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Vol. XXIII. 




April 17, 188.5.] x [Cope. 





Vol. XXIII. January, 1886. No. 121. 

A Contribution to the Vertebrate Paleontology of Brazil. By E. D. Cope. 
{Read before the American Philosophical Society, April 17, 18S5. ) 

Professor Orville A. Derby, Director of the Geological Section of the 
National Museum of Brazil, has desired me to furnish to the museum an 
account of the extinct Vertebrata from the various strata found within 
the limits of the Empire, which are preserved in the Museo Nacional at 
Rio de Janeiro. I have also received a considerable collection made in the 
neighborhood of Bahia by Mr. Joseph Mawson, of London, England, 
which has aided me much in the determination of the extinct fauna of 
that region. 

The horizons from which the species now enumerated have been derived 
are the Pliocene, the Cretaceous and the Carboniferous. The work hitherto 
done in this field is small in amount. The researches of Lund and Rein- 
hardt into the foasils of the caves of Brazil are well known. Professor 
Owen has determined the existence of Crocodilia and Dinosauria in the 
Cretaceous beds near Bahia ; and Professor Marsh has described a gavial 
from the same horizon and locality. Professor J. S. Newberry has iden- 
tified some fishes from Ceara in Eastern Brazil as of Jurassic age ; and I 
have described a genus and species from the same locality. In more 
detail, tbe localities and horizons from which the specimens of vertebrate 
fossils of the Museo Nacional have been derived, are the following, so far 
as determined : 

Pliocene, Pampean. 

North-eastern pt. of Province of Bahia ; Toxodon expansidens, sp. nov. 

Cretaceous ? Laramie. Near Bahia. Diplomystus longico status, sp. 
nov. Chiromystus matosoni, sp. nov. 

Fox Hills. Province of Pernambuco. Eyposaurus derbianus, sp. nov. ; 


Cope.l j <* [April 17, 

Enchodus subcequilateralis, sp. nov. ; Oaleocerdo pristodontus Agass. ; 
Apocopodon sericeus, sp. nov. 

? . Province of Sergipe del Rey. Pycnodus flabellatus, sp. nov. 

Jukassic. Province of Ceara. Ancedopogon tenuidens Cope. Aspido- 
rhynchus, sp. 

Carboniferous. Province of San Paolo. Stereosternum tumidum, 
sp. nov. 

The following pages contain the detailed descriptions of the new species, 
and the determination of their affinities. Others yet remain to he deter- 


Apocopodon sericeus, gen. et sp. nov. Myliohatidorum. 

Char. gen. Founded on teeth which formed a pavement like that of 
Myliobatis, but which are mostly separated in the specimen. These con- 
sist of longer ones of a median series, and smaller ones of the lateral series. 
The teeth of the median series are shorter than in the typical forms referred 
to Myliobatis, having rather the proportions characteristic of Zygobatis. 
They differ from the corresponding teeth in both genera in being exactly 
parallelogrammic in outline ; that is, the extremities are truncated instead 
of angulated as in those genera.* The lateral teeth display the usual an- 
gulation among themselves, though doubtless joined by a straight suture 
to the middle row. The roots are well distinguished from the crowns, and 
are short. Their grooves are very shallow, or merely indicated. The 
triturating surface is covered by a dense layer which is wrinkled like the 
sides of the crown, and is continuous with it. 

Char, specif. The teeth are robust and indicate a species of considerable 
size. The crowns are considerably more elevated than the roots, and have 
perpendicular sides. The sutural surfaces are straight, and marked by fine 
grooving which runs at right angles to the grinding face, and is continu- 
ous with the wrinkling of the latter on the long sides of the crown. From 
this it follows that the wrinkling crosses the grinding face at right angles 
to its long diameter. There are in the wrinkling six ridges to a millimeter. 
The roots are constricted from the crowns by a groove, which is itself 
divided by a narrow collar-like rib, resembling cement, which is ex- 
pressed on the junction of two pieces by pressure, grown cold. The 
sizes of the teeth diminish externally. The roots of those of the antepe- 
nultimate are crossed by four shallow grooves, and those of the penulti- 
mate by two. External row lost. Six grooves cross the root of one of the 
larger teeth. 

Measurements. M. 

(transverse 024 
anteroposterior 013 
vertical 021 

Vertical diameter of root of do 006 

•Que end of one of the large teeth has the usual two face?. 

J 885.] u I Cope. 

Diameters of root of antepenult tooth 
Diana, of root of penultimate of row 

Measurements. M. 

transverse 015 

anteroposterior .010 

transverse 007 

anteroposterior . . .010 
From Maria Farinha, Province of Pernambuco. Probably of Fox Hills 
or Maestrichtian Cretaceous age. Coll., No. 306. 

Enchodus sub^equilateralis, sp. nov. 

This species is represented by a prernaxillary bone bearing the long 
laniary tooth characteristic of the genus, and by another osseous fragment 
bearing a similar tooth, which may perhaps belong to the distal part of the 
dentary bone. I describe the first-named specimen. The fragment of the 
prernaxillary is so small that little can be said of it, except that its surface 
is smooth, and but slightly convex, and that it projects but little beyond 
the long tooth. The tooth is long and slender, and has a very slight sig- 
moid fore and aft curvature. It has two opposite cutting edges, the ante • 
rior of which reaches to its base, and the posterior for half of its length. 
The inner face of the tooth begins to be more convex than the external 
at about the middle of its length, but this convexity is not much marked 
beyond the basal fourth. The surface of the tooth is smooth everywhere. 

This species is readily distinguished from such species as E. mortoni, 
where the edges are not opposite. From the E. carinatus and E. gladiolus, 
where the edges are opposite, the smooth surface separates it. In the allied 
E. doliclius* the posterior cutting edge only extends one-quarter the length 
of the tooth. 

Length of crown M. .022 ; diameters at middle, long, .004 ; short, .0023. 


This herring is represented by numerous specimens, and possesses well- 
marked characters. These may be stated in general thus: The caudal 
part of the vertebral column is very short. The abdomen is very deep 
and the ribs are long. The caudal fin is deeply forked, and has long acute 
lobes. The other fins are very small. 

The scales are so attenuated as not to be countable. The scutes of the 
median dorsal line are longer than wide, and are emarginate behind, and 
hence cordate. The superior surface of two of them is roughened with 
radiating ridges. The inferior surfaces are smooth. None behind the 
dorsal fin. 

The dorsal outline rises gradually to the dorsal fin, and then gradually 
descends to the caudal peduncle. The general convexity is slight. On 
the other hand the abdominal convexity is very great, and is especially 
protuberant below the dorsal fin. The depth at this point enters the total 
length, minus the caudal fin, one and five-sixth times. The length of 
the head enters the same three times. The superior surface of the head 

*See Report on Cretacequs Vertebrata of the West, E. D. Cope, p. 300. 

Cope.] * [April 17, 

slopes gently from the dorsal line ; hence the pectoral outline is very 
steep. The head is a good deal injured in the typical specimen, but it is 
somewhat longer than deep. 

The middle of the base of the pectoral fin is half-way between the ver- 
tebral column and pectoral border inclusive. The dorsal fin begins along 
the anterior border of the fourteenth vertebra. It is elevated in front, and, 
having a short base, has a rapidly descending posterior outline. The anal 
fin originates much behind the posterior border of the dorsal. It is also 
short and weak. Formula, D. 10 ; C. -f 18 -f ; A. 8. Vertebrae, Abd. 
24 ; C. 10 ; only one included between the external caudal rays. Neural 
and haemal spines weak and rather short. Ribs long and robust. Abdom- 
inal scuta rather large, and with a free posterior accumination. The sup- 
plementary ribs, if they ever existed, are not preserved. Ventral fins lost 
from the typical specimen. 

Measurements. M. 

Total length (axial) 126 

Length to basis of caudal fin 096 

Depth at free edge of operculum 044 

" " " " " dorsal 1st ray 055 

" " " " " anal " " 020 

Length of dorsal fin \ in front 016 

(. on base 014 

Length of anal finj iafront 007 

*- on base 010 

Length of a caudal lobe from base 035 

" " abdominal vertebrae 056 

" " caudal " 020 

The specimens are from the coast near Bahia. The type comes from 
near Itacaranha, where it was found by Mr. Joseph Mawson. Other 
specimens are from the same locality, while others are from Plataforma 
and Agua Comprida. In none but the type do I find the dorsal scuta pre- 

This genus has hitherto been only known from the Lower lacustrine 
Eocene of North America. Its occurrence in this supposed marine forma- 
tion indicates that, like its close ally Clupea, Diplomystus has considerable 
range in time and space. The D. longicostatus falls into the section of the 
genus represented by D. humilis Leidy. From this and the allied D. altus, 
it differs in the more numerous abdominal and less numerous caudal ver- 
tebrae, and the longer lobed more deeply furcate caudal fin. 

Ciiiromystus mawsoni, gen. et sp. nov. 

This new genus and species are indicated by a single large specimen 
from the same horizon as the Diplomystus longicostatus. It is nearly com- 
plete, with the important exception that the head and a few anterior dor- 
sal vertebrae are wanting. The impression of the scapular arch, however, 
gives the position of the skull, and the anterior ribs give a clue tp the 

1885.] ° [Cope. 

character of the anterior dorsal vertebrae. From these it appears that the 
genus is Isospondylous and not Plectospondylous. 

Char. gen. Dorsal fin small, above the anal, which is moderate. Pecto- 
ral fin with several superior rays thickened and robust. Caudal fin fur- 
cate. Ventrals small. No ventral or dorsal scuta. Scales much attenua- 
ted. No basilar interneurals or haeinals. 

This genus may belong either to the Hyodontidm or CMrocentridm so far 
as the characters given by authors are concerned, since the only distinc- 
tions given are found in the soft parts. I have pointed out* that the parie- 
tals are in contact, and the caudal fin embraces two vertebrae in the Hyo- 
dontidcB, while in the Chirocentridce the parietals are separated by the supra- 
occipital, and there is but one caudal-fin vertebra as in the Clupeidm. I can 
only observe the caudal fin in Chiromystus, and find that it includes two 
vertebrae, as in the Hyodontidm. 

Char, specif. The form is rather elongate. The depth of the longest 
ribs, and vertebra corresponding, enter the length, exclusive of the head 
and caudal fin, four and a third times. Vertebrae, Abd. 28 ; C. 22. The 
anterior dorsals are obtained by counting the ribs, and three are added to 
the caudals visible, in order to fill up an interruption caused by fracture. 
The centra are longer than deep, and have two lateral longitudinal fossae, 
bounded above and below by a narrow rib, and separated by a flattened 

The posterior part and apex of the dorsal fin are wanting, so that its 
characters cannot be given, except by stating that the rays are slender 
and weak. The anal fin is injured at its posterior extremity, but by 
counting the interhaemal bones I find the rays to number sixteen. The 
four superior pectoral rays are very robust, the inferior most so. The 
three upper are preserved, and it can be seen that they are compressed 
and smooth, and not segmented. The caudal fin is very deeply forked, 
and the lobes are long. Each one consists of six strong external rays, 
besides the fulcral rays, and a number of very fine rays on the inner side 
of these, giving each lobe a narrow form. The scales are extremely 
attenuated, and cannot be counted. The ventral fins are quite small, and 
the rays may not all be preserved, although those that are visible are in 
place. They number only four. 

Measurements. M. 

Length of vertebral column 310 

" " a lobe of the caudal fin 100 

" from base of ventral to base anal 081 

" " " anal to base caudal 085 

" " " " dorsal to base caudal 063 

" superior spine pectoral fin 065 

of ventral fin 027 

Diameters of last abdominal vertebra \ longitudinal. .. .008 

c vertical 0075 

• Proceedings Anier. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Vol. xx, p. 333. 

Cope.] t> [April 17, 

The specimen was obtained near Agua Coraprida, near Bahia, by Mr. 
Joseph Mawson. I dedicate the species to him with much pleasure, in 
recognition of the valuable service rendered by his collection in the pres- 
ent investigation. 


A slab of limestone contains a skeleton of this fish, but the latter is in 
several points imperfect. The head anterior to the orbit is wanting, and 
the superior half of the anterior dorsal region is broken away. The ven- 
tral fins are lost. Some isolated teeth are of the proper size to belong to 
this species, and will be mentioned later. 

The outline of the profile of the body is discoidal, and the axis of the 
skull (vomer, etc.) is directed obliquely downwards at an obtuse angle 
with the vertebral column. This requires an extensive production of tbe 
operculum above and posterior to its articulation with the hyomandibular. 
The clavicle is slender, while the coracoid is produced backwards be- 
low the pectoral fin, its superior border being concave to the first rib, 
which is overlapped by the posterior edge. The coracoid also extends 
downwards and forwards as usual. The four basilar bones of the pectoral 
fin are rod-like, and are moderately expanded distally. The determina- 
tion of this point is of much importance in fixing the position of the Pyc- 
nodontidce in the system. The basis of the dorsal and ventral fins de- 
scend steeply downwards to a narrow and very short caudal peduncle. 
The caudal fin is of characteristic form. Its lobes are long, but they di- 
verge so widely that the posterior edge of the fin is slightly convex from 
tip to tip. Radii, D. 53 ; C. 3 + 40 + 2 ; A. 24. 

The constitution of the vertebral column is not easy to make out. Only 
the anterior half is preserved. This displays the usual superior and inferior 
plates. In the present species the edges of these are in contact, so that 
the condition of the centrum, if there be any, as to ossification, is not posi- 
tively determinable. The neural spines above their basal expansions 
are connected by a series of longitudinal teeth which interlock closely so 
as to resemble a series of ribs. On examination it is found that half of 
these originate from one neural arch, and half from the other, there being 
six or seven in all. A slight protuberance, probably for the rib-head, ap- 
pears 3 mm. below them. The true ribs are broadly alate, so as to form a 
continuous wall. The rhabdopleurs agree in number with the vertebra;, 
and are present to the end of the vertical fins. On the caudal region they 
extend downwards .66 the length of the haemal spines. The latter ex- 
tend to the superior apices of the interhamials. The rhabdopleurs are 
not segmented as is represented in some species of this family. The 
caudal fin includes one or two vertebrae. There are two short, widely ex- 
panded hypurals, much as in Physoclystous fishes where they are distinct. 

Vertebra;, D. 19 ; C. 15 or 16. 

Measurements. M. 

Total length to anterior edge of orbit 172 

Longitudinal diameter of orbit 016 


1885-1 [Cope. 

Measurements. M. 

Distance from orbit to free edge of operculum 022 

Length of vertebral column 116 

t^. . c t i ^ (anteroposterior 027 

Diameters of caudal fin < . * nnn 

( vertical 093 

Depth above rib-heads at front of dorsal fin 055 

" below hsenial plates, front of anal fin 044 

The teeth preserved are loose medians, and perhaps laterals, but the 
reference of the latter is uncertain. The crowns of the former are a little 
more tban twice as wide as long, and have the extremities a little oblique. 
The summit is a little flattened, and the sides project a little beyond the 
base. The surface smooth. Length, M. .010 ; width, .0045. 

The peculiar form of the caudal fin distinguishes this species from most 
of the known members of the family Pymodontidw. The feeble dorsal 
and anal fins distinguish it from others, and the discoidal form from still 

The structural characters observed in the specimen described have 
been instructive, especially those of the pectoral fin. These confirm alto- 
gether my reference of the family of the Pycnodontidce to the Isospondyti 
as distinguished from the HalecomorpM.* 

The typical and only specimen of this species in the collection is from 
the southern centre of the Province of Sergipe del Key. It is on a slab of 
cream-colored calcareous rock which has a coarse slaty cleavage, and 
probably belongs to the Cretaceous formation, and is of marine origin. 

Stereosternum tumiduii, gen. et sp. nov. 

Char, gen., etc. This genus is known from numerous vertebrae and ribs, 
sometimes forming consecutive series, but more frequently isolated ; but 
especially from two slabs, which exhibit the posterior part of a skeleton ; 
i. e., dorsal vertebrae and ribs, pelvis and posterior limbs, and caudal ver- 

The dorsal vertebrae present some of the general characters of the rep- 
tiles and batrachians of the Permian period. One of these is the existence 
of a notochordal canal. The small size of the vertebral centrum as com- 
pared with the arch and its appendages constitutes a resemblance to the 
batrachian class ; as also do the horizontal position and weak development 
of the zygapophyses. On the other hand the simple articulation of the 
ribs resembles that of the Lacertilia in general, though not of any known 
group of that order ; and has no resemblance to any known reptile of the 
Carboniferous period. 

The vertebral articular surfaces are both funnel-shaped, the anterior 
deeply, the posterior shallowly excavated. The dorsal centra are undi- 

* On the classification of the Extinct Fishes of the Lower Types. Proceeds. 
Araer, Assoc. Adv. Science, 1S7S, p. 292. 

Cope.] o [April 17, 

vided, and the notochordal canal is small. The caudal vertebra have a 
groove, more or less obliterated by coosification, surrounding the middle 
of the centrum, and cutting off a part of the base of the neural spine above. 
This looks as though the genus possesses intercentra, which were primi- 
tively separated by the protovertebral fissure. The posterior part of the cen- 
trum carries chevron bones, which are distinct from it. Besides the zyga- 
pophyses, there is, in the dorsal vertebrae, a modified form of zygosphen, 
though there is no zygantrum. The former consists of a roof-like projec- 
tion of the neural arch above each prezygapophysis, which is applied to the 
superior surface of the postzygapophyses. In some of the vertebrae, this 
zygosphenal roof is horizontal ; in others it is slightly oblique, rising out- 
wards on each side, in the manner of a true zygosphen. It differs further 
from a true zygosphen in being fissured vertically, above the neural arch, 
but there is no corresponding process of the adjacent vertebra to occupy 
it. On the contrary there is a corresponding fossa of the posterior side of 
the vertebra in front. These fossae may be points of insertion of ligaments 
which strengthen an articulation otherwise weak. 

The ribs appear to be coossified with the centra, so that it is difficult to 
say whether they are truly ribs or diapophyses. In one specimen, the 
proximal ends of the ribs are seen to be expanded, and applied to the cen- 
trum so as to embrace it. These expanded extremities are simple and are 
separated on the median line of the centrum by a narrow space. Others are 
not so expanded proximally, but contract to their connection with the cen- 
trum. In some of the centra each side is produced into a depressed coni- 
cal apex in the position of a diapophysis. The position of these vertebrae 
is uncertain. The ribs are long, cylindric, curved and remarkably robust, 
having characters like those of the genus Ischyrosaurus of the Laramie 
formation, or of Mesosaurus of Gervais. They could not have had any 
movement on the vertebrae. 

The scapular arch is represented by a coracoid bone, which though isola- 
ted, is lying on a slab with numerous remains of this genus. As no other 
form is represented on the slab, I suppose the coracoid to belong to Stereo- 
sternum. It is expanded fore and aft, most so posteriorly, and possesses a 
supracoracoid foramen. Its internal border presents a deep notch oppo- 
site the glenoid cavity. 

Portions of several humeri are preserved. They demonstrate either that 
the head is subround, or that if expanded it is at right angles to the distal 
end. The latter is perforated near one of its borders by an epicondylar 
foramen, but whether entepicondylar or ectepicondylar, I cannot ascer- 
tain. The opposite foramen is represented by a shallow groove at the dis- 
tal end of the opposite side. There are no well marked condyles of the 

The head of the femur is truncate and subround, and without trochan- 
ter. The shaft is subround and is of considerable length. There are no 
distinct condyles, but the articular surface is convex anteroposteriorly. 
The tibia is a stouter bone than the fibula, and its distal extremity is ex- 


1885.] ° [Cope. 

paneled outwards. Its tarsal articular suface forms an acute angle with 
the long axis of the shaft, presenting outwards. It has besides a slight 
distal transverse truncation. The fibula has a robust head and is slender 
distally. The tarsus consists of seven bones. These are a tibiale, an in- 
termedio-centralo-fibulare, and a tarsale corresponding to each of the five 
metatarsals. There is a foraminal notch on the internal edge of the inter- 
medio-centralo-fibulare, next to the tibiale. The bones of the foot beyond 
the tarsus are well distinguished from each other. The metatarsals are 
rather slender, and are considerably longer than the phalanges of the first 
row. The phalanges are not much shortened, but diminish in length 
regularly to the end. The ungual phalanges are not preserved in a per- 
fect condition on any of them. The proximal portion remains on the 
second digit, and it is depressed, offering no indication of a claw. The 
first toe is not shortened, and appears to be longer than the second. Its 
distal segments are lost. Neither the metatarsals nor the phalanges have 
distinct condyles, but are truncate in the vertical direction. 

Abdominal protective armature is present in the form of osseous rods. 
Several of these rods form a single girdle. They are not connected with 
the ribs. 

The pelvis is partially preserved in the specimen on the slab. Both 
pubes and ischia are well developed, and if there is any obturator foramen 
it is very small and median in position. It probably does not exist, but I 
am precluded from certainty by the condition of the specimen at the point 
of crossing of the median and transverse sutures. The pubis is not so 
large as the ischium, and has a foramen near its posterior border. The 
ilia have less transverse, and greater longitudinal expanse than the pubes, 
and are in contact on the middle line throughout most of their length. 

Affinities. It is not easy to decide as to the position of this genus. 
While many of its characters are reptilian, some of them are batra- 
chian. Of especial interest in this connection is the structure of the pel- 
vis. Its characters are only like those of some of the Urodele Batrachia, 
and the Theromorphous Reptilia. It is, however, quite certain that it does 
not belong to any known family of either class. The vertebrae might be 
those of a Theromorph reptile, and the pelvis also agrees with that of those 
animals. The abdominal rods are found in species of that order referred 
to the genus Theropleura. The ribs and tarsus are however of an en- 
tirely different type. The former would refer the genus to the Rhyncho- 
cephalia or the Sauropterygia, and there is nothing known in its structure 
which positively forbids either reference, unless it be the character of the 
pelvis. It differs from the types of the Batrachia which it most resem- 
bles, the Protonopsidoa, in the replacement of the cartilaginous plate 
which represents the pubis by two osseous plates. It presents a near 
resemblance in important characters to the genus Ichthycanthus* which 

* I refer to the Ichthycanthus ohiensis from the description and from memory, 
as the specimen is not at present accessible. The I. platypus is one of the Rhach- 
itomi, and has in the tarsus, astragalus, calcaneum, navicular, and five dis- 
tinct tarsals of the second row. 

Cope.l 10 [April 17, 

I described from specimens procured by Professor Newberry, in the 
coal measures of Linton, Ohio.* The peculiar structure of the tarsus 
is identical as to the number of its elements, and the other characters 
agree in general. There are important differences also, which would 
refer Ichthycanthus to another family. Thus the dorsal vertebrae have the 
centra deeper than long, and the ribs are free. In the absence of the 
skull, it is not possible to be sure as to which of the classes, Reptilia and 
Batrachia, these genera represent. 

Another form presents some important points of resemblance ; that is 
the genus Mesosaurus of Gervais.f The M. tenuidens Gerv. was brought 
by Verreaux from an undetermined formation of Griqualand, South 
Africa. The specimen, like that of the Stereosternum tumidum, is exposed 
on a slab, and embraces only the head, neck, thorax and anterior limbs. 
As the dorsal vertebra? are obscured by matrix the only point in which actual 
comparison can be made is the ribs. These are quite identical in the two 
types, but the articulations with the vertebral centra are invisible in the 
Mesosaurus. There are apparently impressions of abdominal dermal rib- 
lets, but they are suspected by Gervais to be the tracks of Annelids. Ger- 
vais thinks the skull has but a single condyle. The scapular arch consists 
of coossified scapula and coracoid, but clavicle, prsesternum and sternum 
are not visible. The coracoid is different in form from that of Stereoster- 
num. The humerus is, on the other hand, almost identical, and the carpus 
is nearly what one would expect to find in the Brazilian form. There are 
in the first carpal row, two large bones, and in the second, four small 

Habits. — The structure of the limb articulations and those of the ele- 
ments of the posterior foot show that this was a genus of aquatic habits. 
The firm attachment of the ribs shows further that this type had no inter- 
costal respiration, but used its sublingual or its abdominal muscles, or 
both, in the act of inhaling air. We may suppose that in its aquatic habi- 
tat it retained air in the lungs for considerable periods, and only respired 
on reaching the surface of the water ; or later investigation may show 
that it is branchiate. 

Geological position. — The peculiar characters of this form and the diffi- 
culty of determining its true position in the system, present an obstacle 
to the interpretation of its probable geological age. It has a good many 
resemblances to the suborder Choristodera of the order Khynchoce- 
phalia (represented by the Champsosauridse). This type first appears in 
the Laramie or latest Cretaceous, and continues only to the top of the 
lower Eocene. The order Rhynchocephalia is an unsatisfactory one for 
geological purposes. It still exists in one genus, the llatteria of New Zea- 
land, and may have existed in the Trias ; although this is not certain. 

Prof. Derby informs me that some specimens of Schizodus have been 
found in the same beds, and he therefore iufers that their age may belong 

♦Proceedings Amer. Philosoph. Society, 1887, p. 573. 
tUeuerul Zoology and Paleontology. 

1885.] -*--*- [Cope. 

to the Coal Measures or to the Permian. There is nothing in the charac- 
ters of the genus Stereosternum to contradict such a supposition. The 
primitive characters of various parts of the skeleton and the obvious re- 
semblances to Ichthycanthus, add probability to such a view. 

Specific characters. — These may be first drawn from the specimen of the 
slab already alluded to. 

The relative length of the body is not certainly known, as it is only par- 
tially preserved in the specimens sent by Prof. Derby. To judge from 
the one above referred to, it has the ordinary proportions of a lacertilian. 
The hind legs are well developed, as for example in an Iguana. The tail 
is well developed, but its length is not determinable as the distal por- 
tions are lost. 

In the slab specimen the dorsal vertebrae are split or otherwise damaged, 
so that I describe them preferably from other specimens. The few that are 
well preserved show characters identical with the latter. I derive the fol- 
lowing however from the slab specimen. The dorsal vertebra? have the 
neural spines well developed but not much elevated. In profile their ver- 
tical diameter is about equal to their anteroposterior, and the superior bor- 
der is squarely truncate. They diminish in height posteriorly. The 
spines are present at the lumbar vertebra?. The shafts of the ribs have 
a round section. The proximal portions are for a short distance abruptly 
incurved to the vertebral body. The distal extremity is pointed. The tissue 
is dense, and there is no medullary cavity. In the lumbar vertebra? the rib is 
much more slender, and is shorter. It is coossified with the centrum. The 
caudal vertebrae have strong diapophyses, which are acuminate and de- 
pressed. In the anterior caudals they are recurved at the extremity, but 
shorten rapidly posteriorly and are transverse. In the specimen they are all 
separated from the centrum by a fissure which appears to be too constant 
and too regular to be regarded as a fracture. I suspect therefore that the 
diapophyses are free, and are joined to the centrum by a simple truncate 
head, which has an outline nearly round. This view is confirmed by the 
presence on each side of the centrum of the median caudal vertebra?, of a 
bone which resembles the sesamoids of the feet of Mammalia, which is quite 
free from the centrum, and is applied longitudinally to its anterior half. 
It is probably the rudimental diapophysis. The posterior caudals have no 
diapophyses. The latter are the only ones in the specimen which are well 

The bodies of the caudal vertebra? have a low ridge in the place ot the 
fissure which is seen in some other specimens to divide them into equal an- 
terior and posterior halves. The entire centrum is longer than deep or 
wide, and is a little deeper than wide in section. The neural arch is 
divided into two parts by the characters of the surface. The anterior 
half is swollen and roughened by minute pits, and is separated from the 
less prominent posterior half by a pair of small fossa?, one above the other. 
The neural spine stands entirely on the posterior half, and is thus widely 
removed from the prezygapophysis, which is above the anterior border of 

Cope.] 1^ [April 17, 

the centrum. The neural spine is slender and rather elevated, and is sub- 
cylindric at the base, and has a narrow compressed apex, with rounded 
extremity. The chevron bones are quite slender. 

The shaft of the femur is nearly straight, and its distal half is moderate- 
ly compressed from before backwards. The tibia is generally flattened. 
Its interosseous border is shorter than its internal border, and is strongly 
concave. The internal border is gently convex. The shaft is narrower than 
the proximal end, which is narrower than the distal end. The fibula has 
an enlarged subtriangular head. The shaft is gently curved, the concav- 
ity being, as in the case of the tibia, on the interosseous side. The inter - 
medio-calcaneum, or, according toBaur's view, the astragalocalcaneum, is 
much the largest bone of the foot. It has a truncate side in contact with 
the tibia, and a concave interosseous border. The rest of the outline is con- 
vex, with a slight truncation for the fibula, and one between the tibial 
border and the posterior notch. The greatest extent of the bone is trans- 
verse, and the greatest longitudinal diameter is in line with the fibula. The 
tibiale has a T-shaped outline, but the spaces below the transverse extrem- 
ity and the shaft are filled to the truncate narrower extremity of the shaft. 
The wide end also has the angles rounded off. The tarsals of the second 
row are longitudinal wide ovals, excepting the first, or internal, which is 

The extremities of the metatarsals are depressed ovals, and are wider 
than the middle of the shafts. The phalanges are more depressed. The 
metatarsals and phalanges of the fifth digit are the shortest, and the lengths 
of these elements steadily increase to the first. The phalanges of the first 
digit are lost excepting the first ; and the ungual pbalanges of the third, 
fourth and fifth are wanting. Adding the latter, we have the following 
number of phalanges for the digits from the second to the fifth conclusive, 

The anterior border of the pubes is concave, leaving a lateral convex 
border in front of the acetabulum. The pubes of opposite sides meet at an 
entrant right-angle. The external posterior angles of the ischia are rounded 
and prominent, since the posterior borders are oblique and meet each 
other at a deep entrant right-angle. 

Measurements of slab specimen. M. 

Length of a series of five consecutive dorsal vertebra. .041 

Length of second of this series 007 

Elevation " " " 015 

Length of neural spine of do 0065 

Elevation " " " to neural canal 009 

Diameters of a vertebra without spine \ l n „ 

<- transverse 0105 

Diameters of separate centrum of do. < n J* 

t- trans verse 004 

Length of chord of a rib ; apex restored 040 

Width of shaft of do. at middle 0035 

Diameters of a pubis 
Diameters of an ischium 

1885.1 [Cope. 

Measurements of slab specimen. M. 

Elevation of a lumbar vertebra with spine 017 

" " spine of do 006 

Width of centrum at base of ribs , 0075 

Length of rib 0152 

anteroposterior 014 

transverse 0176 

anteroposterior 019 

transverse 012 

Length of femur 038 

Diameters of shaft of femur at middle 004 

Length of tibia 025 

(proximal 005 
at middle 003 
distal 0055 

Width of sole, including tibia and fibula 0125 

" " intermediocalcaneum 009 

Lengthof " at middle 006 

"tibiale 007 

Width " " 005 

Length " tarsale 1 0038 

" II 0040 

" ", metatarsale 1 0175 

II 016 

III 014 

IV...., 012 

V 009 

" " second digit, minus end of unguis 036 

" " " " first phalange 0085 

" " " " second phalange 004 

" third phalange 0035 

" " ten proximal caudal vertebrae 075 

Transverse extent of diapophyses of second of do 040 

Length of six distal caudal centra 047 

Depth of one centrum of do 0037 

Elevation of neural arch with spine 0115 

" " " " without spine 003 

A number of vertebras are preserved on fragments of a softer rock of 
darker color than the specimen above described. It is possible that they 
belong to another species of the genus, as I observe some peculiarity in the 
caudal vertebra. The base of the neural spine is so robust as to cover the 
anterior section of the centrum, and does not therefore present the appear- 
ance of coming off from the posterior section alone, as is the case in the 
typical specimen. I have, however, not seen the arches of the anterior 
caudals of the latter. 
A marked character of the dorsal vertebras, is the appearance of hyperos- 

Cope.] 14: [April 17, 

tosis presented by the neural arch and its parts, and in some degree by 
the centrum. The outline of the latter viewed from below is barrel -shaped, 
and the space between the inferior surface of the centrum and the extrem- 
ity of the diapophysis is filled with osseous tissue, so as to be bounded by 
a nearly straight line connecting the points in question. The diapophyses, 
where not continued into ribs, are somewhat flattened cones. Tbe neura- 
pophyses are greatly thickened, having more than twice the transverse 
diameter of the small neural canal. The zygapophyses are mere ledges ; 
the prezygapophyses of the neurapophyses ; the postzygapophyses of the 
neural roof. The latter is expanded and thickened, an anterior thickening 
on each side, constituting the zygosphen. The neural spine is moderately 
a little elevated, and is compressed ; its base extending the length of the 
neural arch. The prezygapophyses are opposite the middle of the neural 
canal. The postzygapophyses are connected by a thin prolongation ot 
the roof of the neural canal, which is not interrupted in any of the ver- 
tebras at my disposal. 

The anterior caudal vertebra is flattened below, and has a median shal- 
low fossa. A large basis for a rib marks the upper part of the anterior 
half of the centrum, and below it is a low tuberosity. Between the latter, 
on the ? intercentral half, is a short accuminate tubercle directed forwards. 
The posterior articular face is supplemented by two facets below, as if for 
separate chevron bones. 

A more posterior caudal vertebra has a longer, and compressed centrum, 
without transverse processes or tubercles. The inferior surface has a ridge 
on each side, which are interrupted by the constriction already mentioned. 
Those of the posterior half are continued into coossified chevron bones. 
The postzygapophyses are more elevated on the dorsal vertebras, and the 
neural spine is robust and is directed strongly backwards. 

The surfaces of the dorsal vertebrae are smooth ; that of the anterior 
caudal is minutely punctate, and at some points wrinkled. 

Measurements of Vertebra. 

No. 1 (with rib). M. 

Total elevation 0125 

Elevation of centrum anteriorly 0040 

" to prezygapophysis 0055 

" " zygosphen 0070 

" " highest base of neural spine 0090 

Width of centrum anteriorly 0035 

" " prezygapophyses 0090 

No. 2 (without ribs). 

Total elevation 0160 

Length of centrum 0080 

Elevation to neural canal posteriorly 0038 

" "postzygapophyses 0058 

" " neural spine 0100 

1885.] ±tJ [Cope. 

Measurements of Vertebra,. 
No. 2 (without ribs). M. 

Width of centrum posteriorly 0040 

' ' at diapophyses inclusive 0180 

" " postzygapophyses 0100 

No. 3 (without rib). 

f longitudinal 0072 

Diameters centrum \ vertical anteriorly 0035 

(.transverse anteriorly 0035 

Width at diapophyses inclusive 0170 

' ' of postzygapophyses , . .0094 

No. 3 ; posterior caudal. 

Length centrum 0070 

Width at middle 0035 

■r.. *•<•♦/ vertical 0040 

Diameters centrum in front < nnAn 

( transverse 0040 

Elevation to postzygapophysis 0065 

Width of neural spine at postzygapophysis 00G5 

This species was probably of elongate form. Prof. Derby informs me 
that he has seen considerable series of consecutive vertebrae. The speci- 
mens sent me indicate that the size of the body is about equal to that of 
the fully grown Tejus lizards now inhabiting Brazil. 

The specimens are from four localities in the province of Sao Paolo ; 
viz : Rio Claro, Limeria, Itapetininga and Tiete. These localities are a 
considerable distance apart, and represent the considerable extent of the 
formation from which the bones have been procured. As a Lepidoden- 
dron and a Schizodus have been obtained from the same beds, they are 
probably of Carboniferous or Permian age. 

The specimen preserved on the slab belongs to the private collection of 
Madam Ribeira de Andrada, to whom science owes a debt of thanks for the 
opportunity of determining its characters which she has given by lend- 
ing it to the Museo Nacional. 


Hypos aurxjs derbianus, sp. nov. 

The genus Hyposaurus has been hitherto represented by but one well 
known species, the H. rodgersi Owen, of the green sand of Cretaceous 
No. 5, of New Jersey. Specimens in my possession demonstrate that 
the genus Hyposaurus belongs to the Teleosauridse, and that its nearest 
ally is the Steneosaurus of St. Hilaire. It differs from Metriorhynchus 
Meyer, in the presence of distinct lachrymal bones, and in the relatively 
small size of the prefontals. From Teleosaurus proper it differs in the 
robust size and vertical directions of the teeth. The orbits are vertical, and 
the sagittal region is a keel. In the H. rodgersi the frontal bone is nar- 
rower than in any of the species of Teleosauridse figured or described by 

Cope.] It) [April 17, 

Deslongchamps. The palatal foramina extend forwards to the line of the 
posterior maxillary teeth, and the anterior border is rounded, not acute as in 
most of the species of the family.* The specimens are not sufficiently com- 
plete to enable me to state postively the generic distinction from Steneo- 
saurus. In Teleosaurus the vertebral hypapophyses only appear on the 
first and second dorsal vertebra, while, as Owen observes,! they are pres- 
ent on many of the dorsals in Hyposaurus. This peculiarity, and the great 
contraction of the frontal bone, render it very probable that the genus is 
distinct from Steneosaurus, but the diagnostic character yet remains to be 

The Brazilian Hyposaurus is represented in the collection of the Museo 
Nacional, by the left malar and quadratojugal bones ; by a nearly entire 
lower jaw ; by several vertebra? from the middle and posterior parts of the 
column ; by a humerus ; a coracoid bone ; and by several dermal bones, 
all belonging to one individual. There are several isolated teeth of the 
same animal, and others which probably belong to the same species, as they 
closely resemble those which are contained in the lower jaw mentioned. 

The mandibular rami early unite into a long slender symphyseal por- 
tion. There are twenty alveoli in each, and only five of these are in the 
portion of the ramus which is posterior to the symphysis. The free por- 
tion of the ramus is compressed ; both of them are broken off from the coro- 
noid region, inclusive, posteriorly. The symphyseal region has a semi- 
circular section, which is a little angulate ; that is, is flattened laterally and 
below. The splenial bones appear on the inferior surface as far anteriorly 
as opposite to the fourth tooth from the beginning of the symphysis. The 
teeth have a lenticular section in the posterior part of the series, and the 
section becomes rounder, that of the first pair being entirely round. All 
display a more or less distinct cutting edge in front, and one opposite to 
it on the posterior face of the crown. The enamel surface is marked with 
rather close, straight, longitudinal ridges on the internal side of the crown. 
The middle of the external side is quite smooth. The crowns are acute at 
the apex and slightly recurved. Those of the more posterior teeth are 
shorter, becoming little higher than wide anteroposteriorly. 

Measurements of Ramus and Teeth. M. 

Length of symphysis 336 

Width at posterior end of symphysis 075 

Depth " " " 037 

( transverse 037 

Diameters symphysis at middle j vertical ^, [[.... .., .030 

f tr&nsvcrsG • ••• .043 

Diameters at second pair of teeth \ vert j ca i 021 

* These comparisons are rendered possible by the admirable monograph of 
these reptiles by M. Eudes Deslongchamps in Vol. x, Bulletin Soc. LinnCenne 
de Normandie, 1866. 

t Quarterly Journal, Qeol. Society, London, 1849, p. 383. 


17 / 

1885.1 Li |Cope. 

Measurements of Ramus and Teeth. M. 

Diameters of base of seventh J anteroposterior Oil 

tooth from end ( transverse 0085 

Length of crown of a loose tooth (same animal) 0225 

Diameters middle crown of a J anteroposterior 080 

loose tooth ( transverse ~. . . .050 

From these measurements it is evident that the anterior extremity of 
the lower jaw is not expanded. The teeth of the anterior pair are directed 
rather more anteriorly than exteriorly. At the symphysis a horizontal 
figure oo shaped fossa marks the junction of the splenial and dentary 
bones, and the inferior side of the former is grooved on the middle line tor 
15 mm. in front of the symphysis. 

The malar bone is elongate and strongly compressed, showing the great 
obliquity of the os quadratum. It sends upwards a postorbital branch, 
which is external as in other Teleosauridae, and not internal as in Croco- 
dilidse. The surface is marked with shallow longitudinal fossae like those 
of the lower jaw. Length from postorbital branch to quadratojugal, 
upper edge, .120 ; lower edge, .165; depth at middle, .024; thickness, .010. 

In the most anterior dorsal preserved, the diapophyses are entirely on 
the neurapophyses. The articular faces of the centrum are shallowly 
concave, and the sides between them are flattened but not very concave. 
The hypapophysis has a long compressed base, which ceases 10 mm. an- 
terior to the posterior extremity of the centrum. The neurapophysial 
suture is very little decurved in the middle. The diapophysis displays a 
capitular articular process, with small facet, which originates just above 
the suture with the centrum. The tubercular facet is at the extremity of 
a robust process, whose posterior edge originates near the posterior edge 
of the neurapophysis, and is wide at the base, enclosing a fossa. A sec- 
tion of the base of the diapophysis is subquadrate, with the superior or 
anterior angle rounded, and the inferior anterior produced downwards 
and forwards for the base of the capitular portion, like the tail of a comma. 
The general form of the tubercular part of the diapophysis is subcorneal. 
A convexity proceeds from its anterior base, its continuation forming the 
lateral convex face of the prezygapophysis. The latter is small, and its 
superior or articular face is on a level with the roof of the neural arch, 
thus having a rather low position. The arch rises steeply to the neural 
spine. The latter is moderately elevated, and is much compressed and 
thin, having a narrow anterior edge, and a posterior edge not quite so nar- 
row. The summit is not thickened, as is the case in Teleosaurus cadomen- 
sis, according to Deslongchamps, and is wide anteroposteriorly. Both 
anterior and posterior edges of the spine are a little thickened, and are 
medially grooved for a short distance above the neural canal. The neural 
canal is ample, and is a little wider than high at its anterior extremity. 

In a dorsal vertebra near that last described in the series, the capitular 
part of the diapophysis is carried nearer to the tubercular portion, and 
the base of the two combined is less robust, the section having an elon- 


Cope.] 1" [April 17, 

gate triangular outline, the base anterior. The capitular portion is still 
decurved so as to present below the tubercular, and is narrow. The pre- 
zygapophyses are small. The postzygapophyses are close together, and 
are separated by a deep groove. The articular faces are shallowly and 
equally concave, and are vertical to the long axis of the centrum. The 
hypapophysis occupies the anterior three-quarters of the middle line of 
the centrum. 

In a dorsal posterior to the one last described, the diapophysis is still 
more depressed at the base, which is oblique to the long axis by about 25°. 
The postzygapophyses are concave on their articular faces, the concavity 
extending as a shallow groove to the posterior base of the diapophysis. 
They are separated by a vertical groove of the base of the neural spine 
still deeper than in the vertebra last described. The centrum is less com- 
pressed than in those more anterior, and there is not even a keel to repre- 
sent the hypapophysis. The neural spine is less elevated than in the 
other dorsals described, and its summit is rounded off in front, and is 
compressed. The dorsal which precedes this one in the series is repre- 
sented by a centrum only. This has an inferior median angle represent- 
ing the hypapophysis. 

An anterior caudal has a diapophysis of medium length, depressed, and 
when viewed from above, displaying an outline of an elongate cone with 
truncate apex. The zygapophyses are fairly well developed, and the 
neural spine is large, especially anteroposteriorly. The chevron facets 
are large and close together. The median line of the inferior face of the 
centrum is concave. The articular faces of the centrum are slightly con- 
cave, and the anterior is deeper than wide. 

Measurements of Vertebra. M. 

Total elevation of No. 1 114 

Diameters of centrum posteriorly \ ver ica 

I transverse 039 

c vertical 0^7 

Diameters neural canal posteriorly ] 

(transverse 023 

From centrum to face of postzygapophysis 031 

Length centrum at base neural canal 048 

Anteroposterior width neural spine above postzyga- 
pophyses 040 

^ anteroposterior 049 

Diameters centrum dorsal No. 2 1 vertical (front) 037 

' transverse (front) 038 

Length diapophysis from base, below 038 

Width at postzygapophyses, inclusive 030 

{anteroposterior 048 
vertical (behind) 040 
transverse (behind) 040 

Diameters neural canal posteriorly \ vert,cal 015 

I- transverse 018 

1885.] 1^ [Cope. 

Measurements of Vertebra. M. 

Elevation neural spine from canal 054 

Length diapophysis below 038 

Width at postzygapophyses 030 

(anteroposterior 045 
vertical (front) 037 
transverse (front) 035 

Length diapophysis below 033 

Width at postzygaphyses 023 

Length of base neural spine above postzygapophyses. . . .030 

The coracoid bone has an expanded proximal extremity, which contracts 
on the external side abruptly, into a slender shaft which continues to the 
distal end, which is but little expanded. The coracoid foramen is well 
within the external border, and is small. The distal end is flattened below, 
and has a convex margin. The shaft has an oval section. This element 
is much more slender than in the Alligator mississippiensis, and even more 
so than in the Teleosaurus eadomensis, according to Deslongchamps. 

Measurements of Coracoid. M. 

Total length 165 

Long diameter of proximal end 065 

Thickness of proximal end at glenoid facet 023 

Diameter of shaft \ vertical °J° 

c transverse 015 

Width of distal end 0295 

The humerus is rather elongate, and is but little curved. The head is 
directed a little inwards and forwards, and the condyles (which are lost) 
a little backwards. The section of the shaft is nearly round from below 
the deltoid crest to near the condyles. The head is flattened and its artic- 
ular extremity is convex and narrow. Near the internal border of the 
anterior side is a shallow fossa. The deltoid crest is elongate, and lies on 
the external edge of the posterior face. Its elevation increases distal, 
i. e., to a point nearly two-fifths the length from the head. 

Measurements of Humerus. M. 

Length of part preserved 220 

Diameters of head 5 anteroposterior 019 

C transverse 051 

Diameters shaft 3 cm. below crest {anteroposterior... .025 

». transverse 027 

General Remarks. — The characters of this species are much like those 
of H. rodgersi, so far as they are known. I observe the following differ- 
ences on comparison with several individuals of that species. The artic- 
ular faces of the vertebral centra, are less concave than in the Northern 
species. The symphyseal part of the mandible is a part of a cylinder in 
the H. rodgersi, while it is flattened below and at the sides in the Brazilian 

Cope.] -^ [April 17 

species. The bones of the limbs are relatively less robust in the II. derbi- 
anus.* The differences, especially in the humerus, are well marked. 

I name this species in honor of Prof. Orville A. Derby, in charge of the 
department of Geology in the Museo National of Brazil. 



The incisors of the first and second places of the upper jaw, represent 
this species. Comparison with the corresponding teeth of the known 
species, reveals well-marked distinctive characters. 

The incisor of the median pair has greater transverse, and less antero- 
posterior, diameter than in any of the known species. Its diameters are 
uniform. The cutting edge is five and a half times as long transversely 
as it is auteroposteriorly. The anterior enameled face has two planes, a 
wide exterior one which is concave, and a narrower inner one which re- 
treats inwards, and is plane to the convex inner (median) edge. The 
enamel extends round the narrow external edge, but disappears at the 
middle of the inner beveled faces. The angle between the two faces 
forms a rib, parallel with the borders of the tooth. No enamel on the 
internal face. Enamel surface with rather coarse obsolete longitudinal 

The external incisor is a robust, prismatic, rodent-like tooth, strongly 
curved. Its section is triangular, the posterior (enameled) face being 
convex. The external face is flat, and its plane forms less than a right 
angle with the anterior face, from which it is separated by a convex inter- 
mediate surface. The prominence of the latter causes the anterior face to 
be slightly concave. The angle is the most prominent portion of the cut- 
ting edge. The enamel ceases a little short of the narrow internal edge 
of the tooth ; its surface is marked with obsolete longitudinal grooves. 

Measurements of Teeth. M. 

First incisor. 

r vertical 080 

Diameters of crown J transverse 059 

I . . fat middle Oil 

anteroposterior { 

L (- at angle 015 

Width of internal level 022 

Second incisor. 

(vertical on curve 150 
transverse 033 
anteroposterior (externally) 021 

This species is as large as the Toxodon platensis Owen. As compared 
with that animal, the median incisors have much greater transverse ex- 
tent, and relatively smaller anteroposterior diameter. These teeth are 

♦For figures of humerus and femur of IT. rodgersi, see Transac. Amer. Philos. 
Soc. xiv, PI. iv, figs. 10-11, 1879. 

1886.] "■*■ rstokes. 

still more different from those of 1. burmeisteri. The external incisors 
are, on the other hand, more like those of the latter species in their trian- 
gular form, though their inner angle is not produced as in that species. 

Explanation of Plate. 

The figures represent the Stereosterum tumidum in various pieces ; all of 
the natural size excepting fig. 1, which is three-fourths natural size. 

• Fig. 1. The typical specimen on a slab of calcareous shale of the car- 
boniferous formation ; the anterior part of the skeleton wanting ; viewed 
from below, nc, notochordal canal exposed by the splitting of the verte- 
bral centrum. 

Fig. 2. Vertebrse in a piece of weathered rock of darker color than the 

Fig. 3. A lumbar vertebra from the piece of matrix represented in fig. 
2, anterior view ; a, inferior view 

Fig. 4. A caudal vertebra from the same piece of stone, left side ; a, in- 
ferior side. 

Fig. 5. A dorsal vertebra with proximal portions of ribs embracing the 
centrum ; from a different piece of matrix. 

Fig. 6. A vertebra of uncertain position, with descending processes, an - 
terior view ; a, the same lateral view. 

Fig. 7. Humerus, the proximal portion represented by a mould ; from a 
separate piece. 

Fig. 8. Coracoid bone from a separate piece. 

All the specimens are preserved in Museo National of Rio Janeiro, ex- 
cepting that represented in fig. 1, which is in the collection of Madame 
Ribeira de Andrada. 

Some new Hypotrichosis Infusoria. By Dr. Alfred O. Stokes. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, June 19, 1885.) 

Wet Sphagnum seems to be a favorite haunt for certain fresh-water pro- 
tozoa. Dr. Leidy found it an unfailing source of supply for many of the 
Rhizopoda, some of the most interesting forms described by that illustrious 
naturalist being obtained from a little bunch of the moss. In my own 
vicinage the beautiful plant is comparatively rare, but a single marsh of 
not extended dimensions does happily exist here, with the pale Sphagnum 
in some abundance greenly glimmering beneath the shallow water, while 
the shadows of elder, azalea and serviceberry, and the broad leaves of 
tangled smilax vines make the neighboring thicket dim and cool even 
when the hot sun smites the furrowed field that borders it. Among these 
pleasing surroundings the Rhizopoda are in numbers excelled only by the 
Infusoria, as the following previously undescribed forms testify. And it is 

Stokes.] 22 [j un e 19, 

a fact worthy of note that the greater proportion of the Infusoria thus far 
there obtained belong to one family, the Oxytrichidae of Ehrenberg. 

With the exception of certain forms mentioned in this paper, there are 
but four genera included in the Oxytrichidae without that posterior cluster 
of appendages named from their position the anal styles. Their presence 
or absence is therefore of diagnostic value. It is their absence that sep- 
arates Hemicycliostyla from Urostyla, which it otherwise closely resembles, 
even in form and movements. Its position in the family group is evidently 
lower than that of Urostyla, simply because these posterior ventral appen- 
dages have not been developed, 

Hemicycliostyla (jj/j-ckukXco^^ semicircular; aruluq^ a style), gen. nov. 
Animalcules free-swimming, more or less elongate-ovate, soft, flexible and 
elastic, the extremities rounded ; frontal styles twenty or more, arranged 
in two more or less semicircular rows ; adoral ciliary fringe beginning near 
the center of the right-hand side of the peristome-field ; ventral surface 
entirely clothed with fine setae arranged in closely approximated longitu- 
dinal rows ; anal styles absent ; contractile vesicle single or double ; 
nucleus multiple. 

Hemicycliostyla sphagni, sp. nov. (Figl). Body elongate-ovate, soft, flex- 
ible and extensile, four times as long as broad, widest behind the center ; 
tapering to the rounded posterior extremity and to the convex, narrower 
frontal extremity which is curved toward the left-hand side ; frontal styles 
about twenty, in two semicircular rows ; marginal setae not differing from 
the ventral, scarcely projecting beyond the body-margin except at the 
posterior border ; peristome-field confined to the anterior third of the ven- 
tral surface, the right-hand margin ciliate and bearing a membrane ; ado- 
ral cilia short ; nucleus multiple, the nodules ovate or subspherical, small, 
numerous and scattered ; contractile vesicle double, spherical, placed near 
the left-hand side of the anterior body-half ; anal aperture dorsal, near the 
posterior extremity ; parenchyma vacuolar ; hispid dorsal setae small. 
Length of body 1-50 to 1-60 inch. Habitat. — Marsh water, with Sphag- 

There is another form (Fig. 2) resembling this in a general way, but 
readily distinguishable from it, not only in shape and size, but chiefly by 
the presence of a single contractile vesicle, the greater abundance of the 
nuclear nodules, the absence of vacuolar spaces within the endoplasm, 
and the development of a conspicuous series of par-oral cilia on the inner 
edge of the left-hand border of the peristome-field. The body is also less 
extensile than in H. sphagni, and the Infusorian is somewhat less active in 
its movements. In both the endoplasm is usually made dark and almost 
opaque by the great quantity of granular matter crowding it centrally. 

Hemicycliostlya trichota, sp. nov. (Fig. 2). Body elongate-ovate, some- 
what extensile, about three times as long as broad, widest posteriorly, ta- 
pering to the anterior extremity, which is slightly curved toward the left- 
hand side ; frontal styles and ventral setae essentially as in H. sphagni; 
peristome-field confined to the anterior half of the ventral surface, a series 

1885.] £S [Stokes. 

of par-oral cilia developed on the left-hand margin, a membrane and a 
pra3-oral ciliary fringe on the right-hand border ; nucleus multiple, the 
nodules small, ovate or sub-spherical, scattered throughout the entire body ; 
contractile vesicle single, spherical, near the center of the left-hand side of 
the peristome-field; immotile hispid dorsal setae very small and fine ; par- 
enchyma not vacuolar. Length of body 1-60 inch. Habitat. —Marsh water, 
with Sphagnum. 

In Urostyla gigas (Fig. 3) we have the largest member of the genus and 
a giant among Infusoria. Its movements too are correspondingly slow, 
with much doubling and twisting of the body. And its appetite seems 
also in proportion to its size, very little that can be forced through the oral 
aperture coming amiss, even angular grains of sand being occasionally 
swept into the endoplasm. 

The parenchyma is as conspicuously vacuolar as in Hemicycliostyla 
sphagni, the trabecular structure being most extensively developed at the 
extremities. This condition is constant, none of the numerous individuals 
observed being without it. In appearance it resembles the similar condi- 
tion of the parenchyma in Loxodes rostrum Ehr. and Trachelitis ovum Ehr., 
probably being nearer that of the former, inasmuch as the pseudo-cellular 
structure does not vary in the same individual, at least while under obser- 
vation, whereas in Trachelius ovum changes in size, position and arrange- 
ment of the trabecular are frequently made under the eye of the investi- 
gator, and two individuals are seldom captured with precisely the same 
plan of vacuolar distribution. But with U. gigas from this vicinity, one 
arrangement seems quite general and constant. Whether this will obtain 
in others from a different locality is conjectural. 

The nuclei are wonderfully numerous. I have found it impossible to 
count them with the same result twice in succession, since they are not only 
irregularly distributed in different planes, but because the animalcule's 
writhing and twisting movements make such attempts impracticable. 
They number, however, from forty to sixty. That they are connected by a 
funiculus, either in the present forms or in Hemicycliostyla sphagni or 
H. trichota, I have been unable to ascertain. But if a connecting thread 
exists, it must be very frail, since the nuclear nodules float out freely and 
separately from the disintegrated dead body. 

Aside from these peculiarities the Inf usorian can be easily recognized by 
the arrangement of the double row of curved vibratile seta? on the poste- 
rior extremity. They add much to the creature's attractiveness, and when 
quiescent are about the first part of the great Infusorian to catch the eye. 

Urostyla gigas, sp. nov. (Fig. 3). Body elongate, extensile, very soft 
and flexible, when extended five times as long as broad, widest centrally, 
tapering toward both extremities, the posterior rounded and slightly 
curved toward the left-hand side, the anterior narrower, rounded and 
curved toward the right hand side ; frontal styles five or six ; ventral seta? 
clothing the entire lower surface in closely approximated lines ; anal styles 
six, small, slender, fimbriated, not projecting beyond the body ; marginal 

Stokes.] J& [June 19, 

setae longest and most abundantly developed about the posterior extremity, 
the right-hand border of which bears two oblique rows of long arcuate 
vibratile setae, one series originating on the dorsal surface ; peristome-field 
confined to the anterior one-fourth of the ventral surface, the right-hand 
border ciliate, and an endoral series depending centrally ; contractile vesi- 
cle single, spherical, on the left-hand side of the peristome-field ; nucleus 
multiple ; anal aperture opening on the dorsal surface at some distance 
from the posterior extremity ; parenchyma vacuolar ; hispid immotile dor- 
sal setae short. Length of extended body 1-30 inch. Habitat. — Marsh 
water, with Sphagnum. 

Another species of this same genus (Fig 4), resembling the preceding, 
yet sufficiently dissimilar to warrant the formation of a new specific title 
for its reception, is not uncommon in the Sphagnum. It, too, is compara- 
tively gigantic, but the general aspect, aside from minute structural char- 
acteristics, renders it readily recognizable. The posterior portion is pro- 
longed as a broad tail-like continuation, a feature thus far restricted to 
this member alone of the Urostylae. The right-hand postero-lateral border of 
this part supports a single series of long arcuate setae similar to the double 
row on V. gigas, the contractile vesicles are ten to twelve in number, and 
the peristomal structure is distinctive. To accurately ascertain the number 
of the pulsating vacuoles is almost as difficult as to count the number of 
nuclear nodules, but there are not less than ten nor more than twelve, 
their presence at once separating the Infusorian from all the species and 
making necessary a slight change in the generic diagnosis as it now stands. 
This form I have named Urostyla caudata. 

Urostyla caudata, sp. nov. (Fig. 4). Body elongate-elliptical, soft, flex- 
ible and extensile, five times as long as broad, widest centrally, the ante- 
rior extremity rounded and curved toward the left-hand side, the posterior 
portion narrowed into a straight, broad tail-like prolongation ; frontal 
styles about twenty ; ventral setae clothing the entire ventral surface in 
closely approximated longitudinal lines ; anal styles eight to ten, long, 
slender, in an oblique row, usually projecting beyond the body ; marginal 
setae projecting posteriorly and developed on the right-hand border of the 
posterior extremity as a single obliqie series of long arcuate setae ; peris- 
tome-field confined to the anterior third of the lower surface, the left hand 
margin finely ciliate in addition to the adoral fringe, the right-hand border 
bearing a membrane and a prae-oral ciliary series ; nucleus multiple, the 
nodules numerous, scattered ; contractile vesicles multiple, arranged in a 
row along the left-hand body-margin ; parenchyma vacuolar ; anal aper- 
ture opening on the dorsal surface near the posterior extremity. Length 
of body 1-40 inch. Habitat. — Marsh water, with sphagnum. 

Previously to the capture of the three forms ot Holosticha here referred 
to, but a single fresh-water species had been recorded. The structure of 
these additional sweet-water members of the genus will necessitate a change 
in the generic description, since the peristomal membrane, the increased 
number of frontal styles in Z7. hymmophora and U. similis, and the double 

Proc.Jhn..PhilSoc. . V? 121. 

Januart/ I8W 

Ha/) ob 'it ■// ovs Tnfuso / < a 

1885.] ->& [Stokes. 

contractile vesicle of the former, have not been previously noticed, while 
a moniliforrn nucleus is thus far restricted to H. similis. 

Holosticha caudata, sp. nov. (Fig. 5). Body elongate, eight times as 
long as broad, soft and flexible, widest centrally, constricted near the 
apical extremity of the peristome-field, widened anteriorly, tapering pos- 
teriorly in a tail-like prolongation, the tip somewhat dilated and curved 
toward the right-band side ; anterior border rounded, lip narrow, cres- 
centic ; frontal styles three ; ventral setae in two straight median rows, 
those on the right-hand side largest ; anal styles five, slender, the extremi- 
ties often fimbriated ; marginal setae numerous, large, flattened, projecting 
and most abundantly developed at the posterior border ; peristome-field 
confined to the anterior one-fifth of the ventral surface, the right-hand 
margin finely ciliate and bearing an undulating membrane ; contractile 
vesicle single, spherical, near the left-hand side of the apical extremity of 
the peristome ; anal aperture dorsal near the beginning of the tail-like 
prolongation ; immotile dorsal hispid setae numerous, long and fine. 
Length of body 1-50 inch. Habitat. — Marsh water, with Sphagnum. 

In Holosticha hymenophora (Fig. 6), a sub-terminal anal aperture exists 
and has been noticed several times, but whether on the ventral or dorsal 
surface was impossible to positively determine, as the Infusorian in each 
instance happened to be rapidly rotating on the long diameter, and the 
aperture opened and closed before the focus could be changed. My im- 
pression, however, is that it is dorsal, and I have no hesitation in predict- 
ing that the cytopyge will be observed in that position, not only among 
those described in this paper where the dorsal position is the rule, but with 
many of the Hypotricha, even with those common and seemingly best- 
known forms in which so important a structural point ought to have been 
observed long ago. An instance occurs in Oxytricha platystoma (Ehr.) 
S. K., where the writer has seen the anal aperture on the dorsal surface at 
the left-hand side of the median line and some distance from the posterior 
extremity. That it should become developed on the upper surface is cer- 
tainly a satisfactory and a beautiful adaptation. The lower aspect is 
needed for the support of the ambulatory organs and anal styles, the pos- 
terior extremity is occupied by a luxuriant growth of marginal setae, with 
usually one or more supplementary rows of similar appendages, while the 
dorsum is either entirely naked or only the bearer of immotile hispid hairs, 
which can be temporarily crowded out of position, or even permanently 
displaced, without inconvenience or injury to the Infusorian. 

Holosticha hymenophora, sp. nov. (Fig. 6). Body elliptical, three to four 
times as long as broad, soft, flexible and somewhat extensile, narrowed 
anteriorly and slightly curved toward the left-hand side ; lip prominent, 
crescentic ; frontal styles five ; ventral setae in two straight closely approx- 
imated median rows ; the left-hand series beginning at the apical extremity 
of the peristome ; anal styles five, straight, slender, in an oblique row, the 
first or right-hand one slightly projecting beyond the body ; marginal setae 
longest and projecting posteriorly ; peristome-field extending for one-third 


Stokes.] *fo [June 19, 

the length of the body, the right-hand border nearly straight, finely ciliate 
and bearing an undulating membrane ; contractile vesicle double, near 
the center of the left-hand body-margin ; nucleus double, ovate ; anal 
aperture sub-terminal, presumably dorsal ; immotile hispid dorsal setae 
short. Length of body, 1-125 to 1-150 inch. Habitat. — Shallow pools in 
early spring. 

The form which I have named Holosticha similis (Fig. 7), is readily dif- 
ferentiated from all other species by the moniliform nucleus. Usually the 
nodules are arranged in a single row, but individuals occur not uncom- 
monly with a double row, all the component nodules of each series tben 
being in contact laterally. Here also the anal aperture is dorsal. 

Holosticha similis, sp. nov. (Fig. 7). Body elongate-ovate, soft, flexible 
and somewhat extensile, more than four times as long as broad, the poste- 
rior extremity rounded, the anterior narrower, rounded, slightly curved 
toward the left-hand side ; peristome-field oblique, confined to the anterior 
third of the lower surface, narrow, ovate, the right hand margin ciliate; 
frontal styles about fourteen ; ventral setae in two straight median rows ; 
anal styles twelve to fourteen, slender, in a long oblique row, only the 
most posterior ones projecting beyond the body ; marginal setae conspicu- 
ous, longest, most abundantly developed and projecting at the posterior 
border ; contractile vesicle single, spherical, on the left-hand side of the 
apical termination of the peristome-field ; nucleus moniliform, the nodules 
ovate or subspherical, in a single or double row, placed near the left-hand 
body-margin ; anal aperture dorsal, near the posterior extremity ; dorsal 
inmotile hispid setae small and fine. Length of body, 1-130 inch. Hab- 
itat. — Marsh water, with Sphaghum. 

The following animalcule is rather slow in its movements, especially 
when in contact with debris or algal filaments, then resting for a time, 
commonly with the dorsal surface upward, a position giving the observer 
an opportunity to study the numerous hispid setae projecting from that 
part, but effectually concealing the more important arrangement of ventral 
styles and setae. When it has reversed its position, the ventral setae are 
seen to conspicuously differ in size in the two median rows, as well as in 
numbers. This difference is not uncommon in members of its genus 
(Uroleptus), but here it is unusually well marked. A similar difference 
also exists between the right and left-hand marginal setae, the former being 
abundant and remarkably flat. This is unusual. 

In many Infusoria the body is prolonged anteriorly as a narrow cres- 
cent, usually styled the upper lip. In many of these I believe this to be a 
continuation of the ventral plane and consequently to be in reality a 
lower lip. Such is the case with Uroleptus dispar, as shown in diagram- 
matic outline in figure 9. 

Uroleptus dispar, sp. nov. (Figs 8 and 9). Body elongate-oblanceolate, 
elastic, four to five times as long as broad, widest centrally, tapering pos- 
teriorly and terminating in a narrow, flattened, tail-like prolongation ; 
anterior region depressed ; frontal border rounded, the ventral surface 

1885.] ** rstokes. 

prolonged anteriorly as a short, projecting crescentic lip ; peristome-field 
extending for about one-third the entire length of the body, the right-hand 
bolder ciliate and apparently having a narrow band-like undulating mem- 
brane ; ventral seta? in two median lines continued to the termination of 
the caudal prolongation, those of the right-hand series largest and most 
numerous ; marginal seta? large, projecting beyond the body-margin ante- 
riorly on the right-hand side, and about the caudal extremity where they 
are longest and most abundantly developed, those of the right-hand body 
margin largest and conspicuously flattened ; frontal styles three ; contrac- 
tile vesicle single, spherical, near the center of the left-hand border ; 
nucleus double, ovate ; dorsal aspect bearing a median and an uninter- 
rupted marginal series of immotile hispid setae ; anal aperture opening on 
the dorsal surface near the beginning of the caudal prolongation. Length 
of body, 1-180 to 1-150 inch. Habitat. — Fresh water. 

Another member of the preceding genus, whose habitat is the Sphagnum 
swamp, is so distinctive in form that the diagnosis and figure (Fig. 10) are 
alone needed for its recognition. It is one of the most active of all the 
usually frisky members of the genus, darting out of the field, frequently 
swimming backward at the moment, so as to make its study rather diffi- 
cult. It is very flexible and elastic, and at the same time one of the 
brightest, most graceful and beautiful of the handsome group. The 
extended body is delineated, in Fig. 10, as well as the absence of color, 
life and motion permit. 

Uroleptuslongicaudatus, sp. nov. Body narrowly sub-fusiform, elongate, 
about eight times as long as broad, extensile, widest centrally, tapering 
posteriorly to a long, narrow, attenuate tail-like prolongation forming one- 
third the length of the entire body ; anteriorly constricted into a neck- 
like portion, the frontal region expanded and rounded ; lip narrowly cres- 
centic ; frontal styles three ; marginal setae large, flattened, projecting, long 
est and most abundantly developed about the caudal prolongation and 
posterior extremity ; ventral setae in two closely approximated median 
rows, one only continued through the caudal prolongation ; peristome- 
field confined to the anterior fifth of the lower surface, the right-hand 
border bearing a narrow membrane ; contractile vesicle single, spherical, 
near the left-hand border of the neck-like constriction ; nucleus double, 
ovate ; anal aperture dorsal, near the beginning of the tail-like prolonga- 
tion ; hispid dorsal setae forming several longitudinal rows. Length of 
extended body, 1-120 inch. Habitat. — Marsh water, with Sphagnum. 

Among the Hypotrichous Infusoria canal-like contractile vesicles are 
comparatively rare, but a spherical pulsating vacuole with canal-like diver- 
ticula, somewhat resembling that of Stentor, has been observed only in the 
animalcule here referred to under the name of Eschaneustyla brachytona. 
In Spirostomum the canal-like contractile vesicle possesses an enlargement 
at its posterior termination ; in Stentor the single spherical vacuole gives off 
one branch which encircles the peristome-field, and another that extends 
along one lateral border, thus presenting a likeness to what obtains in this 

Stokes.] ^" [June 19, 

Hypotrichous animalcule, where the pulsating channel is interrupted by 
two spherical vacuoles. 

The proper position of the following Infusorian in a scheme of classifi- 
cation would probably be before the next one to be noticed, both then 
immediately preceding Uroleptus. From both the genera the anal styles 
are absent, and in Eschaneustyla the ventral setae, which are of vital im- 
portance in generic diagnosis, exhibit an arrangement not previously 
observed in the family group. In form it most nearly approaches Urostyla, 
for which it might readily be mistaken under insufficient amplification. 

Eschaneustyla (s^arta, the furthest part; avsu } without; arukoq, a 
style), gen. nov. Animalcules free-swimming, elliptical or ovate, not 
encuirassed ; frontal styles numerous, more or less uncinate ; ventral setae 
in three unequal longitudinal lines ; anal styles none ; marginal setae unin- 
terrupted ; contractile vesicle canal-like, near the left-hand border. Inhab- 
iting fresh water. 

Eschaneustyla brachytona, sp. nov. (Fig. 11). Body elongate-ovate, soft, 
flexible and somewhat extensile, three and one-half to four times as long 
as broad, both extremities usually rounded, the anterior the narrower, 
somewhat curved toward the left-hand side, a slight constriction beneath 
the frontal border ; peristome-field arcuate, narrow, oblique, confined to 
the anterior third of the ventral surface, the posterior termination widest, 
deepest and curved toward the right-hand side, the right-hand border 
finely ciliate ; frontal styles about twenty-five, in oblique lines, two or 
three supplementary styles forming the first row ; ventral setae in three 
unequal series, the right-hand row shortest, the central line longest but not 
extending to the posterior extremity ; no anal styles ; marginal setae unin- 
terrupted, longest and projecting at the posterior border only ; contractile 
vesicle canal-like, extending along the entire left-hand body-margin, inter- 
rupted anteriorly by two spherical or sub fusiform dilatations, one near the 
posterior termination of the peristome-field, the other near the center of 
the lateral body margin ; nucleus not observed ; anal aperture postero- 
terminal. Length of body, 1-112 to 1-150 inch. Habitat. — Standing 
water, with dead leaves. 

The last form to be here mentioned is one apparently bridging the space 
between Holosticha and Uroleptus. In general appearance, in the arrange- 
ment of the ventral appendages and the conspicuously flattened marginal 
setae it recalls the latter. The caudal appendage is not constant, therein 
differing from and separating the Infusorian from the invariably caudate 
Uroleptus. In this soft and variable posterior extremity it has a peculi- 
arity not possessed by the remainder of the body, and not possessed by 
any member of the highly organized group to which the creature belongs. 
This posterior extremity is changeable in form. When first observed 
the part may be conspicuously bifid, soon to give place to an obtusely 
pointed, a truncate or an evenly rounded tip, or, as seen in a single 
instance and illustrated in figure 13, one point of the bifurcation may be 
extended in a way to suggest a pseudopodium, with a bulbous termina- 

1885.] "" [Stokes. 

tion, the whole to be finally withdrawn into a rounded, emarginate or 
otherwise modified border. Consequently the Infusorian has the ability, 
by the extrusion of a caudal prolongation, to come very close to a Uro- 
leptus, and by the withdrawal of the tail to return to its proper generic 

The lamelliform marginal setae, as they approach the posterior extremity, 
gradually leave the ventro-lateral border and are developed on the dorsal 
surface in a single row passing about the posterior part at a sbort distance 
from the margin. The utility of this arrangement it is difficult to imagine, 
unless it is to accommodate the anal aperture. Near the center of the 
dorsal aspect, in addition to the numerous, immotile hispid hairs arranged 
in longitudinal lines, there are developed three long flattened setae, volun- 
tarily vibratile and resembling those on the body-margin. Such an addi- 
tion to the dorsum of an Hypotrichous Infusorian has not been previously 
observed. If somewhat more luxuriantly developed, these dorsal appen- 
dages might, indeed in their present condition they do, lead to interesting 
suggestions in respect to the affinities of the Infusorian and its order with 
the Heterotricha. 

The large adoral cilia somewhat abruptly change their position in rela- 
tion to the peristome-field as they approach the center of the left-hand 
border, the free extremities of those most anterior being directed toward 
the body-margin, while the tips of the posterior ones are vibrated above 
the peristome-field, the alteration at the point of transition being quite 
sudden. I have long suspected that this might be the arrangement in 
other peristomal Infusoria, but have not been previously able to demon- 
strate it. 

In its movements the creature is erratic. Remaining for a time quietly 
lying with the ventral aspect upwards, suddenly with a lunge like that ot 
a microscopic cetacean it rolls over, and exposes the dorsal surface only to 
almost immediately begin a series of wild and grotesque backward tum- 
blings, varying these acrobatic performances by rapid backward swim- 
ming, occasionally throwing a backward somersault. It was the broad 
marginal setae and these curious movements that suggested the name as 
the flat-haired animalcule that tumbles over backward. 

Platytrichotus {^Xaruq^ broad ; rp^ioru^^ haired), gen. nov. Animal- 
cules free-swimming, soft and flexible, more or less flask-shaped, widest 
and inflated posteriorly, narrowest and depressed anteriorly, the ventral 
surface flattened ; frontal styles five, uncinate ; ventral setae in two straight 
median lines ; anal styles none ; marginal setae broad, flat, uninterrupted ; 
nucleus single ; contractile vesicle single, near the center of the left-hand 
border. Inhabiting fresh water. 

Platytrichotus opisthobolus, sp. nov. (Fig. 12). Body flask-shaped, less 
than three times as long as broad ; frontal margin rounded, lip narrow, 
crescentic ; posterior extremity soft and changeable in shape, obtusely 
pointed, emarginate, bifid, but usually evenly rounded ; frontal styles five ; 
ventral setae in two median rows, increasing in length posteriorly, those 

Genth.J 30 [Oct. 2, 

of the right-hand series largest and most numerous ; marginal seta? large, 
lamelliform, obliquely truncate, projecting beyond the right-hand body- 
margin, the posterior ones continued across the posterior part of the dorsal 
aspect ; peristome- field extending to the center of the ventral surface, the 
left-hand margin with a series of fine par-oral cilia, the right-hand border 
ciliate and bearing a membrane ; contractile vesicle single, spherical, near 
the center of the left-hand border ; nucleus single, large, ovate, in the 
posterior body-half ; anal aperture postero-terminal ; dorsal surface bear- 
ing numerous long hispid hairs in longitudinal lines and three large vibra- 
tile setae developed anteriorly. Length of body, 1-145 inch. Habitat. — 
Marsh water, with Sphagnum. 

Contributions from the Laboratory of the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

No. XXIV. 


By F. A. Genth. 

{Bead before the American Philosophical Society, October 2, 1SS5.) 

During the last two or three years numerous mineralogical observations 
have been made, some of which I had intended to investigate more fully, 
but, as I fear that the time which this would require would delay, if not 
altogether prevent their publication, I give in the following the more in- 
teresting : 

1. Tin, and associated Minerals. 

A highly interesting occurrence of native tin is that at the headwaters 
of several rivers in New South Wales. About a year ago Dr. Samuel B. 
Howell presented me with a specimen, and afterwards sent with another 
the following letter, giving fuller information about its occurrence : 

"The washings I gave you sometime back came from Aberfoil river, 
"about fifteen miles from the town of Oban, N. S. Wales. There is with- 
" in two or three miles a very valuable diamond field, where corundum 
" gems are common. The specimens I now send you are from the Sam 
" river, which runs through the above-mentioned diamond field, twenty 
" miles from the other locality. These rivers are the headwaters of the 
"Clarence river, which empties into the South Pacific ocean. From this 
"locality I have detected platinum, iridosmine, tin and gold ; the mineral 
"formation appears to be the same." 

Both specimens showed the same association of minerals. 

1885.] **1 [Genth. 

Tin. — The tin exists in the form of irregular, somewhat globular grains 
or aggregations of such grains; they are distinctly crystalline, from 0.1 to 
rarely over l mm in size. When magnified 60 diameters they appear to be of 
an uneven surface, showing planes which are too indistinct, however, for 
determining their form. They are grayish-white and of metallic lustre. It 
was impossible to select enough of the pure grains to determine their 
specific gravity or to make a quantitative analysis. A portion, treated 
with hydrochloric acid, dissolved readily with disengagement of hydro- 
gen, leaving fine scales of iridosmine behind. Not a trace of any other 
metal but tin could be found in the solution. 

Platinum. — The sample from the Aberfoil river yielded only a very mi- 
nute quantity of platinum, when the portion insoluble in hydrochloric 
acid was treated with aqua regia, whilst that from the Sam river contained 
a considerable amount of this metal. 

The grains of platinum are of irregular shape, mostly flattened. Aqua 
regia dissolves some of the grains very slowly, leaving a crystalline skele- 
ton of very fine scales, probably of iridosmine. Other grains are hardly 
acted upon and are probably iridium or platin-iridium. The solution con- 
tained principally platinum, but also iridium and palladium. 

Iridosmine. — The so-called iridosmine seems to be present, both as new- 
janskite in tin white, flat scales and as sisserskite in grayish- white or lead- 
colored scales. Some of the scales are indistinct hexagonal plates, but 
mostly have an irregular shape. 

Gold. — The gold which I have observed in these washings is associated 
with quartz and of a deep yellow color, showing its high degree of fine- 

Copper. — The Sam river washings contain fine particles of native copper 
in the wire form. 

Cassiterite. — I have observed this mineral more largely in the Aberfoil 
river sample ; it is mostly in small, rounded grains, the largest about 10 mm 
in size; some are of a deep aurora red color, others are hyacinth red, red- 
dish-brown or variegated, black, red and white ; crystals could not be ob- 

Corundum. — Sapphires in rounded grains, also in asteriated crystals, the 
largest 12 mm in diameter, and of a deep blue color occur most abundantly 
in the washings of the Aberfoil river, but also, with other varieties of co- 
rundum, in those of the Sam river. 

Besides these and an abundance of quartz I have observed topaz of a 
yellowish-white color, orthoclase, garnet, brown tourmaline and other 
minerals, too small to distinguish. 

2. Joseite and Tetradymite. 

The peculiar telluride of bismuth from San Jose\ Minas Geraes, Brazil 
(DufrSnoy's bornine, which afterwards was named joseite by Kenngott), 
was analyzed by Damour in 1845. The composition being so peculiar, 









— | 4.58 



— 78.40 

Genth.] ^2 [Oct. 2, 

and not in accordance with the present views of chemical combination, 
a new analysis was very desirable. 

Mr. Clarence S. Bement, who has in his magnificent cabinet a fine 
cleavage mass of about four inches in diameter, has kindly presented me 
with the material for this purpose. 

The specimen received is of a dark steel-gray color and shows the most 
perfect lamination and cleavage. Between the laminae could be observed 
a greenish and yellowish coating, which when magnified 100 diameters 
showed a crystalline structure. I also observed, under the microscope, a 
very minute quantity of yellowish-white globular aggregations. These 
coatings are the product of a partial oxidation of the mineral and were 
readily removed by dilute hydrochloric acid. They are probably mon- 

The analysis of the purified material gave results very close to those ot 
Damour : 

Te = 

Se = 

S = 

Bi = 

100.20 99.71 98.66 

This composition cannot be expressed by a rational formula. There is 
also a doubt about its crystalline form, which is generally taken as hexago- 
nal, with an eminently basal cleavage, although crystals, as far as I know, 
have never been found or examined. 

Similar doubts exist about the form and rational composition of tetrady- 
mite, a question left open by Groth and others. 

On crystals from Schubkau, in Hungary, Haidinger determined the form 
as rhombohedral, with perfect basal cleavage. 

I am not aware that since then a crystallographic examination of this 
mineral has been made. These crystals are mostly dull, distorted and 
striated and not the best material for measurement. No other locality has 
furnished specimens in well defined crystals. It is very probable, how- 
ever, that Haidinger's determination is correct, judging from a pseudo- 
morph of gold after tetradymite from the Whitehall Mine, Spottsylvania 
county, Va., in the collection of the University of Pennsylvania, showing 
forms which appear to be combinations of a rhombohedron with a scale- 
nohedron and the basal plane. 

This does not exclude, however, that tetradymite may not also occur in 
rhombic forms and that the characteristic eminent cleavage may not be 
basal, but brachydiagonal, as in bismuthinite, stibnite and orpiment, 
which have an analogous composition. 

It was Gustav Rose who first suggested that tetradymite was bismuth 
with a variable quantity of isomorphous tellurium, and this opinion has 

18S5.1 33 [Genth. 

been adopted by maDy chemists and mineralogists, although many facts 
do not sustain it. 

Bismuth and tellurium are not strictly isomorphous. It is true that 
both crystallize in rhombohedra of nearly the same angles ; bismuth, how- 
ever, has an eminently basal and rhombohedral cleavage, while tellurium 
shows a very imperfect basal and no rhombohedral at all, but a very per- 
fect cleavage parallel to the planes of an hexagonal prism. 

There is also in all the tetradymites, excepting the two from Fluvanna 
county, Va., and from Highland, Montana, a portion of the tellurium re- 
placed by sulphur, and, if therefore tellurium replaces bismuth, sulphur 
necessarily does it also.* 

That tetradymite is not a native bismuth, mixed with an indefinite quan- 
tity of tellurium, becomes more than probable from the fact that all reliable 
analyses agree very closely with the formulae of either of the two modifi- 
cations, viz : Bi 2 Te 3 or Bi 2 S 3 -j- 2 Bi 2 Te, ; there are only the Cumberland 
(England) tetradymite, which, according to Rammelsberg, contains : Bi 
= 84.33, Te = 6.73, and S = 6.43, and the jos&te, for the expression 
of a rational composition of which we must look for another explana- 

This seems to be very easy, if G. Rose's suggestion would be reversed, 
and that, instead of making tellurium (and sulphur) to replace bismuth, 
we make the latter substitute tellurium and sulphur. 

This view is supported by numerous examples, and, if we examine 
the constitution of the natural sulphides, tellurides, arsenides, &c, &c, 
we find such substitutions very frequently ; the hexagonal millerite, Ni S, 
becomes niccolite, NiAs, or breithauptite, NiSb ; the isometric pyrite 
FeS 2 , by substituting the greater portion of the iron by cobalt or nickel, 
smaltite (CoNiFe) As 2 , or chloanthite (NiCoFe) As 2 or bismuth-chloan- 
thite (NiCoFe) (AsBi) 2 ; the rhombic markasite, FeS 2 , in the same man- 
ner gives : lollingite FeAs 2 , safilorite (CoFeNi) As 2 , and rammelsbergite 
(NiCoFe) As 2 ; or, if only a portion of the sulphur is replaced, we get as 
analogues for pyrite : cobaltite CoAsS, Ullmannite NiAsS or corynite Ni 
(SbAs) S, and for the rhombic marcasite wolfachite (NiFe) (AsSSb) 2 , mis- 
pickel Fe (AsS) 2 and alloclasite (CoFe) (BiAs) S. 

In the sulphosalts the substitution of bismuth for arsenic and antimony 
is still more frequent, but it suffices that in the examples given it is shown 
that sulphur is very often replaced by arsenic and antimony, and that bis- 
muth, being analogous to these, can therefore replace sulphur and tellu- 
rium as well. 

These views applied to tetradymite and allied minerals would lead to 

*I have already repeatedly called attention to the fact that the analysis 
of the Virginia tetradymite, made by Coleman Fisher, in which he found 7.23 
p. c. of selenium, was made with a part of the identical material which I have 
analyzed, and which contains not more than a trace of selenium. Notwith- 
standing these statements it seems to be impossible to eradicate this error, as I 
find it continually repeated in our best books on Mineralogy. 


Uenth.] ^>4: [Oct. 2, 

the general formula : Bi 2 (TeSeSBi)^ and the Cumberland tetradymite 

(I) and the joseite (II) would be : 

I. II. 

Bi 2 S 3 = 34.57 — 15.27 

Bi 2 Se 3 = — 4.04 

Bi 2 Te 3 = 14.19 — 30.72 

BLBi, = 48.84 — 50.17 

97.51 100.20 

It would be interesting if a modification of bismuth of a rhombic form 
with brachydiagonal cleavage would be discovered, as it would throw 
some light upon the cause of dimorphism. 

S. Seleniferous Galenobismutite. 

H. Sjogren in 1879 gave the name galenobismutite with the formula : 
PbS. B^Sj, to a mineral which is found massive and of a somewhat radiat- 
ing structure at the Ko Mine, Nordmark, Sweden. 

Mr. F. L. Garrison presented me last fall with a specimen of what was 
considered a selenide of bismuth, which he had received in Fahlun, 
Sweden, and which was said to have been found a short time ago in that 
celebrated mine. 

The mineral has one very eminent cleavage, very similar to the brachy- 
diagonal cleavage of bismuthinite, no other cleavage could be observed ; 
color, lead gray, but much darker than bismuthinite ; lustre eminently 
metallic; H = 2. Sp. gr., corrected for the pure mineral, = 7.145. Very 
brittle. It is associated with quartz, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite in a rock 
composed of greenish-black fibrous and radiating hornblende and quartz. 

Unfortunately, only a limited quantity was at my disposal, and the 
material for analysis could not be obtained in a perfect state of purity, but, 
as the admixtures were only quartz, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, these 
could be easily calculated and deducted. 

They were : in analysis I, 3.96 % ; in II, 4.25 % ; in III, 5.11 % ; in 
IV, 8.73%, and in V, 8.80 %. The following results were obtained : 

I. II. III. IV. V. Mean. Atomic ratio. 

Sulphur = 9.71 - not det. - 10.54 - 9.21 - 9.55 - 9.75 - 0.305 1 _ j 94 
Selenium = not det. 13.65 - 11.20 - not det. 12.43 - 0.156 i 
Silver) _ 2g 23 _ o 8 18 ~ °- 38 ^ °- 39 - °- 32 - 0.33 - 0.0021 j j 
Lead > - 28.27 - 27.72 - 27.69 - 27.88 - 0.135 J 

Bismuth = 50.19 - 49.49 - 49.35 - 50.49 - 49.90 - 49.88 - 0.238 2.— 

99.64 100.27 

This gives the formula : Pb (S 2 SeJ. Bi 2 (S^Se^, giving 

3 3 3 5 

Sulphur = 10.43 % 

Selenium = 12.94 — 

Lead = 25.30 — 

Bismuth == 51.33 — 


1885.] 35 fGenth. 

Another specimen from the same locality, which was considered the 
same mineral, gave very different results : 

T'his mineral, while it showed an eminent brachydiagonal cleavage, 
was much whiter, and less brittle. It had the same associations, but there 
appeared to be also some granular native bismuth in its immediate neigh- 
borhood. The analysis, after deducting 3 per cent of impurities, gave : 

Sulphur = 11.87 % 

Selenium = 4.25 — 

Lead = 5.36 — 

Bismuth = 74.44 — 


There is a loss of about 4 per cent, for which I cannot account, possibly 

There was only a small quantity of the mineral obtainable for analysis, 
which would indicate that it is a mixture of probably about 20 per cent 
of the seleniferous galenobismutite with 63 per cent of bismuthinite and 
about 17 per cent of the native bismuth. 

4. Argentobismutite (Silberwismuthglanz). 

Prof. C. Rammelsberg described, in 1876, under the name silberwis- 
muthglanz, a compact gray mineral from the Matilda Mine, Peru, corres- 
ponding to the formula : Ag 2 S, Bi 2 S 3 . 

Amongst the minerals which the late J. F. L. Schirmer presented me 
about eleven years ago, was a specimen of granular quartz penetrated 
by thin needle-shaped iron black crystals, about l mm in thickness and 
10-25 mm in length, showing a deep longitudinal striation, apparently no 
cleavage, but an uneven fracture. It came from Lake City, Colorado, 
and was evidently a surface specimen. In vain I have endeavored since 
to get the same mineral again from the mines near Lake City. 

I have made several rough tests and found in one about 24 per cent of 
silver and 55 per cent of bismuth. I have sacrificed the greater portion of 
my specimen, and by crushing and washing off the quartz and oxidized 
portion of the mineral, I obtained a small quantity for analysis, consisting 
of the nearly pure sulphide and quartz with ferric oxide, which latter 
were left undissolved by nitric acid . 

The analysis gave : 

Atomic Ratio. 



26.39 f 




4.06 — 




52.89 — 


Sulphur, by difference 


16.66 — 


The lead may be an admixture of galenite, although the mineral had 

Geiith.] ^ [Oct. 2, 

not that appearance, but it is more probably replacing some of the silver, 
the analysis nearly agrees with the formula : (Ag 2 Pb) S. Bi 2 S s . 
The pure Ag 2 S. Bi 2 S 3 would have the composition : 

Ag = 28.27 

Bi = 54.97 

S = 16.76 

5. Cosalite. 

The name rezbanyite was given, in 1858, by R. Hermann, to a mtxture of 
a sulphobismutite of lead, silver and copper and sulphate of lead ; the 
unoxidizod mineral was not analyzed, although he states that the interior 
mass of his specimen was quite fresh, and of a lead-gray color. 

A sulphobismutite of the formula 2(PbAg 2 ) S. Bi 2 S 3 from Cosala in the 
Province of Sinaloa, Mexico, was described by me in 1868 as cosalite. 

In 1874, A. Frenzel reexamined the rezbanyite and proved its identity 
with cosalite. For another mineral 4PbS. 5Bi 2 S 3 , also found at Rez- 
banya, he now adopts the name rezbanyite. 

In 1877 A. E. Nordenskiold distinguished as bjelkite a mineral from the 
Bjelke Mine in Nordmark, Sweden, of which Nilson Lundstrom gave the 
formula : FePb 2 Bi 2 S 6 . H. Sjogren, however, showed, in 1879, that the iron 
in Lundstrotn's analysis was owing to an admixture of pyrrhotite, and 
that the pure mineral was identical with cosalite. 

About two years ago I received, through the kindness of Mr. F. M. 
Shideler, of Lake City, Colorado, a mineral from the Gladiator Mine in 
Ouray county, Col., which contained, besides bismuth, lead and silver, a 
considerable quantity of copper, but gave the atomic ratio of cosalite ; a 
similar mineral was described at the meeting of the Colorado Scientific So- 
ciety of Dec. 3, 1883, by W. F. Hillebrand, as coming from the Comstock 
Mine, near Parrott City, La Plata Co., Col., and finally G. A. Koenig, 
Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. xxii, 211, made an analysis of that which occurs 
associated with his alaskaite (galenobismutite) from the Alaska Mine- 
about six or eight miles above the Gladiator Mine. 

The cosalite of the Gladiator Mine occurs associated with galenite, bis- 
muthinite, chalcopyrite and pyrite in quartz. It forms small irregular 
masses more or less mixed with its associates, the largest which I have 
seen was not over 25 mm in diameter. It is compact, without any apparent 
crystalline structure ; where it appears to be fibrous it is mixed with bis- 
muthinite. Some portions have a fringe of crystalline galenite, surround- 
ing the whole patch of the cosalite. The bismuthinite is present in small 
particles of a few millimeters in size, and frequently occupies the centre 
of the cosalite (one fragment of about 4 mm long was examined and found 
to be perfectly pure Bi 2 S 3 ). 

The cosalite is between lead gray and iron black, fracture uneven. For 
the analysis I selected material which was perfectly free from bismuthi- 
nite, galenite and chalcopyrite, but I was not able to obtain any which 




was not slightly contaminated with, pyrite and quartz. From the amount 
of iron found, the quantity of pyrite was calculated, and this and the 
quartz deducted from the material taken for analysis. 

For comparison I have analyzed the cosalite from the Alaska Mine. 
This is free from pyrite, but contaminated with chalcopyrite, the amount 
of iron found gave that of chalcopyrite, which, together with quartz, were 
deducted from the material used for the analysis. 

The following results were obtained after deducting in analysis I, 

% of 

4.03 % quartz 

and chalcopyrite ; in II, 

20.67 % 

and in III, 19. 6< 

pyrite and quartz : 




Mean of 


Alaska Mi 


Gladiator Mine. 


Sulphur = 



16.72 — 





Selenium = 




Arsenic = 



trace — 



Antimony = 



not det. — 




0.001 ; 

Bismuth = 



45.20 — 




0.215 | 

Copper = 



5.87 — 




0.046 1 

Silver = 



5.67 — 





Lead = 



24.50 — 




0.119 j 

Zinc = 



0.65 — 




0.009 j 



100.08 100.17 

Atomic Ratio of (PbCu 2 Ag 2 ) : Bi : S 

2:2:5 = 2 (PbAg 2 Cu 2 ) S. Bi 2 S, 

6. Schirmerite and Beegerite. 

Under the name schirmerite I described, in 1874, a mineral from the 
Treasury Mine, Geneva District, Park county, Col., of the formula 
PbS. 2Ag 2 S. 2Bi 2 S s , which I had received about twelve years ago from 
Mr. Schirmer. Later, he sent me as schirmerite several specimens from 
the Treasury Vault Mine, Summit county, Colorado, and has furnished the 
latter mineral to numerous friends. He has not been able to give me 
another specimen of the original schirmerite, ami I do not know that it has 
been preserved in any collection. 

When I took up the investigation of the sulphobismutites above 
described, I observed that the original schirmerite, which was bright and 
fresh when received, had tarnished, was quite dull, and some portions 
almost black, while the mineral from the Treasury Vault 3Iine was quite 
fresh in appearance. As this indicated a diflerence in the composition, its 
true nature was endeavored to be established by an analysis. 

That from the Treasury Vault Mine occurs in small particles and 
patches, the largest about 10 mm in size, disseminated through quartz, asso- 
ciated with cubical crystals of pyrite, very little chalcopyrite, and, in some 
of the cavities, a yellowish earthy coating, probably of bismite. 

Genth.] 38 [Oct. 2, 

Only a very small quantity, not over 0.0312 grm., could be taken for 
analysis, in which the metals were determined, and the sulphur required 
by them calculated. It gave : 

Atomic ratio. 


= 15.40 

— 0.072 = 1.5 


= 50.16 

— 0.242 = 5.1 


= 19.81 

— 0.095 = 2 


= 14.59 

— 0.456 = 9.7 

This seems to indicate that the mineral from the Treasury Vault Mine 
agrees with the formula of argentiferous beegerite : 

(A gi! Pb) 6 . Bi 2 S 3 . 

Dr. Kcenig described, in 1881, Am. Chem. Journ., ii, 379, under the 
name of beegerite, a mineral from the Baltic vein, Park county, Colorado, 
which, however, he found to be entirely free from silver. Lately he 
described another variety from the Old Lout Mine near Lake City, Colo- 
rado, containing about 10 per cent of silver. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. xxii, 


7. Tetrahedrite. Sylmnite. 

Already about eleven years ago I have received from Mr. Schirmer 
specimens of a variety of tetrahedrite in quartz, associated with crystal- 
lized gypsum and a yellowish waxy oxidation product containing largely 
oxide of antimony, which came from the Hotchkiss Mine in the San Juan 
District, Colorado. 

Almost identical in appearance and associations in the tetrahedrite from 
Governor Pitkins' Mine near Lake City, of which Mr. F. M. Shideler sent 
me a number of specimens. 

The tetrahedrite does not show any signs of crystallization, but is mas- 
sive, compact, disseminated through quartz ; in the cavities are small 
crystals of gypsum. 

Iron black. Its specific gravity = 4.885. 

The material for analysis was slightly contaminated with quartz which 
was deducted, in I, 2.46 per cent ; in II, 3 per cent. 








not det. 












not det. 






























} 0.77 








1885.] "^ (Genth. 

The atomic ratio leads to the accepted formula : 

4(Ag 2 Cu 2 ZnFe) S. (SbAsBi) 2 S 3 . 

An exceedingly interesting association of this tetrahedrite is that of 
sylvanite. There was in the lot of samples from Governor Pitkins' Mine 
a small piece of quartz, showing very few specks of tetrahedrite and also 
the antimony oxide coating, which showed a few silver-white, bright me- 
tallic particles, 2-3 mm in length and less than l mm broad, with one eminent 
cleavage. A qualitative examination showed that, when nitric acid was 
added, the particles at once became black, and on boiling dissolved, leav- 
ing bright brown gold ; the filtrate gave an abundance of silver chloride 
on addition of hydrochloric acid, and the filtrate evaporated to dryness 
yielded crystalline tellurous oxide, readily soluble in ammonium hy- 
drate and ammonium sulphide, which latter solution, on acidulation, gave 
a black precipitate of tellurous sulphide. 

Thus the mineral is proved to be sylvanite, which, I do not believe, has 
ever before been observed in this part of Colorado. 

8. Polybasite. 

Occurs with argentiferous galenite and 


at the Terrible Lode, 

Clear Creek Co., Colorado. 

A crystal had a spec. grav. 

of 6.009 and contained : 
















Sulphur (by difference) 




9. Arsenopyrite and Scorodite. 

A number of years ago I received, from Northern Alabama, several 
lumps of ore, consisting of quartz with pale grayish-green granular scoro- 
dite, showing on some of the fissures microscopic crystals of the usual 
form of this mineral, the pyramidal planes predominating. The scorodite 
results from the oxidation of arsenopyrite, a portion of which is left un- 
altered in the form of grayish-white, granular patches with metallic lus- 
tre. Dilute hydrochloric acid dissolved the scorodite and left the arseno- 
pyrite with a little quartz. After deducting 3.34 per cent of the latter the 
analysis gave : 

Sulphur = 

Arsenic = 

Iron = 

Copper = 

1:1:1 = FeSAs. 

Atomic ratio. 


— 0.573 



— 0.628 



— 0.566 



Genth.] 40 [Oct. 2, 

10. Alteration of Magnesian limestone from Berks Co., Pa. 

The magnesian limestones in the neighborhood of Reading, Berks Co., 
Pa., at Fritz's island, and about two miles east of Fritztown, two miles 
south of Sinking Spring, at the Wheatfield and Ruth's Mines, frequently 
undergo very interesting changes. 

Evidently by the infiltration of siliceous waters the magnesian limestone 
is decomposed and from the magnesium carbonate, deweylite and serpen- 
tine are formed, while another portion of the magnesia separates as bru- 
cite ; the calcium carbonate crystallizes, both in the form of aragonite, in 
small acicular crystals and radiating columnar masses, and in the form of 
calcite, in crystals and coarse granular masses. 

Some of these minerals have already been described by E. F. Smith, 
jointly with D. B. Brunner and J. Schoenfeld. I am indebted to Prof. 
Brunner and Dr. Schoenfeld for numerous specimens of these interesting 

Brucite. — At Fritz's island brucite occurs in several varieties. 

a. In coatings of indistinct crystals 3-4 mm in diameter and crystalline 
masses upon a granular limestone, largely altered into serpentine. It is 
colorless in thin laminae and shows the characteristic pearly lustre. There 
is also, on some portions of the limestone, a thin, white coating with 
slight silky lustre, which may be brucite ; analysis a\. 

This brucite has already been analyzed by E. F. Smith (Am. Chem. 
Journ., v, 281), whose analysis I give for comparison, a 2. 

b. A second variety is found in thin seams from 4 to 15 mm in thickness. 
I could not observe any crystals but masses which are highly crystallized, 
eminently showing the basal cleavage, but always in curved surfaces. It 
has a slightly brownish-yellow tint, and on ignition becomes dark brown 
from the oxidation of the considerable quantity of manganous oxide which 
it contains. Spec. grav. = 2.382. From the analysis it will be seen that in 
its composition it stands between pure brucite and Igelstrom's mangan- 
brucite, although not so rich in manganous oxide, the latter containing as 
much as 14.16 per cent. 

c. The brucite from near Sinking Spring, as Dr. Smith states, occurs in 
thin colorless laminae in thin seams in the limestone, but also in silky fibrous 
masses or even pulverulent, with but a faint silky lustre. Dr. Smith has 
observed the fine silky fibres, but, not having had a sufficient quantity for 
analysis, mistook them for hydromagnesite. The brucite is associated 
with deweylite, coarse grained calcite and aragonite, in dolomite. 

I have analyzed a perfectly pure piece of the silky fibrous brucite, 
which weighed nearly one gram, c 1, and for comparison give E. F. Smith's 
analysis of the laminated mineral, r 2, from the same locality : 

1885.] 41 [Genth. 

Fritz's Island. Sinking Spring. 

al a 2 61 6 2 cl c2 

Water = 30.92 — 32.52 — 29.70 — 29.47 — 29.91 — 31.05 

Carbon dioxide = 2.42 — 

Silica and alumina = — 0.46 — 

Ferric oxide = 0.82— 0.44— 0.30— 0.04— 0.75— 1.24 

Manganous oxide = 0.63 — 4.04 — 4.66 — 

Magnesium oxide = 67.64 — 66.78 — 65.38 — 64.30 — 66.62 — 66.19 
Calcium oxide = 0.11 — 1.68 

100.01 — 99.74 — 99.42 — 98.93 — 99.81 — 100.16 

The 2.42 per cent of carbon dioxide in analysis c 1 indicate the presence 
of 0.20 per cent of calcium carbonate, and about 4.45 per cent of mag- 
nesium carbonate or about 6 per cent of hydromagnesite, resulting from 
a conversion of a small quantity of brucite into these minerals — there are 
still, however, over 90 per cent of unaltered brucite present. 

Deweylite, Aragonite, Calcite. — In the magnesian limestone occur these 
three minerals, more or less mixed together and associated with brucite. 

The deweylite is white, yellowish-white or brownish, amorphous, some- 
times in rounded grains or in stalactites or botryoidal forms, in thin plate- 
like masses or slabs occasionally over one inch in thickness, or in irregular 
coatings. These slabs are often arranged in layers of white or brownish 
deweylite of greater or less purity, often intimately mixed with aragonite, 
which sometimes separates in the form of radiating columnar masses, 
some of the individuals being over 50 mm in length. The layers often sepa- 
rate very easily and the surfaces of such planes of separation are covered 
with small brilliant crystals of aragonite. 

Calcite is also present, both in small and insignificant crystals and in 
coarse crystalline masses. 

This deweylite has been analyzed by E. F. Smith (1. c), also by my 
assistant, Mr. H. F. Keller, who found a pure yellowish fragment of 
waxy lustre to contain : 

Silicic oxide = 39.32 

Ferrous oxide = 0.51 

Calcium oxide = trace 

Magnesium oxide = 41.14 

Water = 18.41 


Neither the aragonite nor calcite have been analyzed. 

Pseudomorph, of deweylite after aragonite. — The needle-shaped crystals of 
aragonite and the radiating masses undergo a change and are gradually 
altered into brownish-yellow deweylite. 

It begins with a very thin coating of colorless and brownish-yellow 
deweylite upon the aragonite, .which gradually becomes thicker and final- 
ly changes the entire aragonite into pure deweylite. 


Genth.] 42 [Oct. 2, 

Serpentine. — Another very important alteration of the magnesian lime- 
stone of Berks county is that into serpentine, which can be observed in 
all its stages, from the pure dolomite into the pure serpentine. The latter 
is generally of a greenish-yellow, greenish-white or yellow color, but also 
sometimes brownish and grayish. Aragonite and calcite are frequently 
associated and magnetite in fine grains is occasionally disseminated 
through the mass. 

Several analyses of these serpentines have been made by my assistant, 
Mr. Harry F. Keller, who found in those of : 

Ruth's Mine. 

"Wheatfield Mine, 

Silicic oxide 



— 41.46 

Ferrous oxide 



— 0.99 

Magnesium oxide 



— 44.68 

Calcium oxide 







— 14.07 

100.01 101.20 

M. E. Wadsworth, in his Lithological Studies, Cambridge, 1884, page 
152, speaks of the serpentine of Fitztown (Fritztown), Berks Co., Pa., as 
a product of the alteration of olivine, showing yet unaltered olivine. I can- 
not imagine how olivine could be present in this rock and what it is which 
he has taken for that mineral. 

The alteration of dolomite has produced, directly and indirectly, espec- 
ially at Fritz's Island, a great variety of interesting minerals. Besides 
serpentine and deweylite, there are grossular, vesuviante in a beautiful 
yellow and orange-colored variety, apophyllite, chabazite, gismondite (?), 
thomsonite, mesolite, stilbite (at Rautenbush), datolite and others. In a 
subsequent paper I may give a fuller account of some of these. 

11. Ilmenite from Carter's Mine, N. G. Oligoclase. 

In the chrysolite rock (unnecessarily called dunite by some authors) 
occurs a vein which contains corundum, and some cross-fissures furnish a 
white plagioclase feldspar, others a peculiar variety of ilmenite. 

My assistant, Mr. Harry F. Keller, has made analyses of both. The 
ilmenite has been found in two varieties (a) of a brownish-black color of a 
somewhat purplish hue, in small masses which show an indistinct crystal- 
line structure and basal cleavage. On the margin it becomes somewhat 
columnar ; fracture uneven. Sp. gr. = 4.67. H = 5.5 ; the second va- 
riety (b) occurs in rounded modules of about 1.5 to 2" in diameter, irreg- 
ular in shape, very brittle and breaking up into small fragments of about 
5 to 10 mm in diameter, without any regular form, with subconchoidal frac- 
ture and tarnished with bluish and purplish colors. It much resembles 
the so-called Schlackige Magneteisen from Unkel on the Rhine, although 
the composition is quite different. Sp. gc = 4.68. Neither variety is 




Titanic oxide 

= 52.73 — 



Ferric oxide 

= 8.08 — 

not det. 


Ferrous oxide 

= 33.08 — 



Magnesium oxide 

= 5.33 — 

not det. 



= 0.14 — 


— trace 



The feldspar which is found associated shows large cleavages and is dis- 
tinctly striated. It gave the composition of oligoclase : 

Silicic oxide = 62.32 

Aluminum oxide = 25.19 

Calcium oxide = 5.01 

Sodium oxide = 8.02 

Potassium oxide = 0.25 


12. Topaz from Stoneham, Maine. 

I have made last fall, at the suggestion of Mr. G. F. Kunz, an analysis 
of the Stoneham topaz, of which he furnished me with a perfectly trans- 
parent and colorless fragment, in order to clear up the doubt then existing 
about its composition, on account of an analysis published by Mr. C. M. 
Bradbury (Chemical News, xlviii, 109), which had given very unusual 

Although by the very elaborate investigation of F. "W. Clarke and J. S. 
Diller (Am. Journ. Sc. [3] xxix), the main question has been settled by 
showing that the Stoneham topaz has the accepted composition of topaz, 
I may put on record the results which I have obtained : 

Spec. grav. 
Si0 2 
A1 2 3 

Deduct oxygen 





13. Orthoclase from French Creek, Chester Co., Pa. 

A peculiar variety of orthoclase has lately been found at the iron mines 
of the French Creek region, of which Dr. A. E. Foote has presented me 
with several specimens. The crystals are columnar, very imperfect, but ap- 
pear to show the planes P, M and n (Naumann) ; they are deeply striated 
and the slender crystals from 1 to 2 mm in thickness and about 50 mm in 
length are radiating from a centre, forming sheaf-like or club-like aggre- 

Genth.] ^4 [Oct. 2, 

gations. Some portions show the orthoclase cleavage. Color reddish- 
white to flesh red. Sp. grav. = 2.528. Associated with a chloritic min- 
eral, supposed to be glauconite, and magnetite. 
The analysis gave : 

Loss by ignition = 0.67 

Si0 2 = 62.68 

Fe 2 O s = 0.23 

A1 2 = 20.90 

CaO = 0.15 

Na 2 = none 

K a O = 15.99 

14. Muscovite, pseudomorphous after Nephelite ? 

Dr. A. E. Foote brought last year from Wakefield, Canada, peculiar hex- 
agonal crystals occurring there in the granular limestone, which he gave 
me for analysis. The form seems to be hexagonal, the angle, between two 
prismatic planes, measured 120° ; the larger crystal 20 mm broad and 18 mm 
high shows the basal plane, but no pyramid, some of the smaller but less 
perfect crystals appear to have a very small pyramidal plane also. 

Yellowish-white, finely crystalline, rarely some larger cleavage planes 
are visible, which are probably calcite ; lustre pearly to slightly vitreous. 
II = 3.0 ; spec. gr. = 2.755. 
The analysis gave : 

C0 2 = 0.69 

H 2 = 4.25 

Si0 2 = 45.90 

A1 2 3 = 36.03 

Fe 2 3 = trace 

MgO = 0.68 

CaO = 0.92 

K 9 = 12.08 


This is muscovite slightly contaminated with calcium carbonate. 

The form suggests a pseudomorph after nephelite. In the same range 
at Diana, N. Y., as Geo. J. Brush has shown, nephelite is found altered 
into gieseckite, which latter in all probability is only a more compact and 
less pure variety of muscovite. 

15. Stilpnomelane pseudomorphs. Ankerite. 

Velvety coatings of a dark olive-green color and submetallic lustre, in 
pseudomorphs after an unknown tabular mineral. The specific gravity, 
taken in alcohol, was found to be, 2.957. Powtler pale olive-green. 

This variety has been analyzed in 1858, hy G. J. Brush (Am. Journ. Sc. 

1885.] *0 IGenth. 

[2] xxv, 198), who showed that the so-called chalcodite of C. U. Shep- 
ard, in all probability belongs to stilpnomelane, and, if this suggestion is 
correct, that this mineral contains both ferrous and ferric oxides, while 
Rammelsberg (Mineralcheniie, 1875), assumes only ferrous oxide. 

From Dr. A. E. Foote, who has lately collected this mineral at the 
Sterling Mine near Antwerp, N. Y., I have received some very pure mate- 
rial, which made it desirable to reexamine it, especially with reference to 
the state of the oxidation of the iron. 

For the determination of the ferrous oxide, 0.3522 grm. were dissolved 
in dilute sulphuric acid, after the air had been driven out by carbonic 
dioxide ; and the ferrous oxide determined by titration with potassium 
permanganate ; the water was determined directly in a chloride of calcium 
tube from 0.3635 grm. and 0.9854 grm. taken for the other determinations. 
The analysis gave : 

Atomic ratio. 

Si0 2 


44.75 % 


A1 2 3 


4.36 — 


Fe 2 3 


4.99 — 







30.34 — 




5.47 — 


H 2 


9.18 — 



} = 

0.073 = 

} = 0.558 = 7.6 

= 7. 


The empirical formula: (FeaMgi) 8 (FeAl) 2 Sii O 31 -f- 6H 2 agrees 
closely with the above results. 

Ankerite. — Associated with the stilpnomelane is ankerite in groups of 
curved rhombohedral crystals of a yellowish-white color. 

The analysis gave : 

CaC0 3 
MnCO s 
FeC0 3 
MgCO a 












A peculiar variety of calamine, which closely resembles hydrozincite, 
occurs as an incrustation upon a ferruginous calamine, the principal ore, 
at the Bertha Mine, Pulaski county, Va. 

It is earthy and cryptocrystalline and some of the incrustations had a 
thickness of 5 mm . 

I observed that after ignition it was dissolved by dilute hydrochloric 
acid almost instantaneously, far more readily than the hydrous mineral. 

Genth.] 4b [ 0ct< 2 , 

The analysis gave : 

Si0 2 = 25.01 

ZnO = 67.42 

H,0 = 8.32 


17. Titanite. 

Some time ago Mr. J. A. D. Stephenson, of Statesville, N. C, sent me a 
fragment of a crystal of titanite from the mica schist of the neighborhood, 
which also carries a beautiful variety of sunstone-oligoclase. 

It was IS™™ broad, 2 mm thick, of a yellowish-white color, a greasy, 
vitreous lustre and a sp. gr. of 3. 477. 
The analysis gave : 

Si0 2 = 29.45 

Ti0 2 = 38.33 

Fe,0, = 1.61 


MgO| - 

CaO = 29.11 


Ignition 0.60 


18. Vanadinite. 

The vanadinite from Wanlockhead, Scotland, occurs associated with cal- 
amine, a pale, greenish fibrous coating of pyromorphite, and rarely with 
minute black crystals of descloizite, in brownish-yellow barrel-shaped 
hexagonal prisms, generally united into globular groups, the surface of the 
globules often perfectly smooth and not showing a trace of the form of the 
crystals which produce them. They have been analyzed by A. Frenzel 
(Jahrb. Min., 1875, 673), but as it is very difficult to get material perfectly 
free from admixtures, some of his analyses do not fairly represent the com- 
position of vanadinite. As I had some perfectly pure globules, I made an 
analysis which gave : 

CI = 2.53 

PbO = 78.39 

As 2 5 = 0.34 

P 2 5 = 0.27 

V,O s = 18.04 


10. Annabergite. 

In a previous paper, read before this Society, August 18, 1882, 1 mention 
under niccolite that an apple-green mineral is found with it at the Gem 
Mine, near Silver Cliff, Colorado. 

1885.] 47 [Gentb. 

It occurs as a crystalline coating or in minute somewhat globular aggre- 
gations, of a pale green to a rich apple-green color, in limestone associated 
with niccolite. It is frequently associated with aragonite in fine needle- 
shaped crystals, which often give it a superficial coating. I was able to 
obtain a small quantity of a state of fair purity, slightly contaminated with 
aragonite. After treating it in the cold with very dilute hydrochloric acid, 
to dissolve the aragonite, I had 0.0722 grm. for analysis, which gave : 

H 2 = 23.94 

NiO = 32.64 

CoO = 0.50 

MgO = 3.74 

CaO = 3.51 

As 9 0, = 36.64 


20. Dr. Clemens Winkler and Herderite. 

Dr. Winkler published (Jahrb. Min., 1875, i, 172), a justification of his 
work on herderite in which he says that my reproach that he had sacrificed 
valuable material by the use of incorrect methods, is unwarranted and that he 
must firmly repel it. 

I had intended to reply to Dr. Winkler, but really do not see any neces- 
sity for it, because, he fails to show any error in my work, but only tries 
to find excuses for his own shortcomings, and mentions experiments made 
with apatite, a mineral with which herderite has no resemblance, either 
physically or chemically. 

That the minerals from Ehrenfriedersdorf and Stoneham are identical, 
as I have suggested, he now admits, and as this settles the main question 
it would be a waste of words to say more about this matter. 

University of Pennsylvania, August 8, 1885. 

Brinton.| 4o [Oct. 2, 

On Polysynthesis and Incorporation as Characteristics of Ameri- 
can Languages. By Daniel G. Brinton, M. D. 

{Read before the American PhilosopJiical Society, October 2, 1S85.) 


Races of mankind as co-extensive with linguistic groups. — Problems of 
American languages. — History of the doctrines of Polysynthesis and 
Incorporation. — Preliminary cautions. — Erroneous statements about 
aboriginal tongues. — Teachings of Duponceau. — Of Wilhelm von 
Humboldt. — Of Francis Lieber. — Of H. Steinthal. — Of Lucien Adam. 
— Of Friedrich Miiller. — Of J. W. Powell. — Definitions of Polysyn- 
thesis, Incorporation and Holophrasis. — Examples of these processes. 
— Examinations of American tongues in which they are alleged to be 
absent. — (1) The Othomi and associated dialects — (2) The Bri-Bri 
and other Costa Rican dialects — (3) The Tupi-Guarani dialects — (4) 
The Mutsun. — Conclusions. 

The division of the species Man into subspecies or races is 
not as yet a settled point in ethnology. The tendency, however, 
is to return to the classification proposed by Linnaeus, which, in 
a broad way, subdivides the species with reference to the con- 
tinental areas mainly inhabited by them in the earliest historic 
times. This is found to accord with color, and to give five sub- 
species or races, the White or European, the Black or African, 
the Yellow or Mongolian (Asiatic), the Brown or Malayan 
(Oceanic), and the Red or American Races. 

No ethnologist nowadays will seek to establish fixed and ab- 
solute lines between these. They shade into one another in all 
their peculiarities, and no one has traits entirely unknown in the 
others. Yet, in the mass, the characteristics of each are promi- 
nent, permanent and unmistakeable ; and to deny them on account 
of occasional exceptions is to betray an inability to estimate the 
relative value of scientific facts. 

In the Science of Language it becomes of the highest impor- 
tance to ascertain whether any such general similarity can be 
demonstrated between the tongues spoken by members of the 
same race. 

1885.] 4 J [Brintbn. 

On the surface, this is not apparent. Only one of the races 
named — the Malayan — is monoglottic. All the others seem 
to speak tongues with no genetic relationship, at least none in- 
dicated by etymology. The profounder study of language, how- 
ever familiar to modern science, leads to a different conclusion — 
to one which, as cautiously expressed by a recent writer, teaches 
that " every large, connected terrestrial area developed only one, 
or scarcely more than one, fundamental linguistic type, and this 
with such marked individuality that rarely did any of its lan- 
guages depart from the general scheme."* 

This similarity is not to be looked for in likeness between 
words, but in the inner structural development of tongues. To 
ascertain and estimate such identities is a far more delicate 
undertaking than to compare columns of words in vocabularies ; 
but it is proportionately more valuable. 

This has yet to be done in any general way for the native 
tongues of America, and what I here present may be considered 
as merely clearing the road for some later investigator, well 
equipped from the arsenal of the higher linguistics. 

