Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society"

See other formats







October 21, 1664. 



15, Watek Strekt. 









15, Water Street. 




Hon. Levi Lincoln, the second Vice-President, 
■called the members to order, and remarked that a 

sudden and most heavy affliction to our respected 

President, which we all greatly deplored, and in which 

^ he has our hearts' deepest sympathy, prevented his 

presence with us on this occasion ; and, in the absence 

^ of the first Vice-President also, it devolved upon him 

to assume the chair. 
^ The Recording Secretary read the record of the 
■%/last meeting. He also read from the record of a 

meeting of the Council, held on the twenty-sixth day 

of September last, the following expression of sym- 
^ pathy with the President, on his recent domestic af- 
;,^ fiiction, offered by Hon. Levi Lincoln. 

From the Records of the Council. 

" The members of the Council of the American Antiquarian 
Society, present at this meeting, cannot but notice this first in- 
stance of the absence of their respected President ; and, learning 

its. most afflictive occasion, they beg leave to offer him assurances 
of their deepest and most affectionate sympathy under his great 

" Remembering, with tender and grateful sensibilit}-, the pleas- 
ant social intercourse and elegant hospitalities, which, in times 
past, they so frequently have enjoyed under his roof, and the 
graceful manners and amiable qualities of her who so cordially 
welcomed them there, they find, in the startling announcement of 
Tier sudden death, cause alike for their own sorrowing regrets, and 
the expression of their deepest condolence, nnder the overwhelm- 
ing affliction, to their respected and beloved friend and associate, 
the honored President of the Society. 

" May the heart's loving reverence for the virtues of the de- 
ceased, and the earnest, best wishes of many friends for his con- 
solation, and future health and happiness, assuage and solace the 
bitterness of his grief ! 

" Voted, That the foregoing expressions of sympathy and con- 
dolence be entered on the records, and a copy thereof respectfully 
certified to the President of the Society; and that they also be 
read at the approaching meeting of the Society. 

" On motion of Hon. Ira M. Barton, voted. That, in token of 
respect for Mrs. Salisbury, and sympathy with the President, the 
Council will offlcially attend the funeral." 

George Livermore, Esq., read the Report of the 

The Librarian read his Report. 

The Treasurer read his Report. 

On motion of Charles Deane, Esq., it was voted 
to refer these Reports to the Committee of Pubhca- 
tion, to be printed at their discretion. 

Hon. Levi Lincoln then called Dr. N. B. Shurt- 
LEFF to the chair, and addressed the Society as fol- 
lows : — 

'Mi: President, — The Report of the Council, as is 
visual and becoming such occasions, makes mention 
of those melancholy providences, which, in the inter- 
val between our meetings, are continually removing 
from our association honored and beloved members of 
this Society by death. We are now reminded, in 
touching and appropriate terms, of the decease, since 
the last meSting, of one of the most distinguished of 
our number. The late Hon. Josiah Quincy was of 
the earliest, and, at the time of his death, was the 
oldest,, of our associates. He was, eminently, a great 
and good man ; and, I think, having regard to all 
considerations, the most marked man of the century 
among us. I should be ungrateful, indeed, if I failed, 
in connection with the proceedings of this meeting, 
to express my entire sympathy in the notice of his 
death, and my most hearty concurrence in the tribute 
of respect paid to his memory, by the impressive lan- 
guage of the Report. 

The courtesy and kindness of this venerable man 
placed me, personally, under many obligations. More 
than a half century since, I entered the Senate of 
Massachusetts, the youngest of its members. Mr. 
Quincy was among the seniors at tlie Board. It was • 
at the period of the embargo and other obnoxious, 
restrictive measures of the Government, and on the 
very eve of the declaration of war against England. 
The spirit of party ran high ; and there was bitterness 
of feeling, and often much acerbity of language, in 

debate. Diflfering widely, as we did, in political 
opinions, and opposed to each other in regard to 
public measures, I recollect from him, in my unprac- 
tised position, no instance of unfriendliness, no one 
word of unkindness. Through subsequent, successive 
years, in the discharge of arduous public duties, I 
was sustained and greatly cheered by expressions of 
his favorable regard, and not unfrequently became 
a delighted listener to his sagacious counsels, and a 
partaker of his elegant hospitalities. He will long 
be remembered by others, also, for the kindness of his 
heart ; and his name be held in honor, by the country, 
for the brightness of its fame. 

I beg leave to offer, for the considei'ation of this 
meeting, the following resolutions : — 

" The impressive event of the decease of the late Hon. Josiah 
Quincy, LL.D., having occurred since the last meeting of this 
Society, it becomes his associates, on this first subsequent opportu- 
nity of their assembling, to give expression to their admiration of 
his elevated character, — their high appreciation of his eminent 
public services, — their testimonial to his protracted years of 
virtuous living, and to his active, enduring, and unceasing labors 
of distinguished usefulness to extreme old age. Therefore, — 

" Besolved, That the American Antiquarian Society will ever 
hold the memory of their late associate, the Hon. Josiah Quincy, 
LL.D., in affectionate and honored regard, as the erudite scholar 
and liberal patron of science, the upright jurist, the patriotic 
statesman, the pure-minded and exemplary citizen, and the unsel- 
fish, enlightened, faithful, and devoted public servant ; alike in 
all the relations of civil, social, and private life, firm in purpose, 
and true to principle and the loftiest conceptions of personal 

" Resolved, That in the decatli of President Qnincy, while we 
lament that we shall niaet him no more as an associate in our 
councils, whose mere presence would be a benediction, we bow, 
in reverent submission and gratitude, to that gracious Providence, 
which released him from the pains and infirmities of exhausted 
nature, and leaves his name and example as a precious memory in 
the hearts of contemporaries and posterity. 

"Resolved, That the foregoing resolutions be entered upon the 
Records of the Society, and that the President be respectfully 
requested to transmit a certified copy thereof to the family of the 

The resolutions were adopted unanimously, and 
Governor Lincoln resumed the chair. 

S. F. Haven, Esq., mentioned the death of Samuel 
Wells, Esq., of Northampton, a member of the So- 
ciety, at the age of seventy-one. He was killed on 
the 4th instant by the accidental discharge of a pistol 
in the hand of another person. Mr. Wells had been 
clerk of the Courts of Hampshire County for the last 
twenty-seven years, and was greatly respected. 

" Voted, To proceed to the election of a President 
for the ensuing year." 

Nathaniel Paine, Esq., was appointed by the chair 
to collect and count the votes. 

The votes having been collected, Mr. Paine report- 
ed that all were for Hon. Stephen Salisbury; and 
he was accordingly declared by the chair to have 
been elected President of the Society for the ensuing 

" Voted, That a Committee be appointed by the 

chair to report a nomiuatiou of the other officers of 
the Society, upon a list, to be voted for together by 
yea and nay. 

Hon. DwiGHT Foster, Hon. Charles Hudson, and 
Hon. George F. Hoar, were appointed to that ser\ice. 

While this Committee were attending to the duty 
assigned them. Rev. Edward E. Hale read some very 
curious additional notes to the " Original Documents, 
illustrating the History of Sir Walter Ealeigh's First 
American Colony, and the Colony at Jamestown," 
edited by him in the fourth volume of the Archteo- _ 
logia ; these notes being the result of his recent 
personal observations on the James River, and in its 

The paper of Mr. Hale was followed by remarks 
from Charles Deane, Esq., Avith statements illustrat- 
ing the historical interest possessed by many of the 
localities in Eastern Virginia, which have been occu- 
pied by oiu" armies. Mr. Deane was requested to 
reduce the valuable and interesting information con- 
tained in his remarks to writing, for the use of the 
Society. Mr. Hale's notes, and those to be prepared 
by Mr. Deane, were referred to the Committee of 
Publication, to be printed with the proceedings of the 

The Committee of Nomination reported the names 
of the following gentlemen, recommended for election 
as officers of tlae Society for the year ensuing, in addi- 
tion to the President already chosen : — 


Rev. WILLIAM JENKS, D.D Boston. 

Hon. LEVI LINCOLN, LL.D Worcester. 


Hon. ISAAC DAVLS, LL.D Worcester. 



CHARLES FOLSOM, Esq Cambridge. 

Hon. IRA M. BARTON Worckster. 


Hon. JOHN P. BIGELOW Boston. 

SAMUEL F. HAVEN, Esq Worcester. 

Rev. EDWARD E. HALE Boston. 


Secretary of Foreign Correspondence. 
JARED SPARKS, LL.D Cambridge. 

Secretary of Domestic Correspondence. 

Recording Secretary. 
Hon. EDWARD MELLEN, LL.D Worcester. 

NATHANIEL PAINE, Esq Worcester. 

Committee of Publication. 

SAMUEL F. HAVEN, Esq Worcester. 

Rev. EDWARD E. HALE Boston. 

CHARLES DEANE, Esq Cambridge. 

A vote was then taken on these nommations, and 
all were unanimously elected to the offices for which 
their names had been presented. 

Judge Barton suggested the expediency of revising 
the catalogue of members of the Society, with refer- 
ence to a new publication. 

Ou motion of Rev. Dr. Ellis, it was voted, That a 


Committee of three be appointed by the chair for 
that pm-pose. 

The chair accordingly appointed Hon. Ira M. Bar- 
ton, Charles Deane, Esq., Hon. George F. Hoar. 

Charles Folsom, Esq., laid on the table a collection 
of tracts by Professor Daniel Tread well, on the con- 
struction of cannon, which he presented to the Society 
on behalf of the author. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 


Recording Secretary. 

The President, as requested by the Society, transmitted a copy of the 
resolutions, relating to the late Hon. Josiah Quikct, LL.D., to his son, Hon. 
Josiah Quincy, with the following letter : — 

Hall of the American Antiouarian Society, 
Worcester, Oct. 26, 1864. 
My Dear Sik, — I have the highest satisfaction in performing the hono- 
rable duty imposed on me by the American Antiquarian Society in that part 
of the proceedings of their meeting on the 21st instant, copied below, which 
I beg that you will present to your family as an expression of affectionate 
and profound respect for your honored father, Josiah Qcincy, LL.D., and of 
just appreciation of his services and virtues, and of deep regret that the bles- 
sing of his life, made more precious by every added year, will be hereafter 
only enjoyed in its revered and instructive remembrance. 

I also tender to your family the assurance of my personal sympathy in 
the private grief for which pubhc honors are a cold alleviation, and into which 
a stranger may not intrude. 

I have the honor to be most respectfully yours, 

Stephen Salisbury, President. 
UoQ. JosLAH QuiNCT, Boston, Masa. 

Replu of Mr. Quincy. 

Boston, Not. 9, 1864. 

Mt Dear Sir, — In behalf of the family of the late Josiah Quincy, I 
would gratefully acknowledge the gratification they have received from the 
votes passed by your Society, for the kind manner in which they were moved 
by their venerable friend, and in which they were communicated by you. 
I have honor to be very truly, 

Josiah Qcincy. 



Meeting, as we now do, at a time when our country 
is still engaged in the great work of defending its 
national existence, when the Government needs the 
best services of its citizens, and when all true patriots 
are willing to postpone the indulgence of their private 
tastes, that they may the better perform their public 
duties, it becomes us, in the fii-st place, to consider care- 
fully the character and influence of such pursuits as 
it is the purpose of the American Antiquarian Society 
to promote, and to determine whether these are consist- 
ent with the present demands of true patriotism. 

The Antiquary, by those whose tastes have drawn 
them in a diff'erent direction from his, is too frequently 
classed with the virtuoso and the bibliomaniac ; and 
they are all alike regarded as merely eccentric persons, 
mounting theh respective hobbies for the selfish pur- 
suit of those objects only which are of special interest 
to themselves, and are wholly useless beyond the grati- 
fication of their peculiar fancies. 


If this popular opinion were well founded, if our 
pursuits were thus selfish and narrowing in their ten- 
dency, it would be unwise and unpatriotic in us to 
keep up our meetings, and continue our researches, 
while the life of the nation is in peril. The de- 
mands of our country %r self-sacrifice, and entire devo- 
tion to her service, are imperative, — paramount to 
all other calls. In such a time, she needs the indirect, 
but not therefore less potent, support of the man of 
letters and the man of business, as well as the ser- 
vice of the soldier who jeopards his life on the 

AVhen the controversy began between the King 
and the Parliament, which led to the great civil war 
in England, John Milton, who was indulging his classic 
tastes in Italy, hastened home at once, that he might 
do his part in the great struggle for civil and religious 
liberty. His first act is to open a small school for 
young men, where he may inculcate those principles 
which, in due time, would bear fruit to bless the na- 
tion. With his pen he asserts the rights of the peo- 
ple as boldly and efficiently as Cromwell is doing with 
the sword. MUton writes 

"In liberty's defence, — his noble task, 
Of which all Europe rings from side to side." 

Cannot we, too, the members of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society, unqualified for, or exempt from, military 
duty, as most of us are, yet do something for our suf- 
fering country] May not our studies and employ- 


ments be so directed that we may aid her in her hour 
of greatest need ? Has not each of us something to do 
in the cause of Liberty and Union 1 

It would be well for us to recur (and we cannot do 
so too often) to the avowed objects, and- the early 
doings, of the founders of om* association. When- 
ever we review then- purposes and proceedings, we 
are impressed with a sense of their liberal, unselfish, 
and patriotic intentions and efforts ; and we feel more 
deeply our obligation to administer its affairs with the 
same high regard to the welfare of the country. 

The American Antiquarian Society was founded on 
that principle of Christian philosophy which assumes, 
that all things are valuable according to, and only for, 
their uses, — and these uses for the benefit of others, 
no less than for our own; that institutions as well 
as individuals are rich, not as they retain, for their 
own honor or interest, the treasures they acquire, but 
only so far as they impart them to others. Acquisi- 
tiveness in matters of literature, art, and antiquity, 
when unaccompanied by a liberal spirit of diffusion 
for the public good, is even more to be deprecated 
than the miserly hoarding of pecuniary treasure. 

Our Society was truly described, at the opening of 
our first Antiquarian Hall in 1820, as " an association 
founded in individual patriotism, and fostered by na- 
tional supplies of generosity, — a body united from no 
motives of ordinary ambition, nor calculated to gratify 
any selfish views of personal aggrandizement." 


The preamble to the charter embodies the same 
idea : — 

" Whereas the collection and preservation of the 
antiquities of our country, and of curious and valua- 
ble productions of art and nature, have a tendency to 
enlarge the sphere of human knowledge, and the 
progress of science, to perpetuate the history of moral 
and political events, and to improve and interest pos- 
terity : therefore be it enacted," &c. 

