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Full text of "Proceedings of the annual convention"

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING 

ASSOCIATION 

CONTENTS, VOLUME 77 

(For detailed index, see Bulletin 658, page 713) 



Bulletin 654, September-October 1975 Page 

Principles and Criteria for the Design of a Railroad Test Track Facility 1 
Work Equipment Repair Organizations of North American Railroads 
(Advance Report of Connnittee 27 — Maintenance of Way Work 

Equipment) 9 

Tie Renewals and Costs (Advance Report of Committee 3 — ^Ties and Wood 

Preservation ) 13 

Statistical Data for Coupled-in-Motion Weighing and Testing (Advance 

Report of the Special Committee on Scales ) 25 

Summary of Performance of Standard-Carbon and Various Wear-Resistant 
Rails in Test Curves on the Chessie System — Second Report (Advance 
Report of Committee 4 — Rail ) 55 

Bulletin 655, November-December 1975 (Part 1) 

Manual Recommendations 87-249 

Bulletin 655, November-December 1975 (Part 2 — Reports of Committees) 

Highways (9) 255 

Engineering Records and Property Accounting ( 11 ) 273 

Yards and Terminals ( 14 ) 279 

Bulletin 656, January-February 1976 (Reports of Committees) 

Scales ( Special Committee ) 287 

Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance ( 22 ) 299 

Environmental Engineering (13) 323 

Maintenance of Way Work Equipment (27 ) 333 

Clearances ( 28 ) 337 

Buildings (6) 341 

Timber Structures ( 7 ) , 351 

Concrete Structures and Foundations ( 8 ) 353 

Steel Structures (15) 359 

Roadway and Ballast ( 1 ) 363 

Ties and Wood Preservation ( 3 ) 367 

Rail (4) 373 

Economics of Plant, Equipment and Operations (16) 383 

Engineering Education ( 24 ) 401 

Electrical Energy Utihzation (33) 403 

Addresses Presented at Vancouver Regional Meeting 415-449 



Bulletin 658, June-July 1976 (Technical Conference Report) Page 

President's Address 487 

Special Features '^91 

Installation of Officers 667 

AAR Engineering Division Session 673 

Report of Executive Director 681 

Report of Treasurer 691 

AREA Constitution 697 



^. c. \^rQ/ttne.yef 



/J 



American Railway 

Engineering Association— Bulletin 



RECEIVED 
NOV 6 197S 

t. STALLMEYER 



Bullefin 654 
Proceedings Volume 77* 



September-October 1975 



CONTENTS 

Principles and Criteria for the Design of a Railroad Test 

Track Facility 1 

Work Equipment Repair Organizations of North Ameri- 
can Railroads (Advance Report of Committee 27 — 
Maintenance of Way Work Equipment) 9 

Tie Renewals and Costs (Advance Report of Committee 

3 — Ties and Wood Preservation) 13 

Statistical Data for Coupled- in -Motion Weighing and 
Testing (Advance Report of the Special Committee 
on Scales) 25 

Summary of Performance of Standard-Carbon and Various 
Wear-Resistant Rails in Test Curves on the Chessie 
System — Second Report (Advance Report of Com- 
mittee 4 — Rail) 55 

Directory — Consulting Engineers 84—1 



•Proceedings Volume 77 (1976) wiU consist of AREA BuUetins 654, September- 



BOARD OF DIRECTION 

1975-1976 

President 
J. T. Ward, Senior Assistant Chief Engineer, Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, 500 Water 
St., Jacksonville, FL 32202 

Vice Presidents 
John Fox, Assistant Chief Engineer, Canadian Pacific Rail, Windsor Station, Montreal, 

PQ H3C 3E4 
B. J. WoRLEY, Vice President — Chief Engineer, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific 

Railroad, Union Station, Room 898, Chicago, IL 60606 

Past Presidents 

D. V. Sartore, Chief Engineer — Design, Burlington Northern, Inc., 176 E. 5th St., St. 

Paul, MN 55101 
R. F. Bush, Chief Engineer, Erie Lackawanna Railway, Midland Bldg., Cleveland, OH 

44115 

Directors 
R. W. Pember, Chief Engineer — Design and Construction, Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road, P. O. Box 1198, Louisville, KY 40201 

E. Q. Johnson, Senior Assistant Chief Engineer, Chessie Systena, P. O. Box 1800, 

Huntington, WV 2S718 

W. E. FuHR, Assistant Chief Engineer — Staff, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific 
Railroad, Union Station, Room 898, Chicago, IL 60606 

B. E. Pearson, Chief Engineer, Soo Line Railroad, Soo Line Bldg., Room 1520, Minne- 
apolis, MN 55440 

P. L. Montgomery, Manager Engineering Systems, Norfolk & Western Railway, 8 N. 
Jefferson St., Roanoke, VA 24042 

E. C. HoNATH, Assistant General Manager Engineering, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railway, 900 Polk St., Amarillo, TX 79171 

Mike Roucas, Chief Engineer, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, P. O. Box 471, Green- 
ville, PA 16125 

J. W. DeValle, Chief Engineer Bridges, Southern Railway System, 99 Spring St., S. W., 
Atlanta, GA 30303 

R. L. Gray, Chief Engineer, Canadian National Railways, P. O. Box 8100, Montreal, 
PQ H3C 3N4 

E. H. Waring, Chief Engineer, Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, P. O. Box 
5482, Denver, CO 80217 

Wm. Glavin, General Manager, Grand Trunk Western Railroad, 131 W. Lafayette 
Blvd., Detroit, MI 48226 

G. H. Maxwell, System Engineer of Track, Union Pacific Railroad, 1416 Dodge St., 
Omaha, NE 68179 

Treasurer 

A. B. HiLLMAN, Jr., Chief Engineer, Belt Railway of Chicago, 6900 S. Central Ave., 
Chicago, IL 60638 

Executive Director 

Earl W. Hodgkins, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 
Assistant to Executive Director 

N. V. Engman, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 

Administrative Assistant 

D. F. Fredley, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 

Published by the American Railway Engineering Association, Bi-Montbly, January-February, April- 
May, June-July, September-October and November-December, at 
59 East Van Buren Sueet, Chicago, Dl. 6060S 
Second class postage at Chicago, III., and at additional mailing offices. 
Subscription $15 per annum 

Copyright © 1975 

American Railway Engineering Association 

All rights reserved. 

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or data retrieval 

system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopying, 

recording, or otherwise — without the prior written permission of the publisher. 



Principles and Criteria for the Design of a Railroad 
Track Test Facility* 

By Arnold D. Kerr^ 

SUMMARY 

The paper contains a discussion of principles and criteria for the design of a 
railroad track test facility. One such facility is to be built and operated by tlie 
Federal Railroad Administration ( FRA ) . The puipose of the tests to be conducted 
is to support the various track research programs which aim to improve the design 
as well as the maintenance procedures and safety of railroad tracks. 

INTRODUCTION 

As part of its effort to pro\ide the technology necessary for improving the per- 
formance and safety of the railroad tracks in the United States, the Federal Rail- 
road Administration ( FRA ) is planning to build and operate a track research labo- 
ratory in Pueblo, Colorado. The purpose of the tests to be conducted at this 
lalx)ratory is to gain information for impro\ing the design, as well as the main- 
tenance procedures, for railroad tracks. The planned program may include tests for: 
( 1 ) the determination of stresses in the rails, ties and fasteners due to static and 
dynamic loads and various conditions of the ballast; (2) the determination of safe 
temperature increases to prevent buckling of an unloaded track; and (3) a study 
of the effect of a moving train on the stability of a thermally compressed track. In 
these tests special attention should be given to the effect of tamping and traffic 
compaction of the ballast on the stability of the welded track, a problem of great 
importance for stipulating efficient track maintenance procedures. 

The purpose of the following presentation is to establish a number of general 
principles and criteria for the design of such a track test facility. 

DISCUSSION OF DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA 

When planning a test stand for the study of the track response caused by a 
variety of forces, it is essential to know the approximate displacement and force 
distributions anticipated during the \arious tests. This is necessary for the stipula- 
tion of the minimum length of the test track and for estimating the largest antici- 
pated forces. This in turn affects the choice of the loading mechanisms and the 
accuracy of the measuring devices. 

The first task in the planning of such a test stand is the determination of the 
minimum length of the test track, L,„,„. From the literature on railroad track tests, 
it appears that from the multitude of tests to be conducted, the buckling and 
dynamic experiments require the longest track section. 

Consider the straight track shown in Fig. 1-(I). A uniform temperature 
increase induces in the welded rails, due to constrained thermal expansions, an 
axial compression force Ni which does not \ar\- along the track, as shown in Fig. 



" Research sponsored bv the Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, 
under contract DOT-FR-400i7. 

1 Visiting Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. 

1 
Bui. 654 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



z 



undeformed state 




-buckled state 
I a 



(I) Top view of track 



K 



K 



(I) Axial compression force before buckling 



m 



n; 



N. 



-N, 



— •-=— — I 1 — 

(H) Axial compression force after buckling 

Fig. 1 



N 



l-(II). For a large value of Ni, say N,, the track may buckle out. The resulting 
force distribution is shown, schematically, in Fig. l-(III). In the buckled region 
of length I, because of the associated deformations, part of the thermal expansions 

is released. This results in a reduction of the axial force Nt to Nt. In the adjoining 
regions, each of length a, due to ballast resistance to axial displacement of the 

track, the constrained thermal expansions vary; so does the axial force A^( < N < 
Ni, as shown in Fig. l-(III). According to the above description, track buckling is 
a local phenomenon and except for the length (/ + 2c) the track is not affected by 
it. Thus 

L„,An = l+2a (1) 

To realize the possible effect of the adjoining regions of length 2a, the reader 
is referred to Ref . ( 1 ) and to Ref . ( 2 ) . The case n = o in Ref . ( 1 ) corresponds 
to the elimination of the elfect of the adjoining regions.** 

The test tract at the Technical University of Karlsruhe, used for the DB track 
research program, consisted of a 46.50-m (153-ft) track confined between two 
reinforced concrete piers weighing 624 tons each. For details the reader is referred 
to Ref. (3) (4) 

The test track of the Civil Engineering Laboratory of the Western Region of 
British Railways consisted of a 36.6-m (120-ft) track anchored at both ends to 
concrete blocks sunk to ground level. For details the reader is referred to Ref. (5). 

The test track of the Central Railroad Research Institute of the Soviet Union 
(CNII MPS) consists of a 100-m (328-ft) long straight track, mounted between 
two concrete piers. The length of a curved test track was fixed to 200 m (656 ft). 
For details the reader is referred to Ref. (6). 



"For buckling in the horizontal jilane, the load q in (1) and (2) is to be interpreted as 
a resistance against lateral deformations. 



Designing a Railroad Test Track Facility 



According to the results of many buckling tests conducted on the 100-m test 
track by CNII (6), the track buckled in the horizontal plane and the buckled 
length (which usually consisted of more than one wave) varied for different tracks. 
The largest observed I for a straight track was 42 m. For many tests, I was about 
30 m. The values for cui-ved tracks were about the same. These results suggest that 
the test tracks of the DB and BR may have been too short. This conjecture is also 
confirmed by the buckling mode shown in Fig. 31 of Ref. (5). 

If a test track is too short, it will usually yield higher buckling temperatures 
than a corresponding track encountered in the field. In view of the larger rigidities 
of the rails currently in use in the U.S.A. (and to be tested in the future), it is 
proposed that for the planned test track Imtn should be about 60 m. Taking into 
consideration the additional lengths 2a, it appears that a reasonable minimum total 
length of the new test track should be (for an analysis see footnote below): 

L,„,„ ■= 490 m (about 1,600 ft)* (2) 

The next task is to decide on tJie type of end restraints. This may be achieved 
in several ways: 

( 1 ) The track may continue on boUi ends as in an actual railroad track. 
The minimum length, h, of these adjoining regions to L is determined 
from the largest anticipated track compression force, say NT'"' = 500 
tons'"*, and the resistance of the imloaded track to axial displacements 
r(x) per unit length of track. Considering the equilibrium of forces 
in the horizontal plane on the free body diagram shown in Fig. 2, it 
follows that: 













b 








1 


moxM 


r /q 


N| y^ 












y 








L 


"" — 


■•" 


"" — 




rW 


y. 




■*— 


■'— 


V 


1 — 5 — 


'q 









Fig. 2 



NT 



J r{x) dx (3] 



* The value of Lmin = 490 m in equation (2) was determined by assuming 
that Nt — N, = 150 tons, hence a = {N! ~ Nt) /r„ = 215 m and L,„,„ = Lm + 
2a =: 490 m. The r„ value has to be determined experimentally, after the track to 
be tested is chosen. 

"'At the Karlsruhe test stand ([4], p. 332) a buckling load of as high as 375 
tons was observed. At the BR tests ([5], Table 5) the highest load encountered 
was about 275 tons. At the CNII ([6], p. 23) in one test no buckling was observed 
even at 425 tons. 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 

When r(x) is known, the above integral can be evaluated and then 
equation (3) solved for h, its only unknown. In the railroad literature 
it is often assumed that /• docs not vary with .r. Hence r(x) =z r„ =: 
constant. In this case e(|uation (3) reduces to N',""'' = r„ • /? and hence 



b- 



^,„„. 



(4) 



For example, accordinj^ to equation (4), if N'""' = 500 tons and the 
resistance r„ ^ 7 kg/cm (467 lb/ft), then the required b equals 715 m 
(2,350 ft). 

In order to simulate the actual conditions in the field, the desired 
distribution of axial forces in the buckled track has to be as shown 
schematically in Fig. 3. 





b 




1 
















L 


= 500 


m 












1 


b 






r '1' 






"-M, 


^^ 


'~-~ 








































k 


JiJJ- 


L>^ 



Distribution of axial forces at the onset of buckling 




Desired distribution of forces after buckling 

Fig. 3 



(2) The necessary length b may be shortened considerably by placing 
loaded railroad cars or locomotives outside the L region. Once the 
weight and geometry of the available loaded cars or locomotives are 
known, their position on the track should be determined to insure the 
desired conditions in the L region. 

(3) The b regions may be eliminated (almost) entirely by using heavy 
piers on both track ends. However, because the anticipated axial track 
loads may be as high as 500 tons, small displacements of the piers at 
the ends of the test track are usually unavoidable. The magnitude of 
these displacements will depend, for a fixed temperature increase, upon 
the weight and/or foundation of the piers. The desired distribution of 
axial forces in the track after buckling, is shown schematically in Fig. 4. 
The drop of the axial forces in the outer track regions of length b', is 
due to the anticipated yielding of the piers. 



Designing a Railroad Test Track Facility 



VZA 



Pier 



Top view of test stand 



YTA 

Pier 



ti 














L = 


50C 


nr 


1 










- 


. i . 




■ 








































^J-^ 



Distribution of axial forces at the onset of buckling 







Nt 






i 


€>0 


\\ 1 II II 11^ 
LSSOOm 




77 
€^0 i 




1 






r 



Desired distribution of forces after buckling 

Fig. 4 

The test tracks in Karlsruhe, at the BR Western Region Laboratory, and at 
the CNII MPS used end piers, as described above in option (3). The SNCF (7) 
and JNR (8) used locomotives, as described in option (2). The choice of either 
of the three alternatives described above should depend upon the availability of 
space, locomotives or cars, and other economic factors. Also the versatility of a 
particular arrangement with regard to various test programs to be conducted, 
should be taken into consideration. 

For example, one possible aim to ])c achieved using the planned facility is to 
determine the effect of traffic compaction of the ballast on the stability of tlie track. 
Namely, how many passes (say, in tons) are needed after tamping to reach the 
desired stability of a planned track. This proljlem is related to the removal of 
imposed speed restrictions after track renovation. Such a compaction could be 
achieved in a test stand by moving locomotives and loaded cars back and forth on 
the test track (or in one direction if both ends of the test track are connected to a 
track loop) before it is subjected to axial compression forces. For such tests, option 
(1) or (2) is preferable. In option (2), after completing the compaction runs, the 
locomotives and cars can be used to achieve the desired end conditions. Another 
advantage of options (1) and (2) is that the length of the test track, L, can be 
easily increased, if this should become necessary. If buckling tests of a heated track 
subjected to a moving train are contemplated, or a study of axial rail forces in- 
duced by a moving train are planned, then option ( 1 ) is necessary. The length 
hmin — 500 m should be sufficient also for these purposes. 

Tests involving compaction due to traffic also require that proper clearance 
should be secured over the test track in order not to hinder the planned movement 
of the locomotive or cars. 



6 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



The use of locomotives or loaded railroad cars for compaction purposes re- 
quires that the test facility be connected to an existing railroad track in order to 
facilitate their delivery and movement. This point should be considered when de- 
ciding on the location of the track test facility. In order to enable a study of 
buckling phenomena caused by a temperature increase and a moving train, or a 
study of axial rail forces induced by a moving train, the possibiUty of tying the 
test tract to an existing track loop should be considered when deciding on the loca- 
tion of the test track. 

For various track studies, there is a need to exeii> on the track a lateral load 
of several torus. The lateral load may be produced by means of hydraulic or screw 
jacks that press against a structure located near the track, as shown in Fig. 5. Such 



test track 




Fig. 5 

a structure may l^e a concrete pier built along the test track. A more versatile 
alternative is to use a heavy tractor instead of the pier. The advantages of using 
a tractor are that it can be placed in any desired location along the 500-m-long 
track, and that it can be used directly for push or pull purposes. In order to in- 
crease its resistance against displacements, when necessary, the tractor may be par- 
tially dug in. 

For some tests it may be necessary to exert a lateral force on the moving 
train (7). This may be achieved, economically, by placing the test track near and 
parallel to an existing track. 

The axial compression force in an actual welded track is often induced by 
raising the rail temperatures. To simulate such a situation the test track has to be 
heated. The use of mechanical jacks built into the rails to induce axial compression 
forces, as described in Ref. (9), is not admissible, as shown in Ref. (1) (10). In 
the test stands in Karlsruhe (3) (4) and at the CNII (6) the rails were heated 
utilizing electric currents. In the tests at the BR Western Region Laboratory (5) 
heating of the rails was achieved by placing, along each rail, parabolic reflectors 
fitted with electric heating elements. For the JNR tests (8) the rails were heated 
using steam. 

The heating method which uses electric currents is to be preferred. In order 
to be able to heat each rail to a different temperature level, each of the two rails 
should have its own electric circuit. This arrangement is necessary for those tests 
whose purpose will be the determination of the effect of different rail temperatures 
(i.e. eccentricity of the axial force in the track) on track stabiHty. 



SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS 

The guiding principle in designing the track test facility should be that the 
test track and its mechanical environment should simulate as closely as possible, for 
each test, the situation the actual track will encounter in the field. 



Designing a Railroad Test Track Facility 



It is proposed that for the planned test track, the lent^th of the test section, 
L, be about 1,600 ft. To secure versatility, the end constraints should he achieved 
as discussed in option (1); namely, the test track should be sufficiently lon^. Both 
ends of the test track should be connected to a track loop, as shown in Fig. 6. 




Fig. 6 

This arrangement is needed for tests which require moving trains over the test 
section. Proper clearance over the test track should be secured to allow unhindered 
movement of the locomotives and cars over the entire test track. The planned test 
track should be connected to an existing track, to facilitate the delivery of rolling 
stock. If possible, the test track should be located near and parallel to an existing 
track. To exert vertical forces on the track, use can be made of available locomo- 
tives or cars and in special situations by utilizing cranes. Lateral forces on the 
track can be exerted by mechanical jacks. The necessary supporting structure should 
be mobile. To simulate thermal stresses in the field, the axial compression forces in 
the track should be induced using electric currents. Each rail should have its own 
circuit. 

In conclusion it should be noted that because of the large variety of tests to 
be conducted, which will include the determination of stresses in the rails due to 
vertical and horizontal loads, the study of axial rail forces induced by moving 
trains, and track buckling caused by temperature stresses and the moving train, 
it is suggested that the track test facility be as versatile as possible. Thus, the con- 
struction of permanent structures, such as heavy concrete piers, should be avoided 
whenever mechanically possible and economically feasible. 

REFERENCES 

1. Kerr, A. D. "A Model Study for Vertical Track. Buckling", High Speed Ground 
Transportation Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1973, (DOT Report, 1971). 

2. Kerr, A. D., "On the stability of the railroad track in the vertical plane". Rail 
International, Nr. 2, 1974, (DOT Report, 1972). 

3. Raab, F. "Tests on the jointless track" ("Versuche am liickenlosen Gleis", in 
German), Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau, H. 10, 1956. 

4. Birmann, F. and F. Raab, "To the development of the continuously welded 
track — Test results of the Karlsruhe test facility; Their analysis and interpreta- 
tion" ("Zur Entwicklung durchgehend verschweisster Gleise — Ergebnisse bei 
Versuchen auf dem Karlsruher Priifstand; Ihre Auswertung und Deutung", in 
German) Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau, H. 8, 1960. 



8 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 

5. Bartlett, D. L., J- Tuora, and G. R. Smith, "Experiments on the Stability of the 
Long-welded Rails", British Transport Commission, London, 1961. 

6. Bromberg, E. M. "The Stability of the Jointless Track" ( "Ustoichivost Bessty- 
kogo Puti", in Russian), Transport, Moscow, 1966. 

7. Private communication to author by M. Janin of the SNCF, (Dec, 1973). 

8. "The test on buckling of curved track", The Permanent Way Society of Japan, 
Nr. 1, 1958. 

9. Ammann, O. and C. V. Gruenewaldt, "Tests on the effect of axial forces in the 
track" ("Versuche liber die Wirkung von Langskraften im Gleis," in German), 
Organ fiir die Fortschritte des Eisenbahnwesens, 1932. 

10. Kerr, A. D., "The lateral buckling of railroad tracks due to constrained thermal 
expansions", Proc. Symposium on Railroad Track Mechanics, Princeton Univer- 
sity, 1975. 



Advance Report of Committee 17 — Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 

F. H. Smith, Chairman 

Work Equipment Repair Organizations of 
North American Railroads 

Your committee presents, as information, the results of a survey of equipment 
repair organizations. The response to our questionnaire was excellent and we wish 
to thank all those who contributed data. 

ROADS WITH 5,000 TO 24,000 MILES OF LINE 

Sixteen roads in this category responded. Of these, only one repairs both auto- 
motive and maintenance-of-way (M/W) equipment. This probaljly reflects the 
travel and shipping time losses attributable to central vehicle repair as opposed to 
outside local shop repair. One road has 90 percent of both automotive and M/W 
equipment repair done in outside shops and another has all automotive and 75 per- 
cent of M/W overhauls farmed out. As might be expected, tlie one road that re- 
pairs both automotive and M/W equipment in company shops also has one of 
the closest shop spacings. 

Of the 14 roads which repair all M/W equipment in company shops, tliree 
have only a single central shop. The others have from five to 20 shops of various 
sizes. The following table equates repair facilities and manpower with length of 
line: 

Number of Miles of Road per: 





Central 
Shop 


All 
Shops 


Field 
Supervisor 


Field 
Mechanic 


Total 
Field 


Maximum 
Minimum 
Average 


19,459 
3,789 
8,509 


12,521 

446 

3,909 


5,118 

600 

1,689 


736 

78 

296 


736 

72 

255 



ROADS WITH 1000 TO 5000 MILES OF LINE 

Six roads responded. All except one repair M/W equipment only and ha\e 
only one central shop. One repairs both automotive and M/W equipment and 
operates a central shop and eight smaller shops. The entire length of these roads 
is less than tlie average miles per shop for the longer roads. Thus, one shop pro- 
vides better coverage. 

Number of Miles of Road per: 

All Field Field Total 

Shops Supervisor Mechanic Field 

2278 Infinite 759 759 

564 928 87 83 

1247 — 237 223 

ROADS WITH 500 TO 1000 MILES OF LINE 

Six roads responded. Two of these roads repair both automotive and M/W 
equipment in company shops and three do only M/W equipment. One has all 
major work done on the outside. 

9 





Central 
Shop 


Maximum 


2932 


Minimum 


1128 


Average 


1826 





Central 
Shop 


Maximum 


988 


Minimum 


542 


Average 


821 



1 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Nunil)cr of Miles of Road per: 

All Field Field Total 

Shops Supervisor Meehunic Field 

946 Infinite 692 692 

144 247 60 54 

541 — 284 258 

ROADS WITH 200 TO 500 MILES OF LINE 

Twelve roads responded. As line miles become shorter, more roads repair both 
automotive and M/W equipment in company shops. Five roads repair both auto- 
motive and M/W equipment, the remaining seven repair M/W only. All have a 
single central shop except one road which has four shops. 

Number of Miles of Road per: 

Field Field Total 

Supervisor Mechanic Field 

Maximum Infinite 393 393 

Minimum 67 16 16 

Average 292 161 148 

ROADS WITH LESS THAN 200 MILES OF LINE 

Twenty-three roads responded. Thirteen repair both automotive and M/W 
equipment, eight repair only M/W equipment and two have all work done in out- 
side shops. Twenty-one roads maintaining a field repair force employ a total of 69 
repairmen for 1843 miles of road, an average of 27 miles per man. Obviously, urban 
miles are more difficult than rural miles, and miles of track may be several times 
the miles of line for these roads. 

CONCLUSIONS 

In looking at the statistics provided by the responding roads, certain points of 
agreement, near agreement and disagreement are obvious: 

1. Few of the longer roads repair both automotive and M/W equipment in 
company shops; many of the roads under 500 miles in length repair both. This is 
probably a matter of geography and logistics. In some cases, the extra automotive 
work probably helps to justify the existence of shops and shop equipment. 

2. Few of the longer roads rely exclusively on one central shop, again prob- 
ably a matter of logistics. Almost all of the roads under 500 miles in length have 
only a single central shop. However, in both classes of road, there are outstanding 
exceptions to the rule 

3. One might think that the various roads had made a decision to balance 
their repair forces by choosing between frequent shop facilities and frequent field 
people to insure prompt and adequate handling of machine problems. Such does 
not appear to be the case. Roads with most closely spaced shops also tend to have 
most closely spaced field repairmen. Obviously, the enormity of some central shops 
makes up for some lack of closely spaced facilities while increasing logistic prob- 
lems. The accompanying table illustrates the wide variation in repair organization 
spacings: 



Road 








Miles per Shop 


Low frequency 


of s 


hops 


and field men: 


A 








4,077 


B 








2,187 


C 








7,361 


D 








12,521 


Balanced frequency 






E 








931 


F 








10,200 


G 








676 


Frequent 


shops 


and 


field 


men: 


H 








517 


I 








868 


J 








446 


K 








1,145 


L 








1,450 



Work Equipment Repair Organizations 11 

Miles per Field Man 

453 
437 
736 
224 

320 
176 

287 

73 
111 
76 
72 
89 

The most capable facility is the large, completely equipped shop. In its 
ultimate state of perfection, it would be able to build an entire fleet of maintenance 
machinery from scratch. Where complete machine rebuilding or major component 
rebuilding on the property is required, a major shop is a necessity. Contracting with 
outside shops or scrap-early-and-buy-new would be reasonable alternatives. 

The key factor in any M/W repair organization is the field repairman, his 
equipment and the size of his territory. If his territory is too large, he will spend 
more time travelling than in doing repair work. If his territory is small and if he is 
well equipped, he will be able to do work that would otherwise go to a shop. In 
the foregoing mileage tabulations, average miles of road per field mechanic are 
296, 237, 284, 161 and 28, in order from the longest roads to the shortest. Similarly, 
average miles of road jjer field person (supervisors and mechanics) are 255, 223, 
258, 148 and 27. If heavy reliance is to be placed on field repair, it seems certain 
that the average mileage figures should not be exceeded. Indeed, they should be 
reduced, perhaps nearing minimum figures shown. 

It is true that good, properly trained operators can sulistitute for or minimize 
the need for repairmen. Similarly, well equipped and competent field repairmen 
can substitute for and minimize the need for shop facilities. With some limitations, 
the reverse is also true. Thus, a repair organization can be flexible . 

Our survey of field repair vehicles shows a preference for /i-ton utility trucks. 
In view of the rough terrain and substantial payloads these trucks must handle, this 
is the minimum rating that can be recommended and in many cases may be too 
light for tire and suspension economy and safety; particularly when equipped at 
the low end of the 6000 to 9000 gross-vehicle- weight (GVW) range. Sample 
trucks in the repair fleet should be check weighed. A few roads use very sizcabk' 
vans: 12,000 to 30,000 CVW with miniature shops built in. Choice between the 
utility truck and the shop-van is one of money and organization. Where major 
work is done in the field and a heavy premium is placed on field ability to return 
machines to service (juickly, extra cost of the van can be easy to justify. A tabula- 
tion of trucks and equipment is shown on page 12. 

In developing or altering a repair organization, certain genera] considerations 
apply. Both shop and field work have some unique advantages to which the final 
scheme should adapt. 



12 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Shop: 

Shelter and workinjf environmental control. 

Parts inventory and procurement potential. 

Specialized personnel. 

Specialized and expensive tools and eqtn'pment. 

Stenographic, commvmications and other office facilities. 

Central control of fleet. 

FrELD: 

Elimination of shipping effort and time. 

Knowledge of recent machine history. 

Access to operator diagnosis and assistance. 

Communication with local users for best time and effort management. 

Since repair facilities always seem to lag behind the growth of the M/W 
fleet, roads with better than average organizations are certainly nearer an optimum 
condition. Also, the fact that few or none of the roads may follow some certain 
course, does not mean that the course is wrong. That course may have been un- 
explored or its time may have only just arrived. 



VEHICLES FURNISHED TO MAIMTENAMCE OF WAY EQUIPHeWT REPAIR PERSONNEL 



ROAD SIZE 

MILES OF 

LINE 


U T 

OVER 

ONE TON 

2i 


I L I 
ONE 
TON 

5 


T Y 

i 
TON 

6 




V A 


N 




PICK 

TOM 


UPS 

i- 

TOM 


OTHER 




TWO TON 
UP 


1^ 

TOM 


ONE 
TON 


i 
TOM 


TOTAL 


OVER $000 


16 


1000 - 5000 


1 


1 


2i 








i 






1 


6 


SOO - 1000 




1 


2 


i 








2i 


i_ 




6 


200 - 500 






7 


1 






2 








10 


UNDER 200 






6 








2 


2 


I4 


5 


19 



3i 



23i 



hi 



hk 



EQUIPMENT FURNISHED ON MAINTENANCE OF WAY REPAIR VEHICLES 



ROAD SIZE 

MILES OF 

LINE 


HOIST OR 
CRANE 

6i 


ELECTRIC 
WELDER 

16 


GAS 
WELD 

16 


AIR 

COMPRESSOR 

3 


HYDRAULIC 

SYSTEM 
ANALYZER 

Si 


NO 
REPLY 




TOTAL 
ROADS 


OVER 5000 


16 


1000 - 5000 


2 


5 


5 


1 


3 


1 


6 


500 - 1000 





3 


5 





3 





6 


200 - 500 





5 


7 


2 


2 


1 


10* 


UNDER 200 


1 


_9_ 


11 


6 


Ji_ 





W» 


TOTALS 


9i 


38 


hh 


n, 


m 


2 


57 



« Additional roads do not furnish a vehicle. 

NOTE: Fractions denote equipment furnished to only part of fleet. 



Advance Report of Committee 3 — Ties and Wood Preservation 
Report on Assignment 5 

Service Records 

K. C. Edscorn (chairman, subcommittee), L. C. Collister, M. J. Crespo, E. M. 
CuMMiNGS, J. K. Gloster, H. E. Richardson, R. H. Savage, G. D. Summers. 

TIE RENEWALS AND COSTS 

Statistics providintr information on cross tie renewals and average tie costs for 
the year 1974, as compiled by the Economics and Finance Department, Associa- 
tion of American Railroads, are presented on following pages in Tables A and B. 

The 1974 statistics on new tie renewals by Class I U.S. Railroads compared 
with 1973 are as follows: 

Total New Renewals 

Year Tie Renewals Per Mile 

1973 17,856,780" 61 

1974 IS.SlO.aSS"" 65 



" Includes 28,63.5 concrete ties, excludes 819,324 secondhand ties. 
*" Includes 28,690 concrete ties, excludes 669,787 secondhand ties. 

By geographical districts, the Eastern Roads inserted in replacement 53 ties 
per mile, the Southern Roads 97 ties per mile and the Western Roads 65 ties per 
mile. 

"Indicated" wooden tie life determined by dividing the total number of ties 
in track (1967 figures) by the number of new ties inserted in 1974 is as follows: 
Eastern Roads 57 years. Southern Roads 32 years. Western Roads 50 years, all U. S. 
Class I Roads 47 years. 

The most significant change to be noted in the 1974 tables is the average cost 
of cross ties in comparison to last year. The inflationary spiral contributed to in- 
creases in stumpage prices for timber, labor and fuel. The shortage of fuel oil 
resulted in substantial increases in the cost of preservatives. The combination of 
all factors provided a dramatic increase in the average cost of 43% over 1973. 

Obviously, maintenance budgets were strained under this cost burden which 
perhaps accounts for the rather meager 57o increase in tie renewals. Considering 
the indicated service life abo\'e, it is apparent that more ties should be replaced 
and likely would be if costs were more in line with revenues. 

The Western District replacements increased by 17% while the Eastern Dis- 
trict and Southern District showed decreases of 67c and 2%, respectively. 

The number of concrete ties inserted was almost exactly tlie same as in 1973, 
but the average cost of these ties was up alnujst 44'i. 



13 



14 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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Tie Renewals and Costs 



15 



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16 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 







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17 



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.2 5 



18 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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W O H iJ iJ 



Tie Renewals and Costs 



19 



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20 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 





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Tie Renewals and Costs 



21 



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22 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Table C 



OTHER THAN WOODEN CROSS TIES LAID IN 1974 AND NUMBER OF OTHER THAN WOODEN 
CROSS TIES IN MAINTAINED TRACK OCCUPIED BY CROSS TIES AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1974 



District and Road 

- 


Other than 
wooden cross 
ties laid in 
replacement 


Other than 
wooden cross 
ties laid in 

additional 
tracks , new 
lines and ex- 
tensions 


Number of 
other than 
wooden cross 
ties in main- 
tained track 
occupied by 
cross ties 
(12/31/74) 


Number 


Average 
Cost 


Number 


Average 
Cost 


EASTERN DISTRICT: 

Central R. R. of N. J. 
Delaware & Hudson 
Norfolk & Western 


800 


$36.25 


- 


- 


840 

57 809 

800 


Total Eastern District 


800 


36.25 


- 


- 


59 449 


SOUTHERN DISTRICT: 
Florida East Coast 
Louisville & Nashville 
Seaboard Coast Line 
Southern System 


15 117 
205 


25.47 
14.63 


24 365 
26 095 


16.96 
25.01 


353 232 

808 

292 136 

68 579 


Total Southern District 


15 322 


25.32 


•50 460 


17.08 


714 755 


WESTERN DISTRICT: 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Burlington Northern 
Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range 
Kansas City Southern (I ncl . L&A) 
St. Louis-San Francisco 
Western Pacific 


400 
12 168 


27.50 

14.71 


5 254 


12.46 


6 000 

303 

530 

191 379 

74 480 

735 


Total Western District 


12 568 


15.12 


5 254 


12.46 


273 427 


Total United States 


28 690 


21.16 


•55 714 


16.64 


1 047 631 



Association of American Railroads 
Economics and Finance Department 
Washington, D. C. 20036 



July 7, 1975 



Tie Renewals and Costs 



23 



TYPICAL CROSS TIE PRICES 
As of January 1 



10 Selected Class I Railroads 



District /description 
of cross tie 


1959 


1970 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


1975 


EAST: 

7'x9"it8'6" oak treated 


$5.33 


$5.83 


$5.83 


$6.41 


$6.67 


$9.02 


$12.94 


Grades («.5 Latest A.R.E.A. 
Spec.) 60/40 Cr/Coal 


6.50 


6.90 


7.45 


7.45 


7.68 


8.23 


10.72 


Grades 4&5 treated 
















(latest A.R.E.A. spec. 

60/40 Creosoted 


6.35 


6.90 


7.45 


7.45 


7.68 


8.23 


10.72 


SCUlll: 

6"x7', 7"x8" and T'k9" by 
8"6" treated oak & mixed 
hardwood 


3.62 


4.63 


5.22 


5.09 


5.67 


6.08 


9.09 


7"x9"x8'6 treated 
7"x9"x8'5 oak, creosoted 


5.09 
5.60 


5.13 

6.50 


5.29 

6.00 


5.64 
6.71 


5.71 
6.89 


6.48 
8.63 


10.77 
11.20 


WEST: 

7"9"x8'6" red oak, Gr. 5 


4.77 


5.07 


5.24 


5.24 


5.59 


6.53 


8.95 


7"x9"x9' 


5.0 J 


5.63 


5.63 


5.63 


6.40 


8.95 


13.55 


7"9"x8' Doug, fir rough - 
No. 1 & better 


5.00 


6.01 


6.99 


5.77 


6.06 


7,50 


10.90 


7"x8"x9' Hardwood treated 


4.57 




5.09 


5.12 


5.33 


5.05 


8.10 


10.37 



Association of American Railroads 
Economics and Finance OepartmenC 
Washington, D, C. 20030 



February 20, 1975 



Advance Report of the Special Committee on Scales 
Report on Assignment 3 

Statistical Data for Coupled-in-Motion 
Weighing and Testing 

N. A. Wilson (chairman, subcommittee), O. T. Almarode, B. F. Banks, R. O. 
Bradley, Robert Brumbaugh, E. W. Buckles, J. L. Dahlrot, R. H. Damon, 
Jr., T. a. DeAlba, O. C. Denz, G. F. Graham, I. M. Hawver, S. Levinson, 
L. L. Lowery, B. H. Price, Jr., W. H. Rankin, S. H. Raskins, R. D. Roberts, 
A. E. Robinson, K. D. Tidwell, J. L. Finnell. 