The task — no light one — which such an investigator would 
have, would be, first, to ascertain what structural traits form the 
ground-plan or plans (if there are more than one) of the lan- 
guages of the New World. Upon this ground-plan he would 
find very different edifices have been erected, which, nevertheless, 
can be classified into groups, each group marked by traits com- 
mon to every member of it. These traits and groups he must 
carefully define. Then would come the separate question as to 
whether this community of traits has a genetic explanation or 
not. If the decision were affirmative, we might expect conclu- 
sions that would carry us much further than etymological com- 

* "Diese thatsachen scheinen darauf hinzudeuten, dass jeder grossere in sich 
zusamrnenhangende Kindercomplex nur einen Oder doch nur ganz wenige 
sprachgrundtypen herausbildet, so eigenartig, dass selteu eine sprache ganz aus 
dern allgemeinen rahmen heraustrit.t." Dr. Heinrich Winkler, Uralaltaische 
Volker unci Sprachen, s. 147 (Berlin, 1884). 


Brinton.] *>V fOct. 2, 

parisons, and will form a truly scientific basis for the classifi- 
cation of American nations. 

Acting merely as a pioneer to this vast scheme, I shall con- 
fine myself to the examination of two closely-related traits, said 
by some to be common to the ground-plan of all American 
tongues, while by others they are dropped from consideration 
altogether, or are asserted to be absent in many instances. These 
traits are Poly synthesis and Incorporation. 

I shall first sketch the history of these linguistic doctrines ; 
next explain their nature ; and then proceed to examine in detail 
several groups of tongues of this continent in which they are 
said not to appear. If I succeed in showing that when correctly 
understood, one or the other, or both of them, are really present 
in these tongues, then I shall have taken a step towards defining 
the " ground-plan " which I have referred to. As I shall show 
that they are both expressions of the same psychological motive, 
if either is present in a tongue it will make for my position, and 
the propriety of discussing them together will be obvious. 

I would note at the outset that there are a few cautions which 
one must observe in the search for structural peculiarities in 
general, and especially of these. 

Thus, it will become obvious to the student of the subject that 
those American languages which have been lauded for their sim- 
plicity are quite sure to be those of which we know very little ! 
The Bri-Bri, the Mutsun, Chibcha, and the Othomi, ai-e exam- 
ples. Just in proportion as our means of studying them in- 
crease, their complexity becomes apparent. The little we know 
about a tongue is often the safe refuge of those who claim for it 
an exceptional character. 

There is good reason to believe that 6uch apparent simplicity 
arises from the slight knowledge of the tongues possessed by the 
whites, to whom we are indebted for our information about them. 
The trading jargons are always extremely simple, and even the 
most complex native language readily lends itself to the formation 

1S85.] U1 - [Brinton. 

of a lingo as simple as " pigeon English." I have illustrated this 
in a recent work by a specimen of the Lenape (Algonkin) lan- 
guage, as in use by the settlers on the Delaware river in the 
seventeenth century. We know that an early missionary trans- 
lated a catechism and preached sermons in this jargon. No 
doubt he thought he was using pure Lenape, and had that dia- 
lect shared the fate of so many others, and become extinct at an 
early date, we should at this day be obliged to accept Campa- 
nia 1 works as authentic examples of it, and should thus derive 
an entirely erroneous notion of its character.* I urge, therefore, 
that we should be extremely cautious about pronouncing on the 
structure of a language unless we have specimens of native com- 
position — texts of aboriginal literature. 

Even here we are not on perfectly safe ground, for there can 
be no doubt but that many native tongues have materially 
changed since their speakers have been brought more or less 
•directly into eontaet with the whites. 

On this point, the Rev. John Kilbuck,a very intelligent native 
Delaware Indian, writes me that most of his people speak Lenape 
only, but that they have come " to think like white men," and 
that the structure of the language is materially different from 
what it was formerly. This difference, as explained to me, is 
clearly that it is becoming more analytic, and is losing the flexi- 
bility, the power of polysynthesis, which it formerly possessed 
to a striking degree. 

As 1 shall show later, Dr. Amaro Cavaleanti says the same of 

* See The Lenape and iheirr- Legends. By D. G. Brintoo, pp. 74-5. (No. v. of 
^Briiitera's " Library of Aboriginal American Literature.) The Lenape, as pre- 
sented in Campanius' Catechism, offers no signs of incorporation, although it is 
really a markedly incorporative tongue; and polysynthesis does not appear, 
although it was on this very dialect that Duponoeau chiefly founded his 
theories! TSie pretended, oration by a native chief which Campanius gives in 
ithe original in his. History of New Sweden is in this same ungrarnniatical jar- 
gon. His works, should be a stan&a-g warning to students of American 
languages to be extremely solicitous about their authorities. Campanius lived 
seven years among the Lenape and studied their language zealously. Even 
Zeisberger, whedived sixty years among them, does not appear to have recog- 
nized the sigrvifipance of the vowel changes in the verbs, the use of thoobvia- 
tives, and sv& delicate poiats-of their syntax,. 

Brintou.l ^ [Oct. 2, 

the Tupi ; and the modem Ma}^a, as it appears in the volumi- 
nous religious writings of Father Joaquin Ruz, is pronounced 
by so excellent a judge as Senor Pio Perez (author of the Maya 
Dictionary) and others to be almost a different tongue from the 
real spoken Maya of the natives themselves.* 

The generalization that American languages constitute in cer- 
tain essential structural features an independent group of 
tongues was first propounded in the second decade of this cen- 
tury by Mr. Peter Stephen Duponceau, at one time President of 
the American Philosophical Society, and his statements to this 
effect first saw the light in the publications of that society. He 
did not, indeed, fully analyze these features, and from this de- 
ficiency in comprehending them, was led to retract their appli- 
cation in certain examples (especially the Othomi) in which I 
shall endeavor to show they are actually present. He named, 
indeed, only one of them, to wit, poly synthesis, although it is 
evident that he perceived the second and equally important pro- 
cess, now known to linguists by the term incorporation. 

As even quite prominent authorities have seriously misunder- 
stood these processes, and in some instances have done grave 
injustice to their discoverer, I shall give an outline of their 

Mr. Duponceau first developed his theory of the structure of 
American languages in his correspondence with the Rev. Mr. 
Heckewelder, in the summer of 1816. Referring to the forms 
of the Delaware verb as set forth by Zeisberger in his Grammar 
of that tongue, he observes: " I am inclined to believe that these 

* Crescencio Carrillo writes in his Disertacion sobre la Historia de la Lengua 
Maya, sec. xvii, " El estilo del P. Ruz, como escritor maya, no ha sidode buena 
y general acceptacion en el pais: h&sele censurado por falta de claridad, y de 
que ha forzado mucho y de una manera extrafia el giro y caricter proprio y 
genuine- de la lengua yucateca." This was not through ignorance, for Father 
Ruz was thoroughly conversant with the Maya; but he wished to force it into 
accordance with the rules and structure of European tongues — a not uncom- 
mon tendency of missionary writers, and one quite as much to be watched lor 
by the student of American languages as the simple ignorance of such authors 
as Campanius. 

1885.] 56 [Brinton. 

forms are peculiar to this part of the world, and that they do 
not exist in the languages of the old hemisphere." To express 
this peculiarity, he first employed the adjective syntactic, but 
later preferred poly synthetic.' 1 ''* 

In his " Report on the General Character and Forms of Ameri- 
can Languages," in 1819, he explained his views at greater 
length, and then first distinguishes, though not with desirable 
lucidity, between the two varieties of s}mthetic construction, 
the one (incorporation) applicable to verbal forms of expression, 
the other (polysynthesis) to nominal expressions. His words 
are — 

" A poly synthetic or syntactic construction of language is that 
in which the greatest number of ideas are comprised in the least 
number of words. This is done principally in two ways. 1. By 
a mode of compounding locutions which is not confined to join- 
ing two words together, as in Greek, or varying the inflection or 
termination of a radical word as in most European languages, 
but by interweaving together the most significant sounds or 
syllables of each simple word, so as to form a compound that 
will awaken in the mind at once all the ideas singly expressed 
by the words from which they are taken. 2. By an analogous 
combination [of] the various parts of speech, particularly by 
means of the verb, so that its various forms and inflections will 
express not only the principal action, but the greatest possible 
number of the moral ideas and physical objects connected with 
it, and will combine itself to the greatest extent with those con- 
ceptions which are the subject of other parts of speech, and in 
other languages require to be expressed by separate and distinct 
words. Such I take to be the general character of the Indian 

* Correspondence between the Rev. John Heckewelder and Peter S. Duponceau, Esq. 
Letters viii, xvi, and xxiii. 

t Report of the Corresponding Secretary to the Committee, of his progress in the In- 
vestigation committed to him of the General Character and Forms of the Lan- 
guages of the American Indians. Read 12th Jan., 1819, in the Transactions of the 
Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. i, 
1819, pp. xxx, xxxi. 

Brinton.] °^ [Oct. 2, 

In his thesis, which received the prize of the Institute of 
France, in 1835, he was less explicit in his statements, defining 
the distinguishing trait of the American languages to be " the 
formation of words, not only by prefixes and suffixes, but by the 
intercalation, not merely of sjdlables, but of significant simple 
sounds, by which they can multiply words indefinitelj'."* 

It should be distinctly stated on the part of Mr. Duponceau, 
that he at no time claimed this as a peculiarity universal to 
American languages. His mind was of altogether too scientific a 
cast to venture such a rash generalization. He guards himself 
repeatedly and with care against being so understood, and re- 
iterates that his opinion must not be held to extend beyond the 
tongues he had studied, although he was inclined to believe that 
all would be found to reveal these characteristics. f 

The incorporative plan — das Einverleibungssystem — of Ameri- 
can languages attracted early the attention of Wilhelm von 
Humboldt, and in his monumental treatise, Ueber die Verschie- 
denheit des menschlichen Sprachbanes und ihren Einfiuss auf 
die geistige Enhoickelung des Menschengeschlechts, he explains, 
illustrates, and analyses it at considerable length. In a previous 
essay I have dwelt in detail on Humboldt's theory of ihe psy- 
chology of the incorporative system, and shall here confine my- 
self to his objective description of it.J 

Its purpose he defines to be, " to impress the unit} r of the 
sentence on the understanding by treating it, not as a whole 
composed of various words, but as one word."§ 

A perfect tj^pe of incorporation will group all the elements of 
the sentence in and around the verbal, as this alone is the bond 
of union between the several ideas. The designation of time 
and manner, that is, the tense and mode signs, will include both 

* M&moire sur le Systeme Grammatical des Langnes de quelques Nations Tndiennes 
de VAmerique rfu Nord, p. 247 (Paris, 1S36). 

t Ibid, pp. 07, 436. 

% The Philosophic Grammar of American Languages as set forth by Wilhelm von 
Humboldt. By Daniel G. Brinton, pp. 24 27 (Philadelphia, 1885). 

(S Ueber die Verschic denheit des Menschlichen Sprachbaues, etc., s. 166. 

1S85.] ®& [Brinton. 

the object and subject of the verb, thus subordinating them to 
the notion of action. It is " an indispensable basis " of this 
system that there should be a difference in the form of words 
when incorporated and when not. This applies in a measure to 
nouns and verbals, but especially to pronouns, and Humboldt 
names it as "the characteristic tendency" of American lan- 
guages, and one directly drawn from their incorporative plan, 
that the personal pronouns, both subjective and objective, used 
in connection with the verbs, are of a different form from the 
independent personal pronouns, either greatly abbreviated or 
from wholly different roots. Outside of the verbal thus formed 
as the central point of the sentence, there is no syntax, no in- 
flections, no declension of nouns or adjectives.* 

Humboldt was far from saying that the incorporative system 
was exclusively seen in American languages, any more than that 
of isolation in Chinese, or flexion in Aryan speech. On the con- 
trary, he distinctly states that every language he had examined 
shows traces of all three plans ; but the preponderance of one 
plan over the other is so marked and so distinctive that they 
afford us the best means known for the morphological classifica- 
tion of languages, especially as these traits arise from psycho- 
logical operations widely diverse and of no small influence on 
the development of the intellect.^ 

Dr. Francis Lieber, in an essay on " The Plan of Thought in 
American Languages,"! objected to the terms poly synthesis and 
incorporation that " they begin at the wrong end ; for these names 
indicate that that which has been separated is put together, as if 
man began with analysis, whereas he ends with it." He there- 
fore proposed the noun holophrasis with its adjective holophras- 

* See Ueoer die Verschiedenheit, etc., pp. 170-173, 323-6, etc. 

t Ibid, p. 167. All references are to the edition of 1818. For a full discussion of 
Wilhelm von Humboldt's views on this and allied topics see the work above 
referred to, The Philosophic Grammar of American Languages as set forth by Wil- 
helm von Humboldt ; with the Translation of an unpublished Memoir by Mm on the 
American Verbs (Philadelphia, 1885). 

X Published in H. R. Schoolcraft's History and Statistics of the Indian Tribes of 
th: United Stales. Vol. ii, pp. 316-310 (Washington, 1S53). 

Brinton] °t> [Oct. 2, 

tic, not as a substitute for the terms he criticized, but to express 
the meaning or purpose of these processes, which is, to convey 
the whole of a sentence or proposition in one word. Polysyn- 
thesis, he explains, indicates a purely etymological process, holo- 
phrasis " refers to the meaning of the word considered in a 
philosophical point of view." 

If we regard incorporation and polysynthesis as structural 
processes of language aiming to accomplish a certain theoretical 
form of speech, then it will be convenient to have this word 
holophrasis to designate this theoretical form, which is, in short, 
the expression of the whole proposition in a single word. 

The eminent linguist, Professor H. Steinthal, has developed 
the theory of incorporation more fully than any other writer. 
He expresses himself without reserve of the opinion that all 
American languages are constructed on this same plan, more or 
less developed. 

I need not make long quotations from a work so well-known 
as his Gharakteristik der hauptsachlichsten Typen des Sprach- 
baves, one section of which, about thirty pages in length, is de- 
voted to a searching and admirable presentation of the character- 
istics of the incorporative plan as shown in American languages. 
But I may give with brevity, what he regards as the most strik- 
ing features of this plan. These are especially three : — 

1. The construction of words by a mixed system of derivation 
and new formation. 

2. The objective relation is treated as a species of possession ; 

3. The possessive relation is regarded as the leading and sub- 
stantival one, and controls the form of expression. 

The first of these corresponds to what I should call polysyn- 
thesis; the others to incorporation in the limited sense of the 

Some special studies on this subject have been published by 
M. Lucien Adam, and he claims for them that they have refuted 

1885.] 57 [Brinton. 

and overturned the thesis of Duponceau, Humboldt, and Stein- 
thal, to the effect that there is a process called incorporative or 
poly synthetic which can be traced in all American languages, and 
though not in all points confined to them, may fairly and profit- 
ably be taken as characteristic of them, and indicative of the 
psychological processes which underlie them. This opinion M. 
Adam speaks of as a " stereotyped phrase which is absolutely 

So rude an iconoclasm as this must attract our careful con- 
sideration. Let us ask what M. Adam understands by the terms 
poly synthesis and incorporation. To our surprise, we shall find 
that in two works published in the same year, he advances defi- 
nitions by no means identical. Thus, in his " Examination of 
Sixteen American Languages," he says, " p>oly synthesis consists 
essentially in the affixing of subordinate personal pronouns to 
the noun, the postposition and the verb." In his " Study of Six 
Languages," he writes : " By polysynthesis I understand the ex- 
pression in one word of the relations of cause and effect, or of 
subject and object, "f 

Certainly these two definitions are not convertible, and we are 
almost constrained to suspect that the writer who gives them 
was not clear in his own mind as to the nature of the process. 
At any rate, they differ widely from the plan or method set 
forth by Humboldt and Steinthal as characteristic of American 
languages. M. Adam in showing that polys3 r nthesis in his un- 
derstanding of the term is not confined to or characteristic of 
American tongues missed the point, and fell into an iynoratio 

* " Je suis done autoris6 a conclure qu'il faut tenirpour absolument fausse 
cette proposition devenue faute d'y avoir regards de pres, une sorte de cliche : 
que si les langues Americaines different entre elles par la lexique, elles posse- 
dent neanmoin's en commun une seule et meme grainmaire." Examen gram- 
matical compare de seize langues Americaines, in the Compte-rendu of the Con- 
gres international des Americanistes, 1877, Tome ii, p. 242. As no one ever main- 
tained the unity of American grammar outside of the Einverleibungssystem, it 
must be to this theory only that M. Adam alludes. 

t Etudes sur Six Langues Americaines, p. 3 (Paris, 1878) ; and compare his Ex- 
amen Grammatical above quoted, p. 24, 243. 


Brinton.] OO Oct. 2, 

Equally narrow is his definition of incorporation. He writes, 
" When the object is intercalated between the subject and the 
verbal theme, there is incorporation.'' 1 If this is to be under- 
stood as an explanation of the German expression, Einverlei- 
bung, then it has been pared down until nothing but the stem is 

As to Dr. Lieber's suggestion of holophrastio as an adjective 
expressing the plan of thought at the basis of polysynthesis and 
incorporation, M. Adam summarily dismisses it as "a pedantic 
succedaneum " to our linguistic vocabulary. 

I cannot acknowledge that the propositions so carefully worked 
up by Humboldt and Steinthal have been refuted by M. Adam ; 
I must say, indeed, that the jejune significance he attaches to 
the incorporative process seems to me to show that he did not 
grasp it either as a structural motive in language, or as a wide 
reaching psychological process. 

Professor Friedrich Midler, whose studies of American lan- 
guages are among the most extended and profitable of the present 
time, has not given to this peculiar feature the attention which 
we might reasonably expect. Indeed, there appears in the 
standard treatise on the science of language which 'he is now 
engaged in publishing almost the same vagueness as to the nature 
of incorporation which I have pointed out in the writings of M. 
Adam. Thus, on one page he defines incorporating languages as 
those "which do away with the distinction between the word and 
the sentence ;" while on another page he explains incorporation as 
" the including of the object within the body of the verb." * He 
calls it " a peculiarity of most American languages, but not of 
all." That the structural process of incorporation is by no means 
exhausted by the reception of the object within the body of the 
verb, even that this is not requisite to incorporation, I shall en- 
deavor to show. 

*<!rttndriss der Spravhwissenschaft. Von Dr. Fried rich MUller. Compare Bd. 
i , s. 88, und Bd. ii, s. 182. 

1885.] 5J [Brinton. 

Finally, I may close this brief review of the history of these 
doctrines with a reference to the fact that neither of them ap- 
pears anywhere mentioned in the official " Introduction to the 
Study of Indian Languages " issued by the United States 
Bureau of Ethnology ! How the author of that work, Major 
J. W. Powell, Director of the Bureau, could have written a trea- 
tise on the study of American languages, and have not a word to 
say about these doctrines, the most salient and characteristic 
features of the group, is to me as inexplicable as it is extraordi- 
nary. He certainly could not have supposed that Duponceau's 
theory was completely dead and laid to rest, for Steinthal, the 
most eminent philosophic linguist of the age, still teaches in Ber- 
lin, and teaches what I have already quoted from him about these 
traits. What is more, Major Powell does not even refer to this 
structural plan, nor include it in what he terms the " grammatic 
processes " which he explains.* This is indeed the play of "Ham- 
let " with the part of Hamlet omitted ! 

I believe that for the scientific study of language, and especially 
of American languages, it will be profitable to restore and clearly 
to differentiate the distinction between polysynthesis and incor- 
poration, dimly perceived by Duponceau and expressed by him 
in the words already quoted. With these may be retained the 
neologism of Lieber, holophrasis, and the three defined as fol- 
lows : 

Poli/synthesrs is a method of word-building, applicable either 
to nominals or verbals, which not only employs juxtaposition 
with aphreresis, syncope, apocope, etc., but also words, forms of 
words and significant phonetic elements which have no separate 
existence apart from such compounds. This latter peculiarity 
marks it off altogether from the processes of agglutination and 

Incorporation, Einverleibung , is a structural process confined 

* Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages. By J. W. Powell, p. 55, Second 
edition. Washington, 1880. 

Brinton.] t)U [Oct. 2, 

to verbals, by which the nominal or pronominal elements of the 
proposition are subordinated to the verbal elements, either in 
form or position ; in the former case having no independent 
existence in the language in the form required by the verb, and 
in the latter case being included within the specific verbal signs 
of tense and mood. In a fully incorporative language the ver- 
bal exhausts the syntax of the grammar, all other parts of speech 
remaining in isolation and without structural connection. 

Holophrasis does not refer to structural peculiarities of lan- 
guage, but to the psychological impulse which lies at the root of 
polysynthesis and incorporation. It is the same in both instances 
— the effort to express the whole proposition in one word. This 
in turn is instigated by the stronger stimulus which the imagi- 
nation receives from an idea conveyed in one word rather than 
in many. 

These words, when understood, are good enough, without in- 
venting others. Professor Julien Yinson would like to substitute 
" syncopated composition " for polysynthesis.* But the process 
is not simply syncopated composition ; and if it were, why sub- 
stitute two words for one ? 

A few illustrations will aid in impressing these definitions on 
the mind. 

As poly synthetic elements, we have the inseparable possessive 
pronouns which in many languages are attached to the names of 
the parts of the human body and to the words for near relatives ; 
also the so-called "generic formatives," particles which are pre- 
fixed, suffixed, or inserted to indicate to what class or material 
objects belong ; also the " numeral terminations " affixed to the 
ordinal numbers to indicate the nature of the objects counted ; 
the negative, diminutive and amplificative particles which convey 
certain conceptions of a general character, and so on. These are 

* " Lc polysynthf'tisme, ou, pour employer une meilleure expression : \;\ com- 
position syyicop&c." M. Julien Vinson in the Compte- Rendu du Oongris Interna- 
tional des Amtricanisles, 1883, p. 365. 

1885.1 ^1 [Brinton. 

constantly used in word-building, but are generally not words 
themselves, having no independent status in the language. They 
may be single letters, or even merely vowel-changes and con- 
sonantal substitutions ; but they have well defined significance. 

In incorporation the object may be united to the verbal theme 
either as a prefix, suffix or infix ; or, as in Nahuatl, etc., a pro- 
nominal representative of it may be thus attached to the verb, 
while the object itself is placed in isolated apposition. 

The subject is usually a pronoun inseparably connected, or at 
least included within the tense sign ; to this the nominal subject 
stands in apposition. Both subjective and objective pronouns 
are apt to have a different form from either the independent 
personals or possessives, and this difference of form may be ac- 
cepted as a priori evidence of the incorporative plan of structure 
— though there are other possible origins for it. The tense and 
mode signs are general^ separable, and, especially in the com- 
pound tenses, are seen to apply not only to the verb itself, but 
to the whole scope of its action, the tense sign for instance pre- 
ceding the subject. 

Some further observations will set these peculiarities in a yet 
clearer light. 

Although in polysynthesis we speak of prefixes, suffixes, and 
juxtaposition, we are not to understand these terms as the same 
as in connection with the Aryan or with the agglutinative lan- 
guages. In polysynthetic tongues they are not intended to form 
words, but sentences ; not to express an idea, but a proposition. 
This is a fundamental logical distinction between the two classes 
of languages. * 

With certain prefixes, as those indicating possession, the form 
of the word itself alters, as in Mexican, amatl, book, no, mine, 
but namauh, my book. In a similar manner suffixes or post- 
positions affect the form of the words to which they are added. 

As the holophrastic method makes no provisions for the syntax 
of the sentence outside of the expression of action (i. e., the 

Brinton.] "^ [Oct. 2, 

verbal and what it embraces), nouns and adjectives are not de- 
clined. The " eases " which appear in many grammars of Ameri- 
can languages are usually indications of space or direction, or 
of possession, and not case-endings in the sense of Aryan 

A further consequence of the same method is the absence of 
true relative pronouns, of copulative conjunctions, and generally 
•of the machinery of dependent clauses. The devices to intro- 
duce subordinate propositions I have referred to in the pre- 
vious essay already mentioned. 

As the effort to speak in sentences rather than in words entails- 
•constant variation in these word-sentences, there arise both an 
•enormous increase in verbal forms and a multiplication of ex- 
pressions for ideas closely allied. This is the cause of the 
apparently endless conjugations of many such tongues, and also 
of the exuberance of their vocabularies in words of closely simi- 
lar signification. It is an ancient error — which T however,. I find 
^repeated in the official "Introduction to the Study of Indian 
Languages" issued by our Bureau of Ethnology — that the 
primitive condition of languages is one "where few ideas are 
expressed by few words," On the contrary, languages structu- 
rally at the bottom of the scale have an enorrmous and' useless 
•exeess of words. The savage tribes of the plains will call a 
color by three or four different words as it appears on different 
•objects. The Eskimo has about twenty words for fishing, de- 
pending on the nature of the fish pursued. All this arises- from 
the u holophrastic " plan of thought. 

It will be seen from these explanations that the^ definition 
of Incorporation as given by M. Lucien Adam (quoted above) 
is entirely «erroneous, and that of Professor Muller is visibly in- 
adequate. The former reduces it to a nacre matter of position 
or placement; the latter either does not distinguish it frompoly- 
.synthesis, or limits it to only one of its several expressions* 

In fact, Incorporation may take place with any one of the six 

1885.1 "^ [Brinton. 

possible modifications of the grammatical formula, " subject + 
verb + object." It is quite indifferent to its theory which of 
these comes first, which last ; although the most usual formula 
is either, 

subject + object + verb, or 
object + subject + verb ; 
the verb being understood to be the verbal theme only — not its 
tense and mode signs. Where either of the above arrangements 
occurs, we may consider it to be an indication of the incorpora- 
tive tendency ; but as mere position is insufficient evidence, In- 
corporation may be present in other arrangements of the ele- 
ments of the proposition. 

As a fair example of polysynthesis in nouns, we may select the 
word for " cross " in the Cree. The Indians render it by " pray- 
ing-stick " or " holy wood," and their word for " our praying- 
sticks " (crosses) is : 


This is analyzed as follows : 

n't', possessive pronoun, ^ person plural. 

ayami, something relating to religion. 

he, indicative termination of the foregoing. 

w, a connective. 

attik, suffix indicating wooden or of wood. 

u, a connective. 

m, sign of possession. 

i, a connective. 

nan, termination of ^ person plural. 

ak, termination of animate plural (the cross Is spoken of as= 
animate by a figure of speech). 

Not a single one of the above elements can be employed as 
an independent word. They are all only the raw material to- 
weave into and make up words. 

As a characteristic specimen of incorporation we may select. 
this Nahuatl word-sentence: 

Brinton.] t>4 [Oct. 2, 


I have given something to somebody ; 
which is analyzed as follows : 

o, augment of the preterit, a tense sign. 

m, pronoun, subject, 1st person. 

c, " semi-pronoun," object, 3d person. 

te, "inanimate semi-pronoun," object, 3d person. 

maca, theme of the verb, " to give." 

c, suffix of the preterit, a tense sign. 

Here it will be observed that between the tense-signs, which 
are logically the essential limitations of the action, are included 
both the agent and the near and remote objects of the action. 

Or we may take the Cakchiquel 
xbina camizah, 
Thou wilt not kill me. 

Composed of 

x, sign of the future tense. 

6, for ba, negative. 

in, for quin, pronoun, 1st person, object. 

a, pronoun, 2d person, subject. 

camizah, verbal theme, " to kill." 

Here t*he object does not come between verb and subject, but 
precedes the latter ; but it is a true specimen of incorporation, 
as is proved by the prefixed tense sign. 

In the modifications of meaning they undergo, American ver- 
bal themes may be divided into two great classes, either as they 
express these modifications (1) by suffixes to an unchanging 
radical, or (2) by internal changes of their radical. 

The last mentioned are most characteristic of synthetic tongues. 
In all pure dialects of the Algonkin the vowel of the verbal 
root undergoes a peculiar change called " flattening " when the 
proposition passes from the " positive " to the " suppositive " 

1885.] ^ [Brinton. 

mood.* The same principle is strikingly illustrated in the Choc- 
taw language, as the following example will show :f 

takchi, to tie (active, definite). 

t&kchi, to be tying (active, distinctive). 

tak'chi, to tie (active, emphatic). 

taiakchi, to tie tightly (active, intensive). 

tahakchi, to keep tying (active, frequentative). 

tahkchi, to tie at once (active immediate). 

tullakchi, to be tied (passive definite). 

ta,llakchi, to be the one tied (passive distinctive), etc., etc. 

This example is, however, left far behind by the Qquichua of 
Teru, which by a series of so-called " verbal particles " affixed, 
to the verbal theme confers an almost endless variety of modifi- 
cation on its verbs. Thus Anchorena in his Grammar gives the 
forms and shades of meaning of H75 modifications of the verb 
munay, to love.J 

These verbal particles are not other words, as adverbs, etc., 
qualifying the meaning of the verb and merely added to it, but 
have no independent existence in the language. Von Tschudi, 
whose admirable analysis of this interesting tongue cannot be 
too highly praised, explains them as " verbal roots which never 
reached independent development, or fragments handed down 
from some earlier epoch of the evolution of the language. "§ 
They are therefore true synthetic elements in the sense of Du- 
ponceau's definition, and not at all examples of collocation or 

In contrast to this we may take the Maya-Quiche dialects, where 
there are only slight traces of these internal changes, most of 
the modifications being effected by affixes. Thus Francisco 

*This obscure feature in Algonkin Grammar has not yet been satisfactorily ex- 
plained. Compare Baraga, Grammar of the Otchipive Language, p. 116 (Montreal, 
1878), and A. Lacombe, Grammaire de la Langue cles Oris, p. 155 (Montreal, 1871). 

fSee Grammar of the Choctaw Languages. By the Rev. Cyrus Byington. Edited 
by D. G. Brinton, pp. 35, 36 (Philadelphia, 1870). 

X Gramdtica Quechua, 6 del Idioma del Imperio de los Incas. Por el Dr. Jos6 
Dionisio Anchorena, pp. 163-177 (Lima, 1874). 

'£ Orgaaismus der Khetsua-Sprache. Von J. J. von Tschudi, p. 368 (Leipzig, 1884). 


Brinton.] 66 [Oct. 2, 

Ximenez in his Quiche Grammar gives twenty-four variations 
of the theme bak, bored, all by suffixes, as :* 

bak, first passive. 

bakatuh, second passive. 

bakou, first absolute. 

bakon, second absolute. 

bake, first neuter. 

baker, second neuter, etc., etc. 

While the genius of American languages is such that they per- 
mit and many of them favor the formation of long compounds 
which express the whole of a sentence in one word, this is by no 
means necessary. Most of the examples of words of ten, twenty 
or more syllables are not genuine native words, but novelties 
manufactured by the missionaries. In ordinary intercourse such 
compounds are not in use, and the speech is comparatively 

Of two of the most synthetic languages, the Algonkin and the 
Nahuatl, we have express testimony from experts that they can 
be employed in simple or compound forms, as the speaker prefers. 
The Abbe Lacombe observes that in Cree " sometimes one can 
employ very long words to express a whole phrase, although the 
same ideas can be easily rendered by periphrasis. "f In the sylla- 
bus of the lectures on the Nahuatl by Prof. Agustin de la Rosa 
of the University of Guadalaxara I note that he explains when 
the Nahuatl is to be employed in a synthetic, and when in an ana- 
lytic form. J 

I shall now proceed to examine those American tongues which 

* Gramatica de la Lengua Quiche. Ed. Brasseur de Bourbourg, p. 8 (Paris, 1862). 

f"Ces exemples font comprendre combien qnelquefois on pent rendre des 
mots tr&s longs, pour exprimer toute une phrase, quoiqu' aussi on puisse facile- 
ment rendre les mernes idees par des periphrases." Laconibe, Qrammaire de la 
Langue des Oris, p. 11 (Montreal, 1874). 

J " Se explicara la razon nlos6flca de los dos modos de usar.las palabras en 
Mexicano, uno componiendo de varlas palabras lino solo, y otro dejandolas 
separadas y enlazandolas solo por el regimen " From the programme of Prof. 
A. de la Rosa's course in 1870. It is greatly to be regretted that the works of this 
author on the Nahuatl, though recent, are so scarce as to be unobtainable. 

1885.] " • [Brinton. 

have been authoritatively declared to be exceptions to the general 
rule? of American grammar, as being devoid of the incorporative 
and polysynthetic character. 

The Othomi.* 

As I have said, the Othomi was the stumbling block of Mr. 
Duponceau and led him to abandon his theory of polys} r nthesis 
as a characteristic of American tongues. Although in his earlier 
"writings he expressly names it as one of the illustrations sup- 
porting his theory, later in life the information he derived from 
Senor Emmanuel Naxera led him to regard it as an isolating and 
monosyllabic language, quite on a par with the Chinese. He ex- 
pressed this change of view in the frankest manner, and since 
that time writers have spoken of the Othomi as a marked excep- 
tion in structure to the general rules of synthesis in American 
tongues. This continues to be the case even in the latest writ- 
ings, as, for instance, in the recently published Anthropologic du 
Mexique, of Dr. Hamy.f 

Let us examine the grounds of this opinion. 

The Othomis are an ancient and extended family who from 
the remotest traditional epochs occupied the central valleys and 
mountains of Mexico north of the Aztecs and Tezcucans. Their 

*The original authorities I have consulted on the Othomi are : 

Sec/las de Orthographia, Diccionario, y Arte del Idioma Othomi. By Luis de Neve 
y Molina (Mexico, 1767). 

De Lingha Othomitorum Disserlalio. By Emmanuel Naxera (Philadelphia, 

Cateiesmo en Lengua Otomi. By Francisco Perez (Mexico, 1831). 

fHe speaks of the Othomi in these terms:—" Une langue aux allures toutes 
spficiales, fondamentalement distincte de toutes les langues qui se parlent au- 
jourd' hui sur le continent amfiricain." Mission Scientiflque au 3fezigue, Pt. i. 
Anthropologic, p. 32 (Paris, 1884). This is the precise opinion, strongly ex- 
pressed, that it is my object to controvert. Many other writers have maintained 
it. Thus Count Piccolomini in the Prolegomena to his version of Neve's Othomi 
Grammar says: "La loro lingua che con nessuna altradel mondoconosciuto ha 
la menoma analogia, e semplice. * * * La formazione dei loro verbi, no mi • 
ed altri derivati ha molta semplecita,'' etc. Grammalica delta Lingua Otomi. p. 
3 (Roma, 1811). This writer also offers an illustration of how imperfectly Du- 
ponceau's theory of polysyntbesis has been understood. Not only does Picco- 
lomini deny it for the Otomi, but he denies that it is anything more than merely 
running several words together with some phonetic syncopation. See the Anno- 
talioni at the close of his Othomi Grammar. 

Brinton.] t>8 rQct. 2 , 

language, called by themselves nhidn hiu,, the fixed or current 
speech* (nhidn, speech, hiu, stable,, fixed), presents extraordinary 
phonetic difficulties on account of its nasals, gutturals and ex- 
plosives. M. A. Pinart has informed me that of the many Ameri- 
can tongues which he has studied from the lips of the natives, 
it is far the most difficult to catch. 

It is one of a group of related dialects which may be arranged 
as follows : 

C The Othomi. 

J The Mazahua. 

} The Pame and its dialects. 

I The Meco or Jonaz. 

It was the opinion of M. Charencey, that another member of 
this group was the Pirinda or Matlazinca ; a position combatted 
by Senor Pimentel, who acknowledges some common property in 
words, but considers them merely borrowed. f 

At the outset, it is well to express a caution about accepting 
without reserve Naxera's opinions on the tongue. No doubt 
he had practical familiarity with it in its modern and 
rather corrupt form, but his treatise was largely written to 
prove that it was not only structurally similar but lexico- 
graphically related to the Chinese : — and we all know how 
such a prepossession obscures the judgment. Thus, part of his 
object was to prove that every syllable of the polysyllabic words 
had an independent meaning which it always retained in the 
compound. It is easy to think out deceptive etymologies of this 
kind, especially in languages where there are many monosyl- 
lables. Thus the participle rowing might plausibly be com- 
pounded of the two monosyllables row, and wing, as the oarmen 
are seated in a row, and the blade of the oar resembles a wing. 

*This is the orthography of Neve. The terminal vowels are both nasals; 
nhidn is from the radical hid to breathe, breath. 

fSee the "Comparacion del Othomi con el Mazahua y el Pirinda," in the 
Cuadro Descriptivo y Comparative de /as Lenguas Tndigenas ile Mexico, por Fran- 
cisco Pimentel. Tomo iii, pp. 431-415 (Mexico, 1875). 

1885.1 UJ [Brinton. 

Bayard Taylor's humorous derivation of restaurant — res, taurus, 
"bully thing" — is of similar character. That Naxera was, led 
into this false route by his anxiety to prove the Othomi mono- 
syllabic is evident, for example, from his treatment of the verbal 
terminations tza, tze, tzi; he makes them independent words, 
characterizing the imperative, and meaning to happen, to effect, 
and to carry ; whereas Neve treats them as mere terminations, 
which is shown to be correct by the fact that they are retained 
with syncope and elision in other moods as well as in the im- 
perative itself.* Thus 

Da phdx Oghd : 

Thee aid God. 

Where phdx is an abbreviation of phatzi. 

Naxera made the statement that the Mazahua is monosyllabic, 
an error in which his copyists have obediently followed him ; but 
Pimentel pointedly contradicts this assertion and shows that it 
is a mistake, both for the Mazahua and for the Pame and its 

We may begin our study of the language with an examination 

ot the 

Tense signs in Othomi. 



I wish, 

di nee. 


Thou wishest, 

gui nee. 


He wishes, 

y nee. 




I wished, 

da nee. 


Thou wished, 

ga nee. 


He wished, 

hi nee. 

* Compare Naxera, Dissertatio, p. 286, with Neve, Reglas, p. 149. 
t See Pimentel, Descriptivo, etc. Tomo iii, pp. 429 ami 455. 








I have wished, 

xta nee. 


Thou hast wished, 

xca nee. 


He has wished, 

xpi nee. 



I had wished, 

xta nee hma. 


Thou hadst wished 


xca nee hma. 


He had wished, 

xpi nee hma. 




I shall wish, 

ga nee. 


Thou wilt wish, 

gui nee. 


He will wish, 

da nee. 



[Oct. 2, 

1. I shall have wished, gua xta nee. 

2. Thou wilt have wished, gua xca nee. 

3. He will have wished, gua xpi nee. 

The pronouns here employed are neither the ordinary per- 
sonals nor possessives (though the Othomi admits of a posses- 
sive conjugation), but are verbal pronouns, strictly analogous to 
those found in various other American languages. Their radicals 
are : 

I, d — 

Thou, g — . 

He, it, b — . 

In the present, the first and second are prefixed to what is 
really the simple concrete form of the verb, y-nee. In the past 
tenses the personal signs are variously united with particles de- 
noting past time or the past, as a, the end, to finish, ma and 
hma, yesterday, and the prefix x, which is very noteworthy as 
being precisely the same in sound and use which we find in the 
Cakchiquel past and future tenses. It is pronounced s/i (as in 
sftove) and precedes the whole verbal, including subject, object, 


1885.J * x LBrinton. 

and theme ; while in the pluperfect, the second sign of past time 
hma is a suffix to the collective expression. 

The future third person is given by Neve as da, but by Perez 
as di, which latter is apparently from the future particle ni given 
by Neve. In the second future, the distinctive particle gua pre- 
cedes the whole verbal, thus inclosing the subject with the theme 
in the tense-sign, strictly according to the principles of the in- 
corporative conjugation. 

This incorporative character is still more marked in the objec- 
tive conjugations, or "transitions." The object, indeed, follows 
the verb, but is not only incorporated with it, but in the com- 
pound tense is included within the double tense signs. 

Thus, I find in Perez's Catechism, 

di un-ba magetzi, 

He will give-theni heaven. 

In this sentence, di is the personal pronoun combined with the 
future sign ; and the verb is un-nl, to give to another, which is 
compounded with the personal ba, them, drops its final syllable, 
forming a true synthesis. 

In the phrase, 

ocpi un-ba hma magetzi, 
he had given-thein (had) heaven, 
both subject and object, the latter inclosed in a synthesis with 
the radical of the theme, the former phonetically altered and co- 
alesced with a tense particle, are included in the double tense- 
sign, x-hma. This is as real an example of incorporation as can 
be found in any American language. 

Ordinary synthesis of words, other than verbs, is by no means 
rare in Othomi. Simple juxtaposition, which Naxera states to 
be the rule, is not all universal. Such a statement by him leads 
us to suspect that he had only that elementary knowledge of the 
tongue which Neve refers to in a forcible passage in his Reglas. 
He writes ; — " A good share of the difficulty of this tongue lies 
in its custom of syncope; and because the tyros who make use 

Brintou.J ' ^ [Oct. U, 

of it do not syncopate it, their compositions are so rough and 
lacking in harmony to the ears of the natives that the latter 
count their talk as no better than that of horse-jockeys, as we 
would say."* 

The extent of this syncopation is occasionally to such a degree 
that only a fragment of the original word is retained. As : 
The charcoal-vendor, na mathid. 

Herewa, is a demonstrative particle like the Aztec in, and 
mathid is a compound of pa, to sell, and thehnd, charcoal. 

The expression, 

y mahny oqha, he loves God, 
is to be analyzed, 

y mdhcll nuny oqha ; 
he loves him God ; 
where we perceive not only synthesis, but the object standing in 
apposition to the pronoun representing it, which is incorporated 
with the verb. 

So : yot-gua, light here ; from yotti, to light, nugua, here. 

These examples from many given in Neve's work seem to me 
to prove beyond cavil that the Othomi exhibits, when properly 
spoken, precisely the same theories of incorporation and poly- 
synthesis as the other American languages, although undoubtedly 
its more monosyllabic character and the extreme complexity of 
its phonetics do not permit of a development of these peculi- 
arities to the same degree as many. 

Nor am I alone in this opinion. It has already been announced 
by my learned friend, the Count de Charencey, as the result of 
his comparison of this tongue with the Mazahua and Pirinda. 
*' The Othomi," he writes, " has all the appearance of a language 
which was at first incorporative, and which, worn down \>y attri- 

*" Parte de la diflcultad de este idioma consiste en la syncopa, pues el no 
syncopar los prlncipiantes artistas, es causa de que sus periodos y oraclones 
sean tan rispldos, y faltos de harmonia, por cuyo motive- los natlvos los mur- 
murau, y tienen (como vulgarmente deciinos), por quartreros." Heglas de Or- 
fhographia, etc., p. 140. 


1885.] *° [Brinton. 

tion and linguistic decay, has at length come to simulate a lan- 
guage of juxtaposition."* 

Some other peculiarities of the language, though not directly 
bearing on the question, point in the same direction. A certain 
class of compound verbs are said by Neve to have a possessive 
declension. Thus, of the two words puengui, he draws, and hid, 
breath, is formed the verb huehid, which is conjugated by using 
the verb in the indefinite third person and inserting the posses- 
si ves ma, ni, na, my, thy, his ; thus, 

ybuemahia, I breathe. 

ybuenihia, thou breathest. 

ybaenahia, he breathes.f 
Literally this would be " it-is-drawing, my-breath," etc. 

In the Mazahua dialects there is a remarkable change in the 
objective conjugations (transitions) where the whole form of the 
verb appears to alter. In this language ti = I ; ki or khe = thou. 

I give, ti une. 

I give thee, ti clakke. 

He will give us, ti yakme.% 

The last example is not fully explained hy my authorities ; but 
it shows the verbal change. 

Something like this occurs in the Pame dialects. They re- 
veal a manifest indifference to the integrity of the theme, charac- 
teristic of polysynthetic languages. Thus, our only authority 
on the Pame, Father Juan Guadalupe Soriano, gives the pret- 
erit forms of the verb " to aid :" 

Ku pait, I aided. 

Ki gait, thou aidedest. 

Ku mail, he aided. 

*"L'Othomi nous a tout l'air d'une langue primitivement incorporante, et 
qui, parvenu au dernier degr6 d'usure et d61abrement, a flni par prendre lea 
allures d'un dialecte a juxtaposition." Melanges de Philologie et de Paliographie 
Amiricaine. Par le Conite de Uharencey, p. 80 (Paris, 1883). 

t Neve, Reglas etc., pp. 159, 160. 

% Pimentel, Cuadro Bescriptivo, Tom. iii, p. 424. 


Brinton.] '4 [Oct. 2, 

So, of " to burn :" 

Knu aum, I burned. 

Kuddu du taum, they burned.* 

A large number of such changes run through the conjugation. 
Pimentel calls them phonetic changes, but they are certainly, in 
some instances, true syntheses. 

All these traits of the Othomi and its related dialects serve 
to place them unquestionably within the general plan of struc- 
ture of American languages. 

The Bri-Bri Language. 

The late Mr. William M. Gabb, who was the first to furnish 
any satisfactory information about it and its allied dialects in 
Costa Rica, introduces the Bri-Bri language, spoken in the high- 
lands of that State, by quoting the words of Alexander von 
Humboldt to the effect that " a multiplicity of tenses character- 
izes the rudest American languages." On this, Mr. Gabb com- 
ments : " This certainly does not apply to the Costa Rican 
family, which is equally remarkable for the simplicity of its in- 

This statement, offered with such confidence, has been accepted 
and passed on without close examination b}^ several usually care- 
ful linguists. Thus Professor Friedrich Miiller, in his brief des- 
cription of the Bri-Bri (taken exclusively from Gabb's work), 
inserts the observation — " The simple structure of this idiom is 
sufficient to contradict the theories generally received about 
American languages. "| And M. Lucien Adam has lately in- 
stanced its verbs as notable examples of inflectional simplicity.§ 

* Pimentel, Cuadro Descrijitlvo, Tomo iii, p. 462. 

t Wm. M. Gabb, On the Indian Tribes and Languages of Costa Rica, in the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society for 1875, p. 532, 

J"Dessen einfacher Ban die (lber die Amerikanischen Sprachen im Allge- 
meinen verbreiteten Theorien zu widerlegen im Stande ist." Qrundriss der 
Sprachwixsenschaft , ii Band, s. 318 (Wien, 1882). 

j5 Le Tacnxa a-f-il (/(■forge de toutes Pieces'! ROponse A M. Daniel G. Brinton. 
Par Lucien Adam, p. 19 (Paris, Maisonneuve et Cie, 1885). 


1885.1 [Brinton. 

The study of this group of tongues becomes, therefore, of pecu- 
liar importance to my present topic. 

Since Mr. Gabb published his memoir, some independent ma- 
terial, grammatical as well as lexicographical, has been furnished 
by the Rt. Rev. B. A. Thiel, Bishop of Costa Rica,* and I have 
obtained, in addition, several MS. vocabularies and notes on the 
languages prepared by Prof. P. J. J. Valentini (now of New 
York City) and others. 

The stock is divided into three groups of related dialects, as 
follows : — 

I. The Brunka, Bronka or Boruca,now in Southwestern Costa 
Rica, but believed by Gabb to have been the earliest of the stock 
to occupy the soil, and to have been crowded out by later 

II. The Tiribi and Terraba, principally on the head-waters of 
the Rio Telorio and south of the mountains. 

III. The Bri-Bri and Cabecar on the head-waters of the Rio 
Tiliri. The Biceitas (Yizeitas^) or Cachis, near the mouth of the 
same stream, are one of the off-shoots of the Bri-Bris ; so also are 
the small tribes at Orosi and Tucurrique, who were removed 10 
those localities bj' the Spaniards. 

The Bri-Bri and Cabecar, although dialects of the same 
original speech, are not sufficiently alike to be mutually intelligi- 
ble. The Cabecars occupied the land before the Bri-Bris, but 
were, conquered and are now subject to them. It is probable 
that their dialedt is more archaic. 

The Bri-Bri is a language of extreme poverty, and as spoken 
at present is plainly corrupt. Gabb estimates the total number 
of words it contains as probably not exceeding fifteen hundred. 
Some of these, though Gabb thinks not very many, are borrowed 
from the Spanish ; but it is significant, that among them is the 
pronoun " that," the Spanish ese. 

* Apuntes Lexicograficos de las Lenguas y Dialeclos de los Indicts de Costa-Hica. 
Por Bernardo Augusto Thiel, Obispo de Costa-Rica (San Jos6 de Costa-Rica, 
1882. Imprenta Nacional). 

Brinton.] ' " [Oct. 2, 

Let us now examine the Bri-Bri verb, said to be so singularly 
simple. We are at once struck by Mr. Gabb's remark (just after 
he has been speaking of their unparalleled simplicity) that the 
inflections he gives " have been verified with as much care as the 
difficulties of the case would admit." Evidently, then, there 
were difficulties. What they are become apparent when we 
attempt to analyze the forms of the eighteen brief paradigms 
which he gives. 

The personal pronouns are 

je, I. sa, we. 

be, thou. ha, you. 

ye, he, etc. ye-pa, they. 

These are both nominative and objective, personal and, with 
the suffix cha, possessives. 

The tenses are usually, not always, indicated by suffixes to the 
theme ; but these vary, and no rule is given for them, nor is it 
stated whether the same theme can be used with them all. Thus, 

To burn, v-norka. Present, i-nyor-ket-ke. 

To cook, i-lu'. " l-luk. 

To start, i-be-te. " i-bc-te. 

Here are three forms for the present, not explained. Are they 
three conjugations, or do they express three shades of meaning, 
like the three English presents ? I suspect the latter, for under 
ikiana, to want, Gabb remarks that the form 'm-etke, means " he 
wants you," i. e., is emphatic. 

The past aorist has two terminations, one in -na, and one in -e, 
about the uses and meaning of which we are left equally in the 

The future is utterly inexplicable. Even Prof. Miiller, just 
after his note calling attention to the " great simplicity " of the 
tongue, is obliged to give up this tense with the observation, 
" the structural laws regulating the formation of the future are 
still in obscurity 1" Was it not somewhat premature to dwell on 

1885.] • ' [Brinton 

the impliscity of a tongue whose simplest tenses he acknowl- 
edges himself unable to analyze ? 

The futures of some verbs will reveal the difficulties of this 
tense : — 

To burn, i-nyor-ka; future, i-nyor-wane-ka. 

To cook, i-lu' ; " i-lu'. 

To start, i-bete\- " i-bete. 

To want, i-ki-ana ; " i-kie. 

To count, ishtaung ; " nxia shta'we. 

In the last example mia, is the future of the verb, raw, to go, 
and is used as an auxiliary. 

The explanation I have to suggest for these varying forms is, 
either that they represent in fact that very "multiplicity of 
tense-formations " which Humboldt alluded to, and which were 
too subtle to be apprehended by Mr. Gabb within the time he 
devoted to the study of the language ; or that they are in modern 
Bri-Bri, which I have shown is noticeably corrupted, survivals 
of these formations, but are now largely disregarded by the 
natives themselves. 

Signs of the incorporative plan are not wanting in the tongue. 
Thus in the objective conjugation not only is the object placed 
between subject and verb, but the latter may undergo visible 
synthetic changes. Thus : 
Je be sueng. 
I thee see. 

Ke je be wai su-na. 
Not I thee (?) see-did. 

In the latter sentence na is the sign of the past aorist, and the 
verb in synthesis with it drops its last syllable. The wai Gabb 
could not explain. It will be noticed that the negative precedes 
the whole verbal form, thus indicating that it is treated as a 
collective idea (holophrastically). 

Prepositions always appear as suffixes to nouns, which, in com- 

Brinton.] <o [Oct. 2, 

position, may suffer elision. This is strictly similar to the 
Nahuatl and other sjmthetic tongues. 

Other examples of developed synthesis are not uncommon, as 

away, imibak, from imia to go, jebak, already. 

very hot, palina, from ba + ilinia. 

The opinion that the Bri-Bri is at present a considerably cor- 
rupted and worn-down dialect of a group of originally highly 
synthetic tongues is borne out by an examination of the scanty 
materials we have of its nearest relations. 

Thus in the Terraba we find the same superfluous richness of 
pronominal forms which occurs in many South American tongues, 
one indicating that the person is sitting, another that he is 
standing, a third that he is walking.* 

The Brunca has several distinct forms in the present tense : 

I eat, cha adeh } and atqui chart (atqui = I). 

Although Bishop Thiel supplies a number of verbal forms from 
this dialect, the plan of their construction is not obvious. This 
is seen from a comparison of the present and perfect tenses in 

i mi if a tq u h I. 

various words. The pronouns are £ 1 

[ ique, he. 
For instance : — 

Brunka Verbal Forms. 

To kill (radical, ai). 
Present, I kill, cha atqui i aira. 
Perfect, he has killed, iang i aic. 

To die (radical, cojt). 
Present, I die, cojo drah. 
Perfect, he has died, cojt crah. 

To hear (radical, do}). 
Present, I hear, aari doj ograh. 
Perfect, I have heard, aqui doj crah. 

*Qabl>, ubi supra, p. 539. 

1885.] •" [Brinton. 

To forget. 

Present, I forget, atqui chita uringera. 

Perfect, I have forgotten, ochita uringea. 

These examples are sufficient to show that the Brunka con- 
jugations are neither regular nor simple, and such is the em- 
phatic statement of Bishop Thiol, both of it and all these allied 
dialects. In his introduction he states that he is not yet ready 
to offer a grammar of these tongues, though well supplied with 
lexicographical materials, and that " their verbs are especially 

The Cabecar dialect, in which he gives several native funeral 
poems, without translations, is apparently more complicated 
than the Bri-Bri. The words of the songs are long and seem 
much syncopated. 

The Tupi-Guarani Dialects. 

Several writers of the highest position have asserted that these 
dialects, spoken over so large a portion of the territory of Brazil, 
are neither polysynthetic nor incorporative. Thus the late Prof. 
Charles F. Hartt in his " Notes on the Lingoa Geral or Modern 
Tupi," expressed himself: — " Unlike the North American Indian 
tongues, the languages of the Tupi-Guarani family are not poly- 
synthetic in structure." f With scarcely less positiveness Pro- 
fessor Friedrich Miiller writes : — " The objective conjugation of 
the Tupi-Guarani does not show the incorporation usually seen 
in American languages, but rather a mere collocation." J 

It is, I acknowledge, somewhat hazardous to venture an opin- 
ion contrary to such excellent authorities. But I must say, that 
while, no doubt, the Tupi in its structure differs widely from the 

* " Especial diflcultad ofrecen los verbos." Apuntes Lexfcograficos, etc. Introd. 
p. iv. This expression is conclusive as to the incorrectness of the opinion of M. 
Adam, and Prof. Miiller above quoted, and shows how easily even justly emi- 
nent linguists may fall into error about tongues of which they have limited 
means of knowledge. The proper course in such a case is evidently to be cau- 
tious about venturing positive assertions. 

t Transactions of the American Philological Association, 1S72, p. 58. 

X Grundriss der Sprachwissenschafl, Bd. ii, p. 387. 

Brinton.J oO [Oct. 2, 

Algonkin or Nahuatl, it yet seems to present unmistakeable 
signs of both an incorporative and polysynthetic character such 
as would be difficult to parallel outside of America. 

I am encouraged to maintain this by the recent example of the 
erudite Dr. Amaro Cavalcanti, himself well and practically versed 
in the spoken Tupi of to-day, who has issued a learned treatise 
to prove that " the dialects spokea by the Brazilian savages 
present undoubtedly all the supposed characteristics of an 
agglutinative language, and belong to the same group as the 
numerous other dialects or tongues of America."* Dr. Caval- 
canti does not, indeed, distinguish so clearly between agglutina- 
tive and incorporative languages, as I should wish, but the trend 
of his work is altogether parallel to the arguments I am about 
to advance. 

Fortunately, we do not suffer from a lack of materials to study 
the Tupi, ancient and modern. There are plenty of dictionaries, 
grammars and texts in it, and even an " Ollendorff's Method," 
for those who prefer that intellectual (!) system, f 

All recent writers agree that the modern Tupi has been 
materially changed by long contact with the whites. The traders 
and missionaries have exerted a disintegrating effect on its 
ancient forms, and often directly in the line of erasing their 
peculiarities, to some of which I shall have occasion to refer. 

Turning our attention first to its synthetic character, one can- 

* The Brazilian Language and Us Agglutination. By Amaro Cavalcanti, LL.B., 
etc., p. 5 (Rio Janeiro, 1883). 

fThe most valuable for linguistic researches are the following: 

Arte de Grammatica da Lingua wris usada na Costa do Brazil. By Joseph de 
Anchieta. This is the oldest authority, Anchieta having commenced as mis- 
sionary to the Tupis in 1556. 

Arte, Vocabutario y Tesoro de la Lengua Guarani, 6 mas bien Tupi. By Antonio 
Ruiz deMontoya. An admirable work representing the southern Tupi as it 
was in the first half of the seventeenth century. 

Both the above have been republished in recent years. Of modern writings 
I would particularly name : 

Aponlamentos sobre o Abaheknga tambem chamado Guarani ou l^upi. By Dr. B. 
C. D'A. Nogueira (Rio Janeiro, 1876). 

O Selvagem i Curso da Lingua Geral. By Dr. Couto de Magalhaes (Rio de 
Taneiro, 1876). 

1885.] ol [Brinton. 

not but be surprised after reading Prof. Hartt's opinion above 
quoted to find him a few pages later introducing us to the fol- 
lowing example of " word building of a more than usually poly- 
synthetic character." * 

akdyu, head ; ayu, bad. 

akayayu, crazy. 

muakayayu, to seduce (make crazy). 

xayumuakayayu, I make myself crazy, etc. 

Such examples, however, are not rare, as may be seen by turn- 
ing over the leaves of Montoya's Tesoro de la Lengua Guarani. 
The most noticeable and most American peculiarity of such com- 
pounds is that they are not collocations of words, as are the 
agglutinative compounds of the Ural-Altaic tongues, but of 
particles and phonetic elements which have no separate life in 
the language. 

Father Montoya calls especial attention to this in the first 
words of his Advertencia to his Tesoro. He says : — " The 
foundation of this language consists of particles which frequently 
have no meaning if taken alone ; but when compounded with 
the whole or parts of others (for they cut them up a great deal 
in composition) they form significant expressions ; for this 
reason there are no independent verbs in the language, a3 they 
are built up of these particles with nouns or pronouns. Thus 
nemboe is composed of the three particles ne, mo, e. The ne 
is reciprocal ; mo an active particle ; e indicates skill ; and the 
whole means 'to exercise oneself,' which we translate, 'to learn,' 
or 'to teach,' indeterminately; but with the personal sign 
added, anemboe, ' I learn '." 

This analysis, which Montoya carries much further, reminds 
us forcibly of the extraordinarily acute analysis of the Cree 
(Algonkin) by Mr. James Howse. f Undoubtedly the two 

* Notes on the Lingoa Oeral, as above, p. 71. 

t James Howse, A Grammar of the Cree Language (London, 1844). A remark- 
able production which has never received the attention from linguists which it 


Brinton.] <->-> [Oct. 2, 

tongues have been built up from significant particles (not 
words) in the same manner. 

Some of these particles convey a peculiar turn to the whole 
sentence, difficult to express in our tongues. Thus the element 
' e attached to the last syllable of a compound gives an oppositive 
sense to the whole expression; for example, ajur, "I come" 
simply; but if the question follows: "Who ordered you to 
come?" the answer might be, ajure, "I come of my own accord; 
nobody ordered me." * 

Cavalcanti observes that many of these formative elements 
which existed in the old Tupi have now fallen out of use. f This 
is one of several evidences of a change in structure in the lan- 
guage, a loss of its more pliable and creative powers. 

This synthesis is also displayed in the Tupi, as in the Cree, 
by the inseparable union of certain nouns with pronouns. The 
latter are constantly united with terms of consanguinity and 
generally with those of members of the body, the form of the 
noun undergoing material modifications. Thus : 

tete, body ; cete, his body ; xerete, my body. 

tuba, father ; oguba, his father ; xerub, my father. 

mymbaba, domestic animal ; gueymba, 4iis domestic animal. 

tera, name ; guera, his name. 

Postpositions are in a similar manner sometimes merged into 
the nouns or pronouns which they limit. Thus : tenonde, before ; 
guenonde, before him. 

It appears to me that the substratum, the structural theory, 
of such a tongue is decidedly polysynthetic and not agglutina- 
tive, still less analytic. 

Let us now inquire whether there are any signs of the incor- 
porative process in Tupi. 

We are at once struck with the peculiarity that there are two 
special sets of pronouns used with verbals, one set subjective 

* Anchieta, Arte de Grammatica, etc., p. 75. 
t The Brazilian Language, etc., pp. IS-!). 

1885.] 83 [Brinton. 

and the other objective, several of which cannot be employed in 
any other construction.* This is almost diagnostic of the holo- 
phrastic method of speech. The pronouns in such cases are 
evidently regarded by the language-faculty as subordinate acces- 
sories to the verbal, and whether they are phonetically merged 
in it or not is a secondary question. 

The Tupi pronouns (confining myself* to the singular number 
for the sake of brevity) are as follows : 

Independent personals. Possessives. Verbal affixes. 

Subject. Object. 

ixe or xe. se or xe. a. xe. 

inde or ne. ne or re. re, yepe. oro. 

ae or o. ae or i. o. ae or i. 

The verbal affixes are united to the theme with various pho- 
netic changes and so intimately as to form one word. The gram- 
mars give such examples as : — 

areco, I hold ; guereco, they hold him. 

ahenoi, I call ; xerenoi, they call me. 

ayaca, I dispute him ; oroaca, I dispute thee. 
In the first person, singular, the two pronominal forms xe and 
a are usually merged in the synthesis xa ; as, xamehen, I love. 

Another feature pointing to the incorporative plan is the loca- 
tion of the object. The rule in the old language was to place 
the object in all instances before the verb, that is, between the 
verb and its subject when the latter was other than a personal 
suffix. Dr. Cavalcanti says that this is now in a measure 
changed, so that when the object is of the third person it is 
placed after the verb, although in the first and second persons 
the old rule still holds good.f Thus the ancient Tupis would 

boia ae o-sou, 
snake him he-bites. 

* See Anchieta, Arte de Grammatica, etc., p. -52-. 
t The Brazilian Language, etc,'p. 111. 

Brinton.] o4 i 0ct 2> 

But in the modern tongue it is : 
boia o-sou ae. 
snake he-bites him. 
With the other persons the rule is still for the object to pre- 
cede and to he attached to tbe theme : 
xeoroinca, I thee kill. 
xepeinca, I you* kill. 
xeincayepe, me killest thou. 
Many highly complex verbal forms seem to me to illustrate a 
close incorporative tendency. Let us analyze lor instance the 



which means " him whom I teach " or " that which I teach." 
Its theme is the verbal mboe, which in the extract I have above 
made from Montoya is shown to be a synthesis of the three ele- 
mentary particles Tie, mo, and e ; xe is the possessive form of 
the personal pronoun, "my "; it is followed by the participial 
expression temi or tembi, which, according to Montoya, is equiva- 
lent to " illud quod facio ;" its terminal vowel is syncopated with 
the relative y or i, "him, it"; so the separate parts of the ex- 
pression are : — 

xe + tembi + y + Tie + mo + e. 
I will not pursue the examination of the Tupi further. It 
were, of course, easy to multiply examples. But I am willing 
to leave the case as it stands, and to ask linguists whether, in 
view of the above, it was not a premature judgment that pro- 
nounced it a tongue neither polysynthetic nor incorporative. 

The Mirfsun. 
This is also one of the languages which has been announced 
as " neither polysynthetic nor incorporative," and the construc- 
tion of its verb as " simple to the last degree."* 

*"Kein polysynthesis nnd keine incorporation," says Dr. Heinrich Wink- 
ler (Uralaltaische VOlker und Sprachen, p. Hit), who apparently has obtained all 
his knowledge of it from the two pages devoted to it by Professor Friedrich 
Muller, who introduces it as "Kusserst elnfacb." Grundrisa der Sprachwissen- 
scha/t, Bd. ii, p. £37. 

1885.] ®b [Brinton. 

We know the tongue only through the Grammar and Phrase- 
Book of Father de la Cuesta, who acknowledges himself to be 
very imperfectly acquainted* With its associated dia- 
lects, it was spoken near the site of the present city of San 
Francisco, California. 

Looking first at the verb, its " extreme simplicity " is not so 
apparent as the statements about it would lead us to expect. 

In the first place, the naked verbal theme undergoes a variety 
of changes by insertion and suffixes, like those of the Quiche 
and Qquechua, which modify its meaning. Thus : 

Ara, to give. 

Arsa, to give to many, or to give much. 

Arapu, to give to oneself. 

Arasi, to order to give, etc., etc. 
Again : 

Oio, to catch. 

Oirii, to come to catch. 

Oimu, to catch another, etc. 
The author enumerates thirty-one forms thus derived from 
each verb, some conjugated like it, some irregularly. With re- 
gard to tenses, he gives eight preterits and four futures ; and it 
cannot be said that they are formed simply by adding adverbs of 
time, as the theme itself takes a different form in several of 
them, aran, aras, aragts, etc. In the reflexive conjugation the 
pronoun follows the verb and is united with it : As, 

aragneca, I give myself, 
where ca is a suffixed form of can, I ; ne, represents nenissia, 
oneself ; the g, is apparently a connective ; and the theme is ara. 
This is quite in the order of the polysynthetic theory and is also 

Such syntheses are prominent in imperative forms. Thus 
from the above-mentioned verb, oio, to catch, we have, 

oiomilyutSi gather thou for me, 

* Grammalica Mutsun ; Por el R. P. F. F. Arroyo de la Cuesta; and Vocabulario 
Mutsun, by the same, both in Shea's "Library of American Linguistics," 

Brinton.] OO ^ 0cti 2) 

in which mit is apparently the second person men, with a post- 
position tsa, mintsa ; while yuts is a verbal fragment from 
yuyuts, which the author explains to mean " to set about," or 
" to get done." This imperative, therefore, is a verbal noun in 
synthesis with an interjection, " get done with thy gathering." 
It is a marked case of polysynthesis. A number of such are 
found in the Mutsun phrases given, as : 

Rugemitithsyuts cannis, Give me arrows. 
In this compound cannis, is for can + huas, me + for ; yuts is 
the imperative interjection for yuyuts ; the remainder of the 
word is not clear. The phrase is given elsewhere 

Rugemitit, Give (thou) me arrows. 
Without going further into this language, of which we know so 
little, it will be evident that it is very far from simple, and that 
it is certainly highly synthetic in various features. 


The conclusions to which the above study leads may be briefly 
summarized as follows : 

1. The structural processes of Incorporation and Polysynthe- 
sis are much more influential elements in the morphology of 
language than has been conceded by some recent writers. 

2. They are clearly apparent in a number of American lan- 
guages where their presence has been heretofore denied. 

3. Although so long as we are without the means of examin- 
ing all American tongues, it will be premature to assert that 
these processes prevail in all, nevertheless it is safe to say that 
their absence has not been demonstrated in any of which we 
have sufficient and authentic material on which to base a de- 

4. The opinion of Duponceau and Humboldt, therefore, that 
these processes belong to the ground-plan of American languages, 
and are their leading characteristics, must be regarded as still 
uncontroverted in any instance. 

1885.] o* [Krauss. 

Aus Bosnien und der Hercegovina. By Dr. Friedrich S. Krauss. 

Bead before the American Philosophical Society, Oct. 2, 1885. 

Die Ethnograpliie als die Wissenschaft von der geistigen Entwicklung 
und dein geistigen Wachsthuin und Reifen der Volker in Bezug auf ihre 
innersten gesellschaftlichen Einricktungen, Sitten, Gebraucke, Volks- 
glauben und was drum und dran sick kniipft, diese Wissenschaft ist in 
diesem Sinne und Umfange neu, wenn auck nock nickt modern. 

Wokl kat es seit Herodot bis auf die Gegenwart eine Unzakl Reisender 
gegeben, die fremde Lander und Volker besuckten und liber dieselben be- 
rickteten. Die s. g. Reisebesckreibungen rnogen zuweilen reckt wertk- 
volle Angaben darbieten, dock unsere neue Wissensckaft kann sick damit 
nun und nimmer begniigen. Dank den ausgezeickneten Verkekrsmitteln 
der Gegenwart sind Volker und Lander auf friiher unerkorte Weise ein- 
ander nake geriickt. Fiir den Etknograpken gibt es keine Wunder und 
keine Fremde mekr. Die Wissensckaft der Etknograpkie spiirt den seeli- 
scken Ersckeinungen des Volkerlebens iiberall nack, tracktet ihre Wesen- 
keiten aufs Genaueste festzustellen und iknen auf den Grund zu kommen. 

Es ist gewiss sckon Nambaftes auf diesem Gebiete geleistet worden, 
namentlick kat der deutsche Forscher auch hier wie sonst in den Geschiif- 
ten der geistigen Arbeit Baknbreckendes gesckaffen. Tkatsacklick sind 
uns nun Volker aufs Eingekendste bekannt von den nordlicken Cthuc'ken 
bis zu den Patagoniern auf der aussersten Siidspitze Amerikas, iiber die 
man nock vor funfzig Jakren nur sagenkafte Nackrickten besass. Leider 
bewakrte sick auck kier die alte Bemerkung, class weite Fremde mekr zur 
Betracktung und Beobacktung reise als die Heimat. Das ist leickt be- 
greiflick, denn das Fernliegende, Versckwommene, das undeutlick Ausge- 
sprockene entziindet die Pkantasie und spornt mekr an als das Nakelie- 
gende, das Eiukeimiscke. 

Daraus erklart sick die bedauerlicke Tkatsacke, class uns mancke kleine 
Volkersckaften, die mit unserer Volkersippe in keiner Weise in Beriik- 
rung steken, fast bekannter sind als unsere niicksten Nackbaren, unsere 
uns durck gemeinsame Abstammung, Spracke, Sitte und Brauck enge 
verwandten Siidslaven. 

Sie werden sick verwundert fragen : ,,Ware es denn moglick, dass die 
Siidslaven nickts clazu getkan kiitten, class man iiber ikrVolkstkum ausrei- 
ckenden Besckeid von iknen selbst erkielte?" Diese Frage ist ebenso be- 
recktigt als der Vorwurf den einige siidslaviscke Sckriftsteller gegen miek 
erkoben : ,Aber das sind ja lauter altbekannte Dinge, iiber welcke man- 
ckcr Bauer mekr weiss als Du !' 

Freilick, gewisse Ersckeinungen, der Gegenwart zum Mindesten, sind 
denjenigen zum Tkeil wokl bekannt, die an jenen Sitten und Gebraucken 
festkalten, gerade so wie der Bauer die Pfla.nzen seiner Fluren, die Kniut- 
lerin ikre Heilwurzeln kennt, 1st aber deskalb, der Bauer, der die Fruckt 

Krauss.] OO [Oct. 2, 

saet und einlieimst, ist die Krautlerin bei alien ihren getrockneten Krau- 
terbiiscbeln ein Botaniker ? 

Die Siidslaven konnen sich wohl einiger ausgezeickneten Sammlungen 
von Volksliedern, Sagen, Marcken, Spriickwortern und audi zweier 
grosser Sammelwerke iiber Sitten und Gebriiucke beriikmen. Zu einer 
eigentlick wissensckaftlicken Verarbeitung dieses Stofies finden sick bei 
iknen nickt viel mekr als wenige Anliiufe. 

Ein wustes, bracbliegendes Gebiet eroffnet sick kier dem Forscker. Die 
antkropologiscke Gesellsckaft in Wien nakm sick der Sacke zuerst an, 
um die Wissensckaft der siidslaviscken Etknograpkie allzeitig zu kegen 
und zu pflegen. 

Von der Gesellsckaft ermuntert, publizirte ick in ikren Mittkeilungen 
zwei grossere Abkandlungen iiber siidslaviscke Pest- und Hexensagen, und 
bald darauf wieder im Auftrage der Gesellsckaft, auf Grundlage zaklrei- 
cker gedruckter und ungedruckter keimiscker Quellen, mein grosses 
Werk Sitte und Branch der Sudslaven. Durck die Veroffentlickung ei- 
nes etknograpkiscken Fragebogens iiber die Sudslaven — der Bogen ent- 
kalt an tausend Fragen — kat sick die Gesellsckaft ein besonderes Verdienst 
um die Erforsckung siidslaviscken Volkstkums erworben. Wokl gelang- 
ten die meisten Fragen zur Beantwortung, dies allein konnte aber nickt 
geniigen, deskalb sandte mick die Gesellsckaft im Sommer des Vorjakres 
auf eine etknograpkiscke Forsckungsreise nack dem Balkan aus, damit ick 
an Ort und Stelle Erkebungen pfiege. 

Vor Kurzem kabe ick meine Reise bcendet. Ick begieng einen Tbeil 
von Slavonien und Dalmatien, kauptsiicklick aber das Occupationsgebiet, 
Bosnien und die Hercegovina. 

Der Weg den ick durckgemessen betiagt nickt viel mekr als Dreitau- 
send Km. Auf den ersten Blick gewiss wenig im Verkaltniss zu der auf- 
gewandten Zeit. Im Flug und im Vorubergeken gewinnt man aber keine 
bedeutenden etknograpkiscken Ergebnisse. Hier gilt es unermiidlick be- 
obacbten und wieder beobackten. Die Gekeimnisse des Volkslebens 
mussen abgelausckt, konnen nickt mit Hast ergriffen werden. 

Ick bereiste die Flussgebiete der Bosna mit ikren Hauptzufiussen der 
BobovaZa, Lama, Tesanjka und der Spreca, ferner das Gebiet der Drina 
und der Brinata, des Vrbas, der Neretva und der Rama und der Cetina 
und den grossten Tkeil des ebenen bosniscken Lavelandes. 

Das katte seinen guten Grand, deun kings der Fliisse wokntimmer eine 
dicktere und reickere ackerbautreibende Bevolkerung, bei welcker sick 
die Aeusserungen des Volksgeistes reger betbatigen als bei dem vereinzelt 
im Hockgebirge kausenden Hirten. Indessen besuckte ick auck das ganze 
Hockgebirge der Hhtjevica und der Ireskavica planina und zog von Livno 
iiber das Hockplateau von Malovan nordlick bis zu den Auslaufern des 
Kunar, des Otrosa und der Oralwvica. 

Der Reiseplan kiitte gewiss nock zweckmiissiger eingericktet sein kon- 
nen, ware es mir nur moglick gewesen irgendwie vor der Reise die etkno- 
grapkiscken Verbiiltnisse des Landes genauer kennen zu lerneu. Wokl 

1885.] "J [Krauss. 

bewahrheitet sich kier ein altes "Wort in neuer Fassung: ,,Der Zigeuner, der 
Hausirer und der Ethnograph finden iiberall eine Auslese. " Uebrigens 
lachelte mir auf meiner Reise sonniges Gliick zu, indem icb ein ethno- 
grapbiscbes Material in unerhorter Menge und von unscbiitzbareni Wertbe 
aufgesammelt. Der blosse Abdruck dieses Stoffes diirfte bei sieben starke 
Biinde in Grossoctav unifassen. Mebr als in fliichtigen Umrissen die Art 
dieses Stoffes anzudeuten, ist nicht rnoglich innerbalb des engen Rabmens 
dieses Vortrages. 

Bosnien und die Hercegovina werden von nabezu 1,300,000 Seelen be- 
wohnt. Davon sind bei 600,000 Maboniedaner, etwas weniger Alt- 
glaubige, bei 200,000 Katholiken und an fiinftausend Juden, spanischer 
Abstammung. Letztere bedienen sich untereinander im Umgange eines 
verballhornten Spanisch, leben von der iibrigen Bevolkerung streng abge- 
sondert und haben ibre eigenen gesellscbaftlichen und religiosen Ge- 
braucbe, die in Vielem von den Gebrauchen deutscher Juden abweichen. 

Die allgemeine Landesspracbe bestebt bauptsachlicb aus zwei von ein- 
ander unwesentlicb verscbiedenen Mundarten, der serbiscbe-kroatischen 
Scbriftspracbe. Ricbtiger gesagt, die angenommene Scbriftsprache ist 
ein Abklatscb der besonderen bercegovinischen Mundart, die von Trebinje 
und Gacko gesprochen wird. 

Ethnographisch betrachtet hat man ein Volk vor sich, in Wirklichkeit 
aber begegnet man drei durch religiose Anschauungen, Erziehung und 
Bildung streng abgesonderten Religionsekten. Nur dem Ethnograpben 
gelten Sprachgrenzen als Grenzen eines Volkes. Eine solche Auflassung 
kann sich freilich nur bei einem geistig hochstehenden Culturvolke allge- 
meineren Ein gang ver&chaffen. 

Fragt man einen Deutschen oder einen Franzosen oder einen Englander: 
,Was bist Du?' so wird der Deutsche antworten, er sei ein Deutscher, der 
Franzose ein Franzose, der Englander ein Englander. Frage man einen 
Bosnjaken und er nennt sich entweder einen Turken oder Altglaubigen 
oder Katboliken. 

Seine Sprache heisst der Bosnier sowohl als der Hercegoviner die bosni- 
sche oder gewohnlich ,unsere Sprache' naski. Diese ,,unsere" Sprache 
wimmelt von alien moglichen tiirkischen, arabischen und zum Theil per- 
sischen, deutschen, griechischen, albanesischen, italienischenund magyari- 
schen Bezeichnungen fiir die gewohnlichsten Gegenstiinde des Alltagsle- 
bens. Jedes sechste Wort ist ein Fremdwort. Sowohl das Haupt- als das 
Zeitwort erfuhren dabei slaviscbe Wandlungen. In syntaktischer Be- 
ziehung hat die tiirkische Sprache vielfach auf die slaviscbe eingewirkt, 
so wie sich ein nachhaltiger Eintluss auch im Sagen und Marchenscbatze 
des Volkes unverkennbar geltend macht. 

Ein ethnographisches Curiosum bildet die handschriftlich weit ver- 
breitete mahomedanisch-slavische Kunstliteratur. Es sind dies Lieder 
meist lehrhaften Inhaltes zu Schulzwecken nach arabischen Vorbildern 
angefertigt. Hier ist jedes zweite Wort ein Lehnwort. Form und Inhalt 
dieser Lieder widerstreben ganz und gar dem slavischen Geiste. 


Krauss.] ^ [Oct. 2, 

Geschrieben sind diese Werkclien mit tiirkiscbcn Sckriftzeichen. Von 
den Mahomedanern sind wohl liber 60% des Scbreibens und Lesens 
tiirkiscb kundig. Die altbosnische Qlagolica ist gegenwiirtig deui Volke 
unbekannt, nur in einigen mabomedanischen Adelsfamilien, z. B. bei den 
Cengic in Sarajevo und bei den Ljubavic in der Hercegovina nocb im inne- 
ren Verkebr in Uebung. Da der Handel und das Gewerbe fast aus- 
schliesslicb von altglaubigen Serben betrieben wird, so ist es natiirlicb 
dass die cyrillische Scbrift mebr als jede andere tiiglicb an Verbreitung 
gewinnt. Der Bauer auf den Dorfern beniitzt dagegen Kerbstocke, selbst 
zu Mittheilungen, statt eines Briefes, da die Kerbezeicben auf altberge- 
brachten Ueberlieferungen bernbend, iiberall im Lande gekannt sind. 
Die Kerbe sind zum Tbeil der Glagolica, zum Tbeil den romiscben Zahl- 
zeicben nacbgebildet. Auch recbnet der Bauer wesentlich mit romiscben 
Zahlzeicben, wie der Rorner vor 2000 Jahren. 

In Bosnien wobnt der reicbere Mabomedaner in einstockigen, unsaube- 
ren Holzbausern mit gewaltigen TburmdJicbern. Erkennbar ist das Haus 
jedes Mabomedaners an der spitzen Wetterstange auf dem Dacbe und an 
der boben Verzaunung, die den Einblick in den Hofraum wehrt. Arme 
Leute wohnen in niedrigen, scbmutztriefenden Hiitten. So siebt der ver- 
korperte Jammer aus. In der Hercegovina sind bei Arm wie Reicb die 
Bebausungen nach dalmatiniscber Art aus Stein gebaut, denn das Land 
ist zu dreiviertel graulicb entwaldet. Da kann man oft einen ganzen 
Tag reisen ohne einen scbattenspendenden Baum zu finden. Die Herce- 
govina ist ein versteinertes Elend. 

Die Stadte sind nichts anderes als grosse Dorfer, deren Bewobner sich 
zumeist von Ackerbau und Viebzucbt nahren. Die beimiscbe Industrie 
arbeitet jetzt so wie vor Jabrbunderten und vermag kaum den Bediirf- 
nissen der anspruchslosen Bevolkerung gerecbt zu werden. Da die Stadte 
zumeist an den Abhiingen steiler Anboben oder in Scblucbten erbaut sind, 
wo sie von starker Befestigung beschiitzt wurden, so ist nur bei wenigen 
Stadten Wachsthum und Entwicklung von Vorneberein moglicb. Unge- 
sund und unrein sind alle, sammt und sonders. 

Die Dorfer be9teben aus weit von einander abgelegenen Geboferscbaf- 
ten, von welcben mancbe fur sicb ein kleines Dorf bilden, da nocb die 
Hausgemeinscbaft mit zablreicbem Kopfbestande ziemlicb biiufig ist. So 
z. B. leben in dem Dorfe Gornja Dragunja bei Srebrenik sieben verbei- 
ratete Briider Martinovio sammt ihren Nacbkommen und Seitenverwand- 
ten in einer Hausgemeinscbaft. In der Hercegovina ist diese gesellscbaft- 
liche Einrichtung weitaus seltener, weil die Lebensbedingungeu fiir grosse 
Familien von der Natur nicbt gegeben sind. Indessen bildet als Ersatz 
fiir die Hausgemeinscbaft die Bruderschaft (bractvo) und der Stamm 
(plene) ein die kleineren Hausbestiinde einigendes Band. 

Bedeutsam sind unter den Baulicbkeiten im Lande die zabllosen Rund- 
tbiirme mit Auslugwarten und die zerfallenen Burgen, deren man iiber- 
all welcbe findet. 

Auf jedem Hiigel, auf jeder Anbobe mit weitem Fernblick stebt nocb 

1885.] ***■ [Krauss. 

oder stand einst eine Veste. Selten sind welche Namen von den Ruinen 
bekannt, man nennt sie einfach bloss Kula oder Grad. 

Ebenso wenig oder, genau gesagt, gar nichts weiss das Volk liber die 
altbosnischen Graber und Tunnele sachlicbes zu berichten. Solcher 
Graber sah ich an 12,000 ; ihre Zabl in Bosnien und der Hercegovina 
diirfte leicht das Dreifache davon betragen. 

Dieses Dunkel liber die Vergangenbeit findet darin seine Erklarung, 
dass die alte Bevolkerung von Bosnien und der Hercegovina vor zwei- 
bundert Jabren einem machtigen Andrange neuer Ansiedler weichen 

Nachdem die mahoniedanischen Slaven, die docb den Grundstock der 
tiirkischen Macbt in Europa bildeten, Ungarn, Kroatien und Slavonien 
raumen mussten, zogen die mahomedaniscben Likaer in die obere Krajina 
von Banjaluka bis Udbina, Skoplje, Livno und Glaraol ; die slavoniscben 
Mabomedaner besiedelten die Hercegovina und Mittelbosnien, wahrend 
die Mabomedaner aus Ungarn das ganze Drinagebiet, sowobl auf der ser- 
biscben Seite als auf bosnischer, von Bala bis Srebrenica und die Treska- 
vica bis Olovo und Maglaj und die Romanija fiir sicb in Ansprucb nahmen. 
Die cbristlicbe Bevolkerung musste diesem Ansturm weicben. Zu jener 
Zeit wanderten die Bosnier nacb Slavonien und Kroatien, die Hercegovi- 
ner nacb der Cruagora, Serbien und Dalmatien aus. Dagegen zogen 
gegen die Mitte des vorigen Jahrhundertes bei bunderttausend Dalma- 
tiner nach Ostbosnien ein. Also erklart es sicb, wie in Slavonien die alte 
ikavische und in Dalmatien die kroatiscbe cakavische Mundart durcb die 
bosnisch-hercegovinische verdrangt worden, wahrend die letzere durcb 
ibre weite geograpbiscbe Ausbreitung zur allgemeinen Verkebrsspracbe 
der Siidslaven sicb erhob. 

Ueber diese Vorgange erhalt man durcb die Heldenlieder, die zu den 
Gusle gesungen werden, klarsten Aufscbluss, denn die Auswanderer und 
Einwanderer baben die Tbaten ibrer Vorfabren getreulich im Liede ver- 
ewigt. Kein Volk der Erde kann sicb eines so reichen Schatzes episcber 
Lieder beriibmen als die Siidslaven, und zwar unter diesen besonders die 
Bosnier und nocb mehr als diese die Hercegoviner. 

Ich allein notirte liber 60,000 Verse bloss des episcben Volksliedes und 
zwar hauptsachlich des mahomedaniscb-slaviscben. 

Das Epos des katholischen Bosniers ist ganz verkiimmert, wie denn 
iiberbaupt der Katbolike unter der strengen Bevormundung von Seiten 
seiner Geistlicbkeit am Wenigsten alte slavische Sitten und Brauche bei- 

Unendlicb reicbbaltiger und mannigfaltiger ist das Volksleben der Alt- 
glaubigen, die sicb Serben nennen. Ibre Geistlicbkeit ist nicbt zum 
geringsten Tbeil so gut wie illiterat und unterscbied sicb bis vor der 
Occupation iiusserlich durcb nicbts als durcb langen Bart und lange 
Haare von der iibrigen Bevolkerung. Der Priester war Bauer, Wirtb 
oder Kaufmann, wie sonst einer im Lande. 

Das kircblicbe Ceremoniell iibte keinen bedeutenden Einfluss aus, so 

Krauss.] "^ [Oct. 2, 

dass der Bauer an uralthergebrachten heidnischen Vorstellungen noch. 
irnmer festbiilt. Vile (Waldfraulein), DM (Riesen), Mora (die Trut oder 
Mar), Vjestiee (Hexen) und noch eine schwere Menge derartiger mysti- 
scher Gestalten sind ihm gerade so wie den Mahoraedanern thatsachliche 
Wesen. Noch feiert der Serbe, wie sein Urvorfahr vor eintausend Jah- 
ren, das Sippenfest und das Fest der winterlichen und sommerlichen 

Alle drei Sekten huldigen aber einem gemeinsamen Alltags-Aberglau- 
ben, einem wahnwitzvollen Gemisch unverdauter ostlicher und westlicher 

Madchenraub oder, milder gesagt, Entfuhrung kommt noch ziemlich 
haufig vor und gilt als Heldenthat. Polygamic gestatten sich nur reichere 
Mabomedaner. Das Weib ist dem Bosnjaken ein unbesoldeter Knecht 
fur Alles. 

Merkwiirdig istauf jeden Fall der iiberhandnehmende Brauch, dass das 
Madchen von selbst zu ihrem Auserwahlten ins Haus kommt. Eine 
solche wird samodosla oder uskoMca genannt. Die Trauung findet oft erst 
nach Jahren statt. Dabei ersparten die Eltern die Ausstattung, der Brau- 
tigam den kostspieligen Hochzeitsschmaus. 

Das epische Lied des Serben is wesentlich ein Rachegesang des Unter- 
driickten und Verzweifelten, der den Mabomedaner fur vogelfrei erklart. 
Daraus haben sich Rechtsanschauungen heraus entwickelt, die vielfach 
von den altslavischen abweichen. Ein grosser Theil dieser Lieder ist 
nach einer gewissen Schablone gearbeitet und strotzt von sagenhaften 
Uebertreibungen. Uebrigens ist der Grundstock dieser Lieder schon 
friiher gesammelt worden. 

Es ist kein Uebelwollen, wenn ich bebaupte, dass man auf Grund die- 
ser serbischen Lieder das siidslavische Volksthum in seiner Allgemeinheit 
nicht beurtheilen darf. Mir war es gegonnt, an einem unendlich reiche- 
ren und klareren Borne der Volksdichtung zu schopfen und zwar die 
mahomedanisch-slavische Epik zu entdecken. 

Der slavische Mahomedaner stand zu dem Sultan in Konstantinopel im 
Verhaltniss des Feudalherrn gegenliber dem obersten Lehensgeber. Die 
Lehenspflicht bestand darin, dass der Slave die Reichsgrenzen gegen 
Deutschland zu vor feindlichen Einfallen bewachen musste. Sonst war 
er unumschriinkt Herr und Gebieter und durfte selbst auf eigene Faust 
Fehlziige unternehmen. Hier lernt man den Siidslaven als Sieger in 
grossen Kriegsunternehmungen kennen — einen Slaven, der abenteuerlus- 
tig bis nach Italien, Malta and Egypten zur See, und zu Lande bis Her- 
mannstadt und Wien vordringt, und seine alte Sitte und seiner Vorfahren 
Brauch als Panier hochhiilt. Der Mahomedanismus war zu jener Zeit fur 
den Slaven nur ein Deckmantel ; deshalb spielt das religiose Moment bei 
den Kriegsziigen fast gar keine Rolle. Ilier haben wir ein allseitig aus- 
gebildetes slavisches Ritterthum vor uns, mit alien den uns durch mittel- 
alterliche Dichtung wohlbekannten Ritterspielen, Gelageu, Miidchenprei 
sen bei Wettrennen und dergl. Und audi der Sanger fehlte nie. 

1885.] J& [Krauss. 

Nur der Freie hat ein freies Lied. Der slavische Mahomedaner ist mit 
Nichten der Fanatiker, als den ihn Priester anderer Religionen ver- 
schrieen. In seinen Liedern erkennt er des Nichtmahoinedaners Tugen- 
den ebenso gerecbt an als wiiren es die seinigen. Selbst der eigenen 
erlittenen Niederlagen schiimt er sich nicht. Sein Epos ist, wie das der 
alten Griechen, objectiv gehalten, grossartig in der Darstellung und 
zuweilen von einer bedeutenden Gedankentiefe. Welch gewaltige Selbst- 
ironie liegt z. B. in den Worten, mit welchen der Sanger die Schilderung 
einer Schlacht bei Mohd6 abschliesst : 

Bilojada i tamo i amo. 
Sve je polje Khrvca potopila, 
Crna khrvca turska ko i vlaska. 
Tupo khrvi vlah i turcinbraca. 

Jammer gab es driiben so wie hiiben. 
Ueberschwemmt vom Blute war das Schlachtf'eld. 
Schwarz ist gleich das Blut von Christ wie Tiirke, 
Tiirke und Christ sind bier durch Blut verbriidert. 

Das mahomedanisch-slavische Lied gestattet uns den weitesten Einblick 
in die Verhiiltnisse der engeren Familie, der Sippe und des Stammes. Die 
Rechtsverwicklungen, welche Anlass zu verschiedenen Fehden geboten, 
und wie diese Fehden ausgetragen wurden, machen uns mit den slavi- 
schen Rechtsanscbauungen auf s Eingehendste vertraut, zeigen uns den 
Siidslaven als bedeutsames Glied in der Kette indogermanischer Volker- 

In Mostar erscheinen in wenigen Tagen zwei Biichlein solcher Lieder 
und in Ragusa werden gegenwiirtig zwei grosse Epen gedruckt, von 
welchen das eine, Smailagi6 Meho, 2173 Verse, das andere, Golotinja 
Bogjulagib Ibro, 1725 Verse ziihlt. Ein reichhaltiger Commentar er- 
leichtert das Verstiindniss der Dichtungen. Die zwei letzteren Epen 
behandeln Episoden aus der Abenddammerung tiirkischer Macht in 
Ungarn, wo die Tiichtigkeit der tiirkischen Waffen schon der Vergan- 
genheit augehorte, wo der mahomedanische Slave allein noch der 
Schiitzer des Reiches war. Hatte sich durch irgend einen Zufall das 
ganze Siidslaventhum um die grime Fahne des Propheten geschaart, wohl 
ware die serbiscbe Sprache von Wien bis Konstantinopel zur allgemeinen 
Volkssprache geworden. Die tausend slavischen Lehnworte im magya- 
rischen Sprachschatze sind wiihrend der hundertundsechzigjahrigen ma- 
homedanisch-slavischen Herrschaft in Ungarn aufgenommen worden, 
nicht aber, wie man annimmt, zur Zeit der magyarischen ersten Einwan- 
derung. Aus diesen Liedern erwirbt man Kenntniss liber ethnographische 
Verhiiltnisse einer Zeit, iiber die uns sonst keine ausreichenden Nachrich- 
ten zur Verfiigung stehen. 

Doch nicht bloss inhaltlich, sondern auch formell, sind die mahomeda- 
nisch-slavischen Lieder bemerkenswerth. Diese Lieder sind Meisterstiicke 

Cope.] J4 [ 0ct> 2 , 

volksthiimlicher Erzahlungskunst. Nicht fiinf Verse konnte man daraus 
ausscheiden, ohne das Ganze zu schadigen. Solche Schopfungen eines 
urwiichsigen Volksgeistes gehoren, ebenso wie die Homerischen Gesiinge 
und das Nibelungenlied, der Weltliteratur an. 

Ausser den 60,000 Versen meiner Sainrnlung erlangte die Gesell- 
schaft von Herrn Prof. Miroslav Alacevic in Spalato eine ungedruckte 
Sammlung dalrnatinischer epischer Volkslieder. Diese Sammlung ziihlt 
iiber 30,000 Verse. Ferner sind uns noch von anderen Correspondenten 
von alien Seiten des slavischen Sudens iiber 50,000 Verse, nebst zahlrei- 
chen anderen Beitriigen zur Volkskunde eingescbickt worden, so dass wir 
mit gerechtem Stolze behaupten diirfen, dass durcb die Verarbeitung und 
Veroffentlichung dieses gewaltigen Stofies das Siidslaventhum in ethno- 
graphischer Hinsicht endlich aucb eine der neuen Wissenschaft wiirdige 
Beleuchtung erfahren wird. Das kann dann, als das endgiltige Ergeb- 
niss meiner Reise gelten. 

Catalogue of the Species of Batrachians and Reptiles contained in a collection 
made at Pebas, Upper Amazon, by John Hauxwell. By E. D. Cope. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, October 2, 1SS5. ) 

The contents of a previous collection made at Pebas by Mr. Hauxwell 
are enumerated in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 
for 1870, page 553. It included ten species of batrachians, four of lizards, 
and nine of snakes. The present collection embraces six species of ba- 
trachians, eleven of lizards, and fifteen species of snakes. The total num- 
ber of species obtained is, fifteen batrachians, fourteen lizards, and 
twenty-three species of. snakes. A considerable collection was made in 
the same region by the late Professor Orton, and the species are enumer- 
ated and described in the Journal of the Philadelphia Acadamy of 1875, 
p. 159. A previous collection, made by Professor Orton, is described in 
the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy for 1868, and one from 
Western and Central Peru is reported on in the Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society for 1877. These collections form the 
basis of a general review of the herpetology of Peru, which the writer 
hopes to publish with illustrations at no distant day.* 

* Some species were obtained in the same region byProf. Steere of Ann Arbor, 
Mich., and my thanks are due to this gentleman for the opportunity of exam- 
ining them. From near Tarapota come the following species: Dendrobates 
triviltatus Spix; Leptodactylus pacilochilus Cope; Neusticurus ecplcopus Cope; 
Polychrus marmoratus L. From Tombez : Bufo hcematiticus Cope ; Hyla phccota 

From the MamorC River in Eastern Bolivia, Dr. E. R. Heath presented to the 
museum of Ann Arbor the following species: 1. Amphisbama alba L.; 2. Pseu- 
doSryx mimeticus sp. nov. The genus Pseudoeryx Tsch., 1826, is the Hydrops Wag- 
ler, 1830, and Dimadcs Gray, 1843. It includes two banded species, the present 

1885.] - JO [Cope. 

Hyla favosa, sp. nov. 

The internal nares are about as large as the choanal, and are a little 
longer than wide. The patches of vomerine teeth are between them, 
opposite a point anterior to their middle. The head is short and wide, and 
the canthus rostralis is rounded and concave. The muzzle is truncate 
viewed in profile, and the nostrils, though opening laterally, are terminal 
in position. The tympanum is small, being one-half the long diameter of 
the eye-slit, or a little less than half that of the eyeball. It is a little 
larger than the digital palettes of the anterior foot. On all the upper sur- 
faces the skin is smooth.. The usual areolation covers the abdomen and 
part of the femora. The three external fingers are about half webbed, 
the web not reaching the palettes of the third and fifth digits. The toes 
are more than half webbed, the membrane reaching the dilatations of all 
the toes except the fourth, where it reaches the base of the penultimate 
phalange. When the posterior limb is extended, the heel reaches the 
front border of the orbit. The upper arm is bound to the side for the 
greater part of its length by a strong extension of the skin. A trace only 
is seen at the anterior base of the femur. 

one and the P. plicatilis Linn., and two ringed species, the P. martii Spix and P. 
callostictus Gthr. The P. mimeticus has a remarkable resemblance to the 'Hydro- 
calamus guinguevittatus (D. & B.) Cope, Proceeds. Amer. Philos. Soc, 1884, p. 176. 
The scuta of the head are as in the P. plicatilis. Dorsal region brown for a width 
of five and two half rows of scales. Sides, on the third and fourth and half of the 
second and fifth rows, marked with a black band, which extends from the 
orbit to end of the tail, and is yellow-bordered above. Below yellow with two 
small brown spots on each gastrostege and one on each urostege. Lips black, 
yellow spotted ; a yellow band from eye to angleof mouth. Afewsmall blackish 
spots on top of muzzle. Gastrosteges 163 ; anal 1-1; urosteges35. Total length 
M. .490 ; of tail .056. 3. Liophis almadensis Wagl. 4. Herpetodryas fuscits Linn. 
5. Xencdon biprceoculis, sp. nov. Body much compressed, and scales in nine- 
teen longitudinal rows, and scarcely alternating. Anal plate entire. Eye large, 
profile convex. Superior labials eight, fourth and fifth entering orbit; seventh 
very wide above. Oculars 2-2, the anterior narrow, permitting the posterior 
angle of the large loreal to almost reach the orbit. Temporals 1-5; the anterior 
asdeepaslong. Bothinternasalsandprefrontalsalittle widerthan long. Frontal- 
large, wide in front, longer than common suture of parietals. Parietals as wide 
as long. Ten inferior labials, the sixth much the largest. Geneials very short, 
the anterior a little the longer. Gastrosteges, 136; urosteges, 44. Color above 
olivaceous with three rows of equidistant spots. These are composed of coarse, 
black punctulations, and are without definite outline. Every third spot of the 
median line is in the centre of a pale ground, while the pairs between are con- 
nected by a dark shade. Inferior surfaces yellow; every other, or every second 
gastrostege, with a blackish edging at each end. Top of head olive, with black 
punctulations symmetrically arranged, so as to leave a curved unspotted space 
between /the orbits and on the external border of the parietals. Labial plates 
unspotted. A very narrowblack line from eye to superior border of last labial. 
Total length M. .590; of tail, .101. From its compressed form and natural coil, 
this species might be supposed to have arboreal habits. It agrees with three 
other species in its entire anal plate ; vis., X, suspectus Cope ; X. colubrinus Gunth ; 
and X. anguslirostris Pet. In X. rhabdocephalus Boie, I find the anal plate entire 
or divided. 6. Elaps surinamensis Cuv. 

Cope.] Ju [ 0cfc< 2 , 

The color of the upper surface is a brown, which is interrupted by a 
coarse honeycomb or net-like pattern of a bright yellow color. The 
inclosed spaces are as large or larger than the eye, excepting on the sides 
of the head and body and on the foreliinbs, where they are smaller. They 
are distinct on the external two digits on both feet. The posterior faces ot 
the femur, with all the inferior surfaces are uniform brown. The eyelids 
are of a paler brown, but whether this is due to the condition of the speci- 
men or not, is uncertain. 



Length of head and body 635 

Length to line connecting posterior borders of tympana. .010 

Width of head at do 012 

Length of fore limb 0233 

" " foot 010 

" hind limb 056 

" tibia 019 

" " posterior foot 026 

" " astragalus 011 

This species belongs to the same type as the Hyla leucophyllata. Its 
coloration is unique in the genus. An allied species or subspecies has 
been brought from the Purus river, Brazil, by Prof. Steere, of Ann Arbor, 
Mich. It agrees in all respects with the H. favosa, but the heel reaches 
the end of the muzzle, and the color of the superior surfaces differs. The 
yellow covers the dorsal region, an imperfect reticulate pattern being only 
visible on the sides of the head and body. 

Hyla marmorata Daud. 


Ceratophrys dors ata Wied. 
Dendrobates tinctorius Schn. 
Dendrobates trivittatus Spix. 

Mabuia agilis Raddi. 

Mionyx parietalis Cope, gen. et sp. nov. 

In his monograph of the Ecpleopodine division of the Teidae, Professor 

Peters referred the known species to five genera, three of which were 

divided into subgenera. The definitions of most of these groups were 

derived from the pholidosis, the exception being Iphisa (Gray), which 

was defined by the lack of claws on the pollices. I am of the opinion 

that Professor Peters was not fortunate in his selection of the pholidosis 

as the basis of generic and subgeneric divisions. Although such a system 

may associate species which agree in general appearance, and hence be 

thought by some to be "natural," it is certain that the various forms of 

scales pass into each other by such gradations, as to be unavailable for the 


1885.] '" [Cope 

characterization of tangible divisions. On the other hand, Professor Peters 
quite overlooked important characters of the squamation of the head, such 
as are usually found to distinguish natural genera in other families, includ- 
ing them only in his descriptions of the species. I propose to give a syn- 
opsis of the genera of this group as they appear to me. One result is a con- 
siderable reduction in the number of names. Agreeing with Dr. Boulen- 
ger that these species do not form a family distinct from the Teidse, I 
define them as a group in that family with the nostril pierced in a single 

I. " Thumbs without claws." 

A series of scuta on the nape ; frontonasal and frontoparietal scuta present. 

Iphisa Gray. 

II. Claws all straight, conic. 

No nucleal scuta ; frontoparietals and frontonasals present. .Mionyx Cope. 

III. Claws curved, present on all digits. 
a. Dorsal series of large scuta. 

Scuta in separate longitudinal series ; forming keels on the tail 

Neusticurus D. & B. 

Scuta continuous, transverse ; frontonasal and frontoparietal scuta 

Placosoma Tsch. 
aa. No larger series of dorsal scuta. 

Frontonasals and frontoparietals present Leposoma Spix. 

Frontoparietals, but no frontonasals Proctoporus Tsch. 

No frontoparietals or frontonasals Emphrassiotis O'Sh. 

In the above arrangement there is included, under Iphisa, Perodactylus 
R. & L. Leposoma includes nearly all the reputed genera of Peters 
and other authors, viz : Loxopholis Cope : Cercosaura "Wagl. ; Pantodac- 
tylus D. & B. ; Ecpleopus D. & B. ; Aspidolmmnus Pet. ; Euspondylus Tsch. ; 
Aryalia Gray (Peters) ; Chalcidolepis Cope ; Xestosaurus Pet. ; and Pris- 
tidactylus O'Sh. Proctoporus Tsch. includes Pholidobolus Pet., Oreosaurus 
Pet., and species referred to Ecpleopus by O'Shaughnessy. Of the species 
referred to the group Leposoma, as originally restricted, but two have the 
abdominal scuta acute posteriorly, viz : the L. scincoides Spix, and the L. 
carinicaudatum Cope. The other species referred by O'Shaughnessy and 
Peters to that group have, according to them, the abdominal scuta trun- 
cate posteriorly, and must hence be referred to the group Loxopholis Cope, 
of which L. rugiceps Cope is type. These are the L. dispar Peters, and L. 
buckleyi O'Sh. The species thus arranged will be as follows : 

Mionyx parietalis Cope. Leposoma carinicaudatum Cope. 

Iphisa elegans Gray. " rugiceps Cope. 

'* modesta R. & L. " dispar Pet. 

Neusticurus bicarinatus L. " buckleyi O'Sh. 

ecpleopus Cope. " ocellatum Wagl. 

Placosoma cordylinum Tsch. " humile Pet. 

Leposoma scincoides Spix. " olivaceum Gray. 


Cope.] *'o [Oct. 2, 

Leposoma reticulatum O'Sh. Leposoma guenUieri O'Sli. 

" picticeps Cope. " olivaceum Gray. 

" vertebrate O'Sh. " marmoratnm Gray . 

" schreibersii Wiegm. " poecilochilus L. & Von M. 

" bivittatum Cope. " metalticvm, Cope. 

" concolor Tsch. " bogotense~Pe[. 

" argulusVet. Proctoporus pacliyurus Tsch. 

" gaudicJiaudi~D. & B. " unicolor Gray. 

" affinisPet. " fraseri O'Sh. 

" maculatum Tsch. " oculatus O'Sh. 

" rhombiferum Gthr. " montium Peters. 

" acutirostre'Pet. " striatus Pet. 

' ' ocellatum Gray. ' ' luctuosus Pet. 

" strangulatum Cope. Emphrassiotis simoterus O'Sh. 

The species numher as follows : 

Mionyx , 1 

Iphisa 2 

Neusticurus 2 

Placosoma 1 

Leposoma 28 

Proctoporus 7 

Emphrassiotis 1 

Total ,42 

The characters of the genus Mionyx are the following : First toe of 
both anterior and posterior extremities with rudimental straight claw ; 
claws of other digits small, straight and conic. Prefrontal and fronto- 
parietal plates present and distinct from each other. Ear-drum exposed. 
No distinct collar. Femoral pores present. Pholidosis squamous, nearly 

Char, specif. These resemble those of the group Leposoma within that 
genus. The scales are imbricate and keeled, with acute posterior borders 
above and below. When the epidermis is lost the inferior scales are nearly 
truncate.* The dorsal and ventral scales are subequal and form twenty- 
one transverse series between the anterior and posterior limbs, across the 
back. Behind the auricular meatus, and in the axilla, they are coarsely 
granular. The upper and lower arms are covered with large keeled 
scales, although those of the posterior side of the former are smaller than 
those on the anterior side. The hind leg is similarly surrounded by large 
keeled scales, excepting on a band on the posterior side of the femur 
where they are granular. 

There is a transparent disk of the lower eyelid, which is covered by 
two scales. The plates of the head are smooth. There is a loreal plate 

* The truncation of the abdominal scales in the L. rwgiceps is seen in the epi- 
dermis as well as the true skin. 

1885.1 ' ' ' I Cope. 

which is higher than long, and projects at an angle between two preocu- 
lars. Of these the superior is large and extends partly over the eye, leaving 
only three narrow superciliaries. There are four well-developed supra- 
orbitals. The large internasal is about as wide as long. The frontonasals 
are well in contact by suture. The frontal is considerably longer than 
wide, as are also the frontoparietals. The interparietal is large, as wide 
as long, and would be a regular hexagon, but that the posterior border is 
rounded. The parietals are much smaller and trapezoidal, and longer 
than wide. No occipitals. Temporals small, squamous. Superior labials 
seven, separated from the orbit by a row of narrow suborbital scales. 
Inferior labials five. A symphyseal and an undivided postsymphyseal. 
Four infralabials, of which the first two are in contact, and the last two 
separated by flat scales, the fourth truncate posteriorly ; no distinct pec- 
toral scales. 

The limbs are slender ; when pressed to the side, the fingers reach to 
the middle of the tibia, and the toes to a little beyond the elbow. The 
toes themselves are weak and slender. The first digit is rudimental, and 
the second and fifth are very short, and of subequal length on the fore 
foot ; and on the posterior foot, the second is a little the longer. The 
third digit is shorter than the fourth on both feet. They are all protected 
by a single row of flat scales below. The femoral pores extend entirely 
across in front of the anal scuta ; there are ten on each side of the middle 
line. Of anal scuta there are six, arranged as follows : Two small ones on 
the middle line, one of which is marginal, and the other anterior to it ; 
one large one on each side of these, also marginal ; and a small one on the 
external side of these, also marginal. 

Color, brown ; dark above, pale below, darkest on the sides. The exact 
color is probably lost, as the specimen is not in the best condition. Side 
of head with some yellow spots. Lips and throat white, the former with 
a dark brown spot on some of the labial scuta. 

Measurements. M. 

Length from muzzle to vent . . , 032 

" " " to axilla 015 

" " " to auricular meatus 0075 

"Width at auricular meatus 005 

Length of fore limb 0105 

" hand 0035 

Length of hind limb 0145 

"tibia 0048 

"foot 0056 

Leposoma picticeps, sp. nov. 

Dorsal scales very narrow, in regular cross-series, the acute extremities 
of those of one row alternating with those of the rows in front and pos- 
terior ; each with a strong epidermal keel which is represented by a weak 
one of the true skin. These scales commence at the interparietal plate, 

Cope.] 100 [Oct. 2, 

and piesent nine transverse series to the axilla, and twenty from the axilla 
to the groin. The scales of the tail are similar. The abdominal scales 
are smooth and parallelogrammic, being truncate behind, and are in six- 
teen transverse rows between the axilla and groin. A rather wide space 
posterior to the auricular meatus, and posterior to the axilla is covered 
with granular scales. The larger and square scales of the throat are in 
four transverse rows of two scales each. They are separated from the 
cross-row that marks the axilla by two cross- rows, and are bounded by 
some flat scales in front and at the sides. 

The internasal plate is a little wider than long. The frontonasals are 
well in contact. The frontal is longer than wide. The frontoparietals 
are as wide as long, and are regularly five-sided, the supraorbital side a 
little longer than the others. The interparietal is nearly three times as 
long as wide. The parietals are larger and their posterior border forms, 
with that of the interparietal, a straight line. The posterior exterior bor- 
der is excavated. The loreal is higher than long, and presents an obtuse 
angle posteriorly between the two preoculars. Of these the superior 
extends posteriorly over the eye, leaving three narrow superciliaries. 
Three supraoculars, the posterior with a small round plate posterior to it. 
Temporal scales rather large, smooth ; no free marginal meatal scales. 
Seven superior labials ; six inferiors. A short symphyseal and a long 
postsymphyseal, both undivided. Posterior to the latter two pairs of 
large infralabials, touching on the middle line, followed by a large pair 
of infralabials which are separated on the middle line, each of which is 
followed by two large and some smaller scales. 

Limbs rather short, posterior feet elongate. The fingers reach to the 
heel when both limbs are pressed to the side of the body, and the toes to 
the middle of the humerus. The limbs are covered by large, smooth 
scales, except on the posterior faces of the humerus and tibia, where they 
are smaller, and on the posterior face of the femur where they are granu- 
lar. The claws are present on all the digits and are curved. Second and 
fifth fingers equal. Second toe longer than fifth, and fourth a good deal 
longer than third. Seven femoral pores and two preanals on each side. 
Preanal plates, seven. Of these six are marginal, a large one with a small 
one on each side of it, on each side of the middle line. The seventh is 
in front of the two median marginals, and is a large triangle. 

Color, olive-brown or grayish, shaded with blackish on the head. The 
plates of the head have pale borders and centres, and the rostral and labial 
plates are yellow, the latter with a dark brown spot in the centre. A 
light (? yellow) band over the eye, and two rows of similar spots on the 
temporal region. Several rows of similar dark-edged spots on the nape. 
Granular region black, with yellow spots. The spots fade out on the 
dorsal region, each cross-row of scales has a blackish edge. On the tail 
two rows of such spots can be made out on each side. Inferior surfaces 
pale, probably yellow ; lower labials, and the posterior infralabials with a 
dark brown spot in the centre. 

1885.] lUl |Cope. 

Measurements. M. 

Length from muzzle to vent . .057 

"axilla 025 

" " " " auricular meatus 012 

Width at auricular meatus 0076 

Length of fore limb , 015 

" hand 0065 

" hind limb 026 

"tibia 007 

"foot 0132 

This species is evidently nearly related to the Leposoma reticulatum of 
O'Shaughnessy {Ccrcosaura reticulata O'Sh., Proceedings Zool. Society 
London, 1881, p. 230). It differs in not possessing the following charac- 
ters of that species, as described and figured. In L. reticulatum there are 
two parietal plates on each side ; abdominal scales are rounded in pos- 
terior outline, and in only eight rows, while they are in ten in L. picticeps ; 
in having an azygous marginal anal instead of two, and in having a stripe 
on the body, and the tail differently colored from the back. The type 
of L. picticeps is a considerably larger animal than that of the L. reticu- 

Centropvx borsalis Gthr. Monoplocus dorsalis Giinth. Centropyx pel- 
viceps Cope. 
Mr. O'Shaughnessy finds these supposed species to be identical. Dr. 
Gtinther having established a new genus (Monoplocus) for the species 
on the supposed absence of femoral pores, I did not think it worth 
while to compare my specimens, in which they are numerous, with the one 
described by Dr. Gunther. Mr. O'Shaughnessy has discovered that 
Giinther's type possesses the pores. 
Amiva stjrinamensis Gray. 
Hypsibatus agamoides Spix. 
Hyperanodon peltigerus Cope. 
Enyalitjs laticeps Guich. 
Anolis buckleyi O'Sh. 
Anolis bouvieri Boc. O'Sh. 
Anolis macropus, sp. nov. 

Tail subround, without crest. Ventral scales small, smooth ; dorsal 
scales minute, rough. Occipital scale small, well separated from supra- 
orbitals ; the latter separated from each other by three rows of scales, 
and not continued as a larger row anterior to orbit. Interorbital region 
concave ; facial rugse obtuse, separated by a concavity. Facial scales 
small, keeled, about twenty longitudinal rows at the middle of the 
muzzle, and ten in the facial concavity. No distinct canthus rostralis, 
and but two canthal scales distinguishable from those of the muzzle in 
size. Supraocular disk embracing a dozen scales of unequal sizes, and 

Cope.l lO-i [Oct. 2, 

surrounded by granules. Seven or eight loreal rows ; labials, T 9 ff ; infra- 
labials all small. Auricular meatus small, but larger than occipital scale. 
The limbs are slender and long. The anterior appressed reaches the end 
of the muzzle by the end of the fifth digit ; the posterior reaches the same 
by the end of the fourth digit. Digital dilatations narrow. Fan small. 

The general color is blackish, below white, the line of junction of the 
colors on the sides of the belly, and ragged. A pale line across the chin. 

Measurements. M. 

Length of head and body 045 

" to posterior border of meatus auditorius 061 

Width at posterior border of meatus auditorius 0065 

Length of fore leg 021 

" fore foot 0072 

" " hind leg 041 

" tibia 0125 

" hind foot .017 

This species approaches most closely the A. limifrons Cope from Veragua. 
In that species the facial ruga? have distinct large scales, which are want- 
ing in the A. macropus, and the hinder legs are not so long. The facial 
scales are a good deal smaller, and the posterior legs shorter in A. mac- 
ropus than in the A. trachyderma, which it otherwise resembles. The long 
hind legs distinguish it from other allied species. 

Typiilops reticulatus L. 
Boa constrictor L. 
Rhabdosoma brevifrenum Jan. 
Rhabdosoma microrhynchum Cope. 
Contia serrata, sp. nov. 

Rhadin^a nicaga Cope, Lygophis 7iicagus Cope, Proceeds. Phila. Acad- 
emy, 1868, p. 132. Proceeds. Amer. Philosoph. Soc, 1870, p. 553. 

Scales in seventeen rows, without fossae, all of moderate width, the first 
not very wide. Eight superior labials, third, fourth and fifth entering orbit ; 
fifth, sixth and seventh largest, subequal, their superior borders increasing 
in length in the order named. Rostral plate very small, barely visible 
from above. Nasal decurved forwards, deeper posteriorly; loreal deeper 
than long ; ocular 1-2 ; the preocular narrow and widely separated from 
the fr6ntal above. Temporals 1-2; the anterior in contact with the 
inferior postocular only. Internasals small, as wide as long ; prefrontals 
much larger, wider than long. Frontal elongate, truncate in front, and 
with parallel sides ; parietals long and large, extending on each side to the 
inferior postocular. Gastrosteges 160 ; anal divided ; urosteges 52. Total 
length, M. .245 ; to rictus oris, .0065 ; of tail, .070. 

Color above dark brownish-gray. A line of darker color extends along 
the third row of scales, and a similar one on the eighth row, which leaves 

1885.1 10d [Cope. 

the ninth or median row of the ground color. These lines are quite indis- 
tinct. Ends of the gastrosteges of the ground color, shaded with bluish, 
so as to give the color border a serrate outline. Under surface of body 
and tail yellow, immaculate. Top of head paler. The frontal plate with 
dark edges and some dark specks on the prefrontals. A pair of light 
dark-edged small spots, close together, one on each side of the common 
parietal suture. Superior labial dark-edged. Lower labials and adjacent 
plates obscurely speckled. 

Near the head the dorsal lines unite and form a serrate dorsal band, 
which is separated by a paler band from a darker lateral band with the 
superior edges serrate ; but these markings are obscure. In another spe- 
cimen which Prof. Steere, of Ann Arbor, brought from the Purus river,* 
the dorsal band is more distinct and extends to the end of the tail. 

I originally referred this species to (Lygophis) Aporophis, but its equal 
teeth exclude it from that genus. 

Opheomorphus meleagris Shaw. 
HelicOps angulattjs Linn. 
Oxyrrhoptjs scolopax Klein. 


Rhinobothyrum lentiginosum Scop. 
Leptognathus catesbyi Weigel. 
Leptophis marginatus Cope. 
Dryiophis argenteus Daud. 
Elaps lemniscatus L. 
Bothrops brasilensis Latr. 

