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Full text of "Proceedings of the annual convention"

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PROCEEDINGS 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION 



American Railway Engineering 
Association 



HELD AT THE 



CONGRESS HOTEL, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
March 16, 17 and 18, 1915 



VOLUME 16 



PUBLISHED BY 
THE AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 

CHICAGO 
1915 



Copyright, 1915, 
By American Railway Engineering Association 
Chicago, 111. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PART 1. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 3-2-' 

CONSTITUTION. 

CONSTITUTION 23-38 

Name, Object and Location J 3 

Membership 2 S 

Admission and Expulsion 2 ° 

Dues 28 

Officers • • 28 

Nomination and Election of Officers 2 9 

Management 3 1 

Meetings 3 2 

Amendments 33 

GENERAL INFORMATION. 

GENERAL INFORMATION 34-37 

Appointments of Committees and Outline of Work 34 

Preparation of Committee Reports 34 

Publication of Committee Reports 30 

Consideration of Committee Reports 3° 

Publication by Technical Journals , \7 

General Rules for Publication of the Manual 

BUSINESS SESSION. 

BUSINESS SESSION »' ''-* 

Introductory Remarks by the Presidenl 4' 

President's Address '' 

Repoii of the Secretary 4" 

Publications 43 

The Proceedings 4 s 

Monographs 

I duplication of Work 

The Annual Conventions A '' 

Membership 

Financial Statement 

Receipts and Expenditures in I '• tail 
Stresses in Track Fund . 

3 



4 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

BUSINESS SESSION— Continued. page. 

Report of the Treasurer 53 

Condensed Report of Convention 54-^2 

Report of Tellers 57 

Resolutions Adopted 59> 6o 

Installation of Officers 6i 

Date of Seventeenth Annual Convention 62 

COMMITTEE REPORTS. 

RULES AND ORGANIZATION 65-74 

Instructions 65 

Sub-Committees 65 

Committee Meetings 05 

Revision of Manual 66 

Safety Rules 65 

Science of Organization 67 

Recommendation? for Next Year's Work 69 

Report on Study of Science of Organization 70 

Instructions 70 

Definitions 70 

Organization 70 

Science of Organization 70 

Organization Working 70 

Principles 71 

Proper Selection of Material 71 

Compensation 72 

Education 72 

Esprit de Corps 72 

Discipline 72 

Maintenance of Way Organization 73 

Benefits from Study 74 

SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING 75-87 

Requisites for Switch Indicators 75 

List of Specifications, Findings, Conclusions and Standards 

of the Railway Signal Association 77 

Rating of Operative Units 84 

Revision of Manual 85 

Automatic Train Control 86 

Requisites of Installation 86 

Adj uncts 87 

Recommendations for Next Year's Work 87 

UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS 89-101 

Introductory 89 

Changes in General Conditions 90 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 5 

UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS Continued. page. 

Uniform General Contract Form — Agreement Form 92 

Construction Contract— General Conditions 93 

Bond, Form 101 

ECONOMICS OF RAH. WAN' LOCATION 103-150 

Introductory 103 

Conclusions 104 

Formula for the Economic Value of a Location 104 

Friction Resistance Formula 107 

Fuel Consumption to7 

Grade, Curvature. Rise and Fall, and Distance no 

Data Necessary for Economical Design Ill 

Length of Engine Runs, Location of Yards and Water 

Supply 111 

Ruling Gradients Ill 

Future Traffic Requirements and Construction of Tempo 

rary Lines ' • -' 

Compensation of Gradients for Curvature 113 

Momentum Gradients 113 

.Minor Details of Location, General 113 

Definitions 114 

Distance ' ' 4 

Curvature 1 14 

Line Resistance 1 14 

Fuel Consumption US 

Effect of Minor Details on ( )petating Expenses 

Economics of Railway Location 124 

Expenses of Operation 126 

Maintenance of Way and Structures '-'' 

Transportation — Rail — Line '-"■ 

Stokers and Superheaters 135 

Coal Consumption With Mechanical Stokei 

Performance of Locomotive Stokers 

Effect of the Use of Superheated Steam on Locomotive 

Tractive Effort 1$ 

Boiler Capacity 135 

Cylinder Performance u 1 

Minority Report on Econo Railway I" n on 

RAH 

Standard Rail Sections i;i 

Rail Failures and Conclusions Deduced Therefrom 'S3 

Special Investigations of Rails 

Specifications for Materia] in Rail Joints 

Rail Lengths '" 

Revision of Manual 

locations ' "' 



6 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

RAIL— Continued. page. 

Future Work 158 

Conclusions J 59 

Influence of Carbon on the Properties of Rail 161 

Summary 185 

Formula for Deflections of Rails in Drop Test 189 

Summary 194 

Study of Rail with Internal Fissure 195 

Summary 204 

Rail Failure Statistics for 1913 207 

Introductory 207 

Failures Classified by Mills 211 

Comparison of Sections 217 

Comparison of Weights 219 

Ingot Positions 226 

Titanium Alloy 226 

Failures per too Track Miles 229 

Summary 230 

Statistics 232 

Comparative Service Tests of 100-lb. Sections, P. S. and A. R. 

A.-A., on the Pennsylvania Lines, West of Pittsburgh... 319 

Summary 322 

Influence of Finishing Temperature on Open-Hearth Rails... 349 

Internal Fissures in New Rail 389 

Standard Rail Sections 397 

R. E. 90-lb 397 

R. E. 100-lb 398 

R. E. 1 10-lb . .' 399 

R. E. 120-lb 400 

R. E. 130-lb 401 

R. E. 140-lb 4 (l - 

Specifications for High-Carbon Steel-Joint Bars 403 

Specifications for Heat-Treated Oil-Quenched Steel-Joint Bars 404 
Specifications for Medium-Carbon Steel Track Bolts with Nuts. 406. 407 

Review of Rail Investigations, 1910 to 1914, Inclusive 411 

Abstracts of Reports to Rail Committee 414 

Conclusions 429 

SIGNS, FENCES AND CROSSINGS 433-519 

Introductory 433 

Fences 435 

Definitions 435 

Specifications for Standard Right-of-Way Fences 436 

F-rection 438 

Galvanized Wire Fencing 440 

Gates for Right-of-Way Fences 440 

Concrete Fence Posts 440 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 7 

X 

SIGNS, FENCES AND CROSSINGS— Continued. page. 

Snow Fences 441 

Definitions 441 

Snow Plows 442 

Snow Sheds 442 

Surface Stock-Guards 443 

Definitions 443 

General Requirements 443 

Track Construction and Flangeways at Paved Street Crossings 

and in Paved Streets 443 

Economy of Concrete and Metal Signs as Compared with 

Wood : 444 

Economy of Concrete and Metal as Ccunpared with Wood for 

Fence Posts 445 

Typical Concrete Fence Posts 465 

Tests of Concrete Fence Posts 482 

Methods Used in Repainting Signs and Specifications for 

Whitewashing Cattle-Guard Wing Fences 496 

Detail Cost Data— Metal Posts 504 

Wood Posts 504 

Synopsis of Laws Relating to Crossing Signs 507 

Conclusions 508 

Recommendations _ 508 

Paint Specifications 510 

Consistency of Pigments by Weight 510 

Mixing and Handling Red Lead 511 

Signal Red 516 

Signal Yellow 516 

Signal Green 516 

Bridge Paint 516 

Whitewash Specifications 519 

TIES 521-564 

Revision of Manual 522 

Economy in Track Labor and Material Effected Through Use 

of Treated Compared with Untreated Cross-Ties 522 

Formula for Determining Life and Price of. Ties 524 

Economic Comparison of Railroad Ties of Different Mate- 
rials 524 

Use of Metal, Composite and Concrete Ties 525 

Results with Use of Steel Ties, Bessemer & Lake Erie 

Railroad 5 2 S 

Reference to Published Data on Metal, Composite and Concrete 

Ties 536 

Distribution and Care of Cross-Tics 53S 

Spotting Ties for Renewals 53* 

Distributing ' 



8 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

TIES— Continued. page. 

Counting and Inspection 543 

Tie Records 543 

Piling 545 

"S" Irons on Hardwood Ties 54& 

Steel Ties 550 

Rules Governing Distribution 550 

Unloading, by Use of Magnet and Locomotive Crane 551 

Inspection Hammer (Insert) 552 

Tie Marking Nails (Insert) ?$2 

Method of Piling Cross-Ties and Switch-Ties (Insert) 552 

Tie Inspections and Renewals 554 

Instructions Covering Handling and Laying of Rail, Adzing of 

Ties and Tie Plating 556 

Tie Plate Imbedding Beetle 562 

Tie Plate Gage 563 

Tie Sur facer 563 

ROADWAY 565-600 

Revision of Manual 566 

Unit Pressures Allowable on Roadbeds of Different Materials. . 573 

Soils, Sub-Divisions 575 

Deflection Tests, Ballast Floor Trestles 578 

Bibliography — Bearing Power of Soils 580 

Specifications for Protection of Slopes by Sodding or Other- 
wise 582 

Preparation of Slopes 582 

Limit of Slopes 583 

Cutting Sod 583 

Watering Sod' 583 

Staking Sod 583 

Settling Banks Before Sodding 583 

Seeding 583 

Planting Willows 583 

Temporary Protections Against Wash 586 

Specifications 587 

Sod Cutter 589 

Cutting and Loading Sod 589 

Method of Laying 5QO 

Bermuda Grass Sodding Specifications 592 

Means for Prevention or Cure of Water-Pockets in Roadbed.. 595 

Prevention of Water-Pockets 596 

Cure of Water-Pockets 598 

Conclusions 600 

IRON AND STEEL STRUCTURES 601-676 

Conclusions 604 

Methods of Protection of Iron and Steel Structures Against 

Corrosion 605 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 9 

IRON AND STEEL STRUCTURES— Continued. page. 

Protection by Means of Paint 605 

Shop Painting Methods 605, 616 

Principles 605 

Efficient Paints 605 

Principal Primary Pigments 607 

Principal Secondary Pigments 608 

The Atlantic City Tests 609 

The Havre de Grace Bridge Tests 610 

Painting Methods at Bridge Shops 612 

Kinds of Paints Used and Methods of Application 614 

On New Fabricated Steel 618 

Field Coat 624 

Shop Coat 628 

Repainting or Maintenance of Bridges Under Traffic 630 

Column Tests 636 

Design, Length and Operation of Turntables 655 

Length 655 

Type 656 

Type of Center 657 

End Lift 657 

End Latch 657 

Type of Deck 658 

Live Load 658 

Unit Stresses and Impact 659 

Deflection 659 

Comparison of Engine Loads on Turntables ( Insert ) 664 

Axle Loads and Spacing ( Insert ) 664 

Weight ' ( Insert ) 664 

Center of Gravity ( Insert ) 664 

Moment at Center (1 nsert ) 664 

Shear at Center ( Insert I 664 

Length of Turntable ( Insert ) 664 

Impact and Secondary Stresses 667 

Elastic Strength Requirement for Steel 

Tensile Yield Point 671 

Ultimate Strength of Structural Steel 671 

Relation Between Yield Point and Ultimate Strength of 

Steel in Tension 

Bridge Clearance Diagram 

Maximum Equipment Now in Use... (Insert) 

WATER SERVICE 

Revision of Manual 

Deep Wells and 1 >eep-Wcll Pumping 

Diameter 

Depth ■ 



10 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

WATER SERVICE— Continued. page. 

Depth of Water 681 

Capacity per Well per 24 Hours 681 

Solids (Grains per Gallon) 681 

Cost per foot of Well Ready for Pump 682 

Cost per Horsepower for Pump Installed 682 

Cost per Horsepower for Pump House 682 

Cost per 1,000 Gallons Pumped 683 

Static Head 683 

Centrifugal Force of Free Air per Gallon of Water 683 

Air Pressure 684 

Percentage Submergence for Air Lift 684 

Typical Well ...'. 684 

Lining 684 

Screens 684 

Pump 684 

Cost of Fuel 685 

Labor Costs 685 

Use of Compounds in Locomotive Boilers to Counteract Foam- 
ing and Scaling 686 

Anti-Scale Compounds 686 

Mechanical Agents 687 

Graphite 688 

Chemical Agents 688 

Sodium Carbonate 689 

Sodium Hydrate 690 

Tri-Sodium Phosphate 691 

Salammoniac 691 

Barium Carbonate 691 

Barium Chloride 691 

Barium Hydrate 692 

Tannins 692 

Sugars 693 

Method of Application 694 

Recent Developments in Pumping Machinery 695 

Classification of Pumping Machinery 695 

Features Determining Choice of Plant 696 

Economy of Pumping Machinery 696 

Losses 696 

Centrifugal Pumps 696 

Historical 696 

Development 697 

Advantages 697 

Classification 097 

Entrance to Pump 698 

Drive 698 

Efficiencv 698 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 11 

WATER SERVICE— Continued. pace. 

Internal Combustion Engines 6qg 

Development 699 

Types and Operation of Engines 699 

Conversion of Engines to Use Various Oils 700 

Automatic Stop 701 

Attendance 701 

Kinds of Oil Used for Fuel 701 

Verification of Economical Operation 702 

Electric Motor-Driven Pumps 703 

Availability of Electric Power 703 

Types of Electric Power Pumping Units 703 

Electric Motors with Centrifugal Pumps 703 

Conditions Governing the Choice of Pumping Unit 704 

Cost of Fuel for Various Types of Pumps and Engines 705 

Steam Pumping Tests 706 

Description of Pump 706 

Suction Pipe 706 

Discharge Pipe 706 

Total Head to Pump Against 706 

Work Done 706 

Efficient Horsepower 707 

Coal Used 707 

Charges Against Station 707 

Cost 707 

Cost per Efficient Horsepower per Hour 707 

Corrosion Tests on Iron and Steel 712 

TRACK 7i5~7tf 

Double Slip-Crossings, Double Crossovers and Guard Rails.... 715 

Relation Between Worn Flanges and Worn Switch Points.... 716 

Economics of Track Labor 710 

Contour of Chilled Car Wheels 717 

I '1 sign of Manganese Frogs and Crossings 717 

Sections for Solid Frogs 719 

Sections for Rail Bound Frogs 720 

Details of Frog Point 721 

Details of Point for Side Frog 722 

Heel Block for Rail Bound Fr< igs 723 

Section of Solid Crossing 7-1 

Section of Solid Crossing at Joints and Reinforced Parts. . 723 

Revision of Manual 728 

Typical Layout for Nos. 8. 11 and [6 Double Slip Cros 

ings (Movable Points ) (Insert ) 

Typical Layout for Nos. 8, 11 and 10 Double Cl- 
overs ( Insert I 

Spacing of • Ties for 16 ft. o-in , _'2-l"t. and 33-ft. 
Switcbes (Insert) 



12 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

TRACK— Continued. page. 

n-ft., 16-ft. 6-im, 22-ft. and 33-ft. Switches (Insert) 728 

Typical Layout for Nos. 8, 11 and 16 Double Slip Cross- 
ings (Movable Points to he Operated by Interlocking 

Plants) ( Insert ) 728 

Frog Blocking 729 

Turnouts , 73° 

Notation 73° 

Formulas 73° 

Maintenance of Line 73 1 

Spirals 73* 

Maintenance of Surface 73 2 

Maintenance of Gage 73 2 

Widening Gage on Curves 733 

Standard Specifications for Frogs. Crossings and Switches. 733 

Specifications for Track Bolts 734 

Conclusions 734 

Economics of Track Labor 736 

Special Track Section Record for Equating Track Mile- 
age (Insert ) 736 

Statement of Characteristics of Test Track 738 

BUILDINGS 739-784 

Passenger Stations with One General Waiting Room... 739 

Division of Floor Area for Passenger Stations 739 

Engine House Design 740 

Form 74° 

Turntable 740 

Turntable Pit 741 

Door Opening? 741 

Doors 74 1 

Tracks 74 ' 

Position of Locomotive 741 

Length of House 741 

Materials 741 

Engine Pits 74-' 

Smoke Jacks 742 

Floors 74 2 

Drop Pits 74- 

Heating 74- 

Window Lights 743 

Electric Lighting 743 

Piping 743 

Tools 743 

Hoists 743 

Locomotive Coaling Stations 743 

Oil Houses 745 

Cross- Section of Typical Oil House 745 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 13 

BUILDINGS— Continued. page. 

Section Tool House 74 (| 

Roofings t 746 

Bituminous Materials 7*46 

Felts 747 

Built-Up Roofs 74* 

Ready Roofing 749 

Slate and Tile 749 

Asbestos Shingles 750 

Wood Shingles 750 

Cement Tile 750 

Metallic Roofings 750 

General 750 

Principles Covering Design of Inbound and Outbound Freight 

Houses 751 

Shop Floors 737 

Plank Floor on Cinder or Gravel 758 

Wood Block Floor 759 

Floor on Concrete Base 760 

Plank Floor on Concrete 761 

Tar Rock Floor 76] 

Concrete Floor 763 

Special Surface on Concrete Floor 764 

Rock Mastic Floor 7(15 

Brick Floor 7<>5 

Specifications for Wood Block Floor 766 

Specifications for Asphalt Mastic Floor 766 

Paving Brick Floor • 766 

Rest Houses 

Arrangement for Shower Baths in Rest Houses " 772 

Method of Heating Medium-Sized Stations 774 

Methods of Lighting Medium-Sized Stations 777 

Sanitary Provisions for Medium-Sized Stations 780 

Single Seated Sanitary Privy 782 

Conclusions 7&3 

RECORDS AND ACCOUNTS 7 

Revision of Manual 786 

Federal and State Railway Commission Reports 786 

Sub-Divisions of I. C. C. Classification Account No. 6 7*7 

Roadway Maintenance 7^7 

Track Laying and Surfacing 7* s 

Conventional Signs 

Rail 

Ballast 789 

Electrified Lines 

STRESSES IX RAILROAD TRACK 

Progress Report 79' 



14 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

MASONRY 793-824 

Revision of Manual 793 

Principles of Design of Plain and Reinforced Retaining Walls 

and Abutments 794 

Cost and Method of Constructing Concrete Piles and Recom- 
mendations as to Their Use ■ 794, 796 

Typical Tapered Octagonal Pile 798 

Typical Tapered Square Pile 799 

Cost, Appearance and Wearing Qualities of Various Methods 

of Surface Finish for Concrete 794, 800 

Spading 800 

Coating with Wash of Cement 800 

Rubbing 800 

Removing the Outside Mortar to Expose the Coarse Aggre- 
gate 8co 

Tooling the Surface 801 

Scoring 801 

Metal Forms 801 

Bibliography 819 

Concrete Piles, Cost, Method of Construction and Use 824 

WOOD PRESERVATION 825-888 

The Use of Coal Tar in Creosote 825 

Water in Creosote 827 

Record of Service Tests 833 

Conclusions 833 

The Effect of the Structure of Wood Upon its Permeability. 833, 835 

Record of Service Tests 854 

Norfolk Southern Railroad 855 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad 865 

Rueping Treated Test Red Oak and Red Gum Ties 867 

St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad 867 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 870 

WOODEN BRIDGES AND TRESTLES 891-904 

Relative Economy of Repairs and Renewals of Wooden 

Bridges and Trestles 891 

Design of Docks and Wharves 892 

Developments in Practice of Ballast Deck Trestles 892 

Use of Lag Screws for Fastening Guard Timbers 893 

Tabulation of Replies on Subject of Lag Screws 896 

GRADING OF LUMBER 905-916 

Grading Rules for Hemlock Lumber 907 

Definitions of Defects 9°7 

Standard Sizes for Hemlock 911 

Suggested Grading Rules for Yellow Pine 915 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 15 

PAGE, 

ELECTRICITY 917-956 

Clearances 918 

Transmission Lines and Crossings 920 

State Regulations for Electric Wire Crossings, Overhead Work- 
ing Conductors and Under Clearance for Structures.... 920 

Electrolysis 922 

Recommendations 925 

Recommended Clearance Lines for Equipment 927 

Data Regarding Third-Rail Clearances 928 

Data Regarding Overhead Clearances 929 

Limiting Clearance Line for Rolling Equipment 932 

Equipment Encroaching Below EE-FE Line (Insert) 936 

Specifications for Crossings of Wires or Cables of Telegraph, 

Telephone, Signal and Other Circuits 939 

Specifications for Galvanizing on Iron and Steel 946 

Specifications for Overhead Crossings of Electric Light and 

Power Lines 948 



YARDS AND TERMINALS 957-987 

Typical Situation Plans of Passenger Stations 959 

Union Station Layout, Kansas City Terminal Rail- 
way (Insert) 960 

Occupancy of Station Tracks (Insert) 960 

Consist of Trains (Insert) 960 

Developments in Handling Freight by Mechanical Means 962 

Improvements in Trucking Methods in Freight-House 

Work 962 

Improvements in Hand Trucking 9°4 

Electric Trucks for Freight Handling 965 

Cost of Operation with Electric Trucks 966 

Double-Deck Freight Houses and Industry Service 968 

Developments in Design and Operation of Hump Yards 

Freight House Trucking 971 

Use of Motor and Hand Trucks 075 

Data on Operation of Hump Yards 978 

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES <tfg-ioo3 

Tree Planting and General Reforestation 989 

Successful Example of Tree Planting 995 

Catalpa Plantation of the Illinois Central Railroad 

Coal, Fuel-Oil and Timber Resources 

Iron and Steel Resources 

Quantity and Value of Petroleum Produced 

Yearly Production of Anthracite and Bituminous Coal.. 1000 

Productions of Iron Ore, Pig Iron and Steel 

State Laws as tQ Protection of Forests from Fire 



16 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



BALLAST 1005-1020 

Definitions 1006 

Choice of Ballast 1006 

Proper Depth of Ballast 1007 

Specifications for Stone Ballast 1007 

Physical Test of Stone for Ballast 1007 

Specifications for Gravel Ballast 1008 

Method of Testing Quality of Gravel for Ballast 1008 

Cinders and Burnt Clay Ballast 1008 

Specifications for Burnt Clay Ballast 1009 

Cleaning Foul Ballast 1009 

Study of Ballast Sections, with Particular Reference to Use of 

Sub- and Top-Ballast 1010 

Proper Depth of Ballast of Various Kinds to Insure Uniform 

Distribution of Loads on the Roadway 1011 

Proposed Test to Determine Proper Depth of Ballast of 
Various Kinds to Tnsure Uniform Distribution of 

Loads on the Roadway 1015 

Ballast Sections 1012 

Class "A" Sections, Crushed Stone and Slag 1012-1013 

Mechanical Device for Handling Ballast 1017 

DISCUSSIONS. 

RULES AND ORGANIZATION 1023 

SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING 1025 

UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS 1057 

SIGNS. FENCES AND CROSSINGS 1039 

ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION 1047 

ROADWAY 1071 

RECORDS AND ACCOUNTS 1085 

TIES 1089 

IRON AND STEEL STRUCTURES 1093 

k All in 7 

WATER SERVICE 1 133 

TRACK 1 135 

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES 1147 

BUILDINGS 114" 

WOOD PRESERVATION 1 153 

BALLAST 1 1 50 

STRESSES IN RAILROAD TRACK 1173 

M \S()NRY 1 175 

WuoDEN BRIDGES AND TRESTLES 1170 



TABLE Of CONTENTS. 17 

r u.i: 

GRADING OF LUMBER 1185 

ELECTRICITY 1 i,x r 

YARDS AND TERMINALS [189 

AMENDMENTS. 

Amendments to Report on Uniform Genera] Contract Forms 1 ioj 

Amendments to Report on Signs, Fences and Crossings iimj 

Amendments to Report on Economics of Railway Location i ioj 

Amendments to Report on Roadway [193 

Amendments to Report on Records and Accounts [193 

Amendments to Report on Ties 1 104 

Amendments to Report on Track 1 104 

Amendments to Report on Buildings 1 104 

Amendments to Report on Ballast 1 104 

Amendments to Report on Yards 11 > 14 



PART 2. 
MONOGRAPHS. 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN TRACK CONSTRUCTION, 

by Elmer T. Howson 3-30 

Introductory .} 

Increases in Wheel Loads 4 

Development in Track Construction — Rail 

The Tie 13 

Track Fastenings 10 

Frog, Switch and Crossing Construction 

Ballast and Roadbed 20 

The Present Situation 21 

Distribution of Maintenance Expenditures -t 

Increase in Derailments from [905 to 101.1. Inclusive... 28 

Per Cent, [ncrease in Derailments Due to Various Defects of 

Roadway and Track 

Conclusions 

Till- COMPUTATION OF STRESSES IX VNGLE-BARS 
by I'. M. LaBach 

TESTSS 01 OREGON FIR PILING, b) M. I'.. MacFarland 

( >hn !< t 47 

Material 

Method, of Treatment .... 
Tests of Major Specimens .... 

Transverse 

Compression Parallel to Grain 



18 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

TESTS OF OREGON FIR PILING— Continued. page. 

Compression Perpendicular to Grain 51 

Shearing Parallel to Grain 5 2 

Moisture • 5 2 

Absorption of Creosote 53 

Tests of Minor Specimens 53 

Formula; 54 

Graphs and Photographs of Material Tested..'. 55 

General Conditions 13° 

Original Dimensions I3 1 

Results of Transverse Tests 132,137 

Results of Compression Tests I33, T 37 

Results of Shearing Tests • 135 

Comparative Physical Properties 135 

Weight and Penetration 136 

Phenomena Observed in Transverse Tests, Untreated Oregon 

Fir Piling, Major Specimens 139 

Phenomena Observed in Transverse Tests, Treated Oregon 

Fir Piling, Major Specimens 141 

Discussion 144 

Penetration of Creosote 144 

Physical Tests 146 

Compression Tests 147 

General Summary 150 

Conclusions 15° 

COMPARISON OF TRAFFIC AT GRADE CROSSINGS AND 
INFORMATION RELATIVE TO APPORTION- 
MENT OF COST OF THEIR ELIMINATION, by 

C. E. Smith i5i- 22 4 

Introduction 151 

Graphic Chart Showing Traffic Counts in Various Cities.... 155 
Summary Showing Traffic Counts at Various St. Louis Cross- 
ings 176 

Practice of Various Municipalities in Apportioning Cost of 

Grade Crossing Elimination 184 

Grade Crossing Elimination in Various Cities 188 

Bibliography 188 

Digest of Reports from Various Cities 189 

Summary and Conclusions 201 

Notes on Laws and Practice Relative to Elimination of Grade 
Crossings in New England, with Special Reference to the 
Traffic at Crossings Where Elimination Has Been Ac- 
complished 204 

Massachusetts Grade Crossing Elimination Law 204 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 19 

GRADE CROSSING ELIMINATION— Continued. page. 

Procedure Before Massachusetts Grade Crossing Commission- 
ers 205 

Special Cases of Grade Crossing Elimination Where Com- 
missioners Have Disapproved Immediate Expenditures for 
Elimination 206 

Traffic Data Relating to Various New England Cities 210 

TRUCKING METHODS AND COSTS THROUGH L. C. L. 
OUTBOUND FREIGHT HOUSES AND TRANS- 
FER PLATFORMS, by E. H. Lee 225-244 

Introduction 225 

Freight House Trucking 226 

The Two-Wheel Truck 228 

The Four- Wheel Truck 230 

Motor Trucks 231 

General Conclusions 235 

Observations on a Motor Truck at C. & E. I. Outbound Freight 

House, Chicago 237 

Operation of Motor Trucks C. B. & Q. Outbound Freight 

House, Chicago 241 

Effect of Length of House on Cost of Operation and Freight 

Stations 242 

Average Trucking Distances, Outbound Freight Houses 243 

RAIL-END CONNECTIONS FOR DRAWBRIDGES, by A. T. 

Himes 245-241 ) 

Discussion 250 

THE DECISION OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER SHALL BE 

FINAL, by C. Frank Allen 255-269 

COST OF STOPPING AND STARTING TRAINS, by F. W. 

Green 27 1 -278 

ROLLING RESISTANCE OF CARS OVER SWITCHES \ND 

FROGS, by C. L. Eddy 279-298 

Introduction 279 

Method 2:n 

Calculations 2S1 

Discussion 2X2 

Rolling Resistance 286 

Journal Friction 

Velocity Resistances 

Tests 

HEAVY LOCOMOTIVE LOADINGS, by V ('. [rwin 299,300 

Wheel Loading I >iagram < Insert I 

Curves of Equivalence in Cooper's "!■"." Loadings. ..(Insert) 

Table for Conversion of "E" Ratings into 'inter Bending 

Moments < Insert I 



20 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE, 

RESULTS WITH FIVE YEARS' USE OF SCREW SPIKES 
IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE, 

by G. J. Ray 301-364 

Introductory 3 01 

Reasons for Adopting Screw Spikes 303 

Conclusions 3 21 

General 3-^4 

Illustrations of Screw Spikes in Service .12^ 



CONSTITUTION 



Name. 



CONSTITUTION. 

REVISED AT THE FIFTH, EIGHTH AND TWELFTH ANNUAL CONVENTIONS. 

ARTICLE I. 

NAME, OBJECT AND LOCATION. 

i. The name of this Association is the American Railway Engi- 
neering Association. 

2. Its object is the advancement of knowledge pertaining to the Object, 
scientific and economic location, construction, operation and maintenance 
of railways. 

3. The means to be used for this purpose shall be as follows : 

(a) Meetings for the reading and discussion of reports and papers 
and for social intercourse. 

(b) The investigation of matters pertaining to the objects of this 
Association through Standing and Special Committees. 

(c) The publication of papers, reports and discussions. 

(d) The maintenance of a library. 

4. Its action shall be recommendatory, and not binding upon its Responsibil- 
. ity. 

members. 

5. Its permanent office shall be located in Chicago, 111., and the Location of 
annual convention shall be held in that city. 



Means to 
be Used. 



ARTICLE II. 



MEMBERSHIP. 

i. The membership of this Association shall be divided into three Membership 
classes, viz. : Members, Honorary Members and Associates. 

(2) A Member shall be: olSSiifl erS . h,p 

(a) Either a Civil Engineer, a Mechanical Engineer, an Electrical ti ^ s 
Engineer, or an official of a railway corporation, who has had not less than 

five (5) years' experience in the location, construction, maintenance or op- 
eration of railways, and who, at the time of application for membership, is 
engaged in railway service in a responsible position in charge of work con 
nected with the Location, Construction, Operation or Maintenance of a 
Railway; provided, that all persons who were Active Members prior to 
March 20, 1907, shall remain Members except as modified by Article II. 
Clause 9. 

(b) A Professor of Engineering in a college of recognized standftig 

25 



26 



CONSTITUTION. 



Honorary 
Membership 
Qualifica- 
tions. 

Associate 
Membership 
Qualifica- 
tions. 



Membership 
Rights. 



Age Require- 
ment. 



"Railway" 
Defined. 



Changes in 
Classes. 



Supply 
Men. 



Transfers. 



3. An Honorary Member shall be a person of acknowledged emi- 
nence in railway engineering or management. The number of Honorary 
Members shall be limited to ten. 

4. An Associate shall be a person not eligible as a Member, but 
whose pursuits, scientific acquirements or practical experience qualify 
him to co-operate with Members in the advancement of professional 
knowledge, such as Consulting, Inspecting, Contracting, Government or 
other Engineers, Instructors of Engineering in Colleges of recognized 
standing, and Engineers of Industrial Corporations when their duties are 
purely technical. 

5. (a) Members shall have all the rights and privileges of the 
Association. 

(b) Honorary Members shall have all the rights of Members, except 
that of holding office, and shall be exempt from the payment of dues. 

(c) Associates shall have all the rights of Members, except those 
of voting and holding office. 

6. An applicant to be eligible for membership in any class shall not 
be less than twenty-five (25) years of age. 

7. The word "railway" in this Constitution means one operated 
by steam or electricity as a common carrier, dependent upon transpor- 
tation for its revenue. Engineers of street railway systems and of rail- 
ways which are used primarily to transport the material or product of 
an industry or industries to and from a point on a railway which is a 
common carrier, or those which are merely adjuncts to such industries, 
are eligible only as Associates. 

8. A Member, elected after March 20, 1907, who shall leave the 
railway service, shall cease to be a Member, but may retain membership 
in the Association as an Associate, subject to the provisions of Article II, 
Clause 9; provided, however, if he re-enters the railway service, he shall 
be restored to the class of Members. 

9. Persons whose principal duties require them to be engaged in 
the sale or promotion of railway patents, appliances or supplies, shall 
not be eligible for, nor retain membership in any class in this Association, 
except that those who were Active Members prior to March 20, 1907, 
may retain membership as Associates ; provided, however, that anyone 
having held membership in the Association and subsequently having be- 
come subject to the operation of this clause, shall, if he again becomes 
eligible, be permitted to re-enter the Association, without the payment of 
a second entrance fee. 

10. The Board of Direction shall transfer members from one class 
to another, or remove a member from the membership list, under the 
provisions of this Article. 



ARTICLE III. 



Charter 
Membership. 



ADMISSIONS AND EXPULSIONS. 

i. The Charter Membership consists of all persons who were elected 
before March 15, 1900. 



CONSTITUTION. 



27 



2. The Charter Membership having been completed, any person 
desirous of becoming a member shall make application upon the form 
prescribed by the Board of Direction, setting forth in a concise statement 
his name, age, residence, technical education and practical experience. 
He shall refer to at least three members to whom he is personally known, 
each of whom shall be requested by the Secretary to certify to a personal 
knowledge of the candidate and his fitness for membership. 

3. Upon receipt of an application properly endorsed, the Board of 
Direction, through its Secretary, or a Membership Committee selected 
from its own members, shall make such investigation of the candidate's 
fitness as may be deemed necessary. The Secretary will furnish copies 
of the information obtained and of the application to each member of the 
Board of Direction. At any time, not less than thirty days after the 
filing of the application, the admission of the applicant shall be canvassed 
by letter-ballot among the members of the Board, and affirmative votes 
by two-thirds of its members shall elect the candidate; provided, how- 
ever, that should an applicant for membership be personally unknown to 
three members of the Association, due to residence in a foreign country, 
or in such a portion of the United States as precludes him from a sufficient 
acquaintance with its members, he may refer to well-known men engaged 
in railway or allied professional work, upon the form above described, 
and such application shall be considered by the Board of Direction in the 
manner above set forth, and the applicant may be elected to membership 
by a unanimous vote of the Board. 

4. All persons, after due notice from the Secretary of their elec- 
tion, shall subscribe to the Constitution on the form prescribed by the 
Board of Direction. If this provision be not complied with within six 
months of said notice, the election shall be considered null and void. 

5. Any person having been a member of this Association, and hav- 
ing, while in good standing, resigned such membership, may be reinstated 
without the payment of a second entrance fee ; provided his application 
for reinstatement is signed by five members certifying to his fitness for 
same, and such application is passed by a two-thirds majority of the 
Board of Direction. 

6. Proposals for Honorary Membership shall be submitted by ten or 
more Members. Each Member of the Board of Direction shall be fur- 
nished with a copy cf the proposal, and if, after thirty days, the nominee 
shall receive the unanimous vote of said Board, he shall be declared an 
Honorary Member. 

7. When charges are preferred against a Member in writing by ten 
or more Members, the Member complained of shall be served with a copy 
of such charges, and he shall be called upon to show cause to the Board 
of Direction why he should not be expelled from the Association. Not 
less than thirty days thereafter a vote shall be taken on his expulsion, 
and he shall be expelled upon a two-thirds vote of the Board of Direction. 

8. The Board of Direction shall accept the resignation, tenderer! in 
writing, of any Member whose dues are fully paid up. 



Application 
for Member- 
ship. 



Election to 
Membership 



Subscription 
to Constitu- 
tion. 



Reinstate- 
ment. 



Honorary 
Membership 



Expulsions 






28 



CONSTITUTION. 



ARTICLE IV. 

DUES. 

i. An entrance fee of $10.00 shall be payable to the Association 
through its Secretary with each application for membership; and this 
sum shall be returned to the applicant if not elected. 

2. *The annual dues are $10.00, payable during the first three months 
of the calendar year. 

3. Any person whose dues are not paid before April 1st of the cur- 
rent year shall be notified of same by the Secretary. Should the dues 
not be paid prior to July 1st, the delinquent Member shall lose his right 
to vote. Should the dues remain unpaid October 1st, he shall be notified 
on the form prescribed by the Board of Direction, and he shall no longer 
receive the publications of the Association. If the dues are not paid by 
December 31st, he shall forfeit his membership without further action 
or notice, except as provided for in Clause 4 of this Article. 

4. The Board of Direction may extend the time of payment of dues, 
and may remit the dues of any Member, who, from ill-health, advanced 
age or other good reasons, is unable to pay them. 

ARTICLE V. 

OFFICERS. 

i. The officers of the Association shall be Members and shall con- 
sist of: 

A President, 

A First Vice-President, 

A Second Vice-President, 

A Treasurer, 

A Secretary, 

Nine Directors, 
who, together with the five latest living Past- Presidents who are Members, 
shall constitute the Board of Direction in which the government of the 
Association shall be vested, and who shall act as Trustees, and have the 
custody of all property belonging to the Association. 

2. The offices of First and Second Vice-Presidents shall be deter- 
mined by the priority of their respective dates of election. 

3. The terms of office of the several officers shall be as follows : 

President, one year. 
Vice-Presidents, two years. 
Treasurer, one year. 
Secretary, one year. 
Directors, three years. 

4. (a) There shall be elected at each Annual Convention : 

A President, 
One Vice-President, 
A Treasurer, 
A Secretary, 
Three Directors. 



•The annual payment of $10.00 made by each member is to be sub- 
divided and credited on the books of the Association, as follows: To mem- 
ber's subscription to the Bulletin, $5.00; annual dues, $5.00. 



CONSTITUTION. 



29 



(b) The candidates for President and for Vice-President shall be • 
selected from the members of the Board of Direction. 

5. The office of President shall not be held twice by the same per- conditions of 

son. A person who shall have held the office of Vice-President or R , e ^L ectlon 
. .,«..,' 01 Officers. 

Director shall not be eligible for re-election to the same office until at 

least one full term shall have elapsed after the expiration of his previous 

term of office. 

6. The term of each officer shall begin with his election and con- Term of 

., , . ... Officers, 

tinue until his successor is elected. 

7. (a) A vacancy in the office of President shall be filled by the Vacancies 
T ,. _ T . _ • 1 in Offices. 
First Vice-President. 

(b) A vacancy in the office of either of the Vice-Presidents shall 
be filled by the Board of Direction by election from the Directors. A 
Vice-Presidency shall not be considered vacant when one of the Vice- 
Presidents is filling a vacancy in the Presidency. 

(c) Any other vacancies for the unexpired term in the membership 
of the Board of Direction shall be filled by the Board. 

(d) An incumbent in any office for an unexpired term shall be 
eligible for re-election to the office he is holding; provided, however, 
that anyone appointed to fill a vacancy as Director within six months 
after the term commences shall be considered as coming within the pro- 
vision of Article V, Clause 5. 

8. When an officer ceases to be a Member of the Association, as Vacation of 
provided in Article II, his office shall be vacated, and be filled as provided 

in Article V, Clause 7. 

9. In case of the disability or neglect in the performance of his duty, ^'^1:/^ 
of an officer, the Board of Direction, by a two-thirds majority vote of the 

entire Board, shall have power to declare the office vacant, and fill it as 
provided in Article V, Clause 7. 

ARTICLE VI. 

NOMINATION AND ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

i. (a) There shall be a Nominating Committee composed of the Nominating 
five latest living Past-Presidents of the Association, who are Members, Committee, 
and five Members not officers. 

(b) The five Members shall be elected annually when the officers of 
the Association are elected. 

2. It shall be the duty of this committee to nominate candidates to Number of 
fill the offices named in Article V, and vacancies in the Nominating Com- 
mittee caused by expiration of term of service, for the ensuing year, as 

follows : Number of Candi- Number of Candi- 
dates to be named dates to be elected 
Office to be Filled. by Nominating at Annual Election 

Committee. of Officers. 

President I 1 

Vice-President 1 1 

Treasurer 1 1 

Secretary 1 1 

Directors 9 3 

Nominating Committee 10 ,S 



30 



CONSTITUTION. 



Chairman. 



Meeting of 
Committee. 



Announce- 
ment of 
Names of 
Nominees. 



Additional 
Nominations 
by Members. 



Vacancies 
in List of 
Nominees. 



Ballots 
Issued. 



Substitution 
of Names. 



Ballots. 



Invalid 
Ballots. 



Closure 
of Polls. 



Requirements 
for Election. 

Tie Vote. 



3. The Senior Past-President shall act as permanent chairman of 
the committee, and will issue the call for meetings. In his absence from 
meetings, the Past-President next in age of service shall act as Chairman 
pro tern, at the meeting. 

4. Prior to December 1st, each year, the Chairman shall call a meet- 
ing of the committee at a convenient place and, at this meeting, nominees 
for office shall be agreed upon. 

5. The names of the nominees shall be announced by the permanent 
Chairman to the President and Secretary not later than December 15th of 
the same year, and the Secretary shall report them to the Members of the 
Association on a printed slip not later than January 1st following. 

6. At any time between January 1st and February 1st, any ten or 
more Members may send to the Secretary additional nominations for the 
ensuing year signed by such Members. 

7. If any person so nominated shall be found by the Board of Direc- 
tion to be ineligible for the office for which he is nominated, or should 
a nominee decline such nomination, his name shall be removed and the 
Board may substitute another one therefor ; and may also fill any 
vacancies that may occur in this list of nominees up to the time the bal- 
lots are sent out 

8. Not less than thirty days prior to each Annual Convention, the 
Secretary shall issue ballots to each voting member of record in good 
standing, with a list of the several candidates to be voted upon, with the 
names arranged in alphabetical order when there is more than one name 
for any office. 

9. Members- may erase names from the printed ballot list and may 
substitute the name or names of any other person or persons eligible for 
any office, but the number of names voted for each office on the ballot 
must not exceed the number to be elected at that time to such office. 

10. (a) Ballots shall be placed in an envelope, sealed and endorsed 
with the name of the voter, and mailed or deposited with the Secretary 
at any time previous to the closure of the polls. 

(b) A voter may withdraw his ballot, and may substitute another, 
at any time before the polls close. 

11. Ballots not endorsed or from persons not qualified to vote shall 
not be opened ; and any others not complying with the above provisions 
shall not be counted. 

12. The polls shall be closed at twelve o'clock noon on the second 
day of the Annual Convention, and the ballots shall be counted by three 
tellers appointed by the Presiding Officer. The ballots and envelopes shall 
be preserved for not less than ten days after the vote is canvassed. 

13. The persons who shall receive the highest number of votes for 
the offices for which they are candidates shall be declared elected. 

14. In case of a tie between two or more candidates for the same 
office, the members present at the Annual Convention shall elect the officer 
by ballot from the candidates so tied. 



CONSTITUTION. 



31 



15. The Presiding Officer shall announce at the convention the names Announce- 
of the officers elected in accordance with this Article. ment. 

16. Except as to the Past-Presidents, the first Nominating Com- First 
mittee and the three additional Directors provided for shall be appointed committee 5 
by the Board of Direction, one of the Directors for one year one for 

two years, and one for three years. 



ARTICLE VII. 



MANAGEMENT. 



i. (a) The President shall have general supervision of the affairs 
of the Association, shall preside at meetings of the Association and of 
the Board of Direction, and shall be ex-officio member of all Committees, 
except the Nominating Committee. 

(b) The Vice-Presidents, in order of seniority, shall preside at meet- 
ings in the absence of the President and discharge his duties in case of a 
vacancy in his office. 

2. The Treasurer shall receive all moneys and deposit same in the 
name of the Association, and shall receipt to the Secretary therefor. He 
shall invest all funds not needed for current disbursements as shall be 
ordered by the Board of Direction. He shall pay all bills, when properly 
certified and audited by the Finance Committee, and make such reports 
as may be called for by the Board of Direction. 

3. The Secretary shall be, under the direction of the President and 
Board of Direction, the Executive Officer of the Association. He shall 
attend the meetings of the Association and of the Board of Direction, 
prepare the business therefor, and duly record the proceedings thereof. 
He shall see that the moneys due the Association are collected and with- 
out loss transferred to the custody of the Treasurer. He shall personally 
certify to the accuracy of all bills or vouchers on which money is to be 
paid. He is to conduct the correspondence of the Association and keep 
proper record thereof, and perform such other duties as the Board of 
Direction may prescribe. 

4. The accounts of the Treasurer and Secretary shall be audited 
annually by a public accountant, under the direction of the Finance Com- 
mittee of the Board. 

5. The ( Board of Direction shall manage the affairs of the Associa- 
tion, and shall have full power to control and regulate all matters not 
otherwise provided in the Constitution. 

6. The Board of Direction shall meet within thirty days after each 
Annual Convention, and at such other times as the President may direct. 
Special meetings shall be called on request, in writing, of five members 
of the Board. 

7. Seven members of the Board shall constitute a quorum. 

8. At the first meeting of the Board after the Annual Convention, 
the following committees from its members shall be appointed by the 
President, and shall report to and perform their duties under the super- 
vision of the Board of Direction: 



Duties of 
President. 



Duties of 
Treasurer. 



Duties of 
Secretary. 



Auditing of 
Accounts. 



Duties of 
Board. 



Board 
Meetings. 



Board 
Quorum. 

Board 

Committees. 



32 



CONSTITUTION. 



Duties of 

Finance 

Committee. 



Duties of 

Publication 

Committee. 

Duties of 

Library 

Committee. 



Duties of 
Committee or. 
Outline of 
Work of 
Standing 
Committees. 

Standing 
Committees. 



Special 
Committees. 



Discussion 
by Non- 
Members. 
Sanction of 
Acts of 
Board. 



a. Finance Committee of three members. 

b. Publication Committee of three members. 

c. Library Committee of three members. 

d. Outline of Work of Standing Committees of five members. 

9. The Finance Committee shall have immediate supervision of the 
accounts and financial affairs of the Association; shall approve all bills 
before payment, and shall make recommendations to the Board of Direc- 
tion as to the investment of moneys and as to other financial matters. The 
Finance Committee shall not have the power to incur debts or other obli- 
gations binding the Association, nor authorize the payment of money 
other than the amounts necessary to meet ordinary current expenses of 
the Association, except by previous action and authority of the Board of 
Direction. 

10. The Publication Committee shall have general supervision of 
the publications of the Association. 

n. The Library Committee shall have general supervision of the 
Library, the property therein, and the quarters occupied by the Secretary ; 
shall make recommendations to the Board with reference thereto, and 
shall direct the expenditure for books and other articles of permanent 
value, from such sums as may be appropriated for these purposes. 

12. The Committee on Outline of Work of Standing Committees 
shall present a list of subjects for committee work during the ensuing 
year at the first meeting of the Board of Direction after the Annual Con- 
vention. 

13. The Board of Direction may appoint such Standing Committees 
as it may deem best, to investigate, consider and report upon questions 
pertaining to railway location, construction or maintenance. 

14. Special Committees to examine into and report upon any subject 
connected with the objects of this Association may be appointed from 
time to time by the Board of Direction. 

15. The Board of Direction may invite discussions of reports from 
persons not members of the Association. 

16. An act of the Board of Direction which shall have received the 
expressed or implied sanction of the membership at the next Annual Con- 
vention of the Association shall be deemed to be the act of the Associa- 
tion, and shall not afterwards be impeached by any Member. 



Annual 
Convention. 



Special 

Meetings. 



ARTICLE VIII. 

MEETINGS. 

i. The Annual Convention shall begin upon the third Tuesday in 
March of each year, and shall be held at such place in the City of Chicago 
as the Board of Direction may select. 

2. Special meetings of the Association may be called by the Board 
of Direction, and special meetings shall be so called by the Board upon 
request of thirty Members, which request shall state the purpose of such 
meeting. The call for such meeting shall be issued not less than ten 
days in advance, and shall state the purpose and place thereof, and no 
other business shall be taken up at such meeting. 



CONSTITUTION 3o 

3. The Secretary shall notify all members of the time and place of Notification 
the Annual Convention of the Association at least thirty days in advance Convention, 
thereof. 

4. Twenty-five Members shall constitute a quorum at all meetings Association 
of the Association. Quorum. 

5. (.a) The order of business at annual conventions of the Associa- order of 
tion shall be as follows : - Business. 

Reading of minutes of last meeting. 
Address of the President. 
Reports of the Secretary and Treasurer. 
Reports of Standing Committees. 
Reports of Special Committees. 
Unfinished business. 
New business. 
Election of officers. 
Adjournment. 

(b) This order of business, however, may be changed by a majority 
vote of members present. 

6. The proceedings shall be governed by "Robert's Rules of Order," R U ieg ot 
except as otherwise herein provided. Order. 

7. Discussion shall be limited to members and to those invited by Discussion, 
the presiding officer to speak. 

ARTICLE IX. 

AMENDMENTS. 

i. Proposed amendments to this Constitution shall be made in writ- Amendments 
ing and signed by not less than ten Members, and shall be acted upon 
in the following manner: 

The amendments shall be presented to the Secretary, who shall send 
a copy of same to each member of the Board of Direction as soon as 
received. If at the next meeting of the Board of Direction a majority 
of the entire Board are in favor of considering the proposed amend- 
ments, the matter shall then be submitted to the Association for letter- 
ballot, and the result announced by the Secretary at the next Annual 
Convention. In case two-thirds of the votes received are affirmative, 
the amendments sha 1 l be declared adopted and become immediately 
effective. 



Special 
Commit- 
tees. 



Personnel 
of Com- 
mittees. 



Outline of 
Work 



General. 



GENERAL INFORMATION. 

(Subject to change from time to time by Board of Direction.) 

GENERAL RULES FOR THE PREPARATION, PUBLICATION 
AND CONSIDERATION OF COMMITTEE REPORTS. 

(a) appointment of committees and outline of work. 

i. The following are standing committees: 
I. Roadway. 
II. Ballast. 

III. Ties. 

IV. Rail. 
V. Track. 

VI. Buildings. 

VII. Wooden Bridges and Trestles. 

VIII. Masonry. 

IX. Signs, Fences and Crossings. 

X. Signals and Interlocking. 

XI. Records and Accounts 

XII. Rules and Organization. 

XIII. Water Service. 

XIV. Yards and Terminals. 
XV. Iron and Steel Structures. 

XVI. Economics of Railway Location. 
XVII. Wood Preservation. 
XVIII. Electricity. 
XIX. Conservation of Natural Resources. 

2. Special Committees will be appointed from time to time, as may 
be deemed expedient, in the manner prescribed by Article VII, Clause 
14, of the Constitution. 

3. The personnel of all Committees will continue from year to 
year, except when changes are announced by the Board of Direction. Ten 
per cent, of the membership of each committee shall be changed each year. 

Members of committees who do not attend meetings of committees 
during the year or render service by correspondence will be relieved and 
the vacancies filled by the Board at the succeeding annual convention. 

4. As soon as practicable after each annual convention the Board 
of Direction will assign to each Committee the important questions 
which, in its judgment, should preferably be considered during the cur- 
rent year. Committees are privileged to present the results of any spe- 
cial study or investigation they may be engaged upon or that may be 
considered of sufficient importance to warrant presentation. 

(b) preparation of committee reports. 

5. The collection and compilation of data and subsequent analysis 
in the form of arguments and criticism is a necessary and valuable pre- 
liminary element of committee work. 

34 



GENERAL INFORMATION. 



35 



6. Committers are privileged to obtain data or information in any 
proper way. If desired, the Secretary will issue circulars of inquiry, 
which should be brief and concise. The questions asked should be specific 
and pertinent, and not of such general or involved character as to pre- 
clude the possibility of obtaining satisfactory and prompt responses. 
They should specify to whom answers are to be sent, and should be in 
such form that copies can be retained by persons replying either by 
typewriter or blue-print. 

7. Committee reports should be prepared as far as practicable to 
conform to the following general plan : 

(a) It is extremely important that every Committee should ex- 
amine its own subject-matter in the "Manual" prior to each annual con- 
vention, and revise and supplement it, if deemed desirable, giving the 
necessary notice of any recommended changes in accordance with Clause 
6 (a) of the General Rules for the Publication of the "Manual." If no 
changes are recommended, statement should be made accordingly. 

(b) When deemed necessary, the previous report should be reviewed. 

(c) Subjects presented in previous reports on which no action 
was taken should be resubmitted, stating concisely the action desired. It 
may not be necessary to repeat the original text in the report, reference 
to former publication being sufficient, unless changes in the previously 
published version are extensive. Minor changes can be explained in the 
text of the report. 

(d) Technical terms used in the report, the meaning of which is 
not clearly established, should be defined, but defined only from the 
standpoint of railway engineering. 

(e) If necessary, a brief history of the subject-matter under dis- 
cussion, with an outline of its origin and development, should be given. 

(f) An analysis of the most important elements of the subject-matter 
should be given. 

(g) The advantages and disadvantages of the present and recom- 
mended practices should be set forth. 

(h) Illustrations accompanying reports should be prepared so that 
they can be reproduced on one page. The use of folders should be avoided 
as much as possible, on account of the increased expense and inconvenience 
in referring to them. Plans showing current practice, or necessary for 
illustration, are admissible, but those showing proposed definite design 
or practice should be excluded. Recommendations should be confined to 
governing principles. 

Illustrations should be made on tracing cloth with heavy black lines 
and figures, so as to stand a two-thirds reduction ; for example : To come 
within a type page (4 inches by 7 inches), the illustration should be 
made three times the above size. 



Collection 
of Data. 



Plan of 
Reports. 



Definitions 

History. 

Analysis. 

Argument. 

Illustrations 



36 



GENERAL INFORMATION. 



Conclusions 



To insure uniformity, the one-stroke, inclined Gothic lettering is 
recommended. 

Photographs should be clear and distinct silver prints. 

(i) The conclusions of the Committee which are recommended for 
publication in the Manual should be stated in concise language, logical 
sequence, and grouped together, setting forth the principles, specifications, 
definitions, forms, tables and formulae included in the recommendation. 
Portions of the text of the report which are essential to a clear interpre- 
tation and understanding of the conclusions, should be included as an 
integral part thereof. 



Reports 
Required. 



Date of 

Filing 

Reports. 



Publication 
of Reports. 



Written 
Discussions 



Verbal 
Discussions. 



Sequence. 



(C) PUBLICATION OF COMMITTEE REPORTS. 

8. (a) Reports will be required from each of the Standing and 
Special Committees each year. 

(b) Although several subjects may be assigned to each Committee 
by the Board of Direction, a full report on only one subject is expected 
at each annual convention, but the preliminary work on some of the 
remaining subjects should be in progress, and, when deemed advisable, 
partial reports of progress should also be presented. This method allows 
time for their proper preparation and consideration. 

Q. Committee reports to come before the succeeding convention for 
discussion should be filed with the Secretary not later than November 
30 of each year. 

10. Committees engaged upon subjects involving an extended investi- 
gation and study are privileged to present progress reports, giving a 
brief statement of the work accomplished, and, if deemed expedient, a 
forecast of the final report to be presented. 

11. Committee reports will be published in the Bulletin in such 
sequence as the Board of Direction may determine, for consideration at 
th o e succeeding convention. Reports will be published in the form pre- 
sented by the respective Committees. Alterations ordered by the conven- 
tion will be printed as an appendix to the report. 

12. Committees should endeavor to secure written discussions of 
published reports. Written discussions will be transmitted to the 
respective Committees, and if deemed desirable by the Committee, the 
discussions will be published prior to the convention and be considered 
in connection with the report. 

13. Each speaker's remarks will be submitted to him in writing be- 
fore publication in the Proceedings, for the correction of diction and 
errors of reporting, but not for the elimination of remarks. 

(d) consideration of committee reports. 

14. The sequence in which Committee reports will be considered by 
the convention will be determined by the Board of Direction. 



GENERAL INFORMATION. 37 

15. The method of consideration of Committee reports will be one Method, 
of the following: 

(a) Reading by title. 

(b) Reading, discussing and acting upon each conclusion sep- 

arately. 

(c) By majority vote, discussion will be had on each item. 

Clauses not objected to when read will be considered 
as voted upon and adopted. 

16. Action by the convention on Committee reports will be one of Final 
the following, after discussion is closed : 

(a) Receiving as information. 

(b) Receiving as a progress report. 

(c) Adoption of a part complete in itself and referring re- 

mainder back to Committee. 

(d) Adoption as a whole. 

(e) Recommittal with or without instructions, 
(i) Adoption as a whole. 

(g) Recommendation to publish in the Manual. 

Note. — An amendment which affects underlying principles, if adopted, 
shall of itself constitute a recommittal of such part of the report as the 
Committee considers affected. 

The Chair will decline to entertain amendments which in his opinion 
lie entirely within the duties of the Editor. 

(e) publication by technical journals. 

The following rules will govern the releasing of matter for publica- 
tion in technical journals : 

Committee reports, requiring action by the Association at the annual 
convention, will not be released until after presentation to the conven- 
tion ; special articles, contributed by members and others, oh which no 
action by the Association is necessary, are to be released for publication 
by the technical journals after issuance in the Bulletin ; provided appli- 
cation therefor is made in writing and proper credit be given the Asso- 
ciation, authors or Committees presenting such material. 



GENERAL RULES FOR THE PUBLICATION OF THE "MANUAL 



Adoption 
of Reports 
Not Binding. 



Contents. 



Title. i. The title of the volume will be "Manual of the American Railway 

Engineering Association." 

2. The Board of Direction shall edit the Manual and shall have 
authority to withhold from publication any matter which it shall consider as 
not desirable to publish, or as not being in proper shape, or as not having 
received proper study and consideration. 

3. Matters adopted by the Association and subsequently published 
in the Manual shall be considered in the direction of good practice, but 
shall not be binding on the members. 

4. The Manual will only include conclusions relating to definitions, 
specifications and principles of practice as have been made the subject of a 
special study by a Standing or Special Committee and embodied in a com- 
mittee report, published not less than thirty days prior to the annual con- 
vention, and submitted by the Committee to the annual convention, and 
which, after due consideration and discussion, shall have been voted 
on and formally adopted by the Association. Subjects which, in the opinion 
of the Board of Direction, should be reviewed by the American Rail- 
way Association, may be referred to that Association before being pub- 
lished in the Manual. 

5. All conclusions included in the Manual must be in concise and 
proper shape for publication, as the Manual will consist only of a summary 
record of the definitions, specifications and principles of practice adopted 
by the Association, with a brief reference to the published Proceedings 
of the Association for the context of the Committee report and subsequent 
discussion and the final action of the Association. 

Revision. 6. Any matter published in the Manual may be amended or with- 

drawn by vote at any subsequent annual convention, provided such 
changes are proposed in time for publication not less than thirty days 
prior to the annual convention, and in the following manner: (a) Upon 
recommendation of the Committee in charge of the subject ; (b) upon 
recommendation of the Board of Direction ; (c) upon request of five 
members, made to the Board of Direction. 

7. The Manual will be revised either by publishing a new edition or 
a supplemental pamphlet as promptly as possible after each annual con- 
vention. 



BUSINESS SESSION 



PROCEEDINGS. 



The object of this Association is the advancement of knowledge pertaining to the 

scientific and economic location, construction, operation and maintenance 

of railways. Its action is not binding upon its members. 



TUESDAY, MARCH 16, 1915. 

MORNING SESSION. 

The Sixteenth Annual Convention of the American Railway En- 
gineering Association was called to order by the President, Mr. W. B. 
Storey, Vice-President, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway System. 
at 9:30 a. m. 

The President : — The meeting will please come to order. The Six- 
teenth Annual Convention of the American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation is now declared in session. 

It is customary for the President to extend the privileges of the 
floor to railway officials not members of the Association, and to profes- 
sors of colleges and universities, and they are invited to take part in the 
discussions. 

The first business before the convention is the reading of the Min- 
utes of the last annual convention : but inasmuch as these Minutes have 
been printed and a copy furnished to each Member, the reading thereof 
will he dispensed with, and they will be considered approved as printed, 
unless there is objection. There being no objection, the Minutes stand 
approved as published. 

The next business before the convention is the reading of the Presi- 
dent's Address, which is required by the Constitution : otherwise it might 
have been omitted. 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Association during the past year has continued the work so 
well planned by the founders of the organization. The committees have 
worked with interest and zeal; reports have increased in volume, and 
as an indication of the interest being taken, we find a tendency toward 
the publication of more and more data, all of it interesting. This tend- 
ency has become so strong that one of the problems confronting your 
Board is how to curtail the amount of publication without affecting the 
interest of your committees, and without curtailing the usefulness of the 

41 



42 BUSINESS SESSION. 

Association. Any of the committees that have felt this effort on the part 
of the Board of Direction are assured that their work is appreciated, and 
. it is regretted that our income is not sufficient to enable us to publish all 
that is presented. 

The year that has passed has been one of stress in railway circles. 
The credit of the roads being impaired, money has been hard td borrow, 
and as a consequence the building of new lines has been curtailed and 
improvement of old ones has been impossible. This, in turn, has affected 
the general business of the country, and, with other causes not perti- 
nent for discussion here, has made hard times, diminishing, in turn, the 
revenues of the roads and making economies necessary in every direc- 
tion, and in many cases more than economies — viz., the postponement of 
work that must eventually be done in order to keep the roads up to the 
requisite standard. These causes have made the year one of trial and 
struggle for the membership of this Association, but, in spite of this, we 
have held our own in increase in membership, and on December 31 had 
1,236 names on our list, a gain of 89 for the year. 

The usefulness of your Association would be increased if we had 
more funds. We would, if we had it, spend money on many lines 
of investigation, with profit to our profession, with credit to our organiza- 
tion and to the advantage of the railway interests of this country. The 
Association, however, has been compelled to restrict its work to the 
publication of reports by its committees, except in cases where we have 
had outside help, and those committees which have asked for assist- 
ance, feeling that they had about reached the limit of their work unless 
they could undertake original investigation, will understand how im- 
possible it is for us to depart from our policy in this respect. Even 
with our expenditures confined to publications, we find that the con- 
stantly growing list of papers, together with the necessities of the 
Manual, are taxing us severely, and in addition to these particular pub- 
lications we feel, to extend our usefulness, we should publish a General 
Index, and it is the purpose of the Board to undertake this at an early 
date. It is true that we have accumulated something of a surplus, 
but the publication of a new edition of the Manual, together with the 
Index, will make large inroads on this surplus within the next year 
or two. 

About the only way in which the receipts of the organization can 
be increased is by increasing the membership. We have, of course, certain 
receipts from the sale of publications, from advertising and like sources, 
but it will be difficult to increase these to any large extent. However, 
every one hundred names added to our membership list means an in- 
crease in our income of $1,000 per year. While we have been growing 
steadily and consistently, it is suggested that a special effort should be 
made to bring into our Association all those in the railway world eligible 
to membership. A study of our list discloses that on some roads the 
percentage of officers connected with maintenance work who are mem- 
bers of the Association is large, ,while on others it is extremely small. 



BUSINESS SESSION. 43 

Cannot those of our members who belong to the latter class make spe- 
cial efforts to bring more of their associates to us? Many railway men 
feel that the work of the Association does not directly interest them, 
and that they will not be gainers by holding membership therein. Pos- 
sibly this class could be reached by pointing out to them that we need 
their help, and that they should join in order to assist in the improvement 
of the railway profession. Such assistance can be given by having their 
names on our lists, by their yearly contributions and by any work which 
they may be able to do on our committees. If they are not able to spare 
time for work, their names and their contributions are welcome and will 
materially assist. We have in the past year taken in 137 new members. 
The hard times have somewhat increased the total of deductions from 
these additions, so that the total gain is 89. If we can make this 200 
during the coming year, we will have accomplished a great deal. 

As stated above, the work of your Association has been confined to 
publications, except where we have had outside help. We have had this 
in the matter oi the impact tests, which were undertaken a number of 
years ago, and more recently in our rail investigations. The American 
Railway Association has been bearing the expense of this latter work. 
Your Committee has been carrying on rail investigations for a number of 
years, and the study has been thorough and continuing. Unfortunately 
for this investigation, the American Railway Association has now with- 
drawn its support, and your Association is confronted w r ith the necessity of 
stopping the work so well begun, and it is felt that the full benefit of 
the work already accomplished will be lost unless some arrangement can 
be made to carry it forward. The reason that has actuated the Ameri- 
can Railway Association has been economy, with possibly a feeling that 
the expenditures thus far made have not borne the results expected. 
We, as Engineers, recognize that any improvement, no matter how small, 
in the matter of steel rails will justify any expenditure that has been 
or may be made, but the difficulty confronting us is convincing our oper- 
ating people of this. The Executive Committee of the American Rail- 
way Association is charged with the responsibility of the expenditure of 
money, and its action has been taken because we have not convinced it 
that the expenditure pays. Possibly, if we made individual effort with 
our operating superiors, we might bring about a unanimity of action 
on the subject that, communicated to the Executive Committee, would 
change its present attitude, and it is requested that the members of your 
Association will do what they can in this direction. 

Incidentally, an effort is to be made to raise funds by subscription 
to enable us to carry on this work in a restricted manner, but if we 
succeed in this it can, of course, only last for a limited period. It is 
to be hoped that within another year we can get further assistance from 
the American Railway Association. 

There is one further subject to which the efforts of the individual 
members of the Association might be called, viz., the Fiscal Year. The 
Track Committee has recommended that it be changed and made coin- 



44 BUSINESS SESSION. 

cident with the calendar year. It is true that some roads at the present 
time use this method of division. The majority of the roads, however, 
and the Interstate Commerce Commission make the Fiscal Year from 
July i to June 30. A search for reasons for this division has disclosed 
that it is largely a matter of custom. To change it, however, will be 
difficult, owing to the necessity for changing the by-laws of practically 
all the roads in the country, together with dates of annual meetings. 
While the Interstate Commerce Commission has specified this particular 
division, it is felt that it did so for the sake of uniformity and because 
the greater part of the mileage of the country used it. The objections 
from a track-maintenance point of view are very strong. Under the 
present method we are unable to plan intelligently the work for an 
entire season, which at its best is but short, and under present condi- 
tions work must often be abandoned after being begun, or possibly can- 
not be started until after the beginning of the new Fiscal Year. To 
make the change will take time and continued effort, but it is felt that our 
membership might accomplish much toward this end. 

An inspection of the reports submitted to this convention will 
show an unusual amount of statistical data, principally tabulations of 
replies received by the respective committees in response co inquiries. 
It is believed that if your committees would give certain attention to 
condensing this data and showing same graphically, a very marked sav- 
ing might be effected by diminishing the amount of our printing, and 
the value of the information increased to those who have occasion to 
use it. 

Probably your most important publication is the Manual, in that 
it embodies the principles which have been adopted as representing 
standard railway practice in this country. Standards and ideas, of 
course, vary, and must of necessity do so, or there would be no progress. 
It is, therefore, essential from time to time to revise the Manual. Prac- 
tically all the committees have kept this in view in their season's work, 
and have made suggestions relative to the revision of the particular 
subjects in which they are interested. It is the intention, therefore, to 
republish the Manual as soon as possible after this convention, and it 
will contain the approved recommendations for the past sixteen years, 
and it may be said, without contradiction, that this volume will exem- 
plify the best present practice for railway engineering and maintenance- 
of-way work. 

While your work, as stated above, is circumscribed by lack of funds 
necessary for special research, the financial condition of the Associa- 
tion, due to the lines which have been followed, is gratifying, there 
being in the Treasury, at the close of the last calendar year, over $17,- 
000. The cost of republishing the Manual and the proposed General 
Index will reduce this, it is estimated, by about $7,000. It is to be hoped 
that the members of the Association will use every endeavor to increase 



BUSINESS SESSION. 45 

the sale of publications, or at least to keep up the sale to the same 
extent as in past years. 

It may be said that the European war is hardly one for considera- 
tion by a bodj- of this kind, but the catastrophe is so great and its in- 
fluences will be so widespread that it is of paramount interest even to 
an organization like ours, and its mention here will not be out of place. 
This greatest of all wars came like a clap of thunder from a clear sky 
in August last and has involved practically all Europe. Railway trans- 
portation has played a very important part in its prosecution. The 
mobilization of vast armies, greater than any before gathered together, 
and this in an incredibly short time, is solely due to the railway facili- 
ties. It may be said that the transportation problem is one of the 
great features of the war, and the men who are handling this arc as 
responsible for the success of their side as the generals in command. 

Financial conditions have very seriously affected all railway and 
engineering construction during the past year, and as a consequence 
there is lacking the usual long list of notable achievements. One event 
stands out prominently, viz., the opening of the Panama Canal, which 
is so directly allied to our character of endeavor. This has interested 
us in the past as an engineering work, and the methods and details of 
construction have been followed with absorbing interest. The opening 
of the Canal is now introducing economic features in the country's 
transportation problem which may have a far-reaching effect, possibly 
changing a large element of the transportation of the country from rail 
to shipping, and, incidentally, raising questions of economical handling of 
freight at docks and wharves, and the attention of our members inter- 
ested in this class of work is called to this fact. At the present time 
the overland roads are feeling seriously the inroads on the business 
formerly carried by them, and as the shipping interests are enlarged 
the subject may be of even greater importance. 

Progress on our Canadian transcontinental roads has been continu- 
ous, and these are rapidly being completed, so that they will become 
powerful elements in the transportation facilities of this continent. 

Electric traction has made some progress. One railway, the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, is planning to install electricity as its 
motive power on an entire division. The railway engineering world 
will watch with interest this experiment, with the hope that it may turn 
out successfully. 

The valuation of railways under the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion has begun in earnest. Parties have been and are at work in all 
parts of the country, and on some of the roads the work has progressed 
so far that the quantities are nearly complete. The principles to be 
followed are being worked out gradually, but there is still much to be 
determined. Our entire membership should be vitally interested in 
this work, involving, as it does, not only the actual measurement of 
earthwork, but the more intricate determination of the face of the conn- 



46 BUSINESS SESSION. 

try before any construction was begun ; the establishing of unit prices 
that include elements not used when the work was originally built, 
such as transportation; the fixing of land values, and, finally, questions 
of depreciation, not only in the roadway and structures, but in equip- 
ment. All of these matters demand your earnest consideration, and, as 
was pointed out by your President last year, your Association should 
lead in the study and consideration of the questions involved. 

One of the small results of the European war in this country has 
been the curtailment of the supply of creosote from Germany, and this 
in turn has necessitated changing the methods of treatment of our ties. 
We could, of course, in time meet this by the manufacture of creosote 
in our own country, but manufacturers are hardly justified in under- 
taking this, as immediately on the cessation of the war we can look for- 
ward to the resumption of the low-priced German product. Some of 
us have substituted chloride of zinc, and others are putting in ties with- 
out treatment. 

The Grim Destroyer has been active with us during the past year, 
having taken ten names from our list of members, this being the highest 
number of deaths thus far recorded in one year. Among those taken are : 
W. G. Van Vleck, J. N. Faithorn, J. C. Stuart, Thomas H. Johnson and 
George A. Clark. 

During the year the Association has been favored with an unusual 
number of valuable and interesting monographs, contributed by mem- 
bers and others, which have added to our common fund of knowledge. 
The committee reports submitted to the Association by the twenty-two 
standing and special committees exceed in volume those of any preceding 
year. As to quality, the reports presented for the consideration of the 
Sixteenth Annual Convention are fully up to our usual high standard. 

The Chairmen, Vice-Chairmen and members of the committees are 
to be commended for their painstaking labors. (Applause.) 

The President : The next business before the convention is the 
report of the Secretary and of the Treasurer. 

Secretary E. H. Fritch presented the following reports : 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association: 

The progress made by your Association during the past year is 
exceedingly gratifying. The reports and papers presented for your 
consideration at this convention exceed in volume those of any 
preceding year, while their value and interest is fully up to the high 
standard of former years. 

The zeal, industry and earnestness reflected in the Committee 
reports is commendable, and the various Committees are entitled 
to your thanks for their efficient and painstaking labors. 

The American Railway Engineering Association has become an 
important factor and effective force in the railway world. Your or- 



BUSINESS SESSION. 



47 



ganization is performing a service of incalculable value and benefit 
to transportation interests in disseminating, through its publications, 
timely, useful and practical information pertaining to the "scientific 
and economic location, construction, maintenance and operation of 
railways." 

THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The publications of your Association have attained a high rank 
as reference works, and are almost indispensable to the up-to-date 
railway official. They are also being used extensively as text-books 
in the principal colleges and universities. The several publications 
contain a wealth of valuable and useful information on all phases of 
railway engineering and maintenance of way work, and every rail- 
way official, from President to Section Foreman, will find helpful 
data in our literature pertaining to his everyday duties. 

As indicative of the wide range and scope of subjects covered 
in the reports and papers issued during the year, brief reference is 
made below to a few of the principal items, and opposite thereto 
the title of the railway official to whom they will be of special interest: 

The Science of Organization; 

Elimination of Grade Crossings (particularly the subject of appor- 
tionment of their cost); 

Economics of Railway Location; 

Conservation of Natural Resources (tree-planting by railway com- 
panies — coal, oil, iron ore and timber resources). 

Operation of Hump Yards; 

Analysis and Description of Passenger Station at Kansas City; 

Handling of Freight by Mechanical Means; 

Freight House Trucking; 

Use of Motor Trucks; 

Clearances; 

Cost of Stopping and Starting Trains; 

Economics of Railway Location; 

Heavy Locomotive Loadings ; 

Maximum Equipment Now in Use; 

Rest Houses for Employes; 

Safety Rules; 

Stokers and Superheaters; 

Science of Organization. 

Will be interested in every report and paper presented, as they deal 
with problems with which he is daily confronted. 

The use of compounds in locomotive boilers to counteract foaming 
and scaling; 

Stokers and Superheaters (dealing with the hourly coal consumption 
of locomotives equipped with mechanical stokers and the in- 
fluence of the use of superheated steam on the tractive effort of 
locomotives) ; 

Heavy Locomotive Loadings ; 

Locomotive Coaling Stations; 

Shop Floors; 

Engine House Design ; 

Design, Length and Operation of Turntables . 



48 



BUSINESS SESSION. 



The Report on Records and Accounts (dealing with sub-division of I. C. C. 

Accounting Classification Accounts); 

Officer Accounting Forms. 

The Bridge Method of protection of metal structures against corrosion; 
Engineer Column tests; 

Design, length and operation of turntables; 

Elastic Strength Requirement for Steel; 

Bridge Clearances; 

Use of Concrete Piles; 

Surface Finish of Concrete; 

Use of Lag Screws; 

Rail-end Connections for Drawbridges. 

The General Uniform General Contract Form (including form for "Bond"); 
Counsel "The Decision of the Chief Engineer Shall Be Final" (citing many 

court decisions pro and con); 
Elimination of Grade Crossings. 

The Division Will find interesting material in all the reports and papers that will 
Superin- prove helpful in meeting conditions and problems as they arise in 

tendent daily practice. 

The Station Trucking Methods and Costs; 
Agent Freight Handling; 

Use of Motor Trucks; 

Design of Freight Houses. 



The Signal Report on Signals and Interlocking (dealing with requisites for 

and switch indicators, rating of operative units) ; 

Electrical Third-Rail Clearances; 

Engineer Overhead Crossings of Electric Light and Power Lines. 

The Track Distribution and Care of Cross-Ties; 
Supervisor Sodding of Slopes; 

and Prevention and Cure of Water-pockets in Roadbed; 

Foreman The Report on "Track"; 

Ballast Sections recommended; 

Mechanical Tamping Device for Ballasting; 

Use of Screw Spikes; 

Science of Organization; 

Safety Rules; 

Concrete Fence Posts; 

Repainting signs and whitewashing cattle-guard wing fences. 

The Building Use of Lag Screws on Bridges; 
Supervisor Grading of Lumber; 
and Rest Houses for Employes; 

Foreman Methods of heating, lighting and sanitary provisions for medium- 

sized stations; 

Roofings ; Tool Houses ; Oil Houses ; 

Report on Wood Preservation. 

The Will find helpful hints and useful data in the reports on Signs, Fences 

Purchasing and Crossings; on Cross-ties; on Iron and Steel Structures; on 

Agent Water Service; on Buildings; on Masonry; on Wood Preserva- 

tion; on Grading of Lumber; on Electricity; on Yards and Ter- 
minals; on Conservation of Natural Resources. 



BUSINESS SESSION 49 

THE PROCEEDINGS. 

Volume 15 of the Proceedings, issued during the year, consisted 
of approximately 1,700 pages of printed matter. By the use of a thin 
paper it has been practicable to issue this large number of pages in 
one volume. 

MONOGRAPHS. 

During the year the Association has been favored with an un- 
usual number of valuable and interesting monographs, which have 
added to our common fund of knowledge. The thanks of the Asso- 
ciation are due the respective authors for the contributions to our 
literature. 

In this connection it will be interesting to know that the July 
Bulletin will contain a report on the subject of "Special Steels." This 
monograph has been presented to the Association by Past-President 
W. C. Cushing, and was originally intended for presentation to the 
International Railway Congress, which was to have been, held in 
Berlin, Germany, in 1915. Owing to the conditions existing abroad, 
the Congress has been abandoned. It is hardly necessary to say that 
this paper is of absorbing interest, and that it will add materially 
to the prestige of our publications. 

DUPLICATION OF WORK. 

As a result of specialization in all lines of endeavor, there is more 
or less duplication of work, and consequently an economic waste. 
Committees of this Association are occasionally going over ground 
already covered by other associations or investigators, and vice versa. 
From a published list of railroad and allied associations, it appears 
that there are no less than fifteen organizations whose work overlaps 
or duplicates that of the American Railway Engineering Association. 

In view of these facts, it would seem advisable for our Commit- 
tees to give careful consideration to what has been done along the 
lines of the subjects assigned them, make use of the best thought 
and experience developed elsewhere, and adapt the net results to our 
present needs. 

THE ANNUAL CONVENTIONS. 

Your Association is essentially a working body. Managing offi- 
cials have frequently commented favorably on this fact, and are more 
and more realizing the importance to the interests they represent of 
having their subordinates attend these annual meetings, and in many 
cases urge them to do so. 

Among the desirable features of the annual conventions is the 
personal contact outside the regular sessions. They afford excellent 
opportunity for an interchange of views and experiences, and is a 
means of forming new acquaintances and renewing old ones. 



50 



BUSINESS SESSION. 



MEMBERSHIP. 

Membership last annual report 1,147 

Members admitted during year 137 

Withdrawals 17 

Deceased members 10 

Dropped 21 

— 48 



Net increase 



.89 



89 



Total present membership 1,236 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 



The geographical distribution of members is indicated in the 
following table: 



United States 1,091 

Canada 101 

Japan 8 

China 5 

Central America 5 

Cuba 4 

New Zealand 4 

India 2 

Argentine Republic 2 

Brazil 2 

Costa Rica ....•• 2 



Australia 

England 

Bolivia 

Mexico 

Philippine Islands 

Peru 

Panama 

Porto Rico 

Russia 

Hawaii 



Total membership 1,236 



DECEASED MEMBERS. 

During the year the Association has sustained the loss of the 
following members by death: 

C. C. Mallard, 
W. G. Van Vleck, 
J. N. Faithorn, 
G. A. Clark, 
Thomas Watson, 
Emil Gerber, 
W. I. Trench. 
M. J. Corrigan, 
J. C Stuart, 
Thos. H. Johnson. 



BUSINESS SESSION. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



The following Financial Statement is self-explanatory. It in- 
cludes also a statement of the Track Stresses Fund, of which tin- 
Association is the custodian. 

Balance on hand, December 31, 1913 $14,276.74 

RECEIPTS DURING THE YEAR. 

From Entrance Fees $ 1,350.00 

From Dues 6,551.00 

From Subscription to Bulletin 6,745.33 

From Binding Proceedings 615.50 

From Sale of Proceedings 4,150.58 

From Sale of Manual 583.10 

From Sale of Bulletins 485.28 

From Sale of Specifications 163.25 

From Sale of Leaflets 188.75 

From Advertising 2,662.40 

From Interest on Bank Balance 115.94 

From Interest on Investments 400.00 

From Sale of Badges 52.00 

From Sale of Banquet Tickets 1,386.00 

From Miscellaneous 147.99 

From A. R. A. (Rail Committee) 6,650.13 

Total Receipts ? $32,247.25 

DISBURSEMENTS DURING THE YEAR. 

For Stationery and Printing $ 547.87 

For Proceedings 3,101.75 

For Bulletins 7,508.03 

For Manual 413.20 

For Salary of Secretary 3,000.00 

For Salaries of Two Assistants 1,872.50 

For Officers' Expenses 32.75 

For Postage Ha5 

For Telephone and Telegrams 151.94 

For Committee Expenses 85.48 

For Supplies 420.66 

For Rents l \\llc 

For Expressage 522.25 

For Light 33.90 

For Annual Meeting Expenses Z,390.«W 

For Equipment §'?» 

For Exchange 55.75 

For Miscellaneous 

For Rail Committee 6,754.53 

Total Expenditures $29,21 1 .72 

Excess of Receipts over Disbursements ; 

Balance ■■■ $ 17 ^' 



BUSINESS SESSION. 



SUMMARY. 



Balance on hand, December 31, 1913 $14,276.74 

Receipts $32,247.25 

Expenditures 29,211.72 

Excess of Receipts over Disbursements. .$ 3,035.53 3,035.53 

Balance on hand, December 31, 1914 $17,312.27 

Consisting of: 

Six railway bonds, par value $1,000 each, at 

cost $ 5,206.06 

Four Lincoln Park bonds, par value $1,000 

each, at cost 4,004.27 

Cash in Standard Trust and Savings Bank 8,101.94 

$17,312.27 
STRESSES IN TRACK FUND. 

RECEIPTS. 

Contribution from U. S. Steel Corp., April 18, 

1914 $10,000.00 

Interest — April to December, 1914 201.70 

Total Receipts $10,201.70 

EXPENDITURES (TO DECEMBER 31, I<?14)- 

Committee Expenses $ 65-99 

Salaries ^c')v? 

Transportation 35 .63 

Hotel and Meals 19.55 

Supplies J Vac 

Stationery and Printing 4J.88 

Postage 10-00 

Expressage y -£° 



Telegrams 



.87 



Total $ 434.40 434.40 

Balance, A. R. E. A. Fund, January 1, 1915 $9,767.30 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion, your Secretary desires to express his appreciation 
and thanks to the members of the Association for the consideration 
and good-will extended to him during the year. 
Respectfully submitted, 

E. H. FRITCH, Secretary. 



BUSINESS SESSION 53 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 
To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association: 

I have the honor of presenting the following report for the 
calendar year ending December 31, 1914: 

Balance, cash on hand, December 31, 1913 $14,276.74 

Consisting of: 

Cash in bank $ 5,066.41 

Six railway bonds, par value $1,000 each, at 

cost 5,206.06 

Four Lincoln Park bonds, par value $1,000 

each, at cost 4,004.27 

Total $14,376.74 

Receipts during the year 1914 $32,247.25 

Paid out on Audited Vouchers 29,211.72 

Excess of Receipts over Disbursements $ 3,035.53 3,035.53 

Balance on hand, December 31, 1914 $17,312.27 

Consisting of: 

Six railway bonds, par value $1,000 each, at 

cost $ 5,206.06 

Four Lincoln Park bonds, par value $1,000 

each, at cost 4,004.27 

Cash in Standard Trust and Savings Bank... 8,101.94 

$17,312.27 

STRESSES IN TRACK FUND. 

RECEIPTS. 

Contribution from U. S. Steel Corporation, April 

18, 1914 $10,000.00 

Interest— April to December, 1914 201.70 

Total Receipts $10,201.70 

Expenditures to December 31, 1914 434.40 

Balance A. R. E. A. Fund, January 1, 1915 $9,767.30 

Respectfully submitted, 

GEO. H. BREMNER, Treasurer. 

(The accounts have been audited by a firm of public accountants 
and found to agree with the foregoing.) 

(On motion, duly carried, the reports of the Secretary and of the 
Treasurer were accepted.) 



54 BUSINESS SESSION. 

The President : — The next order of business is the consideration of 
reports of Standing and Special Committees. 

It is customary for the members of Committees to come forward as 
their names are called and take places on the platform. 

The Chair would suggest that each speaker on rising to take part in 
the discussion, that he first state his name and the name of the corpora- 
tion with which he is connected, in order that the reporters can give it 
correctly in the Minutes. 

Mr. L. C. Fritch (Canadian Northern) : — I wpuld suggest that inas- 
much as we have a large amount of business before us that we endeavor 
to economize on time as much as possible. The several Committees this 
year have reported comprehensively on the subject of revision of the 
Manual. If we devote too much time to the discussion of the revision 
of the Manual, there will be no available time for the discussion of the 
Committee reports proper. In my judgment there is not anything of more 
importance than that the revised Manual shall be complete in every re- 
spect, but unless the convention passes upon these matters, they cannot be 
incorporated in the Manual. There is a Special Committee on Manual 
of the Board of Direction, composed of the five latest Past-Presidents, 
and it is the purpose of that Committee to take up the Committee reports 
relating to revision of the Manual and carefully review such revisions, 
in order that the revised Manual may be complete and perfect. 

It may save time at this convention if we limit discussion on re- 
vision of the Manual to essentials, and refer non-essentials to the Board 
of Direction. Unless we do that or something equivalent, we will not 
have time to discuss both the revisions of the Manual and the reports 
proper. The careful attention which the Committee of the Board will 
give to this subject during the coming year will assure the Association 
that the matter is in safe hands. Many of the suggestions for change's in 
the Manual are merely matters of verbiage or slight changes in arrange- 
ment, and 1 would suggest that only important principles be discussed, 
in. order that the business of the meeting may be facilitated. 

The President :— The Chair would announce that it is the purpose to 
request Chairmen of Committees, in presenting revisions of the Manual, 
to point out only such matters on which they desire action or that are es- 
sential, otherwise, unless the convention does so act, so far as the essen- 
tials are concerned, the changes cannot be made in the Manual, and 
Chairmen of Committees are therefore asked to handle this matter as 
suggested in presenting their reports to the convention. 

Mr. L. C. Fritch :— It might also be added that it is the purpose, after 
this convention, to submit the results on the revision of the Manual to 



BUSINESS SESSION. 55 

the various Committees for their final recommendations, and this in turn 
is to be finally reviewed by the Manual Committee of the Board of 
Direction. 

The President : — The first report to be considered is that of the Com- 
mittee on Rules and Organization. In the absence of the Chairman and 
Vice-Chairman, Mr. Curtis Dougherty will present the report. Mr. 
Dougherty will make a preliminary statement as to how the Committee 
desires to have its report considered. 

(See report, pp. 65-74; discussion, p. 1023.) 

The President: — The next report to be considered is that of the Com- 
mittee on Signals and Interlocking. Mr. Stevens, the Chairman, will 
present the report and indicate the manner in which the Committee de- 
sires to have it considered. 

(See report, pp. 75-87; discussion, pp. 1025-10.35.) 

The President: — The report of the Special Committee on Uniform 
General Contract Forms will next be taken up for consideration. Mr. 
E. H. Lee, the Chairman, will submit the report, and indicate the points 
in the report on which discussion is desired. 

(See report, pp. 89-101; discussion, p. 10.37.) 

