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Full text of "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1889"

PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 



FOR 



PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



Vol. XXVI. 
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1889. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 

BY MAC CALLA & COMPANY. 

1889. 



9 
// 

PS 
v. £(> 






f23 



Oct. 19, 1888.] -*- [Sargent. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THB 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 
HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 

Vol. XXVI. January to July, 1889. No. 129. 



Portions of the Journal of Andre Michaux, Botanist, written during his 
Travels in the United States and Canada, 17S5 to 1796. With an Introduc- 
tion, and Explanatory Notes, by C. S. Sargent. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, October 19, 1SSS ) 

PliEFACK. 

The younger Michaux, in the year 1824, presented to the American 
Philosophical Society the manuscript diary kept by his father during his 
travels in America. The first parts had been unfortunately lost in the 
wreck of the vessel in which Michaux returned to France from America, 
and no record is preserved of his travels in this country from the time of 
his arrival in New York in September, 1785, until his first visit to South 
Carolina in 1787. 

Reference is made to this Journal by Deleuze in his biographical memoir 
of Michaux, printed in the fourth volume of the Annates du Museum in 
1804, and, doubtless, he had access to its pages, as without them he could 
scarcely have followed the footsteps of the French botanist through the 
wilds of the American continent. The first notice of the Journal which ap- 
peared in this country is found in a paper by Prof. Asa Gray, entitled 
Notes of a Botanical Excursion to the Mountains of North Carolina, pub- 
lished in the American Journal of Science, in 1841, in which some account of 
Michaux's American travels and discoveries, with short extracts from his 
Journal, appear. A more detailed account of those parts of this document 
which relate to Canada, with notes upon Michaux's Canadian plants, was 
published in 1863 by the Abbe Ovide Brunet under the title of Notice sur 
les Plantes de Michaux et sur son Voyage au Canada et a la Baie Hudson. 
These brief extracts directed the attention of botanists to this record of the 
travels of one of the most interesting and picturesque figures in the annals 
of botanical discovery in America ; and for many years the feeling has 
existed among them that the Journal which furnishes an important chap- 
ter in the history of the development of American botany should be pub- 
lished. The American Philosophical Society having shared in these views, 

PROC. AMKR. PHIL08. S0C. XXVI. 129. A. PRINTED FEB. 11, 1889. 



Sargent.] & [Oct. 19, 

a copy of the manuscript has heen placed in mj r hands for publication. 
It is now printed as Miehaux wrote it by the light of his lonely camp-fires, 
during brief moments snatched from short hours of repose, in the midst 
of hardships and often surrounded with dangers. The character of the 
man appears in this record of his daily life ; and any attempt to correct or 
extend his words would destroy their individuality and diminish the his- 
torical value of his diary. 

The Journal is something more than a mere diary of travel and botani- 
cal discovery. The information which it contains in regard to various 
plants first detected b}- Miehaux is valuable even now ; and his remarks 
upon the condition of the remote settlements which he visited in the 
course of his wanderings are interesting and often amusing. They record 
the impressions of a man of unusual intelligence — a traveler in many lands 
who had learned by long practice to use his eyes to good advantage and 
to write down only what they saw. 

The duty of preparing the Journal for the press has fallen to me nbt 
from any especial fitness of mine for the task, but rather because no other 
hand was available for it. And it is to my old friend, Mr. John H. Red- 
field, of Philadelphia, who has aided me in this work constantly and un- 
tiringly, and not to me, that should be given the thanks of botanists for 
placing within their reach the story of Michaux's researches in a field 
which they have cultivated since his time with so much zeal and success. 
For without his assistance the publication would never have been begun, 
and could not have been finished. 

C. S. SARGENT. 
old Arboretum, Brookline, Mass., December, 1SSS. 



Andhe Michaux.* 



Andre* Miehaux will be remembered as long as North American plants 
are studied or cultivated. He was the first botanist who ever traveled 
v in this country, although it must not be forgotten that John 
nnd William Rarlrnm, his predcceMOTI by several years in the same field, 
did much to prepare the way for his wider and more detailed explorations. 
The flr^t connected and systematic work upon the flora of North America 
waa based largely opon his collections and bears the impress of his name, 
while it whs by his efforts that many American plants were first made 
known in M of I'.nrope. 

whs born at Satory, In the neighborhood of Versailles, on 

' M Kb, 1746, on a farm situated in the public domain, and 

carried on l,y Ids fnlher. UN early training was all directed to preparing 

OPOD tln> memoir tiy M . Ivleu/e, 



18S8.] ° [Sargent. 

him for the simple and laborious life of a farmer of the middle class, and 
his schooling ended in his fourteenth year. His father died three years 
later, and Andre and his brother became joint managers of the farm. 
This arrangement lasted for four years, during which the self-reliance and 
power to resist hardship and fatigue, which later distinguished the explorer 
of the Persian deserts and of the trackless wilds of the Carolina forests, 
were no doubt acquired and developed. 

Michaux married, in 1769, Cecil Claye, the daughter of a rich farmer 
of Beauce, who died a year later in giving birth to a son, Franqois Andre 
Michaux, the historian of the forest-trees of North America. The sudden 
termination of his married life made a more active and exciting occupa- 
tion necessary to him and ended his agricultural career. Fortunately one 
of his neighbors, de#>ted to horticulture and botany, became interested in 
the young man and directed his attention to these subjects ; and he soon 
became inspired with a desire to travel for the purpose of bringing back 
to France the useful plants of other countries, especially those of the 
Orient. This idea became so fixed in his mind that he gave up his farm 
and devoted himself to the study of natural history and languages, and 
having the good fortune to make the acquaintance of Bernard de Jussieu, 
at that time in charge of the gardens of the Trianon, he passed some time 
with him there, and afterwards at the Museum in Paris, in perfecting 
himself in botany. Michaux's first journeys were made at this time. He 
visited England and studied the English collections of plants, and English 
methods of horticulture, and in 1788 was invited to join a party of botan- 
ists, including Lamarck and Thouin, in an excursion to the mountains of 
Auvergne. The zeal, activity and enthusiasm of the young collector were 
the admiration of the party, and led no doubt to his selection shortly after- 
ward to accompany the French consul, Russeau, to Persia. The royal 
treasury supplied the money for this journey. 

Michaux left Paris in 1782 for Aleppo and Bagdad, which he reached after 
a journey of thirty days across the desert ; here he separated from the consu- 
lar party for the purpose of exploring the country between the Tigris and the 
Euphrates. He traveled extensively and mastered Persian, even writing, 
one of his biographers tells us, a dictionary of that language. This journey 
nearly cost Michaux his life at the hands of a party of marauding Arabs who 
seized and stripped him and were about to end his days, when he was 
rescued by the English consul at Bassora, who supplied him with the 
means of continuing his journey to Ispahan. Two years were then 
devoted to the exploration of the little known region between the Indian 
ocean and the Caspian sea. From this long and arduous journey Michaux 
returned to Paris early in 1785, bringing with him a valuable herbarium 
and a large collection of seeds. The hardships and sufferings which he 
had endured only served to stimulate his love of adventure and remark- 
able energy ; and he had scarcely arrived in Paris before he was planning 
another journey which was to embrace the country east of the Caspian sea 
and to extend into Cashmere and Thibet. Fortunately, however, for the 



Saigent] * [Oct. 19, 

United States he was unable, through a lack of financial support, to carry- 
out these plans. 

Michaux was not destined, however, to remain long in France. The 
government was anxious at this time to introduce into the royal plan- 
tations the most valuable trees of eastern North America, and Michaux 
was selected for this undertaking. He was instructed to explore the terri- 
tory of ilie United States, to gather seeds of trees, shrubs and other plants, 
and to establish a nursery near New York for their reception, and after- 
wards to send them to France, where they were to be planted in the Park of 
Bambouillet. He was directed also to send game birds from America with 
a view to their introduction into the plantations of American trees. 

Michaux, accompanied by his son, then fifteen years old, arrived in New 
York in October, 1785. Here, during two years, he*made his principal 
ience, establishing a nursery, of which all trace has now disappeared, 
and making a number of short botanical journeys into New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and Maryland. The fruits of these preliminary explorations, 
including twelve boxes of seeds, five thousand seedling trees and a num- 
ber of live partridges, were sent to Paris at the end of the first year. 

Mithaux's first visit to South Carolina was made in September, 1787. 
He found Charleston a more suitable place for bis nurseries, and made 
that city bis headquarters during the rest of his stay in America. Michaux's 
journeys in this country after his establishment in Charleston are detailed 
in the Journal. They cover the territory of North America from Hudson's 
Bay to the Indian river In Florida, and from the Bahama islands to the 
banks of the Mississippi river. His ambition to carry out his instructions 
,iy by his courage and industry. The history of botanical 
no greater display of fortitude and enthusiasm in the 
purt>uit of knowledge, than Michaux showed in his journey to the head- 
: the Savannah river in December, 17SS, when his zeal was re- 
covery of Shortia, <>r in the return from his visit to 
Hud- The hardship of this last journey even did not satisfy his 

Bg| lor adventure and discovery ; and shortly after his return he laid 

i - phical Society a proposition to explore the un< 

know which extended beyond the Missouri. His proposition 

llie sum of live thousand dollars was raised by sub- 

• the journey •, all arrangements were 

rl when he was called upon by the Minister 

!b public, lately arrived in New York, to proceed to Ken- 

■ execute SOme bOSineSI glOWUg out Of the relations between 

e and Spain with regard to the transfer <>t' Louisiana. It wai this 

lOggnsUon ot Miciiaux.no doubt, which led Mr. Jefferson, who had re< 

later the first tianscon- 
■M's ot the ; 

, and a second made Into the far West, occu- 
pied Mkhaux I •■ IhlM }• r. fie returned finally to 
(. harlrtlon in the spring o! I most 



1883] *> f [Sargent. 

flourishing condition ; they were stocked with the rarest Americin 
plants collected during years of labor and hardship ; and with many 
of those plants of the old world which Michaux was the first to Intro- 
duce into the United States. His services to this country iu this way 
were considerable. The tallow tree, Stillingia sebifera, now often culti- 
vated and somewhat naturalized in the Southern States, and the beautifi 1 
Albizzia Julibrissin, were first planted In the United States by him. Tlie 
possibility of improving the condition of this country by the introducti. n 
of the Olive and other foreign trees was a subject which always deeply 
interested Michaux, and his knowledge of botany and of the agriculture 
Of the Old World was invariably placed at the disposal of the people among 
whom his travels carried him. It is said that he first taught the settlers 
in the Alleghany mountains the value of the Ginseng, and showed them 
how to prepare it for the Chinese market — a service which gained for him 
a membership in the exclusive Agricultural Society of Charleston. 

His movements for several years had been impeded, and the success of 
his journeys interfered with by the lack of financial support from the 
French government, and Michaux found, on his return to South Carolina, 
that his resources were entirely exhausted. An obscure botanical traveler, 
almost forgotten In a distant land, had little hope of recognition from Paris 
during the closing years of the last century, and it was now evident that 
he could depend no longer on support and assistance from France. He 
determined, therefore, rather than sell the trees which he longed to see 
flourishing on French soil, to return to Paris. 

Michaux sailed from Charleston on the thirteenth of August, 1796. The 
voyage was tempestuous and ended in disaster. On the eighteenth of 
September the vessel encountered a severe storm off the coast of Holland. 
She was blown upon the shore and the crew and passengers, worn out by 
exposure and fatigue, would have perished but for the assistance of the 
inhabitants of tlie little village of Egmont. Michaux fastened himself to 
a plank and finally was washed ashore, unconscious and more dead than 
alive. His baggage was lost, but his precious packages of plants which 
were stored in the hold of the vessel were saved, though saturated with 
salt water. He remained in Egmont for several weeks to regain his 
strength and to dry and rearrange his plants, and did not reach Paris 
until January. He was received with great distinction and kindness by 
the botanists of the Museum, but a bitter disappointment awaited him. 
An insignificant number only of the six thousand trees which he had sent 
to France during the eleven years he had passed in America remained 
alive. The storms of the Revolution and of the Empire had swept through 
the nurseries of Rambouillet, and Michaux's American trees were de- 
stroyed or hopelessly scattered. 

This was the greatest disappointment of his life, but he was not discour- 
aged. All his influence was employed to secure from the French govern- 
ment another commission to return to America for a fresh supply of 
material for the Rambouillet nurseries. He was not, however, to see the 



Sargent.] " [Oct. 19, 

New World again. His salary had not been paid for seven years, his per- 
sonal resources were exhausted, and the government was unwilling or 
.unahle to assist him. 

Baudin wag about to sail for New Holland on his voyage of discovery, 
and Michaux was given the opportunity of accompanying him as natu- 
ralist. He finally accepted this otter, somewhat unwillingly, for his 
thoughts and his longings wereall directed towards America, and only on 
condition that he might leave the vessel at the Isle of France, should cir- 
cumstances seem to make it desirable for him to do so. Baudin sailed 
on the 18th of October, 1800, and touched at Teneriffe, where Michaux 
was able to make valuable botanical collections, and reached the Isle 
of France on the 19th of February, the following year. Here after a 
stay of six months, in which Michaux made his first acquaintance with 
the vegetation of the real tropics, he left the party for the purpose of 
exploring the island of Madagascar, which seemed to otter a more useful 
field than New Holland for his labors. 

He landed on the east coast, and at once set about laying out a garden in 
which he hoped to establish, provisionally, the plants he intended to bring 
back from his journeys in the interior. Impatient of the delays caused by 
the indolence of the natives he had employed to prepare the ground, 
inx. in spite of the warnings of persons familiar with the danger of 
exposure and overexertion under a tropical sun, insisted upon working 
himself day after day. He was soon prostrated with fever, but his vigor- 
ous constitution and indomitable will enabled him to resist the attack, and 
his health being partially restored at the end of four months he was ready 
to start fortlie mountains. His preparations wen all made, but on the 
eve of his departure, late in November, 1802, he was attacked again with 
iinl died suddenly. 

Andre" Michaux was only fifty-six years old, still in the prime of life 
and possessed of all his powers, when his useful career was thus suddenly 
brought t<> an end. Personally little is known of Michaux beyond what 

may be learned from the peine*] of his Journal. No portrait of him is 

known to exist.* He is said to have possessed a frank though some- 
wh.it taciturn nature, a not uncommon character in men who have pasted 
their lives in solitary wandering! or who have heen long exposed to the 
bardshlpi and the dangers Ol ihc wilderness. His tastes were simple, and 

^dependence ol hi-, ohareotei waeoaly equaled by his modesty and an- 

OetOntatkHM kindness to all persons with whom his wanderings brought 

Mi< ..'.tivulioii and literary ability. Judged by hi! .Journal, W t re 

, ! his repOtSiion an an author is due to the fact that his mime 

wee printed upon the title page ol Iht eleatioal " Flora />'">•< mU Awn rfaMM ," 

iv from the plants collected by Michaux in 

■ Inn < .r tl»«- Mu* urn voir. I in tsei to plnco h bust 
,,' v | „i . ,! •! . psrdea to tesogalttnn of hl» tsrvfoos to natural sciaaot. Udoasnot 
■peeai how»»»i "" ,l |l was evei BUtda; ai least lbs botautitt ol the Mussiuq beve 
now ao rteollactkm or u, i been uaabls to find any traoe of this oi of any 

other portrait of *ux. 



1888.] * [Sargent. 

North America, and upon the " Ilisloire des Chenesde V Amerique," which, 
if Richard did not write, he or some author of greater literary skill than 
Michaux possessed must have recast and corrected. The work upon the 
Oaks did not appear till 1801, when Michaux had left France for Mada- 
gascar, while the Flora was not published until 1803, a year after 
his death. Two shorter memoirs are ascribed to the pen of Michaux — an 
article upon the Date Palm and its Cultivation, read before the National 
Institute of France and published in the Journal de Physique, and a paper 
containing the results of his observations upon the Ginseng communicated 
to the Agricultural Society of Charleston. 

The reputation of Michaux, however, does not depend upon his literary 
attainments and achievement ; he worked in the field and in the forest 
and not in the closet. Not one among the self-sacrificing explorers and 
collectors of the plants of this continent better deserves the gratitude and 
appreciation of the world of science. No one of them has ever seen more 
clearly, or has endured more willingly and uncomplainingly the perils 
and hardships of the frontier and the wilderness. His eye always detected 
the rarest and the most interesting plants—the ambition and long the 
despair of the plant-hunters who have now for a century been following 

in his footsteps.* 

C. S. S. 

Michaux, the Youngek, to the Ameiucan Philosophical Society, 

Philadelphia. 

Pendant pies de onze ans que raon Pere a presque chaque annee visit e" 
une partie de l'Union, il n'a cesse" d'eprouver dans ses voyages la bien- 
veillance la plus marquee de la part des habitants des endroits ou il faisoit 
quelque sejour. Le plaisir qu'il en ressentoit 6toit du a la bonle" de son 
caraciere et a sa severe morality. Partout on ne cessoit d'admirer son zele 
ardent pour ajouter aux progies des sciences naturelles et plus particu- 
lierement de la Botanique. 

Campant presque toujours dans les hois, e'etoit la nuit a la lueur du feu 
que raon pftre ecrivoit les remarques qu'il avoit faites dans le jour. 

Si ces journaux que j'offre a la soci<5te Philosophique de Philadelphie 
(a la quelle j'ai l'honneur d'appartenir) ne renferme rien qui soit utile aux 
Botanistes AmSricains a venir, an moins ils pourront §tre assures d'avoir 
sous les yeux, les notes tracers par la main d'un homme qui consacra une 
grande partie de son existence au progies de la Botanique : L'existence 
qu'il perdit (si je puis m'exprimer ainsi), les armes a la main dans des 
laborieuses recherches, sur les cotes de l'lsle de Madagascar. 

F. ANDRE MICHAUX. 

Paris le 15 Janvier, IS24. 

P. s.— Les deux cahiers de 1785 (septembre) a 1787 ont 6t6 perdus dans 
son naufrage sur les cdtes de Hollande. 

* It is only t wo years since Shortia was discovered in or near Michanx's original local ity. 
His other plants have, I believe, all been found, with the exception of Illieium purvi- 
florum (since collected, however, by Charles Wright in Cuba). 



Michaux.] O [Oct. 19, 

JOURNAL DE ANDRE MICHAUX. 

2dCAHiER. 1787. 

Avril, 17 S7. 

Journal de mon Voyage. 

Jeudy — 19 Avril venu de Chariest, a la Plant. 

Le 19 Avril 1787 parti de la Plantat. et venu couclier a Ashley ferry 10 M*. 

Le Venredy 20. Styrax angustifol. et latifol. en fleur, Nyssa aquatica 
en fl. et Sarracenia lutea altera species. Venu a un Mille ou deux de Par- 
ker's ferry distant de Charleston de 32 Milles. 

Le 21. sur les bords de la rivierre en entrant dans le bois ; a main gauche, 
avant de passer le ferry nomme' Parker's ferry sur la rivierre Eddisto, 
trouv£ un Gleditsia . . . trois esp. de Mespilus et un arbriss. lai- 
teux rleurs en grappes non epanouies et quelques fruits de l'annee der- 
niere ressemblans aim Tithymalus (Stillingia),* plus un pin a 2 feuilles.f 
En continuant la route pour passer a Ashpao ferry j'ai trouve 1 plusi. Pins 
a deux feuilles. Nous sommes venus coucher a deux Milles au de la de 
Ashpao ferry. 

Le Dimanche 22. pas«e le ferry nomine" Combahee bridge situe 1 a dix 
Milles du precedent sur Combahie riv. Un peu avant d'arriver a ce 
ferry entre la PI. de M. Dais recueilli une Plante bulbeuse fl. en Spathe 
(Pancnitium mexic.J) au nombre de 2 communement. Cal. tubule partage 
regulierement en (>, six fitam, dont les filets 6tant tres longs sortent de 
rextremitr d'une espece de corolle (blanche) nectarife ; pistille long, 
gernie inferieure. Apies avoir pas-e le ferry a la distance de q ques milles 
on trouve assez abondamment le Nyssa a larges f. dentees. 

Le 23 notre marche hit de 13 milles et nous passames . . . Nous 
trnver.»ain<-s ]>lnsi. prairies steriles et humectees conlinuellement par la 
Mer, in- produisant que des joncs. 

Arrive mi lien du campement je reVueilli^ une Verbena longiflora Cal. 

5 partit. laeiniis subulatis. Coroll. presque irrcguliere, tub. long. Entree 

■ Cor. velne et le tube nudessous des etam. anssi vein. Ktam. 4 dont 

il y en i 'J plus eourirs. I'ist . gcrme a 4 angles style de lalongeur du tube. 

I I'.|>i j f. >>\>\>o*. pinnatititles. 

Le M Avril. MtN m ucbr tut de Ifl Milles et nous campaines a 7 Milles 

ded: .ire inarebe fat toujour* dans les bois, nous 

- MOlOMttt trois plants, situ.Vs :i q qo. distances de la route et sur 

deelieux beset natla d oa ae peal royaferaade an pays 

pluH ni tomsoi de Pins. Dane h-s parties humidee, 

Je ▼!• dee Nyssa aquaii-.i ( lopiMMi dlsttoha et Qotdonk laaianthus. 

Le 25 nous flutes MM trait.- d>- boll Milles et nous vinines loger a la 

• ' •'■•'.•■ i ■'.,"/•' -•■(, lii-rv nutlet')! lot tin' lli-t time <'. S. M. 

Hnlma, publkbed one rear latex In Uan- 

i 



1838.] » [Michaux. 

maison du ferry sur la rive gauche de la rivierre Savanah, situee a une dis- 
tance egale de Parisbourg et de Abicorn. 

Pendant cinq ou six milles, le terrain continua d'etre aride ne produi- 
sant q. des Pins et dans les lieux humides des Cypres. 

Trois milles avant d'arriver au ferry, il parut argilleux et ensuite nous 
trouvames un sol sablonneux. raais inegal et forme en collines produisant 
benucoup de plantes que je n'avais pas vu prt'ceJemment. Je recueillis 
deux especes de Lupins, scav. Lupinus perennis et le Lupin, pilosus ;* 
deux especes de Verbena scav. Verbena . . . et Verbena caroliniana. 
Deux especes d' Asclepias. Plusi. espeees de Tythymalis. Dans les swamps, 
le Nyssa a f. dentees, Stillingia sylvalica. Une espece d'Annona.f etc. 

En arrivant sur le bord de la riv., je vi3 la Sideroxilon tomax4 Un 
Ligustrum§ (monospermum ?). 

Annona 2 especes. Magnolia grandif. 

Dans les lieux submerges et couverts Betula papyrifera, || Platanus, Gle- 
ditsia, Nyssa, etc., etc. 

Je tuai le matin un tres beau serpent a bandes jaunes, noires et rouges, 
ces coul. eloient bien vives et bien marquees. Je tuai trois serpents de 
l'especc appel. Mocassine, l'un etait de 3 pi. 9 pouces de long et 8 po. 
de circonf. Mon fils tua une autre espece appelee Black Snake, serp. noir. 
Celui-ci est l'ennemi du serpent sonnette et quoiqu'il ne soit pas veni- 
meux, il reussit a le faire perir uniquement par sa vitesse et la rapiditu de 
sa course (si Ton peut nommer course Taction progressive d'un animal 
qui n'a point de pieds). Le serpent sonnette se traine pesemment et 
s'eloigne rarement du lieu de sa retraite qui est ordiuairement les cavites 
formers par les racines et la terre d'un arbre pourriou renverse\ Lorsque 
le serpent noir rencontre son adversaire, it court avec rapidite sur son 
corps et passe au de la. il revient avec la meme vitesse et continue jusqu'a 
ce que le serpent sonnette par les efforts reiteres pour mordre son ennemi, 
se mord lui me.ne et se dODne ainsi la mort par le renin de sa morsure. 

Le 26 aprea avoir visits environ un Mille sur cette riv. nou passames 
dans un bateau de l'autre to e de la riv. que nous descendimes pendant 4 
Milles jusqu'a un endroit horde* de collines et couvert de bois ou je re- 
cueillis le Dirca palustris, Kilmia qui differe un peu du latifolia par la 
couleur des fl. Un Azalea cocciuea^[ dont la couleur est un rouge fonoe 
dans toutes les parties de la fleur. Quoiq. cette couleur ne soit pas ties 
vive, cet arbrisseau sera un des plusagreables pour l'ornem't des Jard. II 
paroit avoir du rapport av. l'Azalea nudiflora. 

Je recueillis laSileue Virginica, je vis beaucoup de Chionanthus Un Mag- 

* L. villosus, Willd.— C. S. S. 

t Asimina parriflora Dunal, a common plant in this region.— C. S. S. 

I Humelia tenax.—C. S. S. 

§ Olea Americana.— -C. S. S. 

I No doubt B. nigra, the only species found near the coast of the Southern States.— 

c. s. s. 

V Rhododendron nudiflorum Torr. (Azalea canescena, Michx.).— C. S. S. 

PIIOC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. B. PRINTED FEB. 11, 1889. 



Miohaux] It) [Oct. 19, 

nolia en fleurs de la grandeur et de la forme de celles du Magnol. trlpetala, 
(xleur ties agr&ible au lieu que dans le Magn. tripet. L'odeur de son 
bols est agreable mais celle des fl. ne Test pas ; il diflere du Magnol. par 
ses feuilles qui sont petiolee^ de la longueur de deux pouces et cordi- 
formes a 1'insert de la feuill. qui est longue et termiuee par une espece 
de 3 angles.* Un tres grand arbriss. que je crois l'Andromeda arbo- 
rea, il n'etait pas en fleur, mais les grappes de sem. de l'ann. preced. 
et le gout acide des f. me firent jugerque ce peut etre l'And. arborea. Nous 
imes le ferry vers les 2 b. apr. Midy et nous trouvames les cbem. si 
mauvais que no. f imes seulemt deux milles in 5 beures de temps. II fallut 
passer de la bauteur des jambes des cbev. dans la Vase et qq. f. dans 
l'eau. Dans un endroit ou le pont avoit etc rompu il fallut que les cbev. 
passassent a la nage. 

Le 27 nous retrouvames le sol assez aride, mais dans les ravines ou ruis. 
d'eau qui ne coule pas continuellemt. je recueillis l'Azaleaf couleur de 
feu. La couleur de cet Azal. qui est dans toutes les parties de la fl. aussi 
fonc^e, Corolle, Etam. etPistille, est celle de l'llemerocallisfulva, mais dans 
les lieux plus decouverts et moins ombrag£s cet couleur est encore plus 
forte. Apres avoir marcbe peudt Milles nous arrivatnes a une espece de 
mauvais bameau appele" ici ville, compose" seulemeut de 4 ou 5 maisons. 
Ce lieu est nomine 1 Ebenezer. A un Mille de ce lieu, touj. en suivant la 
route de Savanab dans des lieux bas couvert de Hetula papyrifera$ et pies 
d'une rivierre nomnu-e . . . je recueillis la Gleditsiag capsula ovali 
unicum semen claudente, j'y recueillis plusi. I'lantes remarquables ; une 
espece d'Asclepias| a f, oppo. e roites, tig. tres menues, grimpantes, les 
fl. ne paraissoient pas encore, mais les siliq. de l'annee pr6c6dente etoient 
fassembl. en bouquets, tres longues et menues ; je trouvois q. ques sem. a 
aigrette-; dans lei Siliques. Je recueillis dans ce lieu un autre arbriss. 
grimpant ayant beaucoup de rapport au Bignonia sempervirens. Un 
l'olygala rosea? On Astragalus, etc., etc. Arethusa divarieata et Are- 
tbusu - ophlOglO— OJdei et une autre espece (pie je nomine Limodorum. 
.ant tnmve 1'Aretlnisa bulbosa aupres de New York, outre que 

J'ey oomplett^ lee troto eepeoei indlqaeee par Linn.,j'ai autal acquis tine 

) Nous coiK-haines dans DJM I'lantation babitee par une llollaiidaise 
qui nous loiirnit plotL provisions et la permission de visiter ses Hois on je 
trouvui uii' la Halesiii nominee par q q, une dipt i'i:i. 

js Ndiis marchamea penJanl douie Milles. 
Le Diminehi' du marcbe fut de aeaf Milles et nous rlames 

camper auprea de 8a van a b 
Le 80. nous restaraes a 8avanah Le Mai in je lis une herborieation, je 

9. 8. 
t Khodode*dn>" i <>rr. (Atalmcalendulacea. QMTir. a./kmm$aat MieU- 

1, 8. 
s.g. 
| OlntlUUi monotpermn.—C. 8. 8. 

ipsa ■peolca of Uonolobut.—C. S, 8.) 
1 /tymfe. Oabpogo* pukheUiu— C. 8. 8. 



1888.] 11 [Michaux. 

vis une espece de* Palmier different du Chamterops de Caroline ayant 
une tige au lieu que celui des environs de Charleston est sans tige, ses 
feuilles sortent de la souche interi. aussi bien la tige qui porte la fructifica- 
tion, de meme que dans l'Osmunda cinnamomea. Les feuilles different 
aussi et j'en parleraycyapres. Je revins bientot a la ville et je passay la 
journee a des visites. 

Le premier May 1787, la journee fut employee a faire les provisions 
necessaires pour continuer notre voyage. La ville de Savanah est com- 
pose d'environ cent cinquante maisons situees pres la rivi. de ce nom, 
sur une hauteur formed par des sables que les vents ont accumules. La 
ville est trac6e regulierement, mais le peu de maisons qui y sont constru- 
ites, n'y font pas apercevoir cette regularite dont se vantent les habitants. 
Les rues sont tres larges et le sol qui est forme d'un sable mouvant aug- 
mente la chaleur et l'incotnmodite que Ton eprouve dans ce climat qui est 
toujours ties chaud. 

Le 2. nous marchames pendant douze milles et la pluye nous obligea de 
coucher dans une petite maison inhabited qui se trouva pres de la route. 
Je vis plus de Magnolia grandiflora que je n'en avais vu precedement. 
Des Nyssa fol. acute dentatis et un Tradescantia umbellata florib. roseis. 

Le 3 May nous marchames pendant seize milles. Nous passames Oge- 
chee ferry situe" sur la rivierre d'Ogechee et un mille avant d'arriver a ce 
ferry je trouvay la Nyssa- Ogecheef de Bartram. Cet arbre pourrait §tre 
regarde cnmme un arbrisseau s'il ne differs point de grandeur dans 
d'autres lieux. II a beaucoup de rapport av. la Nyssa foliis acute dentatis,:]: 
mais lea feuilles sont ovales et tout a fait entieres, velues par dessous. 
Sur les bords de cette rivierre aux lieux innondes et parmi les roseaux je 
recueillis la Zizania palustrisg 6 etamines dans les fl. <j\ et les fleurs $ 
separees, mais sur le meme pied. Au meme lieu, je recueillis le Pancra- 
tium mexicanum parmi les roseaux, les endroits les plus humides et meme 
q.q. fois submerges. 

Le 4, notre marche fut de huit milles et je ne vis rien de tres remarqu- 
able. Le pluye de la nuit precadente avoit ret ard e notre depart. 

Le 5. notre marche fut de six milles et nous trouvames abondamment 
un Andromeda que je nommeray ferruginea, un Kalmia? repens dont les 
feuilles sont poi ues. Les fl. sont tres tardives. A force de chercherje 
trouvay une sorte fl. dont les examines different de celles des autres An- 
dromeda. Je recueillis un Arum a tige maculae, mais le Spathe aussi blanc 
que la fleur d'un Lys. Je recueillis une autre plante de la famille des Annon. fl 
Cal. 3 phyll. Pet. 6, 3 interiorib. Nectariferis st. plurima Germina 5. 

• Chamoerops reourvata caule. (Sabal semilata, R. & S.—C. S. 8.) 

t Rartram's name of tfytta Ogeeht adopted by Manh&ll in his Arbustum, published in 
1785, may properly supersede Walter's name, N. capitata, which was not published 
until three years later (178S). Following the common spelling of the name of the river, 
it should, however, be written Ogeeehee.— C. S. S. 

J -V. uniflora Walt.— C. S. S. 

g Zizania miliacta. Michaux, Flora, i, 74. 

j Annona lanceolata. (Oue of the dwarf species of Asimina.— C. S. S.) 



Miehaux.] 1^ [Oct. 19, 

Le 6 May nous sejournames a Sunbury ct nous essayames les moyens 
d'aller a St. Augustine, mais nous re'vinmes a 6 milles House. Ce meme 
jour inon fils partit avec un domestique et un autre voyageur anglois pour 
aller visiter les bords de la rivierre Altamaba et moi je vins sejourner dans 
une auberge situej a 6 milles de Sunbury a cause d'un mal de la jambe qui 
empiroit depuis plusieurs jours. Ce mal fat cause par la piqure d'un insecte 
dont les bois sont remplis ct le frottemeut coutinuel du cheval sur cette 
partie produisit un abses et une inflammation considerable. 

Le 7. Je visitay a pied les environs, je m'occupay a decrire plusi. 
plantes que le temps ne m'avoit pas permis les jours precedents. Le 8 fut 
employe aux me.nes occupations. 

Le ii memes occupations et je tiray par ecrit le nombre des plantes 
recueillies, je rangeai mon herbier par ordre. 

Le 10. Je me mis en route pour Augusta et notre marcbe fut de vingt 
cinq milles. Nous passames la riv. Ogecbee. 

Le 11 nous marcbames pendant vingt cinq milles et nous vinmes cou- 
cber a Fifteen milles House, quinze milles de distance de Savanali. 

Le 12 May, notre marche fut de six milles et nous avons campe a vingt 
et un milles >!'• 8 ivanah et environ quatre milles d'Ebenezer. Une petite 
rivierre qui passe eet endroit au baa de la prairie ou nous avons campe. 
me procura la rceolte d'uu Halezia diptera dont j'avois toujours doute 
Jtuqa* alors ; je recueillis le Populus heterophyl. un arbrisseau a f. oppo. 
lei fruits inurs et tombc* la plupart avoient la ressemblance de celui 
d'un V'ibum. Un HeepUosf tics grand arbriss. a fruits ties rouges* sur 
1 i OOlline qui borde cette rivierre. Le Zizania pal OS t Chelone glabra, Gle- 
i aqu.itica Vinca latee ! Ven le soir sur un creek qui borde la maison 
d'un [ollendoiee, je vis plusieurs Halezia diptera, grand arbiis- 

Bl deal ce Creek boueoup de Zi/.ania palust. 

Le Diinanebe treize May, nous avons tail quinze milles et nous avons 
earn | ('• sur la cbaine de Collines qui borde la rivierre de Savanali vis a vis 
du ferry appelle Two Sisters (les deux soeurs). Je retrouvay en eet en- 
droit I* Andromeda erboree pi8i a tleurir. 

marelie Cut ile neuf milles. Nous passames ehez le eapit. 

ii aneien Irani; >is. 11 me niena dans une partie de bois qui 

■! Aiinmia dont ii faisoil aver l'rroire des cordages asse/. loits en 

nit rouir. 

Ll 16m matin, nous n.nis apereumcs (pie nos cbevaux avoient e c voles 

■ liciire. Siloii I'oeage, lonque Ton trouvc de bonne prairie et 

• ' felo del habitations, On campe inprei d'une source et 

Ion met a elnupie ebeval line sounette. ,l'a\ ois pratique toules ees pre- 

Outn ooatome de dm liver plailean (bit dans la 

un quart ils etoient dis. 
paru. 
N" unea Loom la Joarnee et nous elrvoyamea <ie tons lea 

• ThUr«rtil>l <mljr hn\«' Im-.ii Cral#0tu < mi other Npeclos could 



188S -1 *■*> fMichaux. 

cote^s pour avoir des informations. Les habitants du lieu, nous dirent 
qu'ils avoient e e voles. Nous rencontrames deux particuliers qui cou- 
roient amies apres un certain Capitaine connu dans les environs pour voler 
les chevaux. 

Le 1G. nous fumes occupes aux m Sines recherches et nous viumes cou- 
cher seulement a quatre milles de distance, dans une auberge. 

Le 17 nous envoyaoies des Lettres aux differentes parties du District, 
particulierement chez le capitaine Major Revots et a Savanah. Enfin je 
i esolus de continuer avec mon flls le voyage a pied et nous a inmes coucher 
seulement a trois milles de distance de l'auberge. Le maitre de l'auberge 
ou nous passames la nuit, nous promit, moyennant une recompense de 
faire tous ses efforts po. les retrouver s'ils etaient seulement egares et la 
13. nous passames une partie de la jounce a les chercher. Nous vinmes 
cependant coucher a quatre milles de distance du lieu d'ou nous etions 
partis. 

Le 19. notre marche fut de quatorze milles et nous campames pies d'un 
pont sur la rivierre Beaver Dam Creek. Un peu avant d'arriver a Beaver 
Dam je recueillis sur la route, 6tant alors a 60 milles de distance d' Augusta, 
un Rumex*arbriss. que je nommeray Lapathum occidentale, grand arbriss, 
de 25 a 30 pieds de haut. il se trouve aussi pres. de la rivierre Altamaha. 
d'ou mon fils me l'avoit apporte les jours precedents. 

Le Dimaiiche 20 May, nous avons fait une marche de quatre milles et 
nous couchames dans une petite maison situGe pres de la route, a cause de 
la pluie. Le sol est ties sablonneux et sterile. 

Le 21. notre marche fut de 10 milles et nous campames pres une auberge 
situee a 45 milles d'Augusta. Le sol change en ce lieu et est une argile 
melee de sable ; dans quelques parties, ferrugineux. II est garni de q. ques 
collines sur les quelles je reconnus le Calycanthus et le Robinia hispida. 
Nous eumes le certitude en ce lieu que nos chevaux avoient ete volei ; un 
particulier des lieu ou ils lurent pris, ayant perdu deux des siens, courut 
apres un certain capit. connu dans les environs po. voler les chevaux. 
II l'atteignit et le tua. Son complice qui s'etoit empaie des ndtres, echappa 
et pris la route de la Nation — Creek. 

Le22. nous avons marche* l'espace de dix milles non compris les courses 
que nous etions obligt' de faire hois de la grande route, lorsque nous ap- 
percevions des collines ou des swamps ou d'autres variations de sol qui 
fournissent differentes Plantes. 

Le 23 nous avons marche seulement l'espace de deux milles et en de- 
scendant une colline, une roue de la voiture qui nous servoit a transporter 
nos recoltes et nos provisions fut brisee. 

La journee du 23 May et du 21 furent employees a visiter plusieurs col- 
lines de ce District et je reconnus en ce lieu la Trillium cernuum et sessile, 
Cypripedium caleeolaria flore luteo, Calycanthus . . . Zanthoriza ou 
Marboisia & . . . 
Le 25 nous avons fait douze milles en approchant d'Augusta. Nous 

* Brunnichia cirrhoga, Banks? — C. S. S. 



Michaux] 14 [Oct 19, 

vi nes un sol aride et sablonneux a l'exception d'unc partie ticM humkle 
que nous 1Q nes obliges do traverser dans l'eau jusqu' aux genoux et le 
rcste se trouva un torrent qu'il fallut traverser sur un arbre moyen a fleur. 
d'euu au risque d'etre attaque par les alligators qui abondoient en ce lieu. 

Le 26 nous avons fait dix milleset nous passames une petite rivierredont 
le pont ayant ete rompu par le debordement des eaux, il fallut travailler 
dans l'eau pour le re pa re r de maniere a y passer avec une voiture. Nous 
arrivames enfin a Augusta. Les Alligators ou Caimans abondent dans les 
ruisseaux, torrents et swamps de la Georgie et me\ne de la Caroline. Nous 
uncsd'en voir ici et nous aurions 4ie trcs embarrasses, ayant passe plus 
de 3 heures dans l'eau po. reparer le miserable pont ou il falloit passer. 

Le Dimancbe 27, noii9 sejournames a Augusta. On est si scrupuleux 
en Am. q. Ton n'ose pas sortir ni meaie se promener le Dimancbe dans 
les grandes villes. 

Le 28 j'allay visiter le Colonel Le Roy Hammond dont l'babitation est 
siluee a ;$ milles d'Augusta dans la Caroline du Sud. parce que Ton est en 
Carol, aussitot que Ton a passe la riv. de Savanab surlaq. Augusta est situee. 
\ ins le meine jour parceque le Colonel n'etoit pas cbez lui, quoique 
Jc rec,usse toutes sortes de oiviliies de son epouse. Je visaussi deux demoi- 
selles ses nieces qui etoient tie-; aimables et cette maison me parut ties 
distinguee a tous egards pour les bonnes manieres, la ricbesse et l'elegance. 
I'd RTOCat de Ninety Six se charpa de me donner une lettre de recomman- 
dation pour le District de Kiowi ou je me proposois d'aller. Je suivis tou- 
jours la riv. po. revenir a Augusta et je recueillis un Pavia (spicata). Uu 
nouveau Vaccinium . . . Aquilegia? . . . 

Tilia 

An non. . . . 

\ ille d'AngUSta est une des plus agroablemcnt situgjs de toute l'Am. 

, inais compose'' de pen de niaisous. II y a trois ans on en eoniptoit 

seuleinent donze el acluelleinent il y en a cent vingt. on y manque mS.ne 

-•nri'es les plus D6ctMtflini t>tu voyageurs parceq. les habit, font lours 

provis. seiileinent po. eux moim<. Lei habitants la plupart sont oisifs, 

joueurs et adonix's au Hum ilon't les habitants do tout age et de tous 

A mil icj. hoivent avec e\. 

I >. •, th'i'dci nits anglola y Uennenl des entrepots ou magulni po. le com- 
merec daa objeti uecwalwi tu habitants des parties recnlda derrierea de 

' 'ie. 

plnyc boos obligee de re-ter Urate la journee Bona ponvolr partlr 

4Ustft. Nous (nines inlornie-i a Augusta i[u'un certain Mr. Frasei* 

ECOM. envoy i' pour recucillir des arhrbs. d'orneniont. au conipte des 

• ■it perdu ses deux chcvaux. ( 'et honinie 6tolt 

Ttmr, » Scotchman, iiimli' HTtnl vIMl- lii Norlli Amrrleii lielweeli 1780 and 

i. .«• ni eoQMttag ptaota and aaadii A akatoh of hla botanical oanar, 
milt iimi ii lint ni IiIh prlnclpnl dlioovcriea and Introduotlou 

il li, p 800. The vnliii' of his <•,,!!- 
■ i oJ an) botan 

I 8. 



1878.] i-O [Michaux. 

parti do Chariest, avec moi et avoit jure tie me suivre partout ou j'aurois 
6 e\ J'avois accept^ sa conipagnie parceque etant anglois, j'avois espGie" 
qu'il auroit plus de ressources po. se procurer les objets necessaires dans 
ces parties mdridionales si peu peuplees. Mais son peu de connaissance 
en hist. nat. dont il vouloit s'occuper particuli. a l'6gard des Tnsectes et en 
Botaniq. lui faisoit recueillir en abondance des objets de peu de valeur et 
tie* connus telsque le Prinos glaber, Ceanothus . . . Styrax. 11 
perdoit un temps pieL'ieux qu'il auroit pu employer a recueillir des objets 
plus interessants, s'il avoit su les connoitre. Quoique je fusse continuelle- 
ment fatigue de ses questions et de son ignorance qui jointe au peu de con- 
fiance, le portoient a recueillir une infinite de productions monstrueuses 
dont les plantes sont chargees infiniment plus en Am. que dans 1'ancien 
continent a cause de la temperature humide. J'avois touj. voyage avec lui 
en bonne intelligence, mats ayant perdu mes chev. 12 jo. avant d'arriver 
a Augusta, je profitay de cette circonstance po. lui dire qu' ayant 1'inten- 
tion de chercher mes chev. il ne devoit pas m'attendre plus long temps et 
continuer son voyage. Des ce moment nous nous sSparames. 

Le 30 nous sommes partis d' Augusta et nous avons fait seulement cinq 
milles a cause d'une pluye qui dura toute la journee. Je n'avoi3 aucune 
affaire a Augusta, mail la difflculte de trouver des provisions nous avoit 
oblige d'y rester trois jours. II y a un seul Boulanger et il ne fut pas pos- 
sible de la nS-soudre a nous cuire du pain pour q. ques. jours parcequ'il 
craignoit lui mS.neen manquer. II ne voulut pas non plus nous vendre 
de la farine. Nous n'en trouvames pas chez aueun Marchand et il ne fut 
pas possible de trouver a acheter du Mays po. le cheval et de la farine de 
mays po. notre provision a nous meme. 

Le 31 nous avons fait douze milles par un chemin rempli de souches et 
nouveau au travers des hois. Nous rencontrames plusieurs plantations 
dans les quelles nous demandions a acheter de la farine de Mays, car on 
ne peut se procurer d'autre pain. Un Planteur honneHe a 5 milles d'Au- 
gusta nous en ceda un demi boisseau. II se nommait Mr. Pece et nous 
rec,ut avec beaucoup de civilites parceque no. eJons francois. II nous 
regala gratuitement de laitage et autres menues provisions. 11 nous dit 
que le grand nombrc de cultivateurs arrive-s de la Virginie du Maryland et 
autres parties sept, pour s'Otablir dans ces parties recuses de la Georgie 
avoit tellement fait hausser le prix du mays que Ton craignoit une dis- 
ette. En effet cette denrde est ici de premiere necessite et Ton y voit point 
de pain de froment. Les auberges y sont rares et Ton est oblige de cou- 
cher dans les hois. 

Le ler Juin nous avons fait neuf milles. 

Nous passames Scot's ferry sur la rivierre de Savanah situ^a vingtet un 
milles d' Augusta. Apies avoir passe" la rivierre, nous avons fait cinq 
milles sans voir une seule habitation et le chemin peu frequente" au travers 
des bois. 

Le sol est argilleux rougeatre et Ton trouve frequement des blocs de 
Quartz pur ; il se trouve des parties de mica et une seule fois je reconnus 



Michaux.] 1" [Oct. 19, 

du schite argilleux. A deux milles de distance de la riv. le sol est humide 
et souvent submerge, mais on y voit pas d'Alligators. 

Le 2 Juin nous avons fait douze milles sans voir une seule habitation et 
sans trouver d'eau. Le chemin etait a peine fraye. Je tUai deux ecu- 
reuils noirs et deux oiseaux : l'un etoitune Pic et l'autre un oiseau qui me 
parut du genre des Pincons gros bees, mais plumage jaunatre, je trouvay 
dans son gesier des debris de Scarabejs. 

Je ne trouvay aucune nouvelle plante. Les bois 6toient composes de 
Pins a 2 feuilles.* Chenes noirs blancs, Diospyros etc. 

Je rencontray dans un endroit humide l'Andromeda arborea ; un ruis- 
seau qui s'y trouva nous engagea a y BOttper et a y passer la nuit. 

Le Dimanche 3 Juin. nous avons fait dix milles. Le difficulte que nous 
eprouvames a passer un torrent d'eau, nous y retient plus d'une heure et 
demie, etant oblige de decharger la voiture et de transporter sur le cheval 
lous les effet8. livres, herbiers &c. Nous passfunes sur l'eiablissement 
franc/>is appele la nouvelle Bordeaux. Les habitations sont si ecartees les 
unes des autrcs que je n'en visitay qu'un seul. Les fran<jois de cet etab- 
lissement sont generalement estimes po. la probite et les bonnes moeurs. 
Le sol est bnn lorsque Ton arrive au lieu de leur 6tablissement, il est gen- 
eralement argilleux, de couleur rougeatre etl'on trouve des blocs de quartz 
adherent a la terre au lieu que le jour precedent ceux que je vis paroisoient 
isol£s et ne pas faire partie du sol ; en formantune masse gene>ale. Dans 
les ruisseaux il ne se trouva que du quartz et du mica. Je trouvay sur les 
bords des ruisseaux la Dirca palustris et l'Andromeda arborea. 

1 DOUs avons fait seize milles ; nous avons vu un pays peu habit 6 et 
mSmedeux plantations abandon dcl'S, nous fumes cependant assex heureux 
de trouver une feinnie dans une pauvre Plantation qui nous veinlit trois 
liv. de Beorre, nous n'-gala de lait et nous fit du pain avec de la farine de 
que DOOI avions po. notre provision. Elle y ajouta de la farine de 
Iroinent et du levain. de sorte que nous eunies de tie-; bon pain. Le soir 
nous approch&raei d'an lien plus peupld nomine . . . 

I.e M>1 M trouva ferro-argileux eonunuiienient et ne produtt pas d'herbe 

dc sorte le cheval BoaffroH beaucoup; lei bob ayanl e.e i>:ti ea partoul on 

Nous arrivames entin dans un lieu ou il se trouva de 

1 heilx- et uni- source d'eau. Nous reconl ranu-s plusienrs liabitans qui 

■ --. lis n<uis direct que nous all'ions trouver un pays 

plus habile, que nous ne devit.ns pas eraindre de perdre des chevaux en CO 

ibltaotf dece Ilea ayanl tons des prlnelpee de probite 1 , des bonnes 
i religloo, que ee meme Jonr, BOO d'eux avolenl reen la Com- 
munion | • i n ' i 1 > ne louffrolenl pas des changers et des 

avaoturicrs sans moeurt, t'etabllr parml ens. Il y arolt parml eux un 

ooliro qui t'-ioit trei respect^ des autres. 

d'eau beaucoup de l'Andromeda arborea, el 

j'en i pieds kU poucea de clrconference a 8 

• PNwfto. qa.1. 



1888 -1 -*- ' [Miehaux. 

Le 5, nous nous levames a 3 lieures du matin po plier bagage et nous 
mettre a 1'abrl sous la voiture afin d'eviter un orage et une pluye ties con- 
siderable. Le temps devint beau vers midy et nous fimes quatres milles. 
Nous arrivames a la Plantation du gSnerale Andrew Pickens pour qui 
j'avois eu une lettre du Colonel Le Roy Hammond pies Augusta, il nous 
rec,ut ties lionnetement et nous couchames cbez lui. 

Le 6, nous avons fait dix sept milles. Nous passames chez le capit. 
Middle a sept milles de distance du Gen. Pickens. Je fls arrangement avec 
lui po. avoir des Dindons sauvages et il me promit que d'apres les informa- 
tions, a mon retour nous conviendrions du prix. 

Nous vinmes couclier cbez un Planteur nomine" Th. Lee pres Rocky 
river. Le sol se trouva argill. et les pierres ou roches qui se rencontroient 
(Stoient de Quartz. Je trouvay q. quefois du granitcompose de Quartz, de 
mica, de scborl et de mineray ferrugineux. J'apper^us un- hibou de la 
grosse espece coinme tous ceux de la Caroline et l'ayant tue, il tomba avec 
un serpent noir de l'espece VeepCoacb (fouet de cocber). 

Le 7 nous avons fait IS milles et nous vinmes coucber a Deep-Creek. 
Le sol fut un peu plus montagneux. 

Le 8 nous avons fait 15 milles et nous vinmes a Seneca. 

A dix milles de distance, nous traversames un torrent (Creek) sur le 
bord du quel je reconnus l'Epigea repens, Kalmia latifol. Panax quinque- 
folia Je me promenay des le meme soir sur le bord d'une rivierre qui 
passe aupres du Fort Seneca, actuellerat le Fort Rutlege. Cette rivi. est 
appelee Kiiri ricer ;* elle est profonde en differents endroits et d'autres 
sont remplis de rocbers a fleur d'eau ; je recueillis 1' Hydrangea arborescens 
et je remarquay le Cornus alternifol. Kalmia latifolia, Zantborbiza ou 
Marboisia, Panax quinquelolia. 

Le 9 .luiu, nous allames av. un franc,ois nomme M. Martin qui s'etoit 
etalili Planteur dans ce lieu po. engager deux sauvages a m'accompagner 
dans les Montag. qui separent l'Etat de Caroline des nations sauvages 
Cherokees, Creek, Chickasaw, etc. . . . 

I.cs sauvages furent ties difficiles a consentir a m'accompagner, et non 
seulement pour le prix <iui etoit exborbitant, mais aussi ils voulurent avoir 
un cbeval po. eux deux. I! fut encore plus difficile d'avoir un Interprete 
et je me resolus a aller seulemt avec un jeune homme et les deux sauvages 
que je desirois. Je leur donnay Rendez vous au lcndemain po. conclure 
le traite, etpo. les engager a me tenir parole, jeleur promis un demi gallon 
de Rum. Je passai par un lieu abandonne des sauvages et qui avoit etc le 
lieu de la ville nomme Seneca. Je remarquay le Gleditsia dont ils se 
nourrisoient, des Pecbers, des Pruniers sauvages. Je recueillis un cbene 
noir que je n'avois vu dans aucun autre endroit de Carol, et Geo. 

Le Dimancbe 10. les Sauvages vinrent avec un cbef et plusi. autres de 
la nation. Apres leur avoir bien fait comprendre que je voulois visiter les 
sources de la riv. Kiwi et de la riv. Tugelo qui r unies, forment la riv. 
Savanab ; celles qui forment la riv. Tanase que se perd dans l'Obio ; et 

* The Keowee, the principal eastern fork of the Savannah river.— C. S. S. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. C. PRINTED FEB. 18, 1889. 



Miehaux. 18 [Oct. 19, 

que je voulois aller jusqu' a Tanasee ; ils me demantlerent chacun une 
couverture et un Petticoat, la valeur de six dollars chacun po. 12 j. que 
devoit durer le voyage. Je leurs promis, mais il fallut payer la moitie 
d'avance parceque disoient-ils beaucoup d'autres Blancs les avoient 
trompes. Je leur promis en outre que si je revenois content de mon voy- 
age je leur remplirois le ventre de Rum. Ils furent tres satisfaits et me 
dirent qu'ils attendroient le lendemain le moment que je voudrois partir. 

Le 11 Juin, plusieurs honnetes habitants du lieu qui s'interessoient a 
mon voyage me fournirent des Provisions, l'un me fit cuire du pain, fit 
moudre de la farine de mays, l'autre m'envoya du mays, me pieta un 
equipage de cheval &c. Je partis avec un jeune homme qui avoit reside 
cinq mois chez les sauvages pour le Rendezvous q. j'avois indique et a 
midi. nous nous mimes en route avec les sauvages que j'avois fourni de 
poudre et de plomb. Ils me conduisirent alternativement par des mon- 
tagnes et des torrents que Ton appelle Creeks. Nous passames des en- 
droits tres cscarpe-< ce nieme jour et nous traversame? une -petite riv. nom- 
inee Little river, elleest extreuiement rapide et je fusefFraye lorsque je vis 
<m'il lalloit passer sur des roches qui etoient a un pied q. quefois deux 
sous l'eau. Le courant Gtoit si rapide que tout autre qu'un murage 
auroit e:e entraine. Ces roches Etoient en pente et couvertes dune mousse 
gluante. Je craignois la chute d'un de nos chevaux, mais il n'y avoit pas 
d'autre chemin et les sauvages ne sont pas assez complaisants pour ccou- 
ter les reflections que Ton peut faire dans ces circonstances. Les torrents 
profonds et les bords de la riv. etoient couverts du Rhododendron maxi- 
mum. Notre journee fut de douze milles. Les sauvages proriierent du 
}o. qui restoit po. aller a la chasse, mais n'ayanl rien tu6 tout le pain qu'un 
nous avoit prepaid- hit mange* ce nieme jour. 

Le 12, les deux sauvages allerent des la pointe du jo. a la chasse et 

n'nyant rien tue nous uiangeames de la farinc de mays bouillie dans l'eau. 

A miily on fit une petite halt* pour refraichir les chevaux et pour boire 

- un ruiss. dont l'eau etoit la plus pure et la meilleure q. Ton puisse 

Amerique. Poor nourriture a l'excmple de mes deux sauvages, 

je treinpay la iarine de mays dans cette eau et cela fut notre diner. La 

mauv.ii-c (litre et les mauvais chemins ne me chagrinoient pas tant que 

le dephiisir dfl 06 trouver aurune plante interessante depuis le 8 May et je 

iii'ik ciipois Houvent (lii deplaisir d'un tel voyage sans fruit. Nous fimes 

qulnaa mQIei ee jour par des montagnes rempiies de rochea ou il falloit 

patter 001 des roJatOaOX profonds, par des endroits maricagcux et reiuplis 

de Btnil.vx liorri!)lemeiit epineuses qui enveloppoient eontiiiiicllcnient le 

COipi i.u les j'linhes. Je vis mi long de la riv. des plaines d'uno 

grando hrtilite. Kn troiH endroits ditlcrents, les sauvages me inontie.rent 

lee situations de 8 villes abandonnees dont ils me dlrenl les noma 

in. un i>eu av.mt de traverser la riv. Kiwi ipie nous avions 

ii la remontant 00 des sauvages lua une Dinde 

fauvftgc *■' UW .)<• troiiviiy 00 arbrhseau dioiipie dont Ifl fruit est 

calico raptrltOf a cinq feull. ties courtes; il n'etoit 



1S88-1 19 [Michaux. 

pas forme encore, mais il etoit assez avance po. reconnoitre inlerieurement 
un noyau. Je dis que cet arbriss. est dioiq. parceque je vis plusi. des ces 
arbriss. dont les fleurs etoient passers aux quels il ne restoit que la grappe. 
Les individus $ portoient aussi leurs fruits au nombre de 4 ou 5 sur la 
meine grappe.* Je vis quelques Magnolia acuminata, ce fut la Ire fois 
que je vis cet arbre en Amerique. 

Les sauvages tuerent un Cerf et tandis qu'ils le depouillerent, je visitai 
les lorrens ou je reconnus en abondance la Kalinia latifol. et le Rhodo- 
dendron maximum. 

Cette journea nous avons fait neuf milles et nous £tions tous trop 
affames po. continuer a marcber, ayant fait une si bonne capture. 

Le 14 Juin, nous continuames touj. ayant la riv. a droite et alternative- 
ment il falloit passer sur des rocbes ajamber des arbres monstrueux ren- 
verses sur des buissons epais et ou a peine on voyoit a se conduire par 
l'epaisseur des buisse. des hautes montagnes rapprochees et de l'obscurile 
que produisoit en ce lieu un temps sombre et des brouillars qui me parois- 
soient une nuit profonde nous envelopper. Le trouble et la confusion 
etoient augments par le bruit des chutes des eaux de cette riv. sur les 
rocbes et celui de plusi. torrens qu'il falloit francbir jusqu'aux genoux. 
La rapidite av. laq. les deux sauvages traversoient les torrens, tantot 
dans l'eau, tantot sur des arbres qui nuisoient a notre passage, parceque 
le jeune bomme et moi ayant des cbevaux a conduire, nous obligeoit 
d'abandonner nos cbevaux po. courir l'un de nous, apres eux et spavoir ce 
qu'ils etoient devenus, car il n'y a dans ces lieux d'autres passages que 
ceux frayes par les Ours et q. quefois par des Sauvages. A l'inquietude 
continuelle de maicher sur des serpents j'eprouvois des redoublemeusd'une 
frayeur borrible lorsqu'il falloit passer sur des gros arbres qui se trouvoient 
si pourris qu'ils manquoient sous les pieds et Ton eloit enseveli a demi 
dans l'ecorce et les heroes qui les environnent. Enfin arrives a un endroit 
ou la rivierre n'avoit pas plus d'un pied et demi de profondeur sur un glacis 
de rocbes, nous la traversames et je reconnus le Pinus Strobus sur les 
bords, le Sapin ou Sapinettef aft. & ft. un nouveau Magnolia que je nom- 
ine Magnolia (hastataj). Une grande Aristolochia scandens.§ Nous ar- 
rivames enfin au lieu ou la riviere Kiwi commence son lit. Cet endroit 
ressemble a une baye, etant une Plaine de plus d'un millc environnee de 
plus hautes montagnes, extremt rapides et le contour etant ties regulier. 
Nous y restames plus de deux heures po. rcposer nos cbevaux et manger 
des fraises qui s'y trouvent en abondance. Notre journe'e fut de dix 
milles et la pluye nous obligea de camper sous une cabane d'dcorce d'arbre 
abandonnee des sauvages qui etoient venus chasser en ce lieu, ce que nous 

* Pyrularia oleijera, Gray. — C. S. S. 

t Michaux's Baplnette may well have been the Carolina Hemlock (Teuga Caroliniana), 
which, however, he never distinguished. It is common in all this region.— C. S. S. 
t Magnolia Fraseri, discovered by William Bartram in the same region 12 years earlier. 

-c. s. s. 

I A. Sipho, L'Her.-C. S. S. 



Mielaux.] *>V LOct. 19, 

reconnumcs par les ossements des animaux qu'ils avoient tu6s et manges 
ct les echaffauds qui leur avoient servi a faire boncanner la viande. 

Le 15 Juin, les sauvages nous conduisirent par des montagnes hautes 
mais peu dangereuse po. les chevaux et malgre une pluye continuelle, 
nous arrivames sur les hauteurs de la riv. Tugelo. Je reeonnus dans 
plusi. torrents une nouvelle espece de Clethra* ties grand et la tige de 
quatre pouces de grosseur en circonference, une violette, dont j'eus le bon- 
beur de recueillir q. ques semences, a feuill. hastees. Je vis tres frequcm- 
ment la Magnolia (bastata) q.q. plantes nouvelles dont la fl. etant passee, 
je ne pus determiner le genre. Notre marcbe fut environ de 12 milles et 
peul-etre davantage et nous carapames a quatre beures entre des montagnes 
si profondes qu' a peine on voyoit le jour. 

Le 16 Juin, nous traversarues plusi. montagnes dont les torrents (on 
Creeks) se perdent dans la rivierre Tenasee et ne trouvant dans ces lieux 
que le Magu. bastata et un Vaccinium \ (ou Arbutus) nouveau dont les ours 
sont tres friands, ce que les sauvages me flrent remarquer par les debris 
de leur digestion. Je resolus malgre la pluye qui continuoitdepuis 3 jours 
d'aller jusqu' a la riv. Tenasee en evitant toutes les branches qui forment 
cette riv. et nous rimes environ dix halt milles cette journee. Nous cam- 
pames pres la rivierre qui en cet endroit coule dans les roches qui la divi- 
sent en trois ou quatre parties de maniere que Ton peut la traverser sur 
les rocbes, mais au dessus et a dessous, la largeur est d'environ 60 pieds. 
Je trouvay en abondance cet arbriss. dont le fruit est Pyriforme et un 
Azalea a tl. jaunes. 

La Dimantlie IT le jeune homme qui entendoit un peu la langue des 

me dit qu'ils ne reconnoissoient pas eux-memes le chemin et 

qu'll £tait impossible de continuer dans les montagnes traversers par cette 

riv. Nous rfoolumes d'aller dans q (pie. villes des sauvages pour acbetcr 

de la farine, car nous rtions las de ne manger que de la viande sans pain. 

Ayant trouve' heureusement la sentier des (Traders) M ,! "- qui font le com- 

mere | :i\. nous n'-soliinics de revenir et nous passames sur des 

mootag. qui n'etoicnt millcmcnt totij. remplies de cet Arbu- 

tMdetOOra. Notre marche tut de 15 milles. Nous eumes po. la pre- 

beau temps et la clartc de l'air produisoit sur ccrtaincs montag. 

irnmnts. 

La I« notre marelie fut de rlngl sept milles par une pays assez uni et 

'i«m de <[. «|Ues torrents q les pluyes prcecdentcs avoient 

groasis. NOUS passames dans ii ir village taarage compose d'environ 80 

Ilea ct nous arrivaiiii s fa >.»ii- ft Seneca, rendu de fatigues. Cinq milles 

avant d'arriver a Seneca, je reeonnus le HagD, acuminata sur le bord d'un 

torrent appel!. . k. 

Ll 10 i me pn'paray a pirtir |io. Charleston car il 

ftToit ju -ti ineiil Uti. 

1 '. 8. 8. 
■: icli. I U ■ v ubundant intit ui tin-. 

fpedw U grcwlUy devou ^ — C. 8. 8. 



1888 -J *>*■ t>Iichaux. 

Je recueillis en herbier le Zanthorhiza et je remarquai derriere la mai- 
son du Colonel Henderson beaucoup d'Annona. 

Xon seulement j'eus le desagrement de trouver peu de plantes nouvelles 
dans ces raontagnes, en comparaison de celles recueillies precedemment 
dans la Georgie, mais je ne vis pas un seul oiseau interessant. Les rocbers 
que l'on voit dans les montagnes sont coraposees de Quartz, et l'on 
trouve du Granit compose de Quartz, de mica et d'une argille ferrugineuse. 
Dans la partie des montagnes qui appartient aux sauvagesle terrain est touj. 
meilleur de plus en plus. Dix milles au de la de la riv. Kiwi, la ligne de 
s-eparation a e e tiiej entre cette nation et l'Etat de Carol, meridionale 
mais plusi. villages se sont eloigned et je via les vestiges de cinq villes 
dans le peu d'etendue de pays que je visitay. Cette nation est une des 
plus nombreuses apres celles des Creeks qui habitent l'etendue de pays 
situe entre la Georgie et l'Obio. J'appris a mon retour la nouvelle des 
host ilia's commences entre la nation Creek et les Georgians. Les habit- 
ants qui demeurent dans les campagnes aux environs de Seneca, s'etoient 
assembles po. construire un fort et s'y retirer. On craignoit que les Cher- 
okees qui n'ont point de chef chez eux queceux qui gouvernent chaq. vil- 
lage, ne se joignissent aux Creeks. 

Le 20. je partis de Seneca po. Cbarleston, notre marche fut de vingt 
deux milles. 

Le 21 notre marche fut de vingt milles par le mgnie cheinin que nous 
avons fait precedemment. 

Le 22 notre marche fut de cinq milles ayt eu un de nos chevaux esrare 
pendt toute la matinee et nous vinmes coucher chez le general Pick- 
ens.* 

Le 23 notre memecheval fut encore egate et nous partimes de la maison 
du Genl. pour venir coucher a 3 milles seulement (espere d'arriver avaut 
le 10 proch, a Charleston). 

Le Dtmanche 24 nous vinmes coucher a Hard Labour Creek 14 millesde 
marche par un cbemin uouveau au travers des bois ; Vu plusieurs Mag- 
nolia acuminati. 

Le 21 nous avons fait dix-sept milles en passant par Turkey Creek. 

Le 26 nous avons fait neuf milles et nous avons 6:6 surpris par un orage. 

Le 27 nous avons fait dix neuf milles et nous avons quitte les collines 
dont le sol est argllleux et les roches de quartz. 

Le 28 nous avons fait vingt et un milles dans un terrain uni sablonneux 
et sans eau. Nous avons campc pies de plusieurs sources d'eau ou l'on 
trouve la Sarracenia tubifolia. 

Le 29 nous avons fait onze milles par un terrain sablonneux et humide ; 
rencontre souvent la Sarracenia tubif. et le Cupressus distioha. 

Le 30 nous avons fait 15 milles, la pluye fut continuelle et nous vinmes 
camper a un mille de distance de la rivierre Eddisto. 

• La Capit. Vedlo me promis de me fournir des Dindons sauvages en prevenant tous 
les habitans du District. 



Michaux-1 22 [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche, premier Juillet nous avons fait seize M. Je vis au long de 
la rivierre des swamps remplis de Cypres et de Nyssa, elles sont pres de 
la route d'Augusta et abondent tellem. en jeunes plantes q. je resolus de 
revenir l'hyver prochain, la distance n'eiant que de 80 a 100 milles de 
Charleston. 

Le 2 nous avons fait dix huit milles. 

Le 3 nous avons fait seize milles. 

Le 4 nous avons fait vingt un milles. 

lie 5 nous avons fait dix milles et nous arrirames a l'habitation. 

Le 6 j 'arrival a Charleston et je fis dix milles. 

Le 7 Juillet 1787 je visitay l'habitation et les ouvrages du jardinier. 

Le 12, 13, 14 et 15 Juillet je fus obliger de rester a Charleston pour ter- 
miner les affaires concernant l'acquisition du terrain pour le Roy en Caro- 
line. Je me pr^parai aussi au voyage de New- York et je fus oblige 1 de 
m'embarquer sur le paquebot de Philadelphie. 

Le 16. Je m'embarquai. 

Le 27 au soir, la navire entra a Philadelphie. 

Le 27 Juillet arrive ;iu soir Philadelphie. 

Le 86 Yisite le consul de France. 

Le Dimanche 29 occupe a ecrire. 

Le 30 voyage 1 chez Bartram,* et dine chez le consul. 
i voyage pur le stage h New-York. 

Le ler Aoust arrive a l'etablissetnent du Roy dans le nouveau Jersey. 

Le 2 arrive a New-York. 

Le '.1 occupe a faire la liste des graines apportoes de Caroline. 
t dine 1 chez le charge 1 d'affaires de France et * * * 
Dimanche 3, YisitGrEtablisseinent du Royavec M. Roland iniie.iieur 

de le marine. 

Lei <■ Joomee ;i New-York po. y recevoir de l'argent et compte 

avec M. Delaforeet 

l.e 7 vi-itr le Jardlo et fait le releve dee arbres fruitiers et des arbres 
amerieains pour les envoyer en France. 

!.' 8 etnhalle mes livres et herbiers p >. les envoyer en Caroline, cotnpie 
anlinier. 

\i le Oompte d'Anglriller, M. 1'abM Nolln a M. Le lIon< 
m Ohonlo. (:i m. Deeelnl p<>. lui annoneer traiie de LSOOaTordnde 

M. 1 ► i • ; . i f . r 

!.<• 10 parti de N-w York et • • • 

i Philadelphie et le mime Jonr embarque* po. Charleston, 
Bmejooi titi inr M. Datartre pour la t >i«' m>is mille livres a I'ordre 
,'. \i I *<: Marboit Oonenl de France i Philadelphie! 

• n i« probable Una ti inloal Gardens, founded 

unoua csiui)- 
beffl made wiiiiout a fuller entry in the Journal : end 

'\ lllliun Hurl nun. u Im, tuHvr ynirs 

>•' h<Mdwau-i eeeeee rlvoi from the Atlentlo eeaboardi 

i deee rlb ed 0. B. s. 



1888.] && [Michaux. 

Le Diraanclie 12 passe: devant Chester. 

Le Dimanche 19 nous di-passames le cap. Hattera3. 

Le 20 nous eprouvames le vent du N. O. si considerable que vers le soir 
Ton amena toutes les voiles et m§tnes les vergues superieures des deux 
mats ; nous eprouvames pendant la nuit une pluye presq. continuelle, ac- 
compagnee de tonnere, eclairs et vents furieux. 

Le 23 et 24 nous eumes des Calmes. 

Le 24 a cinq heures du matin le therrnom. expose" a l'air marquait 2l£ 
deg. de Reaumer, l'eau de la mer marquoit 21 D, Temps tres calme. Led. 
jo. a midy 23 D. Led. jour au soir 18. 

Le Dimanche 26. calme de m. q. les jours precedents. A 3 heures 
apremidy il s'eleva une brise et nous eumes esperance de hater notre 
voyage. 

Le 27 veDts variables. 

Le 28 Aoust arrive a Charleston ayant file dix-huit jours de Philadelphie 
a Charleston. 

Le 29 re<ju avis de l'arrive" des * * * caisses d'arbres envoyees par 
le Capt. Clark le * * * et arrivees a Bordeaux le 20 May ; le meme 
j.mr ecrit a M. le Compte Dangivill. po. lui annoncer la traite sur M. Du- 
tartre. Ecrit a l'Abbfi Nolin. Ecrit a M. Marbois. Ecrit a Saunier. 

Le 30 continue 1 a ecrire et fait plus, visites. 

Le 31 requ des visites, et le soir parti po. la Plantation. 

Le ler Septembre sejourne, enregistre les differentes rficoltes faites par 
mon fils. 

Le Dimanche 2, achete" un cheval. 

Le 3 herborise" aux environs de la Plantation et greffe. 

Le 4 et 5 voyage au de la de la riv. Cooper po. reconnoitre les Palmiers, 
trouve le Sideroxilon tomax. Ligustrum monospermum, et Magnolia 
grandiflora en aboudance. 

Le 5 achete 7 moutons po. avoir du fumier po. le jardin. 

Le 6 seme" dans le jardin des graines de lauriers * * * aestivalis,* &c. 

Le 7 seme" plusieurs graines differentes, seche" et visite toutes les graines 
recueillies. 

Le 8 laboure" et sem6. 

Le 9. seme. 

Le 10. alio a Charleston, j'ay loue une autre chambre, j'ay rec,u des let- 
tres de New -York, j'ai ecrit a Philadelphia. 

Le 11 * * * 

Le 12 j'ay retire" des caisses venues de New-York et je suis retourne a 
la Plantation. 

Le 13 recueilli seinences de Gledit. triacanthos et commence" la con- 
struction d'un grenier po. les semences. 

Le 14 recueilli Cassia chamaecrista et Cassia nictitans, Cacalia atriplic. 

Le 15 seme des graines. 

* A word is here made illegible by the cutting away of the margin of the paper.— 
C. S. S. 



Michaux] -4 [Oct. 19, 

Le 16 seme. 

Le 17 piepare une caisse de sentences po. envoyer en France. 

Le 18 j'ay etc a Charleston. 

Le 19 revenu a la Plantation. 

Le 20 fait labourer. 

Le 21 et 22 seme des graines de Caroline. 

Le 24, 25, 26 j'ay ete a la ville. Envoye deux caisses de sem. pour Bor- 
deaux. Ecrit a M. Dangiv. M. Table N. Le Mounier Th. M. Nairac et a 
* * * fait embarquer les 8 canards. 

Le 27 et le 28 occupe a la Plantation. 

Le 29 et 30 j'ay M avcc mon fils a la recolte des Sideroxilon tomax sur 
Cooper River. 

Le ler et deux Octobre j'ay 6te avec mon fils au de la de Dorchester 
a la recolte du Gletditsia aquatica. 

Le 3 dud. j'ay 6te a Charleston. 

Le 4 j'ay ete avec mon fils et un negre recueillir des Magnolia grandi- 
flora au de la de la riv. Cooper. 

Le 5 et 6, labouie et seme des graines. 

Le 7 recueilli une grande quantite. 

Le 8 envoye mon fils a Charleston et recu deslettres par la voie de New 
York de M. Dangivill. de M. l'Ablie Xolin. 

Du 8 au 15, envoy*'- mon tils a la recolte des Magnol. grandif. Cyrilla, 
Juniperus, Quercus phellos, Liriodendron, et moi a extraire journal denies 

Depuis le 18 jusqu' au 30 les fievres ont continue 1 a mon fils et moi, 
j'ay M incommode de Klnnnatisine. 

Du M all :il visile les sentences reeueillies et prepare tin envoy. 

Du ler Novemhre jusijii' au 4, continue a remplir les caisses de graines. 

U 80 Oct* 

I,, t Nforembra J( la ville po, ecrire les lettres, faire l'envoy 

compos.' de 7 palatal d<' u'l-aines et une cage, de hub canards d'Kle. 

Der 7. 8.9. 10. 11 et 18, occupe a l'envoy cydessus et a ccrire des 
lettres. 

Le 12 observe dans le jardin de Watson un Crinum rubrum (lit on origi- 
natre du Mississippi. Spathe 2-phylle, deux a 8 tlciirs. Corolle tulmlee 

'lante a ti < lal. * * * Cor. tabulae. 

e» sur la Corol! in. simple Caps, velue a line settle 

awatnoa. 

|)u 18 au II visit.' les graines et pay.' les neg. occupe les jours p: 
ueillir 1. 

mtai de la d. v. po. I'olea ainerii'ana. 

voir une aalatt d'arbrei da New- 
oouflnad to 

readings "f 



1888.] *«) [Michaux. 

Le 20 j'ay fite occupy jusqu' au 28 a planter les arbres et a semer plus, 
especes tie graines. 

Le 29 et 30 voyage a Monks corner po. l'Olea americana et Sarracenia 
tubifolia. 

Le ler D6cembre, plante les arbres rapporles et occupe a preparer l'em- 
placement d'une cloture po. les cerfs nains. 

Le 2 visite les graines et prepare un envoy de graines. 

Le 12 remis 1' Envoy au paquebot de New- York. 

Le 15 Decerabre voyage dans l'interieur de la Caroline pour les 
Gleditsia monosperme, Stewartia &c, afin d'avoir un envoy complet pour 
un navire annoncc directemt de Charleston po. le Havre de Grace. Depuis 
ce jour jusqu' au 27 Decembre occupe a arracher les arbres, les encaisser, 
et a l'envoy des graines, a ecrire les lettres &- &-. 

Le 27 dud. remis les caisses et les canards d'Ete au navire destine pour 
le Havre de Grace et recornmande a Mr Limousin, negociant. 

Le 28 Decemb. 1787. J'al travaille a faire le compte de mes depenses 
et regie les comptes avec les personnes et les ouvriers a qui je dois de 
1 'argent. 

3rd. Cahier 1788. 
JOURNAL. 

Le Jeudy 14 fevricr 1788. je me suis prepare a m'embarquer. J'ai 
achetc un petit negre au prix de cinquante pounds et j'en ai loue un autre 
po. uu skill, par jour. Embarque' a midy et demi po. snt Augustine en 
Florida. 

Le 15 Temps calme et vent contraire ; nous avons resle" a l'ancre en de- 
dans de la Barre de Charleston. 

Le 16 il s'elevadausla nuit unvent considerable, plusieurs navires chas- 
serent sur leurs ancres. Une goelette vint donner contre celle ou nous 
£tions embarque, mais sans aucun dommage. On parvint a les degager. 
II survint de la pluye, on esperoit qui le vent tourneroit du sud au Nord, 
mais il continua et le soir nous allames nous mettre a l'abri du vent au 
dessous de l'isle de Sullivan en vue de Charleston 

Le Dimanche 17 fevrier 1788 nous restames a l'ancre et j 'allay herbor- 
iser sur l'isle de Sullivan. Je ne reconnus que peu de plantes dignes 
d'etre rernarquees, parceque cette petite isle, dailleuis assez sterile a cause 
de son exposition aux Vents est incendiee tous les ans selon la coutume 
des Ameriquains qui meltent annuellement le feu dans toutes les forets. 
Les Anglois, pendant la derniere guerre ont coupe tous les grandes Chamse- 
rops; il n'y en reste que des jeunes qui ne fructifient pas ; je remarquai un 
arbrisseau dont la fructification indique §lre un Croton et un gramen. 

Le 18 le vent se calma mais il ne fut pas favorable. 

Le 19 on leva l'ancre et nous depassames la Barre, mais le vent con- 
traire nous obligea de rentrer. 

Le 20 on envoya un Cannot a la ville et je profitay de l'occasion. J'y 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. D. PRINTED FEB. 18, 18S9. 



Michaux.] ^ [Oct. 19, 

allay tant pour renouvell, les provis. consumees pendt le malheureux sejour 
des vents contraires que dans l'esperance d'y trouver des nouvelles de 
France par la voie de New-York qui devoient §tre arrives. II se trouva 
un schooner destine po. New-York et je regrettay d'autant plus amere- 
ment les huits jours perdus par les vents contraires, que si je fusse reste 
en Carol, j'y aurois execute 1 un envoy pour le 24 fevrier auquel etoit fixe le 
depart de ce schooner et de meme si le vent eut 6te assez favorable po. 
aller a Snt August, j'aurois pu faire un envoy tres interessant par ce 
schooner, dont le depart 6tant fixe" au 24 fevrier de Charleston auroit pu 
arriver aisement avant le 10 Mars suivant po. la depart d'un paquebot de 
France. 

Le 21 nous restames encore a l'ancre et sur le soir il s'eleva un vent 
considerable accompagne de pluye. 

Le 22 l'agitation de la mer et le vent &ant cesses, nous eumes l'espe- 
rance d'avoir le Vent du Nord qui nous devoit 8tre favorable. 

Le 2<> le vent fut tres favorable, mais toute la journee fut employee a 
retirer une ancre qui se trouvoit tellement engage que l'on resolut plusi. 
fois de l'abandonner, mais sur le soir, par le secours d'un autre batiment 
dont la force 6toit superieure on parvint a la retirer. 

Le Dimanche 24 fevrier 1788, nous mimes a la voile avee un vent tres 
foible, mais assez favorable. 

Le 25, nous efimes un vent du sud qui etoit contraire ; il dura ainsi 
jusqu' au lendemain matin. 

Le 26 et le 27. nous restames en mer et enfin vers le soir, nous recon- 
numes les cotes de la Floride. 

Le 28, nous entrames dans le Port Snt Augustine et nous debarqufunes 
I une heure apns midy. 

II vint a bord des oftlciers du Gouvernment qui demanderent ce que je 
venois faire et si j'avois apport6 des marchandises : Je repondis que je 
venois uniquement po. observer l'hist. naturelle de la Floride et que 
j'avois auparavt obtenu la permission de son Bxcell. le CSouverneur. Alis- 
on me dit qu'il falloit aller s'y presenter. Je lui (disais) que je 
n'avois d'autre ohjet que l'hist. nat. el (pie lorsque je serois prepare pour 
aller visiter les dillerentes parties de la eontree. j'en infonnerois son Bz- 

Doeetqne jelnl feroia nommegedei Deoouvertee lee plus Inte'ressantB. 

I) me dit que jYtoU 1.- bien venu el m 1 "' ,ous les services qu'il pourroit 
n ndrc, il le flnott il me fit beeueoap d'honnctctds et enroye eneuite 

iidrc.it on j'avois pris inon logeinent que l'on ait heaueoup 
d 'attentions. 
Lt* >"■•. la joiirooe ee peeea en visiles. 

• ire un b er borleetton el Je reeonmn an An- 

dmim-da <\r imuvelle e*p- re N". I 

L« I >iiu:iii<-li«- 2. nous alliunesa ' nous entendimes la If esse tl 

iiiverueur. 

■• o9 Deg. de Reaumur k i u. da niaiiu, audetsui de 0. 
Nous el lames ii A milies de dieteaoe, mais un orege aooompagoi de tonnere 



1888. | 27 [Michaux. 

et d'eclairs, nous perc^a et nous baigna entitlement, et nous ramena sans 
rapporter aucune plante int ressante. 

Le 4, le vent accompagne de pluie dura toute la nuit, le therm, fut 
a 5^ d. la tempete fut un peu moins violente pendant la journ£e ; 
nous alliimes a plus de 6 milles de distance etnous ne vimes que les arbriss. 
interessants trouves le ler Mars savoir No. 2 et No. 3. Je recueillis aussi 
un arbrisseau inconnu qui avoit le port d'un Andromeda No. 4 mais qui 
en differoit totalement par la fructification. 

Le 5 Vent du N. O. Th. 2^ des le matin, au dessus de 0. La journee 
employee a lire la description de la Floride et a verifier cette description 
avec une carte qui me fut prgtee. 

Le 6 consul 1 6 plusi. habitans sur les moyens d'aller faire une herborisa- 
tion au sud de la Province. 

Le 7 j'achetay un canot et loue deux hommes pour la manoeuvre. 

Le 8 achete les provisions pour le voyage et beaucoup de poudre et de 
plomb afin de tuer du gibier, car les parties que je me disposois a visiter 
sont inhabitees, et seulement frequent ees par les sauvages. 

Le 9 Dimanche regie" toutes choses pour le voyage. Thermometre le 
matin a 5 deg. 

Le 10 Th. le mat. a 5 D. }. Vent du N. O. 

Un ouvrier fut occupe a coudre la voile du canot et a faire q. ques re- 
parations. 

Le 11. Tberm. le matin a 4 Deg. £ au dessus de 0. Vent du N. O. 
La voile et autres fournitures du canot n'etant pas preparees, j'allay visi- 
ter le terrain d'un particulier po. y etablir un depot d'arbres. 

Le mercredi 12 nous partimes de Snt Augustin dans le canot qui con- 
tenoit cinq personnes savoir mon fils & moi, deux rameurs et le negre que 
j'avois ammene de Charleston. Le vent etoit favorable, mais la maree 
contraire formoit des vagues qui entroient dans le canot et nous reso- 
lumes de nous arrSter a la maison d'un respectable vieillard etabli depuis 
52 ans. sur l'isle de Snte Anastasie. Cet homuie le plus laborieux et le 
plus industrieux de toute la Floride avoit rendu son sejour un Paradis non 
obstant les ditferents pillages des Corsaires auxquels il a ete expose et les 
revolutions qu'il a eprouvees deux fois par le changement de domination, 
cette Province ayant passe depuis son sejour au pouvoir des Anglois et 
de nouveau au pouvoir des Espagnols. 

Therm, le mat. a 12 Deg. 

Le 13 nous cotoyames l'isle de Snte Anastasia ; nous nous arrStames a 
environ 14 milles de distance de Snt. Augustin et je reconnus sur la rive 
deux especes d'arbres * * * appelus par les Anglois Mangrove* et sur 
q. ques parties de cette isle, le Zamia. 

Nous arrivames le soir au fort Matanse situe sur cette isle. J'em- 
ployai le peu d'heures qui me restoit a herboriser a peu de distance de co 
fort. 

* Rhizophora Maugle ; not included in Michaux's Flora.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] ~Q [Oct. 19, 

Le 14 nous essay times de passer la barre de Matanca* distante de 20 M. 
de Snt Aug., ou se termine l'isle de Snte Anastasia, mais le vent qui venoit 
de la mer formoit des vagues qui emplissoient le canot ; nous resolumes de 
nous aneter cbez un Farticulier Minorquain qui demeuroit a 3 milles de 
distance sur l'emb. de X. West river et a 24 milles de distance de Snt. 
Augustin. 

Therm. 14 Deg. 

Le 15 le vent toujours venant de la mer nous retint a l'babitation du 
Minorquain. Je visitai les environs et je ne reconnus que la plupart des 
productions de la Carol, et de la Georgie. sc,avoir : Magn. grandiflo. 
Quereus pbellos, Pinus taeda, Myrica cerifera, Bign. sempervir. Juglans 
biccory. 

Le Dimancbe 16 Mars, therm, le matin a 14 Deg. Nous avons pris un 
cheval et un guide pour remonter la rivierre du Nord appelee N. West 
river. Nous avons lait 22 milles et remarque seulmt. outre les produc- 
tions communes de la Carol, et de la Georgie, tels que le Magn. grand i- 
flora, Gordonia lasiantbus, Acer rubrnm, Lauras borbonia, Cup. distic. 
Myrica cerifera &c etc. Outre ces arb. je vis au long de cette rivi. qui 
ne doit etre nominee qu'un ruisseau, Andromeda arborea, Zaraia puinila 
Clianucrops repens et un arbuste legumineux a leuill. terneesf No. 17 et 
un autre arbriss. inconau. No. 18., un Halesia tetraptera a petites fl. deux 
Annona & &c. 

Le 17. nous suivimes toujours cette rivierre, a pen de distance je vis le 
Viburnum caatinoidea, Ziziphus acandens,} Lupinua pilosus flore ceruleo. 

Je rccueillis beaucoup de aemenoe de I'arbuate No. 17 et an nouvel 
And. Enfin voyant un sol touj aride sans productions interessuntes je pris 
le parti de retouraeraur mea paa. 

Le 18 je ne rccueillis anemic nouvelle plante. mais je reconnus au bord 
. West river et au long de la Rivierre de Matanse un Andromeda a f". 

d'aniand. d'environ 10 a 12 pieds de hatit, il lorinoit des tigcs en uses et 
i mites dont les fndiens, dit-on, se servent pour lours Calumets. Je 

ne le vis pus 00 lleur, mais je cmis qu'll est celui que Rartram m'a de- 

eigne* torn le torn d' Andromeda formoaiaaima.§ 

18 les deux rameura que j'aToli envoys aveo mon negre, n'ayant 

point donin' le signal donl III I'liiienl convenu avee nous, je retold! d'aller 
sur '.' - ; >i >risi par un soldat du Port MataiiQa qu'ils avoient tmuve le 

vable po patter la Barre el que le maree lee avoil oblige de par- 
tit m i le tempi d'allumer do feu po. (aire le ilgnal conyenu. En 
rcrenanlje vinitai un lieu abundant eo .' m de diet. & j'y trou- 
- Intereti i 
L«- ohesqol aom 6tloni log$, me donna trod ohevaux 

• 
j ■enalMMi MtoMb, i»« . o, h.s. 
f imenUwe acuminata, Di» Michaux oalli it Andromt d a fcrarAia.— 

c.t\t 



18S8.] ^9 [Michaux. 

po. aller rejoindre nos Rameurs. parceque la Mer est si houleuse sur la 
Barre de Matanca qu'il auroit ete imprudent de la passer avec notre 
Bagage. 

Nous partimes a 7 heures et nous maichames jusqu' a 6 heures du soir 
sans nous arreter. Je vis le pays le plus aride de la Floride, dans toute 
cette marche, a l'exception d'une Plantation ou nous arrivarnes a 5 heures 
du soir, qui avoit appartenu au Gouverneur Moultrie dans le temps q. les 
Angl. possedoient la Floride. Enfin a 6 heures nous arrivarnes a l'em- 
bouchure de Tomoco Creek et nous campames sur le Bord du Lagoon 
(c'est un canal forme par des Isles qui se prolongent sur la cote d' Ameriq.) 
Lorsque ces Isles sont interrompues alors la Mer vient briser sur le rivage 
et la navigation pour des Bateaux est dangereuse lorsque le Vent vient de 
la Mer. On peut naviguer avec des petits Bateaux depuis la Caroline 
jusqu' au cap. de la Floride et cette Navigation s'appeile Navigation de 
l'lnterieur {inland navigation) et les differents bras de la Mer formes par 
les Isles qui se prolongent ainsi se nomment Lagoons qui prennent differ- 
ents noms selon les lieux et les Isles qui les resserrent. Nous tirames un 
coup de fusil et nos rameurs nous repondirent aussitot par un autre coup 
de fusil. lis y etoient arrives la veille sans autre danger que celui d'avoir 
eu deux fois le canot renverse par les vagues et d'Stre ainsi baigne, mais 
ils etcient tres experimentcs. 

Noue <'iions alors a environ 40 milles de distance de S nt Augustin en 
ligne droite.* 

Le 21 nous passames sur la riv^ gauche de ce Lagoon ou il y avoit une 
habitation abandonnt'e. Je vis des Orangers charges de fruit et j'y reeue- 
illis plusi. arbriss. interessants. Nous vinmes le soir camper a l'lsle des 
Orangers a 4 milles de distance de l'habitation de M. Penman mais qui 
etoit abandonnee. Dans l'intervale, nous visitames plusi. habitations 
qui etoient abandonnces et qui etoient assez considerables pour avoir ete 
nommes un Village. 

Le 22 nous essayames une pluye considerable qui avoit commence pend- 
ant la nuit et qui dura jusqu' a midy. 

Notre navigation fut du (5 milles environ et nous campames sur la terre 
ferme a 4 Milles de distance avant d'arriver a l'embouchure de Spruce 
Creek. J'y trouvai le Carica papaya. \ 

Le Dimanche de Paques, 23, le vent fut assez favorable et nous vinmes 
camper entre la Barre de New Smyrne et les ruines de cette ville qui y 
avoit ete fondee du temps des Anglois. Cet etablissement avoit ete con- 
duit par le Docteur Turnbull aux frais d'une Compagnie dont il etoit le 
Regisseur. Plus de 1200 person nes, homines femmes et enfants, la plu- 
part de Minorque, avoient ete seduits et ammenes de leur patrie. La durete 
et le Despotisme oriental avec lesquels ce barbare conduisoit sa Colonic, 
faisoit encore le sujet du conversation des habitans de S ut Augustin pen- 
dant le temps que j'y fus. Ce lieu est designe dans une Nouvelle Carte 

* Et un mille de l'embouchure du Tomoco Creek. 

t Early introduced from the West Indies into Florida by the Spaniards — C. S. S. 



Michaux.] OU [Oct. 19, 

de la Floride publiee a Londrcs depuis q qucs annees par le nom de Mus- 
keto shore (c6te des mosquitos). 

Le 24 thermomctre de Rheaum. a 7 Deg. au dessus de zero, Vent de N. 
O. ties sensible. 

Xous vinmes camper sur les ruines de New Smyrne, j'y remarq. plus 
de 400 Maisons dctruites. il n'en restoit que leschemiaees parceque les Sau- 
vages qui vient. visiter ce lieu pour les Orangers qui y subsistent touj. 
malgre leurs incendies annuclles dctruist aussi les boiseries dont ces 
maisons sont couiposees pour se chauler. 

Le 25 Th. a 5 Deg : gelee blanche. Je visitay les lieux bumides et les en- 
virons de cet Etablissem' qui avoit ele tres florissant du temps des Angl. ; 
maisje n'y remarquay d'autres plantes que celles qui m'avoient interest 
les jo. precedents. Nona etions alors a 75 M. de S nt Augustin. 

Le 26 notre navigat. fut de 12 Milles et nous nous arretames sur les 
ruines d'une Plantation qui avoit appartenu au capit. Besy, dans un lieu 
tree fertile qui me donnoit envie d'en visiter les Swamps. 

J'y trouvay seulement une espece de Pancratium et une Plante annu- 
ellf de 12 pi. de baut dessech. dont je recueillis q.q. semences. 

Le 27 nous navigames touj. entire dee Isles de Mangles, (Rhizophora 
Mangle) et nous vinmes diner au pied d'une colline nominee Mont Tucker. 
Jfl recnelllta plusieurs arbriss. et pi. des Tropiques. Le soir nous vinmes 
camper sur les ruines de l'babitalion du capit. Roger. 

98, j'' tra\ -el-say dans les Marecages qui composoicnt autrefois cette 
habitat, ou Ton avoit cultive des Canes a Sucre et enfin sur les midy, nous 
vinmes la riv. Indienne (Indian river) et parq. (pies tins Aisabatcha c. a. d. 
rhrfecie des Cerfs et poor les Espagnols Rio d'Ais. 

•tc habit, etoit la phis mend, que les angl. ayent etabli en Floride. 
Notll allames camper 4 milles plus loin. 

L»- N Mars, notre navigation hit d'cnviron six milles parceque le vent 
contraire e^t trea fort, let ■mimavee beenoonp d'effort rsJsoient pea de 
cbemin. !><■ plus raon fil- el mol nous allions sur la rive occidental pour 
tackerde decouvrir 1'endroit le ptasresserre' entre la rivierre Indienne et le 

:l ou nous etion>. Sur let OfiCfl Inures de dessus les arbres on dis- 

linguoit aisein.'iit h- detU Ilia- de la Mer c. a. d. celui ou nous etions 

tppeU par les Anglois . . . et la Ri\ iene Ind. ainsi nominee paries 

Angl. qui n'e>t nulleni' un Riv. mais un Hras de la Mer tres ressene comme 

kOtni par une chaine d'lllei qui M prolongent du Nord au Slid 

depui- la Carol, JtUqn' mi Cap d« la Floride. Nos deu\ ranieiirs deseend- 

noii.- |>areoiiruini- tout |fl territoire alin de troin er un passage 

dbk I'o. transport, le Canot. Vers lei quatre heures du soir nous 

res hUMI au Camp a\ec 1 ' t -pi' -ranee de pouvoir transporter le Canot, Nous 

d autant plus nous approeher de la terre ferine que depuis notre 

.mvelle Smyrne QOOI n'ATloni qttfl de lean saumatre. La 

de Hum p .imim'e et ils ne desiroient pas 

iimin- quitter iv lieu ou nou- 6UODI de\or«- des Moustiques. Quant a 

:i ne prssentoit altcrnativem 1 que dei 6tenduet eon ({durables dc Jones 



1888.] «>1 [Michaux. 

ct de Palinets* a dents de scie (Chamserops monosperma fronde acute den- 
tatis radice repente). 

Cependt. je trouvay parmi lcs arbres qui composoient une partie de Bois 
situe Bur la lliv. Indienne unf figuier a f. oblongues et entieres, un nou- 
veau Sophoraf et deux autres arbriss. inconnus. Cela augrnenta mes 
esperances pour les expeditions q. je rue disposois a faire les jo. suivants 
sur cette Rivierre. 

Le Dimanche 30 Mars nous avons ete occupe toute la journee a rouler 
notre Canot par terre, l'espace d'un Mille au travers de Jones et de Brous- 
s lilies. II fallut coper des arbres, mais la plus grande difflculte etoit 
lorsque nous avions a traverser des espaces de cent toises toutes couvertes 
d'un Chamaerops a dent de scie qui non seulem 1 coupoient nos Bottes et 
nos Jambee mais resistoient par la durete de leurs tiges aux bons instru- 
ments dont nous utions fournis. En effet, un ouvrier tres habile que j'avois 
luuu po ce voyage disoit qu'il aimoit mieux couper un Chou-palmier de 
60 piedl de liattt qu'un de ces arbriss. parceque la tige qui est rampante est 
souvent entrulasse d'autres tiges ou branches de la meme grosseur qui 
paasent let une* nir les aul res. Enfin sur le soir, le Canot fut passe et tout 
le bagage transporte sur la rive de a Rivierre Indienne. 

Le :31 Mars, nous utions dispose a partir a la pointe du jour. Mais l'endroit 
ou nous etions etoit une espece de Golphe qui (au jugement de nos ra- 
meurs) formoient avec la rivierre une etendue de six milles de large. Le 
vent etoit contraire et il y a si peu d'eau dans toute la partie de ce Golphe 
que notre Canot ne pouvoit avancer quoique mon flls et moi nous ayons 
fait plus de quatre milles dans l'eauqui ne venoit qu'a mi-jambes. Lorsqu' 
il y avoit de l'eau trop profondement, nous montions dans le Canot, mais 
alors Us Vagues entroient dans le Canot de sorte que vers midy nous nous 
arretames pit's d'un mart-cage rempli de Mangliers. Ne pouvant camper sur 
ce lieu qui etoit une vase ties humide, nous retournames au lieu d'ou nous 
etions parti, mais il s'en fallut peu que le Canot ne fut submerge par la 
quantite d'eau qui y entra de sorte que nos provis. furent toutes mouillees. 

Le Mardy 1" Avril 1783 le meme vent du Sud qui nous avoit ramene 
nous retint au meme lieu. II soufla avec plus de violence m8me q le jo. 
precedent Nos rameurs en proflteront po. secher le Ris et le Biscuit qui 
avoit ete tout trempe" le jo. precedent. lis allerent a la p§che et nous rap 
porterent deux Poissons qui pesoient plus de 18 livres chaque. J'allay 
berboriser apres avoir secbe mon Bagage qui avoit ete aussi submergi la 
veille et je recueillis le Pteris lineatag et le Polypodium Scolopendroides|| 
qui croissent communement sur la tige des grands Chamserops. Je trou- 
vay aussi l'Acrostichum aureum dans les lieux tres humides et m§me parmi 

• Sabal serrulata, R. & S.— C. S. S. 

t Ficus aurea, Nutt — C. S. S. 

t Probably S. tomentosa, L. Neither this nor the Hats appear in Michaux's Flora.— 

c. s. s. 

§ Vittaria lintata, Michx. ( V. angusttfrons, Swartz).— C. S. 8. 
| Blechnam serrulahim, Michx.— G.;S. S. 



Miehaux.] O 2i rQct 19 

les Mangliers qui bordent les rnarecages immenses de ce fleuve. Nous 
vinmes des oiseaux aquatiq. de plusi. especes et raou fils en tua ce jour 
plus de 12 d'un coup de fusil a plusi. reprises. Nous coupames desChou. 
paluiiers pa epargner le pain qui dimiuuoit et nous nous mimes a la ra- 
tion de deux Biscuits par jour pour cinq personnes que nous etions. 

Le 2 Avril nous profitames d'un calme pour traverser la rivierre du cole 
de la Terre ferme. II y avoit au moinssix milles de distance et vers midy 
nous primes terre. Le vent qui s'etoit eleve considerablement empecba 
de continuer la route l'apres midy. Je trouvay sur la Terre ferme en 
abondance le Sophora* occidentalis, bel arbriss. j'en recueillisabondamin' 
des graines et un bel epi de ses fleurs me conflrma que c'etoit un Sophora 
dont la fleurest tres agreablc. Jerecueillis quelques autres plantes que la 
nuit m'empecha de decrire . . . Une nouvelle espece de Spigelia, tine 
autre plante qui a affinite avec . . . 

Notre marehe fut evaluee a douze M. 

Le 3 Avril notre marehe fut de quinze milles et au lieu de plantes inter- 
essantes et nouvelles qui m'excitoient (dont l'esperance m'excitoiO a sur- 
monter les obstacles, (car je voyageois touj. a pied po. soulagerles rameurs 
qui avoient le vent contraire). Je ne retrouvois que des arbresou arbriss. 
de la Georg. et de la Carol. Magn. glauca. Gordon ia. Acer liubrum. 
Cependant je recueillis deux Annon. Tun d'eux nouvelle espece avec des 
fl. blanch, tres larges et feuillesf . . . L'etendue de ce Canal qui avoit 
de 4 a 8 milles de large en plusi. endroits epouvanta nos rameurs et nos 
rameurs eux memes jugerent qu'il t'-toit plus convenable de profiler de la 
situation du vent pour revenir de sorte que nous primes la resolution de 
profiter du ctime qui avoit lieu tousles jours avant le lever dusoleil j usque 
vera neuflieures du matin. Kn ell'et le 4 nous etant embarque avant le 
jour et le vent favorable, nous euines le bonheurde avoir traverser le Lit 
le plus profond avant huit heures et sur le soir nous nous retrouvames sur 
la rive orientale de la rivierre AIM liatcha. 

Tons les soirs nous voyons de not re camp les feux que les sauvages fai- 

i sur l'autre rive de cette rivierre, main depuis notre depart de S nt 

BOUI tt'en avion- pas encore rencontre et nos rameurs nouscon- 

hi-illoicnt dVviter leur vMte 8, cause des imporlunites iiu\ quelles on est 

lew part afln d'ftTDtf du Rum dont 111 sont au moins aussi pas- 

que pouvoii'nt I'ltre noe Bameun qui d'sJlleuree'toient les plus Bobree 

i: I Be >-n re grille. 
N'otr. • •,!,• | _>| milles. 

■ .i Umte entitle employee I transporter le Oanol et a lo 
maatert que nous trioae fait le Dtamncbe precedent. 

. Tun petit interval de temps pour une eolleetion 

mil-urn exl krone que J'evoli remeiqu^ sur le bord de oette 

ivoiipoevu preokUmmeai .!<• leeemballeJ de manure 

' . -C. 8. 8. 



18 ^1 &'* [Michaux. 

a pouvoir les transporter jusqu' a Charleston pour les y planter et tout 
fut dispose pour retourner a S Bt Augustin des le lendemain. 

Le Dimanche 6 Avril avant quitter cette partiela plus Meridionale de la 
Floride ou j'aye pu m'avancer, je re-olus de visiter une Isle ou je voyois 
des arbres diffe rents de ceux [autres q. des mangles les seuls] qui se trouvent 
communernent sur ces Isles et je ne perdis pas mon temps ayant recueilli 
la Guilandina bonduccella,* le Mangrove a fruits comme ceux du flguier 
de Catesby . . . 

Un arbre inconnu et un Phaseol ou Dolichos a gros fruits. 

Notre navigation fat de . . . et nous vinnies camper sur les ruines 
de rhabitation du capit. Roger. Cette habitat, etoit la plus meridionale 
que les Angl. ayent eu en Floride. On y avoit cultive du sucre, raais les 
sauvages ont delruit toutes les Canes. 

Le 7, le vent qui soufloit du sud depots plusi. jo. et qui nous etoit tres 
favorable po. le retour, nous poussa jusqu' a la Nouvelle Smyrne dont il 
n'y a plus q. des Raines comme je l'ay deja remarque. Notre navigat. 
fut de . . . 

Le 8 nous viumes coucher sur une Isle a dix mille de distance de . . . 

Nous etions sous la latitude de . . . 

Le 9. nous eumes le vent en poupe et malgre les differentes relaches 
notre navigation fut de vingt quatre Milles. 

Nous vinnies camper a l'embouchure deTomoko Creek, latitude de . . . 

Le 10 Noas montamus la rivierre de Tomoko qui est voritablement une 
Riv. bien qu'elle soit nominee Creek par les Anglois qui ont eux memes 
bien peu connu la Floride dans le temps qu'ils en etoient en possession. 
Le Vent se trouva tres favorable et nous trouvames sur le soir une Isle 
couverte de bois. Nous campames un peu au dessus et notre navigat. fut 
d'environ 18 milles tout au plus. 

Je recueillis un Annonaf a grandes flours blanches que je crois Annona 
palustris et Annona glabra qui me paroit une variote du triloba. Les pro- 
ductions qui se trouvent sur cette riv. sont : Acer rubrum, Cupr. disticha, 
Fraxinus .... Magn. grandirlora et glauca, Pinus foliis binis. 

Le 11 nous niontames environ cinq miles et la rivierre qui etoit remplie 
d'arbres empechoit le Canot de passer de sorte que je resolus de dejeuner 
en ce lieu, d'y faire une herborisalion pendant q. Ton preparoit le dejeuner 
et d'en partir aussitot aprto. 

Le soir nous revinmes coucher a 1' Embouchure de la rivierre Tomoko. 

Le 12 un homnie partit pour aller chercher des chevaux arin de trans- 
porter le Bagage qui ne pouvoit elre transports dans le Canot, afin de re- 
passer la barre de Matanca. 

Le Dimanche 13 Avril celui de nos hommes que j'avois envoye a l'habi- 
tation du Mahonois po. avoir des chevaux, arriva sur le soir et il apporta 
des vivres qui nous manquoient. 

J'avois employe le jour precedent et celui-ci a visiter les Bois et les 

* Cxsalpinia Bonduc, Benth. & Hook. — C. S. S. 

t Anona laurifolia, Duual ; here at its northern station in Florida.— C. S. S. 

PItOC. AMEK. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. E. PRINTED FEB. 21, 1889. 



Michaux.] "4: [Oct. 19, 

marecages qui couvrent les environs du lieu ou j'etois, mais il ne se pre- 
sentoit aucune plante interessante en ce lieu tres desagreable par les 
Caymans et les Serpents qui abondent et les Mosquites dont nous etions 
tourmentes sans pouvoir reposer pendant la nuit. 

Le 14 nous nous mimes en marche a la pointe du jour et nous n'ar- 
rivames q. tres tard le soir a cause des detours que nous lumes oblige de 
prendre a plusieurs tois au travers des Chamaerops a dents de scie qui 
couvient la surface du sol, car les bois sont tres clairs. Nous fumes, dis- 
je, oblige de prendre un tour considerable parceque les bois avoient etc 
incendies les jours precedents, lis biuloient encore et le vent qui venoit 
a notre rencontre portoit l'incendie avec unerapidite extrgme. On n'a pas 
d'idee en Europe de l'etendue considerable des bois qui sont annuellem. 
incendiees en Amerique soit par les sauvages soit par les habitants Ameri- 
quains euxaSmes. lis n'ont d'autre motifs les uns et les autres que 
d'avoir par ces Incendies de l'herbe nouvelle depourvue de l'berbe seche 
de l'annee pieeedente. Je suis persuade que c'est la principale cause de 
dcpcrissem* po. chasser pi. aisement les Cerf et po. nourrir des Bestiaux 
des bois dans toute l'Amerique septentrionale.* 

Le 15 nous attendimes les rameurs qui etoient alle par Mer passer la 
Barre de Matanca. 

.1 allay faire une herborisat. dans les bois et je reconnus l'Andromeda 
(pic j'avois vu piecedeniment pour §ire vraim 1 une nouvelle espece, ayant 
assezde resscmltlance avec 1'Andromeda arborea, mais diflerente a plusi. 
egards particulicrem' par la disposition de ses fleurs et . . . 

Je reconntu avail un Andonaf et la Stillingia silvatlca. Je recueillis de 
tone let nrbriss. et arb. rares pour completer une eaisse que je me propos. 
de porter aY. moi ft Chariest ft tons hazards parce que la saison etoit alors 
Iropai an cue. 

Le 16 nous partimes de ce Hen po. revenir ft S n * Augustin et nous vinrno* 
camper ft deux mflei de distance du fort Matanca. 

Le 17 nous nous niiincs en route ft deu\ hcurcs du Matin et nous ar- 
ri\ ames a S st Augustin (le vent etant ties favorable) ft Midy. 

I., is j'alluy rendre visiteau Gouvenieur Eepegnol el Je visitay M r Les- 
lie agent pour les affaire-, del Indiens et pour me coneerter avec ltd BUT les 

Btoyeni de Toyeger efaei les Indiana. 

I.e l'J je 111- engage ft dilier die/. ftf»" Leslie. 

I.. Dimaiiclie '2d A vril je reeu- In \ i-ite du (louverneur qui \ int \oir mes 

• autres Collection- que j*a\ois recucilli- dans nion voyage, en 

Ifj4 ft diner die/, lui et l'apres midy sc passu 

dan* les Jardlni de Son Excellence irac lee Damee atmablee de m famllle. 

I herbori/.ntii mvirons de S n » Augustin 

Lfl hoimne -ur In ri\ I in ].our retenir un Canot atin 

«1 ' it I > c ' it ii tit d'y entrer par l'einlioucliure. 

• i» deeteaUa enMeai i« «tiu wiWimi throogboni tbe entire •stent of the marl 

H .,r tiiis.uiii.rn Reteetotbe Kr.-nt injury <>i the lorcst.— C. 8. 8. 



1888] 35 [Michaux. 

Le 24. 25 et 26 j'ay ecrit a Mons r le compte d'Angivill pour lui rendre 
compte de mon voyage au sud, de mes Recoltes et pour lui annoncer la 
trajte de 2000f. a l'ordre de M r De la Forest sur M. Dutartre. 

Ecrit a M. l'Abbe Nolin pour repond. a sa lettre reque ici et pour lui 
marquer les observations sur les Plantes que j'euvoye. 

De plus je lui ay demande laRacine de Disette et de la graine de Veron- 
ique male pour Mr. le capit. Howard. J'ay ecrit a M. De la Forest pour 
lui envoyer les lett. de change sur M. Dutartre par triplicata pour em- 
ployer les fonds au serviee de l'etablissement pres New-York. 

J'ay ecrit aussl a M. Dr Marbois consul de France a Philadelphie pour 
lui recommander le paquet a l'Address de Mr. le Cte. d'Angivill. 

Cette semaine j'y decrit plusieurs gramens et Carex, Scirpus et autres 
plantes qui croissent aux environs de S nt Augustin. 

Le Dimanche 27 Avril, redige les Listes et les Descriptions des Plantes 
recueillies dupuis mon arrivee montant a 40 especes dont les genres et les. 
especes me sont bien connues. 

Le deuxieme cahier contient 36 dont les genres me sont bien connus, 
mais les especes doutantes ou inconnues. 

Et le 3 me Cabier contient 29 dont la plupart sont inconnues ou ne pou- 
voient Hre determinees faute d'en voir la fleur. 

En tout 105 Arbres ou plantes recueillis depuis le l er Marsjusqu' a ce 
jour. 

Le 28 Avril achete les provisions et prepare a partir pour aller visiter 
le lac George au dela de la rivierre S nt Jean. 

Remis les lettres ecrites precedemm' au capit. Hudson qui devoit partir 
pour aller a S te Mary prendre son navire et aller a New-York en relacbauti 
a Savanah. Ecrit par la meme occasion a M. Ferry Dumont. 

Adresse le paquet a M r De la Forest ainsi que les lett. de eh. sur M r 
Dutartre. 

Observe sur l'habitation de S nt Roquet en abondance des Annona gran- 
diflora. 

Le 29 Nous sommes partis pour aller sur la Riv. S 4 - John. 

Le 30 nous sommes arrives a l'habitation de M. Wigin situee sur cette 
riv. a 40 Miles de S nt Augustin par terre. 

Le jeudy l cr May 1788, j'ay herborise aux environs et recueilli en fleur 
l'Androm. formosissima. Le Canot etant prepare le 2 May, nous nous 
sommes embarque et nous avons pass6 par le Magazin etabli pour le com- 
merce av. les Sauvages situe a 10 miles de distance. Nous avons campe - 
plus loin et nous avons fait seize miles de navigation sur cette Riv. 

Le 3 May nous avons fait de 14 a 16 Miles ayant touj. le vent contraire 
et nous avons campe dans un lieu nomme Camp des Indiens, qui paroissoit 
avoir ete cultive autrefois. J'y reconnus le Sapindus saponaria,* des 
Orangers et un joli Convolvul. dissectus? &c. 

Le Dimanche 4 May nous avons fait quatre miles seulem* et nous avons 

* Probably S. marginalus, Willd.— C. S. S. 



Mii-haux.] «'" [Oct. 19, 

campe sur une Isle a l'eutiee du lac George sur la rive orientale vis a vis 
un lieu nomme la pointe lies Alligators. Le vent qui etoit contraire et tres 
fort nous obligea de rester eu ce lieu ou je reconnus l'Erythrina, de nou- 
veau ligneux et le Sapiudus Saponaria. Les bois etoient remplis d'Oranges 
aigres. 

Le 5 May, nous vinmes en entrant dans le Lac George une grande Baie 
profonde a main gauche c. a. d. a l'Ouest et apres avoir dirige notre route 
au fond, nous rencontrames dans une riv. que Ton n'appercoit pas avant 
d'y arriver a la distance de vingt toises seulement. L'embouchure 
(29 D. 5' Lat.) de cette rivierre est tellement remplie de sable qu'il fallut 
trainer le Canot l'espace de vingt cinq a 30 toises. En suite on trouvc plus 
de 15 pieds de profondcur. Lean an est saumatre et plus degoutante que 
celle de la riv. S nt Jean et celle du lac G. Apres avoir remonti pendant 
plus de trois miles, nous trouvames la source qui sort de terre en for- 
mant des Bouillons qui s'elevent a plus d'un demi pied sur la surface. 
L'on voit le fond a plus de 30 pi. de profondeur. Au tour du Bassin 
forme par cette source, nous reconnumes rillicium. Le sol est compose 
de sable noirci par les debris de veg&aux et de Coquillages. 

Lee autres arbres qui abondent en ce lieu, ainsi q. par tout ou Ton trouve 
l'lllicium* sont les Magnol. grandiflora et glauca, Ilex cassine, Olea amer. 
et Laurus Borbonia. Cette rivierre abonde en Poiss. si prodigieusem 1 
qu'ils se heurtoient contre le Canot a mesure que nons avancions. Notre 
cmirso fut de cinq iniles jusqu' a l'embouchure de cette Rivierre. 

Le 6 May nous remontames en suivant le rivage et comme j'allois sur 
le sable tandisque le Canot contiuuoit, je reeonnus a un Mille de distance 
du lieu ou nous etions parti, c. a. d., de reinbouchure de la rivierre salee, 
une source d'eau, la plus pure et la meilleuie que j'aye bu cy-devant en 
Florida Nous nousy arietames pour dejeuner, car HOOT etions tous alt ere 
■ de la niauvaise eau q. nous buvions depuis ])lusieurs jours. Un 
mill*- plus loin je rccunniis encore l'llliciuin et il se trouva en abondauce 
a la pointe meridionale de la Hive. Apres avoir depassela bave (29 Deg. 

latitude), nousvii -s camper a la Colline des Oranges pour nous y 

niettre | l'abri dun Orage lurifiix qui alloit fondrc sur nous. Au bas de 
i l'Kinbouclmre dune rivierre assez large dont Teau n'est 

pas aussi tgraalria q. oalla de la precedente. Je reasoataJ cette riv. en- 
viron deux miles el je reconnus dans le bois le Sapiudus Saponaria. Une 

aapeea da Coffee <iui JVnrii obaen nl I HoakiDo shore et deux 

; mail qui m'cloient reaM inconnu. Je vis 
auui la Criniini aiinricaiiuin. Notre course fut evaluee a 18 miles. 

La 7 Ma ition tut de huit miles. Nous passatnes le 

Lac George et bom tnlwm dans la rUrierre qui aat aadaaauaal nous 
mmjiaiiHH dan* un Lieu aliondant en Grangers. Nous nrri\amcs aussi 

n, ui.i.-ii Mil liuiix leoi mm 

botwhiehbai doI riooi bean bond trowing wOdla North AmtrkM. u 

*«».|«l<«li.| III I! S. 8. 



1883.] ^* [Michaux. 

tot po. construire une Cabane de feuilles des Palmier sauvage Chamoerops 
. . . pour nous garantir d'un orage. 

Le 8 May, notre navigation fut de 10 Miles et nous eprouvames un 
orage plus considerable que celui de jour precedent. Nous vinmes un 
Lieu frequente par les Sauvages. II y avoit un Canot qui leur apparte- 
noit au bord de la rivierre et une Marmite. Je fis mettre quelques Bis- 
cuits, des haricots et des Oranges donees dans cette Marmite et nous con- 
tinuames notre chemin. Nous entendimes tirer deux coups be fusil ce 
qui prouvoit q. les sauvages etoient a la chasse de ce cote la. Nous pas- 
sames un lieu si abondant en oranges que je fis plus d'un demi mille dans 
l'interieur du Bois en largeur sans trouver d'autres arbres. Ce lieu avoit 
plus d'un Mile de long. Nous sommes venus camper sur une colline ou 
je reconnus la Rivina liumil. un Asclepias arbriss. & &- le Gledisia mont 
osperma au bas de colline et le sornmet couvert d'Orangers. 

Le 9 May notre course fut evaluee a 12 miles seulem' quoiq. les 
Rameurs ayant travaille toute la journi'e, mais depuis notre depart avec 
le courant qui etoit oppose, puisq. nous remontions une rivierre, le vent 
fut toujours contraire. Pendant plus de buit miles, il ne se trouva autre 
des deux cotes de la riv. (pie herbes joncs, et peu d'arbres, le sol y etoit 
touj. bourbeux. La rivii'rre etoit bordec des deux cotes d'Alligators ou 
Caimans qui avec leur figure horrible etoient d' une grandeur et grosseur 
enorme. On les approchoit de 6 pi. a 10 pi. de distance. Leur forme es- 
celle d'un Lizard, mais ils sont noirs armes tout le long du dos de grosses 
pointcs ([u'ils herissent quand ils sont en colere. On ne peut les tuer 
qu'on ehargeant le fusil avec des balles et en visant au bas du Cou. Le 
Nez est plus retroussi' (pie celui d'un cochon la tete applatie de deux pieds 
quatre pouces & q. que fois davantage en longeur. Les yeux sont tres 
rapproclies du sornmet de la tete. Ils ont soixante douze dents a la Ma- 
choire. Ils avalent aisement les Chiens les Cochons et les jeunes Veaux, 
mais au moind. mouvement d'un homme, ils se precipitent dans l'eau 
avec un grand fracas. Ils sont amphib. et venoient tows les matins nous 
rendre visite po. avoii les debris du Poisson dont nous etions bien fournis 
sur cette rivierre. Nous 6lkmt regale* aussi de leur Musique dont le bruit 
ressemble a un Rontlem' plus fort et plus continue que le Mugissem 1 
du Taureau, situe dans une vallc'e a un mile de distance. Les sauvages 
en mangent q.q. fois la partie inferieure, mais seulem' lorsqu'ilsmanquent 
d'autre gibier. 

Le 10 May notre navigation fut de 15 miles ; nous remontames jusqu' a 
la source une rivierre qui sortoit de terre. L'eau en etoit saumatre et ren- 
doit une odeur insupportable, quoique Ton en voyoit le fonds a plus de 15 
a 20 pi. de profondeur. Nous eumes beaucoup de diflicultes a passer sur 
des arbres qui couvroient le fonds et q.q. fois embarrassoient la supcrficie. 
II n'y a point eu d'habitations plus reculees du temps de Anglois que celle 
sur les mines de la quelle nous avons dejeune ce meme jour. Je trouvay 
a l'endroit le plus recule ou nous nous sommes avance une espece de colo- 
quite sauvage. 



Michaux] ^" [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche onze May, nous avons fait onze Miles toujouis en remon- 
tant vers contre le courant de la Rv. qui paraissoit de plus en plus em- 
barassee et se perdoit dans des Marais couverts de Jones. Je recueillis 
un Ipomoea* dont la fleur etoit parfaitement blanche et le tube six pouces 
de long. Cette plante me paroit annuelle et croit aux lieux humides, les 
feuilles sont entieres, cordiformes. Voyant peu de Succes a continuer 
mon Voyage, je fis retrograder et nous revinmes coucher au lieu d'ou 
nous etions parti ce mSme jour. 

Le 12 May, le vent etoit favorable a notre retour et nous flmes vingt-sept 
Miles. Nous avons campe a la Colline des Orangers. 

Le 13 May, le Vent et le Courant furent de nieme tres favorables & 
nous arrivames sur le bord du ruisseau dont l'eau etoit si agreable et si 
belle. II est situe a un demi mile seulem' de la rive d'eau saumatre aussi 
dont l'eau est aussi mauv. q. celle du ruiss. est bonne. J'y eprouvay de 
plus la satisfact. de recueillir a seulein* quatre vingt toises de distance 
l'lllicium. 11 est a remarquer que cet arbriss. se trouve dans les lieux ou 
croissent le Magn. grandirl. Annona grandifl. Olea americana, Ilex cassine 
A:c. ftft mais plus particul' ou Ton trouve aussi l'Aralia spin, et un Gra- 
men appele Canes\ qui croit a dix pieds de haut ce qui indiq. touj. un bon 
terrain mais sablonneux et frais. Notre course fut de dix huit a 20 Miles 
ce jour la. 

Le 14 May notre navigation fut de . . . et nous arrivames a l'habi- 
tation de S Wigins . . . 

Le 15 May nous nous mimes en route par terre pour revenir a S nt Au- 
gustin. 

Le 10 May, nous arrivames a S nt Augustin a deux hcures apres Midy 

].<-. 17 j'allay n-ndre visile a son Kxeell. 1 Gouverneur &c 

Le Dimanche I s May, je r6digeai mes collections. 
;s invite a diner chez le capit. Howard. 

Le 20 et21 J 'allay herboris. a I'extremile* de l'lsle St. Anastasia. 
.' jour de la lete de Dicu assiste" a la Prossesicon. 

>le son Exc. le Gouvern r & de plusi. personn. de dis- 
tinct, dcsqiicllcs j'uvois recti tin acetteil favorable. 

Latt remi- an (luvenienf un detail des observations faites en Floride 
pendant BUM sejoiir. 

Li Diinainln! 80 May part] de S"'« Augustin pour le Poste S l Vincent 
et BOOJ aTOOf coiiclic a 'J'lrinti/ MiUt house. 

l.< W, DM clievaux ;iyaiit | pendant la unit, nous les avons 

( Inn I., le lendeinain. I.e Serpent da 06 Poatfl qui s'etoit cliarge de nos 
UUX nous lit condnire par deux Soldats et deux aulrcs clievaux jusqu' 
BU Pottle S \ ini ent sitiii- a -10 mil' \unuslin. 

inbanpiatnes dans notre CaOOl qui etoit venu par Mer 
DOUh ritt.ndte in .lit pane, pie nous avions profile d'une 

pelito navirc qui faUoit vile pom Mttf partie de la Floride. 

• / 

■88 



1888.] *3" [Mihaux, 

Le 28 May 1738, nous navigames entre des Isles de Jones et nous 
avons carapd vis a vis la Barre de Nassau river. 

Le 29 May, nous arrivames a l'embouchure de la riv. S nte Mary qui 
separe la Floride de la Georgie et nous avons campe" sur le territoire de la 
Georgie. L'endroit ou nous traversarnes cette riv. a environ deux milles 
de large. 

Le 30, nous avons cotoye l'isle de Cumberland qui a plus de . . . miles 
delong et nous avons campe sur l'isle meme. A cause des detours con- 
siderables que nous avons ete oblige de faire dans le canal qui regne entre 
la grande terre et cette Isle, nous arrivames a 9 heures du soir au lieu du 
campement. La partie de la grande terre, en Georgie, vis a vis de cette 
Isle, se nomme Cambden county. 

Nous vimes plusi. habitations sur cette Isle, des habitants de la Georgie 
qui s'y e'toient refugies pour eviter les ravages des Indiens Creeks qui 
avoient dfitruit leurs bestiaux brule" les maisons et tue beaucoup plusi. 
d'entre eux. 

Le 31 nous avons continue" notre route dans le Canal qui se prolonge au 
long de cette Isle et a onze heures nous avons passe" le Sond S nt Ander 
qui a plus de cinq milles de traverse dans la partie la plus 6troite. Plu- 
sieurs rivierres y ont leur embouchure. Nous avons ensuite continue 
notre route au long de S' Simeon Island et a dix heures du soir nous avons 
traverse le Sond S' Simeon. 

Le Dimanche l er Juin 1788, nous sommes parti a deux heures du matin 
et nous arrivames sur les dix heures a Frederictown. Je remis des 
lettres a differents particuliers et je diaay avec mon fils chez M. Spalding 
ou il se trouva des dames de la famille du General Maclnstosh et plusi. 
personnes de consideration. 

Le 2 Juin nous sommes venus jusqua la pointe mi'ridionale de l'isle 
nominee Little Saplo Island et nous avons campe apres avois passe le 
Sond. nomme Frederic sound. 

Le 3 Juin nous avons passe deux Sound ou Barres et nous sommes venus 
camper sur l'isle S nte Catherine. 

Le 4 nous avons passe a 7 heures du matin le Sound S nte Catherine. 
Le temps 6toit calme, la largeur est plus de 4 miles et nous trouvames 
quatre courants tres rapides qui non obstant le calme qui regnoit alors, 
donna une grande peine a nos rameurs et nous exposoit au danger ou de 
ne pouv. le vaincre, ou d'§tre submerge" au moindre vent qui se seroit 
eleve. 

Le 5 Juin notre navigation fut 6valuee a 22 miles et nous arrivames sur 
le soir a Savanah. 

Le 6 nous avons sejourne a Savanah. 

Le 7 nous sommes parti par un Navire qui etoit destine pour Charleston. 

Le Dimanche 8 Juin arrive a Charleston et j'y ay reste jusqu' au lende- 
main. 

Le 9 j'ay 6te" a l'habitation. 

Le 10 j'ay visite" le Jardin et les PSpinieres. 



Michaux] ^ [Oct. 19, 

Le onze j'ay &6 de nouveau a Charleston pour retirer mes effets du 
navire et faire transporter les caisses de Plantes a l'habitat. 

Le 12, 13 et 14 j'ay plante les arbres rapportes de la Floride. 

Le 15 et 16 occupe a semer les graines rapportees de la Floride et une 
grande quantite d'autres especes. 

Le 17 je fus de nouveau a Charleston. 

Le 18, 19 et 20 Juin, les ouvriers de l'habitation ont 6te occup^s a ar- 
racher l'herbe dans les Pepinieres. 

Le 21 herborise et recoltc du Fothergilla Gardeni.* 

Le Dimanche 22 revenu a l'habitation. 

Le 23, 24 et 95 travaille au jardin. 

Le 26 j'ay e^ a Charleston. 

Le 27 je suis revenu a l'habitation. 

Le 28, 29 et 30 travaille" au jardin et continue" avec plusieurs negres la 
recolte du Fothergilla Gardeni.* 

Le mardy 1" Juillet, la r6coltedu Fothergilla gard. s'esttrouvee monter 
a quatre Boisseaux. 

J'ay tail a M r le Comte d'Angiviller et j'ay fait un Envoy des Graines 
de la Floride. J'ay aussi <Vrit a M. L'Abbe Nolin par M r Leyritz. 

Le 2 je suis revenu de la ville. 

I.. I j'ay cte aver m fils a la recherche du Stewart ia. 

Le 4 Juillet 1788 occupe alternativement an jardin sur l'habitation a 
ditlerens voyages vers les rivierres Santee et Cooper &- &- . . . Oblige 
MWl a plusieurs voyages a Charleston jwsqu' a la fin dc ce mois. 

.arque a pen de distance de Monk's corner le Zi/ania palustris. 

La ,» Aousi lTss Remis au capit. Elliot une boite de graines a l'adresse 
de M. le Comte ]>ar la voye de New-York. 

I.' :. 1. 5, 6, 7, 8 et 9 dud. occupe sur l'habitation n'ayant pas et<5 con- 
tent du jardinier precedent. 

[.•■ 10 ju«pi' au 14 Aoust, voyag6 vers Monk's corner et au dela vers 
Cainlxlen. 

F.i- l"i attaipie d« !• fie v re. 

Le 2o tirr Mir M. lMitarlre DA, le sei vice de 1' Ktahlissenient a New-York, 
une I.eitre de Change de 8000 !▼» a 1'ord. de M' Dela for«lt Consul de 
Fiance a New-York. 

La lit \ re a loiijoiir- eontiinie et je pris le parti d'apres les avis de plusi. 
penonne.s de vi mr B ( 'harlestoii BO. et le a |ini lee du Medeein el des seeours 

Le 7 8eptenilire, | ; fa fi«\ r« depuis plusieurs jours, je 

M !i DOin li imitation de la eainpat.Ml< 
Le 18 et leu jours suivans la tii \ re me et je Ins Oblige* de 

rner | It ville , .J'y restay ju-ipi'a la (in du BMBB, Hans le eoiirant 
du moi*. je. J1m plus "eM a I'lialiitalioii, part ieiilierement pour la 

recolte dc» graines de Chinquapin, &- 

• / .UnlJnUa. I. -C 8. 8. 



1888.] ^-*- [Michaux. 

Le 7 Octobre, 1788, je retournay a l'kabitation. 

Le 8 dud. Pluye toute la journe'e 

Le 9 dud. Pluyes continuelles. 

Le 10. nous avons ete a la r6colte du Stewartiaet remarque un Populus 
heterophy. dans la Plantation du nomme Willimon. 

Le 11 prepare un envoy de graines pour le service du Departement par 
la voye de New -York. 

Le Dimanche 12 continue a travailler a l'envoy et a ecrire les lettres. 

Le 13 Octobre j'ay ete a la ville po. delivrer les caisses au Navire, j'ay 
ecrit a M r le C te a M. l'Abbe, a M r De la Forest, au S Saulnier, j'ay recu 
une caisse d'arbres de Philadelphie, achete des Planclies. 

Le 14 dud. je fus oblige de rester a la ville. 

Le 15 je revins a l'habitatiori apres avoir termine mes affaires a la ville. 

Le 1G plante les arbres recus et seme des Chinquapins. 

Le 17 voyage a Dorchester po. la revoke du Gleditsia aquatica. 

Le 18 seme graines de Magnolia glauca. et Magn. tripetala. Chionanlhus, 
Stewartia, Alaterne de Carol. Zanthoxil, Styrax, Halesia, Fothergilla, 
Magnol. acuminata, Viburnum dentatum. 

Le Dimanche 19, elugm' les arbres du jardin et piepare le chassis du 
petit jardin, remis les vitrages. 

Le 20 October, 1788, j'ay fait faire un abri pour garantir les Illicium 
floridan. des Vent du Nord et des Pluyes du N. Ouest. 

Le 21 dud. j'ay envoye une caisse au capit. Marshall po. qu'il me 
rapporte des arbres de S l Augustin en Floride. Vent du nord et thermom. 
le matin a 10 1 - 

Le 22 thermometry le matin a 9 deg. sem6 dans une cloture particuliere, 
Chinquapins, Persimons, Fothergilla, Magn. glauca, Styrax, Juniperus, 
& & . 

Le 23 therm, le malin a six deg. 1-2 au dessusde O. Recolte Pinuspalus- 
tris et Fraxinus palustris.* 

Le 24 October, 1788, recueilli comme le jour pieced' Graines de Pins, 
& il s'est trouve plusieurs arbres dont la graine etoitdeja tombee, quoique 
l'annee soft plus abondante qu' a l'ordinaire, un arbre de un Pied et demi 
a 2 pi. de diametre ne produis' qu' environ un Peck ou tout au plus un 
demi Boiss. de Cones. 

Le 25 recueilli Gr. de Pins et mis en ordres les graines recueillies prece- 
dem 1 - 

Le Dimanche 26 recueilli graines de Pin et mis en ordre mes Collections 
precedentes de graines. 

Le 27 Octobre, 1788, raon fils a accompagne les negres a, la recolte des 
graines de Pins et j'ay travaille avec le jardinier a faire un foss6 po. 
drummer les eaux des Illici. 

Le 28 j'ay 6\6 a Charleston et j'ay 6te oblige de rester jusqu' au lende- 
main pour avoir de l'argent dur pour du papier Monoye. 

* .F. platycarpa, Michx.— C. S. 8. 

PHOC. AMEH. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. F. PRINTED FEB. 21, 1889. 



Mlchaux] 42 [Oct. 19. 

Le 29 je suis revenu a l'habitation. 

Le 30 recolie" Baccharis et plusi. autres sortes de graines. Le 31 seme 
des graines. 

Le l er No\embre 1788 recolte des graines de Bignonia sempervirens et 
couvert de feuilles les arbrisseaux de la Floride. 

Le Dimanche 2 Novembre, recolte graines de Nyssa dentata, et pi Spare 
au voyage au de la d'Augusta. 

Le 3 dud. recolte graines d' Andromeda nitida, And. racemosa, Cletbra. 



4th Cahier. 1788 & 1789. 

Le 1" Novembre 1788, recolte les graines de Bignon. sempervirens et 
couvert les arbriss. de la Floride pour les guarantir des gelees de l'hy ver. 

Le Dimancbe 2 dud. recueilli les graines de Nyssa a gros fruits & pre- 
pare a mon voyage pour la Georgie, recu un billet de M. Petry pour me 
rccommander de ne point aller en Georgie au sud de Savanab, a cause des 
Indiens qui ont recommence les ravages. 

Le 3 Novembre, 1788. j'ay envoye a la recolte du Bignon. crucigera,* 
de l'Andromeda nitida, du Cletbra etarracber du Spigelia Marylandica qui 
avoit 6ta* demande* particulierem 1 dans les dernieres lettres de M. l'Abbe 
Nolln. 

Le 4 envoye" a Cbarleston relativement a l'arrivee de plusi. navires 
arrived de New-York. 

Le 5 parti de l'habitation pour Augusta et je vins coucber a Givbam's 
ferry en passant par Dorcbester. 

Ce jour je fis 30 milles en eValuant cette marcbe comme si j'Stois parti 
de Charleston mC'tne cv 86 fif. 

Le Novembre 17SS, diner a Stanley bouse, 20 M. et coucber a People 
house pres le ferry Dantign. trente cinq Miles cy . . . 85. 

Le 7 Dejeuner a Bruton house (i M. faisant la moitie du eliemin evaluee. 
antra Obarleatoo A: Augusta. Je vins oouohar a Ohuttr liouse cy . . . 30. 

La 9 dinar a Robertson home ou Whit.- Pound, 15 M. lei la Route de 
Long-cane se n'unit a eolle d'Augusta. De Roberts, a . . . house 10 
. . 25. 

Lt Dimancbe 9 tra\ imm' des Pines b:irr<'iis et dejeune a 12 M. de Dis 
at attflfl arrive a Augusta :i|u »s uue marcbe de It) M. cy. 99 VI. 

i Aiatanoa 148 K. 

Le 10 Noveinlii' ile plusieurs personnes a qui j'avois etc 

adres»6, ploja tonta lajonrnt 

| a 1 habitation du Colonel Stallion et reconnu sur les bords 
da la riv. Kulmla latifolia. Rhododendron .... Padus sempervirens. | 
in . . . , Annoim .... Acer . . . 

t Pn 8.8. 



1888.] 40 [Michaux. 

Le 12 revenu a Augusta. 

Le 13 j'ay ete a la recolte du Pavia* spicata flore parvo, alio, nova spe- 
cies: et trouve sur les bors un arbre nouveau a f. oppos. observe l'anijee 
dern. en Georgie sur les bords des rivierres. 

Le 14 j'ay ete a huit Miles d'Augusta pour recueillir un arbrisseauf qui 
a le Port de Erica, et rapporte aussi environ deux cent de Epigea repens. 

Le 15 Novembre 1788, parti D'Augusta pour aller sur la route de 
Savanab de l'annee derniere, j'observai plusi. Plantes rares particuliere- 
ment le Lapatbum occidentale. Dine cbez la V e Brown, maison situee 
entre deux Etangs 27 Miles et couche cbez le & Lambert 37 Miles; trouve 
le Calycantbus pres de son babitation. 

Le Dimancbe 16 passe" l'babitation du nomme Bel taverne a 42 Miles. 
Ensuite trouve dans une Pine-barren de 12 Miles de traverse le Ceanotbus 
floridanusj et un arbuste a grosses racines tracantes de la fam. des Eupb. 
et af. de cligne. Trouve ces deux arbustes particulierem 1 pres de l'babi- 
tation de Freeman 54 M. 

Continue ma route jusqu' a Beaver-Dam GO miles d'Augusta et revenu 
coucber pies de l'babitation de S r Bel. 

Nota (La roue de la voiture l'annee derniere fut brisee dans une colline 
a 25 milles d'Augusta) 

Le 17 Novembre 178K, revenu coucber a Augusta et recueilli toutes les 
Plantes les plus reinarquables. Mon voyage pendant ces trois jours a ete 
de 120 Milles. 

Le 18 Encaisse les Plantes recueillies depuis mes courses aux environs 
d'Augusta. 

Le li) j'ay eie recueillir des jeunes Plantes d'un Rbododendron nova 
species et d'un Kalmia qui a beaucoup de rapport au Kalmia latifolia. 

Le 20 j'ay e:e recueillir des Plants de 1'Andromeda arborea et de l'An- 
nona triloba. Ensuite l'apivs midy j'ay encaisse ces Plants, j'ay remis 
les Caisses contenant onze cent soixante huit arbres ou Plantes au S r Inca 
pour les envoyer par Savanab a Charleston. 

Le 21 Novembre 1788 je suis parti d'Augusta et j'ay passe par Beresfort- 
town composed de 4 a 5 maisons situee a 3 M. d'Augusta. Cinq miles plus 
loin en continuant la Route de Wilks County on trouve plusieurs maisons 
pres d'un Creek et au de la du Creek Ton pourroit recueillir plusi. milliers 
de Plants du Calycantbus. 

La Maison du S 1 ' Grays est a 15 Miles d'Augusta et on peut y loger. 
J'ay couche cbez la V e Marcball dout l'babitation est situee a 20 miles 
d'Augusta. 

Le 22 j'ay &>6 si tourmente par un mal de Reins que j'ay fait seulem' 
douse miles. J'ay traverse Little river et a 4 miles au de la je suis venu 
coucber cbez le Colonel Grace virginien. 

* J5sculu8 parviflora, Walt. (M. macrostachya, Michx.)— C. S. S. 
t Probably Ceratiola ericoides, Michx.— C. S. S. 
J C. microphyllus, Michx.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] 44: [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche 23 je suis arrive a Washington-town situe a 46 ou 48 Miles 
d' Augusta. Nota (Washington est la capitale de Wilks-county) 

Le 24 Xovembre 1788 j'allay voir un Medecin francois Gtabli dans le 
Pay?, il me donna des remedes et il m'ordonna le repos. Je reconnue 
pres de Washington, le Magnolia acuminata que je n'avois pas vu dans 
ce voyage depuis mon depart de Charleston. 

Le 25 et 26 la fievre jointe a une autre incommodite m'emp§cha de con- 
tinuer le voyage que j'avois resolu sur les Rivierres Broad river & Tugelo 
river. 

Le 29 je fus un peu retabli et je parlis de Washington. Je visitay a 
Washington un fraiiQ. M r Terundet ties considere. Mon logem 1 fut 
chez le Colonel Stahlerfield. Je vins coucher chez le Colonel Gains dont 
l'habitali. est situfie sur Broad river a 20 M. de Washington. 

Le Dimanche 30 Novembre 1788 je ne pus voir M r Meriwether qui de- 
meure pres de Colon. Gaines et je traversay Broad river. Dans cetendroit 
la riv. avoit des roches qui rendoient le passage difficile pour les chevaux, 
sur tout apres les pluyes. II y a un ferry nomine . . . sur Savanah 
riv. €Ioigne de cet endroit de cinq milles. Meriicether passe pour un Bot- 
aniste il s'attache a connoitre toutes les Plantes de la contree et je regret- 
tay de n'avoir pa le voir. Je dirigcai mon voyage vers Tugulo riv. et je 
vins coucher chez. le Capit. Richardson a 15 miles de distance du Passage 
sur Broad river. J'avois dine en passant chez V Esquire Tets. 

Le 1" Decembre je traversal plusieura Creeks, le l cr Beaver dam situe a 
un mille et demi du Capit. Richardson. Un autre Creek Cool Water 
Creek situe a cinq milles du l cr pres l'hahitation du Colon. Cuningham. 
.1'- peasaJ Cider Creek a 8 mi. de distance du 8* et je vins coucher sur Log- 
Ligbt wood Creek a l'hahitation du S r Freeman. Je fus recu av. beaucoup 
de civilies par la niaitresse de la maison dont le mari etoit absent. Cette 
feinmr eioit jeune, tres belle, mala tree devote et occupee continuell'" des 
dille rentes manieres de penser nitre les Methodistes, les Anabaptistes et 
• re. La conversation sur ces matierea dura dcpuis 7 h. jusqu' a 
i"i ; Je oommeneaJ alora ■ en lire annoye* malgre* I'bonn&tete' et les agie- 
meats de oette femme el j'allay me coucher. LeOreekaur lequel cette 

habitation est attuee se rend en eet endroil dans la riv. Savanah a 15 'Poises 
au dessousde la maison. Cette jonrnee mon voyage fut de 20 M. 