That the chief objects of the Society might not be 
lost sight of or neglected, a committee was appointed 
in 1819 to prepare and publish an address to the 
members, urging on them the importance of securing 
the means " to pursue those researches, so desirable, 
into the antiquities of this New World, and to rescue 
them from the ravages of time, for the use and im- 
provement of the historian, the philosopher, and all 
scientific men of our country of the present age, and 
of posterity." 

The boundless scope of its investigations was else- 
where declared to be — in the Avords of Su- William 
Jones — " Man and Nature, — whatever is or has been 
performed by the one, or produced by the other." 

Founded on such broad and liberal principles, and 
for such noble purposes, the Society readily secured 
the sympathy and co-operation of the wise, the 
learned, and the public-spirited, throughout the coun- 
try. The most eminent names in science, letters, and 
art, have adorned our cataloajue of members ; and 


some of the most distinguished citizens in every call- 
ing have given efficient aid in furthering the objects 
for which we are associated. 

Of primary importance to every institution estab- 
lished for archaeological, literary, or scientific purposes, 
is a library of manuscript and printed works. From 
these may be gathered the results of the labors of 
others, up to the present time. By availing himself 
of these, the new explorer may be saved a vast deal 
of time and trouble, and be thus enabled more fully 
to devote his energies to the continuing of researches 
in the same direction. 

An excellent foundation for such a library — the 
private collection of Mr. Thomas, — was generously 
given by the owner to the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety soon after it was incorporated ; and, a few years 
afterward, the first Antiquarian Hall was erected by 
the same munificent liberality, to become the deposi- 
tory of these, and of such other treasures of literature, 
science, and art, as should be collected for the Society. 
Until 18"20, when the Hall was first occupied, the re- 
ceiving agents of the Society in various places retained 
in their personal custody the works they had gath- 
ered, for the future use of the public. Mr. Thomas's 
library remained till that time in his own house, 
where he was continually enlarging its numbers, and 
increasing its value. His liberality was seconded in a 
gratifying maimer in various quarters : other valuable 
private libraries were given, and smaller contributions 


came in from many sources. The National and many 
of the State Governments sent their public docu- 
ments regularly ; and most of the learned associations 
in the country included this Society in the number of 
those to which their publications were to be pre- 
sented. So that now, after little more than half a 
century, we have a library of thirty-five thousand vol- 
umes, — larger, it is believed, than any library in the 
United States at the time when our Society was 
formed, — with a good printed catalogue, of nearly 
six hundred octavo pages ; and we have for years en- 
joyed the services of an accomplished librarian, ever 
ready to aid all who have occasion to use the books. 

The portraits and busts, which from time to time 
have been presented to the Society, and now adorn the 
Library, are of much value and interest. Though 
their number is not yet large, they form a respectable 
beginning of an historical gallery which we hope at 
some time to see increased ; at the head of which 
may appropriately stand those portraits of Columbus 
and Vespucius, copied for the Library from paintings 
in the Bourbon Gallery at Naples, and presented by 
Judge Barton. 

And here we cannot refrain from alluding to the 
recent valuable gift by Mr. Salisbury, our honored 
President, of casts of Michael Angelo's ce.lebrated 
statues of the great Hebrew Lawgiver, and of Him 
" who was counted worthy of more glory than Moses." 
These works of high art, unique on this continent. 


well deserve a pilgrimage to the city which is fixvored 
with their possession. 

The Society has not been unmindful of its duty to 
diffuse, as well as to gather, the means of knowledge. 
Within eight years from its incorporation, and as 
soon as the library was placed in the earlier Antiqua- 
rian Hall, the first volume of the " Transactions and 
Collections " was published in an octavo volume of more 
than four hundred pages. This has been followed at 
irregular intervals by three other similar volumes, con- 
taining elaborate and valuable contributions to the 
archaeological and historical literature of the country. 
Besides these larger publications, the reports and 
papers presented at the semi-annual meetings, contain- 
mg interesting and important essays and discussions on 
a great variety of subjects, have for many years been 
regularly printed and distributed. 

The past history and the present condition and 
prospects of the Society are as favorable as its most 
ardent friends could have expected. For this success 
and prosperity we are mainly indebted to our prede- 
cessors ; and especially should we acknowledge our 
obligations, for his foresight, industry, and liberality, 
to Isaiah Thomas, to whom,, more than to any other 
person, belongs the honor of originatmg, establishing, 
and endowing the institution. 

Besides giving his own library, erecting an Antiqua- 
rian Hall, and presenting it to the Society, and also 


publishing, at his own expense, the fii-st volume of 
"Transactions," in his last will he added to his previous 
benefactions, so that the aggregate of his gifts does 
not fall short of forty thousand dollars. The Society 
which he founded will be his enduring monument. 

Nor was his liberality confined to the Society which 
was so dear to hira. Harvard and Alleghany Colleges, 
the New-York Historical Society, and other pubhc in- 
stitutions, were also recipients of his bounty. 

The celebrated Brissot de Warville, who visited 
this country in 1788, "not," he says, "to study an- 
tiques, or to search for unknown plants, but to study 
men who had just acquired then- liberty," remarks of 
Worcester : " This town is elegant and well-peopled : 
the printer, Isaiah Thomas, has rendered it famous 
through all the continent. He prints most of the 
works which appear ; and it must be granted, that his 
editions are correct. Thomas is the Didot of the 
United States." 

Few men in New England, at the close of the last 
century, had access to a larger audience than he. 
Happily the influence he exerted was as salutary 
as it was extensive. His patriotism was manifested 
as truly, while he was employed in his business, by a 
constant endeavor to enlighten his feUow-citizens on 
the subject of their civil and political duties, as when 
he was engaged in the military service of his country 
on the battle-field at Lexington. The columns of the 
newspaper which he published aff"orded him an easy 


method of reaching the public ear. From his press, 
also, the families of the land were supplied Avith the 
works of approved authors, and the schools with their 
text-books. The books he published, from a penny 
picture-book to a folio Bible, received the most care- 
ful editorial supervision ; and he made many of them 
the medium of conveying patriotic sentiments. 

The text of " The New-England Primer," that little 
book so powerful in formiiig the minds of several 
generations of New-England children, had been cor- 
rupted, before the Colonies became inde])endent, by 
some royahst printer ; and one of the alphabetical 
couplets had been changed, in order to commemorate 
the preservation of a tyrannical and unprincipled 
monarch. In the Worcester edition, the publisher 
discarded these lines, and substituted others, more 
in accordance with Republican sentiments. 

Isaiah Thomas's Almanac made its way into almost 
every dwelling in New England. The editor, instead 
of filling the last pages with silly stories and rhymes, 
such as generally are to be found there, made this little 
annual the means of conveying important political 
and general knowledge. One year we find him print- 
ing in his Almanac " the Substance of the Constitution 
of Massachusetts ; " and, at another time, he inserts 
"the Whole of the Bill of Rights prefixed to the 
Constitution." In 1788 he gives an account of the 
"Proceedings of the Federal Convention;" in 1797 
he publishes Washington's " Farewell Address," and 


in 1801 a biograpliical sketch of tlie Father of his 

From the publisher's Advertisement, prefixed to 
his edition of Perry's " Only Sure Guide to the English 
Tongue," we learn how carefully he edited that popu- 
lar spelling-book. Mr. Thomas says he "was the first 
person who ventured to print this work in America." 
He carefully exammed all the British editions that 
had been published, and Selected from each what he 
judged to be truly useful. 

But the greatest achievement of the Worcester 
press, that which would of itself make the name of its 
proprietor for ever famous, even if he had no other 
claims to the regard of his countrymen, was the pub- 
lication of the English Bible, in folio, quarto, and 
smaller forms, before any other printer in New Eng- 
land engaged in such an enterprise. 

Nearly a century earlier, Cotton Mather, by fifteen 
years of study and labor, had prepared for publication 
his Bihlia Americana, — the common version of the 
English Bible, with his comments. But no publisher 
has ever yet responded to the earnest appeals of that 
learned divine by offering to print his work ; and it is 
likely to repose indefinitely, where it has long been in 
manuscript, in the library of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. 

Mr. Thomas has given us an account of one unau- 
thorized, and of course, in those Colonial days, sur- 
reptitious edition of the Bible, and two of the New 


Testament, printed in Boston near the middle of the 
last century. No copy of either of them is known to 
be extant. 

In 1770, an attempt was made to publish by sub- 
scription a folio edition of the English Bible, with 
the Rev. Samuel Clarke's notes ; but the project was 
abandoned for want of patronage. 

In 1782, the Eev. Dr. Lyman of Hatfield, in this 
State, sent a letter to the Association of Congrega- 
tional jVIiuisters in Boston, setting forth the importance 
of publishing tlie Bible here. The Rev. Dr. Chauncy, 
in replying to that letter on behalf of the Association, 
gives three conclusive reasons why the work could- 
not be undertaken at that time : — 

" First, All the printers in town have not type suffi- 
cient for such an impression. 

" Second, If they had, proper paper, in quantity, is 
not to be found except by sending to Europe. 

"Third, If there was a sufficiency of type and 
paper, the Bibles could not possibly be sold so cheap 
as those that are imported from abroad." 

In the autumn of 1789, Mr. Thomas issued pro- 
posals for " publishing by subscription an American 
edition, in large royal quarto (ornamented with an 
elegant copperplate frontispiece), of the Holy Bible, 
containing the Old and New Testaments, with the 
Apocrypha, an index, marginal notes, and references.' 
It was a hazardous undertaking ; but the enterprise 
and courage of the printer were equal to the emer- 


gency. Among the conditions of subscription we 
find the following : " To make payment easy to those 
who Avish to be encouragers of this laudable under- 
taking, and to be in possession of so valuable property 
as a royal quarto Bible, and who are not able to pay 
for one all in cash, — from such, the pubHsher will 
receive one-half of the sum, or twenty-one shillings, 
in the following articles, viz. wheat, rye, Indian corn, 
butter, or pork, if delivered at his store in Worcester, 
or at the store of himself and Company in Boston, 
by the twentieth day of December, 1790 ; the remain- 
ing sum of twenty-one shillings to be paid in cash as 
soon as the books are ready for delivery. This pro- 
posal is made to accommodate all, notwithstanding the 
sum of twenty-one shillings will by no means be the 
proportion of cash that each Biljle bound will cost 
the publisher." 

An address " to the Reverend Clergy," one " to 
Christians of all denominations," and another '• to the 
public at large," follow the conditions stated in the 

It was nearly a year before a sufficient number of 
subscribers was obtained, and the work put to press. 
In 1791, the quarto, and at the same time a large 
folio Bible with fifty copperplate engravings, were 

These were followed by an octavo Bible in 1793, 
and by one in duodecimo form in 1797. That the 
smaller Bibles, intended to be used in the common 


schools, might be sold at the lowest possible price, 
the types were left standing, and kept ready at all 
times for the press. " This work," Mr. Thomas says, 
" employed a larger capital than any work issned from 
an American press." 

The publisher had good cause to felicitate himself 
on the successful completion of his great undertaking. 
In the introductory address prefixed to his folio and 
quarto Bibles, he manifests in glowing terms his joy 
at the general prosperity of the new Republic. He 
had done his part towards promoting its welfare. 
He believed, that it was from the sacred Scriptures 
that " motives to the faithful performance of every 
patriotic, civil, and social duty" were to be drawn; 
and that the citizens of the United States ought to 
be " supplied with copies, independently of foreign 
aid." He spared no pains or expense to make his 
editions " correct, neat, and elegant ; " and it is no 
small honor to him to have his name for ever asso- 
ciated with such a patriotic and Christian enterprise. 

After Mr. Thomas had retired from business, his 
leisure was not idleness. The art, to the highest prac- 
tice of which he had devoted his life, was still the 
object of his fond contemplation. For years, he em- 
ployed himself in compiling the History of its mtro- 
duction and progress in the New World. When we 
consider that this was a theme hitherto untouched, 
what laborious diligence was required to amass the 
widely scattered materials for his Avork, and what skill 


to mould them into a connected form that should 
endure as a portion of the history of his country in an 
important department, we cannot hesitate to assign to 
him a place among the principal writers who have 
contributed to the bibliography of the whole world. 

The intelligence, the untiring industry, and the 
patriotic ardor of Isaiah Thomas will always entitle 
him to a high place on the catalogue of those, who, 
by their personal efforts and pecuniary contributions, 
have increased the means of knowledge and happi- 
ness, and thus become public benefactors. 

The By-laws of the American Antiquarian Society 
require of the Council semi-annual reports of the 
investment of the funds, and the condition of the Li- 
brary, Cabinet, &c. The Keports of the Treasurer 
and the Librarian, which accompany this, and are 
submitted as a part of the Eeport of the Council, 
contain gratifying evidences of the continued pros- 
perity of the Society. 

When we assembled, a year ago, to commemorate 
the completion of the first half-century of our existence 
as an association, we all listened with rare gratification 
to the letter of a venerable founder of the Society, 
whose interest in its welfare had continued from the 
first, and who had, during his life of more than ninety 
years, in various ways promoted the objects for which 
it was foi'med. 


His great age, so far beyond the ordinary period of 
hnraan life, forbade us to hope for- a much longer 
continuance of his presence among us. When, there- 
fore, on the first day of « July last, the announcement 
of the decease of Josiah Quincy was made, it created 
no surprise. The measure of his days, of his use- 
fulness, and of his honors, was full. His life was 

The numerous other institutions with which he was 
connected have already paid their tribute to his worth; 
but, however they may have anticipated what might 
otherwise have been a fitting eulogium from the Amer- 
ican Antiquarian Society, this does not deprive us of 
the pleasure, or absolve us from the duty, of recog- 
nizing his claims to honor as an Antiquary in the 
noblest sense. 

The historical writings of Mr. Quincy entitle him to 
a high rank among the authors who have enriched 
this class of American literature. If he had left no 
other record of service to his country, his published 
works, from the importgince of the subjects to which 
they relate, and the ability with which these are 
treated, and from the lofty principles those works 
illustrate and inculcate, would cause his name to be 
held in honorable remembrance. 

That one whose time was so nearly engrossed by 
official duties should have been able to do so much 
and so Avell as an historian and a biographer, would 
surprise us, if we did not know that most of his lit- 


erary productions were the natural outgrowth of his 
active life. Whenever called to any public service, 
he, like a true antiquarian, began by reverting to the 
past, and making himself thoroughly acquainted with 
whatever had preceded that had relation to the posi- 
tion he was to hold ; and the investigations which he 
made primarily for his own informatid^i and guidance, 
he published for the benefit of others. 