The President : — The fourth report to be considered is that of the 
Committee on Signs. Fences and Crossings. Mr. W. F. Strouse, the Chair- 
man, will present the report and make a statement as to the manner in 
which the Committee wishes to have its report considered. 

(See report, pp. 433-519; discussion, pp. 1 039-1 045. ) 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The President : — The first report to be considered this afternoon is 
that of the Committee on Economics of Railway Location. Mr. John G. 
Sullivan, the Chairman of the Committee, will make a preliminary state- 
ment and describe what has been accomplished during the year and bring 
up the conclusions on which action is desired by the Committee. 

(See report, pp. 103-105; discussion, pp. 1047-1070.) 

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 17, 1915. 

MORNING SESSION. 

The President : — The first business to be taken up this morning is 
the consideration of the report of the Committee on Roadway, Mr. W. M. 
Dawley, Chairman. The Chair would ask Mr. Dawley to make a pre- 
liminary statement, and indicate the manner in which the report is to be 
considered. 

(See report, pp. 565-600: discussion, pp. 1071-1084.) 



56 BUSINESS SESSION. 

The President :— The report of the Committee on Records and Ac- 
counts will now be taken up. It will be presented by the Chairman, Mr. 
Christian, who will make the usual preliminary statement. 

(See report, pp. 785-790; discussion, pp. 1085-1087.) 

The President : — The Chair would ask unanimous consent to vary 
from the program, by announcing the result of the ballot for officers for 
the ensuing year at the close of the afternoon session. The Chair will 
appoint as Tellers, Messrs. W. J. Bergen, H. L. Gordon, W. F. Ogle, 
G. H. Gilbert and W. T. Dorrance. The Secretary will turn over the 
ballots to the Tellers, and they will retire to the anteroom to prepare 
their report after the close of this afternoon's session. 

The Chair would also ask unanimous consent to vary from the pro- 
gram and advance the report of the Rail Committee for the first matter 
of business at the afternoon session. There being no objection, the re- 
port of the Committee on Rail will be taken up immediately after 
luncheon to-day. 

We will now consider the report of the Committee on Ties. Mr. 
L. A. Downs, the Chairman, will present the report, and indicate the 
manner in which it is to be discussed. 

(See report, pp. 521-564; discussion, pp. 1089-1092.) 

The President :— The next report to be considered is that of the 
Committee on Iron and Steel Structures, Mr. A. J. Himes, Chairman. 
Mr. Himes will make a statement and indicate how the report is to be 
disposed of by the convention. 

(See report, pp. 601-676; discussion, pp. 1093-1115.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The President: — As announced' at the morning session, the first re- 
port to be taken up is that of the Committee on Rail. Mr. J. A. Atwood, 
the Chairman, will make the usual preliminary statement, and outline 
the way in which the Committee desires to have its report acted on by 
the convention. 

(See report, pp. 151-432; discussion, pp. 1117-1132.) 
The President: — The report of the Committee on Water Service will 
be presented by the Chairman, Mr. A. F. Dorley. 

(See report, pp. 677-713; discussion, pp. 1133, 1134.) 
The President: — The report of the Track Committee is now in order. 
It will be presented by the Chairman, Mr. J. B. Jenkins, who will make 
the usual preliminary statement. 

(See report, pp. 715-738; discussion, pp. 1135-1145.) 

The President: — We will next take up the report of the Committee 



BUSINESS SESSION. 57 

on Conservation of Natural Resources. In the absence of the Chairman, 
the report will be presented by the Vice-Chairman, Mr. A. W. Carpenter. 

(See report, pp. 989-1003; discussion, pp. 1147.) 

The President : — In view of the fact that the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Buildings cannot be here to-morrow, we are asked to take up 
that report to-day. Mr. Long, the Chairman, will present the report and 
indicate the points on which discussion by the convention is desired. 

(See report, pp. 739-/84; discussion, pp. 1149-1151.) 

The President : — The Tellers have submitted their report, covering 
the result of the election of officers for the ensuing year. The Secretary 
will read the report. 

Secretary Fritch : — The report of the Tellers appointed to canvass the 
ballots cast for officers for the ensuing year is as follows : 

REPORT OF THE TELLERS. 
To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association: 

The undersigned Tellers, appointed to canvass the ballots for officers 
for the year 1915, beg leave to report as follows: 

Total vote cast 657 

Not endorsed and not counted 13 

Total vote counted 644 

For President: 

R. Trimble 643 

A. S. Baldwin 1 

For Vice-President: 

John G. Sullivan 640 

C. A. Morse 1 

John R. Leighty : 1 

Earl Stimson 1 

H. R. Safford 1 

For Treasurer : 

Geo. H. Bremner 644 

For Secretary: 

E. H. Fritch 644 

For Directors: 

H. R. Safford 343 

C. F. W. Felt 263 

A. N. Talbot 227 

E. H. Lee 223 

Ff. E. Hale 210 

F. H. Alfred 199 

E. B. Cushing 198 

A. J. Himes 133 

Thos. S. Stevens 90 



58 BUSINESS SESSION. 

For Members of Nominating Committee: 

Paul Didier 422 

Hadley Baldwin 381 

C. E. Smith 374 

F. E. Turneaure 374 

D. J. Brumley '. 297 

L. S. Rose 277 

J. A. Peabody 261 

Dr. Hermann von Schrenk 257 

W. D. Wiggins 250 

S. S. Roberts 190 

Scattering 12 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. J. Bergen, 
H. L. Gordon, 
W. F. Ogle, 
G. H. Gilbert, 
W. T. Dorrance, 
Tellers. 
Secretary Fritch : — The candidates elected are as follows : 

President R. Trimble 

Vice-President John G. Sullivan 

Treasurer Geo. H. Bremner 

Secretary E. H. Fritch 

Three Directors . .H. R. Safford, C. F. W. Felt, A. N. Talbot 

Five Members of Nominating Committee . Paul Didier, Hadley 

Baldwin, F. E. Turneaure, D. J. Brumley, C. E. Smith. 

THURSDAY, MARCH 18, 1915. 

MORNING SESSION. 

The President: — The first report to be considered this morning is that 
of the Committee on Wood Preservation, Mr. Earl Stimson, Chairman. 
Mr. Stimson will make a preliminary statement and indicate the manner 
in which the report is to be considered. 

(See report, pp. 825-888; discussion, pp. 1153-1157.) 
The President : — We will next consider the report of the Committee 
on Ballast. Mr. H. E. Hale, the Chairman, will outline the manner in 
which the report is to be acted on by the convention. 

(See report, pp. 1005-1020; discussion, pp. 1159-1172.) 
The President :— Prof. A. N. Talbot, Chairman of the Special Com- 
mittee on Stresses in Railroad Track, will present the progress report of 
that Committee. 

(See report, pp. 791, 792; discussion, pp. 1173, 1174.) 



BUSINESS SESSION 59 

The President: — The report of the Committee on Masonry will now 
be taken up for consideration, and the Chairman, Mr. F. E. Schall, will 
make the usual preliminary statement. 

(See report, pp. 793-824; discussion, pp. 1175-1178. I 

The President : — The report of the Committee on Wooden Bridges 
and Trestles will be presented by the Chairman, Mr. E. A. Frink. Mr. 
Frink will outline the way in which the Committee desires to have the 
report considered. 

(See report, pp. 891-904; discussion, pp. 1179-1183.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The President :— The first report to be taken up this afternoon is 
that of the Committee on Grading of Lumber, Dr. Hermann von Schrenk, 
Chairman. Dr. von Schrenk will briefly outline the report and indicate 
the portions on which action is desired by the convention. 
(See report, pp. 905-916; discussion, pp. 1185, 1186.) 
The President: — In the absence of the Chairman and Vice-Chairman 
of the Committee on Electricity, Mr. E. B. Katte will present the re- 
port and give an outline of the subjects to be considered by the con- 
vention. 

(See report, pp. 017-956; discussion, pp. 1187, 1188.) 
The President: — The last report to be acted on by the convention 
is that of the Committee on Yards and Terminals. In the absence of 
both the Chairman and Vice-Chairman, the report will be presented by 
Mr. A. Montzheimer. 

(See report, pp. 957-987; discussion, pp. 1189-1191.) 
The President : — The reports of Standing and Special Committees 
having been disposed of, we will next take up "New Business." Has 
any member anything to offer under that heading? 

Mr. E. T. Reisler (Lehigh Valley) : — I would like information as 
to whether the Special Committee on Manual is to be authorized to 
make such editorial changes in the Manual as may be necessary?" 

The President : — It is understood that the Special Committee has 
that authority. 

Mr. Hunter McDonald (Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis) : — I 
desire to offer the following : 

"Resolved, That the Board of Direction be requested to consider a 
working plan, by which the conclusions of certain other associations 
working along the same lines of research as ours may receive the 



60 BUSINESS SESSION. 

endorsement of this Association without discussion in detail by its con- 
ventions." 

(The resolution was adopted.) 

Secretary E. H. Fritch : — Mr. President, I desire to offer the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

"Resolved by the members of the American Railway Engineer- 
ing Association, in convention assembled, That we desire to place on 
record our appreciation and extend our hearty thanks to — 

"Hon. Charles S. Gleed, Sir George Foster, Frank L. Mulholland, 
Esq., and Benjamin Baum, Esq., for their admirable and instructive ad- 
dresses at the annual dinner of the Association on the evening of 
March 17; 

"To the National Railway Appliances x\ssociation for the instruc- 
tive and comprehensive exhibit of railway devices at the Coliseum; 

"To the technical press for their daily reports of this convention, 
and for the useful information made available to the members and guests 
through their publications ; 

"To the official reporters, Mr. T. E. Crossman and Mr. G. W. Bur- 
goyne, for their accurate and painstaking reports of this and previous 
conventions ; 

"To the Tellers, Messrs. W. J. Bergen, H. L. Gordon, W. T. Dor- 
rance, W. F. Ogle and G. H. Gilbert, for their arduous labors in count- 
ing and tabulating the ballots cast for officers for the ensuing year; 

"To Committee No. 23, on Arrangements, for the highly successful 
arrangements made for the comfort and entertainment of the members 
and guests attending this convention." 

(The resolutions were adopted.) 

Mr. William McNab (Grand Trunk Railway System) :— Mr. Presi- 
dent, I desire to offer this resolution : 

"Resolved, That this Association, in convention assembled, desires to 
express its appreciation of the able manner in which the retiring Presi- 
dent, Mr. W. B. Storey, has performed the duties of President during 
the year, and also for the efficient manner in which he has presided over 
the deliberations of this convention." 

I offer that resolution with a riser that it be spread upon the Min- 
utes of this meeting and an engrossed copy be sent to the retiring Presi- 
dent, Mr. Storey. 

(Mr. McNab put the resolution to vote, and it was carried unani- 
mously.) 

The President : — The Secretary will now announce the result of the 
election of officers for the ensuing year. 



BUSINESS SESSION. 61 

Secretary E. H. Fritch : — The officers elected for the ensuing year 
are as follows : 

President, R. Trimble. 

First Vice-President, A. S. Baldwin. 

Second Vice-President, John G. Sullivan. 

Treasurer, George H. Bremner 

Secretary, E. H. Fritch. 

Three Directors (three years each), H. R. Safford, C. F. W. Felt, 
A. X. Talbot. 

Five Members of Nominating Committee, Paul Didier, Hadley Bald- 
win, D. J. Brumley, F. E. Turneaure, C. E. Smith. 

The President :— You have heard the result of the election of offi- 
cers. The Chair will ask Past-Presidents Cushing and Wendt to escort 
the President-elect, Mr. Trimble, to the platform. (Applause.) 

President Storey: — In delivering this gavel to you, Mr. Trimble. I 
wish to express my thanks to the members of the Association for the 
very great assistance that has been given me in the discharge of my 
duties as the President of the Association, and to say to you that in 
your duties in the future you will find that our Secretary. Mr. Fritch, is of 
the very greatest assistance and invaluable in the administration of the 
affairs of the Association. (Applause.) 

President-elect Trimble :• — Gentlemen of the American Railway En- 
gineering Association : I count it a very high honor to be the President 
of this Association. There is possibly no greater honor that comes to the 
members of our profession. I am very grateful to you for this honor, and 
I beg to thank you very sincerely for your confidence in bestowing it upon 
me. 

After three days of arduous work attending to the business of the 
convention, and at a time when you are all anxious to get away, it would 
be most inopportune to make a long address, and I have no purpose of 
inflicting one upon you. 

I do wish, however, to say a word or two before we separate in re- 
gard to the work of the coming year. Let us take notice of some of the 
advice so eloquently given to us last night, especially by Sir George Foster 
and Mr. Mulholland. Let us take the mind that has been given us — it is 
the best we have — and let us "mobilize our energy" and "correlate our 
work" so that we will "be good for something," and during the coming 
year develop a survival value that will be left as an enduring heritage for 
the coming years of the Association. We are not pessimists, we are 
optimists. It will be my purpose to do the very best I can to advance the 
interests of your Association. 

Let us take up our work early, at once, if possible, and do not let us 
delay in starting the activities of the year. I would strongly urge the 



62 BUSINESS SESSION. 

organization of the committees and the beginning of the work at an early 
date. 

With the work of your earnest Board of Direction and your efficient 
Secretary, and a hearty co-operation of the members, I feel that the 
seventeeth year of the American Railway Engineering Association will be 
a notable one. Gentlemen, I thank you for your kindness to me. (Ap- 
plause.) 

I now declare the Sixteenth Annual Convention of the American 
Railway Engineering Association adjourned. 



The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the American Raihvay Engi- 
neering Association will be held at the Congress Hotel, Chicago, March 
21, 22 and 23, 1916. 

At a meeting of the Board of Direction, held at the Congress Hotel, 
Chicago, March 18, 1915, C. E. Lindsay, Division Engineer, New York 
Central Railroad, was elected a Director to fill the vacancy due to the 
election of John G. Sullivan as Vice-President. 

E. H. Eritch, 
Secretary. 



COMMITTEE REPORTS 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XII— ON RULES AND 
ORGANIZATION. 



G. D. Brooke, Chairman , 

R. P. Black, 

L. L. Beal, 

Ralph Budd, 

A. M. Burt, 

T. B. Carothers, 



F. D. Anthony, V ice-Chairman; 

S. E. Coombs, 

Curtis Dougherty, 

B. Herman, 

Jos. Mullen, 

E. T. Reisler, 

Committee. 



To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association : 
INSTRUCTIONS. 

Your Committee on Rules and Organization has worked during the 
past year under the following instructions : 

(a) Make critical examination of the subject-matter in the Manual. 
and submit definite recommendations for changes. 

(i) Review Rules and Instructions heretofore adopted by the Asso- 
ciation and recommend such changes and additions thereto as 
may seem desirable. 

(2) Formulate rules for the guidance of the maintenance of way 

department pertaining to safety. 

(3) Continue the formulation of rules for the guidance of field 

parties : 

(a) When making preliminary surveys. 

(b) When making location surveys. 

(c) When in charge of construction. 

(4) Continue the study of science of organization. 



SUB-COMMITTEES. 

Three Sub-Committees were appointed: Sub-Committee A, to which 
was assigned work under instructions (1) and (2), consisting of: 

Curtis Dougherty, Chairman ; 
R. P. Black, 
J. B. Carothers, 
Jos. Mullen. 

Sub-Committee B, to which was assigned work under instruction (4), 
consisting of : 

B. Herman, Chairman ; 
S. E. Coombs, 
E. T. Reisler. 

65 



66 RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 

Sub-Committee C, to which was assigned work under instruction (3), 
consisting of : 

Ralph Budd, Chairman ; 
F. D. Anthony, 
L. L. Beal, 
A. M. Burt. 

COMMITTEE MEETINGS. 

Two meetings of the Committee were held : One at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
September 18, 1914, at which were present: Curtis Dougherty, J. B. 
Carothers, Jos. Mullen, G. D. Brooke. 

One at Washington, D. C, November 27, 1914, at which were present: 
F. D. Anthony, Jos. Mullen, S. E. Coombs, B. Herman, G. D. Brooke. 
Messrs. Burt, Black, Reisler and Dougherty were represented by corre- 
spondence. 

REVISION OF MANUAL. 

The Committee has considered very carefully the rules heretofore 
adopted by the Association and printed in the Manual of 191 1, and the 
supplements thereto. These rules have been revised from time to time 
and no changes in conditions or practices affecting them have occurred 
during the past few years. The Committee, therefore, is of the opinion 
that no revisions are necessary, and none are recommended. 

SAFETY RULES. 

The following safety rules are recommended for adoption and print- 
ing in the Manual : 

(1) It is the duty of every employe working on or about the tracks 
to exercise great care to avoid injury to himself and others, and nothing 
in these rules is to be so construed as to relieve any employe from per- 
forming his full duty in that respect. 

(2) Employes must examine and know for themselves that tools, 
materials, etc., which they must make use of in performing their duties 
are in proper condition. If not, they must put them so, or report them to 
the proper person and have them put in proper order before using. 

(3) In handling rails, ties and other heavy materials, special care 
must be used to avoid injury. 

(4) On the approach of a train, employes who are working on or 
about the tracks must move to places of safety, standing clear of all 
running tracks. They must not walk or stand on the tracks, except when 
necessary for the proper performance of their duties. 

(5) Watchmen, patrolmen, trackwalkers and others on duty which 
makes it necessary for them to be on the track, where there are two 
or more tracks, should, when practicable, travel against the current of 
traffic, keeping a sharp lookout in both directions for approaching trains. 

(6) Foremen or others in charge of employes must see that their 



RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 67 

men are alert and watchful to avoid danger; and when working on or 
about the tracks, will take the necessary precautions to see that all men 
working under their immediate supervision receive warning of approach- 
ing trains in time to reach places of safety. 

(7) When working on tracks in places where approaching trains 
cannot readily be seen because of permanent obstructions to the view, 
curves, or temporary obstructions, such for instance as fog, storms, snow, 
or engines or cars, extra precautions must be taken to warn the men 
of approaching trains. 

Foremen, watchmen, and others in charge of gangs or squads of 
workmen should provide themselves with whistle or other means for 
warning the men when working in places where approaching trains cannot 
readily be seen. 

(8) When large numbers of inexperienced men are working on the 
track, they should be divided into small squads, each squad placed in 
charge of an experienced man, and all necessary additional precautions 
taken to prevent accident. 

(9) Employes working in tunnels or near the ends of the same, when 
trains approach from either direction, must clear all tracks, and if in 
the tunnel, must occupy the manholes. 

(10) In tunnels and in other places where there is insufficient clear- 
ance and no manholes or other places of safety provided, foremen must 
arrange with the proper officer for the use of track and work under flag 
protection. 

(11) Employes are required to carry lanterns or torches when pass- 
ing through any tunnel where men cannot readily be seen. 

When an entire gang is working close together in a tunnel, an adequate 
number of lights should be used, but not less than two. 

(12) Hand or push cars must not be used at night, nor in the day- 
time when approaching trains cannot readily be seen by reason of fog, 
storm or snow, except under proper protection. 

(13) Trains will be run in either direction, on any track, whenever 
necessary or expedient, and employes will be governed accordingly. 

(14) Employes will keep the right-of-way, and particularly the main, 
yard and sidetracks and the footpath along them, free of obstacles, 
such as old material, broken drawbars, lumps of coal, and anything over 
which themselves or others may stumble. 

(15) Any employe, who, while on duty, is careless about the safety 
of himself or others, or who disregards warnings, will be disciplined. 

RULES FOR PARTIES ON SURVEYS AND CONSTRUCTION. 
This subject is not reported on this year. 

SCIENCE OF ORGANIZATION. 

The Committee's work on this subject has consisted in collecting 
some additional data in regard to the form of organization of the Main- 



68 RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 

tenance of Way Department in use on the various railroads, and the 
internal workings of these various organizations. 

An attempt to assemble data bearing on the historical aspect of 
the development of the present Maintenance of Way organizations has 
not met with much success, but further efforts will be made along this 
line. 

The information collected is being compiled for the use of the Com- 
mittee and the work on this subject will be continued during the period 
intervening before the convention. It is desirable, however, to draw 
attention to the fact that several of the great railroad systems are making 
successful experiments in selecting and training men for positions in the 
Maintenance of Way department, and there is undoubtedly a growing 
tendency in favor of the systematic developing of men to supervise 
Maintenance of Way forces. 

The Committee must rely for its material largely on the active in- 
terest in the subject of those individuals of the membership of the Asso- 
ciation who are giving thought and study to the question of organization. 
In order to arouse and foster this interest, it is very desirable to have some 
discussion of the question at the annual convention. As a beginning of 
this discussion the Committtee recommends that the report made to the 
Board of Direction just prior to the last convention be published as an 
appendix to this report. 

As very pertinent at this time, an extract from a letter from Mr. A. J. 
Himes, Valuation Engineer, New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, on 
"Personality in Organization," is here quoted. The Committee is very 
anxious to secure similar expressions on the various phases of organization 
from members of the Association and other railroad officers : 

"It is my strong belief that some of our big corporations have lost 
sight of the power of personality in their organizations. Personal leader- 
ship is one of the strongest forces with which we have to deal and I 
do not believe that it is being properly used. 

"Fundamentally all human efficiency is influenced largely by the ideas 
of reward and punishment. These two words used broadly cover almost 
everything about which we care. Successful leadership requires the power 
to adjust the rewards and punishments so as to stimulate a constant strug- 
gle for efficiency. The constant struggle for perfection in accounting and 
reporting which leaves a minimum of initiative to a foreman or one who 
is in direct charge of labor, may eliminate graft and misapplication of 
money and materials, but no human ingenuity can do away with the 
ultimate- necessity of relying upon the faithfulness of humanity. Faith- 
fulness is imperative and should be stimulated and developed. You can- 
not develop faithfulness by removing all possibility of wrongdoing. 
Rather faithfulness is developed by the exercise of responsibility. To build 
up a strong organization, I would study to place men in positions of trust 
and let the men know that I trusted them and relied upon them. 

"It is true that occasionally a man is not true to his trust, and some 
men grow so suspicious that they are never willing to trust anybody. The 
reason the man fails is exactly the same as that which causes his muscles 
to grow weak if overstrained. The responsibility which a man bears 
should be adjusted to his stage of development and capacity. The failure 
is to a considerable degree the failure of the employer. The employer 



RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 69 

should know his men and know what they can do and never overload 
them. An overload can be carried a short time in an emergency and in 
good health, but continued too long it will bring failure as surely as if 
the load were applied to a piece of steel. 

"And then there must be decision and firmness and ability. No weak- 
ling who dallies with business can be a successful leader and when a leader 
issues an order or gives a decision it must be felt by everyone that it 
is final, as well as correct. No error can ever be final and the man who 
persists in an error in order to display his power will presently learn that 
he has no power." 

NEXT YEAR'S WORK. 

The following outline of work for next year is recommended : 
(i) Review Rules and Instructions heretofore adopted by the Asso- 
ciation and recommend such changes and additions thereto as 
may seem desirable. 

(2) Continue the formulation of rules for the guidance of field 

parties. 

(a) When making preliminary surveys. 

(b) When making location surveys. 

(c) When in charge of construction. 

(3) Continue the study of science of organization. 

(4) Report on the clearance of switchstands, signal stands, plat- 

forms, platform shelters, mail cranes, water columns, coal 
chutes, water tanks, etc., under the assignment from the 
Committee on Maintenance of the American Railway Associa- 
tion. 

Respectfully submitted, 
COMMITTEE ON RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 



Appendix A. 

REPORT TO BOARD OF DIRECTION ON THE STUDY OF THE 
SCIENCE OF ORGANIZATION. 

G. D. Brooke, Chairman; F. D. Anthony, Vice-Chairman; 

R. P. Black, K. Hanger, 

J. B. Carothers, B. Herman, 

S. E. Coombs, Jos. Mullen, 

C Dougherty, E. T. Reisler, 

Committee. 

To the Board of Direction of the American Railzvay Engineering Asso- 
ciation: 

INSTRUCTIONS. 

Committee XII — On Rules and Organization, was instructed, in addi- 
tion to other work, to "Begin the study of Science of Organization and 
report to the Board of Direction how this study can be made profitable 
to the Association." In compliance with these instructions -your Com- 
mittee submits the following report : 

DEFINITIONS. 

Organization. — Organization is the direction of the efforts of a 
number of individuals to a common purpose. 

In the commonly accepted use of the term, an organization is a 
collection of individuals, or groups of individuals, acting under a central 
control, by means of which their efforts are directed to a common purpose. 

Science of Organization. — The science of organization is the sys- 
tematized knowledge pertaining to, or the acknowledged laws, as demon- 
strated by observation or deduction, relating to the direction of the efforts 
of groups or individuals to common ends. 

ORGANIZATION WORKING. 

In its workings, the individual is the prototype of the organization. 
Every physical act of the human animal requires three distinct processes, 
of effort in its performance : 

(i) The knowledge of an existing reason for or the self-impelled 
desire for the act. This is mental effort. 

(2) The instruction to the hand, eye, or other physical member to 

perform and how to perform. This also is a mental process. 

(3) The execution by the physical member. This is physical effort. 

Consider next a small group of men as a unit for the performance 
of work, as a squad of soldiers or a section gang. A leader or foreman is 

70 



RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 71 

necessary, who is the mind or brain of the unit ; the other men are the 
physical agencies. 

(i) The leader possesses the knowledge of or conceives of what 
is to be done. 

(2) He communicates to the men what is to be done and how it is 

to be done. 

(3) The men perform the work. 

Continuing the analogy, the logical development is the company of 
soldiers and the force under a supervisor ; the regiment and the track 
forces of a division; the brigade and the forces of a district; the army 
corps and the maintenance of way department of a railroad system. Each 
successive unit is made up of a number of smaller units; each larger 
unit is under the control of a head who conceives or plans the work, 
and conveys his instructions as to what is to be done; the constituent 
units receive the directions and execute the work. The efficiency of any 
unit depends upon the ability of the leader in planning work or devising 
action to meet varying situations ; his method of transmitting the instruc- 
tions to the constituent units, since this determines with what degree of 
clearness his ideas and plans are understood ; and the spirit and the degree 
of preparedness of the constituent units in receiving and executing the 
instructions. 

PRINCIPLES. 

There are certain fundamental principles of organization which, 
for the present purpose, can best be elucidated by the consideration of 
two familiar examples of organization, the athletic team and the military 
company, which are frequently so developed as to represent the highest 
degree of efficiency attained in modern organization. These principles 

are : 

_ . _ j . ij 

Proper selection of material; 
Compensation ; 
Education ; 
Esprit de Corps; 
Discipline. 

PROPER SELECTION OF MATERIAL. 

To begin with, the recruits for such organizations are obtained by 
careful selection. The athlete is closely watched by coach or manager 
and his advancement to a higher class is dependent upon his ability as 
demonstrated by his work in a lower class. The prospective soldier is 
required to fulfill well-defined standards of mental and physical fitness 
before his acceptance; after enlistment his advancement depends upon 
demonstrated ability and capacity for authority. This is proper selection 
of material, and in point of order, is the first principle of good or- 
ganization. 



72 RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 

COMPENSATION. 

The next important principle of organization is compensation. The 
individual belonging to the athletic team expects some reward or return 
for the time and self-denial during the period of training and the supreme 
efforts of the contest. Whether this be a monetary gain, the opportunities 
for recreation and pleasure during trips to the sites of contests, or the 
personal prestige among his associates which results from his having won 
a place on the team, the expectation and the realization are no less real 
and significant. To the professional soldier food, clothing and the monthly 
wage are his living, his due reward for service; the opportunities of 
travel at home and abroad, the recognition of meritorious services by the 
awarding of medals or otherwise, and the possibilities of glory or booty 
during conflict, are forms of compensation ever potent in attracting the 
recruit and retaining the veteran. 

EDUCATION. 

The material having been selected, the next step is its instruction. 
For the individual to become proficient in any line of physical endeavor, 
careful and faithful preparation is necessary. The born athlete, with 
natural gifts of strength and physical prowess, must undergo prolonged 
training of mind, eye and limb before that degree of perfect co-ordination 
is attained which spells success ; the recruit is drilled for weeks before 
he is capable of taking his place in the company. The athletic team suc- 
ceeds not through the individual effort of its well-trained members but 
through that united effort, that team work, which is attained only by 
extended daily practice. A hundred picked men, each fully versed in the 
school of the soldier, will require weeks of daily drill before they can be 
rounded into a crack company. This is education, another cardinal prin- 
ciple of organization. 

ESPRIT DE CORPS. 

Among the members of the successful athletic team there exists 
a spirit of pride in the achievement of the team in the past and of 
emulation to equal or better deeds in the present and future. Individual 
ambition is subordinated, where necessary, to the good of the organization 
and at the same time there is a friendly rivalry to excel where good will 
result. In military life the same spirit is found. It is an honor tu 
belong to the crack company of a crack regiment. The men of such a 
company will not tolerate conduct on the part of any member which 
will reflect on their cherished reputation. In the competitive drill every 
nerve is strained, every face is set and each man's interest is so keen 
that to him the chances of failure or success seem to rest upon his in- 
dividual efforts. This is esprit de corps; it is probably the most intangible 
but at the same time a most important principle of organization. 

DISCIPLINE. 

The athlete in training is required to conform to rigid rules of diet 
and habits. In practice and during contests he must obey in letter and 



RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 73 

spirit the instructions of coach or manager. Failure to comply with rules 
and instructions will result in the offender being dropped from the team 
or subjected to other penalty. In military service the infraction of regu- 
lations or disobedience of instructions are penalized by fines, confinement, 
hard labor or dismissal from the service according to the circumstances 
and the nature of the offense. This is discipline, the fifth principle of 
organization. 

MAINTENANCE OF WAY ORGANIZATION. 

The maintenance of way organization of the railroads of this country 
has been developed by the force of attendant circumstances rather than 
along preconceived or well-studied plans; this was particularly true prior 
to a decade ago, but is still true to a large extent. Nevertheless, it has on 
the whole fulfilled its object admirably and has risen to the heights which 
each successive occasion has demanded. Within the past few years the 
realization of the importance of well-balanced organization has been 
growing and considerable thought and attention have been devoted to 
bettering existing organizations in some quarters, with good results, so far 
as they have gone. 

A study of the maintenance of way organization to determine to what 
extent each of the five principles above enumerated has been applied, is 
being applied, and can be applied; if some of them are being applied to 
the undue exclusion of others ; and the best means of effecting a proper 
balance of them in any further development that may be undertaken, will 
constitute a study of the Science of Organization as applied to the main- 
tenance of way department. 

PROGRESS. 

Your Committee has started the collection of data as to the mainte- 
nance of way organizations of the various railroads, represented in the 
Association, and proposes to make use of the information gathered by 
the Committee on Track and other committees in connection with the 
studies of economics of track and other labor. This work has not pro- 
gressed to the point where any comprehensive analysis of the material 
is practicable ; but your Committee has been impressed by the indications 
of great possibilities in the application of scientific organization to the 
Maintenance of Way department. 

An example of what can be accomplished by thorough instruction is 
found in the methods of the signal maintenance forces of one of the 
trunk lines. Monthly meetings are held by the Signal Engineer, which 
all assistant engineers, signal supervisors and signal inspectors are required 
to attend. Materials, methods and proposed instructions are discussed fully 
and the minutes of the meetings distributed in printed pamphlets to all 
interested. In this way the best ideas are secured, the reasons for adopting 
standard practices in methods or materials are fully understood, and 
all minds are freed of any possible prejudice towards them. And when 
circulars putting standard practices into effect are issued, there is the 



"<4 RULES AND ORGANIZATION. 

assurance that they are interpreted uniformly over the entire system. 
The excellent results obtained in a very few years are a splendid justifi- 
cation of the application of scientific organization. 

BENEFITS FROM STUDY. 

As illustrating the present-day tendency to devote more serious 
thought to the question of organization, attention is directed to the splen- 
did paper on "Development of Young Men in Railroad Work," by Mr. 
George M. Basford, read before the New England Railroad Club on 
January 13, 1914, and the discussion which followed (see Railway Age 
Gazette, Vol. 56, No. 3, January 16, 1914). While dealing primarily with 
the needs of the mechanical department Mr. Basford brings out forcibly 
the application of the ideas to the other departments. 

Your Committee sees in this tendency a hopeful indication that a 
study of the Science of Organization will bear fruit. Such a study will 
result in focusing attention and thought upon the important question, 
and the indirect benefits will undoubtedly be greater than any facts which 
may be brought out or possible recommendations that may be made as 
the direct results of the study. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE X— ON SIGNALS AND 
INTERLOCKING. 

Thos. S. Stevens, Chairman; C. C. Anthony, Vice-Chairman; 

Azel Ames, M. H. Hovey, 

H. S. Balliet, A. S. Ingalls, 

J. B. Cameron, A. M. Keppel, 

W. B. Causey, J. C. Mock, 

C. A. Christofferson, F. P. Patenall, 

C. E. Denney, J. A. Peabody, 

C. A. Dunham, D. \V. Richards, 

W. J. Eck, A. H. Rudd, 

W. H. Elliott, W. B. Scott, 

G. E. Ellis, A. G. Shaver, Committee. 

To the Members of the American Raihvay Engineering Association: 

Your Committee was assigned the following : 

(a) Make critical examination of the subject-matter in the Manual 
and submit definite recommendations for changes. 

(i) Continue study of economics of labor in signal maintenance. 

(2) Formulate and present requisites for switch indicators, includ- 
ing conveying information on condition of the block to conductors and 
enginemen. 

(3) Present, for approval, specifications adopted by the Railway 
Signal Association, which in the judgment of the Committee warrant 
consideration. 

(4) Study the problem of signaling single-track roads with refer- 
ence to the effect of signaling and proper location of passing sidings on 
the capacity of the line. 

(1) STUDY OF ECONOMICS OF LABOR IN SIGNAL MAIN- 

TENANCE. 

Your Committee has not had time to make further study of this sub- 
ject or to confer with the Committee on Track, but it will investigate the 
subject during 1915. 

(2) REQUISITES FOR SWITCH INDICATORS, INCLUDING 
CONVEYING INFORMATION ON CONDITION OF THE 

BLOCK TO CONDUCTORS AND ENGINEMEN. 

Your Committee presents an amplification of the adjunct in the 
standard code and requisites for switch indicators whieh have been 
adopted by the Railway Signal Association: 

switch indicators. 
Amplification of Adjunct (C), Automatic Block System, the Standard 
Code of the American Railway Association. 

75 



76 SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 

(C) Indicators at main track switches to indicate, on roads of two 
or more tracks, one or more of the following: 

(a) Whether or not a train is approaching. 

(b) Whether .or not that portion of the block between the switch 
and the next Home Block Signal in advance is clear. 

(c) Whether or not the next Home Block Signal in the direction of 
approaching trains is at Stop. 

REQUISITES OF INSTALLATION. 

(i) Switch indicators, if practicable, located 

(a) At main track switches connecting with tracks on which 
trains may clear main tracks, and in which either there are no 
derails or diverging switches, or the derails or diverging switches 
are connected with the main track switches. 

(b) At independently operated derails or diverging switches 
in tracks on which trains may clear main tracks. 

(c) At points from which switches of crossovers between 
main tracks are operated, where both switches are operated from 
the same point. 

(d) At independently operated switches of crossovers be- 
tween main tracks, the indicator at the switch in one track oper- 
ated in connection with the other track. 

(2) Switch indicators that cannot be identified by their locations, 
marked with the designations of the tracks in connection with which 
they are operated. 

(3) The connections of switch indicators used to indicate whether 
or not a train is approaching, so arranged that an indicator will indicate 
the approach of a train that has reached a point at least such a distance 
in the rear of the second block signal in the direction of approaching 
trains that, if the switch is thrown at the moment when a train reaches 
that point, the Caution signal will be displayed in time to be observed 
by the engineman, and will continue so to indicate until the train passes 
the Home Block signal in the rear of the switch or, approximately, the 

clearance point of the switch when the switch is more than feet in 

advance of the Home Block Signal. The distance of the point at which 
the approach of a train is first indicated will be determined in each case 
by the grade, speed of trains, view of the signal or other local conditions. 

CONCLUSION. 

That this amplification and these requisites for switch indicators 
be adopted and included in the next issue of the Manual. 

(3) PRESENT, FOR APPROVAL, SPECIFICATIONS ADOPTED 
BY THE RAILWAY SIGNAL ASSOCIATION, WHICH IN 
THE JUDGMENT OF THE COMMITTEE WAR- 
RANT CONSIDERATION. 

Your Committee has given this matter consideration and herewith 
presents a list of specifications and standards adopted by the Railway 



SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 77 

Signal Association which should be endorsed by this Association. It 
will be noted that these represent 654 pages of printed matter. They have 
been very carefully considered by committees and adopted by letter- 
ballot of the active membership and representative membership of the 
Railway Signal Association. They are being used extensively and are 
therefore now standards of many railroads as well as of the Railway 
Signal Association. 

As all this material is available in the Manual of the Railway Signal 
Association and because of the large expense involved in reproducing it 
in the Proceedings and Manual of this Association, we feel that it would 
be preferable to include in the next issue of the Manual a list of the 
specifications and standards of the Railway Signal Association which 
would be useful to the membership of this Association. 

LIST OF THE FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, STANDARDS AND 

SPECIFICATIONS CONTAINED IN THE MANUAL OF 

THE RAILWAY SIGNAL ASSOCIATION. 

TEXT. 

Automatic Block Signals. 

Alternating Current, A. C. Propulsion, Specifications. 

Alternating Current, D. C. Propulsion, Specifications. 

Alternating Current, Steam Railways, Specifications. 

Direct Current, Specifications. 
Automatic Train Control, Requisites of Installation and Adjuncts (Ameri- 
can Railway Association). 
Battery, Primary. 

Caustic-Soda Cell, Specifications. 

Coppers, Gravity Battery, Specifications. 

Zincs, Gravity Battery, Specifications. 

Battery, Storage. 

Concrete Box for, Specifications. 

Lead-type, Description of. 

Lead-type, Electrolyte for, Specifications. 

Lead-type, New Electrolyte for, Specifications. 

Lead-type, Charged for Primary Cells, Instructions for Operation. 

Lead-type, in Block-signal Service, Instructions for Operation. 

Lead-type, at Interlocking Plants, Instructions for Operation. 

Portable Lead-type, Directions for Installation. 

Portable Lead-type, Instructions for Operation. 

Portable Lead-type, Specifications. 

Stationary Lead-type, Directions for Installation. 

Stationary Pure-lead-type for Signaling, Specifications. 

Bells. 

Annunciator, Specifications. 

Highway Crossing, D.C. Vibrating, Specifications. 

Cables. 

Aerial Braided, for 660 volts or less, Specifications. 
Armored Submarine, for 660 volts or less, Specifications. 
Armored Submarine, for 2200 volts, Specifications. 
Lead-covered, for 660 volts or less, Specifications. 
Lead-covered, for 2200 volts, Specifications. 
Underground Braided, for 660 volts or less, Specifications. 



78 SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 

Channel Pins, Specifications. 

Circuit Nomenclature and Written Circuits. 

Concrete, Portland Cement, Specifications. 

Conduit. 

Fiber, three inches in diameter with one-fourth-inch wall, Specifica- 
tions. 

Pipe, Steel, Specifications. 

Pipe, Wrought Iron, Specifications. 

Vitrified Clay, Specifications. 

Vitrified Clay, Installation of a System, Specifications. 
Copper Sulphate, Specifications. 
Crossarms. 

Wood, Specifications. 

Braces and Heel and Toe Bolts for, Specifications. 

Steel Pins for, Specifications. 

Through Bolts and Double-arm Bolts for, Specifications. 

Definitions of Technical Terms. 
Drawbridges. 

Protection by Electro-pneumatic Interlocking. 

Protection by Mechanical Interlocking. 
Engine, Gasoline, with Fuel and Water Tanks, Specifications. 
Fiber, Hard, Specifications. 
Fuses, Specifications. 
Galvanising Iron or Steel, Specifications (American Railway Engineering 

Association). 

Generators. 

D.C. Electric, Specifications. 
A.C. Electric, Specifications. 

Glass, Signal (See Roundels). 

Impedance Bonds. 

11,000 Volts A.C. Propulsion, Specifications. 

D.C. Propulsion, Specifications. 
Impregnation Treatment of Coils and Windings, Specifications. 

Interlocking. 

Electric, Specifications. 
Electro-pneumatic, Specifications. 
Mechanical, Specifications. 

Iron. 

Castings, Gray, Specifications. 
Castings, Malleable, Specifications. 
Wrought, Bars, Specifications. 

Lozv-voltage Electric Operation of Track Switches, Requirements 

Oil. 

Illuminating, Specifications. 

Transformer, Specifications. 
Performance, Signal, forms for recording (see drawings). 
Petrolatum for Use in Impedance Bonds, Specifications. 
Petroleum Asphaltum, Specifications. 

Pipe. 

One-inch Soft Steel Signal, Specifications. 

One-inch Wrought Iron Signal, Specifications. 
Poles, Eastern White Cedar, Specifications. 



SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 79 

Push Buttons. Specifications. 

Pushes, Floor, Specifications. 

Relays, Lifting Armature Neutral-type D.C., Specifications. 

Releases, Mechanical and Electric, Specifications. 

Roundels, Lenses and Slides, Specifications. 

Rules. 

Governing Maintenance of Block Signals. 

Governing Signal Foremen. 

Governing Signal Maintainers. 

Governing Signal Supervisors. 
Signals, D.C. Motor Semaphore, Specifications. 
Signal Indications, Principles of. 
Signaling Practice — Signal Indications and Aspects (American Railway 

Engineering Association). 
Steel, Machinery, Specifications. 
Switchboards. 

Slate, for Battery Charging, Specifications. 

Slate and Equipment for A. C. Signal System, Specifications. 
Suritch Indicators. Purposes and Requisites of Installation. 

Tape. 

Friction, Specifications. 

Rubber Insulating, Specifications. 
Transformers. 

Single-phase Line, Oil-immersed Self-cooled Outdoor-type, 4400 volts 
or less, Specifications. 

Single-phase Track, 250 volts or less, Specifications. 
Trunking, Wood, Specifications. 
Units, Operated, Rating of, for the Purpose of Division of Costs of 

Joint Signal and Interlocking Plants. 
Voltage Ranges for Signal Work. 

Wire. 

Bonding, Copper-clad Steel, Specifications. 

Bonding, Galvanized E.B.B., Specifications. 

Line, Copper-clad Steel, 30 per cent. Conductivity, Hard-drawn, Spe- 
cifications. 
• Line, Double-braided Weatherproof Galvanized B.B., Specifications. 

Line, Double-braided Weatherproof Hard-drawn Copper, Specifica- 
tions. 

Messenger, Galvanized, Specifications. 

Messenger, Recommended Sags for. 

Magnet, Enameled Copper, Specifications. 

Rubber Insulated (Mineral-matter Rubber-compound) Copper, for 
660 volts or less, Specifications. 

Rubber Insulated, Inspection Report, form for. 

Rubber Insulated, Insulation Resistances. 

Rubber Insulated, Machine for Insulating, Type of. 

Galvanized Steel Signal, Specifications. 

Wire Crossings. 

Crossings of Wires or Cables of Telegraph, Telephone, Signal and 
Other Circuits of Similar Character over Steam Railroad Rights- 
of-Way, Tracks or Lines of Wires of the Same Classes, Specifi- 
cations (Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents). 

Overhead Crossings of Electric Light and Power Lines, Specifications 
(American Railway Engineering Association). 



80 SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 

DRAWINGS. 

No. 

Anchor Post 1058 

Battery. 

Primary. 

Caustic Soda — R. S. A. Signal Cell 1053 

Gravity, Coppers 1088 

Gravity, Jar 1 189 

Gravity, Zinc 1087 

Storage, Stationary Lead-type. 

Box for Concrete 1343 

Box for Concrete, Iron Details 1342 

Connection Bolt 1340 

Jars and Sand Trays, Glass 1224 

Lead Elements 1241 

Separators 1341 

Battery Chutes. 
Single. 

Details 1228 

Assembly 1230 

Double. 

Details 1229 

Assembly 1230 

Elevator, Three-Cell 1227 

Binding Post 1070 

Blades 1065 

Bolt Lock, Multiple-unit 1095 

Boot-leg Terminal U57 

Bracket Post. 

Channel Column 1032 

Deck for , 1030 

Guides for Vertical Connections on 1196 

Handrail for U79 

Ladder Clamps and Stays 1029 

Mechanical Connections, Six-way 1190 

Mounting for Bottom-mast Mechanism Cases on 1033 

Pipe 1039 

Base for 1038 

Head and Trunking Cap 1031 

Support for Cranks at Base 1198 

Cable Post. 

Base for ; 1 180 

Cap and Bushing for 1 181 

Assembly with Relay Boxes 1 185 

Channel Pin 1086 

Compensation, Pipe-line, Diagram and Table of 1102 

Compensator, Pipe. 

One-way Horizontal 1014 

One-way Vertical 1231 

Cranks 1013 

Conduit, Vitrified Clay. 

Cable-hanger Sockets, Sewer Steps and Manhole Clevis 1334 

Duct 1335 

Duct Reducers, Mandrels, Duct Plugs and Dowel Pins 1332 

Manhole. 

Brick 1338 

Concrete 1337 



SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 8 1 

No. 

Manhole Frame. 

Ten Inches High, and Cover |^ 

Four Inches High, and Cover l MV 

Method of Laying. 

Single and Sewer-pipe Duct *•»* 

Single and Multiple Duct *33° 

Cranks. IIQQ 

Adjusting, for Signals » 

Forged ' _ 

Pipe Compensator 

Crank Stands. 

Horizontal, One-way. ioo8 

Details " 10II 

Assembly 

Horizontal, Two-way. 1 

Details • • • • ■ ■ ■ ;;;;;;; ; ; ; ; ; ; I0II 

Horizontal,' Assembly 'with Two and Three Cranks 1057 

Vertical, Single I00 ° 

Vertical, Multiple: Io6 

5 et f iIs :::::.'.'...'. 1066 

A Parts 1089 

Cross Arms 

Cross-arm I220 

Bolts ; I2IQ 

Brace TI g- 

Pin, Standard Steel gg 

Pin, Terminal, Steel ,- 

Pin Cap Gage ' 

Deflecting Stand, Vertical. iq68 

Details and Assembly ,. 

Details of Bar I0 ° 9 

Detector Bars. I09 g 

Details • • • • • • • • ' Tnnn 

Position of, and Location of Clip Bolts 1U W 

Dwarf Signals, Mechanical. 

Details. 12 , 2 

Bearings, Top and Base J" 

Fittings " I2 ^ 3 

Spectacle ' I0 £ 7 

Assembly ,. 

Eye-rods 

Foundations. I0C .g 

Anchor Post •• ■ • - 

For Channel-column Bracket Post, Concrete JJ"3 

For Compensator, Concrete 2 

For Dwarf Signal, Concrete \ "" 

For Ground Signal Mast, Concrete • "«/ 

For Horizontal Crank and Wheel Stands, Concrete 1103 

For Pipe Bracket Post, Concrete ""° 

Ladder, Cast Iron lu > 

Pipe-carrier. '■■■»■ 

Cast Iron, with Wood Top and Bottom i«g 

Concrete 

Fuses, Cartridge Enclosed £? 

Indication Locking 



82 SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 

No. 
Insulation. 

One-inch Pipe Line 1094 

Switch Rod 1055 

Jaws for One-inch Pipe. 
Screw. 

Details 1016 and 1019 

Assembly 1019 

Solid. 

Details 1016 

With Tag Ends .1018 and 1195 

With Plain and Threaded Ends 1019 

Junction Box 1155 

Lamp, Semaphore. 

Details 1100 

Equipment 1 101 

Bracket 1049 

Leadouts. 
Details. 

Channels and I-Beams 1202 

Mountings for Cranks or Deflecting Bars 1205 

Cranks and Deflecting Bars. 

Foundation for 1203 

Mounted 1204 

Cranks, Deflecting Bars and Rocking Shafts, Foundation for.... 1217 

Deflecting Bars and Rocking Shafts Mounted 1206 

Rocking Shafts. 

Foundation for 1200 

Mounted, High Bearings 1201 

Mounted, Low Bearings 1207 

Lever Stand, Double 1 197 

Link. 

Adjustable 1019 

Compensator 1017 

Solid, for Bracket Signals 1 195 

Lock Rod, Adjustable 1237 

Marker Light 1238 

Masts, Signal 1035 

Bracket-post and Bridge. 

Base 1036 

Clamp for Base 1 178 

Mechanical Connections, Three-arm 1191 

Clamp and U Bolt for 1083 

Ground. 

Base 1034 

Clamp for Base 1059 

Ladders — Mechanical Signals 1026 

Guides for Vertical Connections 1 196 

Ladders — Mechanical Signals. 

Clamps and Stays 1029 

Top of 1027 

Operating Fittings, One-inch Pipe 1195 

Pinnacle 1050 

Performance, Signal, Forms for Recording. 

Conductor's or Engineman's Telegraphic Report 1 

Dispatcher's Telegraphic Report I 

Maintainer's Report : 2 

Signal Inspector's or Maintainer's Report 2 

Signal Engineer's or Supervisor's Report 3 



SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 83 

No. 

Pins, Crank and Jaw ioio 

Pipe. 

One-inch Signal, and Coupling 1015 

Adjusting Screw. 

Details 1002 and 1019 

Assembly 1002 

Lug 1017 

Pipe Carriers. 

Multiple-unit type. 

Details of Side 1084 

Details and Assembly 1085 

Strap 1071 

Transverse. 

Details 1071 and 1073 

Assembly 1072 

Plunger Lock 1096 

Relay Box, Cast Iron. 

Details, Size B 1 182 

Assembly on Cable Post 1185 

Rocking Shaft. 

Details 1061 

Assembly — High Bearings 1062 

Arms 1060 

Bearings, High 1061 and 1062 

Bearing, Low 1063 

Semaphore. 

Bearing, Mechanical. 

Details 1082 

Details and Assembly 1194 

Spectacles. 

Design A 1040 

Design B 1041 

Clearance 1093 

Dwarf 1233 

Filler Block to Prevent Travel from 45 to 90 1090 and 1092 

Filler Block to Prevent Travel from 45 to 0° 1091 and 1092 

Filler Block to Prevent Travel from o° 1092 

Torque Curves for, on Electric Signals 1064 

Signal, Two-way Single-lamp 1236 

Stuffing Box. 

For One-inch Pipe 1225 

For Wire .- 1226 

Switchboards. 

Charging Panel, Two-way 1 174 

Electric Interlocking Charging Panels — One Main Battery and 

Duplicate Auxiliary Batteries 1244 

Circuits for 1246 

Manipulation Chart for 1247 

Knife Switches and Clips, Details 1344 

Mercury-arc Rectifier Panel 1242 

Motor Panel 1240 

Single-throw Switches 1345 

Supports 1243 

Switch-box Connections 1223 

Symbols Plates 1 to 12 

Take-sidinar Indicator 



84 SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 

No. 
Tang End for One-inch Pipe. 

Details 1017 

Plain and Threaded 1019 

Terminal Block 1056 

Terminal Box and Boot Leg 1 1 54 

Trunking. 

Built-up 1177 

Grooved 1 176 

To be Used When Wires are Placed Underground in Petroleum 

Asphaltum 1156 

Boot-leg Terminal 1157 

Junction Box 1155 

Terminal Box and Boot Leg 11 54 

Wheels. 

Horizontal Chain 1350 

Vertical Chain. 

High 1352 

Low 1351 

Wire Adjusting Screw 1001 

CONCLUSION. 

That this list of Railway Signal Association specifications and stand- 
ards be printed in the Manual for the information of the members. 

(4) THE PROBLEM OF SIGNALING SINGLE-TRACK ROADS 
WITH REFERENCE TO THE EFFECT OF SIGNALING 
AND PROPER LOCATION OF PASSING SID- 
INGS ON THE CAPACITY OF THE LINE. 

Your Committee reports progress on this subject. 

RATING OF OPERATIVE UNITS. 

In addition to the subject-matter assigned by the Board of Direction, 
your Committee desires to present a table of operated units and points 
assigned to each unit as a revision of the table of units now included 
in the Manual. 

The table now included in the Manual is not complete in that it does 
not take into consideration the many electrical units which are now in- 
stalled in connection with many interlocking plants. For this reason it 
was necessary to revise the table and a committee of the Railway Signal 
Association has been working on this for some years. They have now 
presented the table as shown below which not only brings the original 
table up to date in so far as the operated units are concerned, but assigns 
points to each unit which are more in accordance with the actual cost 
than does the present table. 

The table has been adopted by the Railway Signal Association. 

CONCLUSION. 

That this table be adopted and included in the next issue of the 
Manual as a revision of the present table now shown in the 191 1 edition. 



SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 85 

RATING OF OPERATED UNITS FOR THE PURPOSE OF 

DIVISION OF COSTS OF JOINT MECHANICAL 

INTERLOCKING PLANTS. 

Units. Points. 
( i ) (a) Each spare space in tower for one lever 3 

(b) Each spare space in tower with spare space in machine.... 5 

(c) Each spare space in tower with space in machine and lever 6 

(2) (a) Each 100 feet of pipe line or fraction thereof 2 

(b) Each 100 feet of mechanical wire line (2 wires, stakes, 

carriers, etc) 1 

(3) Each separate line control for power signal or other func- 

tions. 

(a) For first 1,000 feet from tower or less 6 

(b) For each additional 1,000 feet or fraction thereof 3 

(4) Each D.C. track circuit 8 

(5) (a) Each bracket post 6 

(b) Each high signal mast 4 

(c) Each dwarf signal post 1 

(d) Each signal arm 1 

(e) Each signal light 1 

( f ) Each electro-mechanical slot 6 

(g) Each low voltage signal mechanism 14 

(6) (a) Each derail or pair of points for switch or crossing 6 

(b) Each facing point lock 4 

(c) Each switch and lock movement 8 

(d) Each 30 feet of detector bar or fraction thereof 2 

(7) (a) Each electric lock 4 

(b) Each annunciator 2 

(c) Each tower indicator 4 

(d) Each time or hand release 2 

(e) Each time lock 4 

( f ) Each track instrument 6 

(8) (a) Each drawbridge coupler 4 

(b) Each drawbridge rail, surface or alinement lock for one 

rail 2 

(c) Each drawbridge wedge or machine lock 4 

REVISION OF MANUAL. 

Your Committee recommends that the following be not included in 
the next issue of the Manual : 

Conventional Signs — Symbols (pp. 219 to 225, 191 1 Manual). 

They are superseded by those adopted in 1914, Vol. 15, pp. 81 to 92 
and included in a series of symbols prepared by the Committee on Rec- 
ords and Accounts. 

Arrangement of Signals at Interlocking Plants (pp. 229 to 230, 191 1 
Manual). 

This is superseded by report of this Committee adopted 1913, Vol. 14, 
pp. 71 to 75- 

Specifications for Mineral Matter, Rubber Compound, Insulated Wire 
and Cables (pp. 231 to 243, 191 1 Manual). 

They have been materially revised by the Railway Signal Associa- 
tion and if this Association accepts the Committee's recommendations, the 
revised specifications will be available to this membership through the 
medium of the Railway Signal Association Manual. 



86 SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 

AUTOMATIC TRAIN CONTROL. 

Your Committee desires to present for the information of the mem- 
bership the findings of a joint committee of the American Railway Asso- 
ciation on the subject of automatic control of trains. 

Approved by the American Railway Association, May 20, 1914. 

An installation so arranged that its operation will automatically result 
in either one or the other or both of the following conditions : 

(1) The application of the brakes until the train has been brought 
to a stop. 

(2) The application of the brakes when the speed of the train ex- 
ceeds a prescribed rate and continued until the speed has been reduced 
to a predetermined rate. 

REQUISITES OF INSTALLATION. 

Note. — These requisites are drawn for application in connection with 
a properly installed block signal or interlocking system. 

(1) The apparatus so constructed that the failure of any essential 
part will cause the application of the brakes. 

(2) The apparatus so constructed that it will automatically control 
the train in the event of failure by engineman to observe signals or speed 
regulations. 

(3) The apparatus so constructed that it will control the train in 
the event of a failure of fixed signals to give proper indications. 

(4) The apparatus so constructed that proper operative relation 
between those parts along the roadway and those on the train will be 
assured under all conditions of speed, weather, wear, oscillation and 
shock. 

(5) The train apparatus so constructed as to prevent the release 
of the brakes after automatic application has been made until the train 
has been brought to a stop or the speed of train has been reduced to a 
predetermined rate. 

(6) The train apparatus so constructed that when operated it will 
make an application of the brakes sufficient to stop or control the train 
within a predetermined distance. 

(7) The apparatus so constructed as not to interfere with the 
application of the brakes by the engineman's brake valve or the efficiency 
of the air-brake system. 

(8) The apparatus so constructed as to be operative when the engine 
is running forward or backward. 

(9) The apparatus so constructed that when two or more engines 
are coupled together or a pusher is being used the apparatus can be made 
effective on the engine only from which the brakes are controlled. 

(10) The apparatus so constructed as to be operative on trains 
moving only with the current of traffic. 

(11) The apparatus so constructed as to conform to the American 
Railway '^Association standard of clearances of rolling equipment and 
structures. 



SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 

(12) The apparatus so constructed as not to constitute a source of 
danger to employes or passengers, either in its installation or operation. 

(13) The apparatus so constructed as not to interfere with the 
means used for operating fixed signals. 

ADJUNCTS. 

The following may be used : 

(a) Cab Signal; a signal located in the engine cab indicating a 
condition affecting the movement of the train and so constructed that 
the failure of any part directly controlling the signal will cause it to give 
the "stop" indication. 

(b) Detonating Signal Apparatus; an apparatus located along the 
roadway and so constructed as to give an audible signal by means of a 
torpedo or other explosive cartridge. 

(c) Speed Indicator. 

(d) Recording Device; an apparatus located on the train and so 
constructed as to make a record of the operations of the automatic 
application of the brakes and of the speeds of the train, and such other 
records as may be desirable. 

CONCLUSION. 
That the foregoing be accepted by the Association as information. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEXT YEAR'S WORK. 

Your Committee recommends that the following subjects be assigned 
for the coming year : 

(1) Study of economics of "labor in signal maintenance. 

(2) Requisites for switch indicators, conveying information on 
condition of the block to conductors and enginemen. 

(3) Present, for endorsement, specifications adopted by the Rail- 
way Signal Association, which in the judgment of the Committee warrant 
consideration. 

(4) Study the problem of signaling single-track roads with reference 
to the effect of signaling and proper location of passing sidings on the 
capacity of the line. 

Respectfully submitted, 
COMMITTEE ON SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING. 



REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM 

GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 

E. H. Lee, Chairman; C. A. Wilson, Vice-Chairman; 

C. Frank Allen, J. C. Irwin, 

W. G. Atwood, R. G. Kenly, 

John P. Congdon, C. A. Paquette, 

Thos. Earle, J. H. Roach, 

Committee. 

To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Special Committee on Uniform General Contract Forms begs 
to submit the following report : 

The Committee, as its work for the current year, was instructed to 
make a critical examination of the subject-matter in the Manual and 
submit definite recommendations for changes, and to continue the study 
of general forms, including form of bond. 

Three meetings of the Committee were held, two in Boston, on July 
16 and November 23, and one in Cincinnati, on December 18. Those 
members unable to attend these meetings were kept in touch with the 
proceedings by letter, and they have also by letter joined in the recom- 
mendations of this report. 

At the first meeting of the Committee a form of bond was agreed 
upon. This form has been unanimously approved by the members of 
the Committee, and it is herewith presented to the Association with the 
recommendation that it be adopted. 

The members of the Association were invited by circular letter to 
inform the Committee as to whether they were making use of the Uni- 
form General Contract Form, and also to make such criticisms and sug- 
gestions as they might deem pertinent. The response to this letter was 
very gratifying, nearly 100 letters having been received. About one- 
third of the replies indicated that the writers were using the Uniform 
General Contract Form, the remainder, including many from represen- 
tatives of the larger railroad companies, preferring their own general 
form of contract, as was, perhaps, to be expected. The general tenor of 
letters received, however, indicates that the form has served a useful 
purpose, either directly or indirectly. 

At the last two meetings of the Committee the form printed in the 
Manual was carefully considered, and certain changes were agreed upon. 
These have been submitted to the full Committee, and they are herewith 
submitted to the Association and recommended for adoption : 

89 



90 UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 

CHANGES IN GENERAL CONDITIONS. 

Section i, line 3: More space for the insertion of amount of bond 
to be provided, thus: 

"amount of dollars." 

Section 10, line 2 : After the word "errors" insert "or omissions," 
making the line read : "any discrepancy between the plans and physical 
conditions of the locality, or any errors or omissions in plans." 

Section 15, line 2 : After the first word "all" insert "losses and 
all," making the line read : "all losses and all claims, demands, payments, 
suits, actions, recoveries and judgments of every nature and descrip- 
tion." 

Line 4 : After the word "work" insert the word "or,"' making the 
line read : "or employes, in the execution of the work, or in conse- 
quence of any negligence or carelessness in guarding." 

Section 16, line 2 : After the word "employes" strike out the words 
"of the contractor" and insert the words "engaged on the work under this 
contract," making the line read : "necessary for the progress of the 
work to secure to any of the employes engaged on the work under this 
contract any wages which may." 

Section 19, line 1 : After the word "work" insert "under this con- 
tract," making the line read : "The work under this contract in every 
respect shall be at the risk of the contractor until finished and ac- 
cepted." 

Section 27, line 5 : Strike out the word "as" and substitute the 
word "so," making the sentence conclude : "work so taken or used, or 
any part thereof." 

Section 28, line 3 : After the word "void" insert the words "the 
obligations of," making the sentence end : "and such changes shall in no 
way affect or void the obligations of this contract." 

Section 31, line 2: After the word "cause" strike out comma. 

Section 32, line 10: After the word "materials" insert the word 
"equipment," making the line read : "estimated value of materials, equip- 
ment and fixtures furnished by the contractor on the work which are 
necessarily idle." 

Section S3, paragraph (a), line 5: After the word "said" insert 
the word "Chief," making the line read: "of this contract, said Chief 
Engineer, in behalf of the Company," etc. 

Section 35, line 6: After the last word "work" strike out period 
and substitute comma, and add the words "due to such suspension or 
failure to pay," making the section end : "against the contractor for 
delay in completion of the work, due to such suspension or failure to 
pay." 

Section 37, line 2: After the word "notice" insert "in writing," 
making the sentence read : "upon receipt of notice in writing that the 
work is ready for such inspection." 

Section 38, line 7 : In the word "materials," followed by a comma, 



UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 91 

strike out the letter "s" and the comma, insert comma after the word 
"bills" and after the word "indebtedness." 

Line 8 : Insert comma after the word "work," making the end of 
sentence read : "submit evidence satisfactory to the Chief Engineer that 
all pay rolls, material bills and outstanding indebtedness in connection 
with this work have been paid." 

For convenient reference the Uniform General Contract Form has 
been reprinted, with the foregoing corrections shown in boldface type. 

Your Special Committee feels that it has practically completed the 
work for which it was appointed, at least for the present, and it there- 
fore requests to be discharged. 

Respectfully submitted, 

COMMITTEE OX UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 



92 UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 

AGREEMENT FORM. 

THIS AGREEMENT, made this day of 

in the year 

by and between 

party of 

the first part, hereinafter called the Contractor, and 

party of the 

second part, hereinafter called the Company: 

WITNESSETH, That, in consideration of the covenants and agree- 
ments hereinafter mentioned, to be performed by the parties hereto, and 
of the payments hereinafter agreed to be made, it is mutually agreed 
as follows : 

The Contractor shall furnish all materials, superintendence, labor, 
equipment and transportation, except as hereinafter specified, and shall 
execute, construct and finish, in an expeditious, substantial and work- 
manlike manner, to the satisfaction and acceptance of the Chief Engineer 

of the Company • 



in accordance with the plans hereto attached identified by the signatures 
of the parties hereto, or herein described, and the following GEN- 
ERAL CONDITIONS, requirements and specifications, forming part of 
this contract. 

The work covered by this contract shall be commenced 

and be completed on or before the 

day of 191 

time being of the essence of this contract 



And in consideration of the completion of the work described 
herein, and the fulfillment of all stipulations of this agreement to the 
satisfaction and acceptance of the Chief Engineer of the Company, the 
said Company shall pay, or cause to be paid, to said Contractor, the 
amount due to the Contractor, based on the following prices : 



UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 93 
CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT. 

GENERAL CONDITIONS. 

Bond. 

1. The Contractor agrees, at the time of the execution and delivery of 
this contract and before the taking effect of the same, to furnish and 
deliver to the Company a good and sufficient bond of indemnity to the 

amount of dollars, 

as security for the faithful performance, by the Contractor, of all the 
covenants and agreements on the part of the Contractor contained in 
this contract. The security in such bond of indemnity must be satisfac- 
tory and acceptable to the Company. 

This bond shall remain in force and effect in such amount, not 
greater than that specified, as shall be determined by the Chief En- 
gineer. 

Contractor's Understanding. 

2. It is understood and agreed that the Contractor has, by care- 
ful examination, satisfied himself as to the nature and location of the 
work, the conformation of the ground, the character, quality and quan- 
tity of the materials to be encountered, the character of equipment and 
facilities needed preliminary to and during the prosecution of the work, 
the general and local conditions, and all other matters which can in any 
way affect the work under this contract. No verbal agreement or con- 
versation with any officer, agent or employe of the Company, eithei 
before or after the execution of this contract, shall affect or modify any 
of the terms or obligations herein contained. 

Intent of Plans and Specifications. 

3. All work that may be called for in the specifications and not 
shown on the plans, or shown on the plans and not called for in the 
specifications, shall be executed and furnished by the Contractor as if 
described in both these ways ; and should any work or material be re- 
quired which is not denoted in the specifications or plans, either directly 
or indirectly, but which is nevertheless necessary for the proper carry- 
ing out of the intent thereof, the Contractor is to understand the same 
to be implied and required, and shall perform all such work and fur- 
nish any such material as fully as if they were particularly delineated or 
described. 

Permits. 

4. Permits of a temporary nature necessary for the prosecution of 
the work shall be secured by the Contractor. Permits for permanent 
structures or permanent changes in existing facilities shall be secured by 
the Company. 

Protection. 

5. Whenever the local conditions, laws or ordinances require, the 
Contractor shall furnish and maintain, at his own cost and expense, 
necessary passageways, guard fences and lights and such other facilities 
and means of protection as may be required. 

Rights of Various Interests. 

6. Wherever work being done by Company forces or by other 
contractors is contiguous to work covered by this contract, the respective 
rights of the various interests involved shall be established by the 
Engineer, to secure the completion of the various portions of the work in 
general harmony. 



94 UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 

Consent to Transfer. 

7. The Contractor shall not let or transfer this contract or any 
part thereof (except for the delivery of material) without consent of 
the Chief Engineer, given in writing. Such consent does not release or 
relieve the Contractor from any of his obligations and liabilities under 
the contract. 

Superintendence. 

8. The Contractor sTiall constantly superintend all the work em- 
braced in this contract, in person or by a duly authorized manager ac- 
ceptable to the Company. 

Timely Demand for Points and Instructions. 

9. The Contractor shall not proceed until he has made timely 
demand upon the Engineer for, and has received from him, such points 
and instructions as may be necessary as the work progresses. The work 
shall be done in strict conformity with such points and instructions. 

Report Errors and Discrepancies. 

10. If the Contractor, in the course of the work, finds any dis- 
crepancy between the plans and the physical conditions of the locality, 
or any errors or omissions in plans or in the layout as given by said 
points and instructions, it shall be his duty to immediately inform the 
Engineer, in writing, and the Engineer shall promptly verify the same. 
Any work done after such discovery, until authorized, will be done at 
the Contractor's risk. 

Preservation of Stakes. 

11. The Contractor must carefully preserve bench marks, reference 
points and stakes, and in case of wilfull or careless destruction, he 
will be charged with the resulting expense and shall be responsible 
for any mistakes that may be caused by their unnecessary loss or dis- 
turbance. 

Inspection. 

12. All work and material shall be at all times open to the inspec- 
tion, acceptance or rejection of the Engineer or his duly authorized 
representative. The Contractor shall provide reasonable and necessary 
facilities for such inspection. 

Defective Work or Material. 

13. Any omissions or failure on the part of the Engineer to dis- 
approve or reject any work or material shall not be construed to be 
an acceptance of any defective work or material. The Contractor shall 
remove, at his own expense, any work or material condemned by the 
Engineer, and shall rebuild and replace the same without extra charge, 
and in default thereof the same may be done by the Company at the 
Contractor's expense, or, in case the Chief Engineer should not con- 
sider the defect of sufficient importance to require the Contractor to 
rebuild or replace any imperfect work or material, he shall have power, 
and is hereby authorized, to make an equitable deduction from the stipu- 
lated price. 

Insurance. 

14. The Contractor shall secure, in the name of the Company and 
for its benefit, policies of fire insurance on such structures and in such 
amounts as shall be specified bv the Chief Engineer, not exceeding 



UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 95 

Indemnity. 

15. The Contractor shall indemnify and save harmless the Com- 
pany from and against all losses and all claims, demands, payments, 
suits, actions, recoveries and judgments of every nature and descrip- 
tion brought or recovered against it, by reason of any act or omission 
of the said Contractor, his agents or employes, in the execution of the 
work or in consequence of any negligence or carelessness in guarding 
the same. 

Settlement for Wages. 

16. Whenever, in the opinion of the Chief Engineer, it may be 
necessary for the progress of the work to secure to any of the employes 
engaged on the work under this contract any wages which may then 
be due them, the Company is hereby authorized to pay said employes 
the amount due them or any lesser amount, and the amount so paid 
them, as shown by their receipts, shall be deducted from any moneys 
that may be or become payable to said Contractor. 

Liens. 

17. If at any time there shall be evidence of any lien or claim for 
which the Company might become liable, and which is chargeable to the 
Contractor, the Company shall have the right to retain out of any pay- 
ment then due or thereafter to become due, an amount sufficient to com- 
pletely indemnify the Company against such lien or claim, and if such 
lien or claim be valid, the Company may pay and discharge the same 
and deduct the amount so paid from any moneys which may be or 
become due and payable to the Contractor. 

Work Adjacent to Railroad. 

18. Wherever the work embraced in this contract is near the tracks, 
structures or buildings of this Company or of other railroads, the Con- 
tractor shall use proper care and vigilance to avoid injury to persons or 
property. The work must be so conducted as not to interfere with the 
movement of trains or other operations of the railroad: or, if in any 
case such interference be necessary, the Contractor shall not proceed until 
he has first obtained specific authority and directions therefor from the 
proper designated officer of the Company and has the approval of the 
Engineer. 

Risk. 

19. The work under this contract in every respect shall be at the 
risk of the Contractor until finished and accepted, except damage or 
injury caused directly by Company's agents or employes. 

Order and Discipline. 

20. The Contractor shall at all times enforce strict discipline and 
good order among his employes, and any employe of the Contractor who 
shall appear to be incompetent, disorderly or intemperate, or in any 
other way disqualified for or unfaithful to the work entrusted to him, 
shall be discharged immediately on the request of the Engineer, and 
he shall not again be employed on the work without the Engineer's writ- 
ten consent. 

Contractor Not to Hire Company's Employes. 

21. The Contractor shall not employ or hire any of the Company's 
employes without the permission of the Engineer. 



96 UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 

Intoxicating Liquors Prohibited. 

22. The Contractor, in so far as his authority extends, shall not 
permit the sale, distribution or use of any intoxicating liquors upon or 
adjacent to the work, or allow any such to be brought upon, to or near 
the line of the railway of the Company. 

Cleaning Up. 

23. The Contractor shall, as directed by the Engineer, remove from 
the Company's property and from all public and private property, at his 
own expense, all temporary structures, rubbish and waste materials 
resulting from his operations. 

Engineer and Chief Engineer Defined. 

24. Wherever in this contract the word Engineer is used, it shall 
be understood as referring to the Chief Engineer of the Company, act- 
ing personally or through an assistant duly authorized in writing for 
such act by the Chief Engineer, and wherever the words Chief Engineer 
are used it shall be understood as referring to the Chief Engineer in 
person, and not to any assistant engineer. 

Power of Engineer. 

25. The Engineer shall have power to reject or condemn all work 
or material which does not conform to this contract ; to direct the appli- 
cation of forces to any portion of the work which, in his judgment, 
requires it ; to order the force increased or diminished, and to decide 
questions which arise between the parties relative to the execution of 
the work. 

Adjustment of Dispute. 

26. All questions or controversies which may arise between the 
Contractor and the Company, under or in reference to this contract, 
shall be subject to the decision of the Chief Engineer, and his decision 
shall be final and conclusive upon both parties. 

Order of Completion; Use of Completed Portions. 

27. The Contractor shall complete any portion or portions of the 
work in such order of time as the Engineer may require. The Company 
shall have the right to take possession of and use any completed or 
partially completed portions of the work, notwithstanding the time for 
completing the entire work or such portions may not have expired ; but 
such taking possession and use shall not be deemed an acceptance of the 
work so taken or used or any part thereof. If such prior use increases 
the cost of or delays the work, the Contractor will be entitled to such 
extra compensation, or extension of time, or both, as the Chief En- 
gineer may determine. 

Changes. 

28. The Company shall have the right to make any changes that 
may be hereafter determined upon, in the nature or dimensions of the 
work, either before or after its commencement, and such changes shall 
in no way affect or void the obligations of this contract. If such 
changes make any change in the cost of the work, an equitable adjust- 
ment shall be made by the Chief Engineer to cover the same. 

Extra Work. 

29. No bill or claim for extra work or material shall be allowed 
or paid unless the doing of such extra work or the furnishing of such 

extra material shall have been authorized in writing by the 

Engineer. 



UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 97 

The price for such work shall be determined by the Chief En- 
gineer, who may either fix a unit price or a lump-sum price, or may, if 
he so elects, provide that the price shall be determined by the actual 

cost, to which shall be added per cent, to cover general 

expense and superintendence, profits, contingencies, use of tools, Con- 
tractor's risk and liability. If the Contractor shall perform any work 
or furnish any material which is not provided for in this contract, or 
which was not authorized in writing by the Engineer, said Contractor 
shall receive no compensation for such work or material so furnished, 
and does hereby release and discharge the Company from any liability 
therefor. 

If the Contractor shall proceed with such extra work or the fur- 
nishing of such extra material after receiving the written authority 
therefor, as hereinbefore provided, then such work or material, stated 
in the written authority of the Engineer, shall be covered, governed and 
controlled by all the terms and provisions of this contract, subject to 
such prices as may be agreed upon or fixed by the Chief Engineer. 

If the Contractor shall decline or fail to perform such work or 
furnish such extra material as authorized by the Engineer in writing, as 
aforesaid, the Company may then arrange for the performance of the 
work in any manner it may see fit, the same as if this contract had 
not been executed, and the Contractor shall not interfere with such per- 
formance of the work. 

Property and Right of Entry. 

30. The Company shall provide the lands upon which the work 
under this contract is to be done, except that the Contractor shall pro- 
vide land required for the erection of temporary construction facilities 
and storage of his material, together with right of access to the same. 

The Contractor shall not ship any material or equipment until he 
has received written notice from the Engineer that he may proceed with 
said work or any part thereof. 

Unavoidable Delays; Extension of Time on Parts of Work. 

31. If the Contractor shall be delayed in the performance of the 
work from any cause for which the Company is responsible, he shall, 
upon written application to the Chief Engineer at the time of such delay, 
be granted such extension of time as the Chief Engineer shall deem 
equitable and just. 

Suspension of Work. 

32. The Company may at any time stop the work, or any part 

thereof, by giving days' notice to the Contractor in writing. 

The work shall be resumed by the Contractor in ten (10) days after 
the date fixed in the written notice from the Company to the Contractor 
so to do. The Company shall not be held liable for any damages or 
anticipated profits on account of the work being stopped, or for any 
work done during the interval of suspension. It will, however, pay the 
Contractor for expense of men and teams necessarily retained during the 
interval of suspension, provided the Contractor can show that it was 
not reasonably practicable to move these men and teams to other points 
at which they could have been employed. The Company will further pay 
the Contractor for time necessarily lost during such suspension at the 

the rate of per cent, per annum on the estimated value of 

materials, equipment and fixtures furinshed by the Contractor on the 
work which are necessarily idle during such suspension, said rate of 
per cent, per annum being understood to include deprecia- 
tion, interest and insurance. But if the work, or any part thereof, shall 
be stopped by the notice in writing aforesaid, and if the Company does 



98 UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 

not give notice in writing to the Contractor to resume work at a date 

within of the date fixed in the written notice 

to suspend, then the Contractor may abandon that portion of the work 
so suspended and he will be entitled to the estimates and payments for 
such work so abandoned, as provided in Section 38 of this contract. 

Expediting Work, Correcting Imperfections. 

33. (a) If the Chief Engineer of the Company shall at any time 
be of the opinion that the Contractor is neglecting to remedy any im- 
perfections in the work, or is not progressing with the work as fast as 
necessary to insure its completion within the time and as required by 
the contract, or is otherwise violating any of the provisions of this 
contract, said Chief Engineer, in behalf of the Company, shall have the 
power, and it shall be his duty to notify the Contractor to remedy such 
imperfections, proceed more rapidly with said work, or otherwise com- 
ply with the provisions of this contract. 

Annulment. 

(b) The Company, if not at fault, may give the Contractor ten 
(10) days' written notice, and at the end of that time if the Contractor 
continues to neglect the work, the Company may provide labor and 
materials and deduct the cost from any money due the Contractor un- 
der this agreement ; and may terminate the employment of the Con- 
tractor under this agreeent and take possession of the premises and of 
all materials, tools and appliances thereon, and employ such forces as 
may be necessary to finish the work. In such case the Contractor shall 
receive no further payment until the work shall be finished, when, if 
the unpaid balance that would be due under this contract exceeds the 
cost to the Company of finishing the work, such excess shall be paid 
to the Contractor; but if such cost exceeds such unpaid balance, the 
Contractor shall pay the difference to the Company. 

Company May Do Part of Work. 

(c) Upon failure of the Contractor to comply with any notice 
given in accordance with the provisions hereof, the Company shall have 
the alternative right, instead of assuming charge of the entire work, to 
place additional forces, tools, equipment and materials on parts of the 
work for the purpose of carrying on such parts of the work, and the 
cost incurred by the Company in carrying on such parts of the work 
shall be payable by the Contractor, and such work shall be deemed to 
be carried on by the Company on account of the Contractor, and the 
Contractor shall be allowed therefor the contract price. The Company 

may retain the amount of the cost of such work, with per 

cent, added, from any sum or sums due or to become due the Con- 
tractor under this agreement. 

Annulment Without Fault of Contractor. 

34. (a) The Company shall have the right at any time, for rea- 
sons which appear good to it, to annul this contract upon giving thirty 
days' notice in writing to the Contractor, in which event the Contractor 
shall be entitled to the full amount of the estimate for the work done 
by him under the terms and conditions of this contract up to the time 
of such annulment, including the retained percentage. The Contractor 
shall be reimbursed by the Company for such expenditures as in the 
judgment of the Chief Engineer are not otherwise compensated for, and 
as are required in preparing for and moving to and from the work ; 
the intent being that an equitable settlement shall be made with the 
Contractor. 



UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 99 

Notice — How Served. 

fb) Any notice to be given by the Company to the Contractor un- 
der this contract shall be deemed to be served if the same be delivered 
to the man in charge of any office used by the Contractor, or to his 
foreman or agent at or near the work, or deposited in the postoffice, 
postpaid, addressed to the Contractor at his last known place of busi- 
ness. 

Removal of Equipment. 

(c) In case of annulment of this contract before completion from 
any cause whatever, the Contractor, if notified to do so by the Com- 
pany, shall promptly remove any part or all of his equipment and sup- 
plies from the property of the Company, failing which the Company 
shall have the right to remove such equipment and supplies at the ex- 
pense of the Contractor. 

Failure to Make Payments. 

35. Failure by the Company to make payments at the times pro- 
vided in this agreement shall give the Contractor the right to suspend 
work until payment is made, or at his option, after thirty (30) days' 
notice in writing, should the Company continue to default, to terminate 
this contract and recover the price of all work done and materials pro- 
vided and all damages sustained, and such failure to make payments at 
the times provided shall be a bar to any claim by the Company against 
the Contractor for delay in completion of the work, due to such sus- 
pension or failure to pay. 

Monthly Estimate. 

36. So long as the work herein contracted for is prosecuted in 
accordance with the provisions of this contract, and with such progress 
as may be satisfactory to the Chief Engineer, the said Chief Engineer 
will on or about the first day of each month make an approximate esti- 
mate of the proportionate value of the work done and of material fur- 
nished or delivered upon the Company's property at the site of the work, 
up to and including the last day of the previous month. The amount 

of said estimate, after deducting per cent, and all previous 

payments, shall be due and payable to the Contractor at the office of 

the Treasurer of the Company on or about the 

day of the current month. 

Acceptance. 

27. The work shall be inspected for acceptance by the Company 
promptly upon receipt of notice in writing that the work is ready for 
such inspection. 

Final Estimates. 

38. Upon the completion and acceptance of the work, the Chief 
Engineer shall execute a certificate over his signature that the whole work 
provided for in this agreement has been completed and accepted by him 
under the terms and conditions thereof, whereupon the entire balance 
found to be due to the Contractor, including said retained percentage, 
shall be paid to the Contractor at the office of the Treasurer of the Com- 
pany within days after the date of said final certificate. Before 

the time of payment of said final estimate the Contractor shall submit 
evidence satisfactory to the Chief Engineer that all payrolls, material 



100 UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 

bills, and outstanding indebtedness, in connection with this work, have 
been paid. 



This agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon 
the legal representatives and successors of the parties respectively. 

In Witness Whereof, the parties hereto have executed this agreement 

in the day and 

year first above written. 

Witness : 



UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 101 

BOND. 
Know All Men by These Presents : 

That the undersigned 

are held and bound unto the 

in the sum of 

dollars, lawful money of the United States of 

America, to be paid to said 

its successors and assigns, to which payment the undersigned, jointly and 
severally, bind themselves, their heirs, executors, administrators, suc- 
cessors and assigns. 

The condition of this obligation is that if 

Contractor, shall faithfully furnish and do everything required in the 

contract, executed in writing, dated igi — 

between Contractor, and 

Company 

for 



this obligation shall become of no effect; otherwise it shall continue in 
full force. 

Signed, sealed and delivered this day of 191 — 

Attest : 



The form of bond submitted contains no notarial or official acknowl- 
edgment. In certain states such acknowledgment may be necessary. De- 
cision as to the fact should be made by the Legal Department of each 
company. 

Attention is called to the fact that the proposed form of bond is 
intended solely for use in connection with the adopted Uniform Contract 
Form. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XVI— ON ECONOMICS OF 
RAILWAY LOCATION. 

John G. Sullivan, Chairman; C. P. Howard, Vice-chairman; 

F. H. Alfred, Fred Lavis, 

R. N. Begien, J. deN. Macomb, Jr., 

J. F. Burns, C. W. P. Ramsey, 

Maurice Coburn, E. C. Schmidt, 

A. C. Dennis, A. K. Shurtleff, 

A. S. Going, H. J. Simmons, 

F. W. Green, F. W. Smith, 

L. C. Hartley, Walter Loring Webb, 

P. M. LaBach, M. A. Zook, 

Committee. 
To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Committee XVI — on the Economics of Railway Location, has dur- 
ing the past year been subdivided into three Sub-Committees, with duties 
assigned as follows : 

(a) Make critical examination of the subject-matter in the Manual, 
and submit definite recommendations for changes. 

(i) Study the question of grade, curvature, rise and fall and dis- 
tance, and, if possible, present conclusions as to reason- 
able values of same in a usable form, in order that they 
may be of use for the information and guidance of Locat- 
ing Engineers. 

(2) Continue the important study of economics of railway opera- 
tion heretofore carried on by the Committee, in order that 
the information may lead to more economical methods in 
railway operation, and that information may be obtained 
for correcting values given to the physical features in the 
locating of railways. 

(5) Make special efforts to collect information in regard to effects 
of passenger and freight traffic on the cost of maintenance. 

The Chairman of the Committee assumed the responsibility of chang- 
ing the instructions to the Committee having charge of subject (1) to 
read, "Study the question of grade, curvature, rise and fall and distance, 
and, if possible, present instructions to enable Engineers to obtain reason- 
able values for grade, curvature, rise and fall and distance." 

The reports submitted by each of these Sub-Committees is submitted 
in full as information, and the conclusions which were drawn from them 
are submitted for approval. These are in addition to matter now pub- 
lished in the 191 1 Manual and subsequent supplements, excepting the re- 
visions recommended by the Sub-Committee on Stokers and Superheaters. 

For further information on the subject of Economics of Railway 
Location see the following : 

Vertical curves, p. 113, 191 1 Manual. 

Spirals, pp. 94-1 11, 191 1 Manual. 



104 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

Power, train resistance and train rating, pp. 427-438, 191 1 Manual, 
and pp. 599-651, Proceedings, Vol. 14, 1913. 

Train resistance and compensation for curvature, pp. 81-82, 1913 Sup- 
plement to Manual, and pp. 615, 618, Proceedings, Vol. 14, 1913. 

Speed curves and fuel consumption, Bulletin 148, August, 1912, and 
pp. 3-20, Proceedings, Part 2, Vol. 14, 1913. 

If the methods outlined by this Committee are approved, the imme- 
diate work for the future will be : 

(1) Make a study of the resistance of trains running between 35 
and 75 miles an hour. 

(2) Make a study of the effect on the cost of maintenance of way 
and maintenance of equipment of fast trains. 

(3) Make a study of the effect curvature has on cost of main- 
tenance of way. 

(4) Make a study of the effect curvature has on cost of main- 
tenance of equipment. 

(5) Make a study of the amount of fuel consumed in doing an 
actual horsepower-hour work. It is believed that a study of this subject 
will not only be valuable as a basis in determining the economics of lo- 
cation, but that the results will be beneficial to operating officers, calling 
to their attention various losses in the fuel supply, and especially so in the 
cost of operating a very busy single-track vs. cost of operating double- 
track lines. 

(6) Preparation of a method for the comparison of alternative lo- 
cations with varying ruling gradients. 

CONCLUSIONS. 
The following conclusions are submitted for approval : 

(1) A line is located when its position is fixed horizontally and 
vertically. 

(2) Locating a railway means designing an economical plant for 
handling a given traffic. The economical plant for a given quantity and 
class of traffic cannot be the economical plant for a greater or less quan- 
tity of traffic or for traffic of a different class. It is considered good 
practice to discount the future within reasonable limits, providing the 
necessary funds are available. 

(3) The most general formula for the economic value of a loca- 
tion is : 

R — E 

= p (1) 

c 

Where R = Annual revenue (receipts from operation); 

E = Annual expense of operation, including depreciation and 

taxes ; 
C = Capital invested (cost of construction) ; 
p — Percentage of profit on investment. 

