 
the causes of the formation of clouds; and in bis text books he had 
soon after published an engraving of an apparatus, by means of which 
he was accustomed to illustrate, before his pupils, the transient cloud 
which arises from a diminution of pressure in air containing aqueous 
vapour. 

In the essay above mentioned, Dr. Hare had alleged, that as 
much caloric was given out by aqueous vapour, during its conver- 
sion into snow, as would be yielded by twice the weight of red-hot 
powdered glass. But Mr. Espy, he considered, had the merit of being 
the first to suggest, that the heat, thus evolved, might be an important 
instrument in causing a buoyancy tending to accelerate any upward 
current of warm moist air. 

Dr. Hare had been willing to admit, that this transfer of heat might 
co-operate with other causes in the production of storms, but could 
not concur with Mr. Espy in considering it competent to give rise to 
thunder gusts, tornadoes, or hurricanes. These he had considered, 
and still considers, to be mainly owing to electrical discharges be- 
tween the earth and the sky; or between one mass of clouds and 
another. 

With a view to a more accurate estimate of the comparative influ- 
ence of rarefaction and condensation, in causing evolution of heat in 
dry air, and in air replete with aqueous vapour, Dr. Hare had per- 
formed a number of experiments, of which he proceeded to give a 
description. 



238 

Large globes, each containing about a cubic foot of space, fur- 
nished with thermometers and hygrometers, were made to communi- 
cate, respectively, with reservoirs of perfectly dry air, and of air re- 
plete with aqueous vapour.* The cold, ultimately acquired by any 
degree of rarefaction, appeared to be the same, whether the air was 
in the one state or the other; provided that the air, replete with 
aqueous vapour, was not in contact with liquid water in the vessel 
subjected to exhaustion. When water was present, in consequence 
of the formation of additional vapour, and a consequent absorption of 
caloric, the cold produced was nearly twice as great as when the air 
was not in contact with liquid water; being nearly as 9 to 5. 

Under the circumstances last mentioned, the hygrometer was mo- 
tionless; whereas, when no liquid water was accessible, the space, 
although previously saturated with vapour, by the removal of a por- 
tion of it together with the air which is withdrawn by the exhaus- 
tion, acquires a capacity for more vapour; and hence the hygrome- 
ter, by an abstraction of one-third of the air, revolved more than 
sixty degrees towards dryness. But when a smaller receiver (after 
being subjected to a diminution of pressure of about ten inches of 
mercury, so as to cause the index of the hygrometer to move about 
thirty-five degrees towards dryness) was surrounded by a freezing 
mixture, until a thermometer in the axis of the receiver stood at three 
degrees below freezing, the hygrometer revolved towards dampness, 
until it went about ten degrees beyond the point at which it rested 
when the process commenced. 

It appears, therefore, that the dryness produced by the degree of 
rarefaction employed is more than counterbalanced by a freezing 
temperature. 

As respects the heat imparted to the air above mentioned, the fact, 
that the ultimate refrigeration in the case of air replete with vapour, 
and in that of anhydrous air, was equally great, and that when water 
was present the cold was greater in the damp vessel, led to the idea, 
that the heat arising under such circumstances could not have much 
efficacy in augmenting the buoyancy of an ascending column of air: 
but when, by an appropriate mechanism, the refrigeration was mea- 
sured by the difference of pressure at the moment when the ex- 
haustion was arrested, and when the thermometer had become sta- 



* The hygrometers were constructed by means of the beard of the avena 
sensitiva or wild oat, also called animated oat. 



239 

tionary, it was found cseteris paribus, that the reduction of pressure 
arising from cold was at least one-half greater in the anhydrous 
air, than in the air replete with vapour. This difference seems to 
be owing to a loan of latent heat made by the contained moisture, 
or transferred from the apparatus by its intervention, which checks 
the refrigeration ; yet, ultimately, the whole of the moisture being 
converted into vapour, the aggregate refrigeration does not differ in 
the two cases. 

Agreeably to Dalton's tables, at 70° the quantity of moisture in 31 
grains or 100 cubic inches of air, is yWo °f a g ra i n * The space al- 
lotted to this weight of vapour being doubled, it would remain uncon- 
densed at 45° F., being associated with the same weight, but double 
the volume, of air; but at 32°, notwithstanding the doubling of the 
space, only -^Uo °f a g ram would remain in the aeriform state; of 
course 551 — 356 = yoVo"' or near 'y to" °f a grain, would be pre- 
cipitated. 

The latent heat given out by the condensation of this vapour, 
would heat, as is well known, 1000 times its weight of water, or 195 
grains, one degree; or 31 grains X T 9 T 5 = 6.29 degrees; and as the 
capacity of air for heat is only one-fourth of that of water, it would 
heat 31 grains of air 6.29 X 4 = 25.16, or nearly 25° F. As air, 
at 32° F., expands -^-^ for each additional degree, the difference of 
bulk, arising from the heat received, as above calculated, would be 
Tim or iV nearly. 

When air, replete with aqueous vapour, was admitted into a re- 
ceiver partially exhausted, and containing liquid water, a copious pre- 
cipitation of moisture ensued, and a rise of temperature greater than 
when perfectly dry air was allowed to enter a vessel containing rare- 
fied air in the same state. In the instance first mentioned, a portion 
of vapour rises into the place of that which is withdrawn during the 
partial exhaustion. Hence when the air, containing its full propor- 
tion of vapour, enters, there is an excess of vapour which must pre- 
cipitate, causing a cloud, and an evolution of latent heat from the 
aqueous particles previously in the aeriform state. Dr. Hare con- 
ceives that as the enlargement of the space occupied by a sponge, 
allows, proportionably, a larger quantity of any liquid to enter its 
cells, so any rarefaction of the air when in contact with water, con- 
sequent on increase of heat or diminution of pressure, permits a pro- 
portionably larger volume of vapour to associate itself with a given 
weight of the air. When, subsequently, by the afflux of wind replete 



240 

with aqueous vapour, the density of the aggregate is increased, a por- 
tion of the vapour equivalent to the condensation must be con- 
densed, giving out latent heat, excepting so far as the heat thus 
evolved, being retained by the air, raises the dew point. 

Hence, whenever a diminution of density of the air inland causes 
an influx of sea air to restore the equilibrium, there may result a con- 
densation of aqueous vapour, and evolution of heat, tending to promote 
an ascending current. This process being followed by that which 
Mr. Espy has pointed out, of the transfer of heat from vapour to air, 
during its ascent to the region of the clouds, and consequent precipi- 
tation of moisture, might, Dr. H. thought, be among the efficient 
causes of those non-electrical rain storms, during which the water of 
the Gulf of Mexico, or of the Atlantic, is transferred to the soil of the 
United States. 

Dr. Hare proceeded to mention some additional experiments which 
he had made, respecting the increase of temperature resulting from 
the admission of dry air into an exhausted receiver. When the re- 
ceiver was exhausted so as to reduce the interior pressure to one- 
fourth of that of the atmosphere, and one-fourth was suddenly ad- 
mitted, so as to reduce a gage from about 22 5 inches to 15 inches, 
heat was produced ; and however the ratio of the entering air to the 
residual portion was varied, still there was a similar result. 

When the cavity of the receiver was supplied with the vapour of 
ether or with that of water, so as to form, according to the Daltonian 
hypothesis, a vacuum for the admitted air, still heat was produced by 
the latter, however small might be the quantity, or rapid the re- 
admission. When the receiver was exhausted, until the tension was 
less than that of aqueous vapour at the existing temperature, so as 
to cause the water to boil, as in the Cryophorus, or Leslie's experi- 
ment, still the entrance of j-^q-q of the quantity requisite to fill the 
receiver caused the thermometer to rise a tenth of a degree. An al- 
ternate motion of the key of the cock, through one-fourth of a circle, 
within one-third of a second of time, was adequate to produce the 
change last mentioned. 

Dr. Hare considered the fact, that heat is produced, when to 
air, rarefied to one-fourth of the atmospheric density, another fourth 
is added, irreconcileable with the idea, that this result arises from 
the compression of the portion of air previously occupying the cavity, 
since the entering air must be as much expanded as the residual por- 
tiori is condensed. 



241 

As, agreeably to Dalton, a cavity occupied by a vapour acts as a 
vacuum to any air which may be introduced, Dr. Hare argued, that 
when a receiver, after being supplied with ether or water, is exhaust- 
ed so as to remove all the air and leave nothing besides aqueous or 
etherial vapour, the heat, acquired by air admitted, cannot be as- 
cribed, consistently, to the condensation of the vapour. 

The facts above stated, he added, are not reconcileable with the 
idea of De la Rive and Marcet, that the first portion of the entering 
air is productive of cold, although a subsequent condensation is pro- 
ductive of an opposite change. The effect upon the thermometer was 
too rapid, and the quantity of the entering air too minute, to allow 
it to be refrigerated by rarefaction in the first place, and yet after- 
wards to be so much condensed as to become warm by the evolution 
of caloric. 

Notwithstanding the experiments of Gay Lussac and of those of 
De la Rive and Marcet, there appeared to Dr. Hare to be evidence in 
favour of the heat being due to the space, rather than to the air which 
it contained. 

With respect to Gay Lussac's celebrated experiment with the Tor- 
ricellian vacuum, supposing such a vacuum to be a pre-eminently good 
liberator of heat, as it ought in reason to be, the caloric would be ab- 
sorbed by the mercury as rapidly as this metal could be made to en- 
croach upon the space occupied by the calorific particles. 

Admitting that, for equal weights, the specific heat of air is seven 
times as great as that of mercury, there could not have been a ca- 
pacity greater than that of about 200 grains of the metal, whereas 
a very small stratum of this metal, equal to one-fourth of an inch, 
would, in the apparatus employed, amount to more than a pound. 

The rapidity with which a mercurial thermometer is affected by 
the changes of temperature, in experiments like those which he had 
been describing, showed, in Dr. Hare's opinion, that there was some- 
. thing not yet understood respecting the transfer of heat in such cases. 
It was hardly reconcileable with the process of conduction or circula- 
tion, as ordinarily understood. 

In the experiments of De la Rive and Marcet, in which the enter- 
ing air being made to impinge upon the bulb of a thermometer, was 
productive of a fall in the thermometric column, it might be inferred, 
he conceived, that the bulb interfered with the access of caloric from 
the space. It was in fact the bulb upon which the air acted previous- 



242 

ly to its distribution in the space where it could have encountered the 
due proportion of caloric. 

Professor Bache, from the Committee on magnetic observa- 
tions, read an extract from a letter of Major Sabine, V. P. of 
the Royal Society of London, stating that the Council of the 
Society had, on the recommendation of the Committee of Phy- 
sics, expressed their opinion of the importance to the plan of 
combined magnetic observations now in progress, that obser- 
vatories should be established in the United States, and had 
instructed their President to bring this expression of opinion 
to the knowledge of the government of this country. 

Professor Bache stated that the resolution just referred to had been 
adopted with a view to aid the efforts of this Society in procuring the 
erection of observatories, as recommended in their Memorial to the 
Secretary of War, which had been referred, by that officer, to Con- 
gress. 

He also read an extract from a subsequent letter from Major 
Sabine, in reference to the progress of the combined magnetic 
observations, stating that the Emperor of Russia had ordered 
the erection of nine magnetic and meteorological observatories 
in his dominions, to conform, in respect to instruments and 
times of observations, to the system recommended by the 
Royal Society. One of these observatories is to be upon the 
N. W. coast of America. 

Professor Bache stated that the regular system of bi-hourly mag- 
netic and meteorological observations was now established in the 
observatory at the Girard College, and had been in progress since 
the close of the month of May. He intended, at a future day, to 
present to the Society the names of the gentlemen, chiefly members 
of the American Philosophical Society, by whose contributions a fund 
had been raised to defray the expense of employing the assistants 
required for these observations. 

On the occasion of the May magnetic term day for observations at 
short intervals, a brilliant aurora had occurred, during which the 
magnetic instruments were very much disturbed. The details were 
reserved for future presentation, but it was perhaps proper now to 
state, that an auroral arch had been visible here a little after ten 



243 

o'clock. The same phenomenon was observed at Southwick, Mass.* 
by Mr. Holcomb, at a much earlier hour. 

Professor Bache read an extract of a letter addressed by Mr. 
Forshey, of Natchez, to Mr. Espy, in reference to the tornado 
which occurred there recently. 

The writer stated that he had spent much time in examining the 
track of the storm in the vicinity of Natchez. He had ascertained 
its extent to have been not less than five or six miles below the city, 
and twenty miles beyond ; its effects having been felt, but with less 
violence, for nearly one hundred and fifty miles. The track near 
Natchez was directed sixty degrees to the east of north. After de- 
scribing the destruction of the city of Natchez, the writer states, that 
objects were every where blown towards the track of the storm; 
those directed most westwardly lying invariably below those directed 
more eastwardiy. Mr. Forshey also describes the effect upon the 
houses as of an explosion outwards. In his view, these facts strongly 
confirm Mr. Espy's theory of this meteor. 

Professor Bache referred to the conformity between the 
phenomena described by Mr. Forshey, and those which were 
ascertained by Mr. Espy and himself to have occurred at New 
Brunswick, N. J., in the tornado of June, 1825. 



Stated Meeting, July 17. 
Present, thirty-five members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

for the library. 

Astronomical Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Green- 
wich, in the Year 1838, under the Direction of George Biddell 
Airy, Esq., M. A. Astronomer Royal, &c. &c. 4to. London, 
1840. — From the Royal Society. 



244 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for the 
Year 1839. Parts 1 and 2. 4to. London, 1839. — From the 
same. 

List of the Members of the Royal Society, 30th November, 1839. — 
From the same. 

Zenith Distances observed with the Mural Circle, at the Royal Ob- 
servatory, Cape of Good Hope, and the Calculation of the Geo- 
centric South Polar Distances. 4to. 1837. — From the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty of Great Britain. 

Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Vol. VII. 
Part 1. 4to. Cambridge, 1839. — From the Society. 

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, containing Ab- 
stracts of Papers, and Reports of the Proceedings of the Society, 
from June, 1833, to June, 1836. Vol. 3. 8vo. London, 1836.— 
From the Society. 

Also, Notice No. 6, Vol. V., for April 10, 1840. — From the same. 

Transactions of the Society instituted at London for the Encourage- 
ment of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce; with the Premiums 
offered for the Years 1838-39 and 1839-40. Vol. 52. 8vo. 
London, 1839. — From the Society. 

Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. Vol. I. 8vo. Savan- 
nah, 1840. — From the Society. 

Bulletins de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres de 
Bruxelles. Tom. I.— VII. 8vo. Bruxelles, 1832-39, et Nos. 
1 & 2, Janvier et Fevrier, 1840. — From the Academy. 

Nouveaux Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles 
Lettres de Bruxelles. Tom. X. XI. XII. 4to. Bruxelles, 1837 
-38-39. — From the same- 

Annuaire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres de 
Bruxelles. 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, et 6e Annees. 5 Vols. 12mo. Brux- 
elles, 1836-40. — From the same. 

Annuaire de l'Observatoire de Bruxelles, pour Pan 1840. Par le Di- 
recteur A. Quetelet, Secretaire Perpetuel de l'Academie Royale 
de Bruxelles, &c. &c. 12mo. Bruxelles, 1839. — From the Au- 
thor. 

Aper^u de l'Etat de l'Observatoire, pendant 1'annee 1839. Par le 
Directeur de cet Etablissement. 8vo. Bruxelles, 1840. — From 
the same. 

Catalogue des Principales Apparitions d'Etoiles Filantes. Par A. 
Quetelet, &c. &c. 4to. Bruxelles, 1839. — From the same. 



245 

Sur la Longitude de l'Observatoire Royal de Bruxelles, Memoire lu a 
la Seance du 6 Juillet, 1839. Par A. Quetelet, &c. &c. 4to. 
Bruxelles, 1839. — From the same. 

Observations Meteorologiques faites a Maestricht, pendant les Annees 
1805—1812. Par M. le Professeur Minckelers. 4to.— From 
the Author. 

On the Heat of Vapour, and on Astronomical Refractions. By John 
William Lubbock, Esq., Treas. R. S. &c. &c. 8vo. London, 
1840. — From the Author. 

A Comparative Vocabulary of Indian Languages. By Benjamin S. 
Barton, M. D. (extracted from his New Views) with Manuscript 
Additions by Peter S. Du Ponceau, and a German Review of 
Barton's "New Views." 8vo. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

An Enquiry into the Origin of the Population of America, from the 
Old Continent. By John Severin Vater. Translated from the 
German, by Peter S. Du Ponceau. (In MS.) Folio. — From the 
same. 

A Sketch of the Politics, Relations, and Statistics of the Western 
World, and of those Characteristics of European Policy which 
most immediately affect its Interests; intended to demonstrate the 
Necessity of a Grand American Confederation and Alliance. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1827. — From the same. 

Hugonis Grotii Annales et Historian de Rebus Belgicis. 24mo. Am- 
sterdam. 1658. — From the same. 

De la Liberte des Mers. Par M. De Rayneval. 2 Vols. 8vo. Paris, 
1811. — From the same. 

On the Freedom of the Sea. By M. de Rayneval. Translated from 
the French, by Peter S. Du Ponceau. In 3 Vols. (MS.) — From 
the same. 

Principles of Political Economy. Part the Third — Of the Causes 
which retard Increase in the Numbers of Mankind. Part the 
Fourth — Of the Causes which retard Improvement in the Political 
Condition of Man. By H. C. Carey, Author of an Essay on the 
Rate of Wages. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Author. 

A Treatise on Currency and Banking. By Condy Raguet, LL.D., 
Member of the American Philosophical Society, &c. 2d edition. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Author. 

Address delivered before the Philomathean Society of the University 
of Pennsylvania, Thursday, Nov. 1, A. D. 1838. By William 
B. Reed. 8vo. Philadelphia, WSS.—From Prof. Henry Reed. 



246 

The Infancy of the Union. A Discourse delivered before the New 
York Historical Society, Thursday, Dec. 19, 1839. By Wm. B. 
Reed. Published at the request of the Society. 8vo. Philadel- 
phia, 1840. — From the same. 

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Western Rail Road Corpo- 
ration, held, by adjournment, in the City of Boston, March 12, 
1840, including the Report of the Committee of Investigation ap- 
poiuted by the Stockholders. . 8vo. Boston, 1840. — From Mr. 
Isaac P. Davis. 

Historia de la Revolucion Hispano-Americana. Por D. Mariano 
Corrente, Autor de la Geografia Universal. 3 Tom. 8vo. Ma- 
drid, 1829-30 — From Mr. A. de Frias. 

Memorias de la Seccion de Historia de la Real Sociedad Patriotica. 
8vo. Habana, 1830-31. — From the same. 

La Espana Maritima. Serie de Articulos relativos a las Ciencias y 
Artes, proprias 6 Auxiliares de la Marina, &c. &c. 8vo. Cua- 
dern. 1-9. Madrid, 1838-9. — From the same. 

Folletin Historico 6 Coleccion de Historias Espanolas. Su Autor, 
Don Juan Miguel de los Rios. 8vo. Cuadern. 1-3. Madrid, 
1837. — From the same. 

Fourth Report of the Inspectors appointed under the Provisions of the 
Act 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 38, to Visit the different Prisons of 
Great Britain. 1. Home District. Presented to both Houses of 
Parliament, by Command of her Majesty. Fol. London, 1839. — 
From Mr. Samuel R. Wood. 

Jahrbucher der Literatur, Band. 85, 86, 87, 88. 8vo. Wien, 1839.— 
From the Editor, Von Hammer-Purgstall. 

Falknerklee, bestehend in drey ungedruckten Werken iiber die Falk- 
nerey, nahmlich. 1. Das Falkenbuch (Tiirkisch.) auf der Am- 
brosiana zu Mailand. 2. IEPAKOZO<J>ION das ist: die Habichts- 
lehre (auf der k. k. Hofbibliothek zu Wien). 3. Kaiser Maxi- 
milians Handschrift iiber die Falknerey (auf der k. k. Hofbib- 
liothek zu Wien) aus dem Tiirkischen und Griechischen Ver- 
deutscht, und in Text und Ubersetzung herausgegeben von Ham- 
mer-Purgstall. (In Dreyhundert Abdrlicken.) 8vo. Wien, 1840. 
From the same. 

Wiener Zeitschrift fur Kunst, Literatur, Theater, und Mode,- Don- 
nerstag, den 23 J'anner, 1840. Enthaltend: — "Der S'anften Pal- 
last der Beduinen auf der Insel Raudha." Von Hammer-Purg- 
stall. — From the same, 



247 

Gemaldesaal der Lebensbechreibungen grosser Moslimischer Herr- 
scher der ersten Sieben Jahrhunderte der Hidschret. Von Ham- 
mer-Purgstall. Band V. 8vo. Leipzig und Darmstadt, 1838. — 
From the same. 

Catalogo dei Codici Arabi, Persiani e Turchi della Biblioteca Ambro- 
siana (per Giuseppe de-Hammer). 8vo. Milano, 1839. — From 
the same. 

O Auxiliador da Industria Nacional, &c. &c, Periodico Mensal, pub- 
licado pela Sociedade auxiliadora da Industria Nacional, estable- 
cida no Rio de Janeiro. Anno VII. Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, e 12. 
(Julho — Dezembro, 1839.) 8vo. Rio de Janeiro, 1839. — From 
Mr. J. S. Rebello. 

Naturhistorische Skizze von Lithauen, Volhynien und Podolien in 
geognostisch — mineralogischer, botanischer, und zoologischer 
Hinsicht, entworfen von Edward Eichwald, der Medizin Dr. u. 
Prof, der Kaiser! . Academie der Wissench. zu St. Petersb. u. s. w. 
4to. Wilna, 1830. — From the Author. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. Vol. IV. Nos. 6 
and 7, for June 15, and July 1, 1840. By Robley Dunglison, 
M. D., Sec. A. P. S.— From the Editor. 

Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, from the Organi- 
zation to the Termination of the Proprietary Government. Pub- 
lished by the State. Vol. 3, containing the Proceedings, of Coun- 
cil from May 31st, 1717, to January 23d, 1735-6. 8vo. Har- 
risburg, 1840. — From the State. 

Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Vol. IV. Parti. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Society. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A beautiful and ingeniously contrived Balloting Box, of Mahogany, 
for the use of the Society. — From Mr. T. U. Walter. 

The Astronomical Committee, consisting of Dr. R. M. Pat- 
terson, Mr. Sears C. Walker, and Prof. A. D. Bache, to whom 
was referred the communication of Mr. Riimker, of Hamburg, 
on the three comets discovered by Galle, of Berlin, reported in 
favour of its publication in the Society's Transactions, which 
was ordered accordingly. 

Dr. Dunglison, as Secretary of the Historical and Literary 



248 

Committee, reported the minutes of the Committee in relation 
to several subjects referred to them. Whereupon, on motion 
of Mr. Kane, it was resolved, that so much of the proceed- 
ings of the Committee as refers to the Paper of Mr. Breck, 
entitled, "Historical Sketch of the Continental Bills of Credit, 
from the Year 1775 to 1781, with Specimens thereof," and 
contains a resolution, that the Paper is worthy of publication 
in the next volume of the Transactions of the Historical and 
Literary Committee, is approved by the Society, and the pub- 
lication thereof ordered accordingly. 

Immediately after the battle of Lexington, which took place in 
April, 1775, the colonial congress began to prepare for war. Having 
neither funds, nor the means of creating any for present use, either 
by taxation or loans, they adopted the plan of issuing paper money. 
Whereupon, even before the battle of Bunker's Hill, one million of 
dollars were emitted, in bills of various denominations, from one-third, 
one-half, and two-thirds of a dollar, to eight dollars; and subsequently 
of denominations varying from thirty to eighty dollars. These bills 
were made payable to bearer, and entitled him to receive Spanish 
milled dollars for them, or their value in gold or silver; and for their 
redemption, congress bound the thirteen Confederated Colonies. Con- 
tracts were made at Philadelphia for printing the bills; and thirty 
individuals of that city were appointed by congress, to divide the la- 
bour of signing them, so as to have commonly two names on each 
bill. Appropriate mottoes, in Latin, were placed on the obverse, and 
a rudely printed emblem on the reverse. Treasurers were named to 
administer these funds, at an annual salary of five hundred paper 
dollars. 

The colonies were called upon to tax themselves for the repayment 
of this money; and the quota of each was determined, according to 
the number of its inhabitants, including negroes and mulattoes. Vir- 
ginia ranked first, Massachusetts second, Pennsylvania third; and 
New York came in with Connecticut and North and South Carolina. 
When the treasurers happened to have gold or silver, they were di- 
rected to advertise their readiness to exchange the same for paper; 
and some individuals, ardently patriotic, sent large sums of metallic 
money to the treasury, and received bills of credit in return at par. 
In the course of the year 1775, ten millions of dollars were emitted. 

The next year independence was declared, and some specie having 



249 

been imported, the credit of the bills was well sustained; and, in or- 
der to avoid interruption in striking them off, the printers were ex- 
cused from military duty. 

The press was now in permanent operation, and the sums emitted 
so large, that public confidence began to diminish, while ruinous 
fluctuations in the prices of every commodity took place. Upon this, 
congress gave new assurance of their intention to redeem every dol- 
lar; and availing themselves of the good effect of this promise, they 
issued this year (1776) in loan office certificates, lottery tickets and 
bills of credit, about twenty millions. Yet, fearful of a renewed de- 
preciation, they authorized General Washington to take whatever he 
might want for the use of the army, whenever the inhabitants refused 
to sell, and to imprison and report the names of all those who reject- 
ed the continental currency. These harsh measures did not, however, 
strengthen the credit of the bills; and congress passed, in the begin- 
ning of 1777, vehement resolutions of accusation against the enemies 
of liberty, for impairing their credit, by raising the nominal value of 
gold and silver. The states were exhorted to pass laws to compel 
every one, under the penalty of forfeiture of goods, &c. to take them 
at specie value ; to make them a tender in payment of debts ; and 
the refusal to receive them an extinguishment of svch debts. 

About twenty-one millions had been raised in 1777, on loan and 
bills, when, on the 3d of December of that year, congress found 
themselves obliged to acknowledge that the quantity issued was too 
great. 

A pause was resolved upon, and recourse had to France for a loan 
of two millions sterling. Meantime, the British at New York, and 
others elsewhere, counterfeited extensively ; provisions and merchan- 
dise increased manifoldly in price, and the current money fell to four 
for one. Much of this unsteadiness was ascribed by congress " to a 
spirit of sharping and extortion." 

In the year 1778, the press was again in full operation, and sixty- 
three millions were issued, at three and four for one; for, abused as 
this prolific source had been, and continued to be, it seemed to offer 
greater advantages than any other of the various means that congress 
had tried. Very little hard money circulated ; for, while this large 
sum in paper Avas paid out in the single year of 1778, only seventy- 
eight thousand dollars in specie passed through the treasury. 

Taxes were recommended as a sinking fund ; but the credit of the 



250 

bills had fallen too low to be forced upon the public at the scale fixed 
by congress ; it was, therefore, ordered by that body, on the 8th of 
October, 1778, " That all limitation of prices of silver and gold be 
taken off." 

The appeal by congress, on asking for taxes, is clothed in stirring 
language. They think the redemption of the bills no difficult mat- 
ter; and, upon this conviction, send forth fifty millions, giving this 
time an assurance to pay the whole, on or before the 1st of January, 
1797. 

During the following year, 1779, sixty-three millions were emit- 
ted ; and now the amount abroad having reached the enormous sum 
of one hundred and sixty millions, congress resolved to stop the press, 
whenever the increase should extend to two hundred millions. This 
sum, with others due elsewhere, would swell the grand total at the 
end of the war, they supposed, to three hundred millions. Stupendous, 
says Mr. Breck, as this debt was for a community in its infancy, they 
thought the resources of the country equal to the payment of the whole. 
" There are at present," they say, " three millions of inhabitants in 
the thirteen states; and this sum divided, per head, would give but 
one hundred dollars for each to pay, in eighteen or twenty years; 
and if the debt be assessed in proportion to the wealth of the inhabi- 
tants, the poor man's share would not be more than ten dollars ; and 
if twenty years be taken to pay the debt, our population will be nearly 
double, and our ability to pay increased more than two-fold." Again, 
they say : " This paper money has been eminently serviceable, and 
cannot ' make unto itself wings and fly away.' It remains with us ; 
it will not forsake us ; it is always ready for purposes of commerce 
or taxes; and every industrious man can find it. Having pledged 
our lives, fortunes and sacred honour for our independence, the same 
pledge is given for the redemption of these bills." " A bankrupt, faith- 
less republic," adds this congressional address, " would be a novelty 
in the political world, and appear like a common prostitute among 
chaste and respectable matrons. It is impossible that America should 
think, without horror, of such an execrable deed." 

The hopes of that patriotic body were not realized. These bills, 
which have never been paid, defrayed the chief expense of five 
years of active warfare, in which specie bore so small a share, that 
the official accounts of the years 1778 and 1779 show only one hun- 
dred and fifty-six thousand dollars, paid out of the treasury in hard 
money during those two years, against one hundred and thirty 



251 

millions in paper. This paper was suffered to depreciate to one 
thousand dollars for one in silver, and there it died without redemp* 
tion — the vast sum of two hundred millions being extinguished by a 
gradual depreciation. 