* This collection was made at Canutama, a distance of six hundred miles, and 
at Marrahan, a distance of seven hundred miles above its mouth on the Purus 
river, and as the first indication of the reptile fauna of that region possesses 
considerable interest. It includes the following species: 1. Liophis almadensis 
Wagl. ; 2. Rhadincea nicaga Cope; 3. Pseudoeryx callosticlus Gtlnth (Hydrops); 
4. Tortrix scytale Linn; 5. Bufo apua L. ; 6. Hyla leucophyllata var. Beir; and 
7. Lithodyles cinereus sp. nov. This frog has a smooth belly and free toes 
with truncate pallettes on all the digits. There are no cranial crests, and but 
slight traces of dorsolateral dermal folds. The vomerine teeth are in J-shaped 
patches commencing opposite the posterior border of the choanal, and curv- 
ing inwards and backwards. Ostia pharyngea as large as choanse. Nostril 
terminal. Tympanic drum round, two-thirds size of eye. Tongue oval, 
slightly notched behind. Head oval; muzzle truncate; lores straight, 
grooved; canthus rostralis distinct, straight. Heel of extended hind leg to end 
of muzzle. First finger longer than second. A prominent sharp metatarsal 
tubercle attached to base of first toe. No external tubercle. Color above gray, 
with pale brown markings. The most distinct of these is a cross-band between 
the orbits. Lower surfaces dirty-white; concealed surfaces brown. Upper lip 
with three yellowish spots extending from the orbit; to which two or three 
marks on the lower jaw correspond. Limbs faintly brown cross-banded. Length 
of head and body M. .053: width of head at tympana .018. Length of fore-leg 
.029; of hind leg .0S4 ; of hind foot .038. 

Ruschenberger.] l\Jrk |Nov. 6, 

A Sketch of the Life of Robert E. Rogers, M.D., LL.D., 
with Biographical Notices of his Father and Brothers. By 
W. S. W. Ruschenberger, M.D. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, November 6, 18S5.) 

The life of Dr. Robert E. Rogers was interwoven in many- 
ways with the lives of his brothers. All were able university 
professors. They labored jointly as well as separately to increase 
and diffuse knowledge. On this account they were more or less 
distinguished. All were members of the American Philosophical 
Society. All are dead. No obituary minute of either has been 
recorded in its archives.* Therefore it seems proper to group 
together sketches of the four brothers in such manner as may 
give to each, if possible, his characteristic features. 

Each followed his routine course ; but often they engaged jointly 
in one investigation, so that the public sometimes confounded 
their labors and gave credit to one which truly belonged to 
another. Their works were frequently mentioned at home and 
abroad as of " the brothers Rogers," and always in respectful 
and kindly terms. Mistakes of the sort never disturbed the 
perfect harmony that always existed between them, as they might 
have done had the brothers been rivals or competitors for repu- 
tation. Their days of boyhood were passed together in delight- 
ful companionship with their father, whom they regarded with 
profound respect. Their tastes and pursuits were similar. Their 
home-training taught them to love one another, so they went 
through life practising, unconsciously, no doubt, the affectionate 
ways which they had inherited and learned from their mother, a 
sensible woman of a gentle and loving nature. 

From their earliest youth the brothers were ardent students, 
and learned to concentrate their energies to do in the best man- 
ner possible whatever they undertook. To them the axiom that 
whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well, was an in- 
flexible law. From the start they knew that their worldly suc- 
cess was contingent upon the quality of their work. They could 
look to no valuable bequest. None of their near kinsmen was 

* Dr. Joesph Carson presented to the library of the Society a printed copy of 
a memoir, written by him, of the late James 15. Rogers, M.D., and was excused 
from his appoint incut to prepare an obituary notice of Dr. Rogers for the So- 
ciety; — See Proceedings Am. Phil. Hoc. Dec. Ill, 1856, vol. vi,p. — S. 

1S85.J 1UO [Ruschenberger. 

opulent; none occupied high social or political station from 
which patronage might possibly flow to them. They had little 
patrimony besides those qualities which the human organism has 
when it comes into the world. And yet they might be justly 
thankful for their ancestral gifts, gifts which have no equivalent 
value in coin. Their organic inheritance included a healthy 
though not robust body, a sound mind, quick perceptivity and 
capability, a ready aptitude for toil, with many of the constit- 
uent attributes of that sort of nobility which needs neither title 
nor rent-roll to set it off. Titled ancestors had no part in the 
genesis of their endowments. 

Robert Rogers, the fifth in lineal descent, was born about the 
year 1753, and lived on the Edergole, or Knockbrack estate, 
which he owned in fee, and held on lease acres of land adjoining. 
This estate lies between Omagh and Fintano, in Tyrone county, 
Ireland. Newtown Stewart, in the barony of Strabane, then a 
good market for cloth and yarn,* ten miles off, is the nearest 
town, and Londonderry, forty miles distant, the city nearest to 
it. The number of his tenants or extent of acreage held by him 
is not now known. His social grade in the community is not 
indicated by his estate alone. When the Presbyterian church 
which he attended was reconstructed, he rebuilt and furnished 
anew the large central pew in it, which he had inherited. He 
was disposed to favor what was then termed the new light doc- 
trine, but tolerant enough to listen to the religious and political 
opinions ascribed to the French philosophers. 

In the small villages and rural districts of Ireland at that 
period — more than a hundred years ago — those whose wardrobe 
was limited to a single suit and an extra shirt or two (and they 
were largely in the majority there, as well as everywhere), de- 
termined social position in the community by the interval be- 
tween the family wash-days. In their estimation those whose 
wardrobe was extensive enough to have their washing done once 
a year constituted " the great families ;" and those who needed 
to have a family wash-day every six months composed the second 
class in society. The washing of the Rogers family was done 
only twice a year, at the brook which flows through the estate. 

In the winter of 1774-75, when twenty-one years old, Robert 

* Statistical Survey of the County of Tyrone for 1801-2. By John McEvoy, Dub- 
lin, 1802. 

Ruschenberger.] lUU [Nov. 6, 

Rogers married Sarah Kerr, of about the same age, who, tradi- 
tion avers, was sprightly, conspicuous in conversation, and ever 
ready to discuss and advocate the new light doctrines of the 
Presbyterian Church, of which she was a member. This mar- 
riage had been delayed a year by her father, a recognized " gen- 
tleman " in the community, who insisted that Robert Rogers 
must attain his majority before he could lawfully make a mar- 
riage settlement of all his lands upon the children of this union, 
share and share alike, and that without compliance with this 
stipulation his assent to it would not be given. 

Robert Rogers was a well-to-do Irish gentleman, liberal in his 
views, hospitable, convivial, and duly appreciated education and 

Patrick Kerr Rogers, the father of the subjects of this notice, 
was the first born, in 1770, of the twelve children of Robert 
Rogers and his wife Sarah Kerr. Four of them died infants. 

The rudiments of Patrick's education were received in a 
school-house built upon the estate. It is described as having 
clay walls, a thatched roof, clay seats covered with bits of car- 
pet and warmed by a turf fire. The teacher was a lame rustic 
boy, whom his aunt, Margaret Rogers, a lady of notable intelli- 
gence, had trained for the office. 

It is conjectured that he acquired his classical learning from 
a private tutor at the house of a kinsman. 

His mother died in 1790, and his father married again in 1791, 
a lady who bore him three sons and two daughters. 

At the age when he should choose a profession, he found him- 
self one of a numerous family of brothers and sisters and, 
though the eldest, without the right of primogeniture in his 
father's estate. Entertaining opinions not rigidly orthodox he 
was unwilling to enter the clerical profession, though he had the 
example of two uncles who were clergymen. At the time a 
commercial career seemed best, and therefore he entered a 
counting-house in Dublin. How long he lived there, or was 
thus employed has not been ascertained. But about the time of 
the Irish rebellion, which broke out in May, 1798, he contributed 
to Dublin newspapers articles inimical to the government, 
which, his friends believed, were likely to cause his arrest and 
punishment. A kinsman furnished the means which enabled 

1885.] J-Ul [Ruschenberger. 

him to reach Londonderry and emigrate thence to the United 

The indiscretion of those publications is manifest in their 
consequence. It brought expatriation, permanent separation 
from his kinsfolk and friends. But he was young, only twenty- 
two years old, sanguine, self-confident, earnest, and though 
usually cool and judicious in conduct, on critical occasions he 
acted indiscreetly — on the impulse of the moment. 

He arrived in Philadelphia August, 1 798, probably on the 
ship Rising Sun, after a passage of eighty-four days. 

At that period ships plied directly between Ireland and Phil- 
adelphia. There was then quite a colony of people from the 
north of Ireland settled in this city. The risks. many of them 
had run and escaped in unsuccessful efforts to resist the political 
oppression which exasperated and harassed them at home prob- 
ably begot a fellow feeling, stronger than that of race affinity. 
The fugitive, no doubt, was cordially received, and at once made 
a welcome member of this Irish circle, which included persons 
of social influence. 

In May, 1799, Mr. P. K. Rogers was appointed a tutor in the 
University of Pennsylvania, and probably in the same year be- 
gan to study medicine under the immediate direction of Dr. 
Benjamin Smith Barton, Professor of Materia Medica, Natural 
History and Botany. 

It is evident that a warm friendship between preceptor and 
pupil was soon established. In dedicating his thesis he ascribes 
to Dr. Barton's example, instruction and kindness any happi- 
ness he may enjoy, in the course of his life, from his attachment 
to the sciences connected with medicine, and declares that he 
cannot help regarding the day on which he became his pupil as 
truly auspicious. 

Mr. Rogers was married by the Rev. George C. Potts,* Jan- 
uary 2, 1801, to Hannah Blythe, an intelligent woman, a year 
older than himself, endowed with a cheerful and affectionate 
disposition. He is described then as a tall, erect man of grave 

*The Rev. George Charles Potts had recently immigrated from Ireland. He 
had been a licentiate of the Presbytery of New Castle, Del., for some months, 
when he was ordained and installed the first pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian 
Church of Philadelphia, May 22, 1800, which was founded by about a score of 
Irishmen, June, 1799. — A Historical Discourse, delivered at the Fourth Presbyterian 
Church, Philadelphia, Nov. 9, 1879, by Rev. George Benaugh. 

ftuschenberger.] lUo [Nov. 6, 

deportment, having dark hair well sprinkled with gray, and soft, 
sleepy eyes. He played the violin and sang well ; but never in 
company or in the presence of strangers, because such perform- 
ance or display seemed to him inconsistent with the dignity of 
a gentleman. 

That those personal characteristics noted in this paper which 
are ascribable to heredity may be apparent, a summary of the 
bride's history seems desirable. It is conjectured that the 
female organism possesses even more genetic energy than the 
male — that the child is indebted to the mother as much at least 
as to the father for its engendered qualities. A distinguished 
botanist has observed that only the highest t}^pes of vitality 
in plants take the female form. " The law in this instance," 
he ssljs, " seems clear, that with a weakened vitality comes an 
increased power to bear male flowers, and tbat only under 
the highest condition of vegetative vigor are female flowers 
produced."* He conjectures that this law of the vegetal also 
prevails in the animal world. 

Hannah Blythe was the youngest daughter of James Blythe, 
native of Glasgow, but a resident of Londonder^, and his wife 
Bessie, a daughter of James Bell, an English citizen of London- 

James Blythe was a publisher and stationer. He founded, in 
1772, the Londonderry Journal, the first tri-weekly paper printed 
in the north of Ireland. It became a daily and is still published. 
No evidence of his right to this honor is recorded in it because, 
believing himself suspected of opposition to the government, 
and desiring to obtain the patronage of both political parties, 
he considered it expedient that his partner, a Mr. Douglas, who 
was a printer, should publicly appear to be the sole proprietor 
and editor. This is the reason assigned why his name was not re- 
corded in connection with the enterprise. The paper was printed 
and issued from the house in which he lived. His daughter, Mrs. 
Ramsay, who died at the advanced age of ninety-two years, 
often mentioned among the reminiscences of her early childhood 
the gathering of a crowd reading a placard on the front of their 
house, headed, " Bloody News From America," announcing the 

*On the sexes of plants. By Thomas Median, of Qermantown, Philadelphia. 
Proc. Amor. Assoc, for the Advancement of Science. Salem Meeting, August, 
1869, vol. IS, pp. 23G-260. 

1885.] 1UJ LRuschcnberger. 

battle of Lexington, April, 1775. She stated also that many- 
Protestant citizens rejoiced over this resistance of Americans 
to the British administration. 

James Blythe died in 1787, leaving a widow and three 
daughters, Elizabeth, Mary Ann and Hannah. The widow, Bessie 
Bell, who was an intelligent and energetic woman, removed to 
Strabane, about fifteen miles southward from Londonderry, took 
into partnership a foreman from the old establishment, set up 
and conducted a newspaper till she died, in 1794. The business 
was unprofitable. The daughters were left without support. 
They promptly determined to emigrate, and embarked in a ship 
belonging to their cousin, Adam Crampton, of Londonderry, 
and after a voyage of three months, arrived in Philadelphia the 
same j^ear. 

They were received by their cousin, wife of Thomas Moore, 
merchant, who had left Coleraine some time before on account of 
his affiliation with the " United Irishmen." 

They are described as quick, active, intelligent women, and 
being like most ladies of that period, proficient in the use of the 
needle, set to work with it and supported themselves respectably 
and independently. 

The city directory for 1802 states that P. K. Rogers, A.M., 
lived at No. 55 Lombard street, implying that he had established 
a home for himself very soon after his marriage. Where his de- 
gree of Master of Arts was conferred has not been ascertained. 

In June, 1802, he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania. 
His thesis was on Liriodendron tulipifera, or poplar tree, in 
which he records the results of his experimental observations of 
its chemical and therapeutic properties. 

Now he was a householder, with wife, infant son and a profes- 
sion. He started to maintain and improve his condition. He 
obtained some practice, had private pupils, lectured to classes of 
students, demonstrated in public the exhilarating effects of the 
inhalation of nitrous oxide or laughing gas, which were dis- 
covered in 1800, by Sir Humphrey Davy, delivered popular 
lectures on botany and scientific subjects, and contributed 
histories of cases to Dr. Barton's Medical and Physical Journal. 
In successive years he gave a course of lectures upon the 

Rusclienberger.] 11U [, 

History of Medicine and Medical Philosophy. Subsequently he 
devoted himself to chemistry, upon which he delivered, it is 
supposed, the first complete series of popular lectures ever given 
in this city, or in the country. 

The death of his father, who was drowned in a brook which 
flows on the place, called him to Ireland in 1807. He sold the 
family seat and settled the bereaved second family on the leased 
lands. This business, which occupied some time, being com- 
pleted, he returned to Philadelphia, bringing with him two 
younger brothers and a sister, and resumed his work. 

In 1809 the professorship of chemistry in the University of 
Pennsylvania was made vacant by the death of Dr. James Wood- 

Dr. P. K. Rogers addressed a letter, June 12, 1809, to Dr. Ben- 
jamin Hush, from which the following are extracts. They are 
characteristic of the writer in some degree : 

" The chemical chair being vacant, I intend to become a candi- 
date for the professorship. Your influence in my behalf is the 
favor which I am anxious to obtain. It would bind me in chains 
of gratitude for life. 

" My indigence has compelled me to make some attempts as a 
medical teacher, and unless some fortunate change should take 
place in my affairs, the same indigence may still urge me to the 
same exertions. Arrangements have been made in relation to 
my library which place it on a permanent foundation. Of course 
I will be enabled, as far as books can do it, to take a more ad- 
vantageous stand as a private lecturer, or as a professor." 

" I could wish to secure your patronage only by deserving it. 
As neither the professors nor trustees have had any adequate 
opportunity of judging of the real qualifications of candidates, 
I would be willing to deliver a series of experimental lectures in 
competition with others. I venture to mention this, because I 
hope the appointments are not solely regulated by the partiality 
of friends."* 

Dr. John Redmond Coxe was elected to the vacant chair July 
10, 1809.f 

* MS. Correspondence of Dr. Benjamin Rush, vol. 22, R to W., Ridgway Library , 

t History of the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania. By 
Joseph < arson, M.D., Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. Lindsay A Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1869. 

1885.1 J. IX [Ruschenberger. 

Dr. Rogers attempted to establish a circulating medical library 
in the city, and spent considerable part of his patrimony in it. 
The enterprise failed from want of patronage.* 

Hoping to obtain better compensation for his toil, he settled 
in Baltimore about the close of 1812, taking with him his wife 
and their three boys. Some near kinsmen, who were engaged in 
trade, had been settled there sometime. 

He seems to have been more prosperous in his new abode. At 
first he lived at Fell's Point, and had an apothecary shop, and sub- 
sequently in South Charles street. He was elected physician of 
the Hibernian Society in 1816. The same year it was charged 
that " Dr. P. K. Rogers, at Fell's Point, persists in the use of 
variolous matter in preference to vaccine, against the public re- 
monstrance of Dr. James Smith. "f 

The controversy on this question, carried on in the news- 
papers, was detrimental to his professional business. His in- 
come was inadequate to his need ; still, he worked on zealously. 
In 1819 his qualifications and capacity to teach were recognized. 
He was elected Professor of Natural Philosophy and Mathe- 
matics in the ancient College of William and Mary, founded at 
Williamsburg, Va., 1692, in place of Dr. Robert Hare, resigned. 

Dr. Rogers was soon settled in the Brofferton house, on the 
college campus, with his wife and four boys. He was earnest in 
his work. He made all the apparatus required to illustrate his 
lectures. In this making and mending he was habitually aided 
by his sons, who thus acquired unusual facility in the use of 
tools for working wood and metals. He also prepared and 
printed a syllabus of his course of instruction. 

During the summer of 1820, after the close of ihe session of 
the college, July 4, Mrs. Rogers was attacked with malarial 
fever and died, leaving the four boys, the youngest in his seventh 
and the eldest in his eighteenth year, to the care of their father. 
The boys became almost foster children in families of the pro- 

To avoid the malarial fever always prevalent in the locality 

* At this time the College of Physicians of Philadelphia has a library of 35,000, 
the Pennsylvania Hospital about 12,000, and the Medical Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania nearly as many, all accessible to the medical pub- 

t Medical Annals of Baltimore. By John R. Quinan, M.D. 8vo,pp. 274. Balti- 
more, 1881. 

Ruschenberger.] 112 [Nov. 0, 

during summer, Dr. Rogers habitually left Williamsburg, as 
soon after July 4 as practicable, to pass the vacation. After 
the close of the college in 1828, he spent several days in Balti- 
more and then went to Ellicott's Mills. A few days later he 
was seriously ill. All his children came to his bedside. He 
died of malarial fever, August 1st, 1828, in the fifty T second year 
of his age. 

This sketch of his trying career is presented because the pro- 
found, affectionate respect with which the sons always regarded 
their father, suggests that this commemoration would be unsatis- 
factory to them in their graves if he were not associated in it. 
Besides, he seems to have been the mental type of his sons to a 
considerable degree, though they were indebted to their mother 
largely for their moral constitution. 

Of their seven children four sons survived them. 

The eldest, James Blythe Rogers, was born in Philadelphia, 
February 11, 1802.* His preliminary education was acquired 
in Baltimore and Williamsburg, Va., at the College of William 
and Mary (182U-21). He studied medicine in the office of Dr. 
Thomas E. Bond, and in 1822 received the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine from the University of Maryland. Epilepsy was the 
subject of his thesis. There is a tradition that while he was a 
student he assisted his brothers, William and Henry, in teach- 
ing a school. After graduation, to eke out his too scant income, 
he taught a class of girls, in conjunction with a Dr. McClellan 
who had a school for boys in Baltimore. This connection 
proved to be unsatisfactory and the enterprise was given up. 
He was needing employment, and thought of seeking the post of 
surgeon to a colony of free negroes which it was proposed to es- 
tablish at Cape Mesurado and consulted his father on the sub- 
ject. He wrote in reply — " What is the use of your complaining 
of, mankind? The world as yet owes you nothing. Up to this 
time you have been simply a recipient of its benefits. Make 
yourself worthy of a place here, and you will find one." The 
projedt of going to Africa was abandoned. 

He had formed an intimate friendship with a fellow-student 
and graduate, Dr. Henry Webster. They became partners to 
practise medicine at Little Britain, in Lancaster county, Pa., 
about two miles from the Maryland line. 

* His parents then lived at No. 55 Lombard street. 

1885.] -L-L^ [Ruschenberger. 

The experience of a few years satisfied him that the career of 
a practitioner of medicine was uncongenial, repugnant to the 
sensitiveness of his nature and mental habits. He returned to 
Baltimore, and was soon appointed superintendent of an exten- 
sive manufactory of chemicals. Here he sedulously cultivated 
scientific and applied chemistry. 

While thus employed he accepted, but after some hesitation 
based on a notion that he lacked fluency of speech, a quality for 
which he was subsequently distinguished, the professorship of 
chemistry in the Washington Medical College, of Baltimore. 
The position was not remunerative. During the same period he 
lectured on chemistry before the Mechanics' Institute, which 
was designed for the encouragement of the mechanic arts in imi- 
tation of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, 
and was also occupied in original investigations. 

In September, 1830, at the age of twenty-eight, he married 
Rachel Smith, of Baltimore, who was a birth-right member of 
the Society of Friends. 

During the winter of 1831-32 he lectured twice a week on 
natural philosophy and chemistry in Baltimore. 

When the Medical Department of the Cincinnati College was 
established in 1835, he was appointed professor of chemistry, 
and filled the office until the establishment was closed in 1839. 
The summer vacations of these four years were spent in field 
work and chemical investigations in connection with the Geo- 
logical Survey of Virginia, as an assistant of his brother Wil- 
liam, who was the State Geologist. 

While in Cincinnati he declined the office of melter and refiner 
in the branch Mint at New Orleans, offered to him by the Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

He became a permanent resident of Philadelphia in 1840, and 
in August of the same year he was elected a member of the 
Franklin Institute. His brother Henry, then Geologist of Penn- 
sylvania, engaged him as an assistant in field and laboratory 
work. During seasons of leisure he delivered lectures to classes 
of medical students and examined them. He was appointed 
lecturer on chemistry, 1841, in the Philadelphia Medical Insti- 
tute, then a flourishing summer school, founded by Dr. Nathaniel 
Chapman. August 21, 1844, he was unanimously elected Pro- 


Ruschenberger.] i-l'± [Nov. 6, 

fessor of General Chemistry in tlie Franklin Institute, and re- 
ceived a vote of thanks for his services when he resigned, Octo- 
ber 20, 1847. In conjunction with his brother Robert, he com- 
piled from the works of Dr. Edward Turner and. Dr. William 
Gregory, a volume on inorganic and organic chemistry, designed 
to be a text-book which was published in 1 846. These many 
occupations yielded him a modest income. 

In April, 1846, he was chosen a member of the American 
Philosophical Society. 

In 1847, in the forty-sixth year of his age, he succeeded Dr. 
Robert Hare as Professor of Chemistry in the University of 
Pennsylvania. He was a representative of the Franklin Medi- 
cal College (in which he was at the time Professor of Chem- 
istry), in the National Medical Convention, assembled in Phila- 
delphia, May 5, 1847. This convention then became the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, which is still prosperous. 

In October of the same year, he was elected a member of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. He was one of 
the representatives of the Univers^ of Pennsylvania in the 
National Convention for the revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, in 1850. 

He was never robust. His frame was light and elastic. In 
latter years his constitution was considered to be delicate. At 
times he suffered from nervous exhaustion and defective nutri- 
tion, ascribable to long and incessant labor. An attack of 
albuminuria closed his life, June 15, 1853, in the fifty-first year 
of his age. He left his widow, who died in 1882, with their two 
sons and a daughter. 

He was an eminently efficient, interesting and popular teacher. 
"Disinterested and generous in his relations with the world, 
mild and conciliating in deportment, open and affable when ap- 
proached, urbane to every one, his virtues shone conspicuously 
within the circle of his friends."* 

William Barton Rogers, the second child of his parents, was 
born in Philadelphia, December 7, 1804.f 

* A memoir of the Life and Character of James B. Rogers, M.D., Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania. By Joseph Carson, M.D., Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medipa and Pharmacy In the University of Pennsylvania. 
Delivered by request of the Faculty, October 11th, 1852, and published by the 

t They resided at the time at No. 262 North Second street, probably between 
Vine and Callowbill streets. 

1885.] *-*-& [Ruschenberger. 

The middle name is a loving memorial record of his father's 
respect and friendship for his medical preceptor, Dr. Benjamin 
Smith Barton. 

William B. Rogers obtained his early education in Baltimore 
and Williamsburg, Va., at the College of William and Mary, of 
which he was an alumnus 1820-21. 

For a time, while a youth, he was employed in Baltimore by a 
dealer in crockeryware, and acquired such facility in wrapping 
packages that he subsequently reckoned it among his accomplish- 

About 1821, in conjunction with his brother Henry, he set up 
a school in the suburbs of Baltimore. How long, or with what 
degree of success they taught, has not been ascertained. 

In 1827, then in his twenty-third year, he delivered a course 
of lectures on natural science before the Mechanics Institute. 

In 1828 he was appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy 
and Mathematics in the College of William and Mary, to fill a 
vacancy caused by the death of his father. 

His attention was directed to natural science, and especially 
to geology. In 1830 he contributed to the Messenger of Useful 
Knowledge, edited by his brother Henry, then a professor in 
Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., articles on Dew. He was 
elected a correspondent of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia in 1833. In June, 1834, and May, 1835, he pub- 
lished in the Farmers' Register three papers on the Green Sand 
of Virginia.* 

About this period he was allowed to advocate before the 
Legislature the institution of a geological survey of the State 
of Virginia. March 6, 1835, an act was passed directing "the 
Board of Public Works to appoint a suitable person to make a 
geological reconnoissance of the State," provided his compensa- 
tion shall not exceed $1500. 

To him 1835 was an eventful year. He was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Natural Philosophy and Geology in the University of 
Virginia ; chosen a member of the American Philosophical Society 
July 17, and Director of the Geological Survey of Virginia. 

* Contained in a Reprint of the Annual Reports and other papers on the Geol- 
ogy of the Virginias. By the late William Banon Rogers, LL.D., &c, Director 
of the Geological Survey of Virginia from 1835 to 18U, President of the National 
Academy of Sciences. 12mo, pp. 832. D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1884. 

Ruschenberger.] J. ID [Nov. 6, 

His report of the geological reconnoissance was presented 
January, 1836. A note on the fertilizing efficacy of marl, taken 
from the report of Henry D. Rogers on the Geology of New Jer- 
sey, and a plan of the proposed Geological Survey of Virginia 
are appended to it. Reports of the progress of the survey were 
made annually from 1836 to 1841. It was discontinued in 18-12. 
All his brothers were among his assistants in field and laboratory 

He, as well as his brothers Henry and Robert, participated in 
the organization of the Association of American Geologists and 
Naturalists in 1840, and presided at the meetings of 1845 and 
1847. At the latter it was changed to the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. 

At the meeting held in Boston, in 1842, he presented, in con- 
nection with his brother Henry, a paper on The Laws of Structure 
of the more Disturbed Zones of the Earth's Crust, embracing 
what is called the wave theory of mountain chains. This theory 
was a result of an extensive study of the Appalachian chain in 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, and was supported by reference to 
many geological sections and facts. They were first to assert 
that the structure of mountain chains everywhere is the same in 
all essential features, an assertion which has been confirmed by 
the observations of Murchison in the Ural mountains, and by 
Darwin in the Andes. 

The meeting was memorable. Dr. Samuel George Morton 
presided. Among the distinguished naturalists present were the 
elder Silliman, Professor Hitchcock, Dr. Charles T. Jackson, the 
French astronomer, Nicollet, Sir Charles Lyell, and the palaeon- 
tologist, Hall. Several able and elaborate essays were read and 
discussed, but the prominent feature of the meeting was the 
Rogers paper, which was delivered as an oral statement. William 
B. Rogers first described the physical structure of the mountain 
chain extending 1500 miles, from Vermont to Alabama, and then 
Henry D. Rogers followed, explaining the phenomena and ex- 
pounding the hypothesis deduced from them. 

John L. Hays, of Cambridge, Mass., who was present, says, 
June 1, 1882: ; ' I have frequently read it [the paper] since. 
To me it is now comparatively tame in expression. It lacks the 
inspiration of the scene and the man, the illustrative diagrams, 


1885.] xxi [Ruschenberger. 

the emphasis of voice and finger pointing out the distinguishing 
phenomena, and the fervor of spontaneous utterance. The im- 
pression I have of this exposition as delivered is, that next to 
the Phi Beta Kappa oration of Wendell Phillips at Harvard, it 
is the most lucid and elegant effort of oral statement to which I 
ever listened. It may be true that eloquence is but a secondary 
qualitj' in the philosopher ; but in respect to the matter of this 
memoir and the general researches and deductions of the brothers 
Rogers here named, in their peculiar field of exploration, it may 
be safely asserted that they have made the most original and 
brilliant generalizations recorded in the annals of American 
geology, and have thrown light on the structure of mountain 
chains generally, which entitles them to a place by the side of the 
great expositor of this subject, Eli de Beaumont, of France." 

" The wave theory of mountain chains was the first important 
contribution to the dynamical and structural geology which had 
been brought forward in this country. It excited at the time 
great interest, as well from the novelty of the views as from the 
eloquence with which they were set forth ; and to-day it is still 
regarded as one of the most important advances in orographic 

William B. Rogers was elected an honorary member of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, June 1, 1842, and a fellow of 
the Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1845, of which he was Cor- 
responding Secretary from 1863 till 1869. 

In 1844-45 he was Chairman of the Faculty of the University 
of Tirginia.f 

June 20, 1840, he married Miss Emma, daughter of the Hon. 
James Savage, of Boston, and with his bride sailed the same 
day. They visited England and Scotland, passed some days in 
Paris, a few weeks in Switzerland, and returned in October, 
when he resumed his vocation at the University of Virginia. 
Mrs. Rogers became " the promoter of his labors, the ornament 
and solace of his middle life, and the devoted companion and 
support of his declining years. "J Recently she has edited, very 

*Josiah Parsors Cooke. Notice of William Barton Rogers, Founder of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Proceedings of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, vol. sviii, p. 42S-43S. 

t A Sketch of the History of the University of Virginia. Charlottesville, Va., 

J An address delivered before the Society of the Alumni of the University of 
Virginia, on Commencement day, June 27, 1883. By William Cabell Rives. 

Kuschenberger.] -LJ-O [Nov. 6, 

admirably, a reprint of liis annual reports and other papers on 
the geology of the Virginias. 

In 1853 he resigned from the University of Virginia, after 
eighteen j'ears of efficient service, and transferred his domicile to 
Boston. During the earlier years of his residence here he de- 
livered two or more courses of Lowell lectures, and contributed 
to the attractions of the Thursday Evening Scientific Club, of 
which he was president several years. 

He was present at a meeting of the British Association in 
Dublin, 1857, and early in 1859 he began the foundation of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which was incorporated 
in 1862, chiefly through his exertions and influence. He was 
elected president of it, April 8, 1862. Impaired health caused 
him to resign the office in the autumn of 1868. He was induced 
to accept it again in 1818, but infirmity compelled him to re- 
linquish the post in 1881. 

He was appointed inspector of gas and gas meters for the 
State of Massachusetts, in 1861, and, accompanied by Mrs. 
Rogers, he went to Europe in 1864, to collect models of ma- 
chinery and apparatus for the use of the Institute of Technology. 
At the meeting of the British Association for that year, he pre- 
sented a paper entitled An account of apparatus and processes 
for chemical and photometrical testing of illuminating gas. 

News of the serious illness of his brother Henry, then Regius 
Professor of the Natural Sciences in the University of Glasgow, 
hurried him and Dr. Robert E. to Europe in 1866, but his 
brother died before their arrival. On this sad errand they were 
absent only a few weeks. 

In 1867 he was appointed Commissioner to represent the State 
of Massachusetts at the Paris Exhibition, and during the sum- 
mer visited it' almost daily. 

The Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., conferred upon 
him, in 1866, the honorary degree of L.L.D., and he was elected 
President of the National Academy of Science to succeed Joseph 
Henry, who died May lath, 18*18. 

At the meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, at Buffalo, N. Y., in 1876, he was elected Presi- 
dent; but he Was unable to be present at the meeting of 1877. 
" Had I been able," he wrote from Newport, August 22, to the 


1885.] J.x*J [Ruschenberger. 

permanent Secretary, u to write the address for which I was pre- 
paring early in the summer, I should have taken the risk of pre- 
senting myself at Nashville, though only for a day or two. But 
the nerve-exhaustion to which I have for many years been liable? 
aggravated by the season, compelled me soon to suspend and 
finally give up the work."* 

In 1875-6 he assisted in establishing at the University of 
"Virginia, a Museum of Natural History, and in 1876-7 contrib- 
uted a thousand dollars to the fund of the institution.f 

At the Commencement of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, May 30, 1882, while delivering an address, he bent 
forward on the table before him as if to consult notes, then 
slowly regaining an erect position, he threw up his hands. His 
life had ended. The last sentence he uttered was, u I remember, 
that one hundred and fifty years ago Stephen Hales published a 
pamphlet on the subject of illuminating gas, in which he stated 
that his researches had demonstrated that 128 grains of bitumi- 
nous coal " i 

Thus was closed, probably without pain, his bright career. 
He had fairly won and received all the compliments and honors 
that a votary of science in this country can win ; and he was 
universally esteemed in private life on account of his probity, 
urbanity and social accomplishments. 

Henry Darwin Rogers, the third son and fourth child, was 
born in Philadelphia, August 1, 18084 

The name Darwin was given to him by his father in token of 
his admiration of the poetical works of Erasmus Darwin, par. 
itcularly of his Botanic Garden, long passages from which he 
was often pleased to repeat for the entertainment of the family. 

He was educated in Baltimore and Williamsburg, Va. 

In his twenty-second year, January, 1830, he was elected Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy in Dickinson Col- 
lege, Carlisle, Pa. " Whilst connected with the College he 
edited The Messenger of Useful Knowledge, a monthly maga- 
zine of scientific character, and also containing essays on educa- 

*Proc. Amer. Assoc, for the Advanc. Sc, xxvi, p. 373. 1877. 
tSee A Sketch of the University of Virginia. Richmond, Va., 18S5. 
J His parents lived at No. 205 Mulberry, now Arch street, in 1807 and 1808; and 
at No. 13 S. Ninth street, in 1810, 1811 and 1812— see City Directory. 

Ruschenberger.] 1ZU [Nov. C, 

tional, literary and political subjects, and valuable information 
from foreign journals."* 

His brother William contributed to it a series of short articles 
to explain the formation of dew. 

When the editor resigned his professorship in the college at 
the end of the year, the publication of the magazine ceased. 

He accompanied R. Dale Owen to England, in 1831, and 
enrolled himself a student of chemistry in the laboratory of 
Dr. Edward Turner, and attended the lectures of De la Beche, 
on geology, and of other teachers of science in London. He 
returned to Philadelphia in the summer of 1838. The liberal 
assistance of his brother William placed the opportunity of this 
course of study in Europe within his reach. 

In the winter of 1833-34 he delivered a course of lectures on 
geologjr, in the hall of the Franklin Institute, of which he be- 
came a member on the nomination of bis friend Alexander Dal- 
las Bache, in January, 1834. From Januaiy, 183S, till Decem- 
ber, 1843, he was a member of the Board of Managers and 
served on several standing committees. His resignation from 
the Institute was accepted March 16, 1848. 

The University of Pennsylvania conferred upon him the de- 
gree of Master of Arts in 1834, and elected him Professor of 
Geologj' and Mineralogy the next year. From 1835 until 1846, 
when he resigned, he gave instruction on the subject, and pub- 
lished " A Guide to a Course of Lectures on Geology, delivered 
in the University of Pennsylvania." 8vo, pp. 48. 

In his twenty-seventh year he was chosen, January 2, 1835, a 
member of the American Philosophical Societ} r ,f and in Novem- 
ber he was elected a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, and served on its Publication Committee from 
December, 1835, to December, 1836. 

The Legislature of the State appointed him, April 21, 1835, 
to make a geological and mineralogical survey of New Jersej'. 
His first report (8vo, pp. 175) was made February 12, 1836, 

* A sketch of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Penna., including the list of Trustees 
and Faculty from the foundation, and a more particular account of the .Scien- 
tific Department. By Charles F. Ilimes, Ph.D., Professor of Natural Science. 
Illustrated by engravings and by photographs executed in the laboratory. 
12mo, pp. 153. Lane S. Hart, Harrisburg, 1879. 

tDuring 1836-37 he was frequently at the meetings and served on several 
Bpecial committees. 

1885.] J--jx [Ruschcnberger. 

and his final report (8vo, pp. 301, with 2 maps) was presented 
in 1840. 

Chiefly on the recommendation of the Geological Society of 
Pennsylvania, which was founded in Philadelphia, April, 1832, 
and ceased in 1836, the Legislatm-e determined, March 29, 1836, 
to have made a geological survey of .the State of Pennsylvania. 

The survey was immediately organized. Henry D. Rogers 
was appointed geologist, James C. Booth and John F. Frazer 
assistant geologists, and Robert E. Rogers chemist. 

Henry D. Rogers was elected an honorary member of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, June 1, 1842. He partici- 
pated in discussions at its meetings every year from 1845 to 
1858, both inclusive, except the year 1856. All his oral com- 
munications relate to geological facts or theories. 

In 1844 he delivered a course of lectures on geologj 7 in the 
Masonic Temple in Boston. 

He became a resident of Boston in 184 6, and was married 
there in March, 1854, to Miss Eliza S. Lincoln. 

He made six annual reports of the progress of the Geological 
Survey of Pennsylvania ; the first December 20. 1836, and the 
last February 1, 1842. The Legislature of 1841-42 failed to 
make an appropriation for the continuance of the survey, and it 
was therefore suspended. Professor Rogers was employed from 
1841 till 1851 by coal companies as an expert. 

Field-work of the survey was resumed in 1851, and continued 
through 1852, '53 and '54. 

Appropriations made by the Legislature for carrying on the 
survey were always too narrowly restricted, never liberal. Hence 
obstacles to the progress of the work intervened and delayed its 

Under an act of March, 1855, it was agreed that the publica- 
tion of the final report of the survey should be confided to 
Professor Rogers. He was to own the copyright and receive 
$16,000, on condition that he delivered to the State, within three 
years, one thousand copies of it. In order to produce the re- 
port in an appropriate st} T le for this sum, it was obvious to him 
that the work must be clone where the skilled labor requisite for 
it could be obtained at rates below those prevailing at the time 
in Philadelphia. For the sake of such advantage he transferred 



Ruschenberger.] xmi [Nov. 6, 

his domicile to Edinburgh, where the printing of the report and 
the engravings to illustrate it were executed. This great work 
was published according to contract, bearing the imprint of J. 
B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1858. 

It brought him a harvest of approbation from the scientific 
community, but no other profit. The cost of the publication 
exceeded the sum stipulated for it by several thousand dollars. 
The results of assiduous labor during eighteen years, often em- 
barrassed by anxiety in surmounting difficulties, are admirably 
presented in this magnificent report. 

It consists of two quarto volumes, which together contain 
1682 pages, illustrated by 778 intercalated cuts, 69 plates and 18 
folded sheets of sections, all executed in the best style of that 
time. A summary history of the survey, and the names of all 
the assistants employed in it from beginning to end, are given in 
the preface, with praise of most of them and grateful mention 
of assistance in the work from his brother William. 

The chief of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, 
Professor J. P. Lesley, a qualified judge, commends the work 
generally, a summary of the contents of which he gives, and 
says : " But let any one read the special memoirs with which 
he closes the second volume of his final report, and there can be 
no sentiment but one of admiration for the breadth of his views 
and the clearness, force and elegance of his delineations. No 
geological paper has ever appeared excelling in ever}' good quality 
his memoir on coal."* 

While resident in Edinburgh the University of Dublin con- 
ferred upon him, in 1857, the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws ; he was elected member of the Geological Societ}' of Lon- 
don, and a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; became 
one of the conductors of the Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal, and joined Sir William and A. K. Johnston in the pub- 
lication of maps of physical geography and geology. In 1858 
he was appointed Regius Professor of Natural History in the 
University of Glasgow. Then he transferred his residence to 
Shawlands, a suburb of that city. During the last two years of 

* Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, 1874-5-G. Historical Sketch of 
Geological Explorations in Pennsylvania and other states. By J. I'. Lesley. 
Published by the Board of Commissioners for the Second Geological Survey. 
Harrisburg, 1S7(J. 

1885.] J- -"3 [Ruschenberger. 

his life he was President of the Philosophical Society of Glas- 

Accompanied by his wite and daughter he visited the United 
States in August, 1865, and returned without them to Shawlands 
early in April, 1866, to be in time to begin his courses of instruc - 
tion in May. 

His physical constitution was not vigorous. His force bad 
been slowly waning for some time. Indeed, hope of restora- 
tion to health was among the motives of his voyage to the 
United States. On returning to his residence, No. 5 Elgin 
Villas, he tried to resume his duties, but found his power to 
labor had been so far expended that he could not work. An 
obscure disease, which probably had been long seated in the 
brain, terminated his life May 29, 1866, near the close of his 
fifty-eighth year. The announcement of his death in the news- 
papers of Glasgow was accompanied by expressions of praise of 
his character and approbation of his career, mentioning the 
honors paid to him by learned organizations. " He was," said 
one, "a quiet, amiable, and thoroughly lovable man, and much 
admired by all who had the opportunity of knowing him inti- 
mately." Another said, among other things, " indeed he actu- 
ally shone when descanting on the physical conformation of the 
earth's surface, and the grandeur of the operating forces to pro- 
duce that conformation. His public lectures were well worth 
hearing when he confined himself to geology and the allied sub- 
jects of climatology and physical geography, and his services 
thus came to be in requisition in many places be}'ond the college 
class-room. He had keen powers of observation, and his power 
of generalization reached very high. He was likewise possessed 
of great literary ability, and frequently contributed excellent 
articles to scientific and other journals." 

The career of the youngest and last of these distinguished 
brothers was as useful and praiseworthy as that of his seniors. 

Robert Empie Rogers, the sixth child and fourth son of his 
parents, was born in Baltimore, March 29, 1813. 

He assumed the name of Empie while a youth as a lasting 
token of his grateful appreciation of parental care bestowed 
upon him at the College of William and Mary after the death of 
his mother, in 1820, when he was only seven years old, by the 
Rev. Adam P. Empie, D.D., and his wife. 

Kuschenberger.l X.JA. [Nov. 6, 

His early education was directed by his father. After his 
death, 1828, it was managed by his brothers James and William. 

The intention was that he should be a civil engineer. He 
started as an assistant to a party making the survey of the route 
for the Boston and Providence Railroad. When and how long 
he was so employed is uncertain. His experience, however, was 
not satisfactory. In a letter, dated New York, May fi, 1 833, and 
addressed to his brother William, at Williamsburg, Ya., he says: 
"Henr}' asks what are my plans, and broaches the idea of my 
again embarking for a time in engineering. For me at least — 
for me alone — I fear there is little prospect of success, at any 
rate in connection with those with whom I have been previously 
engaged. I do not know how it might be elsewhere. 

" In a letter to Henry, some time since, I stated, as I have be- 
fore done to you, that my favorite desire always has been, and I 
thought always would be, to follow, if possible, in your career, 
to become an instructor; and as preparatory to some higher 
station, I thought I should like to have charge of a school, 
either of my own or become teacher in some flourishing estab- 
lishment of the kind. Such an occupation I think would be a 
useful schooling for myself, for I conceive that at no time could 
I learn so fast as when teaching, for then I should be making 
practical application of what I would be m}- self acquiring, and 
while occupied I would have also a portion of time altogether 
apart to myself to devote in mj r own way to my own improve- 
ment. ****** 

" Your advice about nvy studies I think correct. I was doubt- 
ful whether it would be prudent to occupy myself with mathe- 
matics until I could be under your direction. I will therefore 
refrain for the present and continue with botany, geology and 

These few sentences distinctly imply the character of his men- 
tal tone at that period, as well as the scope of his 3 r oung 
ambition, and at the same time suggest that his conduct was 
swayed and moulded by the opinions and example of his brother 

The project of becoming a civil engineer was abandoned. 
Probably in the autumn of 1 833 he determined to stwty medi- 
cine. He became a pupil of Dr. Kobert Hare, Professor of 

1885.] \2iiy [Ruschenberger. 

Chemistry, and worked zealously in his laboratory till the close 
of his under-graduate course. 

He duly submitted a thesis, entitled " Experiments on the 
blood, together with some new facts in regard to animal and 
vegetable structures, illustrative of many of the most important 
phenomena of organic life," etc., and graduated from the Medical 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania, March, 1836 
This thesis, illustrated by many wood cuts, was published in the 
American Journal of the Medical Sciences.* 

The practice of medicine was not to his taste. He devoted 
himself to chemistry. From 1836 to 1842 he was the chemist of 
the first Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, of which his brother 
Henry was the chief. 

He became a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, of 
Philadelphia, February, 1837. During nearly a half century he 
evinced interest in the pursuits of the Society. At irregular 
intervals he was frequently present at its stated meetings of sev- 
eral successive years, participated in discussions, delivered lec- 
tures to promote its interest and contributed to its funds, f 

Dr. Rogers was elected a member of the Franklin Institute of 
the State of Pennsylvania, April 18, 1838, and resigned May 18, 
1845. He was again elected November 18, 1852, on returning to 
Philadelphia after several years' absence ; became a "life mem- 
ber" in 1855, and one of the Board of Managers in 1857. He 
was one of the vice-presidents during seventeen years, from Jan- 
uary, 1858. In January, 1875, he was elected President. He de- 
clined reelection January, 1879,1 and was again returned to the 
Board of Managers, and continued to be a member of it to the 
close of his life. 

* Vol. xviii, 1836. 

t In the Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, from 1859 to 1862, many of his ver- 
bal communications are noted. 

JOn vacating the chair for his successor, at the stated meeting, January 15, 
1879, he thanked the members of the Institute for their unvarying kindness 
towards him during the four years of his presidency. And then, on motion of 
Mr. J. E. Mitchell, the meeting unanimously adopted the following preamble 
and resolution: 

"Whereas, our highly esteemed presiding officer, Dr. R. E. Rogers, having 
declined a re-election to the office he has so acceptably filled for the past four 
years, it is therefore, 

Resolved, That in parting with Dr. Rogers we desire to place on record our 
high appreciation of the courteous and impartial manner with which he has 
presided over our deliberations, as well as our appreciation of the valuable time 

Ruschenberger.J 1—0 [Nov. 6, 

He was prominently active in the work of the Institute, de- 
livered courses of lectures on chemistry before its classes, 
assisted in the management of its public exhibitions, served on 
several of its standing and on many of its special committees, 
the most notable of which was one on tests of the efficiency 
of dynamo-electric machines,* and another on the dangers of 
electric lighting.f 

At the celebration of the semi-centennial anniversary of the 
foundation of the society, February 5, 1814, in the Musical Fund 
Hall, he delivered an eloquent address, narrating in a general 
way a history of scientific discoveries and their practical appli- 
cations in the half century, and indicating how the work carried 
on during that period by the Institute had contributed to the 
progress of science and the diffusion of knowledge. J 

Near the close of his thirtieth year he married, March 13, 
1843, Miss Fanny Montgomery, a daughter of Mr. Joseph S. Lewis, 
a gentleman who was prominent among those who established 
the city's water-works at Fair mount. 

In the session 1841-42, on invitation, he completed the course 
of chemical instruction at the University of Virginia which had 
been interrupted by sickness of the professor, Dr. John P. 
Emmet, from which he did not recover. Dr. Rogers was elected 
in his place, Professor of General and Applied Chemistry and 
Materia Medica, in March, 1842, and discharged the duties of the 
office satisfactorily to all concerned during ten years. In May, 
1852, he was a representative of the University of Virginia at 
the meeting of the American Medical Association in Richmond, 

* Journal of the Franklin Institute, p. 1878, lxxv, pp. 303-378. 

t Journal of the Franklin Institute, 1881, lxxxii, pp. 401-408. 

J Commemorative Exercises at the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Franklin 
Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. 
Held on Friday evening, February 6, 1874, at the Musical Fund Hall. Hall of 
the Institute, Seventh street, below Market street, Philadelphia, 1874. 8vo, 
pp. 96. 

and talents he has devoted to the service of this Institute, and we indulge the 
hope that in future as in the past, it may have the benefit of his extensive re- 
search and great experience " 

At the stated meeting, September 7, 1881. the President announced the death 
of Prof. Robert E. Rogers, and that the Board of Managers had appointed 
Messrs. J. E. Mitchell, E. J. Houston and [saac Norris, Jr., a committee to suit- 
ably express the sentiments of the Board; and, on motion, appointed Dr. G. M. 
Ward and Dr. W. H. Wahl, to co-operate with the committee. Their report is 
published in the Journal, p. 387, lxxxviii, 1884, 

1885.] -L-j» LRuschenberger. 

Ya., and so became a permanent member of the society. At its 
meeting in New York, 1853, he represented the University of 
Pennsylvania. He was present when the Association met at 
Philadelphia, in 1855, and again as a representative of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1872. At that meeting, in behalf of 
the profession of Philadelphia, he welcomed the delegates.* 

He was elected Professor of Chemistry in the University of 
Pennsylvania, August, 1852, in place of his brother James, de- 
ceased, and Dean of the Medical Faculty in 1856. 

The American edition of Lehmann's great work, Physiological 
Chemistry, was edited by him and published by Blanchard & 
Lea, October, 1855.f 

He was chosen a member of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety July 30, 1855, and elected one of its Council January 7, 
1859. He was frequently present at the meetings of the So- 
ciety, often took part in discussions, and served on several com- 

He was elected a Fellow of the College of Physicians of 
Philadelphia April 1, 1857, but was rarely present at its meet- 
ings. At one of them, 1858, he related a case of arsenical 
poisoning in which he appeared in Court as an expert. The 
victim had been taking, for some time, subnitrate of bismuth 
by prescription. He found that a remnant of the same con- 
tained a small quantity of arsenic, and also that samples of sub- 
nitrate of bismuth, obtained from ten druggists' shops, were 
contaminated in like manner, but not sufficiently to render the 
quantity ordinarily prescribed dangerous. On this testimony 
the jury acquitted the accused, although circumstances strongly 
implied his guilt.J Arsenical contamination of the subnitrate 
of bismuth of the shops had not been previously suspected. 

While the war of rebellion was in progress Dr. Rogers was 
appointed an Acting Assistant-Surgeon in the army, July 8, 

* Trans. Amer. Med. Assoc, pp. 9-11, xxiii, 1872. 

t Physiological Chemistry. By Professor C. G. Lehmann. Translated from the 
second edition. By George E. Day, M.D./F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal College 
of Physicians, and Professor of Medicine in the University of St. Andrews. 
Edited by R. E. Rogers, M.D., Professor of Chemistry in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania. With illustrations, selected from 
Funke's Atlas of Physiological Chemistry, and an Appendix of Plates. Com- 
plete In two volumes. [8vo, vol. i, pp. 648, vol. 2, pp. 547.] Blanchard & Lea, 
Philadelphia, 1855. 

t Amer. Jour. Med. Sc, p. 99, vol. xxxvi, 1858. 

Ruschenberger.] ±*jo [Nov. 6, 

1862, for duty at the West Philadelphia Military Hospital, and 
served till June 18, 1863. At his suggestion and under his 
supervision, a steam mangle was set up in West Philadelphia — 
Chestnut street, east of Thirty-first street — to accelerate the 
laundry work of the great hospital. The day the machine was 
ready to be set to work, January 10, 1863, he was present to see 
it started. It is related that while benevolently showing a 
woman who was to feed it the dangers to which the work ex- 
posed her, his own right hand was caught and crushed betwixt 
the very hot [180° P.] revolving iron cylinders. With charac- 
teristic alertness he reached out his left hand and instantly threw 
the leather band off from the revolving drum which gave motion 
to the machine, and stopped it. Then, in lifting the heavy 
cylinder [800 pounds] for his release, it slipped from the end of 
a crowbar in the hands of a workman and fell back upon the 
hand, thus aggravating the injury already inflicted. 

In his suffering he was considerate of another. He conjec- 
tured that his wife might be too profoundly shocked, should he 
appear before her with the hurt hand concealed in bloody wraps, 
immediately after the sound of rattling wheels in their quiet 
street had ceased in front of the house. To coi-ivey to her an 
impression that his injury was less than it really was, he gal- 
lantly alighted from the carriage in which he was at the street 
corner nearest his residence and walked home. 

His colleague in the University, Dr. Henry H. Smith, Pro- 
fessor of Surgery, amputated the injured extremity above the 
wrist at night, January 24. The result of the operation was 
entirely satisfactory. Por some time he wore an artificial hand, 
admirably made for him by C. W. Kolbe,a well-known cutler of 
the city. 

One day, very soon after the stump had healed, as Professor 
Smith was about to begin his lecture, Dr. Rogers entered the 
arena and begged leave to interrupt him for a moment. Then, 
resting his left hand upon the Professor's shoulder, he ad- 
dressed the assembled class in his eloquent way, and expressed 
his grateful sense of obligation to the eminent skill and kind 
attention of their Professor of Surgery. His speech was re- 
ceived with rounds of tremendous applause. The scene is not 
likely to be forgotton by any who was present. 

Almost ambidextrous, prior to the accident, he speedily learned 

1885.] -I- 1 '-' [Ruschenberger. 

to write with his left hand and to use the right arm, beneath the 
shoulder, in prehension with notable skill in his experiments 
while lecturing. 

Soon after the loss of his hand a greater sorrow came to him. 
His happy married life of twenty years was ended. His wife 
died February 21, 1863. 

Under an attraction of speculative chances in petroleum, which 
at the time shrewd men believed to be excellent, many friends, 
relying upon his scientific judgment in the premises, were in- 
duced to join Dr. Rogers in organizing the Humboldt Oil Com- 
pany, February IT, 1864. They contributed a quarter of a 
million of dollars. Land supposed to be richly stored with 
oil was purchased, wells were sunk and work carried on for some 
time without profit. The assets of the company were publicly 
sold, February 4, 1873, for a sum not more than sufficient to 
return the stockholders one cent a share. Dr. Rogers owned 
one-fifth of all the shares, and lost more than any one who had 
stock in the unhappy enterprise he had prompted. 

Miss Delia Saunders became his second wife, April 30, 1866. 

May 10, 1872, the Secretary of the Treasury of the United 
States appointed Drs. H. R. Linderman and Robert E. Rogers a 
committee to examine the Melter and Refiner's Department of 
the Mint at Philadelphia, and ascertain the extent and sources 
of an alleged " waste of silver in excess of the amount tolerated 
by law." The processes of assaying and refining the bullion 
and converting it into coin were carefully investigated and 
tested by numerous experiments at the Mint, and at the Assay 
Office in New York. About two months were spent in the ex- 
amination. The result of it was presented July 25, 1872, in a 
well considered and elaborate " Report on the wastage of silver 
bullion in the Melter and Refiner's Department of the Mint." 

This investigation, valuable in itself, was also valuable in its 
consequences. His experimental trials to apply the principles 
of chemical science to the improvement of an industrial process 
of great importance, suggested modifications in the methods of 
refining the precious metals which were subsequently adopted.* 

* "Some important questions of a chemical and metallurgical character hav- 
ing arisen with regard to various mint manipulations of the precious metals, a 
series of experiments to determine the same were made at the Philadelphia 
Mint, in the latter part of the fiscal year, under the supervision of Professor 
R. E. Rogers. The results obtained were conclusive of several points, and will 
be of value in future minting operations." Report of the Director of the Mint, 
November 1, 1873, p. 12. 



Ruschenberger.] xu\j [Nov. 6, 

He visited the Mint at San Francisco, in 1873, departing from 
Philadelphia August 5, and returning September 20, carefully- 
studied its working, and submitted reports upon it to the 
Director of the Mint in October and December. 

September 4, 1874, he reported the successful result of his 
experiments made at the Assay Office in New York, in August, 
to . rid the establishment of inconvenience from acid vapors. 
Prior to that time nitrous acid fumes, arising from the nitric 
acid used in refining silver, were allowed to escape, through the 
chimney, into the open air, sometimes seriously annojnng neigh- 
bors. To correct the evil, Dr. Rogers had constructed in the 
attic of the building a. furnace for burning coke, into which the 
fumes were conveyed and burned. Instead of extinguishing the 
fuel these fumes promote its combustion, which is an interesting 
chemical fact. 

He visited Washington by request in January and March, 
1 875, to confer with the authorities about plans which he had 
proposed for the equipment of a refinery in the Mint at San 
Francisco. Those plans, which included the sulphuric acid pro- 
cess recommended by him October 15, 1873, were adopted May 
3, 1875. They included the erection of additional buildings. 

He arrived at San Francisco May 19. The actual work of 
construction and equipment of the refinery was begun May 24, 
and finished July 26, and placed in charge of the Superintendent, 
in working order, August 25, 1875. 

At the suggestion of Dr. Rogers, during the progress of the 
work, an artesian well was sunk within the hollow square of the 
Mint which supplies 100,000 gallons of excellent water daily for 
all the uses of the establishment. 

In reference to this enterprise, the Director of the Mint, in his 
annual report, November 20, 1875, says: "The arranging of the 
plan of the refinery and its equipment was intrusted to Robert 
E. Rogers, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Penn- 
sylvania, whose eminent qualifications as a chemist and metal- 
lurgist, rendered him peculiarly qualified for this service, and 
who performed the duty assigned him in an entirely satisfactory 
manner. The refinery has been in successful operation since the 
2(')th day of August last, and with much advantage to the public 

1885.] J- "J- _ [Ruschenberger. 

Under instructions of the Director of the Mint he made, in 
November, 1875, "a careful and laborious investigation " of the 
consolidated Virginia and California Mine in Nevada, for the 
purpose of estimating " their probable total yield of gold and 
silver based upon their present explored extent and the quality 
of their ores as ascertained by assays." And after due consid- 
eration of the chances of over-estimation he places the production 
" at not less than $150,000,000," which is one-half of the sum in- 
dicated by the assays. 

Besides doing the work just mentioned, Dr. Rogers served as 
a member of the Annual Assay Commission every year from 
1871 to 1879, both years included. 

From June, 1872, till his death, he was one of the chemists, 
employed by the Gas Trust of Philadelphia, to make analyses 
and daily photometrical tests of the gas. He was succeeded in 
the office by his assistant, Dr. George M. Ward. 

Very soon after the University of Pennsylvania was trans- 
ferred to the buildings which it now occupies in West Phila- 
delphia, it was suggested that the scheme of medical teaching 
which had been long followed ought to be improved. During 
the evolution of the plan adopted and the transition from the 
old to the new ways, personal discussions of the subject were 
frequent and often warm. The Board of Trustees, it was sup- 
posed, did not rightly appreciate the injury which the proposed 
changes might work to its medical faculty. The professors were 
ready for and in favor of such reform as would make the diploma 
significant of qualifications higher than obtainable in any other 
medical school ; but they were not prepared to sacrifice their 
pecuniary interests to effect at once what might be achieved 
gradually without much loss. The Trustees seemed to differ 
from them more about the time and methods of proceeding than 
the object desired. 

With comparatively few exceptions, medical education is 
sought as a means of livelihood where it may be had at least 
cost of labor, time and money. The diploma, which carries 
with it license to practise, the public generally accepts as a 
certificate of qualification. Rivalry and competition of the many 
medical schools are strong, each striving to attract as many 
students as possible, because, as a rule, the emolument of the 

Ruschenberger.] lO-j [Nov. 0, 

professors is contingent upon the number ; and large classes, in 
common estimation, vouch for the excellence of the school as 
well as of the qualification of its graduates. 

The circumstances of medical teaching suggested that to im- 
mediately prolong the course of study, thus augmenting the 
expenses of the student and increase the requirements of gradu- 
ation to what they should be, must be instantly followed by 
great reduction of the classes, and consequently of the remun- 
eration of the professors. 

The aspect of affairs was to them unpromising. Discontent 
was prevalent. 

While matters were still in an uncertain state, Dr. Rogers, 
without application, was elected, May 2, 187 7, Professor of Med- 
ical Chemistry and Toxicology in the Jefferson Medical College, 
a chair just vacated by resignation. He accepted the office and 
resigned his position in the University, -which he had held during 
a quarter of a century. The transfer added to his emolument 
without increase of labor and relieved his anxiety. It was un- 
derstood that several of his old colleagues expressed at that time 
willingness to accept position elsewhere under like conditions. 

The Trustees managed affairs wisely. They established the 
excellent scheme of medical education now in operation, which, 
followed thoroughly by the student, places him be} r ond the 
necessity of seeking further instruction after graduation in post- 
graduate courses, which many to whom diplomas may have been 
prematurely granted consider essential to properly qualify them 
for general practice. Discontent has disappeared. The pro- 
fessors receive annual salaries in place of fees from students. 
The prosperity of the Medical Department of the University 
seems to be assured. 

The reception of Dr. Rogers into the Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege was cordially manifested at his lecture introductory to the 
course of 1877-78. It was estimated that not less than 1200 
physicians, students and others were crowded into the hall. At 
the conclusion of the lecture a silver vase was presented to him 
as a token of the respect felt for him by the great class of med- 
ical students. 

In addition to his own work in the college he completed the 
course of instruction on Materia Medica in the session of 1878, 

1885.] ±36 [Ruschenberger. 

left unfinished by the professor of that branch, Dr. John B. 
Biddle, who died January 19, 1879. 

The degree of Doctor of Laws, LL.D., was conferred upon 
him June, 1883, by Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 

His second wife died January 9, 1883. This loss made a pro- 
found impression. Abated energy and impaired health followed. 
He resigned his office, July, 1884, and was elected emeritus 

He died September 6, 1884, in his seventy-second year. 

The part given to Dr. Rogers to enact in this world has been 
well performed. He employed all his time advantageously in 
one direction or another. He was never idle. Besides his 
routine official work, he was sometimes engaged as an expert in 
criminal trials ; often delivered lectures, illustrated by experi- 
ments, for the benefit of institutions ; helped to release many a 
student from difficulties ascribable to his own heedlessness, and 
alwa} r s had several decent poor people, old or enfeebled, depending 
upon his bounty, whom he cheered by familiar counsels and sub- 
stantial gifts — little stipends to eke out their meagre earnings. 
He was ever ready to render aid in any emergency, small or 

Late one summer evening, in 1863, strolling, as was then his 
wont, in the outskirts of the city, he was overtaken by a market- 
man slowly driving his wagon and horses in a south-westerly 
direction towards Gray's Ferry. The man asked if he was on 
the right road to the Indian Queen, on North Third street. The 
Doctor perceived that he was too much bewildered to take care 
of his charge, and with his consent at once took a seat beside 
him, and with his one hand drove the team to the tavern named. 

One Sunday, at Long Branch, years ago, a gentleman who was 
bathing got beyond his depth and was borne seaward by the 
undertow. Two young men who were bathing at the same 
time saw his danger and hastened to his assistance; but when 
they reached him they were able to do little more than care for 
themselves. They could only now and then give him a little 
support and encourage him to continue his exertions to save 

Dr. Rogers saw their peril from the hotel and instantly started 
for the beach, undressing and throwing his clothes, containing 

Ruschenberger.] XO*± [Nov. 6, 

his watch, money, &c, on the ground as he ran, and reached it 
just in time to jump on board of a boat putting off to the rescue. 
The boat had proceeded only a short distance when it was 
swamped. Dr. Rogers seized an oar, swam to the drowning 
persons, gave it to them and urged them to sustain themselves 
till aid should arrive. The drifting boat was flung against one 
of the gentlemen and the oar was wrenched from him. Seeing 
this. Dr. Rogers placed himself in a manner under him, and thus 
bearing him up, brought him, as well as those holding fast to 
the oar, safely ashore. 

And this was the third time he had heroically saved persons 
from drowning. 

He had a remarkable facility in the use of tools of all kinds, 
and a respectable talent for mechanical contrivance. He was 
author of many inventions — notable among them the Rogers and 
Black steam boiler — and of several modifications and improve- 
ments of electric apparatus. This ability was early manifested, 
1835-36, in his original experiments on osmosis, in which he 
demonstrated how changes in the blood are produced by respira- 

The tenderness of his nature may be discerned in the follow- 
ing sentences from the postscript of a letter to his brother 
William, May 6, 1833 : " My Dear Brother — What can be more 
grateful to an affectionate heart than to find in others a sympathy 
and reciprocation of the same warm feelings it proffers. How 
doubly blessed do I consider myself when I feel that in my 
brothers I have found such beings. 

" I had sealed this letter at home, but thinking it well before de- 
livering it to the mail to inquire for letters, I have been rejoiced 
to find yours of the 2d of May, and thus I am enabled to 
acknowledge its receipt and, let me assure you, with a thousand 
thanks for its contents." 

The Chairman of the Executive Committee, Dr. Samuel Ash- 
hurst, of the Society of the Alumni of the Medical Department 
of the University of Pennsylvania, in the annual report for 1885, 
says : " Highly endowed with the qualities which make an 
attractive lecturer, Dr. Rogers was always popular with the large 
classes who for so many years obtained their elementary knowl- 
edge of chemistry from his instruction, while his genial man- 
ners and his amiability of heart made him beloved by very 

1885.] X ' J,J llluschenberger. 

many. Dr. Rogers took an active part in the formation of this 
Society, and acted as its Treasurer for several years. He left 
the record of a life in which integrity and gentleness were united 
with courtesy and energy in a high degree, and one of which 
this Society can affectionately take notice by these few memorial 

When Margaret Rogers installed the lame boy whom she had 
trained to be master in the clay-walled school hut on the Eder- 
gole estate, she was probably conscious of doing rightly ; but she 
did not foresee the benefit she was conferring on future genera- 
tions of the house. The crop, the outcome of her planting, has 
been larger and better than she possibly could have dreamed. 
The inborn desire, the disposition of Patrick to learn, was 
quickened and fostered there. He imparted it to his sons, the 
brothers Rogers. All came to be professors, all were recognized 
by the educational classes to be among the efficient and eminent, 
and all were prominent among the votaries of science. 

When their father died their means were insufficient. The 
appointment of William in the College of William and Mary 
was a god-send. He generously helped his brothers from the 
income of his office. Indeed, until all had placed themselves be- 
yond need, the full purse, no matter who of the four held it, was 
regarded to be a common resource. They helped each other as 
occasion required. 

Their published writings, a list of which is appended, imply 
industry, as well as harmony of purpose and pursuit. 

Besides published books and reports, William contributed to 
scientific serials and periodicals forty-nine, and Henry thirty- 
four papers. James and Robert were co-laborers. William and 
Henry were joint authors of eight, and Robert and William of 
nineteen papers. 

The brothers were full of zeal for the growth and diffusion of 
knowledge; and, habitually scanning German, French, English 
and American scientific periodicals, they Were ever informed of 
the last step of its progress. Whenever they met, after more or 
less prolonged separations, the scientific topic of the day was 
sure to be a chief subject of conversation. 

In blood and lineage the brothers Rogers were Irishmen ; but 
the locality of their birth and education made them loyal Amer- 
icans, and exemplary citizens. 

Kuschenberger.] J-OO [Nov. 6, 

It is related that at a dinner party, in Glasgow, just at the 
close of the rebellion, a guest, who was somewhat enthusiastic in 
predicting the success of the rebels, in a taunting tone called 
upon Professor H. D. Rogers, at the opposite end of the table, to 
tell the company his opinion of the chance of preserving the 
Union. Thus interrupted while speaking with a guest, seated 
next to him, he quietly replied, " We shall see, sir," and re- 
sumed his conversation. 

The next morning the papers announced Lee's unconditional 
surrender, and collapse of the rebellion. 

Professor Rogers saw the gentleman approaching him from a 
distance, but, as if he wished to avoid a meeting, he crossed to 
the opposite side of the street and bestowed his whole attention 
upon a shop window. Professor Rogers was soon at his side 

and said emphatically, " Good morning, Mr. . We have 

seen, sir." Then, without waiting for a reply, walked on. 

The brothers Rogers were highly gifted. They possessed a 
vigorous and quick understanding, invincibre diligence happily 
combined with those moral and intellectual attributes which are 
essential to a truly manly character. They were efficient 
teachers. The conception of the subject of their lessons was 
always clearly defined in all its details and relations, which were 
presented with nicely devised experimental illustrations and apt 
fluency of speech rarely excelled. They imparted their knowl- 
edge to thousands of pupils, many of whom in turn imparted it 
to others. Within the limits of the field which they cultivated, 
few have wrought more acceptably or more usefully than the 
brothers Rogers. 

" Who kindly shows a wanderer his way, 
Lights, as it were, his torch from his own torch — 
In kindling others' light, no less he shines." 

Life — the incomprehensible, intrinsic, conservative force of 
every organism which imparts motion to its structures without 
essentially changing their composition or altering their relations 
during an indefinitely limited period — that earthly life has de- 
parted from the brothers. Their tasks have been completed, 
and their value computed ; but their names without a dimmed 
spot or smirch upon them are fixed along paths of knowledge 
and may still help to light others on the way, as long as their 
sheen is discernible. And thus, the influence of their lives may 
be prolonged through their example and work. 


1885.] -Lf [Ruschenberger. 

List of the Published Writings op Patrick Kerr Rogers, M.D., 

Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry in the 

College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va. 

An Investigation of the properties of the Liriodendron Tulipifera, or 
Poplar Tree. By Patrick Kerr Rogers, formerly of Ireland ; now of 
Philadelphia ; Honorary Member of the Medical and Chemical Societies. 

"The man who discovers one valuable new medicine is a more important 
benefactor to his species than Alexander, Csesar or an hundred other con- 
querors. Even his glory, in the estimation of a truly civilized age, will 
be greater and more lasting." — Professor Barton. 

8 vo, pp. 64. Printed by Benjamin Johnson, Philadelphia, 1802. 

A case of Epilepsy, successfully treated by the Nitrate of Silver ; in a 
letter to the Editor, from P. K. Rogers, M.D., of Philadelphia. First 
Supplement to the Med. and Physical Journal. Philad., 1806, pp. 12-15. 

A case of Tetanus, cured by injections of Tobacco, &c. In a letter to 
the Editor, from P. K. Rogers. M.D., of Philadelphia. Philad. Med. and 
Physical Jour., 1808, iii, pp. 90-95. 

Papers in defense of Inoculation in preference to Vaccination. Ameri- 
can and Commercial Advertiser. Baltimore, Jan. 12, Feb. 19, March 19, 

Preparation of Mercurial Ointment. By Patrick Kerr Rogers, M.D., of 
Baltimore. Amer. Med. Recorder, 1819. pp. 331-338. 

Observations on the Employment of Caustic Issues in the treatment of 
various diseases. By P. K. Rogers, M.D., Professor of Natural Philosophy 
and Chemistry, Williamsburg, Va. Amer. Med. Recorder, 1822, v, pp. 

An Introduction to the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 
adapted to the use of Beginners ; and arranged more particularly for the 
convenience of Junior Students of William and Mary College, Virginia. 
By Patrick Kerr Rogers, M.D., Professor of Natural Philosophy and 
Chemistry, William and Mary. Shepperd & Pollard, Printers. Richmond, 
1822. 8vo, pp. 144. 

List of Published Writings of James B. Rogers, M.D. 
Minutes of Analysis of Soup containing Arsenic. By Dr. James B. 
Rogers, George W. Andrews and Wm. R. Fisher. Baltimore, April 1> 
1834. Amer. Jour. Pharmacy, vi, 94, July, 1834. 

James B. Rogers and James Green. 

Experiments with the elementary Voltaic Battery. Silliman, Journ., 
xxviii, 1835. pp. 33-42. 

Elements of Chemistry, including the history of the Imponderables and 
the Inorganic Chemistry of the late Edward Turner, M.D., F.R.S.L. & 
E., Seventh edition ; and the Outlines of Organic Chemistry. By William 


Ruschenberger.] lOo [Nov. 6, 

Gregory, M.D., &c, Professor of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh. 
With notes and additions. By James B. Rogers, M.D., Professor of Gen- 
ral Chemistry, Franklin Institute, and Lecturer on Medical Chemistry, 
&c, and Robert E. Rogers, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and Materia 
Medica, University of Virginia, &c. 8vo, pp. 'xxii — 848. Thomas 
Cowperthwait & Co. Philadelphia, 1846. 

James B. and Robert E. Rogers. 
On the alleged insolubility of Copper in Hydrochloric Acid ; with an 
examination of Fuch's method for analyzing iron ores, metallic iron, etc. 
Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1848, p. 39; Silliman, Journ., vi, 1848, pp. 395-396. 

List of the Published Writings of Wm. B. Rogers, LL.D. 

Essays on the Weather — On the formation of dew — several articles. 
The Messenger of Useful Knowledge. Carlisle, Pa. 1830. 

Analysis of Shells. Silliman, Journ., xxvi, pp. 361-365. 1834. 

On the Discovery of Green Sand in the Calcareous Deposit of Eastern 
Virginia, and on the probable existence of this substance in extensive 
beds near the western limits of our ordinary Marl. Farmers Register, 
June 26-27, 1834, and May, 1835. Reprinted. Geology of the Virginias. 

On the existence of bi-malate of lime in the berries of the Sumach ; 
and the mode of procuring it from them in the crystalline form. Silli- 
man, Journ., xxvii, 1835, pp. 294-299. 

Apparatus for analyzing Calcareous Marl and other Carbonates. Silli- 
man, Journ., xxvii, 1835, pp. 299-301. 

Self-filling Syphon for Chemical Analysis. Silliman, Journ., xxvii, 1835, 
pp. 302-303. 

Report of the Geological Reconnoissance of the State of Virginia. 
Made under the appointment of the Board of Public Works.. By William 
B. Rogers, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Virginia. 
DeSilver Thomas & Co. Philad., 1836. 8vo, pp. 143.* 

Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of the State of Virginia, 
for the year 1836. pp. 24.* 

Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of the State of Virginia, 
for 1837. pp. 43.* 

Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of the State of Virginia, 
for 1838. pp. 56.* 

An Elementary Treatise on the strength of Materials : Being the sub- 
stance of the lectures on that subject, delivered in the School of Engineer- 
ing of the University of Virginia. By Wm. B. Rogers, Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in that Institution. 8vo, pp. 50. Printed by 
Tomkins & Noel, Charlottesville, 1838. [Copy Presented to the Franklin 
Institute by Wm. B. Rogers.] 

* Reprinted in the Geology of the Virginias, 1SS4. 

1885.] lOJ IRuschenberger. 

Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of the State of Virginia, 
for 1839. pp. 167.* 

Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of the State of Virginia, 
for 1840. pp. 127.* 

Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of the State of Virginia, 
for the year 1841. pp.31.* 

On the Age of the Coal Rocks of Eastern Virginia. Trans. Assoc. 
Amer. Geologists and Naturalists, 1840-42. pp. 14, plate i.* 

Some observations of Subterranean Temperature in the Coal Mines of 
Eastern Virginia. Trans. Amer. Assoc. Geologists and Naturalists, 
1840-42. pp. 9.* 

On the connection of Thermal Springs in Virginia with Anticlinal Axes 
and Faults. Trans. Amer. Assoc, of Geologists and Naturalists, 1840-42. 
pp. 23.* 

On the age of Coal Rocks of Eastern Virginia. Amer. Geol. and Nat. 
Assoc. Reports, 1843, pp. 298-316. 

On the connection of Thermal Springs in Virginia with Anticlinal Axes 
and Faults. Amer. Geol. and Nat. Ass. Reports, 1843, pp. 323-347. 

Observations of Subterranean Temperature of the Coal Mines of Eastern 
Virginia. Amer. Geol. and Nat. Assoc. Reports, 1843, pp. 532-538 ; Bibl. 
Univ., xlv, 1843, pp. 393-394. 

On the Phenomena of the great Earthquakes which occurred during 
the past Winter, one in this country and the other in the West Indies, and 
on a general theory of Earthquake Motion. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, iii, 
1843, pp. 64-67. 

An account of some new Instruments and Processes for the analysis of 
the Carbonates. Silliman, Journ., xlvi, 1844, pp. 346-359. 

A system of classification and nomenclature of the Palaeozoic Rocks of 
the United States, with an account of their distribution, more particularly 
in the Appalachian mountain chain. Silliman, Journ., xlvii, 1844, pp. 

On the Gold Region of the United States. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. 
Science, 1850. p. 20. 

On Mechanical Powers. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1850. 
p. 16. 

On Acid and Alkaline Springs. Amer. Assoc. Proc, 1848. pp. 94-95 ; 
Silliman, Journ., ix, 1850, pp. 123-126. 

Elements of Mechanical 'Philosophy, for the use of the Junior Students 
of the University of Virginia. By Wm. B. Rogers, Professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Geology in the University. 8vo, pp. 339. Thurston, 
Tony & Emerson, Printers. Boston, 1852. 

On Binocular Combinations. Proc. Amer. Acad., iii, 1852-57, p. 213. 

On the Ozonometer. Proc. Amer. Acad., 1852-1857, p. 220. 

Report on the Pridevale Coal and Iron Ore, West Virginia, 1854. pp. 27.* 

* Reprinted in the Geology of the Virginias, 1884. 

Ruschenbergcr.] 1Q\J [Nov. 6, 

Observations on the Natural Coke and the associated igne'ous and 
altered Rocks of the Oolite Coal Region in the vicinity of Richmond, Va. 
pp. 2. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 1854-56.* 

Proofs of the Prozoic Age of some of the altered Rocks of Eastern Mas- 
sachusetts from fossils recently discovered. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and 
Sc, iii, 1852-57. pp. 315-318. 

Results of Calculations of the Terminal Velocity of Rain-drops of dif- 
ferent diameters. Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, v, 1854-56, pp. 266-268, 

On the Relations of the New Red Sandstone of the Connecticut valley 
and the coal-bearing Rocks of Eastern Virginia and North Carolina. Silli- 
man, Journ., xix, 1855, pp. 123-125. 

Observations on Binocular Vision. Silliman, Journ., xx, 1855, pp. 86-93, 
204-220, 318-335 ; xxi, 1856, pp. 80-95, 173-188. 

On the form of the Curve resulting from the Binocular union of a 
Straight Line with a Circular Arc or of two Equal Circular Arcs with one 
another. Edinb. New Phil. Journ., iii, 1856, pp. 210-218. 

On the Discovery of the Paradoxides in the altered Rocks of Eastern 
Massachusetts. Edinb. New Phil. Journ., iv, 1856, pp. 301-304. 

Discovery of Palaeozoic Fossils in Eastern Massachusetts. Silliman, 
Journ., xxii, 1856, pp. 296-298. 

On the Origin and Accumulation of the Protocarbonate of Iron in Coal 
Measures. Silliman, Journ., xxi, 1856, pp. 339-343. 

On Ozone in the Atmosphere. Silliman, Journ., xxii, 1856, pp. 141-142. 

Brief Account of the Construction and Effects of a very powerful Indue 
tion Apparatus, devised by Mr. E. S. Ritchie. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1857 (pt. 
3), pp. 15-16. 

On a New Stereoscopic Slide. Proc. Amer. Assoc, iv, 1857-60. pp. 

Some Experiments on Sonorous Flames, with remarks on the primary 
source of their vibration. Silliman, Journ., xxvi, 1858, pp. 1-15 ; Proc 
Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, vi, 1856-59, pp. 333-335, 339-340, 346-352. 

On the Origin of Sonorous Vibrations produced under certain conditions 
by flames from wicks or wire-gauze. Silliman, Journ., xxvi, 1858, pp. 
240-241 . 

On the Formation of Rotating Rings by Air and Liquids under certain 
conditions of discharge. Silliman, Journ., xxvi, 1858, pp. 246-253. 

On Ozone Observations. Edinb. New Phil. Journ., vi, 1858, pp. 35-42. 

On some Sonorous Flames. Phil. Mag., xv, 1858, 261-263. 
Examination of Japanese Vegetable Wax. Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. 
Soc, vii, 1859-61, pp. 58-59. 

Observations on the Coiling of the Tendrils of the "Winter Squash. 
Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, vii, 1859-61, pp. 409-411. 

Some Experiments and Inferences in regard to Binocular Vision. 
Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1860, pp. 187-192; Silliman, Journ., xxx, 1860, pp. 

*Rep rill ted in the Geology of the Virginias, 1881. 

1885.1 J-^fcJ- [Rusclienberger. 

Oa our Inability from the Retinal Impression alone to determine which 
Retina is impressed. Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1860, pp. 192-198 ; Silliman, 
Journ., xxx, 1860, pp. 404-409. 

Experiments and Conclusions on Binocular Vision. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 
1860 (pt, 2), pp. 17-18. 

On the Phenomena of Electrical Vacuum Tubes. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 
1860 (pt. 2), pp. 30-31. 

Notes on the Aurora of the 28th of August, and several subsequent 
nights, as observed at Lunenburg, Massachusetts, Lat. 42° 35'. Edinb. 
New Phil. Journ., xi, 1860, pp.9 0-99 ; Silliman, Journ., 1860, pp. 255-256. 

Observations on Albertite, or so-called Albert coal of New Brunswick. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1860, xii, p. 98. 

On the Causes which gave rise to the generally elongated form and 
parallel arrangement of the pebbles in the Newport Conglomerate. Silli- 
man, Journ., xxxi, 1861, pp. 440-442. 

Coal, working power of. Mechanics Mag. London, 1861. Amer. Jour., 
Pharmacy, 1862, p. 90. 

Electric illumination at Boston. Photometrical powers of the light. 
Amer. Journ. Sci., xxxvi, 1863, pp. 307-308. 

An Account of Apparatus and Processes for the chemical and photo- 
metrical testing of Illuminating Gas. Brit. Assoc. Rep., xxxiv, 1864 
(Sect), pp. 39-40. 

On the Gravel and Cobble-Stone Deposits of Virginia and the Middle 
States, pp. 5. Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, 1875.* 

Infusorial Deposit of Virginia in the Fort Monroe Artesian Well. pp. 
4. 1882. 

Notes from Macfarlane's Geological Railway Guide [corrected to 1883], 
pp. 14.* 

By "William B. and Henry D. Rogers. 

Contributions to the Geology of the Tertiary Formations of Virginia. 5 
plates, pp. 13. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, 1835-37. 

On the Physical Structure of the Appalachian Chain, as exemplifying 
the laws which have regulated the elevation of great mountain chains gen- 
erally. 3 plates, pp. 42. Trans. Assoc. Amer. Geologists and Natural- 

By William B. and Robert E. Rogers. 

On the Absorption of Carbonic Acid Gas by Sulphuric Acid. Chemical 
Gazette, vi, 1848, pp. 477-480. 

On the Volatility of Potassa and Soda and their Carbonates. Proc. 
Amer. Assoc. Advanc of Sc, Sept., 1848, pp. 36-38. 

On the Decomposition of Rocks by Meteoric Agents, and on the action 
of Mineral Acids on Feldspar. Amer. Jour. Science and Arts, v, p. 401. 

On the Decomposition of Rocks by Meteoric Water. Proc. Amer. 
Assoc. Advanc. Sc, Sept. 1848, p. 60. 

♦Reprinted in the Geology of the Virginias, 1S84. 


Ruschenberger.] xtt^j [Nov. 6, 

On the Absorption of Carbonic Acid by Liebig's dilute solution of Phos- 
phate of Soda. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Ad vane. Sc, 1848, p. 62. 

On the Comparative Solubility of the Carbonate of Lime and the Car- 
bonate of Magnesia. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Advanc. Sc, 1848, p. 95. 

On the Absorption of Carbonic Acid by Acids and Saline Solutions. 
Proc. Amer. Assoc. Advanc. Sc, 1850, p. 298-308. 

List of the Published Writings op Henry D. Rogers, LL.D., &c. 

Some Facts in the Geology of the Central and Western portions of North 
America, collected principally from the Statements and unpublished 
Notices of recent Travellers [1834]. Geol. Soc Proc, ii, 1833-38, pp. 

Report on the Geology of North America. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1834, 
pp. 1-66. 

On the Proposed Method [Cohen's] of Analyzing Mineral Waters by 
Alcohol. Jour. Philad. Coll. Pbarm., v, 1834, pp. 279-284. 

Analysis of some of the Coals of Pennsylvania. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
of Philad., vii, 1834, pp. 158-177. 

On the Falls of Niagara and the reasoning of some Authors respecting 
them. Silliman. Journ., xxvii, 1835, pp. 326-335 ; Edinb. New. Phil. 
Jour., xix, 1835, pp. 281-292 ; Froriep, Notizen xlvi, 1835, col. 305-314. 

Report on the Geological Survey of the State of New Jersey. 8 vo, 
pp. 175. DeSilver Thomas & Co., Philadelphia, 1836. 

A Guide to a course of Lectures on Geology delivered in the University 
of Pennsylvania. 8 vo, pp. 43. 

Description of the Geology of the State of New Jersey, being a final re- 
port. 8vo, pp. 301. C. Sherman & Co., Printers. Philadelphia, 1840. 

Annual Report of the Geological and Mineralogical Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania, for 1836, 8 vo, pp. 22 ; for 1838, pp. 93 ; for 1839, pp. 119 ; for 
1840, pp. 252 ; for 1841, pp. 179 ; for 1842, pp. 28. 

Account of the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist., 1841-44. 

An Inquiry into the Origin of the Appalachian Coal Strata, Bituminous 
and Anthracite. Amer. Geol. and Nat. Assoc. Reports, 1843, pp. 433-474. 

Researches in Relation to the recent Earthquakes with a New Theory of 
Earthquake Action. Silliman, Jour., xlv, 1843, pp. 341-347. 

Transition Rocks (Palaeozoic Rocks) of North America. Edin. New 
Phil. Journ., xxxvii, pp. 392-395. 

Remarks on the prevailing Hypotheses in explanation of the Phenomena 
of the Drift. Proc. Amer. Geol. and Nat. Assoc, 1845, pp. 12-14. 

On the direction of the Slaty Cleavages in the Strata of the south-eastern 
belts of the Appalachian Chain, and the parallelism of the Cleavage Dip 
with the planes of Maximum Temperature. Proc. Amer. Geol. and Nat. 
Assoc, 1845, pp. 49-50. 

Remarks upon the question of the Taconic Rocks, as a separate and in- 

1885.] ltfco [Ruschenberger, 

dependent System of Strata. Proc. Amer. Geol. and Nat. Assoc., 1845, 
pp. 66-67. 

On the Geology of Pennsylvania. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1848 (pp. 2), pp. 

On the structural features of the Appalachians, compared with those 
of the Alps and other disturbed districts of Europe. Proc. Amer. Assoc, 
1849, pp. 113-118. 

On the Analogy of the Ribbon Structure of Glaciers to the Slaty Cleav- 
age of Rocks. Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1849, pp. 181-192. 

On the Origin of the Drift, and of the Lake and River Terraces of the 
United States and Europe, with an examination of the Laws of Aqueous 
Action connected with the Inquiry. Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1849, pp. 239- 

On the Coal Formation of the United States and especially as developed 
in Pennsylvania. Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1850, pp. 65-70. 

On the Connection of the deposits of Common Salt with Climate. Proc. 
Amer. Assoc, 1850, pp. 126-127. 

On the Position and Character of the Reptilian Foot-prints in the Car- 
boniferous Red Shale Formation of Eastern Pennsylvania. Proc. Amer. 
Assoc, 1850, pp. 250^251. 

On the Origin of Salt and Salt Lakes. Edin. New Phil. Journ., li, 1851, 
pp. 130-132. . 

On the probable Depth of the Ocean of the European Chalk Deposits. 
Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, iv, 1853, pp. 297-298 ; Silliman, Journ., xvii, 
1854, pp. 131-132. 

On the Epoch of Elephas primigenius. Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, v, 
1854-56, pp. 22-23. 

On Fossil Impressions in Red Shale of Anthracite Coal Measures of 
Pennsylvania. Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, v, 1854-56, pp. 182-186. 

On the Geology and Physical Geography of North America. Proc. Roy. 
Inst., ii : 1854-58, pp. 167-187. 

On the correlation of the North American and British Palaeozoic Strata. 
Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1856 (pt. 2), pp. 175-186. 

Classification of the Metamorphic Strata of the Atlantic Slope of the 
Middle and Southern States. Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, vi, 1856-59, 
pp. 140-145. 

Introductory observations to L. Lesquereux's paper on New Species of 
Fossil Plants, from the Anthracite and Bituminous Coal Fields of Pennsyl- 
vania. Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vi, 1857, pp. 409^413. 

On the Laws of Structure of the more disturbed Zones of the Earth's 
Crust [1856]. Edinb. Roy. Soc Trans., xxi, 1857, pp. 431-472. 

On the Origin of the "Parallel Roads " of Lochaber. Proc. Roy. Inst., 
iii, 1858-62, pp. 341-345. 

The Geology of Pennsylvania ; A Government Survey. By Henry 
Darwin Rogers, State Geologist; Professor. of Natural History in the 
University of Glasgow; F.R.S.E. ; F.G.S. ; Member of the American 

Ruschenberger.] i-4t4t [Nov. 6, 

Philosophical Society; Fellow of the Boston Academy of Arts and 
Sciences ; Member of the Boston Nat. Hist. Society, &c, &c. In two 
volumes. Quarto, I. pp. xxiv, 586. 32 full page illustrations and 136 
cuts ; II. pp. xxiv, 1045. 42 plates and 778 cuts. Printed by William Black- 
wood & Sons, Edinburgh. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1858. 

On the Distribution and Probable Origin of the Petroleum, or Rock-oil 
of Western Pennsylvania, New York and Ohio. Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc, 
iv, 1860, pp. 355-359. 

On the Relations of Deposits of common Salt to Climate. [I860.] Proc. 
Glasgow Phil. Soc, v, 1864, pp. 7-9. 

On the Origin of Cyclones. [1861.] Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc, v, 1864, 
pp. 57-60. 

Report on the Wheatley and Brookdale Mines, Chester Co., Penna. New 
York Mining Mag., pp. 375-387. 

On the Pleistocene Glacial Climate of Europe. [1865.] Proc. Boston 
Nat. Hist. Soc, x, 1866, p. 241-245. 

On Petroleum. [1865.] Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc, vi, 1868, pp. 48-61. 

By Henry D. and William B. Rogers. 

Experimental Inquiry into some of the Laws of the Elementary Voltaic 
Battery. Silliman, Journ., xxvii, 1835, pp. 39-61. 

Contributions to the Geology of the Tertiary Formations of Virginia. 
Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans., v, 1837, pp. 319-331 ; vi, pp. 347-377. 

Observations on the Geology of the Western Peninsula of Upper Canada 
and the Western part of Ohio. [1841]. Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans., viii, 
1843, pp. 273-284. 

On the Phenomena and Theory of Earthquakes and the Explanation 
they afford of certain facts in Geological Dynamics. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 
1843 (pt. 2), pp. 57-59. 

An Account of two remarkable Trains of Angular Erratic Blocks, in 
Berkshire, Massachusetts; with an attempt at an explanation of the Phe- 
nomena. Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., v, 1845-47, pp. 310-329. 

On the Geological Age of the White Mountains. Silliman, Journ., i, 

1846, pp. 410-421. 

By Henry D. Rogers and Martin H. Boye. 

Upon a New Compound of the Deutochloride of Platinum, Nitric 
Oxide and Chlorohydric Acid. Amer. Philos. Soc. Trans., vii, 1841, pp. 
59-66 ; Liebig Annalen, xl, pp. 289-290. 

List of the Published Writings op Robert E. Rogers, M.D., 

LL.D., &c. 

Experiments on the Blood, together with some New Facts in regard to 
Animal and Vegetable Structures, illustrative of many of the most import- 
ant Phenomena of Organic Life, among them Respiration, Animal Heat, 


18S5.1 xi'J [Ruschenberger. 

Venous Circulation, Secretion and Nutrition. Amer. Journ. Med. Sci. 
xviii, 1836, pp. 277-301. 

On a New Process for obtaining pure Chlorine Gas. Sillinian, Journ. i, 
1846, p. 428. 

Report on the Consolidated Virginia and California Mines. Appendix 
No. 4. Annual Report of the Director of the Mint for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1875, p. 81-83. 

Report on the Equipment of the New Refinery in the Mint at San 
Francisco. App. No. 4. Ann. Rep. of the Director of the Mint, for the 
year ending June 30, 1875, pp. 83-88. 

By Robert E. and William B. Rogers. 

On a new Process for obtaining Formic Acid, and on the preparation of 
Aldehyde and Acetic Acid by the use of the Bichromate of Potassa. Silli- 
man, Journ., ii, 1846, pp. 18-24. 

On the Volatility of Potassa and Soda* and their Carbonates. Amer. 
Assoc. Proc. 1848, pp. 36-38. 

On the Decomposition of Rocks by Meteoric Water. Proc. Amer. 
Assoc, 1848, pp. 60-62. 

On the Comparative Solubility of the Carbonate of Lime and the Carbo- 
nate of Magnesia. Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1.848, pp. 95-97. 

On a new Process for analyzing Graphite, natural and artificial. Brit. 
Assoc. Rep., 1848 (pt. 2), pp. 59-60 ; Edin. Journ. Prak. Chem., 1, 1850, 
pp. 411-413 ; Journ. de Pharm., 1851, pp. 67-68. 

Oxidation of the Diamond in the liquid way. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1848, 
(pt. 2), pp. 60-61 ; Edinb. New Phil. Journ., xlv, 1848, pp. 388-389; Silli- 
tnan, Journ., vi, 1848, pp. 110-111. 

On the Absorption of Carbonic Acid by Water, Saline Solutions and 
various other Liquids [1847]. Silliman, Journ., v, 1848, pp. 114-115. 

New Method of Determining the Carbon in native and artificial Gra- 
phites, &c Silliman, Journ., v, 1848, pp. 352-359. 

On the Decomposition and Partial Solution of Minerals, Rocks, &c, by 
pure Water, and Water charged with Carbonic Acid. Silliman, Journ., v, 
1848, pp. 401-405. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1849 (pt. 2), pp. 40-42 ; Edinb. 
New Phil. Journ., xlv, 1848, pp. 163-168 ; Froriep. Notizen, ix, 1849, col. 
49-53 ; xi, 1849, col. 305-309. 

On the Absorption of Carbonic Acid by Liquids. Silliman, Journ., vi, 
1848, pp. 96-110. 

On the Absorption of Carbonic Acid by Acids and Saline Solutions. 
Amer. Assoc. Proc, iv, 1850, pp. 298-308. 

On the Use of Hydrogen Gas, to displace Sulphuretted Hydrogen in the 
analysis of Mineral Waters, &c. Silliman, Journ., xviii, 1854, pp. 213-216. 

By Robert E. Rogers and Martin H. Boye. 

On the Analysis of Limestones, especially the Magnesian Kind, and a 
method of completely separating Lime from Magnesia when both are pres- 


Cope.] 14* 3 [Oct. 15, 

ent in large quantity. Journ. Franklin Inst., xxv, 1840, pp. 158-162; 
Sturgeon. Ann. Elec, v, 1840, pp. 203-208. 

By Dr. H. R. Linderman and Prof. Robert E. Rogers 

Report upon the Wastage of Silver Bullion in the Melter and Refiner's 
Department of the Mint of the United States, July 25, 1872. 8vo, pp. 82. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, 1872. 

Report of the Committee [Franklin Institute] on Dynamo-Electric 
Machines. Journ. Franklin Institute, lxxv, 1875, p. 289-303. 

Report of the Committee [Franklin Institute] on the precautions to he 
taken to obviate the dangers of Electric Lighting. Journ. Franklin Insti- 
tute, Dec, 1881. lxxxxii, pp. 401-408. 

Note. — In the preparation of the above lists, the Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers, 1800-1873, compiled and published by the Royal Society of London, has 
been consulted and used. 

Report on the Coal Deposits near Zacualtipan, in the State of Hidalgo, 
Mexico. By E. D. Cope. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, Oct. 16, 1885.) 

Having obtained in the City of Mexico favorable information as to the 
coal of Zacualtipan, in the State of Hidalgo, I resolved to devote some 
time to an investigation of that locality. 

On my arrival at Zacualtipan, I was informed by my friend, Dr. San- 
tiago Bernad, a French physician, who practices in the town and its sur- 
rounding region, that the coal beds extend throughout a distance of five 
leagues north and south, and two and a half leagues east and west. They 
are owned in large tracts called quadras by different persons. I examined 
sixteen exposures within a distance of five miles of Zacualtipan, north- 
east, south- east and south, with the following results : 

The geological structure of the country is as follows : The town of 
Zacualtipan is situated on the border of the plateau of Mexico, where it 
begins to break off to the lower level, which two days' journey on horse- 
back eastward becomes the Tierra Caliente of the State of Vera Cruz. 
The plateau is, therefore, much broken by ravines which open to the east- 
ward. The high plateau just east of Zacualtipan is about 7000 feet above 
sea-level. The eastern border of the plateau is supported and protected 
by the lines of several trap-dykes, whose faces form precipitous walls 
which bound the ravines, generally on one side. To the east and west of 
the town the high lands consist of a silicious limestone, which looks a 
good deal like that of subcarboniferous age in the United States, but, is 
said by M. Barcena, of the National Museum of Mexico, to be of Cre- 


1885.1 [Cope. 

taceous age. This limestone lies elevated at a high angle against the trap- 
dyke, at a point on the San Miguel creek ; showing, first, that the trap 
formation is a dyke which has been thrust up from below, and is not an 
outflow ; and second, that the age of the elevation of the dyke is later 
than the Cretaceous period. This conclusion is all important in the deter- 
mination of the age, and, therefore, probable quality of the coal, and in 
the determination of its quantity. 

The coal formation lies horizontally bedded in the intervals between the 
trap-dykes and the hills of limestone, etc. It consists of regularly strati- 
fied beds of clay, of volcanic ash, of clay or carbonaceous shales, more or 
less finely bedded, and of thicker and thinner beds of a frequently very 
good lignite coal. There are no beds of stone in them, but the carbo- 
naceous shales are frequently very tough. The bedding has not been 
affected by the dykes, and indeed sometimes inclines downwards towards 
them at a low angle, instead of upwards towards them as would have been 
the case had they been older than the dykes. Further evidence that the 
coal formation is newer or of later age than the dykes is seen in the fact 
that beds of coal are found in some localities on top of them. It follows 
from these facts that although there are beds above the dykes, there is no 
coal below the precipices which constitute the parts of the dykes which 
are visible ; or, in other words, that the coal only occupies the spaces be- 
tween the dykes. Fossil mammalian remains found in the beds of clay 
near the coal prove that the formation is of Upper Miocene Tertiary age, 
and perhaps identical with the epoch known in North America as that of 
the Loup Fork.* 

The properties which I examined bear the following names : Galiana, 
Hulla, Juarez, Concha, Providencia, Capa Rosa, Sausz, San Miguel and 
San Rafael. I take them up in order. I premise by saying, that the coal 
beds have been rendered accessible by the erosion of the middle parts 
of the valleys which they occupy, into deep ravines. The coal outcrops 
are on the sides of these ravines, and extend underground to a line which 
descends vertically continuous with the faces of the trap precipices, at 
which point they are cut off by the concealed part of the dyke. The 
amount of coal is of course to be determined from this dimension, i. e., the 
distance from the dyke multiplied by the extent of the formation parallel 
to the dyke, by the thickness of the bed. 

The coal beds are best exposed on the Galiana property. From 
the top of the trap dyke to the bottom of the valley at this point, 
the vertical depth is about one thousand feet. At a depth of about 
100 feet from the summit of the hill is a short, open cut in which 
can be seen a bed of good coal of eighteen inches in thickness. 
From its position, this bed probably extends entirely across the sum- 
mit of the hill, and crops out on the other side, forming the San Rafael 
mine. Below this open cut the summit of the trap precipice is soon 

*See American Naturalist, May, 1885, where this fact is stated. See also de- 
scription of fossils at end of this article. 

Cope.] 148 [Oct. 16, 

reached. The foot of the precipice is perhaps 400 feet below the coal bed, 
and at its foot is a gently sloping plateau of perhaps a quarter of a mile in 
width. The slope than becomes more abrupt, and descends to the bottom 
of the ravine-like valley, 500 feet below. At a depth of fifty feet verti- 
cally below the foot of the precipice at the beginning of the steeper slope, 
the upper bed of this part of the Galiana crops out. It is one foot in thick- 
ness, and is of good quality. Some eighteen inches of clay intervene 
between it and a second bed of coal of about three feet in thickness. 
About forty feet below their level is a bed of impure lignite eighteen 
inches thick ; and below three or four feet of clay is a bed of better lignite 
which varies from two to six inches in thickness. Below this are about 
eighteen feet of carbonaceous clay and shale, and below this fifteen feet 
of clay with thin seams of lignite. Below this succeed white slates and 
clay with vertebrate fossils, chiefly three-toed horses, but no more coal. 

The workable beds of coal in this property are the. eighteen inch bed 
above the precipice, and the eighteen and thirty-six inch beds below the 
precipice. At present these beds are only exposed in open cuts. Those 
below the precipice have a quarter mile (English) extent to the trap 
dyke, while their extent parallel to the dyke is probably considerable. In 
fact, the coal formation follows the borders of the dykes at varying dis- 
tance, and the outcrop thus has many miles of extent. The workings on 
the Galiana property consist of nothing but the open cuts mentioned. 
The clay is of excellent quality, and is manufactured by the owner into 
roofing tile. 

The Hulla and Juarez mines are on the other sides of the same trap 
plateau. The highest coal outcrop of the Hulla is above the dyke preci- 
pice on the opposite side from the highest exposure on the Galiana, and is 
probably the same bed. This will therefore be about a third of a mile 
between the two outcrops. The bed is, however, thinner on the Hulla 
side, being only six inches in depth. The same is tme of the other out- 
crops on the Hulla side. The second one is perhaps 500 feet lower down 
towards the bottom of the valley. There are open cuts, but the principal 
exposure is clay, carbonaceous and otherwise, with a bed of pure lignite of 
six inches thickness. At the Juarez outcrop, several hundred feet lower 
down, the lignite bed is only an inch in thickness. 

The Concha and Providencia mines lie south-east of Zacualtipan, and 
below the trap precipice already described. They are, however, near to 
another mass of trap which may be a part of a different, or a branch of the 
same great dyke. The Concha is developed by both an an open cut and a 
timbered drift. The bed of coal varies from thirty to eighteen inches in 
thickness, and lies between more or less shaly beds of clay. They all dip 
at a low angle towards the trap. This coal looks well, but the extent of 
the bed in one direction is probably reduced by the not far-distant dyke. 
Lower down the hill we sought for another outcrop on the Concha prop- 
erty, but it had been covered up. An eighth of a mile round the hill from 
this lower level, in the side of a ravine is a cut, which displays the bed of 

1885.] 14 J [Cope. 

the Providencia mine. This varies in thickness from eighteen to thirty- 
inches. In one direction it is limited by a trap dyke at a distance of about 
100 yards, whose exposed face is less than 100 feet in height. 

South of Zacualtipan are situated the Guadalupe, Capa Rosa, Sausz and 
San Miguel mines. At the Guadalupe are two timbered drifts, whose 
length I did not explore, as they contained much water, and were more or 
less dangerous. The cuts at their mouths in the hillsides reveal their struc- 
ture and general value. The rock consists of clay and clay shales more or 
less carbonaceous, not hard, but tough. The lignite proper is from six to 
ten inches in thickness. This cut is near the base of the trap precipice. 
The second cut is 150 feet off, and is that much further from the trap. It 
displayed much the same structure and quantity of lignite. 

The Capa Rosa exposure is on another side of the same hill, and is a 
quarter of a mile from the precipice, thus giving promise of greater dimen- 
sions of the deposit in one direction. It is at nearly the same horizon as the 
Gaudalupe, and may be the same bed. It is developed by an open cut 
which shows as follows : Below fifteen feet of soil there are twelve feet of 
clays and slates. These alternate between more and less carbonaceous 
layers, and in the bottom there are in sight ten inches of lignite, and how 
much more I could not ascertain without excavations. Further down the 
same hill, about 100 feet vertical, is the Sausz mine. The beds are here 
exposed by an open cut and a drift; the latter in a ruinous condition. In 
the bottom of the openings is a foot of good looking lignite, and above it 
is a bed of clay three feet in depth ; above that, six inches of carbonaceous 
clay slate. 

A mile farther along the same valley is the San Miguel mine. Its bed 
is exhibited in one open cut, and in an exposure along the bank of the 
San Miguel creek at the water level. There are here eight inches of lig- 
nite like' that of the Capa Rosa and the Sausz. 

It is now easy to perceive that the aggregate quantity of coal in l he 
country is large, but that it is spread over considerable space. It is also 
evident that the mining is easy, as the beds all crop out conveniently on 
the sides of valleys, and the drainage is also easy. There being no secure 
roof of hanging wall to the beds, all workings will have to be well tim- 
bered. This will not be expensive, as timber of excellent quality of oak, 
pine, etc., covers the hills everywhere, in close proximity to the coal 
openings. The localities which exhibit the greatest thickness of the beds 
are the Galiana and Concha properties. Those which promise tbe greatest 
horizontal extent of the bed in the direction of the dyke are the Galiana, 
the Capa Rosa, the Sausz and the San Miguel. The property which com- 
bines the two advantages is then the Galiana. 

This region is accessible by rail as far as Pachuca, sixty miles distant. 
From Pachuca to Zacualtipan a railroad could be built by Tulancingo and 
Apulco, where is now a wagon road. Of this I am informed by various 
persons, among them by Professor Castillo of the School of Mines of Mex- 
ico. A direct line of road from Pachuca to Zacualtipan is impracticable or 

Cope.] 150 [Oct. 16 

very expensive, owing to the great inequalities of the country. It is not 
unlikely that at some future day, this coal will have an outlet to Tuxpan 
on the coast, which is due east from Zacualtipan. 

Finally I refer to Dr. F. M. Endlich for information as to the quality of 
the coal and its availability for industrial purposes. 

I add that several of the properties are in the state of Vera Cruz just 

over the line. The Galiana property is near the small village of Tehui- 

chila, Vera Cruz. 

Description of fossils. 


Crown of superior molar long, curved. Grinding face with anteropos- 
terior diameter considerably exceeding the transverse. Internal column 
large, its section a narrow anteroposterior oval, with both borders convex. 
Internal enamel borders of internal crescents with a prominent loop at 
junction, the posterior one with its posterior loop much smaller than the 
column. A subquadrate area between the internal parts of the lakes, is 
connected by an enamel ridge with the anterior lake. Opposite and adja- 
cent enamel borders of the lakes, with several close and deep plica- 
tions, which nearly cut off the adjacent horns. In like manner the poste- 
rior horn of the posterior lake, and the anterior horn of the anterior lake 
are almost cut ofl by the deep complex infolding of the anterior and poste- 
rior borders respectively. The median and anterior external ribs of the 
crown are well developed, and there is but little cement on the grooves. 

Measurements. M. 

Length of root, less crown , 050 

_.. , . ,. e f anteroposterior 018 

Diameters of grinding lace^ r 

I transverse 015 

This superior molar tooth indicates a small species of the genus, and one 
which is entirely typical in form. The plication of the enamel is greater 
than in any other species excepting the E. gracile. It resembles most of 
all the E. venustum of Leidy, which is of similar dimensions. In that 
species the style has a nearly circular section according to Leidy, which 
distinguishes it satisfactorily. 

From the Loup Fork Shales of Tehuichila, Vera Cruz. 

Protohippus castilli, sp. nov. 

This horse is represented by a superior molar tooth of a larger animal 
than the species last described, and one only a little smaller than the zebra. 
It possesses the internal loops of the two internal crescents as in Hippi- 
dium and Protohippus, and without the bones of the feet it is impossible 
to determine to which genus it should be referred. The indication that it 
is a Hippidium, is derived from the relative proportions of the internal 
loops. The anterior of these is much larger than the posterior, and occu- 
pies the median position of the internal edge of the crown like the column 
in Hippotherium. Further approach to that genus is made by the con- 



traction of its connection with the corresponding crescent. The section 
of this loop is a rather wide oval. The posterior loop has half the size, 
and if isolated would present the same form. 

The crown of the tooth is of median length and is strongly curved in- 
wards. Its grinding surface is a little wider than long, and is worn into 
two transverse angles, which pass through the concavities of the borders 
of the crown and lakes. It is not certain that this grooving in wear is a 
constant character. 

The lakes are strongly convex inwards and their horns are wide and 
obtuse. Their borders are simple, there being no folds on the remote 
sides, and on the adjacent borders only one on the posterior and two on 
the anterior, of no great depth. There is no loop at the junction of the 
inner edges of the internal crescents. External ribs of crown prominent. 
Excepting these, the entire crown is enclosed in cementum. 

Measurements. M. 

Length of crown 040 

Diameters of grinding face { anteroposterior 021 

C transverse 023 

This species differs from the P. insignis, P. perditus and P. mirabilis, 
with which it agrees in size, in the posterior production and angulation of 
the posterior border of the anterior inner column, and in the absence of 
plication of the borders of the lakes which are remote from each other. 
In this species the internal loops are of nearly equal size. I have dedi- 
cated it to my distinguished friend, Prof. Antonio de Castillo, Director of 
the School of Mines of the City of Mexico, to whom I am indebted for a 
knowledge of the locality described in the present paper. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

Fig. 1. Superior molar tooth of right side of Hippotherium peninsulatum Cope 
grinding surface from below ; natural size. 
Fig. 2. The same of Prolohippus caslilli Cope ; same view ; natural size. 

±0m [August 21, 

Stated Meeting, August 21, 1885. 

Donations for the Library were received from the Depart- 
ment of Mines, Melbourne ; the New Zealand Institute ; the 
Asiatic Society of Japan ; the Geological Committee of St. 
Petersburg; the K. K. Central- Anstalt fiir Meteorologie und 
Ercl-Magnetismus, Vienna ; the Deutsche Anthropologische 
Gesellschaft, Munich ; Prof. C. D. E. Weyer of Kiel ; the Zool- 
ogischer Anzeiger, Leipzig ; the Deutsche Geologische Gesell- 
schaft, Berlin; the Academie Eoyale de Copenhague ; the K- 
Akademie von Wetenschappen and the K. Zoologisch Genoot- 
schap at Amsterdam ; the Societe Botanique, Luxembourg ; 
the Nederlandsche Botanische Vereeniging; the Academie 
Eoyale de Belgique ; the Societes de Geographie, Americaine 
de France, Annales des Mines, Maisonneuve freres et Ch. Le- 
clerc, Editeurs, Paris ; the Societe Linneene de Bordeaux ; the 
P. Accademia dei Lincei, Pome ; the Poyal Institution of 
Great Britain ; the Zoological Society, the Royal Astronomical 
Society and Society of Antiquaries of London, the Meteoro- 
logical, London Nature, Journal of Forestry, Messrs. John 
Kinnersley Smythies, Joseph Prestwich, Benjamin "V^ard 
Richardson and John Hampden and Charles Ellis, publishers, 
London ; the Geological Society of Glasgow ; the Geological 
and Natural History Survey and Museum of Canada ; the Cana- 
dian Institute; the Natural History Society of Montreal; the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston ; the Bos- 
tonian Society ; the American Philological Society, American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy and Drs. Samuel Abbott Green and H. A. Hagen of Cam- 
bridge ; the Essex Institute ; the American Journal of Science, 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Oriental 
Society at New Haven ; the New York Academy of Sciences, 
American Chemical Society, Meteorological Observatory, New 
York ; Mr. John B. Smith, editor, Brooklyn ; the Young Men's 
Association, Buffalo; the New Jersey Historical Society; 
the Franklin Institute, College of Pharmacy, Mercantile Li- 
brar}', the Real Estate Title Insurance and Trust Company, 

1885.] -LOO 

American Naturalist, Drs. Ei chard B. Westbrook and Persifor 
Frazer, and Messrs. E. S. Culin, Henry Phillips, Jr., H. Carvill 
Lewis and Eichard Meade Bache of Philadelphia ; the Book- 
mart Publishing Company, Pittsburgh; the American Chemical 
Institute, and Johns Hopkins University ; the Naval Institute ; 
the War Department, Bureau of Education, United States 
National Museum, Department of State, United States Geo- 
logical Survey, and Smithsonian Institution ; Mr. J. Hotchkiss 
of Staunton, Va. ; the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 
and Cincinnati Observatory; the Chicago Historical Society; 
Bev. Stephen D. Peet, and the Kansas Academy of Science. 

Stated Meeting, September 18, 1885. 

Donations for the Library were received from Prof. Ferdi- 
nanclo de Mueller of Melbourne ; the Geological Survey of 
India ; Mr. N. E. Pogson, Government Astronomer at Madras ; 
L/Institut Egyptien ; the Academie Imperiale des Sciences de 
St. Petersbourg; the Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de 
Moscow ; the Ungarische Akademie de Wissenschaften'; the 
Anthropologische Gesellschaft ; the K. K. Geologische Ge- 
sellschaft in Wien; the K. K. Sternwarte at Prag ; the Zoolo- 
gische Anzeiger from Leipzig ; the Oberlausitze Gesellschaft 
der Wissenschaften at Gorlitz; the K. Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, and the Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft at Ber- 
lin ; the Acad6tnie Eoyal Suedoise des Sciences at Stockholm; 
Prof. J. C. Wulff, Eektor of the University at Stockholm ; the 
Vereins liir vaterlandische in Wurtemberg; the Offenbach 
Verein fiir Naturkunde ; the Academie Eoyale de Belgique ; 
the Societe Eoyale des Sciences de Liege ; the Eeale Accade- 
mia dei Lincei at Eome ; the Comitato Geologico d'ltalia ; the 
Ministero di Agricoltura at Eome; Societe Zoologique de 
France; the Societe de Geographie at Paris; the Gui- 
met; the Societe d'Emulation d' Abbeville ; the Instituto y 
Observatorio de Marina de San Fernando ; the Eoyal Society of 
London ; the Linnean, the Eoyal Astronomical and Eoyal 
Geographical Societies, the Geological and the Society of An- 



[Oct. 2, 

tiquaries ; Loudon Nature ; the Journal of Forestry ; Prof. J. 
Bennet Lawes ; the Roy al Cornwall Polytechnic Society ; the 
Scientific Students' Association of Manchester ; the American 
Antiquarian Society at Worcester ; the Boston Society of 
Natural History ; the American Journal of Science ; Prof. 
Daniel Draper of New York ; the New York Entomological 
Club ; the Entomologica Americana, published in Brooklyn ; 
the College of Pharmacy, Engineers' Club, the American Natu- 
ralist, Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., Mr. Philip H. Law ; the Philo- 
sophical Society of West Chester ; the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity ; the American Journal of Philology ; the American 
Journal of Archaeology ; the Departments of State and of the 
Interior, the War and Navy Departments ; the Smithsonian 
Institution ; the United States National Museum ; the United 
States Fish Commission ; the Library of the Surgeon-General's 
Office; the Catalogue of United States Publications; the 
Women's Anthropological Society ; Mr. J. Hotchkiss of Staun- 
ton ; the State Historical Society at Iowa City ; the Wisconsin 
State Historical Society, and the University of Minnesota. 

Slated Meeting, October J?, 1885. 

Present, 4 members. 

Vice-President, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the Chair. 

Donations for the Library were received from the Adelaide 
and Hong-Kong Observatories ; Geological Survey of India ; 
K. K. Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft, Wien ; Zoologischer 
Anzeiger, Leipzig ; Dr. G. vom Eath of Bonn ; Universitetet, 
Lund ; Archives Neerlandais ; Academie Royale de Belgique ; 
Ecole des Mines, Paris ; Zoological Society of London ; Na- 
ture ; Cambridge University ; Leeds Philosophical and Liter- 
ary Society ; Dun Echt Observatory ; Essex Institute ; Ameri- 
can Journal of Science ; New York Meteorological Observa- 
tory ; Franklin Institute ; the American Naturalist ; Mr. Henry 
Phillips, Jr.; Prof. H. Carvill Lewis ; Mr. Philip C. Garrett ; 
Johns Hopkins University ; United States Naval Institute ; 



United States National Museum ; Department of State ; and 
Mr. William Harden of Savannah. 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the K. Zool- 
ogisch Genootschap, Amsterdam (116) and Register; South 
Kensington Museum (117, 118, 119); Musee Eoyale d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Belgique (92-95, 97-119) and Register ; Zoologi- 
cal Society of London (117-119), Society of Antiquaries, 
London (116-119) and Register ; Mr. Archibald Geikie of 
Edinburgh (117, 118, 119); Royal Institution (117, 118, 119); 
Academie Royale, Amsterdam (112, 114, 115) ; K. Danske 
Videnskabernes Selskab(115) ; Universite Royale de Norvege 
(113-116) and Register ; Virginia Historical Society (115, 
116) ; University Library, Cambridge, Eng. (117, 118, 119) ; 
Dr. L. G. de Koninck of Liege (116-119); Observatorio As- 
tron6mico Nacional Mexicano (116) and Register ; Peabody 
Institute (118) ; Verein fur vaterlandische Naturkunde in 
Wiirtemberg (115, 116) and Register; Konigliche Bibliothek, 
Berlin (116) and Register; Smithsonian Institution (116) and 
Register; K. Sachsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (117, 
118, 119) ; Universite Royale, Lund (109-115); Mr. J. F. Gar- 
rison of Camden, N. J. (119). 

Letters of envoy were received from the Musee Royale 
d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique ; Verein liir Vaterlandische 
Naturkunde in Wiirttemberg ; Universite Royale, Lund; 
American Oriental Society ; Colonial Museum of New Zea- 
land ; Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschap- 
pen ; United States Geological Survey ; Academie Royale des 
Sciences, Amsterdam ; Sir J. B. Lawes of London ; United 
States Naval Institute ; Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society ; 
Koniglich Preussische Akademie der "Wissenschaften ; Natu- 
ral History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and New- 
castle-upon-Tyne ; Brooklyn Entomological Society ; Geolog- 
ical and Natural History Survey of Minnesota ; Manchester 
Scientific Students' Association ; Academie Royale des Scien- 
ces, Stockholm ; Musee Guimet; Adelaide Observatory; Madras 
Observatory; University Library, Cambridge, Eng.; Societe 
Hollandaise des Sciences. 