(4) The following equation may be used in certain cases, especially 
where the annual revenue, known or unknown, is constant : 

R-(E + I) = P (2) 

Where I = Amount of interest on cost of construction; 
P = Amount of profit (net corporate income). 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 105 

When the revenue is constant the condition of equation (2) is that 
the sum of operating expenses, plus interest on cost of construction, shall 
be a minimum, and is convenient in many cases, but does not indicate the 
proportion of profit to investment. Care should be taken not to use too 
low a rate of interest. The ratio of profit to investment should be con- 
sidered. 

(5) In order to make an economical location of a railway, the 
Engineer must know or make a reasonable assumption of the amount 
and class of traffic that the railway will be called upon to handle, class 
of power and the approximate efficiency and cost of fuel that will be 
used, the rate of wages that will be paid to employes, the cost of main- 
tenance materials, and the rate of interest considered a proper return 
for additional expenditures involved in the improvement of the line for 
the reduction of operating expenses. 

(6) One of the most difficult problems to be solved is the desirable 
length of engine districts, but the question is governed to such an extent 
by other considerations that no definite rule can be given. 

One of the necessary requisites for a terminal point is a suitable 
water supply for locomotives and for domestic use. It is desirable, where 
possible, that terminal points should be located on minor summits. 

(7) Passing sidings and road water supplies should preferably be 
located on minor summits. 

(8) If passing sidings must of necessity be located on ruling 
gradients, then such gradients should be compensated through and for a 
full train length in each direction from either end of the siding. The 
rate of compensation will be governed by the ruling gradient. 

(9) In deciding upon the ruling gradient for each engine district, 
where different ruling gradients are contemplated for adjoining districts 
carrying approximately equal traffic, due consideration must be given to 
the breaking up of trains, which may be caused by the difference in ruling 
gradients. Where a fixed elevation is to be overcome, the development 
of distance to reduce the rate of ruling gradient is often a mistake, pro- 
vided the ruling gradient of the shorter line is within reasonable operat- 
ing limits. Where curvature and distance are introduced for the sake 
of ruling gradient reduction, line resistance, and thereby fuel consumption, 
is increased, as is also the cost of maintenance of way and equipment. 
Some of the benefits derived from a reduction of ruling gradient are the 
saving in weight of locomotives to be lifted over the summit, train and 
engine wages and engine mileage reduced and the capacity of the track 
increased. Full advantage cannot be taken of the apparent train rating 
increase due to ruling gradient reduction on an engine district having 
a large percentage of grade at or near the proposed ruling rate, as in 
all probability, if this anticipated increase in rating is in direct proportion 
to the proposed reduction in ruling gradient, the required time for move- 
ment of trains over the engine district cannot be made. On crowded 
single-track lines a feature affecting train rating to a great extent is the 
loss of time at meeting and passing points ; it, therefore, is necessary to 



106 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

estimate the train rating for any line as the tonnage that can be handled 
in a given time, due allowance being made for necessary stops. 

In estimating the time required for trains to pass over an engine 
district, a speed curve and time card should be plotted. 

There is little increase of tonnage for local and fast freights, and 
none for passenger trains, to be credited to a reduction of ruling gradient 
on lines with light undulating grades. 

In establishing a ruling gradient and determining the effect of it on 
future operating expense, due consideration must be given to possible 
future revisions of the line; thus, in comparing alternative locations, 
one of steep ruling gradient may appear more economical than another 
of low ruling gradient, but the situation of the former may be such that 
its revision would necessitate an abandonment of all or a large percentage 
of the location; while the application temporarily of a steep ruling gradi- 
ent to the low-gradient location might bring the cost of the latter line 
within such limits that, considering future traffic, its construction would 
be desirable. 

(10) In the construction of a line where the contemplated immediate 
traffic is small and the future traffic large, sharp curvature and steep 
temporary gradients, so situated as to be possible of reduction when 
justified by the traffic, may be advantageously introduced; a line being 
thus constructed which will provide for immediate requirements and 
which can be improved for future requirements at a reasonable expense. 
Before deciding upon such temporary expedients, care should be taken to 
compare the cost of the work ultimately to be abandoned with the in- 
terest saved on the extra cost of construction that would have been 
necessary to construct a line on the final location during that period in 
which the more expensive construction would appear uneconomical. 

In the construction of temporary lines due consideration must be 
given to the location of station buildings, and these should not be located 
on portions of the line where revisions are contemplated, owing to the 
fact that if a receiving and delivery point for local traffic is once estab- 
lished, opposition from the public may prevent its removal. 

In the matter of terminal property the future requirements should be 
estimated for a longer period than is justified for the line between ter- 
minals. 

(n) Momentum gradients, not exceeding that over which a locomo- 
tive loaded for the ruling gradient can handle its train in two parts if 
stalled for any reason in the sag, may be used to reduce construction cost 
without decreasing the train rating or the efficiency of the railway, and 
should be used where economy in construction cost is thereby affected, 
except at points where train stops or reduced speed, below the limit 
necessary to operate the gradient, are likely to be necessary. 

In the calculation of the lengths of momentum gradients the maxi- 
mum speed of freight trains at the bottom of the sag should not exceed 
the speed limit for such trains on the engine district under consideration ; 
and the minimum speed at the top of the grade, where the velocity grade 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 107 

adjoins an ascending grade of any considerable length, should not be less 
than eleven miles per hour. Where the top of the momentum gradient 
is at a summit, the minimum speed may be less than 11 miles per hour. 
In fixing the grade line for any alinement, care should be taken to 
insert vertical curves at all grade-line intersections. Curves should be 
connected to tangents by spiral or easement curves of such length as to 
provide ample space in which to make the required superelevation, giving 
due consideration to future requirements of increased speeds. 

(12) The location of terminal points, ruling gradient, and pusher 
gradients having been decided upon, the effect of the minor details of lo- 
cation, namely, distance, curvature and rise and fall, upon operating ex- 
penses may be determined approximately in the following manner : Al- 
ternative locations may be compared by distance, curvature and line re- 
sistance; distance being the length of the line measured along the center 
line of the location ; curvature the number of degrees of central angle 
subtended by the center line of track, and which may be divided into 
sharp curvature, necessitating a reduction of speed for trains, and ordinary 
curvature, which will again be subdivided into that increasing line re- 
sistance in both directions and that increasing line resistance in one di- 
rection only and line resistance which is the sum of the rolling resistance 
(or friction resistance), plus the resistance of gravity overcoming differ- 
ence in elevation on up-grades, plus the resistance due to curvature, 
minus the energy of gravity on trains on descending grades, from which 
has been subtracted the loss of energy (or velocity head) due to the ap- 
plication of brakes. For purposes of comparison this item should be 
reduced to its equivalent in feet of vertical lift. 

Friction resistance, normal conditions, warm weather, modern freight 
equipment, speed between 7 and 35 miles an hour, may be obtained from 
the formula 

R = 2.2 T -f 121.6 C. 

R= Total resistance on level tangent. 

T = Total weight cars and contents in tons. 

C = Total number of cars in train. 

This amounts to 4 lbs. to 8 lbs. per ton, depending on whether cars 
are fully loaded or empty. This is equivalent to a rise of from 10 ft. 
to 20 ft. per mile. For mixed traffic a conservative estimate is, train re- 
sistance equals rise of 15 ft. per mile. Train resistance increases at 
lower temperatures, and at extreme low temperature may go as high as 
50 lbs. per ton for empty freight cars. However, in comparing different 
locations in the same country, it is deemed necessary to make compari- 
sons for the best conditions only. The resistance due to curvature 
may be taken at 0.04 ft. per degree of central angle. 

(13) Fuel Consumption. It is the unanimous opinion of the Com- 
mittee that the train-mile basis alone is not a reliable or correct method 
of estimating fuel consumption for comparative purposes. The following 
two methods are recommended : First, dividing the fuel consumed into 
the amount required for the movement of the locomotive alone, calcu- 



108 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

lated on a time basis, for consumption in yards, roundhouses, sidings, and 
the amount required for the actual movement of cars, and this last amount 
can be computed as varying directly with the amount of work done. Second, 
calculating fuel consumption by means of the speed curve, calculating 
from this the fuel consumed by locomotives working, drifting and stand- 
ing. These methods for calculating fuel consumption also lend them- 
selves to the comparison of lines with varying ruling gradients. 

(14) To determine the relative value of the minor details of location 
under consideration (curvature, distance, rise and fall), it is first necessary 
to decide upon a method of studying the effect of these factors on the 
cost of operation. The following method is recommended : Curvature 
increases resistance at the rate of 0.04 ft. per degree of central angle; 
it also affects the cost of maintenance of way and the cost of 
maintenance of equipment, but sufficient data is not available to warrant 
» conclusion as to the definite amounts. 

Rise affects line resistance and time; the principal effect of eliminat- 
ing rise will be found in the fuel account. It also affects the cost of main- 
tenance of equipment and maintenance of track, but to what extent is 
unknown. It may be neglected in comparing alternate locations. 

Distance affects train wages, line resistance, maintenance of way and 
maintenance of equipment. The effect of distance on line resistance will 
be found in the fuel account. The effect of distance on train wages can be 
computed on a direct train-mile basis. The effect of distance on main- 
tenance of way is a more complicated problem on account of the uncer- 
tainty as to the basis on which maintenance should be calculated. A fixed 
sum per mile to cover factors of maintenance that are more or less con- 
stant plus a rate for the equivalent ton-mile unit, using multiples for 
weights of engines and passenger cars, is correct in principle, but until 
such time as information is obtained as to the value of these multiples, 
this item may be calculated on a basis of a constant per mile plus a fixed 
sum per train mile. The effect of distance on maintenance of equipment, 
for comparative purposes, may be calculated on a train-mile basis. 

(15) Special Structures. The maintenance and operation of special 
structures must be considered on their respective merits for each location. 

(16) Time will not as a general thing constitute an important fac- 
tor in the consideration of the minor details of location, but if the dif- 
ference in time required to operate over alternative locations is of suffi- 
cient importance to affect the amount of equipment to operate the line, and 
consequently the annual charge for same, or the earnings of the line, or 
the trainmen's wages through overtime, then this item must be taken into 
consideration. 

(17) In comparing lines of varying lengths, consideration must be 
given to the effect of distance upon revenue. Another item worthy of 
consideration is the fact that the reduction of distance in engine runs 
of less than 100 miles, which constitute the entire day's work for train- 
men employed on same, may not reduce the amount of wages to be paid 
to such employes. 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 109 

(18) The data in the Manual on the subject of "Power" should be 
amplified and altered to the extent recommended by the Sub-Committee 
on Stokers and Superheaters so as to provide for the increase in coal 
consumption and tractive power due to these improvements. 
Respectfully submitted, 

COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 



110 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION, 

(i) GRADE, CURVATURE, RISE AND FALL AND DISTANCE. 

REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE NO. I. 

Sub-Committee: A. C. Dennis, Chairman; F. H. Alfred, A. S. Going, 
F. W. Green, Fred. Lavis, C. W. P. Ramsey. 

GENERAL. 

(i) While sufficient information is not available to justify a com- 
plete report on the question of Economics of Railway Location, observa- 
tions of the enormous waste of capital due to uneconomical location of 
railways, especially in new countries, emphasizes the pressing need of 
some guide to the designer of location, which will assist him in the pre- 
vention of future waste of this nature. In consequence the feeling of 
this Committee is that any information which it has obtained that may 
prove of value to the Locating Engineer should be published as early as 
possible. 

The question of the comparison of what may be termed the major 
details of location, such as ruling gradients and pusher gradients having 
been given insufficient study to justify a recommendation as to a proper 
method for a comparison of the operating expenses affected by these 
features, these items are dealt with only in a general way in this report, 
which confines itself more particularly to outlining a method for com- 
paring the relative values of what may be termed the minor details of 
railway location, such as distance, curvature, and rise and fall, on a 
line of known terminal points and ruling gradient. 

Such general suggestions as the Committee are prepared to make on 
the major details and general location follow: 

GENERAL DESIGN. 

(2) Locating a railway as distinguished from surveying it means 
designing an economical plant for handling a given traffic. 

The economical plant for a given quantity and class of traffic cannot 
be the economical plant for a greater or less quantity of traffic, or for 
traffic of a different class. The existing traffic on operated lines can 
generally be ascertained and the probable future traffic for any given 
period estimated by producing the curve derived from plotting traffic sta- 
tistics of former years. The estimation of traffic for a proposed line is 
probably the most important, as well as the most uncertain, of the prob- 
lems which confront the Locating Engineer. An anticipation of the 
traffic for ten years may be quite justified, but it should be borne in mind 
that many companies have been wrecked by building what may be termed 
a thousand-horsepower plant to do a hundred-horsepower business. On 
the other hand it is apparent that to make revisions in a line after it 
has once been constructed will increase the total capital charges, because 
usually the cost of the abandoned line is a total loss. Therefore, it is 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. Ill 

considered good practice to discount the future within reasonable limits, 
providing the necessary funds are available. 

DATA NECESSARY FOR ECONOMICAL DESIGN. 

(3) In order to make an economical location of a railway the En- 
gineer must know or make a reasonable assumption of the amount and 
class of traffic that the railway will be called upon to handle ; the class 
of power and the approximate efficiency and cost of fuel that will be used; 
the rate of wages that will be paid to employes ; the cost of material for 
maintenance; and the rate of interest considered a proper return for addi- 
tional expenditures involved in the improvement of the line for the re- 
duction of operating expenses. 

LENGTH OF ENGINE RUNS, LOCATION OF YARDS AND WATER SUPPLIES. 

(4) One of the most difficult problems to be solved is the desirable 
length for an engine run. This problem is controlled by so many factors 
other than that of economy in operation that the Engineer is often re- 
lieved from the responsibility of locating terminal points. 

One of the necessary requisites for a terminal point is a suitable 
water supply for locomotives and domestic use. 

It is desirable, where possible, that terminal points should be located 
on minor summits, first, because train resistance is above normal in 
starting a train when journals are cold, and the summit location of ter- 
minal points furnishes a natural aid to the locomotive in leaving the yard, 
and, second, because the loss of velocity head of trains in entering the 
yard is reduced by such a location ; both of the above items tend to re- 
duce fuel consumption. 

The above remarks in connection with summit locations for terminal 
yards apply in like manner to the location of passing sidings and road 
water supplies ; the proper adjustment of these features when the location 
is made will result in considerable economy in operating expenses. 

If passing sidings must of necessity be located on ruling gradients, 
then such gradients should be compensated through and for a full train 
length in each direction from either end of the siding. The rate of com- 
pensation will be governed by the rate of ruling gradient; the compensa- 
tion recommended for ruling gradients at such points is for lines with 
ruling gradient of 0.4 per cent., 0.1 per cent, and for lines with ruling 
gradient of 1 per cent., 0.2 per cent., the rate for compensation varying 
proportionately to the above for lines with intermediate ruling gradients. 

RULING GRADIENTS. 

(5) Having decided upon the location for terminal points, the rate 
of ruling gradient for each engine district must be then considered. Where 
different ruling gradients for adjoining districts carrying approximately 
equal traffic are contemplated, due consideration must be given to the 
breaking up of trains, which may be caused by the difference in ruling 
gradients. There is no feature connected with the location of a railway 
where greater mistakes can be and have been made than in establishing 



112 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

the ruling gradient, and the mistakes have not been by any means all 
on the side of the adoption of too steep gradients. Where a fixed eleva- 
tion is to be overcome, the development of distance to reduce the rate 
of ruling gradient is often a mistake, provided the ruling gradient on the 
shorter line is within reasonable operating limits. When curvature and 
distance are introduced for the sake of ruling gradient reduction, re- 
sistance, and thereby fuel consumption, 'is increased, as is also the cost 
of maintenance of way and equipment ; some of the benefits derived from 
a reduction of ruling gradient are the saving in weight of locomotives to be 
lifted over the summit, train and engine wages and engine mileage are 
reduced, and the capacity of the track is increased. 

Full advantage cannot be taken of the apparent train-rating increase 
due to ruling gradient reduction on an engine district having a large per- 
centage of grade at or near the proposed ruling rate, as in all probability 
if the anticipated increase in rating is in direct proportion to the pro- 
posed reduction in ruling gradient, the required time for movement of 
trains over the engine district cannot be made. 

On crowded single-track lines a feature affecting train rating to a 
great extent is the loss of time at meeting and passing points. It there- 
fore is necessary to estimate the train rating for any line as the tonnage 
that can be handled in a given time, due allowance being made for neces- 
sary stops. 

In estimating the time required for trains to pass over an engine 
district, a speed curve and time card should be plotted. 

There is little increase of tonnage for local and fast freights, and 
none for passenger trains, to be credited to reduction of ruling gradient 
on lines with light undulating grades of less than 0.8 per cent, ruling. 

In establishing a ruling gradient and determining the effect of it on 
future operating expense, due consideration must be given to possible 
future revisions of the line. Thus, in comparing alternative locations, 
one of steep ruling gradient may appear more economical than another 
of low ruling gradient, but the situation of the former may be such that 
its revision would necessitate an abandonment of all or a large percentage 
of the location, while the application temporarily of a steep ruling gradi- 
ent to the low-gradient location might bring the cost of the latter line 
within such limits that, considering future traffic, its construction would 
be desirable, and the future revision of the temporary ruling gradient, if 
justified by the traffic, would not necessarily be as expensive a matter 
as the revision of the line on which the steep ruling gradient only could 
be obtained. 

FUTURE TRAFFIC REQUIREMENTS AND CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPORARY LINES. 

(6) In the construction of any line, where the contemplated imme- 
diate traffic is small and the future traffic large, but, of course, in such 
circumstances uncertain, sharp curvature and steep temporary gradients 
so situated as to be possible of reduction when justified by the traffic 
may be advantageously introduced ; a line being thus constructed which 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 113 

will provide for immediate requirements, and which can be improved for 
future requirements at a reasonable expense. Before deciding upon such 
temporary expedients, care should be taken to compare the cost of the 
work ultimately to be abandoned with the interest saved on the extra 
cost of construction that would have been necessary to construct a line 
on the final location, during that period in which the more expensive 
construction would appear uneconomical. 

In the construction of temporary lines due consideration must be 
given to the location of station buildings, and these should not be lo- 
cated on portions of the line where revisions are contemplated, owing 
to the fact that if a receiving and delivery point for local traffic is once 
established opposition from the public may prevent its removal. 

In the matter of terminal property the future requirements should 
be estimated for a longer period than is justified for the line between 
terminals. 

COMPENSATION OF GRADIENTS FOR CURVATURE. 

(7) Ruling gradients must be compensated for curvature, and the 
rate of 0.04 ft. per degree of central angle is recommended; lesser gradi- 
ents should be compensated for curvature only when their rate is such 
that the addition of the curve resistance to the virtual grade gives a rate 
in excess of the ruling gradient, in which event these lesser gradients 
should be compensated sufficiently to bring the virtual rate within the 
limit of the ruling gradient. 

MOMENTUM GRADIENTS. 

(8) Momentum gradients not exceeding that oyer which a locomo- 
tive loaded for the ruling gradient can handle its train in two parts, if 
stalled for any reason in the sag, may be used to reduce construction cost 
without decreasing the train rating or the efficiency of the railway, and 
should be used where economy in construction cost is thereby affected, 
except at points where train stops or reduced speed, below the limit neces- 
sary to operate the gradient, are likely to be necessary. 

In the calculation of the length of momentum gradients the maximum 
speed of freight trains at the bottom of the sag should not exceed the speed 
limit for such trains on the engine district under consideration, and the 
minimum speed at the top of the grade, where the velocity grade adjoins an 
ascending grade of any considerable length, should not be less than 11 
M.P.H., and the minimum speed on summits not less than 9 M.P.H. 

In fixing the grade line for any alinement, care must be taken to in- 
sert vertical curves at all grade-line intersections. 

MINOR DETAILS OF LOCATION, GENERAL. 

(9) The location of terminal points, ruling gradient, and pusher 
gradients, having been decided upon, the next problem to be solved by 
the Engineer is the effect that distance, curvature, and rise and fall will 
have upon the operating expenses of the railway, and the reduction of 
such an effect to values comparable with construction cost. Local condi- 



114 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

tions vary to such an extent that it is quite impracticable for this Com- 
mittee to give definite values for any of these items, but an endeavor 
has been made to outline a method by which such values, the local con- 
ditions being known, may be intelligently obtained. 

The form in which railway statistics have been kept during the past 
being so unsuitable for a determination of these values, it is considered 
that approximations which can be calculated with a small amount of 
labor are preferable, at this initial stage, to complicated methods, which, 
owing to the unsuitable form of the statistics available, will in all prob- 
ability not give a greater degree of accuracy to the result. 

Alternative locations may be compared by distance, curvature and 
line resistance. In order to prevent any misunderstanding, it appears 
advisable to define these terms : 

"Distance" is the length of the line measured along the center line 
of the track. 

"Curvature" is the number of degrees of central angle subtended by 
the center line of the track, and may be divided into sharp curvature, 
necessitating a reduction of speed for trains, and ordinary curvature, 
which will again be subdivided into that increasing line resistance in both 
directions and that increasing line resistance in one direction only. 

"Line resistance" is the sum of the rolling resistance (or friction re- 
sistance) plus the resistance of gravity overcoming difference in eleva- 
tion on up-grades, plus the resistance due to curvature, minus the energy 
of gravity on trains on descending grades, from which has been sub- 
tracted the loss of energy (or velocity head) due to the application of 
brakes. For purposes of comparison this item should be reduced to its 
equivalent in feet of vertical lift. 

Frictional resistance, normal conditions, warm weather, modern 
freight equipment, speed between 7 and 35 miles an hour, may be obtained 
from the formula : 

R = 2.2T+I2I.6C. 

R = Total resistance on level tangent. 

T = Total weight cars and contents in tons. 

C = Total number of cars in train. 

This amounts to 4 lbs. to 8 lbs. per ton, depending on whether cars 
are fully loaded or empty. This is equivalent to a rise of from 10 ft. to 
20 ft. per mile. For mixed traffic a conservative estimate is, train re- 
sistance equals rise of 15 ft. per mile. Train resistance increases at 
lower temperatures, and at extreme low temperature may go as high as 
30 lbs. per ton for empty freight cars. However, in comparing different 
locations in the same country, it is deemed necessary to make comparisons 
for the best conditions only. 

Overcoming resistance due to curvature may be taken as equivalent 
to a lift of 0.04 ft. per degree of central angle, the resistance due to 
curvature on descending grades steeper than 0.3 per cent, to be neglected, 
as it is merely an assistance to the brakes. The distance and curvature 
are, of course, known when the line is located; the line resistance may 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 115 

be obtained easily in the following manner, viz., by determining the aver- 
age car resistance on a straight level track for the trains under consid- 
eration, reducing this resistance to an equivalent grade, and plotting it as 
a descending grade line in the direction in which it is desired to deter- 
mine the line resistance, commencing at the track elevation at some known 
starting point for trains, compensating the line by adding the resistance 
due to curves as they are encountered, also compensating for loss in 
velocity head due to the application of brakes (ordinarily the difference 
between actual down grade and line drawn to 0.5 per cent, down grade), 
and then scaling the vertical distance between this grade and the track 
elevation at the terminus. In the case of sharp curvature necessitating 
a reduction in the speed of trains the effect will thus be shown in the 
increased line resistance. 

If method of plotting is not adopted, care must be exercised to be 
sure that no short rises in grade overcome by velocity are included in 
the resistance due to rise, also that no curve resistance on down grades 
steeper than 0.3 per cent, is included. 

FUEL CONSUMPTION. 

(10) As the cost of fuel is one of the largest items in the expense 
of operating a railway, a careful study of the subject under discussion as 
affecting this factor is essential for anything like reasonable or reliable 
results in the comparison of relative values of different locations. It 
seems to be the unanimous opinion of the entire Committee that the 
comparing of different locations on a train-mile basis in which cost of 
fuel is supposed to be included in the amount taken as the cost of a train 
mile, or on a train-mile basis for fuel alone, is not correct. On the other 
hand, the Committee is not a unit as to the proper basis from which to 
attack this problem. It has been suggested that taking total fuel con- 
sumption divided by the total number of horsepower hours of work per- 
formed will give a fair basis from which a comparison can be made. 
This method will give about 6 lbs. to 8 lbs. of 13,000 B.t.u. coal per horse- 
power hour, depending on whether line is double track or single track 
with very little traffic, as against a very busy single-track line. This 
method will not give reliable results for the reason that a large per- 
centage of this amount of 6 lbs. to 8 lbs. of coal is consumed in several 
ways other than performing actual work, such as wasted around ter- 
minals, starting fires, or while locomotives are standing on sidings, all of 
which are generally common to lines under comparison and may be con- 
sidered for comparative purposes as a constant. A majority of the mem- 
bers of Sub-Committee No. 1 seems to favor the method of dividing the 
fuel consumed into two parts, first, that required for the movement of 
the locomotives and for consumption at yards, sidings, etc., and second, 
that required for the actual work performed in moving the car tonnage. 
For comparative purposes this amount can be assumed to vary directly 
with the amount of work done. It has been found from experiment cov- 
ering a period of one year over some 30 engine districts that this fuel 



11C ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

consumption is practically constant, irrespective of the physical character- 
istics of the engine district within limits of 0.3 per cent, and 1.2 per cent, 
ruling gradient. Locomotives weighing from 50 to 80 tons on drivers 
and using 13,000 B.t.u. coal, giving a consumption of from 4 to 5 lbs. per 
1,000 foot-tons of work done. In these experiments engines were run light 
over the districts, under same conditions as near as possible as when 
loaded, and the coal consumed measured. This amount was deducted 
from the amount consumed by the locomotives under load and the dif- 
ference divided by the number of horsepower hours of work done behind 
the drawbar. Another method is to include in the train tonnage the 
weight of the locomotive and assume an amount a little less than experi- 
ence would show was consumed in doing a certain amount of work on 
the basis mentioned as the amount required to perform a horsepower 
hour's work. Experimenting for a month would show that locomotives 
with 99 tons on drivers, coal about 13,000 B.t.u., would consume about 5.5 
lbs. coal per horsepower hour, on the basis of including weight of locomo- 
tive with train tonnage and assuming that resistance of locomotives was 
same as freight cars, that is, no account was taken of the internal friction 
of the locomotive as a machine. From this it was assumed that taking 
5 lbs. of coal as the amount required to do an actual horsepower hour's 
work would give conservative results for comparative purposes. This 
method reduces somewhat the amount of work in comparing various lines 
and gives about the same results as the method described above. 

EFFECT OF MINOR DETAILS ON OPERATING EXPENSES. 

(11) To determine the negative value of the minor details of location 
under consideration (curvature, distance, rise and fall), it is first neces- 
sary to determine upon a method of studying the effect of these factors 
on the cost of operation. The following method is recommended : Cur- 
vature increases resistance at the rate of 0.04 ft. per degree of central 
angle (curves on down grades steeper than 0.3 per cent, to be omitted 
in comparing resistance). The extra expense of maintenance of equip- 
ment on account of curvature is not available from statistics, and is a 
question that should receive further study. It is suggested for the present 
we assume that from 300 to 500 degrees of curvature per mile increases 
the cost of maintenance of equipment by some amount between 20 per 
cent, and 30 per cent, of the rate per train mile, where cost of main- 
tenance of equipment is distributed on a train-mile basis. 

Curvature increases the cost of maintenance of track, but to what 
extent statistics do not show. This subject must be given more study. 
For the present it is suggested that 500 degrees of curvature per mile 
increases the rate per train mile by 40 per cent, to 60 per cent, of the vary- 
ing factor, where cost of maintenance of track is divided into a fixed sum 
per mile plus a rate per train mile. The extra cost of operating over sharp 
curvature may be very considerable, and may be approximated by adding to 
the expense of ordinary curvature the foot-tons of work and time lost, 
slowing traffic to the required limits. While good practice permits curves 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 117 

to be operated at higher speed than that for which the rail is elevated, it 
is believed that the estimated cost of slowing down will not exceed the 
true negative value of the curve. The expense of sharp curvature is a 
function of each such curve and is independent of the central angle. 

Rise means the vertical distance the traffic is raised and must be cal- 
culated in each direction. The main effect of rise is in fuel and time. 
For the present it is assumed that the effect of rise and fall on the cost 
of maintenance of track and on the cost of maintenance of equipment may 
be neglected in the comparison of the cost of operating lines under con- 
sideration. 

Distance affects the fuel account by the added resistance of the roll- 
ing friction for the extra distance. Distance affects train wages account 
by increasing time necessary to get over the engine district and where 
districts are over ioo miles in length and are run within time limit for 
a day's work, wages are increased in direct proportion to the distance. 
Distance increases the cost of maintenance of track, on account of the extra 
length of track, telegraph line, fences, etc., and from a study of statistics 
the total cost of maintenance of way amounts to a fixed sum varying 
between $200 and $600 per mile of track plus a rate per train mile varying 
from 20 cents to 30 cents per train mile. For comparative purposes, no 
great error will be made by assuming the fixed sum to be $400 per mile 
plus 25 cents per train mile for straight track. 

In calculating the saving in maintenance of way, by eliminating dis- 
tance, it is assumed that about $200 per year per mile would be spent on 
maintenance, regardless of distance, and in order to make even figures 
it is assumed that maintenance of way, affected by shortening distance, will 
cost $211.20 per mile plus 25 cents per train mile on straight track. This 
figures out a saving for every foot of distance capitalized at 4 per cent, 
of $1.00 plus 43^5 cents for every 365 trains, or for each daily train; 
money at 5 per cent., it would be 80 cents plus 34^ cents for each daily 
train ; at 6 per cent, it would be 66^ cents plus 28^ cents for each daily 
train. 

Distance affects cost of maintenance of equipment, and by putting the 
rate of maintenance of equipment affected by distance at the low figure of 
25 cents per train mile on straight track, no great error will be made. 
In considering the question of reduction in distance there is one fac- 
tor that should be studied which is of value in some cases, and that is, 
in the shortest route between two important terminals, passenger rates 
might be affected by shortening distance ; also, freight trains hauling local 
freight which is charged for by the mile, the earnings might be decreased 
slightly on account of shortening distance, but rates are so very seldom 
controlled by the small changes in distance and the amount of local freight 
that is charged for by the mile is so small that generally no great error 
is made in neglecting this factor. 

The maintenance and operation of structures, railway and highway 
crossings must be considered on their respective merits ; thus, in compar- 
ing the relative operating values of two lines crossing a navigable stream, 



118 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

one by means of a swing bridge and the other by means of a structure 
high enough to clear the waterway for boat traffic, a very considerable dif- 
ference in the economy of the two lines, apart from the construction cost, 
will be found. 

To further illustrate the methods of computing economics of minor 
details, the following example is given : 

It is assumed that the cost of maintenance of equipment will be in- 
creased 50 per cent, by the addition of 400 degrees of central angle per 
mile of track; the varying factor of track maintenance will be increased 
60 per cent, by the addition of 300 degrees of central angle per mile of 
track, and that the constant track-mile maintenance expense will be af- 
fected 75 per cent, by increases in distance. Making these assumptions, 
the negative value of 1 ft. of distance. may be obtained from the follow- 
ing formula: 

100 I ) 

D = \ A(E+N)+.75M ( 

5280 X 1 ( ) 

Where D = the negative value of 1 ft. of distance in dollars, 

I = per cent, of interest considered a reasonable return on 

expenditures for improvements, 
A = the annual number of trains, 
E = train mile expense in dollars, 

N = varying factor for maintenance per train mile in dollars, 
M = constant per mile of track for maintenance in dollars. 

The negative value of one degree of curvature may be obtained from 
the following formula : 



100 



AXW 



800 



AXN 
500 



Where C = negative value of one degree of curvature in dollars, 
W = maintenance of equipment per train mile in dollars, 
the other letters representing similar items to those given in the preced- 
ing formula. 

The increase in the operating expense due to sharp curvature neces- 
sitating the application of brakes and consequent loss of velocity head 
will appear in increased line resistance, and if it is desired to determine 
this value for any particular curve, it may be arrived at directly from the 
loss in velocity head. 

The negative value of 1 ft. of line resistance may be determined from 
the following formula : 

r yxlxf 



R = - 



2,000,000 

Where R = the negative value of 1 ft. of line resistance in dollars, 
F = the cost of fuel per ton loaded on tenders in dollars, 
L=fuel consumption per 1,000 foot-tons of work done in 

pounds, 
Y = total annual gross car tonnage passing over line, 
I — per cent, of interest as noted in the preceding formula. 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 119 

If for any reason it may appear desirable for the purpose of rapid 
approximate calculation to eliminate the relative value of curvature af- 
fecting line resistance from that item and to add these values under their 
respective headings to curvature and distance, the addition to the negative 
value of one degree of curvature affecting line resistance in both direc- 
tions will be equal to the cost of i ft. of line resistance multiplied by 0.04, 
and the addition to the value for distance will be equal to the value of 
1 ft. of line resistance divided by 5,280 and multiplied by the line resist- 
ance reduced to vertical feet lift per mile on level track. 

T calculating line resistance due notice must be taken of the fact 
that line resistance for freight and passenger trains will not be the same 
owing to the probability of, firstly, a difference in train resistance, and 
secondly, the fact that the limiting speed for passenger trains is usually 
much higher than for freight trains, and the stops for the former fewer, 
consequently the loss of velocity head due to the application of brakes on 
passenger trains will be considerably less between stations and greater at 
stops. From the foregoing formulas, knowing the details of traffic and 
physical characteristics for any given line, definite values for distance, 
curvature and line resistance may be obtained. 
Data — Gross freight tonnage per annum eastbound and westbound, 

equally divided 6,000,000 tons 

Average weight of loaded freight cars 5° tons 

Gross passenger tonnage per annum eastbound and westbound, equally 

divided 1,500,000 tons 

Total freight trains per annum, all of equal weight 2,600 

Total passenger trains per annum, all of equal weight 3.650 

Average resistance of freight cars on straight, level track, equivalent 

to 16.5 ft. per mile 

Average resistance of passenger cars on straight, level track, equiva- 
lent to 23.8 ft. per mile 

Freight train mileage expense $0.72 

Passenger train mileage expense $0.52 

Freight car mileage per annum per mile of track 200,000 

Passenger car mileage per annum per mile of track 29,200 

Constant factor of maintenance expense per mile of track $400.00 

Varying factor of maintenance expense per engine mile $0.25 

Rate of interest required on investment 5 per cent. 

Fuel consumption for movement of cars per 1,000 foot-tons of work 

done 4 lbs. 

Cost of fuel per ton loaded on tender $400 

Cost of maintenance of equipment on freight trains per train mile. ..$0.41 
Cost of maintenance of equipment for passenger trains per train 

mile $0,024 



1 
5,280 X 5 



D == - - -j 2,600 (72 + 25) + 3.650 (52 + 25) 4- .75 X 40,000 
: $21.34 per ft. = $112,650.00 per mile 



120 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

C = 



l (2,600 X 40 + (3,650 X 24) (2,600 + 3,650) X 25 ) 

+ 

( 800 500 ) 

= $111.05 per degree 



100 f 1,500,000 X 4 X 4 

R = — 

5 [ 2,000,000 



100 f 6,000,000 X 4 X 4 
+ 



2,000,000 



5 
= $240.00 + $960.00 = $1,200.00 

If it is desired to add the resistance factor to the negative value of 
curvature, this item will be $1,200.00 X .04 = $48.00 per degree, where 
line resistance is affected in both directions, or $24.00 where afP.'sted in 
one direction only, giving a total negative value for curvature of $159.05 
per degree of central angle. 

In a similar manner, if this resistance factor is added to the nega- 
tive value of distance, this item will be $240.00 X 28.3 + $960.00 X 16.5 = 
$22,632.00 per mile, or $4.28 per linear foot. 

Thus the total negative value for distance, including line resistance, 
is $25.62 per linear foot, or $135,282.00 per mile. 

In the case of a sharp curve causing a loss in velocity head for 
passenger trains of 20 ft. and in freight trains of 10 ft., the negative value 
of the curve, exclusive of the central angle factor, would be $240.00 X 
20 + $960.00 X 10 = $14,400.00. 

As a further illustration, and for the benefit of those who prefer to 
get unit values for the different minor factors, five sets of tables and 
diagrams have been prepared. It is not intended that the Association as 
a body be made responsible for any assumptions made in the preparation 
of tables and diagrams. 

Fig. 1 gives the capitalized value of the cost of fuel at 4 per cent, 5 
per cent, and 6 per cent, interest for lifting 365 trains of from 500 tons 
to 5,000 tons one-tenth of a foot, assuming coal at prices ranging from 
$2.00 to $10.00 per ton, and assuming that 5 lbs. of coal is consumed in 
a horsepower hour. 

Curvature, diagram and table, Fig. 2, give the capitalized value at 

4 per cent., 5 per cent, and 6 per cent, interest of the cost of fuel con- 
sumed in overcoming the resistance of one degree of curvature for 365 
trains of from 500 tons to 5,000 tons coal at from $2.00 to $10.00 per 
ton. This table needs no further explanation. 

Diagram and table, Fig. 3, give the capitalized value at 4 per cent., 

5 per cent, and 6 per cent, of the fuel consumed in hauling 365 trains 
10 ft. on level grade, trainloads varying from 500 tons to 5,000 tons, price 
of coal from $2.00 to $10.00 per ton. In the case of a coal road or ore 
road, where practically all the trains in one direction are loaded to full 
capacity and the trains in the other direction are practically empty, it 
would be necessary to change the co-efficient of 6 lbs. per ton to 4 lbs. 
and 8 lbs., respectively, for the loaded and empty trains. In using this 
table, where the distance saved is on grades requiring the application of 
brakes, the saving must not be taken into account as affecting the trains 
running downhill; on lighter grades proper proportion to be calculated. 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 121 

Diagram and table, Fig. 4, give the capitalized value at 4 per cent., 
5 per cent, and 6 per cent, interest of the wages saved for 365 trains for 
a distance of 100 ft., when the wages per train mile are from 10 cents to 
25 cents. This same table can be used in figuring the saving in the cost 
of maintenance of equipment. 

Diagram and table, Fig. 5, are used in calculating the extra cost of 
maintenance of way on account of the introduction of one degree of 
curvature. This is based on the assumption that maintenance of way 
costs $400 per mile per annum, plus 25 cents per train mile for straight 
track. This same table may be used for the extra cost of maintenance of 
equipment on account of one degree of curvature. We would recommend 
for the present, however, assuming one of the lower percentages of in- 
crease, say between 30 per cent, and 40 per cent., if we assume the cost 
of maintenance of equipment to be 25 cents per train mile. 

As an example to illustrate the application of these tables, let us 
suppose that a Locating Engineer is instructed that the prospective traffic 
will consist of two daily trains (one each way) of 500 tons, two daily 
trains of 1,000 tons and six daily trains of 3,500 tons; that coal cost 
on locomotive $4.50 per ton ; interest 5 per cent., and that 300 degrees 
of curvature per mile will increase the cost of maintenance of way 40 
per cent, on 25 cents per train mile, and that the cost of maintenance of 
equipment would be increased 35 per cent, on 25 cents per train mile : 
train wages at 18 cents per mile; maintenance of equipment on straight 
track 22 cents per mile, then the capitalized value of rise, distance and 
curvature will be as follows : 

Rise. — Cost of fuel from Table 1 : 

Two 500-ton trains at $4.09 $ 8.18 

Two 1,000-ton trains at $8.18 16.36 

Six 3,500-ton trains at $28.79 172.74 

Total for one-tenth of a foot rise $197.28 

Or for i-ft. rise affecting traffic in both 

directions $1,972.80 

Distance. — Cost of fuel from Table 3 : 

Two 500-ton trains at $1.23 $ 2.46 

Two 1,000-ton trains at $2.46 4-92 

Six 3,500-ton trains at $8.6254 51-75 

Total for 10-ft. distance $ 59 T 3 

Or for i-ft. distance $ 5-9 1 

Maintenance of Equipment, Table 4 : 
Ten trains at $30.37 $30370 

Wages, Table 4 : 
Ten trains at $24.90 249.00 

Total for 100-ft. distance $552.70 

Or for i-ft. distance 5.53 



122 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

Maintenance of Way: 
80 cents plus 10 X 34-5 cents per foot 4.25 

Total per foot $15.69 

Curvature. — Fuel from Table 2 : 

Two 500-ton trains at $1.64 $ 3.28 

Two 1,000-ton trains at $3.28 6.56 

Six 3,500-ton trains at $11.50 69.00 

Total $78.94 

Maintenance of Way from Table 5 : 
Ten trains at $2.48 24.80 

Maintenance of Equipment from Table 5 : 
Ten trains at $2.27 22.70 

Total per degree of curvature $126.34 

To recapitulate the values of the assumptions we have made : 

Rise, affecting traffic in both directions, per foot $1,972.80 

Distance on the level which affects the cost of fuel, as well as 

the other factors, in both directions, per foot 15.69 

Curvature, affecting the cost of fuel in both directions, per degree 126.34 

In comparing alternate lines a considerable saving can be made in the 
time required for calculations, by adding all tonnages together and getting 
the total of the work done by adding rise, resistance from friction and 
resistance from curvature together, calculating curvature at 4-100 of a 
foot per degree and friction at 15 ft. per mile. The tables and diagrams 
referring to these items are all made on the same basis, but figured at dif- 
ferent units in order to be applicable for the separate factors, such as rise, 
curvature and frictional resistance, so that in case a Locating Engineer 
wished to get units for these different factors, it can be done as shown 
in the example above. 

As an example of application of comparing the economics of loca- 
tion, Fig. 6 shows a condensed profile of the present line and several 
proposed locations of a section of line that came under the observation 
of a member of the Committee. 

Fig. 7 is a comparative statement of the economics of this problem. 

This statement takes account of comparable factors only and deals 
only with the excesses of these factors over the same factors in the most 
economical line to operate. Instead of figuring pushers on the same 
basis as other trains, the fuel consumed having been taken into account 
in the general statement with the exception of the fuel used in overcoming 
friction on the pusher locomotive itself, pusher miles were put down at a 
fixed sum per mile, and are well within limits of the cost of such service 
at other points on the same line. It will be noted that the short line, 
which now seems to figure the least economical (although the figures are 
so close that no great engineering mistake would be made if any of the 



r line 
made 

at the 

trains, 
if the 

mmc- 

en J5 

main 
main- 
tg an 

call 







TABLES OF CAPITALIZED VALUES 












4*/. 






o 3 
8 A 
t 5 

£ 6 

SL 7 

S 8 

E 9 

10 


lizt 


4'-(. 


664 


2000 

912 


l"-,0U 
1140 


1368 


3500 

1596 


18 25 


20-53 


22-81 


J4Z 


684 


10-26 


1366 


17-11 


2053 


!)95 


2737 


30/9 


3421 


4',fe 


912 


1)68 


11-29 


2281 


2737 


31 93 


3650 


41-06 


4>. 


570 


II 40 


17.11 


£2-81 


28-51 


54-21 


39 92 


4«4>2 


5132 


57" 1 


t-84 


1368 


2053 


2737 


34 21 


41-06 


4790 


5475 


6i59 


684 


798 


'5 96 


2395 


3193 


39 92 


4/70 


55 89 


(.187 


7185 


79 84 


912 


1825 


2737 


36 5 


At, a 


54 75 


63 8/ 


7. 1 00 


82 1? 


9125 


I0?fc 


20-5 3 


30/9 


41-06 


51 32 


61 -.8 


71 85 


82 12 


92)9 


10265 


11 40 


2281 


3421 


4562 


57 03 


6843 


7984 


91 25 


102-65 


114 01 






500 


1000 


1500 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


4500 


5001 


r* 2 

§ 3 
o A 
~c 5 


%ttt 


3 65 


547 


7)0 


9'2 


1095 


12-77 


14-60 


1642 


IB'- ' 


2-73 


5 4/ 


8-21 


10 9'. 


l)bB 


lb 42 


I9lfa 


21 >0 


£4.63 


3 65 


730 


1095 


14 bO 


182', 


2190 


25 55 


2920 


32 89 


453 


912 


b8 


IB ?5 


22 81 


27-57 


3193 


96-50 


41 06 


>! fc 


1,4/ 


10.99 


lb 4V 


21 9" 


27 3/ 


32 8'. 


36 3? 


4>80 


49 2/ 


&. 7 


(. M 


1277 


IV lb 


?',y, 


JI7J 


38.12 


44/1 


5110 


5/48 


10 


7 <o 


1460 


21-90 


29 ?n 


36 50 


4 1 80 


51 10 


,"-8 40 


fe5 70 


Ml 


lb 4? 


2463 


>,• 85 


410b 


49-27 


5/4B 


6>. /o 


73 91 


82 - 


912 


IKS 


2737 


kVjo 


45**2 


5475 


6387 


7X0C 


8212 


41 . 






900 


1000 


1^00 


2000 


2500 


5000 


Woo 


4000 


4500 


5001 


.~* 2 

8 » 

8 4 

1 5 

. 7 

1 8 

1 IC 


il5Z 


304 


456 


608 


7-60 


9 If 


10 (.* 


12 16 


1969 


l5-2o| 


228 


4Kb 


(.84 


1 iv 


II 40 


1 1 61 


!..<„. 


1825 


20 -» 


22'' 


304 


606 


9'2 


1? it, 


15 to 


1825 


21 -29 


24)3 


2737 


to* 


3«o 


/(-u 


II 40 


is;o 


19 0, 


22-91 


lt-61 


)0 41 


34 21 


98VOI 


456 


912 


l)bB 


18 2^ 


22 81 


2737 


)l ') 1 


>50 


41 Ob 


491 


5 32 


10 1,. 


IJ.fl 


21 29 


2b bi 


JI.J3 


57 26 


42-98 


4790 


Jjfl 


bOK 


17 lb 


IB?'. 


24)) 


1041 


3l 91 


42^8 


48 bl. 


5-979 


604] 


684 


1)68 


2053 


27-37 


34H 


41 01 


47.90 


54'5 


(., v. 


t.8 4 


7- 6c 


15-Zo 


2281 


>04l 


3802 


4562 


53*2 


60-8) 


6843 


76 04 




AMERICAN RAILWa. ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION. 

COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION 



DIAGRAMS 8. TABLES 

OF CAPITALIZED VALUES Or COST OF FUEL CONSUMCO 

IN OVER-COMING T» or ONE rOOT OF RISE PER OAILT 

TRAIN PER ANNUM ASSUMING THAT 5*C0AL I) 

CONtllMFO IM RA INC innn TON4 ONF FOOT 



THE ASSOCIATION AS A BOOT DOCS NOT HOLD ITSELr 
BCSP0N5HU. FOR ASSUMPTION OF 3* OF COAL PtR H0R51 
POItCR HOUR If ANT IM 

THl AMOUNT SHOULD BE DITFIRINT MULTIPU FIC-UNCS 
TABLES 08 OlftCBAM BY RATIO AMOUNT 




123 

•r line 
made 
at the 
of the 
mmc 
en JS 

main 



l| ii 
. call 



TABLES OF CAPITALIZED VALUES 





4% 


1 


VToWUIfl 


500 


1000 


1500 


20O0'?5O0 


5000 


3500 


4000 


4500 


5000] 




F 
■G 3 

§ 4 

| 5 

£ 6 

IS 

5 

' 10 


t v 


1 82 


213 


)65[ 4-56 


5 47 


6 38 


7 30 


821 


9 I)" 




136 


273 


4 10 


547 6 84 


8 21 


958 


10 94 


12)2 


1369 




18! 


365 


5 4/ 


7 30 9 12 


1095 


1277 


14 60 1642 


18-25 




2 28 


456 


684 


912 


1140 


1368 


15 96 


18 24 20 53 


22-81 




273 


5 47 


821 


1095 


1368 


16 42 


19 16 


21 90 J4 64 


2738 




1 19 


(.38 


9 58 


1277 


1596 


1916 


22 35 


25 54 28 74 


31 94 




lb', 


7 |0 


10 95 


1460 


18 25 


2190 


25 33 


29 20 >2 85 36 50 1 




410 


8 21 


12 31 


1642 


20 53 


246) 


2874 


32 84 *95'4I 06 




45* 9-12 | 1368 18 25| 2281 j 27 37 31 "3 j 36 SO 41 Ofc ]45 63 ll 




iHTwiin 500 


5 7. 




1000 1500 i 2000 2500 '3000 


3500 


400P 


4500 


5000j 




I 9 

10 


f 7) 


146 


2 19 


2 92 


3 65 


4 38 


5 II 


5 84 


6 57 


7 30 




109 


2 19 


328 


4)8 


547 


657 


766 


8 76 


986 


10 95 




1 46 


292 


4 38 


584 


730 


876 


10 22 


II 68 


13 14 


1460 




1 82 


365 


547 


7 30 


9 12 


1095 


12 77 


14 60 


64) 






? 19 


, 4)1 


657 


876 


10 95 


13 14 


15 33 


17 52 


1971 


2190 




255 


5 II 


766 


1022 


1277 


15 33 


17 88 


2044 


22 99 






2 92 


5 84 


8-76 


II 68 


14 60 


1752 


20 44 


23 36 


7628 


2920 




3-28 


657 


9 85 


1314 


16 42 


1971 


22 99 


26 28 


29 57 






365 


7 30 


1095 


14 60 


1825 


2190 


25 <5 


29 20 


>2 85 


Ifr50 






6 7. 




•G J 

8 4 

° 5 

[j 


500 
f -60 


1000 1500; 2000 2500 
1-21 I-S2 1 2431 304 


3000 35004O00 J50O;50OO 
364 475 1 4-It'" 5471 6-08 




11 


182 


273 


364 


4 56 


5-57 


6 38 7 30 821 | »I3 




121 


24) 


364 


4 86 


6 0> 


729 


1-51 


9 7) 1095 12 17 




152 


304 


456 


6 08 


760 


9 12 


1069 






182 


365 


5 47 


730 


*-a 


10 95 


12 77 


14 60 164)1 18 25 




1 12 


4 35 


6 38 


8-71 


10 64 


1277 


14 90 


170' 19 16 21 2« 




24) 


4 86 


730 


97) 


12 16 


1460 


170) 


19-46 2|H0 24 )) 




Z 73 

V0i 


547 


821 


10 94 
12 U 


1368 
1520 


1642 

is?-. 


1916 
7.1 2" 


21 9C 
24 3 


2+64,27 )8 




J HOB 


112 


.' i8 uu: 



AMERICAN RAILW9Y ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION! 

COMMIT Tit ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION 

DIAGRAMS 8f TABLES 

0F CAPn ' > OST OF FUEL CONSUMED 

IN OVlBCOf ■. . RISISTANCEOF I* DEGREE OF CURVATURE 

lEQUALTOLi, *g load o-04F')foroneoailytrain 

PEHAIINUMAr UMIN6TMAT5»C0ALISa)NSLIMEO I 
IN RAISING 0NETM0U5AN 



THt ASSOCIATION AS * BODY DOCS NOT HOLO ITSELF 
NESROHMBLI FOR AMUMRTION OF 5*OF COAL PER MORSE 
POWER HOUR IF aht individual OR MIMRCR FINDS THAT 
THE AMOUNT SHOwid BC OlFF l RENT, MULTIPLY FIGURES 
TAKEN FROM TABUS OR DIAGRAM BY RATIO AMOUNT 
ASSUMED BEARS TO 5*AN00»TAIN DESIRE D RESULT 




I were 
r line 
nude 
at the 






TABLES OF CAPITALISED VALUES 



4% 


" „ , ,';; l "l 500 iooo [ 1500 l?oooi?5oo 13000 1 3500' aooo 1450015000 ' 


&l \i*»\ 137 2 05 2/4 3-« 411 4/9 5-4» 6 ,4 fc 85 


»' )| 1-0} 1 2 05| )0» 4 II 1 5 1)1 616 719 B 21 '"24 10 27 1 


§ 4 ,)7 274 4.H 5 4. t»4 8 21 958 10-95 «!.)*) 


f 7 1-71 1 Mil *i>|M4 V»\ 10-271 im|lM»|i5-4«| 17.11 1 


\ 6 


7 05 .111 t 16 ! tt.'i 




0. 7 1 


2 >9 4 7/I 7'') 1 5 58 


11-98 1437I Ifc7/| 19.lt! 2i5fc| 2)9*1 


a 8 


?/4| 5 4B 8 21 1 1095 


1)45 lfc-4) l?lfc 21-90 2464 27)8 | 


ci: 9 


3 OB fc.lt J 9 24 12 )2 


15 40 IR 48 j ,>l hfel 24 1.4 f ? 1 t 50 79 


10 


3 4t| (.64 in .'/J !>■*» 


17 II 1 20 ' 1 


5>% 


w :y,?y 


500 


1000 


1500 


2000 


2500 


1O00 


3SOO 


4000 


4-00 


5000 


1 4 

£. 5 

1 *> 

I ' 

1 9 
10 


«. ■■'. 


109 


164 


2 19 


2/4 


329 


38) 


4)8 


4 9) 


548 


8? 


164 


2 46 


).1 


4 II 


4 91 


5-7J 


657 


r '9 


8 8? |j 


10? 


2I« 


J« 


4 ^6 


5 46 


(, V 


7*7 


8 'I- 


••81. 


""IS 


1 3/ 


2/4 


4 II 


■■4« 


(.114 


8 .'I 


•. M 


if 94 


17)2 


1)431 


1 (.4 


J .") 


4,« 


(■» 


611 


'.» 


1140 


1)14 


'4 ,-8 


-.4, 


1 92 


>83 


J7J 


'W 


95R 


II W 


l>4l 


15 )3 


',-Z5 


I5lfc 


21? 


4 (8 


fc'- 


8 76 


,0 9'. 


1)14 


i> » 


17 52 


197' 


2190 


,•41, 


-li. 


7.5, 


'»■ 


1! V 


1478 


i;,'5 


,, 7 , 


22 17 


64, .4 


■','4 


'« 


821 


,„•... 


IM.1 


lb 41 


I9„. 


219* 


24b-l 


'V >• 






500 


1000 


IJOO 


2000 


25oo 


3000 


3500 


43000 


4500 


5000 


1 V 

1 6 
& 7 
v 8 

J 9 

11 


8. ii. 


■51 


i»7 


1 8? 


228 


.' -4 


3,9 


>,.- 


4 10 


456 


68 


1 V 


; os 


2/4 


3 47 


4 II 


4 29 


*4 7 


I 16 


(.64 


9' 


1 »r 


2 74 


.If. 


4M. 


"■47 


«. <8 


• to 


621 


»•!» 


1 14 


7 .'8 


142 


4-.., 


5/0 


(, 84 


7»1 


..,> 


1027 


II 41 


IV 


2. '4 


4 II 


14/ 


6 14 


821 


9 58 


»"* 


12)2 


,(.4 


1 1,0 


,,9 


4 7 4 


1. 40 


;■'" 


5 58 


II 18 


lt-7J 


'4)7 


1597 


its 


■.4(1 


i)g 


■>n 


10 44 


17 V 


14 Ml 


.b 4) 


16 7? 


2 01 


4 II 


tit, 


8 71 


10 2/ 


17 32 


14 V 


.6 4; 


'B48 


20 5>| 


1 ,'d 


4M, 


664 


41) 


II 41 


,,.,, 


14'..- 


IB 25 


70 4, 


(1 61 




123 

made 

at (he 
trains, 
of the 

imme- 
main 






DIAGRAM STABLE 

SHOWING CAPITALIZED VALUE OF ONE DEGREE OF 
CURVATURE ON ACCOUNT OF COST OF MAINTENANCE OF WAX 
ASSUMING THAT MAINTENANCE OF WAY COSTS 400$ PER 
MILE PER ANNUM PLUS 25* PER TRAIN MILE 8, THAT 300° 

OF CURVATURE INCREASES THE RATE PER TRAIN 
MILE FROM 30% TO 6o7. 




RATE 
INCREASE 


CAPITALIZED VALUE AT 


4% | 5% I 6% 


O O U U /X R S 


30% 


228 


1-82 


1-52 


-40% 


3-04 


Z43 


203 


50% 


3-80 


3-04 


2-53 


6o% 


4 56 


>65 


304 




AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 
COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION 

DIAGRAM &TABLE 

SHOWING CAPITALIZED VALUE OF SAVING IN WACES OF 
TRAIN 4 ENGINE CREWS , PER DAILY TRAIN PER 
ANNUM BY ELIMINATING 100 FT DISTANCE 

NOTE 

Both of these tables to be used in 
calculating capitalized value of saving 
i- In cost or maintaining equipment. 
8 assuming in table 5 1hat the cost of 
<>■ maintaining equipment Is 25<t per train mile. 



Wapi r* 
tumble 


Capitalized Value at 


4% I 57. I 67i 


Cenb 


Dollars 


I '" 


17-28 


I382 


II-52 


15 


259I 


2073 


I7-2J 


20 


3455 


27-64 


2304 


25 


4>IJ 


34-55 


28-80 



i CAPITALIZED 

j SAVING IN MAINTENANCE ON ACCOUNT OF 
i SAVING IN DISTANCE assuming that maintenance 
: costs |2I|Z0 per mile, plus 254 per train mile 
i on straight track . Saving per foot of distance 
at 4% of 1 1- 00 plus 43-/5$ for every 
365 trains or for each daily train 
money at 5*/. would be 80 4 plus 34 n 4 
for each daily train, at (>% ir would be 
66-2/j if plus 28- 4/5 at for each daily train. 



THE ASSOCIATION AS A BODY DOCS NOT HOLD ITSELF 

RESPONSIBLE FOR ASSUMPTIONS MAOE IN PREPARING 

THE TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



FIG. 5. 



FIG A. 



•r line 

made 

at the 
trains, 
of the 

mint 

main 
main 
lg an 



AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 
COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION 

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT ECONOMIC FEATURES OF VARIOUS LINES NOTCH HILL PRESENT LOCATION MILE 59 TO MILE 91 

5HUSWAP SUBDIVISION ASSUMING COAL AT $4 50 PER TON AND A CONSUMPTION OF 5* PER HORSE POWER HOUR 

AND ASSUMING TRAFFIC OF SIX 750 TON DAILY PASSENGER TRAINS AND SIX 230O TON DAILY FREIGHT TRAINS 

IN EACH DIRECTION (WEIGHT OF LOCOMOTIVES INCLUDED IN EACH CASE) MONEY FIGURED AT 5% 




—LINE "E" 


•- LINE ( Present Line ) "A" 


LINE (Long tunnel line)"F° 


^— LINE (04% line bo* Jirectio... „,tlW luoKl) 


355'/. PUSHER UNe(o4'/. EB. 125'/. W B.}"C" 


LINE (04% EB.8. I - /. W.B)"D" 




Short line across 
Lake & Tunnel 






"E" line 


Capitalized 
Value 




Excess over 


Capitalized 
Value 




"E* line 


Capitalized 




'E' line 


Value 




■E" line 


Capitalized 










6-83M. 






8 2IM. 












8 25M 






8 2SM 






Wanes' E.B. 




25-I7M 


32 M. 


36062 ft. 


j 239.221 


33 38 M. 


43,349ft. 


$ 287,566 


33-51 M. 


8 34 M. 


& 146.055 


3342 M. 


43,560 fl 


? 288.960 


3342 M. 


43,560 ft 


i 288.960 




W.B. 






* 


t. 




„ 






34-85 •■ 


9 67 ■• 


169.349 


« 












DISTANCE 


Maintenance E.B. 






H 




327,44} 


„ 




393.609 


3351 " 


44.035 II 


217,533 






395.425 






395,425 




W.B. 




„ • 


„ 






f. 


" 




34-85 - 


51.058 " 


252,227 








" 












„ 






239.221 




„ 


287566 


3351 " 


44.035 " 


146,055 


H 




286.960 






288.960 




W.B. 




, 


„ 






" 


* 




3485 " 


51,058 •• 


169.349 


■■ 


- 




- 












































Actual Rise E.B. 




70 ft. 


540 ft 






70 ft. 






260 ft. 






260 ft. 














Friction Resist? E.B. 


ZI-2 Mat 15 ft. 


318 ■ 


22 M. at 15 ft. 330 •. 






29 M. at 15ft. 435 - 






28 M.at 15ft. 420 - 






284 M at 15ft. 426 >■ 






26 M. at 15ft 390 - 






FUEL CONSUMED 


Curve - E.B. 
Total E.B 




432 ft. 


932 •• 


500ft 


1,521,720 


561 ■> 


129 ft. 


378.756 


737 ■■ 

260 - 


295ft. 


737,973 


743 ft 
260 •■ 


311 ft 


725,346 


738 ft. 
290 > 


304fl. 


715,428 




FnctionResist^ W.B. 
Curve W.B. 


212 Mat 15ft. 
1145* at 04" 


318 •• 
46 •• 


22 M at 15ft 330 •• 
1913 "at 004» 765" 






29 M. at 15ft. 435 » 
1312" at 004" 52 '• 






21 M. at 15ft. 315 ■• 
:365*at 004- 55 - 






291 - 
54 ■• 






184 M. at 15ft. 276 - 
966'at 04- 40 - 








Total W.B. 




434 •• 


946-5 •• 


5l2-5ft 




557 •' 


123 ft. 




630 " 


196ft. 




605 •■ 


17 1 ft. 




















































IZ60- 


2986* 


1726* 


100.650 


1481" 


221" 


12,899 


2178 ■ 


918- 


27.769 


2193' 


933' 


59.412 








EXTRA MAINTENANCE 


- - - W.B. 






- 


» 




" 






2193 * 


933 - 


27,206 












ACCOUNT CURVATURE 


n ..Equip- 1 E.B. 




" 







100.650 


„ 




12.899 


2193" 


5-33 • 


27,206 


„ 






1880 ' 1 620' 


18,079 






In addition 1o above a pusher 
service must be maintained, 
and assuming that 21 out of 
the 24 daily trams must be 
assisted, it w''ll mean 160,965 
pusher miles per year, at a 
low estimate of 404 per mile 


1,287.720 

88.000 
3.904,625 


Assuming 6 daily Passenger trains 
and 10 Freight trains 

(Wages 383.421 
distance J Maintenance 492.052 
controlling (Equipment 383,421 

HJELCONSUMEO OOINO WORK 558,810 

EXTRA MAINTENANCE 1 32,300 

TOTAL 1,850,004 


1.373,295 




1,946,491 


In addition to above pusher 
service must be maintained 
for a distance of 4 miles on 
east slope, requiring 35,040 
pusher miles at 50* per mile. 

1 17,520 capitalized at 

Account virtual grade being 
140% 4400 miles doubling 
required at 404. $ 1,760 


3 5 0.400 
35,200 

2,193,115 


In addition to above pusher 
service must be maintained 
for WB. freight traffic for a 
distance of 7miles requiring 
30,240 pusher miles at 404 
per mile. $12,096 capitalized at — 


241.920 
2,022,255 


SUMMARY 

Extra cost of Total cost 
LINE Cost of Construction Operating, capi- Comparative 
(Estimate) talized 

LINE $ 651,000 4 3,904,625 $ 4,555.625 A" 

2 829 500 1.373,295 4,202.795 T 

___ 2'426,000 1,946.491 4.-/2,491 T 

355% PUSHER LINE 2,'026,000 2,193.115 4.219. UST 

LINE 2 202 000 2.022.255 4.224,255 D 

— - „ 4,651,300 000,000 4,651,300 E 


Account of virtual grade on ast 
slope being about 1 40 % 
11,000 miles doubling required 
on Westbound traffic, at 40 + 




































FIG 7 









DIAGRAMS A.\l> i \ >i < aim l ALIZED ' 

ma-lc 
\, uIm. 

I -CURVA 

DIAGI WD I am i S "I J \l'i l Ai .1/1 p 3f thc 

VALI I 



DIAGRAMS AND TABLES I >F « \l'i I \i IZ1 



mam 

DIAGRAM \N'l> TABLE SHOWING CAPITA! , g an 
[ZED V wb- 

■ 

. CH mi i. ki \ > 



ICPAR \i 



Line 32°°Miles "A" 






CONDENSED PROFILE 
AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION OF 

COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF RAIUVAT LOCATION NOTCH HILL RF-VISION LINES 

MILE 59 TO MILE 91 



"* '<»>, 



47V 00 

Salmon Arm 



<•„„„,,« 818-17' 



Westbound 34 85 Miles 
Eastbound 33 5i Miles 



355X Pusher Line 33 -"Miles "C" 



--- Line 33 « Miles "D 



Curvlur* I82'3I Vtetbound 




Line 25 "Miles E' 



MILE -SSlT 



TimNtlWO C u r,*l„r= 724' I V 

-iS-.!.lj.____f?r:". 



Om*»-»'n |t„n»u»«IO^ Cur Wure ,,5., 

__._a__«9_-*a 



Line 33 3B Miles F 



. WO Cur«alur* 724' I! 



ll-LL 



Curwlu«"> 5 ' M ' HTu-icl 861 

(7 4QiG»?£¥¥^ - -« 



Curv.lurt 473' 00' 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 123 

lines were adopted), would be the most economical if the economics were 
figured on a basis of six daily passenger trains and ten freight trains, 
making a total capitalized extra value of operation of the longer line 
over the shorter line of $1,850,004. 

In the last two examples it will be noted that no difference was made 
in calculating passenger train resistance from that of freight trains, also 
the same remark applies to the cost of maintenance of way, only that the 
tonnage of freight trains is greater than the tonnage of passenger trains, 
so that this difference may compensate for the extra negative effect of the 
faster speeds of passenger trains. 

If the methods outlined by this Committee are approved, the imme- 
diate work for the future will be : 

(1) Make a study of the resistance of trains running between 35 
and 75 miles an hour. 

(2) Make a study of the effect on the cost of maintenance of 
equipment and maintenance of way of fast trains. 

(3) Make a study of the effect curvature has on cost of main- 
tenance of way. 

(4) Make a study of the effect curvature has on cost of main- 
tenance of equipment. 

(5) Make a study of the amount of fuel consumed in doing an 
actual horsepower-hour work. It is believed that a study of this sub- 
ject will not only be valuable as a basis in determining the economics of 
location, but that the results will be beneficial to operating officers, call- 
ing to their attention various losses in the fuel supply, and especially so 
in the cost of operating a very busy single-track vs. cost of operating 
double-track lines. 

(6) A preparation of a method for the comparison of alternative 
locations with varying ruling gradients. 



124 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

(2) ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE NO. 2. 

Sub-Committee: C. P. Howard, Chairman; Maurice Coburn, P. M. La- 
Bach, J. deN. Macomb, Jr., H. J. Simmons, F. W. Smith, 
A. K. Shurtleff, E. C. Schmidt. 

A line is located when its position is fixed horizontally and vertically. 
The Economics of Railway Location is the science of locating a rail- 
way line or lines, so that the ratio of profit to investment shall be a 
maximum. 

Expressed mathematically, the best line is that for which in the 
equation 

R — E 

= P (1) 

C 
p shall be a maximum ; 
Where R = annual revenues (receipts from operation); 

E = annual expenses of operation, including depreciation and 

taxes ; 
C = capital invested (cost of construction) ; 
p = per cent, of profit on investment. 

Generally speaking, the capital invested, C, is the total cost of road, 
but when part of this cost represents bonds, the capital invested, as far 
as the stockholders are concerned, may be taken as the cost less amount 
of bonds, in which case the annual expense, E, may include the interest 
on bonds in addition to operating expenses and taxes. 

If the road can be built entirely from the sale of bonds at a figure 
known in advance, it may be considered as costing the stockholders noth- 
ing, the best line being that which will yield them the greatest annual 
profit without regard to the ratio between this profit and the actual cost 
in bonds ; expressed mathematically, the best line for which, in the equa- 
tion 

R-(E+I) = P (2) 

P shall be a maximum ; 
Where I = amount of interest on bonds ; 

P = amount of profit (net corporate income). 
According to equation (2) the estimated annual revenues less the 
sum of operating expenses and fixed charges determine the best line. 

There are objections to this view of the problem, even though the 
total cost of road is paid for by the issue of bonds. It ignores the pro- 
portion between estimated net profit and actual cost of construction. A 
line that costs $1,000,000 in bonds and nets stockholders $5,000 per year 
would be as good as one costing $500,000 with the same net return. 

When the stockholders furnish the money for construction, equation 
(2) will give results which would be misleading. For instance, consider: 

Line A. Line B. 

Cost of construction $1,000,000 $500,000 

Receipts from operation 200,000 200,000 

Expenses of operation, including depreciation 

and taxes 145,000 170,000 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 125 

Equation (i) gives: 

200,000 — 145,000 

Line A; p = = 5 l A per cent. 

1,000,000 
200,000 — 170,000 

Line B; p = = 6 per cent. . 

300,000 

That is, a return of 6 per cent, in investment for the cheaper line, 
against 5^2 per cent, for the other. 

With s per cent, interest on bonds, equation (2) gives : 

Line A ; P = 200,000 — ( 145,000 + 50,000) = $5,000 
Line B ; P = 200,000 — (170,000 + 25,000) = $5,000 

That is, the lines appear of equal value, the saving in operation on 
the more expensive line being exactly offset by the increase in fixed 
charges, while the receipts from operation are the same for either line, 
this notwithstanding the fact that as shown above the return on the in- 
vestment, or actual cost of road, is Z A per cent, greater for the cheaper 
line. 

If a different rate of interest on bonds were used, the results would 
be different. 

Equation (2) is confined to a particular method of financing, assumes 
the interest on bonds to be fixed indefinitely at a given ratio, and would 
justify increasing the bonded indebtedness indefinitely without increasing 
the stockholders' profit. It has this advantage, that in comparing different 
lines it is not necessary to know the amount of operating revenues, pro- 
vided it is the same for each line, as in this case the sum of operating 
expenses and fixed charges will govern. It is therefore applicable to re- 
vision of an existing line; reasonable care being taken not to increase 
the bonded debt too much for a small net saving. 

Generally in estimating the cost of capital, care should be had to 
keep the rate high enough. It should be the average cost of capital, in- 
cluding stock, not the interest rate on prior lien bonds. 

Equation (1), where C = cost of construction, is independent of the 
method of financing, expresses the engineering principle of "making a 
dollar earn the most interest," and may be taken as the general test of 
the value of a location. 

Equation (1) requires three estimates: 

(R) Annual revenues (receipts from operation). 

(E) Annual expenses of operation, including depreciation and taxes. 

(C) Capital invested (cost of construction). 

These estimates, as here given, are in the order of their importance, 
as determined by capitalized values for the average railroad, and indicate 
the division of the Theory of Economics of Railway Location into three 
main branches : 

/. Annual Revenues. — The capitalized value of annual revenues must 
at least be equal to the capitalized amount of annual expenses plus the 
cost of construction. In any comprehensive investigation of the eco- 



126 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

nomics of a new line an estimate of revenues is of primary importance. 
Your Committee has no recommendations to make at this time as to 
methods of investigating this branch of the subject. 
77. Expenses of Operation. 

III. Cost of Construction, 

Your "Committee has nothing to submit at this time as to Cost of 
Constructon, but has been charged with the study of "Economics of 
Railway Operation," which corresponds with the second branch of the 
subject. 

EXPENSES OF OPERATION. 

There are many cases, especially comparisons of different lines, which 
involve no change in Revenues, a consideration of which will have little 
or no effect upon the solution of the problem in hand. The study of op- 
erating expenses is always important ; for excepting Revenue and Cost, 
it is the resulting operating expense which determines the economic value 
of a line. The effect on operating expenses determines the value of sav- 
ings in distance, grades, curvature, rise and fall. 

Operating Expenses, as prescribed by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, effective July i, 1914, are divided into eight General Accounts, 
which in turn are subdivided into 197 Primary Accounts, each one of 
which will vary in percentage and amount according to conditions. The 
determination of such variations and their relation to the details of loca- 
tion and operation constitutes an immense problem, evidently impossible 
of exact solution. Yet the problem must be solved some way. It is de- 
sirable to obtain rules and formulas that are: 

(1) Reasonably accurate ; 

(2) Simple and easy of application ; 

(3) Based as far as possible on information which is readily ac- 

cessible, such as the published reports of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. 

It is necessary that the results of investigation shall be reasonably 
accurate. The first thing is to find out the facts, and construct rules or 
formulas which conform thereto. Afterwards these may be simplified. 
Average figures must be largely used, but no good will be obtained by 
averaging conditions, when the variations in expense due to such con- 
ditions are the very problems to be solved. 

For instance, if fuel consumption per ton mile is found to vary ma- 
terially with rise and fall, curvature, gradients, etc., the rule or formula 
for fuel consumption must give results which will vary similarly. 

I. MAINTENANCE OF WAY AND STRUCTURES. 

In analyzing Operating Expenses, with reference to problems of loca- 
tion, your Committee in report of 1913 confined their attention to the 
first General Account, Maintenance of Way and Structures, a subject of 
great importance in estimating the value of distance saved in relation to 
the amount and character of traffic. 

The unit selected for comparison was the "equivalent ton-mile," as- 
suming that one ton of engine will do twice as much damage to track 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 127 

as one ton of train behind it, and one ton of passenger engine or train 
as equivalent to two tons of freight engine or train. This was largely 
the expression of an opinion on the subject, but not entirely so. Welling- 
ton concluded (page 122, paragraph 115), "The locomotive alone causes 
by far the greater portion of this wear — how much is* not positively 
known," and again (page 560, paragraph 702) "The most reasonable esti- 
mate which can now be made of the relative effect of engine and cars 
upon the track is (paragraphs 115, 116) that considerably over half of 
the deterioration of track comes from the passage of engines over it, 
and the remainder only from the passage of cars, which may weigh 10 • 
or 20 times as much." 

The Committee on Iron and Steel Structures, after several years of 
investigation, submitted in 191 1 (Vol. 12, Part 3) its report on Impact, 
with numerous tables and diagrams showing the results of tests on bridges 
of different spans and conditions as to loading, speed and track. These 
tests were made on bridges, but give information which may be of value 
in considering the damage done to track as affected by speed and the 
impact of the driving wheels of locomotives. 

On page 26, they say: "The experiments obtained in this series of 
tests, as well as the results obtained in former tests, indicate that with 
track and rolling stock in good condition the main cause of impact is the 
unbalanced condition of the drivers of the ordinary locomotive. . . . 
The actual amounts of such overbalance are given in the data for the 
several locomotives used (Tables). . . . To show the relative im- 
portance of this, there are given in Table 7 the calculated amounts of the 
centrifugal force of the excess weights for the various locomotives, at a 
speed of 60 miles per hour, in terms of percentage of weights on drivers. 
. . . This centrifugal force amounts to about 60 per cent, in some cases. 
At 80 miles per hour this would be over 100 per cent." 

Inspection of Table 7 shows that the three locomotives giving the 
greatest centrifugal force in per cent, of static load on drivers, 60, 57 
and 57 per cent., have drivers 62, 84J4 and 84K in. in diameter, the last 
two being evidently passenger engines. 

These tests show that on all except short spans (50 to 100 ft.) the 
maximum impact occurs at the "critical speed," when the motion of the 
counterbalance synchronizes with the vibrations of the bridge. But on 
short spans, which correspond more nearly to the conditions of ordinary 
track, this "critical speed" can never be reached, and the force of im- 
pact increases with the speed. To quote (page 31) : 

"For spans of such length that the critical speed is higher than the 
maximum speed employed, the impact values increase generally with the 
speed. Plate III, ar, bj and bg show several diagrams of impact per- 
centages, based on deflections, which bring out clearly this fact." Plate 
III, c, d, z, aa, ab, as, at, bf, bk, bl, bg and bs show the same thing, that 
the impact increases with the speed. The average impact shown on these 
diagrams of tests of short spans is about as follows : 

Speed 10 20 40 50 60 

Impact per cent.- 4 8 28 43 51 



128 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

This indicates very little impact at the ordinary freight train speed 
of 20 miles per hour, against as much as 50 per cent, or higher for pas- 
senger train speeds of 60 miles, checking roughly the calculations of 
Table 7. 

When the 'load on rails or any portion of the track structure ap- 
proaches its ultimate resistance, an increase of 30 or 50 per cent, may 
be more serious than the proportion indicated by the figures. 

While the Committee advises (page 39), "For spans below 30 or 
40 ft. the tests of this series are not conclusive," its investigations are 
perhaps the best information we have at this time as to the dynamic ef- 
fect of locomotives and cars on the track structures, showing not only 
the pounding of the locomotive drivers, but the more serious nature of 
this action as speed increases. As to very low speeds they say (page 23), 
"Experience in conducting the tests soon made it evident to the Com- 
mittee that at such a speed as 10 or 12 miles per hour no appreciable im- 
pact effect occurred." 

The formula generally used gives practically 100 per cent, as the in- 
crease of stress due to impact on very short spans, which, as above noted, 
is largely due to the locomotive and speed. 

In the matter of the counterbalance, it is not expected that impact 
due to this element will increase over that now found. The use of 
vanadium and other alloys will allow a decrease in weight of side rods 
and other elements entering into the subject. Furthermore, the advance 
in the art of designing will lead to the same result, as attention has been 
called to better methods of working out the problem than have been in 
use hitherto, and considerable progress may be expected. 

The average weight per axle of freight cars of American railroads 
is about eight tons (average weight of car and load about 32 tons). 
"Forty-four tons per passenger train car of the average train will not 
lead to great error." (Report of Committee, 1913, page 583.) Some of 
these have four and some six axles. If we take an average of five 
axles to the car, we have nine tons per axle as the average for passenger 
cars. Pages 19 and 20 of Statistics of Railways in the United States for 
191 1, Interstate Commerce Commission, gives a fairly comprehensive de- 
tailed classification of the locomotives in the United States, with the 
weights on drivers and, except for 435 Mallet locomotives (Statement 
15-D), the number of driving axles for each. Adding these figures and 
estimating six axles each for the 435 Mallet engines of Statement 15-D, 
we have : 

50,832 locomotives, 
T 95.83i driving axles, 
3,858,677 tons on drivers, 
or an average of 19.7 tons per driving axle. As there are about six 
freight car miles to one passenger car mile (page 50, I. C. C. Statistics of 
Railways, 1911), the slightly greater weight on axle of passenger cars can 
have practically no effect on the average figures, which are approximately 
eight tons per car axle and 19.7 tons per axle of driving wheels. 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 129 

Summing up this information we find for average conditions : 

First — The weight concentrated on the axles of driving wheels of 
locomotives is about 2 J A times as great as the weight on car 
axles. 

Second — Tests on bridges show that the serious addition to the static 
load, due to impact, is mainly caused by the counterbalance of 
locomotive drivers. 

Third — There is practically no impact at speeds under 12 miles per 
hour, very little at 20 miles per hour, but at 40 to 60 miles per 
hour the effect becomes more serious, and may add from 50 to 
60 per cent, to the static load on drivers, which is already, under 
average conditions, about 2V2 times as great as that on car wheels. 

It is evident, therefore, that there is good reason for the principle 
embodied in the equivalent ton-mile unit that one ton of engine causes 
more damage than one ton of cars. The fact that, as shown by tests for 
short spans, impact increases with speed tends to confirm the second prin- 
ciple of the equivalent ton-mile unit that one ton of passenger train does 
more damage than one ton of freight train. The better class of track 
required for passenger service is also an important consideration. 

In order to obtain figures as to the relative cost of maintenance for 
passenger and freight trains (and also concerning maintenance of equip- 
ment), circulars "A" and "B" were sent to 10 railroads having four or 
more main tracks on portions of their line. 

Replies were received from seven roads to the effect that their rec- 
ords did not furnish this information; or considering the time and labor 
necessary to assemble the data, they were unable to furnish it. 

Until definite information as to such costs can be obtained from the 
roads in position to ascertain and furnish it, the division of Expense of 
Maintenance of Way and Structures must remain largely a matter of ex- 
pert opinion, reinforced by general information oji the subject such as that 
detailed in this report. Meanwhile, the formulas and diagrams presented 
in the 1913 report may be used by those who coincide with the Commit- 
tee's views there given. 

IV. TRANSPORTATION — RAIL — LINE. 

This Sub-Committee has nothing to report at this time as to the other 
accounts of operating expenses, except as to General Account No. IV, 
Transportation — Rail — Line. 

Study has been given to the subjects of time and fuel consumption. 
as influenced by distance, rise, fall and curvature. Use has been made of 
tables and other data in the Manual, pp. 427-438. As these tallies do not 
provide for the increased efficiency due to superheated steam, an ordinary 
simple consolidation locomotive without superheater was selected as a 
typical engine, being identical with that used by A. K. Shurtleff on page 8, 
Part 2" Vol. 14, American Railway Engineering Association, [913. 

Rise.— Tt is evident (sec Table (■ page 131, and paragraph 7. page 435. 
of the Manual) that with any given rate of fuel consumption, tlu h 
power or efficiency per pound of fuel is about 60 per cent, greater for a 
simple locomotive traveling at higher speed than at thi ratively 



130 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

low speed at which full cutoff can be maintained. As the lowest speed 
considered is that which can be maintained at full cutoff on the ruling 
gradient, and the higher speeds are those which obtain on lighter gradi- 
ents, it follows that when uninfluenced by momentum, the fuel consump- 
tion per foot-ton of work on ruling grades may be 60 per cent, 
greater than that on minor gradients. This greater fuel consumption 
applies not only to the rise in feet, but to the f rictional resistance as well, 
which, except for the slight increases in engine resistance, is taken as 
approximately the same at any freight-train speed. 

It is not a surprise, therefore, to find as the result of calculations 
that for a train which can maintain a speed of five miles per hour on a 
ruling grade of 1.0 per cent., the amount of fuel due to 1 ft. of rise on 
the ruling gradient is twice as much as that for 1 ft. of rise on a minor 
gradient of 0.2 per cent. 

Fall- — The variation in the amount of fuel saved due to fall may 
vary more than the increase due to rise. On grades steeper than the 
grade of equilibrium, on which the force of gravity just balances the re- 
sistance at the given speed, the amount of fuel saved per foot of fall 
may be taken as varying inversely as the gradient (that is, the same per 
foot of distance), the remaining force of gravity being used up by the 
brakes. On gradients less than the grade of equilibrium the amount of 
fuel saved per foot of fall may be taken as constant, all of the force of 
gravity being used to save fuel. 

Rise and Fall. — As the amount of fuel per foot of rise is greater, 
and the amount saved per foot of fall is less on ruling than on minor 
gradients, the variation in fuel consumption for 1 ft. of rise and fall 
taken together will be much greater than for either element considered 
separately, and in the case of very light minor gradients, the saving on the 
one may practically balance the increase on the other. 

The following figures are the result of calculations as to fuel in- 
crease and decrease for different gradients, momentum not considered, 
the train being loaded for I per cent, ruling grade at a maintained speed 
of five miles per hour, and for 0.3 per cent, ruling grade at maintained 
speed of 7 l A miles per hour, with average loading of cars, fuel 11,000 
B.t.u., simple engine and refer to tons of fuel per million gross train tons 
(including engine tons) : 









Tons of Fuel. 




Ruling Grade 


Actual Grade 


Increase 


Decrease 


Increase 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


1 Ft. Rise. 


1 Ft. Fall. 1 


Ft. Rise and Fall. 


1.0 


1.0 


4-34 


0.72 


3.62 


1.0 


0.8 


3.62 


0.90 


2.72 


1.0 


0.6 


2.96 


1.20 


1.76 


1.0 


0.4 


2.40 


1.80 


0.60 


1.0 


0.3 


2.24 


2.04 


0.20 ' 


1.0 


0.2 


2.15 


2.04 


0.1 1 


1.0 


0.1 


2.15 


2.04 


O.II 


0.3 


0.3 


4.01 


i-93 


2.08 


0.3 


0.2 


3-33 


1 -95 


1.40 


0.3 


O.I 


2.69 


1-93 


0.76 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 131 

Note that for i per cent, ruling grade the fuel consumption due to 
rise varies from 4.3 tons to 2.1 tons, according to the actual grade ; the 
saving for 1 ft. of fall from 0.7 to 2 tons being constant at the latter 
figure for grades under 0.35 per cent., which is in this case the grade of 
equilibrium, and that the net increase due to rise and fall combined varies 
from 3.6 tons to 0.1 ton. For trains loaded for 0.3 per cent, ruling grade, 
the increase due to 1 ft. of rise is found to vary from 4 to 2.7 tons, sav- 
ing for 1 ft. of fall 1.9 tons constant, and net increase for 1 ft. of rise 
and fall from 2.1 tons to 0.8 ton. 

A table, such as the one given above, is not a complete solution of 
the problem. It ignores momentum, which in itself is a matter of great 
importance, and may so modify results as to make any comparison that 
neglects it of little or no value. 

With a given rate of fuel consumption, such as 4,000 lbs. per hour 
for the engine working (see page 427, Manual American Railway En- 
gineering Association), the efficiency of the locomotive per pound of 
fuel varies with the speed. Similarly with a given rate of consumption 
for the engine drifting, the distance traveled per pound of fuel varies 
with the speed. The saving due to momentum is a function of the speed. 
Time is also a function of speed and distance. We are, therefore, of the 
opinion that the best method of estimating both time and fuel consump- 
tion for any final comparison is : 

FIRST METHOD. 

(1) Consider traffic in each direction separately. 

(2) Calculate tables and construct curves of acceleration and re- 
tardation. 

(3) Plat the speed line on the profile. 

(4) Estimate the time by multiplying distance in stations by the 
time («) in decimals of a minute required to travel one station at the 
given speed (S). This can be measured by a scale showing values of (n) 
for corresponding speeds. Where the speed varies, time should be taken 
for separate intervals of distance, 10 stations, 5 stations or less, as in 
such case distance multiplied by the value of («), for the average speed 
does not give correct time. 

(5) Estimate the rate of fuel consumption per hour for engine 
working and drifting. As a sufficiently close approximation, consider the 
engine as either working at the maximum cutoff for the given speed, or 
as drifting. On light descending grades requiring less than the full 
tractive power to maintain the given speed, the engine may be considered 
as alternately working and drifting for small increments of time, the 

r — 20G 

proportion of time working being . 

P 
Where G = per cent, of grade; 

P = cylinder tractive power of engine at given speed in 
pounds divided by total weight W of engine and train 
in .tons ; 
r = resistance in pounds per ton of total train, W. 



132 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

(6) Multiply the total time of engine working and drifting by the 
corresponding rates of fuel consumption. The rate of fuel consumption 
for engine drifting may be estimated from table on page 6 of paper by 
A. K. Shurtleff in Part 2, Vol. 14, American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation, 1913. 

(7) Fuel for engine standing and firing up per trip may be esti- 
mated from table on page 6 of paper by A. K. Shurtleff in Part 2, Vol. 
14, American Railway Engineering Association, 1915. 

SECOND METHOD. 

It is desirable that the man in the field shall have data by which he 
may quickly estimate time and fuel consumption. It is well to consider 
separately the traffic in each direction. It is also necessary that results 
shall be approximately correct. In order to solve the problems of the 
Locating Engineer, the data should afford means for estimating : 

(1) Time and fuel consumption for a straight line and level grade. 

(2) Increase (or decrease) in time and fuel consumption due to 

rise and fall. 

(3) Increase in time and fuel consumption due to curvature. 

(4) Information as to increase in time and fuel due to stopping 

and starting may or may not be needed, but if so, should 
be estimated separately. 