It was further resolved, that such part of the proceedings of 
the Historical Committee as refers to a MS. communication, 
entitled " A Grammar of the Mohawk Dialect of the Iroquois 
Language, or of the Five Ancient Confederated Nations; con- 
taining Rules and Exercises intended to Exemplify the Indian 
Syntax, according to the best Authorities, preceded by suc- 
cinct Rules relative to the Pronunciation, by Eleazer Wil- 
liams, Missionary of the Protestant Episcopal Church at Green 
Bay, Michigan;" and contains a resolution that the Paper is 
worthy of publication in the next volume of the Transactions 
of the Historical and Literary Committee, is approved by the 
Society, and its publication ordered accordingly. 

Dr. Hare read a communication, entitled " On the Change ef- 
fected in the Nitrates of Potash and Soda, by the limited appli- 
cation of Heat, with a view to obtain pure Oxygen: and, also, 
on a Liquid and a Gaseous Ethereal Compound, resulting from 
the reaction of Nascent Hyponitrous Acid on Alcohol," &c. 
which was referred to a committee. 

Mr. Nicklin read the dedication to the Society, of a Memoir 
on the Geology of North America, by Dr. Daubeny of Oxford, 
and accompanied the same by some remarks. 

Mr. Nicklin stated that he should not have brought Dr. Daubeny's 
dedication before the Society, had it been one of mere form and flat- 
tery; but as it was a paper of research, showing much depth of ob- 
servation, and justness of conclusion, and was written in a spirit 
evincing the best feeling towards his brethren on this side of the At- 
lantic, he thought it due both to the Society and the author, that it 
should be read at a stated meeting. 

Mr. Du Ponceau made a verbal communication in regard to 
certain interesting works, now in course of publication in Eu- 
rope, — in reference to the discovery, geography and history of 
America — and especially to that of M. Ternaux Compans. He 
also referred to the conclusions of Don Alonzo Zurita, in re- 
gard to the Mexican Picture Writing. 



252 

Mr. Du Ponceau remarked, that the American hemisphere, its dis- 
covery, geography, and history, seem to engage the attention of the 
learned in Europe, as much as they did in the sixteenth century. The 
great work of Baron Humboldt, entitled, "Examen Critique de l'His- 
toire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent, et des Progres de l'Astro- 
nomie Nautique aux 15e & 16e siecles," has now reached its fifth 
volume, and only comes down to the third and fourth voyages of Ame- 
rigo Vespucci. Another work, less learned, but not less important, is 
now in course of publication at Paris, by M. Ternaux Compans, of 
which fourteen volumes have already appeared. It is entitled, " Voy- 
ages, Relations et Memoires Originaux pour Servir a l'Histoire de la 
Decouverte de 1'Amerique, publies pour la premiere fois en Francais." 
The Journal des Savants considers this collection as of the " highest 
interest." It contains many rare works, now out of print, written in 
different languages, and difficult, if not impossible, to be obtained ; — 
several of which have not appeared in any other compilation. 

Among these is a " Report on the Different Classes of Chiefs in 
New Spain," by Alonzo Zurita. This work, says the Journal des 
Savants, contains the best, the fullest, and the most interesting ac- 
count of the system of government, and of the laws, usages, manners 
and customs of the Mexicans before the Conquest, and proves them 
to have been by no means so barbarous and uncivilized a people as 
they have been represented by their conquerors, who, by degrading 
them, thought to justify their own barbarity. Zurita was employed 
in Mexico by the Emperor Charles the Fifth, and resided there nine- 
teen years, with the power of a magistrate and the curiosity of a 
philosopher. The work has not yet made its way into this country ; 
but the Journal des Savants for the month of January last contains 
an ample and very interesting notice of it, and a full account of its 
contents. Speaking of the Mexican picture writing, this author, who 
was in Mexico not long after the Conquest, and had opportunities 
which are lost to the present generation, says : " that those charac- 
ters had a cursive form, or running hand, and were capable of repre- 
senting all the sounds, and all the proper names." This would show 
that the characters were connected with the spoken language, which 
is the doctrine advanced by Mr. Du Ponceau in his Dissertation on 
the Chinese System of Writing. 

Mr. Du Ponceau expressed a hope that this interesting subject might 
be further investigated. 



253 

Mr. Vaughan informed the Society that Mr. Charles P. Fox, 
who possessed a large collection of the original letters and 
papers of Benjamin Franklin, had deposited them with the 
Society. 

The Franklin papers were bequeathed, by will, to George Fox, 
father of C. P. Fox, by Temple Franklin, grandson to Benjamin 
Franklin, and by him submitted to Mr. Sparks, to aid him in the 
completion of his edition of Franklin's works. Mr. Sparks recom- 
mended Mr. Fox to deposit them with the Society, of which Franklin 
was so long President. 

Dr. Hare made a communication respecting an extensive 
voltaic apparatus, of the form which he had designated by the 
name of galvanic deflagrator. This apparatus had been con- 
structed for the Lowell Institute of Boston, under his direc- 
tion, by request of Professor Silliman. 

It consists of four troughs, each containing 100 pairs within a 
space of about 30 inches in length. The pairs, severally, are of the 
Cruickshank pattern, and about 6| inches square, independently of 
the grooves, so as to expose about 42 inches of zinc surface. Every 
fifth plate is cemented into its groove by a compound of rosin and 
suet. The plates, intermediate between those thus cemented, are 
made to fit tightly into their grooves; but in consequence of a slight 
obliquity in their sides, can be extracted by the aid of forceps, so as 
to be cleansed, and, when expedient, scraped. The cementing of 
each fifth plate tends to prevent any injurious retrocession of the vol- 
taic fluid; and yet when the intermediate four plates are removed, an 
interstice is vacated, sufficiently large to allow the stationary metallic 
surfaces to be reached by a scraper. The plates are all amalga- 
mated, which not only renders them less susceptible of wasteful 
reaction with acid, but more susceptible of being cleaned. A strip 
of wood, 13 inches wide and 2 inches deep, is bored by a centre 
bit, so as to have eight vertical and cylindrical holes, which are all 
supplied with mercury. By means of ropes of copper wire, these 
holes are made to communicate severally with the poles of each of 
the troughs, so that every one of these has its corresponding mercu- 
rial receptacle. Arches of twisted copper wire are provided of such 
various lengths, that the receptacles may be connected in such man- 
ner as to cause the associated troughs to act either as one series of 



254 

400 pairs each of 42 inches of zinc surface; as a series of 200 pairs 
each of 84 inches of zinc surface; or as a series of 100 pairs each of 
168 inches of zinc surface. In the usual mode of constructing the 
voltaic apparatus, the diversities of power that appertain to an appa- 
ratus in which the ratio of the size of the pairs to their number va- 
ries, as above described, can only be produced by changes in the ar- 
rangement, which are too inconvenient to be employed; but, accord- 
ing to the contrivance described, are attainable simply by shifting the 
connecting arches, so as to alter duly the mode in which the recepta- 
cles are connected with each other. 

By means of this apparatus, the deflagration of metals, the arched 
flame between charcoal points, the fusion of platina by contact with 
the aqueous solution of chloride of calcium, the welding of iron wire 
to a rod of the same metal under water, were all accomplished with 
the most striking success. 

In repeating Davy's experiment, in which the arched flame between 
charcoal points was subjected to the influence of a permanent mag- 
net, the reaction between the voltaic and magnetic fluids was so vio- 
lent, as to be productive of a noise like that of small bubbles of hy- 
drogen inflamed in escaping from the generating liquid. This last 
mentioned experiment was performed by request of Prof. Henry, who 
manipulated in the performance of it. 

Dr. Hare stated, that he had for many years endeavoured to draw 
the attention of men of science to the fact, that if, when a fine and a 
coarse wire of platina are made to form the electrodes or poles of a 
powerful voltaic series of not less than 300 pairs, the coarse wire, 
while forming the positive end or anode, be introduced into a concen- 
trated solution of chloride of calcium, and the fine wire be made to 
touch the surface of the solution, fusion of the extremity into a glo- 
bule will follow every contact. But when the polarity of the wires is 
reversed, the resulting ignition is comparatively feeble. 

This experiment, Dr. Hare stated, was repeated to the satisfaction 
of Professors Silliman, Henry, and James Rogers, all of whom were 
present at the trial of the apparatus. 

When the finer wire was plunged about an inch below the surface 
of the solution, it became luminous throughout, emitting rays of a 
brilliant purple hue. 

For the fusion of the platina wire, in the experiment above de- 
scribed, it was found necessary to use the whole series consecutively 
as 400 pairs; showing, Dr. Hare remarked, that there are effects 



255 

which require a great number of pairs. He had, in previous experi- 
ments, found that fresh phosphuret of calcium was a conductor for 
350 pairs of 7 X 3, but not for 100 pairs of 71 X 14. 

The deflagration of an iron wire by contact with mercury, took 
place with phenomena which were never before witnessed by any of 
the spectators. At first the mercury was deflagrated with an intense 
silvery white light, after which there arose a vertical shower of red 
sparks, caused by the combustion of the iron. Lastly, a globule 
having accumulated at the end of the wire after a momentary stop- 
page of the reaction, an explosion took place, by which fragments of 
the globule, together with portions of the mercury, were projected to 
a great distance. 

It would seem, said Dr. Hare, as if a globule of peroxide of iron, 
having formed at the end of the wire, caused a temporary arrestation 
of the voltaic current; but that the apparatus, gaining energy in con- 
sequence of a transient repose, was unable to break through the glo- 
bule so as to disperse its particles with violence. 

Mr. Walker made some remarks on the tornado, of limited 
extent, which visited Philadelphia on the 13th instant. 

Mr. Walker's own observations, and those of several intelligent in- 
dividuals, on different sides of the central path, led him to the conclu- 
sion, that the currents from without the borders of the tornado were 
directed, in every instance, towards its centre. This was manifest 
from the motion of the clouds, in the different strata of the atmos- 
phere. The theory of the central tendency of the currents in tor- 
nadoes, usually ascribed to Mr. Espy, was, Mr. Walker remarked, of 
older date, having been advanced by Franklin in the middle of 
the last century. The whirl, on which so much stress is laid by Mr. 
Redfield and Colonel Reid, was distinctly seen in the lower current, 
where the condensed vapour, resembling spent steam, moved round 
in a spiral, making several turns downwards, each of smaller dimen- 
sions than the preceding, and resembling the motion of water in a 
common whirlpool. This circumstance seemed, to Mr. Walker, 
somewhat contradictory to part of Mr. Redfield's theory, that of the 
gradual enlargement of the periphery of the whirl, whereas the mo- 
tion in the present instance was in a spiral tending inwards. 

Mr. Lea confirmed, from his own observations, the central 



256 

tendency of the outer currents, and the spiral motion of the 
clouds in the lower stratum, near the centre of the tornado. 

Dr. Hare made some remarks on the same atmospheric phe- 
nomenon, and especially on the bearing of the different facts 
upon his electrical theory of tornadoes. 

Dr. Hare stated that he had not had his attention drawn to the me- 
teor, until it had passed the zenith. But subsequently, seeing it dis- 
tinctly from the top of his house, he had distinguished two clouds, 
one much above the other, between which there appeared to be an 
electrical reaction, tending to keep them at a distance, while the lower 
seemed to move from the south-west, and the upper one from the 
south-east. These features, together with the tremendous accompa- 
nying or preceding electrical discharges, as indicated by thunder and 
lightning, could not but demonstrate, in Dr. Hare's opinion, that elec- 
tricity was the principal agent in the production of such phenomena. 
The fact mentioned in the public prints, that the iron chimney of a 
steamboat had been carried aloft, proved that a vertical force had 
been exerted; and the concentration of that force about a tall metal- 
lic cylinder was, Dr. Hare maintained, quite consistent with the idea, 
that the vertical force was the consequence of an electrical current, 
which would naturally concentrate the action about a prominent per- 
fect conductor. 

Dr. Hare could not reconcile the relative situation of the clouds, or 
their evident reaction and diversity of movement, with the theory of 
Mr. Espy. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected members of the 
Society : — 

Robert Were Fox, of Falmouth, England. 

John Sanderson, of Philadelphia. 

Francisco Martinez de la Rosa, of Madrid. 

Major James D. Graham, U. S. Topographical Engineers. 

J. B. B. Eyries, of Paris. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol.1. AUGUST, SEPT. & OCT. 1840. No. 13. 

Stated Meeting, August 21. 
Present, twenty-six members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Monthly Proceedings of the Royal Astronomical Society of London. 

Vol. V. Nos. 7 & 8, for May 8, and June 12. London, 1840. 

From the Society. 
The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and 

Ireland. No. 11. London, May, 1840. — From the Society. 
A'Magyar Tudos Tarsasag' Evkbnj'vei. Harmadik Kotet. 4to. 

Budan, 1837. — From the Hungarian Society, Pesth. 
Archasologia, or Miscellaneous Tracts relating to Antiquity. Pub- 
lished by the Society of Antiquaries of London. Vol. XXVIII. 

4to. London, 1840. — From the Society. 
A Geological Map of England and Wales. By G. B. Greenough, 

Esq., F.R.S., President of the Geological Society, &c. &c In 

6 sheets. — From the Geological Society. 
Memoir of a Geological Map of England ; to which is added an 

Alphabetical Index to the Hills, and a List of the Hills, arranged 

according to Counties. By George Bellas Greenough, F.R.S. 

&c. &c. 2d Edition. 8vo. London, 1840. — From the same. 
Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. 

Premiums for the Sessions 1840-41; 1841-42. 8vo. London, 

1840. — From the Society. 

A 



258 

A Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution ; systematical- 
ly classed. Preceded by an Historical and Bibliographical Ac- 
count of tbe Tracts and Pamphlets. Vol. 2. (The Tracts and 
Pamphlets) 8vo. 1840. — From the Institution. 

A new Collection of Laws, Charters, and Local Ordinances of the 
Governments of Great Britain, France and Spain, relating to the 
Concessions of Land in their respective Colonies ; together with 
the Laws of Mexico and Texas on the same subject, &c. &c. 
By Joseph M. White, Counsellor at Law, &c. &c. Two vols. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1839. — From the Publishers, Messrs. John- 
son, of Philadelphia. 

Florilegium Nugarum Cantabrigensium — Pan, a Pastoral of the first 
age, together with some other Poems. By T. Forster, M.B., F. 
R.A.S., F.L.S., &c. &c. 8vo. Brussels, 1840.— From the 
Author. 

Eulogy on Shargs, a favourite Dog, together with the Life of Loski, 
a Memoir in French, and other Miscellanies. A new edition with 
additions. By T. Forster, M.B., &c. &c. 8vo. Brussels, 1840. — 
From the same. 

Eloge de Chiens favoris avec plusieurs Anecdotes sur l'Intelligence 
des Betes, par l'Auteur de Philozoia, traduit litteralement de 
1' Anglais. 24mo. Bruxelles, 1840. — From the same. 

Del primo Scopritore del Continente de Nuovo Mondo e dei phi antichi 
Storici che ne Scrissero ragionamento, &c. &c. Da Gianfran- 
cisco Galeani Napione. 8vo. Firenze, 1809. — From Dr. Joshua 
J. Cohen, of Baltimore. 

Esame Critico del primo Viaggio di Amerigo Vespucci al Nuovo 
Mondo, &c. &c Da Gianfrancisco Galeani Napione. 8vo. 
Firenze, 1811. — From the same. 

A Discourse on the Life and Character of the Honourable Thomas 
Lee, late Judge in the District Court of the United States ; pro- 
nounced in the Unitarian Church, Charleston, S. C, Nov. 3, 
1839. By Samuel Gilman, D.D., Pastor of the Church, &c. 
8vo. Charleston, 1839. — From the Author. 

Calendars of the Ancient Charters and of the Welch and Scottish 
Rolls, now remaining in the Tower of London, &c. &c. To which 
are added, Memoranda concerning the Affairs of Ireland, ex- 
tracted from the Tower Records, &c. &c. By Sir Joseph Ayloffe, 
Bart., V.P.A.S. and F.R.S., &c. London, 1774 — From Mr. 
John Vaughan. 



259 

Index alter Plantarum quse in Horto Academico Lugduno-Batavo 
aluntur, conscriptus ab Hermanno Boerhaave. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 
1720. — From the same. 

The Annual Address of the Philodemic Society of Georgetown Col- 
lege, delivered at the Annual Commencement, held on Thursday, 
July 28, 1831. By Daniel J.Desmond, Esq., of Philadelphia. 
12mo. Philadelphia, 1831. — From the Author. 

An Address delivered at the Consecration of the Harmony Grove 
Cemetery, in Salem, June 14, 1840. By Daniel Appleton White, 
with an Appendix. 8vo. Salem, 1840. — From the Author. 

Experimental Researches in Electricity. 16th and 17th Series. On 
the Source of Power in the Voltaic Pile. By Michael Faraday, 
Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. &c. From the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, Part I. for 1840. 4to. London, 1840. — From the 
Author. 

An Answer to Dr. Hare's Letter on certain Theoretical Opinions. 
By M. Faraday. (From the American Journal of Science and 
Arts.) — From the same. 

A Treatise on the principal Mathematical Instruments employed in 
Surveying, Levelling, and Astronomy ; explaining their Con- 
struction, Adjustment and Use, with Tables. By F. W. Simms, 
Assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Revised, with 
Additions. By J. H. Alexander, Civil Engineer. 8yo. Balti- 
more, 1836. — From Mr. Alexander. 

History of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, &c &c. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Company. 

A Letter to Antonio Panizzi, Esq., Keeper of the Printed Books in the 
British Museum, on the reputed earliest Printed Newspaper, 
"The English Mercurie, 1588." By Thomas Watts, of the 
British Museum. 8vo. London, 1839. — From Mr. Penington. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer. By Robley 
Dunglison, M.D., Sec. A. P. S., &c. &c. Nos. 8 & 9, for July 
15, and August 1, 1840. — From the Editor. 

Recherches Analytiques sur les Expressions du Rapport de la Cir- 
conference au Diametre trouvees par Wallis et Brounker; et 
sur la Theorie de l'Integrale Eulerienne, &c. &c. par Mr. Jean 
Plana a Turin, &c. 4to. (Extrait du Journal de Crelle.) — 
From the Aidhor. 

Memoire sur Trois Integrates Definies, par Mr. J. Plana, Directeur de 
1'Observateur de Turin. 4to. — From the same. 



260 

Memoire sur l'Expression Analytique de la surface totale de 1'ellip- 
soide dont les trois axes sont inegaux ; et sur revaluation de la 
surface d'une voute symmetrique, a la base recta ngulaire, re- 
tranchee dans la moitie du meme ellipso'ide, par Mr. J. Plana 
a Turin. 4to. — From the same. 

Note ou l'on explique une remarquable objection faite par Euler en 
1751, contre une regie donnee par Newton dans son Arithmetique 
Universelle, pour extraire la racine d'un binome reel de la forme 
v'a+y'i) quelque soit le degre impair de la racine demandee, 
si toutefois elle est possible, par Mr. J. Plana a Turin. 4to. — 
From the same. 

Memoire sur une nouvelle maniere de determiner les Integrates de- 
finies, &c. &c. par M. J. Plana, &c. 8vo. — From the same. 

Memoire sur le Mouvement d'un Pendule dans un Milieu Resistant, 
par Jean Plana, &c. &c. 4to. Turin, 1835. — From the same. 

A New Picture of Philadelphia, or the Stranger's Guide to the City 
and adjoining Districts, &c. &c, with a Plan of the City and 
Map of its Environs. By H. S. Tanner. 24mo. Philadelphia, 
1840. — From the Author. 

The Magazine of Natural History. New Series. March to June, 
1840, inclusive. Conducted by Edward Charlesworth, F.G.S., 
&c. 8vo. London, 1840. — From the Editor. 

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. No. 52. August, 
1840. 8vo. Philadelphia. — From the Editor, Dr. Hays. 

Considerations on the Currency and Banking System of the United 
. States. By Albert Gallatin. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1831. — From 
the Author. 

Memorial of the Committee appointed by the " F_ree Trade Conven- 
tion," held at Philadelphia in September and October, 1831, to 
prepare and present a Memorial to Congress, remonstrating 
against the existing Tariff of Duties ; with an Appendix. (Mr. 
Gallatin, Reporter.) 8vo. New York, 1832.— From the same. 

Report of the " Union Committee," appointed by the meeting of the 
Signers of the Memorial to Congress, held on the 11th day of 
February, 1834, at the Merchants' Exchange, in the City of New 
York. (Mr. Gallatin, Reporter.) 8vo. New York, 1834 — 
From the same. 

Standard Weights and Measures. Letter from the Secretary of the 
Treasury transmitting a Report of F. R. Hassler, Superintendent 



261 

of the Works of Standard Weights and Measures. (Doc. No. 
261. Ho. of Reps. Treas. Department.) — From Mr. Hassler. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

A Collection of Turkish Coins, commencing with those of Othman, 
founder of the present Dynasty. — From John P. Brown, U. S. 
Dragoman, at Constantinople. 

A communication was read from Mr. Forshey, of Louisiana, 
entitled "Observations upon the Meteors of August, by C. G. 
Forshey," which was referred to a Committee. 

Mr. Boye stated, that Mr. Clarke Hare and he had succeeded 
in producing a perchloric ether. 

It is a colourless liquid, heavier than water, and of a sweet, but 
afterwards acid taste, resembling that of the oil of cinnamon. Its 
most remai'kable property is its explosiveness. Not only by ignition, 
but even by friction or percussion, it explodes with extreme violence, 
and cannot therefore be handled without the greatest precaution. 
When it is borne in mind, that perchloric acid, containing seven 
atoms of oxygen, loosely combined with chlorine, is in this substance, 
in contact with sufficient carbon and hydrogen to be converted into 
carbonic oxide and water, the violence of its explosion will easily be 
accounted for. 

Mr. Boye further stated, that he hoped to be soon able to give a 
farther account of this substance ; of the way in which it is obtained, 
and of some other similar reactions, which they are now engaged in 
studying. 

Mr. Vaughan exhibited from M. Alexandre Vattemare a fac 
simile of an original grant by Charles of England to William 
Penn; and also a fac simile of a deed of sale, by William Penn, 
of 20,000 acres of land, for 800 pounds sterling; — the original 
deed being in Penn's handwriting. 

Mr. Walker made an oral communication on the subject of 
the August shower of meteors. 

These meteors returned, this year on the 9th instant, and were 
observed at the High School Observatory, by Mr. Walker, as well 
as by Messrs. Forshey, of Louisiana, and Hamilton, of this city. 
The evenings of the 10th and 11th, being partly cloudy, and the 



262 

moon nearly full, no observations were made. The evening of the 
9th, however, was distinguished by all the peculiarities hitherto 
noticed in the August period. The following table exhibits a classifi- 
cation of the meteors from memoranda, concerning each meteor, made 
at the time of its appearance. 





Bid 


£ J- 


_a 


o 


£ 


o 




2 °"3 


a "-i 


o 


>> 


3 


£> 


Meteors of 9th August, 




g -g 


■g _; 


s . 


'? 


£ 


1840. 


g ^g . 


m a ^ 


£1 


'8 '3 


.2 


'8 


Comparative Brilliancy. 


™-° a 
o - a 
£ *^ o 

oo 5 *" 


CO o © 

III 


o 8 


°^ 

a « 
.2 >- 
<-> o 


o 


o 

c 
_o 






O c G 


S'o 


as a> 


m a 


oS.H 






1-1*^3 o 






a o 


*-* rf 




Ooo S 


o §£ 


£i 


ai 


>3 3 


a 2 


Thrice that of Jupiter 


1 


1 


o 
40 


s 
4.5 


o 
20 


1.7 


Twice ,, 


6 





35 


3.6 


15 


1.0 


Equal to ,, 


12 


2 


25 


2.5 


12 


0.8 


First magnitude 


12 


14 


20 


1.8 


9 


0.6 


Second ,, 


32 


17 


12 


1.2 


5 


0.5 


Third „ 


5 


33 


7 


0.9 


4 


0.4 


Below third ,, 


none 


36 


6 


0.6 


4 


0.4 



From an inspection of the table, Mr. Walker remarked, it will 
readily appear, that these meteors differ from ordinary shooting stars, 
in their greater brilliancy, longer apparent paths, and the greater dura- 
tion of their trains. Their most important peculiarity, however, is 
the tendency of their apparent paths towards a common point of con- 
vergence in the celestial sphere, or in other words, their apparent 
divergence from a common radiant point near the head of Perseus. 

The existence of a common radiant point near y Leonis, for the great dis- 
play of meteors, November 12th, 1833, was noticed by Messrs. Olmsted, Twi- 
ning, Aiken, Riddle, and others. The same maybe inferred from the descrip- 
tions of Humboldt and Ellicott, in 1799; of Briggs, and others, in 1832; and it 
has been manifest in ev T ery return of the November shower witnessed since. 

The attention of observers, Mr. Walker observed, was first called to the 
August period, by Quetelet, in 1836; and in 1837, precise observations were 
made at the Berlin and Breslaw Observatories. These were reduced by the 
formulas given by Mr. Erman, in No. 385 of Schumacher's Astronomische 
Nachrichten, and have determined with precision the common point of con- 
vergence for August 10th, 1837. In the same year, Mr. Forshey, then Profes- 
sor of Mathematics in Jefferson College, Mississippi, noticed, about the mid- 
dle of August, a great number of Meteors, originating chiefly about the region 
of Cassiopea. It appears, also, that Mr. SchaefFer,* of New York, searching 
for a radiant point on the 9th of August, 1837, placed the same near the north 



* Silliman's Journal, Vol. 33, p. 134. 



263 



pole. Mr. Herrick,* at New Haven, who had previously invited attention 
to this period, in the United States, on the same evening, found this point 
farther north than in the November shower ; but determined nothing farther. 
In 1838, these meteors were seen by Mr. Kreil, at the Milan Observatory, 
but no radiant point was deduced. In the United States, however, Professor 
Forshey, from 65 meteors seen in one hour, August 9th, at Rock Island, Iowa, 
concluded the radiant to be situate within a circle of 2° radius, centering in the 
sword cluster of Perseus. In 1839, Mr. Herrick,t with others, at New Haven, 
found the radiant point to be near the sword cluster, on the 9th and 10th, 
being nearly stationary. On the 10th, at 13A., they found it to be near 
6 Persei. 

Mr. Forshey, in 1839, August 10th and 11th, at St. Louis, again noticed the 
radiant point in the same position as in 1838. But the position of this point 
or rather of the point of convergence of their apparent paths, has been com- 
puted with great precision from the observations at Berlin, August 9th, 10th 
and 11th, and at Konigsberg, August 10th and 11th. The mode of observa- 
tion adopted at the European observatories has been to mark on a map the 
points of origin and disappearance, and, subsequently, to compute, by Mr. 
Erman's formulae, the common point of convergence. As the August meteors 
become visible chiefly in the northern zones, it was thought that greater pre- 
cision would be attained by nothing, besides the point of origin and disappear- 
ance, also the part of Perseus or Cassiopea, intersected by the apparent path 
of the conformable meteors traced backwards through one of these constella- 
tions. The following table gives the point of convergence thus deduced from 
three separate groups of observations at Philadelphia, together with the posi- 
tion of this point, as determined at the European observatories, and the pro- 
bable error of a single result, and of the final result computed in the usual 
manner. The general agreement in the positions will be seen. The small- 
ness of the probable errors of the Philadelphia results is attributed to the 
method employed in observing; by which a greater proportion of the meteors 
seen was marked unconformable, and excluded from the general estimate. 



August Meteors. 


Apparent 
R. A. of 


Apparent 
Dec. of 


No. of 




wl 


Place of Observation 
and date. 


point of 
conver- 
gence. 


the point 
of conver- 
gence. 


Observa- 
tions. 


-a -5 
o <o 

J- <*-* 
Pn o 


_2 £ 

"I S 

Cw o 


1837. Berlin, Aug. 10 


21718 


— 57°26 


46 


o 
±20.1 


±2°96 


,« Breslaw, „ 


221.76 


— 51.41 


200 


±19.5 


±1.38 


1839. Berlin, 9 


224.86 


— 50.18 


50 


±11.9 


±1.68 


10 


'223.88 


— 52.39 


48 


±13 3 


±1.92 


11 


218.45 


— 51.05 


43 


±13 5 


±2.06 


,, Konigsberg, 10 


214.85 


— 55.59 


75 


±21.0 


±2.42 


11 


215.11 


— 55.29 


74 


±17.4 


±2.02 


1840. Phila.9<110h57m 


216.14 


— 55.76 


12 


± 2.3 


±0.67 


„ 9 13 4 


214.71 


— 55.43 


15 


± 4.1 


±1.05 


„ 9 15 G 


219.25 


— 55.12 


29 


± 1.2 


±0.22 



* Silliman's Journal, Vol. 33, p. 176 and 359. 
t Ibid, Vol. 37, p. 328. 



264 

Mr. Walker referred to some of the analytical conclusions drawn by Mr. 
Erman* from the fact, which the Philadelphia observations of this year go to 
confirm, that these meteors appear to converge nearly to a common point in 
the heavens. 

" 1st. Mr. Erman concludes, that these bodies are of a cosmical origin ; that 
they move in a continuous ring-formed stream of not less that 3° in breadth ; 
that the plane of the centre of this stream is inclined at least 56°, probably 
more than 90°, and not exceeding 124° to the plane of the ecliptic, — an incli- 
nation which hitherto comets alone have been known to possess. 

"■ 2d. That their least velocity in space Aug. 10.5th, is 55 hundredths that of 
the earth in its orbit, giving them a period round the sun of 128 days ; that 
their greatest velocity is 143 hundredths that of the earth, which would locate 
them at this time on the perihelion of a parabola or ellipse of period indefi- 
nitely great. 

" 3d. That to remove this uncertainty of their velocities, between 55 and 
143 hundredths that of the earth, it is only necessary that two observers, at a 
distance apart, should trace with precision the apparent path of the same me- 
teor, and one of them at least its duration. This condition had not yet been 
fulfilled in Europe, otherwise the entire elements of their orbit would have 
been approximately determined. 