1 °® [Oct. 2, 

Letters were read from the Delaware County Institute of 
Science, Media, Pa., requesting a copy of No. 119, which was 
ordered to be sent ; from Mr. Joseph Lesley (Princeton, Mass.), 
dated July 28th, 1885, presenting his resignation from mem- 
bership on account of ill-health, which was, on motion, ac- 
cepted ; from Josef Menges, Dresden, offering for sale a collec- 
tion of East African auimals ; from the Comite Geologique, 
St. Petersburg, sending its Bulletin and requesting exchanges. 
On motion the request was granted, to begin with Proceedings 
No. 117. 

From George W. Hough, announcing that his address would 
be Dearborn Observatory, Chicago ; from Prof. T. M. Drown 
(Easton, Pa.), announcing change of address to Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., deposited in the Library, the Lon- 
don Numismatic Chronicle, 1885, Part II. 

The following deaths were announced : 

M. Emile Malezieux (Paris), May 20, 1885, «et. 63. 

M. Henry Milne-Edwards (Paris), July 29th, 1885. 

M. J. J. A. Worsaae (Copenhagan), August 15, 1885, set. 61. 

■George Leib Harrison (Philadelphia), September 9, 1885, aet, 

On motion the President, in his discretion, was authorized to 
appoint a suitable person to prepare the usual obituary notices. 

The following papers were presented : 

Dr. F. A. Genth, '•' Contributions from the Laboratory of the 
University of Pennsylvania. No. XXIY. Contributions to 
Mineralogy. 1 ' 

Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, " On Polysynthesis and Incorporation 
as characteristics of American Languages." 

Dr. F. S. Krauss (Vienna), "Aus Bosnien und der Herce- 

Prof. E. D. Cope, " Catalogue of the Species of Batrachians 
and Keptiles contained in a collection made at Pebas, Upper 
Amazon, by John Hauxwell." 

Dr. Fr. Meinert, " Myriopoda Musei Cantabrigensis. I. Chilo- 

Pending nominations Nos. 1019-1063 were read, and the 
Society was adjourned by the presiding officer. 



Stated Meeting, October 16, 1885. 

Present, 16 members. 

Vice-President, Dr. Euschenberger, in the Chair. 

Donations for the Library were received from the Mining 
Department, Melbourne;- Geological Survey of India; Kong- 
liga Vetenskaps Societeten, Upsala ; Kongelige Nordiske Old- 
skrift Selskab, Copenhagen ; Koniglich Sachsische Gesellschaft 
der Wissenschaften, Leipzig ; Kaiserliche-Konigliche Geolo- 
gische Keichsanstalt, Wien ; Naturhistorische Gesellschaft) 
Niirnberg; Physikalisch-Okonomiscke Gesellschaft, Kooigs- 
berg; Naturhistorische Gesellschaft and Messrs. Oberlehrer L. 
Mejer and Fr. Beinholdof Hannover; Musee Eoyal d'Histoire 
Naturelle and Academie Eoyale des Sciences, &c, de Belgique ; 
Institution Ethnographique and Prof. Leon de Eosny of Paris ; 
Eoyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland ; the Eoyal 
Society, Forestry and Mr. William Blades of London ; Eev. C. 
W. King of Cambridge, England ; the Brooklyn Library and 
Mr. J. B. Smith, Editor of Entomologica Americana; College 
of Pharmacy, Prof. E. D. Cope and Messrs. Henry Phillips, 
Jr., and E. A. Gieseler of Philadelphia ; the United States 
National Museum, Dr. A. S. Gatschet and Mr. J. H. Hickcox, 
publisher, of "Washington; Mr. Charles C. Jones, Jr., of Au- 
gusta ; Chicago Historical Society ; Eev. Stephen D. Peet ; 
State Historical Society, Iowa, and the State Historical Society 
of Wisconsin. 

Letters of envoy were read from the K. Sachsische Gessell- 
schaft, Leipzig ; Naturhist. Gesellschaft zu Hannover ; Societe 
Eoyale des Sciences a Upsal ; Meteorological Office, London, 
IT. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C. ; Elliott Society 
of Science, Charleston, S. C. 

Letters of Acknowledgment were read from K. K. Central 
Anstalt fur Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus, Vienna (117, 
118, 119); Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Emden (117, 118, 
119) ; Societe Eoyale des Sciences, Upsal (113, 114, 115, 116 
and Eegister); E. Accademia dei Lincei, Eome (116 and Eeg- 
ister), and requesting certain old numbers of Proceedings and 
Transactions (Procs. I— VI, XII, Trans. O. S., I— IV, N. S. 


[Oct. 16, 

I— XI, XIII) ; * Chemical Society of London (117, 118, 119) ; 
Geological Survey of India (117, 118, 119); Kon. Zoolog. 
Genootschaf, Amsterdam (117, 118, 119); Societe Hollandaise 
des Sciences, Harlem (117, 118, 119) ; Fondation de P. Teyler 
van der Hulst, Harlem (116) ; Horatio Hale, Clinton, Ontario 
(119); Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (116, 119); 
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia ; Uni- 
versity of the City of New York (N. Y.) ; American Anti- 
quarian Society, Worcester (Mass.) ; New York Hospital (N. 
Y.) ; Yale College Library (New Haven, Conn.) ; Essex Insti- 
tute (Salem, Mass.) ; IT. S. Military Academy ("West Point, 
N. Y.) ; Wyoming Historical and Geological Society (Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa.); Cincinnati (Ohio) Observatory; Leander Mc- 
Cormick Observatory (University of Virginia) ; University 
of Toronto (Canada) ; Yassar Brothers Institute (Pougk- 
keepsie, N. Y.) # ; Boston Athenasum ; Cornell University Li- 
brary (Ithaca, N. Y.) ; University of California ; Surgeon-Gen- 
eral, U. S. A. (Washington, D. C.) ; Public Library (Boston 
Mass.); California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco, Cal.); 
Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, Mass.); Penn- 
sylvania, Connecticut, Virginia, Georgia, Wisconsin, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, Chicago (and all previous numbers), 
Maryland, and Kansas State Historical Societies ; Prof. John 
J . Stevenson, New York (N. Y.) ; Prof. J. W. Moore, Easton 
(Pa.) ; Prof. J. M. Hart, Cincinnati (Ohio) ; Henry Phillips, 
Jr. (Philadelphia) ; J. H. C. Coffin (Washington, D. C). 

Mr. William Morris Davis presented to the Cabinet ten 
French bronze Medals, of which he furnished the following 

description : 


No. 1. The dead Napoleon. "Reverse, the Arch of reception at Rouen, 
and draped steamer. Struck in 1840 in commemoration of the 
removal of Napoleon's remains from St. Helena, and restoration 
to France. 

No. 2. Napoleon le Grand. Reverse, arch of triumph, motto, "AT Armee 

No. 3. Ferdinand Philippe Louis, Due d'Orleans. Ohverse, commemor- 
ative, "Chapelle Saint Ferdinand. 

No. 4. Marie d' Orleans. Obverse, "Statue de Jeanne d'Arc." 

* Referred to Secretaries with power to act. 



No. 5. "Cathedrale de Paris." Reverse, "ground plan -with details of 
dimensions," &c. 

No. 6. Liberty enlightening Justice, with Despotism prostrated. Motto, 
"Revolution de 1848." Reverse, "GouvernementProvisoire," 
with names of the ministers, &c. 

No. 7. Head emblematic, surrounded with heavy wreath of oak and 
laurel. Motto, " Republique Francaise." Reverse, three fig- 
ures, " Liberte, Egalit6, Fraternite, 24 Fevrier, 1848." 

No. 8. A figure of Liberty, looking back, hand supporting a tablet, 
inscribed, "Droit de 1' Homme et du Citoyen." Motto, "Re- 
publique Francaise." Reverse, arraignment of royal govern- 
ment, and sustaining tbe three revolutions, 1789, 1830 and 1848. 

No. 9. The three heads of Adam Mickiewicz, Jules Michelet and Edgar 
Quinet. Reverse, motto, "Ut omnes unum sint," "La France et 
les auditeurs du college de France, 1844, 1845. " 

No. 10. Head of Pierre Jean de Beranger. Reverse, is remarkable for 
its fine lettering of the titles of songs of Beranger. The design 
is an antique harp, surrounded by rays as from a sun ; alternat- 
ing with the rays is the following list (enclosed in a circle of 
two inches) : 

1. Adieu Chansons. 18. Les Hirondelles. 

2. Le Roi d'Yvetot. 19. Les esclaves Gaulois. 

3. Maudit Printems. 20. Brennus. 

4. Le Vieux Drapeau. 21. Les tombeaux de Juillet. 

5. Vieux habits vieux galons. 22. Les Bohemiens. 

6. Louis XL 23. Le Marquis des Carabas. 

7. Prediction de Nostradamus. 24. La Vivandiere. 

8. La bonne vieille. 25. Les Souvenirs du peuple. 

9. Le Dieu des bonnes gens. 26. Les Vendanges. 

10. Le Juif errant. 27. A m8s amis devenues Ministres. 

11. Les etoiles que filent. 28. Les Gueux. 

12. Le Senateur. 29. Les deux sceurs de charite. 

13. Les enfans de la France. 30. Le Champ D'asile. 

14. Le Grenier. 31. Les Contraband iers. 

15. Le tailleur et la fee. 32. Roger Bontemps. 

16. L'echelle de Jacob. [in all 487 letters]. 

17. L' aveugle de Bagnolet. 

The death of James McFarlane, Towancla, Pa., October 12, 
1885 (born Sep. 2, 1819), was announced and on motion the 
President was authorized to appoint at his discretion a suitable 
person to prepare an obituary notice. 

Prof. Cope presented for the Transactions a paper " On the 
Species of Iguaninas," which was referred to Messrs. Koenig, 
Horn, and Harrison Allen* 

* Reported on favorably, Nov. 20, 1885. 


[Oct. 16, 1385. 

Prof. Cope presented for the Proceedings the following 
papers : * 

1. On the Structure and Affinities of three Species of Fishes 
from the Eocene of Wyoming Territory.* 

2. Eeport on the Coal deposits near Zacualtipan, Hidalgo, 

3. On the Structure of the Brain and Auditory Apparatus 
of a Theromorphous Reptile, for which a plate was desired. 

Prof. Houston presented his views on the origin of earth- 
quakes as shown by the late great explosion of dynamite 
(285,000 lbs.), at Flood Bock, Hell Gate, upon which a discus- 
sion ensued, participated in by Messrs. Davis, Koenig, and Cope. 

This being the stated evening for balloting for candidates, 
the following gentlemen were declared duly elected members 
of the Society : 

1049. William John Potts, Camden, N. J. 

1050. Prof. Scheele de Vere, University of Virginia. 

1051. Prof. Edwin North, Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 

1052. W. J. A. Bonwill, M. D.. 1721 Locust St., Phila- 

1053. Thos. M. Cleemann, C. E., 2125 Spruce St., Philadel- 

1054. Horace Jayne, M. D., 1836 Chestnut Street, Phila- 

1055. Dr. Hermann Rollett, Stadt- Archivar, Baden bei Wien. 

1056. Tommaso Cannizzaro, Messina, Italy. 

1057. Everard F. im Thurn, M. A., Pomeroon river, George- 
town, British Guiana. 

1058. Prof .John Pomialowsky, Secretary of La Socie!e Im- 
periale d'Archeologie Russe, St Petersburg. 

1059. Dr. Ernest Haeckel, Jena. 

1060. Prof. Dr. Josef von Lenhossek, Buda Pesth, Hungary. 

1061. Prof. Louis Pasteur, Paris. 

1062. Prof. Giuseppe Sergi, University Roma, Rome, Italy. 

1063. Prof. Dr. Leopold von Ranke, Berlin. 
Nominations Nos. 1064, 1065, 1006, were read, and the 

meeting was adjourned by the presiding officer. 

* Withdrawn by consent, Nov (i, 1885. 

Oct. 2, 1883.] K51 r ,. . 

' J [Meinert 

Errata in paper by Augustus R. Grote. 
In the P)'Oceedings American Philosophical Society, No. Hj, 

Page 136, line 30 for "are quite highly " read "are often quite highly." 
"one" read "our." 
"Andela" read "Awdela." 
"Derideus" read "Deride/is." 
' ' Trabulis ' ' read ' ' Trabalis. ' ' 
"Euthea" read "E/ithea." 
"Tota" read " Fbt&." 
"Viasica" read "Viatica 
"Bettumei" read "Bethunei. " 
"Sarena" read "S?/rena." 
"Hulotia" read "Hulstia. " 
"Adrena" read "Ad^ena." 
"Trileuca" read "Trileuca ;" this is a generic title 

proposed for Rectifascia and allies, 
'was then " read "has them." 
"Scole"read "icole," and for "Sole " read "iole." 
'nine" read "more." 
"W. W. Hall" read "W. W. Hill;" the genus is 

named for my friend Mr. Hill, of Albany, the 

well-known Lepidopterist. 
' Tota " read " i^ota." 
from bottom for " Arnata" read "Amata. " 

There are a few other errata to be noticed, but they will have been 
readily detected by students using the article of which I regret not to have 
been able to read the proofs. 

A. R. G. 

" 137, 

" 8 for 

" 142, 

" 11 for 

" 142, 

" 17 for 

" 145, 

" 9 for 

" 145, 

" 26 for 

' ' 148, 

" 18 for 

" 150, 

" 5 for 

" 150, 

" 37 for 

" 151, 

" 33 for 

" 153, 

" 1 for 

" 153, 

" 12 for 

" 153, 

" 34 for 

" 154, 

' 39 for 

" 159, 

" 10 for 

" 164, 

" 24 for 

" 168, 

" 35 for 

" 169, 

' 26 for 

" 169, 

" 2 froi 

and propriety of these explanations. .Thus I was led to examine 
the foundation of the whole view of the subject, and when neither 
Savigny nor any of his school appeared to me to have taken the 


160 [Oct. 16, 1885. 

Nominations Nos. 1064, 1065, 1066, were read, and the 
meeting was adjourned by the presiding officer. 

* Withdrawn by consent, Nov 6, 1885. 

Oct. 2, 1883.] J-' } -*- [Meinert. 





Vol. XXIII. April, 1886. No. 122. 


Part I. Chilopoda. 

By Fr. Meinert, Copenhagen. 
{Read before the American Philosophical Society, Octobers, 1SS5.) 

Several years since Mr. Alexander Agassiz, the director of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., through 
Dr. Hermann A. Hagen, offered to place in my hands the Myria- 
poda of that museum for examination and description. It was 
thought necessary at the same time to include the Myriapoda of 
the Museum of the University of Copenhagen, by which the 
work certainly gained as to completeness, but was on the other 
hand not a little delayed. When my report on the first part of 
the Myriapoda, the Chilopoda, was so far advanced that prepara- 
tions for the press had to be commenced, there arose some diffi- 
culty as to a joint publication. I shall therefore begin with the 
Chilopoda of the Cambridge Museum, while the report upon that 
class in the Copenhagen Museum will appear in the " Katur- 
historisk Tidsskrift," in which the greater part of my previous 
papers on the Myriapoda are to be found. 

In the years 1866-1872, I treated both groups of Myriapoda 
in a series of essays, in all of which, in regard to the parts of 
the mouth, I accepted Savigny's explanation and used terms 
agreeing with it. Subsequently m}^ studies of the different classes 
of the Arthropoda raised doubts in my mind as to the correctness 
and propriety of these explanations. •Thus I was led to examine 
the foundation of the whole view of the subject, and when neither 
Savigny nor any of his school appeared to me to have taken the 


Melnert.J ^ 62 [Oct. 2, 

right starting point, I rejected the old explanation altogether- 
and based my views on a more general and, I hope, a more 
correct explanation of the parts of the mouth. I have, in later 
years, several times attempted to develop them and to apply 
them to these organs. At present, I shall limit myself to re- 
ferring to the last of my essays " Caput Scolopendra," of which 
"both a Danish and an English edition was published in 1883.* 
In this essay, by means of three plates, I have attempted to de- 
monstrate the propriety of my new views with regard to the 
Chilopoda in general and Scolopendra in particular. In con- 
sequence of this also, several new terms were introduced ; but 
Latzel and Haase had already, by their demonstration of the in- 
correctness of the explanation of the first and second pair of 
maxillae, which Savigny and I also had supported, made some 
alteration necessary on this point. For the rest such alterations 
are only made when the old terms refer to an incorrect explana- 
tion. No reason was found for altering such terms as mandible 
for example, although formerly I reckoned these organs with the 
first segment or metamer, and now with the third metamer ; for 
in the true Insects I consider the mandibles to be the third pair 
of the parts of the mouth. (That the mandibles of the Myria- 
poda and of the true Insects are not completely;' homologous is 
of no importance here). 

I will now draw up the two series of terms; the old ones 
which I have used hitherto, and the new, which I proposed in 
my lately published " Caput Scolopendrae." 


Lamina cephalica. Lamina cephalica (head-plate). 

Labrum. Labrum (upper lip). 

Maxillae primi paris. Labium (under lip) p. p. 

Maxillae secundi paris. Labii processus interiores. 

Pedes maxillares primi paris. Maxilke or palpi maxillares. 

Mandibular Mandibular 

Pedes maxillares secundi paris. Sternum (metameri quarti) cum 

pedibus prensoriis. 
Coxae (p. maxill.). Sternum (metameri quarti). 

Dentes pedum maxillarium, se- Dentes prosternales, seu dentes 
cundi paris. prosterni metameri quarti. 

* The complete title of the English edition is "Caput Scolopendra: The head 
of the Scolopendra &pd its rnusculatory system." "With 3 plates. Copenhagen, 

1885.] Ikd [Meinert 

Furthermore, I ought to remark that at present I reckon the 
" lamina dorsalis " as scutum dorsale to the fourth metamer. (the 
venti-al part of which is the raptorial legs or pedes prensorii 
with their sternum), and the "lamina praebasalis" as scutum 
dorsale to the third metamer (of which the mandibles are the 
exponents). In the "Myriapoda Musaei Hauniensis, I. Geophili," 
p. 9, I have explained the ' ; lamina basalis " in the same manner 
as here; but there I referred the "lamina prasbasalis" to the 
maxillae, or the " pedes maxillares primi paris " as I then named 
them, because the ventral part of the true third metamer was, at 
that time, quite overlooked, not by me alone, but by all authors. 
But the alteration of the explanation is no reason for altering 
the term. 

"With regard to the classification of the Myriapoda or of the 
Chilopoda generally, there is but little reason for inquiring into 
the matter more extensively, particularly as no species of the 
aberrant genera Scolopendrella, Potyzonium (and Peripatus), 
are among those which are the object of my present investiga- 
tions. I will only refer to my previous papers, in which I have 
strenuously opposed the views of Alex. Brandt, when he regards 
the genus Scutigera to be a special type of no less systematic 
value than all the other Chilopods together. For this reason 
also, I united the Scutigerini and Lithobiini in one single family, 
the Lithobii, regarding their systematic value as not being 
greater than that of the Scolopendrae and the Geophili. At 
present I willingly admit that I have rather exaggerated, in my 
endeavors to prove the intimate relation between Scutigera and 
Lithobius, and that I have thus in some degree underrated the 
systematic value of Scutigera ; and, therefore, I prefer now to 
consider the genus Scutigera to be a separate family, of sim- 
ilar value to the other families of the Chilopoda. But, on the 
other hand, I must maintain that Scutigera and Lithobius are 
much more closely related reciprocally, than to either Scolopen- 
dra or Geophilus, and therefore I prefer, according to Erich 
Haase, to unite the four families into two groups, the Anamorpha 
and the Epimorpha, rather than, according to Latzel, to arrange 
them into a straight line. 

I. Tribus Anamorpha. 
Segmeuta corporis pedifera 15, inter se inaequalia. 

Pedes longi vel longissimi ; omnes coxis magnis, manifestis, tarsis bi- 
vel- multi-articulatis. 

Meinert.] ^' J ^ LOct. 2, 

Antennae articulis multis vel plurimis. 

Ocali ocellis paucis vel plurimis, aggregatis vel compositis. 

Pedes prensorii articulo secundo et tertlo mauifestis, integris. 

Spiraculorum paria nulla vel maxime 6. 

Genitalia feminea forcipe externo armata. 

Pullus ex ovo nuper exclusus pedum paribus 7 modo instructus. 

The tribus Anamorpba thus corresponds with the family 
Lithobii, as I have proposed this family in " Danmark's Scolo- 
pendrer og Lithobier." Naturk. Tidsskr. 3 R., 5 B., p. 246, and 
the alterations which I have made in the characters here are 
rather insignificant, although I will remark upon the following. 

By the addition of "corporis" to the first characters, I in- 
tended to argue that the pedes prensorii or raptorial legs, to- 
gether with their segment or metamer, cannot be reckoned with 
the true segments and the true limbs of the body ; and I must 
particularly urge this point, as I have given up the denomina- 
tion "pedes maxillares" in which an explicit reference to the 
head was contained. To the second character I have added 
"omnes coxrs magnis, manifestis," by which I maintain that the 
last pair of legs has large coxae of the same shape as those of 
the other legs, and with or without excretorial pores. In the 
next place I have determined the characters concerning the 
spiracles more exact!} 7 , but for further explanation I must refer 
to the characters of the family (or genus) Scutigera. The char- 
acters concerning the raptorial legs will be treated of more 
minutely under the second principal group, the Epimorpha. In 
conclusion I have added the last two characters of Haase. 

As to the rest, with regard to my character "tarsis bi- vel- 
multi-articulatis," I must make the following remark. The 
tjrpical number of joints of the limbs, both in the Chilognatha 
and the Chilopoda is seven, and it is thus stated by recent 
authors,* and particularly by Latzel, in his most valuable work 
on the Austrian Chilopods.-j- According to the rule, these seven 

♦Newport, on the contrary, reckons only six joints in the limbs of theMyria- 
pods, overlooking, or not regarding as a joint the trochanter. " Monogr. Class. 
Myriap. Trans. Linn.Soc. London," xix, p. 283. Wood has also in this point 
followed Newport. " Myriap. North Arner. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc," xiii.p. 111- 

f'Die Normal zahl der Fussglietler ist sieben," so he writes in spaced types. 
" Myriap. Oesterr, Ung. Mon,, p. 11." 

1885.] lb' J [Meinert. 

joints are regarded as homologous with corresponding joints of 
the limbs of the Insects, in this manner : — the first joint is ex- 
plained to he the coxa, the second the trochanter, the third the 
femur, the fourth the tibia, and the last three joints to be the 
tarsus or the foot. (Compare also Latzel, 1. c.,p. 12.) As far as 
number goes, this explanation is very excellent, particularly as 
most insects have the same number of divisions, five, and a great 
multitude of insects precisely three joints in the foot, but in 
reality it is very superficial and incorrect. Thus, when we re- 
gard the limbs of insects as the props which support the body 
and carry it over the ground, four divisions are necessary, viz : 
the first, by which the prop is fastened to the body, i. e. the 
coxa; the second, which extends the prop beyond the median 
line of the animal, i. e. the femur (and the trochanter) ; the third, 
by which the body is raised from the ground, i. e. the tibia ; and 
the fourth which supplies the necessary hold upon the ground, 
i. e., the tarsus. Yet it will clearly appear that the matter de- 
pends on the arrangement and not on the number or the series 
of the joints ; for the number varies not only in the fourth divis- 
ion, the tarsus, but also in the second (the femur). But still, no 
one has ever regarded the femur as a tibia, when, the trochanter 
being bipartite, as in many Hymenoptera, the femur became the 
fourth and not, as is usual, the third joint in the limb, nor the 
tibia as the first joint of the tarsus, in the same case. Yet of 
these four divisions, the second is usually divided into two, the 
fourth into from two to five joints, beside the claw or claws. The 
third division, the tibia, is unipartite, or whole, in the true In- 
sects, but in the Spiders, it is bipartite, and the joints here are 
denominated "patella" and "tibia"; so also in the Chilopoda. 
Among the Chilopoda, however, no genus can prove more 
clearly than Seutigera that the fifth and fourth joints are of 
one set, and that the fifth joint cannot be referred to the 
tarsus, as well as the sixth and the seventh, for in this 
genus, the fifth and sixth joints are bent into an angle, and are 
also very different in structure; furthermore, the fifth joint is, 
like the tibia of the true Insects, formed with distinct, although 
small, calcars. The two joints of which the tarsus of the Chilo- 
pods thus consists, are most frequently separated, more or less 
distinctly, but often, as in the Geophili and in some Scolopen- 



[Oct. 2, 

drini (Cryptops), they are coalesced, or on the contrary, as in 
the Scutigera, they are both divided into a great number of 
joints. I have already suggested this explanation in " Dan- 
mark's Geophiler," where it is said in the diagnosis of the 
Geophili, 1. c. p. 81, " tarsis integris," and immediately after: 
" Det normale Antal Led i Myriapodernes Been kan antages at 
vaere syobaacte hos Chilognather og Chilopoder ;" with regard 
to the Scolopendrini and Lithobii (Anamorpha), in " Danmark's 
Scolopendrer og Lithobier," p. 242 and 244, I have maintained 
this view, and in the " JVtyriapoda Musrci Hauniensis, I. Geophili," 
p. 7, 1 have reiterated my former explanation of the limbs of the 
Geophili. In the following table, I will set forth the terminology 
which I shall use in this paper, together with that which some 
other authors have used. 

L. Koch,* 




1. Huften- 



2d Joint. 




3d Joint. 




4th Joint. 

5th Joint. 

Tibia, Tarsus, 

Uuterschen- 1 Tarsalglied 
kel, [da, 

Tibia prima Tibia secun 

6th-7th Joint 

2-3 Tarsal- 


1 Tarsalglied, 2-3 Tarsal- 
Tibia, ' Tarsus. 

With regard to the denominations of Newport, I will call to 
mind a correction, which, for the rest, Newport himself has made 
in the second part of his monograph, saying, 1. c, p. 351, foot- 
note : 

" In the first part of this paper, page 283-4, the joint that 
articulates with the tibia has been described by a mistake as the 
metatarsus instead of the tarsus, and the remaining joints as tar- 
sal instead of metatarsal." 

In the dissertation " Schlesiens Chilopoda I. Chilopoda ana- 
morpha," 1880, Haase seems to have followed me, at least, he 
says in the character of his subordo prior, the Chilopodo ana- 
morpha, "tarsis bi- vel multi-articulatis," 1. c, p. 0, but in the 
paper published immediately afterward, " Beitrtige zur Phylo- 
genie und Ontogenie der Chilopoden," he must have joined Lat- 
zel's side, for he says, 1. c, p. 11, "Die Heine der Chilopoden 
lassen sich stets auf das typische Insectenbeine zuriickfuhren 

* "Die Myriapodengattung Lithobius," 1862. 

f'Myriapocla Africa? australis, in Mnsreo Kegi<> Holmiensi asservata," 1S72. 

1835.] I"* IMeinert. 

unci bestehen normal wie dieses aus Coxa, Trochanter, Femur, 
unci einem 3-glieclrigen Tarsus." 


Lamina? dorsales alternae manifesto, in medio incisae, alternse evanidae. 
Pedes longissimi, tarsis multi-articnlatis, unguis singuli, processus binis 
setiformibus instructi. 
Antennae setacea?, articulis plurimis composito. 
Oculi ocellis plurimis compositi. 
Spiracula nulla. Stomata septem. 
Palpi maxillares quadriarticulati ungue nullo. 
Laminae dorsales segmenti septimi atque octavi coalita. 
Sternum metameri quarti bipartitum ; setis octo longis armatum. 
Coxae pedum posteriorum simplices (poris execretoris nullis). 

The fifteen segments of the body have each one pair of limbs 
and differ but very little among themselves with regard to the 
size of the laminae ventrales ; but, on the contrary, the difference 
between the dorsal part of the segments is very great, the lami- 
nae dorsales of six segments, i. e., the 2d, 4th, Gth, 9th, 11th and 
13th, not being fully developed, but only represented by a mem- 
branous fold which is attached to the front edge of the lamina 
dorsalis of the following segment, while the laminae dorsales of 
the eighth and ninth segments coalesce into a common large 
plate. Thus the number of distinct, well-developed segments in 
the Scutigerini is only eight. With regard to the second family 
of this tribus, the Lithobiini, I must remark that the same six 
laminae dorsales, which in the Scutigerini are evanescent, in the 
Lithobiini become abruptly smaller than the remaining laminae,- 
while the two large well-defined laminae dorsales of the seventh 
and eighth segments in the Lithobiini correspond with the large 
coalesced lamina of the same segments in the Scutigerini. 

The posterior edge of the first seven well-developed laminae 
dorsales is deepl}' excavated in the median line, and in this ex- 
cavation a narrow chitinous ring encloses the orifice (stoma) of 
a duct into which a number of glandular tubes open from both 
sides. A controversy of some length has lately taken place with 
regard to the function of these stomata and of the glandular 
organs situated behind them, which are either supposed to be 
spiracles and tracheae, or regarded only as mere glands. The 
second view has been several times supported by the author, 
and I will only refer to my last paper in the controversy : " De 

Meinert.] lbb [Oct. 2, 

forineentlige Aarde draetsredskaber og deres Mundinger (Stom- 
ata) hos Slaegten Scutigera " (" The supposed respiratory organs 
and their orifices (stomata) in the genus Scutigera"). Yid.Medd. 
Naturh. Foren. Kjobenhavn, 1882, p. 88. 

At present, I will only point out that the number of stomata 
is seven, and that of the pairs of spiracles in Lithobius six, 
and that if the stomata were homologous with the spiracles in 
the other Chilopods, certainly the first segment of the body in 
Scutigera should have spiracles or coalesced spiracles, while that 
segment in the other Chilopods should be without these respira- 
tory organs. 

The limbs are very long, or much elongated, the different joints 
being all, except the trochanter, elongated, and the last two, the 
tarsus, being, besides, divided into a great number of little joints. 
The first seven pairs of legs are nearly of the same length, but 
each following pair increases in length, and the hindmost pair, 
particularly in the male, is abruptly elongated into a fine hair. 
The two joints of the tarsus are each divided into a great num- 
ber of badly defined little joints, but the length and thickness 
of the first joint is always greater than that of the second ; on 
the contrary the number of little joints is much greater in the 
second tarsal joint than in the first, and we find here even four 
or five hundred such joints (Latzel, 1. c, p. 21). The length of 
these little joints varies very much in the same species, nay, even 
in the same specimen, and, besides, no established order can be 
detected, so that we cannot possibly follow Newport, when he 
makes use of the proportion between the lengths of the first two 
of these little joints as characters of species. I have found the 
proportion varying in the same species from 1:1 to 1:6, but 
never have I seen the second joint larger than the first; also, in 
the same specimen, I have found the proportion 3 : 1 in one leg, 
but 1 : 1 in the other. Without going further, the circumstance 
that the different authors who have used this character have 
mentioned a different proportion in the same species demon- 
strates that the proportion is not so fixed as Newport intimates 
(1. c, p. 351). 

Each leg has a single claw, but this claw has two long setiform 
processes, which run along the inner side of the claw, from the 
base; the length of the processes seem to be from one-half to 

1885.] J-"'-' IMeiuert, 

four-fifths of the length of the claw. The anal legs seem to be 

The antenna? are setiform, very long, and consist of several 
hundreds of very minute joints, which are, however, united into 
two or three fully distinguishable principal joints. 

The eyes are large, very prominent and composite, the num- 
ber of ocelli may be some two hundred or more. 

In the preceding pages I have already mentioned the want of 

The palpi maxillaries are long, slender, four-jointed ; the first 
three are furnished on the front edge with long stout bristles. 
The fourth or last joint has preserved the same shape as the 
preceding ones, and has not, as in the Lithobiini and the other 
Chilopoda, taken the shape of a claw. The two halves of the 
sternum of the (fourth) metamer are not united ; each part bears 
four long stout bristles on the front edge. 

The coxa? are all plain, without glands or glandular pores. 

The forceps of the female organs of generation consists of a 
pair of styli, the first joints of which are nearly joined together 
with the posterior half of their inner edge, while the forward part 
is separated and often furnished with a small brush of hair at 
the corner. As these styli are bent against each other, the shape 
of the forceps and of the sinus between the two styli is altered 
and therefore no characters of great value can be drawn from 
this organ. 

Most of the characters in use to-day are valueless, except the 
color and the proportions of the length of the legs and of the 
antenna? to the body; we seldom find true characters used, but 
ordinarily the descriptions are drawn now from one part of the 
body, now from another. Even the characters employed by such 
accurate observers as Torath and Latzel are partly due either 
to a fortuitous want, or are characters common to the whole 
genus. It is evident that a very great number of different spe- 
cies are needed, before we can hope to find the true special 
characters. Yet it is far from my intention to claim that I 
have been more fortunate than my predecessors, and although I 
believe I have shown man}- deficiencies in the characters in 
use, I do not mean that I myself have found the right ones ; 
but I also have had too little material and this must be my excuse. 


Meinert.1 lii) [Oct. 2, 

Although the genus Scutigera is very interesting, the different 
species of the genus are but little so ; and the characters which 
they offer are, as I have just asserted, often very few and with- 
out value. Besides, the antennas and the legs, particularly the 
anal legs, are excessively fragile and are often wanting, even in 
living specimens ; and thus many of the specimens which are 
preserved in museums are more or less destitute of the orgaus 
from which the chief characters are drawn. Frequently we find 
specimens deprived of all their external organs. Species founded 
on such organs are indeed of no great value, but nevertheless 
they are distinguishable, and I myself have proposed such a 
new species. 

1. Scutigera serrattpes. 

Scutigera serratipes Gervais, Walckenasr Hist. Nat. Ins. Apt. iv, p. 221. 
? Scutigera Templetoni Humbert, Essai Myriap. Ceylan, p. 8, pi. i, fig. 
1, la-lb. 

Latiuscula, ante et post paulum angustata, convexa (, ) livida, vittis duabus 
lateralibus latissimis griseis mediaque post paulum angustata rufo-Hvida 
notata, antennis tarsisque flavis, cingulis patellarum manifestius, tibiarum 
binis obsoletius cceruleseentibus ; manifesto tuberosa, spinulis in dorso 
(extra lineam mediam glabram) subseriatis granulisque perminutis scab- 

Lamina cepbalica fere oeque longa ac lata, post late minus profunde im- 
pressa, ante canaliculata, sulcis duobus rectis transversis atque sulco 
singulo antico curvato exarata ; alte marginata (,) margine laeviuscula, 

Antennae corpore sesqui longiores. 

Laminae dorsales alte marginatae, margine densissime spinuloso, margine 
postico in angulnm obtusum producto, obscure flexuoso, in medio late 
sinuato ; lamina ultima latiuscula, lateribus paulum flexuosis, sat angus- 
tata, post late rotundata, obscure emarginata. 

Stomata in aequum porrecta, longa, stomate primo quam linea media 
laminae dorsalis manifesto breviore. 

Carinae pedum alte expressae, densissime spinulosae. 

Pedes paris ultimi tenuissimi, corpore plus duplo longiores (fere 11 : 5); 
tibia a tarso bene discreta, manifesto clavata, aculeis binis longiusculis, 
subaequalibus armata. 

Forceps feminaelongiusculus, articulo altero quam priore multo breviore 
(fere 3:4). 

Long. 35 mm. 

Hob. At Pennaculum, South India, Mr. Scudder; the Isle of 
St. Mauritius, Mr. Pike. 

1885.J 1 i 1 [Meinert. 


Angustiuscula, ante multum, post paulum angustata, valde convexa ; 
castanea, concolor ; tuberosa, spinis in dorso medio subseriatis granulisque 
perrninutis dense scabricula. 

Lamina cepbalica multo longior quam latior (5 : 4), in crucem impressa, 
margine laeviusculo. 

Antennae desunt. 

Lamina? dorsales alte marginatse, margine manifesto crenulato, margine 
postico in triangulum obtusum producto, in medio late sinuato ; lamina 
ultima lata, lateribus rotundatis, valde angustata, post integra. 

Stomata in aequum porrecta, longa, stomate primo quam linea media 
laminae dorsalis fere sesqui breviore. 

Pedes desunt. 

Forceps feminae longiusculus, angulo interiore articuli prioris longius 

The t} T pe of this species was deprived of all its legs and the 

Hab. Koolloo, Mr. Carleton (the specimen was found in a 
box together with the last mentioned species of this genus, 
Scut, microstoma). 


? Selista forceps Raffinesque, Ann. of Nature, i, p. 7.? 
Cermatia coleoptcrata Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philada., ii, p. 5. 
Cermatia floridana Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 353. 
Scutigera floridana Gervais, Walck. Hist. Nat. Ins. Apt., iv, p. 225. 
Cermatia forceps Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, new ser., v, p. 132. 

Wood, Trans. Amer. Pbilos. Soc. xiii, p. 145, pi. iii, 
fig. 1, la. 
f Cermatia Mexicana Saussure et Humbert, Etud. s. Myriap., p. 112, tab. 
v, fig. 3, 3a, b. p. 

Latiuscula, ante vix post paulum angustata, minus convexa vel con- 
vexa ; supra viridi-lutea, vittis tribus angustis, fuscis vel ccerulescentibus 
notata, patellis tibiisque cingulis binis ccerulescentibus, per paria sensim 
latioribus atque manifestioribus ornatis ; obscure tuberosa, spinulis sparsis 
subseriatis (extra lineam mediam longitudinalem lsevem) scabriuscula. 

Lamina cepbalica post late, minus profunde impressa, ante canaliculata, 
carina media obscuriore in transversum notata, minus alte marginata, 
margine laeviusculo, sparse fimbriato ; manifesto latior quam longior 
(fere 8:7). 

Antennae pertenues, corpore plus sesqui longiores (feminas 11 : 7 ; 
mari 5:3). 


Meiner'..] ■*- ' -J [Oct. 2, 

Lamina? dorsales minus alte marginata?, marginc sparse spinuloso, raar- 
gine postico late rotundato, in medio latissime sinuato ; lamina ultima an- 
gustiuscula, lateribus rotundatis, sat angustata, post breviter rotundato, in 
medio obscure sinuato. 

Stomata praeter primum in a?quum fere porrecta, parva vel mediocria, 
stomate primo quam linea mediae laminae dorsalis bis vel ter (fere 2 : 5), 

Carina? pedum minus alte expressa?, sparse spinulosa?. 

Pedes paris ultimi pertenues, corpore bis vel ter longiores (fere 5 : 2), 
tibia a tarso bene discreta, obscure clavata, aculeis binis longiusculis, 
ina?qualibus armata. 

Forceps femina? breviusculus, angulo interiore articuli prioris penicil- 
lato, articulo altero quam priore multo breviore (fere 3:4). 

Long. 28 mm. 

I have compared typical specimens of Mr. Wood. 

Hah. Beaufort, N. C; Texas, Mr. P. W. Putnam ; Boston, 
Mass., Mr. Corbett (another specimen from Boston was labeled 
" found Dec'br 27 living in a tobacco store in Boston importing 
tobacco from the Southern States, perhaps imported "). 


Cermatia Argentina Humbert et Saussure, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 2 ser. xxii, 
p. 202. 

Saussure et Humbert, Etud. s. Myriap. p. 113. Tab. 
v, fig. 2, 2a. 

Angusta, ante et post vix angustata, compressa vel couipressiuscula ; 
obscure brunnea, pedibus flavis, sanguineo-plagiatis ; parum tuberosa, 
spinulis in series subdigestis scabriuscula. 

Lamina cephalica in foveam parum altam impressa, in medio sat pro- 
funde canaliculata, sulco transverso, valde arcuato obscure impressa ; 
minus alte marginata, margine la?viusculo, sparsissime fimbriato ; vix 
latior quam longior. 

Antennas desunt. 

Lamina? dorsales minus alte marginata?, margine dense crenulato, mar- 
gine postico rotundate augustato, in medio in angulum acutum inciso ; 
lamina ultima angustiuscula, lateribus rotundatis, angustata, post integra. 

Stomata fere propendentia, perparva, stomate primo quam linea media 
lamina? dorsalis multoties breviore. 

Carina? pedum minus alte expressse, sparsissime spinulosa?. 

Pedes paris ultimi desunt. 

Forceps feminae breviusculus, angulo interiore articuli prioris aculeo 
penicilloque brevibus armato, articulo altero quam priore paulo breviore. 

Long. 18 nam. 

Hub. Cordova, Argent., Mr. Davis (one 9ingle specimen). 

1885.] 1*3 [Meincrt. 


Latiuscula, ante et post paulum angustata, convexiuscula ; flava, vittis 
duabus latis, nigris, lateralibus prsetereaque vittis duabus interioribus 
capiti notata, femoribus patellis tibiisque infra fasciis binis nigris, per 
paria sensim mamfestioribus atque latioribus signatis, stomatibus nigris ; 
obscure tuberosa, spinulis sparsis, in series subdigestis (extra lineam 
niediam longitudinalem glabram) granulisque perminutis scabriuscula. 

Lamina cephalica post profunde impressa, ante canaliculata, sulcis 
duobus in transversum impressa ; minus alte marginata, margine sparsius 
fimbriato ; fere aeque longa ac lata. 

Antennae tenues, truncata?. 

Laminae dorsales minus alte manginatse, margine densius fimbriato, 
margine postico sat breviter rotundato, in medio late sinuato ; lamina 
ultima angustiuscula, valde angustata, post brevissime rotundata. 

Stomata paulum dec] i via, parva, stomate primo quam linea media lamina} 
dorsalis bis vel ter breviore. 

Carinae pedum minus alte expresses, spinis sparsis vel sparsioribus setis- 
que serratas. 

Pedes paris ultimi desunt. 

Forceps ferninae lougiusculus, latere interiore articuli prioris sparsius 
birsuto, articulo altero quam priore plus sesqui breviore (fere 3 : 5). 

Long. 25 mm. 

Hab. Panama. 


Latiuscula, ante et post paulum angustata, parum convexiuscula ; flava, 
vitta media, lata, gemina, fusca, marginibus laminarum obscurioribus ; 
laeviuscula, sparsissime birsuta, granulis perminutis aspera. 

Lamina cepbalica post in figuram ypsiliformem obscure impressa, ante 
leviter sulcata, parum alte marginata, margine sparse, brevius fimbriato ; 
multo longior quam latior (6 : 5). 

Antennas tenues vel perlenues, corpore paulo lougiores (fere 11 : 10). 

Laminae dorsales parum alte marginata, margine obscurecrenulato, mar- 
gine postico rotundate angustato, in medio late sinuato ; lamina ultima 
angustiuscula lateribus flexuosis, paulum angustata, post latissime ro- 
tundata, in medio obscurissime sinuata. 

Stomata declivia, parva, stomate primo quam linea media lamina; dorsalis 
bis vel ter breviore. 

Pedes paris ultimi desunt. 

Forceps ferninae breviusculus, angulo interiore articuli prioris breviter 
penicillato, articulo altero quam priore vix breviore. 

Long. 21 mm. 

Hab. A place 70 miles from Amballa, India, Mr. Carleton (10 
specimens) ; Koolloo, Mr. Carleton (4 specimens in a box to- 
gether with Scut, castanea). 

Melnert.] ' ' "^ [Oct. 2, 


Laminae dorsales omnes manifesto? (alternae minores), integrae. 

Pedes longi, tarsis biarticulatis (in pedibus prioribus saepe indistincte) ; 
ungues bini (in pedibus posticis saepe singuli), ungue majore processu 
simplice, parvo armato. 

Antennae articulis multis vel permultis. 

Oculi ocellis paucis vel multis, aggregatis. 

Spiracula manifesta (sena). 

Palpi maxillares triarticulati, ungue armati. 

Laminae dorsales segmenti septimi atque octavi discretae. 

Sternum metameri quarti integrum ; prosternum ante integrum vel in- 
dentes incisum. 

Pori excretorii in coxas quaternas (vel quinas) ultimas intrusi. 

For further explanation of the characters of this family I 
refer to my preceding essays on the Lithobii (" Danmarks Sco- 
lopendrer og Lithobier," Naturh. Tidsskr. 3 R. 5 B., p. 241, and 
" Myriapoda Musaei Hauniensis ii, Lithobiini," ibid. 3 R. 8 B., 
p. 281) and to the preceding pages of this paper. 

1. Gen. Litliobi us. 

Labrum liberum, in medio profunde incisum, dentatum, lateribus 
fimbria lata et densa, e laciniis setiformibus, racemosis facta, instructis. 

Labium setis racemosis et simplicibus instructum, processibus labii sat 

Palpi maxillares ungue tri- vel quinque-partito armati. 

Mandibular serie abbreviata setarum minorum, racemosarum pone setas 
majores crenulatas armatae. 

Oculi ocellis paucis vel multis. 

Pedes omnes vel plurimi calcaribus armati, maxime unguibus binis 

Genitalium femineorum unguis intus excavatus, integer aut bi- vel tri- 

The characters which are here given of the genus Lithobius 
for the most part conform with those I have proposed in Myriap. 
Mus. Haun. ii, Lithobii, p. 283, and the apparent great difference 
arises solely from the introduction of my new terminology and 
from the altered order of the parts of the mouth, both of which 
my late investigations have made necessary. 

Lamina dorsalis 6, 7, 9, 11, 13 angulis productis. 
Pedes anales ungue singulo armati. 
Pori coxales in series plures digesti. 
Genitalium femineorum unguis tripartitus. 
Pedum analium coxa? calcare armaUu. 

1885.] J * '' [Meinert. 


LithoUus multidentatus Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 365. 

Gervais, Walck., Hist. Nat. Ins. Apt., iv, p. 236. 
Bothropolys nobilis Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, new ser., v, p. 15. 
Bolhropolys multidentatus Wood, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., xiii, p. 152. 

Dilute brunneus, plagis binis magnis laminarum dorsalium, capite 
antennisque proeter surumam apicem fuscescentibus ; robustus vel sat 
robustus, ante obsolete, post manifesto rugulosus ; capite subobcordato, 
vix latiore quara longiore, sublaevi. Antennae longiores, articulis longis, 
20-22 articulatae. 

Oculi ocellis 20-30, in series 4-6 digestis. 

Dentes prosternales septeni vel octoni. 

Pori coxales numerosi, in series 3-4 subdigesti. 

Pedes corporis primi paris calcaribus 2, 2, 1 ; pedes anales calcaribus 
1, 3, 2, 1 armati. 

Pedes postici sat longi. 

Genitalium femineorum unguis latus, manifesto tripartitus, aculeis in- 
terioribus quam exterioribus multo brevioribus. 

Long. 22-25 mm. 

Eab. Warwick, Mass. (3 typical specimens of Dr. Wood) ; 
Marlow, N. H. ; near to the Mammoth Cave, Ky., Mr. Putnam ; 
Michigan, Mr. E. P. Putnam. 

Lamina dorsalis 7, 9, 11, 13 angulis productis. 

Pedes anales ungue singulo armati. 

Pori coxales pauciores, in seriem singulam digesti. 

Pedes penultimi unguibus binis armati. 

Pedum analium coxse calcare singulo, parvo armataa. 

2. Lithobius Latzelii, n. sp. 

Castaneus vel rufo-brunneus, laminis ventralibus pedibusque fiavescen- 
tibus ; robustus, sublajvis, capite lato, multo latiore quam longiore (fere 
4 : 3), vix punctato. Antennas breviusculaj, paulum attenuate, 34-articu- 

Oculi ocellis 45-48, in series 8-9 obliquas digestis. 

Dentes prosternales octoni. 

Pori coxales 5, 7, 6, 4 — 5, 6, 6, 5, magni, plerique transversales. 

Pedes corporis primi paris calcaribus 2, 3, 1 ; pedes anales calcaribus 1, 
3, 3, 2 armati. 

Pedes postici breviusculi, vix inflati. 

Long. 23 mm. 

Mas : Pedum analium femur patellaque infra sulco longitudinali ex- 

Hab. Crandall, Virginia. 

-i rrn 

Mcinerl.] - 1 ' " [Oct. 2, 

Lamina dorsalis 9, 11, 13 angulis productis. 

Pedes anales uugue singulo armati. 

Pori coxales pauciores, ia seriam singulam digesti. 

Pedes penultimi unguibus binis armati. 

Pedum analium coxae calcare nullo. 

3. Lithobius forficatus (Linn.). 

Lithobius forficatus Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 3G7. 
Lithobius Americanus Newport, ibid, xix, p. 365, tab. xxxiii, fig. 29. 
Lithobius multhlentatus Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, new ser., v, p. 13. 
Lithobius Americanus "Wood, ibid., p. 14. 

Wood, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, xiii, p. 148. 

Castaneus vel brunneus, laminis ventralibus pedibusque flavis, robustus, 
sat rugulosus, scepissime subglaber, interdum hirsutulus, proesertim post, 
capite magno, subquadrato. Antenna? sat longne, 36-48-articulataj. 

Oculi ocellis 22-35, in series 5-8 digestis. 

Dentes prosternales quini vel septeni. 

Pori coxales 6, 6, 6, 5 — 12, 10, 9, 8, plerique transversales. 

Pedes corporis primi paris calcaribus 2, 3, 2 ; pedes anales calcaribus 1, 
3, 3, 2 armati. 

Pedes postici longiores, paulum inflati. 

Genitalium femineorum unguis trilobus. 

Long. 14-26 mm. 

For the characteristics of the not fully developed Lithobius 
forficatus I refer to my Myriap. Mus. Haun., ii, p. 315 and 316, 
and to the elaborate essay of Latzel, L c, p. 57 ; also for the 
table of sj'nonymys I refer to Ant. Stuxberg, who in his " Litho- 
bioidse Americas Borealis " (Ofvers. Kgl. Vet. Akad. Fb'rh., 1875? 
No. 3, p. 27), gives a list of the synonyms of this animal per- 
haps complete to his time. 

The species is doubtless the most common of all Lithobii in 
the eastern part of North America, and the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology also possesses numerous specimens not alone 
from Massachusetts, but also from other places, as Halifax, X. 
S. ; Britain Island, N. S. ; Amherst, N. H., Mr. A. M. Edmands ; 
Bee Spring, Ky., Mr. F. G. Sanborn; Anticosti. 

Lamina dorsalis 11, 13 angulis productis. 
Pedes anales unguibus binis armati. 
Pori coxales pauciores, in seriem singulam digesti. 
Pedes penultimi unguibus binis armati. 
Pedum analium coxa' inermes. 

1885.] 1' ' [Meinert. 

4. Lithobius Cantabrigensis, n. sp. 

Flavus, capite paulo obscuriore ; gracilis, sublaevis, subglaber, capite 
subobcordato, fere seque longo ac lato.- Antennae breves, 35-articulata3, 
articulis perbrevibus. 

Oculi ocellis 8, in series 2 digestis. 

Dentes prosternales bini. 

Pori coxales 2, 3, 3, 2—3, 4, 3, 2. 

Pedes corporis primi paris calcaribus 0, 0, 1 ; pedes anales calcaribus 1, 
3, 1, 0—1, 3, 2, 1 armati. 

Pedes postici lougiusculi, paulum infiati. 

Genitalium femineorum unguis trilobus, aculeis brevibus, acutis, in- 
terioribus quaru exterioribus manifesto brevioribus. 

Long. 10.5 mm. 

Hab. Cambridge, Mass., Mr. H. H. James. 

Laminae dorsales omnes angulis rectis. 

Pori coxales pauciores, in seriem singulam digesti. 

Pedum analium coxae calcare singulo arniatae. 

5. Lithobius Jowensis, n. sp. 

Brunneus, capite cum antennis obscuriore, laminis ventralibus pallidi- 
oribus, pedibus flavis ; sat gracilis, sublsevis, pedibus densius pilosis, capite 
subobcordato, manifesto latiore quam longiore (fere 8 : 7). Antenme 
breviusculge, 23 articulatae, articulis pluribus brevibus. 

Oculi ocellis 12-15, in series 3-4 digestis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni. 

Pori coxales 4, 5, 5, 4, rotundati. 

Pedes corporis primi paris calcaribus 2, 1, 1 ; pedes paris antepenultimi 
(pedes anales penultimique desunt) calcaribus 1, 3, 3, 1 armati. 

Pedes postici breviusculi. 

Genitalium femineorum unguis integer, aculeis minus tenuibus, longi- 
tudine subsequalibus. 

Long. 13.5 mm. 

The specimen which I had to examine was in a bad condition, 
and particularly the last pairs of legs were lost. 

II. Tribus Epimorpha. 

Segmenta corporis pedifera pauciora vel numerosa, inter se subaequalia 
vel aaqualia. 

Pedes sat longi vel breves, coxis parvis vel evanidis, tarsis integris vel 

Antennae articulis paucioribus. 

Oculi nulli vel ocellis paucis. 

Pedes prensorii articulo secundo atque tertio parvis vel mimis, in latere 
exteriore evanidis vel interruptis. 


Meinert.] ■«*" [Oct. 2, 

Spiraculorurn paria segmentis pediferis nurnero subsequalia, vel saltern 

Genitalia feininea externa nulla. 

Pullus ex ovo nuper exclusus pedibus secundum speciem normatis 



Segmenta pedifera 21-23, inter subsequalia. 
Pedes sat longi, tarsis, saltern ultiuiis binis, articulatis. 
Antennae 17-30 articulatae. 
Oculi nulli vel ocellis paucis. 

(Pedes prensorii articu'.o secundo atque tertio (saepissirne) in latere ex- 
teriore evanidis vel interruptis.) 
Lamina basalis saepissinie evanida. 
Spiraculorum paria plerumque 9 vel 10. 

The number of the joints of the antennae is seldom more than 
22 or 23 ; yet in some true Scolopendrae, as in Se. heros, I have 
found a greater number, and thus I have been compelled to place 
the limit as high as 30 joints. 

As a rule, the second and the third joint of the raptorial legs 
(pedes prensorii) are very small. Furthermore, regularly the 
rings of these joints are not whole but interrupted at their dor- 
sal or outermost side ; yet, in the genus Cryptops the ring of 
the third joint is whole, and thus in this genus the dorsal side 
of the first and of the fourth joint of the raptorial legs is not as 
in the other genera united or confined. 

Gervais, in his tables of the genera of the Scolopendrini, 1. c, 
p. 243, proposes a genus Monops, and in the description of the 
Cryptops nigra, 1. c, p. 294, he retains this name, but without 
giving a real description of the genus he only indicates that a 
pair of eyes is found by him. Now it would be of great interest 
to have a more full investigation of this new genus ; I do not 
dare to say that the eyes are wanting, but on the other hand the 
family Scolopendrini forms such a compact and distinct group 
of animals, either wanting eyes, or having ihem to the number 
of four pairs, that it is not likely that in this family one species 
alone would have one pair ; and, therefore, I believe that the 
genus Monops must be in many other characters different from 
the genus Cryptops, if the eyes in reality exist. 

In the lately published genus Plutonium* the number of spi- 

» Cavanna, Bull. Soc. Ent. Hal., xiii, p. 10(1, If. tab. 1. I have nut seen this 
paper, but, according to Bertkau, the genus seems to relate to Opisthemega. 

1886.] Xi J [Meinert. 

racles is said to be 19 on each side, but in the other genera no 
more than 10 pairs are found. 

I. Segmenta pedifera 23. 

1. Gen. Scolopocryptops. 

Scolopocryptops Newport.* Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 407. 

Lamina cephalica larninani primani dorsalem partim obtegens. 

Oculi null:. 

Antennae tenuiusculos, subfiliformes, 17-articulatse. 

Labri fimbria longa, intus e setis ad apicem fissis facta. 

Labii processus subteretes, barba e setis partim fissis facta instructi ; 
palporum fimbria e setis paulum uncinatis vel cl a vat is facta. 

Palpnrum maxillarium unguis in latere interiore dentibus 13-15 mani- 
festis armatus ; fimbria digitalis unguem procul explens, setis parum 

Mandibular ante pectinibus 8 juxta et pone lamellam singulum, latam, 
dentatam coarctatis instructs. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, robustum; prosternum parum promi- 
nens subtruncatum, vel in angulos breviores productum ; pedes prensorii 
articulo secundo et tertio minimis, interrupts. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula profunda, magna, subrotunda vel breviter ovalia, perpen- 

Pleura? posticaa infra porosoe, in spinam longam post productse. 

Pedes anales elongati, quinquearticulati, articulo primo(femorali) spini- 
gero, ungue minus curvato, subgracili, ad basis unguiculis binis minimis 

1. Scolopocryptops sexspinosus. 

Cryptops sexspinosus Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbilad., ii, p. 112. 
Scolopocryptops sexspinosa Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 407. 
Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 297. 

Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbilad., new ser., 

v, p. 37. 
Wood, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, xiii, p. 172. 
Kohlrausch, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 54. 
Porath, So. Vet. Akad. Handl. Bih., B. 4, p. 26. 
Scolopocryptops spinicauda Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., new 

ser., v, p. 39. 
Wood, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, xiii, p. 174. 

*This name is formed by Newport against the chief rules of nomenclature; 
yet it has always been received, and therefore I also shall make use of it. 

Meinert.| ■*-"*-' [Oct. 2, 

? Scolopendropsis helvola C. L. Koch, Die Myriap., ii, p. 34, tab. lxxvi, 
fig. 156. 

Flavo brunneus vel rufescens, subtus pallidior, capile cum lamina prima 
dorsali rubro-castaneo, antennis pedibusque flavis ; minus robustus, sub- 
laevis ; capite manifesto marginato, suborbiculari. Antennae breviusculse, 
breviter parcius hirsutae, 17 articulate, articulis ultimis longis vel per- 

Metameri quarti prosterni margo anterior medius manifesto callosus, 
leviter productus, subrectus vel obscure sinuatus. 

Pedes anales glabri, longi, spina inferiore magna, interiore parva. 

Laminae dorsales praeter priores in lateribus manifesto marginatae. 

Pleurae postica3 scabrosae, poris majoribus atque minoribus, numerosis 
perforatae, in spinam robustiorem, breviorem productae. 

Lamina ultima ventralis latiuscula, valde angustata, post subrecta. 

Long. 65 mm. 

Having compared typical specimens, both of the Sc. sexspin- 
osus and of the Sc. spinicauda Wood, I cannot perceive any 
true or specific difference between them. 

This species is very common and spread over the greater part 
of North America ; I have seen specimens, preserved in the 
Museum of Comp. Zool., from Frederick county, Md., P. R. 
Uhler ; Massachusetts, Miss A. M. Edmands, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Berkshire, Tioga county, N. Y.; Centre county, Pa., Sualer ; 
Virginia, Crandall ; Pennington's Gap, Lee county, Va.; Ross- 
well, Ga., Mr. King; Yellow Springs, Ohio; Rocky creek, Gray- 
son county, Ky., F. W. Putnam ; Macgregor, Iowa, Davis ; Rit- 
chie county, W. Va., N. E. Ingersen ; San Mateo, Cal., A. 
Agassiz (Sc. spinicauda, the type of Mr. Wood). 

2. Scolopocryptops Georgicus, n. sp. 

Fulvus, capite rufescente, pedibus flavis ; gracilis, sublaevis, capite ob- 
scure marginato, subovato. Antennae subglabrae, breves vel breviuscukv, 
17-articulatae, articulis prioribus transversalibus, anterioribus brevius- 

Metameri quarti prosterni margo medius obscure callosus, productus, in 
angulum incisus, dentibus duobus armatus. 

Pedes anales glabri, breviusculi, spina inferiore maxima, interiore 
parva vel perparva. 

Laminae dorsales praeter sex priores marginata 1 . 

Pleura posticee subhevcs, integra, magnam partem obtectaj, in spinam 
breviorem, acutam product*. 

Lamina ultima ventralis lata, paruin angustata, post brevissime sinuata. 

Long. 35 mm. 

Hub. Georgia ; I have seen two specimens. 

1885.] 1"1 [Meinert. 


Scolopocryptops Miersii Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 405. 

Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 298. 
? Scolopocryptops melanostoma Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 

? Scolopocryptops melanosoma Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 298. 
Scolopocryptops sexspinosus p.p. Kohlrausch, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, 
p. 54. 

Castaneus, subtus fulvus, antennis pedibusque flavis, posterioribus saepe 
majorem vel maximam partem cceruleis ; robustus, sublaevis, capite vix 
marginato, orbiculari. Antennae longiusculae, longius, dense hirsutae, 17- 
articulatae, articuiis omnibus longis. 

Metameri quarti prosterni margo anterior medius valde callosus, pro- 
ductus, manifesto sinuatus, sinu dentibus duobus majoribus vel minoribus 

Pedes anales longi vel perlongi (maris ? manifesto pilosi), spina inferiore 
maxima, interiore majore vel minore. 

Laminae dorsales praeter sex priores atque duas posteriores vel saltern 
ultimam immarginatae. 

Pleurae posticse scabrosae atque porosse, in spirjam longam, acutam (vel 
maris? longissimam, acutissimam) productae. 

Lamina ultima ventralis perlata, manifesto angustata, post sat profunde 

Long. 70 mm. 

Hab. This species seems to prefer the more southern parts of 
North America, and I have also seen other specimens from the 
larger Islands of West India; from .leremie, Hayti, Dr. D. F. 
Wienland ; Grande Anse, Hayti, Uhler ; Kingston, Jamaica, 
Garman ; Monn (?) Rouge, Martinique, Garman. It is also 
found in South America. 

II. Segmenta pedifera 21. 

A. Segmentum septimum spiraculis instructum. 

2. Gen. Heterostoma. 

1. Heterostoma trigonopoda. 

Scolopendra trigonopoda Leach, Zool. Miscell., iii, p. 36. 
Heterostoma trigonopoda Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 413. 
? .Heterostoma sulcidens Kohlrausch, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 59, tab. 
iv, figs. 5-7. 

One specimen of this genus, from Monrovia in Africa, is re- 

Meinert.l lOA [Oct. '2, 

ferred by me to the above named species ; but the specimen is so 
badly preserved, that no further or closer investigations have 
been possible either of the characters of the genus or of those 
of the species. 

3. Gen. Bra nchiostoma. 

Branchiostom-a Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 411. 

Lamina cephaliea a lamina prima dorsali partim obtecta. 

Oculi ocellis 4. 

Antenna? longiusculae, tenuiusculse, manifesto attenuate, 18-21-articu- 

Labri fimbria brevis, setis simplicibus. 

Labii processus subconici, barba e setis brevibus, densis, uncinatis facta ; 
palporum fimbria e setis brevibus, densis, uncinatis facta. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis in latere interiore dentibus binis longis, 
acutis armatus ; fimbria digitalis setis parum uncinatis, ungueni nullo 
modo explens. 

Mandibular ante pectinibus 10-12 juxta et pone lamellam dentatam 
coarctatis instructae. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, sat robustum ; presternum longe 
prominens, ante in dentes majores incisum ; pedes prensorii articulo 
secundo et tertio minimis, interruptis. 

Segmentum septimum spiraculis instructum. 

Spiracnla sat profunda, magna, subovalia vel post subtriangula, fere 
perpendicularia ; antica abrupte major a minusque profunda. 

Pleurae posticse infra porosse. in spinam longam productae. 

Pedes anales elongati, quinquearticulati, articulo primo (femore) 
spinigero vel inermi, ungue minus curvato, subgracili ad basin unguiculis 
binis longioribus, rectis armato. 

1. Branchiostoma affine. 
Branchiostoma affine Kohlrauscb, Beit. z. Kenntn. d. Sc, p. 22. 

Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 68. 

Fusco-griseum vel flavum, in dorso medio linea angusta, pallida nota- 
tum, pedibns antennisque flavis ; sat gracile, manifesto sparse punctatum, 
laminis ventralibus integris, capite subovali, immarginato. Antennae 
breviusculse, 18-ariiculaiae, prseter articulos lernos priores dense, brevis- 
sime hirsutae, articulis mediis longiusculis. 

Dentes prosternnles quaterni, obtusi, per paria approximati, exteriores 
minores vel evanidi ; dens coxalis obsolete trilaciniatus. 

Pedes anales perlongi, graciles, in latere interiore femoris spinis parvis 
3-5 in seriem singdlam, in latere in feriore spinis 4-7 in series binasdigestis 

Laminae dorsales quatuor priores omnino, 5-7 fere immarginatae, ceteroe 
manifesto marginatae. 

1885.J 1"'J [Meinert. 

Pleurae posticae sublaeves, porosae, in anguluni longe productum, spinis 
ternis parvis armatum desinentes, in latere postico obliquo spina singula 
armatae. ( 

Lamina ultima ventralis angustiuscula, rotundate angustata, post mani- 
festo sinuata. 

Long. 62 mm. 

Hah. Pegu, Burmah, C. H. Carpenter ; TO miles from Ambala, 
E. India, Mr. Carleton ; Mauritius, Mr. Pike ; Zanzibar, Mr. C. 
Cooke ; and also Basseterre, St. Cristophori. 

2. Branchiostoma celek. 

Branchiostoma celer Humbert et Saussure, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 2 ser., xxii, 
p. 202. 
Saussure et Humbert, Etud. s. Myriap., p. 122, tab. 

vi, fig. 16, etc. 
Kohlrausch, Arcb. f. Naturg. Jabrg., 47, p. 69. 

Viride vel viridi-olivaceum, subtus flavo-brunneum vel ochraceum, 
pedibus praeter posteriores antennisque praeter articulos ternos priores vel 
totis flavo-brunneis ; sat gracile vel robustius, sublaeve, capite suborbicu- 
lari, immarginato, margiue postico plus vel minus obtecto. Antennae 
breviusculae, 20-(18-2l-)articulatae, praeter articulos ternos priores dense, 
breviter hirsutae, articulis mediis longis vel longiusculis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni, per paria paulum approximate obtusiun- 
culi ; dens coxalis sublaevis. 

Pedes anales perlongi, graciles, inermes. 

Lamina? dorsales praeter quatuor priores marginatae. 

Pleurae posticae manifesto scabrosse, dense porosae, in angulum laevem, 
acutum, spinis binis armatum productae. 

Lamina ultima ventralis latiuscula, rotundate angustata, post manifesto 

Long. 70 mm. 

Hab. Kingston, Jamaica, Mr. Garman ; Polvon, Occidental 
Dept. Nicaragua, Mr. McNiel. 

B. Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

4. Gen. Otostigma. 

Otosligmus Poratb, Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. Bin., B. 4, p. 18. 
Branclriotrema Koblrausch, Beitr. z. Kenntn. d. Scol., p. 22. 
Arch. f. Naturg. Jabrg., 47, p. 70. 

Lamina cephalica a lamina prima dorsali partim objecta, 

Oculi ocellis 4. 

Meinert.] lo± [Oct. 2, 

Antennas longiuscnlse, crassiusculae, manifesto attenuate ; 18-23-articu- 

Labri fimbria brevis, setis paucioribus, simplicibus. 

Labii processus subteretes, barba e setis brevibus, densis, uncinatis 
facta ; palporum fimbria e setis brevibus, densis, uncinatis facta. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis in latere interiore dente singulo, longo, 
acuto armatus ; fimbria digitalis setis parum uncinatis, unguem superans. 

Mandibular ante 10-12 juxta et pone lamellam dentatam coarctatis in- 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, robustum ; prosternum longe 
prominens, ante in dentes magnos incisum ; pedes prensorii articulo se- 
cundo et tertio minimis, interruptis. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula sat profunda, magna, subovalia vel post subrotunda, obliqua, 
per paria sensim magis perpendicularia, antica abrupte majora minusque 

Pleurse posticae infra porosae, in spinam longam post productse ; vel 

Pedes anales elongati vel valde elongati, quinquearticulati, articulo 
primo (feuiore) spinigero vel inermi, ungue minus curvato, subgracili, ad 
basin unguiculis binis parvis, subrectis armato. 

1. Otostigma Ltjzonicum. 

Branc7iiolrema Luzonicum, calcitrans, ? astenon Kohlrausck, Beitr. z. 
Kenntn, d. Scol., p. 23. 
Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 73 and 72. 

Ochraceum, plus vel minus olivaceum, antennis pedibusque flavescen- 
tibus ; subgracile vel gracile, laminis dorsalibus sulcis pluribus plus vel 
minus manifestis esaratis, laminis ventralibus ad latera profunde bisul- 
catis, in medio obscure bifoveolatis vel sulcatis ; capite subovali, post trun- 
cate: Antennae longiusculae, ad basin paulum incrassatae, 18-articulatae, 
praeter articulos binos vel ternos priores manifesto kirsutse articulis brevi- 
usculis vel brevibus. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni majores, per paria approximati (exteriore 
ssepe evanidi) ; dens coxalis in latere carinatus. 

Pedes anales longi, graciles, teretes, in margine sup. interiore femoris 
spinis binis minoribus, uniseriatis, angulo apicali evanido spina singula 
minore instructo, in latere interiore spinis ternis minoribus, uniseriatis, in 
margine inf. interiore spinulis binis majoribus uniseriatus, in margine 
exter. interiore spinulis ternis majoribus uniseriatis armati. 

Laminae dorsales prseter sex priores marginatse. 

Pleurse posticoe sat amplse, compressiusculaj, sublasves, sparsins, gros- 
siu8 porosse, in angulum longum, trifidum, in latere Buperiore spinula 
parva singula, in latere exteriore interdum spinula parva instructum pro- 

1885.1 -LoO [Meinert- 

ductae, rnargine postico in obliquum levissime siauato, spinula minore 

Lamina ultima ventralis latiuscula, lateribus rotundatis, valde conver- 
gentibus, post manifesto sinuata. • 

Long. 45 mm. 

Hab. Koolloo Yalley, East India, Mr. Carleton (4 spec). 

2. Otostigma carinatum. 

Otostigmus carinatua Porath, Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. Bill. B. 4, p. 20. 
Branchiotrema multicarinatum Koblrauscb, Beitr. z. Kenntn. d. Scol., 
p. 22, fig. 5. 
Arch. f. Naturg. Jabrg., 47. p. 71, tab. v, fig. 12. 

Ochraceum vel fusco-griseum, capite cum lamina prima atque ultima 
dorsali brunneo ; subgracile, laminis dorsalibus prioribus (2-7) sublaevibus, 
mediis atque posterioribus plus vel minus manifesto septemcarinatis, ad 
latera rugulosis, laminis ventralibus obscure bisulcatis, capite subcordi- 
forme, lateribus manifesto marginatis, post truncato. Antennae longius- 
culae, ad basin paulum incrassatae, 20-23-articulatae, prater articulos binos 
vel ternos priores birsutae, articulis pluribus vel omnibus breviusculis vel 

Dentes prosternales quaterni, majores, per paria approximati ; dens 
coxalis in latere nodulis ternis parvis instructus. 

Pedes anales perlongi, pergraciles, in margine sup. interiore femoris 
spinulis minutis, saepissime ternis, angulo apicali non producto spinula 
singula minuta instructo, in latere interiore spinulis 2-6 minutis, in series 
binas digestis, in latere inferiore spinulis 4-8 parvis, in series binas diges- 
tis armati. 

Lamina3 dorsales praeter quatuor vel sex priores marginatae. 

Pleurae posticae sat amplae, compressiusculae, densius, grossius porosae, 
in angulum longum, ad apicem spinulis ternis vel quaternis minoribus 
instructum productae, margine postico in obliquum subtruncato, spinulis 
binis minoribus armato ; anguli pleurarum plus vel minus approximati. 

Lamina ultima ventralis latiuscula, lateribus valde rotundatis, valde 
convergibus, post manifesto sinuata. 

Long. 66 mm. 

Hab. Shanghai, Mrs. A. P. Chamberlain. 

3. Otostigma occidentale, n. sp. 

Ochraceum, ante et post plus vel minus virescens, linea media dorsali 
angusta pallida; subgracile, ante sublaeve, post manifesto hirsutum, in 
lateribus rugulosum, laminis ventralibus sublaevibus ; capite subcordi- 
forme, post truncato. Antennae longiusculte, ad basin paulum incrassatae, 


Meinert] J-"t> [Oft. 2, 

21-articulatse, praeter articulos binos vel ternos priores manifesto hirsutae, 
articulis breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales terni vel quaterni minores, acutiusculi ; dens cox- 
alis acutiusculus, simplex. 

Pedes anales longiusculi, vix incrassati, articulis binis prioribus vix 
clavatis, femore inermi, post restricto. 

Laminae dorsales praeter 12-13 priores marginatae. 

Pleurae posticse amplae, sparse grossius porosae, area antica glabra, 
majore, angulo apicali nullo, margine postico leviter arcuato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis angustiuscula, lateribus rotundatis, valde con- 
vergentibus, post obscure sinuata. 

Long. 45 mm. 

The spiracles of this species are much smaller than the spira- 
cles of most other species of the genus ; yet, as to their con- 
struction, they all conform with the scape which ordinarily is 
found in Otostigma. Also with regard to the pedes anales and 
to the pleuroe, this is not a little different from the two others 
here described, perhaps, a new genus ought to be formed. 

Hab. Grande Anse, Hayti, Mr. Uhler. 

5. Gen. Cupipes. 

Cupipes Kohlrausch, Beitr. z. Kenntn. d. Scol., p. 23. 
Arch. f. Naturg. Jabrg., 47, p. 78. 

Lamina cephalica a lamina prima dorsali partim obtecta ; scuta dorsalia 
metameri tertii manifesta. 

Oculi ocellis 4. 

Antenna? breviusculae, crassiusculae, manifesto attenuate, 17-articulatae. 

Labri fimbria longa, setis paucioribus, simplicibus. 

Labii processus subteretes, barbae setis brevibus, densis, uncinatis facta; 
palporum fimbria e setis brevibus, densis, uncinatis facta. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis in latere interiore dentibus binis longis, 
acutis armatus ; fimbria digitalis, setis uncinatis, ad apicem dentatis, un- 
guem longe superans. 

Mandibular ante 13 pectinibusjuxta et pone lamellam dentatam coarctatis 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, minus robustum ; prosternum longe 
prominens, ante in dentes magnos incisum ; pedes prensorii articulo se- 
cundo et tertio parvis, interrupts. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula profunda vel sat profunda, parva vel minima, subtriangula, 
priora longitudinalia, postcriora per paria sensim brevius triangula vel 
rotundata, minus profunda, magnitudine decrescentia. 

Pleurae postic;e infra porosse, truncate. 

Pedes anales breves vel perbreves, deplanati, quinquearticulati, articulo 

1885.] 1"' [Meinert. 

primo ffemore) spinigero, ungne crasso, parum arcuato, absque unguicu- 
lis, infra carina longa, densissiuie crenulata instructo. 


?? Cormocephalus Brasiliensis Humbert et Saussure, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 2 

ser., xxii, p. 203. 
Etud. s. Myriap., p. 124, tab. vi, fig. 17, 

Flavus, ante et post fulvescens ; sat gracilis, sparse, brevissime hirsutus, 
laminis dorsalibus posteribus prseter sulcos ordinarios sulcis binis obsoletis, 
larninis ventralibus sulcis binis profundis exaratis ; capite subovali, im- 
marginato, obsolete longitudinaliter bisulcato, post in transversuna arcuato, 
sulcato. Antennae breviusculse, tenuiusculoe, paulum attenuatae, 17-artic- 
ulatse, prseter articulos senos vel octonos priores dense, breviter birsutse, 
articulis breviusculis, subteretibus. 

Dentes prosternales bini (interiores bifidi vel trifidi, exteriores minores, 
acuti) ; dens coxalis sat magnus, acutiusculus, nodulis binis in latere ar- 

Pedes anales breves vel perbreves, percrassi, fere contigui, in latere sup. 
interiore femoris spiuulis ternis parvis, in seriem arcuatam digestis, in 
latere interiore spinulis quaternis parvis vel perparvis, in series binas 
digestis, in latere inter, inferiore spinulis binis parvis vel perparvis, uni- 
seriatis, in latere inferiore saepe spinulis binis armati ; articulus priore tar- 
sali infra nodo majore instructo. 

Laminae dorsales proeter ultimam immarginatafe. 

Pleura? postioae angustae, subrugosse, porosaB, truncata?, in angulo in- 
teriore spinula perparva, nodiformi armatse. 

Lamina ultima ventralis latiuscula, lateribus rotundatis, manifesto con- 
vergentibus, post rotundate truncata. 

Long. 40 mm. 

Hab. Grande Anse, Hayti, Mr. P. R. Uhler ; Port au Prince, 
Mr. W. Wilson ; Pernambuco. 


Purpurascente-olivaceus, capite rufescente, pedibus amtennisque flaves- 
centibus ; minus robustus, laminis dorsalibus medis manifesto quadrisul- 
catis, anterioribus et posterioribus obsoletius exaratis, laminis ventralibus 
mediis profunde, anterioribus atque posterioribus obsolete bisulcatis. An- 
tennae breves, crassse, attenuatse, 17-articulata?, ad apicem obsolete hirsutse, 
articulis brevibus vel breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales bini (interiores truncati e ternis confluentes) ; dens 
coxalis minus productus, acutiusculus. 

Pedes anales perbreves, percrassae, contiguse, in margine interiore 
femoris post spinulis ternis perparvis, in latere sup. interiore spinula 
singula perparva armati. 

Meinert.] 188 [Oct. 2, 

Laminae dorsales prater undecim priores (obsolete) marginatae. 
Pleurae posticae angustae, subrugosa?, porosa 1 , rotundate truncatae. 
Lamina ultima veutralis lata, brevis, valde angustata, post rotundate 

Long. 40 mm. 

Hab. Ascension Island, South Sea (one single specimen). 

6. Gen. Rhoda, n. gen. 

Lamina ceplialica a lamina prima dorsali partim obtecta. 

Oculi ocellis 4. 

Antenna? breviusculae vel breves, ad basin incrassatae, valde attenuates, 
19-articulatae, articulis praeter ultimum brevibus vel perbrevibus, prioribus 

Labri fimbria 

Labii processus 

Palporum maxillarium unguis in latere interiore dentibus binis longis- 
acutis armato ; fimbria digitalis unguem medium procul complens. 

Mandibulae. . .. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, robustum ; prosternum perlonge 
productum, ante in dentes magnos incisuni ; pedes prensorii articulo 
secundo et tertio parvis, interruptis. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula profunda, longa, linearia vel paulum triangula, longitudina- 
lia, per paria sensim longitudine paulum decrescentia. 

Pleurae posticae infra porosae, truncatae. 

Pedes anales breves vel perbreves, deplanati, quinquearticulati, articulo 
primo (femore) spinigero, ungue crasso, parum arcuato, absque unguicu- 
lis, infra carina longa, dendssime crenulata instructo. 

As I have had but one single specimen of this new genus to 
study, I have not been able to give such full characteristics as 
I wished. 

1. Rhoda Thayert, n. sp. 

Flava, ante et post paulum fulvescens ; minus gracilis, subhrvis, lami- 
nis dorsalibus atque ventralibus profunde bisulcatis, capite subovali, im- 
marginato. Antennae breves, crassae, 19-articulatae praeter articulos senos 
priores dense, brevissime birsutae, articulis praeter ultimum brevibus. 

Dentes prosternales terni, validi, truncata 1 ; dens coxalis productus 

Pedes anales breves, crassae, contigua-, in margine sup. interiore femoris 
spinulis ternis (postica majore, bicuspide) in latere interiore spinulis binis 
perparvis, in margine inf. interiore spinulis binis parvis arniati. 

Lamina' dorsales praeter ultimata immarginatee. 

Pleurae postica- angustae, subrugosa 1 , porosa 1 , truncatae. 

1885.] loJ [Melnert. 

Lamina ultima ventralis longa, angusta, paulum angustata, post late 

Long. 58 mm. 

Hab. Santarem, Thayer Exped. 

7. Gen. isanada, n gen. 

Lamina cephalica libera vel a lamina prima dorsal i partim obtecta. 

Oculi ocellis 4. 

Antenna? perbreves, ad basin incrassatse, valde attenuata?, 17-articulata?, 
articulis brevibus vel perbrevibus, prioribus transversalibus. 

Labri fimbria brevis, maxime obtecta, setis paucioribus simplicibus. 

Labii processus breves, subconici, barba evanida ; palporum fimbria e 
setis perbrevibus, sparsis, uncinatis facta. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis simplex ; fimbria digitalis brevis, setis 
paucioribus, uncinatis, ad apicem dentatis, unguem medium procul coin- 

Mandibular ante 12 pectinibus juxta et pone lamellam dentatam coarcta- 
tis instructs. 

Metameri quarti sternum in medio canaliculatum, robustum ; prester- 
num longe prominens, ante in dentes majores incisum ; pedes prensorii 
articulo secundo et tertio perparvis, interruptis. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula sat profunda, perparva, producte triangula, longitudinalia, 
per paria sensim longitudine paulum descrescentia. 

Pleurae postica? lseves, magnam partem obtecta?, truncatae. 

Pedes anales breves, crassi, paulum complanati (mari perbreves, per- 
crassi, deplanati), quinquearticulati, articulo primo (femore) inermi, ungue 
brevi, crasso, paruni arcuato, simplice. 


Plava vel fulva, subtus pallidior ; gracilis, laevis, laminis dorsalibus 
bisulcatis, anterioribus obsolete, mediis atque posterioribus manifesto, 
laminis ventralibus manifesto bisulcatis, capite subovato, immarginato. 
Antenna? perbreves, ad basin incrassata?, valde attenuate, 17-articulata?, 
subnuda?, articulis prioribus transversalibus. 

Dentes prosternales terni, acuti (mediis maximis) ; dens coxalis parvus, 

Pedes anales breves, crassi, paulum complanati, ad basin distantes 
(maris perbreves, percrassi, deplanati, supra profundissime sulcati, fere 
contigui), inermes. 

Lamina? dorsales pra?ter ultimam immarginata?. 

Pleura? postica? triangula?, la?ves, perparva?, tere obtecta?, truncatae. 

Lamina ultima ventralis lata, brevis, lateribus rotundatis, valde con- 
vergentibus, post breviter rotundata. 

Long. 35 mm. 

Hab. Koolloo, Mr. Carleton. 

Meinert.] 1^0 [Oct. 2, 

8. Gen. Scolopendra. 

Scolopendra Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 377. 

Lamina cepbalica laminam primam dorsalem partim saepissirne ob- 

Oculi ocellis 4. 

Antenna? plerumque longiusculae, tenuisculoe, ad basin manifesto in- 
crassatae, attenuatae, 17-30-attenuatae, articulis plerisque longiusculis vel 

Labri fimbria longa, setis plus vei minus densis, simplicibus. 

Labii processus subconici, barba e setis brevibus, densis, uncinatis facta ; 
palporum fimbria e setis brevibus, densis, manifesto uncinatis facta. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis in latere interiore dentibus binis validis, 
acutiusculis armatus ; fimbria digitalis brevior, setis longis, densis, parum 
uncinatis, unguis basin plus vel minus superans. 

Mandibulae ante 10-13 pectinibus juxta et pone lamellam dentatem 
coarctatis instructae. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, robustum ; prosternum longe 
prominens, in dentes majores vel minores incisum ; pedes prensorii arti- 
culo secundo et tertio parvis, interrupts. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula sat profunda, magna, angusta, post paulum dilatata, longi- 
tudinalia, per paria longitudine decrescentia. 

Pleura? posticae sat auiplae, infra porosae, post in angulum plus vel minus 
productum desinentes. 

Pedes anales plerumque longiusculi vel longi, rare incrassati, quinque- 
articulati, articulo primo (femore) saepissirne spinigero, ungue sat magno, 
minus curvato, ad basin unguiculis binis armato. 

Conspectus speciorum : 

I. Femora pedium penultimorum (saltern) ad apicem exteriorem spinulis 


A. Lamina prima marginem pone dorsalis anticum profunde sulcatum 

in transversum. 
1. Sc. gigas. 2. Sc. cristata. 3. Sc. prasina. 

B. Lamina prima dorsalis integra. 
4. Sc. allernans. 5. Sc. crudelis. 

II. Femora pedum penultimorum ad apicem exteriorem inermia. 

A. Lamina prima dorsalis pone marginem anticum in transversum 
profunde sulcatum. 

a. Pedum ultimorum articulus primus tarsalis calcare armatus. 
6. Sc. heros. 7. Sc. viridis. 

b. Pedum ultimorum articulus primus tarsalis inermis. 
8. Sc. occidentalis. 9. Sc. Woodii. 

B. Lamina prima dorsalis integra. 

a. Pedum omnium articulus primus tarsalis inermis. 

J883.] 191 [Meinert. 

10. Sc. longispina. 11. Sc. CMlemis. 

b. Pedum plerorumque articulus primus tarsalis calcare armatus. 
12. Sc. morsitans. 13. Sc. rugosa. 14. Sc. subspinipes. 15. Sc. 
Be Haanii. 16. Sc. Indica. 

I. Femora pedum penultimorum (saltern) ad apicem exteriorem spinulis 
A. Lamina prima dorsalis pone marginem anticum in transversum 
profunde sulcata. 


Scolopendra gigas Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xi, p. 383. 

Newport, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., xiii, p. 98. 

Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 399. 
Kohlrausch, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 119. 
Scolopendra insignis Gervais, Ann. Soc. entom. de France, p. xxix. 

Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 278. 
Scolopendra gigantea Porat, Soc. Vet. Akad. Handl. Bin., B. 4, No. 7, p. 5. 
? Scolopendra gigantea Linne\ Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 638. 

Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 400. 
Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 279. 
Scolopendra prasinipes, epileptica Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 
1861, p. 11. 
Castanea, subtus pallidior, pedibus prioribus in articulis ternis ultimis 
saepissime olivaceo balteatis, antennis viridi-olivaceis ; valde robustus, 
sublaevis, laminis ventralibus obscure bisulcatis ; capite suborbiculari, ini- 
marginato. Antennae longiusculae vel longae, 17-(18-)articulata', articulis 
septenis vel octonis anterioribus dense brevissime gilvo-hirsutae, articulis 
praeter priores longis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini vel terni interiores maximam partem 
coaliti), magni ; dens coxalis magnus, obtusiusculus, in latere nodulo 

Femora praeter prima vel bina priora ad apicem exteriorem spinulis 
ternis (quinis) armata. Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus ultimis 
(analibus) exceptes, calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales longiusculi, in latere sup. interiore femoris spinulis majori- 
bus novenis vel duodenis, in series ternas vel quaternas digestis, in angulo 
exteriore tumido spinulis octonis vel denis, in series binas vel ternas ob- 
liquas digestis, in latere inf. interiore spinulis minoribus ternis (binis), in 
latere inferiore spinulis ternis vel quinis, in series binas digestis, armati. 
Laminae dorsales praeter tres vel quatuor priores marginatae. 
Pleurae posticae amplae, sublaeves, densissime tenuiter porosae, in angu. 
lum obtusum, spinulis quaternis vel quinis instructum, products;, margine 
postico in obliquum fere truncato vel leviter sinuato, inermi. 

Meinert.] ±J-i [Oct. 2, 

Lamina ultima ventralis longa, angusta, lateribus sinuatis manifesto 
convergentibus, post rotundate truncata vel latissime rotundata. 

Long. 220-280 mm. 

Eab. Santarem, Chas. Linden; Near Santarem, Brazil; Obidos, 
Brazil, James & Hunnewell (Thayer Exped.) ; Villa Bella, 
Brazil, J. C. Hetcher. 


Scolopendra cristata Newport, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., xiii, p. 98. 

Trans. Linn. Soc, Lond., xix, p. 398. 
Porat, Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. Bih., B. 4, No. 7, p. 6. 
Kohlrausch, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 117. 

Castanea vel olivacea, antennis pedibusque pallidioribus, concoloribus 
vel partini balteis olivaceis in articulis omnibus vel exterioribus pedum 
posteriorum plus vel minus manifestis ornatis, robusta, sublaevis ; capite 
subovali. Antennae breviusculae vel longiusculte, ad basin multum in- 
crassatae, 17-articulata3, praeter articulos quaternos priores brevissime 
hirsute, articulis propter priores longiusculis vel longis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (terni interiores plus vel minus coaliti) 
magni ; dens coxalis in latere nodulo armatus. 

Femora terna vel quina posteriora (ante pedes anales) ad apicem 
exteriorem spinulis binis vel spinula singula armata. Pedum articulus 
primus tarsalis, pedibus ultimis (analibus) exceptis, calcare arraatus. 

Pedes anales breviusculi vel breves, incrassati vel crassi, in latere 
superiore femoris spinulis parvis binis vel spinula singula, in margine sup. 
interiore spinulis magnis binis vel ternis, angulo apicali in acu forte, acu- 
tum, in latere spinulis binis armatum producto, in latere inleriore spinulis 
sen is, in series ternas digestis, armati. 

Laminae dorsales prseter quatuor priores marginataa. Lamina ultima 
in medio alte carinata. 

Pleurae postica? sat amplae, sublaeves, densissime tenuiter porosae, in 
angulum minorem, ad apicem spinula singula armatum, product*, margine 
postico paulum obliquo, subrecto, inermi. 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, angustiuscula, multum angustata, 
post late rotundata. 

Long. 145-175 mm. 

Hab. Brazil?, Charles Linden ; Amazon river, Brazil, Rev. J. 
C. Hetcher. 


Scolopendra prasina C. L. Koch, Die Myriap., ii, p. 23, tab. lxxi, fig. 146. 

Kohlrauscb, Arch. f. Naturg. Jabrg., 47, p. 122. 
f Scolopendra puncticeps Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 14. 

1885.] LJO [Meinert. 

?? Scolopendra punctiscuta "Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 

Flava vel flavo-brunnea, laminis dorsalibus prater laminam priraam et 
ultimain in margine postico viresceatibus, articulis exterioribus pedum 
posteriorum virescentibus ; sat robusta, tenuiter sparse punctata, laminis 
ventralibus lsevibus ; capite suborbiculari. Antennie breviusculae ad basin 
paulum incrassata?, 17-articulata?, pra?ter articulos quaternos priores dense 
gilvo birsuta?, carinulata?, articulis breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini interiores approximati vel coaliti, 
externi discreti), majores, truncati ; dens coxalis in latere nodulo majore 

Femora bina posteriora (ante pedes anales) ad apicem exteriorem spinu- 
lis binis, femora antecedentia spinula singula armata. Patella? bina? 
posteriores (ante pedes anales) ad apicem exteriorem spinula singula 
armata. Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus ultimis (analibus) ex- 
ceptis, calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales breviusculi, sat incrassaii, in latere superiore femoris 
spinulis binis parvis, in margine sup. interiore rotundato spinulis senis 
majoribus, uncinatis, in margine inf. interiore rotundato spinulis binis 
minoribus, in latere inferiore spinulis septenis majoribus, in series ternas 
digestis, armati, in latere interiore articuli sequentis (patella?) spinulis 
quaternis minoribus, angulo apicali spinula singula instructo, armati. 

Lamina? dorsales prseter sex priores marginata?. 

Pleura? postica? ampla?, subkeves, densissime tenuiter porosa?, in angu- 
lum brevem, spinulis ternis magnis bamatis instructum, producta?, mar- 
gine postico leviter arcuato, spinula singula armato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, latiuscula, multumangustata, post 
late rotundata. 

Long. 90-105 mm. 

Hob. Grenada, W. I., Peter Gelliman. 

B. Lamina prima dorsalis integra. 

4. Scolopendra alternans. 

Scolopendra alternans Leacb, Trans. Linn. Soc, Lond., xi, p. 383. 
Scolopendra alternans, Grayi, complanata, incerta, multispinosa (mvltispi- 

nata) Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc, Lond.,' xix, p. 402-405. 
Scolopendru Sagroza Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 281. 
? Scolopendra torquata Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad., 18G1, p. 13. 

Flavo-brunnea vel pra?sertim ante et post castanea, margine postico la- 
minarum dorsalium, antennis vel totis vel solummodo in latere inferiore 
articulorum priorum articulisque pedum exterioribus interdum obscure 
virescentibus ; robusta vel valde robusta, subkevis, laminis ventralibus 
sat obscure bisulcatis, capite suborbiculari. Antenna? longiuscula? vel 


Meinert.] i-jQ. [Oct. 2, 

longse, ad basin paulum incrassatse, attenuate, 17-articulata?, propter arti- 
culos quinos priores dense brevissime hirsute, carinulata?, articulis longis. 

Dentes prosternales terni (interiores lati, obtusi), validi ; dens coxalis 
magnus, obtusiusculus, in latere interiore nodo vel denticulo obtuso 

Femora pedum penultimorum angulo, spinulis quinis vel senis armato, 
instructa ; pedum antepenultimorum ad apicem exteriorem spinulis binis 
vel spinula singula armata. Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus 
ultimis (analibus) exceptis, calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales longiusculi, crassiusculi, in latere superiore femoris spinu- 
lis ternis vel senis, majoribus vel minoribus, in series binas subdigestis, in 
latere sup. interiore spinis quaternis vel senis subseriatis, angulo postico 
acutiusculo spinis septenis vel octonis instructo, in latere interiore spinis 
senis vel novenis subseriatis vel in series binas digestis, in latere inferiore 
spinis septenis vel duodenis, in series ternas digestis, armati. 

Laruinse dorsales prater quinque vel septem priores marginatum 

Pleura; posticse minus am pise, subla?ves, densissime tenuissime porosse, 
in angulum acutiusculum, spinulis senis vel octonis parvis instructum, 
products, margine postico in obliquum subtruncato, paulum flexuoso, in 
medio atque ad apicem exteriorem spinulis parvis armato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, angustiuscula, valde angustata, 
post rotundate truncata. 

Long. 110-170 m.m. 

Hob. This species seems to be a very common one in the 
West India; yet in the collection of the Museum of Comp. 
Zool,, I have found only five specimens, viz : from Cuba, Mr. 
Trey, and also from Brazil. 


ticolopeudra crudeUs Kocli, Syst. d. Myriap. p. 170j 

Die Myriap., ii, p. 3(j, tab. lxxvii, lxxviii, rig. 
158, 159. 
Porat, Sv. Vet. Akad, Hancll. Bib., B 4, No. 7, p. 7. 
Scolopendra lovgipex Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pliilad., 2 ser., v, p. 26. 
Trans. Amer. Pbilos. Soc, xiii, p. Hi:!. 
Castanea vel fulva, antennis pedibusqueflavesceutibus, margine postico 
laminarum dorsalium interdum virescente ; robusta, subhevis, laminis 
ventralibus obscure bisulcatis ; capite subovali, immarginato. Antenna' 
longiuscuke vel long;e, ad basin paulum incrassatse, attenuate, 17-articu- 
latse, prseter articulos quinos priores dense brevissime hirsute, carinulatse, 
articulis longis, teretibus. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini interiores coaliti, truncati), validi ; 
dens coxalis magnus, in latere interiore denticulo majore armatus. 
Femora pedum penultimorum angulo spinulis quaternis vel senis in- 

1885.] U5 [Meinert. 

structo, in latere superiore spiaulis parvis ternis vel spiuula singula 
armata ; pedum antepenultirnorum ad apicem exteriorem spinulis binis 
arrnata. Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus ullimis (analibus) ex- 
ceptis, calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales longi, tenuiusculi, in margine sup. interiore femoris ro- 
tundato spinulis majoribus sedenis vel vicenis, in series quaternas sub- 
digestis, nodo apicali sat producto, spinulis septenis vel octonis majoribus 
instructo, in latere inferiore spinulis tredenis vel quatuordenis, in series 
ternas digestis, armati. 

Laminae dorsales praeter septem priores niarginatae. 

Pleurae posticae minus amphe, sublaeves, densissime tenuissime (poris 
majoribus intermixtis) porosae, in angulum majorem, obtusiusculum, 
spinulis senis instructum product*, margine postico in obliquum sub- 
truncato, paulum flexuoso, spinulis binis majoribus armato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis brevisucula, latiuscula, valde angustata, post 
rotundate truncata. 

Long. 150 mm, 

Hab. Florida, Mr. Wurdemann ; Double-headed-shot Key (TJ. 
S. Coast Survey. Gulf Stream Exped.) ; Jeremie, Hayti ( F. C. 
Gray's fund). 

II. Femora pedum penultimorum ad apicem inermia. 

A. Lamina prima dorsalis pone marginem anticum in transversum 
profunde sulcata, 
a. Pedum ultimorum articulus primus tarsalis calcare armatus. 


Scolopendra lieros Girard, Marcy Rep. Explor. Red Riv., p. 272, tab. xviii. 
Wood, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 155. 
Porat, Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. Bih., B. 4, No. 7, p. 8. 
Scolopendra castqneiceps Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 11. 

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, tab. i, 
fig. 7. 
Scolopendra polymorplia Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 11. 

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 158. 
Kohlrausch, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 114. 
Scolopendra Copeana Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., 2 ser., v, p. 27. 

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 165. 
? Scolopendra my sieca Humbert et Saussure, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 2 ser., 
xxi, p. 157. 
Saussure et Humbert, Etud. s. Myriap., p. 130. 

Meinert.), lJb [Oct. 2, 

? Scolopendra Azteca, Otomita, Maya, Talteca Saussure, Mem. Mex.Myriap., 
p. 124-126, tab. 5-6, fig. 41-43, 45. 
Saussure el Humbert, Etud. s. Myriap., p. 12R-129, 
tab. v, fig. 9, 10, 12, 14. 

Brunnea vel flavo-olivacea, capite cum lamina prima dorsali plus vel 
minus rufescente, pedibus antennisque flavescentibus, margine postico 
laminarum dorsalium ssepe virescente, in medio latius vel manifestus ; 
robusta vel sat robusta, sublaevis, laminis ventralibus manifesto bisulcatis ; 
capite suborbiculari, immarginato. Antennae longiusculie vel longa8, ad 
basin paulum incrassatae, attenuatae, 24-29 articulatas, praeter articulos 
senos vel denos brevissime hirsutae, articulis pluribus anterioribus brevibus 
vel breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini vel terni interiores plus vel minus 
coaliti), majores, obtusi ; dens coxalis magnus, acutiusculus, subinermis. 

Pedes anales longiusculi vel breviusculi, paulum incrassati, in latere 
sup. interiore femoris spinulis quaternis vel senis majoribus, in series binas 
digestis, angulo apicali in nodum longiorem, angustiorem, spinulis ternis 
vel septenis instructum, producto, in latere interiore spinulis binis vel 
ternis, in latere inf. interiore spinulis binis vel ternis, in latere inferiore 
spinulis quaternis vel septenis, in series binas digestis, armati. 

Laminae dorsales prceter octo piiores marginatse. 

Pleura? posticae amplae, subkeves. dense tenuiter porosae, in angulum 
breviorem vel longiorem, obtusiusculum, ad apicem spinulis ternis vel 
senis instructum, productae, margine postico sinuato, spinula parva ar- 

Lamina ultima ventralis brevis, lata, valde angustata, post subtruncata 
vel latissime sinuata. 

Long. 100-130 mm. 

Hab. This species seems to be common through the most parts 
of North and Central America; thus I have seen specimens 
irom Westfield, N. York; near Mammoth Cave, Ky,; Key 
West; Alexandria, Ga., Anderson ; Seabrook Isl., Ga. ; Mobile, 
Ala. ; Springhill, Ala. ; Cap Florida, Wurdemann ; Galveston, 
Tex., Boll; Monteviaz, Mex., Palmer; mountain near St. Louis 
Potosi, Mex., E. Palmer; Panama; Guatemala, Van Patten; 
Porto Rico, Cardoge; San Diego, Cal. ; Guaymas, Gulf of Cali- 
fornia; Ft. M'Pherson, Neb.; Riley, Kansas, H. Biavat. 


Scolopendra viridis Say, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad., ii, p. 110. 

Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad., 2 ser., v, p. 22. 

Trans. Amer. Pbilos. Soc, xiii, p. 159. 
Koblrauscli, Arcb. f. Naturg. Jabrg., 47, p. 112. 

1885.] 1J< [Meinert. 

Scolopendra punctiventris Newport, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., xiii, p. 

Trans. Linn. Soc, Lond., xix, p. 38(5. 
Scolopendra parva Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 10. 

Ochracea vel brunnea, lamina cephalica atque vitta lata dorsali srepe 
viridibus ; sat gracilis, manifesto sparse punctata, laminis ventralibus pro- 
funde bisulcatis ; capite subrotundata. Antenna; longiusculae, ad basin 
sat incrassatse, angustatse, 23-24 articulate, prater articulos senos priores 
brevissime hirsute articulis pluribus brevibus, longioribus interpositis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini interiores fere coaliti, exteriores 
magis discreti), minores ; dens coxalis sat magnus, obtusiusculus, inermis. 

Pedes anales breviusculi, paulum incrassati, in margine sup. interiore 
femoris rotundato spinulis quaternis majoribus, in series binas digestis, 
angulo apicali brevissimo, bifido vel spinulis ternis vel quaternis instructo, 
in latere interiore ante spina singula, in latere inferiore spinulis senis vel 
octonis, in series quaternas digestis, armati. 

Laminae dorsales prseter duodecim vel tredecim priores marginate. 

Pleura postica; ample, dense grossius porose, in angulum brevem, spi- 
nulis ternis vel quaternis instructum producta?, margine postico leviter 
sinuato, inermi vel spinula minima armato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis longiuscula, angustiuscula, multum angustata, 
post latissime sinuata. 

Long. 60 mm. 

Hab. Georgia, A. S. Allanson (an original specimen of this 

b. Pedum ultimorum arliculus primus tarsalis inermis. 

8. Scolopendra occidentalis, n. sp. 

Ochracea vel brunnea, laminis dorsalibus prater primam atque altimam 
plus vel minus virescentibus ; subgracilis, sublevis, laminis ventralibus 
profunde bisulcatis ; capite suborbiculari. Antennae longiuscula?, ad basin 
valde incrassate, attenuate, 23-articulate, prater articulos quinos vel 
senos priores obscure hirsute, articulis breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini interiores approximati), majores ; 
dens coxalis mediocris, acutus, inermis. 

Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus binis posterioribus exceptis, 
calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales longi, graciles, in margine sup. interiore femoris spinulis 
quinis vel septenis minoribus, in series binas digestis, angulo apicali vix 
prominente, spinulis ternis vel quaternis instructo, in latere interiore spi- 
nulis ternis parvis, in latere inferiore spinulis quatuordenis vel sedenis, in 
series ternas digestis, armati. 

Lamina; dorsales prater sedecim priores marginate. 

Pleura; postice angustiuscula;, subrugose, sparse tenuiter porose, in an- 

Meinert.] ±.)b [Oct 2, 

gulum longius, ad apicem spinulis quaternis parvis in latere spinula singula 
instructurn, products?, margine postico leviter sinuato, spinulis binis parvis 

Lamina ultima ventralis brevis, lata, valde angustata, post rotundate 

Long. 50 mm. 

Hab. West Coast of Mexico, Capt. Goff (a single specimen). 


Scolopendra inwquidens "Wood, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 162. 

Ochracea vel brunnea, antennis laminisque dorsalibus prseter primam 
atque ultimam sa?pe olivaceis vel virescentibus, linea media dorsali pallida, 
obscure marginata ; subgracilis, sublaevis, laminis ventralibus profunde 
bisulcatis ; capite subovali. Antennae breviusculre, ad basin paulum in- 
crassativ, 17-articulat;*, prater articulos octonos priores manifesto hirsutse, 
articulis brevibus. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini interiores plus vel minus coaliti), 
minores ; dens coxalis mediocris, ad apicem obscure carinatus. 

Pedum omnium articulus primus tarsalis inermis. 

Pedes anales breviusculi, sat incrassati, in margine sup. interiore femoris 
spinulis quinis majoribus, in series binas digestis, angulo apicali in spinam 
acutum, breviorem, simplicem vel bifidum producto, in latere inferiore 
spinulis senis vel septenis magnis, in series ternas digestis, armati. 

Laminre dorsales modo tres vel quatuor posteriores marginata-. 

Pleurae postica' sat amplse, rugosa 1 , sparsius grossius porosa^, in angulum 
longum, angustum, ad apicem spinis binis vel quaternis instructurn pro- 
duct*, margine postico in obliquum profunde sinuato, inerrui. 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, latiuscula, valde angustata, post 
latissime sinuata. 

Long. GO mm. 

Mr. Wood has determined this species as Sc. ina^quidens 
Gervais, but I do not believe that this determination is right, 
and although the description of Gervais is very incomplete or 
incertain, yet his original specimen is said to exist in the museum 
at Paris, and so we may be sure that at some time this same 
specimen will be more completely described, and then Gervais' 
name will be attached to another species and not to that of 
which I am here treating. Therefore it might be better to alter 
the name at this time, and so I propose the name of Scolopendra 
Wootlii in honor of Dr. Wood, the first man who has made it 
clear how much the species of Scolopendra vary in the greater 
part of the characters, which we have been accustomed to be- 
lieve to be the most characteristic. 

1885.] IJj [Meinert. 

Hab. Hilton Head, S. C, Dr. Greene; Beaufort, N. C, J. G. 
Shute ; Pennington's Gap, Lee Co., Va. ; I have seen specimens 
besides from Massachusetts, and other places in the United 

B. Lamina prima dorsalis integra. 

a. Pedum omnium articulus primus tarsalis inermis. 


Ochracea vel brunnea, supra plus vel minus olivacea, linea media 
dorsali angusta pallida ; subgracilis, sublsevis, laminis ventralibus mani- 
festo bisulcatis ; capite subovali. Antennae breviusculae, ad basin sat in- 
crassatae, 17-19-articulatae, praeter articulos quaternos vel quinos priores 
brevissime birsuta% articulis breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini interiores approximati vel coaliti), 
majores ; dens coxalis in latere nodulis binis vel nodulo singulo armatus. 

Pedes anales breviusculi, plus vel minus incrassati, in margine sup. in- 
teriore femoris supra fere planiusculi spinulis term's vel quinis majoribus 
vel magnis, in series binas digestis, angulo apical i in spinam longiorem, 
bi- vel quadrifidam producto, in latere interiore spinulis quaternes vel 
septenis majoribus, in series binas digestis, in latere inferiore spinulis 
septenis vel novenis majoribus, in series binas digestis, ad basin spinulis 
ternis vel quinis, in seriem obliquam digestis, armati. 

Laminae dorsales modo tres vel sex posteriores rnarginatse. 

Pleurae posticae sat amplae, subrugosae, densius grossius porosae, in an- 
gulum longum, angustum, ad apicem spinulis quaternis vel quinis, in 
latere superiore spinulis binis vel quaternis, in latere exteriore spinulis 
binis vel spinula singula instruction product*, margine posticosubtruncato, 
spinula singula minore armato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis brevis, perlata, valde angustata, post late ro- 

Long. 60 mm." 

Hab. Maldonado, Brazil, Mr. T. G. Carey. 


? Scolopendra Chilensis Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 285. 

Ochracea, plus vel minus olivacea, pedibus pallidioribus ; gracilis, sub- 
laevis, laminis ventralibus leviter vel obscure bisulcatis ; capite subovali. 
Antennae longiusculae, ad basin paulum incrassata?, 17-18-articulatae, 
prseter articulos senos priores breviter birsutae, articulis prseter priores 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (bini interiores approximate, minores ; 
dens coxalis mediocris, simplex. 

Pedes anales longi vel elougati, graciles, teretes, in latere interiore 

Meinert.] -^0 [Oct. 2, 

femoris spinalis undenis niinoribus, in series ternas digestis, angulo apicali 
in spinam brevem, bifidam produclo, in latere inferiore ad marginem ex- 
teriorem spinulis undenis minoribus, in series binas digestis, armati. 

Lamina' dorsales modo quatuor vel sex posteriores marginatse. 

Pleurae posticse ampla?, subrugosse, sparsius tenuiter porosre, in angulum 
longum, angustam, subteretem, ad apicem spinulis quinque in latere ex- 
teriore spinulis binis instructum producta?, margine postico in obliquum 
subtruncato, spinula singula parva armato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis brevis, perlata, valde angustata, post brevius 

Long.* 50 mm. 

Dr. Kohlrausch, 1. c, p. 125, has suggested that the Sc. Chi- 
lensis of Gervais may be a Connocephalus ; in reality the pres- 
ent species very nearty approaches that genus, but the structure 
of the lamina cephalica does not permit such a reference. 

Hub. Zalcuhana, Chili, Hassler Exped.; Cordova, Argent., 
Mr. Davis. 

b. Pedum plerorumque articulus primus tarsalis calcare armatus. 


Scolopenclra morsitans Kohlrauscb, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 104. 
Scolopendra morsitans, angulipes, f varia, platypoides, tigrina, Leachii, 

angusta, formosa, longicornis, tuberculides, Fabricii, ? Richards onii, 

Algerina Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc., Loud., xix, p. 378-387. 
Scolopendra Gervaisiana, Scopoliana, fulvipes, elegans, erythrocepJiala, 

bilineala, ? Togana, platypus Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 

Scolopendra carinipes, Californica Saussure et Humbert, Etud. s. Myriap., 

p. 125-127, tab. v, fig. G and 8. 
Scolopendra pella, porpliyratainia Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 

1861, p. 13-15. 
Scolopendra morsitans Wood, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., xiii, p. 161. 
Scolopendra morsitans, ? Scopoliana, Gervaisiana, planipes, injesta C. L. 

Kocb, Die Myriap., i, fig. 33, 34, 46 ; ii, figs. 179, 180. 
Scolopendra picturata, intermedia, cognata, Alfzelii, LcacMi, attenuata, 

pilosella, chorocephala, Wahlbergi, sallatoria Porath, Ofvers. Vet. 

Akad. Forb., 1871, No. 9, p. 1144-1151. 
Scolopendra platypus, longicornis, cognata, impressa Porat, Sv. Vet. Akad. 

Handl. Bih., 15. 4, No. 7, p. 11-13. 
Scolopendra Mossambica, ? brachypoda Peters, Pels. Mozamb. Zool., v, p. 

vj; 529, tab. xxxiii, figs. 1-2. 

1885.] * -^1 [Meinert. 

Ocbracea vel brunnea, sa>pe plus vel minus olivacea, margine postico 
laminarum dorsalum srepissime, autennis pedibus posterioribus partim 
pleurisque ssepe virescentibus ; robusta vel minus robusta, sublasvis, la- 
minis ventralibus plus vel minus manifesto bisulcatis ; capite subovali. 
Antenna? longiuscuhe, ad basin paulum incrassat*, attenuata?, 17-22 artic- 
ulata?, prater articulos senos vel septenos priores brevissime hirsutoe, 
articulis mediis longiusculis. 

Dentes prosternales qnini vel rare quaterni (bini vel terni interiores plus 
vel minus coaliti), minores, obtusiusculi ; dens coxalis in latere nodulo 
parvo armatus. 

Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus ultimis vel binis posterioribus 
exceptis, calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales breviusculi, plus vel minus incrassati (varissime longius- 
culi, vix incrassati), articulis binis prioribus deplanatis marginatis, in 
margine sup. interiore femoris spinulis quaternis vel quinis longis, in 
series binas digestis, angulo apicali in spinam longiorem, tri- vel quadrifi- 
dam producto, in latere inferiore spinulis senis vel novenis majoribus, in 
series ternas concinne digestis, armati. 

Laminae dorsales posteriores marginata?. 

Pleura? postica? lata?, sublaeves, dense porosse, in angnlum minorem, tri- 
vel quadrifidum producta?, margine postico fere in transversum leviter 
sinuato, spinula perparva armato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, latiuscula, lateribus sinuatis, valde 
angustata, post brevius rotundata. 

Long. 90-130 mm. 

Perhaps this Scolopendra is the most inconstant species 
among all the Myriapods, but also very few animals are so com- 
mon and so widely distributed as Sc. morsitans ; yet through all 
its variations the short, flat, marginated pedes anales with three 
rows of larger spines on the under side of the femora seldom are 
missed. On the other hand, if we are not willing to believe in 
such variability, we are compelled to accept an infinity of species, 
such as most conspicuously v. Porat has made ; but I do not 
hesitate to say that a larger number of specimens from different 
parts of the world will bring us to follow the views which Dr. 
Wood and Dr. Kohlrausch have so forcibly declared with regard 
to the genus Scolopendra. 

Hab. This species is found in all tropical regions, whence it 
is often brought alive in ships to more northern localities. For 
this reason it will be of no value to enumerate all those from 
which specimens have been received by the Museum. 


Meinert.] — Uli [ 0ct# 2j 


Rufo-brunnea, pedibus antennisque flavis ; minus robusta, manifesto 
rugosa ; capite subcordiformi. Antenna? longiuscula?, ad basin valde in- 
crassata?, 18-articulata?, prater articulos senos vel septenos priores brevis- 
sime hirsuta?, articulis breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales seni (bini interiores approximati), parvi ; dens 
coxalis ad apicem carinatus, in latere nodulo instructus. 

Pedum articulus primus dorsalis, pedibus binis posterioribus exceptis, 
calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales breviusculi, incrassati, in margine sup. interiore rotundato 
femoris spinulis ternis magnis, in trigonum digestis, angulo apicali in 
spinam breviorem, acutam, bifidam producto, in latere inferiore spinis 
binis magnis seriatis, armati. 

Lamina? dorsales prater septem priores marginata?. 

Pleura? postica? ampla?, subla?ves, densissime porosa?, in angulum mino- 
rem, bifidum producta?; margine postico in obliquum leviter arcuato, in- 

Lamina ultima ventralis longiuscula, latiuscula, valde angustata, post 
manifesto sinuata. 

Long. 120 mm. 

Hab. Hong-Kong, Capt. W. H. A. Putnam (one single speci- 


Scolopendra subspinipes Koblrauscb, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg., 47, p. 96. 
? Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xi, p. 383. 
Scolopendra siibspimpef, Placece, ? Gervaisii, ? Ceylonensis, planiceps, sexspi- 

nosa, lutea, orna ta, flava Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 


Scolopendra subspinipes, Lucasii, rarispina, Sandwichiana, audax, ? New- 
portii Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 262-281. 

Scolopendra byssina, dinodon, parvidens, atra, plumbeolata Wood, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad.. 1861, p. 10-14. 

Scolopendra byssina Wood, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 164. 

Scolopendra pulchra, mactans, ferrvginea, sulplmrea, gigantea, ornata G. 
L. Koch, Die Myriap., i, figs. 21, 79, 80, 92 ; ii, figs. 133, 134. 

Scolopendra elongata Porath, Ofvers. Vet. Akad. Fork., 1871, No. 9, p« 

Ochracea vel brunnea, prater caput laminamque primam dorsalem plus 
vel minus olivacea, margine postico laminarum dorsalium s;vpe virescente; 
robusta vel valde robusta, koviuscula, laminis ventralibus obscurius bisul- 
catis ; capite suborbiculari. Antenna? longiuscula?, ad basin paulum in- 
crassata?, attenuate, 17-20-articulata?, prater senos priores hirsute, artic- 
ulis plurimis longis. 

1885.] -"d [Meinert. 

Dentes prosternales quini vel seni, rarissime quaterni vel septeni, 
minores, obtusiusculi ; dens coxalis magnus, ad apicein carinatus, in latere 
nodulo parvo instructus. 

Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus ultimis vel binis posterioribus 
exceptis, calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales longiusculi, sat graciles, in margine sup. interiore rotun- 
dato femoris paulum deplanati spinulis snepissime binis majoribus, angulo 
apicali plus vel minus producto ssepissime bifido, in latere interiore spinula 
singula vel nulla, in latere inferiore spinulis binis, in seriem longitudina- 
lem digestis, armati. 

Laminae dorsales prater quatuor vel quinque priores marginato. 

Pleurae posticse minus ampla 3 , subrugosae, densissime porosa?, in angu- 
lum minorem, bifidum product*, margine postico leviter arcuato, inermi. 

Lamina ultima ventralis longiuscula, angustiuscula, valde angustata, 
post brevius rotundata. 

Long. 150-180 mm. 

"With regard to frequency, distribution and variability Sc. 
subspinipes comes near to Sc. morsitans, and therefore I can 
here refer to my preceding remarks. 

Hah. This species also is so common in all tropical and sub- 
tropical localities, that I shall not enumerate the many places 
from which the Museum has specimens. 


Scolopendra De Haanii Brandt, Recueil, p. 59. 

Koblrauscb, Arch. f. Naturg. .Tahrg., 47, p. 

Scolopendra SiUietensis, ? inermis, ?concolor, Childreni, Har die ickii New- 
port, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 393-395. 

Scolopendra flimicolor, ? cephalica, t? gracilis (var.) "Wood, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. Pbilad., 1861, p. 12-13. 

Scolopendra bispinipes Wood, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 166. 

Scolopendra bicolor Humbert, Essai Myriap. Ceylan, p. 12. 

Scolopendra histrionica, horrida C. L. Koch, Die Myriap., i, figs. 44, 67. 

Scolopendra fissispina C. L. Koch, Verh. Zool. bot. Ges. z. Wien, xv, p. 
Flavo-brunnea, supra stepe, prgesertim in margine postico laminarurn 

dorsalium, olivacea vel virescens (interdum laminis dorsalibus alternanti- 

bus totis olivaceis) ; robusta vel valde robusta, sublsevis, laminis ventrali- 

bus manifesto bisulcatis ; capite suborbiculari. Antennte longiusculie, ad 

basin valde incrassatte, attenuate, 18-articulatee, prreter articulos senos 

priores densissime brevissime hirsute, articulis plerisque longis. 

Dentes prosternales quini, rare quaterni, minores, obtusi ; dens coxalis 

magnus, obtusiusculus, nodo vel nodis obsoletis instructus. 