Le S Decembre itss je Lalasav le conflueni de deux riv. Tugulo et Kiwi 
pour remonter le coon de Tugoloel je vins ooucber obex- le S* Larkia 

L08 dud. j.' travel-ay la liv. Tugolo |>ar l'endroit seul Usite pour le 

pa*anp\ Il 6toit al dangereui que deai de no* chevaux furenl en danger 
d'fiire noyfr. .!<• rlns dejeuner cbes John Oleveland tie ['autre c6i6de la 
L'on me dH qu'll n'y avoit plus d'babhatfona et Je traveraay an 
pay* 0001 ids mlma m 1 "' '«»"i« ,s laj provlncea da Sud, mala il 

de plna ' ita menu tH farm-ay It aoir au oouubst du sol. a 

Beneca apris une msrebe de 19 Miles. 

J,C I D'-reinbre 17SM, il g£U aHsez fort. On troiiva de la glace d'une 



1S8S.] ^-> [Michaux. 

ligne d'epaisscur et plus. A la pointe de jour j 'allay visiter les bords de 
la rivierre et je reconnus le Zanthoriza, Rhododendron* nova species, Kal- 
mia latifolia, Hydrangea (glauca), Abies spruce, Acer negundo, Carpinus 
fructu . . . Annona triloba, Ilalesia tetraptera, Cornus alternifolia, 
Calycauthus . . . 

Le 5 je continual mes recherches, tandis que mon Negre £toit occupe 
a arracher les arbres que je lui avoit mnntre. Je cherchai un Interprete 
et un Indien cheroquois pour aller dans les montagnes habitees par cette 
da* ion. 

Le G Decembre 1788 je partis pour les montagnes et je vins coucher avec 
mon guide dans un village Indien. Le chef du village nous recut avec atla- 
bilite. II nous dit q. son fils qui devoit revenir de la chasse le meme soir 
nous conduiroit dans les montagnes aux sources du Kiwi. Mais il nc 
revient pas et ce vieillard qui paroissoit avoir environ 70 ans s'offrit a 
m'accompagner. Cet homme qui etoit ne dans un village vers les sources 
de cette Riv. connoissoit parfaitement les montagnes et je souhaitai q. son 
fils ne revint pas. II nous fit servir a souper de la viande fraiche de Cerf 
bouillie et du pain de farine de May9 dans lequel on avoit meledes Potates 
douces (Convolvulus batatas). Je mangeaia vec mon guide qui sQachant 
parler Sauvage me servit d'Interpiete. Le Chef mangea avec sa femme sur 
un autre banc, ensuite la mere de sa femme et ses deux nlles, l'une mariee 
et la plus jeune d'environ 14 a 15 ans vinrent s'asseoir autour de la chau- 
diere ou elles avoient fait bouillir la viande. Ces Dames etoient nues 
jusqu' a la ceinture, n'ayant d'autre habillemens qu'une seule jupe 
chacuno. 

Le Dimanche 7 Decembre, la maitresse de la maison fit rotir du mays 
avec de la Cendre passue au tamis dans un Pot de terre. Quand il fut roli 
un peu plus qu'a deini, on le retira du feu ou passa le cendre qui etoit 
mel6e. Ou le porta ensuite au mortier et ctant pile on le passa dans un 
tamis fin pour s6parer la farine fine que Ton mit dans un sac po. notre pro- 
vision. Lorsque Ton est fatigue on met environ trois cuillerees dans un 
verre d'eau, on y ajoute souvent du sucre brun ou Cassouade. Cette 
boisson d'ailleurs tie* agreable est un Restorant qui repare les forces dans 
l'instant. Le sauvages ne se mettent jamais en voyage sans une provision 
de cette farine qu'ils appellent . . . 

Notre marche fut d'environ quatorze milles quoiq. depuis 7h. et demie 
qu matin jusqu'a 6 h. du soir. Nous ne nous fussions arrele qu'une heure 
po. diner. Nous campamessur les bords du Kiwi au pied des montagnes, 
parmi les Rhododend. de 2 especes. les Kalmia les Azalea, & •&-. 

Le 8 Decembre 1788, a mesure que nous approchions de la source du 
Kiwi, les chemins devinrent plus difficiles. Notre marche fut de . . , 
et deux miles avant d'y arriver je reconnus le Magnolia montanaf qui a 

* R. punctatum, Andr. (R. minttx, Michx.)— C. S. S. 

t M. Frascri, Walt, The specimen labelle<l Magnolia cordata by Richard in Michaux's 
herbarium, is clearly a form of M. acuminata, with broad leaves, cordate at the base. It 
seems to confirm my opinion expressed before I had an opportunity of examining this 



Michaux.J 46 [Oct. 19, 

e'te nomme M. cordata ou auriculata par Bartram. II y avait en ce lieu 
une petite cabanne habitue par une famille de sauvage Cberokees. Nous 
nous anetatnes pour y camper et je courrus faire des recherches. Je 
recueillis un nouvel arbuste* a f. dentelees rampant sur la montagne a 
peu de distance de la riv. Le temps changea et nous eumes de la pluie 
toute la nuit, quoique nous fussions a l'abri d'un gros Pinus Strobus, nos 
habits, nos couvertures furent tremp£s et traverses. J'allai vers le milieu 
de la nuit dans la Cabane des sauvages qui pouvoit a peine contenir la 
famille composee de huit personnes, homines et femmes. II y avoit de 
plus six gros cbi ns qui augraentoient la malproprete de cet appartement 
et l'incommodite. Le feu etoit place au milieu sans ouverture au haut de 
la cabane pour laisser sortir la fumee, il y en avoit cepend' assez po. rece- 
voir la pluye au travers la couverture de cette maison. Un Sauvage 
m'oftrit son Lit qui etoit une Peau d'Ours et vint prendre ma place aupivs 
du feu. Mais enfin incommode par les Cliiens qui se mordoient continu- 
ellem' pour avoir leur place au feu, je retournay au camp, la pluye ayant 
cesse. 

Ce lieu que Ton nomme la source de Kiwi est ainsi improprement nomme\ 
C'est la jonction de deux autres rivi.f ou gros Torrents qui viennent se 
n'unir en ce lieu et n'ont pas etc nomine^ sinon Branches de Kiwi. 

Le 9 dud, nous partimes guide par mon sauvage po. visiter les plus 
hautes montagnes et aller a la source de ce torrent qui me parut le plus 
escarpe. II fallut passer des precipices et des torrens couverts d'arbres 
ou dix fois nos chevaux s'enfoncerent et furent en danger de perir. Nous 
remontames jusqu' a une cascade X ou le bruit de l'eau en tombant ressem- 
bloit a des coups eloigned de Mousquets. Les sauvages disent que Ton 
TOit paroiire en ce lieu des feux la nuit. Je desiray y camper, mais la 
neige qui survint et le vent 6toit si froid que nous cherchames le has d'une 
inoiitagne moiiis exposes au froid et un lieu plus garni d'herbes po. nos 
clievaux. La nuit fut horril)lement froide, il n'y avoit pas en ce lieu de 
le I'in. pD. cntrt'tenir le feu qal bruloit mal a cause de la neige qui 
tombs a plusi. reprises. Nos couvci tares couvertes de neige devenoicnt 
roides de gelfa p«'U apn-s avoir r r rhaull'tVs. 

Le 10 Dccembre. Je visiiay ploiL moiilagnes, sur la pente et dnns les 
lieux bas nous arracliaincs le Magnolia conlata, la journre fut employee 
plus particuliciTin 1 a la rrrlii-rrlic de Ml arlire. 

•peetmen, that M. eordata, a* DOW known in K«r«lens, Imi , t i„. considerotl :i varict) of M 

horn whieh it may be diatiuruUbed bj IU -mailer Bowera, * it ti bright yellow 

mi' I i>y Its more uniformly cordate leavea, often quite tomentoaaon the lower eur- 

lournal le probably alwa h further remark* 

tii»>n thii mbjeei bm u article on aUohaux'a lournej t<> iii<« Carolina Mountains, In 

DeoemiH-r, i7-\ m tin' i UTJl, Deoamber, U8fl I 

mi Unit tiiix entry refen to the plant afterward! deesribed by i" 

■ pointed out in the Ammioan Journal o/ 

m.— C. 8. 8. 

I .\ui\ ay i 



1888.] 47 rMichaux. 

Le onze dud. il gela considerablem' et l'air fut clair et ties vif. Je 
remarquai une suite de liautes montagnes * qui se prolongeoient de l'Ouest 
a l'Est et ou la gel6e s'etoit fait peu sentir a 1' exposition du soleil. Je 
recueillis un Juniperus (repens) que je n'avois pas encore remarque" dans 
les parties meridionales des Etats-Unis; mais il faut observer que je vis 
sur ces montagnes plusieurs arbres des parties septentrionales telsque le 
Betula nigra, Cornus alternifolia, Pinus Strobus, Abies Spruce &c. Nous 
traversames un espace d'environ trois miles dans les Rhododendrons max- 
imum.! Je revins camper avec mes guides a la Tete du Kiwi (head of 
Kiwoe) et je recueillis une grande quantite de cet arbuste a f. dentel6es 
trouve" le jour que j'arrivay. Je ne le rencontray sur aucune des autres 
montagnes. Les sauvages du lieu me dirent que les feuilles avoient bon 
gout etant machees et que l'odeur en <5toit agitable en les froissant, ce que 
je trouvoi effectivement. 

Direction pour trouver cet arbuste. 

La T8te du Kiwi est la junction de deux Torrens considerables qui cou- 
lent par cascades des hautes montagnes. Cette jonction se fait dans une 
petite plaine ou il y avoit autrefois une ville ou plutot un village de Chero- 
kies. En descendant de la jonction de ces deux torrents ayant la rivi. a 
gauche et les montagnes qui regardent le Nord a droite, on trouve a 
environ 30 a 50 toises de ce continent un senti.t forme par les chasseurs 
sauvages, il conduit a un rulsseau ou Ton reconnoit les vestiges d'un vil- 
lage de Sauvages par les P§chers qui subsistent au milieu des Brouss. En 
continuant ce sender on arrive aussitot sur les montagnes et Ton trouve 
cet arbuste qui couvre le sol avec l'Epigea repens. 

Le 12 Decembre 1788. Je visitay les montagnes expos6es au Sud en 
revenant, car les provisions 6toient si avanc6s, qu'il y cut un Dejeuner 
tres sobre. Je recueillis beaucoup de Magn. cordata en un meilleur etat 
que ceux des jours precedents. 

Nous cotoyames la riv. et nous vimes plusi. troupes de Dindon sauvages. 
Notre guide sauvage tira dessus mais le fusil qui n 'avoit pu etre garanti de 
la pluye q. ques jours auparav 1 manqua a plusieurs reprises. Ainsi notre 
souper fut de q. ques chataigues q. notre sauvage avoit recu d'un autre de 
sa nation. 

Notre marche fut de dix-huit miles. Le temps fut tres clair, la gel^e se 
fit sentir des le soir meme et apres avoir demande a mon sauvage les noms 
de plusi. Plantes dans son Langage, j'6crivis mon journal au clair de la 
Lune. 

Le 13 Decembre, j'essayai a la pointe du jour de tuer un Dindon sau- 
vage do. il y avoit abondance en cet endroit, je ne pus y reussir et nous 
decampames sans Dejeuner. Nous dirigeames affames notre route vers un 
Camp de Chasseurs sauvages et quoique les Montagnes fussent moins 

* The Balsam Range of Mountains.— C. S. S. 

t This Rhododendron thicket, the most extensive and impenetrable in all this part of 
the country, still exists.— C. S. S. 

t Tli is path still exists very much in the same condition, probably, as Michaux found 
it a hundred years ago.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] 4o [Oct. 19, 

escarpees il etoit une hcure apres midy quand nous y arrivames apres une 
marelie de six heures qui ne fut eValuee que quinze miles de chemin. On 
nous fit cuire de la Viaude d'Ours coupee en petits morceaux et frite dans 
la graisse me me d'Ours. quoiqu. (il) fut tres abondaute en graisse nous 
fimes un tres bon diner et quoique je mangeai beauco. de la partie la plus 
PHM de cette viande je ne fus pas incommode. La graisse d'Ours n'a 
pas de gout et ressemble a la bonne huile d'Olive, elle n'a pas mSme 
d'odeur quand Ton a fait rotir q. ques mets avec elle ne se fige que lorsqu' 
il gt'le. L'apres diner notre Marche fut de seizes Miles et nous arrivames 

10 Soir a Seneca. 

Le Dimanche 14 Decembre 1788 on me donna avis qu'il devoit partir 
le lcndemain un chariot pour Charleston. J'envoyoi chercher deux Din- 
«l>>ns sauvages que j'avois achete" a trois miles de distance de cet endroit, 
et je recueillis plusi. especes d'arbres Rhododendrons . , Nyssa, 

Montana . . . , Mespilus des Montagnes &c &c, . . . 

Le 15 je payai mon sauvage qui m'avoit accompagne" dans sa nation, je 
travaillay a l'encaissage des arbres, j'en arrachai de nouveaux et je fis 
recueillir des graines. Recueilli le Pavia (lutea) ('?), le Quercus glauca, 
&-&— . 

Lt 10 j'ay travaille pendant toute la journ6e a encaisser des arb. et j'en 
ay arrache plusiuurs esjMices que j'avois reconnu aux environs. 

Le 17 j'ay termine* l'Emballage des arbres, regie le compte des Depenses 
pend.tnt mon Sejour et prepare toutes choses po. mon Depart. 

I.i- 18 je suis parti de Seneca, un des Dindons sauvages que j'avois 
achete, inourut a environ deux miles de distance du lieu ou nous etions 
parti et le deuxiemo mourut en arrivant au lieu de campement. Notre 
man-he fut de quinze miles a cause que Ton fut oblige plusieurs fois de 
s'anetor pour rcparer les deux Cages qui etoicnt sur un cheval et qui par 
les efibrts de ces oiseaux penchoicnt d'un cote ou d'un autre. Nous 
< ampames dans les bois faute d'habitation. 

LrlftnOCM nMOgtaiaeali Dindon sauvage qui mourut en arrivant au 
lieu de campein' ayaut jete cclui qui mourut le premier et n'ayant pas 
dim- ni soupe la veille. Je vins coucher a Rocky riv. 'J(> miles de Seneca 
ei je ne li- que PJ M. a cause du mau\ais tem|is. 

N !).( eml.re !e l"r« >i 1 1 fu: .ins eouelier a la Plantation 

du General Pickeiu illume • IS M. de Seneca. Je fis seulement 20 Miles 

I'Mirn. ayanl visile les environs de Utile river |iour ehereher le Mug- 

noliu acuminata, j'y reconnus le kfagn. tripelala, l'Annona et le Magnolia 

acuminata de l'haliitation Pickens dan- un sol argilleux et d'un 

■<■ l.ruu. 

.lire 17S8 le froid fut encore ties consideralile. 

11 fiilliat pimser plot dfl I ■ uiMderalde- 11 j| fiftl eouelier a 
Turk - un ameiieaiii'rauris| < ini DM dil M arrivant qu'il 

tvmit d« pa— f to Creek v*i I' habitat, tt main droltc du Culou . . . oft 
•Kcr. 
f Tory.— a h. b. 



1S88.] 4 J IMkhaux. 

me tueroit si je passois la nuit chez lui, et je lui dis que je ne craignois pas 
cela, n'otant pas assez gras ni ma bourse non plus. II voulut me badiner 
sur ma nation, mais j'avois ass«-s a lui repondrc et il se contenta de me 
faire payer cher le logemeat. Je fls cette journee vingt neuf miles. 

Le 22 Decembre 178S le froid continua et vers l'apies midy il y eut de 
la pluye tres froide. Je vins coucher chez le Capit. Baudot. II se trouva 
la deux voleurs de chevaux. Les habitants des environs otoient assembles 
pour leur faire leur proce*. lis reuvoyerent un d'eux et l'autre fut bat- 
onne. A cette occasion ils s'etoient tous ennivros de Rum et toute la nuit 
je fus importune et fatigue de cette desagreable Compagnie. Mon voy- 
age fut cette journee de 28 Miles. 

Observe sur une Colline dont le sol est calcaire et argilleux l'Epigea 
repens en abondance. II est rare de rencontrer un sol calcaire dans les 
parties basses de la Carol. 

Le 23 je partis de cet endroit et vius dejeuner a deux Miles de distance 
a main droite chez un horn me tres honnete.* Ensuite il fallut passer un 
bois sterile (Pine barren) de 18 M. de long et j'arrivay a Robcr'sua house. 
je fls encore 12 M. en tout 32 M. cette journee. Je vins coucher chez 
Walker. 

Le 24 je passay par Chester house situee a 4 miles de distance et je vina 
coucher a la maison du S r People. Cette journee je fls 34 Miles. 

Le 23 je passay par Stanley house situee a 9 miles de distance et je vins 
coucher a Guiveham's ferry. f Notre marche fut cette journee de 35 
miles. 

Le 26 Decembre 1788, je partis de Guivesham ferry et je vins coucher a 
l'habitation. La distance de ce ferry est 35 M. de Charleston. 

Le 27 je plantay une collection des arbres qui avoient elu apportes sur 
un cheval. 

Le Dimanche 28 je visitay les graines qui avoient etc recueillies pend- 
ant mon absence &c. Le 29 j'ay ote a Charleston. 

Le BO j'ay appris la destination d'un navire pour Le havre de Grace et 
je suis revenu a l'habitation pour preparer un Envoi d'arbres etde graines 
principalement. 

Le 31 Decembre 1788 j'ay encaisse plusi. espoces de graines et j'ay 
envoye a Charleston pour apporter trois caisses d'arbres que j'avois re- 
cueillis dans mon dernier voyage et qui me sont arrives par le voye de 
Savanah. 

Le l er Janvier 1789 j'ay ouvert les caisses, j'ay trouve le9 arbres en bon 
etat, mais un peu de vegetation ayant doveloppu les bourgeons, ils avoient 
pousses et pour prevenir le froid et mSuae un peu de gelee qu'il y avoit 

* Xota : po. coucher un autre voyage dans cet endroit. 

t Entre le ferry et la maison situee dix miles plus loiu en allant a Seneca on trouve 
plusi. (I'onds) itaugs ou il y a abondam' un Ilex| a feuillcs t'troites et tres petites. Les 
lean peuvent s'arreter la nuit dans cette Mais, (situiie ft environ 45 de Charleston.; 
Probably Ilex Dahoon, var. myiiijolia, Chapman. (/. myrtijolia, Walt.)— C. S. 8. 

PUOC. AMEtt. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. G. PRINTED MARCH 1, 1889. 



Michanx] 50 [Oct. 19, 

alors toutes les nuits, j'ay retire les arbres de la mousse d'ou ils etoient 
envelop, au milieu de jour je les ay treinpe iinmediatement dans un Baquet 
d'eau que je tenois aupres de moi et apres les avoir bien immerse je les ay 
lenu sous de la mousse mouillee jusqu' au moment de les planter : j'ay 
aussi couvert de mousse ceux qui avoient les bourgeons developpes. 

Le 2 Janvier 1789 j'ay envoye pour s'informer si les arbres j'attendois 
etoient arrives. 

J'ay continue de planter les arbres recus de Georgie que je reserve pour 
le jurdin afin de les envoyer successivement. 

Le 3 j'ay envoye les Caisses preparees au nombre de cinq a Charleston, 
j'y ay ele moi-mdme aussi et je suis revenu le m§me jour. 

Le Dimancbe 4 continue l'encaissage des graines. 

Le 5 Janvier 1799 Encaisse des graines pour le jardin de New-York 
afin de profiter d'un Batim' destine pour ce Port. Ecrit a M. De la Forest 
et au S r Saulnier. 

Le 6 continue le m§me ouvrage concernant les graines. 

Le 7 Idem. 

Le 8 Envoye a Charleston pour sc/ivoir le jour du Depart du Navire et 
j'ay appris que l'Armateur ne vouloit pas charger a fret quoique ce fut 
sur son navire. 

Le 9 j'ay ele a Charleston et j'ay obtenu avec M. Petry que j'enverroi 
dix ■ douze caisses. 

Le 10 Janvier j'ay complette l'Envoy des Arbres et des Graines. 

Le Dimanche onze j'ay ecrit mes Lettres a M. le C u Dangivill a M. 
1'Abbe, M. Le Monnier, M. Thouin &c 

Le 12 Envoye Treize caisses a Charleston et j 'y ai etc ce merae jour. J'y 
suis res te jusqu' au 15 dudit tant pour faire garnir de cercles ces caisses 
que pour les faire emharquer. 

Le 15 je suis revenu a 1' habitation. 

Le lti j'ay fait et prepare un Envoy de graines pour le jardin du Roy a 
York. 

H j ay continue le m8me travail. 

Dimanche IS Janvier ITs'.i y-.iy prepare un Envoy d'oiaeaux pour 
M. Dantie >e de M. le Baron D'o^ny: j'ay mis en onlre la collec- 

tion des ditlercnts Y i'ay envoy, fe M 1 " L'llcriticr. J'ay ecrit les 

Duplicate .le l«'lt a M' lc 0* D'Anglv. &C &C. 

Le 19 j'ay etc I Charleston ct j'ay fait cml>ar(iuer l'Envoy d'oiseaux et 
les Vaccln. sur un navire pour Nantes. 

Le 20 J'ay complette l'Envoy pool M' I'AbW Nolin .pii avoit etc ditl'cre 
par le capit du navire. 

Le21 Pluyes orageuses et trav.iille mi menu- Envoy. Ecrit ■ M' Beau 

M M Bartroa k Philadelphia. 

Lc .atleMon pour faire emli'inpUT eel ln\ 

Le28Ja pool :ip|M,iliT ilen\ Certs nains a l'lialtitation et 

trmrailK'' » falrc an Envoy pour le Havre.!. nforme* le 

precedent il un navire destine pour *•<• Port. 



1888.] 51 IMichaux. 

Le 24 re<ju ma collection d'arbres dcs Montagnes faisant six caisses et 
un Paquet d'arbres. 

Le 25 Dimanche continue a travailler a 1' Envoy pour le havre et plante 
une partie des Arbres recus. 

Le 26 j'ay ete a Charleston faire einbarquer plusieurs Caisses et j'ay ecrit 
plusieurs Lettres. 

Le 27 Janvier 1789 je suis revenu a l'habitation. 

Le 28 j'ay plante les arbres arrives des Montagnes et j'ay ecrit plusieurs 
Lettres pour la France et une Lettre de Change sur M. Desaint a l'ordre 
de M. Petry. 

Le 29 j'ay ete a Charleston, j'ay remis raes Lettres au Capit, du navire, 
&c. &c. Je suis revenu le meme jour a l'habitation. 

Le 30 j'ay seme des grain es. 

Le 31 Jauvier recueilli des fleurs de l'Alnus, N° 1* Alnus $ Amentum 
imbricatum squamis 3-floris . . . Cor. minima 4-partila 9 Anient, 
imbricatum Pistillum styli duo, nonunquam 3. 

Le Dimanche l er fevrier 1789 j'ay eucaisse des Arbres et des Graines pour 
l'Etablissement de New-York. 

Le 2 et 3 fevrier ineme travail. 

Le 4 j'ay ete* a Charleston et j'ay parle au Capit. du navire pour aller 
aux Isles Bahama. 

Le 5 je suis revenu a l'habitation. 

Le 6 j'ay fait labourer dans le jardin. 

Le 7 continue* le ineme travail. 

Le Dimanche 8 fevrier, 1789, seme des Graines d'arbres et d'arbrisseaux. 

Le 9 j'ay ete* a Ch. 

Le 10 je suis revenu a l'habitation pour me preparer au Voyage des 
Isles Bahama. 

Les 11, 12, 13 j'ay seme des graines et regie toutes choses po. mon 
Depart. 

Le 14 j'ay ete* a Charleston. 

Le Dimanche 15 je restay a Charleston en attendant le vent favorable. 

Le 16 fevrier 1789 je m'embarquay sur le Schooner The Hope Capit. 
Weeks pour les Isles Bahama. 

Je restay dix jours en mer et je d6barquay le,25 dud. a New Provi- 
dence. 

Je fls quelques visites ce m§me jour. 

Le 26 je visitay Mylord Dunmore, Gouverneur des Isles Bahama. 

11 me fit un accueil favorable et me pria de lui donner q. q. graines et 
des Echantillons de Plantes po. envoyer a M. Banks sc: Cedre, Ebene &c. 
Elathera cortex. 

Le 27 j'allay herboriser et je reconnus les Piantes suivantes: Vinca 
lutea, Annona glabra, Laurus persea, Laurus indica fol. perennantib. vel 
Cornus fol. salicis laureiu acuminatis florib. albis, frutex Sassafras. Catesb. 
Calceolaria? foliis integris, Psydium, Tamarindus indica, Catesbaa 
spinosa, Bursera gummifera, Coccoloba &c. &c. &. 



Michaux.] *>& [ 0cL 19> 

Le 28 je continuai rnes berborizations. 

Le Dimancbe l er Mars 1789 berborisations continuees. 

Le 2 Mars berborisations continuees: reconnu un Gardenia,* vulgaire- 
ment The seven years apple. . . . 

Le 3. 4 et 5 j'ay continue 1 mes berborisations. 

Le 6. 7 et 8 j'ay arrache des arbres pour envoyer au jardiu de Charles- 
ton. 

Le Dimancbe 8 Mars 1789 j'ay complette ma collection de buit cens 
soixante arbres parmi lesquels se trouvent Amyris etemifera Winterania 
Canella, Croton cascarilla, Gardenia nova species, Chrysocorna nova spe- 
cies, Annona glabra, Annona muricata, Annona . . . Catesbiea 
spinosa, Bignonia pentaphylla, Passiflora cuprea, Anacardium? 
&c. &c. &c. &c. &c. 

Le 9 dud. j'ay ecrit a Mons. le C ,e Dangiviller, a M. l'Abbe Nolin, a M. 
Petry, M. Robinet et a mon tils. 

Le'onze Mars 1789 j'ay herborise et j'ay continue 1 mes herborisations sur 
l'lsle de New-Providence jusqu' au 14 dudit. 

Le Dimancbe 15 dudit. j'ai revise mon berbier et mes recoltes de 
graines. 

Le 16. 17. 18 et 19. j'ay e'te' herboriser sur des petites isles voisines de 
New-Providence, nomim'es Keys. 

Le 20 j'ay fait marche avec un Pilote-Cotier pour me conduire sur lcs 
Isles Lucayes. 

Le 21 j'ay eu un acces de flevre po. avoir dormi au frais sur le bord de 
la mer. 

Le Dimancbe 22 Mars 1789. Le nombre des Graines de differentes 
sortes recueillies depuis mon arrivee ici s'est monte a soixante quinze 
especes. 

Le Dhnanehe 2\\ Mars 1789 je me suis prepare* ;i partir pour Charleston. 
le navire a mis a la voile le : 

Le jeudy 2 Avril et le vent favorable nous avons perdu de vue ce m§mc 
jour l'lsle de New-Providence. 

Le :'. Avril ealme &- 

I.' I nous avons reconnu une petite Isle nominee . . . 

B MOOBaa I'lik de "FMWBfl qui a plus de 15 Ueuea de longeur. 
'J avril calme. 

Le 7 calinc. 

Le 8 calme et toqJotiM eo vue .!<• Rehania, 

Le 9 Orages Tronbei murines et Vent oontraira. 

Le 10 et jours suivants mauviiis temps. 

Arriv •■'• <-t dftarqot' It -<> dodll a < IharlettOQ toutes les provisions epuisees 
miiiiviiis temp*. 

Le21 Avril i ton. 

Le I I 1'lmiiitiitlon. 

• Ucntpa dn$lmfotia, Orlwb.-C. 8. 0. 



1888.] OO Michaux. 

Le 23 Mes Arbres et Graines recueillies aux Isles Bahama sont arrivees 
a l'habitation au nombre de plus de neuf cens Arbres. 

Le 24 j'ay fait prepare un terrain et j'ay plante les Arbres. 

Les 25, 26, 27 et 28 j'ay continue le merae travail. 

Le 28 Avril j'ay fait un Envoy de Graines a M. le Corate d'Angiviller; 
a Monsieur frere du Roy et au jardin du Roy. 

Le 29 et 30 Avril continue de travailler a l'Envoy et a ecrire mes lettres. 

Le l er May 1789. seme les Graines rapportees de Bahama. 

Le 2 dud. travaille au jardin et continue de semer de planter &c. &c. 

Le 3, 4 et 5 ni§me travail &c. &c. 

Je me suis prepare au voyage dans les Montagues. 

Le 6 May j'ay 6l6 a Charleston. 

Le 7 May 1789 j'ay fait plusieurs demarches avec M. Petry consul de 
France po. avoir de l'argent pour mon voyage et je suis revenu a l'habita- 
tion sans avoir termine. 

Le 8 continue plusieurs ouvrages essentiels au jardin concernant les 
Plantes rapportees de Bahama. 

Le 9 j'ay fait faire un abri pour garantir les arbres des grandes pluyes. 

Le Dimanche 10 May j'ay decrit un Spirea dioque Germe a trois styles, 
rapporte des Montagnes : j'ay redige et pris en ordre plusieurs papiers. 



Caiiier 5. 
Suite de 1789.-1790. 



Journal depuis mon depart de Charleston.* 

Le 30 May 1789 Party de Charleston. 

Le 6 Juin arrive a Cambden, petite ville situee a 12 miles de Charleston. 

Le 10 dudit passe par Charlotte en Mecklembourb. county situe a 80 M. 
de Cambden. 

Vu un Magnolia cordata a 18 Miles de Charlotte. Ce Magnolia paroit 
differer meine du M. cordata decouvert quelques annees auparavent, les 
feuilles etoient d'un glauque ou couleur bleuatre ties marque par dessous. 

Un peu avant d'arriver au ferry sur la rivierre Catawba vu an arbrisseau 
inconnu n'ayant ni fleurs ni fructification, il ressembl. a q. ques egards au 
Calycanthus. 

Vu pies de Burke Court house le m§me arbuste. 

Le 13 Juin 1789 arrive a Burke Court house, 80 M. de Charlotte. Visite 
le Colonel Avery et le 14 parti de Burke. Etant a 298 M. de Charleston 

* Mon journal ayant <5te perdu le l«r Juillet 1789, un grand nombre d'observations 
interessants depuis le 30 May jusiju' a cette datte seront abrigees. 



Michaux.] 54 [Oct. 19, 

vu le Magnolia cordata au pied de plusieurs Montagnes assez hautes, 
remarque le sol argilleux et les Roches de Quartz. 

Le 15 arrive a l'habitation du Colonel Waford entre des montagnes 
elevees. Ce lieu est nomme Turkey-cove. La distance de Burke a Turkey- 
Cove est de 80 Miles, 310 M. de Charleston. 

Le 16 loge chez le capitaine Ainsworth situe a un Mile et parent du 
Colon Waford. 

Le 17 party pour Black mountain situe a . . Miles de Turkey- 

Cove. 

Nos herborisations sur cette montagne ont dure jusqu' au 22 dud. 
Reconnu un Azalea nova species, Andromeda . . . Vaccinium . . . 
Viburnum . . . et plusieurs autres Plantes que la perte de mon jour- 
nal m'empeche de decrire mais mon herbier fait preuve que ces Plantes 
sont nouvelles. 

Le 22 arrive de nouveau chez le capit. Ainsworth. 

Le 23 Juin 1789 parti pour Yellow Mountain. 

Le 24 arrive le soir au pied de Yellow Mountain situe a 30 M. de Turkey- 
cove. Cette montagne est regardee (consideree) dans la Caroline septen- 
tionale et dans la Virginie comme la plus haute Montagne de toute 
l'Amerique septentrionale. 

J'y reconnu . . . 

II y a 5 Miles de marche pour arriver au sommet de cette montagne. 
Avant d'y arriver l'on marche pendant plusieurs miles sur la chaine des 
plus hautes montagnes nommee Blue ridges. 

Le 28 Juin arrive chez le capitaine Farkison, premiere habitation apres 
avoir quitte Turkey-Cove. Le Chemin est etroit, escarpe en plusieurs 
endroils. Ton est oblige 1 d'aller souvent a pied ; plusieurs fois nous avons 
t'-ie oblige de couper les branches d'arbres des Kalmias avec le Tomahack 
qu'il faut toujours porter quand on voyage dans ces forets appelees Wil- 
derness. La distance du sommet de Yellow Mountain j usque chez le 
Capit Furkinson est de 10 M. 

Le 28 nous avons loge chez le Major Carter situe a 20 Miles du sommet 
io\v Mountain. 

Le 2'.1 Juin 1781 BOM avons passe l.i rivienv et nous avons couche a 

... 4 miles de Block house. Block house est un lieu renoniine pour 
le rendez-vous des Vbyageun qui pessenl au. Kentuckey. La distance de 
I'babitaUoo dn titer a Block boose est de 8fl M. cc qui fait 890 

Mile* de Charleston. 

• us avons apprb nine prec&lente plusieurs royageun fiirent 

renant du Kentackey par lea Muragec et Je prii le parti d'aban< 
donncr le voyage du Kentuckey pour OOntinaer mes herborisations sur 
les montagnes de la Virginie. 

Le 80 Juin OOBtlnoi ma route vers les Monthlies et le mi litre 

•ur le lerrito'ne da hi Vlrgtaia, 



1888.] OO [Miehaux. 

Le l er Juillet arrive a Washington Court house premiere ville* de la 
Virgin ie que l'on trouve sur le cote occidental des Montagnes en sortant 
de la Caroline septentrionale. De Block house a Washington la distance 
est de 35 Miles. 

Le 2 nous avons couche a 30 Miles de Washington 65 M. 

Le 2 dud. a 35 Miles de Washington remarque un Plante dont la fruc- 
tificat. solitaire sur une hampe avoit la forme d'une pipe montee sur son 
tube. Les feuilles double sur un seul petiole. Observe la fructiflcat. du 
Ginseng: Cal. Umbella simplex ; Involucrum foliolis subulatis, propriis 
unicuique flori partiali. Cal. proprius minimus 5-dentatus, Cor. Petala 5 
oblonga recurva. Stam. 5, longitud. corolla;, Antheraj incumbentes, Ger- 
inen subcompressum inferum. Styli duo, stigmata recurva. 

Le 3 nous avons couche a Stone-Mill situe a 93 Miles de Block bouse. 

Le 4 Juillet passe par Montgomery Court house nomme aussi Fort 
Cbisses et couche deux Miles au de la. Notre marche fut de IS Miles seule- 
ment, a cause de la pluye. 

Le Dimancbe 5 notre marche fut de £8 Miles et nous avons couche au 
ferry de New-River. 

Le G a Muly et demi nous avons passe la Montagne qui termine celles 
nominees Appalaches et commence celles nominees Alleganies. Notre 
Marche fut de 36 M. Depuis que nous eumes passe le cote Oriental des 
Montagnes vers le quel les rivierres coulent dans la mer (parceque a 
l'ouest de ces montagnes, les Rivierres sont censees se perdre dans l'Ohio 
et le Mississippi) immediatement remarque le Diospiros, le Cephalanthus, 
l'Annona et pleusieurs autres arbres que je ne vis pas auparavant. 

Le 7 Juillet 1789 remarque un I'avia lutea de 3 pieds de diametre et sur 
la Rivierre Roanock le Thuya occidentaiis parmi les Rochers escarpes qui 
bordent cette Rivierre a l'exposition du Nord. Notre marche fut de .14 
Miles. 

Le 8 nous avions visite une arcade naturelle ;f de 300 pieds de hauteur. 

Le 9 parti de Lexington, petite ville dont le commerce est assez entre- 
tenu avec les etablissements sur les Rivierres occidentales (Western Vaters 
settlements) ainsi nommees. 

Le chemin quoique hors des hautes montagnes fut entrecoupe de Col- 
lines couvertes de Rochers et de ruisseaux. Les Rochers sont de sub- 
stance calcaire noiratre tres dure et entreveinees de Quartz, le sol generale- 
ment est argilleux melange de substance calcaire a un degre beaucoup 
moindre avec l'argille. Marche de 24 Miles. 

Le 10 Juillet nous avons passe par Staunton petite ville tres commer- 
c,ante dans ces montagnes : Un Mile et demi avant d'y arriver remarque 

* Premiere ville si l'on peut nommcr ville une Bourgade composee de 12 Maisons (Log- 
houses). Dans cette ville, on ne mantle que du Pain de mays. II n'y a ni viande fraiche 
ni eidre, mais seulement dn inauvais rum. 

t The Natural Bridge of Virginia.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] *>V ^Oct. 19, 

dans une Prairie lc long des ruisseaux un Spirea* dont les fleurs en pani- 
cules de couleur rose de mime q. les precedentse. Cal. 4-partit, lacin. 
parvis, reflexis, marcescentib. Pet. 4 subrotundo- angulata : unguiculata, 
unguibus lineari-pedicellalis. Stam. 33 inserta calyci, filamenta longis- 
sima. Antherce subrotundie, erectre, Germina sex oblonga, Styli breves, 
recurvi. Stigmata eapitata. 

Notre marcbe fut de 15 Miles a cause de la Pluye. 

Le onze nous avons passe la Rivierre appelee North Brancb et continue 1 
la route a travels un pays illegal, montagneux, ayant les Blue Ridges a 
notre droite et les Monts Alleganies a notre gaucbe ; Notre journee iut de 
25 Miles. 

Le Dimancbe 12 Juillct remarque* dans une prairie sur le bord d'un 
ruisseau le mime Spirea trouve le jo. precedent. Celui-ci etoit aupres de 
l'habitation dont la maison etoit la plus ornee que j'aye vu jusque la dans 
cette partie de la Virginie. Cet bomuie me montra tout ce qu'il avoit fait 
pour ameliorer la culture de sa ferme et meme pour l'embellir. II avoit 
des Vacbes d'une sorte veuus depuis peu d'Angleterre, dea Cochons tics 
grands, tres gros et differents de ceux du Canton. If fumoit reguliere- 
ment ses terres. Les arbres a fruits etoient bien entretenir &c. 

Notre marcbe fut de 30 Miles et nous avons passS par un petit Bourg 
nomme New Market. 

Le 13 Juillet 1789 passe* par Stowerstown autre Bourgade sit. a 40 Miles 
de Winchester. Rem. un peu avant d'arriver a cette bourgade sur la 
pente des Montagnes qui bordent la Rivierre le Thuya occidentalis. Notre 
journee se borna a 27 Miles. 

Le 14 passe par Winchester, petite ville dont le Commerce av. les Etab- 
lisseraents du Kentuckey se fait par terre. Les merchandises viennent de 
Philudelphic, Aluxandrie et particulierement de Baltimore. Notre marcbe 
fut de 25 Miles. 

Le 15 passe par Charleston, petite ville composeo de 6 a 10 maisons 
sitin'e ii H Miles de Winchester. Ensuite nous passames la Rivierre PotO- 
mack pour entrer dans l'Ktat de .Maryland it 30 Miles de Winchester. 
Les Rivicrres de Shenandoah et de I'otomack se joignent au lieu nomine 
Harper ferry. De hautes montAgD6i cscarpt'es et couvertcs de Hochers 
86 rapproehent en ee lieu, observe plusi. I'lantes Europcanncs un peu 
avant de sortir de la Virginie m;;iv, 1 1 ypericum perforatum, Arctium lappa. 
Kehinin vulgare, Tiit'oliiim UgOptU, Verbasi urn album et\ frl asc. nigrum, 
\'<-ronie:i ollicinalis Ac. Ac. . . 

I ■• Hi .luillct 17°J. nous iivcu s pibsr par Fivdericktown petite villi" tin 
Maryland bien batie, lea maisons SOnt en brlque el le Commerce y >m 
aaaes fioriaaant 25 Miles. 

Le 17 rltfl de pariii nlier ; total fut nioins montagnenx ; les Koch. 

Quartz louvent tie» pur mals <i qatfoli oomblo^ avec del BUbttanoei fer- 

nigineuaei. Je vis aussi plOtlMrl foil des Colliues dOBl les Roches ctoient 
de unbalance calcalre et 1' leUI 00OUM la plus gramlc panic tie la 



1888. | *> ' [Michaux, 

Virginie. Dans les endroits du Maryland ou la substance calcaire est com- 
bined avec l'argille, les grains qui etoient alors sur pied m'ont paru meil- 
leurs et la vegetation sur les parties incultes plus forte, plus vive, les 
arbres plus verds, les herbes plus fortes et les bestiaux plus vigoreux. 

Dans toute l'etendue de la Virginie du Nord au Sud, au de la des Monts 
Blue Ridges le sol m'a paru avoir generalem 1 cette combinaison d'Ar- 
gille avec une portion moindre de substance calcaire, le pays est ricbe, 
produisant beaucoup de grains, les bestiaux en abondance et gras en tout 
temps de l'annee, les cbevaux vigoureux et les habitans jouissants de la 
meilleure sante. Un cultivateur de ces Cantons m'a dit que le froment 
rendoit communement 15 Boisseaux par A.cre mais tres souvent 12 Boiss. 
rarement 20 Boiss. Notre journee fut de 31 M. 

Le 18 Juillet passe par Little York, assez jolie ville sit. a 59 Miles de 
Frederick town. La campngne m'a paru mieux cultivee dans ces 
environs. Les habitans sont des Allemands aussi bien qu'en Penns}l- 
vanie. lis sont geberalement ties laborieux at tres industrieux. Le sol 
dans cette partie du Maryland est alternativement argilleux, calcaire et 
q. quefois ferrugineux. Les Pierres et les Roches sont Quartz, schitz 
ferrugineux. En plusieurs endroits on trouvc des Roches de substance 
calcaire primitive entremelee (entrecoupee) de filons de Quartz. 

Notre journee fut de 24 Miles seulement. 

Le Dimanche 19 Juillet passe" a Lancaster petite ville de Pennsylvanie 
peuplee d' Allemands. (Le matin nous avions passe la rivierre Susque- 
hiinna.) Notre journee fut de 21 Miles. 

Le 20 notre marche fut de . . . Miles. 

Le 21 nous arrivames a Philadelphia apres avoir fait dcpuis notre depart 
de Charleston un voyage de plus de . . . non compris les courses dans 
les Montagnes qui s'ecartent de la route principale. 

Le 22 visite" M. De Marbois Consul de France. 

Le 23 Juillet visite le jardin de M. Bartram, Botanist pies de Philadel- 
phie, reinarque dans son jardin un Prinos nova sp. dont les feuilles 
acuminees ne sont point dentelees. Vu Zanthoxilum monoique des parties 
septentrionales de l'Amerique. Hydrastis . . . 

Le 24 et 25 occupe a des visites. 

Lo Dimanche 26 visite q. ques jardins aux environs de Philadelphie. 

Le 27 envoye mes chevaux a la campagne po. diminuer la depense qui 
en est plus considerable dans une grande villj. 

Le 28 continue de meme que le jour precedent a faire Provision d'objets 
qui ne se trouvent pas a Charleston et qui etoient ne^cssaire po. mon jar- 
din etabli en Caroline. 

Le 29 parti pour New -York. 

Le 30 arrive a New-York. 

Le 31 visite M. de la Forest qui etoit prest a partir po. Albany. Demande 
a voir M. Le C te Dumortier, mais M. De la Forest me dit il etoit en cam- 
pa gne ainsi que M. Otto. , 

Le l er Aoust 1789, visite" le jardin pres de New-York et je le trouvay en 

PROC. AMER. PIIIL08. SOC. XXVI. 129. H. PRINTED MARCH 1, 1889. 



Michaux.] 5b [Oct. 19, 

asses bon etat. Le jardinier avoit seme beaucoup de graines et plante 
beaucoup de jeunes arbriss. po. les envoyer en France apres qu'ils auroient 
e" e bien enracines. 

Le Dimancbe 2 Aoust 1789 j'ay regie avec le jardinier et je suis convenu 
avec lui des arbres et arbrisseaux qu'il doit envoyer l'hyver suivant. 

Le 3 visite M. Willet petit flls da Docteur . . . et parti le meme 
jour pour retourner a Philadelphie. 

Le 4 arrive a Philadelpbie. 

Le 5 le 6, le 7 et le 8 Aoust employes a placer une Lettre de Change 
pour obtenir les fonds dont j'avois besoin pour payer nos depenses de 
voyage et pour pouvoir retourner a Charleston. 

Le Dimanche 9 visite differenls jardins, particulierement celui de M. 
William Hamilton.* 

Le 10 un accident arrive a un de mes chevaux qui eut l'epaule et le 
genouil coupes d'une chute sur un Rocher m'obligea de chercher un autre 
cheval po. le remplacer. 

Le onze je restai a faire panser mon cheval. 

Le 12 j'allay visiter M r Le Coulteux et il me vendit un Cheval 70 
dollars. 

Le 13, 14, 15 et Dimanche 10 furent employed a terminer mes affaires a 
Philadelphie. 

Le 17 Aoust 178) parii de Philadelphie pour aller prendre mes Chevaux 
que j'avois envoyes a la campagne chez M r Bartrara. 

Le 18 la pluye m'empecha de partir. 

Le 19 la pluye continue Unite la jounu'e. 

Le 20 parti de tres grand matin et couche a Wilmington petite ville 
dans l'Etat de la Delaware situee a 30 miles de Philadelphie. 

Le 21 pis-e par Christine-bridge Klk river. 

Le sol est dans l'Etat de la Delaware moins bon qu'en Pensylvanie, 
inoins argilleux et plus meMe" de sable. Remarque le Magnolia glauca plus 
frequcmnient et la Chionanthus a Bfl Miles de Philadelphie. Cette jounu'e, 
inarelie fut de 

!.' 9oiqaehaAIU <'t entiv en Maryland, le sol arride, 

sablonneux et ferrugineiix. Keinanpie le Kagus pumila (Chinquapin) en 
abondance. Marclie dg :: M 

Lc Dimanche '^ arrive a Haltimore, eapitale de l'l'.tat de Maryland. 

.! de .'; .)/ 
I..-JJ Aoust L79M Visite M. I.e Chevalier !>' An liemours consul de France, 
Le Vt parti tie iJallimure, notre inarelie tut de ..; MfU*. 
].<■ M p'lsw' par Hlcileiisliurg el par A levmdrie 1" ville de Vir^inie dont. 
BflMfM hin^uit, nial^ie son lienreiise siination sur la rivi. I'oloma( k. 

.nion'H gard i (amooi in tii'- Doited Btatei ni tin- beginning 

I ■•■ nlury. Kr«<lr irbO lul'-r ■■ I, lUperlD 

Mo4«<l Hi* in 'lnritijf ihrtM? yearn. Th* ground ooonptad by the Bamfltoo gardeni now 

■ notary in \\.-<i Philadelphia, a bo tan and Into* 
uoeo plaato<i Hi ion «tiu ivaiiry u> his Mai and raoatat aa a pkuttai < <. s. s. 



1888.] ^J [Michaux. 

Cette ville est la patrie du Gen. Washington. Sa residence est a 8 miles 
au dessous de cette ville sur le bord de la rivierre. Notre journee fut de 
28 M. 

Le 27 Aoust passe par Colchester petit hameau qui n'a rien de remarqu- 
able. Dine a Dumfries, petite ville composee de 8 a 10 Maisons de 
Marchands et d'environ 30 families en totality. Le sol est argilleux, mais 
froid et peu fertile dans cette partie de la Virginie. Notre marche fut de 
30 M. 

Le 28 passe par Fredericksburg petite ville assez agreable situee sur la 
rive meridionale de la rivierre . . . Notre course fut de ff Miles. 

Le 29 notre marche fut de 30 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 30 Aoust 1789, arrive a Richemont ; notre marche fut de 
27 M. 

Le 31 sejourne" a Richemont. 

Le l er Septembre parti de Richemont et passe" par Petersbourg, petite 
ville mais commercante ; sol entre Richemont et Petersburg, sablouneux. 
Mimosa . . . Hopea &c »&c ; beaucoup de plantes des Carolines. 
Marche de 34 Miles. 

Le 2 sol continuellement sablonneux, marche de 29 M. 

Le 3 passe par Hick's foard dernirre Court house de la Virginie, sol 
sablonneux et arride ; les maisons sont pauvres et les auberges tres mau- 
vaises, et arrive a Halifax premiere ville de la Caroline septentrionale. 
Marche de 35 Miles. 

Le 4 Septembre passe" par Endfield Court-house; sol sablonneux, longue 
suite de bois et de terres incultes. Marche <lc .'/' Miles. 

Le 5 passe par Dorchester- bridge sur Swift Creek, par Lamon's ferry: 
30 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 6 Septembre passe par Peacock's ferry sur Quotanckney 
Creek: 31 M. 

Le 7 pass6 par White field ferry: 31 Miles. 

Le 8 passe par Rock-fish, et par Washington town ; remarque" en plusi. 
endroits la plante Dioncea muscipula dans les lieux sU'riles, sablonneux 
et huinides : t8 Miles. 

Le 9 Septembre 1789 passe par N. E. de Cap Fear et arrive" a Wilming- 
ton $4 Miles. 

Le 10 visite M r Ducher Vice-Consul de France et parti l'apres midy. 
Apres avoir passe trois rivicrres, remarque. a deux miles et demie de la 
ville, Kalmia angustifolia. Dioncea muscipula et un Androm. nova species: 
couchc a Town Creek ; 10 Miles. 

Le onze passe par Lock-wood folly et venu coucber a Little river sur 
les limites de la Caroline sept, et de la Caroline meridionale 40 Miles. 

Le 12 passe par East end of Long Bay et couche dans une petite habita- 
tion sur le bord de la Mer : 25 Mill ft. 

Le Dimanche 13 Septembre passe" par West End of Long Bay et venu 
coucher sur le bord la rivierre Santee. 32 Miles. 

Le 14 le vent fut si considerable que nos n'avons pu traverser la rivierre 



Michaux.] OU [Oct. 19, 

qui a cinq miles de large en cet endroit. Le vent se calma la nuit suivante 
et nous passauies a l'autre bord. Je payay 3 Dollards po. le passage de 
trois chevaux et 5 Dollards po. le Diner, le souper (d'eau chaude) de deux 
personnes et la defense de trois chevaux et un negre. 4 miles seulem t - 

Le 15 notre marche fut de 32 Miles. 

Le 16 voyage l'espace de 28 M. 

Le 17 traverse la rivierre Cooper et arrive a l'babitation. 5 Miles. 

Total 190 Milles de Wilmington a Charleston. 

Le 18 Septembre 1789, nous avons passe 1 la journ£e a l'babitation pour 
nous reposer et pour reposer nos chevaux. 

Le 19 j'ay 6(4 a Charleston ou M. Petry m'a remis les Lettres recues 
pour moi pendant mon absence. 

Le Dimanche 20, mon fils en passant sur le chemin fut blesse" dans l'ceil, 
au has de la Prunelle par un particulier qui tiroit alors une Perdrix. 

Le 21 il fut saign<5 du bras par le Conseil du Medecin. 

Le 22 le blanc de l'ceil fut gonfle considerablement, et je pris le parti de 
le conduire a Charleston pour §tre a ported des Secours. 

Le 23 le mal continua en empirant jusqu' au Dimanche 27 dudit. Dans 
cet interval je fis plusieurs voyages a la ville et je retournois a notre habi- 
tation po. veiller aux differens ouvrages du jardin que j'avois trouvt' en 
assez mauvais etat, et a la recolte de graines. Recueilli les Graines 
d'lllicium. 

Le 30, il y cut quelques esperances de mieux, le Medecin ayant fait une 
incision, l'oeil fut moins enfle et l'inflammalion diminua apies un Cata- 
plasme refrigerant que j'appliquay. Le chagrin auquel il s'abandoit 
£toit la cause que le mal alloit touj. en augmentant. 

Le l ,r Octobre 1789 la pluye qui survint la veille me permit de preparer 
les arbres a etre rentes dans la terre en les mettant en Pots, et nous em- 
ployames le temps a divers ouvrages essentiels au jardin.* 



!.<• Dimanche 8 Novembre 1789, parti et eouclu' h Monk's corner, SS 

It Charleston. 
Le 9 dudit, Dcjiiui.' eha Jackson's T.i\. '.» Miles. A 7 Miles de dis 
ingntlifoHi : Arlircs qui H trouvrnt 16 plus en abonilancc : 

Quercusalba, t^. nigra, Q. nigra aqoatioa, Q aalieifolia, Q, rubra, Liquid. 
Btymcitlua, rfyasa tq . Oi . . , Nyaaa deotato, Oapreaaus dis- 

tich*. Couclu' a Youta-Sprig, ilix ncul" miles df Jackson et JS mil, I de 
Monk's cornrr. 

L>- ID NoM-inhri' passe In rivi.rro Santeo a 2 Miles de Youta spring et 

rasa dinar • eha la Oapltalne Daaaty a ■: wnUu da diataooe. 

a pass*'- les sables stcriles aomok Bifb bills, Saniee. et dcjciiiic 

• Bars lbs regular Journal f<>r ib i trhsl follows from November R, 

!■ rip. i round in tin' end of the book, it 
will Im tuHUn-il ilmi then- Un gap ••< ' C. 8. 8. 



1888.] ^ ^ [Michaux. 

cliez le nomme . . . Vule Philosoph. Le Fevre. Vu dans les sables 1' An- 
dromeda glauca, couche a 16 miles en de ca de Camden chez la nominee 
Willow (jolie fille). 22 Miles. 

Le 12. Nove. 1789 din6 a Cambden, visit 6 le D r Alexander et couch<§ 
cliez le Capt Nettle a 6 miles de distance de Cambden. 22 Miles. 

Le 13 Dejeune" a 4 M. de distance et nous avons couche aupies de Bear's 
Creek, chez le nomme Johnson 29 Miles et 7 Miles au de la hanging- 
rock. 

Nota : cinq miles avant d'arriver chez . . . Johnson il y a une maison 
abandonee au bas de la quelle le chemin fourche, la branche gauche de 
cette fourche mene aussi a Charlotte par le Maj. Barlley mais il y a 80 M. 
de Cambden par cette route. 

Le 14 Novembre 1789 parti a 6 heures de l'habitation Johnson et arrive 1 
a un Creek au dessus du quel est une maison dont la distance et de 6 M. 
de Johnson. Vu le Triosteum. Quatre miles plus loin se trouve une 
Plantation a gauche et un Creek a droite du chemin. Pies de ce Creek 
vu sur le rivage dleve dud. Creek un Viburn. inconnu dont les f. desse- 
chces m'ont paru a 3 lobes. Ce Vib. est de 2 a 3 pi. de haul et tres mince 
de tige. II y a 7 Mil. de ce Creek nomme' . . . po. arriver a la Planta- 
tion de John Cry. Entre ce gros Creek et la PI. vu un autre petit creek 
pies du quel une espece de Poirier, arbuste inconnu. Cette journee 17 
miles. 

Le Dimanche 15 Novembre 1789 pass6 par une Plantation situee a 8 M. 
de distance et 9 Miles avant d'arriver a Charlotte vu le Triosteum, 
Clematis erecta ; Sol alternativem 1 argilleux jaune ou rouge, graveleux ; 
roches de granit et tres souvent du Quartz bien blanc et tres dur, com- 
muncm 1 il s'est trouve du silex ferrugineux : Chene rouge a long petiole, 
Chene a longs petioles feuill. tomenteuses et chene noir sont les plus com- 
muns ; sol cultive produit Bled, Avoine et Mays. Sur les rives de la riv. 
Catawba il y est tres bon ; les herbes sont un peu meilleurs que dans les 
parties basses des Carolines mais les moutons ne sont pas tres beaux et 
les autres bestiaux peu gras. 

Arrive le soir a Charlotte en Mccklembourg county dans le Carol, sept. 
25 miles. Deux cents Miles de Charleston. 

Le 10 Novembre 1789 passe la rivierre Catawba au lieu nomme Tack a- 
segee foard 14 miles de Charlotte ; deux Miles avant d'arriver a ce foard 
nous trouvames un arbuste inconnu a f. opposees et nous avons et<5 coucher 
chez le nomm€ Peter Smith ; deux (un) miles avant d'y arriver, vu pres 
d'un Creek au bord du quel il y a des Ilex et Kalmia, un Magnolia glauca* 
foliis longissimis et cordatis et fructibus globosis, et ramis albicantibus 
acumine sericeis. Ce Magnolia est d'une stature moins haute que les au- 
tres especes connus. Cette journee fut de 26 miles. 

Le 17 Novembre 1789, nous avons pass6 par Lincoln Court house 12 

* M. macrophylla Michx? The locality " in regionibus oocidentalibus fluvio Tennassee 
trajectis" given in his Flora for that species, however, may well indicate that Michuux 
referred to some other Magnolia in this entry in the Journal.— C. S..S. 



Michaux.] "li [Oct. 19, 

miles et nous avons 6te coucher chez le nomm6 Henry Watner 16 M. de 
Lincoln, en tout 2S Miles. 

Le 18 Xovembre 1789 gelee blanche tres sensible. Trouve le pays mon- 
tagneux et les roches d'un Granit compose de shorl, quartz et mica, mais 
plus souvent de Quartz ou bien de silex ferrugineux et argille dans les 
pierres peu dures. ArrivS a Burke court house. Vu deux Miles avant d'y 
arriver, l'arbriss. inconnu de la rivi. Catawba. 29 Miles. 

Le 19 Novenibre 1789 parti de Burke et passe chez le Colonel Avery 
dont l'babit. sur la riv. Catawba a 3 miles de Burke. Trouve un peu avant 
d'y arriver dans les Creeks un Astragalus nouveau et un Menispermum a 
fruit noir ; couche a 12 Miles de Burk. 

Le 20 nous avons dejeune a 6 M. plus loin et vu Magn. cordata, Jugl. 
oblonga, et nous arrivames ensuite a Turkey-cove. En chemin remarque 
Epigea procumbens et Gaultheria procumb. 15 Miles du lieu ou nous 
avons coucbe jusqu'a Turkey-Cove. 

Turkey Cove est le point de station d'ou Ton peut alleren differents en- 
droits sut les hautes Montagnes. 

Le 21 visite la branche septentrionale de la riv. Catawba. Vu un An- 
droin. arborea de 43 pouces de circonference. 

Le Dimanche 22 recueilli et ramasse sur les hautes montagnes des 
Glands de Chene glauque. 

Le 23. parti pour les hautes Montagnes. Vu un Andr. arb. de 49 po. de 
circonference. 

Le 24 Novembre 1789 passe 1 sur les Blue Ridges de la Caroline Sept. 

Le 25 arrive sur les parties basses de la Montagne Noire et recueilli Aza- 
lea fulva, Azalea nova species &c. 

Le 26 recueilli Magnolia cordata, M. acuminata &c. &c. 

La 27 Arrive aux Cataractes meridi. de Taw river et recueilli Viburnum 
nova species. Gelee et neige. 

Le 28 Novembre 1789, Degel et Pluye toute la journee. 

Le Diiiiiuiclic M nvciiu a l'habitation du S r Ainsworth. 

LeSOj'ay recueilli Irs Kalm. latitolia et Rhododendron. 

I., i Mcetnb, <t jusipi'uu B dad. visite phislenn hautes Montagnes et 
ensuitf emballt* mm Reooltee ii la qwmtIK d'enrtron 2500 arbrcs, Arbriss. 
et Plant* •-. en toot 7 arfi 

K.-mi-rnln-r to mil :it ( ";i]»t. SniiiH. the P house below M' pr Seagrove and 

get hit. (lin-rifil to C:t|.!;iin Statlbrd.) 

Le 9 I). cinl.rf 17HU pn-sr pur Burke court house. 
Le . . . arrive | ( 'luirleMon. 



(Mi ikk ».. Si in. 1>K 1790—1791. 



io temps fut brte <<.uvnt, ii tomha one il grtade 
i.- nelgi d< aim <iu maim Jaeqs'e B beam iprei midj, 

liilmuUi '.le B poller-, iliuis hicnmpague 

et 6 poucet dum le vllb\ 



1888.] VO [Miehaux. 

Je travailliiy tres peu a l'emballage des graines que je me proposois 
d'euvoy. en France par le Ship Pennsylvania Capt. Dav. Harding destine 
po. le Havre de Grace. 

Le l er Janvier 1791, je continuay a preparer l'envoy de graines. M* Go- 
dart chancelier du Consulat de Charleston etoit venu passer q. ques jours 
avec mo! sur 1' habitation. La gelee qui depuis 14 jours avoit continue, 
redoubla vivement. 

Le Dimanche 2 dud. continue le meme travail. 

Le 3 M. Godart partit po. Charleston et il me renvoya l'inforraation que 
le navire destine po. le Hav. ne devoit partir que le 6 suivant. Je nc us 
la nouvelle que les Amencains avoient envoye des troupes 1453 homines 
contre les Sauvages Miami ; il y eut environ 100 Sauvages tues mais la 
perte des Am. se monta 183 tu&3 et 31 blesses. Je continuay mon travail 
des graines. 

Le 4 je travaillay a l'emballage des arbres po. le Roy et po. Monsieur. 

Le 5 la neige a disparu. J'ecrivis mes Lettres pourannoncer l'envoy et 
je partis le soir pour Charleston. 

Le 6 Janvier je Ms embarquer les caisses, je reglai avec le Capitaine le 
prix du Iret, je terminay ines Lettres et je revins a l'habitation le 7 dud. 
au soir. 

Le 7 je recus avis d'aller accompagner le Major Mitchell dans un Canton 
de l'Etat ou il avoit reconuu une nouvelle Plante. 

Le 8 je partis pour visiter les rives de la rivierre Santee depuis env. Mau- 
rice ferry jusque vers son Embouchure. Les rives de cette rivierre sont 
defrich6es en grande partie po. la culture du riz. La plupart des habit, 
vivent assez mesquinement et chez les plus riches Planteurs je n'y a pas 
mange de Pain, mais de la bouillie de Mays (nominee . . . ) et du 
Pore sale. Mes chevaux ont vecu de fourrage de Pois ou de Mays. 

Toute la semaine fut employee a cette excursion et je revins a l'habita- 
tion le Dimanche 1G de Janvier. Le principal fruit de ce voyage fut la 
decouverte d'un Andromeda a f. glauques qui se trouva a la distance 
de 38 a 40 Miles de Charleston et settlement 30 Miles de l'habitation que 
j'ay etabli en Caroline. Pour le trouver en abondance il faut, en partant 
de Charleston aller passer par Strawberry-ferry et suivre la route de 
George-town par Lenews Ferry (dit Winingham ferry) a la distance de 

10 Miles environ de Strawberry, en continuant la grande route, on recon- 
noit cet Andromeda dans les Swamps etroites qui se rencontrent fre- 
quemm' au milieu des Pinieres steriles de la Caroline. Ces Pinieres 
sont des eternities immenses d'un sable aride ne produisant que des Pins. 

11 s'y est forme par les Pluyes des ruisseaux bourbeux. qui charient l'eau 
aux rivierres pendant et apres les Pluyes. lis contiennent une eau crou- 
pissante etant retenus par les feuilles et les autres debris de la vegetation. 
Dans ces parties presque toujours humides, on y trouve les differentes 
especes d' Andromeda, les Laurus borbonia, les Azalea, les Magnolia glau- 
ca, les Gordonia &c &c &c- 



Michaux.] ^4 [Oct. 19, 

Le 17 Janvier j'ay eie a Chariest, et je recus une lettre de mon fils dattee 
du rnois d' Avril de l'annee precedente. 

J'ecrivis a M. l'Abbe Nolin sur les difflcultes de trouver a placer les 
Lettres de change et que si ces difflcultes continuoient je serois oblige de 
repasser en France. J'ecrivis a mon fils par la inline occasion du Capit. 
David Harding. 

Le 18 et les jo. suivants jusqu'au 22 dud. il ne se fit aucun ouvrage sur 
l'habitation, les Negresayant ete obliges de travailler aux communes de la 
grande route. 

Le 28 j'eus la visite de M r Frasier,* il parut que la bonne reception qui 
lui avoit ete faite en France l'avoit rendu plus honnete, il se loua beau- 
coup de la France. II dcsira que je l'informe des nouvelles Plantes 
venues a ma decouverte et que je lui fasse part de q.ques unes de mes 
nouvelles Plantes. Mais connoissant que son objet est de vendre, je ne lui 
donnay rien et je m'en tins a lui faire la meillure recept. possible. 

Le Dimanche 23 je fus occupe a reunir plusieurs especes du genre An- 
dromeda dans la Pepiniere. 

Le 24 Janvier 1791. J'ay ete a Chariest., il n'y avoit alors aucun navire 
destine pour France, et ayant achete des Planches, je revins le merne jour. 
II avoit gele a glace. 

Le 86 je lis travailler dans la Pepiniere, le vent etoit passe" au sud ; on 
fut occupe principalement a reparer les Clotures. 

Le 86 ineine travail a reparer les Clotures et a rassembler dans la Pepi- 
niere une collection d'And. sea voir Andromeda arborea, And paniculata, 
coriacM, Mariana, nitida, racemosa, serrata, calyculata, Wilmingtonia, 
poli folia, formosissima. 

Le 27, 28, et 29 travail, a reparer les Clotures du jardin et de la Pepin i- 

Dimanche 30 analyse le Betula alnusf et Oimofl Americana. 

::i travaille a arracher lesarbresdu Jardin. et a les transplanter dans 
la I'epini' 

I., i t. viirr 8. :!. i et B dud. continue la collection des arbres d'un 
ineine genre dans le Pepiniere. 

Le Dimancho 6. les negrcs out etc occupe a aider uu habitant voisin 
dont la maison etoit <n feu. 

Li 7 travaille a la collect ion des arbres d'uu me me genre dans la Pepiniere 
etj'av fait npOOMi M Dfl I l""t j'avois rei;ii une Lettre deux 

jours uuparavunt aiiiM i|ue de M r 1'A.bbe* Noliu et de mon fils. 

S, 9, 10, 11 et H bTller, Continue* le mlmfl travail dans les I Ypinieres. 

Le Diinanclii I'runiers de PeiM Mir des I'runiers com- 

Lc 14 ttiialin' la fiOOJtOfl <le IT.rable rouge de Caroline dont les tl. her 
inaplirodites out 5 etumlncs Ct les tl. males aiissi ,"i etandnCfl. 

Le IS le Prunler ecarlate do Perse a Henri dans mon jardin, le I'runicr 

• Fnuwr.— C. S. 8. 

t Almui m»ndata, Wllld.-C. 8. 8. 



1888.] "^ [Michaux. 

Cbicasaw a fleuri cette semaine. La nuit du 15 au 16 il y a eu grand vent 
et pluye considerable ; le vent a passe du sud a l'Ouest. 

Le 16 fevrier 1791, l'air s'est eclaire et le vent a passe* de l'Ouest au 
Nord, La nuit du 16 au 17 il y a eu teinpgte, vent furieux, et plusi. par- 
ties de la cloture du jardin ont 6te renven^es. 

Le 17 travaille a reparer les clotures. Ce matin la gel£e etoit a 5 degres 
du thermometre de Reaumur. 

Le 18 gelee a 6 Degi6s, discontinue les Plantations pour reparer les 
clotures bribes par les vents. 

Le 19 continue a reparer les clotures. 

Le Dimanche 20 herborise et analise plusieurs Plantes. 

Le 21. 22. 23. 24. 25 et 26. Plante les arbres dans les Pepinieres. 

Le Dimanche 27 herborise. 

Le 28 j'ay ete a Charleston. 

Le Mardy l er Mars Plante les arbres dans la Pepiniere. 

Le 2 acheve la reunion des arbres d'un meuie genre dans la Pepiniere. 

Le 3 plante dans le jardin par ordre les Plantes bulbeuses et diffeientes 
Plantes herbacees des Montagnes et des autres parties de la Caroline. 

Le 4 travaille a mettre en ordre mes herbiers et commence par les collec- 
tions de New-York, du N. Jersey et de la Pensylvanie. 

Le 5 et 6 continue la ineme travail. 

Le Dimanche 6 Pluye, seme* plusieurs sortes de Graines. 

Le 7 Mars continue a mettre en ordre mes herbiers ; Recu une lettre de 
mon fils dattee le onze Juillet de l'annSe derniere. Recu une lettre de M. 
Uartram et une lettre de M. Hamilton. 

Le 8 pi epare une caisse de Plantes po. Monsieur Frere du Roy par la 
voie de Bordeaux, recommande au capit. Baas et a Bord a M. P. Texier. 

Le 9 ecrit mes Lettres a M. Le Monn. a mon fils &c. &c. 

Le 10. 11. et 12 travaille a mes herbiers. 

Le Dimanche 13. 

Le 14 Mars j'ay ete a la ville.* 

Le Dimanche 17 Avril 1791. Embarque po. aller a S le Marie (Avril a 
30 joursj. 

Memento. II se trouve autour du l er pin apres avoir passe* le Swamp 
aux Vaccin. repens, une bonne quantite de Vaccin. stamineum. Aupres de 
la cloture a Dillon, beaucoup de Viburnum. . . . L'And. axill. se 
trouve abondamm* au bout du champ a main droite chez Williman environ 
200 toises avant d'arriver au bout. Le Magn. trip, et Lianne gynandriq. 
a l'opposite de la remise du bois en venant d'Ashley-ferry. 

Le 19 Avril au soir, arrive* sur l'isle de Cumberland, vis a vis de S te 
Marie. 

Le 20 herborise sur l'isle Cumb. 

Le 21 j'ay ete* a S te Marie dit New-town. 

Le 22 j'ay passe la journSe sur l'habit. du capit. Stafford. 

* Here this part stops, and what follows is from loose slips of paper placed in the end 
of book. There is a gap between March 14 and April 17.— C. 8. S. 

PROC. AMKll. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. I. PRINTED MARCH 4, 1889. 



ilichaux.l OO [Oct. 19, 

Le 23 je me suis embarque pour aller visiter les rives de Settella river. 

Le Dimanche 24 Avril herborhe aux environs du nomme James Moore. 

Le 25 reste sur le me me lieu. 

Le 26 je suis parti pour aller aux parties elevens du Settella river. 17 
Miles de Marche. 

Le 27 les chevaux 6gai63, je suis reste chez le nomme Crawford a 3 
miles du M. Right qui tient le flatt* po. passer la riv. 

Le 28. marche" 10 Miles et quiUe les habitations, campe" aupres d'une de- 
meure d'Indiens chasseurs. 

Le 29 Avril arrive au magazin Gtabl. po. la traite avec les Sauvages et 
herborise toute la journee. 

Le 30 reconnu le Nyssa Ogechee tout le long de la Riv. S ,e Marie et 
particulierement sur l'babitation du nomme . . . 

Le Dimanche 1" May descendu la riv. dans un Boat et trouve un Sar- 
nccnia nouvelle espece. Reconnu a environ 18 M. de S te Marie le Pisonia 
baccifera. 

Le 2 May arrive a S te Marie dite New-town, et herborise" aux environs. 
Le soir revenu sur l'isle de Cumberland. 

Le 3 j'ay loue deux hommes et un Cannot po. aller sur la terre ferine 
ou j'ay recueilli en abondance des Plantes de l'Andromeda ferruginea, 
Kalmia hirsuta et Befaria &c. 

herbori.-c sur l'isle et emballe* le reste de mes Recoltes. 

Le 5 May le vent contraire a emj 8che le Capit. de mettre a la voile. 
Reconnu sur l'isle de Cumb. deux endroits produisant le Pisonia. 

Le 6 le navire mit a la Voile po. Charleston. Le soir il s'eleva unc 
tempete, le tonnerre et les 6clairs continuerent la nuit suivant, le vent 
ayant vara- plusieurs fois, nous nous trouvaines vis a vis de St. Augustin 
en FloriJe. 

Le 7 aprM beanoonp de diflicultes et de fatigues nous revimes a l'isle 
de Cumberland 

!.• Dimanche 8 May herborise" et analyse" les Plantes de cette partic de 

(At Middleton's place 3 miles from Dorchester the Cork-tree is to be 
seen. Inquire of the overseer.) 

[.«• i:: embarque' de bootcm. 

Le Dimanche 15. 

anah a cause des vents oontrairee. 

Le i • BaTanah et berboris. aux environs de oette villi-. 

Le im berboriee* dans lis campe a unc grande distance! et reconnu un 
arbriaaeau qui se mpporte an genre MEnaaanda, 

, Kanal const iuit sur le bord de la mer 
Le 80 May 17'.»1. |i nidu la riv. cl fut en plcine mer. 

Le 21 nous b. mi par les aalmee a I'entrie du barrc de * 'harlet* 



1888.] 67 [Michaux. 

Le Dimanche 22 May. Entre" a Charleston et recu les Lettres de . . . 

Nota : Promis a M ter Belin un dcrai Bois de Riz et des Gr. du Riz sac 
de Guinea gross. ... II m'a promis de m'envoyer des Gr. de Papaw. 

Promis a M. Bleym des Gr. de Pentapetes. II m'a promit de m'en- 
voyer des Graines l'lpomcaa qui ont reussi dans le jardin du nomine Clark, 
to the care of Francis P. Fatis. 

Le nomme Andrew . . . sur Crooked riv. m'a promis de me 
recueillir des Gr. de Palmeto a 2 8h - le Peck, et je dois lui envoyer une 
caisse d'avance av. de la mousse. 



Le Saururus cernuus est reconnu tres bon remede po. meurir les playes 
qui viennent a suppuration et en diminuer ^inflammation. On fait bouil- 
lir les racines ou les broye, on y ajoute un peu de farine de froment pour 
en faire un cataplasme. On fait aussi usage de miel et de farine de Mays. 
pour meurir les playes qui tendent a suppuration. 

Memento : Ne pas oublier a preparer plusieurs Planches continuees po. 
y planter les Plantes de Bahama et de la Floride de maniere a passer 
l'hyver : Preparer aussi un Abri au Nord. pour les Plantes des Montague- : 
Rassembler plusieurs especes de Viburnum po. greffer la Vft. tinus et 
particulierement la Vib. cassinoides. Preparer immediatement de cli 
pour les Kalmia et les Rhododendrons: Acheter un Baril de Goudmn 
faire une Cloture droite av. fosse" derri. le jardin pour les chev. et vaches : 
Outre l'ombre mettre des longues shingles pour eloigner la pluye du uiefl 
arbriss. au nord. 



De S' Augustin a Cow-ford ferry sur S l John tenu par Pritchard. 3G M. 

De Cow-foard a l'habitation da nomme Allen sur S te Marie 46 M. 

D' Allen au ferry de Brown sur Settella river . . . 

De Brown ferry a Ridge Bluff sur la Rivierre Alatamaha. . . . 

D'Alatamaha a Savanah . . . 

De Savanah a . . . 



Cahikr 7. 1792 & part op 1793. 



Le 27 Mars 1792, l'habitation de Caroline a &e vendue a vente publique 
au prix de 53 Guinees qui font la S e de 247 dollars. 

Le . . . Avril passe l'acte d'acquisition faite par M. Himely. 

Le 17 Avril ecrit a M. De la Porte, Ministre de la Maison du Roy pour 
lui envoyer la recapitulation de mes Depenses. et des S e touchers depuis 
mon Depart po. les Etats-Unis. 

Le meme jour 17 Avril tire" sur M. TAbbc" Nolin une traite de 3000 lv. 



Michaux] UO [ 0ct . 19( 

tournois evaluee a 555 Doll. Ecrit a raon fils par duplicata pour lui 
anuoncer mon Depart de Charleston po. Philadelphie. 

Cette traite m'a ete rendue par M' De la Forest qui n'a pas pu en faire 
les londs et je lui en ay donne une autre de 1200 lv. sur ma famille dattee 
de Philadelphie. 

Le 18 Avril 1792 Embarque a Charleston sur le Charleston Packet po. 
Philadelphie et arrive a Philadelphie le Mardy 25 dud. au soir. 

Le M visite M. De la Forest Consul, qui n'a pas voulu accepter la traite 
de M. Petry. 

Le 27 visite M r James et Shoemaker, M. Pinckney, M. Morphy, 
M' . . . 

Le 2b termine avec M De la Forest le compte des Sommes dont il 
s'etoit charge pour les avances a faire au jardinier Saulnier sur la derniere 
traite du 30 Novembre 1791. 

Vi-ite 31. De Ternan, Ministre de France pres les Etats-Unis. 

Visite M. De Brahm, Surveyeur des Colonies angloises. 

Visite M 1 ** Bartram Botanistes. 

Le Dimanche 29, Ecrit plusieurs Lettres et redige mes comptes po. les 
envoyer en France. 

Le 2(J Avril 1792. Visite M r Izard ; le Doct. Benjamin Rush, Physician, 
le major Th. Pinckney, le D r Barton, M r De Ternan et dine chez M r De 
Brahm. 

Le Mardy 1« May ecrit des Lettres po. Charleston. 

Le 2 visite M Hamilton. 

Le 3 Visile le D r Benjamin Smith Barton, physicien in Philad a - 
I visile M. De Bauvois. 

Le 5 a 26 . . . 

Le Dimanche 27 May Parti de Philadelphie par la route d'Amboy et 
arrive a New- York le 29, a 10 heures du Soir. 

stuca en Caroline et en N. Jersey, Pensylvanie &c. Festuca gluma 
2 valvis nniltitlora, Cal. 2 valvis, v. lanceolatis mucronatis. 

Le 30 Visile l'Etablissement de New-Jersey pres New-York et herborise 
mix environs. 

istrus : CjiI. .">.]inriit. lacin. oblongis, obtusis, erectis : Pet. 5, ovata, 
•apemc rcilexa : stam. 5, tilam. erecta, Anth. oblongae, erectae : Germen 
parvmn ice eptaiuli) iniinersnm : Styl. o, Stigmata 8. 

Saxifraga l'ennsylviniica 11. en paniniles, 
r. nivulis. 

L« 31 Mi i.ciicrciu's botaniq. 

cinium bitpldolum* fol. ovatis, Integrit, tdtpidis; florib. calyculatis 

octandris gcrinni' intrro, Irueln ullio. \'. llorcs unillori, a.xilhuvs linvc 

l.nlmi.u; . ii inteniiii, bttl loliola duo ealycina ovata opposila. 

larin. ovatU, aplci germinis approximatis persistentil). Cor. 

c*mpaniforiui, patens 4nda, laciniia ajtici' rcll<\is, Stam. s, tihuti. brevis- 

• Oiiogrna Mtp* | -C. 8. 8. 



18S8.] 69 [Michaux. 

sima: Anth. erecta, Germ, subrotundum, inferum: Stylus staminibus 
longior, stigma obtusum: Pericarpium bacca nivea subovata umbilicata, 
stylo persistente, semina plurima fol. ovata integ. acuminata, breve petio- 
lata, alterna, subtus aspersa pilis ferrugineis ut et caulis. Caules repent, 
radicantes, flliformis, fructus parvi, nivei. Habitat in cupressinis humidis, 
Canada? et Novae Angliae, New- York, Novae Cesareae &c. Attoca a fruit 
blanc. 

Vaccinium . . . Cranberry Atoca a fruit rouge mangeable.* 

Hydropbyllum Virginicum, Saxifraga nivalis, Pennsylvanica; Trillium 
cernuum, Trientalis. 

Le 2 Juin parti de N.-York pour New Haven en Connecticut distante 
de 98 Miles de New- York. 

Le 3 arrive a 10 heures du Soir. 

Le 4 parti pour aller visiter M. Peter Pound voyageur qui a demeure" 19 
Ans dans l'int6rieur de l'Amerique ou il a voyage a l'Ouest jusqu' aux 
Lacs de la Pluye, Lac des Bois, Lac Winipique, Riv. "Winipique, Lac 
Manitopa. Selon M r Pound il faut etre a la fin d'avril a Montreal po. 
aller avec les Canadiens a la Traite. 

Le 5 Juin parti de Milford et revenu couchera New Haven. 

Le 6 parti a 5 heures du soir et arrive le 7, a 4 heures du matin a New- 
York. Le dit 7. je me suis prepare a partir pour le Canada. 

Le 8 au soir parti a bord d'un Sloop po. Albany. 

Le 9 herborise a 18 Miles de N. York, tandis que le Sloop etoit a l'ancre 
a cause du vent contraire. 

Cornus ramis punctatis, Geranium . . . , Geranium Lu- 

pinus perennis, Verbascum blattaria. 

Le 10 Vent contraire. 

Le 11 au Matin, passe entre les Montagnes de roches sur lesquelles on 
voit les retranchem. de plusi. Batteries placees pendant la guerre. L'en- 
droit de ces Montagnes le pi. remarquable est nomine West Point. Cos 
Montagnes tres rapprochees, dans un endroit de la rivierre y est resserre 
de maniere que le passage etoit ferine 1 av. une Chaine qui traversoit la 
rivierre. Le soir arrive devant Poughkeepsie. Aupres de cette ville vu 
le Juniperus Europea ? Thuya canadensis. 

Le 12 Juin le vent du Nord fut plus considerable et le froid tres vif, 
Thermometre de farenheit a . . . degres ; a 5 heures du Matin. Ce 
meme jour nous avons passe devant Esopus. 

Le 13 le Vent devint plus favorable. 

Le 14 nous arrivames a Albanie distant de 164 Miles de New-York. 

Le 15 Juin parti po. le lac Champlain et venu coucher a Lasingburgh. 

Le 16 et Dimanche 17, herborise sur une haute montagne, pres de ce 
lieu. Panax quinquefolia, Acer pensylvanica, Fumaria vesicaria scandens, 
Mitella diphylla. 

Le 18 parti de nouveau et arrive 1 a Saratoga. 



Vaccinium oxycoccw L. and V. macrocarpon, Ait.— C. S. S. 



Micbaux.] ' U [Oct. 19, 

Le 19 arrive a Skeensborough, 10 miles avant d'y arriver, observe Linnea 
borealis, Taxus . . . ; Trientalis, Gaultheria procumbens, Helleborus 
trifolius.* 

Le 20 Embarque sur le Lac Champlain : Vent contraire l'espace de 60 
Miles et plus, tres resserre par les Montagnes qui bordent le Lac. 

Le 21 a 4 heures du Matin, passe devant Ticonderoga cy devant Fort 
Carillon : Hyppopbae canadensis.! 

Le 22 Vent contraire et caline : herborise toute la journee : Arbutus 
acadiensis. 

Le 23 arrive devant Burlington ; sur la main droite Ton apercoit une 
tres baute Montagne situee a 20 M. environs dud. Burlingt. dans l'Etat 
de Vermont. 

Le 24 berborise sur le cote" oriental du Lac faisant partie de l'Etat de 
Vermont ; Arrive le meme jour a Cumberland Head. 

Le 25, 26 et 27 berborise en attendant une occasion pour continuer mon 
voyage. 

Plantes remarques sur le lac Champlain : 

Pinus abies canadensis : Pinus foliis geminis : Pinus Strobus : P. fol. 
undique sparsis : Tbuya occidentals : Taxus monoica : Betula papyrifera, 
nigra. Ulmus . . . White elm. Carpinus . . . Red elm. Loni- 
cera diervilla, Loniccra ... L. ... L. glauca : Spirea . . . 
Viburnum nudum, V. . . . V. . . . V. . . . Fagus sylvatica 
amerieana : Hyppopbae Canadensis; Actaea spicata, Vaccinium stamin- 
etttn, V. corymbos. V. resinosum, V. . . . Arbutus Acadiensis, 
Circaea Canadensis, Collinsia Canadensis, Iris coerulea, Carex : Gramina, 
V. l'berbier; Cepbalanthus occid., Houstonia purpurea, Galium . . . 
Gal. album, Cornus 1, 2, 3 especes ; C. herbacea, alternifolia ; Fagara 
. . . Hamamelis Virginica ; Cynoglossum ... : C. officinalis ; 
Symphytum officinale ; Lysiinachia 4-folia? ; Campanula . . . ; Loni- 
( era (Cliainaeceras) ; L. (glauca scandens) ; L. Diervill. j Verbascum 
tliapsus ; Khamnus (dioicus) ; Ceanothus Americanus ; Celastrus . . . ; 
Hilies cynosbati ; K. (mi(|uelon) : Vitis . . . ; Thesium umbellatum ; 
. . . , Asel. . . . ; Sanicula . . . ; Rhus glabrum : 
Kit. . . . ; Ph. . . . : Viburnum . . . ; Sanibucus . . . : 
:i\iea trilolinta, Aralia raeenmsa, nudicanlis : Lilium I'hiladelphiuum, 
. I'viiluria perfoliate; U. . . . ; U. . . . ; Hypoxis 

th&llctroides: Convftllarla polygonfttttia maximum, 

iiif(»lia ; I'ruKis vcriiciliatus ; Uedeola Yirgtoica ; Trllltam ereotam; 'I'i'i- 

lit . . . | Kin a palustris . Andromeda paniculata ; Kpigea repens, 

to 20 ndles avam d'arriver au LftO < 'liainplain) : (iaultlieria prucuinliciis ; 

rola umbellata j P. . , . I Irlleliorils tiilolius J 

I'. Mililla diplivlla; I . . ; Asannn Canadense j 

ProDOi .... I'aduH TlrgUi i Oensvi . . . ; c ; C. 

, CntlaegUB . . . . . ; MetptltU Canadensis arliorea ; 

I 



1888.] 'J- [Michaux. 

M. Canad. frutcscens ; Spiraea . . . ; Rosa . . . ; Rubus occi- 
dentalis, cdoratus, arcticus, hispidus, Canadensis ; Potentilla . . . ; 
P. . . . ; Geum . . . ; Actea spicata, . . . ; Sanguinaria Canad. ; 
Podophyllum peltatum ; Nymphea . . . ; Tilia Americana; Cistus 
Canadensis ; Aquilegia Canadensis ; Anemone hepatica, dicliotoma &c. 
Thalictrum purpurascens, dioicum ; Pedicularis Canad. ; Ped. . . . ; 
Chelone glabra, hirsuta ; Scrophularia ; Linnea borealis ; Orobanche Vir- 
ginia ; Draba bursa-p. ; Lepidium ; Geranium ; Fumaria sempervirens ; 
Fum. vesicaria ; Polygala Senega, viridescens ; Hedisarum ; Trifolium ru- 
bens, . . . ; Hypericum ; Eupatorium ; Gnaphalium dioicum ; Lobelia 
syphilitica; Viola . . . ; Iinpatiens . . - ; Cypripedium ; Carex ; Betula 
papyrifera. nigra : Urtica . . . ; Sagittariasagittifolia ; Quercus . . . ; 
Juglans oblonga ; Fagus sylvatica am. Caipinus . . . ; Pinus fol. 
bin is, P. fol. tends, P. fol. quinis. P. fol. apice emarginatis, P. fol. den- 
ticulatis, P. fol. fasciculatis, P. fol. undique insertis ; Tuuya occideutalis ; 
Hippophae Canadensis ; Myrica gale ; Fagara . . . ; Smilax herbacea, 
. . . , Populus balsamifera. P. . . ; Menispermum ; Juniperus Vir- 
giniana, communis ; Taxus monoicus ; Veratrum ; Acer rubrum, sacchar- 
iferum Canadense, A. Pennsylvanicum ; Fraxinus ; Panax quinquefolia ; 
Equisetum. . . . ; Osnmnda 

Le 27 Juin parti de Cumberland Head et relache a la Pointe aux Fers. 

Le 28 parti dans un petit canot et entre sur le territoire anglois a cinq 
Leures du Soir. 

Le 2'J arrive et debarque a S' Jean. Apres dine j'ay loue une voiture 
po. aller a la Prairie petite ville situee sur le fleuve S l Laurent 

Le 30 Passe en Bateau a Montreal. Visile plusi. personnes po. qui 
j'etois muni de Lett, de recommandation. 

Le Dimaiiche 1" Juillet herborise sur une Montagne pres de Montreal. 

Le 2 Visite le Capit. Hughes Scot, du 26 e Regiment amateur de Miner- 
alogie. 

Le 3 herborise dans la Campagne et dans les Prairies basses. Reconnu 
deux nouveaux genres 1° : Un genre intermediaire entre leTyphaet Spar- 
ganium, plante hermaphrodite a 3 Etam. amentum cylind. cylindrique 
& . . 2°. Un genre entre Moroea et Antholisa planta aquatiq. 3 etamines 
&c. 

Le 4 Passe la Matine avec le Capit. Scott entrenu de voyages, Botaniq. 
Mineralogie Arc. . . . 

Le 5 Juillet herborise : Alisma . . . 

Le G Dine ehez M. Frobicher. 

Le 7 Dine chez M. Henry. 

Le Dimanche 8 herborise au bois de la chine, Dianthera nova et Hyperi- 
cum novum dans l'espace d'une lieue en remontant la rivierre. 

Le 9 recu la visite de plusi. personnes. 

Le 10 dine chez M r Frobicher avec les offlciers des deux Regimens en 
garnison a Montreal. Remarque le Major Murray du 60 Regim' : le capi- 
taine Robinson, le capt. Scott & &c. par leurs merites. 



Miehaux.] • ^ [Oct. 19, 

Le 11 Embarque* : le 12 Vent contraire. 

Le 13 relache a William Henry cy devant Sorel petite ville a l'embou- 
chure de la riv. Chamblis. 

Le soir vent favorable, traverse* le lac S nt Pierre. Herborise aupres 
de Sorel. Andromeda calyculata, Kalmia angnstifolia, Vaccinium corym- 
bosum. Vac. . . . Calla palustris, Aralia nova, Vaccin. repens 
staminib. octo. 

Le 14 herborise* a 8 li. de distance des Trois Riv. dit Baptiscan ; plus 
bas Andromeda polifolia, Kalmia glauca, angustifolia ; Azalea glauca, 
Ledum palustre, Comarum . . ; 

Le Dimanche 15 herborise : Triglochin Scheuchzera . . . Vent 
contraire. 

Le 1G arrive a Quebec. 

Le 17 visite le Gouverneur Clarke : herborise : Oxalis nova species 
&c. &c. 

Le 18 Juillet visite le Juge . . . Dodd. herborise* : Lycopodium 
cinq especes differentes ; Aconitum uncinatum* vulgairement Tisavoy- 
anne. 

Le 19. Vu M r Neilson Imprimeur, homme tres instruit. Recueilli 
plusi. especes de Graines ; Convallaria . . . Cornus canadensis, Anilea 
nudicanlis. Sambucus fructu rubro. Th. le matin 70 D. une heure apres 
Midy . , . 90. 

Le 20 thermometre de Fareinhit ; le matin 67 degres, herborise : Con- 
vallaria stellata, trifolia, bifolia, duo alterae species, Lycopodium 6 especes 
differentes. 

Le 21 Thermometre le matin 51 ; herborise Arbutus uva ursi, Arbut. 
nova sp. Sorbus aucuparia ; Narthecium calyculatum.f Euphrasia odon- 
tites, Plantago maritima, Actaea spicata fructu albo, fructu rubro «fcc. &c. 

I.i 98. \ Trite* M r le D r - Nooth : vu dans son jardin des framboises du 
cap de Bonne Esp. 

Le2'' Dejeune chez le D r - Nooth ; Vu un souflet double de son inven- 
tion pour continuer la flainme de la fusion des mineraux, du verre po. les 
thermometre* &C, 

I..- 1 1 le D' Nooth m'a fait voir lo moyen d'adapter des Pinces de Tele- 
scope pour voir les petits objets aussi hien qu'avec un mieroseope. II 
n'y a rien de plus ftYAntageta pour cele. Lei objeti sent vus ties dls- 

tinetement a des dean's plus on nioins eloignes sans fuligiier la \ ue an 
Ilea qm- i 'pes ordinaires. Si Ton re^anle une lleiir nieme 

petite, l 'on peat voir eaeel dletiaetement duns 1'lnterieax de la 

COP' I ii it e, &C. &C. 

Lfi 25 fait plu-i deOMK i an fOJEge dans l'intericur 

del Terns. 

Le 25 herborise* a le Cascade de Montmorency i l'lantes renmrqu- 

8.8. 
t To/Ut.hn gtu/inota, Wllld.-C. t. 8. 



1888.] '" [Michaux. 

Pinus balsamea, Pinus abies, Sapinetle rouge, Sapinette blanche ; Thuya 
occidental is ; Larix ; Betula papyrifera ; Pinus balsamea. 

Le 27 dine chez le D r Nooth. 

Le 28 herborise dans les bois a droite de la petite rivierre S l Charles. 
Andromeda calyculata; Kalmia glauca. K. angustifolia; Ledum palustre; 
Sarracenia purpurea; Azalea nova species. 

Le Dimanche 29 herborise a Lorette. 

Le 30 prepare au voyage du lac Mistassin. 

Le 31 Juillet parti de Quebec, passe devant le cap. Tourmente et le Cap 
brule, situe l'un a 12 lieues de Quebec, et l'autre a 14 li. Reconnu sur les 
Montagnes: Juniperus communis, Thuya, Sapins et Epinettes, Epigea 
repens, Linnea borealis &c &c : Mineraux Roches composees de Quartz, 
de Mica et de Schorl. 

Le soir arrive devant la Baye S' Paul distante de 17 lieues. L'on voit 
l'lsle aux Coudres estim^e a 18 lieues de Quebec. A l'entree de la Baye 
vu un Loup marin et plusieurs Marsouins l'un de couleur blanche comme 
de la neige. 

Le l er Aoust vers une heure du matin, le Vent a change; et a 3 heures 
une Pluye considerable qui a continue jusqu'a 10 heures: Herborise sur 
les Montagnes; Ledum palustre et Kalmia angustifolia: Populus balsiuni. 
Potentilla nivea ; Calla palustris aux lieux marecageux ainsi 
que Vaccin. repens album, V. atoca;* Drosera; Hordeum murinum; Galium 
album; Typha altissima; Spargan. erectum; Potamogeton &c. 

Le 2 Aoust arrive' a la Malbaye; Cynoglossum seu Pulmonaria maritimajf 
Glaux? ; Hippophae canadensis: Sisyrinchium bermudiana; Galium album; 
Abies fol. undique sparsis; Ab. balsamea; Pinus Strobus, P. fol. geminis, 
P. Larix; Pyrola uniflora; Juniperus communis: Acer pensylvanicum; 
Populus balsamea: Le Juglans oblonga se trouve a Quebec mais cesse ici, 
ainsi que Abies canadensis; Platanus occidental, cesse au lac Champlain 
&c. &c. 

Depuis la Baye S< Paul, les Eboulements et la Malbaye les Montagnes 
sont formees de terre argilleux sables et Pierres roulees. Le Cap. Tour- 
mente est forme de roches de Quartz. Sur les rochers un peu avant 
d'entrer dans la Baye, se trouve un arbuste rampant, Empetrum nigrum, 
f. touj. vertes, petites, ovales, reflechies, glauques par dessous (ce glauque 
ne paroit que comme une ligne la f. etant pi. etroite que celle du Romarin) 
Cal a 3 f . (ou 3. partitus) corolla a 3 petal (ou 3 partita), Etam. 3, dont les 
filets tres longs, Germe superieur, styl. o, Stig. simple, Baye noire, aqueuse, 
semences 9. 

Le 3 Aoust sejourn6 a la Malbaye. 

Le 4 parti et couche a l'embouchure de la riv. Seganey. 

Le Dimanche 5 arrive le matin a 4 h. a Tadoussack: herborise; Juniperus 
commu. Junip. sabina? 46 lieues de Quebec. 

Le 6 Therm, de Fareinhit matin 51£ d , Vent d'E. N. E. Midy 70 D. 

* Vaccinium oryeoccus, L.— C. S. S. 
t Mertaisia maritime/, Don. — C. S. S. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. J. PRINTED MARCH 4, 1889. 



Michaux.] 74 [Oct. 19. 

J 'ay engage trois Sauvages pour remonter la Rivierre Scganey. Depuis 
le Cap Tourmente jusqu'a Tadoussack, les Montagnes sont contumelies 
au Xord du fl. S l Laurent et sont principalem 1 de quartz pur q.q. fois 
melees de Shorl. Dans plusi. endroits la base des Rockers est de Pierre 
calcaire noire. 

Le 7 Th. le matin 52 d. Parti dans un Canot avec trois Sauvages et le 
petit jeune horntne Metis que j'avois engage a Quebec po. interp. ayant 
demeuie trois ans av. les Sauvag. Par des montagnes continuees fait 
environ 10 li. Orages de Tonnere et Pluye. 

Le 8 Vent contraire, Rame environ 4 lieues. Sur les Montagnes de 
Rocbes: arbust. baccifere, (Empetrum nigrum) cal. 3 pbyll. cor. 3 parti. 
st. 3: Arbutus foliis margine lanuginoso- membranacea: Arbut? fol. 
apice glandulosis:* Alalia nova bispida. Coucbe aupres de la Cascade. 

Le !) Temps calme, passe devantun Rocber coupe perpendieulairement 
dit le Tableau, estime la moitie du cbemin de Tadoussack a Cbicoutoume 
Poste situ6 a l'endroit de la Rivierre Seganey ou le flux de la Mer cesse de 
monter. Cette Riv. est reputee une des pi. grandes de celles qui se jettent 
dans le Fleuve S' Laurent* Depuis l'emboucbure ou le confluent on 
remonte l'espace de 21 lieues vers le X. Ouest, alors il s n presente une 
grande Baye qui recoit probablement une aut. riv. et a l'entree de la Baye 
on remonte cette riv. vers le Xord. La largeur de la rivi. jusq. la gr. 
est generalem' d'euv. 4 Miles tres ressenee par de bautes montagues 
de rocbes coupees perpendieulairement. II n'y a point de terre sur ces 
mont. et les Pins qui y croissent n'out de substances que celles que les 
mousses leur fouruissent. Elles sont geueralement compost'es de Quartz 
ea de Schorl, en moindre partie quelq. fois assises sur une base cal- 
caire. Mais les Rocbers calcaires y sont a peine depuis le Cap. Tour- 
mriiie. J 'ay rencontre une fois une lieue avant d'arriver a la gr. Baye 
du Feldspath. Depuis la gr. Baye les Montagues sont moins bautes et 
moins perpendiculaircs. Camp6 une li. au dessus de la gr. Baye. Orago 
et Pluye. 

I.'- 10 Vent du Xord tres violent: sur les Mont, couvertes do Sphagnum, 
Ledum paluslre, Andromeda cahcwlala, Kalmia anguslifolia, Yacciu. 
aloca; V. r< ra rotuodifolia. 

La mime Joox oampe* a doox lioaea de distance de Ohleootoanfed. 

Le 'ii mi sur les bonis de la rivierre en entrant dans le bois: 

Swcrlia coniicnlata.t le meme jour arrive a Chicoutnuine. 

Le Diniaiiche 12, | partir pour le lae S" ; .lean et les Lacs Mis- 

■ til ini', l.YV' de l'dl'c sale, deux 

.\ ile LOOP inaiiii pa SiMiliers, 1011 de Biscuits, 50 de I'ain, 10"' de 

. <!<• I'liudre ,t lircr, 10 ' de IMninli. :'. Kouleaux d' I'leorce de Uoulcaii 

pour is, , r i aulncs d'Ktolle de Laine ^russicrc, :! paires de 

ChftUMOnx di laine, 'J pa ire.- de BJMtl de laine. Outre ce qui avnit etc pris 

po. proviHion a Tadouaaack 14 I de I 'ore .-ale, :>o da 1'aiu hache, 

' 

S. 8. 



1338.] **> [Michaux. 

couvertures, souliers, Pierres a fusil, Briquets &. Un grand filet, bam., 
six Couvertures. 

Le 13 transpose deux Canots dans la rivierre Chicoutouine, ayant quitte 
ici celle de Sagney, six sauvages et sept sauvagesses furent employees a 
porter les provisions et le Bagage. Ce Portage est un des plus longs ayant 
une lieue et plus de distance de Sagney a la ifttfl de la Cascade. Ce jour 
nous avons eu quatre autres Portages, la plupart de 200 toises a 500 toises 
environ po. passer par terre du bas d'une Cascade en haut. Souvent 
lorsque les Canots arrivent au dessous de ces Rapides ou Cascades, ils sont, 
entraines par la violence du courant des Eaux qui sont toujours en ces 
endroits resserres par des roches euormes. II faut alternativement ou 
ramer, ou forcer en piquant au fond, alors q.q. fois on se munit de perches 
et ainsi on lutte contre les Eaux. Malgn' la legerete des Canots, les Sau- 
vages emploient toutes leurs forces et ils sont tresiidroits a eviter les clan- 
gers d'Otre entraines ou heurtes contre les roches ou enfin renverses, ce qui 
arrive q. quefois. II y a rarement danger de perir, lorsque l'on sc, lit nager 
parce que alors en se laissant aller au courant des Eaux, l'on est porle 
immediatement dans un endroit ou l'eau est tranquille et souvent moins 
de deux pieds d'eau ; alors il faut sauver ce que Ton peut, Canots, Bagage 
et Piovisions. Ces voyages sont effrayants po. ceux qui n'y sont pus 
accoutumes et je conseillerois aux Petits Maitres de Londre ou a ceux de 
Paris s'il y en a encore de rester chez eux. Remarque dans les rivierres 
et sur les Hives. Potamogeton . . . Nymphea lutea calix 3 phyllus: 
Pctala 3, stam. nuinerosa & fol. cordalis. Nymphea lutea Cal. . . . 
foliis et llorib. mitiorib. Ranunculus reptans fol. linearis, caule repente; 
Chelone glabra florib. albis ; Fraxinus &c etc etc. 

Le 14 Aout Pluye considerable toute la journee : herborise et recueilli 
beaucoup d'especes de Mousses, Aster, Grarnen, Helleborus trifolius, 
Hit ells aphylla. 

Le 15 navigue toute la journee par une pluye fine mais continuelle. 
Nous trouvames deux Portages sitnes a une lieue de distance l'un de 
l'autre et nous avons fini la journi'e en passant le Lac Senogamie* qui a 7 
lieues de long et autres un a deux Miles de large, quelquefois il fut borde 
par des montagnes de Roches, qq. fois par des Marecages. Sur les Mon- 
tagnes reconnu Juniperus coinnuinis, Abies, Acer pensylv. Polentilla 
nivea &c. &c. Dans les parties basses et Marecages humides Myrica gale 
Andromeda polifolia, Comarum palustre, Prinos verticillatus, Gentiana 
pneumonanthe.f Mentha stam. corolla longiorib., Triglochin palustre, 
Alnus glauca stipulis lanceolatis, X Vaccinium atoca. Dans le Lac, 
Nymphea lutea major, Nymph, lutea minor, Sparganium nataus,£ Alisma 
subulata, I Potamogeton . . . , Polygonum . . . , Lobelia sim- 
plex,^ Eriocaulon . . . 

•cad. Lac aux Arb. uva ursi. 

t O. linearis, Froel.— C. S. S. 

X Betula pumila, L.— C. S. S. 

§ S. minimum, Bauhin.— C. S. S. 

g Alisma Ptantago, L. var. Americanum, Gray.— C. S. S. 

U L. Vortmanna, L.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.3 i O [Oct. 19, 

Le 16 des le Matin nous avons rencontre deux Portages, l'un d'environ 
50 toises et l'autre d'environ trois quart de lieue. Vers midy nous avona 
rencontre une rivierre qui se perd dans le lac S nt Jean. Arrive* dans 
cette riv. nous faisions au moins 3 lieues par heure. Nous avons navigue 
ainsi environ dix lieues et nous avons campe sur le bord du Lac. En ar- 
rivant par l'Embouch. de cette riv., Ton apercoit des Collines de Sable ou 
il ne croit que q.q. Artemisia crithmoides,* Arundo arenariaf . . . 
Ce Lac ressemble a une Mer par son etendue. 

Le 17 le vent contraire nous empecba d'entrer dans le Lac des le matin, 
mais l'apres midy, nous avons rame pend 1 quatre beures etants touj. a la 
distance d'un quart de lieue environ de la terre et souvent les Canot/s 
touchoient a fond. 

Le 18, nous arrivames vers les 4 heures apres midy au Poste etabli par 
la Comp e po. la traite des fourrures av. les Sauvages des Lac des Cygnes 
et le Lac Mistassini. Ce Poste est occupe par deux Comis. Canadiens. 
. Panet freres. 

Lc 19 Dimanche une Brume 6paisse nous empecba de traverser le Lac 
po. entrer dans la riv. ditte Mistassin. Vers le midy il s'eleva un Vent 
considerable : herborise* anx environs du Lac ; Nymphea lutea, Calix 
3-phvllus, Petala 3, etam. numerosa. Nymphea lutea minor. Cal. 3-phyll. 
Petala 2, stam. numerosa &c. . . . Andromeda polifolia, And. caly- 
cul., Betula pumila, Arundo glumis 2-floris, Hippophae Canadens. Erio- 
caulon . . . 

Le 20 Tempete toute la journee. 

Le 21 parti du milieu du Lac S' Jean ou est etabli le Magasin des Mar- 
chandises po. la traite av. les Sauvages. C'est le dernier Poste dans ces 
lieux sauvages. II etoit neuf heures du Matin et nous entrames dans la 
Rivi.rre ditte Mistassin a 2 heures de l'apres midy. Nous avons voyage 
en Canots dans cette Riv. jusqu' a huit heures du Soir. L'embouchure 
dans le lac est tres peu profonde et pendant cinq ii six lieues en remont- 
ant, on voit des bancs de sable mouvans qui out plus d'une demie lieue de 
long. Let Thuya OMNBl M Lac, dit-on, et je n'en vis pas au long de 
cette riv. Je rcconnus Allies balsamea, Pinus abies, P. Larix, Populus 
balsaniifrra, Ledum palustre. 

Le 22 nous av«>us continue en remontant In rivierre pendant une heure, 
et ensuitc nous avons rencontre un I'ortage. Les Portages sont toujours 
cause- p:ir iles Unpiiles ou Caseades §& inivers des Roches plus ou moins 

escarpeet. A I'eodcoHdfl 061 prtmien mpides. la rivierre diminae tottl a 

coup, ayant eu jusipi' ici :t a } Miles de largeUT, Nous avons re neon In'' 

neuf Rupidcs et oonaequemmeiil nous avons en seal PortagM I feanchir 

aaoi quitter i in.- ri\ i«rre < I i 1 1 *• Mistassin (pioiiiu'elle ne M>rte pas drs Lacs 
MlltaaHillH. D«pal| lc depart du Potti sur lc |.a<- S 1 Jean Jojqa' aux 
LargCM It'ipide on tiou • h vers les 7 heures du soir, la distance 

eat eTaluee 18 lieuci. Qoolqoe Ton ooi element letRapidea 

■mtiMta OinaiUntU, Mlchx.-C. S. & 
t CatamagrvdU.~C. 8. 8. 



1883.] * * TMichaux. 

ou Cascades perpendiculaires comme des Effets de la nature dignes de 
curiosite, Ton auroit de la peine a se former une idee de la Majestueuse 
perspective de celled. Elle est naturellement comme un Amphitheatre 
dans l'enfoncement duquel on ne voit que les Arbres aussi bien que sur 
les cotes et elle s'elargit a sa base d'environ 250 toi3es sur une profondeur 
d'environ 250. L'on apercoit des Rochers sans nombre au milieu des 
eaux brisees et reduites en brouillards comme des fumees epaisses. Le 
Lit de la rivierre au bas de ces Cascades forme une piece d'eau ti es eteudue 
a la surface de laquelle on n'apercoit pas de roches, mais qui est ties agitee 
et produit en tout temps de grosses vagues a cause des roches sous l'eau 
et de la surface unie du sol resserre par les collines qui environnent cetle 
base. 

Les Eaux ayant heurtis sur les fiancs de ces Collines de roches, elles 
reviennent de nouveau se m§ler et se perdre a la base des rapides et 
y forment des bandes ou intervalles unies et tranquilles entre des eaux 
agitees par les diverses branches de la cascade generale. C'est alors que 
Ton est surpris de l'habilete des sauvages qui savent si bien prendre les 
alternatives, soit po. ramer a force de bras, soit po. s'arreter tout a coup. 
Quelque fois nous nous trouves sur une bande ou intervalle tranquille 
tandis que les deux cotes sont agites de maniere a envoyer des floccons 
d'ecume dans le Canot. II fallut aborder entre l'un des bras de la Cascade 
pour faire faire le Portage et poser le Bagage et les Provisions sur les 
Roches qui etoient au dessus de la surface des eaux. Le Danger est que 
les Roches sous l'eau sont couvertes ordinairement d'une espece de Byssus 
ou Mousse aquatique visqueuse qu' empeche de poser le pied ferme. Mon 
guide ayant voulu sauter d'une Roche sur une autre qui n'etoit qu' a un 
pouce sous l'eau, tomba avec sa charge qui etoit un paquet de 50 liv. de 
farine et le Sac qui contenoit ses hardes. Nous avons campe pres des 
Larges Rapides.* 

Le 22 Aoust sur la Riv. Mistassin, Alnus glauca, Myrica gale, Qentiana 
pneumonanthe, Potentillanivea, Linnea borealis, Epiga?a rep., Gaullheria, 
Ledum palustre, Kalmia glauca, Kalmia angustifol. Vaccinium corym- 
bosum minus, V. atoca, V. fructu albo, Trillium capsula violacea angulata, 
Trill, capsula rubra ovata, Narthecium . . . , Cerasus racemosa 
petiol. glandulosis, Ceras. corymbos. petiol. glandulosis, Cerasus fructu 
nigro petiol. eglandul. ditte Cerise de Sable, Cornus Canadensis, Corn, 
stolonib. rubris (Osier rouge); Cornus ramis punctatis, Convallaria? 
baccis azureis, Conv. 3-folia, Conv. 2-folia, Conv. alt. sp., Lonicera camae- 
cerasus fol. tomentos., Lon. diervilla, Lycopod. fructification is paniculatis, 
And. calyculata, Pinus Larix, P. balsamea, P. abies alba, P. abies nigra, 
P. Strobus, P. fol. geminis fructu ovato loevi ; P. fol. geminis breviorib., 
Salix sericea, Salix stipulis foliaceis, Arundo glumis unifloris, Arundo 

. . . , Poa glumis 4-floris, Ribes cynosbat., l'raxinus foliolis tomen- 

* Attached to the record of the 23d inst. is the following memorandum in Journal.— 
C. S. S. 



Michaux.] *" [Oct. 19, 

tos. serratis, Betula alba seu papyrifera, Ulmus . . . Orme blanc, 
Rubus arcticus, R. occidentalis, Vib. Opulus petiol. gland., Vib. nud., 
Taxus, Spiraea salicifolia, Pteris, Oenothera. Thalictrum dioicum, Actaea 
spicata alba, Epilobium staminib. declinatis, Epil. petalis 2-fidis, Aster. 



Le 23 nous avons eu de la plttye qui avoit commence des 2 beures 
du Matin et qui a continue jusqu' apres midy, nous avons reste campe toute 
la journee. 

Le 24 nous avons rencontre deux Rapides ou Cascades et nous avons eu 
consequemment deux Portages; notre journee peut etre evaluee a 8 lieues; 
Remarque des Melezes d'une belle grandeur quoique tous les aut. sortcs 
d'arbres diminuent de grandeur dans ces parages. 

Le 25 nous avons 6 e oblige d'aller avec des Perches po. litter contre les 
Courans de la Rivierre. Cela 6toit d'autant plus penible que le Vent du 
Nord souffloit tres fort et nous avons fait environ 7 a 8 lieues. 

Le Dinianche 26 le vent fut moins violent, nous avons ete oblige 
de faire aller les Canots avec les perches settlement, depttis 7 hettres du 
Matin jusque vers onze heures. Nous avons rencontre une Cabane de 
ages et nous y avons dine" avec de la Viande de Castor bouillie, des 
Bluets. (Vaccinium corymbosum) bouillies en consistence de Confitures 
et de ces memcs Bluets frais. Les Montagnes qui ont 6te bruises en pla« 
sieurs endroits au nord de Quebec, BODt couvcrtes de cet arbuste et Ton 
peut s'y rassasier au moins d'une heure et mSine d'un quart d'heure. Co 
fruit ('ruble et la grande quantity n'incommode jamais. Notre 

Marche fut d'environ six a 7 lieues. 

Le 27 nous avons trouv6 la Rivierre extrcmement diminuee de largeur, 
mais les courants tres rapides etant resserr6s par des Montagues de Hoc hers 
tres escarped ; rctrouve" le Vaccin. foliis apice glandulosis c. a. d. Yitis 
libra. Notre course pent el re evalin'v a 8 lieues. 

La 28 les Sauvages ont continue de piquer avec les Perches, po. forcer 

les courans In et vers deux b. apics Mid}' nous arrivaines au 

1'ortage Monte a peine. Nous avons 6 6 depuis <\ Inures jusqu' a 7 b. du 

Miir pour grimper cette Montague et pour arriver dans une autre petite 

Kivi. :iutre cot.', .revalue a 960 OO 800 toises pcrpenuicu- 

• environ la bnuteiir de cette montagnr et la Kiv. situee de l'autre 

plus l.:is cpie le So linnet de CCtte ]\Iont;; 

■ a peine. Les Sauvages me dirent que cette Kiv. n'n pas de noin. 

I'lantcH remarqiii'es principaleiuent sur les Marais du baut de Monle 

Ledum palust. Kalmia angustil'olia. Yaeeiniuin corynilios. 

W, Vaccln. niveiini, * Kalmia glauca, Kelula \nd. caly- 

ita, 

L«- \*6 des le matin sur les bordsilc la Petite Kiv me : Lycopo- 

tofftnt* httpidula, Torr 4 Orsjr.-C. 8. 8. 



1888.] * J [Michaux. 

dium inundatum, Lj-cop. . , Lycop Andromeda 

rosmarinifolia,* And. calycul. Kalmia glauca, Ledum palustre. 

Nous avons eu quatrc portages a passer dans l'intervalle desquels nous 
avons voyage sur deux Rivierres qui n'avoient pas plus de 18 pieds de 
large. La profondeur 6toit suffisante pour les Canots, mais plusieurs fois 
il fallut alleger les Canots pour les soulever au dessus des Digues de Castor 
dont les Cabanes etoient sur la rive. Ces Cabanes sont toujouis situees sur 
le bord des petites rivierres ; elles sont baties de bois et de terre en forme 
d'un monticule de 3 a 4 pi. de baut sur une base de six pi. de large. 11 y 
a une entree sur terre et une sortie sous l'eau po. aller pendant les gelees 
des byvers manger les ecorces des bois qu'ils amassent dans l'eau ; ils 
coupent des pieces de la grosseur de la cuisse. Les Digues sont pour 
nrreter et elever les eaux qui gelent d'autant nioins qu'elles sont plus pro- 
fondes. Toutefois les byvers sont si longs et si severes que Ton a vu des 
trous dans la glace de deux pieds de profondeur. L'on ne pent (pourroit) 
se persuader la force, l'industrie, l'adresse et la patience avec les quels ces 
animaux travaillent po. vivre et se preserver des rigueurs des bivers. 
Lorsqu'ils abattent un arbre, ils le font tomber a coup sur du cole qui leur 
convient po. e\\ecuter leur enterprise, et s'il y a des paresseux, ils les 
cbassent de la societe et ceux ci vivent miserables et solitaires. Nous 
arrivames au Lac des Cygnes vers trois beures apres midy. II est tres 
large, environ ne de terres basses, couvertes d'arbres tres petits, rabougris. 
Cette contiee porte l'aspeet le plus affreux de la sterilitc du sol jointe a la 
rigueur et a la longueur des froids. Les arbres sont des bouleaux. Pinus 
fol. geminis, P. abies nigra, Ledum palustre, Kalmia glauca, Kalm. 
angustif. Andr. calyculata et Andr. rosmarinifolia. En entrant, dans le 
lac des Cygnes j'aperc, us un nouv. Vaccinium.t a tiges droites d'un pied 
et demi de baut, assez bien garni de brandies, fruits solitaires, d'un gout 
plus acide que ceux que j'aye goule en Ameriq. jusqu' a present, mais cet 
acide est tres agreable, outre le port naturel a tool les Vaeein. je puis la 
considerer po. etre de ce genre de ceux a 8 etamines par les divisions du 
cal. superieur au fruit. La forme est celle d'une pomette plutot longue 
que ronde, mais de la grosseur seulement d'un pois. Ce fruit est bleuatre 
et les f. sont glauques. Vaccinium uliginoso affine. 

Le Lac des Cygnes est inti'ressant par l'aspect dc see alentours, dont les 
terres quoique generalem* basses sont asses bien entrecoupees de Collines 
de differentes formes. La multitude d'angles saillans et des angles 
rentrants, tantot rapprocbent les deux rives opposees et tantot les eloignent 
de plus de deux lieues de l'une a l'autre quelquefois tres profo. q.q. fois il 
n'y a pas d'eau po. la Canot. Enfin je reconnus la Potentilla fruticosa sur 
plusieurs endroits du rivage et presque submerge en plusi. endroits ainsi 
que les And. rosmarinifol. et les Andr. calyculata. Le Sauvage qui con- 
duboit mon Canot, vit dans un endroit peu profond une lete de Castor 
ties bien decharnee et tous les os de la l§te et de la Macboire bien entiers. 

* A. polif..lia, L.— C. S. S. . 

f )'. uliyinusum, L.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.J "0 [Oct. 19, 

II m'en fit present raais elle fut perdue de nouveau dans l'accident qui 
nous arriva en sortant du Lac po. remonter un Rapide au travers des 
roches. L'on avoit resolu de ne decharger les Canots qu'en partie et en 
sortant le Sauvage glissa sur une roche couverte de lichen gluant. Comnie 
il avoit encore une jambe dans le Canot, il le fit pencher et dans l'instant, 
il se trouva a moitie plein d'eau. Tous nies Papiers, Plantes et autres 
parties de mon Bagage furent mouilles et toute la nuit fut employee a 
secber et a reparer en partie cet accident. Le 30 continue des le matin a 
secher mes herbiers, mes Collections de graines &c. Mes berbiers, enve- 
loppSs dans des Sacs de Peaux de Loups marins avoient peu soufferts en 
apparence et l'eau n'avoit penetre dans plusi. parties qu' a uu pouce 
avant. 

Le 30, nousavons navigue dans trois Lacs environnes de Montagnes peu 
clevees et qui se communiquent par des issues entre ces Collines. Le Sol 
dans toute cette Contree est entrecoupc de Montagnes et de Collines dont 
les bas fonds ou valines sont remplis d'eaux et forment ces Multitudes de 
Lacs dont la plupart n'ont pas de noms meme par les Sauvages qui chas- 
sent frequemment dans cette Contree. Des Intervalles considerables 
sont de Sphagnum palustre. L'on y enfonce jusqu' aux genoux et 
meme par les plus beaux temps de secheresse, l'on y est toujours imbibe 
d'eau jusqu' aux genoux. Nous avons fait trois portages et nous avons 
fait env. 3 a 4 lieues a cause de la difflculte a traverser ces desagreables 
marecages. 

Ces marecages ici abondent en Kalmia glauca et Andromeda rosmarini- 
folia, Sarraceula purpurea et Vaccin. Atoca. Dans les parties moius 
humides sont les Andr. calyculata, Ledum palustre, Kalmia augustifolia, 
Epigea repens, Pinus.abies rubra, Pin. fol. geminis breviorib. Le Pinus 
balsamifera cessa au Lac des Cygnes, je n'en vis aujourd'hui que trois en 
forme de buisson et toute la Vegetation porte ici l'empreinte de Piginees 
decn'pits, ii cause de la sterilite du sol et de la rigueur du froid. Je vis 
aussi un nouveau Vaccinium* a fruits solitaires dans l'aisselle des feuill. 
fruit bleuatre, cal a 5 divisions, peu ligneux au lieu que celui du jo. pre- 
cedent forme parfaitement l'arbriss ligneux bien forme. Avena panicu- 
lata calycib. unifloris est le seul gramen que j 'ay vu aujourd'hui. 

I ■ Bl Ao ogt, nous a\ ons na\ igue piuulant une heure et nous avons ren- 
contre un Portage. Le froid Moll : II tempi OOUVert depuis $ jo. 

: oobum da b ndgt fondue. A.rret4 pour dejeuner, le froid 

nous otoit I'appetit at les Sauvages trembloient de froid, etant tous tra- 
verses d'eau taut de la pluye, que des Arbriss. mouilles au travels des 
• piels on avoit passe et que des marecages de Sphagnum que l'on est 
oblige dc traverser on l'on SttfottM jMQtt 1 aux genoux en plusi. endroits. 
mieux convert d ' habillcinens, j'avois aussi lant de peine a 

M, que je li> hiiie du leu el vers dix heures 1IOUS HOU8 

WMDllini* de nouveau en mute, {foil a\ons pMtfl* trois Lacs et une 
Ubly ItU V, cm*pito»um -C. S. 8. 



1S88.] 81 [Michaux. 

riv. d'eau courante : Narthecium calyculatum,* Epilobium fol. linearib., 
Kalmia glauca, And. rosmarinifolia &c. &c. 

Le samedy l er Septcmbre, la pluye nous empecha de voyager et un des 
Sauvages fut malade. La cause me parut etre la transpiration arretee. 
II avoit ete mouille de la pluye le jour precedent et il avoit dormi dans sa 
Couverture qui etoit imbibds d'eau. L'apres midy le temps fut moins 
obscur et nous avons naviguo nonobstant la pluye. Toute la nuit, il y eut 
Pluye. Tonnere et Eclairs. Nous avons fait env. six lieues et nous avons 
eu un lac et des rivierres tres etroites ou il n'y avoit q. la largeur d'un Canot. 
Le Dimancbe 2 le temps fut tres obscur des le matin et il se resolut en 
Neige fondue. Le froid fut moins rude, mais nous avons eu un portage 
de trois quarts d'une lieue au travers d'une Savanne de Spbaguum ou 
Ton enfoncoit jusqu' a la moitie des jambes et malgre les ondees de grele 
qui continuerent toute la journee nous continuames a voyager, car les 
Sauvages aussi bien que moi desirotent arriver le plustot possible a Mistas- 
sin de peur que les Nciges et les froids ne devinsent plus consider- 
ables. Nous avons eu trois Lacs a traverser et nous avons fait environ dlx 
lieues. 

Le 3 la gelee fut a glace d'environ une ligne d'epaisseur. Des Minuit 
je vis la gelee blancbe sur les arbrisseaux et les berbes qui environnent le 
foyer ou nous etions camped. Le [temps] parut bien dispose au moins po. 
la journee, mais vers 7 heures l'air devint nuageux et nous avons eu de la 
Pluye et alternativement de la Grele et de la Neige et des Intervalles d'un 
beau soleil. Nous avons vu un Caribo (Renne) dans une Prairie, mais les 
Sauvages ayant la vent sur . . . f ne pouvoient le joindre. A onze 
heures nous eutrames dans une grande rivierre qui coule vers le Nord. 
Ayant les courants favorables, no. avons fait 16-18 lieues. Le sol me 
parut meilleur. 

Le 4 Septemb. nous avons fait trois fois Portage a cause des courants 
tres rapides dans les rocbers. A 10 u 1-4 entre dans le Lac Mistassin. Aux 
environs du Lac, Bartsia pallida, Gentiana?, Narthecium ossifragum 
calyculatum,. Lycopod. ? &c. &c. Navigue dans le Lac environ 10-12 
lieues, campe sur la rive gauche N. Ouest a 6 lieues de distance du Lac. 

Le 5 fait environ 8 a 10 lieues et dine sur la rive des Goelands a 10 
lieues de distance du Lac. Tue une Oie a collier. Nous avons pris 5 
poissons qui avoient un pied 1-2 a 2 pi. de long. Le soir campe. 

Abies nigra, Larix, Betula pumila, alba ; Sorbus aucuparia ; My- 
rica gale, Cornus Canad. (Cornus Osier rouge) Ribes ; Ribes ; Ribes ; 
Pinguicula alpina? Vaccini. niveum 8 etam : V. atoca : Vaccin. uligi- 
nosum? Epigea ; Avena nuda ; Arundo glumis 2-floris ; Andromeda 
rosmarinifol ; Kalmia augustifolia ; K. glauca ; Sarracenia purpurea ; 
Vaccinium Vitis idaea ; Pteris aquilina ; Osmunda regalis ; Hieraclum 
paludosum?; Linniua borealis ; Vaccin. corymbosum minus. 22 lieues 

* ToUeldia glutinosa, Willd.— C. S. S. 
t Illegible.— C. a S. 

PKOC. AMKR. PniLOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. K. PRINTED MARCH 13, 1889. 



Michatrx.] 82 [Oct. 19, 

en totality. Campe pres la rivierre Atchouke. (Riv. des Loup- 
marins).* 

Le 6 revenu a Mistassin 261ieues. Collines des environs du Lac Mis- 
tassin : sol est un sable pur a la surface et pi. bas sable argilleux. Les 
Pierres et les Roches sont de Quartz impur, mele d'argille q.q. fois de 
terre vegetale. Les Pierres du rivage us6es par l'agitation des flots present- 
ent des formes extraordinaires parceq. les couches d'argille ou d'autres sub- 
stances moins dures sont plus usees. II y a aussi des Pierres de Quartz mi- 
caces et de Schorl, tres peu de Quartz pur. Je n'ay point vu de Pierres 
calcaires. Nulle apparence de Pierres volcanisees. Le Sol est peu eleve 
aux alentours. Les Collines sont de grandes distances. La Decharge des 
Eaux de ce Lac est vers le Nord et le Nord Ouest par differentes Riv. qui 
vont a la Baye d'Hudson. L'on peut y aller en 4 jours, niais il faudroit 
10 jo. po. revenir. Notre Course fut de 28 lieues tant les Sauvages avoi- 
ent envie de revenir. Les Arbres du Bas Canada ne se trouvent point 
aux parties elev6s du Canada, quoique ces arbres et Plantes soient dans la 
plus grande vigueur aux parties basses du Canada. 

Le 7 nous sommes partis de Mistassin et nous avons courru environ dix 
sept a dix huit lieues a cause des courans des Rivierres tres rapides. 

Le chif des Sauvages qui mc conduisoient tua un Loutre qui traversoit 
a la nage une rivierre et de temps en temps sortoit la t§te hors de l'eau. 
Nona avons 6te en route depuis 6 heures du matin j usque env. 6 h. du soir, 
malgru le brouillard et le froid. 

Le 8 Gelc a glace dans un Vase de fer blanc. Beau temps toute la 
journ. A 24 lieues environ de Mistassin aupres d'une Savanne, recueilli 
des echantill. d'un Juniperus communis, mais quoiqu' il y eut plus de 40 
Plants dans ce lieu, je n'eus pas la satisfaction de le voir en fructifica- 
tion. Hon Sauvage tua un Rat musque (Castor Zibaticus Linn.) Le 
soir il le mangea roti avec ses Camarades, mais il ne voulut pas manger du 
I.MUtrc 411'il avoit tin' le jour precedent. Nous avons fait environ 20 lieues 
au travel* de plusieurs rapides avec le courant, au lieu qu'en montaut 
nous avons M oblige' de fa ire I'ortage. 

Le Dimanche 9 Septeinbre, nous avons passe la Lac des Cygnes, nous 
aes venu coucher sur la Montague Monte t peine. Notre course fut 
i 20 lieues. Les Andromeda calyculata, Kalinia angustifolia, 
Ledon ptlottra, oo n rre n l lararfaoeda sol sur les Collines et les Mon- 
tague- dOOl 1<'S arbres out ete brulfo. Em parties qui n'ont ete brulees 

• TliU Camp u | N'urtli.ni DOtDl reuel;. (02 No reiison for hla 

. ii in tin- .liiiirimi. The explanation, however, is bund in the 

paaaage In r> tilohaus : 

"Ml qui oondulaott an lao Xiataaain ; 11 

exceeatf ; 11 tombolt de la i adant 11 oonUnna aa route e( 

nrriv* le 4 Septeinbre dani le lae aprw en aToii redonsa let bordi, U de 

qui communique Ala beted' Hudson ; ii la talvit pendant dens Jour*) 

i ua ics MWTagea, oroyani dan 
Mtaux <l<' « iiviinfvr pluaeu nord dana oette atlaon, rouluronl abeolumenl revenir; in 
i lea neiguM oontlnuoient, i>- retoui devlandroU unpoaalble. "—Anaalti 

,tu Mu*um, 111. 212. -C. & 8. 



1888. | *jd [Michaux 

que depuis deux ans au plus sont couvcrtcs de Vaccin. corymbos. minus. 
Les Pinus abies nigra, P. Larix et Pinus fol. geminis breviorib. formant 
la Masse principale des bois. II y a des Intervalles considerables de Mare- 
cages couverts de Sphagnum dans les quelles on enfonce jusqu'a la moitie 
des jambes. II n'y croit que des Andr. rosmarinifolia, Kalmia glauca 
et Betula pumila, Vaccinium atoca, Sarracenia purpurea, Ces marecages 
ne sont jamais a sec et les plus aquatiq. ne produisent que des Andr. ros- 
marinifolia et des Kalmia glauca. Notre course fut d'environ 30 lieues. 

Le — Septembre j'ay fait recueillir de la mousse pour emballer des Plantes 
recueillies autour du Lac. Des le Matin je fus herboriser et en revenant, 
je vis quatre gros Poissons pris dans les filets que les Sauvages avoient 
tendu la veille. Apres dejeune, je continuai mes herborisations autour de 
la Presqu' Isle ou nous etions campe et je visitay plusieurs situations sqav. 
Ouest, Nord et Est, Est-Sud-Est, Ouest-Nord Ouest : je reconnus Pinus 
abies nigra, P. Larix, P. fol. geminis, Betula alba, B. pumila, Sorbus 
aucuparia americana, Mespilus Canadensis arborea, Rubus occidentalis ; 
Rub. arcticus ; Potentilla fruticosa ; Myrica gale.* 

Vu petit Pie ; dessus du corps noir mele de taches blanches et plus gris 
sur les cotes et les extremites des ailes, le ventre blanchatre, quelques 
plumes de la queue blanche a l'extremite : Deux oiseaux du genre de Pies 
sommet de la tete noir, vers le devant blanche, dessus du corps et des 
ailes brun-cendre. Poitrine et Gorge blanchatre ainsi que la partie dessous 
les yeux, yeux noirs, Oreilles larges &c &c . . , extremity de la queue 
borde de blanc . . . 

Le sol a Mistassin est un sable pur a la surface et plus bas sable argilleux. 
Les Pierres et les Roches sont de Quartz impur mele d'argille plus fre- 
quemment de terre vegetale. Les Pierres du rivage usees par l'agitation 
continuelle des eaux, presentent des formes extraordinaires parceque les 
couches d'argille ou d'autres substances moins dures sont plus usees de 
sorte qu'il y a des intervalles plus usees et d'autres qui le sont moins, au 
nombre de G 8-10 dans une longeur de deux pieds. II y a aussi des Pierres 
de Quartz micaeees et de Schorl, ties peu de Quartz pur. Je n'ay point vu 
de Pierres calcaires, ni aucune apparence de Pieires volcanoes. Le sol 
est peu eleve aux alentours. II n'y a que des collines a de grandes dis- 
tances. La decharge des Eaux de ce Lac est vers le Nord et le Nord-Ouest 
par diflerentes riv. qui vont a la Baye d' Hudson. Les Sauvages disent 
que Ton y peut aller en quatre jours, mais il faut dix jours po. revennir a 
cause des courants trop rapides. 

Le f nous avons pris cinq Poissons qui avoient depuis un pied et demi a 
deux pi. de long. Les Quadrupedes que j'ay eu occasisn de voir depuis le 
lac S' Jean jusqu'au Lac Mistassin sont ; Renne dit Caribou par les 
Canadiens, Attakko par les Sauvages ; Castor Amish-Ko par les Sauvages ; 
Loutre Netchako ; Martes, Marmottes par les Canadiens Siffleux ; II ya 
des Linx, Renards, Ours &c. et un animal tres ruse que les Canadiens 

* (Cy-dessus il y a erreur de date.) 
t This date is blotted out.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] o4 [Oct. 19, 

nomment Carcajou et les sauv. KouiKouatchou qui ne court pas vite, 
mais sc,ait prevoir le passage du Renne, grimpe sur un arbre et se jette 
dessus. Les Sauvages me dirent que plus souvent il marche asses douce- 
ruent po. surprendre le Renne et lorsqu'il se jette dessus, il n'y a aucun 
moyen po. lui de s'en debarrasser, a moins que le Renne ne trouve une 
Rivierre, alors le Carcajou lacbe sa proie. 

Je me propose de reprendre ici les Arbres et les Plantes que je remarquay 
depuis cette Contree la plus septentrionale ou j'ay penetre en Amerique et 
j'auray soin de reinarquer les Parages ou chaq. espece differente com- 
mence a exister. Collines qui environnent le lac Mistassin ; 

Pinus abies nigra, P. Larix, P. balsamifera, P. foliis germinis ; Betula 
pumila, B. alba ; Sorbus aucuparia americana ; Cerasus corymbosus ; 
Juniperus Sabina?; Myrica gale ; Cornus Canad., Cornus (Osier rouge des 
Canadiens) . . . ; Rubus occidentalis, Rub. arcticus, Ribes . . . , 
Ribes . . . , Ribes . . . ; Potentilla fruticosa ; Vaccinium co- 
rymbosum 10 et. ; V. (pumila) 10 etam., Vaccin. riparium 8 etam. Vaccin. 
Atoca 8 et. Vaccin. niveum 8 etam., Andromeda calyculata, And. ros- 
marinifolia ; Ealmia angustifolia, Kalm. glauca; Linnea borealis ; Sarra 
cenia purpurea ; Bartsia pallida ; Euphrasia odontites ; Rhinantbus crista- 
galli ; Pinguicula . . . Cacalia hastata, Cacalia incana ; Vaccin. 
vitis idaea 8 etam.: Hieracium paludosutn; Pteris aquilina ; Osmunda 
regalis, Osmunda flliculifolia. 

Les Pinus Strobus ; Thuya occidentalis ; Populus balsamifera ; Betula 
nigra; Gaultheria procumbens ; Rubus odoratus ; Adiantum pedatum ne 
se trouvent point aux parties elevees du Canada quoique. 



Le 10 nous avons eu sur le sommet de la Montagne une Gelue blanche 
tres forte ei dans les ruisseaux, les branches des arbrisseaux sur lesquels 
l'eau passoit etoient charges de glaqons. En arriv* dc l'autre cote sur la 
partie meridionale, la gch'e avoit fait son eflet, mais les Convallaria et 
autres plantes tendres etoient pea endoniinag^es. Le Lonicera Diorvilla 
commence i( i it m oontin. eo abondaace jnaqtie vers Albany. Achillea 
millefolium oommence id et *e troure en Canada et n:C'me sur le Lac 

( 'liamplain. Lee sauvages et moi nous avons tin' neuf Ponies de hois 

nommeei Perdrli (Tetrao lagopoe) per lee Canadiene. Cee oiecatix sent 

en compagnie et rolenl I pen de distance sur les arbres ou ils se laissent 
tuer jusc|u' an dernier. Leur nourrituie est des graines de Yarrin.. de 

la bonrgeoai de Melesei oomme Je I'ey veiiiie. Nous avons 

•lit r>' -deux fainille- de Sauxages, Tune DM tit present d'une gateau de 

• - (Veodslna oorjxnb.) cnlten reeln6eteeche > eneuhe. Jeluldonnay 

I hange de !• taiine et du PofO sale de mes l'i<>\ isions et il me donna 
I gateau. I u\iron '„'^ lieues avant eu un Vent 

• i' fort qui empecholt de tenlr le pleia courent dee rh lerree. Le 

in ile-- Su irneontn'-, apporta un Ours qu'il 

il | un de M Je lui lis donncr a snuper dans 

1 | pi runic d'uvoir de la viande fraiclie de sa Chassc. 



1888.] "** |Michaux. 

Le onze des le point du jour je vis la femme du Chasseur qui se mit a 
depouiller l'Ours et je fis mettre la Cbaudiere au feu que nous avions par- 
ticulierement a peu de distance. En effet il m'apporta la Tete et un tres 
gros morceau de filet. II y avoit bien 8 a 9 liv. de viande, c. a. d. environ 
G livres sans les os. Je lui fis donner deux Boiss. de farine et un morceau 
de Pore sale. Nous dejeunames de bon appetit et il ne resta que les os« 
L'Interprete q. j'avois, mangeoit a peu pres autant qu'un Sauvage. Moi 
m§me je mangeois trois fois plus dupuisque j'etoisau Canade q. je nepou- 
vois faire pendant que je residois en Caroline. Malgre les fatigues de ce 
voyage et les souffrances occasionn6es paries Maringoins (cousins) par les 
mousketiques (tres petites abeill. dont l'air est rempli) et par les Brulots 
aut. petite mouche qu'on ne peut distinguer qu'un Microscope, ma sante 
s'etoit retablie entierement. Vers neuf beures nous nous sommes embar- 
ques ; nous avons descendu plusi. rapides sans faire Portage et apri-s avoir 
fait environ 15 li. nous sommes arrives aux Grands Rapides. Ici com- 
mence la Potentilla tridentata. Trois lieues an dessous des Larges Rap- 
ides, Ton voit des Frenes et des Ormes. II est a remarquer que Ton n'en 
voit aucuns depuis les Larges Rapides jusqu' a Mistassin. Quatre lieues 
au dessous des Grands Rapides je vis le l er Pinus Strobus ; car je n'avois 
pas rencontre un seul depuis cet endroit jusqu' a Mistassin tant en mon- 
tant qu'en descendant. Le Pays est montagneux depuis le Lac des Cygnes 
jusqu' aux Larges Rapides. Et ensuite jusqu' au Lac S' Jean les terres 
sont basses et Ton n'apercoit point de Montagnes. 

II est tres evident q. le le Pays situe entre le Lac des Cygnes et le Lac 
Mistassin est le plus eleve, car le Lac Mistassin se d^charge dans la Baye 
d' Hudson par la riv. des Nids de Goelands qui coule au N. Ouest et le 
Lac des Cygnes se decbarge dans le Fleuve S nt Laurent par la riv. Mistas- 
sin, par le Lac S nt Jean, par la riv. Cbicoutounie et enfin par la riv. Sega- 
nay jusqu' au Tadoussack ou elle rencontre le fl. S' Laurent. C'est avec 
difflculte que je nomme Rivierre Mistassin la riv. que coule depuis le Lac 
des Cygnes jusqu' au Lac S l Jean. J'ay fait cette observation aux Cana- 
diens qui vont traiter dans ce Pays avec Sauvages. lis m'ont dit que Ton 
croyoit autrefois que Ton pouvoit remonter cette rivierre jusqu' au lac 
Mistassin et que c'est pour cette raison qu'elle a ete ainsi nomme par les 
Missionnaires Jesuites. 

Nous avons fait environ 14 lieues et nous avons campe* aupres des pre- 
miers Pins de Weimouth (Pinus Strobus) qui se recontrent en descendant 
de Mistassin. 

Le 12 Septembre Grand vent et Pluye froide. J'ay remarque en de- 
scendant que le Pays bas est uni ; Ton ne voit point de Montagnes a 
droite et a gauche de la rivierre qui a entre une lieu en demie et2 lieues 
de large, environ 15 li. avant son embouchure dans le Lac entrecoupee de 
larges bancs de sable et est peu profonde. Nous sommes arrive vers 7 
beures du soir au Poste du lac S' Jean et nous avons fait environ 15 
lieues. 

Le 13 j'ay herborise aux environs du Lac. J'ay fait recueillir diverses 



Michaux.] ol) [ 0ct 19| 

especes de graines. J'ay depouille plusi. especes d'oiseaux et des Quadru- 
pedes et je me suis prepare" a continuer mon voyage. Circea Canadensis, 
Mitella apbylla. Vu le gros Corbeau (Corvus corax) 

Le 14 Grand vent du Sud Ouest ; il fut impossible d'aller au large avec 
les Canots et toute la journee j'ay employe les Sauvages a recueillir des 
Graines. 

Le Poste etabli sur le lac S' Jean po. la traite av. les Sauvages est situe 
au N. Ouest du Lac. Le sol y est generalement sablonneux, m;iis il y a 
des Vendues considerables de bancs de Pierre calcaire. Les Pierres cal- 
caires sont disposers par coucbes applaties et sont qq. fois de Scbitz. On 
y voit des Petrifications de Coquillages marins et de Comes d' Amnion qui 
ne sont que tres peu en forme de comes, mais presqu' egales d l'extremite 
a la base et de la gross, d'un doigt. II y a aussi vers le Nord des Rocbes 
de Quartz. (Memento : 

J'ay oublie de noter que depuis Monte a peine, les Montagnes sont 
generalement de Rocbes calcaires, mais il y a aussi des etendues con- 
siderables ou les Collines sont de pur sable et d'autres melees de sable et 
de Cailoux ou Pierres roulees, nommes par les Canadiens Pays d'eboule- 
ment. 

Le 15 Septembre parti du Poste sur le lac S' Jean. A la distance d'une 
lieue et $ il y a une petite Riv. qui tombe dans le Lac. (La riv. Chouamou- 
cbouan tombe dans la lac exactement a l'Ouest en coucbant de Septenlr. 
La riv. Mistassin tombe dans le lac a l'O-S Ouest. Vu deux aut. riv. qui 
tombent dans le lac. Enfin nous arrivames le soir a la riv. . . . , qui 
devoit nous conduire a Cbicoutoume et nous avons campe aupies. Enfin 
*en cotoyant le Lac depuis l'Est par le Sud jusqu' a l'Ouest, il y a cinq 
grandes rivi. qui se reudent au Lac. La grand* dccharge se fait par la 
riv. Sagney au N. Est. Je ne sc lis paa s'il y en a d'autres. 