" 4th. That their perihelion distances are not less than 2 hundredths nor 
more than 97 hundredths of the earth's mean distance from the sun. 

" 5th. That they are in their descending node when visible Aug. 10.5th, 
and that their distance from the sun, in the ascending node, is not less than 
7 hundredths, and may be several times the earth's mean distance from the 
sun. Hence, even if they are a continuous ellipse-formed stream, it is only in 
one of these possible distances, viz. that of the earth from the sun ; that this 
stream would be visible to a spectator on the earth, when traversing its ascend- 
ing node. If, near the sun, their aggregate might appear as spots on the solar 
disc, or might intercept some of the solar light and heat: if far beyond the 
earth, no traces of them would be found. 

- " 6th. That the earth traverses this meteor-stream from the 5.5th to the 
7.5th of February. The fact that no such stream has of late years been 
noticed, shows that the first condition of No. 5, does not prevail. Mr. Erman 
thinks that the diminution of the normal increase of temperature at this date, 
as ascertained at several stations, for many years past, by Mr. Madler, of Ber- 
lin, may possibly warrant the conclusion, that the second condition takes 
place, and that the meteor-stream at this time is between the earth and sun. 
That the first condition may have prevailed in 1206, and the second in 1208, 
seems not improbable from history. This apparent change in the appearance 
of the meteor-stream Mr. Erman ascribes to the secular variations of its ele- 
ments; the possibility of which is admitted by Olbers and Bessel. 

"7th. That the greatest possible apparent motion of the common point of 
convergence of their apparent paths, consistent with the existence and ob- 
served position of this point, is one-tenth of a degree of a great circle west- 
ward, in an hour." 

* Astr. Nachr., Nos. 385, 390 and 404. 



265 

Mr. Walker remarked, that though much pains had been bestowed 
upon determining their apparent paths and duration, at the High 
School Observatory, he had as yet received no corresponding obser- 
vations which could throw light on the third conclusion of Mr. Er- 
man. The motion of the radiant — if any — according to Mr. For- 
shey's and his own observations, would seem to be in a south-easterly 
direction, of about one half of a degree of a great circle per hour, a 
phenomenon not reconcilable with the analysis of Mr. Erman. 

In conclusion, Mr. Walker referred, for the details of the Philadel- 
phia observations, to Mr. Forshey's paper read this evening. 

Dr. Hays communicated the particulars of a case of inability 
to distinguish certain colours, occurring in a man, a patient in 
Wills' Hospital, under the care of Dr. Fox. 

This case, Dr. Hays remarked, presented the following points of 
interest. 

1st. It confirmed the correctness of the observation made by Dr. 
Hays, in a former communication, that no reliance can be placed on 
the account of their own cases, given by those who labour under this 
defect ; and that their statements should never be received as ac- 
curate, until after careful and repeated examination. 

The subject of the case under notice had been admitted into the 
hospital with partial amaurosis, and was not aware of his inability to 
distinguish colours until he was informed of the defect by Dr. Fox. 
He then maintained, very confidently, that it had come on since his 
loss of the power of seeing objects, and mentioned several circum- 
stances to prove, that it was of recent occurrence. Nevertheless, on 
being minutely and closely questioned, it appeared beyond all doubt, 
and even the patient himself had to admit the fact, that the defect 
must have always existed. 

Again, after being shown various coloured papers, which he was 
requested to name, and satisfying all who witnessed the experiment, 
that he could distinguish but two colours, viz. yellow and blue, he 
named correctly the colours of a red strawberry and green leaf, which 
were presented to him. This surprised all present. It occurred, 
however, to Dr. Hays, that the patient had learned the usual colour 
of these objects, and that his answers were dictated by this know- 
ledge, and not from a real perception of colour. Experiments, made 
with a view of determining this point, most conclusively established 
the correctness of Dr. Hays's suspicion. 
u 



266 

2dly. The case tends to confirm the accuracy of the laws announced 
by Dr. Hays on a former occasion, as governing the defect of vision 
under notice. This patient could perceive but two colours, yellow 
and blue. His perception of the former was perfect, of the latter 
somewhat less so. 

Dr. Hays stated, that the laws just alluded to, so far as ascertained 
by his investigations, were the following: — 

1st. Entire inability of distinguishing colours may co-exist with 
a perfect ability of perceiving the forms of objects. 

This constitutes the highest grade of the defect. Individuals who 
labour under it can recognise differences of intensity of colour, so 
that whilst a diversity of colours of the same intensity appears to 
them to be a uniform colour, they accurately designate, as lighter or 
darker, different shades of the same colour, or of various colours. 
The rainbow appears to them as a band of a uniform colour, darker 
at one side, and gradually becoming lighter towards the other. 

2dly. The defect may extend to all but one. colour, and in such 
case the colour recognised is always yellow. 

The perception of this colour may be perfect, or limited to some 
shades. 

3dly. The defect may extend to all but two colours, and in such 
case the colours recognised are always yellow and blue. 

In some of these cases, the perception of the latter colour is less 
perfect than of the former. Individuals who labour under this grade 
of the defect, though able to recognise, perfectly, yellow and blue, 
cannot distinguish them when combined, and forming green. 

The laws which govern the other grades of this defect, Dr. Hays 
remarked, remain to be determined. 

There are certain persons who can accurately recognise yellow 
and blue, and some who can recognise red, who cannot distinguish 
green ; but whether or not there are individuals who can recognise 
the three primitive colours accurately, and are yet unable to dis- 
tinguish the secondary colours, must be left, Dr. Hays remarked, to 
further observation to determine. 

It also remains to be ascertained, whether any person, having an 
imperfect perception of yellow, can recognise blue ; or with an im- 
perfect perception of yellow and blue, or of the latter alone, can dis- 
tinguish red. 

Dr. Hays, from the Publication Committee, stated, that the 



267 

first part of the new volume of the Transactions of the Society, 
would be published in a few days. 

Mr. Vaughan reported the death of Mr. Prinsep, of Calcutta, 
a member of the Society. 

On motion, it was resolved, that a Committee be appointed 
to arrange the Franklin Papers deposited with the Society, 
(see Proceedings, No. XII, p. 253,) and to report a plan for 
the better preservation of the Manuscripts of the Society. 

Dr. Dunglison, Reporter, presented No. 12 of the printed 
Bulletin of the Proceedings of the Society for May, June, and 
July, 1840. 



Stated Meeting, September 18. 

Present, twenty-six members. 

Dr. Patterson, and subsequently Dr. Chapman, Vice 
Presidents, in the Chair. 

The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Transactions of the Geological Society of London. Second Series. 
Vol. V. Part 3. 4to. London, 1840 — From the Society. 

Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. Vol. II. Part 4. 
4to. London, 1840. — From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part VII. 1839. 
8vo. — From the same. 

Reports of the Council and Auditors of the Zoological Society of 
London ; read at the annual general meeting, April 29, 1840. 
8vo. London, 1840. — From the same. 

Flora Batava of Afbeelding en Beschryving van Nederlandsche 
Gewassen, door Jan Kops, Hoogleeraar te Utrecht, u. s. w. en 
F. A. W. Miquel. 4to. 119 Aflevering. 5 Platen. 4to. Am- 
sterdam. — From his Majesty the King of the Netherlands. 

Medicinisches Schriftsteller-Lexicon der jetzt lebenden Aerzte, Wund- 
'arzte, Geburtshelfer, Apotheker, und Naturforscher aller gebil- 



268 

deten Volker. Von Adolph Carl Peter Callisen, Doctor der 
Medicin und Chirurgie, u. s. w. Band. 1-21. 8vo. Copen- 
hagen, 1830-35. Die anonymischen Schriften, mit Einschluss 
der Cholera, der Homoopathie, der Pharmacopoen, Arzneitaxen 
und allgemeinen Medecinalordnungen, Zeitschriften, gesellschaft- 
schriften und gesammelte Schriften mehrerer Verfasser. Band. 
22-25. 8vo. Copenhagen, 1835, 1837. Nachtrag enthaltend : 
Berichtigungen, Erganzungen, die neuere Literatur, und die seit 
1830 verstorbenen medicinischen Schriftsteller, mit einigen Bei- 
tr'agen von den Herren Doctoren : dem Hofrathe Choulant, dem 
Leibchirurgen Koberwein, dem Director der Konigsbergschen 
Hebammen-Lehranstalt Richter, dem Archiater und Etatsrathe 
A. von Scho'nberg. Band. 26, 28. 8vo. Copenhagen, 1838-40.— 
From the Author. 

A Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language, &c. &c, with a pre- 
face on the Origin and Connexion of the Germanic Tongues; a 
Map of Languages, and the Essentials of Anglo-Saxon Gram- 
mar. By the Rev. J. Bosworth, LL.D., Dr. Phil, of Leyden, 
&c. &c. Royal 8vo. London, 1838. — From the Author. 

Memoirs illustrating the History of Jacobinism. A Translation from 
the French of the Abbe Barruel. Part 1. Vol. 1. The Anti- 
Christian Conspiracy. Part 2. Vol. 2. The Anti-Monarchical 
Conspiracy. Part 3. Vol. 3. The Anti-Social Conspiracy. 8vo. 
Hartford and New York, 1799. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

A Star in the West ; or a Humble Attempt to Discover the long lost 
Ten Tribes of Israel, preparatory to their return to their beloved 
City, Jerusalem. By Elias Boudinot, LL.D. 8vo. Trenton, 
N. J., 1816. — From the same. 

Biography and History of the Indians of North America ; comprising 
a General Account of them, and Details in the Lives of all the 
most Distinguished Chiefs and others, who have been noted among 
the various Indian Nations upon the Continent ; also a History 
of their Wars, &c. &c. By Samuel G. Drake, Member of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society. Third Edition, with large 
additions and corrections, and numerous engravings. 8vo. Bos- 
ton, 1834. — From the same. 

fitudes Physiologiques et Pathologiques sur les Organes de la Voix 
Humaine, Ouvrage auquel l'Academie Royale des Sciences a 
Decerne un des Prix de Medecine fondes par M. Montyon. Par 



269 

P. Bennati, Docteur en Medecine et en Chirurgie des Faculties de 
Vienne, &c. &c. 8vo. Paris, 1823. — From the same. 

Memoirs of My Own Times. By General James Wilkinson. Three 
Vols. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1816. — From the same. 

Traductor Ingles, 6 Sistema Practico i Teorico para aprender a 
traducir la Lengua Inglesa por Medio de la Espanola. Por 
Mariano Cubi i Soler, Catedratico de Idiomas Modernos en el 
Colejio de la Louisiana, Segunda Edicion, Correjida i Mejorada. 
8vo. Cambridge. — From the Author. 

An Historical and Statistical Account of New South Wales, both as a 
Penal Settlement and British Colony. By John Dunmore Lang, 
D.D., Senior Minister of the Scots Church, &c. &c. Second 
Edition. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1837. — From the Author. 

A Treatise on the Yellow Fever, as it appeared in the Island of Do- 
minica, in the Years 1793-4, 5, 6 ; to which are added, Obser- 
vations on the Bilious Remittent Fever, on Intermittents, Dysen- 
tery, and some other West India Diseases ; also the Chemical 
Analysis and Medical Properties of the Hot Mineral Waters on 
the same Island. By James Clark, M.D., F.R.S.E., &c. &c. 
8vo. London, 1797. — From Mr. Vaughan. 

The Possibility of Approaching the North Pole Asserted. By the 
Hon. D. Barrington. A new Edition, with an Appendix, con- 
taining Papers on the same subject, and on a Northwest Passage. 
By Colonel Beaufoy, F.R.S. Illustrated with a Map of the North 
Pole, according to the latest Discoveries. 8vo. New York. 
1818. — From the same. 

Besancon's Annual Register of the State of Mississippi, for the Year 
1838, completed from Original Documents and Actual Surveys, 
&c. &c. Vol. 1. 12mo. Natchez, 1838.— From Mr. C. G. 
Forshey. 

Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologic Uitge- 
geven door J. Van der Hoeven, M.D., Prof, te Leiden, en W. H. 
Vriese, M.D., Prof, te Amsterdam. Zesde Deel. 4. Stuk. 
1839.— From the Editors. 

Mow Yih Tung Che. A Treatise on Commerce. (In Chinese.) 8vo. 
with a Map of the Southern Hemisphere. By Mr. GutzlafF. 
[This work is founded on M'Culloch's publication.] 

Institut Royal de France, (Etat actuel, Liste et Adresses de MM. 
les Academiciens, &c) 24mo. Pour l'annee, 1840. — From Mr. 
Warden. 



270 

Pamphlets. I. Institut Royal de France. Academie Royale des 
Sciences, a. Funerailies de M. Turpin; Discours de M. Le 
Baron de Silvestre, 5 Mai, 1840. b. Funerailies de M. Bro- 
chant de Villiers; Discours de M. Al. Brongniart, 19 Mai, 1840. 
c. Funerailies de M. le Lieutenant General du Genie, Vicomte 
Rogniat; Discours de M. Becquerel, 11 Mai, 1840. d. Fune- 
railies de M. Robiquet; Discours de M. Chevreul, Mai 2, 1840. 
e. Funerailies de M. Poisson ; Discours de M. Arago, 30 Avril, 
1840, et Discours de M. Cousin, 30 Avril, 1840. 2. Institut 
Royal de France. Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. 
Sujets de Prix et Programmes adoptes par 1' Academie pour etre 
mis au concours des Annees, 1840-41 & 42. 3. Institut 
Royal de France. Seance Publique Annuelle des Cinq Acade- 
mies, du Samedi, 2 Mai, 1840, &c. 4. Institut Royal de France. 
Academie Francaise ; Seance Publique du Jeudi, 11 Juin, 1840. 
5. Reglements de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires de France, 
1840. 6. Rapport sur les Operations de la Campagne de la 
Corvette l'Astrolabe, depuis le depart de Rio Janeiro jusqu'a 
l'Arrivee a Valparaiso. 7. Rapport fait a la Societe d'Encou- 
ragement pour l'Industrie Nationale, par M. le Vicomte Hericart 
de Thury, &c. sur le procede propose par M. C. P. Brard, &c. pour 
reconnoitre immediatement les Pierres qui ne peuvent point re- 
sister a la Gelee, et que l'on designe ordinairement par les Noms 
de Pierres Gelives ou Pierres Gelisses. 4to. Paris, 1824. 
8. Societe Asiatique ; Discours et Rapport lus dans la Seance 
Generate annuelle du.28 Avril, 1825, &c. 8vo. Paris, 1825. — 
- From the same. 

A Monograph of the Limniades, and other fresh water Univalve 
Shells of North America. By S. Stehman Haldeman, Member 
of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. No. 1. July, 
1840. 8vo. — From the Author. 

List of Optical Instruments to be found in the Optical Institute of 
Utzschneider and Frauenhofer, Miinchen ; with the prices. (In 
French and German.) — From Mr. Justice. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Bache, Prof. Bache, and 
Mr. Booth, to whom was referred a communication, by Dr. 
Hare, entitled " On the Change effected in the Nitrates of 
Potash and Soda, by the limited application of Heat, with a 
view to obtain pure Oxygen; and, also, on a Liquid and a 



271 

Gaseous Ethereal Compound, resulting from the reaction of 
Nascent Hyponitrous Acid on Alcohol," &c, reported in 
favour of publication in the Transactions of the Society, and 
the publication thereof was ordered accordingly. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Patterson, Prof. Henry, 
and Mr. Walker, to whom was referred a letter, addressed by 
Dr. John Locke to Prof. Bache, containing observations to de- 
termine the Horizontal Magnetic Intensity and Dip, at Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, and Cincinnati, Ohio, reported certain ex- 
tracts for publication. 

After describing the apparatus used in these observations, Doctor 
Locke states, in detail, the results of two series of observations, each 
made with three horizontal needles, and concludes from the mean of 
them, that the relative horizontal intensities at Louisville and Cincin- 
nati, are as 1 to 0.9727. The dates of the observations were March 
7th, 10th, 11th, and 14th, 1840, at about noon of each day. The 
correction for temperature, in each of the three needles used, was ob- 
tained by experiments which are fully described, and which gave 
the following coefficients: — for needle No. 1, 0.000125, for No. 2, 
0.000145, No. 3, 0.000058. 

The magnetic dip at Cincinnati, as determined by two series of 
observations, each with two needles, in March, 1840, was 70° 25'. 5, 
and by one series, in April, 70° 28'. 8, and the dip at Louisville, by 
three series, at nearly the same date, in March, 69° 54'. 9. 

The relative total intensities thus deduced for a period corres- 
ponding to March 10th, 1840, are, Cincinnati, 1.000, Louisville, 
1.003. 

A communication was read from Mr. C. G. Forshey, of 
Louisiana, entitled "An Account of the Great Mound near 
Washington, Adams county, Mississippi," which was referred 
to a committee. 

Mr. Du Ponceau presented to the Society a Manuscript by 
the late Mr. Heckewelder, containing the names of various 
trees, shrubs and plants, in the Lennape (Del.) language, which 
was referred to the Historical and Literary Committee. 

Dr. Horner read a communication entitled " Note of the 
Remains of the Mastodon, and some other extinct Animals col- 
lected together in St. Louis, Missouri. By W. E. Horner, 



. 272 

M.D., Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania," which was referred to a committee. 

Mr. Ord directed the attention of the Society to the follow- 
ing passage in Audubon's "Birds of America." Article, 
Small-headed Flycatcher. 

" When Alexander Wilson visited me at Louisville, he found, in my already 
large collection of drawings, a figure of the present species, which, being at 
that time unknown to him, he copied, and afterwards published in his great 
work, but without acknowledging the privilege that had thus been granted to 
him. I have more than once regretted this, not by any means so much on 
my own account, as for the sake of one to whom we are so deeply indebted 
for his elucidation of our ornithology." 

"This attack upon the reputation of a member of this Society," said Mr. 
Ord, " one who, during the long period that he dwelt amongst us, was noted 
for his integrity, ought not to be suffered to pass without examination." 

Mr. Ord submitted to the inspection of the Society, Wilson's Autograph 
Diary of his journey from Philadelphia to New Orleans, via Pittsburg and 
Louisville, commencing on the 30th of January, 1810. From this diary it ap- 
pears, that he arrived at Louisville on the evening of Sunday, the 18th of 
March; and departed thence for Frankford and Lexington, on the morning of 
Friday the 23d. During his stay at Louisville, he was occupied three days in 
soliciting subscribers, and endeavouring to get materials for his work, and 
one day he was employed in writing to his friends at home. Four days, con- 
sequently, were passed in Louisville, one afternoon of which was devoted to 
shooting, in company with Mr. Audubon ; and a portion of a morning was ap- 
propriated to examining that gentleman's collection of crayon drawings ; in 
which Wilson states he saw the figures of two new birds, both Motacillce or 
Warblers ; but he does not state that he saw a figure of a Muscicapa or Fly- 
catcher. He does not say a word respecting the loan of Mr. Audubon's draw- 
ings, nor does he give the least reason to suppose that he made a copy of 
any of the drawings ; on the contrary, he positively asserts that he did not 
get one new bird at Louisville. 

Mr. Ord proceeded to examine the style of both Audubon's and Wilson's 
drawings, and pointed out the peculiarities of each author. He declared, that 
the figure of Wilson's Small-headed Flycatcher differs in no respect from his 
ordinary style ; that it bears the signet of paternity on its very front. But, as 
it might be objected that this mode of reasoning is inconclusive, from the cir- 
cumstance of several of Mr. Audubon's birds bearing a resemblance to those 
of Wilson, Mr. Ord obviated this objection, by stating that Mr. Audubon had 
not scrupled to appropriate the labours of Wilson to his own use ; inasmuch 
as the figure of the female March Blackbird, (Birds of America, plate 67,) 
and that of the male Mississippi Kite, (same work, plate 117,) had both been 
copied from the American Ornithology, without the least acknowledgment of 
the source whence they had been derived. Mr. Ord thought that the charge 
of plagiarism came with an ill grace from one who had been guilty of it him- 
self, as in the instances above mentioned. 

Wilson states, that he shot the bird figured and described in his 6th volume, 



273 

page 62, in an orchard, on the 24th of April. Mr. Ord confirmed this state- 
ment, by declaring to the Society, that he himself was with Wilson on the 
day in question ; that he saw and examined the specimen ; and that Wilson 
assured him it was entirely new to him. Wilson was then residing at the 
Bartram Botanic Garden, near Philadelphia. 

Mr. Ord farther read to the Society a letter addressed to him by the artist, 
Mr. Lawson, who engraved the plate in which the Small-headed Flycatcher 
is figured. This gentleman affirms, that all the plates, which he engraved for 
the American Ornithology, were from Wilson's own drawings; and that with 
respect to the plate in which the Small-headed Flycatcher appears, specimens 
of all the birds there represented accompanied the drawings; and he, after 
getting his outline, worked from them. Mr. Ord laid before the Society a 
proof of the etching of this plate, and remarked, that from the minuteness of 
the details, the point of the engraver had evidently a greater share in produ- 
cing the desired result, than even the pencil of the ornithologist. 

Mr. Lea, from the Publication Committee, reported, that 
the first part of the 7th volume of the Transactions of the So- 
ciety was completed, and presented a copy thereof for the in- 
spection of the members. 

Mr. Vaughan stated, that agreeably to the instructions of the 
Society, he had purchased the Anamitic and Latin, and Latin 
and Anamitic Dictionaries, lately published by the Right 
Reverend Father Taberd, Bishop of Isauropolis, and Vicar 
General of Cochin China; in two volumes, 4to. Serampore, 
1838. (See Proceedings of July 3.) 

Dr. Hays made an oral communication relative to the opera- 
tion recently devised for squinting, and to its effects in modi- 
fying the adjusting power of the eye for near and distant 
objects. 

Dr. Hays stated, that certain phenomena which he had observed 
in one of the cases in which he had divided the internal rectus mus- 
cle, for the cure of squinting, seemed to favour the theory of the ad- 
justment, being made by an alteration in the form of the eye, under 
the conjoint action of the four recti muscles ; a theory rejected by the 
best physiologists of the day. 

The case, the details of which Dr. Hays related, was that of a 
gentleman thirty-six years of age, who had squinted with his left eye 
since the age of five years. Both the eyes were presbyopic ; the left, 
however, was most so, and required for distinct vision a glass three 
Nos. higher than the other eye ; the respective Nos. being 1 1 and 
14. Vision with the left eye, even by the aid of a glass, was not 
c 



274 

perfect, words printed in long primer being scarcely legible. After 
the division of the internal rectus muscle, vision not only improved, 
but the eye became less presbyopic, and at the present time, three 
weeks since the operation, said Dr. Hays, the glass (No. 14,) which 
had been before adapted to the patient's left eye, now magnifies so 
much, that it is unpleasant to read with it; and he is able to see best 
with glass, No. 1 1 . On careful comparison, he is unable to perceive 
any difference in the size of objects viewed with either eye through this 
glass ; and an opera glass, adjusted to one eye, seems equally well 
adapted for the other. These facts, Dr. Hays remarked, show, that a 
change has taken place in the left eye, and this probably consists in an 
elongation of its antero-posterior diameter, resulting from the operation. 

Dr. Hays also made some observations on the mode in which 
squinting causes an impairment of the function of vision, and stated, 
that from a great number of cases which he had examined, it ap- 
peared to him to be a general rule, that the greater the degree of 
strabismus, the more imperfect is the sight of the affected eye. In 
all the cases in which he had operated, the sight had been improved. 

Dr. Dunglison stated, that he was not prepared to admit, from 
this single observation, that the accommodating power of the eye is 
owing to the pressure of the four recti muscles on the eye ball; 
the division of any one of them not being likely, in his opinion, to 
rectify the results of compression, if it existed in the case in ques- 
tion. He was disposed to refer a great agency to the contraction 
and dilatation of the pupil in facilitating distinct vision at different 
distances, and he alluded to an experiment made on one of his own 
eyes whilst a student of medicine. This consisted in applying some 
freshly prepared extract of belladonna to the eyelids. The conse- 
quence was, that the pupil soon became so much dilated, that the iris 
was almost invisible. The focus of this eye was found to be at twice 
the distance of that of the sound organ ; but in proportion as the ef- 
fects of the belladonna passed off, and the pupil approached its na- 
tural size, vision became more and more distinct, and the focus nearer 
the natural. In the open air, all objects, except those near, were 
distinctly seen, but on entering a room, every thing was obscured. 

Dr. Dunglison expressed the belief, that squinting is often owing to 
impairment of vision in one eye, in consequence of a want of corres- 
pondence in the sensibility of the two retina? ; the mind, therefore, 
acquires the habit of attending to the impression made on the sound 
eye only, and the other, being neglected, is drawn into a position to 
interfere, as little as possible, with the better vision of its fellow. 



275 

Professor Bache alluded to a case of strabismus, which seemed to 
him to favour a suggestion thrown out by Dr. Hays, that defective 
vision in the inverted or everted eye, might be owing to stretching of 
the optic nerve. In this case the eye became everted ; and simul- 
taneously, vision with it was impaired. Ultimately, indeed, the sight 
of both eyes was lost. 

Professor Bache communicated the following observations 
made by Mr. Riimker, Director of the Observatory of Ham- 
burg, on the second comet of Galle. 

Longitude of the Observatory of Hamburg, 39m. 54s. E. of Green- 
wich. 



Date. 




























Mean Time at 


Apparent Alt of 


Apparent Declinat. 


£ t 


1840. 




Hamburg. 


Comet in Time. 


of Comet in Ascen. 


s g 

3 .Q 
























£0 






h 


m 


s 


h 


m 


s 


o 








January 


29 


9 


55 


23.89 


21 


17 


51.990 


62 


18 


59.15 


13 


J? 


30 


8 


11 


23.07 


21 


31 


31.545 


61 


55 


28.19 


15 


February 


2 


15 


47 


45.98 


22 


16 


53.236 


59 


55 


35.53 


15 


j. 


3 


8 


58 


46.24 


22 


25 


51.671 


59 


23 


38.57 


12 


)> 


4 


12 


45 


54.87 


22 


39 


52.004 


58 


28 


7.73 


4 


j. 


8 


8 


38 


19.30 


23 


19 


35.128 


55 


1 


12.81 


14 




9 


7 


59 


24.03 


23 


28 


23.452 


54 


4 


3.05 


11 




11 


8 


30 


24.43 


23 


45 


9.317 


52 


2 


24.91 


14 




12 


6 


59 


54.97 


23 


52 


16.184 


51 


5 


23.71 


11 


>) 


13 


6 


37 


19.04 


23 


59 


19.388 


50 


4 


58.17 


4 




17 


7 


27 


39.88 





24 


28.638 


45 


59 


10.16 


7 




20 


10 


24 


44.96 





40 


30.642 


42 


54 


50.14 


9 


;, 


21 


8 


27 


9.89 





44 


44.511 


42 


2 


10.16 


5 




22 


7 


36 


19.92 





49 


0.566 


41 


7 


51.14 


8 


>? 


23 


10 


.19 


4.72 





53 


42.774 


40 


6 


6.82 


5 




24 


7 


21 


20.47 





57 


13.625 


T9 


18 


17.17 


9 


j> 


25 


6 


44 


58.76 


1 





58.806 


38 


26 


14.25 


2 




28 


7 


44 


8.40 


1 


11 


43.889 


35 


50 


13.13 


11 


J) 


29 


7 


30 


35.35 


1 


14 


57.249 


35 


1 


34.78 


11 


March 


1 


7 


52 


35.50 


1 


18 


8.888 


34 


9 


25.57 


3 


JJ 


3 


7 


30 


17.55 


1 


24 


1.221 


32 


40 


4.76 


10 


JJ 


4 


7 


18 


0.15 


1 


26 


48.581 


31 


55 


31.03 


11 


5) 


5 


7 


36 


57.85 


1 


29 


32.423 


31 


10 


41.80 


10 


JJ 


6 


7 


25 


47.30 


1 


32 


8.990 


30 


28 


10.08 


9 


JJ 


7 


7 


41 


29.37 


1 


34 


42.030 


29 


45 


41.59 


7 




9 


7 


35 


22.20 


1 


39 


32.121 


28 


24 


27.00 


8 


J? 


11 


7 


45 


35.77 


1 


44 


5.870 


27 


6 


18.05 


7 


J) 


16 


18 


4 


11.57 


1 


54 


28.674 


24 


5 


17.24 


6 


J) 


17 


8 


5 


25.47 


1 


56 


24.191 


23 


31 


20.68 


2 


■}•} 


18 


8 





6.46 


1 


58 


15.616 


22 


58 


12.00 


16 


JJ 


20 


8 


26 


38.67 


2 


1 


52.951 


21 


53 


17.10 


3 


J> 


21 


7 


53 


58.95 


2 


3 


37.332 


21 


22 


54.45 


8 


?? 


22 


7 


52 


56.85 


2 


5 


19.245 


20 


52 


0.14 


4 


J? 


24 


8 


17 


15.92 


2 


8 


41.044 


19 


51 


52.52 


8 



276 

Mr. Justice stated to the Society, that the Astronomical In- 
struments ordered for the High School Observatory, from Mu- 
nich, had arrived, and invited the members to inspect them. 
Whereupon, Professor Bache proposed the following resolu- 
tions, which were adopted by the Society. 

Resolved, That the Committee on Astronomical Observations be 
requested to examine the instruments recently imported from Munich, 
for the Observatory of the Central High School, by the Controllers 
of the Public Schools, and to report in relation to them to the Society. 