Meinert.] - v '^ [Oct. 2, 

Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus binis posterioribus exceptis, 
calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales longiusculi vel longi, sat graciles, in margine sup. interiore 
femoris paulum vel sat deplanati spinulis biuis tenuibus, interdum evani- 
dis, angulo apicali in spinam longam angustatam, srepissime bifidam pro- 
ducts, armati. 

Laminae dorsales prater sex vel undecim priores marginatae. 

Pleurae posticae amplae, sublasves, densissime tenuius porosae, in angulum 
majorem, bifidum productae, margine postico in obliquum leviter arcuato, 

Lamina ultima ventralis longiuscula, angustiuscula, valde angustata, 
post rotundate truncata. 

Long. 160-170 mm. 

Hah. This species also is spi'ead over the whole tropical and 
subtropical world, and I have seen specimens from : Society Is- 
lands, Mr. A. Garrett; Pennaculum, S. India, D. C. Scudder 
(var. : Sc. histrionica C. L. Koch) ; Africa, without further nar- 
rative of the locality ; San Francisco, Cal., T. Gr. Cary, Jr. (an 
original specimen of Dr. Wood's Sc. bispinipes). 

1G. Scolopendra Lndica, n. sp. 

Olivaceo-flava, ante et post obscurior, supra saepe viridi-olivacea, capite 
cum antennis atque fascia media virescentibus, pedibus antennisque flavo- 
brunneis ; minus robusta, sublaevis, ante sparse leviter punctata, laminis 
ventralibus manifesto bisulcatis ; capite fere rotundato, post arcuatim 
sulcato, a lamina prima dorsali partim obtecta vel laminam illam obtegens. 
Antennae longiusculae, ad basin valde incrassatae, 17-19-articulata?, praeter 
articulos decern priores dense birsutae, articulis plurimis longiusculis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (exteriores valde discreti), magni, truncati 
(exteriores acuti) ; dens coxalis major, acutus. 

Pedum articulus primus tarsalis, pedibus binis posterioribus exceptis, 
calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales breviusculi, sat incrassati, deplanati, in latere sup. interiore 
femoris spinulis ternis parvis, angulo apicali brevi, bi- vel trifido, in latere 
interiore spinulis ternis vel quinis, in series binas digestis, in latere inf. 
interiore spinulis binis vel quaternis, in latere inferiore spinulis septenis 
vel octonis, in series binas digestis, armati. 

Lamin.-v dorsales modo tres vel quatuor posteriores marginatae. 

Pleura' posticae angustiusculee, subrugosa\ dense tenuiter porosae, in 
angulum breviorem vel longiorem, acutiusculum, trifidum, in latere 
spinula singula instructum producta>, margine postico in obliquum levis- 
sime sinuato, ad angulum exteriorem spinula parva arrriato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis brevis, latiuscula, lateribus rotundatis, valde 
angustata, post latissime rotundata vel rotundate truncata. 

Lonsr. 60 mm. 

1885.] - J '' ,> [Meinert. 

In some respects, peculiarly with regard to the structure of 
the head, Sc. Indica is a connecting link between Scolopendra 
and the following genus Cormocephalus. 

Hab. The Rev. Mr. M. Carleton has collected this Scolopendra 
at some places in East India ; Koolloo, Himalaya; Ambala ; a 
station 70 miles S. W. from Ambala. 

9. Gen. Cwrmoceplialus. 

Cormocephalus Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 419. 

Lamina cephalica a lamina prima dorsali partim obtecta vel libera (scuta 
dorsalia metameri tertii manifesta). 

Oculi ocellis 4. 

Antennae breviusculre, ad basin plus vel minus incrassatre, ante plus 
vel minus attenuate, 17-19-articulata?, articulis plerisque breviusculis. 

Labri fimbria longa, setis longis, densis, simplicibus. 

Labii processus subconici, barba e setis brevibus, densis, uncinatis facta ; 
palporum fimbria e setis brevibus, densis, manifesto uncinatis facta. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis in latere interiore dentibus binis validis, 
acutiusculis armatus ; fimbria digitalis longior, setis longioribus, densis, 
parum uncinatis, unguem medium paulum superans. 

Mandibular ante 12-13 pectinibus juxta et pone lamellam dentatem 
coarctatis instruct*. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, robustum ; prosternum longeprom- 
inens, in dentes majores incisum ; pedes prensorii articulo secundo et 
tertio parvis, interruptis. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula sat profunda, magna, angusta, manifesto triangula, longitudi- 
nalia, per paria longitudine decrescentia. 

Pleurae posticre infra porosse, in angulum majorem vel minorem pro- 

Pedes anales breviusculi vel longiusculi, paulum incrassati, quinque- 
articulati, articulo primo (femore) subcarinato, spinigero, ungue sat parvo, 
parum. arcuato unguiculis binis armato vel simplice. 

I. Pedum analium unguis unguiculis binis armatus. 


Flavo-olivaceus, ante obscurior, linea media dorsali pallida notatus ; sat 
gracilis, ante robustior, sublrevis, larninis ventralibus manifesto bisulcatis ; 
capite subovato, truncate Antenna? breves, ad basin crassre, attenuata?, 
17-articulat33, prater articulos octonos priores dense brevissime hirsutae, 
articulis brevibus vel breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (exteriores discreti), majores ; dens coxalis 
niagnus, acutus. 

Meinert.l "-^b [Oct. 2, 

Pedum articulus primus tar: J; pedibus binis posterioribus exceptis, 
calcare armatus. 

Pedes anales breves vel breviusculi, sat incrassati, in latere sup. iutcriore 
femoris spinulis ternis majoribus, angulo in spinam bifidam producto, in 
latere interiore spinula singula, in latere inf. interiore spinulis ternis, in 
latere inferiore spinulis senis, in series binas obliquas digestis, armati. 

Lamina? dorsales prater ultimam immarginat.-e. 

Pleura posticpe lata3 vel latiuscula?, hrviuscula*, dense porosse, in angu- 
lum majorem, acutiusculum, trifidum products, margine postico in obli- 
quum levissime emarginato, ad angulum exteriorem spinulis binis parvis 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, latiuscula, lateribus rotundatis, 
valde angustata, post obscure sinuata. 

Long. 45 mm. 

Hob. Zanzibar, Cooke. 


Scolopendra aurantipes Newport, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., xiii, p. 99. 

Vormocephalus aurantiipes Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 420. 

Koblrausch, Arch. f. Naturg. Jahrg. , 47, p. 87, 

tab. v, fig. 18. 

Cormocephalus brevispinatus T . Koch, Verh. Zool. bot. Ges. z. Wien, xvii, 

p. 248. 
? Cormocephalus obscurus, pallipes Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 

xix, p. 421-424. 

Flavo-olivaceus, fusco trilineatus, pedibus flavis ; robustus, subla?vis, 
ante sparse leviter punctatus, laminis ventralibus bisulcatis ; capite sub- 
obovato, sa?pe libero (lamina basali magnam partem detecta). Antennse 
breviuscula 3 , ad basin paulum incrassata?, attenuate, 17-articulatse, prae.ter 
articulos quinos vel senos priores dense brevissimehirsuta?, articulis pluri- 
mis breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales quaterni (exteriores discreti), magni obtusi ; dens 
coxalis magnus, trilaciniatus vel simplex. 

Pedum articulus primus tarsalis omnium inermis. 

Pedes anales breviusculi vel breves, incrassati, in latere sup. interiore 
femoris spinis binis majoribus, angulo in spinam srepe bifidam producto, 
in latere interiore spinula singula vel nulla, in latere inf. interiore spinulis 
binis, in latere inferiore cannula curvata, spinulis binis vel quaternis in- 
structa, armati. 

Lamina; dorsales prseter sex vel octo priores marginatse. 

Pleura; posticse latiuscula 1 , subheves, dense porosie, in spinam brevio- 
rem, acutiusculam, in apice bifidam, products, margine postico in obli- 
quum sinuato, inermi. 

1885.] Ad i [Meinert. 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, latiuscula vel lata, valde angustata, 
post rotundate truncata. 
Long. 85 mm. 

Hab. Melbourne, Australia, H. Edwards. Also from America 
(viz : Guatemala, Ferd. von Midler ; Rio de Janeiro, Thayer 
Exp.), I have seen two specimens, which I cannot separate from 
this species. 

II. Pedum analium unguis inermis. 


Cormocephalus ambiguus Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 423. 
? Scolopendra ambigua Brandt, Recueil, p. 63. 

Gervais, Walckenaer Ins. Apt., iv, p. 263. 
Flavus vel rufo-brunneus, ante et post rufescens ; sat robustus, sub- 
lap Ms, ante et post leviter punctatus, laminis ventralibus manifesto bisul- 
catis ; capite subovali, sa?pe libero (lamina basali magnam partem detecta). 
Antenna? longiuscuki?, ad basin crassiuseula?, attenuata*, 17- vel 18-artic- 
' w *^e, prater articulos quinos priores dense brevissime birsutae, articulis 
imis longiusculis. 

entes prosternales quaterni (exteriores discreti), majores ; dens coxalis 
;nus, bifidus. 

edum articulus primus tarsalis omnium inermis. 

'edes anales longiusculi, crassiusculi, in latere sup. interiore femoris 
nulis binis minoribus, angulo in spinam majorem producto, in latere 
eriore spinula singula, in latere inf. interiore spinulis binis vel quater- 
;, in latere inferiore cannula spinulis quinis vel senis instructa, armati. 
Lamina? dorsalis pra-ter octo priores niarginata?. 

Pleura? postica? lata?, sublaeves, dense porosa?, in angulum majorem, 
:utiusculum, bifldum products?, margine posticoin obliquum fere truncato, 
?uleo singulo, perparvo armato. 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, lata, valde angustata, post sinuate 
Long. 90 mm. 

Hab. Port Elizabeth, Cap. bon. sp., Hanson. 

10. Gen. Opistlieniega. 

Opisthemega Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., new ser., v, p. 35. 
? Thealops Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 410. 

Lamina cepbalica laminam primam dorsalem partim obtegens. 

Oculi nulli vel evanidi. 

Antenna? breves, ad basin incrassata?, ante subfiliformes, 17-articulata?, 
articulis brevibus vel partim longiusculis. 

Meinert.] —'Uo [Oct. 2, 

Labri fimbria in medio Lnterrupta, setis paucioribus, margine manifesto 

Labii processus product], attenuati, barba brevi e setis paucioribus, 
simplicibus facta ; palporum fimbria e setis longis, densis, uncinatis facta. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis duplex (profunde fissus) ; fimbria digi- 
talis longa, setis longis, densis, uncinatis, unguem manifesto superans. 

MandibuUe ante 12 pectinibus juxta et pone lamellam dentatam coarc- 
tatis instructa. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, robustum, medium longe pro- 
ductum ; prosternum brevius vel longius prominens, ante in dentes 
majores vel minores incisum ; pedes prensorii articulo primo maximo, 
secundo et tertio parvis, interruptis, quarto solito multo minore. 

Lamina basalis partim detecta. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula sat profunda, magna, producte ovalia, fere perpendicularia, 
ante et post magis obliqua. 

Pleura? posticse infra pbrosae, magnam partem obtecta?, subtruncata. 

Pedes anales perbreves, percrassi, contigui (adapti) vel fere contigui. 
quinquearticulati, articulo primo (femore) inermi, ungue permagno, 
valido, parum arcuato, inermi. 

1. Opisthemega spinicauda. 

Opisthemega spinicauda Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., new ser., 

v, p. 36. 
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 170. 
? Cryptops posticus Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., ii, p. 112. 
? Theatops postica Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 410. 

Ocliraceum, ante et post rufescens, minus robustum, sparse punctatum, 
lamina dorsali prima ante angulatim sulcata, laminis ventralibus fovea 
media impressis ; capite subovali. Antenna breviuscula, tenuiuscula', 
paulum attenuate, 17-articulatae, ad basin sublaves, ante sparsius longius 
hirsuta, articulis mediis longiusculis. 

Dentes prosternales bini vel terni, evanescentes ; dens coxalis perparvus, 

Pedum tibia, articulusque primus tarsalis, pedibus binis posterioribus 
exceptis, calcare armata. 

Pedes anales breves, crassati, fere contigui, adapti, margine sup. in- 
teriore atque inf. interiore acutis crenulatis, in latere sup. interiore 
femoris spinulis binis (posteriore majore), in margine inf. interiore spinulis 
binis vel ternis preparvus annati. 

Lamina? dorsalis prater ultimam immarginata. 

Pleura angusta, subrugosa, porosse, truncata, inermes. 

Lamina ultima ventralis longa, lateribus sinuatis, valde angustata, post 
levissime sinuata. 

Lons. 35 mm. 

1885.] -jUJ [Meinert. 

I have seen only one specimen, which was labeled " Opisthe- 
mega postica Wood," and is among the large number of Myria- 
pods, which are designated as " types determined and described 
by Dr. H. Wood in his Myriapods of N. America"; but a little 
note was attached to this species : " the original catal. says spini- 
cauda," and actually it is to be referred to Opisthemega spini- 
cauda Wood and not to Op. postica Wood. 

Hab. Acapulco, Mexico, Mr. A. Agassiz. 

2. Opisthemega crassipes, n. sp. 

Rufo-brunneum, subtus pallidius, pedibus antennisque flavis ; minus vel 
sat crassum, sparse leviter punctatum, annulo ultimo pedibnsque analibus 
densius, grossing punctatis lamina dorsali prima ante angulatim sulcata, 
laminis ventralibus sulco longitudinal! atque transversal! cruciatim ex- 
aratis; capite subovali. Antennae longiusculae tenuisculse, paulum attenu- 
ata% 17- vel 18-articulatse, prater latus superius articulorum quaternorum 
priorum, densius brevius hirsutae, articulis plurimis longiusculis. 

Dentes prosternales bini vel terni, majores ; dens coxalis parvus acutius- 

Pedum tibia articulisque primus tarsal is, pedibus articis binisque pos- 
terioribus exceptis, calcare armati. 

Pedes anales perbreves, percrassi, contigui, adapti, deplanati, rnargine 
sup. interiore et inf. interiore carinatis, femore inermi. 

Laminae dorsales prater ultimam immargiuatae. 

Pleurae posticas angustae, sublseves, porosae, post late sinuata?, inermes. 

Lamina ultima ventralis longa, lata, lateribus parum sinuatis, valde 
angustata, post rotundate truncata. 

Long. 36 mm. 

Hab. Jacksonville, Fla., J. A. Allen; St. Johns river, Fla. ; 
Pennington's Gap, Lee Co., Va. ; Bee Spring, Ky., F. Gr. San- 

3. Opisthemega insui^are, n. sp. 

Flavum vel ochraceum, ante et post rufescens ; sat gracile, sublaeve, 
lamina ultima dorsali pedibusque analibus sparse leviter punctatis, lamina 
dorsali prima ante in formam ypsili sulcata, laminis ventralibus sulco longi- 
tudinali profundo foveam median} secante exaratis ; capite subovali. An- 
tenna? breviuscuke, paulum crassiuscuhe, attenuata?, 17 articulatae, ad 
apicem sparsius, brevissime hirsutaa, articulis mediis longiusculis. 

Dentes prosternalis bini vel terni, parvi ; dens coxalis perparvus, ob- 

Pedum tibia articulusque primus tarsalis, tibia pedum primorum pedi- 
busque binis posterioribus exceptis, calcare armata. 


Meinert.] ^1^ [Oct. 2, 

Pedes anales breves, erassi, fere contigui, margine sup. interiore et inf. 
interiore carinatis manifesto serrulatis, in latere sup. interiore femoris post 
spinula majore armati. 

Laminae dorsales prater ultirnam immarginatae. 

Pleurae posticae angustae, subrugulosae, porosse, post late sinuatae, 

Lamina ultima ventralis longa, lateribus sinuatis, valde angustata, post 
rotundate truncata. 

Long. 35 mm. 

Sab. Sandwich Islands, A. Garrett. 


11. Gen. Cryptops. 

Cryptops Leach, Zool. Miscell., iii, p. 42. 

Lamina cephalica laminam priniaui dorsalem saepissime partim obtegens. 

Oculi nulli vel evanidi. 

Antennae breviusculae vel longiusculae, subfiliformes, 17-articulatae, artic- 
ulis plurimis longis vel longiusculis. 

Labri fimbria perbrevis, margine in lacinias setiformes, ramosas vel 
denticulatas inciso. 

Labii processus parvi, subconici, barba brevissima, e setis paucis, sim- 
plicibus facta ; palporum fimbria brevis, e setis simplicibus vel parum un- 
cinatis facta. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis integer, inermis, gracilis, fimbria digitalis 
brevior, setis longis densis, valde uncinatis, unguem explens vel paulum 

Mandibulae ante 7-10 pectinibus juxta et pone lamellam dentatam coarc- 
tatis instructae. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, subrobustum ; prosternum baud 
prominens (obtectum), inerme ; pedes prensorii articulo secundo et tertio 
parvis, secundo parum interrupto, tertio integro. 

Lamina basalis saepe omnino evanida. 

Segmentum septimum absque spiraculis. 

Spiracula profunda, parva, producte ovalia, parum obliqua vel fere prona, 
per paria sensim latitudine parum, longitudine vix decrescentia. 

Pleurae posticre amplae, liberae, poros*, subtruncatae. 

Pedes anales elongati, crassiusculi, quinquearticulati, aculeati, articulo 
tertio et quarto infra serratis, cum quinto animali mortuo spastice inrk-xis, 
ungue longo, tenuiusculo, paulum arcuato, inermi. 

1. Cryptops validus, n. sp. 

Ochraceus vel fulvus, pedibus pallidioribus ; robustus, ante sublsevia vel 
obscure punctatus, post obscure scabrosus, laminia dorsalibus prater binas 
priores et posteriores quadrisulcatis, laminis ventralibus prseter primam et 
ultirnam in crucem profunde impressis, posterioribus manifestius scabrosis; 

1885.J ^11 [Meinert. 

capite subquadrato, angulis rotundatis, lateribus arete vnarginatis. An- 
tennae longiusculae, ad basin pauluni incrassatae, 17-articulatae, post aculeis 
brevioribus sparsissime vestitae, prajter articulos quaternos prkn-es mani- 
festo brevissnie birsutae, articulis plerisque breviusculis. 

Dentes prosternales desunt, margine antico aculeis viginti breviusculis 
instructo ; dens coxalis deest. 

Pedes aculeis validis, breviusculis densius vestiti. 

Pedes anales caduci. 

Laminae dorsales prseter ultimam irnniarginatae. 

Pleurae posticae latae, rugulosae, parum hirsutse, dense tenuiter porosae, 
margine postico subrecto, aculeis paucis perbrevibus instructae. 

Lamina ultima ventralis longiuscula, angustiuscula, lateribus rotun- 
datis, multum angustata, post breviter rotundata. 

Long. 45 mm. 

Hab. Zanzibar, Mr. Cooke. 

2. Cryptops Patagonicus, n. sp, 

Fulvo-brunneus, pedibus pallidioribus ; gracilis, sublaevis, laminis dor- 
salibus prseter anticam tresque posteriores sulcis binis arcuatis exaratis, 
laminis ventralibus prseter tres posteriores in crucern manifesto impressis ; 
capite subcordiformi, post truncato, immarginata. Antennae breviusculae, 
ad basin vix incrassatse, 17-articulatae, post sparsissime longe aculeatae; 
praeter articulos ternos priores manifesto longius birsutae, articulis brevi- 

Dentes prosternales desunt, margine antico glabra : dens coxalis deest. 

Pedes aculeis longis ante sparse, post sparsissime vestiti. 

Pedes anales caduci. 

Laminae dorsales praeter ultimam immarginatae. 

Pleurae posticae angustiusculae, semiobtectae, aculeis paucis vestitae, poris 
paucis majoribus perforatae, margine postico subrecto, aculeis paucis 
tenuibus instructae. 

Lamina ultima ventralis breviuscula, lata, lateribus rotundatis, multum 
angustata, post latissime rotundata. 

Long. 18 mm. 

Hab. Puerto Bueno, Patagonia (one single specimen). 

3. CRYrTOPS sulcatus, n. sp. 

Fulvo-brunneus, pedibus antennisque pallidioribus ; pergracilis, sub- 
laevis, laminis dorsalibus praeter anticam et ultimam sulcis senis (mediis 
obsoletioribus, exterioribus arcuatis) in corpore medio profundioribus ex- 
aratis, laminis ventralibus praeter anticam duasque posteriores in crucern 
(sulco longitudinali lato, profundo, manifestiore) impressis, capite subovali, 
post truncato, immarginato. Antennae breves, ad basin pauluni incras- 
satae, 17(16)-articulat8e, post densius longius aculeatae, sparse biisutae, 
ante sparsissime, brevius aculeatae, densius birsutae, articulis brevibus. 

Meinert.] %*■& [Oct. 2, 

Dentes prostcrnales desunt, margine antico glabro ; dens coxalis evan- 

Pedes aculeis longis ante sparse, post sparsissime vestiti. 

Pedes anales caduci. 

Lamina; dorsales prseter ultimam immarginataB, 

Pleurae postica? latiusculae, subliberae, subglabra?, poris paucioribus sub- 
seriatis majoribus perforata;, margine postico subrecto, aculeis paucis tenui- 
bus instructse. 

Lamina ultima ventralis, breviuscula lata, lateribus subrectis, valde 
convergentibus, post latissime sinuata. 

Long. 15 mm. 

Hob. Bee Spring, Ky., F. G. Sanborn. 


Segmenta pedifera numerosa (31-173 paria), inter se aequalia. 
Pedes breves, tarsis integris. 
Antennas 14-articulatae. 
Oculi nulli. 

(Pedes prensorii articulo secundo et tertio semper in latere exteriore 
evanidis vel interrupts. ) 
Lamina basalis semper manifesta. 
Spiraculorum paria numerosa, segmentis numero paulo deteriora. 

1. Gen. Mecistoceplialus. 

JfecistocepJialus (Newport) Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i. Geopbil., p. 92. 

Corpus subdepressum, post plus vel minus angustatum. 

Lamina cepbalica tropbos pro parte minore obtegens, elongata ; lamina 
frontalis discreta ; lamina basalis angustata, lateribus ante paulum con-. 
vergentibus ; lamina i>r;L'basalis obteeta. 

Antenna', sat long*, vel long*, filif'ormes. 

Labrum liberum, tripartitum, parte media angustata, margine antico 

Labii sternum bipartitum ; processus producti ; palpi simplices, j)ro- 
ducti, integri. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis major vel minor. 

Mandibulse ante lamellis pluribus dentatis instructa?. 

Metameri quarti sternum subquadratum, ante dentibus duobus parvis 
armatum; prosternum baud prominens, obtectum ; pedes prensorii arti- 
culo ultimo (ungue) ad basin dente armato. 

Scutella spiraculifera parva, prsescutello pluries minora, iiostscutella 
magnitudinis fere scutelli, discreto ; scutella atque prsescutella media et 
interna evanida. 

Laminae dorsales manifesto bisulcatse. 

Pori ventrales inconspicui. 

Pori pleurales numerosi, in ventre et dorso siti. 

1883.] **■*' [Meinert. 

Pedes analessexarticulati, inermes ; fernina? tenues veltenuissimi, maris 
modice incrassali, articulo primo parvo. 

Lamina ultima ventralis triangula, prsescutis discretis. Palpi genital es 
maris sat breves, biarticulati. 

1. Mecistocephalus punctifrons. 

Mecistocephalus punctifrons Newport, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 179, 

Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 429, tab. 
33, fig. 17. 
Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i. Geophil., p. 
Mecistocephalus heteropus Humbert, Essai Myriap. Ceylan, p. 19, tab. ii, 

fig. 4, 4a-4d. 
? Mecistocephalus Guildingii Newport, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xix, p. 429, 

tab. 33, figs. 18-19. 
Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i. Geophil., 
p. 9G. 
Minus robustus, post manifesto attenuatus ; ochraceus vel fulvis, capite 
cum tropins laminaque prima dorsali dilute castaneis, antennis pedib usque 
flavis ; sparsissirne.breviter pilosus, pedibus densius pilosis. 

Pedes prensorii breviter vel brevissime, densius pilosi, flexi articulum 
primum antennarum explentes ; sternum multo latius quam longius 
(5 : 4), coxa paulo longius, margine antico in medio altesinuato, dentibus 
angularibus manifestis, acutis ; coxa dentibus binis magnis armata ; un- 
guis dente majore, setoso armatus. 

Lamina cephalica vix duplo longiorquam latior (fere 9 : 5), sparsissime 
foveolata, foveis sex sulcos duos posticos, breves explentibus, marginem 
anticum laminae basalis obtegens ; lamina basalis multo latior quam lon- 
gior (7 : 5). 

Antenna? breviusculae vel longiuscuhi?, articulis brevibus, primis sub- 
nodiformibus, paulum compressis. 

Lamina? dorsales subheves, prefer ter vel quatuor priores atque tot 
posteriores manifesto bisulcata? (5-20 obsolete foveolata?), pra?scutis ante- 
rioribus obtectis vel brevissimis, mediis atque posterioribus longis. 

Spiracula anteriora magna (antica maxima, subovalia, perpendicnlaria) 
subrotunda ; media et posteriora minuta, rotunda. 

Lamina? ventrales anteriores prseter primam impressione ypsiliformi 
notata?, posteriores in medio manifesto sulcata?, scabrosa?. 

Pedes paris primi perminuti ; ceteri sat longi, anteriores manifesto brevi- 
ores atque crassiores. 

Pleura? postica? sat vel parum amplae, densius pilosa?, poris minus nume- 
rosis, miuutis infra instructae, margine interiore late, breviter hirsuto ; 
lamina ultima ventralis triangula, lateribus subrectis, breviter hirsuta. 
Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris valde longiores, paulo tenuiores, 

Meinert.] -jI4 [Oct. 2, 

breviter hirsuti, articulis prioribus sparsius (?) vel densius (^) breviter 

Pedes femina? pp. 49, maris 49. Long, femina? 52 mm., maris 50 mm. 
Lat. femina? 1.7 mm., maris 1.8 mm. 

Hab. The Rev. Mr. Carleton has presented eight specimens of 
this species, all from East India; Koolloo, near Himalaya; Am- 
bala; a station 70 miles S. W. from Ambala. 

2. Mecistocephaltjs heros, n. sp. 

Eobustus, post valde attenuatus ; ochraceus, in dorso atque lateribus 
dense nigromarmoratus, capite cum trophis laminaque prima dorsali cas- 
taneis, antennis pedibusque flavis ; ante subglaber, post in ventre atque 
lateribus dense et breviter hirsutus, pedibus breviter pilosis. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi articulum primum antennarum fere ex- 
plentes; sternum vix sesqui latius quani longius (10 : 7), coxa multo 
longius (fere 5 : 4), margine antico alte sinuato, simplice ; coxa dente 
obtuso armata, supra glabra ; unguis dente evanido armatus. 

Lamina cephalica vix duplo longior quam latior (9 : 5), sparsissime 
foveolata, foveis decim vel duodecim in duas series digestis, sulcum posti- 
cum, medium, brevem explentibus, marginem anticum laminae basalis 
obtegens ; lamina basalis bis vel ter latior quam longior (fere 5 : 2). 

Antenna; perlonga?, articulis ternis prioribus subclaviformibus, ceteris 
teretibus, longius vel perlongis. 

Lamina? dorsales subkeves, prater quatuor vel quinque priores atque 
tot posteriores manifesto bisulcata?, pnescutis anterioribus obtectis vel 
brevissimis, mediis atque posterioribus longis. 

Spiracula anteriora magna (anlica maxima), subovalia, perpendicularia ; 
media et posteriora minuta, rotunda. 

Lamina 1 ventrales anteriores et media?, pra?ter duas anticas, impressione 
ypsiliformi notata? ; posteriores in medio sulcata 1 , sulco post sensim evan- 

Pedes paris primi brevissimi ; ceteri sat longi, anteriores paulo breviores, 
manifesto crassiores. 

Pleurae postica? sat ampla?, dense pilosse, poris majoribus atque minori- 
bus, numerosis, subseriatis infra et supra instructa' ; latere interiore brev- 
iter hirsuto ; lamina ultima veutralis trapezoidea, lateribus subrectis, post 
breviter hirsuta. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anteriores valde longiores, manifesto tcnui- 
ores, pilosi. 

Pedes maris pp. 49. Long, maris 83 mm. Lat. maris 4.5 mm. 

Hab. St. Mauritius Island, N. Pike. 

3. Mecistocephaltjs bkeviceps, n. s;i. 
Sat robustus, post modice attenuatus; ochraceus, capite cum tropins 

1885-1 s-il-O [Meinert. 

dilute castaaeo, antennis fulvis, pedibus flavis ; subglaber, pedibus setis 
sparse vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi articulum primurn anteanarum non 
explentes ; sternum sesqui latius quam loagius, coxa vix sesqui longius 
(10 : 7), margine antico in medio alte sinuato, dentibus angularibus mani- 
festis ; coxa dente obtuso armata ; unguis dente rninuto armatus. 

Lamina cepbalica sesqui longior quam latior, foveolis pauois subseriatis 
impressa, marginem anticum laminae basalis obtegens ; lamina basalis 
(magnam partem obtecta) quater latior quam longior. 

Antennae breviusculae, articulis mediis longioribus. 

Laminae dorsales sublaeves, praeter primam atque posteriores leviter 
bisulcatae, praescutis anterioribus brevissimis, post sensim longioribus, 
posterioribus longis. 

Spiracula anteriora magna (antica maxima), subovalia, perpendicularia ; 
media et posteriora minuta, rotunda. 

Laminae ventrales anteriores praeter primam in medio sulco profundo 
vel post magis obsoleto, marginem attingente, exaratae, laminae posteriores 

Pedes paris primi breves ; ceteri sat longi, anteriores paulo breviores 
atque crassiores. 

Pleurae posticae sat amplae, hirsutae, poris majoribus atque minoribus, 
numerosis, subseriatis, infra et supra instructae ; margine interiore late 
hirsuto, lamina ultima ventralis triangula, lateribus subrectis, post breviter 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris manifesto longiores, breviter- 
densius pilosi. 

Pedes maris, pp. 45. Long, maris 65 mm. Lat. maris 2.5 mm. 

Hab. Nantucket, Mass. 

2. Gen. Geopli ilus. 

Geophilus (Leach) Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i. Geophil., p. 58. 

Corpus depressum vel subdepressum, ante vix, post modice angusta- 

Lamina cepbalica troplios non obtegens ; lamina frontalis saepissime 
discreta, lamina basalis minus lata vel angusta, lateribus ante convergenti- 
bus ; lamina pnebasalis partim vel omnino obtecta. 

Antennae plus vel minus longae, filiformes vel subfiliformes. 

Labrum liberum, tripartitum, in dentes vel lacinias incisum. 

Labii sternum integrum ; processus sat parvi ; palpi biarticulati, in latere 
exteriore processibus binis longis instructi. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis major vel minor. 

Mandibular ante lamina singula pectinata instructae. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, lineis duabus chitineis abbreviatis 
vel integris fultum, margine antico inermi vel dentibus duobus parvis in- 

Meinert.] - J l" [Oct. 2, 

structo ; prosternum Laud prominens, obtectuni ; pedes preusorii articulo 
ultimo (ungue) dente basali ssepissime armato. 

Scutella spiraculifera parva vel minima, praescutello pluries minora, 
postscutello majore discreto ; scutella atque praescutella media et interna 

Lamina? dorsales manifesto bisulcata? ; praescuta plurima magna vel 

Pori ventrales plus vel minus manifesti. 

Pori pleurales multi vel pauciores aut nulli, in ventre solummedo vel 
etiam in dorso siti. 

Pori anales duo aut nulli. 

Pedes anales sexarticulati, ungue armati aut inermes ; feminae graciles, 
maris graciles vel minus incrassati, articulo primo parvo. 

Lamina ultima ventralis angusta aut lata, praescutis a lamina discretis, 
inter se coalitis aut non coalitis. Palpi genitales maris biarticulati. 

A. Lamina frontalis discreta. 

(Pori anales nulli). 

1. Geophiltjs cephaltctjs. 

Geopldlus cepJialicus Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., new ser., v, 

p. 44. 
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 178. 
Geophilus tois Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., new ser., v, p. 44. 
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 180. 

Sat robustus ante vix, post paulum angustatus ; testaceus, capite cum 
tropins antennisque dilute brunneo, striga lata, duplice, interrupta, ob- 
scura in dorso medio notatus ; sublaevis. 

Pedes prensorii l»ves, flexi margiuem frontalem spatio majore vel 
magno superantes ; sternum simplex oblingulatum, multo latius quam 
longius (fere 4 : 3), coxa duplo longius, margine antico in angulum, in 
medio sinuatum.producto, inermis ; coxa inermis ; unguis incurvus, dente 
minuto vel rninimo, nodiformi armatus. 

Lamina cephalica fere* a>que longa ac lata, la'vis, subovalis, angulos 
priores lamina' basalis obtegens ; lamina basalis quater latior quam 
longior, ante alte emarginata, lamina praebasali parvam partem libera. 

Antenna' breviusculse vellongiuscuhe, articulis prioribus prseter primuin 

Laminae dorsales foveis binis longitudinalibus impressse, manifesto bi- 
sulcata', pr83scutis anterioribus brevibus, mediis et posterioribus longis. 

Spiracula rotunda, anteriora (prsesertim antica) magna ; media et 
posteriora minuta. 

Laminae ventrales in medio sulcata', in angulis fovea porosa vel rotunda 
(in angulis prioribus) vel transversali (in angulis posterioribus) obsolete 


1885.] * Jil IMcinert. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris manifesto breviores alque tenuiores, anteriores 
quam posteriores paulo breviores atque crassiores. 

Pleura? postica? parum inflala?, glabra?, foveis binis obliquis, poriferis, 
semiobtectis instructa? ; lamina ultima ventralis perlata, lateribus valde 
convergentibus; rotundatis. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris paulo longiores, paulo (femina?) 
vel valde (maris) crassiores, subglabri (feniina?) vel hirsuti (maris), ungue 
valido armati. 

Pedes femina? pp. 51-53 ; maris 49. Long, femince 47 mm. ; maris 37 
mm. Lat. feminas 2 mm/ 

Bab. Fred. Co., Mel., P. R. TThler (the type of Dr. Wood) ; 
Michigan, E. P. Austin ; Charl. Co., McL, Bryant. One speci- 
men was labeled Zanzibar (an recte ?). 

2. Geofhilus mordax, n. sp. 

Minus robustus, post manifesto angustatus ; fulvus, pedibus Mavis ; 
subglaber, pedibus pilis brevioribus sparsissime vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi marginem frontalem vix attingentes ; 
sternum lineisduabuscbitineis, integi'is fultum, sesquilatius quam longius, 
coxa fere duplo longius (20 : 11), margine antico longe producto, in medio 
alte sinuatus, inermis ; coxa inermis ; unguis valde curvatus, dente 
minimo, obtuso armatus. 

Lamina cephalica ferea^que longa ac lata, subglabra, subovalis, angulos 
priores laminae basalis obtegens ; lamina basalis ter lalior quam longior, 
lamina pmebasali partem minimam libera. 

Antennas longiuscula 1 vel longae, articulis prioribus prater primum 
longiusculis, articulo ultimo articulos duos antecedentes conjunctos longi- 
tudine procul requante. 

Lamina? dorsales subla?ves, manifesto bisulcatse. 

Spiracula anteriora ovalia vel subovalia, perpendicularia, magna vel 
permagna, per paria sensim magnitudine decrescentia ; media et posteriora 
rotunda, minuta. 

Lamina ventrales anteriores sulco medio, profundo, abbreviato areaque 
postica transversali, porosa, media? et posteriores sulco minus profundo, 
integro exarata\ 

Pedes paris primi ceteris paulo breviores atque tenuiores, anteriores 
quam posteriores paulo breviores atque crassiores. 

Pleura? postica? vix inflate, subglabra?, poris denis vel duodenis magnis, 
subseriatis instructa? ; lamina ultima ventralis minus lata, lateribus sub- 
rectis, manifesto convergentibus. 

Pedes anales caduci. 

Pedes femina? pp. 51. Long. 25 mm. Lat. 1.2 mm. 

Hab. The specimen had no more distinct indication than U. 
S. A. 


Meinert.] -olo [Oct. 2, 

B. Lamina frontalis coalita. 

a. Pori anales nulli. 

3. Geophilus marginaus, n. sp. 

Sat robustus, post manifesto angustatus ; flavus, capite cum trophis 
laminaque prima dorsali dilute brunneo, striga lata, duplice, interrupta, 
obscura in dorso medio notatus, lateribus maculis obscuris, densis irroratis ; 
pilis longioribus densius vestitus. 

Pedes prensorii pilis brevibus densius vestiti, flexi articulum primum 
antennarum spatio majore superantes ; sternum simplex, multo latius quam 
longius (fere 7 : 6), coxa vix sesqui longius, margine antico in medio pro- 
funde sinuato, dentibus duobus brevibus armato ; coxa dente majore, 
obtuso armata ; unguis parum curvatus, dente magno, acuto armatus. 

Lamina cepbalica vix sesqui longior quam latior (fere 10 : 7), sat grosse, 
densius punctata, sulcis duobus longioribus obsolete impressa, lateribus 
subrectis, post paulum convergentibus, marginem anticum laminae prae- 
basalis obtegens ; lamina basalis ter vel quater latior quam longior (fere 
25 : 7). 

Antenna? longa? vel perlonga?, articulis prioribus prater primum longis 
vel perlongis, articulo ultimo duobus antecedentibus conjunctis paulo 

Laminae dorsales sat grosse punctata?, foveis binis longis manifesto 
exarata?, obscurius bisulcata?, pnescutis anterioribus brevissimis, mediis 
et posterioribus longiusculis. 

Spiracula bina priora ovalia, perpendicularia, magna vel permagna, 
cetera rotunda, minuta vel perminuta. 

Lamina? ventrales profunde sulcata?, anteriores areis vel foveis quaternis 
porosis exaratae. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris multo breviores atque tenuiores, anteriores 
quam posteriores paulo breviores, multo crassiores. 

Pleura? postica? parum inflatse, sparse piloses, poris numerosis, parvis, 
seriatis in ventre et dorso instruct* ; lamina ultima ventralis angusta, 
lateribus subrectis, manifesto vel valcle angustatis. 

Pedes anales (maris) pedibus paris anterioris paulo longiorcs, valde cras- 
siores. ungue evanido. 

Pedes maris pp. 01. Long. 4G mm. Lat. 1.6 mm. 

Hab. Key West, Fla. (one single specimen). 

4. Geophilus tjrbicus, n. sp. 

Minus robustus, post multum attenuates ; fulvns ; pilis brevibus spar- 
sissime vestitus, pedibus pilis longioribus sparse vestitis. 
Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi marginem frontalem procul attingentes; 

sternum simplex, sesqui latins quam longius, coxa plus sesqui longiorcs 
(5 : 3), margine antico in nudio late sinuato, dentibus duobus obtusis, 

1885.] -jIJ [Meinert. 

evaniclis armato ; coxa dente parvo, acuto armata ; unguis valde curvatus, 
dente minuto, obtuso armatus. 

Lamina cephalica fere aeque longa ac lata, subglabra, sulcis duobus 
transversalibus ante marginem posticuni impressa, lateribus rotundatis, 
manifesto convergentibus, angulos priores laminae basalis obtegens. mar- 
gine postico late sinuato ; lamina basalis vix quater latior quam longior, 
lamina praebasali partim libera. 

Antenna? breviusculae, dense hirsutoe, articulis prioribus praeter primum 
longiusculis, articulo ultimo artieulos duos antecedentes conjunctos longi- 
tudine manifesto superante. 

Laminae dorsales foveis binis obsoletis exaratae, obsolete bisulcatse, prae- 
scutis anterioribus et posterioribus brevibus, mediis longis vel perlongis. 

Spiracula rotunda, anteriora parva, per paria sensim magnitudine de- 
crescentia, media et posteriora perminuta. 

Laminae ventrales anteriores sulco medio profundo notatae, mediae et 
posteriores sulcis ternis obsoletioribus, post sensim evanescentibus ex- 

Pedes paris primi ceteris subaequales, anteriores posterioribus subaequa- 

Pleurae postica? paulum inflatse, pilis longioribus sparse vestitae, poris 
vicenis magnis vel permagnis (posticis) instructae ; lamina ultima ventra- 
lis angusta, lateribus subrectis, parum convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris paulo breviores, multo crassiores, 
ungue magno armati. 

Pedes feminae pp. 41. Long. 22 mm. Lat. 1.1 mm. 

Hab. Cambridge, Mass., E. Schwarz (one single specimen). 

5. Geophilus Georgianus, n. sp. 

Sat gracilis, post manifesto attenuatus ; ochraceus vel flavus, capite cum 
trophis dilute brunneo, pedibus testaceis ; subglaber, pedibus pilis long- 
ioribus, sparsis vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi marginem frontalem spatio magno 
superantes ; sternum simplex, multo latius quam longius (7 : 6), coxa vix 
duplo longius (20 : 11), margine antico in medio late sinuato, inermi ; 
coxa dente evanido armata ; unguis curvatus, dente minuto armatus. 

Lamina cephalica multo longior quam latior (9 : 7), pilis paucis, brevi- 
bus vestita, sulcis duobus longis ante marginem posticum obsolete im- 
pressa, subovalis, marginem anticum laminae basalis obtegens ; laminae 
basalis pars libera plus duplo latior quam longior (7 : 3). 

Antennae longae, in latere exteriore dense pilosae, articulis prioribus 
praeter primum longis, articulo penultimo articulis duobus antecedentibus 
conjunctis manifesto breviore. 

Lamina? dorsales foveolis binis longitudinalibus obsolete notatae, mani- 
festo bisulcatae, praescutis longiusculis vel longis, posterioribus paulo 

Melnert.] ^i^M [Oct. 2, 

Spiracnla rotunda, anteriora magna, per paria sensim magnitudine de- 
crescentia, media et posteriora minuta. 

Lamina? ventrales anteriores in medio profunde sulcata?, pone sulcum 
area transversali, angusta, porosa notata?. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris multo breviores atque tenuiores, anteriores 
posterioribus paulo breviores atque crassiores. 

Pleura? postica? parum inflata?, poris singulis, validis, obtectis. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris valde longiores, manifesto crassi- 
ores, pilis brevibus, sparsis vestiti, ungae evanido armati. 

Pedes feuiina? pp. 61. Long. 34 mm. Lat. 0.9 mm. 

Hah. Georgia (one single specimen). 

b. Pori anales parvi. 

6. Geophilus occidentalis, n. sp. 

Sat gracilis, post manifesto angustatus ; ocbraceus, capite cum tropbis 
dilute brunneo, antennis flavis ; subglaber, pedibus longe, sparse pilosis. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi articulum primum antennarum fere ex- 
plentes ; sternum simplex, a?que longum ac latum, coxa sesqui longius, 
margine antico in medio alte sinuato, angulis integris ; coxa dente obtuso 
armata ; unguis dente nodiformi, minore armatus. 

Lamina cepbalica vix sesqui longior quarn latior, post paulum angus- 
tata, foveolis minutis, sparsis, subseriatis sulcisque duobus brevibus, obso- 
letis notata ; lamina basalis libera, fere ter latior quam longior. 

Antenna? long;e, articulis plmimis longis. 

Lamina' dorsales sublaeves, manifesto bisulcata?, pra?scutis anterioribus 
perbrevibus, mediis longis, posterioribus longiusculis. 

Spiracula praeter antica parva, rotunda ; antica subovalia. 

Lamina? ventrales anteriores profunde sulcata?, media 1 atque posteriores 
obsolete impressa?. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris manifesto breviores, anteriores quam posteriores 
paulo crassiores. 

Pleura? postica> vix inflata?, poris novenisvel denis liberis, majoribus vel 
minoribus atque singulo magno, distante instructs ; lamina ultima ven- 
tralis angustiuscula, longa, post manifesto angustata. 

Pedes anales subglabri, crassiusculi, ungue evanido. 

Pedes maris pp. 73. Long. 39 mm. Lat. 1 mm. 

Hab. San Francisco, Cal., T. G. Cary, Jr. (one single specimen.) 

c. Pori anales magni. 

7. Geophilus IIuronicus, n. sp. 

Sat vel minus robustus, post manifesto angustatus; flavus. capite cum 
tropins dilute brunneo, pedibus testaceis vel flavis; subglaber, pedibus 
pilis longioribus sparse vestitis. 

18S5.] ^X [Meinert. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi marginern frontalem spatio majore vel 
minore superantes ; sternum simplex, multo latins quam longius (fere 6 : 
5), coxa plus sesqui longius (5 : 3), margine antico altius sinuato, inermi ; 
coxa dente evanido armata ; unguis dente minuto armatus. 

Lamina cephalica paulo longior quam latior (fere 10 : 9), sparse minus 
grosse punctata, sulcis duobus sat longis obsolete exarata, subovalis, par- 
tem majorem lamina? basalis obtegens ; lamina basilis ter latior quam 

Antenna? longa? vel perlonga?, articulis pra?ter prirnurn et ultimos longis, 
articulo ultimo articulis duobus antecedentibus conjunctis manifesto 

Lamina? dorsales fovea media, obsoleta exarata?, manifesto bisulcatse, 
praescutis anterioribus brevissimis vel brevibus, mediis et posterioribus 
longiusculis vel brevibus. 

Spiracula rotunda, anteriora magna per paria sensim magnitudine de- 
crescentia ; media et posteriora rninuta. 

Lamina? ventrales manifesto sulcata?, anteriores et media? pone medium 
area magna, transversali, porosa vel integra (in anterioribus) vel bipartila 
(in mediis) notata?. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris multo breviores atque tenuiores, anteriores 
posterioribus vix breviores, paulo crassiores. 

Pleura? postica? vix inflata?, pilis brevibus sparse vestita?, poris senis vel 
octonis majusculis, maximam partem obtectis instructa? ; lamina ultima 
ventralis lata, lateribus subrectis, paulum convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris valde longiores, i?aulo (femina?) 
vel multo (maris) crassiores, ungue majore (femina?) vel minore (maris) 

Pedes femina? pp. 55-57; maris 53-55. Long, femina? 33 mm.; maris 
30 mm. Lat. femina? 1 mm.; maris 1.2 mm. 

Hab. I have seen four specimens of this species; the two were 
labeled Massachusetts, and the two others " N. Ensfl." 

3. Gen. Scolioplanes. 

Scolioplanes (B. & M.) Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i.^Jeopliil., p. 48. 

Corpus subdepressum, ante et post attenuatum. 

Lamina cephalica trophos non omnino obtegens ; lamina frontalis dis- 
creta aut coalita ; lamina basalis transversalis ; lamina pra?basalis in duas 
lamellas partita, obtecta aut detecta. 

Antenna? plus vel minus longa?, flliformes, hirsuta?. 

Labrum liberum, tripartitum, partis media? margine antico in dentes 
multos inciso. 

Labii sternum integrum ; processus sat magni ; palpi integri vel bi- 
partite shnplices. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis parvus. 

Mandibula? ante lamina singula pectinata instructa?. 

Meinert.] 222 ^Oct. 2, 

Metarneri quarti sternum integrum, simplex ; prosternum haud prom- 
inens, obtectum ; pedes prensorii articulo ultimo (ungue) dente basali 
valido armato. 

Scutella spiraculifera sat magna, praescutello duplo vel triplo minora, 
postscutello minore discreto ; scutella et praescutella media et interna 

Laminae dorsales laeves ; praescuta longiora vel breviora. 

Pori ventrales parvi vel minimi, in aream transversalem, posticam dis- 

Pori pleurales plures vel pauciores. 

Pori anales duo, parvi. 

Pedes anales sexarticulati ; feminae gracilis, attenuati, maris percrassi 
vel crassi, hirsuti, articulo primo parvo. 

Lamina ultima ventralis longa, lateribus postconvergentibus, praescutis 
discretis. Palpi genitales maris integri. 

I. Lamina frontalis discreta. 


f Strigamia bothriopus Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbilad., new ser., v, 

p. 46. 
Trans. Amer. Pbilos. Soc, xiii, p. 182. 
f Strigamia flava Sayer, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., viii, p. 109. 
Wood, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, xiii, p. 183. 

Minus robustus, ante et post multuin attenuatus ; [fulvus, capite cum 
tropins dilute brunneo; pilis brevibus sparse vestitus, pedibus pilis 
breviusculis densius vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii pilis breviusculis sparse vestiti, flexi marginem fronta- 
lem spatio magno non attingentes ; sternum stricte cordiforme vix duplo 
latius quain longius (fere 9 : 5), coxa bis vel ter longius (5 : 2), margine 
antico in medio alte sinuato, inermi ; coxa inermis ; unguis parum curva- 
tus, dente valido, acuto armatus. 

Lamina cepbalica paulo latior quam longior (,10 : 9), pilis longioribus 
sparse vestita, laeviuscula, lateribus rotundatis, manifesto divergentibus, 
margine postico a lamina basali obtecta ; lamina basalis bis vel ter latior 
quam longior (fere 5 : 2). 

Antennae longiuscula\ articulis prioribus prater primum longiusculis, 
articulo ultimo articulos duos antecedentes conjunctos longitudine sub- 

Laminae dorsales Ueviusculae, praescutis longiusculis vel longis. 

Spiracula rotunda, magna vel majuscula, anteriora posterioribus paulo 

Laminae ventrales fovea media, obsolcta ureaque magna, duplice, porosa 
ante marginem posticum notatee. 

1885.] ^" [Meinert. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris manifesto breviores, anteriores et posteriores 

Pleurae posticse parum inflatse, pilis longioribus sparse vestitse, poris 
tredenis vel sedenis (prseter ununi distantem in series rotundatas digestis) 
parvis et majusculis instructor ; lamina ultima ventralis angusta, lateribus 
curvatis, convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris paulo breviores, vix (feminse) vel 
valde (maris) crassiores, ungue parvo armati. 

Pedes feminse pp. 51 ; maris 47-51. Long, feminse 24 mm. ; maris 35 
mm. Lat. maris 1.3 mm. 

The specimen of the Museum of Comp. Zool. was labeled 
" Strigamia fulva Say," determined by Dr. Wood. 
Sab. Massachusetts. 


? Strigamia chionophila Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., new ser., v, 

p. 50. 
Trans. Amer. Pbilos. Soc, xiii, p. 189. 

Minus robustus, ante et post multum attenuatus ; fulvus, capite cum 
trophis dilute brunneo ; pilis brevibus sparse vestitus, pedibus pilis long- 
ioribus sparse vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi marginem frontalem non attingentes ; 
sternum subcordiforme, paulo latius quam longius (10 : 9), coxa bis vel 
ter longius (5 : 2), margine antico in medio late sinuato, inermi ; coxa in- 
ermis ; unguis valde curvatus, dente valido, aculiusculo armatus. 

Lamina cephalica multo latior quam longior (5 : 4), subglabra, lsevius- 
cula, lateribus paulum rotundatis, manifesto divergentibus, margine 
postico subrecto, laminam basalem plus vel minus obtegente ; lamina 
basalis plus ter latior quam longior (fere 10 : 3). 

Antenna? breviusculae, articulis prseter primum el ultimum breviusculis, 
articulo ultimo articulos duos antecedentes conjunctos longitudine sub- 

Laminse dorsales lseviusculse, prsescutis anterioribus brevibus vel brevis- 
simis, mediis et posterioribus longis vel perlongis. 

Spiracula rotunda, anteriora parva, media et posteriora minuta. 

Laminoe ventrales foveis ternis in seriem mediam transversalem digestis 
plus vel minus manifesto exaratse. 

Pedes parium trium priorurn per paria sensim longitudine manifesto 
crescentes, ceterorum anteriores posterioribus subaequales. 

Pleura? posticse coxiformes, subglabrse, poris novenis vel tredenis in 
obliquum subseriatis, magnis et permagnis instructae ; lamina ultima ven 
tralis triangula.* 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris subarquales, ungue minore (feminai) 
vel paulo crassiores, ungue longo (maris). 

Meiuert.] ££&. [Oct. 2, 

Pedes feminre pp. 39 : maris 41. Long, femimc 22 rum. ; maris 25 mm. 
Lat. maris 1.3 mm. 

Hab. Cambridge, Mass., Mr. E. Schwarz. 


Sat robustus, ante et post vix angustatus ; fulvus, capite cum trophis la- 
minaque basali et prima dorsali dilute brunneo ; subglaber, pedibus pilis 
brevibus sparsissiuie vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi marginem frontalem spatio magno non 
attingentes ; sternum subcordiforme, plus sesqui latius quam longius 
(5 : 3), coxa plus duplo longius (9 : 4), margine antico in medio alte 
sinuato, inermi ; coxa inerrnis ; unguis parum curvatus, dente valido, 
acuto armatus. 

Lamina cepbalica paulo latior quam longior (10 : 9), subglabra, Levins - 
cula, lateribus rotundatis, manifesto divergentibus, margine postico a 
lamina basali vix obtecto ; lamina basal is quam lamina cepbalica duplo 
brevior, bis vel ter latior quam longior (5 : 2). 

A-ntenna; longa}, articulis prioribus praeter primum longis, articulo ulti- 
mo articulis duobus anteoedentibus conjunctis manifesto breviore. 

Laminae clorsales lamusculse, pmescutis breviusculis. 

Spiracula rotunda, sat magna. 

Lamina} ventrales fovea media oblonga, post sensim obsoletiore, areisque 
duabus duplicibus, porosis ante marginem posticum exaratse. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris manifesto breviores, anteriores quam posteriores 
paulo breviores et crassiores. 

Pleura? postica} modice inflata}, glabrae, poris vicenis magnis et per- 
magnis, subseriatis instruct* ; lamina ultima ventralis angusta, triangula, 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris paulo breviores atque tenuiores, 
ungue majusculo armati. 

Pedes feminse pp. 53. Long. 40 mm. Lat. 2.1 mm. 

Hab. This species had no more distinct locality than N. A.? 


Robustus, ante valde post parum angustatus, fulvus ; pedibus flavis ; 
pilis brevissimis sparse vestitus, pedibus pilis brevioribus sparse vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii pilis brevissimis et brevibus densius vestiti; flexi margi- 
nem frontalem fere attingentes ; sternum subcordiforme, plus sesqui latius 
quam longius (5 : 3), margine antico in medio alte sinuato, inermi ; coxa 
inerrnis; unguis curvatus, dente valido, acutiusculo armatus. 

Lamina cephalica seque longa hc lata, pilis brevibus sparse vestita, 
laeviuscula, subovalis, margine postico subrecto, laminam praabasalem 
fere totam obtegente ; lamina basalis quam lamina cephalica vix ter 
brevior, plus ter latior quam longior. 

1885.] ~^° [Meinert. 

Antennfe longa?, subfiliformes, articulis prioribus prseter primum longis, 
articulo ultimo articulis duobus antecedeutibus conjunctis manifesto 

Laminae dorsales Iseviusculse, prascutis breviusculis. 

Spiracula rotunda magna vel permagna, anteriora per paria sensim mag- 
nitudine decrescentia. 

Lamina? ventrales anteriores in medio profunde sulcata?, fbveis binis 
obsoletioribus, lateraliims areisque binis magnis, porosis ante marginem 
posticum exaratse, media? et posteriores in medio obsoletius (ante) vel 
manifestius (post) sulcata?, ante marginem posticum area permagna, 
transversali, porosa notata'. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris manifesto breviores et tenuiores, anteriores et 
posteriores suba?quales. 

Pleura? postica? coxilbrmes, sat inflata?, pilis brevioribus densius vestita, 
poris denis magnis, partial obtectis instructse ; lamina ultima ventralis 
brevis, transversalis, lateribus subrectis, valde convergentibus. 

Pedes analcs pedibus paris auterioris manifesto longiores, valde in- 
crassati, compressiusculi, articulo ultimo quam penultimo multoties minore, 
conico, ungue evanido armato. 

Pedes maris pp. 65. Long. 4j mm. Lat. 2.2 mm. 

Hob. This new species was labeled "No Loc." 
II. Lamina frontalis coalita. 


? Strigamia parviceps Wood, Trans. Amer. Pliilos. Soc, xiii, p. 187. 

Minus robustus, ante multum post manifesto angustatus ; flavus, con- 
color, vel ante et post fulvus ; glaber. 

Pedes prensorii glabri, flexi marginem frontalem procul attingentes; 
sternum vix duplo latius quam longius (fere 9 : 5), coxa duplo longius, 
margine antico in medio rectangulatim inciso, inermi ; coxa inermis ; un- 
guis parum curvatus, dente valido, acuto armatus. 

Lamina cepbalica fere aque longa ac lata, glabra, lavis, lateribus ro- 
tundatis, manifesto divergentibus, margine postico rotundatu, laminam 
prabasalem maximam partem obtegente ; lamina basalis quam lamina 
ccphalica duplo brevior, bis vel ter latior quam longior (tere 5 : 2), lamina 
prsebasali in lateribus paulum libera. 

Antenna longiusculse, articulis prioribus prseter primum longis, articulo 
ultimo articulis duobus antecedeutibus conjunctis multo breviore. 

Lamina dorsales laviuscula, prascutis anterioribus breviusculis vel 
brevibus, mediis et posterioribus longiusculis. 

Spiracula rotunda, anteriora permagna vel magna, per paria sensim 
magnitudine decrescentia ; media et posteriora mediocria. 

Lamina ventralis prater primam et ultimam foveis septenis porosis, 


Meinert.] ^U [Oct. 2, 

quarum singula rotunda in medium sena?que in binas series laterales 
digesta?, exarata?. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris manifesto breviores et tenuiores ; priores per 
paria sensim longitudine crescentes. 

Pleura? postica? manifesto inflatse, glabra?, poris fere tricenis parvis et 
magnis, subseriatis instructa? ; lamina ultima ventralis angusta, lateribus 
subrectis, multum convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris manifesto longiores, paulo tenu- 
iores, ungue parvo armati.- 

Pedcs femina? pp. 75. Long. 47 mm. Lat. 1.7 mm. 

A specimen, which was said to be a t}^pe of Dr. Wood, was 
labeled " Strigamia bidens Wood." 

Hab. The locality was not more distinct than " jNT. A. Loc. ?" 


Sat gracilis, ante valde post manifesto angustatus ; fulvus, antennis 
pedibusque flavis ; subglaber, pedibus pilis longioribus sparse vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii subglabri, flexi margined frontalem fere attingentes ; 
sternum subcordiforme, sesqui latius quam longius, coxa fere duplo 
longius, margine antico in medio alte sinuato ; coxa inermis ; unguis 
longus, tenuis, curvalus, dente sat magno armatus. 

Lamina cepbalica multo longior quam latior (11 : 8), glabra, la?vis, 
lateribus rotundatis, manitesto convergentibus, margine postico marginein 
anticum lamina 1 pnvbasalis obtegente ; lamina basalis quam lamina cepba- 
lica bis vel ter brevior (2 : 5), plus duplo latior quam longior (9 : 4), la- 
mina prrcbasali magnam partem libera. 

Antenna^ ad basin fere contigua 1 , longse vel perlonga\ filiformes, artic- 
ulis prioribus pra?ter primum perlongis, articulo ultimo articulos duos an 
tecedentes conjunctos longitudine suboequante. 

Lamina? dorsales la?viuscula?, prrescutis anterioribus breviusculis, mediis 
et posterioribus longiusculis. 

Spiracula rotunda, magna vel mediocria, anteriora paulo majora, per 
paria sensim magnitudine decrescentia. 

Laminae ventrales sulcata?, foveis binis exarata 1 , sulcis foveisque post 
sensim obsoletioribus. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris vix breviores et tenuiores, anteriores posteri- 
oribus paulo crassiores, vix breviores. 

Pleura; postiea? parum inflatse, subglabne, poris vicenis magnis, biseri- 
atis instrueta 1 ; lamina ultima ventralis minus lata, lateribus subrectis, 
manifesto convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris multo longiores, vix crassiores, 
ungue magno armati. 

Pedes feminse pp. 107. Long. 65 mm. Lat. 1.2 mm. 

Perhaps, or rather probably, this species ought to constitute a 

18S5.] < 2iAi [Melnert. 

new genus, but solely I have bad for investigation one single spe- 
cimen, and therefore I have not been able to put the animal and 
particularly the parts of the mouth to the necessary microscopi- 
cal examination. 

Hob. Also the species was labeled " No locality." 

4. Gen. Himantarium. 

Hlmantarium (Koch) Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i. Geophil., p. 21. 

Corpus depressum vel subdepressum, lincare vel ante et post levissime 

Lamina cephalica trophos obtegens ; lamina cephaliea discreta aut 
coalita ; lamina basalis latissima, transversalis, lateribus post convergen- 
tibus vel subparallelis, lamina praebasalis evanida. 

Antenna? curtae, crassa?, attenuata?. 

Labium liberum, integrum, dentatum. 

Labii sternum integrum ; processus parvi ; palpi integri vel biarticulati, 
extrorsum dente magno armati. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis minor. 

Mandibular ante laminis pectinatis pluribus atque lamella dentata in- 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, lineis chitineisduabus fultum ; pro- 
sternum baud prominens, obtectum ; pedes prensorii ungue inermi. 

Scutella spiraculifera parva, praescutello duplo vel pluries minora, pos- 
scutello parvo discreto ; scutella atque prascutella media et interna mani- 

Laminae dorsales obsolete bisulcatae, subglabrae vel scabrosae ; pnvscuta 
breviuscula vel longiuscula. 

Pori ventrales in omnibus fere vel in pluribus laminis in aream denni- 
tam coarctati. 

Pori pleurales saepissime permulti, Interdum pauciores, obtectivel nulli; 
pleura? inflatse, inteidum coxiformes. 

Pori anales nulli. 

Pedes anales inermes, sexarticulati ; feminae graciles, subflliformes, sub- 
nudi, maris paulo crassiores, breviter birsuti. 

Lamina ultima ventralis plus vel minus triangula, proescutlsevanidis vel 
discretis. Palpi genitales maris manifesto biarticulati. 

Lamina ultima dorsalis laevis, simplex. 

Lamina frontalis coalita. 

1. Himantarium insigne, n. sp. 

Ptobustum, ante et post manifesto angusta!um ; olivaceum vel luridum; 
Pedes prensorii glabri, tlexi marginem frontalem procul attingentes; 

Meinert.] -"^" [Oct. 2, 

sternum plus duplo latius quam longius (7 : 3), coxa sesqui longius, mar- 
gine antico ia medio late sinuato, inerrai ; coxa inermis ; unguis valde 
curvatus, inermis. 

Lamina cephalica subsemicircularis, vix sesqui latior quam longior (10 : 7), 
glabra, laeviuscula, margine posiico latissimerotundato, marginem anticum 
medium lamina basalis obtegente ; lamina basalis quam lamina cephalica 
plus quater brevior, quater vel quinquies latior quam longior (fere 9 : 2). 

Antenna 1 breves, ad basin contignae, incrassatae, manifesto attenuatae, 
articulis praeter ultimum transversalibus, articulo ultimo articulis duobus 
antecedentibus conjuuctis multo longiore (4 : 8). 

Laminae dorsales laeviusculse, foveis binis lateralibus, obsoletis exarata-, 
praescutis longiusculis. 

Spiracula subovalia, paulum obliqua, mediocria, anteriora posterioribus 
paulo majora. 

Lamina: ventrales praeter primam et ultimam pone medium area trans- 
versali, porosa instructae. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris paulo breviores atque tenuiores, anteriores et 
posteriores subrequales. 

Pleura? postic* coxiformes, non inflatae, integne ; lamina ultima ventralis 
parva, transversalis, lateribus subrectis, paulum convergentibus, margine 
postico angulatim sinuato. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris paulo breviores, manifesto tenui- 
ores, inermes. 

Pedes feminre pp. 77. Long. 103 mm. Lat. 4 mm. 

Hah. Koolloo, Rev. Mr. Carleton. 


Sat robustum, ante multum, post paulum angustatum ; fulvum vel 
flavum, glabrum, pedibus pilis brevibus sparsissime vestitis. 

Pedes prensorii glabri, flexi marginem frontalem spatio magno non 
attingentes ; sternum duplo latius quam longius, coxa duplo longius, mar- 
gine antico in medio late sinuato, inermi ; coxa inermis ; unguis valde 
curvatus, inermis. 

Lamina cephalica aque longa ac lata, glabra, laeviuscula, lateribus 
rotundatis, manifesto divergentibus, margine postico vix rotundato mar- 
ginem antieum laminae basalis obtegente ; lamina basalis quam lamina 
cephalica plus quater brevior, quater vel quinquies latior quam longior. 

Antenna' breves vel perbreves, ad basin distantes, crassa 1 attenuata 1 , 
articulis prater ultimum transversalibus, articulo ultimo articulis duobus 
antecedentibus conjunctis manifesto longiore. 

Lamina' dorsales laeviusculae vel obsolete rugulosa\ praescutis anteriori- 
bus brevibus vel breviusculis, mediis et posterioribus longis vel longius- 

Spiracula rotunda anteriora magna, per paria sensim maguitudine pau- 
lum decrescentia, media et posteriora parva. 

1885.] ^-J [Meinert. 

Laminae ventrales pra?ter primam et ultimam impressione lineari, trans- 
versali, porosa notatae. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris paulo breviores atque tenuiores, anteriores pos- 
terioribus paulo crassiores. 

Pleura? posticae coxiformes, pilis brevissimis sparse vestitse, integrae ; 
lamina ultima ventralis sat parva, lateribus rectis, parum convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris naulto longiores, aut vix (feminae) 
aut valde (maris) crassiores, articulo ultimo quam penultimo paulo longi- 
ore, inerrnes. 

Pedes feminae pp. 67 ; maris 67. Long, feminae 45 mm.; maris 53 mm. 
Lat. maris 2.2 mm. 

Hah. Koolloo, Rev. Mr. Carleton. 


Strigamia tceniopsis Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Soc. Philad., new ser., v, 

p. 48. 
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. xiii, p. 185. 

Minus gracile, ante et post paulum angustatum ; fulvum vel tlavum ; 

Pedes prensorii glabri, flexi marginem frontalem fere attingentes ; stern- 
um fere duplo latius quam longius, coxa fere sesqui longius, margin e an- 
tico in medio late sinuato, inermi ; coxa inermis ; unguis curvatus, 

Lamina cephalica multo latior quam longior (fere 4 : 3), glabra, lavius- 
cula, margine postico subrecto, marginem anticum laminae basalis obte- 
gente ; lamina basalis quam lamina cephalica plus ter brevior (fere 3 : 10), 
quater latior quam longior. 

Antennae longiusculae, ad basin distantes, paulum incrassata, manifesto 
attenuatae, articulis prioribus prseter primum longiuscul.s, articulo ultimo 
articulis duobus antecedentibus conjunctis manifesto breviore. 

Lamina dorsales laeviusculae, praescutis anterioribus breviusculis, mediis 
et posterioribus longiusculis. 

Spiracula subovalia, perpendicularia, anteriora magna, per paria sensim 
magnitudine paulum decrescentia, media et posteriora minuta. 

Laminae ventrales anteriores area majore, subovali, transversali, porosa, 
mediae et posteriores area minore vel parva, rotundata, porosa pone medium 

Pedes paris primi ceteris paulo vel vix breviores, anteriores posterioribus 
manifesto crassiores, paulo breviores. 

Pleura postica parum inflatae, glabra^, integrae ; lamina ultima ventralis 
mediocris, lateribus rotundatis, multum convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris vix longiores, manifesto tenuiores, 

Pedes feminae pp. 143. Long. 130 mm. Lat. 2.4 mm. 

Hdb. San Diego, Cal. 

Meinert."! ^\J [Oct. 2, 


Strigama laticeps Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., new ser., v, p. 49. 
Trans. Anier. Philos. Soc. xiii, p. 186. 

Gracile, ante et post leviter angustatum, ochraceum, glabrum. 

Pedes prensorii glabri, flexi marginem frontalem fere attingentes ; 
sternum oblingulatum, plus duplo latius quam longius (9 : 4), coxa vix 
duplo longius (fere 9 : 5), margineantico in medio sat alte sinuato, inernii ; 
coxa inermis ; unguis paruni curvatus, inermis. 

Lamina cepbalica multo latior quam longior (4 : 3), glabra, la?vis, sub- 
pentagona, partem anteriorem media m lamina? basalis obtegens ; lamina 
basalis, quoad liberam, quam lamina cepbalica quater brevior, quinquies 
latior quam longior. 

Lamina? dorsales obsolete bisulcata?, area media paulum depressa, prae- 
scutis breviusculis vel longiusculis. 

Spiracula rotunda, anteriora magna ; media et posteriora parva. 

Laminae ventrales prater primam et ultimam area angusta, transversali, 
porosa in medio vel post sensim marginem posticum proprius exarata?. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris manifesto breviores, anteriores posterioribus 
manifesto crassiores. 

Pleura? postica? parum inflata?, glabra 1 , foveis ternis magnis, semiobtec- 
tis, porosis instructa? ; lamina ultima ventralis sat lata, post angulatim 
sinuata, profunde sulcata, lateribus rectis, valde convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris paulo breviores, valde crassiores, 

Pedes maris pp. 81. Long. 76 mm. Lat. 1.4 mm. 

Hab. Texas, Chas. Stolley (the type of Mr. Wood). 

5. Gen. Orplinaeus. 

Orphnceus Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i. Geopbil., p. 17. 

Corpus subdepressum, ante et post minus angustatum. 

Lamina cepbalica tropbos plus vel minus obtegens ; lamina frontalis 
coalita ; lamina basalis latior, lateribus post paulum divergentibus ; lamina 
pmebasalis evanida. 

Antenna? subteretes, curta?, paulum attenuate. 

Labrum liberum, integrum, dense dentatum. 

Labii sternum integrum ; processus breves ; palpi integri, extrorsum 
processis birds mcmbranaceis instructa?. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis sat magnus. 

Mandibula- ante laminis pectinatis quaternis vel quinis instruct;!'. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, transversale, simplex ; prosternum 
baud prominens, obtectum ; pedes prensorii ungue inermi. 

Scutella spiraculifera magna, fere magnitudinis ^nvscutelli, postscutello 
majore discreto ; scutella atque pra'scutella interna evanida. 

1885.] -^"1 [Meinert. 

Laminae dorsales leviter vel levissime scabrosae, bifoveolatse ; prsescuta 

Pori ventrales ia plagas quaternas digesti. 

Pori pleurales nulli. 

Pori anales nulli. 

Pedes anales inermes, pseudo-septemarticulati, pleuris coxas simulanti- 
bus, hirsuti ; feminae sat graciles, attenuati, maris aliquanto crassiores. 

Lamina ultima ventralis lata, obtusa, praescutis discretis. Palpi geni- 
tales maris manifesto biarticulati. 

1. Orphn^eus lividus. 

OrphncBus lividus Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i. Geophil., p. 19. 

Minus robustus, ante et post paulumangustatus ; ochraceus vel lividus, 
vitta media, duplice, latiore, fusca in dorso plus vel minus manifesto 

Pedes prensorii glabri, fiexi marginem frontal em spatio magno non 
attingentes ; sternum plus duplo latius quani longius (fere 11 : 5), coxa 
plus duplo longius (7 : 3), margine antico in medio late siuuato, inermi ; 
coxa inermis ; unguis curvatus, inermis. 

Lamina ceplialica multo latior quam longior (fere 5 : 4), glabra, laevius- 
uula, lateribus rotundatis, manifesto divergentibus, margine postico sub- 
recto, marginem anticum lamina? basalis obtegente ; lamina basalis quam 
lamina ceplialica plus duplo brevior (fere 3 : 7), vix ter latior quam 
longior (fere 11 : 4). 

Antennas breves vel perbreves, ad basin distantes, crassae, attenuatae, 
articulis praeter ultimum transversalibus, articulo ultimo articulis duobus 
antecedentibus conjunctis paulo breviore. 

Laminae dorsales leviter scabrosae foveis ternis, media multo majore et 
obsoletiore, plus vel minus manifesto exaratae, praescutis brevibus. 

Spiraculaovalia, obliqua, anteriora magna, per paria sensim magnitudine 
paulum decrescentia ; media et posteriora parva vel minuta. 

Laminae ventrales praeter primam et sa^pe ultimam fovea media vel 
foveis ternis in seriem transversalem digestis notatre, poris in plagas 
quaternas magnas dispositis. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris vix breviores atque tenuiores, anteriores et 
posteriores subaequales. 

Pleurae posticae vix inflates, glabrae, integra 1 ; lamina ultima ventralis 
parva, transversalis, lateribus rectis, valde convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris paulo breviores, vix (feminae) aut 
aliquanto (maris) crassiores, inermes. 

Pedes feminae pp. 71-79 ; maris 71. Long, feminae 85 mm.; maris 50 
mm. Lat. feminae 2.75 mm. 

Hab. Sandwich islands, Society islands, J. M. Barnard ; As- 
cension islands, South sea ; Zanzibar, Mr. Cooke. 

Meinert.l ^Z |o c t. 2, 

2. Orphn^us Brasiliensis. 

OrpluKcus Brasiliensis Meinert, Myriap. Mus. Haun. i. Geopliil., p 20. 

Minus vel sat robustus, ante multum post paulum angustatus, ocbraceus 
vel pallide lividus, capite ciun tropins laminaque basali dorsalique ultima 
fulvo vel brunneo, anlennis fulvis, maculis fuscis, in series plures digestis, 
notatus ; subglaber. 

Pedes prensorii glabri, flexi marginem frontalem magno spatio non 
attingentes ; sternum ter latius quam longius, coxa sesquilongius, margine 
antico in medio leviter sinuato, inermi ; coxa inermis ; unguis curvatus, 

Lamina cepbalica manifesto latior quam longior, glabra, la?viuscula, 
lateribus rotundatis, paulum divergentibus, margine postico subrecto, 
marginem anticum laminae basalis obtegente ; lamina basalis quam lamina 
cephalica plus duplo brevior (9 : 20), ter latior quam longior. 

Antenna? breves, ad basin distantes, crassa?, attenuate, articulis praeter 
ultimum transversalibus, articulo ultimo articulis duobus antecedentibus 
conjunctis paulo longiore. 

Laminae dorsales bi- vel trisulcata?, sulco medio latiore, obsoletiore, 
foveis binis lateralibus notatae. 

Spiracula ovalia, anteriora obliqua, magna, per paria sensim magnitudine 
decrescentia ; media et posteriora prona, parva. 

Lamina' ventrales fovea vel area media, post sensim paulo majore atque 
obsoletiore impressa?, lateribus porosis. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris manifesto breviores, anteriores posterioribus 
manifesto crassiores, vix breviores, medii paulo longiores. 

Pleura* postica? vix inflatae, glabra?, integra? ; lamina ultima ventralis 
sat parva, lateribus subrectis, valde convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris paulo breviores, vix (feruina') aut 
aliquanto (maris) crassiores, inermes. 

Pedes femina? pp. 75-85 ; maris 67. Long, femina? 80 mm. ; maris 47 
mm. Lat. femina 1 2.1 mm. 

Hah. Rio de Janeiro, Thayer Exped. ; Panama; Poloon, Oc- 
cidental Dept., Nicaragua, Mr. McNiel. 

G. Gen. Notipliilides. 

Notiphilides Latzel, Myriap. oesterr. ung. Mon., p. 20. 

Corpus depressum, ante et post angustatum. 

Lamina cepbalica trophos non obtegens ; lamina frontalis coalita ; la- 
mina basalis lata, lateribus post paulum divergentibus ; lamina pnebasalis 

Antenna' subdepressee, curtae, parum altenuata 1 . 

Labrum coalitum integrum, margine antico interne dense, externa 
sparsim uentato. 

Labii sternum integrum ; processus breves, perlati, subconici ; palpi 
lati, integri, extrorsum processibus binis longis instructi. 

1885.J Add [Meinert. 

Palporum maxillarium unguis in marginibus- interioribus in clentes 
plures incisus. 

Mandibular ante laminis pectinatis quaternis instructs. 

Metameri quarti sternum integrum, transversa^, simplex ; prosternum 
baud prominens, obtectum ; pedes prensorii coxa inermi. 

Scutella spiraculifera magna, prsescutello paulo minora, postscutello 
majore discreto ; scutella et pnescutella interna manifesta. 

Laminae dorsales bisulcata? ; prsescuta brevia. 

Pori ventrales minimi, in marginem anticum et posticum digesti, incon- 

Pori pleuralis nulli. 

Pori anales nulli. 

Pedes anales inermes, pseudo-sexarticulati, pleuris coxas simulantibus, 
feniince subgraciles, parum attenuati, subnudi, maris parum incrassati 
atque attenuati, subnudi. 

Lamina ultima ventralis transversalis, praescutis nulles discretis. Palpi 
genitales maris manifesto biarticulati. 


NotipMlus Maximiliani Humbert et Saussure, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 2 ser., 
xxii, p. 205. 
Saussure et Humbert, Etud. s. Myriap., p. 141, 
tab. vi, figs. 22, 22d, 22v. 

Pobustus, ante et post manifesto angustatus; brunneo-olivaceus, glaber. 

Pedes prensorii glabri, flexi marginem frontalem procul attingentes ; 
sternum ter latius quam longius, coxa duplo longius, margine antico in 
medio late sinuato, inermi ; coxa biennis ; unguis inermis. 

Lamina cepbalica multo latior quam longior, lrevis, subovalis, margine 
postico a lamina basali obtecto ; lamina basalis quater latior quam longior. 

Antenna; breviusculre vel breves, attenuate, articulis prater ultimum 
transversalibus, articulo ultimo articulos duos antecedentes conjunctos 
longitudine suba?quante. 

Lamina? dorsales manifesto scrobiculata?, pra?scutis brevissimis. 

Spiracula subovalia, obliqua, anteriora majora, per paria sensim magni- 
tudine decrescentia ; media et posteriora minora. 

Lamina? ventrales praeter sulcos binos lateralibus maximam partem 
porosa?, impressione media, angusta, simplice notatse. 

Pedes paris primi ceteris multo breviores, paulo tenuiores, anteriores 
posterioribus sub«quales. 

Pleura; posticre coxiformes, integra? ; lamina ultima ventralis parva, 
transversalis, lateribus subrectis, multum convergentibus. 

Pedes anales pedibus paris anterioris manifesto breviores, multo cras- 
siores, kiermes. 

Pedes feminse pp. 97 ; maris 85. Long, feminse 90 mm. ; maris 55. 
Lat feminse 3.7 mm. 

Hah. Guatemala, v. Patten. 


Cope.] ^0± [ 0ct . 16i 

On the Structure of the Brain and Auditory Apparatus of a Theromorphous 
Reptile of the Permian Epoch. By E. D. Cope. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, October 16, 1SS5.) 

The following observations are made on a part of a skull of one of the 
Diadectidse (Pelycosauria with transverse molar teeth*), which is accom- 
panied by several vertebrae and other fragments of the skeleton, of a 
single individual of undetermined species. A few characters are derived 
from skulls of two allied species, Diadectes phaseolinus and Empedias 
molaris Cope, which, like the first named specimen, were derived from the 
Permian formation of Texas. A cast of the brain chamber was obtained, 
thanks to the skill of my assistant, Mr. Geismar, first in the elastic mate- 
rial patented by Bendernagel & Co., of Philadelphia, for the manufacture 
of printers inking rolls ; and afterwards in plaster of Paris, in a mould 
made from the elastic cast. 

The brain case in the Diadectidre differs from that of the Clepsydropidae 
much as that of the Varamidse differ from those of other Lacertilia. That 
is, it is continued between the orbits, so as to enclose the olfactory lobes 
of the brain within osseous walls. These w r alls are thin ; especially at the 
interorbital region, and in the specimen the anterior extremity is so far 
imperfect as to leave the form of the anterior fundus in doubt. 

The brain in reptiles, as is well known, does not fill tightly the cranial 
chamber as is the case with the Mammalia, there being a wadding of con- 
nective tissue, with interspaces filled with lymph and fat, between it and 
the cranial walls. In the present species the postfrontal part of the 
cranium is so contracted that there could have been but little space of this 
kind, and the superior walls are clearly impressed by the surfaces of the 
middle brain and the cerebellum. The form of the inferior surface of the 
brain posterior to the fifth pair of nerves cannot be determined from the 
specimen examined, owing to the absence of the basioccipital and basi- 
sphenoid bones. 

The conformation of the cranial walls requires preliminary notice. In 
the first place the vestibule of the ear can only have been separated from 
the brain by a membranous septum, as is the case in the Protonopsis hor- 
rida\ (Menopoma). In clearing out the matrix no trace of osseous lamina 
could be detected on either side, and the edges of the huge foramen thus 
produced are entire, and present no broken edges. Anterior to the vesti- 
bule, the prootic bone has a small extension, terminating in a vertical 
border. In front of this is the huge vertical foramen through which issues 
the trigeminus nerve, which is even larger than that found in the Testudi- 
nata and Crocodilidai. The anterior border of this foramen is formed by 

* For a definition of this family and the included genera, see Proceedings of 
the American Philosophical Society, 18.S0, p. 45. 

fSee Journal Academy Philadelphia, 1SU6, p. 105, where the characters of the 
skull in the Urodela are pointed out. 

1885.J 2o5 LCope- 

the probable alisphenoid, whose posterior edge is nearly parallel with the 
anterior border of the prootic, sloping forwards as it descends. Tbe basi- 
cranial axis is thin at their union on the middle line below, and, thickening 
forwards, is excavated by rather small conical fossa. Anterior to the fossa 
is a smaller impressed fossa, and on either side of it, each lateral wall is 
excavated into a shallow fossa wbich descends towards it. The frontopa- 
rietal fontanelle is of extraordinary size. 

1. The Brain. 

Wben the superior border of the medulla oblongata at the foramen mag- 
num is placed horizontally, the axis of the brain ascends at an angle of 
45° towards the frontoparietal fontanelle. The superior surface, anterior to 
the foramen magnum, is subquadrate in outline, the angles being trun- 
cated, and directed anteriorly, posteriorly and laterally. A posterior con- 
striction connects it with the medulla ; and an anterior one defines the 
middle brain and hemispheres. Each lateral truncated angle represents 
the foramen of the trigeminus nerve. The space thus bounded is divided 
into two nearly equal areas by a transverse groove, which extends from the 
posterior edge of one of these foramina to the other. The posterior of these 
I suppose to represent the cerebellum, and the anterior the optic thalami. 
The cerebellar surface indicates that, as in many lizards, the cerebellum is 
simple, and very slightly convex. 

Anterior to the foramen trigemini, the brain contracts so as to have a 
transverse diameter scarcely more than one-third its vertical diameter. 
The cast at a point twice as far in advance of the cerebellar line as the fore 
and aft width of the cerebellum, rises to fill the frontoparietal foramen, 
forming a mass which represents the huge pineal sac or epiphysis. The 
proportions of this body are even greater than they are in any of the exist- 
ing Lacertilia, and it has a greater transverse diameter than the middle 
brain inferior to it. Its posterior border is at right angles to the line con- 
tinued forwards from the superior border of the medulla oblongata at the 
foramen magnum. At its posterior base a flat horizontal process, as wide 
as the brain at this point, extends posteriorly in a corresponding fossa of 
the superior cranial wall. Its posterior margin occupies a transverse 
groove of the superior wall between the superior and inferior plates. 
Each lateroposterior angle is produced, and may represent the foramen of 
exit of a narrow canal which appears to perforate the lateral wall and issue 
beneath the roof of the temporal fossa. A larger projection of each side of 
the base of the epiphyseal mass occupies a large foramen of the lateral wall, 
which has the superior wall for its superior border. This may only repre- 
sent a vacuity of the wall, but the fossa at the posterior base of the epi- 
physis has greater significance. What this is I am at present unable to 

Below the epiphysis the transverse diameter of the brain is about one- 
fourth the vertical, not including a short inferior prominence. The latter 
is small and conical, and is situated below the center of the epiphysis 

Cope.] ^ob [Oct. 16, 

when the cerebellar surface is placed horizontally, or in front of it, when 
the medulla at the foramen is placed horizontally. Its significance is 
unknown to me, as it is anterior to the position of the hypophysis. A 
thickening of the cast on either side of its base converges to the median 
line posterior to it. I can find no optic foramina, and believe, therefore, 
that the optic nerves issued from the same large sinus as the trigeminus. 
The cast diminishes in vertical diameter anterior to the inferior conical 
process, and increases in transverse diameter of its superior surface. The 
inferior border continues to be keel-like, so that a vertical section is trian- 
gular with the base superior. It is impossible to distinguish the outlines 
of the cerebral hemispheres or the olfactory lobes, both of which are 
probably included in this part of the cast, although the latter probably 
extended much anterior to the extremity of the brain case as preserved. 
The form may or may not give an idea of the forms of the hemispheres. 
In any case they were narrower than in any known reptile. 

The prominent features of this brain are then the following : The widest 
part is at the origin of the trigeminus nerve. Both the cerebellum and 
optic thalamus are flat and simple. The hemispheres are narrower than 
the segments posterior to them, and of greater vertical diameter. The 
epiphysis is enormous, and sends a process posteriorly between the tables 
of the parietal bone. The olfactory lobes were apparently large, and had a 
greater transverse diameter than the hemispheres. The reduced diameter 
of the hemispheres is a character of fishes and Batrachia rather than of rep- 
tiles, but the thalami are also smaller than is the case in Batrachia. The 
small, flat cerebellum is rather batrachiau than reptilian. 

2. The Auditory Apparatus. 

As already remarked, the internal wall of the vestibule is not bony, so 
that the cast of the brain cavity includes that of the vestibule also. On 
the external wall of the latter are the orifices of the semi-circular canals. 
These are, one double fossa at the superior anterior part of the wall ; a 
second double one at the posterior superior part of the wall, and a single 
orifice at the inferior posterior part of the wall. The external part of 
the vestibule is produced upwards and outwards to the fenestra ovalis. 
The "double fossae" above mentioned are the osseous representatives 
of the membranous ampullae at the junction of two pairs of semicircular 

On sawing open the periotic bones, which here form a continuous mass, 
the following is seen to be the direction of the semicircular canals. The 
superior canal is horizontal. The second canal from the posterior ampulla, 
descends forwards, and after a course a little longer than that of the hori- 
zontal canal' turns posteriorly. The inferior canal from t lie anterior am- 
pulla also descends, and after a shorter course than the canal last men- 
tioned, also turns backwards and joins it, the two forming a single canal, 
which enters the vestibule by the single posterior foramen already des- 
cribed. The lumen of the longer perpendicular canal is much larger than 







c c 

o c 

," e 

h ap 

« -aa 

v a p 


c c 





Brain and Internal ear of Diadectidae. 

1885.] ^31 [Cope. 

that of the others. As its ampullar orifice is also the largest of all, I 
suppose this increased diameter to be partly normal ; but it may be partly 
abnormal, as its walls are irregular and rough. 

The fenestra ovalis is not preserved in this specimen, but can be seen in 
the crania of the species Diadectes jjhaseolinus and Empedias molaris above 
mentioned.* The vestibule or a diverticulum from it is produced upwards 
and backwards, and terminates in a round os. This is clearly not a tym- 
panic chamber, nor is it a rudimental cochlea. It does not appear to be 
homologous with the recessus labyrinthi, since that cavity is not perforated 
by the fenestra ovalis. It appears to be a prolongation outwards of the 
vestibule and sacculus, which may be observed in a less degree in the 
genus Edaphosaurus (Cope), also from the Texas Permian formation. 
Here the adjacent bones are produced slightly outwards, and the fenestra 
ovalis is closed by a large stapes similar in external form to the one I have 
described in the Clepsydrops leptocephalus.\ Its more intimate structure I 
have not yet examined. % 

The result of this examination into the structure of the auditory organs 
in the Diadectidse may be stated as follows : The semicircular canals have 
the structure common to all Gnathostomatous Chordata. The internal 
wall of the vestibule remains unossified as in many fishes and a few 
batrachians. There is no rudiment of the cochlea, but the vestibule is pro- 
duced outwards and upwards to the fenestra ovalis, in a way unknown in 
any other family of vertebrates. 

I may add that, in the specimen examined, the semicircular canals were 
filled with a white calcareous powder, probably derived from the commi- 
nution of otolites. 


Figs. 1, 2 and 3 cast of cranial cavity, natural size. As the basicranial 
axis is lost, the inferior outline posteriorly is provisional only. 

Fig. 1, from above. 

Fig. 2, from the left side. 

Fig. 3, from behind. 

The letters signify as follows: m., medulla; cb., cerebellum; opL, 
optic lobe ; ep., epiphysis ; ppe., posterior process of epiphysis ; If., lateral 
foramen; h., region of cerebral hemispheres ; v., cast of vestibule; hap., 

*See skull of E. molaris, Proceedings Amer. Philosoph. Society, 1881, Plate v, 
figs, a and b, where the fenestra is represented. 

fSee Proceedings Amer. Philosoph. Society, 1884, p. 41. 

% Professor Owen has figured (Todd's Encyclopedia, art. Monotremata) a struc- 
ture in Echidna, which looks remarkably like that here described. This is a 
tubular elongation of the meatus auditorius externus with more or less carti- 
laginous walls. This structure might be regarded as homologous with that dis- 
played by the Empedias, could we imagine that with their diminution in size 
in tbeMonolreme, theossicula auditus had retreated within this tube preceding 
the membranum tympani, from a position at its distal, to one at its proximal 
extremity. But such a supposition has as yet no foundation, and the very 
similar parts in the two types may have no homology. 

Brinton.] ^O [Nov. 20, 

do. of orifice of horizontal anteroposterior semicircular canal; vt., do. of 
vertical transverse canal ; oc, do of os commune of vertical anteropos- 
terior and vertical transverse canals; aa., do. of anterior ampulla ; V., 
cast of foramen of fifth pair of nerves. 

Figs. 4, 5 and 6 diagrams of the semicircular canals, natural size. 

Fig. 4, interior view. . 

Fig. 5, anterior view. 

Fig. 6, inferior view. 

The letters signify as follows : aa., anterior ampulla ; ap., posterior 
ampulla ; hap., horizontal anteroposterior canal ; vap., vertical antero- 
posterior canal ; vt., vertical transverse canal, enlarged in its upper por- 
tion, probably accidentally ; cc, canalis communis of the vertical antero- 
posterior and vertical transverse canals ; oc, os commune of do. 

Note's on the Mingue ; an extinct Dialect formerly spoken in 
Nicaragua. By Daniel G. Brinton, 31. D. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, November 20, 1SS5.) 

Sources. Nothing whatever has been published about the 
Mangue language, except a list of ninety-five words, by Mr. E. 
G. Squier in his work, " Nicaragua, its People, Scenery and 
Monuments." Whence he obtained this short vocabulary he 
does not state ; but it is evidently the work of some one only 
slightly acquainted with the character of the language. 1 do not 
make any use of it in the present notes, except in a few instances 
for comparison. 

My authorities are, first, Don Juan Eligio de la Rocha's 
Apuntamientos de la Lengua Mangue, MS. The author was 
born in Granada, C. A., June 15, 1815. By profession a lawyer, 
his taste led him to the study of languages, and he acquired a 
fluent knowledge of French, English and Italian. He was 
appointed instructor in French and Spanish grammar in 1848 
in the University of Leon, C. A., and ten years later, 1S58, pub- 
lished his Elementos de Oramatica Castellana (Leon, 1858, small 
4to, pp. 199). His death occurred in 1873. 

While living in Masaya in 1842, he became interested in the 
surviving remnants of the Mangues, and undertook to collect 
materials for a study of their language. Unfortunately, lie never 
completed these investigations, and many of the sheets on which 
he had recorded his notes were scattered. A few of them, how- 

1P85.] AoJ [Brinton. 

ever, were in the hands of his brother, Doctor Don Jesus de la 
Rocha, of Granada, who gave Dr. C. H. Berendt an opportunity 
to copy them in 1874. 

In that same year, 1874, Dr. Berendt collected the last 
obtainable fragments of the Mangue. In his (printed) lecture 
before the American Geographical Society in 1876, he thus 
describes his efforts in this direction, and at the same time 
points out the localities where the Mangue speaking populations 
where located when they first came to the knowledge of the in- 
vading whites. 

"The Spaniards on entering the present State of Nicaragua from Nicoya 
bay, and then marching through the country, came into contact first with 
the southern section of the Chorotegas or Mangues, as they were also 
called ; then with a Nahuatl tribe, whose capital and king are mentioned 
as bearing the name of Nicarao ; and after these again with Chorotegas or 
Mangues, who, however, did not occupy the whole tract of land up to the 
Bay of Fonseca, but were again separated from the Chorotegas on the 
shores of that bay by another foreign tribe called Manbios. Thus we 
obtain the three sections into which the Chorotegas of Nicaragua were 
divided at the time of the Conquest. Now, their language seemed to me 
an object worthy of having some special attention bestowed upon it— not 
so much for its own sake, but in order that a better understanding might 
be arrived at of the ethnological features of Nicaragua, which, on account 
of an insufficient acquaintance with its actual condition as well as with the 
early writers, and ot the rather precarious speculations and conjectures of 
modern authors based upon such scanty knowledge, have become greatly 
confused. Having studied the Chapanecan language on a former expedi- 
tion, and wishing to compare it with the Chorotegan, I visited Nicaragua 
in the year 1874. I found that the Indian population near the Nicoya and 
the Fonseca bays had entirely disappeared, and in both districts only met 
with some local names belonging to the Chorotegan language. In the 
third district also, where descendants of the old stock are still living in 
twelve villages around the lakes of Masaya and Apoyo, I was informed 
that no other vestiges of the old idiom were left, the inhabitants speaking 
exclusively the Spanish language. I had, however, the good luck to 
ferret out some old people who still remembered words and phrases they 
had heard in their childhood ; and I was enabled to collect material suffi- 
cient to convince myself and others of the identity of this Mangue or 
Chorotegan idiom with the Chapaneco language of Mexico. I was not a 
moment too early in obtaining this information, for the greater number of 
my informants died while I was staying in the country. I still hope that 
with the knowledge of the Chorotegan thus gained in Nicaragua and 
Chiapas, it may be [possible to trace their history and descent backwards 

Brinton.] ^40 [ Nov 20, 

to one of the nations that were living in Anahuac in the earliest times of 
which our records speak." 

The materials were never published by Dr. Berendt, nor, 
indeed, did the many other projects which occupied him allow 
him the leisure to collate and arrange them. I have taken them 
from his original notes, often in pencil and not always perfectly 
legible. But I believe those here offered can be depended upon 
as accurate, and have special value as the sole remaining vestiges 
of an idiom now wholly extinct. 

Synonyms. It will be seen that Berendt speaks of this 
people as the " Chorotegas or Mangues." I have given the 
origin of these names in the Introduction to " The Giiegiience, a 
Comedy-Ballet in the Nahuatl-Spanish Dialect of Nicaragua," 
published as Number III, of " Brinton's Library of Aboriginal 
American Literature " (Philadelphia, 1883). They adjoined on 
the north-east and south-west the Nahuatl-speaking tribe, who 
occupied the narrow strip of land between Lake Nicaragua and 
the Pacific ocean. 

"They were of one blood and one language, and called themselves 
Mankeme, rulers, masters, which the Spaniards corrupted into Mangues. 
The invading Aztecs appear to have split this ancient tribe into two frac- 
tions, the one driven toward the south, about the Gulf of Nicoya, the 
other northward, on and near Lake Managua, and beyond it on Fonseca 
bay. Probably in memory of this victory, the Aztec Nicaraguans applied 
to them the opprobious name, Chololteca, 'those driven out,' from the 
Nahuatl verb choloa, in its compulsive form chololtia, and the suffix, 
tecatl, people ; which was corrupted by the Spaniards into Chorotegas." 
{The Gueguence, Introduction, p. viii. ) 

In Squier's work above referred to they are called " Chorote- 
gans or Dirians." The latter is from the Mangue dirt, a hill or 
mountain, and was applied to that portion of them who dwelt in 
the hilly country south of Masaya. 

The Spanish form of their native name is that which I should 
recommend for adoption in ethnological works. 

Early Notices. The old historians and travelers, on whom we 
depend for our knowledge of Nicaragua, tell us practically 
nothing about this language, and little about the people who 
spoke it. The chieftain, called Nicoj'a, living on the bay of that 
name, was first visited by Captain Gil Gonzalez Davila in 1523. 
The natives were estimated at about six thousand, who received 

1885.] ^41 [Brinton. 

the Spaniards in a friendly manner, and gave them considerable 

Oviedo in his Historia de las Indias gives a few words of the 
language as follows : 

mamea, hell. 

nam bi, dog. 

nam bue, tiger, 

the last two of which correspond to those in later vocabularies.! 

The Auditor Garcia de Palacio (1576) mentions the Mangue 
as spoken in Choluteca, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, in the last 
mentioned as introduced from elsewhere. J About a century later 
a colony of Mangues, several hundred in number, were found by 
Juan Vazquez de Coronado, almost at the extreme eastern end 
of Costa Rica, in the Province of Pacaca.§ Those on the Pacific 
Coast, about the Gulf of Nicoya, were accustomed to cross to the 
ocean on the north for trading purposes, and to obtain salt.|| 
They appear to have been a people of moderate cultivation, and 
rather extended commercial connections. 

Affiliations. The Mangue is the mother tongue from which 
the Chapanec (or Chiapanec) of Chiapas branched off. The 
separation from the ancestral tribe, and the migration from 
Nicaragua to Chiapas, were distinctly remembered by the Cha- 
panec off-shoot when first encountered by the whites. Remesal, 
in his well-known history, gives a brief but clear account of it. 

The date of this occurrence cannot be specifically stated, but 
its occasion can be readily surmised. The Mangues at one time 
occupied the whole coast from the entrance of the Gulf of 
Nicoya to Fonseca bay. At a period which we may locate some 
time in the fourteenth century, a large colony of Aztecs de- 
scended the coast and seized the strip between Lake Nicaragua 
and the Pacific, thus splitting the Mangues in two, and driving 
a large portion of them out of their homes. Some of these wan- 
derers remained with their relatives, but one body of them 
marched north and west until they reached a lofty peak on the 

•Letter of Gil Gonzalez Davila to the Emperor Charles V, in Costa-Rica, Nic* 
aragua y Panama en el Sialo xvi, por D. Manuel E. de Peralta, p. 9 (Madrid, 1833). 
t historia General y Natural de Indias, Part iii, Lib, iii. 
X Palacio, Carta, al Rey> Ed. Squier, p. 20. 

gSee the Report of Coronado in the collection of Peralta above quoted, p. 777. 
1 Ibid, p. 701. 


Brinton.] ->4:A [Nov. 20, 

Rio Grande in Central Chiapas, where they constructed a for- 
midable fortress, and became the terror of their Nakuatl-speak- 
ing neighbors.* 

No connection has been demonstrated between the Mangue 
(or Chapanec), and any other North American language, 
although owing to the liberal exertions of M. Alphonse Pinart, 
we have now in print and easily procurable, a grammar and a 
number of texts of the Chapanec dialect.f 

A comparison, the partial results of which I have previously 
published, proves that the differences between the Chapanec and 
Mangue are slight and unimportant, and for purposes of colla- 
tion vvith other stocks the two may be looked upon as identical. 

In the Introduction to " The Gueguence," I pointed out some 
singular coincidences between the Mangue aud the Aymara of 
Peru. Further examination of the two tongues has not added 
to the list given, and has weakened the belief I entertained of 
some possible connection in the past between them. 

1 take this occasion to point out an error which has crept iuto 
several philological works, that of confounding the Mangue 
with the Nagrandan of Nicaragua. Thus, Francisco Pimentel, in 
his work on the languages of Mexico, falls into the capital mis- 
take of declaring the Chapanec of Chiapas to be allied to the 
Nagrandan of Nicaragua ; and to prove his assertion, gives a 
list of alleged Nagrandan words, all of which belong to the 
Mangue tongue !J 

The same confusion marks an attempt of Mr. Hyde Clark, of 

* " Vinieron antiguamente de la Provinciade Nicaragua unas gentes que can- 
sados de andar y de las descomodades que la peregrinacion trse eonsigo, se qued- 
aron en tierradeChiapa, y poblaron en un pefiol aspero orillas deun Rio Grande 
que pasa por medio dellay fortificaronse alii, porque nunca se quisieron suje- 
tar & los Reyes de Mejico, antes tenian continuamente guerra con sus capi- 
tanes." etc. Remesal, Historia de Chiapay Guatemala, Lib. iv, cap. xiii. 

t Arte de la Lengua Chiapcneca. Por Fray Juan de Albornoz. 

Doctrina C'risliana en Lengua Chiapaneca. Por Fray Luis Barrientos. 

These two publications comprise Vol. i of the Bibliothique <lc Linguislique el 
d'Elhnogruphie Americaines, publiee par Alph. L. Pinart (Paris, 1675). 

Dr. Berendt states that the natives pronounce the name of the province 
Chapa, not Chiapa, and that the word is the Mangue Chapa, which means their 
sacred bird, the Ara or Guacamayo, from which they named their fortress in the 
State of Chiapas. Father Juan Nunez, who was missionary among them about 
1620, and who preached and wrote in their tongue, also called it "la lengua 
Chapaneca." See Brasseur (de Bourbourg), Bibliothique Mexico- Guatemalienne, 
pp. L09, 110. 

XQ'iadro Descriptive) de las Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico, Tomo iil, p. 559 .Mexico. 

1885.] ^43 [Brinton. 

London, to bring into relation " the Masaya language of 
Nicaragua with the Sioux language." The words he quotes as 
from Masaya are all from the Nagrandan of Subtiaba, near 
Leon. There is really no relationship between the Nagrandan 
and Mangue, and although Dr. Latham has attempted to indi- 
cate some few analogies,* they must be deemed quite accidental. 

A comparison of about 125 words of the Mangue with the 
Mixteca, which I find among the Berendt MSS., reveals only 
about half a dozen similarities, all apparently accidental. 

Phonetics. The Mangue words in this paper are principally in 
letters with the Spanish powers, some of the semi-vowels being 
in smaller type. The h is pronounced as an aspirate, and is 
equivalent to thej, which has its aspirated Spanish value. 

All syllables are open ; that is, they all end in a vowel sound. 
Thus nim.bu, water, is to be divided ni-mbu. In this respect it 
resembles the Cherokee, the Japanese, etc. 

Dr. Berendt stated that the Chapanec dialect was the most 
difficult ot any American language he had ever studied, on 
account of the obscurity and uncertainty of its sounds. It is 
greatly syncopated, and terminal syllables are often pronounced 
in so low a tone that they escape the unpracticed ear. The 
vowels are not distinct, and many of the consonants are " alterna- 
ting" as it is called, that is, one may be substituted for another 
without altering the meaning of the word. Thus, evil spirit 
(demonic-) may be either tixdmbi' or sistfmbH, these two being 
the same word pronounced indifferently, either way, by the same 
individual. This is by no means without parallel in American 

The curious frequency in the Mangue of the " resonants " n 
and m will strike every observer. This is also the case in the 
Chapanec. Albornoz regards it as a phonetic phenomenon only, 
and remarks, " Whenever a word begins with 6, g, y or d, an n 
must be written before it, which is pronounced with the word 
itself." Dr. Berendt calls it an " article " which appears as n, 
na, ni, or m, especially before the letter b. As such, I may 
suggest its similarity to the Nahuatl in, and the Othomi na, both 
of which are demonstratives worn down almost to articles. 

There is a similar resonant nasal in various South American 

* Latham, Essays, chiefly Philological and Ethnographical, p. 373 (London, 1800). 

Brinton.] -^44: [Nov. 20, 

tongues, especially the Tupi-Guarani dialects of Brazil. It 
appears most frequently before the consonants b and d. Its 
peculiarity is that it is not an expiratory sound, hut a soft in- 
spirate, and as such is claimed by Dr. Nogueira to be a phonetic 
phenomenon confined exclusively to American tongues.* I have 
been unable to decide from the descriptions within my reach of 
the Chapanec phonetics, whether the initial resonant is an inspi- 
rate, and I would call the attention of travelers to this interest- 
ing point. 

In addition to this simple resonant prefix there are a number 
of particles beginning either with n or m, which are added to 
indicate the absolute or independent form of the noun, that is, 
to characterize it when not attached to a personal possessive 
pronoun. Of these Albornoz gives fourteen for the singular, and 
seven for the plural. This will explain the striking prevalence 
of words beginning with these letters in the vocabulary. 

Accent is of the utmost importance in both these dialects, and 
the identity to the eye of various words as nyujmi, ear and 
smoke, arises from absence of proper accent marks in my 
authorities. The words for bird, snake and flower are the same ; 
but Albornoz gives this very example to illustrate the import- 
ance of accent, nolo, a snake, nolo, a flower. Unfortunately, 
none of my authorities employ any accentual mark but the acute, 
and this appears to be syllabic. A vowel wiitten above the line 
of the word, in Berendt's MSS., signifies a semi-vowel. 

Structure. The general structure of the Mangue was clearly 
polysynthetic and incorporative in a marked degree. In its 
grammar it was no doubt identical in all essential points with 
the Chapanec, about which, as above mentioned, we have con- 
siderable information in published sources. Nominal and verbal 
forms are defined by the categories of animate and inanimate 
genera, a distinction which is to a certain extent purely gram- 
matical, as for instance, a book is considered animate, and a table 
inanimate (Albornoz, Gram., cap. xiii). The first person plural 
has an inclusive and exclusive form. Adjectives usually, but 
not always, follow the nouns. Plurals are frequently formed 
by simply lengthening the terminal vowel sound. 

♦See the excellent work of Dr. B. C. A. Nogueira, Aponiamentos sobre o Aba- 
helnga tambem chamado Guarani ou Tupi, pp. 50, 57 (Kio Janiero, 1S7C). 

1885] 245 [Brinton. 

The Vocabulary. The words in the vocabulary have been 
obtained from the Rocha and Berendt MSS. Where these two 
authorities differ the variants are indicated by the affixed 
initials, R. and B. All words quoted for the sake of compari- 
son from Squier, are marked by an affixed S. The observa- 
tions, explanations and other remarks attached to the words 
and phrases are my own. The comparative expressions taken 
from the Chapanec (marked, Chap.) are from the printed works 
above mentioned, or from MS. vocabularies of various author- 
ship in my possession. 

All of Rocha's words are from the dialect of Masaya ; but Dr. 
Berendt obtained some at the villages of Masatepec, Niquin- 
domo, and Namotiva', and this explains the occasional variants 
given. The differences, however, between the speech of these 
localities was evidently slight. 

Vocabulary : English-Mangue. 

Achiote, nariyu. (The Bixa orellana, a fruit tree ; achiote is 
Nah uatl). 

Aguacate, nirimo', narimu. (Fruit of the Persea gratissima}. 

Ancestor, kopo'. The same as old, q. v. 

Ancestress, kapoi. Apparently a feminine form of kopo, old. 

Anona, naria'. Fruit of the Anona squamosa. 

Ant, an, naju, na a . 

Ara, lapa; Chap, txapa. The Ara macao, of ornithologists. 

Arm, ndiro. Compare hand, and finger. Properly " the 
upper extremity." S. deno. Chap. gulu"a. 

Armpit, ngisa. Compare, beard. Perhaps " hair of the armpit." 

Armadillo (Dasypus) nyuku'. Compare lizard. 

Ashes, nitsu, nisri. 

Atole, nambo. (A dish prepared from maize.) 

Bad, gangame, ganyame. Properly not-good. 

Bark, nanso u a r . 

Basket, naj u ari. 

Bat, nyuta'. 

Bean, nyumu. 

Beast, nyumbu. Compare tiger. 

Bear, to (to bear children) pindih. 

Beard, gisa. 

Briuton.] <«U [Nov. 20, 

Bed, nakuta. 

Bee, nopopo. 

Beetle, nag u a. 

Belty, ngusi. 

Bird, nori, nyuri'. Compare snake and flower. Chap. nuri. 

Bitter, yasi. 

Black, nansome. 

Blood, nijnyii ; S. nenuh. 

Blue, nandipame. 

Body or Flesh, nimbrome, nampoome. 

Bone, nyu'. 

Bowels, ngita. 

Boy, nasome ; R. norome ; little boy, norominamu. 

Branch (of a tree) ndiro nya; = "its arm, tree." 

Brandy, nimbuyasi ; = " water, bitter." 

Brave, pusit'u. 

Brook, nanda. 

Brother, manku, mambo. 

Brother, younger, mambo nyamo nasome. 

Buttocks, bojo'; nbasi, basti'. 

Cacao, nyusi. 

Camote, yujmi (an edible root). 

Cane, sugar, niriombome. 

Cantaro (a water jar), natiyojpo. 

Casava, see yuca: 

Cat, misa, mixa. 

Cat, wild, misa se nirome; = " cat of the forest." 

Chachalaca, tasara. A kind of partridge called, in Nahuatl, 

Chalchihuitl (a green stone, Nah.),njai se ra} r o ; the last word, 
rayo, is Spanish, and the expression means " stone of the light- 
ning," the belief being that these stones are thunderbolts. 

Cheek, girote. Compare face. 

Chief, ruler, mankeme. Chap, manayama, from yima, the 
head. See The Giieguenee, Introd., p. viii, note. 

Chief, female, najyumbu. 

Child, nasungi. 

Chile (a sort of red pepper"), ningi. 

Chocolate, nimbu nyusi ; = " water-cacao." 

1885.1 ^^ [Brinton 

Cbocollo (a bird), naturi. 

Church, nakumbui. 

Clay, nambroj. 

Clay, potter's, nambroj se nati ; = " clay of jars." 

Cock, a, norij u e. 

Cockroach, nambisa. 

Cocoyol, neme ; a species of palm. 

Cold, poro', yoro, oro. 

Collar, or necklace, bakoya'jo. 

Comal (a dish or plate), nanibujyo 1 . 

Come, to, na. 

Conch-shell, txote. 

Cook, a female, naka' nakupasi. Comp. kitchen. 

Corn-field, namasinyu', ndam bur'rio. 

Cotton, naroti'. 

Cotton, thread of, tapakusime naroti. 

Dance, to, tasosmo. 

Daughter, banya nasinyamo. Comp. son and girl. 

Daughter-in-law, mbajtioro. 

Dead, ko^me. Comp. to die. 

Deaf, gungupajo ; = not hearing. 

Deer, nyumba ngami. 

Devil, natamasimo. 

Die, to, naga a nyu; imper. koijme. 

Dish from a gourd, nambira. Comp. water. 

Distant, ha*tsu. 

Door, nya siyu. 

Drink, to, imper. koi ri (?). 

Drum, nyunsu. Comp. jicara. 

Dog, nyumbi'. 

Dog, female, nyumbi nyaka 1 . 

Ear, nj'ujmi. 

Earth, land, nikupu', nambrome. 

Eat, to, nasu, imper. ko'ta'. 

Egg, nyuga-}'ori. Comp. bird. 

Egg-shell, nanso u a. Compare bark. 

Enclosui*e, mendi. 

Enclosure of stone, mendi nyu a . 

Excrement, nig u a. 

Brinton.] -^48 [Nov. 20, 

Eye, nate. 

Face, ngroti. Compare cheek. 

Father, k n e; kujk u e; S. gooha. R. coehyo. 

Feather, napa yon. 

Female, of animals, nyaka. 

Finger, ndiro. Compare arm and hand. Chap, banya dila. 

Finger nail, monsu', munsu. 

Fire, nyayu, naku ; S. nahu. 

Fish, nyujii. 

Flatus, pij 1 . 

Flea, louse, etc., nyu 1 . 

Flesh, for eating, nampumi. 

Flint, nyupa nyugo. Compare stone. 

Flower, nyuri, niri. Compare bird, and snake 

Fly, a, nimbrome. 

Food, nyumuta. Comp. bean. 

Foot, ngira. 

Forehead, gula. 

Forest, nijome, nmandi. 

Fork, a, nya nangu, Compare house. Probably the forked 
stick, which supports the ridge-pole. 

Friend, nguri ; manku. Comp. brother. 

Frog, natakopo. Comp. toad. 

Fruit, narime. 

Gall, bayatime. 

Gaspar, nyuju yansu. A fish sometimes called the "lizard 

Girl, nasunyamo. R. najiiiamu. 

God, kupankeme Dio; nikus'p u a. (Our Lord.) Chap, kop- 
and/ame ; comp. chief. S. gopahemedeo. 

Good, pami, pame, yame. 

Great, yok u e, yok u eme. 

Green, apame, yapame. 

Guacal (small dish), nari. 

Guayabo (a fruit), nikonyo'. 

Hair, nimbi'. 

Half-breed, nyukus n a. 

Hamack, nyu. Comp, mecate. 

Hand, ndiro. Comp. arm and finger. Chap, di'la. 

1885.] ^' l * [Brinton. 

Hat, nimpe. 

Hatchet, nimunguya. 

Hawk, nake'. 

He, pron. neje. 

Head, ngu' kimo. 

Heart, nambume. 

Heaven, sky, nakup u i ; nakujpu. 

Heavy, arime. 

Hedge, or fence. See enclosure. 

Henequen (a fibrous plant), notome. 

High, opome. 

Hoe, bajaritojo. 

Hog, nyuju. 

Hog, wild, nyuju mandi. Comp. forest. 

Honey, nambo' pu, nonibo. 

Horn, nimbomo. 

Horse, nyuuipie'. Coin p. tapir. 

Hot, tsujmu, yatsumu. 

House, nangu, nge. 

Husband, boh u e. Comp. man and male. 

Iguana, nyumbu. Comp. animal , beast. 

Indian, an, namba'jimo. 

Jar, of pottery, nimbtigu. 

Jicaro (tall jar), nyiinsu. 

Kill, to, tambajme. 

Kitchen, nakupasi. 

Lake, ninda. 

Leaf, nyuma'. 

Leg, ngiko. 

Light, adj. ngari me ; = not-heavy. 

Lightning, koyo'mo (?_). 

Lion, couguar, nyumbu nyangami. Comp. deer. 

Little, kame ; R. namu. 

Lizard, nyuku. 

Low, nyamo. Comp. small. 

Macana (an iron implement for cutting brush), nampiij. 

Mecapal (a net for carrying loads), napalumu. 

Machete (a heavy knife), nimb'u. 

Maize, nama. 


Brinton.] ^50 [Nov. 20, 

Maize, ear of, nyup6. 

Maize, cob of, neje'. 

Maize, green, nyopome. 

Maize, cooked (nistamal), nyu'ritu. 

Maize, masa of, nainbima. 

Male, of animals, j u e, f u e. 

Mamma, su ngitsu, ngisu. 

Man (homo), ndijpu. Chap, dipaju. 

Man (vir), nyugo, nojue, enkaj ; S. nuho. Chap. nu u a. 

Mantle, of cotton, nambu sangui ; R. nimbu ranguma. 

Married man, koipujma nasominyamo. 

Married woman, noji. 

Mat, nuri. 

Metapail (hand-stone for pounding grain), ndiro nyupa (hand- 

Metate (mealing stone, mortar), nyupa ; = atone. 

Mill woman, a, nasinyamo tapa' kup u i. 

Mole, nyu'kupu. Comp. armadillo. 

Money, najmo/ Comp. silver. 

Monkey, nambi. 

Moon, yu. Chap. yuju. 

Mother, ngumo ; n}^ame ; ngimo ; S. goomo. R. guirmoh. 

Mountain, hill, tiri, diri. 

Mouth, nj^unsu; R. fiunzu. 

Much, pokopi. 

Musquito, neju. 

Nacatamal (maize cooked with flesh), nyuga mpume. Comp. 

Navel, ngutinyamo. 

Near, kopunapu. • 

Neck, nko 1 . 

Negro, a, nanso'me. Comp. black. 

Nephew, batsiin ken3 T amo. 

Nest, nga. Comp. house. 

Net (for carrying), niskupu, namu. 

Net (for fishing), najknpu ; niskupu se yuju. 

Night, koyujmi (it is now night). 

No, aku. 

Nose, nyungu ; R. nungu. 

1885.] -^51 IBrinton. 

Old, man, kopo'. Comp. ancestor. 

Old woman, naka 1 , naska'me. 

Opossum, niyii. 

Orphan, butajmu. 

Pain, gaime. 

Parrot, nimbusojo. 

Pearl color (nacar), narimbame. 

Pebble, nipa. Comp. stone. 

Penis, bu a yore. 

Petticoats, nimbusame ; nambnsangume. Comp. mantle. 

Pigeon, nyurinyamo. 

Pineapple, nindi. 

Pinole (maize roasted and pulverized), nambari. 

Pisote (a badger?), nyundi. 

Plantain, green, nirinte, nikotona. 

Plantain, ripe, ndurime. 

Plate (of dried gourd), nambira. 

Pleiades, the, napopo. 

Poor, nambajimo, nambainjume. 

Pretty, tapustxuya. 

Priest, ku u jk u e. 

Privates (female), sungip u ai motxo'tete, 

Rabbit, nyuku. Comp. lizard. 

Rain, nimbu. Comp. water. 

Rat, nangi. 

Red, arimbome. 

Reed, ncjeri. 

Rind (peel), nansoV. Comp. bark. 

River, neju. 

Road, niro. 

Roof, nimu, nakamu r . 

Room, apartment, nakangu. Comp. home. 

Rope, string (mecate), nyu 1 . 

Sacate (a species of grass), nimu, nakamo. 

Saliva, nimbojmo. 

Salt, niri. 

Sandal, or moccasin, nyansu, ninsu. 

Sapote, red (a fruit), noxa', nyuxa'. 

Scorpion, nyumbukuki. 