Le Dimancbe 16 quitte entierement le Lac et nous sommes venus cam- 
per a l'oxtremit(': mcridionale du Lac Sinogomie. Ce Lac n'a pas plus 
d'une demie lieue clans sa plus gr. largeur. Sa longeur est de 7 lieues. A 
l'entree de ce Lac par le Nord j'ay remanpie, Acer rubntin, Mcdeola 
Virginica, Cypripedium calceolaria flora rubra, mais cette dernicre plaate 
existe aussi sur les Collines qui avoisinent le Lac des Cygnes, ainsi elle ne 
dolt pas etn coiisiilcrt'c ctmunr conunenc, in t cm ce lieu. Les Montag. de 
roclies (jui cMtDiirrciit le Lac Sinogoiuie sunt ti Pic quoique d'une mediocre 
hauteur et les bois y soul forts et foumls de grands arbres cimime dans un 

Sol fertile. 

Le Luudy 17, tOQ irrivc a ('hiclioiitoiiiur j IMantes rcmanpices 

dl MMiiveiui, Polygonum avicularc, liydiopiper, Lainiiini . . . , Lappa 

La distance du i.ac S 1 Jean I 0hloouteam4 <st evalaee I to lieues. 

Lo 18 pani dr CliicniiloMiMe, le vent iMHH tut ia\ oialde et nous avions 

le reflux de la dm I notn ftTaatage. 

Le 19 nous Homines arii a Tadou6Back. 



1888.] 87 [Michaux. 

Le 20 j'ay fait recueillir du Tbe" de Labrador* et j'ay recueilli d'autres 
sortes de graines. 
Le21. . . . 



Le 27 Septembre parti de Tadoussack. 

Le 28 arrive a la Malbaye. 

Le 29 berborise et . . . 

Le Dimanche 30 reconnu Salicornia . . . Salsola. . . . Lappa 

. . . , Ranunculus . . . , Trifolium . . . , Litbospermuui 

Le l er Octobre parti sur uu bateau po. Quebec. 



Le Mercredy 17 parti de Quebec et coucbe a la Pointe aux Trembles. 

Le 18 Octobre passe la Pointe aux Trembles, la Rivierre Jacques Quarticr 
et coucbe a S tc Anne cbez M r . . . 

Le 19 Passe a Batiscan Trois Riv. et coucbe a Macbicba : Juglans 
biccory, Celastrus 6candens aux Tr. Rivierres, Populus (fastigiatus?). 
aussi aux Trois Riv. ainsi que Triosteum, Ulmus, Carpinue, Quercus alba, 
Pin us Canadensis. . . . Spinea tomentosa et Sp. opulifolia, Adiantum 
pedatum, Fagus sylvatica Americana aux Tr. Rivierres mais plus cerlaine- 
ment a Bertbier. Cepbalantbus occidentalis comm. a la riv. de l'Assomp- 
tion. Ledum palustre 6e termiue vers la Rivierre l'Assomption ainsi que 
la Kalmia glauca que j'ay vu a Batiscan. 

Le 20 coucbe" pres la Riv. l'Assomption. 

Le Dimancbe 21 arrive a Montreal. 

Le 22 Octobre aux environs de Montreal, Crataegus coccinea, Crataegus 
lutea.t Cepbalantbus occidentalis. Prinos verticillatus. 

Le 24 Dine cbez M. . . . Henry. 

Le 27 dine cbez M r Frobicber. 

Le 28 dine cbez M r Jobn Dease. 

Le 30 dine cbez M r Selby. 

Le 7 Novembre 1792 parti de Montreal et les brouillards furent si epais 
que les conducteurs perdirent le Cbemin. Le Bateau echoua sur des 
Rocbes ou nous avons passe" la nuit. Le Bateau fai3oit de l'eau. Mes 
Livres et une partie de mon Bagage furent mouilles. 

Le 8 passe a Longueil et arrive a la Prairie. 

Dejeune cbez M. La Croix Esq. le Lendemain. 

Le 9 paye 2 Piast. po. Transporter mon Bagage a S l Jean. L'on pave 
communement une Pi. £ po. avoir une Calecbe de S' Jean a la Prairie. 
La distance est 6 li. 

De 10 Visite le colonel Gordon et dine avec les Offlciers de la Garnison. 

* Ledum— C. 6. S. 

t Probably the yellow fruited variety of Crataegus punctata, Jacq.— C. S. S. 



Michanx.] &0 [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanebe 11 Dejeune chez le colonel Gordon. Toute la journ. oc- 
cupe a faire secher mes Livres et mes Effets. 
Le 12 Dine avec le colonel Gordon. 

Le 13 parti et couche* vis-a-vis de l'lsle aux Noix 15 Miles. 
Le 14 nous avons fait 10 Miles. 

Le 15 apres 5 Miles de chemin passe devant la Ligne qui perjure le 
Canada des Etats-Unis : Cette ligne est situee a 9 Miles au Sud l'lsle mix 
Noix. Passe ensuite devant la Pointe au Fer quoique sur le territoire des 
Etats-Unis et occupe par le 26* Regiment de Soldats Anglais dont est 
Commandant le Capt. Hope. 

La Pointe au Fer est a 15 M. de FIsle aux Noix et nous sommes venus 
coucher a Cumberland Head 26 Mill, de la Pointe au Fer. et 56 Miles de 
S* John. 
Le 16 Une Tempete accompagnee de neige nous obligea de sojourner. 
Le 17 Nous sommes partis de Cumberland Head et nous avons relaclie 
sur le territoire de FEtat de Vermont au lieu dit Shelburne : Platanus 
occid., Ceanothus Americanns. Enfin nous avons couche sur le terri- 
toire de Vermout vis-a-vis Split Roc : 39 Miles de Cumberland Head. 

Le Dimanche 18 Novembre. le Vent du Sud tros violent et contraire 
nous obligea de sojourner : Ceanothus Americ, Hippophae Canadensis, 
Acorus. 

Le 19 nous avons dejeune a Bason Harbour 6 Miles : Passe par Crown 
point 12 Miles et nous sommes venu coucher a Ticonderoga : seav. 3> 
Miles de Split Roc ou Rocher fendu : Pinus bifolia, Hippophae, Juniperus 
communis. 

Le 20 nous avons relache a deux endroits differens du territoire de Ver- 
mont et nous sommes venus coucher a Skenborough dit Whitehall. 

Le 21 et 22 s«'journe* a Skenborough po. secher mes Graines endom- 
mages dans le Boat sur le lac Champlain. 

Distance de Montreal u Skenborough extremite meridionale du lac 
Cham plain 

De Montreal I la Prairio I Mill. 

De la Prairie a S 1 Jean 18 

De S' Jean a l'lsle aux Xoix 15 

(De l'lsle aux Noix a la ligne de Demar- 
quation t-ntre let Ktats Fnis et It Canada 
la distance est de 9 mil' 
Del'I-lcatix Nnix a la I'ointf an Fer 15 

De la P, an Fer a < 'umlyrland 1 I*-:ul 8 I 

!>•• Ciiinberlaud Head aSplii Roc 89 

I>«- Split Roc a Hason Harlxnn •; 6 

De Bason Barboarg a Crown Point 18 

Decrown F'olnt uTIconderog* 15 
De Timndaroga a Bken bolO lgh maintrn- 

ant nomn»6 Whitehall N 

Total de Montreal a 8ken 1 ; 8 



1888.] °" [Michaux. 

Le 23 Novembre 1792 parti de Skenboroug (dit Whitehall) et venu de- 
jeuner au Fort Ann 12 Miles. Plantes remarquees : Pinus Strobus, 
Pin. canadensis, Acer sacharinum, Alnus glauca, Liquidambar pere- 
grin urn,* Acorus &c &c Venu coucher au Fort Edward 24 

miles de Skensborough. Entre Fort Ann et Fort Edward : Laurus Ben- 
join, Liquidambar peregrinum, Pinus foliis ternis, Pinus Strobus, Pinus 
canadensis, Andromeda racemosa, Hamamelis Virginiana. 

Le 25 Neige abondante, sejourne' au Fort Edward chez le Capt Baldwin. 

Le Dimanche 25 parti et couche" a Saratoga 20 Miles : Le Fagus Cas- 
tanea americana commence vers Saratoga. 

Le 26 continue la route sur la rive opposed de Saratoga. Dejeune 
a Eastou. Cornus florida, Laurus Sassafras, Liriodendron tulip, com- 
mencent aux environs d'Easton a 10 Miles de Saratoga : Couche 1 a Albany 
30 Miles de Saratoga. 

Total la distance de Skensborough a Albany est de 80 Miles. 

Le 27 embarque sur un Sloop au Port d' Albany sur la riv. d' Hudson po. 
New-York. 

Le 28 et 29 Vent contraire 

Le 30 Vent de N. Ouest, relache sur la rive de la Riv. Hudson opposee a 
Poughkeepsie, le vent ayant rompu la Voile. J'allay herboriser sur les 
collines et j'ay reconnu Azalea viscosa, Kalmia latifolia qui commence vers 
cet endroit, Liriodendron tulipifera ; Juniperus Virginiana commence ici 
et Juniperus communis se termine en ces parages ; Thuya occidentalis se 
termiue ici quant aux situations basses, mais sur lesmontagnes il continue 
en plusi. endroits du New Jersey. Nyssa aquatica ou plutot Nyssa mou- 
tana foliis petiolis villosis commence vers Albany. Quercus . . . 
Ch8ne chataignier commence vers Albany. 

Kemarque" aussi sur les rochers de la rive opposee a Poughkeepsie dix 
Miles au dessous : Arbutus (acadiensis ?) fol. integerrimis : Liquidambar 
styracifiua commence vers les hauteurs de Catskill. 

Le Samedy l er Decembre 1792 passe" devant Crown Point. f 

Tariton est une petite Village situe a 32 Miles de New -York. Montag. 
sur la rive opposed avec un Lac. 

Le Dimanche 2 arrive" a New-York. 

De Montreal a Skensborough 178 M. 

Dud Sk. a Albany 80 

D'Alb. a New-York . 164 

Total 422 

Le 6 parti de N. York. 
Le 8 arrive a Philad ie - 

Le 10 propose a plusieurs membres dela Society philosophique les avan- 
tages pour les Etats-Unis d'avoir des Informations Geographiques des 

* Comptonia aspleni folia, Ga?rt. — C. S. S. 
t No doubt a slip for West Point.— C. S. S. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. L. PRINTED MARCH 13, 1889. 



Michaux.] Jt) [Oct. 19, 

Pays de l'Ouest du Mississipi et demande qu'ils ayent a endosser mes 
trailes pour la somme de 3600 lb -, rnoyennant cette soinme je suis dispose a 
voyager aux Sources du Missouri et meme rechercker les rivierres qui 
coulent vers l'Ocean Pacifique. 

Ma proposition ayant etc acceptee, j'ay donne a M. Jefferson, secretaire 
d'Etat, les Conditions auxquuls je suis dispose a entreprendre ce voyage. Par 
ces Conditions, je n'entends pas accepter les Cinq Mille Piastres niontant 
de la Souscription formee par les Menibres de la Societe Philosophique 
mais seulem' une Avance de 3600 lb inentionee cy devant, dont le rern- 
boursenient sera fait sur les Appointeniens qui me sont dus. J'offre de 
de communiquer toutes les Connoissances et Informations Geographiques 
a la Socieie Philosopbiq. et je reserve a mon profit toutes les Conuaissances 
en Histoire Naturelle que j'acquereray dans de voyage. 



Le 20 Janvier 1793 j'ay communique a M r Jefferson les conditions sur 
lesquelles je suis dispose a entreprendre le voyage a l'Ouest du Mississipi. 

Le 29 Janvier j'ay fait un Envoy des Graines du Canada. Par le dit 
envoy dud. 29 Janvier j'ay adrtsse des Oiseaux, des Quadrupedes & l &° 
des Insectes et des Plantes. 

Le 10 Fev. Envoy par la Rocb des PI. fraicbes du Canada. 

Le 18 Fevrier anuonce la traite de 1200 lb - en 6crivant a mon fils par le 
Paquebot le Suffrein. 

Le 29 Fevrier ecrit au Dr. Afzelius par le Baron De Nolken a Lond. 

Le 2 Mars 6crit a mon fils. 

Le 1" Avril ecrit de New-Vork a Louis Bosc et a mon fils : Euvoye" 
Oiseaux, Ecurcuils, Insectes, Graines, Ecbantill. du Plaalee &C &c. 

Lc J4 Avril envoy 6 par le Hav. de Grace une Boite d'Insect. Ecbantill. 
da Panax &C 

Le :'»<) A\iil communique a la societe" Pbilosopbique les motifs sur les- 
quelsjr suis diapoec* a eattopxandse le Voyage a l'Ouest du Mississipi. 

(Le 10 -May Knvove ii Bosc desInsccteB mais l'Envoy nest parti que le 9 
JoJb suivant.) 

Le • i M De atat 

Le 9 Juin envo)6 des Insectes a Louis Bosc (ces deux envois ne font 
qu'un.) 

I .<• ... May arrive a Philadelphia, Le Citoyen Genet Minist. Plcni- 
potentain- de la RapabHqoe franca 

May communique an Citoyen Ganet on ne'n&olm d'Obaarvationa 
but Irs Colon;. I'Ameriq Scplen., sur la Louisiane, sur 

lee Illinois ct sur lo Canada. 

nil un Mciiioirc linage' de mes voyages dans l'Ameriq. 
Bcplcntrlonale. 

Lc Jala 1793 remii un lines touchaai etdi mes Do- 

peneet depuis mon depart do Franco pour l'Aincriq Saptantrionale. 



1883.] *^ [Michaux. 

Le . . . consulte et confeie" avec le Citoyen Genet sur ma mission au 
Kentuckey. 

Le 22. 23. 24. 25 et 26 Juin prepare au voyage du Kentuckey. 

Lettres de recommandation po. H. H. Brackenridge Esq. at Pittsburgh ; 
Po. Major Isaac Craig, du Major S n Stagg. Po. Captain John Pratt Com- 
manding of Troops on their march to the western Frontiers. Po. Brigad. 
Gen 1 Geo. Rogers Clark. Po. Isaac Shelby Esq. Governor of the State of 
Kentuckey, po. Alex r D. Orr Esq. near Limestone, Dr. Adam Rankin, 
Danville : James Brown Esq. Lexington. 

Le l er Juillet emballe mes effets. 

Lett, de recommandations Po. Thorn. B. Craighead Sprinhill. Po. James 
Brown, Lexington. Doct. Adam Rankin, Danville. Col"*-' 1 Alex. D. Orr, 
near Limestone. Maj. Gen. Benjamin Logan, Lincoln county. James Speed 
Jun r Danville. Gen. Clark. Louisville. Joseph Simpson Lexington. 
Gouver r Shelby Esq. Gov r & Brigad. Gen. James Wilkinson. 

M r Robert m'a recommande de voir M r Tardibeau a Kaskakia de sa 
part. 

Le 15 Juillet 1793 j'ai pris conge" du Citoyen Genet, Ministre de la Re- 
publique de France pres les Etats-Unis et je partis de Philadelphia le meme 
jour a dix heures du soir pour eviter les chaleurs trop considerables et 
voyager au clair de la Lune. 

Le 16 etant en compagnie de . . . humeau et de . . . Leblanc 
nous avons fait 40 miles. 

Le 17 passe par Lancaster et nous avons fait 35 Miles. 

Le 18 passe" par Carlisle, . . . M. et couche a Chipesbourg. 

Le 19 nous v in mes coucher a Strasbourg . . . Miles. 

Le Dimanche 20, parti de Strasbourg, petite ville situee au pied des 
Montagnes ; un de nos chevaux etant malade, nous avons seulement fait 
21 Miles : observe Magnolia acuminata, Azalea octandra, Kalmia latifolia, 
Fagus castanea, Fag. pumila, Pinus 2-folia, 3 folia, Strobus : Abies cana- 
densis ; Quercus castaneaefolio &c Juglans nigra. 

Le 21 Juillet parti de Wells tavern, passe la rivierre Juniata .... 
et observe Rhododendron maximum, Hydrangea frutescens, Trillium 
erectum ; couche a Bedford. 21 Miles. 

Le 22 parti de Bedford et dejeune a 4 miles de distance ou la Route de 
Pittsburg se divise en deux. Nous avons pris la route a main droite et la 
Pluye nous a oblige d'ariSter et de coucher a douze M. seulem" de Bed- 
ford. 

Le 23 nous avons fait 24 M. et passe au sommet des Allegany. 

Le 24 nous avons fait 25 M. 

Le 25 nous avons passe par Green'sburgh et nous avons fait 31 M. 

Le 26 Pluye, nous n'ayons fait que . . . M. 

Le 27 nous avons fait 19 Milles et nous arrivames a Pittsburgh. 

Total 32* Miles de Philadelphie. 

Le 28 visite M. H. Brackenridge Esq. 

• Evident error ; perhaps 320 was intended.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] "^ [Oct. 19, 

Le 29 herborise ; reconnu sur les rives du Mononga . . . , Draco- 
cephalum Virginiauuni,* Bignonia radieans, Crotalaria alba? Ces plantes 
croissent sur les bords de la rivierre submerges lorsque les eaux sont 
hautes. 

Le 30 dud. reconnu une Plante du Genre Ziziphora . . . Cunila 
pulegioidesf floribus tetrandris ; Teucrium Cauadense, Eupatorium aro- 
mat., Sigesbeckia . . . ; Verbenae plurae species. 

Le l er Aoust, herborise et reconnu Cassia Marylandica ; Monarda 
didyma ; Sanicula Marylandica ; Triosteum perfoliatum ; Sicyos angu- 
lata ; Acer rubrum, saccharum : Campanula, . . . ; Cercis Canaden- 
sis ; Menispermum Canadens. ; Actaea spicata ; Tilia Americana; Urtica 
divarieata ; Arum triphyllum ; Celtis occidentalis ; Panax quinquefolium; 
Staphylea trifoliata ; Azarum Canadense ; Rhus typhina, glabra, vernix, 
copallinum, radieans, toxicodendron ; Clinopodium vulgare, incanum. 

Le 2 Aoust reconnu Aristolochia sipho seu macrophylla; Panax quinque- 
folium ; Lobelia siphilitica ; Convallaria plures species : Veronica . . . 
Oxalis stricta. 

Le 3 et 4 Aoust herborise : Cacalia 2 especes, Phryma leptostacbia ; 
Leontice thalictroid.; Lobelia siphilitica, inflate, cardinalis ; Eupatorium 
perfoliatum, maculatum, odoratum et celestinum ; Actea spicata ; Podo- 
phyllum peltatum ; Azarum Canadense ; Hydrophyllum Canadense ; 
Trillium cernuum ; Panax quinq. fol. ; Aristolochia Sipho ; Menispermum 
. . . ; Sambucus Canadensis fructu nigro ; Sambucus . . . , fructu 
rubro foliis tomentosis ; Tilia Americana ; Laurus Sassafras, benzoin ; 
Robinia pseudoeacia, Juglans oblonga. Jugl. hiccory ; Platanus occiden- 
talis : Acer rubrum, saccharum ; Ulmus . . . ; Hamamelis . . . , 
Cynoglossum 3 especes ; Vitis vulpina ; Dioscorea fructu infero ; Teu- 
crium Canad. ; Scrophularia Marylandica; Dracocephalum Virg. ; Dian- 
Ihera . . . , Sophora foliis ternis stipulis lato-lanceolatis florib. coeru. 
leis vexillo corolla breviore ; Mimulus ringens ; Bignonia radieans ; Cercis 
Canadensis ; Fagus sylvatica Americana ; Circaea Canadensis ; Urtica 
incriiiis ; Erigeron Canadense j Cornus tlorida j liubus odorata, Rub. occi- 
dentalis -. PenthoIXUD sedoides; Cephahinthus occidentalis; Polygonum 
aviculare, hydropiper, amphiliinin, scandens ; Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

La <1 Aoust sur la rive de la rivierre Monongahela opposea a Pittsburgh 
vu une mine de Charbon de terre, dont i'entree parolt avoir IS piedi 

d'epainenr de Oe mineral sans melange; quelquefois on distingue cut re 

lifferentea conchei one lelnte (errngioeuae. Dans ploaieun endroits, 
on trouvc doa rochea tendrea qui parotaient bonnet poor plane a repauer 
lea grot* Inatramanta ; law nature ma parolt atre une reunion de partlculea 
aablonneneee, argUlenaeei rerruglnenaee aroo dee paroallea da mica baa 

Lo aol eat gtfnc'ralement aux environs de Pittsburgh argil leu x et les 

• PhywUgta Vlrgi 

f llnleoma pukgtotda, Pen — C. 8. 8. 



1888.] 9d [Michaux. 

pierres au roches calcaires d'une couleur brune, e;ant composees de beau- 
coup d'argile vaseuse. Le sol entre les deux rivierres sur lequel Pitts- 
burgh est bati, est un sol d'alluvion ; Ton trouve meine dans les terres 
retirees pour creuser des puits a plus de 30 pi. de profondeur des pierres 
arrondies et us6es par le roulis des torrens. 

Le 9 Aoust prepare a partir, le conducteur du Boat sur lequel j'avois 
embarque raon bagage vint me dire qu'il attendroit les Boats destines a 
transporter les trouppes, d'autant plus que le Boat paroissant trop charge 
pour cette Saison dans laquelle les Eaux sont basses ; il y avoit apparence 
de Pluyes. 

Le 10 la rivierre parut diminuer. 

Le 11, le 12 et 13 nous restames en attendant le depart. 

Le 13 il arriva trois Boats des Illinois appartenant a M. Vigo. lis 
etoient conduits par environ 30 Francois Canadiens ou Illinois rameurs. 

Un Franqois resident en Amerique dep. 14 ans. charge" d'envoyer des 
provisions de farine a la N e Orleans me dit qu'il me donneroit des Lettres 
po. les Illinois adressees au Commandant du Poste de S nt Louis. II est 
actuellenient £tabli a Pittsbourgh et il se nomme Andrain. Ce nomme 
Andrain est dit-on assoeie avec un nomme Louisiereou Delousiere expatrie 
de France po. avoir et6 connu daus le-complot de livrer le Havre aux 
flottes reunies Angloises et Espagnoles. Ce Louisiere est actuellement 
absent de Pittsburgh. II y a un autre Franqois resident a Pittsb. M. 
Lucas de Pentareau excellent Democrate actuellement absent. II passe 
pour un horn me instruit [qui] possede la connoissance des Loix. 

Pittsburgh est situeau confluent des deux rivierres Monongahelaet Alle- 
gany. Ces deux rivierres joiutes ensemble forment l'Ohio ou la Belle 
Rivierre. II y a un beaucoup plus grand nombre de maisons sur la rivi- 
erre Monongahela que sur celle Allegany. Le nombre des maisons est 
d'environ 250 et tous les ans il augmente considerablement. L'on y voit 
encore les fosses qui servoient de retranchement au Fort bati par les Franc >is 
nomme Fort Duquesne. Les Anglois depuis y en avoient bati un autre 
presqu. a cote sur Tangle forme par la jonction des deux rivierres. II avoit 
ete construit en briques et les Americains le font d^molir po. employer les 
briq. a la construction des Maisons que Ton batit journellement au Fort 
Pitt. 

Les Americains ont un Fort de Palisades situe" derriere la ville sur la rive 
de la Rivierre Allegany ; il sert de Depot pour l'arrivee des trouppes que 
Ton envoye contre les Sauvages etde Magazin pour les Munitions que Ton 
y envoye de Philadelphie. 

Le Mercredy 14 Aoust, parti de Pittsbourgh et couche seulement a deux 
miles de distance a la poiute d'une petite isle sur la quelle j'ay reconnu 
Acer negundo, rubrum, saccharum ; Evonimus capsulis glabris.* 

Le 15 reconnu a 20 Miles de Pittsb. Pavia lutea, Panax quinqucfolium; 

* E. atropurpureus, Jacq.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] 94 [Oct. 19, 

Un Bryonia* planta monoica calyce 5-fldo, corolla 5-partita florib. mascu- 
lis spicatis axillarib. florib. femineis quoque axillarib. genuine instructo 
spinis innocuis. 

Notre course fut de 28 Miles. 

Le 16 passe a 7 hemes du matin la ligne qui separe la Pensylvanie de la 
Virginie. Cette ligne est marquee par des arbres coupes de la largeur 
d'environ . . . pieds a droite et a gauche de l'Ohio ou la belle Kivi- 
erre et cet endroit est a 45 miles de Pittsbourgb. Le meme jour arrive au 
soir a Buffiilo Creek. 79 Miles de Pittsburgh. 

Le 17 passe par Willing, 92 M. de Pittsb. cet endroit est habite par envi- 
ron 12 families, ainsi que Buffalo Creek. A cause du vent contraire, nous 
avons seulement voyage 30 M. 

Le Dimancbe 18 Aoust 1793, vu plusieurs trouppes de Dindes sauvages: 
le vent contraire. 

Le 19 nous avons faits 50 Miles. II y a pas d'etablissemens entre Will- 
ing et Marietta, petit Bourg situe a I'embouchure de Muskingum riv. 
Nous avons couche au lieu nomrn^ le Fort Harmar, situe vis a vis Marietta 
sur la rive droite de la riv. Muskingum. Dianthera americana. 

Le 20 nous y avons passci la journee. 

Le 21, nous avons passe par Little Kanhaway, Belpre et Belleville 34 
Miles. 

Le 22 nous n'avons vu aucun etablissement. Reconnu Polymnia cana- 
densis : Acer rubrum foliis inferne glaucis ; Acer negundo, Acer saccha- 
rum, Acer foliis rugosis nervis sublanuginosis ; Annona triloba, Pavia 
luiea, Platanus occid. 

Le 23 passe par Great Kanhaway, situe a 4 Milles avant d'arriver a 
GalHapolis sur la rive opposee. 

Le 23 nous avons arrivames a l'Etablissement de Galliapolis situe sur la 
rive gauche de la Belle rivierre. Les maisons sont tOUtes construites de 
chaipentes ('quarries et sculement entaillecs par les cxtremitcs au lieu de 
Mortaises. (Log-house) 

Le M sejourne, rendu visite au mcdecin Petit. II m'inspira le plus grand 
respect par son esprit, pur son m avoir et sa vertu. II me paint que l'hu- 
inaiiite est le seul motif qui le retient attache a eelte nialhciircuse eolonie. 
Du noiuhre de 000 per>onnes venues po. s'y etablir il en rcsloit envi- 
ron I 

Lc Diinanche 25 parti de QaMapolUl ; a 85 Miles, reconnu Iresine 
celos: ie la belta rlvlirre mix ritea submerges par les 

grand es Innondatloni : Pattf one petite rivierre nojnmee Gay. Nous 
n'avons pas vu d'habitati 

Lc M, DOUI n'avnii- pel vu d"habitations ; pusse la rivierre Scioto, 

• Thl* In f.r .l.ut.l y )u iHOCytKi Ubah of Tnrr. A (liny) which, iie.onl- 

!. taetod I'V mihihuv "in ootfdtntaHbui Rnuyfrante, ftuda fluvlum 

' biettbMdbj Kirlmi.l ill li[*<liMii|.|i,iu I'. 8. 8. 



1888.] 95 IMichaux. 

Le 27, vu un Etablissement de plusieurs maisons au lieu dit Three 
Islands, dix miles avant d'arriver a Lime Stone : ces Etablissements sont 
reputes les premiers dependant du Kentuckey. Nous arrivames vers le 
soir a Lime Stone. 

Limestone est repute le Port du Kentuckey (Landing-place). L'on y 
debarque les marchandises qui sont envoyees de Philad po. Danville, 
Lexington &c. Une petite ville etablie depuis six ans a 4 Miles de dis- 
tance sur la route de Lexington, se nomme Washington et est deja ties 
florissante, etant situ^e dans un terrain tres fertile. 

Le 28, visite le Colonel Alexandre D. Orr. 

Le 29 j'ay quitte les deux Compagnons qu j'avois eu depuis Philad. 
lis continuereut leur route pour aller jusqu' a Louisville et je m'acherainay 
par l'interieur des Etablissements. Le Colonel D. Orr m'offrit sa Com- 
pagnie po. aller avec lui a Lexington, ou il se proposoit d'aller dans peu 
de jours. 

Les 30 et 31 herborise en attendant que l'on put avoir des chevaux po. 
le voyage de Lexington. Guilandina dioica ; Fraxinus (quadrangularis); 
Gleditsia triacanthos ; Serratula praealta ; Eupatorium aromaticum, Cre- 
pis Sibirica ? &c. 

Le Dimanche l er Septembre 1793, Dine chez le Colonel Lee. 

Le 2 dine chez . . . Fox et dispose mon baggage po. le depart. 

Le 3 le voyage fut remis au Lendemain : Le sol aux environs de Wash- 
ington est argilleux et noiratre tres riche ; Les pierres sont de Substance 
calcaire bleuatre obscure, remplies de petrifactions, de coquillages marins. 
Les ossemens de ces animaux monstrueux que Ton avoit imagine estre 
d'Elephants se trouvent dans les environs, II est a presumer que ces 
ossemens ont appartenu a des Individus marins, par la grande abondance 
des debris des corps marins qui se trouvent reunis dans ces lieux. 

Le 4 parti de Washington ; passe par un lieu dont le sol abonde en sub- 
stances salines et ou les Buffalos se rendoient en abondance pour lecher 
les particules de Sel qui s'exhalent continuellement a la surface du Sol. 
II y a en cet endroit des fontaines dont l'eau est acre, putrefiee, noiratre 
et remplie d'air mephitique qui se degage au moindre mouvement du sol 
par les bulbes qui paroissent a la surface de cette fontaine en approchant. 
Les habitans des environs y 6tablissent des fourneaux et des chaudiercs 
pour en retirer du Sel par l'ebullition des eaux. Nous avons fait 33 Miles. 

Le 5 nous avons fait 27 miles et nous sommes arrives de bonne heure a 
Lexington principale ville des Etablissemens et de l'Etat de Kentuckey. 
Nous avons passe par un petit Etablissement, repute ville nominee Paris, 
capitale du comte (county) de Bourbon : II y a environ 18 maisons II y 
a des Etablissements de campagne au long de la route et les voyageurs 
vont actuellem' sans danger de Lime Stone jusqu' a Lexington eloigne de 
Soixante six miles d'une place a l'autre. 66 Miles. 

Le 6 visite" deux personnes residant a Lexington pour qui j'ctois muni 
de Lettres de recommandation. 

Le 7 herboris<5 . . . 



Michaux.] Jt) [ 0ct 19> 

Le Dimanche 8 Septembre oblige de sojourner n'ayant pas trouve un 
Cheval a louer. 

Le 9 parti de Lexington, traverse des parties de bois entremeMees de 
Plantations tres £cartees. Passe la rivierre Kentuckey, dont les deux 
bords sonl resserres tres etroitement, lorsque les eaux sont basses il y a 
plus be 100 pieds de bauteur du bord de cette riv. au haut des terrains 
qui la bordent et au travers desquels elle coule ; Ton me dit qu' elle 
s'eleve dans le temps des inondations a la bauteur de 40 pieds en un jour. 
Lorsque Ton y arrive Ton croiroit eire entre deux rangs de Montagnes 
tres escarpe'es, mais dans le fait ce n'est qu'un torrent ou une rivierre 
dont le Lit est ties profondement ereuse. Les rocbers des bords sont de 
substance calcaires. Plusi. arbustes et Plantes naturelles a la Caroline 
s'y trouvent a J'exposition meridionale garantie et preserves du froid par 
la situation favorable de cette grande profondeur de la rivierre. 

Le 10 arrive a Danville et visite plusieurs personnes po. les quelles 
j'avois des Lettres : Le Colonel Barbee &c, Peter Tardivau Capit. bomme 
d'esprit &c &c. 

Le 11, visite le General Benjam. Logan dont l'habitation est situee a 12 
Milles de Danville ; Confidence de la Commission dont j'ay ele charge : 
II me dit qu'il seroit charme de prendre part a cette enterprise, mais qu'il 
avoit recu depuis q. ques jo. une Lettre de J. Brown par laquelle on lui 
mandoit qu'il y a des negocialions entamees avec les E. V. et les Esp. 
concernant la navigation du Mississipi et les Ind Creeks : Q'un messager 
avoit 6l6 env. a Madrid et qu'avant le retour au l cr Decemb. procbain, 
ceux des E. Vins qui entrepreudroient d'agir bostilement contre les Esp. 
seroient desapprouves par le Gouvernement federal ; Qu'il devoit partir le 
lendemain po. aller a son Etablissement de Boulskine Creek et qu' apres 
q. j'aurois con fere av. le Gen. Clark, il esperoit qu'il lui feroit par des 
communications que je lui aurois fait po. en conferer de nouveau tous 
ensemble, &c &c. 

Le 12 revenu a Danville. 

Le 13 Visite (son Excellence) le Gouverneur de l'Etat de Kentuckey, 
Isaac Shelby: visite les eollines dittes Knob Licks: Vu plusieurs Plantes, 
purticulior"' aux parlies nJ6ei qol 16 troaveot enclavees daus rintericur 
du territoire du Kentuckey. Andromeda arborea, 

Le 14 parti de Dunville po. Louisville, loge chcz Cumberland a 19 M. de 
Danville. 

Le Dimanche 15 Scptembre ITW, a M Miles de Danville, trouve one 
SOrtedeTra^ia, I'lante immobile <'t fnielil'ieation a luinanierc des Euphor- 

blcfl. i ii pea iivnnt d'arrivi ix a Beerdttowo reoonm lea roohei et lea 
plerreede substance otleeJie et ayunt totitea lei tonnes de Kedxeporet. 
Le beat dee Hoategoei [oolltnee] qae I'oa traverse :i a \ Miles aranl d'ex- 

tOWfl sont eiiliricinriit de its mail repores pet rilies. lucoiinu 

beeucoiip de I'lantcs <iui ne se trouvent pas iiilleurs, Kagara de l'Etat de 
l.'humnua (Carolinian) et Hhainnus . . . «&c. &c. Les 



1833.] "7 [Michaux. 

environs sont tres interessants a etre visite par un Botaniste, Dine a 
Beardstown et couche a 6 Miles plus loin. 31 Miles. 

Depuis Beardstown, le pays n'est nullenient interess 1 po. un Botan. 
jusqu' a Louisville. 

Le 16 arrive a Louisville ayant voyage par la nouvelle route. 29 Miles. 
En total 79 M. de Danville. 

Le 17 Septembre visite le Gen. Clarke. Je lui remis les Lettres du 
Ministre et je lui annon^ais l'objet de ma Mission : II me repondit que 
V Enterprise en question lui tenoit fort a coeur, mais que depuis si long 
temps qu'il avoit ecrit, n'en ayant point rec,u de reponse, il I'avoit consid- 
ered comme abandondee. Je lui dis que sa Lettre 6toit tombee dans des 
mains etrangeres et que le Ministre ne l'avoit re<jue qu' indirectement apres 
son arrivee a Philadelphia II me dit, qu'une nouvelle circonsU parois- 
soit y mettre obstacle. 

Le 18 sejourne a Louisville et herborise. 

Le 19 returne visiter le Gen. Clarke. 



Le 20 parti de Louisville, passe chez le Gen. Clarke, venu coucher pres 
de Salt river. 

Le 21 passe par Beardstown. Evonimus ramulis quadrangulis capsulis 
muricatis.* 

Le Dimancbe 22 sep*** arrive de nouveau a Danville a 5 heures du soir: 
Ecrit au Ministre Genet le meinc jour par la Poste de Philad*- 

Le 23 je me suis repose. 

Le 24 parti pour Lexington et couche 1 au passage de Kentuckey river. 

Le 25 je me suis aper<$u que mon cheval etoit egare ayant couche dans 
une auberge ou il n'y avoit pas d'Ecurie, le cheval avoit saute par dessus 
la cloture et j'ay passe toute la journee a le chercher. 

Pendant ce temps j'ay remarque sur les plages sablonneuses : Iresine 
celosioides ; Mollugo verticillata ; Sur les rochers ; Heuchera Americana ; 
Asplenium rhyzoph. ; Pteris nova; Parietaria ; Hydrangea 

arborescens. Sur les montagnes calcaires : Serratula 2 especes inconnues; 
Cupliea viscosa ; Didynanna gymnosperma novum genus ; Didyra. angi- 
osperma nov. genus. Sur la bord de la rivierre Dickson, Dirca palustris ; 
Sophora florib. coeruleis. Dans les forets ombrag. &c Acer fol. argenteis 
an rubrum?, Acer saccharum ; Fraxinus fol. subintegris, Fraxinus foliolis 
serratis ramis quadrangularis, Gleditsia triacanthos; Guilandina dioica, 
Robinia pseudo-acacia ; Evonimus ramulis subrotundis, capsulis laevibus. 

Le 26 Septembre 1793, Pluye toute la journee ; couche a une mile de 
Kentuckey river, chee . . . Hogan qui eut l'honnetete de me piiter 
un cheval sans interest po. aller a la recherche du mien. 

Le 27 arrivd a Lexington eloignee seulement de 20 Miles du passage d« 
la rivierre Kentuckey dit Hickman jonction. 
Le 5 Octobre parti de Lexington. 

* E. Americamis, L.— C. S. S. 
PUOC. AMER. PHII.OS. SOC. XXVI. 129. M. PRINTED MARCH 16, 1380 



Michanx.] "£> [Oct. 19, 

Le Dimanche 6 dudit arrive a Danville. Le meme jour ecrit au Citoyen 
Ministre Genet. 

Le 7 logo chez Puvit et re<;u mon baggage. 

Le 10 Envoye un Messager a Louisville. 

Le 13 Dimanche retourne a Lexington et revenu le Dimanche 20 a Dan- 
ville. N'ayant pas requ la reponse du general Clark, je n'ay pas pu pro- 
fiter de la Poste pour ecrire au Ministre a Philad 8 - 

Le 21 requ la reponse du General Clark. 



Cahier 8. 1793, 1794 et 1795. 



Le 10 Novembre 1793, L'an 2 e de la Republique Franchise, parti de 
Danville pour Philadelphie apres avoir visite le Colonel George Nicholas 
Esq. pres Danville. II insista sur le plan qu'il m'avoit propose le jo. pre- 
cedent relativem 1 a la Navigation du Mississipi, Sqav : Que les Forees 
Marines de la Republique s'emparant de l'Embouchure du Mississipi, 
declarassent le Pays leur appartenant a droit de ConquSte et invitassent 
les Americains du Pays de l'Ouest a proflter de la liberty de la Naviga- 
tion : Alors si les Espagnols situes plus haut sur le fleuve molestoient les 
Batimens de provisions transporters par les Americains, ceux-ci seroient en 
droit de repousser la Contrainte et la force par la force. Ainsi le Gouv. 
Esp. n'auroit pas sujet de plainte contre les Etats Unis d'avoir rompu, le 
pays 6tant repute en possession de la Republique Franchise. 

Couche" a Crab orchard distant de Danville de 22 Miles. 

Le 11 Novembre 1793 parti de Crab Orchard en compagnie de 12 pers. 
qui s'etoient rdunies en cet endroit pour traverser les Bois inhabited et 
frequentes par les Sauvages. L'espace depuis Crab-Orchard jusqu'a 
Iloulston settlement est de 130 Mil. et se nomme Les Wilderness. Couche" 
a Longford Station. 10 M. 

Le 12 coucIk' a Modnell St. 28 M. 

Le 13 couche a Middleton St. 28 M. 

Le 14 traverse des endroits has, maiecageux dont l'eau etoit brune et 
stagnante. A miles du Poste Middleton et 18 miles avant d'arriver au 
liu.nl de Cumberland Gap, vu une fougere grimpante qui occupoit plus de 
six acres de superflcie du terrain pres delft route.* A cette saison on la 
B avoit produit do la glace do 3 a 4 lignes d'tpoiaaeur, cette plante 
n'avoit iiulleinciit i'-ii' indommages. Dans lo territoire il ya deux endroits 
it l'ini par Flat lick et l'autrc p:ir Stinking Creek. 

Vu fttttOOI d'uiif Charxgiu- de Ccrf lo . . . Corbeau (Corvus corax.) 
DaTltaas Htiit. 2 miles mi . . .f Cumberland (rap 2(1 Miles. 

Le 15 Sforambrc rqjftga 1 del par! tntagnea tres elevens autre les 

• EflpWMM jHilmiKum, Swz.— C. 8. 8. 

t Tiinw word! arc 111' n lruy.-.l uwiiy In th<- umiiUM-rl|>t <>t 'tlic .Iniiriiul — 0, S.S. 



1888.] "" [Michaux. 

quelles nous avons traverse Clinch river et couche a Houlston St. cbez le 
nomme" . . . 27 Miles. 

Le 16 cotoye Houlston river et couche chez. . . . Amis Esq. a trois M. 
au de Hawkin Court house, 26 Miles. 

Le Diraanche 17 la Pluye m'obligea de rester dans une petite Cabane 
pres de North fork de Houlston 25 Miles. 

Le 18 mon Cheval se trouva si fatigue de la rapidite et des mauvais 
chemins a travers les Wilderness que je fus oblige d'anSter apres 
onze Miles de Marcbe seulement, 11 Miles. 

Le 19 parti a la pointe du jour. Au pied de la maison ou je logeai, la 
route du Kentuckey se divise, l'une a droite conduit a Burke court house, 
dans la Caroline Septentrionale passant par Mouth of Wataga river ; 
l'autre conduit a Abington court h. premiere ville de Virginie. Mon che- 
val continuant d'etre fatigue je fis seulement 20 miles. 

Le 20 j'ay fait 15 Miles, arrive a, Abington. 

Le 21 couche a 22 Miles d' Abington pres de Seven Miles Ford: Branche 
du milieu de Houlston. 

Le 22 Novemb. 1793 traverse Seven Miles ford : La riv. Holston est 
formee de trois Branches princip. s<jiv. North fork, Seven Miles fork et 
South fork of Holston riv. 

Dans l'espace de six miles apr. avoir passe cette petite riv., observe sur 
les Collines septentrionales qui bordent plusi. petites riv. le Pinus abies 
canadensis, Thuya occidentalis, Rhododendron maximum et aussi Magnolia 
acuminata dans les parties d'un sol tres ricbe : Fagus chinquapin ; sol 
argilleux, roches Quartz ferrugineux, Ardoizes rares et Pierres calcaires 
entreveinees q.q. fois de Quartz blanc : Ecureuil gris : (oublie de faire 
mention que en passant a Abington vu une Tortue de 8 pouces de diametre 
petritiee de substance calcaire noire comme les Roches qui abondent daus 
le territoire). Notre journee fut de 93 miles. 

Le 23 Novembre couche chez un Allemand. Pendant la nuit mes che- 
vaux ont etc egares : entre Abington et With Court house entre les Mon- 
tagnes, Abies canadensis et Thuya occidentalis. 

Le Dimanche 24, passe" par With Court house et a 18 Miles environ dans 
les Montagues escarpees, remarque Pinus Strobus, Pinus fol. ternis (pitch 
pine), P. foliis geminis ." . . , P. abies canadensis. Rhodod. maximum. 
Kalm. latifolia, Gaultheriaprocumbens, Epigea repens : Lieux plus arides, 
Fagus chinquapin, Fagus castanea americana, Fag. sylvatica am., Andro- 
meda arborea, Hypericum Kalm. Dans les rochers humides ou arroses 
par les ruisseaux : Roches de silex et meme Agate un peu transpa- 
rente. 

De Seven Miles ford a With Court h. 86 M. 

Le 25 passe par le ferry nomine Peper's ferry sur New River et 
ensuite traverse du cole Occidental sur le cote Oriental de Alleganies ; 
couche sur une branche de James river nominee Catawba qui coule de 
l'Est au lieu que New River [qui] coule a l'Ouest des Montagnes. 

Le 26 continue ma route vers Botetort Court-house 30 miles. 



Michaux] J W [Oct. 19, 

Le 27 passe" par Botetort Court-h. et par la Branche meridionale de 
James river a 12 miles de Botetort. 

Le 28 passe par Lexington a 40 M. de distance de Botetort et par 
la Branche septentrionale de James river a un Mille de Lexington, Thuya 
occidentals, Pinus Strobus. 

Le 29 Novembre, sejourne a la maison de MacDowall, mon cheval 
ayant la jambe enflee au point de ne pouvoir marcher. 

Le 30 marche 27 miles. 

Le Dimanche premier Decembre 1793 passe par Stanton, petite ville 
asses florissante situee a 120 M. de Richemont et 75 Miles de Botetort. 

Le 2 passe par Rockykam ou Rockytown 20 miles de distance de 
Stanton. 

Le 3 passe par Woodstock autre petite ville a 37 M. de Rockytown. 
Entre Stanton et Woodstock le terrain est montagneux, le sol asses fer- 
tile, substance argilleuse et pierres calcaires nommees Blue lime stone : 
Quercus rubra, alba ; Fagus chinquapin et Pinus foliis geminis, conis 
squamis rigidis et aculeatis. A trois miles avant d'arriver a cette ville sur 
au Nord d'une Colliue sur la route, Thuya occidentalis: Pinus fol. geminis: 
Junip. Virginiana. 

Le 4 parti de Woodstock, passd par Newtown. 

Le 5 passe 1 par Winchester, 35 Miles de Woodstock, nominee cy devant 
Miller'stown. 

Le 6 passe" par Charlestown 22 M. de Winchester. Passe par Harspur 
ferry sur Potomack river 8 miles de Charleston et entre en Maryland. 

Le 7 passe" par Fredericktown 20 M. du (Potomack river) ferry Harspur 
et 50 miles de Winchester. 

Le Dimanche 8 passe" par Woodberry et Little town 35 M. de Freder- 
icktown. 

Le 9 passe" par Hanover cy dev* MacAllister town 42 M. de Frederick- 
town et par Yorktown 18 M. de MacAlliitertovm actuellement Hanover 
town. 

Le 10 passe par Susquehanna river et entre" en Pensylvanie onze miles 
de Yorktown. Passu a Lancaster 12 mileB de Harris ferry sur Susque- 
hanna river et 24 miles de York. 

Le onze Decembre 1793 voyage 80 Miles. 

Le jeudy 12, arrive a Philadelphie 66 miles de Lancaster. 

Le 13 viaite le Citoyen Genet, Ministre Plenipotentiaire de la Republique 
francaise. 

Le 14 Vlsite" M r Jefferson, M r Rittcnhouse & . . . 

Le 15 Dimanche ; Recapitulation de la route eqavoir : 

De Danville a Lincoln 12 miles 

De Lincoln a Crab Orchard 10 

I>< < ' a liiingford station 10 

De Laugford a Modrell St. 28 

COM. 



1888.] 101 [MJcbAUX. 

Suite 60 M. 
M. a Middleton St. 28 
M. a Cumberland Gap 24 
Cumb. a Davissess St. 2 
D. a Houlston 27 
H. a Hawkin C. house 22 
Itawkin a . . . Amis 3 
Amis « N. fork of Houlston 25 
N. fork a la fourche de la Caroline 31 
De la fourche a Abington Devant Washing- 
ton Court House en Virginie 15 
D' Abington a Seven M. fond ^ g^ # 
De seven Miles fond a With court house i 
De With C.h. i Peper ferry 33 
De Peper ferry a Botetout C.h. 50 
De Boteton a James River south fork 12 
De James riv. S. fork a Lexington 28 
De Lex. a Stanton 35 
De Stanton a Rocky town 20 
Dy Rockyham a Woodstock 37 
De Woodstock a Winchester 85 
De W a Charleston 22 
De Ch. a Harpur ferry ou Potomack 8 
Du Potomack a Fredericktown 20 
De Freder. a Littletown 35 
De L. a Hanover cy-dev. Mac Aliater 7 
De Hanover a York town 18 
De York a Susquehanna Harris ferry 11 
De Susquehanna a Lancaster 12 
De Lancaster a Philadelphie 66 

Total 746 M. 

De Danville a Lexington 33 M. 
De Danville a Louisville 84 " 

Le 16 Dimanche 1793 din4 chez le Ministre Genet. 
Le 17 Envoys mes chevaux chez Bartram. 
Le 18 visits le D r Colin, ministre de l'Eglise Suedoise. 
Le 19 visits M r Peale gardien du Museum. 
Le 20 d£pouille* plusieurs 6cureuils. 
Le 21 change - de logement. 
Le 22 Dimanche r^dige" mes Comptes. 
Le 23 Vu le Ministre Genet et le Cit. Bournonville. 
Le 24 Visits mes Graines, je lea ay divis6 po. les envoyer en France en 
deux Envoys differens. 

* The manuscript is so frayed that the figures for these two distances are destroyed . 
The looting requires 60 M. for the two.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] 102 [Oct. 19. 

Le 25 travaille 1 a mettre en ordre mes collections de Kentuckey. 

Le 26 visite M. Rittenhouse President de la societe Philosophiq. 

Le 27 ecrit et occupe 1 d'Objets indifferents. 

Le 28 visite M. Jefferson, le Minist. Genet. &c. 

Le Dimanche 29 chasse aux oiseaux. 

Le 30 depouille et embourre 1 les oiseaux tues le jour precedent. 

Le 31 j'ay ete occupe toute la journee a ecrire. 

1794. 

Le Mercredy premier Janvier j'ay ete a la chasse aux oiseaux, tiie" deux 
Crossbills et je les ay depouilles et embourres. 

Le 2 j'ay fait des visites et j'ay appris l'arriv^e a Baltimore d'un Navire 
du Havre de Grace ayant des nouvelles favorables a la Republique Fran- 
chise. 

Le 3 j'ay ete informe de me preparer au voyage de la Caroline et j'ay 
ete prevenir Bartram le Botaniste de me donner la liste des Plantes qu'il 
desire. 

Le 4 Janvier 1794 j'ay visite 1 le D r Barton* et il m'a prete le Systema 
Naturae de Linn. 

Le Dimanche 5 copie et fait un extrait de l'histoire des Mammalia et 
Quadrupedes et de celle des Oiseaux. 

Le 6 j'ay porte au Citoyen Bournouville mes Comptes des Depenses de 
mon voyage au Kentuckey et il m'a dit de revenir le sur lendemain etant 
trop occupe 1 . 

Le 7 j'ay continue l'Extrait du Systema Naturse. 

Le 8 et le 9 j'ay continue 1 le meme ouvrage. 

Le 10 le Citoyen Bournonville n'avoit pas encore le temps de verifier 
mes Comptes. 

J'ay remis au Citoyen Minist. les Brevets en Blanc qu'il m'avoit confie 
pour le General Clark : Plus un Memnirc sur l'etat de la Recolte rela- 
tivem Dt aux approvisionnemens de Bleds pour la France. II me declara 
que le voyage de Caroline n'etoit plus :ui*si important qu'il avoit suppose';. 
.Ic lui dis que je desirois employer mon temps aux recherehes en Hist. 
Naturelle le mieux possible, mais (pie si pour le service de la Republique, 
le M'mistre avoit un autre olijet en vue je m'y employerois sinon je sou- 
liaitois aller en Caroline poor retirer et mettre en Ordn mes Collections. 

II eooepta me propoeitlon et me dil qn' • mon retoor il me donneroil nne 

commission pour le Kentuckey. II me recommandc de visiter dans l'in- 

lepotetde l'Ktat de Kentackey aa Oongree. 

! .lanvicr IT'.tl Upe toute la jounice a rcrire. 

Le Dimanche 12 V: [I I M BlOWO 't Colon. Orr Membres du Congres, 
deputes de l'Ktat de Kentuckey. .le conteraj BT, eoi sur les dispositions 
du Gouverncm 1 Federal ot sur 1'execution du lMan du (Jen. Clark. 

• Probably i>r. BetOamlo smiiti Barton, vrbOM CbKtcHontftr an ■mob 1 toanri&taJfe* 

«•,,.< I/./..I ../ lh, I „,ir,l SOtlrs wiu. |.nlillMii-(| 111 I'liiliidcli.liiu ill 17".>S. — ('. S. S. 



1838.] | 1.06 [Michaux. 

Le 14 j'ecrivis au Gen. Clark po. lui marquer les intentions du Ministre 
et po. lui envoyer 400 Dolls. 

Le 16 touche lad. s e de 400 Doll et . . . 

Le 17 et 18 ccrit plusi. lettres a diflforeates persoanes de Kentuckey 
et . . . 

Le 18 redige un memoire pour une Motion a faire a la Societe des Amis 
de la Liberte et de l'Egalite a Philad e afln d'adviser aux moyens d'adoucir 
le sort des prisonniers fran<jois entre les mains des Anglais, 

Le Dimanche 19 depouille et enibourre plusi. oiseaux. 



Le Dimanche 9 fevrier 1794 parti de chez Bartram, la neige toniba toute 
la journee, m'obligea de rester et de coucher a 7 miles de Philadelphie. 

Le 10 couche a Wilmington 28 M. de Ph. 

Le 11 couche e 24 Miles de distance. 

Le 12 neige presque toute la journee. 

Le 13 observe plusi. Mesanges ayant beaucoup d'affinite a la Mesange 
bleue : Parus coeruleus : arrive a Baltimore. 

Le 14 ayant eie oblige d'acheter un Cheval et de vendre le mien je 
sejournay. 

Le 15 parti de Baltimore, vu plusi. oiseaux .... dont le Male a 
l'extremite des plumes inferieures des Ailes, terminee par un rouge de laque 
ou cire a cacheter, rextr£mite de la queue jaune, le corps cendre, hupd 
sur la tete, tour des yeux d'un noir fence veloute, il se nourrit de Diospiros 
dans cette Saison ; Vu plusieurs oiseaux .... Blue birds par les 
Americains. Terrein sablonneux, mele d'une argille Ochracee et aboiul- 
ant en mines de fer. II y a plusi. mines de fer sur la Route qui sont ex- 
ploiters dans cette partie du Maryland. Le Ch§ne noir se trouve frequem- 
ment ici. 

Le Dimanche 16, entre Bladensburg et Alexandrie, sol sablonneux 
quelquefois argilleux tres rouge : Mines de fer : Oiseaux, Parus amcricu- 
nus $ ayant la partie superieure du corps noiratre et la partie inf£rieure 
grise, ? grise. Cet oiseau paroit ne vivre que de graines, de Plantes her- 
baeees comme Sarothra gentianoidesf «3fcc. II est habitant des bois, mais 
il abonde au long des hayes et des clotures, s'associe avec le petit moineau 
(friquet d'Amerique,) pendant 1'hiver &c. Parus . . . oiseau qui a 
une tres grande affinite - avec la mesange bleue de France, paroissant ne 
pas se nourrir de graines mais voltige et passe de branches et d'arbres sue- 
cessivement avec une vivacite" et une rapidite particuliere a cet oiseau . 
. . . Cardinal de la Caroline, cet oiseau habite 1'hiver aux lieux sab- 
lonneux, dans les Carolines, dans la Virginie et m§me dans les parties 
basses et maritimes du Maryland dont le sol est sablonneux. Je le vis i 
15 Miles avant d'arriver a la rivierre Potomack qui separe le Maryland de 
la Virginie. 

* A blank leaf occurs here in the Journal covering the time between Jan. 19 and Feb. 
9— C. S. S. 
t Hypericum Sarothra, Michx.— C. S. S. ' 



Michaox.l 10» rOct. 19, 

Je vins coucher a Alexandrie l 6 "* ville de la Virginie situee sur le cote 
meridion. de la rivierre Potomack. 

Le 17 sol alternativement argilleux et sablonneux ; vu le Frlquet d'Ara, 
le Cardinal, le Moqueur, les 9 especes de Melanges citees precedemment. 
Pin a 3 feuilles* aux environs de Dumfries. P. a 2 feuilles dont les ecailles 
apres la cbutedes sera, ne sont pas recourbees, mais seulement ecartees et 
concaves, f. plus longues droites, grand arbre. Cet arbre est le m@me qui 
abonde en q.q. endroits des Carol. Vu aussi aux lieux froids montagneux 
et arides le Pin a 9 f.\ Ecailles a eguillons beaucoup plus rudes q. ceux 
de l'espece precedente, Ecaill. recourbees (recurvata?) f. pl.*courtes et un 
peu contournees. Cette espece se trouve sur les Collines au long de la 
riv. Scbuyllkill en Pensylvanie : Couche Dumfries. 28 miles d'Alexan- 
drie. 

Le 18 passe 1 par Fredericksburg. 

Le 19 passe par Bowlinggreen et Hanover court bouse. Depuis Fred, 
jusque vers Hanover Court house le sol est sablonneux, abonde en Pins 
a 2 et a 3 feuilles entremSlees sur la m3me branche ; Cones de moindre 
grosseur q. le P. a 3 f. de la Virginie moriilionale et dont les ecailles 
sont molles, eguillons peu sensibles. Vers Bowlinggreen situe a 22 M. 
do Fredericksburg, commence le Pin a 3 feuilles, J Pinus dont les Cones 
sont a ecailles rudes, feuilles asses longues en tout, il est un diminutif du 
Pin a longues feuil. dit P. palustris et je le nomme Pin a 3 f. de la Virginie 
meridionale et de la Caroline. 

Le 20 depuis Hanover court house jusqu' a Richemont 22 Afile&. 

Le 21 Parti de Richmont ; a un mile et demi sur la route de Petersburg, 
vu rOrme d'Ameriq.g a ecorce fongueuse, cette ecorce n'environne pas la 
tige, mais forme deux ailesou membranes, plattes ayant une intersection 
aux endroits d'ou sortent les bourgeons : C'est le m8me Orme que j'ay vu 
en abondance en Kentuckey entre Louisville et Beardstown. A 9 Miles 
pres d'un Ruisseau ou petite Riv. remarquo le . . . 

A 12 miles vu la Smilax laurifolia et la Smilax baccis rubris dans la 
in*' me nature de terrain q. ceux ou Ton trouve ces Plantes en Caroline : a 
20 Miles vu Ilex a>stivnlis ; coucbo a Petersburg 25 M. 

Le 22. a 18 miles vu le Bignonia crucigera, Vaccinium arl>oreum ; a 30 
Miles vu Laurus|| aestivalis et tri-s frrquemmcnt Vacc. arboreum et Ilex 
iwtivalis. Au long des Riv. remarqu<S plusi. fois Ulmus a ecorce fongue- 



i rirtfda. Miller, Is no t inoludod In Mlrlwmx's Fl'M. nKhoiiuh the fuetthut ti<» 
fletorlboa hi* Ptnut »erot(wa as grow I UK " in futmi'li* OinJiwr tt Itm>ytvnni:r OfcprMri/a," 
would Indicate thnt he wan fiimlliiir with It at len-t In IVtinsyhiinlii when- /'. MreMM la 
POl Ibund. II In (llMi-iilt t<> BDdtfftaiid how suoh u cojiiiiioji tree should have escai>ed 
hUati<"ilon in Ni-w York, New Jeraoy and Maryland.— C. 8. 8. 
t Phtui punv-—, Mlehx. Thla U the first mention. «|>paroi»Uy. at this spoclea— C. 8. 8. 

»wrMa.L-l , .B.8. 
J ftmutaUtta, MM.x -<\ H. & 

"iidnalty written lift In the Journal. ThU wua erased uud Liiurttu substituted— 

a & b. 



1888.] 105 [Mlchaux. 

use. Le Cunila . . . cesse entre Petersburg et Halifax, 88 miles de 
Petersburg a Tompkin Shop ou j'ay couche". 

Le Dimanche 23 fevrier 1794 la Pluye m'empecha de partir avant 11 
heures ; passe par Hixis ford, petit hameau a 28 miles de distance de Hali- 
fax qui est la l re ville de la Caroline Sept. La ligne sur cette route qui 
separe la Virginie de la Carol. Sept. est a 12 M. d'Hixis ford et a 16 miles 
d' Halifax en Caroline. A 10 Miles d'Hixis ford et 2 miles avant de sortir 
du territoire de la Virginie, vu le Bignonia sempervirens pres du Creek 
nomme" Fontaine Creek, Vu aussi l'Hopea tinctoria un mile avant d'en- 
trer en Caroline. A un mile de distance de la Ligne qui separe la Virg. 
de la Caroline et sur le territoire de la Carol, vu le Cyrilla racemiflora dans 
un ties grand marecage, trois miles avant d'arriver a la Taverne de Pater- 
son ou j'ay couche - 16 miles d'Hixis ford et 12 M. d'Halifax : 23 Miles. 

Le 24 a 10 Miles d'Halifax et six Miles de dist. de la Ligne entre le 
Virgin, et la Carol, commence le Pinus palustris, fol. longissimis, conis 
majorib. Le Quercus palustris a f. deltoides* commence aussi en cet en- 
droit. Le P. a 3 f.f longues, mais cones de moyenne grosseur qui com- 
mence a Bowling-Green se trouve parmi ainsi q. le Pin a deux et trois 
feuilles.t Le Bignonia crucigera et le Bign. sempervirens, Hopea tincto- 
ria se voyent en abondance apres q. Ton a passe 1 au sud d'Halifax aimsi q. 
Nyssa dentata et Cyrilla racemiflora dans les Swamps. Couche 1 a End- 
field court house chez le Col. Brandt 25 Miles. 

Le 25 dine" chez le Col. Philipps seize Miles et passe 1 Tar River a 4 M. de 
distance au lieu dit Tettt brige : Vu un Sophora dit Yellow Lupin dont 
les tiges etant dessechees, j'ay recueilli les graines qui restoient dans les 
gousses rassembloes en 6pis : Douze miles plus loin passe" Town creek brige 
et couche 1 a 3 M. au de la. 85 Miles. 

Le 26 sol toujours sablonneux, couverts de Pins dits Pinus palustris : 
ces Arbres sont entailles et l'ecorce enlev^e, mais une partie du bois de la 
longeur de deux pi. sur un pied de large. Au bas l'entaille est plus pro- 
fonde po. retenir la reslne nomm^e turpentine. L'on enleve la Tereben- 
tine lorsq. le bassin forme" par cette entaille profonde est plein. Douze 
miles avant d'arriver a Peacock brige, commence le Laurus borbonicag et 
trois miles avant Peacock brige commence 1' Andromeda Wilmingtonia ;| 
le Stewartia malaccodendron^f se trouve aux environs dud. Peacock brige. 
II y a 21 miles environ de Town creek brige a Peacock brige. Les trois 
especes de Myrica des Carolines commencent dans ce Canton ainsi q. la 
grande Rhexia de Caroline.** 

Le 27 voyage" vers News River au lieu dit Whitefield ferry passant par 

* Quevcut aquailca, Catesb.— C. 8. 8. 
t Mnus Tivda, J,.— C. 8. S. 
J Pinus mitis, Miohx.— C. 8. 8. 
§ Persea OarolinensLi, Nees. — C. S. 8. 
|| Andromeda speciosa, Mlohx.^-C. 8. S. 
fl S. Virginica, Cav.— C. 8. S. 
•* R. glabella, Miohx.— C. S. 8. 

FROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. N. PRINTED MARCH 16, 1889. 



Michaux.] 100 [Oct. 19, 

la maison de . Environ 24 miles de Peacock brige a Whitefield 

ferry. 

Le 28 voyage depuis Whitefield ferry jusqu'a Duplaine Court house ou 
Dixon. SI Miles : Quinze miles avant d'arriver a Duplaine Court house, 
commence l'Andromeda axillaris, c'est a. d. 65 miles nord de Wilming- 
ton. Vu aussi en abondance le Vaccin. fol. sempervirentib. *caule repente, 
fructu nigro : Vu en abondance Andr. Wilmingtonia, paniculata, race- 
mosa &c. Bignonia crucigera, sempervirens, radicans et Catalpa. 

Le Samedy l er Mars, vu l'Andromeda nitida ou lucida des Swamps des 
Carolines, il commence a quarante cinq miles Nord de Wilmington. Vu 
en abondance And. Wilmingtonia, axillaris, racemosa et nitida : Passe par 
Washington 8 miles de Duplaine court house, le Gordonia commence 3 M. 
au N. de Washington, environ 38 M. nord de Wilmington. L'llex angusti- 
folia . . . comm. 26 miles au nord de Wilmington. II y a enviroD 35 
M. de Washington court house a Wilmington. 

Le Dimanche 2 Mars, j'ay vu dans les Sables arides Lupinus perennis et 
Lupinus pilosus, Atraphaxia?,f arbuste tiges gilles, feuillescharnues, per- 
sistentes 1'hiver, Vaccinium sempervirens &c. Vu par Bartram sur la 
route de Warmspring, le Chamoerops acaulis commence a 15 miles au Nord 
de Wilmington. Olea amcricana se trouve aux environs de Wilmington 
et commence dans ce territoire. Stillingia herbacea commence a 30 M. 
au nord de Wilmington. 

La Pluye m'obligea de coucher a 8 M. de Wilmington. 

Le 3 arrive - a Wilmington ; mon cheval utant excessivement fatigue je 
fus oblige de me reposer q. ques jours : Vu M. Vcrrier franQais des Isles, 
vmy Republicain ainsi q. le Docteur LaUoque eiabli a Wilmington. M. 
Josselin tenant la Gr. Taverne a Wilmington est un grand ami de la 
Republiq. franQaise. 

Le 4 j'ay ct6 aracher un Andromeda que j'avois remarque (piatre ans 
auparavant ainsi que l'Ixia?J de la Caroline et j'ai fait une Caisse de ces 
Haiites pour les envoyer par nier sur le Navire du Capit. Mitchell, Sloop 

. . . a Charleston. 

!.• ~> i -inlialir- mes collections et mis a bord du Navire. 

Le •"., la Plnye m'obligea de dlffiSrer et aux environs de Wilmington je 

DiODOBS muscipula, Olea amerieana, Andromeda mariana, paniculata, 
raceinn-:i, axillaris, nitida, Wilmingtonia ; Yaceinium arboreum, repens, 

frnetu eigro fte, Blgnonle ■emperrlreni, crnelger*. 

fen pertt de Wilmington, paetd per Town cvwk 18 Miles; I'ar 
iwood folly IB N ' de T. Greek (Pei eherlotl brige 8 Miles) 

l.'-8pa»»< par Cliarlott brige et par \V (iauss Bgq, (janibe de boil) 13 
la Tavern Kosh ou Lock wood folly. 

i.r Dfmenene '.» parti de die/. Potter. 71olenl ariitoorate. Au bord <le 

■muif.AUm, An.l- Mwft, Midi x).— C. S. B. 

•: . 
\ NemtutytU aOft I 8. S. 



18S8.] ■*-"* [Michaux. 

la mer vu Pisonia* inermis Arbrisscau baccifere, branches et feuilles 
opposees. II commence dans la Caroline septentrionale et il se trouve en 
Caroline meVidionale, dans la Georgie et dans la Floride &c . . . 

Vu aussi la Magnolia grandiflora a 6 miles nord de distance de la Ligne 
qui sGpare les deux Carolines. A onze beures et demie, je suis entre" dans 
la Caroline Meridionale ; a Midi passe par un Petit hameau compose de 4 
a 5 Maisons sur le bord de Little river habitee par deux franc/ris Demo- 
crates a qui j'ay eu la satisfaction d'apprendre les dernieres nouvelles 
favorables a la Republique franchise ; l'un d'eux nomme Jouvenceau en 
buvant avec un Americain Taurisf qui parloit avec mepris de la Revolu- 
tion franchise, lui porta deux coups de Poingts et l'Am. se vengea en lui 
lachant un coup de fusil dans le ventre. Ce Jouvenceau etoit un vieux 
soldat et il etoit au lit malade. Le Chirurgien esperoit q. le malade en 
rechapperoit non obstant le danger du malade. Led. Foster ne tient point 
tavern et de W m Gauss Esq 1 " chez Green il y a 15 Miles (II est important 
po. les Voyageurs de faire provisions d'un demi Gallon de Mays ou de 
Riz non battu, car . . . Couche chez Wren 9 M. de chez Green. 

Le 10 Passe sur Long Bay, au milieu environ 9 miles de distance de 
Wreen, dejeune chez la V e . . . comme la plupart des habitans sur 
cette Route ne tiennent point Taverne, .mais recoivent les Voyageurs, Ton 
ne peut pas exiger de la nourriture po. le Cheval, et je fus oblige de me 
contenter av. une Reception ties honngte, mais mon Cheval se passe 
[sans] dejeuner. Le mSme jour je vins coucher chez M r MacGill qui a 
6pou*4 une fille de la famille Balouin franc/iis refugie autrefois po. la 
Religion. Je fus tres bien recn dans cette Maison. Mais je fus oblige 
d'acheter des Negres du Riz pour la nourriture de mon cheval. 

Le onze a 12 Miles de distance dejeune - chez le D r Mazie et heureuse- 
ment la provision de Riz que j'avois emporte procura a dejeuner a mon 
Cheval excede par la fatigue dans les sables steriles que Ton trouve pend- 
ant plusi. jours : j'arrivay enfln a Pittcock ferry, 23 M. de dist. de chez 
MacGill. Mon Cheval ne pouvoit plus aller. Ce ferry est un peu plus 
has q. George town et il y a un Mile et demi po. traverser la Riv. et 4 M. 
po. arriver a Georgetown. Couche" a la maison du ferry mauvaise auberge 
mais mon cheval fut bien soiune\ 

Le 12 Mars 1794 traverse 1 la rivierre a la pointe du jour et je vins 
dejeuner ohez Cooke au lieu (lit Cook's ferry sur la rivierre Santee 12 miles 
de distance de Wackamaa river. 

Dine chez la V" Morell (tres bonne auberge po. les Chevaux). Je cou- 
chay a cet endroit 10 M. de distance de Cook's ferry ; en tout 22 miles 
sans les passages de rivierre tres longs et souvent dangereux. 

Le 13 parti de chez la V e Morell; a 7 miles detourne a droite po. venir 
a Manigault plantation: de Mauig: passe" a Wiggfall plant., Vu une phinte 
Justiciaf un peu avant d'entrer sur le champ cultive vers le milieu a 

* It is not evident to what plant this refers, as no Pisonia is found as far north as the 
boundary between the Carolinas.— C. S. S. 
t Tory.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] 108 [Oct. 19, 

gauche la route conduit au ferry de Clement: 5 Miles de distance de Wigg- 
fall. Vu Andromeda Wilmingtonia. Le soir arrive" a Clement's ferry par 
une route sablonneuse sans auberge et la plus desagreable et la plus inhos- 
pitable que Ton puisse voir depuis Philadelphie jusqu'a Charleston : 32 
miles environ de Morell tavern a Clement's ferry. 

Le 14 arrive" a Charleston 5 miles de Clements ferry. En general dans 
toute la Basse Caroline Septentrionale, Meridionale et la Georgie, les 
routeB sont sablonneuses, dangereuses au temps des Pluyes qui entrainent 
les Ponts ; les Auberges sont tres mauvaises, souvent il n'y en a pas aux 
habitations, Ton trcuvc q. quefois a dejeuner ou a diner m§me gratuite- 
ment, mais Ton seroit conside>e incivil de demander de la nourriture po. 
le Cheval ; le meilleur moyen est d'en porter avec soi quand Ton trouve 
a en acheter soit du Mays ou du Riz dit Rough rice. Lorsque je pouvois 
en acheter des Negres, je n'etois jamais d^pourvu, c'est po. quoi il faut 
toujours avoir de la petite monoye. 

Le dit : Visite" le Citoyen Mangourit Consul de la Republique franchise. 

Le 15 Visits le Jardin Botaniq. que j'avois confie" aux soins du Jardin. 
avant mon depart pour le Canada. 

Le Dimanche 16 dine chez le Citoyen Consul Mangourit. 

Le 17 je revins a mon habitat, et je reglai plusi. ouvrages relativement 
a la Culture. 

Le 18 je requs la Collection des Plantes que j'avois envoye" de Wilming- 
ton et je les plantay. 

Le 19 je fis transplanter un grand nombre d'arbros. 

Le 20 m8me travail. 

Le 21 rnSme travail. 

Le 22 confere" avec M. Mangourit sur 1'expeMition projetee par le Min- 
istre Genet pour la conqu8te de la Floride Orientale et de la Floride Occi- 
dentale. 

Le Dimanche 23 herborise. 

Le 24 herborise" et travaill<5 au Jardin ; taillo" et <5monde" les arbres de la 
Pepinu-re. 

Le 2.*» tail 14 et Imonde" et regl<5 au Jardinier les ouvrages a faire dans le 
coura de la semaine. 

I.- 26 je fus a Charleston.* 



Le 14 Juillet 1794 parti di l'habitation et coucbd a Monks corner; 
irquo" pn<* flu I'niit do Goose Creek : Eryngium foliis lanceolat. 

Le 13. a <l'-u\ inilli- df MonkH-cdnicr, Menispermum. . . . Smilax 
laurifolia en Hour: Pasm' pur Voiita spring et ensuite prcnant la Route 
de Maniguuli furry coiicli6 | 5 [ill] M. de distance. Hciminpio" souvent 
Serratula flttulosa, BtUotropium . . . ; Sida . . . Khexia . . , 
bMl cortico rungoeo. 

* Mem follow ivreral Muuk jingo* In thu Journal Tho next onlry is tinted July 
14. -C. S. 8. 



1888.] 109 [Michaux. 

Le 16 passe Manigault ferry a cause du debordement des eaux qui nous 
empgcha d'aller par Neilson ferry ; la Pluye dura toute la journee et nous 
vinmes coucher a l'entree du Territoire dit high hills Santee. 

Le 17 Juillet 1794 traverse high hills santee ; Remarque" Phlox . . . ; 
Coreopsis verticill. fol.ovatis ; Carduus Virginicus . . . Nous vinmes 
coucher a Stateborough. Terrein argilleux en partie et meilleur : Ch§ne 
rouge a longs petioles, glands courts sessiles et grossiers; ce n'est pas le 
m@me de Pensylvanie et du Canada et il est le vray Ch@ne ecarlatte de 
Wangenh. 

Le 18 passe par Cambdeu. En sortant de Cambden po. aller dans la 
Carol. Septentrion. on trouve a deux mille de dist. des Sables dits Pine 
barrens. A 4 ou 5 mi. il y a un Creek ou ruisseau (swamps) rempli de 
Sphagnum, Azalea, Eriophorum et autres PI. aquatiques parmi lesquelles 
sur le bord de la route Ton trouve un Kalmia* qui n'a ete" ducrit de per- 
sonne precedem nt et probablement il n'a jamais &e vu : Plante de la 
9 e classe Sophora a fl. jaune : Carduus Virginicus : Lupinus pilosus ; 
Couche" un mile au de la de cette Swamp et six miles de Cambden. 

Le 19 passe" par Johnston house et couche" chez W" 1 Graim 35 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 20 Juillet dejeune 3 M. avant d'arriver ch. John cry et 
couche 7 M. plus loin, maudite et detestable Tavern chez Huston. 

Le 21 parti de grand matin, la Pluye nous obligea d'arreter plusi. fois. 
Couche chez John Spring M d de Chevaux. homme riche, honnSte homme 
et dont la maison est tres honnete, et tres decente. Remarque Rhus gla- 
brum, Rh. a f. ailees entre les folioles ;\ Individus $ et $ ou plutot $> 
sur des pieds diflSrents ; Rhus . . . Delphinium . . . 

Le 22 passe" par Charlotte en Mecklenbourg, sol argille rouge, Pierres 
Quartzeuses : Eaux claires au lieu que cy devant ; les Eaux ont la cou- 
leur de feuilles mortes ou Tabac sec : Vegetation ChSne rouge, noir, blanc 
&c. &c. Actea spicata. 



Couche" a six miles de Tuck a-Segee ford. 

Le 23 passe par Ben. Smith situe a vingt miles de Charlotte. Deux et 
trois miles avant d'y arriver vu le Magnolia tomentoso-glauca fol. cordatis 
longiorib: Stewartia nova? $ Couch£ a six miles de B. Smith. 

Le 24 passe" par Lincoln et dine" chez Reinhart : Calamus aromaticus : 
couche" chez le vieux cordonnier . . . 

Le 25 passe chez Henry Watner, maintcnant Robertson. 

Le 26 arrive a Morganton cy devant Burke court house 30 M. dc Rob- 
ertson. Frutex Calycantha facies &. 

Le Dimanche 27 Juillet 1794, sejourne a cause de la Pluye et des 
(Creeks) Torrens que Ton ne pouvoit traverser qu'a la nage. 

Le 28 sejourne\ 

• Probably his Kalmia cuneata, Flora, 1. p. 257.— C. 8. 8. 

t R. copallina, L.— C. S. S. 

t Probably S. pentagyna, L'Her.— C. 8. 8. 



Michaux.] HO [Oct. 19, 

Le 29 parti et couche chez John Ratherford pres de la maison du quel 
passu sur un Pont Muddy Creek. 

Le 30 revenu dans la route ordinaire qui conduit a Turkey cove et ar- 
rive chez le nomme Ainswort. 

Le 31 herborise sur les Lineville hautes montagnes au Sud-Est del'habi- 
tation d'Aiuswort et sur Rochers et les montagnes denuees d'arbres 
recueilli un petit arbrisseau Clethra buxifolia?* 

Le Vendredy premier Aoust herborise" sur des Montagnes dont le sol 
est tres riche, situees au N.-Est : Veratrum viride, album? Convallaria 
majalis, Convallaria ? umbellata ; mesure un Tulipier de 23 pieds francois 
de circonference. 

Le samedy 2, herborise aux Montagnes du Nord ; Convallaria umbel- 
lata, f fol. integris margine et . . . X lanuginosis, floribus umbellatis, 
baccis coeruleis; Conv. racemosa ;§ Conv. multiflora, || Conv. majalis fol. 
iniegerrim. nudis tloiib. racemo simplici secundis baccis cseruleis. 

Le Dimanche 3 Aoust 1794, herborise dans les Cyperoides et autres 
plantes aquatiques. 

Le 4 prepare au voyage de la Moutagne noire (Black montain"). 

Le 5 differe a cause du manque de provisions. 

Le 6 parti et arrive au lieu dit Crab tree : Plantes remarquees Azalea 
lutea,*[ stylis longissimis ; Veratum viride, album. 

Le 7 herborise sur les montagnes aux environs de Crabtree : Clethra 
montana ; Cassine . . . ; Rhodod. maximum ; Kalmia lalifolia ; Con- 
vallaria bifolia ; Trillium cernuum erectum bacca coccinea ; Magnolia 
auriculata, acuminata flore glauca.; Frutex Azaliae facies ; Vaccinium** 
fol. margine ciliatis, supurnce reticulatis pedunculis axillarib. unilloris 
corollis revolutis, 4-partitis, staminibus 8, Genuine infero bacca pyriforme 
coccinea quadriloculari : Cypripedium calceolaria duae species, Veratrum 
viride (sur les collines), album ; Melanthium . . . Veratrum luteum 
dans les Ruisseaux ; Spiraea (paniculata) trifoliata ;ft Robinia psi-udo- 
acacia, viscosa, hispida: Monarda coccinea, dans les ruiss. fistulosa ; Quer- 
cus prinus-glauca. 

Lfl 8 hcrborix- Hainamelis . . . Nyssa . . . Halcsia tetrap- 
tera ; Cmivallaria majalis 7 l)accis flavis ; Conv. umbellata baccis coeru- 
leis. 

* Letopkplbm b%ut(fitimm, iar< pnrtratwi, Qnyf— G, s. 8, 

1 . 8. 8. 
: l in- »..r.| i.i Qlaglbk In Ui'- iniiinwcrlpt.— C. 8. 8. 
t Smilacina raremomt, Dvttf.— C. 8 8. 
I PotygoMitum Ujtoium, Kll.— r. %. 8. 
f AfUra ralmd ulacea, Mi< h.\ 0.1.8. 

•• i uyum, tltchx Tlio fruit <>f tills species, howevor, when fully 

ripe U •juttr i. lurk ii 1 1 • i imi M-iirlot iu described hero tod in tht 91am: ■ Htftaka 

b hw been often OOpMd Bf AiiiitIchii liotmii.-t- -ii |)m iIiiv.m of IfMDMUE. In 

Wolaou'a DendrvUmia BrUan, | :il, It in .1 . .- blink, uu.l ou.vcily 

/lirunxl -C. 8. 8. 

MtHia trtfUiala, Mumch. T-C. 8. 8. 



1888.] Ill [Michaux. 

Le 9 continue mes herborisations : Abies canadensis, Abies nigra? fol. 
undiq. sparsis : Spirea , . . , Sp. . . . Pinus strobus. 

Le Dimanche 10 Aoust 1794 arrive au pied de Black montain : Podo- 
phyllum ?* floribus . . . baccis ceruleis : Vaccin. coccineum : Fagus 
castanea americana &c 

Le 11 arrive s-ur le cote . . . de Black Montain. Abies nigra ; 
Diervilla ; Acer pensylvanicum ; Sedum foliis inferiorib. dentatis, supe- 
riorib. integris ; Sorbus aucuparia ;f Rubus odoratus ; Rhododendron 
maximum, Kalmia latifolia, Vaccin. stamineum, resinosum ; Andromeda 
arborea, axillaris, racemosa ; Clethra montana ; frutex Azaleae facies ; 
VitisJ fol. inferne tomentosis, baccis magnis (fox grapes, fruit bon a 
manger) 

Le 12 revenu de la montagne. 

Le 13 arrive" a l'habitation du S r Ainsworth. 

Le 14 Brouillard £pais et difficulte de parcourir les hautes montagnes, 
herborise" dans les Vallees. 

Le 15 Pluye. 

Le 16 voyage" vers la Montagne jaune et Roung mountain, arrive sur 
Towe River|| Bright Settlem"'- Les principaux habitans de cet EtablUse- 
ment sont Davinport, Wiseman . . . 

Herborise 1 : Azalea coccinea, lutea, flava, alba et rosea : toutes ces varie- 
ties del'Azalea nudiflora se trouvent dans ce territoire ; Vaccinium cran- 
berry afflniie a l'Oxicoccus ; Pinus Strobus, Abies Canadensis &c &c. 
Gaultheria procumbens ; Epigea repens. 

Le Dimanche 17 agree avec un Chasseur^ pour aller sur les Montagnes. 

Le 18 herborise" et decrit plusi : plantes de la Syngenesie frustanee, 
Helianthus atrorubens, Rudbeckia &c &c. 

Le 19 parti pour aller vers les hautes montagnes. 

Le 20 herboris6 dans les Montagues: Acer pensylvanicum, canadense &c. 

Le 21 Aoust 1794 arrive au sommet de Rouu-mountain : reconnu en 
abondance un petit arbuste** a feuilles de Buis quej'avois designe prc- 
c6dement Ledum buxifolium, mais dont la capsule est a trois loges et 
s'ouvre par le sommet : flores pedunculati, terminales, plurimi, (in mense 
Junio floret). Cal. profunde 5-partitus, laciniis angustis horizontales post 
efflorescentiam, approximatis : Petala 5 ovata seu obcordata, apice obtusa 
sub receptaculo inserta, plana, decidua, nivea ; Stam. decern, fllam. longi- 
tudine corolla?, erecto-patentia, alba ; Antherae subrotunda?, didynne, 
versatiles, pallide rubric ; Germen ovatum Stylus flliformis, longitudine 

* This is probably his Diphyllein cymosa; Flora, i, 203, 1. 19 and 20.— C. S. 8. 
t Pyrus Americana, D. C. — C. 8. 8. 
I ]'itis iMbrusca, L.— C. S. S. 
§ The now well known Roan Mountain.— C. 8. S. 
|| Toe River.— C. S. 8. 
1f Davinport. 

** Leiophyllum buxifolium, Ell. var. prostratum.— Gray. One of the common and most 
characteristic plants found on the summit of the Roan.— C. S. 8. 



Michaux.] 114 [Oct. 10, 

starninum, Stigma obtusura ; Capsula trilocularis . . . Frutex buxi- 
lolia, sempervirens . . . 

Potentilla tridentata ; Sorbus aucuparia : Pinus abies balsamifera &c. # 

Le 22 arrive au sommet de la Montagne Jaune Yellow mountain. 

Le 23, Retourne a l'babitations de Davinport. 

Le Dimanche 24 Aoust 1794, mis en ordre mes Collections. 

Le 25 Pluye. 

Le 26 parti pour Grand-Fatber mountain, Montagne la plus elevee de 
toutes celles qui forment la chaine des Alleghany et des Appalaches.f 

Le 27 arrive au pied de la plus haute montagne. 

Le 28 Monte et arrive jusqu'aux Rochers. 

Le 29 continue mes herbor : parmi les Mousses diverses, les Pinus Abies 
balsamifera, Abies nigra, Acer pensylvanicum &c &c &c. 

Le 30 Monte au sommet de la plus haute montagne de toute l'Am. Sept. 
et avec mon compagnon Guide, chante 1'hymne des Marseillois et crie 
Vivre l'Amerique et la Republiq. Francaise, Vive la Liberte &c «fcc. 

Le Dimanche 31 Pluye toute la journee et reste" au Camp. 

Le Lundy 1" Septembre 1794 revenu a l'habitation de mon guide 
Davin Port. 

Le 2 Pluye et herborise. 

Le 3 redige" mes Collections 

Le 4 liieme travail. 

Le 5 parti po. Table Mount. 

Le 6 Visito les rochers de la Montagne Hock-bill et de Table Montagu. 
Ces montag. sont tres steriles et l'Arbuste nouveau Ledum? buxifolium 
est la scule plante rare que s'y trouve. II y est en abondance. Couche 
a G miles de distance chez . . . Park's. 

Le Dimanche 7 parii pour Burke court house ou Morganton, couche" 
chez le General Mac Douwal ; vu aupres sa maison Spirea tomentosa en 
abondance. 

De Burke chez John Wagely env. 12 M. 

De John Wagely chez Tli. Young . . . 
De Thomcs Young ch. Davin Port 8. 

Le 8 Septembre arriv6 a Burke court house ou Morganton ; Visite le 
Col. Avery et couche chez lui. 
Le 9 au soir parti de Morganton, couche" a 8 M. de distance. 
Rencontre mi habitant de Stateboroug, M r Atkinson qui m'a invite a 
alter chez lui. 
Le 10 arriv<5 chez Robertson, 80 M. de Morganton. 

tm Fnurri, Mndley. At tho time ot Michaux'M visit the cones, if any were pro- 
duced that year, were nearly fully grown, and it Is rumarkahlu that ho did not notice their 

long exaerted brmcU and detect a dUfelunt -| leu. It H pmltthle that misled hythe 

geoetal reeemblanoe of thUipeclee with tho Northern A. Ixilmmn,, that lie did not criti- 
cally examine the Ma Vhltth ■bOMd Jimi I ..-low thr summit. It In mon- remarkable that 
OO mention l» matla In the Journal of the thicket* of lOiniloilnulion QlftMHtlfiHIM. which 
U nowhere ulaeaote* and luxuriant aa near the Miininit of the Roan.— C. 8. 8. 

t No l«M than II fly iMiakit In the Alleghany nyMi-in. Including both the Koan ami 
tboee of thu Mack Mountain*, are now known to exceed the lirandlaiher in elevation. -- 
CS.I. 



113 



[Michaux. 



Le 11 venu coucher chez Reinhart Lincoln court house 15 M. de Robert- 
son. 

Le 12 parti pour Yadkin River et Salsbury : couche a Catawba Spring 
18 miles de Lincoln. 

Le 13 passe a Betty's ford sur Catawba riv. 20 M. de Lincoln. Planta 
annua, ramosa, ramis oppositis, erectis, subtetragonis ; fol. ovata 3-nervia 
subsessilia : Peduncula axillares uniflori : Cal. 5-partitis basi calyculatus 
sq. duabus, foliolis calycinis ovalis, acuminatis, suberectis ; Corolla tubu- 
losa, tub. cylindricus, longitudine calycis, Limbus irregularis 5-partitus, 
laciniis ovatis duab. superiorib. rectis : Stain. 4 didynamiae, filamenta longi- 
tudine corollae, filiformia ; Antherae subrotundae ; Germ, tetragonum, 
Styl. filiformis, longitud. staminum : Stigma 2-fidum, lacineae aequales : 
Semina 4 in fundo calycis, ovata, rugosa. Planta annua in mense Julii 
August floret : Flores cerulei, fllam. et pistillum cerulei (Antherae hya- 
cintba colore)* Habitat in remotis Virginia. 1 , Carolinae-Sept. in locis 
saxosis.f 

Couche" dans une ferme a 8 M. avant d'arriver a Salsbury ou est la 
jonction et le point de reunion des trois routes de Philadelpbie de Charles- 
ton et de Kentuckey. 

, Le Dimanche 14 passe" par Salsbury, ville dont l'apparence est moins 
miserable que celles des autres villes de la Carol. Sept. dites C. house. 50 
M. de Lincoln, a Salsbury. Continue ma route pour Fayette ville. passe 
Yadkin river et couche" a 14 Miles de Salsebury. 

Le 15 passe plusieurs Creeks et des Montagnes basses mais tres pierreuses. 

Le 16 partie de la route tres pierreuse. Vu le Magnol. acuminata florib. 
luteis : Collinsonia tuberosa, Ensuite entre dans un sol sablonneux : 
Couche chez Martin, Store Keeper. 

Le 17 continue a travers les Collines sablonneuses. 

Le 18 arrive a 6 Miles de Fayette ville. Perdu mes deux Chevaux. 

Le 19 et 20 employe ces deux jours a chercher mes chevaux. 

Le Dimanche 21, trouve l'un des deux et . . . 

Le 22 arrive de nouveau a Fayette ville, cy devant Cross-Creek. La 
Riv. Cap Fear passe aupres de cette ville. Vu dans mes herborisations 
des marecages qui environnent cette ville, Cupressus disticha, thyoides, 
souvent ensemble. And. Wilmingtonia, Nyniphaea hastata.}: 

Le Mardy, 23 Septembre 1794 parti de Fayette ville apres avoir eu la 
satisfaction de lire les Nouvelles arriv^es de Philad* la veille concern' les 
glorieux succes de la Republique. Couche chez le Vieux (?) Mac-Cay. 
15 M. de Fayette ville sur la route de Salisbury. 

Le 24 pris a main gauche la route de Charleston et passe Drowned 
Creek a Mac Lawchland bridge : Mais la route la plus direct de Fayette- 
ville a Charleston est de venir a Widow Campbell Bridge 40 (?) Miles 

* Verd d'eau. 

f Imnthus ccervleus, Michx. — C. S. S. 

% Nuphar sagittsefolium, Pursh. ?— C. S. S. 

PKOC. AMEll. PHIL08. SOC. XXVI. 129. O. PRINTED MARCH 25, 1889. 



Miehaux.] 114 [Oct. 19, 

de Fayette. De Widow Campbell Bridge a Gum-swamp 10 Miles de la 
Ligne qui separe la Carol. Septeutrionale de la Caroline Merid. 

Le 25 passe par Gum-Swamp et couche a 8 Miles au de la de Fayette- 
ville. 

Vu le Cupressus thyoides et le Cupressus disticha en plusi. Swamps : 
Vu 1' Andromeda Wilmingt. en abondance danstoutes les Swamps ; Liqui- 
dambar peregrinum &c. A 2 Miles de Gum Swamp Ton entre dans la 
Caroline Meridionale. 

Le 26 passu par Long Bluff petit bameau situe a 2 Miles au Sud de la 
riv. Big Pedee 74 M. de Fayetteville. 

Le 27 passe par Black-Swamp, 22 M. de Long Bluff. 

Colon. Benton. 12 M. de L. Bluff. 

Black Creek 10 M. de L. Bl. 

Jefferis Creek 10 M. de L. Bl. 

Le Dimancbe 28 passe par Lynch's Creek. 40 M. de L. Bl. 

Le 29 passe par Black river 30 M. de Lyncb Creek. Le nomme Lorry 
tient le ferry de Black river. 

Le 30 arrive a Maurice ferry sur la Riv. Santee 15 Miles de Black riv. 
et 20 M. de Monk's corner. 

Le passage du ferry etoit dangereux et je fus oblige d'aller a Lenoue 
ferry. II y a 25 M. de Maurice ferry a Lenoue ou Lenew's ferry. 

Le l cr Octobre 1794 parti de Lenew's ferry et passe par Strawberry's 
ferry 25 M. de Lenew's ferry et 28 M. de Charleston : Arrive a l'habitat. 
pres Ten M. house. 

Le 2 parti pour Charleston. 

Occupy jusque vers la fin de Novcmbre a recueillir les Plantes d'Au- 
tomne. Vers le 10 Octobre la fievre du climat s'e3t empare de moi. Je 
l'ay garde" environ douze jours et j'ay etc plus de six semaines a bien me 
retablir. Travaille tant a rep&rer le Jardin qu' a mettre en ordre mes 
Collections de Plantes jusqu' a la fin de Dcceinb. 

Le 30 Germinal l'un :! c do In Rcpublique franc, aise Une et Indivisible 
(Dimancbe l'.t Avril 17'.I5 vieux style) parti pour idler herboriser dans les 
bautcs Montagnes des Carolines et pour visiter ensuite les Pays de l'Ouest 
tern territories;, l'lantes vues avaut d'arriver a Monk's corner: 
Heuclierii . . . , V 68, Sinilax herbncca erecta, Melanipo- 

dlanl • • • Polyg. neeess. Silene Virgiuica, Phlox lanceolata alors 
en lleiir, Valeriana. Couehea l"» M House. 

I..- 10 Floreal, CJH Avril,) environ de qnarante cinq Mile liou^e, Vale- 
riana; 8 Miles avant NeiNon's terry <• miplmliuin dioleutn, I'vnlaria'.' . . . 
\vril. arbre nouveau de la riv. Santee a fenille d'onne fructus 
IMttU uuiric.ita, semen iinic nm, siiboviitmn.* 

Ce§ gralnes 6tolent alors prciq. mures , Celtla occidentalli lleurs . . .f 

et II. Iliilb- in! 

. '■ Oh. 

• lUnrrn w/wil M. 8. 

| A .» Illegible in tin- iiuuiiMcrliit.— C. 8. U. 



1888.] 115 JMichaux. 

Le 21 Avril reinarque sur High-hills Santee ; Phlox a fleurs blanches 
et Phlox a fl. roses, deux especes diflerentes, tres petit Phlox a feuilles 
lanceolees ; Vu aux envi. de Monk's corner Lupinus hirsutus en fl. Dine 
chez D r . . . ; couche a Statesboroug. 

Le 22 passe par Cambden, cinq miles au de la Ralinia nouveau, il n'etait 
pas encore en fl. Couche a 10 M. au de la Cambden. 

Le 23 Av. passe par Flat rock, par Hanging rock Creek et couche a 
Cane Creek, Lancaster county chez le nomme M r May ; pendant la nuit 
mon cheval s'echappa, en suivant les traces, on vit qu'il avoit passe chez 
. . . Lee Esq. 

Le 24 je fus oblige de le chercher toute la journee. M r Lee envoya 
son fils et son negre aussi po. le chercher. II me fit procurer un Cheval 
po. aller, apres il m'invita a venir loger chez lui ; il me combla de civil- 
ites. 

Le 25, le cheval vint de lui-mSine a la maison de M r Lee : Plantes sur 
le Creek ; Dodecatheon Meadia, Asarum Canadense, Claytonia Virginica, 
Erj'thronium dens-leonis. 

Le Dimanche 26 Avril, parti de Cane Creek, passe par Land'sford sur 
Catawba river. Mais la vray route est de Cane Creek demander la mai- 
son ou Plant, de Col. Crawford sur Waxsaw, ensuite passer MacClean 
Hands ferry sur Catawba ; De la, droit a Iron works dit Hills Iron Works, 
cxploites par le Colon, hill. 

Ainsi de Cane Creek a Waxsaw . . . Miles : De Waxsaw a Iron Works, 
York county . . . 

Le 27 passe Iron Works environ 32 miles de Cane Creek. 

Le 28 passe par Armstrong ford sur la brauche meridionale de Catawba, 
12 miles de Iron Work. 

Le dit. jo. passe par l'habitation de Bennet Smith sur laquelle il y a un 
. . . Magnolia 12 Miles d'Armstrong ford. 

Le 29 pass6 par Lincoln 12 Miles de Bennet Smith et 36 miles de Iron 
Work. 

Le Jeudy 30 Avril pass6 par l'habitation du Bon homme Wilson, 9 M. 
de Lincoln et 6 M. de Robertson : 15 M. de Lincoln chez Robertson ; 
Arrive a Morganton 30 M. de Robertson. 

Le l er May passe la journee a Morganton et herborise" aux environs. 

Le 2 passe la journee chez le Colonel Avery, 4 miles de Morganton. 

Le Dimanche 3 May parti po. les Montagnes, a la distance de 14 Miles 
de Burke on trouve la maison de Wagely. 

Les Montagnes de Lineville au pied des quelles cette maison est situee 
abondent en Magnolia auriculata. lis etoient alors en fleur. De Wagely 
chez le Capt. Young, il y a 8 Miles. 

Le 4 May parti de chez Young. II y a 2 M. po. aller chez Ainswort, 
mais en prenant la main droite, Ton arrive au pied d'une ties haute Mon- 
tag. 3 M. de Young, le sommet est a 5 M. de chez Young. 

Du sommet de la Montagne ch. Y Bright dit Bright Settlem nt il y a 



Michaux.] llo [Oct. 19, 

3 M. et de Bright, ch. Davin Port 2 Mil. en tout 10 M. de Young chez 
Davin Port. 

Le 5 May herborise aux environs des habitations de Davin-P. et de 
Wiseman. 

Le 6 parti pour les Mont. scav. Roun Mountain et Yellow Mountain ; 
Toe River coule entre ces Mountains. Tous les Convallaria etoient en fl. 
ainsi q. les Podophyll. diphyll. et umbellatum. 

Le Dimanche 10 May 1795 revenu des Montagnes a l'habitat. de Davin 
Port. 

Le 11 herborise - sur les Montagnes en face de l'habit. II y a environ 3 
Miles pour aller au sommet des Bleue Ridges sur la partie nomrafcllomp- 
back ; sur les premieres Montagnes l'on voit en tres grande abondance 
l'Azalea fol. apice glandulosis ; Azalea lutea. II n'y a pas d'autres 
Azalea sur les Collines qui environnent les habitations des nomnids Davin 
Port et Wiseman que cette espece a fl. jaune. Celui qui horde les Rivi- 
irres est communem"' celui a fl. incarnates et celui a fl. blanches. * 

Le 12 monte" au sommet des Blueridges Rhododendrons minus en fleur, 
Cypripedium luteum. 

Le 13 May parti pour continuer mon voyage. Arrive" a Midy au pied de 
Yellow Mountain 10 Miles. Le soir venu coucher chez John Miller 12 M. 
de la Montagnes. Ainsi il y a 22 Miles de Davin Port chez Miller ; a un 
$ mile l'on commence a traverser Doe River. 

Le 14 cotoye" et traverse" Doe river au nombre de 27 fois. Elle est dan- 
gereuse lorsque les eaux sont fortes. Couche" chez le Colonel Tipton 20 
Miles de chez Miller. 

Le 15 passe par Johnsboroug 10 Miles de l'habitation dn Col. Tipton et 
84 Miles de Burke C. house. Couche" chez Anthony Moore pres Noley- 
chukey river. Pendant la nuit mon cheval s'est echappe. 

Le 16, Dimanche 17, 18 employe a chercher mon cheval. 

Le 19 achete un autre cheval au prix de cinquante Doll, d'un habitant 
de Noley chukey, riv. nomine . . . Earnest voisin du nomme Andrew- 
Fox. Le Magnolia tripetala aliunde sur les rives de Noley Chukey. 

Le mercredy 20 May, passe par Green Court house 27 Miles de John's 
il>>rough et la route pour le Kentuckey en prenant la main droite et pas- 
sant par . . . ferry sur Holston river. En continuant tout droit, la 
route oondnil I Knoxville. En prenant a gauche un peu avant Green, la 
route eomluit a Frenelibroad. II ya 27M.de John Borough a Green 
( ourt house. 

.'1 pasre" par Bull's gap 18 M. de Green. 

Le 22 passe" par Iron Works :!() Miles de Bull's gap, II n'y a que quatre 
MUes distance a In rivierre dltfl lloulston riv. A deux miles de Iron 
WorkH. il y a Uii Koeher de iniiitral dont les lnoteeaux Hani hroyes et uii.s 

en poodra donnent una teiattutj tottge au eetan ; l'on lait botttHlx ee inin- 

enil Ac. 

Le 28 mon cheval 6tant bleu6, Je fus oblige Bb ItjOOJrfleT ■ un Mile de 
• Rhedodtndrv* arbon a eau, 1 %, 8. 



1888.] 1\* [Michaux. 

Iron Works sur Mossy Creek chez le nomme Newman ; Pres de sa mai- 
son, (£ mile) Ton trouve le mineral que je suppose etre de l'Antimoine. 

Le Dimanche 24, arrive* chez le Colonel King sur Houlston riv. au lieu 
dit Macby ferry 15 Miles de Iron Work. 

Le 25 passe" le ferry et arrive" a Knoxville, 15 miles de Macby ferry, resi- 
dence du Gouverneur des Western territories, 110 Miles de Johns bor- 
ough. Plantes et Arbres du Territoire de Knoxville et des Territoies 
adjacents : Quercus prinus saxosa ; Q. pr. humilis : Q. rubra ; Q. proe- 
morsa ; Q. tomentosa ; Q. pinnatifida ; Q. alba. . . . Ulmus viscosa ; 
Ulm. fungosa ; Fraxinus . . . Diospiros Virginiana ; Liquidambar 
styracifl. ; Juglans nigra, alba seu oblonga, hiccory pignut. Platanus 
occidentalis ; Nyssa aquatica ; Fagus castanea americana ; Fag. pumila ; 
Fag. sylvatica americana; Magnolia acuminata; Betula alnus americanus; 
Cercis Canadensis ; Cornus florida ; Evonimiis latifolius, Evon. Ameri- 
canus ; Podophyllum peltatum ; Jeffersonia ; Sanguinaria Canadensis ; 
Trillium sessile. 

Reste toute la semaine a Knoxville et herborise aux environs en attend- 
ant une caravanne asses nombreuse pour passer les Wilderness. 

Le Dimanche 31 May rec,u avis de vingt cinq voyageurs amies sur le 
point d'arriver a Knoxville. 

Le Lundy l er Juin 1795, vieux style, le voyage fut encore differe. 

Le Jeudy 4 Juin parti de Knoxville et couche a 15 miles chez le captain 
Camel au lieu dit Camel station. 

Le Vendredy 5, couche au lieu dit West Point sur Clinch river, Poste de 
soldats pour garder les frontieres du territoire, 25 M. de Camel station. 

Le 6 parti et traverse la rivierre dans un Bacq ou ferry dependant de 
West Point station. Notre marche fut de 10 Miles. Le nombre des 
Voyageurs etoit de 15 hommes amies et plus de trente femmes et enfants. 

Le Dimanche 7 Juin traverse les Montagnes dites Cumberland Moun- 
tains, 22 Miles. 

Le 8 continue notre marche dans les Montagnes 23 Miles, Magnolia pe- 
talis basi purpureis.* 

Le mardy 9 Juin 1795, monte et descendu alternativem at les Montagnes. 
Dans les fonds Magnolia tripetala en abondance, 25 Miles. 

Le 10 arrive sur Cumberland River, 10 Miles et couche au de la 20 Miles. 

Le 11 arrive a Blodsoe Lick ou Blodsoe station, 20 Miles. En totality 
120 Miles de Willderness. 

Couche a cet endroit ou Ton trouve de quoi vivre pour les hommes et 
pour les Chevaux. 

Le Vendredy 12, venu a un Mile chez le Colonel Winchester ; couche 
deux nuits pour me reposer et reposer mon Cheval. 

Le Dimanche 14 herborise. 

Le 15 venu chez un habitant pres la Rivierre Cumberland M ter - Jack- 

* Probably M. mncrophyUa, Michx. Iu the Flora it is described as growing only " in 
regiuuibus occidentalibus fluvio Tennassee traJectu."—C. S. S. 



Michanx] 1 -*■" [Oct. 19, 

son terrein fertile. Chencs, Quercus prinus : Q. rubra, Q. glandibus mag- 
nis, eapsula includentibus, nommes Overcup White Oak.* Q. tomentosa ,f 
Q. prsemorsa. 25 Miles. 

Le 16 arrive a Nashville 12 Miles. 

Total 197 Miles de Knoxville a Nashville, eapitale des Etablissements 
de Cumberland situee sur la riv. Cumberland. 

Le 17 visite difterentes personnes. Daniel Smith, Col. Robertson, Capt. 
Gordon, . . . Deaderick, D r White, Th. Craighead, &c &e. 

Les jours suivans herborise. 

Arbres du Territoire de Nashville ; 

Quercus prinus ; Q. phellos latifolia ; Q. pinnatifida ; Q. foliis lyratis 
subtus tomentosis calycibus maximis margine laciniatis glandib. includ- 
entibus Vulgo; Over cup White Oak ;% Q. rubra: Q, tomentosa; Acer 
Raecharum, A. negundo, A. rubrum : Jugl. nigra, oblonga, hiccory : Plata- 
n us occidentals ; Liquidamber styraciflua ; Ulmus viscosa fuugosa ;§ Car- 
pinus Ostrya americana ; Rhamnus Alaternus latifolius, Rh. frangula ?|| 
frutex prunifer ; Juniperus Virginiana. Rives de Cumberland rivierre 
Philadelph. ined. ; Aristolochiasipho-tom;^[ Mimosa erectaherbacea ; Mi- 
rabilis** clandestina seu umbellata seu parviflora ; Hypericum Ealmian> 
grandiflorum.-ft 

Sol de Nashville argilleux, pierreux, Roches calcaires a peu pres comme 
celui du Kentuckey, situation des Roches horizontales, rarement des 
Veines de Quartz dans les Roches, abondantes en petrifications marines. 

Le Dimanche 21 .Tuin 1795 tue et depouille qq. oiseaux. 

Oiseaux : Robin, Cardinal, Tetrao, Lanius Tyrannus rare, Quant ite du 
Genre Muscicapa ; peu d'especes du Genre Picus : Dindes sauvag. Quad- 
rupcdes : Rat musque, Castor, Elk, Cerfs nains, Ours, Buflalos, Loups, 
Ecureuils petits gris. 

Mineraux : sol argilleux. Roches calcaires touj. dans une situation 
horizontale ; Ardoises impures, schistus tabularis ; Petrifications de co- 
quillages terrestres et des eaux donees. 

La lumlv 98 Jain 1795 (V. st.) 4 de Messidor Van 3 e de la Republ., parti 
I i-.li villo pour le Kentuckey; passe" par Mansko's Lick, 12 miles de 
Nashville ; couche chez le Major Sharp. 29 M. de Nashville. 

I. ■ M :t:t\ -itm' \\m Bftl !t»n oaks et couchu sur . . . Creek. Tl n'y a 
uucune maison dans cet interval. Le Terrein ne prod, q, des chSnes Qolrs 
N M. 

Le 24 passfi par Rig Rarren Riv : Celui qui tient le Ferry Mt bien fourni 
il> -provisions. II y a 3 Miles de Creek . . . 

• Qiurretu MMTOMyM, MIHix.. Iwtt BM tttHflO<4 tt fc 8. 

. UiiM •'. 8. 8. 

i i ai.ii 

I Rhnmwi | — C. 8. 8. 

I 
.'•m, 8woot. -C. 8. 8. 

> //W»«r(eumoi«rw«,B«rtrnMi.— ('. 8.8. 



1888.] 119 [Mlchaux. 

Traverse les Barrens et eouche sur terre sane feu et sans laisser paitre 
mon chev. a l'ecartde crainte des Sauv. 

Le 25 passe" par Little Barren Riv. prem. habitation 43 M. de Big Bar- 
ren Riv. Passe ensuite par Green River 6 Miles de Little Barren River. 

Le 26 passe par Roland fork, head of Salt River 30 Miles de Green 
Riv. 

Le 27 arrive a Danville 35 M. de Roland old fork. 

Nashville a Danville la plus ancienne ville du Kentukey 117 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 28 Juin repose. 

Le 29 depouille trois Ecureuils ray6s (Sciurus striatus.) 

Le 39 herborise. 

Le Mercredy l er Juillet 1795 visites ehez plusieurs habitants. 

Le 2 pluye" continuelle. 

Le 3 mis en ordre mes anciennes Collections. 

Le 4. 

Le Dimanche 5 Juillet. * 

Le Dimanche 12 Juillet dine chez le Gouverneur de l'Etat de Kentuckey 
Isaac Shelby. 

Le jeudy 16 Juillet 1795 party de Danville. 

Le 17 passe par Beardston quaraute trois Miles de Danv. 

Le 18 arrive chez Standford pies Man's Lick. 

Le Dimanche 19 reste pour attendre mon Baggage. 

Le 20 reste, et etant oblige" de sojourner, observe" les Ouvrages concern- 
ant la fabrication du Sel. Les Puits pour tirer l'eau salee sont creus£s a 
. . . pieds environ de profondeur. L'on trouve une argille bourbeuse 
jusqu'a . . . pieds de profondeur. Ensuite . . . pieds d'une 
roche d'ardoise. Lorsque Ton a perce la roche, on trouve l'eau salee de 
plus de . pieds de profondeur. Cette ardoise brule dans le feu 

comme 6i elle etoit impregn^e de bitume ou entierement composee de 
cette substance. L'on a trouve" des ossements de ces grands corps inarins 
qui sont asses frequents sur les rives de l'Ohio, dans l'argille impure que 
l'on creusa pour arriver jusqu'a la roche d'ardoise. 

Le 21 Juillet, arrive a Louisville 40 M. de Beardstown. 

Le 22 et le 23 sejourne et herborise. 

Le 24 retourne a Manslick 16 M. de Louisville. 

Le 25 revenu a Louisv. 

Le Dimanche 26 Juillet herborise. 

Plantes des environs de Louisville: Quercus cerroides.f Q. rubra; Q. 
alba; Q. prinus ; Liriodendron ; Fagus castanea, F. sylv.; Rhus fol. 
alatis dioique ; Hibiscus}: fol. hastatis calyce exteriore lacin. subulatis flore 
pallide ro6eo ;§ 

* A part of oue leaf of the Journal Is here left blank.— C. 8. S. 
t Probably some form of Quercus alba, Michx. — C. S. S. 
X Hibiscus militant, Cav. (//. ha^tattif, Michx.) — c. S. S. 

I Here follow to the end of this part of the Journal separate memoranda on loose 
sheets. -C. S. S. 



Michaux.] l2.\J [0ct 19( 

Observat. sur les vignes d'Am. Lincoln, Carol, sept. Vitis fol. tomen- 
tosis baccis majorib. : fructifie au commencement d'Aoust, est nomme fox 
grapes.* 

2) Vitis fol. tomentosis baccis minoribus, fructifie vers le 10 Septembre 
est nomine" Summer grape est le meilleur de tous a manger et tres bon si 
on le laisse entierem 1 murir.f 

3) Vitis fol. glabris baccis majorib. est aussi repute bon a manger et 
a faire du vin, Muscadin grapes par les babitans, fructifie vers le 20 Sept. % 

4) Vitis fol. glabris reticulat : baccis minorib, croit au long des ruisseaux 
et des rivierres. Winter grapes. § 



Supplement. — 5) Vitis fol. crenatis acuminatis glabris caule repente, 
Vitis repens. seu Vitis riparia. 
(A. Charleston Juillet. 
Sol. se lasse couche a 7 h env. 
Aoust 5 h 15' . . . 6.45 a 0.30. 
Septembre 5.45 . . . 6.15.) 



Cahier 9. 1795 et 1796. 
Annee 1795. 



Le Samedy premier Aoust prepare a partir pour les Wabash et les 
Illinois. 

Le Dimanche 2 je fus invite a diner chez un francos nomme La Cassagne 
resident a Louisville depuis plus de 15 Ans. 

Arbres arbrisseaux et Plantcs du territoire de Louisville 

Liriodendnm tulipifura ; Platanus occidentalis ; Acer rubrum foliis in- 
ferno argenteis ; Fagus sylvatica americana : Quercus rubra, Q. alba, Q. 
pnrmorea, | Q. prinus, Q. cerroides ;| Tilia americana; Juglans nigra, 
Jugl. alba, Jugl. hiccory, (Jugl. pacane rare) ; Gleditsia triacanthos, 
Guilandina dioica. 

Le Dinmnche 9 Aoust 1795 parti d« Louisville et couch6 a Clarksville 
mi miles de Louisville sur la Rive opporte de l'Ohio. 

Le 10 nous nous ■ommei nil m route et nous sonmics arrive au Post 
Viiuennes situd sur la Kivicrre Wabash le .leudy au soir 13 Aoust : La 
Distance est ^valine cent vingt cinq Miles : Nous avons traverse uuo 

« IsAntica, U— ( '. S. 8. 

S. 8. 
Mi.-lix.- C. 8. 8. 
| It U not clear what 8pecloa are here refenrd to. </ pnrmnrm In probabl] Q, macro- 
enrpa, and Q rtrroldt* mine form ofQ. aDxi, uIUuhikIi later 1m the Journal ll l* spoken of 
a* au ovorcup oak.— C. M. 8. 



1883.] \2i\. [Michaux. 

Rivierre le jour de notre arrivee environ 20 miles avant d'arriver au Post 
Vincennes et quoique les Eaux fussent alors tres basses, nous fumes sur 
la point de faire un Radeau, car le Pays n'est point habite sur cette Route. 
C'est de tous les Voyages que j'aye fait en Amerique depuis 10 ans un des 
plus penibles par la multitude d'Arbres renverses par les ouragans, par 
les broussailles epaisses que Ton est oblige de traverser ; par la quantity 
de Tiques dont on est devore &c. 

Le 14, le 15 et le Dimanche 16 Aoust je fus oblige 1 de me reposer, etant 
arrive' presque malade. Mon cheval en sautant pour passer sur le tronc 
d'un gros arbre renvers6, tomba et me jeta a une grande distance etje 
ius pendant plusi. jours incommode d'une blessure au bas de la Poitrine 
vers le cot6 gauche parce que la batterie de mon fusil avoit port 6 sur 
cette partie. 

Le 17 je passay une partie de la journee a herboriser au long de la 
Rivierre Wabash. 

Je continuay mes herborisations les jours suivans. 

Le 18 Aoust 1795. 

Liste des Plantes remarquees aux Wabash. 

No. l er Verbena* urticifolia caule erecto, paniculis divaricate, bracteis 
flore brevioribus, florib. albis. 

No. 2. Verbenaf , caule erecto paniculis fastigiatis erectis, 

bracteis et calycib. pilosis, florib. purpureo-ceruleis. 

No. 3. Verbena}: caule recto, paniculis rectis foliis ovatis, tomentosis, 
d u pi icato-serratis. 

No. 4. Verbena . . 

No. 5. Verbena^ caule repente, foliis pinnatifldis, braeteis longissimis. 

Silphium perfoliatum, S. connatum, S. laciniatum, S. grandifolium, S. 
trifoliatum, S. pinnatlfldum. Andropogon muticum ; Holcus? . . . : 
Poa . ; Quercus cerroides Ch§ne fris^ Overcup White Oak ; 

Quercus latifolia Chene a latte Ram's Oak : Quercus . . . Polygonum 
aviculare staminib. 5, Styl. 3 : Polyg. aviculare majus staminb. 5, Styl. 3. 
Trifolium? pentandrum majus; Trifolium? pentandrum floribus pur- 
pureis : Sanicula || marylandica ou Racine a Becquel par les Francais des 
Illinois et Sakintepouah par les'Sauvuges Pians : La racine en d coction 
est un souverain remede pour plusi. maladies et pour les maladies veneri- 
euses inveterees. 

Le Dimanche 23 Aoust 1795 parti de Post Vincennes situe' sur la Rivierre 
Wabash pour les Illinois sur le Mississippi, Nous avons fait 6 Miles 
et nous avons campe sur le bord d'une Petite Rivierre. Je n'avois 
d'autre compagnie qu'un Sauvage et sa femme. J'avois loue" le Sauvage 
po. dix Piastres et je lui promis deux Piastres de plus po. l'engager a por- 
ter sur son cheval tout mon baggage. 

* V. urticifolia, L.— C. 8. S. 
t V. hastata, L. ?-C. S. 8. 
J V. strida, Vent. ( V. ringens. Michx.)— C. S. S. 
'i V. bracteosa, Michx.— C. S. S. 

I Spigdia. ?— C. S. S. ' 

PROC. AMER. PHIL08. 80C. XXVI. 129. P. PRINTED MARCH 25, 1889. 



Michaux.] \12i (Oct. 19( 

Le 24 nons avons fait environ 25 Miles; le Sauvage etoit raalade et 
il fut oblige de s'arreter plus de trois heures avant le coucher du soleil. 

Le 25 traverse plusieurs Prairies ; Remarque une nouvelle espece de 
Gerardia,* Tige communenient simple, fetiill. ovales opposees sessiles, 
fleurs axillaires fleurs purpurines. 

Le 26 la Provision de viande fut consommee : le Sauvage s'arreta de 
tres bonne beure, voyant un endroit favorable a la cbasse. D'ailleurs, il 
tomba sur les trois heures apres midi une Pluye considerable. Une heure 
apres avoir carnpe, le Sauvage revint charge* d'un jeune Ours et de deux 
cuisse d'un autre beaucoup plus vieux. L'on fit bouillir deux fois la 
marmite et nous avona eu de quoi nous rasassier. L'on fit rotir ce qui 
restoit. 

Le 27 le Sauvage tua deux cerfs. L'on s'arrete de tres bonne heure 
pour faire secher les Peaux et pour manger, car le Sauvage ainsi que la 
Sauvagesse mangeoient cinq repas par jour. Non obstant cela ils se 
regaloient de la mouelle des os qu'ils mangeoient toute crue. Car ne pou- 
vant emporter la viande, ils se contentoient d'un morceau des reins de 
1 'animal. 

Le 28 Aoust 17'.i5 autant je souhaitois voir du Gibier le l cr et le 2 jour, 
autant je craignois alors d'en voir par la perte du temps. Je souhaitois 
d'autant plus d'avancer qu'il pleuvoit tous les jours. J'avois deja etc 
oblige de faire secher au feu, une fois mon baggage qui avoit etu com- 
pletteraent mouille particulierem 1 quatre livres de Botanique, Mineralogie 
que j'avois avec moi, n'ayant pas voulu les exposer au hasurd de la Rivi- 
erre, ayant envoye* par le Mississippi deux Malles, contenant Papier gris, 
Poudre, Plomb, Alum, Bdites a recueillir des Insectes et tous les objets 
-saires a faire des Collections de Plantes, d'Animaux, d'Insectes et de 
Mineraux. 

[.> Dimanche :J0 Aoust arrive* au village de Kaskaskia, situe a deux 
miles <lu tleiive M^sissipi et a un denii mile de la Kivierre Kaskaskia. II 
pjtf peuple par del anrii'iis frane lis sous le Gouvemement Americain. Lo 
iioinlire des families est d'environ quarantc cinq. La situation en est 
tide, mais le noinbre des habitans est diminue, l'on u'y voit que des 
inai-ons en niincs it aliandonnees. pane que les franeais des Illinois ayant 
toujour* t'le I'leves et habitues an eoiiiineree de- I 'eileteries avec les sau- 
vagoa Bont dcvenus les plus paretMOl et les plus ignorants ^° tousles 
homines. lis vivent et ils sout habillcs la pluspart en parlie w la maniere 
des SauvageB. Ils ne portent point de eulotes, mais ils passent entre les 
cuIshcs une piece de drap d'environ un tiers d'aulne ipii est relenue devaut 

;ill des.sils drs Reins ;uir une ceintltre. 

Le ill Aoust herborise. 

Le Munli premier Spleiuluc. continue inc- lierluu isations, ainsi que le 
•J. h- :s et le J (ludit. 

rti pour le vilhigc dil hi Prairc da Hoelier eloiiiiie de 15 miles 
de KanUii-kia : Passe* par le village S Phillipe, ahamlonne par les Fran- 

'tuticulala, Mlohx.— <'. 8. 8. 



18P8.] 1^*5 [Michaux. 

gais et peuple* par trois families d'Americains. Ce village est a 9 Miles 
de la Prairie du Rocher. 

Le 6 arrive a Kaskia situe pres du Mississipi a . . . Miles de la Prairie 
du Rocher. 

Le 7 herborise et visile les environs de Kaskia. 

Le 8 parti pour revenir a Kaskaskia et arrive le 9. 

Le 10 continue mes herborisations aux environs du Village Kaskaskia 
jusqu' au 13 dudit. 

Le Dimanche 13 Septembre passe* avec un guide sauvage sur la rive 
meridionale de la Riv. Kaskaskia et continue a kerborieer sur cette partie 
jusqu' au 18 dudit. 

Le 18 et 19 Pluyes continuelles. Mis en ordre mes Collections et repose 
mon cheval. 

Le Dimanche 20 . . . 

Kaskaskia 45 families. Prairie du Rocher 22 a 24 famill. — S Ut Phillipe 
3 famill. Americains. — Fort de Chartres en rubies. — Kaskias 120 families. 
— Americains a la Corne de Cerf et a Bellefontaine 35 famill. — S ut Louis 
florissant Pet. cotes. 

Le Vendredy 2 Octobre parti pour aller par terre vers l'embouchure de 
l'Ohio dans le Mississipi ; par la dimculte de passer la riv. Kaskaskia nous 
avons marche* seulement 12 Miles. 

Le 3 et le Dim. 4 Pluyes et nous avons traverse plusieurs prairies ; 
marche environ 27 M. 

Le 5 passe* encore les Prairies entrecoupees de lisieres de Bois. Mon 
guide tua un Elk nomine par lea Canadiens et par les francais — Illinois 
Cerf. Cet animal est beaucoup plus gros (deux fois plus gros) que le Cerf 
nain des Etats-Unisqui abonde aussi aux Illinois et que les francais de ces 
confines nomment Chevreuil. Son bois est le double plus gros que celui 
des Cerfs d' Europe. II y a audessous de chacun des deux yeux une 
cavite qui se tient reformed, mais en 6cartant les deux especede paupieres 
Ton peat enfoncer le doigt un pouce avant. Cette cavite* paroit deslinee 
a la secretion de q.q. humcur. En effet, ayant ouvert cette cavitd, j'y 
trouvay une matiere de la forme et de la consistence d'une crote des 
Lievres ; mais de la grosseur d'un gland de chene. Cet animal a des 
dents canines en haut et en bas comme celles des chevaux nominees 
crochets. Les chasseurs disent q. cet animal est touj. tres gras. En etlet 
celui-ci l'<5toit excessivement. Marche environ 32 M. 

Le 6 entre dans les forets et traverse plusieurs rivierres. Marche* . . . 
miles. 

Le 7 Octobre 1795 mon guide tua un Bufle qu'il jugea avoir environ 
quatre ans. II paroissoit peser plus de neuf cens livres. Comme il n'etoit 
pas bien gras, mon guide me dit qu'd t'toit tres ordinaire a cet age d'en voir 
de plus de douze cens livres. II paroissoit plus gros qu'aucun des Boeufs 
de France et les surpasser en longeur et en grosseur. 

Le Jeudy 8 Vu un autre Bufle a treute toises de notre Chemin. Nous 
nous arrgtames pour le considerer. II marcha ties lentem 1 - mais apres 



Michaux.] \.£A [Oct. 19, 

deux minutes il s'arreta et nous ayant reconnu, il courut av. une vite?se 
extraordinaire : Arrive ce meaie jour au Fort Cheroquis autrement nomme 
par les americains Fort Massac 125 Miles. 

Le 9 Octobre 1795 herborise au long du Mississipi ; Platanus, Liquidamb. 
Bonducs, Noyers pacanes et Noyers hiccory, par les francais Noyers dura : 
Noyers piquants (par les francais Noyer anier.) Noyers a noix rondes. 
Chene blanc, Quercus alba, Q. rubra ramosissim. — Q. cerroides (par les 
fr. chene frise" et par les Am. overcup White Oak.) Q. prinus, Quercus 
integrifolia* seu Q. foliis junioribus omnibus et adultis semper integerri- 
mis margine undulatis apice setaceis. Cette espece de ch8ne abonde au 
Pays des Illinois. II perd ses feuilles plus tard q. les autr. especes de 
Chene. Les habitans francais le nomment Chene a lattes. Dans la Basse 
Caroline il est asses rare mnis il y garde ses feuilles jusqu' au mote de 
Fevrier et Mars. II paroit se rapprocher du Ch§ne verd dont il differe par 
la forme de ses glands. 

Nyssa montana asses rare ; Gleditsia triacanthos ; Robinia pseudoacacia 
(par les franc/iis fevier.) Le 61. triacanthos est nomme fev. epineux et le 
Guilandina dioica 6ros fevier et les graines Gourganes ; Nota. II y a dans 
la riv. des Illinois, une esp. ou variete de Guilandina dioica dont les graines 
ont plus du double de grosseur de celles des Rives du Mississipi, du Cum- 
berland &c. Lianne Rajanioides ; Anonymosf ligustroides ; Vitisf mono- 
sperma, cette espece se trouve au long des Rivierres et nullement dans 
l'interieur des bois ; je l'ay vu sur la Rivierre Kaskaskia, sur le Mississipi 
aux environs du fort Massac, sur la rivierre Tenasse, mais elle couvre en- 
tierement les rives de la riv. Cumberland depuis son embouchure jusqu' 
a la distance de 45 M. 

Le Dimanche 11 Octobre 1795 parti avec un Guide pour aller en Canot 
remonter la rivierre (Shavanon) Cumberland. La pluye nous obligea de 
revenir. 

Le Mardy 13 engage deux homines a une piastre par jour chaeun pour 
remonter les Rivii rres du Territoire des Sauvages Cheroquis : Parti du 
fort Cheroquis, dit Fort Massac. La distance est six Miles po. arriver 1 
renboodllin da la Rivierre Tenassee par les Francais. Illin. Rivierre 
Cheroquis. Cette riv. est tres gnuule 6l ties large. Apres avoir remonte 
environ six miles, ayant vu des traces d'Ours sur les bords, nous nous 
eten entrant dans le hois il se pn'senta une Ours leinelle av. 
trote jeunes. Le eliien poursuivit la Mere et les jeunes ayant grimpe sur 
un arhre j'eii t ut y un et les guides tin-rent les deux autres. Nous pas 
sames la nuit en cet endniit. Le 11 Brouillanl tres epais, nous n'avons 
marclie qoa B Miles. I. a I'luve survint wm iniily. 

I.e 10 MgJ 00 TtOOi environ dil M. :i OftUM d'un Vent tres considerable 

• v tmbr t aor k f, Mi«ii \. -<\ as. 

imln. I'..|r. lAil'tiit nrumiiuitii. Ml< A 

Ifioba . '". mora probablj, In put, ut least, PI pafmota, Yum. I V. rubra, 

ni. .il-. Mini « Mob wm dlwovered by 

,i III llila ltv ;. linn ujtli Ins I . i/;.iw.i.— i 



1888.] 1-5 |Michaux. 

qui avoit commence par une tempete la nuit precedente et qui continua 
une partie de la journee. Nous avons campe" vis a vis une Isle ou Chaiue 
de Rochers qui traverse la Rivierre presque entierement. II y a cepend- 
ant un courant sur le bord dela Rive meridionale asses profond, sufflsant 
pour le passage de gros batteaux 

Rives de la rivierre Cheroquis (Tenassee) : Platanus : Juglans pacana, 
Hiccori, pignut ; Liquidambar ; Quercus rubra, prinus ; Anonymos carpi- 
noides ; Anonymos ligustroides j* Betula australis Bouleauf a ecorce grise 
qui se trouve dans toute l'Ameriq. depuis la Virginie j usque dans les 
Florides ; il differe du Betula papyrifera ; Bignonia catalpa : Ulmus ; 
Fraxinus ; Vitis rubra seu monosperma } Gleditsia triacanthos : Diospiros ; 
Smilax pseudochina ; Bignonia crucigera, radicans ; Rajania . . . 
Dioecia 8-dria : Populus Caroliniana, par les FranQ. Creoles Liard et par 
les Americains Coton tree. (Nota : Le Peuplier du Canada est nomme 
par les Canadiens Tremble et paries Anglais du Canada Quaking Aspen.) : 
Acer rubrum, saccharinum, negundo : Anonymos ligustroides ; Anonym, 
ulmoides. % 

(Le 22 Juin 1795. selon la Gazette Agents de la Republique franc, vise 
reconnus par le President Washington. 

Philip Joseph Letombe Consul Gen 1 - 

Theod. Charles Mozard, Cons, a Boston. 

Jean Anth. Bern Rosier C. a N. York. 

Leon Delaunay Pensylvania 

Louis Etienne Duhait Maryland.) 

Le 15 Octobre 1795 herborise. 

Le 16 descendu la rivierre et campe a l'embouchure de la Rivierre 
Shavanon dit Cumberland river par les Americains a dix huit Miles du 
Fort Massac ; tue un Oie du Canada nominee par les franQ. Canadiens et 
Illinois Outarde ; tu6 deux Poules d'eau, un Martin pgcheur d'Amerique, 
un Pelican d'am. 

Le 17 remonte 1 environ dix Miles dans la Rivierre, les bords fitoient tres 
frdquentes par les Dindes sauvages ; les Rameurs et moi nous en tuames 
cinq en passant et de not re Canot sans descendre a terre. 

Le 18 continue" notre course vers le haut de la Rivi. 

Le 19 descendu la rivierre. 

Le Mardy 20 Octobre 1795 revenu au Fort Cheroquis dit Fort Massac. 

Arbres et Plantes aux environs sur les Rives de l'Ohio. 

Platanus occidentalis par les Americains Sycamore, et par les francs- 
Illinois cotonnier ; Populus par les Am. Coton tree et par les francais- 
Illinois Liard : Celtis occid. par les Am. Hackberry tree et par les frauQS. 
Bois inconnu ; Liquidambar styraciflua par les franQ lis de la Louisiane 
Copalm et par les Am. . . . 

Un francois qui commercoit chez les Sauvages Cheroquis s'est gueri de 

* Forestiera ligustrina, Poir. (Adelia ligustrina, Michx.).— C. S. S. 
t Betula nigra. L. (B. lanidosa. Mlchx.).— C. b. S. 
t Hanera aquatica, Gmel.— C. S. 8. 



Michaux.] 126 [Oct. 19, 

la Galle en buvant pendant dlx jours la decoction des Copeaux de cet arbre 
qu'il nommoit Copalm et qui est le vrai Liquidambar: Gleditsia triacanthos, 
fevier par les franc, et sweet locust par les am ; 

Guilandina dioica .;* 

Le Dimancbe 25 Octobre 1795 Spiraea trifoliata est un purgatif usite par 
les Sauvag. et par les franqais- Illinois. lis le nomment Papiconah. Aux 
environs du Fort Cheroquis, Ton trouve aussi le Geranium dit berbe ou 
plutot Racine a Becquet que Ton donne pour les Maladies cbroniques 
pendant plusi. semaiues ; Ton y ajoute souvent la Veronica virginica qui 
est nominee par les fr. : berbe a quatre feuilles.f 

Le Dimanche premier Novembre je fus oblige de differer mon Depart, 
mon Cbeval n'ayant point ete trouve. 

Le Vendredy 6, mon Cbeval fut ramene au Fort et je me preparay 
immediatement a partir pour les Illinois. Parti le m§me jour et marcbe 
environ dix buit Miles. 

Le 7 la Pluye commence des le matin et continua toute la journ^e : 
Rcste campe sous un Rocber ou je m'etois arrete la veille avec mon Guide. 

Le Dimancbe 8 voyage" dans les bois et les Collines. 

Le 9 meme. 

Le 10 arrive vers le soir aux Prairies. 

Le 11 traverse les Prairies. 

Le 12 vers le soir Rentie" de nouveau dans le9 Bois et couche" a 7 Miles 
de la rivierre Kaskaskia 

Le 13 arrive avant dejeune" a Kaskaskia environ 130 Miles du Fort 
Massac. , 

Le 18 Novembre Je me suis repose. 

Le Dimancbe 14 j'ay etc a la cbasse aux Oies de Canada. 

Le 15 mis en ordrc mes Collections de graines. 

Le 16 nif'im- occupation. 

Le 17 j'ay etc a la Cbasse 

Le .Icuily 18 parti po. aller a la Prairie du Rocber. 

Le 19 disss'- aux Canards, 
nix Oies. 

Le Dimancbe 29 fait des visites. 

I.r H, M, 15, 16, 27 ct k '2 s visit.' les Montagnes de Rocbe qui bordent 
- habile ; opussums, Racoons, Oiseaux aquatiques &c. 

I.e Dimanche M Noveinb. j'ay 6l6 au Village S< Philippe, dit le Petit 
Village. 

-it.' le Fort de riiartros. 

Le Manly l" Dicembre ]>arti pour Kaskasklas et j'y ay rest<5. 

Le 8 -■' B dud. l'ns d( Rtobttd pour aller par eau I 

(illnlieiliiii'l. 

Le 4 revenu a la Prairie du Rocber. 

• A t.Unk of 6 (loy» In the Journal occur* here.— C. 8. 8. 
t Tbtr*Uh«i«»N0oml hlunk uf 5 dayn.-C. 8. 8. 



1888.] 1mA [Michaux. 

Le 5 je me suis prepare a partir. Embourre une Oie sauvage a tete 
blanche. 

Le Dimanche 6 parti de nouv. pour Kaskaskiaa. 

Le 7 il m'a ete confirme" de nouv. que la 2 e Ecorce du Celtis occidentals 
(nominee aux Illinois Bois connu et vers la N e Orleans Bois inconnu,) est 
un excellent remede po. guerir la jaunisse, Ton y ajoute une poignee de 
racine ou des feuil. de Smilax sarsaparilla ; Ton en fait usage pendant 
environ lmit jo. en decoction. 

Le 8 Decembre 1795. Les Francais Creoles nomment l'espece de Smilax 
qui se trouve aux Illinois, Squine. II n'y croit q. cette seule espece qui 
suit epiueuse elle perd ses feuilles en Automne. L'autre espece est her- 
bacee et grimpante. 

Le 9 Decembre. La racine de Fagara en decoct, est un puissant remede 
pour guerir le mal de la Rate. Je ne doute par que Ton ne puisse faire 
usage de celle de Zanthoxilum clava-Herculi pour les obstructions du foie 
et de la Rate. 

Le 10 : Bignonia Catalpa,* po. les Creoles- francais Bois Shavanon ; 
Cercis canadensis, Bois noir ; Liriodend. tulipifera, Bois jaune ; Nyssa. 
Olivier. Les ouvriers emploient pour faire des Roues des voitures le Bois 
du Padus Virginiana, po. jantes Orme, po. les Moyeux, et ch§ne blanc po. 
les Rays. 

Le onze Decembre. Confirm^ de nouveau que la racine de la Veronica 
Virginiana vulgairement Herbe a quatre feuill. en decoction pendant un 
mois est efflcace pour la cure des Maladies veneriennes : L'on fait bouillir 
quatre ou cinq de ces racines. Comme cette boisson est purgative, Ton 
doit augmenter ou diminuer la force de cette Ptisanne en y mettant plus 
ou moins de racine ou bien en la faisant bouillir plus ou moins selon reflet 
que l'on eprouve. II sufflt que Ton Gprouve pendant les l en jours le ven- 
tre relache et plus libre qu'a l'ordinaire : il n'est pas surprenant que le 
l er jour l'on ait 3 ou 4 selles. 

J'ay ete" informe - aux Illinois que MacKey Scotchman & Even Velsh 
sont partis vers la fln de Juillet 1795 de S nt Louis po. remonter le Missouri 
sur une Barge a 4 raines. lis sont aid6s par une Society dont Ch. Morgan 
Creole des Isles est le Sindic. 

Le Decembre 1795. 

Le Dimanche 13 j'ay fait les derniers preparatifs po. le voyage de Cum- 
berland. 

Lel4 parti pour Cumberland; passe a la Saline sur le territoire Espagnol; 
Remarque Tagetoides : Appris la nouvclle de la paix entre la France et 
l'Espagne. Couche a six miles de la Saline. Remarque sur les bords du 
fleuve Mississippi Equisetum que les franqaiscreoles nomment Pr§le ; 
Cette Plante a ici pres d'un pouce de circonference et la tige 4 pieds de 
haut. 

Le 15 passe par le Cap. S l Cdaie au has du quel le Mississipi forme un 

* This, doubtless, is C. speciosa, Warder, the only indigenous species in this region.— C.S.S 



Michaux.] 1^" [Oct. 19, 

angle ; Ton y peche du Poisson en abondance ; il y a dix huit Miles de 
distance de Kaskaskia : Campe au Girardeau 17 lieues de Kaskaskia. 

Le 16 continue pendant 6 heures ayant des Collines et des Roches sur 
les rives du fleuve, ensuite des terres basses. Nous sommes venus camper 
a 1' embouchure de la Belle Rivierre dans le Mississipi. Sur la rive 
opposee, etoit campe le Gouveneur Don Gayoso, Gouv. des Natchez et de 
la haute Louisianne. II envoya un Bateau pour scavoir qui nous etions et 
ayant appris que j'6tois passager, il vint me voir. II m'annonca la 
nouv e de la Paix entre la France et l'Espagne. II me fit offre de ses ser- 
vices. II y a dix huit lieues du Cap. Giradeau a l'Embouchure de la 
Belle Rivierre et en tout 35 lieues des Illinois. 

Le 17 campe a environ 7 lieues de distance. 

Le 18 arrive aupres du Fort Massac ; sept lieues. 

Le 19 campe vis-a-vis le Confluent de la Riv. Cheroquis dit Tenasse. 

Le Dimanche 20 passe par la Pacaniere ; c'est un Marais considerable 
sur la cote Nord Ouest horde de Noyers Pacanes, situe" vis a vis ou plutot 
un peu avant d'entrer dans la Riv. Cumberland. 

Le dit jour Dimanche 20 Decembre, entre dans la Rivierre Shavanon 
dite Cumberland River dont l'Embouchure est a six grandes lieues du 
Fort Massac : Couche deux lieues au dessus de l'Embouchure. 

Le 21 navigue environ 8 lieues. 

Le 22 navigue environ 7 lieues et nous sommes venu coucher au grand 
Remoult dont le distance est evaluee a quarante cinq miles de l'embou- 
chure. 

Le 23 nous sommes venu camp, audessus de l'lsle aux Saules : navigue 
environ 12 Miles ou 4 lieues. 

Le 24 reste campe ; Pluye toute la joume'e. La Rivierre. dont la navi- 
gation avoit 6le tres facile jusqu* a ce jour, augmenta considerablement et 
se repandit dans les bois. 

Le 25 la Pluye continua et fut niglee de greMe : Reste au Camp. 

Le 26 Reste campe a cause de ['augmentation de la rivierre dont le 
courant toit trop rapid*. 

Le Dimanche 27 Decembre 1795. navigue environ 4 Miles settlement a 
cause de la difficult^ dfl ramer contre le courant de la rivierre ; Campe a 
I'amboadmn <ie Little River. 

Le 28 passe sur la rive op p oaa e . Le courant qui etoit aussi rapide q. les 
lens, nous tort; i da camper : I Jelce blanche. 

.".» ii nmrinl da Boaraaa ana Pluye considerable. Rest<5 oarapa*. 
Le 80 la Ri\ Una ayanl ddbpaddal submerge 1 toutei les parties du bois, 

nous (lclou'caincs du camp ct nmis rctournaincs a la patita rivierre Little 
river ; nous rcmontames jusipi' a ce que DOOI trouvaiiies line Colline 

aaaaa haute po. m pas craindre ins de*bofdamanta, I'lnyi . 

Le 81 le temps duvint (lair, le vent passu au Nord, mais la rivierre con- 
tinua a d<Sbordcr. Lu plupart ulh rent chas-cr aux Dindes sauvages. 



1888.] J ^ J [Michaux. 

Le Vendredy premier Janvier 1796. Vent du nord, Gelee ; Rivierre 
aumentee d'un pouce pendant la nuit. 

Sur les environs de Little river, Pays entrem§le de Collines : Sol argil- 
leux, Terre veg£tale tres riche, Roche de Silex tres peu ferrugineuse. 
Pierre calcaire bleue. 

Animaux : Racoons, Cerfs nains, Opossums, Bufles, Ours, Ecureuils 
gris, Castors, Loutres, Rats musques (ces trois especes tres rares). 

Oiseaux : Corbeaux ; Hibous de la grosse espece, Cardinaux ; Geais 
bleux ; Peroquets verds a tSte jaunatre de la petite espece, Pies a t§te et 
gorge rouges. 

Arbres et Plantes : Liriodendron ; Liquidamb : Chene chataignier, 
Ch8ne rouge ; Annona ; Charme-houblon. 

Le 2 Janvier, toujours reste campe au m§me endroit. Temps couvert,. 
la Riv. baiss£e de deux pouces seulement. 

Le Dimanche 3 Grand vent : Nyssa montana est nomme par les Cr. 
franQ. Olivier Sauvage et par les Americains Kentuckiens Black Gum 
tree et par les Americains Pensylavaniens Tupelo : N'ayant pas d'occupa- 
tion, j'ay fait de l'encre avec des noix de galle que je recueillis sur les 
ChSnes dans les environs du lieu ou nous etions campe ; celle-ci fut faite- 
en moins de cinq minutes et me servira d'echantillon : Aux envir. de 
Little river, Liriodendron ; Liquidambar ; Carpinus ostrya ; Ulmus fun- 
gosa ; Padus Virginiana minor, Laurus benzoin &c. 