His largest and most elaborate work, the History of 
" that University which was the very cradle of learning 
in these parts of the earth," is in its nature almost a 
treatise on the literary, ecclesiastical, and civil anti- 
quities of New England. In that institution, founded 
amidst the toils and suiferings of the first settlers, 
were reflected, more clearly than almost anywhere 
else, their principles and purposes as well as their 
manners and customs. The minute details of their 
contributions and sacrifices for its support, in view of 
their cu-cumstances and object, are full of moral dig- 
nity; and the antiquary, in bringing to light such 
examples, becomes a most eloquent moral teacher. 

Mr. Quincy was called to the Presidency of the Uni- 
versity in 1829. There was hardly an institution in 
the country of greater interest than Harvard College, 
whose history from its beginning had been blended 
with whatever concerned the maintenance and ad- 
vancement of sound learning and civil liberty in the 
American Colonies and the United States. But 
hitherto there were to be found only scattered notices 


of its origin, action, and influence, which awakened, 
bnt could not satisfy, the curiosity even of those who 
knew it best from having been nurtured in its bosom. 

In 1833, was published the excellent, summary, 
though uncompleted and posthumous, volume of Mr. 
Peirce, the librarian of the University. But a full 
History was still a desideratum. For more than a 
quarter of a century, a vote of the Corporation, re- 
questing the President to prepare a History of the 
University, had stood upon the records of that Board. 
Mr. Quincy was not the man to shrink from any duty 
which his official position devolved upon him : and, 
having been specially invited by the Corporation to 
prepare a discourse to be delivered on the 8th of 
September, 1836, the second centennial anniversary 
of the foundation of the University, " in commemora- 
tion of that event, and of the founders and patrons of 
the Seminary," he not only performed the task then 
assigned him, but announced his purpose of preparing, 
as soon as it was practicable, the long-desired History 
of the institution. 

What he began from a sense of duty, he con- 
tinued with affectionate zeal till he completed the 
work, — an enduring monument to the founders and 
benefactors of his venerable Alnia Mater. 

When a new chajjter shall be added by another 
hand, the history of the administration of President 
Quincy will not suffer by a comparison with that of 
any of his distinguished predecessors. 


Before his removal to Cambridge, Mr. Quincy had 
already begun his " Municipal History of the Town 
and City of Boston during Two Centuries." This, 
like the History of the University, originated in his 
official position. His natural attachment \o the town 
in which he was born had been strengthened by 
repeated evidences of confidence and respect on the 
part of his fellow-citizens. He had been invested by 
them with the most important offices in then gift ; he 
had been their representative in both branches of the 
State I-egislature ; and, for four successive terms of 
service, he had represented them in the Congress 
of the United States. It was as Judge of the Munici- 
pal Court of Boston, that he made the memorable de- 
cision, that the publication of truth with good intent 
is not a libel, — a decision which, though questioned 
and gravely censured at the time, has since become 
the settled rule of law. 

Called from the bench to the chief magistracy of 
the City, he entered upon the administration of its 
affairs Avith that indomitable energy which ever dis 
tinguished his public life. The recent transition from 
a town to a city government had brought with it the 
necessity of important changes in old modes of pro- 
ceeding, and of the establishment of new institutions. 
Here the wisdom and foresight, as well as energy, of 
Mr. Quincy were fully exercised ; and he lived to see 
even those of his measures Avhich at the time met with 
only partial approval, and others which encountered 


the strongest opposition, fully justified by a later pub- 
lic opinion. 

At the request of the municipal authorities, he 
delivered " An Address to the Citizens of Boston on 
the 17th of September, 1830, the Close of the Second 
Century from the first Settlement of the City;" an elo- 
quent commentary on its history, full of noble senti- 
ments, and a model production of its kind. He gave, 
in a condensed form, the result of much antiquarian 
research into the manners and customs, laAvs and 
principles, of former generations ; and he did not fail 
to enforce in the strongest terms the lessons they sug- 

The larger History of Boston, which, after a lapse 
of twenty years, was resumed, and was finished in 
February, 1852, at the close of the author's eightieth 
year, is mainly devoted to an account of the City gov- 
ernment during the period of his mayoralty. In the 
preface he says : " It appeared to the author, that a mu- 
nicipal history of the Town, and an accurate account 
of the transactions in the first years of the City gov- 
ernment, would be useful and interesting to the pubhc 
in future times, and was due to the wisdom, fidelity, 
and disinterested services of his associates." In the 
naked record of his administration, we find the best 
eulogy on his own ability and his devotion to duty. 

The " History of the Boston Athenaeum," also, grew 
out of Mr. Quincy's relation to the institution and its 
founders and early patrons. They were his cherished 


friends. He was himself one of the original contrib- 
utors to its fund. For several years he was its Presi- 

When, in 1847, the corner-stone of the spacious 
and elegant edifice in Beacon Street was laid, he was 
requested to deliver an address on the occasion ; and 
was afterwards solicited to write out and extend his 
remarks for publication. The result was a volume of 
between three and four hundred pages, containing a 
documentary history of the Athenaeum, followed by 
admirable biographical notices of its deceased found- 
ers. It was a labor of love to commemorate the 
services of that little band of " ingenuous scholars " 
who originated and established this institution, " dedi- 
cated to letters and the arts." 

The biographical Avorks of Mr. Quincy, no less than 
his Histories, were produced in response to some call 
of obvious duty. 

Believing, to use his own words, that, " of all monu- 
ments raised to the memory of distinguished men, the 
most appropriate and least exceptionable are those 
whose foundations are laid in their own works, and 
which are constructed of materials supplied and 
wrought by their own labors," he prepared, from the 
papers bequeathed to him by his father, a Memoir of 
that illustrious patriot, which will continue to be read 
with the greatest interest and admiration, as long as 
the love of liberty is cherished, and the story of its 
apostles, defenders, and martyrs is welcomed. 


The " Life of Major Samuel Shaw," prefixed to his 
Journals, and prepared, at the request of the proprie- 
tor of them, by Mr. Quincy, the only sm-viving friend 
who could do him justice as a benefactor of his coun- 
try, was undertaken, the author says, from no other 
motive than the gratification afforded by being in- 
strumental in perpetuating the memory of one whom 
he had known in his early youth, and of whom, after 
the lapse of fifty years, he " could truly say, that, in 
the course of a long life, he had never known an 
individual of a character more elevated and chivalric, 
acting according to a purer standard of morals, im- 
bued with a higher sense of honor, and uniting more 
intimately the qualities of the gentleman, the soldier, 
the scholar, and the Christian." 

Two of Mr. Quincy's biographical productions were 
written at the special request of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. The brief but excellent " Memoir 
of James Grahame," author of the " History of the 
United States of North America," contains all that we 
know of that worthy man and faithful historian. ]\Ir. 
Quincy had great respect for the moral purity and in- 
tellectual elevation of Mr. Grahame's character, and 
held his great work in high estimation. He felt that 
it was " incumbent upon some American to do justice 
to the memory of a foreigner who had devoted the 
chief and choicest years of his life to writing a history 
of our country, with a labor, fidelity, and affectionate 
zeal for the American people and their institutions. 


which any native citizen may be proud to equal, and 
will find it difficult to sm-pass." This Memoir was 
first printed in the Collections of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society ; and was afterwards prefixed to 
a new edition of Mr. Grahame's History, as revised 
and enlarged by the author, and published, in this 
country, after his death, under the, auspices of his 

In the eighty-seventh year of his age, Mr. Quincy 
completed and published his " Memoir of the Life of 
John Quincy Adams," — a fair volume of over four 
hundred pages. 

Connected by family ties, nearly his co-eval, and 
intimately acquainted with his private life as well as 
his public career, Mr. Quincy was peculiarly fitted to 
perform the task assigned him. It was, however, to 
Mr. Adams's public life that the biographer princi- 
pally addressed himself. Besides the advantages de- 
rived from personal knowledge, and a recourse to his 
printed works, he was favored with a-ccess to copious 
authentic unpublished materials. 

His " chief endeavor," as he says, was " to render 
him the expositor of his own motives, principles, and 
character, without fear or favor, in the sphit neither 
of criticism nor eulogy." He has thus produced a 
work, which, whilst it partakes largely of the nature 
of an autobiography, constitutes also a most important 
chapter in the general history of the Republic. 

If, at any time, a diff'erence of opinion may have 


existed between the biographer and his subject on 
minor matters, they were indissohibly united in the 
sentiment of the grand avowal of Mr. Adams, inscribed 
under the portrait that adorns the volume : " I live in 
the faith and hope of the progressive advancement of 
Christian liberty, and expect to abide by the same in 

The key-note of Mr. Quincy's public life, and of 
most of his writings, is found in that invocation which, 
in his father's last will and testament, follows a be- 
quest to the son, of the works of the great writers on 
free government. " May the spirit of liberty rest 
upon him ! " 

Inheriting the principles of this illustrious patriot, 
he consecrated his life, and all his powers, to their 
maintenance. Born when the sentiments of the Dec- 
laration of Independence were ripening into action, 
and living as a young man with those who made good 
the Declaration, and founded this Republic, he un- 
derstood the difficulties that beset their path when 
they were called on to for-m a Constitution for the 
government of all the States. In common with the 
great body of the statesmen of that day. South as well 
as North, he felt that there must ever be an irrepressi- 
ble conflict between freedom and slavery. 

An unfortunate delusion, fostered by the specious 
declarations and promises of a few members of the 
Federal Convention, who only ventured to ask for a 
temporary toleration of slavery, and averred, that, if 


let alone, tliey would willingly, in a short time, rid 
themselves of it, induced the framers of the Constitu- 
tion to commit to the several States the general power 
of peaceful emancipation. Mr. Quincy ahvays dis- 
trusted the sincerity of those members who seemed 
to him faithless to the principles of the Constitution in 
insisting upon this as a condition of its acceptance. 
He knew that any compromise by which eternal prin- 
ciples are postponed to .temporary policy, sooner or 
later, fails. 

When, at last, this essential antagonism resulted in 
open violence that aimed to destroy the nation itself, 
and thus the Government became invested with the 
right, and placed under the obligation, to preserve the 
life of the nation at the expense of its mortal foe, 
Mr. Quincy thought he saw the hand of Providence 
opening a way, as righteous as it was necessary, for 
the extirpation of the evil. 

His fliith in the permanency of the Republic never 
faltered. He had none of the timidity or of the des- 
pondency which often accompanies extreme old age. 
"The victory of the United States in this war is inevi- 
table," were his words but a few months before he died, 
addressed to the President of the United States, in a 
letter remarkable for its vigor and its clearness of 
statement. He looked for a speedy suppression of 
the Rebellion. He believed that his country would 
come out of this terrible conflict, purified and justified 
in the eyes of the world. 


"With devout gratitude for all the blessings which at- 
tended his long and eventful life, and with a firm fixith 
in the goodness and mercy of his heavenly Father, 
our venerated associate passed to his eternal home. 

Our chief purpose, on the present occasion, has been 
less to speak his eulogy, already elsewhere pronounced 
in a classic as well as in the vernacular tongue, than 
to enrich our records with the enumeration of some of 
his merits as they are shown in those of his works 
that are intimately connected with our own objects as 
members of an American Antiquarian Society. 

Ere long the marble statue and the granite column 
will arise to perpetuate his memory. But the erec- 
tion of a still more enduring monument will be the 
noble task of the historian, who, to illustrate the 
spirit of the free institutions of our country, as exhib- 
ited in the character of one of her greatest citizens, 
shall portray the Life and Times of Josiah Qumcy. 

For the Council. 




The Librarian has to report that donations have 
been received from the following sources: — 

Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, M.D., Boston. — 2 pamphlets. 

Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, Boston. — Cards and notices. 

Trustees of the Free Public Library, New Bedford. — 1 pam- 

WiNSLOw Lewis, M.D., Bostoa. — His Address before Hist. Gen. 
Society, 1864. 

Prof. Edward Tuckerman, Amherst. — MS. Letter-book of 
Thomas Fitch, merchant of Boston, 1702-11. 

Mrs. John Davis, Worcester. — 14 books. In excess of a dona- 
tion referred to in a previous Report. 

I. A. Lapham, Esq., Milwaukee, Wis. — The Lapham-Family 
Records, on a Broadside. 

Dr. Edward Jarvis, Dorchester. — 35 pamphlets. Also various 
miscellaneous papers. 

Edmund M. Barton, Worcester. — 2 pamphlets. 

Miss Mary C. Gay, Suffield, Conn. — 3 pamphlets. Also the 
Connecticut "Courant" for 1863, and Supplements of " Cou- 
rant" back to 1828. 

William A. Sshth, Esq., Worcester. — 15 Spiritualist publica- 

Hon. William Willis, Portland, Me. — His History of the Law, 
Courts, and Lawyers of Maine ; and the Journals' of Rev. 
Thomas Smith and Rev. Samuel Deane. 


Henry P. Stuegis, Esq. Boston. — Tlie " Avesta " of the Pursees, 

Black's translation. 
Rev. John L. Sibley, Cambridtre. — 2 pamphlets. 
George Livermore, Esq., Cambridge. — Dr. Kohl's descriptive 

and analytical publication of the two oldest General Charts of 

America, 1527 and 29, fol., 18G0 ; and 1 pamphlet. 
The American Unitarian Association. — Their Monthly Journal. 
The Essex Institute. — Proceedings and Historical Collections. 
S. E. Baldwin, Esq., New Haven, Conn. — 1 pamphlet. 
Hon. George W. Richardson. — 3 pamphlets. 
The American Philosophical Society. — Proceedings. 
The American Oriental Society. — Journal and Proceedings. 
J. Henky Hill, Esq., Worcester. — Elzevir edition of Pliny's 

Natural History, 1635. 3 vols. 
Joseph Sarin, Philadelphia, Pa. — 1 pamphlet. 
William Faxon, Esq., Navy Department, Washington, D. C. — 

1 book. 
Hon. John D. Baldwin, Worcester. — 1 book and 1 pamphlet. 

Also a collection of Sandwich-Island Newspapers. 
Hon. Ebenezer Torrey, Fitchburg. — 10 books, and 9 pamphlets. 

Also a deed from the State of South Carolina, in 1794, with 

State seal attached. 
Henry Woodward, Esq., Worcester. — 7 books, and 3 pamphlets. 
F. W. Paine, Esq., Worcester. — 21 books, and 2 pamphlets. 

Also many miscellanies, tokens, &c. 
Mrs. Calvin Willard, Worcester. — 1 pamphlet. 
Stanley C. Bagg, Esq., Montreal, C. E. — 1 pamphlet. 
The Canadian Institute. — Their Monthly Journal. 
The Mercantile Library Association of San Francisco Cal. — 

1 pamphlet. 
The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. — Pro- 
William M. Avtl, Esq., Columbus, O. — 1 pamphlet. 
Edwin M. Snow, M.D., Providence, R. I. — 1 pamphlet. 
The American Geographical and Statistical Society. — 

The Commissioners of Ohio State Library. — 1 pamphlet. 