Brinton.] -^5^ [Nov. 20 

Sea, nimbu yumbu, 
She, pron. neja. See He. 
Shirt, for men, mboyii. 
Shirt, of women, nayu. 
Shore, ninda. Comp. lake. 
Shoulder, inku 1 . 
Silver, najmo. Comp. money. 
Sing, to, undamo. 

Sister, boronyamo, mambo. Comp. brother. 
Skin, hide (of animals), ninsu, nansii, nyun su. 
Sleep, to, nagu. 

Small, txote, nyamo. Comp. low. 
Smoke, nyujmi; S. nemare. 

Snake, nyuri. Chap. nulu. Comp. bird and flower. 
Son, banya. 
Son-in-law, ngismo. 
Sorcerer, nyu u ja. 
Sour, yagu. 

Speak, to, nata, imper. papa'me. 
Squirrel, nare. 

Star, nyuti ; R. nuti ; S. nuete. Chap, nahuiti. 
Stone, rock, nyupa (pi. nipa). 
Stool, nambu ku ta'. 
Sugar, nombo. Comp. siveet. 

Sun, nyumb u i,nomo ; S. numbu. Chap, mapfju. Comp. moon 
Sweet, nombo'. 

Tamal (a dumpling of sweetened maize), nyuga. 
Tapir, the, nyumpie mandi. Comp. forest. 
Tear, a, nimbu nate. Comp. water and eye. 
Tenamaste or cooking stone, hajmi nyugu (three stones), 
nakupasi (see, to cook), nikusugo'. 
Thief, tiposi'tinyo. 
Thorn, ni, nindi. 

Thunder. Koi tapu'meme ; lit, " it thunders." 
Thrush, nyuj u a. A species of Oaprimulgus. 
Tick, nambisa, nansuma. 
Tiger, jaguar, nyumbu. Comp, animal. 
Tiste (a drink of cacao, etc.), nimbyusi. Comp. water. 
Toad, natakopo. 

1885.] 253 [Brlnton. 

Tobacco, nyumurime ; nimburime ; S. nemurema. To smoke 
tobacco, fasomo nimbu rimi 
Tomate, naripo. 

To-morrow, majimi. Comp. yesterday. 
Tongue, grij u i. 
Tooth, niji. 
Tortilla, no 1 . 

Totoposte (a kind of corn-bread), n} r ua yanji. 
Town, nama puma, namepume. 
Tree, nya. Comp. wood. 
Trough, nimboya. Comp. water. 
Turtle, of water, nyuka, 
Ugly, ganyame. Comp. bad. 
Unio (the shell so-called), nyukanyamu. 
Vapor (mist, steam, etc.\ ndipi 
Vase (tinaja), nojpu. 
Washwoman, nasinyamo tapapa'poro. 
Wasp, naju (?). 
Water, nimbu. 
Wax, nyu. 
Well (noun), kita. 
Where? nde. 
White, nandirime. 

Wife, mboome, njujmi. Comp. husband. 
Wind, nitiu ; ; nfjt'u. S. neshtu. 
Woman, noji, nasi. 
Wood, nya, nindomi (?). 
Yellow, nandiume. 
Yes, un ; taspo (?). 
Yesterday, } r ajimi. 
Yuca (the Yatropha manihot), noya, nuya. Chap. niya. 


1. tike. 

2. ha, ja,jami, jojo. 

3. hajmi, jajame. 

4. hahome. 

5. hagujmi. 
10, jendo. 
20. jajue. 

800. ja ! mbL 

Brlnton.] 204fc [Nov. 20, 

The Verb Ho be" R. 

I am, 


Thou art 

, sirnuh. 

He is, 

neje sumu. 

We are, 

cis mi muh, 



saho, S. 


amba, mba. 


neje, R. 


neja, R. 

Ph rases. 

Koi miirio, It is already dawn. 

Koi yujmi, It is already night. 

Koi prijpi, It is already growing dark. 

Koi ujuinbo. He has already urinated. 

Koi gaimi ndiro, He gave me his hand. 

Koi pajo nama sinii, I am going to die (ya me voy a la muerte). 

Koi-li nimbuyati, I drank some brandy. 

Koi-ta cutaca fiumbi', I ate like a dog. 

Koi-li gipomo ga muningui, I ate broth with chile. 

Tagiiaime ga muiiunso yok"e, Give me a large jar. 

Tari nimbuiu, on giiari ? Will you drink some tiste, or will you 

not ? 

Oyat us ma? How do you like it (i. e., hot or cold) ? 

Pokopi ndijpo, ) _ r 

_ , , ... , ,-Many people, 

Taku pamu ndijpu, J J r £ 

Koi jini kiijk"e, His father died. 

Muri kagro 1 , Here is the old woman. 

Ai nambumi ju, I have a paiu in the belly. 

Ni koi sime, You have already bought. 

Pe ya puti nakuta, Go and lie down in the room. 

Tiki numapuna, It is the town. 

Nam bu mejo, His stomach is weak. 

Koi tsiijmii nimbu, The water is already warm. 

Koi puro nimbu, The water is already cold. 

Koi piro, He has already come. 

1885.] Abo [Briuton. 

Pami nyumuta. The food is good. 

Cajo rismoh, I am seated. 

Neje zumu rimah, They are lying down. 

Guay cane noy, Give me a piece of tortilla. 

Koi guaja, I have already given yon some. 

Garoh, Not yet. 

E J' eh ) m i i 

J.. , - lake some I 
Lji! j 

Susupusca ? ) „ Q 

,_. . . „ r How are you : 
Kuj mi mo r ) 

Ko' mi muya' i kn ? And you, how are you 1 

Camo cujmi umyaique, Nasi pujimo camo ? There is nothing 

new; and you, how are you ? 

Gusapo, Take a seat. 

Nam bro' gatsuro yaji? Wh}- did you not come yesterday ? 

Koi k u eme, I was up there. 

Kupa kastai, Senor, Good-by, Sefior. 

Nohue opome, A tall man. 

Nya opome, A high tree. 

Nya n} 7 amo, A short tree. 

Nyumbi yok u e, A large dog. 

Nyumbi pusit'u, A brave dog. 

Koyomo nikiij u i nimbu, With thunder comes rain. 

Ko 1 pirami ninib'i, Already comes the rain. 

Tapuko kuno tipo kunyo, Let us go to see the sick man. 

Mundamo, The pigeon sings. 

Nde yat supu is ya ? Where are you going ? 

Tsupu nekajui, I am going to the garden. 

Munsu supu kujkui, They are (go) lame. 

Ropia, Come here. 

Ropia no somingamo, Gome here and sweep. 

Koi apiSame naturi, The Chocollo (bird) has already cried, 

Koi pindih Juana, Joanna is with child. 

Pieyas mah, She already was. 

La puta {Span.) ansu punah, The whore that bore thee. 

Cumbu puy muh, I do not remember. 

Neje rumu coy cuhme, He is already a great man. 

Nis puzu punah ? What did she bring forth ? 

Naci fiamu, A little girl. 

Brinton.] ^5b [Nov. 20, 

Taru miro, They are all mine. 

Neja guirniino, That is my half. 

Niora muta pu ninda ? Are you going to the shore ? 

Taspo, Yes. 

Ya pu camu, In a little while. 

Mu koi cu pume, Thou hast already seen it. 

Koi cu pume, I have already seen it. 

Uno ! See ! 

Mis upa' ? Where are you going ? 

Umimo nyako, } 

,„ . ,.. > We are out of breath. 

rasi pujimo, ) 

Pangare' manijitare, Be quiet, I will pay you to-morrow. 

Gugapi, koy ujmi, Let us sleep, it is night. 

Bu u si na a , munikako, Get away from here, you sou of a devil ! 

Nim bu' tajo pa'yamo ? What were you doing by the water ? 

Tapame, Be good. 

Motan atima nyumpia, You come on horseback. 

Observations on the Vocabulary. 

Prefixes. — The most frequent prefixes in the vocabulary are 
nyu and nya. They probably indicate the position of the noun 
as independent of expressed possessive relations. In the Cha- 
panec they are also found, but not so commonly. They do not 
appear to be classificatory particles, as they are prefixed to the 
names of the most diverse objects. 

Generic Names. — These are quite common, as is frequently 
the case in American languages, in spite of what has often been 
said to the contrary. The word nyu-mbu means any large quad- 
ruped ; nyu\ any insect ; narimu, any kind of wild fruit, etc. It 
must be rememhered that the genera into which individuals are 
grouped have a widely different connotation from those to which 
we are accustomed. 

Cat. — The word for cat, misa, seems identical with the Cak- 
chiquel mez. In Chapanec it is kitu, reminding one of kitten. 
As the domestic cat was unknown in America before the dis- 
covery, these words can probably be traced to some European 

1885.] ->' Jl [Houston. 

Color Names. — The color names appear difficult to analyze, 
and vary from those in Chapanee. Thus, as given by the various 
authorities, they are : 

Mangue. Chapanee. 

Black, nanzome, R. dujama. 

White, nandirime, R. dilima. 

Yellow, nandiume, R. nandikuma. 

-o, r. (nandipame, R. ,. .. 

Blue or Green, ■< - t> ndipama. 

Red, arimbome, B. nduimii. 

In these adjectives the termination me or ma does not belong 
to the root. Father Abornoz tells us that this suffix character- 
izes adjectives in the singular number, when they qualify a cer- 
tain class of nouns "in tighe." (Soe his Gram. p. 15.) The 
nasal or resonant beginning most of them is also a mere prefix. 

Proper Names. — But few native families of the Mangue dis- 
tricts of Nicaraugua have retained names drawn from their 
ancient tongues. In a list before me of several hundred persons 
in Masaya and Managua, the only surnames from the Mangue 
are Norori, Namendi, Namullure, Putoi, Nionongue, Macanche, 
and perhaps Huembes and Piura. Generally, the natives adopted 
Spanish surnames. 

On the other hand, a large number of local names, derived 
from the Mangue language, on the map of Nicaragua still define 
the region once occupied by this nation. Such are Nindiria 
(from ninda, shore, diri, hill), Nakutiri (from naku, fire, din, 
hill), Monimbe (jiimbu, water, rain), Nandasimo (jianda, brook), 
Mombonasi (nasi, woman), Masaya, Managua, Namotiva, No- 
rome, Nicoya, Oretina, etc., etc. 

Photography by a Lightning Flash. 

By Prof. Edwin J. Houston. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, November SO, 1SS5.) 

Mr. Albert S. Barker, of Philadelphia, has recently sent me two photo- 
graphic views of his stable and surrounding objects, the exposure for 
which were made during an exceedingly dark night, with no other illumi- 
nation than a single lightning flash for each. 

The photographic negatives were taken during the severe storm that 


Houston.] ^°® [Nov. 20, 

occurred in Philadelphia and vicinity on the 29th of Octoher, 1885. The 
exposure was made at 7 p. u. The thick clouds produced pronounced 
darkness. At the same time the rain was heavy, and the wind high. 
Considering the circumstances, the negatives secured were very good. 

TLe circumstances of the exposure were as follows, viz : the camera 
was placed in an open window, and pointed towards the stahle, its focus 
for this point having heen previously obtained. The slide was then drawn 
and the plate left exposed to the night until a lightning flash came. This 
occurred in less than one minute, when the slide was instantly closed, the 
plate holder reversed, and another exposure obtained by means of the 
illumination of the next flash. 

The plates were developed during the evening. The results obtained 
were, in Mr. Barker's judgment, about equal to what would have been 
secured by an exposure of about ^ 5 of a second in bright sunlight at 

The plates used were exceedingly sensitive gelatine films. A compara- 
tively large diaphragm was employed in these exposures. 

The circumstances under which these exposures were taken were such 
as thoroughly prevented any illumination of the objects save by the flash 
itself. The room in which the camera was placed was of course quite 

Apart from the interest attached to Mr. Barker's photographs as 
evidence of the recent advances made in what is generally called instan- 
taneous photography, they appear to present considerable value in the 
light they throw on the question of the duration of the ordinary light- 
ning flash. 

The views generally held as regards the duration of the lightning flash 
is, that it is practically, if not actually, instantaneous. From experiments 
made by Wheatstone and others, the duration of a flash, as deter- 
mined by means of a rapidly revolving disc, it is generally believed to be 
from the T oVo> to the T to57 °f a second. Whatever may have been the 
duration of the flashes thus measured, it would appear probable that 
flashes of great severity, where the discharge traverses many miles of air, 
would, under many circumstances, continue for quite an appreciable time. 

Mr. Barker's photographs appear to show that this was the case during 
the night in which they were taken. While the fixed objects, such for 
example as the stable, came out quite sharply, the trees show unmistak- 
able evidences of violent motion. It is true that these trees were not in 
sharp focus, being nearer the camera than the stable. Though somewhat 
blurred, they nevertheless exhibit unmistakable signs of having percept- 
ibly changed their position during the time of exposure. In other words, 
the plate was illumined for a sufficient length of time to permit the mo- 
tion to be clearly shown. The lightning flash, therefore, was not instan- 
taneous in the sense generally attributed to it, but continued to illumine 
the plate for quite an appreciable time. 

It would be interesting for the photographic experiments of Mr. Barker 

1885.] ^^ IFrazer. 

to be repeated under other circumstances to determine this question more 
certainly. For example, if the camera were focussed sharply on a distant 
tree, and a negative taken during a violent thunder storm by a lightning 
flash while the tree is in motion, if the foliage comes out in detail with no 
perceptible motion shown, the continuance of the illumination would then 
be proved to be too short a time for its appearance. If, on the contrary, 
the leaves appear blurred as if moved, then the generally received no- 
tions concerning the instantaneous character of the lightning flash must 
be changed. 

Or, if the camera should be focussed on a rapidly moving wheel, and a 
photographic picture be taken during its illumination by a lightning flash, 
then the peculiarities of the negative could be utilized, not only to deter- 
mine the question of the greater or less duration of the flash, but even to 
measure the actual duration itself. 

It will be observed that the method here suggested substitutes the sen- 
sitive plate of the photographic camera for the retina of the eye. From 
the results of Mr, Barker's photographs, it might be inferred that the 
former is far more sensitive than the latter. If this be the case, then the 
photographs thus obtained would furnish more precise means for measur- 
ing the duration of the illumination, and hence of the flash itself, than the 
method followed by Wheatstone and others. 

The lightning flash contains so large a percentage of the blue rays^of 
light, that we may fairly suppose that its actinic effects on a photographic 
plate would be more decided than with equally bright sunlight. This 
greater sensitiveness of the light of a lightning flash may perhaps account 
in some degree for the possibility of taking photographic pictures by its 
means, but it also equally explains the probability of the blurred foliage in 
Mr. Barker's views being actually due to their movement during the short 
time they were exposed to the camera, and thus disproves the approxi- 
mate instaneousness of the flash itself. 

Central High School, 

Phila., Nov. 20, 1SS5. 

Resume of the Work of the International Geological Congress, held at Berlin, 
Sept. 2S to Oct. 3. 1SS5. By Dr. Persifor Frazer. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, November 20, 1S85.) 

An abstract of the Proceedings of the late Geological Congress at Berlin 
has been published by the writer in Science ; a fuller report is about to 
appear in the American Journal of Science and Arts. The report, contain- 
ing all the documents relating to the work of the Congress, and only less 
complete than the official report, will be presented to the American com- 
mittee whenever it meets. In the meantime, it will interest Geologists 

Frazer.] ~oO |Nov. 20, 

to know at once, ia a general way, what has been done, and also to learn 
of certain works which the Congress recommended and patronized, but 
did not undertake. 

The map of Europe, colored geologically, will be issued in 49 sheets ; or 
7 high and 7 broad. Each sheet will be 48 centimetres high and 53 cm. 
broad. The whole map will form a rectangle of 3.36 by 3.71 metres. 
Prof. Kiepert, of Berlin, is charged with the duty of making a topographi- 
cal base from the very latest data. D. Reimer and Co. are the publishers. 
930 copies are guaranteed by the Congress at 100 francs per copy, of which 
each of the great States of Europe, to wit : Great Britain, France, Germany, 
Austro-Hungary, Scandinavia, Italy, Spain and Russia is entitled to 100 
copies. The remaining 100 copies are to be divided between the six small 
States, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Switzerland, Portugal andRoumania. 
The other purchasers are to pay 125 francs a copy to the publishers. 
The scale of the map is to be 1 : 1500 000. A committee is charged with 
the duty of receiving the colored maps sent in by each country, and 
of harmonizing them so that they will make a connected whole. This 
committee consists of Messrs. Beyrich, Hauchecorne, Daubree, Giordano, 
Moller, Mojsisovics, Topley and Renevier. But the Committee of Direc- 
tion, which will really superintend this work, is composed of the first two 
named, who are on the ground and can better look after the publishing. 
It was proposed by the committee having in charge the adoption of a uni- 
form system of coloration, that a greenish-gray tint be adopted for the 
Silurian (Cambrian included). This was warmly opposed and finally the 
section was altered so as to give the committee the discretion to adopt some 
provisional means of distinguishing the series at the base of the Paleo- 
zoic column, with the understanding that it should not in auy waj- pre- 
judice the final scientific decision of these questions. The divisions to 
be made of the Cambrian and Silurian combined will therefore be three- 
fold, and the three divisions will be different shades of greenish-gray. 
After the color questions were thus disposed of, M. Dewalque began the 
more radical questions of the actual divisions themselves. The measures 
below the Paleozoic column are to be called Archaean, and each geologist 
is to be left free to distinguish their separate divisions by petrographic char- 
acters, without as yet attempting to correlate them in different countries. 
M. de Lapparent did a notable service to science here by proposing that 
the term "Protogine" which was based upon no important or necessary 
characteristic, be once for all abolished. This motion was unanimously 
carried. The Silurian-Cambrian question again coming up, it was decided 
to leave the debate on the proper coordination of the series till the meeting 
in England, three years hence. In the meantime, the committee on the 
map was permitted to make the divisions as well as it could, but to give 
no names. 

It was decided to divide the Devonian into the Rhenan, the Eifelian, 
and the Famennian. (2). That the Calceola beds should form part of 
the Eifeli m, and fiat the upper limit of the Devonian should be drawn at 

1885.1 261 | Cope . 

the base of the Carboniferous Limestones, {. e., the system that includes 
the Psammites of Coudroz and the upper "Old Red." The question of asso- 
ciating the Permian -with the Carboniferous provoked the most heated de- 
bate. Stur, Blanford, Lapparent, and Newberry spoke in favor of such 
association ; Hughes, Topley, Nikitin and some others, against it. It was 
finally decided to leave the question as it was. The Triassic was divided 
into three parts, but without assigning to them any names. 

The eruptive rocks were divided according to the scheme of Prof. Lossen, 
into seven divisions, one of which is "Serpentine." This part of the Con- 
gress's work appears not to have received the attention it deserved, as all 
the petrographers who were consulted by the writer as to the advisability 
of such a heading of a division, agreed that it was unfortunate. Among 
these were Profs. Zirkel, Stelzner, and among the other geologists, Profs. 
Hughes, Hall, and a great many others. 

The Congress formerly approved and voted committees to assist two works 
of the nature of compendiums. The first of these is a Geographical-Geo- 
logical Dictionary, by D. Juan Vilanova, Piera Professor in the University 
of Madrid. The committee appointed at the Bologna Congress to assist in 
this work consisted of MM. Hughes, Mayer-Eymar, Steinmanu, Meli, 
Szabo, and Inostranzeff. M. Vilanova explained that this was merely an 
attempt of his to make a French- Spanish dictionary of terms, but he hoped 
that it w r ould be taken up and improved upon by others, and that especi- 
ally the parallel terms in other languages would be gradually grafted upon 
it. I should be glad of the assistance of the members of this Society in 
extending a knowledge of its scope. 

The other w T ork which the Congress appointed a committee to foster was 
Xeumayr's Nomenclator Palseontologicus. The names of the members of 
this committee are MM. Gaudry, Zittel, ISTeumayr, and Etheridge. 

On the Species of Iguanmce. By E. D. Cope. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, October 16th, 1SS5.) 

By Iguaninee I mean Iguanida:* without abdominal ribsf or free dermal 
margins of the digits:): which have the nostrils on the line of the canthus 
rostralis and not below it, and which possess the compressed form and 
other characteristics indicating an arboreal rather than a terrestrial habit 
of life. With one exception§ these animals are confined to the forest re- 
gions of Tropica] America, the greater number of species being found in 
the West Indies and Mexico. A few species, as the Conolophus subcris- 

* Exclusive of the Anolidae, which I have shown to differ in the structure of 
the lower jaw. Proceedings Academy, Phila., 1864. 
f Those with abdominal ribs are the Polychrinio. 
X The Basiliscinse are characterized by the digital margins. 
'i The Braehyloplms fasciatus of tbe Fejee Islands. 

Cope.] 262 [ 0cL le> 

tatvs, are entirely terrestrial in their habits. The genera are distin- 
guished as follows : 

I. Premaxillary and symphyseal teeth conical. 
a Posterior digits with separate combs. 

Tail with much of its length free from spines ; a gular fold, Cyclura Harl. 
aa No separate combs on posterior digits. 

Tail with the basal half spinous ; a throat fold Ctenosaura Wieg. 

Tail short, spinous to the end ; a throat fold Cachryx Cope. 

Tail not spinous ; a throat fold Brachylophus Cuv. 

Tail not spinous ; a dewlap which has a crest of spines on its anterior 
edge Iguana Laur. 

II. Premaxillary and symphyseal teeth trilobate ; no combs on the 

posterior digits. 

A throat fold ; tail not spinous , Conoloplms Fitz. 

No throat fold ; tail not spinous Amblyrhynchus Bell. 

CYCLURA Harlan. 

Journal Academy Natl. Sciences, i, p. 242, 1825. Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen., 
iv, 214, 1837. 3/etopocerus Wagl., Natiirl. Syst. d. Amphibien, p. 147, 
1830. Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen., iv, p. 210, 1837. ? Aloponotus Dum. Bibr., 
Erpet. Generate, iv, p. 189, 1837. 

The species of this genus known to me are the following : 

I. Scales of muzzle all small ; combs on third toe only. 

Several rows of infralabial scuta ; five scales on canthus rostralis ; crest 
interrupted at rump only C. carinata Harl. 

II. Large scuta on muzzle ; combs on third toe only ; one row of 

large infralabials. 
Infralabials and other scuta in contact with each other and with labials ; 
two scales on canthus rostralis ; crest low, much interrupted at nape 

and rump ; color uniform C. ba>olopha Cope. 

Infralabial and other scuta separated from each other and from labials by 

small scales ; four scales on canthus rostralis; green, with bands 

C. nub il> i Gray. 

III. Large scuta on muzzle ; one on middle line protuberant ; combs 
on second and third toes ; several rows of large infralabials. 

Scales very irregular, often minutely granular on scapular regions ; a 
trace of whorls on tail ; crest interrupted at nape and rump ; black. . 

C. cornula Daud. 
The reputed species Oyclura maclcayi Gray, from Cuba, and O.lophoma 
Gosse, from Jamaica, are unknown to me by autopsy. 
Cyci/OBA carinata Harlan, Jour. Academy Philadelphia, iv. p. 250, 1885, 
pi. 15. Cope, Proceeds. American Philosoph. Society, 1870, 
American Naturalist, 1885, 1006. 
Turk's island, Bahamas ; Harlan, Ebcll. 

188.5.] 263 [Cope. 

Cyclura b^olopha Cope. Proceeds. Academy Philadelphia, 1861, p. 
123 ; American Naturalist, 1885, 1006. 
Andros island, Bahamas ; Wood. 

Cyclura nubila " Shaw." Gray in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, ix, 39 fig. 
Cope, American Naturalist, 1385, p. 1006. Lacerta nubila Shaw, 
(teste Gray) Zoology. Iguana cyclura Cuv. Cyclura harlani Cocteau, 
Hist. S. l'lsle Cuba par de la Sagra Rep., p. 96. C. carinaia Wiegm., 
Herpet. Mexicana, not of Harlan. 

Cyclura cornuta Dand. Iguana cornuta Daudin, Rept., p. 382. La- 
treille Hist. Nat. Rept., ii, 2G7, iv, 294. Metopocerus cornutus Wagler, 
Nat. Syst. d. Amphibien, 1830, p. 147. Wiegmann, Herp. Mex., 
1834, i,"p. 16. Dura. Bibr., Erp. Gen., iv, 211, 1837. Giinther, Trans. 
Zool. Soc, London, 1882, p. 218, Pis. xliii, xliv. Boulenger Cat., 
Brit. Mus., ii, 1885, p. 188. Cyclura nigerrima Cope, American Nat- 
uralist, 1885, p. 1006. C. onchiopsis Cope, loc. cit. 

This species has been until recently but little known, although its name 
frequently appears in literature. The characters ascribed to it by Dumeril 
and Bibron do not agree with those of any individuals which have come 
under my notice. These authors distinguish the genus Metopoceros from 
Cyclura by the presence of two rows of femoral pores, a character which 
does not exist in either of the four specimens in the National Museum. 
The genus Aloponotus of the same authors possesses, according to them, 
the same peculiarity. M. Boulenger, in the last (1885) edition of the 
British Museum Catalogue, describes this character as though it only 
occurs "sometimes" in this species, evidently regarding it as inconstant. 
My confidence in its constancy leads me to describe as new two forms, 
which perhaps belong to the C. cornuta, under the names C. nigerrima 
and C. onchiopsis. These differ from each other very much as the genera 
Metopocerus and Aloponotus are said by Dumeril and Bibron to differ 
from each other, *. e., in the character of the scutellation. In the C. niger- 
rima the scales are distinct everywhere ; in the C. onchiopsis they are 
minutely granular on the sides of the back and on the nape and withers. 
In a third specimen (in alcohol, No. 9977), the characters are interme- 
diate. Thus, in the type of C. onchiopsis, the masseteric protuberances 
have larger scales set in a general surface of granulations ; in the third 
specimen, the same surface is nowhere granular, but is scutellate. The 
anterior dorsal region is less granular in this specimen. I therefore think 
it necessary to unite my supposed species, as has been done by M. Bou- 

If the presence of the second row of femoral pores is not constant in the 
C. cornuta, then the genus Metopocerus cannot be distinguished from 
Cyclura. M. Boulenger relies on the rather greater number of denticles 
in the lateral teeth in the C. cornuta, but my specimens show a tendency 

Cope.] 264 fOct. 16, 

to the tridentate form of the C. milila. The character is, I think, even 
if constant, insufficient for generic distinction. 

I describe the two specimens -which represent the extreme of variation 
of this species, commencing with the type of C. nigerrima. 

In this specimen the scales of the superior regions are smaller than 
those of the inferior regions, and are in regular transverse rows, each 
scale surrounded with granules. There are three rows in two millimeters. 
The scales of the inferior surfaces are about a millimeter in diameter ; like 
those of the back they have faint traces of keels. The scales of the limbs 
and tail are keeled. At intervals of about six scales, there are, on the 
median portions of the sides of the tail, two rows of scales a little larger 
than the others, which are homologous with those which form the spiny 
whorls in other species. The crest is rather low on the nape, and is well 
developed on the dorsal region and anterior part of the tail. On the latter 
it becomes lower, forming serrate teeth, which are distinguishable to the 
end of that organ. The crest is interrupted at both withers and rump. 
Besides the combs on the second and third digits, there is a rudiment of a 
comb at the base of the first digit. Femoral pores 14-16. 

The type specimen of this species was partially skeletonized before it 
was suspected to be other than a Metopocerus cornutus. The plates and 
scales of the head cannot therefore be described excepting so far as to 
state that there is a median large scale at the middle of the base of the 
snout, on an elevation of the nasal bones just behind the transverse line 
connecting the posterior borders of the bony nares. Between this plate 
and the canthus rostralis the horizontal surface of the muzzle is covered 
with rather large anteroposterior^ oval scales, which have a median keel. 
In the center of these is a larger plate, several times as large as any ot 
them. The scales on the post-frontal region are similar and those of the 
zygomatic arch posteriorly are larger. 

j icaaurements. M. 

Length of skull to end of quadrate bone 108 

Width of skull at front of tympanum 070 

Least interorbital width of skull 018 

Length of alveolar edge of maxillary bone 050 

" " body to vent 340 

" tail 500 

" "humerus 0G0 

" " fore arm 0.~>7 

" "femur 07."> 

"tibia 063 

" foot 110 

The color is everywhere uniform black. 

From Navassa island. National .Museum, No. 9974. 

In a second specimen, the type of Gyclura onchiopsis, the scales of the 

1885.1 265 [Cope 

inferior surfaces are similar in every respect to those of the one described 
above, while those of the sides, tail, and superior surfaces are quite differ- 
ent. Those of the tail are flat and keeled, and smaller than those of that 
species, and of equal size. In the scutellation of the back the granular 
scales are far more numerous, covering almost the whole of the scapular 
regions and sides of the neck and body. Where the larger scales 
appear they are round and not arranged in rows, and are separated 
by granular interspaces as wide as or wider than themselves. On 
the temporal and lateral gular regions the larger scales are scattered 
at wide intervals in the granular surface. On the muzzle there are 
two pairs of scuta behind the nasal plates, which are separated by a 
granular interval. Behind these, and separated by another interval, is a 
knob-like median scutum. Between this and the canthus rostralis, but 
separated from it by a wide granular space, are several scales like the 
smaller ones in the same position in the G. nigerrima. There are three 
rows of small prominent scales over the eye, forming a rough surface. A 
series of larger scuta on the zygomatic arch, as far as below the front of 
the orbit. Two prominent scuta not in contact on the anterior border of 
the tympanum. Two large and two small row9 of infralabial plates. 
Labials f. Symphyseal plate large, angulate behind. A longitudinal 
median gular fold, which terminates in a pendulous transverse gular fold. 
The scales on these folds are like those of the belly, and not granular like 
those of the lateral gular region. Femoral pores 18. Tail compressed. 
Dorsal crest low, interrupted at the withers and groin. 
Color, dark brown ; belly, breast, fore limbs and sides of head black. 

Measurements. M. 

Length of head to end of os quadratum 103 

Width of head at front of tympanum 055 

Length of body to vent 290 

" " tail (tip wanting") 370 

" " foreleg 140 

" " humerus (measured behind) 050 

" forearm 057 

" " hind leg 200 

" " femur (measured above) 058 

" tibia 065 

" hind foot 095 

There are three specimens of this species in the National Museum which 
agree in all essential respects. They are. from the Island of Navassa. In 
all of them the temporal and pterygoid muscles are enormously developed, 
forming swollen enlargements unlike anything seen in any other Iguanid. 

According to Dumeril and Bibron there are in the Metopoceri/s cornutus 
three pairs of scuta on the muzzle. According to the description of these 
authors this animal also differs from the M. cornutus in having eight supe- 


Cope.] ^kfr [Oct. 16, 

rior labials ; in the nasals being subround instead of triangular ; in having 
a large instead a small symphyseal plate. The specimen typical of C. 
orchiopxis has a very low and even imperfect dorsal crest, with a wide in- 
terruption between the shoulders, while in the other two it is better de- 
veloped, and in the type of C. nigerrima best of all. 


Isis von Oken, 1828, p. 371. Enyaliosaurus Gray. Catal. Lizards, Brit. 
Mus., 1845, p. 192. 

The species of this genus are restricted to the Mexican and Central 
American regions as Cyclura is to the West Indian. The species known 
to me are six in number, as follows : 

I. Caudal whorls complete ; dorsal crest extending only on the an- 

terior dorsal region. 
Tail round, whorls separated by one row of scales : brown with a few 
black cross-bands on anterior dorsal region C. hemilopha 

II. Caudal whorls complete ; dorsal crest extending to rump. 
a Caudal whorls separated by one row of scales. 

Three scales on canthus rostralis ; dorsal crest interrupted at rump ; black 

or dark brown C. laultispinis. 

aa Caudal whorls separated by two or three rows of scales. 

Head short, obtuse ; three scales on canthus rostralis ; dorsal crest inter 
rupted at rump ; black with yellow cross-bands ; sides of neck yel 
low , C. brevirostris 

Head wedge shaped ; three or four scales on canthus rostralis ; all, excep 
the posterior one, deeper than long ; dorsal crest interrupted a 
rump ; black, with yellow and green cross bands and speckles.. . . 

C. teres 

Four canthal scales, the posterior longer than deep ; head elongate, wedge 
shaped ; dorsal and caudal crests continuous at rump ; tail com 
pressed ; green with narrow black cross-bands to belly. . C. completa, 

III. Caudal whorls interrupted ; each represented by a median dor 
sal spine and two on each side at the base. 

Tail depressed, shorter ; dorsal crest widely interrupted at rump ; pale 

brown with black cross-bands on anterior dorsal region 

C++- guinquecarinata. 

Ctenosaitka hemilopha Cope, Proceedings Philadelphia Academy, 18G3, 

p. 105. Ctenosaura acanthura Bocourt, Miss. Scient. Mexique Kept. 

p. 138. Cyclura acanthura pars, Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen. iv., p. 224. 

This species is regarded by DeBlainville and Bocourt as the Lacerta 

acanthura of Shaw.* This cannot be correct, as Shaw distinctly states 

that the dorsal crestof his species extends to the rump. It is probably one 

of the species of the next section of the genus (II), but which one I am 

unable to ascertain. 

Lower California only ; Botta ; Xantus. 

• /oology iii. 

1885.] ~ u ' [Cope. 

Ctenosaura multispinis sp. nov. 

Head elongate, flat above, muzzle narrowed ; nostril in the second third 
of the length to the orbit. Three scales on canthus rostralis, each deeper 
than long. Seven flat scales across muzzle between anterior angles of 
orbits. Two rows between supraorbital series. Scales above temporal 
muscles rather large, weakly keeled. Five series of infralabial plates, not 
separated by smaller ones. Dorsal crest rather elevated in adult, termina- 
ting at the rump. Median caudal crest composed of conical scales, com- 
mencing above the posterior margin of the femora. Tail cylindrical at 
base, covered by whorls of prominent scales with conical points which 
project strongly, and which are separated by one row of smaller flat 
scales on the upper half of the tail. On the inferior side of the tail the 
whorl rows are separated by two intervening rows, which are just like 
them, having a keel and a mucronate apex. Beyond the middle of the 
length (end lost) the tail is strongh r compressed, but whether this is due 
to shriveling on drying, I am not sure. Median series of spinous scales 
uninterrupted. The abdominal scales are larger than the dorsal, which 
are longer than the lateral scales ; all are subquadrate, and none are 

Seven femoral pores. 

Color above and below, black. 

Measurements. M. 

Length from end of muzzle to vent 255 

" to line of axilla 125 

" " line of auricular meatus 062 

Width of head at auricular meatus 042 

" " " above " " 035 

Length of anterior limb 093 

foot 037 

" " posterior limb 150 

foot 076 

I have before me two stuffed specimens of this species, a large one and 
probably adult, and a smaller and younger one. The former, which I 
described above, is No. 201 of Sumichrast's collection, and was procured 
by him at Dondomingvillo, in the State of Oaxaca, and sent to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. The other specimen was obtained near Batopilas, Chi- 
huahua, by Mr. Edward Wilkinson, and was recorded by me as Cyclura 
acantliura in the catalogue of his collection, Proceedings American Philo- 
sophical Society, 1879, p. 201. It agrees with the type specimen in having 
the distal two-thirds of the tail strongly compressed. The dorsal crest is 
much less elevated, probably owing to its younger age. The colors are 
paler, the prevailing tint being light brown with indistinct darker brown 

I find a specimen of this species enumerated as var. B. of, 
acantlmra by Boulenger in the vol. ii of the Catalogue of the Lizards in 
the British Museum, p. 197, which has just reached me. 

Cope.1 268 [Oct. 1G, 

Cte^osaura brevirostris, sp. nov. 

Head short, -with obtuse muzzle with decurved profile. Eyes large ; 
nostril near end of muzzle, in the anterior third of distance between end 
of muzzle and orbit. The scales of the top of the muzzle and of the 
frontal region, are subquadrate or subhexagonal, and those of the temporal 
regions are but little longer than wide. All are more or less convex, the 
temporals most so. There are six rows of scales between the nasal plates, 
some of which are wider than long. Three canthal scales, of which the 
anterior is horizontally divided in one specimen. Four rows of wide loreal 
scales above four rows of narrow scales above the supralabials. Labials 
13. Infralabials graduating in size to gulars, but there are five rows of 
subcarinate scales distinctly larger. Two rows between the subquadrate 
supraorbitals. Scales of lateral temporal region convex. Scales of belly 
larger than those of back and sides, which are equal, except those of the 
axillar, scapular and lateral cervical regions which are nearly granular. 
Dorsal crest very low, continuous, excepting for a short distance at the 
base of the tail. Tail nearly cylindric. The scales of the median superior 
crest are not more prominent than those of the sides of the tail, but they 
are not interrupted as are the latter. For the terminal three-fifths of the 
length, the scales of the tail (except below) are equally spinous. For the 
basal third they are separated above by two rows of non-spinous scales, 
and on the lower parts of the sides by three rows. 

In both the specimens the femoral pores are exceedingly small and in- 
distinct and are five in number on each thigh. The throat is distinctly 
cross-folded, but very indistinctly longitudinally folded on the middle 
line. The sides of the neck have two longitudinal folds. 

The general color of the head and body is a blackish-brown, paler below. 
This is crossed on the back between the sacral and postscapular regions 
by five yellow marks, which are bands posteriorly, but become spots an- 
teriorly. The sides of the neck are of the same color, contrasting strongly 
with the black of the throat and nape. This yellow space is partially 
divided by a black line, which extends posteriorly from the angle of the 
lower jaw. The limbs are blackish, and on the fore arm are numerous 
yellow scales, and the tibia is faintly cross-banded. The digits and the 
tail are annulated with blackish brown and yellow rings of about equal 

Measurements. M. 

Total length to end of tail (end of latter imperfect) 645 

Length from muzzle to vent -42 

** " " " line of axilla 097 

" " " " " " meatus of ear 045 

Width at front of auditory meatus 040 

Length (axial) from orbit to end of muzzle 022 

" of fore leg 090 

" " fore foot 047 

1885.] 269 lCope 

Measurements. M. 

Length of posterior leg 162 

" " posterior foot 085 

" " tibia 045 

Two specimens of this species are in the National Museum, which were 
sent from Colima, in Western Mexico, by John Xantus. 
Ctenosaura teres Harlan, Bocourt, Miss. Sci. Mexique, Reptiles, p. 142 
Cyclura teres Harlan, Journ. Acad. Philada., iv, 1825, p. 24G, tab. 16 
Wiegmann, Herpert. Mex., 1834, p. 42. " Ctenosaura armata Gray 
Synopsis Griff. Anim. Kingdom, ix, 1831," Bocourt. Cyclura pectin- 
ata Weigmann, Herpetol. Mexican a, 1834, p. 42, tab. 2. Dum. Bibron, 
Erp. Gen., iv, 1837, p. 221. Cyclura acanthura Sumichrast, Univ. et 
Eevue Suisse ; Archiv. des Sciences Phys. et Nat., 1864, p. 49. Cteno- 
saura, pecimata Wiegm., Gray Catal. Lizards, Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 49. 
Boeourt, Miss. Scientifique Mexique, Reptiles, p. 140. 
Tehuantepec, Sumichrast ; Colima, Xantus; Tampico, Dallas; Vega 

de Alatorre, Vera Cruz, Comision Geograjica. 
Subspecies brachylopha Cope. 

Pour stuffed specimens from Mazatlan differ from others of equal size 
and age from other localities in the extreme shortness of the processes 
which compose the dorsal crest. They are in fact merely elongated com- 
pressed scales, longer than high, except on the interscapular region, where 
they are as high as long. The same character is seen in young specimens 
of the ordinary variety. There are three scales on the canthus rostralis, 
of which the posterior is longer than deep, the second deeper than long, 
and the third, adjacent to the nares, is deeper than long, and divided into 
a superior and an inferior plate. The color is apparently green in life, 
punctulated with blackish brown. The punctulations arrange themselves 
into a row of median dorsal spots, and in three of the specimens into two 
transverse bands near the middle of the sides of the abdomen. Tail with 
broad blackish rings. The measurements of the largest specimen are : 
Total length, 630 mm ; to vent, 263 mm ; to posterior border of mem- 
branum tympani, 59 mm ; width of head at front of mem. tympani 40 
mm ; length of posterior leg and foot, 124mm ; of posterior foot 52 mm. 

Mazatlan Bischoff ; Nos. Natl. Museum, 7180-81-82-83. 
Ctenosaura completa Bocourt, Miss. Scientif. Mexique, Reptiles, p. 
145. Ctenosaura pectinata Cope, Proceedings Academy Philada., 
1866, p. 124 ; Proceedings Amer. Philos. Soc, 1855, p. 388. 
Aspinwall, Panama, Gill; Guatemala, San Salvador, Miss. Scientif.; 
Yucatan, Schott ; Cozumel Id., Ridgicay. 
Ctenosaura quinquecarinata Gray. Cope, Proceedings Amer. Philo- 
sophical Society, 1869, 161. Cyclura quinquecarinata Gray, Zoologi- 
cal Miscellany, p. 59. Enyaliosaurus quinquecarinatus Gray, Csutal. 
Lizards, Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 192. 
Tehuantepec, Sumichrad. 

Cope.] - 1 ' v) [Oct. 16, 

Proceedings Academy Philada., 1866, p. 124. 

This genus is of the type of Ctenosaura, differing only in the characters 
of its tail. It lacks the terminal portion which is in that and other genera 
free from spinous scales. It is not in my opinion allied to Urocentrum or 
Hoplocercus as suggested by Bocourt, genera which belong to the terres- 
trial division of the family, or Humivagie. 

Cachryx defensor Cope. Proceeds. Acad. Phila., 1866, p. 124. Pro- 
ceeds. Amer. Philos. Soc, 1869, p. 169, pi. 10. Bocourt, Miss. Sci. 
Mexique, Reptiles, p. 148, pi. xvii. bis. figs. 12, 12a. 
Yucatan, Schott. 


Regne Animal, edit, ii, p. 41. Dumeril Bibron, Erp. Gen., iv, p. 225. 
Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., 1845, 187. Fitzinger Systema Reptilium, 1843, 
p. 55. Chloroscartes Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1862. 

Brachylophus fasciatus Brong. Cuv. Regne Animal, ii edit., p. 41. 
Dum. Bibron, Erp. Gen., iv, 1837, p. 226. Gray, Catal. Liz. B. M., 
187. Chloroscartes fasciatus Giinther, Proceeds. Zool. Soc. London, 
1862, pi. xxv. 
Feejee Is. 

IGUANA Laurenti. 

Specimen Synopsis Reptilium, 1768, p. 47. Dumeril Bibron., Erp. Gen., 
iv, 1837, p. 199. Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 186. Hypsilophus Wag- 
ler, Nat. Syst. Amphib., 1830, p. 147. AmbUjrhynchus "Bell" Wagl., 1. c, 
p. 148 (nee Bellii.). 

Iguana tuberculata Laurenti. 

Subspecies tuberculata Laurenti, 1. c, p. 49. Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen., 
iv, p. 203 ; Gray. Catal. Liz. Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 186. 

South America, east of the Andes ; Lesser Antilles. 

Subspecies rhtnolopha Wiegm. Iguana rMnolopha Wiegmann, Her- 
petol. Mexicana, 1834, i, p. 44. Dum. Bibr., Erpet. Gen., iv, p. 207. 
Iguana tuberculata var. "Wiegmann, Isis, 1828, p. 364 ; Cope, Proceeds. 
Amer. Philosoph. Society, 1869, p. 161. 

Costa Rica, Oabb ; Tehuantepec, SumicJirast ; Colima, Xantus ; Cozu- 
mel, Yucatan, Ridgway. 

Tierra Caliente of Mexico. 

Iguana delicatissima Laurenti. Specimen Syn. Reptilium, p. 48, 
1768. Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 187. I. nudkollis Cuv., Regne 
Animal, ii, p. 40. Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen., 1837, iv, p. 208. 
Guadalupe, Nevis, Obcr. 

1885.J £ i 1 LCope. 

CONOLOPHUS Fitzinger. 

Systema Eeptilium, 1843, p. 55. Boulenger, Catal. Lizards, Brit. Mus., 
1885, ii, p. 1S6. Amblyrhynchus pars Dum. Bibr., iv, p. 197. Trachycepha- 
lus Gray, Catal. Liz. Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 188. 

M. Boulenger (Catalogue Lizards Brit. Museum, 1885) first pointed out 
the characters which distinguish this genus from Brachylophus. 
Conolophus subcristatus Gray. Amblyrhynchus subcristatus Gray, 
Zool. Misc., p. 6, 1831. Zoology Beechy's Voyage Rept., p. 93, 1839. 
Amblyrhynchus demarlii Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen., iv, p. 197, 1837 ; Bell 
Zool. Beagle, iii, p. 22, 1843, pi. ii. Conolophus demarlii Fitz., Syst. 
Rept. Conolophus subcristatus Steindachner, Festschr. K. K. Zool. 
Bot. Gess. "Wien ; Die Schl. u. Eid. d. Galapagos Ins. 22, 1876, tab. 
iv, v, figs. 6-9 ; vi, figs. 4-6 ; vii, 5-8. Trachyphalus subcristatus Gray, 
Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 188. 
Galapagos Ids. 


Zoological Journal, London, 1825, p. 195. Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen., iv, 
204 pars. Oreocephalus Gray, Catal. Liz., Brit. Mus., 1845, p. 189. 

Steindachner states that the Arnblyrhynchus cristatus possesses no gular 
cross-fold. I know of no other ground for separating it generic-ally from 
the Conolophus subcristatus. 

Amblyrhynctius cristatus Bell, loc cit. Tab. xii. Do. Voyage of the 
Beagle, iii, p. 23. Steindnachner Festschrift der K. K. Zoolog. Botan. 
Gess., "Wien, 1876 ; Die Schlangen u. Eidechsen der Galapagos Ins., 
p. 16, tab. iii, v, vi, figs. 1-4. Hypsilophus cristatus Fitzinger. Ambly- 
rhynchus ater Gray. Synops. Rept. Griff. Anim. Kingdom, ix, p. 37. 
Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen., iv, p. 196. Oreocephalus cristatus Gray. Catal. 
Brit. Mus., 189. 
Galapagos Ids. 

Thirteenth Contribution to the Herpetology of Tropical America. By E. D. 


{Read before the American Philosophical Society, Nov. SO, 18S5.) 

I. Nicaragua, Bransford. 

Dr. J. F. Bransford, U. S. N., has sent from time to time collections 
from Central America to our scientific institutions, which have thrown 
much light on the zoology of the regions he has visited. In 1874, I had 
the privilege of publishing a report on a collection obtained by him in 
Nicaragua* ; and later (1875) I published an accountf of a collection sent 

* Proceedings Academy Philada., 1S74, p. 64. 
t Journal Academy Philada., Ib75, p. 155. 

Cope.l ^ * ^ [Nov. 20, 

by him from Panama. On these occasions I defined six species not previ- 
ously known to science. On the present occasion I am able to determine 
the contents of a new collection obtained by Dr. Brausford in Nicaragua. 
This embraces thirty species, of which ten are new to science. The col- 
lection adds very much to our knowledge of the range of various species, 
both as to their southward and northward extension. The specimens are 
the property of the National Museum at Washington, which institution 
placed them in my hands for identification and description. 


1. Bufo haematittcus Cope, Nos. 14178, 14181. Abundant. 

2. Bufo marinus L., Nos. 14198, 14213. One specimen. 

3. Bufo valliceps Wiegm., Nos. 14194-5-88. Three specimens. 
4 Dendrobates tinctorius Ichn., No. 14183. Abundant. 

5. Dendrobates typographus Keferst. No. 14189. Abundant. 

6. Engystoma pictiventre, sp. nov. 

One small metatarsal tubercle. Muzzle anterior to eye equal to twiee 
long diameter of latter, and projecting well beyond the mouth. Nostrils 
lateral-terminal. No fold across occiput. Skin everywhere smooth. 
First finger shorter than second, which reaches end of muzzle when the 
limb is extended. When the hind limb is extended forwards, the distal 
end of the astragalus reaches the extremity of the muzzle. First toe very 
short ; second a good deal longer than fifth ; fourth elongate. 

Color above olivaceous brown. A black band with a very narrow pale 
superior border extends from the end of the muzzle to the lower part of 
the groin, the superior border descending posteriorly. No inguinal spot. 
Below black, with white spots. Those on the abdomen are very large ; 
those on the femora and tibia are smaller, and those on the thorax and 
gular region are still smaller. 

Total length of head and body, 22.5 mm. ; of posterior leg, commenc- 
ing at groin, 29 mm. ; length of posterior foot, 14 mm., of which the 
astragalar portion measures 4.5 mm. 

No. 14196 ; National Museum. 

7. Hypsiboas miliarius, sp. nov. 

A species above medium size, in which the pollex is free from the index 
for most of its length, and terminates in a flattened cone, instead of a 
curved, acute spine. 

Vomerine teeth in two transverse series behind the posterior borders of 
the choanie, and within the lines of their internal borders. Ostea phar- 
yngea half the size of the Tongue subround, feebly emarginate 
posteriorly. Eyes large and prominent. Head Hal and depressed, wider 
than long, muzzle broadly rounded and with perpendicular profile ; and 
as long as the orbit's diameter. Canthus rostralis almost wanting, very 

1885.] 4*3 [Cope. 

concave. Nostrils terminal and lateral. Tympanum three -fifths diameter 
of orbit, larger than digital discs. Both anterior and posterior feet pal- 
mate to the bases of the last phalanges of the longest digits, except be- 
tween the second and third anterior digits, which is only palmate to the 
bases of the penultimate digits. When the hind leg is extended the heel 
reaches the end of the muzzle. The posterior digits are short, but two 
phalanges projecting beyond the knee when the leg is closed. The pal- 
mation is wide, and extends a short distance between the external meta- 
tarsals. A well-marked cuneiform tubercle, with slightly free apex. 

The under surfaces have the usual areolation. The superior surfaces are 
thickly covered with small tubercles, which are largest and most prominent 
on the top of the head, where some of them are subspinous. There is a 
serrate narrow free dermal margin on the external edge of the fore leg, 
from the elbow to the end of the fifth digit, and a similar one on the ex- 
ternal edge of the posterior foot. There is none on the side of the body. 

Length of head and body M. .062 ; length of head on middle line to 
line connecting posterior extremities of maxillary bones, .017 ; width of 
head at same point, .025 ; length of anterior limb from axilla, .03.5 ; do. 
of fore-arm, .011 ; length of carpus and digit, .019. Length of thigh from 
groin, .025 ; of tibia, .032 ; of tarsus, .019 ; of foot to end of fourth digit, 

The color of all the upper surfaces is a dark plum or mulberry, with an 
obscure coarse reticulation of a darker shade. The color of the inferior 
surfaces everywhere is yellowish, spotted with the color of the dorsal 
region. At each heel, and just below the vent, there is a yellow spot. 
The webs of both fore and hinder feet are plum-color, except the borders, 
which are yellowish. The digits are yellowish on the under sides. There 
is a spot of pale color on the upper lip below the space between the orbit 
and the tympanum, and some less distinct spots on the lip anterior to it. 
The dermal processes of the fore- arm and tarsus are light yellowish. 

Collection No. 14193. 

This fine species approaches nearer in coloration, dermal character, and 
form of palmation to the Hyla marmorata than to any other species of 
that genus. The remarkable development of the pollex, however, places 
it in the genus Hypsiboas, although it differs materially in the details of 
this part from the known species of the genus. 

8. Hypsiboas albomarginatus Spix. Nos. 14190-91-92. One of the three 

specimens has a yellow dorsolateral band on each side. 

9. Hyla quinquevittata, sp. nov. 

Rather small. External fingers with a slight rudiment of a web at their 
bases. Toes with web only reaching the middle of the penultimate pha- 
langes of the third and fifth digits. Vomerine teeth in two rather large 
rounded fasciculi close together on the anterior half of the space between 
the choanal Tongue a little longer than wide, feebly notched. Tympanic 
membrane round, two-fifths the long diameter of the eye-fissure. The 


Cope.] ^ i ^ [Nov. 20, 

muzzle is rather acuminate and projects beyond the mouth. The canthus 
rostralis is distinct and concave. The skin is perfectly smooth on all the 
superior surfaces. The wrist of the extended fore limb extends to the end 
of the muzzle ; while the heel extends a little beyond the same point. 

Length of head and body M. .029 ; of fore-leg, .017 ; of hind leg, .043 ; 
of hind foot, .019 ; of tarsus, .009 ; of tibia, .015. 

Color above light gray, with five parallel dark- gray longitudinal bands. 
The median band is somewhat indistinct posterior to the interscapular 
region and in front of the sacrum. Anteriorly it expands so as to form a 
large subtriangular spot between the eyes, the apex being posterior. The 
femur has one cross-band ; the cubitus two, and the tibia three. Inferior 
and concealed surfaces unspotted. 

Coll. No. 14187. 

This species is, in many technical respects, similar to the Hyla eximia, 
Baird. The hinder legs are much longer ; the muzzle is more acuminate, 
and the color bands are much wider. The frog is probably of a different 
color in life. 

10. Agalychnis helen^ Cope. Proceeds. Amer. Philosoph. Society, 
1884, p. 182. 

A larger specimen than the type, in which yellow border of the lateral 
purple stripe, and the bars which cross it, are wider. There are also 
traces of pale cross-bands on the back. No. 14186. 

11. Lithodytes diastema Cope. One specimen ; No. 14209. 

12. Lithodytes bransfordii, sp. nov. 

Represented by a number of individuals of small size, but which are 
adult. The characters are well marked. The legs are short, the posterior 
when extended only bringing the heel to the orbit. The vomerine teeth 
are in two transverse or slightly arched series, near together well behind 
the line of the posterior nares, and not extending exterior to the middle 
of the latter. The tympanic disc is large, in four of the specimens equal- 
ing the diameter of the eye-fissure, in three others not exceeding two- 
thirds of that size. The muzzle does not project, and is slightly truncate, 
and is about equal in length to the diameter of the orbit. The nostril is 
nearly terminal -lateral. Canthus rostralis distinct, obtuse, nearly straight. 
The toes are entiiely free, and the dilatations are moderate. Two meta- 
tarsal tubercles, the inner larger. The skin of the back is thrown into 
delicate longitudinal parallel folds, which are easily lost. 

Length of head and body, M. .0255 ; length of anterior limb, .013 ; of 
posterior limb from groin, .030; of foot, .017 ; of tarsus, .0075 ; of tibia, 

In the color there is much pink on the upper and concealed surfaces. 
There are two dark spots on the lip, one below each canthus of the eye. 
There is a large more or less obsolete spot behind and above the axilla, 
with an oblique posterior border. There is a dark spot on the parietal 
region and generally one between the anterior parts of the orbits. There 

1885.] 275 [Cope. 

is generally a light open chevron pointing forwards across the middle of 
the back, with a dark one in front of it. In the largest specimen a pink 
hand extends from the orbit posteriorly to the ilium. Posterior face of 
femur brown with light specks or finely brown mottled. Other lower 
surfaces -whitish, except that in a few specimens the gular region is 
obscurely brown mottled. 

This species belongs to the short legged group represented by the L. 
diastema, and need not therefore be compared with the L. podiciferus, 
muricinus and rhodopis, where the heel reaches much beyond the muzzle. 
From L. diastema it differs in the much longer posterior foot, and in the 
close approximation of its teeth, which form a row and not a fascicle. 
The tympanum is at all times much larger and more distinct, although 
it is variable in diameter. 

This species is dedicated to Doctor John F. Bransford, U. S. N., whose 
researches have thrown much light on the fauna of Nicaragua. 

Museum ; No. 14200. 


This form is a little nearer to some already known than the last de- 
scribed. The heel of the extended hind leg reaches exactly the end of 
the muzzle, being thus still shorter than in the group above mentioned, 
which is represented by the L. rhodopis and its allies. The vomerine teeth, 
unlike any of the forms mentioned, are in small fasciculi, which are not 
widely separated, and which are entirely behind the line of the posterior 
border of the nares, and within that of the internal border. A dis- 
tinctive character is the presence of a small web between the toes, 
which is nearly as well developed as in the Hylodes (Lihyla) guentherii 
Keferst. The diameter of the tympanic disc is about half that of the 
ball of the eye. The tongue is a parallelogrammic oval, and is entire 
posteriorly. The head is relatively rather long, and the muzzle is 
acuminate. The muzzle projects somewhat beyond the mouth, and be- 
yond the nares, which are above the edge of the symphysis mandibuli. 
Its length a little "exceeds that of the eyeball, which itself is more than 
half larger than the interorbital width. The canthus rostralis is distinct 
and nearly straight. The digital dilatations are truncate. The external 
metatarsal tubercle is obsolete, and the internal one is small. The skin 
is nearly smooth, but a pair of feeble folds form an obscure pattern on the 
scapular regions. 

Length of head and body, M. .0265 ; do. to line connecting posterior 
borders of tympana, .10 ; width at anterior borders of do:, .0105 ; length 
of fore limb from axilla, .0155 ; of hind limb from groin, .041 ; of hind 
foot, .019 ; of tarsus, .0075 ; of tibia, .014. 

Color dark ashen above, darker on the head. A pale cross-band across 
frontoparietal region. Four large dark spots on upper lip, commencing 
at end of muzzle. Limbs dark cross-banded ; three on tibia and two on 
femur. Sides and lower surfaces white, the former and the gular and 

Cope.] ^ i " [Nov. 20, 

pectoral regions thickly speckled with dark ash ; a few larger splotches of 
the same in front of aDd at the groin. The cross-hands of the tibia ex- 
tend on the skin that covers the flexors of the foot so as to be seen from 
Four specimens ; No. 14179. 

14. Hylodes polypttchus, sp. nov. 

Vomerine teeth in two transverse series behind the posterior borders and 
within the lines of the internal borders of the choanre. Tympanic disc 
a vertical oval, the long diameter two-thirds that of the orbit. Limbs 
short, the heel only reaching the muzzle. The toes are rather long, have 
rather small oval dilatations and are perfectly free at the base. The head 
is short, and the muzzle has an oval outline, and projects a little beyond 
the mouth. Its length anterior to the orbit equals the diameter of the 
same, and the nostril is nearly terminal. Two distinct metatarsal tuber- 
cles, the internal with a ratber prominent apex. The tubercles below the 
bases of the phalanges are rather prominent. The skin of the abdomen 
is areolate. That of the upper surfaces is plicate and tuberculate. The 
plicae are interrupted, and may be regarded as forming eight longitudinal 
series, the external of which are dorso-lateral. Below these the sides are 
tubercular ; as are also the spaces between the dorsal plica 1 , the superior 
surfaces of the limbs, and the top of the head, especially the superior face 
of the eyelids. An external fold on the distal half of the tarsus. 

Length of head and body, .027 ; of head to posterior line of tympanum, 
.009 ; width at anterior line of do., .011. Length of fore limb, .015 ; of 
hind limb, .037 ; of hind foot, .018 ; of tarsus, .0073; of tibia, .012. 

Color above dark ashen, with indistinct shades. Four dark spots on 
upper lip ; a dark shade above and posterior to axilla ; four narrow black 
cross-bands on thigh, two across tibia and four across external side of foot. 
Inferior surfaces dirty white. Posterior face of thigh and gular region 
thickly clouded with brown. 

Two specimens ; No. 14199. 

15. Ranula chrysoprasina Cope. Several specimens ; No. 14180. 



16. Amiva festiva Licht. et Von M. All of the specimens (four) have 
but three supraocular scuta. Nos. 14204-5. 

17. Corytiiophanes CRiSTATus. No. 14202. One specimen. 

18. Anolis copei Boc. No. 14210. One specimen. 

19. Anolis rodeuiguezii Boc. Cope, Proceedings Amer. Philos. Soc, 
1885, p. 391. Three specimens ; No. 13721. 

20. Anolis crassulus Cope. One specimen ; No. 14208. 

21. Anolis capito Peters. Three specimens ; No. 11203-12. 

22. ANOLIS OXYLOPHUS Cope. Four specimens ; No. 14211. 

23. Anolis quaggulus Cope. Numerous specimens ; No. 14208. The 

1885.] ^ < « [Cope. 

coloration of none of these individuals agrees with the type in having the 
vertical black lines, on the sides which I have described. The dorsal 
chevrons are frequently present, but they are sometimes replaced by 
large pale brown rhombs or a uniform metallic pale brown. The keels 
of the ventral scales are sometimes obsolete. The scales round the occipi- 
tal are generally keeled, as well as those of the rest of the head. 

24. Sph^erodactylus hojiolepis, sp. nov. 

Scales of upper surfaces small, flat, not granular nor keeled, a little 
smaller than those of the abdomen. Rostral plate large. Labials £, first 
inferior labial corresponding to three superior labials. Muzzle a little 
longer than distance from eye to auricular meatus, and one and two-thirds 
times the length of the eye's diameter. Scales of lower surface of normal 
tail similar to those of upper surface. 

Brownish cream color with dark brown bands, longitudinal on the head, 
and transverse on neck, body and tail. There are seven lines on the head, 
one median, and three on each side. The inferior is short and is anterior 
to the auricular meatus ; the second extends from the end of the muzzle 
through the eye to the neck, and the third runs backwards from the super- 
ciliary region to an equal length. The cross-bands are not so wide as the 
spaces between them. One is at the nape, one crosses the shoulders, one 
the middle of the body and one the groin. There are four complete 
annuli on the tail. 

This species is of very small size. Total length M. .024 ; of head and 
body, .016 ; of head to auricular meatus, .004. No. 14207. 

This Sphterodactylus is nearest the S. sputator of Cuba. In that species 
the scales are smaller, there are subcaudal scutella, and the head-bands 
are less numerous and distinct. 

25. Rhadin^ea decorata* Gunther. No. 14217; 

* A species of this getius in my collection from the State of Hidalgo, Meixco, 
is apparently uudescribed. I call it Rhadincea qujnquelineaia. It is nearest the 
H. tceniata Peters, but has a much shorter tail, and differs in coloration. The 
scales are in seventeen longitudinal rows, and as in other species of Rhadinsea, 
areporeless. There is b ut one preocular plate, which does not approach the frontal. 
The loreal is longer than high; postoculars 2 ; temporals 1-2. Superior labials, 
eight, all higher than long, excepting the last, which is as high as long; the 
third, fourth and fifth entering the orbit. Parietal plates elongate, exceeding the 
frontal. Anterior border of frontal angulate, its length about equal to the 
lateral border. Inferior labials ten, the pregeneials considerably shorter than 
the postgeneials. Gastrosteges 179; anal 1-1; urosteges 77. Total length M. .438 ; 
of tail, .115 ; to canthus oris .011. 

Color light brown above; below to ends of gastrosteges, and upper lip, yellow. 
A black band runs along the middle of the fourth row of scales, and a dusky one 
on the adjacent halves of the seventh and eighth rows. A narrow black line 
along the median row. The lateral band extends through the eye to the end of 
the muzzle, crossing the tops of the 8th, 7th, 6th and 5th labials, becoming darker 
anteriorly. The band of ground-color above it extends to the eye, narrowing in 
front. The three dorsal bands unite into a wide brown one on the nape, which 
spreads out and covers the top of the head. The last two maxillary teeth are 
much stronger than the others. 

Discovered by my friend Dr. Santiago Bernad ; two specimens; a third from 
the State of Pueblo. 

Cope.] -"'O [Sov. 

26. Ophiboltjs polyzonus micropholis Cope. No. 14214. 

27. Herpetodryas melas, sp. nov. 

Scales in ten longitudinal series, all smooth, those of the median rows 
larger than those of the lateral, and rather smaller than the parietal scuta. 
Parietals rather short and wide, openly emarginate hehind. Nine superior 
labials, all longer than high, the fourth, fifth and sixth entering the orbit. 
Nasals well developed ; loreal square ; oculars 1-2 ; temporals 1-1-1. 
Muzzle rather short, and eye large ; diameter of the latter equal length 
from orbit to nostril. Frontal not much concave at sides. Inferior labials 
ten, fifth longest, narrow, and the last one in contact with the geneials. 
Postgeneials longer than pregeneials. Gastrosteges 158 ; anal 1-1 ; uro- 
steges 139. Total length M. 1.210; length of tail, .470; length to 
rictus oris, .029. 

Shining black, except on the superior labial scuta and anterior half of 
body, which are cream-colored. The ends of the light gastrosteges re- 
main black. Here and there a black scale has a white edge, and several 
present this character distinctly just posterior to the angle of the mandible 
on the neck. No. 14219. 

This interesting species is nearest to the Herpetodryas grandisquamis 
Peters (Cope, Journal Academy Philada., 1875, p. 135), but differs in 
having the scales smaller, without keels, and in ten longitudinal rows. 
Peters placed the latter in Spilotes, but I have not adopted this arrange- 
ment, since like the H. melas, it has a divided anal plate, and scales with- 
out fossae in an even instead of an odd number. These characters indicate 
clearly that its place is in Herpetodryas. 

28. Dendrophidium dendrophis* Shi. Herpetodryas poitei D. & B. 
Two specimens (Nos. 14215-20) adult and half-grown. The latter has 

the coloration ascribed to this species, while the cross lines and lateral 
spots are obsolete in the former. There are no markings on the head and 
neck of the adult. The top of the head is red in the adult. Oculars 

* A species allied to the D. dendroph is was sent to the Smithsouian Institution 
from Guatemala by H. Hague, which has not yet, so far as I am aware, received 
a place in the system. It may be called Dendrophidium chloroticum. The scales 
are in seventeen rows, of which four rows on each side are smooth on the ante- 
rior part of the body, and only two smooth on the posterior. The pari etal plates 
are a little longer than the frontal, which has straight sides. The eye is large, 
its anteroposterior diameter equaling the width of the superciliary and frontal 
scuta combined, and equaling the length of the muzzle to the middle of the 
prenasal plate. Oculars 1-2. Temporals 2-2, all narrow. Superior labials nine, 
the last three longer than high. Loreal large, higher than long; nasals rather 
small. Gastrosteges 169; anal 1-1 ; urosteges, 117. Color above, including ends 
of gastrosteges, green ; below yellow. On stretching the skin it is seen to be 
black between tlie scales of the sides of every second or third row, in oblique 
lines running upwards and forwards. Total length M. 1.018; of tail, .311; to 
rictus oris .027. 

This species is abundantly different from the D. melanotropis Cope, but is near 
to the D. dendrophis Schl. The muzzle is shorter than in our specimens of the 
latter, and in those figured by Jan, and the number of keeled rows of scales is 
less, nine to fllteen. The color is entirely different. 

1885.] ^* J I Cope. 

1-2. Three temporals border the labials above, except on one side of the 
younger specimen where there are but two, as in the individuals figured 
by Jan in Iconographic Generale des Ophidiens Livr. 31, PI. iii. The speci- 
mens of the species hitherto described are from Cayenne. 

29. Hapsidophrys saturatus Cope. Leptophis saturatus Cope, Journal 
Academy Philada., 1875, p. 133 ; PI. 28, fig. 10. 

The frontal plate, in the single specimen sent, has its lateral borders 
straight and not contracted as in the type specimen figured. No. 14216.. 
Hapsidophrys Fisch. differs from Leptophis in having a loreal plate, and 
from Philothamnus Smith, in having keeled scales. Its American species 
are H. mexicanus D. & B. ; H. diplotropis Gthr. and H saturatus Cope. 
To Leptophis belong L. bilineatus (Diplotropis Gthr.) , L. occidentalis Gthr., 
L. sargii Fisch., and L. prozstans Cope. To Philothamnus must be referred 
P. mruginosus Cope ; P. modestus Gthr. and P. depressirostris Cope. 

30. Elaps nigrocinctus Gird. No. 14214 ; one specimen. 

31. Elaps multifasctatus Jan. No. 14218 ; one specimen. 

General Eemarks. 

A general analysis of the Herpetological fauna of Nicaragua cannot yet 
be given, especially as the distribution of species within the State has not 
been furnished by explorers. It will however be of interest to note the 
following points : 

Of the thirty-one species enumerated in the preceding catalogue four 
are widely distributed South American forms, viz : Bufo marinus ; Hyp- 
siboas albomarginatus ; Dendrobaies tinctorius and Dendrophidium dendro- 
phis. Three are especially Mexican forms, although they extend as far 
south as Costa Rica, viz : Bufo valliceps ; Rhadincea decorata and Ophi- 
bolus polyzonus. The remainder are especially Central American forms, 
which have been found either in Guatemala, Costa Rica or Panama, 
or are new to science. Of these the number having a southern range is 
considerably in excess of those ranging to the north of Nicaragua. 

II. Panama Nelson. 

The following species were obtained at Panama by Dr. George W. Nel- 
son, and sent to the National Museum at Washington. Two of the spe- 
cies are new to science. 


1. Herpele ochrocephala Cope. Proceedings American Philosoph. 

Society, 1885, p. 171. Ccecilia ochrocephala Cope, Proceedings Acad- 
emy Philadelphia, 1866, p. 132 ; Brocchi Mission Scientif. Mexique. 
One specimen ; No. 14116. 


2. Rhadincea fulviceps, sp. nov. 

Scales in seventeen longitudinal rows. Two preoculars, the inferior 

Cope.] 280 [Nov. 20, 

small and occupying a notch between the third and fourth superior labials. 
Preorbital part of head short. Interuasals and prefontals broader than long. 
Frontals, supraorbitals and occipitals rather large. Rostral plate wider 
tban high, rather prominent. Postnasal higher than prenasal, its poste- 
rior border an arc of a circle. Loreal higher than long. Postoculars 
two, the inferior the smaller. Temporals 1-2-3. Superior labials eight, 
all longer than high, excepting the sixth, which is as high as long ; the 
fourth and fifth bounding the orbit. Inferior labials nine, fifth largest, 
and the last one in contact with the geneials. Postgeneials longer than 
pregenials. Gastrosteges 144 ; anal 1-1 ; urosteges 109. 

Color above dark brown, with three darker brown longitudinal bands. 
The lateral one is on the second and third rows of scales, and the median 
stripe occupies four rows. Below yellow, with a serrate blackish border 
on each side, due to the presence of an angular spot at the extremity of 
each two gastrosteges, which covers the suture between them. Top of 
head yellowish-brown, quite distinct from the body, and without markings. 
Sides of head darker ; lips yellow, each plate with a black border, and 
more or less numerous black spots. One of these, larger than the rest, 
extends upwards towards the line of the posterior extremities of the parie- 
tal scuta. Another extends a short distance posterior to the angle of the 

Total length, M. .341 ; of tail, .148 ; to rictus oris, .007. Collection, 
No. 14118. 

This small species is nearest to the B. ignita (Cope, Journal Academy 
Phila., 1875, p. 140), in technical characters, but the inferior preocular has 
a different position, and the coloration is entirely distinct. No. 14118. 
3. Leptognathus stratissima, sp. nov. 

This species belongs to the section of the genus with elongate colubri- 
form geneial scuta, smooth scales, and a larger vertebral series. The 
scales of the vertebral series are longer than wide, and are truncate at 
the apex, and do not exceed the other scales so much as is seen in some 
species. This species differs from most of those of the same section, in 
having the loreal entirely separated from the orbit by the well-developed 

Scales in seventeen series. Internasal and prefrontal scuta broader than 
long. Frontal large, wide. Parietals large, ioreal as high as long at base. 
Oculars 1-2, the inferior postocular much smaller than the superior. 
Superior labials eight, the third, fourth and fifth entering orbit. Tempo- 
rals 2-3. Inferior labials six, in contact with geneials, the sixth separated 
by a scale from the postgeneial for most of its length. Gastrosteges, 332 ; 
anal, 1-1 ; urosteges, 130. 

Total length, M. .381; of tail, .100; to rictus oris, .008. Coll., No. 

Ground color light gray, which is covered by the following markings : 
There are sixty-nine cross-bands of a deep brown, which narrow a little on 
the sides, and have broadly rounded extremities at the second row of 

1885] i "* 5 -*- [Cope. 

scales. The centres of the spaces between them on the sides are occupied 
by a light brown spot. Each gastrostege has a dark brown spot on its 
extremity, and the rest of the scutum is thickly dusted with brown. 
Thirty-nine cross-bands on upper surface of tail. Three brown chevrons 
on the parietal region, directed backwards, the anterior commencing with 
the superciliary. Muzzle and sides of head brown speckled ; throat and 
chin immaculate. 

4. Dipsas cenchoa L. Nos. 14119-20. 

5. Drymobius boddaertii Seetzen. No. 14117. 

6. Elaps nigrocinctus * Girard. No. 14115. 

7. Bothrops atrox L. No. 14114. 

III. Chiriqjji. 

Htla microcephala, sp. nov. 

Fingers free ; toes webbed nearly to the palettes of the third and fifth 
digits. Vomerine teeth in two fascicles between the nares, with their 
anterior edge in line with the anterior edge of the latter. Membranum 
tympani round, its diameter one-third that of the eye. The latter equals 
the length of the muzzle, which is short and rather deep, and not promi- 
nent. The external nostril is at one-fourth the length posterior to the 
apex. The head is small in its dimensions, its length to the line of the 
posterior border of the tympana entering the length of the head and body, 
three and a half times. The eyes are little prominent. The general form 
is slender, and the hinder legs are long, the heel reaching to beyond the 
end of the muzzle. The metatarsal tubercles are not distinguishable as 
dermal differentiations. Digital dilatations not so large as the tympanic 
membrane. Skin everywhere smooth on superior surfaces. Length of 
head and body, .0275 ; do. of anterior limb from axilla, .014 ; of posterior 

* A species of this genus has been obtained by Francis Sumichrast, on the 
Pacific side of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, which I believe to be undescribed. 
It is referred to in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1869, 
p. 102, as Elops aglceope ; but it is distinct from this species. I propose that it 
be called Elaps ephippifer. It has the seven superior labials and fifteen rows of 
scales of the most of 1 lie American Elaps, and the labials are separated from 
parietals by one row of temporals. The rostral plate is transverse and not par- 
ticularly prominent, and its posterior border is very openly angulate. The 
frontal plate has long parallel lateral borders, and much shorter posterior ones. 
Gastrosteges, 218; anal divided; urosteges, 43. There are seventeen black rings 
on the body, which encircle the abdomen, covering a length of four and a half 
scales and five or six gastrosteges. They are separated by nine or ten scales, 
and have a wide yellow border of one and a half or two scales in width. The 
entire space between these yellow borders is occupied by a large black spot, 
which descends on each side to the second row of scales. The remaining space 
between the yellow borders is red. There is a wide black entire collar, which 
cuts off the apex of the parietal shields. The muzzle and front are black as 
far as the anterior part of the parietals. 

The wide yellow borders in this species are like those of the E. euryxanUuis, 
while the black saddles represent the black spots of the E. agloeope. 


Cope.] ^82 [N ov. 20, 

limb from groin, .0415 ; do. of posterior foot, .019 ; of tarsus, .0095 ; of 
tibia, .0145. Width of head at anterior border of tympana, .008. 

Rich cream-color on all the upper surfaces, on one specimen tinged with 
brown. Below lighter cream-color. A pale brown band with a narrow 
yellow superior margin from the end of the muzzle to the groin. The 
brown tint fades out rapidly below, and on the posterior half of the side is 
reduced to a narrow line. A narrow brown band on each side of the back, 
which extend as far forward as the orbit. 

This species is well characterized, having little resemblance to any other 
member of the genus. It was taken along a mountain stream in the 
department of Chiriqui. Two specimens ; No. 13473. 

IV. City op Chihuahua, Wilkinson. 

Information as to the character of the reptilian fauna of the central part 
of the State of Chihuahua, has been a desideratum. A few specimens 
from the region were sent many years ago to the Museum of the Smithso- 
nian Institution by Mr. John Potts, and are recorded in the report of the 
Mexican Boundary Survey by Professor Baird. A collection from the 
southern part of the Sierra Madre in this State, from the mining district of 
Batopilas, was sent me for study by Mr. Wilkinson, and was reported on 
in the Proceedings of this Society for 1879, p. 201. That region is how- 
ever much to the south of the one represented by the present collection, 
and is much more elevated. 

The great plain in which the city of Chihuahua stands is arid, and the 
vegetation is generally sparse. Low mountains bound it on the east and 
west. The formation of the surface of the plain is a coarse drift composed 
principally of little or much rounded fragments of basalt, more or less 
cemented together by a calcareous mud. The same formation composes 
the plains of Southern New Mexico. The vegetation of this plain consists 
of mesquit, Fouquieria, Yuccas and Opuntias. South of the city is a 
considerable tract of grassy country. The city stands on a creek, whose 
waters are used by the inhabitants for supporting a cultivation which 
produces a most agreeable contrast to the general aspect of the country. 

Mr. Wilkinson's collection indicates that reptiles are numerous, since 
he obtained, in a short time, 471 individuals. These only represent twenty- 
six species and subspecies. They are as follows. 


1. Phrynosoma cornutum Harl. Abundant ; Nos. 14228-52-90, 14300. 

2. Phrynosoma modestum Gird. Abundant ; Nos. 14229-51-91 ; 14301. 

3. Holbrookia texana Trosch. Abundant. Nos. 14234-38-43-47, 


4. Holbrookia maculata B. & G. Abundant. Nos. 14239-40-45, 


5. Crotaphytus collaris Say. Moderately abundant. Nos. 14300-7. 

1885.1 ^83 [Cope- 

6. Uta bicarinata Dumeril. One specimen ; No. 14248. The most 

northern locality for this lizard. 

7. Sceloporus torquatus Green & Peale ; subspecies poinsettii Bd. & 

Gird. Two specimens ; Nos. 14233-43. 

8. Sceloporus undulatus Latr. Abundant ; many of the males are 

without the undulating cross-lines. The most southern locality in 

9. Sceloporus grammicus Wiegm. One specimen ; No. 14246. I men- 

tion here that the range of the S. variabilis has been recently extended 
a considerable distance to the northward of the limit, Monterey, 
which 1 gave in my synopsis of the species of Sceloporus in the Pro- 
ceedings of this Society, 1885, p. 397. Mr. Wm. Taylor has found it 
near San Diego in S. W. Texas, and Mr. Eugene Aaron has procured 
it from near Corpus Christi. For specimens from the latter place I 
am indebted to my friend Mr. J. L. Wortman. 

10. Cnemidophorus sexlineatus Linn. Very abundant in three princi- 
pal subspeciflc forms, which received names from Messrs. Baird and 
Girard. The characters displayed by these forms are instructive as 
showing how a longitudinally striped coloration may pass by insensi- 
ble gradations into a cross-banded one. The subspecies and their 
forms are distinguished as follows : 

Six longitudinal narrow stripes with unspotted interspaces 

subsp. sexlineatus. 

Six stripes as above, the dark interspaces with small white spots 

subsp. guttatus. 

Six stripes as above,- wider, and very obscure ; small obscure spots 

subsp. No. 3. 
Six stripes as above, but wider, and the spots enlarged so as to be con- 
fluent occasionally with the light stripes subsp. No. 4. 

The stripes wider, and the spots confluent with them, so as to reduce the 
dark ground color to a series of rows of short transverse cross-lines. . 

subsp. No. 5. 

The short black cross-bars more or less confluent across the positions of 

the light stripes, forming transverse cross-bands, which are generally 

best developed on the sides subsp. tigris. 

Of the above forms all are numerously represented in the collection. 
The modification of the color pattern described, is not entirely due to age, 
as some of the largest specimens belong to subspecies guttatus, and No. 
3. Nevertheless small specimens predominate in the subspecies sexlineatus, 
and large ones in the subspecies tigris. Subspecies No. 4 presents a good 
many small specimens. The form I described as G communis (Proceed- 
ings Am. Phil. Soc, 1877, p. 95), from Southern Mexico, has the colora- 
tion of the subspecies guttatus and No. 4, but differs from them in possess- 
ing a frenoocular plate. In a few cases, however, this plate is wanting in 

Cope.] -"* [Nov. 20, 

specimens from the same locality, so that the form communis had best be 
regarded as another subspecies of the G. sexlirieatus. The latter is the 
only one which is found in the Eastern and Austroriparian districts of 
North America. 

Subspecies sexlineatus ; Nos. 14236-41-49-69 ; 14305. 

Subspecies guttatus B. & G. 14231-41-305-308. 

Subspecies No. 3 ; 14231-50-308. 

Subspecies No. 4 ; 14241-50-302-5. 

Subspecies No. 5 ; 14237-50-302. 

Subspecies Tigris B. & G. 14237-50-302. 

11. Eumeces obsoletqs B. & G. Two specimens ; No. 14244. 


12. Salvador^ grahami/e Bd. Gird. Two specimens ; Nos. 14255-95. 

13. Rmnechis elegans Kenn. Arizona elegans Kennicott, U. S. Mex. 
Boundary Survey, Reptiles, page 18, Plate . Pityophis elegans Cope, 
Check List Reptiles N. Amer., p. 39. 

This species exhibits all the characteristics of the genus Rhinechis, 
which is represented by a single species of Southeastern Europe, the It. 
scalaris. The genus agrees with Pityophis and Spilotes in its entire anal 
scutum ; but differs from the former in having but two postfrontal scuta, 
and from the latter in its prominent rostral plate. 

The Chihuahua specimen of this rare species differs somewhat from the 
type. It possesses twenty-seven rows of scales. The sides are of the 
darker tint of the dorsal spots, from which it results that the light inter- 
spaces of the dorsal region are entirely enclosed. There is no distinct 
row of lateral spots. No. 14298. 

14. Pityophis sati Schl., subsp. mexicanus D. &B. Several specimens ; 
Nos. 14222-66-93-94. 

15. Coluber emoryi B. & G. Five specimens, two with twenty-nine, 
and three with twenty-seven rows of scales. Most of them have the 
normal number of labial plates, eight ; but one has nine on one side, 
and one has abnormally, ten on both sides. Nos. 14223-53-62-84-99. 

16. Bascanium: t^eniatum Hallow. One specimen ; No. 14272. 

17. Bascanium flagelliforme Catesby, subsp. testaceum Say. Three 
specimens ; Nos. 14224-79-83. 

18. Eut^enia multimaculata Cope. Atomarchus multimaculatus Cope, 
American Naturalist, 1883, p. 1300. 

The large numbers of this species taken by Mr. Wilkinson shows that 
Central Chihuahua is its headquarters. The specimens display a remark- 
able variability in coloration, and also prove that the azygOS plate which 
exists between the prenasal plates of the typical specimen, is an ab- 
normality. In one of the Chihuahua specimens there is an azygos plate 
between the internasals, which is of shorter form than in the type ; while 

1885.] ^"5 [Cope. 

in another there is an azygos plate between the prefrontals. In ail of the 
others azygos plates are wanting. The ocular plates are normally 3-3, 
Lut the following variations occur. 2-3 — 2-3, one ; 2-3 — 3-3, one ; 
2-2 — 3-3, one. The loreal is normally quite elongate ; in one specimen it 
is shortened. The color varies from uniform brown above, to spotted in 
two styles. In one of these there are seven rows of brown spots with 
paler or rufous centres ; in the other the brown borders of the spots have 
disappeared, and the rusty centres are represented by small rusty orange 
spots. The under surfaces are yellow, the gastrosteges with dark shading 
at the ends. In young specimens the head is more or less marked with 
obscure blackish marks. This species is distinguished by its long com- 
pressed muzzle. 

The teeth in this species are equal, so that the genus Atomarchus to 
which I referred it stands related to Eutamia, as Regina does to Tropido- 

19. Eut^eniamegalops Kenn. Cope, Proceeds. Anier. Philosoph. Society, 
1884, p. 173. 

Evidentlj 7 the most abundant snake of Chihuahua. The large number 
of specimens sent display very little variation, and agree with one from 
New Mexico, described by me as above. The lateral baud generally occu- 
pies only the third row of scales, but sometimes borders the fourth. The 
dorsal band very frequently occupies but one row of scales, but occasionally 
covers the halves of the adjacent rows. Nos. 14226-27-58-59-00-67-77- 

20; Eut^nia cyrtopsis Kennicott. Cope, 1. c, 1884, p. 174. 

Only one specimen ; No. 1425G. The number of urosteges is exactly 
intermediate between the figures representing the supposed species cyrtop- 
sis and collaris Jan. As there is no other difference it is probable that the 
latter name must become a synonym of the former. 

21 Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus Cope. One specimen ; No. 14287. 
22. Trimorphodon vilkinsonii, sp. nov. 

Scales in twenty-three rows. Superior labials nine, of which the fourth 
and fifth enter the orbit, and of which all are higher than long excepting the 
fifth and the eighth. Loreals two ; oculars 3-3 ; temporals 3-3-3. Ros- 
tral not prominent, but the apex is recurved on the summit of the snout. 
Frontal plate rectangular, the lateral and anterior sides equal. Parietals 
narrowed posteriorly. Inferior labials eleven, the fifth in contact with 
pregeneials, and none in contact with postgeneials. Postgeneials much 
shorter than pregeneials. Gastrosteges 231 ; anal 1-1 ; urostoges 77. The 
body is compressed, and the head is very distinct. Total length, M. 
.272 ; of tail, .045 ; of head to rictus oris, .0092. 

General color gray ; the back is crossed by narrow black cross bands, at 
rather remote intervals. These bands are pale bordered, and narrow to 
an apex below, which is above the gastrosteges. They become narrower 

Cope.] 286 [Nov. 20, 

posteriorly, and on the tail form half- rings. On the extremity of every 
third or fourth gastrostege there is a small black spot, throughout the 
length to the tail. There is a larger black spot on the sides between the 
extremities of a few of the cross-bands. The superior border of the sixth, 
and the adjacent part of the fifth superior labial, is black. On the top of 
the head are three large round black spots ; one is on the centre of the 
frontal and one is on the anterior part of each parietal. No cross-bands 
on the muzzle. The dark cross-bands are only two scales wide on the 
posterior part of the body ; on the anterior part they are three or four 
scales wide. The interspaces vary from twelve anteriorly to seven pos- 

One specimen ; No. 14268. This species is nearest the T. biscutatw 
D. & B. in squamation, but differs greatly in coloration from this or 
any other species of the genus. 

I have given a brief synopsis of the species of this genus in the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society for 1869, pp. 151-2. In 
introducing two new species I give another synopsis, the more, as I have 
received a considerable addition to my material since that date. 

I. Scales in 21 rows ; superior labials nine. 

Head with brown chevrons above ; back with diamond-shaped spots 

T. lambda Cope. 

Head with a lyre-shaped pattern above ; dorsal spots in pairs. 

T. lyrophanes Cope. 

II. Scales in 23 rows ; superior labials seven. 

Top of head black with a white T-shaped spot ; dorsal spots entire trans- 
verse diamonds T. tau Cope. 

III. Scales in 23 (4) rows ; superior labials eight. 

Top of head brown, with a small brown Y-shaped mark ; dorsal spots 

transverse diamonds, more or less transversely divided by paler 

T. upsilon Cope. 

IV. Scales in 23 (4) rows ; superior labials nine. 

Top of head brown ; dorsal spots numerous transverse more or less di- 
vided diamonds T. collans Cope. 

Top of head white, with three round black spots ; dorsal spot, few trans- 
verse undivided black rhombs, with pale edges ... 7'. mlkinsonii Cope. 

V. Scales in 25 (7) rows ; superior labials nine. Top of head with chevron 

bands ; dorsal spots formed of four confluent spots and enclosing a 

pale centre T. biscutatus Cope. 

Of the preceding species I have before me one each of the T. lambda ; 
tau ; collaris and vilkinsonii. Of the T. lyrophanes there are six speci- 
mens ; of the T. upsilon six, and of the T. biscutatus four. 

I append a description of the new species T. lambda. The muzzle is 
rather elongate, as in the T. biscutatus. There are three loreals, and the 
oculars are 3-3 ; the temporals are 3-4-3-4! The fourth and fifth labials 
enter the orbit, and the sixth, seventh and eight are higher than long. 
Pregeneials longer than postgeueials. Internasals small, wider than long ; 

1885.] ^o7 [Lesley. 

parietals rather short. Gastrosteges 234, anal 1-1 ; urosteges 83. Color 
above light gray crossed by brown transverse diamond-shaped spots, each 
with a pale transverse centre. Three or four of the most anterior spots 
are subhexagonal, being truncate at each side. All are surrounded by a 
pale shade. Each end of every second or third gastrostege is marked with 
a small dark brown spot, which extends upwards on the first row of scales, 
and sometimes is confluent with the lateral apex of the dorsal spot. Total 
length, .304 ; of tail, .054. From Guaymas, Sonora, presented to the 
National Museum by Mr. H. F. Emerich. No. 13487. 
23 Crotalus adamanteus ateox B. & G. 

One specimen ; No. 14280. 
24. Crotalus adamantetjs scutulatus Kenn. 

Five specimens ; Nos. 14225-73-78. The tendency to the development 
of scuta on the head, especially on the parietal region, is greater than in any 
specimens I have seen from other localities. 

General Remarks. 

The preceding investigation shows that the reptile fauna of the plain of 
Chihuahua is that of the adjacent regions of Arizona, New Mexico and 
Texas, with the accession of a very few forms which are more distinctively 
Mexican. Only two species come under this designation, viz: Uta bicar- 
inata and Sceloporus grammicus. The Eutomia cyrtopsis has also an exten- 
sive Mexican distribution. 

An Obituary Notice of James Macfarlane. By J. P. Lesley. 
{Read before the American Philosophical Society, December 4, 1SS5.) 

The Society has suffered, by the recent death of its member, Mr. James 
Macfarlane, of Towanda, in Bradford county, Pa., the loss of a man of 
distinguished abilities and sterling virtue, universally loved, respected and 
confided in, a practical business man of the first rank, a lawyer of great 
reputation, especially for his conduct of railway litigation, a judicious 
geologist especially devoted to the subject of coal, the author of valuable 
books in extensive circulation, and a citizen of the Commonwealth 
entrusted at various times with the conduct of public affairs. 

He was elected to membership in this Society, Jan. 19th, 1883, and 
regarded it with genuine pleasure and pride, as the best recognition of his 
standing among men of science and literature, not only in his native 
State, but in this and foreign lands. But his busy life and literary works 
prevented him from making communications to the Society, at its stated 
meetings, which he could not attend on account of the distance from his 
home, the multiplicity of his engagements, and his failing health. 

He became a member of the American Association for the Advancement 

Lesley.] ^"^ [Dee. 4, 

of Science, in 1880, and a fellow in 1882, and assisted at its meetings in 
Boston, Montreal, Minneapolis, Philadelphia and Ann Arbor, the latter 
hut a few weeks before his death. 

In 1872 Pennsylvania College conferred upon him the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy. 

He was appointed by Governor Hartranft, in 1874, one of the ten Com- 
missioners for the Second Geological Survey, and was punctually present 
at all the quarterly meetings of that board up to the present year, taking 
the most lively interest in its proceedings, being an active member of its 
Publication Committee, and answering readily to every call for business 
consultation and official action in Harrisburg and Philadelphia around the 
year. In fact, he completely identified himself with the Survey and 
thought nothing a trouble which he could do to further its progress, or 
improve its operations. Its success has been largely due to the devotion 
of his singular intelligence and disinterested cooperation. His loss is felt 
severely in many places, but nowhere more severely than in the circle of 
distinguished men appointed to accomplish the will of the Legislature 
respecting the Geological Survey. His training in general geology, and 
his rare acquaintance with the coal measures, his experience in publishing 
his own scientific works, and his legal acumen, combined to make his 
appointment to tins official post a foi'tunate event, and to make his sudden 
death a calamity. It may be said with truth that no other citizen of the 
State can be found to exactly replace him. 

Shortly before his death he occupied another most, useful and responsi- 
ble office, that of Arbitrator for the general coal-trade centring at Buffalo 
in Western New York. His choice for such a post itself sufficiently 
marks the character of the man, and the distinguished consideration in 
which he was held by everybody, as a man of honor, intelligence and 
experience in affairs. He stood in the midst of many rival interests, both 
of capital and labor, a referee and mediator, an adjuster and a judge, 
armed with no powers but such as were voluntarily conceded to him by 
all concerned for the general good ; and it is needless to say with what 
tact and skill, and integrity he fulfilled his difficult duties to the general 
satisfaction. That he was a good citizen, a loving friend and devout 
Christian will not explain it ; for many a good man would fail to fill such 
a place for want of other qualities which he possessed. Some men are 
born to rule ; others live to make themcselves the servants of mankind, 
and he was one of these, and died in the general public recognition of it ; 
all honor be to his memory ! 

Middle Pennsylvania may be proud of its Scotch and Scotch-Irish set- 
tlement blood ; its Hendersons and Hamiltons, its Rosses and Stewarts 
and Murrays, its McAlisters, McKinleys, McCormicks, McCaulcys and 
McFarlanes ; strong wills, bold hearts, long heads and stalwart bodies ; 
great breeders of handsome and aide children ; a capable race for thinking 
strongly and executing vigorously the plana and purposes oi men. 

James Macfarlane was of this fine stock. His face wore the aspect of 

1885.] 289 [Lesley. 

intense vitality ; his forehead was high and massive ; his voice was pitched 
low, and his speech was decisive ; he had no hesitations. One could 
divine at a glance why he was an ardent Christian and why he was a 
powerful legal pleader. He lived the life of a perpetual thinker, whose will 
was as urgently exercised as his reason and his imagination ; for he lived 
in the thick of the general battle of life. Such men always come to the 
fore, and formulate events, and qualify the next generation. They hold 
the plough by both handles, and deepen the furrow at every tillage, turn- 
ing up the subsoil sooner or later ; doing all things thoroughly. 

I speak of James Macfarlane warmly as a personal friend to whom I owe 
much ; but I may be permitted to say that I regard with a sentiment akin 
to veneration the Scotch courage which could suffice to deliberately face 
and execute such an enterprise as the description of all the Coal Regions 
of America, and follow it with such another enterprise as his geological 
guide to the Railways of the United States, he, a practising lawyer and 
practical coal operator, as if he were a man of leisure. Such operations 
are only for the world's workers, born and bred to much thought and 
many deeds. 

His first home was in Gettysburg, where he was born, Sept. 2d, 1819, 
and graduated at Pennsylvania College in 1837. That same year he 
joined the corps of civil engineers on the line of the North Branch canal, 
with headquarters at Towanda. After several years of this employment, 
he went to Carlisle, read law with Judge Graham, was admitted to the 
bar in 1845, and settled to practise in New Bloomfield, Perry county, for 
eight years, serving three years as District Attorney. Here he married 
Mary Overton, daughter of the late Edward Overton, who survives to 
lament his loss. In 1851 he returned to Bradford county to practice law 
at Towanda, being in 1852 elected District Attorney of the county, until 
1859. He then accepted the position of General Superintendent of the 
Barclay Coal Company, which he relinquished, in 1865, to organize the 
Towanda Coal Company, which afterwards passed under the control of 
the Erie Railroad. He then became General Sales Agent of the Associa- 
ted Blossburg Coal Company, with offices at Rochester, Syracuse and 
Elmira. In 1880 he organized the Long Valley Coal Company and devel- 
oped its mines. In 1885 he was selected, as I have already said, to be 
Arbitrator of the Bituminous Coal Combination at Buffalo. When the 
combination was broken up, he returned to Towanda to work on a second 
and enlarged edition of his Geologists' Traveling Hand-book, or Ameri- 
can Geological Railroad Guide, when, without warning, he died of heart 
disease, Oct. 15th, 1885. 

He leaves his work half done, about 200 pages being in type, and many 
pages of MS. in a more or less finished state. 

The Coal Fields of America is his most noted work and has had a large 
sale on both sides of the Atlantic. This brought him a considerable prac- 
tice as an expert in coal operations. He wrote several geological articles 
for the American Encyclopedia, and one on the Bituminous Coal Fields of 
Pennsylvania for Gray & Walling's Atlas. He wrote also for the Evan- 
gelical Review. 




[Jan. 1, 

Sur le Rhinocheilus Antonii. Par Dr. Alfredo Duges. 
{Read before the American Philosophical Society, January 1, 1886.) 

Je dedie cette nouvelle espece de Rhinocheilus a la inenioire de rnon 
pere, le Prof. Antoine L. Dels. Duges, bien conuu dans les sciences 
naturelles par ses travaux varies. 

L'Ophidien qui fait le sujet de cette description avait ete un peu seche 
avant d'etre mis dans l'alcool, de sorte qu'il est impossible de dire exacte- 
ment quelle est la forme du tronc. 


Longueur de la tete et du tronc .275 

" queue 0.035 

Total 0.310 

La tete mesure un centimetre de longueur; la queue est contenue 10 
fois dans la longueur totale. II y a 17 rangs d'ecailles lisses luisantes, 
rhomboidales, au milieu du tronc ; les laterales plus grandes que les m6di- 
anes. Deux-cents gastrosteges. Anale indivise. Ou compte 38 urosteges 
simples, suivies de trois doubles, la queue 6tant termin^e par un petit 
bouton allonge et sillonne. Les sous-labiales sont au nombre de 9, dont 
4 en contact avec les sous-maxillaires, la 5eme plus grande que les autres. 
Deux grandes sous-maxillaires allongees suivies de deux autres petites que 
sont separees par de petites ecailles. Rostrale en forme de cuillere de- 
primee, saillante, depassant la machoire inferieure, coupee obliquement en 
dessous, et rabattue en haut ou sa pointe penetre entre les deux prefron- 
tales anterieures (internasales) sans les separer entierement. Pr6frontales 
postdrieures plus grandes que les anterieures. Frontale, a six pans, plus 
large en avant qu'eu arriere, a angle anterieur tres-obtus. Suroculaires 
triangulaires. Parietales grandes. Nasale double ; la posterieure est plus 
grande et a son bord anterieur s'ouvre la narine. Fr^nale assez petite, 
plus longue que haute, largement en contact avec la prefrontale posteri- 

N^rrV^r^j'^r^^ dessue 

eure. Preoculaire unique, allong^e verticalement, et separee de la fron- 
tale par Tangle anterieur de la supraoculaire. Deux postoculaires. Deux 

1886.1 '—)*■ [Lilley. 

temporales assez grandes et allongees, suivies de six ecailles semblables a 
celles du cou, mais que leur position indique comme des temporales. 
Huit labiales superieures : la lere depasse la narine ; la 2euie est en con- 
tact avec la nasale posterieure et la frenale ; la 3eme tonche la frenale 
seule ; la 4eme est en contact avec la preoculaire et l'ceil ; la Seme avec 
l'oeil et la postoculaire inferieure ; la Genie avec la postoculaire inferieure 
et la temporale inferieure du premier rang ; la 7eme avec cette temporale 
et 1 'inferieure du second rang ; la 8enie avec les deux dernieres temporales 

Les dents toutes egales n'offrent pas d'intervalle libre. 

Le tete de ce serpent est a peine distincte du cou : elle est convexe a la 
legion frontale, et le museau se releve legerement en forme de groin. 
Les formes sont assez elancees. La pupille est circulaire. 

Une grande tache noire couvre tout le dessus de la tete et s'etend en 
arriere d'une quantite egale sur le cou. La rostrale, le canthus rostralis, 
les postoculaires et les levres sont blanchatres tachetees de noir ; le reste 
du dessous de la tete est blanc. Sur le corps et la queue on voit dix 
neuf longues tacbes noires occupant cbacune environ une vingtaine 
d ecailles en seVie longitudinale, separees pardesbandes blanches (surl'in- 
dtvidu en alcool, du moins) transversales qui couvrent 4 ou 5 ecailles. Ces 
grands espaces noirs se continuent sous le ventre d'une maniere tres-irregu- 
liere ; les uns interrompus, les autres formant comme im damier sans 

Le seul exemplaire que je possede de cet Ophidien vient des environs 
de Mazatlan, cote du Pacifique. 

Guanajuato, 17 Septembre, 1885. 

A revision of the Section of Chemung Rocks exposed in the Gulf Brook 

Gorge at LeRoy, in Bradford County, Pennsylvania. By A. T. Lilley, 
of LeRoy. 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, January 15, 1386.) 


1. Cap of Chemung with Atrypa and many unrecog- 

nizable forms in light shale, among which are 

Spirorbis and Rhynchonella 1 

2. Productella bed in gray sand 10 

3. Green shale 15 

4. Red shale 4 

5. Green Shale 20 

6. Grammysia elliptica bed and gray shale 25 

7. Iron ore, with Spirifcr, Plerinea, Crinoids, Grammy- 

sia, Spirorbis and fish remains 4 

Lilley.] ^"^ [Jan. 15» 


8. Green shale 20 

9. Red fucoid bed 8 

10. Green sandstone 20 

11. Red shale and sand with unrecognizable fossils 4 

12. Conglomerate with pebbles, lime, Spirifer, Produc- 

tella and fish remains 6 

13. Green shale 10 

14. Pink shale 2 

15. Green shale 40 

16. Green sandstone 2 

17. Green sandstone 19 

18. Gray sandstone 1 

lv». Green shale 52 

20. Strophomena bed 1 

21. Green sandstone 14 

22. Green shale 40 

23. Brown sandstone, with Spirifer and Productella 1 

24. Gray sandstone, with Crinoids and plants 8 

25. Green shale 6 

26. Green sandstone and shale, with Crinoids and Spiri- 

fers 8 

27. Gray sandstone and shale 60 

28. Green sandstone, with mollusks and Bothriolepis 53 

29. Red shale and sandstone, Bothriolepis, Spirifera, Spi- 

rorbis, Rhynchonella and ferns 14 

30. Brown sandstone, with shells and Holoptychius 39 

31. Green shale 6 

32. Red sandstone, with iron ore and mollusks 8 

33. Gray shale 8 

34. Calcareous iron ore and sandstone icith crinoids 12 

35. Brown shale , 20 

36. Calcareous iron ore (red) and sandstone, Bothriolepis 11 

37. Grav sandstone and shale, with mollusks, carbonized 

plant stems, iron and copper pyrites 2 

38. Brown sandstone, with Cryptonella 10 

39. Brownish sandstone, with Spirorbis and Cryptonella 35 

40. Crinoidal limestone 4 

41. Bluish shale 8 

42. Calcareous red sandstone 9 

43. Brown sandstone 18 

44. Green sandstone, Pterichthys rurjosus 8 

45. Calcareous sandstone 4 

46. Green sandstone and shale 90 

47. Calcareous sandstone 5 

48. Light-gray sandstone and sliale 130 

1886.] 29d [Lilley. 


49. Gray shale 63 

50. Conglomerate, with mollusks 3 

51 . Green shale 12 

52. Green sandstone and shale 270 

53. Limestone with mollusks 2 

54. Gray sandstone and shale, with Zaphrentis and Oram- 

mysia circularis 220 

55. Gray sandstone, with fucoids 1 

56. Green sandstone, with Dictyophyton 42 

57. Blackish shale, with Lepidodendra and Calamites 50 

■58. Green and brown sandstone and shale 100 

59. Green shale 25 

60. Upper Ambocodia bed, with Laxonema, Spirifer, Oram- 

mysia and Bellerophon 2 

61. Unexposed for 70 

62. Lower Ambocoslia bed in green shale 50 

63. Unexposed to line of Granville township 50 

64. Green and olive shale, holding Orthis, Chonetes, 

Cyprieardites, Tentaculites, Pterinea, Tregonia and 
Rhynchonella 150 

65. Unexplored 183 

66. Blue shale and sandstone 13 

Total 2201 

Mr. Lilley says in his letter that Granville Centre is on ground 250 feet 
lower (geologically) than the township line. Between the two is an 
exposure of about 150 feet ot shale and sandstone containing Orthis, Cho- 
netes, Cyprieardites, Tentaculites, Pterinea, Trigonia and Rhynchonella. 

He adds that Adam Dennis has recently bored a six-inch hole for water 
to supply his tannery, on the south side of the stream near Granville Cen- 
tre. It is ninty-six feet deep ; and the bottom thirteen feet was in blue 
shale and sandstone. 

By combining these data the original section was enlarged and improved. 
But Mr. Lilley has used every opportunity during the last two years to 
increase its value, and has found forms which he is unable to name. 

Hoffman.] -«^ [Feb. 5*. 


By W. J. Hoffman, M.D. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 5, 1SS6.) 

During the past fifteen years' experience with the numerous tribes of 
Indians of the United States, the present writer has frequently observed 
that certain tribes were not familiar with the names applied to them, as- 
found in current literature, but that they had distinct tribal designations 
for themselves, which, for some reason unknown, were seldom met with 
outside of the tribe itself. Frequently a common term is met with, which 
may apply to a number ot tribes, as the term Digger, which has been used 
with reference to at least fifty different tribes and bands along either side 
of the Sierra Nevada ; so also with the word Snake, being used for several 
tribes and bands in Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. 

It is the intention here to present the names of a few well-known tribes, 
and to give their tribal designations with such explanations as is possible. 
Many others might be added, but the following are deemed sufficient to 
illustrate the preceding remarks, and may serve as a contribution to a 
general woi'k on the Ethnography of North America, which should of 
necessity embrace a synonomy as complete as practicable. 


The tribe of Indians known as the Ari'kare or Rees, forms the northern- 
most branch of the Panian linguistic family, and has for a number of years 
lived in the vicinity of Ft. Berthold, D. T., on friendly terms with the 
Mandans and Hidatsa. The alliance formed by these three tribes was not 
based upon friendly feelings for one another, but for mutual resistance 
against the Sioux on the south, and the occasional incursions of the Crees 
on the north. At the present day it is seldom that a Mandan, or a Hidatsa, 
will select an Arikare wife, though the contrary is of frequent occur- 
rence. The village consisted, at the time of the present writer's last visit 
in 1881, of one hundred and thirty-four lodges, the eastern half being en- 
tirely occupied by the Arikare, who numbered about seven hundred and 
fifty souls, while three-fourths of the other half was occupied by tbe 
Hidatsa, and the remaining dwellings by Mandans. The total population 
of the village was about fifteen hundred. 

The word Arlk'are, is of Hidatsa origin, and was changed by the Man- 
dans into Ai dik'ada-hu. The word signifies "The-people-of-the-flow- 
ing-hair," from a'-ra — hair ; ka'-ra (or ka'-da) — to run, or -flowing, and 
a-hflts' (a-huO — many. The word is abbreviated, by the Hidatsa, into 
A-rik'-a-htt, and by the Mandans into A'-ri-ka'-ra, from which the com- 
mon term is derived. 

The tribal designation is Tsa'nish, a word employed at all times to de- 
note the tribe in general, or an individual member thereof. The word 
signifies people, according to themselves, but the tribal designation in. 

18S6 J 


| Hoffman. 

gesture-signs signifies corn-shellers, and is made by loosely closing the left 
hand and holding it horizontally in front of the breast so that the thumb 
is directed forward ; the right is then similarly closed with the thumb 
almost straight, and a motion made with the right against the left, as if 
shelling corn. 

The following synonomy may serve for further study regarding this 

interesting tribe : 


Ta-nish. 1 

Sa-nish'. i 












Black Pawnees. 

Corn Eaters. 








Hacres. 1 

Recaro. J 


la Ree. 






Rice Indians. 



Tribal designation. 

Hayden. Eth. & Phil, of the Missouri valley.'; 1862. 

p. 356. 
Lewis and Clark. 1806. p. 22. "Tribal name." 
Bradbury. Travels. Liverpool, 1817. p. 111. 
Gass. Journal, 1807. p. 400. 
Saxton, in Rep. N. P. R. R., 1854, p. 239. 
Gass, op. cit., p. 48. 

Prichard. Phys. Hist. Mankind, 1847. Vol. v, p. 408. 
Brackenridge. Views of La. 1815. p. 76. 
Maximilian. Travels. 1843. p. 143. 
Keating' s Long's Exped. 1824. i, p. 424. 
Webb. Altowan. i. 1846. p. 83. 
Ind. Treaties. 1837. p. 447. 
Pritchard. op. cit., p. 408. 
Culbertson. Rep. Smithsonian Inst, for 1850, p. 130. 

"Their own name." 
Coxe. Carolina. 1741, map. 
La Hontan (Schoolcraft's Travels in 1820). Albany, 

1821. p. viii. , 


So called by various bands of Sioux. 
Signifies enemy. 

Dialectic forms. 

Warren. Nebraska and Arizona (1855-7), 1875, p. 50. 
Nuttall. Journal. Philad'a, 1821. p. 81. 

Lewis. Travels. 1809. p. 15. 

Franchere. Narrative. N. Y., 1854. p. 54. 

Lewis and Clark. 1806. p. 22. 

Hallam. In Beach's Ind. Miscellany. 1877. p. 134. 

Lewis. Travels. 1809, p. 3. 

Maximilian, op. cit., p. ix. 

Gass. Journal. 1807, 

p. 48. 

uass. tiuuniai. joui 

Lewis & Clark. 1806. p. 24. 

Franchere. op cit., p. 54. 

Irving's Astoria. N. Y., 1849. p. 119. 

Maximilian, op. cit., p. 167. 



[Feb. 5, 

Le Ris. Maximilian, op. cit., p. 167. "So called by Cana- 

O-no'-ni-o. Hayden. op. cit., p. 290. " So called by Cheyennes." 

Ka'-nan-in. Hayden. op. cit., p. 326. "So called by Arapahos." 

A-pan-to'-pse. Hayden. op. cit., p. 402. " So called by 'Crows.' " 


The Sho'shoni tribe of Indians is a part of the Shoshonian ethnic division 
which formerly occupied the greater portion of country lying between the 
Sierra Nevada and the Rocky mountains, and from northern Idaho south- 
ward to the Moki villages, and across Southern California to the Pacific 
ocean. Within the last few centuries, another branch has extended to- 
ward the southeast, viz : the Comanche. According to Buschmann, and 
Gatschet, the Shoshonian tribes are an offshoot of the northern branch of 
the Nahuatl linguistic division. 

The following brief synonomy is here presented for further investiga- 
tion : 

Tribal designation. 

Lewis and Clark. Allen's ed. 1817. ii, p. 587, et 

Parker (S.). Journal. Ithaca, 1842. p. 80. 
Ex. Doc, H. R., 31st Cong., 1st Session, pt. iii. 

1849. p. 1002. — Schoolcraft, vi, p. 697. 
Irving' s Astoria. 1836. p. 48. 
Farnham. Travels. N. Y., 1843. p. 74. 
Coke, Rocky mountains. 1852. p. 275. 
Ross. Fur Hunters, i, pp. 249, 251. "Are the 

real Shoshones." 
De Smet. Letters. 1843. p. 36. 
Lewis and Clark, Exped. 1814. ii, p. 131. 
Am. State Papers. IV. 1832. p. 710. 
Lewis and Clark. Travels. 1809. p. 10. 

1806. p. 60. So called 
by the French. 
Lewis and Clark. Van Kamper's Dutch ed. 1818. 

iii, p. 144. 
Ross. Fur Hunters, pp. 249, 251, and other authors. 
De Smet's Voyage, p. 47. 
Many other forms might be cited, but the above appear almost super- 
fluous. The name Snake, it is said by one author, was taken from the 
Snake river flowing through the country of this tribe, on account of the 
numerous puff adders found upon its banks. Be that as it may, the word 
" snake " has no linguistic relationship whatever to the word " Shoshoni." 
The word ni n/ ama is used to denote the tribe as people, first bom, but the 
word Sho'shoni, sometimes So'soni, is always given to designate the tribal 
name, at the same time the gesture-sign is added, by placing the closed 



Root Diggers. 


Serpentine Indians. 
Gens des Serpent. 

Slang Indianern. 


1886. J ^J* [Hoffman. 

right hand near the right hip, forefinger extended and pointing forward, 
palm down, then as the hand is pushed to the front and toward the left, 
the hand is rotated from side to side, giving the index a serpentine motion. 
This is also the sign for snake, as a reptile. 

It is quite natural to suppose, therefore, that when Lewis and Clark's 
party met with these Indians they at once considered the tribe to desig- 
nate itself as Snakes, thinking, possibly, that the word Sho'shoni meant the 

The writer has at no time during his frequent visits to these Indians 
been successful in obtaining from themselves a clear interpretation of 
the word. 

The Rev. J. W. Cook, gives the Yancton Sioux word, as applied to the 
Sho'shoni, as Pe-ji'-wo-ke-ya-o-ti — Those dwelling in grass lodges. This 
term may have originated at a time when the Sho'shoni still built their 
lodges in the primitive form, a process described to the writer by some of 
the tribe, a short time since. Four poles were placed upright, at equal 
distances to form a square, each having a fork at the upper extremity for 
the reception of cross-pieces upon which to construct a roof. The sides of 
the square were closed by placing thin willow poles, vertically side by 
side, after which the broad leaves of water-grasses and rushes — sho'nip — 
were woven into them, horizontally, from side to side. By passing the 
end of a leaf in and out, or alternately in front of and behind these thin 
poles, a serpentine motion is observed, when viewed from above, which 
exactly corresponds to the gesture-sign and which, strange to say, was 
made when illustrating this method of constructing the walls of a lodge. 
It is the belief of the present writer, that the sign has reference to the 
weaving or building of a grass lodge, and that the word Shoshoni signifies 
something of a similar nature. 

The term Shoshocoe [Shosho'ki], has been met with in current literature 
so frequently that a few words respecting it may not be amiss. The word is 
generally applied to those who go on foot, in contradistinction to Sho'shoni 
who own horses. Should a Sho'shoni, therefore, lose or dispose of his 
horse, he at once becomes a Shoshocoe. The term as applied, to signify a 
tribe or portion of a tribe, i. e., as a tribal designation in the strict sense of 
the word, is therefore erroneous. What were these people before they 
possessed horses? 

According to the chief men of the western Sho'shoni, their tribe was 
formerly composed of seven bands — which may, in reality, have been 
gens, as follows, viz : 
I. Tu'kuari'ka. Mountain-Sheep-Eaters. 

= Sheepeaters. Rep. Ind. Affairs for 1871, 1872, p. 432. 

= Tookarikkahs. Bancroft. Nat. Races, i, p. 463. 

= Mountain Shoshone, or " Sheepeater'' band. Jones' Wyoming 
Exped. p. 275. 

=Tuka-ri'ka, "Mountain-sheep Eaters." U. S. Geog. Surveys 
W. of 100th Meridian, vii, p. 410. 


Hoffman.] 2J8 [Feb. o, 

II. Taza'aigadi'ka, Salmon-Eaters. 

= Aggitikkahs or Salmon- Eaters. Bancroft. Nat. Races, i, p. 

= Warareekas, Fish-Eaters. Ross. Fur Hunters, i, p. 249. 

III. Ti'vati'ka. Pine-Nut-Eaters. 

= Yampatickara. Brownell's Ind. Races, pp. 533, 537. 

IV. Sho'nivikidi'ka. Sun-Flower-Seed-Eaters. 

V. Ho'handi'ka. Earlh-Eaters. 

= Hohandikahs, Salt Lake Diggers. Bancroft. Nat. Races, i, 

p. 463. 
= Hohan-tikara. U. S. Geogr. Survey W. of 100th Meridian. 

vii, p. 409. 

VI. Sho'hoaigadi'ka. Cottonwood-Salmon-Eaters. 

= Boise. Rep. Ind. Affairs for 1871, 1872. p. 432. 

VII. Ya'handi'ka. Ground-Hog-Eaters. 

Of the ahove, the Tu'kuari'ka formerly occupied the country about the 
headwaters of Yellowstone river, the present head of the band Ten'doi, 
being also chief of the tribe. By birth he is a half Banak — or more 
properly Panai'ti. The Ti'vati'ka occupied the southern interior of 
Nevada, and were found, in 1871, living principally in the mountainous 
regions where there was an abundance of the Nut Pine (Pinus edulis), 
upon the fruit of which they subsisted to a great extent. 


This tribe was formerly located west and north-west of the area appro- 
priated by the Sho'shoni, embracing the eastern half of Oregon, Western 
Idaho and possibly a part of Washington Territory. According to exten- 
sive vocabularies collected by the writer, the languages of the two tribes 
are linguistically closely related, much more so than one is usually led to 
believe. The general designation for these Indians, as well as for many 
more along the coast side of the Sierra Nevada, is Digger. The following 
is a brief synonomy : 
Panai'ti. Tribal designation. 

Banai'ti. So called by the Sho'shoni. 

Bwanacs. Rep. Ind. Affairs for 1849-50. 1850. p. 49. 

Bonarks. Sen. Ex. Doc, 31st Cong., 2d Session, i, 1850. p. 198. 

Bonacks. Wilkes' Narrative U. S. Explor. Exped. iv, p. 502. 

Bannacks. Rep. Ind. Affairs, for 1871, 1872. p. 432. 

' . , T ",. < Ross. Fur Hunters, i, pp. 249, 251. 

Robber Indians. > * l 

Ponashta. Sen. Ex. Doc, 31st Cong., 2d Session, i (1st part), 

1850. p. 158. 

18S6.| -JJ [Hoffman. 

Poor Devil Indians. ) 

T ,. , . ... , De Smet. Voy. n. pp. 4o, 46. 

Lesdignesdepietie. J J ll 

Banak. \ 

Bannock. > By authors generally. 

Snake. * 

But four bands exist at this day, which are known as the 
Kutsh'undika. Buffalo-Eaters. 

Sho'hopanai'ti. Cottonwood-Banaks. 

Yam'badi'ka. Yampa (root) -Eaters. 

Wara'dika. Rye-Grass- Seed-Eaters. 