Le 4 navigue environ 4 a 5 M. Campe aupres de Collines asses hautes, 
d'un sol mouvant & cailloux roules, Carpinus ostrya ; Ulmus fungosa ; 
Padus Virginiana minor ; Philadelphus inodorus ; Nyssa montana par les. 
Am. Black gum; Acer rubrum ; Viscum parasite; Fagus Americana et 
Orobanch. Virginiana parasite sur les racines du Fagus d'Ameriq. ; 
Betula spuria* par les Francois Bouleau batard. 

Le Mardy 5 Janvier 1796 nous avons navigue 7 Miles et campe vis a vis 
de Diev Island 12 M. de Little Riv. 

Le 6 la neige toinbee dans la nuit avoit refroidi le temps. Rochers cal- 
caires escarpes ; en partant du lieu ou nous etions campes, qui etoient con- 
tinues pendant un Mile environ sur la cote" orientale : Navigue environ 8 
Miles. 

Le 7 La Rivierre etoit diminu6e de 19 pouces pendant la nuit, la gelee 
en diminuant les eaux, nous faisoit esperer plus de facilite a ramer contre 
le courant de cette rivierre qui est naturellement resserr^e entre des Col- 
lines. Navigue* environ 8 Miles. 

Le 8 la riv. avoit baisse pendant la nuit de 19 pouces. Passe par l'lsle 
de la ligne tiree entre Cumberland et le Kentuckey. 

Plantes des Rives : Platanus occidentalis ; Betula australis seu spuria ; 
Acer rubrum ; Ulmus America.; Fraxinus ; Salix sur les Isles basses : An- 
onymos ligustroid. Navigue environ 10 M. 

Le 9 la rivierre avoit baisse pend 1 la nuit de pres de cinq pieds. Nous 
avons navigue environs dix Miles. 

* B. nigra, L.— C. S. S. 
PKOC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. Q. PRINTED MARCH 26, 1889. 



Michaux.] IdU [Oct. 19, 

Le Ditaanche 10 Janvier la Rivierre avoit baisse de 4 pieds pendant la 
nuit. Pluye et Neige continuelles ; Passe par la rivierre jaune (Yellow 
Creek) 16 M. avant d'arriver a Clark's ville. Passe par Blowming grove? 
13 Miles avant d'arriver a Clark's ville. Passe* par Blowming grove? 13 
Miles avant d'arriver a Clark's ville. Rochers et Collines. Passe par 
Dixon Island ? 10 Miles avant d'arriver a Clark's ville et actuellement 
l'Etablissement le plus recule du territoire du Cumberland. Cet Etablisse- 
ment est compose de quinze families qui y sont venu s'etablir depuis trois 
mois. Le chef lieu de cet etablissement est nomuie Blount's borougb ou 
Blount's ville. 

Le 11 Pluye pendant toute la nuit prec&lente et une partie de la journee. 
Passe* par une chaine de Collines et par un rocher nomine Red painted roc 
situe a la droite de la Riv. c-a-d. sur le cote septentrional de la riv. a 2 
M. de Clark's ville. Passe ensuite par la riv. rouge dont l'cmbouchure est 
aussi sur le cote* septentrional et a un quart de mile de Clark's ville : 
Enfin arrive a Clark's ville. 

Le 12 Janvier 1796, reste a Clark's ville a cause de l'augment de la riv. 

Le 13 le Docteur Brown de la Caroline venu pour etablir cette nouvelle 
ville Blount's borough a 10 M. au dessous de Clark's ville s'y trouva. 

Le 15 achete un cbeval au prix de cent Dollars. 

Le 16 parti ; mon cheval m'echappa et je le rattrappay a 6 Miles de 
Clark's ville au Moulin, 10 Miles. 

Le Dimanche 17 dine a 10 Miles de Nashville chez Ebneston a £ de M. du 
Moulin chez un vieux Pensylv. homme instruit et au courant des nouvelles 
etrangeres. Couche chez Crokes 18 Miles d' Ebneston. La V c Martin 
demeure aupres de la et sa maison vaut mieux po. les voyageurs. 

Le 18 passe les Ridges, 15 M. sans voir de maisons jusqu'a White Creek; 
Le vieux Stump's demeure a 5 miles de White Creek. 

Le 19 parti de chez Stump's et arrive a Nashville 5 M. 

Total de Clark's ville a Nashville 54 M. par terre et 70 M. par eau. 



De S nl Louis a Kaskaskias 94. 

De Kaskaskias a l'cmbouchure de l'Ohio 

dans le Mississipi 95 Miles. 

De la an fort Massac. 45 M. 

De la i l'cmhmichurc de la rivierre Cum- 

btrlaad 18 M. 

Do la a Clark's ville sur la riv. rouge 120 M. 

D« 1* ft Nashville 60 M. 



Total, 482 Miles cy 481. 

(a Nashville) Diner 2 ,h - Dejeuner ou souper l ,h 1' } Piatt do 



1SS8] ldl [Michaux. 

Whiskey I s - Cheval po. foin et mays 2 8h - Le tout est six Shillings po. un 
Dollar.) 

Le 20, 21 et 22 sejourne a Nash v. 

Le 23 parti de Nashville et voyage 29 Miles |, loge chez le major Sharp. 

Le Dimanche 24 Janvier 1796 arrive- a un Creek situe a 29 Miles pres 
du quel le nomme Chapman tient logem' a3M.J; Mac Faddin sur Big 
Brown tient ferry et logement : Total 32 M. $. 

Le 2o Pluye et Neige. 

Le 26 Parti po. Green river. La terre etoit couverte de neige ; les 
Chemins rudes et mon cheval devint boiteux: Je fus oblige d'aller a pied: 
Je lis 12 miles. II me fut impossible de faire du feu les arbres et les bois 
Stoient tout en verglas ; j'ay passe toute la nuit presque gele. A peu pres 
vers les 2 heures la Lune etant lev6e je pris la parti de retourner chez Mac 
Faddin. J'y arrivay a 10 heures du matin. 

Le 27 etant accabli de froid etde lassitude, ayant marche a pied, n'ayant 
pas inange' depuis la veille au matin et n'ayant pas dormi pendant la nuit, 
il me survint une inflammation aux doigts du pied droit. Je trempay mes 
pieds dans de l'eau froide, pendant toute la nuit suivante a plusi. reprises, 
et il n'en resulta pas de playes, mais pend' plusi. jo. les doigts des pieds 
furent engourdis et comme prives de sensation. 

Le 28 je fus oblige d'aller a sept Miles de distance po. faire ferrer mon 
cheval et je vins coucher chez M r Maddisson qui avoit sa plantation tout 
aupres. 

Le 29 Janvier 1796 je partis de tres grand matin ayant 38 Miles a voy- 
ager sans trouver ni auberge ni autre habitation. J'avois et6 recu avec 
toutes les civilites que l'on peut esperer d'un homme qui a re<ju une edu- 
cation superieure a celle des habitans du pays. Mais ce M r Maddisson 
etoit Virginien et parent du fameux Madisson Memb. du Congres. Celui 
ci otoit un vray Republicain dans ses principes et j'avois passe chez lui 
une soiree tres interessante et tics agre.ible. Son epouse encherit a me 
procurer tous les services de l'hospitalite' qui est tres rare a rencontrer en 
Amerique, excepte chez les personnes d'une education sup. a celle du 
commun des habitans. Cette Dame me proposa de faire usage de chausson 
de laine grossiere par dessus les souliers. Elle me tailla elle m§me une 
paire et je fus tellement surpris des avantages q. j'6prouvay les jo. 
suivans q. je resolus de ne plus voyager au temps des neiges et des gelees 
sans §tre precautionne d'une paire dans mon Porte Manteau. J'arrivay 
le soir a trois M. de Green riv. et couchay ch. un nomme Walter ; je 
couchai sur le plancher et mon cheval a la belle Gtoile ; mais j'yay etois 
accoutume. 

Le 30 je traversay au matin le ferry de Green river. Le froid fut 
excessif et tel que l'on n'en avoit pas eprouve de Plusieurs annees. A 9 
Miles, je pas«ay par Bacon Creek a la Cabanne d'une homme nouvellem' 
etabli et depourvu de tout, mSme de Mays po. l'entretien de sa maison. 
A 22 M. de Green Riv. l'on trouve la Maison d'un nomme Ragon : et je 
me hatay d'arriver avaut la nuit a q.q. meilleures habitations. A 26 M. 



Michaux.] ld*j [Oct. 19, 

de Green Riv. j'aperc;us une Maison a 200 toises de la Route sit. sur le 
bord d'un Creek. Inhabitant 6ioit un Allemand qui n'etoit etabli q. 
depuis un an; il avoit une bonne ecurie, il etoit bien lourni de fourrage en 
paille de bled, et en feuilles de Mays po. mon ch. et je raangeai du pain 
de Bled po. la premiere fois q. j'etois parti des Illinois. Mon souper fut 
de pain et de lait et je me trouvay tres bien traite. Mon bote se nomme 
Geo. Cloes Allemand d'Origine ; sa maison est situee sur South fork de 
Nolin river. 

Le Dimanche 31 passe par Huggins mill sur Nolin river (bon logement) 
a £ de Mile la route a droite va a Beardston. A 2 M £ la new cut road est 
droite. Passe a 9 Miles par Rolling fork et 4 Miles plus loin couche chez 
M. Scoth sur Beech-fork. 

Le Lundy 1" fevrier 1796 passe par D r Smith house 8 Miles de Beech 
fork et par Mackinsy 9 M. de Beech fork. De Mac Kinsy a Long lake 6 
Mi. De Longlake a Sheperdston sur Salt river 4 miles. De Shepperdston 
chez Standeford 9 M. (bonne auberge) De Standeford chez Prince Old 
station 8 M. De Prince to Louisville 6 Miles. 

Le 2 parti de chez Prince et arrive a Louisville. Mesure a 3 M. £ avant 
d'arriver un Liriodend. tulipifera sur la route a main gauche dont la gros- 
seur est de vingt deux pieds de circonference de qui fait plus de sept pieds 
de diametre. 

(Correspondant de M. La Cassagne et S" 1 James Bauvais a la N. Orleans 
M r Serpe Neg* a la N. Orleans. Coiresp. de M. La Cassagne a Philad. 
Gequir & Holmes M to Ph* Prix Diner 1*- 6 P - Souper et Dejeuner l 8h - 
6 P - Logement 9 ,h - £ pinte de Brandy 2» u 3 r Cheval par jo. au foin et 
mays 3*- 9»- ) 

Le 3, 4 et 5 j'ay sejourne' a Louisville, occupe" a rassembler les Collec- 
tions que j'avois depose chez le nomine" La Cassagne. 

Le 6 je vis le Gen 1 Clarke et 11 me fit part de la visite du Colonel Fulton 
qui etois venu de France q.ques mois auparavant. 

Le Dimanche 7 dejeune chezle Pere du General Clarke dont la demeure 
est a 4 miles de Louisville. Je desirois avoir de plus amples informations 
concernant le Lieutenant Colonel Foulton. L'on me dit qu'il devoit se 
rendre ;i I'hiladelphie imincdiatement apres avoir passe en Georgie ; 
(lu'\ s'ciubarqucroit pour France et qu'il csperoit 8tre de retour en 
iq. ;i la Mm de l'ete le ccltc auntie lT'.lii. Le meine jour je partis po. 
rctourricr a Nashville. Cnuche die/. Standelord. 14 M. de Louisville. 
(Soui OOOhei 6* Pain po. la nuit du cbev. l' h - Mays 8 quarts 

'•' ) 

Li Lundy B fevrier 1796. (Dejeuner l" 1 ' ) Pnss£ pur Sheperdston !» M. 
de Sttuidcturd. (Mays po. lc tliiv.il :: quarts. '.) l'enecs Virginia tunnoye. 
cotnme dins tons les endroii- du Kentiu-key el ilc Cumberland. ) Pass6 

par Long lalu oa l'on bd1 da Btl ilul ajn'i ShApttdttoa, i Miles dud* 

uiclie clnv. M:u -U in - v 7 MileH de Longlake. 
Lieax marccagcux, aux environs de Longlake Ojicrcus alba ; Q. cer- 



188S.] loO [Michaux. 

roides ; Fraxinus . . . ; Nyssa ; Laurus ben join ; Sassafras ; Mitchella 
repens ; Fagus sylvatica americana. 

Collines : Pinus* fol. geminis conis oblongis minorib. squamis aculeis 
retrocurvis : Vu des planches de cet arbre chez un habitant ; le bois m'a 
paru presqu' aussi pesant que celui du Pin a trois feuilles de la Caroline : 
L'on en fait aussi du Gaudron dans cette partie du Kentucky. 

Le9jesuis parti de tres bon matin de chez Mackinsy's, j'y avois eie" 
tres bien rec_u c. a. d. il me procura un souper de Pore bouilli ; meme 
mets a dejeuner. Mon cheval fut tres bien soigne en fourrage, en Mays et 
une Ecurie qui n'&oit pas bourbeuse, comme toutes celles de l'Amerique, 
quand on loga chez des Americains ou chez des Irlandais. 

Je payai 3 s11 - ce qui faisoit l* h - 6p- po. mon cheval et autant po. moi. 
J'avois paye" 5* h pour mon logem nt de la nuit preeedente et je n'avois pas 
ele si satisfait : Comme la fille de cette maison £ioit la plus active qu' 
aucune q. j'aye jamais vu en Ameriq. je lui donnai un quart de Piastre et 
le viellard m'offrit une Langue fourree, mais je le remerciay, n'etant pas 
partisan de viandes salves. 

La pluye survint une heure apres etre parti et j'eus cependant le bon- 
heur de passer Beechford et par Itollingford. 13 Miles de chez M. Kinsy. 

Je fus oblige d'anSter chez un habitant a un Mile ^ du passage et la 
Pluye m'obligea d'y parser la nuit. 

II y a dans les environs du Liriodendron a bois jaune et dan6 quelques 
cantons du Liriod. a bois blanc. Les habitants estiment mieux celui a 
bois jaune. 

Le mercredy 10 fevrier 1796, j'avois soupe la veille avec du The" de 
l'arbrisseau nomme Spice wood. L'on fait bouillir une poignee du jeune 
bois ou des branches et apres environ un quart d'heure au moins d'ebulli- 
tion l'on y ajoute du sucre pour le boire comme l'on fait a l'egard du vray 
The. II n'y avoit pas de Lait alors et Ton me dit que le Lait le rend 
beaucoup plus agreable. Cette boisson ranime les forces et produisit cet 
effet, car j'etois arrive tres fatigue. Cet arbriss. est le Laurus Benjoin 
Linn : Les fran^ais des Illinois le nomment Poivrier et les chasseurs 
assaison nt la viande avec qq. morceaux de son bois. 

II croit dans les environs une plantef de la famille des Orchis dont la 
feuille persiste tout 1'hiver. II y en a rarement deux ; la forme est ovale, 
sillonnee, entiere ; la racine porte deux a trois bulbes tres visqueuses. 
L'on s'en sert dans le Pays pour rejoindre la fayence cassee. Elle est 
nominee Adam & Eve. Cette plante est plus commune dans les riches bas 
fonds des terrains a l'Ouest des Montagnes Alleganies. Je l'ay vu aussi 
dans la basse Caroline mais elle y e6t ties rare. Elle n'est pas rare aux 
Illinois. 

La Pluye continua toute la journ^e et je fus oblige de passer la nuit dans 
une habit, aupres de Nolin Creek parce que les eaux etoient debordeos. 

Le 11 arrive chez Huggins 12 M. de Rollingford. 

* Probably Pinus inops. Ait— C. P. S. 
f Aplectrum hyemale, Nutt.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.) l^ 1 * [Oct 19, 

Le 12 traverse un Pays d'herbages et de ChSnes qui ayant et€ brules 
tous les ans, n'existen*, plus en forme de forets. On appello ces terrains 
Barrenlands, quoiqu'ils ne soient pas vraiement steriles. Les gramens y 
dominent ; le Salix pumila, les Quercus nigra et Q. alba dit Mountain 
"White Oak. Le Gnaphalium dioicum y eroit aussi abondamment. II est 
noinme par les Am. White Plantain. 

Ce meme jour 12 ferrier 1796 passe par Bacon Creek ; lieu nouvelle- 
ment etabli 19 M. de Huggins Mill et arriv^ a Green river 9 Miles de Bacon 
Creek. Coucbe 3 M. plus loin chez un nomme Walter. 

Le 13 fevrier voyage 37 Mil. sans trouver de Maison au trav. les ter- 
reins dit Barren lands. Le Salix pumila qui y abonde est le mSme que 
celui qui est tres commun dans les prairies des Illinois en partant du 
Poste Vincennes po. aller a Kaskaskia. Coucbe au de la de Big Barren 
river. 

Le Dimanche 14 voyage^ env. 30 M. Dans toutes les Maisons, les enfants 
etoient attaques de la Coquelucbe que Ton nomme ici Hooping Cough. 
Cette maladie provient naturellem* par un simple Rhume : mais le mau- 
vais regime de vivre babituellement de viandes salees et fumees qu'ils 
font frire dans la poele produit cette acrimonie d'humeurs qui rend l'ex- 
pectoration plus difficile. 
Le 15 voyage 27 M. et arrive a Nashville. Souper coucber, dej. 2 sh - 
Le 16 parti pour aller visiter le Colonel Hays riche habitant auquel 
j'avois ete recommande par le Gouverneur Blount I'uniu'c precedent** 
Gouverneur du Pays sous la denomination de Western territories Booth 
ouest of the Ohio. Le Pays estim£ contenir 60 Milles habitans a cause des 
nombreuse8 emigrations annuelles et de la population rapide, venoit 
d'etre orige en un Etat gouverne par ses propres representans sous la 
nouvelle denomination de V Etat de Tennessee du nom d'une tres grande 
riv. qui traverse tout le Pays du Houlston, le Pays de Cumberland, le 
Pays des Indiens Cheroquis et d'autres contrees adjacentes. Cette grande 
rivK-rre a son embouchure dans FOhio a 9 .Miles au dessus du fort Massac. 
Elle a 6te connu par les Franc/iis qui les premiers ont decouvert les Pays 
de notorial de l'Ain. Sept sous le nom de Riv. Cheroquis et elle est 
ainsi designee dans les Cartes francaises. Je vis chez le Col. Hays plusi. 
habitans du voisinage qui venoicnt confi'rer sur les alVaires courantes alors 
po. lVli'ction de nouvcaux Olllcieis «-i\ ils et mililaires. 

Le 17 et 18 fev. 1796 restr clu/ le Col. Hays a cause du mauvais temps. 

Le 19 tennim" le in:inli«' pour l'arquisition d'nn Choval pour transporter 

le baggage, les Collections <lcs I'lanlcs, Oiscaux ct autres Ohjcts que 

j'avois rapportes des Illinois it dcrnicrcm' du Kontuckey ; Revenu le 

memo jo. OOOOhf • Nashville. 

L«20occi,pn tmitc la joiirm'c a it'iinir et cmballcr nies collections; Vu 
des voyagcurs franqais qui tOOti Itor riejioal 0O0OD0A an Oommeroe des 
SauvagcN i-i i1ciii:im<1«' Id Conilitions po. avoir un Grttldt pour remontcr la 
rlv. MUiwmri. L'OO <l'cu\ uomin.) . . . DM dit qu'il s'eugageroit 



1888.] LOO. [Mlchaux. 

volontiers p. un an au prix de 500 piast. en pelteries e.a.d. 1000 p. en 
arg'- : un autre me demanda 2000 en arg 1 - 

Le Dimanche 21 prepare a rnon voyage. 

Le 22 j'ay fait ferrer mes deux chevaux. 

Le 23 parti et apres avoir fait 2 Miles oblige de revenir a cause . . . 

Le 25 parti pour retourner en Caroline et couche a 10 M. chez le Col. 
Mansko, ennemi declare* des Fran<jais parcequ'ils ont tue, disoit il, leur 
Roy ; quoique je n'eusse pas dine, je ne voulus pas accepter son souper 
croyant qu'un Republicain ne doit pas avoir d'obligations a un partisan 
fanatiq. de la Royaute\ J'6tois tres inortifie que la nuit et la pluye m'ob- 
ligeassent de rester dans sa Maison. Mais je couchay sur ma peau de 
Cerf et je payai pour le Mays qu'il me fournit po. passer les Wilderness. 

Le26 . . . 

Le Dimanche 28 fevrier 1796 sejourne* a dix miles de la riv. a cause de 
la Pluye et parceque les Creeks etoient d6bordes. 

Le 29 au soir passe les Creeks et couche dans le Bois pres de la route 
sur un endroit abondant en Roseaux ou Canes. Cette espece de gramen 
qui abonde en plusieurs endroits qui n'ont pas ete etabli, se d^truit lors- 
qu'il est brout6 entierement par les Bestiaux ; les Cochons le detruisent 
aussi en fouillant la terre et en brisant les racines. La grcsseur de la tige 
est quelquefois d'un tube de plume d'oie ; mais dan6 les riches terreins 
qui bordent les rivierres et entre les montagnes il y a des tiges qui ont 
jusqu'a 2 et m§me trois polices de diametre ; la hauteur est q.q. fois de 25 
a 30 pieds. Ce gramen est rameux mais il fructifle rarement dans le terri- 
toire du Kentuckey, celui de Tenesse et dans leg Carolines. La partie 
meridionale et maritime de la Virginie est le commencement de ce gra- 
men. Plus en avance vers le Sud comme dans les Carolines dans 
les Florides et vers la Basse Loui6iane, Ton trouve ce gramen en abond- 
ance.* 

II tomba de la neige toute la nuit et le lendemain matin, mes deux Che- 
vaux qui avoient £te attaches, avoient les jambes entires a cause du froid 
et des chemins continuellement bourbeux par ou j'avois voyage* lea jours 
precedents. 

% Le l er Mars 1796 arrive* au Fort Blount situe sur la Rivierre Cumber- 
land : La neige continua une partie de la journee. 

Le 2 sejourne* afin d'arracher des jeunes Plants d'un Sophora nouveauf 
q. j'avois remarque* aux environs de Fleen's creek a 12 M. a peu pres du 
Fort. La neige couvroit la terre et je ne pus avoir des jeunes Plants, 
mais le Capit. William, le jeune qui residoit au Fort coupa quelques arbres 
et je trouvay q. ques bonnes graines. 

* Arundinaria macrosperma, Michx. — C. S. S. 

t Cladrastu tlnctoria Raf., discovered here by Michaux, although not included in his 
Flora. A letter written by Michaux to Governor Blount suggesting the value of the 
wood of this tree as a dye wood, was, according to the younger Michaux, published In 
the Knoxville Gazette, on the 15th of March, 1790. (F. A. Michaux, Voyage a I'Ouest des Monts 
AUeghanys, p. 255. )-C. S. S. 



Michaux.] ±QK> [Oct. 19, 

J'arrachay aussi des racines de ces arbres afln de les replanter dans 
mon jardin en Caroline. 

Le mSme jour j'eus occasion d'ecrire au Gouverneur Blount. 

Le 3 Mars continue mon voyage, traverse plusi-fois Fleen's Creek : Vu 
de nouveau le petit ombillifere bulbeux que j'avois remarq. q. q. jours 
auparavant. Vers le soir la route s'est trouvee moins bourbeuse. 

Le 4 arrive aux Montagnes dites Cumberland mountains. 

Le 5 passe plusieurs Creeks et Rivierres sur les quelles abonde une 
Fougere grimpante du genre .... * 

Le terrein traverse par ces rivierres est moins fertile que dans le terri- 
toire de Nashville dit Cumberland settlement et les Pins a deux feuilles 
s'y trouvent abondamment. 

Le Dimanche 6 Mars 1796 arrive* a "West Point sur la Rivierre Clinch. 

Le 7 couche a 15 Miles de distance pres la junction de la rivierre Hols- 
ton et de celle dite Tenessee. 

Le 8 arrive a Knoxville. 

Le 9 Dine chez le Gouverneur "Will" 1 Blount. 

Le 10 pris mon logement chez le ("apt" Loune* pres la rivierre Cumber- 
land. 

Le 11 herborise sur la rive opposee bordee de rochers escarpes couverts 
de Saxifrage, Ombellifere bulbeux &c. 

Le 12 continue a herboriser. 

Le Dimanche 13, Visite le Capitaine Rickard Commandant de la gar- 
nison. 

Le 14 berborise : vu en fleur, Anemone hepatica ; Claytonia Virginica ; 
Sanguinaria. 

Vu nouveau genre de Plante designe par Linn. Podophyllum dipbyllum 
et decouvert il y a q. q. ann6es en Virginie en passant par le Fort Chissel. 
Cette Plante est moins rare dans les fertiles terreins du Kentuckey et de 
Cumberland. Elle se trouve aux environs de Knoxville. Le D» Barton 
lui a donne le nom de Jefferson i:i dans one description qu'il a donnee de 
cette Plante apres avoir vu la tleur des IMants que j'avois rapport 6* a 
Philadelphia chez le Botaniste Bartram. Le temps de la tleur aux envi- 
rons de Knoxville est vers le 10 Mars. 

Le 15 rec,u la Lettre du G r Blount, en reponse a celle que je lui avois 

ccrit sur la iliVmivi rlc dun nouveau Sophora aux environs de fort Blount . 

jour et couche a 7 M. de distance. Pave 2 s1 ' 3? po. Souper 

■ • M ;;. i-t fmirrage des ciii'vaux. Bundle of fodder & p, 

I.'- If Mars IT'.tf. cuuclit' a mi mile de Iron Work chez M r Kiee Lawyer, 
80 M. di Knoxville. KiiiKirqu.' en 11. Mir. I'lmus viseosa, Acer ruhrmn 
fl. £ SUr tin individu Ot fl. 9 8ur ■■ IU1 '- arbrc. 

Le 17 eoiichi' prei tic HuII'h gap 80 Miles d'Irofl Work. 
Le 18 pa*s6 par Lick crc. I; et pel 1 1 urn court bouse 18 Miles de Bull's 
PP. 

• lyoodlum patmahm Bwz.— C. B. 8. 



1888.] lo* [Michaux. 

Le 19 passe par Johnsborough 25 Miles de Green. II y a plusi. mar- 
chands etablis a Johnsborough qui tirent leur marchandises de Philad e 
par terre. 

Le Dimanche 20 parti de Johnsborough. Vu en passant M. Overton de 
Kentuckey, Major Carter de Wataga chez qui j'avois loge* plusi. annees 
auparavant avec mon fils et le Colonel Avery. 

Dimanche 20 Mars 1796 remarque en fleurs le Corylus americana fl. $ 
ayant les Stiles ou Stigmates de couleur purpurine. Le Ulmus viscosa 
geminis aureis florib. 4-5-6- andris, stigmatibus purpureis. 

Le Acer rubrum fl. £ sur un individu et fl. $ sur un autre. Couche 
chez le Colonel Tipton 10 M. de Johnsborough. 

Le 21 remarque en plusi. endroits les Montagnes couvertes de Sanguin- 
aria, Claytonia et Erytbronium a feuill. maculees. Ces Plantes etoient en 
fleur. Le Magnolia acum. et auriculata ; Rhododendr. ; Kalmia ; Pinus 
abies canadensis, P. Strobus ; Azalea &c &c abondent au pied de ces M. 
Arrive a Lime Stone cove et couche ch. Ch. Collier 18 M. du Col. 
Tipton. 

Le 22 traverse Iron Mountain ct arrive au soir ch. David Becker 23 
Miles sans trouv. de maisons. 

Le 23 parti de chez Becker sur Cane Creek chez Rider 6 M. de Rider ch. 
Widow Nigh. 7 M. De Nigh ch. Sam. Ramsey. 2 M. De Ramsey ch. 
David Cox sur Paper Creek 4 M. et de Cox ch. Young 1 M. De Sam Ram- 
sey chez Davinport 8 M. Total 23 M. couche chez Davinport. Re- 
marque le Salix capreoides en fl. sur le bord des ruisseaux. 

Le 24 visite les hautes Montagnes vis a vis 1' habitation de Davinport, 
arrache plusi. centaines de Plants ; Azalea lutea, fulva ; Anonymos azale- 
oides, Rhododendron minus &c. 

Le 25 Mars 1796. Vu en fleur le Corylus cornuta,* amentis £ 
geminis quandoque solitariis squamis ciliatis; antheris apice ciliatis, stylis 
coccineis. 

Cette espece fleurit environ 15 jours plus tard que l'espece de Corylus 
americana que Ton trouve dans tous les Climats. de l'Am. Septentrionale 
mSme dans la basse Caroline aux environs de Charleston. Le Corylus 
cornuta ne se trouve que sur les plus hautes montagnes et au Canada. 
Corylus americana amentis £ solitariis squamis externe tomentosis mar 
gine nuda ; floris 9 stylis coccineis. 

Le 26 herborise et arrache des Plants d'arbrisseaux et des Plants fraiches 
pour les transporter dans le jardin de la Republique en Caroline. 

Le Dimanche 27 Mars . . . 

Le 28 prepare et eniballe* mes Collections de Plantes fraiches des Mon- 
tagnes. 

Le 29 parti de chez Davinport et venu coucher chez . . . Young. 
Violette a feuilles dentel^es reniformes petiole velu et fl. jaune en pi. 
fleur sur les bords des ruisseaux et lieux tres frais. 

Le 30 continue ma route et par erreur pris une route a droite qui conduit 

* C. roatrata, Ait.— C. S. S. 
PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXVI. 129. R. PRINTED MARCH 26, 1889. 



Michaux.] i-OO [Oct. 19, 

a Wilkes. Autre Viole lutea scapus foliosus foliis bastatis en fleur lieux 
frais et aussi nioins humides. Celle-ci un peu plus tardive que la prece- 
dente. * 

Le 31 arrive cliez le Colonel Avery et venu coucher a Morganton dit 
Burke Court house. 

Le Vendredy l er Avril 1796, parti de Morganton. Couche chez Rob- 
ertson cy devant Henry Waggner 30 Miles de Morganton. 

Le 2 Avril Epigea repens en pleine fleur cornme les jours precedents : 
sur plusi. individus toutes les fleurs femelles sans rudiments d'Etaraines 
et sur d'autres individus fleurs toutes les fleurs hermaphrodites. Arrive 
a rnidy cbez Christian Reinhart pres Lincoln. Reste toute la journee 
pour arracher des Plants du Spiraea tomentosa, qui croit dans les endroits 
marecageux. 

Le Dimanche 3 Avril arrive cbez Bennet Smith 12 Miles de Lincoln : 
reste toute la journee pour arracher des Plants d'un nouveau Magnoliaf 
a feuilles tres grandes auriculees, oblongues, glauques soyeuses, surtout 
les jeunes feuilles ; les bourgeons tres soyeux : Fleurs Petales blancs a la 
base de couleur pourpre ; Etamines jaunes &c. Au long du (Creek) rote. 
seau, sur le bord du quel on trouve ce Magnolia j'y ay vu aussi le Kalmia 
latifolia, Viola lutea, foliis bastatis ; Ulruus viscosa alors en fructification ; 
Halesia ; Stewartia pentagyna. 

Le 4 parti et passe Tuck-a-segee ford sur la rivierre Catawba 10 Miles de 
Bennet Smith. Pris la route a gauche au lieu de passer par Charlotte et 
couche" a 11 Miles de Catawba river. X 

Le 5 Avril 1796 a 12 Miles de distance rejoint la route qui conduit de 
Cambden a Charlotte. § 

Pris des Plants de Calamus aromaticus qui se trouve aux lieux humides 
aux environs de Charlotte et de Lincoln. Rhus pumila. Couche aupres de 
Waxsaw Creek en Caroline meridionale 35 M. environ de Tuck-aSegee 
ford. 

Le 6 sur l'habitation du Colonel Crawford prei Waxsaw Creek: Plante 
anonyme feuilles quatern^es et perfoliees glubros, cntieres. Cette meme 
Plante se trouve duns les Etablissemens du Cumberland et au Kentuckey, 
Frasera fcolida. | . . . 

I'i-i' pir Hanging Rock; il y a 22 Miles de Waxsaw a Hanging 
Rock: Pourallei :i sforgnnton dit Burke Courthouse, l'on ne doit point 
passer par Charlotte, iimis prendre It Route a gauche a 3 Miles ^ do Hang- 
Ing Rook. 

• r.haHata, Klohx.-C. 8. 8. 

pAgfio, Mi'hx c 

t No»n : (iviiiit de paMCr le fonl J'hvhIs .1. Iniiir cliiz . . . Al<'\im<lir. lionniu' iv- 

• de 'i"< J''iy Mi MOO »t. bwuooup di otvilitti. 

I N- • I'ciii ii.' v«-ut |>olnl |.iiK>ir |>nr t'lmrliitti- m ullniit A LInOOln, il limt 19 

k l& M nvHiit "I'y arrlver ■'liil'orni" r dtltjlOOttOial piWld a khuc1h- jm) ullcr piiKsoi T\ick 

| It haft been raggflCtcd that this limy r. ■•lininnn. Wilt. ( F. Wnllni. Mirhx.). 

-C. 8.8. 



1888.] l^J ]Michaux. 

Environ 20 Toises apres la fourche des deux chemins (l'un desqnels 
conduit a Charlotte) Ton trouve l'arbusle Anonyme* a racine rouge qui a 
le port du Calycanthus. Cet arbuste est celui que j'ay vu aux environs de 
Morganton. Couche aupres de Hanging Rock. 

Le Jeudy 7 Avril 1796 arrive a Cambden ; cinq a six M. avant d'y ar- 
river arrachc des Plants d'un nouveau Kalmia vu q. ques annees aupara- 
vant. II y a 26 M. de Hanging Rock a Cambden. 

Le Vendredy 8 Avril parti de Cambden passe par State's borough a 22 
M. de Cambden et couche a Manchester 30 Miles de Cambden. 

Le 9 mes Chevaux egares pendant la nuit, ayant brise la Cloture ou ils 
etoient renfernus. 

Dans les ruisseaux, Callitriche americana ; fructificatio simplex, axil- 
laris, sessilis, Cal. 2-phyllus, stam. unicum, filamentum longum, latere 
geminis, Germen duplex ? styli duo longitudine staminis, stigmata 
acuta. 

Silene . . . cal. 5 -fid us cylindricus, corolla Petala 5 (seu 5-partita 
usque ad basim), unguibus angusti9, laciniis planisapice obtusis ; Stamina 
10 basi corolla inserta ; Germen oblongum, Styli tres ; stigmata acuta ; 
Capsula uniloculars, semina plura numerosa, flores rosei.f » 

Parti l'apres midi et couche a 15 Miles ayant traverse 10 M. de sables 
dit High Hills Santee dans l'espace desquels remarque Phlox ; Silene 
. . . ; Dianthus ... en fleur ; Lupinus perennis et pilosus en 
fleur. 

Le Dimanche 10 Avril 1796 arrive sur la Rivierre Santee au lieu dit 
Manigault ferry; remarque avant d'y arriver Verbena (aubletia?) et sur 
les rives de Santee, Anonyme arbor dont les fructifications (muricatis) 
convenes de pointes molles eloient presque mures. X Manigault ferry est 
a 28 M. de Manchester. 

Deux miles plus loin Ton prend a droite la route dite Gaillard road 
plus courte que la route ordinaire mais bourbeuse pendant l'hiver. Couche 
cbez la V e Stuard 18 M. de Manigault ferry. Taverne sale et depourvue 
de fourrage po. les Chev. 

Le 11 parti de grand matin a 5 M. de distance remarqu6 Lupinus peren- 
nis et Lupinus pilosus en fleur. Distance de Charleston 40 a 43 Mil. 
Arrive au jardin de la Republique 37 Miles de la V e Stuard c-a-d. 47 M. 
de Charleston. 

* It is not at all clear what shrub Miehaux refers to in this entry. Mr. Canby, to whom 
several of the doubtful points in the Journal have been referred, and whose knowledge 
of the plants of the Allegheny region is now unrivaled, suggests that Miehaux may 
have found Darbya. There is nothing in his herbarium to indicate that he ever saw- 
that plant, which was found, however, by M. A. Curtis not far from Morganton.— C. S. S. 

t Probably Silene Pennsylmnica, as suggested by Mr. Canby, or S. Baldwinii, as sug- 
gested by Mr. Meehan. In both of the species the petals are sometimes rose colored.— 
C. S. S. 

J Planera aquatka, Gmelin.— C. S. S. 



Michaux.] 



140 



[Oct. 19, 



Recapitulation de la route des Illinois a Charleston : 




De S. Louis des Illinois a Kaskias 


4 Miles, 


Au village S. Phillipe 


45 


A la Prairie du Rocher 


9 


A Kaskaskias 


45 


A la jonction du Mississipi et de la Belle Riv. 


95 


Au Fort Massac 


45 


A la Jonction de Cumberland dans la Belle Riy, 


, 18 


A Clark's ville sur la rivierre rouge 


120 


A Nashville 


60 


A Bloodshed's lick 


30 


Au Fort Blount sur la riv. Cumberland 


40 


A West Point sur la rivierre Clinch 


90 


A Knoxville sur la riv. Houlston 


40 


De Knoxville a Iron Work 


30 


A Bulls gap 


30 


A Green's ville 


25 


A John's borough 


25 


Chez le Colonel Tipton 


10 


A Limextone cove 


18 


A David Becker au de la de la Montagne 




dite Iron mountain 


23 


De Backer ch. Young. 


20 


A Morganton dit Burke 


22 


Chez Robertson 


30 


A Lincoln 


16 


A Tuck a Scgee 


22 


A Wax Saw Creek 


35 


A Hanging rock 


22 


A Cambden 


26 


A Manchester 


80 


A Kaafganlt ferry 


28 


A Charleston 


70 


Total 


1123 M. 




lieues 




Mj 



Oahxkb 10. 1796. 



I.' 'J7 Tln-rmiilor nil \ r <!<• la Republicpu- frnnciisc Vnv A Indivisible 

(18 A 8 Vii-u\ si | embArquI darn la rade de Charleston Caroline 

female ii liord <ln N'avirr Ophir Capitaine JohlUtOD destuu' pour Am- 

I :'.<» TlnTini<l..r) \m mis | hi v.nlc 

Le iH pi-nlu in terro do vue. 



iaSS.1 141 [Michaux. 

Le 15 (30 fructidor) Septembre Tempete qui a dure jusqu'au 16 du 
soir. 

Le 5 Octobre passe" au travers d'une Escadre Anglaise commanded par 
l'Amiral Roger Curtis composee de 14 Vaisseaux de guerre s<j;ivoir: 
8 Vaisseaux a 2 Ponts, 2 a trois Ponts et 4 Fregates. L'une des Fregates 
la Melpomene vint traverser notre direction et ayant envoye un Officier a 
hord de notre Navire, il visita les Papiers et les connaisseniens ou Expe- 
ditions du Capitaine. Ayant verifie que les Informations donnees par le 
Capitaine etoient conformes, il fut satisfait et lui souhaita un bon voyage. 
Dans la conversation, il dit que la guerre avec la France devenoit ennuy- 
euse aux marins, qu'ils ne faisoient point de prises, mais qu'ils esperoient 
que la guerre avec l'Espagne leur seroit plus avantageux et que la 1" ex- 
pedition seroit contre Manille. Cette Escadre etoit a l'entree de la 
Manclie plus pres des Isles Scilly que d'Ouessaut. 

Le 18 Vendemaire an 5 e de la Republique franchise Une et Indivisible 
(9 Octobre 1796 V. St.) le vent etoit favorable et beau, mais a 5 heures du 
soir, il s'eleva une Tempete qui devint furieuse en moins de deux heures; 
elle contiuua toute la nuit en redoublant de violence et le Vent qui venoit 
de l'Est nous fonjoit vers le rivage. A minuit le Capitaine avoit prepare 
les baches po. couper les Mats. Enfin le jour arriva avant que le navire 
ait touche, mais le 19 Vendemiaire, (10 Oct bre ) vers les huit heures le Capi- 
taine voyant que la Sonde ne donnoit plus de profondeur sufflsante se 
dctermina a faire 6chouer le navire et apres 4 a 5 violentes secousses il 
s'arrSta ; alors les vagues tomberent avec tant de rage et de violence que 
tout ce qui etoit sur le Pont fut emporte. Les voiles se dechirerent en 
pieces en moins d'un quart d'heure. Un Mat fut brise\ le Navire etoit a 
demi renverse et recevoit quelques secousses qui durerent environ une 
demi heure. Alors les vagues devinrent plus violentes et nous etions in- 
onde de sorte que tous les hommes de l'equipage et moi aussi nous per- 
dions les forces. Plusieurs Malles ayant ete apportees sur le Pont furent 
jetees a la mer et les habitans d'un village nomine Egmond situe a un 
lieu environ de cet endroit retiroient tout ce qui arrivoit au rivage. lis 
etoient au nombre de plus de 200 y compris 25 hommes de troupes envoyes 
avec un Offlcier pour nous secourir s'il avoit ete possible. Enfin n'ayant 
plus d'esperance, plusi. Matelots s'attacherent a des pieces de bois qui 
venoient d'etre jettees et ils gagnerent le rivage. Quant a moi je m'ctois 
toujours tenu attache a un cordage ayant les jambes passees sous une 
vergue qui avoit etc detachee pendant la nuit et attachee sur le Pont. 
Ayant ete battu par les Vagues pendant trois heures, je sentois mes forces 
s'affoiblir et je descendis dans l'entrepont pour y attendre la fin de mes 
souffrances et la mort. Aussitot je perdis la Connaissance car je ne me 
souviens d'aucune des circonstances qui se sont passees jusqu' au moment 
ou apres avoir ete transports au village, j'y fus deshabille et change 
d'habits. L'on me fit boire deux petits verres de vin et ayant etc approche 
d'un grand feu, la connoissance me revint environ une demie [heure] 
apres; mais j'avois un tremblement de tout le corps qui dura toute la jour- 



Michaux.] 14 J [ 0ct 19) 

nee. Je ne sais que par oui dire, car j'avois perdu connoissance, que vers 
les onze heures le Capitaine ayant vu le Canot tombe au bas du Navire, en- 
gagea trois hommes qui etoient restes, a me transporter dans ce Canot ainsi 
qu'un autre homme qui etoit dans la meme situation ; ensuite Ton me 
mit dans une voiture pour me transporter au village et vers une heure 
apres midy lorsque la connaissance me revint je me trouvay dans une 
Chambre aupres d'un grand feu avec de nouveaux babillemens et envi- 
ronne de 40 a 50 personnes des habitants du Pays. Je songeai aussitot a 
mes Caisses et mes Malles qui contenoient mes Collections dont j'en avois 
vu plusi. jetter a la Mer trois heures auparavant. L'on me dit que tout 
ce qui tomboit du navire ou avoit ete jette, arrivoit au rivage et que 
le detachement de troupes veilloit a ce que les Paysans ne pillassent point 
les Effets. 

Le Capitaine qui etoit reste le dernier sur son navire s'en jette a la 
nage, vers les deux heures, vint au Village dans une Charette car il etoit 
epuise de fatigues ainsi que tous les hommes de l'equipage. 

Les habitans du Pays nous fournirent tous les secours possible, Chemises, 
Habits, Pain, Yiande, Eau de vie &c. et vers le soir tous les Naufrages se 
trouverent soulages et retablis. 

Ls totalite de mes Collections formoit seize Caisses et quatre Malles du 
nombre des quels seuiement 5 a 6 disoit-on etoient venus au rivage ; Le 
vent souffloit avec la inSme fureur, et c'etoit le bruit general dans la 
bouche de tous, que le lendemain matin l'on ne verroit nulle vestige du 
Navire. Le vent, disoit-on, s'etoit un peu ralenti pendant la nuit et le 
lendemain le navire . . . 

11 etoit reste jusque vers le soir, sur le navire, un homme qui ne 
sQachant pas nager, auroit peri sans l'humanite d'un homme du village 
prochain. II fit attacher une barre en croix au bout d'un petit Mat, et 
s'etant assis dessus, muni de cordages dont une partie servoit a le retenir 
contre la violence des vagues, tandis que 7 a 8 homines nvanc/>ient le mat 
par l'extremite opposee, ils purvinrent a le faire arriv. au Navire, alors cet 
homme qui etoit sur la piece de bois jetta un cordage a celui qui etoit reste 
au navire. II se passa la corde autour du corps et l'ayant nouee, il se 
laissa aller dans la Mer et ainsi on le retira sur le rivage. Un nomine 
. . . qui avoit ete Capitaine da navire dans la Marine Hollandaise ayant 
appris cette action d'huinanite vint chcrcher cet homme. II le garda chez 
lui plusi. jours et il lui donna une Tabatierc d'argent sur hup etoit graver 
la datte de cette Action. Ensuite il s'cinploya pour obtanir de la Muniei- 
palite une attestation honorable do cette action. Cet homme fut mande a 

▲nutardan on il <'ut da i;i nnnioipalit^ ana recompense pnbllqtM con- 
siHtHn i en une Boitt d'arganl ramplto i\>~ piaoai d'aiyanl at {ravat conte- 

nant les details de sa taavonre vVc 



1888.] 14-J [Michaux. 

Le Dimanche 9 Octobre, veille de la Temp8te il etoit venu a bord du 
navire deux petits oiseaux male et femelle que je reconnus pour etre le 
Pinson d'Ardenues. 

Le leudemain de la tempete Ton trouva uu oiseau aquatique marin sur 
le rivage, nomme par les Anglais Garnett. 



Le 5 Frimaire, an. 5 (25 Nov. '96) parti d'Egmond-op-zee et arrive a 
Amsterdam. 

Le 6 fait emballer et marquer les Caisses et Malles. 

Le 7 Dine chez le Citoyen Fousenbarte. 

Le 8 embarque mes Caisses sur un Bateau couvert pour Bruxelles, adresse 
au Citoyen l'Endormi ; led. Bateau doit passer par Anvers. 

Le 9 obtenu les Passeports de l'Amiraute po. le transit de mes Collec- 
tions sans Stre visitees par les Douaniers Hollandais. 

LelO (30 Nov.) Ecritaux Citoyens Bosc, Chion, Bussy, le Rev d Nicholas 
Collin et au Gen 1 Charles Cotesworth Pincknay, par la voye de New- 
York. Parti d' Amsterdam po. Leyde couche a Harlem. 

Le onze frimaire (l er Dec. 1796 Vst) arrive a Leyde eloigne" de Harlem 
. . . et d' Amsterdam . . . 

Visite le Professeur d'hist. naturelle Brugmans a qui j'ay donne quel- 
ques graines d'Amerique. Achete plusi. livres d'histoire naturelle. 

Le 13 frimaire (2 Decemb.) parti pour La Haye et dine le m8me jour 
chez le Ministre Francjais pres la Republique Batave. 

Le 14 (3 Decemb.) dine chez le Ministre. 

Le 15 parti pour Roterdam 5 heures de La Haye. 

Le 16 frimaire visile les Freres Gevers dont le Cabinet d'Oiseaux est un 
des pi. rares et des mieux prepares qu'un aucun autre que j 'aye vu prece- 
demraent. 

Visite le Docteur Van Noorden. le Consul Le Roux la Ville . . . 

Le 17 parti de Roterdam passe par Dort et arrive au Mordick, embou- 
chure de plusiers rivierres tres dangereux a passer. Couche pres de Breda 
ville tres fortiflee, 9 li. de Roterdam. 

Le 18 arrive a Anvers 10 lieues de Breda. 

Le 19 frimaire pris des informations aux Bureaux des Douanes sur 
l'arrivee de mes Caisses et Malles chargees a Amsterdam po. Bruxelles. 

Le 20 frimaire, les Bureaux du Departement etant fermes je n'ay pu 
terminer aucune affaire. 

Le 21 visite le Citoyen Brusl6, Commissaire du Directoire Executif et le 
Citoyen Petit-Mongin Directeur des Douanes. Je fus tres satisfait du 
patriotisme et de l'Esprit National du Cit. P. Mongin aussi bien que de 
ses sentiments de probite joints a un Esprit solide. Je termiuay mes 
affaires quant a la surete et a l'expedition de mes Caisses. 

Le 23 frimaire parti pour Bruxelles. 



Michaux.] 144 [0c t 19, 

Le 23 regie avec le Cit. J. B. Champon fils pour l'expedition de mes 
Caisses et Malles. 

Le 24 visite le B. de Reynegom et achete de lui des Canards du Missis- 
sipi pour reparer ceux q. j'ay perdu par le Naufrage du 19 Vendemiaire. 

Le 25 (15 Nov. v style) parti de Bruxelles pour Ghent, arrive le lende- 
main matin. 

Le 26 visite M. Van Aken. 

Le 27 parti pour Lille. 

Le28 

Le29 

Le 30 parti de Lille. 

Le 1" Nivose (21 Dec. Mercredy V-st) passe" par Douay, Cambray. 

Le 3 arrive" a Paris. 

Le 4 envoy e au Museum national quatre Canards (Anas sponsa) du Mis- 
sissipi et deux Canards (Anas galericulata) de la Chine. Visite' les Cito- 
yens Thouin, Daubenton, Richard, Desfontaines. 

Le 5 visite les Citoyens Cels, Tessieu et Andrieux, tous les trois attaches 
a la 4 e Division du Departement du Ministre de l'lnterieur Agriculture. 

Visite l'Heritier conservat r du directoire Vegetal &c. 

Le 6 visite Mangourit, Le Cit. de la Croix, Ministre des relations exte* 
rieures, le Colonel Fulton &c. Assiste a la seance de l'lnstitut National 
de France. 

Visite les Citoyens Lamarque, Jussieu &c. 

Le 7 Ecrit au Ministre de l'lnterieur, a Mangourit, a Chamon a Brux- 
elles. J'ay ete a Versailles et j'ay couche a Satory. 

Le 8 Nivose couche et dine a Satory. 

Le 9 Visit »' Le Monnier et dine chez lui. 

Le 10 Visits l'Heritier chez lui avec le G. Pinckney, dine chez Cels. 

Le 11 Visits Jean Thouin, M d0 Gilbert, M de Le Clerc, M de Trouve 
femme du redact, du Monit. cy devant Gorelli. 

Le 12 Visite avec le General Pinckney le Jardin et le Cabinet d'llist 
Naturelle. Dine" chez M. Goy et visite" M. Barquet. 

Le 13 chcrche un logement. 

Le 14 visits de nouveau M. L'Heritier, M r Dupont et dine chez le 
Directcur La EteveflUen Lep&UI. 

Le 16 SMBM publique de l'lnstitut National des Sciences et des Arts. 

L« Ifl viMti' Iti<-hard, Thoiiin, seance de l'lnstitut. 

Le 17 <Vrit . mi Cit" I'ctit-Mniigiii, Inspecteur des Douanes a Anvers et 
:m Cit" Cbam|K>n a Bruxelles. 

Diti<- cli< ■/. K> nii Chiye vis-a-vls le pont au change. 

Lr is tniviiilli- un D.'int'migi'mi-iit. 

Le IK <lii,c' < h. / liirdout.'- Peintres au Louvre. 

!,<• till <!in<- chez ('els. 

Le 21 J'ay 6te a l'lnstitut, memolre de Vcntenat sur le Phallus de 

Le 22 Nivose visite" le Pantheon. 



1888.1 1^.5 [Michaux. 

Le 23 achete quelques pieces de Menage. Visite M r Dubois et le Minis- 
tre Benezech. 

Le 24 visite Thouin, Delaunay et Desfontaines. Dine" chez M 4 * Barquet. 

Le 25 fait travailler le menuisier, ecrit a Brux. 

Le 26 visite Mangourit : Seance de l'lnstitut. Memoire sur les Rhino- 
ceros Unicornes et Bicornes ; re<ju une let. du Cit. Petit Maagin ; II me 
marque que mes Collections n'etoient pas arrives a Anvers le 22 Nivose. 

Le 27 ecrit plusieurs lettres. 

Le 28 j'ay ete chez Thouin ; rencontre le Direct. LaReveilliere, Lepeau. 

Le 29 visite chez le Citoyen Louvet. 

Le 80 j 'ay ete chez le Citoyen Cels. 

Le 1" Pluviose, jay ete a l'lnstitut National ; remis a Cels la lettre du 
Ministre de l'lnterieur po. Stre envoyee au Consul a Charleston. 

Le 2 ecrit au Citoyen Dupont et envoye la lettre du Ministre de l'ln- 
terieur. 

Le 3 j'ay ete aux Bureaux du Ministre de la Marine et chez le Gen. 
Pinckney, Bernardde, S ut Afrique. 

Le 4 ecrit plusi. Lettres scavoir : Bosc par duplicat ; Capit. Baas, 
Duverney 9, Duverney £, Dupont a Chariest., Bussy a New York, 
Chion, Saulnier. 

Le 5 Dine chez le General Pinckney. 

Le 6 ecrit au Ministre de la Marine et envoye les Papiers concernaht 
Spillard, Institut National des Sciences. 

Le 7 ecrit a Himely en Suisse et a M de Himely a Charleston. 

Le 8, 9 et 10 travaille a mettre en ordre la collection des graines des 
Illinois : Dine chez Cels et donne une collection de ces graines. 

Fin du Journal. 



PROC. AMER. PHILOS SOC. XXVI. 129. S. PRINTED MARCH 27, 1889. 



Hanpt.J 146 [j an , is, 

Discussion on the Dynamic Action of the Ocean in Building Bars. 

By Lewis M. Haupt. 

(Bead before the American Philosophical Society, January 18, 1889.) 

Mr. President : A little more than a year has elapsed since the publi- 
cation of my paper on the Physical Phenomena of Harbor Entrances, 
and during this time it has provoked, as was expected, some discussion. 
It seems a propos that the record of this investigation should be entered 
in the publications of this Society, and I have, therefore, the honor of pre- 
senting for the Proceedings the following paper, entitled : Discussion on 
the Dynamic Action op the Ocean in Building Bars. 

It is a reply to a Report of a Board of United States Engineers, before 
whom I had a hearing in January, 1888, relative to the methods proposed, 
and who rendered an adverse decision March 16, 1888, in which they ask 
for precedents. In presenting them it becomes necessary to take up the 
items of the Report seriatim, and reply to them specifically. 

This representation seems to be the more necessary since this Society 
has done me the honor to endorse so highly the plans submitted in the 
paper before mentioned. 

(1) The Report states that my paper presents — 

" (1) A theory of ocean bar formation based upon the movement of the 
great tidal wave toward and along our coast ; and (2) a theory of harbor 
improvement based upon the idea that this tidal action is the controlling 
element in the forces affecting the magnitude and position of the bars. 
Each of these theories will be briefly considered. 

" Prof. Haupt calls attention to the natural division of the Atlantic coast 
into three great bays, and the effect they exert upon the relative height 
attained by the tide at different places along the coast. This subject is a 
familiar one and has no novelty. It was discussed by Prof. J. E. Hilgard 
in a lecture delivered before the American Institute more than seventeen 
year* ago, in which he sets forth the only important facts connected with 
the tidal wave contained in the paper before us." 

As this quotation creates the impression that I claim originality for 
IhtM statement* of facts, long well known, I must respectfully refer to 
the only claims which I haw mad* -pfcifx ally in the paper submitted to 

the Board Em aanalnattoa (iee pegeetOi II of pamphlet on "The Physi- 
cal Phenomena of EhrbOf B&tnuMMft"), from which it will appear that 
M li claim* win- mule. 1 have also referred in that paper to the 
ed States Coast and Qeodotk Survey Reports and other documents, 

M Containing the data upon which my "Ihcory of Improvement" I 
bated. In the reference to 1'rof. HUgard'l paper upon the tides, what he 
says is thU : " Where a bay or indentation of the mast presents itself, 



1889.1 147 [Haupt. 

opening favorably to the tidal wave, thus developed and decreased in width 
from its entrance towards its head, the tide rises higher and higher from 
the mouth upward. This is due to the concentration of the wave by the 
approach of the shores and to the gradual shoaling of the bottom."* He 
then proceeds to apply this general statement to the three great bays of the 
Atlantic coast line, by stating the observed phenomena. I do not wish to 
be misunderstood as claiming originality for reference to phenomena which 
are described in elementary teaching. My special claims concerning the 
dynamic action of the flood tide were limited to the local effects produced 
at the inlets by the flood as the controlling element, to which I will refer 
again. The Board do not appear to distinguish sufficiently between my 
statements of laws and the practical application and observations I have 
deduced from them. 

The Report continues : 

"Prof. Haupt attributes great importance to the velocities along shore 
arising from the tidal flow entering these bays. He, however, presents 
no measurements or other data from which a definite estimate can be 
drawn as to the intensity of the forces thus generated or comparison made 
as to their importance when contrasted with the numerous other forces 
acting upon the bars. Littoral currents, due to the tidal waves, if they 
exist, are masked and controlled by other forces, and especially by the 
well-known powerful action of wind-waves on all sandy shores. It rests, 
with Prof. Haupt to demonstrate that his tidal currents flow along the 
shores of these bays with a velocity sufficient to move the material form- 
ing the bars, and this he has failed to do. The only argument in favor of 
this conclusion is an assertion that the general conformation of the bars 
along the coast accords with what his theory requires. But the facts do 
not bear this out." 

From the above it would appear (a) that the engineer is expected to 
make a definite estimate of one of the most variable forces of nature, 
which may conspire with or oppose others in producing its effects ; (/>) 
that even the existence of littoral currents, due to tidal waves, is doubted 
by the Board ; (c) if such currents do exist, it must be proven that they 
have "velocity sufficient to move the material forming the bars;" (d) 
that no proof has been adduced in support of the proposition enunciated, 
but merely assertions made to fit a theory. 

In presenting the evidence in reply to this Report, I propose to show : 

(1) That the velocity is an unimportant factor, and that material can 
be transported even where there is no motion of translation in the motor. 

(2; That waves breaking obliquely on a sandy shore will move the par- 
ticles over a zigzag path, in a constant direction, which is cumulative. 

(3) That the flood tide produces such angular waves, and that littoral 
currents aid the movement. 

• Smithsonian Report, 1874, p. 219. 



Haupt.] 14:0 [Jan. is, 

(4) That the term flood component is more comprehensive than flood 
current, and includes the dynamic action of the breakers racing along the 
shore, as well as the littoral currents generated by the on-shore move- 
ment of the flood tide. 

If it can be shown that the flood currents Jiave sufficient energy to 
move materials, such as bricks, coal, wreckage, etc., in a direction opposed 
to the winds, even during storms, and for distances measured by miles in 
the direction of the flood, it would seem to be sufficient evidence to prove 
not only the existence of such a force, but that it is "sufficiently powerful" 
to move sand beneath the surface in the same direction. 

(a) As to measuring this particular force, I can only reply that instru- 
ments can do little more than give an imperfect record of a special condi- 
tion for a comparatively short interval of time, and that the only intelligi- 
ble gauge of the combined action of the physical forces is to be found in 
the effects produced, as revealed by Nature herself. 

A board of engineers, in reporting on Galveston harbor, expressed the 
hopelessness of measuring this particular force when they said : 

"It will be seen that the board does not attempt any prediction of the 
precise depth the jetties will maintain. Such predictions can best be made 
by those ignorant of experience in tidal entrances elsewhere, and having 
great confidence in the credulity of mankind." 

Yet, notwithstanding this statement, it is immediately preceded by the 
statement of the expectation "that the proposed jetties, when the channel 
is once formed, will maintain some such depth as twenty-five or thirty 
feet." 

As yet the channel has not been formed, although dredging has been 
tried and abandoned, and $1,581,782.84 have been expended, chiefly on 
the outer bar, and the latest survey shows a reduction of depth to twelve 
and three-fourths feet, or less than existed, at times, before the works 
were begun. 

In short, the measurement of this force is impracticable, since it will 
differ not only for different entrances, but at different points of the same 
entrance, and will also vary with the stages of the tide, duration and direc- 
tion of wind, etc. 

Speakingofthoactionofthe.se natural forces, General Gillmoro says: 
•The tpmttoa is fidl of perplexing difficulties, which elude all the known 
methods of research by formul.e." 1870, p. 458, Rep. Chief of Kng'rs. 

Till PBOOF <>K TBI EXISTENCE OF THE FLOOD COMPONENTS. 

(b) Tin- Report says : 

" / mhii, due to the tidal waves, \f they exist, arc ma$ktd and 

'her forces, and especially l>y tht icll-knoirn, powerful action of 

' mates on all sandy *h»res." » * # " T/u observed effects may be 

erj/lairixt ijoile ok irellhy t/ie are, jifed iriiid-icaoe theory." * * * "The 



1889.] 149 [Haupt. 

prevailing direction of the storm winds, apparently ignored by Prof. Ilavpt, 
is an important element in the problem. ' ' 

This wind-wave theory presupposes that the breakers and waves gen- 
erated by prevailing winds and by great storms rolling along the beaches 
and transporting material in the direction of these movements, are the 
preponderating forces. 

It is a plausible theory, and the effects of great storms do not admit of 
doubt, yet its general application in accounting for the peculiar forms of 
spits and bars will be found to fail signally in numerous instances, as will 
hereafter appear. 

In replying to these points, I would respectfully submit that, as the 
effects of storms are immediate, and the changes readily observable, too 
much stress has been laid upon them, as compared with the work done by 
the ceaseless activity of the flood, the result of wliich for any one tide 
may be small, but it is cumulative. Thus, on the one hand, we have a 
great force operating for a short interval of time along a variable path ; and 
on the other, a lesser force operating almost incessantly over a constant 
path. Assume that there are five or six great storms from the same quar- 
ter during a year, with no counter-storms to neutralize their effects. We 
have then an aggregate effect of some unknown quantity multiplied by 5 
or 6 to be compared with some lesser unknown quantity multiplied by 
730. In ten years the net result in the latter case would be tenfold greater ; 
in a century it would be a hundredfold, and the effect would go on increas- 
ing as long as time endures. But one great storm, it must be remem- 
bered, may cut away material which the next may restore, and the result- 
ant must always be the algebraic sum of the movements. The wind-wave 
theory is totally inadequate to explain the existence of the peculiar hooks 
and spits which have been built out directly in the face of the prevailing 
winds. For instance, witness the phenomena at one of the most striking 
and familiar formations on the coast, that of Sandy Hook. I will quote 
the observed facts from the Report of Profs. Bache and Mitchell, printed in 
1856, U. S. C. S. Reports. Prof. Bache remarks : " It is known * * * 
that Sandy Hook is gradually increasing, growing to the northward into 
the main ship channel. A spot north of the Hook, where there was forty 
feet of water when Capt. Gedney made his survey, in less than ten years 
was nearly bare at low water. The importance of determining the cause 
of this increase, as leading to the means of controlling it, cannot be over- 
estimated." * * * "Various causes have been assigned for its growth, 
by the action of the waves and the winds." Speaking from the results 
of Prof. Mitchell's surveys, he says: "It turns out that this growth of 
the Hook is not an accidental phenomena, but goes on regularly and ac- 
cording to determinable laws. The amount of increase depends upon 
variable causes ; but the general fact is that it increases year by year, and 
the cause of this is a remarkable northwardly current * * * along 
both shores of the Hook." * * * "For more than seven hours out 



Haupt.] loi) [ Jan . 18> 

of the twelve, there is a northwardly current through False Hook chan- 
nel." "This northwardly current runs on the inside for eleven hours 
out of the twelve. It is the conflict of these two northwardly currents 
outside and inside, and the deposit of materials which they carry to the 
point of the Hook, which causes its growth." * * * "Within a cen- 
tury it has increased a mile and a quarter." 

Prof. Mitchell says : "Our attention was called not only to the more 
regular action of tides, currents, and the ordinary wash of the sea, hut 
also to the effects following violent storms and other extraordinary phe- 
nomena." * * * "I will cite here the most striking case in this con- 
nection. Near the end of Sandy Hook we found many small household 
articles, and even human bones, which were ascertained to have drifted 
thither from the emigrant ship New Era, wrecked at Long Branch two 
years ago. To astertain whether the same causes were still in operation, 
we chose a period of quiet weather, and made deposits of sinking bodies, 
at points along the coast a short distance from shore. The materials pur- 
sued the same path as that taken by the wreck matter of the New Era, 
driving on to the same part of the beach after many days." 

This is conclusive evidence for this place to show that it is not the wind 
wave, but the flood current running along shore, that has produced this 
spit of sand, called Sandy Hook, extending for five miles in a direction 
opposed to the prevailing winds. The observations were made with a 
view to determine this very point, and leave no doubt as to its correctness. 

The same cause, namely, the flood current, flowing westerly along the 
south shore of Long Island, has built out Coney Island to the westward 
in the face of a strong ebb and the north-west storms. 

In a Report on the improvement of the bar near Sandy Hook, a board 
of officers say : "Among the agencies which tend to diminish the navi- 
gable depth, are : (1) Sand moved from the adjacent shores into the lower 
bay. From observation, it is known that there is a gradual movement of 
sand in the vicinity of the low-w;iter line northward along the New Jer- 
sey shore, and westward along the Long Island shore into New York bay. 
i without special observations, the fact is sufficiently shown by the 
form of Sandy Hook, a sand spit about five miles long, which has been 
slowly built during past ages by this northward movement of sand along 
the New Jersey shore." * * * "An examination of the charts of 
Coney Island shows that its western end is moving westward as sund is 
moved to it, the motion of its eighteen-foot curve amounting to 800 feet 

between 1886 end i v 

No Cause is assigned In this Report for these movements north end west. 

Tliey .ire merely mentioned us observed (nets, hut it is not to be supposed 

;hi- distinguished' board "i experienced offloers would escribe these 
movements at right engieetoeeofa other to "the prevailing direction of 

I winds, " or to the "uerepted wind -\v:i\ e theory," since the pre- 

lion ll neither west, north. nOf north west, bnl is Off shore. 

Whilst Urn flood title movement is north west and reaotl along shore to trans- 



1889.] 151 , [Haupt. 

port the sand and drift in the direction of these extended spits. If the 
direction of the beach and drift movements are to be taken as indicative 
of that of the prevailing winds, as they should be, if the wind theory be 
true, then we must have the winds in the vicinity of Nantucket blowing 
from the S.W. ; those at New York entrance from the S.E. ; those along 
the Jersey coast from the N.E. ; those at Cape Henlopen from the S.E. ; 
those along the " Eastern Shore " from the N.E. ; those from Chesapeake 
Bay to Cape Hatteras from the S.E., and from Hatteras to Georgia from 
the N.E., with sudden reversals at Capes Fear and Lookout, and so on. 
In short, to fit this theory, the prevailing winds must blow from different 
quarters over limited sections, which the observed results, as plotted from 
the Hydrographic Charts, do not confirm. But, on the contrary, the flood 
component is found to approach in the direction of the shore drift and satis- 
factorily to explain this movement. The wind-wave theory also fails 
signally as applied to the Great Lakes. 

The same defect of the wind-wave theory exists when applied to the 
Gulf of Mexico, for in a special Report* on Galveston, by a board of en- 
gineers, dated New York, January 21, 1886, occurs this statement as to 
the potency of the winds in producing changes on the bar : 

" Twenty and one-half per cent of the winds were from the N.E. and 
E. ; their waves 6bould give a south-westerly motion to the sand : thirty- 
six per cent were from the S. or S.W. ; these should move the sand 
towards the north-east." 

But, as a matter of fact, the resultant sand movement is south-westerly, 
or in a direction opposed to the prevailing wind ; so that this theory is un- 
tenable in almost, if not in every instance. 

The movements of the winds in the great Southern Bay may be 6een 
from the subjoined statement of the Signal Service for this bay for the 
sixteen years from 1871 to 1886 : 

AVERAGE FltEiH'ENCY Off WINDS, AS INDICATED BY THE NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS. 

Direction . . N. N.E. E. S.E. 8. S.W. W. N.W. Calms. Prevailing Direction. 
Movement . 1775 1790 1890 1724 2538 2042 1841 2061 1249 S.W. 

Percentage . 10.9 11.0 11.6 10.6 15.6 16.3 11.3 12.7 

STATEMENT BY YEARS. 

Date 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 

Average movement .... 3984 3735 4550 4739 4942 3889 5117 5034 

ProvaUtagdlreettaa .... s.w. N.W. s.w. s.w. w. s.w. s.w. s. 

Date 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 

Average movement .... 4802 4583 5655 5179 5050 4992 5325 5334 
Prevailing direction .... S. S.W. E. S. S. S. S. S. 

From which it appears that there is not a single year in which the pre- 
vailing winds are from the N.E., but that they are generally from the S. 
and S.W. Hence if the forms of the spits and channels be due to these 
forces, they should be just the reverse of those found to exist along the 

* Keport Chief of Engineers, Appendix S, 1886. 



Haupt .] XO£ [ Jan . i 8j 

northern flank of the Southern hay, where they are hest defined and most 
characteristic. 

From a more detailed analysis of these tahles of monthly wind move- 
ments, quoted from the Signal Service Reports by Lieutenant Carter, 
U.S.E., for the vicinity of Tyhee Roads, Ga , it will be observed that the 
prevailing winds, which are from theS. and S.W., would tend to move the 
sand in a direction contrary to its observed motion, which is towards the 
S.W. To illustrate the relative intensities of the opposing winds, I have 
collated and compared the total monthly wind movements from 1872 to 
1886, inclusive. The normal on shore winds is S.E., hence those pro- 
ducing a north-eastwardly movement are the S. and S.W. winds, and those 
producing a south-westwardly movement are the E. and N.E. winds. 
The remaining directions being off-shore. Assembling these in groups by 
years, they exhibit the following results : 

Ratio 
in 77iousa7ids 
of Miles. Excess. 

1872, the S. and S.W. winds : to the E. and N.E. winds, 

1873, 

1874, 

1875, " " " " 

1876, 

1877, 

1878, " " " 

1879, " " " " 
1880, 
1881, 

nee, *' " 

u 

1884, 

1885, " " " 

1886, " " 

227-6 

From this comparison it would seem that the forces due to the prevail- 
ing direction of the wind, and tending to move material to the northeast, 
are overwhelmingly in excess of those operating in the contrary direction, 
or us 227,000 is to 0000 miles, an excess of 221,000 miles of wind move* 
meal from the S. and S.W. over that from the E. and N.E., or 14,733 

iiiiii-s pet jreaf. 

It would seem, therefore, that tbe more deeply the wind-wave theory is 

liiii'il, the more un1rn;il<lr it becomes, and that it is unnecessary to go 

further, if tin se tables represent the facts in the case, as I believe they do. 

belbM (losing this pert Of the argument, I beg leave to add that on 

■real lakes the littoral currents arc found to divide at or near the iritlrxt 

part of the lakes, and to llmv along shore in opposite directions towards 

the head and outlet, which could not oecur were thev cau-rd by winds. 

||o\v could a N'.K. wind on Lake Michigan, for example, cause a current 

to the northward and south ward front Milwaukee at the same time V These 



::16: 


7= 9 


: : 21 : 


5 = 16 


: :25: 


10 = 15 


: :30: 


9 = 21 


: : 20 : 


8 = 12 


: : M : 


26= —2 


: : H : 


5 = 20 


: : 2:: : 


14= 9 


::38: 


: 4 = C2 


: :17; 


18 = -1 


: : M 


: 5 = 41 


::25 


: 5 = 20 


::27 


: 10 = 17 


: :20 


: 5 = 15 


::13 


: 16 = —3 



1889.] lOO [Haupt. 

currents are due to surface oscillations, which are interrupted and deflected 
hy the form of the shore line, as along the coast. 

With reference to the effects of prevailing winds in moving material, 
Prof. Henry Mitchell, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, says : 

" The motion of the waves is not always in the direction of the prevail- 
ing winds. This fact is noted in many publications. An example of this 
is shown by the action of the waves on the north side of Long Island, N. 
Y., which drifts the material westward, while on the south side the mo- 
tion of the drifted material is eastward,* and yet the prevailing winds must 
be essentially the same on the two sides of the island. Anoiher example 
is furnished by Lake Michigan. On the west side, south of Milwaukee, 
the prevailing motion is southward, and north of that place it is north- 
ward, and yet the prevailing wind must be the same. The prevailing 
wave motion must be influenced by the tendency which wave oscillations 
have to move from the deep waters as a centre towards the shores. In 
some instances the prevailing drift, too, must be modified by the pre- 
vailing action of the littoral currents." 

In short, the oscillations of the flood tide in deep water become con- 
verted into waves of translation on shelving shores, where they break at 
a permanent angle, and also generate littoral currents, both of which com- 
bine to move the beach material in the direction of the receding coast line- 

FLOOD VS. EBB CURRENTS. 

Again, I believe it to be an error to attribute the deep holes in the 
gorges of inlets to ebb action chiefly. In Ex. Doc. 78, Forty eighth Con- 
gress, in reference to the Narrows of New York bay, it is said : "The 
mean ordinary velocity at the Narrows is, during the ebb tide, about two 
feet per second, and from this a depth of 100 feet results." In view of 
this statement, it is strange that a greater mean ebb velocity over Five- 
mile Bar in the Delaware is able to maintain only about seven feet of 
depth. In fact, it is not so much a question of velocity as of reaction, 
resulting from the compression of the flood in its efforts to pass through 
the gorge. The surveys show that the bottom currents run flood for about 
eleven hours out of twelve, and that the resultant of all the currents, ebb 
and flood, is strongly up stream. It is a notorious fact that refuse, etc., 
dumped in the lower bay, is carried by the flood to the upper bay, and it 
certainly will not be claimed that this effect is produced by prevalent 
storm-winds or waves. The flood resultant is also lower than that of the 
ebb, because of its greater density. Moreover, there can be no doubt 
that the extension of Cape Henlopen to the northward about 800 feet and 
the deposit there of over 5,000,000 cubic yards in the last half century, in 
opposition to the strong ebb, aided by the breakwater, and of" the action 
of the N.E. and N.W. storms, and the cutting away of the outer beach 
about 600 feet near the point, is additional evidence that the flood conipo- 

* This is only true for the eastern end of Long Island.— L. M. H. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. T. PRINTED MARCH 27, 1889. 



Haupt.] 1 ^4 [ Jan- 18( 

nent exists and has the power attributed to it, which it is necessary that 
maritime engineers should recognize in designing successful works of 
improvement. 

The existence of such a force as that described, and the effects produced 
thereby, in transporting heavy articles, and, a fortiori, lighter ones, is 
still further abundantly attested by the follpwing record of observed facts 
by competent persons. The extracts in Appendix "A" are cited to 
establish, as the author says, a "fundamental principle, that the deposits 
on the ocean border are only made by tlie current of the 'flood tide," and are 
a complete confirmation of the conclusions I have reached from an inde- 
pendent and somewhat different line of reasoning, based upon a compre- 
hensive comparative study of the coast charts. 

They were compiled by the late Rear- Admiral Davis,* one of the 
most talented hydrographers this country has produced, and were ac- 
cepted by such eminent authorities as Profs. Henry, Agassiz and Guyot, 
but were unknown to me until my attention was drawn to them by this 
discussion. 

(c) VELOCITY INSUFFICIENT? 

"It rests with Prof. Haupt to demonstrate that his tidal currents flow 
along the shores of these bays with a velocity sufficient to move the materials 
forming t7ie bars, and this he has failed to do." 

It would appear from this opinion of the Board that they expect the 
results produced by the flood to be those due wholly to the velocity of the 
littoral currents, evidently overlooking those other and far more potent 
agencies which are at work in the flood, as previously proved with refer- 
ence to New York entrance. I have, in general, designated this force as 
the "littoral component," but it has been confused with and mistaken for 
the littoral current, and since the velocity of the latter is evidently small, 
it has been concluded that there can be no motion produced by this flood 
component. I have already cited numerous unmistakable instances of sucli 
motion and deposit in opposition to the prevailing wind theory, and will 
now merely call attention to the fact that these results may be produced 
even without any httorul current, siuce matter may be given a motion of 
translation without Dm motor itself having such ft motion. For example, 
the usual helices for mixing concrete, transport the material from one 
end of the trough to the other, even against gravity, merely by the rota- 
tion of the axi«, and water is raised by the Archimedean screw in a similar 
manner. The dynamic action of the waves racing along the beach is pre- 
cisely the same. If the wave of translation, !is II comes rolling ill, does 
not strike normally (and in a hay it will generally be oblique), then it will 

! » i\ Is, I.I. It , U. 8. N., woi born In Uoston, Mass., January 18, 1807, and 

sj laldshlptaaa in lUt, HimthHs, B*ar*Admlra] in 1888, in 1881, he 

wu a in «iii tier (if ii I x hip I to n|M>rt n | « in 111 id II Inn ol l he hui'liurs tad Inlet! Of th6 

loathan c<*ut. In lHAttho wamnii'l. Hii|wrlnt( -ml. nl of tin- "Nnniinil Almanac ;" In 

1886, or lbs Bars! Obs ar r ator y , ami 'inn attfloand prft fastinnnl Ufa, he 

translated the " M> • 



ISO.] 1^5 [Haupt. 

roll up the sand diagonally. The particles may possibly return normally 
with the under-tow, only to be again transported obliquely, and by this 
zigzag path it will advance in the direction of the receding beach ; a lit- 
toral current merely intensifies this action. 

This movement along shore is, therefore, largely dependent on the 
angle at which the flood breaks upon the shore, and this angle is practi- 
cally a constant for a particular place, modified by the wind. But vari- 
ability in the wind is not the controlling condition. It may sometimes 
increase the littoral 'drift, and at others neutralize it entirely. While there 
may be a prevailing north-east wind, as alleged, it would seem from an 
examination of the hydrographic charts, that the prevailing winds are off 
shore and the greatest storms from the south and west. In the middle 
bay particularly, extending from Cape Hatteras to Nantucket, the on- 
shore winds are limited to a few months during the summer. It would 
appear from these charts that the prevailing winds, and consequently the 
wind waves, can have very little influence in transporting material along 
the shores at or below the water line. 

With reference to the existence of a constant angle for the breaking 
wave as well as of a littoral current, Prof. Henry Mitchell, of the U. 8. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, says : " From considerable experience in the 
study of waves upon the open coast, I have come to the conclusion that 
there is everywhere a prevalent, if not a permanent, angle at which the 
larger class of swell or rollers strike the general shore line ;" also, "the 
coast currents in some places have a velocity of one-third of a mile per 
hour in thirty fathoms of water. They are in some localities nearly par- 
allel, in others normal to the general trend of the shore line, and, so far 
as the few observations we have seen may indicate, the directions of ebb 
and flood are not usually opposed, although lying at an oblique angle with 
each other." 

Dr. Whewell says, concerning the action of the flood tide : " The cotidal 
lines make a very acute angle with the shore line, and run for great dis- 
tances nearly parallel to it. They are convex in the direction of their 
motion, the ends near the shore being held back by the smaller velocities 
in shallower water and other resistances." 

But there can be no holding back without a reaction upon the shores, 
whereby the sandy particles would be dragged by the friction in the direc- 
tion of this movement. 

Mr. E. A. Geiseler, C.E., formerly Assistant U. S. Engineer and Super- 
intendent of Construction on Lighthouse Service, says : " I fully coincide 
with Prof. Haupt in his opinions that littoral currents are produced by 
the entrance of the tidal wave into bays. From the higher crest the 
water must flow at first vertically to such crest towards the shore line, and 
on approaching the latter be gradually deflected into a direction parallel 
to it." 

From the reference of the "tidal currents," to me personally, as their 
discoverer or imaginer (see quotation), it is necessary here incidentally to 



Haupt.] lob [-Jan. jg, 

disclaim any originality for the discovery of their existence. What I did 
claim and emphasize in my paper was not that, but their efficiency and 
controlling influence as bar-building agencies, and I applied the knowl- 
edge of the direction of the flood component to the designing of a plan for 
successfully resisting these encroachments. Although hydrographers are 
familiar with the well-known increased height of tide in bays, and with 
the existence of the littoral currents, they appear to have failed to apply 
these phenomena to account for the transportation of drift, until they 
were found, by a specially conducted series of surveys and observations, to 
be the causes of such formations as are instanced in the case of Sandy 
Hook. Yet, notwithstanding ample evidence, there are many persons 
who still adhere to the wind-wave theory as exerting the most potent 
influence. 

(d) " That no proof has been adduced, but merely assertions to fit a 
theory." i 

After the instances already given, it would seem to be superfluous to 
cite as evidence any more facts. The theory was not conceived first and 
then generalizations added to fit it, but it is the logical outcome of a criti- 
cal study of the forms, slopes and positions of the topographical features 
at a large number of entrances, taken in connection with the general form 
of the coast line, and the conclusions I have reached are merely confirm- 
atory of those deduced at earlier dates by Profs. Bache, Mitchell, Hilgard, 
Rear-Admiral Davis, some of the members of the United States Corps of 
Engineers, many civil engineers, and by some light keepers, life-saving 
crews and wreckers. I think it is clearly demonstrated that there is a 
flood component of greater or lesser intensity, depending on the angle at 
which the flood movement breaks upon the shore, and that it is the cumu- 
lative effect of this force that builds and moulds the bars at harbor inlets, 
or wherever there is a break in the beach. Such an opinion accords with 
observed facts, explains them satisfactorily, and is accepted by the most 
experienced hydrographers and maritime engineers. 

The Report of the Board continues : 

"For example, we hare authentic records at one of the sites he (Prof. 
Haupt) quotes, Beaufort, N. 0., which prove that during the last sixty- 
seven years there bai been a cycle of changes, and that the channel over 
the bar which, al present, occupies the position required by his theory, 

would h;ive bOtne testimony adverse to its truth a few years ago. In- 
deed, surli changes arc a eoinnion occurrence along the coast. The ac- 

led opinion ofengii n who baye had large experience in harbor 

works on sand tl thai the action of Oblique wind waves is potent 

LUSlng the movement Of material along the shore, and that the prevail' 
[Og direction of the st,,nn winds, apparently ignored hy l'rof. Haupt, is 
an important element in the problem." 

'11, ' .dement cunceiiiing the cyclic changes which are found to 

exist at the in, ' another continuation of the correctness of the 



1889.] i^< ("Haupt. 

theory. These changes occur in the same direction through a cycle of years, 
and are due to the relation between the flood and ebb forces. The flood 
resultant, by its constant encroachments from the same direction, trespasses 
upon the path of the ebb, crowding it over towards shore, and filling its 
bed, until it is no longer able to find an escape in the old path, when, 
aided perhaps by a storm, it will break out in a new channel, only to be 
returned after a series of years over the same ground. If these changes 
were due to storms only, they would be far more variable, and, in the 
interval between storms, they would be comparatively permanent. The 
channel would be thrown to the south-west by a north-east storm, and to 
the north east by one from the opposite quarter, when equally exposed, 
and there they should remain until again disturbed by this violent action ; 
whereas such is not the rule. 

The changes at Beaufort and all other places are readily explained by 
the influence of this unceasing flood resultant, modified only temporarily 
by storms. 

The reason why the storm-wind theory is the accepted one, is doubtless 
due to the fact that the effects are, for the time being, more manifest to 
the superficial observer, whilst those of the flood component are imper- 
ceptible excepting alter the lapse of considerable time. The effect may be 
likened to the slow growth of an organic body, not visible to one watch- 
ing it constantly, but very apparent to one who makes examinations at 
long intervals. The storm winds, it will be seen, are not ignored by me, 
but are merely relegated to their true position of secondary agencies, 
which may co-operate with or oppose the forces of the flood tide. 

In consequence of this cyclic movement it is evident that it would be a 
mistake to assume that all the ebb channels should remain flexed in a cer- 
tain direction along one flank of a bay and in the contrary direction on 
the opposite flank, as some have supposed must result, or that the changes 
would occur simultaneously at all places. 

The Board continue : 

"Nothing which Prof Haupt has advanced suggests that his tidal cur- 
rent should be substituted as the 'controlling' or even as an important 
element in our ocean bar formation. The observed effects may be ex- 
plained quite as well by the accepted wind-wave theory. Indeed, the 
fact that such bars abound on shores where no sensible tidal waves exist, 
proves that no new theory need be invoked." 

The first part of this statement has already been answered, and if the 
last part were irrefutable the theory would be untenable. But since like 
causes must produce like effects, if the observed effects are found on tide- 
less shores, we must expect to find the same causes — and so we shall. 
"Whether the motor be universal or terrestrial gravitation, the agency is 
primarily a wave of oscillation which in shallow water becomes a wave of 
translation, breaking generally obliquely upon the shore and producing a 
resultant movement along the beach. It is a well-known fact that on the 



Haupt.] 



158 



[Jan. 18, 



Great Lakes which, in the passage quoted, are undoubtedly the waters 
alluded to by the Board, there are continual oscillations of even greater 
maguitude than are found to be produced by the tides in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, and that they are much more frequent, hence the effects more marked. 
In the observations made by Rudolph Hering, Consulting Engineer for 
the Chicago Drainage Commission, he shows for one day not less than 
seventeen oscillations of over a foot in amplitude, and one of them exceed- 
ing two and one-half feet. (See diagram.) 




Fluctuations of the water surface of Lake Michigan, as recorded by an 
Automatic Gauge, Chicago, 111., August 16, 1886. 

Note.— The wind was from the north-west in the morning and the 
south-west in the afternoon. The lake here is sixty miles wide and from 
twenty- five to fifty fathoms deep. 

Mr. Ilering says : " The winds and barometric pressure produce a con- 
stant oscillation of the surface, and at times a swinging motion from shore 
to shore. * * * One oscillation on the above diagram is distinctly 
recognizable as lasting about twenty minutes, which is the swing across 
the lake The greatest ofihese, as will be seen, was over two feet. The 
oscillations are relatively greatest at the south end of the lake." 

Concerning thcee obeerred oscillations of the lake's surface, Mr. O. B. 
Wheeler, an experienced Assistant OO the Lake Surveys since 1868, who 
was continuously employed upon these surveys for thirteen years, and 
siiliscipicntly at intervals to <late | 1888), writes as follows : 

I0TIIO1 mil w s ri.u <;ai «.k R*COBM 01 TBI * ■ k i : \ i i.akks. BY O, B. 

\vni:i:i.i--.K. m. am. 8O0., C.B. 
" From my remeinhranee of the diSCUSSiOH of 111" sell* registering tidc- 
gaUf.' Uuni made at several points and (or several years on the 

Great i Her the folio* 

"Iii these gauges the ordinary wind waves and waves from passing 



1889.] 159 [Haupt. 

vessels, or from any local, incidental causes, were eliminated by means of 
the perforated boxes surrounding the float. 

"A fair representation of the record is shown in the illustration by 
Kudolph Hering in his paper to the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia ; 
although there is a distinctive curve for each locality of observation, and 
the curve for Chicago would be distinguishable from that of Milwaukee 
or from that of any other locality. 

"The curve at Milwaukee showed that for more than half the season of 
observation there were series of waves coming in at intervals of approxi- 
mately two hours, whose height were from one-third of a foot to one and 
a half feet. Generally the waves are subdivided, sometimes very deeply, 
into two or more parts. At Milwaukee, on Lake Michigan, there were 
more nearly eleven of these waves in twenty-four hours, and at Marquette, 
on Lake Superior, eight in the same length of time. The two-hour inter- 
val at Milwaukee was supposed to be due to the time required for a wave 
to travel across the lake and return, where the width of the lake was 
nearly eighty miles and depth 400 feet. 

"Greater disturbances, known as 'seiches,' occurring generally several 
times in a season and lasting several hours, bring waves upon the shore 
at intervals of twenty or thirty minutes, the crests of which waves exceed 
two feet in height above the troughs. The cause of this phenomenon is 
probably a difference in atmospheric pressure on different parts of the 
lake, and the more decided 'seiches' probably result from severe cyclones. 
The same cause may for the most part account for the generation of the 
two-hour waves above noted. 

"There is also a change in the relative water level of the two ends of a 
lake due to the direction of the wind, but the wave thus produced has 
generally a day or more in length of duration." 

Mr. G. Y. Wisner, a colleague of Mr. Wheeler's, also an experienced 
Lake Survey Assistant, writes, under date of March, 1888, that "the laws 
of the natural forces, which you have so ably set forth in your article, as 
applied to tidal harbors, hold equally true with a large number of the 
harbors on our lake coasts. It is true the tides on the lakes are impercep- 
tible, yet other natural causes combine to produce the same effect." 

" Owing to unequal barometric pressures on different portions of such 
vast bodies of water, series of waves are generated which are usually 
about an hour in passing from crest to crest at any given point, and vary 
all the way from six to eighteen inches in amplitude. These waves fol- 
low each other along the shores similarly to those of flood tides ; their 
effect in generating littoral currents depending, of course, on the general 
direction in which the waves approach the shore and the conformation of 
the coast line. I have noticed the rise and fall of the lakes due to this 
wave action, for days at a time, in perfectly calm weather, with almost 
the regularity of clock-work, and have observed currents generated in the 
open lake of over three miles per hour. * * * Most of the lake har- 



Haupt ] Iw [Jan. ig, 

bors are the mouths of rivers, and exhibit in a very striking manner many 
of the characteristics which you have described." 

Mr. Wisner has subsequently prepared a paper on this subject for the 
use of the profession, which paper is published in the " Proceedings of 
the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia" (1888), giving the practical applica- 
tions of these phenomena to several of the lake ports. 

The application of the observed principles to the lakes becomes very 
simple. As a lake contracts at its head (as at the west end of Lake Supe- 
rior, the south end of Lake Michigan, the west ends of Erie and Ontario) 
it may be regarded as a large bay with converging shores. The oscilla- 
tions in midlake are reflected along these shores and broken into waves of 
translation rolling towards the bight. Here, if there is any land drainage 
entering the lake, there is an opposition between the drifts in these direc- 
tions, and a precipitation of materials usually from both shores ensues, 
forming long spits, as at Minnesota and Wisconsin Points, on Superior 
bay, and at Chequegomegon spit on the bay of the same name. Similar 
formation takes place from the same causes at Maumee bay, at the head 
of Lake Erie, and at the end of Lake Ontario. Like movements in Lake 
Huron drive the sands into the St. Clair river and thence into the enlarge- 
ment known as Lake St. Clair, which was so shallow before improve- 
ment, as to have been the controlling feature on the lower lake naviga- 
tion. 

The same action at the head of Lake Michigan has, I believe, closed 
the ancient southern outlet, via the KankaTtee river, to the Illinois and 
Mississippi, and is still at work closing the mouths of the streams at that 
and other points and creating extensive deposits of sands. The same 
effects are to be found generally at the indentations of the shore line of 
sandy formations. 

Prof. Uiero B. Herr writes from Chicago, under date of March 30, 1888, 

that "our sand propelling currents are southward on the south half of 

the shore and northward on the north half. This seems clearly proven 

by the rapid accumulation of sand deposit on the north side of projecting 

i the former case, and on the south side in the latter." 

From these numerous instances, therefore, it is helieved to be a fact that 
this shore component of the lake oscillation and "seiches," be they pro- 
duced as tliey may, by wind or barometric disturbance, is the principal 
agency in producing the characteristic forms found there, as on the alluvia". 
coast line. 



'I hi- brings us to the second branch of the Report of the Board, in 
which they <<>niiiM-nt upon my practical deductions. 

The Board say : 

"The |ini< tiral cli-durlions drawn by Prof. Haupt front his theory are 

illuHtrated by proposed plans of improvement at Ihe harbors of New York, 

rtattoa and Galveston. They are all similar in character, consisting 



1880] 161 IHaupt. 

of a single detached jetty made up of elliptical curves presenting their 
cusps to oppose the supposed advancing component of the tidal wave, 
and of an in-shore extension to concentrate the flood current upon a 
secondary or 'beach' channel, which it is proposed to keep open. At 
New York and Galveston ' detached breakwaters' are indicated, to pre- 
vent the ebb from being diverted from its course, and to train it upon a 
point where, according to his theoretical deductions, 'the bar-building 
forces are weakest.' 

" Without going into any general discussion of this typical plan, it will 
be sufficient to point out : (1) That since no provision is made to close the 
'beach' channel during ebb tide, it will carry oft water which might be 
more usefully applied to scouring out the main or 'ebb' chanuel, and that 
one good channel is certainly better than two bad ones ; (2) that this pro- 
posed main channel, in the case of Charleston, is so lengthened by its loca- 
tion, that the working energy, due to the difference of head between the 
harbor and the outer ocean, is frittered away by being distributed over a 
path needlessly long ; and (3) that the degree of contraction on the bar is 
ill-defined, uncertain and altogether insufficient." 

To any one at all familiar with the original plans of the Government 
engineers for both Galveston and Charleston, the above criticism of my 
methods must appear as singularly inconsistent. If there are serious ob- 
jections in the plans which I have submitted, they must apply with much 
greater force to those now being executed at so great expense to the Gov- 
ernment. 

The whole merit of the submerged jetty plan, as adopted, was based 
upon the theory that the flood would be admitted freely over the jetties at 
their shore ends, and be, at ebb, trailed by them out across the bar, where 
the jetties were to be raised to or above the surface of the water. If the 
loss of ebb energy through the comparatively small lateral opening left 
in my plans be of serious amount, it would be far more so when the lateral 
openings amount to nearly four hundred per cent of the section at the 
mouth of the jetties, as is at present the case at Charleston. 

As to my proposed channel being so lengthened as to fritter away the 
working energy due to difference of head, it is only necessary to say that 
the point of escape for the ebb at all these sites is, in my plans, nearer the 
gorge, giving a greater slope and more rapid discharge than in the plans 
now under construction. At Charleston, the most unfavorable case for 
me, it is but two and seven-eighths miles distant from the gorge, while 
the mouth of the Government jetties is about three and one-eighth miles 
distant. 

"ONE GOOD CHANNEL verSUS TWO BAD ONES." 

There is no doubt that one good channel is to be preferred to two bad 
ones, but the counter-proposition that "two bad ones" are better than no 
good one is likewise true, and when it is remembered that the forces relied 
upon to create and maintain the two channels are distinct, are operating 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. U. PRINTED APRIL 1, 1683. 



Haupt.] \bJi rj an . ]8; 

at different times and places, there would seem to b,e no reason why they 
may not both be created. A fairer statement of the case would be that 
two good channels would be better than one poor one. Apropos of the 
amount of water escaping laterally during the ebb through the beach 
opening in the breakwater, the Reports of the Chief of Engineers are 
explicit in stating that it would be much less than the amount admitted 
during flood ; and in view of the beneficial effects of the 600 feet gap in 
the great north wall of the Dublin entrance,* there would seem to be no 
room left for doubt as to the benefits to be conferred by such a vent as 
that which I have proposed. The loss of energy through this lateral out- 
let during ebb would be immaterial; as it lies close under the lee of the 
shore, and nearly the whole of the ebb is trailed to discharge over the bar 
at the curved outer end of the breakwater. 

In discussing the Government projects, it was originally deemed funda- 
mental to their success that the flood tide should be admitted freely to 
secure the necessary prism for ebb scour, and in the design for the beach 
channel entrance, which I have given, I have provided a form that must 
pass more flood than ebb, and hence the excess would go to increase the 
ebb at another point of the bar. It is this difference of quantity upon 
which I rely in part to increase the efficiency of the ebb as well as the 
conservation of its energy over nearly one-half the crest of the bar. 
These principles are universally accepted as sound. They certainly will 
not fritter away the energy available for scour in an "ill-defined, uncer- 
tain, or altogether insufficient action," but must concentrate all there is to 
be had over the most limited as well as the weakest section of the bar. 

In considering the utility of high jetties for Charleston, the late General 
Gillmore said : "The excess of ebb over flood scour is due to two causes : 
(1) To the rainfall of the natural drainage area ; (2) To the volume of 
water carried in over the bar by waves of translation, which afterward 
form a part of the general outflow. High jetties, or those which rise above 
the level of high water, will cut off all supply from this source, except 
what little is carried in between them." * * * And he adds : "There 
are few maritime constructions, says M. Minard, less susceptible of gen- 
eral rules and more dependent on local influences than jetties. He might 
li:i\ e added that we are as yet unable to deal with these local influences 
with much confidence or satisfaction." To avoid these defects of high 
flovernment lias tried the submerged plan with, thus far, no 
r success. 

CONCLUSION OP THE BOARD. 

In fine, the Hoard, after an attentive study of l'rof. Haupt's paper, 

supplemented by B person ul interview, in winch he was afforded every 

opportunity to «-\ plain ami el:ilionite his views, find that they are purely 

:'.. lire uneonlinned by experience, and contain nothing not 

• H«c Franklin Iimtltuu .luuriml, for April, 1888. 



1889.] lbd [Haupt. 

already well known,. which has a useful application in the improvement 
of our harbors. 

"A copy of the printed paper submitted to the Board by Prof. Haupt is 
herewith enclosed. Respectfully submitted. 

(Signed by) " Thos. Lincoln Casey, Colonel Corps of Engineers. 
" Henry L. Abbot, Col. of Engineers, Bvt. Brig. Genl. 
" C. B. Comstock, Lt. Col. of Engrs., Bvt. Brig. Genl. 
"D. C.Houston, Lt. Col. of Engrs., Bvt. Col. 
"W. R. Kino, Major of Engineers." 

From the above concluding remarks it will be seen that the Board find 
in the paper submitted "nothing not already well known, etc.," and that 
the plans " are purely theoretical and unconfirmed by experience. ' ' These 
conclusions appear to me to be contradictory, since if, on the one hand, 
they are new and untried, they could hardly be expected to be confirmed 
by experience, or if, on the other hand, they are "well known," they are, 
by that expression, impliedly recognized as true, and their application 
should be readily confirmed or denied by the supposed existing precedents. 
But none have been cited by the Board. 

In the paper of Prof. Hilgard, to which the Board allude in their Report, 
he describes the, to him, unexpected effects produced during the war by 
the sinking, on the Charleston bar, of the so-called "stone fleet," thus 
obstructing the entrance to the harbor. 

Prof. Hilgard says : 

"On the accompanying diagram is seen the 'stone fleet' sunk in the 
main channel, which at that time had twelve feet of water at low tide, 
where the figure seven indicates the present depth. There was, moreover, 
another channel, making out more to the southward, with nine feet of 
water, where the figure three indicates the present depth. The vessels 
were placed checkerwise, in such a manner as to impede navigation, 
while interfering least with the discharge of water. The effect, neverthe- 
less was the formation of a shoal in a short time, and the scouring out of 
two channels, one on each side of the obstructions, through which twelve 
and fourteen feet can now (January 27, 1871) be carried at low water. 
The increased waterway thus given to the ebb tide caused it to abandon 
the old nine-foot channel on the less direct course to deep water. We 
have here the total obstruction of a channel, which was of considerable 
importance to the southward trade, by new conditions introduced at a 
point four miles distant from where the effect was produced, and we are 
warned how carefully all the conditions of the hydraulic system of a har- 
bor must be investigated before undertaking to make any change in its 
natural conditions, lest totally unlooked-for results be produced at points 
not taken into consideration." 

So that instead of obstructing the entrance this accidental barrier to the 
flood actually deepened the water on the bar two feet, and induced the 
ebb currents to effect an escape in its lee, closing a channel several miles 



Haupt.] 



164 



[Jan. 18, 



to the westward by furnishing a line of less resistance, and withdrawing 
the water from the former distant channel. Moreover, it cut a second 
channel quite as deep as the first on the opposite side of the fleet, thus 
creating two channels as good or better than before, instead of the one for- 
merly existing on the site of the fleet. 




■a* 






TImt<' OMlld n<>t ba found Ml llMftttOfl BON fully confirmatory of the 
soundnvHH of tin- prtaoiplw I MMM 1 : v i 1 1 down and pcopofd louse, than 
this iircidcntlil piftCtiOfc] eXJMtiNtOft Mid JT*1 thl MBOOIll Of the protection 
afforded by the "MOM ll« < I " was niueli less than Hint I haw pro\ ided, 



1889.] lo5 [Haupt. 

and it is situated at a point where its effects might have been considered 
"altogether insufficient, uncertain and ill-defined." 

(The cut is reproduced from Prof. Hilgard's paper, Smithsonian Report, 
1874, page 221.) 

The accompanying letter, recently received from Prof. Hilgard, is con- 
clusive as to the probable efficiency of these plans : 

"1349 L St. 
"Washington, May 20, 1888. 

"My Dear Prof. Haupt: I have received your interesting paper on 
the 'Physical Phenomena of Harbor Entrances,' in which you describe 
the peculiar forms of the bars and spits found at the inlets along the sandy 
cordon of islands defending the Atlantic coast line and give your explana- 
tion as to the forces producing them ; ascribing them chiefly to the energy 
of the flood tide as affected by the general form of the coast line. 

"In this I think you are entirely correct, as it is undoubtedly the un- 
ceasing activity of the flood that produces the forms which are so charac- 
teristic of harbor entrances, and not the wind waves produced by prevail- 
ing winds. The direction of motion of the beach sands is, as a rule, the 
same as that of the flood tide along the shore. It is modified by great 
storms, but only temporarily, and in a short time the flood reasserts its 
supremacy and the channel returns to its normal position. 

"In applying this physical fact to the plans for improving the bars, I 
believe you have proposed the best form to resist the encroachments of 
the sand and yet admit the flood tide freely. These are fundamental condi- 
tions, and you have fully met them while providing at the same time 
ample facilities for navigation. 

"The successful operation of your proposed plan is well illustrated by 
the accidental experience with the stone fleet on Charleston bar, described 
in my paper on ' Tides and Tidal Action in Harbors,' published in the 
Smithsonian Report for 1874. From that instance it is seen that by ob- 
structing the inflow of sand and inducing an ebb current, two good chan- 
nels were formed, the better one to the leeward of the obstruction. Your 
plans would change the conditions of equilibrium in favor of the ebb, and 
the length of your breakwater is much less than that required by existing 
methods. 

"I trust that they will be tried at some suitable entrance along the At- 
lantic or Gulf coast. 

"Yours, with great regard, 

"J. E. Hilgard. 

"Prop. Lewis M. Haupt, University of Pennsylvania." 

The effects to be anticipated from the shore flank of the breakwater are 
best instanced by those found at the Delaware breakwater, where a 
straight barrier of half a mile in length stands at such an angle to Cape 
Heulopen as to have been originally tangent to it when projected in 1828. 
Its end is about a half mile from shore, and it is open to the north-west 



Haupt.] T-frb [Jan. 18, 

storms and ebb scour. It bas maintained a channel 600 feet wide and 
over thirty feet deep through the shoals, which have been built upon 
either hand, all the way to the deep water of the Atlantic, and notwith- 
standing this concentration of the ebb forces through this funnel-shaped 
passage, the flood was not prevented from rolling Cape Henlopen about 
800 feet farther north since the commencement of the construction of the 
breakwater. These detached instances, with that of'the Dublin harbor 
north wall, are all conclusive, so far as any precedents can be, as to the 
effects to be expected from my plans, and when it is remembered that tbe 
cost of executing them would be less than half that of the high and tight 
jetties now proposed, and that the effects of time will be to reinforce and 
strengthen rather than to destroy them, it would seem that, in justice to 
the commercial interests of the country, an opportunity should be found 
for at least giving them a fair trial. 

In further confirmation of the requirement that the jetty should be on 
the side toward the flood component, reference is made to the experience 
of a private company, at Aransas pass, on the Texas coast, in 1869, which 
is believed to be the only case of this kind on record. 

Here the movement of sand is southward at the rate of over 200 feet per 
annum, and this company expended less than $10,000 in building a short 
jetty only 600 feet long from the nofth shore and extending out on the 
north side of the channel. 

"These jetties, crates or caisons, as they are variously called by the 
builders, were made of live-oak poles, spiked together in the general form 
of a triangular prism and placed longitudinally. Each crate was about 
eight or ten feet long, six feet high and six feet wide at the base. * * * 
They were ballasted with a few hundred-weight of stone, filled with 
brush and sunk in two or three parallel rows. They were expected to 
act as a nucleus about which the sand would settle, and close up the sec- 
ondary channel, thus directing the flow of water directly through the 
channel of the bar. From the fact that the secondary channel has shoaled 
about two feet, and the main channel deepened about two feet since 
placing the crates, it may be supposed they have contributed to produce 
this result."* 

In a later Report, dated February 1, 1879, Maj. Howell, then in charge, 

in commenting upon this early precedent, remarks : 

" Proa my remembrance of i ratal description of the work * * * 

the dilis were triangular in cross section (dimensions not known), and 
their parts very imperfectly fastened tcjiilnr. fend besides seem to have 
been made of any timber and lumber that came handy — some live oak, 
hut mostly yellow pine scantling, four inches by six inches. 
"Borne of these cribs were filled with bnub and stone when sunk in 

place, but it is said that others were -imply ballasted so as to sink them. 

• Beportofthel I A. Woodruff, Oocjm ol I lated April 1, 1871, vtcti 

Jttport Chlefof Engtiioera, 1871, p. 526, 



1889.] I"' [Haupt. 

During the work of construction some of the cribs near the shore were 
broken up and washed away. 

" When the work was suspended it is said there was a twelve foot chan- 
nel across the bar, which was maintained for several months, possibly 
until the teredo and the waves had destroyed a considerable part of the 
frail cribwork. 

"In 1871, when the late Lieut. E. A. Woodruff made a reconnoissance 
of the pass, he was unable to find any trace of the work. It is said that 
as the work gradually disappeared the channel across the bar gradually 
returned to its normal depth. I consider my information reliable as to 
the above described work and its effects." 

These extracts show very conclusively that, so far as this frail structure 
went, it was in the proper place, and did effective work in improving the 
channel by keeping out the sand and preventing the dispersion of the ebb. 
Its form and materials might have been improved to great advantage. 

The Government failed to profit by this precedent, however, for in 
August, 1887, the engineer officer in charge of this pass, reported that : 

" The work designed to deepen the channel over the bar, consisting of 
a single jetty, constructed upon the south side of the entrance, has had no 
important effect upon the bar, and is in a dilapidated condition. The 
channel depth, over the bar, is now eight and one half feet, and the 
channel crosses the jetty." 

Thus it appears that this jetty was attempted on the wrong side (the 
south) of the channel, and that the ebb discharge in seeking the line of 
least resistance was forced over the crest of the submerged work by the 
bar of sand rolled up by the flood component. 

JETTIES IN PAIKS. 

This paper would be incomplete without the evidence collected by ex- 
perienced maritime engineers of other countries, as to the results of similar 
works elsewhere. 

In his digest of jettied entrances, Sir Vernon Harcourt says in general 
of the jetty system : 

"The jetties also, in most cases, were extended in the hope of reaching 
deep water, which proved fruitless, owing to the progression of the fore- 
shore with each extension of the jetties. Next artificial sluicing basins 
were formed, to provide a larger mass of water for sluicing, with the ad- 
ditional advantage that the issuing current was nearer and better directed 
for scouring the entrance. Lastly, dredging with sand-pumps is being 
largely employed for deepening the channel beyond the jetties. The 
parallel system has not proved successful in providing a deep entrance 
without constant works. * * * Experience has shown how jealously 
encroachments on the tide-covered lands should be prevented, and the 
uselessness of prolongations of the jetties. * * * Parallel jetty harbors 
are one of the most difficult class of harbors to design and maintain suc- 
cessfully." 



HaupU] It)© [Jan ]8 

Again, the President of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, 
and Engineer of the Port of Dublin, J. Pursur Griffith, writes with refer- 
ence to the alluvial harbor at Ostende, Belgium : 

"It is not necessary to enter into a detailed description of the successive 
additions made to the jetties and sluicing reservoirs * * * suffice it to 
say, that the jetties extend at present about 300 metres seaward from the 
shore line, and the maximum sluicing capacity of the reservoir is about 
1,100,000 cubic metres. The result of these costly works cannot be re- 
garded as satisfactory. The channel is still shallow, while the bar a short 
distance beyond the pierheads still forms a dangerous obstruction. Depth, 
of water at the entrance to a port is more needful during rough, wild weather 
than in calm, and it is just at such times that sluicing operations similar to 
those at Ostende fail." 

Speaking of the jetty system in general, he says : 

"The system so generally adopted in Continental ports, of parallel or 
nearly parallel jetties, extending only to comparatively shallow depths, ap- 
pears to be radically wrong in principle. Their tendency, generally, is to 
act as groins, and make the sandy shore extend outwards until the sand 
passes around the pierheads where the action of the sea heaps it up in the 
form of a bar." 

It seems unnecessary further to multiply instances of the failure of the 
principle of parallel jetties in tidal waters, and it is confidently believed 
that the single-curved barrier placed upon the bar as an obstruction to 
flood-wave and sand movement will be found satisfactorily to fulfill the 
reipiirements of these problems. 



APPENDIX A. 



K\ tracts from a paper, by Charles Henry Davis, Lieut, U. S. N., entitled 
"The Law of Deposit of t lie Flood: Its Dynamical Aclion and Ollice." 

Printed in the Smithsonian Contribution! to Knowledge, Vol. UL Referred 
to a Commission consisting of Prof S. Agssiir L Pro£ A. Gtyjot'and Prof. 

Joseph Henry, ami accepted December, L8W. 

"The views in the paper* were founded upon obserrStlODI and exami- 
niii .us parts of the alluvial coast of the United Slates, through 

a series o i ed M to the dteeoTery that the shape, extent and die- 

trihntion of tin- loose material of which they arc composed iniartzose 
•and— were chiefly determined hy the action of tides." * * * " U 

• Tie suthof hers retai to « prerloai memoir oo tin nms top 



1889.] 169 [Haupt. 

was laid down as a fundamental principle, that the deposits on the ocean 
border are only made by the current of the flood tide. * * * 

" The mode of operation of the flood is essentially accumulative. Its ten- 
dency, also, is continually to carry onward the deposit in the course of its 
current, so that it performs the double office of increasing the collection 
at every successive tide, and of advancing from place to place the matter 
at its disposal. This process, and the law by which it was produced, were 
proved by the manner in which the materials of wrecks were conveyed 
along the shore, and the direction (always that of flood) in which the 
various forms of deposits are increased. Many well-authenticated in- 
stances of the transportation of wrecked matter were adduced." He adds, 
"It is difficult, if not impossible, to make these inquiries through another 
person with a perfectly intelligible result, * * * it has not, therefore, 
been possible to add many facts to those already collected. The follow- 
ing statements are well attested." 

Mr. J. H. Skillman, Inspector of the Port at Greenport, L. I., stated that 
in October, 1842, the whale-ship Plato was wrecked on the south side of 
Long Island, and he took part in the purchase of the wreck. "After 
removing the oil, the upper frame separated from the lower timbers and 
drifted to the westward. The wreck masters built a house on the beach, 
In which they lived two weeks, employed in rescuing the cargo and ma- 
terials of the vessel. During this time bricks (spare ones for the 'try- 
works') and wood drifted to the westward, and were collected on the 
beach in that direction only. Nothing was carried to the eastward. The 
top frame that had separated was heavy, water-logged, and weighed 
down wfth iron fastenings, it floated deep ; and at the time of its drifting 
to the westward, the wind was blowing from the west. The bricks and 
fire wood constantly advanced in a westerly direction. During three of 
the fourteen days passed by the wreckers on the beach, the wind was 
from the north-west and one day very strong ; at no time did it blow from 
the east. After the hull was lightened it began to work to the westward, 
so that it was necessary to secure it by ropes, made fast to stakes driven 
into the sand." 

Mr. Bishop, speakingof the British sloopof war Sylph, lost on the south 
side of Long Island in 1814-15, said that : " The materials of this wreck 
were also taken up to the westward, some of them beyond Fire Island 
beach during the three weeks following her destruction. And, curious to 
relate, her rudder was found seven years afterwards, twenty miles to the 
westward of the place of her loss. It was known by its size and the king's 
arrow on the copper." Other cases are cited, and the statement is made 
that the flood current on that part of the Long Island shore runs to the 
westward. 

Lieut. Com'd'g J. N. Maffltt, U. S. Coast Survey, says : " Cape Hatteras 
is a point of divergence of the tide wave, or, in other words, a split of the 
tides takes place there ; in consequence of which the advancing flood 
that supplies the harbor of Charleston flows along the coast from the 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. V. PRINTED APRIL 1, 1889. 



Haupt.] 1 ' v) [Jan. 18, 1889. 

north to the south." He adds that, "the water, while it runs flood, is 
loaded with sand ; but that, when it runs ebb, it contains little or none 
of this matter." 

The action of the flood is to roll a floating body forward and lift it up, 
carrying it in the direction of the flood and finally leaving it stranded at 
high water. 

"Again, if a strong wind should arise to cause a heavy sea upon the 
beach, the fldating body will be thrown still farther on the shore." * * * 
"If, during the ebb tide, a floating object be placed upon the water, out- 
side of the line at which the sea breaks, it will be taken off, but if inside 
the breakers, it will be cast upon the shore. From these facts it appears 
that there is a mechanical action, by means of which the water, when in 
contact with the shore, ejects the substances either floating upon its sur- 
face or held by it in suspension, and that the effect of the flood current is 
to transport these substances and place them within the reach of this ac- 
tion, and that of the ebb is to transport these substances beyond the reach 
of this action. That is to say, what is called the law of deposit of the flood 
tide may be divided into two distinct phenomena ; one of which is the 
transporting power of the flood current towards and on to the shore ; the 
other, the dynamical action of the water at the shore." 

"So, then, the inward tendency of the wave action on the shore ejects 
or rejects the matters brought under its influence, and the transporting 
power of the flood current bears them from place to place, bringing them 
finally under this influence. And further, the projected particle will not 
strike the beach perpendicularly to its length, but obliquely, so that it will 
advance, as it rises on the shore ; and in this manner, also, the combined 
action of the two forces leads to the accumulation of deposits in the direc- 
tion of the flood tide." 

In the Memoirs, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (New Series, 
Vol. iv), pages 138, et seg., the same author cites a number of instances 
of wrecks along the south shore of Nantucket, and remarks: "In none of 
the instances were any of the wrecked materials seen to the westward of 
the spot where they first struck the island ; that is, in the direction of the 
ebb. This is well known to be universally the case, so that wreckers 
never go to the westward, but always to the eastward in searching for 
filiating articles. The fact is the more striking, that this course is opposed 
to the violent north-east gales, the principal cause of loss to shipping. For 
tin- preceding details I am indebted to Mr. Mitchell, of Nantucket, the 
astronomer." end others. " Bat the characteristic action of the flood may 

be obeerred wiiheTea greater dieUnctneei on the eastern shore oi Cepe 

-i a separation or split of the tides * * * and the tide 
currents, at t his place, appear to run on and off shore. Now, the materials 
Of reeeell that are wrecked t<> the southward of the seat ol division Of the 
llde« are Uniformly carried south, and are found inside of Chatham har- 
bor or of" Monomoy Point ; while reeeell that an Wrecked so tar north as 
to bti within reach Ol the northern < uncut of the Hood have their effects 



Nov. 16, 1888.] 171 [Branner. 

scattered along the north shore, and making occasionally the entire circuit 
of Cape Cod, are soon deposited in Provincetown harbor. Here also, as 
at Nantucket, the movement is opposite to the prevailing winds. The 
transportation of such heavy materials as coal and bricks has been men- 
tioned." 

Mr. Small, the keeper of the light at Truro, said that "When articles 
float light upon the water, and offer a large body to the resistance of Hie 
wind, they may during the violence of the storm be carried against the 
current. During seven-eighths of the time, the waves break on the shore 
at Truro in a direction to the northward of west, the shore itself running 
north and south. This takes place in opposition to northerly winds. If 
these winds are exceedingly strong, they may for a short time overcome 
this prevailing tendency. It is the same on the eastern shore of Sandy 
Hook and of Nantucket. As the flood tide runs in a northerly direction 
at each of these places, the idea is suggested that there is an intimate con- 
nection between the course of the current and the manner of approach of 
Ihe waves to the beach." * * * "The constructive process of the 
flood is equally exhibited in the way in which the hooks, etc., are built 
up. They extend and increase always in the direction of the advancing 
current, as, for example, the Great Point of Nantucket gains constantly 
to the north, and the point of Monomoy to the south, which are the direc- 
tions of the flood currents at these places. * * * And so with all the 
hooks, both great and small, of the north-eastern coast, whether formed 
on the borders of the sea or in enclosed bays and harbors." 

Hitherto the tides have been regarded chiefly as an astronomical prob- 
lem; but if the views brought forward in this memoir are correct, they 
must hereafter be treated also as a strict geological problem. It has been 
shown that the courses of the tidal currents must in general be due to the 
forms of the shores" (page 148). "In this memoir, the forms, localities 
and amounts of the alluvial deposits have been attributed to the active in- 
fluence of local currents." 



Notes on the Botocudus and their Ornaments. 

By Prof. John C. Branner. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, November 16, 1888) 

The Botocudus of Brazil have been described at more or less length by 
Prince Maximilien,* Auguste de St. Hilaire.f Lery,| Denis, § Bigg- 

* Voyage au Bresil, par S. A. S. Maximilien (French translation from the original 
German), Vol. ii, p. 207 et Mq. 

t Voyage dans les provinces de Rio de Janeiro et de Minas Geraes, par Augu»te de 
St. Hilaire, 2 vols. 

X Histoire d'vn voyage faict en la terre dv Bresil, par Jean de Lery, p. 103-1. 

§ Bresil, par Ferdinand Denis. This work reproduces five plates of these Indians. 



Branner.] 1 * ^ [Nov. 16, 

Wither,* Professor Harttf and others, but nowhere have such carefully- 
made drawings been published of them as the accompanying, for none of 
the illustrations give any idea of the true features of these people. The 
photographs from which these are made were taken by M. Marc Ferrez, 
of Rio de Janeiro, in 1876, when he was employed as the photographer 
on the Brazilian Geological Survey. A leveling rod (metric system) was 
placed beside the subject in some cases for the purpose of affording an 
approximate measure. The short horizontal bands running part of the 
way across the rod are one centimetre wide. 

These Indians live near the Rio Doce, about three hundred miles north- 
east of Rio de Janeiro. They are, or were but a short time ago, savages, 
and were formerly regarded as the most ferocious and intractable of all 
Brazil.^ They wear but little clothing ; their bair is very black and coarse, 
and their color a light mulatto. The women do not allow their hair to 
grow upon any part of the bocty except the head, and in the illustrations 
it may be noticed that they have no eyebrows, the hairs all having been 
pulled out. The children are dirt-eaters. 

One of the most striking habits of these people is shown in the pictures 
— the wearing in the lips and ears as ornaments of great plugs resembling 
big, broad bottle- stoppers. As far as these pictures show the custom, the 
ear-plugs seem to be worn by both men and women, but only the women 
appear to wear them in the lips. The accounts given by Maximilien show 
that this custom was not so restricted at the time of his visit in 1836. 

The openings for these ornaments (for that of course is what they are 
meant to be) are made by first piercing the ear Or lip of the child when 
seven or eight years old with a small thorn or wooden spit of some kind, 
just as the ears are pierced nowadays among some civilized people, and a 
small stick is inserted in the opening. In a short time a larger stick is in- 
serted, and as the opening yields to pressure, still larger sticks or plugs 
are used until the desired size is attained. 

The lip ornament is made of a light kind of wood, is usually about two 
inches across (Prince Maximilien measured one over four inches in diam- 
eter), three -quarters of an inch thick, and with a groove about it in which 
the flesh-baud (its, holding it in place. Tin; lips of the younger people 
stand out ut right angles or are somewhat elevated at the exterior margin, 
hut with uge the muscles relax, the opening! enlarge, and the lips dangle. 
When the wearer smiles broadly the projecting ornament rises, and if it 
fits tightly, strikes the end of the nose. This ornament is worn almost 
all the time, though it is occasionally taken out. When these lip-plugs 
are removed the loops of tlcsh hang down in the most ungraceful manner 
imaginable, and are often torn out in the family jars that occur even in 
lavage life. So great is the attachment of the women to their lip-orna- 

•FlonMriaf In Sooth Bnufl, by Thomai Blgg-Wlther, Vol n. 

tocology hiki rityi'ii i. praphy >>i' itm/.ii, i.y Oh, End, Haxtt apptodlx, p. 

.'.77 ,-t MQ, 

HUtory of lim/.ll. 



1838.] 1 ♦ O [Branuer. 

ments, that when one of them gets the flesh-band broken, she patches the 
ends together with strings that she may not be without her ornaments. 
This breaking and mending are shown in illustrations 4, 5 and 7, while 
in 3 and 6 the bands are shown unbroken. Lery says they used to take 
the plugs from these openings and thrust their tongues through them in 
order to give the impression that they had two mouths. He adds : " I leave 
you to judge whether they are handsome in this act." One cannot help 
thinking that St. Hilaire was in a waggish mood when he wrote of these 
people that "ils se distinguentsurtout par une physionomie plusouverte." 
than the other Indians of Minas.* The use of these heavy lip-ornaments 
appears to have affected the language of these people, for it is remarkably 
guttural and nasal, and has no labial sounds. 

When the ear-rings or ear-plugs are lost or removed, the bands of 
flesh dangle near the shoulders, as may be seen in 2 and 8, and are, on ac- 
count of the danger of being broken or torn when thus left exposed, gen- 
erally looped over the tops of the ears. This is shown in 3, 6 and 7. In 4 
the ear-opening is not fashionably large. The lip and ear-ornaments of 
South American Indians are not always made of plain wood and in this 
bungling, bottle-stopper shape, the custom varying more or less among 
the widely scattered tribes. Some of them use pendants smaller in diam- 
eter, but of greater length, while some of them are made with the greatest 
care, and of the most beautiful stones. In the Museu Nacional at Rio de 
Janeiro are many of these more beautiful lip and ear ornaments made of 
beryl, jade, serpentine, quartz, clay and wood.f Bigg- Wither figures one 
large spindle-shaped lip-ornament from Southern Brazil weighing a 
quarter of a pound.}: 

The use of these monstrous plugs is gradually dying out among the 
Botocudus. It is to be noticed, even in these illustrations, that the younger 
members of the tribe do not wear them, and in the case of number 10 the 
young woman wears ear-pendants very like those used among the more 
civilized races of the present day. 

No. 9 is introduced to show the method used by the people to carry 
children. The same method is employed in carrying other burdens. It 
shows also the method of wearing the dress, which is usually nothing 
more than a strip of cloth, but which is sometimes sewed together at the 
ends. 

Under the encroaching influences of civilization, the savage customs of 
these tribes are gradually disappearing. 

♦Southey's History of Brazil, Vol. ii, p. 15L 

fArchivos do Museu Nacional, Vol. vi, 1885, Plate viii. 

JOp. cit.p. 142. 



1<4 [Jan. 4, 

Stated Meeting, January 4-, 1889. 

Present, 26 members. 

President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : A letter was read 
from Mr. Arthur Biddle acknowledging his election as a mem- 
ber of the Society. 

A letter was read from Bishop Crescendo Carillo, of Merida, 
Yucatan, acknowledging the receipt of his diploma. 

Letters of envoy were received from the Meteorological 
Office, London ; J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Mass. 

Letters of acknowledgment for Transactions XVI, 2, were 
received from the Societe R. de Zoologie, "Natura Artis 
Magistra," Amsterdam; Philosophical Society, Cambridge, 
England ; Royal Society, Royal Institution, R. Astronomical 
Society, Society of Antiquaries, London ; Radcliffe Observa- 
tory, Oxford. 

Letters of acknowledgment for Proceedings were received 
from the Societas pro Fauna and Flora Fennica, Elelsingfors 
(L27); Phys. Cent. Observatory (127); Academie R. des Sci- 
ences, Lisbonne (125, 126, 127); Royal Statistical Society, 
London (126, 127); Dr. Brezina (126, 127). 

Accessions to the Library were received from the Linnean 
Society of New South Wales, Sydney ; Mr. John Tebbutt, 
Windsor, N. S. W.; Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 
1 1 Isingfors; K. K. Geologische Reiohsanstalt, Wien; Gesell- 
schaft fur Brdkunde, Phynologisohc ( taeeUsohaft, u Naturwiasen« 
8chafili<-lM! WooheHchrift," Berlin; (iartonbauvcrein, Darm- 
stadt; Naturwissonsohaftlioher Voivin des Keg. Bez., Frankfort, 
a.O • R. de Zoologie, "Natura Artis Magistra," Am- 

sterdam ; Biblioteoa N. C, Kirenzr ; l\. Aooadcmia do Scienze, 



1889.] 1 i O 

etc., Modena; R. Istituto Lombardo, Milan ; R. Comitato Geo- 
logico d'ltalia, Biblioteca N. C. V. E., Rome; Socie"te Philo- 
logique, Alencon; Societe de Borda, Dax; Societe de L'En- 
seignemeat, Redaction " Cosmos," Paris ; R. Astronomical 
Society, R. Geographical Society, Meteorological Council, 
Editors of "Nature," London ; American Statistical Associa- 
tion, Boston ; Harvard College Observatory, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Dr. Samuel Abbott Green, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Dr. J. C. Ayer, Lowell ; R. I. Historical Society, Providence ; 
" American Journal of Science," New Haven ; N. Y. State 
Museum, Albany ; Drs. Charles W. Dulles, I. Minis Hays, Mr. 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia ; Johns Hopkins University, 
Maryland Academy of Sciences, Baltimore ; Department of 
State, Hydrographic Office, Mr. F. L. Scribner, Washing- 
ton. 

The President reported that he had appointed as the com- 
mittee to examine the paper of George B. Simpson, Messrs. 
Lesley, Horn and Heilprin. 

Prof. Lesley, Chairman of the Committee on Mr. Simpson's 
paper, reported it worthy of publication, and it was referred 
to the Committee on Publication. 

The President reported that he had appointed as the Stand- 
ing Committee on the Henry M. Phillips 1 Prize Essay Fund, 
Mr. Richard Vaux, Chairman, Messrs. Henry Phillips, Jr., 
William V. McKean, Furman Sheppard, and Joseph Fraley. 

The Committee on the Aztec MSS. reported progress, and 
was continued. 

The Committee on the International Language reported 
progress and was continued, and, on motion, Mr. Horatio Hale 
was requested to prepare a historical digest of schemes for a 
universal language to be printed and distributed by the Society 
in advance of the meeting of the Congress it proposes to 
convene. 

The death of Prof. Josef von Lenhossek (Budapest, Decem- 
ber 2, 1888, set. 71) was announced. 



176 



[Jan. 4, 1889. 



The judges and clerks of the election reported the following 
gentlemen as having been elected : 

President. 
Frederick Fraley. 

Vice- Presidents. 
E. Otis Kendall, W. S. W. Ruschenberger, J. P. Lesley. 

Secretaries. 

George F. Barker, Daniel G. Briuton, Henry Phillips, Jr., 

George H. Horn. 

Counsellors {for three years). 

Richard Wood, William V. McKean, Isaac C. Martindale. 

Richard Vaux. 

Counsellor for two years in place of Dr. J. Cheston Morris, 

resigned. 
Samuel Wagner. 
Curators. 
John R. Baker, Patterson DuBois, J. Cheston Morris. 
Treasurer. 
J. Sergeant Price. 
Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., was renominated for Librarian for 
the ensuing year, and, on motion, the nominations were closed. 
Prof. Cope presented a paper for the Transactions on "The 
Mechanical Causes of the Character of the Hard Parts of the 
Mammalia," which was, on motion, referred to a committee of 
three (to be appointed by the President) to examine. The 
President subsequently appointed as such committee, Drs. 
Joseph Lcidy, Harrison Allen, and Horace Jayne. 

The Committee on Finance reported the annual appropria- 
tions, which were adopted. 

Pn>f. Lesley made a communication in reference to the con- 
dition and progress of the U. S. Coast Survey, and offered a 
iinblc and resolution, all of which, after discussion, was 
referred to the President of the Society and Messrs. Dudley, 
Wr and Ilaupt as a OOflU&ittee, to report upon at the next 
meeting of I ty. 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 



Proceedings Amer, Philos 



, XXVI, No, 129, 




'Proceedings Amer. Phil os. Soc 



Vol, XXVI, No, 12!, 




Proceedings Amer. Philos. Soc. 




Ings Amer. Phi las. Soc, 



Vol, XXVI. In, 129, 




r ZZ, rim " f hit iiiii .mm 

0"3 - j Co rj0 

Mill IIIII IIIII Mill 




Dec. 21, 1888.] 1'* [Brinton. 

The Ta Ki : the Svastika and the Cross in America. 
By Daniel G. Brinton, M.D. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, December 21, 1S88. ) 

What I am about to say is, to a certain degree, polemical. 
My intention is to combat the opinions of those writers who, like 
Dr. Hamy, M. Beauvois and many others,* assert that, because 
certain well-known Oriental symbols, as the TaKi, the Triskeles, 
the Svastika and the Cross, are found among the American 
aborigines, they are evidence of Mongolian, Buddhistic, Chris- 
tian or Aiyan immigrations, previous to the discovery by Colum- 
bus ; and I shall also try to show that the position is erroneous 
of those who, like William H. Holmes, of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy, maintain that " it is impossible to give a satisfactory ex- 
planation of the religious significance of the cross as a religious 
symbol in America."f 

In opposition to both these views I propose to show that the 
primary significance of all these widely extended symbols is quite 
clear; and that they can be shown to have arisen from certain 
fixed relations of man to his environment, the same everywhere, 
and hence suggesting the same graphic representations among 
tribes most divergent in location and race; and, therefore, that 
such symbols are of little value in tracing ethnic affinities or 
the currents of civilization. 

Their wide prevalence in the Old World is familiar to all stu- 
dents. The three legs diverging from one centre, which is now 
the well-known arms of the Isle of Man, is the ancient Trique- 
trum, or, as Olshaosen more properly terms it, the Triskeles,% 
seen on the oldest Sicilian coins and on those of Lycia, in Asia 
Minor, struck more than five hundred years before the beginning 
of our era. Yet such is the persistence of symbolic forms, the 
traveler in the latter region still finds it recurring on the modern 

* Dr. E. T. Hamy, An Interpretation of one of the Copan Monuments, in Journal of the An- 
thropological Institute, February, 1SS7 ; also, Rente <V Ethnographic, 1886, p. 233; same 
author, I.<: Svastika <:l la Roue Sotaire en Amerique, Revue a" Ethnographie, 1886, p. 22. E. 
Beauvois, in Annates de Philosophie Chretienne, 1877, and in various later publications. 
Ferrai de Macedo, Bmat Critique sur les Ages Prehistoriques de Brtsil, Lisbon, 1887, etc. 

t See his article, "Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans," in Second Annual Report 
of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 270. 

% See his article In Zeitschriftfiir Ethnologle, 1886, p. 223. 

PliOC. AMElt. PHILOS. S0C. XXVI. 129. W. PRINTED JAN. 30, 1889. 



Brinton.] Ho [Dec. 21, 

felt wraps used by the native inhabitants.* As a decorative mo- 
tive, or perhaps with a deeper significance, it is repeatedly found 
on ancient Slavic and Teutonic vases, disinterred from mounds 
of the bronze age, or earlier, in Central and Northern Europe. 
Frequently the figure is simply that of three straight or curved 
lines springing from a central point and surrounded by a circle, as : 





Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

In the latter we have the precise form of the Chinese Ta Ki, 
a symbolic figure which plays a prominent part in the mystical 
writing, the divination and the decorative art of China.f 

As it is this symbol which, according to Dr. Hamy, the dis- 
tinguished ethnologist and Director of the Museum of the Troca- 
dero, Paris, indicates the preaching of Buddhistic doctrines in 
America, it merits close attention. 

The Ta Ki, expressed by the signs: 



Jc 



< 



Fig. 3. 

is properly translated, "The Great Uniter" (ta, great; ki, to join 
ether, to make one, to unit*'), as in modern Chinese philoso- 
phy, expressed in Platonic language, the One as distinguished 

from the Many, and li regarded as the hasis of the numerical sys- 
tem, lint a> the Chinese Itelieve in (he invsfie powers of nura- 

and ai thai ffhioh reduces all multiplicity (<> unity naturally 
oontroli of is at the summit of all things, therefore the Ta Ki ex- 
presses the oompletesl and highest oreatlTe force. 

• Yon l.urliun. 1388, i. 801 

t n?<- nit. fcaitta ct ti I MfUi in />'"'" iff SUmoli 



1888.] 1'" [Brinton. 

As in Chinese philosophy, the Universe is made up of oppo- 
sites, heaven and earth, light and darkness, day and night, land 
and water, concave and convex, male and female, etc., the highest 
terms for which are Yin and Yang ; these are held to be brought 
into fructifying union by Ta Ki. Abstractly, the hitter would 
be regarded ag the synthesis of the two universal antitheses which 
make up all phenomena.* 

The symbolic representation of Yin and Yang is a circle di- 
vided by two arcs with opposite centres, while the symbol of 
Ta Ki adds a third arc from above uniting these two. 





Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

It is possible that these symbols are of late origin, devised to 
express the ideas above named. One Chinese scholar (Mr. S. 
Culin) tells me that it is doubtful if they occur earlier than the 
twelfth century, A. D., and that they were probably introduced 
for purposes of divination. In this case, I believe that they were 
introduced from the South, and that they originally had another 
and concrete significance, as I shall explain later. 

Others consider these symbols as essentially Mongolian. The 
Ta Ki or Triskeles is to them the Mongolian, while the Swastika 
is the ethnic Aryan symbol. Such writers suspect Indo-Euro- 
pean immigration where they discover the latter, Chinese immi- 
gration where they find the former emblem. 

The Svastika, I need hardly say, is the hooked cross or gam 
mated cross, usually represented as follows : 



Fig. 6. 

the four arms of equal length, the hook usually pointing from left 
to right. In this form it occurs in India and on very early (neo- 

* I am indebted for some of these explanations to Mr. K. Sungimoto, an intelligent 
Japanese gentleman, well acquainted with Chinese, now resident in Philadelphia. 



Brinton.] 1"0 [p e c. 21, 

lithic) Greco-Italic and Iberian remains. So much has been 
written upon the Svastika, however, that I need not enter upon 
its archaeological distribution. 

Its primary significance has been variously explained. Some 
liave regarded it as a graphic representation of the lightning, 
others as of the two fire-sticks used in obtaining fire b}^ friction, 
and so on. 

Whatever its significance, we are safe in considering it a form 
of the Cross, and in its special form obtaining its symbolic or 
sacred association from this origin. 

The widely-spread mystic purport of the Cross symbol has 
long been matter of comment. Undoubtedly in many parts of 
America the natives regarded it with reverence anterior to the 
arrival of Europeans ; as in the Old World, it was long a 
sacred S3'mbol before it became the distinctive emblem of Chris- 
tianity. 

\s in previous writings I have brought together the evidence 
of the veneration in which it was held in America, I shall not 
repeal the references here. 

I believe we may go a step further and regard all three of these 
symbols, the Ta Ki or Triskeles.tlie Svastika and the Cross as orig- 
inally tin- same in signification, or, at least, closely allied in mean- 
ing. I believe, further, that tins can be shown from the relics of 
ancient American art so clearly that no one, free from preju- 
dice, and whose mind is open to conviction, will deny its correct- 

My belief is thai all of these symbols are graphic represent a- 

tions of tin- movements of the sun with reference to the figure of 
the earth, as understood by primitive man everywhere, and hence 

that these symbols are found in various parts of the globe with- 
out necessarily implying any historic connections of the peoples 

USiDg them. 

This explanation of them is nol entirely new. it has pre- 
viou-U been partly suggested bj Profs. Worsaae and Virchow ; 
hut the demonstration I shall oiler has nol heretofore been sub- 
mitted to the scientific irorld, and its material is novel. 

:h the Ta Ki. we find its primary elements in the 
symbolic picture-writing of the North American Indians. In 



1888.] 181 [Brinton. 

that of the Ojibways, for example, we have the following three 
characters : 



Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig 9. 

Of these, the Fig. T represents the sunrise ; Fig. 9, sunset ; Fig. 
8, noonday. The last-mentioned is the full day at its height.* 
Where, in rock-writing or scratching on wood, the curve could 
not conveniently be used, straight lines would be adopted : 




Fig. 10. 

thus giving the ordinary form of the Triskeles. But the identi- 
cal form oi* the Ta Ki is found in the calendar scroll attached to 
the Oodex-Poinsett, an unpublished original Mexican MS., on 
agave paper, in the library of the American Philosophical Society. 
A line from this scroll is as follows : 



o g o e 



Fig. 11. 

Here each circle means a day, and those with the Triskeles, cul- 
minating days.j" 

♦George Copway, Traditional HUtary ';/' the Ojibiraij Xtttion, )>. 1^4. It will be noted 
that in the sign for sunrise the straight line meets the curve at its left extremity, and for 
sunset at its riaht. Tliis results from the superstitious preference of facing the south 
rather than the north. 

t The triplicate constitution of things is a prominent feature of the ancient Mexican 
philosophy, especially that of Tezcuco. The visible world was divided Into three parts, 
the earth below, the heavens above, and man's atx)ile between them. The whole was 
represented by B circle divided into three parts, the upper part painted blue, the lower 
brown, the centre white (see Durau, Historic., Lam. 15a, for an example). Each of these 
three parts \\;t-< subdivided into three puts, so that when the Tescuean king built a 
tower as a symbol of the universe, he called it "The Tower of Nine Stories" (see my 
Ancient Xa'matl Poetry, Introduction, p. 36). 



Brintou.] 



182 



[Dec. 21, 



Another form of representing days is seen in the Vatican Mex- 
ican Codex published in Kingsborough's Mexico, Vol. iii: 



Q 



Flsr. 12. 



This is not far from the figure on the stone at Copan, described 
in Dr. Hamy 's paper, where the design is as follows : 




ng n 
This does nul rs-emble the Ta BLi,as Dr. Kamy supposes, but 
rather the Yin- Yang; ye1 differa from tliis in having a oentral 
circle (apparently a onp-ehaped depression). This oentral circu- 
lar figure, whether a boss "i nave, or a oap*shaped pit, has been 
explained bj Worsaaeasa oonventlonallsed form of the son, and 



1888.] lOO [Brintou. 

in this he is borne out by primitive American art, as we shall see. 
The twenty elevations which surround the stone, corresponding 
in number to the twenty days of the Maya month, indicate at 
once that we have here to do with a monument relating to the 
calendar. 

Turning now to the development of this class of figures in 
primitive American art, I give first the simplest representations 
of the sun such as those painted on buffalo skins by the Indiana 
of the Plains, and scratched on the surface of rocks. The exam- 
ples are selected from many of the kind published by Col. Garrick 
Mallery.* 



©■ 



Fig. 14. 

The design is merely a rude device of the human face, with four 
rays proceeding from it at light angles. These four rays repre- 
sent, according to the unanimous Interpretation of the Indians, 
the lour directions defined by the apparent motions of the son, 
the East and West, the North and South. By these directions 
all travel and all alignments of buildings, corpses, etc., were de- 
fined ; and hence the earth was regarded as four-sided or four- 
cornered ; or. when it was expressed as a circle, in accordance 
with the appearance of the visible horizon, the four radia were 
drawn as impinging on its four shh 



Fig. 15. Fig. 16. 

Fig. 15 is a design on a vase from Marajo, Brazil, and is of com- 
mon occurrence on the pottery of that region, f Fig. 16 repre- 

* Mallery, Pictography of the Norih American Indians, in Fourth Annual Report of the 
Bureau qf Ethnology, p. 289. 

|Dr. Ferraz de Haoedo, Hworf Oritiqm juries Ages l*rehistori<jue dc liresil, p. 38 (Lisbonne, 
18»7). 




Brimon.} ±o4: [Dec. 21, 

sents the circle of the visible horizon, or the earth-plain, with the 
four winds rushing into it when summoned by a magician. It is 
a figure from the Meday magic of the Ojibways.* Dr. Ferraz de 
Macedo has claimed that such devices as Fig. 16 " show Chinese 
or Egyptian inspiration." - }" It is certainly unnecessary to accept 
this alternative when both the origin and significance of the sym- 
bol are so plain in native American art. 

When the symbol of the sun and the four directions was in- 
scribed within the circle of the visible horizon, we obtain the 
figure representing the motions of the sun with reference to the 
earth as in : 




Fig. 17. 

This is what German archaeologists call the wheel-cross, Iiad- 
kreuz, distinguished, as Worsaae pointed out, by the presence of 
the central boss, cup or nave, from the ring-cross, Bingkreuz, 
Fig 18: 





Fig. 18. Fig. 19. 

in which, also, the arms of the cross do not reach to the circum- 
ference of the wheel. Worsaae very Justly laid much stress on 
the presence of the centra] boss or cup, and correctly explained 
It at indicative of the sun; hut both lie and Virchow, who fol- 
low- him in this explanation, are, 1 think, in error in supposing 
thai the eircle or wheel represents the rolling sun, efts rollende 

My proof of this is thai tliis Bame figure w:is a familiar 
nbol, With tin- Signification stated, in tribes who did noi know 

BOO. 
1 Op 



1883. 1 



185 



[Brinton. 



the mechanical device of the wheel, and could have had, therefore, 
no notion of such an analogy as the rolling wheel of the sun.* 

When applied to time, the symbol of the circle in primitive art 
referred to the return of the seasons, not to an idea of motion in 
space. This is very plainly seen both in art and language. In 
the year-counts or winter-counts of the American tribes, the 
years were very generally signified by circles arranged in rows 
or spires. Fig. 20 shows the Dakota winter-count, as depicted 
On their buffalo robes. f 



Fig. 20. 

This count is to be read from right to left, because it is writ- 

L 




Fig. 21. 