Your committee submits as information the following interim report on the per- 
formance of track scales designed for coupled-in-motion weighing of freight cars. The 
committee reviewed tests for tolerance on 18 scales and 27 modes over the scales, 
utiUzing 2707 weights. Many railroads participated in the testing program, along 
with representatives of tlie AREA, weighing bureaus, cities, states and the National 
Bureau of Standards. 

Test equipment has now been assembled at Martinsburg, West Virginia, to be 
calibrated by the National Bureau of Standards to gather further information for 
the study of weighing over coupled-in-motion track scales. 

There are presented below and on the next page summaries of the test results, 
followed by tlie complete computer printout for each weight. 

Summary of Coupled-in-Motion Track Scale Tests 

Number of tests 18 Scales ( 27 Modes ) 

Number of cars weighed 2,707 

Average Percent Deviation of Individual Cars 

0.00% to 0.20% 0.21% to 0.50% 0.51% to 1.00% 

81.42 17.58 1.00 

Total weight test trains .^^.*^!;^"':^. 416,770,950 lb 

r^ 1 ■ ^ 7 . . Trains (Gross) i.ttooc n 

Total weight deviation iz/,oJo lb 

Weight deviation per car 8 lb 

Cars (Gross) _„ . _ ._ ,, 

Total weight deviation 504,745 lb 

Weight deviation per car 186 lb 



25 



26 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



COUPLED-IN-MOTION TRACK SCALE TEST RESULTS 




Percent Deviation 
Inrtividc.Tl Csrn 


UNIT TRAIN DATA 


0.007. 

To 
0.207, 


0.217. 

To 
0.507. 


0.517. 

To 
1 . 007. 


TEST # 


MODE II 


CASS 


Test Train 

V.'ciiht 


Test Train Weight 
Devi-ition 


Percent Deviation 
Test Train 


1 


1 


100 


84 


11 


5 


13,703,000 


-4,300 


.031 




2 


100 


80 


15 


5 


13,703,000 


+7,600 


.055 


2 




100 88 


12 




15,445,400 


- 1,360 


.003 


3 




100 


76 


24 1 


10,952,800 


-5,590 


.051 






100 


71 


29 




10,952,000 


-6,000 


.054 


4 




100 


92 


8 




19,617.000 


+13,200 


.067 


5 




100 


94 


6 




19.511,800 


+1,110 


.005 


6 




100 


77 


20 


3 


11,797,400 


-1,260 


.010 


7 




100 


90 


10 




20.252.000 


-5,200 


.025 


8 




100 81 


18 


1 


12,785,800 


+ 3.190 


.024 






100 73 


24 


3 


12,735.800 


+3,590 


.028 






100 


82 


18 




12,710,900 


+3,050 


.023 


9 




100 


79 


21 




18,944,100 


+ 580 


.003 


10* 




99 


80 IS 


4 


12.852,000 


+ 1,800 


-014 



















*rii 
11 


ssed 1 


:ar 

100 


77 


22 


1 


12,923.000 


-1.100 


.008 






100 


71 


28 


1 


12, 923, SCO 


+400 


.003 






100 


65 


35 




12,923,300 


+ 20,900 


.161 






100 


82 


18 




12, 923, £00 


+1,200 


.009 


12 




100 


85 


15 




15,084,400 


+2,030 


.013 






100 


83 


15 


2 


15,034,400 


-1,095 


.007 


13 




100 


80 


20 




13,557,300 


-11.130 


. 059 


14 




100 


95 


5 




15,172,400 


+4,020 


.026 






100 


86 


14 




15,172,400 


-190 


.001 


15 




100 


80 


19 


1 


20.645.520 


-9,700 


. 046 


16 




108 


75 


24 


1 


22,209.750 


-W,150 


. 018 


17 




100 


80 


20 




18.557,300 


-5.760 


. 032 


18 




100 


93 


7 


1 

1 13,557,800 


+8,130 


. 043 


Test *1 


'618 ue 


:e IT 


ade on s 


cales a 


: differs 


:it locations. 












i 


1 GROSS TOTAL 


127,835 

1 1 





Tests of Coupled-in-Motion Weighing 27 



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30 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



►-iioo-< oo-^ ooCT> oor- oOnJ- qoo oor- oof^ oooo oo-*- 

O II ^nJ-^m ooo (?»'-*>*■ oom ininr^ rof^^J- sO^^vT miriin >fOsj- mmin 

h- K OfNJO ^^m,^ oo--^ oo*j-o ^^a>o ^-«vO.-^ ^-^co^-* cot^o mo^^ inino 

no • '^— < • o-^ • cr I • rg • c\t,~> • oo-< •roi«crrg«o • 

ll>»- O 00 o ooio -o o -J- o o-io -i-io o o ooio o o 

11-^ <Nj (Mioir- ^ifvjioiroio 

ii-<^^-< _<^ ^^ 

O II 

^11 •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 

iioox oo^J- oo-^ ooo- ooiM oom oo<Nj ooiA ooir\ ooo ootr\ 

^iir-o^r*- c— 'O mroo co-c^T ^^ir\o r\j«tPo sj-^m rgO'O a*ir*fO ^^^—^ sooorg 

3 II o o — "iM^ ro-j-H — 1^-^ m^(\i sT o o o in-^rH -h o -tv}--* .Of<><-' 
ociisT tco "oj 'i^ •-!• •■Iter » ir\ » o • c 'O •«sO'^ • 

ll-<0'NO'MOOOr~0'^OINO-OOrOOOOOO 



o>ii»» •• •• ♦• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 

iiooiNj OOOO oocr oor- oor^ oofvj oooo oot\i ooir> ooo oo(m 

Zii>j-nO^ ooor* ininro co^j-ro --^^^o O-^o ^^rro oooro o^i/^m coooco >oco-o 

Olio o o— 'O -H I o a- I o t\j o •r-'O o o ir> -- o i o f<^(»^^o t>-oo 



oiNo<MOoor-o-^o(\JO-o 



• *ir\ 



II 3 

CO I K~J-00 

II oo--" oo-o ooo^ ooo ooir\ ootn oo~j- ooa> oor^ ooo oo-o ofM 
zii-^r^-o ryi<j-l- r^mr- so-ou^ o>r<ir- inrriro p-roo a>fO-l' o>mo cjcmim r--^-f < 
3 II o< I o c< I o o^fM-i o I o 1SJ--I— I ro i o CO— '--i m I o o>^^ ^^^ ^^u^o 
QCiifO "p- -r-i^o •>!■ 'O^ •~i-l»o •coi.o •-J-I* 

II— <0<NJOCvJOOOI^O-JO(MO>OOrOOOOO>03 
il-4|-i|^l^l ^1^1 1^1^ oi ooir\uj 

II -H _JfO Z 

II _J o 

r^i < z 

iiooiTi ooi^ oooo oo-o oor- ooo oo-o oo.n oor^ ooo oo-l- 

zh>i-nJ-,-o roin— < — ^cr^ ^c•OLn — ^mo sOcnjo ror-^^ (jro^ ^r^^f^^ — tcrcj* mmo ooo 

3 " c> I o —1—1— I o-^-^ £3^ I o o^j o (Nj^— 1 r^.Mrvi (>j^(M oomtNj O" I o fvjoo ooo 

aiiiro 'CO •col'O •^l• •(7>l»-l-l»-M-OI»«co|.<i-o> .^— i. rjino 

ll-H0fM0(M000r~0— '0<NJO.OOrOOCT-00»IO ••• 

II -"I-" -11-11 -,|^| 1^1 lOI OO^ 

II ^ 

II i-QSoro: 

OII«« •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ZOIUJLU 

II OO-i oor- OOO- ooo OOm OO-i OOiM OO-O oo-o OOO OOnT o>>> 
z II minro r<Mrt— * aof\j^ cooin r-j-riA -^-j-o o-J'O aD>to cooco 0'd->*' orvjr^ a.OOa 

3 II -^^-^ ^-<^ COrOINJ O O -^ I O ^(SJt-vl f^(\l-H m I o 0O(M-^ C7> I o ^j-coo 

ocii-1- "CO •p-i««-r^ 'J- •CT-i««~ri«o •ooi.o> • 'T l ' 

ll-<0<N0tsJ000^-0— iO(NJO-OOrriOCJ>00>0 

II r^ ^ Wl-4 l^l^l 1^1 lOlOO 

II -1 ►- 

II o 

iTiii 3: 

II OOIM oooo 00<0 00~J- OOrO 000> OOOO OOOO OOJ> OOO OOINJ 

2'ii-r-OJ> r-o-t mr-00 ^cor- r--H^ roino »t-ooo O(nj0> r-r--o >i--oo roirvro 

3 II O O ^— if-1 cX)f<^(NJ C> I O ^^ O — irgcNJ -OrnOsi rO^^— * p-mf\J co-^— i 00>i-^^ O 
ctii-l- "oo •r-i.ito ' <f 'O-l'ltvj-i.^oi'Ooi.ito^l'fn-t.o c 

ll-iOfviOlMOOOr-O— iO<NiO-OOrOOO>OO^IO-^ 
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Tests of CoupIed-in-Motion Weighing 



31 



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P<ia. 







32 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



II • • 

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II ooo ooin oo— ' oo-^ c:D:r\ oooo ooro oo-r ooin ooo oo-o 

^»o o oo-o OO-O oo-o oo-o ooc- oor-j oofM cDoo o o ooin ooo 

3 1100 O cO,r— • CT-m— 1 <N^o O— 'O -J-.-vJO O-ro— < ^ro— I — ir-j^ o o cD-<0 OOO 

QtiirTi •r-j •inI»-j-l«fNi -fM •r-j •— < "O •!-- • rvj-j • njino 

iiino^ooooinoinooON}"0^ocT-oa-o-oo ••• 

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Tests of Coupled-in-Motion Weighing 33 



I— M OOO^ OOO OO-O OOi^ OO^ OOrg OO^ OOro OOrsj OOir» 

Qiir«>r^*o cr— *o crj^— < -o-x*-* r-f*-fn inj^o sDvO-/^ ror^r* --40^^^ ogrsjrg 

t— Htv^o c^ I o r-fMO ^mo -O-oo f*> o ^-*ro— 1 oD'r^o V'O^^^ — *— «^h 

iifs^^^v p- • ft^ • rsii» o • fM • -^ro* m^-<» m^H» -tpo« 

ti^^lo<MOf^oo o^orsior^o nJ-io^oioojo 

ii_>ir~-ir- _j|_4 CO -< -^ir-l-o ui 

lirg— ■— 'rgfM-JC\J(M-J-< I— 

on 'J 

-HM»' •• •• •• •• •• "♦ •• •• •• •• 3 

iicoo com oco oox ooi^ ooct- 000 co-H 00— • 00m oorg 

^" H rv i^f^ 'TsffNi >r<7*i/^ OGf^ r^iA-o ^a^>r '>J>1 — ' i/^o>i" — tcoo 'r>r20 f^rvo t— 

3ll,^_0 CO O -T O 01^— ' rorn-< — lO f"><M— < .0 10 »3--<— • r"_jo <M O OOOO 
Q-ii,^l.>>j .r- .-oi'^J- 'cvj .r- "J- •J3l»oo •-< •►-••• 

M^or^o^-o^o^^o<t)0'^0'.^or*o.oo»AO vooo 

iirvji-^ — ■ (Mirg — '|(M rMi-ni-J CT> li. 

II -• O 

o- II •- 

II 00— « OO^r^ OOC3 CO>r 00m 0003 OOtr\ OOC7* OOO^ dO^^ oor^ z 
^ii.TfOO r.-..<>r.- — <.r'^ ^^^.o i^j^r^j Lr>oo> ^-*mo r-f^r- croo cofxi— < roinm o 
^ K r — to vC'-'O tv^o >r— 'O o o o^^o roosj^ tn.-'O rvjro— < ^-« I o ir»oo Q. 
.Yii'-«i*^i*r.-i*.o '^r •:Nj|»r^ •sri^.oi'co •oi« 

,i^or~-or-o— <o— 'OOO'-'o— 'Oi~-oooir\o 

lltMl— 'I— 'IfSI (N -J|(M (NJI— <l--^IC7-l— I 

II ^ < 

II 3 

CO It.. .. .. .. .. •• .. •• •• •• •• 1-000 

II 0>3- 00^ OOfNi 000 00>J- OOCO 00.3" C^tD^ COro OOU> OC^O O 

2ii>J"f^— ' O^fco (\jr~ir» r\iccr»^ m--*o -Of^m cnj^^o incr^r r'^Of^ OvOm o^^^^o < 
3 II cc I o o— <c ofvj— ' t\; I o o o -^ I c f\j-HO 010 >.->io ^ O '-< o 
Qiii— • .pvji.r- .>o "^ ..^ .r- "^r 'O *ao .^-i • 

,i^of~-or-c-JO— •oojO'-'O-'Or-oooioos 

lirvil— '1^ (NICM ^^|(N (Nil— *!'-« O aOUMXl 

I, -< -im z 

II _1 c 

r- < z 

II OOC OOvT OOf*^ OO-'N OOf*^ OOX OC^O^ OOfNj 00-4- 0000 OOf*> 

Ziio— 'Cr ^.Cf** cDf^r^ r^r-m >-org or^r^ r-G^r^ r^f^r- sr^rtcc inin»f u^>-0 OOO 

OHOrvjo r^io .J-— »o c<\ o o^io '"H c >rm— I f^ro— < >r^o >rfM— * (nj o 000 

a:ii_i.,-\; .r-- •<> .m ..-nj •(— .j-i.-ci.x .— < • ojr\o 

ii^or-cf^o^o— '0030— <o--<or-o>ooir\o ... 

iirvji^i— ■ t\j ^1—" t\j t^g|— ii— < c^ 00— • 

II — ' 

II ^cccx:a^ 



rioorsj CO^^ OOr- OO'^o OOco oom OOnO OOi/* ooro 00^ oox 

311— <vOn^ Nr>i"X m.-Nio .-Njpsjn r^-^^cr* — *XN^ fNi>j'.rt o>J"nO ct^o— • xxrvj ror^f^J 

I^ II o."Nj^ o— *0 rM— 10 >J"— <o fNjf\,o ro o -J-r^— I >o— 'O rof^4— ^ ir*r<>pg r^ino 
an— 1|.;^ .r^i.o .-r ..m .r- .~rl«oi.a) •*-< • 

II— <0."^0r— O— 'O— 'O X O— 10— '0-~ 0-00i/>0 

lltNJI— . — "ItM (SJ rJ (Nl (Ml— 'I—" J- 

;/^||.• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 

II oo-r 00-3- ooT- oo(^ 000 000 ooj> oof— oor- ooirv 000 

2 II C^XX sr.i3f*^ Xf^r*^ fOr'^--* r-'X^t^ rn O P^CM^ X-OCNJ OC*0 — «— <0 CrMO 
O II -o— <o r- 1 o tM I o "^ o — <— 10 ."M o <rrr,—> o 1 c ~r— '— • ^— 40 m— lO 

i-^ll— 'I'fNi .1^ • -O • ^ • r^ .r- .J- .-CI.X .—I • 

II— <or-or-0— 'O— <oao— 'O— 'Or-OOOi^O 

llpgl— ■!— -IIM <\l -^ <M .-NJl— 'l-^ J- 

II — ' 

^11.. .. .. .. •• .. .. .. •• .. .. 

IIOO^ QC-T corn COO 00>r OCr\J OO^v; OOi-"v OO.^ OOO OOO 

^ II r-OC" r\j " C 0>Cr^ ;7'-^^/^ ir»r*>^^ <T.C>r .'Ni.fC C ^ <3 .c^x xxo t^— *o 

3 II -CMO C— '— • CV I C — •— "O C O ^r-NI-^ ^^tvj O— 'O r^^y—i vTr^j— < —lie 

'j;ii— 'I'fN.i"''- -oi'^r • (\i • r~ .v-j-i.ji.x .— . . 
ii^cr^-or-o^o^oxo— *o^or^oooir«o 

IICMI— ■!— 'ICM|(^J -^ i>4 (NJI— il— ' Tl 

II -* 



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Bttl. 654 



34 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



II •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• «• 

»- II 00-* oo^ oor- oofo oof^ ooo" oom ooo- 00.0 00<X3 

O II rg(\jr** *r»OfO *^vJ">*- >J'nO'-^ oocoin rgoo^H rvjrsjr- >tf-sO>r coco>j- o>j-m 

►-iir^r-O t-*'0'^ *t«0-^ s*"^^0 tAcno nO^O ^corsj ro>j-.-i fsjoo •-••^rg 

no • >otM • o-< • in I • .-< • CT> I • ^-^ • rr,^ • —i-^ . rorg • 

no o •-•lo -* o •* o ^o o m o gj o ^-lo * o -f \ o 

vfl 11 o oi-^ — •i«o CIO o> \ m o>l i/> 

II -< fM -H -4 ru (- 

O II o 

O .-4||«» •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• .. 2 

z II 000 ooco 000 000 ooiNj 000 oo-^ 0000 oorg oor- ooin 

^ II 000 oooro cooir* o o o-^o cooo o>ri-» ocsjrvj ocoo cooao c\jao^^ »— 

J- :d 11 r-4^,^ >0(M'4 roif\sr ir> o (»ic>jm cd-^w ^— <rg -jroro ,i-ro-< o>tiri o-^O OOOO 

VI or 11 o • -J I • -> •«>r • .0 •■iK»i I • -o •»h- I •■tt^i- • -r 1 •«ct> . i- • • t 

l" IIOOOO'-"0-^0<OOCT>0>000>OrOOO>OI~-0 rOrOO 

►-ii-H(M|-H-< I leg I'-iu.rg 

II ^ o 

11 
c n ' ' •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• .• I- 

II 000 OOCO 000 00^ 000 ootn oo(M oo»^ oor- 00^^ oo<m z 
2 (I >o^*r oooco oooa^ >j-f\io o^a* ococo o^>o >ococo oosr— * f\jvj-r^ o^r-o o 
Z) It c^ 10 inrrt^H cT'-^o nj--h^ o io o I o inrvjm sO^^r-* a» I o oir.in or^o a. 
in ociia> •— "l»o •■4-|«'0 'tn •<) •»r- ^ro •~Ti»«a>i» 
r^ HO^ooO'-^O'^O'OooO'OOO^OfOocT^or-o 

o< i|.|rg|-i -"I I I (Ml l-Hi./ 

^11 ^ < 

II 3 

•• a>ll»» •• •• •• •• •• •• •• .♦ •» •• i-rorflo 

o n 000 0000 oo-o 000 oorg ooro ooiM ooin oo-j- oo>o oo-o org 

rg 2il«4"^^ OXQO ^^ro ooco>o vj-cor- (M'OsO -ootn odoo >r(NJCT* og^j-r^ ogrgco < 

O II o o inrO'^ 00 I o ~t \ o CP'-'fs) ty 1 o mm j- ivjrgcM (\j(\io o-o-o r-oo 
>- ctiio ••-'i«o •-!■ •ini««m "gj .*r^|.<t-sj- .roi«»cO'-'« 

< Il000o^o^^og^oo0'00c^orooc^o^-I03 

3; lit-" rgi— "i-^i I I log |'-4| ooifMLi 

n ^ _im z 

II _i O 

uj r^ii»« •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• < z 

t- II 000 oor- 00-0 oorg 000 oofo oorg oo>o oorg oom ooir\ 

< ;t » pgrgrg coo^ rg^rg o>om co>3->0 rgvOsC -J-oorg s3-nJ->3- g5>ro O^^-O occ— < OOO 
C 3 tl ^^^-^,-t roinrg o^^^^ i/> I o o I o O I O mrg^l- pgogfsj rgrg-4 m | o m<-"0 OOO 

oc II o • —"I •■»•-• • >r • -o . ro • ~o •■»f-i •if-i- . ,}• . cf t • rgioo 
iioooo-<o-*o-ooo>o-ooa>Ofnooot-o «•• 
111-' rg|^ -<l I I |rg i_ji OO"-" 

II ^ 

II y-cerf.ee 

sO< p- -.;;■).'. !j 

H 000 ooa> OON oorg 000 000 otD-- oo.-m tio-r oo7~ c:)Ocr:: i_:>:.-:' 
Z It rgrgrg sOrg:n o^x>^ rg^j-rg ocorg ccoo .xr\j.'o o wJO sj-rMC^ o-oo o-x-^ CCt^w 
n n -'•-"•-I r-rHO o-*'-' •J-^'-' rg .-1 .x-j— > m.-4-. ,j- 10 rgrgo •3--1— • TjVho 
aciio .^|.-^ •>)-i»g3 ' m \ t ^ •!-- •»!■ •-4-i«(7< • 
lloooo^o-<o•ooJ■o•ooc^o^^loc^o^-o 
lI'Hrgi.-tr-ii 1 irg i-^ui 

II ^ I- 

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ir\ii»« •• •• •• •• •• •• «• •«■ •• .• 3 

II 000 0000 oo-o oorg 000 00-^ 00— ' oor- 0000 00-0 000 

Z II <0-00 ^J•-3■'-^ rg-j-fi rgotn -j-corg orgrg oorgco cooo rgorg o-ooo ~ooo-r 

Olio o org^^ c^o^oool»-«oo m^^— * ,-jrom mm^ •-*>i-«d- rg^o o • 

aciio --^I'O 'nJ- "O '^r •>c • r~i »^<r •>ri«»a'i»o o 

M 0000-^0— 'Ogjoo<o-ooo>omooor-Or-i rg 

llr-irgi^^ I irg 1^1 rsi 

n ^1-0 

II I -< 

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II 000 ooo> 0000 ooo< oOr-i 000 00— < oorg ooa> 00m ooir> 
Z II ^o^oo Offico Orgo^ rgvOfO ^rgoo *4*'Or- ^oo^- cooo co>tin 0»0^ orgro 2 
3110 O i^.-io ■-irg-H i^i-t—i rg-H^ ^,-1^ <-rfrg m-J-< 00^0 ir\ I O —•-TO •-< 
a: no .-<|.— 1 .sj- • ~o •>!• ••o •*r-i«mi«.r » o • 

II 0000^0— "O-OOO^OsOOO^OrOOO^OCOOZ £t 

3n-<rg|.-(r-i |rg| i^Ool' 

•■II — I "-• UJ 

KTI u . h- 

» roil.. •• •• •• •• •• •! •• •• •• •• < 1/) 

lu M 000 oco> 000 oo-i- oorg oo-j oorg corg ooco oo--" 00^ •-• «/i 

- rriigagjo ocob cooi^ rj-rm cro^- gjrgrg o«Tg2 xoc orgc -co-' •otsi-o > o 

Z Z> u —"^^ h-^o i-irorg in | o d-^rg c I o ifirgm rr>— 1^ o I O l--rgrg str-c uj aL 

I ocno .-i|.-i .».*■ .>o •«rri •>0 •*r-l«-3- •-!• '^O 'Q O 

— IIOOOO— •0-HO-000»0>000>OrOOO<OCOO 
lull— irgi— I— 1| I |rg| — i 

> II r-l 

o n 

X rgii 

t/i nooo OOX OC03 oorg 000 co-i oorg ooro oosT oorg oom 

— Z n rgrgrg sr>r-^ orgc o-J-rg vO^gj .orgrg ^corg .1--J--1- .l-coci rgj-.*- rgcorg 
i/i 13 H -^-^-H -org-^ ^rg— < r^— <^ — • o a> I o iTirg-i- m— i-h o< I o m i o orgo 

ctno .— 1|.— I .* •-o .n^ •.o •*r-l»m '-^ "O • 

— noooo^o-<o<30o>o-oco<omocroooo 
_in-<rg|-<-H 1 irgj l-< 

_i 11 ^ , , .00 

3 n ooOr-»o 

Q. -HH«» •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• o-j--oorg 

— nooo oocr ooco oocr 000 oom coo oo-r 000 co— • oor- ■j--<rg • • 
Q- Z » corgrg rg<or^ *org-^ cocoo ocorg g^ojco ooosrg rg-o-0 rg o «00'^ 00*0^ f-^O—iOO 

r> n c> I o r--io coio -J-IO rg —1 o o — il— 1 ro-^^ o O rorgrj -tmo CO I. I 
cine •-'l»o •■!• • -a • <■ ' -o •i--l«-f •-ri»')KJ>i« f-r- 
n ncooO'-O'^ogjoco-oocoroocor-o — •-• 

UJ nirg|-^i-<l 1 Irg I'^l -<-• 

on -< 

o H 

oi-ii* • • • • • • • • • •►-»- 

owo o o o o o o o o o o 00 

3110 CO OQ -O rg CO .0 co <M <0 <r 3E^3C 

iiococoir\-<a>rg.^oir»h- O 

U.110 — ' o •*" -o m o r- ^r >r c u.y-ce -j 

i/)ujiio o — I — < >o a> -o c m o> r- ujooc _i 

i/)Q^II-<rg-j-< rg -< oCSiMJ < 

• nz z z z z z z z z z t-t-i-zx 

I onr-oi-i-ujmujr-ujrgujstiurgujrouj— <uJOUJ oaOO< 

Z Z n --oco — 'cto Ooco rgoco -<c»:o rjoco rgci:o r-oco '^ocu -^oco t-t-t-a.S 

c ncoc >oo gjo gjc oa — 'O -oo rgc r-o mo ' 

•-> oc n — loca: mococ ^ococ -hococ moto: rooco: inocc^: rgcsroc •tac^ roococ >-qc>- 

H- <inr-o:uj rgpru oorm ooroi rgauj mofuj rgo^uj moruj •rocoi inojuj ootz 

o OHr-ujCL olucl ojjo. oujo. mcjo. oujcl imuoi. oi.ua. cljo. oujcl scujo 

VU II 

a. n »-Ce£ 

•-1 ii-jrgm-t u^-o^- 00 COC -juj 

O II -4 »-<&. 



Tests of Coupled-in-Motion Weighing 35 



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38 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



II •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 

t-iiooo oo-*- oor>- ooo> oo<vj 00.0 oo>o oorj 000 oo^^ 

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II 00^ « ^ • 00^ • in I • o-< • ro I • ro I • o>-< • ,»■ • r- • 
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Tests of Coupled-in-Motion Weighing 



39 



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5 o . r- • o . -■ .«oo . >r . o> 'CO .^^c^ • o> i .fto^. 
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ijiiouja nci-'O. Ojja 



42 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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Tests of Coupled-in-Motion Weighing 43 



1— II OOCT" 


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44 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



II •• •• •• •• 

l-tlOOO- OOO 00-* OOlfi 

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a; HO "ttxi • r^ • 

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L'Q. 


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Tests of CoupIed-in-Motion Weighing 45 



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46 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



II. • •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 

K- iiuMno inino mir»fO iniTim oom lAino^ OOC irtinp* inirtst- oor^ 
o II oors( fMi — I CO— 4(^ a^o^st — 4CT*sO oj^fNi ^>r^j 00**0 O'Ofvj mmr^ 
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110 •oi.oi'ir* • in-< • ^ • o • oiNj . r- I • r^-< • 
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II a> >oiirtio -t I m r- oi<Miir> i/> 

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3 II <Nj(M-^ o o o— 'O in-^o iri-^(M fOcMr-i o -< --—10 oo-^o iri o o>-to ocoo 
cents; ' (}• •— i|«in •ool•^^^o "O .-^i.tsi #0 "Co «»-.«« 
iit>o<oou>ooo«tor'ior~ooo'Moinooo r-.NO 
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3110 O in I O o o ^--O ir\— '(M 010 -H— losj crro-^ r- I o oom_i ^i\jo a. 
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Tests of Coupled-in-Motion Weighing 47 



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13 iir*(M^H cofo^^ OfOfNj o-^o — *r-*o r--^^^ -.n 1 o crro^^ o^ro^^ tr\ 1 o r^^mo 
0:110^ •0(»iAi«*ro •ir> •aoi»o •mi«r- •co •mi" 



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48 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



»- »- II ooa> ooeo oo<M oofvj ooo^ oom 00.0 oor- oo— i oo<>i 
oii-o-oo >>'-o-o •*»ro (Ttmo -o-o-j- •o-tto r^r~-t- — <-^t>* •^•fo -^o>«r 
uj >-iif^r--j oor-o 00 O o O roin-^ oir\o -rcoo mo^-^ -^oo ■O'-'O 
o iir*rg t -o-^ • ro • ^^ • fNj^-# • rn^^ • oo • rn^n • r* • r\j i • 

o iicgot^loi/>oooo>rooioooooomo>l-0 



II u> 
II rg 
O II 



II oor^ oor- ooo oofo oo-o ooiri ooo ooo~ ooo oor- oo-o 

^iih-r^»o ^fMO t/>rO(\» >o>o^ osi^rg oou^ mr^CT* C7^ir*a^ oo o mn^«o in<-*4' i— 

3 II O^^O 00 I O 1*^ I O ^^ O str'^^0 ro^o O^^O rgr-io -O O fM I O 0*1^0 OOOO 
ociirg •r^ •m "Oo •■!■ •»oi«tD 'O 'irx --r ^r- .i-... 

timoir»o^omoooooooooiAoiAO>j'0— <o moo 

II rg tMi-^l-H -< ^1^ -^ lin u. 

II -I O 

II 

ON II.. .. .. .. .. .. .. •• .• .. .. I- 

II OOO ooro oocr ooso oo<\j oo-J- oooo oofo oo-« oo<m oo-< z 

z 11 fMfvirM (Ni«ra^ ^-if*>co m^nm ocor^ or^cT^ o^r^^-o ^r~^^ >r>rr*- miA— * ogcom o 

zjiicor"-^ -otvo ir\^o -- o (M-^-< <M-^o (D'^o ro^^ -o I o (\j I r-" r-^ro o. 
GCilfNJ .f^i.in .00 .^r .oi^oo .o .m • ^ .r^ • 
iimomo-J'Orooooajooooirioioo-ro-^o 

II (M <\j|-i -^ -< ^(^ ^ I |ir\ _i 

11 ^ < 

II 3 

ooii*. •• *. *• •* •• •• •• •* •• •• 1— moo 

II ooo OO"^ ooro ooo ooa> oo~}- coro ooo oo— < oom ooo o 

2^ II CO com *ooj* sOcoog o o r--^o c>r-c> oofMO cmo fsj>rr-- oog^ m— «(m < 
Oilco.-^i-' mm— < m— <-< -J O Olo r\j— 'O co-^O rotM— ■ r- o r" O mf^o 
aiiiNi .i^i.m .00 •-!■ • o I ' :o • o .m •>!• -i^ • 



II (M (NJi— < -^ ^1— <|-< — < m oomuj 

II -■ _im 7 

II _i O 

r^u>« •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• < Z 

II o org 0003 oooo oOfM OC-" oom oo-" ooo- oo-^ oor- oom 

2:»-t<iC) oofO coo>o ooi^ r^--C- — *mCT' rgor^ >oog>- — ^.-'^m mroo o>*to ooo 

rj II <\iAj^ r— -^o ^-^o o-^c cj i ^.> — iro— < m o ^m— "O i— o <m i o i^mo ooo 

c£iirsii*r-|.m .ool'^r 'Ol^co .o .m .^j- *oi» rgmo 

iimomo-i^omooocDOcoomomo-rO'-'O ••• 

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50 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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in o 


r-ro-4 


r-— lO 


o o 


tMtOO 




a: II f-- 1 -it vT 1 • 


■O •«■ O 1 • 


r-l • 


O • 


ro • 


r- 1 • 


o • 


o 


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II m o 


ro o 


-> O 


vT O 


o- o 


o o 


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00 O 


ro o 


o o 


o o 


3 


II ."SI 1 


fM 1 


rvl 


rM 1 


f~t 


IM 


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— ' 1 


tM 


-^ 


O 1 


OO'JMU 


II 




















tM 


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r- II • • 




• • 




• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 




• • 


< z 


II OOnI- 


OOI- 


OOJ- 


OOO 


ooo 


oor- 


OOO 


OOO 


OOtM 


OOO 


oo-i- 




2" II CNJJ- 


OOrvj 


0(MC< 


OtNJ— ■ 


OOro 


o-io 


OO J- 


otMr- 


OtMtT- 


ooo 


OtMin 


ooo 


3 II —•ODro 


-Oro-. 


^.J--. 


coinrvj 


rorvj— 1 


r^-iO 


nT-iO 


f-ro-J 


tOtMO 


0--4-1 


>J--iO 


OOO 


Qi II I-- 1 ■ -a- nJ- 1 • 


-0 • 


o 1 •* — 1 . 


o • 


ro 1 . 


r- 1 • 


O • 


cr 1 . 


ro-i • 


rsiino 


II ro o 


ro o 


-> o 


ro o 


o> o 


o o 


-1 o 


00 o 


ro O 


0- o 


-O 1 o 


• • • 


II INi 1 


rvl 1 


rg 


IM 1 


•~* 




rM 1 


'-* \ 


(M 


1 


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oo-< 


II 




















tM 


h-ora^a 


-O II • • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


■ • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


« • 


ZLUUJUJ 


II oo-j- 


oor-- 


OOM 


ooo 


OOro 


ooo- 


ooo 


OOO 


OOCO 


ooo 


oo>i- 


o>>> 


Z II OfN)f> 


ooc> 


or\jo 


OOO-l 


OOCO 


OOrsj 


o o 


OtMI- 


OiNIO 


o o 


OtMfO 


aooo 


Z3 ii.cm-< 


(Mr- CM 


at\j— 1 


Otsj'-* 


(M-iO 


in 1 o 


in o 


r~-ro-j 


O O 


o o 


COI--0 




q: II 1^ 1 • 


-T 1 '« ir\ • 


o • 


-A • 


o • 


ro • 


1^ 1 • 


o 


o 


to 1 • 




II ro o 


ro o 


-c O 


sT O 


a- o 


o o 


-1 o 


CO O 


ro O 


o o 


o o 




II (NJ 1 
II 


tsi 1 


CM 


(NJ 


'^ 


(M 1 


rM 


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tM 


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o 1 

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h! 


II 






















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• • 


• • 


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< • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


« • 


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3 


II OOOO 


OO.'M 


cor- 


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oc:<x- 


OOO 


OOro 


COO 


ooo 


OO^ 




Z 11 0(N— 1 


OOsf 


oooro 


OtMCT- 


OOCO 


oo.-M 


oo<r 


OCMtM 


oojin 


ooo 


otMin 




Z) H -ruMNJ 


OD-IO 


-O 1 o 


-IINJO 


(M— lO 


in 1 o 


J--IO 


o^rtsj 


r--iO 


^-<— 1— * 


«r-"0 


o • 


or II (^ 1 • « -J- 1 • 


KS\ ' 


O 1 • 


—4 • 


o 


ro 1 . 


r^ 1 •« o 


o 


ro-i • 


o o 


II rO o 


ro o 


-> o 


-J- o 


CT- O 


o o 


-1 o 


x> o 


.■o o 


o o 


O 1 o 


-■ sf 


II 'Nl 1 


CNJ 1 


(\J 1 


fM 1 


^H 


rM 1 


(M 1 


'-> 1 


tM 


,--\ 


O 1 


1— 


II 




















tM 


t in 


II 






















1 tM 


•r II • . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


« • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


IICOC 


OOCM 


oooo 


OOO- 


OOO 


oc^- 


OOro 


OOO 


OCtM 


ooo 


OOro 




Z II CtNJ.O 


oo<r 


OCD.O 


OfVJ-4- 


0«tr\j 


oor- 


OOC 


0(Mr- 


orMO- 


ooo 


or\JO 


z 


ID II ro vO iSJ 


co^O 


— iir^.iNj 


rM— 'O 


O 1 o 


J--HO 


r-.MO 


h-ro— ( 


COtMO 


rMfMlM 


(Mroo 


—* 


cc II r- 1 •« -J- 1 • 


u> 1 •* o 1 ■ 


^^ • 


O 1 • 


ro . 


r- 1 • 


o • 


o • 


i-o-< . 




II ro o 


ro O 


— o 


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Cf o 


o o 


-H O 


CO o 


ro O 


o o 


O 1 o 


Z C£. 


II rsi 1 

II 

II 


<N 1 


INJ 1 


rsj 1 


'-' 1 


r-o 1 


<NJ 


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tM 


'^ 


O 1 


c cc 

— UJ 




• ■ 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• ■ 


• • 


• • 


• • 


< 1/5 


II coo 


oor- 


ootsj 


OOO- 


OO-J 


OOCT- 


OOO 


OOO 


OOO 


ooo 


OOtM 


— I/) 


r- II orsi^ 


OCOJ 


OCOCM 


Ooi-t 


OOro 


OOINJ 


oo<r 


OtMl— 


OtMJ-1 


ooo 


OtMtJ- 


> cr 


3 11 r*^ ~0 .-SJ 


~om-' 


rvi^M 


rsl-<0 


-I o 


in 1 o 


-1--.0 


r-ro-i 


r--iO 


cr-i-i 


OO-O 


uj oc 


ct II 1^ 1 •<? n3- 1 • 


tn 1 •ito 1 • 


f— 1 • 


o • 


ro 1 • 


r^ 1 • 


o 


c^ 1 • 


IM— 1 • 


a o 


II ro o 


ro o 


r-< O 


^l- O 


^^ o 


O O 


-i o 


=0 o 


i-o o 


0- o 


O 1 o 




II CNJ 1 

II 


(NJ 1 


(NJ 1 


tM 1 


~* 


rM 1 


rsl 1 


-1 1 


(M 


1 


O 1 

tM 




M OOCO 


OOlA 


OC-i 


ooc- 


oo-o 


ooo- 


ooo 


OOro 


ooo 


coo 


coo 




r: II o .-M — ■ 


OOl/^ 


O'Si-t 


OfM^f 


OOro 


OOM 


o o 


orvJO 


otMin 


ooo 


OfSltM 




3 II .j-iniM 


ro ^c\l 


rMinoj 


<M-IO 


rOf\j-i 


in 1 o 


in o 


cr-<o 


r-r-io 


P-4 0-IP-.4 


-J-4-0 




aiir-l "^t-j-l '% •o 'itoi • 


•— * » 


-o 


fO • 


r- 1 • 


o 


o 


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II fO o 


ro O 


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■i- O 


o> o 


o o 


r-l O 


03 o 


ro o 


o o 


o o 




II t\j 1 


IM 1 


(\j 


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r-< 


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fM 


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tM 


— * 


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tM 


. • .OO 
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^4 II • • 


• t 


• • 




• • 


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C1C1-' 


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coo 


ooo 


iMiT.r-- . • 


^ II O AJ -c 


O O 


OtSI-T 


0<M0 


oooo 


O-J-O 


oo~r 


O.-M-J 


OtMO- 


ooo 


OIM— 1 


>nina-oo 


D II ro sO rv 


0- O 


OrO-< 


-■tMO 


>J-ro^ 


r — lo 


O-iO 


oo.-M -< 


CCtMO 


r~roro 


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-J-ro 1 1 


ri: II ^- 1 •«.}• . 