The Connecticut Historical Society. — 1 pamphlet. 

Hon. Stephen Salisbost, Worcester. — The " Bibliotheque 

Universelle" of Le Clerc, 1702-30, in 83 vols., newly bound; 

and 4 pamphlets. 
The State of Vermont. — State docuniL-nts. 

E. A. Denny, Esq., "Worcester. — Two lithographed maps of 
Canton, China. 

Henry B. Dawson, Esq., New York, N. Y. — His Gleanings 
from the Harvest-fields of American History. Part XI. 

Joel Munsell, Esq., Albany, N.Y. — 37 pamphlets. 

Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co., Boston. — 1 pamphlet. 

The Smithsonian Institution. — Publications of the Institution. 
Also New-York Shipping and Commercial List. 

F. W. Seward, Esq., Department of State, Washington, D. C. — 
4 books. 

W. Hunter, Esq., Department of State, Washington, D. C — 
2 books. 

Miss Anna C. Bkackett, St. Louis, Mo. — Documents of Missis- 
sippi Valley Sanitary Fair, 1664. 

Rev. William R. Hi-ntington, Worcester. — 1 pamphlet. 

Rev. Caleb Davis Bradley, Eoxbury. — 1 pamphlet. Also two 
MS. deeds from Virginia, 1726, 1727, and various papers. 

John Swett, Esq., San Francisco, Cal. — 1 pamphlet. 

The New- Jersey Historical Society. — Proceedings. 

The State of New Hampshire. — 1 pamphlet. 

The Library Company of Philadelphia. — 1 pamphlet. 

Clement Hugh Hill, Esq., Boston. — The Geography of Michel 
Coignet, 1587, and 50 pamphlets. 

The New-England Historic Geneological Society. — 1 pam- 

The State of Rhode Isl.\nd. — State documents. 

Stephen Shepley, Esq., Fitchburg. — 2 books. 

Pliny E. Chase, Esq., Philadelphia, Penn. — His remarks on the 
mathematical probability of accidental linguistic resemblances, 
and on the comparative etymology of the Yoruba Language ; 
and 6 other pamphlets. 


The New-Hampshire Historical Society. — Collections, vol. 
vii., and 1 pamphlet. 

Hon. E. B. Stoddard, Worcester. — 1 book. 

William R. Hooper, Esq., Washhigtou, D.C. — 6 vols, of the 
" Worcester Transcript," bound. 

Hon. Chaeles Somner, Boston. — 16 pamphlets. 

The Albany Institute. — Transactions, vol. iv. 

The Long-Island Historical Society. — 1 pamphlet. 

Tiie American Anti-Slavery Society. — 2 pamphlets. 

Rev. Bernice D. Ames, Pawtucket, R. I. — 1 pamphlet. 

The New-York Mercantile Library Association. — 2 pam- 

The American Philosophical Society. — Proceedings. 

The Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. — 1 pam- 

Mrs. Henry P. Stukgis, Boston. — 85 pamphlets. Also the 
"Boston Daily Courier" and the ''China Telegraph," 18C4; 
and the " Spirit of the Fair." 

Rev. Samuel May, jun., Leicester. — 29 pamphlets. Selected. 

Joseph Tuckerman, Esq., New York, N.Y. — The tracts of the 
Loyal Publication Society of N. Y. 

Charles Ansorge, Chicago, 111. — 1 pamphlet. 

Andrew M'F. Davis, New York, N.Y. — Copies of Com. Far- 
ragut's orders in Mobile Bay, dated July 12, July 29, Aug. G 
and Aug. 7, 18G4, at the period of his great victory. Also 
Mobile papers of Aug. 3d and 4th. 

William Cross, Esq., Worcester. — 14 pamphlets. Also various 
banking documents. 

Com. George S. Blake, Newport, R.I. — Two drawings of 
Dighton Rock, with its inscription, taken by his direction for 
the Society. 

The Society of Antiquaeies of London, G. B. — Proceedings. 

Mrs. Mary G. Salisbury. — Saratoga Newspapers of July, 1864. 

Andrew H. Green, Esq., New York, N.Y. — 1 book. 

The American Institute of New York. — Transactions. 

William H. Whitmore, Esq., Boston. — His Hand-book of 
American Genealogy. 


The Literary and Historical Societt of Quebec. — 1 pcam- 

Prof. Edwaed North, Hamilton College, N.Y. — 1 pamphlet. 

Hon. Emory "Washburn, Camhridge. — His tract on the extinc- 
tion of villenage and slavery in England. 

Hentiy F. Bishop, M.D., Worcester. — 3 pamphlets. 

Alumni of Yale College. — 1 pamphlet. 

The City of Roxbury, by J. W. Tucker, Esq., City Clerk. — 
City documents of 1863. 

J. Hasimond Trumbull, Esq., Hartford, Conn. — His Narra- 
tive of the Defence of Stonington. 

Col. William S. Lincoln, Worcester. — A rebel newspaper from 
Harrisburg, Va., June 24, 1864. 

E. Peterson, Esq. — 38 pamphlets. 

Dr. Joseph Sargent, Worcester. — Four autograph-letters of 
Thomas Jefferson. 

Rev. Seth Sweetser, D.D., Worcester. — 17 pamphlets. Selected. 

Hon. Pliny Merrick, Boston. — Putnam's Rebellion Record, 
vol. V. 

The Royal Geographical Society of London, G. B. — Pro- 

Nelson N. Barrett, Collinsville, Conn. — Newspapers. 

James Lenox, Esq., New York, N. Y. — 1 book. In continua- 
tion of the Jesuit Relations. 

Charles Deane, Esq., Cambridge. — His " Letters of Phillis 

J. W. Thornton, Esq., Boston. — 52 pamphlets. Also various 
papers and miscellanies relating to the war. 

George H. Williams, Pomfret, Conn. — 28 books and 14 pam- 

Henky C. Bowen, Esq., Brooklyn, N. Y. — The first ten volumes 
of the " New- York Independent," unbound. 

George F. Houghton, Esq., St Albans, Vt. — 2 pamphlets. 

Hon. DwiGHT Foster, Worcester. — 257 pamphlets. 

Nathaniel Paine, Esq., Worcester. — 12 books and 110 pam- 
phlets. Also many valuable miscellaneous papers and newspa- 


Eev. George Allen, "Worcester. — 18 books and 3 pamphlets. 
The Sanitary Commission. — 13 pamphlets. Also the " Sanitary 

Reporter," newspaper. 
Charles M. Miles, Esq. — A collection of autograph-letters 

resulting from correspondence in reference to the meeting of 

the A. B. C. F. M. in Worcester. 

From the offices of the Worcester " Weekly Spy," 
the Boston " Semi-weekly Advertiser," the " Christian 
Watchman and Reflector," and the Fitchburg " Senti- 
nel," their several papers have long been transmitted 
for preservation in the library, and are renewedly 

Including accessions incidentally gathered by the 
Librarian, the number of additions in books is two 
hundred and forty five, and in pamphlets, one thou- 

The drawings presented by Commodore Blake were 
accompanied by a letter, from which the following is 
an extract : — 

"Naval Academy, Newport, R.l., Aug. 17, 1864. 

" Dear Sir, — I have recently examined with care various 
copies of the inscription upon the Dightou Rock, which is an 
object of considerable interest to antiquarians ; some having even 
supposed it to be Scandinavian. 

" Observing that the copies differ very materially, I requested 
Prof. Seager, the professor of drawing of the Naval Academy, 
and the Rev. Chaplain Hale of the navy, who is also attached to 
the institution, and much interested in hieroglyphical research, 
to visit the rock, and make correct drawings of it, — which they 
have done ; and, as these may perhaps be considered worthy of 
preservation, I beg to send them to the Antiquarian Society. 

" It will be seen that one drawing embraces the rock and the 


surrounding scenery ; and the other is the rock alone, upon a 
larger scale. 

" Owing to a change of the bed of the river, the rock is now 
submerged at high tide ; and the inscription will therefore, before 
many years, be lost. 

" I will add, that the gentlemen made several sketches indepen- 
dently of each other; and that the finished drawing, being the 
result of them all, is certainly correct." 

There is no way, perhaps, in which the Society's 
appreciation of Commodore Blake's appropriate gift 
can be better expressed than by a brief reference to 
the degree of interest that the Dighton Rock has from 
time to time attracted, abroad as well as at home, and 
a statement of the conclusion to which the most com- 
petent observers have at length arrived respecting its 
character and purpose. 

No single monument in this country has received so 
much attention from learned men and scientific bodies 
as this ; and om- Society should feel under special 
obligations to Commodore Blake for the pains he has 
taken to procure, through the agency of the professor 
of drawing, and the chaplain of the Naval School, at 
Newport, a spirited representation of the rock in its 
present condition, and a delineation of the figures upon 
it, as they now appear to fresh and unprejudiced eyes. 

Long before the Society of Northern Antiquaries at 
Copenhagen had adopted this rude stone as a monu- 
mental relic of the Northmen, and given to its in- 
scription a corresponding date and interpretation, it 
had been discussed by many distinguished philoso- 


pliers and scholars, and described and represented in 
the pages of various learned Transactions. 

The earliest remembered attempt to form a delinea- 
tion of the characters Avas made nearly two hundi'ed 
years ago, in 1680, by Rev. Dr. Danforth, — probably 
the Rev. Samuel Danforth of Taunton, though he 
must at that time have been quite a young man. 

Thirty-two years later, in 1712, Cotton Mather sent 
to the Royal Society of Great Britain a rude wood-cut 
of what he called " two lines of the inscription," 
though no such lines have been noticed by other 
observers. This, with his account of the rock, was 
published by that Society. 

In 1732, the Society of Antiquaries of London had 
before them the drawing of Dr. Danforth, and another 
made in 1730 by Dr. Isaac Greenwood, the Hollisian 
professor at Cambridge ; both having been sent over 
by Dr. Greenwood. 

In 1768, Professor Stephen Sewall, of Cambridge, 
took a copy from the stone as large as the original, 
which was sent to the Ro}al Society by Professor 
"Winthrop in 1774; and, in 1788, Professor Winthrop 
himself made a careful copy by an elaborate process, 
and with the assistance of several clergymen and other 
prominent gentlemen from the neighborhood. This 
was made the subject of a commiuiication from him 
to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 
appears in their second volume of publications printed 
in 1804. 


In 1790 a copy was made under the superintend- 
ence of Judge Baylies of Dighton, by a young man 
named Joseph Gooding, after first chalking the 

In 1807, Mr. Edward A. Kendall, the traveller, 
writing from Hallowell, Me., contributed to the Amer- 
ican Academy a long and well-considered article on. 
the Dighton Rock, accompanied by a painting in oils, 
executed, he says, with the assistance of Mrs. Gard- 
ner, to represent the exact appearance of the rock as 
well as the inscription. Whether this painting is still 
in existence, I cannot say. I am told that it is not in 
possession of the Academy. 

Mr. Kendall's communication was addressed to 
Hon. John Davis, the Recording Secretary of the 
Academy ; and the paper was followed by one from 
Judge Davis himself, in which he advanced the theo- 
retical explanation that the figures on the rock repre- 
sented an Indian deer-hunt, the triangular forms ex- 
hibiting the enclosm'es or traps into which the game 
was driven, while the remaining characters were signs 
relating to the hunt, and intelligible to the natives. 

Mr. Kendall gives an account of his visit to Digh- 
ton in the second volume of his travels, printed in 
1809; and, in reference to the speculations then in 
vogue respecting the origin of the inscription, he 

* They are called in "Antiquitates Americana;" Dr. Baylies and Mr. Goorl!fe> 
The original sketch by Joseph Gooding is still preserved by Miss Sophia F. Browr 
of Dighton, to whose mother he gave it when an old man. 


says : " It is not a monument of the PhcEnicians, nor 
of the Carthaghiians, nor of the lost tribe of Israel, 
nor of Prince Madoc, nor of Captain Blackbeard, nor 
of Captain Kyd (the Scandinavians had not then 
claimed it for the Northmen) ; but it is a monument 
of the sculpture of the ancient inhabitants of America, 
whether Narragansetts or others." 

In 1812, a drawing of the inscription was made 
by IVIr. Job Gardner; and, in 1825, the rock and its 
figures were described and commented upon in the 
Memoires de la Societe de Geographic de Paris. They 
are also noticed with particularity in Yates and ]\Ioul- 
ton's History of New York. 

These are the most prominent of the notices which 
this monument had received before 1830, when the 
Rhode-Island Historical Society entered into corre- 
spondence with the Antiquaries of Denmark, who 
were at that time engaged in collecting evidences of 
the early visits of the Northmen to this Continent, 
and had traced them, as was believed, at least as far 
south as the neighborhood of Newport. The discov- 
ery of a stone containing an inscription Avhich might 
possibly be Runic, found not far from that place, was 
of course a God-send, which could not be too grate- 
fully welcomed, or too strenuously impressed into the 
service of their cause. 

The Rhode-Island Antiquaries were happy to ren- 
der every assistance ; and not only furnished trans- 
cripts of di-awings which had been previously taken. 


but appointed a committee to make a new one, on 
their own account, from the rock itself. As antiqua- 
ries they would naturally have been pleased to see it 
proved that the earliest settlement of civilized men 
upon this Continent was within the jurisdiction of 
their own Society ; but while they provided as much 
evidence, real or imaginary, as they could obtain, they 
wisely left the argument to the zeal and ingenuity of 
their Scandinavian correspondents. 

Faith in this monument as a relic of the Northmen 
has gradually given way as a knowledge of the arts 
and habits of the Indians has been increased. Simi- 
lar inscriptions, previously known to exist in different 
parts of the country, have been more carefully exam- 
ined, and many new ones have been discovered which 
are beyond doubt the work of the natives. 

Soon after the large volume entitled " Antiquitates 
Americante" was published by the Danish Society, 
in 1837, Mr. Schoolcraft submitted the various delin- 
eations of the Dighton Rock, there given, to an Algon- 
kin chief, named Chingwauk, who was particularly 
skilled in the pictographic arts of his race. He se- 
lected the drawing made in 1790 by Gooding for 
his explanation, and undertook to state the meaning 
and force of the various figures ; rejecting a few near 
the centre, as not being Indian symbols.* 

* At the meeting of the Society, there were laid on the table, bj' Rev. Edward 
E. Hale, a fiicsimile of the drawing by Joseph Gooding, in 1790, and a large sketch 
of the rock and surrounding scenery in oils, with a separate copy of the inscription 
on a large scale; the last two having been prepared to illustrate portions of a lec- 
ture given by Hon. Alexander H. Everett, many years since. 