(5) Information as to fuel consumed standing and firing up may 

or may not be needed, but if so, may be ascertained sepa- 
rately. 
Except where the curve is so sharp as to require a slowing down of 
train, curvature may be considered as so much rise in each direction, 
equal to the total degrees of central angle multiplied by a proper rate of 
compensation per degree in feet, generally taken as about 0.04 ft. per 
degree. 

(1) Fuel and time necessary for a level grade and straight track can 
be quickly estimated. For any given ruling grade and coal consumption 
per hour, the maximum speed which may be maintained on a level grade 
can be calculated. The distance in miles divided by this speed in miles 
per hour gives the time, which, multiplied by the consumption per hour, 
gives the fuel consumption for the straight track and level grade. Stops 
are estimated separately, if considered at all. Starting at one end of 
division and stopping at the other constitute one stop and are not con- 
sidered in this connection. 

(2) Increase in fuel and time due to rise and fall may be taken 
from diagrams, such as those shown on Plate I. Rise or fall, speed, in- 
crease in time and fuel are shown in these diagrams for ruling and minor 
gradients. Loss due to stops not being considered the train is supposed 
to start at the beginning of the division or stretch under consideration at 
the maximum speed it can maintain on the grade at point of beginning, 
if it is level or ascending, or at the maximum speed that may be main- 
tained on a level grade, if descending (this being assumed in this diagram 



DIAGRAMS SHOWING FUEL CONSUMPTION AND 
TIME LOST DUE TO RISE OR FALL, ON 
RULING AND MINOR GRADIENTS. 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 133 

as the limiting speed on descending gradients). Starting at the inter- 
section of the given speed line and gradient on the Rise-Time diagram, 
a vertical distance equal to the rise of the first grade is measured to a 
point on the corresponding line of the diagram. The position of this 
point indicates the starting speed for the next grade, and the horizontal 
distance the increase of time in hours per million gross train tons. Simi- 
larly for ensuing grades, using Fall-Time and Fall-Fuel diagrams for 
descending grades. Increase of fuel due to rise is determined by multi- 
plying increase in hours due to rise by the rate of coal consumption for 
engine working. If there is a stretch of level gradient, it is omitted, the 
next gradient being started with the speed reached at the beginning of 
the level grade, otherwise it would be necessary in certain cases to con- 
sider time and fuel consumed in accelerating on the level grade. 

This method accomplishes the same result as platting the speed line 
on the profile, except that stops are omitted, and must be considered sepa- 
rately, if at all. If desired, by the addition of a curve showing accelera- 
tion on a level grade, the speed line (continuous without stops) could be 
platted on the profile from the diagrams. 

It will be noted that some of the speed lines cross fuel and time lines 
at rather acute angles, but an inspection will show that on ordinary 
cross-section paper this can be indicated with sufficient clearness, especially 
if colored lines are used. Any probable error in scaling would be small. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

(i) Definition. — A line is located when its position is fixed hori- 
zontally and vertically. 

(2) The most general formula for the economic value of a loca- 
tion is : 

R — E 

— = P (O 

C 
Where R = annual revenues (receipts from operation); 

E = annual expenses of operation, including depreciation and 

taxes ; 
C = capital invested (cost of construction) ; 
p = per cent, of profit on investment. 

(3) The following equation may be used in certain cases, especially 
where the annual revenue, known or unknown, is constant : 

R— (E-f I)=P (2) 

Where I = amount of interest on cost of construction; 
P = amount of profit (net corporate income). 

When the revenue is constant, the condition of equation (2) is that 
the sum of operating expenses plus interest on cost of construction shall 
be a minimum. 

Equation (2) is convenient in many cases, but does not indicate the 
proportion of profit to investment. Care should be taken not to use too 
low a rate of interest. The ratio of profit to investment should be con- 
sidered. 



134 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

(4) The equivalent ton-mile unit using multiples for weights of en- 
gines and passenger trains is correct in principle. Until further informa- 
tion is obtained the question of correct multiples must remain a matter 
of expert opinion based on general information and deductions there- 
from. 

(5) Time and fuel consumption may be estimated by platting the 
speed curve. From this estimate time, working and drifting. From time, 
working, drifting and standing, fuel consumption may be estimated. To 
this should be added fuel consumed in firing up. 

(6) For rapid estimates, time and fuel consumption may be esti- 
mated : 

(a) For straight line and level track. 

(b) Addition due to rise and fall and curvature (curvature consid- 

ered as rise in each direction) may be estimated from dia- 
grams showing for each gradient : 

Rise, speed and time (from which fuel may be estimated). 
Fall, speed and time. 
Fall, speed and fuel. 

(c) Addition for stops, accelerating and retarding. 

(d) Fuel and time, locomotive standing. 

(e) Addition to fuel for engine firing up. 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 135 

REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON STOKERS AND SUPER- 
HEATERS. 

Sub-Committee : E. C. Schmidt, Chairman ; C. P. Howard, P. M. La- 
Bach, J. deN. Macomb, Jr. 

The following report is submitted by the Sub-Committee, which was 
appointed to consider: (i) The hourly coal consumption of locomotives 
equipped with mechanical stokers, and (2) the influence of the use of 
superheated steam on the tractive effort of locomotives. 

COAL CONSUMPTION WITH MECHANICAL STOKERS. 

Paragraph 4, page 427, of the Manual, recommends the assumption 
of 4,000 lbs. per hour as the consumption of coal in hand-fired locomo- 
tives. This Committee was asked to determine how much this consump- 
tion might properly be assumed to be on locomotives fired by mechanical 
stokers. 

The Committee has based its conclusions upon information presented 
in the reports of the Committee on Locomotive Stokers of the American 
Railway Master Mechanics' Association, contained in the Proceedings of 
that Association for 1912, 1913 and 1914, and upon replies to a circular of 
inquiry addressed to fifteen railroads which use mechanical stokers. This 
circular asked for information concerning: 

(a) Coal per hour fired by mechanical stokers. 

(b) Continuity of their performance as compared with hand-firing. 

(c) Difference, if any, in steam production from coal mechanically- 

fired and hand-fired. 

(d) Percentages of trips where mechanical stokers failed and hand- 

firing had to be resorted to. 

(e) Information concerning the efficiency of mechanical stokers. 
The replies are summarized in the table appended to this portion of 

the report. 

There are now in service about 850 stokers, and the data available ap- 
ply to practically this entire number. All the information obtained about 
items (b) and (d) above shows that most of these stokers are giving 
satisfactory performance in regular service, and that the percentage of 
engine failures due to stoker deficiencies is low. Both the number in 
service and their reliability make it timely and necessary for the Associa- 
tion to recognize their practicability and to so modify the Manual as to 
define the influence of stokers on locomotive capacity. 

Neither the reports above referred to, nor the replies to questions 
(c) and (e) of the circular, make it possible to determine whether the 
use of the stoker has any marked effect on the efficiency of the perform- 
ance of the locomotive firebox and boiler. It seems probable that the 
evaporation per pound of coal is practically the same, whether the locomo- 
tive is hand-fired or stoker-fired, provided the rate of combustion is the 
same. The Committee concludes, therefore, that so far as this matter is 



136 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 



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138 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

concerned, no change is at present necessary in the Manual, and that 
Table i on page 428 is substantially correct when applied to stoker-fired 
locomotives. 

There remains only one other channel through which the stoker may 
affect tractive effort, namely, through the increase in coal consumption, 
which is made possible by its use. Concerning this main question (item 
(a) the data show that locomotives equipped with stokers actually burn, 
on the average, from 6,000 to 10,000 lbs. of coal per hour over long 
periods, and that there is nothing in the performance of the stoker itself 
to prevent such rates of combustion from being indefinitely maintained. 
The Committee considers that for the purposes of this Association the 
mean of this range, namely, 8,oco lbs., may be safely assumed as the 
amount of coal which a mechanical stoker will fire per hour. 

Although the stoker may fire this amount, not all locomotives have 
sufficient grate area to properly consume coal at this rate. The grate 
area of locomotives equipped with stokers varies from about 55 sq. ft. to 
100 sq. ft. If 8,000 lbs. of coal be burned per hour on a grate of less than 
70 sq. ft. area, the fire is apt to become unmanageable toward the end of 
a long freight run; and it seems desirable, therefore, to differentiate be- 
tween the hourly coal consumption of locomotives with large and with 
small grates. For these reasons the Committee has concluded to recom- 
mend that for stoker-fired locomotives with less than 70 sq. ft. of grate 
area the hourly consumption of coal be assumed as 6,000 lbs., while for 
locomotives with grate area of 70 sq. ft. or over, this consumption be 
assumed as 8,000 lbs. 

The Committee accordingly recommends : 

(1) That paragraph 4 on page 427 of the Manual be revised to 
read thus : "Knowing the area of heating surface, the average steam 
production of locomotives burning bituminous and similar coals can be 
estimated by the use of Table 1, assuming the maximum quantity of coal 
that can be properly fired and consumed per hour, to be as follows : 

Hand-fired locomotives 4,000 lbs. per hour 

Stoker-fired locomotives with grates less than 70 sq. ft. 6,000 lbs. per hour 
Stoker-fired locomotives with grates of 70 sq. ft. or 

over 8,000 lbs. per hour 

These amounts are to be understood as the average hourly fuel con- 
sumption, which may reasonably be expected to be maintained throughout 
the periods when the locomotive is working steam." 

EFFECT OF THE USE OF SUPERHEATED STEAM ON LOCOMOTIVE TRACTIVE EFFORT. 

On pp. 427-435 of the Manual, under the heading, "Power," there is 
presented a process for finding at various speeds the tractive effort of 
locomotives which use saturated steam. The Sub-Committee was directed 
to so amplify this portion of the Manual as to make it applicable also 
to locomotives using superheated steam. 

For this purpose detailed information is needed concerning the per- 
formance of the firebox, the boiler and the engines of superheated steam 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 139 

locomotives. A considerable amount of such information is now avail- 
able in the published results of road and laboratory tests ; but road test 
data are not useful in this connection since they apply generally only to 
the average speed, which has prevailed throughout the test period during 
which wide variations in speed have usually occurred, and they do not 
permit the performance at one speed to be distinguished from the per- 
formance at another. Laboratory tests become, therefore, the only source 
of data which can be used in the solution of this problem, and among 
laboratory tests the only ones which apply to locomotives of modern de- 
sign are those conducted at the Pennsylvania Railroad Testing Plant at 
Altoona. The Committee has consequently limited its consideration to 
the reports of tests of superheated steam locomotives issued from this 
laboratory, the results of which are contained in Bulletins Nos. 10, n, 18, 
19 and 21 of the Pennsylvania Railroad Test Department, which relate to 
locomotives of the following classes and types : 

Bulletin No. 10 Class H8sb Type 2-8-0 

Bulletin No. 1 r Class E3sd Type 4-4-2 

Bulletin No. 18 Class K2sa Type 4-6-2 

Bulletin No. 19 Class K29S Type 4-6-2 

Bulletin No. 21 Class E6s Type 4-4-2 

These locomotives are all equipped with superheaters of the Schmidt 
fire-tube type, giving a high degree of superheat (160-250 degrees), and 
they are in this respect representative of the great majority of superheater 
locomotives now in service. Low-degree superheaters may be regarded 
as obsolete and are not considered in this report. 

In what follows the various steps in the process outlined in the 
Manual for saturated steam locomotives are considered with a view to 
determining what modification they need in order to make them apply 
to locomotives using superheated steam. The Manual process divides it- 
self into a consideration of boiler efficiency and capacity, and next into a 
consideration of cylinder performance and horsepower output. 

BOILER CAPACITY. 

The Manual assumes that the heating value of the coal, the hourly 
coal consumption, and the heating surface are known. These facts en- 
able the coal burned per square foot of heating surface per hour to be 
determined. This rate of coal combustion, which is a measure of the 
intensity of the process which goes on within the boiler, is assumed to be 
the sole important influence affecting the efficiency of that process, and 
in Table I there is accordingly presented for various grades of coal a re- 
lation between coal burned per hour per square foot of heating surface, 
and the evaporation per pound of coal. 

In the original report the influence on boiler efficiency of variations 
in the ratio of grate area to heating surface was discussed, but it was 
finally concluded that for the purposes in view this influence was not im- 
portant and it is given no recognition in the Manual. Since in locomo- 
tives using superheated steam the ratios of grate area to water-heating 



140 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 



surface are not radically different from those which prevail in the design 
of saturated steam locomotives, it seems unnecessary to reopen the dis- 
cussion of this influence in this connection. It only remains, therefore, 









EVAPORATION PER POUND 


OF COAL 


— POUNDS . 






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Fig. i. Curves Showing the Relation Between Evaporation Per 
Pound of Coal and Coal Burned Per Square Foot of Water- 
Heating Surface for Five Locomotives Using 
Superheated Steam. 

to determine whether the relations between coal per square foot of heat- 
ing surface and the evaporation per pound of coal, which are presented 
in Table i, are correct when applied to locomotives using superheated 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 141 

steam. This relation for the Pennsylvania locomotives above cited is 
plotted in Fig. i. These locomotives all burned coal with a heating value 
slightly in excess of 14,000 B.t.u. In Fig. 1 there is plotted also this re- 
lation between combustion rate and evaporation per pound of coal for 
coal of 14,000 B.t.u. derived from columns 1 and 3 of Table 1 of the 
Manual. In the case of only one of these locomotives (E6s) does the 
curve showing this relation diverge appreciably from the curve derived 
from Table 1, and this divergence is explainable, in part at least, by the 
fact that for this locomotive the ratios of grate area to heating surface 
and of firebox-heating surface to tube-heating surface are considerably 
greater than usual. The agreement among the data represented by Fig. 1 
is at least as close as it is among the data from which Table 1 was orig- 
inally derived. 

It is concluded that the relations between coal burned per square foot 
of heating surface and water evaporated per pound of coal presented in 
Table 1, when applied to superheated steam locomotives, give results 
which are sufficiently exact for the purposes for which this table is used ; 
and that Table 1, therefore, requires no change. In applying it to super- 
heated steam locomotives, however, it should be borne in mind that by 
heating surface in this table is meant water heating surface only, that is, 
superheating surface should be excluded. The total amount of steam 
produced in any locomotive may, therefore, be determined by the process 
set forth in the Manual. 

CYLINDER PERFORMANCE. 

Knowing the total steam available per hour, the next step in the 
process is to find the maximum speed (M) at which full cutoff can be 
maintained without exhausting the supply of steam. This involves cal- 
culating the weight of steam used to fill the cylinders for each stroke. To 
facilitate this calculation there is presented in Table 2, page 429, of the 
Manual, the weights of steam per foot of stroke for various boiler pres- 
sures and various cylinder diameters. Since the specific weight of super- 
heated steam is different from that of saturated steam, it is obvious that 
Table 2 is not applicable to superheated steam locomotives and that a 
new table must be derived. The specific weight of superheated steam 
varies with the degree of superheat and, consequently, to derive new 
values for Table 2, it becomes necessary to know or to assume the degree 
of superheat for any locomotive under consideration. 

The questions, therefore, at once arise whether any factor in the per- 
formance or in the design of the locomotive will enable this degree of 
superheat to be predicted and, if this is not possible, whether we may 
not assume some mean degree of superheat which will give results suf- 
ficiently exact for the purposes of the Manual process. The analysis im- 
mediately following is undertaken to answer these questions, and it may 
be at once stated that the conclusion reached is that while degree of 
superheat under ordinary circumstances may not be predicted, considerable 



142 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

variations in superheat will not, fortunately, make any important differ- 
ences in tractive effort. 

Among the various factors of locomotive design or performance 
which might be expected to influence the degree of superheat, only the 
three following seem likely to prove important, namely : 

(a) The combustion rate. (Coal per square foot of grate per hour.) 

(b) The ratio of superheating surface to water-heating surface. 

(c) The weight of steam passing each square foot of superheating 

surface per hour. 

Each of these factors will be considered in turn by assembling the 
facts from the five Pennsylvania Railroad locomotives above referred to. 

For each of these locomotives the relation between superheat and 
combustion rate is plotted in Fig. 2. In this figure there is fair agreement 
among the four upper curves, especially at medium rates of combustion, 
but between their mean value and the lowest curve there is a difference 
of from 50 to 60 degrees of superheat at all rates of combustion. When 
these locomotives burn 4,000 lbs. of coal per hour, as assumed in the 
Manual, their rates of combustion lie between 69 and 74^2 lbs. of coal 
per hour per square foot of grate. At these rates of combustion there is 
among the four upper curves themselves a difference of 20 degrees, and 
between their mean value and the curve for the H8sb class there is a 
difference of about 60 degrees. Obviously no generalization based on this 
exhibit would permit the degree of superheat to be predicted with much 
accuracy. 

Considering next the influence of ratio of superheating surface to 
water-heating surface, we find that for these locomotives the ratio is as 
follows : 

K29S 0.283 H8sb 0.267 

E3sd 0.278 E6s 0.259 

R~2as 0.271 

Notwithstanding the fact that this ratio is nearly the same for all 
five locomotives, we find in Fig. 2, as before, a considerable variation in 
superheat. At the rate of combustion established by the assumptions of 
the Manual, the superheat varies from 164 to 230 degrees. The highest 
and the lowest superheats pertain to locomotive K2as and H8sb, re- 
spectively, whereas for these two locomotives these ratios are practically 
identical. We must conclude as before that no reliable forecast of the 
degree of superheat can be based on the ratio of superheating surface to 
water-heating surface. 

To study the influence of the third item, namely, the amount of 
steam passing the superheater surface per hour, there have been selected 
from the reports for each of these locomotives a number of tests in 
which the coal burned per hour was about 4,000 lbs. as assumed in the 
Manual. For these tests the data present also the steam produced per 
hour, from which the steam per hour per square foot of superheating 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 



143 



surface has been calculated. The following table presents the averages of 
these data : 

Lbs. Steam Per Hour. 









Super- 


Per Sq. Ft. of 




Coal 


Steam 


heating Sur- 


Superheat- 


Class. 


Per Hr. Lbs. 


Per Hr. Lbs. 


face Sq. Ft. 


ing Surface. 


E3sd 


4,060 


22,540 


56i 


40.2 


E6s 


4,iSO 


26,370 


689 


38.3 


H8sb 


4,190 


23,100 


809 


28.6 


K2as 


3,98o 


25,580 


989 


25-9 


K29S 


3,990 


28,850 


1,302 


22.2 



SUPERHEAT IN BRANCH -PIPE. DEQ. F 














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Fig. 2. Curves Showing the Relation Between Combustion Rate and 

Degree of Superheat for Five Locomotives Using 

Superheated Steam. 



144 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

A comparison of these values with the curves of Fig. 2 fails to dis- 
close any consistent relation between the degree of superheat and the 
amount of steam which passes the superheating surface per hour. 

We are forced to conclude as a result of this examination that there 
is no factor in the design or performance of superheater locomotives 
which will enable us, with the data at present available, to predict the 
amount of superheat which may be attained. Some degree of superheat 
must, however, be assumed, and it becomes pertinent to inquire whether 
variations in the assumption made will have any material effect on the 
calculated tractive effort. To study this question locomotive K2as was 
chosen from the five locomotives under discussion. At the rate of com- 
bustion established by the assumptions of the Manual this locomotive de- 
veloped 236 degrees of superheat. With this superheat, and by means 
of the process set forth in the Manual and in this report, a curve of 
tractive effort was calculated for this locomotive. This curve appears as 
the upper line in Fig. 3. Assuming next a superheat of only 160 degrees 
there has been produced for this same locomotive a second curve of 
tractive effort which is plotted as the lower line in Fig. 3. 

Inspection of Fig. 3 discloses the fact that for speeds above 25 miles 
per hour these curves of tractive effort nearly coincide, and for lower 
speeds the differences are not great. A difference in superheat of as 
much as 76 degrees makes, therefore, very little change in tractive effort. 
This close agreement is due principally to two facts: First, that even 
great differences in superheat do not entail much change in the specific 
weight of superheated steam and . consequently do not result in very 
widely different values for the speed M and its multiples, and second, 
that the steam consumed per indicated horsepower per hour decreases 
very gradually as the speed increases (see Fig. 4). There is no reason 
to suppose that, if this test were applied to the other four locomotives, 
the* agreement of the curves of tractive effort would not be practically 
as close. 

We are warranted then in concluding that wide variations in super- 
heat within the usual range are not likely radically to affect tractive ef- 
fort and that consequently, for the purposes of this Association, a mean 
value of superheat may, without material error, be assumed and applied 
in all calculations relating to superheated steam locomotives. A suitable 
value to assume appears to be 200 degrees, which is about in the middle 
of the usual range. 

This conclusion permits us now to resume our consideration of Table 
2 of the Manual, and to add to that table values showing the weights of 
steam per foot of stroke suitable for superheated steam locomotives. As- 
suming steam at 200 degrees superheat and assuming also that between 
the boiler and the cylinders a drop of 5 lbs. per square inch in pressure 
will occur, we find the specific weight and volume of the steam in the 
cylinders to be as follows : 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 



145 





TRACTIVE 


EFFORT 




- POUNDS . 
















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Fig. 3. Tractive Effort Curves for Locomotive K2AS With Super- 
heats of 236 and 160 Degrees. 



146 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 



Boiler Gage Pressure 
Lbs. Per Sq. In. 

210 
200 
190 
180 

170 
160 



Volume of Steam 
Per Lb. Cu. Ft. 

3-19 
3-35 
3-54 
3-74 
3-97 
4.24 



Weight of Steam 
Per Cu. Ft. Lbs. 

■3*3 
.299 
.282 
.267 
.252 
.236 



These values enable us to calculate Table 1 below, which should be 
added to Table 2 of the Manual. 



TABLE I. TO BE USED FOR SIMPLE LOCOMOTIVES USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 



Weight of Steam Per Foot of Stroke for Various 



Diameter of 






Gage Pressures. 






Cylinder In. 


160 


170 


180 


190 


200 


210 


18 


.415 


•443 


.470 


•498 


•524 


•551 


19 


465 


.496 


.526 


•557 


.587 


.618 


20 


•515 


•549 


.582 


.617 


.650 


.684 


21 


•565 


•605 


.641 


■679 


•715 


•752 


22 


.623 


.665 


•70S 


•747 


.787 


.827 


23 


.682 


.728 


.772 


.818 


.861 


•005 


24 


•741 


.791 


.858 


.889 


•931 


.984 


25 


.804 


.859 


.910 


•965 


1. 01 6 


1.065 


26 


.868 


.927 


983 


1. 04 1 


1.097 


1. 150 


27 . 


•937 


1. 000 


1-057 


1. 123 


1.183 


1. 24 1 


28 


1.008 


1.078 


1. 143 


1.209 


1275 


1.340 


29 


1.083 


1.156 


1.225 


1.299 


1.368 


1438 


30 


1.157 


1-234 


1.308 


1-387 


1.460 


1-533 



Resuming our consideration of the Manual we come next to Table 3, 
which presents factors for transforming speed expressed in revolutions 
per minute to speed in miles per hour. It obviously needs no modification. 
Table 4, however, which gives values of steam per indicated horsepower 
per hour for simple and compound locomotives at various speeds, 
applies only to locomotives using saturated steam and to it there must be 
added similar values for superheated steam locomotives. Such values are 
given in the Pennsylvania Railroad Test Department Bulletins for each 
of the five locomotives upon which conclusions are being based. Curves 
showing the relation between steam consumption and piston speed for 
four of these locomotives appear on page 102 of Bulletin No. n, and a 
similar curve for the fifth locomotive appears on page 97 of Bulletin No. 
10. These curves have been assembled here in Fig. 4, in which, however, 
the speeds have been expressed in multiples of M as in the Manual, in- 
stead of in terms of piston speed. It will be observed that with the ex- 
ception of locomotive K29S the steam consumption curves shown in Fig. 
4 are in close agreement. Considering even this locomotive with the 
others the concordance is as great as that which existed among the data 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 



147 



for saturated steam locomotives upon which Table 4 was originally based. 
It seems justifiable, therefore, to base modifications for Table 4 upon a 
curve showing the average relation for these locomotives. Such a curve 
is drawn in Fig. 4. The co-ordinates of this average curve are presented 
below in Table 2, and it is proposed' that the values of this table be in- 





































































































































































































































































8M 










E3sd, 


f E6s 


K29s 










































II 


,/ 


"^ 


1 1 




/ 
















































KZas 






iHBst) 


I J 




























































r 




_1 




























































r 




_r 








































7M 


















1 ,. Avq 


_f 
























































l/ 




_i 


























































I ? 


r 




1 




























































1 




/ 
























































1 




1 ' 




. 








































6M 


















r 
























































M 














































I 


















\ 






























































\ 

















































































































5M 
























































































































0) 

ff 
























































































[ 






































Id 


























\ 






































h 


4M 






















1 






































Z 






















T 
































































\ 






































Q 
































































m 
































































n 


3M 




















v. 








































n 




















\ 


ss 
































































^ 








K 
























































s 










s 


































































V 


-v 


























ZM 




























^5 








































































































































































































^AVFRAQE 


"1 




























































A 


' 














M 
















































































































































































































































































18 


















































1 


4 






16 










<L 











d 


C 








t- 


■4 











STEAM CONSUMPTION PER I.H.P HOUR. 

Fig. 4. Curves Showing the Relation Between Speed and Steam Con- 
sumption Per Indicated Horsepower Per Hour for Five 
Locomotives Using Superheated Steam. 



serted in Table 4 of the Manual to be used in calculations pertaining to 
superheated steam locomotives. The second column in Table 4 is not nec- 
essary to the process outlined in the Manual, and since it is not correct for 
locomotives using superheated steam, it is proposed that it be eliminated. 



148 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

TABLE 2. STEAM CONSUMPTION FOR SIMPLE LOCOMOTIVES USING SUPERHEATED 

STEAM. 

Pounds of S 
Speed, 
i.o M 
i.i M 

1.2 M 

1.3 M 

1.4 M 
i.5 M 

1.6 M 

1.7 M 
i.8 M 
1.9 M 

2.0 M 

2.1 M 

2.2 M 

2.3 M 

2.4 M 

2.5 M 

2.6 M 

2.7 M 

Table 5 on page 432 of the Manual presents a series a percentages 
by means of which cylinder tractive effort at any multiple of speed M 
may be directly calculated from the known tractive effort at speed M. 
Each of these percentages in its derivation involves the steam consump- 
tion at the corresponding speed ; and since this consumption is different 
for superheated steam locomotives, it is necessary to add to Table 5 a 
new series of values. By means of the values of steam consumption for 
superheated steam locomotives previously derived and given in Table 2 
of this report, a new series of percentages has been derived for Table 5. 
These values are given in Table 3 below, which it is proposed to incor- 
porate in Table 5 of the Manual. 

TABLE 3. PER CENT. OF CYLINDER TRACTIVE EFFORT FOR VARIOUS MULTIPLES OF 
M FOR SIMPLE SUPERHEATED STEAM LOCOMOTIVES. 



Pounds of Steam 






Pounds of Steam 


Per I. H. P. Hour. 


Speed. 


Perl. 


H. P. Hour. 


24.00 


2.8 


M 




18.70 


23.58 


2.9 


M 




18.55 


23.10 


30 


M 




18.40 


22.74 
22.28 


3-2 

54 


M 




18.20 


M 




18.00 


21.92 


3-6 


M 




17.79 


21-55 


3-8 


M 




17.60 


21.20 


4.0 


M 




17-44 


20.90 


4-25 


M 




17.26 


20.59 


4-5 


M 




17.10 


20.32 


4-75 


M 




16.96 


20.05 


50 


M 




16.86 


19.81 


5-5 


M 




16.72 


19.60 


6.0 


M 




16.63 


19.40 


6-5 


M 




16.62 


19.22 


7.0 


M 




16.62 


19.02 


8.0 


M 




16.62 


18.86 











Speeds. 


Per Cents. 


Speeds. 


Per Cents. 


Start 


106.00 


2.7 M 


47.12 


0.5 M 


103.00 


2.8 M 


45.82 


1.0 M 


100.00 


2.9 M 


44.61 


i.i M 


92.42 


3.0 M 


43-49 


1.2 M 


86.55 


3.1 M 


42.30 


1.3 M 


81.20 


3.2 M 


41.21 


1.4 M 


76.95 


3-3 M 


40.17 


1.5 M 


73.00 


3.4 M 


39.22 


1.6 M 


69-55 


3-5 M 


38.30 


1.7 M 


66.60 


3.6 M 


5742 


1.8 M 


63.66 


3-7 M 


36.61 


1.9 M 


61.27 


3-8 M 


3589 


2.0 M 


58.96 


3.9 M 


35-11 


2.1 M 

2.2 M 

2.3 M 


56.94 

55-T2 

5326 


4.0 M 

4.1 M 


34-39 
33-72 


2.4 M 


51.53 


4.2 M 


33o6 


2.5 M 


49.98 


4.3 M 


32.40 


2.6 M 


48.50 


4.4 M 


31-79 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 149 

TABLE 3. PER CENT. OF CYLINDER TRACTIVE EFFORT FOR VARIOUS MULTIPLES OF 
M FOR SIMPLE SUPERHEATED STEAM LOCOMOTIVES. 

Speeds. Per Cents. Speeds. Per Cents. 

4-5 M 31.19 6.3 M 22.90 

4-6 M 30.61 6.4 M 22.56 

47 M 30.05 6.5 M 22.21 

4.8 M 29.52 6.6 M 21.89 

4.9 M 29.00 6.7 M 21.57 

5.0 M 28.48 6.8 M 21.24 

5.1 M 27.96 6.9 M 20.92 

5.2 M 27.47 7° M 20.62 

5.3 M • 27.00 7.1 M 20.32 

5.4 M 26.53 7- 2 M 20.07 

5.5 M 26.10 7.3 M 19.78 
5-6 M 25.69 7-4 M 19.52 

5.7 M 25.26 7.5 M 19.26 

5.8 M 24.86 7.6 M 19.01 

5.9 M 24.46 7-7 M 18.76 

6.0 M 24.04 7.8 M 18.52 

6.1 M 23.66 7-9 M 18.28 

6.2 M 23.28 8.0 M 18.06 

There remain for consideration only Tables 6 and 7 of the Manual. 
Table 6 gives values of tractive effort for one horsepower at various 
speeds, which obviously need no change for superheated steam locomo- 
tives. Table 7 presents formulas for finding the various resistances which 
must be subtracted from cylinder tractive effort to find net drawbar pull. 
All of these resistances are alike in superheated steam and saturated 
steam locomotives, and Table 7 consequently needs no modification. 

It is to be noted that the foregoing analysis deals only with simple 
locomotives using superheated steam and the conclusions, therefore, may 
not properly be applied to compound superheated steam locomotives. 
With the data available it has not seemed feasible at present to modify 
the Manual material so as to make it exactly applicable to compound 
superheater locomotives. 

In concluding this portion of its report, the Sub-Committee wishes to 
acknowledge its indebtedness to Everett G. Young, Fellow in the Railway 
Engineering Department of the University of Illinois, for his assistance 
in assembling the data upon which the report is based, and in calculating 
the tables and curves. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

For the reasons above developed the Committee submits the follow- 
ing recommendations : 

(1) For recommendation No. 1, concerning stokers, sec page 138 of 
this report. 

(2) In Table I, page 428, of the Manual, add this note: "For loco- 
motives using superheated steam the heating surface mentioned in column 
1 is to be understood as total water-heating surface only — superheating 
surface is not included." 

(3) To Table 2, page 429, of the Manual, add Table 1, which ap- 
pears on page 19 of this "report, followed by this note: "This table as- 



150 ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

sumes a superheat of 200 degrees Fahrenheit, and a drop of 5 lbs. per 
square inch in pressure between the boiler and the cylinders." 

(4) In Table 4, page 431, of the Manual, add Table 2, which appears 
on page 148 of this report, and eliminate from Table 4 the second column, 
which is headed, "Per Cent. Cutoff." 

(5) In Table 5, page 432, of the Manual, add Table 3, which appears 
on page 148 of this report. 



MINORITY REPORT ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY 

LOCATION. 

To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association: 

The undersigned cannot agree with that portion of the report con- 
cerning the foot-ton method of calculating the fuel consumed referred 
to in Conclusions 12 and 13 (Bulletin 173). 

The fuel consumed per indicated horsepower of work varies from 
about 7.7 lbs. with locomotives working full stroke to about 4.75 lbs. at 
its maximum efficiency at about 3.6 times the speed that it can maintain 
full cutoff. 

The indicated horsepower at maximum efficiency is also over 60 per 
cent, more than at full cutoff. 

With these two facts in view it appears that the amount of coal per 
1,000 foot-tons will vary widely. Another factor, however, enters into 
the work done by the locomotive, and it may or may not be a consider- 
able percentage of the total work. This factor is the power exerted in 
accelerating trains which will vary from less than 1 per cent, of the total 
power used on heavy gradients to more than 20 per cent, on level grades, 
depending on the distance between stops. 

No notice is taken of this factor in the method set down in the re- 
port of the Committee, and yet it is liable to add considerably to the to- 
tal foot-pounds. 

In the following table the simplest cases are taken, of three stations 
ten miles apart on a tangent. 

The train starting at one end of the line and working at its maximum 
power on level and ascending grades, but stopping at both the other sta- 
tions, using brakes for the last 1,500 ft. of stop. There is one exception 
t<> this : on descending grades, the train accelerates by gravity to 35 
M.P.H., then is held at this speed to the foot of the grade, and then drifts 
to within 1,500 ft. of station where brakes are applied. 

The four separate cases are as follows: 

( 1 ) A level grade the entire distance. 

(2) A level grade for one-half mile. 

9 miles of ascending 0.4 per cent, grade. 
A level grade for one mile with station stop in it. 
9 miles of descending 0.4 per cent, grade. 
One-half mile of level grade. 

(3) Same as (2), except 0.7 per cent, grades are used instedd 

of 0.4 per cent. 

(4) Same as (2), except 1.0 per cent, grades are used instead 

of 0.4 per cent. 

There is no question which of the above would be the most econom- 
ical to operate. The whole idea of using the above is to illustrate the 
fallacy of using the foot-ton method in calculating fuel. 

150-a 



150-b ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

As tables covering the distances used in acceleration and retardation 
on the various gradients had been worked out for a consolidation loco- 
motive in the article "Locomotive Fuel Consumption and the Speed Dia- 
gram," pp. 3 to 20, Part 2, Vol. 14. American Railway Engineering 
ciation Proceedings, the same engine and train are considered here. 

Weight. Resistance. 

Locomotive 173 tons 2.450 lbs. 

Train 1,306 tons 7,052 lbs. 

Total 1,479 tuns 9,502 lbs. 

Average resistance per ton-train.... — ...- 6,425 lbs. 

Equivalent grade resistance 0.3125 per cent. 

The first part of the table shows the time engine is working and time 
drifting, estimated very quickly with the use of the tables. 

The coal used is estimated on the average fired by hand in a freight 
locomotive per hour while engine is working. Also the average used while 
drifting as per table, page 6, of above article. 

This method of getting the fuel consumed has been tested in many 
cases on divisions varying from those of a water grade to those having 
1.0 per cent, gradients, and the calculated fuel agreed quite closely to the 
actual fuel used. 

Next appears the foot-tons resistance on level and ascending grades, 
according to the method proposed by the Committee. 

The balance of the table is self-explanatory. 

As the same stops are made in each case, the fuel used while loco- 
motive is standing need not be considered. 

Xo. 1 No. 2 Xo. 3 Xo. 4 

Level. 0.4 per 0.7 per i.oper 

cent. cent. cent. 

Hours working 0.756 0.716 1.163 1.861 

Hours drifting 0.038 0.379 -33- -328 

Total hours 0.794 in 95 1-495 2.189 

Pounds coal working at 4,000 per hour.. 3.024 2,864 4.652 7,444 
Pounds coal drifting at 789 per hour. ... 30 299 262 259 

Total pounds coal consumed... 3,054 3,163 4,914 7.703 

Foot-tons line resistance, engine work- 
ing 487,634 256,364 256,364 256,364 

Foot-tons grade resistance 281,128 491,075 702,821 

Total foot-tons resistance 487,634 537,492 748,339 959,185 

Above equivalent to H.P. of work 651.53 758.44 649.77 521.03 



Pounds coal per 1,000 foot-tons work. 6.20 5.88 6.57 8.03 



ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 150-c 

Actual cyl. H.P. while engine is working 786.24 802.77 673.24 53471 

H. P. hours of work done by engine 594-4<> 574-78 782.98 995.10 

Pounds coal per cyl. H.P. hour 5.14 5.50 6.28 7.74 

Deducting the H.P. equivalent to the 
foot-tons of resistance from the act- 
ual cyl. H.P. of work gives the H.P. 
used in overcoming acceleration, 
which is not considered in the foot- 
ton method 134.71 44-33 23.47 13-68 

By the table we find that the coal used per 1,000 foot-tons varies from 
6.20 to 8.03 lbs. Taking the difference in foot-tons and the coal used for 
the various lines, we can get still wider results as follows: 

Lbs. Coal Per 
Lbs. Coal Used. 1,000 Foot-Tons. 
7,703 
4,9M 

2,789 1323 

4,9M 
3,163 

i,75i 8.30 

3,163 

3,054 

49,85s 109 2.19 

It is rightly claimed that we cannot be exact, owing to variables that 
enter into consideration of the subject, but we can be more exact than 
the foot-ton method of calculating the coal, as there is absolutely nothing 
to use as a base per i.oco foot-tons. The above shows that you can figure 
it from various angles and get a maximum of over six times the minimum. 

The simplest method and the one of greatest accuracy is by calculat- 
ing the time of engine working and the time drifting and multiply this by 
the fuel consumed per hour working and drifting. 

In the second paragraph of Conclusion 9 of this year's report it is 
proposed to plat a speed diagram of the line. To do this the economical 
thing to do is work up tallies, such as are shown on pp. 16 to 19 of the 
article on "Fuel Consumption," for the assumed train on the maximum 
grade. This can be worked up in a diagram fur convenience of fieldmen. 
In order to expedite the work, time diagrams can be worked up covering 
the time consumed on the various grades in passing from one speed to 
another. With the speed diagram, however, it is simple to calculate the 
time. 

Furnish the Locating Engineer a set of the tables or a diagram c.>\ 
ering the information contained therein, and in comparing two alternate 
locations it is a small job to get very approximately the difference in coal 
used. He cannot get it by the Foot-ton method except by chance, \s has 



Line. 




Foot-Tons 


1.0 per 
0.7 per 


cent. 
cent. 


959,185 
748,339 




210,846 


0.7 per 
0.4 per 


cent, 
cent. 


748,339 
537,492 




210,846 


0.4 per 
Level 


cent. 


537,492 
487,634 



150-d ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION. 

been shown, it is not a question of getting the average of minor variables, 
but trying to get an average of something which may vary over 500 per 
cent., depending on the way the thing is figured. There is no average. 

With the above points in view the undersigned recommend the follow- 
ing changes in the conclusions as shown in the report : 

Insert in Conclusion 12, after the first paragraph: 

"The above method must be understood to not take into account the 
resistance due to accelerating trains. This may or may not be a consid- 
erable part of the total resistance, depending on the rate of grades and the 
distance between stops." 

The next to the last sentence in Conclusion 12 should be changed to 
read : 

"/» comparing different locations, the resistance under average condi- 
tions should be used." 

Conclusion 13. cut out the last sentence and insert : 

"// should be understood that the first method does not give informa- 
tion as to actual fuel consumed. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. K. Shurti.eff, 
Maurice Corukn, 
J. deN. Macomb, Jr. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE IV— ON RAIL. 

J. A. Atwood, Chairman; W. C. Cushing, V ice -Chairman ; 

E. B. Ashby, Howard G. Kelley, 

A. S. Baldwin, C. F. Loweth, 

Chas. S. Churchill, H. B. MacFarland, 

J. B. Berry, R. Montfort, 

G. M. Davidson, C. A. Morse, 

Dr. P. H. Dudley, J. R. Onderdonk, 

C. F. W. Felt, J. P. Snow, 

L. C. Fritch, . F. S. Stevens, 

A. W. Gibbs, A. W. Thompson, 

A. H. Hogeland, R. Trimble, 

C. W. Huntington, Geo. W. Vaughan, 

John D. Isaacs, M. H. Wickhorst, 

Committee. 

To the Members of the American Railway Engineering Association: 

The subjects assigned by the Board of Direction for investigation 
and report are as follows : 

(a) Make critical examination of the subject-matter in the Manual, 
and submit definite recommendations for changes. 
(i) Recommend standard rail sections. 

(2) Continue investigations of rail failures and deduce conclusions 
therefrom. 

(3) Continue special investigation of rails. 

(4) Present specifications for material in rail joints. 

Meetings were held during the year as follows : Atlantic City, June 
30; present, 15. Chicago, October 13; present, 15. New York, December 
4; present, 20. Buffalo, January 5; present, 15. 

Sub-Committee meetings were held as follows : 

Sub-Committee "A": Pittsburgh, September 4; present, 5. Chicago, 
November 10; present, 4. 

Sub-Committee "B" : New York, January 15; present, 7. New York, 
August 21; present, 8. Chicago, November 20; present, 8. New York, 
December 4 ; present, — . Buffalo, January 4 ; present, 7. 

The subjects assigned will be considered in order as assigned. 

(1) STANDARD RAIL SECTIONS. 

This subject was assigned to Sub-Committee "B," R. Trimble, Chair- 
man, and as a result of their investigations and the action of your main 
Committee, the following report is submitted : 

"The present A.R.A. sections 'A' and 'B' were adopted in 1008. We 
were instructed by the American Railway Association to study these sec- 
tions, and submit a single type for standard. 

151 



152 RAIL. 

"During 1908 and 1909, very little rail of the A.R.A. sections was laid, 
and, generally, it has not been laid in such manner as to give comparative 
results of the value of the two sections; in fact, up to the present time 
there have been but three places the Committee has knowledge of where 
the 'A' and 'B' sections were laid in order to secure comparative re- 
sults under similar track and traffic conditions. The matter of sections 
has been under consideration since 1908, and owing to the lack of infor- 
mation giving comparative results, the Committee has deemed it desirable 
not to be hasty in submitting new sections. 

"Tentative sections proposed by several members of the Committee 
were submitted to the whole Committee. These were criticised by mem- 
bers of the Committee, and as a result there is now submitted for your 
approval sections for rails weighing 100, no, 120, 130 and 140 lbs. per yd. 
(See Appendix H.) 

"In arriving at the sections now submitted, there had to be some com- 
promises, but it is our belief that we have not sacrificed any vital point or 
principle that should govern rail section design in our efforts to reach a 
recommendation for a single type for standard. 

"Suggestions have been made to the Committee that a common fish- 
ing space should be used for more than one section ; also, that a common 
width of base should be used for more than one section. To use a com- 
mon fishing space for more than one section would result in a greater 
sacrifice in designing some of the sections than seems desirable. To do so 
would be sacrificing one of the most expensive parts of our track, in 
order to help out a much less expensive part, and to do so would appear 
to be a violation of the economical or theoretical principles, which should 
control our work. 

"In regard to a common base for more than one weight of rail — this 
is less objectionable, and the only feature in the design that would neces- 
sarily be sacrificed in order to use a common width of base for more 
than one weight of rail would be the matter of stability against overturn- 
ing. It seems desirable, however, on the part of the Committee to pro- 
pose different widths of base for each of the sections recommended. 

"You will note that the designs submitted have kept in view the 
feature of the rail as a girder, and we have kept in mind a design having 
the highest ratio of section modulus to area of section. The radia of 
the fillets between the head and web, and web and base have been made 
as large as possible, but without interfering with the bearing of the joint 
bars. 

"Although the Committee submits designs for sections weighing 130 
and 140 lbs. per yd., it does not consider them necessary, nor does it 
recommend them for adoption. They should be received as embodving 
the ideas of the Committee in regard to such sections, and are a develop- 
ment along the lines of the sections 100 to 120 lbs., inclusive. We do not 
think that these sections should be formally adopted, for the reason that 
we may find a necessity to modify our ideas of these sections before the 
necessity arises for their use. 

"The Committee offers no new designs for sections under 100 lbs., 
and for the 90-lb. section recommends the A.R.A. 'A' section for the 
single type standard. The sections now in general use do not vary suf- 
ficiently from those that might be submitted as to make any marked dif- 
ference so far as mill practice or wear in service are concerned, the dis- 
tribution of the metal in sections of 80 lbs. and under being such that it 
cannot be varied, except in minute details that will not affect the life or 
safety of the rail in service. It is thought that the use of these sections 
will be limited and will decrease because of the increasing wheel loads, 



RAIL. 163 

and that no new sections will be purchased, all the mills being equipped 
with rolls for the existing sections." 

(2) INVESTIGATIONS OF RAIL FAILURES AND CONCLU- 
SIONS DEDUCED THEREFROM. 

Statistics of rail failures for the year ending October 31, 1913, were 
prepared by M. H. Wickhorst and are given in Appendix D, having been 
first issued in Bulletin 170. 

Statistics of rail failures were furnished by various railroads of 
the United States and Canada in response to a circular sent out by the 
American Railway Association. The information furnished by each rail- 
road showed the number of tons laid of each year's rolling from each 
mill, and also showed the number of failures that occurred in each year's 
rolling from the date laid until October 31, 1913. Very briefly it may be 
stated that there were large differences in the failure performance of the 
rails from different mills. The differences were not great between differ- 
ent types of sections or between different weights of rail, taken as a gen- 
eral average, although there were large individual differences. The "A" 
or top rail of the ingot showed a greater tendency toward head failure 
than the other rails of the ingot, but about the same failure tendency as 
regards base breaks and "broken" rails. 

(3) SPECIAL INVESTIGATION OF RAILS. 

During the year special reports have been prepared and presented to 
the Rail Committee, as follows : 

No. 40. Influence of Carbon on the Properties of Rails, by M. H. 
Wickhorst (Bulletin 170). See Appendix A. 

No. 41. Formula for Deflection of Rails in Drop Test, by M. H. 
Wickhorst (Bulletin 170). See Appendix B. 

No. 42. Study of a Rail with Internal Fissures, by M. H. Wickhorst 
(Bulletin 170). See Appendix C. 

No. 44. Comparative Service Test of 100-Lb. Sections, P.S. and 
A.RA.-A on the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, by W. C. Cush- 
ing (Bulletin 170). See Appendix E. 

No. 45. Influence of Finishing Temperature on Open-Hearth Rails, 
by M. H. Wickhorst (Bulletin 175). See Appendix F. 

No. 46. Internal Fissures in New Rails, by M'. H. Wickhorst (Bul- 
letin 175). See Appendix G. 

Each report contains a summary of the matter contained in it, but 
below is given a very brief digest of the main results obtained : 

Report 40 covered an investigation concerning the influence of carbon 
on the properties of rails, such as ductility, stiffness, tensile strength and 
more especially the resistance of the rail head to flow of the metal under 
rolling wheel loads. A series of Open-Hearth rails were made with car- 
bon varying from .32 to .97 per cent., and they were tested by means of 
drop tests, tension tests, slow-bending tests, transverse tests of the base, 
rolling tests under a loaded wheel and microscopic tests. The strength 
and resistance of the steel in the several tests, including the rolling tests, 
increased with increase of carbon up to about .80 or .85 per cent, and then 



154 RAIL. 

remained about the same. The ductility decreased continuously with in 
crease of carbon. 

Report 41 used the results given in Report 40, showing the relation 
between carbon and deflection of the rail in the drop test, together with 
other results, and formulas were presented by which the deflection of a 
rail in the drop test can be calculated for given conditions of carbon, 
height of drop and rail section. 

Report 42 gives the results of a study of a rail that had failed in 
service due to a "transverse fissure" after several years' service. The 
special feature of this work was the use of an improved method of polish- 
ing rail sections and the disclosure of numerous small fissures in the head 
of the rail. These were mostly longitudinal, but some were transverse. 
This work did not, however, show whether such fissures were in the rail 
as made or whether they developed after the rail was put into service. 

Report 44 gave the results of some comparative results in track of 
two different sections of 100-lb. rail, the A.R.A. type A and the P.S. sec- 
tions. The P.S. section showed less abrasion, but the results were too 
few to warrant a final conclusion. 

Report 45 gave the results of tests concerning the influence of finish- 
ing temperature on Open-Hearth rails, in which the final temperature of 
the rails was varied by holding the rail bar varying lengths of time be- 
tween rolls before the finishing. The results in the drop tests, slow-bend- 
ing tests and transverse tests of the base were about the same for the 
different finishing temperatures between the limits used. In the tensile 
tests, the results were also about the same, except that the lower finishing 
temperatures showed a little greater elongation and reduction of area. 
The lower finishing temperatures also showed a somewhat finer grain 
structure. 

Report 46 gave the results of examination of cross-sections of new 
rails by the improved method of polishing. The sections were from the 
rails which had been finished at different temperatures as described in 
Report 45. This work disclosed some small cracks in the interior of the 
heads of some of the A or top rails of the ingots, which had an appear- 
ance similar to the ones described in Report 42, and suggested that new 
rails may contain small internal fissures or cracks under some conditions 
of rolling, but it will take a very large amount of further experimental 
work before definite conclusions are warranted. 

(4) SPECIFICATIONS FOR MATERIAL IN RAIL JOINTS. 

This subject has been referred to Sub-Committee "A," H. B. Mac- 
Farland, Chairman, and as a result of their investigations and the action 
of the main Committee, the following specifications are presented for 
adoption : 

(a) Specifications for High Carbon Steel-Joint Bars. 

(b) Specifications for Heat-Treated, Oil-Quenched Steel-Joint Bars. 

(c) Specifications for Medium Carbon Steel Track Bolts with Nuts. 

(d) Specifications for Heat-Treated Steel Track Bolts with Nuts. 
See Appendix I for the above specifications. 

In addition to the above, your Committee has considered the follow- 
ing subjects: 



RAIL. 155 

RAIL LENGTHS. 

A special Sub-Committee, C. F. W. Felt, Chairman, has given this 
matter some consideration, and its progress report is presented herewith 
as information. 

REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON LENGTH OF RAIL. 

The Sub-Committee on Length of Rail held a meeting in Mr. Felt's 
office in Chicago, November 19, 1914. 

The question submitted to the Committee was the advisability of 
using rail longer than 33 ft. The question may be considered in several 
parts, as follows : 

(1) The most suitable length of rail from the track standpoint. 

(2) The transportation of longer rail. 

(3) The manufacture of longer rail. 

■ With longer rail the advantages would be in better riding track, and 
the saving in number of joints and in the labor of applying and main- 
taining them. From the standpoint of securing the best track, it is de- 
sirable to use the greatest length of rail, the necessary expansion for 
which will not increase the pounding at the joints, or materially increase 
their cost of maintenance. This is principally a question as to what 
maximum expansion per joint can be used. Rail specifications permit a 
variation of g'a-in. from square at the ends, which tends to increase the 
length of expansion space used above the amount prescribed. Some 
manufacturers mill the ends, which eliminates this trouble; and this 
would be especially desirable for longer rail. While the best track cannot 
be secured nor the the lowest maintenance cost reached unless the ex- 
pansion space is uniformly distributed, and kept so, this would be more 
important with longer rail. Some think the expansion space now gen- 
erally prescribed could be reduced; any reduction would permit, from 
this standpoint, a relative increase in the length of rail that could be used, 
and it is desirable to have this carefully investigated. 

The disadvantages would be the increased expansion space at the 
joints, and the increased difficulty of handling longer rail. Special tests 
should be made to determine the maximum expansion space that is prac- 
ticable, considering the riding of the track and the cost of maintenance. 
The labor cost involved is relatively small, as compared with the cost of 
material renewals. 

As the use of power appliances for the loading and unloading, laying 
and relaying is economical, and is becoming general, the principal diffi- 
culty in handling would be by the section gangs in replacing failed rails, 
which will be further reduced by the increasing use of motor cars by 
these gangs, and which represents such a small part of the whole main- 
tenance that it will not be sufficient to limit the length of rail. 

What the most desirable length is from a track standpoint, as sug- 
gested, must be determined by additional tests, but it probably is consid- 
erably longer than 33 ft. Most European roads use lengths not less than 



150 RAIL. 

39 ft., while many use 45 ft. and over, including lengths of 49 plus, 54 
plus, 59 plus, 60 and some even 72 and 78 ft. 

As to the transportation of rail, considering the present equipment 
over 33 ft. long of nine roads, Eastern and Western, only 10 per cent, is 
long enough to handle rail over 40 ft. in length, while 60 per cent, will 
carry rail 39 ft. long, and 70 per cent, is long enough for 36-ft. rail. 
Eastern roads transport rail largely in open top cars, while in the West 
stock cars are used extensively. With the present equipment, generally 
rail over 40 ft. long would have to be handled in two open top cars, at 
some additional cost for blocking. 

As regards manufacture, some mills could probably furnish rail in 
lengths of 36 or 39 ft. without changes in their plants, while others 
might need some reconstruction of their hot-beds and finishing facilities. 
There seems to be some additional difficulty in straightening very long 
rail, but this does not appear sufficient to appreciably affect such lengths 
as we may tentatively consider. On the other hand, there would be fewer 
rail to saw, drill, finish and handle for a given tonnage. 

The Sub-Committee on Length of Rail adopted the following resolu- 
tion: 

"From tests of long rail on American roads and the general practice 
in Europe, it seems that a longer rail — probably not exceeding 45 ft. — 
would yield advantages from the standpoint of economy and better riding 
track, providing, however, there is no additional cost per ton." 

The character of present equipment may render inadvisable the use 
of lengths greater than 36 ft. or 39 ft, but if transportation is practicable 
for lengths of 45 ft-, it is the opinion of the Sub-Committee that a gen- 
eral trial use should be made for lengths above 33 ft. up to 45 ft. 

TRANSVERSE FISSURES. 

Investigations have been made during the year (see Reports Nos. 42 
and 46 in Appendix) to determine the cause of transverse fissures, if pos- 
sible. Report No. 42 is a study of a rail, in service, in which transverse 
fissures developed. It shows the presence of a large number of small 
fissures, many of which were transverse fissures. Report No. 46 gives 
the result of a similar examination of new rails. The report shows the 
presence of interior fissures similar to those shown in rail in service by 
Report No. 42. 

The investigations have not progressed to a point where definite con- 
clusions can be reached, but present indications point to these internal 
fissures — the result of rolling conditions — as a possible cause or at least a 
contributing cause of transverse fissures. 

REVISION OF MANUAL. 

The Manual was carefully scrutinized, resulting in a rearrangement 
of the subject-matter and (he replacement of some of the material which 
had been revised at subsequent conventions, as indicated by the supple- 
ments to the Manual, issued after each convention. The results of this 



RAIL. 



157 



work have been supplied to the Secretary, who will make the necessary 
changes in the new edition. No action by the Association is necessary, 
because no alterations in the meaning of the text were made. 

Additional information is being offered in this report for incorpora- 
tion in the new Manual, after it has been acted upon by the members in 
convention. Such information as is adopted by the convention will be 
placed by the Secretary in its proper location in the Manual, so as to 
preserve a logical form of arrangement. 

SPECIFICATIONS. 

The following changes in the specifications for Carbon Steel Rails 
are recommended: 

Paragraph 4 — Chemical Composition. 

Change this paragraph to read as follows : 

"The chemical composition of each heat of the steel from which the 
rails are rolled, determined as prescribed in Section 6, shall be within 
the following limits : 





Per Cent, for 
Bessemer Process 


Per Cent, for 
Open Hearth Proces» 


Elements 


70 lbs. and over 
but under 
i. 85 lbs. 


85-100 lbs. 
inclusive. 


70Jbs. and over 

but under 

85 lbs. 


85-100 lbs. 
inclusive. 


Phosphorus, not to exceed.. . 


0.40to!0.50 
0.10 

0.80 to 1.10 
0.10 


0.45 to 0.55 
0.10 

0.80 to 1.10 
0.10 


0.53 to 0.66 
0.04 

0.60 to 90 
0.10 


0.62 to 0.75 

" 04 

60 to 0.90 

0.10 



"When other acceptable deoxidizing agents are used, the minimum 
limit for Silicon will be omitted.'' 

Paragraph 12 — Height of Drop. 

Change this paragraph to read as follows: 

"The test piece shall preferably be placed base upwards on the sup- 
ports, and be subjected to impact of the tup falling free from the follow- 
ing heights : 

For 70-lb. rail 16 ft. 

For 8o, 8s and 90-lb. rail 17 ft. 

For 100-lb. rail 18 ft. 

Paragraph 32 — Branding. 

Change this paragraph to read as follows : 

"Rails shall be branded for identification in the following manner : 
"(a) The name of the manufacturer, the month and year of manu- 
facture, and the weight and type or section of rail shall he ro lled in 
raised letters and figures on the side of the web. The type shall be 



158 RAIL. 

marked by letters which signify the nam e by which it is known, as for 
example, as lollows : 

Sections oi Am. Soc. of Civil Engineers A. S. C. E. 

Sections of Am. Railway Association R. A.-A. 

R. A.-B. 



Sections of Am. Ry. Eng. Association R. E. 

"(,b) The number of the heat and letter indicating the portion of the 
ingot from which the rail was made shall be plainly stamped on the weo 
of each rail where it will not be covered by the joint bars. The top rails 
shall be lettered A' and the succeeding ones 'B,' 'C,' 'D,' etc., conse- 
cutively ; but in case of a top discard of from 20 to 35 per cent, the letter 
A' will be omitted, the top rail becoming 'B.' If the top discard be 
greater than 35 per cent, the letter 'B' shall be omitted, the top rail be- 
coming 'C 



"(c) Open-Hearth rails shall be branded or stamped 'O-H' in addi- 
tion to the other marks. 

"(d) All markings of rails shall be done so effectively that the marks 
may be read as long as the rails are in service." 

Add Paragraph 34 — Loading. 

"Rails shall be carefully handled and loaded in such a manner as not 
to injure them." 

FUTURE WORK. 

About the time when 100-lb. rail began to come into considerable use 
(1906) the railroads experienced great difficulty in getting proper rail 
material. Tonnage, and not quality, was the aim of the manufacturer. 
Agitation by the railroads for better material developed a criticism by the 
manufacturer of sections then in use — the manufacturer claiming that 
good material could not be produced unless the section was modified. 
The American Railway Association appointed a committee to revise the 
sections. This Committee reported the A.R.A.-A and A.RA.-B sections. 
The American Railway Association then asked the American Railway 
Engineering Association to investigate the use of these sections and re- 
port a single section for each weight of rail. Since that time the Rail 
Committee has been making a study of the rail situation — both in the 
mill and in track. In making the investigations it has had the financial 
support of the American Railway Association, and it is gratifying to report 
that the manufacturers have given the Committee an increasing support 
and co-operation. 

Coincident with the work of your Committee, there has been a 
gradual improvement in the quality of the material in rails until now there 
is no longer, as in 1906, a hesitancy on the part of railroads to order 
100-lb. rail because of their inability to get good material in that weight 
of rail. Your Committee, holding as it did a semi-official position (as 
representing the A.R.A., as well as the A.R.E.A.), has been able to in- 



RAIL. 159 

fluence, to a considerable degree, general opinion on the subject of the 
manufacture and use of rails, and this influence, it believes, has been a con- 
siderable factor in the better rail conditions now prevailing. 

The A.R.A. will discontinue its financial support after April i, 1915, 
Mr. Wickhorst has, however, been retained for one year after that date 
by the A.R.E.A. Your Committee feels that it is unfortunate that the 
financial aid of the A.R.A. has been withdrawn, and hopes that it will be 
only temporary. The A.R.E.A., of course, cannot employ Mr. Wickhorst 
permanently, but the standardization of practice in the manufacture of 
approximately $100,000,000 worth of rails per year would seem to warrant 
the small outlay incident to the prosecution of the work of your Com- 
mittee. The Committee, therefore, urges the presentation of this matter 
to the A.R.A., requesting a continuance of their financial aid at an early 
date. In this connection, Mr. Wickhorst, at the request of the A.R.A., 
has made a resume of the work of the Rail Committee from 1910 to 1914. 
inclusive, giving in a general way the results accomplished by that work. 
This report appears in Appendix J. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

Your Committee recommends the adoption of the following con- 
clusions : 

First, (a) That the sections of rails recommended by your Committee 
for weights of 100, no and 120 lbs. per yd. be approved as standard and 
printed in the Manual (see Appendix H for recommended sections). 

(b) That the A.R.A.-A section be adopted as standard for 90-lb. rails. 

(c) That for sections below 90 lbs. it is inadvisable to recommend 
any changes in the sections now in use. 

(d) That the above conclusions be presented to the A.R.A. for 
adoption. 

Second, that the specifications for material in Joint Bars and Track 
Bolts, as recommended by your Committee, be adopted and printed in the 
Manual. 

Third, that the revisions of the specifications for Carbon Steel Rails 
recommended by your Committee be adopted and printed in the Manual. 

Respectfully submitted, 

COMMITTEE ON RAIL. 



Appendix A. 

INFLUENCE OF CARBON ON THE PROPERTIES 
OF RAILS. 

By M. H. Wickhorst, Engineer of Tests, Rail Committee. 

This report gives an account of an investigation concerning the in- 
fluence of carbon on the properties of rails, such as ductility, stiffness, 
tensile strength and, more especially, the resistance of the rail head to 
flow of the metal under rolling wheel loads. A series of steel blooms 
was collected, varying in carbon from about .31 per cent, to 1.02 per cent, 
carbon, and rolled into 80-lb. rails at one rolling. The rails were tested 
by means of drop tests, tension tests, slow bending tests, transverse tests 
of the base and tests under rolling wheel loads. A few microphotographs 
also were made. The material and all the facilities for this investiga- 
tion were kindly furnished by the Carnegie Steel Co. and the Maryland 
Steel Co. The blooms were made at Homestead, Pa. ; the rails were 
rolled at Braddock, Pa., and the tests, except the rolling tests, were made 
at Braddock and Homestead. The tests of the rails under rolling wheel 
loads were made at Sparrow's Point, Md., with the "reciprocating" ma- 
chine at that place. 

MANUFACTURE. 

The steel for these rails was open-hearth steel made at Homestead 
and most of it was obtained by selecting ingots from stock. It was de- 
sired that the elements except carbon be similar in all ingots. The ingots 
were bloomed at Homestead and then shipped to Braddock, where they 
were rolled into 80-lb. rails of the A. R. A. Type A section. (For this 
section see Proceedings American Railway Engineering Association, 191 1, 
Vol. 12, Part 2, page 168.) There were a total of 9 blooms and they 
were all charged cold into a heating furnace together on November 17, 
1913, from 1 115 to 1 125 p. m. They were successively drawn out from 
3:55 to 4:07 p. m. and rolled into rails. Each bloom made two rails, thus 
making a total of 18 rails. The blooms were given test numbers 1 to 9, 
inclusive, and were charged into the furnace in numerical order, No. 1 
being at one end of the furnace and No. 9 at the other end. The rails 
from each bloom were lettered A and B, the A rail being the rail from 
the top end of the bloom. 

Report No. -10, March, 1!)14. 

161 



162 



RAIL. 



ANALYSES. 

The nine blooms were from six different heats. Samples for analysis 
were taken from each of the 18 rails by drilling into the top of the head 
of the rail about 8 ft. from the top end. These analyses, together with 
the heat analyses, are shown in Table i. In addition to the usual ele- 
ments, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, manganese and silicon, all the rail 
samples were tested for nickel, tungsten, copper, vanadium, titanium, 
molybdenum and chromium. Rails 7A, 7B, 8A and 8B of heat 37612 con- 
tained some nickel, but otherwise the last mentioned elements were not 
found in the rails. 

TABLE I — ANALYSES. 



Sample 


C 


P 


S 


Mn 


Si 


Ni 


Rail 1 A 
Rail 1 B 
Rail 2 A 
Rail 2 B 

Av 

Heat 30491... 


.6S 
.68 
.61 
.62 

.65 
.70 


.028 
.029 
.028 
.030 

.029 
.032 


.040 
03S 
.038 
.039 

.039 
.031 


.70 
.72 

.72 
.72 

.72 
.74 


.140 
.140 
.140 
.140 

.140 
.154 














Rail 3 A 
Rail 3 B 
Rail 4 A 
Rail 4 B 

- Av.... ... 

Heat 47431... . 


.41 
.39 
.39 

.40 

.40 
.45 


.037 
.041 
.038 
.037 

.038 
.029 


.030 
.031 
.028 
.030 

.030 
.038 


.64 
.70 
.66 
.66 

.67 
.64 


.212 
.212 
.1S7 
.192 

.201 
.234 
















Rail 5 A 
Rail 5 B 

Av 

Heat 59527.... 


.64 

.59 

.62 
.61 


.033 
.035 

.034 
.039 


.037 
,036 

.037 
.038 


.79 
.79 

.79 
.80 


.131 
.127 

.129 
.138 












Rail 6 A 

Rail 6 B 

Av 

Heat 48379 


.31 
.32 

.32 
.31 


.053 
.054 

.054 
.038 


.042 
.042 

.042 
.036 


.75 

.77 

.76 
.80 


.237 
.224 

.230 
.250 












Rail 7 A 

Rail 7 B 

RailS A 

Rail 8 B 

Av 

Heat 37612... 


.83 
.85 
.82 
.81 

.83 

.85 


.025 
.027 
.026 
.028 

.027 
.022 


.036 
.036 
.037 
.036 

.036 
.035 


.60 
.62 
.59 
.59 

.60 
.61 


.112 
.114 
.121 

.112 

.115 
.114 


.14 
.13 
.12 
.11 

.13 




Rail 9 A 

Rail 9 B 

Av 

Heat 37396... 


.92 
1.02 

.97 
1.02 


.029 
.031 

.030 
.030 


.045 
.047 

.046 
.044 


.62 
.59 

.61 

.60 


.140 
.135 

.138 
.150 













INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 
SHRINKAGE. 



163 



The hot saws were set for a shrinkage of the rails of 6 l / 2 in. ; that is, 
they were spaced 33 ft. 6^ in. apart. The lengths of the rails and their 
shrinkages are shown in Table 2. 

TABLE 2 — LENGTHS AND SHRINKAGES OF RAILS. 



Number 


Length 
ft. in. 


Shrinkage 


Number 


Length 
ft. in. 


Shrinkage 


1 A 


32-1 1H 


6H 


5B 


33- 


'<:". 


IB 


32-1 Iff 


m 


6 A 


33- OJg 


m 


2 A 


32-1 1ft 


6i 4 


6B 


33- OH 


m 


2B 


32-11-i; 


6H 


7 A 


32-11*1 


m 


3 A 


33- 


6r? 


7 B 


32-11H 


6il 


3B 


33- 0t\ 


6A 


8 A 


32-1 IB 


m 


4 A 


33- O1 3 , 


6t\ 


8B 


32-1 1H 


m 


4B 


33- Or 4 , 


&A 


9 A 


32-11^ 


1 


5 A 


32-llfl 


6A 


9B 


32-1 l r v 


i 



The average shrinkage of the rails of each heat, together with the 
average carbon, as disclosed by the analyses of the rails, is shown in 
Table 3. 

TABLE 3 AVERAGE SHRINKAGE. 

Rail Numbers. Carbon. 
6A, 6B .32 

3A, 3B. 4A. 4B .40 

5 A, 5B .62 

iA, iB. 2A. 2B .65 6H 

7A, -B. 8A. 8B .83 6t§ 

•97 7 



Shrinkage. 



9 A. 9 B 


8 


6 7 


X 


u 


Sj * 


c^- 


fc* 


A: , 


^ J 


s 


^ 2 


^ 


<0 / 



1 :=»* 

t 1 --— 

g 1 



Fig. 



.£<? .^ .6"^ SO /.0O 

C a r b on 

1. Shrinkage as Related to Carbon. 



164 RAIL. 

It will be seen from this table that the shrinkage increased as the 
carbon increased, and this is shown graphically in Fig. i, in which the car- 
bon is plotted horizontally and the shrinkage vertically. It should be 
remarked, however, that the higher carbon blooms were at the ends of 
the furnace where the flames entered and may possibly have been hotter 
as drawn from the furnace. Temperature measurements were not made, 
but a study of the individual results indicates that the shrinkage was not 
materially affected by the position in the furnace. According to this 
work the shrinkage of the hot rail after sawing increased an average 
amount of about .013 in. for an increase of carbon of .01 per cent, in the 
standard length of 33 ft. There were, however, some uncertainties and 
some more work should be done with special reference to the relationship 
of carbon and shrinkage. 

TESTS MADE. 

Each rail was cut into nine pieces, numbered from one to nine, con- 
secutively, from the top end, and used for tests as listed in Table 4. 

TABLE 4 — PIECES FOR TEST FROM EACH RAIL. 

No. i — 10 in. for tension tests and microphotographs. 

No. 2 — 5 ft. 2 in. for rolling tests. 

No. 3 — 5 ft. for drop test, head in tension. 

No. 4 — 2 ft. for transverse test of base. 

No. 5 — 5 ft. for drop test, base in tension. 

No. 6 — 2 ft. for transverse test of base. 

No. 7 — 3 ft. not used. 

No. 8 — 5 ft. for slow bending in test machine, head in 

tension. 
No. 9 — 5 ft. for slow bending in test machine, base in 

tension. 



DROP TESTS. 

Two drop tests were made of each rail, one with the head in tension 
and the other with the base in tension. The tup was 2,oco lbs., the height 
of drop was 15 ft., the center of the supports were 3 ft. apart and the 
anvil was 20,000 lbs., spring supported. The striking face of the tup and 
the bearing surfaces of the supports each had a radius of 5 in. The 
deflection or set was measured in two ways ; first, it was taken as the dis- 
tance between a 3 ft. straight edge and the part of the rail where struck 
by the tup ; second, the bend of the side that was below in testing was 
measured in a distance of 3 ft. This latter measurement eliminated the 
local indentation produced by the tup. The deflection gage used was 
similar to the one shown in the Proceedings American Railway Engineer- 
ing Association, 1911, Vol. 12, Part 2, page 531. Gage marks 1 in. apart 
were put lengthwise on the side in tension, about the middle of the test 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 



165 




.20 .40 .60 .60 

C a r 6 on 

Fig. 2. Results in Drop Test as Related to Carbon. 



166 



RAIL. 



piece, for a distance of 6 in., and the increase in length of the space 
which stretched most at failure was taken as the measure of the ductility 
of the rail. The results in the drop tests with the head in tension are 
shown in Table 5, and with the base in tension in Table 6. The average 
results are plotted in Fig. 2 in relation to the carbon content of the rails, 
the carbon being shown horizontally and the deflection, the elongation 
and the number of blows, vertically. 



TABLE 5 — DROP TESTS, HEAD IN TENSION, IS FT. 



Number 


Carbon 


Deflection, 1st blow 


Elong., 
1st blow, 
percent 


No. of 
blows 


Final 


Top 


Bottom 


elong. 
percent 


1A3 

1B3 

2A3 

2B3 

Av 


.65 


1.40 
1.40 
1.45 
1.46 

1.43 


1.32 
1.31 
1.35 
1.37 

1.34 


7 
7 
8 
7 

7.3 


3 
3 
3 
3 

3.0 


20 
21 
17 
20 

19.5 


3A3 


.40 


2.11 
2.18 
2.23 
2.19 

2.18 


2.00 
2.00 
2.06 
2.00 

2.02 


10 
10 
12 
10 

10.5 


4* 
4* 

4* 
4* 

4.0* 


34* 


3B3 

4A3 


23* 

26* 


4B3 


29* 


Av 


25.5* 


5A3 

5B3 

Av 


.62 


1.70 
1.62 

1.66 


1.56 
1.52 

1.54 


8 
8 

8.0 


4 
5 

4.5 


22 
30 

26.0 


6A3 


.31 


2.53 
2.52 

2.53 


2.30 
2.31 

2.31 


14 
14 

14.0 


4* 
4* 

4.0* 


36* 


6B3 

Av 


26* 
31.0* 


7A3 


.83 


1.27 
1.22 
1.26 
1.25 

1.25 


1.17 
1.13 
1.17 
1.16 

1.16 


7 
7 
7 

7 

7.0 


2 
2 
2 
2 

2.0 


11 


7B3 


14 


8A3 


14 


8B3 


15 


Av 


13.5 


9A3 


.97 


1.11 
1.11 

1.11 


1.06 
1.04 

1.05 


6 
6 

6.0 


2 
2 

2.0 


6 


9B3 


8 


Av 


7.0 



*Xot broken. 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 167 

TABLE 6 — DROP TESTS, BASE IN TENSION, IS FT. 



Number 


Carbon 


Deflection, 1st blow 


Elong., 
1st blow, 
percent 


No. of 
blows 


Final 
elong.. 
percent 


Top 


Bottom 


1A5 


.65 


1.41 
1.40 
1.43 

1 46 

1.43 


1.31 
1.31 
1.36 
1.37 

1.34 


6 . 
6 
5 
6 

5.8 


4 
4 
4 
3 

3.8 


14 


1B5 


15 


2A5 

2B5 


14 
14 


Av 


14.3 


3A5 


• .40 


2.06 
2.16 
2.13 
2.14 

2.12 


1.97 
2.05 
2.04 
2.04 

2.03 


9 

9 
9 
9 

9.0 


5* 
5 
5 
5 

5.0 


21* 


3B5 


19 


4A5 


25 


4B5 


28 


Av 


23.3 


5A5 


' .62 


1.63 
1.64 

1.64 


1.51 
1.56 

1.54 


7 
7 

7.0 


4 
4 

4.0 


15 


5B5 


17 


Av. 


16.0 


6A5 


.31 


2.46 
2.44 

2.45 


2.31 

2.31 

2.31 


11 

11 

11.0 


4* 

4* 

4.0* 


25* 


6B5 


28* 


Av 


26.5* 


7A5 


.83 


1.18 
1.21 
1.26 
1.26 

1.23 


1.13 
1.16 
1.22 
1.21 

1.18 


5 
6 
5 
6 

5.5 


3 
3 
3 
3 

. 3.0 


10 


7B5 


13 


8A5 


10 


8B5 


12 


Av 


11.3 


9A5 


.97 


1.10 
1.13 

1.12 


1.04 
1.07 

1.06 


5 
5 

5.0 


2 
3 

2.5 


6 


9B5 


9 


Av 


7.5 



*Not broken. 



DEFLECTION IN DROP TEST. 

The deflection curve shown in Fig. 2 shows the average of the head 
tension and base tension results, as the two were aboutthe same for any 
given carbon. The curve shows the deflection of the under side as tested 
under the first blow from 15 ft. This curve is a measure of the stiffness 
of the rail in the drop test, and it will be noted that the deflection de- 
creased as the carbon increased up to about .85 per cent, carbon, after 
which the decrease was at a slower rate. For the section used and under 
the conditions of the tests the deflection with .50 per cent, carbon was about 
170 in. and with .75 per cent, carbon it was about 1.23 in.; or, in other 
words, the deflection decreased an average of .0188 in. for each .01 per 



168 RAIL. 

cent, increase of carbon between the limits of .50 and .75 per cent, carbon. 
This figure can be incorporated into a deflection formula and this matter 
will be further discussed in a succeeding report in connection with other 
deflection results. 

ELONGATION IN DROP TEST. 

Curves showing the elongation in the drop test in relation to the 
amount of carbon are shown in Fig. 2. There are two pairs of curves, 
one pair showing the elongation under the first blow from 15 ft. drop, 
with the head in tension and with the base in tension, and the other pair 
showing the final or exhausted elongation with the head in tension and 
with the base in tension. Concerning the final elongation it will be noted 
that this decreased as the carbon increased and was greater with the head 
in tension than with the base in tension. The amount of decrease in 
elongation as the carbon increased was about as shown in Table 7. 

TABLE / — ELONGATION IN DROP TEST. 

Head Base 

Carbon. Tension. Tension. 

.30 37 26 

.90 11 8 

Difference 60 26 18 

Deer, elong, per .oi%C .433 .30 

Starting with soft steel each increase of carbon is attended with a 
decrease in elongation, and the figures in this tacble may be incorporated 
into an elongation formula : 

Let E = elongation in per cent. 
K = a constant. 

C = amount of carbon in .01 per cent. 

c = decrease in elongation for each .01 per cent increase in carbon. 
E w = elongation with head in tension. 

ht ° 

E b = elongation with base in tension. 
The general form of the formula would be thus : 

E = K — cC. (1) 

Rails are usually tested with the base in tension, and Table 7 shows 
that c equals .30. Taking the elongation of .90 per cent, carbon rails as 8 
per cent., the value of K would be determined thus : 
K = E + cC = 8 + 27 = 35- 
The normal elongation of open-hearth rails in the drop test, with the 
base in tension, as determined by this series of tests, is thus shown by this 
formula : 

E bt = 35 — .30C. (2) 

In similar manner the formula for elongation, with the head in ten- 
sion, is found to be the following : 

E ht =50.0 — .433C. (3) 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 



169 



SLOW BENDING TESTS. 
From each rail two pieces were used for longitudinal bending in the 
test machine, one with the head in tension and the other with the base 
in tension. The rail was supported on flat supports, 3 ft. between edges, 
and the load was applied centrally between edges, through a die with a 
rounded surface. The deflection was measured while the load was on by 
measuring with calipers the distance between the rail and the bed of the 
test machine, or a block placed on the bed. The deflection was obtained 
at 50,000 lbs., then at increments of 10,000 lbs. until beyond the elastic 
limit and later at increments of 20,000 lbs. until rupture occurred, or until 
a deflection of z l A or 4 in. was obtained. The breaking load was noted 
of the rails which broke. Gage marks 1 in. apart were put longitudinally 
on the side in tension, about the middle of the test piece, for a distance 
of 6 in., and the increase in length of the space which stretched most at 
failure was taken as the measure of the ductility. The results of the 
tests are given in Table 8, which shows the results with the head in ten- 
sion and in Table 9 which shows the results with the base in tension. 
The elastic limit as shown in these tables is taken as the load beyond 



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Fig. 3. Load-Defi.ection Diagrams for Various Carbons. 



170 



RAIL. 



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RAIL. 



which the next increment of 10,000 lbs. caused a deflection of .05 in. or 
more. This is not a close determination, but will probably serve as a use- 
ful approximation for present purposes. 

Load-deflection curves are given for the various carbons in Fig. 3, the 
deflection being plotted horizontally and the load vertically. Each curve 
represents the average for one carbon of all the results for that carbon 
content, both with head in tension and base in tension. It will be noted 
that at any given load the deflection is the same for all carbons, within 
what may be called the elastic limit or yield point, that is, the point where 
there is a rapid increase of deflection for further increment of load. Of 
course, as the carbon increases the elastic limit is found higher up on 
the deflection line. 



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Fig. 4. Results in Slow Bending Tests as Related to Carbon. 

In Fig. 4 the results of the slow bending tests are plotted in relation 
to the amount of carbon in the steel, the amount of carbon being plotted 
horizontally and the elastic limit, the breaking load and the elongation 
being plotted vertically. The bending of the rails with less than .62 per 
cent, carbon was not carried to destruction and the breaking load and 
elongation are, therefore, not plotted for the lower carbons. It will be 
noted that the elastic limit increased with increase of carbon up to about 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 



173 



.85 per cent, carbon and then remained about the same. The breaking load 
increased continuously with increase of carbon within the range of carbons 
used. The elastic limit and breaking load were somewhat higher with 
the base in tension than with the head in tension. The elongation, of 
course, decreased as the carbon increased, and it is interesting to note 
that the elongation averaged a little greater with the base in tension than 
with the head in tension, which is opposite to what was found in the 
drop test, made in a similar manner, except as to speed of application of 
the load. The elongation was also less in the slow bending tests than in 
the drop tests, but this matter will be discussed later on in this report. 

TENSILE TESTS. 

Two tensile test pieces were taken from the top end of each rail, 
one from an upper corner of the head and the other from the interior of 
the head near its junction with the web. The test pieces were 10 in. 
long, y^-'m. diameter and turned to J^-in. diameter for a gage length of 
2 in. The tests were made in a 200,000-lb. test machine and the pieces 

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Fig. 5. Results in Tensile Tests as Related to Carbon. 

were held with wedge grips. The yield point was determined by means 
of a Berry strain gage. The results of the tensile tests are shown in 
Table 10. The test specimens marked "a" were from the corner of the 
head and those marked "b" were from the interior of the head. 

The figures showing the average result in the tensile tests for each 
carbon are plotted in Fig. 5 in relation to the carbon content of the rails. 



174 



RAIL. 

TABLE 10 — TENSILE TESTS. 



Number 


Carbon 


Yld. Pnt. 
lbs. per 
sq. in. 


Tens. Str. 
lbs. per 
sq. in. 


Elong., 
percent 
in 2 in. 


Reduct. 
of area 
percent 


lAla 


.65 


58,580 
58,600 
57,200 
58,220 
57,120 
54,420 
57,380 
51,520 

56,630 


127,870 
135,500 
129,150 
130,850 
128,100 
122,600 
127,350 
117,450 


13 

10 

13 

12 

12 

11.5 

12 

11.5 

11.9 


19 


1Mb 

lBla 

lBlb 

2Ala 

2Alb 

2Bla 

2Blb 


13.9 
17.0 
13.7 
15.4 
13.4 
16.4 
15.9 


Av 


127,359 


15.6 


3Ala 

3Alb 

3Bla 

3Blb 

4Ala 


.40 


48,450 
44,460 
47.730 
44,650 
50,210 
44,650 
45,660 
42,630 

46,055 


98,400 
96,660 
96,290 
88,790 
89,800 
88,540 
92,090 
88,090 

92,333 


24 

21 

23 

20.5 

27 

25 

26 

25 

23.9 


34.1 
30.8 
40.7 
36.3 
48 4 


4Alb 


45 5 


4Bla 


46.9 


4Blb 


43.3 


Av 


40.8 


oAla 

5Alb 

5Bla 

oBlb 


.62 


58,310 
50,450 
55,800 
49,720 


119,620 
109,000 
117,700 
107,550 

113,468 


15 
15 

18 
18 

16.5 


22.6 
22.6 
24.6 
29 8 






Av 


53,570 


23.9 


6Ala 

6Alb 

6Bla 

6Blb 


.31 


40,840 
39,220 
45,140 
39,640 

41,210 


82,100 
77,920 
81,510 
78,010 

79,885 


30 

29 
30 
29 

29.5 


45.2 
43.8 
53.8 
48.0 


Av 


47.7 


7Ala 

7Alb 


.83 


60,820 
62,190 
62,660 
60,900 
60,600 
64,160 
67,490 
61,400 


141,250 
133,400 
139,400 
135,900 
139,700 
137,850 
138,500 
130,300 

137,038 


9 

9 
10 

8 

11.5 
10 
11 
11 

9.9 


12.4 
9.6 


7Bla 

7Blb 

8Ala 

8Alb 

8Bla 

8Blb 


10.8 
9.0 

12.8 
9.3 

12.0 

12.0 


Av 


62,528 


11.0 


9Ala 


.97 










9Alb 

9Bla 

9Blb 


61,900 
66,100 
60,890 

62,983 


113,750 
134,350 
138,950 


2 
3 
5 

3.3 


0.4 
2.4 

4.8 


Av 


129,017 


2.5 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 175 

The carbon is plotted horizontally and the yield point, tensile strength, 
elongation and reduction of area are plotted vertically. It will be noted 
that the yield point and tensile strength increased as the carbon increased 
up to about .80 or .85 per cent, carbon, after which the yield point and 
tensile strength remained about the same. Above .85 per cent, carbon, 
the tensile strength showed a tendency to decrease, due probably to some 
of the test specimens breaking "short" on account of their low ductility, 
before their full strength was reached. The elongation and reduction of 
area decreased as the carbon increased and fell off to zero at about 1.00 
per cent, carbon or a little more. 

If we take from the curve, the tensile strength as 78,000 lbs. per 
sq. in. at .30 per cent, carbon and as 128,000 lbs. at .70 per cent, carbon 
the increase of tensile strength would then be 50,000 lbs. for an increase 
of .40 per cent, in carbon, or an increase of 1,250 lbs. for each .01 per 
cent, increase in carbon and is seen from the curve to be a practically 
straight line variation. • This value we may incorporate into a formula 
showing the relation between carbon and tensile strength thus : 
T = K + cC. 
where T = tensile strength in lbs. per sq. in. 
K = a constant 
c = a constant showing increase of tensile strength for each 

.01 per cent, increase in carbon. 
C = amount of carbon in .01 per cent. 
We have seen above that c= 1,250. If we take the tensile strength 
at .70 per cent, carbon as 128,000 lbs., then 

K = T — cC = 40,500. 
The formula for tensile strength then becomes 

T = 40,500 + 1250C. 
This is for open-hearth steel with about .03 per cent, phosphorus and 
about .70 per cent, manganese in test specimens of ^-in. diameter and 2 
in. gage length and between limits of .30 and .80 per cent, carbon. 

A formula showing the relation between carbon and yield point or 
elastic limit in tension may be worked out in a similar manner, thus : 
Y = K + cC. 
where Y = yield point in lbs. per sq. in. 
The other symbols have the same meaning as above. 
If we take from the curve, the yield point as 42,000 lbs. per sq. in. at 
.30 per cent, carbon and as 62,000 lbs. at .80 per cent, carbon, the increase 
of yield point would be 20,000 lbs. for an increase of .50 per cent carbon, 
or an increase of 400 lbs. for each .01 per cent, increase in carbon. The 
yield point curve is seen to be nearly a straight line up to about .85 per 
cent, carbon. The value of c is thus 400, and the formula becomes, for 
carbons .30 to .85 per cent., 

Y = 30,000 + 400C. 
It should he remembered that these tensile strength and yield point 



176 RAIL. 

formulas give average values and that individual results will vary above 
and below these averages. 

The elongation decreased as the carbon increased, and this relation- 
ship may be expressed by a formula in the same manner as in the dis- 
cussion of the drop test results. Let the general formula be 

E = K — cC. 

where E = elongation, per cent, in 2 in. 
K = a constant. 

C = amount of carbon in .01 per cent. 

c = decrease in elongation for each .01 per cent, increase in 
carbon. 

The decrease in elongation followed a slightly curved line, but a 
straight line formula as above can be made to represent it closely. If we 
take the elongation at .40 per cent, carbon as 25 per cent, (which is 
slightly above the value shown by the curve at this point) and at .90 per 
cent, carbon as 6 per cent., the decrease in elongation is 19 per cent, for 
an increase of .50 per cent, in carbon or .38 per cent, for each .01 per 
cent, carbon, which becomes the value of c. The value of K then figures 
out as 40.2 or say 40. 

The elongation formula for tensile tests of specimen l / 2 -'m. diameter 
and 2 in. gage length then becomes 

E = 40— .38C. 

This formula applies to carbons from .30 to 1.00 per cent. 

Having the tensile strength and elongation formulas as related to 
carbon, we may combine these so as to calculate the elongation as re- 
lated to tensile strength : 

E = 40 — .38C. 

r _ 40 — E 
T = 40,500 + 1,250c. 



Combining 



T — 40,500 

1,250 
40 — E T — 40.500 
^38 1,250 

T 



t = 52.3 
Simplifying the figures, 



3,290 



T 



E = 52 — 

3300 

This formula applies for tensile strength of 80,000 to 130,000 lbs. per 
sq. in. It gives the average elongation and individual results may fall 
above or below this average. 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 



177 



ELONGATION IN THE SEVERAL TESTS COMPARED. 