-C • 


C 1 • 


*-i • 


o 


ro • 


r- 1 • 


O 


0-1 ''it-t \ ' 


OO 


II ro o 


ro O 


-1 O 


-1- O 


O- o 


O O 


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CO O 


ro O 


o- o 


o o 


CO 


II rvj 1 
II 


r\J 


rvi 


IM 1 


-" 


(M 


tM 


-■ 1 


CM 


1 


O 1 
CM 


tMtM 


II 
K II • 


, 


, 


. 


, 


, 


, 


, 


, 


. 


. 


l-h- 


O II o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


oo 


3 11 IN) 


o 


00 


CM 


->■ 


o 


o 


tM 


00 


o 


r\j 


i3 jE 


II (T- 


C7- 


■o 


ro 


o 


in 


in 


O 


in 


o 


in 


o 


u- II r^ 


>r 


in 


o 


r-* 


o 


to 


CO 


o 


o 


>r 


u-t-o: -1 


LU II ro 


ro 


,~* 


-1- 


0- 


o 


--t 


to 


ro 


o 


o 


UiCOC _l 


oc 11 tvj 


tsi 


rvi 


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rM 


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tM 


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II ►- 


^ 


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1— 


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1- 


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tM 


t- 


• II Z 


^ 


Z 


z 


^ 


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Z. 


z 


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i-i-t-ZX 


o II cr LU 


vf aj 


o uj 


ro m 


,-J lU 


l~- ai 


vf UJ 


O UJ 


^ UJ 


in UJ 




ocao< 


^ II roo:o 


OuCO 


an:o 


'-•n^o 


croco 


O^o 


OOCO 


-1DC(_) 


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1-i-i-a.i; 


II .J-Cj 


inc 


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rOO 


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a II croro: 


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ccoro: 


ojct q: 


OccQl 


ccac^ 


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r-lJJQ. 


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Tests of Coupled-in-Motion Weighing 51 



t- II oo 


_, 


ooo- 


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oa-t 


OO-i 


ooo< 


OOI- 


ooo- 


ooo- 


ooo> 


oo-i- 


oo-j- 


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oin^ 


o 


o 


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oi/^o 


oiotn 


oo-r 


oor~ 


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»- 11 cr- 


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<> 


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no .-no 


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ccin-> 


O^-JCsJ 


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mf^ . 


r-in • 


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fsim . 


CO-" • 


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o 


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uo 


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in o 


J- o 


rsl 1 O 


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c^ 1 O 


II .0 




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00 


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ITV 1 


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f\j 


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rg 


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icoo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooc ooo ooo 



II oom 


ooo 


ooc 


ooi~- 


Z 11 00'-.-\ 


ono 


oon 


or\y- 


:3 11 a--"o 


(^.■vj-< 


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<M(NJO 


ac 11 o • 


JO 1 • 


■O 1 • 


•O 1 • 



oor- ooco oo>r 
Occm ■^r'>c\j oDrOi-* 



o 


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aoty-o 


o 


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oo-j- 


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ooa 


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0--^'^ 


ooo 


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OJ-V-" 


o 


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0^-<-i 


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□l 


o 


m 1 .& ro . 


O 1 • 


a- 1 • 


no 


• 





llCOrO ooo ooo OO^- OOJ^ OOOO OO-O OO-V OC^I 00«J- ooo- 00'<1 00:n i^c 

ziiooir\ oin(\j o o oino- oo-j- oxl^I■ ointsj ooc oo-r oinw ootr ooro omo < 
12 H '^^o C^ I O ^ O Psj-^NJO lAro^ fOAi— « rnoom ir»'r»^^ or-ro :^c<^rsi f*^^^ cOAjro 00 O 



llOOO OO-J OOf~- OOr~ OOO OOO- OOO- OOiNJ Oor- OOf^ OOO- ooo OOO 

.Til ooo o-no OOC- Ou-vo- o o oint-vi omr— OOO- oo-r o-oin ooj- ooo o..•^^/^ OOO 

^ tl — 'm— * rooAj 0--^^ r-rsio rg o — * O (--i-si*J- tnj>.-* rOro^ C7- N**-* ^.--^^ (7*^^h O.MO OOO 

of II r- • CD I •♦rri • O • O '00 • -J— • "itO • rri|« fsjl. OI» 0-l« O- — ' • t--Jir>0 



OOO- ooo oo-c oo-i ooc- ooo 
o-'^r- OO!^ ooo- OJ^o- oo-j- ooo 
r-(vj^ OOf-vl r-o^J■^ o— -O -j--^— < 0--J— • 
-•-' "-IJO '^mi • mi . oi • o-l • 
OOOOOOOOOOiTvo 
(--J rg rg I -1 I r-j I | 



II ooo 


OOO 


oox 


00:0 


000- 


0000 


2 11 ooo 


OJ^r^J 


oor^ 


n.n 


00m 


J^>r 


r) II -.m-. 


o- 1 o 


OIMO 


m—o 


(T-r-m 


rTM-Nj-i 


Of II r^ 


00 • 


m • 


1 • 


•-; 


1- CO 



u-MI . . 

II oom 


000 


oo'y 


ooo- 


OOAJ 


000- 


oo-r 


oom 


ocin oo-i 


ooo- 


000 


oo-r 


Z II CO :r> 


Ou->0 


OOro 


OJ> — 


oo^r 


Cincc 


otom 


00-n 


oo-r in 0- 


00-r 


000 


oin-i 


Z3 II 0--<0 


_._iO 


m— 10 


in 


r-uM-g 


(M-IO 


CDm-i 


^-r— ' 


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r\iiniM 


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1: II 


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••; 


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m 1 • V- m 1 • 


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II • . 
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000 


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COI- 


COI-- 


000- 


oco- 


coin 


ocf-g oom 


000- 000 


COO 


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Oinrg 


oor- 


Oinc 


COOO 


Oinrg 


oin-< 


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000- Cinin 


oo-r 000 


Ou-v.-g 


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Advertist'iiien t 



54-1 




1^ ^ 




Do you need 

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All aluminum construction makes the Model-5000 the lightest, extra capacity 

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Safetran M-5000 
Specifications 



Weight Capacity 5000 lbs. 

Frame Construction Heavy duty aluminum plate 

Deck Heavy, expandable aluminum 

Wheels Cast aluminum- fully insulated 

Bearing Ball, pre-greased and sealed 

Deck Size 52y2" x 47' 

Total Weight 156 lbs. (78 lbs. per section) 

Height 7V2" (above rail) 

Handles 2 preshaped aluminum - inter-changeable 

Construction All welded 

Ordering Reference: Model-5000 Track Car 
Part No. 140230-X 



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54-2 



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54-4 



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54-5 



TIE HANDLER from RTW... 




with 24'fooUreach 
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54-6 



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54-7 



SWITCH TAMPERS FOR ALL YOUR JOBS 



UNIVERSAL UYT-2W75 YARD, SWITCH & SPOT TAMPER 



This versatile tamper is a new addition to the 
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Advance Report of Committee 4 — Rail 
Report on Assignment 5 

Rail Research and Development 

W. J. Cruse (cluiirman, subcommittee), B. G. Anderson, R. M. Brown, E. T. 
Franzen, R. E. Gorsuch, R. E. Haacke, V. E. Hall, W. H. Huffman, T. B. 
HuTCHESON, K. H. Kannowski, W. S. Lovelace, A. B. Merritt, Jr., J. L. 
Merritt, C. O. Penney, I. A. Reiner, W. A. Smith. 

Your committee presents, as information, tlie following report on the second 
annual inspection of a service test installation of fully heat-treated, induction head- 
hardened, intermediate-manganese and standard control-cooled rail on the Chessie 
System. The author of the report is K. W. Schoeneberg, senior research engineer. 
Research and Test Department, Association of American Railroads. 



SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE OF STANDARD-CARBON AND VARIOUS 

WEAR-RESISTANT RAILS IN TEST CURVES ON THE CHESSIE SYSTEM 

SECOND REPORT 

By K. W. Schoeneberg 

I — ABSTRACT 

This report summarizes the second annual inspection of a service test installa- 
tion of fully heat-treated, induction head-hardened, intermediate-manganese and 
standard control-cooled rail on the Chessie System. 

The field inspection is part of tlie cooperative effort on rail research of the 
American Railway Engineering Association (AREA), the American Iron and Steel 
Institute (AISI) and the Association of American Railroads (AAR) to observe and 
analyze those rails in curved track that display some potential for improvement in 
wear-resistance and retarding the onset of shelling. 

Measurements were made and recorded of curvature, superelevation and gage 
of four service test curxes located near Oakland, Maryland. General track condi- 
tions were observed also. Rail head cross-section contours were taken and recorded 
of the 80 test rails contained in these curves. Rail wear has been calculated for the 
second year of service for the various types of rail in test. 

II — ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

Appreciation is hereby acknowledged of the original invitation of J. T. Collin- 
son, then general manager-chief engineer, now vice president-operations and main- 
tenance, Chessie System; and the continued invitation of J. W. Brent, chief 
engineer, and A. L. Maynard, formerly engineer maintenance of way, now director- 
engineering administration, Chessie System, for the AAR, AISI and AREA to par- 
ticipate with Chessie on the inspection and evaluation of their rail service test in- 
stallation. Sincere appreciation is expressed by those of AAR, AISI and AREA for 
the time and efforts rendered by Chessie personnel listed below in the preparation 
and conduct of this inspection. 

55 
Bui. 654 



56 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Inspection of the rail in the four service test curves near Oakland, Maryland 
was made on July 30, 1974. The following individuals were in the inspection party: 

A. L. Maynard — Chessie System 

A. J. Kozak — Chessie System 

M. Hawtof — Chessie System 

D. S. Young — Chessie System 

I. A. Reiner — Chessie System 

W. H. Chidley — American Iron and Steel Institute 

G. G. Knupp — Bethlehem Steel Corporation 

J. H. Martens — Bethlehem Steel Corporation 

J. L. Giove — U. S. Steel Corporation 

D. L. Saxon — U. S. Steel Corporation 

G. H. Way — Association of American Railroads 

K. W. Schoeneberg — Association of American Railroads 

III — INTRODUCTION 

As part of the programs on rail research, the AAR Research and Test Depart- 
ment is continuing the field study and analysis of those rails that continue in service 
which show some potential for improvement in curve wear resistance and ability to 
retard the onset of shelling. Rails that are heat-treated, have a variance in chemical 
composition from that of standard rail or which are unconventionally produced are 
part of this study. 

The field inspections are carried out as a cooperative effort of the Rail Research 
and Development Subcommittee of AREA Committee 4-Rail, the AISI Technical 
Subcommittee on Rail and Accessories, the AAR Research and Test Department and 
the railroad on whose property the test rails are installed. 

Through this and several other field service tests presently being progressed 
by these organizations, rail wear data as well as tonnage, track component, roadbed 
and environment data are being generated. The correlation of these data will result 
in the development of rail wear rates for various combinations of track and service 
conditions. A further correlation of these rail wear rates with other rail metallurgi- 
cal and economic studies data can set forth, as an end product, criteria or recom- 
mendations establishing the appropriate selection of rail by section (weight) and 
kind (standard, alloy or heat-treated) to be used by the railroads at locations of 
high wear or short calendar rail life. 

IV — DESCRIPTION OF TEST RAILS 

The Chessie System established the service test of heat-treated, alloy and 
standard rail on July 7, 10 and 11, 1972, when the rails were installed in four 
curves on its No. 2 or eastbound main track west of Oakland, Maryland. A total 
of 80 rails consisting of 16 each of the five following types were used: 

( 1 ) 140 R E fully heat-treated 

(2) 140 R E head-hardened 

(3) 140 R E intermediate-manganese 

(4) 140 R E standard-carbon control-cooled — A 

(5) 140 R E standard-carbon control-cooled — B 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 57 

Four rails of each type were laid out for each of the four different curves, two 
on the high side and two on the low side of each cur\e. The rails were randomly 
welded together in 10 rail strings by the electric-flash Initt method. These continu- 
ously welded strings were then installed in the curves, one on the high side and 
one opposite on the low side of each of the four curves. The four test curves chosen 
for this test are of \arying nominal curvature and superelevation as follows: 

Cur\e No. 1, .5° — .50' (299.5 m radius) — VA in (114. .3 mm) superelevation 

Curve Xo. 2, 8° — 28' (206.5 m radius) — 5 in (127.0 mm) superelevation 

Curve No. 3, 4° — 00' (436.6 m radius) — 2/2 in ( 63.0 mm) superelevation 

Curve No. 4, 8° — 08' (214.9 m radius) — 5 in (127.0 mm) superelevation 

Figures 1 tiirough 4 show detailed information of location, curve layout and 
placement of the various types of rails in each of the four test curves. 

V — CONDUCT OF THE INSPECTION 

The inspection party examined all test rails in each of the four test curves, 
noting the condition of each rail as well as noting line and le^el of the track and 
conditions of the other track components. Rail head cross-section contours were 
taken at approximately the midpoint of each of the 80 test rails. The wear pattern 
of each is shown in Figures 5 through 24. The gage of the track was measured 
and recorded at the locations where the rail head contours were taken. Tliese are 
also shown in Figures 5 through 24. 

Stringlining measvuements were made to check the degree of curvature of 
each curve, particularly in the body of the curves where the test rails were located, 
as a means of verifying the original degree of curvature and a check for any gross 
misahgnment. The curvature measurement taken at each of the test rail locations is 
shown in Figures 5 through 24. 

Superelevation measurements were also made throughout each curve and these 
measurements are also shown for each test rail location in Figures 5 through 24. 

VI — RESULTS OF THE INSPECTION 

The four curves and the track through this location appear, as was the case at 
the first inspection, to be well maintained and in good condition. Drainage of the 
roadbed and ballast section was generally good with the exception of one location 
on cur\'e No. 2 where a muddy pumping ballast condition existed on the low or 
inside of the curve. 

The rail luljricators, noted as distributing generally heavy to moderate amounts 
of lubricant as of the 1973 inspection, appeared to be inoperative at the time of 
this inspection because of the lack of lubricant on the rails of all four test curves. 

Specific observations of rail conditions of each curve were noted as follows: 
Curve No. 1 

Head checks were noted on high side rails 94L143 D20, CT08943 C21 and 
CT08943 BIO. 

Curve Xo. 2 

Rail 81L707 E38 had head checks and light flaking spots. Rail 59R647 C26 
showed hght flaking and rail CT08943 C22 had some head checks. Rail 85R812 



58 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 

E21 had one lipht flakinji; spot on the receiving end. Rail IM19010 D6 had con- 
tinuous light flaking 6 ft of leaving (east) end. 

Heavy wear was noted in rail IM 19010 B9 and irregular wear pattern in rails 
CT07952 D17 and IM19010 D6 from apparent truck hunting, probably induced by 
low-side soft, muddy, pumping areas. 

High-side rail 181332 G16 was not seated into tie plates. 

Curve No. 3 

Head checks were noted in rails CT07952 B17 and 94L143 B20. Head checks 
and light flaking spots were noted in rails IM19010 Dl and 63M022 E16. 

Slightly abnormal batter was noted at welded joints at each end of fully heat- 
treated rail CT08943 B16 where it joined standard rails. 

There were slight indications of corrugations on high-side rail 181332 D4. 

Heavy flow at end, and fin on field side appeared on rail 71R078 C27 in low 
side of curve, opposite above-mentioned corrugated rail. 

Sliver spots in rail 94L143 D9 and several heavy slivers near middle of rail 
94L143 C24 were noted. 

Curve No. 4 

The "raspy" early feeling of head checks was noted on most rails in high side 
of curve. 

Intermittent very light flaking spots were noted on rail 59R647 C23 in high 
side of curve. 

Initial iiidication of high-side corrugations was noted in oblique light in rails 
85R812 D20 and 181332 H18. 

There was a small sliver on field side of head at middle of rail 94L143 D14, 
and a sliver depression 3 ft from west end of rail 94L143 D17. 

From visual observation at the time of the inspection and then by study of the 
rail head contour tracings of all four curves, more metal flow was noted on almost 
all inside or low rails, and more curve wear was noted on the high rails than 
there was at the time of the 1973 inspection. In like manner, more metal flow and 
curve wear were noted in the intermediate-manganese and standard rails than in 
the head-hardened or fully heat-treated rails. 

V\i — DISCUSSION 

The track containing the test rails carries predominantly eastbound manifest 
mixed freight and unit coal trains. During the first year the test rails were in 
service, August 1972 through July 1973, tonnage over this territory was 14.6 mil- 
lion gross tons. During the second year of test service, from August, 1973 through 
July 1974, the tonnage was 16.3 million gross tons. Thus a total of 30.9 million 
gross tons of traffic has been over these rails since they were laid in track in July 
1972. 

Based on a comparison of the rail head contours taken in July 1973 (after one 
year of sei-vice) and those taken in July 1974 (after the second year of service) 
the change or increase in rail wear, during this second year, was plotted and calcu- 
lated by planimeter readings. From these, calculations were made of the amount 
(square inches) of rail wear and percent of rail wear. These values representing 
rail head metal worn away during the second year of service are thus shown for 
each rail head cross-section in Figures 5 through 24. 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 59 

As noted previously, each of the four test curves contained four rails of the 
same ty^Je, tvi^o in the low side and two in the high side. From the calculations 
made of the amount of rail head metal worn away of each rail, the average of 
each type of rail on each curve on the high side and the low side was calculated. 

In general, most of the test rails of the five types of rail on the low side of 
each of the curves displayed a marked increase of metal flow between the 1973 
and the 1974 inspections. They showed increases of from light to medium and 
from medium to heavy metal flow to the field side during this second year of 
service. It can be noted that in some cases a lip formed, indicating metal flow to 
the gage side also. In only three head-hardened rails and two fully heat-treated 
rails a stable or non-increase in metal flow was noted. 

Because, in this rail study, we are particularly interested in the wear character- 
istics of the high rail, the average amount of wear in square inches as well as 
the corresponding percent of wear of the two rails of each type in the high rail of 
each of the curves is shown in Table I. The average amount (square inches) of 
head wear versus the average curvature of these two representative rails of each 
type are shown graphically in Figure 25. 

It can be noted that, with the exception of the intermediate-manganese rail, 
the standard, head-hardened and fully heat-treated rails displayed a trend of even 
or very slightly increasing amounts of wear for the nominal 4-, 6- and 8-degree 
curves, respectively. The intermediate-manganese rail showed an increase of wear 
on the nominal 6-degree curve versus the nominal 4-degree curve with a slight 
decrease in wear on the nominal 8-degree cui-ve. All rails display a sharp increase 
in wear between the nominal 8 and the nominal 8/2-degree curve with the excep- 
tion of one of the standard type rails. 

VIII — CONCLUSIONS 

In general, low-rail wear and metal flow and high-rail curve wear has con- 
formed to a pattern of more wear and flow in the standard and intermediate- 
manganese type rails and less wear and flow in the treated products such as head- 
hardened and fully heat-treated rails. 

The amounts of wear recorded particularly in the high rails did not conform 
to a consistent pattern, but were erratic even with an averaging approach. Again, 
in general, the treated type rails did perform better than the others with the 
exception of the one standard type rail showing slightly less wear on the nominally 
8/2-degree curve than the head-hardened and the fully heat-treated rails. 

The rather erratic wear pattern was evident also when comparison was made 
between the nominal degrees of curvature of the four test cin^ves and the average 
wear of each of the five types of rail in test. The raUier constant or slightly increas- 
ing average amount of wear calculated for the nominal 4-, 6- and 8-degree curves 
in contrast with the sharp increase for the nominal 8/2-degree curve could possibly 
have been caused by or resulted from train speeds and the \ariations of curvature 
and superelevation as noted and recorded at the individual test rails in each of the 
curves. 



60 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM RAIL TEST 
NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 



High Rail- 



D05611 C33 
Head-Hardened 



59RB47 B26 
Standard - A 




71R078C26 
Standard - A 



IM19010 F19 ' 
Int. Mn . 



94L143 D20 
Head- Hardened 



181332 F4 

Standard- B 94L143E11 IM19010 B20 IM19010B18 CT08943 B17 

Head-Hardened Int. Mn. Int. Mn. F. H. T. 




CT08943 C21 
F. H. T. 



CT08943 BIO 
F.H.T. 



IM19010 DU 
Int. Mn. 



181332 A17 
Standard- B 



73L669 C.8 
Head- Hardened 



LAYOUT OF 140 LB. RE TEST RAILS - CURVE NO. 1 
NOMINAL 5°-50' CURVE (299. 5 m RADIUS)— 4-1/2 IN. SUPERELEVATION (114.3 mm)NOMINAL 

MILE POST 233. 1 



CHESSIE SYSTEM RAIL TEST 
NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 



High Rail.. 



81L707 E38 
Hoad-H.irdened 



59R647 C26 
Standard - A 



CT08943 C22 
F. H. T. 



85R812 E21 
Standard - A 




?647 D2 
Standard- A 



181332 F20 
Standard- B 



181332 Uia 
Sl;indard - B 



181332 F14 
Standard- B 



CT07952 D17 
F. H.T. 



181332 Gib- 
Standard- B 



CT19017 F6 
F. H. T. 



801,680 E24 
Head-Hardened 




igh Rail 



85R8I2 B20 ' -Low Rail 

Standard -A 



LAYOUT OF 140 LB. RE TEST RAILS - CURVE NO. 2 
NOMINAL 8°-28' CURVE (206.5 m RADIUS) — 5 IN. SUPERELEVATION (127.0 mm) NOMINAL 

MILE POST 233. 2 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



CHESSIE SYSTEM RAIL TEST 
NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 



61 



High Rail 



181332 C21 
Standard - B 



CT19017 E 
F. H, T. 




59R647 Dl 
Standard- A 



'CT08943 B16' "Tai332D4 ' ■94L143D9 IM19010F16 

jr_ H. T. Standard- B Head- Hardened Int. Mn. 



94L143 D21 
Head- Hardened 



CT08943 C19 



94L143 C24 1M19010 AIS 

Head-Hardened Int. Mn. 




CT07952 B17 
F. H. T. 



94L143 B20 
Head- Hardened 



IM19010 Dl 
Int. Mn. 



63M022 E16 
Standard - A 



High Rail 



LAYOUT OF 140 LB. RE TEST RAILS - CURVE NO. 3 
NOMINAL 4«-00' CURVE (436. 6 m'R ADIUS) -2-1/2 IN. SUPERELEVATION (63. 5 mm) NOMINAL 

MILE POST 234. 

FIGURE 3 



CHESSIE SYSTEM RAIL TEST 
NEAR OAKLAND, MAR^.AND' 



High Rail 



181332 C28 
Standard- B 




'1M19010 B14 
Int. Mn. 



94L143 D17 
Head- Hardened 



CT19017 C8 
F.H.T. 



85R812 D20 
Standard - A 



94L143 D16 
Head- Hardened 



CTi9017 BIO 
F.H.T. 



1M19010 D3 CT19017 E8 181110 013 66M022 DIG 

Int. Mn, F.H.T. Standard- B Standard- A 




Standard- A 



CT19017 F8 
F. H. T. 



-High Rail 



LAYOUT OF 140 LB. RE TEST RAILS - CURVE NO. 4 
NOMINAL 8°-08' CURVE (214. 9 m RADIUS)— 5 IN. SUPERELEVATION (127. mm)NOMINAL 

MILE POST 23^0 



62 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 1 - MILE POST 233.1 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.0 sq. in. 
(0.0 sq. mm) 

0.0% 
D05611 C33 
Head- Hardened 



Low Rail 




Gage 

57" 

(1.448 m) 




0.055 sq. in. 
(35.49 sq. mm) 

1.1% 
59R647 D15 
Standard -A 



High Rail 



Location 1 
Curvature 6° - 08' (284.9 m radius) - Superelevation 4 5/8 in. (117.5 mm) 





0.05 sq. in. 
(32.26 sq. mm) 

1.0% 
59R647 B26 
Standard -A 



Low Rail 






11 


0.07 sq. in. 




1/ 
1/ 


(45.16 sq. mm) 


Gage 




1.4% 


56-7/8" 




181332 G21 


(1.445 m) 




Standard- B 



High Rail 



Location 2 
Curvature 6° - 08' (284.9 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (123. 8 mm) 




FIGURE 5 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



63 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CLTIVE NO. 1 - MILE POST 233.1 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.005 sq. in. 
(3.23 sq. mm) 

0.1% 
85R812 C23 
Standard - A 



Low Rail 




Gage 

57" 
(1.448 m) 




0.075 sq. in. 
(48.39 sq. mm 

1.5% 
71R078 C26 
Standard - A 



High Rail 



Location 3 
Curvature 6° - 22' (274.4 m radius) - Superelevation 4/78 in. (123.8 mm) 





"""=*!> 


N 


0.05 sq. in. 


A 


(32.26 sq. mm) 

1.0% 
CT08943 B21 


Gage 

57" 


F.H.T. 


1 (1.448 m) 
^ 


Low Rail y*""^ 





High Rail 



Location 4 
Curvature 6° - 15' (279. 6 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (124. 8 mm) 




0.095 sq. in. 
(61.29 sq. mm) 

1.9% 
IM19010 F19 
Int. Mn. 




FIGURE 6 



64 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 1 - MILE POST 233.1 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.045 sq. in. 
(29.03 sq. mm) 

0.9% 
181332 D14 
Standard- B 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-13/16" 
(1.443 m) 




0.03 sq, in. 
(19.36 sq. mm) 

0.6% 
94L143 D20 
Head- Hardened 



High Rail 



Location 5 
Curvature 6° - 15' (279.6 m radius) - Superelevation 5 1/4 in. (133.4 mm) 




^H^ 




0.05 sq. in. 
(32.26 sq. mm) 

1.0% 
181332 F4 
Standard - B 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-11/16" 
(1.440 m) 



0.04 sq. m. 
(25.81 sq. mm) 

0.8% 
CT08943 C21 
F. H. T, 




High Rail 



Location 6 
Curvature 6° - 00' (291.2 m radius) - Superelevation 4 3/4 in. (120.7 mm) 




FIGURE 7 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



65 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 1 - MILE POST 233.1 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.00 sq. in. 


>. 


(0.0 sq. mm) 




0.0% 


Gage 


94L143 Ell 


56-5/8" 


Head- Hardened 


1 (1.438 m; 


Low Rail /^"^"^ 






0.04 sq. in. 
(25.81 sq. mm) 

0.8% 
CT08943 BIO 
F.H.T. 



High Rail 




Location 7 
Curvature 6*^ - 15' (279.6 m radius) - Superelevation 4 15/16 in. (125.4 mm) 




0.015 sq. in. 
(9.68 sq. mm) 

0.3% 
IM19010 B20 
Int. Mn. 



Low Rail 






/7 


' 


Gage 

56-3/4" 
(1.441 m) 


I 
1 


0. 095 sq. in. 
(61.29 sq. mm) 

1.9% 
IM19010 Dll 
Int. Mn. 



High Rail 



Location 8 
Curvature 6° - 00' (291.2 m radius) - Superelevation 4 5/8 in, (117.5 mm) 




FIGURE 8 



66 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 1 - MILE POST 233.1 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.005 sq. in. 
(3.23 sq. mm) 

0.1% 
IM19010 B18 
Int. Mn. 



Low Rail 




0.08 sq. in. 
(51.62 sq. mm) 

1.6% 
181332 A17 
Standard - B 



High Rail 



Location 9 
Curvature 6° - 00' (291.2 m radius) - Superelevation 4 5/8 in. (117.5 mm) 





0.00 sq. in. 
(0.0 sq. inm) 

0.0% 
CT08943 B17 
F.H.T. 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.00 sq. in. 
(0.0 sq. mm) 

0.0% 
73L669 G8 
Head- Hardened 



High Rail 



Location 10 

Curvature 5° - 45' (303.8 m radius) - Superelevation 4 5/8 in (117.5 mm) 




FIGURE 9 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



67 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 2 - MILE POST 233.2 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.105 sq. in. 
(67.75 sq. mm) 

2.1% 
81L707 E38 
Head- Hardened 






/^^"^^^ 


/ 


0.00 sq. In. 




(0.0 sq. mm) 


Gage 


0.0% 


56-3/4" 


59R647 D2 


(1.441 m) 


Standard- A 


V 


\ Low Rail /• 



High Rail 



Location 1 
Curvature 9° - 15' (189.0 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (123.8 mm) 




0. 15 sq. in. 
(96.78 sq. mm) 

3.0% 
59R647 C26 
Standard- A 



High Rail 




Gage 

56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 



0.02 sq. in. 
(12.90 sq. mm) 

0.4% 
IM19010 FIO 
Int. Mn. 




Low Rail 



Location 2 
Curvature 8° - 45' (199.8 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (123.8 mm) 




FIGURE 10 



68 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 2 - MILE POST 233,2 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.085 sq. in. 
(54.84 sq. mm) 

1.7% 
CT08943 C22 
F.H.T. 



High Rail 




Gage 
56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.015 sq. in. 
(9.68 sq. mm) 

0.3% 
CT08943 F17 
F.H.T. 



Low Rail 



Location 3 
Curvature 8*^ - 45' (199.8 m radius) - Superelevation 4 3/4" in. (120.7 ram) 





0.17 sq. in. 
(109. 68 sq. mm) 

3.4% 
85R812 E21 
Standard - A 



High Rail 




Gage 
56-9/16" 
(1.437 m) 




0.00 sq. in. 
(0.0 sq. mm) 

0.0% 
181332 F20 
Standard - B 



Low Rail 



Location 4 
Curvature 8° - 30' (205.6 m radius) - Superelevation 4 5/8 in. (117.5 mm) 




FIGURE U 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



69 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 2 - MILE POST 233.2 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.08 sq. in. 
(51.62 sq. mm) 

1.6% 
IM19010 B9 
Int. Mn. 



High Rail 




Gage 

56-7/8" 
(1.445 m) 




0.075 sq. in. 
(48.39 sq. mm 

1.5% 
181332 D15 
Standard- B 



Low Rail 



Location 5 
Curvature 8° - 30' (205.6 m radius) - Superelevation 4 3/4 in. (120.7 mm) 





0.095 sq. in. 
(61.29 sq. mm) 

1.9% 
181332 F14 
Standard - B 



High Rail 




Gage 
56-13/16" 
(1.443 m) 




0.065 sq. in. 
(41.94 sq. mm) 

1.3% 
CT19017 F6 
F.H.T. 



Low Rail 



Location 6 
Curvature 8° - 45' (199.8 m radius) - Superelevation 4 5/8 in. (117.5 mm) 




FIGURE 12 



70 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineerinji Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 2 - MILE POST 233.2 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 





\ 




0.175 sq. in. 




(112.91 sq. mm) 


\ 
\ 




3.5% 


Gage 


CT07952 D17 


\ 


56-7/8" 


F.H.T. 




(1.445 m) 



High Rail 




0.005 sq. in. 
(3.23 sq. mm 

0.1% 
94L143 B12 
Head- Hardened 



Low Rail 



Location 7 
Curvature 8° - 45' (199. 8 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (123. 8 mm) 




^v ^v 




0.29 sq. in. y \ 




(187.11 sq. mm) N 1 
5.8% \ 1 




Gage 


IM19010 D6 \ 


57" 


Int. Mn. N 


(1.448 m 



High Rail 




0.00 sq. in. 
(0.0 sq. mm) 

0.0% 
94L143 B38 
Head- Hardened 



Low Rail 



Location 8 
Curvature 8° - 30' (205. 6 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (123. 8 mm) 




FIGURE 13 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



71 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 2 - MILE POST 233.2 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.08 sq. in. 
(51.62 sq. mm) 

1.6% 
181332 G16 
Standard - B 



High Rail 




Gage 

56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.01 sq. in. 
(6.45 sq. mm) 

0.2% 
IM19010 B4 
Int. Mn. 



Low Rail 



Location 9 
Curvature 8° - 45' (199. 8 m radius) - Superelevation 5 1/4 in. (133.4 mm) 





0.11 sq. in. 
(70.97 sq. mm) 

2.2% 
80L680 E24 
Head- Hardened 



High Rail 




Gage 

56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.02 sq. in. 
(12.90 sq. mm) 

0.4% 
85R812 B20 
Standard- A 



Low Rail 



Location 10 
Curvature 8° - 22' (208.9 m radius) - Superelevation 5 1/16 in. (128. 6 mm) 




FIGURE 14 



72 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 3 - MILE POST 234,0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.03 sq. in. 
(19.36 sq. mm) 

0.6% 
181332 C21 
Standard- B 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-13/16" 
(1.443 m) 




0.07 sq. in. 
(45.16 sq. mm) 

1.4% 
59R647 Dl 
Standard - A 



High Rail 



Location 1 
Curvature 4° - 15' (411.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 5/8 in. (66.7 mm) 





0.05 sq. in. 
(32.26 sq. mm) 

1.0% 
CT219017 E5 
F.H.T. 



Low Rail 




Gage 

56-3/4" 
(1.441 m) 




0.035 sq. in. 
(22.58 sq. mm) 

0.7% 
CT08943 B16 
F.H.T. 



High Rail 



Location 2 
Curvature 4° - 15' (411.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 7/8 in. (73.0 mm) 




FIGURE 15 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



73 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO, 3 - MILE POST 234.0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.03 sq. in. 
(19.36 sq. mm 

0.6% 
71R078 C27 
Standard - A 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.065 sq. in. 
(41.94 sq. mm) 

1.3% 
181332 D4 
Standard- B 



High Rail 



Location 3 
Curvature 4° - 15' (411.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 5/8 in. (66.7 mm) 





- ^^=^ 


"S 


0.02 sq. in. 


\ 


(12.90 sq. mm) 




0.4% 


Gage 


181332 E29 


56-1/2" 


Standard - B 


(1.435 m) 


\ Low Rail /"^ 






0.015 sq. in. 
(9.68 sq. mm) 

0.3% 
94H43 D9 
Head- Hardened 



High Rail 



Location 4 

Curvature 4° - 22' (400.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 5/8 in. (66.7 mm) 




FIGURE 16 



74 Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 3 - MILE POST 234.0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.015 sq. in. 
(9.68 sq. mm) 

0.3% 
IM19010 D7 
Int. Mn. 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-3/4" 
(1.441 m) 




0.035 sq. in. 
(22.58 sq. mm) 

0.7% 
IM19010 F16 
Int. Mn. 



High Rail 



Location 5 

Curvature 4° - 22' (400.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 3/8 in. (60. 3 mm) 





0.01 sq. in. 
(6.45 sq. mm) 

0.2% 
94L143 D21 
Head-Hardened 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.07 sq. in. 
(45.16 sq. mm) 

1.4% 
181107 G27 
Standard- B 



High Rail 



Location 6 
Curvature 4° - 15' (411.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 5/8 in. (66.7 mm) 




FIGURE 17 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie Systei 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND. MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 3 - MILE POST 234.0 



75 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.00 sq. in. 
(0.0 sq. mm) 

0.0% 
CT08943 C19 
F.H.T. 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-7/8" 
(1.445 m) 




0.045 sq. in. 
(29.03 sq. mm) 

0.9% 
CT07952 B17 
F.H.T. 



High Rail 



Location 7 
Curvature 4° - 15' (411.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 5/8 in. (66.7 mm) 





— =t=-Ss 


^ 


0.015 sq. in. 


\ 


(9.68 sq. mm) 




0.3% 


Gage 


59R647 Bl 


56-3/4" 


Standard- A 


(1.441 m) 


Low Rail z^*^ 


^ 




0.00 sq. in. 
(0.0 sq. mm) 

0.0% 
94L143 B20 
Head- Hardened 



High Rail 



Location 8 
Curvature 4° - 22' (400.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 3/8 in. (60.3 mm) 




FIGURE 18 



76 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 3 - MILE POSE 234,0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.01 sq. in. 


^ 


(6.45 sq. mrh) 




0.2% 


Gage 


94L143 C24 


56-9/16" 


Head- Hardened 


(1.437 m) 


Low Rail ^""^^ 





Location 9 




0.03 sq. in. 
(19.36 sq. mm) 

0.6% 
IM19010 Dl 
Int. Mn. 



High Rail 




Curvature 4 - 15' (411.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 1/2 in. (63. 5 mm) 




0.005 sq. in. 
(3.23 sq. mm) 

0.1% 
IM19010 A12 
Int. Mn. 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-9/16" 
(1.437 m) 




0.05 sq. in. 
(32.26 sq. mm) 

1.0% 
63M022 E16 
Standard- A 



High Rail 



Location 10 
Curvature 4° - 15' (411.0 m radius) - Superelevation 2 l/2 in. (63. 5 mm) 




FIGURE 19 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



77 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 4 - MILE POST 235,0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.035 sq. in. 
(22,58 sq. mm) 

0.7% 
59R647 B23 
Standard - A 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-1/2" 
(1.435 m) 




0,11 sq. in. 
(70.97 sq. mm) 

2,2% 
IM19010 B14 
Int. Mn, 



High Rail 



Location 1 
Cuivature 8° - 08' (214,9 m radius) - Superelevation 5 in. (127,0 mm) 





0.025 sq, in. 
(16.13 sq. mm) 

0,5% 
94L143 E38 
Head- Hardened 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-5/8" 
(1,438 m) 




0.035 sq, in. 
(22.58 sq. mm) 

0.7% 
94L143 D17 
Head-Hardened 



High Rail 



Location 2 
Curvature 7° - 52' (222,2 m radius) - Superelevation 4 3/4" (120 ,7 mm) 




FIGURE 20 



78 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Associati( 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 4 - MILE POST 235.0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 



0.02 sq. in. 