According to his interpretation, the inscription is 
the memorial of a battle between two native tribes, 
and was the work of the victorious party. Mr. 
Schoolcraft at that time was disposed to believe, that 
the central marks rejected by Chingwauk, as without 
meaning to him, were really placed there by the' 
Northmen, and led to the selection of the stone by 
the Indians for their own record. In 1853 he super- 
intended the taking of a view of the- inscribed surface 
by the daguerreotype process, and then declared it to 
be a uniform piece of Indian pictography. He says 
in his fourth volume of Indian History, "It presents 
a unity of original drawing, corresponding to the 
Indian system, which cannot fail to strike the obser- 
ver. It is entirely Indian, and is executed in the 
symbolic character which the Algonkins call Kekee- 
win. The fancied resemblances to the old forms of 
the Roman letters on the Copenhagen copies wholly 

Accepting this view of the subject as probably 
correct, the rock remains to us one of the most perfect 
and interesting monuments of native inscriptive art 
that has yet been discovered in the United States ; 
and its features should be preserved by all practicable 

It is a singular fact, that, of all the various copies 
thus far taken, no two are alike ; and the diversity is 
in some cases very extreme. This is probably due 
partly to the general obscurity of the marks, and part- 


ly to the difficulty of distinguishing natural lines and 
fissures from the artificial sculpture. 

Mr. Kendall, who discussed the whole subject very 
thoroughly in his paper, presented to the American 
Academy in 1807, condemns the method adopted by 
Professor Winthrop in making his copy ; namely, that 
of fii-st filling the marks with paint, and then taking 
an impression directly from them on paper. He says 
the relative strength and distinctness of the different 
marks is thus lost, and unimportant or even natural 
lines acquire a place in the representation that does 
not belong to them. The same objection is applica- 
ble to the plan pursued by Mr. Schoolcraft, who 
chalked the lines before taking his daguerreotype. 
Mr. Kendall decides, with apparent reason, that the 
most trustworthy view is that Avhich is taken by the 
artist with his pencil, after a careful study. 

We may therefore believe, that the donation of 
Commodore Blake is to be relied upon as a faithful 
representation of present appearances. He is under 
a mistake in supposing that the fact of the rock being 
wholly covered by the tide is owing to a change in 
the bed of the stream. So far as I can learn, there 
has been little, if any, change of circumstances since 
the rock was first noticed ; and it has always been 
flooded by the tide as it is now. Although a hard 
stone, the attrition of the water would be likely to 
have some effect upon it ; and lines tliat were percep- 
tible to early observers may now be obliterated. 


Another obligation which the Society will heartily 
acknowledge, arises from the very generous proposal 
of Mr. Charles. R. B. Claflin, who as a photographer 
is excelled by no other, to furnish the Society with 
card-photographs of citizens of Worcester, to an ex- 
tent of which he has yet set no limits. He has 
already filled one volume, which lies on the table to- 
day; and has other volumes left with him for the 
same purpose. The personal appearance of a genera- 
tion of people is an element of history that is des- 
tined to be more and more a matter of interest, as the 
facilities for obtaining and transmitting likenesses 
increase ; and we riiay venture to predict, that these 
memorials of Worcester people filling the various 
stations and engaged in the various pursuits of life, 
as it is here in 1864, will be among our most attrac- 
tive records ; and we are sure that Mr. Claflin's skill 
as an artist, as well as his liberality, will be fully 

It may be not mal a j^roj^os in this connection to 
remark, that the American Philosophical Society are 
taking measures to procure card-photographs of all 
their associates, and have already secured a large 
number. Perhaps tliis Society will think it not un- 
Avise or inexpedient to follow so respectable an exam- 

S. F. HAVEN, Librarian. 


|lt))0rt 0f tirt f reasurtr. 

The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society submits the following semi- 
annual Report, for the six months ending Oct. 20, 1864: — 
The Librarian's and General Fund, April 25, 1864, was . . $21,763.82 
Received for dividends and interest since .... 909.82 

Paid for salaries and incidental expenses 629.60 

Present amount of this Fund $22,044.04 

The Colkctim and Research Fund, April 25, 1864 .... $8,910.06 
Received for dividends and interest since 522.45 

Paid for incidental expenses, and including one-half 

of Librarian's salary 176.00 

Present amount of this Fund 9,256.51 

The Bookbinding Fund, April 25, 1864, was $6,691.04 

Received for dividends and interest since 310.25 

Paid for premium on stock, &c 33.54 

Present amount of this Fund 6,967 75 

The Publishing Fund, April 25, 1864, was $6,902 64 

Received for dividends and interest since 320.50 

Paid for printing semi-annual Report 127.00 

Present amount of this Fund 7,096,14 

Aggregate of the four Funds $45,364.44 

Cash on hand, included in foregoing statement $606.09 

Librarian's and General Fund. 

Worcester National Bank Stock $1,100.00 

City National Bank of Worcester Stock 100.00 

Central „ „ „ „ 100.00 

Citizens' „ • „ „ 1,500.00 

Quinsigamond „ „ „ 2,300.00 

Blackstone „ (Uxbridge) „ 500.00 

Oxford Bank Stock 400.00 

Fitchburg Bank Stock 600.00 

Amount carried forward $6,600.00 


Amount brought forward, $6,600.00 

Bank of Commerce (Boston) Stock 

Massachusetts Bank „ „ 500.00 

North Bank „ „ ........ 500.00 

Shawmut Bank „ „ . 3,700.00 

Worcester and Nashua Railroad Stock (.37 shares) . . 2,407.40 

Northern (N.H.) Railroad Stock (12 shares) .... 615.00 

United-States Five-twenty 6 per cent Bonds .... 1,500.00 

United-States Ten-forty 5 per cent Bonds 500.00 

United-States Seven-thirty Bonds 1,000.00 

United-States Certificates of Indebtedness 2,921.64 

Note SOO.OO 

Collection and Research Fund. 

Worcester National Bank Stock 

City National Bank Stock (Worcester) .... 

Oxford Bank „ „ 

Bank of Commerce (Boston) Stock , 

Webster Bank „ „ 

Bank of North America (Boston) Stock ... 

Northern (N.H.) Railroad (8 shares) 

Norwich and Worcester Railroad Bond .... 
United-States Five-twenty 6 per cent Bonds . . 




Bookbinding Fund. 
City National Bank Stock (Worcester) . 
Quinsigamond „ „ „ 
Bank of Commerce „ (Boston) 
Webster Bank „ „ ... 
Northern (N.H.) Railroad Stock (10 shares) 
United-States Five-twentj' 6 per cent Bond 






Publishing Fund. 
ak (Worcester) Stock . 

Central National ] 

Mechanics „ „ „ . 

Shawmut „ (Boston) „ . , 

Boston National Bank Stock 

Norwich and Worcester Railroad Bond . . . 
United-States Five-twenty 6 per cent Bonds . 

Note . . 
Cash . . 

Jfloate of Indebtedn 


Total of the four Funds 

Respectfully submitted, 

Hall, Worcester, Oct. 

Treasurer of Am. Anliq. Society. 





When, in 1859, the Society intrusted to me, for 
editing the manuscript of Ralph Lane's Letters from 
Roanoke Island, and of Capt. Newport's voyage up 
the James River, I certainly did not imagine that the 
geography I then undertook to study was to receive 
its chief interest from the military movements of the 
next five years. In 1860 the Society published those 
papers. Since that time, Roanoke Island has been 
made the seat of another colony, and the James 
River of other voyages and warfare ; to all of which 
there is a new interest given, when we study them 
with the maps and notes of Gov. Lane and of Capt. 
John Smith in our hands. 

Roanoke Island was selected, as the Society will 
remember, in 1585, as the seat of Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh's colony. The settlement there, which proved 
abortive, was begun about August 1, and was aban- 
doned on the 18th of June. The same summer, Sir 


Eichard Greenville landed fifteen men at the deserted 
island, who perished the same winter. The next 
year, John White left a new colony, which was also 
wholly broken up. Our only knowledge of it was ob- 
tained a few years since by the discovery of Strachey's 
manuscript in the British Museum. 

I think the colony thus attempted may be called 
the first colony attempted in America by the English 
.people. In 1863 the Government of the United 
States selected the same island for the first colony 
planted under its own formal protection and direc- 
tion. The island of Roanoke, having been taken by 
our troops in Gen. Burnside's expedition, offered itself 
as a convenient and sequestered spot for colonizing 
refugee negroes. The establishment there is under 
the charge of Rev. Horace James, lately of Worces- 
ter. The maps of the island seem to show, that the 
principal settlement, made first by the rebel troops 
and afterwards by our own, is to the southward of 
Lane's Fort. I have sent to Roanoke Island our 
fourth volume, and full copies of the other records of 
the early colonization; and hope that some of the 
intelligent officers stationed there may find time to 
send us the results of any researches which shall 
throw light on the history of either of the three un- 
successful colonies. 

The second paper in our fourth volume is an 
anonymous journal of the first voyage made by the 
English up James River, under the conduct of Capt. 


J^ewport. This paper also I edited; much harassed, 
I will confess, by its geography. The discoverers 
sailed from Jamestown on the 21st of May, 1607. 
On the 21st of INIay, 1864, I found myself, for the 
fii'st time, sailing up the James River, in veiy differ- 
ent company, and on very different business ; but very 
glad, if I could, to use my voyage in correcting my 
errors in the early geography. The difference in 
style which has been made since 1607 did not appear* 
in any difference in climate or foliage. The river 
was as lovely as they describe it; the temperature 
as agreeable, and the shores as lovely as they were 
then, or more so. If Smith's map may be believed, 
there were almost as many tokens of habitation on 
the shores of the river between Jamestown and the 
Appomattox in 1607 as struck the eye of the modern 
traveller, even before the outbreak of the war. Such 
plantations as there are, are concealed behind growth 
of woods ; and it must be remembered that this part 
of Virginia has been declining. Gen. Butler's army, 
when I visited it, was encamped in pine-forests 
twenty or thu'ty years old, where the furrows of old 
corn-fields were still apparent. 

I am disposed to make a more definite statement 
of the stopping-places of the exploring party, in place 
of the very vague conjectures in my printed notes. 
The difficulty has been in the name Wynauk, their 
landing-place the first night. I now believe that this 
applies to "a considerable region of country on both 


sides the river* Smith's map gives the name Wea- 
nock to a point held all this summer by Gen. Butler, 
opposite City Point and the junction of the Appomattox 
and the Upper James. I attempted in my notes to 
make that the first landing-place. But I am satisfied 
now, that that point does not satisfy the conditions. 
The narrative becomes intelligible, and the distances 
given are sufficiently accurate, if we suppose the first 
night to have been spent a little below Wilson's 
Wharf, on the north side of the river, — the second 
encampment, at the place which he calls Turkey 
Isle, to be the present Turkey Island, just below the 
Turkey Point of our maps ; and the second night to 

* The narrative of Newport's voyage in our fourth volume thus speaks of 
Wynauk : — 

May 21. " We were up the river thirteen myle [from James Town] at a low 
meadow point, which I call Wynauk. 

May 26, at one of King Pamaunche's houses, five miles below Queen Apuma- 
tec's Bower. " This place I call Pamaunche's Palace, howbeit, by Nanvarans his 
words, the King of Wynauk is possessor hereof. . . . Having left this King in kind- 
ness and friendship, we crossed over the water to a sharp point, which is part.of 
Wynauk on Salisbury side [the south side]. This I call Careless Point [after 
this]. This night he came to Point Wynauk [this was on their return]. 

June 8. " Wynauk," by which the King of Wynauk is meant, is spoken of 
among their "contracted enemies." 

These references alone seem enough to show that Wynauk was the name of one 
of the " kingdoms " which extended on both sides of the river. The name. Point 
Wynauk, having been given to the point wher6 Newport's party first landed, 
remained unchanged. If Weanock be the same name as Wynauk, we may suppose 
that Smith, in his map, affixes it to some favorite seat of the " King," and does not 
attempt to designate the whole of his dominion, the boundaries of which, indeed, it 
is evident were doubtful. 

These suggestions, which I derived from a review of the Newport narrative on 
the spot, are entirely confirmed by our associate, Mr. Deane, who is much better 
informed in this geography than I am. He writes me, " Smith, in his early narra- 
tive (1608), speaks of this place, ' Weanock,' as being twenty miles from Jamestown. 
Now the Appomattox is much more. I agree with you that Newport's ' Wynauk ' 
was nearer Jamestown; and this view is confirmed by 'Fry and Jefferson's 
Map' of about 1760. In this, 'Weynock' is placed opposite the mouth of a 
creek called ' Flower de Hundred,' about twenty miles from Jamestown." 


have been spent near our Deep Bottom. This is the 
point which he calls Poore Cottage ; * and, I dare say, 
many of the 10th Corps wUl confirm that name. His 
next encampment, Arahatec's Joy, is laid down on 
Smith's map, and, I believe, correctly. It is near 
Cox's Ferry, the point held, till lately, by the left of 
Gen. Foster's forces. 

At the time I visited the army, Gen. Butler held 
the tract between the Appomattox and James Eivers, 
and had fortified strong lines from the Point of 
Kocks on the Appomattox north-westerly to the James 
River. We have a military hospital at the Point 
of Rocks. Dr. A. A. Woodhull, an accomplished 
surgeon in the general staff", writes me since my 
return : — 

" Some of the ' Pamunkies ' yet survive, impressed into tlie 
rebel service, battling still against the stranger. 

" On that beautiful Point of Rocks, jutting into the Appomattox, 
stands a magnificent oak, or rather two coalesced, which an imagi- 
native doctor (for we have a hospital there now) has published as 
the veritable one under which Pocahontas saved the life of Capt. 
Smith, whom she afterward married. I beg you to note the poet- 
ical justice of the just-quoted fiction. Everybody thinks ' Smith ' 
should have been the name by which Pocahontas's grandchildren 
ought to have been known in the land." 