Fig. 6 is given to show a comparison of the elongation in the different 
methods of test ; the drop test, the slow bending test and the tension test. 
One curve shows the average of head tension and base tension results 
in the drop tests and another the average of the head tension and base 
tension results in the slow bending tests in the test machine. It will be 
remembered that in the drop test the elongation with the head in tension 
was considerably greater than with the base in tension, while in the slow- 
bending tests the elongation was greater with the base in tension, although 
the difference was not as great. As will be seen from the curves, the 
average elongation in the drop test was somewhat greater than in the 



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.20 40 .GO .80 WO 

Car 6 or? - perco/yf 



Fig. 6. Ductility in Various Methods of Test Compared. 



slow-bending test, except with carbon above .9 per cent, when it was about 
the same. These two kinds of test were made in about the same way 
and the elongation was measured in the same way, except that the drop 
test was an impact test and in the slow-bending test the load was applied 
slowly in the test machine. In the slow-bending test the exhausted 
ductility was not determined with carbons below .60 per cent. A previous 
comparison* had indicated that the ductility of a rail was about the same 
or little greater in the drop test than in the slow-bending test and this work 
now also indicates that the ductility is a little greater under impact than 
in slozv bending. 

The curve of elongation in tension falls about 3 to 5 per cent, be- 
low the drop test elongation curve, although the method of measuring 
elongation is different in the two kinds of tests. 



•Proceedings American Railway Engineering Association, l'Jlo, Vol, II. 
page 544, 



178 



RAIL. 



TRANSVERSE TESTS OF BASE. 

Transverse tests of the base were made of two pieces from each rail, 
each piece being two feet long. The method of making the test was to 
support the piece of rail on two supports placed opposite each other near 
the edges of the flanges under the middle of its length. The supports 
were intended to be six inches long but by mistake were about one-fourth 
inch short. They were placed one-half inch in from the sides of the 
flanges and the load was applied in the test machine to the head of the 
rail at the middle. The general arrangement is shown in Fig. 7. The 
load was measured that it took to break the rail. The transverse elonga- 
tion was measured by putting prick punch marks one inch apart crosswise 
on the bottom of the base and at the middle of the length of the piece 




Fig. 7. Method of Making Transverse Test of Base. 



tested. The greatest extension after breaking, in any one of the spaces, 
was taken as the measure of transverse ductility. The sag of the un- 
broken flange was measured and taken as the distance from a straight 
edge laid on the bottom of the base near the edge of the flange to the 
flange where bent most from the straight surface of the base. The results 
of the transverse tests are shown in table II. 

The average results of the transverse tests are shown graphically in 
Fig. 8 in relation to the carbon content of the rails. The carbon is plotted 
horizontally and the breaking load, the transverse elongation and sag of 
flange are plotted vertically. It will be noted that the breaking load in- 
creased as the carbon increased up to about .80 per cent carbon and then 
remained about the same. The transverse elongation and the sag of flange 
decreased as the carbon increased. 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 



179 



300,000 

<0 2SO,ooo 

\ 200,ooo 



/ 50,000 

/O0,ooo 

SO,ooo 

ooo 

/o 
e 

6 






^ 



k^S 






_\i> 



4 

2 
O 

.so 

$ .40 

*i .30 

^ o 

.20 40 .60 .80 /.OO 

Carbon -percent 

Fig. 8. Results of Transverse Tests ok Base as Related to Carbon. 



180 



RAIL. 



Table II — Transverse Tests of Base. 



Number 


Carbon 


j 
Load, 
Pounds 


Transverse 

elongation, 

percent. 


Sag of 
flange, 
inches 


1 A4 


.65 


330,500 
298,800 
323,500 
303,500 
294,400 
302,600 
296,700 
288,500 

304,813 


Q 

•J 

3 

3 
4 
4 
5 
4 
4 

3.8 


.17 


1A6 


.19 


1B4 

1B6 

2A4 

2A6 

2B4 

2BG 

Av 


.18 
.25 
.23 
.30 
.25 
.18 

.22 


3A4 


.40 


252.000 
246,400 
232,100 
234,900 
238,400 
236,600 
221,300 
248,600 

238,788 


12 
13 

7 
7 
7 
7 
4 
11 

8.5 


.62 


3A6 


.65 


3B4 

3B6 

4A4 

4A6 

4B4 

4B6 

Av 


.43 
.50 
.45 

.28 
.25 

.58 

.47 


5A4 

5A6 


.62 


279,100 
268,500 
284,000 
268,900 


5 
4 
4 

4 

4.3 


.27 
.25 


5B4 


.25 


5B6 . 


.25 






Av 


275,125 


.26 






6A4 

6A6 

6B4 

6B6 


.32 


186,500 
(130,000) 
208,700 
212,600 


8 

(2) 
10 

9 

9.0 


.33 

(.10)* 
66 
.43 


Av 


202.600 


.47 


7A4 

7A6 

7B4 

7B6 

8A4 


.83 


331,200 
338,300 
238,000 
342,100 
288,800 
346,000 
342,200 
241,300 

308, 48S 


2 
4 
1 
4 
5 
4 
4 
1 

3.1 


.15 

.20 
.06 
.15 
.12 


8A6 

SB4 

SB6 

Av 


.17 
.17 
.08 

.14 


9A4 


.97 


340.400 
336,000 
251,000 

(157,400) 


3 
1 
1 

(0) 

1.7 




9A6 

9B4 

9B6 


'05 

(.on* 


Av 


309,133 


.05" 



*Seam in base. Not used in computing average. 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 



181 



ROLLING TESTS. 

Tests were made to determine the resistance of the rails to flow 
or side spread of the head under rolling wheel loads. These tests were 
made at Sparrows Point, Md., at the works of the Maryland Steel Co. 
in a "reciprocating" machine in which a piece of rail is made to move 
to and fro under a wheel that may be loaded as desired by means of a lever 
arrangement. A diagram of the machine is shown in Fig. 9 and a view of 
the machine set up with a rail in place for testing is shown in Fig. 10. 
As will be seen, the rail is placed on a steel bloom which in turn rolls 
on another steel bloom. The driving mechanism consists of an electric 
motor and gearing and the whole is set on a framework of steel I-beams. 
The weights applied to the weight hanger are multiplied 600 times as 




Fig. 9. Diagram of Reciprocating Machine. 



applied to the axle of the wheel. The stroke of the machine is 4 ft; 
that is, the rail moves back and forth this distance. 

Six pieces of rail were tested in this machine, each piece representing 
one of the six different carbon amounts contained in the series of rails. 
The method of test was to load the wheel with 6,000 lbs. and then run 
the machine for 100 revolutions of the crank shaft, which was equal to 
200 rollings of the wheel over the rail. The width of the head was then 
determined at the top and at the bottom by means of a micrometer, the 
sides of the head having been planed vertical and parallel to facilitate 
close measurement. Then the load was increased to i2,oco lbs., the rail 
given 200 rollings more and the width of head again measured at the 
top and bottom. This was repeated with increments of 6,oco lbs. until a 
final load of 96,000 lbs. on the wheel was reached. After that the load 
was kept constant at 96,000 lbs. and measurements made at intervals until 
the rollings at 96,000 lbs. load reached 8,coo in addition to the rollings at 
the successive lower loads. The width of the head at the beginning of 
the test was about 2.3 inches. The machine was not calibrated and the 



182 



RAIL. 




'J. 



tf 



fe 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 



183 



actual loads may have differed somewhat from the nominal ones, but the 
results would be comparative. At intervals also measurements were made 
of the width of the tread impressed on the rail by the rolling of the 
wheel. The results showing the spread of the head are shown in table 

.060 
^ .050 



.040 



s .030 






.020 














































































c 


















































































































C/ 


.» 




































m 


r 






A/so e/osf/y repres^r^fs 










s 










.83'%c7/7c/ .97Vo C 












•' 






niC 
















•- 


\ 












wr 








^r" 
















\ 


s 




,.•- 














^" C - 


* 


















i*'" 


•' 












.-•- 


-* 


2?- 


'" 






=*^ 


jJC 


■^z 


-j^ 




•— - 


-•-- 




^.. 


--- 1 




•~~~ 















^ 

r 



/O 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 /OO 

Load- f/7<?c/sa/7c/ /6 s. 

Fig. ii. Spread of Head in Rolling Tests in Relation to Wheel Load. 



V6 



V .08 



^> 



W 























































>%(. 






























:4< 
































































>%c 


























-, s^ 




ST* 
























fig%«^- 






























.65%, .83*% and.9?<&C 















/ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
T/?ousa/?c/ fto///r?QS <?/ 96,ooo /6s. Loac/ 

Fig. 12. Spread of Head in Rolling Tests at a Wheel Load of 96,000 

Pounds. 

12 and those showing the width of tread of wheel are shown in table 
13. The results showing the spread of the top of the head are plotted 
in Fig. 11 in relation to the wheel load and the results showing the 
further spread of the top of the head at continued rolling under a load 
of 96,000 lbs. are plotted in Fig. 12. It will be noted that the spread of 



184 



RAIL. 



the head decreased as the carbon increased up to about .65 per cent, 
carbon. The relation between carbon and the spread of the head after 
successive increments of load and after 8,000 rollings at 96,000 lbs. load, 

.15 

% 

•^ JO 

.zo 40 .so .eo /.oo 
Car 6 or? -percent 1 

Fig. 13. Spread of Head in Rolling Tests in Relation to Carbon. 



6 



is shown in Fig. 13. It will be noted that the maximum resistance of 
the steel in this test was reached with about .80 per cent, carbon and it 
remained about the same with higher carbon. 

Table 12 — Rolling Tests, Spread of Head. 





Rollings. 








Spre 


ad of Head — .001 inch 






Load, 
lbs. 


1B2- 


.65C 


3B2- 


-.40C 


5B2— 


62C 


6B2— .32C 


7B2- 


-.83C 


9B2— .97C 




Top 


Bot, 


Top 


Bot. 


Top 


Bot. 


Top 


Bot. 


Top 


Bot, 


Top 


Bot. 


6,000 


200 






































12,000 


200 








1 





1 











1 











18,000 


200 








2 





1 





1 





1 











24,000 


200 


1 





3 





1 





1 





1 





1 





30,000 


200 


1 





4 





2 





3 





2 





1 





36,000 


200 


1 





6 


1 


3 





r 





2 





1 




42,000 


200 


9 





7 


1 


4 





8 





3 





2 




48,000 


200 


3 





10 


1 








11 


1 


3 





3 




54,000 


200 


3 





12 


2 


6 





15 


2 


4 





4 




60.000 


200 


4 





14 


2 


7 





17 


2 


4 





4 




66,000 


200 


4 





16 


3 


8 





20 


2 








4 




72,000 


200 


5 


1 


20 


4 


10 


1 


25 


3 













78,000 
84,000 


20C 


6 


1 


( >4 


5 


IV 


1 


SW 


4 


(i 


I) 






200 


7 


1 


28 


6 


15 


1 


41 


6 


8 




7 




90,000 


200 


8 


1 


33 


7 


17 


2 


49 


9 


9 




8 




96.000 


200 


11 


2 


39 


10 


19 


3 


61 


11 


10 




10 




96,000 


400 


12 


2 


43 


10 


27 


4 


82 


13 


10 




13 




96,000 


800 


14 


2 


47 


11 


29 


5 


89 


15 


10 




14 




96,000 


1,600 


15 


3 


52 


12 


33 


6 


100 


17 


15 




16 




96,000 


3.200 


16 


3 


54 


13 


38 


6 


106 


18 


17 




17 




96,000 


4,S00 


17 


3 


56 


13 


42 


/ 


115 


20 


18 




18 




96,000 


6.400 






59 


14 


44 


7 


141 


•» 


18 




19 




96,000 


8,000 


18 


3 


61 


16 


45 


S 


160 


22 


18 




19 





INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 
Table 13 — Rolling Tests, Tread of Wheel. 



185 



Load, 
lbs. 


Rollings 


Tread of Wheel, inches 


1B2 
.65C 


3B2 
.40C 


5B2 
.62C 


6B2 
.32C 


7B2 
.83C 


9B2 
.97C 


6,000 


200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

400 

800 

1,600 

3,200 

4,800 

6,400 

8,000 


.55 


.60 










12,000 
18,000 


.60 


.80 
1.00 


.60 


.60 


24,000 
30,000 






.80 


.80 


70 


.75 

.85 

1.00 


.90 




36,000 


.90 
.95 




42,000 
48,000 
54,000 
60,000 


1.10 


1.00 


1.10 


.90 


1.20 


1.10 


1.30 


.90 


66,000 
72,000 
78,000 


1.10 


1.30 


1.15 


1.40 


1.00 


1.10 


1.15 


1.40 


1.25 


1.60 






84,000 


1.15 

1.30 
1.30 
1.35 
1.40 
1.40 
1.40 




90,000 
96,000 
96,000 
96,000 
96,000 


1.20 
1.25 

1.30 
1.35 
1.35 
1.40 
1.40 


1.50 
1.55 
1.55 
1.65 
1.70 
1.75 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 


1.30 
1.40 
1.40 
1.50 


1.70 
1.75 
1.75 


1.20 
1.25 
1.30 
1.35 
1 35 


96,000 
96,000 
96,000 
96,000 


1.50 
1.55 
1.55 
1.60 


1.90 
2.00 


1.35 
1.35 
1.35 



MICRO-PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Samples for micro-photographs were taken from the tensile test pieces 
from the corner of the head from six of the rails, each one representing 
one of the carbon percentages contained in this series of rails. The 
samples used were as follows: iAia, .65 per cent, carbon; 3Aia, .40 
per cent, carbon; 5Aia, .62 per cent, carbon; 6Aia, .32 per cent, carbon; 
7Aia, .83 per cent carbon; and oAia, .97 per cent, carbon. The micro- 
photographs of the etched samples, magnified 40 diameters, are shown in 
Fig. 14. 

SUMMARY. 

1. An investigation was made concerning the influence of carbon on 
the properties of rails, such as ductility, stiffness, tensile strength and 
more especially the resistance of the rail head to flow of the metal under 
rolling wheel loads. A series of open-hearth rails was made with carbon 
varying from .32 per cent, to .97 per cent, and they were tested by means 
of drop tests, tension tests, slow bending tests, transverse tests of the 
base, rolling tests under a loaded wheel, and microscopic tests. 

2. The material and all the facilities for this investigation were 
kindly furnished by the Carnegie and Maryland Steel Companies. The 



186 



RAIL. 




Fig. 14. Microphotographs of Various Carbons from .32 Per Cent, to 
.97 Per Cent., Magnified 40 Diameters. 



INFLUENCE OF CARBON. 187 

material and rails were made by the Carnegie Steel Co. at Homestead 
and Braddock, Pa., and the tests, except the rolling tests, were made by 
the Carnegie Steel Co. The rolling tests in a "reciprocating" machine 
were made at Sparrows Point, Md., by the Maryland Steel Co. 

3. According to this work the shrinkage of the hot rail after sawing 
increased an average amount of about .013 inch for an increase of carbon 
of .01 per cent., in the standard length of 33 ft. There were, however, 
some uncertainties and some more work should be done with special 
reference to the relationship of carbon and shrinkage. 

4. The deflection of the rails in the drop test under the first blow 
decreased as the carbon increased up to about .85 per cent, carbon after 
which its decrease was at a slower rate. The rails were 80 lbs. per yard of 
the A. R. A. type A section, and with .50 per cent, carbon the deflection 
was about 1.70 inches under a drop of 15 ft., of the side that was below 
in testing. With these conditions, the deflection decreased an average of 
.0188 inch for each .01 per cent, increase of carbon. 

5. The relation found between carbon and elongation in the drop 
test is shown by the following formula : 

E M =35 -.30 C 

where E equals the per cent, elongation when the base is in tension, and 
C equals the carbon in .01 per cent. This gives the average elongation 
and individual results fell above or below this average. For .70 per cent, 
carbon, for instance, the elongation was about 14 per cent. 

6. The rails were tested as beams in the test-machine with a span 
of 3 ft. The breaking load increased as the carbon increased. The 
elastic limit increased with increase of carbon up to about .85 per cent, 
carbon and then remained about the same. 

7. The elongation in this slow bending test decreased as the carbon 
increased and averaged a little less than in the drop or impact test. 

8. The yield point and tensile strength in the tensile tests, increased 
with increase of carbon up to about .80 or .85 per cent, carbon after 
which they remained about the same. The elongation and reduction of 
area decreased as the carbon increased and fell off to zero at about 1.00 
per cent, carbon or a little above. 

9. The average tensile strength developed in these tests may be ex- 
pressed by the following formula for carbon between .30 and .80 per cent : 

T = 40,500 + 1,250 C 
where T = tensile strength in lbs. per sq. in. and C = amount of carbon 
in .01 per cent. 

10. The average yield point developed may be expressed by this for- 
mula, for carbons between .30 and .85 per cent : 

Y = 30,000 + 400 C 
where Y = yield point in lbs. per sq. in. and C = carbon expressed in .01 
per cent. 



188 RAIL. 

11. The average elongation found in tensile test specimens J^-in. 
diameter and 2 in. gage length was about as shown by the following 
formula, for carbons from .30 to 1.00 per cent: 

E = 40 — .38 C 
where E = elongation in per cent, and C = carbon in .01 per cent. 

12. The average elongation found in the tensile test as related to 
the tensile strength, may be expressed by the following formula, for 
tensile strengths between 80,000 and 130,000 lbs. per sq. in : 

T 
E = 52 — 

3,3oo 
where E = elongation in per cent, and T = tensile strength in lbs. per. 
sq. in. 

13. The several formulas given above apply to open hearth steel 
with about .03 per cent, phosphorus and about .70 per cent, manganese. 
They represent the average of the results obtained and individual results 
varied above or below these averages. 

14. In transverse tests of the base, the breaking load increased with 
increase of carbon up to about .80 per cent carbon and then remained 
about the same. The transverse elongation and the sag of flange de- 
creased as the carbon increased. 

15. Tests were made to determine the resistance of the rails to 
flow or side spread of the head under rolling wheel loads. The tests 
were made in a "reciprocating" machine in which a piece of rail is made 
to move to and fro under a wheel that may be loaded as desired by 
means of a lever arrangement. The resistance to spread of head increased 
with increase of carbon up to about .80 per cent, carbon and then remained 
about the same. 

16. Sample micro-photographs were made of each of the carbons 
represented in the series of rails and are presented in the report. 

17. In conclusion it may be said that in this series of rails varying 
in carbon from .32 to .97 per cent., the strength and resistance of the steel 
in the several tests, including the rolling tests, increased with increase of 
carbon up to about .80 or .85 per cent, and then remained about the same. 
The ductility decreased continuously with increase of carbon. 



Appendix B. 

FORMULA FOR DEFLECTION OF RAILS IN 
DROP TEST. 

By M. H. Wickhorst, Engineer of Tests, Rail Committee. 

In Report No. 40 on the "Influence of Carbon on the Properties of 
Rails" some results were given concerning the relation between carbon 
and the deflection of rails in the drop test, and it is proposed to now use 
those results in connection with other drop test results and work out 
a formula by which the deflection in the drop test may be calculated for 
given conditions of rail section, height of drop and composition of the 
steel. 

The relation between carbon and the deflection of the rails is shown 
graphically in Fig. 1, which has been plotted from the results given 



<0 



2.00 
/.60 

f.20 

.60 

40 








ZO .40 .60 .60 /OO 

Car don - percenf 

Fig. 1 — Deflection of Rails as Related to Amount of Carbon. 



in the above-mentioned report. The deflection was practically the same 
with the head in tension as with the base in tension, and the curve repre- 
sents both conditions of testing. It also represents the deflection of the 
side that was below in testing and thus excludes the local indentation 
produced by the tup when the deflection of the upper side is measured. 
It will be noted that the deflection of the rail decreased (or its stiffness 
increased) with increase of carbon and at a decreasing rate. For the 
sake of simplicity, we may. however, assume a straight line variation 
that will be fairly close for usual amounts of carbon in rail steel. The 



Report No. 41, April, 1914. 



189 



190 RAIL. 

section used was the 8o-lb. A. R. A. type A section. (For diagram of 
this section see Proc. Am. Ry. Engrg. Assn., 191 1, Vol. 12, Part 2, page 
168.) The height of drop was 15 ft. and weight of tup was 2,000 lbs. 
Taking the deflection with .50 per cent, carbon as 1.80 in. and with .75 
per cent, carbon as 1.23, the decrease in deflection averaged .0188 in. for 
each .01 per cent, increase in carbon between these limits. 

Report No. 1* showed that for heights of drop usual in the testing 
of rail, the deflection varies directly as the height of drop. 

The writer is not aware of any experimental work showing the rela- 
tion between section of rail and deflection under the drop test, but it 
would seem that the deflection should vary about inversely as the 
moment of inertia, for any given height of drop. 

Starting out with soft steel, the deflection would decrease with each 
increase of hardening material, would increase with increase in height 
of drop and decrease with increase of moment of inertia of the rail 
section. The formula would then take this form : 

h 
d=(K — cC) — 
I 
where 

d = the deflection in inches. 
K = a constant. 

C = the amount of carbon in .01 per cent. 
c = a constant showing the decrease in deflection for each .01 

per cent, increase in carbon, 
h = height of drop of 2,000 lbs., in feet. 
I =: moment of inertia of the rail section. 

We have seen that with amounts of carbon usual in rail steel, and under 
above-mentioned conditions, that 

h 
c — =.0188 

I 

The height of drop used was 15 ft. and the moment of inertia of the 80-lb. 
A. R. A. type A section is 28.8. 
Therefore, 

15 

c = .0188 -= = .0361 

28.8 
If we take from the curve, the deflection of rails with .60 per cent, car- 
bon as 1.50, then 

15 

1.50= (K — .0361 X 60) 

28.8 
K = 5 -05 
The final formula then becomes 

h 
d= (5. 5— .0361C) - . 



♦Proc. Am. Ry. Engrg. Assn. 1911, Vol. 12, Part 2, page 392. 



DEFLECTION FORMULA. 191 

This formula applies to open-hearth steel with about .03 per cent, phos- 
phorus and about .70 per cent, manganese, and for carbons ranging from 
about .45 to .80 per cent. The outline of a formula embodying the effect 
of phosphorus and manganese has been given in Report 15* and at some 
future date, when the effect of these elements has been determined quan- 
titatively, the formula just given can probably be modified to make it more 
complete. It is also understood that although it is assumed that the 
deflection varies inversely as the moment of inertia, it is not known from 
experimental work whether this is strictly so. The above formula applies 
to rails both with head in tension and with base in tension, as both con- 
ditions of testing give just about the same result as regards deflection. 

OTHER DEFLECTION RESULTS. 

In order to compare the deflection as calculated by this formula with 
the deflection as given in the reports of tests shown in the Proceedings of 
the American Railway Engineering Association for the years 191 1 to 1914, 
inclusive, Table 1 has been prepared. In some cases the deflection of 
the under side is given as measured, but in most cases only the deflection 
of the top side was measured, and this included the local indentation of 
the tup, which comparisons have shown to amount to about .15 in. 
in the case of bessemer rails and about .12 in. in the case of open-hearth 
rails with higher carbon. A column is given showing the deflection of 
the under side on this basis. It will be noted that in the case of the 
open-hearth rails, the calculated deflection tends to run a little lower 
than the measured deflection and probably a constant of 5.20 in the for- 
mula, instead of 5.05, would come closer to more of the measured re- 
sults. In one case, however, of 85-lb. A. S. C. E. rail, in which the steel 
was made by the Standard Steel Works at Burnham, Pa., and the rails 
rolled at Sparrows Point, Md., the calculated deflection was considerably 
higher than the measured. In the case of bessemer rails, the calculated 
deflections averaged close to the measured deflections, except in the case 
of two lots of rails made by the Carnegie Steel Company, where the 
calculated deflections were much higher than the measured ones. Why 
there were such large discrepancies in these several cases the writer is 
unable to explain. 

DEFLECTION LIMITS IN SPECIFICATIONS. 

In this connection we may compare the maximum deflection allowed 
by rail specifications with what may be called the normal deflection as 
calculated. Table 2 shows the maximum deflections below which it is 
desired that the deflections of rails remain, as taken from section 14 
of the 1914 Specifications for Carbon Steel Rails of the American Railway 
Engineering Association, and for comparison the calculated normal 



*Proc. Am. Ry. Engrg. Assn. 1911, Vol. 12, Part 2, page 228. 



L92 



RAIL. 



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DEFLECTION FORMULA. 



193 



deflections are also given. The calculations were made according to these 
formulas, namely : 

For Bessemer rails, h 

d= (5.05 — .0361 C) — 
I 
For open-hearth rails, 

h 
d~ (5.20 — .0361 C) — 
I 
As these give the deflection of the under side, .15 inch was added for 
bessemer rails and .12 inch for open-hearth rails, to correspond to the 
measurement contemplated by the specifications, which is the middle ordi- 
nate in a length of 3 feet, and is ordinarily measured as the depression of 
the top side as struck. The calculations in the table were made for the 
following conditions for Bessemer rails : For 70-lb. rail, 16 ft. drop and 
carbon .40 to .50 per cent. ; 80-lb. rail, 17 ft. drop and carbon .40 to .50 per 
cent. ; 90-lb. rail, 17 ft. drop and carbon .45 to .55 per cent. ; 100-lb. rail, 
18-ft. drop and carbon .45 to .55 per cent. For open-hearth rails the same 
heights of drop were used, and carbon amounts as follows: For 70 and 
80 lb. rails, .53 to .66 per cent. ; for 90 and 100-lb. rails, .62 to .75 per cent. 

Table 2 — Deflections. 





Weight 


Moment 


BESSEMER 


OPEN-HEARTH 














Section 


per 


of 




Calculated 




Calculated 




Yard 


Inertia 


Spec'd 
limit 






Spec'd 
limit 






















Max. 


Min. 




Max. 


Min. 


ARA-A 


100 


48. 94^ 


1.65 


1.41 


1.28 


1.45 


1.21 


1.04 


ARAB 


100 


41.30. 


2.05 


1.65 


1.48 | 


1.80 


1.41 


1.20 


ARA-A 


90 


38.70 


1.90 


1.66 


1.49 


1.65 


1.42 


1.21 


ARA-B 


90 


32.30 , 
28.80 i 


2.20 


1.96 


1.76 , 


2.00 


1.68 


1.43 


ARA-A 


80 


2.85 


2.28 


2.06 1 


2.45 


2.06 


1.78 


ARA-B 


80 


25.00 


3.15 


2.60 


2.35 l 


2.85 


2.36 


2.04 


ARA-A 


70 


21 . 0.5 I 


3.50 


2.89 


2.61 . 
2.94 J 


3.10 


2.62 


2.27 


ARAB 


70 


18.60J 


3.85 


3.26 


3.50 


2.95 


2.55 



It will be noted that for Bessemer rails with a range of .10 per 
cent, in carbon, the range in deflection between the normal maximum and 
minimum is .13 inch in the 100-lb. A. R. A. type A rail, and increases with 
increase of deflection to .32 inch in the 70-lb. A. R. A. type B rail. In 
open-hearth rails with a range of .13 per cent, in carbon, the range in 
deflection is greater, running from .17 inch in the 100-lb. A. R. A. type A 
rail to .40 inch in the 70-lb. A. R. A. type B rail. It will also be noted 
that the maximum deflections mentioned by the specifications are con- 
siderably above the normal maximums. The specification limits are in- 
tended to be a check on rails too low in carbon, but it would seem that 
the steel would have to be much too soft to reach these limits, but 
on the other hand the limits probably could not be made too close, as the 
deflection is a function of other variables besides carbon; such as slight 
variations in the spans of supports and section of the rail. 



194 RAIL. 

SUMMARY. 

i. Previous work has shown the influence of carbon and of height 
of drop on the deflection of rails in the drop test and this report incor- 
porates that information into the following deflection formula : 

h 
d= (5-05— -0361 C) — 
I 
where d ^ the deflection in inches of the under side of the rail as tested. 
C = amount of carbon in .01 per cent, 
h = height of drop in feet. 
I = moment of inertia of the rail section. 

2. A comparison of calculated deflections with the results of drop 
tests published in the Proceedings of the American Railway Engineering 
Association for the years ion to 1914, inclusive, shows that with Bessemer 
rails, the calculated and measured deflection agree well in most cases. 
With open-hearth rails, the calculated deflections tended to run a little 
below the measured ones and a constant of 5.20 in the formula instead of 
5.05 fits closer to most of the open-hearth results. With both the Bes- 
semer and open-hearth rails there were, however, some large unexplained 
differences between the calculated and measured deflections. 

3. The above formula gives the deflection of the side that is below 
in testing, but it is more usual to measure the deflection of the top side 
of the rail as tested; that is, measurement is made of the ordinate be- 
tween a three-foot straight edge and the part of the rail where struck 
by the tup, which thus includes the local indentation caused by the tup. 
Comparisons have shown that the deflection of the top side exceeds that 
of the under side by about .12 inch in open-hearth rails and by about .15 
inch in Bessemer rails. 

4. The deflections formulas for the various conditions may be sum- 
marized as follows : 

For open-hearth rails, under side, 

h 
d= (5.20— .0361 C) — 
I 
For open-hearth rails, top side, 

h 

d = (5.20 — .0361 C) \- .12 

I 
For Bessemer rails, under side, 



d — (5.05 — .0361 C) 
r or Bessemer rails, top side, 



h 

d = (5.05 — .0361 C) 1- .15 

I 
5. A table is given comparing the deflection limits shown in the 
"Specifications for Carbon Steel Rails" of the American Railway 
Engineering Association, with the calculated normal deflections for lower 
and upper carbon limits. 



Appendix C. 

STUDY OF A RAIL WITH INTERNAL FISSURES. 

By M. H. Wickhorst, Engineer of Tests, Rail Committee. 

This report covers a study of a rail that broke in service, and whose 
fracture showed a pre-existing internal crack, or ''Transverse Fissure," 
in the head of the rail on the gage side. The examination consisted of 
chemical, physical and microscopic tests, and more especially the exami- 
nation of transverse and longitudinal sections of the rail, which were 
polished with emery, etched or pickled with copper-ammonium chloride 
solution and then repolished with tripoli. This treatment of pickling 
before final polishing serves to open up and make more prominent any 
cracks which may be in the piece of steel under examination. 

The rail which happened to be the subject of this examination was 
a ioo-lb. rail of the P. S. section, made by the Gary Works of the Illi- 
nois Steel Co. It was a "C" rail from heat number 441 18, made in March, 
1910, and branded PS — OH — 10031 — I. S. Co. — Gary Wks — III, 1910. It 
was laid on the "Fort Wayne" road of the Pennsylvania Lines West of 
Pittsburgh in March, 1910, as part of the south rail of track number one, 
on straight line, at 3,546 ft. west of mile-post 162. 

The rail was found broken about 6 ft. from the receiving end on 
January 30, 1914. Holes were drilled in it and angle bars applied im- 
mediately, and February 2, 1914, it was removed from the track. The 
rail had been in service a little less than four years. It was shipped by 
Mr. R. Trimble, Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way, to the Gary Works 
of the Illinois Steel Co., which company kindly made the tests described 
in this report. 

A number of pieces were cut from the rail for the various tests, as 
indicated in Fig. 1. The purposes for which the pieces were used are 
as follows : 

Transverse sections, Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 31 and 42. 

Vertical longitudinal sections, Nos. 2 and 10. 

Horizontal longitudinal sections, Nos. 4, 8, 12, 14 and 23. 

Tensile tests, Nos. 22 and 41. 

The fractured surface of the rail, showing the transverse fissure, is 
shown in Fig. 2. 

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 

Samples for analysis were taken from two locations along the length 
of the rail, one being above the fissure, or 4 ft. 2 in. from the top end 
of the rail, and the other being below the fissure, or 7 ft. 8 in. from the 



Report Xo. 42. July, 1914. 

195 



196 



RAIL. 



top end of the rail. From each location two samples were taken, one 
from the upper corner of the head and the other from the interior of 
the head, near its junction with the web. The results of the analyses 
are given in Table I. 

TABLE I — ANALYSES. 



Sample 1 — Corner of Head 72 

" 1 — Interior of Head 77 

Sample 2 — Corner of Head 72 

" 2 — Interior of Head 77 

A. R.E.A., 1914 

.62 

Specifications to 

.75 



.029 
.032 



.030 
.032 



.04 
Max. 



.044 
.043 



.046 
.043 



Ma 



60 

to 

no 



Si 



.20 
Max. 



top e/>d of ra/7 



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/ 



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□J 



^ 



\ 



2/ 22 



23 



31 
i 

I 



f / 4£ 



\-2'-/"—>r 9-0 " ■+> 7-/0 " 4- : 7-7tf " 

Fig. i — Diagram Showing Pieces Cut from Rail. 

For convenience of comparison the chemical requirements of the 1914 
Specifications of the American Railway Engineering Association are also 
given. It will be noted that the manganese was a little above the specifi- 
cation requirements, and the carbon also shows a trifle above in the inte- 
rior of the head, but otherwise the composition is normal for rail steel. 

TENSILE TESTS. 

Specimens for tensile test were taken from piece of rail No. 22 about 
7 ft. from the top end of the rail and from piece No. 41 about 25 ft. 
from the top end of the rail. From each piece of rail seven tensile speci- 
mens were cut as indicated in Fig. 3. They were T j-in. in diameter for 
a gage length of 2 in., and the ends were turned with shoulders, so as 
to be held in sockets when pulled. Specimens /> and g were from the 



RAIL WITH INTERNAL FISSURES. 



197 



gage side as the rail was in the track. The results of the tensile tests are 
shown in Table 2. 




Fig. 2 — Fracture Showing Transverse Fissure in Head. 



TABLE 2— TENSILE TESTS 


Number 


LOCATION 


Tens. Str. 
Lbs. per 
Sq. Inch 


Per Cent. 
Elong. in 
2 Inches 


Per Cent. 

Reduction 

of Area 


22a 
22b 
22c 
22d 
22e 
22f 
22g 


Corner, Head 


128,000 
131,270 
125,850 
127,400 
127,950 
132,950 
131,700 


14.5 
14.5 
7.5 
15.5 
15.0 
18.0 
16.0 


24.4 
21.6 
8.2 
25.2 
21.2 
26.5 
25.2 


Interior, Head 

Web 

Flange 




41a 
41b 
41c 
41d 
41e 
4 If 
41g 


Corner, Head 


128,300 
130,750 


15.5 
12.5 
5.0 
15.0 
15.0 
16.0 
14.5 


22.4 
21.0 
3.5 
23.4 
21.3 
25.5 
21.7 




Web 


132,400 
127,550 
131,950 
129,000 


Flange 





These tensile strength and ductility results are about normal for new 
rails with .72 carbon, except those from the samples from the interior of 
the head, which showed low elongation and reduction of area, although 
low ductility is sometimes found in samples taken from the interior of 
the head of new rails, even below the region of segregation. 

TRANSVERSE SKCTIONS. 

Ten transverse sections were cut from the rail, eight (Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 
9, 11, 13 and 15) from the upper 6 ft., No. 31 at about the middle of the 



198 



RAIL. 



rail and No. 42 about 26 ft. from the top end. These sections were 
polished with emery, etched with copper-ammonium chloride solution un 
til the deposited copper could be easily wiped off and then finally polished 
with tripoli, discs being used for both the emery and tripoli polishing 
The sections proved very interesting, as the above treatment disclosed 
small cracks in the interior of the head extending to the web. Such 




Fig. 3 — Diagram Showing Locations of Specimens for Tensile Test. 



cracks were not found in the base or in the web except at its junction 
with the head. The cracks were not seen in the first polishing with emery, 
as the grinding action "smeared" them over. They did not. except in a 
few cases, show up after the etching, or pickling with the copper solu- 
tion, but after grinding away the roughened surface with a mild-actine 
polishing material like tripoli they were disclosed. Illustrations of the 
surfaces of Nos. 3, 5, 7 and 15 are shown herewith as Figs. 4. 5. 6 and 7. 



RAIL WITH INTERNAL FISSURES. 



199 




Fig. 4 — Transverse Section of Piece No. 3, Etched and Repoushed 

with Tripoli. 




Fig. 5 — Transverse Section of Piece No. 5, Etched and Repoushed 

with Tripoli. 



200 



RAIL. 




• 







Fig. 6 — Transverse Section of Piece Xo. 7, Etched and Repolished 

with Tripoli. 





Fig. - — Transverse Section of Piece No. 15, Etched and Repolished 

with Tripoli. 



RAIL WITH INTERNAL FISSURES. 



201 



respectively, and are given as the cross-sections which showed the cracks 
most prominently. All the sections examined showed some cracks, al- 
though in some of the sections they were few and small. A com- 
posite diagram showing all the cracks of the 10 sections, collected into 
one section, is presented as Fig. 8, which shows the distribution of 40 
cracks. It will be noted that about two-thirds of the cracks are in the 
lower part of the head, near its junction with the web, and these are 
vertical. There are some cracks located near the middle of the head, 




Fig. 8 — Composite Diagram Showing Forty Cracks in Ten Sections. 



and those close to the vertical axis of the rail section are approximately 
horizontal, while those off to either side are vertical or oblique. They 
seem to occur in about equal numbers on either side of the rail section. 

longitudinal sections. 

A number of longitudinal sections were cut from the rail, both ver- 
tical and horizontal, and were prepared as described above. Vertical sec- 
tions, 6 in. long, were cut from pieces 2 and 10, as shown in Fig. 9. The 
section from the gage side of piece No. 2 showed three longitudinal 
cracks and one transverse crack, and the section from the outer side of 
piece No. 10 showed one longitudinal crack. The other two sections 
showed no cracks. A portion of the section from the gage side of piece 
No. 2 is shown as Fig. 10, showing the transverse crack and one of the 
longitudinal cracks. 

Horizontal longitudinal sections, 6 in. long, were cut from pieces 
Nos. 4, 8, 12 and 14, as shown in Fig. II. The 9- ft. length, No. 23, was 
also used to prepare a horizontal longitudinal section about %-in. from 



202 



RAIL. 



the top of the head. The four 6-in. sections from the lower part of the 
head showed longitudinal cracks of varying lengths near the middle of 
the section. The lengths varied from a fraction of an inch to over 2 in. 
The section from piece No. 8 showed these most prominently and is 
presented here as Fig. 12. The corresponding sections, about %-in. from 
the top, each showed a number of longitudinal cracks about ^4-in. long, 
and also showed from one to three small transverse cracks. 

The 9-ft. section was prepared in three lengths and the surface 
photographed in 29 parts, each with a length of about 4 in. Some of 




Fig. 9 — Diagram of Locations of Vertical Longitudinal Sections. 




Fig. 10 — Vertical Longitudinal Section of Piece No. 2. 



these parts showed small cracks and some were free from cracks. The 
number of distinct cracks (generally fVin. or longer) found in each of 
the parts is shown in Table 3, which lists the longitudinal and transverse 
cracks separately. 

It will be noted from this table that in a length of 9 ft. of the rail 
and in a horizontal plane about J^-in. below the top of the head about 
29 longitudinal and about 12 transverse cracks were found. The longi- 
tudinal cracks were in general from Y\- to -Mi-in. long, and the transverse 



RATI. WITH INTERNAL FISSURES. 



203 




Fig. i i — Diagram of Locations of Horizontal Longitudinal Sections. 




Fig. 12 — Horizontal Longitudinal Section of Piece No. 8, from Lower 

Part of Head. 



TABLE 3— CRACKS IN LONGITUDINAL SECTION 


Part 


Longitudinal 


Transverse 


Part 


Longitudinal 


Transverse 


Number 


Cracks 


Cracks 


Number 


Cracks 


Cracks 


1 


3 




10 


3 


1 


2 


2 




17 


3 


3 


3 






18 


2 


1 


4 


2 




19 






5 


1 




20 






6 






21 






7 


3 




22 






8 


1 


1 


23 






9 






24 


i 


1 


10 






25 






11 






26 






12 






27 


1 


i 


13 


1 


28 


1 


i 


14 


2 


29 


1 




15 


2 3 


Totals 


29 


12 



204 RAIL. 

cracks from %- to ife-in. Part No. 2j is given herewith natural size as 
Fig. 13, showing a longitudinal and a transverse crack. 

MICROSTRUCTURE. 

A microscopic examination was made of the metal at several places 
and was found to be of normal microstructure. No difference was no- 
ticeable between the structure of the metal immediately surrounding the 
cracks and the structure of the body of the metal a short distance away 
from the cracks. 



Fig. 13 — Horizontal Longitudinal Section About i/% Inch Below Top 
of Head, Part 27. 



SUMMARY. 

1. A study was made of a rail that broke in service, and whose 
fracture showed a pre-existing internal crack, or "Transverse Fissure," 
in the head of the rail on the gage side. The examination consisted of 
chemical, physical and microscopic tests, or more especially the examina- 
tion of transverse and longitudinal sections of the rail. 

2. The sections were prepared by polishing with emery, etching, or 
pickling, with copper-ammonium chloride solution and then repolishing 
with tripoli. This treatment disclosed small cracks which remained un- 
noticeable on the first polishing with emery. 

3. The rail was made at Gary in March, 1910, was laid in the same 
month on the "Fort Wayne" road and broke in January, 1914. The 
tests were all made at the Gary Works of the Illinois Steel Co. 

4. According to the chemical analyses, the rail was made of steel of 
about normal composition for rails. 



RAIL WITH INTERNAL FISSURES. 205 

5. Specimens for tensile test were taken from two locations along 
the length of the rail, and seven specimens from each location. The 
tensile strength and ductility were about normal, except in the samples 
from the interior of the head, which showed low elongation and reduc- 
tion of area. 

6. Ten transverse sections were cut from along the length of the rail 
and these were polished, pickled and repolished as explained above. 
These sections each showed from one to six or seven small cracks in the 
head of the rail, mostly in the lower part of the head near its junction 
with the web. No cracks were found in the interior of the web or base. 
A composite diagram is presented showing the locations of 40 cracks 
contained in the 10 sections, and this diagram indicates that the cracks 
occur in about equal numbers on either side of the rail section. 

7. A number of short longitudinal sections, both horizontal and ver- 
tical, were prepared from the rail. Also, a horizontal section, about %-in. 
from the top of the head, was prepared from a length of 9 ft. of the 
rail. These longitudinal sections showed small cracks, both longitudinal 
and transverse, distributed irregularly along the length of the rail. 

8. A microscopic examination was made of the metal at several 
places and was found to be of normal microstructure. No difference was 
noticeable between the structure of the metal immediately surrounding 
the cracks and the structure of the body of the metal a short distance 
away from the cracks. 

9. In conclusion it may be said that the chemical and microscopic 
examinations indicated the metal of this rail to have been of normal 
composition and microstructure for rail steel. The tensile tests showed 
good physical properties in the various parts of the rail section, except in 
the interior of the head, where the ductility was low. Transverse and 
longitudinal sections prepared by polishing, pickling and repolishing, as 
described in the report, disclosed numerous small longitudinal and trans- 
verse cracks in the interior of the head. These were mostly in the lower 
part of the head and no cracks were found in the interior of the web or 
base. The rail had been in service about four years, and this work does not 
show whether the cracks were in the rail when made or whether they de- 
veloped after the rail was put into service. Nor does this investigation 
determine the origin of the cracks, or fissures, which finally cause failure 
of the rail ; but it is believed it has advanced our information on the 
subject. 



Appendix D. 

RAIL FAILURES STATISTICS FOR 1913. 

By M. H. Wickhorst, Engineer of Tests, Rail Committee. 

This report deals with the statistics of rail failures for the year end- 
ing October 31, 1913, furnished by various railroads of the United States 
and Canada in response to a circular sent out by the American Railway 
Association. The information furnished by each railroad showed the 
number of tons laid of each year's rolling from each mill and the total 
number of failures that had occurred in each year's rolling from the 
date laid until October 31, 1913. Heretofore only the failures occurring 
in the year covered by the report were shown, but in this report the total 
failures occurring since the rail was laid are made the basis of compari- 
son, which constitutes an important change from former reports. The 
failures per year of service vary in different years in the life of the rail 
and are, of course, influenced by the density of traffic over the rail. 
The total, or accumulated, failures occurring during its life would there- 
fore constitute a more definite basis of comparison than the failures dur- 
ing any one year, and would probably tend to equalize somewhat the dif- 
ferences caused by different densities of traffic in causing failures. 

The failures were divided into four classes, namely, head, web, base 
and broken. Under each class the number of failures for the various 
ingot positions was shown in some cases. The failures were reported 
by the railroads on American Railway Engineering Association form 
M. W. 408 as revised in 1913 and shown in the Proceedings for 1914, 
Vol. 15, after page 336. A copy of this form somewhat reduced in size 
is given as an insert. 

The tonnages of rail represented by the statistics in this report are 
shown below : 

Year Rolled. Bessemer. Open-Hearth. Total. 

1908 282,945 156,120 439.065 

1909 432,155 461,261 893,416 

1910 564,713 828,111 1,392,824 

1911 276,933 646,809 923.742 

1912 80,146 939,025 1,019,171 

1913 63,472 793,557 857,209 

Report No. 43, August, 1914. 

207 



208 RAIL. 

It is interesting to note, for the 1908 rail, considerably more Besse- 
mer rail is covered by these statistics than Open-Hearth rail, while for 
rail rolled in the year 1912 and 1913 the tonnage of Bessemer rail is" 
comparatively small. The statistics cover only part of the tonnage of all 
rail rolled, but the above figures probably are a good indication of a 
sudden increase in the use of Open-Hearth steel for rail of heavy sec- 
tions in 1909, and the very considerable displacement of Bessemer steel 
by Open-Hearth steel for heavy section rails by 1912. 

The failures were tabulated with particular reference to three things, 
as follows : 

1. The performance of the rails made by the different mills. 

2. The comparative performance of the three types of section: the 

A. R. A. type A, or thick base, high rail; the A. R. A. type B, 
or thick base, low rail, and the A. S. C. E. type, or thin base 
rail. 

3. The comparative performance of rails from different ingot posi- 

tions. 

Probably the most important and abiding use to be made of these 
statistics is to show the performance of each mill's product from year to 
year and to show the improvement, or otherwise, in successive years, 
and the compilation has been made with this important feature in view. 
It is, of course, the desire of all mills to avoid sending out defective 
rails which will fail in track, and they have used particular care in this 
direction in recent years. These records, from year to year, should show 
the success or failure of such efforts, and it is thought they have been a 
strong, and in the new form will be a stronger, incentive for the mills 
to continually strive to reduce the defective rails sent out. 

Most of the large systems responded to our request for statements 
of rail failures, but a few of the larger railroads were unable to furnish 
the information. It is probably true that these statistics become more 
definite in their indication and more general in value the larger the num- 
ber of roads and the larger the tonnage of rails represented, and it is 
desirable, therefore, to have reports from all roads of large mileage. The 
following are among the railroads from which we did not get returns : 

Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. (Total failures not shown.) 

Chicago & Alton R. R. (Total failures not shown.) 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. 

Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Ry. 

Colorado & Southern Ry. 

Delaware & Hudson Co. 

El Paso & Southwestern System. (Total failures not shown.) 

Grand Trunk Pacific Ry. 

Grand Trunk Ry. (Total failures not shown.) 

Illinois Central R. R. (All years' rollings shown together.) 

Intercolonial Ry. 

International & Great Northern Ry. 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 209 

Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Ry. 

Lake Erie & Western R. R. (Total failures not shown.) 

Minneapolis & St. Louis R. R. 

Missouri Pacific Ry. (Total failures not shown.) 

Mobile & Ohio R. R. (All years' rollings shown together.) 

National Railways of Mexico. 

Oregon Railroad & Navigation Co. (Year rolled not shown.) 

Pere Marquette R. R. (Total failures not shown.) 

Texas & Pacific Ry. (Total failures not shown.) 

Wabash R. R. 

Western Pacific Ry. (Total failures not shown.) 

Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. 

The method of compiling the statistics was to make white prints of 
the blanks submitted by the different railroads, after seeing that all tbe 
lines were fully filled out, and then cutting them up along the horizontal 
lines with a large card-cutter, or trimming-board. These strips consti- 
tute the units in the tables, and after sorting in suitable order and col- 
lecting into desired groups the information was transcribed on a type- 
writer into tables, from which zinc cuts were made for printing in the 
report. One sorting of the strips was made to show the failure per- 
formance by mills and another by types of rail sections. The writer 
wishes to acknowledge the efficient and skilful work done by Mr. G. C. 
Palmer, who compiled the tables and diagrams. 

Below is given a list of the tables and diagrams contained in this 
report, listed here for convenience of reference : 

Failures Classified by Mills: 

Table I. Total failures, grouped by mills and years, showing in de- 
tail the weights, sections, specified carbon and tons of rail 
laid ; the total failures to date of report, subdivided be- 
tween the four classes of failure, i. e., head, web, base and 
broken ; the failures per 10,000 tons, and the railroad on 
which the tonnages were laid. 

Table 2. Summary showing tons of rail, total failures and failures 
per 10,000 tons, grouped by years and mills. 

Table 3. Number and percentages of failures in the four classes, 
grouped by mills, years and weights of rail. 

Table 4. Percentages of failures in the four classes, grouped by 
years and mills. 

Table 5. Average weights of rail for the different years and mills, 
compiled from tonnages used in report. 

Fig. 1. Diagram showing failures per 10,000 tons, grouped by years 
and mills. (Compiled from Table 2.) 

Fig. 2. Diagram showing failures per 10,000 tons, grouped by mills 
and years. (Compiled from Table 2.) 

Fig. ,3. Diagram showing percentages of failures in the four classes, 
grouped by years and mills. (Compiled from Table 4.) 



210 RAIL. 

Ranking of Mills: 

Table 6. Comparison of failures for the different mills, showing 
ranking. 

Comparison of Sections: 

Table 7. Total failures, grouped by years, weights and the three 

types of section, and showing same detail as Table 1. 
Table 7-A. Summary showing failures per 10,000 tons grouped by 

the three types of section, years, mills and weights. 
Table 7-B. Summary showing failures per 10,000 tons grouped by 

years, types of sections and mills. 
Table 8. Number and percentages of failures in the four classes, 

grouped by weights and the three types of section, for 

Bessemer rail. 
Table 9. Similar to Table 8, but showing information for Open- 
Hearth rail. 
Table 10. Number and percentages of failures in the four classes, 

grouped by the three types of section, for both Bessemer 

and Open-Hearth rail. 
Table II. Comparison of failures of the three types of section, 

showing their ranking. 
Fig. 4. Diagram showing failures per 10,000 tons for the three types 

of section. (Compiled from Table 10.) 
Fig. 5. Diagram showing failures per 10,000 tons for the different 

weights of rail and the three types of section. (Com- 
piled from Tables 8 and 9.) 
Fig. 6. Diagram showing percentages of failure in the four classes, 

grouped by weights of rail and the three types of section. 

(Compiled from Tables 8 and 9.) 
Fig. 7. Diagram of percentages of failures in the four classes, 

grouped by the three types of section. (Compiled from 

Table 10.) 

Comparison of Weights: 

Table 12. Number and percentages of failures in the four classes, 
grouped by weights, for Bessemer rail. 

Table 13. Number and percentages of failures in the four classes, 
grouped by weights, for Open-Hearth rail. 

Table 14. Comparison of failures by weights of rail, showing rank- 
ing. 

Fig. 8. Diagram showing failures per 10,000 tons by weights. (Com- 
piled from Tables 12 and 13.) 

Fit, r . <)■ Diagram of percentages of failure in the four classes by 
weights. (Compiled from Tables 12 and 13.) 



REVISED FORM M. W. 408. 

STATISTICS OF RAIL FAILURE. 



AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 

Kail Failure! for the Year Ending October 31, 191 















































































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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



211 



Ingot Positions: 

Table 15. Total failures by ingot positions, divided between the four 
classes of failure. 

Table 16. Number and percentages of failures in "A," "B" and 
"lower" rails, grouped by class of failure, mills and years. 

Table 17. Summary of number and percentages of failures in "A," 
"B" and "lower" rails, grouped by class of failure and 
mills. 

Fig. 10. Diagram of percentages of failures in "A," "B" and "lower'' 
rails, grouped by class of failure. (Compiled from 
Table 17.) 

Fig. 11. Diagram of percentages of failures in "A," "B" and "lower" 
rails, grouped by years and mills. (Compiled from per- 
centages given under "totals" column of Table 16.) 
Titanium: 

Table 18. Number and percentages of failures in Bessemer and 
Open-Hearth steel to which ferro-titanium has and has 
not been added. 

Failures per 100 Track Miles: 

Table 19. Summary showing track miles of rail, total failures and 

failures per 100 track miles, grouped by mills. 
Table 20. Summary similar to Table 19, showing information 

grouped by weights of rail and the three types of section. 
Table 21. Summary, grouped by the three types of section. 
Table 22. Summary, grouped by weights of rail. 



FAILURES CLASSIFIED BY MILLS. 

For the purpose of determining the failure performance of the rails 
furnished by the different mills, the statements were first grouped into 
Bessemer and Open-Hearth steel. They were then grouped by steel mills, 
and each mill's tonnages grouped by the year the rail was rolled. Totals 
and averages were obtained for each of these groups. In the final sub- 
division the tonnages were listed according to weight per yard and type 
of section. Lots of less than 1,000 tons — that is, less than 1,000 tons in 
any one year's rolling — were excluded from the tabulation, as they 
would unnecessarily extend the tables and not materially change the 
group totals and averages. 

The detail tabulations by mills and years rolled are given in Table 1, 
sheets 1 to 26, inclusive. A condensed table showing the failures of each 
year's rolling of each mill is given as Table 2. Tt is interesting to note 
from this table the comparative performance of Bessemer and Open- 
Ilearth rail for the several years' rollings. Figuring the failures per 
10,000 tons of Open-Hearth rail as 100 for each of the years 1908, 1909, 
1910 and 191 1, the relative number of failures of Bessemer rails, together 
with the failures per 10,000 tons, is shown below: 



212 RAIL. 

FAILURES OF BESSEMER AND OPEN-HEARTH COMPARED. 

Failures Per 10,000 Tons. Comparative Failures. 

Year Rolled. Open-Hearth. Bessemer. Open-Hearth. Bessemer. 

1908 268.9 302.1 100 112 

1909 109.0 212.4 100 195 

1910 57.6 132.1 100 229 

191 1 374 94-2 100 252 

The rails for 1912 and 1913 are not included in this comparison, as 
they are probably too young for the comparison to be as reliable as for 
the older rails. It will be noted that in the 1908 rolling the failures per 
unit of tonnage were only a little greater for Bessemer than for Open- 
Hearth rails, but in the rollings for the succeeding years the failures for 
the Bessemer rails were from about two to two and one-half times 
greater than for Open-Hearth rails. Comparing the different years, the 
failures per 10,000 tons of Open-Hearth rails are proportionately much 
larger for the year 1908 (approaching the number of Bessemer failures), 
and this suggests the thought that there were faulty practices in the early 
rollings of Open-Hearth rails that were improved upon in later years. 

For convenience of comparison, the failures for each year's rolling 
for each mill are shown graphically in Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 1 shows the 
failures grouped by year rolled, beginning with the 1908 rollings and 
showing the other years' rollings in succession. Fig. 2 shows the failures 
grouped by mills, the various years' rollings of one mill being shown 
together. Looking at the lines representing the failures of Bessemer rail 
in this figure it will be noticed that a great many failures were reported 
for the 1909 Carnegie rail, although more recent rollings of that mill's 
Bessemer rail compare well with the average results from all the mills. 
Considering now the failures of Open-Hearth rail, it will be noted that 
Dominion rails show the greatest number of failures per 10,000 tons 
for four out of five years. The Algoma and Bethlehem mills also show 
high numbers of failures per 10,000 tons. 

In order to show the proportion of failures occurring in the four 
classes of failure, i. e., head, web, base and broken, Table 5, sheets 1 to 
5, inclusive, is submitted, which shows the number of failures in each 
class, together with the per cent, each class is to the total failures in 
the lot, or group, covered. A condensed table showing the percentage 
of failures in each of the four classes for each year's rolling and each 
mill is given as Table 4, and these results are shown graphically in Fig. 
3. The distribution of failures among the several classes varies greatly 
among the individual lots and in some cases even among the group re- 
sults, but a study of the figures and especially of the group figures brings 
out some interesting points. In Bessemer steel, a large proportion of the 
failures of the Illinois and Lackawanna rails were classified as base fail- 
ures and broken rails. 

As a matter of information, the average weights per yard of the 
rails rolled by the several mills, covered by these statistics, are shown in 
Table 5. 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



213 





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216 



RAIL. 



RANKING OF MILLS. 

In order to show more conveniently the relative number of failures 
from each of the mills and to show the ranking of the mills as regards 
the failure performance of the rails rolled by them, Table 6 has been 
prepared. Taking the average number of failures per 10,000 tons of all 
the mills in any year's rolling as ico, the relative number of failures of 
each of the mills is shown for the years 1908, 1909, 1910 and 191 1. The 
later rollings are not included because of being too young. The rank 
of each mill is also shown for each year's rolling. An average was taken 
of the relative failures for the four years' rollings and this then taken 
as showing the average performance of the rails made during 1908 to 
191 1, inclusive. These averages for the various mills may be said to col- 
lect into a focus the information contained in these statistics as to the 
relative failure performance of the rails rolled in the period covered. 
These average relative failures are listed herewith for more convenient 
discussion : 

ROLLINGS OF RAILS, I908 TO ICJII, INCLUSIVE. 



Bessemer. 

Mill. Rank. 

Maryland 1 

Cambria 2 

Lackawanna 3 

Illinois 4 

Carnegie 5 

Algoma 6 



Relative 
Failures. 

56 

71 



161 

191 



Average ." 100 



Open-Hearth. 

Relative 

Mill. Rank. Failures 

Colorado 1 20 

Tennessee 2 26 

Lackawanna 3 52 

Pennsylvania 4 58 

Maryland 5 76 

Carnegie 6 96 

Illinois 7 107 

Cambria 8 136 

Bethlehem 9 210 

Algoma 10 312 

Dominion 11 539 



Average 



The "100" given as "Average," it should be understood, is not ob- 
tained as the average of the column below which it appears, but is taken 
to represent the failure performance of the tonnage covered by these 
statistics of all the mills during the four years represented and for Bes- 
semer and Open-Hearth rail separately. The "Relative Failures" gives 
the number of failures that occurred in the same tonnage that had 100 
failures as an average of the rails of all the mills. 

A striking feature noticeable in this comparison is the very large 
differences between the different mills, especially in the Open-Hearth 
steel, some of which can be attributed, probably, to differences in the 
service to which the rails are subjected, but this can be only a partial 
explanation. j 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 217 

The Carnegie Bessemer rails made a bad showing, due largely to the 
very high number of failures per 10,000 tons of the 1909 rolling. 

COMPARISON OF SECTIONS. 

A retabulation was made of all the failure reports with special refer- 
ence to the matter of the performance of different sections and was di- 
vided into three groups as follows : Thick base, high rails, or the A. R. 
A. type A group ; thick base, low rails, or the A. R. A. type B group, 
and thin base, or A. S. C. E. group. The sections appearing in this re- 
port are shown below under the three groupings : 

LIST OF SECTIONS CLASSIFIED. 

A.R.A.-"A" A.R.A.-"B" A.S.C.E. 

Weights Thick Base Thick Base Thin 

of Rail. High. Low. Base. 

70-lb ARA-"B" ASCE 

72-lb .. ASCE 

NP 

75-lb .. 1.. ASCE 

CS 
MP 

80-lb ARA-"A" ARA-'-B" ASCE 

Dudley 

85-lb AT&SF CP ASCE 

PS CB&Q 

D&RG 
PRR 

90-lb ARA-"A" ARA-"B" ASCE 

AT&SF GN CS 
D&RG 

91-lb .. DL&W 

100-lb ARA-"A" ARA-"B" ASCE 

C&NW Dudley 

P&R NYNH&H 

PS PRR 

101-lb DL&W 

105-lb .. Dudley 

no-lb LV 

The statements were first grouped into Bessemer and Open-Hearth 
steel and then successively by year rolled, weight of rail and type of sec- 
tion. Totals and averages were figured for the final groups. This com- 
pilation is shown in Table 7. sheets 1 to 24, inclusive. A condensed table 
showing the Bessemer failures grouped by weights and the three types 
of section is given as Table 8, and a similar table for the Open-Hearth 
failures as Table 9. These tables show the number of failures divided 



218 RAIL. 

into the four classes of failures (head, web, base and broken), and show 
the percentage that each class was of the total failures in the lot, or 
group. A still further condensation is given in Table 10, which shows 
the failures grouped by the three types of section for each year's rolling 
for both Bessemer and Open-Hearth rails. These general results are 
shown graphically in Fig. 4, and the results grouped by weights and types 
of section in Fig. 5. In looking over the diagrams for Bessemer steel 
it will be noted that the three types of section take turns in showing the 
lowest number of failures per io,oco tons in the different years, indicat- 
ing that design of rail section is not a predominant factor in the failure 
performance of a lot of rails. This report, of course, deals only with 
rail failures and does not in any way cover the matter of rail wear or 
general service performance otherwise. In looking over the diagrams for 
Open-Hearth steel it will be noted the "B" type of section showed the 
highest number of failures per 10,000 tons in all the years. It is prob- 
ably true, though, that this section has been selected for the heaviest 
service and hardest conditions, and for this reason no definite conclusions 
can be drawn as to the different types of section. As between the "A" 
type and the "Thin Base" type of section the one showed the lowest 
number of failures part of the time and the other type showed the lowest 
number in the other years. 

A further comparison of the types of section has been figured out 
and presented in Table 11. This table shows for each year the relative 
number of failures for each type of section compared with the average 
failures per 10,000 tons of all rails taken as 100. According to the aver- 
age for the several years' rollings the lower number of failures occurred 
in the "A" type of section, the "Thin Base'' type gave the next higher 
and the highest number occurred in the "B" type of section. As already 
pointed out, however, this latter type is probably in the most severe and 
heavy service. 

The distribution of the failures among the four classes (head, web, 
base and broken), is shown for the three types of section, grouped by 
-weights and types, in Fig. 6. A condensed diagram showing the failures 
divided into classes and grouped by types of section only is given in 
Fig. 7. While there are large individual differences, as a general average 
the "Thin Base" sections have a somewhat larger proportion of failures 
classified as base breaks and broken rails, as shown by the general sum- 
mary copied herewith from a previous table : 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



219 



AVERAGE OF PERCENTAGES FOR THE SIX YEARS. 

Type of Section. Head. Web. Base. Broken. 
Bessemer. 

ARA-"A" 36 5 6 53 

ARA-"B" 53 6 15 26 

ASCE 26 2 35 2,7 

Average 39 4 19 38 

Open-Hearth. 

ARA-"A" 59 8 5 28 

ARA-"B" 49 11 10 30 

ASCE 33 9 12 46 

Average 47 9 9 35 

It is noticeable, however, in the Open-Hearth results, that the A. R. A. 
type B sections, which have the heaviest base, show almost as high a 
percentage of base breaks as the "Thin Base" sections. 

A regrouping of the failures for the three types of section by years 
rolled and by mills is given in table 7-A, sheets 1 to 4 inclusive, and a 
summary of this information is given as Table 7-B. » 

COMPARISON OF WEIGHTS. 

Table 12 shows the failures of Bessemer rails grouped by weights, 
and Table 13 shows the failures of Open-Hearth rails grouped in a simi- 
lar manner. These results are shown graphically in Fig. 8. A study of 
these tables and diagrams shows considerable variation in the different 
years of the order of the different weights of rail, as regards failures per 
10,000 tons. The heavier rails are generally in heavier and more severe 
service, and it would seem improbable that definite conclusions regarding 
the relative merits of different weights of rail as to failure performance 
in the same service could be drawn from general statistics of this nature. 
It may be said that, under the conditions of use, the failures per 10,000 
tons are of about the same order of magnitude. 

Table 14 has been prepared to show the relative failure performance 
of 85-, 90- and 100-lb. rails. It shows, for the rollings of 1908, 1909, 19 10 
and 191 1, the relative failures of each weight compared with 100 failures 
of all rails of these weights, and also shows the ranking of the different 
weights. Of the Bessemer rails, the 100-lb. showed the lowest relative 
number of failures in each year, but of the Open-Hearth rails this weight 
ranked 2 in one year and 3 in the other three years. Here the conclusion 
indicated is that weight of rail is a minor factor in the matter of rail 
failures. 

Fig. 9 is given to show graphically the distribution of failures among 
the four classes (head, web, base and broken), grouped by weights. 
Among the light weights (70- to 84-lb., inclusive), a good many of the 
percentages show a large proportion of failures as broken rails and base 



220 



RAIL. 




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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



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breaks, and a study of the detail results shows these to have been largely 
of the A. S. C. E. section. 

INGOT POSITIONS. 

Statements of rail failures received from some of the railroads 
showed the ingot positions of the rails, that is, whether "A," "B" or 
"lower" rails of the ingot, and the information has been collected in 
Table 15, sheets 1 to 7, inclusive, grouped by mills and years rolled. A 
condensed table showing the failures for each mill and for each year's 
rolling is given as Table 16, sheets 1 to 3, inclusive. This table shows 
the number and percentages of failures in "A," "B" and "lower" rails 
for each of the four classes of failures. The total failures and their 
percentages for each mill have been recopied and brought together in 
Table 17, and the percentages are again presented graphically, for more 
convenient comparison, as Fig. 10. 

These general results show some interesting comparisons between 
the "A" rail and the other rails of the ingot as regards tendency to failure. 
It will be noted that, among the head failures there were more failures 
of the "A" than of the "B" rails with all the mills except in the case of 
Carnegie Open-Hearth rails. Of all the Bessemer rails tabulated 46 
per cent, of the head failures were in the "A" rail and 17 per cent, in 
the "B" rail, and of the Open-Hearth rails 37 per cent, were in the "A" 
rail and 21 per cent, in the "B" rail. If we assume there were an equal 
number of "A" and "B" rails in service and that the "B" rail has the 
same tendency to failure as those below it in the ingot, we see that in 
the class of head failures the "A" rail failed 2.7 times more than the 
other rails in Bessemer steel and 1.8 times more in Open-Hearth steel. 
Neither assumption is strictly correct since, first, large discards, in some 
cases, were made from the ingot and no "A" rails rolled, and second, 
it is not known that the "B" rail has just the same failure tendency as 
the lower rails, but the assumptions are probably satisfactory for present 
purposes. Considering now the base breaks and broken rails, it will be 
noted that a few more failures occurred in "B" rails than in "A" rails, 
but the difference is not great. In other words, the rails from the sev- 
eral ingot positions showed about the same failure tendency as regards 
base failures and broken rails, as an average result of the rails from all 
mills. 

The failures of the several mill grouped by years and ingot positions 
are shown graphically in Fig. 11. It will be noted of all the failures 
classified there were 2.0 times the number of failures of "A" rails as of 
"B" rails in Bessemer steel, and 1.2 times in Open-Hearth steel. 

TITANIUM. 

Some of the lots of rail were reported as having been treated with 
ferro-titanium, and Table 18 is given showing comparisons between plain 
steel and titanium-treated steel for the same sections rolled in the same 
years. It will be noted that in some cases the treated steel showed the 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 229 

lower number of failures per 10,000 tons, while in other cases the plain 
steel showed the lower number of failures. The average results showing 
failures per 10,000 tons for each year's rolling are copied herewith: 

Bessemer. Open-Hearth. 

Year Rolled. Plain. F. T. Plain. F. T. 

1909 292.1 64.4 .... .... 

1910 J 49-i 126.5 166.3 105.5 

191 1 73-6 273.1 43.8 58.7 

1912 25.6 5.5 8.7 8.1 

The plain steel in some cases showed a lower number of failures than 
the titanium-treated steel, but on the whole the treated steel seems to 
have had less failures than the plain. 

FAILURES PER 100 TRACK MILES. 

It has been thought the failures occurring in a given length of track 
constitute a more equitable basis of comparison than the failures oc- 
curring in a given tonnage, the latter basis being the one used heretofore 
and is used in this report. The "Failures per 100 Track Miles" is a con- 
venient unit and several of the general tables have been recalculated 
from failures per 10,000 tons to failures per 100 track miles as follows: 

Table 19. Grouped by mills, all weights, sections and tonnages. 
Table 20. Grouped by weights and the three types of section for all 

mills and tonnages. 
Table 21. Grouped by the three types of section for all mills, weights 

and tonnages. 
Table 22. Grouped by weights for all mills, sections and tonnages. 

For convenient reference, the number of tons (2,240 lbs.) of rail in 
100 miles of track for the different weights per yard is shown below: 

70-lb 11,000 tons 

72-lb 1 1. 314 tons 

75-lb 11,786 tons 

80-lb 12,571 tons 

85-lb 13,357 tons 

90-lb 14,143 tons 

91-lb 14,300 tons 

100-lb r 5,714 tons 

101-lb 15,871 tons 

105-lb 16,500 tons 

no-lb 17.286 tons 

There are 32,000 33-ft. rails in 100 miles of track; therefore, 320 
failures per 100 miles are equal to one per cent. 

The general conclusions drawn from the comparison made on the 
mileage basis are essentially the same as when deduced from a tonnage 
basis. 



230 RAIL. 

SUMMARY. 

i. Statistics are given of rail failures collected for the year ending 
October 31, 1913, furnished by various railroads of the United States and 
Canada in response to a circular sent out by the American Railway As- 
sociation. The information furnished by each railroad showed the num- 
ber of tons laid of each year's rolling from each mill, and also showed 
the total number of failures that occurred in each year's rolling from the 
date laid until October 31, 1913. 

2. The basis of comparison is the number of failures per 10,000 tons 
from the date laid until October 31, 1913. 

3. The failures were divided into four classes, as head, web, base 
and broken. The ingot positions were divided into "A" rail, "B" rail 
and "lower" rails. 

4. The failures were tabulated with particular reference to three 
things : First, the performance of the rails made by the different mills ; 
second, the comparative performance of the three types of section, the 
A. R. A. type A, or thick base, high rail ; the A. R. A. type B, or thick 
base, low rail, and the A. S. C. E. type, or thin-base rail ; third, the com- 
parative performance of rails, from different ingot positions. 

5. As an average of all the failures tabulated, the failures per 10,000 
tons of Bessemer rails were a little more in the 1908 rolling than the 
failures of Open-Hearth rails. In succeeding years the relative number 
of Bessemer failures increased to about two and one-half times the num- 
ber of Open-Hearth failures in the 1911 rolling. 

6. The failure performance of the rails from the several mills are 
shown, and probably the most striking feature is the large differences be- 
tween the different mills. A table is given showing the ranking, or order 
of rail breakage, of the mills based on the failures per 10,000 tons. Re- 
sults are also given showing the failures of the several mills divided into 
four classes. 

7. A tabulation was made with special reference to the comparative 
failure performance of thick base and thin base rails, as explained above. 
The results indicate that the various types of section have about the same 
failure tendency, although on account nf the differences in service no 
definite conclusions can be drawn as to the different types of section. 
The thin-base rails showed a somewhat larger percentage of failures as 
base breaks and broken rails, although the failures per 10,000 tons were 
about the same. 

8. Comparisons were made of failures by weights of rail, but defi- 
nite conclusions as to the failure performance of different weights of 
rail probably cannot be made from these statistics because of the differ- 
ence of service to which the light and heavy rails are subjected. The 
comparisons indicate that the weight of rail per yard does not greatly 
influence the failures per 10,000 tons. 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 231 

9. A comparison of the rails from the different ingot positions in- 
dicated that, as a general average, the failures classified as head failures 
of the "A," or top rail, were 27 times the failures of the other rails of 
the ingot in Bessemer steel and 1.8 times in Open-Hearth steel. In the 
failures classified as base breaks and broken rails the different rails of the 
ingot showed about the same failure tendency, or a little less in the "A," 
or top rail. 

10. A comparison of rails made of steel treated with titanium with 
those of plain steel showed that in some cases the treated rails gave fewer 
failures per 10,000 tons than the plain rails, and in other cases the plain 
rails gave the smaller number of failures. As a general average the 
titanium-treated rails gave somewhat less failures per 10,000 tons. 

11. It has been thought the failures occurring in a given length of 
track constitute a more equitable basis of comparison than the failures 
occurring in a given tonnage, which is the basis used heretofore. Several 
of the general tables have been recalculated, using failures per 100 miles 
of track as the unit of comparison, and it is expected this basis will be 
adopted for future reports. 

12. The tables showed that, after a period of service of five years, 
as a general average, about l% per cent, of the rails were reported as 
failed. 

13. In conclusion it may be said that there were large differences 
in the failure performance of the rails from different mills. These dif- 
ferences were not great between different types of sections or between 
different weights of rail, taken as a general average, although there were 
large individual differences. The "A," or top rail, of the ingot showed a 
greater tendency toward head failure than the other rails of the ingot, 
but about the same failure tendency as regards base breaks and broken 
rails. 

ion Karpen Building, 
500 S. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago, 111. 



232 



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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



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■r> 




10 tocot- 


O 




rHLO CMrHH 


t>HH H 


-Si 




PM 


to 
1-1 


H 




o 

Eh 






CM 








CM 




0) 


H 








ocn to t- co to 


to 




0>*CMeMCMOlOCMCncn>* 


cn 




h 










lOCOCTl OO c- 


to 




mt-COCht-CMC-OOLOH 


O 




3 






CO 




0> cn *4« CT> t> CO 


cn 




t-t-io^i'3'CMcnHCntOH 


CD 




i-l 


-p 




(3 


















■ 




o 




CO CM CO CO >OlO 


■0 




OMOH^^CHOOCOO 


lO 




Hi 


H 




EH 




CM lOO^Ji CO 


&■ 




rHt-'*^llCT> CMVOLOCMCTI 


■* 




Bo 

i 


K> 








H 


CM 




H 


LO 








O co 


CO O COOCO CM 


H 


lOcOH'tfOCOCMC-t-ii'CO 


IO 




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rH a 
















a) 


f> 






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CM cn ^ cm o <o 


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| 


COiOlOLO^HCMCnrHt-'l 1 


c- 






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rl EH 




cd to o» co co t- 


to 


ohiolohcmiocmlolocm 


m 




a 


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rl 


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tO H >0 






o 
rl 

3 


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a 






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o 




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co <o to t— ^* o 


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I- 




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03 


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cn *# om lo cn 


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^}icn<iLOCMCM'^Cninc-CM 


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CO 


io to too * to 


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CM O H H CM CM CO i-HtOCM 


c- 




a) 




Cft 




O 


19 


CMCMH 


c- 


W 


H H 


<• 




Pi 




H 




Eh 


pp 






K 
o 








H 








cn lo H »o cn to 


CO 


cofc-o-t-CMO^ot-cnoco 


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d 










C> CO O C- CO CO 


E2 




t-CMrHiOlOt>tOCOOOlO 


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lOCO to t- to rH 




t-r»'HcnOLOcniO'*i>Tj< 


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d 
















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o 




<# ■* CO LO O rH 


^ 




t-cOCMt-CncoiOHCniQO 


CO 






(H 




Eh 




CVJCMHLO CO LO 


iO 




Ol CM CM lo cntOCMiOcn 


CM 




• 


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HHH 


LO 




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CO 




£ 






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oioot-*o> 


■* 




CM to HiOHrHLO iO to ^ 


o 




a) 


u 






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« 


o 




to 


O 




rH CM lO LO CD 'J 1 


CM 




H LO CM O LO ■* f- rH 0> CO 


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fH EH 




CO CM HO CO cn 


rH 




in CM t-t»HO Of- LO 


o 




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£,2 
















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cn 




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a) 




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t- 




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t-<i o to ^ o> 


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60 




















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10 


CMtOLOCOlOOLOCn LOO 


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CO^iOHCJOOO LOO 


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to CO O to O iO 


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01001-0 0101* CO CM 


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HLOHHCO OH tOCM 


$ 














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4 




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rH CM LO CO tO CO 


rH 


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cn 




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B 


O 




CM ■* rH ■* CD CM 


M 




HO cm cm io en to 


CD 










a 


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Hen o to to io 


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CD 




LO tO tO tOrH 


to 




to to o 


CM 




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3 

rH 


PhS 










H 






rH 


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CO 


CM t- HH H LO H 


CD 








CO 


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CD 




cn cn co H t- O 


3 




me- to to to to in 


cn 








O 


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lo cn co io to ■* 


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CM 










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cn 




LOO CO CO CM O in 


H 










B 






















e 




t»OCM iO tO tO 


CM 




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cm^i cn e- ^i 


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Algoma, 
Cambria 
Carnegi 
Illinoi 
Lackawa 
Marylan 


■P 




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a) o-h wal-H o k aJ fita 


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Algora 
Bethl 
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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



259 



















Table 3 - Sheet 1 


Homier and Percentages of Failure 

GROUPED I 


s in Head 

Y MTT.T.R AI 


Web and Base 
ID WETOHTS 


and Account Broken 
























Lbs. 
Per 
Yard 


Total 
Tons 


Failures and Percentages 


Fail- 
urea 
Per 
10,000 
Tons 


Hill 


Year 


Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Total 


No. 


* 


No. 


% 


No. 


4! 


no. | a 


No. 






BESSEMER BAH 














Algoma 


1908 


85-9 


7,635 


217 


55 


18 


5 


68 


15 


98 


25 


391 


612.1 


1909 


80-4 
85-9 
90-4 

100-4 


6,785 

20,200 

1,134 

6.082 


4 
190 

3 


3 
32 

6 


3 
13 

5 


2 
2 

10 


19 
86 

7 


15 
15 

14 


102 
299 

36 


80 
51 

70 


128 

668 



51 


188.7 

291.1 

0.0 

100.4 


To' 


als 


33,201 


197 


25 


21 


3 


112 


15 


437 


67 


767 


231.0 


1910 


85-9 
100-4 


16,450 
8,229 


299 
5 


46 
IP. 


22 


3 


120 
6 


18 
12 


216 
31 


35 
76 


667 
41 


399.4 
49.8. 


Totals 


24,679 


304 


43 


22 


3 


126 


19 


247 


35 


698 


282.8 


1911 


85-9 


23,960 


271 


44 


16 


3 


168 


S7 


159 


26 


614 


256.3 


1912 


85-9 


14.430 


91 


53 


6 


4 


45 


37 


27 


16 


169 


117.1 


Cambria 


1908 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


6,000 
9,683 
4.686 


29 

101 

6 


58 
82 
29 


13 
6 
3 


26 

6 

18 


3 
3 

1 


6 
2 
6 


5 

14 

8 


10 

11 

47 


60 

124 

17 


83.1 

129.5 

36.3 


To' 


als 


20.269 


135 


71 


22 


11 


7 


4 


27 


14 


191 


94.2 


1909 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


6,010 
4,043 
8,418 


23 

185 

79 


41 
78 

66 


16 
12 

18 


29 
5 

16 


4 

6 


7 

3 


13 

33 
22 


23 
14 
18 


66 
236 
119 


93.2 
583.7 
141.4 


To 


als 


18.471 


287 


70 


46 


11 


10 


3 


68 


16 


411 


222.5 


1910 


86-9 
90-4 

100-4 


3,694 

6,180 

15.011 


2 

74 

139 


9 
58 
71 


8 
12 
25 


36 
9 

13 


3 

1 


3 

1 


13 
38 
31 


56 
30 
15 


23 
127 
196 


62.2 
205.5 
130.5 


To' 


als 


24.885 


215 


62 


45 


13 


4 


1 


82 


24 


346 


139.0 


1911 


85-9 


2,989 


10 


77 


- 


- 


1 


8 


2 


15 


13 


43.5 


1912 


85-9 


2.164 


3 


75 


1 


25 










4 


18.6 


1913 


85-9 


2,298 





















0.0 


Carnegie 


1908 


86-9 

90-4 

100-4 


31,896 
1,177 
9,475 


853 

62 

134 


91 
78 
50 


21 
11 
22 


2 

14 

8 


2 

1 


: 


59 

6 

112 


7 

8 
42 


936 

" 79 

269 


293.1 
671.2 
283.9 


To 


;als 


42.648 


1.049 


82 


54 


4 


3 


- 


177 


14 


1.283 


301.5 


1909 


86-9 

90-4 

100-4 


16,102 
19,694 
34.696 


1,419 
2,548 

484 


87 
93 
73 


113 
87 

52 


7 

3 
8 


13 
13 
16 


i 

2 


86 
101 
115 


5 

4 

17 


1,631 

2,749 

667 


1013.5 

1395.8 

192.3 


To 


tals 


70.492 


4.451 


88 


252 


5 


42 


1 


302 


6 


5,047 


716.0 


1910 


80-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


1,437 
39,866 
42,795 
34.503 


23 
497 
830 
156 


92 
71 
66 
47 


2 
74 
75 
22 


8 

11 

6 

7 


13 
27 
13 


2 
2 
4 


111 

321 
141 


16 

26 
42 


25 

696 

1,253 

332 


173.9 

174.3 

292.8 

96.2 


To 


;al6 


118.601 


1.506 


66 


173 


7 


53 


2 


673 


2b 


2.305 


194.3 


1911 


80-4 

86-9 

90-4 

100-4 


3,000 
10,001 
26,786 
23,709 


21 
79 

25 


37 
39 
24 


2 

3 

15 

7 


53 
5 
8 
7 


1 
2 
7 
5 


17 

4 
4 
5 


3 
31 
98 
66 


50 
64 
49 
64 


6 

67 

199 

103 


20.0 
57.0 
74.3 
43.4 


J?0 


;als 


63.496 


125 


34 


27 


8 


15 


4 


198 


54 


365 


57.6 


1912 


100-4 


4,098 


1 


20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


80 


5 


12.2 


1913 


85-9 
100-4 


6,822 
26.315 


7 
2 


50 
40 


1 
1 


7 
20 


: 


: 


6 
2 


43 

40 


14 
5 


20.6 
1.9 


Totals 


33.1?7 


9 


47 


2 


11 


- 


- 


8 


42 


19 


5.7 


Illinois 


1908 


70-4 
85-9 
90-4 


1,044 
77,441 
17.751 


1 

1,405 

262 


50 
48 
47 


53 
21 


2 
4 


653 
64 


22 
12 


1 
846 
205 


50 
28 
37 


2 

2,957 

562 


19.0 
381.8 
310.9 


To 


;als 


96,236 


1.668 


48 


74 


2 


717 


20 


1.052 


30 


3.511 


364.8 


1909 


75-9 
80-4 
85-9 
90-4 
100-4 


14,929 
1,043 
50,715 
57,675 
29.019 


10 

209 

129 

18 


6 

30 
23 
10 


6 

25 

17 

6 


3 

4 

3 

3 


13 

66 

146 

47 


7 

9 
26 
27 


151 

403 
271 
104 


84 

57 
48 
60 


180 


703 
663 
175 


120.6 
0.0 

138.6 
97.6 
60.3 


To 


;alB 


153,381 


366 


23 


54 


3 


272 


17 


929 


57 


1.621 


105.7 


1910 


70-4 
75-9 


3,022 
2,076 


1 

246 
19 


3 

12 

37 


18 


1 


534 

1 


27 
2 


29 

1,178 
31 


97 

60 
61 


30 



1,976 

51 


99.3 

0.0 

162.3 

24.4 


90-4 
100-4 


129,773 
20.905 


To 


;als 


155.776 


266 


13 


18 


1 


635 


26 


1,238 


60 


2.057 


132.0 


1911 


70-4 
75-9 
80-4 
85-9 
90-4 
100-4 


5,600 
11,830 

3,670 
16,668 
40,568 
25.671 


2 

26 
34 
66 


7 

16 

8 

36 


6 

13 

8 


3 
3 
4 


1 

36 

63 

6 


4 

22 
IE 

3 


25 
4 

100 
340 
110 


89 
100 
100 
60 
77 
68 


28 

4 

2 

166 

440 

190 


50.0 
3.4 
6.6 

99.6 
108.4 

74.0 


So 


tulr. 


163 407 


127 


15 


26 


3 


96 


12 


681 


70 


630 


79.9 



260 



RAIL. 























Table 3 - Sheet 2 






allures In Head, Web and Base, 
UPED BY MILLS AND WEIGHTS 






tnt Broken 


Humber and Percentages of I 
GRC 


and Ac oox 






Lbs. 
Per 

Yard 


Total 
Tons 




Failures and Percentages 






Fail- 
ure B~ 
Per 
10,000 
Tons 


mi: 


Year 




Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Total 


No. | % 


No. 


% 


No. 


t 


No. 


* 


No. 








BESSEMER RAI1 


















Illinois 


1912 


75-9 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


5,674 
2,685 
8,540 
3.000 


4 

2 
24 


100 

9 
60 


2 


9 


4 


10 


17 
12 


82 
30 


4 



21 

40 


7.1 

0.0 

24.6 

1.T3.3 


Totals 


19,899 


30 


46 


2 


3 


4 


7 


29 


44 


55 


32.7 


1913 


85-9 
90-4 


1,741 
2.766 


1 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 



5.7 
0.0 


To' 


Sl 8 


4.507 


1 


TOO 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2.2 


Lacks wanna 


1908 


80-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


27,655 
11,897 
13,264 
20.197 


14 
216 

265 

£9 


15 
16 
29 
24 


8 

1 

10 


1 
8 


36 

316 

520 

8 


39 
23 
57 

6 


43 
794 
134 

76 


46 
60 
14 
62 


93 

1,334 

920 

123 


33.6 
112.1 
693.6 

60.9 


Totals 


73,013 


524 


21 


19 


1 


880 


36 


1.047 


42 


2.470 


338.3 


1909 


75-9 
80-4 
85-9 
90-4 
100-4 


1,273 
32,891 
20,580 
12,812 
42.317 


1 

6 

16 

39 

47 


2 

e 

33 
32 
36 


1 
2 
7 
5 


1 
4 
6 
4 


22 

30 

5 

15 

31 


47 
41 
10 
12 
23 


24 
37 
25 
60 

49 


51 
50 
53 
50 
37 


47 

74 

48 

121 

132 


369.2 
22.5 
23.3 
94.4 
31.2 


Totals 


109,873 


109 


26 


15 


3 


103 


25 


195 


46 


422 


36.4 


1910 


80-4 
85-9 
90-4 

100-4 


50,346 
19,162 
73,193 
46.898 


32 

9 

104 

66 


4 

9 

21 

22 


3 

3 

16 

22 


3 
3 
7 


541 

8 

156 

116 


71 

8 

31 

40 


190 
80 

227 
91 


26 
80 
45 
31 


766 
100 
503 
295 


152.1 
62.2 
68.7 
62.9 


To 


als 


189.589 


211 


13 


44 


3 


321 


49 


588 


36 


1,664 


87.8 


1911 


80-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


13,567 

2,928 

17,197 

12.996 


10 

4 

19 

16 


2 

66 
13 
64 


1 
1 
2 
2 


17 

1 
8 


439 

13 

1 


82 

9 
4 


84 

1 

112 

6 


16 
17 
77 
24 


534 

6 

146 

25 


393.0 
20.5 
84.9 
19.2 


Totals 


46.708 


49 


7 


6 


1 


453 


64 


203 


28 


711 


152.2 


1912 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


6,885 
3,046 
9,335 


4 
6 


100 
86 


1 


14 


- 


- 


1 


100 


4 

1 
7 


5.8 
3.3 
7.5 


Totals 


19 T 265 


10 


84 


1 


8 


- 


- 


1 


8 


- 12 


6.2 


1913 


90-4 
100-4 


4,160 
3.227 




















e 


0.0 
0.0 


Totals 


7,387 





















0.0 


Maryland 


1908 


70-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


2,827 
16,021 
19,853 

4,543 


1 

170 

366 

24 


100 
62 
94 
63 


22 
3 

2 


8 

1 
5 


6 

1 
1 


2 

3 


76 
19 
11 


28 

5 

29 


l 

274 

389 
38 


3.5 

171.0 

195.9 

83.6 


Totals 


43.244 


561 


80 


27 


4 


8 


1 


106 


16 


702 


162.3 


1909 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


8,171 
17,062 
21,504 


16 
298 
393 


73 
79 
77 


2 
20 
42 


9 
5 

8 


8 
5 


2 

1 


4 
62 
71 


18 
14 
14 


&2 
378 
511 


26.9 
221.5 
237.6 


Totals 


46,737 


707 


77 


64 


7 


13 


1 


127 


16 


911 


194.9 


1910 


70-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


1,031 
23,591 
10,190 
16.371 


57 
93 
79 


57 

72 

49 


11 

4 

27 


11 

3 

17 


11 
3 

1 


11 

2 

1 


21 
30 
53 


21 

23 
33 



100 
130 
160 


6.6 

42.4 

127.5 

97.7 


Totals 


51.183 


229 


59 


42 


11 


15 


4 


104 


26 


390 


76.2 


1911 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


13,324 

3,067 

19,482 


8 

4 

18 


40 
50 
37 


3 

1 
6 


15 
12 
10 


1 
6 


■ 6 

12 


8 

3 

20 


40 
38 
41 


20 

8 

49 


15.0 
26.1 
25.2 


Totals 


35.873 


30 


39 


9 


12 


7 


9 


31 


40 


77 


21.5 


1912 


100-4 


20,289 


4 


6 


24 


34 


28 


40 


14 


iio 


70 


34.5 


1913 


70-4 
J.00^4 


3,420 
1.2,723 


1 


TOO 




: 




. 