* See Worsaae, Danish Arts, and Virchow, in various numbers of the Zeitschrift fur Eth- 
nologle. The ring-cross is a common figure in American symbolism and decorative art. 
It frequently occurs on the shields depicted in the Bologna Codex, and the two codices 
of the Vatican (Kingsborough's Amtlqutttet <>/ Medea, Vols, ii and iii). Dr. Ferraz de 
Macedo says that the most common decorative design on both ancient and modern native 
Brazilian pottery is the ring-cross in the form of a double spiral, as in Fig. 19 {Essai Critique 
sur les Aga Prehistorique dc lircsil, p. 10). A very similar form will be found in the Bo- 
logna Codex, pi. xviii, in Kingsborough's Mexico, Vol. ii. 

t See Mallery, Pictography of the North American Indians, pp. 88, 89, 128, etc. 

PHOC. AMEK. PHIL08. SOC XXVI. 129. X. PHINTED JAN. 30, 1889. 



Brinton.] lb 6 [ Dec 2 [, 

ten from left to right, and hence the year last recorded is at the 
end of the line. 

Precisely similar series of circles occur on the Aztec and Maya 
codices with the same signification. Moreover, the year-cycles 
of both these nations were represented by a circle on the border 
of which the years were inscribed. In Maya this was called uazla- 
zon katun, the turning about again, or revolution of the katuns.* 

The Aztec figure of the year-cycle is so instructive that I give 
■a sketch of its principal elements (Fig. 21), as portrayed in the 
atlas to Duran's History of Mexico.f 

In this remarkable figure we observe the development and 
primary signification of those world-wide symbols, the square, 
the cross, the wheel, the circle, and the svastika. The last-men- 
tioned is seen in the elements of the broken circle, which are : 



Fig. 23. 

which conventionalized into rectilinear figures, for scratching on 
stone or wood, became : 



Fig. 23. 

Ill the Mexican time-wheel, the yean are to he read I'roin right 
to left, as in the Dakota winter-counts j each of the quarter cir- 
elet represent thirteen years; and these, also, are to be read from 
ri'_ r iit to left, beginning with the top of the figure, which is the 

. and proceeding to the North. South and West . as indicated. 
The (idl analysis of this suggestive and authentic ast ronoinical 

re \\iil reveal the secret of most of the rich symbolism and 
mythology of the American nations, it is easy to see how from 
it was derived the Nahuatl doctrine of the nahua o/Zin, or Four 

• Thi '■ tut Qtmt d 

in, cup. I. 



1888.] -LO< [Hoffman. 

Motions of the Sun, with its accessories of the Four Aires of the 
World. The Tree of Life, so constantly recurring as a design in 
Maya and Mexican art, is but another outgrowth of the same 
symbolic expression for the same ideas. 

That we find the same figurative symbolism in China, India, 
Lycia, Assyria and the valley of the Nile, and on ancient urns 
from Etruria, Iberia, Gallia, Sicilia and Scythia. needs not sur- 
prise us, and ought not to prompt us to assert any historic con- 
nection on this account between the early development of man 
in the New and Old World. The path of culture is narrow, espe- 
cially in its early stages, and men everywhere have trod uncon- 
sciously in each other's footsteps in advancing from the darkness 
of barbarism to the light of civilization. 



Orttmiaatic Notes and Vocabulary of the Pennsylvania German Dialect. 

By W. J. Hoffman, 31. D., Washington, D.C. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, December 21, 1SSS.) 

It is an astonishing fact that the speech of over three quarters of a 
million people, occupying the most fertile agricultural lands of Eastern 
Pennsylvania, has, with few unimportant exceptions, received almost no 
attention from a scientific and philological standpoint. It is not the in- 
teution of the writer to venture upon the subject from these points of 
view, but only to present a few brief facts respecting the grammatic and 
phonetic peculiarities of the "Pennsylvania German" dialect, and to 
give a vocabulary of such words as are at present employed by such of 
them as are not familiar with any other language. 

It is the writer's intention to present here a simple and intelligible sys- 
tem of orthography, so that the exact sounds of syllables and words may 
readily be reproduced by any one not familiar with them. This has not 
been accomplished in the several brief contributions which have appeared 
at sundry times and in various places, excepting in the case of a few 
essays which were of strictly philologic value, but which, unfortunately, 
abound in inverted letters and diacritical marks, thus causing a practical 
study thereof to become rather difficult and tedious. 

The alphabet employed in the present paper and vocabulary is practi- 
cally that adopted by the Bureau of Ethnology, at Washington, D.C. 



Hoffman.] lOO [Dec. 21, 

A slight departure from that, even, has been found advisable, so as to 
secure the simplest phonetic system without introducing characters foreign 
to the English language. 

It is well known that the early German colonists represented almost 
every dialectic subdivision of the States now embraced within the empires 
of Germany and Austro-Hungary, but as the immigrants from the 
Rhenish Palatinate were in excess, the present linguistic residium par- 
takes more of the characteristics of the Pfalz dialects than those of any 
other. This fact was most forcibly brought to the writer's attention dur- 
ing the period of his services as Staff Surgeon in the Prussian army, in 
1870-71, at which time opportunities for practical comparison occurred 
almost daily. 

The chief difference between the Pennsylvania dialect, and those of the 
Rhenish Palatinate, lies in the fact that the former is characterized by the 
abundance of nasalized terminal vowel sounds, brought about by the 
almost unvarying rule of dropping the final n of German words ending in 
en and em, and sounding the vowel as a or e, or a n or e n . This has refer- 
ence particularly to verbs in which the infinitive final is en in the German. 

It is extremely difficult for the people of the rural districts, who are 
not familiar witli the English language, to acquire the correct sound of j 
as in James, and of g as in gem ; the result is tsh or eh as in chain ; words, 
on the contrary, beginning with eh, as in Charles, are pronounced like j, 
as in jar. 

The final th usually becomes s, while the same sound as an initial one 
becomes d ; this applies to English words, incorporated with the Pennsyl- 
vania German. 

Both German and English words commencing with st, si, sw, sm, sn, sp, 
etc., are pronounced as if written with sh, the h being inserted between 
the first two consonants, e. g., stein = shte"; alow = shlo ; small = shmiil. 

Plurals, and diminutives, are formed after the same manner as in 
German. 

The following alphabet will serve to represent the words of this dialect, 
as it is spoken chiefly in the northern portions of Berks, Lehigh, and 
Northampton counties. On account of local peculiarities, a drawling 
manner, or a rapidity of Bpeech, inhabitants of the several localities can 
often be readily identified : 

a as in what, was ; German, man. 

& as in ear, far. 

a as in hit, mat, mass. 

& as in law, ball. 

ai as in aisle ; as / in \>iuc ; BMd in the present work instead of the (Jer- 

man < i, tin, Klin ain, sain. 
ai as oi in »,l. tod, I '■! •/ - May. 

au M on in Out, Or OM in OVi ; Herman, kraut, Luis. 
b us in hall, bulb. 



1888.] Id J [Hoffman. 

c see explanation under t* and txh. 

ch as in German nicht, licht, ruich. 

d as in dead, deal. 

e short sound of English a, as bet, pet. 

e ' long sound of English a, as in ale. 

f as in fifty, fib. 

g as in gag; German, gabe. 

gh as in tage, or in the last syllable of dagegen. 

h as in hold, hat. 

i short sound of the English e, as in hit, bit. 

i long sound of the English e, as in beet, i in pique ; German, ihm. 

j as in just, judge. 

k as in kick, kill. 

1 as in lull. 

m as in man, mum. 

n as in no, none. 

o short sound as in the German soil, holz. 

b long sound as in most, note, pole. 

p as in pip, pulp. 

q is represented by k. 

r as in run, roar. 

8 as in sell, sold. 

t as in tell, tuft. 

ts as the German c in cedar =s tsc'der, and z in 2e# = tsair. 

txh as tlu^ English ch in church, chin = tshortsh, tshin. 

?^ short sound as In put, pull. 

u long sound as in rule. 

v as in velvet, van. 

w as in will, wish. 

x is represented by ks, as ax = ii'vs, 6oj = bates. 

y as in you, yubl. 

2 as in 2£rtJ, zest, 
nj as In sift*/, bring. 

represents the omission of a vowel. 
■ nasalized vowels are indicated by the superior n as a", j' n . 

the hyphen is employed between syllables. 
•' the acute accent is employed to indicate accented syllables, as riv'er, 

re-vere'. 
da duplication of vowels prolongs the sound of a short vowel, as I at, 
hddrt. 

In German words ending in be or ben, the b becomes w, as gabe — i<iira: 
geben — gi'tea; and in many words the au becomes a as laufen — Id a 
laufen — ddjd. The initial t in German generally becomes d. 



Hoffman.] 



190 



[Dec 21, 



The following notes will serve to further aid in the peculiarities of pro- 
nunciation and contraction of words : 

Conjugation of the verb tse sai", to be : 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Singular. 

1. ich bin 

2. du bisht 

3. ar is 



1. ich war 

2. du warsht 

3. ar war 



Plural. 



1. mir sin 

2. ir sin 

3. si sin 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 

(Not used.) 

PERFECT TEN8E. 



1. mir wa'ra 

2. ir wa'ra 

3. si wa'ra 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



1. ich war gewest' 

2. du warsht gewest' 

3. ar war gewest' 



1 . ich sol sai" 

2. du solsht sai" 

3. ar sodt sai" 

1. ich wil sai" 

2. du wid sai" 

r wil sai" 



1. mir wa'ra gewest 

2. ir wa'ra gewest' 

3. si wa'ra gewest' 



FIRST FUTURE TENSE. 



1. mir sol'la sai" 

2. ir sol'la sai" 

3. si sol'la sai" 

1. mir wel'la sai" 

2. ir wel'la sai" 

3. si wel'la sai" 



SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 



1. ich sol gewesi' 

ii. du solsht gewest' sai" 

3. ar sol gewest' sai" 



1. mir sol'la gewest' sai" 

2. ir sol'la gewest' sai" 

3. si sol'la gewest' s:u 



srn.nNc'nvi-: mood. 



lul'ir. 
1 i< ll Ilia.' 

•J. du mtpht sai" 
3. ar mag mil" 



ritl.SENT TENSE. 

I'h/ml. 

1. mir in' 

|| mr'gha sai" 
8. si me'gha sai" 



1888.] 1"1 [Hoffman 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. ich megt sai n 1. mir meg'ta sai n 

2. du megsht sai" 2. ir meg'ta sai n 

3. ar megt sai n 3. si meg'ta sai" 

PERFECT TENSE. 

1. ich mag gewest' sai" 1. mir me'gha gewest' sai" 

2. du magsht gewest' sai n 2. ir me'gha gewest' sai" 

3. ar mag gewest' sai" 3. si me'gha gewest' sai" 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

1. ich megt gewest' sai" 1. mir mech'ta gewest' sai" 

2. du megsht gewest' sai" 2. ir mech'ta gewest' sai" 

3. ar megt gewest' sai" 3. si mech'ta gewest' sai" 

FIRST FUTURE TENSE. 

1. ich war sai" 1. mir wii'ra sai" 

2. du wiirsht sai" 2. ir wa'ra sai" 

3. ar wart sai" 3. si wa'ra sai" 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

FIRST CONDITIONAL. 

1. ich sodt sai" 1. mir sod'ta sai" 

2. du sodsht sai" 2. ir sod'ta sai" 

3. ar sodt sai" 3. si sod'ta sai" 

SECOND CONDITIONAL. 

1. ich sedt gewest' sai" 1. mir sed'ta gewest' sai" 

2. du sodsht gewest' sai" 2. ir sod'ta gewest' sai" 

3. ar sodt gewest' sai" 3. si sod'ta gewest' sai" 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

f 1. wanting. 

j f sai du 1 (Frequently pronounced sai-dii.) 
Singular. < 2. j Wght du { ( „ „ bish-da.) 





3. 


is iir, si or es 


ural. -\ 


1. 


sin mir or wir 


2. 


sait {or sin) ir 


\ 


3. 


sin (or sain) si 

INFINITIVE MOOD 

PRESENT TEN8E. 


tse sai" 




PERFECT TENSE. 


gewest' sai" 




FUTURE TENSE. 


sai" "wa'ra 







Hoffman.] 



192 



l Dec. .'1, 



PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT. 

sait ? 

PERFECT. 

gewest 

Paradigm of a reflexive verb : 

sich tsa shem'ina, to be ashamed of one's self : 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 

1. ich sliem niich 

2. tin shemsht dich 
o. Iir shemt sich 



1. ich nab mich gsliemt 

2. du hosht dich gshemt 
13. iir hot sich gshemt 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Plural. 

1. mir shem'ina nns 

2. ir shem'ma aich 

3. si shem'ma sich 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

(Not tised.) 

PERFECT TENSE. 

1. mir hen uns gshemt 

2. ir hen aich gshemt 

3. si hen sich gshemt 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

1. ich het mich gshemt 1. mir het'ten {or het'te) uns gshemt 

2. du hetsht dich gshemt 2. ir het'ten " aich gshemt 

3. ar het sich gshemt 3. si het'ten " sich gshemt 



FIRST FUTURE TENSE. 



1. ich war mich shem'ina 

2. du wiirsht dich shem'ma 

'£. ar wiirdt sich shem'ma 



1. mir wii'ra uns shem'ina 

2. ir wii'ra aich shem'ina, 

3. si wii'ra sich shern'ma 



SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

1. Ich war mlcfa gshemt lia'wa 1. mir wii'ra uns gshemt ha'wa 

2. do w&nhl dich gshemt ha'wa 2. ir wi'ra aich gshemt ha'wa 

:j. ar wiirdt sich gshemt lia'wa 8. si wii'ra sich gshemt lia'wa 



SUBJUNCTIVE mood. 

rui she. 



i . Ich mftg ill i<-ii shem'ma 
9 du magsht <li<ii shem'ma 



i. mir mS'gha uns shem'ma 
9. ir mt'gha aich shem'ma 
;:. si ml'gba sich shem'ma 



1888.] iyd [Hoffman. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Ich megt mich shem'ma 1. mir mech'ta uns shem'ma 

2. du megsht dich shem'ma 2. ir mech'ta aieh shem'ma 

3. ar megt sich shem'ma 3. si mech'ta sich shem'ma 

PERFECT TENSE. 

1. ich mag mich gshemt ha'wa 1. mir ine'gha uns gshemt ha'wa 

2. du magsht dich gshemt ha'wa 2. ir me'gha aich gshemt ha'wa 

3. ar mag sich gshemt ha'wa 3. si me'gha sich gshemt ha'wa 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

1. ich megt mich gshemt ha'wa 1. mir mech'ta uns gshemt ha'wa 

2. du megsht dich gshemt ha'wa 2. ir mech'ta aich gshemt ha'wa 

3. ar megt sich gshemt ha'wa 3. si mech'ta sich gshemt ha'wa 

FIRST FUTURE TENSE. 

1. wan ich mich shem'ma sol 1. wan mir uns shem'ma sol'la 

2. wan du dich shem'ma solsht 2. wan ir aich shem'ma sol'la 

3. wan ar sich shem'ma sol 3. wan si sich shem'ma sol'la 

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

1. Wan ich mich gshemt ha'wa sol 1. Wan mir uns gshemt ha'wa sol'la 

2. Wan du dich gshemt ha'wa 2. Wan ir aich gshemt ha'wa sol'la 

sodsht 

3. Wan ar sich gshemt ha'wa sol 3. Wan si sich gshemt ha'wa sol'la 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

1. ich sedt mich shem'ma 1. mirsed'ta(orsod'ten)unsshem'ma 

2. du sodsht dich shem'ma 2. ir sod'ta aich shem'ma 
,3. ar sodt sich shem'ma 3. si sod'ta sich shem'ma 

SECOND FUTURE. 

1. ich sedt mich gshemt ha'wa 1. mir sed'ta uns gshemt ha'wa 

2. du sodsht dich gshemt ha'wa 2. ir sod'ta aich gshemt ha'wa 

3. ar sodt sich gshemt ha'wa 3. si sod'ta sich gshemt ha'wa 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

1. wanting. 1. wanting. 

2. shem dich 2. shemt aich 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



tsa shem'ma 



PAST TENSE. 



sich gshemt ha'wa 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. Y. PRINTED FEB. 5, 1889. 



Hoffman] 



194 



[Dec. 21, 



COMPOUND VERBS. 

Compound verbs are formed by prefixing adverbs or prepositions to sim- 
ple words, usually verbs and rarely adverbs and adjectives, thus varying 
or modifying tbeir signification. When these prefixes permit the insertion 
of tse or tsa between themselves and the radical, or their transfer, so as 
to become suffixes, as in the present indicative, they are termed separable; 
as uP shte n , to rise or to stand up, from uf, up -f shte n , stand. 

Compound prefixes are also used and are separable, as dafun'la'fa, to go 
away from, to leave, from da, there -J- fun, /row, -\- la/fa, to go or walk. 

Prefixes are inseparable when they are so closely united with the radical 
as not to permit the preposition tse or tsa between the prefix and the 
radical. When compound prefixes occur, the first prefix may become 
■separable from the second and inseparable prefix to allow the intervention 
of tse or tsa in the present inOnitive, as uf + sllte", up + rise (from bed), 
= ul'tsashte", to rise — literally, up to rise. 

IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

Impersonal verbs are used only in the third person singular, and have for 
their subject the prunoun es, it— sometimes abbreviated to 's, which inordi- 
nary conversation is frequently pronounced as if forming the first letter of 
the verb, thus forming no apparent and distinct syllable. The following 
are examples : 

es shoot = 's shnet, it snows. 

es re'-ghert = 's re'ghert, it rains. 

es kis''lt = 's kis''lt, it is sleeting. 

ARTICLES. 



The definite article der or dar — contracted into d'r — and the indefi- 
nite article en — contracted into 'n — are both used, and inflected as 
follows : 





> 


— lingular. — 


> 




Plural. 




Muse. 


hi in. 


NttU. 


For all 


genders. 


Nom. 


der, or d'r 


di 


's 


Nom 




di 




'in sai" 


d'r irs 


'in sai n 


Gen. 




fl'i'ra 


Dat. 


'in 


d'r 


'm 


Dat. 




de 


AjOG 


di-r, or d'r 


di 


's 


Ace. 




di 












PI urn I. 










' '*C. 


/•',//,. 


Neut. 


For 


nil 


i/i ndt rx. 


Num. 


en, or 11 


en. 0( 'n 


i'ii. or n 


Nom. 


J 






___ 


____ 





Gen. 






'in :i 


•r-a 


'in ;i 


Dat, 


iriinting. 




'n 


•n 


'n 







1888.] 19o [Hoffman. 

PRONOUNS. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

The five personal pronouns are ich, /; du, thou ; ar, he ; si, site ; es, it; 
and are inflected as follows : 

First Person. 
Singular. Plural. 



Nom. 


ich, I 


mir, or m'r, we 


Gen. 


mai", mine, or of me 


uns'r, our, or of us 


Dat. 


mir, to me 


uns, to us 


Ace. 


mich, me 


uns, us 
Second Person. 


Nom. 


du, or de, you 


ir, or 'r, you 


Gen. 


dai", your 


air, your 


Dat. 


dir, d'r, to you 


aich, or ich, to you. 


Ace. 


dich, you 


aich, yow 



7%t'rd Person, Masculine. 
Nom. ar, or 'r, he si, Mey 

Gen. sai tt , his, or of him i'ra, their, or 0/ <Am 

Dat. im, to him I'm*, or 'na, <o ftm 

Ace. iu, Mb si, Mm 

I'Awvf Ptrson, Feminine. 
Nom. si, «7t« si, they 

Gen. i'ra, or irs, hers, or 0/ 7ter i'ra, their, or 0/ Mew 

Dat. i'ra, orara', to her i'na, or 'na, to them 

Ace. si, her si, them 

Third Person, Neuter. 
Nom. es, or 's, it si, they 

Gen. sai u , or sains, its, or of it i'ra, Me*'r, or of them 

Dat. em, or 'm, to it i'na, or na, to them 

Ace. es, or 's, it si, Mem 

Although du is used in addressing the Supreme Being, the second per- 
son plural, ir, is generally resorted to in addressing the aged, or a 
superior. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The demonstrative pronouns diir or der, this, and sel'er or sel'r, tliat 
are inflected as follows : 





, 


— singular. — 


v 


Plural, 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


For all genders. 


Nom. 


d;ir, or der 


di 


des 


di 


Gen. 


dem sai n 


dii'ra ir 


dem sai™ 


de'na ir, or i'ra 


Dat. 


dem 


da'ra 


dem 


den'a 


Ace. 


den 


di 


des 


di 



Hoffman.] 1 «>" [Dec. 21 

, Singular. , Plural. 

Ma*c. Fern. Neut. For all genders. 

Nom. sel''r sel'i sel sel'-li 

Gen. seVm sai" sel''r 'ra sel' in sai n sel'-la i'ra 

Dat. sel''m sel''r'ra sel'm sel'-la 

Ace. sel''r sel'i sel sel'-li 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

As will be observed by reference to the preceding inflexions, the pos- 
sessive pronouns are derived from the genitive case of the personal pro- 
nouns. They are mai n , dai n , sai'\ i'ra or irs, sai" or sains, from the 
singular, and uns'r, air and i'ra from the plural. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

Indefinite pronouns, representing persons or things without particular 
specification, are used, the most important of which are here given, viz.: 

man, one, some one. 
eb'ber, some one, somebody. 
nim'mand, no one, nobody. 
ken'ner, no one, neither. ' 
e"'ner, one, some one. 
ye'derer, each one. 
man'icher, many a one. 
et'-lich a, some, several. 
e n 'nicha, some, any one. 

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS. 

A pronoun is termed reflexive when the action represented thereby re- 
verts upon the agent, as ar shnait sich, he ruts himself ; sich being equiva- 
lent to either himself, hers, if, itself or themselves. 

In German, a reflexive pronoun becomes reciprocal when the intention 

is tO represent the actors In the plural as acting mutually, ami to avoid 

ambiguity the reciprocal word einandcr, one another, Is added or substi- 
tuted tor tick, themselves; this, however, is not the case In the present, 
as sich is dropped, the reciprocal cinander (nan'iier) being sufficient, as, 

si shnal'ti nan'-ner, th> y cut one another. 

INTI I I'ltONOUNS. 

The in pronouns are war, who; was, what ; wel'ler, lrhieh 

one; and, was in en, irhot sort of a, or irhat These are in- 

i like the relative pronouns, excepting was far en, in which eo only 
Is inti< 'he plural, where it li omitted in nil genders, 



1888.1 [Hoffman. 

ADJECTIVES. 

Predicative adjectives seldom undergo change, but attributive adjectives 
are declined like the definite article. 

Adjectives, having in the positive a terminal ai, au, from the compara- 
tive by adding er or 'r, as : 

Positive. Comparative. 

shai, shy shai'-er, shyer 

trai, true trai'-er, truer 

rau, coarse rau'-er, coarser 

Adjectives, having in the positive the ending ai, ch, d, s, t, and u, take 
for the superlative sht. 
Irregular comparisons occur, the most important being the following : 



Positive. 


Comparatire. 


Superlative. 


gut, good 


bes'ser 


besht 


lang, long 


leng'er 


leiigsht 


negsht, near 


ne'gher 


negsht 


f 11, much or many 


me" 


mensht 



It lias already been stated that adjectives are declined like the definite 
article, in the nominative and accusative. The following are the termina- 
tions in the several cases and genders in both singular and plural ; where 
a dash occurs, there is no alteration or suffix to the adjective : 





i 

Muse. 


Fern. 


{,1X1 . 

Neut. 




For all 


rut. 


Nom. 


— er or 'r 


— i 


— es or 


's 


Nom. 


— a 


Gen. 


— a sai" 


— a 


— a 




Gen. 


— a 


Dat. 


— a 


— a 


— a 




Dat. 


— a 


Ace. 


— 'r 


— i 


— 's 
NUMERALS 




Ace. 


— i or a 

a 



In German, the numerals are classified according to the signification, 
and the general usage obtains in Pennsylvania. These classes are termed 
Cardinal, Ordinal, Distributive, Multiplicative, Variative, Adverbial, Dis- 
tinctive, Partitive, and Indefinite. Dimidiative numerals are not in use 
to express the same idea as in the German. 

A short list of the Cardinals and Ordinals is here presented : 

Cardinals. Ordinals. 

1. ens, en, e'ner jirsht 

2. tswe tswet 

3. drai drit 

4. fir, or fi'ra firt 

5. fiuf, fin 'la rinft 

6. seks, or sek'sa sekst 



Hoffman.] 



198 



fDec. 21, 



Cardinals. 

7. si'wa 

8. ach'ta 

9. nain, nai'na 

10. tse'a 

11. elf, el'fa 

12. tswelf, tswel'fa 

13. drai'tse 

14. far'tse 

15. fuftse 

16. sech'tse 

17. si'-wa-tse 

18. ach'tse 

19. nain'tse 

20. tswan'sich 

21. en'-un-tswan' sich 
30. drai'-slch 

40. fart' sich 
50. fuft-sich 
60. secht'-sich 
70. si'-wet-sich 
80. acht' sich 
90. naint'-sich 

100. hun'ert 

101. hun'ert un ens 

102. hun'ert un tswe 
200. tswe hun'ert 

1000. dausent. 



Ordinals. 

si'-wet 

acht 

naint 

tse'-et 

elft 

tswelft 

drai'tset 

far'-tset 

fuf-tset 

sech'-tset 

si'-wa-tset 

ach / -tset 

nain'tset 

tswan'-sisht 

en'-un-tswan'-sisht 

drai'-sisht 

fart'-sisht 

fuf'-eisht 

secht'-sisht 

si'wet-sisht 

acht-sisht 

nain'-sisht 

hun'-ertsht 

hun / ert un arsht 

hun'ert un tswet 

tswe hun'ertsht 

dau sentsht 



In the preceding, the Ordinal numhers from twenty to ninety are 
recorded as they are most frequently pronounced ; though upon 
closer examination the sounds given are usually a little more difficult for 
one to acquire. They consist of the syllable slit being added to the car- 
dinal number, making, for example, tswan'-sich -f slit, drai'-sich -f slit, 
and should be written tswan' sichsht. drai'-sichsht, to represent the com- 
plete form, Instead Ol the final syllable sisht. 

Distributive numerals are formed by coupling cardinals by the conjunc- 
tion and (— un or'n), as tswe un tswe. two and two, etc. 

Multiplicative numerals are those baring fa cl \, fold, as a suffix to the 
cardinals, as e"'fach, onefdd, siiujle ; drai'tach, tlireet'old. 

Variative numerals have the sullix lai or le (sort or kind) added to the 

ca rdinals, and fot tbe sake; ol euphony, or preceding that suffix, as, 

c'ner lc', of one hind ; drai'er le', of thru' kind*. 

Adverbial numerals arc formed by adding the suffix mol or mole to car- 
dinals ami Indefinite numerals, as e'"-mol, onetime, or on ee ; si'-wa-mol, 
m; yeMer mol, eoeh time ; lll'-mols, moni/ times, in often. 



18S8.] 



199 



[Hoffman. 



Distinctive numerals are formed by adding ens, as a suffix, to the 
ordinal numbers, as arsht'ens, firstly, or in the first place; tswefens, 
secondly, etc. 

Another class, which properly comes under this group, is the union of 
the cardinal number with the suffix er, to designate one as belonging 
to, valued at, etc.; as finf'er, a fiver, i. e., a five dollar gold piece; one 
belonging to a company having for its designation No. 5. 

Partative numerals are formed by adding '1, el, or t'l, part, to the ordi- 
nals, as drit't'l, a third, seksf'l, sixth, etc. 

Indefinite numerals are those which are, in English, usually recognized 
as adjectives, and serve to indicate number, as ye'der, each, yc'des, each; 
to indicate quantity, as eb'bas, some, gans, the whole — as opposed to a 
part — halt), half, etc.; and those to indicate both number and quantity, 
as all, all; ken'ui, none; fil, much; weu'ich, a little; genunk/, enough. 

AUXILIARIES OF MODE. 

These are dar'fa, ken'na, me'gha, mis'sa, wol'la and los'sa, with all of 
which the verb is used without the particle tse or tsa, except ken'na when 
signifying to know. 

THE DEMONSTRATIVE I'RONOUN, thin. 





Muse. 


Singular. — 

Ft m. 


Neut. 


Plural 
For all genders. 


Nom. 


dia- 


di 


des 


de 


Gen. 


dem aai" 


da'ra ir 


dem sai n 


den'na l'ra 


Dat 


dem 


dara 


dem 


den'na 


Ace. 


den 


di 


des 


di 



DEMONSTRATIVE, that. 





, 


— Singular. — 


* 


Rural. 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


For all genders. 


Nom. 


sel''r 


sel'li 


sel 


selli 


Gen. 


sel'm sai" 


sel'r T'ra 


sel'm sai" 


sella ira 


Dat. 


sel'm 


sel'ra 


sel'm 


sella 


Ace. 


sel'r 


sel'li 


sel 


selli 



Singular, 
Nom. m'r. 
Gen. — 
Dat. sich 
Ace. 'm 



INDETERMINATE, one. 



Hoffman.] 


_U 


\J 


[Dec. 






IN TERROG ATI VES, 


who and which. 






, 


Singular. 


\ 


Plural. 




M'isc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


For all genders. 


Norn. 


war 


welli 


wel 


war, welli 


Gen. 


wem sai" 


wellera ir 


wera sai" 


wella Ir 


Dat. 


we in 


well era 


wel'ni 


wella 


Ace. 


wen 


welli 


wel 


welli 



The interrogative what is was throughout. 



VOCABULARY. 



a, 1. also, too ; ich a— I also, or, I 
too. 
2. alas ! what a pity ! too had 1 
etc. 

a n , 1. on, as clothing on the body ; 
ar hot sai" henshing a" ge- 
du' — he put on his glove. 
2. to hegin, or to take In ; as, 
wan fangt di musik a" t—lit., 
when does the music begin. 

ab, off, from ; as a prefix to many 
verbs, when it conveys the 
sense of removal, detrac- 
tion. 

nb' a dek, drug store. 

ab'-ade'-ker, apothecary, druggist. 

ab'-a-dil dak, opodeldoc. 

ab' adit, appetite. 

ab' -a-dit-lich, appetizing, pleasant 
to the taste. 
>i-sa, to bite into (for the first 

time). 
ird-lich, particular, particu- 
larly. 

ab'-barsh-ta, to brush off; to finish 
up. 

n-burt'-icii, particular, particularly. 

bird lich. 

a"' bat sa, 1. to tit, on a person or 
tiling ; to try on. 
i successfully deceive or 
to impose upon an- 
ther ; as to betray a girl by 
■ lion. 



ab'-bi-da, 1. to outbid at a public sale. 
2. to warn, or bid one to re- 
main away from a place. 

ab'bin-na, to tire a wheel with iron ; 
to hoop, as a cask. 

ab'-bla-da, to pluck off leaves. 

ab'-ble-cha, 1. to fade. 

2. to bleach, to whiten by ex- 
posure to sun or rain. 

ab'-bii-a, to cease blooming. 

ab'-blo-sa, to blow off. 

ab'bir, strawberry. 

ab'-brech-a, to break oil'. 

ab' bri-a, to scald, or to complete 
by scalding. 

ab 1 bruch, cessation. 

ab'bud-sa, to wipe off, to clean. 

ab'dankkn, to resign, to decline. 

ab' dek-ka, to uncover, to unroof. 

ab' dela, to divide, to share around 
in parts. 

a nl be-fe-la, to enjoin, or request. 

a"'be-lang-a, to relate to, ortoeon- 
eern. 
id-m&l, The Lord's Supper. 
to, 1. to worship. 
9. to supplicate, or solicit. 
hirj, an oiler, or paper In 
■application Of a desire. 

h n, -be tithux-irer-tich, adorable ; that 

which may be worthy of 
adoration. 

«/,'//..' oll'al 

oV-fal hi, to lull oil. 



1S88.] 



201 



[Hoft'man. 



ah' fod-ra, to ask from. 

ab'-ga-we-na, to discontinue a habit 
or custom ; to wean. 

ab' -hand 'In, to get rid of by sale 
or exchange, to dispose of. 

ab'-Jtar-ieh a, to bear or to listen to. 

ab' -he-la, to heal off; to heal by 
desquamation, or by the scab 
falling. 

ab' -henk-isJi, sloping; inclined. 

ab'-hera, 1. to bear a statement, 
or to grant a hearing. 
2. to molt, or shed hair. 

<( n * -binna, to hitch, or tie fast ; to 
secure. 

a n -bl-da, to offer, to accost. 

a n -'bid-ta, to pray to, to persuade. 

ab'-kep-pa, to chop off the head, as 
of fowl. 

ab'-klora, 1. to clarify — liquors. 
2. to clear off— weather. 

ab' -la-da, to unload. 

ab' -la-fa, to drain ofl ; to walk off. 

ab' legh'l-a, to deny ; to transfer 
blame upon another. 

ab'-le 8a, to read off. 

a n '-blik, a glimpse ; a view. 

a n '-bli-ka, to view, or to take a hur- 
ried glimpse. 

a n 'bli/i8la, to blink at, or to wink at. 

ab'-los, an outlet ; a ditch for drain- 
ing. 

a n '-blaii-tsa, to begin planting ; to 
start by planting. 

u n '-bld-sa (infin., t'i n '-za-blo 8a), to 
start by blowing at ; to kin- 
dle by blowing. 

ab'-los-sa, to let off, to allow escape 
to a person or thing. 

ab'-magher-a, to emaciate. 

ab'mola, to draw, or make a sketch 
of anything. 

ab'-nemma, 1. to take off. 

2. to depreciate in size or quan- 
tity. 

3. to amputate, or cut off. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 



a a '-bo-ra, to bore, or to tap ; refers 
to beginning of action only 
— the start. 

ab'-raisa, 1. to tear off, to sever. 
2. to take departure for a jour- 
ney. 

ab'-ra"-ma, 1. to skim cream from 
milk. 
2. to remove dishes and ar- 
range in order. 

ab'-rech-la, 1. to deduct from an 
account 
2. to square accounts. 

ab' -reek-ling, an account. 

ab' rech lung, an account. 

a"' bren-na, to kindle ; to scorch. 

a n '-bria, to scald, or to steep for 
an infusion. 

abri-gos', apricot. 

ab'-ris, a plan, design. 

ab'-ritsh a, to slide off. 

ab'-rii -«/./, to dissuade ; to warn. 

a n 'bruch, daybreak ; the early ap- 
proach of day. 

a"'-brum via, to growl at ; to roar 
at in a low deep tone, as a 
bull. 

ab'-sads, heel of a shoe. 

ab'-8i'igha, to deny, to refuse. 

ab'-8ai n -na, to sign off— as legal in- 
struments ; to relinquish by 
signing. 

ab' sa lut', absolute. 

ab-ta-nat', particular, precise, ob- 
stinate. 

ab'set-sa, to set off or aside, to dis- 
miss. 

ab'-slutf-fa, 1. to work off, to elimi- 
nate. 
2. to discontinue. 

ab' shai, abhorrence, hatred. 

ab-s7iai'-lich, abominable. 

ab'-8ha-ma, to scum, or remove 
scum. 

ab' -8haum' -ma, to remove froth, or 
scum. 

129. Z. PRINTED FEB. 5, 1889. 



Hoffman.] 



202 



[Dec. 21 , 



ab'she la, 1. to peel, to desquamate. 

2. to pare. 
ab'-shin-?ia, 1. to skin off— as bark. 

2. to flay. 

3. to abrade. 

ab'-shi tea, to postpone, to defer. 
ab'shrai-tca, to copy. 
ab' shrau-wa, to loosen by remov- 
ing screws, to unscrew. 
ab'-shrekka, 1. to scare off. 

2. to intimidate. 
ab'shrit ta, to step off, or to meas- 
ure by steps. 
ab'shte n -a, to begin to spoil. 
ab 1 side la, to steal or sneak away. 
ab'shtai-gha, to dismount ; to step 

clown. 
ab'shtekka, to stake off. 
ab' shtim ma, to put to vote. 
ab'shtrui cha, to smootb down the 

fur or hair of an animal. 
ab'-87rfrigh'l-a, to curry down. 
ab'-shtrofa, to reprimand. 
ab'-shwar-ta, 1. to give a beating. 

2. to split into slabs. 
ab'shwenkka, to rinse, or wash off. 
ab'-shwe-ra, to swear off, to reform. 
ab' sau-fa, to drain by sucking. 
ab'-sicht, purpose, design. 
ab'-te-para, 1. to taper down. 
2. to cease drinking liquors, 
after a debauch. 
ab' tren-na, to unseam ; to rip off. 
ab'-tudrk la, to make exact ; to de- 
scribe outlines with mathe- 
matical instruments. 
ab' t»< /•'/. to become ein:ui;ited. 
ab'-Uug, 1. departure, leave. 
2. deduction. 

ab'.Udi-rhn, to leave the propel 

course ; to warn. 
ab' tc-'ir In, to nerve, to wait upon, 

to II'. 

i ' ,■.,, ii fciiKiie waiter or 

nurse. 

■/, to devlato t" deflect 



al'-we-da, to remove pasture by 
grazing. 

ab'wek, off road, wrong way. 

ab'-weks-Ha, 1. to make mutual ex- 
change. 
2. to alternate. 

ab'-icelk'-ka, to wither, to fall off 
through withering. 

ab'-we-ra, 1. to wear ofl. 
2. to dissuade. 

ab'-ui-glia, to weigh off, in parcels 
or quantities. 

ab'-wish-er, a duster or wiper ; a 
mat. 

ab'-ya-gha, to drive away ; to scare 
off. 

ach, an interjection equivalent to 
oh ! well, but ; used fre- 
quently to denote that a thing 
or action has been forgotten 
or neglected. 

acht, eight. 

ach' tu, eight. 

acht'sam, careful. 

ach'-tse, eighteen. 

acht'-sich, eighty. 

a n '-dacht, attention. 

i'i n '-dai-ta, to indicate, or to hint. 

<"t n '-dech-tich, attentive. 

a n ' de?ikka, keepsake, memento. 

ii'"-denk-iis, a memento ; a memo- 
rial ; keepsake. 

inl'U r, an eagle. 

a"' draiwa, to start to drive, to 
urge forward. 

a nl dre a, to turn on, as a spigot. 
Iref-fa, to meet ; to come in 
contact. 

a"'-dii", to dress, to clothe 

itf, monkey, ape. 

■>// /./, to become moist. 
ii ii, to tile ; the first indica- 
tions of baying been tiled. 
//' r,i, to set lire to ; or to light, 
.1 stove or furnace. 
fol lit. to assail, to tall upon. 



1888.] 



203 



[Hoffman. 



k nt -f&ng, beginning ; origin. 

& n '-fang-a, to begin, to commence. 

a a '-f&ng$, at first, from the begin- 
ning of a certain time. 

/,n/ j,\ ra> t drive, or lead in driving. 

h' u -fardrau'-a, to entrust ; to con- 
fide. 

«"' fdrsh-da, plowing furrows to 
indicate direction. 

n u '-fau-la, to show a beginning of 
decay. 

u n '-fech-ta, to fight ; the beginning 
of a quarrel. 

u n '-fech-ding, a contention or quar- 
rel ; usually applied to legal 
strife between individuals. 

d n -feiig-er, a beginner, a novice. 

a"' Jing-ra, to handle with in a 
meddling way. 

<'( n '-fitta, to try on, or to fit ; fre- 
quently used instead of «"- 
has-si'i. 

a n '-fila, to touch, to feel. 

«"'-Ji-la8, sympathy ; feeling for. 

a n '-fi-ra, 1. to disappoint, to mis- 
lead. 
2. to betray — as a girl by seduc- 
tion. 

&■' -flick-ka, to patch on another 
body. 

i'i n/ fressa, to gnaw at; to show 
signs of having been eaten 
of. 

fig, an eye ; pi., a' -glut. 

u n 'ga bis'sa, anything which has 
been bitten into, is said to be 
d n '-ga-bis-»ii ; a bite taken 
from an apple, or other edi- 
ble object. 

u'-gha-blets'-lich, immediately. 

h n 'ga-bod ta, offered. 

aP-gto-bd-ra, hereditary; congenital. 

("t n '-ga-bordt, started to be bored or 
drilled ; the boring or drill- 
ing in its beginning, or com- 
mencement.' 



d nf -ga-budt, the first bid, or offer, at 
a sale. 

a n '-ga-le-ghas, a yearning ; con- 
cern. 

d R '-ganem, pleasant, agreeable. 

a a '-ga-nem-lich, agreeable, agree- 
ably. 

d nJ ga nem licher-icais, in an agree- 
able, or pleasant manner. 

(t' u -ga'-num'-ma, accepted; feigned. 

d n '-garo8?idt, to show signs of rust- 
ing. 

d a '-ga-8icht, countenance. 

u n '-ga-wdk'-sa, grown fast to. This 
term is applied to pleurisy, 
the idea being that "the liver 
has grown to the surround- 
ing vicera and to the ribs." 

d n 'ga ue'-na, to contract a habit : 
to acquire, or to accustom. 

a n '-ga-we-net, a habit; or acquired 
custom. 

d a '.ge-wa, to lodge information ; to 
inform, or to suggest. 

d n '-gfi(uldt, speckled by decaying. 

d n g)\rdt, 1. disappointed, fooled. 
2. betrayed, seduced. 

dgha-db'l, eyeball. 

a' yha-ap'-el, eyeball. 

a' -gha blik, a moment ; an instant ; 
a hurried glimpse. 

a gha-blik-lich, immediately. 

a' gha-brd, eyebrow ; pi., a' gha- 
bro-a. 

A' gha deck'l, eyelid; sing, and pi. 

i'i'-gh((-dok-ter, an oculist. 

a'-gha-hor, an eyelash. 

d-glui-haid-tl, an opacity of the 
eye ; a membranous growth 
known as terigium. Some- 
times used for cataract, shtnr. 

d'-gha-lusht, the eyes' delight ; the 
"delight of the eyes." 

ii n -gb"t-cjha, to accuse ; to complain 
of to others, or to legal au- 
thorities. 



Hoffman.] 



204 



[Dec. 21, 



•'("'-glcwa, to cleave to ; to paste on 
. or to stick to. 

d n '-grai-fa, 1. to grasp, or attack. 
2. to comprehend. 

i"t n -grif, an attack ; act of grasping. 

a n -gsicht, countenance, face ; view 
or prospect. 

a n ' -gtichUa, prospects. 

a n -guk-ka, to look at, to behold. 

''r'-hal-ta, to continue, to perse- 
vere. 

a n 'harkh-^'i., to listen to, to pay 
attention to. 

a n -7ieng-er, adhere, u hanger-on. 
i, to listen to, to obey. 

ai, an exclamation of surprise ; is 
frequently repeated several 
times when seeing or hearing 
anything of a surprising or 
astonishing character. 

'*"'. egg. 

ai n/ -lisa, to incur danger, to lose, 
to meet with misfortune. 

ai n '-bil-dn, to imagine, to fancy. 

ai n '-bild-ing, imagination. 

ai n '-bin-na, to wrap up, or in ; to 
bind. 

ai n '-bld-m, to start a furnace ; — re- 
lates to iron works. 

ai n '-brech'-a, 1. to break into, to 
burglarize. 
2. to break to harness. 

ai'-dcks, lizard, newt, salamander. 

ai'-der, 1. the yolk of an egg. 
2. udder, of cow. 

ai n, -dra-g?ia, to bring in, or to 
yield. 
r-dot'-ter, yolk of egg. 
fdUa, t<> cave in. 

/■'//. entnaoa, gate*waj. 
\ to thread, 
eel 

it, 10 bfl /';il- 
OU8. 

Mftloot, energetic. 
■ nee. 



ai n ' -ga-richt, arranged, prepared, 

furnished. 
ai n '-ge n a, to shrink. 
ai"'-ge-wa, 1. to give in, to consent. 

2. to administer — medicine. 
ai'-gha-dum, property, possessions. 
ai n '-grai-fa, to make inroad up ; to 

comprehend. 
ai n '-gra-wa, to bury, or inter. 
aiP'-hakka, to cut into, to chop 

into. 
ai n '-7ial-da, to hold in ; to slacken; 

to keep in — as at school. 
ai n '-hd-la, to overtake. 
ai n '-ka-fa, to buy in, to purchase. 
ai n '-ki-ra, 1. to put up at a public 

house. 
2. to begin house-keeping. 
ai a '-koch-a, to boil down ; to con- 
centrate by boiling. 
ail, 1. an owl ; pi, ai'-la. 

2. a hurry, haste. 
ai'-la, to hasten, hurry. 
ai n '-l)-da, to invite, 
at"' -la -ding, invitation. 
ai n '-mach-a, to preserve. 
ai n '-iiem-ina, 1. to take internally ; 

to receive money in trade — 

as in a store. 
2. to cheat or deceive. 
ai"'-rni-sii, to encroach upon. 
ai n '-rich-ta, to fit up, to arrange in 

shape, or to furnish, 
a is, ice. 
ai'-fut, iron. 
ai n, .sal-m, to pat in salt or brine ; 

to salt down for the future. 

h, icy, slippery on EtCOOUnl of 

ice, or sleot. 
il-ts.r, to ptok in salt ; to salt 

down. 
,ii'-s,i-iiiaiii<lt, iron ore ; iron mine. 

' slit,*,-, hardware store. 

hi sow for OOming crops. 

ghna, to confirm— « rellj 



18<*8.] 



205 



[Hoffman. 



ni n, -set-sa, to put in, — as limestone 
into a kiln ; to install into a 
position or office. 

ai n '-shdr'-'fa, to enjoin, to cram. 

ai n 'shenk-a, to pour out, or into 
other vessels, as into tea- 
cups, etc. 

ai n '-8hla-(jh(i, lightning to strike 
an object ; to strike into sud- 
denly and violently. 

ai"'-shlak, woof. 

ei n '-8hld-fa, to fall asleep. 

ai n '-8hlum-'r-a, to fall into a slum- 
ber. 

ai nl -8hlup-pa, to crawl in or into. 

ai n '-»hne-a, to snow in, or to be- 
come covered by drifting 
snow. 

<u n '-8lipa>i-na, to hitch up — in har- 
ness. 

ai n/ -ahrai-wa, to inscribe ; to write 
into a book ; a preliminary 
writing to a document. 

aish'-ter, oyster. 

ais'-tsap-pa, icicle. 

ai nl -t8wuig-a, to force one to swal- 
low, or take internally. 

ai n/ -icai-ii, to dedicate. 

ai n '-w(u-in<j, dedication. 

ai n '-w<i n -nci; inhabitant. 

,ir x '-ir, i ■h-'il, to put in soak, to 
moisten. 

ai n '-wea-ihg, an invention, an ex- 
cuse. 

<ii n '-wik-'l-a, 1. to wrap up, to band- 
age. 
2. to deceive and impose upon 
— equivalent to the common 
expressions "to take in," or, 
"to rope in." 

ak, an eye ; pi., a'-gha. 

ak'-a-dt-ra, to make an agreement. 

ak'-cv, acre. 

<i"-kit-t<(, to secure with a chain. 

<i n '-kfauldt, speckled or spotted by 
rotting. 



a n '-kin-dich-a, to inform, or to an- 
nounce. 

a n -kla-gha, to accuse ; to complain 
about to the authorities. 

a n '-klc-da, 1. to clothe, or to dress. 
2. to ingratiate. 

a"-knepba, to button on, to secdre 
by buttoning. 

a n -knip-ba, to tie on, securing by 
knots. 

aks, 1. axe. 
2. axle. 

a n '-kMt-Vlt, first settled ; first indi- 
cations of settlement. 

aks'-'l, 1. shoulder. 
2. axle. 

ak-to'-w'r, October. 

it"'-knm-inii, to succeed, to get on. 
■tm-iiuf, a new-comer; one 
who has arrived or is about 
to arrive. 

al, all. 

a n '-lai-a, solicitude. 

<'<"'-l<thg-e8, longing, yearning. 

ti!'-("t n , alum. 

(d-tii'i.r', altar. 

al'-der, 1. age. 

2. old one — a rude term applied 

to a man advanced in years. 
', alone. 

a n '-le-gha, 1. concern, to yearn for. 
2. to lay on, as laying on a coat 
of paint. 

a n >-l(.ghu8, a yearning for ; concern. 

a-U n '-nich, alone. 

aVfart, always, ever. 

al'-le, all. 

al-h a> , alone. 

al'le-ddk, every day, daily. 

al'-le-ga-bot', every once in awhile ; 
frequently. 

al'-ge-mai' 1 , average, commonly. 

al'-ge-7ne'\ average, commonly. 

al'-le-mdV, every time. 

al'-ler-anht', very first ; the first of 
all. 



Hoffman.] 



20G 



|Dce. 21, 



al'-ler-dihgs, sure enough, to be 
sure. 

al'ler-hand, all sorts, melange. 

al'-ler-lai, various sorts, various 
kinds. 

al'-ler-W, all sorts, various kinds. 

al'-les, everything. 

al'-le-waiV, just now, at present. 

al-mech'-tich, Almighty. 

al '-mi-nan' '-ner, all together. 

al'-mdsa, alms. 

al'-niks, in vain, fruitless ; lit., all 
nothing. 
>ssa, to let on ; to pretend. 

al'-o-we, aloes. 

als, as, still, while. 

als'-a-mol, sometimes. 

alt, old, aged. 

alt'-er, 1. age. 

2. old one, i.e., "the old man;" 
generally used by a wife when 
speaking of her husband. 

am, at, at the, on the, by ; contrac- 
tion of an dem. 

a n '-macha, 1. to mix, or to prepare. 
2. to make up to, to gain one's 
esteem. 

am'-a-jia'-dish, homeopathic. 

am'-ba-rel', umbrella. 

h n '-me-a. to begin mowing, or reap- 
ing. 

i'i n '-met, the second crop of hay. 

itm'-shel, robin — merula migratoria. 

Sunt, offlde, position. 

.'/., on, at, by. 

-. without, but. 
I'.gh'hi, to nail fast to ; to at- 
tach to by nailing. 
inJUt other, otherwise. 

' . ' to, or to attach 
by sewing. 

. v, ;/-'/, i l>t, <>r to 

■dopi 

ii or to " take on." 
nn'-tr, Other. 
an'ertht, otherwiRc, dill'crcnily. 



("nig'-ker, anchor. 

ans, at the, to the ; contraction of 

an des. 
unt'-icart, answer, reply, response. 
ant' -war-tit, to answer, to respond. 
d n 'pak-ka, to attack ; to endeavor 

to overcome. 
ap'blr, strawberry. 
ar, he, him. 
ar' a-blr, strawberry. 
dr'dbs, pea. 
() n '-rai-a, to baste. 
d n '-rai-sa, to tear off a portion ; to 

begin to tear into. 
d n '-rai-ica, 1. to rub on or against. 
2. to ingratiate, by keeping in 
contact with another. 
d n '-rank-kd, plants securing a hold 

by means of tendrils. 
dr'-d-wet, labor or occupation. 
arbs, pea. 
drb'-sd, to inherit ; to receive by 

heredity, or cougenitally. 
drb'shaft, legacy. 
drd, earth ; world. 
dr'-da, earthen. 
i'u-d'-ab-p'l, artichoke. 
drd'-be-bung, earthquake. 
drd 1 -fie, plant louse, plant insect; 

lit., earth flea. 
drd'-gaisht, gnome, " puck," bogy. 
a rd' -lie /it, ignis fat mix, will o' the 

wisp. 
ard'-ning, order, quiet. 
(ird'-shol-Vd. a clod of earth. 
iird'-shtram, mushroom, fungus, 

agaric ; lit., earth sponge. 
<ivdt, 1. sort, kind, variety. 

0. piece, locality. 
(ir'-mit.s/i, orange. 

. /-/-/, to eddreee, to speak to. 

■ ,'/,,!. to touch. 
• I'-rent -s, '■ licit, miserable, wretched. 
:,tsh-tsiri'-tr'l, Indian turnip. 

<ir/<i' ruir/, experience. 

iir-Jin'-nnitj, invention, iliscovery. 



1838.] 



207 



[Hoffman. 



ar-frai'-a, 1. to gladden. 

2. to free one's self, or to libe- 
rate. 

dr-frish'-d, to refresh. 

dr-frish'-uiig, refreshment, recrea- 
tion. 

dr-hal'-td, to maintain, to retain, to 
support. 

dr-he'-d, to exalt, to elevate. 

dr-hoW, recovered. 

a' -rich. See ar'-rik. 

a"' '-rich-id, to report, to cause. 

ar'-i-ghH, organ. 

a*' -i-glN-shpi-ler, organ ist. 

ar'-ik. See ar'-rik. 

a riii'id, to recollect, to remember. 

d n '-ii -r'd, 1. to begin to stir, or to 
mxi. 
2. to affect, touching. 

dr'-i-yd, to irritate, to annoy. 

dr'-i-ydr-lich, aggravating, irrita- 
ting. 

dr'-i-ydr-nis, irritation, vexation, ag- 
gravation. 

ark. See ar'-rik. 

dr-ken-nd, to know or to recognize. 

dr-kirnk'-d, to refresh ; to renew. 

dr-kwik'-itng, recreation, restoration 
of energies. 

i'n'-Jiib'-nis, permission. 

dr.lang'-d, to reach, to attain. 

dr-la'-wd, to allow, to permit. 

nr-U'-xd, to liberate, to save. 

dr'm, 1. poor, destitute. 
2. arm ; a branch. 

dr-ma'-na, to exhort; to remind. 

ar-me"', army. 

iir'-mer, pauper; lit., a poor one. 

drm'-lich, poorly, miserable. 

dr'm-loch, arm hole. 

iirm-se'lich, miserable, destitute. 

ar'-mut, poverty, distress. 

drn, harvest. 

arnd'-lich, decent, proper. 

«r ne'-ra, to support ; to maintain. 

iirusht, in earnest. 



d n '-ro8?i-td, to become attached by 
rusting, or corroding. 

dr-ret'-ta, to save or rescue. 

ar'-rik, very ;ar'-rikgro8, very large; 
en ar'-ri-yer gros'ser man, a 
very large (or great) man ; 
en ar'-ri-yi kle n '-ni frd, a 
very small woman. 

drshaf'-ja, created ; conceived. 

drsht, 1. just, only now. 
2. first. 

dr-slttau'.nii, to astonish. 

drshtaun'-lieh, surprising. 

drts-nai', medicine, practice of med- 
icine. 

dr'-tum, 1. legacy. 

2. something received by he- 
redity, or congenitally. 

d n '-ru-fd, to accost by calling; to 
call upon. 

d'-rum, 1. arm. 

2. poor, poverty stricken. 

3. lean, poor in flesh, indigent. 
d'-rurnse'-lich, miserable, wretched. 

destitute. 
s 1. to inherit; to secure or 

obtain by transmission. 
2. an heir ; one securing a leg- 
acy. 
dr'-icet, work, labor, occupation. 
as, as, while, because. 
u n 'sn-gh(i, to announce. 
<i'i sis-fa, to soap in part ; or as in 

a preliminary manner. 

-na, to view, to behold. 
d n 'sen-lich, respectable, pleasant to 

look upon. 
d n '-set-8d, to set ; set to hatch, or to 

rise. 
a n '-8ett'ld, to begin to settle, or to 

attempt settlement in a place. 
d n '-shaf-fa, to provide, to secure for 

future emergencies. 
d^'-shai*, appearance ; indication. 
d n '-8hai/i, appearance ; prospects, 

or probabilities. 



Hoffman.] 



203 



[Dec. 21, 



t'i n 'shau-a, to behold, to look at. 

<i' u -she-V'i, to start to pare ; to begin 
paring or peeling. 

>i u shik-a, to behave; to conduct 
one's self. 

•i' u -shla-gha, to nail to anything ; to 
post for public information ; 
to notify. 

t*t n '-8hlj-su, to ioin to. 

ii n '-sh)iuch-la, to ingratiate by coax- 
ing or flattery. 

ii n '-shiu < rh-lich, ingratiating ; pleas- 
ing, agreeable. 

a n ' -shmi-ra, 1. to ingratiate one's 
self. 

2. to paint ; to daub. 

3. to cheat, or betray. 
a n '-8hnar-ra, to address in coarse or 

rude language. 
«"' shpan-na, to hitch to, or before 

another. 
u"-8hpel-la, to pin fast to. 
u n '-8hplit-ta, to start splitting ; to 

begin a split. 
("i n -8?iprit-sa, to begin to sprinkle, or 

squirt a liquid ; to sprinkle a 

little. 
ii n '-8hpruch, a demand, a request. 
a n -8hprung, a start in running, a 

beginning in a run. 
>'i"'-8hr"i(.irir, to secure by screwing, 

to attach with screws. 

-. to place new steel on 

the cutting edge of tools ; to 

harden like steel. 

to like, to agree with 

one's expectation!. 
//"' -thtek-ka, to contract something 

contagious ; to Ml lire to. 
h n '.thteUla, 1. to appoint to a posi- 
tion, or offloe. 

I. to commit ;t wrong or'injiiry. 

8. to lieh;tve, or r,.in!l|i'l one's 

'filing, an appointment, or 

Oil.' 



a n s7Uel-lung, an office, or position. 
<i u '.*litif-de.r, an instigator. 
<"i n -sMif-ta, to instigate, to urge. 
a n '-shtd'-sa, to join to ; to connect ; 

adjacent. 
a n '-8htraich-a, to paint, to cover 

witli a liquid by means of a 

brush. 
a n '-s7ttraic7i-er, a painter. 
a n '-8htrik-a, to knit on to another 

substance or article. 
a n '-s7iu-a, to attach new parts to old 

shoes ; to cover with new 

upper leather. 
a n '-sicht, view, aspect. 
a nf tsai-cha, to indicate, to give a 

token, or prognostication. 
a nl -tsai-ch(t8, a token or sign. 
auf '-iir-shte 1 '-ung, resurrection. 
aus, out, out of, from. 
aus'-dr-dd, to become degenerate ; 

to form a variety distinct from 

the original. 
aus'-bi-da, 1. to notify to quit. 

2. to outbid — at a public sale. 
aus'-brV-a, to clean out by scalding. 
aus' -bud' -sa, to clean out, to prune. 
aus'-dau'-ra, to persevere, to main- 
tain. 
aus'-d<-l<i, to divide, to distribute. 
tuts'-dtii/,-' /,-<t, to contrive, to devise. 
aus'-dil-ya, to extirpate, to root out. 
aua'-dlnn, to serve out a time. 
<a/s'-dr, -u, to wring out. 
hnx' drr cr, clothes wringer. 

(lux-rfrik' lir/t, particularly, ex 

piessly. 
Irttk, expression, enunciation. 
<uix' fill, I. deficiency. 

Calling out : enmity- 

aus'-fiii la, to tall out, to disagree. 
aus'-/" r<>. to appear** an eruption, 
to break out. 

mis' J, i rat, eniptiiui -culicular. 

■ Option ot the skin. 
mis' f, ir /.., f. I, to Ml] out. 



1888.1 



209 



(Hofhman. 



aus'-ft-ra, to carry out, to prose- 
cute a plan or scheme. 

aus'-fran-s'l-a, to fringe out, or to 
become fringed. 

aus' -fres-sa, to eat all, to consume 
everything eatable. 

aus'-ge", to go out ; to become ex- 
tinguished. 

aus' -ge-dai' -art, exhausted, tired 
out. 

aus' -ge-ldrnt, completed education. 

aus'-hal-dd, to sustain, or to hold out. 

aus'-he-la, 1. to heal to complete- 
ness. 
2. to hollow out — as wood. 

aus'-hvng-er-a, to starve out, to 
famish. 

aus'-koch-a, to extract by boiling. 

aus'-krat-sa, to erase, to remove by 
scratching or scraping. 

aus' -lack* -a, to ridicule, to laugh at. 

am'-lh-fa, to expire — in time. 

aus' -le-gha, to explain, to demon- 
strate. 

aus'-len-er, foreigner. 

aus'-U-ra, to empty. 

nus'-le-sa, to select ; to pick out. 

aus'-lesh~a, to put out ; to extin- 
guish. 

aus'-mach-a, to reach conclusions, 
to make out, to obtain results. 

aus' -mish-da, to clean out stables, 
to remove manure. 

aus'-pak-M, to unpack. 

aus'-pik-M, to pick out, as fruit or 
vegetables ; to select and as- 
sort. 

aus'-plan-tsa, to transplant. 

aus'-plu-gha, to plow between rows 
of corn, etc. 

aus'-rai-sa, 1. to abscond. 
2. to tear out, to fray. 

avs'-red, excuse, pretext. 

aus' -ret, excuse, response. 

aus' -rich-ta, to perform, to transact, 
to accomplish. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL08. SOC. XXVI. 



aus'-rot-ta, to weed out, to rooi out. 

aus'-ru-fa, to announce in public ; 
to exclaim, to cry out. 

aus' -ru-gha, to recover by resting ; 
to take rest sufficient to re- 
cover. 

aus'-sau-fa, to drink out all. 

aus'-se-a, to sow. 

aus'-sed-tsa, to plant, or set out. 

aus' -shenk-ka, to pour out — (coffee 
or tea) at table. 

aus'-shen-na, to reprimand, by mak- 
ing fun of ; to cause one to 
fe«l ashamed. 

aus'-shlek, sprouts or young shoots 
— on trees. 

aus' -shli-sa, to exclude, to lock out. 

aus'-shprech-a, to pronounce. 

aus'-shrai-tea, to write out ; to com- 
plete by writing. 

aus'-shtai-ar, outfit of furniture.etc, 
when going to housekeeping; 
furnishings. 

aus'-shtai-gha, to dismount from a 
vehicle. 

aus'-shte*, to bear, to endure. 

aus' -shvoenk-ka, to rinse out. 

aus'-shwit-sa, to sweat out ; to get 
rid of by sweating. 

aus'-sicht, prospect, view. 

aus' -tse -ring, consumption, pJithisis. 

aus' -tm-rich' -ta, to transact or per- 
form. 

aus'-waich-a, to evade, to avoid. 

aus' -teak-sa, to grow to maturity. 

aus'-tcarf-ling, an outcast ; an im- 
perfect one. 

aus'-mn-ich, 1. outside. 

2. to know a thing by heart. 

aus'-toish-a, to rub out, to wipe 
out. 

a nf 'iJDai-sa, to Instruct, to show, to 
indicate, to direct. 

a-u>ck', away. 

a'toend-mdl, the Lord's Supper. 

d n '-wcn»no, to apply, to utilise. 
120. 2a. printed feb. 11, 1889. 



Hoffman.] 



210 



[Dec. 21, 



a'-wer, but, only, otherwise, used as 
a threat to wish one to desist. 

a a ' -wick-la, 1. to wrap upon, to con- 
nect by wrapping. 
2. to accomplish by palming off 
upon another. 

a'-w'r, but ; used also as a threat to 
one who has committed a 
fault. 

a'-w'r-gla-wa, superstition. 

a'-w'r-gla-wish, superstitious. 

b', a contraction of ba, be, used as a 
prefix and equivalent to the 
English prefix be. 

ba n , a path, a track. 

ba-amt'-er, occupant of an office or 
public position ; one elected 
to position by ballot. 

bab'-a-dek'l, paste board. 

ba'-bii-gai, parrot. 

ba-bir', paper ; sometimes applied to 
newspaper. 

bab'-la, a poplar tree. 

ba'-b'ld, to babble, to talk sense- 



ba'-b'l-maul, one who talks too 
much, and senselessly ; a tat- 
tle-tale. 

bdbsht, pope. 

, to wade, to bathe. 

bd-dal'-ya, batallion ; muster day of 
the militia. 

bad'-eri's'l, partridge, quail (Ortyx 
tirginianu$). 

ftg ill' nuTi'j, office, service. 

ba-do', a flat-bottom boat (a macki- 
naw, as used in British Amer- 
ica). 

bad'-'rii, to bother, to annoy. 

■ trh' ta, to behold or to view. 
/./ ilrff'-fa, to concern, to iflbot 
I,.i dth'f </, to agree, to make terms. 
ba-droj f.i. confused, ulllicted, af- 
U il. 
' u buth. 



ba-fel', command, an injunction. 

ba-fe'-la, to command or charge. 

ba-frai'-a, to deliver, to set free. 

ba-frid' -ich-a, to satisfy. 

ba-fri-dich-ct, to pacify. 

ba-frid-ich-ung, satisfaction. 

ba-ge'-ghna, to meet, to come to- 
ward one another. 

b'a-ger', a request, a desire. 

bii-ge'-ra, to request, or desire. 

b'a-ge'rich, desirous, greedy. 

ba-ger' -ich-kait, greediness, eager- 
ness. 

ba-ger' -ich-ket, greediness. 

b'a-hdrV -zich-a, to take to heart. 

ba-7iaup'-ta, to assert or maintain. 

ba-hi'-ta, to protect, guard. 

b&i, pie. 

bai, by, at, near. 

bai' -ar 1 -a-wa, co-heir. 

bai' -bring' -a, to bring from another 
place, to contribute. 

bai' -dra-gha, to carry from another 
place, to contribute. 

baich'-ta, to confess. 

bai'-d'l, 1. bolt used to separate 
flour. 
2. scrotum. 

bai'-drik'-ka, to press together, to 
squeeze. 

bai'-fal-la, to transpire, to occur. 

bai'-ho-la, to bring together, to fetch 
to a given point. 

bai'-kum-ma, to come together, to 
gather at a given point, for- 
tuitously. 

bail, a hatchet. 

bai' -la-fa, to walk together ; to 
gather, on foot. 

bai'-lar, a pot or boiler. 

bai'-le-gha, to lay up ; to hoard or 
Bave ; to lay aside. 

haim. with tlu\ l>y the; contrac- 
tion of l>ai di in. 

latm $W nfl. retail i lit., "by the 

small. " 



1888.] 



211 



[Hoffman 



bai-nd', nearly, almost. 
bai'-na-ma, nick-name ; Christian 

name. 
baind, pine, pine tree. 
baind' -harts, resin of the pine tree, 

exudation on bark of pine. 
baindt, a pint. 
baindt' -blech, a tin cup holding about 

a pint. 
baindt' -mos, pint measure. 
baind' -tsab' -ba, pine cone. 
bat-no', almost, nearly, approach- 
ing to. 
bai'-sd, to bite. 
bai'-sich, acrid, biting, sour. 
bai' -shaf -fa, to provide, to procure. 
bai' -shpring-a, to run past, or by ; 

to run to assistance. 
bai'-shpll, example, instance. 
bai'-shte", to support, to stand by. 
bais'-tsang, pincers. 
bai'-wek, byway. 

bai'-wd-na, to attend, to be present. 
bai'-yu-gha, to drive together, to 

herd or round up. 
bak'-drok, dough trough. 
bak'-ka, 1. to bake. 

2. cheeks (sing, and pi.), 
bak' -ka-bdrt, whiskers, beard. 
bak' -ka-buch, pocket-book, purse. 
bak'-ka-sh(e n , brick (sing, and pi.). 
bak' -ka-8ht(' n -U' (jher, brick-layer. 
bak' -ka-shte n -of -fa, brick kiln. 
bak'-ka-tsa'\ molar tooth ; lit, bak'- 

kn, check -f- tsd'\ tooth. 
bak' -of ' -fa, bake oven. 
ba-ke'-ra, to convert. 
ba-kl-'rung, conversion. 
ba-ken'-na, to confess, to make 

known. 
ba-kend'-nix, conversion, acquaint- 
ance. 
ba-kesh'-dich-a, to supply with food. 
ba-kim' -er-lich, pitifully, poorly. 
ba-kim' -ra, to concern one's self. 
ba-kla'-gha, to complain, to report. 



ba-kand' -mach-a, to make known. 

ba-kand' -mach-ung, acquainting 
with, advertisement. 

ba-kand' -shaft, acquaintance, famili- 
arity with a person or sub- 
ject. 

ba-kle'-da, to clothe. 

ba-kref -tich-a, 1. to assert vigor- 
ously. 
2. to strengthen, physically. 

ba-kum'-ma, to become, to agree 
with. 

ba-kwem', commodious. 

ba-kwem'-ma, to adapt, to become 
accustomed. 

bal, soon, nearly. 

ba'-libt, beloved, liked, popular. 

bal'-ka, beam, joist. 

bal'-la, ball. 

bal' -la-britsh, a bat for playing ball. 

bal-lun', balloon. 

ba-lo'-na, to reward, remunerate. 

ba-lo'-nviig, reward, compensation. 

bal'-sam, balsam. 

bal-m'-ra, to shave. 

bal-wlr' -mes-ser, razor. 

bal-wir' -sef, shaving soap. 

bam, a tree. 

ba al ' -mach-a, to make a track or path ; 
to cut or open a path through 
snow. 

bam' -b' licit, loosely or carelessly. 

bam'b'l, a loiterer, a stupid fellow. 

bam'-b'la, to loiter, to waste time. 

bam'-garda, orchard. 

bam'-mes'-ser, a pruning knife ; lit, 
a tree knife. 

bd-mi'-a, to concern one's self ; to 
worry. 

ban' dt-baks, bonnet box. 

band, 1. a hinge. 

2. a band, bandage. 
bdn'der, a panther. 
bandt, 1. ribbon, tape. 

2. a bond — legal instrument. 
bd-ne'-na, to give a name. 



Hoffman.] 



212 



[Dec. 21, 



bi nn'-ung, naming, denomination. 

bang, afraid, uneasy. 

bang'-anet, bayonet. 

bang' -ich-kcd, fear, dread, anxiety. 

bank, a bench. 

ban'-na, to charm, to captivate. 

bap, paste. 

bap' -pa, to paste, to stick to. 

bar, 1. bear. 

2. sometimes used instead of 
bir', pear. 

bar, bare, denuded. 

ba-ra'-da, to deliberate. 

ba-rai'-a, to repent, to prepare for 
a future state. 

ba-rai'-cha, to need, to require. 

ba-rait', prepared, ready. 

ba-rai'-ta, to prepare, to make 
ready. 

ba-rau'-cha, to stand in need of. 

ba-rau' -shend, intoxicating, excit- 
ing. 

bar' -fi-sich, bare-footed. 

bar' -geld, cash. 

bar' -ghament' , parchment. 

bar' -gha-mot, bergamot. 

ba-richl', a report. 

ba rich'-ta, to report, to make 
known. 

Bir' ig, a hill, mountain. 

h.ir' ik, a boar. 

fxi'rik, a hill, mountain. 

ba-rik'. a wig. 

hbik, a "hillside-plow," a 
plow for hilly country. 

ba rtmdt', renowned, well known. 

bar-ir'ing, emetic. 

bar tr'-vng, emetic. 

( ya, to borrow, to obtain credit. 

W l,a, bireh. 

h<irl, a barrel. 

fas, a barrel ; lit., a barrel 

measure. 
</<< 'lik'-l, a pendulum— of a 
clock. 
barm-harts' ich, merciful. 



barm-Mrts' -ich-kait, merciful, the 
act of being merciful. 

ba'-ri-ich, hilly or mountainous. 

bar slid, 1. a brush. 
2. a bristle. 

bilrshd'l, a little coxcomb of a fel- 
low ; a synonym equivalent 
to the modern expression of 
"dude." 

barshd'-ta, 1. to brush, to clean 
off. 
2. bristles, as of a hog. 

barts'-el, the coccygeal region. 

barts'-el-a, to tumble, to frisk. 

bar(s-'l bam, sommersault. 

bas, bass — a bass voice. 

bas, a boss, a chief, a master. 

bash'-ta, to husk. 

bashi'-Jiel-s'l, stick for husking corn. 

bas'm, opossum. 

bas'-sa, 1. to fit, to suit ; to measure 
to fit, as clothing. 
2. to pace. 

bas'-gaik, a bass viol ; lit., a "bass 
violin." 

bash'-ta, 1. to husk. 

2. husks, shuck. 

basht'-art, bastard ; hybrid. 

basht'-hols, husking pin. 

basht'-ndt, parsnip. 

ba-sin'-na, to consider, to make up 
one's mind. 

bas'-sem, opossum. 

bat-do', a flat-bottom boat (Fr., ba- 
teau). ? 

ba-tsiir'-ik, district, circuit. 

ba-tsark', district, circuit. 

biitsh'-ler, an unmarried man, a 
bachelor. 

bat'-sirh, amiey, impudent. 

bau'-a, to build, to construct. 

bauch, belly, abdomen. 

bau'-clia, to boil wash. 

banrJi'.f,!-ir/i, deerepit, failing. 

bauch' -gri' -to" l-a, an uneasiness in 
the intestines. 



1888.] 



213 



[Hoffman. 



bauch'shmdrt'sa, pain in the stom- 
ach, cramp. 

bauch'-we, stomach ache. 

bau'-er, 1. a farmer. 
2. a builder. 

ban' -hols, lumber. 

bauclv '-ri-ma, belly band or strap. 

bauch'-tsu-wer, a wash tub. 

bau'-er-a, to farm, to cultivate. 

bau'-er-ai', a farm. 

bau'er-d-shtand, a farm with all its 
accessories, as a plant. 

bau'-mesh'-d'r, building master ; 
contractor, architect. 

baur, a farmer. 

ba-wai'sa, to show, to prove. 

ba-wa'-na, to inhabit, to live in, to 
occupy. 

ba-vdn'-er, inhabitant, occupant. 

ba-wdndt', inhabited. 

bd n '-wol, cotton. 

ban* -wol-lich, anything of cotton. 

be n , leg ( — pi, be a ). 

be' -a, to toast. 

be -ant' -war -da, to answer for, or 
become responsible. 

be-anP ' -warticli-kaiV ', responsibility. 

be-drd' -ich-d, to bury, to inter. 

beeh, pitch, shoemaker's wax. 

bech'ich, pitchy, sticky or adhesive. 

bed, a bed ; a lair. 

bed, both. 

be'-dd, 1, both. 

2. to pray, to supplicate. 

be-dai' -er-Uch, pitiable. 

be-dai'-ta, to indicate or signify. 

be-dai'-ding, signification ; indica- 
tion. 

be-dai' -tuTig , signification ; indica- 
tion. 

be-dan'-ka, to thank. 

be-dau'. er-a, to pity. 

be-dau' -er-Uch, pitiful, that which 
may be pitied. 

bed'-ddk, thanksgiving day ; lit., 
prayer day. 



be-ddr'-fa, to need, to want or re- 
quire. 

be-ddrf'-nu, necessity. 

be-dau' -ra, to pity, to commiserate. 

bed'-dep-ich, bed cover. 

be-dek'-ka, to cover, to roof a house. 

be-denk'-ka, to consider, to think or 
remember. 

be-denk'-lich, serious. 

be-dl'-na, to deserve ; to attend to 
or serve in an office. 

bedi'-ner, a servant. 

bed'l'-a, to beg. 

bed' -Id t, bedstead. 

bed'-Uit'l, a small bedstead, a trun- 
dle bed. The more frequent 
term is shl'-wer-W. 

bed" V -man, beggar. 

be-drd' -gha, to conduct, to deport, 
to behave. 

be-dre'-ya, to betray, to cheat. 

be-dribt', sorrowful, distressed. 

be-drl' -gher-ai, deception, swindling 

be-dri-gh'Uich, deceptive. 

be-driklich, deceptive. 

be-dri'-wa, 1. to make sorry, or to 
cause distress. 
2. to cheat, impose upon. 

be-druk, fraud. 

bed'-shtrik, bed-cord. 

bed'-ttich, a case for feathers, feather- 
bed. 

be-fin'-na, to find. 

be-fol'-ya, to obey, to observe. 

be-fro' -gha, to ask, or to inform one's 
self. 

be-gle'-da, to clothe. 

be-glik'-ka, to happen to, or to make 
fortunate. 

be-gin', beginning, commencement. 

be-gne'-dich-a, to pardon, to befriend, 
to favor. 

be-gne'-dicli-kait, mercy. 

be-grai'-fa, to grasp, to comprehend. 

be-gi aif -lich, conceivable, compre- 
hensible. 



Hoffman.] 



214 



[Dec. 21, 



be-gra'-rca, to bury. 

be-guk'-ka, to look at, to look over, 
to inspect. 

be-greb'-nis, a burial, a place of 
burial. 

be-grif, comprebension. 

be-haup'-ta, to assert, to maintain . 

be-hel'-fa, to make sbift, to belp 
one's self. 

be-he'-fa, to behave, to deport. 

be-hef'-lich, with deportment, com- 
plaisant. 

be-hal'da, beholden. 

be-henk'-ka, to bedeck, to put on an 
extra quantity of finery. 

be-hoft', afflicted. 

bek, peck. 

be-kandt', known, acquainted, fam- 
iliar. 

bek'-ar, a baker. 

bel, a bell. 

bel, bail, security. 

be lai'-dich-a, to annoy, to worry. 

bel'la, 1. to ring a bell. 

2. to tattle, to relate to gos- 
sips. 

be-lasJi'-da, to burden ; to impose 
upon. 

be-la n '-na, to reward, to recom- 
pense. 

be-W-gha, to belie. 

bel' -li-gots, a term applied to com- 
mon molasses candy. Was 
formerly used in and around 
Heading. 

be-Vt'-wa, to belove. 
'■r, liked, beloved. 

bc'-luk'-sa, to cheat, to fool, to belie- 

belt, a thick DMttad growth of hair. 

UW-nik-el, Santa Glaus ; a grotesque 
figure MMUned by the young 
in making visits on Christ. 
• 
Em, to pelt to bimm, to beat 
Beeleebnb, demoni 

/;»/;/, trees | jd. of M l t r i e. 



be-miir'-ka, to note, or observe. 

be-mar'-i-ka, to note, to observe. 

bem'-bla, to fool away, to idle, to 
squander. 

be-na'-ma, to name ; to give a 
name. 

ben'-di, Bantam fowl. 

bend'H, a string or twine. 

be-ne'-w'lt, befogged ; intoxicated. 

beng''l, a robust, overgrown boy. 

benk, 1. a bank for deposit of mo- 
ney ; a bank of earth. 
2. pi. of bank — bench. 

ben' -ni-cha, to overcome or to sub- 
due. 

be-noch' rich' -ticli-a, to notify, to 
make known. 

ben'-rail, pennyroyal. 

bens, a cent, penny. 

be-nut'-sa, to benefit, to use. 

be-rod' -shla-gha, to deliberate, to in- 
terchange views. 

bes, angry, cross. 

be'sd, a broom. 

bes-ding', a felon ; lit, bad thing. 

be' -tern, a broom. 

besh'-d'la, to tinker, to plaster. 

besht, best. 

be-nhur', to be sure, certainly. 

bes'-'r, better. 

bes's'r-a, to better ; to improve. 

bet, a bed. 

beVV-a, to beg, to solicit. 

be-tra' -ghaa, conduct, deportment. 

be-richt' -ich-a, to correct, to report 
correctly. 

be-tm'-la, to pay, to remunerate. 

be-wais', proof. 

be-wai'sa, to prove, to illustrate. 

be-wa'-ra, to protect, or to shield. 

be-we 1 '-gli'i , to move, to budge. 

i>e >r< ' ghMoh, unable. 

bt-we'(iltini'i, motion, exercise. 
be-yam'-ra, to bemoan. 
h, i/,:' irn, to affirm, to state affirm- 
atively. 



1388.1 



215 



[Hoffman. 



Vfal'-la, to befall. 

bfesh'-dich-a, to fasten, to secure. 

bfi'-la, to feel. 

bfin'-na, to find one's self, state of 
health ; to find in place. 

blb'-cha, 1. a very small boy ; di- 
minutive of bu — boy. 
2. a chick — of domestic fowl. 

bib'-'l-chia, chick — of domestic fowl. 

bich'-er, books ; pi., of buch. 

bid'er, bitter. 

bid'-man, a lever, connected with 
an eccentric. 

bid' -rd-tsd-lad, dandelion ; lit., bit- 
ter salad. 

bidsh, a bitch, slut. 

bidt, a bid, or offer. 

bif'-'l, a hornless cow. 

bi'-gha, to bend ; to incline by bend- 
ing. 

bi'-gh'l-a, to iron, with a flat iron. 

bi'-gh'l-ai'-sa, a flat iron — sad iron. 

bik'-ka, to bend or bow, to stoop. 

biks, a rifle. 

bild, a picture. 

bin, am ; I am— ich bin. 

bin'-d'l, a bundle. 

bin'-na, to tie, to bandage. 

blr, a pear ; beer — applied also to 
lager beer. 

bir'-hef, yeast. 

bis, 1. a bite. 
2. till, until. 

bis'-el, a little. 

bish'-el, a small bush, a shrub. 

bish'-op, a bishop. 

bisht (contraction of bisht du— are 
you), are, art. 

bis'-kats, a skunk, polecat. 

bis' -kat-sa-kraut, skunk cabbage. 

bis''l, a little. 

bis'-sd-bet, dandelion. 

bit'-da, 1. to supplicate, to ask, to 
beseech. 
2. to bid, as at a sale. 

bitsh, a bitch, slut. 



bi'-wi, a pewee (Contopus virens). 

bi'-w'l, Bible. 

bind, a leaf. 

blads, a place. 

blaf'-fa, to bark. 

blai', lead. 

blai'-d, leaden. 

blai'-wd, to stay or to remain. 

blai'-wuis, white lead ; as white as 
white lead. 

bla'-kd, a spot ; a patch. 

bldk'-d, to blacken. 

bldk'-bi-ra, blackberries, 

blan-dash', plantation. 

blan'-tsd, to plant, to inoculate. 

bldr'rd, to bleat as sheep, to bellow, 
as calves. 

blash'-der, a plaster. 

blash' -der-d, to plaster. 

blash'-der -er, a plasterer. 

blats, a place. 

blau'-der-d, to converse, to tattle. 

blaum, plum. 

blech, tin. 

blech, pale. 

ble'-chd, to bleach. 

bleeh'-e-mer, a tin bucket. 

bled'-eha, a saucer. 

bleds'-lich, immediately, suddenly. 

blt'dt, bashful, diffident ; weak. 

bled'-ter, leaves ; pi. of bldd. 

blek'-'l, a small spot, or patch. 

ble-sir', pleasure, gratification. 

ble-su ' -lich, pleasantly. 

blets, places ; pi. of blads. 

blet'shd, to smack with the flat 
hand. 

bli'-a, 1. blossoms — refers chiefly to 
fruit trees. 
2. to bloom. 

bli'-a-knep, buds ; flower buds. 

blits, lightning ; a flash of lightning. 

bll'-ent, blooming. 

blig, plows ; pi. of bluk, or blug. 

blik'-a, to glance; to peep at mo- 
mentarily. 



Hoffman.] 



216 



[Dee. 21, 



blind'-a-mai's'l, blind-man's buff; 
a game played by the young. 

blind'-hait, blindness. 

blind' -half -ter, blindhalter, blinkers. 

blindt, blind. 

blind'-ts'la, to wink. 

blit'-sa, lightning ; to flash, as light- 
ning. 

bid, 1. blue. 

2. indigo, "bluing." 

blo-bdrg', Blue mountain — a range 
in Eastern Pennsylvania. 

blobdr'-ydr, an inhabitant of the 
regions of the Blue moun- 
tains. 

bld'-der, a blister. 

bld'-der -a, 1. to blister. 

2. to tattle, or scatter gossip. 

bid' -fog h' I, blue bird (Sialia sialis 
Bd.). 

bio' -hush-da, whooping cough. From 
blo,b\ue, and hush' -da, cough; 
denoting the color of the face 
during paroxysm. 

bloJc, a log. 

blok'-hai'-s'l, a log cabin. 

blok'-haus, log house. 

bV>», 1. bare ; only. 
2. a blister. 

bb>' -sd, to blow. 

bU>»'-bftlk, bellows. 

ii'"t, bare, denuded of covering. 

blot' -kep-ich, bare-headed ; bald- 
headed. 

blot'sa, to jump or jar, as in a car- 
riage, or on horseback, in 
going over rough soil. 

bind, blood. 

'da' da, to bleed, 
bloody. 

n leech ; lit., blood 
sucker. 

IMf t*rl, blood root (Sanguin- 
aria mnadenaii). 

h'uf/, plow. 

rta, to plow. 



bin' -ma-ken' -er, a botanist. 

Ua'-md-krants, a wreath of flow- 
ers. 

blu'-ma-shtraus, a raceme, a sprig of 
flowers ; nosegay. 

blut, blood. 

bob' -'I, a bably. 

bod'-bdi, potpie. 

bod'-esh, potash. 

bod' I, bottle. 

bod'-'l-chia, a vial or small bottle. 

bod'-'l-i, a vial ; used sometimes by 
the illiterate. 

bod'-ta, bottom, the ground or 
earth. 

bod'-'m, the ground, or earth, bot- 
tom. 

bop -la-haut, buffalo robe. 

bd'-gha, a bow, a curve. 

bd'-gha-flint, bow-gun — cross bow. 

bok, buck; ram. 

bdn, bean. 

bd n '-na-grai'-t'l, summer savory. 

bo n '-na-sfUok, bean pole. 

bd'-ra, to drill, or to bore. 

bdrd, 1. a board. 

2. boarding, meals. 

bdrd' -kiir-ich, the gallery in a church. 

bdrdt, board. 

bos, a kiss. 

bos'-sd, to kiss. 

bot'l, bottle 

bran'-de-wai*, whisky. 

braf, good, of excellent deport- 
ment, brave. 

braf'-it, profit, gain. 

brai, pap. 

brai'-di-gam, bridegroom. 

bra ltd, ergot. 

brandt, 1. mortification, gangrene. 
2. brand, firebrand. 

brandt' -ahtif-ter, an incendiary. 

bral'-la, to brag, to boast. 

brni' in-, a braggart. 

brat' s'l a, to sputter, sputtering. 
bran' -a, to brew. 



1888.] 



217 



[Hofftaan, 



brauch'-a, 1. to need or require. 
2. to exorcise, or, to perform 
ceremonies for driving out 
disease, spells, witches, etc. 

brauch'-bar, serviceable, useful. 

braud, bride. 

brau'-er, brewer. 

brau' -er-ai' , brewery. 

braut, bride. 

brau n ' -war-tsel, figwort. 

brech'-a, 1. to vomit. 

2. to break in — to harness. 

brech' -loch, furnace for drying flax. 

brecht' -ich, splendid, elegant. 

bred' -bail, broad axe. 

bred 1 -ich, a sermon. 

bre'-dich-a, to preach, to deliver a 
sermon. 

bre'-dich-er, a preacher ; parson. 

bredt, broad, wide. 

brek'-'la, to crumble. 

brem, horse fly. 

bren'-dis, apprentice, a beginner. 

bren'-e-s'l, stinging nettle. 

bren'-na, to burn, to scorch. 

bren' -ner-ai, distillery. 

bre'-ting, braiding. 

bri, jViice, sap ; any lfquid of worth- 
less character or questionable 
composition. 

bri' -a, 1. to scald, to parboil. 
2. to hatch. 

bri' -der-hait, brotherhood. 

bri'-der-lich, brotherly, amicably. 

brt'-ich, juicy, of a liquid consist- 
ence. 

brtf, a letter. 

bri'-gh'l, a club. 

brik, bridge. 

bril, spectacles. 

bril'-la, to cry, to weep, to roar. 

brisht, breasts — mammm ; pi. of 
brusht. 

brisht, a priest. 

brlsh'-ter, priest, a prelate. 

brod, bread. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 



brod' -hank, a hanging shelf for food. 

brod'-td, to fry, to roast. 

bro-fit', profit, gain. 

brok'-el, a crumb, small fragment. 

bruch, 1. a rupture, hernia. 

2. a quarry — either stone or for 
ores ; a generic term. 

bruch' -bandt, a truss, used for ap- 
plication in hernia. 

brud'-'l-d, to simmer, to pout. 

brud'-er, brother; pi., brV-der. 

bru' -der-hait, state ot feeling, or 
affection, between brothers. 

brud'-sich, one apt to pout ; cross, 
discontent. 

brudt, a brood, a litter. 

brud'-tsil, to pout. 

l> rum' -'la, to grumble or murmur, 
to mumble. 

brum' -ma, to hum, to buzz. 

brum' -met, 1. a steam whistle — usu- 
ally applied to such as is 
found at factories, to announce 
beginning and ending of 
working hours. 
2. a bull-roarer — boy's toy. 

brun'-na, a well. 

/irun'-na-t"-iner, well bucket. 

brun'-na-wals, a windlass, for draw- 
ing water. 

brum, urine. 

brun'-sa, to urinate. 

brusht, breast, thorax ; applied to 
either one of the mamma? of 
a woman. 

brusht' -lap -pa, a vest. 

brusht' -warts, a nipple, of one of the 
mammae. 

bsan'-ders, particularly. 

bsar'-ya, to be solicitous ; to pro- 
vide for. 

bsed'-sa, to trim ; to arrange by 
trimming, or placing. 

bsed'-sung, trimming. 

bshai'-sa, to cheat, to deceive. 

bshe' -dich-a, to injure. 
129. 2b. printed feb. 11, 1889. 



Hoffman.] 



218 



tDec. 21, 



bshenk'-a, to make a present of, or 
to give freely. 

bshim'-ba, to disgrace, to insult. 

bahia'-aer, one who cheats, or is dis- 
honest. 

bshU'-sa, to conclude, to close up, 
or bring to an end. 

bshlus, conclusion ; resolution, de- 
cision. 

bxhmai'-sa, to throw up, to pelt. 

bshla'gha, to shoe — as a horse ; 
shod. 

bnhte'-la, to rob. 

bshtel'-la, to order, to commission. 

bshtel' -lung , a position or office. 

bahte'-tich-a, to confirm or certify, to 
affirm. 

bshtb'-la, robbed. A person is said 
to be bahto'-la, when he is of 
a thieving nature. 

bshue'-ra, to swear with another, 
before giving testimony. 

bahwer' -Uch, with difficulty. 

baid'sa, to possess, or occupy. 

baid'-aer, occupant, owner. 

bain'-na, to consider, to deliberate 
before making up one's mind. 

bauch, visitors, company ; visitation. 

bauch' -a, to visit, to call upon. 

baun'-dera, particularly. 

baun'-na, having presence of mind ; 
decided. 

bu, boy. 

buck, book. 

bii'-cha beach. 

bii'-ehel, beach. 

buch'-ahank, book case. 

/-//«•//' ir, tH<i, buckwheat. 

bud'-d'rfaa, churn — for making but- 
ter. 

bud'-an, core, as of a MB. 

bud'mi iimn, scare crow, as erected 
in tin- field to scare oil" bird*. 

buda'ich, insignificant, small. 
stumpy. 

bud'ler, butter. 



bui'-ter-blum, buttercup {genua 
Ranunculua). 

bud'-terfo'-g'l, reed bird ; lit, butter 
bird. 

buk'-er, a rascal. 

buk'-ker, a rascal. 

buka, box — ornamental garden 
shrub. 

buks'-bl'-rd, teaberries ; fruit of win- 
ter green. 

bumb'-ba, to pump. 

bum' er-anta, tomato. 

bum'-ert, orchard. 

bump, a pump. 

bum' -pa, to pump, to exhaust. 

bun'-d'l, a bundle. 

bun'-d'l-a, 1. to bundle, or tie up in 
a bundle. 
2. The custom of bundling for- 
merly practiced in New Eng- 
land, and various portions of 
Pennsylvania. 

bung'-ard, orchard. 

buah, woods, forest. This word is 
sometimes used to designate 
the rural districts. 

buah' -knip-p'l, a rustic ; a country 
gawk. 

buah'-man, countryman, one from 
the rural districts. 

buah'-ti'tb, letter of the alphabet. 

buah'-ta-wi'-ra, to spell. 

bush'-dd'-wd, letter of alphabet, 
character. 

bua'm, bosom, breast. 

bua'-ai, cat. 

butah'-er, a butcher. 

hit tult' it a, to slaughter, to "butch 
er." 

butah'-er-<ika, a cleaver. 

hittxh'-er-mea'-a*r, a carving knife. 

Im 1 wn hit*, tickwecd. 
h,i' ini It, a little boy. 
/)//'" WOl, cotton. 

bu"'ie<>l hi, made of cotton, cotton 
goods. 



1838.] 



219 



[Hoffinan. 



bu n, -wol-lich, having the appearance 
or property of cotton. 

d\ 1. from da, de, do, here. 

2. from du, du, thou, you 

(sing.), 
da, exclamation, signifying, there 
now, there you have it, take 

it. 
dab, deaf. 

dab'-ich, clumsy, awkward. 
dab'-pa, 1. prints — as foot-prints ; 

impressions. 
2. to walk about aimlessly. 
dach, roof. 

dach' -farsht, ridge pole. 
dach'-fcmh-ter, dormer window. 
daeh'-kan-d'l, rain gutter, rain 

spout. 
dach 1 ' -la-da, hatchway ; lit., roof 

shutter. 
da'-di, father, "daddy." 
dad'-'l daub, turtle-dove. 
da'-fd, to christen, to baptize. 
da-for', in favor of. 
da-fun 1 , from it, from that, there- 
from. 
dafun'lafa, to go or walk away 

from ; to leave. 
dafshai", certificate of baptism. 
dag, day. 

dag'-dib, a scoundrel. 
da' -gha-bruch, daybreak. 
dag'-len-er, a laborer, one who 

works by the day. 
da-hem', at home. 
daich, a narrow gully ; sometimes 

applied to a deep valley or 

ravine. 
daich'-'la, conduit, drainage or 

sewer pipes. 
dai'-er, costly, dear. 
daiks'-'l, a wagon tongue. 
dait'-lich, distinct, clearly. 



dai'-ter, a pointer. Formerly, school- 
books were used to which a 
string was attached, havi g 
at the other end a sharp- 
ened piece of whalebone, to 
be used as a pointer. 

daitsh, Dutch, German. 

dai'-w'l, devil. 

dai'-w'l-a, "to devil"— to annoy 
and worry. 

dai'-w'ls-drek, assafoetida. 

dak, day. 

dak'-la n , daily labor. 

dak' -len-ar, day laborer. 

dakn'-wark, day's labor. 

dal, valley. 

da'-ler, dollar. 

dal'-yii, dahlia. 

dal'-ros, aster, chrysanthemum. 

dam, dam. 

dam'-ma, to dam ; to obstruct. 

damp, vapor, steam. 

da in' -pa, to steam. 

diim'-pa, to dampen, to moisten. 

dan, then. 

(Lnik'-kii, to thank. 

dank'-bar, thankful ; grateful. 

dank'-bar, thoughtful, considerate. 

dank' -bar -k?t, thankfulness, with 

gratitude. 
d'tn'-ser, a dancer. 
dap'-per-a, to hasten, to hurry. 
dar, tar. 
ddr, 1. dry, cured. 

2. lean, skinny. 

3. the. 

dd'-rd, to dry, to cure. 

dar'-d-b'adin', turpentine. 

ddr'-bd-din', turpentine. 

dar' -' eh-laf, diarrhoea; lit ."through 
walk." The literal transla- 
tion has actually been used 
in conversation, to designate 
the complaint. 

darchs, through the ; contraction of 
dar'ich des. 



Hofiftnan.] 



220 



fDec. 21, 



dar'-'ch-se'-na, to see through ; to 
comprehend. 

dar'-'ch-icaks, boneset. 

dar'-'ch-icek', throughout. 

ddr'emsed, "cat-gut" string, sinew 
cord. 

dar'-fa, to dare, to challenge, to be 
permitted. 

dar'-ich, through. 

dar-ich-aus', throughout; generally; 
by all means. 

dar' -ieh-bring-a, 1. to bring through. 
2. to squander. 

dar'-ich-ge a , to pass through. Is 
used, generally, in the sense 
of escaping or running away. 

dar'-ich-ge-widsht', slipped through; 
escaped. 

dur'-ich-nan'-ner, mixed ; confused. 

dar' -ich-sicht-lich, transparent. 

dar' 4ch-8uch' -a, to search, to exam- 
ine, to ransack. 

dar'-ich-tsweng'-a, to force through. 

dar'-i-gKl, stagger, faintness, ver- 
tigo. 

dar'-i-gh'l-a, to stagger, to reel. 

ddrm, intestine, gut. 

dwrm'-lich, giddy, dizziness. 

durn, thorn. 

darn'-ich, thorny, prickly. 

darshd, thirst. 

dursh'-dirh, thirsty. 

dart, there, at that place. 

dirt-rum', therefore, for that reuson. 

da-rum', therefore, for this reason. 

das, that. 

di'W, deed, act. 

da' -turn, date. 

ill /xtr/s/i' a, between. 

dnub, (love, pigeon. 
ihiu 1 ini, hiirrcl ^t:i\ | 
dau'cr -/, to pity ; to have compas- 
sion tor. 
rat, 1. to endure, to hist. 
I, to pity or to huve t-om j mis- 
sion tor. 



daur'-Jiaft, durable. 

da-we'-der, against. 

deb'-ich, a quilt, or bed cover. 

de'-dich-a, to cause death. 

de'-ghich, doughy, tough. 

de'-ghlich, daily. 

dek, dough, a plastic mass. 

dek, a cover. 

dek' -bet, bed cover ; coverlet. 

dek'-ka, to cover, to roof. 

dek-' I, a cover or lid of a box, ket- 
tle, etc. 

dek'-lich, daily. 

dek'-s'l, an adze, to cut with an adze. 

del, a part. 

de'-la, to divide, to share. 

del'-ler, a plate. 

dem, to this, to this one, to him. 

de'-mandt, diamond. 

dem' -a-grdt, democrat. 

dem'-e-di, timothy. 

de'-ml'-lich, humble, depressed. 

dem'-pa, to dampen. 

deng'-el-a, to sharpen scythes by 
hammering. 

deng'-'l-ai'sa, an elongated wedge- 
shaped iron, one end being 
driven into a log of wood, 
and the other used to sharpen 
scythes by hammering the 
cutting edge. 

deng'-'lshtok, a wedge-shaped piece 
of iron used in sharpening 
scythes by hammering. 

de-ne'-wa, on the side of, beside. 

denk'-ka, to think. 

denk'-ki, thanks, thank you. 

den'-na, to these. 

dea'ser, dancer, dancers. 

ili r, door. 

(/- /•, he. 

iU )•/">•', in favor of. 

de», i his. 

ih n i/lnir/i' ,i, the like. 

dest, desk— writing table. 

thl, part, 



1888.] 



221 



[Hofltaan. 



de'-ml-tich, downcast, despondent. 
de'-mut, despondence, down-heart- 

edness. 
de-tsu', to that, likewise, also. 

di, the {fern.), also before plural or 
collective nouns, this one 
(fern.). 

dlb, thief. 

dib'-'l-a, to spot, or cause to be 
marked with spots. 

dib'-lich, spotted, speckled. 

dib'-shtal, a resort of thieves. 

dich, thee, you. 

dids, teats. 

di-fen'-d'ra, to defend, to protect. 

dik, thick. 

dik' sek-ich, "big bellied." 

di'-ma-di', timothy. 

din, thin. 

dV-na, to serve. 

din' -da, ink. 

din'-da-glas, ink bottle. 

ding, thing. 

ding' -a, to hire, to secure for ser- 
vice. 

dinxht, service. 

dinshV -mad, female servant. 

dinsliV -mat, female servant. 

dir, 1. door, gate. 
2. an animal. 

di'-rashd', menagerie. 

di'-ra-shtep, doorstep. 

dV -rashwel, door sill. 

dir'shtep, door step. 

dish, table. 

dixh'-d'l, thistle. 

dish'-'dr-a, to quiet, to soothe. 

dish'-duch, table cloth. 

dits, teats. 

d'-nb', then, afterwards. 

do, here, at this place. 

db'-ba, paws. 

dob'-'l-a, to double, to fold. 

dob' -'It, double, twofold. 

dob' -pa, a hank ; this term is used 
in reference to flax, etc. 



doch, though, although, yet, in- 
deed ! 
doch'-der, daughter. 
doch' -der -man, son-in-law. 
dbd, dead, death. 

do' -da-bar, bier for supporting coffin. 
do'-da-gledt, shroud. 
do'-da-wa'-gha, hearse. 
dok'-ter, doctor, physician. 
dok'-ter-a, to practice medicine. 
did, toll, a tax. 
dol'-mtUh-er, interpreter. 
do-mit', herewith, therewith. 
do'-mols, at that time, in those times. 
don, then. 
dor, gate, door. 
dot, a dose. 

drach, dragon, will o' the wisp, 
elf fire, ignis fatuus. 

drach' -a -loch, dragon's hole or cave; 
a cave. 

dra'-gha, to carry, to support. 

drai', three. 

drai'-ang-k'l, musical instrument of 
steel (or iron), a triangle. 

drai' -dre-dlch, three threads or 
strands ; three-ply. 

drai'-ek, triangle. 

drtti'-ek-ich, three-cornered. 

drai'-w'd, to drive, to force. 

drai'-wer, driver, coachman. 

drai'-yer-ich, a three-year old. 

dram, dream ; trance. 

dram, rum. 

drd a '-ma, to dream. 

dran, fish oil, train oil. 

drank, trunk. 

drau'ii-, to marry. 

draub, grape. 

drau'-er-lait, mourners. 

drau'-'ra, to mourn. 

drau'-'r-ich, mournful, sad. 

draus, out, on the outside. 

drau'-wa-rank', grape vine. 

drat'-ta, to trot. 

drc, a crank, or handle to churn. 



Hoffman.] 



222 



[Dec. 21 



dre'-a, 1. to turn, to churn, to twist. 
2. to threaten. 

dre' '-ar> '-i-ghel, a hand organ. 

dre'-bank, turning lathe. 

drech'-der, a funnel. 

drech'-ter, a funnel. 

drech'-ter-blum, morning glory ; lit., 
a funnel-flower ; t. e., a fun- 
nel-shaped flower. 

drech' -ter-kuch' -a, funnel cakes. A 
thin dough put into a funnel 
having a long handle, and 
the dough allowed to run into 
a pan of hot lard, moving the 
funnel spirally over the sur- 
face so as to make a long 
spiral cake. 

dred'-pau-er, tread-mill, a pedal to 
cause power for turning light 
machinery. 

dred-t'l, a treadle, a pedal. 

dref-fa, to hit. 

drefts, tares (or cheats) growing 
with grain. 

dre'-hend-'l, a handle, for turning 
or churning. 

drek, dirt, dust ; mud. 

drek'-ich, dirty, soiled. 

drep, step ; stairs. 

drep's'l-a, to trickle, or to fall in 
drops. 

dresh'-a, to thrash — as grain. 

dreth'-den', the thrashing floor of a 
barn. 

dresh'-der, worthless residue. 

dre$h'jle-fjh , l, flail — thrashing flail. 

dreah' ma Miff* thrashing-machine. 

dri 'tn, to kick, to tread. 

d'rfnr, In favor of; for it, or 

thrill. 

d'rfun, from it, of it ; away from. 
drib, dim. cloudy, misty ; united 
with an opaque Mm. 
.<•//. sorrow. 
drik' k<t, to press, to squeeze. 
:, dryness, drouth. 



dril'-la, 1. to drill, to muster for 

practice. 
2. to drill with an instrument. 
drin, in, within, inside. 
drii'-'l, a third ; a widow's portion 

or dower. 
dri'-tra, over, on the other side. 
drV-wa, to regret, to be sorry. 
dri'-wer, over, across. 
drob-pa, drop, drops. 
drob'-m, to drop, or to fall by drops. 
drok, trough. 

drol'-la, a lope — an easy gait. 
drop'-sa, to drop, or fall by drops. 
dros'-'l, trestle. 
droty wire ; wax-ends as used by 

cobblers. 
drot'-garn, shoemaker's thread. 
drbV -Uang, pliers, pincers. 
dro'-wa, up, on the top, above. 
dro'-wer, a drover. 
drub, troop, herd, drove. 
drvf, on it, upon, 
druf'-gxlinabt, died, equivalent to 

the common expression of 

"slipped up," when referring 

to the death of anyone. 
druk'-ka, 1. to , rint. 

2. dry. 
druk'er, printer. 
druk'-er-ni', printing office. 
druk'-ka-det'-ter, dandruff, dry tetter 
drum, a drum. Also a drum used 

for heating rooms on floor 

above that in which the stove 

stands. 
d'rum', therefore. Contraction of 

tin rum'. 

drum-bit', trumpet. 

drum'-ma, to drum. 
dn/iii' h< /,-, cross-cut saw. 
ilrun' tin, down, hclow, among. 
(///, tllOU, you (nitii/.). 

■ i, tO do, to accomplish. 
dull' lir/i, spotlcd, marked with 
small spots. 



8.] 



223 



[Jlofitaan. 



duch, cloth. 

du'-d'l-sak, bag-pipe. 

dud'-s'nt, dozen, the twelfth. 

duk'-me-sich, sneaking, deceitful. 

duV -la-ban, tulip. 

dura, stupid, ignorent ; dumb. 

dum'-bich, close, damp, humid. 

dum' -he-da, stupid tricks, nonsense. 

dum'-kop, block head. 

dum'-'l, haste, hurry. 

dum' -la, to hasten, to hurry. 

dun, a ton. 

dunk'-er, one who dips or immerses. 

Applied to the Dunkarda, a 

religious sect. 
dunk' -68, gravy, juices of meat. 
dunk'-ka, to dip, to immerse. 
dunk''l, dark, obscured. 
dun'-ner, thunder. 
dun'-ner-a, to thunder. 
dun'ner-wet'-ter, thunderstorm; lit. , 

thunder weather. Is used as 

an oath. 
dunsht, vapor, humidity. 
dunsht'-ich, humid. 
du8h'-der, dusk, twilight. 
du'-wak, tobacco. 
du'-wak-sak, tobacco pouch or bag. 

e a , a, one. 

eb', before, whether. 
eb'-ba8, something, alittle.anything. 
eb'-ber, some one. 
eb'-'r, some one. 
ech'-d, oak. 

ech'Ms, squirrel ; lit., oak rabbit. 
ech'-'l, acorn 

ech'-'la, 1. oak ; frequently used in- 
stead of ech'a. 
2. acorns, pi. of ech'l. 
e'darn, hoarhound. 
ed'-lich-a, some, several, few. 
edt, an oath, a vow. 
e'-er, rather, sooner. 
eP'fach, single, singlefold. 
en'-fech-ich, singly. 



e n 'feld-ich, silly, foolish, 

ef -ent' -licit, openly, public. 

ef-na, to open, to develop. 

ef'-ning, an opening. 

eg, a harrow. 

e'-gii-sin'-ich, obstinate, willful. 

e'-gd-sin'-ish, obstinate, self-wi led. 

e'gel, disgust, dislike. 

e' gel-haft, to have dislike, or disgust. 

e'gel hefd'-lichkait, loathsomeness. 

e'-ghe-na, to own ; to possess. 

e'ghen-er, an owner. 

c'-gh'l-a, to nauseate. 

c' -g/i'l-ich, nauseating, disagreeable. 

ek, corner. 

ek, a harrow, 

ek'-ich, cornered. 

ek' -shank, corner cupboard. 

ek'-8hte'\ corner-stone ; diamond 
form. 

ek' -8hte n -nich, checkered. 

el, 1. oil. 
2. ale. 

e'-hf, to oil. 

el'-bd-gfui, elbow ; an elbow of stove 
pipe. 

el'-der-a, parents. 

eldt, age. 

el' -duch, oil cloth. 

e'-lendt, misery, trouble, distress. 

e'-lend-ich, 1. wretched, miserable. 
2. in poor health. 

el' -fa, eleven. 

e'-lich, oily, having an oily sur- 
face. 

el'-i-fandt, elephant. 

el'-licht, oil lamp. 

el'-8hli n , oil stone. 

em, 'm, to, to the ( — mmc.) to him, 
with him. 

em, to one (denotes possession). 

e n '-mer, bucket, pail. 

e'-mer-henk, bucket handle. 

e n '-mer-ref, a bucket hoop. 

e n '-mol, once, one time. 

e-mol', once on a time, at one time. 



Hoffman.] 



224 



|Dec. 21, 



end'-kai-t'l, the inferior portion of 
the colon ; the large intestine 
used for pudding (sausage) 
casing. 

end'-Uch, finally. 

e n '-ner, one (used before, or refer- 
ring to masculine) ; applied to 
a man in disrespect, when the 
name is not to be men- 
tioned. 

en'-er-a, to alter, to change. 

tng, tight, close. 

trig'- brisk tick, asthmatic ; lit., tight- 
breasted. 

tng'-el, angel, angels. 

ihg'-'l en'-er, Englishman. 

tng'-lish, English. 

ing'-lisli-salls, epsom salts— sulphate 
of magnesia. 

e n '-ni, one, she (fern.). 

e n '-nich, friendly, agreeable with 
another, or on good terms. 

e n '-nich-er, any one (masc). 

e n '-nich-i, any one (fern.). 

e n '-nich-ep'-er, any body, any one. 

e n -nicli-ep es, anything. 

en'-k'l, grand-son. 

en'-k'lin, grand-daughter. 

enk'-shter-ich, alarmed, alarming ; 
fearful, anticipating trouble. 

er, 1. ear of grain. 
2. honor, respect. 

i'-rn, to honor, to respect. 

/■r'-lich, honest. 

er'-tum, legacy. 

ens, one. 

ent, duck. 

en'-ter-ir/i, drake. 

rr'-tsa, to address one with "ir." 

es, it. 

e n '-sai-dieh, one aided ; of one opin 
inn. 

esh, ashen ; asli tree. 

I mid-woch, Ash-Wednesday. 

/ upta 

es'ich, vinegar. 



e's'l, a mule; used sometimes as a 

term of derision. 
es'-sd, 1. to eat. 

2. food, provisions. 
es'-sach'-a, eatables, food. 
es'-shank, pantry. 

es'-shtub, dining room ; lit., eating- 
room. 
e'-wa, even, level. 
e'-wa, just, whether, if, though, be- 
cause ; the true rendering is 
difficult to present, and can 
only be understood by the 
context. 
e'-wii-fll, immaterial, unconcerned. 
e-wail', meanwhile ; a short time. 
e'-war, 1. a boar. 

2. before he, whether he (from 
eb ar). 
e'-wer-sich, upwards. 
e'-wich, ever, always, eternal. 
e> ' -icich-kait, eternity. 
e' -wick-rot' -ser, glanders. 
fa' -VI, fable, tale. 
fn-brik', fabric, edifice, factory. 
ffVda, thread. 
fa'-dem, thread, fibre. 
fa'-der, father. 
fak'-'l, a torch. 
fni'-ar, fire. 

fai'-ar-a, 1. to celebrate ; to keep 
holiday. 
2. to start a fire, or to "fire up." 
fn'-arbit'-nn, kidney beans. 
fii'-i/r-brundt, fire brand. 

/<<i <ir-iiuh\ holiday, 

fiti'-nr-fo'gh'l, firefly; lit, firebird. 
Jni'-iir hiirt, fire hearth. 
fni'-iir-ich, fiery. 
fn'-,ir-lich, solemn. 
fai'-itr-lu-h-krd, solemnity. 
fiirht, moist, humid, damp. 
fi(i</, a flg. 
Jai'ijhii, figs ; also, though rarely, 

usnl in the sense of slapping 

or boxing one's ears. 



1888.] 



225 



[Hoffman. 



faik, a fig. 

faindt, enemy. 

faindt'-lich, hostile ; of evil disposi- 
tion. 

faindt 1 -shaft, enmity, hostility. 

fai'-la, to file. 

faisht'-'l-a, to "make fists," as in 
sparring. 

fal, 1. a trap ; a fall. 

2. a circumstance, condition. 

fal'-da, folds, creases, plaits. 

fal'-der, bars in a fence that may be 
removed for passing. 

fal'-dir, a trap door. 

fal'-en-krank'-et, epilepsy ; lit., fall- 
ing sickness. 

fa'-li-wal'-ter, pound apple. A va- 
riety of pale green apples 
varying in size and weight 
of lrom ten to eighteen ounc- 
es, sometimes even exceeding 
that. 

fal'-la, to fall. 

falsh, false, deceitful ; resentful. 

falsh'-het, falsehood, anger. 

fa-miV -li-ya, family. 

fa-mil'-ya, family. 

fa'-na, flag. 

fawj'-a, to catch, to contract. 

fang'-tse a , tusks (cuspids). 

far, for, before, because. 

fir, for ; used also as a prefix. 

fa'-ra, to haul, or drive. 

fdr-ach'-ta, to despise, to hate or to 
avoid. 

fa-rai'-ta, 1. to tear. 

2. to go abroad, or far from 
home. 

far'-ap, paint, color. 

fir-dr'-yer-a, to aggravate. 

fardr'-yer-lich, aggravating ; vexa- 
tious. 

fd-ra-wel', farewell, "good-bye." 

farb, 1. color, shade. 
2. paint — generic. 

far-bad' -er-a, to confuse. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 



far-bai', part, gone by. 

far-bai'-sa, to destroy by gnawing 
or chewing. 

far-bl'-ta, to forbid. 

far-bi'-gha, to bend out of normal 
form ; to distort. 

far-blen' -ar-ai' , jugglery ; to deceive 
by sleight of hand, or some 
other method. 

far-blen 1 -na, to blind by reflection. 

far-blult', blossomed ; past bloom- 
ing season. 

far-blu-da, bloody ; covered or be- 
smeared with blood. 

far-bodt', commandment. 

far-bo' -(/ha, bent out of shape. 

far-brech'-a, 1. to break in pieces. 
2. to violate ; to disappoint by 
non-compliance with promise. 

far-brech-er, a criminal, law-breaker. 

far-brek'-'la, to break into small 
pieces. 

far-brendt', burnt. Used also to im- 
ply that the one spoken of 
has syphilis. 

far'bren'-na, 1. to burn up. 

2. to give syphilitic contagion. 

far-brt'-a, 1. to scald. 

2. to spoil eggs during hatch- 
ing. 

far-bfidV, 1. scalded ; injured by 
scalding. 
2. Eggs that will not hatch after 
due time are said to be far- 
bridt* ; lit., over hatched. 

far-brildt', given to crying ; syn- 
onymous with the common 
expression of " cry-baby." 

farbrocht', squandered ; spent in 
recklessness. 

farch'-da, to fear, or to be afraid. 

firch'-der-lich, fearful. 

fdr-dai' -henk-ert, a vulgarism imply- 
ing enormously. Applied to 
persons who are incorrigible. 

fdr-dan'-ka, to have to thank for. 

129. 2c. PKINTED FEB. 18, 1889. 



HoffmaD.] 



226 



[Dec. 21, 



fir'-dd'-ra, to dry ; to spoil by dry- 
ing too much. 

fdr-darsht, famished ; perished from 
want of water. 

far-ddr'-wa, to spoil, to ruin. 

far-dau'-a, to digest; to assimilate. 

far-dau'-ing, digestion. 

farde'-la, to divide, to apportion. 

fdr'-dich, done, finished. 

far' -dicli-a, to bring to completion ; 
to finish. 

fdr-dl'-na, to earn. 

far-ding' -a, to serve, or to hire for 
service. 

far-dil'-ya, to eradicate, to destroy 
by rooting out. 

fdr-dinsht, earnings, wages, merit. 

fdrdoW, confouudedly. Used as 
an adjective ; equivalent, in 
expressions, to "be darned." 

far -dap 4 -'It, doubled ; sometimes 
used to convey the idea of 
being confused. 

far-drai'-wa, to dispel ; to drive 
away or to scatter. 

far-dri'-a, to distort or to twist. 

far'-dre'-ta, to tread upon ; to de- 
stroy by walking upon. 

far-drl'sa, to offend ; to vex. 

far-dru'-lich, vexatious. 

fxr-drus', bad feeling. 

far-drot'-sa, entertaining bad feel- 
ings toward another, hurt in 
feelings. 

ft nit', a drive, or passage-way. 

fi-rel', trout (Salmofontalut). 

fu'ein, before this ; contraction of 
fir dein. 

faren'-er-a, to alter or change. 

nirh a, to unite ; to com- 
promise. 
>V la, to tumble to pieces, to go 
to ruin. 

farfau'-la, to rot, to become rot- 
ten. 
' I", to miss. 



far-fdsh'-d, to falsify, to counterfeit- 
to adulterate. 

far-Jinsh'-der-a, to obscure. 

fdr-fl'-ra, to seduce, to lead astray. 

fir-fi'-rer, a seducer. 

far-fir '-ich, deceptive, seductive. 

fdr-fluch-a, to curse. 

fdr-fres'sd, 1. given to eat glutton- 
ously. 
2. to lose possessions through 
dissipations in eating. 

fdr-fnr'-d, to become frozen. 

fdr-gaf-fd, to be captivated by look- 
ing. 

far-gang' -a, past, vanished, dissi- 
pated. 

far-ge xU , to dissolve, to dissipate. 

far-gel' shter-a, to scare, to intimi- 
date, to cause anxiety. 

far'-gesh'l, a driving whip. 

far'-gesh-ter, day before yester- 
day. 

far-ges'-sa, to forget ; forgotten. 

far-ge'-wa, to forgive. 

far-ge' -teens, in vain, unavailing. 

far-ge' -wl-ich, unavailing. 

far-gif-ta, to poison. 

far-glaich'-a, to compare. Used also 
as an expression to denote a 
circumstance. 

far-glaich'-Uch, comparable ; that 
which bears comparison. 

far-griicht' , content, satisfied. 

far-gnl'-gha, lo content one's self, 
to be satisfied. 

far-gnl'-ghlich, contentedly. 

far-gtu' -ghlich-kait, contentment. 

far-grd'-tca, to bury. 

far gre'-sar-a, to enlarge, to mag- 
nify. 

fir gn:' -ser-ings glds', magnifying 
glass. 

far-guk' ka, to overlook. 

fir gitkt, overlooked; to err through 
looking too Intently. 

far-gun'na, to envy. 



1888.] 



227 



[Hoffman. 



far-haill', given to crying. Rather 
a better and more polite ex- 
pression than fdr-briW. 

far-hak' -ka, to chop up into small 
pieces. 

far-hard'- ta, to harden. 

far-has' -sa, to despise, to hate. 

far-he' -la, to secrete. 

far-helt-nis, relation, compact. 

far-henk'-art, an expression synon- 
ymous with devilish, darned, 
etc. 

far-hin' -ar-a, to hinder, or to cause 
delay by annoyance. 

far-hi'-ta, to prevent ; to avoid. 

far-hud' '-'l-a, to tangle ; to confuse. 

far-hung' -er-a, to starve. 

far-hun'-sa, to despoil, to botch. 

far'-icht, 1. fear. 

2. furrow — made by a plow. 

far' -ich-da, to fear ; to be afraid. 

fdr'-ich-ta, to fear ; to be afraid. 

far-ka'-fa, to sell. 

fdr-kaf'-ta, to notch, by cutting. 

fdr-kdr'-t'sa, to shorten. 

fdr-kdr'-tse-ra, to shorten. 

far-kef -t'l-a, to notch, to cut notch- 
es upon an object. 

far-kel'-ta, to take, or catch, cold. 

far-kert, deranged, "mixed up." 

far-kesh' -dich-a, to furnish food. 

far-kin' -dicli-a, to make known, or 
• to announce. 

far-kid' -gha, to inform upon ; to 
complain ; to excuse. 

far-Men' -a-ra, to make smaller. 

furknech'-a-ra, to ossify. 

far-knip* -pa, to knot, to secure by 
tying knots. 

far-knod' '-' It, knotted. 

far-ko-ld-bi'-ra, to confuse, to mix. 

far-kwed' -sha, to bruise by squeez- 
ing. 

far-Id' -fa, to stray ; to come to pass 
or to transpire. 

far-laicht', perhaps. 



far-lang'-a, to desire, to long for. 

far-le' -gha, to misplace, to mislay. 

far-le' -ghen-hait, opportunity. 

far-le' -na, to let, to rent. 

far-leng'-ar-a, to lengthen. 

far' -le-sieh, negligent. 

far' -le-sich-ked' , negligence. 

far-le' -ta, to become discontented. 

far-let' -sa, to wrong, to injure or 
spoil ; to maim. 

far'-Yuvj, farthing. 

far-U'-ra, to lose. 

far-los'-sa, to leave, to desert. 

far-lushdt, loss. 

far-lush' -der-a, to enjoy one's self. 

far-mach'-a, to bequeath. 

far-ma' -la, to grind into powder. 

far-med'-tsla, to cut fine, to massa- 
cre. 

far-me'-ra, to increase ; to prosper 
by accretion. 

far-mik'-sa, to confuse by mixing. 

far-mis' -sa, to miss. 

far-mud' -lich, probably. 

fdr'-na, in front ; before. 

far' -na-drd nl , ahead, in advance. 

fdr'-na-drin, in the front part. 

fdr'-na-drvf, on the fore part ; a 
superior position. 

far'-na-?ti\r, in advance of. 

far'-na-ht a , to the front. 

fdr'-na-naus, in advance of. 

far' -nd-naus-Vtsdlt, prepaid ; paid 
in advance of. 

far-nem'-ma, to comprehend or un- 
derstand ; also used in some 
localities in the sense of feel- 
ing aggrieved at what one is 
saying or doing. 

far-nich' -ta, to disown, to destroy. 

far'-nis, furnace ; a heater. 

far-numft', despised, ostracised. 

far-nunfl', despised. 

far-push' -a, to spoil, to make a mis- 
fit. 

far-rai'sa, to tear. 



Hoffman.J 



228 



LDec. 21, 



far'-ra-wa, to dye or to color. 
fdr'-ra-wer, a dyer. 
far-rek'-ka, to die, as cattle, to be- 
come like carrion. 
far-rik' -ka, to displace, to be able 

to budge. 
far-rikt, demented, of unsound mind. 
far-rd'-da, to betray. 
far-rop'-pa, to pull to pieces ; to 

pluck. 
far-run' -8' la, to wrinkle. 
fars, for it, before tbe ; contraction 

of far des. 
far-8ai?'-ma, to waste time, to ne- 
glect, to miss, or to be too 
late. 
far-sau'-a, to soil, to dirty. 
far-mu'-fa, to drown. 
far-ii'-a, to foresee, to provide. 
far-t'e'-fa, to drown ; to drown one's 

self. 
far-se'-gha, to spoil by sawing ; to 

saw into pieces. 
far-8e n '-na, 1. to oversee, to admin- 
ister, to provide beforehand. 
2. to mistake, to err. 
far-stng'-a, to singe or scorch. 
far-8enk'-ka, to singe, to scorch. 
farset'-sa, to dislocate ; to change 

by misplacing. 
far-8haf -fa, to work up, to con- 
sume material in work. 
far-shbur' -ra, to save for future use, 

to reserve for emergency. 
far-thin' a a, to skin, to abrade the 

cuticle. 
far-8hl'-$a, to shoot away, or con- 
sume by shooting away all. 
fnr-ihiC tit, to spill. 
far-»hla'-gha, 1. to knock to pieces. 

•J. one given lo kicking. 
far-»fil<ip' Jin, 10 spill ; to ninke I 
meM of an undertaking. 

. drug away, or to 
scatter by carrying away. 
farttdd' fa, to oversleep. 



fir-shlup'-pa, to secrete, to hide. 

farshmai' -sa, to destroy by throw- 
ing. 

far-8hmak' -ka, to taste. 

far-shmel'-sa, to melt, or dissolve. 

far-zhmir'-ra, to besmear, to soil. 

far-shmo' -ka, to darken by smoking. 

far-sJinai' -da, to cut up, to cut to 
pieces. 

far-shpre' -a, to spread out, to scat- 
ter. 

far-8hprech'-a, 1. to promise, to be- 
troth. 
2. an agreement or promise. 

far-shpreng' -a, to cause to burst. 

far-shpring'-a, to cause to burst. 

far-shproch' -a, promised, betrothed. 

far-shrai'-wa, to convey by writing. 

fdr'sht, a verse, or stanza. 

fdrsh'-la, heel. 

fdr-shtdnd', understanding, sense. 

far-8hte n ', to understand, to com- 
prehend. 

fdr-8lite n 'ncr-a, to petrify, 

farshtech' -a, to pierce, by repeat- 
edly thrusting the instru 
ment. 

farshtek'-'l a, to hide, to secrete. 

far-8ldtV -la, to change, to simulate, 
or to conduct one's self. 

far-8Men* -nich, intelligent, intelligi 
ble. 

fiir-shtend'-nis, understand ing, 
sense. 

far-sfttrr' ra, to disturb. 

far-8htik'-ka, to suffocate. 

far-8hti?n'-'l-a, to spoil. 

far-8hU')' -la, one given to pilfering ; 
clandestinely. 

far tJUopf pa, 1. to plug or stop a 
leak. 
2. constipated, clogged. 
far s/ito/i ping, constipation. 
far s/ttopt, OOnsUpftted, clogged. 
fat ihto' Ml, to disown, to reject. 
sldru'vo'l-a, to dishevel. 



1833. 



229 



[Hoffman. 



far-shwai'-gha, to keep to one's self, 

to be retiring. 
far-shwel' -la, to swell to excess. 
far-shwer'-ra, to vow. 
far-shwin' -na, to disappear. 
far-sich' -era, to secure, to insure, 

or to give indemnity. 
far-sich' -er-ing, } security, insu- 
farsieh'-er-ung, ) ranee. 
far-sin 1 -dich-a, to burden one's self 

by sinning. 
far-sink' ka, to sink out of sight. 
far-sof'-ner, a drunkard, a sot. 
far -such' -a, to taste ; to tempt. 
fart, off, away. 

fart' -dau-ra, to continue, to last. 
far't'l, a fourth ; a quarter of a 

dollar. 
far-tse'-la, to relate, to narrate. 
far-trau'-a, to confide, to trust. 
f'ir-tsai'-a, to forgive. 
far'-tse, fourteen. 
far-lm'-gha, to despair. 
far-tsiir'-na, to anger, or cause to 

be vexed or angry. 
far-tse'-gha, to wait, to tarry. 
far-tse'-la, to relate, to narrate. 
far-tsc'-litfig, a narration, a tale. 
far-ur' -sacha, to cause. 
far-wax' -la, to amuse one's self, to 

linger. 
far-wa'-ra, to guard or protect ; to 

cherish with care. 
far-war '-ka, to forfeit. 
far-wart', delirious, confused. 
far-war' -ya, to strangle or to 

choke. 
far-was', why, wherefore. 
far-weks'-la, to change, or mistake 

for one another ; to confuse. 
far-wel'-ka, to wither, or shrivel. 
far-we n '-na, to cause children to be- 
come spoiled by indulgence ; 

to spoil. 
far-we'-ra, to prevent or to hinder, 

to prohibit ; to protect. 



far-we'-sa, to moulder, or become 

spoiled. 
far-wes' -lich, that which is liable to 

moulder, or spoil. 
far'-wich, colored, varied in color. 
far-wik-la, to tangle, to confuse. 
farwun'-da, to wound, to maim. 
far-wun' -ner-a, to be astonished, or 

to wonder. 
far-ya'-gha, to chase away, or to 

scatter, as game. 
fas, cask, barrel. 
fas'-sa, 1. to measure — into bags. 
2. to hive bees ; to put bees into 

hives. 
fa' -sa-nacht, Shrove Tuesday. 
fasht, fast, secure. 
fasht'-a-tsait, Lent ; lit., time of 

fasting. 
fas'-nacht, Shrove Tuesday. 
fas'-nacht-kuch-a,<\oughnuls. Cakes 

eaten on Shrove Tuesday. 
fa'ter, father. 
f«ul, lazy ; decayed, rotten. 
fau'-la, 1. to rot, to decay. 

2. to idle, to loaf. 
faul' -halts' , diphtheria; sore throat. 
faul'-hed, laziness, idleness ; decay. 
fau'-len-tsar, sluggard, idler, loafer. 
fausht, fist. 
fech'-ta, to fight. 
fed, fat, grease. 
fed'-ar-be n , fore leg. 
fed'-ar-Jts, fore feet. 
fed'-ar-kshdr, harness of leader of a 

% team. 
fed'-arsht, first, foremost. 
fed'-ar-shunk'-ka, shoulder — of ba- 
con ; lit., fore ham. 
fed'-er, feather, quill. 
fed'-lich, fatty, greasy. 
fed'-t'r-dek, feather bed. 
fed'-Vr-fas-irig, bed-tick. 
fed'-Vr-fi', poultry. 
fed'-t'r-kai'-t'l, quill ; quill fit for 

making a pen. 



Hoffman.] 



230 



[Dec. 21, 



ftd'-t'r-mes'er, pen-knife. 

fed'-tsa, shreds, fibres. 

fe'-gh'l-misht, guano. 

fe'-ich, capable, suitable. 

fel, skin, pelt. 

fel, for sale ; that which may be 
purchased. 

ft '-la, to fail or disappoint. 

feld'-mes-ser, surveyor. 

feldt'-brcd-ic7i-ar, chaplain ; lit., 
field preacher. 

fe'-lcr, fault, error. 

f'el'-grif, to miss, an error. 

fel'-lich, fully, ample. 

fel'sa, rock, rocks. 

fel'sich, rocky. 

fel'-ya, felloe — of a -wheel. 

fd'-yor, a year of scarcity. 

fen'-du, vendue, public sale. 

fen'-du-krai'-yer, crier or auctioneer 
at a sale. 

fen'-icli-'l, fennel seed, fennel plant. 

fens, fence. 

fen'ia-maus, chipmunk ; lit., fence- 
mouse. 

fensh'-der, window. 

femh'ter, window. 

fetish' -ter-ram, window sash. 

fensh'ter-ra'-ma, window sash. 

fensh' ter-sits, window sill. 

fensh' -ter-shaib, window pane. 

f< r, far, f'r, for ; used as a prefix. 

fesht, 1. secure, tight, fast. 
2. a festival, jubilee. 

fes'l, a small cask or keg ; diminu- 
tive of fat. 

fet, fat, grease. 

;,/.,(/• /,,-./, irh, feather legged. 

fet'er, father, quill. 

■/,■■' l-i/u'ar, doughnuts ; lit., 
cakes, ». e., cakes baked 
in melted Uttd. 

ft, cuttle. 

Jl'.d'l-h.,' gha, violin how. 

to feed, to nourish. 

fikt, a fix, a quandary. 



fik'-sa, to fix, to arrange. 

fil, much, many. 

fil, colt. 

fi'-la, 1. to feel. 

2. sometimes used for fil — many. 

fil'-la, 1. to fill. 

2. sometimes used when speak- 
ing of a mare giving birth to 
a colt. 

fil'-ar-a, various, numerous ones. 

fils'-ich, 'filthy, dirty. 

fil' -a' I, dressing taken from roast 
fowl, or breast of veal. 

fils'-laus, crab-louse, body louse. 

finf, fin'-fa, five. 

finf'-bich-er Mo'-se, Pentateuch ; lit., 
five books of Moses. 

finf'-fing' -er-kraut, cincquefoil. 

finft, fifth. 

fing'ar, finger. 

fing'ar-a, to finger ; to handle, or 
to meddle with. 

fing'ar-hut, thimble ; lit., finger- 
hat. 

fing'ar-liiig, finger stall. 

fing'-ar-ring, finger ring. 

fing'-'l-a, to sparkle, to glimmer. 

fin-V-ra, to veneer. 

fiti'na, to find or discover. 

fin'-ner, finder. 

finsh'der, 1. window. 
2. eclipse, opaque. 

finsh'-dcr-iris, eclipse. 

Jip, a small silver coin of the value 
of 6£ cents, known as fib'tit- 
i-bit. 

fn\ four. 

ft'-ra, 1. four. 
2. to lead. 
<'..lcl>, four cornered, square. 

fir' fdd-irh. fourfold. 

firl, fourth. 

Jis/i, fifth. 

jin/i' a riii'. fishery. 

fish' hnnl, spawn. 
fish'giim, fish net. 



1838.] 



231 



[Hofftnan. 



fish' -ham' -mer, a net used for fish- 
ing ; constructed by having 
an upright handle attached 
to a hoop, or half hoop fast- 
ened to a straight bottom 
piece, to hold open the bag- 
shaped net. This is held near 
deep holes or rocks while an 
assistant with a long pole 
starts up the fish. 

fish'o-ra, gills ; lit., fish ears. 

fish'-rai'-yer, kingfisher, applied also 
to cranes, herons, etc. 

fish'-s7ipe a , whalebone; lit., fish 
chips, or shavings. 

flach, flat. 

flaicht, perhaps ; contraction of far- 
laichV. 

■finis, industry, thrift. 

flai'-sich, industrious. 

flak'-erich, flickering, varying. 

flak'-kara, to flicker, to flare. 

finks, flax. 

flam, flame. 

fla-nel', flannel. 

flanggi'-ra, to flounder, to rove. 

flush, flask. 

fle, flea. 

flech'-ta, to plait. 

fled' -ter -wish, feather duster. 

fled't'r-maus, butterfly. 

fle'gh'l, a flail, used in threshing. 

fle'-gh'l a, to thresh with a flail. 

fle'-gh'l-7iaft, scurrilous, impertinent. 

fle' graut, smart- weed. 

flek, a speck, or spot. 

flek'-ich, spotted. 

fleks, tendon, sinew. 

flesh, flesh, meat. 

fii'-gha, to fly. 

fli'-gh'l, wing, wings ; a vane. 

flik, full fledged. 

flik'-ka, to mend, to patch. 

flindt, a gun. 

flind'-ta-kol-wa, gun-stock. 

■flind'-talaf, gun barrel. 



flind'-ta sheft, gun stock. 

flink, quick, active. 

flis'-sich, eruptive, or liable to cuta- 
neous eruptions. 

flitsh'-a, to slip off". 

flitsh'-er, a quick slap, or crack of 
a whip. 

flo, flea. 

flok, flake, also used in some por- 
tions to designate a flock (of 
birds). 

flor, floor. 

fluch, a curse. 

fluch'-a, to swear, to use profane 
words. 

flucht, flight. 

flus, rheumatism. 

flus'-fcd'-ter-a, fins. 

flus'-ka rel'-la, amber beads, em- 
ployed by hanging to chil- 
dren's necks to remove erup- 
tive affections, etc. 

flus'-sich, scrofulous, eruptive; liable 
to affections resulting from 
impoverished blood or hered- 
itary affections of the skin. 

fod'-'r-a, to ask for, to demand. 

fo'-gfi'l, bird. 

fol, full. 

folk, people, nation. 

folk'-sngha, folk-lore ; lit., folk say- 
ing. 

fol'-kum'ma, mature, perfect. 

fol'-licht, full moon ; lit., full light. 

fol'mant, full moon. 

fol'-shten-dich, complete. 

fol'-ya, 1. to obey, or to comply 
with. 
2. consequences, results. 

for, before, in front. 

for' -dref-lieh, excellent. 

for'-el'-tara, ancestors ; lit., fore 
parents. 

for'-fet'-ar, ancestors ; lit, fore 
fathers. 

for' -geng-ar, ancestors. 



Hoffman.] 



232 



[Dec. 21, 



for' -loir, previously, hitherto. 

for' -Mid' -ta, to upbraid, to reite- 
rate. 

for'-icht, fear, dread. 

for'-le'-sa, to read in advance. The 
pastor formerly read each line 
of a verse or stanza, when 
the congregation sang it, pro- 
ceeding thus through the 
whole hymn. Originated on 
account of scarcity of books 
in those times. 

for'-le-sicli-kait' , negligence. 

for' -na-ma, given name ; pro no- 
men. 

for' -nem-ma, to undertake, to ven- 
ture, to purpose. 

fbr'-nem vies, an undertaking, a 
venture. 

for' -nemsht, the best, superior. 

fbr'-sl-na, to foresee, to anticipate 
or to provide beforehand. 

for'-shmai'sa, to accuse. 

for' -side -ar, deacon— in a church. 

for' -sichV -Uch, cautious, circum- 
spect. 

for'-shtel-ling, foreboding. 

fbr'-shus, overshoot. 

for' '-tsi-gha, to prefer, to choose in 
preference to another. 

fbr'-tsugh, preference, choice. 

for'-lsuk, preference, choice. 

irit isich, forward, indiscreet. 

fr, contraction of fer, far, and far, 
for. 

fra, wife, woman. 

frai', free. 

fr/ii'-a-rai', courtship. 

frai' ge-wa, to set free ; to give lib- 
erty or freedom. 

..A, liberal, charitable. 
/<<</, liberty, freedom. 

4 < '. to Liberal! ; lit., to let 
oir. 

\ friend. 
frau,'!' Uch, liiendly. 



fraind' -shaft, 1. friendship, acquain- 
tance. 
2. relationship, kinship. 

fraindt, friend. 

f rain' -shaft, 1. friendship. 
2. relationship, kinship. 

frai' -vril-ich, voluntarily. 

frak-tu'-ra, 1. Gothic figures, or 
type. 
2. to write in old German or 
Gothic characters. 

fram, pious, sanctified. 

fran'-s'l, fringe ; tatter. 

fran'-s'l-a, 1. to fringe, to tear in 
tatters. 
2. pi. of fran'-s'l. 

f vans' -Uch, fringed. 

fran-sos', syphilis-venereal disease; 
lit., Frenchman. 

frats'-ich, foppish and impertinent. 

fre'-a, to rejoice, to be glad. 

frech, impertinent, saucy. 

frc'lich, 1. happy, joyful. 
2. certainly, assuredly. 

fre' ling, spring. 

frem, strange. 

fres'-sa, to eat gluttonously ; to de- 
vour or bolt food. 

fri, early. 

fiV-ab-H, early apple ; i. e., harvest 
apple. 

fn'-dn, peace. 

frl'-dr./is rirh'.dar, justice of the 
peace. 

fnd> Uch, peaceable, amicable. 

frt'ra, to freeze, to be cold. 

frith, fresh. 

fris'-s'l, a fine rash, such as first 
appears in scarlatina, meas- 
els, etc. 

frt'-yor, spring. 

fr,,, glad, pleased. 

frog, a question, an inquiry. 

fro'-ghu, to ask. to inquire. 

frok, a (piery, question. 

frosh, frog ; tree frog. 



1888.] 



233 



[Hoffman. 



froW-hant, a conceited braggart, a 
fop. 

frot&'-ich, pompous, foppish, imper- 
tinent. 

frucht, grain, cereals. 

frucht' -bar, fruitful. 

fruclW -hammer, granary. 

frucht'-krdn, beard, of ear of grain. 

frucht' plan-sa, cereals. 

fu'der, feed, fodder. 

fuf'-tse, fifteen. 

fuf'-Uet, fifteenth. 

fuf'-tsich, fifty. 

fuks, fox; sorrel color (as of horse). 

fuks'-gaul, sorrel horse. 

fum, from, from the ; contraction 
of fun dem. 

fum'-b'la, to fumble, to feel for a 
thing in an awkward man- 
ner. 

fun, of, from. 

funk'-ka, spark. 

funk' 'I- a, to sparkle, to scintillate. 

fun'-'m, from him, from it ; from 
fun \m, and fun em. 

fun'-nd-rd, from her ; contraction of 
funira. 

fur, a team. 

fur'-ge-shel, horse whip, used by 
teamsters. 

fur '-man, teamster. 

fus, foot. 

fus'sar, fuzz, delicate fibres as of 
lint or cotton. 

fus'-sar-a, to fuzz, or become fuzzy. 

fus'-ar-ich, fuzzy. 

fui'-geng-er, pedestrian. 

g, g\ gd, ga, ge, employed as a pre- 
fix to denote past tense. 
gab, gift, donation. 
gd-bai', building. 
gabelk', beams. 
gd-bed', prayer ; toasted. 
git bet', prayer. 
ga bikt', stooped, bowed. 

PKOC. AMER. FHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 



ga-bi8\ bit, teeth — as a set. 

ga-blit', blood, circulation of blood ; 
bloom. 

ga-bod', bid, offer. 

ga-bb'-ra, born. 

ga-bort', birth. 

ga-borW d<\k, birth-day. 

ga braich' -lich, customary. 

ga-brauch' , custom, habit. 

ga-brauch 1 -lich, customary. 

ga-broch'-a, broken ; ruptured — her- 
nia. 

ga-broeht', brought. 

ga-bro' -fa-Uait' , predicted, foretold. 

gabund, bundle — as of straw. 

ga-bun'-na, bound, tied ; also used 
to signify apprenticed. 

ga-dank' l,<t, thoughts, impressions. 

ga dart', dried. 

gd-decht'-nis, memory, mind. 

git-dicht', poem. 

tjii dtr', an animal. 

git drtii', true, faithful. 

gildrenk', beverage, drink of any 
kind. 

gi't-dshumpt, jumped. 

gii-dti n ', done ; past tense of tse du n 
— to do. 

gd-duldt, patience. 

gaduld'-tich, patient ; docile. 

gaf'-fa, to stare, to look idly, to 
gape at. 

gd-grishy loud noise of voices, yell- 
ing ; great ado in talking. 

ga-hbr'sam, obedient. 

gai'-ar, turkey buzzard. 

gai'-gher, a fiddler. 

gaik, violin. 

tjail, horses ; pi. of gaul. 

gail*'-dok-ttr, farrier. 

gails'-kesht, horse chestnut. 

gaisht, ghost, spirit, apparition. 

gaits, avarice. 

gaita'hals, miser. 

gaits'-ich, miserly, stingy. 

gak'-'l, egg. 
129. 2d. printed feb. 18, 1889. 



Hoffman.] 