I need hardly say here, that our associate, Mr. 
Deane, has well nigh destroyed the romance by which 
Pocahontas had been saving Smith's life, for two 

* So our copy from the original manuscript, reads; but Percy in " Purclias," or 
the printer, reads Port Cottage. 


centuries and a half before Mr. Deane's edition of 
Wingfield, and his note on the Pocahontas narrative. 
I quote tlie passage as an ilkistration of the passion 
for idealizing romances. There are two claimants in 
Virginia for the honors of the spot where Pocahontas 
flung herself round the prisoner's neck. Both of 
these are on the York River, and are familiar to our 
soldiers who passed up that river in Gen. McClellan's 
campaign. One is Shelly ; and the other, Powhatan s 
Chimney. Both are forty or fifty miles from the 
Point of Rocks. Smith says himself, that the place, . 
which he calls Werowocomoco, was twenty-five miles 
below the fall of the river, which we call West 

The part of Smith's story which is not a romance 
is the statement that he went up the river of the 
" Chickahamanias " to trade for corn. Our soldiers on 
the same river scarcely remembered, I think, the 
braggart soldier who first made its shores ring with 
the echoes of English weapons. " A fugitive slave," 
says Dr. Palfrey with point, " was the founder of 
Vu'ginia." In the most critical period of her infant for- 
tunes, he Avent up the river of the " Chickahamanias " 
to trade for corn. Leaving his pinnace, I think, near 
the present steamboat landing, he forced a canoe as 
much farther as he could, till he had to cut the trees 
which fell across the river. He then left his canoe, 
and, with an Indian guide, pushed through " the 
marshes of the river's head" till he was beset with 


savages. Retreating, he slipped into " an oasie 
creek ; " and there, half-dead with cold, threw down 
his arms, and was taken prisoner. 

If we may rely on Smith's distances, this was in 
the neighborhood of Gen. Sumner's bridges across 
the stream. These marshes, and " this oasie creek," 
— which Smith's adventures have made for centuries 
historical, are the oozy swamps of the Chickahominy. 

Oct. 21, 1664. 



Mr. Deane, referring to tlie preceding paper read by Mr. 
Hale, spoke as follows : — 

Mr. President, — There are some other phiccs on 
the James River and its branches, rendered sacred 
by the events of the last few years, which, for a long 
period before, had an historical and a romantic in- 
terest associated with them. You may remember 
seeing in the newspapers, a few months since, that 
General Butler was employing some of his men in 
cutting off a neck of land on the James, called "Dutch 
Gap." This place is about twelve miles from Rich- 
mond, and, at present, marks the extent of our unob- 
structed advance on the river. Here the stream turns 
in a southerly direction, and sweeps around some five 
or six miles ; returning again to within about five 
hundred feet of the point of departure. The penin- 
sula formed by this bend in the river, sometimes 
called Farrar's Island, a little below the old Indian 
town, " Arrohateck," * was the site of an early Virginia 

• It was at Arrohateck, on the 23d of May, 1607, that Captain Newport and Iiis 
party first met the Indian Prince, who lived at Powhatan, to which place they fol- 


city* A year or two after Captain John Smith had 
left the Colony, one of his successors in office, Su- 

lowed or accompanied him, and who, they then supposed, was "the greate Kyng 
Powatah " himself. (See Newport's Discoveries in Virginia, in ArchiEol. Amer. iv. 
41, edited by our associate, the Rev. Edward E. Hale.) In this, however, they 
were mistaken. A few months later, when Smith, who was one of Newport's 
party up the river, was a prisoner with the Indians, he was carried to Werowo- 
comoco, where, for the first time, he saw the Emperor Powhatan. In the contem- 
porary narrative of his companions, in spealiing of Smith's captivity, they say, 
" His relation of the plenty he liad seen, especially at Werowocomoco, where inhab- 
ited Powhatan (that till that time was unknown), so revived again their dead 
spirits," &c. (Smith's Virginia, Oxford, 1612, part ii., p. 14). Wingfield, also, under 
date of June 25, after Newport had sailed for England, says, " An Indian came to 
us from the great Poughwaton, with the word of peace. . . . This Powaton dwell- 
eth ten miles from us, upon the river Pamaonche, which lyeth North from us. The 
Powhatan in the former journal mentioned ... is a Wyroaunce, and under this 
great Powatan, which before we knew not " (Archasol. Amer. iv. 77, 78). Referring to 
Smith's imprisonment, Wingfield says, that, after he had been taken round from one 
chief to another, he was at last brought " to the great Powhatan, of whom before 
we had no knowledge ; " that is, none of them had before seen him. (Ibiii, 92). 

Some modern historians of Virginia have likewise fallen into this error. Burk 
(i. 98, Petersburg, 1804) says, " Captain Newport, with Smith and twenty men, 
explored the river as high as the falls. In this expedition, they visited Fowh.atan, 
the principal chief or emperor of the country." And Campbell, in his work, pub- 
lished as late as 1860 (pp. 41, 42), says, " In six days they reached a town called 
Powhatan, one of tlie seats of the great chief of that name, whom they found there." 
This error has arisen from an expression in the narrative usually followed, viz. Smith's 
Virginia, &c., Oxford, 1612, part ii. p. 4; or the Generall Historie, p. 42; — " Of this 
place the prince is called Powhatan, and his people Powhatans." It is not im- 
probable that the chief who dwelt here at this time, though not the Emperor Pow- 
hatan, was called Powhatan, and possibly from the name of his place of residence. 
Indeed, Strachey, writing of this period, says, " Upon Powhatan, or the king's 
river, are seated as followeth. 1. Parahunt, one of Powhatan's sons, whom we 
therefore call Tanxpowatan, which is as much as to say Little Powhatan, and is a 
Weroance of the country, which hath his own name, called Powhatan," &c. (His- 
torie of Travaile in Virginia, p. 56). 

The following, written, as Captain Smith says, " with his own hand," gives 
further information concerning the Emperor and his possessions. " Tlieir chief 
ruler is called Powhatan, and taketh his name of the principal place of dwelling, 
called Powhatan. But his proper name is Wahmisonacock. Some countries he bath 
which have been his ancestors, and came unto him by inheritance, as the country 
called Powhatan, Arrahateck, Appamatuke, Pamavnke, Youghtanud, and Mattapanient, 
All the rest of his territories expressed in the map, they report have been his sev- 
eral conquests. In all his ancient inheritances, he hath houses built after their 
manner, like arbors, some thirty, some forty yards long, and at every house 

• A History of tlie Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia, by Charles 
Campbell. Philadelphia, 1860, pp. 104, 105; Old Churches, Ministers, and Families 
of Virginia, by Bishop Meade; Philadelphia, 1857; i. 123, 124. 


Thomas Dale, who came over as " High-Martial " of 
the Colony, formed a plan of building a city in Vir- 
ginia. He surveyed the Nansemond and the James 
Rivers, as far as to the falls on the latter, and finally 
pitched upon this neck of land ; and, after being 
relieved from the office of governor by the arrival of 
Gates in August, 1611, he took with him three hundred 
and fifty men, many of them Germans, and, in the early 
part of the next month, went up the river, and began 
his work. He enclosed the place with a palisade, 
built three streets of well-framed houses, erected a 
handsome church, and laid the foundation of a more 
stately one of brick, besides building store-houses, 
watch-houses, &c. ; and he named the city Henrico, 
" in honor of the noble prince Henrie," the Prince of 
Wales.* This was the second city in Virginia, though 
a few feeble settlements elsewhere had already been 
made, since the building of Jamestown in 1607. 
Included within the limits of Henrico, a short dis- 

provision for his entertainment according to the time. At l^Wocimmco^ lie was 
seated upon the north side of tlie river Pamavnhe, some fourteen miles from James- 
town, where, for the most part, he was resident ; but he took so little pleasure in our 
near neighborhood, that were able to visit him against his will, in six or seven hours, 
that he retired himself to a place in the deserts, at the top of the river CMchaha- 
mania, between Youghtanund and Powhatan. His habitation there is called Ora- 
pachs, where he ordinarily now resideth." In another placj, speaking of the 
Pamaunke country, Smith says, " About twenty-five miles lower, on the north 
side of this river, is Weraioocomoco, where their great king inhabited when Captain 
Smith was delivered him prisoner " (Smith's Virginia, Oxford, 1612, pp. 6, 34, 35, 
and Generall Historic, conclusion of p. 39). 

* A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia, &c., written by Ealph 
Hamor, the younger, late Secretary of the Colony: London, 1G15, pp. 29, 30. — Hen- 
rico is an abbreviation of Henrifopolis. It was sometimes called Henruus, 
Henrico, in 1634, became the name of one of the counties of Virginia, and now 
includes Richmond. '■ 


tance down the river, at a place subsequently called 
Varina, was the residence of John Rolfe and his 
beautiful Indian bride, Pocahontas, the site of whose 
house is still pointed out to the visitor.* Henrico 
City was also the seat of the projected Indian Col- 
lege, for which funds were largely collected in Eng- 
land, and some attempts were here made to instruct 
children of both sexes ; but the terrible massacre of 
1622 damped the ardor of its friends, and shook the 
faith of those who had believed it practicable to 
educate the savage race.f Henrico then received its 
death wound, and the place has long been desolate. 
Some vestiges of the city are still visible ; but the 
ruins were plainly to be distinguished in the time of 
Stith, who lived not far from the neck, at Varina, on a 
fertile tract of land, which produced " tobacco nearly 
resembling the Spanish Varinas," from which it re- 
ceived its name ; J and here Stith dates the Preface to 
his History of Virginia in 1747. A spectator, standing 
on the spot where the city of Henrico once stood, may 
see almost at one view what appear to be four beau- 
tiful rivers, though in reality there is but one. The 
name, " Dutch Gap," is said to be given to this 
neck of land because of the marks of the commence- 
ment of a channel there by some of the early Dutch 
settlers. A narrow canal appears to have been cut 

* Me:ide, i. 125. 

t Ciimphell, pp. 117, 159; Meade, i. 44-87 
, } Campbell, 1, 105; Meade, i. 136, 137. 


about half-way across the neck, and then abandoned.* 
It may be left to General Butler to complete a work 
which has been agitated in the councils of Virginia 
more than once. 

Passing down the river, and briefly noticing Curls's 
Neck, Turkey Island,^ and Bremo, the residences, 
many years since, of members of the famous Randolph 
Family,^ just in sight of the ever memorable Malvern 
Hill, we soon come to another spot of some note at 
the present time. I mean Bermuda Hundred, near 
which General Butler's troops have been for some 
time quartered. It is about five miles, by land, from 
Henrico, near the junction of the Appomattox with 
the James Eiver. This place was also settled by 
Sir Thomas Dale. The Appomattox Indians had 
shown evidence of unfriendliness to the English ; 
and, in the latter part of this year (1611), he cap- 

* Meade, i. 123. 

t " Turkey Island " is a point of land at the lower end of Curls's Neck, the 
home of Bacon, the rebel of 1676, and is near the dividing line between Henrico 
and Charles-City Counties. It is said that there was once a small island at the 
mouth of Bremo Creek, which gave the name to this point of land, and that it was 
washed away in a great freshet, in 1771. Smith's map has also been referred to as 
furnishing evidence of an island there in his time; but there is nothing on his map 
that can be relied upon as indicating such an island at that, place. An island some- 
where in the riverearlyreceived that name (seeVa. Hist. Reg. iv. 103; and Newport's 
Discoveries in Virginia, in Archasol. Amer. iv. p. 41, note 6; p. 42). 

X "The first of the name who settled in Virginia, William Randolph, be- 
came possessed of the large estate on James River, called Turkey Island, bordering 
on Charles City, to which he added numerous other estates, on which he settled his 
sons, building excellent houses for all of them. He married Miss Mary Isham . . . 
of Bermuda Hundred, on the opposite side of the river. They had seven sons and 
two daughters:" William, of Turkey Isl.and; Thomas, of Tuckahoe; Isham, of 
Dungeness; Richard, of Curls, who married a Miss Boiling, a liescendant of Poca- 
hontas; Henry; Sir John, of Williamsburg; Edward, who married in England, and 
one of whose daugliters became the mother of William Stith, the historian. Seve- 
ral of these sons were men of distinction in Virginia (Meade, i. 138-140). 


tured their town, and established a plantation there, 
which he called New Bermuda. It is now called 
Bermuda Hundred, and is the port of Richmond for 
ships of heavy burthen. Sir Thomas also laid out a 
number of plantations in the neighborhood, which 
he called Hundreds, — Digges Hundred, llochdale 
Hundred, &c.* Our troops now occupy almost the 
entire space between Bermuda Hundred (the landing- 
place) and Farrar's Island. 

The Eev. Alexander Whittaker, who came over 
with Dale, was at one time the minister of both New 
Bermuda and Henrico. At New Bermuda lived Ralph 
Hamor, the Secretary of the Colony, and the author 
of the rare little tract from which we derive the 
most of what is known concerning the baptism and 
marriage of Pocahontas, and which contains that 
interesting and remarkable letter of John Rolfe to 
Sir Thomas Dale, giving the reasons " moving him " 
to make her his wife. 

Sir Thomas Dale had been a soldier in the Low 
Countries ; and he brought over with, him a code of 
laws for the Colony, " divine, moral, and martial," 
as they were styled, which were inhuman in their 
character.f They were sent over by Sir Thomas 
Smith, the Treasurer of the Company, and, it is 
said, without their sanction. Many of the laws. 

* Hamor, p. 31. 

t They were printed at London in 1612. " For the Colony of Virginea Britan- 
,. Lawes Dinine, Morall and Miirtiall," &c., and reprinted in Force's Tracts, 


like the code of the early Athenian lawgiver, were 
" written in blood." The character of many of the 
first settlers of Virginia was such as required a severe 
rule ; but it was perhaps fortunate on the whole that 
a miui of such discretion as Sir Thomas Dale pos- 
sessed, was sent over to administer this sanguinary 

Again chosen Governor, Sir Thomas, in 1614, 
removed from Henrico to Jamestown, and, two years 
after, returned to England, accompanied by Rolfe and 
his wife, " the Lady Rebecca," from which visit she 
never returned.f 

* Campbell, i. 105 ; Meade, i. 135, 137. Even the church, says Hawkes, was 
placed under martial law. A new and better state of things was inaugurated on the 
arrival of Gov. Yeardley, in 1619, who then superseded the arbitrary Argall, and 
those cruel laws were abrogated. The first assembly of Burgesses met this 
in July, at Jamestown (see 2 N. Y. Hist. Coll. vol. iii^ part i. pp. 331-358). 