_ 


_ 




1 


0.0 
0.8 


Totals 


16,143 


1 


TOO 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.6 






OPEN 


IEAETB 


RAH 














Alpons 


1908 


85-9 


2,645 


76 


82 


- 


- 


12 


13 


4 


5 


92 


361.5 


1909 


80-4 

85-9 

100-4 


2,262 
6,760 
1,560 


1 
124 


20 
81 


2 

1 


1 
50 


1 
7 


20 
5 


3 
20 

1 


60 
13 
60 


5 

153 

2 


22.1 

226.3 

12.8 


Totals 


10.562 


125 


78 


3 


2 


8 


5 


24 


15 


160 


161.2 


1910 


85-9 
100-4 


5,600 
2.276 


184 

1 


77 

100 


6 


3 


17 


7 


32 


IS 


239 

1 


434.5 
4.4 


To;als 


7,778 


185 


77 


6 


3 


17 


7 


32 


13 


240 


308.6 


1911 


65-9 


10 T 760 


117 


66 


4 


2 


25 


14 


31 


18 


177 


164.5 


1912 


85-9 


7,430 


64 


78 


- 


- 


8 


12 


7 


10 


69 


92.9 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



2G1 























Table 


Z - Sheet 3 


Number and Percenta 


ges of Failures in Head 
GROUPED BY MILLS AT 


Wei 


and Base 


and Account Broken 




D WEIGHTS 












Mill 


Year 


Lbs. 
Per 
Yard 


Total 
Tons 


Failures and Percentages 


Fail- 
ures 
Per 
10,000 

Tons 


Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Total 


Ho. 


* 


No. 


% 


Ho. 


% 


Ho. 


t 


No. 






OPED B 


EARTH 


RAII 


















Bethlehem 


1908 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


10,000 

15,645 

1 T 448 


109 

308 

22 


67 
42 
?5 


3 
34 
49 


2 

5 

6<> 


39 

13 

5 


24 
2 
fi- 


12 

371 

12 


7 
61 

13 


163 

726 

88 


163.0 
464.0 
607.7 


Totals 


27.093 


439 


45 


86 


8 


57 


6 


395 


41 


977 


360.6 


1909 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


9,805 
32,389 
11.449 


27 
500 

84 


25 
35 
41 


6 
32 
18 


5 
2 
9 


4 
25 
15 


4 
2 
7 


72 

874 

88 


66 
61 
43 


109 

1,431 

205 


111.6 
441.8 
179.0 


Totals 


53.643 


611 


35 


56 


3 


44 


2 


1.034 


60 


1 745 


325.3 


1910 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 

110-4 


17,187 

26,867 

41,358 

8.015 


36 

65 

333 

36 


31 
40 
46 
42 


17 

8 
40 

1 


14 
5 
6 

1 


13 
13 
17 
11 


11 
8 
2 

14 


51 

77 

336 

37 


44 
47 
46 

43 


117 
163 
726 

86 


68.1 

60.7 

175.6 

106.0 


To- 


ale 


93.427 


470 


43 


66 


6 


54 


5 


501 


46 


1 T 091 


116.8 


1911 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 

110-4 


27,318 
9,014 

36,475 
4.967 


10 

39 

110 

10 


6 
35 
34 
72 


3 

1 

16 

1 


2 

1 
5 
7 


22 

3 
24 

1 


14 
3 
8 
7 


123 

67 

167 

2 


78 
61 
53 
14 


158 

110 

317 

14 


57.8 

122.0 

86.9 

28.2 


Totals 


77.774 


169 


28 


21 


4 


50 


8 


359 


60 


599 


77.0 


1912 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 

110-4 


9,189 
21,042 
40,659 

2.140 


5 

17 

4 


100 
65 
80 


2 
4 


9 

ie 


3 

2 

1 


14 

8 
2Q 


17 

3 


77 
12 


22 
6 

26 
5 


23.9 
2.4 
6.4 

23.3 


Totals 


73.030 


26 


45 


6 


10 


6 


1Q 


20 


35 


68 


7.9 


1913 


70-4 
90-4 

100-4 
110-4 


3,984 
13,820 
19,957 

9.645 


1 


20 


2 


40 


1 


20 


1 


2p 






6 


0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
6.2 


Totals 


47,406 


1 


20 


2 


40 


1 


20 


1 


20 


6 


1.1 


Cambria 


19091 85-9 
1 100-4 


6,468 
4.397 


14 
50 


20 
43 


42 
20 


60 
17 


1 
4 


1 
4 


13 
43 


19 

36 


70 
117 


108.2 
266.1 


Totals 


10.865 


64 


34 


62 


33 


5 


3 


56 


30 


187 


17S.1 


1910 


85-9 
100-4 


4,903 
17.214 


9 
77 


39 
64 


10 
18 


44 
15 


1 
1 


4 
1 


3 
25 


13 
2Q 


23 
121 


46.9 
70.3 


Totals 


22.117 


86 


60 


28 


19 


2 


2 


28 


19 


144 


65.1 


1911 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


12 , 600 
12,959 
18.073 


9 
13 

44 


23 
20 
37 


24 
14 

45 


61 
22 
38 


3 

1 
2 


8 

1 
2 


3 
37 
27 


8 
57 
23 


39 

65 

118 


28.6 
50.1 
65.3 


To 


tals 


43 . 632 


66 


30 


83 


37 


6 


3 


67 


30 


222 


50.9 


1912 


70-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


1,172 

3,300 

19,706 

55.999 


43 


50 


2 

20 


100 
23 


- 


- 


1 
2 

23 


100 
100 

27 


1 

2 

2 

86 


8.5 

6.1 

1.0 

16.4 


Totals 


80.177 


43 


47 


22 


24 


- 


- 


26 


29 


91 


11.3 


191S 


70-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


6,975 
2,559 
9,653 

24,996 


1 
1 


8 

11 


6 

6 


50 

67 


- 


- 


1 
5 
2 


100 
42 
22 


6 

1 

12 

9 


0.0 

3.9 

12.4 

3.6 


Totals 


44,183 


2 


9 


12 


55 


- 


- 


8 


06 


22 


5.0 


Carnegie 


1909 


85-9 
100-4 


6,205 
10.813 


16 
30 


67 
31 


2 
12 


8 
13 


1 


4 


5 
54 


21 

56 


24 
96 


38.7 
88.8 


Totals 


17.018 


46 


38 


14 


12 


1 


1 


59 


49 


120 


70.5 


1910 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


15,000 
7,598 
5.369 


10 
55 
19 


20 
80 
53 


31 
5 

3 


62 
7 
8 


1 


1 


9 
8 

14 


18 
12 
39 


50 
69 
36 


33.3 
90.8 
67.1 


Totals 


27.967 


84 


54 


39 


25 


1 


1 


31 


20 


155 


55.4 


1911 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


2,504 
14,000 

24.988 


3 
20 
21 


43 
19 
25 


4 
21 
36 


67 
20 
42 


1 
2 


1 
2 


64 

26 


60 
31 


7 

106 

85 


28.0 
90.8 
34.0 


To 


kala 


41.492 


44 


22 


61 


31 


3 


1 


90 


46 


198 


47,7 


1912 


80-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


4,751 

3,986 

31,894 

58,375 


5 

13 
15 


100 

59 
27 


6 
18 


27 

33 


1 


2 


3 
21 


14 
38 


5 



22 

56 


10.6 
0.0 
6.9 
9.4 


Totals 


99 f 006 


33 


40 


24 


29 


1 


1 


24 


30 


82 


8.3 


1913 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


4,275 

4,994 

46.532 


1 

3 


50 
43 


1 


14 






1 
3 


50 
43 



7 


4.7 
0.0 
1.6 


To 


;al8 


55.001 


4 


44 


1 


12 


- 


- 


4 


-14 


9 


1.6 































262 



RAIL. 























Table 


3 - Sheet 4 


dumber and Percentages of Failure 


3 in Head, Web and B 

t MILLS AND WEICHTS 


ase, 


and Account Broken 


GROUPED B 








Mill 


Year 


Lbs. 
Per 
Yard 






failures and Percentages 




Fail- 
ures 
Per 
10,000 
Tons 


Tons 


Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Total 


No. | fo 


No. | 


"5 


Ho. "| 


% 


No. | % 


Ho. 














I HEAETH E 
















OPE 


AIL 




Colorado 


1908 


85-9 
90-4 


1,709 
17.130 


1 
21 


9 
42 


1 


2 


2 


4 


10 

26 


91 

52 


11 
50 


64.5 
29.2 


Totals 


18.839 


22 


36 


1 


2 


2 


3 


36 


59 


61 


32.4 


1909 


85-9 
90-4 


20,000 
68.423 


22 

68 


49 
70 


4 
15 


9 
16 


8 

3 


17 
3 


11 
11 


25 
11 


45 
97 


22.5 
14.2 


Total* 


86.423 


90 


63 


19 


13 


11 


8 


22 


16 


142 


16.1 


1910 


85-9 
90-4 


16,572 
142.480 


17 
163 


74 

82 


3 

15 


3 
8 


2 


1 


3 
19 


13 
9 


23 
199 


13.9 
14.0 


Totals 


169.052 


180 


81 


Id 


8 


2 


1 


22 


10 


222 


14.0 


1911 


75-9 
85-9 
90-4 


4,553 

2,855 

87.064 


1 
86 


33 
83 


3 


3 


3 


3 








3 

104 


0.0 
10.5 
11.9 


12 


11 


Totals 


94.472 


87 


81 


3 


3 


3 


3 


14 


13 


107 


11.3 


1912 


75-9 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


11,768 

10,000 

114,375 

3.103 


149 


81 


8 


4 


3 


2 


24 


13 






184 




0.0 

0.0 

16.1 

0.0 


Totals 


139.846 


149 


81 


8 


4 


3 


2 


24 


13 


164 


13.2 


1913 


85-9 
90-4 


10,000 
119.056 


8 


73 








. 


3 


27 



11 


0.0 
0.9 




Tot 


els 


189,056 


8 


73 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


3 


27 


11 


0.9 


Dominion 


1908 


80-4 
85-9 


6,005 
17.820 


79 
1.094 


11 
60 


4 
85 


5 


486 
389 


68 
21 


149 

245 


21 

14 


718 
1.813 


1195.7 
1017.3 


To- 


als 


23.625 


1.173 


46 


89 


4 


675 


35 


394 


lb 


2,531 


1062.3 


1909 


85-9 


9.800 


126 


64 


£4 


12 


22 


11 


■26 


13 


200 


204.1 




1911 


85-9 


4,220 


65 


83 


1 


1 


9 


12 


3 


4 


78 


169.9 


1912 


85-9 


31,570 


574 


57 


40 


4 


288 


88 


105 


11 


1,00* 


319.0 


Illinois 


1909 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


19,069 

171.645 

9.751 


148 

867 

30 


57 
47 
46 


9 
87 

1 


3 
5 
2 


5 
199 

2 


2 

11 

3 


98 

676 

32 


38 
37 
49 


260 

1,829 

65 


136.3 

106.6 

66.6 






Totals 


200.465 


1.045 


49 


97 


4 


206 


9 


806 


38 


2.154 


107,5 


1910 


75-9 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


5,002 

23,816 

228,257 

39.861 


17 

51 

490 

116 


35 
46 
32 
64 


1 

2 

48 

1 


2 
2 
3 

1 


2 

5 

189 

5 


4 

5 

12 

3 


29 

51 

782 

57 


59 
47 
53 
32 


49 

109 

1,509 

179 


98.0 
45.8 
66.1 
44.9 


To 


;als 


296.936 


674 


37 


52 


3 


201 


11 


919 


49 


1.846 


62.2 


1911 


85-9 
90-4 

100-A 


15,967 
74,282 
39.726 


13 
79 

25 


14 
18 
41 


28 

1 


6 

1 


27 
56 
11 


29 
12 

18 


54 

288 

24 


57 
64 
40 


94 

451 

61 


58.8 
60.7 
16.4 




To 


;als 


129.975 


117 


19 


29 


5 


94 


15 


366 


61 


606 


46,6 


1912 


70-4 
80-4 
85-9 
90-4 
100-4 


3,110 

5,182 

16,165 

84,749 

81.523 


3 

7 

12 

18 


100 
23 
50 

45 


3 
4 


_ 


- 


4 

5 


23 

8 

16 


77 
34 
40 


b 

3 
30 
24 
40 


0.0 
5.8 
18.6 
2.9 
4.9 


10 


2 


To 


;als 


190.729 


40 


41 


7 


1 


3 


3 


47 


49 


97 


5.1 


191S 


80-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


4^15 

1,132 

94,851 

111.187 


5 
3 


45 
60 


1 


10 


- 


- 


5 
2 


45 
40 






11 

5 


0.0 

0.0 

11.6 

0.5 




To 


;als 


211.385 


8 


50 


1 


6 


- 


- 


7 


42 


16 


0.8 


Lackawanna 


1908 


90-4 
100-4 






35 
100 


_ 


~ 


_ 


_ 


30 


65 


46 
5 


165.4 
21.5 


2.328 


5 


To 


;als 


5.289 


21 


41 


- 


- 


- 


- 


30 


59 


51 


96.5 


1909 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


6,555 
5,956 
1.598 


11 
6 

33 


73 
35 
48 


2 
3 


13 
4 


1 
1 


7 

6 


1 
10 
33 


7 
69 
48 


15 
17 
69 


22. 9 

28.6 

431.8 


To 


;als 


14.109 


' 50 


49 


5 


E 


2 


2 


44 


44 


101 


71.6 


1910 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


8,633 

13,395 

9.659 


7 
30 
10 


50 
45 
76 


2 

1 


14 
8 


2 
4 

1 


14 
6 
8 


3 
33 

1 


22 

49 

8 


14 
67 

13 


16.2 
50.0 
13.6 


To 


;als 


31.687 


47 


50 


3 


3 


7 


7 


37 


40 


94 


29.7 


1911 


80-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


17,834 

1,394 

15,472 

31.402 


3 

1 

9 

45 


25 

100 

28 

50 


1 

2 

8 


8 

6 

9 


5 

13 

4 


42 

41 
4 


3 

8 
34 


25 

25 
37 


12 

1 

32 

91 


6.7 

7.2 

20.7 

29.0 


To 


;als 


66.102 


58 


43 


11 


8 


22 


16 


45 


33 


136 


20.6 


1912 


70-4 
80-4 


3,404 
21,947 


19 

4 
7 


82 

50 
64 


2 


18 


1 
3 


100 
38 


4 

1 
2 


18 

12 
18 



23 

1 

8 

11 


0.0 

10.6 

1.1 

2.3 

1.9 






90-4 
100-4 


34,384 
59.499 


Tip 


i;als 


128.380 


30 


70 


2 


! 


4 


9 


7 


16 


43 


3.3 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



263 





























Number and Peroenta 


pes of Failures in Head, Web and Base, 

GROUPED BY MILLS ANT WEIGHTS 


and Account Broken 








Mill 


lear 


Lbs. 
Per 
Yard 


Total 
Tone 


Failures and Percentages 


Fail- 
ures 
Per 
10,000 
Tons 




Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Total 




Ho | 


$ 


Ho. 1 


$ 


Ho. | % 


No- 1 ?5 1 


Ho. 








OPEB HEARTH RAI1 








Lackawanna 


1913 


90-4 
100-4 
105-9 


16,736 
30,736 
58.585 


4 
2 


40 
50 


- 


- 


1 
1 


25 

LOO 


6 

1 


60 
25 


10 
4 

1 


6.0 
1.3 
0.2 




Totals 


106,057 


6 


40 


- 


- 


2 


13 


7 


47 


15 


1.4 




Maryland 


1910 


80-4 
85-9 
90-4 

100-4 


7,430 

15,028 

3,747 

3 f 204 


2 

7 

60 

13 


50 
17 
71 
59 


1 
6 

2 


25 
16 

9 


5 
2 


12 

2 


1 
23 
23 

7 


2b 
66 
27 
32 


4 
41 

85 
22 


5.4 

27.3 

226.8 

68.7 




Totals 


29.409 


82 


54 


9 


6 


7 


5 


64 


3b 


152 


51.7 




1911 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


25,890 

3,839 

21 ,180 


8 
53 


47 
63 


3 
1 
4 


19 
6 
5 


5 
6 


31 
7 


8 

8 

21 


bO 
47 
25 


16 
17 
84 


6.2 

44.3 
39.6 




Totals 


50,909 


61 


52 


8 


7 


11 


10 


37 


31 


117 


23.0 




1912 


85-9 

100-4 


4,650 
9.818 


7 


64 


2 


18 


_ 


4 


2 


18 



11 


0.0 
11.2 




To 


als 


14.468 


7 


64 


2 


18 


- 


- 


2 


18 


11 


7.6 




1913 


85-9 
100-4 


7,961 
9,055 








. 


_ 


_ 


1 


100 




1 


0.0 
1.1 




Totals 


17,016 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


100 


1 


0.6 




Fenna. 


1908 


90-4 
100-4 


4,822 
2,194 


21 
1 


92 
8 


1 
2 


4 
17 


1 
5 


4 
42 


4 


33 


23 
12 


47.7 
54.7 




Totals 


■7.016 


22 


63 


3 


9 


6 


17 


4 


11 


35 


49.9 




1909 


85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


12,178 

5,338 

16,340 


17 
22 
70 


55 
63 
52 


10 

3 

43 


32 

9 

33 


" 


: 


4 
10 
22 


13 
28 
16 


31 

35 

136 


25.4 
65.6 
82.6 




Totals 


33,856 


109 


64 


56 


28 


- 


- 


36 


18 


201 


59.3 




1910 


75-9 
80-4 
85-9 
90-4 
100-4 


6,233 
4,070 

20,069 
3,564 

31.764 


10 

1 
87 


37 

100 

40 


1 

45 

8 

83 


1 
92 
29 

38 


19 

1 


24 


61 
4 
9 


7b 

8 

34 

22 


81 
49 
27 

1 
219 


129.9 
120.4 

13.5 
2.8 

69.0 




_ 


48 




To 


;als 


65,700 


98 


26 


137 


37 


20 


b 


122 


32 


377 


57.4 




1911 


80-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


1,610 

1,911 

3,500 

21,338 


6 
11 


33 
30 


8 

2 
6 


80 

11 
16 


2 

1 
5 


20 

6 
13 


9 

15 


50 
41 


10 



18 

37 


62.1 

0.0 

51.4 

17.4 




Tc :als 


28,359 


17 


P.fi 


16 


25 


8 


12 


24 


37 


65 


22.9 




1912 


70-1 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


1,757 
10,475 
31,652 
29,510 


1 
9 


9 
75 


4 
1 

1 


100 
9 
8 


- 


- 


_ 


82 
17 




4 

11 

12 


0.0 
3.8 
3.5 
4.1 




9 
2 




Totals 


73.394 


10 


37 


6 


22 


- 


- 


11 


41 


27 


3.7 




1913 


70-4 

85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


2,984 

1,010 

15.3E4 

37.293 


3 


75 






1 


26 









4 


0.0 
0.0 
0.0 

1.1 




To 


;als 


56,611 


3 


75 


- 


- 


1 


2b 


- 


- 


4 


0.7 




Tennessee 


1908 


75-9 
90-4 


11,188 
60,325 


9 
268 


64 
61 


3 
33 


22 
8 


1 
25 


7 
6 


i 
m 


7 
25 


14 

437 


12.6 
72.4 




Totals 


71.513 


277 


61 


36 


9 


26 


6 


112 


24 


451 


63.1 




1909 


80-4 
86-9 


9,100 
10,000 


2 
12 


50 
92 


: 


- 


1 


2b 


1 
2 

1 


26 

100 

8 


4 

2 

18 


4.4 

£.0 
38.3 














Totals 


22.500 


14 


74 


- 


- 


1 


b 


4 


21 


19 


8.4 




1910 


70-4 
80-4 
85-9 
90-4 


5,470 
27,655 
39,635 
17 , 708 


2 

36 

102 

17 


100 
67 
74 
fll 


5 
9 


8 
7 


12 

4 

1 


19 
3 

5 


10 

23 
3 


16 
16 

14 


E 

63 

138 

El 


3.7 
22.8 

34.8 
11.9 




Totals 


90,468 


167 


70 


14 


6 


17 


e 


36 


16 


£E4 


£4,8 




1911 


70-4 
80-4 
85-9 


5,422 
37,878 
62,814 


30 
35 

3 


50 
67 
76 


8 
3 


14 

6 


8 

5 


14 

10 


13 

9 

1 


22 
17 

26 



69 
62 

4 


0.0 
1C.6 

9.8 
13.4 








90-< 


3,000 




, , Totals 


99 t 114 


68 


59 


11 


1C 


13 


11 


23 


20 


115 


11.6 




1912 


70-4 
80-4 
85-9 
^0-4 


6,177 
16,249 
47,704 

33,465 


1 
19 

E 


14 

60 

46 


2 
4 
2 


29 
11 
18 


4 
1 


11 

9 


4 
11 

3 


57 
28 
27 



7 

38 
11 


0.0 

4.6 
8.0 
3.3 




Totals 


101,695 


25 


46 


E 


U 


5 


9 


18 


32 


E6 


5.6 




1912 


7E-9 
80-4 
65-5 
90-4 


2,700 
16,989 
47 ,434 
58,919 


E 

1 


100 

100 

62 


e 


25 


- 




1 


13 



2 
4 

a 


0.0 
1.2 

0.9 
1.4 




Totals 


1S5.042 


E 


7! 


E 


14 


- 




1 


7 


14 


1.1 





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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



265 















Table 5 






AVERAGE WEIGHTS OP RAIL 






Compiled from Tonnages Used in 


This Report 




Mill 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Average 






BESSEMER 


RAIL 








Algoma 


85.0 


86.4 


90.0 


85.0 


85.0 




86.6 


Cambria 


90.8 


92.9 


95.4 


85.0 


85.0 


85.0 


92.3 


Carnegie 


88.5 


93.8 


91.1 


92.5 


100. 


96.9 


92.3 


Illinois 


85.8 


88.7 


90.8 


88.6 


86.6 


88.1 


88.7 


Lackawanna 


86.8 


89.8 


89.3 


89.6 


93.1 


94.4 


89.5 


Maryland 


87.9 


93.7 


90.5 


93.6 


100.0 


93.6 


92.3 


Average 


87.4 


90.4 


90.5 


90.0 


91.9 


94.7 


90.1 


0PE1I HEARTH RAIL 


Algoma 


85.0 


86.1 


89.4 


85.0 


85.0 




86.2 


Bethlehem 


89.0 


91.4 


95.4 


94.5 


95.6 


96.8 


94.4 


Cambria 




91.1 


96.7 


92.2 


96.5 


92.5 


94.4 


Carnegie 




94.5 


89.2 


95.7 


95.2 


98.0 


95*2 


Colorado 


89.5 


88.8 


89.5 


89.1 


88.6 


89.6 


89.2 


Dominion 


83.7 


85.0 


85.0 


85.0 


85.0 




84.6 


Illinois 




90.0 


90.7 


92.5 


93.3 


94.6 


92.5 


Lackawanna 


94.9 


89.4 


91.8 


92.2 


92.1 


101.3 


94.8 


Maryland 






86.0 


91.8 


95.2 


93.0 


90.9 


Pennsylvania 


93.1 


93.0 


91.1 


96.7 


92.9 


95.7 


93.5 


Tennessee 


87.6 


83.7 


83.5 


82.4 


85.3 


86.4 


84.9 


Average 


87.9 


89.8 


90.2 


90.8 


91.9 


93.8 


91.3 





















Trtle 6 


Comparison of Failures for the Different Mills, Using 100 as the Average of Failures 






of All Mills for Each Year 


s Rolling 






Mill 


19 


B 


19 9 


19 1 





19 1 


1 


Average 


Relative 
Failures 


Rank 


Relative 
Failures 


Rank 


Relative 
Failures 


Rank 


Relative 
Failures 


Rani: 


Relative 
Failures 


Rank 


BESSEMER 


Maryland 


54 


2 


91 


3 


58 


1 


25 


1 


56 


1 


Cambria 


31 


1 


104 


4 


105 


4 


46 


2 


71 


2 


Lackawanna 


112 


4 


18 


1 


66 


2 


161 


5 


89 


3 


Illinois 
Carnegie 


121 
100 


5 
3 


50 
336 


2 

6 


100 


3 


85 
61 


4 
3 


89 
161 


4 
5 


147 


5 


Algoma 


169 


6 


109 


5 


214 


6 


272 


6 


191 


6 


0PF.IJ HEARTH 


Colorado 


12 


1 


15 


2 


24 


1 


30 


1 


20 


1 


Tennessee 


23 


3 


8 


1 


43 


2 


31 


2 


26 


2 


Lackawanna 


36 


4 


66 


5 


52 


3 


55 


3 


52 


3 


Pennsylvania 


19 


2 


54 


3 


100 


6 


61 


4 


50 


4 


.'.'.aryland 
Carnegie 
Illinois 










90 

96 

108 


4 
5 
7 


62 
128 
125 


r 


_. 


5 
6 
7 






65 


4 
6 


7 

6 


96 
107 








Cambria 






150 


8 


113 


8 


156 


e 


136 





i3elhlohei>i 


134 


5 


299 


10 


203 


9 


206 


9 


210 


9 


Algoma 


135 


'6 


159 


7 


536 


10 


440 


10 


312 


10 


Dominion 


395 


7 


137 


9 


1079 


11 


494 


11 


539 


11 



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272 



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O O & O O 


CD 
Ph 




Eh 


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dtH 


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O-H 


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oi as 


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d d g c c! t3 g 
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Ph 

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mS 


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to 




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s 




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fc 


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n) «S g M o co <u 


ID 




rd 


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4* <H 








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1 lfect5B:.H<l><»<D<rl 






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CO tO O C0HCDC0 CO tOCO H 
t-irt 


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n 


O-tf 


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CD 


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274 



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p 


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cd 


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to 


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R Ml. FAILURE STATISTICS. 



279 



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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



285 



Baltimore & Ohio 
it if 

Chicago & Eastern Ills. 

C. B. & Q. 

Rock Island 

Lehigh Valley 

Rock Island 

C. R. R. of N. J. 


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Northern Pacific 
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Penna. - Lines East 

Penna. Lines - K. W. 
Penna. Lines - S. W. 
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Penna. Lines - N. W. 
Penna. Lines - S. W. 
Penna. Lines - N. W. 
Penna. Lines - S. W. 
Vandalia 

Penna. - Lines East 
Cumberland Valley 
Penna. - Lines East 
D. L. & W. 
D. L. & W. 


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KAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



281 









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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



289 



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290 



RAIL. 











Table 


7-A, Sheet 1 


Summary showing Total Failures Covering Rail- Prom Date Rolled to Ootober 31st, 1913 

GROUPED BY THE THREE TYPES OP SECTIONS, YEARS, MILLS AUD HEIGHTS. 


Mill 


Weight 
per 
Yard 


ARA--A" 


ARA-"B" 


ASCE 


Tons 


Failures 


Tons 


Failures 


Tons 


Failures 


_ . , IPer 10 
Iotal M Tons 


Total 


Per 10 
M Tons 


Total 


Per 10 

M Tons 


1 9 9 - Bessemer Rail 


Algoma 


60 

85 

90 

100 








20,200 
1,134 


586 



291.1 
0.0 


6,785 
5,082 


128 
61 


188.7 
100.4 


Totals 








21.354 


568 


275.6 


11.867 


179 


150.8 


Cambria 


85 

90 

100 








6,010 
4,043 
8,418 


66 
236 
119 


93.2 
583.7 
141.4 








Totals 








18.471 


411 


222.5 








Carnegie 


85 

90 

100 


5^298 


265 


500.2 


6,075 
16,584 
29.398 


1,338 

2,535 

402 


2,202.5 

1,628.6 

137.1 


10,027 
3,110 


293 
214 


292.2 
688.1 


Totals 


5,298 


265 


500.2 


52.057 


4,275 


821.2 


13.137 


507 


385.9 


Illinois 


75 
60 
85 
90 
100 


1,043 

38,304 
1.860 




159 
12 


0.0 

41.3 
64.5 


16,054 
14,136 
19.186 


247 
82 

45 


164.1 

58.0 
23.4 


14,929 

36,661 
5,235 
7.973 


180 

466 
322 
118 


120.6 

12T.9 

615.1 
148.0 


Totals 


41.207 


171 


41.5 


48.376 


374 


77.3 


63.798 


1.076 


168.7 


Lackawanna 


75 
80 
85 
90 
100 


6,052 


42 


69.4 


6,892 
4,545 
1.159 


11 
63 
36 


16.0 
138.6 
310.6 


1,273 
32,891 
13,688 

2,215 
41.158 


47 
74 
37 
16 

96 


369.2 
22.5 
27.0 
72.3 
23.3 


Totals 


6.052 


42 


69.4 


12,596 


110 


67.3 


91.225 


270 


29.6 


Maryland 


85 

90 

100 


1.437 


16 


125.3 


5,671 

7,062 

20.067 


17 

186 
493 


30.0 
263.5 
245.6 


2,500 
10,000 


6 
192 


20.0 
192.0 


Totals 


1,437 


18 


125.3 


32.800 


696 


212.2 


12,600 


197 


167.6 


All Mills 


Totals 


53.994 


496 


91.9 


185 . 634 


6.454 


347.1 


192.527 


2.229 


116.6 


1 9 1 - Bessemer Rail 


Algona 


85 
100 








16,450 


657 


399.4 


8.229 


41 


49.8 


Totals 








16.450 


657 


399.4 


8.229 


41 


49.8 


Cambria 


85 

90 

100 








3.694 

4,180 

15.011 


23 
110 
196 


62.3 
263.0 
130.6 


2,000 


17 


85.0 


Totals 








22.885 


329 


143.8 


2.000 


17 


85.0 


Carnegie 


80 

65 

90 

100 


3,175 


180 


566.9 


39,866 
25,437 
34,505 


695 
722 

352 


174.3 

283.8 
96.2 


1,437 

14,183 


25 
351 


173.9 
247.5 


Totals 


3.175 


180 


566.9 


99.806 


1.749 


175.2 


15.620 


376 


240.7 


Illinois 


72 

75 

90 

100 


92,897 


713 


76.7 


5,439 
20,905 


28 

51 


51.5 
24.4 


3,022 

2,076 

31,437 


30 



1,235 


99.3 

0.0 

392.8 


Totals 


92.897 


713 


76.7 


26,344 


79 


30.0 


36.635 


1.265 


346.2 


Lackawanna 


80 
85 
90 
91 
100 


5,000 
1.797 


135 
13 


270.0 
72.3 


7,344 
36,030 

6.123 


14 
113 

7 


19.1 
31.4 

11.4 


60,346 
11,808 
29,022 
3,141 
58.978 


766 

86 

247 

8 

275 


152.3 
72.9 
85.1 
25.4 
70.6 


Totals 


6.797 


148 


217.7 


49.497 


134 


27.1 


133,295 


1,382 


103.7 


Maryland 


70 

65 

90 

100 








5,118 

6,616 

16,371 


20 
126 
160 


39.1 

193.5 

97.7 


1,031 

18,473 

3,574 




80 

2 


0.0 

43.3 

6.6 


Totals 








28,106 


308 


109.6 


23,078 


82 


35. B 


All Mills 


Totals 


1 102.869 


1.041 


101.2 


243.087 


3.256 


133.9 


219.767 


3.163 


144.6 



RAIL FATLURF STATISTICS. 



291 





















Table 


7-A. Sheet 2 




Summary showing Total Failures C< 
GROUPED BY THE THREE TY1 






Rolled to Ootobe 
MILLS AMD WEIGH 








>vering Rail from Date 
>ES OF SECTIONS, YEARS 


r 31st 

TS. 


, 1913 




Mill 


Weight 
per 
Yard 


ARA-"A" 


ARA-"B" 










Tons 


Failures 


Tons 


Failures 


Tons 


Failures 




_ . , 1 Per 10 
Total | m Tons 


Total 


Per 10 
M Tons 


Total 


Per 10 
V. Tons 










1 9 1 1 - Bessemer Rail 


















Aleoma 


85 








23,960 


614 


256.3 










Cambria 


85 














2.989 


13 


43.5 




Carnegie 


80 

85 

90 

100 


3,037 


6 


19.8 


10,001 

8,407 

23.709 


67 

56 
103 


67.0 

66.6 
43.4 


3,000 
15,342 


6 
137 


20.0 
89.3 




Totals 


3.037 


6 


19.8 


42.117 


216 


61.3 


18.342 


143 


77.9 




Illinois 


72 
76 
60 
85 
90 
100 


1,719 


4 


23.2 


14,801 
34,058 
26.671 


161 
49 

190 


109.0 
14.4 
74.0 


5,600 
11,830 
3,670 
1,867 
4,791 


28 

4 

2 

5 

387 


50.0 
3.4 
5.6 

26.7 
807.8 




Totals 


1.719 


4 


23.2 


74.530 


400 


63.7 


27.658 


426 


154.0 




Lackawanna 


80 

85 

90 

100 


3,000 
7.000 


120 
11 


400.0 
15.7 


2,928 
5,658 
3.695 


6 

9 


20.5 

0.6 

24.4 


13,587 

8,539 
2.301 


534 

26 
5 


393.0 

30.6 
21.7 




Totals 


10.000 


131 


131.0 


12.281 


15 


12.2 


24.427 


565 


231.3 




Maryland 


85 
90 

100 


2.561 


7 


27.3 


9,951 

1,667 

15^918 


19 

5 

41 


19.1 
29.9 


3,373 
1,400 

1.003 


1 
3 

1 


3.0 

21.4 
9.9 




25.8 




Totals 


2,561 


7 


27.3 


27,536 


65 


23.6 


6,776 


6 


8.7 




All Mills 


Totals 


17.317 


148 


85.5 


180.424 


1.310 


72.6 


79.192 


1.152 


145.6 










19 9-0] 


>en Hearth Rai! 


L 










Algoma 


80 

85 

100 








6,760 


153 


226.3 


2,262 
1.560 


5 
2 


22.1 
12.8 




Totals 








6.760 


153 


226.3 


3.822 


7 


18.4 




Bethlehem 


85 

90 

91 

100 








2,306 
21,129 

4.541 


37 
995 

91 


160.6 
470.9 

200.4 


7,500 

11,260 
6.908 


72 

436 
114 


96.0 

386.3 
165.0 




Totals 








27.975 


1.123 


401.5 


25.668 


622 


242.3 




Cambria 


85 
100 








2,468 
4,397 


50 
117 


202.6 
266.1 


4,000 


20 


50.0 




Totals 








6.865 


167 


243.3 


4.000 


20 


50.0 




Carnegie 


85 
100 








3,205 
10.813 


22 
96 


68.6 
88.8 


3,000 


2 


6.7 




Totals 








14.018 


118 


84.1 


3.000 


2 


6.7 




Colorado 


85 
90 


68.423 


97 


14.2 








20,000 


45 


22.5 




Totals 


68,423 


97 


14.2 








20,000 


45 


22.5 




Dominion 


86 








9.800 


200 


204,1 










Illinois 


85 

90 

100 


4,493 
131,241 


43 
879 


95.8 
67.0 


5,282 

40,404 

9.751 


111 

950 

65 


210.1 

235.1 

66.6 


9,294 


106 


114.0 




Totals 


135,734 


922 


67.9 


55.437 


1,126 


203.1 


9,294 


106 


114.0 




Lackawanna 


86 
91 

100 








6,555 
1.598 


15 
69 


22.9 
431.8 


5,956 


17 


28.5 




Totals 








8.163 


84 


103.0 


5.956 


17 


26,5 




PennBylTania 


86 
90 

100 


1.513 


2 


13.2 


6,178 

2,838 

10.422 


21 

85 

124 


34.0 

88.1 

119.0 


6,000 
2,600 
4.405 


10 

10 

9 


16.7 

40.0 
20.4 




Totals 


1.513 


2 


13.2 


19.438 


170 


87.5 


12.905 


29 


22.6 




Tennessee 


80 
86 
90 














9,100 

10,000 

3.400 


4 
2 

13 


4.4 

2.0 
38.3 




Tntnl R 














22,600 


19 


8.4 




All Mills 


Totals 


206.670 


1,021 


49.7 


148.446 


3.141 


211.6 


107.145 


867 


80.9 



292 



RAIL. 



















Table 


7-A, Sheet 8 


Summary showing Total Failures Covering Rail from Date 
GROUPED BY THE THREE TYPES OF SECTIOIIS, YEARS, 


Rolled to October 31st 
HILLS AND WEIGHTS. 


, 1915 










ARA-"B" 


ASCE 


Mill 


Weight 
per 
Yard 


ARA-"A" 


Tons 


Failures 


Tons 


Failures 


Tons 


Failures 


Total 


Per 10 

U TonB 


Total 


Per 10 
li Tons 


Total 


Per 10 

15 Tons 






1 9 


1 - Op 


en Eearth Rail 
























Algoma 


85 1 
100 








5,500 


239 


434.5 


2.278 


1 


4.4 








Totals 








5.500 


239 


434.5 


2.278 


1 


4.4 


Bethlehem 


85 

90 

91 

100 

110 


5,000 

20,603 
8.015 


36 

553 

85 


72.0 

267.3 
106.0 


2,677 
4,067 

6,400 


10 
10 

89 


37.4 
24.6 

139.1 


14,516 

17,800 
14,275 


10? 

117 

84 


73. ? 

65.8 
58.9 


Totals 


33.698 


674 


200.0 


13.144 


109 


82.9 


46.585 


308 


66.1 


Cambria 


85 
100 








4,903 
17.214 


23 
121 


46.9 
70.3 








Totals 








22.117 


144 


65.1 








Carnegie 


85 

90 

100 








5,091 
5.369 


57 
36 


112.0 
67.1 


15,000 
2,507 


50 
12 


33.3 
47.9 


Totals 








10.460 


93 


88.9 


17.507 


62 


35.4 


Colorado 


85 
90 


142.480 


199 


14.0 








16,572 


23 


13.9 


Totals 


142.480 


199 


14.0 








16.572 


23 


13.9 


Dominion 


85 








3.570 


222 


621.8 








Illinois 


75 
85 
90 

100 


155,123 
15.997 


447 

43 








116.1 

145.2 
56.0 


5,002 
20,199 


49 
67 


98.0 
33.2 


28.8 
26.9 


3,617 
73,134 
23,864 


42 

1,062 

136 


Totals 


171.120 


490 


28.6 


100.615 


1.240 


123.2 


25.201 


116 


46.0 


Lackawanna 


85 

90 

91 

100 








6,365 
9,140 

3,177 


9 
49 

7 


14.1 
53.6 

22.0 


2,268 

4,255 
6,482 


5 

18 
6 


22.0 

42.3 
9.3 


TotalB 








18.682 


65 


34.8 


13.005 


29 


22.3 


Maryland 


80 

85 

90 

100 


2.019 


1 


5.0 


1,615 
3,747 
1.185 


4 
85 
21 


26.4 
226.8 
177.2 


7,430 
13,513 


4 
37 


5.4 

27.4 


Totals 


2.019 


1 


5.0 


6.447 


110 


170.6 


20.943 


41 


19.6 


Pennsylvania 


75 
80 
85 
90 

100 


2.403 


7 


29.1 


6,569 
23.929 


5 
143 


7.6 
59.8 


6,233 
4,070 
13,500 
3,564 
5.432 


81 
49 
22 

1 
69 


129.9 

120.4 

16.3 

2.8 

127.2 


Totals 


2.403 


7 


29.1 


30.496 


148 


48.5 


32.799 


222 


67.7 


Tennessee 


70 
80 
85 
90 


17,708 


21 


11.9 


5,470 


2 


3.7 


27,655 
39,635 


63 
138 


22.8 
34.8 


Totals 


17,708 


21 


11.9 


5,470 


2 


3.7 


67,290 


201 


29.9 


All Hills 


TotalB 


369.428 


1.392 


37.7 


216.503 


2.372 


109.6 


242.180 


1.003 


41.4 






1 9 


11-0 


pen Hearth Rai 


L 








Algoma 


85 








10.760 


177 


164.5 








Bethlehem 


65 

90 

91 

100 

101 

110 


11,606 
4.967 


209 
14 


180.1 
28.2 


4,617 
8,710 


36 
53 


77.8 
o 60.8 


27,318 
7,052 
1.962 

11.542 


158 
95 
15 
19 


57.8 

134.9 

76.6 

16.5 


Totals 


16.573 


223 


134.6 


13.327 


89 


66.8 


47.874 


287 


59.9 


Cambria 


85 

90 

100 








9,210 
12,959 
18,073 


34 

65 

118 


36.9 
50.1 
65.3 


3,390 


6 


14.8 


Totals 








40,242 


217 


53.9 


3,390 


5 


14.8 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



293 



















Table 


7-A. Sheet 4 


Summary showing Total Failures Covering Bail from Bate Rolled to Ootobar 31st, 1913 
GROUPED BY THE THREE TYPES OP SECTIOHS, YEARS, lOLLS AND WEIGHTS. 


Mill 


Weight 
per 
Yard 


. ARA-»A" 


ARA-"B" 


ASCE 


Tons 


Failures 


Tons 


Failures 


Tone 


Failures 


Total 1 ii Tons 


Total! u TonB 


Total u Tona 


1 9 1 1 - Open Hearth - Continued 


Carnegie 


86 

90 

100 


4,729 
1.024 


21 
2 


44.5 
19.5 


2,504 
2,727 

23.964 


7 
67 
83 


26.0 

245.7 

34.6 


6,544 


18 


27.5 


Totals 


5.753 


23 


40.1 


29.195 


167 


53.8 


6.544 


18 


27.6 


Colorado 


75 
86 
90 


87.064 


104 


12.0 








4,653 
2,855 



3 


0.0 
10.6 


Totals 


87,064 


104 


12.0 








7,408 


3 


4.0 


Dominion 


85 








4.220 


78 


184.9 








Illlnoie 


85 

90 

100 


16,535 


142 


85.9 


1,523 
43,236 
21.569 


21 
228 

44 


137.9 
62.8 
20.4 


14,444 
14,512 
18.167 


73 
81 
17 


Bo. 6 

55.8 

9.4 


Totals 


16.636 


142 


85.9 


66.327 


293 


44.2 


47.113 


171 


36.3 


Lackawanna 


80 
85 
90 
91 
100 
101 


1,072 


10 


93 .3 


1,394 
1,423 

1,869 

3.369 


1 
1 

33 
11 


7.2 
7.0 

177.5 
32.6 


17,834 

1,564 
12,485 
25,102 


12 

10 
21 
37 


6.7 

63.9 
16.8 
14.7 


Totals 


1.072 


10 


93.3 


8.045 


46 


57.2 


56.986 


80 


14.0 


Maryland 


86 
90 

100 








1,688 

3,839 

12.628 


5 
17 

65 


31.6 
44.3 

51.6 


24,302 
8.652 


11 

19 


4.5 
22.2 


Totals 








18.055 


87 


48.2 


32.854 


SO 


9.1 


Pennsylvania 


80 
85 
90 

100 
101 


1,649 


3 


18.2 


1,911 

12,994 
1.788 




20 

1 


0.0 

16.4 
6.6 


1,610 

3,500 
4,907 


10 

18 
IS 


62.1 

51.4 
26.5 


Totals 


1.649 


3 


18.2 


16.693 


21 


12.6 


10.017 


41 


41.0 


Tennessee 


70 
80 
86 
90 


3.000 


4 


13.4 


5,422 





0.0 


37,878 
52,814 


69 
52 


15.6 
9.9 


Totals 


3.000 


4 


13.4 


6.422 





0.0 


90,692 


111 


12,2 


All Mills 


Totals 


131.646 


609 


38.7 


212.286 


1.166 


64.9 


302.877 


746 


24.7 

























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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



295 

































Table 8 


Humber and Percentages of Failures 


in Head, Web and 


Bat 


e, and Account Broken 


GROUPED BY WEIGHTS AMI 


THE THREE TYPEE 


OF 


SECTIONS 






Lbs. 


Type 








Failures and PercentaRes 






Fail- 


Year 


Per 


of 


Total 




















ures 
Per 


Head 


Web 


Base 




Broken 


Total 




Yard 


Section 


Tons 

1 




















10,000 

Tons 


No. 


i 


No. 


i 


Ho. 


i 


No. 




No. 






BEL 


SEMER 


RAIL 
















1908 


70-4 


ASCE 


3,871 


2 


67 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


33 


3 


7.8 




80-4 


ASCE 


27,656 


14 


15 


- 


- 


36 


39 


45 


46 


93 


33.6 




86-9 


ARA-"B" 


9,056 


217 


55 


18 


5 


58 


IE 


98 


25 


391 


431.7 






ASCE 


141,834 


2,673 


48 


117 


2 


980 


lb 


1,780 


32 


5,550 


391.8 




90-4 


AEA-"A" 


1,574 


24 


46 


4 


8 


2 


4 


22 


42 


52 


330.3 






AEA-"B" 


38,627 


534 


42 


10 


- 


568 


43 


204 


15 


1,316 


340.7 






ASCE 


21,427 


498 


71 


28 


4 


16 


3 


152 


22 


696 


324.8 




100-4 


ARA-"B" 


4,174 


118 


47 


24 


10 


1 


- 


108 


43 


251 


601.3 






ASCE 


34.727 


74 


38 


13 


7 


10 


5 


99 


50 


196 


56.4 


Totals 


282.945 


4.154 


47 


214 


3 


1.673 


20 


2,507 


30 


8.540 


302.1 


1909 


75-9 
80-4 


ASCE 
ARA-"A" 


16,202 
1,043 


11 


5 


6 


3 


35 


15 


175 


77 


227 



140.3 
0.0 






ASCE 


39,676 


10 


5 


4 


2 


49 


24 


139 


69 


202 


50.9 




85-9 


ARA-"B" 


59,902 


1,549 


69 


151 


7 


115 


5 


442 


19 


2,267 


377.0 






ASCE 


61,876 


324 


41 


20 


3 


59 


7 


388 


49 


791 


127.8 




90-4 


ARA-"A" 


44,356 


54 


27 


18 


9 


12 


6 


117 


58 


201 


45.3 






AEA-"B" 


47,504 


2,780 


90 


91 


5 


14 


- 


217 


7 


3,102 


652.9 






ASCE 


20,560 


365 


49 


34 


5 


162 


21 


183 


25 


744 


361.9 




100-4 


ARA-"A" 


8,595 


256 


87 


16 


5 


7 


3 


16 


5 


295 


343.4 






AEA-"B" 


78,228 


745 


68 


103 


9 


16 


2 


231 


21 


1,096 


139.9 






ASCE 


54.213 


23 


9 


9 


4 


83 


31 


150 


56 


265 


48.8 


Totals 


432.155 


6.117 


67 


452 


5 


552 


6 


2,058 


22 


9.179 


212.4 


1910 


70-4 
75-9 


ASCE 

ASCE 


4,053 
2,076 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


29 


97 


30 



74.0 
0.0 




80-4 


ASCE 


51 , 783 


55 


7 


5 


1 


541 


68 


190 


24 


791 


152.7 




85-9 


AEA-"B" 


72,472 


809 


57 


114 


8 


134 


10 


352 


25 


1,409 


194.4 






ASCE 


30,281 


55 


33 


4 


3 


18 


11 


89 


53 


166 


54.8 




90-4 


ARA-"A" 


101,072 


200 


20 


20 


2 


64 


6 


744 


72 


1,028 


101.7 






ARA-"B" 


77,702 


727 


66 


74 


7 


26 


2 


274 


25 


1,101 


141.7 






ASCE 


83,367 


420 


23 


31 


2 


633 


34 


776 


41 


1,860 


223.1 




100-4 


ARA-"A" 


1,797 


3 


23 


1 


8 


3 


23 


6 


46 


13 


72.3 






AEA-"B" 


92,913 


396 


53 


76 


10 


16 


2 


258 


35 


746 


80.3 






ASCE 


47.207 


65 


21 


19 


6 


118 


37 


114 


36 


316 


66.9 


Totals 


564.713 


3.731 


37 


344 


4 


1.553 


21 


2.832 


38 


7.460 


132.1 


1911 


70-4 


ASCE 


5,600 


2 


7 


- 


- 


1 


4 


25 


89 


28 


50.0 




75-9 


ASCE 


11,830 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


100 


4 


3.4 




80-4 


ASCE 


20,157 


10 


2 


3 


1 


440 


81 


89 


16 


542 


268.9 




85-9 


ARA- n B" 


61,641 


527 


38 


28 


3 


204 


24 


290 


35 


857 


139.0 






ASCE 


8,229 


12 


63 


- 


- 


4 


21 


3 


16 


19 


23.1 




90-4 


AEA-"A" 


7,756 


14 


11 


2 


1 


12 


9 


102 


79 


130 


167.6 






ARA-"B" 


49,790 


23 


21 


10 


9 


9 


8 


68 


62 


110 


22.1 






ASCE 


30,072 


99 


18 


19 


4 


35 


9 


3C3 


69 


555 


183.9 




100-4 


ARA-"A" 


9,561 


10 


55 


2 


11 


5 


28 


1 


6 


18 


18.8 






ARA-"3" 


68,993 


115 


33 


20 


6 


IS 


4 


197 


57 


343 


49.7 






ASCE 


3.304 


2 


33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


67 


6 


18.1 


Totals 


276.933 


612 


24 


84 


3 


740 


28 


1.174 


45 


E . 010 


94.2 


1912 


75-9 


ASCE 


5,674 


4 


100 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


7.1 




85-9 


ARA-"B" 


18,979 


94 


54 


7 


4 


45 


26 


27 


16 


173 


91.2 






ASCE 


7,185 


4 


TOO 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


4 


5.6 




90-4 


ARA-"B" 


11,506 


2 


9 


2 


9 


_ 


_ 


ie 


82 


22 


19.0 




100-4 


ARA-"A" 


3,064 





















0.0 






ARA-"B" 


31,988 


35 


43 


25 


30 


4 


5 


18 


22 


82 


25.6 






ASCE 


1.670 


- 


- 


- 


- 


28 


70 


12 


30 


40 


239.5 


Totals 


80.146 


139 


43 


34 


10 


77 


24 


75 


23 


325 


40.5 


1913 


70-4 


ARA-"B" 


3,420 





















0.0 




85-9 


ARA-"B" 


6,822 


7 


50 


1 


7 


- 


- 


6 


43 


14 


20.5 






ASCE 


4.039 


1 


100 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


. 


- 


1 


2.5 




90-4 


ARA-"B"| 6.926 





















0.0 




100-4 


ARA-"B"| 42.265 


3 


50 


1 


17 


- 


- 


2 


33 


6 


1.3 


Total3 H 03.472 


11 


52 


2 


10 


- 


- 


8 


.38 


21 


3.3 



296 



RAIL. 



Number and Percentages of Failures 


in Head, Web and Base, and Account Broken 


GROUPED BY T 


(EIGHTS 


Aiil 


THE THREE TYPES OF 


SECTIONS 








Lbs. 


Type 








Failures and Percentages 






Fail- 


Year 


Per 


of 


Total 




















ures 

Per 

10,000 

Tons 


Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Total 




Yard 


Section 




Ho. 


% 


No. 


S 


NO. 


* 


No. 


* 


No. 


OPEN HEARTH KAIi 


1908 


76-9 


ASCE 


11,188 


9 


65 


3 


21 


1 


7 


1 


7 


14 


12.5 




80-4 
85-9 


ASCE 
ARA-"B" 


6,005 
20,865 


79 


11 


4 


- 


486 
401 


68 
21 


149 

249 


21 
13 


718 
1,905 


1195.7 
935.9 


1,170 


61 


85 


5 






ASCE 


11,709 


110 


63 


3 


2 


39 


22 


22 


13 


174 


148.6 




90-4 


ARA-"B" 

ASCE 

ASCE 


11,277 

89,606 

5.970 


248 

386 

28 


61 
44 
27 


24 
45 

51 


6 

5 
49 


3 
38 
10 


1 
4 
9 


128 

41C 

16 


32 
47 

15 


403 
879 
105 


357.4 

98.1 

175.9 




100-4 


Totals 


156.120 


2.030 


49 


215 


5 


978 


23 


975 


23 


4.198 


268.9 


1909 


80-4 


ASCE 


11,362 


3 


33 


- 


- 


2 


22 


4 


45 


9 


7.9 




85-9 


ARA-"A" 


4,493 


33 


76 


2 


5 


2 


5 


6 


14 


43 


95.8 






ARA- n B" 


42,555 


408 


67 


73 


12 


34 


6 


9- 


15 


609 


143.1 






ASCE 


59,794 


66 


26 


26 


10 


13 


5 


152 


59 


257 


42.9 




90-4 


ARA-"A" 


199,664 


677 


69 


96 


10 


33 


4 


170 


17 


976 


48.9 






AKA-"B** 


64,371 


683 


35 


33 


2 


164 


9 


1,070 


54 


1,970 


306.0 






ASCE 


23,116 


115 


24 


8 


2 


11 


2 


342 


72 


476 


205.9 




100-4 


ARA-"A" 


1,513 


1 


50 


1 


50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


13.2 






ARA-"B" 


41,522 


255 


45 


76 


14 


6 


1 


225 


40 


562 


135.3 






ASCE 


12.873 


41 


33 


21 


17 


15 


12 


48 


38 


125 


97.1 


Totals 


461.261 


£.282 


45 


336 


7 


300 


6 


2.111 


42 


5.029 


109.0 


1910 


70-4 


ARA-"B" 


5,470 


2 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


2 


3.7 




75-9 


ASCE 


11,235 


17 


13 


2 


2 


21 


16 


90 


69 


130 


115.7 




80-4 


ASCE 


39,155 


36 


33 


51 


44 


12 


10 


15 


13 


116 


29.6 




85-9 


ARA-"B" 


34,716 


409 


74 


40 


7 


36 


6 


69 


13 


554 


159.6 






ASCE 


135,197 


197 


44 


66 


15 


27 


6 


159 


35 


449 


33.2 




90-4 


AHA-"A" 


320,311 


480 


69 


57 


8 


44 


6 


122 


17 


703 


21.9 






AEA-"B" 


95,179 


357 


28 


11 


1 


153 


12 


742 


59 


1,263 


132.7 






ASCE 


2e,126 


44 


30 


8 


5 


15 


10 


81 


55 


146 


52.6 




100-4 


AEA-"A n 


41,102 


300 


50 


18 


3 


9 


1 


277 


46 


604 


147.0 






AEA-"B" 


81,138 


333 


60 


49 


9 


5 


1 


166 


30 


553 


68.3 






ASCE 


28,467 


23 


14 


81 


51 


11 


7 


45 


28 


160 


56.2 




110-4 


AHA- "A" 


8.015 


36 


42 


1 


1 


11 


13 


37 


44 


85 


106.0 


Totals 


828.111 


2.236 


47 


384 


8 


344 


7 


1.803 


38 


4.767 


57.6 


1911 


70-4 
75-9 


ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


5,422 
4,553 






















6.0 
0.0 




80-4 


ASCE 


57,322 


33 


41 


17 


21 


15 


18 


16 


20 


81 


14.1 




65-9 


AEA-"B" 


33,110 


204 


63 


34 


10 


40 


13 


45 


14 


323 


97.6 






ASCE 


125,123 


50 


16 


8 


3 


56 


19 


188 


62 


302 


24.1 




90-4 


ARA-"A" 


111,328 


126 


47 


17 


6 


24 


9 


104 


38 


271 


24.3 






ARA-"B" 


64,163 


79 


21 


27 


7 


35 


9 


237 


63 


378 


58.9 






ASCE 


47,619 


58 


23 


28 


11 


19 


7 


153 


59 


258 


54.2 




100-4 


ARA-"A" 


15,351 


85 


38 


8 


4 


13 


6 


118 


52 


224 


145.9 






ARA-"B" 


109,571 


203 


44 


98 


21 


19 


4 


144 


31 


464 


42.3 






ASCE 


68,260 


21 


20 


10 


10 


22 


21 


52 


49 


105 


15.4 




110-4 


ARA-"A" 


4.967 


10 


71 


1 


7 


1 


7 


2 


15 


14 


28.2 


Totals 


646.809 


869 


36 


248 


10 


244 


10 


1.059 


44 


2.420 


37.4- 


1912 


70-4 


AEA-"B" 


5,177 





















0.0. 






ASCE 


9,443 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


1 


100 


1 


1.0 




75-9 


ASCE 


11,768 





















0.0 




80-4 


ARA-"B" 


4,751 


5 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


5 


10.5 






ASCE 


42,378 


23 


70 


2 


6 


_ 


_ 


8 


24 


33 


7.8 




85-9 


ARA-"B" 


53,151 


635 


59 


40 


4 


296 


27 


114 


10 


1,085 


204.1 






ASCE 


100,464 


19 


22 


10 


11 


8 


9 


51 


58 


68 


8.8 




90-4 


AP.A-"A" 


128,183 


74 


73 


9 


9 


1 


1 


17 


17 


101 


7.9 






ARA-"B" 


208, 444 


109 


73 


13 


8 


6 


4 


23 


15 


151 


7.3 






ASCE 


34,640 


6 


40 


- 


- 


1 


7 


8 


53 


15 


4.3 




100-4 


AKA-"A" 


63,406 


16 


40 


13 


32 


- 


- 


11 


28 


40 


6.3 






ARA-"B" 


205,611 


95 


50 


36 


19 


4 


2 


55 


29 


190 


9.2 






ASCE 


69,469 


5 


45 


2 


18 


1 


9 


3 


28 


11 


1.6 




110-4 


AEA-"A" 


2.140 


4 


80 


- 


- 


1 


20 


- 


- 


5 


23.3 


Totals 


939.025 


991 


57 


125 


6 


318 


19 


291 


16 


1.725 


IB. 4 


1912 


70-4 
75-9 


ASCE 
ASCE 


13 ,943 
2,700 






















0.0 
0.0 




80-4 


ASCE 


21,204 


2 


100 














2 


0.9 




85-9 


AEA-"B" 


1,132 





















0.0 






ASCE 


73,239 


5 


71 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


29 


7 


1.0 




90-4 


AHA-"A" 


166,907 


9 


56 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


44 


16 


1.0 






ABA-"B" 


142,051 


10 


38 


9 


35 


- 


- 


7 


27 


26 


1.8 






ASCE 


24,395 


4 


40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


60 


10 


4.1 




100-4 


ARA-"A" 


54,771 


4 


57 


1 


14 


2 


29 


- 


- 


7 


1.3 






ARA-"B" 


183,561 


8 


36 


6 


28 


- 


- 


8 


36 


22 


1.2 






ASCE 


41,424 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


100 


1 


0.2 




105-9 


ASCE 


58,565 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


100 


- 


- 


] 


0.2 




110-4 


AIUt"A" 


0.645 


1 


?.o 


2 


40 


1 


20 


1 


20 


5 


5 2 


Totals 


79". 557 


43 


45 


18 


18 


4 


4 


C-2 


33 


i<7 


1.8 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



297 

























Table 10 


Number and Percentages of Failures in Head, Web and Base, and Account Broken 
GROUPED BY THE THREE TYPES OF SECTIONS 


Year 


Type 

of 

Section 


Total 
Tona 


Failures and Percentages 


Fail- 
ures 
Per 
10,000 

Tons 


Head 


Wet 


Base 


Broken 


Total 


No. | % 


No. | % 


No. | fo 


No. | % 


No. 


BESSEltER RAIL 


1908 


ARA-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


1,574 

51,857 
229,514 


24 

869 
3.261 


46 
44 
49 


4 

52 

158 


8 

3 
3 


2 

627 
1.044 


4 

32 
16 


22 

410 
2.075 


42 
21 
32 


52 
1,958 
6.538 


530.3 
377.6 
284.9 


Totals 


282,945 


4,154 


47 


214 


3 


1.673 


20 


2.507 


30 


8,548 


302.1 


1909 


ARA-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


53,994 
185,634 
192.527 


310 

5,074 

733 


62 
79 
32 


34 
345 

73 


7 

5 
3 


19 
145 
388 


4 

2 

18 


133 

890 

1.035 


27 
14 

47 


496 
6,454 

2,229 


91.9 
347.1 

115.8 


Totals 


432,155 


6,117 


67 


452 


5 


552 


6 


2,058 


22 


9,179 


212.4 


1910 


ARA-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


102,869 
243,087 
218.757 


203 
1,932 

596 


19 
60 
19 


21 

264 
59 


2 
8 
2 


67 

176 

1.310 


6 

5 

41 


750 

884 

1.198 


73 
27 
38 


1,041 
3,256 
3.163 


101.2 
153.9 
144.6 


Totals 


564,71? 


2,731 


37 


344 


4 


1,553 


21 


2.832 


38 


7.460 


132.1 


1911 


A?A-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


17,317 

180,424 

79.192 


24 
463 
125 


16 
36 
11 


4 
58 
22 


3 
4 
2 


17 
226 
497 


11 
17 

43 


103 
563 
508 


70 
43 
44 


148 
1,310 
1,152 


85.5 

72.6 

145.5 


Totals 


276,933 


612 


24 


84 


3 


740 


28 


1,174 


45 


2,610 


94.2 


1912 


ARA-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


3,064 
62,553 
14.529 


131 
8 


47 
17 


34 


12 


49 
28 


58 


63 
12 


23 
25 



277 

48 


0.0 
44.3 
33.0 


Totals 


80,146 


139 


43 


34 


10 


77 


24 


75 


23 


325 


40.5 


1913 


AEA-"B" 
ASCE 


59,433 
4.039 


10 
1 


50 
100 


2 


10 


— 


- 


8 


40 


20 

1 


3.4 
2.5 


Totals 


63,472 


11 


52 


2 


10 


- 


- 


8 


38 


21 


3.3 


Average 


ARA-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


36 
53 
26 


5 
6 
2 


6 
15 

35 


53 
26 
37 






Grand Average 


39 


4 


19 


38 




OPEN HEARTH RAIL 


1908 


AEA-"B" 
ASCE 


31,642 
124.478 


1,418 
612 


61 

32 


109 
106 


5 
6 


404 
574 


18 

30 


377 
598 


16 
32 


2,308 
1.890 


729.4 
151.8 


Totals 


156.120 


2,030 


49 


215 


5 


976 


23 


975 


23 


4.198 


268.9 


1909 


ARA-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


205,670 
148,446 
107.145 


711 

1,346 

225 


70 

43 
26 


99 

182 

55 


10 
6 
6 


35 

224 

41 


3 
7 

5 


176 

1,389 

546 


17 
44 
63 


1,021 
3,141 

867 


49.7 

211.6 

80.9 


Totals 


461.261 


2.282 


45 


336 


7 


300 


6 


2.111 


42 


5.029 


109.0 


1910 


AFA-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


369,428 
216,503 
242,180 


816 

1,101 

319 


59 
47 
32 


76 
100 
208 


6 

4 
21 


64 

194 

86 


5 
8 
8 


436 
977 
390 


30 
41 
39 


1,392 
2,372 
1,003 


37.7 

109.6 

41.4 


Totals 


828,111 


2.236 


47 


384 


8 


344 


7 


1,803 


38 


4.767 


57.6 


1911 


ARA-"A n 

ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


131,646 
212,286 
302^877 


221 
486 
162 


43 
42 
22 


26 

159 

63 


5 

14 

8 


38 

94 

112 


7 

8 
15 


224 
426 

409 


45 

36 
55 


509 

1,165 

746 


36.7 
54.9 
24.7 


Totals 


646.809 


869 


36 


24e 


10 


244 


10 


1.059 


44 


2.420 


37.4 


1912 


ARA-"A" 
ARA-"B" 
ASCE 


193,729 
477,154 
268.162 


94 

844 

53 


64 
60 
36 


22 
89 
14 


15 
6 
9 


306 
10 


1 

21 

7 


28 

192 

71 


20 
13 

48 


146 

1,431 

148 


7.5 

30.0 

5.5 


Totals 


939,025 


991 


57 


125 


8 


318 


19 


291 


16 


1.725 


18.4 


1913 


ARA-"A" 
iVRA-"B" 
ASCE 


231,323 
326,744 
235.490 


14 
18 
11 


50 
38 
52 


3 
15 


11 
31 


1 


11 
5 


8 

15 

9 


28 
31 
43- 


28 
48 
21 


1.2 
1.5 
0.9 


Totals 


793^557 


43 


45 


18 


18 


4 


4 


32 


33 


97 


1.2 


Average 


ARA-"A" 
AKA-"B" 
ASCE 


58 
49 
33 


9 

11 
8 


5 
10 
12 


28 
30 
47 






Grand Average 


47 


9 


9 


35 


1 



298 



RAIL. 



Comparison of Failures of the Three Types of Sections, Using 100 as the Average 
of Failures for Each Year's Rolling 



Relatively , Relative | p . Relative | R , Relatively , Relative | p . 
Failures | hani!: |Failures | hanK |Failures | Kanlc [Failures | iianJC | Failures | r 



Average 



BESSEUER 



ARA-'A" 
ASCE 

AHA-'^" 



109 

94 

125 



43 

55 

163 



76 
109 

101 



91 

154 

77 



80 
103 
131 



ARA-"A n 

ASCE 

ARA-"B" 



46 

74 
194 



OPEH HEARTH 

— i~i 6B - 

2 72 

3 190 



103 

66 

147 



71 
71 

177 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



289 

























Table 12 




Numt 


er and Pe re entases 


)f Failures in 
GROUPED BY 


Head.,? 
WEIGHO 


Feb ( 


and Base, and Acct 


.Broken 








'S 




Year 


Lbs. 
Per 








Failures and Percen 


^ages 






Fail- 
ures 
Per 
10,000 

Tons 




Total 










Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Total 






Yard 




No. 




No. | )j 


No. 


i 


No. 


* 


No. 










BESSEMER 


RAIL 


















1908 


70-4 
80-4 


3,871 
27.655 


2 
14 


67 

15 


- 


- 


36 


39 


1 

43 


33 
46 


3 
93 


7.8 

35.6 




Tota 


31.526 


16 


16 


- 


- 


36 


38 


44 


46 


96 


30.5 






85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


150,890 
61,628 
38.901 


2,890 

1,056 

192 


48 
51 
43 


135 
42 
37 


3 
2 
9 


1,038 

588 

11 


17 
29 

3 


1,878 
378 
207 


32 

18 
45 


5,941 

2,064 

447 


393.7 
334.8 
114.9 




Totals 


251.419 


4.138 


49 


214 


3 


1.637 


20 


2,463 


28 


8.452 


335.8 




1909 


75-9 
80-4 


16,202 
40.719 


11 

10 


5 
5 


6 
4 


3 
2 


35 
49 


15 

24 


175 

139 


77 
69 


227 
202 


140.3 

49.6 




Tota 


56.921 


21 


5 


10 


2 


84 


£0 


514 


73 


429 


75.4 






85-9 
90-4 


121,778 
112,420 
141,036 


1,875 
3,199 
1.024 


61 
79 

62 


171 
143 
128 


6 
3 
7 


174 
188 
106 




830 
517 
397 


27 

13 
25 


3,046 
4,047 
1.655 


250.3 
360.0 
117.5 




5 
6 






100-4 




Totals 


375.234 


6,096 


70 


442 


5 


468 


5 


1.744 


20 


8 r 750 


2"3.2 




1910 


70-4 
75-9 
80-4 


4,053 

2,076 

51.783 


1 

55 


3 
7 


5 


1 


54] 


68 


29 
190 


97 

24 


30 



791 


74.0 

0.0 

152.7 




Totals 


57.912 


56 


7 


5 


1 


541 


66 


219 


26 


621 


141.8 






85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


102,753 
262,131 
141,917 


854 

1,347 

464 


55 
34 

43 


118 

125 

96 


8 
3 
9 


152 
723 
157 


9 
18 
13 


441 

1,794 

378 


28 
45 

35 


1,575 
3,989 
1.075 


153.5 

152.2 

75.7 




Tota 


506.801 


2.67!^ 


40 


339 


5 


1.012 


15 


2,613 


40 


6.639 


131.0 




1911 


70-4 
75-9 
80-4 


5,600 
11,830 
20,157 


10 


7 
2 


3 


1 


1 
440 


4 
81 


25 

4 

89 


89 

100 

16 


28 

4 

542 


50.0 

3.4 

268.9 




Tota 


37,587 


12 


2 


3 


1 


441 


77 


118 


?,0 


574 


152.7 






85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


69,870 
87,618 
81.858 


339 
156 
125 


38 
17 
34 


28 
31 
22 


4 
4 
6 


208 
73 
18 


24 
9 
5 


301 
553 
202 


34 
70 
55 


876 
793 
367 


125.4 
90.5 
44.8 




Totals 


239,346 


600 


30 


81 


4 


299 


14 


1,056 


52 


2.036 


85.1 




1912 75-9 


5.674 


4 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


7.1 






85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


26,164 
11,586 
36.722 


98 

2 

35 


55 

9 

29 


7 

2 

25 


4 

9 

20 


45 
32 


25 
26 


27 
18 
30 


16 
82 
26 


177 

22 

122 


67.7 
19.0 
33.2 




Totals 


74.472 


135 


42 


34 


11 


77 


24 


75 


23 


321 


43.1 




1913 70-4 


3.420 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 





0.0 






85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


10,861 

6,926 

42.265 


8 
3 


53 
50 


1 
1 


7 
17 


- 


- 


6 
2 


40 

33 


15 

6 


13.9 
0.0 
1.3 




T 


Dtals 


60,052 


11 


52 


2 


10 


- 


- 


8 


36 


21 


3..= 



























300 



RAIL. 

























Table IS 


Number and Percentages of Failurec 
GROUPEI 


in 
BY 


Head.'Veb and Bar 
WEIGHTS 


e,and Acct 


Broken 


Year 


lbs. 

Per 


Total 
Tons 






Failures and Percentages 






Fail- 
ures 
Per 
10,000 

Tons 


Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Total 




Yard 




No. 


f 


No.. 


$ 


No. | $ 


No. 


f 


No. 










OPEN HEARTH RAIL 


















1908 


75-9 
80-4 


11,188 
6.005 


9 
79 


65 
11 


3 
4 


21 


1 
486 


7 
68 


1 
149 


7 

21 


14 
718 


12.5 
1195.7 


Totals 


17.193 


88 


12 


7 


1 


487 


67 


150 


20 


732 


425.7 




85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


32,074 

100,883 

5.970 


1,280 

634 

28 


62 
50 
27 


88 
69 

51 


4 

5 

49 


440 
41 
10 


21 

3 
9 


271 

538 
16 


13 
42 
15 


2,079 

1,282 

105 


648.2 
127.1 
175.9 


Totals 


138.927 


1.942 


56 


208 


6 


491 


14 


825 


24 


3.466 


249.5 


1909 


80-4 


11.368 


3 


33 


- 


- 


2 


22 


4 


45 


9 


7.9 




85-9 

90-4 

100-4 


106,840 

287,151 

55.908 


507 

1,475 

297 


56 
43 
43 


101 

137 

98 


11 

4 

14 


49 

228 

21 


5 
7 

3 


252 

1,582 

273 


28 
46 
40 


909 

3,422 

689 


85.1 
119.2 
123.2 


Totals 


449.899 


2.279 


45 


336 


7 


298 


6 


2.107 


42 


5.020 


111.5 


1910 


70-4 
75-9 
80-4 


5,470 
11,235 
39.155 


2 
17 

38 


100 
13 
33 


2 
51 


2 

44 


21 
12 


16 
10 


90 
15 


69 
13 


2 

130 

116 


3.7 

115.7 

29.6 


Tota 


55.860 


57 


23 


53 


21 


33 


13 


105 


43 


248 


44.4 




85-9 

90-4 

100-4 

110-4 


169,913 

443,616 

150,707 

8.015 


606 

881 

656 

36 


61 
41 
50 
42 


106 
76 

148 

1 


10 

4 

11 

1 


63 

212 

25 

11 


6 
10 

2 
13 


228 

945 

488 

37 


23 
45 
37 
44 


1,003 

2,114 

1,317 

85 


59.0 

47.7 

07.4 

106.0 


Totals 


772.251 


2.179 


48 


331 


7 


311 


7 


1.698 


38 


4.519 


58.4 


1911 


70-4 
75-9 
80-4 


5,422 

4,553 

57.322 


33 


41 


17 


21 


15 


18 


16 


20 





81 


0.0 

0.0 

14.1 


Tota 


67.297 


33 


41 


17 


21 


15 


18 


16 


20 


01 


12.0 




85-9 

90-4 

100-4 

110-4 


158,233 

223,130 

193,182 

4.967 


254 

263 

309 

10 


41 
29 
39 

7i 


42 

72 

116 

1 


7 

8 

15 

7 


96 
78 
54 

1 


15 
9 
7 
7 


233 

494 

314 

2 


37 
54 
39 
15 


625 
907 
793 

14 


39.0 
40.6 
41.1 
28.2 


Total; 


579.512 


836 


36 


231 


10 


229 


10 


1.043 


44 


2.539 


40.4 


1912 


70-4 
75-9 
80-4 


14,620 
11,768 
47.129 


28 


74 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 
8 


100 
21 


1 



38 


0.7 
0.0 
8.1 


Tota 


73.517 


28 


72 


2 


b 


- 


- 


9 


23 


39 


5.3 




85-9 

90-4 

100-4 

110-4 


153,615 

371,267 

338,486 

2.140 


654 
189 
116 

4 


56 
70 
48 
80 


50 
22 
51 


4 

9 

21 


304 
8 
5 

1 


26 
3 
2 

20 


165 
48 
69 


14 
18 
29 


1,173 

267 

241 

5 


76.4 
7.2 
7.1 

23.3 


Totals 


865.508 


963 


57 


123 


7 


318 


19 


282 


17 


1.686 


19.5 


1913 


70-4 
75-9 
80-4 


13,943 

2,700 

21,204 


2 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




2 


0.0 
0.0 
0.9 


Tota 


37.847 


2 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


O.S 




85-9 

90-4 

100-4 

105-9 

110-4 


74,371 
333,353 
279,756 

58,585 
9.645 


5 
23 
12 

1 


70 
44 
40 

20 


9 
7 

2 


17 
23 

40 


2 

1 
1 


7 

100 

20 


2 
20 

9 

1 


30 
39 
30 

20 


7 
52 
30 

1 
5 


0.9 
1.6 
1.1 
0.2 

5.2 


Totals 


755.710 


41 


43 


18 


19 


4 


4 


32 


34 


95 


1.3 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



301 





















Table 14 


Comparison of Failures by Weights of Soil, Using 100 as the Average of Failures 


for Each Year's Rolling 






Weights 


19 3 


19 9 


19 10 


19 11 


Average 


Relative 
failures 


Rank 


Relative 
Failures 


Rank 


Relative 
Failures 


Rank 


Relative 
Failures 


Rank 


Relative 
Failures 


Rank 


BESSEMER . 


100-4 
90-4 

85-9 


34 
100 
117 


1 
2 
3 


50 
154 
107 


1 
3 
2 


58 
116 
117 


1 
2 
3 


53 
106 
147 


1 
2 
3 


49 
119 
122 


1 
2 
3 








OPEH HEARTH 






90-4 
100-4 

85-9 


51 

70 

E60 


1 
2 
3 


107 

110 

76 


2 

3 

1 


82 
151 
102 


1 
3 
2 


100 

101 

96 


2 

3 

1 


85 
108 
133 


1 
2 



302 



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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



303 



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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



305 



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W I I I I I 



co to to ?1 H I rH 



t- O 'O o ^** O c~ 

rH LO CD 10 CO 



c- oo o oo to to to 

0*- P» CD C^ CC' CO CO 



»WOUOOO 



•»: u> oj s 

5 s A s I : 

Pj << <U CM C) 

»ooo6o! 



CO CQ 

WW 



o o n 

■ §§ 



03 CO 

d .8 co 



§s§ 



+* o o+» 

■liHticl 

w w 

CO <D 
I h h I 

o o 
•SB' 



ja >> fit 
o o >»o *» 

rH CO • CO 

■8HH *8 S a) 

© > a o? «a 
h > u I 
o tp o,* 

•H -H COiH O 03 

+> ,bj -r< -r» «H O 

H O j3rH >H 3 

03 O O CO O V 

mui-q cqa Ph 



HrH I CO LO HrH 



OOltOHO 



HMOriri 



to O to CO LO 



CO en C-- H H H 

vjO H CO CO O Lfj 



riHWOHrliOHOOvO 



I I I r-i I O 



I i-i I OO I Cv 



I I I 00 I CO 



ooo f oio 



I I I to I 



■tfOO o o oo 



rirlWOOO) 



m toco lo 



(J> f f 

COOS'* 



c-( i co e- i e- e- 



rH I tO I I 



OOHrlriffl 



I I HlQHN 



I If IS) 



t<i CO O O t* CJ 
~> O 'O ■* <T> rH 
IHtOHOtO 



rH LO CO CO rHO 



O O0 03 O LO to 

CO C- C- CO C- CO 



o oo o> c*- oo r> 



PQ CQ -< cq cq 



a -t -s -1 < 

•-! •< -C < -< i 
oo o o oi 

cr. CA o O O < 



WIS 00 
<1 <S CM 



fiA-r*-* • 
COOl)B.r4> 
GO It HI0 

1 rfi JJ CO >H O 03 

a r ■■ 

CO CO 



OlO t- Cft OO * CO 



CD f LO LO LO O rH 
CO * * CO LO CO 






O O 

• a e «pliph • 

CO -r) -H CO l I CO 

0**irlWW c 

O HrH-H 3J a 

03 03 CO fi <H c}J 00 

Oh cq cq cm cvi ch ch 



o o o o 

o ooo ► 

44<84kS 

O 09 03 © HJ W 
L, L, L, L, 3 

OOO OM <tf 

a B B BrHCH 
H^HHO I 

CO CO CO CO O &3 
CQ CQ CD CP K ^H 



LO Ct rH d CD CO 



O rH I> CO LO LO tO 
COO0 rHrHtO 



rH CO C* Ct «cr tO * 



rHC-OHO If 



f OO CO CO f f CO 



LO CO I tO rHLO 



CO CO CO I rH I CO 



OtOOiNfOrl 



LO t- rHCO I LO 



IOHNH I f 



f r> I I I co 



i w* i I I I 



O OHO O OO 



I I I H I I I I 



<"C0 HOCO rHCO 



rH I tO I H I f- M 



CV O O0 LO f CD 



CO I CO rH f I 



tO f LO CO LO f 



CO LO CO I tO 



rH o to H. r- f 



I I COrHCO ■* 



OO CrHOO 



O f 00 CO 03 O CO 



CO rHOO IrlOMD 



HH I H I W 



to to O0 O CO f ■* 



I CO I I to I CO 



rH I ID IMfi 



I H f I tO I 



CO I C~ I I I I 



O CO CO f rH t- - 
LO C- O O CO <T* LO 



CO f CO LO f CO o 



tO Olo lOlO l 

co co co co c^ e- co 



O LO LO O CO CO o 
1 00 E- OO O C* 



<i cq ia CO 



CO £4 IB M « P4 m 

ix, *i ^ -i -4 -i ^. 
o-j o o o o o o 

DCiOtOtOOO 



I I CO I to 



c- lo C OO O 



CO to I I CO I 



f LO Oj rH O < 



O CO rH OO LO f 



o«".ooql 



< CQ -^ CQ CQ cq 



5 3-15^^ 

00000 o 

O c O O O O 



506 



RAIL. 



S3 © 



1 o CM 
a/A 

■a C 

a © 
' ox 

£Q bo+» 
« 3 
r< o 



© 3 
u o 

O CO 



cm t- t- e- lq 



03 io 
rj 

c- c- 
> to to i 



o o o 

o-n-rt C 
o o © 

Htfhado 

HHSO C 

as 3 .a j3 -r> 

3 »H 



<Hja<H a 

•rl O^rl S 
O O © 

■a as •« a ft -o 

"*©**§ 

rH a H a OH 

CO Jh O rt El CD 
M © S <D M 



J4 t» +* -^ 4J a) 



,a-H,a4" 

+»+>4i OS JO 



HOOKOt-ID 

O tO CO CO CM i* 
CO CM O O Cn en 



*i« ■* cm c- io lo t 

(OMArliocnt 



OOOli-ttOl 



cooocot-i 



lo cm *o en c- •** ■ 



CD >0 * t- C- C- < 



00 ri en I OCO < 



(O I i-Hf-rHLO 



io i to o e~ cm ( 



lO«HHriW 



HOMrtB*! 



KtonaoK 
Hcaictio«oo> 



COP- CO CO CD LO 
NW OCOU3CM 



CO CM c- CO CO ( 



IMIOlQlQOtOI 



( rt * <o en r-l ■>* I 
> cm cm cm cn o cm i 



< to e- h O ■* t> I 



> tO CM vO CO LO CM f 

■MHHCOtOtOl 



JlO^iOOOiOt 



CM iH tO CO •* ^ ( 



• ^ to to to en lo i 



) •>* CM « CM It' CO < 
N H 



H I I I «>■ 



W«0<0^' 



I CO I I I CM CO I 



> ^ CM CM t- CO H ' 



I I I Hf I 



i co i-h o to to co o < 



I r-t IriMHl 



CM I I 1DHH< 



rH I I r-i I 



en C- ^ CM E*~ r 

HH*O0< 



CM COCO I *CM I 



LQ CO C- CO H en ' 



I CM H COCO Cn t 



CHHtOiOOiHi 



co rH o t- in cn 

LQ CO C- O r-t CO 
i* <T> en CM vO C- 



Iriritl I I 



Ht- I I CM 



Iril Iri 



IHUri I 



) LQ CO CD Cn CO CO I 



I CM CM CM *Ji I 



rH LQ CO -tf LQ tO ' 



CO CM O t- CM CM « 



tO O CM rH H C- 
O O CD CD C- Cn 
tO CD ** rH •<? Cn 



MHHnO 



CM LQ O <0 LQ <3< 
C* C- 00 t- E- C- 



•<* cm O en to c 

(CM H^rHH 



CM «0 O COLO c 

c- t-coc*t»c- 



O CM LO tO CM rH 



ioiooooo 



cn CO CO CM CM CO 



lOOOOOC 



I'm a 



■o «j •« a^B 
3 © © c* «e 

rH M H a O 
■OOhBX 

MSB© H 
■^•H J3,.f> O 

,i| ■*>•*>•»* O'H 
O t-i ri t-t Q> to 



■rHCMCM C 

>lOHC- < 

CO LQ LCIO! 



CO COrHOCD CM 
CO CM E- -«1« CO 



ao i ■* oco 



O CD I CO C- CO 
CQrH CO 0» 



■CO I •* CT>» 



I rHrH CO CM Ch 



J COO H CM CO 
tOCM COCM I ' 



rH<0 I CM t-i 



■* CO I lOO* 
tOH rHCn 



CO tO I H C- CO 



H I COCO CM 



tOOOCOlO rH 



•* I I MriH 



LO I I OCO 



■* I I CO I I 



I I CO rH I 



OOOHOO 



I I H I I 



I I I I I 



I I I I I 



I I I I I I 



HOH Cn H CO 



I I I en eg > 



I I CO -^ CM 



I I rHC-CQ t- 



HCD -tf OrHO 
C- C~ 10 CM CO O 

r- O en ^ co o 



en rH H LO LO <3* 



tOOOLDLO 
C~ CD CD C- t- C^ 



lUJUJOiOO 



<C0CQ £5 

'. I "l "l I 

co ..-, t,riac2 
■ < <j <d -j C3 <j 

loooog 

co en en en en o 



vat i 

M 



H 01 

_ a^ 

e m, 

c8 6 +^ cq ai -c 

flrH O C 
• O 05 • O CO 

ootfomo 

■* OOOHIO 



CM -^ >£> LO CM CO t 



I I rHCM I rH ' 



rH CM ** CO f-i M I 



KHKHO 



Irirll I I 



OH*<JOHi 



I I rHCM I 



ooooo o< 



o oooo 



H OO O rHOO. 