234 



[Dec. 21, 



ga-krai'-der, 1. herbs and plants 
used in domestic cooking and 
medicine. 
2. mystical manoeuvres, hocus 
pocus. 

gd-krai'.der-sup, vegetable soup. 

gak'-sa, to cackle — like a ben. 

gal', 1. bile. 
2. gallon. 

gal'-ar-ich, soused pig's feet. 

gd-ldrndt', learned, educated. 

gd-le'-gha-hedt, opportunity, occa- 
sion, chance. 

ga le'-gh'n-het, opportunity, chance. 

g'n lind, mild, smooth, gentle. 

g'a ling, lungs, liver and heart of 
slaughtered animal. 

ga-ler'-aam ked, learning, erudi- 
tion. 

ga-liht', loved, beloved. 

gul Ian', gallon. 

gal'-ri-tea, ruta baga — variety of tur- 
nip. 

gal'-ya, gallows. 

gam'-ber, camphor. 

ga-me n ', congregation. 

game*' -sheft-lich, in common, per- 
taining to the union of the 
whole number of persons. 

go-mis', vegetables ; usually applied 
as served on the table. 

gamist', had to, obliged, compelled. 

gdm'-la, to gamble, to play for 
stakes. 

g'amech', a construction, make up ; 
applied also to the genital 
organs. 

ga-ma n '-na, to niniml. 

ganau', exact, precise. 

hall or entrance, passage 
way. 

gang' '-a, gone, went ; passed. 
1. goose. 
2. entirely, entire, *hol 

gan' l'T. 

ga-nunk', enough, sutlh •icnt. 



gar. 1. quite. 

2. sufficiently cooked, or com- 
pleted. 

gar'-a-wa, 1. to tan. 
2. to thrash. 

gar'-a-wer, tanner. 

gar' -da, garden. 

gar-din', guardian. 

gdr'-d'lar, gardener (rare). 

i/iir'd'n-dr, gardener. 

gar-du a ', calico. 

gd-recht', just, justice ; equitable. 

gd-ree7i'-tic/t-ked, justice ; satisfac- 
tion. 

gar'-i-gh'l, windpipe, trachea, po- 
mum adami. 

gar'-ighla, to gargle. 

ga-ririg', slight, trifling ; sometimes 
used to signify exact, careful. 

ga-ringsht' , slightest, least. 

ga-rishl, prepared ; scaffolding. 

(ja-risht'-hols, a putlog, 

tjar'-ken-ni, none, none at all. 

gar'-kens, none at all. 

gam, 1. yarn. 
2. a net. 

gam, willingly, gladly. 

gar 1 net, not at all. 

garth' -to, barley. 

(ji'tr'-t'l-a, to garden, or cultivate a 
garden. 

<ji)r'-tshel, cordial. 

ija -ruc/i', smell, odor. 

gi'ir' irer, tanner. 

t/'ir'-irer-ai', tannery. 

!/,ir'-irt'r.t/rub, tanner's vat, for 
soaking hides in tan, or lime. 

gaul, horse. 

gaund, dress, frock. 

(jannxh, a swing. 
i/oiin'-s/m to swing. 
ijii'-wn, alms. 
; /<i'-ir,l, fork, liil'uivalion. 

ga'-wt'l-txink'-ht, pionf Of a fork. 
ga-ici' iiti. |0 accustom, or habit- 
uate. 



1888.] 



235 



[Hoffman. 



ga-wis'-sa, 1. conscience. 

2. certain, specified. 

3. shown ; past tense of tse 
wais'-sa. 

ga-wer', firearm, gun. 
gay am' mar, moaning, lamenta- 
tion. 
ge, go, to go. 
ge n , to go. 

ge'-a, go, to go ; this form is of sel- 
dom occurrence. 
ge-blatshd', sounded in imitation of 

splashing, or slapping. 
ge-blechl', bleached, whitened. 
ge-drai', obedient, faithful. 
ge-denk'ka, to remember, to recall. 
ge-di/n'-m'l'd, thundered. 
ge-dish'-d'l-ird', distilled. 
ge'ghend, region, locality, neigh- 
borhood. 
gel, yellow. 
gel, is it not so ? 
geld, 1. money. 

2. is it not? 
geld'sak, purse; lit., moneybag. 
ge-leg', layer, or layers. 
gel' -la, is it not so ? 
gel'-rlp, carrot ; lit., yellow turnip. 
gel'-shpecht, flicker or yellow ham- 
mer ( — Colaptes auratus). 
gel'sucht, jaundice. 
gel'-weshp, yellow jacket (insect). 
gens' -Mum, daisy. 
ge'-ra, to ferment. 
ge-run'-na, 1. curdled, coagulated. 

2. leaked. 
ges, goat, goats. 
gesh'-der, yesterday. 
gesh'-el, a whip. 
ge-tso'-gha, removed ; pulled. 
ge'-wa, to give, to donate. 
ge-wid'-der, lightning. 
ge-wid'-dW-rut, lightning rod. 
gfal'-la, 1. fell. 

2. to be pleased with. 
gfecltt, fight, fighting, battle. 



gfel'-ich-kait, satisfaction, favor. 
gfel'-ich-ked, satisfaction, favor. 
gfelkdt, fallowed. 
gfer'-lich, dangerous. 
gfil, feeling, sympathy. 
gfloch'-ta, plaited. 
gfbr, danger, peril, risk. 
gfro'-ra, 1. fro/en. 

2. to have been cold. 
gfuld, fooled, imposed upon. 
gfun'-na, found, discovered. 
g^gos'-sa, 1. cast — in a mould. 

2. poured, from a sprinkler. 
g'hes, command, order; a saying. 
gich'-ter-ra, convulsions. 
gicht'-rds, peony. 
gift, poison. 

gift'shwam, toadstool — agaric, 
gik'-sa, 1. to stick or stab, to nudge 
into one's ribs. 

2. to snicker, to giggle. 
gil'-lerl, killder plover. 
gin'-ni-hink-'l, guinea fowl. 
gip'-p'l, spire, apex, on the summit. 
gips, gypsum, plaster of Paris. 
gi'sa, 1. to sprinkle with a sprink- 
ling pot. 

2. to cast, in moulds. 
gis'-kan, watering pot. 
gi'-w'l, gable. 
ge'-w'U-end, gable end. 
gi'-w'l-end, gable end. 
glab'-bort, clapboard, pailing. 
gluf, key of piano or organ. 
glaf'-fir, piano forte. 
gla'-gha, to complain, to enter com- 
plaint. 
glai, soon. 
glai'-a, bran. 
ghiicli, equal. 

glaich'-a, to like, to admire. 
glaich'-ge-wicht, balance, scales; lit., 

equal weight. 
glak, complaint. 

glaich'-nis, parable : comparison, 
equal. 



Hoffman.] 



236 



[Dec. 21, 



glam, lustre, reflection. 
gla'-ica, to believe, belief. 
glds, glass. 
glat, smooth. 
gle a , small, little. 
gle'-a, clover. 
gle'-da, to clothe. 
gledt, article of clothing, garment. 
glem'-ma, to pinch, to jamb. 
gle a '-ni-s7ilang'-a war'-ts'l, "small 
snake-root," Virginia snake- 
root {Serpentaria Virginia- 
nus). 
glensht, smallest. 
glen' sa, to shine. 
glis, rut, wheel track. 
gle-mr', glazing, gloss. 
gUt'-ta, burdock. 
gti'-dich, red hot. 
gUdt, a member — part of body ; 

member of an association. 
glik'-ers, marbles ; testicles. 
glitshich, slippery, icy. 
glit'-s'r-a, to glitter. 
glW '-»' r-ich, glittering, shiny. 
gib' -a, claws ; a staple. 
glo' a-fet, neats'-foot oil. 
glo'-a-fus, cloven foot. 
gldf-der, a cord — of wood. 
glok, bell. 

glok' -ka-blum, columbine. 
gink, a hen. 

gluk'-ka, to cluck — like a hen. 
glump'a, a lump, a heap. 
g'matl, 1. swath. 

2. measure or part, equal to a 
portion, as one being able to 
contend with or doing as 
well as the others, 
gni'iil, grace. 

-</>/, grace, piety. 
. 1. to growl. 
2 projection on tin- trunk of a 
ii H]iur or Innr. 
ijiuir'-ith, apt or prone to pOWL 

■ . to -' too ii* Dm tooth. 



gnar' shich, gnarled, or knotty. 

gnech'-'l, small bone ; digital joints. 

gned'-lich, gracious. 

gnetsh'-ich, cartilaginous ; " gris- 
tle." 

gnik, vertebral joint of the neck ; 
applied to the back of the 
neck. 

gnoch'-a, bone, bones. 

gnoch'-a-y'ar' -i-gli'l, skeleton. 

gnocli'-ich, bony ; lean. 

gnop, 1. button. 
2. a knot. 

gnop'-holts, buttonwood tree, syca- 
more. 

gnop'-loch, button hole. 

g'num'-ma, taken, required. 

godt, godmother. 

gold, gold. 

gold' -am' -slid, Baltimore oriole ; lit., 
gold robin. 

gol'-den-dur, golden tincture. 

golt, gold. 

Got, God. 

gow^r-nir', governor. 

grab, grave. 

gn'id, straight, exact, right, now ; 
gn'irf a-wek', right away, im- 
mediately. 

gram'-bira, cranberries. 

gran, 1. crown. 

2. barb, of the ear of grain. 

3. fishbone, of thin sharp form 
— as the ribs. 

gra n '-na, stop-cock ; spigot. 
gnt'-w'l <i, to crawl ; to grovel. 
i/ri '->/k, corn — on the foot. 
griah-ihr', a syringe. 
grin/i-i/ir' in<j, an injection. 
grish-ihr'-ra, to give an enema with 

a syringe. 
grob, coarse, rude. 
</' roch'-ti, smclle.l, scented. 
i/nd, toad ( — bnfo). 
,/rof t,t !:i!-s, ,n, pennyroyal J lit., 

load balsam. 



1888.1 



237 



[Hofiman. 



grub, a hole or pit. 

grub'-hak, a pick-axe. 

grub'-pa, to grub, or dig with a 

pick, or hoe. 
grurn', crooked. 
grum'-bdr, potato. 
grum'-bir, potato. 
grum' buk-lich, hunch-backed ; 

round-shouldered. 
grum'-la, to grumble, to growl. 
grum'-lich, given to grumbling, or 

to growling. 
grund'-nis, peanut. 
grund'-sau, ground hog. 
grusht, crust. 
grus'-'l-bir, gooseberry. 
grus'-lich, gristly. 
gsafig, a song ; singing. 
gsat, told, said. 

gsel'-shaft, association, society. 
gshdr, 1. harness. 

2. implements or tools. 

3. crockery, dishes. 
gshbas, sport, fun, amusement. 
gshait, intelligent, smart. 
gshe'-da, divorced. 

gsheft, work, occupation, busi- 
ness. 

gshenk, gift, present. 

gshicht, tale, narrative, story. 

gshikt, 1. expert, clever. 

2. sent — past tense of tse' »7iik'- 
ka, to send. 

gshlecht, family or branch of family, 
clan, gens ; generation. 

gshmak, taste. 

gshprech, conversation. 

gshprocli, language, speech ; an ax- 
iom, saying. 

gshtalt, a frame ; a wooden struc- 
ture. 

gahte'-a, to acknowledge, to own 
up to. 

gsholt'-a, scolded ; a thing to be 
avoided on account of its be- 
ing badly spoken of. 



gshtopV '-a-foV ', filled to the utmost ; 
stuffed to the limit of capa- 
city. 

gshwa'-ra, a boil ; boils. 

gshwind, quick, fast, hurry. 

gshwindt, quick, in haste, hurry. 

g8hwi8h'-da-ra, children of the same 
mother, brothers and sisters. 

gshwish' '-der-kin 1 'ner, cousins. 

gsicht, face. 

gsof'-fa, drunk, intoxicated. 

gsundt, well, healthy. 

gsund'het, health. 

g^Uif'-fer, 1. markings made with a' 
pen or pencil ; calculations. 
2. insects ; small animal life in 
general. 

g'-tso'-gha, moved, pulled. 

g'-tswil'-ichd, twilled. 

guk, look, a look, a view. 

guk'-gum'-mer, a cucumber. 

guk'-ka, to look, to see, to behold. 

(juk'-uk, a cuckoo. 

gum'-a, 1. gum tree. 

2. to gum, to paste with mucil- 
age. 

3. the gums. 
gum'-mer, a cucumber. 
gu8, a casting. 

gut, good. 

gut'-rich-ich, fragrant. 

g'-walt, strength, power. 

g'-walt'-ich, powerful. 

g'wdrb', joint. 

g'-warts, spices ; garden plants used 

in cooking. 
g'-weks', tumor, growth. 
g'-welb', arch ; roof of a vault. 
g'-tcen'-lich, usually, ordinarily. 
g'-wicht 1 , weight. 
g'-win', 1. gain. 

2. thread of a screw. 
g'-wi8', certainly, assuredly. 
g'-ms'-sa, 1. conscience. 

2. shown ; past tense of tse 

wai'-sa, to show. 



Hoffman.] 



238 



[Dec. 21, 



g'-wit'-r, thunder, thunder-storm, 

lightning. 
g'-icit'-'r-rut, lightning rod. 
g'wolt, wanted, desired, wished. 
g'wun'-ner'd, wondered. 



hair, here, hither. 

7taa'-ra, to hear. 

haardt, a herd, flock, drove. 

habt, chief, principal. 

habt'-sum', principal at interest. 

haf'fa, an earthen pot, or jar. 

haft, 1. rivet, clasp. 

2. eye, for hooking on dresses 
— hook and eye. 
hai, hay. 

hatch' -la, to simulate. 
Itaich'-lar, hypocrite. 
haich'-lar-ai, hypocrisy. 
hai' -da, heathen. 
hai'-tt, haying season. 
haif'-ich, numerous, in quantity, 

plentiful. 
haif'-la, to heap up, to gather into 

a heap. 
haifts, heaves. 
hai' -la, to cry, to weep. 
hai'-land, Saviour. 
hai' -lie h, holy, sacred. 
hail'-mit'l, remedy. 
hai'-arat, wedding. 
hai'-ar-a, to marry. 
hair'ra, to marry. 
A ii'r'-ich, desirous of marriage. 
hiii'-ref, hay rick. 

-shrek er, grasshopper. 
hais'-lich, domestic. 
hait, to-day. 
hait'se dagt, at the present time; 

now-a-days. 
hak, hoe. 
/ni/,'-ka, 1. to chop, or to cut. 

2. to whip. 
h.tk'.-l, a bftckl*. 
hak'-'l-a, to hackle (as flax). 



hak'-mes-ser, cleaver; lit., chop 
knife. 

halb, half. 

halb'-lai-na, half linen — linsey- 
woolsey. 

halb'-nacht, midnight ; lit., half 
night. 

halb'-shti'-w'l, "half hoots," gait- 
ers. 

lialb'-shtreng, chains forming the 
end of traces. 

halb 1 -yer' -ish, half - yearly ; six 
months old. 

hal'-da, to hold, to retain. 

haldt, halt, stop. 

half-tar, halter. 

half -tar-rV -ma, halter strap. 

halm, a stalk of grass or grain, a 
hlade. 

hals, neck, throat. 

hals'-aus-tse-rurig, laryngitis ; ap- 
plied also to bronchitis. 

hals'-band, collar, neck hand. 

hals'-duch, muffler, neckerchief. 

hals'-gnik, neck joint. 

hals'-grd-g7ia, cravat. 

Iials'-we, sore -throat. 

hal'-ta, to hold, to retain, to secure. 

hal'unk, a rascal. 

hal'-wer, half. 

hal'-w'r-gaul, dock ; lit-, half-horse. 

ham'-el, a calf; a lubberly fellow. 

ham'-mar, hammer. 

ham' -marshlak, scales of iron, re- 
sulting from forging or ham- 
mering ; dross. 

ha'-na, rooster. 

hand, hand. 

hand'-duch, towel; lit., hand cloth. 

haii'd'l, trade, commerce, exchange. 

Itaiui'-lang-er, assistant; tender, 
hod-carrier. 

hand 1 ri-i/h'l, handrail, bannisters. 

hanti'-ir.ii- i/, ; trade, occupation. 

hund'-tnir-iktifshar, tools, imple- 
ments. 



1838.] 



239 



[Hoflman. 



hand' -wdr-iks-lait, laborers, work- 
ing-people. 

hand' -udriks-man, mechanic. 

hand'-wark, trade, occupation. 

hanft, hemp. 

hang, 1. a bracket for dishes or food. 
2. slope, declivity. 

ham, " Jack," foolish fellow. 

hans'-warsht, a clown. 

hdr, Lord, Mr. 

hd'ra, to hear ; to obey. 

ha'-ra-fo'-gh'l, jay-bird. 

hd'-rd-sd-gha, hearsay. 

h'drbsht, autumn; fall of the year. 

hard, hard. 

hdr'-da, to harden. 

hdrd'-grds, herd grass ; pasture. 

har'-dich, hurry, quick. 

hard' '-lai-wich, constipated. 

harf, harp. 

har'-kha, to hear, to listen. 

hdr'-kum-ma, origin, source from 
which, to come from. 

hdr'-lich, lordly, happy, jubilant. 

/tar/i, horn. 

ham, brain. 

hai n'-e-sel, hornet. 

harn'-ich, horny. 

ham'-ing, February. 

It'drn'-shal, skull. 

hdrn'-shc-d'l, upper portion of crani- 
um. 

7iarsh, deer. 

hUrsh'-arn-gaisht, ammonia. 

harsh' -flesh, venison. 

hdrsh'-grds, millet. 

hdr'shtam'-ma, to descend from, 
origin. 

harts, heart ; courage. 

hart, hard. 

harts, gum, as an exudation on 
trees. 

harts' -af-tich, courageous. 

harts' f el, pericardium. 

harts' -ich, resinous, gummy 

harts' -ich, hearty, dear. 



harts' -klop' -pa, palpitation of the 
heart. 

harts' -shtb-sa, palpitation of the 
heart. 

harts' -war-tsel, tap root. 

lias, hare, rabbit. 

Jias, hatred, dislike. 

hd'sa-gle'-a, sorrel ; lit, rabbit 
clover. 

hash' -bid' -el, hospital. 

hash' pel, 1. a reel. 
2. a silly fellow. 

has'-l-hek'-ka, hazel brush. 

has'-'l-nus, hazelnut. 

has'l'r, hostler. 

fmx'-sa, to hate, to dislike. 

lias'-wip, cow-hide, whip. 

haubt' shtik, chief portion. 

hauch, breath. 

hauch'-a, to breathe ; to expel 
breath through the open 
mouth. 

hau'-fa, heap. 

hauns, hound. 

haunt, houud. 

haus, 1. house. 
2. outside, out. 

haus'-rbdt, furniture. 

haus'-gshtai'-er, necessary furni- 
ture, etc., for housekeeping. 

haut, skin, pelt. 

ha'-wa, have ; tse ha' -tea, to have. 

ha 1 '-was-wart, worth having. 

ha'-wer, oats. 

ha'-w'r, oats. 

ha'-te'r-ges, katydid. 

he, height. 

heb'-gdm, dip net. 

hech'-er, higher. 

hechsht, highest. 

hecht, pike — a fish. 

hecht'-graut, pickerel-weed. 

hech'-tsa, to pant. 

hef'-ner, potter. 

heft' -ich, with strength, powerful. 

hek'-'l-cha, crochet needle. 



Hoffman.] 



240 



[Dec. 21, 



hek'-ka, brambles, briars ; dry 

branches or shrubs. 
7wk'-'l-a, to crochet. 
heks, witch, sorceress. 
liek'-aa-gln-ica, belief in witches ; 

superstition. 
hek'-sa-gh'i-icish, superstitious. 
hek'-sa-fdm'-m'l, Stramonium, jim- 

son weed. 
hek'-sar-ai, sorcery ; shamanism. 
heksht, highest. 
heks'-'l, straw chop — for feed. 
heks'-'l-fii'-der, chop feed. 
he'-lar, concealer, one who hides. 
hel'-mit'l, remedy. 
hel, 1. clear, bright. 

2. hell, hades. 
hel'-fa, to help, to assist. 
Jielft, half. 

ng, hollow, cavity. 
htlm, helve. 
hem, shirt. 
hem, home. 

met, a home. 
hem'-gfil, home feeling. 
hem'-g'macht, domestic or home- 
made. 
him' -Itch, secret ; homely, not 

pretty. 
hem'-'rprai$, wristband. 
hem'-tsus, homeward. 
hem'-tee, home sick, yearning to be 

at home ; nostnlijin. 
hend'-ich, handy, convenient. 
heng'-'l, bunch. 
Junk, 1. handle. 

2. a swinging shelf. 
henk'-ar, hangman. 

I ' tut >i r It, ] munch. 
henk'-ka, to hang, to suspend. 
In nlcnht, stallion. 
hensh'-ing, glove, mitten. 
he'-Ki, 1. heel. 

2. toec.niiiumd, to iisk, to request. 

8. to cull or AitfgMta :i ptftdn 

or tiling. 



hes'-lich, disgusting, disagreeable, 

ugly, shabby. 
het, had, would, could. 

hit, height. 

het'-sa, to set a dog at, to urge. 

he'-wai-sa, crowbar. 

hi n , 1. thither, towards, to another 
place. 
2. exhausted, "done for." 

hibsh, pretty. 

hift, hip. 

hik'-ar-a, 1. hickory. 

2. to whip, or punish. 

Jiik'-ar-i, hickory. 

hik'-ar-nus, hickory nut. 

ht n '-leng-lich, sufficient. 

hilf, help, aid. 

MW-n'r-ham'-ar, mallet; lit., wood- 
en hammer. 

Jiim'l, heaven ; sky. 

him' -'l-f art-dag', Ascension day. 

Jiiml'-lish, heavenly. 

him'-mel* heaven ; sky. 

Jn'-na, behind, back. 

hi'-na-dra n , behind, behind-hand. 

hi' -na-drin, in the hind part. 

hi'-na-druf, on the rear part. 

hi'-na-nai*, into, or by way of, the 
rear part. 

hi'-na-nb', subsequently ; after- 
wards, in the rear. 

Jiin'-ar-ge", to deceive. 

Am' -ar-lich, troublesome, obstruct- 
ing. 

Jiin'-ar-ra, to hinder, or delay. 

hiit'ar»ht, hindmost. 

hin'dr xlutnk' a, ham; lit., hind 
ham, in contradistinction to 
shoulder, "fore \u\n\," fet'- 
ar-»hunk' -a. 

hin'erun, behind the ; cont ruction 
of hin'-er dem. 

hink' el, chicken, fowl ; poultry. 

/tilt/.' •! /■■'•' iris/i, chicken coop. 

hin/' ,1 n/itnl, chicken coop; lit., 
chicken stable, or pen. 



1888.] 



241 



[Hoffman. 



hin'-nich, after. 

lii n ' -rich-ta, 1. to bring to ruin ; to 
spoil. 
2. to direct to a desired place. 

hl nl -shtard' -tsa, to tumble headlong. 

hi'-sich, native, relative to region 
spoken of. 

hit, hut. 

Jii'-ta, to guard, to watch or pro- 
tect. 

hit' -mach-am, milliner, one who 
makes bonnets. 

hits, heat ; fever. 

hit'-sa, to heat, to warm. 

hits'-ich, feverish, heated. 

hits' -pok-ka, prickly heat. 

hi'-w'l, hill, mound, hillock. 

hi'-w'l-idi, hilly, undulating. 

hbch, high, elevated. 

hoch'-ach ta, to esteem. 

hoch'-tsich, wedding. 

hof, yard. 

hof'-ning, hope, expectation. 

hok'-ka, to seat one's self. 

hd'-ka, hook. 

hok'ka, to sit, to seat one's self. 
The word is not a polite form. 

hoi, hollow. 

ho' -Id, to fetch, to bring. 

ho' -land -war '4s' I, elecampane. 

hol'-ler, elder (alder bush). 

hols, wood. 

hols' -Mats, place for chopping wood. 

hols' -buk, saw-buck. 

hols'-ko-la, charcoal. 

hbl'-wek, sunken roadway ; lit., hol- 
low way or road. 

hop, hop (pi. hop' -pa — hops). 

hop'l, hobble. 

hop 1 '-p 'la, to hobble. 

hbr, hair ; fur, on the skin. 

hos'-sa, pantaloons. 

hos' -sa-dre' -dr, suspenders. 

Jios'-'l-a, to raffle. 

hot, has. 

ho'-w'l, plane. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 



ho'-w'l-bank, carpenter's workbench 

ho'-w'l-shpe n , shavings ; lit,, plane- 
chips. 

hud'l, tatter, rag. 

hud' la, 1. to hasten ; to work in a 
careless manner. 
2. to clean out a bake oven pre- 
vious to depositing the arti- 
cles to be baked. 

hud'-ler, a rod with a rag attached 
for removing ashes from the 
oven. 

hud'-lich, hasty, careless. 

hud'l'-lum-pa, a rag used for clean- 
ing ashes out of a bake oven. 

hud'-s'l-a, uncut dried fruit. 

huds'-lich, shriveled, dried. 

huf, hoof. 

huf'-ai-sa, horse shoe. 

hum'-m'l, bumble-bee. 

hundt, dog. 

hundts'-shtal, dog kennel. 

lunig'-ar, hunger. 

hnu'/'-ar-a, to hunger, to long for. 

hung'-ar-ich. hungry. 

7iung'-ars-nbd, famine. 

hun'-na, down, off the top. 

hua'-ich, honey. 

hit/t'irh-fo'gh'l, humming-bird. 

hun'-ich-sok'l, honeysuckle; wood- 
bine. 

hun''rl, hundred. 

hun'-'rt-y<r-i>:h, centennial. 

huti'-'rt-ybr, century. 

huns'-da-gha, dog-days. 

huns'-graut, toad flax. 

hwp'-sa, to hop, to skip. 

hur, where, prostitute. 

hur'-a-kind, bastard ; lit., whore's 
child. 

hush'-ta, to cough ; cough. 

hiit, hat. 

hut'-mach-er, hatter. 

hutsh, colt. 

hutsh'-d, a colt. 

hutsh'-'l-i, a colt. 
129. 2e. printed feb. 25, 1989. 



Hofliuan. 1 



242 



[Dec. 21, 



ich, I. 

im, in the ; contraction of in dem. 

im, bee. 

tih-i'i-fres'-so; bee eater, bee martin 
(Tyrannua carolinensis). 

tm'-a-karb', bee hive; i. e., bee 
basket. 

im'-a-ros, honeycomb. 

im'-ber, ginger. 

i a, -mens, ant. 

I'-ments, ant. 

im'-er, always. 

im'-er-fart, always, constantly. 

im'-er-me n , evermore ; constantly 
increasing. 

im'-er-tccr'-end, lasting forever. 

t'm'-'r, always. 

ims, meal. 

ims'-tsait, meal time. 

i'-na, theirs, to them. 

in'-ar-Uch, internal ; internally ; 
the interior. 

in' -dres-sa, interest. 

in' -ga-toaid, entrails, viscera. 

i/i'-huldt, contents. 

ins, in the ; contraction of in d<"8. 

insh, Indian. 

in' -sha-rob' -er, rubber, India rubber. 

inth'-ing, Indian ; Indians. 

in' -shi-nir' , engineer. 

in' -thing -rob' -ber, India rubber. 

insh'-lich, tallow. 

in' -wen-nich, inside. 

tr'-tta, to address one with "ir," 
a polite form. 

is, is. 

ish, is (rare). 

i'wer, past, gone by ; over. 

i-wer-<ii'-i<i, to bo over hasty. 

t'-wer-td, everywhere. 

i'-wer-nus', exceedingly. 

i'-merln' do, 10 overbid ; to outbid. 

i' -tDtr-bin' -na, to bind over. 

i'-voer-dek, coverlet. 

i'.wr <(r.it' ir.i, to overdraw ; to ex- 
aggerate. 



i'-wer-dref'-fa, to surpass ; to excel. 

i'-wer-em, over the; contraction of 
i'wer dem. 

i'-wer-flus, an overflow ; surplus. 

i'-wer-ge-larnd, crack-brained ; lit.,. 
over educated. 

i' -wer' -liuar' -ra, to overhear, to 
learn by accident. 

i-wer-handt, overhand ; control. 

i' -wer-haubt, generally, in general. 

i' -icer-hos' -sa, overalls ; lit., over- 
pants. 

i' -wer -ich, left over ; not desired. 

i'-icer-kshaid, conceited ; lit., over- 
wise. 

i' -wer-la-fa, to overwalk one's self. 

i'-wer-le-gha, 1. to meditate ; to con- 
sider. 
2. to admonish. 

i'-wer-lif'-er-a, to deliver, or to hand 
over. 

i'-wer-li'-we-ra, to deliver, or hand 
over. 

i'wer-mach'-a, to make over ; to re- 
peat. 

i'-wer-ma'-ri-ya, day after tomor- 
row. 

i'-wer-nem'-ma, to overtake. 

i'wers, over it ; contraction of i'wer es 

i'-wer-sel'sa, to translate. 

i'-wer-shrifl, superscription. 

i'-wershlu-dirt', over-studied, over- 
worked by study. 

i'-wer-shu, overshoe ; rubbers. 

i' -wer-shwem' -ming, inundation ; 
Hood. 

i' -wer-sich' -tich, cross-eyed. 

i'-wer-tsai'-ghu, to convince. 

i'-wer-tsuk, casing for feather bed. 

i' -wer-tswar' -ich, 1. contrary, ohsti- 
nate. 
2. crosswise. 

i'-wer-wai'-su, to convince ; to show 
proof. 

i'-wer-wel'-dich-a, to overcome ; to 
conquer. 



1888.] 



243 



[Hoffman. 



i'-ver-win-na, to prevail ; to win 

over. 
i'-w'l, 1. nausea ; nauseating. 

2. evil, bad. 
i'-w'l-a, to nauseate ; to sicken. 
i'-w'l-de'-t'r, malefactor, criminal. 
i'-w'lich, nauseating ; nauseated. 
i'-w'r, past, gone by ; over. 
i'-wW-d-wail, after awbile ; shortly. 

kabt, had ; from German gehabt. 

ka-dol' -ish, Catholic. 

kd'-d'r, torn cat. 

kd'-fa, to buy. 

kdf'-lait, merchants, purchasers. 

h'if-man, merchant, purchaser. 

kuft, a notch, a gap or divide on 

hills or mountains. 
kaf'-ta, to notch. 
kafl'-ich, notched. 
kaich'-a, to pant. 
kai'-d'l, a wedge, a plug. 
kaim, a germ. 
kdi'-ser, emperor. 
kai' -ser-dum, empire. 
kalb, calf. 

kal'-basht, calabash. 
kalb'-flesh, veal. 
kalb' -f el, calfskin. 
kalbs'-haut, calf skin. 
ka-len'-dr, almanac ; calendar. 
ka'-letsh, college. 
kal'-ik, lime. 
kal'-ik-of'-fa, lime kiln. 
kal' -ik-s?ile n , limestone. 
kalk, lime. 
kal'-mus, calamus. 
halt, cold. 

kalt'-me'sel, cold chisel. 
ka'-ma, cogs— of a wheel. 
ka-mel', camel. 

kam'-mer, chamber ; spare-room. 
ka-mil'-la, chamomile. 
kam'-rdd, cog-wheel. 
kan, 1. a can. 

2. to be able to. 



kan'-d'l, spout. 

kan'-d'l-tsuk'-dr, rock candy. 

kans' -draub, currant. 

kans' -graut, St. John's wort. 

kan'-shaft, familiarity with, knowl- 
edge, acquaintance with. 

kan's'l, pulpit. 

kan's'l-red'-ner, pulpit orator. 

ka-nun', cannon. 

kap', cap. 

kd'-rd', 1. to sweep. 
2. to belong to. 

kar'-ab, basket. 

ka-rd n '-ner, coroner. 

kiir'-a-pet, carpet. 

ka rn'-she, courage, pluck. 

k%' -ra-n' -ra, to court, to caress. 

karb, basket. 

kar'-'b, basket. 

kdr'-ber, body. 

karb' -wai-de, basket willow. 

kdrd, 1. cord ; yarn. 
2. a card ; chart. 

kiu-'-da n , calico, prints. 

kdr'-dun, calico, prints. 

kdr-frai'-ddk, Good-Friday. 

kar'-ich, cart. 

kdr'-ich, church. 

ka-rel', bead. 

kdr' -icJi-a-rdd', church council ; ves- 
try. 

fair' -ich-a-shdul, pew. 

kilr'-ich-a-sits, pew. 

kar' -ich-hof, church yard, grave 
yard. 

kar'-ik, cork. 

kar'-ik-ka, to cork. 

kar'-ik-isl'-g7ier, cork screw. 

ki'irl, fellow. 

kam, rye. 

kdrn, kernel, seed. 

karn'-brod, rye bread. 

kar'-nish, cornice. 

kdr8h, cherry. 

karts, short. 

kdrtt'-lich, lately, shortly. 



Hoffman.] 



244 



IDec. 21, 



karts'-sich-tich, short-sighted, near- 
sighted. 

kash'-da, cage, ca9e, box, chest. 

kats, cat. 

kat'-sa-ge-grish', caterwauling. 

kat'-sn-graut, catmint. 

kau'-a, to chew, to masticate. 

kaum, scarcely, hardly. 

kt>\ none, not any ; contraction of 
ken'-ni, none. 

ked, chain. 

kef-fer, bug, beetle. 

krft'-lich, notched. 

kel, trowel. 

kel, throat, trachea. 

kelch, cup, chalice. 

kel'-lar, cellar ; a vault. 

kel' -lar-kich' , basement kitchen. 

ke a '-mol, no time ; at no time. 

ke n '-nich, king. 

ke nl -Jtich-en, queen. 

ke al -nich-raich, kingdom. 

ken'-na, 1. to be able. 

2. to know, to be acquainted with 

ken'-ni, none, none of them. 

ken'-mol, not once, at no time. 

kens, none. 

kent, could. 

ken 1 -tsech-a, property mark ; sign 
by which a thing may be 
recognized. 

ker, 1. care, responsibility. 

2. hearing, sense of hearing. 

ker'-ra, to sweep. 

I.i a, cheese. 

ke$Mt, chestnut. 

kethd'-igh'l, chestnut burr. 

kesM'-lieh, costly, expensive. 

i'ii', colander; lit. , cheese sieve. 

kea's'l, kettle. 

kes'-a'l-flik'er, a tinker ; lit., kettle 
mender. 

ket, chiiin. 

lulah. ■ catch, puzzle, trick. 

krt*h' 'r, pull. 

' 



kl'-ben, cowpen. 

kj'-bid-ai's, tansy. 

ki'-blum, dandelion. 

kich, kitchen. 

ki'-drek, cow dung. 

kV -drek-rol' -ler, tumble-bug ; scara- 
bus. 

kll, cool. 

kV-la, to cool. 

kim'-er-lich, poorly, indigent, needy. 

kim'-'l, caraway. 

kt'-misht, cow manure. 

kin, chin. 

kin'-bak'-ka, jaw bone. 

kind'-hed, childhood. 

kind'-lich, filial. 

kindsht'-lar, expert, artist, one who 
can adapt himself to various 
delicate operations. 

kin'-nish, foolish, childish, silly. 

kindt, child. 

kin'-ner, children. 

kin'-ner-dib, kidnapper; lit., chil- 
dren-thief. 

kinsJit'l'r-ai', pow-wow-ing ; the 
ability to perform mysteries ; 
also applied to spiritualistic 
performances. 

kins' -kind, child's child = grand- 
child. 
••■«, lampblack. 

kishd, a chest. 

ki'-shtar, cow bunting ; cow black- 
bird. 

kis'-'l, sleet. 

kis'-'l-a, to sleet. 

kis'-'l-ich, sleety. 

kis'-sa, a pillow. 

kit, putty. 

kit'-'l, a long loose coat. 

kitsh, a scraper ; a rake made of a 
board, transverse to the han- 
dle, for removing ashes from 
a bake oven. 

kit's' la, to tickle. 

kita'-lich, ticklish ; delicate. 



18S8-] 



245 



[Hoffman. 



Tclai', soon. 

klai'-a, bran. 

Mam, clamp ; clothes-pin. 

kldm'-mer, lamentation. 

klang, a clang — as of a bell. 

klar-a-net', clarionet. 

kla-gha, to complain. 

king, complaint. 

Map'-bbrt, clapboard ; strip of 

wood for pail fence. 
Mas, class. 
Me'-a, clover. 
Me n , small. 
Mich, link. 
Med, article of dress. 
Me' -da, to clothe. 
Me'-d'r, clothing. 
Me'-d'r-kam'-mer, wardrobe. 
kle'-d'r-shtub, wardrobe. 
klem'-ma, to pinch, to wedge, to 

jamb. 
klen'-ar, smaller. 
kle n > -nieh-ked, trifle. 
MensJul, smallest. 
klep'-er-a, to rattle. 
Mep'-er-ich, rattling, worn out so as 

to rattle ; rickety. 

klet ' { burdock. 

klet'-ta, ) 

IdUV-slia, to slip. 

klidsh'-ich, slippery ; icy. 

Mi/,; luck, a happening. 

Idik'-ka, to happen, to occur. 

klik'-lich, lucky, fortunate. 

Mim'-b'l, a small heap or mass. 

klihg, a blade. 

Ming'-'l, a ball ; a small round bell 
containing a ball ; used for 
sleigh bells. 

Miiig'-'l-a, to jingle ; to cause ring- 
ing of small bells — as sleigh 
bells. 

kling'-'l-sak, "la small bag, at- 

klihg'-'l-sek'-'l, > tached to a long 
pole, having a little bell at- 
tached. Used in churches for 
taking up collections. 



kUng'shte", clingstone ; applied to 

a variety of peaches. 
Mo' -a, claws ; cloven foot. 
klo'-dfet, neat's-foot oil. 
klof'-ter, a cord — as of wood. 
klof -ter-hols, cord wood ; forest 

trees which are intended for 

cord wood. 
Mok, bell. 
Mok' -ka-blum, columbine ; lit., bell 

flower. 
Mop'-pa, to knock, to pound with a 

hammer or other instrument. 
klap'-hengshd, a stallion from which 
one testicle has been removed. 
Mdr, clear, pure. 
klo'-ra, to clear, to purify. 
Mots, block. 

klugh, intelligent, erudite. 
kluk, brood hen ; an old hen. 
kluk'-ka, to cluck, like a hen. 
kluk'-sa, to cluck, like a hen. 
klum'-pa, a lump, a heap, a bunch. 
Mum'-pich. lumpy. 
klum'-sich, clumsy, bungling. 
knaib, shoemaker's knife. 
kmik, knot ; skein. 
knak'-ka, to crack — as nuts. 
knak'-warsht, hard smoked sausage. 
knal, a clap, as of thunder ; a sharp 

loud report. 
knaps, scarcely ; close, stingy. 
kaav'-a-w'l, gristle. 
knar'-a-w'lich, cartilaginous. 
knar'-ich, 1. knotty. 

2. given to grumbling. 
knar'-ra, 1. to snarl or growl ; to 

grumble. 
2. a knot — as on a tree, or in 

wood. 
kndr'-sha, to gnash, to grate. 
kna'-wa-ra, to gnaw ; to nibble at. 
knep'-pa, to button. 
kne'-w'l, a stick used for twisting ; 

a gag. 
km, knee ; angle in a stove-pipe. 
km' -a, to kneel. 



lloflman.] 



246 



[Dee. 21, 



knik'-ka, to break, without separa- 
tion of pieces. 

knip'-l, a club. 

kni'-rhn, shoemaker's strap. 

knV-ri-ma, shoemaker's strap for 
holding the shoe to the top of 
the knee, in mending. 

krii'-ihaib, knee pan — patella. 

km' -wand, the wall of a house ex- 
tending from the floor of the 
garret to the roof. 

kneck'-'l, a small bone ; a joint of 
the fingers. 

kneeht, male servant ; hired man 
for farm work. 

knoch'-a, bone, bones. 

knock' -a-man, skeleton. 

knock' -a-mel, bone dust. 

knock'-, i-i/i'/r-i-gh'l, skeleton. 

knock'-ick, bony, lean. 

knod-d'l, 1. a lump. 

2. an awkward fellow. 

knod'-er-a, to grumble. 

knod'-'l, a small lump. 

knod'-lich, 1. given to grumbling. 
2. precarious, meagre or with 
poor success. 

knod'-'lsup, a soup made of small 
hard lumps of dough. The 
more frequent term is ri'-w'l- 
sup. 

knop, button, a knot. 

knop'loch, button hole. 

kno'-w'lock, garlic. 

Jcock, cook. 

korh'.n, to boil, to cook. 

koch'-ap-pH, apples lit tor baking or 
boiling. 

kock'fletk, DMftt for boiling. 

hoch 1 tut f pi, boiling pot. 
boiling not. 

k'ir/t' ke.g-H'l, kettb; for boiling. 
/.„•/, I, j' 7, ladle. 

fa, aooklog Htovo. 

[ mil. 
>iil. 



ko'la-bren'-ner, charcoal burner. 

kd'-la-e n '-mer, coal scuttle. 

ko'-la-griib, coal mine. 

kol'-el, kerosine — coal oil. 

kol'-ik, colic. 

kol'-of'-fa, coal stove. 

kol'-wa, ear of corn ; core. 

kop, head. 

kop'cha, cup. 

kop'-pa-kis'sa, pillow ; lit., head 

pillow, or cushion. 
kop'skuiur-tm, headache. 
kop'-we, headache. 
kor, choir. 

ko'-ri-an'-der, coriander. 
kosk'-da, costs, expenses. 
koskt, 1. food, board or boarding. 

2. cost, value. 
kosk'-tard, custard. 
koskt'-bar, costly, expensive. 
koskv '-geng-er, boarder. 
kots, vomit. 
kot'sa, to vomit. 
krack, a crash ; the sound of a gun 

discharge. 
krack'-a, a crash, a cracking sound. 
Jcrad'-'l-d, to crawl, to climb. 
krad'-'l-ick, crawling, sprawling. 
krad'sa, to scratch. 
I.i-.kU tick, irritating, pungent. 
kraft, vigor, strength. 
Jtraid, chalk. 
krctidi, a cross. 
Lriiidx'-bnit, lame in the hip-joint; 

hip shot. 
kraids'-itrk, cross-road. 
In-'iis. citric 
k>;ti'-sh,i, to cry out, to yell, to 

shout. 
/./■'imp, cramp. 
/,i;i/i, ii crown. 

mi, 1 . a barb of an ear of 

grain. 

Ii bones -particularly the 

thin long ones — rib* 
Ii. to crown. 



1888.] 



247 



[Hoffman. 



krank. sick. 

krank'-het, sickness. 

krap, crow. 

krans, wreath, garland. 

kiaut, cabbage, weeds ; plants. 

kraut' -ho' -to' I, cabbage cutter — for 
slaw ; lit, cabbage plane. 

kra'-w'l-a, to crawl, to creep. 

kra'-w'l-ich, creeping, crawling. 

kra-yer, a crier. 

kre'-a, to crow ; to boast. 

kre'-ak, corn, sometimes applied to 
a bunion. 

krebs, 1. a crab. 
2. cancer. 

kreds, itch — cutaneous affection. 

kref'-ta, strength, vigor. 

kreft'-ich, vigorous, strong. 

krem'-blr, cranberry. 

kre'-mer, peddlar. 

kre'-mer-a, to peddle ; to carry 
around for sale. 

krenk-ka, to grieve, to regret. 

krenk'-'l-a, to complain of sickness; 
to take sick. 

krenk'-lich, sickly, delicate. 

kie'-ser, larger. 

kreU, itch — cutaneous disease. 

krids'-'l-a, to scribble. 

krid'-s'l-ar, a scribbler. 

krig, war. 

krV-gha, 1. to get, to receive, to 
procure. 
2. to war with one another, as 
nations. 

krl'-gher, warrior. 

/>■>■//., war. 

krik, 1. a creek ; small stream. 
2. a crutch. 

krik' -a -fish, fish taken from fresh- 
water streams, in con- 
tradistinction to salt-water 
fish. 

krik'-s'l, cricket. 

krim'-Ua, to crumble. 

krim'-lieh, brittle, crumbling. 



krish, a cry, a scream, a shout. 

krishd'-kind'l, Christmas gifts ; lit., 
little Christ child. 

krith'-kin-d'l, Santa Claus. 

kri sht' -dag, Christmas. 

krisht'-war-ts'l, hellebore. 

kris'-'l, a thrill, a shock, a chill. 

krin'-lich. horrible, shocking. 

krol, curl. 

krol' la, to curl. 

krol'-ler, a variety of cake, made 
similar to doughnuts. In 
some localities they are con- 
sidered identical. 

krol'-lich, curly. 

krd'-ner, coroner. 

krop, 1. craw. 

2. rude, coarse. 

kro'-w'l-a, to grumble ; to fumble, 
to grovel. 

krud'-sa, core — of fruit; cob — of 
corn. 

krud'-sich, 1. full of cores. 

2. miserable, "from hand to 
mouth." 

3. stunted, meagre. 
kruk, jug, pitcher, crock. 
knu/i, crooked, curved. 
krusht, crust. 
kvusht'-ich, crusty. 
/./■'/s's'l-blr, gooseberry. 
kshdik, cannon. 

kihlar-iif -fa ksicht, mask or false - 
face. 

ks7ipen8ht, apparition. 

kthwai, sister-in-law. 

kthwair, justice of the peace. 

kshwii'-ra, a boil, boils. 

k8im,8, a strip of wood extending 
around the walls of a room, 
to prevent chair backs 
from injuring the plaster- 
ing. 

ku, cow. 

knch'-a, cake, cakes. 

kuch'-a plat, griddle. 



Hoffman.] 



248 



[Dec. 21, 



kuclc'-a-rel-cha, a small instrument 
for cutting and decorating 
pie dough ; consists of a small 
wheel at the end of a handle, 
similar to a wheel-barrow in 
construction. The wheels are 
usually serrated, or have an 
undulating periphery. 

kud'-'ld, 1. tangled. 

2. hurried, bungled. 

kud'-'l-fltk, tripe. 

ku'-gh'l, bullet, ball. 

kum-a-rad 1 ', comrade. 

hum' -has, compass. 

kum'-et, horse collar. 

kum-et', comet. 

kum'-et-dek. housing. 

k>im'-et-shpe n , hanies. 

kum'-ma, to come. 

kun'-na, 1. customers, patrons. 
2. importance, important facts 
or results. 

kun'-shaft, custom. 

kunsht, skill, art. 

kun'-shta-v'l, constable. 

kun'shta-w'l-er, constable. 

/,up'-j»r, copper. 

I.'ip'-per-kop, copperhead — snake. 

kup'-p'r, copper. 

ku'-rus, copperas. 

kutsh, coach. 

kwed'-sha, 1. plums, prunes. 
'J. to bruise, to squeeze. 

kicek'-siUwer, mercury ; quicksilver. 

kwel, spring, i 

l.ir.l, bother, torment, annoyance. 
la, to torment, to worry or 
annoy. 

kwel' l<i. to dampen or moisten so 
as to cause swelling ; to boil. 

kwe'li<li, tormenting, worrying. 

i. it. i,' d'l, thyme. 

I.ir, t, quoit. 

' a quilt. 

In quilt. 

:i quilling; quilting parly. 



kwit, quince. 
k'wit'-ter, lightning. 
k'wit'-er-a, 1. to thunder and light- 
ning. 
2. threatening thunder storm. 
kvooV -la-flesh, dry-beef. 
kwot-em' -her, Ember days. 

la n , wages, salary. 

lab, foliage ; dry leaves upon the 

ground, as found in woods. 
lab'-frosJi, tree frog. 
lach'-a, to laugh. 
lad, 1. a load. 

2. coffin. 
la' -da, 1. to load. 

2. a window shutter. 
lad'-ing, gun charge, a load. 
lad'-rnbs, measure for ammunition 

for a gun. 
lad'-shtek-ka, ram-rod. 
Utf, gun barrel. 
la '-fa, to walk, to go. 
laf'-tsait, rutting season. 
la'-gher, a resort, a place to lie. 
la'-gha-ra, to lie clown. 
la'-ghar-fer, camp meeting. 
lagk, lye. 

iii' a, to lie down, to recline. 
lai'-ar, monotony, rut, the same 
way, sameness ; alt lai'-ar, 
"the same old thing." 
lai'-a-ra, to accomplish slowly. 
lail>, body. 
lath' haft- ich, bodily, with energy, 

vigorous. 
laib'-shmar-tsa, pain in the stomach 

or bowls. 
laili' -ire, 1. pain in the stomaeh. 

2. diarrhua. 
lair/it, 1. light (in weight); easy. 

2. light (in color). 

8. a funeral. 
latch 1 ta, 1. tO lighten, t<> relieve. 

to Ignite, to light. 

lairftt' fi-nir/i, light footed, swift. 



1888.] 



249 



[Hoffman. 



laicht' -sin-nich, thoughtless, fickle. 

lai'-da, 1. to suffer, to endure. 
2. cares, sufferings. 

laid' -lick, agreeable. 

laim, glue. 

lai'-ma, to glue. 

laim'-ich, gluey, sticky. 

laim' -led-' r, scraps of leather; leath- 
er shavings. 

lain, a line ; a course. 

lai'-na, 1. to line. 

2. linen, made of linen. 

lain'-duch, bed sheet, linen sheet. 

lain' -ol-ich, linseed oil. 

laishd, 1. lath, a slat of wood. 
2. a shoemaker's last. 

laishd'-ho'-w'l, head plane. 

laishd' -na-gh' I, lath nail. 

laishd' -tu, to lathe, or to nail laths. 

lait, people, folks. 

lait'-hars, cavalry. 

lak-sl'-ra, to purge ; to physic. 

lak-sir' -ing, purgative ; cathartic. 

lam, lamb. 

lam, lame. 

Id'-me-sich, law-abiding ; according 
to law ; legal. 

lam'-'l, a lubberly, awkward fellow. 

lam'-Uait, ewing season. 

Ian', shaft — of carriage. 

land, land, country. 

land' -e-ghner, land-owner ; proprie- 
tor of lands, or farm. 

land'-kart, map, chart. 

land'-mes-ser, surveyor. 

land' -re-gha, a settled rain ; lit., 
land rain. 

land' -shaft, landscape, region, area 
of territory. 

land' -&MW -krot, tortoise ; lit., land 
turtle. 

lung, long, length. 

lang'-a, to reach, to hand. 

lung'-kwid, connecting pole of a 
wagon. 

lang'-lich, oblong, lengthy. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 



lang'-lich rund, oval. 

lung 1 '-mi-dich, enduring, forbearing. 

lang'-or' t long-ear ; sometimes used 
to denote an ass or mule. 

lang'-sam, slowly, tediously. 

lang'-sam, slowly, tediously. 

lang' -sich-tich, long-sighted (presby- 
opia). 

lawj' -wer-ich, tedious, lasting. 

lands' -man, countryman, one from 
the rural district. 

larb'-sa, to speak with an indistinct 
and guttural voice. 

larbs'-icJi, in an indistinct or gut- 
tural voice ; drawling. 

lar-'ich, meadow lark (Sturnella 
magna). 

b'tr'-'m, alarm, noise. 

lar'-ma, 1. to alarm ; to make a 
noise. 
2. noise, alarm. 

lar'-na, to learn, to acquire. 

liini'-ing, learning. 

lasht, a burden, a charge. 

lash' -der-haft, vicious. 

hts'ich-ktdt, lassitude, indisposition. 

hit, lath. 

lat, coffin. 

la-tam', lantern. 

lai'-war-ik, apple butter. 

laud, loud, with noise. 

laudt, loud, with noise. 

lau'-er-a, to listen, to be on the 
watch for obtaining informa- 
tion. 

laud'-'r, nothing but ; only. 

laus, louse. 

laus'-ich, lousy. 

laut, loud, with noise. 

le n , alone, solitary. 

lib, 1. lion. 
2. a loaf. 

leb'-ar-a, to sip, to tipple. 

leb'-dak, during life. 

hit' -haft, lively, vivacious. 

leb' -kucli' -a, honey cakes. 
129. 2p. printed peb. 25, 1889. 



Hoffman.] 



250 



[Dec. 21, 



ltb'-pi*li t flat in taste, unsavory. 

leb-raich, benevolent, kind. 

lech-ar, holes ; pi. of loch. 

leeh'-ar-ich, full of holes, or open- 
ings. 

lech' -ar -licit, laughable, amusing. 

lech'-' I, a small hole ; a small open- 
ing. 

led, sorrow, regret. 

le'-da, tired of ; to have disgust. 

led'-ar, leather. 

U -der, ladder. 

h '-iler-bnm, ladder beams. 

•-shpros'-sa .rounds of a ladder. 

U'-der-ica'-gha, wagon with rack, 
for carrying hay or grain. 

led'-ich, single, not married. 

le'-dich, tired of, wearied. 

led'-ich-iir-nn-ma, maiden name ; 
lit., single name. 

led'-'l, lath. 

led'-'rn, of leather, leathern. 

Ieds7tt, the last, final. 

Ud'-t'l, lath. 

led'-t'r-a, 1. to whip, to beat. 

2. to leather or to cover with 
leather. 

ledt&h, latch. 

le'-far, runner (shlit'-ta le'-far, 
sleigh runner). 

le'far-sai, shoats. 

lefts, lip. 

spoon, dipper. 

leg'-ai, nest egg. 

l> !l' -iii'-*ii, axle plate. 

I< '-.'///</, to lay, to put, to place. 
■■'./ ■' il, a laying hen. 

le'-gh'l-a, to deny. 

lek'-shan-rii'-ra, to canvass, to elec- 
tioneer. 
</., lilac. 
no, day. 

//,/./,. elaycy. 
• / /.//, sorrowful, down' 
l,n, lain-. | inn row roadway seldom 
I, and generally ;>n. 



le n/ na, to lend; to loan. 

lend'-lich, rural, pertaining to the 
country. 

len'-er, garden beds, arranged for 
plants. 

leng, length. 

leng'-lich, lengthy. 

Ungsht, long ago, length. 

le'-nich, lonely, lonesome. 

lev, empty ; learning. 

le'-ra, to learn ; to educate, to teach. 

le'-sa, 1. to read. 

2. to pick up, to gather. 

lesh'-a, to quench. 

lesh'-der, annoyance ; trouble, a 
bore. 

lesh'-der-a, to annoy, to blaspheme ; 
to slander. 

leshdt, a last ( — used by cobblers). 

lets, 1. wrong, not correct. 
2. turned wrong side out. 

let'shta, the last. 

let'-ta, clay. 

le'-wa, to live, to exist. 

le'-wa-lang, life long. 

le'-was, life, during a life-time ; ex- 
perience. 

le,' -was-far-sich' -er-ing, life insur- 
ance. 

le'-voas-gfor, in danger of life. 

le 1 -u>a' -shtrof, capital punishment. 

le'-was-tsait, life-time. 

h'-ica-irol, live well; a farewell wish. 

le-wen' -dich, alive, living. 

le'-wer, liver. 

le'-wcr-icarsht, liver pudding ; lit., 
liver sausage. 

le'-w'r grout, liverwort. 

lib, love, affection. 

I'tb'-hiiw'r, lover, admirer. 
tib'-lich, lovely, savory 
lirlit, light, candle, lamp. 
lirlit' Iniil Hf)\ siiull'ers. 
lir/if men, eandlemas. 
liclif'r fur m, mould tor making lal 
|OH cand es. 



1888.1 



251 



IHoflman. 



lichl'-'r-mach-er, tallow chandler. 
lid, hymn. 
U'-da, 1. to solder. 
2. to lead 

lifd'ich, airy, breezy. 

li'-gha, to lie, to falsify. 

ll'-ghnar, liar. 

ligk, a lie. 

lik, a gap, a space ; an unoccupied 
place . 

lik'-ar, liquor; usually applied to 
whisky. 

lil'-ya, lily. 

ling 1 -I, a wild fellow, one full of 
mischief. 

links, left, to the left ; left-handed. 

lin'-na, linden tree, or wood. 

lish'da, to enlist ; to enroll. 

lishdt, list. 

UVl-haus, an isolated water closet, 
or privy. 

li'-wa, to love. 

li'-wi, sweetheart, a dear one (ap- 
plied to females). 

li'-w'r, a dear one (applied to male), 
a lover. 

Id, tan ; crushed oak bark for tan- 
ning hides. 

lob, praise, love. 

loch, hole, opening. 

loch'-sek, a narrow bladed handsaw 
for scroll work. 

loil', a load. 

lo'-d'l, a loafer ; a tippler. 

Ib'-d'l-a, to loaf, to idle. 

lo-drV, lottery. 

lo'-fen'-d'l, lavender. 

lok'-ka, 1. to call, to entice. 
2. a lock of wool. 

lok'-ish, having locks. 

Ib'-kus, 1. a locust (cicada). 
2. locust tree. 

lop'-pa, a flap, rag, patch. 

lb' -rod, tan colored ; lit., tau red. 

Ids, 1. loose, not secured. 
2. a sow. 



lot, 1. let, allow. 

2. negligent, careless , the word 
las is generally used. 
los'-bnch-a, to break away, to es- 
cape. 
losh'-der, vice. 

lon'-ka-fa, to ransom. 

Ids' -kum' -ma, to get off, to get free, 
to escape. 

los'-los-sa, to liberate, to set off or 
free. 

lbs' -mach-a, to loosen, to untie. 

los'-rai-sa, to tear off; to break 
away. 

lbs' -sin' -sa, to shoot off. 

lbs' -shrau-wa, to unscrew. 

lot, a lot. 

lot'-tar-l', lottery. 

Vi'-trarm, luke-warm, tepid. 

lu n , wages, salary. 

lu'-d'r, carrion. 

lu'-d'r-fo-gh'l, turkey buzzard ; lit., 
carrion bird. 

lud'-'r-ish, Lutheran. 

luft, air, breeze. 

hift'-rbr, trachea ; air-tube. 

lu'-na, linchpin. 

Inks, lynx. 

lum'-er-ich, limber, flaccid. 

lum'-pa, rag, rags. 

lum/i'-ich, ragged. 

lung, lung. 

lung'-a-graut, lungwort. 

lush'-da, desire, want, delight. 

lush' -dar-a, to have desire, to want. 

lush'-diir-ich, luscious. 

lush'-dich joyful, merry. 

lut'-ser, lantern. 

'm, 'm-a', 1. prefixed to a noun, 
and the latter followed by 
sai n — his, completes posses- 
sion ; equivalent to the apos- 
trophe preceding 's in Eng- 
lish — to form the possessive 
case. 



Hoflfrnan.] 



252 



[Dec. 21, 



2. Also signifying to a, for a, 
"with a, etc., the particular 
shade of meaning depending 
upon context. 

mach'-a, to make, to do; to hasten. 

mad, maid, a female servant. 

ma-de'-ring, pus, matter. 

mag, 1. may. 
2. poppy. 

ma'-gha, stomach. 

ma'-gha-bal'-sam, mint. 

ma' -ghakramp, stomach cramp. 

md'-gher, lean; unproductive. 

mat 1 , my, mine. 

mag'-net, magnet. 

mat, May. 

mai'-ab'-p'l, May-apple — fruit of 
Podophyllum peltalum. 

mai-blum, lily of the valley ; lit., 
May-flower. 

mai'-da, to shun, to quit, 
mile. 

mail'-8hte a , milestone. 

main'-da, 1. to mind ; to heed. 
2. to extract ore from a mine. 

maindt, ore ; ore mine. 

maind'-ta, to dig ore ; to work an 
ore mine. 

mai'-ner, mine ; refers to a sub- 
stantive masculine. 

mai'-ni, mine ; refers to a substan- 
tive feminine. 

mains, mine ; refers to possession, 
of a substantive of neuter 
gender, or one of diminutive 
form. 

maWehiashttl, extremely quite ; 
lit., as still as a mouse. 

mait'-o-ra, saxifrage. 

mai-ya, to go Maying ; to celebrate 
the first of May by baying 
I'icnicsor excursions into the 
woods. 

t<. grind. 

mAV i*'iit, mini lime. 
m.ili, mult. 



miim, mamma, mother. 

mam' -mi, mammy; i. e., mother. 

man, husband ; man. 

ma n '-na, 1. mane, manes. 
2. to moan, to lament. 

man' -dak, Monday. 

man'-d'l, mantle cloak. 

man'-d'l-kdrn, almond. 

mandt, moon. 

mandt'-shai n , moon's light ; moon- 
shine. 

mandt' -un-er-gang, setting of the 
moon. 

ma n -net, month. 

mang'l, 1. want, destitution. 
2. craving or desire for. 

mang'l-a, to crave, to want. 

mang'l-haft, unsatisfactory. 

man' -ic7i-er, many-a-one — refers to 
masculine gender. 

man 1 -ich-faldt, the third stomach of 
ruminants. 

man'-ich-es, many-a-one ; refers to 
neuter gender. 

man'-ich-i, many-a-one ; refers to 
feminine gender. 

ma-nir', manners, habit. 

ma-nir' -I ich, well-behaved, polite. 

ma-nir' -I irh led, politeness. 

man 1 shaft, crew ; garrison. 

mans'-lait, men, gentlemen ; males. 

mar, mare. 

ma'-ra-aV, cocoanut ; lit., mare's 

egg- 
ma-rid', moral ; morality. 
ma-ral'-ish, moral. 
ma-tan', sweet marjoram. 
lmirh, ripe, tender. 
mar 1 d,ir, murder. 
mar* &at ", tO murder. 
miir'-il'ir <ir, murderer. 
murd'-hn ii-iii r, ineeiidiary. 
nmrd' din//, murder. 
iiiiird/n. March. 

mar* tk, market 
m.ir' Ob, mark, sign. 



1888.] 



253 



[Hoftman. 



mar' -ik-ka, to mark. 
mar'-iks, marrow. 
mark' -war-tich, remarkable, won- 
derful. 
marsh' -er, a mortar. 
mar' -ya, to-morrow. 
mar' -ya-shtund, morning, daybreak. 
mar'yeds, in the morning. 
mashd, 1. fattening. 

2. luxuriant (growth of plants). 
mashd' -sai, fattening hogs. 
masht'-sau, a hog fattening for 

slaughter. 
masht' -darm, rectum. 
mat, faint, weak, debilitated. 
mat' -ich-ked, debility, faintness. 
maul, mouth, opening. 
mau'la, to give impudence ; to 

grumble. 
maul'-bir, mulberry. 
maul'-e-sel, mule. 
maul'-fol, mouthful. 
maul'-ich, saucy, impertinent. 
maul'-karb, muzzle; lit., mouth 

basket. 
maul' -uf-shpar'-ra, to yawn, to gape. 
maul'-warf, mole. 
mau''r, wall. 
mau''r-ar, mason. 
mau''r-senk' el, plumb-bob. 
maus, mouse. 
mau'-sa, 1. to catch mice (as a cat). 

2. to molt, to shed the hair. 
maus' dot, dead, equal to the com- 
mon expression "stone dead." 
maus'-fal, mouse trap. 
maus'-kats, a mouser. 
maus'-or, saxifrage. 
maus' -tsait, molting season. 
me n , more. 

me' -a, to mow, to reap. 
me'bla, maple. 
meb'-lais, tick seed. 
mecht, might, strength. 
mecht'-ich, mighty, powerful. 
med'-ar-la, feather few. 



med-a-tsin' , medicine. 

med'-chia, a little girl. 

med''l, girl. 

med'-s'l-a, to massacre ; to chop up. 

medt' , 1. girls. 

2. the place (and time) where 
mowing is done. 

me'gha, to be allowed, to have lib- 
erty. 

meg'-lich, possible ; probable. 

meg'-na-tai'sa, to mesmerize ; to 
magnetize. 

mekaht, might. 

mel, meal, flour. 

mel'-da, to report, to announce. 

mi' lick, mealy. 

mel'-ka, to milk. 

mil' -tup, porridge; pap. 

mem, mother. 

me'-na, to mean, to think, to intend ; 
to believe or have an opinion. 

men'-chia, male of birds, etc.; lit., 
little man. 

me n '-ner, more. 

meng'-a, to mix. 

men'-ing, opinion ; meaning ; sig- 
nification. 

mensh, person, being, man. 

men'-sha, people, inhabitants. 

men' -sha-al' -der, generation. 

men'shafaind, misanthrope; an 
enemy to human beings. 

mensh' a-far-shtand' , common in- 
telligence ; common sense. 

men' -sha-fraind, philanthropist. 

men' -sha-hilf, human aid. 

mensh' -hed, humanity, human kind. 

mensh' -tens, mostly, generally. 

mer, to me ; we ; one. 

me' red-ich, horse-radish. 

mer'-hait, majority. 

mes, brass. 

mesh'ta, 1. to feed for fattening. 
2. to remove manure from a 
pen, or stall, and supply fresh 
bedding. 



Hoflman.] 



254 



[Dec. 21, 



mes'-sa, 1. to measure. 
2. brazen ; of brass. 

mea'-aar, 1. knife. 

2. one who measures. 

mes'-sar-kling, knife blade. 

me'sel, chisel. 

me'-sel-a, to chisel, to join. 

mesh'd'r, master. 

mesh'-d'r-wart-a'l, master-wort. 

me'-sich, frugal. 

mi, pains, labor pains, trouble ; 
concern. 

mich, me. 

mid, middle. 

mid'-da, in the middle ; between. 

mid'-dak, midday, noon ; dinner. 

mid' -dak-ea' -aa, dinner. 

ml' dich-ked, lassitude. 

mid? I, sore hand ; sometimes ap- 
plied to a felon. 

mid'-'l-a, to meddle. 

mid'-'l-ar, a mediator, a "middle- 
man." 

mid'-'l-bar, mediate. 

mid'-'l-mel, middlings — second 
grade of flour. 

mid'-'l-me-sich, tolerable, moderate. 

mid'-'l-mda, average ; lit., middle 
measure. 

mid' -H punk-ka, centre.centre point. 

mid' -ter- nar Id, midnight. 

mi>l'-t'l, remedy. 

mid'-woch, Wednesday. 

mi' (jldich, possible. 

mik, fly. 

mik'-kn-blaah'-der, fly plaster (can- 
tliarides). 

in il. 'kit ijiini, Hy net — for horses. 

mik' -kit ■!/'»/iin; fly net for horses ; 
fit., Hy hurneM. 

mik'-a'Ufu'-dtr, mixed feed for ani- 
mals. 

mil, mill. 

</('.•//, mill pond, a race. 
■him, milldam. 
•l<iu, mililew. 



mil'-ich, milk. 

mil' -ich-graut, milk weed. 

mil'-ich-haus, dairy. 

mil'-ich-lior, down, of the cheeks ; 

lit., milk hair. 
mil'-ich-kel'-lar, cellar where milk 

is kept. 
mil' -icli-saft, chyle. 
mil' -ich-sai' , milk strainer. 
mil-its', militia. 
mil'-lar, miller. 
vnl'-mach-er, millwright. 
mils, spleen. 
mils'-ich, melancholy. 
mils' -krank-et, melancholia. 
mils' -krank-het' , melancholia. 
mll'-shtab, dust or sweepings of a 

grist mill. 
mil-yan', million. 
mil-yun', million (frequently used 

in the rural districts). 
min-udt', minute. 
mlr, we. 

mi'-sel-ich, wearisome. 
ml' -sel-ich-ked, wearisomeness. 
mi'sich, idle. 

vii'-sich-gang, habitual idleness. 
mis' -brauch-a, to misuse ; to abuse. 
mi8'-drau-a, to distrust ; to mistrust. 
m in ' drau-i8h, suspicious . 
mis' -far-gunt' , envy. 
mis' -far-shtend' -nis, misunderstand- 
ing. 
mis-fo'-ln, to displease. 
mis-fol'-ya, to disobey. 
mis'-gun-nish, envious. 
mis' -gun slid, envy. 
>iiixli'-bla, persimmons. 
mishd' lt»f, dung yard ; barn yard. 
mishdt, dung, manure. 
mish'-tii, to manure, to remove man 

ure from stalls. 
mia'-lich, uncertain. 
mia'-aa, 1. to be obliged, must. 

2. to miss, to lail to meet, or 

accomplish. 



1888.] 



255 



[Hoftman. 



mis'-s'r-a-w'l, miserable ; wretched. 

mit, with, along; middle. 

mit' -bring -a, to bring along with ; 
to contribute. 

mit'-gfil, sympathy. 

mit'-hel-fa, to assist ; to aid. 

mit'-7ielf-es, assistance ; charity. 

mit'-hilf, assistance, aid. 

mit' I, remedy. 

mit'-laidt, sympathy. 

mit-lai-das, sympathy. 

mit'-lok'-ka, to entice ; to call along 
with, or away. 

mil'-mach-a, to take part ; to par- 
ticipate. 

mits, mittens. 

mod' -el, a mould, or pattern ; a 
model. 

mod'-'l-a, to model, to mould. 

viol. 1. time ; once ; once on a time. 
Also pronounced in various 
localities as t-mbV. 
2. a mark, natva mate rim. 

mb'-la, to draw, with pencil or pen. 

mb'-lar, a draughtsman ; one who 
draws. 

mo-las'-es, molasses. 

mo-las' -ieh, molasses. 

mb'ler, 1. a mole, or mark upon 
the skin. 
2. a draughtsman. 

mb'-li, once ; corruption of e n '-mol. 

mol'ka, whey. 

mops' -kop, a dull fellow ; a mope. 

mo-rasht', morass, mud. 

mba, 1. moss. 

2. measure (of capacity). 

moah'-kop, "mush-head," a stupid 
fellow. 

mo8-Un', muslin. 

mos'-s'l-in', muslin. 

mud'-ich, moody, spirited. 

mud'-lba, dejected ; without energy. 

mud' -ma-aa, to surmise, to conjec- 
ture. 

mud'-'r-graut, mother-wort. 



mud'-'r-karn, the black grains found 
in rye, known as ergot. 

mud'-'rue, pressure within the 
stomach and oesophagus, 
caused by indigestion, etc. — 
hysteria. 

mudt, mood, condition, disposition. 

mud'-t'r, 1. mother. 

2. womb. 

3. mother — of vinegar. 

4. burr of a screw. 
mud'-t' r-ahbf, ewe. 
mud'-t'r-ahprbch, mother tongue. 
muk, a fly. 

mul'-li kop, tadpole. 
mund'-er, active, lively ; well. 
mua, must. 
muah'-der, pattern. 
muahkad' -nia, nutmeg ; nutmegs. 
muah-kad' -nus, nutmeg. 
mush'-ked, musket. 
mu8h'-kit'-ter, mosquito. 
mu8h'-'l, muscle ( — bivalve). 
mut'-tb, motto. 

'n, 1. contraction of German tin, 
n, eines ; as a prefix, or 
preceding a word signifies a, 
an. 
2. contraction of German iJin, 
ihutii, es ; as a suffix, or fol- 
lowing a word, signifies him, 
them, to them. 

nab, hub — of a wheel. 

naclit, night. 

nacJW -luif -fa, chamber pot. 

nacht'-es-8a, supper. 

nacht'-mbl, Communion; the Lord's 
Supper. 

nac7U'-wech-der, night watchman. 

na-dir'-lich, natural. 

na-dir' -lich-ar-wais' , naturally ; in 
the course of events. 

na-dir 1 -lich-ked, natural, natural- 
ness. 

na-dur', nature. 



Hoffman. J 



256 



LDec. 21, 



na-dur'-ga wa, natural gifts; talents. 

na-dur' -ken-ner, naturalist. 

na'-e, near, neighborhood of. 

na'-gha, to gnaw. 

na'-ghas, a gnawing ; remorse. 

na'-gh'l, nail. 

na'-gKl a, to nail. 

na'gh'l-bd'-ra, gimlet. 

na'-yh'l-fasht, immovable, fixed. 

na'-g7i'l-flus, whitlow. 

nai, new. 

nai n , in, into. 

nai"'-brech-a, to break in ; to bur- 
glarize. 

naP'-bring-a, to bring in, or into. 

naid, envy. 

nai'-dich, envious. 

nai' -gir-ish, inquisitive. 

nai'-ich-ke'-da, news. 

naP 1 ' '-laich-ta, to light one into an 
apartment ; to show to a 
room by also carrying a 
light. 

nai'-lich, lately, recently. 

nai' Held, new moon; lit., new light. 

nai n '-na, nine. 

nap' -se n -na, to understand ; to 
comprehend ; lit., to see into. 

nai"' -shpdr-ra, to lock, or bolt into ; 
to secure. 

nat"' -shtim-ma, to elect to office. 

nak'-ich, naked ; bare. 

na'-ma, 1. a name. 
2. to name. 

na'-ma-buch, dictionary. 

na'mens, by the name of; named. 

nan'-ner, together, one another. 

nar, tool. 

' drech, foolishness. 

nar' -a-haus, insane asylum. 

ushtrcch, an act of foolishness. 

nardt, north. 

'. northerly, toward the 

IIOl'lll. 

minli' lirht, aurora borealis. 
■ n, aurora borealis. 



ndrf, nerve ; courage. 

nar' -haft, nutritious, power of sus- 
taining. 

ndr'-ish, crazy, insane. 

nctr' -ish-ke' -da, foolishness, "tom- 
foolery." 

n'ar'yeds, nowhere, in no place ; 
from in and dr'-yets. 

nas, wet, moist. 

nas, nose. 

nets' -ham, rhinoceros. 

nasht, branch of a tree. 

nas'-loch, nostril ; lit., nose hole. 

nau n , now. 

na'-w'l, navel. 

na'-w'l-bin, navel band, or bandage. 

na-w'l-bruch, umbilical rupture. 

na'-w'l-shnur, umbilical cord. 

nau'-ba, anything serious, or re- 
quiring delicate procedure or 
manipulation ; difficulty of 
accomplishment, almost an 
equivalent of the common 
expression "no joking." 

ne, neighborhood, vicinity. 

ne n , no. 

ne'-a, to sew. 

ne'-ar, nearer ; seldom used, the 
usual word being ne'-ghar. 

ne'-arn, milliner, seamstress. 

ne'-char, nearer. 

nech'-ber-lich, neighborly. 

ne'-dich, needy, necessary. 

ned'-lich, irritable, fault finding. 

ne'-dich-a, to invite. 

ne'-ghar, 1. nearer. 
2. negro. 

ne'-gh'l-chiar, cloves; small nails; 
lit., small nails. 

negsht, next, mar. nearest. 

neksht, near, nearest, next. 

nem'lirh, namely ; as follow ; the 
same. 

nem'-ma, to take, to select. 

nem'-mar, a taker, or receiver. 

nen'-na, to name, to suggest. 



•<■] 



257 



[Hoflman. 



ne'-ra, to nourish. 

nesht, nest. 

nesht'-'l-a, to nestle, to smuggle. 

net, 1. not. 

2. neat, tidy. 
net' -des' -dx-wen' -ich-er, nevertheless 
nets, thread, sewing cotton. 
nets, peritoneum. 

ne'-wa, beside, aside of, on the side. 
ne'-wa-bai, from another source ; by 

the side of; from the side. 
ne'-wa-dra n , beside ; alongside of. 
ne'-wa-gaul, the horse hitched to the 

right of the saddle horse. 
ne'-wa-ye-bai'-er, out-buildings. 
ne'-wa-luir, alongside of ; lrom a 

side source. 
ne'-wa-!,' <>s h' ta, extra or incidental 

expenses. 
ne'-wa-xtick'-a, extra, things not es- 
sential. 
ne'-wa-shtros, side street ; by-way. 
ne'-w'l, fog, dew, mist. 
ne'-w'l-a, to fall like mist ; to fall 

like drizzling rain. 
ne'-w'l-ich, misty, foggy. 
nl a , never. 
■/</' da, to rivet. 
ni'-dar, down, low. 
ni'-dar-drech-dich, contemptible. 
ni'-dar-drech'-lich, contemptible, 

base. 
ni'-dar (jsldit'-ijha, depressed, de- 
jected, stricken down. 
ni'-dich-het, neatness. 
nikx, nothing. 

niks'-nuU, good-for-nothing. 
?tiks'-nutsich, worthless, bad. 
nikx' -wis-ser, know-nothing. 
nim'-me, no more, no longer ; from 

the German nicht niehr. 
nim'-maiult, no one. 
iiim'-mer, no more, no one. 
nim'-ini, no longer, no more, not 

any more. 
ni'-iaoldt, no one ; at no time. 

PIIOC. AMEIt. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 



nl'-moU, at no time, never. 

nip'-pa, to nip, to pinch. 

nir, kidney. 

ni'-ra-fet, suet. 

ni'-ra-graut, kidney-wort. 

ni'-ra-knunk'-tt, kidney disease. 

nl' -ra-shtik, the rump of veal. 

nir'-insh-lich, suet ; lit., kidney 
tallow. 

nis, 1. nits ; the eggs of lice or other 
small insects. 
2. nuts. 

nl'-sa, to sneeze. 

nish'-d'l-a, to nestle ; to smuggle. 

/li.s'shisser, gad fly. 

nis'-sich, nitty ; having nits. 

riit'-na-gh'l, rivet bolt. 

nils'-lich, useful. 

ni'-wer, across, over. 

' n-iui' , then, afterwards. 

no', after, then, afterwards. 

noch, yet, still. 

noch, after, toward. 

noeh'a-mol', again, once more. 

iu>c1l : -be' -da, to repeat a prayer after 
another. 

noch'-ber, neighbor. 

noch'-berlich, neighborly. 

noch'-ber shaft, neighborhood. 

uoi'h'-brihg a, to raise, to bring up. 

noch'-dem, after this, hereafter ; 
afterwards. 

nbch'-deitk-kit, to consider, to reflect. 

noch' -der -hand, afterwards. 

noch' -en-an' -er, successive, succes- 
sively ; one after another. 

noch' -es' -8a, an after meal ; a sec- 
ond table ; to eat after the 
rest. 

noch' -fro-gha, to inquire ; to famil- 
iarize through inquiry. 

noch' -gd-bort, the placenta — after- 
birth. 

noch'-gewa, to yield. 

nbch'-hdr, afterward, hereafter. 

noch' -hel-fa, to aid, to assist. 
129. 2g. printed mauch 5, 1889. 



Hoffman.] 



258 



[Dec. 21, 



noch'-kum-mes, descendants, de- 
scent. 

noch' -les-ich, careless, negligent. 

noch' -Us-ic?i-k< tit, carelessness, neg- 
ligence. 

nbch'-los-sa, to relax, to abate. 

noch' -mit-dak' , afternoon. 

noch'-mdls, afterwards, again. 

noch'-richt, a bit of news, notice. 

noch' -rich-ta, news. 

noch'-ier-hand, afterwards, subse- 
quently. 

noch'-wais, proof, explanation. 

nod'-glech, open link. 

no'-d'l, a needle. 

nod' -I, a bungler, a stupid fellow. 

nbd'-Vik, a "wbitelie;" a lie of 
necessity, or desire to avoid 
telling facts. 

nodt, 1. need, distress. 
2. seam. 

nbdV -lai-da, to suffer want ; to suf- 
fer loss or damages. 

nodl'-lai-ta, to suffer damages; to 
be in want. 

nod' -wen-ich, necessary, needful. 

nod' -ir,tn- ir h -hi i it, need, necessity. 

no-fem'-ber, November. 

no' -frb-gha, to inquire ; to familiar- 
ize one's self by inquiry. 

no'-ge-wa, to yield, to give in. 

ju'/'hel-fa, to aid or assist. 

nol, naugbt, cipher. 

v»' -los-sa, to relax, to abate. 

nb'-mach-a, to imitate, to counter- 
frit. 

nom'-miilnk, afternoon. 

r/,,i t to reach after, to at- 
tempt to reach after a thing. 

no'-rer/i <i, to rake, after the reaper. 
;//-./, to repent alter another. 

not, a note, letter or MIL 

nu'-d'l, noodle ; dough rolled out 
Hat ami cut into thin strands, 
in imitation of mneraroni, for 
•on p. 



nu'd'l-svp, noodle soup. 

nud'-sa, use, profit, service. 

n >//, up, upward to a place or posi- 
tion. 

nuf-tsus, upwards. 

nuk'-ka, to nod, to nudge. 

num'-ma, only, but. 

rtun'ar, down, downward ; down 
from a place or position. 

nun'-ar-t8u8, downwards. 

nup'-ba, to have important features, 
to be difficult of accomplish- 
ment ; corruption of nau'-ba. 

nur, only. 

nuts, use, of service. 

nut'-sa, of use, serviceable. 

ob, whether. 

obnht, fruit. 

obsht'-bam, fruit tree. 

och'dem, breath. 

od'-er, or. 

b'der, a vein ; frequently applied to 

artery — pols-bdir. 
b'-dtr-a, to ooze from a wound, 

or the abraded skin. 
b' der-lb'-sa, to bleed — venesection. 
od'-'r, or. 

of -en-bar, manifest. 
of -fa, stove, oven. 
of-fa-rbr, stove-pipe. 
ofkbrs', certainly ; corruption of 

English o/and course. 
ofn'-b<"tr'-i7ij, revelation. 
oft, often, frequently. 
oks, ox, steer. 
oks'-ich, brutal. 
ol, eel. 

o'Lius-war'-tscl, elecampane. 
<i'-lir/i, oil, oily. 
or, ear. 
d'-ra-bU'-$er, tale hearer, tattler. 

//,-, a hox on the ear, a slap on 

the ear of another, with the 

flat hand. 
b$, carrion. 



1883.1 



259 



IHoflman. 



os'-ha-na, turkey buzzard. 

bsh'-der-a, Easter. 

osh' -der-ai, Easter egg. 

bsh'-der-blum, narcissus. 

b'-tem, breath. 

o'-wer, whether he ; corruption of 

ob and er. 
b'-wet-rbdt, evening red — of sunset. 
o'-w'r-den, loft in a barn. 



pad, path, trail. 

pad-si- ent', a patient. 

paf, priest, preacher ; not a polite 
appellation. 

paif, 1. a pipe, a tube. 
2. a whistle. 

pai'-fa, to whistle ; to play the fife. 

pai'-far, a piper, a whistler. 

pail, an arrow. 

pai'-lar, 1. a pier — of a bridge. 
2. a pillow (seldom used). 

pain, torment, suffering. 

pain'-ich-a, to torment, to worry, 
to distress. 

pain'-lich, distressful, painful. 

pak, 1. package, a bundle. 
2. a pack. 

pa-lasht', palace. 

pan, pan. 

pan'. has, scrapple; a solid mass ob- 
tained by boiling buckwheat 
flour in the liquor resulting 
from boiling pudding ( — liver 
sausage); lit., pan rabbit. 

pan' -na-kuch' -a, pan cake ; pan 
cakes . 

pat, path, trail. 

par, pair, couple. 

pa'-ra, to pair, to match. 

par'-a-bla, small-pox. 

par' -a-bla-plan' -tsa, to vaccinate ; 
lit., to plant small-pox. 

par'-ra, pastor, minister of the 
Gospel. 

par'-radts, paradise. 



pepper. 



par' -ras-kin-ner, catechumens; can- 
didates in preparation for 
joining the church. 
par -sen' -lich, personal. 
pdr'-shvhg, peach. 
ped'-'l, a boat oar. 
ped'-H-a, 1. to peddle, to hawk 
about. 

2. to row — as a boat. 
ped'-'r, god-father. 
pedt8, in a quandary, in "a pinch," 

in a tight place. 
ped'-tsa, to pinch, to clamp. 
pef'-far, 
pef-fer, 
pek, 1. a package. 

2. a peck — measure. 
pen'-s'l, 1. a pencil. 

2. a paint brush. 
pesht, a pest, a bother. 
pesht'-blb'd'r, a carbuncle. 
pesh' -tich-a, to annoy, to harass. 
pe'-ter-li, parsley. 
pflech, foster. 
pflicht, duty, obligation. 
pjlich' -tich-a, to obligate. 
pflicht' -ich-kait, duty, obligation. 
pflicht' -lich, dutiful, obligatory. 
pif, a whistle, a shrill whistling 

sound. 
pik, 1. choice, selection. 

2. a pick or pick ax. 
pik'-ka, to pick, to select. 
pik' -tar, picture, an illustration. 
pilg'-rais, Pilgrim's progress. 
pin' -bo ra, pegging awl. 
ping'-shta, Whitsun-tide. 
pvhgiht' -blum, lilac (flower). 
pingsht' -man' -dak, Whit-Monday. 
pingsht'-na-gh'l, pink (flower). 
pink'-lich, punctual. 
pinkt'-lich, punctual. 
pin'-na-gh'l, peg — used by cobblers. 
pi'-rb, bureau. 
pish-dbl', pistol, revolver. 
pish' -per, a whisper. 



Hoffman.] 



260 



[Dec. 21, 



pisW-per-a, to whisper. 

pish'-bla, to whisper ; to converse 

in an undertone. 
pis' -sa -bet, dandelion. 
plads, place, space, room. 
plad'-sha, 1. to splash. 

2. to tattle or gossip. 
pla'-net, planet. 
plank, plank. 
plan' $<i, 1. to plant. 

2. pi. of plans, plant. 
plap'-er-maul, a tattler, a " blab- 

ber," a gossip. 
plash' -der-a, to plaster. 
plash'-d'r, plaster. 
pints, place, location, space. 
plau'-der, conversation ; the noise 

of voices in talking. 
plan' -der-a, to converse, to talk. 
plau'-der-ich, talkative. 
pie-sir', pleasure, enjoyment. 
pie-sir 1 -lich, enjoyable, agreeable. 
plok, 1. a plow. 

2. a log. 
plok, 1. annoyance, toil. 

2. sickness. 
plok'-ket, log chain ; used in drag- 
ging logs. 
plop'-per-ra, to babble, to tattle. 
i< '/' -ijhn, to plow. 
pink, a plow. 

pluk'-gren-d'l, plow beam. 
jil '//.'- shir, plow share. 
pod' -da, 1. to bud, to sprout. 

2. pi. of pod or podt. 
/>"' lu'i-na, peacock. 
P<>'hink'l, pea fowl (female). 
pok, a pimple. 
j», /.'-/„ rn, poke berries, poke plant. 

//"/. ' irlt, pimpled. 

'<, slow, "poking." 
j>ul«'-u <l< r, arli 

posts. 

ptfjtf 'if ji*. pott on 

pOihf mi .<// (/</■, pcttmattOT. 
'•/, post, poalt*. 



pracJit, splendor. 

praeht'-fol, magnificent. 

pral'-la, to boast, to brag. 

pral'-lar, a braggart. 

prech' tick, excellent, splendid. 

pred'-ich-a, to preach. 

pred 1 -icli-amt, ministry ; a charge. 

pred'-ich-er, preacher, minister of 
the Gospel. 

pres'-ent, prison. 

pri'-gh'l, a club, cudgel. 

pri'-gh'l-a, to club, to cudgel. 

pri'-gh'l-hols, fire wood, consisting 
of heavy sticks. 

pri'-gJi'l-sup, a term used to denote 
a thrashing or clubbing in- 
flicted upon another. 

pro'-fa-tsai'-a, to predict, to proph- 
esy, to foretell. 

pro-fet', prophet, a wiseacre. 

pro-wi'-ra, to try, to attempt. 

psa'l'm, psalm. 

psal'-t'r, psalter. 

pud'-'l-hund, a poodle ( — dog). 

pul'-w'r, powder, gunpowder. 

pul'-w'r-harn, powder horn. 

pund, pound. 

punk, punk, decayed wood. 

ra'-cha, 1. mouth — applied to ani- 
mals ; an opening like a 
mouth. 
2. revenge. 

rac?i'-ger-ish, avaricious, grasping. 

rach-l'-rish, vindictive. 

ri'nl, wheel. 

ra nun', raccoon. 

rai, a row. 

rai n , 1. clean, pure, 

2. in — toward the speaker or 
into an enclosure. 

/•<//'-./, 1. lo baste. 

2. to regret, t" bemoan. 

3. the instep of Ihe toot. 
raih' ai-sa, a grater. 

nti'- blunt, everlasting— flower. 



1888.] 



261 



[Hoffman. 



raich, 1. rich, wealthy. 

2. kingdom, empire. 
raich' -dum, 1. riches, wealth. 

2. kingdom. 
rai'-da, to ride — on horseback. 
raif -drau-wa, chicken grapes. 
rai'-fa, frost. 
raim, a rhyme, a ballad. 
raim'-md, 1. to agree with one an- 
other. 

2. to rhyme. 
rai'-mi-dich, repentant. 
rain, pure, clean. 
rai'-nich-a, to purify, to cleanse. 
rai'-sa, 1. to tear, to sever by pulling 

2. to travel, 
rais'-end, stirring, agitating. 
rais'-hem-'l, that portion of a wag- 
on on which the sliding piece 
moves. 
rai'-wa, to rub, to chafe. 
rai'-wai-sa, a grater. 
ram, sash. 
ram, cream. 
ram'-lef'l, skimmer ; lit., cream 

spoon. 
ran'-af, rim. 
ran'-aft, rim. 
ranft, rim. 

rap'-'l-a, to rattle, to clatter. 
rap'-'l-ich, rattling, dilapidated. 
rar, rare, scarce. 
rar'-ich-kedt, rarity, scarcity. 
rd'-sa, 1. to fume with rage. 

2. to play boisterously — as chil- 
dren? 
rash, hasty, rash. 
rash' -b' I, a rasp. 
rap'b'l-a, to rattle, to rustle. 
rash'-Vl-ich, rasping. 
ras'-'m, rosin. 
rat, rat. 

rau, rough, coarse. 
raub, a caterpillar. 

rau'-basli'tich, rough, ill-mannered, 
robust. 



rau'bels', a coarse, rude fellow. 
rau' -bi-gh' I, a coarse fellow. 
raus. out of, out from. 
raus'-fod-er a, to challenge, to dare 

to come forward. 
raus' ge-wa, to give out, given out ; 

to publish or issue. 
raush, a spree. 
rau'-sha, to rustle, to sound in a 

rushing manner. 
ra-wa, to rob. 
rawer, robber. 
ra'-wer-ai, robbery. 
re n ', clean, pure. 
reb, vine. 
re'-cha, to reach. 
rech'-a, 1. a rake. 

2. to rake; to gather with a rake. 
rech'-la, 1. to figure, to calculate. 

2. to reckon or imagine. 
rech'-'l-buch, arithmetic — book. 
rech'-lar, mathematician, reckoner. 
rech'-ling, reckoning, account. 
rech'-ning, an account, bill. 
rech'-nurig, account. 
recht, right ; correct. 
recht' -fdrt'-ich-a, to j ustify. 
recht' -mes-ich, correctly, lawfully. 
recht' ' -mes-ich-ket, legality. 
rechts, to the right. 
recht' shaf fa, honest, upright. 
recht' -shaf-ich, honest, virtuous. 
re' -da, to speak or to address. 
red'-ich, radish. 
red- I, red chalk. 
red'-'l-a, measles. 
red'-ner, speaker, orator. 
red'-sa, to tease, to irritate. 
ndt, speech, oration, address. 
ref, hoop. 

ref, rack ; grain cradle. 
ref-a-ri', an arbitration ; referee. 
ref -a-rx' -man, arbitrator ; referee. 
re'-fart, tansy. 

re f'f a , 1. to hoop or t) bind with 
hoops. 



Hoffman.] 



262 



[Dec. 21, 



ref'-shpros-sa, one of the upright 
bars, or rounds, of a rack. 

refshtek'-ka, hoop poles ; i.e , poles 
or rods used for making bar- 
rel hoops. 

re'-gha, to move, to urge. 

re'-gha, rain. 

re'-gha-fo-gh'l, cuckoo ; lit., rain 
bird. 

re-gha-ment', regiment. 

re'-gha-mes-*er, rain gauge. 

re'-glxu-ra, to rain. 

re'ghar-ich, rainy. 

re'-gha-warm, earth "worm ; angle 
worm. 

re-ghl'-ra, to rule, to govern. 

n -gift' -ring, government, rule. 

re-ghish'-der, register, index. 

re'-glCl, rule, regulation. 

re'-gh'l-me'-sich, regularly. 

re'-gh' Ume'-sich-kaU, regularity. 

rel'-yi'in, religion. 

ren'-na, to thrust, to push. 

r> r, tube, pipe. 

rii, 1. a race— of speed. 

2. a journey, tour. 

3. race — for conducting water. 
re'.aa, to take a journey. 

reset', receipt. 

re'se'-ta, to receipt, to sign. 

resh'-da, to roast. 

resh'der, a patch— on shoes or boots. 

re»h'4a, to arrest. 

ret'sa, to tease. 

f,t*-H, riddle. 

rettept, receipt, recipe. 

ret$h'-n, to tattle. 

retth' -bet-ti, a tattle tale ; one who 
hawks about news not in- 
tended for others. 

ret$7i'-inaul, a tattle tale. 

ret»'-'Ua, 1. measles. 
J. riddles. 

', to save, to rescue. 
turnip. 

Ml). 



ri'-cha, to smell, to scent. 

rich-ar, smeller, nose. 

ricli'-ta, to judge, to direct. 

rich'-ter, judge ; a director or 
guide. 

rich'-tich, correct. 

richt'-shaidt, a ten-foot pole, used 
by builders; carpenter's rule. 

rid'-'l-a, 1. to agitate, to shake, to 
stir up. 
2. small lumps of dough — made 
of flour, eggs, etc. — for boil- 
ing in milk for soup. 

rid'-'Usup, soup made of small frag- 
ments or lumps of dough 
boiled in milk. 

ri'-gWl, rail, bar ; bolt. 

ri-gh'l-a, to bolt or bar. 

ri'-gli'l-ahlos, a bolt lock. 

rik, back. 

rik'-ka, to move, or budge. 

rik'-slitrang, back bone, the spine. 

rilps, an uncouth, ill-bred fellow. 

rilp8'-ich, ill-bred, uncouth. 

rl'-ma, a strap or leathern thong. 

rin, bark — as of trees. 

rind, heifer. 

ring'-a, to place rings into hogs' 
snouts. 

ring'-ausshla'-gha, a game, com- 
monly known as Copenhagen ; 
a kissing game. 

ring'- I, a ringlet. 

ring'-Ublum, marigold. 

rin'-na, 1. to leak. 
2. to bark. 

rins'-fi, neat cattle ; the rabble. 

rins'-Jhx/i. beef. 

rins'-led-ter, cult skin leather, leat It- 
er for uppers. 

rinH'-tauhij, beef tongue. 

rip, ril). 

rip' -pa/el, the pleura. 

rip'-pn-Khtox, a nudge in the ribs. 

nr'-rn, to stir. 

nr'-titil, stirring, exciting. 



1888.1 



263 



[Hoffman. 



ris, 1. a crevice, a fissure. 
2. a tear or rent. 

risJi'-bla, panicles.. 

rishl'-arai', preparations. 

risht'-haus, an arsenal. 

risht'-ich, vigorous. 

risht'-ta, to prepare : to make 
preparations ; to place in or- 
der. 

risJit'-ing, preparation. 

ris 1 ' I, snout. 

ris'-'Ubut-ser, an insulting epithet ; 
lit., snout wiper. 

ri'-wa, turnips ; rodt — beets=red- 
turnips ; gel — carrots=yellow 
turnips. 

rb, raw, sore. 

rod, 1. counsel, advice. 
2. red. 

rb'da, 1. to guess. 

2. to counsel, to advise. 

rbd'-gc-w'r, counselor, adviser. 

rbd f -sam, advisable. 

rodt, red. 

rodt' hols, logwood (dye). 

rbdt'-kop, 1. red-head. 

2. red-headed woodpecker. 

rbdt'-lich, reddish. 

rodt' -prin-se' be-dat' , red precipi- 
tate. 

rbdt'-'r-hin-k'l-darm, pimpernel. 

rbdt'-rib, beet ; lit., red turnip. 

rodt' -war' Mel, blood root ; Saitguin- 
aria canadensis. 

rok, coat. 

rok'-fli-gh'l, coat tail, coat flap. 

rol'-du-wak, twist tobacco ; plug to- 
bacco. 

rol'-Vi, to roll. 

rop'-pa, to pull, to pluck. 

rosht, rust. 

rbr, tube, pipe, flue. 

rbr'-blech, sheet iron. 

ro-sain', raisin. 

rosh'da, to rust. 

roshd'-gret, gridiron ; boiler. 



roshd'-icli, rusty. 

roshdt, a roast. 

rosht', rust. 

rosh'-ta, to rust, to oxidize. 

rosh'-tich, rusty. 

rots, secretion from the nose. 

rots' -er, 1. an uncouth term to de- 
signate coryza. 
2. an impudent child. 

rots'-hols, slippery elm ; lit., "snot 
wood." 

rots' -ich, "snotty," filthy from na- 
sal discharge. 

rots' -lef -el, a vulgar epithet of con- 
tempt ; applied to a mean, 
contemptible fellow. 

rots' -nas, a pert, impudent child ; 
HI, "snot nose." 

ru, rest, tranquility, quiet. 

ru' der, rudder — of boat. 

ruf, up to a place. 

ru'-fa, to call. 

ru'-gha, to rest. 

ru'ieh, quiet, tranquil. 

ruk, rest, stop ; quit. 

ru'la, to rule, to govern. 

rum, around, about. 

rum'-a-dis, rheumatism. 

rum'-a-dits, rheumatism (rare). 

rum' le-fer, tramp. 

rund, round. 

rund'-iiig, roundness. 

rund'-lich, roundish. 

rund'-me'-sel, gouge. 

rung'-a-ni'-ra, to ruin, to destroy. 

run'-na, standard (of a wagon). 

run'-n'r, down, down to a place. 

run'-s'l, a wrinkle. 

runs'-lich, wrinkled, shriveled. 

rur, dysentery. 

rur' -grant, cudweed. 

rus, soot. 

rus'-ich, sooty. 

rut, 1. rod, a rood. 

2. rod of thrashing flail. 

rutsh, a slide, a coasting-hill. 



Hoffman.] 



264 



[Dec. 21, 



rut'-sha, 1. to slide on one's seat. 
2. to coast on a hillside — with 
sled. 
rut'-shi, coasting-hill. 

'», contraction of es — it, and gene- 
rally sounded as s, without 
the initial short e. 
sa n , son. 
m a '-ma, seed. 
taeh, thing. 

mch'-ta, slowly, quietly. 
sad'l, saddle. 
sad'l-ar, saddler. 
sad f, Ugird, saddle girth. 
sads, yeast. 
saf'-ran, saffron. 
saft, sap, juice. 
aaf'-ta, quietly, stealthily. 
safl'-ieh, juicy. 
safl'-lich, quietly, softly. 
sa' gha, to say, to tell. 
m'-ghas, a saying, a myth. 
sai, 1. a sieve. 

2. pi. of sou — hog. 
*at n , 1. to be. 

2. his. 
aai'-ar-ai', dirty work, a disgraceful 

result. 
sai' -ar-lich, tart, acidified. 
sni'-lfim/t-t'i, bristles, hog bristles. 
sai'-bar-tsel, 1. a "dirty villain," a 

8CHUl|>. 

2. purslane. 
sai' -ban, horse bean ; lit., hog bean. 
tai' -ben, pig sty. 
8d id, 1. page, side. 

2. since ; not as frequent as 

t Mil it. 

taP -da, silk, silken. 

mining doth. 

i-JUm/i, bacon ; lit., aide meat. 
tai'-fat, 1. swill barn-]. 

2. applied to a common drunk 
ard. 

taffiUk, i 



saif'-tser, a sigh. 

saif'-tser-a, to sigh. 

8ai'-is7i, "piggish," gluttonous. 

sai'-ki-w'l, swill bucket. 

sa'-ma, 1. seed ; growing grain. 

2. to hem or stitch. 
s'drsht, first, the first ; contraction 

of es arsht — the first. 
sa'-tan, Satan. 

8a-ta'-nis7i, devilish, satanical. 
td'-yer, a sawyer. 
sail, a shoemaker's awl. 
sai'-d-ra-blat, plantain leaf ; plan- 
tain stalk. 
sai' -o-ra-blet'-ter, plaintain leaves. 
sai' -shnit-ter, a gelder — of hogs. 
sai'-wa-ra, to cleanse. 
sai' -war-lick, cleanly, neat. 
sak, 1. a bag, a sack. 

2. a pocket — in clothing. 
sah'-tUb, pickpocket. 
sak'ra-ment', sacrament ; used also 

as a curse. 
sal-be'-dW, saltpetre. 
sal'-dat, soldier. 
aal-pe'-ter, saltpetre. 
sals, 1. salt. 

2. epsom salts. 
sals' -baks, salt cellar. 
sals'-flus, salt rheum. 
sals' -la k, brine, pickle. 
sal'-wai", sage. 
sal' -wen, selvedge. 
8<"i nl -ma-kop, seed pod. 
na in' la. to gather, to collect. 
8am' -ling, collection, gatherings 
samsh'-dak, Saturday. 

samt, together with. 
tand, sand. 

xaiift. mild, soft. 

san ft' nit it ir/i, gentle. 

sanft' miit. gentleness. 
Urtrta'yV'/.daii^liter-in law; lit. .son's 

wife. 
Mr' ikfrlt' Uh, solicitous, careful. 
careless. 



1888.] 



265 



[Hoftman. 



snr' -ik-sam, careful. 

sart, sort, kind. 

sar'-ya, 1. cares, trouble. 

2. to provide, to care for. 

sar'-ya frai, free from care. 

8as' -sa-f rag' , sassafras. 

sas-sa-friV ', sarsaparilla. 

sat, satisfied, gratified. 

sats, yeast. 

8/iu, a sow, pig, bog. 

sau'-a, to besmear, to daub. 

sau'-ar. sour, acidulous. 

snu'-er-dek, leaven, leavened dougb. 

saw '-er -grant, sourkraut. Cabbage 
cut into shreds — slaw — and 
packed in salt to form pickle 
or brine. It is then boiled 
and served. Frequently salt 
meat, or sausage, is boiled 
with it. 

sau' -er -kraut, sourkraut. 

sau'-er-ramb'l, sorrel — a plant. 

sauf'-fa, 1. to drink — animals. 

2. to drink to excess — drunkard. 

sauf -fer-ai, a spree, a drunken 
frolic. 

sauf ' -gich-ter-a, delirium tremens. 

sauf-lo-d'l, a professional drunkard, 
a drunken loafer. 

sau'-wer, clean, pure. 

se, sea, ocean. 

se'-a, 1. to sow. 

2. to see, to look (not common). 

se'-ar, a sower, a planter. 

sech, coulter. 

sed, string, string of instrument. 

seds, clinch iron. 

sef, soap ; sltmlr sef — soft soap ; sef 
was'-ser — soap suds. 

seg, a saw. 

M' -glut, to saw. 

seg'-bok, saw buck, "saw borse." 

seg'-mel, saw dust. 

seg'-mil, saw mill. 

seg' -rich' ter, saw-rest; lit., saw 
guide. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXVI. 



se-gunt', a second — of time. 

seks, six. 

sek'-sa, six. 

sekxt, sixth. 

sel, that (before neuter gender, and 
occasionally feminine). 

sel, 1. soul. 

2. a wisp of straw for tying a 
sheaf. 

sel'-a-mol, at that time, then. 

sel' -a-mols, in those times, then ; at 
tbat time. 

sel'-ar, that (before masculine sub- 
stantive). 

sel'-ar-ich, celery. 

sel'-ich, blessed, holy. 

sel' -ich-kait, salvation, state of bless- 
edness. 

tel' -i diked, salvation ; condition of 
blessedness. 

sel'-li, that (before substantive fern. 
or pi. of any gender). 

selbshV -mard, suicide. 

sel'-da, seldom, rarely. 

sd'-icen, selvedge. 

sel'-wer, self. 

sem'-li, assembly— Legislature of a 
State. 

sem'li-rnan, assemblyman — mem- 
ber of State Legislature. 

se n '-na, to see, to look, to behold. 

sen'-et, senate. 

senk'-'l, plummet. 

sens, scythe. 

ses'-'r, assessor. 

ses'-ment, assessment. 

set, should. 

set, the season for sowing cereals. 

8tt'-8ti, to seat, to seat one's self, to 
place. 

se'-vsarsht, the upper ; from des and 
e'-warxltt. 

sliab, moth. 

sha'-bok, scurvy. 

shad, a pity. 

sha'-da, shadow, shade. 
129. 2h. printed march 5, 1?89. 



Hoffman.] 



266 



[Dec. 21, 



tha'-da, injury, damage, loss. 
shad'-da, shadow. 
shiul'-los, free of harm. 
shad' -Ida-band, indemnity bond. 
sliaf-fa, to work. 
ahaf-ich, industrious. 
shal af , shine, sign 
ahai'-a, to scare, to frighten. 
ahai'-ar, barn. 

shai' -ar-den, barn floor, upon -which 
threshing was formerly done. 
shaib, 1. target — for shooting. 

2. pane — of glass for window. 
87uri n '-hai-lich, hypocritical, false. 
ahai'-Ud'-ter, blinker — of horse har- 
ness. 
s7iain, shine, to appear. 
shafi'-na, 1. to shine, to glisten. 

2. to appear. 
thai, sound, echo. 
shal, 1. shell, rind. 

2. shawl. 
8 ha' -la-wok' , balance. 
ahalk'-ydr, leap year. 
ahal'-la, to echo, to sound. 
ahal'-lach, scailet. 
8hal'-larh-fri8'l, scarlet rash. 
8hal'-lak, a wag, a scamp. 
sham, froth, scum. 
alu'im'-lefl, skimming spoon. 
x/ninil, shame. 
ahand'-bar, shameful. 
ahand-bar'-lic/i, shamefully. 
aluink, closet, cupboard. 
aliap, shop, work room. 
ahar', scissors, shears. 
ahar, plow-share. 
aharf, sharp. 
ahar' n fa, to sharpen. 
ahar'-a-wa, 1. fragment of pottery; 
pieces of pots. 

2. shale or slialy formation. 
i<hhr'-hnk, scurvy. 

'•/, to sharpen. 

8/tar/i' ulula bul'-ier, chimney sweep 



slidr'-ra, to cut with scissors, to 
shear. 

sJiarts, apron. 

slurrts, apron. 

sharta'-fel, leather apron. 

s7ials, sweetheart. 

shat'-ta, shade, shadow. 

shat'-tich, shady. 

shau'-der-a, to shudder. 

shau'-der-ich, shuddering, terrible, 
agonizing. 

shau' -der-haft, terrible, agonizing. 

shau'fel, shovel. 

shau'fl, a shovel. 

shau'-fha, to shovel. 

sJiaw-f'l-ek', cultivator. 

sha'-wa, 1. to scrape, to shave. 
2. pi, of shab, moth. 

sJiba'-da, spavin. 

shbaich'-er, the second — or upper- 
story. 

shbait, spite. 

sJibank, pluck, "spunk," temper. 

8hban'-na, to span, to stretch. 

shban'.pet, cross beam. 

shbar, a brake. 

shbar' -a-gras, asparagus. 

shbiir'-it, spirit, spirits. 

shhur'-lat, brake chain ; log chain. 

8hbiir' -lich, scarce. 

8lib>tr'-U7ig, sparrow. 

shbi'ir'-ra, to put on brakes, to lock. 

8hbar'-ra, rafters. 

8?ibar'-ra, to save, to spare. 

8hba8, sport, play ; generally term 
ed kahpaa. 

ahba /•' 8am, economical, saving. 

8/ibiir" >r In, persimmons. 

ahlint-n'-ra, to promenade ; to go 
visiting or calling. 

m/i/i,iii'-h, to spit. 

Hhhuu'-btikK, spittoon. 

xlihttiidx, saliva. 

*///«", chips, 

^lihcil'1,1, to mock. 
thbed'-lic/t, mockingly. 



1888.] 



267 



[Hoffman. 



shbek, bacon, fat ; adipose tissue. 
ahbek-da'-gh'l, spectacle, a sight. 
shbek-dif, a spy glass ; small tele- 
scope. 
shbek'-drau-wa, fox grapes. 
8hbek'-maus, bat —vespertilio. 
shbek'-shwart, a piece of bacon used 
to grease a griddle, in baking 
batter cakes. 
shbel, pin. 
shbel'-la, to pin. 
shperig'-lar, tinker. 
shbeW-H, sparrow ; generic term for 

fringillidce. 
shbi-an', a spy. 
shbi'-gh'l, mirror. 
shbi'-la, 1. to play. 

2. to rinse. 
shbV-lar, a player ; a gambler. 
ghbil'sach, toys — play things. 
shbW-shis'l, dish pan. 
shpil'-wtts'-ser, dish water. 
shbin, spider. 
shbin '-dl, pivot; spindle. 
shbin' -na, 1. to spin. 

2. pi. of shbin. 
shbin 1 -na-rad 1 , spinning wheel. 
shbin-nat', spinach. 
shbi/i'-na-web', cobweb. 
shbls, spear. 

shbit'-sa, 1. to point, to sharpen to 
a point. 

2. a point, apex. 
s7tbit'-sich, pointed, acute. 
8hblit' ta, to split. 
shbo'-ra, spur. 
shbot, derision, mockery. 
shhot, late. 

sJibot 1 na-ma, nickname. 
shbot'-ta, to mock, to scorn. 
8hbdt'yor, autumn. 
shbrad' -lich, spread out. 
8hbrau, chaff. 
8hbrau'-8ak, chaff-bag, used on 

beds. 
sJibrauts, sprout, sucker, a shoot. 



8hbraut'-ta, to sprout ; to throw oft 
new branches. 

shbre'-a, to spread ; to spray. 

shbrech'-a, to speak, to talk. 

shbrtng-a, to run, to force to speed. 

shbrl, a spree, merry-making ; a 
frolic. 

8?ibri'-a, to spree; to become intoxi- 
cated. 

8hbrich'-icard, proverb, by-word. 

shbriks, sprigs, brads. 

8hbring, a spring ; spring — of water. 

shbring'-a, to run. 

thbriTij'-tihtok, spring lancet, used 
in venesection. 

8hbrit8, a syringe. 

shbrit'sa, 1. to squirt, to sprinkle. 
2. to water — with a hose. 

shbroch, speech, language. 

shbrod 1 -lich, spread out. 

shbros'-sa,, rounds — of bannisters, etc. 

shbruch, scriptural text, biblical 
quotation. 

shbrung, a leap, a spring. 

8/iirung'-ri-ma, martingale — of har- 
ness. 

shbuk, ghost, apparition, "spook;" 
commonly termed kshpuk. 

shbuk'-ka, to spook ; manifestation 
of ghosts or apparitions ; to 
haunt. 

thpul, spool. 

shbund, bung. 

8hbund'-bo'-ra, gauge. 

shbuuk'-ich, plucky, tempered. 

shbiir, track, foot-prints. 

shdiib, dust. 

shdach'-'l, a spine, sharp point, a 
prickly point. 

8hdach'-'l-ich, prickly. 

8hdaif, stitl. 

shdaif'-ing, buckram. 

shdaif-ket, stay chain. 

shdaik'-bi-gh'l, stirrup. 

8hdai'-gha, to ascend, to go up. 

shdal, stable, stall. 



Hoffman.] 



268 



[Dec. 21, 



shddl, steel. 

shdam, branch, stem. 

shdam' pa, to stamp, to tread heavily. 

shdand, state, condition. 

shdand' -liaft, steady, steadfast. 

shdang, pole, rod. 

shdar, blackbird. 

shddr'-a-wa, to die, to expire. 

shdar' -a-wes-krank, mortally ill. 

shddrb'-lich, mortal. 

shddrb'-lich- kait, mortality. 

shdar' -ik, 1. strength. 

2. starch. 
shdar' -ik-a, to starch, to stiffen with 

starch. 
shdark, strength. 

shdar' kep'-pich, stubborn, obstinate 
shdarm, storm. 

shdarm' ich, stormy, boisterous. 
shdarm' wind, tempest. 
shddrn, 1. forehead. 

2. star. 
shddrn' Mum, aster; lit,, star flower. 
shddrn' -hel, unclouded ; lit., star 

clear. 
shtar' -na-liel, clear, unclouded. 
thtdr'-na-ken'-er, astronomer. 
shddrns, confounded, confoundedly. 
s/n/.trl'-sa, to tumble, to fall. 
x In) 'tit, city. 
xfnli'it, state. 

shda'-wa, to dust, to be dusty. 
shde n , 1. to stand. 

2. stone. 
shde n ' bok, Capricorn. 

'.drill, used in quarrying 
'n-ncli, quarry. 
shdech'-a, to stick with a sharp in- 
strument ; to stab. 
slidech' -ah' ■' I, thorn apple, fruit of 

JlflMOfl W eed — Stramonium 
(t-ifuni. 
1. stairs. 
2. ft foot-bridge acraef i stream, 
a tree trunk being the ordU 

ii try kind. 



s7idek'-drep-pa, stair steps. 

shdek'-ka, 1. stick, sticks, cane. 
2. to stick, to place, to put 
down. 

shdek'ka-ba-na, pole beans. 

8hde a '-kle'-a, trefoil. 

shdek'-Uld, to play hide and seek. 

shdel, 1. a place, an office. 
2. pi. of shdal, stable. 

shde'la, to steal, to rob. 

sJide'-lar, thief. 

shdel'-la, to place, or to put ; to 
stand up anything. 

shdels, stilt. 

shden' -ner, a large tub. 

shdeng'-'l, a stalk, a stem. 

shdeng'-l-glas, wine glass. 

shdep'-pa, to stitch, to quilt. 

shdet'l, village ; lit., little city. 

shdib'-cJia, a small room. 

shdich, a stitch, a sting, a sudden 
pain. 

shdich'-la, to hint. 

shdids, a small wooden bucket, 
having a lid ; used for carry- 
ing water to the fields for 
workmen during harvest 
time. 

slit'if'-bi u'-der, step-brother. 

shdlf'-fad'-ter, step- father. 

shthf'-mttt'-ter, step-mother. 

shdlf'-shicesh'-ter, step-sister. 

shdik, a piece. 

shdik'flus, croup. 

alnlik'-'l, 1. a stake. 
2. a small piece. 

shdik'-'l-a, to patch ; to do patch- 
work. 

shdik'-'l tlep'pich, a patch quilt — 
"crazy quilt," 

Klnllk'-'l frits, stake f'enrr. 

shdil, 1. a still, a retort lor distilling 
purposes. 
I, quirt, silent. 

shdlf, handle. 

ahdil'-er-i, distillery. 



1888.] 



2G9 



[Hoffman. 



alidil' la, to quiet, to soothe. 

ahdil' -shdand, stagnation. 

ahdil' -shwai-gha, to silence, to beck- 
on, to be silent. 

ahdim, 1. voice. 

2. a vote, a ballot. 

ahdim, steam. 

ahdim' -ma, 1. to vote, to take a bal- 
lot. 
2. to tune — as an instrument. 

ahdim' ma, to steam. 

ahdim'-p'l, a small surplus. 

shdink, stencb, bad smell. 

shdink' -bok, a stinking fellow; some- 
times applied to old topers. 

ahdink'-ka, to smell badly, to stink. 

shdink' -kes, hand cbeese ; also ap- 
plied to Swiss and Limburg 
cheese. 

shdi'-w'l, boot, boots. 

shdi'-w'l-'u, to tramp, to walk. 

shdi'-w'l-hols, boot tree — used by 
cobblers. 

shdi'-w'Uknecht, boot -jack. 

shdol'-ba, 1. to darn. 
2. to stop, to quit. 

shdod'-der-ra, to stammer. 

shdo'-di-a, 1. to meditate, to study. 
2. to steady, to make secure. 

shdoft, stuff. Generally applied to 
lumber boards, etc. , for build- 
ers' use. 

shdok, 1. cane, stick. 

2. a stack — as hay or straw. 

shdok' -blindt, totally blind. 

shdok 1 -ba-na, bush beans. 

shdok'-dab, totally deaf, "stone 
deaf." 

sJidoV ba-ra, to stumble. 

shdol'fus, club foot. 

ahdol' la, balls of snow which form 
on horses' hoofs. 

slidols, proud, vain. 

blulop'-p'r, a stopper, cork. 

shdoa, a tbrust, a push. 

shdo'-sa, td push, to thrust ; to ram. 



ahdds 1 '-wai, chicken hawk. 

shdraich'-a, to stroke, to smooth. 

slidrai'-da, to quarrel, to live at 
enmity with one another. 

slidraid'-icJi, quarrelsome. 

shdrai' a' I, a nosegay, a small bou- 
quet. 

shdrait, strife, disorder, quarrel. 

ahdraks, immediately, without de- 
lay. 

shdrai, streak, ray, beam. 

ahdrdl'-ich, rayed, streaked. 

ahdrdin, stream, current. 

ahdram'-bla, to trample. 

ahdrang, 1. trace. 
2. skein. 

ahdra'w'l-a, to struggle, to kick. 

ahdra'-w'l-ar, a struggler. A term 
applied to a sect of Metho- 
dists. 

shdre'-a, to strew, to spread, to 
make a litter. 

%Mn ch, a stroke, a blow. 

ahdre'-fa, strip, stroke. 

shdnf'-ich, striped, streaked. 

shdrek'-ka, to stretch. 

shdrcl, comb. 

shdrc'-la, to comb. 

ahdrem'-ich, streaked, banded. 

shdrich'-a, 1. a stroke or line. 
2. teats of a cow. 

ahdrids, a syringe. 

ahdnd'-aa, to squirt with a syringe. 

ahdri'gh'l, currycomb. 

ahdri'-gh'Ua, to curry. 

shdrik, rope. 

ahdrik'-gam, yarn, knitting yarn. 

ahdrik'-ka, to knit. 

ahdrip'^pa, to strip, to undress. 

ahdrip'-hut, a woman's head ge.ar 
in imitation of a bonnet, re- 
sembling the so-called scoop, 
but made of calico or print 
goods to permit of washing 
and ironing. 

shdro, straw. 



Hoffman. J 



270 



LDec. 21, 



shdro'-bank, straw cutter. 

shdrof, punishment. 

shdrof -fa, to punish. 

shdro'-fak-'l, a bundle of straw. 

shdro' -kis' '-sa, straw bolster. 

shdro'-kne'-w'l, a short piece of 
wood used for tying wisps 
of straw around a bundle of 
straw or a sheaf. 

shdros, street, road. 

shdrb'-sak, straw mattress, straw 
bed. 

shdrump, stocking, sock. 

shdrump' -bend' I, garter ; lit., stock- 
ing string. 

shdrup, hames hook. 

shdrup' -nd-dH, bodkin. 

shdru'-w'l-ich, 1. disheveled. 
2. ungovernable, obstinate. 

shdub, room, apartment. 

shdu-dent', student. 

*hilniU,'-ra, to study. 

shdul, chair. 

shdul' -gang, defecation, excrement. 

shdum, mute, dumb. 

thdnmp'-pa, a stump. 

shdump'-shwans, bob-tail, bob-tailed 
horse. 

thdun, hour. 

she n , nice, pretty. 

sheb, crooked, out of place. 

shed, sheath. 

the' -da, to divorce. 

she'-d'l, 1. scalp. 

2. part in the hair. 

3. skull. 

"7i, dangerous. 

shed'sa, to iipi" 

*ln 't'wa$-$er, sulphuric acid. 

the'fnr, pawnbroker ; corruption of 
, shaver. 
■ r.slmp, pawnbroker's shop; 
sometime* applied to brokers- 
establishments when; ques- 
tionable triuisactions un 
tired. 



shek'-ich, spotted, dappled, varie- 
gated. 

shel, one-eyed ; blind of one eye. 

she' la, to pare, to peel. 

shel' -a-graut, celandine. 

shel'-cha, saucer ; lit., a little shell. 

shel'-da, to scold. 

sheld'-maul, a scold, a vixen. 

shel'-liks, a wild, mischievous fel- 
low. 

shelm, a rogue. 

sliem'-ma, to blush ; to be ashamed. 

shenk'-ar, a donor, a giver. 

slienk-ga 1 -shi, a gift, a present. 

shenk'-ka, to present, to give, to 
give as a present. 

shenk'-'l, a thigh, a leg. 

sJiep, crooked, leaning. 

ahep, 1 . sheaf. 

2. shape, form. 

shep'-bol, dipper. 

sliepf'-ing, creation. 

shepf'-uhg, creation. 

slup'.ki-w'l, a small bucket for dip- 
ping or bailing. 

shep' -lef-' I, ladle. 

shep'-pa, to dip, to bail — as water. 

sher, 1. shears, scissors. 
2. share, part. 

ahe'-ra, 1. to cut with shears or 
scissors. 
2. to divide, to share. 

stub, spade, scoop. 

shib'-ba, 1. dandruff, scales. 

2. frowns, as when a child be- 
gins to cry. 
8. pi. of shib, spades. 

sluh'.fensh-ter, sash window*. 

shid'-'l-n, to shake, to agitate. 

.<//*'</ 'l-ar, shaker — in thrashing. 

*/ti<r-'!-!/<i-in'!, a wooden fork for 
use in and about the barn. 

shitl*, a marksman. 

shi/, ship. 

'', shuttle. 

shi/'-/ I, a shuttle. 



1888.] 



271 



ihif'-lait, ship's crew, sailors. 

shik'-ka, to send, to forward. 

fthik'-lich, suitable ; handy. 

sfiik'-sal, fate. 

shild, 1. sign. 
2. shield. 

shild'grot, tortoise. 

shild'-posh'-ta, sign post. 

8hild' -shaid, swingle-tree. 

sldl'-shaid, single-tree. 

8him'-mel, a white horse. 

shim'-m'r-a, to glisten, to shimmer, 
to shine. 

shimp, disgrace, shame. 

shimp'-pa, to disgrace, to shame, to 
abuse. 

shi'-na, splints, of wood, particu- 
larly of hickory, for manu- 
facture of brooms, baskets, 
etc. 

thi'-na-be'-s'm, splint broom. 

shi'-na-karb, splint basket. 

shiu'-be' 1 , shin, leg. 

shin'-d'l, shingle. 

ehin'-lii-d'r, a scamp, a rascal. 

shiit'-na, 1. to flay, to abrade. 
2. to overwork. 

shin'-ner, 1. a skinner ; a term ap- 
plied to a scavenger. 
2. one who overworks ser- 
vants. 

shin'-nos, carrion, a "dirty vil- 
lain." 

ship, shovel. 

•Air, nparly, almost. 

t>hi f -8ii, 1. to shoot. 

2. to sprout, or run to seed. 

8?il'-8er, a flat wooden shovel used 
in putting bread into the 
oven. 

shn'-ga-wer', fowling piece, fire- 
arm. 

shis'-'l, dish. 

shi'-w'l, a clod, a lump. 

shi'-w'r, piece of shale, or slate, 
fragment of pottery. 



shi'-w'r-ich, 1. spreckled, spotted, 
spangled. 

2. shaly, slaty. 
shi'-wa, to shove, to push. 
shi'-wer, a drawer. 
shl'-wer-li, trundle bed. 
shkl'-da, to skate. 
8/tkidt, skate. 
shkwdrl, squirrel. 
8hlacht, slaughter, battle. 
stdach'-ta, to butcher, to kill. 
8hlachV -fi' ', cattle, fattened for kill- 
ing. 
shla'-gha, to strike, to beat. 
8hlaich'-a, to sneak along; to go 

forward cautiously. 
87dai'-fa, 1. to grind, to sharpen. 

2. to slide. 
Hhlnif'-8hde n , grindstone. 
Mai m, slime ; mucus. 
think, 1. a stroke, a blow. 

2. apoplexy. 
shlam, slime, ooze. 
shlnTi'j, snake. 
shlap, swill, slop. 
xhlnp'-hut, sunbonnet. 
xhbtp'-pich, sloppy, untidy, muddy. 
shbtr-df-fii-kncht, false face, mask. 
ahlnu, cunning. 
ahhi'-w'r a, to slobber. 
xhla'-ic' r-duch, bib ; lit., slobber 

cloth. 
ahlecht, bad ; poorly. 
8hltcht'-ich-kid, villaiDy, badness. 
xhb (, slate. 
8hUt'-dek-ar, slater ; one who roofs 

with slate. 
shle'-fer-ich, sleepy. 
ahUf-fa, to drag, to pull. 
shlif gar A, seine — a net. 
tldef-'r-ich, sleepy. 
shie'-gh'l, a sledge. 
sldek'-er-ai', dainties. 
sldek'-er-we'-sa, dainties, sweets. 
shlek'-ka, to lick. 
sldek'sach, dainties. 



Hoffman.] 



272 



[Dec. 21, 



sJdenk, 1. a sling. 

2. thumb latch. 
8hlenk'-er-ich.\oo&e jointed, rickety. 
shlicht'-hO'ic'l, smoothing plane. 
s/dids, slit, crevice. 
shlid'-sa, to slit, to cut in slits. 
shlid'-ta, sleigh, sled. 
sldik, quick, crafty. 
shlik'-ser, hiccough. 
sldim, bad, sad, pitiable. 
shliTig, hot punch. 
shlip'-pa, 1. to slip, to slide. 

2. to catch with a slip-noose. 
shlip' -per-ich, slippery. 
shlip'-pers, 1. slippers. 

2. sleepers — railroad ties. 
sldV-sa, to lock, to close. 
shlis'-blum, primrose. 
shlis'-lich, in conclusion. 
8hli8'-8'l, key. 

shlis'-s'l-blat, key-hole plate. 
shlits, slit, crevice. 
sldU'-ta, sleigh, sled. 
shlU'-ta-U'-fer, sleigh runners. 
shli'w'r, splinter, fragment. 
shii'-w'r a, 1. to splinter, to shatter. 

2. pi. of shii'-w'r. 
ehlof, sleep. 
shlo'-fa, to sleep. 
shlof-kam mer, sleeping chamber, 

lied room. 
sldof -shtab, Bleeping room. 
shios, lock. 
x/d»*, hailstone. 
shlo'gii, 1. to hail. 

2. pi. of sldos. 
shluk, a swallow or gulp. 

xlihll,' /.'<>, to HWalloW, to gulp. 

sldiiin' '-jiir/i, slovenly. 
x/d'/j), noose, loop, bow. 
x/iluji'.jiii, to crawl, to hide ; to 

$hlun, end. conclusion. 
a/dul'.ser, sugar teat. 
ihmaP ■■"/, to iiirow. 

i/tt/mk, tusle. 



shrnak'-er, a smack, a kiss, one who 
tastes. 

87imak'-ka, to taste ; to detect. 

shmal, small, narrow. 

shma'-ler, a drink of liquor. 

shmals, lard. 

shmard', smart, obedient, diligent. 

shmar'-tsa, pain. 

slimaV-sa, to smack the lips. 

shmech'-'l-a, to flatter, to fondle. 

shmel'-8a, to melt, to thaw. 

shmech' -lich, flattering, insinuating, 
ingratiating. 

shmes'-mik, blue-bottle fly. 

shmid, blacksmith. 

shmid' -tsar' -i-k' I, calipers. 

shmir, grease. 

shmir' -kes, cottage cheese ; lit., 
spread cheese, i.e., cheese that 
may be spread on bread, the 
usual manner of eating. In 
rural districts, a layer of ap- 
ple-butter is also spread on 
the bread. 

shmtr'-ra, to grease, to besmear. 

shuur'-sef, soft soap ; lit., spread 
soap, or soap that may be ap- 
plied by spreading. 

shmod'-ich, sultry. 

sltmok, smoke. 

shino'-ka, to smoke. 

shmdk'-du-wak', smoking tobacco. 

shmun'-ts'l-a, to smile. 

shmunst'-lich, smiling; Ingratiating. 

x/imuts, grease, dirt. 

shmxtx' i<-/i, greasy, filthy. 

slnutid, cutting edge. 

shnai'-da, to cut. 

shnniil'-bniik, bench used by coopers 
for cutting wood with a draw 
knife. 

ahnai' tl< i\ 1. tailor. 

2. grand daddy long-legs } In- 
sects Of I li"' family jdhihuuji- 
da. 

ahuai'-dcrn, dressmaker. 



1888.] 



273 



[Hoffman. 



shnaid'-mes-ser, draw knife, used by 
coopers and carpenters. 

shnaid'-sa, to blow the nose, by 
using the fingers for pressure 
on the aim. 

shnal, buckle. 

shnal'-la, 1. to buckle. 
2. pi. of shnal. 

shnap'-pa, to snap. 

8hnap8, liquor, a dram — drink. 

shnap' sale, knapsack. 

shndr'-fo-gh'l, humming bird ; lit., 
jerk (jerking) bird, on ac- 
count of its sudden and erratic 
movements. 

shnar'-ik-sa, to snore. 

shnar'-ra, to hum. 

shnar'-ra, to jerk. 

shnau'fa, to breathe. 

shne, snow. 

shne' -a, to snow. 

shne'-ich, snowy. 

shne' -flok-ka, snow-flakes. 

shnek, snail. 

shnek'-ka-shtek, winding stairway. 

shne'-kshti-w'r, snow storm. 

shnel, quick, hasty. 

shnel'-ler, carnivorous beetle, found 
on hams. 

shnel'-wok, steelyard — scale. 

shnep, a snipe. 

shnep'-pa, 1. to tilt, to lift with a lever 
2. snipes ; pi. of shnep. 

shnep' -per, 1. snapping turtle. 
2. trigger of a gun. 

shne'-shti'-w'r, snowstorm, a flurry 
of snow. 

shnlk, a sneak. 

shnl'-ka, to sneak. 

shnxk'-ich, sneaky. 

shnip'-sa, to sob, to sniffle. 

shnit, a cut ; cutting of a plant. 

shnits, dried fruit, cut in small slices, 
as quarters or eighths ; usu- 
ally applied to sliced dried 
apples. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 



shnit' sa, 1. to fib, to evade the 

truth. 
2. to cut fruit into quarters and 

eighths, for drying, i. e., to 

slice. 
sltnits'l-a, to whittle, to cut with a 

knife. 
shof-not'-t'l, black haw, and fruit. 
shof'-rib'-ba, yarrow — plant. 
shop, shed. 
8ho8, lap. 
shnok, gnat. 
slmot'-er-a, to cackle. 
shnub'-ba-ra, to meddle, or trifle, 

with things belonging to 

others. 
shiiub' -duch, handkerchief; lit., 

snuff cloth. 
8hnuf'-l-a, to sniffle, to meddle and 

search out things belonging 

to others. 
shnup' -du-wak' , snuff; lit., snuff 

tobacco. 
8hnup'-pa, 1. coryza ; snuff. 

2. to snuff, to sniffle. 
shnir, cord, twine, string. 
shnur' -bart, mustache. 
shnut, snout, muzzle, nose. 
8ho'-da, pods. 
s1u>' -da-bam, catalpa tree. 
shof, sheep. 
shuf'-bok, ram. 
shof -flesh, mutton. 
shok'-'l, cradle. 
shok'-'l-a, to rock, as a cradle or 

chair. 
shok'-'l-shtui, rocking chair. 
shpfid, spade. 
shpar'-ket, a chain used to secure a 

wheel from revolving so as 

to act as a brake. 
shp'dr'-ra, to bar. 
8hpau'*a, to spit. 
shpauts, spittle, saliva. 
shpauts'-sa, to spit. 
shpe a , chips. 

120. 2l. PRINTED MARCH 14, 1880. 



Hoffman.] 



274 



[Dec. 21, 



shpecht, 1. flicker — Colaptes auratus; 

usually knowu as gel shpecM. 
2. spoke — of a wheel. 
shpichl'-ta, amusing stories ; the 

usual form, as pronounced, is 

kshpicht'-ta. 
ihp'il, object, plan, conception. 
shpil'-lum-pa, dish rag. 
s/ipits'bu, a rascal, a keen fellow. 
shpit'-sa, 1. a point, apex. 

2. to point, or to cut to a point. 
shpits'-ich, 1. pointed, sharp. 

2. acute, wide-awake, shrewd. 
shpits' -or-ich, keen ; lit., sharp- 
eared. 
shpot, mockery. 
ihpbt, late. 

8hpot'-ta, to mock, to make fun of. 
8hpbt'-ybr, autumn. 
8hpot'-fo-gh'l, mocking bird. 
shpral's'l-a, to sputter, sputtering 

— as boiling mush. 
thpur, path, track, trace, trail. 
thpur'-ra, to track, to trail, tracks. 
8hrain'-er, carpenter. 
shrai'-wa, to write. 
8hrai'-we8, a writing, an agreement, 

a legal instrument. 
ahrank'-lich, shaky, unsteady. 
ahrnub, screw. 
thraub' -shtok, 1. a vice. 

2. gunrod with screw attached. 
8hrau'-wa, 1. to screw. 

2. pi. of thraub, screw. 
ihrau'-wa-tsi'-gher, screw driver ; 

lit., screw drawer (or puller). 
threk'-lich, terrible, frightful. 
threp'-kop, cup, for blood-letting. 
Hhnji'-pa, to cup, to let blood by 

scarifying. 
*/<///, sheriff. 

fa, to sue — at law. 
k/ui/I, 1. Scrip' 

2. writing, Hcript. 
thrift' U'/t, in writing 
ihrit, a step. 



shrit'-ta, to step. 

shrit'-wais, by steps, step by step. 

shrot, 1. shot — for bird shooting. 

2. chop — for fodder. 
8hrot'-8ak, shot bag, or pouch. 
shrdt'-me's'l, chisel hammer. 
8hta'-wich, dusty. 
8hte n , 1. to stand. 

2. stone, stones. 
8htem f -p'l, a pestle, a masher. 
8?iten'-da, to stand, to bear. 
shte nl -e-sel, jackass. 
8hte n, -of-fa, lime kiln ; lit., stone 

kiln. 
8htreng, 1. severe, strict. 

2. pi. of8htrarig, trace, or skein. 
shticd'-sa, to hesitate. 
shu, Shoo ! An exclamation to drive 

away anything, like fowl, 

etc. 
shu, shoe. 

8hu'-a, to shoe a horse. 
shu' -bud' 8' r, door mat. 
shu' -flik-er, cobbler. 
shul, school. 
8hu'-lar, scholar. 
thuld, 1. debt. 

2. guilt, crime. 

3. cause. 
8?iul'-da, debts. 
shuld'-ner, debtor. 
ehul'-ing, education. 
shul'-kum'r-rad', schoolmate, school 

comrade. 
shul'-ter, shoulder. 
shul'-tich, owing, obligatory, to 

owe another. 
nhii' mach-er, shoemaker. 
shu'-mck, sumach. 
shun, already, so soon. 
«////' na, favor. 
xluih<j' k<>, ham, hip. 
xluinxlit, otherwise, else. 
.s/iii/i' k<irch, wheellmrrow. 
hIiuji' tof *'<•//, wheelharrow. 
K/mi>'-l>h'(t, drawer. 



1888.] 



275 



[Hoftman. 



shus, 1. shot. 

2. sprout. 
ahua'-blo-t'r, stye. 
shua'-bord, tail board. 
ahwadr, 1. father-in-law. 

2. heavy. 
ahwadr' -lich, hardly. 
shwdd'-ra, a boil ; more commonly 

known as kahwdd' -ra. 
ahwach, weak. 

shwach'-het, debility, weakness. 
shwai, sister-in-law. 
shwalm, swallow, martin, swift. 
shwam, 1. meadow. 

2. sponge. 

3. tumor, as blut ahwam, — blood 
sponge — signifying a fungus 
hmmatodes. 

ahwdn, swan. 

ahwaa'-hd'-gh'l, swan shot. 
ahwana, tail. 
ahwana'-rlm, crupper. 
ahwana' -rl' -ma, crupper. 
ahwdrm, swarm. 
shwdr'-ma, to swarm. 
shwurt, 1. rind of bacon. 

2. the board cut from a log in 
squaring, with the bark ad- 
hering. 
ahwarta, black. 

ahwart'-aer, negro ; i.e., a black one. 
ahwe'-ghern, sister-in-law. 
shweng'-k'l, pump handle. 
shwenk'-ka, 1 . to rinse. 

2. to wave. 
shwen'-s'l-a, to wag the tail ; to 

wag. 
ahwlr, heavy. 
ahwe'-ra, to swear. 
shwea, perspiration, sweat. 
ahweah' -der, sister. 
ahwea'*aa, to weld. 
ahwea' -foch-er, pores — of the skin. 
ahwet'-aa, to talk, to converse. 
ahwet'-xar, speaker, orator. 
ahwet'-aich, talkative. 



8hwe'-io'l, sulphur. 
ahwe' -w' l-blid, flour of sulphur. 
ahwi'-ghem, mother-in-law. 
ahwV -gher-doeh' -ter, daughter-in- 
law. 
ihwV -glier-fad 1 -ter, father-in-law. 
ahwi' -gher-mut' -ter, mother-in-law. 
8hwl'-gher-ad n , son-in-law. 
ahwim' -ma, to swim, to float. 
8hwin'-d'l, 1. swindle, fraud. 

2. dizziness, vertigo. 
shwin'-d'l-a, to swindle, to defraud. 
ahwin'-d'l-ar, swindler. 
8hwin'-na, sweeny — horse disease. 
8hwit'-8a, to sweat, to perspire. 
ahwob, 1. cock-roach. 

2. a native of Wurtemberg. 
ahwb'-gher, brother-in-law. 
si, she. 
sib, sieve. 
sich, one's self. 
8ich'-ar, safe, secure. 
sich' -ar-liet, security. 
8if-fer, drunkard. 
si'-gh'l, seal. 
si'-gh'Ua, to seal. 
ai'-gh'l-waks, sealing wax. 
sig'l, a seal, a stamp. 
sil' -wer-glet, litharge. 
sil' -wer-sand, fine white sand for 

cleansing tin-ware. 
sim'-a-de'-ri, cemetery, burial place 
sim'-bild, emblem. 
sim'-et, cinnamon. 
sim'-e-trin, cinnamon, 
sims, cornice. 

sin, 1. are ; from the verb, tse sai", 
to be. 

2. mind, sense ; the pi. is usu- 
ally employed — sin'-na. 
sind, sin. 
sin'-der, 1. cinder, slag. 

2. sinner. 
sind'-flud, the deluge. 
sin'-flut, the flood — deluge. 
sind' -haft, sinfuL 



Hoffman.] 



276 



[Dec. 21, 



sin'-dich-a, to sin. 
sing'-a, to sing. 
sing'-ar, singer, warbler. 
sink, 1. a place where dishes are 
washed. 

2. a sink, a depression in the 
ground. 

3. zinc. 
sink'-ka, to sink. 

sin'-na, 1. the senses, thought. 
2. to contemplate, to meditate. 

sis, sweet. 

sis' -hols, sweet wood, i.e., liquorice 
root. 

sis'-lich, "sweetish," inclined to he 
sweet in taste. 

sits, seat. 

sit' -sa, to sit. 

si'-wa, seven. 

si'-wa-tse', seventy. 

si'-wa-tsich, seventy. 

so, so, thus, such. 

so-baV, as soon as, so soon as. 

sod'-bren'-na, water brash, heart- 
burn, acidity of the stomach. 

sodsht, should. 

sodt, growing grain. 

so -gar' , even, as much. 

sok'-ka, stocking feet. 

sol, shall. 

sol, sole. 

solch, such. 

sol'-ich, such. 

sol' -la, to be obliged. 

sue.h'-a, to seek, to hunt, to search. 

sud'-da, the south. 

»'i<r hi, to slop, or puddle in water. 

sud'-lieh, 1. southerly ; should be 
sid'-lir/i. 
2. wet, sloppy weather. 

Kml'r ii, to simmer. 

*nl:'-'l O, to suck. 

num. sura. 

S'lm' mer, nummer. 

t<nn/>, hog. marsh. 

Bum' ]><i, hog, m:ti-li. 



sump'-ie7i, boggy, marshy. 

sum'-m'r-flek'-ka, freckles; lit., sum- 
mer spots. 

sun, sun. 

sun'-dak, Sunday. 

sun' -der-bar, wonderful, strange. 

sun'-er-bar, wonderful. 

sun' -na-shtich, sunstroke ; lit., sun 
stab. 

sun'-nich, sunny. 

sunsht, otherwise, else. 

sun' -vf -gang, sunrise. 

sun'-un'-er-gang, sunset. 

sup'-pa-lefl, tablespoon ; lit., soup 
spoon. 

sup'-pa-slds'l, soup bowl, soup dish. 



taks, tax. 

takt, 1. tact, aptitude. 
2. time — in music. 

tak'-sa, to tax ; to impose upon. 

ta-lent', talent, gift. 

tarm, term, limit. 

tarn, steeple, spire. 

te, tea; also applied to various house- 
hold remedies consisting of 
dried plants. 

te'-kan, teapot. 

tesli' -da-ment' , testament, a will. 

track' -da, to strive for. 

trai, true, faithful. 

trai'-lds, faithless. 

tru/i dV-ra, to abuse, to treat with 
cruelty. 

tran 1 -, i, 1. to trust, to confide in. 
2. to betroth, to marry. 

traur'-ai', mournfulness, sadness. 

truar'-ra, to mourn. 

tnntr' rich, mournful. 

trenk'-ka, to water — as animals. 

tren'-iv'j, leparatftti, division. 

tn ii, 1. tnir. 

2. a train — as of cars. 
tnii' ini, to Mnref. 
trink', ft drink: 



1888.] 



277 



[Hoffman. 



trink'-ar, a drinker, generally ap- 
plied to one who is a habitual 
drinker of liquors. 

trink'-ka, to drink. 

tri'-w'l-l'-ra, to annoy, to worry, to 
plague. 

trosh'-da, to console, to soothe. 

trbslit, consolation, relief. 

trdsht' -raich, consoling. 

truiU, in spite of, defiance. 

trud'-sa, to be defiant, to be obsti- 
nate. 

truds'-ich, defiant, willful. 

truds'-kop, a defiant person. 

trum'-p'l, jew's-harp. 

tsa. to. 

tsa n , tooth. 

tsab'-ba, a projection, a knob. 

tsa' u -flesh, gums — of the mouth. 

tsa-fri'-da, contented, satisfied. 