1 She died at Gravesend as she was preparing to embark for Virginia. In £ 
book of historical and confidential letters, published in London in 1849, entitled, 
" The Court and Times of James the First," &o., are references to her. In a letter 
of John Chamberlain, Esq., " London, June 22d, 1616," to Sir Dudley Carleton 
then at the Hague, the writer says, " Sir Thomas Dale is arrived from Virginia, and 
brought with him some ten or twelve old and young of that country, among whon 
is Pocahuntas, daughter of Powatan, a king or cacique of that country, married t( 
one Rolfe, an Englishman. I hear not of any other riches, or matter of worth, bu 
only some quantity of sassafras, tobacco, pitch, tar, and clapboard, things of no 
great value, unless there were plenty, and nearer hand. All I can hear of it 
that the country is good to live in, if it were stored with people, and might in time 
be commodious; but there is no present profit expected. But you may understand 
more by himself when he comes into those parts, which he pretends to do within a 
month or little more " (vx)l. i. 415). Dale had arrived at Plymouth on the 12th, ten 
days before this letter was written. Again, under date Jan. 18, 1616 [1617], this 
same writer says, " The Virginia woman Pocahuntas, with her father counsellor, 
have been with the King, and graciously used; and both she and her assistant well 
placed at the masque. She is on her return, though sore against her will, if the 
wind would come about to send them away" (vol. i. 388). Again; under date 
" March 29, 1617," " The Virginia woman, whose picture I sent you, died this last 
week, at Gravesend, as siie was returning homeward." In tlie next paragraph, by 
a singnlar coincidence, the writer says, " Sir Walter Raleigh took his leave yester- 
ini;lit of Jlr. Secretary, and goes this morning towards Dover, where he hopes to 
tiad his ship, though his followers are yet in the river, and make no great haste 

66 . 

Passing down the river, and keeping our eye on 
the map, we soon come, on the north side, to another 
place, which will ever be memorable in the history of 
Virgihia, and indeed in the history of this country. I 
refer to the spot where General McClellan, after with- 
drawing his long lines from the swamps of the Chicka- 
hominy, and fighting those terrible seven days' battles, 
finally brought the remnant of his noble army in 
safety under the protection of our gun-boats. " Har- 
rison's Landing," or the place occupied by our troops at 
that time, embraces the spot, called Berkeley, where 
one of the Presidents of the United States was 
born; and earlier, indeed, soon after the first settle- 
ment of the country, there lived here one Master 
George Thorpe, a kinsman of Sir Thomas Dale, " a 
pious, worthy, and religious gentleman," Avho had 
been " of the king's bed-chamber." So much interest 
had he felt in the education and conversion of the 
Indians, that he left his home and came over here to 
be chief manager of the college designed for their 
benefit. Ou that fatal 22d of • March, 1622, when 
three hundi'ed and forty-seven persons, — one-twelfth 

after him. He makes away with all the speed he can, for fear of a countermand, 
by reason of some message brought by the Lord Rons," &c. (vol. ii. 3). The career 
of Raleigh was soon to close. Nothing would appease his enemies but his blood. 
He had but recently been liberated from mi imprisonment of thirteen years in the 
Tower, just in time to see in London (as he might have done) that brilliant repre- 
sentative of a race, whose country he had expended so large a part of his life and 
fortune in fruitless attempts to colonize. To return to Pocahontas: tlie Parish Reg- 
ister of burials at Gravesend has the following entry, " 1616. March 21, — Rebecca 
Wrothe, Wyffe of Thomas Wrothe gent. A Virginia Lady borne was buried in 
the Chauncell" (Va. Hist. Reg. for 1S49, ii. 149). There is an error here in the 
Christian name of her husband, to say nothing of the odd way in which the sur- 
name is spelled. 


of all the colonists, — including six members of the 
council, were cut off by the savages, he and ten others 
were slain at Berkeley.* 

The lines of McClellans army at the same time 
also included, as appears by the military map here 
upon the table, a part of the famous old plantation 
of Westover, celebrated, if for nothing else, for 
having been the residence of Colonel William Byrd, 
one of the most accomplished men of Vu-ginia in the 
early time. He was born to one of the amplest for- 
tunes in the country, was sent to England to be 
educated, and there formed an intimate acquaintance 
with many eminent literary and public men. " He 
was called to the bar in the Middle Temple, studied 
for some time in the Low Countries, visited the Court 
of France, and was chosen a Fellow of the Royal 
Society." He returned to this country as Receiver- 
General of his Majesty's Revenues in Virginia, and 
resided at Westover, in a princely mansion, which was 
standing within a few years, a monument of his taste 
and elegant expenditure. Colonel Byrd was distin- 
guished for great public spirit, as well as for literary 
accomplishments of a high order. He had one of the 
best private libraries in that part of the country, which 
Stith says was freely thrown open to his use when he 
was writing his History of Virginia. A catalogue of his 
books is said to be in the Franklin Library at Philadel- 
phia. f " The Westover manuscripts," published within 

* Stith, p. 211. 

t Campbell, pp. 135, 136; Va. Hist. Reg. iv. 87-90; Westover MSS. &c.. Editor's 


a few years from his papers, will well repay a perusal.* 
Colonel Byrd is entitled to our gratitude for having 
secured, while in England, the two volumes (tran- 
scripts) of the Virginia Company's Records, which 
also Stith acknowledges to have been of great service 
to him in his historical labors ; and which, after pass- 
ing through the families of the Randolphs, Blands, 
and Leighs, have at last found their way, I believe, to 
the Library of Congress at Washington. Colonel 
Byrd, among his large domains, inherited an extensive 
tract of land on which Richmond is now situated. It 
had belonged to that celebrated Bacon, whose name is 
associated with the famous episode in the history of 
Virginia, known as " Bacon's Rebellion." After his 
death and the reduction of the rebellion, his lands 
were confiscated, and came into the possession of the 
father of Colonel Byrd.f lit 1733, Colonel Byrd and a 

* " The WestOYer Manuscripts; containing the History of the Diviiling Line 
betwixt Virginia and Nortli Carolina," &c. By William Byrd, of Westover: 
Petersburg, 1841. 

t The father of Colonel Byrd was Captain William Byrd, who came over about 
the year 1674. He is said to have been instrumental in bringing to justice the 
rebels of Bacon's Rebellion. His name also occurs in the incipient steps relative 
to the College of William and Mary. He lived at Belvidere, opposite the falls, — a 
place said to have been rightly named. He was father to the first Colonel Byrd, of 
whom we have spoken above, who died 26 August, 1744, aged 70. A son of the 
latter, also Colonel William, the last of the name who owned Westover, com- 
mander of a regiment under Washington in 1758 (Campbell, 421, BOO; Meade, 
i. 318; Westover Papers, Preface iv.). Lieutenant Anburey, an officer in the British 
service, taken prisoner with Burgoyne, after^spending some time at Cambridge 
and its neighljorhood, was sent with the captured force to Virginia, where he spent 
two years; during which he enjoyed the hospitality of some of its citizens. The 
troops were quartered at Charlottesville and its vicinity. The otficers were paroled, 
and allowed to go wherever they pleased, within a circuit of one hundred miles. 
Anburey visited the principal towns, Richmond, Petersburg, &c., and appears to 
have been, a frequent guest of Colonel Randolph of Tuckahoe. He describes 
southern life and manners at that period with great spirit. In a letter dated " Jones's 


few of his friends laid out, on a plan, the city of Rich- 
mond, Avhere, for a good many years, Shoccoe Ware- 
house had already been established ; and also the town 
of Petersburg,* — both being at the head of navigation 
on the James and Appomattox Rivers, — two cities of. 
especial interest to us at this moment; and, in 1737, 
he advertised lots in Richmond for sale. This town 
was not incorporated till 174:2.1 

Continuing our journey down the river, and passing 
many places of great interest, — the point of Weynock 
on the north, and Sir George Yeardley's plantation, 
called Flower de Hundred, near the present Fort 
Powhatan, on the south, and also Jamestown itself. 

Plantation, near Charlottesville, April 10, 1779," he says, " The first night after our 
leaving Richmond, I slept at an elegant villa, called Belvidera, which formerly 
belonged to a Colonel Bird, who distinguished himself greatly in the last war, in 
that sad disaster of General Braddook's. He possessed a most affluent fortune, and 
was proprietor of all the lands round the falls for many miles, as well as the great- 
est part of the lands round the town of Richmond. His great abilities and personal 
accomplishments were universally esteemed; but, being infatuated with play, his 
affairs, at his death, were in a deranged state. The widow whom he left with eight 
children, has, by prudent management, preserved out of the wreck of his princely 
fortune, a beautiful house, at a place called Westover, upon James River, some 
personal property, a few plantations, and a number of slaves. The grounds around 
the house at Westover are laid out in a most beautiful ma;iner, and with great taste, 
and from the river appear delightful " (Travels through the Interior Parts of Amer- 
ica, by an Officer: London, 1789, ii. 369, 370). 

* Petersburg is on the south side of the Appomattox, about twelve miles from 
its confluence with the James. Nearly opposite to Petersburg is a kind of suburb 
called Pocahontas. John Randolph, sen., the father of John of Roanoke, had a seat 
near there, which he called Matoax (one of the names of Pocahontas); and he died 
there in 1775. His widow, whose maiden name was Frances Bland, married, 
secondly, St. George Tucker, who then came to live there. It has sometimes been 
supposed that John of Roanoke was born there, but he was probably born at Caw- 
son's. He, however, spent the years of his boyhood at Matoax (see The Bland 
Papers, ii. 9, 119). John Randolph, as is well known, took great pride in his descent 
from the daughter of Powhatan. It is in this wise. His father, John R., sen., 
married a daughter of Richard R., of Curls, whose wife was Jane Boiling, daugh- 
ter of John Boiling, who was son of Robert Boiling, whose wife was Jane Rolfe, 
daughter of Thomas Rolfe, who was the son of Pocahontas. 

t Campbell, pp. 420, 421, 422. 


now deserted and desolate, — we come to the noted 
city of Williamsburg, lying about three miles from the 
river; the place where the Rebel army tirst made its 
stand and where the first battle was fought after the 
evacuation of Yorktown in the spring of 1862. This 
city, for so many years the capital of the State, the 
residence of some of the noted men of Virginia, — 
the place where Patrick Hemy, in the midst of that 
magnificent debate on the Stamp Act resolutions in 
the capitol, exclaimed, " in a voice of thunder, and 
with the look of a god," " Csesar had his Brutus," &c., 
— the site of the oldest seat of learning in the United 
States (except Harvard College), where originated 
the literary society of the Phi Beta Kappa, from 
which the affiliated society at Harvard derived its 
charter, — was known in its early history as " Middle 
Plantation," it being half-way between the James and 
York Rivers.* This place was for a time the head- 

* This place is early referred to as Dr. John Pott's Plantation, described, in 
1633, as a tract of land lying between Queen's Creek, emptying into Charles River, 
— as the Painaunke River, now York, was then called, — and Archer's Hope-Creek, 
emptying into James River. It was subsequently called Middle Plantation. The 
charter of the College was obtained in 1692. The Rev. Mr. Blair was sent over to 
solicit it of their majesties; and Seymour, the English attorney-general, having 
received commands to draw up the charter, which was to be accompanied by a 
grant of monej', remonstrated against such liberality, contending that it was a use- 
less expenditure; that the money was more needed at home, and that there was not 
the slightest occasion for a college in Virginia. Mr. Blair replied that the purpose 
was to educate young men for the ministry, and begged the attorney to reflect that 
the people of Virginia had ?ouls to be saved as well as the people of England. 
'Souls!" exclaimed Seymour, "damn your souls! make tobacco" (Campbell, 
pp. 187, 188; The Works of Franklin, x. iii). 

Governor Nicholson, who succeeded Andros in 1698, removed the seat of gov- 
ernment from Jamestown, which now contained but three or four houses suitable 
for habitation, to Middle Plantation, which now received the name of Williamsburg. 
He designed to make it a large town, and laid out the streets in the form of a W and 


qi;arters of Bacon, the rebel of 1676 ; and here one of 
his comrades was executed. William Drummond had 
recently been Governor of North Carolina. He had 
joined himself to Bacon ; and, in the waning fortunes 
of the rebellion, he escaped, but was captured and 
brought ui. The Governor, Sir William Berkeley, 
being on board ship in Queen's Creek, immediately 
came on shore, and approaching the prisoner, with a 
low bow, said, " Mr. Drummond, you are very wel- 
come : 1 am more glad to see you than any man in 
Virginia. ]\Ir. Drummond, you shall be hanged 
in half an hour."* 

Passing rapidly onward, and merely glancing at 
many places of note, — Camp Butler, the point of 
Newport's News f (which divides the James River 

M, in honor of William and M;iry ; but these ambitious plans were not fully carried 
out (Campbell, p. 3&e). 

The first newspaper in the colony — "The Virginia Gazette" — was published 
at Williamsburg. It was first issued in August, 1736, by William Parks, who here 
printed Stith's History of Virginia in 1747. Sir William Berkeley, in 1671, in his Re- 
port to the Commissioners of Foreign Plantations, thanked God that there were no 
free schools nor printing in Virginia; but there must have been inaterials for printing 
here soon after, if the statement is true, that John Buckner, in 1682, was called 
before Lord Culpepper and his Council, for printing the laws of 1680 without the 
Governor's license, and he and his printer were put under bonds not to jirint 
any thing thereafter until his majesty's pleasure should be known (Hening, ii. 511, 
B18). The earliest extant evidence of printing done in this colony is the edition of 
"The Revised Laws," published in 1733 (Campbell, p. 419). 

* The Beginning, Progress, and Conclusion of Bacon's Rebellion, &c., p. 23 ; 
An Account of Our late Trouble in Virginia, p. 9. Both papers are in vol. i. of 
Force's Tracts. 

t Smith (General! Historie, p. 15«) calls this place " Newports-newes." Beverley 
(History of Virginia, London, 1722, p. 37) says that Captain Newport arrived in 
November, 1621, " with fifty men imported at his own charge, besides passengers, 
and made a plantiition on Newport's News, naming it after himself." The autlmr- 
ities in Smith say, that " Master Gookin came at this time out of Ireland, with fifty 
men of his own, and thirty passengers," &c., and planted himself at this place, and 
do not mention Newport's arrival at this time. An antiquarian friend tells me, that 
he was passing this place some thirty years ago, on a steamer, and the old pilot told 


from Hampton Eoads) and Hampton,* the old Ke- 
coughtan of Smith, on the one side, and the Nanse- 

him they called it Newport's " Noose," and pointed to the cove at the northwest of 
the point of land as the " noose " ; and suggests that the name is a misprint in Smith. 
But the name as given by Smith, whose authority is probably the Company's 
Records, is found in the early tracts. It is " Newports News " in the " New 
Albion," printed in 1648; and the writer had every opportunity of knowing how it 
was then called. Beverley, Stith, and Burk, the last quoting the Company's 
Records, make no suggestions concerning the name, but merely write it as do 
others; and so it appears on Fry aiwi Jefferson's map, executed about 1750. 