I I I I I 



CM to CMOCMCM i 



rHrHi-l I rH rH in 



I HH I I I CM 



(rH I I r-t 



CM O CO O Cn <3* 

nocjo^io 

tfOHOlOO 



rH ^> C- LO tO LO 



co t- co t- 1* e- 



LO CO O <• tO CM 

lAiOC-iOtOO 



<q «!«>) ■ 



O OOOOO 



■tflOr 
O HI 



t-<Or-<Oi-l 



HHHM 



ooc- 



KAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



301 



CD M & CO 

sq .^^w . 
1**1 



PupBM^p 



LOCO 
COrH 



cm co cn i-t ir> u> 

O lO 01 lO l> CM 

<h to i>to 



> C* en CO C- CO 



rlrit-OOH!) 
CM NtOHtrt 



rH CO CO 1-4 CO lO CM 



O CO CM 'Jl H CO CO 



OOOrlOO 



LOCO 
LO cn 

cnio 

WrH 



tOrH CM Ht 



1 

►3 CO 
C4<A, 



«ib3o 



.c h a 

*-4->rH W 
tn a) 
o > I 



LOtO LOrH 
OCM CO tO 



I CO rH LO CM CM CD 



I tO CM 0"> COCM O 



CMrllOiaH« 



I CMrHrHCO t t- 



> rHCn cm I * 



I •0' I H CO CO i-l 



I CO I rH 4 I 



I rH I I I I 



OMMO*H 



I I I I I I 



IHH Iril 



1 ri I H I 



rHIO to LO CO I 



I 01 I CO CO i-4 



I H I rH CM 



r-ltO CM I CO CO 



•^i lO CO O Cn Cn 
Cn CO H ■* lO LO 
tO »* O LO CO CO 



rHCM C-lOrHtO 



coom o to co 
co co t*« r> co co 



o r> cm o O O 

C-iOlOlO t-> 



J-a -a * 

raj sjM^ 
|tiaflQ(kC| 

in »-4 O O O r-4 
CO Cn O O O O 



CO LOtO •*? c- 



H CM I I CO 



H 1 I rH CM 



I rH CM CM LO 



a> e 

rH I 

ic4 Hfl 

jnKcn 



S3 -rt l-> 
+>« • 

* CO OB-P 
(0 CO 

• 0*"H d 
Wo O W 

CD 

• O (h • I 
KHOK 

+» 6 

rijfdii 
rHrH C 

• +» Q • © 



*ooon 

lOOlOAC* 



<cji 0» tf> i-i rH 



H CM Cn I O 



MNWHO 



Hionoc- 



I I H I I 



I rH I I CM 



HCDH I <1 



OOMOO 



I I rH I I 



HOOOH 



CM^l" OrHCM 



rHCM t> I I 



HrltD I * 



OO t> cnio 

tOO^rH CO 
•frO C-OrH 

t> Cn CO CM rH 






CM LQ LO CM O 

•£> LO l£> '£> C- 



w pq l i 



Olo ooo 
CO CO cn OO 



co q-p ooo 

d-i-4 CO 

odd*** 



ooo 

uaf — 

C9«r4 CO 

osw' 

O* I ™ u S 

.rH OOO 

+> a +>+■■*» 

rH CO 3HHH 
4^ O ID CO 40 
< CP CM cq cq CO 



c-oio co toio 

CM LO rH *(■ *- CM 

co "*ioa> 



CO CO to C- t> i 



rH lO CO CO ^ CO 



■ H I COCM CO 



rH I NHHOi 



O1OC0 COLO ■* 



CM I I I I 



I COCM CM CO tO 



I I I CMH I 



CMCOOOOH 



CM I I t I 



rH I I I I 



rHOCM rHCM O 



I I I I I I 



I I rH I CM 



OOOCOOH 



I I I I H 



I I 4 H rH CI 



I 4 I C- CO CO 



>CM CD Cn C- CM 

> O CO CO LO CO 

O CO to CO Cn O 



rH COrH CO CM rH 



COCM COOOO 
LO I> CO CO CO CD 



LO Cn O LO O O 



mm « 
W cq J ^4 i 



+» ■« C B5 *t> •+> 
-) a r 



co a c 



«J > i 



led » JVi . » 
c3cc+» om«igPq 

I * o • •* 3 ■ 

M SSKK H 

rH • • • U ' 

oddr> • •decs 
<H drH HKXrlA B 
Ii9hi -I S ri 

o e A In • .ojc 

aototooaiLiuPi 



»OOrl«<iq^L!> 

lOOQOOOUHC- 
rH CO * CO rH CM MO rH 



OiHOLOwcufiaio 



I Cn LOO I CM rHrH CM 



CO"fCOCOrHcOOCntO.-l 



CM CO CM CO I I LOCOLS 



lOlO I ^" rH »S« CD CO CM 



O^t-COOCOrHOCO 



INLOH I « I I <0 



I I CM I I I I I 0> 



I H I I I I CO 



I H I H I rHrH I rH 



OOOOOOOOOO 



I I l I I I I I I 



I I I I I 4 I I I 



rjliOrHCMrH-tfCJ^lC 



I CM I rH 4 I Hrtd 



IHri I I HHdl 



CM I I rH I II CMrH* 



CM CO I I rHCO 1 COW 



OHOlOHMHHlOd 



t LO I CO I I O I CO H 



tO CO I COrH CMCn rH 1 



I CM CM lO I I tO | CM 



COrH I CO I I t- I ID 



OCOOCOCOlOOHrH 

8t~t5tOi-IOO^icO 
■-I CO CO LO t LO «J- -c 

OiOCMCMrH^iCMcMLO 



P. 



lO to m W LO O UJ I CO 

t> CO CD C"- CD 0* CO CD 



W000»000 lO 

vo p- t^ m *» t^ t- c- 



lOmOOOQQOO 
cocoa»cnoOOOO 



308 



RAIL. 



O h ti 

.o o d 

i-l p. X 



w o aK-d w 

i • «i 
^4 «a 



•a tj a °s -d •*» 

CO 



J fee X, 

4^-H p «H 

o «.c » o d 

O «+> «t) W 
hcii ! 
I * O < 

■h a.* 



•8 I 



o a 






<M q«>H,H.n 

6 t> • «^a § a 

CO O rH CO O CO <J> 



CO in t- 0» tO CO C- ' 
<OC0 rj 



■*i-( I •# I H< 



C0H»H<0NO( 



IQNrK'IO I CO * 



lOHHOOl I CO 



o> o i" m m o ^ t 



• •<■) • 

XHK>(H £5 i-3 
. .,c O • 

rH -* CO « CO co x> 

lOUHUHM 

> O CO tO tO 0> r-l ■— dl 
"rHiH rH rH 

IMH INHIO I i 

1 

-*C0 HrHm CO H ■> 
rH r J 

IHU3 I Irirl I 
) 

Hj"CO I CO OHM I 
"I pH 

O en co c- co co o ■ 



rH -1 « In -H a 

-4 c*o a Ch o cm 
to t- * loooio 
co c- w •* to * co 



IMUJOHOH^USi 



CO c-ICO I COr-ICO I 



l>JH I I I I 1 



I I CO r-l CO I r-l I 



■ o -»ioow ooi 



tots ' 

■HrHiH 
hlhCI 



rl I I CO I I tO > 



M Iri IH 1*1 



H IHriW I IO I 



OOOOrHOOr 



I I I rH I I 



I I I I I 



tOU5 O tOt-OCO r 



IHIHI 



I * rHrHCO 



I 10 I I ■ I 



IHOrtH 



IHO«0«0< 



I H I I I 



I I I I I I 



CO I I to I I II 



O Hen 



I CO CO O CO H r-l r-l « 



rilril I UJI 



I r-l I CH CO I CO L 



I co 1 «#'* I t—t e 



OO tO HOB O I 



CO I I rl IHOI 



CO I CO I tOCOO r 



CO I I I rH I CO I 



I I I O I O I 



o en to co o e- ( 

o o o co o t- *■ 
m m -^ -^ o eft eft 



inrtuiiota I co 

t- CO O CD CO CO 



I OOOO I o 
O t- C- C- C- t- f 



co co eq ?"••** co co 

-a cm -jj a en Cm c m 

iOio o ooo< 
eoeoooooc 



CO I I iH I I I 



'CO I IriHHI 



H I I I I I 



- rH I I CO I I I 



OlOHOOIOOl 



I H I I i-ICO I 



ID I I NH 



I H I HH I 



HO'i'OOifla) 

O lT. o a> if, -f c- 



rH CO rH *0 m rH 



> in m in in to co 
co co CO CO CO co CO 



o o ooooo 

- -. fc- f. t> O O 



OOO OOO rH 

CO » OO OO o 



I I I I I I I 



*H lilt 



I I CO I I I I 



OOOOOOOC 



I I I I I I I 



I I I I I I I 



lOrHOHOO ■ 



I I I I I I I 



N IH IH I I 



I I I I I 



•OHOHSH^OOMHt 



I I I I I I rH r-l 



I I I I I I I 



I I I rH tO I rH U3 



0*(OlflHHO 

mO*MOt-oi 

CilQHHCiOi 

in «o ■** co d co * 
co 

co m co in in i co 
io <o o- c-- co co 

i m c- c* co t- i O i 

IIA^iaOO C* r 



33 



o3ch cm cm 



O D CD 
CO OCft 

OHC- 



• 6= 
iCHCH 



moooo oo 

auMiioooo 



+> a •i^'tH 

CO CO -H 

^a* do 



SdBSE 



o m t> t-co 



cno I WHO< 



* ID I CO X> "#0 "■ 



00>H*100M 



H O«0 I tO I 



NOCOO CO < 



co co i rH in - 



+> o 
-Am 



O* 



a-p >H a 
•3d h rii 

O -H 

CO «4 <D 
rH H 

HOS'tlH 

■H -I )H H — 

>*> o a t» 

n q .c o m 

■rt d+i^H 
drH 3 d 3 
O-H O « O 

■4 <4 CO CO i-l 

o> to * O CO 
1" tO rH tO N 



CO t- Hrt-*> 
tOtO H tO 



_i co io*ioejo xi co 

m 1*0 00 rH H» 



'CUrlri I I 



cocoes I t- c 



■ rH H CO ft CO CO ' 



I CO co m co to ^ r-i 



I I to I t 



I rHrHH I tOt 



I IHH I 



r^i-l ICOlOrHHWr 



N*OHC0( 



I OOMOHMI 



) to I I I I 



> CO rH OO CO I 



Mil I I 



I I I I I 



I I I I M I 



I rHrHODO * ' 



CO * I rHlOC 



OO 

COCO 



OC-IOC- 



M WW 
OOO- 

"39i 



I I N I H I 



Or-iW OH 
i-HrHM tO 

CO CD O-l CJ tO 

o ud o c- r- 



) IT5 tO 0> <T> O i 

i u"; iC 'J3 U) O r 



OOO-ti" 



QkO^iOO 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



309 



B 

Cm 

& 

O 

CO 
CO 

3 
o 

>' 

ca 

■ g 

o 

PS 

o 

ci 

►3 
o 

CO 

hi t-t 
J en 

< H 

O -P 

cc 

00 H 

i-q to 

C^ CJ 

rd 

c O 

m -p 

& o 

o 

t £ 

a a 

3 .§ 

n '3 

= Ph 

: h 

S3 &< 

Efa 

o 

CO 

u; 
-4 

EH 

o 

P; 

s 
1 


•4 
EH 
O 
Eh 


h 

p 
o 
vh) 


o 




m to o o 

'jnioifi 


CM 




Q CO 'J' iOt> 
^ *tf ^* "* to 






co c- c- in 

■*"»uit- 


■D 
If 




-t to to ee 

10 * »J< tr 


IS 




CO O 10 O CO 

cm to to m ■* 


f J 
to 




4 

o" 

rH 
CO 

to 

~ 
rH 

,o 

rH 

10 

rH 
~ 

to 

00 

o 

o 
n 

o" 

to 

~ 

cr- 

,H 

rH 

~ 

co 

CJ 

H 

E> 
O 

n 

H 

c~ 

lo 
c- 

o> 

~ 

rH 

cT 

O 
rH 

O 7 

io" 

•i 1 

JJ 

rH 

CJ 
CM 

r- 

~ 

o" 

rH 
:- 

to 

c- 

ia 

r^. 

C- 
rH 

s 



5 

o- 

SQ 



H 


en ooto 

nnn 

H H 


Bi 

to 


CO to •* CO CM 

in in h cm 

H ■* 
H 


5 


co o m to 

m co ^ to 

cm to 


10 

rH 
C- 


CO rH 10 CM 

io in 10 

m 




O en o en en 

CMin HCM CJ 
CM H 


4 


po. 


o 


t> <H< CT» t- 
H C\J rHH 


H 

CJ 


h >om cm to 

•* rH CM CO tO 


rn 
H 


CM CM rH rH 


r-< 


t- en cm c- 

r-l rH r- 


■r. 

r- 


en to c- t> O 
H H H H CM 


rH 


CM CO t> H 
WCO^ 


CO 

■o 

rH 


lOcnniOH 
in CM to H 

^ CM 


CJ 

N 

t> 


CD CM LO C- 

CM CM CO 

H 


O 
•J 


10 rH CO r- 
in r-l M 

r-t 


113 

cc 

r- 


*H O H O «* 
r-l rH \i> r-l H 
H 


T 

- 

rH 


<! 





OOriS 
CW CO CO 


O 
CO 


01 rH rH CM O 
rH ■* tO CM 


CG 
K 


to cj t- en 
to to H 


LO 


en co in c 

rH"* ^ IT 


! 


to C~ t- to t~ 
m m "# co to 


CO 

in 




01 

'C 


iCOOrlO 

cj cm en rH 

r-ICM 
r-H 


o 

IT 

H 


cm co en ^i 

■^ CD CD 
r-i 


CO 
CM 

to 


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rH 




4 


c~ 




■* 


01 


IO 




CM 












1-3 


On 






a 














rH 
























h 






w 




tO 


<? 


rH 


« 


00 


CJ 




o 


^T 


to 


to 


B- 


t> 


o 


rH 
CM 


to 

CO 


O 
CM 








































&. 


ft. 




pq 
















































































o 




& 









a 


B> 


Cr- 


CO 


o 

CJ 


C0 




r. 
N 


to 


cn 


CO 


N 


cq 




CM 




H 


CO 








a 












































D- 




fi" 




IO 




m 


10 


t~ 


rH 


u- 


Q 


■* 


o 


CO 


< 
o 






<i 


•=:*- 




to 


M 


« 


m 


-s 1 


«> 




<* 


rH 


rH 


CM 


CM 


in 


U"; 


to 










o 




m 


CO 


■>* 


CM 

rH 


IO 


c 
3 




C 


CJ 
CM 


rH 


•* 


uo 


IS 


UJ 


t> 


B- 


CO 

m 






OS 

i 








= 














rH 






























<n 




en 






C- 






s 




r~ 


a 


m 


cc 


CO 


CM 










Vi 




to 


if 


CM 


to 


on 


P! 




<? 


<a 


to 


■* 


r-f 


CO 


4 






p 
a 

< 






a 












































. 




N 


« 


id 




B- 


B- 




T 


M 


IT. 


o 


o 


to 


id 


CO 


t> 


CO 








o 


o 








tO 


CM 


IO 


<o 




w 


o 


CM 


in 


c- 


H 


CO 


c- 






(3 






hS. 


a 










rH 


CM 


cn 




^r 








CM 












H 




o 










H 








rH 






























r> 


cn 


o 


M 


C- 


B- 


rH 


a 






Id 


t- 


B> 


X 


rH 


1 




«f 




«<. 




N 


H 


H 


CO 


rH 


p| 




99 


CM 


t-K 


rH 


H 


p( 


i^ 








OH 


7 












































!0 


B- 


CO 




X 






a 


l.-. 


C~ 


« 


CJ 


•* 








a 






V 


* 


r> 


N 


en 




CO 


to 


CM 


CM 


E" 


H 


H 


CM 






6-i 
C 




to- 




a 




rH 


IO 






rH 


CO 




CJ 


















m 












td 




10 




99 


-J 


to 


g 


:j 


X' 


Id 


^ 


B- 










W. 




•4 


•* 


to 


<* 


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4 




f. 


CM 


CM 


IO 


^? 


c* 


u". 


CO 










■4 


o 




cn 


<* 


O 
CM 


B* 


01 


to 
§ 




Ifl 

CM 


N 


pi 








O 

to 


Id 


cn 
t> 


to 

IO 


B- 


CM 


B- 


C 














co 


H 


rH 


u> 




N 








M 












PS 














rH 








CJ 
























CO 

5 














































































«D 






es 


















C 




to 




B 










s 




a 

3 


o 


to 


p 






rH 








<D 






-i 


H 




o 




a 


O 


■ 




<d 


> 


■ 


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co 






^H 












e 


r. 










-H 




■H 


C 






m 










a 








fcn 


O 


■^ 




o 




to 


a 


O 


: ; 


4 


>> 


CJ 


H-> 














In 










o 






(h 


0) 


u 


S 


e 


H 


a 


■ 
















£> 


fj 


•H 




>, 


H 




p 


— 


d 


o 


«H 




>> 






K 




















k 








§ 






t-\ 


o 
























01 


rH 


0) 


1 






c> 


a! 


o 


rH 


a 


3 




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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS 



313 





























Table IB 








number and Percentages c 


f Pailuree 


in 










BESSEliE" 4KB OPEN HEARTH STEEL 


TO WHICH 


FERRO 


TITANIUM HAS AND HA£ 


N03 


BEEN ADDED 






Grouped by Weights and the Three Types of Seotiont 








Year 


Loa . i Type 
Per j of 
Yard is eat ion 


Kind 

of 
Steel 


Total 
Tons 






Failures 


and Percentages 




1 


Fail- 
ures 
Per 
10,000 

Tons 


Head 


Web 


Base 


Broken 


Totals 


Ho. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


t 


No. 


BESSEMER 


1909 


30 iA?jL.-"A" 


Plain 


38,034 


47 


30 


14 


9 


5 


3 


93 


58 


169 


41.6 






P. T. 


6,052 


7 


17 


4 


9 


7 


17 


24 


57 


42 


69.4 




:A?A-"B" 


Plain 


44,210 


2,752 


90 


90 


3 


14 


- 


196 


7 


3,052 


690.4 






F. T. 


3,294 


28 


56 


1 


2 


- 


- 


21 


42 


60 


161.8 




lASCE 


Plain 


19,525 


362 


50 


32 


4 


154 


21 


180 


25 


728 


372.8 






P. T. 


1,035 


3 


19 


2 


12 


8 


50 


3 


19 


16 


154.6 




100 ASCE 


Plain 


40,147 


16 


8 


8 


4 


61 


28 


130 


60 


215 


63.5 




1 


P. T. 


14.066 


7 


14 


1 


2 


22 


44 


20 


40 


50 


35.5 


totals 


Plain 


141,916 


3,177 


76 


144 


4 


234 


6 


599 


14 


4,154 


292.1 






P. T. 


24,447 


45 


29 


8 


5 


37 


S3 


68 


43 


1KB 


64.4 


1916 


60JASCE 


Plain 


4,459 


28 


88 


3 


9 






1 


3 


32 


71.8 




1 


P. T. 


47,324 


27 


4 


2 


- 


541 


71 


189 


25 


759 


160.4 




90 A?A-"A" 


Plain 


96,072 


172 


19 


20 


2 


25 


3 


675 


76 


893 


93.0 




I 


P. T. 


5,000 


27 


20 


- 


- 


39 


29 


69 


51 


135 


270.0 




AEA- n B" 


Plain 


69,499 


699 


68 


71 


7 


23 


2 


240 


23 


1,033 


148.6 






P. T. 


8,203 


28 


42 


3 


4 


3 


4 


34 


50 


68 


82.9 




A3CZ 


Plain 


65,159 


396 


24 


23 


1 


548 


32 


716 


43 


1,683 


258.3 




1 


P. T. 


15,057 


21 


13 


7 


4 


83 


49 


68 


34 


169 


112.2 




100 j ASCE 


Plain 


12,285 


9 


19 


- 


- 


6 


12 


34 


69 


49 


39.9 




i 


P. T. 


34,922 


56 


21 


19 


7 


112 


42 


80 


90 


267 


76.6 


Totals 


Plain 


247,474 


1,305 


35 


117 


3 


602 


17 


1,666 


4b 


3,690 


149.1 






P. T. 


110,506 


159 


11 


31 


2 


778 


56 


430 


31 


1,398 


126.5 


1911 


BOlASCE 


Plain 


8,364 






2 


22 


1 


11 


6 


67 


9 


10.8 






P. T. 


11,793 


10 


2 


1 


- 


439 


82 


83 


16 


533 


451.9 




90IA?A- n A'* 


Plain 


4,756 


3 


30 


1 


10 


1 


10 


5 


50 


10 


21.0 




j 


P. T. 


3,000 


11 


9 


1 


1 


11 


9 


97 


81 


120 


400.0 




ARA-"B n 


Plain 


48,123 


19 


18 


10 


10 


9 


9 


67 


63 


105 


21.8 






P. T. 


1,667 


4 


80 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


20 


5 


29.9 




JA3CS 


Plain 

P. T. 


29,000 
1,072 


99 


18 


19 


3 


52 


10 


382 

1 


69 
100 


652 

1 


190.4 
9.3 




108JARA-"A" 


Plain 


2,561 


2 


29 


- 


- 


5 


71 


- 


- 


7 


27.3 




1 


P. T. 


7.000 


8 


73 


2 


18 


- 


- 


1 


9 


11 


15.7 


fotalB 


Plain 


92,804 


123 


18 


32 


5 


68 


10 


460 


67 


683 


73.6 






F. T. 


24,532 


33 


5 


4 


1 


450 


67 


183 


§7 


670 


273.1 


1912 


85JA3CE 


Plain 


2,685 





















0.0 




P. T. 


4,300 


4 


100 














4 


8.9 




90|APA-"B" 


Plain 

P. T. 


8,540 
3,046 


2 


10 


2 


10 


- 


- 


17 

1 


80 

100 


21 

1 


24.6 
3.3 




100;A.-JL-"B" 


Plain 


28,477 


35 


43 


24 


30 


4 


5 


18 


22 


81 


28.4 




i 


P. T. 


3.511 


_- 


- 


1 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2.8 


'irals 


Plain 


39,702 


37 


36 


26 


26 


4 


4 


35 


34 


102 


25.6 






P. B. 


10.857 


4 


66 


1- 


17 


- 


- 


1 


17 


6 


5.5 












OPEJ 


¥ HEAR' 


CH 














1910 


100|A?A-"A" 


Plain 


28,019 


252 


54 


14 


3 


6 


1 


194 


42 


466 


166.3 






P. T. 


13.083 


48 


39 


4 


3 


3 


2 


83 


60 


138 


105.5 


1911 


90 A5C£ 


Plain 


30,104 


44 


22 


18 


9 


4 


2 


131 


67 


197 


65.4 








P. T. 


3,068 


4 


16 


8 


32 


7 


28 


6 


24 


25 


81.4 




100 


A?A-"A" 


Plain 


15,255 


76 


36 


7 


3 


11 


5 


118 


56 


212 


160.0 








P. T. 


2,096 


9 


75 


1 


8 


2 


17 


- 


- 


12 


57.2 






A?A-"B" 


Plain 


93,972 


178 


46 


95 


25 


11 


3 


99 


26 


383 


39.9 








P. T. 


1,732 


11 


69 


- 


- 


1 


6 


4 


25 


16 


92.5 






ASCE 


Plain 


62,720 


16 


19 


10 


11 


21 


25 


38 


45 


85 


13.6 




1 


P. T. 


5.540 


5 


25 


- 


- 


1 


5 


14 


70 


20 


36.1 


T:";al8 


Plain 


200,051 


314 


36 


130 


15 


47 


5 


386 


44 


877 


43.8 






F. T. 


12,436 


29 


40 


9 


12 


11 


15 


24 


33 


73 


58.7 


1912 


100 


A?A-"A" 


Plain 


48,256 


8 


£6 


12 


39 




- 


11 


35 


31 


6.4 








P. T. 


15,150 


8 


89 


1 


11 


- 


- 


- 


. 


9 


5.9 






A?A- n B" 


Plain 


192,601 


88 


49 


34 


19 


3 


2 


53 


30 


178 


9.2 








P. T. 


6.911 


6 


66 


2 


22 


- 


- 


1 


12 


9 


13.0 


Totals 


Plain 


240,657 


96 


46 


46 


22 


3 


1 


64 


31 


209 


8.7 






P. T. 


22.061 


14 


78 


3 


17 


- 


- 


1 


5 


18 


8.1 


1913 


1001 ASCE 


Plain 
F. T. 


39,424 
2.000 


" 












1 


100 


1 



0.3 
0.0 



314 



RAIL. 







CMOHCM 



cn ■* w in cm o 



BOOHOH 

0«0«-«)rl 

co <n O E- cm cn 



tO H r-l CM t- •")• 

CM CD COOCM H 
■ - riri" 

H CM 



•<)• in co h 1-1 to 



OE- H O CT> 

oco to o o 



OOriOH 



CM W W Cn O 



rlH >D to HE- 
'D to CO t- 



CO CO r-l C\i <J> CM 
tO CO O CM CM"* 

Cn CM en CO "# LO 
E- CM CO lO CO ■* 
H "* E- COCM 



o«)inc-^o 
cn *# o in «Dcn 

*o coco o<oco 



to en <o HON 

lflCOOO>"OW 



H HCOOtOCO 



CO H CM "J«<Ocn 



cocooh cm 



«3 i-l-* 

t~-*o 



VO H"tf CM CMH 



to t> o ■ 

■<JICM CO< 
MH<Jr 



CO CO H< 



HHflHOW 
dff>C0HC-O 
CO H CM CO -tf E~ 



ID O N CO E- CO 

H in -^ e- co en 

E- CM E- ■* H «* 

in-*OHinri 
H to E-m to 



BEkHOh 



OCnHCOCOO-tfCOCOCOtO 



mcoo-^co»ot-Tt<t-iriCM 
incotO'DOcoocncno'D 

•* U) >D O CM to 00 IQE- 



e-COt-WCOCninmcniDCn 

cncocoHiniOE-cncM^^ 4 
Ht-\~ ' 

CM H 



t-cncMcot-coovOE-inm 
c-cncMcnoE-ptOH'DH 

INHH UriH r-l 



OHtO<DHCnE-lOl-OCMCM 
Ifl^OC-^lftlOCJC-^W 

OCDH<DWHE-OinC-E>- 
C0CMOE>E-C0Cn(Dmc0O 

in to cm -o co^nhc- 



lOHlOW HCO O Hl« 
riC-UH HMOHH 



I Cn H "Din H"J" Tl< 



■E-H^iOCMCOCOH 



OOmcntDin-'^fc-iD'dW 



H^COCOCnOCOCMCnHCM 

toocncnr-icoco^iocoto 
•<J<H CO 



OH^mCMCM'D'^CME*-'** 



lflOOOH«O0}O00WH 



C- 1-t CO H •* <D cn H COH 



tn>o<f ^wwho 
oicionc-ioo 

CM •* CM H CM rirl 



O in E- O CM O *3< H HO* 
OH 



N 



KHOiOfiC-OO cn O 
in *i* ■<* cm in CO •<* cn coco 



CO ,ji io m CO CO CO O CM H 



is co in to in 



COCO CO '■i'N 



s g a 

CO COOC]CQG'CJ> 

,c cJ-rH-o o-^co S3 i— I 
a)co*HfcaQ*Ho&cj>) 
SHMcohdEaJHra 
o .c .a B O-HHM >> d 



RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



315 



a-s- 




o to 
CO H is 



3d 



l^to 

it- CO 



CO ^ 



IPw 



H>|0 
>oM 



,HCOHM> Hm 



O O CO|C0 CO vD 



in B- ^lOiH 



«a«in to^rn to 

CO O lOlcO o o 



"19 



h|-* 



COIOi 

colo 

m l I 



0|0| H1C1 o 



oi>o 

ioV 
tO|H| 



tO aOH, 
Cl|m B» 

H|O0 10 



I--JO 

|m|0 

lr-« 



J L 



olco B- 
>«top! 

I' 



Ib-iO< 

cj < 
|N| < 



WcO iO|«J«C0 



unjco to 
t0|-* •* 



CO't- B- 

CtflON 

«AB- CO 

in in 



to|HO 

ci 01 m 
|tom 



M 1 I Oli 00 CO 1 

•I ' "I • *l 

m, I Ollt-H 
COl HOI" 

c I* 
<H I I<1 |m 

3 r ^iHi^ 



|in|0 




'O lO CO 

,m in vo 
,o> to o 



) *# B-|10 N 

) o mito «£ in 



CO H O,C0 1X3 O 
1 O «>H-<fH 
IHtO t- to 

r_rJ 



lO <? rHl'* CO -<J< 



^ O Cl.H HO 
H *# GO'H OI O 

b- in «p in to 



I io colto Oi CO 

• tO H,C1 Oi lO 



< co * m m in 
O O ■<* oi cr» 10 



> co co|b- co O 

to in in|<* b- m 
hco •JBfli ^ 
to to H, ** to 



co u> ■**, ot- 



1 <0«Ol HO 

ihoi ino> 

CO <Ol W H 



IN O, <5> B- 



H CO Hi «> O 

H b* in' co co 



1-4 fP 

«l"i wl'l "i Ml ' j 
., -, 0|«l oH 3 t-> "i *i ° 



o o 
olo 1 



0|0| 

1 1 






l pH|rH CJ 



C0IO <T> ^tO'O 
lO.CJ r-\ olo 1 ^ 

I l 

> o|c- co HHiin 
IH co I n 



> col in <7> r-Hl '-O, o 

j cojm co oiolao 

< coleo io tolin . 
) e- ^ o \4>iOjm 



I H|tO i 



OCOIOjCO co| 

OHIO co o>i 



OJHN 

' C^HO 
HjHH 



Hlci in in, 

lOOl «*«. 

1 H 



loon m co,H 



co' co ao|oin 



H ml Q O H, 
in H'* o> h( 



t- coic^b- 
■^'colai'co 



±1 



•<ro b- col 
us. in o o' 

■Jtoco col 
■tfOO'tf 

CO, C0B-|Oi ■* Nl-* CO * 



CO 1 o> IO.O B- - 



) CO M 1 tO HJICO lOM 

) co'^ coin|cr> io ^ 

) tOitOCO CO CO «5 CO 
I I IN 



co olt> t- m|N o o 



co, Tf ^j> mi 
m|N o o 

N N <• H' 



ICO Ol 01 i£>|*0 H CO'Ol H o»| 

vol oi] <o t-'Hcqin o ^ to 1 
'co. 



N Oi C-^Ji tO 



)inlt>o J 
) to,o> o» to, 



*IO t- H]0> rlt 
J ^ HC- IO.O B- ( 

^^'to co Hcoo< 



i oi N tO COM CO 
) ■tflO Orflo m 

i **.*- w H,>oin 



I co| coo 



Ten a3Wf 



[ t> lO'lD ^Jl I 
I CO Oi H lO CO r 

. . . . . 

!•* CO C-'H >0 , 

I^MJliOHC 

,n >o h|n m r 



H CO tOICO C~ ' 

. . « . . 

Id N tO O N ( 
CO Ol|N Hi 
•* N 1 N i 



|co loin' 



I Ig I 



COH •clH 



>* H CO •* CO' 
H H|*0 CO Oil 

lO C) Si ■* Hi 



c-l ^> <o >*CM 

co. oico. m col 

O 'foil ocol 

in n H in h, 



Ol HI ■* 00, 



** iO 1 t>- to. 



Si 5i 



_u 



^ co ,<4 m |-s; co. 



! uio|-»; < 
- ' !'Q i 



Mi I I MM, I 



-•- - ..i --4 • ; ci "? < .- o -«i 



116 



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RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS. 



317. 













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E- 



Appendix E. 

COMPARATIVE SERVICE TESTS OF 100-POUND SEC- 
TIONS, P. S. AND A. R. A.— A, ON THE PENNSYL- 
VANIA LINES WEST OF PITTSBURGH. 

By W. C. Cushing, 
Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way, Southwest System. 

In 1909, the Railway Company purchased 1,535 tons of A. R. A. type 
"A" rail, for service comparison with the standard P. S. type of that 
company. 

Both types of rail were of Bessemer steel, 100 lbs. per yard, manu- 
factured by the Carnegie Steel Company, at the Edgar Thomson Mill, 
in February, 1909, and were laid on the Pittsburgh Division, at various 
places, in November, 1909. 

A record of failures is being kept, and a portion of each kind was 
singled out to be laid on a very sharp curve, in order to test the relative 
abrasive resistance to the car wheels passing over it, and it is this test 
which is the particular subject of this paper. 

There is a great deal of curved track on the Pennsylvania System, 
and a somewhat heavy-headed rail has been adopted as standard, because 
of the belief that it would last longer on such kind of alignment than a 
comparatively thin-headed rail. As the two lots purchased represented 
the two different designs, it was hoped and expected that differences, if 
any existed, would be clearly indicated. The results of this trial are set 
forth in this paper, and the facts are true and correct in accordance with 
the records which have been kept, but it must be borne in mind that it is 
only one test, that there are many chances of not obtaining all the knowl- 
edge in trials of this character, and that usually many of them are neces- 
sary before a definite and precise rule can be prescribed. 

For the abrasive test, a 7-deg. 45-min. curve, at the west end of the 
Dinsmore tunnel, about 30 miles west of Pittsburgh, was selected. It is 
near the summit of a 1 per cent, grade in each direction, and the rail 
was laid on the eastbound track, which is elevated for a speed of from 
30 to 40 miles per hour. The location is shown in Fig. 1. The west half 
of the curve was laid with the P. S. rail and the east half with A. R. A. 
—A rail. 

Twelve rails were selected for periodical measurements with a sec- 
tion lining machine, the lengths of the periods being six months, one-half 



Report No. 44, September, lull. 

319 



320 RAIL. 

of them on each kind of rail and one-half of each kind being on the 
low or inside and one-half on the high or outside, as shown on the dia- 
gram, Fig. I. 

After removal, the 12 rails were sent to the Pennsylvania laboratory 
at Altoona for chemical and physical survey, and the results are tabulated 
in Table 1. 

An examination will disclose that the material in the rails is fairly 
uniform and that none of it is segregated, except in two instances, Nos. 
5-L and 5-H of the P. S. section. With the exception of the two rails 
mentioned, the chemical and physical characteristics seem to point to fairly 
uniform and good material for Bessemer carbon steel. The carbon of the 
A. R. A. rails may be considered a trifle higher, as is also the manganese 
and the sulphur. 

In the case of 4-L and 6-L, both P. S. rails, the accumulated foot 
pounds under the drop test, with a 50-lb. tup, are rather small, and the 
accumulated foot pounds of No. i-L, though larger, are also under the 
amount expected for good material. The other chemical and physical 
tests do not disclose the reason for this. 

The hardness indicated by the Brinell and scleroscope tests is very 
much the same in each case, there being but ordinary differences. 

In order to show the chemical and physical differences at a glance, 
Fig. 2 has been prepared. It brings out the fact that in only two rails 
was the upper limit of carbon exceeded, if No. 5-L be not considered on 
account of its closeness to the line. All of them are quite well above the 
lower limit. 

The phosphorus in all of them keeps pretty close to the specification 
limit. 

The manganese in all but two keeps pretty close to the desired quan- 
tity of 1 per cent. 

The tensile strength of all is fairly good, with the exception of the 
two segregated rails, Nos. 5-L and 5-H. Both of them show their in- 
feriority and weakness most in the poor elongation percentage of the dia- 
gram and the poor reduction of area percentage of the table. In the 
case of No. 5-H, the accumulated foot pounds test indicates pretty brit- 
tle material, and the Brinell hardness No. 240 indicates the same. This 
is an average of seven readings on different parts of the section, the 
highest being 271, at the junction between the head and web, where the 
largest amount of segregation usually occurs. 

The rail which was removed in order to allow the test rails to be 
laid was 100-lb. Bessemer steel of A. S. C. E. section, rolled by the 
Carnegie Steel Company, at the Edgar Thomson Mill in April, 1907. but 
as no chemical and physical survey was made of the actual rail, the 
average mill figures of the month of May, 1907, during which this rail 
was rolled, were used for the right-hand side of Fig. 2. 

On the whole, it would seem that if there is any advantage to be 
derived by one section over the other, on account of quality of material, 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 321 

it rests with the A. R. A. type "A" section in this particular test, although 
the differences are extremely slight. 

The rail was laid in November, 1909, and removed in August, 191 1, 
after one year and nine months' service, on account of the A. R. A. type 
"A" rail being considered too badly flange worn for further service. 
The P. S. section was not considered to have reached its limit of abra- 
sion at the same time, but owing to being laid on the same curve, it was 
necessary to remove both kinds at the same time. In Table II are given 
the mill analyses of the ingots of each kind of rail, including the A. S. 
C. E. section, the amount of abrasion, the tonnage of traffic and the square 
inches of rail-head abraded per 10,000,000 tons of traffic, which are the 
critical figures for comparison. It took the P. S. section one year and 
nine months to have the same average amount, .62 sq. in., abraded from 
the heads of the six test rails, as was abraded in one year and five 
months from the six test rails of the A. R. A. type "A" section. These 
two rail sections are compared under the same conditions, the abrasion 
per 10,000,000 tons of traffic being .27 in the case of the P. S. section and 
.36 in the case of the A. R. A. type "A" section. 

It will be noticed, however, that the abrasion in the case of the A. S. 
C. E. section is but .22 per 10,000,000 tons of traffic, but one cannot feel 
quite as sure about the accuracy of the amount of tonnage passing over 
it as in the other cases, because the information was acquired by search- 
ing over back records after the A. S. C. E. rail was removed and not 
keeping the record during the time the test was in progress, which was 
done in the case of the other two sections. 

The comparative abrasion for each of the sections is illustrated in 
Figs. 3, 4 and 5, each figure showing the maximum, the average and 
minimum wear for the type of rail in question. 

Figs. 6 to 20 show the deep and light etchings for five of the rails 
Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 show the good material in the A. R. A. — A sec- 
tions, Figs. 12 to 17 the good material in the P. S. sections, and Figs. 18, 
19 and 20 the badly segregated material in 5-H. 

With reference to the total quantity, 1,535 tons of A. R. A. — A rail 
laid in service in 1909, there have been rail failures as follows : 

1909 5 failures 

1910. . .• 23 failures 

191 1 38 failures 

1912 70 failures 

1913 21 failures 

Total 157 failures, or 1,023 per 10,000 

tons of rail laid. 

Of the 157 failures, 108 were on tangent and 49 on curve. 

Of the 157 failures, three were broken rails, two on tangent and one 
on curve, 10 were classified as "Split Web," while all the others, 144, were 
head failures, principally split heads. The entire test is not yet completed. 



322 RAIL. 

Figs. 22, 23 and 24 illustrate the poor quality of material in one of the 
split head rails, and the results of the chemical and physical survey are 
given in Fig. 21. The segregation of the elements is very bad, the 
ductility almost nil, while the hardness is quite irregular. The carbon 
percentage in the rail is very widely different from that indicated by the 
heat analysis at the mill, and yet it was a "B" rail, or the second from 
the top of the ingot. 

SUMMARY. 

1. In the same length of time, one year and nine months, and the 
same tonnage of traffic, the average abrasion from the heads of six sam- 
ple rails was .21 sq. in., or 34 per cent, greater in the case of the A. R. 
A. — A section than the P. S. section. 

2. The abrasion from the A. S. C. E. rail, which preceded these rails 
in service, was less than either, but the record is not so clear. 

3. The quality of the material was very closely the same in each 
case, but if there was any advantage in the case of either, it was with 
the A. R. A. — A section, in having a slightly greater preponderance of 
hardening elements. 

4. The breakages in 1,535 tons in five years are extremely few, three 
in all, but the very large number of split heads is very disquieting. The 
chemical survey of those split heads indicates a large amount of badly 
segregated material. 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



32o 




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324 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



325 



DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING 
COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL 
AND PHYSICAL SURVEYS OF 
TEST RAIL. 



100 lb. Rails. Alignment 7°45'Curve. Stone Ballast. 


Years. 
Service. 


lyr., 9mos. 


lyr., 9moB. 


2yrs.6mos. 


Service. 


A.R.A. A 


P.S. 


A.S.C£. 


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326 



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COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 327 

Study of Twelve Rails Which Wore Out in Service East of Dinsmure, December, 191 i. 



LOW RAIL. 



HIGH RAIL. 




Maximum Wear, 




Average Wear. 




Minimum Wear. 

100 lb. A.R.ArA. RAIL. 



EXPERIMENTAL DATA. 



LOCATION DATA. 



Kind oF Steel ? Bessemer. InE.or W.B.Pass'or Frt.Trk? E.B. 

Weight per yard ? lOOIbs. Degree oF Curve? 7°45' 

Section? A.RA. A. E. end, Wend or center of Curve ?E. end 
ManuFacturer? Carnegie, E.T. Feb. ,1909. Superelevation oF Curve ? 6-8" 

Heat No. Various. Speed For which elevated? 30-40 MPH. 

Rail No. " Tangent' No. 

Laid. Nov. 1909. Kind oF Ballast? Stone. 

Removed. Aug. 1911. p- ^ 



328 RAIL. 

Study of Twelve Rails Which Wore Out in Service East of Dinsmore, December, 191 i. 



LOW RAIL 



HIGH RAIL 




Maximum Wear 




® 

Average. Wear 





Minimum Wear. 

100 lb. P.S. RAIL. 

EXPERIMENTAL DATA. LOCATION DATA. 

Kind of Steel ? Bessemer. InE.orW.B.Pass.orFrt.Trks? E.B. 

Weight per yard ? 100 lbs. Degree of Curve ? 7°45' 

Section? P.S. E.end, W. end or center of Curve? W. end. 
Manufacturer ? Carnegie, E.T.Feb. 1909. Superelevation of Curve? 8" 

Heat No. Various. Speed for which elevated ? 30-40 MPH. 

Rail No. " Tangent ? No. 

Laid. Nov. 1909. Kind of Ballast ? Stone. 

Removed. Aug. 1911. p- ^4 




COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 329 

study of Twelve Rails Which Wore Out in Service East of Dinsmore, December, 1911. 



LOW RAIL. 



s 



Area Abraded - 0.60 sq.in. 
7 Q of Head- 14.53 




HIGH RAIL. 



/ 



^ 



© 

Maximum Wear 



Area' Abraded = 1.14 sq.m. 
%/oP Head= 27.60 
/ 




sT^ 



S 



Area Abraded = 0.46 sq.in 
% oP Head* 11.14 



s 



/Area Abraded=0.85 aq.in. 
.'% oP Head = 20.58 




1/ 

Averabe Wear 



\ 



==^ 



Area Abraded = 0.24 sq.in. 
% oP Head =5.81 



^ 



^ 



J Area Abraded = 0.4 1 sq.in 
/ 95 oP Head = 9.93 




Minimum Wear. 

100 lb. A.S.C.E.RAIL. 



EXPERIMENTAL DATA. 

Kind oP Steel ? Bessemer. 
Weight per yard ? 100 lbs. 
Section? A.S.C.E. 
ManuPacturer? Carnegie, ET. Apr.1907. 
Heat No. Unknown. 
Rail No. " 
Laid. May, 1907. 
Removed. Nov., 1909. _. 




LOCATION DATA. 

InE.orW.B.Pass.orFrt.Trk? E.B. 
Degree oP Curve? 7° 4b' 
E.end ,W- end or center oP Curve? All. 
Superelevstion-oP Curve? 6-8" 
Speed Por which elevated ? 3CH40 MPH ! . 
Tangent? No. 
Kind oP Ballast ? Stone. 

5. 



330 



RAIL. 




mBmm 







Deep Etching. 

No. i-L. 

Fig. 6. 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



331 




Light Etching. 

No. i-L. 

Fig. ;. 



332 



RAIL. 




COMPARATIVE RAIL. SERVICE TESTS. 



333 



-*& 



., -.•■. ••'.'.'•••'ilV * ; 1* »'-'■':. /T-''" 1 -^.-" ■"■■ '!?•■ 







• - 1 

«^ v ,., ; ;... ; .j 
f* •.',-. '••'V N ," ! ) 

V\*. ■ .'-.v-.'- 'iji 



'.!.'." •>■' 
FY"*' *' V 



L- ■■■■ Y-^'v" 



Deep Etching. 

No. 3-11. 

Fig. 9. 



^^ 




634: 



RAIL. 




30B 




Light Etching. 
No. 3-H. 
Fig. io. 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



335 




* *« ' 



'V- VT^r 



*+ ■. ■ 1 



?36 



RAIL. 




Deep Etching. 
No. 4-L. 

Fig. 12. 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



337 



m 




-3IG 



Light Etching 
No. 4-L. 
Fig. 13. 



338 



RAIL. 




COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



339 




Deep Etching. 
No. 6-H. 
Fig. 15. 



340 



RAIL. 




Light Etching. 
No. 6-H. 
Fig. i 6. 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



341 




342 



RAIL. 




Deep Etching 
No. 5-H. 
Fig. 18. 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



343 




Light Etching. 
No. 5-H. 
Fig. 19. 



344 



RAIL 







- 



Q 



O w 



» 

/* / 

* / 



pq 




COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



346 



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 


PHYSICAL TESTS 


of 


c. 


Mn. 


p. 


Si. 


S. 






■in 
Drop Teat 


Tensile 

Strength 


Elastic 


Elongatlen 


Original Sec. 




Baflffi 




Sal-lnchn 


LI... P.. S«.l-. 


Lb. P.,5, In 


Fracture 


Head 


.54 


.86 


.087 


.'056 


.046 






1=1/8'' 


. 110250 


5985C 


4. 


3.32 


fl 


Web 


.69 


.90 


.137 


.066 


.059 


















Base 


.53 


.86 


.086 


.075 


.045 


















Average 


.59 


.87 


.103 


.066 


.050 


















Heat 





























M. W. 34 F. 



Report No. 11.73 * 

t.d.30.1064 Pennsylvania Railroad Company 



490 J SxlOtt Copnna Ink 



P.. B. \ W. R. H. N. C. RY. W. J. 4 S. R. R. 

LABORATORY REPORT 

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF RAIL AND OTHER TRACK MATERIAL 
Referred to in W.C.Cushing' S letter Of 9-27-12 ...tO... J."e!7alli3 



Laboratory No. 29303-4-5 Sample Represents I&Q....^_.._^Il^EPm.i:ifet;.a]SBr25*. JJS>..21?J... 

ft... west of M,P. 117. ..,„ 9-16-12 A.R.A.Soc. Car. !i.T.,_.3-09. Heat i:o.. 6690 . 

Split. .Read „__....,,, „ 

Place and Date AltOPrxa, Pa. , .January . .27th, .19 13 ..... 



DROP TEST. SUPPORTS 12» APART. WEIGHT OF TUP, 50 LBS. 



Test Piece at "D" §3"x§3* 



1/2 



Test Piece at "E" £ ffx l tf 



Location 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


lie rage 


|| 


Brinell 


230 


216 


230 


265 


262 


223 


225 


236 


£z 


Seleroscooe 


34 


32 


34 


39 


38 


33 


33 


35 



53 



1-3/16 28750 



p O 3 IB 

I O Ie"He T.atrj 




tensile telle 
I.I. 

II. 

Impacl lull 
G. P. 



A badly segregated rail, resulting in a split head. The tensile 
test indicates brittle material. 
Heat Analysis 



Carton .45 

Manganese - .84 



FlG. 21. 



346 



RAIL. 




Deep Etching. 
Fig. 22. 



COMPARATIVE RAIL SERVICE TESTS. 



347 





,^^,.^.^,.^.. 




Light Etching. 
Eig. 23. 



}48 



RAIL. 




350 



RAIL. 



end of the ingot and looking toward the top end, which entered the rolls 
first) finally made the top side or tread of the rail. The various passes 
and their areas are shown in Table i. 

Observations were made of temperatures after the second blooming 
pass by means of a Thwing pyrometer, and after the finishing pass by 
means of a Fery pyrometer. The temperature observations of the bloom 
represented the middle of the side, and those of the rail represented the 
bottom of the base toward the edge of the flange. The time at which 





Table 1 - Areas 


of Passes . 












Area after 


Pass No. 


Kind of Pass 




Pass 

sq . in. 




Ingot, 20 x 24 






480 


1 
2 
3 
4 


T\ro high blooming, 
» ii it 
ii H H 

n it ii 


19 
15 

14.5 
11.5 


x 20 
x 19 
x 15 
x 14.5 


361 
270 
211 
160 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


Three high blooming, 

n it n 
n ti ii 
n n ii 
n ti ti 


11.5 
9.5 
9.5 
7.5 
7.5 


x 11.5 
x 11.5 
x 9.5 
x 9.6 
x 8.0 


130 

108 
88.9 
70.7 
58.9 


10 
11 
12 


Three high roughing, 

n it ti 

IT IT II 






4£.8 
35.2 
28*2 


13 


Former, 






£2.4 


14 


Dummy, 






21.3 


15 


First eager. 






16.9 


16 


Second edger. 






13.1 


17 


Leader, 






10.6 


18 


Finished rail, 






9.81 



each of these operations occurred was recorded at the same time that 
the temperature reading was taken. The Fery pyrometer was cali- 
brated against a thermo-couple in a laboratory muffle electrically heated, 
and the Thwing was calibrated against the Fery in the mill, with mate- 
rial being rolled. The temperatures and times are gievn in Table 2. 

The temperature given probably cannot be depended upon as show- 
ing closely the actual temperatures, but they probably may be used for 
comparison among themselves. It was intended to have Ingots i to 5, in- 
clusive, vary in temperature over a considerable range, but it will be 
noted that Ingots i to 4, inclusive, showed about the same temperature 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



351 





Table 


2 - Temperatures and Times 




Ingot 

No. 


Time (P.M.) 


Temperature - 


C. 


2nd Pass 


Finish 


Min.Used 


2nd Pass 


Finish 


Drop 


i 


6.36 


6.41 


6 


1145 


850 


295 


2 


6.37i 


6.43i 


6 


1145 


845 


300 


3 


6.40 


6.46 


6 


1130 


845 


285 


4 


6.42 


6.48£ 


6-V 


1125 


840 


285 


5 


6.44 


6.51 


7 


995 


830 


165 


6 


6.47 


6.54i> 


7* 


1145 


850 


295 


7 


6.53i 


7. 02£ 


9 


1170 


815 


355 


6 


6.57 


7.061- 


-2 


1155 


795 


360 


9 


7.00 


7.11 


11 


1140 


750 


390 


10 


7.03 


7.15 


12 


1160 


695 


465 



Table 3 - Rail-bars Held. 


Bar No. 


Rail 
Letter 


Seconds Held 


After 
15th Pass 


After 
16th Pass 


After 
17th Pass 


6 
6 
7 
7 
8 
8 
9 
9 
10 
10 


A 

E 
A 
E 
A 
E 
A 
E 
A 
E 


30 
36 
55 
45 
60 
60 
60 
60 


25 
40 

40 


15 
15 



352 RAIL. 

according to the pyrometer readings. Ingot 5 showed a lower tempera- 
ture, but the finishing temperature of the rail made from it showed only 
a little lower than the others. How little variation there was in the initial 
temperatures of these five ingots was realized only after the pyrometer 
calibrations were obtained, which were completed after the rails were 
rolled, and after the shrinkages were calculated, which work was done 
after the rails were cut up for the various tests and after part of the 
tests were made. The results on these rails will probably have little bear- 
ing on the question of relationship of ingot temperature to the properties 
of rails, but they are recorded in this report as they may still be service- 
able for reference. This part of the work will, therefore, have to be 
done again. 

Ingots 6 to 10, inclusive, showed about the same initial temperature 
and showed successively lower finishing temperatures in the respective 
rail bars made from them, these bars having been held varying lengths 
of time before finishing. The passes after which the bars were held and 
the seconds held are shown in Table 3. 

It should have been remarked that after the ninth pass the bloom was 
cut in two and the ingot finished into rail in two bars. The finishing 
temperatures recorded were of the second bar. 

SHRINKAGE. 

The saws of the "A" and "E" rails were set for a shrinkage of 6V2 
in., that is, they were spaced 33 ft. 6 x /< in. apart. The lengths of the 
finished rails when cold and their cambers and shrinkages are shown in 
Table 4. 

It will be noted that the shrinkage of the "E" rail was less than the 
shrinkage of the "A" rail from the same ingot, that is, its temperature 
was less at the time of sawing. After rolling the ingot into a bloom, the 
bloom was cut in two and then finished into rail in two rail-bars. The 
first bar, which contained the "A" rail, after finishing was allowed to 
pass to the saws without any delay and without taking a temperature 
reading. The second bar, which contained the "E" rail, was stopped im- 
mediately after leaving the finishing rolls and held while a temperature 
reading was taken. The shrinkage of the "A" rail, therefore, would 
better represent the shrinkage normal to the conditions under which the 
bar was rolled. 

For convenience of comparison the finishing temperatures of rail- 
bars 6 to 10, inclusive, are shown in Table 5, together with the shrink- 
ages and the lengths of time held. 

The temperatures shown in this table are those recorded for the 
rail-bar from the second bloom of the ingot from which the "E" rail 
was cut and the length of time held between rolls also represents this 
bar. The shrinkage, however, was that of the "A" rail, since, as explained, 
the second part of the rail was held after finishing and before sawing, to 
take its temperature, while the first part of the bar> containing the "A" 
rail went directly to the saws without holding. The time held was about 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



353 



Table 4 - Finished RailB . 


No. 


length 
ft. in. 


Shrink- 
age 
in. 


Camber 
in. 


Concave 

Head or 

Base Side 


1A 

IE 

2A 

2E 

3A 

3E 

4A 

4E 


32-11.75 
33- 0.15 

32-11.75 
33- 0.20 

32-11.80 
33- 0.25 

32-11.75 
33- 0.30 


6.75 

6.35 

6.75 
6.30 

6.80 
6.25 

6.75 
6.20 


1.25 
.25 

1.75 
.00 

1.40 
.00 

1.00 
.40 


B 
E 

B 

B 

H 
E 

B 

E 

1 
B 

B 
H 

B 
E 

B 
H 

H 
H 

1 


5A 
5E 

6A 
6E 

7A 
7E 

8A 
8E 


32-11.90 
33- 0.45 

32-11.55 
33- 0.15 

33- 0.05 
33- 0.45 

33- 

33- 0.45 


6.60 
6.05 

6.95 
6.35 

6.45 
6.05 

6.50 
6.05 


.65 
1.00 

.75 
.75 

.50 
1.15 

.25 
.75 


9A 
9E 

10A 
10E 


33- 

33- 0.80 

33- 0.80 
33- 1.20 


6.50 
5.70 

5.70 
5.30 


.50 
1.50 

2.90 
4.65 



the same for the two parts of the bar except that in the case of Ingot 9, 
rhe second part of the bar was held longer than the first part. In this 
case the shrinkage shown for the "A" rail is that of the "E" rail plus 
■45 in-, which was about the average difference between the shrinkages 
of the "A" and "E" rails. 



Table 5 - Temperature, Shrinkage and Time Held 



Bar 
Number 



Temperature 
n E" Rail 



Shrinkage 
"A" Rail 



Time Held 
"E n Rail 



6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



850° C. 
815 " 
795 " 
750 " 
695 " 



6.95 in. 
6.45 n 
6.50 " 
* 6.15 n 
5.70 " 



35 sec. 
45 " 
75 ■ 
115 " 



(*) Calculated from shrinkage of "E" rail. 



354 



RAIL. 



The results in this table are plotted in Fig. i, in which the time held 
between rolls before finishing is shown horizontally, and the temperature 
in degrees centigrade of the bottom of the base near the edge of the 
flange and the shrinkage in inches are shown vertically. 



CO 


7.0 ( 

6.5 
6.0 
5.5 






















































































• 1 




































































































© 

2 2 

O 


850 
800 
750 
700 


































^j 




























































































































D 20 40 60 80 100 120 




Seconds Held Between Rolls 


Fig. 1 - Finishing Temperature of Flange 
and Shrinkage as Related to Time 
Held between Rolls before 
Finishing 



Calculating from the curves, it is found that the decrease in tempera- 
ture (as measured and under the conditions) was 145° C. for a holding 
of 100 seconds, or 1.45 C. per second held. The decrease in shrinkage 
was 1. 10 in. for 100 seconds holding, or .011 in. per second held. The re- 
sults showing the shrinkage as related to temperature are plotted in Fig. 2, 
the temperature being shown horizontally and the shrinkage vertically. 
The temperature here referred to represents the coldest part of the rail, 
and, of course, the average temperature of the whole rail or of the in- 
terior of the head would be higher. 

TESTS MADE. 

Each rail was cut into ten pieces, numbered consecutively from one 
to ten from the top end, and used for tests as listed in Table 6. 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



355 



CO 


7.0 

6.5 
6.0 
5.5 
































































































































• 














































































•- 


































700 750 800 850 




Degrees Centigrade 




Pig. 


2 - Shrinkage as Related to Finishing 
Temperature of Flange 



No. 


i— i ft. 


for 


No. 


2— 4 y 2 ft. 


for 


No. 


3— 4 r A ft. 


for 


No. 


4-4^ ft. 


for 


No. 


5—2 ft. 


for 


No. 


6—i ft. 


for 


No. 


7—4V2 ft. 


for 


No. 


8— 4 y 2 ft. 


for 


No. 


9— 4 r /4 ft. 


for 


No. 


10 — 2 ft. 


for 



TABLE 6 — PIECES FOR TESTS FROM EACH RAIL. 

tensile tests and cross-section. 

drop test with head in tension. 

drop test with base in tension. 

slow bending in test machine, head in tension. 

transverse test of base and cross-section. 

tensile tests and cross-section. 

drop test with head in tension. 

drop test with base in tension. 

slow bending in test machine, base in tension. 

transverse test of base and cross-section. 

In addition, some of the tensile test pieces were used for microscopic 
tests. 

DROP TESTS. 

Four drop tests were made of each rail, two with the head in ten- 
sion and two with the base in tension. The tup was 2,000 lbs., the height 
of drop was 20 ft., the centers of the supports were 3 ft. apart and the 
anvil was 20,000 lbs., spring supported. The striking face of the tup 
and the bearing surfaces of the supports each had a radius of 5 in. The 
deflection, or set, under the first blow was measured in a distance of 3 
ft. of the side that was below in testing. Gage marks 1 in. apart were 
put lengthwise on the side in tension, about the middle of the piece 
tested, for a distance of 6 in., and the increase in length of the space 
which stretched most at breaking was taken as the measure of ductility. 
The results of the drop test for rail bars 1 to 10, inclusive, with the head 
in tension, are shown in Table 7 and with the base in tension in Table 8. 



356 



RAIL. 



Table 7 - Drop Tests, Head in Tension 


Bar 

No. 


Deflection 
1st Blow 


No. of 
Blows 


Elongation 
Per cent. 


Remarks 


1A2 
1A7 
1E2 
1E7 
At. 


1.20 
1.20 
1.20 
1.20 


1 
3 
3 
3 
2.5 


6 
10 
10 
16 
10.5 


Flange broke 

Base split, 1st blow 


2A2 
2A7 
2E2 
2E7 
Av. 


1.29 
1.25 


2 
3 


12 
14 


Broke near middle 
Base split under tup 
Bent sideways 


1.27 
1.28 
1.27 


4 
3 
3.0 


16 
12 

13.5 






3A2 
3A7 
3E2 
3E7 
Av. 


1.25 
1.25 
1.28 
1.25 
1.26 


3 
2 

3 
3 

2.8 


14 

14 
10 
12.7 


Base split 

Flange broke & bent sideways 
Flange broke & bent sideways 
Base split 


4A2 
4A7 

4£2 
4E7 
Av. 


1.22 

1.28 
1.27 
1.26 


3 

4 
4 
3.7 


14 

16 
16 
15.3 




EA2 
5A7 

5E2 
5E7 
Av. 


1.30 
1.25 
1.28 
1.27 
1.28 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3.0 


16 
14 
12 
16 
14.5 


Base split 
Base split 
Bent sideways 
Base split 


6A2 
6A7 
6E2 
6E7 
Av. 


1.28 
1.29 
1.30 
1.30 
1.29 


3 
3 
3 

1 
2.5 


14 
14 
12 
5 
11.3 


Bent sideways 

Base split under tup 

Bent sideways 

Base split under tup 


7A2 
7A7 

7E2 
7E7 
Av. 


1.25 
1.25 
1.30 
1.25 
1.26 


3 
3 
4 
3 
3.3 


10 

16 
12 
18 
14.0 


Flange broke 
Bent sideways 


8A2 
8A7 
8E2 
8E7 
AV. 


1.28 
1.27 
1.28 
1.25 
1.27 


4 

3 
4 

3 
3.5 


18 
16 
16 
14 
16.0 


Bent sideways 

Flange broke under tup 

Flange broke under tup 


9A2 
9A7 
9E2 
9E7 
Av. 


1.27 
1.25 
1.26 
1,28 
1.27 


3 

4 
3 
4 
3.5 


18 
16 
12 
10 
14.0 


Bent sideways 
Bent sideways 
Bent sideways 
Bent sideways 


10A2 
10A7 
10E2 
10E7 
AV. 


1.28 
1.25 
1.28 
1.27 
1.27 


3 
4 
3 
3 
3.3 


14 
16 
16 
14 

15.0 


Bent sideways 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



357 





Table 


8 - Drop Tests, 


Base in Tension. 


Bar 


Deflection 


No. of 


Elongation 




No. 


1st Blow 


Blows 


Per cent. 




1A3 


1.15 


4 


10 




1A8 


1.15 


4 


10 


Bent sideways 


1E3 


1.25 


4 


12 


Web split 


1E8 


1.27 


4 


12 


Split downward from head 


AT. 


1.21 


4.0 


11.0 




2A3 


1.19 


4 


14 




2A8 


1.20 


6 


14 


Broke at supports 


2E3 


— 


1 


4 




2E8 


1.27 


3 


10 




Av. 


1.22 


3.5 


10.5 




3A3 


1.25 


3 


12 




3A8 


1.22 


4 


10 


Web split at ends 


3E3 


1.25 


4 


10 




SE8 


1.28 


4 


12 


Web split at endB 


Ay. 


1.25 


3.8 


11.0 




4A3 


__ 


1 


2 


Broke at supports 


4A8 


1.25 


3 


10 


Split at support 


4E3 


1.30 


4 


12 


Web split 


4E8 


1.30 


3 


10 


Base split at support 


Ay. 


1.28 


2.8 


8.5 




5A3 


1.25 


2 


8 


Broke near support 


5A8 


1.25 


3 


10 


Web split entire length 


5E3 


1.28 


3 


12 


Web split entire length 


6E8 


1.28 


3 


10 


Broke near support 


At. 


1.27 


2.8 


10.0 




6A3 


1.25 


4 


10 




6A8 


1.25 


4 


10 


Web Bplit entire length 


6E3 
6E8 


1.30 
1.28 


5 


10 


Web split entire length 
Broke at support 


4 


10 


Av. 


1.27 


4.3 


10.0 




7A3 


1.23 


3 


10 




7A8 


1.25 


4 


10 




7E3 


1.25 


4 


12 




7E8 


1.27 


4 


12 


Web split 


At. 


1.25 


3.8 


11.0 




8A3 


1.25 


4 


10 


Bent sideways, web split 


8A8 


1.85 


4 


12 


Web split entire length 


8E3 


1.28 


3 


10 


Web split entire length 


8E8 


1.27 


4 


10 


Bent sideways. Flange broke 


At. 


1.26 


3.8 


10.5 


(at support 


9A3 


1.20 


4 


8 


Web split 


9A8 


1.23 


5 


10 


!7eb split 


9E3 


1.29 


4 


16 


Bent sideways 


9E8 


1.30 


4 


12 


Web split 


AT. 


1.26 


4.3 


11.5 




10A3 


1.29 


3 


14 


Flange broke at support 


10A8 


1.25 


4 


10 


Broke near support 


10E3 


1.28 


3 


10 


Bent sideways 


10E8 


1.28 


4 


10 


Broke at supports 


At. 


1.28 


3.5 


11.0 





358 



RAIL. 



The average results in the drop tests of rails from Ingots 6 to 10, in- 
clusive, are shown for convenience of comparison in Table 9, together 
with the finishing temperatures of the flange. 

The deflection on the first blow from 20 ft., with the head in tension 
and with the base in tension, were about the same, and the average of 
the two is shown in the table. As regards the elongation, it should be 
remarked that while failure in the drop test occurs normally by the 
exhaustion of the ductility of the part in tension, a large proportion of 
the failures in this series occurred otherwise. In some cases the rail 
buckled without breaking ; in some cases the web split from the ends, 
and in others the base split, either where struck by the tup when the 
head was in tension, or where it rested on the supports with the base in 
tension. The elongation in the drop test would, therefore, in this case, 



Table 9 - Average Results in Drop Tests. 


No. 


Temper- 
ature 

Flange 
°C 


Deflec- 
tion 
Inches 


Number of Blows 


Elongation 
Per cent. 


Head 
Tension 


Base 

Tension 


Head 
Tension 


Base 
Tension 


6 
7 

8 

9 

10 


850 
815 
795 
750 
695 


1.28 
1.26 
1.27 
1.27 
1.28 


2.5 
3.3 
3.5 
3.5 
3.3 


4.3 
3.8 
3.8 
4.3 
3.5 


11.3 
14.0 
16.0 
14.0 
15.0 


10.0 
11.0 
10.5 
11.5 
11.0 



be only a rough means of comparison, especially with so few results. 
The same remarks would also apply to the number of blows given the 
rails. 

The average results in the drop tests are plotted in Fig. 3 in rela- 
tion to the finishing temperature of the flange, measured as described, 
the temperature being shown horizontally and the deflection on the first 
blow, the number of blows and the elongation being shown vertically. 
It will be noted that the deflection on the first blow from 20 ft., or the 
stiffness of the rail, was about the same for the several rails finished 
at the different temperatures. Likewise, the number of blows and the 
ductility were about the same for the different finishing temperatures ob- 
tained by holding between rolls. 



SLOW BENDING TESTS. 



From each rail two pieces were used for longitudinal bending in 
the test machine, one with the head in tension and the other with the 
base in tension. The rail was supported on flat supports 3 ft. between 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



359 



§13 
If, 

© <0 


15 

IB 

9 

6 

3 






































































































1 




































• Head Tension 

°- _ - Base Tension 








































a 

4> o 

•get 

sn 


5 
4 
3 
2 

1 












_-< 


• — 


















_-< 






i — 


— ~" 
















1 — •— 





-6- 










«— 
































































































































•H CO 
+9 © 

o 

Cm 
©*_ 


1.50 

1.00 

.50 


















































Average 
























































































































































700 750 800 850 




Degrees Centigrade 


I 


Hg. : 


5 - Results in Drop Test as Related to 
Finishing Temperature of Flange 



edges, and the load was applied centrally between edges through a die 
with a rounded surface. The deflection was measured at a load of 
150,000 lbs., while the load was on, by means of a deflectometer placed 
under the middle of the rail and resting on the bed of the test machine. 
The breaking load was noted. Gage marks 1 in. apart were put longi- 
tudinally on the side in tension, about the middle of the test piece, for 
a distance of 6 in., and the increase in length of the space which stretched 
most at failure was taken as the measure of ductility. The results of 
the slow bending tests are shown in Table 10. It may be remarked that 
all the specimens broke near the middle as tension breaks, except No. 
1A9, in which the web buckled and the ends split. For convenience of 
comparison the average results of rail bars 6 to 10, inclusive, are shown 
in Table 11, together with the finishing temperatures of the flange. 



?60 



RAIL. 



Table 10 - Slow Bending Tests 



Head in Tension 



Base in Tension 



No. 



Deflec- 
tion at 

150000# 



Breaking 
Load 



Elonga- 
tion 
Percent 



No. 



Deflec- 
tion at 
150000# 



Breaking 
Load 



Elonga- 
tion 
Percent 



1A4 
1E4 
At. 



2A4 

2E4 
At. 



248,500 
260,000 
254,250 



5 
9 
7.0 



1A9 
1E9 

At. 



.222 
,225 
.224 



285,400 
289.600 



287,500 



261,700 
252,400 
257,050 



2A9 
2E9 
At. 



280,800 
271.500 



276,150 



3A4 
3E4 
At. 



259,300 
246.900 
253,100 



'3A9 
3E9 
At. 



(219,200 
265,400 



4A4 
4E4 
At. 



.289 
.329 
.309 



256,000 
246.300 
251,150 



4A9 
4E9 
At. 



.261 
.273 
.267 



267,800 
262.500 



265,150 



5A4 
5E4 
At. 



.264 
.318 
.291 



225,000 
246,400 
235.700 



5 
9 
7.0 



5A9 
5E9 
At. 



.248 
.333 
.291 



281,900 
274.300 



278.100 



11 
9 
10.0 



6A4 

6E4 
At. 



.285 
.317 
.301 



249,100 
243.300 



246,200 



6A9 
6E9 

At. 



284,000 
265,700 
274.850 



10 
10 
10.0 



7A4 
7E4 

At. 



.286 
.310 
.298 



260,100 
247 . 900 
254,000 



14 
11 



12.5 



7A9 
7E9 
At. 



275,800 
275,900 
275.850 



8A4 

*8E4 

At. 



257,400 
(206.400 



8A9 
8E9 
At. 



.265 
.255 
.260 



278,800 
273.400 



276,100 



10 
11 



10.5 



9A4 
9E4 
At. 



.271 
.337 
.304 



262,700 
251.400 
257.050 



9A9 
9B9 
At. 



283,600 
263.400 
273,500 



8 

8 

8.0 



10A4 

10E4 

At. 



.340 



251.300 



11 



10A9 
10E9 



At. 



277,000 
271,900 

274.450 



7 

10 

8.5 



(*) Sample 8E4 showed a nick in the head where broken. 
Results on breaking load and elongation not used. 
Sample 3A9 showed a nick in the edge of flange 
where broken. Results on breaking load and 
elongation not used. 



Table 11 - ATerage Results in Slow Bending Tests 


Bar 

Number 


Part 
in 

Tension 


Pin. Temp. 
Flange 

(c.T 


Deflection 
(Inches at ) 
(150000 lbs) 


Breaking 

Load 
(Pounds) 


Elongation 
(Per cent) 


6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Head 

n 


850° 

815 

795 

750 

695 


.301 
.298 
.278 
.304 
.340 


246,200 
254,000 
257,400 
257,050 
251,300 


10.0 
12.5 
14.0 
11.5 
11.0 


6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Base 

n 

IT 

r? 
n 


850° 

815 

795 

750 

695 


.291 
.267 
.260 
.313 
.272 


274,850 
275,850 
276,100 
273,500 
274,450 


10.0 

10.0 

10.5 

8.0 

8.5 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



361 



These results are plotted in Fig. 4, in which the finishing tempera- 
ture of the flange is shown horizontally and the deflection at 150,000 lbs. 
load, the breaking load and the elongation are shown vertically. It 



* s 


14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 



























































































.0- 




































-' 


-' 






















































































•—Head Tension 
— Base Tension 








































5 

^ a 

iff 

© 


320,000 

240,000 

160,000 

80,000 






































0— 
































1 










































































































































































































































Deflection at 

150,000 lbs. 

(Inches) 


.36 
.30 
.24 
.18 
.12 
.06 













_-i 


te» 




















































l 




















































































































































YUU YOU ouu oou 


Degrees Centigrade 


Pig 


. 4 - Re 

to P 


suits in Slow Bending Tests as Related 
inishing Temperature of Flange. 



will be noted that with the range of finishing temperatures worked with, 
obtained by holding the bar, the results in the slow bending tests were 
about the same for the different temperatures. 



362 



RAIL. 



TRANSVERSE TESTS OF BASE. 

Transverse tests of the base were made of two pieces from each 
rail, each piece being 2 ft. long. The method of test was to support the 
rail on two supports placed opposite each other near the edges of the 
flanges under the middle of its length. The supports were 6 in. long 
and placed Vz in. in from the sides of the flanges, or spaced 4.5 in. 
apart. The load was applied in the test machine to the head of the rail 
at the middle. The general arrangement is shown in Fig. 5. The load 




Fig. 5 — Method of Making Transverse Test of Base. 



was measured that it took to break the rail. The transverse elonga- 
tion was measured by putting prick punch marks 1 in. apart crosswise 
on the bottom of the base and at the middle of the length of the piece 
tested. The greatest extension after breaking, in any one of the spaces, 
was taken as the measure of the transverse ductility. The sag of the 
unbroken flange was measured and taken as the distance from a straight 
edge laid on the bottom of the base near the edge of its flange to the 
flange where bent most from the straight surface of the base. The re- 
sults of the transverse tests are shown in Table 12. It will be noted 
that the results varied considerably, and that most of the samples which 
gave low results in breaking load, transverse elongation and sag of 
flange, showed longitudinal seams in the bottom of the base. The average 
results of rail bars 6 to 10, inclusive, are shown in Table 13, together with 
the finishing temperatures of the flange. 

These average results are plotted in Fig. 6, the finishing tempera- 
tures of the flange being shown horizontally and the breaking load, the 
elongation and the sag of flange being shown vertically. It will be 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



363 







Table 12 - Transverse Teste of Base 






So. 


Break" g 
Load 

(Lbs) 


Elong 


Sag of 

Flange 

(In.) 


Remarks 


NO. 


Break'g 
Load 
(Lbs) 


Elong 
(#) 


Sag of 

Flange 

(In.) 


EemarkB 


1A6 

1A10 

1E6 

1E10 

Av. 


246,500 
259,000 
236,000 
269,700 
260,300 


2.0 

2.0 
3.0 
3.0 
2.5 


.14 
.15 
.14 
.16 
.16 


Light seam. 04" 
deep toward 
e%e of flange. 


6A5 

6A10 
6E5 
6E10 
Av. 


180,900 
231,900 
282,800 
251,500 
236,650 


1.0 

2.0 
4.0 
2.0 
2.8 


.05 
.09 
.34 
.21 
.17 


Small seam, part 
light, part 
dark. 


2A5 

2A10 

2E5 

2E10 

Av. 


236,600 
266,600 
288,900 
208,200 
246,776 


2.0 
3.0 
5.0 
1.0 
2.8 


.12 
.16 

.35 
.08 
.18 




7A6 

7A10 

7E5 

7E10 

AT. 


247,300 
184,400 
135,500 
158,300 
181,375 


2.0 
1.0 
1.0 
0.0 
1.0 


.12 
.07 
.02 
.02 
.06 


Small seam. 
Lt.seam.05 n dee] 
« .06" " 


ZA6 

SA10 

3E6 

8E10 

Av. 


229,600 
229,100 
267,500 
100,200 
206,600 


2.0 
2.0 
4.0 
0.0 
2.0 


.12 
.10 
.28 
.03 
.13 


Long seam .12" 
deep, dark. 


8A5 

8A10 

8E6 

8E10 

Av. 


249,400 
257,200 
278,200 
237,600 
255,600 


3.0 


.16 




£.0 
4.0 
8.0 
3.0 


.14 
.29 
.19 
.19 


4A5 

4A10 
4E5 
4E10 
At. 


169,200 

181,600 
247,800 
179,400 
194,600 


2.0 

2.0 
4.0 
1.0 
2.3 


.06 

.04 
.21 
.06 
.09 


Seam .06" deep 
partly dark. 

Seam .08" deep 
partly dark. 

Seam .03" deep 
light . 


9A6 

9A10 
9E5 
9E10 
Av. 


191,800 

250,200 
281,500 
290,200 
253,425 


1.0 

4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
3.3 


.16 

.18 
.26 
.30 
.28 




5A6 

5A10 

5E5 

6E10 

AT. 


177,100 
232,900 
243,000 
246,600 
224,900 


1.0 
2.0 
3.0 
4.0 
2.6 


.05 
.14 
.22 
.15 
.14 


Seam .04 deep, 
part light & 
part dark. 


10A5 
10A10 
10E6 
10E10 
Av. 


187,400 
233,200 
210,900 
207,700 


2.0 
2.0 
3.0 
2.0 


.07 
.10 
.12 
.10 

.10 


Small seam. 
Small seam. 


209,800 


2.8 




Si 


ipporte 


6 inches long, spaced 4.5 in 


ches a 


part 





Table 13 - Average Results in Transverse Tests of Base 


Bar 

Number 


Temperature 
of Flange 
(Deg. C.) 


Breaking 

Load 
(Pounds) 


Elongation 
(Per cent) 


Sag of 

Flange 

(Inches) 


6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


850 
815 
795 
750 
695 


236,650 
181,375 
255,600 
253,425 
209,800 


2.3 
1.0 
3.0 
3.3 
2.3 


.17 
.06 

.19 
.23 
.10 



364 



RAIL. 



noted that even among the average results the differences were great, 
but they seem not to show any relationship to finishing temperature. 
These differences indicate that other factors (such as seams) consid- 
erably outweigh and absorb the influence of differences in finishing tem- 
peratures obtained by holding the bar. 



■ 

I 

H ■ 

O S 
H 

60 *~ 

«8 

CO 


.25 
.20 
.15 
.10 

.05 



























































































\ 










> 


i 
























\ 






J 


s 


























* 


V 


S 












































8 ~ 

M © 

| N 

s • 

rl a. 


3 

2 

1 













































































































































oS 

O ^ 

^ 09 

H 

N 

m 


200,000 










































































































































100,000 

o 








































































Fig. 




700 750 800 850 

Degrees Centigrade 


6 - Resu] 


.ts in T 


ransverse Tests 


of Base as Rel 


ated 




to Finishii 


ig 


Ten 


rpe 


ra1 


ur 


e c 


>f Flange 







TENSILE TESTS. 

Tensile tests were made from two places along the length of the 
"A" rail and from two places in the *'E" rail from each rail bar. From 
each place seven tensile specimens were prepared, as shown in Fig. 7, 
thus making 28 samples to represent each rail bar, or 280 samples from 
the ten bars. Samples "a" from the corner of the head and "f" from 
the flange were from the brand or "bottom" side of the rail ; that is, 
the side that was below in passing through the finishing rolls. The test 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



365 




Fig. 7 — Diagram Showing Locations of Specimens for Tensile Test. 



pieces were Yz in. in diameter for a gage length of 2 in., and turned 
with shoulders so as to be held in sockets when pulled. The yield point 
was determined by means' of a Berry strain gage. The results of the 
tests are shown in Tables 14 to 23, inclusive. The average results for 
the several rail bars are collected together in Table 24 and are plotted 
in Fig. 8 in relation to the finishing temperature of the flange for 
rail bars 6 to 10, inclusive. It will be noted that the yield point, the 
maximum strength and the ratio of the yield point to the maximum 
strength were about the same for the several finishing temperatures, 
varied by holding the bars different lengths of time. The elongation and 
reduction of area were a little less with the higher temperature, but the 
difference was small. 



566 



RAIL. 





Table 14 


- Tensile Tests of Bail Bar 1. 




Ho. 


Yield Point 

(Lbs .per 

sq.in.) 


Max. Strength 

(Lbs. per 

sq.in.) 


Patio 


Elongation 
(Percent.) 


Reduction 

of Area 

(Percent.) 


lAla 


57,700 


124,230 


46.4 


13.0 


22.0 


b 


56,390 


122,920 


45.9 


14.0 


22.3 


c 


55,500 


125,620 


44.2 


10.0 


13.7 


d 


54,150 


130,470 


41.5 


11.5 


15.6 


e 


53 , 500 


120,230 


44.5 


12.5 


19.8 


f 


58,300 


125,620 


46.4 


14.5 


24.7 


g 

Average 


58.740 
56.330 


127.420 


46.1 

45.0 


14.0 
12.8 


23.7 
20.3 


125.220 


lA6a 


60,180 


123,360 


48.8 


13.5 


21.6 


b 


55,740 


123,180 


45.3 


13.5 


20.9 


c 


53,040 


123,520 


42.9 


11.0 


16.3 


d 


63,240 


(120,420) 


(52.5) 


( 3.0) 


( 2.3) 


e 


52,700 


123,920 


42.5 


12.5 


19.1 


f 


54,100 


126,270 


42.8 


16.0 


22.7 


Average 


61 t 440 
57,210 


129.220 


47.5 

45.0 


13.0 
13.3 


23.4 
207Y 


124.910 


lEla 


58,240 


121,070 


48.1 


11.5 


20.5 


b 


50,350 


121,780 


41.3 


13.5 


19.8 


c 


56,690 


124,220 


45.6 


10.0 


16.6 


d 


56,740 


124,980 


45.4 


14.0 


20.5 


e 


55,140 


122,300 


45.1 


11.0 


17.4 


f 


58,550 


124,780 


46.9 


11.0 


21.6 


g 

Average 


57.050 
56.110 


126.820 


45.0 
45.3 


14.0 
12.1 


23.4 
20.0 


123.710 


IE 6a 


56,240 


124,680 


45.1 


13.5 


20.9 


b 


54,900 


121,980 


45.0 


14.0 


22.0 


c 


57,940 


122,770 


47.2 


13.5 


18.4 


d 


57,250 


122,720 


46.6 


15.0 


23.7 


e 


54,050 


121,320 


44.5 


12.5 


19.1 


f 


55,590 


123,470 


45.0 


14.0 


24.4 


g 
Average 


60,640 
56.660 


127.120 


47.7 

45.9 


14.5 
13.9 


23.4 
21.7 


123,430 


Bar 1 a 


58,090 


123,340 


47.1 


12.9 


21.2 


b 


54,320 


122,460 


44.4 


13.8 


21.2 


c 


55,790 


124,030 


45.0 


11.1 


16.2 


d 


57,840 


124,080 


44.5 


13.5 


19.9 


e 


53,850 


121,940 


44.2 


12.1 


18.9 


f 


56,640 


125,030 


45.3 


13.9 


23.4 


g 
Average 


59.470 
56,570 


127,650 


46.6 

45.3 


13.9 
13.0 


23.5 
20.6 


124,080 



(*) Test piece broke outside of gage marks, 
not used in determining averages. 



Figures in paientheses 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



367 





Table 15 


- Tensile Tests of Rail 


Bar 2. 




No. 


Yield Point 

(Lbs. per 

sq .in. ) 


Max. Strength 

(Lbs. per 

sq .in. ) 


Ratio 


Elongation 
(Percent . ) 


Reduction 

of Area 

(Percent.) 


2Ala 


52,250 


115,580 


45.2 


14.0 


22.7 


b 


51,150 


117,380 


43.6 


14.5 


23.4 


c 


53,900 


119,390 


45.1 


11.5 


25.9 


d 


56,720 


122,950 


46.1 


13.5 


20.7 


e 


51,400 


115,290 


44.6 


11.5 


18.8 


f 


55,890 


121,150 


46.1 


15.0 


25.2 


g 

Average 


56.100 
53.910 


123.270 


45.5 
45.2 


13 .5 
13.4 


20.9 
22.5 


119.290 


2A6a 


53,900 






15.0 


22.0 


117,080 


46.0 


b 


49 , 600 


115,730 


42.9 


15.0 


21.2 


c 


55,540 


126,570 


43.9 


10.0 


11.8 


d 


57,800 


(126,870) 


(45.6) 


( 8.0) 


( 7.4) 


e 


51,950 


118,920 


43.7 


12.0 


15.5 


f 


56,600 


121,120 


46.7 


14.5 


24.0 


g 

Average 


59.740 
55,020 


122.320 


48.8 
45.3 


15.5 
13.7 


24.7 
19.9 


120,290 


2Ela 


51,950 


115,900 


44.8 


14.0 


21.2 


b 


51,240 


115,830 


44.2 


14.0 


20.2 


c 


55,300 


118,230 


45.1 


11.5 


17.5 


d 


54,600 


119,020 


45.9 


16.5 


24.7 


e 


49,800 


116,490 


42.8 


12.5 


19.8 


f 


54,400 


119,480 


45.5 


14.5 


22.7 


g 
Average 


57.650 
55,280 


123.620 


46.6 
45.0 


15.0 
14.0 


25.8 
21.7 


118.370 


2E6a 


51,950 










110,080 


44.8 


14.5 


21.6 


b 


51,700 


117,880 


43.9 


15.0 


21.2 


e 


50,580 


114,500 


44.2 


13.0 


19.6 


d 


53,940 


118,230 


45.6 


16.0 


22.3 


e 


51,300 


114,590 


44.8 


14.5 


19.1 


f 


53,940 


119,300 


45.2 


16.5 


25.4 


g 

Average 


56.300 
52.820 


121.880 


46.4 
45.0 


17.0 
15.2 


26.4 
22.2 


117,430 


Bar 2 a 


52,510 


116,160 


. 45.2 


14.4 


21.9 


b 


50,920 


116,700 


43.7 


14.6 


21.5 


c 


53,330 


119,670 


44.6 


11.5 


18.7 


d 


55,760 


120,070 


45.8 


15.3 


22 • 6 


e 


51,110 


116,320 


44.0 


12.6 


18.3 


f 


55,210 


120,280 


45.9 


15.1 


24.5 


Average 


57 r 450 
53.760 


122.650 


46.8 
45.1 


15.2 
14.1 


24.4 
21.7 


116.840 



(*) 



Test piece broke outside of gage marks, 
not used in determining averages, 



Figures in parentheses 



368 



RAIL. 





Table 16 


- TenBile Tes 


ts of Rail 


Bar 3. 




no. 


Yield Point 

(Lbs. per 

so. in.) 


Maz. Strength 

(Lbs. per 

so. in.) 


Ratio 


Elongation 
(Percent.) 


Reduction 

of Area 

(Percent.) 


3Ala 


53,690 


118,020 


45.5 


16.0 


23.7 


b 


51,600 


115,430 


44.7 


15.5 


21.6 


c 


52,740 


116,290 


45.4 


12.5 


14.8 


d 


57,440 


122,120 


47.0 


14.0 


20.2 


e 


48,250 


112,390 


42.9 


14.5 


19.1 


f 


55,100 


117,800 


46.8 


17.5 


25.1 


g 


57.740 


122.600 


47.1 


16.0 


23.8 


Average 


53.790 


117.810 


45.6 


15.1 


21.2 


3A6a 


53,340 


118,830 


44.9 


15.0 


23.7 


b 


51,560 


118,490 


43.5 


15.5 


22.7 


* c 


59,740 


— 


— 


f 1.5) 


( 1.1) 


d 


60,640 


127,870 


47.4 


12.0 


16.6 


e 


52,360 


116,650 


44.9 


13.5 


20.9 


f 


53,500 


121,670 


44.0 


14.0 


23.4 


g 
Average 


57.700 

55.550 


124.230 
121,300 


46.4 
45.2 


14.5 
14.1 


24.0 
21.9 


3Ela 


50,550 


116,430 


43.4 


13.5 


21.2 


b 


— 


117,680 


— 


14.0 


21.2 


c 


51,200 


116,090 


44.1 


11.5 


19.5 


d 


56,140 


118,820 


47.2 


15.0 


26.1 


e 


52,950 


118,380 


44.7 


12.5 


20.2 


f 


55,640 


121,030 


46.0 


14.0 


24.7 


g 

Average 


57.190 
53.950 


183.020 
118,780 


46.5 
45.3 


14.5 
13.6 


24.0 
22.4 


3E6a 


52,920 


117,520 


45.0 


__ 


21.3 


b 


53,600 


119,180 


45.0 


14.5 


21.3 


c 


— 


115,040 


— 


13.5 


18.8 


d 


54,800 


117,830 


46.5 


16.5 


26.1 


e 


52,180 


116,670 


44.7 


-- 


21.2 


f 


55,340 


119,980 


46.1 


16.5 


— 


g 


57.490 


121.780 


47.2 


14.0 


24.1 


Average 


54.390 


118.290 


45.7 


15.0 


22.1 


Bar 3 a 


52,630 


117,710 


44.7 


14.8 


22.5 


b 


52,250 


117,690 


44.4 


14.9 


21.7 


c 


54,560 


115,810 


44.7 


12.5 


17.7 


d 


57,250 


121,660 


47.0 


14.4 


22.2 


e 


51,440 


116,020 


44.3 


13.5 


20.5 


f 


54,890 


120,120 


45.7 


15.5 


24.4 


g 


57,530 


122.910 


46.8 


14.8 


24.0 


Average 


54.360 


118.850 


45.3 


14.2 | 


22.1 



(*) 



Test piece broke outside of gage marks. 
not used in determining averages. 