Resolved, That the same Committee be requested to consider and 
report to the Society, the best application of the sum of money in the 
possession of the Society, which was collected for the erection of an 
Astronomical Observatory. 

Mr. Vanghan reported the death of Lucien Bonaparte, Prince 
of Canino, a member of the Society, aged 66. 

A letter was read by Mr. Vaughan from Mr. Charles P. 
Fox, presenting to the Society, in his own name, and that of 
his sisters, the collection of the original letters and papers of 
Benjamin Franklin. (See Proceedings, July 17.) 

On motion of Mr. Ord, the Secretary was directed to trans- 
mit to Mr. Fox a special vote of thanks for his valuable do- 
nation. 



Stated Meeting, October 2. 
Present, twenty-nine members. 
Dr. Chapman, Vice President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

TOR THE LIBRARY. 

Royal Society. Report of the Committee of Physics, including 
Meteorology, on the objects of Scientific Inquiry in those 
Sciences. Approved by the President and Council. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1840. — From Mr. Petty Vavghan. 

Monument de Yu, ou la plus Ancienne Inscription de la Chine, suivie 
de trente-deux formes d'Anciens Caracteres Chinois, &c. Par 
Joseph Hager. Fol. Paris, 1802. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 



277 

• 

Discours sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe, &c. &c. Par 
M. Le Bai-on Cuvier, &c. &c. 5eme edit. 8vo. Paris, 1828. — 
From the same. 

Des Caracteres Physiologiques des Races Humaines considered dans 
leurs Rapports avec PHistoire, &c. &c. Par W. F. Edwards, 
D.M., &c. &c. 8vo. . Paris, 1829. — From the same. 

The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge, for the 
year 1841. 8vo. Boston, 1840. — From Mr. J. E. Worcester. 

An Examination of Dr. Burnet's Theory of the Earth, with some re- 
marks on Whiston's New Theory of the Earth, &c &c. By J. 
Keill, A.M., &c. Second Edition. To the whole is annexed a 
Dissertation on the different Figures of Coelestial Bodies, &c. By 
Mons. De Maupertuis, &c. &c. 8vo. Oxford, 1734. — From 
Mr. Vavghan. 

Des Administrations Provinciales, Memoire presente au Roi par feu 
M. Turgot. 8vo. Lausanne, 1788. — -From the same. 

Lettres Americaines, dans lesquelles on examine l'Origine, PEtat 
Civil, Politique, &c. &c. des Anciens Habitans de PAmerique, 
&c. &c. pour servir de Suite aux Memoires de D. Ulloa. Par M. 
le Comte J. R. Carli, &c. &c. 8vo. 2 vols. Boston, 1788. — 
From the same. 

BevoipavToi; Kvpov Tt*ifetoi, fitGxtcc oktu, Xenophontis de Cyri Insti- 
tutione Libri octo, &c. &c. Cura. Thorn. Hutchinson, A.M. 
Edit. 6ta. 8vo. London, 1765. — From the same. 

Map of the Inland Navigation, Canals and Rail Roads, with the 
situations of the various Mineral Productions throughout Great 
Britain, from actual Surveys projected on the Basis of the Trigo- 
nometrical Survey made by order of the Honourable the Board 
of Ordnance, by J. Walker, &c. &c, accompanied by a Book 
of Reference, compiled by Joseph Priestley, Esq., &c. &c; in 
six sheets. London, 1831. — From the same. 

Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Physic. By William Stokes, 
M.D., &c. &c. Second American edition, with numerous Notes, 
and twelve additional .Lectures, by John Bell, M.D., &c. &c. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1840.— From Dr. Bell. 
Treatise on the Physiological and Moral Management of Infancy. By 
Andrew Combe, M.D., &c. &c, with Notes and a Supplementary 
Chapter, by John Bell, M.D., &c. &c. 12mo. Philadelphia, 
1840. — From the same. 



278 

Ensaio Corografico sobre a Provincia do Para, por Antonio Ladislau 
Monteiro Baena, &c. &c. 8vo. Para, 1839. — From the Author. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

Sundry Specimens of Minerals, &c. from the southern and western 
parts of the Union, from Mr. C. G. Forshey, of Louisiana. 

1. A coal recently found on the Arkansas river, about 300 miles beyond the 
capital of the State. The stratum crops out on the bank of the river, between 
high and low water mark, in a line of hills called " Spadra Bluffs," one of the 
Ozark range. A shaft has been sunk by John Walker, the discoverer, an en- 
terprising citizen of Natchez, Miss. At the depth of 35 feet, he found the 
coal 4 to 5 feet thick. The following analysis is from Professor L. D. Gale, 
of Jefferson College, Mississippi. 

" Extracts from the Journal of the Laboratory. 

" Specimen of coal furnished by Prof. Forshey, of Natchez, February, 1840. 
100 grs. of the coal, (Specific gravity = 1.336, and of jet black,) were put into 
a close vessel and heated to redness for two hours, and weighed while warm. 
Amount lost = 9.75 grs. The residuum, consisting of coal and earthy mat- 
ters, was again heated, but in an open platinum crucible, until all the carbon 
was burned away. Loss by the combustion = 80.81 grs. The earthy matters 
left, removed from the crucible, weighed 9.44 grs. The specimen, then, is 

composed of volatile matter per cent. 9.75 

Carbon, per cent. - - - - 80.81 

Earthy matters, .... 9.44 

" The volatile matters were found to be composed chiefly of water and car- 
buretted hydrogen, with a mere trace of sulphur. 

" The coal belongs to the class called Bituminous Coal, but has not enough 
to admit of coking by heat. ***** It is richer in carbon than any 
of the four varieties of English Bituminous Coal." 

It ignites easily without the aid of charcoal, and burns with a clear white 
blaze, without smoke, leaving a very small quantity of white ashes and earthy 
matter. 

2. A Shell, Unio Asperrimus, Lake Concordia, La. 3. Two Shells, Unio 
Trapezoides, Lake St. Joseph, La. 4. One Shell, Unio Pustulatus, Lake 
Bruin, La. 5. Single valves of two Shells, U. Subrotundus, Lake St. Joseph. 
6. Two Shells, Unio Parvus, Lake Concordia, La. 7. Five species of fossil 
Coralloides, from Jackson County, Iowa Territory, 1838. 8. Two Cyathphylla 
and an Orthocera, from the Chert, above the mountain limestone of Copper 
creek, Iowa, 1838. 9. Specimen of Alabaster, laminated sulphate of lime, 
from a cavern near Charleston, Iowa, 1838. 10. A cast, in Chalcedonic 
Quartz, of a Pentamiris, from the Chert of Iowa, 1838. 11. Three Iron Ores, 
Hematite, Crystallized Nodular Oxide, and Pipe Ore, Jackson County, Iowa, 
1838. 12. A Cyathphyllum, and a Coralloides, from Calloway County, Mis- 
souri, 1839. 13. A specimen of Lignite, and the laminated Gypsum which 
enveloped it, in the form of a concretion. From the base of the Natchez 



279 

Bluff, 170 feet below the surface. When obtained, the specimen was rotten 
wood, so decayed as to be easily crushed between the fingers. The ligneous 
fibre was very palpable, and showed it to be oak. After twenty days ex- 
posure, it was covered with a fine frost of Copperas, (Sulph. Iron,) and was 
transformed into beautiful lignite. 14. A piece of Brick, from the Mounds 
on Lake St. Joseph, Louisiana. Its porousness, Mr. F. found from some spe- 
cimens imperfectly burnt, arises from the entire combustion of the moss used 
to give the mortar consistency. 15. An Iron Ore, from the pudding stone 
forming at the base of the Natchez Bluffs. When first broken the cavity was 
filled with white potter's clay, coated with brown ochre at the surface. 16. A 
specimen of the Spanish Moss, Tillandsia Usneoides, from Natchez, Missis- 
sippi. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Horner and Dr. Hays, 
appointed on the 3d of January last, to report to the Society a 
description of a donation of Mastodon Bones, made to the So- 
ciety by a subscription of members, gave in their report, which 
was directed to be printed in the Transactions of the Society. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Hays, Mr. Peale, and Dr. 
Dunglison, to whom was referred a paper entitled " Note of 
the Remains of the Mastodon, and some other extinct animals, 
collected together in St. Louis, Missouri; by W. E. Horner, 
M.D., Professor of Anatomy University of Pennsylvania," re- 
commended that an abstract of the same should be inserted in 
the Bulletin of the Society's Proceedings; and on motion, the 
report was accepted, and the committee discharged. 

The collection referred to, was made by Mr. Albert Koch — a Ger- 
man resident in St. Louis, for the last five years — and has been ob- 
tained principally from two localities, Rock Creek, twenty miles south 
of St. Louis, and Gasconade County, two hundred miles above the 
mouth of the Missouri riyer. It consists of two hundred or more 
Teeth of the Mastodon and of the American Elephant. A dozen or 
more Lower Jaws of the Mastodon, with very numerous specimens of 
other parts of the head and skeleton generally, though there is no 
perfect head. 

The most remarkable specimen is a head of an animal, which Mr. 
Koch calls nondescript, and considers to have been from four to six 
times the size of an elephant, though Dr. Horner esteems it extremely 
difficult to establish this. In the present mode of exhibition, the head 
shows a central oblong amorphous part, which measures six feet in 
length by two or three in width. It is furnished with enormous 



280 

tusks, eleven and three-twelfths feet long from their roots, and nine 
or ten inches in diameter — one foot and three inches of their length 
being inserted into the sockets. These tusks are semicircular, and 
stand out horizontally, with the concavity backwards. Thus placed, 
they are fifteen feet in a straight line, from the lip of the one to the 
tip of the ottier. Notwithstanding they were found in this position, 
very just doubts, Dr. Horner thinks, may be entertained of its being 
the natural one, as, in a state of decay of the alveolus, they might 
readily gravitate outwards, so as to assume that direction subsequent 
to the death of the animal. This specimen was in fact very much 
decayed, when Mr. Koch found it, and appears to have been fractured 
by rocks falling on it from the bluff above. The means taken to pre- 
serve it obscure the surface of the bones, as well as their configura- 
tion, and in attaching the fragments together, some have been put 
very much out of their position. For example, the glenoid cavity of 
the right side is monstrously far from the hind tooth, and is laterally 
much beyond its line: the intermaxillary bones are too long, and 
on comparing the position of the posterior molar teeth of the upper 
jaw with that of the lower, the upper molar teeth are found to be 
ten inches or more in advance of the lower, a relation so false and 
so unsuited to mastication, that it is not at all probable nature 
formed them thus. The molar teeth are four in number in each jaw, 
two on a side ; the posterior one is seven inches long by four wide ; 
the anterior, four and a half inches long by four wide. The confor- 
mation of the teeth is exactly that of the Mastodon, and the ridges and 
denticules are scarcely worn at all, a proof that the animal was not 
old. The upper part of the cranium of this animal is defective. The 
general configuration of the head is so amorphous, the fragments of 
which it is composed have their position so imperfectly regulated, 
and the whole surface is so coated with glue and paint, to preserve 
it, that an exact examination was impracticable. Its length is so 
extraordinary, that Dr. Horner considers it can scarcely be re- 
ceived as natural, and he is inclined to the opinion, from its den- 
tal system, that it belongs to the Mastodon ; that by some accident 
the remains of two heads were found in the same line ; that if 
there be but one, it has been much fractured, and a large quantity 
of extraneous matter blended with it, which it is difficult to dis- 
tinguish. The latter conjecture, Dr. Horner thinks, is rendered 
more probable by the admission of Mr. Koch, that these bones were 
cemented to a layer of gravel a foot and a half in thickness, with 



281 

such tenacity, that the separation was accomplished with the greatest 
difficulty. 

In the same collection of fossil bones is to be found the skeleton, 
nearly complete, of a Mastodon of very large size : the ribs are want- 
ing, and the upper part of the cranium. The transverse diameter of 
the head, on a line with the foramen magnum, is three feet. The os 
femoris, in a perpendicular line, stands three feet nine inches high, 
and all the other bones are in this proportion. An estimate of the 
altitude of the animal when living, founded upon careful observations, 
instituted with the same view on the skeleton from Bucyrus, Ohio, 
recently obtained by the Society, would leave the inference, that the 
former animal has reached a height of from twelve to thirteen feet at 
the shoulders. This animal, in a popular advertisement on the sub- 
ject of the Museum by Mr. Koch, is rated at eighteen feet in height, 
an altitude so great as to exceed much the evidence derivable from a 
measurement of the longest bones of the extremities, and the induc- 
tive and comparative estimate thence obtained. 

The internal table of the cranium, the brain case, is entire, with a 
small surface of the contiguous cellular structure of bone in another 
fragment of the Mastodon. This forms so complete an oval body, 
that, in Dr. Horner's opinion, it is somewhat difficult to conceive that 
its shape was the result of merely accidental causes; Dr. Horner in- 
deed thinks it rather authorizes the inference, that it had been 
chiselled or hammered designedly into that shape by the human co- 
temporaries of the animal. 

There is also a small head, eighteen or twenty inches long, with 
tusks ten or eleven inches long in the upper jaw, and four mastodon 
teeth on each side of each jaw. This head is somewhat broken. 
The os frontis and the face, so far as Dr. Horner could judge, are so 
placed in regard to their front surface as to form a deep circular con- 
cavity, approximating, in shape, a fragment in the cabinet of the Soci- 
ety. Whether it ought to be viewed merely as a young Mastodon 
Giganteum, or another species of the Mastodon, Dr. Horner con- 
siders to be at present doubtful. 

There are two radii of the Mastodon with the epiphyses or articu- 
lar ends detached, owing to the youth of the animal : these pass for the 
arm bones of a giant fourteen or fifteen feet high, when his skeleton 
was complete. A similar misapprehension exists in regard to the 
vertebrae of a quadruped, probably a buffalo or young mammoth, 

D 



282 

which are strung together in a vertical position, and pass for the back 
bone of a giant of similar height. 

Another interesting relic has been denominated by the proprietor, 
Missourium Kochii, the first name in commemoration of its locality, 
the second of himself, its discoverer. It belongs undoubtedly, Dr. 
Horner states, to the Mastodon race; was not much inferior in size 
to the Elephant, and was furnished with tusks and indications of a 
proboscis having been attached to it. The tusks are four and a half 
feet in length, and at the roots have a circumference of eighteen 
inches ; they are only half an inch apart at the socket, and project 
right and left, with the concavity forward. The teeth have the mam- 
millose or Mastodon shape and conformation, and are three and a half 
inches in length by two and a half in breadth. The lower jaw is 
wanting. 

There is an os humeri, probably of a megalonyx, which measures 
in length one foot eight inches, the ulna of the same animal, and also 
other bones, probably the radii, with some of the last phalanges. 

Dr. Horner stated, that his sketch of this rich accumulation of fossil 
remains, and their examination were very imperfect, and the less in- 
structive to him, for the want of standards of comparison in perfect 
skeletons, and in plates, neither of which means of elucidation exist in 
St. Louis, and he expressed a hope, that " their diligent and deserv- 
ing collector, would furnish the scientific world with exact plates of 
such as are rare or unknown." 

A communication was read from Miss Margaretta H. Mor- 
ris, on the subject of the Hessian Fly, and of the Seraphion 
Destructor, — a parasite of the same. The communication was 
referred to a committee. 

Mr. Lea read a paper, entitled "Descriptions of New Fresh 
Water and Land Shells, by Isaac Lea," which was referred to 
a committee. • 

Mr. Nuttall read a communication, entitled "Descriptions of 
New Species and Genera of Plants in the Natural Order Com- 
positse, collected on a Tour across the Continent to the Pacific, 
a Residence in Oregon, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands 
and Upper California, during the Years 1834 and 1835, by 
Thos. Nuttall," which was referred to a committee. 

Dr. Hays made some remarks on a printed description of 
two fossil animals, by Mr. Koch, of Missouri; the one a Mas- 



283 

todon, and the other probably, Dr. Hays thought, a Tetracau- 
ledon; the latter denominated, by Mr. Koch, Missourium 
Kochii. 



Stated Meeting, October 16. 
Present, thirty-one members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Journal Asiatique, 3e Serie. No. 50 (February), 51 (March), 53 

(April, May, and June), 1840; making the 9th Volume of the 

Series, except No. 49 (January), which is wanting. — From the 

Asiatic Society of Paris. 
Commentationes Societatis Regise Scientiarum Gottingensis recen- 

siores. Vol. VII. ad A. 1828—31. 4to. Gottingse, 1832.— 

From the Society. 
Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Vol. XVIII. Part 

Third. 4to. London, 1840. — From the Society. 
List of the Linnean Society of London. 4to. 1840. — From the 

same. 
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London to March 17, 1840, 

inclusive. — From the same. 
Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino. Serie Se- 

conda. Tomo 1. 4to. Torino, 1839. — From the Society. 
Fisica de' Corpi Ponderabili ossia Trattato della Costituzione generale 

de' Corpi, del Cavaliere Amedeo Avogadro, dell' Ordine civile di 

Savoia, &c. &c. Tomo 2. 8vo. Torino, 1838. — From the 

Author. 
Public Documents of the 1st Session of the Twenty-sixth Congress. 

1. On the Tobacco Trade. 2. On the National Defence and 

National Foundries. 3. On the Manufacture, &c. of Salt. 4. 

On the Receipts and Expenditures of the United States for the 

Year 1838. — From Mr. James H. Caiistin, of Washington. 
A Complete Treatise on Electricity, in Theory and Practice, with 



284 

Original Experiments. By Tiberius Cavallo, F.R.S. Fourth edi- 
tion. 3 Vols. 8vo. London, 1795. — From Mr. John Vaughan. 

C. Julii Csesaris quse extant, &c. &c in usum Delphini. Edit. lima. 
8vo. London, 1794. — From the same. 

Corpus Juris Civilis Romani, &c. &c. cum notis integris Dionysii 
Gothofredi, &c. &c. 2 Vols. 4to. Lipsise, 1720. — From the 
same. 

The Constitution and Laws of the Cherokee Nation : passed at Tah- 
le-quah, Cherokee Nation, 1839. Washington, 1840. — From 
Mr. John Ross. 

Twenty-second Annual Report of the Controllers of the Public Schools 
of the City and County of Philadelphia, composing the First 
School District of Pennsylvania, &c. &c. 8vo. Philadelphia, 
1840. — From Mr. Justice. 

A Fourth Supplementary Catalogue of the Plants of Kentucky. By 
C. W. Short, M.D., Professor of Materia Medica and Medical 
Botany in the Medical Institute of Louisville. — From Mr. Wm. 
Short. 

Chinese Maps. 1. Map of the Chinese Empire. 2. Map of Pekin. 
3. Map of Canton.— From Mr. J. S. Oakford. 

FOR THE CABINET. 

Five Notes of Mr. Law's Bank. Paris, 1120.— From Mr. Du 
Ponceau. 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Lea, Dr. Wood, and Dr. 
Coates, on a communication, entitled "Descriptions of New 
Species and Genera of Plants, in the Natural Order Composite, 
collected on a Tour across the Continent to the Pacific, a Resi- 
dence in Oregon, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands and Up- 
per California, during the Years 1834-5, by Thos. Nuttall," 
reported in favour of publication, which was ordered accord- 
ingly. 

In this paper, Mr. Nuttall makes a large addition to the Flora of 
North America, consisting of fifty new genera, with numerous spe- 
cies of plants, in the order Compositse. 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Nicklin, Prof. Bache, and 
Mr. Lukens, on a communication entitled " Descriptions of 
new Fresh Water and Land Shells, by Isaac Lea/' reported in 
favour of publication, which was ordered accordingly. 



285 

Mr. Lea's communication furnishes new facts towards a geographi- 
cal distribution of the Naiades. It contains descriptions of forty-six 
new species of that family, two Melanise, one Carocolla and one 
Cyclostoma. 

Of the Naiades, eleven species are from the Chatahoochee river. 
The shells found in this river, seem to differ from those of the waters 
that fall into the Atlantic, as several of the species have folds ; and 
also from those of the Ohio and its eastern tributaries, as none of 
them have tubercles ; — facts which are curious, inasmuch as the head 
waters of the Chatahoochee are not far distant from those of some 
of the Atlantic rivers, on the one side ; and, on the other, from some 
of the tributaries of the great river Tennessee, which falls into the 
Ohio. 

Two interesting species are from New Holland, one of which has 
a double wing ; and three are from Java. 

The whole number of recent species of Naiades admitted by Mr. 
Lea, is 369; being 282 more than Lamarck described. 

Unio cucumoides. Testa, plicate, latissima, emarginata, subcylindracea; 
valvulis subcrassis; natibus vix prominentibus; epidermide nigra; dentibus 
cardinalibus parvis, tuberculatis; lateralibus longissimis rectisque; margarita 
alba. Hab. Hunter's River, New South Wales. — Dr. Jay. 

Unio delphinus. Testa alata, lata, compressa, postice biangulata, valde in- 
aequilaterali; ala elevata, acuminata, duplici; valvulis subcrassis; natibus vix 
prominentibus; epidermide tenebroso-fusca ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, 
crenulatis; lateralibus longissimis rectisque; margarita alba et iridescente. 
Hab. New Holland — G. Von den Busck, M.D. 

Unio orientalis. Testa transversa, subinflata, valde insequilaterali; valvulis 
subcrassis; natibus sub-prominentibus, ad apices undulatis; epidermide lutea, 
nitida; dentibus cardinalibus longis; lateralibus longis subcurvisque; marga- 
rita alba et iridescente. Hab. Java? — G. Von den Busch. M.D. 

Unio Javanus. Testa, ovata, subinflata, valde inaequilaterali, postice sub- 
biangulata ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus vix prominentibus; epidermide luteo- 
fusca,; dentibus cardinalibus minimis; lateralibus longis curvisque ; margari- 
ta alba, et iridescente. Hab. Java. — G. Von den Busch. M D. 

Unio Cincinuatiensis. Testa nodosa, quadrata, inflatA. emarginata, inrequila- 
terali; valvulis crassis; natibus elevatis; epidermide lutea, valde radiata ; 
dentibus cardinalibus subgrandibus; lateralibus sublongis rectisque; margari- 
ta, alba. , Hab. Ohio River, Cincinnati. — T. G. Lea. 

Unio pilaris. Testa rotundata,, inflata; valvulis crassis; natibus elevatis; 
epidermide striata, tenebroso-fusca; dentibus cardinalibus subgrandibus; later- 
alibus longulis subrectisque; margarita alba,. Hab. French Broad and Hol- 
ston Rivers, East Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio Geddingsiunus. Testa, ovata, subinflata; valvulis subtenuibus; nati- 
bus prominulis; epidermide fusca., radiata; dentibus cardinalibus compressis 



286 

erectisque ; lateralibus longis rectisque ; margarita alba vel salmonis colore 
tincta. Hab. Congaree River, So. Car. — Prof. Ravenel. 

Unio tuberosus. Testa nodosa, triangulari, emarginata; valvulis crassis; 
natibus elevatis; epidermide lutea, striata; dentibus cardinalibus magnis; 
lateralibus parvis rectisque ; margarita alba. Hab. Cany Fork and Cum- 
berland Rivers, Middle Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio cuneolus. — Testa triangulari, compressa, valde inaequilaterali ; valvulis 
subcrassis ; natibus elevatis ; epidermide lutea, striata, radiis maculatis ; den- 
tibus cardinalibus parvis; lateralibus longis rectisque; margarita alba et 
iridescente. Hab. Holston River, Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio Lesueurianus. Testa subrotunda, subinflata; valvulis crassis; nati- 
bus prominentibus ; epidermide fusca, striata, radios maculatos habente ; denti- 
bus cardinalibus subgrandibus ; lateralibus parvis rectisque ; margarita alba et 
iridescente. Hab. Cany Fork and Holston Rivers, Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 
Unio Stonensis. Testa ovata, valde compressa, planulata, valde inaequila- 
terali; valvulis crassis; natibus prominulis, ad apices undulatis ; epidermide 
luteo-fusca; dentibus cardinalibus parvis; lateralibus longis, crassis curvisque ; 
margarita salmonis colore tincta et iridescente. Hab. Stone's River, Tenn. — 
Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio lenis. Testa obovata, inflata; valvulis tenuibus; natibus vix pro- 
minentibus, ad apices undulatis ; epidermide lutea, densissime radiata ; denti- 
bus cardinalibus compressis; lateralibus parvis; margarita alba et iridescente. 
Hab. Stone's River, Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio plenus. Testa triangulari, inflata; valvulis crassissimis ; natibus ele- 
vatis et crassis; epidermide luteo fusca, rugosa; dentibus cardinalibus magnis; 
lateralibus brevibus subrectisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. Hab. Ohio 
River, near Cincinnati. — T. G. Lea. 

Unio tener. Testa ovata, valde 1 compressa, valde inaequilaterali; valvulis 
tenuibus ; ( natibus sub-prominentibus ; epidermide luteo-fusca ; dentibus cardi- 
nalibus parvis ; lateralibus longis subcurvisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. 
Hab. Big Pigeon River, Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio pus illus. Testa ovata, subcompressa, postice angulata; valvulis sub- 
tenuibus ; natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, nitida ; 
dentibus cardinalibus minimis; lateralibus longis subcurvisque; margarita 
alba et iridescente. Hab. Ogechee River, Geo. — Major Le Conte. 

Unio amanus. Testa ovata, subcompressa, valde inasquilaterali ; valvulis 
subcrassis ; natibus sub-prominentibus ; epidermide tenebrosa, dense radiata ; 
dentibus cardinalibus parvis erectisque ; lateralibus longis subcurvisque ; 
margarita alba et iridescente. Hab. Holston River, Tenn. — Mr. S.M. Edgar. 
Unio incrassatus. Testa xplicata, triangulari, subinflata; valvulis crassis; 
natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide subnigra ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis; 
lateralibus longis subrectisque; margarita salmonis colore tincta, vel purpurea 
vel alba et iridescente. Hab. Chatahoochee River, near Columbus, Geo. — 
Dr. Boy kin. 

Unio Boydianus. Testa obovata, subinflata, valde inaequilaterali ; valvulis 
subtenuibus ; natibus subprominentibus, ad apices undulatis; epidermide lu- 
teo fusca; dentibus cardinalibus compressis; lateralibus longis subrectisque; 



287 

margarita alba et iridescente. Hab. Oak Orchard Creek, Orleans County, 
N. Y.— Dr. Boyd. 

Unio Sloatianus. Testa plicata, oblonga, subcompressa, valde ineequilaterali ; 
valvulis crassis ; natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide subnigra ; dentibus 
cardinalibus subgrandibus; lateralibus crassis et longis ; margarita alba et 
purpurea. Hab. Chatahoochee River, Geo. — Mr. L. W. Sloat. 

Unio paulus. Testa ovata, inflata, minima; valvulis crassis; natibus sub- 
prominentibus; epidermide subnigra; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, laterali- 
bus longis curvisque; margarita alba et iridescente. Hab. Chatahoochee 
River, Columbus, Geo. — Dr. Boykin. 

Unio strigosus. Testa transversa, compressa, valde ineequilaterali ; postice 
triangulata; valvulis subtenuibus ; natibus subprominentibus, compressis ; 
epidermide tenebroso-fusca; dentibus cardinalibus parvulis, lateralibus longis 
subrectisque; margarita purpurea et iridescente. Hab. Chatahoochee River, 
Columbus, Geo. — Dr. Boykin. 

Unio Lineatus. Testa ovata inflata ; valvulis tenuibus; natibus subprominen- 
tibus, ad apices undulatis; epidermide lutea, radiata nitida; dentibus cardina- 
libus parvis, lamellatis ; lateralibus parvis subcurvisque ; margarita salmonis 
colore tincta et iridescente. Hab. Chatahoochee River, Columbus, Geo — 
Dr. Boykin. 

Unio exiguus. Testa ovata subcompressa ; valvulis tenuibus ; natibus sub- 
prominentibus; epidermide tenebrosa, viride-radiata, nitida; dentibus cardinali- 
bus lamellatis, lateralibus longis subcurvisque ; margarita caerulea et irides- 
cente. Hab. Chatahoochee River, Columbus, Geo. — Dr. Boykin. 

Unio tortivus. Testa ovata, compressa, emarginata; valvulis subtenuibus ; 
natibus subprominentibus, compressis ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, striata ; 
dentibus cardinalibus parvulis, lateralibus longis curvisque ; margarita pur- 
purea et iridescente. Hab. Chatahoochee River, Columbus, Geo. — Dr. 
Boykin. 

Unio sub-angulatus. Testa ovata, subinflata, postice subangulata; valvulis 
tenuibus; natibus subprominentibus; epidermide lutea, radiata, polita; denti- 
bus cardinalibus subgrandibus erectisque, lateralibus sub-longis subrectisque; 
margarita salmonis colore tincta et iridescente. Hab. Chatahoochee River, 
Columbus, Geo. — Dr. Boykin. 

Unio striatus. Testa ovata, compressa; valvulis tenuibus; natibus sub- 
prominentibus; epidermide striata, rubiginrs colore; dentibus cardinalibus 
parvis ; lateralibus sublongis subrectisque ; margarita salmonis colore tincta 
et iridescente. Hab. Chatahoochee River, Columbus, Geo. — Dr. Boykin. 

Unio fatuus. Testa transversa, compressa, emarginata ; valvulis subcrassis; 
natibus parvis ; epidermide sub-viride, radiata; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, 
lateralibus longis subcurvisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. Hab. Holston 
River, Tenn. — Dr. Currey. 