~^ 


(12.90 sq. mm) 




0.4% 


1 Gage 


94L143 D14 


I 56-5/8" 


Head- Hardened 


1 {1.438 m) 


V Low Rail /""^^ 






0.025 sq. in. 
(16.13 sq. mm) 

0.5% 
CT19017 C8 
F.H.T. 



High Rail 



Location 3 
Curvature 8° - 00' (218.5 m radius) - Superelevation 4 3/4 in. (120.7 mm) 




0.01 sq. in. 


^ 


(6.45 sq. mm) 




0.2% 


Gage 


IM19010 D22 


56-1/2" 


Int. Mn. 


(1.435 m) 


\ Low Rail y""^ 


^ 



High Rail 



Location 4 
Curvature 8° - 30' (205, 6 m radius - Superelevation 5 in. (127.0 mm) 




0.055 sq. in. 
(35.49 sq. mm) 

1.1% 
85R812 D20 
Standard - A 




FIGURE 21 



I 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



79 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 4 - MILB POST 235.0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 



0.005 sq. in. 


^ 


(3.23 sq. mm) 




0.1% 


Gage 


181332 C28 


1 56-5/8" 


Standard - B 


1 (1.438 m; 


\ Low Rail ^^^ 






0.01 sq. in. 
(6. 45 sq. mm) 

0.2% 
94L143 D16 
Head- Hardened 



High Rail 



Location 5 
Curvature 7*^ - 34' (231.0 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (123.8 mm) 





0.005 sq. in. 
(3.23 sq. mm 

0.1% 
CT19017 BIO 
F.H.T. 



Low Rail 




Gage 

56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.075 sq. in. 
(48.39 sq. mm) 

1.5% 
181332 H18 
Standard- B 



High Rail 



Location 6 
Curvature 8° - 22' (208.9 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (123.8 mm 




FIGURE 22 



80 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 



CHESSIE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 4 - MILE POST 235.0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 



0.015 sq. in. 
(9.68 sq. mm) 

0.3% 
IM19010 D8 
Int. Mn. 


Gage 
56-3/4" 
(1.441m) 


v Low Rail ^^^""""^ 






0.05 sq. in. 
(32.26 sq. mm) 

1.0% 
IM19010 DIO 
Int. Mn. 



High Rail 



Location 7 
Curvature 8° - 00' (218.5 m radius) - Superelevation 4 7/8 in. (123.8 mm) 





0.00 sq. in. 
(0.0 sq. mm) 

0.0% 
CT19017 E8 
F.H.T. 



Low Rail 




Gage 
56-3/4" 
(1.441m) 




0.07 sq. in. 
(45.16 sq. mm) 

1.4% 
59R647 C23 
Standard- A 



High Rail 



Location 8 
Curvature 8° - 00' (218.5 m radius) - Superelevation 5 1/8 in. (130.2 mm) 




FIGURE 23 



I 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



81 



CHESSTE SYSTEM, NEAR OAKLAND, MARYLAND 
TEST CURVE NO. 4 - MILE POST 235.0 



INSTALLED: July 1972 



INSPECTED: July 30, 1974 




0.01 sq. in. 
(6.45 sq. mm) 

0.2% 
181110 D13 
Standard- B 



Low Rail 




Gage 

56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.065 sq. in. 
(41.94 sq. mm) 

1.3% 
CT19017 F8 
F.H.T. 



High Rail 



Location 9 

Curvature 8°-00' (218.5 m radius) - Superelevation 4 3/4 in. (120.7 mm) 





0.035 sq. in. 
(22.58 sq. mm 

0.7% 
66M022 D16 
Standard - A 



Low Rail 




Gage 

56-5/8" 
(1.438 m) 




0.05 sq. in. 
(32.26 sq. mm) 

1.0% 
180991 E18 
Standard - B 



High Rail 



Location 10 
Curvature 6°-45' (258.9 m radius) - Superelevation 4 3/8 in. (111.1 mm) 




FIGURE 24 



82 



Bulletin 654 — American Railway Engineering Association 




(Ba^Dui aa-enbg) -feaAV P^e^H aS^jaAy 



Performance of Test Rails on Chessie System 



83 



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Directory of Consulting Engineers 



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Directory of Consulting Engineers 



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American Railway 

Engineering Association— Bulletin 



Bulletin 655 November-December 1975 

Proceedings Volume 77* 



CONTENTS 

PART 1— MANUAL RECOMMENDATIONS 

Yards and Terminals (14) 87 

Buildings (6) 162 

Electrical Energy Utilization (33) 181 

Environmental Engineering (13) 189 

Concrete Ties (Special Committee) 193 

Roadway and Ballast (1) 237 

Steel Structures (15) 249 

PART 2^REP0RTS OF COMMITTEES 

Highways (9) 255 

Engineering Records and Property Accounting (11) 273 

Yards and Terminals (14) 279 

Directory of Consulting Engineers 286—1 



'Proceedings Volume 77 (1976) will consist of ABBA Bulletins 654, September- 
October 1975: 655. November-December 1975; 656, January-February 1976; and 658, 
June-July 1976 (Technical Conference Report issue). Blue-covered Bulletin 657, .^rll- 
May 1976 (the Directory issue), is not a part of the Annual Proceedings of the Aaaociatioa. 



BOARD OF DIRECTION 
1975-1976 

President 
J. T. Wakd, Senior Assistant Chief Engineer, Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, 500 Water 
St., Jacksonville, FL 32202 

Vice Presidents 
John Fox, Deputy Chief Engineer, Canadian Pacific Rail, Windsor Station, Montreal, 

PQ H3C 3E4 
B. J. WoRLEY, Vice President— Chief Engineer, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific 

Railroad, Union Station, Room 898, Chicago, IL 60606 

Past Presidents 

D, V. Sartore, Chief Engineer — Design, Burlington Northern, Inc., 176 E. Sth St., St. 

Paul, MN SS 101 
R. F. Bush, Chief Engineer, Erie Lackawanna Railway, Midland BIdg., Cleveland, OH 

44115 

Directors 
R, W. Pember, Chief Engineer — Design and Construction, Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road, P. O. Box 1198, Louisville, KY 40201 

E. Q. Johnson, Senior Assistant Chief Engineer, Chessie System, P. O. Box 1800, 

Huntington, WV 25718 
W. E. FuHR, Assistant Chief Engineer— Staff, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul k Pacific 

Raibroad, Union Station, Room 898, Chicago, IL 60606 
B. E. Pearson, Chief Engineer, Soo Line Railroad, Soo Line Bldg., Room 1520, Minne- 

apoUs, MN 55440 
P. L. Montgomery, Manager Engineering Systems, Norfolk & Western Railway, 8 N. 

Jefferson St., Roanoke, VA 24042 
E. C HoNATH, Assistant General Manager Engineering, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 

Railway, 900 Polk St., Amarillo, TX 79171 
Mike Rougas, Chief Engineer, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, P. O. Box 471, Green- 
ville, PA 16125 
J. W. DeVaixe, Chief Engineer Bridges, Southern Railway System, 99 Spring St., S. W., 

Atlanta, GA 30303 
R. L. Gray, Chief Engineer, Canadian National Railways, P. O. Box 8100, Montreal, 

PQ H3C 3N4 
E. H. Waring, Chief Engineer, Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, P. O. Box 

5482, Denver, CO 80217 
Wm. Glavin, General Manager, Grand Trunk Western Railroad, 131 W. Lafayette 

Blvd., Detroit, MI 48226 
G. H. Maxwell, System Engineer of Track, Union Pacific Railroad, 1416 Dodge St., 

Omaha, NE 68179 

Treasurer 
A. B. HiLLMAN, Jr., Chief Engineer, Belt Railway of Chicago, 6900 S. Central Ave., 

Chicago, IL 60638 

Executive Director 
Earl W. Hodgkins, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 
Assistant to Executive Director 
N. V. Enoman, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 

Administrative Assistant 
D. F. Fredley, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 

Published by the American Railway Engineering Association, Bi-Monthly, January-February, April- 
May, June-July, September-October and November-December, at 
59 East Van Buren Street, Chicago, 01. 60605 

Second class postage at Chicago, III., and at additional mailing offices. 
Subscription $15 per annum 

Copyright © 1975 

AuBsicAH Railway Engineesing Association 

All rights reserved. 

No part of thb publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or data retrieval 

ayatem, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopyins. 

ncording, or otherwise — ^without the prior written permisnon of the publisher. 



PART 1 
MANUAL RECOMMENDATIONS 



All the recommendations submitted by committees for adoption and 
publication in the 1976 Supplement to the AREA Manual for Railway Engi- 
neering are printed in this issue of the Bulletin. These recommendations will 
be formally submitted for review and approval to the Board Committee on 
Publications and the AREA Board of Direction. Comments or objections by 
Members regarding any of these recommendations should be submitted to 
the Executive Manager not later than FEBRUARY 16, 1976. 



85 

Bui. 655 



Manual Recommendations 
Committee 14 — Yards and Terminals 

Report on Assignment B 

Revision of Manual 

G. H. Chabot (chairman, subcommittee), all members of Committee 14. 

Your committee submits for adoption the following recommendations with 
respect to Chapter 14 of the Manual: 

Delete present Part 1 — ^Terminals, Part 2 — Passenger Terminals, Part 3 — Freight 
Terminals, and Part 4 — Locomotive Terminals, substituting therefor the follo\ving 
completely re\'ised and reorganized material. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 
MANUAL FOR RAILWAY ENGINEERING 

CHAPTER 14 
YARDS AND TERMINALS 



FOREWORD 



This chapter deals witli tlie engineering and economic problems of location, 
design, construction and operation of yards and terminals used in railway service. 
Such problems are substantially the same whether railway's ownership and use is 
to be individual or joint. The location and arrangement of the yard or terminal as 
a whole should pennit tlie most convenient and economical access to it of the tribu- 
tary lines of railway, and the location, design and capacity of the several facilities 
or components witliin said yard or terminal should be such as to handle the tributary 
traffic expeditiously and economically and to serve tlie public and customer 
conveniently. 

In the design of new yards and terminals, the retention of existing railway 
routes and facilities may seem desirable from the standpoint of initial expenditure 
or first cost, but may pro\e to be extra\agant from the standpoint of operating costs 
and efficiency. A true economic balance should be achie\ ed, keeping in mind possible 
future trends and changes in traffic criteria, as to volume, intensity, direction and 
character. 

Although tliis chapter contemplates the establishment of entirely new facilities, 
the recommendations therein will apply equally in the rearrangement, modernization, 
enlargement or consolidation of existing yards and terminals and related facilities. 
Parts 1 tlirough 4 incl. formulate specific and detailed recommendations relative 

87 



88 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

to tlie handling of freight, regardless of the type of commodity or merchandise, at 
the originating, intermediate and destination points. Parts 5 and 6 relate to loco- 
motive and passenger facilities, respectively, and Part 7 covers miscellaneous items 
and facilities which may be found in yards and terminals, necessary for the general 
operation and function of railways. Part S — Scales, describes the various weighing 
systems used in railway service and is included as a part of this chapter since 
the majority of scales are located at yards and terminals. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part 1 Generalities Page 

Foreword 91 

1.1 Joint Yards and Terminals 92 

1.2 Air Rights 92 

1.3 Automatic Car Identification System 92 

1.4 Environmental Provisions 92 

1.5 Security Requirements 93 

Part 2 Freight Yards and Freight Terminals 

Foreword 95 

2.1 General 96 

2.2 Track Arrangement 96 

2.3 Yard Components 97 

2.4 Hump Classification Yard Design 99 

2.5 Flat Classification Yard Design 110 

Part 3 Freight Delivery and Transfer 

Foreword Ill 

3.1 Freight Houses 112 

3.2 Team Yards 115 

3.3 Driveways 115 

Part 4 Specialized Freight Terminals 

Foreword 117 

4.1 Waterfront 118 

4.2 Rail-Truck 119 

4.3 Auto and Truck Transport 123 

4.4 Bulk, Sohd 129 

4.5 Bulk, Liquid 130 

4.6 Merchandise 130 

Part 5 Locomotive Facilities 

Foreword 133 

5.1 General 134 

5.2 Servicing Facilities 135 

5.3 Inspection Pits 136 

5.4 Diesel, Diesel-Electric and Electric 137 

5.5 Steam 138 



Manual Recommendations 89 

Part 6 Passenger Facilities 

Foreword 141 

6.1 General 142 

6.2 Site 142 

6.3 Track Arrangement 144 

6.4 Station Proper 145 

6.5 Coach Yard 152 

6.6 Modernization 157 

Part 7 Other Yard and Terminal Facilities 

Foreword 159 

7.1 Stores 160 

7.2 Storage 160 

7.3 Reclamation 161 



Manual Recommendations 91 

Part 1 
Generalities 

FOREWORD 

This part deals with the general conditions, factors, features and requirements 
which may be basically common to or directly related with the planning, design, 
construction and function of yards and terminals and their associated facilities. 



CONTENTS 

Section Page 

1.1 Joint Yards and Terminals 92 

1.2 Air Rights 92 

1.3 Automatic Car Identification System 92 

1.4 Environmental Provisions 92 

1.5 Security Requirements 93 



92 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

1.1 JOINT YARDS AND TERMINALS 

1.1.1 Economy 

(a) It is not axiomatic that a joint yard or terminal under one management 
can be operated more economically and satisfactorily than two or more separately 
operated yards or terminals of the same aggregate capacity. 

(b) In a joint yard or terminal, a single organization should control all con- 
struction, operation, maintenance and other activities within the tenninal zone. All 
employees, including those of the participating railways, while functioning within 
the yard or terminal zone should be subject to the control of the appropriate oflBcers. 

1.1.2 Analyses 

(a) A joint yard or terminal should not be undertaken without exhaustive 
comparable analyses of what may be attained in expedition, economy and conveni- 
ence, under the arrangements to be surrendered and under those proposed. 

(b) A joint yard or tenninal may be undertaken where analyses justify antici- 
pation of its economy as compared with other available alternatives, or where 
governmental authority or popular demand has substantially the force of mandate. 

1.1.3 Agreement 

A joint terminal agreement should anticipate and definitely cover all relation- 
ships between and among the owners, the users and tiie management of the joint 
facilities. With a view to discovering weaknesses and omissions which may be 
overcome in a new agreement, it will be found helpful, before drafting it, to examine 
existing agreements and consult those charged with their administration. 

1.2 AIR RIGHTS 

At yards and tenninals centrally located in the larger cities, space over the 
facilities can often be made available, with advantage and profit, for commercial 
purposes such as post offices, office buildings with store frontage on the streets, 
hotels, certain manufacturing enterprises, and the like. These will help materially 
in carrying the charges on capital investments and tax assessments for the real estate 
occupied. 

1.3 AUTOMATIC CAR IDENTIFICATION (ACI) SYSTEM 

Improved yard and terminal efficiencies and performance, including total termi- 
nal control, can be achieved with an automatic car identification (ACI) system. 
One report on the subject and its application has been published in the Proceedings, 
Vol. 72, 1973, pages 230 and 231. 

1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL PROVISIONS 

Any yard and tenninal design must consider the environmental factors and 
provide for the minimum controls established and required by federal, state and 
local laws, directives and ordinances applicable to land, water, air and noise pollu- 
tion. Chapter 13 — Environmental Engineering — deals with tliese features and 
requirements. 



Manual Recommendations 93 

1.5 SECURITY REQUIREMENTS 

1.5.1 Fire Protection 

(a) Hydrants with hose houses and equipment should be located at various 
points within the yard or terminal so as to permit the use of at least two streams of 
water on any structure. Such facilities should comply to applicable codes and 
regulations. 

(b) Water mains and hydrants should be located with due regard to future 
yard or terminal expansion. 

(c) Water mains should be built in loops, if practicable. 

(d) Chemical extinguishers should be conveniently placed to afford protection, 
especially against oil and electric fires. 

(e) Fire lanes should be provided for access to all buildings by fire fighting 
equipment. 

1.5.2 Theft and Vandalism 

Protective measures must be carefully considered in the design of each indi- 
vidual situation. A report on the subject of theft and vandalism is contained in the 
Proceedings, Vol. 75, 1974, pages 609 to 611, inch Infonuation on this subject may 
be obtained from the Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, 
Washington, D.C., report No. 487, Crime and Vandalism in Public Transportation — 
5 Reports (1974), ISBN 0-309-02273-8, 64 pp. 



Manual Recommendations 95 

Part 2 
Freight Yards & Freight Terminals 



FOREWORD 

This part deals with the engineering and economic problems of location, design, 
construction and operation of all the facilities provided by a railway company, or 
by railway companies in common, or acting jointly, as the case may be, to handle 
freight to or from or tlirough and witliin a given district on behalf of such railway 
company or companies. 

Conditions of demand and feasibiUty vary widely, and generally each case of 
constructing an altogether new layout on a large scale, or of remodeling or consoU- 
dating an extensive existing layout, constitutes an essentially basic problem. 

Each of these features and its appurtenances, with a full knowledge of the 
average and maximum demands to be made upon it, must be carefully designed to 
fulfill its particular functions expeditiously and economically. 

The designation "freight yard" (sometimes called marshaling yard) and "freight 
terminal" as used herein are only relative to their location within a railway system, 
have similarity in meaning and may perfonn like functions. The use of the term 
"yard" as opposed to "terminal" may be used in a certain interpretation or within 
a certain geographical area to designate an essential unit, a supplementary adjunct 
or a tributary to a terminal. 



CONTENTS 

Section Page 

2.1 General 96 

2.2 Track Arrangement 96 

2.3 Yard Components 97 

2.4 Hump Classification Yard Design 99 

2.5 Flat Classification Yard Design 110 



96 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

2.1 GENERAL 

To meet traffic requirements a yard or terminal should be able, even in peak 
periods, to receive trains promptly upon arrival, perform any auxiliary service (such 
as weighing, icing, feeding and watering stock, making running repairs, etc.), switch 
cars into tlieir proper classification without appreciable delay, and dispatch these 
cars in dieir proper position in outgoing trains in minimum time. 

The number of yards should be as small as is consistent with the efficient han- 
dling of traffic. 

An additional yard is warranted only when it will result in greater economy 
than the enlargement or reconstruction of, or substitution of a new yard for, an 
existing yard or yards. 

Yard or terminal layouts should provide for future expansion so that the number 
and length of die tracks in diem may be increased as required with niinimmn inter- 
ference with operation or minimum relocation of existing trackage. 

An existing yard or terminal which is inadequate to handle the current or im- 
mediately prospective traffic should be enlarged, or redesigned and rebuilt, or 
abandoned in favor of a yard or teniiinal in a different location, according to which 
of these alternatives will result in the greatest economy. 

Generally in computing car capacity use a minimum of 50 ft per car for all 
freight car tracks other than repair tracks and tracks for special equipment. 

Yard lighting is desirable. The economical distribution of light over the area 
involved, so as to provide proper intensity of illumination, requires careful design. 
Recommendations of the AAR Engineering Division Committee on Electrical Facili- 
ties — Fixed Property, should be consulted. 

An adequate drainage system is essential. 

Communication facilities such as teletype, pneumatic tube systems, loud speakers, 
ACI, talkback, paging systems, television, telephones and radios should all be con- 
sidered to expedite operations. 

The AREA Proceedings should be consulted for detailed information. 

2.2 TRACK ARRANGEMENT 

(a) Main tracks should not pass through a yard. 

(b) Connections to die main track from the receiving, classffication or depar- 
ture tracks should be as direct as practicable. 

(c) Crossovers should be provided as required to facilitate all normal and 
regular movements in the yard or between the yard and the main track, and their 
location should be such as to cause minimum interference between different move- 
ments which it may be desirable to make simultaneously. 

(d) In order to keep die distance to clearance to a minimum, the angle be- 
tween a ladder track and the body tracks should be as large as possible. 

(e) Ladder tracks should be spaced not less than 15 ft center to center from 
any parallel track, and when such parallel track is another ladder track, they shoidd 
be spaced not less than 18 ft center to center. The requirements of governing bodies 
must be observed. 

(f) Body tracks should be spaced not less than 14 ft center to center, and 
when parallel to a main track or important running track, the first body track should 
be spaced not less than 20 ft center to center from such track, subject to state regu- 
lations on clearances. 



Manual Recommendations 97 

2.3 YARD COMPONENTS 

2.3.1 Receiving Yard 

(a) The number of receiving tracks should be such that tliere will be one 
available whenever an arriving train offers to enter the yard. 

(b) The length of receiving tracks should be such that each will acconnnodate 
a complete train, including assisting locomotive where used. It is desirable in some 
yards to have a few short receiving tracks located on the side of the yard near the 
rurming track. 

(c) It is desirable that the gradient of the receiving tracks be such tliat band 
brakes will not have to be set to keep the cars from moving. 

(d) Consideration may be given to track indicators and remotely controlled 
switches at tlie entrances to the receiving yard. 

2.3.2 Classification Yard 

(a) The type of yard which should be adopted in any given case depends 
upon the volume and character of traffic to be handled through it, and the train 
schedules. The decision should be based on a thorough traffic analysis and economic 
study. 

( 1 ) A single flat yard is adapted for handling traffic where the total number 
of cars is small and the number of switching cuts per train is also small. 

(2) A double flat yard is adapted for handling traffic where the total num- 
ber of cars is large but the number of switching cuts per train is small. 

(3) A gravity yard or a hump yard is adapted for handling traffic where 
die total number of cars is large and the number of switching cuts per 
train is also large — also in special cases where the total number of cars 
is relatively small but normally received in a short period of time, and 
the number of switching cuts per train is large. 

(4) In special cases, due to the location of the yard, the character of traffic, 
or the arrangement of schedules, it may be necessary to provide a dou- 
ble flat yard or a hump yard, because of limited time for handling. 

(b) The number of classification tracks should be such that there will be at 
least one available for each important classification. 

(c) The lengtli of classification tracks should be such that each will normally 
hold all accumulated cars of the assigned classification until they are to be moved 
off tlie classification track under normal operation. 

- (d) Where cars of single classification accumulate rapidly enough to permit 
fonvarding them in whole trains, it is desirable to make up and dispatch trains from 
the classification tracks. 

2.3.3 Departure Yard 

(a) Departure tracks may be located as part of the classification yard or in 
a separate yard, depending upon the type of trains dispatched. 

(b) The number of departure tracks should be such that there will be one 
available for assembling a departing train whenever necessary. 

(c) The length of departure tracks should be such that each will accommodate 
a complete train, including assisting locomotives where used. 



98 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



(d) The gradient of departure tracks should be level, if possible. If adverse 
to the forward movement of a train, it should be at least 20 percent less than the 
ruling gradient to be encountered by that train during its road trip. 

(e) Compressed air at suitable pressure should be piped along the departure 
tracks, and sufficient outlets should be provided to permit the testing of the air brake 
equipment on die cars of departing trains. 

(f) Consideration should be given to the installation of shove indicators located 
at clearance point of each departure track. 

2.3.4 Repair Yard 

(a) The location of the car repair yard should be such that the movement of 
bad-order cars will be as direct as practicable, that switching the repair yard will 
not interfere with other work, and that repaired cars may be returned readily to the 
classification or departure yard, as required. 

(b) The capacity of the repair yard depends on the number of cars to be re- 
paired daily. Tracks should be as short as possible. In computing capacities, 55 ft 
should be allowed for each uncoupled car. 

(c) Repair tracks should be connected at both ends where feasible. The tracks 
may be alternately spaced on narrow and wide centers, the narrow spacing to be not 
less than 18 ft and the wide spacing to be such as to accommodate mechanical 
equipment. 

(d) A paved driveway should be placed between the repair tracks with wide 
centers, and paving is also desirable between the tracks with the narrow centers. 
The elevation of the driveway is usually tlie same as the top of rail. Crossings should 
be spaced at approximately 8-car intervals. 

(e) Consideration should be given to the "one-spot" repair yard, where cars 
are moved by mechanical means to tlie repair building, one at a time, repaired and 
moved. This system is adaptable to one or more tracks. In computing the capacity 
of the track holding the cars, a minimum of 50 ft should be allowed for each car. 

2.3.5 Local Yard 

( Material being developed ) . 

2.3.6 Miscellaneous Yard Tracks and Facilities 

2.3.6.1 General 

All miscellaneous tracks should be located so that the use of them will cause 
minimum interference with other operations in the yard, particularly road trains 
entering and leaving the yard. 

2.3.6.2 Switching leads 

Switching leads should be designed to give the enginemen working on them 
a clear view of switchmen passing signals along the ladder track. This may not be 
necessary where yard crews are equipped with engine-to-ground radio communi- 
cation. Multiple parallel leads with well placed crossovers should be provided where 
traffic is heavy. 



Manual Recommendations 99 



2.3.6.3 Caboose tracks 

Caboose tracks should be doul)le-ended and located so as to permit easy access 
to departure tracks. In hump yards they should be adjacent to the pull-out lead 
tracks or classification tracks. 

2.3.6.4 Wrecker equipment track 

A double-ended track for the storage of the wreck train should be provided. 

2.3.6.5 Other tracks 

(a) Advance tracks somewhat longer than the maximum train length, or freight 
main tracks extending to or beyond the outside of the yard, in either or both direc- 
tions, should be provided as required. 

(b) Thorouglifare tracks should provide access to all parts of the yard and 
between the locomotive terminal and the yard. 

(c) Scale tracks should be so located that weigh cars can be weighed with mini- 
mum delay to >ard operation. 

(d) Storage ti-acks may be required, particularly in hump yards where a large 
number of empty cars are held for supplying local industry and on-line requirements 
which may restrict operation of yard. 

(e) Tracks may be provided in hump yards for by-passing the hump with certain 
cars, or to provide an "escape" route from the retarder area to tire receiving yard 
for hvmip engines. 

(f) Hold tracks may be required. 

2.3.6.6 Allied facilities 

Icing, stock pens, LCL transfer, rail-truck handling and other allied facilities 
should be located so that cars may be placed with minimum delay after arrival and 
be readily accessible for switching or placement in outbound trains. 

2.4 HUMP CLASSIFICATION YARD DESIGN 

2.4.1 General 

A hump classification yard should be designed for the volume and character 
of traffic to be handled and should provide for continuous movement while humping 
witli minimum loss of time between successive humping operations; also for the 
movement of cars by gravity from the crest to their proper tracks in the classification 
yard without damaging impacts. 

Tracks at the outbound end of the classification yard should be connected to 
ladders so that classifications normally assembled in one train may be assigned to 
permit gathering from one ladder, thus providing for minimum movement of pull- 
down engines. A sufficient number of ladders, with lead connections to departure 
tracks, should be provided to permit working at least two pull-down engines with 
minimum interference. 

The hump end of the receiving yard should be located at sufficient distance 
from the crest of tlie hump to provide, if required, hot oil pit, under-car inspection 
pit, connection to set-out track for explosives, and for a connection to release road 
engines. A second track leading from the receiving yard to the hump will permit 
the use of a second hump locomotive for continuous bumping operations. If trains 



100 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

from two or more directions are to be humped in one direction over the hump, pro- 
vision should be made so that cars can be moved into the end of the receiving yard 
next to the hump with minimum interference with humping operations. 

It is desirable to make up and dispatch trains from the classification tracks if 
local conditions permit, and such a method of operation usually expedites movements 
through the yard and reduces the expense. This requires that a sufficient number 
of classification tracks be long enough for each to accommodate a full-length out- 
going train, or that lead tracks be provided at the outgoing end such tliat tlie com- 
bined length of a classification track and a lead track be sufficient for a full-length 
train, thus avoiding unnecessary doubling over or interference with hump operation. 
This may involve a temporary reassignment of classification during tlie inspection 
and preparatory time of a departing train. 

Departure tracks may be required for making up and dispatching trains, de- 
pending on local conditions. 

Considerable reclassification of cars in a hump yard is an indication of an 
insufficient number of classification tracks. 

The hump office, hump signal control, and other communication faciilities should 
be located at the crest of the hump on the right hand side. ( It is desirable tliat cars 
be uncoupled from the right hand side so that the forward knuckle will be open, 
as the impact of normal coupling will often close the rear knuckle.) 

The average gradient of the brack leading to the crest of the hump should be 
such as to permit shoving the longest and heaviest train at humping speeds con- 
sistent with available power. 

Other desirable appurtenant facilities include intercommunication and paging 
systems throughout the classification yard area; telephone, teletype and pnemnatic 
tube systems between strategic points, including the general yard office, the hump 
office and retarder operator towers, to facilitate handling of waybills, inspection 
lists, switch lists, etc. In addition, a multiple-channel radio-telephone communication 
system connecting the various offices with hump engines is commonplace. Adequate 
yard lighting is particularly necessary in tlie retarder area, supplemented as required 
with spotlighting for freight car identification. Journal oiling facilities and inspection 
pits, when installed, should be located on the approach side of the hump, suffi- 
ciently in advance of the crest, to be in the clear of the pin-pulling operation. 

2.4.2 Retarder 

Many factors local to each situation affect efficient operation of a retarder yard, 
so that each tenninal must be studied individually to produce a proper design. 

The classffication tracks at the hump end generally should be connected in 
groups, with minimum distance from the first switch of the group to the farthest 
clearance point. The leads to these groups should be connected to the hump lead by 
sub-leads in the shortest possible distance. Space should be provided for retarders 
to be located ahead of each group, on the hump lead, and in some cases on the sub- 
leads. Lap switches, short turnouts, curved switch points, and a relatively high 
degree of curvature, are of desirable assistance in obtaining the minimum distances. 

The number and location of retarders depend upon the number of groups of 
tracks and the type of layout. The lengtli of each retarder depends upon the height 
of hump and the speed of operation needed. The height of hump depends upon 
the climate, direction of prevailing wind, character of traffic (empty or loaded cars), 
and to meet definite elevation. 



Manual Recommendations 101 

A retarder tower or towers should be located so that each operator will have a 
clear view of cars under his control. The towers should have sufficient height so that 
the operator can obser\e whether tracks are filled or have room for more cars. 

Individual switches and retarders may be operated by remote control requiring 
one or more tower locations. Where more than on tower is provided tlie work should 
be evenly apportioned among the operators so far as practicable. Push buttons or 
programmed switching may be used to select route codes from which switches are 
operated automaticalh'. Likewise, retarders may be operated by push-button selec- 
tion of speeds or through automatic control from computers. 

For a completely automatic retarder classification yard, certain measuring sec- 
tions with unifonn grades are required in order to determine car-rolling characteristics 
on both tangent and curved track. 

2.4.3 Gradients 

2.4.3.1 Objective 

The ideal objective is die design of a series of gradients so that each car will 
roll to and stop at the far end of the classification yard, or will roll to coupling at 
an acceptable speed. The following objectives are the minimum to be expected: 

(a) Deliver cars having a practical maximum rolling resistance to the clearance 
point under adverse weather conditions. 

(b) Deliver cars of most frequently occurring rolling resistance to the far end 
of the yard. 

(c) Permit maximum humping rate and acceptable coupling speeds. 

The clearance point of a classification track is the point on that track closest to 
the hump which will meet clearance requirements as set by the appropriate state 
law or by management. Far end of the yard is the point on any classification track 
most distant from the hump which it is desired that cars should reach. 

2.4.3.2 Rolling resistance 

In designing grades for moving railroad cars under gravity, it is necessary to 
understand what is meant by rolling resistance. It is caused by many external oppos- 
ing factors, such as car construction, track irregularities, turnouts, curves, speed, air 
friction, wind, temperature, rain, snow, dirt, etc. The measured rolling resistance 
for the same car will show a wide variation depending on whether the car is acceler- 
ating or decelerating because of storing kinetic energy in the rotating wheels and 
axles or in using it up. In general, rolling resistance can be defined as the summation 
of all these factors opposing the free rolUng of the car. Quite obviously the rolling 
resistance for any given car will vary depending upon the factors tliat are working 
to oppose free rolling. 

For gradient design purposes, rolling resistance is expressed in percent of grade 
necessary to just overcome the opposing factors. For example, a car is said to be a 
0.4 percent resistance car if, when placed on a 0.4 percent uniform tangent grade 
and given a small initial velocity, it keeps rolling without accelerating or decelerating. 
Recent tests indicate that tlie maximum rolling resistance of hard-roUing, brake- 
free cars is 1.4 percent while the minimum rolling resistance of easy- rolling cars is 
0.08 percent. Strong head winds may increase minimum rolling resistance of empty 
cars to 2.0 percent. The most frequent rolling resistance is about 0.20 percent for 
loaded cars and about 0.35 percent for empt>^ cars. For predicting the behavior of 
cars in any yard, relevant brake-free data should be used. 



102 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

2.4.3.3 Theory 

The speed of a car rolUng on a grade can be found at any point by means of the 
expression A = 0.0334F* or A = 0.01 SSv*, where V is the speed of the car in miles per 
hour, V is the speed of the car in feet per second and h is the velocity head of the car 
in feet at the point under consideration and is the vertical distance shown in Fig. 1. 



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/^£AD 



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Meao 



Fig. 1 

The velocity head h can be found from the expression 



h = : — — — — he = k he 

Awr~ 1 

where, 

A = Velocity head (translational head), in feet. 

he = Energy head, in feet. This quantity is the sum of the car's translational and rota- 
tional energy head as shown in Fig. 1. 
w = Weight of car's wheels and axles, in pounds. 
W = Gross weight of car, in pounds, 
r = Radius of gyration of the car's wheels and axles with respect to their axis of rota- 
tion, in inches. 
D = Car wheel diameter at tread, in inches. 

1 

I 4^?* 1 
'^ D' W 

Awr^ 
Table 1 gives the value of the constant r^o for eight 33-in-nommal-diameter car wheels 

and four axles and for eight 36-in-nominal-diameter car wheels and four axles. The 

recommended values of k for various design assumptions are as follows: 

Mixed empty cars k = 0.92 

Mixed loaded cars k=. 0.98 

Effect of rotating wheels and axles neglected ^ = l.OQ 



Manual Recommendations 



103 



Table 1 



Nominal 

Wheel 
Diameter 


Axle Size 


_2 
CONSTANT ^^^ , IN POUNDS 
d2 


Multiple Wear Wheels 


One - Wear Wheels | 


New 


Condemned 

for Tread 

Wear 


New 


Condemned 

for Tread 

Wear 


33" 


5-1/2 X 10 
6 X 11 
6-1/2 X 12 


'+,120 
i+,li+0 
1+,170 


2,1+10 
2,1+30 
2,1+60 


3,270 
3,300 
3,330 


2,380 
2,1+00 
2,1+1+0 


36" 


7 X lii 


U,750 


2,580 


Less Common 



When the cars for which a gradient is designed are predominantly empty or pre- 
dominantly loaded, are of the same general type and their rolling characteristics are 
reliably known, the appropriate value of k can be obtained from Fig. 2a. 

Safe throwing of switches, retarding and weighing of cars make it necessary 
for the designer to predetermine the spacing of cars as diey roll from crest to clear- 
ance. This can be done by computing the time a car takes to roll between given 
points using one of the following two methods: 

(a) The distance studied is divided into a number of increments depending 
on the accuracy desired. The velocity head at the midpoint of each increment is 
computed or scaled from a scale profile, and by means of the velocity head expres- 
sions or the graph of Fig. 2, the velocity at the midpoint of each increment is ob- 



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4 6 8 10 12 

Speed in miles per hour 
Fig. 2. 



14 



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18 



104 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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Fig. 2a 



Manual Recommendations 105 

tained. The length of the increment is then divided by the velocity corresponding 
to its midpoint to gi\e tlie time the car takes to roll through that particulai" increment. 
When these increment times are added cumulatively, the time a car takes to roll 
between the given points is known. 

(b) The time the center of gravity of a car takes to travel between two points 
"A" and "B" connected by a constant gradient can be found from the expression 

T = 0.249 -T— V hA+ ha — V Aa (provided h^ is not equal to ha) 

where, 

r = Time to travel from point "A" to point "B", in seconds. 

L = Distance from point "A" to point "B ', in feet. 
Ha = Velocity head at point "A", in feet. 
Ab= Velocity head at point "B", in feet. 

When points "A" and "B" are connected by a series of gradients, the time T is computed 

for each gradient. If the car is retarded between points "A" and "B", the time T is 

computed for each retardation. If Ha = ha, the speed of the car, v, is constant and T 

L 
can be found from T := — ■ . 

V 

2.4.3.4 Design factors 

(a) Hump height for a classification track is the difference in elevation between 
the crest of the hump and its defined clearance point. 

(b) The track on the approach side of hump crest should have adequate plus 
grade of sufficient length to assure easy separation of single or multiple cuts. The 
vertical curve at tlie hmnp should be of minimum lengtli; care should be taken to 
make certain that the middle-ordinate for the chord equal in length to tlie distance 
between truck centers will provide clearance for the lowest equipment that is ex- 
pected to be humped and prevent binding of car knuckles. 

(c) For proper operation of a switch the clear space between die rear end of 
one car and the front end of the succeeding car should be not less than the length 
of the track circuit protecting that switch. Track circuits are usually 55 to 58 ft 
long. Cars with iimer axle centers greater than the length of die track circuit will 
require special handling. 

(d) A track scale of proper length and location when installed on the hmnp 
requires a gradient from die crest and over the scale wliich will provide sufficient 
time on the scale alone for weighing of cars of maximum lengdi, minimum lengtii, 
or a mixture of boUi, with due consideration of variations in rolling resistance. 

(e) The trend toward fidl automation in hump yards necessitates the provision 
of tangent and curve rolling resistance measuring sections to be located between the 
crest of the hump and die group retarder. Recent yard installations have used an 
accelerating grade not to exceed 6.0 percent for a distance of 70 ft, more or less, 
at the crest of the hump to assist in providing the proper separation of cars. The 
resistance measuring section then is provided on an accelerating grade of 2.0 percent, 
more or less, to the master retarder, which may also be placed on a grade not to 
exceed 6.0 percent. Retarders may be constructed with a \'ertical curve at the lower 
end which facilitates placing the first switch beyond the leaving end of both master 
and group retarders as close to the retarders as possible. 