It is more than probable that seven bands existed in earlier times ; but 
owing to the union of the Panai'ti and western Sho'shoni, it may be that 
the remaining three bands affiliated with similarly named bands of the 
latter, resembling in this respect frequent occurrences of like character 
among other tribes, notably so among those of the Dakotan linguistic 


This tribe is more nearly related to the Sho'shoni, linguistically, than 
any other of the Shoshonian family. According to several old and intelli- 
gent members of the tribe, the Comanches came to the country they now 
occupy, from the Northwest, since the introduction of horses. During 
their migration the tribe consisted of seven bands. A new band was 
formed, after leaving the Rocky Mountain divide, which was composed of 
individuals from all of the seven, and known as the Nau'niem — Ridge Peo- 
ple, who remained behind to catch wild horses. When a sufficient num- 
ber of animals had been captured they followed the tribe and the different 
individuals joined their respective bands. What length of time may have 
been required for horses (which were brought from Mexico by the early 
explorers, Coronado and his successors) to escape, and to increase suffi- 
ciently in number to run in herds along the eastern spurs of the Rocky 
mountains, is a subject difficult to solve. It may be presumed, however, 
that, if the story of the Comanches is correct, that their migration must 
have been made during the latter part of the 16th century. 

Seven bands exist among the Coman'che, as follows : 

I. Yam'pari'ka. Yampa (root) -Eaters. 

= Yampah Indians, of authors. 

= Yam-pa-se-cas. Rep. Ind. Affairs. 1848. p. 574. 

= Samparicka. Maximilian (of Wied). Travels. 1843. p. 510. 

II. Pe'nete'ka. Honey-Eaters. 

III. Ko'stshote'ka. Buffalo-Eaters. 

IV. Tist'shinoie'ka. "Bad-Movers," i.e., Those who move with diffi- 




[Feb. 5, 

V. Kua'hadi. Antelope People. 

VI. Tini'ema. Liver-Eaters. 

VII. Ti'tsakanai. The-Sewing-People, i. e., Those who sew moccasins. 

The temporary band, before mentioned as the Nau'nieni — Ridge People 
— are given in Schoolcraft as Par-kee-na-um. Two other names of bands 
occur in literature, as well in the recollection of some of the Indians, but 
as individuals in those bands had the same name as that of the band to 
which they belonged, it became necessary at their death to rename the 
band, as the name of a deceased Comanche is never pronounced aloud. 
Therefore, the No'koni — Movers — became the Tistshnoie'ka — Bad-Movers, 
and the Wiuini'em — Awl-People, were renamed as the Titsakanai — The- 

The following brief synonomy will suffice for further reference and in- 
formation : 

Ni n am. Tribal designation. Signifies people. 

Ayutan. Brackenridge. Views of La. 1815. p. 80. 

Bald Heads. Long's Exped. Rocky Mts. 1823. i, p. 155. 

Camanche. Brackenridge. Views of La. 1815. p. 80. 

Cannensis. French. Hist. Coll. ii. 1875. p. 11. Note. 

GV-tha. Hayden. Eth. & Phil. Mo. River Valley, 1862. p. 

326. — Refers to their having many horses. 
Comandes. Maximilian. Travels. 1843. p. 510. 

Cumanche. Farnham. Travels. 1843. p. 8. 

Cumancias. Long's Exped. Rocky Mts. 1823. i, p. 478. 

Hietans. Lewis and Clark. 1806. p. 76. 

Iatans. Irving's Astoria. 1849. p. 160. 

Ietan. Pike. Travels. 1811. p. xiv. 

lotan. Irving (J. T.). Indian Sketches. 1835. p. 136. 

Itean. M'Kenney. Wrongs and Rights of the Indians, ii. 

1846. p. 94. 
La Paddo. Lewis and Clark. 1806. p. 64. 

La Plais. Long's Exped. Rocky Mts. 1823. i, p. 155. 

La Play. Lewis and Clark. 1806. p. 17. 

Na-uni. Coues and Kingsley. Standard Nat. Library. 1883. 

pt. 6, p. 186. 
Paducas. Lewis. Travels. 1809. p. 15. [Said to signify wet 

noses. ] 
Padducas. Pike. Travels. 1811. p. 347. 

Padoucas. Brackenridge. Views of La. 1815. p. 80. 

Padoucar. Lewis. Travels. 1809. p. 15. 

Ni' n am is the tribal designation, the word Comanche being of Spanish 
(?) origin, and the definition unknown. The Indians themselves generally 
pronounce it Comantsh. 
Those who are familiar with thelanguage spoken by most of the Greasers, 

1886.] d\)± [Hoffman. 

or lower class Mexicans, know how corrupted the Spanish language has 
become in the south-west portion of the United States. The Castilian 
words caballo, horse, becomes kawa'yo ; cuchillo, knife, kutshi'yo, etc., 
the 11 invariably becoming y. So also with numerous other words 
and phrases, as mucho, much, becomes muncho [or mu'ntsho] ; muchos 
many, munchos ; Adonde va Vd ? — Where are you going ? is abbreviated 
into Unde va ? Upon the same basis of corruption and alteration, it is pos- 
sible that the word Comanche may be an abbreviation for many horses, 
from the greaser words Kawa'yos — caballos, and mu'nchos — muchos, i. e., 
many horses. Another suggestion might be offered with regard to the 
word, viz : ca (= casa), an antiquated Spanish word for house, or chief 
branch of a family, and mancha, a spot, stain, soiled, dirty ; thus by 
slight alteration and corruption gradually becoming ca-manches— soiled or 
dirty houses or lodges. These suggestions are mere passing impressions, 
and are given for what they may be worth. 


The numerous bands of Indians formerly scattered over the marshy 
country bordering on Tulare lake, the plains and western spurs of the 
Sierra Nevada, and the tributaries of the head of San Joaquin river, Cal., 
were known as the Tularenos, and later as the Tules. The most import- 
ant band, being known as the Kawi'a, was located on "Kaweah " creek, 
and this name was, later on, applied to the Tule Agency bands generally. 
The various names comprising the sub-divisions of the tribe, given by 
Powers, in Contrib. N. Am. Ethnol., iii, are chiefly geographic terms and 
relate to some peculiarity of the region occupied, or to an abundance of 
some particular kind of vegetation, food, etc. 

The term Yo'kut or Yo'kuts, previously employed to designate this tribe, 
as well as a distinctive term for a linguistic family, appears to be erroneous 
and inappropriate. To more clearly illustrate what may be stated below, 
it is necessary to present the subdivisions of the Kawi'as linguistically. 
The entire group of sub-tribes comes, at this date, under two heads, the 
Kawi'a proper, or Tule Indians, and the Tin'llu or Tejon Indians, the 
latter being divided, a portion of them living near Tule Agency, and the 
remainder scattered along the various settlements as far southward as 
Tahachapi pass. 

The Kawi'a are composed of the following bands or sub-divisions, viz : 
Yawitshen'ni. The Tule Indians proper. 

= We-chummies. Rep. Ind. Affairs for 1857, 1858. p. 399. 
= Wichumnies. " " 1872. p. 381. 

Bo n galaa'tshi. 
Tiq'Iiu. Tribal designation of Tejon Indians. 


302 [Feb. 5, 


Ind. Affairs. 






t C 







p. 252. 




p. 400. 



p. 218. 

\ By authors 


The word Tejon undoubtedly originated with the Spanish and is merely 
a translation of the Indian word Tiu'liu, a badger hole; in Spanish spelled 
Tejon from Texon (Portuguese Teixugo ; Provencal Tais, taiso'), and does 
not originate from the many depressions found in the country occupied by 
this people, but from a myth having allusion to their origin in peopling the 
country by coming out of the earth through badger holes, and conse- 
quently calling themselves Badger-hole People. 

The Yawitshe'nni or Kawi'a, are called Yaweden'tshi by the WTkts- 
hom'ni, and the following brief synonomy may be of interest. 









About the year 1867, the Manache Indians, who had been living with 
the above named tribe, returned to their "old home " in Owen's Valley, 
Cal., about one hundred miles distant. It is singular that two tribes of 
apparently distinct linguistic families should voluntarily unite and live in 
harmony, especially when there are no hostile tribes from whom to fear 
attack. A great deal of friendship is also manifested between the, Kawi'a 
and the Panamint Indians (who are also of the Shoshonian linguistic 
family). These facts would not be of sufficient consequence by them- 
selves, but during the present writer s visits to Tule Agency, in 1882, and 
again in 1884, for the purpose of studying the magnificent pictographs, an 
astonishing similarity in many characters and figures was found, which 
had previously been observed in other portions of California, and in 
Arizona and Nevada, and which had been recognized as the work of 
various tribes belonging to the Shoshonian stock.* In addition to this, a 
number of bands belonging to the western Pah-Utes (of the Shoshonian 
family) lived, until quite recently, in various portions of the country 
assigned to the Kawi'a. The dialects of these bands was so far removed 
from the western Shoshoni language of Nevada and Idaho, the parent 
stem, as to be almost unrecognizable unless followed through the Pah- 
Ute and its various dialects. 

Tentative comparisons of Kawi'a vocabularies with those of several bands 
of the western Pah-Ute, present some striking coincidences, more particu- 
larly in grammatic structure, but not sufficient to warrant any conclusions 
respecting linguistic affinity, as the material at present available is entirely 
too meagre. 

* For further information, see papers by the present writer in Trans. Anthrop. 
Soc. Washington, ii. 18s3, p. 128, et. seq.; Proc. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci. iv. 
188), p. 105, et seq. 

1SS6. 1 



This tribe is generally known as the Crows, a word originating no doubt 
from the gesture-sign used to designate themselves, which is made by 
placing the flat hands, palms down, in front of and outward from the 
shoulders, then imitating the movement of a bird's wings when flying. 
The first portion of the word absaroka is from abita, ab, an arrow-point, i 
mouth and 'ta to kill, i. e., to kill with an arrow -pointed mouth, clearly signi- 
fying the habit of an accipitrine bird. The Indians stated to the writer that 
the true Absa'roka was a white, or nearly white, bird, exactly resembling 
the sparrow-hawk — Falco spariverius. No specimen of the true absa'roka 
has been seen for many years, and it appears probable that the bird is a 
mythic one, particularly as it is described as white, or partly white. 
Animals and birds held as sacred are invariably white, and albinos, proba- 
bly on account of their rarity, being deemed as endowed with supernatu- 
ral and mystic powers. A partial synonomy is herewith added : 







Gens des Corbeau. 




Tribal designation. 

Drake. Book of Indians. 1818. p. v. 
Warren. Nebraska and Arizona (1855-7) 1875. 
Brown (J. M.). Beach's Ind. Miscellany. 1877. 



Travels. 1843. p. 174. "Their own 

41. "So-called by 

Liverpool. 1817. 

1842. i. 


De Smet, Letters. 1843. p. 51. 
Lewis and Clark. Disc. 1806. p 

the French." 
Bradbury. Travels in America. 

p. 19. 
M'Vickar. Hist. Exp. Lewis and Clark 

Am. Naturalist, Oct. 1882. p. 829. 
By authors generally. 

On the Hebreio Word ShDl (Shaddai), translated " The Almighty." By 

J. P. Lesley. 

{Bead before the American Philosopliical Society, January 15, 1S86.) 

Several years ago I was led to examine all the Hebrew texts containing 
this word, and was surprised to see that they lend no countenance to the 
common translation of it ; and that they teach a derivation of it from 
sources foreign to the Hebrew theology. 

In the seven centuries which elapsed between the Seventy translators 
in Egypt and St. Jerome's Latin translation Christianity effected a 
great change in the view men took of things, both sacred and profane. 
The TzavroKpaTwp of the LXX had a very different meaning from the 

Lesley.] ^"i [Jan. 15, 

omnipotens of the Vulgate. The "power" of the first was not the 
"power" of the second. What was destructive ability before Christ 
became constructive ability after Christ. The terrible had been presented 
as the beneficent. IJavTOKparcop was to be feared, for what strength 
could resist his blows, what coat of mail turn the point of his arrow ? 
Omnipotens was to be confided in ; for the universe was his handiwork ; 
and he was able to do for his creatures more and better than they could 
ask or think. In his name there was no hint of violence ; it meant abso- 
lute and infinite ability of action as against any conceivable hindrance. 

On the contrary uparos meant destructive, or at least violent force ; as 
we see from /cpadaecv, Kpadaivscv to brandish weapons ; Kpa^eiv to scream ; 
Kpazaioq resistless ; uparepoq valiant, cruel, violent ; Kpareiv to rule, sub- 
due, seize ; allied to our words crush and crash. In view of this Greek 
habit of language we have a right to say that, when the LXX selected 
TtavTOKparwp as their synonyme for the Hebrew divine name ShDI, they 
must have conceived of him as an all-destroyer ; at least as one who had 
exhibited his power in a violent manner ; if they did not actually regard 
him as the divine spirit of evil ; which is hardly to be supposed ; although, 
I have been led by my study of the contexts to believe that this concep- 
tion lay behind that of which they were avowedly conscious. For they 
wrote in Egypt, and this was the recognized character of the almighty 
Set. The Greeks of the Delta identified Set with the typhonic spirit of 
the universe. 

The LXX translators being exiles and descendants of exiles from Judaea, 
must have been perfectly acquainted with the etymological force of the 
word, and to an extent somewhat, perhaps much, greater than we can be ; 
for it is not likely that the whole Hebrew language of their day, much 
less of Salomonic and Mosaic days, was represented in our codex of their 
sacred books. How many words and phrases are lost we do not know, 
but the draf hyofisva tell a story of loss. But our reasoning must be 
based upon the language as preserved in those books, and it happens to be 
very rich in words for power. Some of them are pure metaphors, such as 
finger (y32fK), hand (T), right hand (JO'), arm (JHT), horn {pp), shoulder 
(C2DW), thunder (EDjn), a firman ("W), chariot (|Vn). Some of them rep- 
resented purely passive power, strength to endure or resist assaults (like 
that of a bone) or wealth, or high position (Otyi ^P^-) Many of them 
represented the delegated power of a magistrate, or ruler, or hereditary 
prince (ttW, 7T\V, |VtK ntin, nj?J, "fityD.) Several of them meant heroic 
power, strength of body, stalwartness (mi3J, [DTI: niD) and especially as 
put forth in acts of strength (?#; JTJ\ Pin ; compare rVTJ7 strength of Jehovah, 
/K'TJ? God's power, 'TJJ my strength). The word "very" P^O) is used as a 
noun, with the meaning power (11ND, his power). The word "god" (7X,TN) 
is used in the same sense pJO; and Tn~D). But the abstract idea of strength 
was expressed by *OT (Ecc. 9 : 16), translated with nice exactness by the 
LXX into iayo$, which of itself shows that they did not confound it with 

1886.J '3vJ [Lesley. 

None of all these words have a basis of ideal violence, but merely in- 
volve violence as an accident of the exercise of strength, not necessary 
but occasional. 

For violence they used NOR mi^D, "p3, p*ia, D^n, ptfj?, p, Su ; all in 
reference to violation of peace and law, robbery, plunder, destruction of 
crops and goods, oppression by rulers, &c. For a violent rage they used 
rjl. But their special word for wasting and desolation, plunder and de- 
struction, oppression, persecution, devourment, demolition and utter de- 
struction was "W# ShUD (Masoretic ShOD), the verbal form being ShDaD. 
Hence they called the demons ShDIM (Deut. 32 : 17), and robbers ShDDI- 
ShDDIM.* Even in composition ShD keeps its terrible meaning, for 
ShDF in Gen. 41: 23, 27, means the blasting of grain by the desert wind ; 
and ShDFUN in Gen. 41 : 6, 1 K. 8 : 37, Amos 4 : 9, Deut. 28 : 22, the 

The point on which I wish to fix attention is this : The LXX translators 
must have been alive to the two facts : 1. That if the name of the deity 
for which they were to find a Greek correlative was a Hebrew name and 
had a Hebrew etymology, they must select from the list of Hebrew words 
meaning power the only one which was like ShDI, namely ShD, a 
demon, or ShDD, to commit violence, lay waste, desolate, oppress, destroy. 

2. That in adopting this etymology they did it with the knowledge that 
ShDD never meant to be strong, powerful, except in a bad sense. For 
Gesenius himself admits this, while advocating the opinion that El ShDI 
was a pluralis excellenlice, an epithet of Jehovah as almighty, omnipotent, 
against the contrary opinion of Verbrugg (De nominorum Hebrseorum, 
1752) and Ewald (Heb. Gram. pp. 298, 423)4 Without the points the word 
is not necessarily a plural ; ShDIM would be plural. It would perhaps be 
treating the Masorites too harshly to suspect that they pointed the word 
Shaddai intentionally to assimilate it with Adonai ; but even if the charge 
was just it would not prove a plural. 

The ShDI, TravTOKparajp of the LXX, must necessarily therefore if de- 
rived from a Hebrew root, carry a malign, dreadful, destructive meaning, 
and it only remains for those who believe it to be an epithet of Jehovah to 
explain its use by reference to that terrible side of his character so often 
painted in the Hebrew scriptures. 

The opposite aspect of Jehovah as a god of long suffering, abundant in 
goodness and truth, is also frequently presented. A common tone is given 

*As the Hebrew PRK is represented in the Latin frangere, fractum, English 
break, broken, so the Hebrew ShD is represented in the English shatter, but not 
in Latin. 

t The proper name ShDI AUR of Num. 1 : 5, 2 : 10, is translated by Gesenius the 
Darting of Fire. 

Jin Ps. 17:9, Prov. 11: 3, Is. 33 : 1, Jer. 5 : 6, 17 : 4,48 : 1, 19 : 29, it means to practice 
violence, oppress, destroy. In Is. 15 : 1, 33 : 1 it expresses the horrors of a foreign 
invasion. In Ob. 5, " robbers of the night." In Judges 5 : 27, murdered. In Ps. 
137 : 8, Jer. 25 : 36, 48 : 8, 18, 51 : 55, 56, to desolate a land. In Micah 2 : 4, and other 
prophets, to lay waste. 


Lesley.] °0t> lJan- 15, 

to all the Hebrew writings by the frequent adoration of Jehovah in his two 
moods of affection for his people and violent hatred for those who are not 
his people. This tone is very harsh in the earlier books, but softens and 
sweetens in later times, until the modern idea of God as the all- father is 
almost completely developed. 

But that is not the subject of this paper. I wish to keep in view the 
sole question, whether ShDI could have been an epithet of Jehovah ; or 
whether, on the contrary, he was not a different deity, more ancient, and 
foreign to Palestine. To help settle this question I shall quote every pas- 
sage in which the word occurs, both in the earlier and later books, to see 
what the context in each instance suggests. I hope in another com- 
munication to discuss the question in a broader way, by comparing data 
obtainable in countries outside the limits of Palestine. 

It is necessary however to add one more item to these prefatory state- 
ments, viz : the fact that the Hebrew language had two words written 
ShD, which must have been differently pronounced, although it is im- 
possible to say what the difference was. In the early Christian centuries 
Hebrew scribes distinguished these two words by marking one to be pro- 
nounced short and the other long, Shad and Shad, or Shed and Shed, like 
the English ship and sheep. But whether this Masoretic punctuation 
preserved correctly the tradition of the ancient difference of pronunciation 
is a matter of debate among the best scholars.* It is, however, a very 
convenient way of distinguishing the two words : Sh§D, a demon, as above 
described, and ShaD, the female breast or teat.f from which I would de- 
rive a word for wife, ShDE, which occurs only once in the Hebrew 
Scriptures (Ecc. 2 : 8). It is a curious fact, and bears upon our subject, 
thatGesenius rejects this plausible etymology and prefers to derive ShDE, 
from the other ShD (which he now says means simply 'power, although 
he has elsewhere said that it never meant power except in a bad or destruc- 
tive sense), translating it not wife, but mistress, domina. 

I leave to others to explain how two such irreconcilable ideas came to 
be expressed by the same word ; how ShD could be used to express both 
destruction and nutrition, a midnight robbery and a woman's breast, the 
invasion of savage enemies and the suckling of children. But I will show 
that both these two irreconcilable ideas are involved in the texts relating to 
the deity ShDI, who is regarded (sometimes in the same passage) as the 
god of vengeance and destruction and as the god of covenant promise of 

* I cannot see how it can be of any value, seeing that it is not consistent with 
itself; for in Lam. 4 : 3, the word is pointed short, "\\ff ; in Job. 21 : 9, Is. 60:16, long 
"l'ty, and in Hosea 9 : 14, Cant. 4 : 5, Gen. 49 : 25, also long CD'tiy tlie two breasts. 
Gesenius derives this ShaD from an obsolete Shadah, allied to tbe Chaldee and 
Arabic verbs "to cast, shoot, pour, moisten, irrigate." In other words, it has 
no known Hebrew etymology. It certainly has nothing to do with the old 
Egyptian BNTT (Benti).the two dugs (Pierret's Diet., p. 181), nor with the Coptic 
form MNOT, mamma. 

tShD in Hebrew exactly corresponds to rintr^ and teat. 

1886.J 307 [Lesley. 

boundless prosperity and posterity; that he is in a very especial manner re- 
garded as the god of generation and increase, and in so striking a form is 
he thus presented, that his name might without any violation of logic be 
derived from ShD the female breast or teat. 

Gen. 17 : 1. This is the first appearance of ShDI in the Mosaic books. 
If El Shaddai meant God the Almighty, his appropriate first appearance 
■would be in the stories of the creation. But the word is not used until 
the story of the Covenant with Abram is reached. 

This covenant is sealed by a change of Abram's name to Abraham. 
First a son, and then a countless progeny is promised ; nations and kings 
are to come from him ; Caanan is to be possessed ; circumcision is enjoined ; 
Sarai's name is changed to Sarah ; Isaak is only promised ; but Ishmael is 
blessed, and twelve princes are to come from him and a great nation ; and 
the story winds up with the act of circumcising Ishmael and the rest of the 

This remarkable story, of unknown date, opens with the words : 
'And when Abram was ninety- nine years old, Jehovah appeared to 
Abram and said to him, 'I am El SheDl, keep walking before me and be 
faultless.' " After this, Jehovah is not again mentioned, nor is El Shedi 
repeated, but El recurs eight times. 

It is evident that the story was borrowed by the Hebrews from the Arabs, 
for Ishmael is its hero, and Isaac is of no account. A great nation, sub- 
divided into twelve tribes each, with its own princedom is to descend from 
Ishmael, for whom Abram pleads, and whom El specially blesses. The 
promise to Abram of a countless posterity is apparently to be realized 
through Ishmael ; Isaak is not yet born. The Hebrew compiler seems to 
have imitated the two great features of the Arab story (the change of 
Abram's name and the blessing of Ishmael) with the only materials left 
to him, to save the amour propre of the Hebrews, by changing Sarai's 
name and promising Isaak. 

If the story be one thus borrowed, it is easy to understand why the 
Hebrew writer glossed the first verse in a Hebrew sense by the insertion 
of the word Jehovah and the explanation that he, Jehovah, was El Shedi. 
The original story, as told of their own ancestral beginning by the Children 
of the Desert, probably began : "When Abram was ninety-nine years old 
the god Shedi appeared to him and warned him to continue always to be 
his faultless servant." As to circumcision, it is well known that the 
Egyptians and Libj r ans practiced it in ages preceding any date assignable 
to Abram. 

Gen. 28 : 3. The next appearance of El Shedi occurs in an Idumaean 
legend : Esau is overheard by Rebecca threatening to kill Jacob. She 
advises Jacob to fly, and pretends to Isaac that she fears Jacob will marry 
some Hittite girl, that is, some young beduine of the Kadish Barnea 
country. Isaac therefore sends his son to Mesopotamia for a Chaldean 
wife, saying: "and El Shedi will bless thee and make thee the fruitful 

Lesley.] ^Ob [j au . 15, 

sire of a horde of nations, and give thee Abraham's blessing and his prom- 
ised lands." 

After describing Esau's marriages and settlement, the story of Jacob's 
journey is taken up, and then, and not until then, comes in the name 
Jehovah, "I am Jehovah Elohi Abraham, thy father," &c, who promises 
him a great covenant people. Jacob, awakened and affrighted, erected a 
stone and called the place, not Bethjah, but Bethel. 

Gen. 35 : 11. The third time El Shedi appears it is under precisely similar 
circumstances ; Jacob returns from Mesopotamia to Bethel, with a great 
household and builds an altar, this time dedicating it by the name of (not 
Jehovah, but) El-Beth-El, "because El had appeared there to him when 
he fled from his brother. ' ' And El now again appears to him and repeats 
the blessing; changes his name from Jacob to Isra-El, saying, "I am 
El Shedi, be fruitful and multiply ; a nation, a horde of nations shall be 
of thee, and kings shall come from thy loins ; " the land was again prom- 
ised, and then " El ascended from him in the place where he talked with 

Gen. 43 : 14. The fourth place the name appears is in the story of the 
famine, and from Jacob's mouth. "Take also your brother (Benjamin) 
and arise, go back to the man (Joseph, now prince of Egypt) and El Shedi 
give you mercy before the man, that he may send back to me your other 
brother and Benjamin too.* But if I be bereaved (of my children) I am 
bereaved." i. e., El Shedi promised them to me at Bethel, and if he takes 
them away again, I must be resigned. There is here again no mention 
of Jehovah. El Shedi is evidently the tutelary deity of the Abrahamic 
nomades. And he is evidently in some mysterious way the god that gives 

Gen. 48 : 3. The next occurrence of the word carries out this idea ex- 
actly. It is again Jacob who says to Joseph "El Shedi appeared unto me 
at Luz (Bethel) and blessed me and said to me, ' Lo, I make thee fruitful 
* * * a host of peoples, and give this land to thy seed forever.' " There 
is no reference to Jehovah. 

Gen. 49 : 25 is very remarkable. El Shedi here occurs in Jacob's bless- 
ing, and in that part of it addressed to Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh, 
the ten tribes, and not at all to Judah), but he divides the El from the Shedi, 
and assigns them two separate tasks : — "By the El of thy father who 
shall help thee, and by the Shedi who shall bless thee with blessings," &c. 
&c. If Shaddai be as the commentors fancy "the Almighty," then Jacob 
ought to have reversed the parts of his blessing, and said : "By Shedi who 
shall help thee, and by El who shall bless thee," &c. It is elear that the 
idea of a blessed posterity, fruitfulness, &c, is organically involved in the 
word El Shedi as used six times in Genesis. 

It must be noted no article is prefixed to El nor to Shedi ; but a curious 
poetic balance is preserved by inserting nx before Shedi. It really means 

* If Joseph was under the Hyksos, he also must have had the god Setl as his 
Kod, and this reference to Shedi's Influence over Joseph has a double value. 

188C] dVJ [Lesley. 

nothing, but it balances the 78 El of the first division of the verse. In the 
five previous occurrences, which are all prose, El and Shedi occur in com- 
bination ; in this sixth occurrence, in a poem, the El and the Shedi are 
separated, but instead of El Shedi the poet writes Et Shedi. 

Exodus 6 : 3. Here we have a legendary commentary on the use of El 
Shedi in Genesis. "Then Jebovah said to Moses * * * I am Jehovah. I 
appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as Q)* El Shedi, and by my name 
Jehovah was I not known to them ; and I established my covenant with them 
to give them the land of Canaan * * * I remember my covenant * * * I 
will bring you out of Egypt," &c, &c. It is surprising how the ideas of 
covenant and land cling to this term El Shedi, and how not a suggestion 
of violence, or the need of almightiness, is made in any of the legends 
which carry the term El Shedi. The god thus named is evidently the 
family or tribal deity of the Abrahamidte, quite different from the Jehovah 
of the later Jewish cult. This is the only place in the book of Exodus 
wbere El Shedi appears, nor does it appear at all in Leviticus. But in 

Numb. 24 : 4, it turns up again and significantly enough in the rhapsody 
of the Chaldean prophet Balaam Ben Beor : " And he took up his parable 
and said : Balaam Ben Beor speaks ; the man of open eyes speaks ; he 
speaks who hears the words of El, who sees the vision of Sliedi, entranced 
(?) open eyed," &c. Here again El Shedi are poetically parted for sake of 
the rythm. But the same old theme is harped upon. It is always El 
Shedi' s covenant and promise of Canaan to Abram : " How goodly are 
thy tents oh Israel ! * * * As the valleys * * * gardens * * * trees * * * 
planted * * * pour water from his buckets * * * seed in many waters 
* * * his king higher than Agag, his kingdom exalted. El brought him 
out of Egypt, strong as a unicorn, he shall eat up the nations his enemies, 
break their bones, pierce them with arrows, crouching like a lion," &c. 

Here we see the first and current idea of fertility (shet), supplemented 
at length by the idea of violence (shet), and the two combined in the most 
poetic style. It is needless to add that all thought of Jehovah is absent. 
The story belongs to Moab or the lands east of the Dead sea. 

Ruth 1 : 20, 21. We meet with no El Shedi in Deuteronomy, which is 
wholly given up to Jehovah worship, nor in Joshua, nor in Judges. But 
in another Moabite legend — that of Ruth — Naomi says to her old acquaint- 
ances in Bethlehem, after her return from Moab : "Call me not Naomi 
(the pleasing), call me Mara (bitterness), for Shedi has dealt very bitterly 
with me. I went out full and Jehovah has brought me home empty. Why 
call me Naomi, since Jehovah has testified against me, and Shedi has 
afflicted me. 

In the Arabic poem of Job (included among the sacred books of the Jews) 
we might expect El Shedi to appear frequently, from the facts already 
mentioned, and also from the striking fact that the name Jehovah occurs 

* If this 3 were a 3 we could account for it; but an exact translation with 3 
should read " I appeared to Abraham . . . in El Shedi," as if it were the name of 
a place, i. e. Bethel. It is hardly possible that *7frO should here be Baal. 

Lesley.] *>lt) [Jan. 15, 

only once in the whole book : "Then Job arose (after hearing of the utter 
destruction of his whole family and all his possessions) and rent his mantle 
and shaved his head and fell on the ground and worshiped, and said : 
Naked I issued from the womb of my mother, and naked shall I return 
thither ; Jehovah gives and Jehovah takes, let the name of Jehovah be 
blessed. In all these Job sinned not, and gave not spit (H )DD) to Elohim." 

This single allusion to Jehovah occurs in an evidently proverbial form, 
at the close of a historical prose introduction to the original poem ; an 
introduction which may or may not be ascribed to the Jewish compiler. 
At all events the total absence of the name of the Jewish deity from the 
poem itself renders its occurrence in the prologue sufficiently suspicious. 

In strong contrast to this absence of the name Jehovah is the constant 
use of the names Eloeh, Elohim, and Shedi. The introduction opens thus 
(Job 1:1): "There was a man * * * who * * * feared Elohim and 
avoided sin." And in the beginning of the poem (Job 3 :4): "Job opened 
his mouth and cursed his day * * * Let that day be darkness ; let Eloeh 
not look at it from above," &c. It is evident that the race to which Job 
belonged worshiped a deity called Elohim (or worshiped gods, Elohim, it 
would be hard to decide which), for in the opening verse of the 2d chapter 
they are called Beni Elohim, just as the Hebrews were habitually called 
Beni Israel. 

The deity name Shedi occurs (not in the introduction, nor in the conclu- 
sion, but) in the poem itself thirty-one times, and the deity bearing this 
name is described as inscrutible (11 : 7, 37 : 23), omniscient (24 : 1, 40 : 2) 
giver of inspiration and life (32 : 8, 33 : 4), just in judgment (8 : 3, 31 : 35, 
34 : 10, 34 : 12), paying no regard to complaints that are silly (35 : 13), 
open to prayer (8 : 5, 13 : 3), punishing the wicked (27 : 13), wrathful 
when offended (21 : 20), building up, defending, delighting and being with 
his worshipers (22 : 23, 25, 26, 29 : 5). 

At the same time Job complains that "the arrows of Shedi&re (sticking) 
in him (5 : 4), that El has killed his heart ("pH for J1H) and Shedi has 
troubled him (23 : 16), that Shedi hath vexed his soul (27 : 2). But appa- 
rently he vents these complaints without feeling any disrespect towards the 

In the same mental mood, Eliphaz the Temanite, says (5 : 17) "Lo! 
Happy the man whom Eloeh correcteth, and the chastisement of Shedi 
City *ID10) despise not." Job replies (6 : 14): "To the afflicted from a 
friend pity ! and (but) the fear of Shedihe forsaketh." " The wicked man " 
(15 : 20) is described by Eliphaz as "stretching his hand against ^(nateh 
el el ido) and making himself a hero against Shedi" (v el Shedi ithgabar) 
(15 : 23). And Job in his turn describes "the wicked " (21 : 7) as saying, 
"What is Shedi (men Shedi) that we should serve him, and how shall we 
profit by praying to him?" Of the hypocrite he asks (27 : 10) "Will he 
delight himself, or rather, does he make himself an object of pleasure to 
Shedi (im ol Shedi ithonau), does he ever call on Eloeh (iqra eloe b'col 

1886.] Oil. [Lesley. 

Eliphaz seems to have a very unanthropomorplric notion of Shedi. He 
begins one of his discourses thus (22 : 2) "Can a hero (geber) be profit to 
■El, as a sage'is profit to himself? Is it delightful to Shedi that thou art 
righteous (zedek), and is it gainful (to him) that thy ways are good 
(tam)?" And then he goes on to show Job that Shedi simply regards him 
as a sinner and punishes him as such, and not at all out of any personal 

One more reference to Shedi is made in this poem, and it requires separate 
consideration, because it takes us back to the ideas of covenant and in- 
heritance. Job (31 : 2) is attesting his uprightness. "I madea covenant 
with my eyes, and why should I think on a maid, and what has Eloeh 
allotted (as my portion) from on high, and what Shedi as my inheritance? 
Is not destruction the lot of the unrighteous, and misfortune that of the 
evil doers? Does he not see my ways, and count my steps? " &c. 

It remains only to draw attention to the poetical balancing of El {Eloeh) 
against Shedi, proving that the full name was El Shedi, or Eloeh Shedi, 
throughout the book. 

The absence of any article would prove the vulgar translation of Shedi as 
"the almighty," to be a mistake, apart from all other arguments. It would 
be just as reasonable to expect an article with El or Eloeh, "the god." 
Shedi is evidently as personal a proper name, as Baal, or Jehovah, or Seti. 
The translation " the almighty " falls to the ground with the etymology 
■of Shedi, from Shed strong ; and we have seen that Shed, among its various 
meanings, has one whieh does not mean strong, but violent. 

It is true that the El Shedi of the poem of Job is rather an amiable deity. 
But this he would undoubtedly be in the eyes of his original worshipers 
in Arabia. The poem hints plainly enough that he could be a typhonic 
demon to " the wicked, " that is to people who worshiped other deities 
and cared nothing for Shedi. 

In the Psalms the name Shedi occurs only twice. 

Ps. 68 : 14. This superb chant, beginning "Let Elohim arise, let his 
foes be scattered ; let his haters flee before him. As smoke is driven, as 
wax is melted, let the wicked perish from the face of Elohim; but let the 
righteous rejoice," &c. "Extol the cloud-rider by his name Jehovah." 
"Jehovah gave the song of victory, messengers of victory to the great host." 
"The kings of the hosts flee, they flee, and the housewife divides the 
booty; when ye rest among the cattle stalls, where doves' wings are silver 
white, with golden feathers.'' "In Paras Shedi, kings therein, it snowed 
in Salmon." No clear meaning can be made out of this part of the 
Psalm, but either Paras Shedi was the name of a place "the scattering 
of Shedi," or Shedi was supposed to rout the kings on the snow-covered 
Salmon. At all events the mixture of Jehovah, Elohim and Shedi in this 
wild war song is very remarkable. 

Ps. 91 : 1. We have in this song no mention of Elohim, but a mingling 
of Oliun, Shedi and Jehovah, none of them with an article: "Sitting 
beneath the protection of Oliun (the highest), resting in the shade of Shedi, 

Lesley.] ^J--" [Jan. 15, 1886. 

I say to Jehovah, my safety place, and my fortress, my god CH/K), I con- 
fide in him." It is evidently a song of the desert. The angels bear him 
up lest he stumble among the rocks ; he is saved from the lion and the 
snake and the dragon (whatever that was). It looks as if "under the 
shade of Shedi," was a proverbial expression among the Beduin. 

Isaiah has Shedi only once (13 : 6) : "Howl ! for the day of Jehovah 
comes, it comes like devastation from Shedi (k-ShD ra-ShDI). The 
alliteration suggests that Shedi was the Ty phonic demon, and nothing 
could be more appropriate ; for Isaiah is prophesying against Babylon's 
utter destruction, to be produced by an invasion from the mountains of 
many nations. DeWitte translates ShD "verheerung." It is not to be 
supposed that Isaiah would not have frequently employed Shedi, if it 
meant "almighty" as an epithet for Jehovah. This is the only time he 
uses the word. 

Jeremiah appears not to have known the word. 

Ezechiel uses it only once (1 : 24), in describing the four-visaged creatures 
which appeared to him out of the fiery cloud in Chaldea ; their heads sup- 
ported a platform (firmament) of crystal, on which was a throne of sapphire, 
and on the throne sat a man of amber-colored fire, overarched by a rainbow; 
"this was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of Jehovah," a well- 
guarded expression. The creatures had living wheels, self-intelligent, 
"their spirit being in the wheels," and "the voice (/1p) of their wings 
was like the voice of mighty waters, like the voice of Shedi" (Jc-qol Shedi); 
probably meaning "like a roaring storm wind in the desert." Compare 
"qol Jehovah" breaketh the cedars of Lebanon. "When they moved 
they made a noise like a whole host." 

Daniel. This book does not mention Shedi, but it makes mysterious 
reference to a "god of forces" (11 : 38). 

Joel alone among the prophets of Palestine speaks of Sliedi, and that 
only once (1 : 15), and then in the sense of a destroyer. " Alas the day ! 
for the day of Jehovah, and it will come like destruction from Shedi 
(u-k- ShD m ■ ShDI ibua). 

Joel repeats precisely the phrase in Isa. 13 : 6, with its alliteration ; 
which seems to settle it beyond doubt that Isaiah and Joel used Shad Shedi, 
as a well understood formula; perhaps a popular expression for &razzia of 
Beduins, or perhaps for a sandstorm . But whatever special meaning it had 
must have been based on a conception of the typhonic demon of destruction 
like the Seti of the Egyptian monuments, and the Shaitan (devil) of 
Mohammedan literature.* 

*It is interesting to compare Seti, cut stone and heap of stones with the modern 
Mohammedan practice of throwing stones at Sheitan, resulting in the accumula- 
tion of piles of stones, at certain fixed places, all of them [regarded as either 
sacred or accursed. 

Nov. 6, 1885.] ^1«5 

Stated Meeting, November 6, 1885. 

Present, 18 members. 

President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Mr. William John Potts, a newly -elected member, was pre- 
sented to the Chair and took his seat. 

Donations for the Library were received from the Deutsche 
Geologische Gesellschaft, Berlin ; Naturhistorischer Verein and 
Prof. J. Lehmann of Bonn ; Schweizerische Naturforschende 
Gesellschaft, Luzerne ; E. Accademia dei Lincei, Eome ; K. Is- 
tituto Veneto di Scienze, &c, Venice ; Academie Eoyale de 
Belgique ; Eoyal Geographical Society, Meteorological Coun- 
cil, Eoyal Meteorological Society, Nature, Messrs. Joseph Prest- 
wich, C. W. King, Wm. Barlow and Dr. Benjamin Ward 
Eichardson of London ; the Philological Society, Cambridge, 
England ; the Canadian Institute, Toronto ; Natural History 
Society, Montreal ; Essex Institute, Harvard University, Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. ; and Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; American Journal 
of Science, New Haven ; American Chemical Society, Meteor- 
ological Observatory of New York ; the Young Men's Library 
at Buffalo ; Mr. John B. Smith of Brooklyn ; the Engineers' 
Club, Franklin Institute, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
Dr. J. M. Hays, Prof. E. D. Cope and Messrs. Henry Phillips, 
Jr., McCalla & Stavelv, and Eev. H. Clay Trumbull, of Phil- 
adelphia; Johns Hopkins University and Prof. Ira Eemsen of 
Baltimore ; the United States Fish Commission, National Mu- 
seum, Naval Observatory, Geological Survey, the Department 
of State and War Department ; Mr. Jed. Hotchkiss of Staunton, 
Va. ; the Elliott Society of Science and Art, Charleston, S. C; 
and the Society of Natural History, Cincinnati. 

Letters of envoy were received from Die Schweiz. Gesell- 
schaft (Berne) ; Wm. Barton (London) ; United States Geologi- 
cal Survey (Washington, D. C.) ; Museum of Comparative 
Zoology (Cambridge Mass.) ; Canadian Institute, Toronto 



[Nov. 6, 

(with Yol. XXXI, 143), and requesting exchange ; which, on 
motion, was granted and the Society placed on Exchange list. 

Letters accepting membership were read from W. J. A. 
Bon will, M. D. (October 28, 1885, 1721 Locust St., Philadel- 
phia); Thomas M. Cleemann, C. E. (October 19, 1885, 2135 
Spruce St., Philadelphia) ; Wm. John Potts (529 Cooper St., 
Camden, N. J., October 20, 1885) ; Prof. Edward North, LL.D. 
(October 26, 1885, Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y.); Prof. 
M. Scheie DeYere (October 20, 1885, University of Yirginia). 

Letters acknowledging receipt of diploma were read from 
Prof. Henry S. Frieze (Ann Arbor, Mich.) ; Isaac Sharpless 
(Haverford College P. O., Pa.) ; Prof. John W. Mallet (Uni- 
versity of Yirginia) ; Prof. Walter LeConte Stevens (Hoboken, 
N. J.). 

Letters were received from the Chief Signal Officer, U. S. A., 
Washington, D. C, requesting certain Proceedings and Trans- 

On motion the Signal Office was placed on the Exchange 
list and ordered to receive Proceedings. 

A letter was received from Prof. E. C. Pickering of Harvard 
College Observatory, requesting a copy of Transactions, Yol. 
IX, containing a paper by the late Eobert Treat Paine, which 
was ordered to be sent. 

Letters were received from the Geological Survey of Canada, 
Ottawa, acknowledging Nos. 116 and 119 ; E. W. Claypole 
(Akron, Ohio), acknowledging Nos. 117, 118, 119, 120; Wm. 
John Potts (Camden, N. J.), acknowledging Nos. 117, 118, 119, 
120 ; Mr. Thomas M. Cleemann (Philadelphia), acknowledging 
Nos. 117, 118, 119, 120. 

Dr. W. S. W. Euschenberger read, by appointment, a sketch 
of the life of the late Eobert E. Rogers, M. D., LL.D., with 
biographical notices of his father and brothers ; after which the 
President and Dr. Horn made some appropriate and feeling 
remarks on the subject, 

The death of Thomas Davidson (Brighton, England), was 
announced as having taken place on October 16, 18S5, in the 
69th year of his age. 



Nominations Nos. 1064, 1065 and 1066, were read. 

The Publication Committee, pursuant to the request of the 
Society of June 19, 1885, made a report which, after discussion, 
was laid over to the next meeting. 

Permission was granted to Prof. Cope to withdraw the paper 
read by himself at last meeting on the Eocene fishes of Wyom- 
ing Territory and the action of the Secretaries in permitting its 
withdrawal was approved. 

Prof. Cope presented estimates for plates for his paper read 
at last meeting on the Structure of the Brain, &c, # * * 
of a Theromorphous Reptile, which, on motion, was referred 
to the Finance Committee for action. 

The President reported that he had received and paid over 
to the Treasurer $132.43, amount of Michaux legacy due 
October 1, 1885. 

And at ten minutes after ten o'clock, P.M., the meeting was 
adjourned by the President. 

Stated Meeting, November 20, 1885. 

Present, 16 members. 
President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Dr. "W. J. A. Bonwill, Mr. Thomas M. Cleemann, Prof. S. 
"W. Gross, newly-elected members, were presented to the Chair, 
and took their seats. 

Donations for the Library were received from the Mining 
Department, Melbourne; Eoyal Society of Yictoria; Royal 
Asiatic Society (North China Branch) ; Geological Survey of 
India; Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig; Verein fur Geo- 
graphic und Statistik, Frankfurt-am-Main ; Prof. G. vom 
Rath, of Bonn ; the Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie Sels- 
kab, Copenhagen ; Statistika Central Byran, Stockholm ; 
Musee Teyler, Haarlem ; the Ministere de l'lnterieur and 
Commission Centrale de Statistique, Bruxelles; R. Acca- 


INov. 20, 

demia dei Lincei, Rome ; Societe Nationale des Sciences 
Naturelles, Cherbourg; Societe des Antiquaires de France; 
Societe Americaine de France ; Societe d' Anthropologic ; 
Societe Zoologique and Societe de Geographie, Paris; 
R. Academia de la Historia, Madrid; Royal Astro- 
nomical and R. Geographical Societies, Meteorological Coun- 
cil, Journal of Forestry, and Nature, London ; Literary 
and Philosophical Society, Liverpool ; Philosophical Society, 
Glasgow; Boston Society of Natural History, Mr. Robert 
Nixon Tophan, Cambridge, Mass. ; American Antiquarian 
Society, Worcester; Meteorological Observatory of New 
York; the Mercantile Library Association of Brooklyn; 
Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia, Mercantile Library and 
Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr. ; Johns Hopkins University ; Depart- 
ment of the Interior, United States Fish Commission and Mr. 
Samuel H. Scudder, of "Washington ; Washburn College, 
Topeka, and the University of California. 

Letters of envoy were read from La Societe Nationale des 
Antiquaires de France (Paris); Geological Survey of India 
(Calcutta) ; Fondation de P. Teyler van der Hulst (Harlem) ; 
Ministere de l'Interieur (Bruxelles). 

Letters of acknowledgment were read from Konigliche 
Bibliothek, Berlin (117, 118, 119); K. K. Sternwarte, Prag 
(116) ; Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. (Trans- 
actions IX); Chief Signal Officer U.S.A., Washington, D. C. 
(Proceedings 96-121; Transactions XV, XVI, i); Fondation 
van der Hulst, Harlem (Proceedings 117, 118, 119); Japetus 
Steenstrup, Copenhagen (116, 117, 118, 119); Royal Society 
of London (116) ; Royal Society of Victoria, Melbourne (114, 

Letters accepting membership in the Society were read from 
Prof. Guiseppe Sergi (Nov. 3, 1885 ; via Pastrengo 1, Roma, 
Italia); Prof. Louis Pasteur (Paris, Nov. 5, 1885); Prof. Ernst 
Haeckel, Jena, Nov. 4, 1885) ; Prof. Dr. Josef von Lenhossek 
(Buda Pesth, Nov. 4, 1885) ; Prof. J. Pomialowsky (St. Peters- 
burg, Oct. 21, 1885) ; Dr. Hermann Rollett (Baden bei Wien, 
Nov. 5, 1885). 



Letters acknowledging receipt of diploma were read from 
Lord Coleridge, London, England ; Sir John Lubbock, High 
Elms, Hayes, Beckenham, England. 

A letter was received from Dr. Asa Gray and Mr. C. S. Sar- 
gent, requesting permission to have a copy made of the diary 
of the elder Michaux, which was presented to the Society by 
his son in 1824. The request was granted, with the restriction 
that the copy was to be made in the Society's rooms under the 
supervision of the Librarian. 

The Special Committee appointed October 16, 1885, to 
examine the paper on Iguanidse presented by Prof. E. D. 
Cope, for the Transactions, reported it to be worthy, and 
recommended its publication with a suitable plate or plates. 

On motion, the report was adopted, and the Committee dis- 

A letter was read from Prof. Cope, requesting that the 
paper should be printed in the Proceedings with a view to its 
more speedy publication. 

The Secretaries stated that in the present condition of the 
publications of the Society, Prof. Cope's paper would be more 
speedily printed if, as originally intended, in the Transactions. 

On motion of Dr. Frazer, it was resolved that the Secreta- 
ries be requested to inform Prof. Cope of the facts of the case, 
and to ascertain in which form he prefers that the paper shall 

The death of W. B. Carpenter (London, Nov. 11, 1885) was 
announced as having taken place in the seventy-third year of 
his age. 

The President reported that, pursuant to resolution of the 
Society, he had appointed Prof. J. P. Lesley to prepare an 
obituary notice of the late James Macfarlane, and that Prof. 
Lesley had signified his willingness. 

A letter was read from Prof. Weir Mitchell declining, for 
sufficient reasons, the appointment to prepare an obituary 
notice of the late George Leib Harrison. 

Dr. Brinton presented a paper on the Mangue language. 

Prof. Cope (through the Secretaries) presented the Thir- 

»>18 [Nov. 20, 

teenth Contribution to the Herpetology of Tropical Amer- 

Prof. Houston presented a paper on Photography by a Light- 
ning Flash during the storm of October 29, 1885. 

Dr. Frazer presented a resume of the proceedings of the re- 
cent International Congress of Geologists held at Berlin, which 
he had attended as one of the delegates from the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Frazer 
exhibited an improved prismatic compass (made by Elliott, of 
London), and a device for printing boundary lines automatic- 
ally, and explained their advantages. 

Dr. Frazer also presented four track charts of the North 
Atlantic ocean, made in 1882, 1883 and 1885. 

The minutes of the proceedings of the Board of Officers and 
Council were submitted. 

Nominations Nos. 1064, 1065, 1066, and new nominations 
Nos. 1067, 1068, 1069, 1070, 1071, 1072, 1073, 1074, 1075, 
were read. 

The Committee of Finance, to which was referred the appli- 
cation for a plate for Prof. Cope's paper on the brain of a 
Theromorphous reptile, reported that the Society had in 
hand funds sufficient for that purpose. The Committee stated 
that its business was not to pass upon the merits or desirability 
of any such application, but only upon the question if the 
Society had funds available for such a purpose. That the 
ordering of the plates was at the discretion of the Secretaries 
in their disbursement of the annual appropriation made by the 
Society for its publications. 

On motion, the plate was ordered by the Society at estimate 
price, furnished by Breuker & Kessler. 

Dr. Frazer exhibited the Geological-Geographical Dictionary 
of Senor Juan de Villa Nueva y Piera,and UAnnuaire Oeolo- 
gigue Universelle of D'Agincourt, and offered the following 
resolution, which was adopted: 

Resolved, That a Committee, consisting of Prof. Lesley, Prof. Cope, 
Mr. Franklin Piatt, Mr. C. A. Ashburner and Dr. Frazer be appointed to 
consider the propriety of assisting the International Geological Congress 

1885.] "U 

in extending the works of MM. Villa Nueva and Neumayer, and thejneans 
of doing so, and that the Committee he requested to report to the Society 
at as early a date as possible. 

And the meeting was adjourned by the President. 

Stated Meeting, December 4, 1885. 

Present, 16 members. 

President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Dr. Horace Jayne, a newly-elected member, was presented 
to the Chair, and took his seat. 

Donations for the Library were received from the Naturfor- 
schende Gesellschaft and the Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig ; 
K. P. Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin ; Societe de Geo- 
graphic and L' Alliance Scientifique Universelle, Paris; Nature ; 
Society of Antiquaries, London ; Canadian Institute ; Geologi- 
cal and Natural History Survey of Canada ; Boston Society of 
Natural History ; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge; Mr. Charles S. Sargent, of Brookline, Mass.; Yale 
College ; American Chemical Society and the New York 
Academy of Sciences; Mr. W. J. Potts, of Camden, N. J; 
Franklin Institute, the American Fire Insurance Co., Drs. W. 
S. W. Kuschenberger and Persifor Frazer, Messrs. Alex. E. 
Harvey, Henry Phillips, Jr., McCalla & Stavely, and Francis 
Jordan, Jr., of Philadelphia ; Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more ; United States National Museum, United States Geo- 
logical Survey and the Chief Signal Officer of the United 
States Army, Washington, D. C. ; Mr. Jed. Hotchkiss, of 
Staunton, Va., and Mr. G. W. Hough, of Chicago. 

Letters of envoy were read from the Canadian Institute, 
Toronto ; the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore ; U. S. 
Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 


[Dec. 4, 

Letters of acknowledgment were read from the Statistical 
Society, London (117, 118, 119); the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. (120) ; Annales des Mines (97-120) ; Royal 
Society of Edinburgh (116, 117, 118, 119). 

Letters accepting membership in the Society were read from 
Horace Jayne, M.D. (Phila., 1826 Chestnut St., November 
26, 1885), Gaston Plante (Paris, April 12, 1885). 

A letter was read from Prof. Lesley declining the appointment 
as chairman of the committee appointed at the last meeting on 
the works of Villa Nueva and Neumayer. 

A circular was read from the Trustees of the " Elizabeth 
Thompson Science Fund," calling attention to the provisions 
under which the fund was administered. 

Prof. Frazer, from the Committee on the Works of Villa 
Nueva and Neumayer, reported progress. 

An obituary notice of the late James Macfarlane, prepared 
by Prof. J. P. Lesley, was read by the Secretaries. 

A MS. record book of the Wistar Association, 1824-1839, 
was returned to the Society by Prof. Lesley, with a letter stating 
he had just discovered it among a mass of papers. 

Dr. Frazer presented a paper entitled a Resume of the 
Geology of York County, Pa. 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, which was re- 
ferred to the Committee on Finance. 

The Board of Officers and Council submitted certain pro- 
posed changes in the Laws and Regulations of the Society, 
which were read, and under the laws laid over until December 
18, 1885. 

Pending nominations Nos. 1067-1075 were read. 

On motion, permission was given to Prof. Cope to withdraw 
his paper on Iguanidae, presented and accepted for the Trans- 
actions, and the Secretaries were requested to add to it his 
paper " Thirteenth Contribution to the Herpetology of Tropi- 
cal America." 

And the meeting was adjourned by the President. 

1885.] ^1 

Stated Meeting, December 18, 1885. 

Present, 21 members. 

President, Mr. Fkaley, in the Chair. 

Mr. Francis Jordan, Jr., a lately-elected member of the So- 
ciety, was presented to the Chair and took his seat. 

Donations for the Library were received from Prof. J. 
Pomialowsky, of St. Petersburg ; the Astronomische Nach- 
richten, Kiel ; Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig ; Flora Ba- 
tava, Leiden ; the Academie E. de Belgique ; E. Accademia 
dei Lincei, Eoma ; Ecole des Mines and Societe de Geographie, 
Paris; E. Academia de la Historia, Madrid; Geological Society, 
Meteorological Council, Journal of Forestry, and Nature, Lon- 
don ; Philological Society, Cambridge, England ; the publishers 
of the American Architect and Every Other Saturday, Boston ; 
American Journal of Science ; the publishers of the Critic ; 
Brooklyn Entomological Society ; Brooklyn Library ; College 
of Pharmacy, Messrs. Edward L. Wilson, Henry Phillips, Jr., 
and E. S. Culin, Drs. W. S. W. Euschenberger and Charles A. 
Oliver, and the executors of Mr. Henry Seybert, of Philadel- 
phia ; Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania ; Johns 
Hopkins University, editors of the Journal of Philology, and 
the Chemical Journal, Baltimore ; the War Department and 
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey ; editors of the 
Hoosier Naturalist, Valparaiso, Ind. ; Eev. Stephen D. Peet, of 
Chicago, 111. ; the Iowa State Historical Society ; University 
of California ; Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Tacu- 
baya, and the Museum National de Eio de Janeiro. 

Letters of envoy were received from the E. Society of Mel- 
bourne, Australia ; the Meteorological Commission, London ; 
the Philosophical Society of Cambridge ; the Canadian Insti- 
tute, Toronto, Canada. 

A circular was read from the Nat. Hist, and Physical So- 
ciety of Geneva, with the conditions of the De Candolle prize. 

A circular was read from Stearns & Co., Detroit, Mich., 



[Dec. 18, 

offering for sale a collection of South American antiquities 
and inviting bids for the same. 

The deaths of Dr. Albert II. Smith (December 14, 1885, aet. 
51), and Henry S. Hagert, Esq. (December 18, 1885, set. 52), 
were announced and, on motion, the President was authorized 
to appoint suitable persons to prepare their obituary notices. 

Prof. Cope presented for the Transactions a paper by Miss 
Helen C. de S. Abbott, entitled " A Chemical Study of Yucca 
angustifolia" which was referred for examination to a com- 
mittee consisting of Drs. Brinton, Genth and Houston. 

Prof. Cope made a communication to the Society on the 
subject of the physical conditions of memory. 

Nominations Nos. 1061-1075 were read. 

The proposed change in the Laws and Eegulations of the 
Society, submitted by the Board of Officers and Council at the 
last meeting, were taken up, and proof having been made that 
advertisements had been inserted in two daily Philadelphia 
newspapers, and that full notice had also been sent to the resi- 
dent members of the Society, and it appearing that a quorum 
of at least three of the Officers and Council, and at least thir- 
teen members of the Society were present, the Society pro- 
ceeded to the consideration of the proposed alterations, which, 
after discussion, were unanimously adopted, as follows : 

That Chapter I, Section 1, shall read as follows : 

"The election of members shall be by ballot, and shall form part of the 

stated business of the meetings on the third Fridays of February, May, 

October and December." 

That Chapter I, Section 5, shall read as follows: 
"The names of the candidates and their places of abode shall be desig- 
nated on the ballots. In voting, the names of the officers shall be called 
in the order of their seniority by the acting Secretary, the members there- 
after depositing their ballots. The name of a candidate struck from any 
ballot or not voted for, shall be considered as a vote adverse to that candi- 

That Chapter I, Section 0, shall read as follows: 
" After all the other business of the meeting shall have been disposed of, 
the ballot box shall be opened by the Secretaries, or in their absence by two 
Tellers to be appointed by the presiding member, who shall then declare 
to the Society the result pf the poll." 

1885.] °^>3 

That chapter I, Section 13, be struck out. 

That Chapter VII, Section 1, shall read as follows : 
"The Officers and Council shall meet together statedly on the second 
Friday of February, May and November, respectively, at the same hour 
in the evening at which the stated meetings of the Society are appointed 
to be held, and specially at such times as they may judge proper." 

That Chapter VIII, Section 5, shall read as follows : 

" He shall give notice of the meetings of the Society and of the Officers 
and Council, and of all elections, and shall make all such publications on 
behalf of the Society as are not otherwise devolved by law or special 

That Chapter IX, Section 1, shall read as follows : 
"The ordinary meetings of the Society shall be on the first and third 
Fridays of every month from September to June at 8 o'clock in the 
evening. Special meetings may be called at any time by order of the 
President, or in case of his absence or disability, by order of a Vice- 
President. And it shall not be lawful to take up, consider or transact at 
such special meeting any business other than that which is specified in the 
call and the notice for the meeting. And no business shall be taken up, 
considered or transacted at such special meeting, except by such number 
of qualified voters as would be requisite for a quorum, according to the 
Laws and Kegulations of the Society." 

That Chapter IX, Section 2, shall read as follows : 

"The Chair shall be taken by the presiding member at the hour 
appointed for the meeting." 

That Chapter IX, Section 6, shall read as follows : 

"The Hall of the Society shall be open on every stated meeting at 
half-past seven o'clock in the evening." 

That the item " stated business of the meeting " in the Rules 
of Order (p. 19, Edition 1866) shall be transposed so as to im- 
mediately follow " Obituary notices of members read and 
announcements of the decease of members made and acted 
on ;" and that the numbers prefixed to the respective items in 
the said order of business be altered to correspond with the 
said change. 

That Section 12 of the said Eules of Order (p. 20, Edition 
1866) be struck out and the following section be numbered 12. 

Mr. Phillips presented a list, which he had prepared, of 
Officers and Councilors of the Society from 1769 to 1886, 
which was ordered to be printed. 

^4 LJan j. 

On motion, the Secretaries were directed to have the Laws 
and Regulations of the Society, as adopted this evening, printed 
for the use of the members. 

The report of the Finance Committee was presented and 
accepted and the appropriations passed for the year 1886. 

And the meeting was adjourned by the President. 

Stated Meeting, January 1, 1886. 

Present, 11 members. 
President Fraley, in the Chair. 
Donations for the Library were received from the Royal 
Observatory, Cape of Good Hope ; Asiatic Society of Japan ; 
Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Wien ; Deutsche Gesellschaft 
fur Anthropologic, &c, Miiachen ; Astronomische Nachrichten, 
Kiel ; Zoologische Anzeiger, Leipzig ; Archives Neerlandaises, 
Haerlem; R. Accademia dei Lincei, Rome ; Osservatorio della 
University di Torino ; Societe de Geographie, Societe d' An- 
thropologic, Musee Guimet, Institut de France and Ecole des 
Mines, Paris; the Royal Society, Zoological Society, Geological 
Society, Royal Meteorological Society, the Lords Commission- 
ers of the Admiralty, Meteorological Council, Greenwich Ob- 
servatory and Nature, London ; Canadian Institute ; Mr. Par- 
ker Pillsbury of Concord, N. H.; the publishers of the Ameri- 
can Architect and Every Other Saturday, Boston ; Meteoro- 
logical Observatory, New York ; Journal of Medical Sciences, 
Dr. J. W. Holland, Prof. E. D. Cope, Messrs. Henry Phillips, 
Jr., E. A. Barber and R. S. Culin, Philadelphia ; Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore ; Philosophical Society, Washing- 
ton; the War Department, National Academy of Sciences, 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Bureau of 
Ethnology, Washington, D. C. ; State Board of Health, Ten- 
nessee; Prof. H. S. Frieze of Ann Arbor, Mich.; Nebraska 
State Historical Society ; Mr. Wm. M. Stewart of San Fran- 
cisco ; publisher of the West- American Scientist, San Diego, 
Cal.; and the Observatorio Meteorologico-Magnetico Central 
de Mpxico. 

1886.1 3^5 

The Societe Entomologique de Belgique (by letter dated 
Bruxelles, Dec. 9, 1885), requested exchanges. On motion, it 
was placed upon the list to receive Proceedings from No. 96. 

Geological Society of Glasgow, by letter requested certain 
missing numbers of the Proceedings, which was referred to the 
Secretaries with power to act. 

Letters of envoy were read from the U. S. Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey ; U. S. Bureau of Ethnology ; La Societe Hol- 
landaise des Sciences, Hserlem. 

Mr. Everard F. im Thurn, of British Guiana, accepted mem- 
bership by letter dated Torquay, England, Dec. 19, 1885. 

The President reported that he had appointed Dr. Harrison 
Allen to prepare obituary notice of the late Dr. A. H. Smith, 
and Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., of the late Henry S. Hagert, Esq., 
and that both had accepted the appointment. 

The death of Samuel Birch, LL.D. (London, Dec. 29, 1885), 
in the 72 d year of his age, was announced. 

The judges of the annual election reported that the follow- 
ing officers and council had been elected for the year 1886, viz: 


Frederick Fraley. 

Vice- Presidents, 
E. Otis Kendall, Pliny E. Chase, W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 

J. P. Lesley, G. F. Barker, D. G. Brinton, Henry Phillips, Jr. 


Oswald Seidensticker, Richard "Wood, Wm. V. McKean, 

Persifor Frazer. 

Councilor for one year, in lieu of W. S. W. Ruschenberger, 

Thomas H. Dudley. 


Geo. H. Horn, Charles G. Ames, John R. Baker. 


J. Sergeant Price. 

<^U [Jan. 15, 

On motion, Henry Phillips, Jr., Esq., was renominated for 
Librarian, and the nominations were closed. 

Prof. Cope presented for the Transactions a paper " On the 
Intercentrum of the Terrestrial Vertebrata," which was re- 
ferred to Dr. H. Allen, Dr. H. Jayne, and Dr. Geo. H. Horn. 

Prof. Allen made a communication on the result of experi- 
ments on electric light used in photographing animals in 

Prof. Cope presented for the Proceedings a paper by Dr. 
Alfredo Duges of Guanajuato, Sur le Rhinocheilus Antonii. 

Pending nominations Nos. 1064-1075 and new nominations 
Nos. 1076 -1080 were read. 

Eeport of the Publication Committee presented November 
6th, 1885, was taken up and considered, and the recommenda- 
tions therein contained were unanimously adopted, as follows : 

1. That the Quarterly numbers of the Proceedings shall be 
confined as nearly as possible to 125 pp. each. 

2. That papers containing more matter than will fill about 
24 pp. of the Proceedings shall be considered as offered for the 

3. That all papers requiring engravings or plates of full page 
size shall be considered as offered for the Transactions. 

The committee appointed at last meeting on the paper on 
Yucca angustifolia, reported progress and was continued. 

After the reading of the rough minutes the meeting was 
adjourned by the President. 

Stated Meeting, January 15, 18S6. 

Present, 25 members. 

President Fraley, in the Chair. 

Letters of envoy were received from the Societas pro Fauna 
et Flora Fennica, Helsingfors ; Bataafsch Genootschap der Proe- 
fondervindclijke Wijsbegeerte, Rotterdam ; Royal Society of 
Victoria : Societe de Naturalistes de la No u veil e Russie, Odessa, 



and asking for exchanges (on motion, ordered to be placed on 
the list to receive Proceedings from No. 96). 

Acknowledgments were received from the Koyal Society of 
Tasmania for Proceedings Nos. 114, 115, 116 ; Proc. 120, South 
Kensington Museum, London ; University Library, Cambridge ; 
Radcliff Observatory, Oxford, also for five duplicate volumes of 
its publications returned to the Observatory; Triibner & Co., 

Acknowledgments for Proceedings No. 121, were received 
from the Portland Society of Natural History ; New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society; Essex Institute; American Anti- 
quarian Society, Worcester, Mass.; Rhode Island Society for 
the Encouragement of Domestic Industry ; Connecticut His- 
torical Society ; New York Hospital ; Library of the U. S. 
Military Academy ; Yassar Brothers' Institute ; New Jersey 
Historical Society ; Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of 
Philadelphia ; Engineers' Club of Philadelphia ; Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; Wyoming Historical 
and Geological Society ; Virginia Historical Society ; Univer- 
sity of Virginia ; Leander McCormick Observatory ; Georgia 
Historical Society ; Cincinnati Observatory ; Chicago Histori- 
cal Society ; Rantoul Literary Society ; State Historical Society 
of Wisconsin; Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D. C; Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences ; University of California ; David- 
son Observatory, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences acknowledged 
the receipt of Proceedings No. 121, also preceding numbers, 
commencing with No. 81. 

Acknowledgments for Proceedings No. 121 were received 
from Prof. Charles Henry Hitchcock, Hanover, N. H.; Hon. R. 
C. Winthrop, Boston, Mass.; Prof. Walcott Gibbs, Cambridge, 
Mass.; Mr. James B. Francis, Lowell, Mass.; Mr. Benj. Smith 
Lyman and Dr. Pliny Earle, Northampton, Mass.; Drs. J. J. 
Stevenson and Austin Flint, Jr., Prof. Henry M. Baird and Mr. 
J. Ericsson, New York ; Prof. James Hall, Albany ; Prof. T. F. 
Crane, Ithaca ; Dr. C. F. H. Peters, Clinton, N. Y.; Rev. Joseph 
F. Garrison and Mr. William J. Potts, Camden ; Dr. G. D. 


[Jan. 15, 

Boardman, Prof. J. P. Lesley, and Messrs. Henry Phillips, Jr., 
James C. Booth, Isaac Norris, Jr., H. Clay Trumbull, and 
Eussell Thayer, Philadelphia ; Dr. Henry Hartshorne and Mr. 
Thomas Meehan, Germantown ; Hon. Washington Townsendj 
West Chester ; Andrew S. McCreath, Harrisburg ; Prof. J. W. 
Moore, Easton ; Prof. Leo Lesquereux, Columbus ; Professors 
Henry Turner Eddy and James Morgan Hart, Cincinnati 5 
Prof. Eobert Peter, Lexington ; Prof. Henry S. Frieze, Ann 
Arbor ; Prof. Joseph L. LeConte, Berkeley, Cal. 

Photographs for the Society's Album were received from 
Prof. J. Morgan Hart and Prof. H. Turner Eddy of Cincinnati, 
Ohio; Prof. James Hall of Albany, N. Y. ; Prof. James C. 
Booth, Philadelphia. 

Donations for the Library were received from the Eoyal 
Society of New South Wales ; Mining Department, Melbourne; 
Royal Society of Victoria; Hong-Kong Observatory; Societe 
des Naturalistes de la Nouvelle Russie, Odessa ; Society of 
Naturalists, Riga ; Society for the Finnish Fauna and Flora, 
Helsingfors ; Prof. R. F. Reuleaux of Vienna ; the Astronom- 
ische Nachrichten, Kiel ; Statistika Central Byran, Stockholm ; 
Bataafsch Genootschap van Proefondervendelijke Wijsbegeerte, 
Rotterdam ; K. Bibliothek, S'Gravenhage ; Bataviaasch Gen- 
ootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, Batavia ; Musee 
Royale d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique ; R. Accademia dei 
Lincei, Rome ; Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Societe de Geo- 
graphic and Societe Amerioaine de France, Paris; Journal of 
the Society of Arts, Nature, London ; Royal Irish Academy, 
Dublin ; Mr. W. Douw Lightfall and the Natural History So- 
ciety of Montreal ; Boston Society of Natural History ; Prof. 
Eben Norton Horsford of Cambridge, Mass.; American Journal 
of Science, New Haven ; Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.; Ameri- 
can Chemical Society and New York Academy of Sciences; 
Brooklyn Entomological Society ; Prof. E. North of Clinton, 
N. Y.; New Jersey Historical Society ; Library Company of 
Philadelphia; Franklin Institute, Pennsylvania Museum and 
School of Industrial Art, the American Naturalist and Messrs. 
Henry Phillips, Jr., E. A. Barber, R. S. Culm and Wm. V. 



McKean of Philadelphia ; Prof. Ira Remsen of Baltimore ; 
Naval Institute, Annapolis ; Mr. J. H. Hickcox, the United 
States Naval Observatory and the Light-house Board, Washing- 
ton ; Mr. Jed. Hotchkiss of Staunton, Va. ; and the Cincinnati 
Society of Natural History. 

The Committee appointed to examine the paper of Prof. 
Cope on the Intercentrum of the Vertebrata, reported it worthy 
of publication in the Transactions. The report was accepted 
and the Committee discharged. 

The Committee appointed to examine Miss Helen C. de S. 
Abbott's paper on Yucca angustifolia, reported in favor of 
its publication, and was discharged. 

On motion, the Society ordered the publication of both of 
the above papers in its Transactions. 

The death of Joshua B. Lippincott was announced as having 
taken place at Philadelphia on January 5, 1886, in the seventy- 
fourth year of his age, and, on motion, the President was au- 
thorized to appoint at his discretion a suitable person to pre- 
pare the usual obituary sketch. 

The stated business of the meeting was then taken up and 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Esq., was re-elected Librarian for the en- 
suing year, and the following Standing Committees appointed : 

Henry Windsor, J. P. Wetherill, W. B. Eogers. 


D. G. Brinton, C. M. Cresson, George H. Horn, 

Persifor Frazer, J. Blodgett Britton. 


J. Sergeant Price, Wm. A. Ingham, Philip H. Law. 

Henry Phillips, Jr., E. J. Houston, Wm. V. McKean, 
Thomas H. Dudley, John R. Baker. 

Mr. Lesley read a paper " On the evident Beduwin origin of 
the Shedi deity in the Hebrew Scriptures, commonly translated 


OdO [Feb. 5. 

' the Almighty' "; in which he discussed every text in which it 
occurs, and drew the conclusion that it bore a manifest relation- 
ship to the deity Sett, introduced into Egypt and into Palestine 
from Arabia. 

After which, a discussion ensued participated in by Messrs. 
Weil, Law, Trumbull, and Garrison. 

Mr. Lesley communicated a revision of the section of the 
LeRoy (Chemung) beds in Bradford county, originally read 
before the Society, Dec. 7, 1883, giving additions to the list of 
its fossils and extending it downwards nearly 350 feet, to 
include a horizon very rich in characteristic forms. 

Mr. Ashburner made a verbal communication in reference to 
the late severe storm which began here on Friday, January 8th, 
and was general over the United States, showing the course of 
the barometer during its progress. 

Dr. Persifor Frazer made a communication on the applica- 
tion of composite photography to handwriting for which, on 
motion, the Society ordered a plate to cost about $25. 

The Society ordered that a map to illustrate the paper on 
the Geology of York county should be printed at a cost of 
about $40. 

Dr. Harrison Allen exhibited a specimen of the Ghlamypho- 
rus truncatus from Mendoza in the Andes, which is now rapidly 
becoming extinct. He stated that it was described in the Trans- 
actions of the Society by Dr. Harland about the year 1825. 

On account of the lateness of the hour, nominations for 
membership were not read, and, after reading the rough min- 
utes, the Society was adjourned by the President. 

Staled Meeting, February 5, 1886. 

Present, 9 members. 

Curator, Dr. Horn, in the Chair. 

Donations were announced from the following: Salskap. 
Fauna et Flora Fennica, Helsingfors; Astronomischc Nach- 
richten, Kiel; Zoologischcr Anzeiger, Leipzig; Verein fur 
Erdkunde, Dresden ; Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesell- 



schaft and Verein fiir Geographie und Statistik, Frankfurt- am- 
Main ; Fondation Teyler, Harlem ; Academie Royale de Bel- 
gique ; Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhagen ; 
Statistika Central Byran, Stockholm ; R. Accademia dei Lin- 
cei, Rome; Societe de Geographie, Ecole Poly technique and 
Societe Linneene de Paris ; R. Academia de la Historia, 
Madrid ;• Royal Astronomical and Geographical Societies, 
Meteorological Council, Kew Observatory, Journal of Forestry, 
Nature, London ; Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford ; American 
Academy and Boston Society of Natural History ; Harvard 
University and Professors Eben Norton Horsford and B. M. 
Everhart of Cambridge, Mass. ; American Antiquarian Society, 
"Worcester; American Journal of Science, New Haven; New 
York Historical Society, American Oriental Society and Prof. 
J. S. Newberry of New York ; Franklin Institute, Numis- 
matic and Antiquarian Society, College of Pharmacy, Editors 
of The American Naturalist, Indian Rights Association, Mr. 
Henry Phillips, Jr., and Dr. Isaac Lea, of Philadelphia; Johns 
Hopkins University and the American Journal of Archee- 
ology, Baltimore ; United States Geological Survey and the 
Anthropological Society of Washington ; Prof. Henry S. 
Frieze of Ann Arbor, Mich.; and the Editors of The West- 
American Scientist, San Diego, Cal. 

Dr. Pliny Earle presented an engraving of himself for the 
Society's Album. 

Letters of envoy were received from Societas pro Fauna et 
Flora Fennica, Helsingfors, Finland ; Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries, Copenhagen; Fondation Yan der Hulst, Haarlem, 
Holland; Meteorological Office, London, England; U.S. Geologi- 
cal Survey, Washington ; Prof. Henry S. Frieze, A.nn Arbor, 

The Physikalisches Central- Observatorium, St. Petersburg, 
requested by letter Proceedings No. 109, which, on motion, was 
granted. A> circular announcing the programme of the U. S. 
Naval Observatory for the year 1886 was submitted. A letter 
was read from Henry M. Hugunin (Chicago, Jan. 26, 1886), 
suggesting that the beginning of the year should more properly 
be taken from December 21st, as on that day the southward 


[Feb. 5, 

march of the sun is terminated and its journey to the north 

Acknowledgments were received for Proceedings No. 121 
from the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, Mass.); 
Messrs. Isaac Burke and Lewis A. Scott (Philadelphia) ; U. S. 
Naval Institute, Annapolis ; J. H. C. Coffin. Surgeon-General's 
Office, U. S. Geological Survey, Smithsonian Institution (Wash- 
ington) ; Prof. Henry S. Frieze (Ann Arbor, Mich.) ; State His- 
torical Society of Wisconsin ; John F. Carll (Pleasantville, Pa.) ; 
also from the Philosophical Society of Cambridge (England), 
for No. 120; Annales des Mines, Paris (117, 118, 120). 

Dr. A. S. Gatschet (Washington, D. C), by letter, acknowl- 
edged the receipt of his diploma. 

Prof. Cope presented for the Transactions a paper on the 
structure and affinities of the Amphiuma, which was referred 
to Dr. Harrison Allen, Dr. George H. Horn, and Mr. Charles 
A. Ashburner to examine. 

For the Proceedings were presented a paper from Dr. Hoff- 
man of Washington, on some Indian Tribal Names, and a 
paper by Prof. A. S. Packard of Providence, K. I., on the 
discovery of thoracic feet in a carboniferous Phyllocaridan. 

Dr. Horn exhibited sketches of Chrysobotheris and anatomi- 
cal details. 

Nominations Nos. 1064 to 1080 were read. 

On motion, the Society resolved to appoint a committee to 
revise its work and to examine into its condition and suggest 
what, if any, measures are necessary to increase its efficiency. 
The Chair was desired to announce the committee at the next 
meeting of the Society. 

On motion of Prof. Cope it was resolved that the Secretaries 
be requested to publish the proceedings and papers read before 
the Society in each year, so far as practicable, within the vol- 
ume for that year. 

On motion of Prof. Cope the Committee on Publication was 
requested to report on the desirability of increasing the size of 
the edition of the Transactions from 500 to 1000. 

The rough minutes were read and the Society was adjourned 
by the presiding officer. 

1880. J *>«*> 

Stated Meeting, February 19, 1886. 
Present, 19 members. 

President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Donations were received from the following: Geological 
Survey of India ; Magyar Tudomanyos Akademie, Buda- 
pesth ; Numismatische Gesellschaft, Wien ; Deutsche Gesell- 
schaft fur Anthropologic, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, Mu- 
nich ; Astronomische Nachrichten, Kiel ; Zoologischer Anzei- 
ger, Leipzig; Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frieburg; E. 
Accademia dei Lincei, Kome ; Ecole des Mines and Societe 
de Geographie, Paris ; E. Academia de la Historia, Madrid ; 
Eoyal Geographical Society, Journal of Forestry, "The 
Asclepiad '* and " Nature," London ; Eoyal Geographical 
Society of Ireland ; Harvard University ; Ehode Island His- 
torical Society; New York Academy of Sciences and the 
Astor Library ; Brooklyn Entomological Society ; College 
of Pharmacy, Dr. Daniel G. Brinton and Messrs. W. S. Baker, 
Henry Phillips, Jr., and Charles A. Ashburner, of Philadel- 
phia; Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania ; War Depart- 
ment, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education and 
U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D. C. ; 
State Board of Health of Tennessee ; Chicago Historical Society, 
and the California Academy of Sciences. 

Letters of envoy were received from the Magyar Tudoman- 
yos Akademie (Buda-Pesth), and the California Academy of 
Sciences, San Francisco. 

Letters of acknowledgment were received from the Naturfor- 
schende Gesellschaft, at Emden. 

A letter was read from the California Academy of Sciences 
enclosing a list of its duplicates for sale. 

An obituary notice of the late George Whitney, written by 
Mr. William Sellers, was read by the Secretaries. 

The Committee on Prof. Cope's paper, appointed at the last 
meeting of the Society, reported progress, and was continued. 

The President announced that he had appointed as the com- 


[Feb. 19, 

mittee which he was authorized to appoint by resolution of 
Dr. Frazer, at the last meeting, Dr. Frazer, Mr. Law, Dr. Horn, 
Dr. Brinton and Mr. McKean. 

Dr. Frazer from the committee reported progress, and the 
committee was continued. 

The minutes of the Board of Officers and Council were sub- 
mitted to the Society. 

This being the regular evening for ballotting for members, 
an election was held, and the following persons were declared 
duly elected members of the Society. 

2059. Dr. Edward Pepper, Paris. 

2060. Prof. Serge Nikotin, St. Petersburg. 

2061. Lieut. A. B. Wyckoff, TJ. S. Navy. 

2062. Lieut. A. B. Murdock, U. S. Navy. 

2063. Ensign Louis Duncan, U. S. Navy. 

2064. Lieut. George B. Anderson, U. S. Army, "West Point, 
N. Y. 

2065. Robert Noxon Toppan, Cambridge, Mass. 

2066. Prof. Hermann A. Hagan, Cambridge, Mass. 

2067. Prof. F. A. Genth, Jr., Philadelphia. 

2068. Prof. J. W. Holland, M.D., Philadelphia. 

2069. Prof. John H. Brinton, M.D., Philadelphia. 

2070. Inman Horner, Philadelphia. 

2071. I. Minis Hays, M.D., Philadelphia. 

2072. Charles A. Oliver, M.D., Philadelphia. 

A paper was presented through the Secretaries by Prof. 
John C. Branner, entitled, " The Glaciation of the Wyoming 
and Lackawanna Valleys" for which the Society ordered two 

Prof. Cope presented through the Secretaries a paper on Two 
new species of three-toed Horses from the Upper Miocene, with 
notes on the Fauna of the Ticholeptus beds. 

New nominations Nos.1078, 1079, 1080 and 1081 were read. 

The President reported that he had received and paid over 
to the Treasurer, $133.07, the amount of the Miehaux rentes 
due January 1st, 1886. 

The minutes were read, and the meeting was adjourned by 
the President. 

188C] ,JO ° 

Stated Meeting, March 5, 1886. 
Present, 22 members. 
President, Mr. Fraley, in the Chair. 

Dr. I. Minis Hays, Dr. John W. Holland and Mr. Inman 
Horner, newly-elected members, were present and took their 

Donations were announced from Anthropologische Gesell- 
schaft, Wien ; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, Eth- 
nologie und Urgeschichte, Miinchen ; Astronomische Nach- 
richten, Kiel ; Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig ; Academie 
Eoyale de Belgique ; Societe Americaine de France and Insti- 
tution Ethnographique, Paris; Royal Society, Meteorological 
Council, Royal Astronomical Society, and "Nature," Lon- 
don ; American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston ; 
American Journal of Science, New Haven ; American Chemi- 
cal Society, and the publisher of " The Forum," New York ; 
Hon. Thomas H. Dudley, Camden, N. J. ; Academy of Natu- 
ral Sciences ; Mercantile Library ; publishers of the American 
Naturalist ; Messrs. William Dennis Marks, "William S. 
Auchincloss, Samuel Wagner, Henry Phillips, Jr., and Hon. 
Richard Yaux, Philadelphia ; Mr. Waters S. Chillson, Palo 
Alto, Penna. ; Mr. H. B. Plumb, Peely, Penna.; Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore ; Chemical Society, Bureau of 
Education, Census Office and United States Geological Survey, 
Washington ; State Historical Society, Iowa, and University 
of California. 

Letters were read from the Laboratory of Natural History 
and Biology of Dennison University, Granville, Ohio, request- 
ing exchanges, which, on motion, was so ordered, to begin with 
No. 121 of the Proceedings; from Rev. T. P. Hughes request- 
ing the subscription of the Society to his Dictionary of Islam. 

Letters accepting membership were read from Lieut. J. B. 
Murdock, U. S. Navy (Norfolk, Ya., Feb. 27th, 1886); Dr. H. 
A. Hagan (Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 26th, 1886); Robert N. 

00® [March 5, 1886. 

Toppan (Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 22, 1886); Lieut. A. B. 
Wyckoff, U. S. Navy (Philadelphia, Feb. 24th, 1886) ; Dr. 
Charles A. Oliver (Philadelphia, Feb. 20th, 1886) ; Dr. I. Minis 
Hays (Philadelphia, Feb. 20th, 1886); Dr. J. W. Holland 
(Philadelphia, Feb. 24th, 1886) ; Dr. John H. Brinton (Phila- 
delphia, Feb. 24, 1886) ; Inman Horner (Philadelphia, March 
2, 1886). 

Letters of envoy were read from the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey ; Wm. S. Auchincloss, C. E., Philadelphia. 

Letters of acknowledgment were read from Observatorio 
Nacional, Mexico (Proceedings 120) ; Statistical Society, Lon- 
don (Proceedings lly) ; Societe de Physique et Histoire Natu- 
relle de Geneva (Proceedings 115, 116); Maryland Historical 
Society (Proceedings 121). 

The Committee on Prof. Cope's paper was, on motion, con- 

Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., presented an alphabetical list of the 
living members of the Society which he had been requested to 
prepare by the Board of Officers and Council. 

The Treasurer presented the report of the Trustees of the 
Building Fund. 

The Special Committee appointed on February 5, 1886, " to 
revise the work of the Society, and to examine into its condi- 
tion, and to suggest, what, if any, measures are necessary to 
increase its efficiency," made a report, which, after discussion, 
on motion of Mr. McKean was referred to the Board of Offi- 
cers and Council for its consideration, and, on motion, the 
committee was discharged. 

Pending nominations Nos. 1078, 1079, 1080 and 1081 were 

New nominations Nos. 1082-1 103 were read. 

The rough minutes were read, and the meeting was 
adjourned by the President. 


Scale: L600'-l". 
< Direction of Glacial Striae. 

Feb. 19, IS86.J &ol [Branner. 





Vol. XXIII. July, 1886. No. 123. 

The Glaciation of Parts of the Wyoming and Lackawanna Valleys. By 
John C. Branner, Ph. D. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 19, 1S86.) 


It has long seemed to me that the careful study of limited glaciated 
areas would add some valuable information to our present knowledge of 
the subject of continental glaciation. By a limited area I mean one suffi- 
ciently large to have a varied and well-defined topography, when taken in 
connection with the surrounding country, and small enough to admit of 
thorough examination, and of a representation upon the map of details 
which cannot be admitted into maps of large areas without obscuring the 
subject instead of throwing light upon it. The Wyoming and Lacka- 
wanna valleys, with their bordering mountains, form such an area, and 
the work necessary to make of this region a topographical map of unusual 
detail gave me an excellent opportunity for making the necessary observa- 

I have hesitated though about presenting observations that would be so 
much more valuable had they been extended, with the same care and 
detail, over a wider territory, and especially over the high lands that 
bound the valley to the north and north-west on one side, and to the east 
and south-east on the other ; but as I shall, in all probability, have no 
opportunity for completing the work, and as all knowledge is cumulative, 
I offer these notes in the hope that others may be induced to add to them, 
and thus render them more valuable. 

The glacial geology of this region is exceedingly varied and interesting. 
The Shickshinny end of the basin, on account of its bold and well-defined 
topography, is particularly so, especially in the study of the ice currents 
in their relation to topography. In studying the area under consideration; 
however, I have never lost sight of the fact that I was dealing with a very 
small portion of the glaciated part of the continent, and with localized 
parts, localized movements, and localized facts in a continental glacier. 

Although the work done and the explanations offered here are entirely 


Branner.] OOO [Feb. 10, 

original, I find that the influence of topography upon the movement of 
the ice was given, as an explanation of double striation, by Mr. C. E. 
Hall in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Novem- 
ber 5, 1875 (pp. 633-4). The expression in this place of his theory 
upon the subject, is the most explicit I have seen. Prof. N. H. 
Winchell published an article in the Popular Science Monthly in 1873 upon 
"The Drift Deposits of the Northwest," in which he refers to the 
influence of valleys upon the edge of the ice. Mr. T. C. Chamberlin, in 
his "Terminal Moraine of the Second Glacial Epoch," refers in many 
places to the influence of topography on the direction of glaciers, and no 
doubt there are many other references to, and observations upon this sub- 
ject which I have not been able to consult. 

If, in recording the facts observed, I have been led to what may possi- 
bly be regarded as theorizing, my only defence is that it was quite impos- 
sible to see all about me the evidences of so wonderful, so awe-inspiring 
phenomena without coming to some conclusions regarding them. Then, 
too, in his letter transmitting Report Z of the Second Geological Survey 
of Pennsylvania, Professor Lesley has thrown no little doubt over the 
physical questions connected with glaciation, and, whether his suggestions 
there be open questions or not, they are calculated to make young geolo- 
gists observe the evidences of glacial phenomena with a view to arriving 
at rational conclusions in regard to these questions. 

The accompanying maps are necessarily upon a scale too small to con- 
vey a proper idea of the influence of the topography upon the movement 
of the ice. To show this a map would need to be very detailed and exact, 
and upon an unusually large scale, or better still, a large model would be 

I take great pleasure in acknowledging here the kind encouragement of 
Professor Lesley and of Mr. Ashburner. To Mr. Geo. M. Lehman I am 
indebted for a number of valuable observations upon the direction of 
stria; in various places, and to Sheldon Reynolds, Esq., of Wilkes-Barre, 
for some observations made in the vicinity of that city. 

Physical Features. 

The Wyoming and Lackawanna valleys are, properly speaking, a 
single closed and curved synclinal valley, about fifty miles long by about 
five miles wide at its widest part, and bounded by mountains which 
coalesce at the extremities of the valley. 

The concave side of its crescent form faces toward the north-west, the 
north-east end of the basin bearing about N. 20° E., and the south-west 
end bearing S. 70° W. Its mountain barriers thus presented themselves 
to the ice sheet at various angles, and now offer a valuable opportunity 
for observing the influence of such barriers upon the ice flow. Within 
this great basin are many secondary or miniature basins with a general 
resemblance to the large one, and many low, gently undulating and regu- 
larly sloping hills, some of which are anticlinals, and some are ridges 

1SSG.] do J [Branner. 

with steep sides and abrupt faces, the latter being somewhat characteristic 
of the south-west end of the basin, the former of the end north-east of 
Wilkes-Barre. These irregularities diversify the interior of the basin, and 
add beauty to its natural scenery, while, in some cases, they have pro- 
duced marked effects in the glaciation and in the distribution of the drift 

The Susquehanna river enters the basin at Pittston, passes out of it 
again at Nanticoke, and, flowing thence, parallel to its bordering moun- 
tains, to Shickshinny, it here cuts square across the end of the basin. The 
north-eastern end of the basin is traversed by the Lackawanna from above 
Forest City to Pittston, where it flows into the Susquehanna. In the end 
of the valley north-east of Scranton there is a striking parallelism of the 
larger streams that run into the Lackawanna, and, inasmuch as it has been 
thought that this parallelism was due to drift deposits, I shall give here 
what appears to be its explanation. The streams referred to run in one of 
two general directions, which form an angle of about 77° with each 
other. The first of these is followed by the upper part of Eddy creek, 
Von Storch's creek, etc., and by the Lackawanna from where it bends, 
below Archibald, to Olyphant. It should be noted that these streams are 
parallel with the axes of the anticlinals in this part of the coaljbasin. The 
second direction is followed by the Lackawanna from Jermyn to the bend 
below Archbald, and by Fa'.l brook, Coal brook, Elk creek, etc. None 
of these streams are in the drift, but in the solid rock, or rather, they 
flow between well defined hills of solid rock, and their courses have been 
determined largely, if not entirely, by the jointed structure of the locks, 
possibly by faults in some instances. 

The south-western end of the basin is crossed by a water-shed that 
drains it in two directions. The Nanticoke and Mocanaqua road crosses 
this water-shed about two and a half miles above the latter place, and 
about a quarter of a mile west of Uplinger's. On the northern side of the 
road this water-shed reaches the top of the river mountain in a north-wes- 
terly course. On the south side of the road it runs nearly half a mile 
south, when it turns east, and keeps this general direction for nearly two 
miles ; then turning south again, it crosses the Mountain Inn road, just 
three-quarters of a mile above the Mountain Inn. Here it turns east, and 
in this bearing reaches the top of the Little Wilkes-Barre mountain. The 
lowest elevation, or gap, in this water-shed is on the south side of the 
axis of the coal basin, and a little more than half a mile north of the old 
Mountain Inn. According to Rothwell's map of this region, this gap is 
about 375' above the Susquehanna at the Nanticoke dam. The lowest 
point in the water-shed next after this one, is near where it is crossed by 
the river mountain road at Uplinger's, and not far from the axis of the 
basin. This gap, according to the same authority, is about 415' above the 
water at the Nanticoke dam. To the south and west of this water-shed 
the water reaches the Susquehanna just below Mocanaqua through Black 
creek and Turtle run. To the north and east it drains into the Susque- 

Branner.J 340 [Feb . 19) 

hanna at Nanticoke through Newport creek and its tributaries. These 
streams, especially two of the largest of thern, have, at some time in the 
past, borne an important part in the transportation, modification and re- 
arrangement of the drift material. Their influence at present, however, 
is very insignificant as compared with what it doubtless was as the glacial 
epoch drew to a close. 

The Surface Rocks. 

The exposed or surface rocks of this region include the Carboniferous 
shales and sandstones, some of them easily decomposed, the Pottsville 
conglomerate, the sub- carboniferous red shales, and the Pocono sand- 
stones, while the Catskill shales and sandstones lie just beyond the border 
of the basin. The Carboniferous shales are of various degrees of hard- 
ness and resistance, spots here and there preserving the striae remarkably 
well, while in other places the same beds have disintegrated two inches 
or more below the polished surfaces that remain.* 

Many of the sandstones have decomposed so rapidly that it is a very 
common thing to find surfaces that were once rounded, smoothed and 
striated in the characteristic way, now preserving not a single line that 
can be identified beyond doubt. But in some places, where these same 
sandstones have been protected by a considerable layer — say two feet or 
more — of drift, and only recently uncovered, the striae are still well pre- 

As a rule, the Pottsville conglomerate preserves its ice record most 
faithfully, and frequently, too, under adverse circumstances. Cropping 
out around the border of the coal basin, and just inside of the mountains 
that limit the valley, this formation lies a little below the crest of these 
ranges, forming a continuous shoulder where the disintegration of the softer 
rocks, both above and below, has exposed it to the weather along the 
greater part of its outcrop. In many places this exposed rim has been so 
thoroughly polished that it is next to impossible to determine the direction 
of the striation. Indeed not a few of these highly polished rocks had to 
be passed over, especially during the early part of my observations, with- 
out my being able to detect a single well defined line, and not until 
my work was about drawing to a close did I hit upon a method for detect- 
ing the markings upon such surfaces.-)- 

*I would not be understood as implying here that two inches represent the 
total general erosion that has taken place in this region since the glacial epoch. 
In such places as the one referred to, the surfaces are comparatively well pre- 
served, while there are others in which the rocks have flaked oil" to the depth 
of many inches, or even feet, by the action of frost, and from which, of course, 
all evidences of glaciation have long since disappeared. 

+ A thin covering of soil sometimes permits a slow disintegration of the con- 
glomerate, which leaves a few of the quartz pebbles in their original position, 
fast in the body of the rock, with their upper parts cut away and polished by 
glacial action. Examination of these polished pebbles, under a lens of low 
power, may slfow minute stria', but it more frequently happens that these 

18<*.J Oil [Branner. 

The Maucli Chunk red shales are wanting about the north-east end of 
the basin, but they form thick beds in the Shickshinny end. When un- 
covered and exposed to the action of air, water and frost, these rocks have 
gone to pieces rapidly, but they have preserved the striation remarkably 
well wherever they have been covered up by a considerable thickness of 
earth. Striation on these shales therefore, as indeed upon most of the 
rocks, is only found along the roads and cuts where they have been re- 
cently uncovered. 

The Pocono sandstones, forming the crests of the mountains on both 
sides of the valley, lie, for the most part, in a desolate, uncultivated, un- 
inhabited and untraveled region, in which but few striated exposures are 
to be found. This is particularly unfortunate, for we must, of course, look 
to the markings upon these high points for the indications of the direction 
of the ice sheet when it had attained its grandest proportions, and before 
its margin was here reduced to the condition of local glaciers. This for- 
mation is the limit of my observations on the glaciation of this region. 

Striation ; its Indications of Flow, Change and Wear. 

Scarcely a place can be found in the valley, which, if the rocks have 
been protected from the weather by a covering of earth, does not retain 
some signs of wearing by ice. Where the rocks have been long ex- 
posed to the action of air and water the well denned lines have, for the 
most part, been defaced. But even in these cases, the rounded faces of 
the rocks are often still preserved. But though the striae are, in all 
probability, well preserved over almost the whole of this region, the 
drift and soil, covered, for the most part, with forest and undergrowth, 
render it impossible to make the record as complete as desirable. Most of 
the observations made upon the direction of the striae have been placed 
upon the accompanying maps, and it is unnecessary to speak of them in de- 
tail. Some of the observations have been omitted in cases where several 
similar ones were made too near each other to warrant drawing several 
arrows upon the map parallel to the first one. Where there are two or 

markings cannot be detected. I found that by gently rubbing a hard (6 H) pencil 
across the worn surfaces until they were quite covered with the lead, the fine 
strise would stand out as white lines. Mr. George M. Lehman of the Survey, 
who has rendered me valuable assistance by noting the striation in places that I 
did not visit personally, also found that on a large polished surface, the lines 
could be detected by the observer taking such a position that the sun would be 
reflected from it to his eyes. It is necessary in this case, however, that the plane 
of incidence and reflection should be parallel with the direction of the stria?. 
I have found this method a useful one, though it is open to the objection that 
one cannot always have the sun in the desired position. This difficulty may be 
obviated by making the observations at night, and using a lantern for the re- 
flections. When good exposures, sufficiently close to each other, can be had, it 
is not necessary that so much pains be taken to get an observation, but it not 
infrequently happens that it is very desirable to have one in some particular 
spot, and where the nature of the rook and the strise require some such methods 
as the ones mentioned. 

Branner.] <34*j [Feb. 1<J, 

more sets of strife in one place, they are represented by the arrows cross- 
ing each other at the proper angle. In a few instances the change in the 
direction of the striae, either in the same place, or in places not far removed 
from each other, has been so great that it might well be asked upon what 
grounds I conclude that the flow of the ice was in the direction repre- 
sented, and not exactly in the opposite direction. In such cases I have 
depended upon the topographical features and the nature of the scratches 
to settle the question — the lines frequently deepening in the direction of 
the movement of the ice — and, as far as I am able to see, the results have 
been satisfactory, though sometimes striking. 

The stria? themselves are of the usual character, modified by the rocks 
upon which they occur. Those on the harder sandstones and conglomer- 
ates are shallow, and frequently so fine as to produce a high polish, while 
those upon the shales and softer sandstones are well defined and deep. 
They are approximately parallel to each other, though often crossed by 
other parallel sets of stria? pointing in different directions. Individual 
marks frequently deepen toward the south, and end in a deep gouge. In- 
stances occur of what were at first considered to be glacial grooves, but, 
upon further and more careful study, these grooves were always found to 
be channels in the rocks, polished and more or less modified by ice. In 
one instance the impression of the trunk of a large Lepidodendron, lying 
in the direction of striation, had been worn out so smoothly that it was for 
some time mistaken for a glacial groove. The best defined stria? are found 
where the glacier moved along upward, horizontal, or gently downward 
gradients, and least prominent upon the steeper faces of hills that slope in 
the direction in which the ice moved. Evidences of "upward flow " are 
quite abundant, and where two or more sets of stria? occur in such a place, 
those pointing upward are frequently, though not always, the deepest. 
Furthermore, where the striae indicate an upward movement the glacier 
appears to have moved forward with little or no regard to the smaller 
details of topographical features. I would emphasize these smaller details 
in this connection, for they had their share of influence later, as I hope to 

The explanation of this upward movement and of these variations in the 
direction of the ice stream must be sought in the topography of the region 
and the varying thickness of the ice ; indeed, unless these matters be 
taken into consideration, such phenomena are utterly meaningless. In the 
conglomerate ledge east of Carbondale are a great many depressions, or 
shallow holes, across which the ice has moved, to all appearances, without 
being impeded or deflected perceptibly from its general course. These 
depressions are of various sizes and depths, many of them being from a 
few inches to two or three feet wide and one or two inches deep. Such 
inequalities in the surface of the rock are not uncommon all through the 
region under consideration, and they are doubtless to be found in all gla- 
ciated countries. No one appears to be surprised that the ice should move 
down one side of these shallow depressions and up the other, and when 

1836.] O4o [Branner. 

the rim of the depression is a thousand feet, or more, above the bottom, 
why should not the same physical law hold good? It certainly does, to 
all appearances. But while ice only a few feet in thickness might flow 
across an inequality in its rock floor one or two inches deep, it would 
require a sheet proportionally thick to cross a valley like the Wyoming 
and Lackawanna without being deflected. And whenever varying sets of 
stride in high altitudes were found, they go to show that, when the ice was 
at its greatest thickness, it moved across this valley without being turned 
from its general course, influenced only by the continental topography, 
in comparison with which the bordering ridges of the valley were insig- 
nificant, and scoring the evidences of its course deeply in the rocks. In 
other words, the only topography ignored by a continental glacier is that 
of local details. As the ice-sheet grew thinner, these mountains — the 
topographical details — influenced its course more and more, until it was 
reduced to the condition of local glaciers along its retreating southern 

The author of Report Z of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylva- 
nia refers to "upper striae " and "lower striae " (Z, p. 106), and appears 
to think that the latter were made by under-currents in the ice, while he 
explains the different sets, when found together, by referring some of them 
to a sort of land-slides, which are said to produce ' ' creep striae " (Z, p. 84). 

I have found no evidences in the region under consideration of striae 
having been produced otherwise than by ice moving as a glacier. That 
some of them, indeed all of them, were produced by masses moved 
by "gravity" (Z, p. 85) is quite admissible, inasmuch as gravity is the 
force which causes the ice of all glaciers to move, and is as accountable for 
its moving down a great general or continental incline with surface irregu- 
larities a thousand feet deep, as over a limited one having depressions only 
an inch deep. 

Many instances might be mentioned of a variation in the direction of the 
ice current, caused by little irregularities in the surface of the bed rock, 
without the glacier becoming localized. These are doubtless glacial 
under-currents. Evidences of this kind of a current are to be seen above 
Dunmore, at the quarry near the head of Plane No. 7. Here, a block of 
conglomerate having been removed from the wall of rock, the ice in the 
bottom of the glacier was caught beneath and below the projecting ledge, 
and forced forward and upward at an angle which I did not measure, but 
which, as nearly as I can remember, is about fifteen or twenty degrees. 
The horizontal bearing of these striae is S. 40° E., while immediately 
above, on top of the ledge, and ten feet away, the striae point S. 10° W. 

Another interesting example of this character is found on Kelly's island 
in Lake Erie, and is described by Charles Whittlesey in vol. xxvii of the 
Proceedings of the A. A. A. S., pp. 239-245. It is also well figured by 
Chamberlin in his "Preliminary Paper on the Terminal Moraine of the 
Second Glacial Epoch."* But the existence of such diminutive under- 

* Third Annual Report of the U. S. Geol. Survey, p. 336. 

Branner.] t>±4 [Feb. 19, 

currents can hardly be regarded as evidence that there was an under-cur- 
rent filling and flowing down the Wyoming valley, while another upper- 
current flowed over the tops of the mountains. The existence of different 
sets of striae in the same place, pointing one set across the mountain, and 
another down the valley, make such a theory unnecessary at least. Evi- 
dence that there were no great or extensive undercurrents in the ice may 
he seen in the gap through which the Lackawanna runs at Archbald. 
Just above the village, where the track of the D. & H. Gravity railway 
track crosses the old plank road, the stria? show beyond question that the 
ice in passing through this gap was not deflected by the topography into 
undercurrents, but that it was pushed straight ahead, and when there was 
not room for it in the narrow gorge, it was forced obliquely up and over 
the steep side of the hill, while the main body of the ice moved square 
across the hill that here stands out across the valley. If it had been mov- 
ing in currents, it would have gone around the end of the hill, and the 
striae would converge in the narrowest part of the gorge. 

Again, at Mocanaqua, a quarter of a mile from the bridge, up the railway 
track, the striae on the red shale point up the side of the steep hill at an 
angle of at least 30°, showing that the ice at the side of this gap flowed 
straight forward and up the hillside, instead of turning as an undercurrent 
and going down the channel as water would have done. 

Just east of Mocanaqua, on the top of the hill above the West End 
breaker, a few hundred feet from it, and near the side of the road, are ex- 
posures of striae with the following bearings : 

S. 30O E. 

S. 250 E. 

Due South. 

s. 450 W. 

Due West. 

Those pointing S. 30° E. and S. 25° E. appear to be the oldest of the 
ones now preserved, while those pointing due south predominate. It 
seems probable therefore that the oldest striae were made when the ice 
came over the Shickshinny mountains, and when it was thick enough to 
disregard such a topographical feature. As the ice became thinner it ran 
due south, the later striae almost obliterating those previously made. 
Further thinning of the ice sheet subjected it more and more to local 
influences until nothing was left here but a thin and narrow body of ice 
that came down the valley of Black creek, and being turned by the con- 
glomerate ledge, left these last faint striae that point west over the edge of 
the precipice. 

In the Lackawanna end of the valley are several cases of double sets* of 

*Strise sometimes cross each other at well-defined angles without occuring in 
sets. Such variations may possibly have been caused by the cut tins: material 
having been turned in the grasp of the ice. No account was taken of strice of 
this character. 

1886.] ^4:0 [Branner. 

striae. One of these exposures is near the village of Jessup, on the hillside 
between Dolph's drift and its air shaft. Here they point due south, S. 25° 
W., and S. 30° W. Where there are several sets of striae it is not always 
easy, and indeed it is sometimes quite impossible, to determine, by the 
striae alone, which of the sets is the oldest. In this case, those pointing 
south appear to be the oldest, from which it is to be inferred that they 
were made when the ice was least influenced by the hills to the south, and 
that those veering to the west were made when the thinner ice began to 
feel the influence of the topography. In both cases the movement of the 
ice was up the side of the mountain. Another case of double striatum 
was found above the track of the Erie and AVyoming railway, and about 
1500 feet above the Scranton reservoir on Roaring brook. At this place 
one set points due south, while the other points S. 15° W. It was im- 
possible to determine which of these sets was the older, though the strise 
pointing south were the more numerous. 

At the Nanticoke gap is a striking instance of local topographical influ- 
ence upon the glacier. Near the mill-pond on the south side of the Sus- 
quehanna, and on the low ground, the striae point N. 70° W., and on the 
north side of the river, near the railway station, they point N. 80° W. and. 
due west. On top of the conglomerate ledge that rises above Nanticoke, 
near the gap, and just south of the river, the strise point south, from five 
to twenty degrees east. Within a mile of each other horizontally, and 
five hundred feet vertically, these two sets of strise differ in their bearing 
by 130°. Directly north of those on top of the conglomerate and at the 
foot of the steep ridge, Mr. Lehman informs me, the striae are parallel with 
the river. The explanation of these contrasts in the direction of the stria- 
tum is naturally suggested by the bold and well-defined topography of 
this region. The earlier ice probably moved nearly south across these 
ridges, while the localized glacier followed the depressions of the valley 
and, a part of it, at least, flowed through the Nanticoke gap and down the 
present channel of the Susquehanna river. 

The south pointing strise on the mountain west of Nanticoke contrast 
strongly with those on the top of the same ledge near Mocanaqua. 

It will be noticed that where the water-shed from across the basin 
reaches the top of this mountain the striae are parallel with the ridge. 
When they occur below the crest of the ridge, they are, doubtless, due to 
the ice moving down the deep, narrow valley, now occupied by the Sus- 
quehanna river. The explanation of the direction of those near Nanti- 
coke must be sought in the topography to the north of where they are 

The topography of the surface of the great glacier itself probably had its 
influence in directing the movements of the ice. If we imagine a perfectly 
even surface with the ice flowing across it, and h deep gap or notch made 
in the margin of the ice, it is evident that the tendency would be for the 
ice to flow toward this gap from both sides, while an ice promonotory be- 
tween two such gaps would move along lines having a palmate radiation. 


Branner.] *>*" [ Feb . 19, 

Mr. Chamberlin lias happily represented the glaciers of the second epoch 
as moving in this manner. I would suggest that the scratches referred to 
on pp. xxi and xxii of Report Z may have been varied by such means, if 
the topography itself of the region cannot account for the change. 

The glacial striae, wherever observed in this valley or along its borders, 
seem, in every instance, to prove : — 

1st. That the glacier, when at its greatest thickness, was influenced 
only by the great average topographical features of the glaciated region, 
and, consequently, that what appears to have been the upward movement 
of the ice is upward only in a local sense. 

2d. That as the ice-sheet began to grow thinner and to retreat, its 
southern margin came more and more under the influence of local topo- 
graphy, and ended in local glaciers. 

3d. That when more than one set of striae are found in the same place, 
they are clue to the direction of the thinning ice having been changed by 

Wearing Power. 

The variation in the direction of striation in the case above the West 
End breaker at Mocanaqua amounts to 120°, without the original (?) striae 
being obliterated. Other instances of double striation have also been re- 
ferred to. I was at first inclined to think that such cases might be taken 
as conclusive evidence of the small wearing power of ice. But such a con- 
clusion would evidently be unwarranted, for, whatever the original wear- 
ing power of the ice may have been, that power certainly diminished as 
the ice grew thinner and the glacier retreated. The later striae cannot 
fairly, therefore, be taken to represent the wearing power of the ice when 
it was thickest. Indeed it is quite evident, from almost any one of the 
cases found, that the furrows made by the ice when thickest, were very 
deep, while later ones were so shallow as to fail to entirely obliterate the 
former ones. Furthermore, we have no means of knowing the compara- 
tive length of time the ice was moving in the different directions recorded. 
It may have moved for a long period in the direction indicated by the 
oldest of the preserved striae, and, so moving, may have worn what the 
most extravagant claim for it (at least as far as any evidence to the con- 
trary, found in this region, is concerned) ; while motion in the other direc- 
tions may have been only of long enough duration to leave the markings 
we now see upon the rocks. 

The Drift, its Character, Origin, Distribution and Arrange- 

The material composing the drift found through this region appears to be 
almost entirely local. In no instance did I find a single boulder of granite, 
or of any other archsean rock, though I watched carefully for such speci- 
mens. Only along the Susquehanna river did I find a few pehhles of 
archsean origin, but these were so small and water-worn that lam obliged 

18SG. | dtfc* [Branner. 

to believe they were brought down by the river from the glaciated regions 
lying farther north, rather than by the ice. Even fragments from the 
Catskill shales cannot be regarded as very common, when compared with 
those from the Pocono sandstone, the Pottsville conglomerate, and the 
carboniferous shales, sandstones and coal. Especially is this true of the 
Lackawanna end of the valley north-east of Scranton. In a cut about forty 
feet deep, where the Winton Branch of the D. L. & W. railway passes 
through the drift near Eddy creek, many fragments of the reddish shales 
and sandstones of the Catskill maybe seen. Judging by the lithological 
characters of these fragments, and by the direction of striation, they proba 
bly came from the tops of the hills just south of the Susquehanna County 
line, near Crystal Lake, in which case they must have traveled at least fif- 
teen miles. 

The character of the arrangement of the material changes with its ele- 
vation. That in the deeper parts of the valley is generally water-worn, 
and shows, by its being assorted and more or less stratified, that it was de- 
posited in, or frequently washed by water. Karnes of this material are, in 
some cases, nearly or quite a hundred feet in height. Higher up the sides 
of the valley no regular arrangement of the material appears, and the 
fragments that lie heaped in many of the hollows are rough and angular, 
and bear no signs of having been worn in a glacier, but appear to have 
been transported upon its surface. Of the latter kind of drift there is com- 
paratively but little, while the former kind appears to have originally 
filled the deeper depressions along the trough of the valley. Here, the 
streams, seeking their natural channels, have washed away much of the 
original drift, and spread it out over the flood plains and alluvial lands 
down stream, leaving our present kames for the most part lying along the 
foot of the hills. In the upper or north-eastern end of the valley there are 
comparatively few kames, and these are generally of coarser material, 
while toward the lower end of the valley, below Scranton, they are more 
abundant, and have more sand and fine material in them. 

The valley of the Lackawanna above Carbondale is so narrow, and the 
fall of the stream so rapid, that but little drift now remains along its 
course from the gap through which it enters the coal basin above Forest 
City to Morss' tannery near Carbondale. Below this point the bottom of the 
valley is restricted at several points, so as to form a series of dams, or, 
more properly speaking, of narrows, which have acted as dams to spread 
the floods of post glacial times out over low lands, or flats, immediately 
above them. The first of these dams below Carbondale appears to have 
been caused by the proximity of the drift on the south-east side of the 
% valley to the little hill on the northwest side, at the base of which the 
bridge of the common road now crosses the Lackawanna in the town of 

In this case the dam may have been at or near where Rush brook now 

*The dams in this part of the valley do not appear to have been as well 
delined as some of them further down the river. 

Branner.] d4b [Feb. !9, 

enters the Lackawanna, or it may have heen in the gorge above Archbald. 
In the latter case the narrowness of the valley between Jermyn and Arch- 
bald would not admit of a widespread deposit of silt, while the rapid 
descent of the stream must have combined with this narrowness to 
cause the washing away of nearly all the sediment that was thrown 
down between these two places. The rather unusual deposit of large quan- 
tities of drift on the east side of the river below the Archbald gorge may 
have been carried down from this narrow valley. This material, composed 
for the most part of large cobble-stones, and with but little sand and 
gravel in it, once filled the lower part of the Laurel Run hollow. But this 
stream has gradually cut it away, until its southern face is now a steep 
bank from ten to thirty feet high. Below Archbald the valley is nar- 
row, and the current rapid, as far as Peckville. The next dam appears 
to have been at Olyphant. Here .the flood plain of the valley narrows 
very considerably, the rocky hill upon which part of the town is built 
standing out from the southeast side across the valley, and thus confining 
the river to a comparatively narrow channel. The damming back of the 
floods here probably helped to form what are now the meadow lands be- 
tween Olyphant and Peckville. 

Following down stream, the next case of this kind appears to have been 
at Scrantou. The city of Scranton is built upon a wide terrace of glacial 
drift, which, possibly, closes now the original channel of the Lackawanna 
river at this place. Opposite this terrace the hill upon which Hyde Park 
is built stands out across the valley, leaving a channel only about three 
hundred feet wide between the two, and through which the Lackawanna 
now flows. At or near the close of the glacial epoch, the drift must have 
dammed up the channel in this narrow neck almost entirely, and the 
muddy waters that have poured down this valley since the retreat of the 
ice, spreading out over the flats, have precipitated and deposited upon 
them the sand, silt, and alluvium of which they are formed. But as the 
river gradually descended to its present bed, it cut away the western side 
of the Scranton terrace, until it left its edge the abrupt, high bank along 
which Mifflin avenue now runs. 

It is particularly true of this, the north eastern, end of the valley, that 
the drift has been left, for the most part, along the foot of the hills. On 
the north-western side, along the old plank road, these kames may be 
seen all the way from Providence to Winton, cut through by the streams 
flowing down the sides of the mountain. On the opposite side of the val- 
ley they are not so well exposed, and are, for the most part, overgrown 
with forest ; but the drift is even deeper and more widespread on this, 
than on the north-west side. 

The influence of the drift upon the course of the streams in this region 
has not been so marked as it would have been in a flatter country, the 
courses of only a few of the smaller ones having been determined by it.* 

♦The change in the bed of the Susquehanna between Plttston and Kingston 
is referred to elsewhere. 

1886-1 "^" [Branner. 

Drift in the South-west End op the Valley. 

Having had no opportunity for examining the drift hetween Scranton 
and Wilkes-Barre, I shall pass over this part of the valley, and speak of 
its south-western extremity. 

The great body of the drift in this end of the valley, especially between 
Nanticoke and the water-shed that crosses it two and a half miles above 
Mocanaqua, lies below the elevation of the gap in the water-shed. Most of 
this drift is assorted. The largest and mo9t interesting kames in the whole 
valley, as might have been expected, are found in the vicinity of Nanti- 
coke.* Two of these were cut into in making the Newport colliery branch 
of the Susquehanna Coal Company's railway, one opposite the bridge of 
the Lehigh and Susquehanna railway over Newport creek, the other three- 
quarters of a mile further up Newport creek. The horizontal stratifica- 
tion of the material forming the kames south-west of Naticoke, and par- 
ticularly those about the Newport colliery, show an absence of any strong 
current in the waters by and in which it was deposited. The sand of these 
kames shows, by the presence of much coal in it, that a large part of the 
material is near its original source. Here may also be seen good examples 
of distorted bands or strata of sand lying between straight or horizontal 

The distribution of assorted drift throughout this end of the basin, from 
Nanticoke to the gaps in the watershed, seems to show that the water 
was once backed into this space by a dam, or gorge, in the Susquehanna 
at, or below the Naticoke water gap. The topography and the disposition 
of the drift also, indicate that the water was backed into this end of the 
basin, and that some of it, at least, flowed over the water-shed at the gaps 
already mentioned, and reached the river below Mocanaqua, by the way 
of Black creek and Turtle run. The valley through which Black creek 
runs is too narrow, and its fall too great to permit the accumulation of 
much drift along the stream, and as a matter of fact but little has been 
left along it above where it passes the conglomerate ledge. Below the ledge 
and between the West End breaker, and where the Mountain Inn road 
turns off to the east, are some very large kames. 


But few kettle-holes have been observed, and it is probable that the nar- 
rowness of the valley through which the glacial floods were obliged to pass 
has caused most of them to be filled up or otherwise obliterated. The half 
dozen observed are all small. One of them is in the town of Jermyn, 
just north of the school-house, and is now partly filled with water. 
Another smaller one is south of, and about a thousand feet from the resi- 
dence of Mr. Richmond, of Richmond Hill farm, near Providence. Three 

* In making this statement it is possible that I should make an exception of 
the kames in the vicinity of Pittston, which I have had no opportunity of ex- 

Branner.] 350 [Feb. 10, 

others are on the water-shed near Uplinger's, in the south-west end of the 
basin. They are in the fields near the road, and are visible from it. The 
largest of these is nearly round in outline, from ten to fifteen feet deep, 
and about seventy-five feet wide. The smallest one is oval, and about 
twenty-five feet wide, while the intermediate one lies nearest the road and 
is pear-shaped in outline. 