Unio dactylus. Testa transversa, subinflata; valvulis tenuibus; natibus 
prominulis; epidermide lutea; dentibus cardinalibus minimis erectisque; 
lateralibus longis subcurvisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. Hab. Cany 
Fork River, Tenn.— Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio obtusus. Testa obovata, inflata, postice rotundata; valvulis subcrassis; 
natibus subprominentibus; epidermide lutea, nitida; dentibus cardinalibus 



288 

eubgrandibus ; lateralibus longis subrectisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. 
Hah. Chatahoochee River, Columbus, Geo. — Dr. Boyhin. 

Unio Boykinianus . Testa alata, plicata, triangulari, subcompressa ; valvulis 
crassis; natibus prominulis; epidermide tenebroso-fusca; dentibus cardinali- 
bus parvis, lateralibus sublongis; margarita alba et iridescente. Hah. Chata- 
hoochee River, Columbus, Geo. — Dr. Boykin. 

Unio Edgarianus. Testa triangulari, compressa, emarginata ; valvulis 
crassis, natibus elevatis ; epidermide lutea, valde radiata ; dentibus cardinali- 
bus magnis, lateralibus rectis ; margarita alba et iridescente. — Hah. Holston 
River, Tenn. — Prof. Troost and Dr. Currey. Tennessee River, at Florence, 
Ala.— Mr. T. R. Dutton. 

Unio hiangularis. Testa obvata, inflata, postice biangulari ; valvulis tenui- 
bus; natibus subprominentibus; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, radiata; denti- 
bus cardinalibus subgrandibus elevatis, lateralibus subgrandibus, curvisque ; 
margarita alba et iridescente. Hah. Cany Fork River, Tenn. — Prof. Troost 
and Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio nitens. Testa elliptica, transversa, subinflata; valvulis subtenuibus; 
natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca ; dentibus cardinali- 
bus parvis elevatis ; lateralibus longis subrectisque ; margarita cuprea, 
splendidissima, et iridescente. Hah. Long Creek, Cocke Co. Tenn. — Mr. S. M. 
Edgar. 

Unio Holstonensis. Testa triangulari, solida, inflata; valvulis crassis ; nati- 
bus magnis, elevatis: epidermide tenebroso-fusca, radiata; dentibus cardinali- 
bus subgrandibus, lateralibus crassis brevibusque ; margarita alba et irides- 
cente. Hah. Holston River, Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio dolahelloides. Testa sub-rotunda, subinflata; valvulis crassissimis ; 
natibus valde elevatis; epidermide fusca, radiata; dentibus cardinalibus mini- 
mis, lateralibus brevibus rectisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. Hah. 
Holston River, Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio Tennesseensis. Testa elliptica, transversa, inflate ; valvulis crassis ; 
natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide lutea ; dentibus cardinalibus magnis 
erectisque, lateralibus magnis subcurvisque ; margarita alba et iridescente. 
Hah. Stone's River, Tenn. — Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Unio atro-rnarginatus. Testa plicata. oblonga, compressa ; valvulis sub- 
tenuibus; natibus prominulis; epidermide tenebrosa; dentibus cardinalibus 
parvis, lateralibus longis subrectisque ; margarita purpurea et valde irides- 
cente. Hah. Chatahoochee River, Columbus Georgia. — Dr. Boykin. 

Unio B our nianus. Testa triangulari, compressa ; valvulis crassis; natibus 
elevatis incurvis, ad apices undulatis; epidermide lutea, dense radiata; denti- 
bus cardinalibus sub-grandibus, lateralibus subcurvis; margarita albct et irides- 
cente. Hah. Sciota River, near Chillicothe, Ohio. — Mr. A. Bourne. 

Margarilana, Vondenhuschiana. Testa obovata, compressa, inrequilaterali ; 
valvulis tenuibus ; natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide luteo-fusca ; denti- 
bus cardinalibus parvis, tuberculatis ; margarita alba et iridescente. Hah. 
Java. — G. Von den Busch, M.D. 

Margaritana Curreyiana. Testa triangulari, subcompressa, emarginata, 
sulcata; valvulis crassis; natibus subprominentibus, ad apices undulatis; epider- 



289 

mide luteo-fusca; dentibus cardinalibus magnis; margarita alba et iridescente. 
Hab. Stone's River, Tenn. — Dr. Currey, of Nashville. 

Anodonta Harpethensis. Testa ovata, inflata, carinata ; valvulis tenuibus ; 
natibus subprominentibus ; apicibus undulatis; epidermide lutea et viride ; 
margarita salmonis colore tincta ; margine lato. Hab. Harpeth River, Tenn. 
Mr. S. M. Edgar. 

Anodonta argentea. Testa ovata, inflata, transversa; valvulis tenuibus; 
natibus prominulis ; apicibus minute undulatis; epidermide fusca, radiata; 
margarita argentea et iridescente. Hab. Stone's River, Tenn. — Dr. Currey. 

Anodonta ferruginea- Testa ovata, inflata ; valvulis tenuibus ; natibus pro- 
minentibus, ad apices minute undulatis, ferrugineis ; epidermide tenebroso- 
fusca, polita; margarita coeruleo-alba et iridescente. Hab. Simon's Creek, 
Indiana. — T. G. Lea. 

Anodonta Cowperiana. Testa ovata, valde inflata, gibbosa ; valvulis tenui- 
bus; natibus planulatis, undulatis; epidermide viride-lutea, obsolete radiata ; 
margarita coeruleo-alba et iridescente. Hab. Hopeton, near Darien, Geo. — 
J. H. Cowpcr, Esq. 

Anodonta Maryattiana. Testa transversa, valde inflata, gibbosa, valde inaequi- 
laterali; natibus prominentibus, ad apices undulatis; epidermide virido-lutea; 
margarita argentea et iridescente. Hab. Vicinity of Fort Winnebago. — Capt. 
Maryatt, R. JY. 

Anodonta Footiana. Testa ovata, inflata, inaequilaterali ; valvulis subtenuis ; 
natibus subprominentibus, ad apices undulatis ; epidermide lutep-fusca ; mar- 
garita coeruleo-alba et iridescente. Hab. Vicinity of Fort Winnebago. — Dr. 
Foot. 

Melania catenaria. Testa elevato-eonoidea, granulata, lineata ; apice plicata: 
suturis parvis apertura ovata. Hab. Chatahoochee River, Columbus, Geo. 
Dr. Boykin. 

Melania Boykiniana. Testa elevata; subturrita, granulata, ad carinam 
tuberculata ; suturis impressis ; apertura elongato-ovata. Hab. Chatahoochee 
River, Columbus, Geo. — Dr. Boykin. 

Carocolla Cumberlandiana. Testa lenticulata, carinata, striata, albida, 
fusco-notata, late umbilicata, ad carinam superne et inferne impressa; anfracti- 
bus quinis ; apertura angulata, intus sulcata ; labro acuto. Hab. Cumber- 
land Mts., near Jasper, Tenn. — Dr. Currey. 

Cyclostoma Cincinnaticnsis. Testa elevato-conica, laevi, nitida, diaphana, 
umbilicata; anfractibus senis; apice obtuso ; labro margine reflexo. Hab. 
Vicinity of Cincinnati. — T. G. Lea. 

Mr. Du Ponceau presented a MS. communication from 
Mr. Nicollet, entitled '" Notions sur la Langue des Sioux," 
which was referred to the Historical and Literary Committee. 

Mr. Lea read a communication from Mr. Nulty, in relation 
to some points connected with his " Magic Cyclovolute," 
which was referred to a Committee. 



290 

Dr. Patterson, from the Committee on Astronomical Obser- 
vations, to whom was referred the consideration of the best 
application of the sum of money in possession of the Society, 
and collected for the erection of an Astronomical Observatory, 
reported progress, and exhibited certain designs for an ob- 
servatory. 

Mr. T. Biddle, from the Committee to whom the money 
had been entrusted, reported the amount in their hands. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the So- 
ciety : — 

Charles Bonnycastle, Professor of Mathematics, &c. in 
the University of Virginia. 

M. Francois Pierre Guillaume Gltizot, of Nismes, in 
France. 



PROCEEDINGS 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Vol. I. NOVEMBER & DECEMBER, 1840. No. 14. 

Stated Meeting, November 6. 
Present, twenty-four members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received : — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

The History of the late Province of New York, from its Discovery 
to the Appointment of Governor Colden in 1762. By the Hon. 
William Smith, formerly of New York, and late Chief Justice of 
Lower Canada. 2 Vols. 8vo. New York, 1830. — From the 
New York Historical Society. 

A Full Report of the Case of Stacy Decow and Joseph Hendrickson 
vs. Thomas L. Shotwell; decided at a Special Term of the New 
Jersey Court of Appeals, held at Trenton in July and August, 
1833, &c. &c. [This law case grew out of the division existing 
in the Society of Friends.] 8vo. Philadelphia, 1839. — From 
Mr. Vaughan. 

The Case of the Seneca Indians in the State of New York, illustrated 
by Facts ; printed for the Information of the Society of Friends, 
&c. &c. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From Mr. Justice. 

Notice of the Oolitic Formation in America, with Descriptions of 
some of its Organic Remains. By Isaac Lea. Read before the 
American Philosophical Society, May 15, 1840. — From the Au- 
thor. 

L'Europa ; Quadra Fisiografico facilmente inteso. Opera del Prof. J. 
C. Schow, Danese, notommizata da Jacopo Graberg da Hemso. 
8vo. Milano, 1839.- — From J. Graoberg da Hemso. 

A 



292 

Degli ultimi Progressi della Geografia. Sunto presentato al primo 
Consesso Scientifico Italiano, tenuto in Pisa nell' Ottobre dell' 
anno 1839, da Jacopo Graberg da Hemso, &c. &c. — From the 
same. 

Statistica dell' Italia del Colonello Conte Luigi Serristori. Estratto 
dalla Rivisfa Europea del 30 Gennaio, 1840. — From the same. 

Notation Hypsometrique ou Nouvelle Maniere de noter les Altitudes, 
par M. Jomard, Membre de PInstitut: suivi de plusieurs frag- 
ments et de Nouvelles Recentes de la Nubie et de l'Abyssinie. — 
From the Author. 

Extrait du Rapport fait, a la Societe de Geographie de Paris, a P As- 
semble Generale du 6 Decembre, 1839; par M. Sabin Berthe- 
lot, Secretaire General de la Commission Centrale. 8vo. Paris, 
1840. — From the same. 

Rapport fait (par M. Jomard) a PAcademie Royale des Inscriptions 
et Belles-Lettres dans sa Seance du 12 Juin, 1835. Sur un Pied 
Romain trouve dans la Foret de Maulevrier, &c. &c. 4to. — 
From the same. 

China Opened : or a Display of the Topography, History, Customs, 
Manners, Arts, Manufactures, Commerce, Literature, Religion, 
Jurisprudence, &c, of the Chinese Empire. By the Rev. Charles 
Gutzlaff. Revised by Andrew Reed, D.D. 2 Vols. Small 8vo. 
London, 1838. — From Mr. Dunn. 

Report of the Committee of the House of Representatives in the Case 
of N. P. Trist, American Consul at the Havana, with the Docu- 
ments. — From Dr. Dunglison. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Benja- 
min Silliman, M.D., LL.D., &c. &c, aided by Benjamin Silli- 
man, Jr., A.M. Vol. XXXIX. No. 2. October, 1840.— From 
the Editors. 

Dr. Dunglison, Reporter, stated that No. 13 of the Proceed- 
ings of the Society was ready for distribution, and placed a 
copy thereof on the table. 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Walker, Dr. Patterson, 
and Prof. Bache, to whom was referred a paper, entitled "Ob- 
servations upon the Meteors of August, by C. G. Forshey, &c. 
&c." reported in favour of publication in the Society's Trans- 
actions, which was ordered accordingly. 



293 

The principal points discussed in this paper are noticed in an oral 
communication made by Mr. Walker on the 21st of August. (See 
Proceedings, No. 13, p. 261.) 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Patterson, Prof. Bache, 
and Mr. Walker, to whom was referred a communication from 
Mr. Nulty to Mr. Lea, on a new property which he had found 
in his Magic Cyclovolute, described in the seventh article of 
the fifth volume of the Society's Transactions, reported that 
they had learned from the author, that his communication was 
not intended for the Transactions, and that he did not desire it 
to take that destination; they therefore requested to be dis- 
charged, which was ordered accordingly. 

The new property is as follows : — " The eight volutes which origi- 
nate at the extremities of the principal diameters, AA', BB', are di- 
vided by these diameters, so that every four numbers along each vo- 
lute, both towards its origin and the centre of the interior circle, with 
half the central number twelve, make 180." This property, Mr. 
Nulty remarks, is analogous to the third, mentioned in his paper ; 
distinguishes the particular set of numbers which he had selected 
from other sets possessing the properties already noticed, and renders 
his drawing more general, and the arrangement, there presented, 
unique. 

A communication was read, entitled "Observations to deter- 
mine the Magnetic Intensity at several Places in the United 
States, with some additional Observations of the Magnetic Dip, 
by Elias Loomis, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Phi- 
losophy in Western Reserve College,'' which was referred to 
a Committee. 

Professor Bache submitted to the Society a Chart, represent- 
ing the extraordinary variations of the magnetic declination 
during the term day, on the 29th of May last, prepared by W. 
C. Bond, Esq., from the observations at the Magnetic Obser- 
vatory at Cambridge. 

Dr. Horner read a paper on the dental system of the Masto- 
don, which was referred to a Committee. 

Professor Bache read an extract of a letter from Lieut. Rid- 
dell, Director of the Magnetic Observatory at Toronto, U. C, 



294 

which stated that an entire discordance had been found be- 
tween the curve representing the changes of inclination, on the 
February magnetic term day, at Toronto, Dublin, Brussels, and 
Prague, whilst those at the last three named stations agreed 
very well together. This result, Professor B. stated, confirms 
the conclusions previously drawn from the observations at 
short intervals, of Prof. Lloyd and himself, in November last. 

Mr. Walker made some observations in relation to the Ob- 
servatory of the Harvard University, Cambridge, and stated 
that extensive arrangements had been made, and were in con- 
templation, for prosecuting magnetic observations and practical 
astronomy. 

Professor Bache made a verbal communication of some re- 
cent determinations of the magnetic dip, made by him at Phi- 
ladelphia and Baltimore. 

He reminded the Society, that on a former occasion he had submit- 
ted a comparison of the observations for magnetic dip at various sta- 
tions, common to the series of Professor Loomis (Am. Philos. Soc. 
Trans. Vol. VII. N. S.), and to that of Professor Courtenay and 
himself. The discrepancies at Philadelphia and Baltimore were 
among the most striking. Having satisfied himself that the dip given 
by his instrument at the station occupied by Prof. Loomis, near Phi- 
ladelphia, was sensibly the same as that given by Prof. Loomis, his 
next step was to ascertain, by observations in a different position from 
those used in both the sets of observations formerly made, which pro- 
bably represented more correctly the dip at Philadelphia. The result 
of two series of observations near the observatory at the Girard Col- 
lege (at a sufficient distance to be beyond sensible influence from 
the magnetic instruments), made with four different needles, was as 
follows : — 

July 21, 1840. No. 1, 71° 51.7'. No. 2, 71° 51.7'. Mean of 
Lloyd, No. 1 and No. 3, 71° 55.8'. 

November 2, 1840. No. 1, 71° 51.2'. No. 2, 71° 51.0'. Mean 
of Lloyd, No. 1 and No. 3, 71° 57.4'. 

Mean, 71° 53.3'. 

The needles, termed Lloyd No. 1 and No. 3, are used without re- 
versing the poles ; and a correction has been applied from the mean 
of sixteen comparisons, with the ordinary needles, at different places : 
as, however, this correction is obtained through Nos. 1 and 2, the 



295 

results merely add to the number of observations from which the 
mean is obtained. 

Prof. Bache remarked that his former result was thus confirmed. 

At Baltimore, the place of observation was in the second square, 
N. E. of the Washington Monument. The same needles were used. 

Aug. 27, 1840. No. 1, 71° 31.7'. No. 2, 71° 39.1'. Mean of 
Lloyd, No. 1 and No. 3, 71° 32.4'. Mean 71° 34.4', differing from 
the results of both the former series. 

Prof. Bache stated, in continuation, that the geological formations 
at and near Baltimore, rendered it difficult to select an unexception- 
able site for magnetic observations there, and was a sufficient expla- 
nation of the observed discrepancies. The results, which he had at 
present obtained, differed about 10' from the mean of those of Profes- 
sors Courtenay and Loomis. 

Dr. Patterson announced the death of Prof. Charles Bonny- 
castle, a member of this Society (elected at the last meeting), 
which took place on the 31st of October. 

Mr. Du Ponceau announced the death of Mr. Sylvanus Go- 
don, a member of the Society, who died on the 17th of Octo- 
ber. 

The Observatory Committee submitted a report, in part, on 
the subject of the fund raised for the erection of an Obser- 
vatory, and proposed the following resolutions, which were 
adopted. 

Resolved, That if the City Councils shall grant to the Society the 
privilege of erecting an Observatory in Rittenhouse Square, the So- 
ciety will pledge $5000 of the Astronomical Fund for this object, 
under such conditions as they shall hereafter prescribe. 

Resolved, That when it shall be ascertained that the proposed Ob- 
servatory can be erected, the Observatory Committee be authorized 
to solicit and receive subscriptions for such additions to the Astrono- 
mical Fund, as may be rendered necessary by the undertaking. 



296 

Stated Meeting, November 20. 
Present, thirty-three members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Catalogue of the Scientific Books in the Library of the Royal So- 
ciety. 8vo. London, 1839. — From the Society. 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for the 
Year 1840. — Part I. 4to. London, 1840 — -From the same. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society. Nos. 42, 43, and 44. Feb. 27 
to June 18, 1840. — From the same. 

List of Councils, Fellows, &c, of the Royal Society, Nov. 30, 1839. 
4to. — From the same. 

Report of the Committee of Physics, including Meteorology, on the 
Objects of Scientific Inquiry in those Sciences, &c. &c. 8vo. 
London, 1840. — From the same. 

Report of the Seventh Meeting of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science; held at Liverpool in September, 1837. 
Vol. VI. 8vo. London, 1838. — From the Association. 

Report of the Ninth Meeting, &c. &c, held at Birmingham, August, 
1839. 8vo. London, 1840. — From the same. 

Constitution and By-Laws of the National Institution for the Promo- 
tion of Science, established at Washington, May, 1840. 8vo. 
pp. 14. Washington, 1840. — From the National Institution. 

On the Diminution of Temperature with Height in the Atmosphere, 
at different Seasons of the Year. By James D. Forbes, Esq., 
F.R.SS. L. and E., F.G.S. &c. &c. (From the Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Vol. XIV. Read April 1, 
1839.) 4to. Edinburgh, 1840.— -From the Author. 

Account of some additional Experiments in Terrestrial Magnetism, 
made in different parts of Europe in 1837. By James D. Forbes, 
&c. &c. — From the same. 

The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 
from their Commencement in 1665, to the Year 1800: abridged, 
with Notes and Illustrations. By Charles Hutton, LL.D., F.R.S. ; 
George Shaw, M.D., F.R.S. , F.L.S. ; and Richard Pearson, 



297 

M.D., F.S.A. 19 Vols. 4to. London, 1809.— From Mr. Tho- 
mas Gilpin. 

Lettres et Negotiations entre Mr. Jean De Witt, &c. &c, et Messrs. 
les Plenipotentiaires des Provinces Unies des Pais Bas. aux Cours 
de France, d'Angleterre, de Suede, de Danemarc, de Pologne, 
&c, depuis l'Annee, 1652, jusqu'a l'An. 1669, inclus., &c. &c. 
3 Vols. Traduites du Hollandois. ] 2mo. Amsterdam, 1725. — 
From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

Resolutions Importantes de leurs Nobles et Grandes Puissances les 
Etats de Hollande et de West-Frise, pendant le Ministere de Mr. 
Jean De Witt, Conseiller-Pensionnaire, Traduites du Hollandois, 
&c. 12mo. Amsterdam, 1725. — From the same. 

Miscellaneous Papers on Political and Commercial Subjects, &c. &c. 
By Noah Webster, Jun. 8vo. New York, 1802. — From the 
same. 

Pamphlets. 1. First and Second Annual Reports of the Aborigines 
Protection Society, &c. &c. 8vo. London, 1838, 1839. 2. 
Extracts from the Papers and Proceedings of the Aborigines Pro- 
tection Society, No. 1, May, 1839; No. 2, June, 1839. 3. Re- 
port on the Indians of Upper Canada. 4. The History, Antiqui- 
ties, Topography, and Statistics of Eastern India, &c. &c. By 
Montgomery Martin, &c. London, 1838. — From the same. 

Memoire sur les Moyens qui ont amene le Grand Developpement que 
l'Industrie Francaise a pris depuis vingt ans, &c. &c. • Par CI. 
Anthelme Costaz, &c. &c. 8vo. Paris, 1816. — From Mr. 
Yaughan. 

Lettres sur PAmerique du Nord, par Michel Chevalier avec une Carte 
des Etats-Unis. d'Amerique. Edit. Speciale, revue, corrigee et 
augmentee de plusieurs Chapitres. 2 Vols. 8vo. Paris, 1837. — 
From the same. 

Travels in Europe, viz. — in England, Ireland, Scotland, France, 
Italy, Switzerland, Germany, and the Netherlands. By Wilbur 
Fisk, D.D., &c. &c, with Engravings. Fourth Edition. 8vo. 
New York, 1838. — From the same. 

M. Tullius Cicero, of the Nature of the Gods, in three Books; with 
Critical, Philosophical, and Explanatory Notes. By the Rev. Dr. 
Francklin. New Edition, &c. 8vo. London, 1775. — From 
the same. 

A Grammar of the German Language, systematically arranged on a 
New Plan, Brief, Comprehensive, and Practical. By Caspar J. 



298 

Beleke, Professor of the German Language and Literature in 
Mount St. Mary's College, Emmetsburg, Md. 12mo. Philadel- 
phia, 1840. — From the Author. 

The War in Florida; being an Exposition of its Causes, and an Ac- 
curate History of the Campaigns of Generals Clinch, Gaines, and 

Scott. By a late Staff Officer. Small 8 vo. Baltimore, 1836 

From Col. Davenport. 

Eleven Annual Reports of the Inspectors of the Eastern State Peni- 
tentiary of Pennsylvania. 1831 — 1840. — From Mr. George 
Thompson. 

Antiquarian Researches, comprising a History of the Indian Wars in 
the Country bordering Connecticut River and Parts adjacent, and 
other Interesting Events, from the First Landing of the Pilgrims, 
to the Conquest of Canada, by the English, in 1760, &c. &c. 
By E. Hoyt, Esq. 8vo. Greenfield, Mass. 1824.— From Mr. 
Henry Williams. 

A Second Appeal to the People of Pennsylvania, on the Subject of 
an Asylum for the Insane Poor of the Commonwealth. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1840. — From Dr. Dunglison. 

The American Medical Library and Intelligencer, &c. &c. By Rob- 
ley Dunglison, M.D., Sec. A. P. S. No. 12 and 13. Sept. 15, 
Oct. 1, 1840. — From the same. 

The Magazine of Natural History. New Series. No. 43, for July, 
1840. Conducted by Edward Charlesworth, F.G.S., &c. No. 
44, for Aug. 1840. By Richard Taylor, F.L.S., &c— From 
Mr. Taylor. 

A Selection of Church Music, printed for the Pennsylvania Institution 
for the Instruction of the Blind, with Type on an Improved Plan, 
invented by M. Snider, Printer to the Institution ; arranged and 
figured for Thorough-base. By F. Rasche, Teacher of Music 
in the Institution. Vol. I. Folio. Philadelphia, 1840. — From 
Mr. Snider. 

The State of the Science of Political Economy Investigated ; wherein 
is shown the Defective Character of the Arguments which have 
hitherto been advanced for Elucidating the Laws of the Forma- 
tion of Wealth. By Wm. Atkinson, &c. &c. London, 1838. — 
From Mr. H. C. Carey. 

Letters addressed to the People of the United States, in Vindication of 
his Conduct. By Wm. J. Duane, late Secretary of the Treasury. 
1834. — From the same. 



299 

Letters on the Factory Act, as it affects the Cotton Manufacture, &c. 
&c. By Nassau W. Senior, Esq., &c. &c. 8vo. London, 
1837. — From the same. 

A letter was read from Mr. F. Markoe, Jr., Corresponding 
Secretary of the National Institution for the Promotion of 
Science, recently established at Washington, addressed to the 
Secretaries of the Society, announcing, officially, to the So- 
ciety, the fact of the foundation of the Institution at the seat of 
government, and the objects which it has in contemplation; and 
soliciting for the Institution the correspondence of the Society, 
and its co-operation and aid in promoting the objects with 
which the Institution was founded: — 

Whereupon, the Secretaries were directed to reply, that the 
National Institution would be enrolled in the list of corres- 
pondents of the Society, and that the Transactions and Pro- 
ceedings of the Society would be regularly transmitted to it. 

Dr. Patterson, from the Observatory Committee, reported, 
that an ordinance had passed the City Councils, authorizing 
the erection of an Astronomical Observatory within Ritten- 
house Square. 

Professor Bache read a continuation of the paper of Profes- 
sor Loomis on Magnetic Dip and Intensity, the reading of 
which was commenced at the last meeting. It was referred to 
the Committee which has the first portion under consideration. 

Professor Henry read the sequel of his communication, enti- 
tled "Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism, by Joseph 
Henry, LL.D., &c. &c, Professor of Natural Philosophy in 
the College of New Jersey, Princeton. No. IV. On Electro- 
dynamic Induction (continued)," which was referred to the 
same committee as the former "Contributions." 

Mr. Cresson exhibited specimens of naphthaline, obtained by 
a kind of irregular crystallization from the liquid produced by 
the distillation of coai tar at a high temperature. 

Prof. Bache stated, that along with Messrs. Walker, Ken- 
dall, Cresson, Frazer, and a pupil of the High School, he had 
watched for meteors or shooting stars, at the High School, 
on the nights of Nov. 12-13, and 13-14, and met with the 

B 



300 

usual negative results of the observations before made in Phi- 
ladelphia. 

On the evening of the 11th, clouds came up from the E. N. E. 
soon after 9 o'clock, and finally covered the whole sky, which re- 
mained overcast during the night. On the nights of the 12th-13th, 
and 13th-14th, the sky was remarkably clear, except towards the 
horizon, on the morning of the 13th, and during a small part of the 
morning of the 14th. 

From 11 to 12 on the night of the 12th, there were three ob- 
servers ; and the space embraced by their observations was that part 
of the visible heavens from the east round to the north, through the 
south. The moon was up, having passed the full about two days. 
During this hour six meteors were counted. From 12 until 4 A. M. 
of the 13th, there were two observers taking in a range of rather 
more than half the visible heavens. Eighteen meteors were counted, 
namely, nine between 12 and 1, three between 1 and 2, and six be- 
tween 2 and 4 A. M. The paths of nine of these meteors were as- 
certained to converge to the region occupied by the head of the Lion, 
eight were variously directed, seven were doubtful or not ascertained. 
Of all the meteors seen, one appeared as large as Sirius seen by the 
naked eye, three as stars of the first magnitude, one of the second, 
three of the third, five of the fourth, and three of the fifth; the mag- 
nitudes of eight were not noted. 

Two observers were on the watch on the evening of the 13th and 
morning of the 14th, from 11 o'clock until 4, except for half an hour 
at 2 A. M., the portion of the sky. embraced in the observations being 
from the east to the west, through the south. The total number of 
meteors counted was seventeen. The paths of eight of these passed, 
when produced, towards the Lion's head, seven were in other direc- 
tions, two not noted, or doubtful. Three were of the second magni- 
tude, six of the third, five of the fourth, and one of the fifth ; two 
were not noted. 

The apparent velocities noticed of meteors having a common ra- 
diant, or nearly so, were as follows : — 

Path of 8° described in .8" from y Pegasi, vertically downwards. 

3° to 4° in .7" from « Andromedse, downwards. 

17^° in .4" obliquely from a point midway between the Pleiades 
and Aldebaran, on a line which, if produced, would pass through 
Castor. 



301 

Dr. Horner called attention to the noise and shock observed 
about 9 o'clock on Saturday evening last (Nov. 14), which 
were supposed by some to be those of an earthquake. Judge 
Hopkinson referred to a statement, that the phenomena were 
supposed to be produced by the explosion of a near meteor. 
Mr. Nicklin mentioned facts, which induced him to think 
there had been a slight shock of an earthquake at the time 
mentioned. Dr. Chapman and Mr. Cresson attributed the 
rumbling noise and shock to thunder. Dr. Chapman had no- 
ticed a flash of lightning near the horizon, which was followed 
by thunder. Mr. Cresson had noted an interval of nearly two 
minutes between the flash of lightning and the clap of thun- 
der. 

Prof. Henry described an apparatus for producing a recipro- 
cating motion by the repulsion in the consecutive parts of a 
conductor, through which a galvanic current is passing; and 
made some remarks in reference to the electro-magnetic ma- 
chine invented by him in 1829, and subsequently described by 
Dr. Ritchie, of London. The machine referred to had been 
applied recently by Prof. Henry in his experiments. 

Mr. Fisher announced the death of Benjamin R. Morgan, a 
member of the Society, who died on Nov. 19. 

Dr. Patterson stated on behalf of Mr. Gillies, of Washing- 
ton — introduced at the meeting as a member of the National 
Institution of Washington — that he had watched for meteors at 
Washington on the nights of the 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th of 
November, but had failed to observe any on these occasions. 

Prof. Bache communicated an extract of a letter from Prof. 
Rumker, Director of the Observatory of Hamburg, which con- 
tained the results of his observations of Galle's first comet, and 
occultations observed in April, May, June, and August, 1840. 