Newport's News, as I have stated, was early the residence of Captain Gookin, 
whose son Daniel subsequently came to Massachusetts, and is memorable as the his- 
torian of the Indians of New England. Captain Samuel Matthews, the Governor in 
1659, also resided here. It was at his plantation, some time during the years 1644- 
1647, that he gave " kind entertainment " to " Beauchamp Plantagenet," or whoever 
may have been the person, that, under this imposing pseudonym, wrote the " Descrip- 
tion of the Province of New Albion," printed in 1648; a book which is the earliest 
known authority for the statement, that Argall, on his return from Nova Scotia, in 
1613, landed at Manhattan, and caused the Dutch governor there to submit "to his 
majesty, and to the governor and government of Virginia," which submission was 
"sent to Virginia and recorded" {see New Albion, p. 18; Brodhead's New York, 
p. 754). Another writer, in 1648, describes Captain Matthews as " an old planter of 
above thirty years' standing, , . . hath yorty negro servants, brings them up to 
trades in his house." In connection with the subject of negro slavery in this col- 
ony, I will add, that letters from Virginia at this time relate, that " there are .in Vir- 
ginia about fifteen thousand English, and of negroes brought thither three hundred 
good servants" (A Perfect Description of Virginia, &c., in Force, ii. 2, 14, 15). In 
a letter written from Virginia by John Rolfe (Generall Historic, pp. 126, 127), we 
learn, that, about the last of August, 1619 (not 1620, as is usually stated), there came 
a " Dittch man-of-war" into Virginia, " that sold us twenty negars." This is the 
first notice we have of negroes in that colony. In 1670, the whole population of 
Virginia was forty thousand, of whom only two thousand were negro slaves, six 
thousand being white servants. But few slaves were imported. The average annual 
importation of servants was about fifteen hundred, but they were chietiy English, with 
a few Scotch and Irish. In 1715, Virginia was second in population only to Massa- 
chusetts (then by far the largest of the eleven Anglo-American colonies). She had 
seventy-two thousand whites, and twenty-three thousand negroes. In 1756, with a 
white population of a hundred and seventy three thousand, she had a black popu- 
lation of a hundred and twenty thousand (Campbell, pp. 144, 206, 272, 383, 494). 

* Hampton is the capital of Elizabeth-City County. It early experienced the 
effects of this war. The quaint old church here was occupied as a guard-house by 
Federal troops in the summer of 1861; and, when the place was evacuated by them, 
it was burnt by order of the rebel General Magruder. A few miuutes after midnight, 
on the 7th of August, the torch was applied ; and the greater part of its five huudred 
houses were soon in flames. The town was laid in ashes, and deserted. 

After Point Comfort, Kecoughton was one of the earliest places visited on the 
river; being only two and a half miles from the former place. The savages here from 
the first received the English kindly; and the place was always a favorite resort. 
This was probably the earliest place fortified near the mouth of the river. The 


mond and Elizabeth Rivers, on the other, — all places 
of great interest, both historically and in view of 
recent events, — we come to Old Point Comfort, — 
the Point Comfort of Smith's map. We read in the 
contemporary narratives of the first -comers, that, 
after escaping destruction by the tempest at sea, and 
finding their little fleet in the entrance of the Chesa- 
peake, between the two capes, which they named, — 
Cape Charles, on the right hand, and Cape Henry, 
on the left, — they landed on Cape Henry, opened their 
box containing the orders for their government,' and 
then commenced seeking a place for a settlement. 
Crossing over in their shaUop to a point of land near 
the mouth of the James River, then called the " Pow- 
hatan," and sounding as they approached the shore, 
they say they found good depth of water, which put 
them " in good comfort" ; and they named the place 
" Cape Comfort,"* or "Point Comfort," as it stands on 
Smith's map. This place was subsequently fortified by 
the colony. It has certainly been a Point Comfort to 
the North during this present Rebellion. The posses- 
sion of Fortress Monroe has secured to us that portion 

Lord Delaware, the Governor in 1610, "built two new forts (the one called Fort 
Henry, and the other Fort Charles, in honor of our most noble Prince and his bro- 
ther) upon a pleasant hill, and near a little rivulet, which we call South-hanapton 
Kiver" (A True Declaration of Virpnia, 1610, pp. 51, 52). "Here it was intended," 
says Stith, "that those who came from England, should be quartered at their first 
landing, that the wearisomeness and nausea of the sea might be refreshed in this 
pleasant situation and wholesome air" (p 120). 

• Percy's "Observations," &o. in Purchas, iv. 1627; Smith's Virginia, 1612, 
part ii. pp. 8, 9. 



of Vu'ginia which commands the entrance of all her 
prmcipal rivers. 

In the interesting paper just read to us by Mr. Hale, 
he has called our attention to another spot not far from 
this neighborhood ; not upon the James River, but 
upon the adjoining river, the York, the ".Pamavnke " 
of Smith ; a spot not inferior in interest to Jamestown 
itself. I mean the place which was the principal and 
favorite residence of the Emperor Powhatan during the 
first few years of the settlement of Virginia, called 
by Smith, who also indicates it on his map, " Wero- 
wocomoco." It is on the north side of York River, in 
Gloucester County, only a few miles distant from the 
historic field of Yorktown, on the other side the river, 
now memorable for its two sieges. Smith, in his ear- 
liest tract on Virginia, says, " The bay where he 
dwelleth hath in it three creeks, and a mile and a 
half from the channel." Mr. Campbell, in his recent 
History of Virginia, locates the place " at Powhatan's 
Chimney," on the east side of Timber-neck Bay, 
where stands the old stone chimney, which Bishop 
Meade, who made a pilgrimage to see it, thinks is the 
veritable one built for the old chief by the colonists. 
It was to WerowocomocQ that Captain Smith, after 
having been taken prisoner in December, 1607, on 
the Chickahominy, and been shown roimd from chief 
to chief, even to the upper waters of the Potomac, was - 
finally brought; and here he for the first time saw 


the JImperor Powhatan.* It was here, too, as Smith 
alleges in one of his later works, that occurred the 
romantic incident of his rescue from the cruel clubs 
of the savages, by the young girl Pocahontas. It was 
here that the necessities of the Colony were often 
relieved by supplies of corn ; and here also the 
mock ceremony of crowning the old chief was per- 
formed by Newport. f After a few years, Powhatan 
removed from this place, choosing another spot, 
further up the river, for his principal place of resi- 

Reference has been made to Smith's Map of Vir- 
ginia ; and, before concluding these remarks, I would 
like to say a word respecting it. When we consider 
the circumstances under which the sketch for this map 
was made, we may weU regard it as a remarkable 
production. Smith was about three months on his 
topographical survey ; at least, of that part of Chesa- 
peake Bay which lies north of the James River. He 
was chiefly employed, for the first year of his residence 
in the Colony, in exploring the James and its tribu- 

* Campbell, pp. 18, 49, 62, 63, 67, 159, 130; Compare Meade, i. 336, 350; Wing- 
field's Discourse, &c., in Archseol. Amer. vol. iv. p. 78, notes, 8, 9. 

t " Here, two centuries and a«half ago, dwelt the famous old Powhatan, tall, 
erect, stern, apparently beardless, his hair a little frosted with gray. Here he 
beheld with barbarous satisfaction, the scalps of his enemies recently massacred, 
suspended on a line between two trees, and waving in the breeze. Here he listened 
to recitals of hunting and blood; and, in the red glare of the council-fire, planned 
schemes of perfidy and revenge. Here he sate and smoked, sometimes observing 
Pocahontas at play, sometimes watching the fleet canoe coming in from the 
Pamaunke. Werowocomoco was a befitting seat of the great chief, overlooking 
the bay with its bold, picturesque, wood-crowned banks; and in view of the wide 
mnjestio flood of the river, impurpled by transient cloud-shadows, or tinged with 
the rosy splendor of a summer sunset" (Campbell, p. 68, 69). 


tavies, with occasional visits to tlie Indian settlements 
on the Pamaunke, for the purpose of replenishing 
the stores of food at JamestoAvn. In the early 
part of June, 1608, however, he started, with four- 
teen men, in a barge of two tons, on a voyage of 
exploration. The party went down the river, shot 
across to the Eastern Shore, fell in with the isles 
called " Smith's Isles," and bending their way along to 
the north, inside the Bay, examined every river, inlet, 
island, and point of land, till they reached " Limbo 
lies;" when they crossed over to the western shore, 
and still proceeded northward. After ha\ing been 
absent about fourteen days, some of the company, by 
exposure and hard labor, had become much exhausted, 
and consequently somewhat discouraged. Three or 
four of the men had fallen sick ; and it was decided 
that the whole party should now return to James- 
tovm. On the 16th of June, they came in sight of 
the beautiful river Potomac, which they described as 
nine miles broad. They knew not the name of this 
noble stream ; and, as the sick men had now recov- 
ered, the party resolved to explore it. They went up 
thirty miles, to near the spot of the future birthplace 
of Washington,* before seeing any inhabitants. Soon 
afterward, they came near falhng into an ambuscade 
of two or three hundred savages, but, by the discreet 
and gallant conduct of Smith, escaped injury. After 
returning again to the Bay, they were astonished at 

* Campbell, p. 57. 


the great abundance of fish which they saw swimming 
around them, and which, for want of nets, they at- 
tempted to catch with a frying-pan : but the early 
narrators of the expedition say, that they found it a 
very bad instrument to catch fish with. They never 
had seen a greater abundance of fish ; but they were 
" not to be caught with frying-pans." And here the 
following incident is recorded. Happening to run 
their boat aground, near the mouth of the Rappahan- 
nock, then called " Tappahannock," and espying 
many fish lurking among the weeds on the sand, 
Captain Smith and his men amused themselves " by 
nailing the fish to the ground " Avith then- swords, 
by which means they caught in an hour more than 
they could eat in a day. But the Captain, happening 
to spear a strange fish, " being much of the fashion 
of a thornback," — a "stingray,"* as it is called in 
the margin, — " with a long tail like a riding-rod, 
where, on the middest, is a most poisonous stmg, of 
two or three inches long, bearded like a saw on each 
side,"t in taking it from his sword, was severely 
wounded in his wrist, Avhich caused such a great 
swelling in his arm and shoulder, as they " all with 
much sorrow concluded his funeral," and, according 
to his own direction, " prepared his grave in an isle 
hard by." By the help, however, of a precioUs oil, 

* The " Sting Ray " is sometimes called the " saw-tailed skate." The Ray 
family is quite numerous, and embraces the thornback, the skate, the torpedo, or 
electric ray, &c. 

t Compare Smith's Virginia, 1612, part ii. p. 34, with his Generall Historic, 


which Dr. Russell, one of the party, fortunately had 
about him, the Captain's pain was so far assuaged, 
that he was able at night to take sweet revenge on 
the offending fish by eating it for his supper. The 
island where the grave was dug was named " Stingray 
Isle," which may be seen on Smith's map. On later 
maps the island is not seen ; but we find in its place 
" Stingray Point." If the place ever was an island, 
the alluvium from the river has joined it to the main 
land. The party now thought best to proceed directly 
to Jamestown, where they an-ived on the 21st of July, 
having been gone seven weeks. 

Three days afterward, Smith again set forward " to 
finish the discovery," with twelve men, — "gentlemen" 
and " soldiers." After being detained two or three days 
at Kecoughtan by contrary vdnds, the party embarked 
again; and, anchoring the first night at "'Stingray 
Isle," prepared to make further . discoveries at the 
head of the Bay. They encountered savage tribes of 
Indians, who dwelt on the more northerly rivers, and 
generally they were received with every indication of 
welcome. On exploring the rivers, the voyagers gave 
names to prominent places ; and, at the extreme limits 
of discovery, crosses were cut in the bark of trees, or 
were otherwise exhibited. Returning, the party went 
up the Rappahannock River, where, with few excep- 
tions, they received kind treatment from the natives 
there inhabiting. During this part of the voyage, one 
of their number died, and was buried on the banks of 


this picturesque river, with a volley of shot. Smith 
has perpetuated the name and the place of his burial 
on his map by " Fetherstone's Bay." This river 
was explored to the falls, where a hostile encounter 
took place with some Indians. This was near the 
place where Fredericksburg now stands. Smith 
never di-eamed of the terrible battles which would be 
fought near that spot, — not between the English and 
the savages whom he so often encountered, — but 
between two hostile sections of a country, with the 
settlement of each of which his name is so intimately 

After exploring the Payankatank River, the voyagers 
returned to Point Comfort, having encountered a severe 
thunder-storm in Gosnold's Bay. Smith then visited 
the Elizabeth and Nansemond Rivers, on the former 
of which Norfolk is situated, had some skirmishing 
with the Indians dwellmg there, procured as much 
corn as he could carry away, and arrived at James- 
town on the 9th of September ; having been absent 
on this last expedition a little over six weeks.* 

The draft of his map indicating these and other 
discoveries made in Virginia, Smith sent home before 
the close of this year, with a letter to the Company, 
in which he says : " I have sent you this Map of 
the Bay and Rivers, with an annexed Relation 

• For these two voyages of exploration, see Smith's Tract of 1612, part ii. pp. 
28-40, with which compare his Generall Historie, pp. 64, 65. The account of the 
visit to the " Chisapeaks & Nandsamnnds " at this time, is not contained in 
the tract of 1612. It first appears in tlie Generall Historic. 


of the Countries and Nations that inhabit them, as 
you may see at large." The "annexed Relation" is 
doubtless that portion of the tract published at Ox- 
ford in 1612, entitled " Map of Virginia," &c., which 
is embraced in the first thirty-nine pages ; -at the con- 
clusion of which, as published subsequently in his 
"• Generall Historic," is the following : " John Smith 
writ this with his own hand." The Map was first 
published in this Oxford tract. It was subsequently 
issued in the " Generall Historic," which was first pub- 
lished in 1624, and it is sometimes found inserted in 
the fourth volume of Purchas's Pilgrims, between the 
pp. 1690 and 1691. Smith's Map was the basis of all 
the maps of Virginia for more than one hundi-ed 
years. It was copied in good facsimile for De Bry's 
German large voyages, in 1627 and 1628 ; also for 
Gottfried's " Newe Welt," &c., 1631. It was early 
copied for two English editions of Hondy's Mercator, 
with fanciful additions, and is found, at a later date, 
in Ogilby's huge folio on America. The first complete 
map of Virginia was made by Joshua Fry, Professor of 
Mathematics in William and Mary CoUege, in connec- 
tion with Peter JeflFerson, a land-surveyor, the father 
of Thomas Jefierson. It was made about the year 
1750, and was soon after included in Jefferys's work 
on North America. It was copied by Stockdale for 
Jefferson's "Notes on Virginia," 1787.