106 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Assoc i a t i o n 

(f) The gradient from the group (last) retarder through the classification tracks 
should not produce unacceptable acceleration of easy-rolling cars after leaving the 
group retarder. This gradient may result in deceleration of other cars, requiring the 
release of such cars from the group retarder at higher speeds. The gradient within 
the switching area for a group may be made decelerating for all cars to permit re- 
lease at a higher speed for the purpose of clearing ladders quicker and to provide 
more space beween cars for operating switches and sending cars to adjacent tracks. 
The design of this part of tlie hump profile is important to obtain maxinmm humping 
capacity with minimum damage to cars and contents. 

(g) The gradient through the group retarder should be sufficient to start most 
cars should they be stopped in the retarder and should preferably be at least 0.8 
percent. 

(h) The gradients between the crest and the track group are regulated by the 
hump height, tlie length and location of retarders, the gradient selected through the 
group retarder, tlie gradient required for the track scale and tlie desired speed of 
cars leaving each of tlie retarders, as follows: 

( 1 ) There should be a sufficient lengtli of retarder in each route to stop a 
0.15 percent resistance car of maximum gross weight in die group re- 
tarder when released from the crest at the design humping speed. If a 
pin-puller retarder is used, its retarding efi^ect should not be included in 
computing the amount of retardation required between crest and 
clearance. 

Note: The majority of existing retarder yards handling mixed traffic have been 
designed for cars having a maximum gross weight of 100 tons on 4 axles with 33-in- 
diameter wheels. Cars of heavier gross weights and having wheels of larger diameter 
shoidd be taken into consideration in providing adequate retardation if they are 
likely to appear in large numbers at any yard. 

(2) The group retarder lengdi should be sufficient to control heavy cars 
having normal rolling resistance variation over the length of track on 
which cars are classified. For example, a group retarder having a velocity 
head rating of 5.5 ft would be sufficient to control heavy cars having a 
rolling resistance from 0.12 percent to 0.34 percent over a distance of 
2500 ft from the leaving end of die group retarder. 

(3) The master retarder should be of sufficient length to insure that a car 
of maximum gross weight having a 0.15 percent resistance will move 
through it, closed to maximum retardation, and leave it at a speed which 
will permit stopping in the group retarder when the car is uncoupled at 
the design humping speed. The elevation at the lower end of tlie retarder 
should be such that the exit speed (usually 8 to 14 niph) will permit 
adequate separation of cars between die master and group retarders. 

(i) Compensation for curve resistance may be made by compensating gradients, 
by additional speed, or by a combination of both. This factor is of major importance 
in the design of gradients between the group retarder and clearance. Curvature 
through turnouts should be included with other curvature when calculating curve 
resistance. 



Manual Recommendations 107 



2.4.3.5 Formulas 

(a) Hump gradients 

The following formulas may be used in designing hmnp yard gradients from 
the crest of the hump to the clearance point of a classification track. 

H = Hump height = S,i?a* + S.R^^ -\-AC^ + Sw2— (F^)<. 
Hi ^ H — Ha 

Ha='Diop from leaving end of group retarder to clearance = 5a i22« + ^C. + 
Swa + a 

Where, 

Subscript "1" refers to the section between crest and leaving end of group retarder. 

Subscript "2" refers to the section between leaving end of group retarder and clearance. 

Subscript "A" refers to hard-rolling cars. 

Subscript "e" refers to easy-rolling cars. 

Quantities with no subscript refer to the area between crest and clearance. 

S =: Distance in feet. 

A := Curvature in degrees of central angle. 
(yH)o = Humping velocity head in feet. 

R =: Car rolling resistance expressed decimally. 

C ^ Curve resistance in feet of drop per degree of central angle. 
Sw;j = Switch resistance in feet for switches beyond the group retarder. (Resistance of 
switches in Section "1" is not included as a separate item since /?i» is made 
higher than R2h to include switch resistance.) 

a r= Difference in feet between velocity head at clearance and velocity head at leav- 
ing end of group retarder for easy-rolling cars. This will be a positive quantity 
if car is accelerating and a negative quantity if car is decelerating. 

The quantities to be substituted for the various symbols may be determined from tests 
at yards now in operation. 
Having determined the required vertical drops H and Hz, these drops should be dis- 
tributed in their respective areas best to meet the operating requirements. There is no 
necessity for the curve compensation included in Ha to be applied entirely to the curve 
itself and part or all of it may be put in advance of the curve. 

If it is desired to deliver hard-rolling cars under advei'se conditions to a point farther 
down in the classification yard than just to the clearance point as defined herein, these 
same formulas will apply by using such new point for all calculations instead of the 
clearance point. 

It will be noted that the expression for H provides a total drop which may be 

different for each track, with the sides of the yard lower than the center because of the 

greater curvature in the outside tracks. The following are practical methods of application. 

( 1 ) Grade the classification tracks so that each track has its proper amount of 

curve compensation. This is done by detennining the drop Hi for each 

track, which will yield a yard cross section made up of a series of steps. 

This is not objectionable, provided the difference in elevation between 

adjacent tracks is not prohibitive. This method provides the most uniform 

roUing conditions beyond the last retarder. 



108 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(2) Grade all tracks of the same group in one plane using the H coiTCspond- 
ing to the track having most curvature and Ht corresponding to the 
track having the least curvature. This method requires higher releasing 
speeds at the group retarder for the tracks having more curvature. 

(b) Body track gradients 

In yards handling both loads and empties, gradients below the group retarder must 
be provided on the basis of the easy-rolling cars unless such cars are so few that the 
operation of the yard will not be slowed up appreciably by the necessity for bringing 
them practically to a stop in the last retarder. The acceleration of easy-rolling cars after 
leaving the group retarder should not be excessive so as to permit higher releasing speeds 
at the group retarder. 

The gradient of the body tracks should be about 0.08 percent adjusted to meet local 
conditions, and any curves that there may be in the body tracks should be compensated 
at the rate of 0.025 ft per deg of central angle unless such curvels are so located that there 
would be no objection to the cars decelerating. 

It is advisable to have an adverse grade in the body tracks just in advance of where 
they join the ladders at the far end of the yard, with a rise of not less than the 
equivalent of 4 mph. 

(c) Retardation 

Retardation is obtained from the equation: 

(VH) H,o = H^-\- (VH)o — 5ai2i, — Ai C. 

Where, 

(rfl')H+o = Total retardation for hump and group retarder. 

2.4.3.6 Example 

To illustrate the aforementioned principles, the following example for northern climates 
is worked out analytically and the results shown graphically in Fig. 3. 

Layout Data 
Si = 81Sft,& = Sl9ft 
Ai = 22.65*', Aj=22.6S» 
Sx«»= 0.24 ft (0.06 ft per turnout) 

Design Data 

Rik = 1.4%, R3% = 0.9% 94 ft scale 35 ft from crest. 

Ri, =0.15%, (F^)o = 0.21 ft — 2.5 mph o = — 0.67 ft corresponding to a ve- 

Ra, = 0.08% lodty of 6.0 mph at leaving 

C» = 0.045, C. = 0.025 end of group retarder, and a 

A;= 1.0 velocity of 4.0 mph at clear- 
ance. 

Solution 
H = SiRtx -f- S,Rc^ +^Ck + SW»— {VH). = (815) (0.014) -f (519) (0.009) 

-f (45.3) (0.045) -\- (0.24) — (0.21) = 18.15 ft, locating point "A" on the 

profile 
ff,= 5a/2a.-|- AsC.4-Swi-f ffl =(S19) (0.0008) -|- (22.65) (0.025) -|- (0.24) 

— (0.67) = 0.55 ft. 
ni=H-H»= 18.15— 0.55= 17.60 ft, locating point "B" on the profile. 



Manual Recommendations 



109 





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110 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Point C is located by using a 1.2 percent gradient between B and C. 
Point E has been located by the 3.0 percent gradient because of scale requirements. 
Point D is established after determining the lengths of the group and bump re- 
retarders. 

{yH)B.o =17.60+ 0.21 — (815) (O.OOIS) — (22.65) (0.025) = 16.02 ft. 

Let {yH)o =6.24 ft, then (FF)h = 9.78 ft. 

Let the minimum exit velocity be 10 mph from the master retarder. 

10 mph = iM ft VH 
Elevation of point D = — 9.78— (395) (O.OOIS) —3.34 + 0.21 = — 13.50 ft. 

Having completed the ground profile, the resistance line of the unretarded 0.15 and 
0.08 per cent car is drawn, as shown in Fig. 3. To obtain the resistance line of 
the fully retarded 0.15 percent car, point D' is plotted 3.34 feet above point D, 
equal to the velocity head for 10 mph. Points C and B' are then plotted to 
yield grades parallel to those of the resistance line of the unretarded car. The 
total retardation required is 6.24 ft +9.78 ft =16.02 ft. If, however, the 
retardation furnished is greater than 16.02 ft, the hump height may be in- 
creased to utilize the full capacity furnished and/or reduce the amount of 
grading. 

All rolling-resistance values used in tlie example are accepted empirical averages 
susceptible of modification after more research data are obtained. In analyzing an 
existing yard or in designing a new one, the designer must recognize that the same 
car will have a different apparent rolling resistance in Section 1 than it will have in 
Section 2 because it is generally accelerating in Section 1 and decelerating in Sec- 
tion 2. It is noted that this fact has been considered in the example for both hard- 
roUing cars and easy-rolling cars. 

2.5 FLAT CLASSIFICATION YARDS DESIGN 

2.5.1 General 

(Material being developed). 

2.5.2 Gradients 

(Material being developed). 

2.5.3 Design factors 

(Material being developed). 



Manual Recommendations 111 

Part 3 
Freight Delivery and Transfer 



FOREWORD 



This part deals with the engineering aspects of freight (commodities, merchan- 
dise, etc.) handling at the points of origin and delivery, in carload lot or less-than- 
carload lot, or in the consolidation of LCL freight from a greater to a lesser number 
of cars, or vice versa, or where it is desired to transfer packaged freight from foreign 
line cars into home line cars for forwarding to destination. The facilities are essen- 
tially supplementary units and should be so located, so designed, and so operated 
in relation to each other and to the lines tributary to them, as to give the most 
economical results for the railway as a whole. 



CONTENTS 

Section Page 

3.1 Freight Houses 112 

3.2 Team Yards 115 

3.3 Driveways 115 



112 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

3.1 FREIGHT HOUSES 

3.1.1 General 

(a) Where tliere is a choice of sites, the following factors should be considered 
in the selection: 

( 1 ) highway accessibility, 

(2) nearness to city pick-up, 

(3) space for future expansion, 

(4) proximity to existing switching service, 

(5) space for a new yard or proximity to existing supporting yard, 

(6) the possible inclusion of rail-truck freight facilities, 

(7) economies of location near terminal yards even though remote from city, 
and 

(8) relative land values. 

(b) The ultimate size of the freight house should be determined in advance 
from consideration of the type and average amount of traffic to be handled through 
it in the first instance, the variation of the peak from average requirements and the 
probable growth of requirements during the period in which the cost of the structure 
can be amortized. The initial size should be determined by the immediate needs. 

(c) One factor in obtaining minimum operating costs will result when house 
tracks are placed between inbound and outbound freight houses or platforms with 
trucking connections. This factor applies to all large facilities. These connections can 
be in the form of tunnels, grade crossings, trucking bridges, or by extending the 
trucking platform around the stub ends of tracks. 

(d) The factors of design for a freight house, such as car capacity, tailboard 
frontage, floor area, width of house, platforms, conveyors, bridges, ramps and road- 
ways; and in the case of a two-level house, the capacity of elevators if used, should 
be so correlated that no one factor will limit the capacity of the house. 

(e) The design and layout of the facilities should be such as to require the 
minimum amount of labor to handle freight, and where economically feasible, 
mechanization should be exploited to the maximum. 

( f ) The economies of protecting the facility and operation from adverse weather 
should be considered. 

3.1.2 Dimensions 

(a) The size and shape of the house should take into consideration the 
following: 

( 1 ) the number of house tracks, 

(2) the number of cars to be set, 

(3) total tailboard length, 

(4) platform space required, 

(5) location of roof columns, 

(6) type of operation to be accommodated, such as transfer of freight be- 
tween car and car, between car and truck, forwarder, shipping associa- 
tion, etc., and 

(7) the type of mechanical freight-handling equipment to be used, if any. 

(b) Platform widths should be arrived at by allowing from 6 to 8 ft for each 
conveyor or motorized travel lane, with sufficient standing space outside of travel 



Manual Recommendations 113 

lanes for parking freight trucks. Standing space 10 to 15 ft wide adjacent to car 
side and tliat much or more at tailboard side is desirable. Larger standing areas may 
be required, depending on the amount of freight and length of time it is to be held 
on floor. 

(c) Space should be provided for offices, toilets, locker and lunch room, warm 
and cool rooms, cooperage shop, storage for blocking and bulkhead material, and 
maintenance shop for platfonn equipment. 

3.1.3 Two-Level Structvire 

(a) Conditions under which a two-le\el freight house are required are excep- 
tional rather than ordinary. Under certain topographical or other physical conditions, 
such as separate track and highway levels, the two-level house may provide die only 
economical solution, eliminating teamways, ramps, and avoiding interference between 
teaming and switching movements. 

(b) A t\\"0-level freight house occupies less land area per ton of capacity than 
a one-level freight house, but the cost of construction may be greater, and the build- 
ing cannot be altered as readily to meet changing conditions. 

(c) Trucking costs in a properly designed two-level freight house are less tlian 
in a one-le\el freight house of the same capacity, but this is somewhat offset by 
the cost of elevating freight. Although mechanical handling by towing conveyors 
has not been applied to two-le\el freight houses, that method should be considered 
in planning new or in modernizing existing houses. 

(d) Stowing costs may be less in a two-level outbound freight house than in a 
one-level outbound freight house if the loading platform is located in the middle 
of the outbound setting of cars. 

(e) A combination inbound and outbound freight house of the two-level type 
is more economical to operate than separate inbound and outbound freight houses 
of this type. 

(f) A multi-level inbound freight house may prove an economical method of 
securing additional storage space for freight. 

3.1.4 Mechanized Freight-Handling Facilities 

(a) Mechanical equipment in a freight house will usually include one or a com- 
bination of the following: 

( 1 ) mechanical trucks, 

(2) tractors towing platfonn trucks, 

(3) fork lifts and 

(4) towing conveyors. 

(b) Minimum lengths of haul are approximated in a freight-house layout having 
a vvddth roughly equal to its length. This is an important factor where hand trucking 
is to be employed. It is much less important with tractor towing operation, and least 
important with towing conveyors. 

(c) When volume justifies their use, con\eyor chains, either overhead or en- 
cased in floor, towing four-wheel platform trucks can normally handle 90 to 95 
percent of the freight-house tonnage. 

(d) Towing conveyors are continuous and tow both loaded and empty trucks 
usually spaced 12 to 18 ft apart. Tra\el speeds up to 175 ft per niin are in use. The 
conveyor may cross the freight house tracks by means of a trucking bridge or by 



114 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineeri ng Association 

ramping down to a grade crossing or timnel with ramp gradients of preferably not 
more than 6 percent. With floor-tyi^e conveyors it is possible to construct grade 
crossings so that the chain will not have to be disconnected to allow railroad cars 
to cross. 

(e) Stop switches should be placed along conveyor routes at about every otlier 
car to control the movement of the chain and to be available in case of emergency. 

(f) The capacity of a conveyor line is the product of the number of loaded 
trucks going by a given point per hour and the net load per truck. The net load 
used for the design of a particular house should be determined by test where 
possible. 

(g) Up to the present time, freight elevators have been the principal means 
for vertical transportation of freight; however, with proper ramps, either tractor- 
trailer or towing conveyor operations are possible and eliminate the need for elevators 
in multi-level facilities. 

3.1.5 Appurtenant Facilities 

In the design and construction of a freight house, the following must be 
considered: 

( 1 ) paging and intercommunication systems, 

(2) centralized checking, 

(3) pneumatic tube systems, 

(4) dock offices, 

(5) auxiliary toilet facilities, 

(6) platform scales, 

(7) drinking fountains, 

(8) fire protection, 

(9) facilities for fuehng, storing and maintaining equipment, 

(10) overhead crane for handling heavy loads, 

(11) facilities for transfer of tank car contents, 

( 12 ) highway truck scales if trucking operation is involved, and 

(13) freight house canopies. 

3.1.6 House Tracks 

(a) The capacity of inbound tracks should be such that no more than one 
change in the inbound setting of cars need be made during a shift of freight-house 
operations, and this change may be made during the lunch hour. 

(b) The capacity of the outbound tracks should be such that the outbound 
setting of cars may be left undisturbed during the shift of freight-house operations. 

(c) There are operating advantages in having a platform adjacent to each 
track; however, overall economies usually dictate trucking through one or more cars. 

(d) Spotting cars to permit trucking through them requires approximately 1% 
min of switch engine time per car to spot and recouple. 

(e) State regulations and type of cars to be set will usually dictate track- 
centers, side clearance, and platform heights. Wlien refrigerator cars are to be used, 
tracks preferably should be depressed and platform set 8 ft from center line of track. 

3.1.7 Freight Transfer Stations 

(a) A freight transfer station should be provided where it is desired to consoli- 
date LCL freight from a greater into a lesser number of cars, or vice versa, or where 



Manual Recommendations 115 

it is desired to transfer package freight from foreign line cars into home line cars 
for forwarding to destination. 

(b) The width of transfer platform should be sufficient to accommodate: 

( 1 ) the parking of trucking equipment at track sides, and 

(2) lanes for movement of the type of equipment used in moving freight 
from car to car. 

3.2 TEAM YARDS 

3.2.1 General 

( a ) Location 

The location of a team yard should be such that it will be convenient for use 
by shippers and consignees, and also as convenient as possible to a freight house, 
so that the receipt and shipment of freight may be easily under control of the freight 
agent's force. 

(b) Equipment 

( 1 ) A crane for handling heavy freight should be provided when required. 

(2) A motor truck scale, with office, should be provided near the main en- 
trance to the team yard when required. 

(c) Tracks 

( 1 ) Switching tracks for holding and working cars should be provided in 
the immediate vicinity of the team tracks and so arranged as to facili- 
tate the switching of these tracks. 

(2) The spacing of tracks, where multiple team tracks are built, may be 
fixed by regulatory bodies, but it is recommended that the maximum 
distance between track centers be 13 ft. 

(3) The distance between track centers where the driveway is located be- 
tween tracks, should be 10 ft greater than the width of the driveway. 

3.3 DRIVEWAYS (FREIGHT HOUSE AND TEAM YARD) 

(a) Freight house and team yard dri\eways should be paved and maintained 
in good condition. 

(b) The widdi of a freight house driveway should allow trucks to be backed 
up to die freight house at right angles and leave additional room for two thorough- 
fare lanes for moving vehicles. 

(c) Team-track driveways normally .should be of sufficient widtli to allow the 
longest Single unit trucks using the driveway to stand at right angles to the car, 
with sufficient space remaining in front of the truck to allow another truck of maxi- 
mum width to pass. 

(d) Team yard driveways should be hard-surfaced and liave at least 60 ft 
clear width between cars. 

(e) Driveways between buildings or between a building and a team track 
should ha\'e preferably a clear wadth of 110 to 150 ft, with the latter dimension to 
be used if parking is allowed in the center of tire driveway. Driveways at ends of 
buildings should be not less than 60 ft in widtii. 

(f) Inspection and hold yard two-lane driveways may have a clear width of 
22 ft between cars. 



116 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(g) Stub-ended driveways serving team tracks should be avoided. Where team 
tracks are more than 20 cars long (per single track), intermediate connecting cross 
drives should be provided. In large team track developments where exceptionally 
long tracks are provided, cross drives should be introduced so that 14 cars per track 
is the maximum length between any two drives. 

(h) For otlier information and data see Chapter 6 — Buildings. 



Manual Recommendations 117 



Part 4 
Specialized Freight Terminals 



FOREWORD 



This part deals with the engineering and economic problems of location, design, 
construction and operation of freight terminals for the expeditious handling of a 
single t>'pe commodity or merchandise as opposed to the handling of several types 
of commodity or merchandise as in Part 3. 



CONTENTS 

Section Page 

4.1 Waterfront 118 

4.2 Rail-Truck 119 

4. .3 Automobile and Truck Transport 123 

4.4 Bulk, Solid 129 

4.5 Bulk, Liquid 130 

4.6 Merchandise 130 



Bui. 655 



118 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

4.1 WATERFRONT 

4.1.1 General 

A water-front terminal provides facilities for the transfer of shipments or cargoes 
from ship or barge to railway cars or trucks, and from railway cars or trucks to ship 
or barge. The facilities consist of docks, wharves, piers and warehouses, with loading 
and unloading equipment and necessary railway tracks and roadways for transfer 
purposes. 

The waterside may be an ocean, lake or river, but is usually a harbor on one 
of these. A dock is the facility at which ships are moored. A dock may be parallel 
to the shore line, in which case it is called a wharf. If a dock is built at an angle 
ranging from acute to right to the shore line, where ships can be moored on both 
sides, tlie structure is called a pier. Whai"ves and piers may be open or covered, 
depending on tlie protection needed for the commodity handled. Some piers are 
used for short-term storage as well as the transfer of goods. 

4.1.2 Design 

In designing a water-front terminal consideration must be given to the type and 
quantity of freight to be handled, and to the trackage and track arrangement required 
so that proper switching to and from docks can be provided. The facilities on land 
are provided to economically load and unload commodities. Docks should also be 
equipped with necessary conveyors, pipelines, car dmnpers, cranes, hoppers and any 
other facility necessary to handle special commodities. 

4.1.3 Equipment 

Large structural cranes may be built over docks to extend over ships to facilitate 
the handling of loads. Conveyor systems may be built to move commodities in bulk 
or in units. Some important docks specialize in handling one commodity, such as 
ores, coal, grain, fruit (bananas), automobiles or equipment, or to transfer railway 
cars and certain merchandise. 

4.1.4 Track Facilities 

(a) Wliarves may be served by tracks parallel to the wharf. Occasionally 
wharves are equipped with tracks constructed adjacent to the water's edge, and 
goods are handled directly between the ship and railway cars. 

(b) Piers are usually provided with tracks running down their center or along 
tlie edge. Transfer bridges are used for handling railway cars to and from ships, 
car floats or ferries. 

(c) Various yards for railway cars are a part of a water-front terminal. A storage 
yard is usually necessary for cars held for loading or unloading and to accumulate 
special cars for a particular ship. A classification yard, with or without receiving 
and departure yards, storage and car repair yard, may be provided, depending upon 
the volume of traffic handled. 

4.1.5 Storage 

Adequate storage space — ground pier or covered warehouse — ^is essential for 
commodities awaiting shipment. The arrangement of these yards and storage space 
is important so there will be the minimum of interference in handling cars to and 
from the yards and unloading spots. 



Manual Recommendations 119 



4.2 RAIL-TRUCK 

4.2.1 Types of Facilities 

(a) End loading of railroad cars is accomplished by backing the tractor-trailer 
combination on a flat car or string of cars from a platform or ramp constructed to 
car-floor height. 

(b) Side loading can be accomplished by the use of a fork lift truck, a platform 
at car-floor height, or by the use of special equipment which permits separation of 
the trailer body from its wheels and transfer of the body to a flat car. 

(c) Overhead loading can be accomplished by the use of a traveling, overhead 
rail-mounted or tire-mounted crane. Either the entire trailer or the trailer body 
without wheels can be handled from the roadway adjacent to the track. 

The three types of facilities described above are illustrated by Figs. 4 to 6, incl. 

4.2.2 Design factors 

Detennining factors relative to the location of the facility depend upon the 
potential volume of traffic, its origin and destination within the service area, the 
convenience of highway access and the necessity for economical and expeditious 
movement of railroad cars. As many as 8 (90-ft) cars in a string can be efficiently 
used in end loading operations. A trailer parking area of at least one and one-half 
times the ti-ailer capacity of the loading tracks should be planned. Many installations 
have a parking area with a capacity two or three times the track capacities. 

There may be advantages to have the track area depressed in relation to the 
parking area, driveways and ramps. The tracks used to spot cars for loading should 
be on tangent. The curvature of approach tracks should be limited to 400-ft radius 
(14 deg 20 min). 

The larger operations will require an office and locker room at the site. A tiuck 
scale may be required. Fencing may be worthwhile to assist policing. Drainage of 
track, driveway and parking area must be considered. Communication facilities within 
and beyond the operation area should be provided for efficiency. Facilities for repair 
of truck and tie-down equipment may be required. 

4.2.3 Paving requirements 

The type of paving or surfacing of parking area, driveways and ramps should 
be selected to suit the intensity of use anticipated. The ramps may be of wood, 
concrete or earth-filled crib construction. Platform walkways adjacent to tracks 
should be considered to provide easy movement of men from one car to another. 
Portable ramps can be used to eliminate need to turn cars. Traffic lines will facilitate 
parking and handling of equipment. 

4.2.4 Electrical facilities 

Lighting and power outlets in the track area should be furnished to facilitate 
tie-down operations. Parking areas should be liglited if there is considerable night 
operation. 



120 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 




Manual Recommendations 



121 




122 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 




Manual Recommendations 123 

4.3 AUTOMOBILE AND TRUCK TRANSPORT 

4.3.1 Automobile Transport 

4.3.1.1 General 

The loading and unloading of finished automobiles requires equipment and 
plant that contribute to the overall expeditious distribution from assembly plants to 
local dealers. Automobile companies place a premium upon total time in transit and 
do consider all aspects of equipment utilization, interest charges and delivered auto 
condition. 

Loading is usually accomplished at an assembly plant, on automobile company 
property, by tlie automobile company or its contractor. The actual facilities utilized 
are similar in nature to the unloading facilities; however, there are exceptions which 
must be given consideration on an individual basis. Exceptions can vary from loading 
inside tlie plant witli multi-level cars handled by a transfer table to and from a 
support yard to simply driving the finished vehicle to a more conventional loading 
facility located at some convenient point other than the plant itself. 

Unloading, on the otlier hand, is usually accomplished by the rail carrier or its 
contractor, on railroad company property, utilizing facilities provided by the railroad 
company. The contractor engaged by tlie railroad company to actually perform the 
unloading task will more than likely be the same organization engaged by an indi- 
vidual automobile company to prepare and deliver units via highway to dealers. 
It is, therefore, suggested that close consultation between all entities involved in the 
automobile distribution process be maintained during the design phase in order to 
assure an efficient and usable facility. 

Examination of facilities now in existence discloses a wide variety of sizes, 
shapes, equipment, trackage, etc., as dictated by such factors as availability of real 
estate, proximity to highway networks and volumes of vehicles handled. A typical 
flow diagram of an unloading area is shown as Fig. 7. Certain factors are germane 
to most all auto unloading or loading facilities. They are enumerated below from 
the unloading viewpoint; however, tlie factors apply equally as well to loading areas, 
given appropriate modification for volume. 

4.3.1.2 Location 

Location of tlie unloading area should be selected for its proximity to dealers 
in the area to be distributed to in order to reduce highway mileage to the minimum. 
It should, be located with respect to the railroads main trackage so as to minimize 
switching, spotting and pulling delays. Consideration should also be given to tlie 
potential of vandalism so as to avoid missile damage and theft. 

4.3.1.3 Size 

The size of the unloading facility, its trackage, ramping and vehicle storage 
areas, should be large enough to handle the maximum expected load under the pro- 
posed operating conditions. Some of the conditions to be considered are: the average 
work week, type and quantity of vehicles handled and the number of agencies using 
the same facilities. The auto production and distribution process by its very nature 
requires a considerable degree of advance planning including volume predictions. 
All of the auto maufacturers can and do make rather good \ olume predictions which 
can be utilized for planning purposes. 



124 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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4.3.1.4 Buildings 

Office space, washrooms and locker facilities should be adequate to provide for 
future needs of the operation. Communication facilities required should be provided 
for. Local conditions may require space for maintenance of highway tractors and 
predelivery preparation of autos, including washing and undercoating. 

4.3.1.5 Surfaces — operating and storage areas 

It is recommended that ^ehicular operating and storage areas be paved and 
as flat as possible, limiting loading and unloading angles to eliminate bumper dam- 
age. The area should be graded to provide proper drainage. 

Parking spaces should be clearly marked in an arrangement with ample center 
distances, thereby maximizing turning radii and minimizing door contact. 

4.3.1.6 Security 

The entire area should be fenced and of such a nature as to discourage unau- 
thorized entr\- and tlieft. A common solution is barbed-wire-topped chain link fenc- 
ing. Gating and fencing should be so arranged as to segregate new car storage from 
employee parking. To minimize the possibility of tlieft, one auto manufacturer rec- 
ommends that new vehicles can only be driven out of the storage area over a haul- 
away dock. Provision for checking employees and visitors in and out should be made. 
Locking devices on all gates are recommended. 

4.3.1.7 Lighting 

Lights should be proxided for tlie entire area of sufficient intensity to be ade- 
quate for loading, unloading, inspection and/or security. 

4.3.1.8 Multi-level unloading area 

This area should be placed as close as possible to the center of operations in 
order to minimize travel distances. 

(a) Unloading Tracks: The number and length of these tracks will be de- 
pendent upon tlie volume of rail cars handled and the availability of 
switching ser\ ice. Rail cars and tlience the autos on them may not 
always be oriented in the same direction, thereby making it desirable to 
provide for unloading multi-le\els from either end. Since the backing of 
automobiles from rail cars is not permitted, the alternative to providing 
facilities to unload from either end of the rail car is to turn cars on a 
wye or turntable prior to unloading. This may not be desirable from an 
operating or time standpoint. Track centers and surfacing between tracks 
should be sufficient to allow passage of service vehicles for the purpose 
of a]le\iating tlie problems of flat tires, missing wheels, dead batteries, 
lack of gasoline and others that may occur with the automobiles. 

(b) Unloading Equipment: Unloading equipment should allow quick drive- 
off of automobiles. Where economically justifiable, the ramp should be 
power controlled vertically for adjustment to deck levels as well as hori- 
zontally to adjoining tracks. Manufacturers should be consulted regarding 
maximum ramp angle permitted. At points where it is considered advis- 
able to provide unloading in either direction, one of two methods, otlier 
tlian simply turning the car, can be employed. Ramps may be mounted 
on flanged wheels and rails perpendicular to the unloading tracks. This 
method requires a certain amount of switching to orient the rail cars 



126 Bullet in 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

with the appropriate ramp. The second method is to mount the ramps 
on rubber tires, pave the unloading track area, and move the ramp to the 
cars to be unloaded. 

4.3.1.9 Haul-away loading area 

The provision of a loading dock where highway trailers can be spotted for 
loading is recommended in order to reduce loading angle and decrease loading time. 
The preference of the specific contractor should be determined to assure compatabil- 
ity with his equipment, the dimensions and extent of, or even the need for, this 
feature. 

4.3.2 Vertically Loaded Automobiles 

4.3.2.1 General 

Factors regarding location, size, buildings, surfacing, security and lighting 
enumerated for automobiles on conventional tri-Ievels apply equally as well to ver- 
tically loaded small autos. The rail car itself differs from multi-level rail equipment 
in that automobiles are loaded vertically. Five doors, holding tliree autos each, on 
either side of the car, actually serve the combined functions of loading, unloading 
and securement devices. The car design requires special consideration, as explained 
below, for anyone engaged in planning an unloading area for such cars. 

4.3.2.2 Unloading track and area 

The number of tracks and their lengths will be dependent upon the predicted 
volume of rail cars. A paved area 60 ft wide is recommended on both sides of the 
car to provide adequate unloading and maneuvering space. See Fig. 8 for dimensions. 

4.3.2.3 Unloading equipment 

The car doors themselves serve as ramps for loading and unloading, therefore, 
no special fixed equipment will be required. A mobile machine having the reach and 
capacity to open and close the doors, must be available. 

4.3.3 Truck Transport 

4.3.3.1 General 

Factors regarding location, size, buildings, surfacing, security and lighting 
enumerated above for automobiles apply equally as well to trucks. The rail equip- 
ment and the placement of the trucks on the rail equipment differs. Trucks with 
cabs, but without bodies, are commonly shipped in "saddleback" fashion on a 
specially equipped flat car. Thus, tlie use of a crane is required for loading and 
unloading. While the loading may be done at a plant site exclusively devoted to 
trucks, the unloading operation can conveniently be incorporated into and made a 
part of a typical automobile unloading facility. 

4.3.3.2 Unloading track 

Truck shipping volumes being considerably less than autos, a single track set 
apart from, but adjacent to, auto facilities should suffice. Volume and economic con- 
siderations will dictate the degree of separation from, and/or incorporation within, 
auto facilities. 

4.3.3.3 Unloading facilities 

Trucks loaded in "saddelback" fashion must be removed from the truck they 
have been set upon and secured to for transport to a level position on the car deck 



Manual Recommendations 



127 



!?C)-0"- 




c,0'C;" 



I I 
I I 



QCJ))J Ain-os 



Fig. 8 — ^Typical unloading area for autos loaded vertically. 



128 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



i A-FRAME RAI L 

■" 1 00 LB. OR LESS 



CI 



SWITLH TIE 1 3 ' -6' 



que 

4_ CATENARY POLE 



CROSS TIE 



k ' -0 



© r 



E 



1 



2 ' -0 



ll 



2 ' -0 



r 






3 



CATENARY POLES 
MAY BE PLACED 
ON EITHER SIDE. 



"J 






] n 



—J 



[I 



5'-9 1/i 









^ TRACK 
SYM. ABT. 4 



NOTE: A-FRAME CRANE ELECTRICALLY 
PROPELLED. HAS DOUBLE 
FLANGED WHEELS. 
TOTAL WIDTH 15'0. 
SPACE REQU I RED FOR THIS 
FAC ILITY, 17 '3. 



Fig. 9 — Typical layout for "A" frame truck unloading. 



Manual Recommendations 129 

before being started and driven from the car. The job can be accomplished by a 
mobile crane of sufficient capacity operated adjacent to the rail car where volume 
is fight and the need only occasional. Where volumes require a greater degree of 
specialization, it is recommended that an "A" frame crane, track mounted and 
electrically operated with running rails located outside of regular track rails, be 
provided. The "A" frame straddles the car to be unloaded and can be positioned 
to handle any car spotted within its reach. Fig. 9 details a tie layout to accommo- 
date the "A" frame. Access to the unloading ti-ack for pre-starting service should 
be given consideration. Air supply sufficient to release truck brakes is a necessity. 

4.4 BULK-SOLID 
4.4.1 Grain Elevators 

4.4.1.1 General 

( a ) Track facilities to serve large grain elevators involve special yard design. Co- 
operation between the elevator engineer and the railway engineer is essential to 
the development of a satisfactory plan. 

(b) The location of elevator site, type and capacity of elevator, topography and 
local conditions will influence the arrangement of tracks. 

(c) When selecting the site consideration should be given to property values, 
possible arrangement of connections to plant tracks, local railway operating condi- 
tions, and future expansion of elevator plant and of existing railway facilities. 

(d) Proposed method of railway operation should be established and approved 
by the elevator operating company and operating officials of the railway. 

4.4.1.2 Types 

There are three general types of grain elevators, viz., (1) rail to rail, (2) rail 
to water, and (3) water to rail. Specific plants may be combinations of these types. 

4.4.1.3 Tracks 

4.4.1.3.1 Loading and unloading 

(a) The number and capacity of unloading tracks will depend upon the type, 
arrangement and capacity of elevator unloading facilities, but may be limited in 
some cases by the space available. 

(b) The car capacity of the tracks above and below the loading or unloading 
facilities should be the same. 

(c) Where the car capacity of the unloading tracks on each side of the unload- 
ing facilities is equal to the nonnal daily unloading capacity of tlie elevator plant 
during the grain handfing season, and where the car capacity of the loading tracks 
on each side of the loading facilities is equal to the normal daily business handled, 
the plant switching will be reduced to a minimum. 

(d) Double-ended tracks will permit the continuous movement of cars in one 
direction and facifitate switching. 

(e) Spur unloading tracks may necessitate switching cars through unloading 
shed and over unloading facilities, requiring the use of idler cars. Locomotives should 
not be permitted to enter the unloading shed. 



130 B u lletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Associatio n 

(f) Adverse gradients and curvature in tracks will limit the capacity of car haul 
and should be avoided. An assisting gradient to and from the loading and unloading 
facilities should be provided. A short runoff gradient below the unloading facilities 
will speed up die movement of empty cars. 

(g) Where car imloaders are used, the track arrangement should provide for 
the relative increased capacity of this device. A small plant locomotive or other 
special car handhng equipment should be considered in connection with car un- 
loaders. Flexibility of track layout in the vicinity of car unloader, to facilitate the 
operation of plant locomotive, should be given special attention. 

( h ) Loading tracks may be located on the same or opposite side of "workhouse" 
from unloading tracks. 

(i) Certain unloading ti-acks may be used for loading or to augment the 
capacity of the loading tracks. 

( j ) Some of the auxiliary buildings, such as storeroom and dust house, may be 
served by the loading tracks. 

4.4.1.3.2 Other tracks 

(a) A running track, located outside of unloading shed, should be provided 
where double ended tracks are installed. 

(b) A separate track should be provided to serve the power house. 
4.4.1.4 Storage yard 

(a) The use of a separate storage yard will require additional handling of cars; 
therefore careful consideration should be given to the advisability of such a yard. 

(b) Where the elevator is located near an existing yard and sufficient capacity 
is available, or can be economically provided, a separate storage yard may not be 
required. 

(c) A separate storage yard may be justified where it can be used to augment 
the existing yard during seasonal increases in business, or where the elevator is 
located some distance from the main or an auxiliary yard. 

(d) The capacity of either the loading or unloading tracks, or both, may in- 
fluence the necessity for a separate storage yard, as well as the capacity of such a 
yard. 