302 





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rH 

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+ 


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m 


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Tf 

10 

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C3 
<N 



+ 


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CM 
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H(1 



304 

The places of the stars are the apparent places for the time of comparison 
with the comet. 

Prof. Bache also reported the following occultations of fixed stars 
by the Moon, observed by Prof. Riimker in Hamburg. 



1840. 


Star. 


Phase. 


MeanT 


me at Hamburg. 


April 11 


v Leonis 


Immers. 


10 


34 58.29 


22 


t Sagittarii 


Immers. 


16 


13 20.77 


May 4 


Anon. 


Immers. 


10 


30 16.97 


June 3 


« Cancri 


Immers. 


9 


48 30.98 


Aug. 24 


) * Cancri 
5 * Cancri 


Immers. 
Immers. 


16 
16 


13 35.8 
16 7.9 



Stated Meeting, December 4. 
Present, thirty members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

A History of the United States before the Revolution; with some Ac- 
count of the Aborigines. By Ezekiel Sandford. 8vo. Philadel- 
phia, 1819. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 

The Resources of the United States of America ; or a View of the 
Agricultural, Commercial, Manufacturing, Financial, Political, 
Literary, Moral, and Religious Capacity and Character of the 
American People. By John Bristed, Counsellor at Law, &c. 
&c. 8vo. New York, 1818. — From the same. 

History of the late Polish Revolution, and the Events of the Cam- 
paign. By Joseph Hordynski, Major of the late 10th Regiment 
of Lithuanian Lancers. 8vo. Boston, 1832. — From the same. 

Memoirs of Goethe, written by himself. 8vo. New York, 1824. — 
From the same. 

The History of the Administration of John Adams, Esq., late Presi- 
dent of the United States. By John Wood, Author of the His- 
tory of Switzerland, &c. 8vo. New York. — From the same. 



305 

The Political Mirror : or Review of Jacksonism. 12mo. New York, 
1835. — From the same. 

The Proceedings and Resolutions of the West India Body, including 
Copies of their various Communications with His Majesty's Go- 
vernment, relative to the Measures of the Session of 1833, for the 
Abolition of Slavery. Small Folio. 1833.— From Mr. Petty 
Vaughan. 

A Pictorial Geography of the World, comprising a System of Uni- 
versal Geography, Popular and Scientific, &c. &c, illustrated by 
more than One Thousand Engravings of Manners, Costumes, 
Curiosities, Cities, Edifices, Ruins, Beasts> Birds, &c. &c, with 
a Copious Index, answering the purpose of a Gazetteer. By S. 
G. Goodrich. Second Edition. 2 Vols. Large 8vo. Boston, 
1840. — From the Author. 

Specimens of an Improved Metrical Translation of the Psalms of Da- 
vid, intended for the Use of the Presbyterian Church in Australia 
and New Zealand, with a Preliminary Dissertation, and Notes 
Critical and Explanatory. By John Dunmore Lang, D.D., Se- 
nior Minister of the Presbyterian Church in Communion with the 
Church of Scotland in New South Wales. — From the Author. 

Report from the Select Committee on Lighting the House (of Com- 
mons); together with the Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, and 
Index. Fol. Aug. 1839.— From Mr. H. C. Carey. 

Report to the Controllers of the Public Schools, on the Reorganiza- 
tion of the Central High School of Philadelphia. By A. D. 
Bache, LL.D., President of the Girard College for Orphans. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1839-40. — From the Author. 

Report on the Organization of a High School for Girls, and Semi- 
nary for Female Teachers. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From 
the same. 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Richards, Dr. Ludlow, 
and Mr. G. M. Wharton, on a communication of Professor 
Forshey, of Natchez, containing a description of the great 
Mound near Washington, Adams County, Mississippi, re- 
ported favourably of the same, and expressed the hope, that 
the author might be enabled to prosecute farther examinations, 
"the result of which, with his enlightened commentaries, 
would furnish a most acceptable addition to the Transactions 
of the Society." 



306 

The Mound, described by Professor Forshey, is found about nine 
miles north-east from the city of Natchez, Mississippi, upon the most 
elevated portion of that comparatively low and level region. It is 
approached on all sides by a slope. The elevation of its base above 
the mean level of the waters of the Mississippi, at Natchez, is esti- 
mated at 265 feet, and the greatest height of the Mound above the 
earth, 84 feet. The whole elevation above the waters of the river 
348 feet, giving to the spectator a clear horizon of 150 degrees, em- 
bracing, in that flat region, a rich and extended prospect. 

The Mound is an irregular artificial elevation of earth, varying, in 
its general line, from 40 to 46 feet, in height, and encloses an area of 
about seven acres inclusive of the ground covered by its base. On 
the surface of the general Mound are erected, at irregular intervals, 
15 smaller Mounds, one of which is 38 feet in height, and the re- 
maining 14 varying from 4 to 12 feet in height. The Mound con- 
sists of clay, with some admixture of earth, and its sides seem to 
have been faced with rudely formed brick, made from the adjacent 
clay. The bricks are found after digging to the depth of some 12 or 
15 inches into the embankment. The western front is ascended by 
two causeways, which are distinctly marked, and are found one at 
each angle of the Mound. At the eastern extremity is another cause- 
way entrance to the enclosure, and near to this entrance, and outside 
the embankment, may be traced, for some distance, an ancient fosse. 
The three causeways are of easy ascent, and wide enough for the in- 
troduction of burthens. Upon the north and south sides of the great 
Mound, and at points nearly opposite to each other, covered entrances 
or archways were constructed, but they are now so obstructed as to 
be difficult of examination. Before the forest was cleared by civilized 
culture, tradition relates that extensive avenues reached north, south, 
east, and west, thus affording, from the elevation of the great Mound, 
a most attractive prospect. 

The result, of the partial examinations made, shows that portions 
of the Mound were used as places of interment by the Indians. The 
cranium secured by Prof. Forshey was of the tribe of Flatheads. 

Earthen vessels of rude construction, and probably used frequently 
as receptacles for the remains of those interred, or as mementos at 
their funeral obsequies, are found. Various objects from the Mound 
have reached the Lyceum at Natchez. 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Lea, Dr. Hays, and Mr. 
Ord, to whom was referred a communication, entitled "Re- 



307 

marks on the Dental System of the Mastodon, with an Ac- 
count of some Lower Jaws in Mr. Koch's Collection, St. 
Louis, Missouri, where there is a Solitary Tusk on the Right 
Side, by William E. Horner, M.D., Professor of Anatomy in 
the University of Pennsylvania," reported in favour of the 
publication, which was directed accordingly. 

Dr. Horner inquires into the mode of formation of the teeth of the 
Mastodon, and compares it with that of the elephant and of man. 
The teeth of the Mastodon are all formed upon one type of configu- 
ration, the number of denticules excepted ; they therefore, like those 
of the elephant, do not admit of a division into incisors, cuspidati, 
and molares, as in some other animals. The teeth are all molars. 
The lower jaw itself resembles somewhat a human lower jaw cut off 
in front of the molar teeth, and then joined in the two posterior seg- 
ments. These teeth invariably succeed each other from behind ; the 
hindmost, as they emerge, pushing the others forward, and out of 
their places, until the latter all drop out, and a large solitary tooth is 
finally left on each side of each jaw. 

Dr. Horner alludes to the erroneous nature of the early ideas of 
naturalists on the teeth of the Mastodon, and observes that we now 
know, with some degree of certainty, that the earliest teeth of this 
animal were not more than an inch and a half square, and that the 
three immediately succeeding were a gradual and successive enlarge- 
ment on this and on each other's volume. In the Museum of Mr. 
Koch, at St. Louis, there is a young head, the long diameter of which 
is 18 or 20 inches, where the fact of four co-existent teeth on each 
side of each jaw is exhibited. This specimen, with a dozen lower 
jaws of different ages and sizes, enables us to trace, with some accu- 
racy, the stages of dentition, until it reaches the large and solitary 
grinder of ten inches in length on each side. Judging from these 
phases of dentition, Dr. Horner infers that the entire amount of teeth 
was at least 24; he is disposed, indeed, to think that the number may 
have been greater than this; perhaps 28, and possibly 32. 

Dr. Horner makes some observations on some specimens of lower 
jaws in Mr. Koch's Museum in St. Louis, in which there was a soli- 
tary tusk on the right side, and alludes to the embarrassments that 
their existence occasions in regard to the Tetracauledon of Godman ; 
whether, for example, we are to consider them merely as abnormous 
types of that animal, as known Mastodons, or as still another species 
c 



308 

to which, if such, the name Tetracauledon might be attached. Dr. 
Horner confesses himself unable to suggest a probable solution of these 
questions, and states, in connection with them, that Mr. Koch has the 
lower part of the head of a Mastodon of middling size, in which, from 
the intermaxillary bone, as usual, protrudes a tusk, which measures 
thirty inches long by four inches in diameter; but the tusk exists 
only on the left side, there being not even a vestige of alveolus on 
the right. 

It is very far from being certain, Dr. Horner adds, that any exam- 
ple exists of the upper jaw of the Tetracauledon; the presence of 
tusks in both jaws at once has therefore to be yet proved. 

The Committee, consisting of Prof. Bache, Dr. Patterson, 
and Mr. Lukens, to whom was referred the paper, entitled 
"Observations to determine the Magnetic Intensity at several 
Places in the United States, with some additional Observations 
of the Magnetic Dip, by Elias Loomis, Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy in Western Reserve College," 
recommended the same for publication in the Society's Trans- 
actions, which was ordered accordingly. 

The following is an abstract of the results of observations contained 
in this memoir. 

1. Magnetic Intensity. — The horizontal intensity was observed by 
an apparatus similar to the one used by Professor Hansteen. Three 
small needles furnished to the author by Professor Renwick, and 
made under the direction, respectively, of Professor Hansteen, Major 
Sabine, and Professor Henry, were employed. The commencing 
semi-arc of vibration was, in every case, 30°, and each series in- 
cluded 320 oscillations, the instant of the completion of every tenth 
vibration being noted. No correction, therefore, is applied for the 
arc of vibration. The times were observed at Dorchester, Princeton, 
and Philadelphia, by a chronometer, and at the other stations by a 
lever watch, which, at Hudson, was compared with the observatory 
clock before and after the observations. The author remarks, that 
" at the remaining stations there is a little uncertainty with regard to 
the time, yet it is thought its influence upon the results will not be 
great." 

The correction for temperature, for each of the needles, was ob- 
tained by direct experiment, and gave the following coefficients : — 



309 

For the Hansteen needle, .000191; for the Sabine needle, .000328 ; 
for the Henry needle, .000116. The results of observation are re- 
duced to a standard temperature of 60° Fah. 

The author gives the reasons which induce him to apply no cor- 
rection for the change of magnetism in the needles. The observa- 
tions for horizontal intensity were principally made in September and 
November, 1839. 

The stations of observation at different places were the same as for- 
merly described (Am. Phil. Soc. Trans.), except at Dorchester, which 
was near Mr. Bond's Observatory. The details of the observations 
are given, and from the mean of those for horizontal intensity, com- 
bined with the dips formerly observed, the author gives the total in- 
tensities, taking New York as 1.803, according to the determination 
of Major Sabine, and referring to the unit established by Humboldt, 
as follow s: — ■ 





Horizontal Intensity. 




Dip. 


Total Intensity. 


New York, 


.96707 


72° 


52.2' 


1.803 


New Haven, 


.92364 


73 


26.7 


1.780 


Dorchester, 


.88182 


74 


16.0 


1.786 


Providence, 


.89830 


73 


59.6 


1.789 


Princeton, 


.97414 


72 


47.1 


1.807 


Philadelphia, 


1.00000 


72 


07.0 


1.788 


Hudson, 


.97344 


72 


47.6 


1.807 



The author remarks that Hudson, Ohio, and New York, thus ap- 
pear to have sensibly the same magnetic dip and intensity. He con- 
cludes this part of his memoir with a comparison of his intensity ob- 
servations with those of Professors Bache and Courtenay. 

2. Magnetic Dip. — This section commences with an account of 
observations of the magnetic dip, made at Hudson, Ohio, in different 
azimuths, to try the figure of the axles of the dipping needles. The 
results for needle No. 1 were quite satisfactory, and for needle No. 2, 
showed a difference in the extremes of 12.7': upon a review of the 
whole, the author considers them as justifying confidence in the nee- 
dles used. 

The following determinations of the dip are next given: — 

Latitude. Longitude. Date. Magnetic Dip. 

Hudson, Ohio, 4°1 15N. 81 26 W. April 15, 1840 72 53.2 
Aurora, „ 41 20 81 20 Sept. 8, „ 72 55.5 

Windham, „ 41 15 81 03 „ 8, „ 73 03.4 



®, 


1840, 


72 59.7 


10, 


>> 


73 08.1 


10, 


j> 


72 59.8 


11, 


» 


73 00.7 


22, 


5> 


73 12.0 


23, 


JJ 


72 58.0 


23, 


J? 


72 51.3 


28, 


» 


72 50.1 


15, 


JJ 


72 56.6 


16, 


J» 


72 53.0 


31, 


» 


72 48.2 



310 

Bazetta, „ 41 20 80 45 Sept. 

Kinsman, „ 41 30 80 34 „ 

Hartford, „ 41 19 80 34 „ 

Warren, „ 41 16 80 49 „ 

Cleveland, „ 41 30 81 42 „ 

Bedford, „ 41 24 81 32 „ 

Twinsburgh, „ 41 20 81 26 „ 

Tallmadge, „ 41 06 81 26 „ 

Shalersville, „ 41 15 81 13 Oct. 

Streetsboro', „ 41 15 81 20 „ 

Tallmadge, „ 41 06 81 26 „ 

Dr. Patterson, from the Observatory Committee, laid before 
the Society the following Ordinance, passed by the City Coun- 
cils on the 19th of November last. 

"An Ordinance to authorize the American Philosophical Society 
to erect an Observatory in Rittenhouse Square. 

Sect. 1. Be it ordained and enacted by the Citizens of Phila- 
delphia in Select and Common Councils assembled^ That the Ame- 
rican Philosophical Society be and they are hereby authorized to 
erect, at their expense, an Observatory in Rittenhouse Square, the 
same to be built under the supervision of the Committee on City Pro- 
perty, and after a plan to be approved by them ; subject, nevertheless, 
to the right of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of Philadelphia, to 
prescribe regulations for the government and management thereof, 
and at any time the Select and Common Councils may deem it expe- 
dient, to take possession of and remove the said building from the said 
square." 

Signed by the Presidents of the Select and the Common Council. 

Whereupon it was resolved, that the terms of the Ordinance 
be accepted by the Society, and that the Observatory Commit- 
tee be instructed to take the necessary measures, under the 
powers given them, for carrying the objects of the Ordinance 
into effect. 

Mr. Walker read a communication, entitled "Researches 
concerning the Periodical Meteors of August and November, 
by Sears C. Walker," which was referred to a Committee. 

Prof. Bache brought before the Society an instrument for 
measuring the changes in the vertical components of the force 



311 

of terrestrial magnetism, which he described as combining the 
principles of the vertical force instrument of Prof. Lloyd, with 
that of reflection adopted in the magnetometers of Prof. Gauss, 
and which had been made for him by Mr. Saxton. 

Prof. Bache stated, that having found difficulties in the use, espe- 
cially by his assistants, of the vertical force instrument invented by 
Prof. Lloyd, and made for the Magnetic Observatory at the Girard 
College, by Robinson, of London, he had applied, in June last, to Mr. 
Saxton, to construct the instrument now presented to the notice of the 
Society. The details had been matured by conference with Mr. Sax- 
ton. The magnetic bar, placed and supported as in the instrument 
of Prof. Lloyd, carries a mirror upon its axis. The mode of adjust- 
ing the position of the centre of gravity of the needle does not differ 
materially from that adopted in the instrument referred to. The nee- 
dle is raised off the agate planes by the action of a screw, raising a 
bar which supports two small cups adapted to receive two projecting 
pins on the arms of the magnet. This magnetometer is observed 
from a distance, like those of Prof. Gauss. Prof. Bache explained 
the mode of adjusting the instrument, and of placing the scale and 
telescopes. 

Mr. Peale remarked, that in the November number of the 
"London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine," 
there were communications "On the Electricity of a Jet of 
Steam issuing from a Boiler," and stated that sparks, of the 
kind mentioned, had been observed in a steam-engine at Wil- 
mington, North Carolina. 

Mr. Boye read a communication, entitled, "On the Perchlo- 
rate of the Oxide of Ethule, or Perchloric Ether, by Clark 
Hare and Martin H. Boye," which was referred to a Com- 
mittee. 

Professors Rogers and Hare referred to circumstances connected 
with the discovery, mode of preparing, and preserving this highly 
explosive compound; of which a specimen, dissolved in alcohol, was 
presented by M. Boye to the Society. Dr. Hare, amongst other 
matters, remarked, that this is the only ether which is explosive, 
per se, when transferred from one vessel to another. 

Prof. Bache called the attention of the Society to a diagram 



312 

representing the changes of magnetic declination, as recorded 
at the Magnetic Observatory of Mr. Bond, at Cambridge, and 
at the Girard College, on the magnetic term day of May, 1840, 
and showing that the changes attending the aurora are not pe- 
culiar to one locality, but that, as observed at different places, 
they are parts of a great magnetic disturbance. 

The two curves thus presented agreed remarkably in all their ge- 
neral features, showing, as a general result, similar motions of the 
needle at the two places in direction, though not always proportional 
in amount. They presented remarkable differences in the absolute 
times at which these movements had taken place at the two sta- 
tions, the similar movements differing frequently five minutes (with 
opposite signs), and in a few cases as much as ten minutes in time; 
in other cases being simultaneous. The period at which the needle 
had attained, suddenly, its greatest deviation from the true meridian, 
was ten minutes earlier in absolute time at Cambridge, than at Phi- 
ladelphia. 

Mr. Justice reported, that during the last four or five even- 
ings, he had tested the value of the telescope referred to at a 
former meeting of the Society (Proceedings, No. 13, p. 276), 
by observations on the Moon, and stated his opinion of its ex- 
cellence, as deduced from those observations. Mr. Justice de- 
tailed the appearances presented by the Moon's surface through 
this instrument. 

. Dr. Demme referred to the contents of a circular letter from 
Germany, in which it was stated, that a number of gentlemen 
of Stuttgart had united, under the name "Societas Bibliophilo- 
rum Stuttgartiae," to publish historical and antiquarian works, 
which are either out of print, or have never been printed. 

The Society at Stuttgart will begin to publish as soon as they have 
procured five hundred subscribers. The subscription is one pound 
sterling for which the subscriber will receive one copy : and no more 
copies will be printed than are subscribed for. The letter to Dr. 
Demme, which accompanied it, requested the honour of enrolling the 
American Philosophical Society amongst the subscribers. 

On motion, the Society resolved to subscribe to the under- 
taking. 



313 

Professor Bache read a letter from Major Sabine, giving the 
progress of the magnetic observations now making, and refer- 
ring to the modes deemed advisable for the publication of the 
records of observatories. He referred also to the anomalous 
nature of the curves for the May term day at Toronto and at 
Greenwich, and to an instrument for observing vertical force 
by reflection, in the putting up of which Professor Airy was 
engaged. 



Stated Meeting, December 18. 
Present, thirty-eight members. 
Mr. Du Ponceau, President, in the Chair. 
The following donations were received: — 

FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Journal Asiatique. 3 Serie. Tom. IX. No. 49. Paris. Janvier, 

1840. — From the Society. 
Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Gescbiedenis en Physiologie; uitgegeven 

door J. Van der Hoeven, M.D., Prof, te Leiden, en W. H. Vriese, 

M.D., Prof, te Amsterdam. Zevende Deel. lste en 2de Stuk. 8vo. 

Leiden, 1840. — From the Editors. 
An Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of the United States, 

for the Year 1839. 8vo. Washington, 1840.— From Mr. T. 

L. Smith, Register of the Treasury. 
A Commercial Dictionary, containing the Present State of Mercantile 

Law, Practice, and Custom. By Joshua Montefiore, &c. The 

first American Edition, with very considerable Additions relative 

to the Laws, Usages, and Practice of the United States. In three 

Volumes, 8vo. Philadelphia, 1804. — From Mr. Du Ponceau. 
Sundry Pamphlets, Catalogues, &c, relating to the University of 

Pennsylvania. 8vo. (Bound.) — From the same. 
Lettere sull' Indie Orientali. 8vo. Filadelfia, 1802. (2 Vols.) — 

From the same. 
Des Crimes de la Presse, consideres comme Generateurs de tous les 

Autres. Dedie aux Souverains de la Sainte-Alliance. 8vo. 

Paris. (No date.) — From the same. 



314 

Traite des Tribunaux de Judicature, ou l'on examine ce que la Reli- 
gion exige des Juges, des Plaideurs, des Avocats et des Temoins, 
&c. &c. Par P. Roques, Pasteur de l'Eglise Francoise de Basle. 
4to. Basle, 1740. — From the same. 

Alger sous la Domination Fran9aise ; son Etat present et son Avenir. 
Par M. le Baron Pichon, Conseiller d'Etat, ancien Intendant Civil 
d' Alger. 8vo. Paris, 1833. — From the same. 

A New Spanish Grammar, adapted to every Class of Learners. By 
Mariano Cubi i Soler, Professor of Modern Languages in the Col- 
lege of Louisiana. Sixth Edition, with Corrections and Improve- 
ments. — From the Author. 

The Natural History of the Fishes of the Firth of Forth, and Tribu- 
taries. By Richard Parnell, M.D. F.R.S. Edin., &c. &c. Pri- 
vate Copy : from the Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History 
Society, Vol. VII. 8vo. Edinb. 1838.— From the Author. 

Description of the Geology of the State of New Jersey, being a Final 
Report. By Henry D. Rogers, State Geologist, &c. &c. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1840. — From the Author. 

Recit de l'Inauguration de la Statue de Gutenberg et des fetes don- 
nees par la Ville de Strasbourg, les 24, 25, et 26 Juin, 1840. 
Par Auguste Luchet, &c. 24mo. Paris, 1840. — From Mr. D. 
B. Warden. 

Pamphlets. — 1. Institut Royal de France, a. Academie des Sciences, 
Morales et Politiques: Seance publique du Samedi, 27 Juin, 1840. 

b. Academie Francaise: Seance publique du Jeudi, 11 Juin, 1840. 

c. Academie Royale des Sciences: Seance publique du Lundi, 13 
Juillet, 1840. 2. Revue de I'Agriculture Universelle, publiee par 
la Societe d' Agriculture Universelle, sous la direction de M. l'Ab- 
be Theodore Perrin, &c. &c. Tom. ler. Ire et 2e Livraison, 
Oct. 1839. 3. Societe Royale et Centrale d Agriculture, a. Me- 
moire sur la Culture de Chene Liege, sur la Recolte et la Fabri- 
cation du Liege : par M. F. Jaubert, de Passa, &c. &c. Paris, 
1836. b. De la Greffe du Murier blanc sur le Murier des Philip- 
pines, par M. Bonafous, &c. &c. Paris, 1835. c. Rapport sur 
une Herse-Rateau, de l'Invention de N. Lestouniere, &c. — M. Ie 
Vte Hericart de Thury, Rapporteur. Paris, 1840. d. Archives 
d'Harcourt, lere Annee. Paris, 1836. e. Premier Rapport fait 
au nom de la Commission d'CEnologie, composee de MM. le 
Comte de Rambuteau, President ; le Due Decazes, de Mirbel, 
Morin de Sainte-Colombe, — O. Leclerc-Thouin, Rapporteur. 



315 

f. Second Rapport sur le meme sujet. 4. Compte rendu des Tra- 
vaux de la Societe Philotechnique, par le Baron de Ladoueette, 
Secretaire perpetuel: Seances, de Dec. 1834; Juin, 1835; Mai, 
1836; Dec. 1836; Juin, 1837 et Juin, 1838. Liste des Mem- 
bres de la Societe, &c. 5. Discours de M. de Ladouchette, de- 
pute de la Moselle, dans la discussion sur la proposition de M. 
Anisson, relative au defricbement des Forets. (Chambre des De- 
putes: Seance du 5 Mars, 1838.) 6. Discours de M. le Baron de 
Morogues, Pair de France, dans la discussion du projet de Loi 
sur les Douanes. (Chambre des Pairs: Seance du 9 Juin, 1836.) 
7. Note Historique sur les Bateaux a Vapeur, &c. par Mr. C. P. 
Molard, de PAcademie des Sciences. 8. Memoire sur une Apo- 
plexie Charbonneuse de la Rate qui a regne epizootiquement sur 
les Betes a Laine, dans les Departemens de l'Indre et du Cher, 
pendant TAutomne de 1834. Par J. Ch. Herpin, &c. 8vo. Paris, 
1836. 9. Des Pertes qu'occasionerait a l'Etat la Continuation 
de Papplication actuelle de notre Puissance amortissante : par A. 
Seguin, de l'Institut. Fevrier, 1830. 10. Rapport sur l'Horlo- 
gerie de Paris, par M. Charles-Louis Le Roy, Horloger du Roi, 
8vo. Paris, 1840. — From the same. 

Memorial of Edmund Pendleton Gaines to the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled. 8vo. 
Memphis, Tennessee. 1840. — From General Gaines. 

Meteorological Register for the Years 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, and 
1830, from Observations made by the Surgeons of the Army, and 
others at the Military Posts of the United States. Prepared under 
the direction of Thomas Lawson, M.D., Surgeon-general United 
States Army. . To which is appended, the Meteorological Regis- 
ter for the Years 1822, 1823, 1824, and 1825. Compiled under 
the direction of Joseph Lovell, M.D., late Surgeon-general of the 
United States Army. (Published for the use of the medical offi- 
cers of the army.) 8vo. Philadelphia, 1840. — From Dr. Dun- 
glison. 

The Committee, consisting of Dr. Patterson, Prof. Bache, 
and Mr. Lukens, to whom was referred the communication of 
Prof. Henry, entitled "Contributions to Electricity, No. IV., 
on Electro-dynamic Induction," reported in favour of publica- 
tion, which was directed accordingly. 

D 



316 

In this paper Prof. Henry has collected such parts of his researches 
as particularly relate to the induction at the moment of making and 
breaking a galvanic circuit, and presents them as the continuation, 
and, in a measure, as the completion of this part of the general sub- 
ject of his " Contributions." 

The paper is divided into three sections : the first of these relates 
to the induction at the beginning of a galvanic current. It will be 
recollected that the arrangement of apparatus employed in the last 
series of experiments produced a powerful shock at the moment of the 
ending of the current ; but a very feeble one at the beginning. In 
order, therefore, to study the induction in the latter case, the attention 
of Prof. Henry was first directed to the discovery of some means by 
which its intensity could be increased, and after some preliminary ex- 
periments, the desired result was obtained, by using a compound Da- 
niel's battery, instead of the single battery before employed. It was 
also found, that the shock could be increased by diminishing, within 
certain limits, the length of the primary conductor. 

After detailing a number of new facts relative to the induction at 
the beginning as well as at the ending of a galvanic current, an ac- 
count is given of the production of currents, of different orders, from 
the beginning induction. These are found to be of the same nature 
as the several currents produced by the induction at the ending of the 
current, as described in Prof. Henry's last paper — each induced cur- 
rent possessing the property of inducing a current in an opposite di- 
rection to itself: and hence a series of alternating currents is exhi- 
bited in the case of this induction, similar to that described in Prof. 
Henry's last communication in reference to the ending induction. 
The same neutralizing effect is also produced by the interposition of 
a plate of metal between the conductors of the different orders. 

The second section relates to a class of phenomena which at first 
sight would appear to indicate the existence of two kinds of electro- 
dynamic induction. A brief account of the principal part of these 
has been given in the Proceedings of the Society for Oct. 1839. The 
attention of Prof. Henry was directed to this part of his investigations, 
by a statement in the 14th series of Dr. Faraday's researches, which 
was apparently in contradiction to one of the most important facts 
given in the last number of his " Contributions." It is stated in sub- 
stance, in Prof. Henry's last paper, that when a plate of metal is inter- 
posed between the coil, and a helix placed above it to receive the in- 
duction, the shock is almost entirely neutralized. Dr. Faraday, in 



317 

apparent opposition to this, found that not the least difference in effect 
is produced, whether the space between the conductors is occupied 
with a conductor of electricity or not, provided the interposed sub- 
stance be not of the magnetic kind. A series of experiments was in- 
stituted to discover the cause of the discrepancy; and it was found, 
that in the case of induction produced by the motion of a helix to- 
wards a galvanic current,- no screening influence was indicated by 
the deflections of the needle of a galvanometer; also, when the in- 
duction was effected by moving a battery up and down in the acid, 
and in the case of magnetic electricity produced by the motion of the 
keeper towards the poles of a magnet, the interposition of the plate of 
metal produced no change in the indications of the needle. The in- 
duced electricity — which is thus produced by motion, and is of such 
low intensity as only to affect the galvanometer, which does not cause 
shocks, and is not neutralized by a plate of metal — was at first thought 
to be of a different kind from that induced by the sudden ending of a 
galvanic current. In reference to this idea, a new examination was 
made of the phenomena of the screening influence of the plate, in the 
case of the induction at the making and breaking of a galvanic cir- 
cuit, and it was found, that the neutralizing effects, described in Prof. 
Henry's last paper, only existed in reference to the shock, and the 
power of magnetizing steel needles, while the indications of the gal- 
vanometer were not at all influenced by the presence of the plate: 
also, that the shock and deflections of the needle appeared to depend 
on entirely different conditions, and gave, in almost every case, very 
different indications of the amount of inductive action. Thus, in the 
arrangement of an apparatus, which gave an intense shock at the 
breaking of a galvanic circuit, and a very feeble one at the making 
of the same, the deflections of the needle were as great in the latter 
case as in the former. It was also found, that although the shock, 
from the currents of the third and fourth orders, was very severe, yet 
the galvanometer was scarcely moved by them. 