Figures in parentheses 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



369 





Table 17 


- Tensile Tes1 


s of Rail Bar 4. 






Yield Point 


Max. Strength 




Elongation 


Reauction 


HO. 


(Lbs. per 
sq. in.) 


(Lbs. per 
sq . in.) 


Ratio 


(Percent. ) 


of Area 
(Percent.) 


4Ala 


50,250 


113,790 


44.2 


14.5 


21.2 


b 


53,000 


117,820 


45.0 


14.0 


23.4 


c 


66,180 


131,960 


45.6 


9.0 


11.5 


* a 


61,240 


(117,630) 


(52.1) 


( 3.0) 


( 2.7) 


e 


50,200 


113,930 


44.1 


14.0 


21.6 


f 


54,400 


117,090 


46.5 


14.5 


24.0 


g 


57.700 


119.880 


48.1 


i6:o 


&614 


Average 


55.280 


119,030 


45.6 


13.7 


21.3 


4A6a 


50,240 


.113,830 


44.1 


15.0 


21.6 


b 


48,150 


116,680 


41.3 


14.5 


22.7 


* c 


58,340 


(136,310) 


(42.8) 


( 7.0) 


( 6.9) 


a 


59,490 


127,020 


46.8 


11.0 


15.9 


e 


51,700 


117,780 


43.9 


14.0 


19.8 


f 


49,700 


120,830 


41.1 


15.0 


24.4 


g 


56.990 


123.970 


46.0 


15.0 


22.7 


Average 


53.520 


120.060 


43.9 


14.1 


21.2 


4Ela 


51,600 


117,530 


43.9 


13.0 


22.3 


b 


52,350 


116,690 


44.9 


13.5 


19.8 


c 


49,450 


112,130 


44.1 


13.5 


21.2 


a 


52,440 


114,780 


45.7 


16.5 


24.0 


e 


49,700 


117,590 


42.3 


14.0 


20.9 


f 


58,800 


124,410 


47.2 


15.0 


23.4 


g 


57,500 


122 r 970 


46.8 


15.0 


24.7 


Average 


53,120 


118,010 


45.0 


14.1 


22.3 


4E6a 


48,200 


115,930 


41.6 


13.5 


20.9 


b 


50,900 


117,780 


43.2 


14.0 


22.7 


c 


50,950 


114,490 


44.5 


14.5 


22.0 


a 


52,660 


114,870 


45.8 


15.0 


21.3 


e 


49,700 


115,730 


42.9 


14.0 


20.9 


f 


53,700 


119,330 


45.0 


16.0 


24.4 


g 


56.900 


120.780 


47.1 


15.0 


23.4 


Average 


51,860 


116,990 


44.3 


14.6 


22.2 


Bar 4 a 


50,070 


115,270 


43.4 


14.0 


21.5 


b 


51,100 


117,240 


4S.6 


14.0 


22.1 


c 


54,730 


119,530 


44.7 


12.3 


18.2 


a 


56,460 


118,890 


46.1 


14.2 


20.4 


e 


50,330 


116,260 ' 


43.3 


14.0 


20.8 


f 


54,150 


120,410 


44.9 


14.6 


24.1 


g 


57,270 


121.860 


47.0 


15.2 


24.3 


1 Average 


53.440 


118.490 


44.7 


14.1 


21.7 



n 



Test piece brol 3 outside of gage marks, 
not used in determining averages, 



Figures in parentheses 



370 



RAIL. 





Table 18 


- Tensile Tests of Bail 


Bar 5. 




No. 


Yield Point 
(Lbs. per 


I.Iax. Strength 
(Lbs .per 


Ratio 


Elongation 
(Percent.) 


Reduction 
of Area 




sq .in.) 


sq .in.) 




(Percent.! 


5Ala 


47,600 


115,530 


41.2 


15.0 


24.4 


b 


-- 


117,590 


— 


15.0 


24.4 


c 


57,800 


124,230 


46.5 


11.5 


15.8 


d 


57,140 


127,480 


44.8 


11.0 


15.2 


e 


47,900 


113,530 


42.2 


14.5 


20.9 


f 


50,600 


119,480 


42.4 


15.5 


27.8 


g 


57,120 


124.780 


45.8 


14.5 


23.4 


Average 


53.030 


120.370 


43.8 


13.9 


21.7 


5A6a 


46,850 


115,190 


40.7 


15.0 


23.0 


b 


52,800 


119,180 


44.3 


15.0 


24.0 


c 


49,940 


123,600 


40.4 


12.5 


17.0 


* d 


53,840 


(115,730) 


(46.5) 


( 3.0) 


( 2.3) 


e 


50,100 


116,900 


42.9 


14.0 


20.5 


f 


53,980 


121,350 


44.5 


16.0 


22.8 


g 


— 


126.210 


-- 


15.0 


23.7 


Average 


51.250 


120.400 


43.2 


14.6 


21.8 


5Ela 


51,000 


116,420 


43.8 


14.0 


22.0 


b 


51,900 


117,680 


44.1 


13.5 


23.0 


e 


59,690 


116,540 


51.2 


13.0 


19.1 


d 


53,440 


117,920 


45.3 


16.0 


26.1 


e 


53,100 


117,690 


45.1 


13.5 


21.6 


f 


58,040 


122,920 


47.2 


13.5 


24.0 


g 


53 T 900 


122.680 


43.9 


14.5 


27.8 


Average 


54.440 


118.840 


45.8 


14.0 


23.4 


5E6a 


50,450 


116,480 


43.3 


14.0 


22.7 


b 


53,940 


119,720 


45.1 


14.0 


22.0 


c 


48,750 


115,530 


42.2 


15.0 


21.2 


d 


52,700 


116,640 


45.2 


15.5 


24.4 


e 


50,650 


115,740 


43.8 


13.5 


22.0 


f 


50,750 


118,030 


43.0 


15.0 


24.0 


g 


56.090 


121.670 


46.1 


16.0 


27.8 


Average 


51.900 


117.690 


44.1 


14.7 


23.4 


Bar 5 a 


48,980 


115,910 


42.2 


14.5 


23.0 


b 


52,880 


118,540 


44.5 


14.4 


23.3 


c 


54,040 


119,980 


45.1 


13.0 


18.3 


d 


54,280 


120,680 


45.4 


14.2 


21.9 


e 


50,440 


115,970 


43.5 


13.9 


21.3 


f 


53,340 


120,440 


44.3 


15.0 


24.6 


g 
Average 


55.700 
52.810 


123.830 
119.340 


45.3 
44.3 


15.0 
14.3 


25.7 
2"2l6 



(*) Test piece broke outside of gage marks, 
not used in determining averages. 



Figures in parentheeta 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



371 





Table 19 


- Tensile Tests of Rail 


Bar 6. 




No. 


Yield Paint 
(Lbs .per 


llax. Strength 
(Lbs. per 


Ratio 


Elongation 
(Percent.) 


Reduction 
of Area 




sq .in.) 


so. in.) 




(Percent.] 


6Ala 


51,800 


116,490 


44.5 


14.5 


23.0 


b 


53,800 


117,930 


45.6 


13.5 


20.9 





53,500 


120", 730 


44.3 


10.0 


13.7 


d 


57,940 


123,120 


47.1 


13.5 


17.0 


e 


48,450 


111,990 


43.3 


14.0 


20.9 


f 


51,900 


120,880 


42.9 


16.0 


26.1 


g 


54.740 


123.220 


44.4 


15.0 


26.1 


Average 


53.160 


119.190 


44.6 


13.8 


21.1 


6A6a 


52,300 


112,890 


46.3 


14.0 


22.0 


b 


53,340 


117,830 


45.3 


14.5 


22.0 





58,940 


131,710 


44.7 


8.5 


11.5 


d 


61,840 


127,070 


48.7 


11.5 


15.2 


e 


53,400 


116,490 


45.8 


13.0 


20.2 


f 


55,800 


121,620 


45.9 


14.5 


22.7 


S 

Average 


60.350 
56.570 


125.810 
121.920 


47.9 

46.4 


15.0 
13.0 


24.5 
19.7 


6Ela 


48,530 


115,270 


42.1 


13.0 


20.5 


1> 


54,600 


117,280 


46.6 


13.5 


20.5 


c 


52,650 


112,990 


46.6 


13.0 


18.8 


d 


54,440 


115,290 


47.2 


16.5 


25.2 


e 


— 


118,930 


— 


12.5 


18.1 


f 


59,190 


123,250 


48.0 


13.5 


23.8 


g 
Average 


55.400 
54.130 


120.390 
117.630 


46.0 
46.1 


13.5 
13.6 


21.6 
21.2 


6E6a 


50,900 


116,930 


43.5 


14.0 


20.2 


b 


55,540 


121,570 


45.7 


14.0 


21.6 





50,640 


113,230 


44.7 


14.0 


20.2 


d 


52,840 


115,890 


45.6 


15.5 


25.1 


e 


48,800 


118 ,120 


41.3 


13.5 


17.7 


f 


55,980 


120,540 


46.4 


15.5 


24.1 


g 

Average 


53,000 
52.530 


118 , 630 
117.840 


44.7 
44.6 


15.0 
14.5 


24.0 
21.8 


Bar 6 a 


50,880 


115,390 


44.1 


15.9 


21.4 


b 


54,320 


118,650 


45.8 


13.9 


21.2 


c 


53,930 


119,660 


45.1 


11.4 


16.0 


d 


56,770 


120,340 


47.1 


14.2 


£0.6 


e 


50,220 


116,380 


43.5 


13.3 


19.2 


f 


55,720 


121,570 


45.8 


14.9 


24.2 


g 

Average" 


55.870 
53,960 


122.010 
119,140 


45.7 

45.3 


14.6 
13.7 


24.1 

21.0 



372 



RAIL. 





Table 20 


- Tensile Tee1 


s of Rail Bar 7. 




No . ' 


Yield Point 

(Lbs. per 

sq.in.) 


Sfex. Strength 

(Lbs.per 

sq .in.) 


Ratio 


Elongation 
(Percent. ) 


Reduction 

of Area 

(Percent.) 


7Ala 


53,640 


116,730 


46.0 


14.5 


24.7 


b 


50,340 


116,830 


43.1 


15.5 


24.7 


c 


51,950 


120,220 


43.2 


1C.5 


15.6 


d 


57,240 


124,800 


45.9 


12.0 


17.0 


e 


50,400 


115,490 


43.6 


13.0 


21.2 


f 


55,600 


121,030 


45.9 


13.5 


22.7 


g 

average 


55.040 
53,460 


122.380 
119,640 


45.0 
44.7 


14.5 
13.4 


25.8 
21.7 


7A6a 


49,850 


115,880 


43.8 


15.0 


20.9 


b 


52,400 


115,620 


45.3 


15.0 


22.0 


c 


55,900 


125,480 


44.5 


10.0 


12.6 


* d 


58,700 


(129,720) 


(45.2) 


( 7.0) 


( 6.9) 


e 


52,030 


119,000 


43.7 


14.0 


19.2 


f 


53,100 


118,080 


45.0 


15.5 


24.4 


g 


58.140 


124.680 


46.6 


13.5 


24.0 


Average 


54.300 


119,460 


44.8 


Is78" 


2075" 


7Ela 


52,800 


117,520 


44.9 


13.5 


20.9 


b 


53,740 


119,070 


45.1 


13.0 


22.0 


c 


49,200 


116,230 


42.3 


12.0 


19.1 


d 


54,140 


116,700 


46.4 


16.5 


23.7 


e 


54,250 


120,810 


44.9 


12.0 


18.8 


f 


55,440 


120,980 


45.8 


14.0 


21.2 


g 
Average 


56.140 
53.670 


122.480 
119.110 


45.8 
45.0 


15.0 
13.7 


24.4 
21.4 


7E6a 


51,500 


117,720 


43.7 


14.5 


21.6 


b 


53,300 


117,680 


45.3 


14.5 


22.3 


c 


49,650 


111,650 


44.5 


15.0 


22.3 


d 


51,350 


114,890 


44.7 


17.0 


23.7 


e 


51,350 


116,830 


44.0 


13.0 


19.8 


f 


54,140 


117,730 


46.0 


15.5 


26.8 


g 

Average 


55,440 
52.390 


119,420 
116.570 


46.4 
44.9 


16.5 
15.1 


27.5 
23.4 


Bar 7 a 


51,950 


116,460 


44.6 


14.4 


22.0 


b 


52,440 


117,300 


44.7 


14.5 


22.8 


c 


51,680 


118,390 


43.6 


11.9 


17.4 


d 


55,360 


118,800 


45.7 


15.2 


21.5 


e 


52,010 


118,030 


44.1 


13.0 


19.8 


f 


54,570 


119,450 


45.7 


14.6 


23.8 


g 

Average 


56,190 
53.460 


122.240 
118.670 


45.9 
44.9 


14.9 
14.1 


25.4 
21.8 



(*> 



Test piece broke outside of gage marks. 
not used in determining averages. 



Figures in parentheses 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



873 





Table 21 


- Tensile 'i'es 


ts of Kail 


Bar 8. 




ro. 


Yield Point 
(Lbs .per 


Max. Strength. 
(Lbs. per 


Ratio 


Elongation 
(Percent . ) 


Reduction 
of Area 




sq .in.) 


sq .in.) 






(Percent. ) 


8Ala 


56,300 


117,080 


48.0 


14.5 


24." 


b 


51,940 


117,130 


44.3 


15.5 


25.1 


c 


54,700 


119,380 


45.8 


12.5 


18.8 


d 


54,840 


127,070 


43.2 


12.0 


17.7 


e 


53,540 


116,190 


46.1 


14.0 


20.2 


f 


56,340 


119,420 


47.2 


15.0 


23.4 


g 
Ave rape 


57,840 
55.070 


124.170 


46.6 
45.9 


15.0 
14.1 


25.4 
22.2 


120.060 


8A6a 


56,440 


119,880 


47.1 


14.5 


23.7 


b 


52,640 


119,530 


44.0 


15.0 


22.0 


c 


49,950 


119,980 


41.6 


12.5 


14.8 


d 


55,540 


127,780 


43.5 


11.0 


14.8 


e 


51,400 


119,520 


43.0 


12.0 


15.6 


f 


53,700 


119,180 


45.0 


15.0 


27.8 


g 


61.690 


125.810 


49.0 


14.0 


26.8 


Average 


54.480 


121.670 


44.7 


13.4 


20.8 


8Ela 


51,350 


118,080 


43.5 


14.5 


22.0 


b 


51,800 


117,320 


44.1 


13.0 


22.3 


c 


54,240 


121,070 


44.8 


11.5 


17.3 


d 


53,290 


119,980 


44.4 


14.5 


24.7 


e 


50,700 


117,130 


45.3 


13.0 


20.5 


f 


55,400 


118,630 


46.7 


16.0 


24.0 


S 

Average 


55.790 
53.220 


121.910 


45.8 
44.7 


16.0 
14.1 


25.8 
22.4 


119,160 


8E6a 


53,840 


117,320 


45.9 


15.0 


22.0 


b 


53,700 


117,990 


45.5 


14.5 


19.8 


c 


52,500 


115,530 


45.4 


12.5 


17.3 


d 


52,200 


117,590 


44.4 


15.0 


2J.7 


e 


49,990 


116,620 


42.9 


14.5 


19.8 


f 


54,400 


118,820 


45.8 


15.0 


23.7 


g 
Ave rape 


53,690 
52_,900 


119.620 


44.9 
45.0 


15.5 
14.6 


23.7 
21.4 


117.640 


Bar 8 a 


54,480 


118,090 


46.1 


14.6 


23.1 


b 


52,520 


117,990 


44.5 


14.5 


22.3 


c 


52,850 


118,990 


44.4 


12.2 


17.0 


d 


53,970 


123,110 


43.9 


13.1 


20.2 


e 


51,410 


117,360 


43.8 


13.4 


19.0 


f 


54,960 


119,010 


46.2 


15.2 


24.7 


g 
Average 


57,250 
53.920 


122,880 


46.4 

45.0 


15.1 
14.0 


25.4 

21.7 


119.630 



374 



RAIL. 



Table 22 - Tensile Tests of Rail Bar 9. 


HO. 


Yield Point 
(lbs, per 

sj. in.) 


Llax. Strength 

(Lbs. per 

sq.in.) 


Ratio 


Elongation 
(Percent.) 


Reduction 

of Area 

(Percent.) 


9Ala 
b 
c 
d 
e 
f 

g 

Ave rape 


55,700 
55,600 
57,700 
56,200 
49,200 
56,540 
56.800 


114,490 
119,370 
121,870 
121,410 
113,680 
120,630 
120 p 630 


48.6 
46,6 
47.3 
46.3 
43.3 
46.9 
47.1 
46.6 


13.5 
15.0 
11.0 
14.0 

14.5 
15.5 
15.0 
14.1 


23.7 
24.7 
15.9 
£0.9 
24.0 
26.4 
26.1 
23.1 


55.390 


118.870 


9A6a 
b 
c 
* d 
e 
f 
g 
Ave rape 


51,100 
50,150 
56,490 
57,440 
52,940 
55,100 
58.140 


117,230 
117,080 
133,120 
(123,480) 
119,080 
119,730 
123.310 


43.6 
42.8 
42.4 
(46.5) 
44.5 
46.0 
47.1 
44.4 


13.5 
13.5 
9.0 
f 4.5) 
13.0 
15.0 
13.5 
12.9 


20.2 

21.6 
13.0 
( 4.6) 
19.8 
23.4 
24.1 
20.3 


54.480 


121.590 


9Sla 
b 
c 
d 
e 
f 
g 
Ave rape 


53,600 
53,100 
54,000 
53,300 
54,600 
50,750 
57.600 


117,680 
118,230 
117,590 
117,880 
118,780 
119,820 
119.490 


45.5 
44.9 
45.9 
45.2 
46.0 
42.3 
48.2 
45.4 


12.5 
13.5 
12.5 
17.0 
14.0 
12.5 
16.0 
14.0 


21.2 
21.3 
20.2 
24.4 
19.8 
23.0 
26.8 
22.4 


53 r 860 


118.490 


9E6a 
b 
c 

d 
e 
f 

g 
Ave rape 


49,820 
54,780 
49,400 
52,700 
44,600 
51,300 
55,200 


116,850 
118,330 
111,830 
114,030 
117 , 630 
117,420 
119,280 


42.6 
46.3 
44.2 
46.2 
37.9 
43.7 
46.3 
43.7 


15.0 
14.5 
15.0 
16.5 
14.5 
16.0 
15.5 
15.3 


22.3 
23.0 
23.7 
24.7 
20.9 
28.1 
24.0 
23.8 


51.110 


116.480 


Bar 9 a 
b 
c 

d 
e 

f 

g 

Ave rape 


52,560 
53,410 
54,400 
54,910 
50,330 
53,420 
56,930 


116,560 
118,250 
121,100 
117,770 
117,290 
119,400 
120.680 


45.1 
45.1 
44.9 
45.9 
42.9 
44.7 
47.2 
45.1 


13.6 
14.1 
11.9 
14.4 
14.0 
14.8 
15.0 
14.0 


21.8 
22.7 
18.2 
23.3 
21.1 
25.2 
26.3 
22.7 I 


53.710 


118.720 



(*) 



Test piece brol:e outside of gage marks, 
not uned in determining averages. 



Figures in parentheses 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



375 

















Table 23 


- Tensile Tes 


ts of Rail 


Bar 10. 




No. 


Yield Point 

(Lbs. per 

sq . in . ) 


Uax. Strength 

(Lbs. per 

sq .in.) 


Ratio 


Elongation 
(Percent.) 


Reduction 

of Area 

(Percent .) 


lOAla 


51,940 


115,330 


45.0 


16.0 


25.4 


b 


52,000 


114,530 


45.4 


16.5 


25.8 


c 


53,100 


119,030 


44.6 


12.0 


18.8 


d 


56,750 


122,880 


46.2 


13.0 


17.3 


e 


47,400 


111,730 


42.4 


15.5 


25.8 


f 


58,290 


118,930 


49.0 


14.0 


26.8 


g 


58,840 


117.630 


50.0 


16.5 


24.7 


Average 


54.050 


117.150 


46.1 


14.8 


23.5 


10A6a 


50,500 


115,390 


43.8 


17.5 


19.1 


b 


52,650 


116,580 


45.2 


16.5 


25.1 


c 


58,450 


128,720 


45.4 


11.0 


13.3 


d 


57,000 


127,020 


44.9 


12.5 


16.3 


e 


48,200 


114,690 


42.0 


15.5 


23.4 


f 


55,900 


118,430 


47.2 


15.0 


23.7 


g 


58,600 


120 r 770 


48.5 


15.5 


23.7 


Average 


54.470 


120.230 


45.3 


14.8 


20.7 


lOEla 


49,650 


114,430 


43.4 


15.5 


23.4 


b 


47,680 


116,800 


40.8 


14.0 


22.6 


c 


51,350 


117,790 


43.6 


13.5 


20.9 


d 


53,340 


118,280 


45.1 


16.0 


23.7 


e 


51,100 


116,140 


44.0 


14.5 


22.7 


f 


57,040 


119,570 


47.7 


13.5 


25.4 


g 


56,300 


118,530 


47.5 


15.5 


22.3 


Average 


52.350 


117. 36Q 


44.6 


14.7 


23.0 


10E6a 


48,700 


114,930 


42.4 


13.5 


22.0 


b 
c 


51,200 
51,950 


117,830 
112,390 


43.4 
46.2 


14.5 


24.0 


15.5 


24.7 


d 


51,150 


112 ,840 


45.3 


17.0 


23.7 


e 


48,190 


115,230 


41.8 


15.5 


23.7 


f 


53,840 


115,890 


46.5 


17.0 


29.1 


g 


54.400 


122.520 


44.4 


12.0 


18.1 


Average 


51.350 


115.950 


44.3 


TB~j5 


23.6 


Bar 10a 


50,200 


115,020 


43.6 


15.6 


22.5 


b 


50,880 


116,430 


43.7 


15.4 


24.4 


c 


53,710 


119,480 


44.9 


13.0 


19.4 


d 


54,560 


120,260 


45.6 


14.6 


20.3 


e 


48,720 


114,450 


42.6 


15.2 


23.9 


f 


56,270 


118,200 


47.6 


14.9 


26.2 


g 


57 t 020 


119.860 


47.6 


14.9 


22.2 


Average 


53.050 


117.670 


45.1 


14.8 


22.7 



376 



RAIL. 



Table 


24 - Summary showing Average Results of Tensile Tests 


Bar 
Ho. 


Pin. Temp 

Flange 

°C. 


Rail Position 


Average 


a|b|c|d|e|f|g 




Yield Point (Lbs. per sq. in.) 


1 


850 


58,090 


54,320 


55,790 


57,840 


53,850 


56,640 


59,470 


56,570 


2 


845 


52,510 


50,920 


53,330 


55,760 


51,110 


55,210 


57,450 


53,760 


3 


845 


52,630 


52,250 


54,560 


57,250 


51,440 


54,890 


57,530 


54,360 


4 


840 


50,070 


51,100 


54,730 


56,460 


50,330 


54,150 


57,270 


53,440 


S 


830 


48,980 


52,880 


54,040 


54,280 


50,440 


53,340 


55,700 


52,810 


6 


850 


50,880 


54,320 


53,930 


56,770 


50,220 


55,720 


55,870 


53,960 


7 


815 


51,950 


52,440 


51,680 


55,360 


52 ,010 


54,570 


56,190 


53,460 


8 


795 


54,480 


52,520 


52,850 


53,970 


51,410 


54,960 


57,250 


53,920 


9 


750 


52,560 


53,410 


54,400 


54,910 


50,330 


53,420 


56,930 


53,710 


10 


695 


50^200 


50.880 


53.710 


54,560 


48 . J20 


56,270 


57,020 


53,050 


Average 


52.230 


52.500 


53.900 


55.720 


50.990 


54.920 


57,070 


53,900 


Maximum Strength (Lbs. per sq. in.) 


1 


850 


123,340 


122,460 


124,030 


124,080 


121,940 


125,030 


127,650 


124,080 


2 


845 


116,160 


116,700 


119,670 


120,070 


116,320 


120,280 


122,650 


118,840 


B 


845 


117,710 


117,690 


115,810 


121,060 


116,020 


120,120 


122,910 


118,850 


4 


840 


115,270 


117,240 


119,530 


118,890 


116,260 


120,410 


121,860 


118,490 


5 


830 


115,910 


118,540 


119,980 


120,680 


115,970 


120,440 


123,830 


119,340 


6 


850 


115,390 


118 , 650 


119,660 


120,340 


116,380 


121,570 


122,010 


119,140 


7 


815 


116,460 


117,300 


118,390 


118,800 


118,030 


119,450 


122,240 


118,670 


8 


795 


118,090 


117,990 


118,990 


123,110 


117,360 


119,010 


122,880 


119,630 


9 


750 


116,560 


118,250 


121,100 


117,770 


117,290 


119,400 


120,680 


118,720 


10 


695 


115,020 


116.430 


119,480 


120.260 


114 .450 


118.200 


119,860 


117,670 


Average 


116.990 


118.130 


119,660 


120,570 


117,000 


120,390 


12£,660 


119,400 


Ratio 


1 


850 


47.1 


44.4 


45.0 


44.5 


44.2 


45.3 


46. 6 


45.3 


2 


845 


45.2 


43.7 


44.6 


45.8 


44.0 


45.9 


46.8 


45.1 


3 


845 


44.7 


44.4 


44.7 


47.0 


44.3 


45.7 


46.8 


45.3 


4 


840 


43.4 


43.6 


44.7 


46.1 


43.3 


44.9 


47.0 


44.7 


5 


830 


42.2 


44.5 


45.1 


45.4 


43.5 


44.3 


45.3 


44.3 


6 


850 


44.1 


45.8 


45.1 


47.1 


43.5 


45.8 


45.7 


45.3 


7 


815 


44.6 


44.7 


43.6 


45.7 


44.1 


45.7 


45.9 


44.9 


8 


795 


46.1 


44.5 


44.4 


• 43.9 


43.8 


46.2 


46.4 


45.0 


9 


750 


45.1 


45.1 


44.9 


45.9 


42.9 


44.7 


47.2 


45.1 


10 


695 


43.6 


43.7 


44.9 


45.6 


42.6 


47.6 


47.6 


45.1 


Average 


44.6 


44.4 


44.7 


45.7 


43.6 


45.6 


46.5 


45.0 


Elongation (Per cent.) 


1 


850 


12.9 


13.8 


11.1 


13.5 


12.1 


13.9 


13.9 


15.0 


2 


845 


14.4 


14.6 


11.5 


15.3 


13.6 


15.1 


15.2 


14.1 


3 


845 


14.8 


14.9 


12.5 


14.4 


13.5 


15.5 


14.8 


14.2 


4 


840 


14.0 


14.0 


12.3 


14.2 


14.0 


14.6 


15.2 


14.1 


5 


830 


14.5 


14.4 


13.0 


14.2 


13.9 


15.0 


15.0 


14.3 


6 


850 


13.9 


13.9 


11.4 


14.2 


13.3 


14.9 


14.6 


13.7 


7 


815 


14.4 


14.5 


11.9 


15.2 


15.0 


14.6 


14.9 


14.1 


8 


795 


14.6 


14.5 


12.2 


13.1 


13.4 


15.2 


15.1 


14.0 


9 


750 


13.6 


14.1 


11.9 


14.4 


14.0 


14.8 


15.0 


14.0 


10 


695 


15.6 


14.5 


13.0 


14.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.9 


14.8 


Ave rape 


14.3 


14.3 


12.1 


14.3 


13,6 


14.8 


14.9 


14.0 


Reduction of Area (Per cent.) 


1 


650 


21.2 


21.2 


16.2 


19.9 


18.9 


23.4 


23.5 


20.6 


2 


845 


21.9 


21.5 


18.7 


22.6 


18.3 


24.3 


24.4 


21.7 


3 


845 


22.5 


21.7 


17.7 


22.2 


20.5 


24.4 


24.0 


22.1 


4 


840 


21.5 


22.1 


18.2 


20.4 


20.8 


24.1 


24.3 


21.7 


5 


830 


23.0 


23.3 


18.3 


21.9 


21.3 


24.6 


25.7 


22.6 


6 


850 


21.4 


21.2 


16.0 


20.6 


19.2 


24.2 


24.1 


21.0 


7 


815 


22.0 


22.8 


17.4 


21.5 


19.8 


23.8 


25.4 


21.8 


8 


795 


23.1 


22.3 


17.0 


20.2 


19.0 


24.7 


25.4 


21.7 


9 


750 


21.8 


22.7 


18.2 


25.3 


21.1 


25.2 


26.3 


22.7 


10 


695 


22.5 


24.4 


19.4 


20.3 


23.9 


£6.2 


22. 2j 22.7 


Average 


£2.1 


22.3 


17.7 


21.0 


20.3 


24.5 


24. 4| £1.8 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



377 



• 

t 

O 

u 
© 

P4 

• 

■p 

9 
O 

u 

o 

Ah 

• 

a 

•H 

• 
CO 

U 
o 

Pi 

CQ 

o 

Pk 


24 

21 

18 

15 

12 

9 

6 

3 





































































i — 












1 , L^J L^ 

Reduction of Area 








»■< 




















































/ 






























Elongation 






















































































































40 
30 
20 
10 

























































1 




* 






















Ratio 


























































































































105,000 

90,000 

75,000 

60,000 

45,000 

30,000 

15,000 



















/ 




























Maximum Strength 
















































































































i 


^ 
















> 




























Yield / Point 




















































































700 750 800 850 
Degrees Centigrade 


] 


fig. 8 - 

] 


Results of Tensile Tests as Related to 
Finishing Temperature of Flange 



In this connection it is interesting to note the differences in the 
physical properties of the material from different parts of the rail sec- 
tion. The table shows the average of all the test pieces, from the ten 
rail bars for each of the seven section locations, and these averages are 
shown graphically in Fig. 9. It will be noted that the average yield 
point and tensile strength were about the same in the various loca- 



::ts 



RAIL. 































• 

a 

© 

s 

u 

<o 

ft 


24 
21 








Reduction of A. 














rea [ 




















V 










































18 

15 

12 

9 

6 

3 















































































Elongation 
















































































































• 

•p 

Pi 

Q 
O 

f-4 






40 
30 
20 
10 






























































Ratio 












































































ft 



























































• 

a 

•H 
& 

a 

to 
e 

ft 

CO 

o 

ft 


120,000 
105,000 
90,000 
75,000 
60,000 
45,000 
30,000 
15,000 














































/ 


' 






















Maximum Strength 




















































































. 












































Yield'point 













































































































i 

n 


Corner, head o* 


d e 

i 
i 
> 


E g 

D O 

1 § 

H H 

H ft 






i 
C 


i 
> 

^ < 

4 ( 

> Q> J 

> ,o m < 

5 © <S r 

^ Ee PP c 




Fig 


. 9 - Results in Tensile Tests as Related 
to Position in Section 





FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



379 



tions, the flange samples showing a little the highest. The ratio of the 
yield point to the tensile strength was also about the same for the sev- 
eral locations. The differences in elongation and reduction of area were 
a little greater, the flange samples showing a little the highest results 
and those from the interior of the head showing a little the lowest. 

MICROSCOPIC TESTS. 

Microscopic examination was made of rail bars 6 to i-o,-*inclus 
which were finished at different temperatures by holding the bars 
different, lengths of time before finishing. The ends of the seven tensile 
test pieces from the top end of the "E" rail from each bar were used, 
making a total of 35 pieces for microphotographs. The specimens vyaVe' 
etched with nitric acid in alcohol and photographs made of the surfaces, . 
magnified 50 diameters. These photographs are reproduced the same 
size in Figs. 10 to 14, inclusive, except that the "b" sample from the 
corner of the head is omitted in each case, as this in generalwas similar 
to the sample from the opposite corner of the head. This was done, as 
only six illustrations allow of convenient presentation, in the size 
selected, on a page. In these figures the final letters in the specimen 
numbers refer to locations in" the sections, as follows : "a," corner of 
head; "§," interior of head; "d," web; "e," middle of base; "f" and 
"g," flanges. A count was made of the grains in the etched surfaces as 
shown on the photographs, and the number of grains found in each 
sample per .001 sq. in. is given in Table 25. An area of 1.58 in. sq. on 



Table 25 - Grains per 


.001 Square Inch 




Location in Section 


Rail Bar 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


a - Corner of head, 


40 


46 


42 


46 


62 


Yj _ n n it 


40 


42 


42 


44 


64 


c - Interior of h9ad. 


24 


26 


26 


40 


60 


d - Web, 


48 


48 


52 


52 


70 


e - Base, 


28 


30 


30 


42 


44 


f - Flange 


50 


50 


50 


50 


70 


g _ 


48 


48 


50 


52 


80 


Average , 


40 


41 


42 


47 


64 


Finishing Temperature of 
Flange,, Degrees C, 


850 


815 


795 


750 


695 



the photographs represented an area of .001 sq. in. on the surface of tin' 
steel, and in general the count was made of the grains showing through 
an opening in a superimposed paper of .79x1. 5S in., placed in three 



380 



RAIL. 




Fig. io — Microphotographs of Rail Bar 6, Flange Finished at 850 
Dec. C, Magnified 50 Diameters. 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



3S1 




Fig ii — Microphotographs of Rail Bar 7, Flange Finished at 815 
Deg. C, Magnified 50 Diameters. 




Fig. 12 — Microphotographs of Rail Bar 8, Flange Finished at 795 
Deg. C, Magnified 50 Diameters. 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 



383 




Fig. 13— Microphotographs of Rail Bar 9, Flange Finished at 750 
Deg. C, Magnified 50 Diameters. 



384 



RAIL. 




Fig. 14— Microphotographs of Rail Bar 10, Flange Finished at 695 
Deg. C, Magnified 50 Diameters. 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS 



385 



different positions over the photograph. The number represents the 
number of grains of average size, neglecting what may be called the 
small interstitial grains. This number is, of course, only a rough ap- 
proximation, but it probably is of service in a comparative way. It 
will be noted that for any given bar the coarsest grains occurred in the 
interior of the head and the middle of the base, and that the finest 
grains were in the flanges and web. It will also be noted that the 
grains were somewhat coarser with the higher finishing temperatures. 
This is shown graphically in Fig. 15, in which the finishing temperature 
of the flange is shown horizontally and the number of grains per .001 
in. is shown vertically. 



3 

• 

& 

01 

H 
O 

O 

• 

U 

O 
Pi 

3 
•H 

1 


80 
60 
40 

20 























































































































































































































































































































700 750 800 850 


Degrees Centigrade 


Pig. 


11 


5 - Grains per .001 sq. in. as Related to 
Finishing Temperature of Flange 



POLISHED CROSS-SECTIONS. 

Four cross-sections were cut from each rail, or a total of 80 sec- 
tions. These were polished with emery, etched or pickled with copper- 
ammonium chloride solution until the precipitatea copper could be wiped 
off easily, and finally repolished with tripoli to a point where any small 
cracks present showed plainly. This examination disclosed the pres- 
ence of some small cracks in the head and web of the top end of some 
of the "A" rails, which, however, seemed not to show any relationship 
to finishing temperature. This part of the work will be made the sub- 
ject of a succeeding report. 



386 RAIL. 



SUMMARY. 



i. An investigation was made concerning the influence of finishing 
temperature on the properties of open-hearth rails. The problem was 
divided into two parts — first, the influence on the rails of varying the 
initial temperature of the ingots as drawn from the pits; and, second, 
the influence on the rails of varying the finishing temperature by hold- 
ing the bar toward the end of the rolling. A set of five ingots, all of 
one heat, was drawn from the soaking pits with varying temperatures 
and rolled into rail in the same manner, but, unfortunately, this part of 
the work was not successful, due to failure to obtain much range in the 
initial temperatures of the ingots. Another set of five ingots from the 
same heat was drawn from the soaking pits at about the same tem- 
perature for the several ingots, and rolled into rail in the same manner, 
except as to the length of time the bars were held toward the end before 
the finishing pass. 

2. The work was done at Gary, Ind., at the works of the Illinois 
Steel Company, who kindly furnished all the material and facilities for 
making this investigation. 

3. The rails were tested by means of drop tests, slow bending 
tests, tensile tests, transverse tests of the base, microphotographs and 
polishing of cross-sections. 

4. The finishing temperatures of the rails were determined by 
means of a radiation pyrometer, showing the temperature of the bottom 
of the flange toward its edge. The comparisons between different tem- 
peratures, mentioned below, refer to differences in finishing tempera- 
tures obtained by holding the bar varying lengths of time before 
finishing. 

5. The finishing temperatures of the flange varied from 850 deg. C, 
with a shrinkage of 6.95 in., to 695 deg. C, with a shrinkage of 5.70 in. 
in a 33-ft. rail. The first bar was finished without holding between rolls, 
while the latter was held 115 seconds. 

6. The average decrease in shrinkage was .011 in. per second 
held. 

7. The rails finished at different temperatures gave about the same 
results in the drop test as regards deflection under the first blow, num- 
ber of blows taken to break the rail, and elongation measured after 
breaking. 

8. The rails were tested as girders by slow bending in the test 
fnachine, with supports 3 ft. apart. The deflection under a load of 
150,000 lbs., the breaking load and the elongation when broken were 
about the same for the rails finished at the different temperatures. 

9. Transverse tests of the base were made by placing the rail on 
two supports, 6 in. long, placed opposite each other near the edges of 
the flanges, and applying load to the head of the rail at the middle. 
The breaking load, transverse elongation and sag of flange in this test 



FINISHING TEMPERATURE OF RAILS. 387 

varied considerably, but seemed not to show any relationship to finish- 
ing temperature. It was evident that other factors, such as seams, con- 
siderably outweighed and absorbed the influence of differences in finish- 
ing temperatures. 

10. In the tensile tests, the yield point, the tensile strength and 
the ratio of the yield point to the tensile strength were about the same 
for the rails finished at different temperatures. The elongation and 
reduction of area were a little greater with the rails finished at the 
lower temperatures. 

ii. A comparison of the tensile results from the different positions 
in the section of the rail showed that the yield point and tensile strength 
were about the same in the various positions, the samples from the 
flange showing a little the highest. The ratio of the yield point to the 
tensile strength was also about the same for the several positions. The 
differences in elongation and reduction of area were a little greater, the 
flange samples showing a little the highest results and those from the 
interior of the head showing a little the lowest. 

12. The microscopic examination showed a somewhat finer grain 
structure with the lower finishing temperatures. For any given rail 
section, the coarsest grain structure occurred in the interior of the head 
and the middle of the base, and the finest grain structure occurred in 
the flanges and web. 

13. In conclusion, it may be said that the results irt the drop tests, 
slow bending tests and transverse tests of the base were about the 
same for the different finishing temperatures, varied by holding the 
rail bar between rolls before final finishing. In the tensile tests the 
results were also about the same, except that the lower finishing tem- 
peratures showed a little greater elongation and reduction of area. 
The lower finishing temperatures also showed a somewhat finer grain 
structure. 



Appendix G. 

INTERNAL FISSURES IN NEW RAIL 

By M. H. Wickhorst, Engineer of Tests, Rail Committee. 

In Report No. 42, "Study of a Rail with Internal Fissures," it was 
shown that a rail that had failed in service, due to a transverse fissure, 
contained numerous small cracks or fissures in the head of the rail. 
These were most numerous in the lower part of the head and were mostly 
longitudinal, but some were transverse near the middle of the head. 
That work did not, however, show whether these cracks were developed 
in service or were contained in the original rail as made. 

Report 45, described tests of rails finished at different temperatures, 
and cross-sections were selected from those rails for polishing by the 
improved method described in Report 42. The A and E rails were ex- 
amined from ten ingots of one heat and four sections were cut from 
each rail, making a total of eighty cross-sections. From each rail one 
section was cut from near each end and two from near the middle. The 
manufacture of these rails is described in Report 45. The rails were 
100-lb. A.R.A. type A section and were tested without straightening or 
gagging. 

The preparation of the sections consisted of polishing with emery, 
etching or picking with copper-ammonium chloride solution until the 
deposited copper could be wiped off easily and finally polished with tripoli 
to a point where any minute cracks or fissures showed plainly. Small 
cracks do not show after the first polishing with emery, as the grinding 
action "smears" them over. Nor do they show generally after the etch- 
ing (the purpose of which is to open them up more), but after grinding 
away the roughened surface with a mild-acting polishing material like 
tripoli, they are disclosed. 

A few of the sections showed small cracks in the head or web or 
both, and these are listed in Table 1. 



TABLE I— SECTIONS WITH SMALL CRACKS. 



Number. 


Finishing Temp. 
of Flange. 


Location. 


Number of 
Cracks Found. 


2A1 
3A6 
4A5 
5A6 

9A1 
10A1 


845°C 

845° 

840° 

850° 

750° 

695° 


Near top of A rail 
Near middle of A rail 
Near middle of A rail 
Near middle of A rail 
Near top of A rail 
Near top of A rail 


3 
4 

1 
2 
2 
1 



It will be noted that all the cracks found were in the upper half or 
so of the A rails and none were found in any of the E rails. A few of 
the cracks occurred in the web and had the appearance of being small 
slag enclosures, but most of them that occurred in the head had ragged 
sides and appeared to be tears or breaks in the steel. The cracks found 

Rail Report No. 46, January, 1915. 

389 



390 RAIL. 

are shown in the accompanying illustrations, Figs. 2 to 20, inclusive. 
The illustrations of the full rail head are natural size and the others show 
the cracks magnified ten times. A composite diagram showing the dis- 
tribution of the nine cracks that occurred in the head in five different 
sections is presented as Fig. 1. 

This work indicates that cracks or ruptures may occur in new rails 
as made, but does not show at what stage of the manufacture these 
breaks occur, nor does it show the conditions that influence their oc- 
currence. It is interesting to note that in this work they were found 
only in the A rails where some unevenness of composition would occur, 
and they occurred at different finishing temperatures, but the matter can 
be worked out only by considerable further experimental work. 

SUMMARY. 

1. As part of an investigation of the influence of finishing tempera- 
ture on the properties of Open-Hearth rails, an examination was made 
of cross-sections of the rails by a method of polishing which consisted 
of first polishing with emery, etching or pickling with copper-ammonium 
chloride solution until the precipitated copper could be wiped off easily, 
and finally polishing with a mild-acting polishing material like tripoli, to a 
point where any small cracks or fissures showed plainly. The sections 
were from new rails which had not been straightened or gagged. 

2. This examination disclosed in some of the A or top rails of the 
ingots some small cracks or fissures in the head, which had the appear- 
ance of being breaks or tears in the metal, as they had a ragged outline. 

3. This work did not show at what stage of the manufacture these 
small cracks were formed. They occurred in rails finished at different 
temperatures. At what stage of the manufacture they are formed in the 
rail and what conditions influence their occurrence are matters that can 
be worked out only by considerable further experimental work. 




Fig. 1. Composite Diagram of Nine Cracks Found in the Heads of 
Five Rail Sections. 



INTERNAL FISSURES. 



391 




Fig. 2. Head and Web of Sample 2A1. 



392 



RAIL. 






Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 




*4 




Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7- 



Fig. 3. Crack "A" of Sample 2A1, enlarged 10 times. Fig. 4. Crack 
"B" of Sample 2A1, enlarged 10 times. Fig. 5. Crack "C" of Sample 2A1, 
enlarged 10 times. Fig. 6. Head and part of web of Sample 3A6. Fig. 7. 
Crack "A" of Sample 3A6, enlarged 10 times. 



INTERNAL FISSURES. 



393 






Fig. 8. 



Fig. q. 



Fig. io. 




Fig. ii. 



Fig. 12. 



Pig. 8. Crack "B" of Sample 3A6, enlarged 10 times. Fig. 9. Crack 
"C" of Sample 3A6, enlarged 10 times. Fig. 10. Crack "D" of Sample 
3A6, enlarged 10 times. Fig. 11. Head of Sample 4A6. Fig. 12. Crack In 
Sample 4A6, enlarged 10 times. 



394 



RAIL. 




Fig. 13. Head and Part of Web of Sample 5A6. 




Fig. 19. Head of Sample 10A1. 



INTERNAL FISSURES. 



395 





Fig. 17. 



Fig. 15- 






Fig. 14. 






t 



■ 




Fig. 18. 



Fig. 20. 



Fig. 14. Crack "A" of Sample 5A6, enlarged 10 times Fig. 15. Crack 
"B" of Sample 5A6, enlarged 10 times Fig 17. Crack A°f Sample 9A1. 
enlarged 10 times. Fig. 18. Crack "B" of Sample 9A1, enlarged 10 times. 
Fig. 20. Crack in Sample 10 Al, enlarged 10 times. 



Appendix H. 



American Railway En6ineerin6 Association 

Section Recommended for Adoption by Rail Committee 

R.E.-90LB. 




Area: Haad = 320 s^.in. 36.2% 
Web = 2.JZ " " 24.0% 
_fty* 3 ?.So ■ • 39.8 % 



Total = 8.82 * " 100.0% 



Moment of Inertia 38.7 

Section Modulus , Head 12.56 

Base 15.23 

Ratio M.I to Area 439 

Ratio Sec.Mod.to Area 1.4-2 



397 



398 



RAIL. 



American Railway Engineering Association 

Section Recommended for Adoption by Rail Committee 
RE -100 Lb. 







Area: Head = 3.80 s^.in. 35.2% 
Web = 2,25 " • 226 % 
Base = 3 90 - - 39.2% 



Total = 9.95 



100.0 *A 



Moment of Inertia A9.0 

Section Modulus t Head 15.1 

Base 17.8 

Ratio M.I. to Area 4-92 

Ratio Sec Mod -toArea 1.52 



RAIL. 



399 



American Railway Engineering Association 

Section Recommended for Adoption by Rail Committee 
RE -110 lb. 




Ares: Head- 4.04 sq.in 37.4% 
Web -- 249 - ' 23.0 % 
Base --4.29 " ■• 33-6% 
Total z 1082 " ' 100 0% 



Mornen 4- of Inertia 57 

5ection Modulus, Head /6-1 

,Base 20/ 
Ra+io M.I. +o Area 5-27 

Ratio 5ee.Mod to Area 155 



400 



RAIL. 






American Railway Engineerinq Association 

Section Recommended for Adoption by Rail Committee. 
RE- 120 Lb. 




Aces: ^ead-.AAO aj.in. 37- V'J* 

Web = 2.69 • " 22.7 '/• 

Base --4.76 ■■ ■■ 40-2% 

Total ■ 11-85 v « J00.0 9 / 



Moment of Inertia 676 

Section Modulus, Head 15-9 

.Base 23. 1 

Ratio J*T I. +o Area 5-71 

Ratio Sec Mod. to Area 1-59 



i 



RAIL. 



401 



American Railway Engineering Association 

Section Recommended for Adoption by Rail Committee 
RE -130 Lb 

i- zjr j 




Area : Head = -4 63 scj.in. 36 4 r * 
Web * 3.02 •■ •• 23-8^ 
Base -. 506 " •« 39.8'/. 
Total -- li.ll - •■ 100,0* 



Moment of Inertia 


774 


Section Modulu6,Head 


20-8 


,8aee 


2S6 


Ratio M.I. to Area 


609 


Ratio Sec. Mod to Area 


1-64 



402 



RAIL. 



American Railway Engineering Association 

Section Recommended for Adoption by Rail Committee 
R.E.-I40LB. 







Area: Head = 4.93 s<£ in. 363 e '° 
Web -. 3.28 •• •• 24.1 % 
Base -- 5.37 - .- 39.6^ 



Total »I3.58 



100.0% 



Moment of Inertia 
Section Modulus, Head 
Base 
Ratio M.I. to Ares 
Ratio Sec.Mod.te^nsa 



89.2 

23-1 

28-4 
656 
I. TO 



Appendix I. 
SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGH-CARBON STEEL-JOINT BARS. 

Basis of Purchase. 

1. Inspectors representing the purchaser shall have free entry to 
the works of the manufacturer at all times while the contract is being 
executed, and shall have all reasonable facilities afforded them by the 
manufacturer to satisfy them that the joint bars have been made in 
accordance with the terms of the specifications. 

2. All tests and inspection shall be made at the place of manufac- 
ture prior to loading, and shall be so conducted as not to interfere un- 
necessarily with the operation of the mill. 

Material. 

3. Material for joint -bars shall be steel, made by the open-hearth 
process. 

Chemical Properties. 

4. The chemical composition of each melt of steel from which joint 
bars are manufactured shall be within the following limits : 

Phosphorus, per cent., maximum 0.04. 

5. The manufacturer shall furnish the inspector a complete report 
of ladle analysis, showing carbon, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur 
content of each melt represented in the finished material. The purchaser 
may make a check analysis from the finished material ; such analysis 
shall conform to the requirements in Section 4. 

Physical Properties and Tests. 

6. Joint bars shall conform to the following physical require- 
ments : 

(a) Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in., minimum, 85,000. 

(b) Elongation, per cent, in 2 in., minimum, 16. 

(c) Cold bending without fracture on the outside of the bent 

portion through 90 degrees "around an arc the diame- 
ter of which is three times the thickness of the test 
piece. 

7. All test pieces shall be cut from finished bars. 

(a) Standard V2. by 2-in. specimens, as adopted by the Ameri- 

can Society for Testing Materials, shall be used for 
tension test. 

(b) The bend test specimens shall be ^2-in. square in section, or 

a rectangular bar J^-in. thick, with two parallel faces 
as rolled. 

General Requirements. 

8. The different sections of joint bars shall be rolled to dimensions 
specified in drawing furnished by the purchaser. No variation will be 
allowed in the dimensions affecting the fit and the fishing spaces of the 
rail The maximum camber on either plant shall not exceed A-in. 
in 24 in. 

403 



404 RAIL. 

9. The joint bars shall be sheared to the length prescribed by the 

purchaser and shall not vary therefrom by more than J^-in. 

10. (a) All joint bars shall be punched, slotted and shaped at 
a temperature of not less than 800 degrees Centigrade (1470 degrees 
Fahrenheit). 

(b) All bolt holes shall be punched in one operation, without bulg- 
ing or distorting the section, and the bars shall be slotted for spikes, 
when required, in accordance with the drawings, the slotting being 
done in one operation ; a variation of s'a-in. in the size and location of 
the holes will be allowed. 

11. All joint bars must be finished smooth and true, without swell- 
ing over or under the bolt holes, and be free from flaws, seams, checks 
or fins, and the fishing angles must be fully maintained. 

12. The manufacturer's identification symbol, kind of material, 
month and year rolled and number of design, shall be rolled in raised 
letters and figures on each bar. The number of the melt shall be plainly 
stenciled on each lot of joint bars. 

Inspection. 

13. The joint bars from each melt shall be piled separately until 
tested and inspected by the purchaser's inspector. One joint bar for 
tension test shall be selected by the inspector for each melt represented 
in finished bars, or by agreement specimen for tension test may be cut 
from the bar as rolled. One joint bar for bend test shall be selected by 
the inspector for each lot of 1,000 bars or less presented. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR HEAT-TREATED, OIL-QUENCHED, 

STEEL-JOINT BARS. 
Basis of Purchase. 

1 Inspectors representing the purchaser shall have free entry to 
the works of the manufacturer at all times while the contract is being 
executed, and shall have all reasonable facilities afforded them by the 
manufacturer to satisfy them that the joint bars have been made and 
loaded in accordance with the terms of the specifications. 

2. All testa and inspection shall be made at the place of manufac- 
ture prior to shipment, and shall be so conducted as not to interfere 
unnecessarily with the operation of the mill. 

Material. 

3. Material for joint bars shall be steel, made by the Open-Hearth 
process. 

Chemical Properties. 

4. The chemical composition of each melt of steel from which joint 
bars are manufactured shall be within the following limits : 

Phosphorus, per cent., maximum, 0.04. 

5. The manufacturer shall furnish the inspector a complete report 
of ladle analysis, showing carbon, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur 



RAIL. 406 

content of each melt represented in the finished material. The pur- 
chaser may make check anaylsis from the finished material; such analysis 
shall conform to the requirements in Section 4. 

Physical Properties and Tests. 

6. Joint bars shall conform to the following physical require- 
ments : 

(a) Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in., minimum, 100,000. 

(b) Yield point, lbs. per sq. in., minimum, 70,000. 

1,500,000 

(c) Elongation, per cent, in 2 in., not less than 



Ten. str. 
minimum, 12. 
(d) Cold bending without fracture on the outside of the bent 
portion through 90 degrees around an arc, the diame- 
ter of which is one and one-half times the thickness of 
test piece. 

7. All test pieces shall be cut from finished bars. 

(a) Standard l / 2 by 2-in. specimens, as adopted by the Ameri- 

can Society for Testing Materials, shall be used for 
tension test. 

(b) The bend test specimens shall be J^-in. square in section, 

or a rectangular bar J^-in. thick with two parallel faces 
as rolled. 

Heat Treatment. 

8. Joint bars shall be heated and quenched in an oil bath from a 
temperature of about 810 degrees Centigrade (1490 degrees Fahrenheit), 
and shall be kept in the oil bath until cold enough to be handled. 

General Requirements. 

9. Joint bars shall be rolled to dimensions specified in drawing fur- 
nished by the purchaser. No variation will be allowed in the dimen- 
sions affecting the fit and the fishing spaces of the rail. The maximum 
camber in either plane shall not exceed rfa -in. in 24 in. 

10. Joint bars shall be sheared to the length prescribed by the pur- 
chaser and shall not vary therefrom by more than J^-in. 

ir. (a) All joint bars shall be punched, slotted and shaped at a 
temperature of not less than 800 degrees Centigrade (1470 degrees 
Fahrenheit). 

(b) All bolt holes shall be punched in one operation without bulg- 
ing or distorting the section, and the bars shall be slotted, when re- 
quired, for spikes in accordance with the purchaser's drawing, the slotting 
being done in one operation. A variation of s's-in. in size and loca- 
tion of the holes will be allowed. 

12. All types of joint bars must be finished smooth and true with- 
out swelling over or under the bolt holes, and be free from flaws, 
seams, checks or fins. The fishing angles must be fully maintained. 

13. The manufacturer's identification symbol, kind of material, 
month and year rolled, number of design, and the letters "ITT" to signify 
heat-treated, shall be rolled in raised letters and figures on each bar. 



406 RAIL. 

The number of the melt shall be plainly stenciled on each lot of joint 
bars. 

Inspection. 

14. The joint bars from each melt or heat treatment lot shall be 
piled separately until tested and inspected by the inspector. One joint 
bar for tension test shall be selected by the inspector for each melt or 
heat treatment lot represented in finished bars. One joint bar for bend 
test shall be selected by the inspector for each lot of 1,000 bars or less 
presented, or from each heat treatment lot. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDIUM-CARBON STEEL TRACK 
BOLTS WITH NUTS. 
Basis of Purchase. 

1. Inspectors representing the purchaser shall have free entry to 
the works of the manufacturer at all times while the contract is being 
executed, and shall have all reasonable facilities afforded them by the 
manufacturer to satisfy them that the bolts and nuts have been made 
and loaded in accordance with the terms of the specifications. 

2. All tests and inspection shall be made at the place of manu- 
facture, prior to shipment, and shall be so conducted as not to interfere 
unnecessarily with the operation of the mill. 

Material. 

3. Material for bolts shall be steel, made by the Open-Hearth 
process. Material for the nuts shall be a soft steel. 

Chemical Properties. 

4. The chemical composition of each melt of steel from which 
track bolts are manufactured shall be within the following limits : 

Phosphorus, per cent., maximum, 0.04. 

5. The manufacturer shall furnish the inspector a complete report 
of ladle analysis, showing carbon, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur 
content of each melt represented in the finished material. The pur- 
chaser may make a check analysis from the finished material; such 
analysis shall conform to the requirements in Section 4. 

Physical Properties and Tests. 

6. Track bolts shall conform to the following physical require- 



ments : 



(a) Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in., minimum, 55,000. 

(b) Yield point, not less than 50 per cent, of the ultimate break- 

ing stress. 

1,500,000 

(c) Elongation, per cent, in 2 in., not less than 

Ten. str. 
minimum, 20 per cent. 
All test specimens shall be from the finished bolts, 
(a) Standard ^2 by 2-in. specimens, as adopted by the Ameri- 
can Society for Testing Materials, shall lie used for 
tension test. 



RAIL. 407 

General Requirements. 

8. Track bolts and nuts shall be made to dimensions specified in 
drawing furnished by the purchaser, with allowable variation in dimen- 
sions of bolts from standard, as follows : 

Length, J^-in. plus or ^g-in. minus. 
Diameter of shank, 1/64-in. 
Shoulder, 1/64-in. 

9. The heads and nuts shall be free from check or burrs of any 
kind. The threads shall be rolled, unless otherwise specified; shall be 
full and clean, and shall be made in section and pitch, according to 
the purchaser's standard. The fit between threads on the bolt and nut 
shall be accurate and nut shall turn on bolt with 10-in. wrench not less 
than two nor more than five times. 

10. The nuts shall be made of soft, untreated steel, and shall be 
of sufficient strength to develop the ultimate breaking strength of the 
bolts. 

Marking and Shipping. 

11. When the bolts are shipped they shall have the nuts applied for 
at least two threads, shall be properly oiled to prevent rusting, and 
shall be packed in securely-hooped kegs of 200 lbs. each. All kegs 
must be plainly marked as to material, size of bolts and name of manu- 
facturer. 

Inspection. 

12. Kegs of track bolts shall be left unheaded until after inspection 
has been completed and acceptance indicated by purchaser's inspector. 
The purchaser's inspector shall select two specimens for tension test from 
each lot of 50 kegs. If all specimens meet the requirements of the specifi- 
cations, the lot will be accepted. If one of the test pieces fails, a third 
piece shall be tested, and if it meets the requirements of the specifications, 
the lot will be accepted. If, however, the third piece fails, the lot will 
be rejected. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR HEAT-TREATED STEEL TRACK BOLTS 

WITH NUTS. 
Basis of Purchase. 

1. Inspectors representing the purchaser shall have free entry to 
the works of the manufacturer at all times while the contract is being 
executed, and shall have all reasonable facilities afforded them by the 
manufacturer to satisfy them that the bolts and nuts have been made in 
accordance with the terms of the specifications. 

2. All tests and inspection shall be made at the place of manufacture, 
prior to loading, and shall be so conducted as not to interfere unneces- 
sarily with the operation of the mill. 

Material. 

3. Material for bolts shall be steel made by the Open-Hearth process, 
or an acceptable alloy steel, heat treated and oil or water quenched to 



408 RAIL. 

give the desired physical properties. Material for nuts shall be soft un- 
treated steel. 

Chemical Properties. 

4. The chemical composition of each melt of steel from which track 
bolts are manufactured shall be within the following limits : 

Phosphorus, per cent., maximum, 0.04. 

5. The manufacturer shall furnish the inspector a complete report 
of ladle analysis showing carbon manganese, phosphorus, and sulphur 
content of each melt represented in the finished material. The purchaser 
may make a check analysis from the finished material ; such analysis shall 
conform to the requirements of Section 4. 

Physical Properties and Tests. 

6. Track bolts shall conform to the following physical requirements : 

(a) Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in., minimum, 100,000. 

(b) Yield point, lbs. per sq. in., minimum, 75,000. 

(c) Elongation, per cent, in 2 in., 1,600,000, minimum 12. 

Ten. str. 

(d) Cold bending of the unthreaded part of the finished bolt 

without fracture on the outside of the bent portion, 
through go degrees around an arc, the diameter of 
which is lYz times the thickness of the test piece. 

7. All test specimens shall be from the finished bolts. 

(a) Standard V2 by 2-in. specimens, as adopted by the Ameri- 

can Society for Testing Materials, shall be used for 
tension test. 

(b) Finished track bolts shall be used for bend test specimens. 

Heat Treatment. 

8. (a) Track bolts shall be heated and oil treated by quenching in 
an oil bath from temperature of about 810 degrees Centigrade (1,490 de- 
grees Fahrenheit) and shall be kept in the oil bath until cold enough to 
be handled. 

(b) Material which requires quenching in water will be acceptable 
at the option of the purchaser, provided it meets the requirements of the 
specification in all other respects. 

General Requirements. 

9. The heads of the bolts must bear the manufacturer's identification 
symbol and the letters "HT" to signify heat-treated. 

10. Track bolts and nuts shall be made to dimensions specified in 
drawing furnished by the purchaser, with allowable variation in dimen- 
sions of bolts from standard as follows : 

Length, Y%-\x\. plus or -fa-'m. minus. 
Diameter of shang, T*<r-in. 
Shoulder, 1/64-in. 

11. The heads and nuts shall be free from checks or burrs of any 
kind. The threads shall be full and clean and shall be made in section 
and pitch according to the purchaser's standard. The fit between threads 



RAIL. 409 

on the bolt and nut shall be accurate, and nut shall turn on bolt with io-in. 
wrench, not less than two nor more than five turns. 

12. (a) The nuts shall be made of soft untreated steel, and shall 
be /4-in. thicker than the standard nuts used for untreated bolts. They 
shall be of sufficient strength to develop the ultimate breaking strength 
of the bolts. 

(b) Nuts of standard thickness will be accepted at the option of the 
purchaser if proved to be of sufficient strength to equal the ultimate 
breaking strength of the bolts. The length of the bolts shall be corre- 
spondingly reduced. 

Marking and Shipping. 

13. When the bolts are shipped, they shall have the nuts applied for 
at least two threads, shall be properly oiled to prevent rusting, and shall 
be packed in securely-hooped kegs of 200 lbs. each. All kegs must be 
plainly marked as to material, size of bolts and name of manufacturer. 

Inspection. 

14. Kegs of track bolts shall be left unheaded until after inspection 
has been completed and acceptance indicated by purchaser's inspector. 
The inspector shall select two specimens for tension and bend tests from 
each lot of 50 kegs. If all specimens meet the requirements of the specifi- 
cations, the lot will be accepted. If one of the test pieces fails, a third 
piece shall be tested, and if it meets the requirements of the specifications, 
the lot will be accepted. If, however, the third piece fails, the manufac- 
turer shall be permitted to reheat-treat the lot and submit it for retest 
as above. If it fails to meet the requirements of the specification upon 
second test, the lot shall be rejected. 



Appendix J. 

REVIEW OF RAIL INVESTIGATIONS, 1910 TO 1914, 
INCLUSIVE. 

This report gives a review of the work of investigation done by the 
Rail Committee of the American Railway Engineering Association dur- 
ing the past five years. The report begins with a statement of conditions 
leading up to the work, follows with a summary of the work done and 
conclusions to be drawn, and finally gives suggestions for further in- 
vestigations and suggests directions in which further improvement may 
be hoped for. It is made at the request of the American Railway Asso- 
ciation, who decided, in November, 1914, to discontinue its financial 
support of the work, effective March 31, 1915- 

HISTORICAL. 

Some years ago there were a great many failures of steel rails on the 
railroads of the United States,. the condition being at its worst along about 
1905. Reliable general statistics are not available to show numerically the 
exact condition as regards rail failures, but an idea may be obtained from 
the report of one road that of a lot of 10,000 tons rolled and put into 
track, 22 per cent, were removed during the first year on account of 
split heads, *although that was probably an extreme case. The matter 
came before the American Railway Association and, under date of Octo- 
ber 24, 1906, the Association adopted the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That the Committee on Standard Rail and Wheel Sections 
be requested to consider and report on the subject of specifications for 
the manufacture of steel rails in connection with its report on standard 
sections." 

The Committee made, a progress report in April, 1907, and in discus- 
sion G. L. Peck, Chairman, voiced the sentiments of the railroads as 
follows : "I think two facts were quite clearly brought out, viz., that 
the steel rails which we arc getting at present are not satisfactory to the 
railroads, and that it is possible for the manufacturers to give us better 
rails." 

At the meeting of the American Railway Association in October, 
1907, the Committee submitted two series of rail sections from 60 to 100 
lbs. per yd., varying by 10-lb. differences, called the A and B sections, 
and also expressed the following as cardinal principles that should be 
followed in the design of a series of rail sections : 

"(a) There should be such a distribution of the metal between the 



♦See Proceedings, American Society for Testing Materials, 1908, page 122. 
Rail Report No. 47, February, 1915. 

411 



412 RAIL. 

head and base as to insure the best control of temperature in the manu- 
facture of the rail. 

"(b) The percentage of metal in the base of the rail should pre- 
ferably be equal to or slightly greater than that in the head, and the ex- 
tremities of the flanges should be sufficiently thick to permit the entire 
section to be rolled at low temperatures. The internal stresses and the 
extent of cold straightening will be reduced by this means to a minimum, 
and at the same time the texture of the section will be made approxi- 
mately homogeneous. 

"(c) The sections should be so proportioned as to possess as great 
an amount of stiffness and strength as may be consistent with securing 
the best conditions of manufacture and best service. 

"(d) The following limitations as to dimension details of the sec- 
tion are considered advisable for the various weights per yard : 

"I. The width of the base to be J^-in. less than the height. 
"II. The fishing angles to be not less than 13 degrees and not 

greater than 15 degrees. 

"III. The thickness of the base to be greater than with existing 

sections of corresponding weight. 

"IV. The thickness of the web to be no less than in existing 

A.S.C.E. sections of corresponding weight. 

"V. A fixed percentage of distribution of metal in head, web 

and base for the entire series of sections need not be adhered to, but 

each section in a series can be considered by itself. 

"VI. The radii of the under corner of the head, and top and 

bottom corners of the base, to be as small as practicable with colder 

conditions of rolling. 

"VII. The radii of the fillets connecting the web with head and 

base to be as great as possible, for reinforcement purposes, consistent 

with securing the necessary area for bearing surface under the head, 

for the top of the splice bar. 

"VIII. The sides of the head should be vertical or nearly so. 
"IX. The radii of the top corners of the head should not be less 

than ^-in." 

From the above it will be noted that a low finishing temperature was 
considered to be the great desideratum, but it now appears from work 
done since then, that the importance of finishing temperature was much 
overrated, although it does have an influence on the properties of the 
metal. 

At this meeting the Committee also submitted a form for "Report of 
Broken or Failed Rails," which was the original of the present standard 
track foreman's report form. 

In April, 1908, the American Railway Association adopted the series 
of sections of types A and B as the recommended practice of that Asso- 
ciation. The important difference between these sections and other sec- 
tions then in common use, was that the new sections were much thicker 
in the base, and what was hoped from the new sections is indicated by 



REVIEW OF RAIL INVESTIGATIONS. 413 

the following extract from the report of the Committee on Standard Rail 
and Wheel Sections. "The adoption of the new and better balanced sec- 
tions will enable the manufacturers to roll the rails at lower temperatures, 
thus insuring a finer grain and better wearing quality, as well as reducing 
the internal stresses." 

The Committee presented specifications for Bessemer and Open- 
Hearth steel rails, which the Association also adopted in April, 1908, as 
recommended practice. 

At that time the American Railway Association also adopted the fol- 
lowing resolution by which the whole subject was transmitted for further 
study and investigation to the American Railway Engineering Association, 
at that time called the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance 
of Way Association: 

"Resolved, That the series of sections of types A and B and the 
specifications for Bessemer and Open-Hearth steel rails, submitted with 
the report of the Committee on Standard Rail and Wheel Sections, be re- 
ferred to the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way 
Association, with the request that they follow up the question of deter- 
mining the details as to drop test, etc., by observing the actual results of 
rails rolled under the new sections, and that they also arrange to collect 
from the different members and tabulate all information as to compara- 
tive wear of rails rolled from the different parts of the ingot, and all 
other information necessary to a proper study of the problem; that they 
be further requested to keep careful record of the comparative results in 
service of rails of types A and B, and to prepare and submit to the 
American Railway Association a single type of section, which will em- 
body their ideas as to the best type that can be designed for use as a 
single standard to be adopted by the Association, giving due weight to 
every factor entering into the problem." 

The matter was referred by the American Railway Engineering As- 
sociation to its Committee on Rail ami, after consideration, the Com- 
mittee made a co-operative arrangement with the manufacturers of steel 
rails by which the latter would furnish the material and facilities of their 
mills for research work, and the railroads would furnish the engineer 
to conduct the tests under the direction of the Rail Committee, and would 
publish the results. Funds have been furnished by the American Railway 
Association, who made the first appropriation for the work at its meet- 
ing in November, 1909. Mr. M. H. Wickhorst was appointed Engineer 
of Tests and entered upon his duties February I, 1910. 

It will thus be seen that the work had its birth in the dissatisfaction 
with the performance of rails. The railroads blamed the rail failures to 
the poor quality of the rails, without, however, being able, as a rule, to 
say in detail wherein the manufacture of the rails was at fault. The 
manufacturers, on the other hand, claimed that the rails were too light for 
the service, and that the flanges of the most of the rail sections in use 
were too thin and necessitated finishing the heads of the rails too hot. 
The A.R.A. sections were designed primarily to meet this latter objection. 



414 RAIL. 

The important object kept in view in our investigative work has been to 
develop information useful in improving rails for the purpose of making 
them uniformly safe. A start was made by testing samples of the rails 
as rolled at several of the mills, but it was soon realized that there were 
so many variables that affected the rails as finally made, that the plan was 
adopted in general of concentrating attention on some one item that en- 
tered as a factor in the properties of the finished rail, and attempting to 
obtain definite information concerning its influence by the experimental 
method of obtaining as great a range as practicable in the one item under 
consideration and leaving all other conditions as near alike as possible. 
It was thus hoped to aid in establishing, in the course of time, the metal- 
lurgical principles and laws that apply to the manufacture of steel rails, 
for the purpose of designing specifications and rail sections that would 
give uniformly safe rails of good wearing qualities and at a minimum 
cost. The reports of these investigations, together with other material 
gathered by the Rail Committee, are abstracted below. 

ABSTRACTS OF REPORTS TO RAIL COMMITTEE, 

AS SHOWN IN THE PROCEEDINGS AND BULLETINS OF THE AMERICAN RAILWAY 
ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION. 

Tests of Bessemer Rails, Maryland Steel Company. 

(Reports 1 and 2.) By M. H. Wickhorst, April, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 
12, Part 2, 1911, p. 387.) 

These reports gave the results of tests of Bessemer rails, as made by 
the Maryland Steel Company, previous to the use of Mayari ore with its 
nickel and chromium. Some tests were also made concerning the relation 
between the height of drop and the deflection of the rail under the first 
blow, and this work showed that the deflection increases directly as the 
height increases, for such heights as are used in tests of rails. A few 
results were given which indicated that about two-thirds of the work 
stored in the tup in the drop test is used to deflect the specimen. 

Tests of Titanium Bessemer Rails, Lackawanna Steel Company. 

(Report 3.) By M. H. Wickhorst, June, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 12, Part 
2, 1911, p. 399.) 

This report gave the results of analyses, etchings, tensile tests, drop 
tests and also bending tests of titanium-treated rails made by the Lacka- 
wanna Steel Company. 

Tests of Bessemer Rails, Illinois Steel Company, South Works 

(Report 4.) By M. H. Wickhorst, June, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 12, Part 
2, 1911, p. 413.) 

This report gave results of analyses, etchings, tensile tests, drop tests 
and slow-bending tests of Bessemer rails made at South Chicago. 

Tests of Open-Hearth Rails, Gary Works. 

(Report 5.) By M. H. Wickhorst, July, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 12, Part 
2, 1911, p. 428.) 

This report gave results of analyses, etchings, tensile tests, drop tests 
and slow-bending tests of Open-Hearth rails made at Gary. 



REVIEW OF RAIL INVESTIGATIONS. 416 

Tests of Bessemer Rails, Edgar Thomson Works of the Carnegie 
Steel Company. 

(Report 6.) By M. H. Wickhorst, August, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, 1911, p. 448.) 

This report gave results of analyses, etchings, tensile tests, drop tests 
and slow-bending tests of Bessemer rails made by the Carnegie Steel 
Company. 

Investigation of a Split-Head Rail. 

(Report 7.) By M. H. Wickhorst, September, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, 1911, p. 469.) 

This report gave the results of the examination of a spilt- head rail 
by means of analyses, tensile tests, microscopic tests and particularly by 
means of numerous sections. The development of a longitudinal crack or 
split in the rail head was explained as follows : The top part of a rail 
head widens more or less in service. The metal near the surface is prac- 
tically always ductile material, but if the interior metal is incapable of 
transverse extension, due to any cause (such as excessive segregation of 
carbon and phosphorus, slag seams, streaks or small internal cracks), it 
develops a split which grows, and finally comes to the surface, generally 
at the junction of the under side of the head and the web. 

Segregation as Influenced by Fire-Clay on Ingot. 

(Report 8.) By M. H. Wickhorst, October, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, 1911, p. 494.) 

This report described a comparison of rails made from two ingots, 
one of which was cast in a plain iron mold without any top covering 
after pouring and the other of which was cast in a similar mold, but had 
a top covering of fire-clay after pouring. This work indicated that the 
covering raised the region of maximum segregation closer to the top of 
the ingot, but not sufficiently so that the ordinary discard of io or 12 per 
cent, would remove it. 

Strength of Rail Head- 

(Report 9.) By M. H. Wickhorst, November, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, 1911, p. 518.) 

Tests were made of rail heads with thicknesses varying from ^-in. 
to 1 in. at the edge, the specimens being prepared by planing off the top 
of the rail head. The rails were tested by canting them and applying load 
at the edge of the head. In one series the load was applied in the test 
machine to the edge of the rail head at one place, and in another series 
the load was applied in a "reciprocating" machine by rolling a loaded 
wheel back and forth along the edge of the rail head. Under the condi- 
tions of the test, a thickness of head of s/t-'m. at the edge and about i-rs- 
in. from the center line stood a rolling load of 30,000 lbs. without sagging, 
and a thickness of 1 in. stood a rolling load of 60,000 lbs. without sagging. 

Drop Tests of Rails, Effect of Impact Energy Variously Distributed. 
(Report 10.) By M. H. Wickhorst, December, 1910. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, 1911, p. 529.) 

Drop tests were made to compare the effects with a 2,000-lb. tup and 
a 6,000-lb. tup. The deflection with a given number of foot-pounds of 
impact energy in one blow was about the same for the two tups. A given 
amount of impact energy gave a little greater deflection when concen- 
trated in one blow than when distributed among several blows. 

Flow of Rail Head Under Wheel Loads. 

(Report 11.) By M. H. Wickhorst, January, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, 1911, p. 535.) 

The results were given of the side spread of the head under a rolling 
wheel loaded with 60,000 lbs. 



116 RAIL. 

A Study of Forty Failed Rails. 

(Report 12.) By W. C. Cushlng, January, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 12, Part 
2, p. 230.) 

A report was given of the special examination of forty rails (mostly 
Bessemer), which failed in the main tracks on the Southwest System of 
the Pennsylvania. The study indicated that failures classified as crushed 
and split-heads were confined mostly to rails of segregated metal from the 
upper part of the ingot. 

A Study of Sixty-eight Failed Rails. 

(Report 13.) By W. C. Cushlng, January, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 12, Part 
2, 1911, p. 293.) 

This was a continuation of the previous work, and it again showed 
that split-head failures occur mostly in segregated metal. The type of 
failure known as "broker" rail, in a large proportion of the cases, showed 
metal satisfactory on analysis and tensile test, and the work did not bring 
out the cause of failure as developed in later reports. 

Drop Tests of Rails — Deflection, Elongation and Compression of 85-lb. 

A-S.C.E. Open-Hearth Rails in Drop Test. 

(Report 14.) By C. S. Churchill, February, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, p. 188.) 

The detail results were given of rails rolled at several different mills, 
including analyses of rails. 

Carbon and Deflection of Rails in Drop Test. 

(Report 15.) Bv M. H. Wlckhorst, February, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, p. 222.) 

The results reported by Mr. Churchill in the previous report were 
used and the deflection, as influenced by carbon, was worked out for the 
conditions of those tests. The outline of a formula for the deflection of 
rails in the drop test was presented, which was later developed in Report 
41 of April, 1914, into concrete form after the results of further experi- 
mental work were available. 

Ductility Tests of Rails Under Specifications of the New York 
Central Lines- 

(Report 16.) By P. H. Dudley, February, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 12, Part 
2, 1911, p. 548.) 

Dr. Dudley described his method of measuring the ductility of a rail 
in the drop test by placing six i-in. spaces on the part in tension and 
measuring their stretch after each blow. The benefits resulting from the 
use of the method were also described. 

Rail Failure Statistics for Six Months' Period Ending Oct. 31, 1909. 
(Report 17.) By W. C. Cushlng, February, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 12, 
Part 2, 1911, p. 21.) 

The statistics indicated large differences between different lots and 
service conditions of rails, sufficient to overcome differences due to the 
sections of the rails. 

A Study of Seventeen Good Service Rails. 

(Report 18.) Bv Robert Trimble and W. C. Cushlng, April, 1911. 
(Pro., Vol. 13, 1912, p. 573.) 
The results were given of the laboratory examination of some rails 
that had been in service a long time, including analyses, tensile tests and 
microphotographs. While most of the rails showed good laboratory re- 
sults according to usual standards, some of them were rather high in 
phosphorus. 






REVIEW OF RAIL INVESTIGATIONS. 417 

Rail Failure Statistics for One Year Ending Oct. 31, 1910. 

(Report Not Numbered.! By W. C. Cushlng. (Pro., Vol. 13, 1912, 
p. 613.) 

This tabulation again showed large differences, sufficient to over- 
come differences in rail sections. 

Comparative Wear of Bessemer, Open-Hearth and Nickel Steel Rails 
on Pennsylvania Railroad. 

(Report Not Numbered.) By J. T. Richards, June, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 
13, 1912, p. 635.) 

High carbon Open-Hearth rails showed the least abrasion and 
much less than the Bessemer rails. 

Segregation and Other Rail Properties as Influenced by Size of Ingot. 
(Report 19.) By M. H. Wlckhorst, June, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 13, 1912, 
p. 655.) 

An investigation was made to throw light on the relation of the 
size of ingots of Bessemer steel to the segregation of the metalloids, 
locations of pipes and blowholes and the properties of the rails. A 
series of five ingots, all of one heat, varying in size from 12x12 in. 
to 25x30 in., was used for splitting open and chemical survey. A similar 
series of ingots was rolled into rails. The carbon, phosphorus and sul- 
phur segregated toward the interior and upper part of the ingot, and 
in a general way the segregation increased as the size of the ingot in- 
creased. The manganese also segregated some, but to a much smaller 
extent, while the silicon showed little or no tendency to segregate. There 
was a negative segregation, or lowering below the average composition 
of the steel, in the top part of the ingot which extended downward along 
the sides of the ingot. The negative segregation increased in general 
as the size of the ingot increased, and also extended down farther along 
the sides of the ingot. There was also a region of negative segregation 
in the interior and lower part of the ingot. The work also showed that 
the material was distributed in the rail bar about the same as to rela- 
tive position as it was in the ingot. An interesting point brought out 
was the softness of the outer part of the section (including the top of 
the head or tread) of the A rail, particularly at its upper end, or end 
nearest to the top of the ingot. In the drop test, the minimum ductility 
of the rail-bar was reached at about 20 per cent, of the weight of the 
ingot from the top end of the ingot. 

Digest and Analysis of Tests of Rail Steel Ingots and Derivative 
Shapes Made at Watertown Arsenal. 

"(Report 20.) By M. H. Wlckhorst, September, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 
13, 1912, p. 753.) 

This report covered a digest and analysis of the Government inves- 
tigation at the Watertown Arsenal, as described in the "Report of Tests 
of Metals" for the year 1009. The work indicated that the interior 
cavities of an ingot cooled directly after pouring were about the same, or 
slightly less, than in a similar ingot placed in the soaking pit and then 
cooled. This same result was also indicated as true of blooms made 
from such ingots. Almost the full tensile strength and ductility of the 
metal of the lower part of the ingot were obtained by rolling to about 
one-tenth of the original cross-section, but with the metal of the upper 
part of the ingot it was necessary to reduce the cross-section to one- 
twenty-fifth or less of the original amount. A great many etchings were 
made, and it was shown that the structure of the cross-section as de- 
veloped by etching varies from the top to the bottom of the ingot, and 
that each structure finds its counterpart in succeeding shapes and at 
about the same proportionate distance from the top end. It was also 



418 RAIL. 

shown that the structure was considerably altered by changing the posi- 
tion in which the ingot was allowed to cool — as, for instance, allowing 
it to cool on its side after stripping. • 

Influence of Rolling Temperature on the Properties of Bessemer Rails. 
(Report 21.) By M. H. Wlckhorst, November, 1911. (Pro., Vol. 
13, 1912, p. 797.) 

A series of five ingots from one heat were rolled into rail all in 
a similar manner, except as to the temperature at which they were 
rolled. The ductility and deflection in the drop test were about the 
same for the several rolling temperatures. The yield point and tensile 
strength in the tension tests were about the same for the several tem- 
peratures. The elongation in the tension test decreased some as the 
temperature increased. The influence of temperature showed most promi- 
nently in the tension test, in the reduction of area, which decreased as 
the temperature of rolling increased. The size of the grain, as shown 
by the microscope, increased as the temperature increased. In this 
report it was also pointed out that the ductility in the drop test with 
the head of the rail in tension more nearly indicates the condition of 
the interior metal than does the ductility in the drop test with the 
base in tension, which latter method was at that time usual in inspection 
work. 

Hearing Before Railroad Commission of Indiana on Feb. 20, 1912. 
(Report Not Numbered.) (Pro., Vol. 13, 1912, p. 843.) 

Papers were presented as follows : 

"The History, Development and Use of Rails by Railroad Companies 
of the United States From 1830 to Date," by P. H. Dudley. 

"Steel Rails; Investigations by the American Society of Civil En- 
gineers," by Thos. H. Johnson. 

"The Question of the Improvement of Rail Design and Specifica- 
tions From 1893 to the Present Time," by W. C. Cushing. 

Abrasion Tests of Rails on Revolving Machine- 

(Report 22.) By M. H. Wlckhorst, March, 1912. (Pro., Vol. 14, 
1913, p. 213.) 

Tests were made of rails from several mills on a revolving abrasion 
tester with a circular track 20 ft. in diameter. The tests were few and 
not entirely satisfactory, but they indicated Open-Hearth steel of .74 
per cent, carbon wears away considerably slower under the conditions 
of the test than does Bessemer steel of .51 per cent, carbon. 

Ductility and Elongation Tests. 

(Report 23.) By P. H. Dudley, April, 1912. (Pro., Vol. 14, 1913, 
P. 193.) 

Dr. Dudley presented figures and diagrams of results of tests of 
rails bought under the specifications of the New York Central Lines, and 
discussed the usefulness of the results toward enabling the maker to 
better meet the specifications. 

Influence of Titanium on Bessemer Ingots and Rails- 

(Report 24.) By M. H. Wlckhorst, April, 1912. (Pro., Vol. 14, 1913, 
p. 219.) 

An investigation was made concerning the influence of titanium on 
Bessemer ingots and rails. A series of heats was made with treatments 
varying from nothing to .6 per cent, of metallic titanium added in the 
form of a cold 15 per cent, alloy. From each heat one ingot was split 
open and surveyed chemically, and another was rolled into rail for test. 
Titanium in amounts of .1 per cent, or more of metallic titanium pre- 



REVIEW OF RAIL INVESTIGATIONS. 419 

vented the honeycombed condition of the upper part of the ingot found 
in the plain Bessemer steel, but it was also attended with a larger and 
deeper pipe. The heavy segregation of carbon, phosphorus and sulphur 
found in the interior and upper part of ingots of plain Bessemer steel 
was largely restrained, but the mild negative segregation found in the 
interior and lower part of the ingot was not materially altered. The 
brittle zone found in rail of plain Bessemer steel from the upper part 
of the ingot, as determined by drop and tensile tests, was avoided, but 
the properties of the rail from the lower two-thirds of the ingot were 
not changed. Large internal flaws were found considerably lower down 
from the top of the ingot in the rails made from titanium-treated steel 
than in rail made from plain steel. Treatment with .05 per cent, metal- 
lic titanium produced the above results only in part, but treatments with 
above .1 per cent, had little additional influence. 

Pipeless Ingots. 

(Report 25.) By M. H. Wickhorst, May, 1912. (Pro., Vol. 14, 1913, 
p. 289.) 

An investigation was made of two special ingots, the main feature 
of which was that they were cast with a sand core on top of the iron 
mold. The ingots were cupped down at the top, but contained no in- 
terior pipe, and the segregation was confined close to the top. 

Transverse Ductility of Base of Rails. 

(Report 26.) By M. H. Wickhorst, June, 1912. (Pro., Vol. 14, 1913, 
p. 303.) 

During the severe winter of 1911-12 the Northern roads had a 
great many rail failures, classed as "broken" rails and broken bases, 
which investigation indicated as originating in seams in the base, with 
perhaps a low transverse ductility of the metal in the base. A method 
was devised for testing the transverse properties of the base of a rail, 
which is described in the report. The method of making the tests was 
to support a piece of rail about 2 ft. long on two supports, placed oppo- 
site each other near the edges of the flanges under the middle of the 
length of the rail. The supports were six inches long and placed one- 
half inch in from the sides of the flanges. The load was applied in 
the test machine to the top of the rail at the middle. The method may 
be considered a means of determining the strength of the flange and of 
determining the transverse properties of the base of the rail, as regards 
the transverse ducility of the metal in the base and the presence of 
structural flaws, such as seams. 

Influence of Seams or Laminations in Base of Rail on Rail Failures. 
(Report 27.) By H. B. MacFarland, July, 1912. (Pro., Vol. 14, 1913, 
P. 315.) 

It was shown that rails that failed, as square and angular breaks, 
had laminations or seams in the base, indicating that the seam was the 
starting point of the break. In laboratory tests the seams had a weaken- 
ing effect on the strength of the base. 

Rail Failure Statistics for Year Ending Oct. 31, 1911. 

(Report 28.) By R. Trimble, July, 1912. (Pro., Vol. 14, 1913, p. 335.) 

The statistics indicated more failures in rails from the top of the 
ingot than in the rails from lower down the ingot. In many cases the 
performance of the heavier sections was not as good as the perform- 
ance of the lighter sections. The Open-Hearth rail, as a whole, showed 
a lower rate of failure than the Bessemer. 



420 RAIL. 

Effect of Piping, Cavities and Porous Spots in Ingots on the Finished 
Rails. 

(Report 29.) By J. R. Onderdonk, August, 1912. (Pro., Vol. 14, 1913, 
p. 401.) 

Illustrations and analyses of split ingots were presented, showing the 
interior cavities and the segregation. An interesting graphical record 
was presented, showing the large number of rail failures with a small 
top discard from the ingot, and the smaller number of failures with a 
large top discard. 

Specifications for Carbon Steel Rails. 

(Report 30.) (Pro., Vol. 14, 1913, p. 181.) 
The specifications for steel rails recommend