(e) Facilities for inspection of cars and lading should be provided. 

4.4.2 Handling systems for granular material 

(To be developed). 

4.5 BULK-LIQUID 

(To be developed). 

4.6 MERCHANDISE TERMINAL 

4.6.1 Produce terminals 
4.6.1.1 General 

(a) Produce terminals are designed for expeditious and economical distribution 
of fruits, vegetables, and sometimes dairy products, eggs and poultry, meat and meat 
products, frozen foods and sea foods, and dry groceries. 

(b) Terminals should be located and designed to handle peak business. 



Manual Recommendations 



131 



(c) A union terminal serving the entire trade of a community is preferable. 

(d) The location must be convenient for dealers, with easy access over wide 
and well improved highways and easy gradients. It should have convenient railway 
connections. A location adjoining a railway terminal yard is advantageous. 

4.6.1.2 Functions of railway and marketing facilities 

A produce terminal should be considered to include (a) railway facilities and 
(b) wholesale marketing facilities. 

(a) Railway facilities include the primary units for handling carload shipments 
prior to distribution or reconsigning. Any or all of the following facilities may be 
required: 



1. Receiving and delivery yard. 

2. Hold and inspection yard; with or 

without supplemental classification 
tracks. 

3. Team yard. 

4. Buildings for sorting, reconditioning 

and transferring of lading. 

5. Administration building. 

6. Motor truck scales. 

7. Buildings for coopering and supplies. 

8. Buildings for heaters and supplies. 



9. Rest rooms for yard crews, stevedores, 
truck operators and laborers. 

10. Incinerator. 

11. Communication facilities. 

12. Yard lighting. 

13. Icing facilities. 

14. A track system for serving the yards. 

15. A system of driveways for movements 

to and from the team yard and the 
hold and inspection yard. 

16. Fire protection facilities. 



(b) Wholesale marketing facilities include units for the sale and distribution of 
produce and may be situated adjacent to or within easy access of the railway facilities. 
In either case certain units should be served directly by railway tracks. Any or all of the 
following units may be required: 



1. Buildings divided into separate stores. 

2. Buildings for display and private sales. 

3. Buildings for display and auction. 

4. Auction rooms. 

5. Offices, restaurants, etc. 

6. Cold storage warehouse. 

7. Bulk delivery platforms. 

8. Ripening facilities. 

9. Reconditioning facilities. 

10. Motor truck and other scales. 

4.6.1.3 Layouts 



11. Incinerator. 

12. Communication facilities. 

13. Fire protection facilities. 

14. Farmers' market. 

15. A railway track system serving the 

buildings. 

16. Driveways serving the buildings. 

17. Separate buildings for individual large 

firms. 

18. Adequate parking areas. 



4.6.1.3.1 Track 

(a) The track layout should be as compact and flexible as possible, and exten- 
sive enough to take care of traffic without delay. It is governed by the number of 
cars handled at peak periods, the different kinds of produce received, and tlie average 
standing time until cars are released. 

(b) A receiving and delivery yard is sometimes desirable for receiving transfers 
from various roads and for assembling outbound empties and reconsigned cars. 

(c) A hold and inspection yard is sometimes provided. This yard should have 
two-lane driveways between pairs of tracks to permit access for inspection and icing 
from trucks. Inspection platforms are sometimes provided. It may be a separate yard 
or combined with the receiving and delivery yard or with a small classification yard. 



132 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(d) Team yards should have ample standing capacity. Extremely long tracks 
should be avoided. 

(e) Track centers should be not less than 13 ft. 

4.6.1.3.2 Buildings 

(a) Ample floor space should be provided for mechanical handling from cars to 
warehouse floor, display of produce and assembly of various lots for delivery to trucks. 

( b ) The column spacing should be given careful study and be as wide as possi- 
ble, consistent with economic design. 

(c) The back-up space for trucks should be as liberal as possible. 

4.6.1.3.3 Platforms 

(a) Platforms used for inspection or jointly for inspection and handling of 
produce should be not less than 12 ft in width, 3 ft 5 in above top of rail when the 
center line of tangent track is 5 ft 9 in from the platform, or 4 ft 7 in above top of 
rail when tlie center line of tangent track is 8 ft in from the platform. Platforms 
should be covered, and light and water should be provided. Roof supports should be 
located to minimize interference with handling crates. Space for crate storage and 
repairs is usually required. 

(b) House platfoniis, when served by both highway vehicles and railway cars, 
should be 4 ft 4 in above top of rail and 8 ft from the center line of tangent track. 

(c) Clearances must comply with state regulations. 

4.6.1.4 Facilities 

4.6.1.4.1 Garbage and refuse disposal 

Cars should be thoroughly cleaned after unloading, and all refuse and garbage 
removed from platforms, buildings, etc. Cleaning of cars may be accomplished on a 
one-spot basis with mechanized devices. Special equipment such as sweepers, dump 
carts, etc., should be provided in large terminals. Garbage may be handled by city 
collection, by contract, or incinerated. An incinerator, if required, should be of 
ample capacity to handle each day's collection in 6 to 8 hr, conveniently located, 
and designed to burn garbage having a high water content. 

4.6.1.4.2 Icing 

All cars in team and hold and inspection yards should be accessible for icing, 
which is usually done by contract with local dealers. Access may be from narrow 
driveways or from icing platforms. 

4.6.1.4.3 Miscellaneous 

(a) Ample drainage is essential for buildings and yards. 

(b) Floodlighting the entire area is desirable in addition to local lighting. 

(c) The entire area should be strongly and closely fenced to prevent trespass. 

(d) Definitely assigned entrances and exits should be provided. 

(e) A cold storage warehouse, if required, should have suitable track service 
and convenient means of communication with other buildings. 

(f) Adequate parking space should be provided. 

(g) Motor truck scales, when required, should be located at a point convenient 
for the drivers and near the freight ofiBce. The location should not interfere with 
truck movements in the driveways. 



Manual Recommendations 133 



Part 5 
Locomotive Facilities 



FOREWORD 



In tlie establishment or modification of any large railway terminal it is necessary 
to detennine whether separate locomotive facilities should be provided for freight 
and passenger equipment, or whether both types should be handled in a single 
facility. Convenience, expedition, low unit operating costs and carrying charges in- 
volved in these alternatives must be given proper consideration. Usually a single 
facility is more efficient and produces lower unit operating costs. 

The locomotive facilities must be correlated to all other faciilties for efficient 
handling of each locomotive. Servicing facilities required for the various types of 
locomotives should be arranged in an efficient sequence. 



CONTENTS 

Section Page 

5.1 General 134 

5.2 Servicing Facilities 135 

5.3 Inspection Pits 136 

5.4 Diesel, Diesel-Electric and Electric 137 

5.5 Steam 138 



134 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

5.1 GENERAL 

5.1.1 Requirements 

(a) In the case where only one company is involved which has locomotive 
facilities that can be readily enlarged to meet all requirements, economy will favor 
the retention of such facilities in service unless it is prohibitively remote from either 
the passenger station or the center of freight activities. 

(b) In the case of joint freight facilities it may be advisable, as in joint 
passenger terminals, to substitute new joint freight locomotive facilities for several 
layouts vmless existing separate facilities are merely coordinated and delegated to 
joint management where it will be advisable to rely upon the existing facilities. 

( c ) New locomotive facilities should be located to minimize ( 1 ) usage of tracks 
on which tliere are other movements, (2) reverse or conflicting movements, (3) light 
engine mileage in tlie movement of locomotives to and from their trains. In designing 
a locomotive terminal layout a thorough study of the traffic and operating require- 
ments of the terminal should be made jointly by the engineering, transportation 
and mechanical departments. This study should include consideration of the follow- 
ing data, keeping future expansion in mind: 

Type and size of locomotives to be handled. 

Number of locomotives handled in each direction daily, by classes. 

Schedule of arrival and departure of locomotives, by classes. 

Number of locomotives arriving during peak period. 

Time within which locomotives arriving must be hostled, by classes. 

Maximum number of locomotives in tenuinal at one time. 

Number of locomotives repaired daily, by classes of work. 

Number of locomotives under repair at one time, by classes of work. 

Amount of fuel (coal, diesel or fuel oil) issued daily. 

Amount of water consumed daily. 

Amount of sand consumed daily. 

Number of men required to operate the terminal. 

5.1.2 Site Selection 

The selection of a proper site requires a study of all factors affecting costs of 
construction and operation, including cost of preparing site; foundation conditions 
and drainage; sewage disposal, water supply and electricity; relation to existing or 
proposed yards and to passenger and freight stations; labor supply, including housing 
facilities and transportation; tax rates; and availability of public fire fighting apparatus 
and stations. 

5.1.3 Track layout 

(a) All locomotives should preferably enter the locomotive facilities from the 
same end; a separate exit should be provided for flexibility in movement to insure 
that the facilities will not be tied up in case of trouble at tlie entrance. 

(b) Entrance tracks should be so located and of such capacity as to permit 
the prompt receipt of locomotives immediately on arrival, with space between those 
which may have to wait their turn for servicing. Where climatic conditions permit 
outside storage sufficient tracks should be provided near tlie exit for holding loco- 
motives already prepared for service. 



Manual Recommendations 135 



(c) The layout should provide at least one runaround track for flexibility. 

(d) At the ends of locomotive runs where the operation requires quick turn- 
around service, facilities should be provided for standing locomotives, sanding, 
fueling and watering with or widiout inspection pits. 

5.1.4 Buildings 

5.1.4.1 Office 

Adequate office facilities should be provided for the officer in charge of the 
terminal and his staff. 

5.1.4.2 Amenity and service 

One or more structures of fire-retardant construction should be provided at a 
convenient location to house the following: 

(a) Locker, toilet and washrooms for employees. 

(b) Storehouse for flagging equipment, supplies, oil, lanterns, etc. 

5.1.4.3 Reference 

Complete information on the design of shop buildings and other buildings re- 
quired in an engine terminal, together with pits and other appurtenances, will be 
found in Chapter 6 — Buildings. 

5.1.5 Miscellaneous facilities 

5.1.5.1 Communications 

(a) Telephone 

(b) Radio 

(c) Paging — Talk-back speakers 

(d) Pneumatic tube (if necessary) 

5.1.5.2 Lighting 

The entire locomotive terminal area should be provided with adequate lighting. 

5.2 SERVICING FACILITIES 

5.2.1 Fueling Stations 

(a) Coaling Stations 

Coahng stations should be located to serve as many locomotives as possible on 
their regular routes. There are two general locations for coaling stations, those at 
enginehouse leads at terminals and those adjacent to main tracks between terminals. 
At terminals, coaling stations should be located to serve both inbound and outbound 
tracks as recommended for tlie engine terminal layout. Coal stations may be arranged 
readily to deliver coal on one or more tracks. Each location should be studied sepa- 
rately on the most suitable track arrangement for that particular installation selected. 

(b) Fuel Oil Stations 

At locations where oil is used as a fuel for locomotives, facilities must be 

provided for unloading, storing and delivering such oil. In cases where the fuel oil 

used is a heavy type, facilities must be provided for heating such oil while being 

unloaded as well as in storage so that pumping may be completed in a minimum 
length of time. 



136 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

In the design and construction of fueling stations at locomotive facilities pro- 
visions should be included to prevent the pollution and contamination of public 
waters from spilled fuels and oils through surface and subsurface waters, sewers 
and odier conduits. 

5.2.2 Watering 

Sufficient watering facilities should be provided to serve all locomotives entering 
and leaving die terminal. 

5.2.3 Sanding 

Sanding facihties should be provided to serve all locomotives entering and 
leaving the terminal. Usually tiiese facilities are situated adjacent to the fuel and 
water facilities so that locomotives can be completely serviced at one location. 

5.2.4 Washing 

(a) Steam locomotives 

Facilities should be provided for washing locomotives between the cinder pit 
and the turntable. Either a washing platfonn or pit should be constructed with 
adequate drainage and illumination. 

(b) Diesel and electric locom.otives 

Washing facilities should be placed on the lead track when possible. Brushes 
and spray pipes may be so arranged tliat die operation is automatic when the loco- 
motive shunts a track circuit at the entrance to the washer. Some hand washing 
of a locomotive may be necessary. A washing platform with or widiout a wash pit 
to facilitate cleaning the underside of a locomotive may be found desirable. 

5.2.5 Boiler Washing 

(a) In diesel, diesel-electric, and electric locomotive facilities, boiler- washing 
facilities should be provided for heat generating boilers on locomotives used in 
passenger, mail and express service. 

(b) In steam-locomotive facilities, boiler- washing facilities should be provided 
for all locomotives. 

5.2.6 Turning Locomotives 

Unless the locomotives to be handled are exclusively of the type with operating 
controls at both ends, some form of turning facility such as a turntable, a balloon 
or loop track, or a wye track must be provided. 

5.2.7 Portable Servicing 

Portable servicing units consisting of a truck equipped with sand and fueling 
facilities may be desirable for servicing diesel switch engines at a large terminal. 

5.3 INSPECTION PITS 

Inspection pits are usually located on the inbound track near the entrance to 
the terminal, except such a pit as described in 5.4.1(g). These pits should have: 

(a) Suitable deptii for inspection of the locomotives. 

(b) Length not less tiian the longest locomotive to be inspected. 

(c) Adequate drainage. 



Manual Recommendations 137 

(d) Stairway for convenient access and/or tunnel direct to the inspectors' 
office. 

(e) Fixtures for lighting and service outlets. 

(f) Telephone supplemented by a pneimiatic tube system for communication 
with the shop supervisor's office. 

5.4 DIESEL, DIESEL-ELECTRIC AND ELECTRIC 

5.4.1 Shop Building and Appurtenances 

(a) The size of the building is determined by the lengtli of units and the 
number to be housed simultaneously. A rectangular structure is ideal to serve the 
requirements. \Vlien locomotives are pooled, the back shop work will be done at one 
or more system shops, and the building for such work \\'ill generally be much larger 
and have more facilities than tlie building for running repairs at terminals located 
between such system shops. The structure, however, should be so designed as to 
provide facilities for either running repairs or heavy repairs as outlined above, and 
should include a machine shop, store room, parts cleaning and parts-conditioning 
room, wheel supply and storage, lunch and locker room, wash rooms, tool rooms, 
toilets and office. 

(b) Materials used in construction should be fire-retardant. 

(c) The number and length of tracks should be sufficient to accommodate all 
of the locomotives to be housed at any one time. Stub-end heavy repair tracks may 
have certain economic advantages, and if such a layout is used there should be at 
least one through nmning repair track along side of the heavy repair tracks. The 
desirable distance between track centers should not be less than 23 ft, which allows 
for a 12-ft wide working platform. 

(d) The length of pits should accommodate the longest locomotive consists. 

(e) Wheel storage facilities adjacent to repair shops should be provided to 
assure a convenient supply of wheels, including wheels with their traction motors 
attached. 

(f) The lubricating oil facilities may be handled in the repair shop proper or 
in a separate structure. Fire-retardant construction should be employed. Meters 
should be provided to measure accurately the lubricating oil delivered to the units. 
The tanks for new lubricating oil should be of sufficient size to handle oil in carload 
lots. Facilities may be provided for reclaiming worn and dirty lubricating oil and 
should include tanks to collect the reclaimed oil. 

(g) When pooled locomotives receive schedule maintenance there will be no 
need for them to enter the shop building for days at a time. If such conditions exist 
at the tenninal a track with an inspection pit adjacent to the shop building will in 
most instances reduce the number of tracks in the shop building by at least one. 
Such a pit should be long enough to accommodate several sets of locomotive imits 
and should be near enough to the shop building for the shop supervisor to direct 
the activities of the employees on this pit. Fueling and sanding facilities could be 
located along this track. With such an arrangement it will mean that a locomotive 
may be placed on the pit track by tlie road crew, at which point it will be spotted 
for the necessary fueling, sanding and other servicing and can remain there until 
ordered for departure, at which time tlie road crew may move the locomotive out of 



138 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

the engine terminal. This will result in real economy, since hostling required within 
the shop building area will be eliminated. 

(h) The electric trolley and other wires should be terminated outside of the 
shop building handling electric locomotives. 
5.4.2 Blow-down Facilities 

Standard stone ballast grouted with cement or a concrete slab should be pro- 
vided on the outbound track for locomotives used in passenger service on which 
there are steam generating units for train heating. 

5.5 STEAM 

5.5.1 Enginehouse 

(a) The circular form of enginehouse is preferable under ordinary conditions 
for steam locomotives. The structure should provide facilities for running repairs, 
heavy repairs, machine shop, store room, wheel supply and storage, lunch and locker 
rooms, wash rooms, tool rooms, toilets and office. The length of stall along center 
line of tracks should be at least 20 ft greater than the over-all length of the loco- 
motive and tender so as to provide a trucking space 10 ft wide in front of the pilot 
and space in which to detach tlie tender and provide a walkway between it and the 
engine without opening the door. The stall angle of a circular enginehouse should be 
such that when extended beyond a half-circle the pit tracks will line up across the 
turntable. Radial stub-end tracks on the side of the turntable opposite the engine- 
house and in line with pit tracks are sometimes desirable. 

(b) The track layout should be designed so that locomotives which do not 
require turning may be serviced without crossing the turntable. 

(c) All approach and departure tracks to and from the turntable should line 
across the table with enginehouse tracks to permit convenient movement of dead 
locomotives or carloads of supplies into or out of the enginehouse. 

(d) Sufficient tangent should be provided on aU tiuntable approach tracks to 
permit all engine trucks to be on straight track before passing onto turntable. 

5.5.2 Blow-off Facilities 

If the nmiiber of engines serviced justifies tlie installation of a separate blow-off 
pit, it should be furnished. These blow-off pits may be located between the engine 
washing facilities and the turntable, or on the outbound engine lead. The blow-off 
pit should be of a permanent type of construction and should be provided with 
sufficient drainage. The pit should be large enough to prevent overflowing when in 



5.5.3 Cinder Handling 

Locomotive cinders must be disposed of, and facilities will have to be provided 
for handling cinders. There are several types of cinder-handling facilities, including: 

(a) Cinders discharged directly on the track and removed by shoveling, 

(b) Shallow shoveling pits. 

(c) Water pits, where cinders are discharged into pits containing water, from 
which they are removed and loaded into cars by either a locomotive or 
overhead crane. 



Manual Recommendations 139 

(d) A depressed track beside or between die incoming tracks, deep enough 
to accommodate cars into which cinders are chuted directly from the 
locomotives. 

(e) Mechanical plant \\here cinders are discharged into hoppers and thence 
into buckets or continuous conveyors into cars. 

The track arrangement in the cinder-handling facility must be studied to provide 
sufficient standing capacity' to accommodate all locomotives which cannot be immedi- 
ately serviced, and crossovers and other connections so that locomotives requiring 
preferred attention may be dispatched ahead of others with a minimum of inter- 
ference. 



Manual Recommendations 141 



Part 6 
Passenger Facilities 



FOREWORD 



The designation "passenger facilities" as here employed, comprising mass transit 
and commuter service, includes all the facilities for the passenger station proper, 
mail and express service, track and street approaches, such other auxiliary or acces- 
sory features as may be included witliin a prescribed boundary or terminal zone, 
and, where desirable and practicable, a locomotive tenninal, a coach yard, and 
the appurtenant switching facilities. 



CONTENTS 
Section Page 

6.1 General 142 

6.2 Site 142 

6.3 Track Arrangement 144 

6.4 Station Proper 145 

6.5 Coach Yards 152 

6.6 Modernization 157 



142 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

6.1 GENERAL 

(a) Studies for such passenger facilities should be made by a committee, repre- 
senting all the parties at interest, composed of engineering, transportation, mechanical, 
signal and tiaffic officers. Preferably the officer to be placed in charge of the property 
for operating purposes should be made a member of that committee. 

(b) Consistent with the magnitude and importance of the task, men having 
expert knowledge of tlie various phases of the problem should be employed under 
the direction of the committee to study the whole situation. These experts should 
determine and report on all necessary requirements of the terminal. 

(c) The engineer having charge of the design of the contemplated facilities, 
accompanied when practicable by members of the committee or its representatives, 
should make investigations by personal inspection of terminal situations somewhat 
similar to the one in contemplation; talk with responsible officers of similar terminals; 
examine the facilities there provided and see how they function; obtain comments 
from the men operatingthe terminals visited; get their suggestions as to improve- 
ments which experience has taught them might be made to advantage. He should 
also accumulate and study reports that have been written covering particular proper- 
ties, and also the books and articles that have been written upon the general subject; 
and seek infonnation from all available sources. 

(d) The handling of mail and express, and tlie conjunction thereof witli the 
handling of baggage, are essential and integral parts of passenger terminal operation. 
The necessary facilities should be planned in cooperation with the express and postal 
officials concerned. 

(e) A passenger terminal project should be so located and designed as to 
coordinate as far as reasonably practicable with other civic activities. Frequently 
it is found desirable to make general civic improvements at the same time the termi- 
nal is being constructed. Modification of street approaches is almost always involved. 
The costs should be assumed by the parties benefited. Close cooperation between 
the terminal committee, the planning board of the city, executive officers of the 
city, and perhaps other civic groups, if necessary in order that such new legislation 
as may be necessary shall be fair and equitable to all parties at interest. 

(f) The designer must realize that a large passenger terminal is subject to 
vicissitudes of weather, to delays and derailments to trains, to late connections, to 
power failures, to surges in traffic, to bad-order equipment, to special trains or cars 
requiring special handling, to excursion travel, and to jubilees, conventions and 
special functions at irregular periods. 

(g) The relations which should exist between business handled and the size 
of facilities is subject to variation due to local conditions, class of traffic, type of 
service rendered, large variation in estimates of normal rush-hour business handled, 
and the varying ideas of what constitutes adequate service. Table 2 outlines the 
relations. Committee 6 — Buildings, should be consulted in the design of such 
facilities. 

6.2 SITE 

The site for the terminal should have a balanced maximum composed of the 
following characteristics: 

(a) Accessibility — ^having due regard to modern methods of transportation, 
land values, and economic requirements. 



Manual Recommendations 



143 



Table 2 

Relations Which Should Exist Between Business Handled and the Size or 
Through Passenger Station Facilities 



station Facility 



Unit 



Number or Site of Facility Required for 

the Normal Number of Rusk-Hour 

Passengers Indicated 



250 



500 



750 



10001 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 



1. Area of main waiting 

room 

2. Seating capacity of 

main waiting room. 

3. Area of women's wait- 

ing room 

4- Total area for waiting 

purposes 

6. Total seats in waiting 

areas 

6. Total area of lobby, 

concourse and all 
waiting rooms 

7. Area of men's toilet 

rooms 

8. Number of men's water 

closets 

9. Number of uriaals... 

10. Number of men's lava- 

tories 

11. Area of women's toilet 

rooms 

12. Number of women's 

water closets 

13. Number of women's 

lavatories 

14. Area of ticket offices 

15. Number of ticket 

windows 

16. Number of telephone 

booths 

17. Area of telegraph 

facilities 

18. Total area of dining 

and lunch rooms 

19. Total number of seats 

in dining and liinch 
rooms 

20. Area of kitchen 

21. Area of news stand 

22. Number of barber chairs 



23. Area of baggage room. . 

24. Baggage room tail- 

board frontage 



100 eq ft 
No. of seats 
100 sq ft 
100 sq ft 
No. of seats 

100 sq ft 

100 sq ft 

Number.. 
Number.. 

Number.. 

100 sq ft 

Number.. 

Number.. 
100 sq ft 

Number.. 

Number. - 

Sq ft 

100 sq ft 



Number.. 
100 sq ft 

Sq ft 

Number.. 



30 

143 

5 

55 
190 

80 

4 

6 
5 

3 

3 

7 

3 
4 

3 

3 

100 

9 



34 

5 

115 

2 



53 

213 

7 

88 
300 

152 
6 

9 

8 

5 
4 
9 

5 

7 

5 

4 

130 

14 

53 

8 

185 

3 



72 

270 

9 

116 

390 

208 

8 

12 
10 

7 

5 

12 

7 
9 

7 

5 

150 

19 



72 

11 

240 

3 



89 
315 

11 
137 
470 

256 

10 

15 
12 

9 

6 

14 

9 
11 

8 

7 

170 

24 



93 

14 

290 

4 



112 
400 
14 
167 
590 

320 

13 

19 
15 

11 

8 

17 

11 
14 

11 

10 

210 

34 



129 

20 

380 

4 



128 
465 
17 
195 
700 

376 
15 

23 

17 

13 

10 

19 

13 
17 

13 

13 

230 

43 



173 

26 

450 

5 



155 
570 
23 
238 
880 

472 

20 

29 
20 

18 

13 

23 

17 
21 

16 

19 

280 

63 

249 

38 

565 

6 



178 

665 

29 

275 
1050 

552 

26 

35 
23 

22 

16 

27 

21 
26 

18 

25 

310 

83 



327 

50 

695 

7 



Unit 



Baggage Facilities Required for the 

Indicated Number of Pieces of 

Baggage Handled Daily 



250 



100 sq ft 
Lin' ft ... 



500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 5000 



87 
125 



112 

150 



166 
194 



219 
230 



Unit 



Parcel Check Room Facilities Required 

for the Indicated Number of 

Parcels Handled Daily 



250 



25. Area of parcel check 
room 



100 sq ft 



500 750 1000 1500 2000 



10 



14 



18 



Unit 



Hand-Baggage Facilities Required for 

the Indicated Number of Pieces of 

Hand-Baggage Handled Daily 



250 



26. Area of hand-baggage 
facilities 



100 sq ft 



500 



750 



1000 



1500 



2000 



3000 



200 

750 

35 

306 

1200 

624 

31 

41 
25 

26 

18 

30 

25 



21 

31 

330 

102 



407 

62 

820 



272 
263 



144 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(b) Sufficient size and suitable shape to provide for a proper number and 
length of tracks, and to provide for future growth of both. 

(c) Ease of approach from all the associated rail lines, witliout excessive curva- 
ture or gradient, and preferably witliout grade crossings. 

(d) Room for proper by-pass tracks and for the spread of ladder tracks, to 
provide for free movement and to prevent a tie-up of the yard from derailment at 
the throat. 

(e) Room for auxiliary facilities conveniently located, such as: 

( 1 ) Baggage, mail and express. 

(2) Parking space for sleeping, private and business cars. 

(3) Locomotive terminal. 

(4) Coach yard. 

(5) Automobile parking. 

6.3 TRACK ARRANGEMENT 

(a) The track layout should be such as may be required to accommodate 
straight-forwardly and without interference the contemplated schedule movement 
of trains and the tributary switching movements to and from the station, with a 
proper margin for extra sections or delayed trains, as well as for any predictable 
increase in volume of traffic. 

(b) The track layout should be designed with length between turnouts as 
required for the proper signal indications, and necessary clearances as required for 
operation of track circuits so that a system of fixed signals or interlocking may be 
installed whenever desired without restricting the use of any of tlie routes or the 
necessity of additional track changes. 

(c) Station tracks should be provided sufficient in number to accommodate 
at one time the contemplated schedule movement of trains, witli a liberal margin 
for extra sections and off-schedule arrivals or departures, and should be of such clear 
length and lateral spacing as may be required to fit the station platform layout and 
to accommodate without congestion the essential functions of tlie station platform 
service. While the number of station tracks is largely fixed by the number of trains 
to be accommodated at periods of maximum density, it also to some extent may 
depend upon the type and size of die station, tlie lengths of the station tracks, the 
design of the throat, the proximity of the coach yard and locomotive terminal facili- 
ties, the character of traffic, and the method of operation. 

(d) Sufficient throat tracks should be provided to permit at least two simul- 
taneous parallel movements. The track layout should be sufficiently flexible to provide 
for complete interchange of routes. A ratio of from 2.5 to 3.0 station tracks to 1 
throat track should be adequate if the tliroat is properly designed. 

(e) A sufficient number of station tracks long enough to accommodate the 
maximum length trains, and so located as to assure flexibility of operation, should 
be provided. Possibility of future increase in length of trains should be considered. 

(f) The through and loop types of station are superior to the stub station from 
the standpoint of train operation. 

(g) Loop tracks for turning bains generally expedite service and effect 
economies. 



Manual Recommendations 145 

(h) The possibilties of using the station tracks for other service, such as freight 
interchange, when not in use for their normal purpose, should be studied. 

(i) Freight or industry connections on the station approach tracks or on lines 
within or adjacent to the terminal zone should be so arranged as to avoid or minimize 
interference with passenger train traffic. 

6.4 STATION PROPER 

6.4.1 General 

The station proper includes all the facilities required for the complete accommo- 
dation of passengers and their belongings between the public entrances and the 
trains; also such facilities as the railway company shall provide for the handling of 
mail and express. It comprises: 

(a) The main building, which includes all of the facilities directly needed for 
the comfort and convenience of passengers prior to their departure or subsequent 
to their arrival on trains. 

(b) All thoroughfares connecting the main building with the station platforms, 
such as fixed or moving stairways, elevators, ramps, and other passageways and 
outside concourses. 

(c) The station tracks and tlie appurtenant platforms on which passengers, 
baggage, mail and express are loaded upon or unloaded from trains, including the 
elevators, ramps, or other runways, upon which baggage, express and mail are trucked 
to or from the station platform. 

(d) All other buildings to accommodate the assembly and the public receipt 
and delivery of baggage, express or mail. 

(e) All roadways, platforms and parking spaces to accommodate taxicabs and 
other public and private vehicles, handling people to and from the station, including 
all housing and shelter thereof not embraced in the main building. 

6.4.2 Main Building Areas 

6.4.2.1 General 

(a) The principal floor areas should include a lobby, a waiting room or rooms, 
a passenger concourse, and a separate women's powder room, or any combination 
of these facilities. 

(b) All of the essential functions of the main building should be ser\'ed on a 
common floor level, or levels so nearly common as to be connected by moderate 
ramps, and so related if possible to the station track level that no stairways shall be 
required to reach tlie station platform level in stub end stations or to reach the 
thoroughfares over or under the tracks, as the case may be, in through stations. 

(c) The lobby should front upon the principal public entrances and exits, and 
it, solely or together with the passenger concourse, should be the business area of 
the station. The principal station facilities, such as information booths, ticket office, 
baggage check counter, parcel check room, telephone and telegraph facilities, parcel 
checking lockers, etc., should be located in proper sequence along the line of travel 
and clearly indicated to avoid confusion and to reduce the walking distance of 
passengers to a minimum. 

(d) An adequate and conspicuous train bulletin board and a public announcing 
system should be provided. 



146 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(e) The general waiting room, if only one is provided separately from the 
passenger concourse, may well be placed at one side of the line of travel but as 
comenient as practictable to the passenger concourse. 

(f ) If the fiuiction of the general waiting room is to be served in common with 
that of the passenger concourse, provision must be made for all the requirements of 
a waiting room, with seating facilities so situated as not to intrude upon the maxi- 
mum areas required for passage of persons to and from the train gates or for those 
assembhng thereat. 

6.4.2.2 Concourses 

(a) Unless its function is combined with tliat of a waiting room, a separate 
passenger concourse is essential in a large station. Such a concourse is used effectively 
in many stations as a passageway which permits arriving passengers to reach the 
street or departing passengers to enter from the street without passing through the 
lobby. 

(b) It should be possible, and is exceedingly advantageous in the case of sub- 
urban service, for passengers to proceed directly to and fro between tlie passenger 
concourse and the street without passing through waiting room or blocking its exits. 

(c) The elimination of conflicting lines of travel is very desirable and should 
receive careful study in the design of the station, particularly as regards the segre- 
gation of inbound from outbound passengers, and of commuters from through 
passengers. 

(d) The required clear width of passenger concourse depends upon the char- 
acter and amount of traffic and the number of its entrances and exits. The concourse 
should be large enough to permit the gatfiering of a full trainload at a gate without 
a blockade, but should be so arranged that it will not be a convenient thoroughfare 
for people who are not passengers. 

(e) A train concourse is advantageous, as it permits serving one station plat- 
form by several gates or, conversely, the serving of several platforms from one train 
gate. In stub stations it peniiits trucking from one platform to another without 
entering the passenger concourse. 

(f) A clear width of 20 ft for a train concourse is adequate if it is not used 
extensively for trucking. 

6.4.2.3 Ticket offices 

(a) Ticket offices should be located adjacent to the direct line of travel, so 
arranged that passengers waiting to secure tickets will not interfere with the general 
flow of traffic. 

(b) Windows, counters, and automatic ticket machines may be provided along 
the passenger concourse for the sale of local tickets. 

(c) Wliere a large number of commutation tickets are issued during tlie last 
2 or 3 days of the month, portable booths located in the passenger concourse may be 
desirable. 

6.4.2.4 Parcel rooms and parcel checking lockers 

The baggage check rooms should be easily accessible to inbound and outbound 
passengers and where the amount of business justifies, separate counters should be 
provided for leceiving and delivering baggage. Self-service checking lockers should 
be installed at convenient locations. 



Manual Recommendations 147 



6.4.2.5 Toilet and washroom facilities 

Pay toilets and pay washroom facilities should be provided. However, there 
shoidd be an adequate number of free toilets and lavatories. 

6.4.2.6 Leased and rental areas 

(a) Concessions 

(1) Concessions of proper character have proved profitable in most stations 
and are desirable, not only from a revenue-producing standpoint, but 
as a facility which adds to the comfort or convenience of the passenger, 

(2) The number and character of tliese concessions can be greatly expanded 
in tenninals located in cities of large size, with benefit and profit to all 
concerned. 

(3) Concessions, to be successful, must be so located as to be conspicuous 
and easy of access. They must be neat and attractive in appearance and 
well lighted, and concessionaires should be experienced, responsible and 
progressive. 

(4) Booths opening directly on to the corridor, where service is rapid, appeal 
more to the commuter, while stores appeal to the through traveler and 
particuarly to the transfer passenger who has time to spare. 

(h) Office space 

( 1 ) The practice of constructing rentable office space in connection with 
passenger stations under proper circumstances offers opportunities for 
assisting in carrying the interest charge resulting from the construction 
of stations. 

(2) If the station building is surmounted by an office building, the entrances 
to the latter should be independent of the station so tliat office employees 
will not be required to pass through the station. Consideration, however, 
should be given in tlae design of certain station facilities to the possible 
patronage by occupants of tlie office building. 

6.4.3 Station Platforms 

6.4.3.1 General 

In planning a passenger terminal it is important to devise a coordinated arrange- 
ment between the track layout and the station proper which will, at reasonable cost, 
provide maximum con\enience, expedition, and economy in rendering all the platform 
services. 

Particularly at heavy duty stations, it is extremely desirable that baggage, mail 
and express trucks shall not ordinarily have to traverse or occupy platform space 
being used for the accommodation of passengers. 

Determination of the type of platform ( i.e., combined or separate trucking and 
passenger) best suited to a particular situation is dependent upon the character and 
volume of the \'arious kinds of traffic handled, the type of station (i.e., stub, tlirough 
or loop), the location and type of approaches to tlie platforms for the various kinds 
of traffic, the relation of the various approaches to each otlier, the relative lengths 
of platforms and trains, space available for station track and platform development, 
and the method of operation. Because there are so many variables involved, final 
conclusion as to the best arrangement in any case can hardly be reached without 
thorough study. All factors affecting a particular situation must be analyzed liefore 
this determination can be made. 



148 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

6.4.3.2 Platform arrangement 

6.4.3.2.1 Heavy traffic 

(a) For a through station, with track level below or above tlie station floor 
level (preferably the latter), combined platforms should be installed, sufficient in 
lengtli to permit bertliing Uie passenger carrying cars in the center zone leaving the 
end zones clear for tiucking. Passengers would reach or leave the platforms via 
ramps, stairways or escalators at the middle of the platforms; and trucks would 
reach or leave the platfoniis by elevators or ramps, at or near the ends connected 
with subway runways and assembly areas. If platforms cannot be built to such 
length or if two trains are regularly berthed on the same track simultaneously, inter- 
ference between passengers and trucking will result and the installation of separate 
platforms may be justified. 

(b) For a loop station, the same assembly as above specified for a through 
station should be provided, but with truck elevators near only the forward ends of 
tlie platfonns. 

(c) For a stub station, with tracks at same level as station floor: 

( 1 ) If all trains back in, combined platforms should be installed. Provision 
should be made for all trucks to reach or leave the station platforms near the outer 
ends, via elevators or ramps connecting with subway facilities. 

(2) If inbound trains head in, separate platforms should be provided for 
passengers and trucks, the latter to reach or leave their platfonns via elevators or 
ramps connecting with subway facilities. 

The type ( 2 ) layout requires so much more area and platform construction than 
type ( 1 ) that type ( 2 ) is preferable only when the backing in of all trains is imprac- 
ticable or when the volume of trafiic handled is such that the increased cost of land 
and facilities required by type (2) is justified by the elunination of interference 
on the platforms. 

(d) In all cases where truck elevators or ramps are provided, tmck runways at 
grade across the tracks should also be provided to meet demands. 

6.4.3.2.2 Light traffic 

At stations where both passenger and truck movements will be relatively light 
and train arrivals and departures will occur mostly at separate intervals, a careful 
predetermination of the balance between investment and advantage may be required 
to decide whether or not grade separation is justified, either for passengers or for 
trucks, and which method of rendering the platform services is to be selected. 

In such situations, and also at some heavy-duty stations where attainment of 
the ideal seems impracticable or too costly, there may be warrant for designing the 
station platforms for the combined use of trucks and passengers throughout their 
length. 

In the case of combined platforms on which the loading and unloading of 
baggage, mail and express is confined to the end sections tiiereof, and trucking 
tiirough the areas devoted to the loading and unloading of passengers is not per- 
mitted, platform widths may be the same as for exclusive passenger platforms. 

6.4.3.3 Design data 

(a) Combined passenger and trucking platforms at heavy duty stations should 
be at least 20 ft in width, assuming a row of columns located in tlie center of the 
platform. 