From all these results, Prof. Henry was at first inclined to believe, 
that there were two kinds of electro-dynamic induction, or that the 
induced current consisted. of two parts, one of which could be neu- 
tralized by a plate, and the other not ; but after an attentive study of 
the whole subject, he was led to conclude, that these facts, as well as 
all those belonging to galvanic induction, given in his former papers, 
could be referred to the simple laws of the induction in different di- 
rections at the moment of making and breaking a galvanic circuit. 



318 

The third section of the paper is occupied with these theoretical 
considerations, and in this Prof. Henry shows, that if the fact be 
granted, that the deflection of the needle is due to the whole amount 
of induced electricity, whatever may be its intensity, all the pheno- 
mena may be explained by the different degrees of rapidity with 
which a given amount of inductive action is expended. 

When the development or the diminution of the quantity of a gal- 
vanic current is sufficiently rapid, a shock is produced; but if the 
same amount of development is produced more slowly, no shock per- 
haps will be obtained, although the deflection of the needle will be as 
great as before. The neutralizing effects of the interposed plate, in 
reference to the shock and not to the needle, are direct consequences 
of these principles, and most of the perplexing phenomena, described 
in Prof. Henry's last papers are referred to the same cause. 

Prof. Henry illustrates his views by the artifice of a curve, the ab- 
scisses of which represent the time of the increase or diminution of 
the quantity of a current, and the ordinates the amount of inductive 
force produced by the same. 

The Committee, consisting of Mr. Nuttall, Mr. Lea, and Dr. 
Coates, to whom was referred a communication by Miss Mar- 
garetta H. Morris, on the Cecidomyia Destructor or Hessian 
Fly, reported in favour of publication, which was ordered ac- 
cordingly. 

The Committee express the opinion, that should the observations of 
Miss Morris be ultimately proved correct, they will eventuate in con- 
siderable benefit to the agricultural community, and, through it, to the 
public. Miss Morris believes she has established, that the ovum of 
this destructive insect is deposited by the parent in the seed of the 
wheat, and not, as previously supposed, in the stalk or culm. She 
has watched the progress of the animal since June, 1836, and has 
satisfied herself that she has frequently seen the larva within the seed. 
She has also detected the larva, at various stages of its progress, 
from the seed to between the body of the stalk and the sheath of the 
leaves. In the latter situation it passes into the pupa or " flaxseed 
state." According to the observations of Miss Morris, the recently 
hatched larva penetrates to the centre of the straw, where it may be 
found of a pale greenish-white semi-transparent appearance, in form 
somewhat resembling a silk-worm. From one to six of these have 



319 

been found at various heights from the seed to the third joint : they 
would seem to enter the pupa state about the beginning of June. 

This fly was not observed by Miss Morris to inhabit any other 
plant than wheat. 

To prevent the ravages of this destroyer of the grain, it will be proper 
to obtain fresh seed from localities in which the fly has not made its 
appearance. By this means the crop of the following year will be un- 
injured; but in order to avoid the introduction of straggling insects of 
the kind from adjacent fields, it is requisite that a whole neighbour- 
hood should persevere in this precaution for two or more years in 
succession. This result was obtained, in part, in the course of trials 
made by Mr. Kirk, of Bucks County, Pa., with some seed-wheat from 
the Mediterranean, in and since the year 1837. His first crop was 
free from the fly, but it was gradually introduced from adjacent 
fields; and in the present year the mischief has been considerable. 
As Miss Morris states that the fly has never made its appearance in 
Susquehanna and Bradford Counties, seed-wheat, free from the fly, 
might be obtained from these, and probably from other, localities. 

The Committee recommend that the conclusion of Miss Morris 
" may be subjected to the only efficient test — repeated observations 
and effective trials of the precaution she advises." 

The Committee, consisting of Prof. Rogers, Dr. Bache, and 
Mr. Booth, on a communication, entitled, "On the Perchlorate 
of Ethule or Perchloric Ether, by Clark Hare and Martin H. 
Boye," reported in favour of publication, which was ordered 
accordingly. 

In the above paper, the mode of obtaining the perchloric ether, by 
subjecting a mixture of sulphovinate of baryta and perchlorate of ba- 
ryta to distillation, is first described. The authors next detail the 
precautions to be attended to in preparing and experimenting upon 
this highly explosive compound. They afterwards describe the ap- 
pearance and properties of the substance which ranks in that class 
of organic salts, denominated ethers. It is a colourless, transparent 
liquid, heavier than water, and soluble in alcohol, from which it may 
be precipitated again, by the addition of water. An alcoholic solu- 
tion of the hydrate of potassa has the power of decomposing it, form- 
ing perchlorate of potassa and alcohol. The most characteristic pro- 
perty of the compound is its tendency to explode from the slightest 
causes 



320 

Mr. Nuttall presented a continuation of his communication 
read at a former meeting (Proceedings, No. 13, p. 284), under 
the title, "On the Corymbiferse, collected on a Tour across the 
Continent of North America," which was referred to the same 
Committee as its predecessor. 

Mr. Vaughan read a letter from Mr. J. H. Alexander, of 
Baltimore, containing very favourable remarks on the con- 
struction adopted by Mr. James Green, of Baltimore, for the 
standard barometer made by him for the Maryland Academy 
of Science and Literature, and described in a Report of the 
Meteorological Committee of the Academy, in 1836. 

Professor Bache laid before the Society a Report from Mr. 
Adams to the House of Representatives, on a Letter from the 
Secretary of War, of the 31st Dec. 1839; and a Memorial from 
a Committee of the American Philosophical Society, asking 
the aid of the government to carry on a series of magnetic and 
meteorological observations, and ending with a resolution, — 

" That the sum of twenty thousand dollars ought to be appropriated 
for the establishment of five several stations, at suitable distances from 
each other, for making observations of terrestrial magnetism and me- 
teorology, conformably to the invitation from the Royal Society of 
Great Britain to the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, 
and to other learned societies in the United States ; that the said sum 
should be placed under the direction, and at the disposal, of the Se- 
cretary of War, for the fulfilment of these purposes; he to account 
for the expenditures, thus authorized, to the Treasury of the United 
States." 

Professor Bache then offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted: — 

Resolved, That the Committee by whom a memorial was addressed 
to the Secretary of War, in reference to the establishment of mag- 
netic observations, be instructed again to call his attention to the sys- 
tem of combined observations on terrestrial magnetism and meteo- 
rology now in progress. 

Dr. Patterson called the attention of the Society to the sub- 
ject of the evolution of electricity from steam, mentioned at the 
last meeting, and stated that the experiments made lately in 



321 

England had been successfully repeated by Mr. Peale, Mr. 
Saxton, and himself, at the United States' Mint 

Dr. Patterson said, that their first attempts were to collect elec- 
tricity from the steam as it issued from a gauge-cock, near the sur- 
face of the water, in the boiler; but in this case the steam was always 
accompanied by a spray of water, and the experiments failed. They 
also failed when the steam was of a low temperature, as it was then 
condensed immediately upon leaving the boiler, so as to form a cloud 
of vesicular vapour. In both these cases, the electricity, if evolved 
at all, would be led back to the boiler — the spray and the vesicular 
vapour being, as is well known, electrical conductors. 

When, on the other hand, high steam was drawn off from a stop- 
cock far removed from the water in the boiler, it was observed to 
issue, for some distance, in the form of a transparent gaseous vapour, 
and, in this case, any insulated body on which it was condensed was 
always found to be charged with electricity. Thus, if the experi- 
menter stood on an insulating stool, or even on a box or ladder of 
dry wood, and held an iron ladle, or any other conductor, in the is- 
suing steam, the conductor and the operator became so fully charged 
with electricity, that thick sparks of a half, three-quarters, and in 
some instances a whole inch in length, were drawn off; the Leyden 
jar charged; the shock given to several persons holding hands, &c. 
The electricity thus produced was found to be always positive. 

Dr. Patterson said, that one of the most important conclusions to 
which the experiments had led, was, that true gaseous steam is a 
non-conductor of electricity. If it had not been so, the apparatus 
would not have been insulated, and the electricity excited would have 
been carried back to the metallic boiler, and thence to the earth. 

Dr. Patterson thought it most probable that the electricity, in these 
experiments, was evolved by the condensation of the steam — the phe- 
nomenon being analogous to the evolution of latent heat by the same 
condensation. He remarked, that as the steam within the boiler was 
surrounded by conductors, it could not be supposed to contain free 
electricity, and that on leaving the boiler, the only sources to which 
the electricity could be ascribed, seemed to be the condensation of the 
steam, the oxidation of the iron against which it impinges, or the fric- 
tion of the steam against the air as it rushes through it. 

To shew that oxidation was not the source of the electricity, the 
experimenters caused the steam to strike upon a large bar of fine gold 



322 

(400 oz. in weight,) and the generation of electricity was as abundant 
as when they employed an oxidizable metal. The electricity was 
also evolved by the insulated operator simply holding his hand in the 
steam as it issued ; in which case the steam was condensed upon the 
hand, and the whole person became charged. Dr. Patterson stated, 
that this was, in fact, the experiment accidentally made near New 
Castle, in England, and which has attracted so much attention. 

To show that the electricity was not caused by the rushing of the 
vapour through the air, Dr. Patterson said, that an apparatus was 
made, consisting of a pipe connected with the stop-cock on the boiler, 
a portion of about ten inches in length, near the upper end, being of 
glass, to produce insulation, and the remainder of lead, wound into a 
helix, like the worm of a still. This helix was immersed in a bucket 
of water and snow. When the steam was admitted, it became entire- 
ly condensed within the pipe, so that there was no rush through the 
air; yet the production of electricity was as abundant as with the for- 
mer arrangements. 

Dr. Patterson took notice of experiments made, half a century ago, 
by Volta and Saussure, and afterwards by Cavallo, which proved, to 
their satisfaction, that electricity was evolved during evaporation and 
condensation, but which have since been called in question by Pouil- 
let and others, who assert, that a mere change of state, not accompa- 
nied by chemical change, never gives rise to electricity. He con- 
sidered the experiments, now made on a large scale, as favouring, if 
not confirming, the first opinions entertained on this subject. 

Dr. Patterson referred to the satisfactory manner in which these 
new experiments seem to explain the sources of electricity in the thun- 
der storm, and in volcanic eruptions. 

He then related an experiment in which an insulated iron ball, and 
afterwards a bar of gold, was heated, and a small stream of water 
poured on it, so as to be formed into steam at its surface. The first 
experiments seemed to show that the metal was charged with nega- 
tive electricity, but subsequent trials threw doubts upon this conclu- 
sion. 

Dr. Patterson also described experiments made to determine whe- 
ther electricity was given off during the solidification of liquids, — the 
substances used being melted lead, silver and gold. In every case, 
however, the gold-leaf electroscope failed to exhibit the presence of 
any electricity. 

Prof. Henry stated that he had not seen the sparks from steam ; but 



323 

that he had obtained feeble electricity from a small ball, partly filled with 
water, and heated by a lamp. He agreed with Dr. Patterson in the opi- 
nion, that the source of the electricity was the change of state, but from 
water to vapour. There was, however, some doubt on the subject; 
Pouillet had denied the evolution of electricity from the evaporation of 
pure water. The facts were interesting, particularly on account of the 
great intensity of the electricity. The results, obtained by the phi- 
losophers, which had been mentioned, indicated electricity of very 
feeble tension, which could only be observed by the most delicate 
instruments, but here the sparks were an inch in length. If the va- 
porization of the water were shown to be the source of the electricity, 
Prof. Henry thought that the phenomena might be readily explained 
by the beautiful theory of Becquerel, in regard to the production of 
the great intensity of the electricity in the thunder cloud. According 
to this theory, each particle of the vapour carries up with it into the 
atmosphere the free electricity, which it receives at the moment of 
the change of state: this, being diffused through the whole capacity 
of the air, is of very feeble intensity, although of great quantity ; but 
the condensation of the vapour into a cloud affords a continuous con- 
ductor, and consequently the electricity of all the particles of the in- 
terior, according to the well known principles of distribution, rushes 
to the surface of the cloud, and hence the great intensity of the light- 
ning. According to this hypothesis, the insulated conductor, placed 
in the steam, would act not only as a collector, but also as a con- 
denser of the free, but feeble, electricity of the vapour. 

Prof. Henry farther stated, in connection with this subject, that he 
had been informed by several persons, that they had obtained sparks 
of electricity from, a coal stove during the combustion of anthracite. 
A case had been stated to him several years ago, which he mentioned 
to his friend Professor Bache, who informed him that a similar one 
had fallen under his own notice, in which, however, Prof. Bache had 
succeeded in tracing the electricity to the silk shirt of the person who 
drew the spark. Another case had lately been reported to him by 
an intelligent gentleman, of a stove burning bituminous coal, on board 
of a steam-boat on the Ohio, which afforded amusement to all the pas- 
sengers during the voyage, by giving sparks of electricity whenever 
it was touched. 

In connection with the facts that had been stated of the production 
of electricity from steam, Prof. Henry observed that he was now in- 
clined to believe that electricity may also be evolved during the combus- 

E 



324 

tion of coal in a stove. But what, he asked, is the source of electri- 
city in this case? Is it combustion, the evaporation of the moisture, 
or the friction of the hot air on the interior of the pipe? 

Dr. Goddard stated, that in the case of a stove, pretty well insulated, 
his family had amused themselves with drawing sparks half an inch 
or three quarters of an inch long; and that similar sparks were ob- 
tained from the frame of a looking-glass over an open grate, in the 
house of Dr. Norris, of this city. 

Professor Bache remarked, that in the case referred to by Prof. 
Henry, in which sparks of electricity were obtained from a stove, he 
had satisfied himself that these were owing to the experimenter wear- 
ing a silken shirt : — an experimenter, not similarly clad, being unsuc- 
cessful. 

Dr. Hare ascribed the incredulity and the opinions which he had 
expressed, when this subject was brought before the Society by Mr. 
Peale, at the last meeting, to a misapprehension, on his part, as 
to the circumstances. He considered that the fact of electricity being 
developed in the case adduced was established. He alluded to the 
almost incredible case of a lady, who, agreeably to evidence men- 
tioned in Silliman's Journal, gave off sparks of electricity. He stated 
also the result of an experiment to discover whether electricity was 
given off during the rapid evaporation of a saline solution. There 
was no evidence of excitement. The vessel was of glass. 

Mr. Lea had frequently observed sparks from a common grate. 

In reference to the results of experiments by Dr. Patterson, in which 
no evidence of the development of electricity was observed in metals, 
whilst undergoing a change from the liquid to the solid state, Dr. 
Goddard observed, that in cases of crystallization on the large scale, 
as of nitre, in the extensive chemical works of Mr. Wetherill, a beau- 
tiful flash of electrical light was apparent. 

Professor Rogers suggested, that in ordinary combustion there may 
be a constant development of electricity, and that means may possibly 
be found to render it apparent by perfect insulation. 

Professor Henry stated, that Pouillet had found that electricity is 
developed by the combustion of charcoal, and he offered some sugges- 
tions as to the mode of rendering the electricity, given off from a stove, 
apparent, by insulating it both above and below. 

Dr. Emerson thought, that the change of state from solid to liquid, 
and from liquid to solid, might account for various electrical pheno- 
mena presented by the animal body. Dr. Hare suggested the diffi- 



325 

culty, that the human body is a good conductor; and that without a 
peculiar organization, analogous to that with which nature has en- 
dowed the Torpedo or Gymnotus, it is inconceivable that electrical 
discharges could arise from vital organization. He believed it was 
admitted by electricians, that there could be no electrical excitement 
without the existence of the opposite electricities. Agreeably to the 
published facts of the case to which he had alluded, the lady was 
permanently in one state of excitement, generating electricity, as 
animal heat is generated, and throwing off the excess in sparks. 

In the case of the Gymnotus the intensity, Dr. Hare remarked, 
is so low that sparks are with difficulty rendered apparent at a kerf 
made by a knife in tinfoil; of course, the sparks alleged to be given 
by the lady were vastly more intense. From the Gymnotus, sparks 
could only be received by forming a circuit with a portion of the or- 
ganic series situate parallel to the spine. Contact in a transverse di- 
rection was not productive of any discharge. 

Mr. Vaughan stated that there had been no application for 
the Magellanic premium. 

Dr. Patterson, from the Observatorj' Committee, moved that 
Mr. Justice be added to that committee. The motion was 
agreed to. 

Mr. Vaughan announced the death of M. J. P. F. Deleuze, 
of Paris, a member of the Society. 



FINIS. 



INDEX. 



Academy of Natural Sciences, letter 
from the, in relation to a proposed 
National Museum, 111. 

Acid, chlorohydric, pure, mode of pre- 
paring, 160. 

Adams, Mr. J. Q., Report to the House 
of Representatives on Magnetic Ob- 
servations, &c, 320. 

Adet, M., his death announced, 10. 

Air, moist and dry, results of rarefaction 
of, 200. 

Airy, Prof., instrument for observing 
vertical magnetic force by reflection, 
313. 

Alexander, J. H. Esq., on the construc- 
tion of a standard barometer, 320. 

Prof. S., description of the aurora 

borealis of Sept. 3, 1839, 132. 

■ on two appearances of late- 
ral and vertical mirage observed by 
him, 188. 

presents transparent models 

of crystals, 97. 

Allen, Benj., LL.D., his death an- 
nounced, 217. 

Mr. Z., of Providence, description 

of a tornado there, 48. 

Andrada e Silva, Don, his death an- 
nounced, 61. 

Anemometer, Osier's, Mr. Walker on, 3. 

Asphalt of Seyssel, remarks on, by Mr. 
Strickland, 47. 

Association, American, for the promo- 
tion of science, proposed, 77. 

Astronomical committee directed to re- 
port on the High School instruments, 
and on the subject of an observatory, 
276. 

— — instruments at the High School ob- 
servatory, 276. 

observations made by Prof. Loomis, 

129. 

Atmosphere, phenomena connected with 
the presence of aqueous vapour in the, 
237. 

Audubon, Mr., his remarks on Wilson, 
the Ornithologist, noticed by Mr. Ord, 

Aurora Borealis, description of, by Prof. 
Alexander, 132. 



Bache, Dr., appointed reporter, 24. 

announces the death of John Fred. 

Blumenbach, 188— of Dr. Eberle, 6— 
of Mr. F. H. Le Comte, of Paris, 60— 
of Dr. John Newman, of North Caro- 
lina, 108— of Dr. Jos. Parrish, 188— of 
Dr. A. Pearson, 62— of Dr. Robt. Per- 
cival, 117— of Mr. G. Pollok, 98— of 
the Hon. Jonathan Sewell, of Quebec, 
157— of Mr. Sullivan, 136— of M. Tal- 
leyrand, 29 — of Mr. Wickham, of Vir- 
ginia, 74. 

presents a translation of an obituary 

notice of Prof. Rask, of Copenhagen, 
104. 

on a worm in the eye of the horse, 

201. 

Bache, Prof, appointed reporter, 74. 

on electricity from a stove, 324. 

compares Prof. Loomis's observa- 
tions on the magnetic dip with those 
of Prof. Courtenay and himself, 146. 

on a convenient mode for deter- 
mining the magnetic dip and inten- 
sity, by Prof. Lloyd, 77. 

on the magnetic declination on the 

February magnetic term day, 1840, 
294. 

experiments on the magnetic dip, 

294. 

on the simultaneous changes of 

magnetic intensity at .Gottingen and 
Munich, 200. 

observations of the magnetic inten- 
sity at twenty-one stations in Europe, 
181, 185. 

resolutions of, regarding magnetic 

observations, 320. 

reads an extract from a letter from 

Major Sabine, on contemporaneous 
magnetic and meteorological observa- 
tions, &c. 169. 

presents a chart of magnetic obser- 
vations for Feb. 28, 1840, 200. 

on the measures taken by the Bri- 
tish government for obtaining a series 
of magnetic observations in different 
quarters of the globe, 117. 

on combined magnetic observa- 
tions, 242. 



328 



INDEX. 



Bache, Prof., exhibits the changes of 
magnetic variation on the two terms 
of the German Magnetic Association, 
of August 30 and November 30, 1S39, 
151. 

on an instrument for measuring 

the vertical components of the force 
of terrestrial magnetism, 311. 

— on a diagram exhibiting changes of 
magnetic declination at Cambridge 
and Philadelphia, 311. 

■ on Mr. Forshey's remarks on the 
tornado of Natchez, 243. 

— on the meteors of the 12th, 13th, 
and 14th of Nov. 1838, 60. 

— on a donation of transparent models 
of crystals, by Prof. Alexander, 97. 

on a magnetic observatory to be 

erected at the Girard College, 118. 

presents No. 6 of the Society's Pro- 
ceedings, 90— No. 7, 132— No. 8, 148. 

relates an instance of the rapid cor- 
rosion of a chain cable in sea water, 
70. 

— reports the deaths of M. Stainsby 
and of Dr. Van Marum, 48. 

i ■ ' ' on shooting stars, 69. 

on shooting stars of Nov. 1840, 299. 

Balbo, Count Prospero, of Turin, his 

death announced, 74. 
Barium, laid before the Society by Dr. 

Hare, 104. 

— extrication of, 130. 

Barometer, standard, constructed by Mr. 

Green, 320. 
Bessel, M., investigates the parallax of 

the star 61 Cygni, 78. 
Bills of credit, continental, Mr. Breck 

on the, 235, 248. 
Blind, thin sheets of lead used by the, 

in writing, &c, 98. 

• Institution, use of the wax tablet 

and iron stylus in the, 94. 
Blood, fluid 15 hours after death, which 

subsequently coagulated, 216. 
Blowpipe, compound, of Dr. Hare, re- 
marks on the, by Dr. H., 59. 
Blumenbach, John Frederick, his death 

announced, 188. 
Blunt, Mr. E., on the solar eclipses of 

May 14, 1836, and Sept. 18, 1838, 

177. 
Bonaparte, Lucien, Prince of Canino, 

his death announced, 276. 
Bond, Mr. W. C, chart of extraordinary 

variations of magnetic declination at 

Cambridge on May 29, 1840, 293. 
Bonnycastle, Mr., on the insufficiency of 

Taylor's theorem, &c, with remarks 

on the development and continuity of 

functions, 214, 227 
on a new principle in regard to 

fluids in motion to produce rupture of 

the vessels, &c, 191. 



Bonnycastle, Mr., notes of experiments 

to determine the depth of the sea by 

the echo, 39. 

his death announced, 295. 

Bowditch, Dr. N., his death announced, 

10. 
bust of, directed to be purchased, 

80. 
family of, to be furnished with the 

Transactions of the Society, 117. 
Boye, Mr. M. H. See Rogers, Prof. H. D. 

and Mr. Clark Hare, on perchloric 

ether, 261,319. 

Bradford, Mr. Thomas, his death an- 
nounced, 16. 

Breck, Mr. historical sketch of the con- 
tinental bills of credit, from 1775 to 
1781,235,248. 

By-laws in regard to the contribution of 
members, 95. 

Calcium, brilliant metallic spangles of, 

83. 

extrication of, 130. 

portion of, laid before the society 

by Dr. Hare, 104. 

recent experiments to obtain, 100. 

Capillary action, phenomenon of, 82. 
Carbonic acid, solidification of, by Dr. 

Mitchell, 15. 
Carey, Mr. Matthew, his death an- 
nounced, 117. 

obituary notice of, directed, 117. 

Cecidomyia Destructor, Miss Morris on 

the, 2a2, 318. 
Ceraphron Destructor, Miss Morris on 

the, 282, 318. 
Chapman, Dr. announces the death of 

Mr. Matthew Carey, 117. 

announces the probability of ob- 
taining the correspondence of Robert 
Morris, &c, 209. 

on a presumed earthquake, Nov. 

14, 1840, 301. 

presents meteorological observa- 
tions, given by Mrs. Madison, 117. 

letter to, from the Prince of Musig- 

nano, inviting the Society to send a 

delegate to the meeting of scientific 

men at Pisa, in Oct. 1839, 108. 
Chemistry, communications relative to, 

by Dr. Hare, 61. 
Chinese system of writing, Rev. Mr. 

Dickinson on the, 200. 
Messrs. Gutzlaff, and Du Ponceau 

on the, 120. 
Chlorine, mode of preparing, in Dr. 

Hare's self-regulating reservoir, 160. 
Climate of the Atlantic States, Dr. Hare 

on the, 187. 
Coates, Dr. announces the formation of 

the Pathological Society, 139. 
Coins and Medals, presented by Col. 

Linah, report on the, 70. 



INDEX. 



329 



Colimacea, nineteen new species of, de- 
scribed by Mr. Lea, 173. 

Colonial Records, copy of, presented to 
Mr. Du Ponceau, 105. 

Colours, loss of power of distinguishing, 
cases of, 104, 117, 265. 

Comet, Galle's first, results of observa- 
tions of, 301. 

Galle's second, Mr. Walker, and 

Mr. Loornis on, 201, 215. 

Galle's second, Prof. Rilmker on, 

275. 

Galle's third, 215. 

Comets, Galle's, astronomical observa- 
tions in reference to, 235, 247. 

New formulae relative to, by Mr. 

Nulty, 38, 43. 

Committees, standing, appointed for 
1840, 169. 

Congelation of water, by the evaporation 
of ether, &c. 156, 198. 

Cooper, Dr. Thos., his death announced, 
104. 

Corrosion, rapid, of a chain cable, in sea- 
water, 70. 

Coryrnbiferas, Mr. Nuttall, on the, 320. 

Cresson, Mr. exhibits specimens of Naph- 
thaline, 299. 

on a presumed earthquake, Nov. 14, 

1840,301. 

Crystals, transparent models of, pre- 
sented by Prof. Alexander, 97. 

Cyclovolute, magic, on some points re- 
garding the, 289, 293. 

Daguerreotype, specimens of, by Mr. 
Cornelius, 155, 181. 

by Mr. Seybert, 166. 

Dearborn, Mr. Benjamin, his death an- 
nounced, 7. 

De Lancey, Bishop, obituary notice on 
Bishop White, 117. 

Deleuze, J. P. F., his death announced, 
325. 

Demme, Dr., announces the formation 
of the Societas Bibliophilorum Stutt- 
gartise, 312. 

Dickinson, Rev. James T., letter to Mr. 
Du Ponceau, on the Chinese system 
of writing, 200. 

Dixon, Mr. Joseph, invention of a trans- 
fer process, 206. 

Donations for the cabinet, 4, 6, 35, 43, 
50, 57, 63, 68, 96, 120, 150, 166, 185, 
190, 213, 225, 247, 261, 278, 284. 

Donations for the Library, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 
9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 21, 29, 33, 42, 47, 49, 
56, 60, 62, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78, 81, 87, 
90, 95, 98, 102, 105, 109, 113, ] 18, 126, 
137, 140, 149, 157, 166, 167, 170, 172, 
179, 182, 189, 194, 203, 209, 219. 243, 
257, 267, 276, 283, 291. 

Dunglison, Dr., announces the death of 
Mr. T. W. Griffith, 19. 



Dunglison, Dr., case in which blood 
flowed 15 hours after death, and co- 
agulated, 216. 

reports the minutes of the Histori- 
cal and Literary Committee, 247. 

appointed reporter for 1840. 

announces the publication of No. 

10 of the Society's proceedings, 188, 
of No. 11, of the proceedings, 209 — of 
No. 12, of the proceedings, 267 — of 
No. 13, of the proceedings, 292. 

on a tornado at New Haven, on the 

31st of July, 1839, 111. 

on some new vaccine virus, 68. 

case of worm, in the eye of a horse, 

200, 208. 

Du Ponceau, Mr., announces the death 
ofM. Adet, 10. 

announces the death of Mr. Godon, 

295. 

on works in reference to the dis- 
covery, geography, &c, of America, 
now publishing in Europe, 251. 

letter to Mr. Vaughan, in answer to 

Mr. Gutzlaff, on the Chinese system 
of writing, 120. 

announces the reception of the 

Cochin Chinese Dictionary, of Bishop 
Taberd, 235. 

offered, by the Society, a copy of the 

Colonial Records, 105. 

presents a Grammar of the Iroquois 

Language, by E. Williams, 46. 

exhibits a Japanese and English 

Vocabulary, and a Translation of a 
comparative Vocabulary of the Chi- 
nese, Corean, and Japanese languages, 
by the Rev. Mr. Medhurst. 41. 

announces the publication abroad, 

of a Cochin Chinese Dictionary, and 

of a Grammar of the Berber language, 

166. 
presents a MS., by Mr. Heckewel- 

der, containing words in the Lennape 

language, 271. 

on the Silk Culture in India, 214. 

presents a MS., from M. Nicollet, on 

the language of the Sioux, 289. 
historical account of the origin and 

formation of the Society, 233. 

presents a Vocabulary of the lan- 
guage of the Valiente Indians, by Col. 
Galindo, 38. 

Earthquake, presumed, Nov. 14, 1840, 

301. 
Eberle, Dr. John, his death announced, 6. 
Eclipse of the Sun, committee appointed 

to observe the, 31. 
committee report in part, 35, 44, 

48, 50, 58, 64, 107. 
Eclipses, solar, of May 14, 1836, and 

Sept. 18, 1838, Mr. E. Blunt on the, 

177. 



330 



INDEX. 