Large boulders are common throughout the valley, but especially so 
along the sides and top of the mountain that bounds the south-eastern 
side of the basin. They are generally of Pottsville conglomerate, and 
have been brought, at farthest, only across from the outcrop of this forma- 
tion along the north-western rim, and left stranded where they now stand. 
Most of them are angular, and show few or no signs of glacial wearing. 
The largest seen by the writer are grouped together two and three-quarter 
miles due south-east of Peckville, but within the outcrop of the conglom- 
erate, on the side of the basin. They are about 8'X 10'XlO', some larger 
and some smaller. Judging from their thickness and general appearance, 
their position and the course of the ice hereabout, they appear to have 
been carried up hill from the outcrop of conglomerate along the edge of a 
small valley about a thousand feet to the north east of where they now 
stand. Smaller boulders, both of conglomerate and Pocono sandstone, 
are also widely distributed in this region, while they are especially common 
in some of the little hollows that head high up the sides of the mountains 
on the east. Here they lie heaped together promiscuously. These frag- 
ments are also local, and generally angular, being but little worn, or not 
worn at all, as if they had been brought here upon the surface of 
the ice. When boulders are found heaped together in this way lower 
down in the valley, they are invariably worn by ice, or water, or both. A 
striking example of this kind is exposed in the shallow cut along a branch 
of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railway where it runs in 
toward Dolph's breaker, near Jessup. Here boulders from one to three 
feet in diameter, and well rounded, are heaped together in the greatest 
confusion, and often without enough sand and gravel to fill the spaces be- 
tween them. 

Soil, as Affected by Glaciation. 

While the soils of drift-covered regions are frequently very fertile, 
those of the Wyoming and Lackawanna valleys are, for the most part, poor. 
The principal exceptions to this are the narrow, broken strips of alluvial 
lands along the Lackawanna river from just below Carbondale to its 
mouth, and the broad bottom lands of the Susquehanna. The finer ma- 
terial of the drift generally being spread out over the south-west end of 
the valley, and the coarser in the north-east end, the country below 
Wilkes-Barre is, on the whole, better adapted to agriculture than that 
along the Lackawanna. The reason for the prevailing barrenness of the 



soil in this region will be understood when it is remembered, that, as I 
have already stated, the drift here is almost entirely local, and that these 
carboniferous rocks have but little or no lime in them.* 

I am decidedly of the opinion, however, that the soil of the Lackawanna 
valley is not so poor as it is generally believed to be. Very little effort 
has been made to reclaim and improve the land in this end of the valley. 
This is doubtless due in some part to the fact that the mining companies, 
which own the land, object to paying damages to owners or renters of the 
surface when abandoned workings cave in. They therefore prefer to allow 
the surface to lie idle. 

Moreover the great mining and manufacturing interests of this region 
have tended to draw the population away from less remunerative agricul- 
ture. The greater part of the uplands now under cultivation — that in the 
vicinity and to the south-west of Wilkes-Barre — was cleared and tilled 
before the importance of anthracite coal was known. There is no essen- 
tial difference between the upland soil above Scranton and that below 
"Wilkes Barre, and yet, comparatively, there is very little under cultivation 
in the valley north-east of Scranton. 

Local Changes — Black Creek. 
Closely connected with the subject of glaciation are certain local phe- 
nomena and changes that have taken place, either during or immediately 
following the glacial epoch, that should be spoken of in this connection. 
The interesting changes in the bed of the Susquehanna river between Pitts- 
ton and Kingston are described by Mr. Ashburner. Doubtless similar ones 
have taken place elsewhere, both in the Susquehanna and in other streams 
in this region. I would put on record here the evidences that have come 
under my observation of certain changes in the lower part of Black creek. 
From the head of the West End breaker the conglomerate ledge to the 
east and south-east forms a steep precipice, cut through at one point, 
about 1500' from the breaker by Black creek, and making here a fall some 
twenty-five feet in height. Below the falls the walls of conglomerate 
spread apart, forming a V-shaped gorge with the fall at its apex. This 
gorge is filled with large, angular fragments of conglomerate, the fallen 
remains of the original conglomerate ledge. The water of Black creek, after 
falling over the ledge, ordinarily runs, partly underneath and partly over 
these fragments, for about one hundred and fifty feet, when it enters a pot- 
hole in the red shale. This pot-hole is about fifteen feet in diameter. Further 
down, two hundred feet below the fall, is another pot-hole from fifteen to 
twenty feet in diameter, likewise in the red shale. As these holes are both 
full of debris, it was not possible to ascertain their depth. Judging from 
the position and size of the pot-holes, and from the appearance of the 
material with which they are filled, they could not have been made by the 

* To this same fact Scranton owes the excellence of the water supplied to the 
city. The streams from which this clear, soft water is brought, rise in and flow 
for their whole length over the Catsiill and Pocono formations, both of which 
and especially the latter, are poor in lime. 

Branner.l o£>& [Feb. 19, 

current of the stream that now runs through them. The force of the 
stream, even when it is swollen to unusual dimensions, is quite broken by 
the time it reaches these holes, by the large and small fragments through 
and over which it flows. It cannot stir the stones in these holes, and con- 
sequently it is incapable at present of wearing them. A little further to 
the west a reservoir dam has been built across the stream, and, for some 
distance along the pipe line leading from it, the bed rock has been uncov- 
ered, in places more than one hundred feet above the stream, as it flows 
below the reservoir. This uncovered surface has the soft, half-decayed 
and smoothly rounded appearance characteristic of the rocks in the beds 
of streams, or where they have been worn by water set with stones. 
There is no confusing this peculiar smoothing of the surface with that- 
done by ice — a subject referred to below. 

The form of the ravine through which this stream now runs, the charac- 
ter of the debris which fills it, the pot-holes so far below the present posi- 
tion of the fall, and the water-worn surface of the rocks even below these 
pools are evidences that the falls were once farther to the south-west than 
at present. But as the conglomerate here dips to the north and north- 
west, the ledge over which it falls must have been proportionately higher 
than at present. 

Such an elevation of this conglomerate rim — say ten to fifteen feet — 
would back the water of Black creek until it would leave its present chan- 
nel near where the road crosses the narrow-gauge railway track, a quarter 
of a mile above the head of the West End breaker, and send it to the right 
down the gap through, or near, which the railway is built.* 

Further evidence that the water once followed the course mentioned is 
found in the fact that, in mining beneath this old channel, either a pot- 
hole or the bed of an ancient stream, filled with sand and water-worn drift 
materia], was cut into by the miners of the West End colliery. The 
material in this hole was struck some twenty (?) feet below the present 
surface, but as the workings were abandoned in its immediate vicinity, on 
account of the inconvenience caused by it, no further developments were 
made that throw light upon the origin or character of this hole or channel. 
The removal of some of the drift from the bottom of the mass caused a 
falling in of the surface. This surface depression made by the hole may 
be seen north of the track near, and just west of the crossing of the rail- 
way track and the dirt road. 

But this gorge, if it did exist, was a very narrow one. and easily choked 
up, and when the floods of the ice age poured over the water-shed at 
Uplinger's and near the Mountain Inn, the stream down Black Creek val- 
ley was probably too large to flow readily through this narrow channel, 
and so it swept over the low conglomerate barrier which stood more 
directly in its pathway, and soon wore for itself a broader channel, 
smoothed the rocks below the falls, and ground out the pot-holes. 

* The railway does not run exactly through the original gap. This has been 
quite filled up by drift and debris from the overhanging elid's, and the railway 
passes through a cut a little to the south of the old channel. 












of s 



ter i 
at ] 

of a 





1886.1 u<J*J [Brannor. 


Among the interesting local phenomena related, in one way or another, to 
the glaciation of this valley, are the great pot-holes found near Archbald' 

As the first one of these pot-holes is described in detail by Mr. Ashburner, 
I will only mention here, in speaking of the second one, what appear to 
be some of the important facts that relate to, or bear upon, their common 

The first of these holes was discovered in February, 1884, by the miners 
of Jones, Simpson & Co. cutting into it where it had penetrated the Arch- 
bald bed of coal in the Ridge mines. It was full of sand and water-worn 
material, and the surface of the ground, being covered with forest, 
showed no evidence of its presence. It is situated near the loot of the 
mountain, two miles clue north-west of the town of Archbald, and nearly 
a mile south-east of the Callender gap. The little hollow in which both 
the holes are situated is half a mile long, and, in this distance, rises about 
ninety-five feet in the direction of N. 32° E. At the lower end this hollow 
broadens out, the hill-tops on either side being about five hundred feet 
apart, and about seventy feet above the top of the first hole, which is at 
the lower end of -the hollow. A small, wet-weather stream runs down 
this hollow during the greater part of the year. 

The second pot-hole is in the bottom of the same hollow 1100' N. 33° E. 
from the first. At this point the hill on the north-west is only about ten 
feet above the level of the stream, while the one to the east rises almost 
perpendicularly about sixty feet above it. The location of the second or 
upper hole was discovered in May, 1885, in the same manner, and by the 
same parties that discovered the first one. Sand and water-worn drift, in 
every way similar to that found in the first hole, fell into the breast when 
the opening was made. To prevent further inconvenience in working 
this part of the mine, the material was propped up, and confined with 
pillars, to keep it out of the breasts. Not having been cleared of its con- 
tents it is impossible to describe this hole in detail, but with the aid of 
information kindly furnished me by Mr. Edward Jones of Jones, Simpson 
& Co., the operators of these mines, I am able to give its position and 
depth. The former, was determined by the mine map. The depth was 
obtained by using the mine levels, which give the elevation of the bottom 
of the hole, and my own topographical survey of this vicinity, which gives 
the elevation of the surface at this point. 

Elevation A. T. of the rail at the mouth of the drift 1077.95' 

Rise to the bottom of the second or upper pot-hole 49. 50' 

Elevation A. T. of the bottom of second or upper pot hole. 1127.45' 
Elevation A. T. of Topographical Survey station 3372, 

which is almost exactly over the hole 1192.07' 

Total depth, including surface 64.62' 

Surface — say 14.62' 

Approximated depth of pot-hole 50.00' 


Branner.] d54 [Feb. 19, 

From the first, or lower hole the debris was all removed by the mining 
company, and before it was employed as an air-shaft, it could easily be 
examined both from above and below. The general profile of this hole 
along its greatest diameter is rudely that of an inverted riding-boot, the 
toe pointing about N. 80° E. It is thirty-four feet deep, and, at the top, 
about twenty feet wide in its smallest diameter, while its longest diameter 
— the length of the foot of the boot — is not known, the drift filling this 
prolongation never having been removed. It is not cut straight down, 
but leans considerably in the direction of the greatest diameter, that is, N. 
80° E. In a foot-note on page 111 of Report Z, Professor Lesley refers to 
this first pot-hole (the second one not having been discovered at that 
time), and expresses the opinion that it is a glacial pot-hole, caused by the 
water falling over a crevasse in the glacier. After having gone over the 
ground repeatedly, and after having made a thorough study of the topo- 
graphy of this region, and of what appear to be all the questions that 
throw any light upon the subject, the more -firmly am I convinced that 
his is the true and only possible explanation of it. 

The theory advanced by Mr. Ashburner, was to the effect that this first 
hole was made by water flowing down the hollow in which it is situated, 
at a time when the stream was larger than it is at present, or by a stream 
coming from the direction of the Callender gap. 

In regard to the latter suggestion, it may be replied, that, whatever the 
possibilities or probabilities may be of a stream having, at any time, 
flowed into the valley through the Callender gap, the position, inclination, 
and the direction of the greatest diameter of the top of the pot-hole pre- 
clude the possibility of its having been formed by a stream from such a 
quarter. The inclination and prolongation of the top of the hole point 
about N. 80° E., while the Callender gap lies N. 55° W. from this place. 

That a pot-hole of such dimensions could not possibly have been made 
by the stream that now runs down through the hollow in which the hole 
occurs, is too plain to require demonstration ; and indeed no such claim, as 
far as I am aware, has been made. That this stream was once much larger 
than at present is doubtless true, but, with the present topography, the 
greatest possible area drained into the hole is less than a quarter of a square 
mile, or, to speak more exactly, twenty-lhree hundredths (.23) of a square 
mile. The torrential rains of the tropics would not be sufficient to produce, 
upon this surface, a stream big enough to grind out such a pot-hole. If 
we suppose that the two streams that cross the Callender gap road north 
of the hole, and the upper part of Tinklepaugh creek may have, at one 
time, drained into this hole (and, while the first two may have done so, 
there is scarcely a possibility that this last ever did), the greatest possible 
area so draining would have been less than two square miles, or, more 
precisely, 1.85 square miles.* 

* These calculations are based upon the topographical map of this region made 
by the writer, and are known to be trustworthy. 

1886. J vOD [Branner. 

It is scarcely credible that such pot-holes could have been formed by a 
stream smaller thau the Lackawanna at Archbald, and this falling from 
a considerable height. I say "falling from a height" because, while I 
know that pot-holes may be, and are, formed in eddies by currents capa- 
ble of whirling the wearing material inside of them, I do not imagine that 
any one will claim that even the Lackawanna could whirl the stones in the 
bottom of even the smaller of these pot-holes, at a depth of thirty-four feet 
without striking the water in it from a considerable elevation. But even 
admittiug that such a stream might have done this, we should still need to 
account for such a stream at this place and elevation. 

At the Archbald iron bridge the Lackawanna contains the water drained 
from a hydrographic basin having an area of one hundred and four (104) 
square miles, and, when at an average height, this stream has, at this 
point, a volume of 83.441 cubic feet per second. To produce such a stream 
as this upon an area of less than two square miles, to say nothing of a quar- 
ter of a square mile, would require a precipitation surpassing anything of 
which we have any knowledge. Finally while the difference of elevation 
between the upper and lower pot-holes is about sixty-five feet in a distance 
of 1100 feet, the head of this hollow is much flatter, there being but thirty- 
five feet fall between the head of the hollow and the upper hole — a distance 
of about 1800' — which is clearly not enough to produce a current suffi- 
ciently powerful to move the stones in the bottom of a pot-hole fifty feet 

In support of the explanation offered by Professor Lesley, I would call 
attention to an important, and somewhat remarkable topographical feat- 
ure in this part of the valley — a feature even more striking when looked 
at upon the ground, than when seen upon the map. This is a hill that 
projects, from the vicinity of the pot-hole, directly across the whole val 
ley, in the direction of Archbald, and is only interrupted at this place by 
a narrow gorge, through which the Lackawanna flows. 

Where the "back road," leading from Olyphant to Jermyn, crosses 
this hill, it is 310' above the level of the river at Archbald, while 1500' 
north-east of the lower pot-hole, it (the hill-top), is 380' above the river, 
and 125' above the mouth of the lower bole, which is just below the crest of 
the hill. 

The ice moving down the Lackawanna valley, and over the top of this 
hill, must have been broken by it into crevasses into which the streams 
that formed these pot-holes must have plunged. As the ice moved for- 
ward, the crevasse would occur at, or about, the same point every time, 
and so keep the water fall stationary, or nearly so. The shallow prolonga- 
tion of the upper part of the lower hole was probably caused by the occa- 
sional withdrawing of the stream, as it cut the ice more rapidly than it 
was pushed forward. 

The surfaces of the rocks on the top of the hill above the upper pot-hole 
have been worn smooth by the ice, but being friable sandstones they have 
failed to preserve any stria?, and although most careful search was made, 

Branner.] *JUU [Feb. 19, 

uo striated exposed surfaces were found anywhere in the immediate 
vicinity of these holes. 

Exactly why the stream flowing over the ice should come from N. 80° 
E., and not from some other precise point of the compass to the north- 
east, we have no means of knowing. We do know, however, that very 
insignificant influences may determine the direction of a stream beginning 
to form upon the surface of melting ice. 

Exactly why there should have been a crevasse above the lower pot- 
hole is another problem we have no means of solving. The hill to the east 
of the hole runs to a point just here, and is only sixty feet high. The crest 
of this ridge is more than a thousand feet to the north-east, and it is here 
under its very brow that one would naturally expect to find a pot hole, if 
anywhere in the vicinity. And it is interesting to know that, as a matter 
of fact, the second and deeper pot-hole is exactly at this point. 

In considering this question of the origin of these pot-holes I have taken 
into account the possibility of the water having been thrown over the 
ridge at the place in question by an ice- dam in the Arch bald gorge toward 
the close of the glacial epoch. While I admit the possibility of such a dam, 
I do not find that it simplifies the explanation in any way ; but, on the 
contrary, that it would necessitate a great many subordinate hypotheses. 

It seems probable also that the circumstances must have been more 
favorable for the formation of these holes after the ice sheet had begun 
to retreat, and after it had come somewhat, but not wholly, under the 
influence of local topography. 

As far as I have been able to learn, these two are the only pot-holes of 
this character that have been discovered in this valley. The one referred 
to by Prof. Lesley (Report Z, p. Ill), as having been mentioned in the 
Scranton Republican, is a small and simple one, made by Laurel run in the 
soft shales of its bed. Such pot-holes are not uncommon in this region. 
Besides those referred to on Black creek the writer has seen several along 
Laurel run near Archbald and in White Oak run between the reservoir 
and where this stream runs into the Lackawanna. Mr. George M. Leh- 
man found several in Mill creek lower down the valley. Two of these, he 
says, "are side by side, exactly alike, about the size of a stove-pipe, and 
just as round." 

Water- wearing. 

Further evidence that these pot-holes were made by water falling from 
a considerable height, may be seen in the water-worn condition of the 
preserved rock surfaces in the vicinity of the lower hole. All the pre- 
served surfaces of these rocks have the rounded and worn appearance 
that is imparted by falling water. There can be no confusing these with 
glaciated surfaces. The latter, whether preserving their striae or not, gen- 
erally have a regularly rounded appearance, the tendency of the ice being 
to reduce all irregularities. This smoothing, as has already been said, is 
most marked upon upward, level, or gently downward gradients. Water, 

1SSC] ^57 [Cope. 

on the other hand, does its principal wearing on down grades, and espe- 
cially in cataracts, or, where falling over precipices or obstructions, it can 
dash the stones, or other grinding material with which it may be charged 
against the rocky bed below. In such places the erosion caused by ice 
would be very insignificant or nil. Every one is acquainted with the fan- 
tastic forms and miniature pot-holes made in the rocky bed of a stream 
where it pitches down a cataract. Such cases are common in the carbo- 
niferous shales along White Oak run and Laurel run near Archbald, and 
in the Chemung and Portage rocks of Central New York. In addition to 
these more specific differences, there is an indefinable one in the softer 
outlines and appearances of a water-worn surface which generally aids the 
experienced eye. 

Immediately to the north of the lower pot-hole a ledge, that is now 
breaking up, has this water- worn appearance. Some of the best evidences 
of the action of water may be seen about 500' N. 40° W. from the mouth 
of this hole, and at the foot of the little hill that rises to its north. Here 
the evidences of wearing by a large stream are unquestionable, although 
there is now no considerable stream nearer than the Lackawanna at 
Jermyn, more than a mile and a half away, and 210' below this level. 

On Two Neio Speaics of Ihree-toed Horses from the Upper Miocene, with 
Notes on the Fauna of the Ticholeptus Beds. By E. D. Cope. 
{Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 19, 1886.') 

Anchitherium ultimuji, sp. nov. 

Unusual interest attaches to this horse since it is the latest representa- 
tive in time of the genus to which it belongs. It is from a horizon above 
the John Day Miocene, which contains several Loup Fork genera and 
species, as Protolabis, Hippotherium and Dicotyles. As, however, the 
Blastomeryx borealis Cope occurs at the same locality and horizon, the bed 
is probably to be referred to the Ticholeptus epoch, which I have shown 
to be between the John Day and Loup Fork epochs in age, with greater 
affinities to the latter.* The principal locality is the valley of the Deep 
river, Montana, but the present species is derived, with those above men- 
tioned, from Cottonwood creek, Oregon. 

The Anchitherium ultimum is represented in my collection by a nearly 
complete superior dentition, with palate and sides of skull to the middle 
of the orbits, and top of skull to above the infraorbital foramen. The size 
is less than that of the A. praistans Cope and A. equiceps Cope (? A. 
anceps Marsh) of the John Day bed, and the dental series has the same' 
length as that of the A. longicriste Cope, also of the John Day. The animal 
is adult, and anterior teeth are considerably worn. The posterior molars 
* See American Naturalist for April, 1886. 

Cope.] dOO [Feb. 19, 

do not display any material differences from those of the J., longieriste. 
The premolars and molars have a well- marked external cingulum, 
and there is an internal cingulum round the base of the second pre- 
molar. The only other cingula are weak ones round the bases of the 
anterior lobes of the second and third true molars. The anterior inter- 
mediate tubercle forms an angulation in the outline of the anterior 
cross-crest of the premolars, and a rounded enlargement in that of 
the true molars. The posterior intermediate tubercle has a triangu- 
lar section. The anterior teeth are curiously unsymmetrical. There 
are six incisors, the third having a more posterior position on one side 
than on the other, and having a cupped crown. The crowns of the 
others are lost. On the right side, behind a diastema rather longer than 
the transverse width of the crown of the third incisor, is a robust canine 
tooth. On the opposite side there is no canine tooth, nor a trace of one 
ever having been there. The diastema separating the canine from the first 
premolar is long. The latter has but one root and has a rather small 

It is in the cranial characters that this species displays the greatest dif- 
ferences from the John Day species. In the first place there is a profound 
and large preorbital fossa, separated from the orbit by a vertical bow. The 
preorbital fossa in the John Day species is shallow, and not abruptly 
defined. In the next place the anterior border of the orbit is above the 
anterior border of the last molar tooth. In this it agrees only with the 
large A. prastans ; in the A. cquiceps and A. longieriste, the anterior border 
of the orbit is above the anterior part of the second superior molar. 
Thirdly, the infraorbital foramen is above the middle of the fourth premo- 
lar ; it is over the posterior part of the third in the three John Day spe- 
cies. Finally, the nareal notch marks the anterior two-fifths of the dias- 
tema ; it extends much further back in the John Day species, marking 
either the front or middle of the first premolar. The palate extends about 
as far anteriorly as in A. prcestans, viz., to opposite the posterior border of 
the first true premolar. 

Measurements. M. 

Length of diastema from I. 3 047 

" " '* " C, 085 

" " superior molar series 079 

" " " true molars 034 

" " crown of p. m. 1 (greatest) 007 

Diameters of crown of p. m. ii -[ anteroposterior 0145 

t- transverse 0145 

,, ,, ,, ,, • f anteroposterior Oil 

I transverse 015 


t anteroposterior 011 

I. transverse 014 

Long diameter of crown of I, 3 007 

Depth of muzzle at middle of diastema 039 

18S6.] 3D J [Cope. 

For comparison with this specimen I have used five crania of A. equiceps, 
and one of A. prmtans and A. longicriste each, besides numerous frag- 
mentary jaws. 

It was found by Mr. J. L. "Wortman in the Ticholeptus beds of Cotton- 
wood creek, Oregon. 

I give here a list of the species obtained with this one at the locality in 
question : 

ProtoMppus, 1 sp. Dicotyles condoni Marsh. 

Ilippotherium seversum Cope. Protolabis transmontanus Cope. 

" sindairi Wortman. Merycochcerus obliquidens Cope. 

" occidentale Leidy. Blastomeryx borealis Cope. 

AncMtherium ultimum, Cope. 

The species of the Ticholeptus beds of Montana are the following : 

Mastodon proavus Cope. Cyclopidius emydinus Cope. 

ProtoMppus sejunctus Cope. Pithecistes brevifacies* Cope. 
Merycoclmrus montanus Cope. " decedens Cope. 

Merychyus zygomaticus Cope. " heterodon Cope. 

" pariogonus Cope. Procamelus vel Protolabis, sp. 

Cyclopidius simus Cope. Blastomeryx borealis Cope. 

This horizon is interesting as that in which the genus Mastodon makes 
its first appearance in America. It is now shown to be the last which con- 
tains the genus Anchitherium. See Final Report United States Geologi- 
cal Survey Territories, Vol. iii, p. 18, where some of the characters of this 
fauna are pointed out. In the list of the Deep River fauna above given 
occurs the name 

Merycochcerus obliquidens Cope. 

This is a species hitherto undescribed, which approaches those of Mery- 
chyus in some respects. As it is established on a mandibular ramus only, 
although this is nearly entire, it cannot be positively decided to which 
genus it should be referred, as the generic character is only seen in the 
presence or absence of lachrymal vacuities. However, in all the species 
of Merychyus, where the parts are preserved, M. elegans, M. arcnarum, 
and M. zygomaticus, the first inferior premolar is one-rooted, while in the 
species of Merycochcerus it has two roots. In the present animal there are 
two roots. The symphyseal region is very much contracted, so that 
if there were three inferior incisors they were small. 

This species is smaller than any known species of Merycochcerus, about 

*The absence of caries in the teeth of extinct Mammalia is well known. The 
type specimen of the Pithecistes brevifacies, however, displays a carious excava- 
tion on the external side of one of its inferior molars. This feature adds to 
those which indicate the degeneracy and approaching extinction of this type, 
as I have remarked in my synopsis of the Oreodontidse, Proceedings American 
Philosophical Society, 1884, 557. 

Cope.] "by) [Feb. 10, 

equaling the larger individuals of Oreodon culbertsoni. The molar teeth 
are, however, relatively larger than in that animal and in the species of 
Eucrotaphus, and the anterior premolars and incisors smaller and more 
crowded. The last two premolars are in line, but the second premolar is 
set obliquely in the jaw so as to overlap the first premolar by the whole of 
its anterior root, and the third premolar by half of its posterior root. The 
anterior root is interior, the posterior exterior. The first premolar has a 
robust root with round section, The crown is but little expanded at the 
posterior base ; anterior part and apex lost. The alveolus of the canine 
diverges somewhat outward. The symphyseal suture is short and rather 
deep. Its posterior edge is below the posterior quarter of the third pre- 

The outline of the jaw is nearly vertical behind, with rounded angle, 
and abrupt excavation below the condyle. Its edge is beveled outwards 
except opposite the grinding edge of the last molar where there is a thick- 
ening on the external side. The masseteric fossa is well impressed, but 
rather small, descending only to the line mentioned. On the contrary the 
fossa of the internal pterygoid muscle occupies the entire jaw behind the 
line of the third molar, and is bounded posteriorly and at the angle, by an 
incurved edge. Dental foramen opposite middle of last molar. Mental 
foramen below posterior edge of second premolar. 

Measurements. M. 

Length of ramus at line of mental foramen 150 

" " molar series 096 

" " premolar series 042 

" " third premolar . . * 0125 

" fourth " 013 

Diameters m . jjj anteroposterior 0165 

I transverse 012 

Length of ra. iii 025 

Depth ramus at p-m. iii 080 

" " " m. iii, front 035 

In the Merychyus pariofjonvs Cope of the Deep River Ticholeptus bed, 
the posterior part of the ramus is more expanded, and is perfectly 
rounded, while the other dimensions are considerably smaller. 

From Cottonwood creek, Oregon ; J. L. Wortman. 

Hippotiieiutjm: rectidens, sp. nov. 

The probable Loup Fork Upper Miocene formation of Tehuichila, State 
of Vera Cruz, Mexico, lias yielded a third species of three-toed horse, 
which differs from any of those known to me "" I owe the superior molar 
tooth on which the evidence depends, to my friend, Dr. Santiago Bemad, 
to whom I am already indebted for the other species known to me, and 

♦See Proceedings American Phllosoph. Society, 1885, p. 150 (1886), for descrip- 
tions <>( two species, Hippotherium peninsvlatum and Protohippus castilli. 

J8S?S.] »JU1 [Hoffman. 

described in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1885, 
p. 150. The present animal presents very nearly the same enamel folds as 
the H. peninsulaUrm Cope, of the same locality, including the subquadrate 
central loop -which is nearly cut off from the anterior lake. But tbe tooth 
differs in two essential points, and in some minor ones from that species. 
It is considerably larger, presenting .6 more area of the grinding surface. 
The shaft of the tooth, instead of being strongly curved, is straight. Less 
reliable characters are, first, that the crown is nearly square, while it is 
oblong in the H. peninsulatum ; and second, that there are two large 
loops extending inwards towards the column instead of one. This char- 
acter may or may not depend on the position of the tooth. Diameters 
of crown, transverse, 21.5 mm. ; anteroposterior, 21.5 mm. ; longitudi- 
nal, 450 mm. I propose that the species be called TLippotherium rectidens. 

Vocabulary of the Selislt Language. By W. J. Hoffman, M.D., Washing- 
ton, d. a 

(Read before the American Philosophical Society, March 19, 1886.) 

The Selish. or Flathead tribe of Indians, is one of a group of tribes consti- 
tuting what may be termed the eastern division of the Selishan linguistic 
stock. The tribe is at present located in Jocko valley, Northwestern Mon- 
tana, near the eastern spurs of the Rocky mountains. The surrounding 
country is extremely fertile, and abounds in game. The tribe numbers 
less than one hundred and fifty souls, and the primitive customs are fast 
giving way to the modern innovations of civilization. 

In the accompanying vocabulary, which was obtained in 1884, a peculi- 
arity will be observed in the terms of relationship which is of more than 
ordinary interest, especially terms which indicate a relative as living, or 
dead, changes being made after the demise of an individual because the 
name of the dead is not spoken aloud or in the presence of other relatives. 

The words are spelled phonetically, with the addition of a letter or two 
to simplify orthography, and a few characters as explained below : 

a, has the sound of a in father. 

a, " " " " " " law. 

q. " " " " ch, in the German nicht. 

x, " " " " gh, " " Arabic gh, or German nacht. 

" , ' , placed over vowels indicate respectively, short and long sounds. 

', indicates an interruption in sound. 

', the accent indicates accented letters, or syllables. 

n , the superior n , as in e' 1 , indicates nasalized sounds of letters to which 
it may be attached. 

Italicized letters are whispered. 




[March 19, 



Old man, 

Old woman, 

Old man, another form, 

Young man, 

Young woman, 





Grass widow, 

A widow looking for a husband, 

Indian prostitute, 

City prostitute, 

Wife, said by husband, 

Husband, said by wife, 

Son, said by father, 

Father, said by son, 

Mother, " " '* 

Daughter, said by father, 

Father, said by daughter, 

Mother, " " " 

Elder brother, 

Younger brother, 

Eldersister, said by younger brother, I's'msiimsem'. 

Elder sou's wife, said by father, Se'pen. 

Elder daughter's husband, said by "I ¥ , , „ 
„ , fisne'tslienuq' 

father, J 1 

Wife's father, said by father, Saxe'. 

Wife'a father, said by father, after "I _ , „ .. 
.-,,,, J yStsheel'. 

wife s death, J 

Wife's mother, N'ilse'tsht. 

•' " after wife's death, Stsheel'. 

Wife's elder brother, said by hus- \ y , 

/ IS ftlGSlS. 

band, > 

Wife's elder brother, after death of \ . , . , ., 

wife, ' 

Wife's eldersister, said by husband, Sestem. 
Wife's elder sister, after death of 

Brother's son, 

" " after brother's death, 

Sister's son, 

" " after sister's death, 
Brother's daughter, 



Paq'pohot skal'tamiuq. 

Paq'pohot s'um'em'. 


Sku'kwimelt' skal'tamiuq. 

Sku'kwimelt' s'um'em'. 

Ku'ku' se'. 






TJi'uqune', lit., one who runs at large. 

Sin'kale', lit., fresh meat. 








In turn'. 












Brother's daughter, after brother's 

Sister's daughter, 

" " after sister's death 

Eldest child, 

Youngest child, 

Intermediate, i. e., the second of 
three, or the third of five chil- 







Indian policeman, 


Great Spirit, 





Earth lodge, 

Tule lodge, 

Skin lodge, 




Bow, of wood, 

Bow string, 

Sinew, on back of bow, 


Notch in end of arrow, for string, 

Arrow feathers, on shaft, 


War- club, 

Quiver strap, 


Fish spear, 





Pipe (general term), 

Pipe, of stone, 

Pipe-stem, of wood, 

J- iVluquelt. 










Kuits'ke'luq, lit., many, Indian. 









Sa\qlts hi'. 



StekuI'Itsk ; ski'ullst. 



Tapomi n '. 











Ka ka me'. 


S'she'nsh nlmS'. 




[March ly, 



Scraper, iron, 
























First finger, 

Second finger, 

Little finger, 












Bear, grizzly, 

" cinnamon, 

" black, 
Deer, white tailed, male, 

" " female, 

" black-tailed, male, 












S'plt'mu n t?en'. 

Sttxusi she'. 












Stum' sht. 












Kueikua sterna'. 



Samxe' ; sumxe'. 

Tl'tshikue n'samxe'. 

Kua'i a'samse'. 







Deer, black-tailed, female, 
Elk, male, 

" female, 
Fox, generic term, 
Goat, — mountain, 
Lynx [L. rufus], 
Rat,— common, 
Rabbit, sage, 

" jackass, 
Sheep, mountain [0. montana], 

Sheep, mountain [0. Montana], 

Wolf [C. occidentalis], 

Bluebird \_8ialia arctica], 
Blue jay, generic, 
Blackbird [Agela'us phceniceus], 
Blackbird, yellow-headed \_Xan- 

thocephalus icterocepJialus], 
Crossbill \_Loxia curvirostra ameri- 

Crow [sp. ?], 

Dove \Z. carolinensix], 

Eagle, bald head, 
Eagle, bald head, young, with 

black -tipped tail, 
Grouse [Bonasa umbella], 
Humming bird [ T. colubris], 

" duck, 

" fish, 
Heron [Ardea herodia*], 
Night heron, 




















K'itshWa, 1 . 

■ SieA'itshkla'. 

> Ai'qusa' 







P'kalqke, lit., white head. 















[March l!i 

Owl, great-horned, 
" screech, 
" American long-eared, 

Prairie hen, 


Swift, white-throated, 


Turkey buzzard [this probably re- 
fers to the black vulture], 

Whip-poor-will (Phahenoplilus nut- 














Woodpecker, red- shafted 

( ^-}Kul'kuletsh'. 

tes mexicanus), 











White fish (sp. ?), 




Salmon trout, 




" common term, 




Frog, green (sp. '?), 


Lizard, newt (sp. ?), 




Toad, black (sp. ?), 


Spotted snake, 


Gopher snake, 


Ant, black, 














Yellow jacket, 




Bed bug, 








Leaf, cottonwood, 


1886.] « 



Leaf, pine leaves, 


Bark, outer, 


" inner, 










Sun = Day moon, 

S'xalxali' spukani'. 



" = Night moon, 

Kwukwuet' spukani'. 








































N'to' qken'. 





To day, 






Blue, — cobalt, 




Gray, dark, 


" light, 


Green, chrome, 


Red, scarlet, 


Roan [as of a horse], 


Sorrel [applied to color of horse], 

" light, 


" dark, 



Piuk ; PIk ; Plk. 


OUO [March 19, 




Sen'tshilxtsa'ska ; Irom s'nne— female 
elk, and xtsa'ska — to ride. 


She'lmin ; shilmin'. 

Log house, 





Kuiliu. 1 xxnt. 


















Tshe'l ; s'tshil. 




Ste''m ; ste'um'. 




'N'ui' ; nuk'uo. 



We (plural), 


We (dual), 

P'le Xe'. 





Mine ; me ; I, 
















To shoot (with 








Mounted (on horseback), 


To ride, 


On foot, 


To kill, 

Puls'la ; pulst'iiui'. 

To eat, 


To drink, 


To sleep, 


I go to sleep, 


To smoke, 


To weep, 





To laugh, 

I run, 

You run, 

He runs, 

You and I run (dual), 

We run, 

They run, 








When the runners referred to are visible and at a distance from the 
speaker, the first syllable of the word is uttered in a high note (prolonged 
to intensify distance), and the last is expressed in a more subdued and 
lower key. The word, under such circumstances, is Kee'tselsht. 

Did you run ? 




" to cut, with, 


Young dog, 


I have a dog, - 

TshInep / 'aji , 7i , koko / sami. 

How many dogs have you ? 

Kuinsh / n'koko'sami. 

I am hungry, 

TsMn'estskame / . 

We are hungry (plural) 


We are hungry (dual), 


You are hungry, 


They are hungry, 


I strike myself, 

Tshen'is pentsot'. 

I struck myself, 

Kleu'is peutsot'. 

I will strike myself, 

Nem'is pentsot 7 . 

You strike yourself, 

Nem'kst pentof. 

You struck yourself, 


I was struck, 


You and I were struck, 


What, is it? 


Who is it ? 


What do you want? 



1, N'x6 ; N'go'. 

8, Xeed'num. 

2, Sisg'. 

9, Xanot'. 

3, Tshexles'. 

10, Open'. 

4, Mos. 

11, Opene'xs n'go' . 

5, Tsil ; Tail. 

12, Opene'xs s'se'. 

6, T'a'k'n. 

20, fl'sgl o'pen. 

7, ySlspxetl. 

21, /S"selo'penexs n'go'. 


Hoffman.] d70 [March 19, 

22, £Velo'penexs s'sel'. 80, XeneTno'pen. 

30, Tshg'xl'n'o'pen. 90, Xex'tfo'pen. 

40, M'a'ln' o'pen. 100, N'kake n . 

50, T&Wxl'na'pen. 101, X'ke n exsn'go . 

60, T'&'ntshilo'pen. 200, S'l'n qo'qi. 

70, S'j eltsh'lo'pen. 1000, O'pens'tshit'nke'. 

Game played with pieces of bone, Mi'tshumtske'. 
A game, similar to the chunkey n 

game, played with a ring and \ S'xaTku'. 
poles, is called, ) 

The Coyote's youngest child (myth), Satsi'uinsht'. 

There is no word for strike, in the abstract, but the idea is expressed in 
connection with the manner in which the action is done. This is also the 
case with some other verbs. 

To strike with the hand, Tsu'entem'. 

" " " a club, Spuntem'teluk'. 

" " " a gun, Spuiitemtsu'lulminsh/. 

" " " a bow, Spiintem/Jtekinsht'. 

" " " an ax, Shilintem' shilmJn'. 

" " " a knife, Shilintem'tinin'tshumen'. 

To stab with a knife, Xluntem'tinin'tshumgn'. 

" " " a bayonet, Xluntem'tsmu'lumen/. 

" " " a sword, Xluntem'tshu'lulg'. 

Where you going? = 

S'tshil nuk'ue s'qui? 

Where you go f 

I am going to the Crows. = 

S'tetshem'tshT 6'tshies s'qui'. 

Crows [Indians'] 1 go. 

Don't you wish to trade with me? = 
6't^mkes tomis'to min'one'? 
Give me some sugar. = 
Koqui'tslsht t'tish. 

The following myth is presented to illustrate the syntactic structure of 
the language. 

Son'-tshe-le' Ko-tump't. Se-huist'-tsSn'tshe-lep, 

[of the] Coyote Story. He was walking, the Coyote, [and] 

o-we'-tshes, sko-le'-pi* to-o'-^e, hui'-hue iu' ; 

he saw they were cooking eggs, many animals and birds; 

s'a-a-tsu'-qts we titsht' es-tsi-a' o-qol'lu, 

he looked while they went to sleep all of them he went, 

* Conking In a depression in the ground, by paving the floor with stones and 
covering the food with grass, leaves, etc. 

1886.1 *** -*• [Hoffman. 

sen'-tshe'-le', t'l'-ken-tes 7 t'lus-kal-ep'. TT-il'-qis 

the Coyote, [and] removed the dirt from the cooking place. Then he ate 

[ from the eggs] 
tsus-penos ; o-ko-es' l'hui'-hue-u-ql's* e-hue'-u-ql'sts 

everything; [then] he took the little bird [and] he pulled [crosswise] 
x'lus'-pe lein'-tsis ; o'k-tso'-t&is xlus'-en'k-tsQ'; \ 

the bill ; he pressed [the head] [of] the lynx; 

so'-tumst so'-pot xlos-qli-su'-mi-e ; % o-we'-wi' 

he pulled (stretched) the tail [of] the Panther; the Lark 

kwa'-wi-lixlts' xlos'-tehi-tshi-ma' uqts ; o-huist'-xlu' sen'-tshe-le' 
yellow breast the breast he made ; he walked away the Coyote 

tshil-kut' xlak'-tshilsht we-x'l-stla'-xlsht. Ka-liqts' 

a short distance he sat down [and] he looked at them. They awoke 
xlu-hui'-hue-xults. Se'-tsish-tshel', ha'-xle kle'-ke-o'-wl-tse 

all the birds and animals. What is the matter, already we ate all 
u'-ke-tltsh'? We'-kol-kwg'-tshi-na' ta'-sin-sd-hui'-ne- 

before we icent to sleep f Talked one they could not under- 

min-tem'.g Kwemt'-po-rnin-tsuqt. 
stand him. Then they all scattered. 

The following is a list of Indian tribes best known to the Selish, and the 
names which they apply to them : 

Pend d'Oreille, Kalispel'. 

Banak, Aquit'te, " Gopher-skin-blanket. " 

Shoshoni, S'nu'ue. 

Blackfeet, S'tshu'kue, "Black-feet." 

Nez Perces, Saap'tln. 

Arikare, S'quies'tshi. 

Dakota, Nuqtu'. 

Absaroka — Mountain Crows, Ste'amtshi. 

= River Crows, S'kuistshi. 

Arapaho, N'tslri'ltshi'lu'su, " Hair -par ted-in- 


Cheyenne, ASA'&'kai'use, "Spotted-arrows." 

Kutenai, Skalse', "Water-people." 

Cceur d'Alene, Tshi'tsaui. 

*The Crossbill. It is said the bird lost his speech at this time. 

fThis act of the Coyote accounts for the fiat face of the wild cat— Lynx rufus. 

JThe Panther received his long tail; was a Lynx previously and had a short 

I The Crossbill, previously mentioned. 

Hoffman.] 372 [March 19, 

Vocabulary of the Waitshum'ni Dialect, of the Kawi'a Language. Tule 
Agency, Cal. By W. J. Hoffman, M.D., Washington, D. C. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, March 19, 1SS6.) 

The material relating to the accompanying vocabulary of the Wait- 
shum'ni, or Waiktshum'ni, dialect of the Kawi'a language of California, 
was collected chiefly in 1882, but some verifications were made at a subse- 
quent visit to Tule Indian Agency in 1884. The agency headquarters are 
located eighteen miles east of Porterville, on the south fork of Tule river. 
The Indians occupy log dwellings, and most of them raise cereals and 
some fruit. The habitable portion of the agency, or reservation, is nearly 
two miles in length, and varies from one hundred yards to half a mile in 
width, either side being flanked by towering ridges of the Sierra Nevada. 
Game is exceedingly abundant, and game birds, especially the valley 
quail, are found in almost every copse and grassy lawn. 

These Indians manufacture exceedingly fine and durable basket- ware, 
the coils consisting of three or more strands of long grass, the stitching 
together being accomplished by using thin strands of split roots of natural, 
or artificial colors — usually black, red and white. The design which may 
be denominated a typical one, consists of a sort of serrated character, run- 
ning straight,- or diagonally from the centre to the periphery. The figure 
of the Yo'kut — man, also figures on drinking-vessels, and on women's 
conical hats. Their food being chiefly obtained from the agent, requires 
but little exertion on the part of the natives to subsist satisfactorily ; but 
during the autumn great quantities of acorns are gathered, and pounded 
into meal at such places where this fruit occurs in greatest abundance. Here 
too, one finds cavities in the boulders which have been made to serve as 
mortars. The meal is placed in conical baskets, when water is poured 
over it to extract the bitter principle, after which it is boiled into a mush 
and eaten cold, the hand serving as a spoon. 

But few good crania can be obtained at this day, the one common Indian 
burial-ground being carefully and unceasingly watched, not so much for 
fear of losing the bones of their relatives, but on account of their supersti 
tions regarding the dead. In general appearance, these Indians resemble 
the Pah-Utes of the Nevada side of the mountains. Their personal clean- 
liness does not give them much care, but there are times when several 
may be found taking a wash in the river, after having submitted to a very 
severe sweat-bath in one of the low and partly underground sweat houses. 

These are but three or four feet from floor to ceiling, and measure about 
six feet in diameter. The entrance is low, and about two feet in diameter. 
A small opening near the ceiling, at the point opposite the entrance, serves 
as an exit for the smoke from the fire, which is built immediately inside 
the door, after the bathers have entered and huddled together. During 
this scorching and sweating process, singing is kept up, and when the 
proper stage arrives, all of the occupants rush down and into the water. 




Many of their primitive rites are still practiced, in secret, though the 
influence of the agent has had considerable effect in modifying their most 
trying ceremonies, and in causing them to imitate their white neighbors 
in observing modern customs relating to church services, burials, etc. 

In the following vobabulary the orthography adopted is that referred to 
in the remarks preliminary to the Selish : 












" younger, 

Wife's brother, 
Brother's wife, 
Wife's father, 

" mother, 
Grandfather \ paternal and 
Grandmother / ternal, 
Brother's son, 

" daughter, 
Sister's son, 

" daughter, 
Mother's sister's husband, * 

" brother's wife, 
Father's sister's husband, 

" brother's wife, 
Son's son, 

" daughter, 
Daughter's son, 

" daughter, 

I, me, my, 

Ko'tun ; yo'kut yo'kutsh. 
Ma'ni yo'kutsh. 
Ti'a ; di'a. 

Wit'ep ; wit'iep. 
No'at nim. 
A'qidam ; a'xit. 
ma- f E'nish ; e'nas. 

t Tu'ta ; du'ta ; tu'da. 

Pu'tshung nim tshai'aq. 
Mu'kis nim tshai'aq. 

Pu'tshung nim pu'tshu". 
Pu'tsung nim a'xit. 
A'xidin nim e'nash. 
A'xidiu nim a'xit. 





[March 19, 

We, dual, 

You, dual, 

They, dual, 


God (Great Spirit), 
















Lip, upper or lower, 


Adam's apple (Pomum Adami), 




Second finger, 

Third finger, 

Little finger, 











Toes, are named the same as 

fingers and thumb. 





In'tshish tie'ditsh. 


Tad ; dad. 

Tauwa'tsha ; tauwa'tsa. 


Tod, dod. 


Pungoi' sesse'. 



Tran 'gi. 




Te'di ; de'di. 

Wu'qunim te'di. 








Tui'nininkui 7 . 






Puids ; poits. 

Me'nid ; me'nit. 





Hada'shi ; hata'shi. 




































Red — ochreous, 

Yellow— chrome, 

Green— chrome, 

Blue — French, 













Tos ; dos. 

Hung hung'intishe'. 

Pai'a ; ul'dik ; ll'lik. 









Putshi'tet ia'kau. 



Pu'kat; bu'kat. 





Tra / taan. 



Dap'dap in'tratra,. 






Tri'mad ; Tri'mat. 


Tshum'kata n ; trum'keten'. 

Mit'dat pa'tslugan.* 

Trum'keien' mit'dat pa'tslugan. f 

Xe'u n . 









*Mit'dat^-little ; i. e., little-red. 
I Sig. Black-litlle-red. 



[March 19, 





Bear, black, 
" grizzly, 
" cinnamon, 






Jack rabbit, 





Jay (Steller's), 

Quail, valley, 





Sweat lodge, 






Wing feathers, 

Animal hide, 

To eat, 

To laugh, 

To drink, 

To weep, 

To hear, 

To know, 

To trade, 

To think, 

To walk, 

To run, 

To fall, 

To ride horseback, 

To talk, 

To sleep, 

To die, 





Deu'qun ; du'qun. 

No n/ qo n . 


Kuid'tshu ; kuit'shu. 


Wu n he'sid. 



To'pol ; do'pol. 

Tan'nau ; tln'nau. 



Tau'ka ; tan'ka. 










Ha'pas ; ha'pash. 


Pada' ; pata'. 









Sited 'awash. 

Tem'tem ; dem'dem. 








1886.] 377 [Hoffman. 

To like, or admire,* Ho'iutsha ; hu'yutsha. 

To kill, Tau'tra ; tau'trat. 

To shoot an arrow, T''ui ; Tr''ui. 

To strike with a club, Witshe'trum wat'r. 

" •' " knife, Nokoits'un wat'r. 

" " " stick, Wat'r. 

To cut with a knife, Tskis. 

"" " " an ax, A't'r. 

Much, Wai'idi ; wu'qi. 

Many, Wu'qoi ; wu'ql. 

Many bows, Wu'qoi tai'up. 

Two bows, Pun'goi tai'up. 

Bow, Taiup. 

Bow string of sinew, Tooiq'tut. 

" " loop for securing at end "I _,_, 

. . ^ ° fPet ; pit ; pet. 

of bow, J 

Front side of bow, Ke'wet. 

Cord side of bow, Ko'tro. 

Arrow poison, Hai'enit. 

The parts of an arrow, having a wooden point detachable from the 
shaft, are as follows : 

Point of wooden arrow-head shaft, Sha'padan ; tshi'pidun. 
Body of wooden arrow-head, Slio'toitsh. 

Shaft of arrow proper, Sik'kid. 

Feathers, Tshodon'gish. 

Notch, at base of shaft, Tin'neiu. 

Sinew fibres at head of shaft to^ 

prevent splitting upon introduc- [Pik'ked. 

tion of arrow-head, J 



Yet ; Yet. 




Pun'goi ; bun'goi ; pun 





Shi a'pln ; sho'pin ; tro 1 









Yit'singlt ; yet'singit. 




Tshu'dipi ; tsho'dipi. 
















Tri'o ; dri'o ; tri'a. 








Tshi'uka n . 



* Also in the sense of to love, although there is no word for love as>rdinarily 




[March 19, 











101, Yet'pitshio yet'. 

1000, Tri'apitsh'a. 

2000, Pun'gatri'apitsh'a. 

3000, Shiapin tri'apitsh'a. 

Ho'iutsha — To like, to admire. 


Present tense. 

1. Nim ho'iutsha. 

2. Min ho'iutsha. 

3. Ta ho'iutsha. 

Plural. 1. Wai'tung ho'iutshet. 

2. Kumuiman ho'iutshet. 

3. Kasin'tun ho'iutshet. 

Dual. 1. Na'aktang ho'iutshet. (We two.) 

2. Ma'aktang ho'iutshet. (Ye two.) 

3. Tashlk'tang ho'iutshet. (They two.) 

Past tense. 

Sing. 1. Ni'amtang yud ho'iutshush. 

2. Ma'tang yud ho'iutshush. 

3. Ta tang yud ho'iutshush. 

Plural. 1. Wai'tung yud ho'iutshush. 

2. Kumuiman yud ho'iutshush. 

3. Kasin'tun yud ho'iutshush. 

Dual. 1. Na'ak tang yud ho'iutshush. 

2. Ma'ak tang yud ho'iutshush. 

3. Ta shik'tang yud ho'iutshush. 

Future tense. 

Sing. 1. Na tang'he ho'iutshe. 

2. Ma tang'he ho'iutshe. 

3. Ta tang'he ho'iutshe. 

Plural. 1. Wai'tung tan ho'iutshe. 

2. Kumuiman tan ho'iutshe. 

3. Kasin'tun tan ho'iutshe. 

1886.] dl.J [Hoffman. 

Dual. 1. Na'ak tang tan ho'iutshe. 

2. Ma'ak tang tan ho'iutshe. 

3. Ta shlk'tang tan ho'iutshe. 

Tau'trat— To kill. 

Present tense. 

Sing. l.'iTshan na tang tau'trat. 

2. Tshan ma tang tau'trat. 

3. Tshan ta tang tau'trat. 

Plural. 1. Wai'tung tshan tang tau'trat. 

2. Kuuiuiman tshan tang tau'trat. 

3. Kasin'tun tshan tang tau'trat. 

Dual. 1. Na'aktang tshan tau'trat. 

2. Ma'aktang tshan tau'trat. 

3. Ta shik'tanff tshan tau'trat. 

Past tense. 

Sing. 1. Hiam'na tang tau'trash. 

2. Hiam'ma tang tau'trash. 

3. Hiam'ta tang tau'trash. 

Plural. 1. Hiam'waitung tau'trash. 

2. Hiam'kumuiman tau'trash. 

3. Hiam'kasin'tun tau'trash. 

Dual. 1. Hiam'na'aktang tau'trash. 

2. Hiam'na'aktang tau'trash. 

3. Hiain'tashik'tang tau'trash. 

Future tense. 

Sing. 1. Na tang'he hiam'xash tau'tret. 

2. Ma tang'he hiam'xash tau'tret. 

3. Ta tang'he hiam'xash tau'tret. 

Plural. 1. Waitung tang'he hiam'xash tau'tret. 

2. Kumuiman tang'he hiam'xash tau'tret. 

3. Kasintun tang'he hiam'xash tau'tret. 

Dual. 1. Hlam' xash na'aktang tau'tret. 

2. Hiam'xash ma'aktang tau'trat. 

3. Hiam'xash taslnk'tang tau'trat. 

Packard.] ^"^ [Feb. 5, 

Discovery of the Thoracic Feet in a Carboniferous Phyllocaridan. By A. S. 


{Bead before the American Philosophical Society, February 5th, 1S86.) 

It is a matter of some surprise that notwithstanding the large number 
of fossil Phyllocarida from the Palaeozoic strata made known to us by the 
researches of McCoy, Salter, Barrande, H. Woodward, James Hall, J. M. 
Clark, Pi. P. Whitfield, C. E. Beecher and others, no definite, unmistaka- 
ble traces of the limbs have been discovered. So far as we are aware, no 
portions of the antennae of either pair, nor of the thoracic or abdominal 
limbs (except those next to the telson), have been figured or described, 
though many specimens of the fossils have been subjected to the scrutiny 
of our leading paleontologists. While most of the species are represented 
by the bivalvular carapace alone, which must have been, as in the recent 
Nebalia, easily detached after death from the body so as to float away by 
itself, still in some cases, as in that of C'eraliocaris stygia Salter, figured by 
Messrs. Jones and Woodward in the Geological Magazine for September, 
18S5, the abdominal segments, with the hist pair of uropoda and the telson, 
are distinctly preserved, while in other cases the large toothed mandibles 
are preserved in place between the valves of the carapace ; the rostrum 
has also sometimes been preserved. But we should have expected ere this 
to have become acquainted with the nature of the antennae and the ante- 
rior abdominal appendages, if, as we have good reason to suppose, they 
were like those of the modern Nebalia. 

In their diagnosis of the genus Ceratiocaris, Messrs. Jones and Wood- 
ward in referring to the body, state : "Body many jointed, with fourteen 
or more segments, of which 4-7 extend beyond the carapace ; ornamented 
with delicate raised lines. Some or all of these segments bore small, 
lamelliform, branchial appendages."* 

Although Messrs. Jones and Woodward have kindly sent me nearly all 
their valuable papers on fossil Crustacea, tiiose cited in the foot- note, un- 
fortunately are not among the number, and hence I am unable to refer to ' 
them. Mr. Etheridge's note in the Annals and Magazine Natural History 
is as follows : 

"At the Brighton meeting of the British Association, Mr. II. Wood- 
ward, F.R.S., noticed the discover}' of the 'swimming gills' of Ceratio- 
caris, to which Iliad previously drawn his attention. On a slab of thin 
flaggy shale from the Upper Silurian series of Lesmahagow are exposed, 
the caudal segments, telson, and caudal appendages of a Ceratiocaris. 
From the ventral margin of the terminal segment proceeds abroad paddle- 
shaped membraneous (?) expansion, presenting a strong marginal outline, 

♦See the Sixth Report on Fossil Crustacea, Brit. Assoc. Report for 1872, p. 323, 
and Geological Magazine, ix, p. 564. Also a descriptive note by Mr. R. Etherldge, 
given in the Mem. Geol. Surv. Seotl. Explan. Sheet 23, 1873, p. 93, and Annals 
and Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. xiv. I87J, p. 9. 

1886] dol [Packard. 

with a transversely striated surface. This is^fbllowed by another similar 
appendage, proceeding in the same manner from the penultimate seg- 
ment. The dorsal edge of the specimen shows that one of the correspond- 
ing 'foot-gills ' of the opposite side has been bent back upon itself, and 
thus thrust out of place. The free ends of these paddle shaped appendages 
are attenuated to more or less rounded points. They do not show any evi- 
dence of a marginal fringe. These gill feet are no doubt analogous to the 
same supplementary abdominal organs in Nebalia." 

I do not understand from the foregoing description, the nature of the 
so-called appendages, especially since they are not figured, but will now 
proceed to call attention to those noticed in a specimen sent me a year ago 
by J. C. Carr, Esq., of Morris, Illinois, which occurred in a nodule from 
the Carboniferous beds of Mazon creek at Morris. 

As soon as I examined the fossil, the indications of broad lamellate 
appendages of several pairs were at once apparent. Owing to the incom- 
plete state of preservation of the dorsal and ventral edges of the valves I 
was at a loss to what group to refer the fossil. It was apparently a Phyl- 
locariclan, but seemed to differ from most of the genera described. I 
therefore considered it as the type of a new genus intermediate between 
Ceratiocaris and Aristozoe, and named it Cryptozoe; it may be called Cryp- 
tozoe problematicus. After, however, comparing the specimen with Dr. 
"Woodward's figure of the Carboniferous Ceratiocaris oretoneiisisWoodv?. 
and G. truncatus Woodw. [Geological Magazine, viii, March. 1871), and his 
figure of G. papilio Salter and G. stygia Salter {Geological Magazine, Sep- 
tember, 1885), I was inclined to provisionally regard it as belonging to 
that genus. 

But on consulting my friend, Mr. C. E. Beecher, who has worked so 
faithfully on the fossil Phyllocarida, he kindly sent me the following 
opinion : 

Albany, Dec. 30, 1885. 

The typical Ceratiocaris (see McCoy's description) differs from your 
specimen in its semi-elliptical outline, with the abruptly truncated poste- 
rior end and evenly convex valves. 

Your species has a short hinge-line, very broadly rounded posterior end, 
and the cephalic and thoracic regions of the carapace are well defined. 
These are characters which do not belong to Ceratiocaris when strictly 
defined. The contour of the dorso-anterior extremity would seem to indi- 
cate the presence of a well-developed rostrum. The typical Ceratiocaris 
are from the Silurian system, and I very much doubt their extension into 
the Carboniferous, although they have been noted in the Devonian. I 
have not seen the article by Woodward and Jones which you mention. 

I should be inclined to consider this as a type of a new genus. 

It is very interesting, especially as furnishing some information as to 
the appendages. 

Chas. E. Beecher. 

Packard.] OOA [Feb. 5, 

The generic characters as drawn from the carapace alone are as follows : 
Valves one half as long as broad ; moderately full and convex, with no 
definite, straight hinge-margin. It differs from Ceratiocaris in the lack of 
a long, straight hinge-margin, the dorsal edge being curved, and in the 
lower edge not being thickened, while the posterior end is well rounded. 
The anterior end of the valves is about half as wide as the posterior end, 
and is oblique, the lower part of the edge being directed outwards. From 
Aristozoe it differs in the lack of a definite hinge-margin, and in its 
elongated oval valves ; from Nothozoe in its well defined narrow anterior 
end, and well defined dorsal and ventral edges. 

As Mr. Scudder's genus Khachura* from the Carboniferous limestone of 
Danville, Illinois, is only represented by the end of the abdomen, it is 
impossible to discuss its relationship to that form. 

The specimen is a cast, and shows no tracings of markings on the exterior 
of the valves. In form it is ovate, obliquely truncated at each end ; the 
dorsal edge is not so much curved as the ventral edge, but it is more 
curved towards the posterior edge than towards the anterior ; the ventral 
edge is quite regularly curved. The anterior end is obliquely truncated, 
the lower angle directed outwards. The posterior edge is about a third 
wider than the anterior end, and is directed obliquely inwards so as to be 
nearly parallel with the anterior end. While each end of the valves is 
well preserved, the dorsal and ventral edges have apparently not been 
preserved, as they are usually thickened in the other species of the genus. 

The lamellate limhs are situated in the specimen at the posterior end of 
the carapace ; probably after death the carapace turned around and sepa- 
rated from the body, which with the extremities became much displaced. 

Of the lamellate limbs there are traces of four pairs. They are broad 
and thin, slightly contracted in width near the base, and at the distal 
extremity quite regularly rounded, with the free ends apparently slightly 
folded longitudinally, the edges appearing to be slightly crenulated, but 

Fig. 3.— Outline of O'yptozoe problcmalicus, showing the shape of the lamelJate 
feet, the valve being upside down. 

these folds were perhaps due to changes after death. All the feet are of 
nearly the same size. They are about two thirds as long as the carapace 

*Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xix, 1878, PI. 8, Fig. 3, 3a. 

Proceedings of the Amer. Philos. Soc. 

Vol. XXIII, No. 123, 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Crypiozo'e problematicus Pack. 

1886.] *'"" IWyckoff. 

is high ; the length of the hest preserved one 18 mm , the breadth 3-4 mm . 
There are no traces of a division into endopodites and exopodites ; but we 
should regard the parts preserved as the homologues of the exopodites of 
Nebalia ; there are no traces of seta? on the edges. The general appearance 
of the appendage is much as in PI. xxxvii, Fig. 6, of our monograph of 
North American Phyllopod Crustacea. Length of the carapace 46 mm : 
height at the highest part, 26 ; at the anterior end 12-13 mm . 

From the foregoing description it seems reasonable to suppose that in 
the fossil forms, Ceratiocaris and allied forms at least, the thoracic feet 
were, in shape and structure, homologous with those of the modern 

Beyond the feet, at the larger or posterior end of the carapace is the 
impression of what may have been the basal joint of one of the basal 
abdominal feet, which joint in Nebalia is as long as the lamellate thoracic 
appendages ; but this, of course, is quite problematical. 

It is not a little strange that no undoubted traces of the antennae or 
basal abdominal limbs of any extinct Phyllocaridan have as yet been 
brought to light ; but the discovery of these large, broad, thin, lobular 
appendages which most probably belonged to the thorax, makes it all 
the more likely that the extinct Phyllocarida had antenna?, and basal 
abdominal limbs similar to those of the existing Nebalia. 

Explanation of the Plate. 

Fig. 1. Cast of carapace of Cryptozoe problematicvs Pack., natural size. 
Fig. 2. Reverse of the same, showing the impressions of the lamellate 
feet originally attached to the thorax. 

The Use of Oil in Storms at Sea. By Lieut. A. B. Wyckoff, U. S. N. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society, April 2, 18S6.) 

My attention was drawn to this subject in 1884, soon after I took charge 
of the Branch Hydrographic Office in Philadelphia. Several Masters of 
vessels described their methods of using it, and the striking results of their 
practical experiments. I became convinced of its great utility ; and in 
November, 1884, reported the matter in a letter to the Hydrographic 
Office. Soon afterwards, orders were given the branch offices, to collect 
all the information they could obtain regarding its use ; and in January, 
1885, the data, thus collected, was published upon the monthly North 
Atlantic Pilot Chart. This has been continued ever since, and the Hydro- 
grapher, Commander J. R. Bartlett, has done everything in his power to 
interest mariners in the subject. In consequence, where one vessel for- 
merly used it, there are probably now fifty prepared for such an emergency. 

Wyckoff.] £>84 [April 2, 

In view of the unvarying successful result, the time must soon come, when 
no vessel will leave port without some cheap fish or vegetable oil, for this 
purpose. Insurance companies, owners and masters of vessels, are all 
too greatly interested, to have this precaution longer neglected. 

The use of oil in calming troubled waters, was evidentlj r well known 
to the ancients, as Aristotle, Plutarch and Pliny refer to it in their writ- 
ings. The divers in the Mediterranean still use it in the manner described 
by Pliny — taking oil in their mouths, and ejecting a little at a time, to 
quiet the surface and permit the rays of light to reach them. Fishermen, 
who depend upon the spear to capture their prey, pour oil on the water to 
calm it, and enable them to clearly see the fish. The hardy fishermen of 
the north of Scotland and along the shores of Norway, have known this 
use of oil for centuries. When crossing a dangerous bar or tide-rip, or 
when landing through surf, they press the livers of the fish until the oil 
exudes, and then throw them in advance of their boats. The Lisbon 
fishermen carry oil with them, and use it in crossing the bar of the Tagus, 
in rough weather. Whalers have resorted to oil and blubber, in severe 
storms, for the last two hundred years. Very recently, an old whaler 
informed me, that it was their custom to hang large pieces of blubber over 
each quarter of their vessel, when running before a heavy sea, and- it 
entirely prevented the water coming on board. 

The members of this Societ}^ should take special interest in this subject, 
because its founder made many experiments, and left his views on record 
regarding the great utility of oil for this purpose. On a stormy day, he 
calmed the surface of a pond covering a half acre, by pouring a single tea- 
spoonful of oil upon its windward side. He afterwards made other labo- 
rious tests upon the waves of the sea, and gave a scientific explanation of 
the manner in which the oil acted. This explanation is still believed to be 
substantially correct. 

Molecules of water move with freedom, and the friction of air in motion 
upon the surface of a body of water, produces undulations. These 
increase in size, proportionately, to the depth of water, the distance they 
can proceed to leeward, the strength of the wind and the time it is acting. 
There is a limit, of course, to this increase in height ; none probabl} r ever 
exceeding forty feet. 

The precursor of a cyclone in the North Atlantic, is often, what is 
known to seamen, as a heavy swell. It may be perfectly calm when this 
reaches a vessel. It is simply a long, high undulation ; started by the 
storm, and traversing the ocean in advance of it. Off the coast of Cali- 
fornia, I have experienced the tremendous swells, made by a westerly 
wind across the immense stretch of the North Pacific. These undulations 
were as high as any I have ever seen, and yet, on calm days, I have often 
ridden them in an ordinary whale boat. These swells correspond to oiled 
waves. The boat or vessel slides up their front slope, and down the rear. 
Let a sudden gale spring up, like the " Northers " in the Gulf of Mexico, 
and the harmless swells becomes raging seas. How is this change effected ? 

1836.] 385 [Wyckoff. 

The friction of the wind, upon the exposed slope of the swell, produces 
little irregularities of the surface. These wavelets are driven up the slope 
to the summit of the undulation. At the same time, the forward slope is 
more and more protected from the wind, and, because of its inertia, 
becomes steeper and steeper. Any one who ever saw a sand dune within 
the limits of the trade winds, has seen the storm wave in permanent form 
— a long windward slope and abrupt leeward face. The constantly sharp- 
ening crest of the storm wave, is finally thrown forward and downward 
with a force proportionate to its weight and speed. "When this storm 
wave encounters a ship, the vessel cannot rise up the abrupt front. 
Instead, she checks the progress of the base of the wave, and the crest is 
thrown forward with tremendous violence, filling her deck and sweep- 
ing away men, boats and everything movable. The storm wave is, per- 
haps, no higher than the heavy swell, and only differs from it in shape. 
Oil changes the storm wave into the heavy swell. How is this done ? 
The scientific explanations given with great minuteness, that I have seen, 
would only be confusing to the ordinary mariner. My opinion is : that 
the oil with its less specific gravity floats on the surface, and spreads 
rapidly, forming a film, like an extremely thin rubber blanket, over 
the water. Because of the viscosity of the oil, and its lubricant nature, 
the friction of the wind is not sufficient to tear this film, and send individ- 
ual particles rolling up to the summit. At the same time, the molecules 
of water beneath are protected ; and, although the force of the wind may 
increase the speed of the undulation as a body, it will be as a heavy swell, 
and no longer in the shape of a storm wave. This effect can always be 
obtained at sea, if a suitable oil is used. It has been supposed, that the oil 
exerts some chemical action in dissolving the foam, as is witnessed, when 
it stops the frothing of pulp in a paper mill. It is more probable, how- 
ever, as Dr. Franklin says, that the effect is purely mechanical. 

I have examined one hundred and fifteen reports of the use of oil in 
storms at sea, published by the Hydrographic Office, and find all the 
trials were very successful, except four. In these, refined petroleum was 
used. In one instance, sperm oil was said to have thickened so that it did 
not spread freely ; but in four others, it acted very well. Fish oil was 
used 9 times, crude petroleum 3, pine oil 3, linseed 22, lard 5, neat's-foot 1, 
colza 2, and varnish 3 times. In 58 trials, the kind of oil used is not speci- 
fied. It is apparent, that the heavier oils are the most efficacious. The 
result in every instance, where used by a novice, is of extreme astonish- 
ment at the wonderful effect. One trial seems convincing, and soon it is 
hoped, the whole profession of merchant officers will be converts, and 
always go prepared. 

In using oil for this purpose, it is evident that it must be spread well to 
windward, in order to be efficacious. In consequence, a steamer plung- 
ing into a head sea, or a sailing vessel on a wind, can derive no benefit. 
But any vessel driving before a gale, or lying to and making a dead drift 
to leeward, gets the lull protection of its use. As all vessels, except per- 


Wyckoff.] *>86 [April 2, 

haps the rapid passenger steamers of the Atlantic, assume one of these 
two positions in a storm, the oil is of very general application. Even the 
fast passenger steamers, in crossing to the eastward before the winter 
gales, or when, for any reason, their machinery is stopped, will find it 
invaluable in saving their boats and upper works. Many vessels have 
found it of great utility, in passing the dreaded trough of the sea, either in 
heaving to or getting before the wind. 

The ordinary methods adopted for distributing the oil are : to pour it 
down the pipes forward, or place oil alone, or oil and oakum, in canvas 
bags with holes punched in them, or in bags made of coarse material, as 
gunny or corn sacks. These are hung over the ship's side wherever 
required. In my opinion, the bags should always be placed over the 
bows ; as in running, there is time for the oil to spread, and when lying to, 
it is needed as far forward as possible. From the reports received, I 
should judge that one gallon of oil, when properly distributed, should 
last a vessel at least four hours. 

In lowering a boat in 'a sea-way, oil is of great advantage. If to rescue 
the crew of a disabled vessel, the rescuer should take a position to wind- 
ward, and distribute a quantity of oil. After the boats have been started, 
the rescuing vessel should drop to leeward to pick them up. The boats 
should carry oil to use in running before the sea. 

A bottle of oil, with a quill in the cork, should always be kept attached 
to every life buoy. When a man falls overboard and reaches the life 
buoy, the oil will prevent the waves breaking over him, and enable the 
rescuing boat to find him, by the "slick " on the water. There should be 
an oil tank in every ship's boat, in the event of it becoming necessary to 
abandon the vessel. Riding to a drogue, made of the masts or oars, a 
small expenditure of oil will enable a boat to live through a severe 

At the entrance of a harbor, or river with a deep bar, oil can be used 
to great advantage, as has been proven by the experiments in England. 
When, however, the waves strike a beach, the problem becomes very dif- 
ferent. The base of the wave is then retarded by the shoaling depth and 
the undertow from its predecessor, and, of necessity, the crest is thrown 
violently forward. Oil cannot prevent this; but it will certainly have 
considerable effect upon the outer line of breakers, and enable a boat to 
approach so much nearer the beach, as to greatly increase the chances of 
a favorable issue. However, many instances are given of the successful 
landing of boats, through surf and breakers, that would have overwhelmed 
them without the use of oil. 

I append some illustrations of the practical use of oil, in some of the 
emergencies to which I have referred. 

In 1881, a Mr. Fondacaro arrived at Naples from Montevideo, in a three- 
ton boat built by himself. When caught in a gale, a bag was thrown over 
as a drag ; and two oil bags were put over, one forward and the other aft. 
The oil circled around the boat, and prevented the seas breaking over her. 

1886.1 ^"^ [Wyckoff. 

One gallon of oil lasted about twenty-four hours. Mr. Fondacaro says, 
"the oil does not diminish the size of the waves, but renders them com- 
paratively harmless by preventing them from breaking." 

The chief officer of the S. S. Diamond, wrecked off the Island of Anholt, 
describes their escape from the wreck. He provided each boat with a five- 
gallon can of oil, and stationed a man to pour it gradually over the stern. 
Immediately the sea, in the wake of the boats, became perfectly smooth, 
and they passed right through the boiling surf, and reached the land in 
safety, without shipping a sea. None of the men in the boats believed, 
when they left the ship, that all would reach the shore alive ; and the peo- 
ple on land watched their approach in wonder, deeming it impossible for 
even the life-boat to live in such awful breakers. (The chief officer evi- 
dently means, that the sea ceased to break in the wake of the boats ; not 
that it became perfectly level.) 

Capt. E. E. Thomas, of the S. S. CMllingham, writes, that during a voy- 
age from Philadelphia to Queenstown in March, 1833, he encountered a 
heavy gale from S.W. "For forty-eight hours we ran before the gale, and 
during the whole of the time we shipped very heavy seas, and the decks were 
continually full of water fore and aft. We then had two oil bags made, 
filled them, and made one fast to the ring of each anchor over the bows. 
Within a few moments we saw the effects of it on the seas. In the wake 
of the ship they did no| break, whereas, outside of our wake the waves 
were breaking in all directions. Up to then, we had run before the gale 
for forty-eight hours without heaving the log, none of the crew daring to 
go aft for fear of being washed overboard. After using the oil we did not 
ship any heavy seas whatever, and ever since we always use oil when run- 
ning before a heavy sea. I would also recommend it to be used in ships 
that are lying to in heavy seas. The bags were slung about two feet 
below the anchors, so that when the vessel pitched they were, at times, 
just awash. About one quart of colza oil was put in each bag every four 

Capt. Jones, of the British S. S. Chicago, while rescuing the crew of 
the brigantine Fedora, used oil with the best results. It was blowing a 
heavy gale with very high seas. The Chicago ran to windward of the 
Fedora, and, during a lull, oil having been poured on the water, the port 
life-boat was successfully launched and started. A can of oil was taken 
in the boat, and by using this the seas were kept down in the immediate 
vicinity, though they broke iu masses of foam a short distance away. As 
the boat approached the Fedora, the crew of that vessel poured oil on the 
water, which so calmed the sea that the boat got alongside and rescued 
the shipwrecked crew without sustaining any injury. About half a gal- 
lon of paint oil was used by the boat during her trip. 

The S. S. Menzaleh, in March, 1885, from Italy to Philadelphia, encoun- 
tered a severe S. W. gale. While running before the sea, the vessel was 
pooped and the main hatches were stove in. It was determined to heave 
to, and men were stationed to drip oil dqwn the forward shutes. The 

Sellers.] """ [Feb. 19, 

vessel came around without shipping any water, and kept perfectly dry 
while lying to. 

Captain J. E. Lewis, master of schooner Lawrence Haines, reports that 
he used oil when hove to in a terrible N. N. E. gale off Hatteras, on Decem- 
ber 26th and 27th ; force of wind from fifty to sixty miles per hour. He 
put over three bags containing oakum and oil ; one forward, one att, and 
one amidships, and hanging so as to dip as the vessel rolled. Oil used, 
mixture of linseed, tar and kerosene oil. The bags were used thirty hours, 
and three gallons of the mixture were expended. He claims that his ves- 
sel was saved by the use of oil. 

Captain E. L. Arey, of the schooner Jennie A. Cheney, writes: "I used 
oil with very satisfactory results during the late severe hurricane of the 
25th of August, in latitude 31° N., longitude 79° W. The wind having 
carried away the mainsail, I bent a storm trysail, and continued under that 
sail until it also blew away. During the time, the vessel was shipping 
large quantities of water, the sea being very irregular, nearly every one 
breaking. After the sails were blown away, finding it necessary to do 
something to save the ship and crew, I took a small canvas bag and 
turned about five gallons of linseed oil into it, and hung it over the star- 
board quarter. The wash of the sea caused a little of the oil to leak out, 
and smoothed the surface, so that lor ten hours no water broke aboard. I 
consider that the oil used, during the last and heaviest part of the hurri- 
cane, saved vessel and crew." 

An Obituary Notice of the Late George Whitney. By William Sellers. 
(Mead before the American Philosophical Society, February 19, 1886.) 

The subject of this memoir was born in Brownville, New York State, 
October 17th, 1819. He was educated at the Albany Academy, Albany, 
U", Y„ where he distinguished himself by his quickness of perception and 
aptitude for learning, which enabled him to carry off the honors of his class 
in successive competitive examinations and to obtain a large share of the 
prizes given each term. 

At an early age George Whitney developed a decided preference for 
Studies in natural philosophy, drawing and mechanics. In 1832 his father, 
Mr. Asa Whitney, was appointed Superintendent of the Mohawk and 
Hudson River Railroad, one of the earliest steam roads in this country, and 
his son George availed himself, on all holiday occasions, of the opportunity 
thus presented of acquiring familiarity with the mechanism of the engines 
and the practical operation of the road. 

As a draughtsman, George Whitney was equaled by few, and his beauti- 
ful drawings of some of the first English locomotives sent to America 

1886.1 389 [Sellers. 

(made when he was quite a youth), are still preserved in his family, and 
are tangible evidences of his skill in this direction. 

Mr. Whitney's taste naturally led him to choose the profession of civil 
engineering, and on completing his studies he immediately secured a situa- 
tion on the surveying corps of the proposed railroad between Hartford and 
Springfield, Connecticut, the lines for which were run in the middle of a 
rigorous winter, the engineers being exposed to the hardships of extreme 
cold and deep snows. On the completion of this survey he was retained 
by the engineer in charge, the late William H. Talcott, and transferred, in 
1840, to the little town of Cuba, Allegany Co., N. Y., where he was 
placed in charge of a section of the work of enlarging the Genessee Valley 
canal, being engaged both in preparing estimates of cost, and in supervis- 
ing the practical construction. Mr. Whitney remained at this post more 
than two years, and was then transferred to Albany as private secretary to 
the same engineer. 

In 1842, Mr. Asa Whitney removed to Philadelphia, having formed a 
partnership with Matthias W. Baldwin, under the name of Baldwin & 
Whitney, for the manufacture of locomotives. Mr. George Whitney was 
soon called to Philadelphia and was employed by this firm until its dis- 
solution in 1846. 

We next find him assisting his father, who had been appointed presi- 
dent of the Morris Canal Co., in the work of preparing drawings for the 
remodeling and enlargement of the canal, a work of considerable mag- 
nitude in those days, involving some bold schemes in the substitution of 
improved inclined planes for the old-fashioned locks, and which, by their 
successful operation, rescued the company from its financial embarrass- 
ments and placed it upon a paying basis. 

The President's "Beport to the Stockholders of the Morris Cnnal and 
Banking Company, March 17th, 1848," contains an interesting account of 
the experimental tests made January 27th. 1848, of the first inclined plane 
constructed under his supervision, in which he says that a boat containing 
seventy tons of cargo (exclusive of the weight of boat and car) was passed 
repeatedly up and down the plane, with great apparent ease and without 
employing more than half the power that had been provided. The boats 
were carried up the inclined planes at a greater velocity than they were 
towed on the levels, and the system then introduced is still in successful 
operation on the canal. The height of the first plane was- fifty-one feet, 
its inclination one in ten ; the whole distance that the boat was moved by 
machinery was 000 feet and the time employed was three and a half 

Mr. Asa Whitney, realizing, prior to dissolving partnership with Mr. 
Baldwin, the great necessity for improvement in wheels for locomotives, 
tenders and cars, had devised a process for annealing wheels made of chilled 
cast-iron, for which he obtained a patent in 1848. The experiments, which 
were made chiefly by Mr. George Whitney, under his father's direction, 
proved so successful that Mr. Asa Whitney, foreseeing the opportunity 

Sellers.] 390 [Feb. 19, 1886. 

here presented of developing a large and profitable business, resolved to 
confine himself to this specialty ; accordingly, in 1847, the firm of A. 
Whitney & Son was established for the purpose of manufacturing chilled 
cast-iron car-wheels under this patent. The extensive works covering the 
ground between Callowhill street, Pennsylvania avenue, and Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth streets, were erected a few years later, and were by far the 
finest and most substantial, as well as largest, devoted to this specialty in 
the country. As an evidence of the extent of the business it may be stated 
that about one and a half million car-wheels have since that time been 
made at this establishment and sent to all parts of the world where the 
iron horse has penetrated. 

Mr. George Whitney devised many improvements facilitating this manu- 
facture, and for several years prior to the death of his father, which oc- 
curred in 1874, he was the practical head of the firm. 

Outside of this special occupation, Mr. Whitney was well known as a 
public-spirited citizen, giving aid both by his wise counsels and his gen- 
erous contributions to all laudable objects. At the outbreak of the late 
rebellion he was one of the foremost business men in this city to recognize 
and accept the responsibilities thrust upon him and he never wavered for 
a moment, or lost courage in the darkest hours of the nation's peril ; he 
was one of the original members of the Union Club, a liberal subscriber 
to and treasurer of the Bounty Fund, and he testified, in various other 
substantial ways, his loyalty to his country. 

As a business man, Mr. Whitney's reputation was such that his counsels 
were eagerly sought by many of our largest moneyed institutions, and 
though failing health compelled him of late years to relinquish some of 
these labors he was still active in not a few such corporations. At the 
time of his death he was a Director of the Insurance Company of North 
America, The Philadelphia National Bank, The Philadelphia Saving Fund, 
and The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. 

As an art patron, Mr. Whitney has done much to stimulate the higher 
education in art in this country, both by his judicious selection of foreign 
paintings of the highest order and by his generous encouragement of native 
talent ; his collection of pictures is one of the choicest in the United States 
and is even better known in Europe than in this country. Mr. Whitney 
was, for many years, a Manager of the Philadelphia School of Design, a 
member of the Board of Trustees of the Academy of Fine Arts and of the 
Pennsylvania Museum of Industrial Art ; he was also an honorary fellow 
of the Metropolitan Museum, and at the time of his death was one of the 
Board of Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. 

In private life Mr. Whitney was an exceedingly modest and unassuming 
Christian gentleman, generous to a fault, ever ready to assist the unfortu- 
nate, while carefully concealing his name and his good works from the 
public eye. He died on the sixth day of March, 1885, after an illness of 
several weeks. 



j« tin Colors recommendftl 

by the 

International Congress of Geologist! 

a/ its third I Berlin ) Session . 

Constructed by 

Prof Persiforfrazer D. Sc.iUmv. de France.) 

Scale i' i» Miles to I Inch - M3B77aMtilWl 

^ Dolerite 

1 WtrU Quaternary I ' ' 
n ? _ Transit 
^~~ Si Limestone {LowtrSiUrii 
■|.s>_ Lower SiUtrie 
■H t h _ liinihrii CPotsdam / 
,i._ Azoic Schists I Phrllttts i 
it 2 - trcstitlltm Schists. 


Dec. 4, 1885. ] OJL [Frazer. 


By Persifor Frazer. 
{Read before the American Philosophical Society, December 4, 1SS5.) 

The conditions which make York county soil productive, the study of its 
geology interesting, and that geology itself varied, are due to effects of move- 
ment in early geological time, which, compared with those which have 
shaped our continent, are so small that they can hardly be represented upon 
a geological map of the United States of ordinary size. Yet, in a rough 
and general way, York county is a partial imitation, on a very small scale, 
of the United States, inasmuch as, like that part of the American continent, 
it consists of a belt of Archaean rocks in the north-west ; of another in the 
south-east; and that its intermediate portions are made up of newer form- 
ations containing fossils. Cavities in the limestone containing lignite 
and fossil plants, the latter resembling that of the present day, are not 
rare. These and possibly a marl in Carroll township near Dillsburp - , 
which, however, has yielded no fossils, represent the latest geological 
period ; and thus it may be said that of the five great divisions of 
the rocks of our planet : viz, the "original" (?) or Archaean ; the "old 
life " or Palaeozoic; the "middle life" or Mesozoic ; the "new life" or 
*Cainozoic (including under this head the Quaternary and Recent), and 
the Eruptive or igneous, each has a representative (or several of them) 
within the confines of the county. If it were of interest or profit, the 
analogy might be pushed a little farther to include the occurrence of the 
igneous rocks in the north-west ; the broad belt of Mesozoic strata which 
abuts upon the Archaean (but, in the case of the continent, also 
upon numerous masses of new rocks which are scattered over a great 
part of their junction) ; the contact of the Palaeozoic (Siluric in both 
cases) on the south-east border of the Mesozoic and the contact on the 
south-east of the latter formation with the Archaean. The last feature of 
the United States' geology, which fails in the case of York county, is the 
border line of New Life or Cainozoic rocks to the south-east of all the 
above formations ; and even this might be supplied if the limits of the 
county were pushed a comparatively short distance across Mason and 
Dixon's line, and into the State of Maryland. But enough has been made 
of this fancy, which is only introduced in order to fix more securely upon 
the memory the fact that, geologically speaking, York county may be 
considered to be a part of a great accidented plain of which the general 
trend is east of north and west of south. Its valleys, or portions of them, 
have successively formed the ocean bottoms of four or five different geo- 
logical periods, probably extending from first to last over many millions of 

To Rogers' names of "Primal" (or the beginning); "Auroral" (or 

* Written frequently Cenozoic. 

Frazer.] OjZ [Dec. 4, 

the dawn of life); "Matinal" (or the morning. Same metaphor); 
"Surgent" (or rising), &c., to the lower divisions of the Palaeozoic ; and 
"Cadent" (or falling) ; " Umbral" (or darkening) ; "Vespertine" (or 
evening), &c., to the later divisions of the Palaeozoic, the insurmountable 
objection is made that they do not describe any general state of facts. 
Thus it might be asked : Of what are these rocks the beginning, dawn, 
evening? Evidently of the second only of the four arbitrary and artificial 
divisions by age which geologists have constructed for their temporary 
convenience. The plan adopted by the New York geologists of giving a 
name to each formation, which should either recall the locality where it 
was characteristically displayed, such as the "Potsdam sandstone ;" or 
describe it lithologically, as the "Calciferous sandrock," the " Mar- 
cellus shales," the "Oneida conglomerate," &c, would be a good 
one for provisional use, were it not that in addition to the geographical 
designation, a lithological definition is added, which, because restricted 
in the area to which it is applicable, is as often inaccurate as the time de- 
scription of Rogers. Thus the " Potsdam sandstone " is a "Hellain Town- 
ship quartzite, " in York county, and Prof. Fontaine, of Virginia, thinks it 
represented by a peculiar schist containing quartz fragments in Virginia ; 
and some persons are sure that it occurs in other places as a gneiss. The 
"Calciferous sandrock " of New York is the same formation which makes 
up the major part of the broad and fertile limestone valleys of Lancaster, 
York, Cumberland and Franklin counties, &c, where it is not a sandrock 
at all. 

As there are various objections to every system yet proposed, I have 
adopted here that recommended by the International Congress of Geolo- 
gists at its Berlin session. 

The Archaean (or beginning) in this classification comprises those rocks, 
usually crystalline in structure, but of very varied and divergent charac- 
ter, in or below which the very earliest known forms of life occur — and 
those very sparingly — in York county. This series comprises all the rocks 
which are geologically inferior to the Hellam Township quartzite. 

The Palmozoic (or " old life ") includes all the rocks from and including 
the Hellam quartzite to the New Red sandstone, and is made up of the 
quartzite, hydro-mica schists, and their included iron ores, the great blue 
and buff limestone on which the city of York is built, together with that 
of Lower Windsor township ; that near New Holland, in Manchester 
township ; around Newmarket in northern Fairfax township ; and north 
of Dillsburg in northern Carroll township. 

The Mesozoic (or "middle life ") rocks are the reddish-brown sandstones 
and shales (and perhaps the igneous rocks penetrating them) which cover 
almost the entire northwestern part of the county. If the fancy 
might be indulged of likening the outline of the county to that of the 
lower part of a horse's leg, this formation would constitute the fetlock 
joint and all that portion immediately above the hoof proper. 

The Gainozoic (or "new life") includes all those rocks of which the 

1885.] "•"* grazer. 

origin is of later date than the last mentioned, but it is generally used for 
those before the date of any historical evidences of the appearance of man 
on the planet. It is not known to me that there is a representative of this 
age present : that marked "marl" in the geological map being intro- 
duced without the evidence of fossils so far as I know and with consider- 
able doubt. 

The Quaternary and Recent deposits comprise those deposits which have 
been made from the earliest appearance of man on the planet down to the 
present time, including of course those of origin so late that they might 
have been historical. Such are the marks of the denudation which has 
shaped the meadows and hills as they are at present ; the moulding of 
the ravines and deepening of the stream-beds ; the distribution along the 
latter of gravels, &c ; and finally (for the sake of saving one more divi- 
sion of time, which would otherwise lie wholly within this one, and at 
best remain very uncertain as to exact date) the works of man's hand, 
which are discoverable in the arrow-heads and sculptures not infrequently 
observed along the lower course of the noble river which forms York's 
north-eastern boundary. 

One word more is necessary as to the subdivision of the rocks of these 
different geological ages before their occurrence in York county becomes 
our theme. 

It has been said that if the average thickness of all the strata which 
have been yet recognized as distinct in the State of Pennsylvania were 
laid one upon the other, the height of the pile would reach something 
like forty thousand feet. But this is made up almost without taking 
into account other than the Palaeozoic rocks. If the ordinary methods of 
calculation were pursued in estimating the thickness of the Mesozoic or 
New Red sandstone and shale alone which crosses York county, three 
miles and a half would be added to this column.* No very great thick- 
ness of Tertiary or Cainozoic rocks is to be found in Pennsylvania, but if, 
instead of counting upwards, or from the most recent of the Eozoic series, 
we were able to count downwards to its lowest member ; or to the earliest 
existing rocks of the globe, it is probable that a thickness of this series 
alone greater than all of those that we now know put together would be 
established. That the exposures of rock in York county will not justify 
the belief that any considerable fraction of this Archaean series can be 
reached by boring, the following list of its divisions, accepted by many 
geologists, will sufficiently show. They are given in descending order, 
the lowest being the earliest known, and the first named the most recent : 

VI. Keweenian.f III. Huronian. 

V. Taconian. II. Norian. 

IV. Mont Alban. I. Laurentian. 

♦There are, however, good reasons for rejecting such an estimate, 
t See volume E. p. 211, Publications of the 2d Geological (Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania, by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt. 


Frazer.] 6.)4: [Dec. 4> 

The Archaean Rocks of Youk County.* 
Crystalline Schists (a 2 ). 

I have not seen in York county any rocks which I considered to be of 
Laurentian age. If there be any, they are to be sought in the portion of 
the South mountain, which is included in parts of Carroll and Franklin 
townships, but it is very improbable that any will be found there. The 
same may be said of the Norian, which is simply another name for what 
was once called "Upper Laurentian." There remain then only the 
Huronian, the Mont Alban and the Taconian, for the Keweenian is not 
known in this part of the United States. The lowest member of the 
Archaean series, which has been recognized in York county is the Huron- 
ian, and if I be not in error, the rocks of this age form the greater part, if 
not all, of its lower strata. On the accompanying geological map it is col- 
ored a pink of medium tint, and lettered "a 2 ," as well as all that pre- 
viously referred to in Carroll and Franklin townships forming the South 

Crossing the Susquehanna somewhat obliquely a broad fiat arch of 
these rocks becomes evident in plotting the observations on section lines 
along either the right or left bank of the river. f 

The perpendicular thickness of the Huronian rocks which constitute 
the visible parts of this arch has been calculated by me to amount to 
fourteen thousand four hundred feet, or 2.7 miles (or 4.3 kilometers), 
measuring from the lowest rocks exposed a short distance above McCall's 
Ferry to the base of the Peach-Bottom slates. This arch (or anticlinal) 
is a very important feature in the geology of this part of the State ; for 
it is not improbable that it is the leading element in the structure of a 
broad belt of rocks extending from a point at least north of the Schuyl- 
kill river (and not improbably even within the New England States) to 
and into the State of Alabama. 

But whether this carefully considered hypothesis be true or not, there is 
not the slightest reason for doubting that the rocks of this part of the 
county form the floor on which all the others in the county were laid 
down. Another fact in relation to this flat arch or anticlinal remains 
to be considered, viz : the line along its crown (or along the top of the 
arch) appears not to have been an horizontal line after the last great earth- 
crust movements, of which we can find evidence in this part of the con- 
tinent, had been completed ; the axis of this arch appears to have sloped 
upwards, from the west of south to the east of north ; and to say 
that this axis rises towards the north-east, is to say that, judged from 
our present surface, the lower (and consequently older) beds of this 
arch rise nearer to that surface, the farther one follows this direction of 
north-east ; and of course these same rocks sink lower beneath the surface 

*See Note 7 at the end. 

tSee these sections by the author in atlas accompanying volume CCC, 2d 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 

1885.J "«-'5 [Frazer. 

the farther one follows the direction of the arch to the south-west. I have 
elsewhere given reasons for the hypothesis that this anticlinal joins 
and continues the anticlinal of the Buck Ridge * near Conshohocken, a 
few miles north-west of Philadelphia, on the Schuylkill river, traversing 
Lancaster and Chester counties, a little south of the Chester valley. But 
at Conshohocken, the anticlinal is represented by Laurentian gneiss, 
while in Lancaster and York counties, the Huronian schists, which have 
been torn off by atmospheric denudation at the former locality, still re- 
main ; and still farther to the south-west it is not unlikely that.even more 
recent sheathings may be found, unless the axis be broken or bent, and 
rise also in this direction. The main fact, which it is my purpose to 
emphasize here, is that the same structure of arch evidently affects an 
enormous thickness of beds ; in all probability is traced in the flexed rock 
masses of at least two entirely different geological periods, and may pos- 
sibly be discovered in those of yet others outside of the limits of the field 
which it is my purpose to describe. 

A somewhat arbitrary division has been made by the writer between 
the rocks of the Huronian and those of the next following age. The line 
which constitutes this division may be seen passing through the southern 
part of Lower Windsor, the middle of Windsor, the eastern part of Spring- 
field, including Codorus, and reaching the Maryland line a short distance 
east of the boundary dividing Manheim from West Manheim township. 
This line does not profess to be, and in all probability is not an accurate 
line of demarcation between the two formations. It was adopted as an 
approximate dividing line between two regions which exhibit lithological 
characteristics diverging from each other in a degree proportional to the 
distance on either side of it. The same is true of the line which separates 
these lower rocks from the triangular area in the extreme southeastern 
corner of the county, in which are found the famous Peach-Bottom roof- 
ing slates. These two lines, which are in the average parallel to each 
other, are approximate boundaries only between the two regions, and that 
filled by the rocks of the McCall's Ferry or Tocquan Creek anticlinal. 
The rocks of the latter belt are strongly marked crystallteed rocks, f i. e., 
their structure is coarse, and the minerals which compose them are large 
and well crystallized, especially along the central parts of the belt. The 
rocks of the two bordering regions just mentioned are more crystalline, 
i. e., crystallized imperfectly or in much smaller masses, besides having 
other differences in kind. For example, the arch-belt (if I may be per- 
mitted to express it so), contains larger amounts and larger specimens of 
Muscovite, and more potash micas generally. The rocks are lighter, and 
not infrequently enough feldspar is found to give them a decidedly gneissic 
character; and the more so in general terms, the farther one gets away 

*See "Theses presentees a la Faculte des Sciences de Lille. University de 
France," &c, 1882, and "History of Lancaster County," &c, Phila., Everst & 
PeckPubl., 1883, p. 3. 

fSee note at the end. 

Frazer.] & J® [Dec. 4, 

from the bordering regions. The rocks in these latter regions, on the other 
hand, are more and more magnesian, darker in color (usually greenish 
or yellowish-green) and softer. They contain large quantities of chloritic 
minerals, and are remarkable for the great number of white quartz dykes 
which intersect them. 

These "arch-rocks" are very generally destitute of valuable minerals, 
so far as they have been explored in York county, except on the fringe 
of the South mountain, where they are in close proximity to a 
series of iron ore deposits similar to and in fact continuous with those 
known as the ores of the "Great," or "Cumberland Valley." But 
though this juxtaposition would tempt one to connect these ores with the 
rocks just spoken of, and though it is conceded that rocks of this age do 
often carry iron ores, the strong probability is that the proximity is "acci- 
dental," that is to say, that the ores occur at the foot of the mountain, 
because having been originally imbedded (as constituents of minerals) in 
the rocks which covered these slopes during the degradation and destruc- 
tion of these latter they have been disintegrated, carried away from their 
original place (sometimes not far off), and segregated in the soft and 
unctuous clays to which these loose beds have been reduced. But it is not 
improbable that some of these ores may have owed their origin to the 
same kind of alteration taking place within the mass of the Huronian rocks 
themselves. So that wherever the loose debris of higher formations (and 
notably of the Hellam quartzite (Potsdam sandstone), which everywhere 
abounds on the slope in boulders and blocks) will permit the undoubted 
Huronian to appear near one of these great iron mines, it is likely to be 
found that a part of the wealth of the latter consists in a somewhat pecu- 
liar ore unlike the rest, which can be traced to its first resting place with- 
in the bosom of the Huronian rocks. 

The belt of rocks which represents the Archaean in York county, lies, as it 
may be said approximately, between two lines, one following Muddy 
creek from its mouth in the Susquehanna to its ris;ht-angled bend, and 
thence through Bryantsville to Constitution ; and the other commencing 
opposite Turkey hill (in Lancaster county), and passing north-west of 
Windsor post-office, south-east of Dallastown, and nearly through Glen 
Rock post-office. The portion of the South mountain above referred to as 
belonging to the same age is small in area within the county limits, and 
occurring at one end of the chain of crystallophyllites where they appear 
to sink beneath the newer limestones and shales ; its slopes are gentler ; it 
has been subjected to greater erosion, and is covered for the most part with 
the debris of more recent formations. This belt, thus defined, contains no 
minerals which are yet mined (if we except the iron ores from the cate- 
gory), but the soil formed by the chemical and mechanical action of the 
atmosphere on its rocks is next in fertility to that of the limestone belt 
itself. The rocks of the Archaean belt, thus defined, are intersected by but 
few igneous dykes or trap, and this fact, taken in connection with the re- 
markable prevalence of such dykes in the north-western part of the county, 

1885.1 &<'* IFrazer. 

and their frequency throughout the middle belt of limestone and schists, 
would lead one to conclude either that the seats of the igneous action 
resided within the beds of the newer rocks, or that the superposition of 
the latter in some way favored the development of the Plutonic forces 
which have forced molten rock for miles through narrow crevices and 
cracks in the envelope of the globe. Perhaps the explanation may be 
found in the supposition that the number of such dykes would depend 
upon the number of fractures in the earth's crust, aud that this number 
would increase with the growing weight due to thickening sediments 
deposited by water. However this may be (and it does not explain all of 
the facts connected with the new red sandstone), the only points where 
have observed trap penetrating and terminating in the rocks of this belt 
are : First, in a small exposure north of York Furnace on the Susquehanna, 
and second, a short distance east of Black Rock post-office. 

The Belt of Azoic Schists or Phyllites (a 3 ). 

I have preferred to describe this belt under a separate heading, because 
there are difficulties connected with its assignment, either to that part 
of the Archaean rocks just considered, or to the Palaeozoic which will 
next be described. These difficulties arise in great part from the lack 
of outcrops of "rock in place." The decomposition which has at- 
tacked this intermediate belt has destroyed the identity of the individual 
beds and strewn the surface with its products, which are mingled with the 
remains of rocks of much later date. This is not surprising if we may 
assume that this belt formed the upper and later portions of the great 
Archaean series, for we have abundant proof that in contrast to the stability 
and repose of the broad flat arch to the south east, this new region was the 
hinge on which the first of a number of severe plications of the strata were 
operated. This bending and twisting unquestionably crumbled the rocks 
and left loose material which was easily moulded by the waters of the 
ocean, which then or subsequently covered it. to forms which more or less 
resembled those which had originally characterized it. But after its con- 
solidation with the next succeeding formation, and after an unknown 
amount of erosion had laid bare their contact line, both were together simi- 
larly treated, so that in the contorted state in which it was left it exhibits 
some features which recall the Middle Archaean, and others wliicli remind 
one of the Lower Palaeozoic of the county. Its precise boundaries being 
difficult to ascertain on the ground, cannot be given with precision in the 
text. It will suffice to say that, beginning on the Susquehanna river, a 
short distance south of the southern outcrop of the Prospect limestone, one 
part of it occupies all the region lying between the north-western bound- 
ary of the Archaean already given and the southern and eastern limits of 
the Hellam quartzite shortly to be described. It is traversed through part 
of its extent by two large trap dykes, and contains numerous deposits of 
iron ore which I am disposed to ascribe to segregation from iron minerals 
in other formations. Some limestone occurs interbedded with these rocks 

Frazer.] OJO [Dec. 4, 

(as at Glen Rock), which maybe safely assumed to be of earlier date than 
the important York limestone, whether or not it be (as seems not improba- 
ble) a part of the regular Huronian series. 

The most extensive iron ore banks noted in or on the border of this in- 
termediate belt are the Brillhart and Feigley banks marked Nos. 11 and 
12 on the map. 

The Peach-Bottom district, including the roofing slates lying to the 
south of the flat arch, was described by me in volume CCC, Second 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, in 1877, where I showed that its posi- 
tion in the series was doubtful, and that these rocks might be interpreted to 
represent the Upper Archaean (a 3 ) (below the Potsdam) ; or the schists imme- 
diately above the Potsdam (sj; or (by supposing a fault), a formation still 
higher — the "Matinal " of Rogers. Since then fossil algae were furnished 
to Prof. James Hall from the quarries, but he was unable to determine 
the age of the rocks from them with greater precision, than to refer them 
to the second or third of these horizons, with a preference to the second.* 
Photographs of the quarries and of the manner of working them will be 
found in volume CCC, Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. f 

The Palaeozoic Rocks. 
Cambric (Hellam Quartzite, Potsdam Sandstone), (cb) 

Prof. H. D. Rogers, in the First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, 
marked out and described the members of the different formations repre- 
sented in the State. This formation, which we may consider the base of 
the Palaeozoic, was considered by him to consist of three parts : a lower 
series of "talcose " slates, a middle white sandstone, and an upper series 
of talcose slates. It will be easily understood, by what has just been said, 
to what extent the view here offered differs from that of our great pioneer 
geologist. These "lower talcose slates," in all probability, are identical 
with the Azoic schists (or phyllites) just described, and, therefore, 
their position relatively to the beds beneath them and above them is 
the same, whether they be considered Upper Archaean or Lower Palaeozoic. 
There are no good exposures of the Hellam quartzite with the slate 
below it at any place in York county which I recall. On the flank of 
the South mountain, the quartzite is very much rent and crushed into 
fragments, while of the small patch on the map about two miles west of 
Case's ore bank (No. 8 on the map) no accurate dip was recorded. The 
Hellam quartzite, of which a part composes the "Chikis mountain," 
exhibits, indeed, in its numerous foldings the rock, called by Rogers, 
"talcose slate," between its two principal beds of quartzite, but not 
appreciably lower than the latter. We are forced to look to other parts of 
the country for a clearer knowledge of the relation to each other of this 
quartzite, and the schists on which it rests. We find abundant instances 

•See Peach-Bottom slates of S. K. York and S. Lancaster counties, Proc. Am. 
Inst, of Min. Engrs. Troy meeting, 1883. 
fSee note No. 2 at the end. 

1885.] 6 J.) |Frazer. 

of this contact in Chester county north of the valley of that name, and in 
all of them the quartzite lies " uncomformably " (*. e., with changed dip) 
upon the schists. The latter, it is true, are somewhat different in minor 
characteristics from those of which it is here the question, but so also is the 
quartzite. Yet we have the best reasons for believing that each is of con- 
temporary origin with its analogue in York county ; and indeed, the dif- 
ferences, which would not be considered at all important by any but a 
critical geologist, are what we might expect when we remember that these 
rocks are sediments laid down at the bottom of successive seas, and that 
their characters depended upon the kind of material which different 
streams draining different parts of the country brought down to be strewn 
out at different localities during different epochs.* 

It will be explained before long that the physical break between the 
Archaean schists and the limestone series is rendered highly probable by the 
observations in York county, but that between the flat arch belt and the 
Hellam township quartzite must rest upon the direct evidence obtained 
in other counties, unless here also we may apply the indirect method 
mentioned above, and conclude that inasmuch as the Hellam quartzite 
contains one important fossil (Scolithus linearis) and the Archaean schists 
contain none that have yet been discovered in York county, this fact 
alone entitles them to be considered different formations. 

The Hellam or Chikis quartzite is a hard quartzose rock, of which the 
general color is white or gray, tinted by some other color, usually pink, 
brown or blue, depending upon the minerals with which it has been asso- 
ciated. It is almost always crystalline, and in disturbed regions like this is 
most frequently found in broken fragments rather than in continuous beds. 
This is probably owing to its brittleness, which prevented it from yield- 
ing gradually to the strain which has folded and tilted the other rocks of 
the county. These strains have twisted, broken and crumbled it, but on 
account of its great hardness and its resistance to the chemical action of 
the atmosphere, it is the least altered or decomposed of all the rocks to 
be considered here, and almost always indicates its presence by a hill, 
whatever be the position of its strata, f 

It is not necessary to specify the localities within the county where this 
quartzite occurs, because they are indicated by brown on the accompany- 
ing geological map ; still less is it desirable to discuss here all the possi- 
bilities of structure which these scattered outcrops suggest. It is important, 
however, before leaving the floor of the Palaeozoic column, to say that 
eleven years of experience in the field have caused me to doubt the cor- 

* Let any one observe the great differences between the characters of the sand 
beach of our own Atlantic coast within short distances. See on this subject 
Delesse's important contribution entitled " Geologie du fond des niers," and 
tbe writer's notice of the same in the Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 

t Of course the reason of this is that the erosion, which has torn off hundreds 
and perhaps thousands of feet of the other measures, has not been able to 
reduce it to the same extent, and itremains, consequently, as an elevation, or 
chain of hills. 

Frazer.] 4UU [Dec. 4) 

rectness of ascribing to this formation the iron ores which are found in the 
schists immediately above the quartzite.* 

The Grubb ore bank (No. Ill of the map) is the only one which lies 
wholly within the area of the Hellam quartzite as given on the map, but 
a reference to the description of this bank (Vol. C, p. 64, 2d G. S. of P.) 
leads to the belief that the larger part of the ore lies in a small remnant 
of the bottom schists of the next higher formation, which has escaped the 
erosion that cut off the higher layers of that formation. Part of it, how- 
ever, answers to the description of an iron ore which may really 
belong to the quartzite and which has been noticed in the rocks forming 
the outer casing of the South mountain .f 

Siluric. (s) 

The York Limestone and Schists {Auroral of Rogers, in part the Cal- 
ciferous Sand rock of the New York Survey). This important member of 
the Palaeozoic series in York county consists of at least two, and perhaps 
three, distinct kinds of rocks, and inasmuch as the kind that occurs at the 
bottom (which resembles strongly that which occurs among the limestone 
beds themselves, and also above them) has already been mentioned several 
times by anticipation, it will be advisable to consider it first. 

Hydro-mica Schists, (sj) 

It was previously stated that Rogers, and following him, almost all other 
writers on geology up to the commencementofthe Second Geological Survey 
of Pennsylvania, had given the name of " talcose slates " to a group of rocks 
which he connected in epoch with the quartzite. The word talcose was ap- 
plied to them because from their softness and greasy feel it was assumed that 
they were largely composed of "talc;" but subsequent investigations of 
these rocks in the chemical laboratory have shown tnat they contain little 
or no magnesia, and that they derive their peculiar characters from large 
amounts of a group of micas containing potash or soda and water. Prof. 
James D. Dana conceived the happy thought of naming the group the 
" Hydro micas " (or water-containing micas), and naturally the rock 
which is mainly composed of them is called Hydro-mica schist. 

These hydro-mica, or nacreous schists, are not of uniform appearance. 
Sometimes, and especially in the beds that underlie the limestone, they 
are firmly compacted together, making hard rock masses and high hills, 
as at many places along the Susquehanna, from Wrightsville to Cabin 
Branch run, and elsewhere in the county. Sometimes they are so much 
disintegrated as to form dust, which on close view is seen to be mainly 

*Of course, if the Potsdam have an upper member consisting of schists, the 
above assignment is correct ; but I know of no instance in which the opposite 
supposition is not equally supported hy the (acts. It is also to be noted that 
the limestoneand iron-ore bearing schists are more frequently found together 
without the quartzite, than the quartzite and schists without the limestone. 

tCottrel I, Benson's and Smyser's mines (Nos. II and 112) are ou the borderline 
between the quartzite and limestone. 

1885.1 [Frazer. 

made up of little glinting particles. In the former case the beds are very 
often strewn with pyrite. Again, in place of these crystals of iron — and 
occasionally copper— sulphide, are beautiful casts or moulds of the shape 
of a cube, more or less filled with a dark brown iron rust obtained from 
the decomposition of the original crystals. These little crystals have 
been of no small importance to the prosperity of York county, for there is 
good reason for believing that by far the largest part of its iron ores have 
been derived from their oxidation, transportation by water and final 
deposition in the clays formed from the grinding up of the rocks which 
originally contained them.* 

These argillites, or limestone schists, as I have sometimes called them, 
in all probability hold all the important iron oref mines of the county, 
outside of the formation of red sandstone and shales. It is true that 
sometimes the iron ore banks appear to be far from the area colored as 
limestone, and sometimes directly within the boundaries of that area, 
but in neither case is it under conditions that forbid the belief that they 
are in the veritable hydro-mica schists, even if the latter may have been 
reduced by the weather to soft unctuous and variegated clays. It is not 
assuming too much, therefore, to call this portion of York county rocks 
the real iron-bearing region. The edges of the rock appear in the right 
bank of the Susquehanna river, where that river has cut through them, and 
one would select the part just above Wrightsville to ascertain whether 
these schists were unconformable upon the quartzite ; but the following 
records of the dip, or inclination of the two rock series taken from section 
1 of my report on the county,}: will show that both formations are so 
flexed or twisted, that no certainty can be obtained there. First, there 
are two dips in the Quartzite of South— 50°, and almost at the contact 
wi h the schists S. 20°, E. — 45°. Next there are three dips in the schists 
which are respectively S.— 45°, S. 10°, E.— 50°, S.— 10°, E.— 10°. Still, 
there is every probability that in fact the dips of the two differ, both in 
direction and amount, while there are no such indications for the dips of 
the schists and of the limestone proper at this place. § These schists are 
colored dark-green in the accompanying map. 

The York Limestone with Argillites. — One of the best opportunities of 
measuring the thickness of this limestone is afforded by the section 
referred to along the Susquehanna from a little run half a mile above the 
Columbia bridge to Creitz's creek. This is evidently a trough with the 
axis close to the bridge, and measures 2800 feet of limestone and in- 
cluded schists. If the schists between the quartzite and the limestone 
be included, it would add some 1600 feet to this, making the limestone 

* See Volume C, p. 137, 2d G. S. of Pa., by the author. 

t See Note 3, at the end. 

% Vol. C, p. 7S. 

gin the section above referred to it is probable that a further study would 
enable me to abandon the hypothesis of non-conformability at g,i,k and o, 
which I considered necessary eleven years ago. 


Frazer.l 4U.Z [Dec. 4, 

and the schists below It to the quartzite 4400 feet thick. The same heds 
measured by me in Lancaster county only amounted to 3400 feet. These 
beds, therefore, thicken 1000 feet in the twelve miles which intervene 
between this section and the city of Lancaster, and ot this thickening 400 
feet belong to the schists below the limestone and 600 leet 1o the limestone 
itself and its included schists.* The limestone, of which numerous 
analyses will be found in Reports C, CC, CCC, M and MM, is dolomitic, 
that is to say, it is a carbonate of lime, containing varjing amounts of 
carbonate of magnesia. There is also some ground for believing that two 
kinds of limestone are represented, each having its own peculiarities of 
physical structure. It was noticed in many cases that two kinds of lime- 
stone were often exposed in the same quarry, and that they usually 
showed slight variations ot dip. One, which was apparently the elder, 
was of a buff or grayish color, and less marked stratification ; the other 
blue, with white streaks and spots of lighter colored limestone (often 
calcite). One case was recorded where, in a contact between the two, 
pebbles of the buff were found in the blue. There seems no doubt that 
the great mass of limestone now under consideration w T as formed subse- 
quently to the quartzite, arjd at about the epoch oftheCalcilerous Sand-rock 
of New York and before the Trenton, or in other words in the Canadian 
epoch of Dana. But no fossils were found in the county to settle the 
question. The portions of the beds connecting the limestone near New 
Market with that of York (a connection which doubtless exists), is 
covered up by the beds of the Mesozoic. Those which once connected 
that of Wrightsville with that near Prospect has been washed away in the 
general planing down of Ihe surface by erosion. The limestone is Indi- 
cated in the map by white line blocks through the dark green. 

The Mesozoic Rocks in York County. 

None of the numerous members of Mesozoic rocks is known to be rep- 
resented but the groups of sandstones and shales known as the "New 
Red Sandstone," and sometimes the "Triassic Sandstone." 

There are many puzzling questions which arise from the study of these 
rocks, not the least of which is their thickness. If one assumes them to 
lie naturally without distortion, layer upon layer, in York and Adams 
counties, their perpendicular thickness in this region will be not less than 
sixteen thousand four hundred feet.f The lower bed of this formation, 

* See Note 4, at the end. 

tSee Volume O', 2d G. S. of Pennsylvania, p. 303, by the author. See also by 
the same "The American New Red Sandstone." Trans. A. I. M. E. ; "The Meso- 
zoic formation in Virginia," by C. J. Heinrlch; Trans. A I. M. E., Feb., 
1878; Noles on the Mesozoic of Virginia, by Prof. William M. Fontaine, Am. J. 
of Sc, January, 1879; and "Some Mesozoic ores," Proceedings American 
Philosophical Society, April 20, 1877, by the writer. In the article ci'.ed second, 
and in a review of the others In the American Naturalist for May, L879, I have 
shown that by calculating the thickness of Prof. II. D. Rogers' Yardleyville 
section of this formation (First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania) by th9 
ordinary method, the thickness of beds would appear to be 51,500 feet, or niqe 
and three-quarter miles. 

1885.] 4U<J [Frazer. 

which forms its eastern boundary, is very generally a conglomerate of 
the older limestone pebbles, forming Mesozoic rocks. This can be ob- 
served about two miles west of York, at Beeler's Cross roads (Vol. C, p. 
92, Sec. 2a). 

The upper bed seems to be also a conglomerate which forms its 
western boundary on the slope of the South mountain. Rogers was in 
doubt, whether the so-called " Potomac marble " was represented by the 
upper or lower of these (see Report CO., p. 265). Borings with the dia- 
mond drill by Mr. Heinrich, recorded in the paper above mentioned, show 
that no such thickness exists in point of fact as one might conclude from 
the appearance of the beds, and the probability is that the actual thickness 
there is not above fifteen hundred feet. No such borings have been made 
in York county, but the probability is that this thickness is not very 
greatly exceeded. But these measures in York county are chiefly interest- 
ing on account, 1st of their fossils ; 2d of their iron ores ; and 3d of their 
coal. From the former Prof. E. D. Cope was able to assign the beds con- 
taining them to the middle and upper divisions of the Triassic. The coal 
which is found about three-quarters of a mile norlh of Liverpool on I. 
Spahn's farm, and elsewhere, represents the extensive deposits known as 
the Richmond Coal fields, which have been wrought for a century in 
Virginia to advantage, and are so still. Although its analysis indicates it 
to be a good bituminous coal (see CCC, p. 259*), yet it has never been 
found in Pennsylvania in paying quantities. 

Copper, and other valuable metals have been similarly observed in this 
formation, though in disappointing quantity, in this county, though they 
have supplied furnaces in other parts of this State and in other States. 
The richest deposits of these metals are usually found near the borders of 
the formation. For the following summary of the Triassic fossils as yet 
determined in Pennsylvania I am indebted to the kindness of Prof. Cope. 

The vertebrate fossils from the Triassic beds of Pennsylvania have 
been obtained principally from two localities by Mr. C. M. Wheatley. 
The longest known is the tunnel of the Reading railroad at Phoenixville; 
the other is in York county. f The species represented belong to the 
Fishes, Batrachia and Reptilia, as follows : 

Turseodus acutus Leidy .Phrenixville. 


Eupelor durus Cope Phoenixville. 


Belodon prisms Leidy York Co., Phoenixville. 

" carolinensis Emmons York Co., Phoenixville. 

" Upturns Cope Phoenixville. 

* See Note 5 at the end. 

f About two miles north of west of Emilysville and one and a half mUes from 
the south-eastern border of the Mesozoic— P. F. 

Frazer.] 4LM [Dec. 4, 

Palmosaurus fraserianus Cope York Co. 

SucJioprion cyphodon Cope York Co. 

" aulacodus Cope York Co. 

Clepsysaurus pennsylvanicus Lea Phcenixville. 

" veatteianus Cope York Co. 

Palceoctonus appalachianus Cope York Co. 

1 hecodontosaurus gibbidens Cope York Co. 

Total, twelve species, most of which are descrihed in the Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society for 1877. 

Of the above, the genera Belodon, Palseosaurus and Thecodontosaurus 
are typical Triassic forms. The first and last named are the most clearly 
determined. Belodon is characteristic of the Keuper in Europe. As the 
species found in North Carolina and in New Mexico (B. scolopax and B. 
buceros Cope) are characteristic members of the genus, I have identified 
their horizons with the Keuper. The specimens from Pennsylvania are 
not so perfect as from the Other localities, but are not separable from 
them. Thecodontosaurus belongs to the base of the Keuper (Etheridge). 
No vertebrate remains indicating the existence of the Muschelkalk 
have yet been found in North America. — E. D. Cope. 

Iron Ores. What has been said of the copper and other metals, 
may here be said of the iron ores. Although an immense amount of iron 
must have been consumed in providing these beds with their characteristic 
red color, and in fact large quantities of thin oxide scales are to be ob- 
served almost everywhere between the strata ; the only localities where 
iron ores appear to have been found in any abundance or permanence 
are : 1st, those near the margins of the New Red Sandstone, when it 
overlies another formation containing iron ore ; and 2d, in the neighbor- 
hood of the trap dykes, which contain over 11 per cent of oxide of iron.* 
In the former case, it is extremely probable that the deposits of the older 
beds (as on the flank of South mountain) have been torn up by the agi- 
tated waters which laid down the Triassic rocks, and