Manual Recommendations 149 

(b) Exclusi\e passenger platforms should have a niiniinuni uidth of 13 ft, 
wliich is sufficient to accommodate the passengers froui one arri\ ing train, one line 
of travel for passengers to a departiug train, and a row of columns in the center 
of the platform. This width will normally meet all requirements for through pas- 
senger train operation, ;xs it is seldom necessary to berth two arriving trains sinnil- 
taneously at the same platform. 

(c) Exclusixe trucking platforms without columns should have a minimum 
width of 11 ft to permit 2 tnicks to pass. Where die \olume of trucking is sufficient 
to justify 3 lanes, a minimum of 16 ft should be provided to avoid blocking the 
platfomi when 2 trucks are serxing cars on opposite sides. If columns are necessary, 
platform widths should be increased accordingly and columns located so as not to 
interfere with trucking lanes. 

(d) In combined passenger and trucking platforms in through stations, it is 
desirable to have a clear width of approximately 6 ft on one side of the stairs to 
permit trucking operations past the stairs. 

(e) In stations where a large number of passengers must be handled quickly, 
die relation of platfomi elevation to height of car floor should be considered to 
expedite the handling of passengers. However, high platforms interfere to some 
extent with the switching and inspection of equipment. 

(f) In a through station, the location on the station platform of tlie approach 
to the concourse has a bearing on the required capacity of the approach. If it is 
located at the end of the platform, die concentration will be but one-half as intense 
as if it is located at die middle of the platform, although the duration of the maxi- 
mum intensity of congestion will be much less in the latter case than in the former. 
If a double approach is located at the center, the intensity of the concentration will 
be the same as in die first case, and the duration of the maximum intensit\- of conges- 
tion will be die same as in the second case. 

(g) In large terminals where a large quantity of U. S. storage mail is handled, 
belt con\e>ors should be installed to move die bags of inbound mail from the cars to 
a primary sorting platform if not directly to the post office. From a primary sorting 
platform belt coii\e>ors can be used to move the mail to secondary sorting platforms. 
Electromechanical sorting systems have been installed in metropolitan area stations 
to handle the large number of separations fiom a primary sorting platform. 

To expedite die handling of mail an ideal arrangement is to locate the Post 
Office Department building adjacent to the railroad station or on air rights over rail- 
road terminal propert>'. Belt con\e>ors can be used to move the mail sacks and 
parcels between the post office building and the station building. 

6.4.3.4 Elevators and escalators 

(a) Baggage elevators are desirable at both ends of combined passenger and 
trucking platforms in large passenger stations where trains operate in both directions 
through the station, to reduce the interference between trucking operations and 
passengers. 

(b) Under normal conditions, passenger ele\'ators are not recommended as 
approaches to individual passenger platforms. They may be desirable as a supplement 
to stairways for the use of the aged and infirm. 

(c) A single elevator or escalator should not be relied upon as the sole means 
of approach to a station platform. 

Bui. 655 



150 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(d) Escalators have a niaxiniuni carrying capacity of approximately 5000 pas- 
sengers per hour for 32-in width and 8000 passengers per hour for 48 in. They are 
being used successfully in both suburban and dirough passenger service. 

6.4.3.5 Ramps 

6.4.3.5.1 Passenger 

( a ) Ramps provide ideal means for movement of passengers to and from station 
platforms if they can be so installed as not to increase materially the distance traveled 
by passengers, and do not materially decrease the space on the station platform avail- 
able for the accommodation of trains. Good results can be accomplished in many 
cases by the use of ho\h. stairways and ramps. 

(b) The gradient for passenger ramps preferably should not exceed 7 percent. 
The ramp surface should be finished witli an abrasive or non-skid material. 

6.4.3.5.2 Trucking 

(a) Ramps are a very desirable means of providing vertical transportation for 
trucking operations, if the design of the station is such as to pennit their installation 
without a material sacrifice in space. 

(b) Ramp gradients in excess of 8 percent are not recommended. The ramp 
surface should be finished with an abrasive or non-skid material. 

(c) In stub terminals where separate passenger and trucking platfonns are used 
and the baggage, mail and express facilities are located below the tracks, the utiliza- 
tion of the end of the exclusive trucking platforms adjacent to the concourse permits 
the installation of trucking ramps without sacrifice of space. 

(d) The minimum clear width which should be considered for trucking ramps 
designed to accommodate one line of traffic is 6 ft, and for two lines of traffic is 11 ft. 

6.4.4 Characteristic Requirements of Passengers 
6.4.4.1 Through passengers 

(a) Transfer passengers occupy a station for a maximum length of time and 
require more extensive facilities per passenger than resident tlii'ough passengers. 

(b) Decreasing the time interval between incoming and outgoing trains de- 
creases requirements per passenger for waiting room space and for certain other 
facilities. 

(c) The number of passengers handled during the rush hour does not alone 
determine the size or number of facilities required. Local conditions must be studied, 
as they aftect requirements for any particular situation. 

(d) The size or numl^er of facilities must be modified to make allowance for: 

( 1 ) Time of arriving and departing trains, and the span in minutes between 
them. 

(2) The ratio between passeengers commencing or terminating their journey 
and transfer passengers. 

(3) Number of hold-over passengers arriving or departing outside of the rush 
hour but occupying space and requiring service during a portion of the 
rush hour. 

(4) Departure from a reasonably uniform spread of passengers entering and 
departing within tlie rush hour. 



Manual Recommendations 151 

6.4.4.2 Suburban or commuter passengers 

(a) Suburban passengers occupy a station for a minimum length of time and 
move faster than the through passenger, and therefore requirements in the way of 
station facilities per passenger are substantially less for a suburban passenger tlian 
for a through traveler. 

(b) When suburban business is heavy, it is desirable to separate tlie through 
and suburban service, as their requirements are not similar. This may be done by 
handling the two classes of service at: 

1. Different levels. This requires electrification. 

2. Different sides or ends of the station. 

3. Different stations, one beyond the other. 

(c) Indicator boards are the only directional information required, as a rule, 
by commuters. They should show track number, scheduled leaving time, and essential 
identification of train. 

6.4.5 Services and Utilities 

6.4.5.1 Communication facilities 

Teletype machines, telautographs, pneumatic tubes, audible interconununication 
systems, and other electronic devices, may be used to advantage to supplement tele- 
phones for the rapid transmission of operating information between train directors, 
station master, information booth, bulletin board and other strategic points. A public 
address system should be provided for announcing train infonnation. 

6.4.5.2 Electrical service outlets at station tracks 

Electrical service outlets at station tracks should preferably be located between 
adjacent tracks, except in stations having separate trucking platfonns. Direct-current 
battery charging outlets, when serving two tracks, should have two receptacles and 
should be located at inten'als of two average car lengths along those tracks used 
regularly for holding passenger cars for extended periods. Air-conditioning outlets 
for 220-v ac, when serving two tracks, should have two receptacles, and should be 
located at intervals of one average car length along those tracks used regularly for 
holding either direct-mechanical or electro-mechanical air-conditioned passenger 
cars. 

6.4.5.3 Steam, air, water and telephone connections 

(a) Steam connections should be provided at all station tracks on which cars 
will stand without locomotive attached. For stub tracks, steam connections should 
be located at the ends, one connection for each track. For through tracks, they should 
be placed to serve each track at tlie point or points where the rear of a train would 
nonnally be placed. 

(b) Air connections should be provided at all tracks where the method of op- 
eration and servicing requires that an air brake test be made while the train is 
standing \\athout locomotive attached. When air connections are installed, they should 
be placed at the same locations as steam connections. At stations where equipment 
may be watered, hydrants spaced two car lengths apart (preferably serving two 
tracks) should be provided. 

(c) At the points where air and steam connections are located on station tracks, 
a telephone jack may be provided to permit the connecting of the train telephone 
line to the main station switchboard. 



152 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

6.4,6 Accessibility and Parking 

(a) Street approaches should receive particular attention in the overall planning 
to pro\ide convenient access and sufRcient capacity but by-passing areas of traffic 
congestion. Separate routes should be provided so that pedestrian traffic and vehicular 
traffic can be safely and expeditiously handled. Ample accommodation for vehicles 
handling mail, baggage and express should be provided in a manner that will not 
impede the free movement of public transportation vehicles, private conveyances, 
and pedestrian traffic. 

(b) The desirability of providing subways for pedestrians to reach the opposite 
sidewalks of adjoining streets without crossing at grade should be considered. Subse- 
quent installation of service facilities may make it impractical to provide such pas- 
sageways in the future. 

(c) Ample provision should be made for convenient access to public transpor- 
tation services and taxicab service within or adjacent to the station. It is essential 
that taxicabs be able to promptly reach an unloading point, move freely to a holding 
area, and to reach a loading point for passengers leaving the station without inter- 
ference to other vehicular traffic. 

(d) Adequate parking space convenient to the station for railroad patrons is 
desirable. In some places, pay-parking facilities for private automobiles have been 
provided for the accommodation of patrons. See AREA Proceedings, Vol. 60, 1959, 
page 294. 

6.5 COACH YARDS 

6.5.1 General 

(a) It is desirable that coach yards and their appurtenant facilities, incidental 
to car inspecting, repairing, battery charging, cleaning, icing and watering, and all 
servicing of passenger train equipment, should be an integral feature of every large 
passenger terminal, whether or not more than one railway is accommodated, and 
whether or not the forces so engaged are in die charge of the terminal management. 

(b) In some joint terminals each line retains jurisdiction of all such forces 
provided for servicing its own equipment. The Pullman Company always does so. 
The plan of having all servicing of railway equipment performed with terminal 
forces would seem in any case to deserve consideration. 

(c) It is definitely preferable to have all coach yard switching performed by 
and under full control of the terminal management in all cases of joint operation 
where the coach yard is an integral part of the joint terminal, but not otherwise 
ordinarily. 

( d ) Facilities usually provided in a coach yard will in most cases be satisfactory 
for servicing streamline trains of light weight non-articulated equipment. However, 
separate and specially equipped tracks are frequently provided for servicing certain 
streamline trains, either articulated or non-articulated which, together with the 
locomotive, are regularly operated as a unit, usually in quick turn-around service. 

(e) Although separate facilities may be provided for particular trains or types 
of equipment, the servicing of all passenger train equipment in a single yard is 
desirable. 

(f) It is common practice to hold trains for cleaning and waiting for less than 
24 hr on 1 track. 



Manual Recommendations 153 

6.5.2 Location 

(a) The coach yard should be placed con\enient to the station and mechanical 
facilities. 

(b) The location of a coach \ard should be determined by the economic balance 
among the following factors: 

( 1 ) Axailable sites. 

(2) Land values. 

(3) Cost of construction. 

(4) Convenience to the station and other facilities. 

(5) Cost of moving equipment between station, coach yard and engine house. 

(6) Possible need for future expansion. 

6.5.3 Capacity 

The capacity required in a coach >'ard depends upon: 

(a) Number of cars and trains to be handled. 

(b) Class of equipment. 

(c) Standard of maintenance. 

(d) Schedule of equipment layoxer. 

(e) Frequency of cleaning. 

6.5.4 Types 

There are two general types of coach yard layouts: Stub track and through 
track. There is also an intermediate type made up of through tracks, but operated 
generally as two systems of stub tracks. Operation is most efficient in a system of 
through tracks. 

6.5.5 Tracks 

(a) Tracks of equal length and equal to the length of the longest trains give 
greatest operating efBcienc>'. 

(b) A unifonii spacing of not less than 20 ft between track centers is desirable 
for tracks on which servicing work is done. Where platforms between them are 
obstructed by supports to overhead service lines, brake shoe racks or above-platform 
service outlets, such obstructions should be located off center of platforms to provide 
a wider passageway on one side. Where there are no above-platform obstructions, 
and where other conditions make it necessary, the spacing may be reduced. How- 
ever, consideration should be given to the clear platform width required for the 
proper performance of servicing work and the clearances required for trucking 
equipment. 

(c) Coach yard tracks used for storage of extra cars do not require particularly 
wide spacing or any special car servicing features other than steam for cold weather 
storage and possibly electricity for battery charging and air-conditioning equipment. 

(d) Tracks should be arranged in groups at the leads to facilitate switching. 
Auxiliary leads and tail tracks of ample length should be provided. 

(e) Curvature of tracks should not be less than 457-ft radius (12 deg 34 min) 
through turnouts or otherwise. 

(f) Coach yard tracks should be placed on as nearly a level gradient as possi- 
ble. For equipment with friction bearings, the gradient should not exceed 0.3 percent, 
and for roller or anti- friction bearings not more than 0.1 percent. 



154 Bulletin 655 — American Railwa y Engineering Association 

(g) A wye or loop track should be proxided for turning equipment. Move- 
ments on a loop track are more expeditious. 

(h) Special tracks for making up or breaking up trains are sometimes required. 

(i) Only light or running repairs are made in a coach yard. 

(j) The track bed in coach yards should be well drained. 

(k) In the interests of cleanliness, sanitation and possible reduced maintenance 
expense, consideration should be given to track construction calling for rails supported 
by longitudinal concrete slabs with paving between slabs to present a completely 
paved area which can be washed. Such construction is especially desirable for tracks 
at commissary platforms or on which diners are re-stocked. 

6.5.6 Platforms 

(a) Platfomis should be placed between all tracks on which cars are to be 
serviced. 

(b) Platform construction preferably should be of concrete, crowned not less 
than uj in to tlie ft. The width will vary with the track centers and the type of 
construction supporting adjacent tracks. The edge of a platform adjacent to a track 
constructed with ties and ballast usually is placed level with top of rail and approxi- 
mately 5 ft 6 in from the center of the track. With this type of construction a combi- 
nation curb and gutter should be placed along the edges of platforms with gutters 
sloped longitudinally to inlets spaced for proper drainage. The gutter section should 
provide for a curtain wall of suitable depth to cut off excessive seepage to the plat- 
form bed. If any service lines are to be carried below the surface, the platform or 
curb and gutter section should provide for conduits as required. 

6.5.7 Supply Lines and Service Outlets 

(a) In larger yards having a number of through tracks, and where it is desired 
to keep servicing lines below ground, generally it will be found advantageous to 
carry the supply lines across the yard in a tunnel or pipe conduit, centrally located 
and with outlet boxes to serve each track. 

(b) Water hydrants should be spaced at distances apart equivalent to the 
average length of cars. Although hydrants are frequently placed in alternate spaces 
between tracks, there is substantial advantage in locating them between all tracks. 
Frost protection should be provided where necessary. Construction of water hydrant 
outlets should comply with requirements prescribed by the United States Public 
Health Service and other bodies having jurisdiction over such installations. 

( c ) Hot water is usually provided at convenient locations. 

(d) Low-pressure air connections for cleaning should be spaced the same as 
cold water hydrants. For testing airbrakes, high-pressure air connection should be 
provided through a double connection at the center of the track, or through a single 
connection at each end of each track. 

(e) Electrical service outlets in coach yards having alternately wide and narrow 
track centers, preferably should be located in the center of tlie narrow service plat- 
form. In coach yards having uniform track centers, outlets preferably should be 
located at the edge of the platform, each outlet serving only one track. Direct-current 
battery charging outlets when serving two tracks, should have two receptacles and 
should be located at intervals of one average car length. When serving only one 



Manual Recommendations 155 



track, the outlets may be located either at intervals of one average car length, with 
one receptacle, or at intervals of two average car lengths, with two receptacles. 
Air-conditioning oudet for 220-v ac, when serving two tracks, should have two 
receptacles and should be located at intervals of either one or two average car lengths, 
preferably one, along those tracks used for servicing either direct-mechanical or 
electro-mechanical air-conditioned passenger cars. When serving only one track, 
these outlets may be located at intervals of either one average car length, with one 
receptacle at each location, or two average car lengths, with two receptacles. 

(f) Steam supply connections should be provided in the same manner as air 
cormections for testing air brakes. 

6.5.8 Inspection and Repair Pits 

(a) Where underneadi inspection of standing cars is desired, one or more pits 
equal in length to the longest train may be justified. These may be combination 
inspection and repair pits depending on their location in the yard. If underneath 
inspection of cars in motion is desired, a short pit located on the yard lead or the 
mechanical washer track may be used. Where rails are elevated above adjacent 
paved areas, inspection and repair work will be facilitated to some extent, especially 
under conditions of heavy snow, but such elevation will make ramps in platform 
paving necessary at fire and service roadways which cross the yard. 

( b ) Pit construction preferably should be of concrete. The rails can rest directly 
on the concrete walls, if desired, without plates and cushions, and be anchored in 
place by bolted down rail clips; however, better results will generally be experienced 
with rails installed on bearing plates and cushions. The pit should be well drained 
and equipped with recessed flood lights for general lighting and receptacles for 
service lights and small tools. 

(c) Where all inbound trains pass over a single pit for inspection, other tracks 
should be provided for servicing and repair work. Work performed at such a single 
pit should be confined to inspection only and the oiling of bearings while cars are 
spotted oxer it should be avoided if possible. 

(d) Where servicing and light repair work is done on an inspection pit, several 
tracks, each with a full train length pit may be required, the number depending 
on tlie number and schedule of the trains to be serviced and the length of time re- 
quired to service each train. A multiple-track pit arrangement should provide for 
several wheel drop pits with jacking pads so spaced that several wheels can be 
dropped simultaneously on any given track with a minimum of car spotting. Each 
track should also be provided with the other facilities for the complete servicing 
of cars, such as paved platforms, service outlets for water, air, steam and electricity, 
and an adequate drainage system. 

(e) An average depth of pits for car inspection and light repairs of about 38 
in below the top of running rails will provide good working space below cars, 
although depths ranging from 25 to 54 in are in use. 

(f) Concrete jacking pads should be provided along car repair track pits. The 
pads should be built integrally with the track pit walls and extend laterally each 
side a minimum of 6 ft, from the center of the track, and for a sufficient distance 
along the track each way from the drop pits to provide proper jacking space. On 
track pits assigned to repair work only, continuous jacking pads extending the full 
lengtii of the pit are desirable. 



156 Bulletin 655 — A me rican Railway Engineering Association 

(g) An inside widtli of 3 ft for repair pits will provide a ledge for jacking or 
blocking on the inner side of rails. 

(h) A jacking pad, at least one car in length and continuous between rails for 
center jacking, is sometimes provided beyond the repair pit on one or more repair 
tracks. 

(i) Consideration should be given to covering at least a portion of the area 
devoted to car servicing and repair work. The protection afforded by a building 
with semi-covered sides, preferably of fireproof construction, will reduce the expense 
of conditioning trains and expedite repair work under unfavorable weather condi- 
tions. Complete housing of pits on tracks assigned to repair work is desirable, but 
at repair pits where wheels are changed or truck work is performed the housing 
should be at least sufficient to cover a car spotted either way over tlie wheel drop pits 
and provide a passageway at end of car. The extent of the enclosure and heating 
should depend on the severity of the climate. 

( j ) At coach yards where locomotives operating on unit or streamline trains are 
handled, special facilities usually are necessary. These facilities depend upon the 
types of locomotive equipment and the service required. 

6.5.9 Other Facilities 

(a) The yard should be sufficiently lighted for night operation. General lighting 
can be provided by flood lights on high poles or towers, or by lights suspended well 
above top of car level and spaced about a car length apart between tracks. General 
lighting at lower levels is less satisfactory than higher level lighting because of 
shadows, improper light for top of car work and interference with switching and 
other operations due to glare. However, when the general lighting system cannot 
be adapted to provide the additional light frequently desired at certain points in 
the yard, supplemental lights on low standards, either fixed or portable, may be 
used. 

(b) Provision should be made for sufficient storage of car wheels. Double wheel 
tracks for mounted wheels should be spaced 6 in between track centers. If extra 
or replacement power units or trucks are stored on wheel tracks, adequate housing 
for tliese units should be provided. 

(c) A mechanical train washer is well adapted to washing the sides of trains, 
especially streamline trains, including diesel locomotives. Mechanical washing of 
train roofs is also desirable, but due to variations in car heights and roof contours, 
as well as to numerous roof obstructions on present equipment, mechanical washing 
is usually confined to the sides, roofs and ends being washed by hand. The track 
served by a mechanical washer should be tangent through the washer and for at 
least one car length each way. Wliere possible, the washer should be at a fixed loca- 
tion on a track over which all inbound trains to be washed can be moved. Where 
conditions make it necessary however, a washer of the portable type, mounted on 
cross rails to serve two or more tracks may be used. Separate washing platforms 
are usually provided for locomotives which do not lend themselves to mechanical 
washing. 

( d ) Suitable cleaning facilities should be provided for rugs and carpets which 
are removed from cars for cleaning. Air cleaning is usually done on open platforms, 
preferably roofed over, but shampooing facilities should be enclosed. 



Manual Recommendations 157 

(e) Car pullers are frequently provided to reduce switching. The portable, 
electric-powered t>pe is flexible and well adapted to this serxice. 

(f) In >ards where diners are restocked, c()mniissar\- facilities will be required. 

(g) Other facilities, some or all of which may be needed, include: 

( 1 ) Service building pro\iding offices, toilet, wash, locker and lunch rooms 

( 2 ) Storehouse 

(3) Building proxiding space for necessary repair shops 

(4) Refuse disposal 

(5) Fire protection 

(6) Bottling plant for refilling gas c\linders 

(7) Locomotive fuel oil storage with lines to distributing points. 

6.6 MODERNIZATION 

(a) Because of changes in habits and in facilities available for travel to and 
from terminals, less waiting time in tlie station is now the rule, but passengers expect 
better and more modern, though not necessariK^ bigger accommodations in the con- 
course and waiting room, when buying tickets or checking baggage, in the toilet 
facilities and in general serxice conxeniences. These should be proxided xxhen 
major changes are made. 

(b) A single, combined, xxaiting room can be substituted to adxantage for the 
old arrangement of txxo separate rooms, but a proper and attractixe poxxder room 
for xvomen should be proxided. 

(c) Substitution of a closed-in concourse, xvith a tight partition betxxeen it 
and the train shed in place of an open grill, xvidi a sufficient supply of heat to make 
it comfortable for passengers in winter xxeather is desirable and is becoming a general 
practice, as it xvill permit the use of die concourse as an adjunct to die xvaiting 
room. Many passengers prefer to xxait xvhere they can see the trains if they can do 
so xvithout discomfort. 

(d) Care should be taken to make it inconxenient for non-passengers to use 
tlie concourse and passages as tlioroughfares, as such use may interfere xvith patrons 
of the railroads. 

(e) Directional signs should be gixen particular attention. They should be 
displayed conspicuously, easy to see but not gaudy, and they should be repeated so 
that if a passenger going in die xvrong direction misses one, another farther along 
xvill set him right. This is especially important xvhere corridors are long and xvinding 
and facilities are at different lexels. 

(f) Improvement at the ticket counter by the substitution of larger openings 
for the foniier narrow grilled xvindoxvs or, at points xvhere it is feasible to do so, 
the replacement of the xvindoxvs and grills by an open counter makes for a more 
friendly atmosphere. Provision for protection of the money and the ticket stock 
should not be overlooked. 

(g) Generally, coin-locked pa>' toilets should be substituted for some of die 
former free toilets and, at the larger terminals at least, coin-locked dressing rooms 
and baths may be provided xx'here xxarranted. 

(h) Substitution of air conditioning (heating and cooling), properly planned, 
will often result in a reduced cost for its operation and maintenance, as xxell as pro- 
viding better service. 



158 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(i) Adequate provision for parking private automobiles while waiting for trains 
should be provided if practicable. 

(j) During a modernization program, consideration should be given to possi- 
bilities of overloading the existing electric, water, and steam facilities. Provisions 
should be made to increase the capacity of these facilities to a safe level. 



Manual Recommendations 159 

Part 7 
Other Yard and Terminal Facilities 



FOREWORD 



Tliis part deals with the several and various components necessary for the 
function and operation of railways. Although these components such as store facili- 
ties, material yards, etc. are normally located or situated in yards and terminals 
they are not intrinsic to them. 



CONTENTS 

Section Page 

7.1 Stores 160 

7.2 Storage 160 

7.3 Reclamation 161 



160 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

7.1 STORES 

7.1.1 General 

The stores department is responsible for the ordering, care, control and economic 
distribution, and in some instances for the accounting of materials and supplies 
needed for, or reclaimed from, the constiuction, maintenance and operation of the 
railroad. The size and extent of its facilities will vary in accordance with the require- 
ments of the road. It is important to consult tlie chief stores officer and receive his 
approval concerning any plans for the construction, alteration or elimination of stores 
facilities. 

7.1.2 Types 

There are three types of stores, namely, general, district, and local. 

(a) The general store, also known as a system or regional store, is the largest 
store umt of the stores department. It should be located on available railroad prop- 
erty and usually at a convenient point where large quantities of materials and supplies 
can be efficiently received, handled, stored and shipped. The location of tliis store 
will also be greatly influenced by the traffic problem created in the handling of these 
shipments and by the freight charges involved on off-line items received. The general 
store will also operate reclamation and scrap yards where needed. 

(b) The district and local stores have the same characteristics and functions 
as the general stores, except that they are much smaller. These stores are generally 
established on larger railroads at various points to expedite the handling of materials 
and supplies. Such stores operate under the jurisdiction of the general store. 

Stationary, office supplies and maintenance of way materials are nonually han- 
dled by the general store. Maintenance-of-way materials, however, are generally 
handled in separate facilities. Dining car service supplies, including foodstuffs, may 
be handled by the general store, but in many instances such items are handled 
separately at major terminals in a local store, called a commissary. 

7.1.3 Buildings and Structures 

Storehouse buildings for the handling of all materials requiring inside storage 
should be constructed so as to create the most efficient and expeditious material 
storage and handling methods. Office space to house the necessary personnel to handle 
the records and accounting for the store's operation may be part of a storehouse 
building if suitable. Platform, docks, ramps, racks and shelters are erected according 
to the needs. All storage buildings and related facilities should be served with tracks 
and hard-surface driveways for tlie efficient handling of materials by rail or by 
truck. It is often possible to pave the track area so that one platform at car-floor 
level can serve both means of handling. 

7.2 STORAGE 

7.2.1 Material Yards 

Theie are numerous items used in maintenance of way and of equipment that 
can be stored out of doors; these items are handled in material yards. Whenever 
possible, such yards should be located adjacent to the storehouse area so that track- 
age can be kept to a minimum. Material is stored on permanent racks and platforms, 
and the areas between should be paved to facilitate tlie operation of rubber-tired 
handling equipment such as trucks, loaders, cranes, etc. 



Manual Recommendations 161 

The storage of heavy items in a material yard is usually at a separate loaition 
served by at least two tracks and an overhead crane or other types of cranes of 
suitable capacity. The material is stored in tlie area between the tracks, one track 
being used for recei\ ing, the other for shipping. 

The ideal scrap \ard has a receiving and a shipping track w ith the sorting area 
in between and serxed by an overhead crane of suitable capacity. The sorting area 
should be hard surfaced and the driveways serving it pa\ed to support die heavy 
wheel loadings of truck cranes and trailers used to handle scrap within the yard. 
All cranes should be equipped with magnets. 

7.2.2 Lumber and Timber Yards 

Lumber products are not generally kept in large quantities at the general store- 
house, but are frequently shipped direct from the dealer to the point of application. 
However a certain quantiU' of lumber, cross and switch ties, bridge timber and poles 
must be stored. These products require outside storage; unseasoned materials should 
be stored on permanent racks in covered storage so they can season properly; treated 
timbers should be stored in the manner approved by the stores department to prevent 
loss by fire. The areas between the racks should be paved and the piles so arranged 
that fork-lift tractors or truck cranes can handle these materials into and out or 
onto and off freight equipment on a track serving the storage yard. This track is 
usually in the center of the yard unless the area is too large, tlien two or more tracks 
serving storage areas on botli sides of each track are required, and tlie tracks, if 
possible, are connected at both ends. 

7.2.3 Reser\e Oil 

The stores department may be called upon to provide large storage reserves for 
fuel oils. When the size and location of die facilities have been determined, the tanks 
should be installed in accordance with the requirements set forth by the governing 
ordinances, building and fire codes. 

7.3 RECLAMATION 

7.3.1 Plant— General 

The reclamation plant is usually located at the same point and adjacent to the 
scrap yard to minimize handling of materials. The reclamation shop building sliould 
be situated between a receixing and a shipjjing track, the latter depressed to facilitate 
the loading of materials coming out of die plant for forwarding to points of applica- 
tion or storage. The size of the shop will vary with the amount and type of reclama- 
tion to be done. Paved roads parallel to the tracks are needed for the operation of 
truck cranes; a large area adjacent to the tracks arjd the shop building should be 
paved so that materials can be transported in and out of the building with motorized 
equipment. 

7.3.2 Rail Plant 

Rail requires special handling in general reclamation, and the plant to handle 
it should be separate from odier plants. The plant layout should be designed for the 
rapid turnover of rail and would consist of receiving and shipping tracks served by 
overhead or other types of cranes, with the area between the tracks used for die 
straightening presses, the cropping operation, drilling rack, hardening apparatus, 
welding and classifying prior to loading. 



162 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Manual Recommendations 
Committee 6 — Buildings 

Report on Assignment 1 

Design Criteria for Maintenance of Way 
Equipment Repair Shops 

J. G. Robertson (chairman suhcommittee), W. F. Armstrong, D. A. Bessey, S. B. 
Holt, K. E. Hornung, P. W. Peterson, L. A. Palagi, R. F. Roberts, H. A. 
Shannon. 

Your committee submits for adoption the following new Part 9 for Chapter 6 
of the Manual. 

Part 9 

Design Criteria for Centralized Maintenance of 
Way Equipment Repair Shops 

9.1 FOREWORD 

9.1.1 A maintenance of way equipment repair complex provides a facility for 
the overhauling, rebuilding and modifying of roadway machines, work equipment 
and specialized power tools, which are used in maintenance of way operations. 

9.2 SCOPE AND PURPOSE 

9.2.1 The purpose of these criteria is to provide a description and layout of 
facilities for a centralized work equipment shop and to recommend equipment service 
areas. Figures 1, 2 and 3 are shown as aids in visualizing a typical repair shop and 
tlie layout of equipment and service areas. 

9.2.2 Heating, lighting, plumbing and other incidental mechanical items would 
be a part of tliese buildings; however, they are not included in tliese criteria. 

9.3 OPERATIONS 

9.3.1 The major operations perfonned in a centralized maintenance of way 
repair complex are dismantling, cleaning, repairing, reassembling and painting. 

9.3.2 These operations are supported by other incidental services, such as, 
carpentry, steel fabricating, forging, welding, testing, etc., in order to make it pos- 
sible to perform minor repairs to small tools, as well as major overhauls to self- 
powered equipment. 



Manual Recommendations 163 

9.4 LOCATION 

9.4.1 The location of a centralized work equipment shop should be as close 
to the center of tlie railroad as practical, with consideration being given to the avail- 
ability of suitable land, rail service, available manpower, housing, etc. 

9.4.2 Approximately 25 acres are required for a large complex. 

9.4.3 Some railroads have converted existing shop buildings into maintenance 
of way equipment repair shops and when tliis is done, the location of the repair 
complex may not be at the most desirable location. 

9.4.4 If existing buildings are to be used, consideration should be given to the 
amount of tra\el time required to bring the equipment into the shop. 

9.5 ORGANIZATION 

9.5.1 The shop is normally a part of the engineering department and operates 
under tlie jurisdiction of the chief engineer, with the superintendent of work equip- 
ment as the immediate superxisor. 

9.5.2 On a large railroad, the superintendent and staff will operate a shop of 
200 employees, more or less, of various crafts. 

9.5.3 On a small railroad, fewer employees are required to perform the necessary 
operations; howexer, the organization would remain essentially the same. 

9.6 TYPICAL FACILITY ARRANGEMENT 

9.6.1 The complex, as shown in Figure 1, is comprised of three buildings with 
adequate support facilities, such as cleaning vats, storage areas, lead and yard tracks. 

9.6.2 Building 1 is the wash area and houses the cleaning vats. Building 2 is 
the main shop, which is shown on Figure 2, and building 3 contains the offices. 

9.6.3 The main shop building should be constructed to support the overhead 
cranes and other smaller cranes throughout the shop. 

9.6.4 Buildings 1 and 2 should be adequately equipped with compressed air, 
oxyacetyiene and electric arc welding outlets at convenient locations, and they 
should have overhead motorized doors of sufficient size so as not to restrict the 
movement of large equipment in and out of the buildings. 

9.7 MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT 

9.7.1 Material-handling equipment is a prime necessity since units weighing 
up to 150 tons may be handled. The shop buildings should have overhead traveling 
cranes, bracket cranes, and post cranes for the movement of material within the 
\arious areas. An 8-ton wagon crane is recommended for inaccessible areas. Small 
turntables at strategic locations should be placed within the shop to facilitate the 
moving of equipment to various tracks. 

9.7.2 A three-wheeled cart with flat bed in the back is recommended to trans- 
port individual parts. Fork lifts are recommended to move material on pallets. Full 
size railroad cars, such as riding cars, flat cars, weed spray cars, and similar track- 
mounted equipment may be moved over the shop tracks by use of a heavy duty 
rubber tire tractor or shop mule. 

9.7.3 Figure 3 lists special siioiDS, equipment rej^air and the material handling 
equipment recommended for each area. 



164 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

9.8 PAINT SHOP (AREA "A") 

9.8.1 Machines, when repaired, are painted and stenciled in this shop. It should 
be equipped with a ramp or hoist to allow painting the underside of machines and 
have adequate bracket cranes. 

9.8.2 The painting should be performed in a booth of sufficient size to accom- 
modate the largest piece of equipment expected to be repaired. The shop should 
also have air filtration equipment to dissipate the paint fog to prevent its being 
exhausted into the atmosphere. 

9.8.3 A sprinkler or fire-suppression system, explosion-proof lighting, heating 
and ventilation equipment should be provided, as required by local codes and 
regulatory agencies. 

9.8.4 The paint shop operation should be supported by steam cleaning and 
washing facilities. Provide facilities in the drainage system to accumulate sludge and 
oil. 

9.9 CARPENTER SHOP (AREA "B") 

9.9.1 All wooden assemblies for roadway machines and work equipment are 
fabricated, or repaired, in this area, including repairs to wooden portions of motor- 
car decks. 

9.9.2 All boxes and crates are made in this area for items requiring tliem, and 
wooden shields installed on windshield glasses to protect them from vandalism 
during shipment. 

9.9.3 Canopy tops, windshields, electric windshield wipers, and lights are 
installed on motor cars after they have been released from Motor Car Repair Area "C". 

9.9.4 All replacement of glass and repairs to seats and canvas items are made 
in this area, which should contain a canvas rack, large cutting table and an industrial- 
type sewing machine. 

9.10 MOTOR CAR REPAIR (AREA "C") 

9.10.1 In this area motor cars are stripped, repaired and reassembled. Area 
should be equipped with a single dry pedestal grinder, solvent vat, test stands, work 
bench, hydraulic press and sufficient storage for new and rebuilt engines and trans- 
missions. 

9.11 SHOP EQUIPMENT REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE (AREA "D") 

9.11.1 This area should have adequate work benches and material storage bins 
for the maintenance machinist in charge of repairs to shop machines, cranes, power 
plant and other terminal facilities. 

9.11.2 The area should be equipped for storing and handling of materials needed 
by shop electricians in their terminal maintenance work. 

9.11.3 All electrical assemblies from light plants and electric welders, electric 
power tools, and track maintenance junction boxes are repaired in tliis area. 

9.12 PAINT SHOP STORAGE (AREA "E") 

9.12.1 This area is used for the storage of non-flammable paint supplies, stencils, 
brushes, etc. The flammable materials are stored in a room adjacent to Area "A", on 
the outside of the main building. 



Manual Recommendations 165 

9.12.2 Particular attention should he given to this area with regard to insurance 
and local fire regulations. 

9.12.3 A sprinkler system or fire-suppression system should be considered. 

9.13 ENGINE REBUILD AREA (AREA "F") 

9.13.1 All large gasoline and diesel engines are stripped, repaired, reassembled, 
and such items as carburetors, fuel pumps, and air cleaners are rebuilt in this area. 

9.13.2 Machine work is performed in this shop, such as reboring cylinders, line 
boring of main bearings, grinding and fitting of pistons, fitting and applying wrist 
pins, facing of \al\e seats, grinding of valves, and reassembling block and internal 
engine parts. 

9.13.3 One- and two-cylinder air-cooled engines, rail saws, small light plants 
and other such items are repaired and tested in this area on an engine test-out stand. 

9.13.4 Large gasoline and diesel engines should be tested on engine dynamome- 
ter test stands and fine adjustments made before engines are released from the shop. 
Engines should be broken in at full operating RPM's for approximately four hours 
before being taken off the test stands. 

9.13.5 Noise and air pollution are important factors in the design of this area, 
which must be in compliance with local codes and regulatory agencies. 

9.13.6 Standby and repaired engines should be stored in this area until needed. 
All single- and twin-cylinder track motor-car engines are stripped, reworked and 
reassembled. 

9.13.7 Provide a 25-ton hydraulic press and engine rebuilding stands to facilitate 
the handling of engine units while they are undergoing repairs and testing. 

9.13.8 Provisions should be made for storage of gas and diesel engine and 
transmission assemblies. Repaired assembUes are either used at the facility or 
shipped to line of road for installation on out-of-service machines. 

9.14 MACHINE SHOP (AREA "G") 

9.14.1 This shop should be equipped with various types and sizes of lathes, 
boring mills, drill presses, grinders, milling machines, hydraulic press with a capa- 
bility of handling any and all types of machine work required by centralized work 
equipment shop. 

9.15 HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRIC REPAIR (AREA "H") 

9.15.1 All hydraulic assemblies and component parts stripped from engines 
are placed on pallets and moved to the receiving area of this shop, where all makes 
and types of hydraulic equipment, such as pumps, rams, valves and motors are 
rebuilt. 

9.15.2 This area should be easy to clean so tliat dust will be kept to a minimum. 

9.15.3 A complete parts inventory of all hydraulic assemblies and components 
are maintained in the shop. 

9.15.4 This area should be equipped with a hydraulic test stand on which rebuilt 
as.semblies can be tested before they are released for reinstallation on the individual 
machines undergoing repair, or placed in the hydraulic unit storage area. 