Electricity of the animal body, 324. 

contributions to, by Prof. Henry, 

54, 65, 233, 299. 

developed under combustion, 324. 

developed during crystallization, 

324. 

—— given off from a common grate, 
324. 

of a jet of steam, 311, 320. 

given off from a lady, 324, 325. 

from the frame of a mirror, 324. 

from a cast-iron stove, 323, 324. 

as an instrument in the production 

of storms, 187. 

■ developed under various circum- 
stances, 323. 
< — - lateral discharge of, 6, 

ordinary, currents by induction 

from, 14. 

Electro-dynamic induction, Prof. Henry 
on, 54, 65, 233, 299, 315. 

Electro-magnetic machine, invented by 
Prof. Henry, 301. 

Emerson, Dr., on the electricity of the 
animal body, 324. 

Encke, Prof, letter to Prof. Bache on 
observatories, 92. 

Engles, Mr. James P., presents a MS. 
treatise on the means of extending 
the learning and civilization of Eu- 
rope to India, by C. E. Trevelyan, at 
Kotah, 150. 

Ether, hyponitrous, certain products 
from the formation of, 176. 

formed by Messrs. Boye and 

Hare. 261, 319. 

Ethule, perchlorate of, 261, 319. 

Eye, catoptric examination of the, 97, 
102. 

Figher, Mr , announces the death of Mr. 

Levett Harris, 149 — of Benjamin R. 

Morgan, 301. 
< — — letter relative to the History of the 

Society, 234. 
Fly, Hessian, Miss Morris on the, 282. 
Forshey, Prof, observations upon the 

meteors of August, 1840, 261, 292. 

account of the great mound near 

Washington, Adams County, Missis- 
sippi, 271, 305. 

• on the tornado of Natchez, 243. 

Fox, Mr. Charles P., deposits papers 

of Franklin with the Society, 253. 
. "- presents the Franklin papers to the 

Society, 276. 

vote of thanks to, for the Franklin 

papers, 276. 

Franklin papers, deposited with the So- 
ciety, 253. 

presented to the Society, 

276. 

committee appointed to ar- 
range, 267. 



Galindo, Col. D. J., vocabulary of the 
Valiente Indians, 38. 

Galvanic apparatus for producing reci- 
procating motion, 391. 

current, two kinds of dynamic in- 
duction caused by, 135. 

ignition used in rock blasting, 99. 

influence through a coil of wire, 

extent of the, 99. 

Galvanism, communications relative tc„ 
by Dr. Hare, 61. 

medals copied by, specimens of, 

171. 

Geological specimens, from Mr. J. K. 

Townsend, 4. 
Geology of the tertiary formations of 

Virginia, 69, 80, 88. 
Gillies, Mr., on the meteors of Nov. 

1840, 301. 
Glass, application of radiant heat to, 

159. 
Goddard, Dr., on the disengagement of 

electricity during the crystallization 

of nitre, 324. 

on electricity from a stove, and 

from the frame of a mirror, 324. 

Godon,Mr. S., his death announced, 295. 

Goetz, Pierre de, letter from, accompa- 
nying works from the Imperial Rus- 
sian Academy, &c. 16. 

Griffith, Mr. T. W., his death announced, 
19. 

Gutzlaff, Rev. Charles, letter to Mr. 
Vaughan, on the Chinese system of 
writing, 120. 

Hare, Dr., appointed to prepare an obi- 
tuary notice of Mr. Sullivan, 136. 

on phenomena connected with the 

presence of aqueous vapour in the at- 
mosphere, &c, 237. 

description of an apparatus for de- 
flagrating carburets, phosphurets, or 
cyanides, in vacuo, &c. &c, 138. 

on his compound blowpipe, 59. 

on the extrication of barium, stron- 
tium, and calcium, 130. 

exhibits specimens of barium, stron- 
tium, and calcium, obtained by him, 
104. 

results of experiments to obtain 

calcium, 100. 

communications on subjects re- 
lating to chemistry and galvanism, 61.. 

on a mode of preparing pure chlo- 

rohydric acid and chlorine, 160. 

suggests the galvanic fluid to pro- 
duce an explosion below the surface 
of water, 41. 

on the results of exploding the ele- 
ments of water, in contact with cer- 
tain gases or essential oils, 16. 

on the blasting of rocks by the aid 

of galvanic ignition, 99. 



INDEX. 



331 



Hare, Dr., on the climate of the Atlantic 
states; on the trade winds; and on 
electricity as a principal instrument 
in the production of storms, 187. 

on the congelation of water by the 

evaporation of ether, &c. 156. 

engraving and description of an ap- 
paratus and process for the rapid con- 
gelation of water, &c, 198, 213. 

on the electricity of the- animal 

body, 324. 

on the electricity of a jet of steam, 

&c, 324. 

on the extent to which the galvanic 

influence can extend through a coil of 
wire, 199. 

— on a liquid and gaseous ethereal 

compound, resulting from the reaction 
of nascent hyponitrous acid on alco- 
hol, 251, 270. 

on Prof. Loomis's views of storms, 

193. 

obtains brilliant metallic spangles 

of calcium, 83. 

on the change effected in the ni- 
trates of potash and soda, by the limit- 
ed application of heat, with a view to 
obtain pure oxygen, 251, 270. 

on the method of obtaining oxygen 

from nitre, 139. 

exhibits a specimen of pure plati- 
num, freed from iridium, 14. 

exhibits a mass of fused platinum 

between 22 and 23 ounces in weight, 
42. 

describes a specimen of potassium, 

in the globular form, assumed by fall- 
ing into naphtha, 166. 

on certain products from the for- 
mation of hyponitrous ether, &c, 176. 

on the application of radiant heat 

to glass, 159. 

results of experiments on the rare- 
faction of moist and dry air, 200. 

on anew mode of procuring silicon, 

175. 

on the tornado at Philadelphia, Ju- 
ly 13, 1840, 256. 

on a tornado at Providence, R. 1. 

48, 58. 

remarks on a tornado at Somerset, 

Mass., 42. 

on tornadoes and the .electrical 

theory of their formation, 122. 

— — — presents copies of a French trans- 
lation of his communication on the 
subject of tornadoes, 236. 

on an extensive voltaic apparatus, 

constructed under his direction for 
the Lowell Institution, 253. 

Mr. Clark, on the perchlorate of 

ethule, 261, 319. 

Harris, Mr. Levett, his death announced, 
149. 

F 



Hays, Dr., appointed to prepare an obi- 
tuary notice of Mr. Keating, 234. 

remarks on two animals in the 

museum of Mr. Koch, of St. Louis, 283. 

on the catoptric examination of the 

eye, 97, 102. 

on entozoa in the eye, and else- 
where, 209. 

relates a case of cerebral disease, 

with loss of the power of distinguish- 
ing colours, 104. 

on the inability to distinguish cer- 
tain colours, 265. 

on a case of perverted vision, in 

which all perpendicular lines appear- 
ed double, whilst horizontal ones were 
seen accurately, 156. 

presents a table of the peculiarities 

of those not able to distinguish co- 
lours, 117. 

i on the operation recently devised 

for strabismus, and its effects on vi- 
sion, 273. 

on a new vaccine virus, 90. 

Heckewelder, Mr., MS. of words in the 

Lennape language, 271. 
Henry, Prof., announces, from ordinary 
electricity, currents by induction, 
&c, 14. 

announces the discovery of two 

distinct kinds of dynamic induction 
by a galvanic current, 135. 

on the development of electricity 

during combustion, &c, 324. 

on the electricity of a jet of steam, 

322. 

papers on electro-dynamic induc- 
tion, 54, 64, 233, 299, 315. 

on electro-dynamic induction, mag- 
netic distribution, &c. 233. 

on an electro-magnetic machine 

invented by him, 301. 

on a galvanic apparatus for produc- 
ing reciprocating motion, 301. 

on the lateral discharge of electri- 
city, &c. 6. 

on a phenomenon of capillary ac- 
tion, 82. 

Hessian fly, Miss Morris, on the, 282, 
318. 

Hewson, Dr. T., meteorological journal 
of, report of committee on the, 104. 

Historical committee announce the pub- 
lication of Mr. Du Ponceau's Disser- 
tation on the Chinese system of wri- 
ting, 7. 

report of the, 247. 

Hopkinson, Judge, deposits the log-book 

of the first steam vessel across the 

Atlantic, 193. 
on a presumed earthquake, Nov. 14, 

1840, 301. 
Horner, Dr., on a fancied earthquake, 

Nov. 14, 1840, 301. 



332 



INDEX. 



Horner, Dr., reads a necrological notice 
of Dr. Physick, 13. 

on the dental system of the Mas- 
todon, 293, 307. 

on the remains of the Mastodon, 

and other extinct animals at St. Louis, 
Mo., 271, 279. 

Hulliken, Mr. S. P., letter from, on an 
inscription on a stone near Wheeling, 
46. 

and Dr. Townsend, report on the 

letters of, 104. 

Humphreys, Mr. Joshua, on the naval 
construction of the United States, 4. 

death of, announced, 3. 

India, silk culture in, 214. 

Indian Vocabularies, from Mr. J. K. 

Townsend, 4. 
Indians of the N. W. Coast of America, 

vocabularies of the, 146. 

Valiente, vocabulary of the lan- 
guage of the, 38. 

Ingersoll, Mr. C. J., reads an obituary no- 
tice of Mr. Madison, 61. 

Inscription on a stone found near Wheel- 
ing, 46. 

Institution, National, of Washington, let- 
ter from the, 299. 

Iroquois language, grammar of the, 46, 

Jefferson, Mr., his writing chair deposit- 
ed, 11. 

Justice, Mr., announces the arrival of 
the astronomical instruments at the 
High School observatory, 276. 

observations with the new teles- 
cope, 312. 

presents an original document of 

Wm. Penn, 181. 

— — on a tornado on the 31st of July, 
1839, near Philadelphia, 111, 118. 

added to the observatory committee, 

325. 

Kane, Mr., announces the appointment 
of Dr. Bache as reporter to the Socie- 

deposits the writing chair of Mr. 

Jefferson during the Congressional 
Session of 1776, 11. 

on the inability to distinguish co- 
lours, 117. 

Keating, Mr. Wm. H, death of, announ- 
ced, 234. 

Kendall, Mr. E. O., Paper on the lon- 
gitude of several places in the United 
states, deduced from the solar eclipse 
of Sept. 18,1838,141. 

Lea, Mr., appointed to write an obituary 
notice of Mr. Carey, 117. 

on certain facts by Mr. Rang, in 



relation to the torpidity of the Ana- 
donta Chaiziana, 8. 

description of nineteen new species 

of colimacea, 173. 

on electricity from a common 

grate, 324. 

memoir on fresh water and land 

shells, 23, 282, 285. 

describes a new shell, Melania Cin- 

cinnatiensis, 66. 

notice of the Oolitic formation in 

America, &c, 214, 225. 

on the Patella Amasna, 181, 187. 

exhibits specimens of photographic 

representations of plants and shells, 
171, 177. 

remarks on the tornado at Phila- 
delphia, July 13, 1840, 255. 

supplementary note to his paper 

on the Uniones, 11. 

Le Comte, M., death of, announced, 60. 

Lennape language, words in the, 271. 

Linah, Col., report on the coins and me- 
dals presented by, 70. 

Lloyd, Prof, of Dublin, convenient mode 
of determining magnetic dip and in- 
tensity, 77. 

Locke, Dr. John, on magnetic observa- 
tions, 19, 24. 

magnetic observations in the N. 

W. of the United States, 181. 

on certain magnetic observations 

at Cincinnati and Louisville, 214,271. 

Longitude, determination of, from cor- 
responding observations of meteors, 
161. 

of various places in the United 

States, deduced from the solar eclipse, 
141. 

of several stations near the south- 
ern boundary of Michigan, by Capt. 
Talcott, 7. 

Loomis, Prof, on Galle's second comet, 
201, 215. 

report on his observations to deter- 
mine the magnetic dip, at various 
places in Ohio and Michigan, 116. 

astronomical observations made at 

Hudson observatory by, 129. 

additional observations of the mag- 
netic dip in the United States, 144. 

observations to determine the mag- 
netic intensity in the United States, 
&c, 293, 299. 

on the storm in the United States 

about the 20th of Dec. 1836, 187, 195. 

Lorich, Chev., obituary notice of, 61. 
Lunar occultations, observations of, 71, 
227. 

Maclure, Mr. Wm., death of, announced, 

209. 
Madison, Mr., obituary notice of, by Mr. 

C. J. Ingersoll, 61. 



INDEX. 



333 



Madison, Mrs., presents certain meteoro- 
logical observations by the late Presi- 
dent Madison, 117. 

vote of thanks to, for the same, 117. 

Magnetic declination, extraordinary va- 
riations of, at Cambridge, 293. 

declination at Toronto, on the Feb. 

magnetic term day, 293. 

diagram, exhibiting changes of, at 

Cambridge and the Girard College, 
311. 

■ dip and intensity, convenient mode 
of determining, 77. 

dip, report on Prof. Loomis's paper 

on the, 116. 

— — dip in the United States, additional 
observations on the, by Prof. Loomis, 
144. 

dip, experiments by Prof. Bache on 

the, 294. 

dip, observations on the, 293, 299. 

dip, observations of Prof. Loomis 

on the, compared with those of Pro- 
fessors Bache and Courtenay, 146. 

distribution, Prof. Henry on, 233. 

— — intensity at twenty-one stations in 

Europe, Prof. Bache on the, 181, 185. 
— — intensity at Gottingen and Munich, 

simultaneous changes of, 200. 

intensity at several places in the 

United fetates, 293, 299. 

observations, Dr. Locke's paper on, 

19, 42. 

— — observations, letter from Major Sa- 
bine respecting, 313. 

observations, letter from the foreign 

Secretary of the Royal Society on ; 
111. 

observations in different quarters 

of the globe, measures of the British 
government for obtaining, 117. 

observations, combined, recom- 
mended by the Royal Society, 242. 

observations, combined, resolutions 

respecting, 148. 

observations at several places in 

the north-west of the United States, 
by Prof. Locke, 181. 

observations, Feb. 20, 1840, chart 

of the, by Prof. Bache, 200. 

observations at Cincinnati and 

Louisville, &c. &c. 214. 

observations, memorial to Secretary 

of War on resolutions respecting, 320. 

observations, report to House of 

Representatives respecting, 320. 

variation on the terms of the Ger- 
man Magnetic Association, Aug. 30 
and Nov. 30, 1839, 151. 

and meteorological observations, 

memorial to the Secretary of War re- 
garding, 151. 

and meteorological observations, 

Major Sabine on, 169. 



Magnetism, Dr. Sherwood's claims to 

discoveries in, reviewed by Dr. Pat- 
terson, 25, 27. 
terrestrial, vertical components of 

the force of, instrument for measuring, 

311. 
Markoe, Mr. F., Jun., Secretary of the 

National Institution of Washington, 

letter from, 299. 
Mason, Mr. E. P. See Smith, Mr. H. L. 
Mastodon and other bones at St. Louis, 

Mo., 271, 279. 
bones, committee to describe, 166 — 

report, 279. 

dental system of the, 293. 

Maximilian, Prince, of Neuwied, resolu- 
tion respecting, 217. 
Medals, copied by galvanism, specimens 

exhibited, 171, 181. 
Medals. See Coins. 
Medhurst, Mr., his vocabularies referred 

to, 41. 
Members elected, 3, 11, 73, 95, 108, 136, 

169, 201 , 256, 290. 
surviving, of the Society, number 

of, 169. 
Mendenhall, Mr. B. F., deposits an il- 
luminated MS. in the Pali language, 

80. 
Meteorological observations, report of 

committee on, 104. 
report to House of Representatives 

respecting, 320. 
Meteors, corresponding observations of, 

mode of determining longitudes from, 

161. 
or shooting stars, Prof! Bache on 

the, 69. 
1 of November, 1838, Prof. Bache on 

the, 60. 
of November, observed in the ex 

ploring expedition, 77. 

of August, 1840, Mr. Walker on 

the, 261. 

of August and November, 1840, 

Mr. Walker on the, 310. 

of August, 1840, Prof. Forshey on 

the, 261, 292. 

of November, 1840, Prof. Bache on 

the, 299. 

of November, 1840, Mr. Gillies on 

the, 301. 

Mirage, lateral and vertical, two ap- 
pearances of, by Prof. S. Alexander, 
188. 

Mitchell, Dr., describes Jeffrey's respi- 
rator, 47. 

solidifies carbonic acid, 15. 

Morgan, Benjamin R., death of, announ- 
ced, 301. 

Morris, Miss Margaretta H., on the Hes- 
sian fly, and the Ceraphron destructor, 
its parasite, 282. 

Robert, correspondence of, 209. 



334 



INDEX. 



Mound, Indian, near Washington, Adams 

County, Miss., 271, 305. 
Multiplier, rotary, by Dr. Hare, 65. 
Museum, Geographical, about to be 

formed by the Geographical Society 

of Paris, 138. 

National, in connexion with the 

Smithsonian legacy, proposed, 111. 

Musignano, Prince of, letter to Dr. Chap- 
man in relation to the scientific meet- 
ing at Pisa in October, 1839, 108. 

Naphthaline, obtained from coal tar, 299. 

Naval construction of the United States, 
early history of the, 4. 

Nebulas, observations on, with a four- 
teen feet reflector, 199. 

Newman, Dr. John, of North Carolina, 
death of, announced, 108. 

Nichols, Mr.F., death of, announced, 108. 

Nicklin, Mr., on a presumed earthquake, 
Nov. 14, 1840, 301. 

reads the dedication to the Society 

by Dr. Daubeny, of a Memoir on the 
Geology of North America, 251. 

Nicollet, M., on the language of the 
Sioux, 289. 

Nulty, Mr., New Formula?, relative to 
Comets, 38. 

report on his paper on New For- 
mulae, 43. 

on some points connected with his 

Magic Cyclo volute, 289, 293. 

Nuttal, Mr., Description of New Species 
and Genera of Plants, collected on a 
Tour to the Pacific, in Oregon, the 
Sandwich Islands, and Upper Cali- 
fornia, 282, 284. 

Obituary notices directed, — of Dr. Bow- 
ditch, 10. 

of Mr. Carey, 117. 

of Mr. W. H. Keating, 235. 

of Mr. Sullivan, 136. 

Observatories to be established in the 
United States, recommended by the 
Royal Society, 242. 
. Prof. Encke's letter on, 92. 

magnetic, Memorial to the Secre- 
tary of War respecting, 151. 

Observatory at Harvard, 294. 

at the Central High School, peti- 
tion to the Legislature in relation to a 
director of the, 80. 

designs for a, 290. 

in Rittenhouse Square, resolutions 

of Society regarding, 295. 

resolutions of Councils regarding, 

310. 

committee, report of, on the Obser- 
vatory fund, &c, 295. 

committee, report an ordinance of 

Councils, in relation to an observa- 
tory, 299. 



Observatory committee, instructed to 
carry into effect the object of the or- 
dinance of Councils, 310. 

committee, Messrs. Bache and 

Walker added to the, 70. — Mr. Jus- 
tice added, 325. 

Occultations, Lunar, of the fixed stars, 

at different places, 227. 
— : — - observed in April, May, June, and 

August, 1840, by Prof. Riimker, 301. 
Officers, election of, 1, 67, 165. 
Oolitic formation in America, by Mr. 

Lea, 214, 225. 
Ord, Mr., animadverts on a statement 

by Mr. Audubon, in relation to Wilson, 

the ornithologist, 272. 
thanks of the Society given to, for 

purchasing books whilst abroad, 105. 
Oxygen from nitre, mode of obtaining, 

139. 

Pali language, illuminated MS. in the, 
80. 

Parallax of the star 61 Cygni, recently in- 
vestigated, by M. Bessel, Mr. Walker 
on the, 78. 

Parrish, Dr. Joseph, death of, announced, 
188. 

Patella AmEena, Mr. Lea on the, 181, 
187. 

Patterson, Dr., announces the death of 
Mr. Bonny castle, 295. 

announces the death of Dr. Bow- 
ditch, 10. 

announces the death of Mr. Fran- 
cis Nichols, 108. 

on an amendment of the by-laws, 95. 

presents specimens of the Daguer- 
reotype, by Mr. Robert Cornelius, 155, 
181. 

experiments on the electricity of a 

jet of steam, 320. 

submits the log-book of the steam- 
ship Savannah, the first that crossed 
the Atlantic, 14. 

review of Dr. Sherwood's claims 

to discoveries in magnetism, 25. 

exhibits designs for an observatory 

&c., 290. 

on the use of the Roman wax tablet 

and iron stylus at the Institution for 
the blind, 94. 

on a mode of using thin sheets of 

lead by the blind in writing &c, in- 
vented by Mr. Saxton, 98. 

Peale, Mr., electricity of a jet of steam, 
311, 321. 

exhibits medals obtained by gal- 
vanic action, with remarks thereon, 
187. 

Peale, Mr. T. R., on meteors observed 
on the 12th-13th Nov. in the explor- 
ing expedition, 77. 

Pearson, D. A., death of, announced, 62. 



INDEX. 



335 



Peltier, M., his description of a tornado 

animadverted on by Dr. Hare, 122. 
Penn, Wm., original document of, 181. 

fac simile of original grants and 

deeds to, 261. 

Percival, Dr. Robert, death of, announ- 
ced, 117. 

Photographic representations of plants 
and shells, 171, 177. 

Physick, Dr., necrological notice of, 13. 

Pisa, scientific meeting at, Oct. 1839, 108. 

Plants, new genera and species of, by 
Mr. Nuttall, 282, 284. 

Platinum, chloride of, nitric oxide and 
hydrochloric acid, new compound of, 
145. 

fused, mass of, exhibited by Dr. 

Hare, 14. 

fused, large mass of, 42. 

new compound of, discovered, 94. 

pure, freed from iridium, exhibited 

by Dr. Hare, 14. 

Prisons, Reports of, printed by order of 
the House of Commons, directed to be 
purchased, 167. 

Pollok, Mr., death of, announced, 98. 

Potash and soda, change effected in, by 
the limited application of heat, &c, 
251,270. 

Potassium, improved process for obtain- 
ing, by Dr. Hare, 65. 

in the globular form, specimen of, 

166. 

Pressures, accumulative and instanta- 
neous, the distinction between, 191. 

Prinsep, Mr., of Calcutta, death of, an- 
nounced, 267. 

Proceedings of the Society, publication 
of an abstract of the, recommended, 18. 

resolutions in regard to the distri- 
bution of the, 69. 

rules regarding the distribution of 

the, 207. 

Publication committee report the pub- 
lication of part 2, vol. 4, of the Trans- 
actions, 192. 

report the completion of the 

6th vol. of the Transactions, 151. 

announce a new part of the 

Transactions, 267. 

report the publication of the 

first part of the 7th vol. of the Trans- 
actions, 273. 

Raguet, Mr., announces the death of 
Don Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Sil- 
va, 61. 

reads an obituary notice of Cheva- 
lier Lorick, 61. 

Rain-gauge, Osier's, Mr. Walker on, 3. 
Rask, Prof, of Copenhagen, obituary 

notice of, 104. 
Respirator, Jeffreys, described by Dr. 

Mitchell, 4. 



Riddle, Lieut., on the magnetic declina- 
tion, &c, at Toronto, on the February 
magnetic term day, 293. 

Rock-blasting, by the aid of galvanic ig- 
nition, 199. 

Rogers, Professors W. B. and Henry D., 
contributions to the geology of the ter- 
tiary formations of Virginia, 69, 80, 88. 

Prof. H. D., on the development 

of electricity under combustion, 324. 

on perchloric ether, 311. 

and Mr. Boye, discover a new com- 
pound of platinum, 94, 145. 

Rumker, Mr,, astronomical observations 
in reference to Galle's comets, 235, 
247, 275. 

results of observations of Galle's 

first comet, and occultations observed 
in April, May, June, and August, 
1840, 301. 

Sabine, Major, on contemporaneous mag- 
netic and meteorological observations, 
169, 242. 

progress of magnetic observations, 

313. 

Saxton, Mr., electricity of a jet of steam, 
321. 

exhibits copies of medals by gal- 
vanism, 171, 181. 

invents a mode of using thin sheets 

of lead by the blind in writing, &c. 98. 

Sea, depth of the, determination of the, 
by the echo, 39. 

Seybert, Mr. H., presents a specimen of 
the Daguerreotype, 166. 

Shell, new, Melania Cincinhatiensis, de- 
scribed by Mr. Lea, 66. 

Shells, fresh water and land, Mr. Lea 
on, 2, 3, 282, 285. 

Shooting stars. See meteors. 

Silicon, new mode of procuring, 175. 

Silk culture in India, 214. 

Sioux, language of the, 289. 

Smith, Mr. H. L., and Mr. E. P. Mason, 
observations on nebulae, with a four- 
teen feet reflector, 199 — reported on, 
206. 

Smithsonian legacy, proposed National 
Museum connected with the, 111. 

Societies, list of, to receive the proceed- 
ings, 218, 234. 

Society, American Philosophical, history 
of the, 233, 234. 

Geographical of Paris, announces 

the intention of forming a Museum, 
and solicits contributions, 138. 

Pathological, formation of, announ- 
ced, 139. 

Royal, letter from the secretary of 

the, in relation to magnetic observa- 
tions, 111. 

Royal, circular relating to the 

Term observations, 169. 



336 



INDEX. 



Society, Royal, recommend combined 
magnetic observations and the esta- 
blishment of observatories in the 
United States, 242. 

Stainsby, Mr., death of, announced, 48. 

State records, early proposed publication 
of the, 5. 

Steam-ship Savannah, the first that 
crossed the Atlantic, 14. — log-book of 
the, 193. 

Storm of the 20th of Dec, 1836, Prof. 
Loomis on the, 187, 195. 

Storms, electricity the principal instru- 
ment in the production of, 187. 

Prof. Loomis's views of, comment- 
ed on by Dr. Hare, 193. 

Strabismus, operation recently devised 
for, 273. 

Strickland, Mr., presents a specimen of 
asphaltic rock from Seyssel, and mo- 
saic work made therefrom, &c, 47. 

Strontium, extrication of, 130. 

portion of, laid before the Society, 

by Dr. Hare, 104. 

Stuttgart, Society for the publication of 
historical and antiquarian works, 312. 

Sullivan, Mr., death of, announced, 136. 

Talcott, Capt., paper on the longitude 
of several stations near the southern 
boundary of Michigan, 7. 

Talleyrand, M., death of, announced, 29. 

Telescope, new, at the High School, re- 
sults of observations with, 312. 

Tornado at Natchez, Prof. Forshey on 
the, 243. 

at New Haven, on the 31st of July, 

1839, Dr. Dunglison on a, 111. 

near Philadelphia, Mr. Justice on 

a, 111,118. 

of limited extent at Philadelphia, 

July 13, 1840, 255. 

at Providence, paper on, by Dr. 

Hare, and Mr. Allen, 48, 58. 

at Somerset, Mass. Dr. Hare on a, 

42. 

description of a. by M. Peltier, ani- 
madverted on by Dr. Hare, 122. 

Tornadoes, and the electrical theory of 
their formation, 122. 

Townsend, Mr. J. K., announces by let- 
ter the transmission of certain dona- 
tions, 4. 

vocabularies in MS. of the lan- 
guages of the Indians of the North- 
west coast of America, 46. 

Dr., report on the letter from, 104. 

Trade winds, Dr. Hare on the, 187. 
Tyson, Mr., letter on the early records 

of the State, 5. 



Uniones, Mr. Lea's paper on the, sup- 
plementary note to, 11. 

Vaccine virus, new, 68, 90. 

Van Marum, Dr. M., death of, announ- 
ced, 46. 

Vaughan, Mr., announces the death of 
Benjamin Allen, LL.D. 217 — of Count 
Balbo, of Turin, 74 — of Lucien Bo- 
naparte, Prince of Canino, 276 — of 
Dr. Thomas Cooper, 104— of Mr. 
Dearborn, 7— of J. P. F. Deleuze, 325— 
of Mr. Humphreys, 3 — of Mr. Keating, 
234— of Mr. William Maclure, 209— 
of Mr. Prinsep, of Calcutta, 267. 

announces the receipt of the Co- 
chin Chinese Dictionary ordered by 
the Society, 273. 

presents a transfer of a printed page 

according to a process invented by Mr. 
Joseph Dixon, of Taunton, 206. 

Vision, effect on, by the operation for 
strabismus, 273. 

Walker, Mr., on Mr. Osier's anemome- 
ter and rain-gauge, 3. 

on Galle's second comet, 201, 215. 

refers to the discovery, by Galle, 

of a third comet, 215. 

on determining longitudes from 

corresponding observations of meteors, 
161. 

on the August meteors, 261. 

on the meteors of August and No- 
vember, 1840, 310. 

on the observations at Harvard, 

294. 

on the parallax of the star 61 Cyg- 

ni, recently investigated by Mr. Bes- 
sell, 78. 

remarks on Dr. Sherwood's al- 
leged discoveries in magnetism, 27. 

on a tornado of limited extent, at 

Philadelphia, on July 13, 1840, 255. 

Warren, Dr., of Boston, resolution in re- 
gard to his letter on the subject of the 
formation of an American association 
for the promotion of science, 77. 

Water, decomposition of, by galvanism, 
apparatus for the, 65. 

rapid congelation of, engraving of 

an apparatus and process for, 198,213. 

White, Bishop, obituary notice of, by 
Bishop De Lancey, 117. 

Wickham, Mr. of Virginia, death of, an- 
nounced, 74. 

Williams, Mr. Eleazer, grammar of the 
Iroquois language, 46, 251. 

Worm in the eye of a horse, 200, 208, 
209. 



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