Uai'-glia, a witness. 

tsai'-ghnis, proof, evidence. 

tsait, 1. since. 
2. time. 

tsait' -fer-draib', pastime, amuse- 
ment. 

tsait'-ich, ripe. 

tsait'-ing, newspaper. 

tsail'-lich, by times, early. 

tsak'-ka, a prong, or branch, a short 
projection, as a short branch 
of a tree. 

tsak'-kera, to plow. 

tsal, number, enumeration. 

tsd a '-Uid, maxillary bone. 

tsa-ldd', salad, lettuce. 

tsdm, 1. tame, docile. 
2. bridle. 

tsa' -ma, 1. to tame, to domesti- 
cate. 
2. to bridle. 

tsam'-ma, together. 

tsang, tongs, pincers. 

tsank'-ka, to scold. 

tsd'-ra, to tease, 

tsard, tender. 



tsdr'-ik'l, 1. circle. 
2. dividers. 

tsau n , a pale fence, fence made of 
slats or clap-boards. 

tse, to. 

tse. tough. 

tse a , teeth ; pi. of tsd n . 

tse' -a, 1. toe, toes. 
2. ten. 

tse' -a-ga-bot' -ta, the decalogue. 

tseb'-cha, uvula, soft palate. 

tseb'-'l, uvula, soft palate ; from 
tsa'ba — a projection, the word 
being a form to denote dimin- 
utiveness. 

tseb'-'l-eha, uvula, soft palate. 

tseck, a score, a reckoning. 

tse'-cha, 1. sign, indication. 
2. hands of a clock. 

tse'-dar, cedar. 

tsed'l, a ticket. 

tse a ' -dok-ter, dentist; lit., "teeth" 
doctor. 

tte'-et, tenth. 

tse' -ga-bot-ta, the decalogue. 

tsek. a tick. 

tse' -la, to count, to enumerate. 

tselt, tent. 

tset-'l, a ticket. 

tshump, a jump, a spring. 

tshump'-pa, to jump, to spring. 

tsich' -dich-a, to chastise, to punish. 

tsif-ar, cipher, figure, numerals. 

tsi-gap'-ner, gipsy. 

tsi'-gha, to move, to pull. 

tsi'-gh'l, 1. a bridle. 
2. a tile. 

tsi'-gh'l-a, to bridle. 

tsil, aim, objective point, goal. 

tsl'-la, to aim. 

tsim' -ber-lich, delicate, debilitated. 

tsim'-lich, tolerable, tolerably, pret- 
ty or fairly. 

tsim'-ma-ra, to work in wood. 

tsim-mar-man, a cooper ; sometimes 
applied. 



Hoffinan.] 



278 



[Dec. 21, 



tsin, pewter. 

Uin'-da, to light, to ignite. 

tsind'-loch, touchhole. 

tsind'-pan, pan beneath touch hole 
of a gun. 

tsind'-pul-w'r, priming powder. 

tsing'-'l-a, to move the protruded 
tongue with rapidity, as a 
serpent. 

tsink'-a, prong, as of a fork. 

tsit'-tar-U, souse ; pig's feet jelly. 

tsit'-ter-a, to tremble, to quiver. 

tsob'-tsi-gh'l, check rein. 

tsol, inch. 

tsol'-shtab, foot-rule* 

tsot'-t'l, 1. a rag, tatter. 

2. a strumpet, prostitute. 

tsot'4'l-a, 1. to drop, or scatter, 
about. 
2. to loaf around — as a strum- 
pet. 

tsol'-Vl-ich, ragged. 

tsu, to, at. 

tsu, closed. 

tsu-arsht' ', first, originally. 

tsub'-ba, to pull, to jerk. 

tsu'-bring-a, 1. to pass time. 

2. to accomplish. 

3. to bring to — to resuscitate. 
tsucht, noise, commotion. 
tsucht' -ich, boisterous. 

tsucht' -hnus, penitentiary. 

tsu'-drau-a, confidence, trust. 

tsu' -fel-lich, accidental, coinciden- 
tal. 

tsu' -fel'-lich-er -teats', accidentally. 

tsu'-fer-drau'-a, reliance, confidence 
in. 
UntcJU, refuge. 

tsu'-ftti accident, occurrence. 
>nt/, admission, entrance. 

tsu'-geng li'/t, ftpprotcbftbte. 

tsii'ge-ua, to f\vt in, to iidniit, to 
now ledge. 

tsu'-l listen to, to li.'ur. 

tsuk, a moving, a depart D 



tsuk'-blash-der, blistering plaster ; 

drawing plaster. 
tsuk'-er, sugar. 

tsuk' -er-maul, one fond of sweets. 
tsuk' -er-sach, candy, confectionery. 
tsuk'-ka, to jerk, to pull. 
tsu' -kam-ma, to come to, to recover. 
tsu-letsht', at last, finally. 
tsum, to the ; contraction of tsa, tse 

or tsu, and dem. 
tsu' -mach-a, to close. 
tsu'-mu-da, to expect, to expect 

from another. 
tsu'-na'-ma, surname. 
tsu' -nem-ma, to increase, to improve. 
tsung, tongue. 
tsur, to the ; from tsa, tse or tsu, 

and der. 
tsu' -rich-da, to prepare, to arrange 

in order. 
tsu-rik', back. 
tsu'-rish'-ta, to prepare. 
tsu'-sats, an addition, addendum. 
tsu'-sed-sa, to add to, to swell in 

volume. 
tsu'-se n -na, to witness, to look at. 
tsu'-shbrech-a, to encourage. 
tsu'-8hlak-ham'-mer,s\edge hammer. 
tsu'shtand, condition, state. 
tsu'-trit, entrance, admission. 
tsu'-w^r, tub. 
tswai'-fl, doubt. 
tswaig', twig, sprout, a slip for 

grafting. 
tswai'-gha, to graft. 
tswai'-w'l, doubt. 
txirni'-ip'l-hiift, doubtful. 
tswan'-sich, twenty. 
tswan'-sich-Vl, twentieth portion. 
tsir.ir' ir/i, dwarf. 
tswdr' -ich-aks, a twibil — a kind of 

iimttock or :i\e, haying two 

blades, one c^>j,c running hori 
zontallv and the other trans 

versely. 
tsw'ar'-na, to twist. 



1883. 1 



279 



(Hoffman. 



tswe, two. 

tswek, aim, object, design. 
tswe' -kep-ich, of varying mind, un- 
decided ; lit., two-headed. 
tswek' -me-sich, proper. 
tswelf, twelve. 
tswel'-fa, twelve. 
tswelft, twelfth. 
tswelf -t' 'I, twelfth. 
tswmg'-a, to force, to compel. 
tswik'-'l, fool. 
tswil'-ich, twilled. 
tswil'-ing, twins. 

tswinj'-a, to subdue, to overcome. 
tswU'-sar-a, to glitter, to glisten. 
tsicil'-sar-ich, glittering, brilliant. 
tswi'-w'l, onion, tuber. 



uf, 1. open. 

2. on, upon. 

3. open. 

uf-bas-sa, to be careful, to be 

watchful. 
uf-bin-na, 1. to bind up— as a 

wound. 
2. to rake and bind. 
ufbrech-a, 1 . to break open. 

2. to adjourn. 

3. to fail in business. 
nf-but'sa, to clean up, to dress up 

or arrange in order. 

uf-drik'-'l-a, to dry up, to wither. 

uf-em, on the ; contraction of uf 
dem. 

u'fer, bank, shore, landing. 

vf-fi'-der-a, to improve by feed- 
ing. 

vf-ge a , to sprout, to grow. 

vfge-wa, to discontinue, to give 
up. 

uf-Md-ra, to cease, to quit. 

uf-hal-da, 1. to keep up, to pro- 
tract. 
2. to hinder. 

vf'-hel-la, to clear up. 



uf-lie-wa, 1. to lift, to raise. 

2. to save, to preserve for fu- 
ture use. 
nf-kld-ra, to clear up. 
uf-kok-sa, to endeavor to persuade. 
uf-kum-ma, to rise, and prosper. 
uf -la-da, to load up, or upon. 
uf-'n, on a, upon a. 
uf-nem-ma, 1. to take up — as land. 

2. to arrest. 

3. to entertain. 
uf-pik'-ka, to pick up, to gather. 
vf-ra-ma, to place in order, to ar- 
range, to cleanse. 

uf' -rich-tick, upright. 

uf-ror, uproar, riot. 

vf-sa'gha, to recite — as a lesson. 

uf-shbi-la, to wash dishes ; to 
cleanse and arrange in order. 

uf-sht-wa, to postpone, to delay. 

uf-shtel'-la, 1. to set up, to erect. 
2. to put up— as at a public 
house. 

vf-shtd'sa, to belch. 

uf-shto-ses, eructations. 

uf-tsd-ma, to bridle a horse, to har- 
ness. 

uf-tse-ra, to consume. 

uf-tsigha, 1. to bring up ; to edu- 
cate. 
2. to wind up. 

um, about, for the purpose. 

um'-acht, faintness, syncope. 

um'-b'r-el, umbrella. 

um'-bring-a, to kill, to destroy. 

um' -bshdimt, undecided, doubtful. 

um'-faiig, circumference, girth. 

um'-gang, 1. acquaintance, commu- 
nication. 
2. cohabitation. 

um'-ge-ghend, surrounding regions, 
or area. 

um'-getig-lich, social. 

um' -ge-kert, confused, to be con- 
fused. 

um'-Iiak'-ka, to cut down, to fell. 



lloflman.) 



280 



[Dec. 21, 



vm'-hang, curtain, window -shade. 

um'-nenk'l, window curtain. 

um'-ke-ra, to invert, to turn. 

um'-kum-ma, to perish. 

um'-matht, faint, syncope. 

vm'-mech-tich, faint, syncope. 

um' -me-ghlie7i, impossible. 

um-ring'-a, to surround. 

um-seP'-na, to look about, to famil- 
iarize one's self. 

vm'shtand, circumstance, condi- 
tion. 

wn'-sMen-da, circumstances. 

un, and ; as a prefix — for which 
um is frequently used — it sig- 
nifies not, equal to the ordi- 
nary prefix in English, as 
im or un. 

un'-a, below, at the bottom. 

i a '-na, without ; usually pronounc- 
ed a af -na. 

un' -aeh*.$am, careless. 

vn'-a-draus, in the lower part — as a 
geographic term. 

un'-a-drin, in the lower part, in the 
bottom. 

vn'-ar, below, beneath. 

vn' -ard-licb, disorderly, unman- 
nerly. 

un'-ar-drik'-ka, to oppress, to keep 
down. 

un'-ar-ho$'sa, drawers; W., under- 
pants. 

un'-ar-rok, petticoat. 

un'ur-»hid, difference. 

un'-ar shrift, signature. 

vn'-ar-$7irai'tta, to subscribe, to 

rifB. 

ttn'-arsht, lowest, the botloni one. 
un'iir-tuth'a, to investigate, to M 

uinine. 
un'-ar-suc/i <»>j, investigation, ex- 

amiimtion. 

tin ilinxpcttfil. 

un'-badt n/.t , i ii ml v irt mt. 
un' Li hint, unknown. 



un'-be-kert, unconverted. 

un' -be-kim' -inert , careless, thought- 
less. 

un> -ben-icTi, unmanageable. 

un'-be-weg'-lich, immovable. 

und, and. 

un' -end-lich, endless. 

■un' -e a -nic7i, at variance, not in ac- 
cord. 

nn'-er-em, below it, under it ; con- 
traction of un'-er dem. 

ttn'-erlich, dishonest. 

un' -er-lhh-kait, dishonesty. 

un' -fer-glaich' -lich, without compar 
ison, unique. 

itn'-fer-s/iemt, shameless. 

un'-fer-sMand, want of sense. 

un'-fer-shten'-ieh, senseless, impu- 
dent. 

un f -fraind-lic7i, unfriendly. 

un'-ga-fer, about. 

un'-ga-hai'-er, excessive, huge. 

un'-ga-hai'-er-lich, excessively, im- 
mense. 

nn'-ga-fiorsam, disobedient. 

un' -ga-tsif -fer, vermin. 

un'-ga-tso-gha, ill-bred, unmannerly. 

ung'-glik, accident, misfortune. 

ung'-graut, weeds. 

vii'j'-kosh-ta, costs, damages. 

ung'-kshait, nonsensical, unwise, 
silly. 

un'-glik, accident, misfortune. 

un'-glik -lich, unfortunate. 

un' -glik' -lich-er-wais', accidentally, 
unfortunately. 

un'-graut, weeds. 

un' -gahikt, awkward, clumsy, inapt. 

un'-hcm-lich, a sense of discomfort, 
:i I'ctding of loneliness. 

un'-kothta, costs, damages. 
un' miin-ntrlicli, unmannerly. 
un'-mr gldieh, unlikely. 
un'-imns/i lich, erne], unnatural in 

disposition, or form. 
vn'-nidt, a good for nothing. 



1888.] 



281 



[Hoffman. 



un' -nids-ich, useless, good-for-noth- 
ing. 
un'-recht, wrong. 
un' rich-tich, false, incorrect. 
un'-rbd, trash, dirt. 
un'-ru, 1. unrest, restlessness. 

2. escapement— of a watch. 
un'-ru' -ich, restless. 
una, us. 

un'-ser, our, ours. 
un'-shik-lich, unsuitable. 
un'shuld, innocence. 
un' -shuld-ich, innocent. 
un-aich' -bar, invisible. 
un' -tse-frid' -da, dissatisfied, discon- 
tented. 
un' -wis-sent, unknowing, ignorant. 
un'-wbl, unwell, not in good health. 
un'-wor-hed, untruth. 
ur, clock. 

ur'-dail, judgment, sentence. 
ur' -grds-fad' -ter, great grandfather 
ur'gros-mut-ter, great grandmother 
ur'-he-w'r, originator. 
ur'-sach, cause, motive, reason. 
ur'-shprung, origin, source. 
ur'-tail, judgment, sentence, opin 
ion. 

wa, what. 

waart, value, worth. 
waart'-fol, valuable. 
wa'-da, 1. calf of the leg. 

2. to wade. 
va'-gha, a wagon. 
wa'-gha-gles, wagon rut. 
wa' -gha-ref, tire of wheel. 
wa'-gha-shop, wagon shed. 
wa'-ghnar, wheelwright. 
wai, hawk. 
wai n , wine. 

waib'-eha, female — of birds. 
waibs'-bild, woman. 
waibs'-hem, chemise. 
waiba'-lait, women. 
waibs' -mench, woman. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXVI. 



wai' -da, willow. 
wal nl -gar-da, vineyard. 
wail, 1. while. 

2. because. 
wain'-na, to cry. 
wais, white. 
wai' -8a, 1. to show, to direct. 

2. to whitewash. 
wai'-8a-hau8, orphans' home. 
wai'sa-kind, orphan. 
wai8'-darn, haw thorn. 
wai8'-er-gle'-a, white clover. 
wais'-hait, wisdom. 
wal al -8hde n , cream of tartar. 
irnis'-s'l-a, to whitewash. 
wai8'->ral-ni8, butternut tree. 
wait, 1. wide. 

2. far, distant. 
wak'ar, awake, alert, active. 
ir<ik'-/.<t, quartz, quartzite. 
wakt, wax. 

wakt'-ich, flourishing, thrifty. 
waki'-knop, lymphatic gland. 
wak8'-8a, 1. to grow. 

2. to wax. 
wai, 1. election. 

2. choice. 
wal'-ni8, walnut. 
wal'-nu8, walnut. 
wals, roller — agricultural. 
wal'sa, 1. to roll — with roller. 

2. to waltz. 
wam'-ba, stomach, paunch. 
iram'-es, jacket. 
>r,nt, when, if. 
wa n '-na, to dwell, to reside. 
imhh| wall. 
wa n '-nirig, residence. 
iriind'l, conduct. 
wand'-'l-a, to wander, to loiter. 
wank''l-ml-dich, tickle, unstable. 
wans, 1. bed bug. 

2. when it, contraction of wan 
and es. 
war, 1. was. 

2. ware, goods. 

129. 2 J. PRINTED MARCH 14, 1889. 



Hoffman.] 



282 



[Dec. 21, 



tear, -who. 

wa'-ra, were. 

wa'-ra, will be — pi. 

war'-a-w'l, the top of the scalp from 
which the hair radiate. 

ward, word. 

ward, becomes ; will. 

war' -da, to wait. 

irar-7iaft'ie?i, truly, verily. 

war'-i-gha, to choke, to strangle. 

war'ik, 1. tow. 

2. a work, edifice, a creation. 

war'-ik-haus, workhouse, i e., peni- 
tentiary. 

war'-ik-ka, to choke, to strangle. 

itar'-ik'l-hoU, rolling-pin. 

war' -ik-lich, truly, verily. 

war'-iksa, to retch, to gag, to 
vomit 

wark'-ik-gaul, distaff; lit, tow 
horse. 

irar'm, worm. 

to&r'm, warm. 

war'm-a, to warn. 

war'-mut, wormwood. 

war'-na, to warn. 

irar'-ning, warning, notification. 

trar'-ra, to become. 

'riir'-8hai n 4ich, probable, probably. 
thd, sausage. 

wars/it, sausage. 

warsht-drech-der, sausage stuffer ; 
lit., sausage funnel. 

ir.'irt, wart, excrescence. 

irurt, word. 

wart, landlord. 

- ■/, to wait, to tarry. 

irar' tsel, root. 

•r'drV -»li<ift, public house, with bur 

and appurtenances. 
imrlx' /iuum, tavern, inn. 
wir'-Ul, root. 

n'l-a, to take root — as plants. 
ica-rum', why, when 
was, what; fer tea*— (or why— is 

usually emplt ''!/. 



was'-ser, water. 

was'-ser-ich, watery. 

teas' ser-mi-lan' , water melon. 

was' -ser-sucht, dropsy. 

watsh, a watch. 

wat8h'-a, to watch. 

we, sore ; painful. 

web, web. 

web'-shlul, loom. 

wech'-lich, weekly. 

wed'-d'r, 1. against. 

2. weather. 

3. whether. 

4. a ram — wether. 
wed'-d'r-le-cha.to lighten, lightning. 
wed'-d'r-rut, lightning rod. 

wed' -8a, to whet, to sharpen. 
weds'-shtal, steel, for sharpening 

knives. 
icedt, pasture. 
wig, 1. way, road. 

2. direction. 
wek, 1. away. 

2. bun, variety of sweet bis- 
cuit. 
wek, 1. way, road. 

2. direction. 
wek'-ka, to wake, to awaken. 
ireh' -lok-ka, to decoy, to call off. 
wek' -mesh-der, supervisor. 
wek' -alia f -fa, to remove, to destroy. 
wek'-s'l, change. 
wek's'l-a, 1. to change. 

2. to exchange. 
wek'-8'l-f\'-wer, intermittent fever. 
wek'-ur, alarm clock. 
wek'-wai-ser, niili'-post ; post erect- 
ed at cross-roads, bearing a 
board upon which is Indicated 
the distance to the ncaicsi 
village. 
wel, 1. well ! which. 
2. Wiivc, lucakcr. 
in ' l,i, lo elect ; to choose. 
IB </' hfii uvliv 

to wither, u» fide. 



1888.] 



283 



[Hoftman. 



welsh' -ha-na, turkey cock. 
welsh'-hink'l, 1. turkey hen. 

2. turkeys. 
welsh' -karn, corn, maize. 
welt, world. 
wem, to whom. 
wen'-ich, a little. 
wen'-na, to turn. 
wen' -ring, cant hook. 
wesh, wash — clothing. 
wesh' -a, to wash. 
weshb, wasp. 
wesh' -lain, clothes line. 
wesh'-r'n, laundress. 
wesh' -shbeV , clothes pin. 
wes'-ser-a, to water. 
wes'-ser-ich, watery, moist. 
wet, would. 

wet'-sa, to whet, to sharpen. 
we'-tsa, wheat. 

wets' -ham, horn for carrying whet- 
stone. 

wets' -kump, horn for carrying whet- 
stone — used by reapers. 

wet'-ta, to bet, to wager. 

we'-wa, to weave. 

we'w'r, weaver. 

we'-w'r-tset'l, warp. 

wi, 1. how. 

2. like, as, likewise. 

wl'-cha, wick. 

wi'-dich, mad, hydrophobia. 

wi'-gha, to weigh. 

wip, whip. 

wip'-ba, to whip, to punish. 

wip'-b'r-wil, whip-poor-will. 

wich'-dich, important. 

wid'-der, again. 

wid'-der lich, nauseating. 

wid'-d'r-a, to refuse. 

wid'-d'r-ga-bort, regeneration. 

wid'-d'r-ho'-la. to repeat. 

wid'-fra, widow. 

wid'-man, widower. 

wid'-d'r-ru'-fa, to recall, to revoke. 

wid' -d'r-shprech' -a, to contradict. 



wid'-d'r-shte n ', to resist. 
wik, cradle. 
wik'-'l, 1. a lap. 

2. a foolish, silly fellow. 
wik'-'l-a, to wind, to wrap. 
toil, will, wish. 
wild, wild, untamed. 
wild' -fai-ar, erysipelas. 
wild'-jlesh, granulations of a heal- 
ing surface. 
wild' -er-bal 1 -sam, spearmint. 
wild' -er-nis, wilderness. 
wildt, wild. 
wil' ich, willing. 
wil'-kum, welcome. 
wil'-la, 1. will — an opinion. 

2. a last will. 
win, screw-jack. 
wind' -ge-bro' eh-a, heaves. 
wind'-ieh, windy. 

wind' -'I, diaper. 

wind'-mil, windmill, winnowing 
mill. 

wind' -thtil, calm. 

wind' -shtos, gust of wind. 

wind'-war-w'l, whirlwind. 

win'-ish, crooked, warped. 

wink'-ka, to wink. 

irink'-'l, square — tool. 

wink'-'l-ai-sa, iron square — tool. 

icink-'lbora, brace — tool. 

win'-na, 1. to win, to succeed. 
2. bind-weed. 

■irin'-sha, to wish, to desire. 

win's'la, to whine. 

wis, a meadow. 

wish, a wisp, small brush, a wiper. 

wish' -a, to wipe, to brush. 

■trisht, ugly, disagreeable. 

wis'-sa, to know. 

wis' -sent-lich, knowingly. 

wis'-s'l, 1. weasel. 

2. a small meadow. 

wis's'n-haft, knowledge. 

wits'-ich, witty. 

woch, a week. 



Hoffman.] 



284 



[Dec. 21, 1888. 



wod, would. 

uok, 1 . a scale. 
2. whiffletree. 

vol, -wool. 

tool, well, healthy. 

icolf, wolf. 

wolf'-ich, greedy, grasping. 

wol'-fl, cheap. 

vol' -ga-mud, mountain sage. 

wolk, cloud. 

wol' -kfal' -la, satisfied with, pleased 
with. 

wolk'-ich, cloudy. 

voV-la, to desire, to wish. 

vol'-la-shteng-el, mullein, mullein 
stalk. 

vol' -shtre-micA, brindled. 

teor, true. 

wor'-et, truth. 

icor'-etsa-gher, fortune-teller; lit., 
truth teller. 

vor'-hed, truth. 

wot, would. 

vu, where, whither, whence. 

vudt, anger, madness. 

uudt'shte*. mad-stone. 

wu-hi n ', whither, whereto. 

vmnd, 1. wound. 

2. abraded or chafed. 

wund' -grant, golden rod. 

wun'-ner-a, to wonder. 

wun'-ner-bar, wonderful. 

ttun' -ner-fits, curiosity ; an inquisi- 
tive person ; the desire, or 
promptings, to inquire or to 
be inquisitive. 

wun'-ner jits-irh, inquisitive. 

wun'-ner -fol', wonderful. 

wun'-ner-niia, ;m inquisitive* per- 
hon. 

,run' in r-ael'-da, seldom, rarely. 

WUnth, :i wi-h. 

iruM'-lir/i, lively, pluyful. 

wui'a'l <i, t<> < uper, to bo playful, 

to frisk. 
tout*, a pig. 



vuts'-'l-eha, a shoat. 
wuts'-'li, shoat. 



ya, yes. 

ya, yes. 

yacht, noise. 

yacht'-ich, noisy, boisterous. 

ya'-gha, 1. to chase. 

2. to hunt — game, etc. 

ya'-ma-ra, to lament, to moan. 

yam'-mer, lamentation. 

ya n '-ni, Jonathan. 

ya nl -ni-dan' , Jonathan. 

yaud'-sa, to shout, to bark. 

ye'-der, every one, each one. 

ye'-der-er, each one, when reference 
is made to masc. nouns. 

ye'-der-es, each one, when speaking 
of substances of neuter gen- 
der. 

ye'-der-i, each one, when alluding 
to fern, nouns. 

ye'-ders, each one — collective. 

ye'-gher, a hunter, sportsman. 

yem'-ar-lich, pitiful, poorly, piti- 
fully. 

yen'-nar, January. 

yer'-lich, yearly. 

ying'-lirig, a youth. 

yingshd, youngest. 

yd, yes. This is a peculiar form, 
used frequently to signify 
more than simple atllrmation, 
giving, in fact, an idea of 
posit iveness which could he 
conveyed only by such ex- 
pressions as, yes, certainly, 
etc. 

yoeh, yoke. 

yocli' 'i. to yoke. 

!/<-'-/faiis</r<iut, St. .lohu's wort. 

yok'l, 1. a stupid fellow. 
ic.ob. 

.//»/•, year. 

I/ ild, .lew. 



Jan. 18, 1889.] && J [Blasdus. 

yud' -da-Tcdr' -sha, ground cherries. yush' -da-ment, exactly so. 
yu'-li, July. yush'-dis, justice of the peace. 

yung, young. yusht, only, but. 

ynng'-fra, virgin. yut, Jew. 

yushd, only, just. 



Has the Signal Service Degenerated ? By William Blasius. 
{Read before the American PhilosopJdcal Society, January IS, 1889.) 

There is of late a growing impression in the public mind that the Signal 
Service Bureau is degenerating, and is less effective than during its earlier 
days. The Philadelphia Public Ledger gives these impressions a definite 
form when it refers to the forecasts of that great storm of November 27, 
1888, which read; "Fair, except light showers on the coast; northerly 
wind, becoming variable ; stationary temperature," and compares it with 
the violent storm on that day. It then continues: "It is because the 
Ledger desires to have what may be made a useful service restored to its 
former 'probability,' that it thus calls attention to failures of somebody at 
the Washington office to do as good work there as the service is capable 
of doing, or has heretofore been done." 

If such a condition existed, if the Signal Service were no more effective 
than it used to be in its earlier days, it would be most deplorable ; be- 
cause the little interest the public seemed to take in this most interesting 
and useful science might die away, and the hope we have for its develop- 
ment be buried with it. Such a result would be still more unfortunate 
from the fact that this country, by its geographical position and its topo- 
graphical structure, is better adapted for a successful study of meteor- 
ology than any other country on our globe. 

The Signal Service has, however, not degenerated, but it has not im- 
proved much either, and if it does not change its plan of operation hitherto 
pursued, I dare say it will be no more effective in the future. The above 
prognostication, it is true, does not give in advance an idea of a storm 
that will rage, "with hurricane fury over an extent of seven hundred 
miles on our coast, from New Jersey to Nova Scotia," but it speaks, at 
least, of "light showers on the coast." If we compare it, however, with 
prognostications for similar storms of earlier days — for instance, the storm 
of August 23, 24 and 25, in the year 1873, extending from New Jersey to 
Nova Scotia, in which 1032 vessels and about 500 lives were lost, and 
which was predicted by "fine weather" — the above prediction of "light 
showers on the coast" must be considered an improvement. At that time 



Blasius.J ^oO [j an . is, 

the papers complained of the Signal Service for having indicated that fear- 
ful storm with predictions of "fine weather ;" and, whether officially or 
hy some friendly service, a kind of an excuse came from Washington that 
that storm must have passed to the northward and outside of the United 
States Signal Service stations. In that case the Canadian Signal Service 
ought to have observed it. But it did not, because it worked on the same 
method as the United States Signal Service. That storm, however, must 
have passed somewhere. Then Prof. Abbe, the scientist of the Signal 
Service, came to the rescue and demonstrated clearly (?) that that storm 
probably originated near the coast of Senegambia, Africa, on August 13, 
moving north-westerly across the Atlantic until the 23d, when its course 
changed to a north-easterly direction, running up the coast of North 
America, gathering force meanwhile, urftil it culminated near the coas,t of 
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland ; after which it continued its course, with 
diminishing force and increasing size, across the Atlantic, reaching the 
northern part of Great Britain on the 31st, and Norway on the 2d of Sep- 
tember.* This was indeed a remarkable journey of a storm, which be- 
comes more wonderful by the fact that Prof. Abbe located its centre 
about two hundred miles away from the coast, yet reported the greatest 
or rather all destruction as taking place on the coast ! 

The affair became quite amusing as well as interesting to me. I pro- 
cured the Signal Service charts of the state of the atmosphere over the 
United States, and showed by their own maps that the storm had come 
from Manitoba, crossed the country by way of the lakes over the Signal 
Service stations, to the south-east and east to the coast from New Jersey 
to Nova Scotia, f To the uninitiated it may appear incomprehensible that 
a storm should travel over the United States Signal Service stations as a 
bringerof "fair weather," and develop to such fury and severity on the 
coast. But such is the case. 

The reason for this apparent paradox consists in the fact that the lead- 
ing meteorologists define a storm or cyclone as an area of low barometric 
pressure. A storm is, therefore, not expected unless the barometer begins 
to fall. The area of high pressure or the anticyclone, according to their 
rules, brings fair weather. I have shown, as early as 1851, that this 
theory is not correct, and that the area of low barometric pressure is not 
the storm but only the effect of the storm, and that the areas of high baro- 
metric pressure, under certain circumstances, bring the most violent and 
destructive storms, especially when they reach our coast.}: lam corrob- 
orated in my views by pmoticftl men such us the lain Com. Wyinan, Chief 
ot the Hydrographic. Office, I'»urc:ui of Navigation, United States Navy, 
who says in a letter to me : " It [my book] is borne out by my experl- 

iili!f Signal Officer's Report f<>r 1*73, p. lor., Appendix E. 
BDM, tli«:lr Nature, Clanlflcutiou mi<l I.uws, <-u\, pp, 1M-497. Potior & Coatcs, 

."./</., pp. 01-111. 



1889.1 *&* [Blasiua. 

ence," and others; and also by the accounts of almost every violent 
storm. In explaining that storm, it was also shown that the Signal Ser- 
vice might have telegraphed it to the coast three days in advance, if they 
had acted according to the views above presented, instead of following 
the old traditional theories. 

• I have since on similar occasions called attention to the characteristics 
of this kind of storms, and the fact that the Signal Service men have this 
time predicted, at least, "light showers on the coast," shows some 
progress. 

There is another fact to show that the Signal Service during the last few 
years is not degenerating, but improving. It consists in the practical adop- 
tion, at least sometimes, of the law of oscillations in air movements, as 
published In my work on "Storms," instead of the rotary law heretofore 
followed. 

Those unacquainted with the science will understand this important 
change better when I indicate the effect in the prognostications. In the 
earlier days the prognostications contained the information of the approach 
of a cyclone or anticyclone, or what is identical, of an area of low or high 
pressure. Now we read of the approach of a warm or a cold wave. That 
the present indications are of more practical value to the public than the 
former must be obvious to any one who gives the subject any thought at 
all. A knowledge in advance of a change in the temperature or moisture 
of the atmosphere assists us in regulating our health, our industries and, 
in short, everything that relates to the comforts of life. The fact that the 
pressure will be a little more or less does not materially affect us. The 
predictions according to the oscillation law, or the warm and cold air 
movement, did not prove so effective as they would have been, had they 
not also retained the old traditional theory of a cyclonic air movement at 
the same time. To assume a straight line air movement and, at the same 
time, that of a cyclone, must cause confusion in the predictions. 

When at the close of the war, at the suggestion of the late Prof. 
Henry, the Signal Corps was changed into the Signal Service Bureau, and 
every soldier and officer of it became, at one stroke of the pen, a full- 
fledged meteorologist, I expected that with the aids and resources at their 
disposal they could not help stumbling upon some very important discov- 
eries which I had made some thirteen years previous. General Meyer was 
an excellent organizer, but he created, after all, only a machine, a body 
without a soul. Seeing how observations were made, I became convinced 
that they would not reach any valuable results necessary for successful 
practical progress. 

The public is accustomed to assume that he who gets an office, gets also 
the necessary knowledge and wisdom for it. The public wants to harvest 
where it has not sown, and it had to be satisfied. So General Meyer man- 
aged to get high percentages in verifications. He showed progress by 
increasing them. The beginning was already as high as seventy-five per 



Blasius.] ^88 f j ftn . is, 

cent, and they have reached as high as ninety-five per cent. The public 
was elated to have the best Signal Service in the world, and did not care to 
test the matter. Now General Greely cannot well exceed one hundred 
per cent, and he cannot well go back to a more justified number, and the 
public then thinks that the Signal Service is degenerating. Thus General 
Greely has to bear the sins committed by his predecessors. General Greely 
is as well calculated for his important position as any of his predecessors, 
if not better. But the Signal Service will not become better nor grow 
worse than it always has been, unless General Greely commences from 
anew and does what General Meyer ought to have done in the beginning. 
To establish correct laws ought to be his first and principal aim. The 
fact that, at the end of nearly a quarter of a century's hard work, the 
public begins to think that the Signal Service is not as effective any more 
as in its earlier days when it could not be anything, is sufficient to prove 
that the laws hitherto followed are wrong. 

In view of the foregoing, I beg leave to make the following suggestions 
for the improvement of the Signal Service Bureau : — 

Find the true laws. This country offers all advantages. Let the pre- 
dicting, in the meantime, go on in the usual way to satisfy the public. It 
cannot become worse than it has been hitherto, by taking away half a 
dozen or a dozen of the most intelligent men, and making them an investi- 
gating corps. Have them taught, above all, to see correctly in order to be 
able to read nature as well as antiquated books and meteorological instru- 
ments—the latter any school-boy can do. Teach these men to compare 
what they have seen and with common sense work it into laws, as 
Franklin did. The less these men know of antiquated traditional theories 
taught by professors who never digested them themselves, the better they 
are calculated for their work. 

Let General Greely shake otF such authorities that hide their ignorance 
in high-sounding hollow phrases, and who compliment each other by 
copying each other's undigested works, and start anew with such an in- 
vestigating corps prepared in the above-mentioned way, and the Signal 
Service will soon he in the condition to show real progress. In this coun- 
try the meteorological laws arc exhibited so plainly that anybody who has 
ktirned to see nature correctly, without being biased in his mind, cannot 
fail to learn them. 



■] 



289 



[Phillips. 



Alphabetical List of Obituary Notices published in the Transactions and 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 

By Henry Phillips, Jr. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 1, 18S9.) 

ALEXANDER, Joseph Addison (John Ley burn). .Procs. VII. 320 

BEADLE, Rev. Elias P. (D. Hayes Agnew) " XXII. 227 

BETHUNE, George W. (R. Dunglison) " IX. 70 

BIDDLE, C. C. (George Ord) " VI. 158 

BINNEY, Horace (William Strong) " XVI. 1 

BONAPARTE, Joseph (C. J. Ingersoll) " VI. 71 

BOOTH, James C. (Patterson DuBois) " XXV. 204 

BRIDGES, Robert (W. S. W. Ruschenberger) " XXI. 427 

CALDWELL, Charles (B. H. Coates) " VI. 77 

CHAPMAN, Nathaniel (John B. Biddle) " VII. 397 

CHASE, Pliny E. (P. C. Garrett) " XXI V. 287 

CHEVALIER, Michael (Moncure Robinson) " XIX. 28 

COL WELL, Stephen (H.C.Carey) " XII. 195 

DARLINGTON, William (T. P. James) " IX. 330 

DARWIN, Charles R. (LeConte) " XX. 235 

DAVIS, Isaac R. (Stephen Colwell) " VI. 299 

DESOR, E. (J.P.Lesley) " XX. 519 

DILLINGHAM, W. II. (William Darlington) " VI. 91 

DRAPER, Henry (G. F. Barker) " XX. 656 

DRAPER, J. W. (W.H.Hammond) " XX. 227 

DuBOIS, W. E. (R. Patterson) " XX. 102 

EOKFELDT, J. R. (W. E. DuBois) " XII. 547 

EMERSON, R. W. (C.G.Ames) " XX. 498 

FRAZER, John F. (John L. LeConte) " XIII. 183 

FRAZER, Robert (Persifor Frazer) " XVIII. 233 

GASTON, William (W. H. Dillingham) " IV. 49 

GILPIN, Henry D. (Joseph R. Ingersoll) " VII. 347 

GROSS, Samuel D. (J. M. DaCosta) " XXII. 78 

HALDEM AN, S. S. (D. G. Brinton) " XIX. 279 

(J. L. LeConte) " XIX. 109 

HARDEN, John W. (J. P. Lesley) " XVIII. 422 

HARRISON, Joseph, Jr. (Coleman Sellers) " XIV. 347 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2k. PRINTED APRIL 4, 1889. 



Phillips.] ^"0 [Feb . i ( 

HAYDEN, F. V. (J.P.Lesley) Procs. XXV. 59 

HAYS, Isaac (D. G. Brinton) " XVIII. 259 

HENRY, Joseph (Fairman Rogers) ' * XVIII. 461 

'HEER, Oswald (Lesquereux) " XXI. 286 

HERSCHEL, J. W. F. (H. A. Field) " XII. 217 

HOPKINSON, Joseph (J. K. Kane) " VI. 12 

HUMPHREYS, A. A. (Hampton L. Carson) " XXII. 48 

IRVING, Washington (Henry Coppee) " VII. 363 

JACKSON, J. R. (John K. Kane) " 11.217 

JAMES, Thomas P. (Joseph T. Rothrock) " XX. 293 

JONES, Joel (George Sharswood) " VII. 387 

KIRKBRIDE, Thomas S. (John Curwen) ' * XXII. 217 

KNEASS, Strickland "(Frederick Graft) " XXI. 451 

KRAUTH, Charles P. (Frederick A. Muhlenberg).. " XX. 612 

LAW, Philip H. (D. G. Brinton) " XXV. 225 

LE OONTE, John L. (G. H. Horn) " XXI. 291 

(J.P.Lesley) " XXL 291 

LIVING-STON, Edward (Henry D. Gilpin) " III. 92 

LUDLOW, James R. (Richard Vaux) * * XXIV. 19 

MASON, E. R. (S.C.Walker) " II. 7 

MAOFARLANE, James (J.P.Lesley) " XXIII. 287 

McOALL, Peter (Henry Phillips, Jr.) " XIX. 213 

McILVAINE, William (George Ord) ' * VI. 101 

MEIGS, Charles D. (John Bell) " XIII. 170 

MEIGS, John Forsyth (William Pepper) " XXI. 266 

MIOHAUX, F. Andre (Elias Durand), Trans., N. 

S., XI, xvii, " VI. 223 

MILLER, E. (S. W. Roberts) " XII. 823 

MITCHELL, John K. (Robley Dunglison) " VI. 840 

MITCHELL, O. M. (Henry Coppee) ** I X. 147 

MOORE, Samuel (Franklin Peull) " VIII. 53 

NEILL, John (Daniel G. Brinton) " XIX. 101 

NUTTALL, Thomas (Elias Durand) " VII. 297 

PATTERSON, Robert Trans., N. S., II. ix 

PATTERSON, Robert M. (John K. Kane) Procs. VI. 60 

PETER, William (Job R. Tyson) " VI. 115 

PHILLIPS, Henry M. (Kicliurd Vaux) " XXII. 72 

price, i:ii k. (Joseph T. Rothrock) " xxm. 572 



1889.] ^91 

READ, John M. (Eli K. Price) Procs. XIV. 271 

REED, Henry (John F. Frazer) " VI. 87 

REYNELL, John (B. H. Coates) " VII. 156 

RHOADS, E. (Henry Hartshorne) " XII. 171 

ROBERTS, William (Frederick Fraley) " XX. 199 

ROO-ERS, Robert E. (W. S. W. Ruschenberger). . . " XXIII. 104 

SANDERSON, John (John S. Hart) " IV. 63 

SEYBERT, Henry (Moncure Robinson) " XXI. 241 

SMITH, Albert H. (Harrison Allen) " XXIII. 606 

STRICKLAND, William (John K. Kane) " VI. 28 

TAYLOR, Richard C. (Isaac Lea) " V. 226 

TREGO, Charles B. (S.W.Roberts) " XIV. 356 

TUCKER, George (Robley Dunglison) " IX. 64 

VAUX, William S. (P. H. Law) " XXII. 404 

WALTER, Thomas Ustick (Joseph M. Wilson) ... . " XXV. S23 

"WHITNEY, George (William Sellers) " XXIII. 383 

WISTAR, Caspar (William Tilghman) Trans., N. S., I. xviii 

WOOD, George B. (Henry Hartshorne) Procs. XIX. 1 18 



Stated Meeting, January 18. 1889. 

Present, 21 members. 
President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Mr. Arthur Biddle, a lately elected member, was presented 
to the Chair and took his seat. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows, viz. : 

A circular requesting the attention of the Society in behalf 
of the Philhellenic Society, Amsterdam, Holland. 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the Hun- 
garian Academy, Budapest (127); Naturforschende Gesellschaft 
des Osterlandes, Altenburg (122-127). 

Letters of envoy were received from the Bureau des Longi- 
tudes, Paris ; U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington 
D. C. 



292 



[Jan. 18, 



A letter from the President of the Society stating that he 
had appointed Mr. Craig Biddle to prepare an obituary of the 
late Casper Wistar, M.D., and that the appointment had been 
accepted. 

A letter requesting exchanges was read from the Aachener 
Geschichtsverein, which was granted, and the Society ordered 
to receive Proceedings from No. 96. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the Royal 
Asiatic Society, North China Branch, Shanghai ; Government 
Observatory, Madras; Hungarian Academy, Budapest; K. 
Nordeske Oldskrift-Selskaf, Copenhagen ; Anthropologische 
Gesellschaft, Wien ; Naturforschende Gesellschaft des Oster- 
landes, Altenburg ; Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft, Messrs. 
R. Friedlander & Sohn, Redaktion " Naturwissenschaftliche 
"Wochenschrift," Berlin; Societe des Sciences Physiques et 
Naturelles, Acade'mie N. des Sciences, Bordeaux ; Societe 
Zoologique de France, Societe de Geographie, Ecole des Mines, 
Bureau des Longitudes, Paris ; Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie, Saint-Omer ; Philosophical Society, Cambridge, Eng.; 
Royal Society, R. Meteorological Society, Editor of the " Geo- 
logical Magazine," London ; American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Boston, Mass.; Publisher of " The Travellers' Record," 
Hartford; Entomological Society, Brooklyn; Historical So- 
ciety, American Chemical Society, Mrs. J. W. Barrow, New 
York; Mr. Charles W. Darling, Utica; College of Pharmacy, 
Franklin Institute, Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia; 
Prof. Ira Remsen, Baltimore ; U. S. Geological Survey, U. S. 
National Museum, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Mr. James 
P. Kimball, Washington, D. C; Elisha Mitchell Scientific 
Society, Raleigh; State Board of Health, Nashville; Univer- 
sity of California, Sacramento ; Observatorio Meteorologico- 
Magnetico-( 'cntral, Mexico. 

The Committee on the Codex Poinsett reported progress, and 
was continual. 

The < lommittM OD Prof. ( opo's paper was continual. 

stated business of the evening was then taken up, and 



1889.] 



293 



an election for Librarian being held, Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., 
was unanimously re-elected to that position. 

On motion, the President was authorized to appoint at his 
leisure the Standing Committees of the Society, which were 
subsequently reported by him as follows : 

Finance. 
Henry Winsor, "William B. Rogers, Phillip C. Garrett. 

Publication. 

Daniel G. Brinton, George H. Horn, Samuel Wagner, 

Patterson DuBois, Horace Jayne. 

Hall. 
J. Sergeant Price, William A. Ingham, Charles A. Oliver. 

Library. 

Edwin J. Houston, William V. McKean, Wm. John Potts, 

Jesse Y. Burk, William H. Greene. 

Mr. William Blasius read a paper, " Is the Signal Service 
Degenerating V and subsequently made some oral remarks on 
subjects connected with meteorology in general. 

Dr. Morris offered a suggestion as to the probable equivalent 
in our modern English speech of the ancient Hebrew word — 
Amen. Sometimes such equivalents may be found in terms 
that are marked in our dictionaries as obsolete, or provincial, 
or in terms now in use only among the lower and more igno- 
rant classes. Thus he had on one occasion been much struck 
by the description given by an unlettered negro, of a certain 
pain as a " gugawing " one. We can, in this case, easily trace 
the origin, as of a dog gnawing at a bone. So, in rendering 
our assent to a proposition forcibly, we often, to-day, do so 
with a nod of the head and the utterance of a sound better 
represented by the letters m'h'n, than by any other. Is not 
this then to be regarded as the modern representative of this 
form of earnest solemn assertion? 

The Committee on the Communication of Prof. Goodfellow 



■^"4" [Feb. 1, 

and the Resolution of Prof. Lesley in relation to the U. S. 
Coast Survey, reported the following preamble and resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, The American Philosophical Society having a deep interest 
in scientific investigation, has heretofore taken occasion to express its 
opinion as to the propriety of the appointment of scientific men for high 
scientific positions ; 

And Whereas, The American Philosophical Society recognizes the 
advisability of appointing as Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey a man of the highest ability, experience and character, be it there- 
fore, 

Resolved, That this Society regards Richard Meade Bache as one fulfill- 
ing all these requirements ; that his training on the Survey for a period of 
nearly forty years, his familiarity with its methods and history, his general 
knowledge and scientific culture, would make the appointment an emi- 
nently fit one, and would assure to the work the maintenance of that high 
standard of usefulness to the people and to the Government which it 
reached under the distinguished administrations of Alexander Dallas 
Bache and Benjamin Peirce. 

Resolved, That this Society recommend the said Richard Meade Bache 
as in every way qualified for the Superintendent of the Survey. 

Resolved, That a Committee of three members of this Society be 
appointed to proceed to Washington and lay there these resolutions be- 
fore the President. 

The President of the Society and Messrs. Dudley and Haupt 
were appointed the Committee referred to in the resolution. 
And the Society was adjourned by the President. 



Stated Meeting, February 1, 18S9. 

Present, 16 members. 

Vice-President, Dr. Ruschenbergek, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows: 
A letter from the Marcheso Antonio de Gregorio (Palermo), 
accepting membership. 

A circular from the Sucictv for the Promotion of tho Study 
of V I ireek, Leyden, Netherlands. 



1889.] 



295 



A circular from the American Oriental Society requesting 
information as to whether the American Philosophical Society 
possessed any Oriental manuscripts. 

Program of La Societe Batavede Philosophic Experimentale 
de Eotterdam. 

Circular relating to the Bressa Prize of the Royal Academy 
of Turin to be awarded after December, 1890. 

Letters of envoy were received from the Mining Depart- 
ment, Melbourne, Victoria ; Verein fur Erdkunde, Dresden ; 
Meteorological Office, London, Eng. ; New Haven Colony 
Historical Society, New Haven, Conn.; Prof. N. H. Winchell, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; Oficina Meteorologico Argentina, Cordoba. 

Acknowledgments for 128 were received from Mr. Horatio 
Hale, Clinton, Canada ; Sir J. W. Dawson, Montreal ; Geologi- 
cal and Natural History Survey, Ottawa ; Sir Daniel Wilson, 
Toronto ; Society of Natural History, Portland, Me. ; New- 
Hampshire Historical Society, Concord ; Prof. Charles Henry 
Hitchcock, Hanover, N. H. ; Mr. Robert N. Toppan, Cam- 
bridge ; Massachusetts Historical Society, American Statistical 
Association, Public Library, State Library of Massachusetts, 
Messrs. Stephen P. Sharpies, Robert C. Winthrop, Boston; 
Free Public Library, New Bedford ; Rev. Edward E. Hale, 
Roxbury ; Essex Institute, Salem ; Rhode Island Historical 
Society, Prof. Thomas Chase, Providence, R. I.; Yale Univer- 
sity, New Haven Colony Historical Society, New Haven ; 
Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford. 

A circular from the Audubon Monument Association of 
New York asking for contributions. 

A letter was read from Mr. Robert Patterson in answer to 
one from Secretary Phillips, relating to the portraits of Robert 
Patterson and Robert M. Patterson owned by the Society, of 
which it has no record. Mr. Patterson states that he has in 
his possession, a portrait of Robert Patterson painted by Rem- 
brandt Peale, but is unable to say if the one belonging to the 
Society is an original or a copy. 

That the portrait of Robert M. Patterson owned by the 
Society was a replica painted by Mr. Samuel F. DuBois, his 



296 



[Feb. 1, 



nephew, and presented to the Society by Mr. Patterson's 
■widow. 

A letter from Mr. J. C. Pilling requesting the loan of a work 
on the Society's Library, which was not granted. 

Accessions to the Library were received from the Royal 
Society of Victoria, Department of Mines, Melbourne ; Gesell- 
schaft fur Erdkunde, Gesellschaft fur Anthropologic, Eth- 
nologie und Urgeschichte, K. P. Meteorologische Institut, 
Berlin ; Prof. Dr. August Boltz, Darmstadt ; Verein fur Erd- 
kunde, Dresden; Verein fiir Erdkunde, Halle a.S.; Nassau- 
ischer Verein fiir Naturkunde, Wiesbaden ; Alterth urns verein 
fiir Zwickau und Umgegend, Zwickau ; " Flora Batava," 
Leiden ; Academie Royal de Belgique, Bruxelles ; Socie'te de 
Geographie, Paris; Societe d'Emulation des C6tes-du-Nord, 
Saint Brienc ; R. Academia de la Historia, Madrid ; Natural 
History Society, Montreal; Peabody Museum, Harvard Col- 
lege, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge; Essex 
Institute, Salem ; Meteorological Observatory, Mr. John Eyer- 
man, New York ; New Jersey Historical Society, Newark ; 
Prof. E. D. Cope, Messrs. Francis Jordan, Jr., Bois Penrose, 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Dr. Ruschenberger, Philadelphia ; Depart- 
ment of State, Bureau of Education, Chief of Engineers, An- 
thropological Society, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D. C; State Historical Society, Iowa City ; Prof. N. H. Win- 
chell, St. Paul ; Mr. Francisco Canton Rosado, Merida, Yuca- 
tan ; Sociedad Cientifica " Antonio Alzate," Mexico ; Oficina 
Meteorologico Argentina, Buenos Aires. 

Mr. John Fulton presented a photograph of himself. 

The Audubon Monument Committee presented an engraving 
of John J. Audubon. 

The Committee on the Codex Poinsett reported progress, 
and was continued. 

The Committee on Prof. Cope's Paper reported progress, and 
was continual. 

Mr. Phillips presented for the Proceedings '' An Alphabeti- 
cal Lid of Obituary Notices published in the Transactions and 

ty." 



1889.] ^"* 

Mr. Phillips presented " A Supplemental Register of Papers 
published in the Proceedings of the Society from No. 115 to 
128 (Vol. XXI to XXIV), 1881-1889," completing the Regis- 
ter prepared by him in 1880. 

Also a Subject Register of Communications published by the 
Society in its Transactions and Proceedings. 

The Secretaries were authorized to have a sufficient number 
of these printed separately for general use. 

Mr. Phillips read an account of the Congo Free State. 

Dr. Rothrock made an oral communication in reference to 
Forestry in Pennsylvania. 

New nominations 1183, 1184 and 1185 were read. 

On motion of Prof. Rothrock the Society resolved to appro- 
priate a sum not to exceed $50, to enable the Committee on 
the Michaux Legacy to transmit from the Society to the Jardin 
des Plantes, Paris, a duplicate set of photographs of American 
trees. 

And the meeting was adjourned by the presiding member. 



Stated Meeting, February 15, 1889. 

Present, 15 members. 
President, Mr. Fralky, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

A letter from Prof. Steiner, of Darmstadt, in relation to 
Pasilengua, etc., dated January 20, 1889. 

A circular from the U. S. Commission to the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1889, in reference to the same. 

Letters from the Observatoire de Zoologie, Yillefranche-Sur- 
Mer, and the Geological and Natural History Survey of Min- 
nesota, requesting to be placed on the exchange list, which, on 
motion, was so ordered from Proceedings 129. 

Letters of envoy from Physikalische Central-Observatorium, 
St. Petersburg ; Boston Society of Natural History ; U. S. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2L. PRINTED APRIL 4, 1889. 



298 



[Feb. 15, 



Geological Survey, Indiana Society of Civil Engineers and 
Surveyors, Remington. 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the North 
China Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, Shanghai (124, 125); 
Prof. Peter Tunner, Leoben, Austria (127); Accademia degli 
Agiati, Rovereto, Austria (125-127) ; Public Library, Boston 
Society of Natural History, Boston (127); Mr. Arthur Biddle, 
Philadelphia (127). 

Letters of acknowledgment for 128 were received from Mr. 
Alfred Selwyn, Ottawa ; University of Toronto ; American 
Antiquarian Society, Worcester ; Prof. William D. Whitney, 
New Haven; Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences; Prof. 
Edward North, Clinton, N. Y.; Prof. T. F. Crane, Ithaca ; 
Astor Library, New York Hospital, University of the City of 
New York, Historical Society, Drs. J. A. Allen, J. J. Steven- 
son, New York City ; Vassar Brothers' Institute, Poughkeep- 
sie ; Oneida Historical Society, Utica ; U. S. Military Acade- 
my, West Point; Prof. Henry M. Baird, Yonkers; Rev. 
Joseph F. Garrison, Mr. Isaac C. Martindale, Camden ; New 
Jersey Historical Society, Newark; Prof. George H. Cook, 
New Brunswick, N. J.; Prof. Charles A. Young, Princeton, N. 
J.; Dr. Charles B. Dudley, Altoona ; Dr. Traill Green, Profs. 
J. W. Moore, Thomas C. Porter, Easton ; Mr. Andrew S. 
McCreath, Harrisburg ; Dr. Lyman B. Hall, Haverford ; Dr. 
John Curwen, Warren, Pa.; Mr. Ario Pardee, Hazleton Pa ; Mr. 
John Fulton, Johnstown, Pa.; Mr. Elisha Kent Kane, Kane, Pa.; 
Linnean Scientific and Historical Society, Lancaster, Pa.; Mr. 
Peter F. Rothermel, Linfield, Pa.; Franklin Institute, Penn- 
sylvania Hospital, Wagner Free Institute, Library Company 
of Philadelphia, College of Physicians, Athenoaum, Means. 
.John Aslihurst, R. Meade Bache, Arthur Hiddle, Craig Biddle, 
Geo. D. Boardman, W. G. A. Bon will, John II. Brinton, Isaac 
Bark, Jesse Y. Burk, S. Castner, Jr., Thos. M. Cleemann, E. D. 
Cope, Samuel Dickson, Patterson DuBois, Philip C. Garrett, 
F. A. Gentli, Frederick Graft", George Harding, J. S. Harris, 
II. V. Ililprecht, G. II. Horn, Kdwin J. Houston, K. . I. .lames, 
William W. JefB inoii Jordan, Jr., W. W. Keen, .). V. 



1889.] ^jy 

Lesley, Morris Longstreth, John Marshall, E. Y. McCauley, F. A. 
Muhlenberg, Isaac Norris, Charles A. Oliver, John H. Packard, 

C. Stuart Patterson, Robert Patterson, C. N. Peirce, Henry Pem- 
berton, Henry Phillips, Jr., Franklin Piatt, J. Sergeant Price, 
Theo. D. Rand, T. B. Reed, James W. Robins, J. T. Rothrock, 
W. S. W. Rrfschenberger, Samuel P. Sadtler, C. E. Sajous, Lewis 
A. Scott, Oswald Seidensticker, Isaac Sharpless, Aubrey H. 
Smith, Edgar F. Smith, H. C. Trumbull, James Tyson, Samuel 
Wagner, W. H. Wahl, E. H. Weil, Talcott Williams, Henry 

D. Wireman, Philadelphia ; Heber S. Thompson, Pottsville, 
Pa.; Lackawanna Institute of Science, Scranton, Pa. ; Philo- 
sophical Society, Mr. Philip P. Sharpies, West Chester, Pa.; 
Mr. W. M. Canby, Wilmington, Del.; Peabody Institute, 
Maryland Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; 
Library of the Signal Office, U. S. Geological Survey, Surgeon- 
General's Office, Messrs. J. H. C. Coffin, Albert S. Gatschet, 
Charles A. Schott, William Strong, Capt. Thomas J. Lee, 
Washington, D. C; Prof. J. W. Mallett, Leander McCormick 
Observatory, University of Virginia; Elliott Society of Sci- 
ence and Art, Charleston, S. C; University of South Carolina, 
Columbia; Georgia Historical Society, Savannah ; University 
of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; E. W. Ciaypole, Akron, Ohio; 
Society of Natural History, Cincinnati Observatory, Prof. J. 
M. Hart, Cincinnati, O.; Prof. Leo Lesquereux, Columbus; 
Rev. Henry S. Osborn, Oxford, Ohio ; Denison University, 
Granville, Ohio ; Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort ; 
Dr. Robert Peter, Lexington, Ky. ; Prof. John C. Branner, 
Little Rock, Arkansas; Prof. Daniel Kirkwood, Bloomington, 
Ind. ; Indiana Society of Civil Engineers and Surveyors, 
Remington, Ind. ; Chicago Historical Society ; Rev. Stephen 
D. Peet, Mendon, 111.; Col. William Ludlow, Detroit ; Michi- 
gan State Library, Lansing ; Mr. Charles R. Keyes, Burlington, 
Iowa ; State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison ; Acade- 
my of Natural Science, Davenport, Iowa ; Washburn College, 
Kansas State Library, Topeka, Kans. ; Colorado Scientific 
Society, Denver ; University of California, Prof. John LeConte, 
Berkeley, Cal.; Mr. George Davidson, San Francisco. 



dvO [Feb. 15, 

Accessions to the Library were received from the Society of 
Finnish Literature, Helsingfors, Finland ; Naturforscher- Verein, 
Riga; Acad6mie Imperiale des Sciences, Physical Central 
Observatory, St. Petersburg; Dr. A. Boltz, Leipzig; K. B. 
Akadernie der Wissenschaften, Deustche Gesellschaft fur An- 
thropologic, Miinchen; R. Accaderaia dei Lincei, R:>me; Mr. 
Jose F. de Peralta, Bruxelles; Prof. E. Renevier, Lausanne; 
Mr. Alphon Picht, Geneve ; Mr. L. Selbor, Madrid ; Institute 
y Observatorio de Marina, San Fernando ; Society of Arts, 
London ; Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Penzance ; 
Society of Natural History, Boston ; Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge ; Mr. James B. Francis, Lowell, Mass. ; New Haven 
Colony Historical Society ; Astor Library, New York His- 
torical Society, New York; Empire State Association of Deaf- 
Mutes, Rome, N. Y.; New Jersey Historical Society ; Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, Messrs. Angelo Heilprin, 
Thomas H. Dudley, Charles R. Keyes, James Mooney, Henry 
Phillips, Jr., De Forest Willard, Dr. Persifor Frazer, Philadel- 
phia; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; Bureau of Edu- 
cation, Hon. J. D. Cameron, Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Light- 
house Board, U. S. Geological Survey ; Denison University. 
Granville, Ohio; State University of Iowa, Iowa City; Indi- 
ana Society of Civil Engineers and Surveyors, Indianapolis; 
Rev. Stephen D. Peet, Mendon, 111.; Kansas State Historical 
Society, Topeka. 

The Committee on Prof. Cope's Paper for the Transactions 
reported in favor of publishing the same, and, on motion, the 
Committee was discharged and the paper referred to the Pub- 
lication Committee for action. 

The Committee on the Codex Poinsett reported progress, 
and was continued. 

The 'leath of Prof. Guiseppe Meneghini, Pisa, January 29, 
lounced. 

The minutes of the Board of Onieers and Council wcvo sub- 
mitted, and the following resolution adopted by the Board was 
:dcred : 

l;, n.,1,,,1, "The Mniird rerotiuncml tliut the Society should authorize 
the printing of iucli portlOU Oi t Iw minutes <>( the I!. ..ml of OfflOftfl and 



1889.1 



301 



Council as to the Secretaries should seem desirable, and that a sufficient 
sum of money be appropriated to have the aforesaid minutes prepared 
and published." 

On motion of Mr. Dudley action was deferred until the next 
stated meeting of the Society, and the Librarian was directed 
to obtain in the interim an approximate estimate of the cost 
of such publication. 

A communication was made by Prof. Cope " On the Mam- 
malia obtained by the Naturalist Scientific Expedition to 
Southern Brazil." 

Mr. Lyman exhibited and presented a map of the New 
Boston and Morea Coal Lands, Schuylkill county, Pa. 

Pending nominations Nos. 1183, 1184 and 1185 were read. 

Mr. Price, from the Committee on the Henry M. Phillips' 
Prize Essay Fund, reported that the engrossed resolution of 
thanks of the Society had been sent Miss Emily Phillips. 

The report of the Trustees of the Building Fund was pre- 
sented. 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 



Stated Jtfeeting, March 1, 1889. 

Present, 10 members. 

Vice-President, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

Letter from the K. Leopold-Carolinische Deutsche Akade- 
mie der Naturforscher, Halle a. S., requesting missing pages 
483 to 498 of Proceedings, Vol. XIX, No. 109. 

Letters of envoy were received from the K. Leopold-Caro- 
linishe Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle a. S.; K. 
Sachsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Leipzig; Royal 
Statistical Society, Meteorological Office, London, Eng. 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the Royal 
Society of Edinburg, Scotland (Trans. XVI, 2); Royal Society 
of New South Wales, Sydney (127); K. Leopold-Carolinische 
Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle a. S. (123-127); 



302 [March 1, 

New Haven Colony Historical Society, Conn. (96-128) ; Mr. 
George Harding, Philadelphia (127); Cincinnati, O., Society 
of Natural History (127); Prof. B. G. Wilder, Ithaca, N. Y.; 
New York Academy of Sciences, Dr. J. S. Newberry, New 
York, N. Y.; Dr. R. H. Alison, Ardmore, Pa.; State Library 
of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pa.; Mr. J. B. F. Carll, Pleasant- 
ville, Pa. ; Mr. P. W. Sheafer, Pottsville, Pa. ; Dr. John Cur- 
wen, Warren, Pa. ; Naval Institute, Annapolis, Md.; Maryland 
Historical Society, Baltimore, Md. ; Geological Survey, Signal 
Office, Library of the Surgeon-General's Office, Washington, 
D. C.; Prof. Joseph LeConte, Berkeley, Cal. (128). 

A letter was read from a member of the Committee on Art 
and Exhibitions of the Centennial Celebration of the Inaugu- 
ration of Washington, as President of the United States, re- 
questing the loan, for exhibition in New York, of Sully's 
portrait of Jefferson owned by the Society. 

On motion of Mr. Vaux, the application was ordered to lie 
on the table. 

Accessions to the Library were received from the Royal 
Society of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia ; Geological 
Survey of India, Calcutta ; R. Statistika Central Byran, 
Stockholm, Sweden; Verein zur Beforderung des Gartenbaues 
in den K. Preuss. Staaten, Messrs. R. Friedliinder & Sohn, Ber- 
lin ; K. Leopold-Carolinische Akademie der Deutschen Natur- 
forscher, Halle a. S.; K. Sachsische Gesellschaft der Wissen- 
schaften, Leipzig ; Ministro della Publica Instruzione, Firenze, 
Italia; Society d'Ethnographie, S. A. le Prince Albert de 
Monaco, Paris, France; Royal Statistical Society, London, 
Eng.; Natural History Society, New Castle-upon-Tyne, Eng.; 
Rev. C. G. Ames, Boston, Mass.; Yale College, New Haven, 
Conn.; Mr. W. Danmar, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society, Dr. Persifor Frazer, Messrs. B. S. Lyman, 
Il.iiiy Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa.; Society of Natural 
History, Cincinnati, O.; Dr. D. A. McLachlan, Ann Arbor, 
i.; Museo Michoacano, Morel i.-i, Mexico. 

The Committee on Publication presented a report on Prof. 
Cope's paper, and publication was on leu. I. 



1889] 303 

Committee on Codex Poinsett reported progress, and was 
continued. 

Some remarks were made relating to the supposed lack of 
harmony between primary and later instruction in French 
schools and universities. 

Attention was called to the late discoveries by Prince Albert 
de Monaco relating to the alimentation of shipwrecked per- 
sons, and the importance of the subject in its relation to an- 
thropophagy. 

Secretary Phillips made the announcement of the date of 
meeting of the following associations in Paris during the 
month of August, 1889 : 

Congres d'Geographie, August 5 to 12. 

Association Franeaise, August 8 to 15. 

Congres d' Anthropologic, August 19 to 26. 

Mr. George B. Wood exhibited and presented a photograph 
of a projectile emerging from the muzzle of Pneumatic Dyna- 
mite Torpedo Gun, taken in 1887, by Major William F. Ran- 
dolph, U. S. A. 

Estimates for printing the minutes of the Board of Officers and 
Council were presented ; on motion, the consideration of the 
same was postponed until the next stated meeting of the Society. 

Pending nominations Nos. 1183, 1184, 1885 and new nomi- 
nations 1186 and 1187 were read. 

And the Society was adjourned by the presiding member. 



Stated Meeting, March 15, 1889. 

Present, 9 members. 

Vice-President, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows: 

An invitation to attend an unveiling of a memorial to Dr. 
Joseph Priestly in the First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia, 
to take place March 13, 1889. 

A letter from Dr. P. Steiner, of Darmstadt, in reference to 
his system of Pasilengua, on which no action was deemed 
necessary to be taken. 



*'""* [March 15, 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from Mr. M. EL 
Bo) e, Coopersburg, Pa.; Mr. George Stuart, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(No. 128). 

Letters of envoy were received from the Observatoire Astro- 
nomique et Physique, Tachkent, Russia ; Meteorological Office, 
London, Eng.; Royal Irish Academy, Dublin ; Museo Nacional, 
Buenos Aires, S. A. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the South 
African Philosophical Society, Cape Town ; Societe des Natu- 
ralistes, Kieff, Russia ; K. K. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesell- 
schaft, Vienna, Austria; Prof. Leopold Einstein, Niirnberg, 
Bavaria ; S. A. le Prince de Monaco, Paris, France ; R. Acade- 
mia de Ciencias Naturales y Artes, Barcelona, Spain; York- 
shire Geological and Polytechnic Society, Halifax, Eng.; Me- 
teorological Office, Geological Society, Dr. Benjamin Ward 
Richardson, London, Eng.; R. Irish Academy, Dublin ; Mr. 
Charles J. Hoadley, Hartford, Conn.; Scientific Association, 
Meriden, Conn.; New York Academy of Medicine, Prof. J. S. 
Newberry, New York, N. Y.; Mr. William John Potts, Cam- 
den, N. J.; Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., Dr. J. T. Rothrock, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; 
Smithsonian Institution, Col. Garrick Mallery, Washington, 
D. C; University of Nebraska, Lincoln ; Museo Nacional, 
Buenos Aires, S. A. 

The death of Mr. John Ericson, New York City, N. Y., 
March 7, 1889, set. 83, was reported. 

The Committee on the Codex Poinsett reported progress, 
and was continued. 

The consideration of the question of publishing the minutes 
of the Board of Officers and Council was postponed until the 
next stated meeting of the Society. 

Pending nominations 1183, 1184, 1185, 1186 and 1187 wore 
read. 

On motion of Prof. C<>|><\ permission was granted him to 
withdraw the paper lately offered by him for the Transactions 
>e Society. 

A ml the Society was adjourned by the presiding member. 



1889. ] 0\)0 

Stated Meeting, April <5, 18S9. 

Present, 1-4 members. 

President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Correspondence„was submitted as follows: 

A letter from the R. Accademia delle Scienze, Turin, 
announcing the death of its President. 

A circular inviting subscriptions for a monument to Antonio 
Rosmini in Milano. 

Letters of envoy were received from the Mining Department, 
Melbourne, Victoria ; Universite R. de Norvege, Christiana ; 
K. Geologische Landesanstalt und Bergakademie, Berlin, Prus- 
sia ; Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester, Eng. ; 
New York State Library, Albany. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the Depart- 
ment of Mines, Melbourne, Australia ; Geological Survey of 
India, Calcutta; Institut Egyptien, Cairo ; Tashkend Observa- 
tory, Tashkend; Academie des Sciences, Krakow; K. P. Geo- 
logische Landesanstalt und Bergakademie, Berlin ; Oberlausitze 
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Gorlitz ; K. Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften, Gottingeu ; Academie Royale de Copenhague ; 
Bibliotheque de 1' Universite, Christiana; Societe Royale Ma- 
lacologique de Belgique, Bruxelles ; Philosophical Society, 
Cambridge, Eng.; Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, 
Eng. ; Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester, Eng. ; 
Geological Society, Glasgow ; Rhode Island Historical Society, 
Providence; Mr. Augustus Schoonmaker, New York; Mr. \\\ 
J. Potts, Camden, N. J. ; Academy of Natural Sciences, Board 
of Directors of City Trusts, Germautown Dispensary and Hos- 
pital, Messrs. W. S. Baker, Henry Phillips, Jr., Dr. J. Cheston 
Morris, Philadelphia, Pa.; U. S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, 
Md. ; Johns Hopkins University, Editor of the " American 
Journal of Philology," Baltimore, Md. ; Bureau of Education, 
Adjutant General's Office, Smithsonian Institution, U, S. Com- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D. C. ; General 

PROC. AMEK. PHIL08. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2M. PRINTED APRIL 26, 1889. 



30G 



[April 5, 



Thomas Ewing, Marietta, O. ; Sociedad de Geografia y Estad- 
istica, Mexico; University of California, Sacramento, Cal. 

The Committee on Publication reported that it had exam- 
ined the communication of George Simpson on the "Fossils of 
the Helderberg Series," and that it recommended its publica- 
tion in the Transactions of the Society, which was so ordered. 

The Committee chosen January 6, 1888,*. to assist the Com- 
mission appointed by the State of Pennsylvania in the exami- 
nation of the defects of English orthography, presented the 
following report, of which, on motion, the Secretaries were di- 
rected to have a sufficient number printed separately for gen- 
eral distribution, and the Committee was continued. 

Report of the Committee Appointed {January 6, 1SSS) by tlie American 
Philosophical Society to Assist the Commission on Amended Orthografy, 
Created by Virtue of a Resolution of the Legislature of Pennsylvania. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, April 5, 1SS9.) 

The literature of the subject of " Spelling Reform " is already extensive, 
and, lor its purposes,- sufficiently exhaustive. The most eminent filologists 
in England and America have contributed to it, and the publisht testi- 
mony in favor of reform is from filologists, linguists, scientists, statesmen, 
educators, editors and literary workers in general. 

In view of this, your Committee recognizes that there are practically no 
new facts to be brought out to strengthen the argument on either side. 
What it aims to do, then, is to present, in a logical and conclusive man 
uer, the known facts in the case, together with a consensus of opinions 
drawn from high sources, in so far as they illustrate the points at issue. 

In this way, your Committee designs to review the whole problem, so 
that the objective point, the recommendation of the State Commission that 
iin simplified spellings be employed in the public documents, can be 
intelligently considered. 

1. What is Spelling?— According to Worcester, it is the art of "form- 
words by arranging their proper letters in due order." Hut this defi- 
nition is as loose, and therefore unscientific. OS the one hand, as it is pop- 
ularly true and suMieicnt. on the oilier. The main issue is bound up in 
Ijective "proper ;" a secondary issue is in the word " letters. " 
TO dispose Of the latter, it need only be remembered, that " letters " are 
but the ineehanieal de\ , hols by which winds are represented to 

the eye. An y one w ho can analyze a word into its lonelie elements can 

* I'rvCtiCd lll(f<, Vol. XXV, |.|.. 1 mill l^. 



1839,] 



307 



spell that word by a synthetic recombining of those elements. And this, 
in the truest sense, is spelling ; for the spoken language is the language, 
while the written language is merely its mechanical representation to the 
eye. 

It is not therefore, primarily, "arranging their proper letters" that 
constitutes the true spelling of words, but the proper arranging of their 
component sounds Just so far, then, as the successive letters of the 
written word represent — and exclusively represent — those successive com- 
ponent sounds of the spoken word, just so far will they be the "proper 
letters " and the written spelling a proper spelling. That is, in true 
spelling every symbol should have but one sound, and every sound but one 
symbol. 

2. What is English Spelling ? — By the foregoing amplified definition, 
it is evident that the great bulk of our English spelling can be so called 
only by courtesy — only by a deference to a usage that has itself originally 
deferred to the ignorant printers and proof-readers of by-gone centuries. 
Orthografy, in its root sense, can hardly be considered an element of 
Victorian English. 

Indeed, as Lord Lytton well say*, "A more lying, round-about, puzzle- 
headed delusion than that by which we confuse the clear iustincts of truth 
in our accursed system of spelling was never concocted by the father of 
falsehood. How can a system of education nourish that begins by so 
monstrous a falsehood, which the sense of hearing suffices to contradict V" 

"The greatest genius among grammarians," say- Dr. March, "Jacob 
Grimm, but a few years ago, congratulated the other Europeans that the 
English had not made the discovery that a whimsical, antiquated orthog- 
rafy stood in the way of the universal acceptance of the language." 

And why is it a "whimsical, antiquated orthografy?" 

Because, being unfonetic, it is unetymological. " It is the sound of the 
spoken word," says Skeat, "which has to be accounted for, and all sym- 
bols which disguise this sound are faulty and worthless. If our old writers 
had not used a l'onetic system, we should have no true data to go by." 
" We still retain much," says the same author, "of the Elizabethan spell- 
ing, which, even at that period, was retrospective, with a Victorian pro- 
nunciation. * * * The changes in spelling since 1G00 are compara- 
tively trilling, and are chiefly due to the printers who aimed at producing 
a complete uniformity of spelling, which was practically accomplish* 
shortly before 1700. The changes in pronunciation are great, especially 
in vowel sounds. * * * The shortest description of modern spelling 
is to say, that, speaking generally, it represents a Victorian pronunciation 
of popular words by means of symbols imperfectly adapted to an Eliza- 
bethan pronunciation ; the symbols themselves being mainly due to the 
Anglo-French scribes, of the Plantagenet period, whoso system was 
meant to be fonetic. It also aims at suggesting to the eye the original 
forms of learned words. It is thus governed by two conflicting principles, 
neither of which, even in its own domain, is consistently carried out." 



308 



[April 5, 



And again, says Dr. March, " Caxton brought over a force of Dutch 
printers, who set up manuscripts as best they could, with many an objur- 
gation. People ceast, at last, to feel any necessity for keeping sounds and 
signs together. The written words have come to be associated with the 
spoken words as wholes without reference to the sounds which ihe sepa- 
rate letters would indicate. Changes in tbe sounds go on without record 
in the writing. Ingenious etymologists slip in new silent letters as records 
of history drawn Irom their imagination. Old monsters propagate them 
selves in the congenial environment, and altogether we have attained the 
worst spelling on the planet. And we have been proud of it, and we are 
fond of it." 

The actual condition of things, then, as Meiklejohn (late Asst. Commis- 
sioner of the Endowed School Commission for Scotland) puts it, is : Out 
of the 26 letters, only 8 are true, fixt and permanent qualities — that is, are 
true both to eye and ear. There are 38 distinct sounds (Sayce recognizes 
40, others 32) in our spoken language; and there are about 400 distinct sym- 
bols (simple and compound) to represent these 38 sounds. In other 
words, there are 400 servants to do the work of 38. Of the 26 letters, 15 
have acquired a habit of hiding themselves. They are written and printed, 
but the ear has no account of them ; such are w in wrong and gh in right. 
The vowel sounds are printed in different ways ; a long o, for example, 
has 13 printed symbols to represent it. And Isaac Pitman shows that in 
our magnificent tongue, with its wretched orthografy, the long vowel 
a (in father) is represented in 5 different ways ; the a (in gate) in 17 ways ; 
the I has 21 different spellings ; the oa (in broad) is represented by 9 dif- 
ferent combinations of letters; the vowel b has 19 mudes of representa- 
tion, and the vowel " oo " (in smooth) has 21*. Mr. Ellis gives a list 
of 97 signs and combinations to express vowel sounds, and having, in all, 
319 meanings, or a little more than an average of three meanings to each 
sign or combination ; and, further, he shows that 34 consonant signs have 
79 uses. 

As a consequence of all this (and more, if we were to stop to discuss it), 
an enthusiastic fonetist has calculated that the word scinsors can be cor- 
rectly spelt in 596,580 different ways, when it ought to be possible to spell 
it in but one, and that one obvious to a child or a foreigner who has nc\ er 
it in print nor heard it spelt. In brief, we have, says Prof. Whitney, 
"a greater discordance between the written and the spoken speech among 
us than in any other community of equal enlightenment This is the 
whole truth ; and any attempt to make it appear otherwise savors only of 
tin- wisdom of the noted fox who lost Ins brush in a trap, and wanted to 
pennede himself and the world that tin: curtailment was a benefit and a 
decoration. Every departure from the rule that Writing is the handmaid 
dereliction of principle, ami an abandonment of ad vantages 
Which Seemed tO bays been long ago assured to us, by the protracted 

• Authorities illrfiTHomeu hut In | manlier ol 

■ymbol* Cor long a ■ Midi n.s thirty. i 



1889.] d\Jj 

labors of many generations of the most gifted races known to history. 
* * * That the written word in any case deviates from the spoken is a 
fault which may, indeed, admit of palliation, even amounting to excuse, 
but which it is an offense against all true science and sound sense to extol 
as a merit." 

Such being the state to which our written speech has come, the natural 
question to ask is : 

3. Is Reform Desirable 1 — Such a question is answered in its own 
asking. Reform or improvement is always desirable in anything. Whether 
it is possible or feasible is another question. But let us see, briefly, why 
an improved or reformed spelling would be desirable, by looking at some 
of the benefits that would accrue from it. 

(a) It icon Id tend toward a greater uniformity in pronunciation. ^TJpon 
this point Whitney Bays : "So loose and indetinit is now the tie between 
writing and utterance, that existing differences of utterance hide them- 
selves under cover of an orthografy which fits them all equally, while 
others spring up uncheckt. No small part of the conservative force ex- 
pends itself upon the visible form alone ; whereas, if the visible and 
audible form were more strictly accordant, it would have its effect upon 
the latter also." 

(b) It would greatly economize time, space, labor, and money. 

"The amount of saving would depend," s;iys Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
"very much upon the .system adopted. The mere removal of duplicated 
consonants would save 1.6 per cent, and of the mute e'* an additional 4 
per cent. In the New Testament, printed in fonetic type in 1849, by 
Alexander J. Ellis, 100 letters and spaces are represented by 83. As far 
as printing and paper are concerned, therefore, a six-shilling book would 
be reduced to five shillings." This is a saving of 17 per cent. 

But the question of economy is more far-reaching than we might at first 
suppose. In the President's address before the American Philological 
Association, in 1874, he said : " The time lost by it is a large part of the 
whole school time of the mass of men. Count the hours that each man 
wastes in learning to lead at school, the hours which he wastes through 
life from the hindrance to easy reading, the hours wasted at school in 
learning to spell, the hours spent through life in keeping up and perfect- 
ing this knowledge of spelling, in consulting dictionaries — a work that 
never ends — the hours that he spends in writing silent letters. * * * 
The cost of printing the silent letters of the English language is to be 
counted by millions of dollars for each generation. And yet literary 
amateurs fall in love with these squintings and lispings. They try to de- 
fend them by pleading their advantage in the study of etymology. But 
a changeless orthografy destroys the material for etymological study, and 
written records are valuable to the fllologist just in proportion as they are 
accurate records of speech as spoken from year to year." This brings ug 
to the next point. 



^1^ [April 5, 

(c) If some etymologies would be obscured, more would be evidenced and 
tlurified, none could be lost. 

What is known as the "etymological argument" against spelling 
reform has been so often and so fully met by the scholars best qualified to 
speak that it would seem unnecessary to do more than allude to it here. 
And yet it is sure to be the first objection raised by the person of educa- 
lion, and even of scholarly habit, who has not made specific study of the 
subject. It is, indeed, at once the most plausible and the most baseless of 
all objections. Even if all trace of roots were lost from present forms, 
there would still be no danger of any such sacrifice of linguistic facts. 
But if none could be lost, so comparatively few would be obscured, while 
many false etymologies would be disowned, many true ones restored and 
made plain. This is an establisht fact among filologists, as will appear 
from the following, from Max Muller : "An objection often marie to spell- 
ing reform is that it would utterly destroy the historical or etymological 
character of the English language. Suppose it did ; what then ? Language 
is not made for scholars and etymologists ; and if the whole race of Eng- 
lish etymologists were really swept away by the introduction of spelling 
reform, I hope they would be the first to rejoice in sacrificing themselves 
in so good a cause. But is it really the case that the historical continuity 
of the English language would be broken by the adoption of fonetic spell- 
ing, and that the profession of the etymologist would be gone forever? I 
No, most emphatically, to both propositions. Because the Italians 
write filosofo, are they less aware than the English, who write philosopher, 
that they have before them the Latin philosophus and the Greek filosofos? 
If we write / in fancy, why not in phantom? If in frenzy and frantic, 
why not in phrenology f A language which tolerates vial for phial need 
not shiver at 'Jilosofer.' What people call the etymological conscious- 
ness of the speaker is strictly a matter of oratorical sentiment only. If 
anybody will tell me at what date etymological spelling is to begin, 
whether at 1500 A. D., or at 1000 A. IX, or at BOO A. I)., I am willing to 
discuss the question. Till then, I beg |0 say, that etymological spelling 
would play greater havoc in English than fonetic spelling, even if we are 
Id draw a line not more than five hundred years ago. If we write puny, 
puisne, we might as well write fmt eel tffc We might spell ro>i, quirtus ; 
Ins; priest, presbyter ; ))i<txter, miiyistrr { sejJmt, s<iertstti/i, etc. *' 
Ami from l'rof. A. II. Sayce : "We are told that to reform our alfabet 
would destroy the etymologies of our words. Ignorance is the cause ot 
so rash a statement. The science of etymology deals wiih sounds, not 
with letters, and no true etymology is possible when we do not know tin 
1 way in which words are pronounced. The whole science ot com- 
. i\e Biology is bawd on the assumption that the ancient Hindus, 
•id Qetbf spelt pretty nearly as they pronounced. 
I MM I mere Mfitl of arbitrary comhinatioiis, an 
endiodiineiit of the wild guesses and etymologies of :v pre scientific age. 
and the hap hazard caprice of ignorant printers. It is |OOd fot llttk 



1889.] 



311 



but to disguise our language, to hinder education and to suggest false ety- 
mologies." And from Henry Sweet : "The notion that the present spell- 
ing has an etymological value was quite popular twenty-five years ago. 
But this view is now entirely abandoned by filologisls ; only a few half- 
trained dabblers in the science uphold it." 

Testimony of this kind is worth more than a logical array of facts to the 
average mind, because it adds to the cold fact, the fervor of the personal 
conviction of those whose convictions are themselves the result of the 
logic of facts. And just here we cannot do better than quote from Skeat's 
"The Principles of English Etymology." 

"The old spelling was, in the main, very strictly etymological, because 
it was so unconsciously.* In striving to be fonetic, our ancestors kept up 
the history of words, and recorded, more or less exactly, the changes that 
took place in them from time to time. But in the sixteenth century an 
entirely new idea was for the first time started, and probably took its 
rise from the revival of learning, which introduced the study of Greek, 
and brought classical words, and wilh them a classical mode of spelling, 
to the front ; a movement which was assisted by the fact that the spelling 
was all the while becoming less fonetic. This new idea involved the 
attempt to be consciously etymological ; i. e., to reduce the spelling of 
English words, as far as possible, to an exact conformity in outward appear- 
ance with the Latin and Greek words, from which they were borrowed. 
But it was only possible to do this with a portion of the language. It was 
easy to do this where words were actually bono wed from those languages, 
as, for example, in the case of such a verb as to tolerate, which was now 
spelt with one I, in order to conform it in outward appearance to the Latin 
tolerare. But the words of native English or Scandinavian origin were 
less tractable ; for which reason our writers, wisely enough, let them 
alone. There remained words of French origin, and these suffered con- 
siderably at the hands of the pedants, who were anything but scholars as 
regarded Old French. For example, the Latin debita had become the Old 
French and Middle English dette, by assimilation of the 6 to t in the con- 
tracted form deb'ta, precisely as it became detta in Italian. The modern 
French and the Italian have the forms dette and detta still. But in the 
sixteenth century the disease of the so-called 'etymological' spelling had 
attackt the French language as well as the English, and there was a craze 
for rendering such etymology evident to the eye. Consequently, the 
Old French dette was recast in the form debte, and the Middle English 
dette was respelt debte or debt in the same way. Hence, we actually rind 
in Cotgrave's French dictionary the entry: 'Debte, a debt.' Another 
word similarly treated was the Old French and Middle English doute ; 
and, accordingly, Cotgrave gives ' Doubte, a doubt.' The modern 
French has gone back to the original Old French spellings dette and doute; 

* "Conscious attempts at etymology sometimes produced rather queer results. Thus 
the M. E. femele was turned into female, obviously because men fancied it must have some 

connection wilh male." 



312 



[April 5, 



but we, in our ignorance, have retained the b in doubt, in spite of the fact 
that we do not dare to sound it. The rackers of our orthografy, no doubt, 
trusted, and with some reason, to tbe popular ignorance of the older and 
truer spelling, and the event has justified their expectation ; for we have 
continued to insert the b in doubt and debt (properly dout and det) to the 
present day, and there is, doubtless, a large majority among us who 
believe such spellings to be correct. So easy is it for writers to be mis- 
led by paying too great a regard to Latin spelling, and so few there are 
who are likely to take the trouble of ascertaining all the historical facts. 

" Most curious of all is the fate of the word fault. In Old French and 
Middle English it isalways/a*^e; but the sixteenth century turned it into 
French faulte, English fault, by the insertion of I. For all that, the 
I often remained mute, so that even as late as the time of Pope it was still 
mute for him, as is shown by his riming it with ought (' Eloisa to Abe- 
lard,' 185 ; 'Essay on Man,' i, G9), with thought ('Essay on Criticism,' 
422 ; ' Moral Essays,' Ep. ii, 73), and with taught (' Moral Essays,' Ep. ii, 
212). But the persistent presentation of the letter I to the eye has prevailed 
at last, and we now invariably sound it in English, whilst in French it has 
become faute once more. The object, no doubt, was to inform us that the 
French faute is ultimately derived from Latin fallere ; but this does not 
seem so far beyond the scope of human intelligence that so much pains 
need have been taken to record the discovery. Another curious falsifica- 
tion is that of the Middle English vitailles, Old French vitailles, from 
Latin victualia. The not very difficult discovery of the etymology of this 
word was hailed with such delight that it was at once transformed into 
French tictailles and English victuals. (See Cotgrave.) For all that, the 
Middle English vitailhs was duly shortened, in the pronunciation, to 
tittles, precisely as Middle English hutiiillcs was shortened to battles ; and 
vittlts it still remains: for all practical purposes. Swift, in his 'Polite Con- 
versation,' has dared to spell it so ; and our comic writers are glad to do 
the same. 

"The form of the word mlntnce records a ludicrous error in etymology. 
The older form was avarice, in which the prefix a- is derived from the 
French a which arose from the Latin ab. Unfortunately it was supposed 
to represent the French a which arose from the Latin ad, and this Latin 
ad was actually introduced into the written form, after which the d came 
tO he sounded. If, then, the prefix ad- in ail vancc can he said to repre- 
sent anything, it must he taken to represent a Latin prefix nl>d-! It would 
bean endleil tASk U) make | list Of all the similar vagaries of the Tudor 
remodelers of our spelling, who were douhtless proud of their work and 
convinced that they were displaying great erudition. Vet their method 

•was ex tre m ely Incomplete, ai it was wholly inconsistent with itself. After 

reducing the word l<dh rule to tolerate, they ought to ha\e altered follie to 

the latter is the Fiem h torin; hut. this they never did, They 

ild likewise have tillered mtMtt tC mul.r, since then; is only one t 
in the Latin innliiui ; hut this they never did. '/'//<// had got hold of a 



J> r 89.] ujd 

false principle, and did not attempt to carry it out consistently. So much 
the better, or our spelling would have been even worse than it is now, 
which is saying a great deal. 

" I believe that the stupidity of the pedantic method which I have just 
described is very little understood ; and that, on the contrary, most Eng- 
lishmen, owing to an excessive study of the classics as compared with 
English (the history of which is neglected to an almost incredible and 
wholly shameless extent), actually sympathize with the pedants. But 
the error of their attempt will be apparent to any who will take the pains 
to think the matter over with a little care. Their object was, irrespec- 
tively of the sound, to render the etymology obvious, not to the ear, but 
to the eye ; and hence the modern system of judging of the spelling of 
words by the eye only. There is now only one rule, a rule which is often 
carefully but foolishly concealed from learners, viz., to go entirely by 
the look of a word, and to spell it as we have seen it spelt in books. If 
we do this we hug ourselves in the belief that we are spelling ' correctly,' 
a belief which even good scholars entertain. 

"Certainly the pedants put several words right, as they thought ; but 
their knowledge was slight. They let the pure English and Scandinavian 
words alone ; and, as we have seen, they mended (as they thought) the 
spellings of French words, not by comparison with Old French, which 
might have been justified, but by comparison with Latin and Greek only ; 
and they were frequently misled by the fancy that Latin was derived in its 
entirety from the Greek. Thus they fancied that the Latin silca was de- 
rived from the Greek u).t), and accordingly altered its spelling to syleu. 
Hence, even in English, we lnive to commend and immortalize this blun- 
der by writing sylvan. They seem to have had a notion that the Latin 
stilus was derived, of all things, from the Greek aruktx; (a pillar), which 
would be extremely inconvenient, we must suppose, as a writing imple- 
ment ; the fact being that stilus and trruXos have no etymological connec- 
tion. This blunder we commemorate by writing style. 

"We write science because of its connection with the Latin scientia ; 
and for this reason some writers of the seventeenth century, struck with 
the beauty to the eye of the silent c after s, admiringly copied in sucli 
words as scite, scituatiun and scent. The etymology of the two former 
w r as, however, so obvious that the habit fell into disuse ; but the etymol- 
ogy of scent was less obvious, and so we write scent still ! What, again, 
can be more absurd than the final ue in the word tongue, as if it must 
needs be conformed to the French langue > But when once introduced, it 
of course remained, because none but scholars of Anglo-Saxon could know 
its etymology. It is impossible to enumerate all the numerous anomalies 
which the disastrous attempt to make etymology visible has introduced. 
Yet this is the valueless system which is so much lauded by those who 
have made no adequate study of the true history of our language." 

A long list might be added. For instance, the old Hand had an s in- 
serted because of its supposed derivation from insula. Old English rime 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2N. PRINTED APRIL 26, 1889. 



314 



[April 5, 



borrowed an h from a supposed Greek original, like rhythm, and gave us 
rhyme. The I has been inserted in coude, to make it like should and would 
for which there is a reasonable use of the I. Milton's sovran (Latin su- 
peranus) was supposed to have to do with reigning, and was so transformed 
to indicate it, by writing sovereign. 

Says March : " Accurse, earlier acurse, from Anglo-Saxon a- intensive, 
and curse, simulates by its unfonetic double consonant a Latin origin and 
the prefix ad ; many words are like it : affair, French a-faire, i. e., ado ; 
afford, a-forth ; affright, from a-fyrhtan ; affray, past participle correctly 
afraid; annoy, earlier anoi, Old French anoi, from Latin inodio, and so 
on through the prefixes ; allegro is transformed from Latin alacrum; hurri- 
cane, French ouragan, Spanish huracan, a word from one of the languages 
of the aborigines of America, doubles its r to persuade etymologists that 
it hurries the canes. The double consonants, never correct for pronuncia- 
tion, are a nest of etymological blunders, and the digraf vowels are as 
bid. Somewhat different from these sheer blunders are those words in 
which their unfonetic spelling points to some remote derivation, but yet 
disguises the history of the words. To follow up the double consonants, 
a very large part of the apparent compounds of Latin prefixes suggest a 
nvstake. The words are not really Latin compounds, but French. Many 
with ad-, for example, were made in French with the French a, and in 
French and Early English are so spelt. The double consonant is a 
modern insertion, which falsifies the sound and the history to give the 
remote school-Latin. Such are accompany, Old French acompaignier, 
compounded of a and compaignier, to which there is no school-Latin 
word corresponding ; Early English aroint, Latin cognitus, disguised now 
in the form acquaint; acomplice ; acomplish ; address, earlier adress, 
French adresser ; afirm ; afix ; afront; agrieve ; alegeance ; alie, Old 
French alter, alley; apease, French a pais ; apraise, a preis ; arears ; 
at<uage; aturneye, attorney, etc. These examples, taken from the begin- 
ning of the alfabet, may well make llie stickler for historical spelling look 
twice at a double consonant whenever lie sees it. 

" There lire many words which have letters in them which contribute 
nothing towards ancient history, and falsify the present. Words ending 
in silent c after a short, syllable are examples. This e tells no history, it 
i* prevailingly an orthograde expedient to denote that the vowel before it 
i- long; it lengthens fat \u\ofotr, bit into bib », Jin into Jine, not into note, 
and the like. Whenever it follows a short vowel, therefore, it is false as 
well 'il : ijiniiin is standard English pronunciation, genuim'. is a 

vulgar corruption ; lior spells the word intended, /ton should rime with 
9, l.uarr, rorr, el<\ We ought to write inihrril, mrdirin, (rroti.t, 

• ■linit, iiijioii, in&ieattt, ntbjunetfo, and the like. Several 

hundred Words belong to this <! .at part learned terms Irom 

v or Latin, and COmmOtl 10 many languages. To scholars they look 

mor< iioiariv. i rmani and moil of the European! 

write them, without the final $. This is one of the amendments which 



1889.] 



315 



gives best promise of general adoption. The Spelling Reform Association 
publish as one of their rules for immediate use, ' Omit silent e after a 
short vowel,' and five of the eleven new spellings recommended by the 
Philological Association are examples of it — definit, gic, hav, infinit, lie. 
* * * Feign, Old English fein, fain, from Old French faindre, has 
assumed the g of Latin Jingo. * * * Fonetik is the very Greek 
tpuvy-tK-o:;, the natural old form of it in Roman letters; <f">p is fur; 
<fchac, fari; Fa-bins, <l>dfj'.t>~, and the like. But when the Greeklings at 
Rome began to afFect a pure Athenian accent, and retained in words 
newly taken from Greek the old sound for <p, which had been that of p 
followed by h, they wrote ph in such words to represent their way of 
sounding it. The fashion past away at Rome. The Italians, like the 
Spaniards, have returned to/." 

"The first question is," says Prof. Max Miiller, "in what sense can the 
present spelling of English be called historical? We have only to go 
back a very short way in order to see the modern upstart character of what 
is called historical spelling. We now write pleasure, measure, and 
feather, but not very long ago, in Spenser's time, these words were spelt 
plesure, memre, fether. Tyudale wrote frute ; the i in fruit is a mere 
restoration of the French spelling. * * * The b [of debt] was likewise 
reintroduced in doubt, but the p was not restored in count (French 
compter, Latin computare), where p had at least the same right as b in 
doubt. Thus, receipt resumes the Latin p, but deceit does without it. To 
deign keeps the g, to disdain does without it. * * * If we wight to 
write historically, we ought to write salm instead of psalm, for the initial 
p being lost In pronunciation was dropt in writing ai a very early time 
(A. S. seahn), and was reintroduced simply to please some ecclesiastical 
etymologists; also nevew (French neveu) instead of nephew, which is both 
unetymological and unhistorical. * * * There are, in fact, many spell- 
ings which would be at the same time more historical and more fonetic. 
Why write little, when no one pronounces little, and when the old spell- 
ing was lytel? Why girdle, when the old spelling was girdel? The same 
rule applies to nearly all words ending in le, such as sickle, ladle, apple, 
etc., where the etymology is completely obscured by the present orthog- 
rafy. Why ascent, but dissent, when even Milton still wrote sent? * * * 
Why accede, precede, seade, but exceed, proceed, succeed? Why, indeed, 
except to waste the precious time of children?" 

And Dr. James A. H. Murray, the editor of the mammoth new his- 
torical Dictionary, says: "Let us recommend the restoration of the 
historical t after breath consonants, which printers during the past century 
have industriously perverted to ed, writing fetcht, blusht, pickt, drest, 
winkt, like Shakespeare, and Herbert, and Milton, and Addison, and as 
we actually do in lost, past, left, felt, meant, burnt, blest, taught. Laughed 
for laught is not a whit less monstrous than taughed, soughed, would be 
for taught, sought; nor is icorked for workt less odious than wroughed 
would be for wrought. * * * The termination of the agent our should 



31-0 [April 5, 

be uniformly leveled to or (which is Old French), as already done in so 
many words, like author, doctor, senator, orator (all of which are adop- 
tions from French, not from Latin)." 

(d.) The present so-called spelling is the chief hindrance to education, and 
a chief cause of illiteracy, ignorance and degradation. — In his 'Tntroduc- 
tion to the Science of Language," Prof. Sayce speaks of the "vicious 
moral training afforded by a system that makes irrational authority the 
rule of correctness, and a letter represent every other sound than that 
which it professes." He further remarks that the "dissociation between 
sound and symbol to which the child has been accustomed from his 
earliest years, makes the English and the French notoriously the worst 
linguists in Europe. The inadequacy of English spelling is exceeded only 
by that of the Gaelic, and in the comparative condition of the Irish and 
Scotch Gaels on the one side, and the Welsh Cymry on the other, we 
may read a lesson of the practical effects of disregarding the warnings of 
science. Welsh is fonetically spelt, the result being that the Welsh, as a 
rule, are well educated and industrious, and that their language is main- 
tained in full vigor, so that a Welsh child has his wits sharpened and his 
mind opened by being able to speak two languages, English and Welsh. 
In Ireland and Scotland, on the contrary, the old language is fast perish- 
ing ; and the people can neither read nor write, unless it be in English." 

The most complete and convincing exhibit upon the educational ques- 
tion is that which has been made by Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.K.S., mem- 
ber of the School Board for London, and sometime President of the Eng- 
lish Spelling Reform Association. Dr. Gladstone's statements are drawn 
from a thorough investigation of the National, British and Wesleyan 
schools as well as board schools, and from village schools, town schools 
and schools of the metropolis. He says : " From these data it is easy to cal- 
culate that an average English child, spending eight years in school, and 
making the not unusual amount of 400 attendances per annum, will have 
spent on an average 2320 hours in spelling, reading aud dictation. * * * 
The spelling of the Italian language is, as far as I am aware, the most 
perfect of any in Europe, with the exception, perhaps, of the Spanish. 
It is, in fact, almost strictly fonetic ; that is, each sound is exprest by its 
own letter, and each letter has but one sound. * * * I have gathered 
information from different parts of Italy, and fortunately the detailed 
programs of tin- insl ruction in elementary schools arc publisht. From 
them it appeMEl that Children begin school at six or -even years of age, 
and that while in the first class, which usually occupies two years, they 
Irani to read witli a correct pronunciation, and do exercises in transciip 
tion and dictation. < >n passing to the second class they acquire the art of 

reading ftnentiy and with Intelligence, and dictation lessons oeaaeat the 

end of the first four months. As the summer vacation lasts for two 
months, and all festivals, both civil and reli-ious, are holidays, the nuin- 
bef ol attendances can scarcely be greater than BOO, As religious instruc- 
tion and exerciser arithmetic ami writing occupy a large proportion of the 



1889.] 317 

five hours per diem, ten hours a week may he taken as an outside estimate 
for learning to read and spell in the first elass ; while in the second, read- 
ing may occupy five hours, and dictation two and a half hours weekly, 
but the latter only during the first half of the school year. This will give 
945 hours, instead of 2320, and indicates that an Italian child of about nine 
years of age will read and spell at least as correctly as most English chil- 
dren when they leave school at thirteen, tho the Italian child was two 
years later in beginning his lessons. 

" The spelling of the German language is incomparably better than our 
own, yet many mute letters are employed, and several sounds are capable 
of being represented in more ways than one. I have obtained informa- 
tion from educational authorities in various parts of Prussia, Saxony, 
Wirtemberg, Baden and Hamburg, and that witli regard to all classes of 
society. The German child seems usually to begin his schooling every- 
where at six years of age ; and the general testimony is that he learns in 
two years, if not in a shorter time, to read distinctly and correctly books 
which are not above his comprehension." 

After giving some details, he continues: "It appears, therefore, that 
the irregularities of German spelling, trifling as they are when compared 
with ours, greatly prolong the time required ; yet a German child of ten 
is about on a par, as to spelling and reading, with our fifth standard chil- 
dren, and is thus saved about two years' time, tho he commenced to learn 
later. 

"The Dutch, Danish and Swedish languages are spelt better than our 
own, tho their orthografy is by no means perfect. The information 
which I have received from these countries does not give definit numerical 
data, but it shows that reading, at least, is acquired more quickly than 
with us. As to Sweden, lam assured, on the authority of Mr. Ekman, 
the school board inspector of the Upsala district, that 'the children in 
the Swedish board schools as a rule are able to read fluently and to write 
correctly at the age of nine to ten years.' 

"When, however, we turn to France, we find a language which is 
spelt much more systematically than our own, but has peculiarities which 
render its orthografy almost as difficult. Consequently a very large 
amount of time has to be expended, as with us, in dictation and tran- 
scription. * * * In reply to inquiries as to the comparative time a 
child ignorant of letters, but understanding English and Italian equally 
well, would take to learn how to read and write each language correctly, 
the principal estimated that the English language would require about 
twice the time of the Italian. 

"From inquiries which I have made respecting the Anglo-German 
schools in London, the general result seems to be that the children ac- 
quire as great a proficiency in reading and writing German in eighteen 
months as they do English in two years. These schools are six in num- 
ber, and some are in very poor, and some in respectable neighborhoods. 
My own visits, however, to some of these schools convinced me that not- 



318 



[Aprilo, 



withstanding the great attention paid to the EDglish language, the scholars 
never become nearly as proficient in spelling it as they do in spelling the 
German. * * * 

"It English orthografy represented English pronunciation as closely as 
the Italian does, at least half the time and expense of teaching to read 
and spell would be saved. This may be taken as 1200 hours in a life- 
time, and as more than half a million of money ($2,500,000) per annum 
for England and Wales alone." 

Various experiments have been made by educators in teaching English 
spelling by a fonetic alfabet. The results show that children taught 
in this way acquire the ordinary spelling much more easily afterward. 
The latest expression upon this point is from the pen of Dr. Thomas Hill, 
in The Forum for April, 1889. He says: "Experience has demonstrated 
that there is no means so efficient as the use of simple reading-books 
printed La a truly fonetic manner, so that each sound has but one repre- 
sentative, and each combination of letters but one sound. The accent 
must also be markt, and in some cases the emphasis. When the pupil 
can read fluently fonetic English, he requires but a few weeks to learu 
to read the ordinary spelling. 

"Three fundamentally different ways have been proposed of giving to 
elementary books a fonetic dress. First, by diacritic signs, such as are 
used in pronouncing dictionaries ; St condly, by using an enlarged alfabet ; 
thirdly, by a serious and well-considered imitation of those American 
humorists who apply the twenty-six Roman letters to a fonetically uni- 
form use. The first method is not only expensive and troublesome to 
print, but trying to the reader's eyes, and not always applicable without, 
respelling. The second is the mode of the Cincinnati alfabet, and is pro- 
posed in a new and improved form in Mr. Bell's World-English. The 
Cincinnati alfabet was tried long enough and extensively enough to give 
a practical, experimental demonstration of its immense value. We tested 
it thoroughly for six or seven years in the town of Waltham, Massachu- 
setts, which then had about 800 children in the public schools. The effect 
on the school life of the town was very markt. The saving of time in 
teaching the children to read and spell enabled us to introduce exercises 
for the eye and the hand, thus cultivating habits of observation, skill in 
drawing and writing, and geometric*] ability. The fonetic print corrected 
the brogue of the Irish children and the Yankee dialect of the American 
in a surprising manner. An improvement in the moral ami intellectual 
tone of the schools was also noticeable, arising certainly in part from 
giving the children Interesting reading, in place of stupid 'a, b, ab,' ' b, 
a, ba, ' and instead of such absurd falsehoods as that of saying 'sea,' 
'you,' ' pel l -up.' 

ver<- exprcst lest this method should injure the pupils' spell 
In ord«T to lee) that question, I took pains to procure, several times, lists 
of words which had actually been used in BOBtOD, Hoxbury, and other 
■ I, with the percentage of failures on each list. Springing these lists, 



1889.1 



319 



without warning, upon classes of the same grade in Waliham, we always 
louud our percentage of errors very much smaller than in other towns, 
sometimes I think only one-third as large. We also questioned each 
pupil in our high-school as to the amount of time which he or she had de- 
voted in his or her whole school life to fonotypy and fonografy. Com 
paring these times with the percentage of errors in spelling, by the same 
scholars, we found that those who had read the most fonotype made the 
lowest mistakes." 

One point more. Out of 1972 failures in the English Civil Service ex- 
aminations, I860 failed in spelling. The Right Honorable Robert Lowe, 
formerly Minister of Education in England, challenged the House of 
Commons that not half a dozen members could spell, off-hand, the word 
"unparalleled." The Earl of Malmesbury, having examined the Stale 
papers in the foreign office, says that no Prime Minister from Lord Bute 
to Lord Palmerston could pass an examination in spelling. 

The foregoing exhibits seem to leave little room for doubt as to the 
desirability of reform. There is, however, one other factor in the discus- 
sion of such a theme. Let us call it the personal factor. How do such 
statements affect the opinion or judgment of men as individuals? Who 
carts or who has ever cared for, or believed in, the desirability, to say 
nothing of the possibility, of an amended orthografy? 

A few years ago 130 British school boards presented a memorial to the 
Education Department praying for a Royal Commission in the matter ; 
the British Social Science Association past resolutions favoring reform ; 
the Philological Society of England and the American Philological Asso- 
ciation, the Spelling Reform Associations, general and local, have been 
active in the cause. In 1875, Teachers' Associations of Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey took favorable action. In July, 1877, the State Teachers' 
Association of New York appointed a committee to ask the Legislature of 
that State to create a commission to inquire into the reform, and report 
how far it may be desirable to adopt amended spelling in the public docu- 
ments and direct its use in the public schools. The Ohio State Teachers' 
Association also took action in favor of the reform. In 1878, a memorial was 
prepared to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
This was signed by the president and ex-presidents of the Philological 
Association, and by filologists and professors in about fifty of our lead- 
ing universities and colleges. The Department of Public Instruction of the 
city of Chicago took up the matter, and its Board of Education unanimously 
adopted a resolution : " That the secretary of this board correspond with 
the principal school boards and educational associations of the country, 
with a view to cooperation in the reform of English spelling." Other 
State teachers' associations and local societies have been similarly emfatic 
in their expressions. Indeed, any list headed by such names as Miiller, 
Sayce, Skeat, Earle, Murray, Morris, Sweet, Whitney, March, Child, 
Trumbull, Haldeman, Lounsbury ; and by statesmen, scientists, poets, 
educators, such as Gladstone, Sumner, Mill, Lytton, Tennyson, Trevelyan, 



320 



[April 5, 



Thirlwall, Bain, Darwin, Lubbock, Harris, Barnard, constitutes " an 
authority" in English, quite as respectable as The Academy, in French. 
There is no lack of learned support ; all real authority is for the reform. 
It is the right thing to do, but — 

4. Is Reform Feasible ? — First, we must remember that The written 
language is nut tJw language, but merely a device for recording the lan- 
guage, quite within the scope of the reformers as well as the first trainers. 

Secondly, let us see What has been done in other languages. To quote 
again from the .valuable report of Dr. Gladstone : 

"In the Italian and Spanish languages the spelling has already been 
brought into almost perfect conformity with the pronunciation. In 
these, therefore, there is nothing to justify any agitation for further 
reform. 

"Although little fault can be found with the German spelling as compared 
with the English and French, the educationists of, that country and the 
governments of the different States have long been desirous of simplify- 
ing it. In 1854, meetings were held both at Hanover and Leipzig, which 
resulted in certain modifications of the spelling being rendered obligatory 
in the Hanoverian higher schools. This was followed in I860 by Wirtem- 
berg, which adopted a reformed orthograty for its elementary as well as 
its upper schools ; and by Austria in 1861, and by Bavaria in 188G. But 
the changes adopted by these several States are not the same ; and so im- 
minent did the danger appear of having a different mode of writing and 
printing in different parts of Germany, that a conference of delegates from 
the several governments was held at Dresden in October, 1872. This led 
to the Prussian Minister of Education, Dr. Falk, proposing that a compe- 
tent scholar, Prof, von Raumer, should draw up a scheme; and tliis met 
with the approval of all the governments. The scheme thus prepared was 
privately printed and sent to the respective governments, and then sub- 
mitted to a ministerial commission, consisting of Von Raumer and eleven 
other educationists, together with a printer and a publisher. The com- 
mission met In January, 187G, and approved of the scheme with certain 
mollifications; and a report of the whole proceedings lias been drawn up 

and printed." The reformed spelling is now required to be taught In all 

i lie schools, and the military cadets are required to use it in their oflicial 

pondenoe. 

"Up to the beginning of Ihe present century, the spelling of the Hutch 
language was very Unsettled. In 1804, the movement fbr reform assumed 
a definit. shape through the essay of Prof, von Siegenbcek ; and the 

greatly implored spellin its bis uamd was the only offiotad and 

authorised one till is?:;. Then some Important ohanges wen- proposed 
by I)e V'ries and Te Winkel, ami these are now adopted by the different 

departments Of government. I believe, however, that there are other 
systems which receive offlola] sanction, anil we can only hope that, the 

result will be •tin: Hurvivai of the fitti 



1889.] 04 L 

"Similar movements for reform are taking place in the Scandinavian 
kingdoms. The Swedish spelling appears to be about equal in quality 
to the German, but for the last 100 years, or thereabouts, attempts have 
been made by competent persons to establish a purely fonetic system, 
and the Swedish Academy has adopted some of their proposals and 
embodied them in a model spelling book ; but the government has 
taken no part in the matter, and there is consequently much diversity in 
practice. In Denmark, the movement originated with Prof, llask and 
some other learned men and schoolmasters, and it has resulted in a 
government decree, confirming certain regulations with respect to double 
consonants, the silent e and d, the abolition of q, and some other points. 
These 'official ' changes are not obligatory ; but they are winning their 
way both in public and private schools. In July, 1869, a meeting of 
scholars from Sweden, Norway and Denmark took place in Stockholm, 
with the object of establishing a fonetic mode of spelling which should be 
common to the Scandinavian languages." 

And there have been and are other similar movements, among the 
Slavic nations as well as the Romance-speaking peoples, including the 
French and the Portuguese. 

Thirdly, What has been done already in our own language? Has any 
one dared to lay hands on our fetich and lop off a superfluity or restore a 
lost feature? 

The Anglo-Saxon spelling was fairly fonetic, the chief defects being the 
double use of/, the double use of s and the ambiguous use of two charac- 
ters for the two sounds of th. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
"the English language was practically respelt according to the Anglo- 
French method, by scribes who were familiar with Anglo-French ;" 
thus, qu was substituted for cw, c for s (before e and t). 

It was at this period that Orm, a canon of the order of St. Augustine, 
wrote "The Ormulum" (1215), which was a set of religious services in 
meter, spelt according to his own scheme. One peculiarity of Orm's 
method was the doubling of the consonant after the short vowel. Orm, 
or Orminn, may be called our first spelling reformer, and we have to 
thank him for preserving to us the pronunciation of his day. In 1554, 
John Hart, of Chester, England, wrote on "The Opening of the unrea- 
sonable writing of our inglish toung : wherin is shewed what necessarili 
is to be left, and what folowed for the perfect writing thereof." This the 
author followed up by a publisht work in 1569, called "An Orthographie, 
conteyning the due order and reason, howe to write or painte thimage of 
mannes voice, most like to the life or nature." The object of this " is to 
use as many letters in our writing as we doe voyces or breathes in our 
speaking, and no more ; and never to abuse one for another, and to write 
as we speake." In 1568, Sir Thomas Smith, Secretary of State in 1548, 
and successor of Burleigh, suggested an alfabet of 34 characters. This 
was followed, in 1580, by William Bullokar's book in black-letter, propos- 
ing an alfabet of 37 characters. Then, too, we must mention Sir John 

PROC. AMEIt. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 20. PRINTED MAY 10, 1889. 



322 



[April 5, 



Cheke, Chaucer and Milton. In 1619, Dr. Gill, head-master of St. Paul's 
school, publisht his " Logonomia Anglica," advocating an alfabet of 40 
letters. In 1633, the Rev. Charles Butler printed an English grammar 
fonetically. In 1668, Bishop Wilkins publisht his great work, the 
"Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language," in 
which he gave the Lord's Prayer and the Creed in a fonetic alfabet of 
37 letters. In 1711, says Sayce, "the question of reforming English 
spelling was once more raised, this time, however, in a practical direction. 
Deau Swift appealed to the Prime Minister to appoint a commission for 
the ascertaining, correcting and improving of the English tongue. His 
appeal, however, was without effect ; and the next to apply himself to the 
subject was Benjamin Franklin, who, in 1708, put forth "A Scheme for 
a Xew Alphabet and Reformed Mode of Spelling, with Remarks and 
Examples concerning the same, and an Enquiry into its Uses." 

It would seem that in this Hall, if anywhere, a reform advocated by 
Franklin is entitled, even at this late day, to a fair hearing and an intelligent 
understanding. Franklin's scheme, tho in some respects crude, has never- 
theless the true ring, and is in many details accurate and scientific. It 
embraces eight vowels and eighteen consonants. There are special signs 
for a in ball, v in gum, sh, th, dh, ng. He considers that the alfabet 
should be arranged in a more natural manner, beginning with the simple 
sounds formed by the breath and with no help, or very little, of tongue, 
teeth, and lips, but prodnced chiefly in the windpipe. He omits as un- 
necessary c, q, x, u, y and j ; this latter he replaces by a special character 
which is to follow and modify other consonants ; preceded by d it pro- 
duces j in James; by t, ch in chevy ; by z, the French ,;' In jamais, g 
has only its hard sound. There are no superfluous letters, no silent let- 
ters. The long vowel is expressed by doubling the short one. There are 
no diacritical marks. In general principles the scheme is sound. Had 
Franklin lived in the Biological light of the present decade, he would 
have been a power in the good movement, lie went, indeed, so far as to 
begin the compilation of a dictionary and the casting of the necessary 
new types. The latter were offered to Webster and declined by him 00 
the ground of the inexpediency of employing new characters. This was 
in 1768. Eight yean later lie wrote to a lady : "You need not be con- 
cerned in writing to nie about your bad spelling ; for in my Opinion, as 
our alfabet now stands, tin- bad spelling, or what is called so, is gener- 
ally the best, as conforming to the sounds of the letters and of the 
words." 

TIM next great American reformer was Webster. It would be out of 

place here lodlscau Webtterianlem* Bnfflce it to say that Webster had 
a lasting Influence open our spelling. Had be been more of a scholar bis 

influence would have- been vastly greater than it was. The trouble was 
thai hi l ri«>< 1 to occupy both ends of tie it once. On one end be 

Sat as etymologist, on the other as analogist. He bud "just, enough of 
thut half learning, " says Louusbury, "which enables a man. when be 



1889.] ■ 3^3 

arrives at correct conclusions, to give wrong reasons for them. Speaking 
of Webster's orthografic changes, the same writer well says: "At best 
they merely touch the surface, and then only in a few places. But one 
effect they have produced. They have in some measure prevented us, and 
do still prevent us, from falling into the dead level of an unreasoning uni- 
formity. By bringing before us two methods of spelling, they keep open 
the question of the legitimacy of each, and expose to every unprejudiced 
investigator the utter shallowness of the argument that opposes change. 
Slight as these alterations were, however, they met with the bitterest hos- 
tility on their introduction." 

After Webster come Mitford, Archdeacon Hare, Landor, Pitman, Ellis, 
and Thomas, and then the mighty host who are leading the present Spell- 
ing Reform movement, which includes nearly every eminent English and 
American scholar. Indeed every one who consciously prefers to spell 
parlor, color, music, public, develop, deposit, traveler, jeweler, wagon, woolen, 
quartet, controller, ake, ax, fantom, program, proves that spelling reform 
is popular, and that the people prefer sense to nonsense, brevity to length, 
economy to waste, truth to falsehood. 

The many devices introduced into the written speech during the past 
six centuries, demonstrate that there is no cist-iron law of language to 
prevent other devices from being introduced and accepted again. 

Because the French scribes of the twelfth century understood that c 
before e and i, was soft, they substituted A for it when the sound was hard. 
About 1280 the rune "wen" was replaced by uu, and afterward by w. 
Accentual marks suddenly disappeared in the thirteenth century. Toward 
the fourteenth the rune " thorn " was giving way to the use of th and hw 
to wh— the latter, doubtless, due to the decay of the guttural h leaving the 
sound of w more prominent. Indeed, down to the middle of the fourteenth 
century, h had the force of German ch. As that decayed in sound, it was 
reinforced to the eye by a c as in licht, necht, or by a g as in though. The 
symbol oa disappeared in the fourteenth, but was revived in the sixteenth 
century. Another expedient of the fourteenth was to double the final * to 
show that it was not sonant — M. E. gins, blis, dros, became glass, bliss, 
dross. Another device for the same purpose was to substitute ce as in 
mice, twice, originally mys, twy'es. Since Shakespeare, useless doubled 
consonants have given place to a single consonant in words like pitty, 
linnen, marriner, widdow, pallace. Waggon is now in transition to wagon. 
Duplicate final consonants with final e have given place to the single con- 
sonant, as aliippe, sonne, farre. Useless final e has been dropt, as in cheere, 
drinke, looke, etc. Three new letters, /, w, v, have been introduced. 

"About 1(130, in opposition to the usage of all past ages," says Dr. 
Murray, "u was made a vowel and v a consonant, so that 'Reuiue vs, saue 
vs from euil,' became 'Revive us, save us from evil.' " Up to that time u 
final was a vowel, but u before a vowel was a consonant ; when the con- 
sonant was written v the following e was no longer needed to distinguish 
it. Had the reform gone a little farther and dropt the e after the conso- 



324 



[April 5, 



riant v we should have been spared many useless appendages to words 
like Jiate, live, etc. 

In the fourteenth century the system of doubling the vowels was resorted 
to, to indicate length. Since then ck has been substituted for cc or kk, 
and within memory the k has been dropt in words like music, public, etc. 

Toward the end of the sixteenth century t was largely substituted for y, 
so common in Caxton. "In fact," says Skeat, "English abounds with 
such fonetic devices ; no one objects to them so long as they are allowed 
to remain sporadic, irregular, and inconsistent." 

Says Dr. Murray, "The whole history of written language is the record 
of such gradual and partial reformation. We know, for instance, what 
was done about 1500 by the systematic application of ea and ee to distin- 
guish two sounds formerly both exprest by long e, and the analogous 
adoption of oa and oo for the two sounds of long o. And the slightest 
glance at the orthografy of Shakespeare, Bunyan, or a Bible of the seven- 
teenth century, will show even the most ignorant, what an immense 
amount of spelling reform has been done since then. Thus, to take at 
random a single instance, Psalm 106 (forty-eight verses), as printed in 
1611, differs in 116 spellings from that printed in 1879, and the first chap- 
ter of Genesis, as now printed, differs in 135 spellings from the same ver- 
sion as printed in 1611. One hundred and thirty-five differences in thirty- 
one verses ! tho the same version word for word. Yet there are people — 
some certainly fools only, but some I fear knaves — who, when spelling 
reform is mentioned, shriek, ' You are going to alter our language ! ' 
* * * the fools not knowing, and the knaves pretending not to know, 
that the spelling in which they read these works [Milton, Shakspere, and 
the Bible] is already a greatly reformed spelling." 

Finally, "In 1883," says the report of the State Commission, "a 
scheme of partial reform was jointly approved by the Philological Society 
of England and the American Philological Association, and recommended 
for immediate use. Those changes were made in the interest of etymo- 
logical and historical truth, and are confined to words which are not much 
disguised for general readers. * * * Many propositions have been 
made for adopting part of these changes." * * * 

Among these is the progressive scheme used by " The Spelling Reform 
Lcag," as follows : 

1. Use the simplified forms allowed by standard dictionaries, as program, 

Javor, etc. 
I \'r the Two Words : tho, thru. 
8. U < tin T.n Winds: tho, thru, wisht, catalog, definit, hav, 

giv, liv, gard, ar. 
4. Uso tin i Two Rules : 1. Use/ for p7i sounded as/, as in a\fab«t,fan- 

torn, filoaofy, etc. 2. Use t !<>r & ox rd Dual rounded us t, as in fiat, 

lipt, slojit, dasl, crutt, tlinlre$t, etc. 



J. I 



325 



5. Use the Five Rules : 1 and 2 as in 4. 3. Drop a from digraf ea sounded 

as short e, as in lied, helth, Hied, etc. 4. Drop silent e final in a short 
syllable, as in hav, giv, lio, forbad, reptil, hostil, engin, infinit, oppo- 
sit, activ, etc. 5. When a word ends with a double letter, omit the 
last, as in eb, ad, staf, slif, btuf, eg, shal, toil, tel, wel, dvl, lul, etc. 

6. Use the Twenty-four Joint Rules of the American and English Philo- 

logical Associations. 

7. Use all changes recommended by the Philological Associations. 

At a meeting of the Philological Society, April 20, 1883, it was voted 
unanimously to omit certain of the corrections formerly recommended, so 
as to bring about an agreement between the two societies. The following 
scheme of partial reiorm is now jointly approved by the Philological 
Society of England and the American Philological Association, and is 
recommended for immediate use : 

1. e. — Drop silent e when fonetically useless, as in live, vineyard, be- 

lieve, bronze, single, engine, granite, eaten, rained, etc. 

2. ea. — Drop a from ea having the sound of e, as in feather, leather, 

jealous, etc. 
Drop e from ea having the sound of a, as in heart, Itearken, 

etc. 
-For beauty use the old beuty. 
-Drop o from eo having the sound of e, as in jeopardy, leopard. 

For yeoman write yoman. 
-Drop i of parliament. 
-For o having the sound of u in but, write ?/ in above (abuv), 

dozen, some (sum), tongue (tuug), aud the like. 
For women restore wimen. 
-Drop o from ou having the sound of u, as in journal, nourish, 

trouble, rough (ruf), lough (luf ), and the like. 
-Drop silent u after g before a, and in native English words, as 

guarantee, guard, guess, guest, guild, guilt, etc. 
-Drop final ue in apologue, catalogue, etc. ; demagogue, pedagogue, 

etc.; league, colleague, harangue, tongue (tung), etc. 
-Spell rhyme rime. 

Double consonants may be simplified : 
Final b, d, g, n, r, t, f, I, z, as in ebb, add, egg, inn, purr, butt, 

bailiff, dull, buzz, etc. (not all, hetll). 
Medial before another consonant, as battle, ripple, written 

(writn), etc. 
Initial unaccented prefixes, and other unaccented syllables, 
as in abbreviate, accuse, eiffeiir, etc., curvetting, treiveller, etc. 

12. b. — Drop silent b in bomb, -crumb, debt, doubt, dumb, lamo, limb, 

numb, plumb, subtle, succumb, thumb. 

13. c. — Change c back to s in cinder, expence, fierce, hence, once, pence 

scarce, since, source, thence, tierce, whence. 



3. 


eau. 


4. 


eo, 


5. 


i. 


6. 


o, 


7. 


ou, 


8. 


u. 


9. 


ue. 


10. 


7' 


11. 





d*b [April 5, 

14. ch. — Drop the h of ch in chamomile, choler, cholera, melancholy, 

school, stomach. 
Change to k in ache (ake), anchor (anker). 

15. d. — Change d and ed final to t when so pronounced, as in crossed 

(crost), looked (lookt), etc., unless the e affects the preceding 
sound, as in chafed, chanced. 

16. g. — Drop g in feign, foreign, sovereign. 

17. gh. — Drop h in aghast, burgh, ghost. 

Drop gh in haughty, though (tho), through (thru). 
Change gh to / where it has that sound, as in cough, enough, 
laughter, tough, etc. 

18. 1. — Drop I in could. 

19. p. — Drop p in receipt. 

20. s. — Drop 8 in aisle, demesne, island. 

Change s to z in distinctive words, as in abuse verb, house verb, 
rise verb, etc. 

21. sc. — Drop c, in scent, scythe (sithe). 

22. tch. — Drop t, as in catch, pitch, witch, etc. 

23. w. — Drop w in whole. 

24. ph. — Write/ for ph, as in philosophy, sphere, etc. 

"These recommendations are known as the 'Joint Rules for Amended 
Spelling,' or as the 'Twenty-four Rules.' They cover the main points 
as to which there is substantially no further question between the two 
societies or among reformers in sympathy with them. * * * 

"The rules thus derived necessarily differ in importance and in the extent 
of their application. Some are very comprehensive, some affect only 
limited classes of words, and some are mere lists of words to be amended. 
They are arranged in the alfabetical order of the letters omitted or changed. 
The rules proper may be reduced to 10. 

" It should be noted that the rules do not apply to proper names, or to titles 
or official designations like 'Philological Association,' or ' Phonetic Jour- 
nal,' while they may, nevertheless, apply to the Individual words which 
enter into such designations, asflologiciil, fonetic,jurnal. 

"There are sufficient reasons against meddling with proper names and 
titles. They may well be left to adjust themselves to a fonetic standard 
when such a standard is cstablisht for common words. 

"The rules for amended spelling form ■ sequence, in which each degree 
includes iill preceding degrees. The Five Kulcs include the Eleven 
Word*, and are themselves included in the Twenty four 1 Jules. The 
• nee is more gradually develop! in the seven steps of the Leag pledge, 
•:ding to which OM ni:i\ start, or stop, nl any point, from ;i simple 
nine for tin; simplified tonus already admitted by the standard dic- 
tionaries, to the adoption of all changes recommended i >y the Philological 

Associations. The several stages are all consistent with each oilier, and 
ent>bl< any one who has the spirit of progress in him to exhibit that spirit 



1889.] *>^* 

in practical action, not only free from the risks of individual preferences 
or caprice, but with the knowledge that he is acting on the advice and in 
accordance with the practice of scholars of the highest eminence in 
English filology. " 

The report of the State Commission continues : "Without venturing to 
recommend any of these, or any orthografic novelties, the Commission 
would call attention to the fact that many words are spelt in two ways in 
our dictionaries, and that it is therefore necessary for a choice to be made 
between the different spellings. We find ' honor' and 'honour,' 'travel- 
ler' and 'traveler,' 'comptroller' and 'controller,' and hundreds of such 
pairs. In these words one way of spelling is better than the other on 
grounds of reason, simpler, more economical, more truthful to sound ety- 
mology and scientific law. 

"The Commission respectfully submits that the regulation of the or- 
thografy of the public documents is of sufficient importance to call for 
legislative action, and that the public printer be instructed, whenever 
variant spellings of a word are found in the current dictionaries, to use in 
the public documents the simpler form which accords with the amended 
spelling recommended by the joint action of the American Philological 
Association and English Philological Society." 

It is this recommendation of the State Commission that is the objective 
point of our discussion. Your Committee is unable to see how there can 
be any difference of opinion upon the following points of the argument : 

1. That the English language is grossly misspelt, and is therefore an 
obstruction to the etymologist; a needless consumer of time, money and 
energy ; a falsifier of history ; a perverter of the logical and of the moral 
faculty ; a hindrance to education ; a chief cause of illiteracy and a clog 
upon the wheels of general progress. 

2. That either a complete or a partial reform is desirable. 

3. That as partial reforms have been successfully wrought in the past 
and present centuries in English, and complete reforms in other lan- 
guages, it is feasible to hasten and direct the still further improvement of 
our so-called orthografy. 

Your Committee heartily believes, with Prof. W. D. Whitney, that "it 
is altogether natural and praiseworthy that we should be strongly attacht 
to a time-honored institution, in the possession of which we have grown 
up, and which we have learned to look upon as a part of the subsisting 
fabric of our speech ; it is natural that we should love even its abuses, and 
should feel the present inconvenience to ourselves of abandoning it much 
more keenly than any prospective advantage which may result to us or 
our successors from such action ; that we should therefore look with 
jealousy upon any one who attempts to change it, questioning narrowly 
his right to set himself up as its reformer, and the merits of the reform he 
proposes. But this natural and laudable feeling becomes a mere blind 



^-" [April 5, 

prejudice, and justly open to ridicule, when it puts on airs, proclaims 
itself the defender of a great principle, regards inherited modes of spelling 
as sacred, and frowns upon the fonetist as one who would fain mar the 
essential beauty and value of the language." 

But your Committee is also of the opinion that a complete or strictly 
fonetic reform, however valuable it be as an ideal, is as yet impracticable. 
A limited reform in the right direction, however, is not only practicable, 
but it has already found a foothold. Just how far this could safely be 
attempted in the State documents the Committee is not required to say. 
But it is certain that the recommendation of the Commission is as safely 
conservative as any recommendation in the direction of true progress 
could be, and that its adoption would be a wise and easy step toward 
uniformity and the simplification of English orthografy. 

Your Committee therefore offers the following : 

Resolved, That the regulation of the orthografy of the public documents of this State 
is of sufficient importance to call for legislative action; and that this Society approves 
the recommendation of the State Commission that the public printer be instructed, when- 
ever variant spellings of a word are found in the current dictionaries, to use iu the pub- 
lic documents the simpler form which accords with the amended spelling recommended 
by the joint action of the American Philological Association and the English Philologi- 
cal Society. 

In view of the fact that the Legislature will probably not take final 
action upon the recommendation of the State Commission at the present 
session, and as the Commission still desires the assistance of this Society, 
we would respectfully suggest that your Committee be continued with 
permission to report whenever it may seem desirable. 

Patterson DuBois, 
Henry Phillips, Jr., 
James MacAlister. 



The resolutions offered by the Committee were adopted. 

The Committee on the Codtx Poinsett presented a report, 
stating that the publication of the same was desirable, and laid 
before the Society estimates for the cost of its reproduction. 

The Society ordered that the Codex should be published in 

Transactions and further continued the same Committee, 

with request to prepare appropriate letter press to sooompany 

the plates and to superintend the passage of the paper through 

the press. 

Mr. Phillips stated that the Physa Hetorostropha, of which 
he had spoken to the Society on April 20, 1 SS8, had reap- 



1889.] dU [Hoffman. 

peared in the same place about three weeks since and promised 
to be very abundant this season. 

Oral communications were made as follows : 

By Prof. Henry F. Osborn : 

1. Upon the Displacement of the Foot-bones in the Mam- 
malia. 

2. Upon the Perissodactyla of the Uinta. 
By Prof. W. B. Scott : 

1. Upon the Relations of the Uinta to the Bridger and 
White River Fauna. 

2. Upon the Artiodactyla of the Uinta. 

The question of printing the old minutes of the Board of 
Officers and Council was deferred until the next stated meet- 
ing of the Society. 

Pending nominations 1183-1187 were read. 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 



Folk- Medicine of the Pennsylvania Germans. 

By W. J. Hoffman, M.D., Washington, D. C. 

{Read before the American PhilosopJacal Society, May S, 1SS9.) 

Reverting to the period in the history of Pennsylvania, when the home- 
steads of the colonists were remote from one another, it may readily be 
conceived that ordinary social intercourse was impracticable. One of the 
first duties was considered to be the erection of a house of worship so lo- 
cated as to be accessible to the greatest number of people within a given 
area. Thus it generally happened that the gatherings before Sunday ser- 
vice were of social importance and were looked forward to with great 
interest as a means of exchanging the news and incidents of the preceding 
week. This practice still obtains in the rural districts. 

Except in the villages, and larger towns, professional medical services 
were scarcely to be had, and hence in other than simple cases it was the 
pastor who was called upon to administer to the bodily as well as to the 
spiritual welfare of the members of his flock. Common complaints were 
treated by the application or administration of household remedies, the 
collection and preparation of which formed no insignificant part of the 
wife's duties. For this purpose various plants, roots, barks and blossoms 

PHOC. AMEB. PHILOS. SOC. XXVL 129. 2P. PRINTED MAY 10, 1889. 



Hoffinan.] ^^ [May 3, 

were gathered at specified times, and preserved in special ways, each sep- 
arately wrapped or inclosed in a small bag, and ultimately suspended from 
the rafters of the attic ready for use. This custom was not a new one, but 
merely the perpetuation of a practice transmitted through preceding gen- 
erations, and the custom survives even at the present day. 

Although many of the plants used are well known to possess the thera- 
peutic properties attributed to them, and their selection seems to be based 
upon sound principles, yet the greater part of them are coupled with some 
form of superstitious belief, either pertaining to the time of gathering, 
method of preparation or administration. 

There are numerous instances in which certain plants are supposed to 
possess special virtue in particular diseases, on account of their fancied 
resemblance to some part, or organ, of the human body ; and others again 
where color plays an important part in their selection. 

Among the less intelligent and truly illiterate prevail the practice of 
laying-on of hands, breathing upon the affected part, charms, incantations, 
exorcism, making passes with the hands and crosses with the index ringer, 
at the same time pronouncing the name of Jesus and coupling therewith 
some act in His life ; besides various other mysterious actions seemingly 
for the purpose of impressing the credulous and superstitious. Such prac- 
tices are still indulged in, and when a patient suffers from an insignificant 
disorder which in due time disappears, the restoration to health is accred- 
ited to the operator and consequently adds to his already established 
reputation. 

The several methods of procedure just mentioned are seldom practiced 
by the same person. There are individuals of both sexes who become 
famous for success in special complaints ; one may have a specialty In 
erysipelas and other inflammatory diseases ; another may be noted for his 
success in arresting hemorrhage, and still another may be celebrated as 
the possessor of a "mad-stone," which is often equally applied to the 
bites of rabid dogs and venomous serpents. 

To another class may be relegated the workers of evil, witches or hex'a. 
In opposition to these, to cure sickness or to remove spells, are a class of 
sorcerers who work countercharms, frequently employing mystic writ- 
ings, charms ami fumigations. Some of these even go so far as to profess 
the power of producing good or evil eU'eets upon absent persons, regard - 
less of distance and in this roped they occupy a position identical with 
that of the Indian medicine man or shaman. 

Another form of cure is by the transference of disease, either to some 
OB or animal or to an inanimate object ; sometimes a disease is cast 
out at u ■pacified time OC upon the fulfillment of Certain injunctions. 

Investigation proves conclusively that sonic Ol the superMitions and 

found In Pennsylvania arete introduced by the colonists from 
the countries from which they bad emigrated ; and it is evident, also, thai 

others of them h:i\e become modified, :h were deemed necessary, or were 
changed by the adoption of new methods resulting from a new environ- 



1889.1 ^"^ [Hoffman. 

ment. One of the chief reasons pertaining to the last-named may be on 
account of the difference of the flora of Western Europe and that of Penn- 
sylvania. 

A number of charms and recipes appear also to have been selected from 
old works alleged to contain valuable secrets. One of these, known as 
the " Sixth Book of Moses," is said to be of great value in that it contains 
formula 1 for casting bullets, which never fail to strike the object thought 
of; compelling game to return, before sunset, to the footprint over which 
the operator pronounces certain mystic words, etc. I have thus far been 
unable to see a copy of this work, although its possession by certain per- 
sons has been reported to me from time to time. 

Another purports to be a reprint of a work by Albertus Magnus, a 
learned philosopher of the thirteenth century, in which are given a large 
number of formula}, recipes, charms and other secrets for exorcising evil 
spirits from man and beast.* 

A third work, a copy of which, as in the case of the last named, in the 
possession of the writer, is unfortunately without title page, and it is only 
from the introduction of one short article that it becomes apparent that the 
work was printed in America sometime during the earlier portion of the 
present century. Much of the information contained in this little volume 
appears to have been selected from "Albertus Magnus," though there are 
a number of charms and recipes entirely new, and quite unknown to the 
people under discussion. . 

Before detailing some of the methods of procedure in the cure of dis- 
ease, it may be of interest to note several superstitions pertaining to the 
indication and prevention of disease, and the avoidance of bad luck. 

By many it is still considered a forerunner of illness for one to sneeze, 
and the usual "helf Gott" or "Amen " is uttered by some one present. 
This is a very old custom, and Brandf remarks, "In Langley's Abridg- 
ment of Polydore Vergil, fol. 130, it is said: 'There was a plague whereby 
many as they neezed dyed sodeynly, werof it grew into a custome that 
they that were present when any man neezed should say, "God helpe 
you." A like deadly plage was sometyme in yawning, wherfore menne 
used to fence themselves with the signe of the crosse : bothe winch cus- 
tomes we reteyue styl at this day.' " 

The writer has discovered the survival of a belief— prevalent in many 
portions of the Old World — in regard to the position of sleeping "north 

* Albertus Magnus bewahrte und approbirte sympathetisehe und natiirliche egyptische 
Geheimnisse fih- Menschen und Vieh. Far fttftdter and Landleute. Neucste Auflage. In 
8<Theilen. Brabant, 1725. mil svo., pp. :i, M, TO. Although bearing the above date, 
this is a recent reprint, issued in New York. 

Albertus Magnus was born at Lauingeu in Bavaria, about 1200. He occupies the first 
rank among philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages. He became a Dominican 
friar in his youth, and lectured later in life both at Paris and Cologne. He died in 1280 
and left agreat number of works, which treat of logic, theology, physics and metaphysics. 
Thomas Aquinas was his disciple. 

t Popular Antiquities. London, iii, 1882, p. 125. 



Hoftaan.] "D'-i [May 3) 

and south," i.e., having the head end of the bed to the north. Mr. D'Arcy 
Power* quotes several instances of prominent people who were successful 
in attaining advanced age upon practicing this method of sleeping them- 
selves, and insuring sleep to invalid children when every other prescrip- 
tion had failed. "A physician who died at Magdeburg, at the advanced 
age of 109, states in his will the manner in which he preserved his life. 
'Assume,' he said, 'as often as convenient, and especially during the 
hours of sleep, the horizontal position : the head towards the north pole, 
and the rest of the body in a direction as much as possible that of the 
meridian. By this means the magnetic currents which pervade the sur- 
face of the globe keep up a regular and normal kind of nutrition of the 
mass of iron contained In the economy ; and hence arises the increase of 
vital principle which regulates all the organic phenomena having a direct 
action on the preservation of life.' " 

Mr. Power, in commenting upon this and similar instances, concludes : 
"These facts, whether scientifically accurate or not, will suffice to prove 
that this particular position in sleeping was commonly regarded as the 
most favorable one possible. "We think that many customs of the kind, 
which are sometimes considered as mere superstitions, may be traced to 
some underlying truth which affords a more or less sufficient justification 
of them." f 

A common belief is to the effect that if a potato be carried in one's pocket 
it will secure freedom from rheumatism. In some instances a horse-chest- 
nut is claimed to possess similar properties, and is therefore carried in a 
similar manner. 

If the rattle of a rattlesnake be attached to a string and suspended from 
the neck, it will prevent, as well as cure, rheumatism. 

To carry a bullet in one's pocket will prevent an attack of toothache. 

The following, to prevent poisoning from ivy, was given to the writer 
by a correspondent in Fayette county : "Eat a small portion of the root 
in the spring, and you will be proof against it during the whole year." 

During the prevalence of contagious diseases, sliced onions arc exposed 
in sleeping-rooms in the belief that the infectious matter would be ab- 
sorbed, and not affect the occupants. 

To prevent cramp while bathing, a thong of eel's skin is tied about the 
leg or wrist. 

For the purpose of preparing the system for warm weather, an infusion 
of the crushed bark of MMftfni rout is used early in spring. A teacuptul 
is swallowed once, or twice, daily for about one week. Thirty years ago 
it was a common practice for all elderly people to he bled, or cupped, each 
spring. The belief was that the blood was sluggish, and an accelerated 
fttkffl could only be produced by reducing the Quantity in the body. 

• Tho Folk Ion- Journal, London, II, 1JW4, pp !»'J, '.«; nlsni[iioth>K the biuieet (1 /melon), 

i Rotes Hini Queries, DsotmberB, isu 

■ ■uiiml, Load., II, UM, p. 98. 



1389.] DOS [Hoffman. 

To kill the first snake found in spring will enable one to thwart the evil 
designs of one's enemies for the remainder of the year. 

A very common practice is to nail a horse-shoe against the lintel of the 
stable door, to insure good luck and safety to the animals. Horse-shoes 
are also nailed over the doors of the house to insure good luck to the oc- 
cupants. That such a horse-shoe be found upon the highway is of addi- 
tional importance. 

The custom of employing horse-shoes in the manner above mentioned, 
and ihe representation of the outline or impress of a hand, is of Oriental 
origin. The Romans drove nails into the walls of cottages, as an antidote 
against the plague : for this reason L. Manlius, A. U. C. 390, was named 
dictator to drive the nail.* In Jerusalem, a rough representation of a 
hand is marked by the natives on the wall of every house whilst in build- 
ing f The Moors generally, and especially the Arabs of Kairwan, employ 
the marks on their houses as prophylactics, and similar hand-prints are 
found in El Baird, near Petra. In Persia, it appears, these hand impres- 
sions receive another interpretation so as to become related to an important 
fact in the history of that people. General A. Houtum-Schindler, Inspec- 
tor-General of Telegraphs of the Empire, says : "All through Persia, prin- 
cipally in villages though, a rough representation of a hand, or generally 
the imprint of a right hand, in red, may be seen on the wall or overthe door 
of a house whilst in building, or on the wall of a mosque, booth or other 
public banding. It is probably an ancient custom, although the Persians 
connect it with Islam and say that the hand r presents that of Abbas, a 
brother of Husain (a grandson of the prophet Mohammed), who was one 
of the victims at the massacre of Kerbela in A. D. 680, and who had his 
right hand cut off by el Abrad ibn Shaiban. In India I have noticed sim- 
ilar marks, hands, or simply red streaks." J 

That these practices and the later use of the horse shoe originated with 
the rite of the Passover is probable. The blood upon the door-posts and 
upon the lintel (Exodus xii, 7) was put upon the most conspicuous places 
and formed, as it were, an arch ; and when the horse shoe was invented 
it was naturally adopted by the superstitious as conforming to the shape, 
or outline, upon the primitive doorway, and in time it became the symbol 
of luck, or "safety to those residing under its protection." § 

In the following notes, under head of each disease, are presented the 
facts pertaining to ailments and their treatment by internal remedies, 
charms, transference of the complaint, etc. : 

Ague. 

The following remedy is reported from Fayette county, where, accord. 
ing to the informant, it is held in high repute : "Take one quart of ale, 

* Brand's Antiquities, Lond., iii, 1S82, p. 18. 

t Lieut. Condor, " Palestine Explor. Fund," Jan., 1873, p. 16. 

| Letter dated Teheran, Dec. 19, 1^ 

| This has been previously referred to in an article entitled : '•Folk-lore of the Penn- 
sylvania Germans," printed in The Journal of Am. Folk-Lore, Boston and New York, Vol. 
i, No. 2, 18S8, p. 129. 



Hoffman.] t>d4 pray 3, 

put into it nine pieces of burdock root and nine pieces of plantain root, 
and alter dark bury the vessel under the eaves of the house. Take it up 
next morning before daylight and drink." 

Bronchitis. 

Make a gimlet hole in the door frame at the exact height of the top of 
the patient's head, into which insert a small tuft of his hair and close the 
hole with a peg of wood, then cut off the projecting portion of the peg. 
As the patient grows in height beyond the peg, so will the disease be out- 
grown. 

This has recently been practiced in the case of young boys, but it is not 
stated what would be the course adopted in the case of an adult, who had 
attained his full height. 

Coughs ; Colds. 

A common remedy is to put brandy into a saucer and set it on fire. 
"When it has burned several minutes extinguish the flame, by covering the 
dish, and add sufficient white sugar to make a syrup. The dose is a tea- 
spoonful, taken in intervals of an hour or two, as the case may require. 

Peter Kalm* refers to sassafras berries being used, by putting them into 
rum or brandy, "of which a draught every morning" was taken. "The 
bark being put into brandy, or boiled in any other liquor, is said not only 
to ease pectoral diseases, but likewise to be of some service against all in- 
ternal pains and heat ; and it was thought that a decoction of it could 
stop the dysentery." 

The inner bark of the wild cherry tree (as well as the berries) is put 
into a bottle of whisky or brandy and allowed to stand for a week or 
more, when small doses of the mixture are taken for cough. 

A stocking tied around the head bus been used for a cold in the head, 
and it is probable that this may be a modification of a remedy suggested 
many years ago.f 

Cuts and Wounds. 

If cut with a sharp instrument, or tool, grease the cutting edge of the 
instrument and lay it aside to hasten the cure and to prevent lockjaw. 
This practice prevailed also in some parts of England, and Mr. Black) sug- 
gests that the secret lay in the simplicity of non-interference with t lie 
wound and treating the instrument Instead. 

Wounds and bruises are bathed with a tincture of balsam-apple- -Mo- 
mordirn baUamtlM — S bottle of which is generally kept on hand tor the 
porpoH. When th6 plant, or vine, has blossomed and the pod begins to 
grow, s bottlfl is slipped mcr ii so as to allow (lie fruit to grow to its lull 

• t Kiiiin. Bo Bi - 1 1 tii Kbrra Aimi.u.rir. Stockholm, 178 

t " I>U luuwtt en fur Kiwis* ullr AbOUde llmu ; wutm I >u I >.hu- S< liulo- Hint Striini|.t'e 
luliri- mil <l' in I'inivr > 1 1 1 r< - 1 1 iillr Zalic liml lirrlir .launi. b HTird | 

11 the third named work MtUd und K(lntt< above alluded to. 

;i..ii. 



18S9.] OOO [Hoffman. 

size within the vessel. When fully ripe, the stem is cut and the bottle 
filled with whisky or brandy, and after several weeks the liquid is ready 
for use. 

Dog-fat and skunk-fat are both used in certain localities for bruised and 
incised wounds ; and for the latter, a piece of bacon-fat is also sometimes 
applied by means of a bandage. 

Corns. 

If any one suffering from corns takes a small piece of cotton cloth, rubs 
it over the offenders and hides it, unobserved, in a coffin with a body 
about to be buried, the corns will leave him. 

Champ. 

It has already been noted that boys, to prevent having cramp while 
bathing, tie a thong of eel skin about the leg or wrist ; and when entering 
the water an additional safeguard is for them to urinate upon their legs. 

Croup. 

A common remedy consists of a mixture of goose-grease and molasses, 
given internally to induce emesis. 

One less frequently used is to make a poultice of grated poke-root and 
vinegar, and applied to the soles of the feet. 

In Lehigh county an emetic for this complaint is prepared by boiling 
three (or five) onions until soft, and mixing the juice therefrom with 
honey. 

In Fayette county an emetic for croup is made by mixing urine and 
goose-grease and administering internally, and also rubbing some of the 
mixture over the breast and throat. 

Deafness. 

This, it is believed, may be successfully treated by dropping rattlesnake 
oil into the affected ear. 

A native "herb doctor," who lives in the Blue mountains of Cumber- 
land county, presented the writer with a card bearing the following recipe: 
"One ounce of refined camphor oil, the ears of a weasel, a male weasel 
for a male, is proved and insured, by putting it in cotton in the ears of a 
man, to cure all deafness." 

Diphtheria. 

In Fayette county a poultice consisting of the fresh excrement of a hog 
is worn about the neck for one night. 

Cow-dung poultices are also known to have been used for this disease, 
but more faith is placed in a band of red flannel secured about the neck. 
There is great faith in the color of the material used ; the general impres- 
sion prevailing is that all red flannel is medicated ; and there appears to 
be an association of ideas between the color of the flannel and that of the 
inflamed throat. 



Hoffman.] 336 [May 3, 

Dog Bites ; Hydrophobia. 

The belief noted by Mr. Phillips,* as current in the vicinity of Philadel- 
phia, obtains in various localities along the eastern base of the Blue 
mountains : "To cure a bite use a hair of the dog that caused it ; it is 
sometimes placed between two slices of buttered bread and eaten as a 
sandwich." 

In one of the publications already referred to as containing a reference 
identifying it as an American work.f a remedy for mad dog bites is given 
in which chickweed forms the subject. This plant must be gathered in 
June, when it is in full bloom, dried in the shade and powdered. It is 
taken in the form of powder. The dose for an adult is a small tablespoon- 
ful, or by weight, a dram ; for children the dose is the same, but it is 
divided and given at three different times. 

One of the most popular fallacies is the surviving belief in the powers 
of the madstone. We frequently read interesting notices in the news- 
papers of reputed cures, and the prevention of hydrophobia, but there 
are pretensions also that these stones may be used with equal success in 
the extraction of serpent venom. In this respect the practice reverts to 
the custom as first known in Asia Minor, and later in Europe. 

Among the various individuals in Pennsylvania who profess ability in 
exorcism and charms, we occasionally find one who is reputed to possess 
a mad-stone. These pebbles are of various sizes, and appear to have been 
selected on accouut of some peculiarity of color or form. A specimen, 

• Procs. Am. Phil. Soc., Philadelphia, Vol. xxv, p. 159. 

t Mitt>l and KUtuU. On account of the peculiarity of the recipe, I append it In the 
original : 
"Kin gewisser Herr Valentin Kettering, von Dauphin County, hat dem Banal vn 

IVtinsylvanicn Bin Mittel bekannt geinaelit, welches den Hiss wnthender Thierc 
nnfehlbar heilen soil. Kr M i Mines Yoi'l'ulircii in DentSOhlond sehon TOI 

2."yj Juhren, nnil von iliin sell.M, s.-itdem cr sich in den Yereinigtcti Staaten hclindct, 
welches iiber CO Jahre ist, gebraucht, und innner ahl antrOgticb befunden wonlen. Kr 
macht esblo- mis Llebe zur Menseli licit bekannt. Dieses Mittel bestehl nils dem Kraut. 

welchet er Chick weed neont—ea U cine Bommer-Pflanse, and bd dan Bchweljern and 
•.■hen unter den Hainan: Qanchhell, rother iCoyex odei rofher Hohnerdann, 
bekannt. In England oennt manes: rotber Pimpernel ; andindei Botanik heisst es ; 
AnnaejeUJe Phonloaa. BimusslmJnnlne, wanaes Invollet Blothe 1st, gesammelt, im 
truck net and diinn/u 1'iilver geriaben werden. Hlervon Ist die Dosla FQrelne 
erwaehsane Person, ein kleiner ffsslnlM roll, odes an Qewichl ein Drachma, and ein 
Bc ni p el iinieininHi in Bier oder Wasser •. tar Kinder ist die Deals eban so gross ; alleln es 
wir<i zn dial rerschlednen Saltan gegeben. Venn es for Thiers gran gebraachl werden 

soil, SOHChneide and v-riiii-ilii- man es mit Klcic oder andern Knlter. Wciin man ei 
• im-ii gabafl will, so tnnclie man das zn 1'nlver gaaaaohte Krant lit it T«ig zn Ku-elti 
Man kanti cm illicit itnf Uuttcrbrud, mit 1 1 >n i • oder Molasses, etc., 

•■ Kin gswlssei ahiwflnH • i Bai rindlt : ran dam Polverdlesei 

Kraal and so cine Woob 

mit einer gerlngarn i><>sis fortmhre, nnd mit der Brohe dieses gekoohten Krautei die 

Wanda waacha, and mob Puhrer binein streoe. Ban lettering sagt, diss at unxner qui 

Dosb mit dan gluckUohsten Brlbhj gagoban babe, 

wird KesnKt, <Ium dies daswibc Mitt.i s«d. mil walohaffl dar rentorbenc Doctor 

Willlftlil Btoy ho ill lialie." 



1889.] ddi [Hoflbian. 

which had a high reputation in the State from which it had been brought, 
was described by the present writer,* as consisting of a worn piece of 
white feldspar, and possessing none of the properties of absorption attrib- 
uted to it. 

The first notice of stones used in extracting, or expelling, poisons, 
occurs about the middle of the thirteenth century, though the knowledge 
of them, and their use, by the superstitious of Asia Minor, without doubt 
antedates that period. They were called bezoar stones, \ and consisted of 
a calculus, or concretion, found in the intestines of the wild goat of North- 
ern India, known as the Pazan, described by Aldrovandus as Uurcus Pezo- 
ardicus, and which Linnams mentions as Capra bezoartica. Various other 
ruminants were subsequently found to possess a similar calculus, such as 
the chamois, and the llama and guanaco furnished the early Spaniards 
in South America with this highly valued article. The latter was recog- 
nized in therapeutics as the Occidental bezoar stone in contradistinction to 
the Oriental variety, which latter was considered more efficacious. A 
specimen in the British Museum, described and figured by Van Rymsdykt 
in 1791, is called Bezoar Germanorum, although it had been found in 
Jamaica. 

In addition to the fact that the fable ot poison-extracting stones may be 
traced back to the Middle Ages, it is probable that they had been used 
long anterior to that time, in Asia Minor, and it is more than probable 
that a knowledge of their reputed properties, and possibly specimens, 
were brought back to Europe by Crusaders on their return from the Holy 
Land. 

Several objects found in 18(5;} at Florence, on the site of the old Church 
of the Templars, dedicated to St. Paul, are of Interest and may be briefly 
mentioned. One of them is an earthen vase, and another, a medal. These 
relics are in the collection of M. Gaucia. Lacroix says of these antiquities :§ 
"The Earthen Vase, on one side of which is seen, between two fleurs-de- 
lis, the figure of St. Paul bitten by a serpent, bears a Latinf inscription, 

♦The Western Lancet, Sail Francisco, Cal., 1834. 

t Known in German as Bezoarttein and " Hcrr des Giffleg," Greek, AUxipliarmaatm . 
Hebrew, lklnzaav or lidzaar ; Chaldaic, lkluzuar, from the Persian Piul-Za.hr— pad .= 
expelling, takr — poison. 

The medical works of a century ago still mention this substance in its list of rem. 
uid it was given internally— for a variety of disorders— in combination with other sub- 
stances, such us powdered red coral, etc. For further information relative to its claims, 
Bee inaugural dissertations published as follows : G.Becker. Lapis bezoar, Witui 
1673; J. 1). Ehrliardo. De tinctura bezoardica essentificata, Jena;, 1698; J. II. 81 
I)e lupide bezoar, Jena, 1698 ; <'. W. Vesti. l)e lapide bezoardicoorientali physiceet med- 
ice considerato, Ertlordiie [1707 J. 

% Museum britannicum, etc , London, M.DCC.XCI, Tab. VI, No. 7. 

I Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages, and at the Period of the Renaissance. 
Paul Lacroix, New York, 1874, p. Ib7, Figs. 14*- 1 S7. 

" Expelleo lapide hoc pauli virtvte venenvm." 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129 2q. PRINTED MAY 15, 1839. 



Hoffinan.] ^°" [M ft y 3. 

'In the name of St. Paul, and by this stone, thou shalt drive out poison.' 
On the other side is engraved in relief the cross of the Temple, between a 
sword and a serpent. * * * On the Medal is represented a dragon 
with an Italian* legend signifying, ' The Grace of St. Paul is proof 
against any poison.' " 

In addition to the representation of a dragon, the figure of a scorpion 
also appears in the space between the beginning and the end of the latter 
legend. 

The fact that St. Paul is the one appealed to in the above cases may be 
attributed to the fact that he w^as not affected by the bite of a serpent, 
when almost instant death was the result expected by his associates (Acts 
xxviii, 3-6). 

Epilepsy. 

The patient must drink the warm blood of a freshly killed dove. It is 
better if the head be cut off and the blood taken directly from the neck. 

Febrile Complaints. 

For ordinary febrile disorders strawberry leaf tea is administered to 
produce diaphoresis. 

Tea made of elder blossoms is given to hasten the eruption in measles 
and scarlatina. 

An infusion made of parsley roots is considered excellent as a diuretic, 
and to produce free lochial discharge. 

Tea made of sheep cherries (Gen. et sp. ?) is given for measles. 

A decoction of blackberry roots is sometimes given for fever accom- 
panying diarrho a. 

Freckles. 

To remove freckles from the face, one must rise on the morning of the 
first day of May, before the sun is up, moisten the hands with the dew 
upon the grass and wash the face therewith. Not a word must be spoken 
aloud either before or during this procedure, f 

Goitre. 

It is believed that if the hand of a corpse be rubbed over a goitre the 
afllicted may be oertaio of recovery. 

□TDBOPHOBIA. 8M Doii-uiTES. 

i: ok I i;>- 

l-'or I -hihlreii Who are affected in this manner, they must he whipped 
Willi a hud' I lum'lm, i.e., the doth used in removing ashes from the oven 

oi to depositing the loerei to be baked. 

,lru lutti Y.-I.'iii Vivl. 

idulged in ] igland, 

to MCur* "twelve BOOthl F.rll;-l..iv.!.>iiniiil, l^m.l.. II, 1-si. p 



1889.] OdJ [Hoffman. 

"When the patient has reached the age of adolescence, the alleged relief 
is obtained by urinating into a newly made grave ; the corpse must be of 
tlie opposite sex to that of the experimenter. 

Inflamed Eyes. 

Quince seed, soaked in cold water until it is slightly mucilaginous, forms 
a common remedy for inflamed eyes. 

The pith taken from the green branches of sassafras is similarly used. 

When the eyes become unusually sore a small piece of bluestone (sul- 
phate of copper) is dissolved in water, and a few drops applied several 
times daily. 

Another common remedy is to put a drop of molasses into the eye and 
allow it to remain until washed out by the tears. 

When sore eyes are accompanied by symptoms of scrofula or other con- 
stitutional disorder, the lobes of the ears are punctured and gold rings 
inserted. This is practiced by men as well as women. 

Itch. 

Tlie following is from Fayette county : "Mix equal parts of lard, sul- 
phur, and the inner bark of the alder ; heat the mixture, and prepare as 
an ointment which must be used on three successive mornings, when, on 
the morning of the fourth day, after careful washing, new clothes must 
be put on." 

The addition of the alder bark is probably on account of some mysteri- 
ous property attributed to it. 

Jaundice. 

Hollow out a carrot, All it with the patient's urine and hang it, by means 
of a string, in the fire place. As the urine is evaporated and the carrot 
becomes shriveled, the disease will leave the patient. * 

In this there is an evident belief in the connection between the proper- 
ties and color of the carrot and the yellow skin of a patient having jaun- 
dice. To this class may belong the belief respecting the use of a band of 
red flannel for diphtheria, and yellow — or amber — beads for puruleut dis- 
charge from the ears. 

Measles. 
A patient having the measles is required to remain in a close, warm 
room, and tea made of elder blossoms is administered at intervals to keep 
him in a perspiration, to hasten the eruption. 

Mumps . 
To cure the mumps, the swollen parts must be rubbed against such parts 
of a hog-trough as have been worn smooth by that animal. 

* -Mr. Black records a somewhat similar custom prevailing In Staffordshire, where a 
bladder is tilled with urine and hang near the lire. Folk-Medicine, London. 1888, ]>. OG. 



Hoflman.] "*U [May 3, 

Here there is apparently a relic of a belief in the transference of disease, 
of which more will be said further on. 

Pleurisy. 

To cure pleurisy the child must lie passed beneath a table to an assistant. 

It is necessary to state, in this connection, that pleurisy is believed to be 
caused by the attachment of the liver to the ribs ; the cure being to rupture 
this adhesion by stretching the body. This disease is commonly known 
as liver-grown — a a gewak'sa, lit., grown fast. 

Purging and Purgatives. 

A decoction of the leaves of the bone set — Eupatorium perfoliatum L. — 
although recognized by physicians as a tooic, is used both as an emetic 
and purgative by the people generally. If the leaves are stripped from the 
plant in an upward manner it is emetic, and if pulled downward it is 
purgative. 

The belief in the virtue of the remedy, whether removed from stalk in 
one direction, or another, survives also with respect to the following : 

A decoction of dogwood bark — Cornus florida L. — is given as a purga- 
tive, as well as to produce emesis ; but the desired result depend? up mi 
the manner in which the close has been prepared. The belief pertaining 
to these eil'ects. the preparation ol t lie bark, and the decoction, is as follows ; 
When the mixture is to act as an emeiic, the bark is scraped from t la- 
branches from below upward — when the Bap is rising in the spring. This 
is put into boiling water and a strong decoction made, which, if swallowed, 
will quickly produce the desired effect. If, however, a purgative is wanted, 
the bark must be scraped downward, in autumn, when the sap is believed 
to run downward. The scrapings must be put into a vessel of cold water 
and boiled for a considerable period of time. If a sufficient quantity be 
swallowed, purging follows. 

That the desired effect is generally attained by adults may appear 
iilar, but it may readily be attributed to the will and action of the 
patient himself. The decoction, if taken as an emetic, is readily disposed 
of at i Ik- earliest sense ol nausea, but when the purpose is to purge, the 
patient, with some effort on his part, retains the obnoxious mixture 
until it has passed beyond tin- control of the stomach into the intestines, 
when the desired result follows, 

A mixture of sulphur and molasses is frequently given to children, to 
purge, as well as to purity the system, in sprint;. 

Various mixtures are resorted to by adults for the same purpose, to prc- 
■ B f<>r the warm weather :in.l to remove the impurities from 
the blood, which are supposed to have accumulated during the pre 
Ceding Winter. Should this be neglected one is in d Ifigerol has ing various 

kindh ot eruption*. 



1889.] d&L [Hoffman. 

Most of the remedies employed for the above purpose contain greater or 
less quantities of sassafras root, burdock root, bone set, cream of tartar, etc. 

Rheumatism. 

A potato carried in one's pocket will insure freedom from rheumatism. 
As a potato is perishable and likely to become shriveled, it must be 
replaced by a fresh one when necessary. 

By some persons horse-chestnuts are used in a similar manner. 

The rattle of a rattlesnake, attached to a string and worn suspended 
from the neck, is believed to cure, as well as to prevent, an attack of 
rheumatism. 

Rattlesnake oil, if rubbed over the affected part, is also believed to be 
an unfailing remedy. The present writer saw this article prepared and 
offered for sale, only a few months ago, in the mountains of Cumberland 
county. 

A decoction of witch hazel bark is also used as a local application. 

A decoction of the bark, or an infusion of the blossoms, of the prickly 
ash— Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. — is also employed in the same manner 
as the preceding. 

Scrofulous Affections. 

Chronic or purulent discharge from the ears is believed to be cured by 
putting a necklace of yellow or amber beads around the neck of the 
afflicted one. 

In the above-mentioned work — Mittel unci K'unste — is a recipe which has 
also been found in practice. It is nothing more nor less than a mixture of 
lime water and oil in such proportions as to become semi-solid, after which 
it is melted with hog's fat and wax. This is applied daily to the affected 
limbs, in the form of a plaster. 

It has frequently been reported that there are certain persons who are 
possessed of the power of curing, what is locally termed white swelling, 
by the layiug-on of hands and the recitation of certain secret formula. I 
have as yet not personally met with any one who had such a reputation. 
The belief may probably be a survival of the older custom of the royal 
touch. King James II, becoming wearied at such a ceremony , was relieved 
by merely holding one end of a string while the other, terminating in a 
loop, was put over the head and neck of each subject presented ; in this 
manner the influence passed from the king's hand to the string, and from 
the string to the patient's body. 

"Kerchiefs dipped in King Charles' blood were found to have as much 
efficacy in curing the king's evil as had the living touch,"* and " in 1838, 
failing the royal touch, a few crowns and half-crowns, bearing the effigy 
of Charles I, were still used in the Shetland islands as remedies for the 

* William George Black. Folk-Medicine, Loud., 18S3, p. 100. 



Hoffinan.] "^.j [>r a y 3, 

evil. They had been handed down from generation to generation, along, 
perhaps, with the story which some travelled Shetlander had told of the 
ceremony on St. John's day, 1633, when Charles I went to the royal 
chapel in Holyrood, 'and their solemnlie offred, and after the offringe 
heallit 100 persons of the cruelles or kingis eivell, yonnge and old.' "* 

This practice prevailed at different periods and in different countries ; 
and it is only reasonable to suppose that the occasional practice of the 
laying on of hands which occurs in this country is nothing but a survival 
of the English and continental practices ; many of the inhabitants of the 
remote rural districts — as well as some professedly cultured of the literary 
centres — are in just that plane of development to seize hold of such 
practice. 

Slabbering— In Children. 

Slabbering is cured, it is alleged, by passing a live fish through the 
child's mouth. This was practiced in Reading in the summer of 1888, and 
survives in other localities also. 

Snake Bites. 

As there are many kinds of harmless snakes found in Pennsylvania, 
and but two venomous species occur there, many of the reputed cures are 
to be attributed to the fact that many persons are really bitten by harm- 
less kinds. It is a fact too, though perhaps not generally known, that 
many of the wounds inflicted by rattlesnakes are not fatal. There are a 
number of reasons for this, chief among which may be noted the condition 
of the person at the time of the accident, and the time of the year and 
condition of the serpent — whether much of the poison had lately been dis- 
charged or not. 

The ordinary treatment is to endeavor to intoxicate the subject with 
whisky. 

In some localities pounded onions and salt, are bound over the wound. 

Place the vent of a live chicken upon the wound. It is supposed that 
this has the power of extracting the venom, but it will kill the ehieken. 

The following practice obtains in Clinton county, among those occupied 
U) picking berries. Rattlesnake! an very common, and the pickers 
.11 tn> 111 eating onions, M thai SMDM to acceler.ite the elects of the 
venom. If, during the day, one of the number is unfortunately bitten by 
;. tiles, he is Immediately taken tO tllQ nearest house, where a 
chicken Is Secured, CUt in two, and tin* warm bleeding surface of one of 
the halves placed upon the wound. It is believed that the poison is quickly 

ind no fear as to evil is entertained. 

MiunOws* Black. IWMledloiiie, i'" 1 " 1 . 1MB, pp. 142; 14> (Quoted tram Pet- 
tigrew Hii'i Lseky.) 



1889.] 04:S [Hoffman. 

The following formula was practiced by specialists in Northern Lehigh 
county : 

Gott hot al'les drshaffa, und al'les war gid ; 
Als du al'lc' h < shinny, liisht J< rftucld', 
iv rflucht' solsht du sai H und dai" gift. 
t t t 

T.si'ig, tsiiig, taiuij. 

Which means : 

God created everything, and it was good ; except thou alone, snake, 
art cursed, cursed shalt iliou be and Ihy poisoti. 

f Tsing, f tsing, f tsing. 

The operator recites the above phrase and then, with the extended 
index finger, makes the sign of the cross three times over the wound, each 
time pronouncing the word tsing. This word is probably meaningless ; 
though it is possible that it may be a contraction of tsuug — tongue, or 
tsing'' la, as the rapid movement of a snake's tongue is termed. 

A poultice of the bruised roots of the black snakeroot (Ciiiticifuga r 
mosa Ell.) is also applied to the wound, and a decoction of the same parts 
of the plant is administered internally. It is generally believed that the 
blacksnake, when bitten by a rattlesnake, eats of this plant which causes 
the venom to become inert. 

Sore Breasts. 

Warm cow dung is applied as a poultice to sore or gathered breasts. 
This appears to be used in only one locality, and it is helieved that the 
remedy was suggested by an Irishwoman who was a very energetic advo- 
cate thereof. The same substance is used, also, in the south of Hamp- 
shire, as an application to open wounds.* 

Sprains. 

Apply a poultice made of yellow clay and vinegar, renewing the appli- 
cation as soon as it gets dry. This is resorted to in Fayette county. 

In nearly every district the ordinary application consists of hot vinegar, 
In which a cloth is dipped, then wrung out, the cloth being used in the 
form of a bandage. 

Stings op Insects. 

"Bind three kinds of weeds upon the spot stung by a bee." The cor- 
respondent who furnishes this, as still practiced in Fayette county, fails to 
name the plants ; but it appears to partake rather of a charm than a 
remedy, on account of the use of the number three, which occurs in nu- 
merous other instances also. 

A silver coin applied to a bee sting is believed to not only remove the 
pain but to extract the sting. 



* Folk-medicine, William George Black, Lond., 1SS3, p. 161. 



Hoflman.] Ott rjr a y 3> 

Moist clay is also applied by some, in which the moisture and tempera- 
ture of the substance appears to furnish relief. 

To charm a wasp, so that it may be handled without danger of stinging, 
breathe upon it, and repeat the following words three times without taking 
breath : 

Wish'bli, wesh'bli, shtech mich 7>icht, 
Bis dcr Dai'w't di $<"<ja shpricht. 

The equivalent of which is : 

Wasp, wasp, sting me not. 
Until the devil recites the creed. 

Stitches. 

To cure the stitches, pick up a pebble and spit upon it three time?, 
then replace it where found. 

Stomatitis. 

Blisters on the tongue of children (stomatitis) are caused by telling fibs. 
"When they show no disposition to leave, the following course is pursued : 
Three small sticks are cut from the branches of a tree, each of a finger's 
length and as thick as a leadpencil. These are inserted into the mouth 
of the patient and then buried in a dunghill ; the next day the operation 
is repeated with a new set of sticks, and again on the third day, alter 
which the three sets of three each are allowed to remain in the manure, 
and as they decay the complaint will disappear. 

Stt. 

Rub the sty with a gold ring, and it will disappear. In a similar cus- 
tom found in Wist Sus.-cx, England, the st} r must be rubbed three times,* 
and in some known instances it is necessary for the ring to be a wedding 
ring. 

TON8ILITI8. 

Place a thin slice of bacon fat over the swollen tonsil, and secure it by 
means of a bandage or handkerchief. 

A stocking, turned wrong side out and tied about the neck, will relieve 
the swelling. 

A bandage of red flannel worn about the neck is also looked upon as a 
I remedy. This is, no doubt, another instance of the belief in the etli- 
Of color rather than material, as has been noted in the reference to 
other throat troubles. 

\\ A 

Steal a piece of fresh iik at beet befog in< -t < beneficial— fUb it upon the 
and bury it at across road. As the meat decays the wart will dis- 
tpjM 

l'. 45. 



1889.] o4:0 [Hoffman. 

Tie a horse-hair tightly around a wart and it will leave. This may 
occur through ulceration. 

Shave oft* the top of a wart and touch the exposed surface with the juice 
of milkweed — Asclepias. 

The juice of the common dandelion, if applied to warts at certain inter- 
vals, is believed to cause their disappearing in a short time. A number of 
other plants are also supposed to have this property. 

Steal a piece of bacon rind, rub it upon the wart and bury it under the 
eaves of the house. As the rind decomposes the wart will disappear. 

Water from a blacksmith's barrel (in which hot iron is cooled), if 
applied to warts, will remove them. 

Rub the warts with a piece of bone and replace it where found. Who- 
soever picks up the bone subsequently will have the warts transferred to 
his own hands. 

To remove warts or scars, the person so affected must look at the moon 
and repeat the words : 

Was Iota mill, ncm ab ; 

Was Ich ten, nem tsu. 

The English equivalent is, '-'What I rub, decrease; What I see, increase." 
This must be doue three nights in succession, beginning before full moon, 
so that the last trial comes on the night of full moon* 

Another method of a similar character is as follows: Rub the warts with 
the fingers of the opposite hand, on the first night that the new moon is 
visible, and recite the following lines : 

The moon will increase, 
But my warts will decrease. 

This must be done unperceived by any one ; and it is believed that before 
the next new moon all the warts will have disappeared. 

A curious procedure consists in frying hens' feet in lard and anointing 
the warts. 

Wens. 

To remove a wen, a person must strike it a severe blow with a small 
Bible. It is apparent that a blow of sufficient strength will rupture the 
synovial membrane, but the cure is attributed to the influence of the book 
used.f 

* The above appears to be one of the methods adopted in accordance w it Ii the follow- 
ing, extracted from Mittel mid Kiiimte, above referred to, viz.: '-Am dritten Tap, im 
zunehmeuden Mond, Abends, wenn du den neuen Mond zum ersten Mai siehst, dann 
nimm du den Kranken hinaus, lego deine Finger der rcchten Hand auf die Warze und 
blickc naota dem Monde, dann spricht wie folgt : Dasjenige darauf ich sehe 1st zuneh- 
mendund dasjenige was ich jetzt anfasse ist abnehmend; nachdem du dieses dreimal 

wlederholt hast, getae in das Haua mack." 

t Mr. Szekely says wens are caused, it is believed by the Magyars, by trying to count 
the stars. Folk-lore Journal, Loud., ii, 1884, p. 96. 

PUOC. AMEll. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2R. PRINTED MAY 15, 1889. 



Hoffman.] «**" [May 3, 

At some localities, after the blow has been given, a silver coin is placed 
over the spot and securely fastened with a bandage. 

Whooping Cough. 

The following method is pursued in the upper Susquehanna valley : 
Make a tea of hornets' nests, and allow the patient to drink of it each clay. 
The length of time of continuance is not stated. 

Another practice is to administer milk stolen from a neighbor's cow. 

One instance of treating a child having the whooping cough consisted 
of thrusting a live fish into the throat.* 

Conjurers. 

Under this caption may be classed all persons professing more than ordi- 
nary ability in the cure of the sick or those under spells. They may be 
of either sex, and are locally termed blant'sa dok'tor — herb doctors — and 
hex'a dok'tor — witch doctors. The latter practice various methods of 
what is generally known as branch' a, which includes powwowing or exor- 
cism, incantation, stroking, etc. It is not always the case that they are 
called upon to operate directly, but they may communicate a formula or 
method to the applicant, from whom they receive a fee. Should a remedy 
be known to one requiring such aid, he first consults the witch doctor 
both to verify the correctness of his own proposed plan and to conciliate 
him that no countercharm may be practiced and compel extortionate 
demands for freedom therefrom. 

There are many persons who claim to possess the gift of using the divin- 
ing rod in the discovery of ores and water. Instances are frequent where 
wells are sunk after an indication of t lie presence of water has been ascer- 
tained in this way. In fact, it is amusing to learn the particulars of the 
b, and the ultimate labors of the well-diggers, who continue until 
thej do tind water. Naturally, water would have been found under ordi- 
nary circumstances, but the rod receives the credit. 

Forked >ticks of hazel, willow or elm, are generally used for this pur- 
pose. One of the Pennsylvania methods is as follows: On Christmas Eve, 
between the hours of eleven and twelve, t lie one who intends experiment- 
ing must break oil* a braneh thai lias grown during the year, and, while 
hieing the east, must at the lams time speak the name of the Father, Son 
and Holy GhOSt The rod must bfl used three times when searching for 
'ijeet. If the top of the rod inclines toward the ground, the operator 
BC the ipol KNIght When (Wing the rod, recite the following words: 

"Thou Archiii seta thee through (tod) the Almighty, if 

there is water here, or not, indicate it." 

It is supposed thai tbl tOp) Of the rod will incline to the front and 
•d the ground if W«t cut lieneath the surface. 

otas sad Q r '■ Thsi was observed Bear Phils* 



1889.] ^** [Hoffman. 

If search is made for ore, the name of the kind desired must be men- 
tioned in the above phrase, instead of the word water. 

The following directions for selecting a divining rod were given as early 
as 1751,* at which time the practice of discovering various kinds of ores 
and water was in vogue. The description is related to have been obtained 
tram "an ingenious gentleman" — not named — who revived the method — 
which had been greatly neglected — and had made numerous experiments. 

"The hazel and willow rods, he has by experience found, will actually 
answer with all persons in a good state of health, if they are used with 
moderation, and at some distance of time, and after meals, when the oper- 
ator is in good spirits. 

"The hazel, willow and elm are all attracted by springs of water; some 
persons have the virtue intermittently, the rod in their hands will attract 
one half hour and repel the next. * * * 

"The best rods are those from the hazel or nut tree, as they are pliant 
and tough, and cut in the winter months ; a shoot that terminates equally 
forked is to be preferred, about two feet and a half long; but as inch a 
forked rod is rarely to be met with, two single ones of a length and size 
may be tied together with thread, and they will answer as well as the 
other. * * * 

"The most convenient and handy method of holding the rod is with the 
palms of the hands turned upwards, and the two ends of the rod coining 
outwards ; the palms should be held horizontally as nearly as possible, the 
part of the rod in the hand ought to be straight, and not bent backward or 
forward. * * * The rod ought to be so held, that in its workings the 
sides may move clear of the little ringers. * * * 

" The best manner of carrying the rod is, with the end prolaided in an 
an^le of about 80 degrees from the horizon, as by this method of carrying 
it the repulsion is more plainly perceived than if it was held perpendicu- 
larly. * * * 

"It is necessary that the grasp should be steady, for if, when the rod i3 
going, there be the least succussion or counteraction in the hands, though 
ever so small, it will greatly impair and generally totally prevent its activ- 
ity, which is not to be done by the mere strength of the grasp, for, pro- 
vided this be steady, no strength can stop it." 

The description continues, embracing directions for using the rod, prop- 
erties observed, etc., but enough has been quoted to show that the method 
has not been changed, even up to the present time. 

It may be proper to state, however, in further illustration of the form of 
the rod commonly used, that it resembles the letter Y inverted, thus ^, 
the lower arms being grasped with the hands, and bent horizontally out- 
wards. Thus the stem being carried upright is free to move. 

* Gentleman's Magazine, 178k p. 507. Reprinted also in Gentleman's Magazine 
Library, Vol. on Popular Superstitions, pp. 148, li'J. 



Hoftman.] ^48 [May 8, 

Transfeiiexce of Disease, Chaiims, etc. 

Although the belief in the transference of disease, both to animate and 
inanimate objects, is prevalent in almost all parts of the world, there are 
but few instances referred to above that indicate its survival in Pennsyl- 
vania. The instances cited pertain to the transference of warts to other 
persons by means of a piece of bone ; the conveyance to the dead, of 
corns ; the transmission to fish, of whooping cough and slabbering of 
children, and transferring mumps to hogs, through the intermediary of the 
trough. 

The passage under a table, of a pleuritic child, although at present 
stated to "break up the adhesions," may probably be the relic of an an- 
cient custom in which sufferers from scrofula, hernia, etc., were passed 
through a cleft tree, or an orifice in rocks, whereby the complaint was 
lost either by the transmission, or perhaps in the belief of a renewal of 
life. It was necessary, in most instances, that the body touched the inner 
surface of these objects, whether tree, or stone, so that the disease was 
transferred direct. 

A tree observed at Burlington, N. J.,* which had been thus split and 
the parts rejoined, was believed to have been used for such a purpose, and 
numerous instances might be cited of the practice in England and on the 
continent. In Ireland, holes in rocks were resorted to for the same end, 
and it may be that the stone collars found in Porto Rico — some of which 
are now in the Smithsonian Institution, and the use of which is thus far un- 
known f — were used by the aborigines in a similar manner. These rings 
resemble horse-collars, and are slightly varying, on account of which they 
are known as "rights" and "lefts," the orifice being sometimes rather 
small, but on the whole could etill have been used for passing through it 
an afflicted child. 

Both in France and in England the licking of a wound or sore, by a 
dog, or the application of a dog's tongue, was firmly believed In as an un- 
failing cure. This may have originated among the superstitious and had 
its source in the incident of Lazarus and his affliction. 

Diseases are claimed to be cured or removed even at a distance from the 
operator. Such diseases are said to bfl the effect of elianns and spells put 
upon patients by witches, or the evil conjuration of those gifted with such 

allegi The iHimiti may then be due to an evil spirit, or demon, 

• Notes uii<i Queries, Land* 6th isr., 1, p. 18, 

t Those coiiiim tin vf -Joe want of a better name— been termed laorlflolal stones, but it' 

they bad been pal to ass In Bis seerlfies or tortars of \ letims, Li Is toaroelj probable thai 

their forms would hare been oonstroeted k m to correspond to « nal Is called " rl| 

mill "lefts"; nnder snoh edi the other band, symmetry would more 

My nave been an object In their ban and outline, as ancient custom was to past 

es ihrouth ' "'■ ll1111 " ls epparenl the! the ston liars muoh resemble 

thatorii-iiiui lymboL 



1890.] 349 [Hoffman. 

which has taken possession of the body of the victim, and in this respect 
the superstition is similar to that entertained by many of the Indian tribes. 
Countercharms are resorted to for cures, but for this purpose an article of 
clothing of the person causing the spell, a hair or a piece of finger-nail, 
must first be secured before the remedial process of exorcism can be at- 
tempted by those professing such powers. Imaginary ailments are thus 
readily removed by conjurors, in whom the victims have faith and confi- 
dence. 

There is a prevailing belief, also, that some witches have the power of 
producing peculiar noises in a house, or some other place, to notify certain 
persons that wrongs are being, or have been, committed by some one in- 
timately connected. The following incident occurred in 1876, and came 
under the writer's personal observation while he was practicing his pro- 
fession in the city of Reading : 

A farmer, living in the south-eastern part of Berks county, called one 
autumn day and stated that he had been very much annoyed by peculiar 
rappings near, or in, his kitchen stove every time he sat down to his 
meals. He stated furthermore that he suspected his wife of infidelity, as 
the railroad watchman, whose station was but a few rods from his house, 
appeared very fond of calling in the evening and at other times when not 
on duty. The visitor desired to obtain some " witch medicine " so as to 
compel this man to remain away as well as to put an end to the rappings. 
He was informed that the noises undoubtedly proceeded from the stove, as 
after each meal the fire was permitted to go down, or perhaps out, and In 
consequence the contraction of the several metal parts caused the crack- 
ing sounds, as the same noise might be noticed by him had he been at 
home when the fires were kindled. The simplest explanation of the 
results of expansion and contraction, failed to penetrate his mind, so, after 
leaving the office, he proceeded to visit a "quack," who was reputed to be 
a hex' a dok'tor, where he received some charms and vile smelling herbs, 
which he was directed to burn in his house so as to drive out the evil and 
remove the visitor. 

The result was not ascertained, but the writer has no doubt that the ex- 
periment was successful, as any one with normally constituted olfactories 
would avoid a house where such a stench repeatedly greeted his visits. 

The powers attributed to a seventh son are well known, and a woman 
who marries but does not change her name is also believed to possess un- 
usual skill and power in curing. One such person, living in the above- 
mentioned county, is frequently called upon by people from a distance, 
who solicit aid in relief from illness. Her method is both by stroking, or 
laying-on of hands, and by sending cakes of a peculiar kind, which the 
afflicted are to eat. 

A curious circumstance pertaining to a charm intended to attract the 
affections of the opposite sex toward the operator may be mentioned, 
although it is not one of the most elegant methods of love-making. A 



Hollmau.] "^50 [\r ay 2, 

widow became impressed with a boatman with whom she casually be- 
came acquainted, and as he evinced no response to her numerous mani- 
festations of regard, she adopted the following method to compel hint to 
love her eien o.ijainst his will. "With the blade of a penknife she scraped 
her knee until she had secured a slight quantity of the cuticle, baked it in 
a specially prepared cake and sent it to him, though with what result is 
not known. This woman was known to have had the utmost faith in the 
charm. 

Another class of conjurers direct their attention to the cure of sick and 
bewitched cattle and other domestic animals ; to casting " lucky bullets ;" 
furnishing charms to prevent another man from firing off a gun, usually 
termed "stealing fire " or " taking fire ;" giving charms to prevent dogs 
lrom barking, or biting, etc. 

It is true that any one acquainted with these methods may himself prac- 
tice them, but in some there is more certainty of success, it is alleged, if 
an adept first apply to a recognized conjurer for verification of the method 
ot procedure, otherwise such conjurer, if slighted, might place a couuter- 
charm in the way of success. 

As already intimated, witches are supposed to possess abilities in curing 
the sick, and such as may have been charmed by other witches and con- 
jurers ; but there is a belief, also, that some of these beings have the 
power of transforming themselves, and their victims, into other animals. 
The following instance is said to have occurred in Northern Lehigh 
county, many years ago :* A vieious black sow was frequently encoun- 
tered by people on the highway, but no one knew to whom the animal 
belonged. One day, as the sow became too aggressive in pursuit of her 
victim, the person thus annoyed picked up a heavy piece of wood and 
threw it, breaking one of the animal's legs. It was learned subsequently 
that a witch living in that neighborhood had broken her leg on the same 
day and at tlie same hour, and it was firmly believed that the witch and 
the animal— which was never encountered afterwards— were one and the 
same. 

The following is a similar instance of alleged transformation caused by 
a witch, and although the circumstance is said to have occurred during 
the early part of the present century, it is still mentioned as inexplicable 
and supernatural by 1 In- present residents. The story, iii brief, is as fol- 
lows:! Near Trezlertown, Lehigh county, dwelt a farmer named Weiicr. 
'.ifc and three daughters bad, by some means or other, incurred the 

enmity of a witch who lived but s short distance away, when the latt«r, 

It is supposed, took ber revenge in the following manner. Whenever 
.in.' to the Weller reside] rls, without any premonition 

Whatever, would suddenly be nid altar crawling 

back and forth along the top ridge <>t the wainscoting for several rein 

1 1st Journal An 1 on If . T., 11, 1889, p. 82. 

♦ j or*, rtt. iuj, .. 7 tbs present writer. 



18<9.J »fol IHoftuian. 

utes they were restored to their natural form. These cuiious transforma- 
tions occurred quite frequently, and the circumstance soon attained wide- 
spread notoriety. About the end of the third month the spell was broken 
and everything went on as before. 

Witches may be disabled or their charms counteracted by securing a 
hair from the head, wrapping it in a piece of paper, and, after placing this 
against the trunk of a tree, tiring h silver bullet into it. 

Another countercharm to free enchanted or bewitched cattle is to place 
fire near enough to the victim, the influence being immediately over- 
powered, as witches are supposed to be unable to bear such close contact 
of heat, either near their own person or the object under their influence. 
This is illustrated in the following narrative, and the circumstance oc- 
curred only a few years ago, according to report :* A fanner, now living 
at Alburtis, Lehigh county, had two cows. One day an old woman, who 
lived but a short distance away, and who was suspected of being a witch, 
came to the house, and, during the course of conversation, asked which 
of the cows gave the greater quantity of milk. The one indicated wsis 
then with calf. Upon the following day the cows were driven, as usual, 
into the fields to pasture, but, on attempting to drive them home, later in 
the day, the milch cow was found lying helpless upon the ground. The 
farmer, upon hearing of this, went into the field wilhhis sons, to endeavor 
to get the animal upon her feet. The sous took hold of the horns while 
the father grasped the tail, but all attempts to move the cow were ineffec- 
tual. The father then directed the boys to gather some wood to make a 
tire, which was soon placed near the cow. During all this time the witch 
wns standing on the portico of the farmer's house, watching the proceed- 
ings ; but the instant she saw that fire was to be kindled, she came for- 
ward and inquired after the purpose of the proceedings. The farmer ac- 
cused her of bewitching the cow, but this she denied most vigorously. 
The witch then bade the farmer call his wife, who, upon her arrival, was 
told to take hold of the cow's tail while the witch went to the head. After 
a few caresses and the utterance of some words of eudearmeut and en- 
couragement, the cow rose from the ground and walked away as if noth- 
ing had occurred. 

The following notice of the trial of witches is reproduced from the Gen 
tleman's Ma<jaziue,\ and relates to a circumstance which transpired in 
New Jersey, just across the Delaware river. It is probable that the trial 
was instigated by English residents, as such prosecutions were rare among 
the German settlers ; in fact, but one instance is known to the writer, to 
which reference will be made further on. The trial above referred to is given 
in the following words : "From Burlington, in Pensilvania, 't is advised 
that the owners of several cattle, believing them to be bewitched, caused 
some suspected men and women to be taken up, and trials to be made for 
detecting 'em. About three hundred people assembled near the Gover- 

* Related by the writer in J. Am. Folk-lore, Boston and New York, i, 18S8, pp. 134, 135. 
t January, 1731, i, p. 2'J. 



Hoffinan.] &Q-i [May 3, 1889. 

nor's house, and, a pair of scales being erected, the suspected persons were 
each weighed against a large Bible, but all of them outweighing it ; the 
accused were then tied head and feet together, and put into a river, on 
supposition that if they swam they must be guilty. This they offered to 
undergo in case the accuser should be served in the like manner ; which 
being done, they all. swam very buoyant, and cleared the accuser." 

The other trial above referred to is related as follows :* "In the south- 
ern part of Williams township, Northampton county, there is a hill, to 
which the witches have left their evil name and fame. It is known as 
* Der Hexenkopf,' or ' the Witches' Head,' because it was there that their 
ladyships were supposed to hold nightly revels. On these occasions they 
bewitched their neighbors' cattle, and made themselves generally hateful 
to all good, order-loving citizens. They did not, however, always escape 
with impunity, as is proved by the following indictment, which is care- 
fully transcribed from the Session Docket, omitting only names and date. 
The case was ' for bewitching a horse whereby he became wasted and be- 
came worse.' 

" 'The jurors do upon their oaths, present, — That S B of 

William township, in the county of Northampton, widow, on the — day 

of in the year at the said county of Northampton aforesaid. 

did commit certain most wicked acts (called enchantments and charms), 
at the county aforesaid, maliciously and diabolically against a certain 
white horse of the value of £4, of the goods and chattels of a certain Jus- 
tice W of William township aforesaid, on the day aforesaid, and 

county aforesaid then being, did exercise and practice, by means of which 

the said horse of the said Justice W , on the day aforesaid at the 

township of Williams aforesaid, greatly worstended (pcjoratits est) and 
wasted away, against the peace of our said Common wealth, and against 
the laws in this case made and provided.'" * * * "'Judgment: a 
year's imprisonment, and every quarter to stand six hours in the pil- 
lory.' " 

"The poor woman at first resolutely denied the charge ; but the learned 
judges at last convinced her of her guilt, and she always confessed herself 
a witch, though she was unable to say In what manner her enchantments 
had been performed." 

• The Historical Magazine, N. Y., vii, Ifl printed from the Lutheran, under 

the tlllcof Qlcanlngtqf an AnUqwtri in in Ucrmtin Pennsylv i/i/u. 



A.PRIL L0, being Good Friday, a public holiday in 
,-. !v.ini;t, do meeting of th • Society was held. 



353 

Stated Meeting, May 3, 1889. 
Present, 16 members. 

President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

A circular from the R. Academia delle Scienze, of Turin, 
soliciting subscriptions for a monument to the late Angelo 
Genocchi. 

A circular from the New Ilaven Colony Historical Soci'ety, 
stating that a valuable sword presented to the late Admiral 
Foote, U. S. N., had been stolen. 

Circular from the Rhode Island Historical Society, in refer- 
ence to Indian names and localities in that State. 

Program of prizes to be awarded by the Academic Royale 
de Belgique for 1890. 

Letters from August Neilson, Gefle, Sweden, in relation to a 
proposed international language. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the Geologi- 
cal Survey of India, Calcutta; Physiologische Gesellschaft, 
Berlin ; Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft " Isis," Dresden ; 
Universite Royale, Lund, Sweden; Societe Zoologique de 
France, Paris; Societe" d'Histoire et d'Archeologie, Geneva, 
Switzerland; Bath and West of England Society; Mr. P. 
Hoinix, London; New Hampshire Historical Society, Con- 
cord; Massachusetts Historical Society, Rev. P. S. Moxen, 
Boston; Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Dr. T. H. Saffbrd, Williamstown, Mass.; American Antiqua- 
rian Society, Worcester, Mass.; New York State Library, Uni- 
versity of the State of New York, Commissioners of the State 
Reservation at Niagara, Albany ; Mr. W. J. Potts, Camden, N. 
J. ; New Jersey Historical Society, Newark ; Prof. John Eyer- 
man, Easton, Pa.; Indian Rights' Association, Historical So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania, Messrs. Richard B. Osborne, Henry 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2s. PRINTED MAY 22, 1889. 



•J 54 [May 3, 

Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia ; Department of the Interior, War 
Department, U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, U. 
S. Geological Survey, Washington; Col. Charles C. Jones, 
Augusta, Ga.; Prof. John C. Branner, Little Rock, Ark.; 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Historical Society, 
Chicago, HI.; Academy of Natural Sciences, Davenport, la.; 
Washington College, Topeka, Kans.; University of California, 
Sacramento, Cal. ; Imperial Observatorio, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil. 

An obituary notice of Dr. N. A. Randolph was read, by 
appointment, by Dr. Joseph T. Rothrock. 

The deaths of the following members were announced : 

nenry W. Field, London, d. March, 1888. 

Prof. Samuel W. Gross, M.D. (Philadelphia), b. February 4, 
1837, d. April 16,- 1889. 

William Henry Rawle (Philadelphia), b. August 19, 1823, 
d. April 19, 1889. 

F. A. P. Barnard (New York City, N. Y.), b. May 19, 1815, 
d. April 27, 1889. 

On motion, the President was authorized to appoint suitable 
persons to prepare the usual obituary notices of Dr. Gross and 
Mr. Rawle. 

The Secretaries presented a communication from Dr. W. J. 
Hoffman, Washington, D. C, on the " Folk-Medicine of the 
Pennsylvania Germans." 

The Secretaries presented a paper by Mr. James Mooney, 
Washington, on " The Holiday Customs of Ireland." 

Prof. E. D. Cope made a communication, "A Review of the 
N. A. Species of Hippotherium." 

Prof. Cope mad* an oral communication as to "The Partial 
ilts of the Geological Survey of the Cypress Hills, near the 
itehewan River, in the Dominion of Canada." 

Dr. Allen made iarks upon the " Characteristics of 

the American Pfonghorn» rt 

Pending nominations 1 L88 1 187 were read. 

Librarian reported the preparation of a first list of 
the lacunae on the shelves of t ity*l Library among 



1889.1 



355 



sets of publications of various learned societies. On motion, it 
was ordered to be printed and distributed. 

A communication was read from Col. F. M. Etting in 
reference to the MS. copy of the Declaration of Independence 
in the autograph of Thomas Jefferson, owned by the Society. 

On motion, the Society resolved to publish the same in 
foe simile, and requested Col. Etting to prepare suitable letter- 
press to accompany the reproduction. 

The consideration of the publication of the old Records of 
the Council was postponed until the autumn. 

Prof. Cope offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the Secretaries see that there are printed on the separata 
issued to the contributors to the publications of the Society, the name of 
the publication from which they are taken, and the date at which they are 
issued to the author. And that both be placed on the sheets of the sepa- 
rata and not alone on the cover. 

Mr. Wood moved to refer the motion to the Committee on 
Publication, and being put to a vote, the motion was declared 
carried. 

And the Society was adjourned by the President. 



Staled Meeting, May 17, 1SS9. 

Present, 22 members. 

President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Correspondence was submitted as follows : 

Program of the award of the lloeufft prizes, by the R. 
Nederlandish Academy. 

A letter from August Neilson, Gefle, Sweden, in relation to 
international language. 

A communication from the "American Anthropologist," re* 
questing a subscription, was referred to the Library Com- 
mittee with power to act. 



dob [ May n f 

The Academie des Sciences at Cracow was ordered to re- 
ceive Proceedings from No. 130. 

On motion, the Tokyo (Japan) Library was placed on the 
exchange list, to receive Proceedings from No. 96, and a copy 
of the Catalog. 

Letters of envoy were received from the University Eoyale, 
Lund, Sweden; Bath and West of England Society, Bath, 
Eng. ; Bureau des Longitudes, Paris, France ; Meteorological 
Office, London, Eng. ; Smithsonian Institution, Department of 
the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

Letters of acknowledgment of 127 were received from Capt. 
Richard Temple, Mandalay, Upper Burma; University Royale, 
Lund, Sweden; Musee Royale d'Histoire Naturelle de Bel- 
gique, Bruxelles ; Observatorio Meteorologico-Magnetico, Cen- 
tral Mexico, Mex. ; Observatorio Astronomico Nacional Mex- 
icano, Tacubaya. 

Letters of acknowledgment of 128 were received from the 
Musee Royale d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, Bruxelles; 
K. K. Central-Anstalt fur Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus, 
Dr. Aristides Brezina, Vienna; K. Bibliothek, Deutsche Geolo- 
gische Gesellschaft, Berlin ; Naturwissenschaftliche Verein, 
Bremen ; Verein fur Erdkunde, Dresden ; Verein fiir Geogra- 
phic und Statistik, Frankfurt-am-Main ; Naturhistorische Ge- 
sellschaft, Hanover ; Dr. Otto Bohtlingk, Julius Platzmann, 
Leipsic; R. Accademia dei Lincei, Roma; Station Sericicole, 
M"iitpellier ; Profs. A. Daubree, Abel Hovelacque, Gaston 
Plante, Remi Simeon, Paris; Prof. Lucien Adam, Rennes; 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, University Library, Cam- 
bridge, Eng. ; Royal Society, Royal Institution, Royal Astro- 
nomical and Meteorological Societies, Society of Antiquaries, 
<ty of Arts, Victoria Institute, Geological Societies, 
John Lubbock, Sir Henry Thompson, Prof. William 
Crookea, London; Natural History Society, Neucastle-on- 
Tyne, Bng.j Penzance Natural History ami Antiquarian So- 
, Plymouth, Bog.; Royal Society of Kdinburgh ; Iloyal 
Mi. .lames (ieikie, Edinburgh, Royal Dublin 
ety, Dublin; Museum of Comparative S$o&logy, Cam- 



1889.] 



857 



bridge, Mass.; Messrs. Richard L. Ashhurst, G. de B. Keim, 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Prof. 
S. F. Emmons, Gen. M. C. Meigs, Washington, D. C. ; Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, Knoxville; Observatorio Astronomico 
Nacional Mexicano, Tacubaya. 

Accessions to the Library were announced from the Socictc 
Finno-ougrienne, Helsingfors; Naturforschende Gesellschaft, 
Emden ; Academic des Sciences, Dijon ; Societe" d'Anthropol- 
ogie, Musee Guimet, Socie'te' des Antiquaires de France, Bu- 
reau des Longitudes, Paris ; Sociedade de Geographia, Lisbon ; 
Meteorological Council, London; Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
Free Public Library, New Bedford, Mass. ; Buffalo Library, 
Buffalo, N. Y. ; Mr. W. J. Potts, Camden, N. J. ; Prof. Geo. 
H. Cook, New Brunswick, N. J.; Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Women's Anthropological Society of 
America, Washington, D. C. ; State Historical Society of Wis- 
consin, Madison; Mr. Charles R. Keyes, Burlington, la. 

The following communications were offered for the Trans- 
actions of the Society by Prof. Scott : 

" On the Mammalia of the Uinta Formation," which was 
referred to Messrs. Horn, Cope and Ryder, to examine. 

Subsequently the Committee reported in favor of its publi- 
cation, and it was referred to the Committee on Publication, 
with power to act. 

The following communications were offered for the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society : 

Through the Secretaries, from Prof. D. S. Kirkwood, Bloom- 
ington, Ind., on " The Inclination of the Asteroids." 

Mr. Vaux offered, by title, a paper on " The Circle and 
Cross Symbols." 

The Curators reported upon the condition of the cabinets of 
the Society, and, upon motion, it was ordered that a sum not 
to exceed one hundred dollars ($100) be placed at their dis- 
posal to enable them to examine and to arrange the same. 



**^° [May 17, 

The Committee on Hall presented the following report, and 
resolution, which was unanimously adopted : 

Philadelphia, May 17, 18S9. 
To t7te President, Officers and Members of the American Philosophical 
Sockty : 
Gentlemen : In view of the. fact that the building which the American 
Philosophical Society now uses was occupied by it for the first time on 
November 21, 1789, we suggest the adoption of the following resolution : 
Resolved, That a proper commemorative celebration of the Centennial 
Anniversary of its occupancy be held on November 21, 1889 ; the subject 
and order of exercises to be referred to a Special Committee of six mem- 
bers, with power to take action in the matter. 

(Signed) J. SERGEANT PRICE, 

WILLIAM A. INGHAM, 
CHARLES A. OLIVER, 

Ball Committee. 

On motion, the President was authorized to appoint the 
Committee, which he did as follows : Messrs. J. Sergeant Price, 
William A. Ingham, Charles A. Oliver, Eichard Vaux, Dr. 
Kusehenberger and Henry Phillips, Jr. 

The minutes of the Board of Officers and Council were sub- 
mitted. 

This being the stated evening for the voting for candidates 
for membership, pending nominations Nos. 1183, 1185, 118(5 
and 1187 were read, spoken to and balloted for. 

Pending nomination No. 1184, in the absence of its proposers, 
was postponed until Octol>er 18, 1889. 

The Tellers appointed to receive the votes of the Society 
reported the result of the balloting to the President, who de- 
clared the following persons had been duly elected members, 
viz. : 

No. 2156. Lester F. Ward, Washington, D. C. 

No. 2ir»7. Andrew A. Blair, Philadelphia. 
2^58. Clarence B. Olarfc, Philadelphia, 

No. 2169. Henry D. Gregory, Philadelphia. 

And the was adjourned by the I'loulri.t. 



1889.] dO J [Eothrock. 

Biographical Sketch of the Late Nathaniel Archer Randolph, M.D. 

By J. T. Rothrock, M.D. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, May 3, 1S89.) 

It is not unusual to find men, young and old, who have lived with so 
clear a conscience that they have few regrets and no fears when the 
supreme hour of their earthly career comes. It is also very certain that 
these men leave behind them vacancies which arc hard to fill, and that 
those who knew them best mourn their departure most. 

When a young man, jealous of his integrity, conscious of his powers, 
devoted to the work and welfare of the world, is unexpectedly snatched 
away after years of preparation, it is but natural that we should regard 
our loss as almost beyond repair. 

We, to-night, deplore the removal from our midst by death of just such 
a man. Lest it should be supposed that this is the expression merely of an 
overfriendly opinion, I shall reinforce what I have said by the further 
statement that Doctor Randolph was both a positive and a popular man ; 
to have been both is so remarkable that it presupposes some extraordinary 
qualities, which are not often combined in one individual. 

Nathaniel Archer, son of Nathaniel and Eliza S. Randolph (now Eliza 
S. Turner), was born November 7, 1858, after the deatli of his father. 
From his earliest childhood he appears to have been conscientious beyond 
the measure of most boys. To illustrate the above statement : on one 
occasion, he refused to say, I will be glad to see another child, because, 
said he, how can I be glad to see one whom I do not even know? With 
most persons a fondness for natural history, or a special branch of it, can 
be traced to a particular influence. So far as we can see, this was not the 
case with young Randolph. He grew up with it, and no more wondered 
at his mental preferences, or thought of questioning their validity or im- 
portance than why he should eat or sleep. His fondness for living things 
was as decided as was his power of making friends with them. It is said 
by those who knew him best, that later in life, in his physiological experi- 
ments, he was scrupulously careful to reduce suffering to a minimum and 
never to inflict it at all, save with a clearly defined purpose in view. 

His tastes are thus seen to have been naturally those of a student and an 
observer. Young Randolph rather avoided than courted the manly sports 
which most boys admire. In fact, it is said by one who had abundant 
opportunity for knowing, that he did not incline to enough exercise to 
keep him in the best physical condition. This, however, was due to no 
lack of spirit, but because he preferred to study, or to amuse himself, in a 
quieter way. His disposition was gentle ; hence, it was an exceedingly 
rare thing for him to utter a harsh word against any one. This was so 
true that even his most familiar friends, to whom he confided most of his 



Kothrock.] dOU [May 3, 

likes and dislikes, more than once remarked that he seldom spoke 
unkindly of his acquaintances or associates. 

Dr. Randolph's education was commenced in Philadelphia. Later, he 
was sent to Swarthmore College, near Media, in Pennsylvania. "When 
seventeen years of age, he entered Cornell University, at Ithaca, in New 
York ; where, while yet a freshman, he contended for and secured one 
of the prizes that previously none but seniors had entered the list to com- 
pete for. 

In the spring of 1882, he graduated in medicine at the University of 
Pennsylvania. His thesis on the "Red Blood Corpuscles" grew mainly 
out of study in Europe. 

"With his graduation in medicine his active public career may be said to 
have commenced. From the very start, his course as a teacher seems 
to have been predestined. The ink on his diploma was scarcely dry 
before we find him one of the members of a "quiz," fitting candidates for 
their final medical examinations. This never degenerated with him into 
a mere perfunctory performance, in return for fees already collected. He 
gave in addition to the ordinary "quiz" collateral lectures, in which 
the fluency and apt illustration, characteristic of the born teacher, were 
constantly recognized. It is but just to add that the interest and enthusi- 
asm of the teacher reacted upon the class. Many a thirst for knowledge 
is blunted, depraved and at last quenched by some wretched substitute, 
simply because tie teacher failed to reach a pure fountain head. In the 
long run, just how many wastes, dry and unproductive, our social life may 
reveal in consequence, it would be very hard to estimate. Randolph's 
zeal was an inspiration to his students. This, with his sound judgment, 
drew students to him and attached them to his own special line of work. 
This, though not itself genius, is so often associated with it that it is apt 
to pass for the greater quality. His popularity with his students was so 
great that an expressed wish from him was seldom, if ever, violated. 

His earliest recognized instruction, under University control, was in 
the "Course Preparatory to Medicine," in the Scientific School of the 
I 'nivcrsity of Pennsylvania. His duty there was elementary instruction 
in physiology. Which he really preferred, physiology or hygiene, I never 
could decide. Either was more than broad enough, and with either he 
eonld have been content. It is certain that had his life heen spared he 
would, sooner or later, have settled upon one or the other exclusively. It 
necessary that lie should have done so to produce his best results, 
and DO one more quickly than he would have so discovered. 

There was in hk career no belting or beeltancy. Be believed that only 
\s h<> appreciate themeolTei and act for themeelvei can eommand the 

i' -|iect of other- Mi nee ut DO lime, iii any candidacy for professional or 
nlher honors, did lie ever in the slightest decree apologize for his youth 

or depredate hi-* own right to f re e dom of Judgment. After all, to such 
men official eppointmente are of very small Importance, [fnoioititu- 

oomblned with great Intellectual endow- 



1889.] oOl [Rothrock. 

ments enough to secure them, then there is the open world where con- 
scious integrity and fearless purpose will win their way to large success. 
Courage which stops short of aggressiveness by only a little, along with 
transparent honesty and a much greater than average mental activity, 
can always take the world, by storm if need be. These men require no 
favors. 

During the last years in which Prof. Harrison Allen held the Chair of 
Physiology in the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Randolph was made 
Assistant Demonstrator of Physiology. Dr. Allen writes of him: "I 
knew Randolph very well, and loved him dearly. He was faithful to 
trust, loyal in friendship, sagacious, affectionate and zealous. His career 
was one of preparation for the most part ; but usefulness and honor were 
certainly to be his. His intellectual work showed great promise. His 
record as a teacher was already made at the time of his death. He was 
very popular with, students and exerted a remarkable influence upon 
them. There is no doubt he would have attained a high rank as a plat- 
form lecturer." 

After the resignation of Prof. Allen, Dr. Randolph abandoned his posi- 
tion as Demonstrator to the Chair of Physiology in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, and was made, in 1884, Instruc- 
tor in Physiology in the Biological Department of the same University. 
July 18, he was elected to membership in the American Philosophical 
Society. He was also a member of the College of Physicians of Philadel- 
phia. 

His value was fast becoming recognized, and as he had filled his posi- 
tions in the University to the entire satisfaction of the Trustees and the 
pupils, it is not strange that he was elected, in 1886, to fill the vacancy 
in the Chair of Hygiene, caused by the death of Dr. Joseph Richardson. 
In the very first meeting of the Faculty after he was elected to this posi- 
tion in the Auxiliary Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Randolph requested per- 
mission of his colleagues to show his respect to the memory of his prede- 
cessor by delivering that course of lectures in Dr. Richardson's name, and 
to turn the fees over to Mrs. Richardson. It was a graceful thing, not a 
charity, but simply one of those spontaneous acts which were so thor- 
oughly characteristic of Randolph. It would never have been done, or 
even thought of, by any one less generous than he, and no one wondered 
at it — in him. Selfishness, or even the appearance of it, he abhorred. 

The ease with which he wrote, the force, clearness and elegance of his 
style, combined to mark him as the man when, in December, 1885, an 
Assistant Editor was sought for the Philadelphia Medical News. He held 
the place until May, 1887, when he resigned it to take the Chief Editorship 
of the Medical and Surgical Reporter, published in the same city, and 
which, under the distinguished Dr. Daniel 6. Brinton, had attained a very 
wide circulation. 

Dr. Randolph's publications had not been very numerous. He had just 
entered upon the productive part of his life when he was taken hence. 

PKOC. AMEK. PHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2T. PRINTED MAY 22, 1889. 



3ro 

Rothrock.] <J\*j [May C, 

He bad, however, from time to time contributed brief papers to the scien- 
tific peiiodicals of the period. These are marked by clearness of state- 
ment, and the conclusions are so distinctly put that the busy worker could 
obtain the desired facts at a glance. For instance, he concludes his paper 
on the " Faeces of Starch-Fed Infants " thus : "First, that many infants 
of under three months can digest starchy foods. Second, that the individual 
variations in this regard are so numerous that no broad and general state- 
ment can be made as to the period at which infants begin to digest starches ; 
and. Third, that the physician can be absolutely certain that a farinaceous 
ingredient in the diet of a young infant is beneficial, only by an examina- 
tion of the dejecta under such diet. (See Transactions of College of Phy- 
sicians of Philadelphia, 3d Series, Vol. vi, p. 443.) 

In 1883, Dr. Randolph and Mr. A. E. Roussel contributed to the Phila- 
delphia Mtdical Times a paper of great practical value, wherein it is 
proven that in about eighty per cent of the cases treated by inunction of cod- 
liver oil a notable increase of the fatty matter passed per anum was 
observed. This well-grounded observation is one to which the hard- 
pressed physician may frequently turn for support, in behalf of the con- 
clusion that his oft-repeated inunctions have done good when the stom- 
achs of his patients utterly refused to tolerate oleaginous substances, either 
as medicine or as food. It is the more important because of the scant use 
made of inunction by the medical practitioner. 

In the Proceedings of ths Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, 
1883, he published "A Study of the Distribution of Gluten within the 
"Wheat Grains." This may be regarded as preliminary to the more ex- 
tended paper, entitled " AStudy of the Nutritive Value of Branny Foods." 
In the preparation of this, Mr. A. E. Roussel was associated with him. The 
conclusions reached are too long to be stated in full here. Wo may, how- 
ever, as indicating the character of the paper, quote his fourth and fifth 
deductions : "That in an ordinary mixed diet the retention of bran in flour 
is a false economy, as its presence so quickens peristaltic action as to pre- 
vent the complete digestion and absorption not only of the proteids present 
in the branny food, but also of other food-stuffs ingested at the same time ;" 
and, "That inasmuch as in the bran of wheat as ordinarily roughly 
removed there is adherent a noteworthy amount of the true gluten of the 
endosperm, any process wliieli in the production of wheaten Hour should 
remove simply the three cortical protective layers of the grain would yield 
ti (lour at once cheaper and more nutritious than that ordinarily used." 

While it may be truly said that Dr. Randolph was by nature an investi- 
gator, yet hi- career as a populari/er Of scientific knowledge gATfl almost 
equal promise. It is clear, however, that his choice of lite work would 
have led him into the laboratory rather than into the field. The former 
gftVe time (or thought nud maimed conclusions, whereas the latter often 
implied mora batty decision. 

lie MM ren, nkible |.r unity in deviling instrumental aids to 

In this il is : ■ too much to as.scrl that 



1889.] olid [Rothrock. 

few, if any, of his associates equaled him. His " Metastatic Heat Regu- 
lator" is an illustration. This simple contrivance was so arranged that a 
column of mercury regulated a gas jet so that, to use his own words, 
" temperature thus maintained is adjustable at will." 

In January, 1887, he delivered, before the Franklin Institute of this city, 
a lecture on "Death." About the same time, there appeared in the 
(Philadelphia) Medical Times an article of his entitled "Is He Dead?" 
It was an admirable statement of the difficulties in defining just what is 
meant by the word Death. This may appear to be a mere play with 
words, but a perusal of the article will show, on the contrary, that it is a 
most important subject, and that there are serious problems and questions 
arising from the use of the word. The article in question makes clear to 
even the most unlearned, that at any point prior to that at which mus- 
cular putrefaction occurs there still linger about the body some of the at- 
tributes of life. 

Besides the papers quoted above there are : 

"On Certain Untoward Effects of the Administration of Turpeth Min- 
eral," Randolph and Roussel, Philadelphia Medical Neirs, 1884. 

"A Preliminary Note on a Reaction Common to Peptone and Bile- 
Salts," in Proc. Phila. Academy of Natural Sciences, 1884, 

'• xV Note on the Behavior of Ilydrobromic Acid and of Potassium Iodide 
in the Digestive Tract," Phila. Neurological Sooietj, April 28, 1884 

"On the Digestion of Raw and Roiled Milk," Randolph and Roussel, 
in Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1884. 

"On the Behavior of Petrolatum in the Digestive Tract," Proc. Phila. 
Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1884. 

"Cutaneous Absorption of Nicotine," Randolph and Dixon, Proc. 
Phila. Acad. Natural Sciences, 1884 

" On the Dietetic Factor in the Treatment of Angina Pectoris." Read 
before the Phila. Neurological Society, 1884. 

"On the Cutaneous Absorption of Salicylic Acid," Randolph and 
Dixon, Phila. Medical News, 1885. 

"A Note on the Irradiation of Motor Impulses," Transactions of the 
College of Physicians of Philadelphia, March 2, 1887. 

The above are his most important contributions. There are others, 
briefer and more hastily written often, which every one in the position of 
an editor must from time to time prepare, but which it would be unfair to 
allude to save as evincing the ease and grace of his style of composition. 

On Friday, August 19, 1887, Dr. Randolph left his work and went to 
Longport, on the New Jersey coast, for a little needed rest. His family 
was already there. The change of scene and freedom from work ap- 
peared to give him new life. It was, however, evident enough that he 
was suffering from overwork. And though he very seldom alluded to bis 
physical condition, it was quite clear that he realized he was overtaxed 
in mind and in body. Editorial duties and the business cares associated 



Rothroek.] 304 [May 3, 

with them were producing that state of mental worry which is the usual 
precursor of waning vigor. But besides these he still kept up his other 
appointments, save that of Physiology, in the Biological Department of 
the University of Pennsylvania. This he relinquished to Dr. Hobart 
Hare. 

The surf bath which ordinarily infused fresh life into him failed to do so 
on Saturday morning. On Sunday, as the bathing hour approached, ac- 
companied by his wife and little daughter, he went down to the beach. 
The party lingered there until all the bathers had retired, and then he and 
his wife went in for a "final dip." After a few minutes his wife noticed 
a change in his countenance. Probably they had ventured further than 
was safe, but, as they had often done so before, nothing was thought of 
it. After a few minutes struggling, in which he became separated from 
Mrs. Randolph, he fell forward, and — was dead. 

From the account given by his wife, it is certain that there was a sud- 
den heart failure, to which, and not to drowning, in the ordinary sense 
of the term, his death was due. 

Though relief came as promptly as could be expected, all hope was 
gone. For two hours friends labored to restore him, feeling, however, 
that it was in vain. His devoted companion, taken from the water insen- 
sible, was saved almost by a miracle. 

Thus, in his twenty-ninth year, was taken from us one who had already 
left his impress on the scientific character of the city in which he lived. 
His friend and associate, Prof. Harrison Allen, touchingly writes : "Ran- 
dolph's name is to be added to the long list of young men we have lost in 
Philadelphia, in our own time — to Hare, George Pepper, Parry, Jenks, 
Rhoads and Hunter — a loss that is simply irreparable to us. His death 
came as a shock to the community in which lie had, but a few days earlier, 
moved so full of activity and of promise. The leading daily papers spon- 
taneously echoed the sentiments of those who knew him best, when they 
deplored his death as a public calamity." 

It may not be improper to allude to the one indulgence of his life, that 
of cigarette smoking, and to ask whether it may not have been partly 
responsible for his death? This, probably, never can be answered, though 
WO do know that he had long had a tendency to cardiac trouble; that his 
use of cigarettes was far from moderate, and that under such circum- 
stances tlie physiological eflfoctl (or pathological effects) of tobacco upon 

tin- bout night almost be expected. 

We are accustomed to regard thil as an exceptional age, but, save when 
the WOfld slumbered from wickedness and weakness just before the six- 
teenth oentary, there never bei beta ■ time when men did not think much 

tin- Mini'- ot tin' period in which they lived, lint may we not at least say 
that this has in some hciisc hecn an age of transition. It seems to bo 80 
notably in the relation of the woman to the world. We no longer ask, 
by bOW narrow limits can her lite bfl circumscrihed, hut how w ide a range 
can Wt Open tO btr, or help her to open lor herself? Dr. Randolph was 
"advanced " v. - on this question. 



1889.] 0\)b [Rothrock. 

His broad humanitarian ideas revolted at the thought of being a laggard 
in the cause, and, from the first to the last, his voice was always in favor 
of opening every avenue to her aspirations, and thus allowing her to stand 
or fall by what she could do in the great moral and industrial struggles of 
our daily life. No popular prejudices, no sordid motives ever blinded 
him to the fact that she had a divine right to become a physician, a 
philanthropist, a reformer, and that it was not only in vain to oppose her, 
but that it was cowardly to do so. 

It is remarkable to what an extent he had impressed his individuality 
upon others, without in the least trying to do so. Among his acquaint- 
ances, his advice was often asked and was honestly given ; even when, 
from a selfish standpoint, it might have been prudently withheld. He 
was generous, perhaps, to a fault. When appealed to for aid, he seemed 
to think there was nothing to do but to give. The idea of refusing was so 
foreign to his nature that if it ever came at all, it was only as an after- 
thought. 

Looking back upon his life in connection with our great University, one 
is surprised to find how many worthy young men he discovered, and how 
many of them he inspired with a zeal for work ; and also how many of 
them he was the means of making life much easier to. I now remember 
but a single instance in which his proteges proved disappointing. 

Dr. Randolph married Anna Louisa, daughter of Dr. William Charles 
and Elizabeth Lean Head. Three children survive him. His domestic 
life was one of rare happiness. Nothing diverted his affections or interest 
from his home and his work. His memory is precious for the illustration 
it furnishes of how much good may be done by one in early life. 



Allen.] 3Gb [May 3, 

Remarks on the Pronghorn (Antilocapra Americana). 

By Harrison Allen, M.D. 

{Read before ihe American Philosophical Society, May 3, 1SS9.) 

While observing the movements of the two examples of the pronghorn, 
•now in the Zoological Garden in Philadelphia, I noticed that the foot, in 
receiving the support of the body, exhibited the first phalanx partially ex- 
tended upon the metapodium, and the second partially flexed upon the 
first. The movement was marked in a greater degree in the pronghorn 
than in any other ruminant in the Garden, which contains several speci- 
mens of the Old AVorld antelopes. 

It occurred to me that a heavier bulk of trunk would tend to force the 
phalanges nearer the ground, and that the digit igrade plan of progression 
be converted in this way into a phalangigradu. Comparing the foot of 
the pronghorn with that of the llama in which such a change has actually 
occurred, it was seen that in some respects the two animals move the feet 
in similar ways. Notably in this regard is the manner of turning the 
trunk on a limb which, in each of the animals named, is being used for 
support. The limb permits a marked degree of torsion to take place before 
the foot is lifted, and the twist to occur for the most part on the inner 
hoof, while the outer hoof describes an excursus. 

Such conclusions led me to compare other parts of the hind limb with 
each other as they are found in the camel, the llama and the pronghorn. 
I found the several parts resembling each other in the following particu- 
lars, as distinguished from their congeners : While the thigh is exsert iu 
the camel and llama, it is partially so in the pronghorn. The fold of integu- 
ment in the pronghorn which passes from the trunk to the limb reaches it 
at a point directly above the knee. In the deer it reaches it at the knee, 
or over the tuberosity of the tibia, and in the bovine group still further 
down. In the Virginian deer the fold answers to the separation of the 
venter color from that of the upper part of the side of the body and of the 
dorsum. In the pronghorn, the camel, and tbe llama, the fold answers to 
no localization of color. The camel, llama and pronghorn also resemble 
one another in the width between the thighs as seen from behind, and in 
the great inward inclination of the legs at the ankles. 

imbleneei were so striking that I was induced to compare the 
crania of these animals with one another. I found that they agree in hav- 
ing the lachrymal bone* excluded in great part from the floor of the orbit, 
and in having the hone extended posteriorly to a less degree than the 
maxilla. In Other ruminants (except the Chilian decrf ) the lachrymal 
hone comprises the orbital floor and extendi posteriorly beyond the max- 
illa. 

In; iwiiUnritlcfl <ir tin- larliryniiil bOM IN Of t| Int. lm|unlumv In determining 

the viiim- of eranloioftoel eharaotara theTeJband lie shape end relations of great la« 

■ in 'tii'lyliiK tin- liminumlim 



13S9 ] dO< [Allen. 

The vomer in the camel and llama advances far into the nasal chamber 
before joining the bones at the floor of the nose. The choanse are there- 
fore imperfectly defined. This peculiarity, however, is of little value, 
since many forms of Cervus and its allies exhibit it. 

The squamosal foramina are variable in different examples of the prong- 
horn skull, but on the whole they may be said to resemble those of the 
camel and the llama rather than those of other ruminants. 

The angle of the lower jaw is not trenchant but inconspicuous and 
rounded in the three animals lust named, and in this respect differs from 
other ungulates examined. In place of the process on the posterior bor- 
der of the ascending ramus, seen in the camel and the llama, the prong- 
horn has the outline interrupted by an obscurely elevated rugosity. 

It must be conceded that the above resemblances between the prong- 
horn and the family of the camels are decided, and it remains to point out 
their significance. 

The Tylopoda and Pecora are separated by characters too profound to 
be bridged by any of those enumerated, and in the absence of proof pre- 
sented by paleontology that the groups are connected through the me- 
dium of one or more extinct forms, it must be concluded that the charac- 
ters are adaptive on the part of the proughorn to enable it to live on 
terms of the same kind that environ the camel and the llama. 



May :;, 1880.] obj 



LIST OF DEFICIENCIES 

IN THE 

Library of the American Philosophical Society; 



PART FIRST. 



{Read before the American Philosophical Society, May 3, 1889.) 



PUBLICATIONS OF SOCIETIES. 

ASIA. 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, Calcutta. 
Transactions, all after Vol. VIII, 1841. 
Journal, all after Vol. I. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. 
Journal, Vol. I and all after Vol. IX. 

Royal Axiat ic Society (.V. China Branch), Shanghai. 
Journal, N. S., all before No. 6 and all after to Vol. XIV (inclusive). 
XVI, XVII, all after No. 2. 
XIX, all after No. 2. 
Asiatic Society of Japan, Tokaliama. 
Transactions : 

Vol. I, anything after Oct., 1873. 
Vol. II, anything after July, 1874. 
Vol. Ill, anything after Part 2. 
Vol. IV, anything after July, 187G. 
Vol. V, anything after Part 2. 
Vol. VI, anything after Part 3. 
Vol. X, anything after Part \ . 
Vol. XII, Parts 2 and 3. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Royal Society of lasmania, Iloharton. 
Reports, all before 1849, also 1800, 18G1, and all after 1870. 
Papers and Proceedings, Vol. Ill, rest of volume after Part 2, if any. 

Royal Society, Victoria, Melbourne. 
Transactions, Vol. I. 

Royal Society of New South Wales, Sydney. 
Transactions and Proceedings, all before Vol. IX. 

Li/mean Society of New South Wales, Sydney. 
Proceedings, all before Vol. VII, old series. 

New Zealand Institute, Wellington. 
Transactions and Proceedings, Vols. II, III, IV, VIII. 

* NOTE— The Society will be pleased to receive us donations any of the publications 
mentioned in this list. 

PROC. AMEH. PHI LOS. SOC. XXVI. 129. 2U. PRINTED MAY 22, 1889. 



OiO [May ::. 



AUSTRIA. 



K. K. Geographisehe Gesellschaft, Vienna. 
Mittheilungen, Bd. IV-VIII (inc.), X. XI. 

K. K. Zoologische-Botanische Gesellschaft, Vienna. 
Verhandlungen, I-XIV (inclusive), XX. 

DENMARK. 

K. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab , Copenhagen. 
Oversigt, all before 1842. 
Memoirs, IV-VII. 

ENGLAND. 

Bath and West of England Society Jor the Encouragement of Agriculture. 
Journal [N. S.], X 2, XI 2. XII 2, XIV. 

[3d ser.], Vols. I, II, III, IV, VI, VIII to XV (inclusive). 
Letters and Papers, selected from the correspondence, all after XV 1. 

Royal Horticultural Society, Liverpool. 
Journal, all before and after VII 2. 

Philological Society, Cambridge. 
Proceedings, Vols. I-VI (inclusive). 
Transactions, Vols. I, II. 

Philosophical Society, Cambridge. 
Transactions, XIII, all after Part 3. 

R. Cornwall Polytechnic Society. Cornwall. 
Annual Reports, 5th, 19th and 86th. 

Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, Haliftx, Eng. 
Report of Proceedings, all before 1854 ; also 1858, 1859,1861-1864, 1869. 

P/iiloxojthieal mid Literary Soeiety, Leeds. 
Annual Reports, lst-4th (inclusive), 8th, 9th, 10th, 83d, 41st-44th (in- 
clusive). 
Transactions, Vol: I, all after Part 1, 1830, and all volumes after. 
1'pn codings, all after No. 14. 

Literary and Philoxo/diie,/! Society of Lirer/iool. 

edingt, i. v, xiii. xiv. \v. xvn. x\ in. 

Royal Axiatie Soeiety, Lomhm. 

The whole of Vol. X of the Journal, i v . 

BoyoJ Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London. 
Journal, Vol. I, X, XIII 

London Society of Antif/mirim, London. 

Proceedings, Vols, i, n, Nee. l-i? (tnelastre), L858. 7oL I [N. S.], 
Nos. 2, 3, 4, and any after Mo. 8. Vol. II [X. S. |. anv after Xo. :,, 
isi;.|. 
, 1868-1865 (lnclttliTI 

fal Astronomical soei<ty, London. 
Men x xxii x x x 1 1 . xi.i. 

Monthly XXII X\\ . 



1889.] 



371 



British Association, London. 
Reports of Annual Meetings, 1860-1863 (inclusive), 1882 

London Chemical Society. 
Journal, "Vol. I. 

Vol. II, page 1-192 ^inclusive). 
Vol. Ill, page 1-320 (inclusive). 
Vol. IV, page 123-222 (inclusive). 
Vol. VIII, page 1-96 (inclusive), and 193 to end. 
Vol. I, second series, Nov., 1863. 
Vol. VII, October. 
All after Jan. 1st, 1876. 
Entomological Society, London. 
Transactions, all except 1871, Parts 1-5. 

Geological Society, London. 
Quarterly Journal, Nos. 29 (VIII), 37, 38, 39 (X), 41, 42, 43, 44 (XI), 45, 
46, 47, 48 (XII), 53 (XIV), and XVII, all after No. 1, and all after 
to XXI, 1865. 
Lists of Members, all before 1841 ; also 1842, 1844 and all after 1845 to 

1865. 
Transactions, all after second series Vol. IX, 1845. 

Proceedings, Vol. I, No. 1-17 (inclusive), 24, 25, 27, 39-81 (inclusive*, 
III, Nos. 63 to 66, and all after Vol. IV. 
Royal Inxlituiion, London. 
Proceedings, Vols. I— III (inclusive), X, nil after Tart 3. 
Lists of Members, all before 1849 ; also 1850, 1851, 1855, 1S61-1867 (inclu- 
sive), 1871-1879 (inclusive), 1883, 1884. 
Linnean Society, London. 
Transactions, Vol. XXI 2, 3, 4, XXII 1. XXIII. 
Proceedings, Sessions, all between 1855 and 1865 (inclusive,. 
Lists, 1853, 1860-1863, 1873-1879 (inclusive). 
Journal of Proceedings, Zoology, Vol. IX, No. 38. 

Meteorological Society, London. 
Annual Reports, all before 1856 ; also 1859-1866, 1876. 
Proceedings, Vols. I, II, and all after V. 
Quarterly Journal, Vol. VII. 
Record, all before Vol. XII. 

Royal Society, London. 
Philosopbical Transactions, Vols. I-IV, XXXI-XLII, LX, LXV, 
LXXVIII 2, also 1851 3, 1852 3, 1853 2, 1854 3, 1855 3, 1857 8, 
Statistical Society, London. 
Journal, all before XXVIII 4, and after to XLVI. 
Transactions, all after Vol. I 1. 

Victoria Lnslitute, London. 
Journal of Transactions, Old Series, Vols. I-III (inclusive) ; Vol. IV, 
all after Part 1, 1859. 



372 



l May 3, 



Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester. 
Proceedings, Vol. I. 
.Memoirs [New Series], Vol. X. 
[3d Series], Vol. VIII. 
Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 
Transactions, Vols. I, II, III, IV, V i. 

R. Geological Society of Cornwall, Penzance. 
Transactions, Vols, all after 1846 to Vol. VIII 1, also any after VIII 2 to 

X3. 
Annual Reports, all before 29th, also 31st, 32d, 33d, 35th to 38th, 40th to 
55th (inclusive). 

EGYPT. 

Tnslitut Egyptian, Cairo. 
Bulletin [1st Series], all before No. 14. 

FRANCE. 

Societe Linneene, Bordeaux. 
1st and 2d Series. 3d Series, Actes, Vols. V, VI, VIII all after No. 1. 
4th Series, Vols. Ill 0, IV, VI, and all after VIII 1. 

Societe des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, Bordeaux. 
Memoirs, Tomes I, II, III, IV. 

Kxtraits des Proces-Verbeaux des Sciences, all before 1868 ; also 1870-71, 
1875-76, and all after to 1882. 

Societe de Geographic Commerciale, Bordeaux. 
Bulletins, All the 1st Series except 1874-1875, No. 1. 
2d Series, 1878, No. 1. 
2d Series, 1879, No. 24. 
And all after 1884, No. 14. 

Academie N. des Sciences, Belles- Lettrcs et Arts, Bordeaux. 
Actes, 1st and 2d Series, also 3d Scries all before 1878! 

Societe Historique L< tie rain-, Artistif/ue et Srit ii/ijii/iie du Cinr. Hourges. 
Mcmoires, all before Vol. II [ 4th Series, 1885]. 

Societe N. des Sciences NatunUrs it Math., Cherbourg, 
Ml 'moires, all before Tome XI, 1865. 

Societe de Borda, Tkus, 
Bulletin, ail before \i -I. 1886. 

"Irmie des Sciences, Arts el 1 idles Lett res, Dijon. 
M-'moires Vol I and all after VII, 1785. 

[8d Series | nil alter VII, isr.s Is.V.i, to XII, 1864. 

[M Beriee] I, n, in 

\ittliropoloni' . fan's. 
Hwlh'lin, all niter I •.'. fcl*0 [8d Series] Tomes I. II. IV, V 1 I, ::. 1, and 
VIII ::. I\ 
lolrei, nil after I 1. 



18S9.] 



373 



lnstilut de France, Academic des Science, Paris. 
Memoires de l'Aciid. des Sciences, Tomes XXX to XXXIII (inclusive), 

XLI, and all after XLII. 
Comptes Rendus, XXXIX, Nos. 6 to 15. 

Societe N. des Antiquaires de France, Paris. 
Memoires, Vols, all after X, 1834. 

[N. S.] II, IV, and all after V, 1840. 

Societe de Geographic, Paris. 
Bulletins Vol. II [1st Ser.]. 

Vol. XIII [5th Ser.], March, 18G7. 

Vol. II [6th Ser.]. August, 1871, and October. 

Vol. IV [6th Ser.], September, 1872. 

Vol. VI [6th Ser.], July, 1873. 

Vol. IX [6th Ser.], Jan., Feb., April, May, 1875. 
Annuaire, all before and after 1878. 

Annates des Mines. 
3d Serie, Vol. XII, Part 4. 
7th S6rie, Vol. XVIII, Part 6. 
7th Serie, Vol. XX, Part 6. 

Societe Internationale de L' Enseignevient, Pari*. 
Revue, all before 0th Year, No. 7, 1886. 

Societe d' Ethnographic, Paris. 
Memoires, all before Vol. XIII, and all the publications before 1875. 

GERMANY. 

Vereinfur Naturkunde, Offenbach a. At. 
Bericht, II, III, IV, V, VI, VIII. 

Vereinfur Kunxt und Alterthum, Vim. 
Verhandlungen, Neue Reihe, Hefts 2-6 (inclusive), and all after 7. 
Korrespondenzblatt, Jahrgang I, No. 8, all after 10. 

Jahrgang II, No. 6, title-page and index. 
Jahrgang III, No. 1. 

IRELAND. 

Belfast Literary Society. 
All the Publications except Select Papers, fasc. 1, 2, 1808. 

Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 
Transactions, XII 2, XXI 1, XXIII, all after Part 2. 
Proceedings, Vol. VII, all after Part 8. 
Science [2d S.], Ill, all after Part 10 if any. 
Cunningham Memoirs, I. 

Royal Irish Institution, Dublin. 
All except Annual Report of Committee of Directors (XI), June 24, 1824. 



*>^4 [May 8, 

Royal Dublin Society. 
Transactions [N. S.]. I, all after 25, if any; II, all after 2; III, all after 13. 
Journal, Xos. 6. 9, 10, 42, 43. 
Proceedings [X. S.], IV, all after 9. 

Dublin Geological Society. 
Journal, Vol. I, 1, 2, and all after 4. 

Vol. VII, 2, 3, and all after 5. 

Vol. VIII, all after 3. 

The rest all wanting of the old series. 

[N. S.] VI, rest of volume after Part 3, if any. 

[N. S.] VII, rest of volume after Part 1, if any. 

Ihtbliii Cniversity Zoological and Botanical Association. 
All except Proceedings, Vol. I, Parts 1, 2, 3. 
Vol. II 1. 

ITALY. 

R. htit>it<> di Stndi Supei'iori Practici e di Perfezionamento, Florence. 
I'uhlioazioni. Sezioni di Filosofia e Filologia, Vol. IT, any after Xo. 5 ; 
Vol. Ill, any after No. 1 ; and all after to date. 

R. Istituto Lomhttrdo, Milan. 
Kcndiconti, Vols, all after IV, also [2d Scries] Class Let. Sei. Mer. el 

Pol., Vol. XIII. and Class Mat. e Nat.. Vol. I. 
Mrmorie, I-VI (inclusive). 

Mat. c Xat. CI., Vols. I-IX (inclusive). 
Letteri-Sci. Moral. CI., Vols. I-IX (inclusive). 
Atli I, any after No. 10, and all after Vol. III. 1862 I. 

Accademia, Modena. 
Memorie, all before Vol. XIX. 

/,'. . \ ■■.-,,. d Arti. Padua, 

Atti c ftCemorie, all before Vol. I. 1864 I 

/.'. Couiitato Oeoloijiro d y Italia, Rome. 
Bollettino. Anno 1875, Nos. 1-4 (inclusive), and Vol. X. 1ST 1 .). 

/,'. Aetadt mi,! dt i Una 
AttijNt Berfee} all before XIV, and Vols, xvi xx (incluslvi 

/.'. ZMft 
Memorie, ill before Vol xiv. 1868 
Atti. all of i-t Beriee. 
ail ofM Bert 
[8d Ser ] ail before VoL xin. 

| ItliScr. | I. 



1880.] 3*5 

NORWAY. 

Norske Fortidsmendesmers Bevaring, Christiana. 
Foreningen, all before 1860 ; 1870, and all after 187."). 
All Registers except 1875. 

SCOTLAND. 

Royal Society, Edinburgh. 
Transactions, Vols. XVII, XVIII, XIX, XXI, XXII, Part 1, and any 

after Part 2, XXIII, XXX, all after Part 3, if any. 
Proceedings, Vol. I, all after No. 1. 

Vol. IV, all except No. 50, and all after. 

Philosophical Society, Glasgoic. 
Proceedings, Vol. I, II, after Part 4 if any. 

Vol. Ill, all after Part 6, 

Vol. IV, all after Part 2. 

Vol. V 1, and after Part 4. 

Vol. XI, any after Part 2. 

Vol. XII, any after Part 2. 

Vol. XIII 2 and any after. 
Transactions, Vols. I, III. 

Geological Society of Glasgow. 
Transactions, Vols. I, III. 

Part 1 of Vol. IV. 
Parts 1 and 3 of Vol. V. 
Part 3 of Vol. VI. 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

R. Academia de OUneieu Wat, >/ Aries, Barcelona, 
Acta, all before 1883-1884. 

R. Academia de Cieneias, Madrid. 
Revista, all before Vol. XXI, Xo. 7. 

M.-morias, all except I Ser., Ciencias ExftOtM, Vol. II 1, 1853; 3 Sit., 
Ciencias Naturales, I 3, 1854. 

R. Academia de la Ilistoriii, Madrid. 
Boletin, I, No. 6, V, No. ti. 

Academia R. das Sciencias, Lisboa. 
Memorias, Vol. VI. 

[2d Ser.] Vol. I 2. 
[Nova Ser.] all after II 1. 

Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa. 
Boletim, all of the 1st, 2d, 3d and 5th Series ; 4th Series, all after No. 3. 



***V May 3, 1889. 



SWEDEN. 



I'/iicersity of Lund. 
Acta, anj' before 1864; 1866, 1867, 1871. 
Katalog, 1872-1875 (inclusive), 1879-1883 (inclusive). 

SWITZERLAND. 

Schuoeizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft. 
Verbandlungen, all before 51 e Jabresv., 1867. 

Naturforsclien.de Gesellschaft in Basel. 
Bericbte iiber die Verhandluugen, all after III, 1838. 

y<iturforschende Gesellschaft, Berne. 
Mittneilungen, all before 1871, No. 745, and all after No. 791. 

Societe (Economique de Berne. 
Abbandlungen, any after 1773 ; Neue Sammlung, any after 1785 ; Neu- 

este Sammlung, any before and after 1796. 
Scbriften, all before 1760, also 1767, 1774-1778, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1784, 

and all after 1785. 

Socii'ti lie Physique et d' Ilixtoire Naturelle, Geneva. 
Mrmoires, all before Tome XVII. 

Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturdles, Lausanne. 
Bulletin, Vols. I-V. 

Naturwissenscliaftliche Gesellschaft, St. Gall. 
Bericbt iiber die Tbatigkeit, all before 1863. also 1865-1866, 1867-1868. 

I To be continued. \ 



May 3, 1S80.] & * * [Mooney. 

PROCEE DINGS 

OF THR 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, FOR PROIOMG USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



Vol. XXVI. July to December, 1889. No. 130. 

T/te Holiday Customs of Ireland. 

By James Mooney. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, May 3, 1SSD.) 

SYNOPSIS. 

Introduction. — Saint Bridget's Day — Origin — One of the great pagan 
fire festivals — Sacred fire of Kildare — Brigliid an ancient Irish goddess — 
The bairghean breac — The Brideog — The Crios Bhrighide — Gaelic anil 
English verses sung — The crosses of rushes — Passing through the crios — 
Bringing home the rushes — Hebrides custom. Saint Patrick's Day — The 
national festival — Festivity the chief feature — Lover's account of the birth 
of Saint Patrick — Weather sayings — The croiseog — Processions — Drown- 
ing the shamrock. Shrove Tuesday, Lent and Easter — Shrove Tuesday, 
perhaps, the ancient festival of Beinid — Marriage season — Taking to 
Skellig — Tossing the pancake— Sruthan na ngadaraidhe — Cock throwing 
— Ash-Wednesday — Good-Friday — Strange fishermen's custom — Easter 
Sunday — Egs and bacon — The Easter dance — The dancing sun — Beliefs. 
May-day or Bealtainc — A universal ancient festival — Tiie second of the 
Irish fire festivals— Kindling the new fire — Sacrifices — Passing through the 
fires — Ceremonies relating to cattle — The gilded ball — May Sundaj la 
Cork — Bonfires and May-poles— Nettlemas night — Fire beliefs — The 
Maypole and May-bush— The rowan tree — The May dance — The May 
queen of Finglas — The May boys — Miscellaneous beliefs, cattle, witches, 
butter stealing — Fairy beliefs — Love charms — Repairing the fences — Set- 
tling the dues— Omens — An unlucky birthday — Easter derived from the 
May festival. Whitsuntide or C'ingcis— Strange fatality in the season. 
Saint John's Eve or Midsummer Niyht — Ancient festival of the summer 
solstice— Universal festival of Modern Europe — Third great fire festival of 
Ireland — The bonfires — Origin of the word — The celebration in the north 
—Cattle ceremonies — The "white horse" — Fairy time— The celebration 
in the west. Samhan, or Hallow E'en — Origin — The last of the fire festi- 
vals—The great Feis of Tara— The modern celebration— The apple a 

PROC. AMER. PIIIL0S. S0C. XXVI. 130. 2V. PRINTED MAY 23, 1889. 



Mooney.] "' ^ [May 3, 

prominent feature — Ducking for apples— The snap apple — "Lamb's 
■wool" — Festivities — Love charms and omens — Nut burning — The ten 
beans — Cabbage pulling — The three basins — Dream charms — Hemp seed 
— Winnowiug — Tarruing na Smith — The limekiln conjuration — Other 
mystic spels — Fairy travels — The Puca — The dead again upon earth — The 
celebration in Donegal. Saint Martin's Day — Origin — Unaccountable be- 
liefs in connection with this saint — Drawing blood — Legends — Sprinkling 
and marking with blood — Legends of the origin of the custom — Belief In 
regard to the turning of wheels. Saint Stephen's Dry — An ancient Keltic 
festival — Reasons given for hunting the wren — The wren, the king of 
birds — The wren boys — Carrying the wren — The custom unknown in the 
extreme north — Gaelic and English verses sung — English originals of 
some of them. The Christmas Holidays, New Tear and Twelfth-night— 
Origin of the winter festival — Leading features common throughout 
Europe — The Yule festival — The mummers — Description of a company — 
Drawing blood on Christmas — The Christmas block and candle — The 
three-prougd candle on Twelfth-night — The twelv rush candles — Mis- 
cellaneous Christmas beliefs — Origin of New Year — Beliefs in connection 
with the day — The rain test — Twelfth-night — Water turned to wine — 
"Weather predictions — A sacred season — End of the holiday period. 



The world has grown so familiar with the stories of misrule, suffering 
and violence in Ireland, that we ar apt to forget that there is another side 
to the picture, and that every nation has a home life as wel as a political 
existence. The little every day cares and pleasures of the household, the 
merrymakings and social gatherings of neighbors, and the occasional 
holidays, make up the real life of a people, and he who is ignorant of these 
knows not the nation, however familiar he may be with the history of its 
kings and rulers, their battles, victories and defeats. The heroes of 
ysburg and Spotsylvania wcr men who enjoyed a good dinner, or a 
quiet smoke after a hard day's work, as much as any of us. ami. as boys. 
took fully as much delight in a Fourth of July celebration or a raid on a 
watermelon patch. The dreaded Moonlighter or the unspeakable Fenian 
wil walk as many miles to a country dance as ever did Carleton's rollick- 
ing Ned M'Keown, is just as anxious about the condition of the potatoes 
Mid the health of the pig, funis as much satisfaction in listening to a fiddler 
at a wedding or a story teller at a wake, and in his young days was just 
as eager in hunting the wren on Saint Stephen's day or feeding the lion 
fires on Saint John's • 

What at ealhl the popular customs Of • nation ar always belt pre- 
servd by the agricultural ami Village portion of the population, a class 
•Specially numerous in Ireland troni the tact that the peculiar political 
litionSOfthe country compel the ureal hulk of the people to draw 
their living diiectly Irom tin- soil, leaving them but scant opportunity to 
acquire an education or to hecoine lamiliar with modern progress. In 
' .;! this, however, the Old customs ar decaying here as el-ewhere, 



1889.] 0«9 [Mooney. 

and many of the observances which wer once general ar now confined 
to remote mountain districts or liv only in the memory of the older people, 
while others, again, ar stil common throughout the country. As there 
is but little communication amongst the peasantry of different districts, 
excepting at the fairs in the summer time, the customs common in one 
parish ar sometimes entirely unknown in another hardly ten miles distant. 
In this paper we shal describe the beliefs and customs connected with the 
observance of the principal Irish holidays, omitting those of lesser impor- 
tance. As a number of these holiday observances ar more or less com- 
mon to all the Aryan nations, especially to those of AVestern Europe, it 
must suffice to note the fact here without entering into a detaild com- 
parison. The features more peculiarly Irish ar mainly derived from the 
old druidic worship. Where authorities ar not given, the statements ar 
the result of personal investigation. As a matter of convenience, all 
those customs which wer in use within the present generation ar described 
as stil existing, altho some of them ar now obsolete. 

The essentially foreign customs found only in those districts — chiefly in 
the north— occupied principally by Scotch and English settlers, hav no 
place in this connection. Aside from these, however, many of the genuin 
Irish observances hav evidently been considerably modified by English 
influences. This is especially true of the May-day and Christmas celebra- 
tions, while in regard to the many holiday rimes it is hardly too much to 
say that they hav been imported bodily from England. The same may 
be said of many of the children's rimes, riddles and other formulas, wcii 
in the remote west where the Gaelic is the ordinary language of the peo- 
ple. This may be due in some slight degree to contact with the English 
colonists in Ireland, but by far a more efficient cause is to be found in the 
annual summer exodus of the Irish harvesters. As soon as the corn begins 
to ripen troops of the poorer laborers from every part of the country turn 
their faces toward Dublin and Queenstown, where, embarking by thou- 
sands, they cross over to Liverpool and range in small parties from one 
end of the country to the other until the harvest is over and cold weather 
approaches, when they return to their own land with a few pounds apiece 
to pay the rent and perhaps a few shillings extra to buy salt for the pota- 
toes. During these summer months they mingle constantly with the 
rural English population, by whom the old customs ar most cherisht, be- 
come familiar with their habits, games and sayings, and enter into a 
friendly intimacy such as is never extended to those of the same race in 
Ireland, where they ar always regarded by the natives as foreign usurpers, 
and disliked and avoided accordingly. 

Saint Bridget's Day, February 1. 

The observances connected with New Year and Twelfth-night wil be 
described in treating of the Christmas holidays, of which these festivals 
form a part. Proceeding onward in the calendar the first great festival is 
that of Saint Bridget's day, February 1. The ceremonies in this case, as 



Mooney.] &d0 [May 3, 

in that of several other holidays, begin on the preceding eve, as among 
the ancient Irish the day was considerd to begin at sundown. This is a 
peculiarly Gaelic festival, and its observance under this name seems to be 
confined to Ireland and the remoter districts of Scotland ; but there is 
every reason to believ that it was a part of a general European fire cele- 
bration, which stil survives in Candlemas, the second of February. In 
ancient Rome, as in Ireland, this festival was dedicated to a female deity. 
Februa, in whose honor the people carried burning torches about the 
streets just as the candles ar now lighted in honor of the Virgin Mary. In 
ancient Ireland the day now consecrated to Saint Bridget was the occa- 
sion of the first of the five great fire celebrations of the year, and it seems 
probable that bonfires were lighted then as on the eves of May-day and 
Saint John. 

Saint Bridget was one of the earliest disciples of Saint Patrick, the 
apostle of Ireland, and founded a convent of nuns at Kildare in the year 
484. This cloister, like that of the vestal virgins of ancient Rome, was 
celebrated for its perpetual fire, which was fed and guarded by the nuns, 
and which, with the exception of a short intermission in the thirteenth 
century, burnd constantly for more than a thousand years until the sup- 
pression of religious establishments by Henry VIII. It was permitted to 
blow this fire only with a bellows and not with the breath.* This remark- 
able incorporation of the old fire worship of the country into the service 
of a Christian saint, together with the fact that BrUfid (pronounced Bretj) 
was the name of one of the deities of pagan Ireland, render it probab e 
that the ceremonies now practiced in honor of the saint ar but modifica- 
tions of the ancient rites intended to propitiate the heathen goddess, who. 
from the character of the observances, would appear to hav been the 
i.il protectress of cattle and the dairy. This is the more likely as it 
is a wel estahlisht fact that almost every practice known to the holiday 
calendar of modern Europe had its origin in the pagan ceremonials of pre- 
Christian times. The date also corresponds closely with that of the first 
Of the five great annual fire festivals of ancient Ireland. The lark is held 
sacred to Saint Bridget because its song used to wake her to prayers every 
nioining. and if heard singing upon her day it presages good luck and 
line w eat her. f 

The Gaelic name of Saint Bridget's eve is Okl'c'6 li'rig'idt (pronounced 
El.lm Ynjn, or. incorrectly, Ed \nj,i), "Bridget's Night." In the last 
century, according to Vallancey. it was customary on this occasion tor 
wile to bake I cake ealld the U,iinf,-,ni />/'""• {hiiwrun 
i cake. The house was then set in order and the neighbors 
invited, the cake sent round with ale and pipes, and the evening was spent 
in mirth and good humor.} In the east and south-east young girls dress 
u 1 > 1 1 . al Saint Bridget, and carrv it in procession 

\nt. Ir. Un 



1889.] dol [Mooney. 

from ODe house to another, expecting to receiv a treat at each, and in this 
they ar seldom disappointed. In the city of Limerick, where, as may wel 
be supposed, the old custom has degenerated, a broom is drest up, not as 
the saint, but as " Miss Bridget." 

In Galway and other parts of the west, companies of young girls carry 
about on this eve a figure known as the Brideog (Breejoeg), made of straw 
and rushes and drest to resemble the saint. At every house the carriers 
sing a short verse or two, and ar rewarded with a small gift of money or 
cakes, the net proceeds being expended by the participants in a jollifica- 
tion later in the evening. The young men, with their faces coverd with 
painted masks of paper, go about in like manner, singing verses and car- 
rying a rope known as the Crios B'rig'ide {cris Vreja) or "girdle of 
Bridget," which wil be described later. The ends of this rope ar joind 
so as to form a circle, through which every one is expected to pass on 
payment of a small trifle. The Gaelic verse commonly used in Galway is 
as follows : 

Crios BTig-ide, mo crios, 

dins na d-tri g-?.ros. 

King suas, a b'ean na tig", 

Tab'air d - am rod-a cinnt 'sgo t - ri mo crios, 

Agus go m-bud - seact mile fearr Iveid'eas tu bliag'ain 6 anocd.* 

"Which may be renderd literally : 

Bridget's girdle, my girdle, 

(Jirdle of the three era 

Rise up, woman of the hon^e, 

(iiv me something and pass through my girdle, 

And may you be seven thousand times better a year from to-night. 

The English verse used in Eastern Galway runs thus : 

God bless the master of the boon, 

And the mistress also, 
And likewise the little children 

That around the table grow. 
C<> down into your cellar, 

If anything you can find 
Your pockets are not empty 

If to help us you'r inclined. 
Yonr pockets are not empty 

Of money or strong beer (!) 
And we'l trouble you no more again 

Until another year. 

While this verse is wel known in East Galway, it is English in its ori- 
gin and easily to be recognized as such, altho as here given it has receivd 
one or two unmistakable Irish touches. No genuin Irish popular song 
would ever bid the master go down into the cellar, such a thing being an 

* Pronounced : Cris Vrrja, mo Ihrh, 
Ortt najre gnut. 
Iree suns, a ran a che, 
Thoar um rwlk a aenrh tgt hre mo khris, 
dgus go mu shokhth mielyafdr vise thu bleean o nukhth. 



Mooney.] "8-1 [May 3, 

unknown appendage to the house of the ordinary farmer or peasant. In 
trying to avoid this incongruity farther on, by substituting the word 
pocket for cellar, the boys hav only made matters worse by filling the 
pockets aforesaid with strong beer. The original of the first four lines is 
the Yorkshire Christmas carol, as given by a writer of 1824 in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine : 

" God bless the master of this house. 
The mistress also, 
And all the little children 
That round the table go."* 

The remainder is probably taken from a verse given by Brand as sung 
by English children on All Souls' day, and much resembling another 
verse sung on Easter morning. The last lines of the former ar as 

follows : 

" Put your hand in your pocket and pull out your keys, 
Go down in the cellar, bring up what you please, 
A glass of your wine or a cup of your beer, 
And we'll never come Souling till this time next year."f 

According to O'Reilly's " Dictionary," the Brideog is used by girls on 
the eve of the saint to determin who shal be their future husbands, { 
which is the only hint the writer has receivd thus far of its use as a love 
charm. The Brideog is unknown in the north and in the south-west, but 
in both sections, as wel as in Galway and throughout the greater part of 
Ireland, it is customary to hang up about the walls of the house numbers 
of small crosses made of straw or rushes. In Galway these ar made, at 
least in part, of materials taken from the Brideog after it has servd its 
original purpose in the procession. In the ordinary cross each arm is 
made of three strong rushes or straws, converging at the ends and widen 
ing out in the centre of the cross, where they ar interwoven. In Kerry 
a more elaborate cross is sometimes made of wood, about 5x8 inches in 
length. Short crosspieces ar fastend near each end so as to make four 
smaller crosses, around each of which is brought a single rush or straw in 
diamond fashion, while a similar larger diamond is fixt around the centre 
of the cross. Should a Kerry farmer hav a firkin of butter on hand as 
spring approaches, he wil defer opening it until this day. 

The Criii* l>Ti<fide or " Girdle of Bridget," already mentiond, plays 
M important part in these ceremonies in the western districts. This it a 
rope made of green rushes, procured the day before, or if rushes be 
scarce, it is made of straw, with three green rushes plaited into it. The 
rope li mftde sullieienlly long to allow a tall man to pass through the cir- 
cle without dilllculty when the ends ar joind together to form the girdle. 
Ii is made OB Saint Bridget'! eve, and as soon as the ends of the 
rope liav been joind, the master of the house holding it doubled up in his 
• hand, makes the sign Ol the OTOSS wilh it in the name of the Trinity 

• l-..|. ->i|. , • I. 

t Ilnuid, Antl.|iilttcN. I, HI 

tid O'Ki'llly, IrMi KtiK'llsh I >l<'l if ii inv\ , ur w id., n d., lUiMin, mid. r /; 



1889.] OOO [Mooney. 

and passes it three times from right to left around his hody. Then hold- 
ing it out at arm's length in his right hand, he lets one end drop so as to 
form a circle, through which he passes three times, putting the right foot 
through first each time. He then doubles up the rope and again passes it 
three times around his body as at first. He is followd in turn by every 
member of the family. In some cases the girdle is simply laid on the 
floor in the shape of a circle and each one passes through it by lifting 
up one side to step under, and then raising the other side to step out 
again. In the morning — Saint Bridget's day— the girdle is hung over the 
stable door and all the animals ar made to go through it. This ceremony 
protects both men and animals from the influence of evil spirits through- 
out the year. In some cases the rope is kept in the family from one recur- 
rence of the festival to another. A rush taken from it and tied about the 
head wil keep the headftke awny from the wearer tor a year. 

In different parts of the country there ar several interesting ceremonies 
in connection with bringing home the rushes, which ar procured on the 
day preceding the festival. In Galway, the boys go in the morning to the 
small streams in the neighborhood and gather bundles of the green rushes. 
In the evening — the eve of the festival — these ar brought around to each 
house, which, in every instance, is found with the door tightly closed, the 
family being waiting in silence within. Going up to the door, the boys 
shout seven times, "Leig att$06' Brig'id" (Lig aschokh' Breej), "Let 
Bridget enter," while to each demand those within reply, " Leig a's eSad 
fa 'lie ronrad " (Lig os caidh faiclcha roath), " Enter and a hundred wel- 
comes before you." The door is then thrown open and the boys come in 
and leav some of their rushes, for which they ar rewarded with a small 
treat, after which they go on to the next house. Occasionally, some fam- 
ilies get their own rushes. 

In Donegal, the bringer of the rushes is a girl, who is calld Brig'id for 
the occasion, and it is seldom that a family of girls is without one of this 
name to enact that part in the ceremony. The. rushes having been previ- 
ously left at some convenient spot outside, Brighid goes out after dark 
and the door is at once closed after her. Taking up the bundle of rushes, 
she approaches the house and goes all around it, seeking an entrance, 
while those inside affect great terror and observ the strictest silence. On 
getting around to the back of the house, she sings : 

Quid" me air r»o g-liuin, 
Agus deiiirid- go mo mile, 
Agus leig a^tmc' Brig'id.* 

I implore on my knees 
And with tears in my eyes, 
And let Bridget within. 

* Pronounced in Donegal, somewhat incorrectly : Gu mae er mo ghluna, 

<>( it* illitrdh' i: go mo xuila, 
Ugtcg lig atehokh' Breej. 



Mo ney.] *^4 [ May 3, 

on which those inside shout gladl\ r . "Si b'cot'a, si b'eat'a, si Ireat'a" {she 
rata, she taha, she vaha), "She's welcome, she's welcome, she's welcome," 
and, the door heing opend, Brighid enters and deposits her rushes on the 
floor. According to a writer of 1716, a somewhat similar custom formerly 
existed in the Hebrides, where a sheaf of oats was drest as a woman and 
laid in a cradle known as "Brighid's bed," while the people shouted, 
"Brighid is come, Brighid is welcome."* This ceremony is, probably 
incorrectly, assigned to Candlemas, the day following Saint Bridget's day. 
In the west and south a handkerchief, known as the Brat Brig'ide 
(Broth Breja), or "veil of Bridget," is left out over night on the saint's 
eve, and when saturated with dew in the morning is used to cure calvs of 
a diseas known as ruatt'ar peiste (voehar paeslicJut), or the "depredation 
of the worm," by striking them with it three times in the name of the 
Trinity. 

Saint Patrick's Day, Marcii 17. 

Altho Saint Patrick's day is pre-eminently the Irish national holiday, 
not much can be said of it in a descriptiv way, as the observances con- 
nected with it hav but little of the old ceremonial or mythologic character. 
Processions and speeches in the larger towns and smaller gatherings in 
the country villages, with the assistance of the pipers and fiddlers in the 
evening, fil out the day, while every one seems bent on carrying out to 
the letter the spirit of the old ballad which declares that 

"Saint Patrick's day we'l be all very gay." 

The festival commemorates the apostle and patron saint of Ireland, this 
day, according to most writers, being the anniversary both of his landing 
in Ireland and of his death, the latter occurring in the year 493. That 
typical Irish poet, Samuel Lover, by turns so humorous and so pathetic, 
gives the following characteristic account of the origin of the celebration : 

The Birth of Saint Patrick. 

Oo the eighth day of March it was, some people lay, 
Tiuit Saint Patrick at mldnlgbl be tirst saw the day, 
While, others declare 'twas the ninth he was born, 
Ami 'twas all a mistake between midnight ami mom : 

For mistakes will OOOUI in a hurry and ihOCk, 

Ami some blamed t r 1 « - baby, and soms blamed the olork, 
Tin with all their nrnss nnnaltmii, sun' no one could know- 
it the Child was tOO last or tin- Hock WM (00 slow. 

Now the tirvt faction Bghl in old Ireland, tie > 
WSJ "11 <»n account of Saint Patrick's hirthday. 

rough t for the eighth for the ninth more would die; 
\nd s bo wouldn't ssc right, sure, they blackened in 

At last bOih the factions so |~. 

That each i,c|,i 11 birthday, so put than had two; 
Till Father Mulcahy, « ho showed then (heir sins, 

811 id ■ l.irlhdays hut l« Ins." 



-Maud." quoted in Brand, Antiqul- 



1889.] OOO [Mooney. 

Says he, " Boys, don't be fightin' for eight or for nine ; 
Don't be always dividin'— but sometimes combine ; 
Combine eight with nine, seventeen is the mark, 
Be let that be his birthday." "Amen," says the clark, 
"If lie wasn't a twin, sure our history will show- 
That, at least, lie's wortli any two saints that we know ! ' 
Then they all got blind drunk, Which completed their bliss, 
And we keep up the practice from that day to this. 

It is a saying among the people that after Saint Patrick's day it is time 
to begin to make garden. In Connemara they say that one should hav 
half his farm work done by this time and half his fodder stil on hands, 
and that after this every alternate day wil be clear and sunshiny. The 
weather on this day is proverbially fine, and of course there is an Irish 
reason for it. In the first days of Christianity in Ireland Saint Bridget 
was much hinderd in her work by the rains, which ar especially fre- 
quent in this country, until at last she obtaind as a favor from God that 
every other Sunday should be a clear day, so that she might preach to the 
crowds which came to hear her. Not to be outdone, Saint Patrick askt 
that his anniversary might be a day of sunshine, which was granted, and 
fmm that time forth the 17th of March has always been a fine day.* 

On this day every child throughout Ireland, excepting in Connemara 
and some of the northern districts, is expected to wear upon the left breast 
a small disk intersected by crosses upon the surface and known as a croisuxj 
(crishoeg) or "favor." In Connemara the croiseog is worn only by the 
women. They ar of various designs and colors, but the general pattern 
is everywhere the same. The disk is made of stiff paper, or of silk lined 
with pasteboard, and across the surface ar pasted strips of paper of differ- 
ent colors, crossing each other at right angles, so as to form some even 
number of crosses having a common centre in the middle of the disk. 
These strips ar sometimes cut so as to giv the arms of the cross an ellip- 
tical shape. Around the edge of the disk, between the arms of the 
crosses, ar drawn small arcs which ar Old in with dots, shamrocks and 
other figures, in ink of various colors. The ends of the crosses ar some- 
times trimd with ribbons. In Clare and Connemara there is usually but 
one cross, which is drawn upon the surface of the disk with the blood of 
the wearer, the blood being obtaind by pricking the end of the finger. 
The green is usually procured from grass and the yellow from the yolk of 
an eg. 

At the merrymaking, in the evening, no good Irishman neglects to 
"drown the shamrock " in "Patrick's pot" — in other words, to dip the 
shamrock in a glass of whisky. After wishing the company health, wealth 
and every prosperity, including "long leases and low rents," he dips the 
sprig of shamrock into the liquor which he is about to drink and then 
touches it against auother, which he wears in his hatband in honor of the 
day. It is hardly necessary to state that the shamrock is a small variety 
of clover and the national emblem of Ireland. According to the popular 

* Lady Wilde, ii, 121, 122. 

PROC. AMER. FHILOS. SOC. XXVI. 130. 2w. PRINTED MAY 23, 1889. 



Mooney.] *>°k [May 3( 

belief, its adoption as the national ensign dates from the time -when Saint 
Patrick used it to explain to the pagan Irish the mystery of the Trinity, 
or three in one. In East Gal way and adjacent parts, the processions on 
this day carr\ r banners bearing representations of incidents in the tradi- 
tional life of Saint Patrick, such as the baptism of Oisin, the banishing of 
the snakes, etc. Everywhere men wear the shamrock in their hatbands, 
while women and children fasten it in their hair or upon their breasts. 

Shrove Tuesday, the Lenten Season and Easter. 

The customs pertaining to the Lenten season, with the attendant festi- 
vals of Shrove Tuesday, Good-Friday and Easter, may properly be treated 
together, and as they ar based upon ideas which ar in great part the com- 
mon heritage of Christian Europe, they vary but little in the different 
countries. The first festival of this season is Shrove Tuesday, or as it is 
calld in the eastern and northern districts, Seraf ' Tuesday. This feast, 
like the others pertaining to Lent, is movable, but generally occurs toward 
the close of February, thus corresponding with the old pagan feasts of 
Bacchus and Pan — the Bacchanalia and Lupercalia — of which Shrove 
Tuesday is probably the modern descendant. From its Gaelic name, 
I/iid (Tnij), Smiddy argues that it may correspond in Ireland with the an- 
cient festival of Beinid, the Minerva of the pagan Irish.* The Roman 
feast of Minerva took place about the middle of March, and was celebrated 
by public amusements, and was also a favorit time for getting married. 
This statement stil holds good throughout all Catholic countries, where 
marriages ar prohibited by the Church during the succeeding six weeks of 
Lent. On this subject the same author says : " It is also remarkable that 
in the Irish-speaking districts more marriages take place at this season 
than at any other period of the year. The feasts and the marriages are at 
nt ascribed to the near approach of the season of Lent ; but perhaps. 
like the other popular festivities of the year, they had their origin in some- 
thing more remote, though now forgotten." f Back of all mythology the 
custom probably has its explanation in the fact, as stated by the poet, that 

" In the Mftiag the JOttBg lnim's fancy lightly turns to thoughts of love." 

It is popularly expected that all the marriageable young folks sbal hav 
been mated before I. em. and on this, the last day of grace, the young men 

in Oorit, Waterford and other towns of the south, wer formerly acens. 
toni'l to ^o through the streets in bands, oanying ropes, with whirl) they 
caught any unlucky girl who bad "mist her chance. " and pulld bet a 
few rods abmg 1 her road, after which she was releast. Tins was calld lak 

big bar to Skellig to get married, the allusion being to the BkelHg rocks 

on the coast of K-ri\ formerly a noted place of pilgrimage, toward tin- 
end ■ ■! the r.enten season, foryonng women who desired good husbands. 
This " taking to Skellig" has siipplanled an older and rougher pastime, 

t /</<"<. na-s. 



1889.] w7 IMooney. 

practiced in the south about fifty years ago and known as "drawing the 
log." Any unmarried young folks of either sex who wer so unfortunate 
as to be caught on the streets on this day wer compeld to drag a heavy 
timber at the end of a rope, followd by crowds of men and boys annd 
with shillelaghs and shouting, "Come draw the log, come draw the log,'' 
while keeping step to the music of a piper in attendance. In flail's "Ire- 
land,"* this custom is assigned to the following day, Ash-Wednesday, 
which is obviously a mistake. 

In Clare, it is said that all the disappointed young women — nnd, for 
that matter, the disappointed young men as wel — ar in a bad humor on 
Shrove Tuesday night, and their soreness continues to increase all week, 
so that by Sunday they can be distinguish t by the " puss " on their coun- 
tenances. Hence, the first Sunday in Lent is there known as "Puss 
Sunday," and mischievous boys delight in marking the backs of the un- 
fortunate ones with flour or chalk so as point them out to the whole con- 
gregation. This practice exists also in Kerry, where there is a popular 
legend that on the night of Shrove Tuesday, all the disappointed lovers of 
both sexes shoulder their burden of wasted hopes and blighted affections 
under the form of a bundle of gads or rods and repair to the banks of a 
mystic river, known, on this account, as SruVau na ngadaraid'e (sriihaien 
na ngodheree), or the "stream of the gads," where they get rid of their 
troubles by throwing the whole load of affliction into the water. Going 
to Srut'dn na ngadaraid'e is the Kerry equivalent for going up Salt river. 

In the evening, the young folks — and the old ones as wel — gather round 
the turf fire to learn, by " tossing the pancake," what is to be the result 
of their future marriage ventures. A crock of batter having been pre- 
pared, a part is pourd out on the pan to form the first cake, which is con- 
6ignd to the care of the oldest unmarried daughter. At the proper time, 
she turns the cake with a dextrous toss up the chimney, and if it comes 
down smoothly on the other side in the pan, she can hav her choice of a 
husband whenever she likes. If, on the other hand, it falls into the ashes 
or comes down with a corner doubled over, she cannot marry for at least 
a year. This is also regarded as an omen of il fortune with an accepted 
lover, and so strong is this feeling that engagements hav even been broken 
off for no other reason. The lucky tosser of the first cake at once shares 
it with the other girls. On eating it there is generally found in one slice 
the mother's wedding ring and in another a piece of furz, both having 
been put into the batter before baking. Whoever gets the ring wil be 
most happy in her future choice, while the other wil remain unmarried. 
A similar custom exists in England and Scotland. 

The cruel custom of cock throwing on Shrove Tuesday, which stil exists 
in England, was formerly known also in Ireland, but is now extinct. f A 
cock was tied by the leg to a stone or stick, and every person who paid the 
small sum demanded was allowd to throw at it from a certain distance, 

* Hall, Ireland, i, 315. 
t Ibid. 



Mooney.] *J88 [May 3, 

the one who kild the hird being permitted to take it home with him. 
There is evidence to show that this custom originated in England, and 
was probably intended at first to giv expression to the national hatred for 
the French, a cock and a Frenchman having in Latin the same name, 
Gallus.* 

Little need be said of Ash Wednesday, rendered literally in Gaelic by 
Cedin a Luaifrid' (Cedheen a Luaree). In accordance with the general 
custom, it is observd as a day of solemn devotion. The ashes consecrated 
in the church upon this day ar preservd with religious care as a safeguard 
against evil influences, and with this intention mothers sometimes make 
the sign of the cross with the sacred ashes upon the foreheads of their new- 
born infants. In Ireland, as in all Catholic countries, branches of palm, 
or some evergreen substitute, ar worn in the hat or upon the breast on 
Palm Sunday. 

Good-Friday, in Gaelic Aoine Ceasdad' (Ena Gaesdhu), or "Crucifixion 
Friday," is also of but secondary importance in regard to any popular 
customs connected with it, altho one of the most solemn festivals of the 
Church. It is a day of prayer and rigid fasting, and in some parts of the 
country even infants ar not allowd the breast unless they cry three times 
for their accustomd nourishment. Brand states that it was formerly cus- 
tomary for women. to go along the roads with bare feet and disheveld hair 
in imitation of Christ's sorrowful journey to Calvary. f 

It is said that an eg laid on Good-Friday wil keep good until that day 
twelv-month. The same belief is held in England and on the continent 
in regard to bread baked upon this day. It is also customary to cut the 
hair upon Good-Friday in order to cut away the sins of the past year and 
begin a new life with the coming Easter, and any one doing so wil hav no 
hcadakc for a year thereafter. Among the west coast fishermen of Con- 
nemara there exists the strange and barbarous practice of bringing home 
on this day living fish, which ar afterward fried alive. 

Easter Sunday is the festival of colored egs in Ireland, as wel as else- 
where in Europe and America, the eg being an ancient symbol of the 
i-rcetioii. Egs and bacon form the principal Kaster dish, to which, in 
• minion and adjacent districts, there is added a cake, with a dance in 
the evening. According to an old writer, quoted in Brand, the egs and 
baron wer formerly prepared, in tfiJ central districts, late the previous 
, inir. but not toucht until the cock crew. The company then clapt 
hands with shouts of "Out with the Lent !" and made merry a short 

while before Rntag to sed.$ 

Pfen thus describes the Faster festivities in Wcstniealh, in 1681 ! "On 

the fl uid Whitsuntide, the more ordinary sort ot people meet 

!■ the aflcrnoon on -onie coincident, spot of ground 

and dance for the cake; here, to be sure, the piper fails not of diligent, 

• *•■• Pop. top.) WO, BIL 

>nt|,,l|it|,.H, I 

: ibid., i, iil 



1& C 9.] ^tU [Mooney. 

attendance. The cake to be (lanced for is provided at the charge of the 
ale-wife, and is advanced on a board on the top of a pike about ten feet 
high ; this board is round, and from it riseth a kind of a garland, beset and 
tied round with meadow flowers, if it be early in the summer ; if later, the 
garland has the addition of apples set round on pegs fastened unto it ; the 
whole number of dancers begin all at once in a large ring, a man and a 
woman, and dance round about the bush, so is this garland call'd, and the 
piper, as long as they are able to hold out ; they that hold out longest at 
the exercise win the cake and apples, and then the ale-wife's trade goes 
on." * 

If any one who has kept the Lent wel wil rise early on Easter morning, 
he wil be able to see the sun dance in the sky for joy at the resurrection, 
altho some persons assert that the sun givs but three leaps on this occa- 
sion. A fiivorit method is to observ the reflection in a wel or stream of 
water. In Kerry, the fish ar said to be asleep on this day, and the old peo- 
ple declare positivly that they can easily be caught with the hand in 
shallow water. In Meath, the day is held so sacred tlmt it is said, that if 
one should black his shoes in the morning and then rub the brush against 
a tree, the tree would be dead before that day twelv-month. More wil be 
given in this connection in speaking of the next festival. 

May-day on Bealtuine, May 1. 

The next great festival is May-day, the first day of May, which, being 
generally regarded as the beginning of summer, has been observd as a 
holiday throughout Europe and in many parts of the Orient from the most 
ancient times. In Rome the feast of Maia was held upon this day and 
was preceded by the Floralia, lasting four days and celebrated in honor of 
Flora, goddess of fruits and flowers. It is probable that the ancient 
Irish festival also lasted several days, as in Gaelic Scotland the Bealtuine 
period is stil considerd to extend from the first to the eighth of May.f 
The old Scandinavians observd the day with feasting and dancing and a 
mock fight between winter and summer.}: The ancient Persians cele- 
brated the festival upon the 21st of April, when every fire was extinguisht, 
to be relighted with sacred fire from the temples. £ The essential features 
of this modern celebration, as wel as the beliefs connected with the day, 
vary but little throughout Europe, the festivities consisting chiefly of 
dancing around bonfires, or poles decorated with flowers and ribbons, 
while the omens relate to the prosperity of the dairy or the wedded lot of 
the girls. Certain trees ar held particularly sacred in connection with 
these observances, the May-pole beingof oak in England, an elm in Corn- 
wall and a birch in Wales, | while in Ireland the chosen tree is the crann- 

* Piers, Wt'stmcath, 123. 

t See note in Pop. Sup., 51. 

tBranrl, Antiquities, i, 222. 

I Lady Wilde, i, 194 

J Brand, Antiquities (quoted), i. 23G-7. 



Mooney.] 3 JO [May 3, 

caoran (craten-ceeran), the rowan or mountain asb. The May season, and 
especially May eve, is universally regarded as a favorit time for fairy rev- 
els and witches' spels. 

The Gaelic name of May-day is La Bealtuine (Law BdwWrinny), " the 
day of the Beal fire," Beal being the fire god of the Keltic nations and 
almost identical with Baal or Bel, the sun god of the Phoenicians and As- 
syrians. The month itself is calld "the month of Bealtuine." The 
pagan Irish wer fire worshipers, and this was one of the five great fire 
festivals of the year, the others being celebrated respectivly at the begin- 
ning of spring — about Saint Bridget's day ; at midsummer on Saint John's 
day ; at Lughnas or the beginning of August, and on the first day of 
November, the celebration in each case beginning on the preceding eve, 
as already stated. Fire stil holds an important place in the May-day 
and midsummer festivities, and Grimm states that in Wales, where a 
Keltic language is yet spoken, the "holy fires" ar also lighted on the 
first of November.* 

The worship of fire and of its glorious embodiment, the sun, was a form 
of religious belief at once so ancient and universal that the subject need 
not be here discusst. The system probably attaind its highest develop- 
ment and greatest splendor in Persia in the east and in Ireland in the west, 
and in both countries, as wel as elsewhere, an impressiv ceremony of the 
ritual was the simultaneous extinction of every hearth-fire throughout the 
land, to be rekindled from the new fire solemnly lighted by the priests of 
tiie sun. 

In Ireland the great festival of the new fire took place on the eve of 
Bealtuine, and the first tire was kindled by the druid priests either on the 
hil of lisneach, which occupied a central position in the kingdom, or 
upon the hil of Tara, where stood the royal palace of the monarch. f Both 
hils ar in tlie county M<at li. As soon as :he hla/.e appcard above the 
trees other piles wer lighted on the surrounding hil-tops. until in a short 
time the circle of fire ran round the whole island. Death was the penalty 
for lighting a lire hefon the great one was kindled by the druids in Meath. 

Smiddy, who has Investigated the druidie religion to some extent, is In. 

•1 to think that this new tire was procured from tin- rays of the sun 
by some simple mechanical apparatus, but as the ceremonies took place at 
night) it is difficult to see how it could hav been obtaind in this way, un- 
less tlic lire ill actually lighted before daiknes- came on. which does not 
thfl 0M6. It is more probable that tin; was obtaind by 
tin- friction of two pieces ,>f dry wood, the method still in use among 
primitiv people*, and often retaind in religions ceremonials after it has 
been SUfMfrHC( |e.l In v ||fa bj some more convenient invention. 

particular method u»ed was probably the twirling of a stick in a solid 

•.heel of Wood until siilbcienl heat was produced to Ignite the 

■cull. .ii, While other wril.T.s think 
T«rn mure i 



1889.] tUl [Mooney. 

tinder placed at the point of contact. This was the process used by the Ro- 
man vestals, by the ancient priests of India and by their modern Brahinunic 
successors, and has even been practiced in the western islands of Scotland, 
one of the last sanctuaries of druidism, as late as 17(57, in order to procure 
sacred fire with which to check a murrain amongst the cattle.* 

According to Smiddy, as soon as the new fires wer blazing on every 
hil, " Feasts and sacrifices followed. Victims were given to the flames, 
and among them probably were included human beings. As on all other 
occasions of prayer and sacrifice, both priests and people placed them- 
selves at the west of the fires, with their faces turned to the mystical and 
magical east. Most probably these ceremonies took place at an advanced 
hour of the night and were continued till morning, when the sun, the 
great form of Beal, appeared in his glory above the horizon. * * * It 
is stated that from the fires lighted by the druids on this solemn occasion 
the people carried home burning brands or live embers, with which to 
rekindle the domestic hearths, and that the seed of it, aiol na Unite, was 
preserved and continued among them till the next anniversary of Beil- 
tiune again. * * * The druids believed that in this way they kept the 
sacred fire of Beal perpetually burning and that great were the benefits 
which their people derived from its presence and influence among them. 
Even the fields at this season received portions of it to ensure a fruitful 
year and an abundant harvest."! 

The great ceremony of Bealtuine was intended especially to bring a 
blessing upon the crops and herds, and it is stated by some authors that 
both human beings and cattle wer offered as a sacrifice to the tire upon 
this occasion. It is certain, at least, that two tires wer built close together 
and that men and cattle past between them, the purpose being to ward off 
the influence of disease. % In the last century the cattle wer stil driven 
through the May fires to preserv them from all disorders during the year,;? 
while the existing May day beliefs concern themselvs chiefly with the 
safety of the milk and butter. The cardinal points derive their Gaelic 
names from the position assumed by the druids and people when paying 
the ancient homage to the rising sun. As the priest stood facing soir (*er), 
"the bright " place, his right hand was to the south, his left hand to the 
north and his back was turnd to the west. The Gaelic names for south, 
north and west ar deas, tuaujh and iar (Ji$, thuee, eer), signifying respec- 
tivly, right hand, left hand and behind. 

It is said that Saint Patrick first arrived in the neighborhood of Tara on 
the night when the people had assembled from all parts of the royal plain 
of Meath to celebrate the great Bealtuine, which, as it so happend, oc- 
curd this year upon the eve of Easter, and that the first intimation of the 

* Grimm, Mythologie, i, 574-5 ; see also Rally, Folk-lore, in his chapter on "The de- 
scent of fire." 
t Smiddy, Druids, 91-7. 

t Cormac (A. D. 90S), noted in Grimm, Mythologie, i, 580. 
I Vallancey, Collectanea, ii, 270. 



Moonej-.] 392 [May 3( 

presence of the saint was given by the appearance of the blaze which he 
had kindled upon the adjacent nil of Slaue in order to celebrate the offices 
of the Christian festival. In angry surprise the monarch askt who had 
dared to light that fire at a time when even the palace itself was in darkness, 
and receivd for answer from his druid that a stranger who revered not 
their ancient gods had kindled the fire, which, if not extinguisht that 
night, would burn on forever. Thereupon the saint was summond into 
the presence of the king, before whom he was examind, but, despite the 
warning of the druid, he was permitted to continue in the work which 
finally resulted in the overthrow of fire worship in Ireland. 

The midsummer fires stil burn brightly, but those of Bealtuine ar nearly 
extinguisht, which is probably due to the fact that on the introduction of 
Christianity the old celebration was superseded by that of Easter, when 
the ceremonies took place by day, thus rendering bonfires out of place. 
Moreover, as Easter is a movable festival, never occurring on the same 
day in consecutiv years, it would become more and more difficult, under 
the new system, for the people to keep up the old accustomd periodic 
celebration. Within the last fifty years the May fires wer stil common 
throughout the south and east, and a Galway correspondent states that 
they wer also lighted around Lough Corrib in the extreme west, but 
they ar now confined chiefly to the counties of Limerick and Cork. The 
people gatherd together with fiddlers and pipers to dance around the 
blaze as on Saint John's eve, and when the fire had burnd low the cattle 
wer driven through it to keep them from all sickness until the next May- 
day. In Kildare, In addition to the bonfire, a May-bush was set up and 
decorated witli lighted candles. In the adjacent county of Meath the 
custom is now unknown, but seems to hav been practiced at an earlier 
period. In the County Limerick the fires ar stil lighted as on Saint 
John's eve and the cows ar sprinkled with holy water and bunul with 
blessed candles and with blazing branches of white or black thorn from 
the pile, in order to keep them in health and insure plenty of milk and 
butter during the year. 

Another old .May-day custom is thus des'-ribed as it existed in the south 
nearly a hundred years ago. The gilt bail mentiond was probably at 
one time a mystic symbol of the sun : "On the 1st of .May all the young 
men assemble in their several districts, and go in procession, dressed out 
in ribbons, garlands, etc. The leader bears on ft pole ft double circle of 
hoops, in tin* eentre of which lianas ft e;ilt ball. They call at every house 
where | marriaL'e haJ taUen place since the la-t May Jay. The new mar- 
ried lady, together with a pecuniary present, presents another ball, which 
is, like the former, elevated M another pole. This l;ist ceremony is onlv 
I'h of Ireland."* This custom is described in Hall's 
l<i7), already quoted, im stil existing about, forty years ago, 
iillho then nearly obsolete, and it is ftlaO stated that the May pole car 
was ii tall tree, which was set up in front of the door, and around 
which the parly danced in honor ot the bride. 

* <C W., quoted in Pop. 8up., 66. 



1889.] 3J3 [Mooney. 

In the city of Cork the celebration i9 held on " May Sunday," the first 
Sunday of May, perhaps because the working people ar then more at 
leisure. For some nights beforehand parties of young men make secret 
forays upon the demenes of the neighboring gentry in order to secure 
tall, straight-growing oak trees, which ar cut down and trimd off to serv 
as May-poles. These ar then carried into the town and set up in every 
convenient gathering place throughout the city. The poles ar as high as 
a tall flag-staff and ar firmly planted in the ground, but not decorated In 
any way. The work must all be done by