166 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

9.15.5 All hydraulic hoses used in connection with repairs to the equipment 
throughout the entire complex are fabricated in this area. The area should be 
equipped with adequate hose and fitting storage bins, band saw, hydraulic press, 
drill press, grinders, a hose cut-off machine and hose fitting application machine. 

9.15.6 Provision should be made for the rebuilding of all electric vibrator motors 
and main tamping generators from track maintainers and tamping power jacks. The 
area should have an overhead trolley system to allow the motors and generators to 
be stripped, reassembled and tested on an "assembly line" basis. 

9.15.7 Provision should be made for hydraulic presses strategically placed, 
double dry grinders, stator coil cutter and sand blast cabinet for cleaning stator 
housings after the coils have been removed. 

9.15.8 Vibrator motor test stand should be provided that will permit several 
motors to be tested simultaneously. 

9.15.9 An approved type furnace for removal of insulation from copper wire 
should be provided. 

9.15.10 Space should be provided for a large and small insulation cutter, insu- 
lation folder, coil winder drives, coil taping machine, stator hold stands and an 
approved type furnace for removal of insulation from scrap stator coils. 

9.15.11 Large tamping motor generators are tested, and all rewound stators, 
armatures and field windings are dipped into insulating varnish and baked in an oven. 

9.16 LUNCH AND LOCKER ROOMS (AREA T) 

9.16.1 Lunch and locker room facilities should be provided as required by 
applicable codes, and provisions should also be made for lunch tables and vending 
machines. 

9.17 TOILET FACILITIES (AREAS "J" AND "Q") 

9.17.1 Toilet facilities and water coolers should be provided for shop forces 
at centralized locations to minimize the away-from-work station time. 

9.17.2 The number of fixtures required is governed by applicable codes and 
will vary depending on the location. 

9.18 TOOL ROOM (AREAS "K" AND "P") 

9.18.1 Tool room or rooms with required security are to be conveniently located 
to the shops they sei^ve, and should stock all power and hand tools used throughout 
the various areas. 

9.19 STORES OFFICE (AREA "L") 

9.19.1 A stores office large enough to accommodate tlie storekeeper and staff 
should be provided adjacent to die store area. 

9.20 STORE AREA (AREA "M ") 

9.20.1 The store area should be located as near as possible to the center of the 
complex and should be complete with racks and bins. 

9.20.2 Proper attention should be given to providing adequate security. 



Manual Recommendations 167 

9.21 STEEL FABRICATION AREA (AREA "N") 

9.21.1 Space should be provided for use as a repair and test area for all types 
of radiators and fuel tanks. A cleaning and test vat should be provided. 

9.21.2 Adjustable booths should be provided for steel fabrication or repair of 
assemblies made by boilermakers. Individual, 5-ft-high, canvas or plastic shields 
should completely surround each booth to protect other employees from the electric 
flash created by wire fed welders. 

9.21.3 Space should be allocated for storage racks for bar steel, sheet steel, 
angle iron and pipe. 

9.22 SHEET METAL SHOP (AREA "O") 

9.22.1 All sheet-metal fabrication work and repairs to the sheet-metal guards 
and shrouds for various machines are performed in this shop. Area should be equipped 
with adequate machinery to handle any and all types of sheet-metal work. 

9.23 BLACKSMITH SHOP (AREA "R") 

9.23.1 An electronic eye semi-automatic shape cutting machine should be 
located in tliis shop, complete with steel racks, a large heating furnace and a machin- 
ist welding booth, where tamping shoes are reclaimed. 

9.23.2 A forge, a large and small hammer, double dry grinder, welding booths, 
exliaust ducting, a normalizing furnace, and other equipment and storage areas, as 
outlined on Figure 3, should be located in tiiis area. 

9.24 CONCLUSION 

9.24.1 The maintenance of way equipment repair complex, as outlined in these 
criteria, is representative of an entirely new facility. It is realized, however, that 
existing facilities may be converted to a repair shop, and the configuration of the 
yards and buildings may not be ideally suited for performing the repair work on an 
assembly line basis. Some repair facilities are located in smaller shops at outlying 
districts, which cannot adequately serve the needs of the entire railroad, but an 
attempt should be made to arrange the shop similar to diose in Figures 1 and 2, 
to minimize unnecessary movement of material and equipment. 



168 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 





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Figure 2 



170 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Figure 3— LEGEND OF DETAILS FOR TYPICAL MAINTENANCE OF WAY 
EQUIPMENT REPAIR FACILITIES 



A. PAINT SHOP 

1. Paint Storage 

2. Filter Ducting 

B. CARPENTER SHOP 

1. Carpenter Shop Storage 
2-5. Lumber and Trailers 

6. Plywood Rack 

7. Work Bench 

8. Table Saw 

9. Planer 

10. Radial Arm Saw 
H. Band Saw 

12. Glass Rack 

13. Upholstery and Canvas Shop 

14. Packing and Crating Area 

C. MOTOR CAR REPAIR 

1. Solvent Vat 
2-3. Test Stands 

4. Work Bench 

5. Engine & Transmission Storage 

6. Hydraulic Press 

D. SHOP EQUIPMENT REPAIR & 

MAINTENANCE 

E. PAINT SHOP STORAGE 

F. ENGINE REBUILD AREA 

1-6. Diesel Engine Rebuild Area 

7. Assembly Bench 

8. Line Boring Machine 

9. Pin Fitter 

10. Valve Grinder 

11. Cylinder Boring Machine 
12-13. Cleaning Solvent Vat 

14. Carburetor Repair 
15-18. Gas Engine Rebuild Area 

19. Dynamometer Storage Area 

20. Dynamometer Test Stands 

21. Gas Engine Storage Area 

22. Diesel Engine Storage Area 

G. MACHINE SHOP AREA 

1. Storage Area 
2-7. Lathe Area 

8. Metal Spray Bench 

9. Crankshaft Grinder 

10. Surface Grinder 

11. Horizontal Miller 

12. Layout Table 

13. Universal Grinder 



14. Internal Grinder 

15. Universal Miller 

16. Machine Shop Storage Area 
17-18. Drill Press 

19. Layout Bench 

20. Double Dry Grinder 

21. Boring Mill 

22. Band Saw 

23. Tubing and Steel Rack 

24. Hydraulic Press 

25. Tool Grinder 

H. HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRICAL 
REPAIR AREA 

1. Tested Unit Storage Area 

2. Test Bench 

3. Bench 

4-7. Hydraulic Units Repair Area 

8. Hydraulic Shop Work Storage 
Area 

9. Hydraulic Hose Cutting Bench 

10. Hydraulic Hose Fabrication 
Area 

11. Storage Area 

12. Hose and Fitting Bins 

13. Oven 

14. Wire Rack 

15. Coil Winders 

16. Dip Vat 

17. Sandblast Cabinet 

18. Battery Room 

19. Generator and Motor Repair 
Area 

20. Sim Test Stand 
21-22. Rewind Bench 

L LUNCH ROOM 
J. TOILET FACILITIES 
K. TOOL ROOM 
L. STORES OFFICE 
M. STOREHOUSE 
N. SHEET STEEL FABRICATION 
AREA 

1. Radiator & Fuel Tank Repair 
Area 
2-5. Adjustable Booth for Steel 
Fabrication 

6. Bar Steel & Angle Iron Rack 

7. Pipe Rack 



Manual Recommendations 



171 



Figure 3 

8. Air Resenoir 6c Fuel Tank 
Test Area 

9. Hydro Test 

10. Oxygraph Table 

11. Drill Press 

12. Brake 

13. Rolls 

14. Fonning Table 

15. Shear 

16. Steel Rack 

17. Double Dry Grinder 

18. Band Saw 
O. SHEETMETAL SHOP 

1. Threading Machine 

2. Fonning Table 

3. Heli-Arc Welder 

4. Spot Welder 

5. Circle Cutter 

6. Band Saw 

7. Rotex Punch 

8. Brake 

9. Rolls 

10. Forming Table 
11-12. Shears 

13. Aluminum Rack 

14. Sheet Steel Rack 
P. TOOL ROOM 
Q. TOILET FACILITIES 
R. BLACKSMITH SHOP 

1. Oxygraph Machine 

2. Steel Plate Storage 

3. Forming Table 

4. Anvil 

5. Forge 

6. Quenching Tank 

7. Small Hammer 

8. Large Hammer 

9. Forming Table 

10. Pipe Bender 
11-12. Benches 

13. Double Dry Grinder 

14. Vise 

15. Furnace 

16. Work Storage Area 

17. Sheet Steel Fabrication Storage 
Area 

18. Sheetmetal Shop Work Storage 
Area 

19. Tamping Shoe Reclaim Area 

20. Welding Work Storage Area 



(Continued) 

21-25. Welding Boodis 

26. Exhaust Ducting 

27. Normalizing Furnace 
S. HEAVY ASSEMBLY REPAIR & 

RECLAIM AREA 
T. PILE DRIVER REPAIR AREA 
U. 150-TON O.H. TRAVELING 

CRANE 
V. HEA\'Y ROADWAY MACHINE 

REPAIR AREA 
W. LOADING AREA 
X. 30-TON O.H. TRAVELING 

CRANE 
Y. INTERMEDIATE ROADWAY 

MACHINE REPAIR AREA 
Z. 15-TON O.H. TRAVELING 
CRANE 
A-A. RAIL & TIE GANG EQUIP- 
MENT REPAIR AREA 
B-B. 15-TON O.H. TRAVELING 

CRANE 
C-C. OFFICE BUILDING 
D-D. TRANSFER PIT 
E-E. TRANSFER TABLE 
F-F. TRANSFER TABLE TRAILER 
G-G. 30-TON O.H. TRAVELING 

CRANE 
H-H. CLEANING VATS 
I-I. LYE VAT WASH AREA 
J-J. STORAGE AREA 
K-K. CAR & EQUIPMENT STORAGE 
AREA TRACKS 
LEAD IN TRACKS: 

1. "Circus" Train, Car Repair 
& Paint Shop Lead 

2. "Circus" Train Loading & 
Paint Shop Lead 

3. Loading Track 

4. Loading Track 

5. Holding Track 

6. Test Track & Heavy 
Equipment 

7. Test Track & Heavy 
Equipment 

8. Pile Dri\er Test Track 



17 2 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 2 

Design Criteria for Elevated Yard Office Buildings 

W. C. Humphreys (chairman subcommittee), A. C. Cayou, H. R. Helkeb, R. J. 
Martens, G. J. Bleul, L. S. Newman, P. W. Peterson, R. E. Phillips, H. A. 
Shannon. 

Your committee submits for adoption the following new Part 10 for Chapter 6 
of the Manual. 

Part 10 
Elevated Yardmasters' Towers 

10.1 FOREWORD 

The elevated yardmasters' tower is a natural development which resulted from 
the experience of railroads that located supervisory personnel in elevated structures 
at strategic points in modern classification yards. Based on this experience, many 
railroads decided to provide elevated towers for yardmasters in all types of yards to 
increase their supervisory potential. 

The elevated yardmasters' tower permits the yardmaster to visually supervise 
yard crews and yard engine operations, and tlius develop greater switching efficiency 
through better switch crew utilization. The elevated tower also permits better utili- 
zation of yard tracks. 

Elevated yardmasters' towers are most effective in yards where more tlian one 
yard crew is working at the same time. The towers are generally located at the 
switching end or lead end of tlie yard. 

10.2 SITE CONSIDERATIONS 

Inasmuch as the primary function of the elevated yardmasters' towers is critical 
observation, the location is probably the most important consideration. The optimum 
height from top of rail to the observation tower floor is generally considered to be 
30 to 40 ft. The site location should be determined by tlie track geometry of the 
particular yard location. As a rule of thumb, the tower should be 50 ft back from 
the switching lead to permit observation of switching operations, and at the center 
line of the classification tracks to permit maximum observation down the lines of 
classification tracks. 

Many yards are located within urban areas, and are crossed by overhead struc- 
tures carrying vehicular traffic. These structures often make it quite difficult to 
detemiine tlie best height and location for constructing a tower. In these cases, it 
is extremely helpful to secure a basket-mounted high-reach mobile crane and have 
the local operating supervisor ride the basket, and adjust the height and location 
until he determines the position which is most suitable for the tower. The tower 
floor can then be located in accordance with these field-determined dimensions. 



Manual Recommendations 173 

10.3 TYPES 

Elevated yardmasters' towers may be constructed as part of the upper story 
of a multi-story yard building, as an additional story to an existing yard building, or 
as an individual prefabricated metal observation tower supported by a structural 
frame. 

Inasmuch as individual yardmasters' towers are purely functional structures, 
economic considerations generally dictate that they be constructed of structural 
steel. Size, height, location, and other considerations, however, may indicate that 
they be constructed of reinforced concrete, preformed concrete members, or masonry. 

10.3.1 Towers Constructed as Part of Yard Buildings (See Figures 1-4) 

An elevated yardmasters' tower may sometimes be constructed as part of the 
upper story or on top of a new multi-story yard building. This lias the advantage of 
reducing tlie tower construction cost inasmuch as the supporting structure is provided 
by tire multi-story building structure, and square-foot job costs will be substantially 
reduced. In addition, costs of bringing services and utilities to the tower are virtually 
eliminated, as these costs, which can be considerable, would be chargeable to the 
main building structure. 

The main disadvantage of constructing an elevated tower as part of a multi- 
story building is that, generally, operating requirements dictate that a yard trans- 
portation building be constructed at a site which is not the most advantageous for 
locating a yardmasters' tower. 

10.3.2 Towers Constructed as an Addition to an Existing Building 

In some instances, elevated yardmasters' towers are constructed on the roof of 
an existing building. The generally accepted theory is that this is cheaper than 
building a separate tower on a structural steel tower frame. Experience, however, 
indicates that in most cases the cost of remodeling and structurally strengthening an 
existing building, together with the cost of a new tower cabin, is close to or the 
same as the cost of a new separate tower. In addition, constructing a tower on an 
existing building has the same disadvantage as constinicting it as part of a new 
multi-story building, in that existing buildings are generally not located at a suitable 
site for a yardmaster's tower. 

10.3.3 Individual Prefabricated Towers (See Figure 5) 

Individual prefabricated yardmasters' towers have the advantage of being 
almost completely flexible with respect to location. Inasmuch as the location of a 
tower has a direct bearing on its main function of observation, this is a prime con- 
sideration. A standard elevated yardmasters' tower plan can be developed which 
t;ikes advantage of standard components and shop fabrication. A standard 30-ft-high 
tower can be varied in height between 30 ft and 40 ft by varying the pedestal height 
of the concrete foundation on which the tower is supported. 

(Text contimied on page 178) 



174 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 




ELEVATION 




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Manual Recommendations 



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178 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

10.4 TOWER CONSTRUCTION 

10.4.1 General Construction Materials 

The materials used in the construction of a tower which is part of a new building 
will, of course, be determined by the construction and aesthetics of the overall 
building structure. Lightweight, fire-resistant, standard components should be used 
for towers constructed on top of existing buildings, and in the construction of indi- 
vidual elevated towers. The types of materials to be considered in the construction 
of towers are structural steel or aluminum tube framing, masonry, concrete, standard 
window wall components, insulated metal wall components, and metal flooring and 
roof decking materials. The finish flooring material may be vinyl, or vinyl asbestos 
tile, or some other similar material which is easy to maintain. Consideration may 
also be given to carpeting. Acoustical treatment is an important consideration, though 
not essential. The installation of adequate insulating materials is of prime importance 
due to the extensive exposure of the towers and the large areas of glass required for 
observation. 

Access to a tower constructed as part of a new building is usually by means 
of interior stairs. Access to a tower constructed on top of an existing building may 
be by means of interior stairs, or by extending existing stair towers. It is usually 
more practical, however, to construct a new access stair on the outside of the build- 
ing. Access stairs for individual elevated towers are usually open-metal stairways 
constructed around the outside and framed into the structural tower frame. 

The inclusion of elevators should be considered in the design of towers, particu- 
larly where they are included as part of a multi-story building or where an individual 
tower is to be constructed over 30 ft in height. 

10.4.2 Mechanical and Electrical Facilities and Equipment 

Yardmasters' towers of all types should be provided with easily accessible toilet 
facilities. Individual towers should have toilets included as part of the elevated 
tower cabin. Towers constructed as part of a new multi-story building or on top of 
an existing building, should have toilets located either in the tower, or close by 
on an adjacent floor. Water supply lines and drainage lines for individual towers 
should be insulated and heat traced to prevent freezing. 

Yardmasters' towers should be adequately heated and air-conditioned. Special 
consideration must be given to the heating and cooling design due to the exposure 
factor and large amounts of exposed glass surface. Although any type fuel and heat- 
ing system can be used for heating the tower, electric heating has many advan- 
tages. Electric heating is particularly suited to individual elevated towers. The heat- 
ing can be either combined with the cooling in through wall units or be individual 
base-board units or unit heaters. 

Care must be given in the design of the lighting to incorporate the adjustments 
and flexibility required to provide the most ideal conditions possible to perform 
the outside observance task at all times of the day and night, under various outside 
lighting conditions. 

Good general lighting must be provided, also spot or individual shielded lighting 
for reading panels, consoles, switch lists, etc. Lighting fixture rheostats must be 
installed on all general lighting to furnish the required contrast between inside and 
outside natural lighting conditions. 

Outside yard lighting must be designed and located in conjunction with the 
tower design and location, so that it will not blind the tower occupant, but rather 
augment his observation task. 



Manual Recommendations 



179 



10.5 SPECIAL FEATURES 

10.5.1 Tower Size 

The tower should be minimal in size and tlie floor plan developed on the basis 
of only the equipment to be installed in die tower, with minimal space around the 
equipment for circulation and servicing the equipment. The location of equipment 
is important in developing the maximum visibility factor of the tower. A nominal 
10 ft X 12 ft size is adequate in most cases for a one-man tower. 

10.5.2 Tower Glazing and Glass (See Figure 6) 

Glazing should be located only on tlie faces of the tower where observation 
will be required. This is usually on three tower walls, with the fourth wall used for 
a door, toilet rooms, service panels, etc. 

A study should be made with the personnel responsible for the operation to 
determine the best orientation of die tower to permit die optimum required 
obser\ation. 

The lower glass line should be dictated by line of sight, but generally should 
be as close to the floor as possible, allowing enough space for radiation, service out- 
lets, conduits, etc. The upper glass line should be located approximately 5 ft 6 in 
abo\'e the floor, or at the eye line for a man who is standing. As the points of obser- 
\ation are all below eye level in the yard, any glass above this point is superfluous. 
Elimination of glass above eye level reduces sun glare and sky brightness. 




NSULATED 
OI_ASS 



XOWER FLOOR 

l_IIME 




VERTICAL GLASS SLOPED GLASS 

TYPICAL TOWER GLASS DETAILS 



Figure 6 



180 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

It is extremely desirable to use double glazing for all windows to reduce heat 
loss and elinunate the possibility of condensation and fogging of glass. 

The use of heat-reducing and glare-reducing glass is not recommended as it 
reduces night visibility, and this is the time when visibility is most critical. The 
additional heat gain can be compensated for during tire day by providing more air 
conditioning, but there is no way to compensate for the visibility loss. 

Tower windows may be installed vertically or sloped. There are proponents 
of both schools of thought who will vigorously defend their position. Some studies 
have indicated that diere are no advantages in installing sloped windows, and that 
there are, in fact, some disadvantages. Sloping windows put additional stress on the 
glass and make it more susceptible to cracking. This is especially true of insulating 
glass. Sloping glass also tends to increase distortion and reduce vision as the sight 
line passes through a greater thickness and density of glass. Each individual will 
have to develop his own set of facts and make his own decision of tiiis feature of 
the design. 

The use of vertical pivoted sash for towers is desirable as it permits washing 
windows from inside, and may ehminate the need of an outside catwalk. If fixed 
sash is used, a catwalk should be provided for washing windows. 

The maximum standard-size sash should be used. Generally, the use of vertical 
mullions is not a problem; however, care should be taken not to locate a mullion 
in the center of a critical viewing area. 

10.5.3 Tower Roof Overhang 

Towers should be constructed with adequate roof overhang to reduce sun glare, 
sky brightness, and heat transfer. It may be necessary under certain conditions to 
install Venetian blinds or transparent colored sun screens. 

10.5.4 Tower Relocation 

Individual prefabricated yardmasters' towers have tlie added advantage of being 
relocatable. They are usually constructed in two main sections. The structural steel 
tower frame can be fabricated in one or more sections, and the tower cabin fabricated 
in another section. The stairs are also fabricated in sections. When tlie need arises 
to relocate a tower to a different location, the tower can be dismantled and relo- 
cated to a new location. 



Manual Recommendations 
Committee 33 — Electrical Energy Utilization 

Report on Assignment 1 

Electrification Economics 

R. J. Berti (chairman, subcommittee), W. H. Brodski, W. S. Gordon, M. F. 
Cowing, D. T. Jones, H. C. Kendall, K. L. Lawson, M. D. Meeker, A. G. 
Raabe, R. p. Reiff, B. a. Ross, L. D. Tufts, K. B. Ullman. 

Your committee submits for adoption the following Part 1 for new Chapter 33 
of the Manual. 

Part 1 

Method of Making Electrification 

Economic Studies 

1.1 GENERAL 

1.1.1 Objective 

The prime objective of an electrification economic study is to determine if 
electric operation of a particular railroad is more advantageous than operation widr 
another form of power which may or may not be in actual use. This is written from 
the commercial \ie\\'point of a privately operated railroad. 

1.1.2 Basic Procedure 

Each identifiable cost associated with the diff"erent types of power must be 
quantified for economic comparison. Since most electrification studies will cover a 
period between 20 and 50 years into the future, costs should be separated into two 
basic categories: initial one-time expenses, and annual costs which are subject to 
continuing inflation. Separate inflation rates should be specified for each annual 
cost to properly compare types of power over a long period of time. Extra care 
should be taken in determining inflation rates since they will be compounded over 
the life of the study. Intangible costs and benefits or liabilities should be listed for 
review at the end of the study, unless they are directly associated with a tangible 
cost. 

1.1.3 System Operation 

Prior to any detailed analysis, the segment(s) of railroad to be studied nuist 
be precisely defined as well as the basic parameters of operation. Train size, speed, 
frequency, etc., should be made constant for all types of power studied to permit 

181 
Bui. 655 



182 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

a valid initial comparison. The detailed study should include the economic effects 
of changing the operating parameters to that most favorable to each type of power 
being compared. 

1.1.4 Electrical Distribution Systems 

A cursory review of the various types of electrical distribution systems: tliird- 
rail direct current, 12.5-kv alternating-current catenary, 50-kv alternating-current 
catenary, etc., should be made to determine which system or combination of systems 
is most applicable for the specific case under study. Detailed analyses can start after 
this preliminary determination is made. 

1.1.5 Data 

A base year should be chosen from which all data can be projected. The data 
for this base year must be as reliable as possible, thus considerable effort should be 
spent to review all sources of information for their accuracy and completeness. 

1.2 TRAFFIC 

1.2.1 Gross Ton Miles 

Freight Traffic — The most common unit for computing energy and maintenance 
costs is the gross-ton-mile. The number of gross-ton-miles operated over the railroad 
under study should be thoroughly reviewed to ascertain what percentage of the 
total could be hauled electrically. Locals or trains that would travel only a short 
distance over electrified territory may be moved more economically using non- 
electric locomotives. Total annual gross-ton-miles can then serve as a base for com- 
puting energy and maintenance cost for both electric and non-electric systems. 

1.2.2 Passenger Trains 

Due to the high acceleration and speed required of passenger trains, they are 
frequently treated separately from the freight service. If they are present and being 
dealt with independently, the gross-ton-miles generated by the passenger trains 
should be subtracted from the total being hauled electrically. Since passenger trains 
outside the northeast have only minimal impact on electrification studies, their 
economics are not covered in this outline. 

1.2.3 Train Size and Speed 

For proper comparison of energy demands, the size and speed of typical trains 
should be specified for operation electrically or with other forms of power. Initially, 
this parameter should be the same for any type of power; however, as the study 
becomes more detailed, it may become obvious tliat one type of power is more 
economical using a different train size and speed. For evaluation purposes, any 
changes in train size and speed should be a separate portion of the study. 

1.2.4 Traffic Projection 

The facts reviewed in the study for traffic projection are very critical. A large 
growth rate when compounded over many years can saturate the existing track and 
signal system creating a requirement for CTC or additional mainline track. Negative 
growth rate can impact the study outcome by causing savings to diminish in the 
future. 



Manual Recommendations 183 



1.2.5 Train Schedules 

The average daily traffic must be specified by number of trains, size of trains, 
and die timetable schedule of trains. The maximum daily traffic must be specified 
in the same manner. The minimum acceptable train performance (train speed, size 
and frequency) under emergency conditions (substation outage, excessive train 
densit>', etc.) should be specified. 



1.3 CAPITAL EQUIPMENT COSTS 

1.3.1 Locomotives 

Based on tlie traffic, terrain, train size and schedules, the electric locomotives' 
weight, wheel configiuation, power and speed capabilities can be selected. This 
selection should be carefully coordinated with the builders of electric locomotives 
to insure the commercial a\ailability and a valid cost estimate. Locomotives with 
prime movers other than standard diesel engines should likewise be selected with 
care. 

If the electrified system is to be compared to diesel locomoti\es it should be 
detennined whether to use existing types of diesel-electrics or for comparison use 
a new model not yet manufactured. As with electrics, the various manufacturers 
should be consulted to insure reliable cost data. 

Extreme care should be taken to insure that enough locomotives of each type 
have been pro\ ided to cover peak traffic periods, allow downtime for scheduled and 
unscheduled maintenance, and provide for possible future schedule changes which 
would require more locomotives with the same traffic. Past experience has shown 
the electric locomotive to have a higher availability and utilization than other types. 
Computer generated speed-time-distance calculations can be of great assistance. 
Energy and power-time-distance calculations made at the same time are invaluable 
in computing electric power consumption and cost as well as diesel fuel consumption 
and cost. 

1.3.2 Locomotive Facilities 

The existing mechanical facilities should l^e thoroughly reviewed to determine 
what changes will be necessary to maintain electric locomotives. Some of the more 
modem diesel facilities can be used for electric locomotive maintenance with virtu- 
ally no changes, while old roundhouse operations may be totally unfit for any 
maintenance work. 

Main-line electrification may segment the remaining diesel service to such a 
great extent that new diesel maintenance shops must be built to care for the diesels 
running branch lines and locals. Maintenance facilities for both diesels and electrics 
should be an important factor in determining the end points for an initial electrifica- 
tion project. 

High-voltage catenary is not to be recommended inside a maintenance shop 
where the risk of employee injury is much greater due to the type of work being 
done. If it becomes necessary to have high-voltage inside a shop, special warning 
devices should be installed to alert all workers when the high-voltage is energized. 
Locomotive cleaning and sanding facilities, which will be used by both diesels and 
electrics, should be checked to insure safe operation with the electric locomotives 
while the power is on. 



184 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

1.3.3 Power Generating Facilities 

Railroads still face some locations where it is more economical to build an elec- 
tric generating station tlian it is to buy power from the local utility company. 
Locations may exist where local power is unavailable. If railroad owned power 
generation is to be considered, studies by specialized electric utility engineers will 
be required to determine capital, operating and maintenance costs. 

1.3.4 Power Distribution Systems 

A study should be made to determine the electrical power demand of each 
portion of the railroad to be electrified. The utility companies should be consulted 
to locate transmission lines in the area suitable for use by the railroad. On a high- 
voltage system, it is advisable to try and arrange for adjacent substations to be 
served by different transmission lines in order to minimize the possibility of power 
failure which would affect more than one substation. For substations located at 
the end of an electrified system, consideration should be given to the installation of 
two transformers connected to two diflierent transmission lines to minimize the pos- 
sibility of power failure. Sizing of the transmission line will be based on maximum 
present and future load. It is frequently more economical to put up heavier wire 
or a few more insulators for a higher voltage transmission line during initial con- 
struction than it is to retrofit after the load demand has increased. Single-phase 
unbalance problems may be encountered and could require special substation 
connections. 

1.3.5 Substations 

Substations are used to step the high transmission line voltage down to the 
voltage used on the catenary or third rail. The alternating current is also converted 
to direct current at a substation when required for third rail. 

Equipment used in a substation should be capable of handling high overloads 
for relatively short periods of time without failure. Substation transformers can be 
sized to permit initial loads with no forced cooling; later, forced cooling can be 
added to support the increased traffic at minimal cost. It is common practice to 
assume that a substation will be called upon to supply half of an adjacent substa- 
tion's load during an emergency. Railway substation transformers should be equipped 
with extra bracing to prevent damage during a short circuit. Either manual and/or 
remote control should be provided for each substation. Provisions should be made 
to have a spare, mobile substation which will serve in an active capacity when not 
being used as a replacement. For substations located at the end of an electrified 
system, consideration should be given to the installation of two transformers connected 
to two different transmission lines to minimize the possibility of power failure. 

Phase breaks at or between substations should be equipped with manual or 
remote controlled switch gear to permit isolating or energizing adjacent catenary 
sections. 

If remote control of substation and phase breaks is contemplated the cost of a 
central control point and telemetry circuits cannot be overlooked. 

1 .3.6 Power Transfer 

Two primary methods are used to transfer electrical power to the railway vehicle, 
third rail and overhead wire. The cost of third rail includes the special contact rail, 
insulators, long ties or special brackets to mount on the short ties, third-rail covers, 



Manual Recommendations 185 



right-of-way fencing, miscellaneous hardware and installation labor costs. Ice and 
heavy snow cause electrical troubles with third-rail systems in many parts of the 
world. 

Overhead wire comes in several different configurations with vehicle operating 
speed being tlie determining factor. Simple trolley wire can be used for yards or 
track where the speed of multiple unit consists will not exceed 30 mph. European 
tests have shown that stitched trolley wire can sustain speeds of 60 mph with 
multiple-unit consists. However, the current capacity of standard trolley wire may 
limit trolley wire use to relatively low power situations. The simple sagged catenary 
is generally sufficient for speeds up to 120 mph. Compound or stitched catenary is 
usually recommended for operation of trains above 120 mph. Virtually all new 
catenary construction is of the constant-tension design which has proven able to 
minimize trouble. At certain locations where power demand is extremely heavy, 
auxiliary parallel feeders hung from the supports may be more economical than 
increasing the size of the catenary wire or adding more substations. Catenary con- 
struction costs are generally more dependent on terrain than third-rail costs due to 
the variation in support distance. Costs for overhead catenary should include wire, 
insulators, supports, support foundations, tensioning devices, miscellaneous hardware, 
and all the labor to install the system. 

Construction of both diird-rail and overhead systems will disrupt railway traffic 
and require special material trains. Expenses for special train crews, extra train 
crews and items such as flagman protection, should be added to the cost of 
construction. 

1.3.7 Clearance Modification 

Situations will arise with both third-rail and overhead system where the elec- 
trical clearance requirements will necessitate the modification of nearby structures 
such as platfomis, bridges and tunnels. Extremely high modification costs may 
dictate a lower voltage or, in some cases, a short segment of electrically dead catenary 
or third-rail. 

1.3.8 Signal Modification 

Because of electrical interference from the traction power system, electrifica- 
tion is not compatible with most types of signals used in the United States. A detailed 
analysis should be made by the signal department to determine the best type of 
modification to make signals compatible with the particular form of electrification 
being considered. Trackside signal lines must be shielded from alternating current 
power systems. The cost to upgrade a signal system, such as installing cab signals, 
should not be charged to electrification. 

1.3.9 Communications 

Most open-wire communications circuits near an alternating-current power 
source must be either shielded or converted to microwave. Microwave is frequently 
used for the long-distance circuits while shielded cable can be used for local dis- 
tribution circuits. Modern thyristor locomotives have been known to generate various 
forms of signals which radiate beyond the railway property line. Special shielding 
of power circuits may be required in urban areas to prevent interference with public 
communications systems. 



186 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

1.4 ANNUAL OPERATING EXPENSES 

1.4.1 General 

The annual operating expenses are critical in any electrification study and 
should be very carefully derived. The electrification of a railroad has the potential 
to affect virtually every cost encountered in daily operations. The diff^erence in oper- 
ating expenses bet\veen two or more propulsion systems is what creates a return 
on investment and determines which system is the most economical when compared 
to the initial capital costs. 

1.4.2 Fuel and Energy 

The cost of energy or fuel delivered to locomotives must be ascertained for each 
system being studied. Fuel costs should include all transportation, pumping and 
labor costs. Electric energy bills usually include a demand charge, energy charge, 
fuel adjustment and possibly a rental on some fixed equipment. If the cost of fuel 
and energy are changing at different rates, separate inflation factors should be de- 
veloped for each. Attempts to increase the electrical load factor frequently result in 
train rescheduling and a separate option in the final analysis of electrification. 

1.4.3 Train Crew Wages 

Train crews may be paid on a basis that will change after electrification. Fewer 
locomotives with less weight on drivers could reduce the wages earned by the engine 
crew. Higher acceleration and top speed could reduce overtime or possibly the 
number of crews required to operate a particular section of railroad. 

1.4.4 Locomotive Maintenance 

The cost of maintaining locomotives using different sources of power is usually 
one of the most important aspects of any electrification study and frequently requires 
the most time and effort to determine precisely. 

All costs associated with maintaining each type of locomotive should be care- 
fully derived to insure that a true comparison is given. If possible each cost should 
be broken down into labor and material for application of die appropriate inflation 
factor. It is essential tliat all subdivisions of locomotive maintenance cost be included 
in the total. Some of the more frequent subdivisions include: locomotive repairs, 
superintendency, shop machinery, power plant machinery, locomotive servicing, main- 
taining power plants, maintaining fueling facilities, maintaining maintenance shops, 
insurance, unemployment insurance, hospital insurance, personal injuries, health and 
welfare benefits, old age retirement, and supplemental annuities. Recently, it has 
become a relatively common practice to capitalize the very heavy repairs or rebuild- 
ing of locomotives; these costs should be taken into account. The total maintenance 
cost is most easily used when apportioned on a gross ton mile basis. 

However, greater accuracy can be achieved if the total cost can be divided 
into portions which are predominantly a function of unit miles operated, horsepower- 
hours generated, or chronological age. 

The cost of maintaining diesel electric locomotives can be easily obtained from 
existing records, while costs associated with maintaining a modem electrical loco- 
motive are frequently difficult to obtain from experience in North America. Cost 
projections by electrical locomotive builders can form the basis for the total cost, 
but extensive research should be done to determine the cost being experienced by 



Manual Recommendations 187 



users of electric locomotives. Electrification studies frequendy refer to electric loco- 
moti\e maintenance cost as a per cent of the diesel locomotive maintenance cost on 
a gross ton mile basis. 

1.4.5 Catenary Maintenance 

While modern constant-tensioned simple catenary systems are much cheaper to 
maintain than the old \-ariable-tensioned compound systems, a certain amount of 
adjushnent, wire replacement and repair after derailments will be required. Catenary 
maintenance costs are influenced by terrain, trackwork complexity, climate and rail 
traffic. Existing electrified systems should be reviewed to evaluate tlie catenary main- 
tenance requirements and costs prior to making projections for a new system. 

Third-rail maintenance should be treated in the same manner as catenary 
maintenance. 

1.4.6 Substations and Transmission Line Maintenance 

The cost of periodically inspecting transformer oil, switch gear operation, sub- 
station facilities, supervisory control systems, and clearing trees from the vicinity 
of transmission lines should be estimated. This is frequently done by taking a small 
perc-entage of the initial installation cost as being the annual maintenance cost. 

1.4.7 Signal and Communications Maintenance 

Eliminating the open line wire on poles frequently associated with the existing 
signal system usually means less maintenance of the system. 

If cab signals or other signal improvements are separately justified, no effect 
will be felt on tlie electrification economics. However, if electrification is the justi- 
fication, such as installing CTC in order to reduce the miles of catenary, all savings 
should be credited to electrification. 

1.4.8 Taxes 

The large expenses required for electrification should be thoroughly reviewed by 
tax specialists to detennine the effects on taxes paid by the company. The increased 
valuation frequently increases property taxes while the savings when translated to 
increased income can cause greater income taxes. 

The effect on taxes made by various investment tax credits, depreciation reserves, 
and possibly existing unused tax credits should be tlioroughly reviewed. 

1.5 FINANCING 

Top financial officers for the railroad should be consulted to detenuine which 
of tlie many financial aiTangements would be best suited to the particular system 
being studied. Cash-flow studies of tlie construction period are frequently requested 
by both railroad officials and in\estment bankers. Cash-flow projections for a period 
of 30 or more years after the project is completed is a necessity for making retmn-on- 
investment calculations. 

1.6 MAINTENANCE OF WAY CHANGES 

Installation of catenary or third rail will cause some changes in maintenance 
of way techniques. Third-rail operation will require about 20% of the annual new 
ties to be longer than standard. In addition to tlie increased material cost of the long 
tie, labor to unfasten and re-attach the third-rail chair and insulator must be in- 



188 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

eluded. Care must be exercised by tampers around impedance bonds, ground wires, 
and third rails. The size of maintenance equipment is frequently restricted by a 
third-rail system. 

Cranes and wrecking derrick booms should be equipped with insulated panto- 
graphs or shields when working under catenary to avoid a grounding contact with 
the wire. Snow plows or spreaders operating with wings will be restricted by cate- 
nary supports. All equipment should be grounded to provide a positive electrical 
path for accidental contact with energized circuits. 

1.7 INTANGIBLE BENEFITS AND LIABILITIES 

During an electrification study, many items will appear which have little mone- 
tary impact, but which ofl:er distinct benefits or liabilities for electric operation. 
Electrification has a positive impact on line-of-road failures, pollution control, noise 
and exhaust emissions, performance with overload capability, performance with 
superior wheel-slip systems, and the option to use different types of fuel. The catenary 
can be tapped at remote locations to provide power for signals, power switches, 
switch heaters, lights, and wayside buildings. 

Negative aspects of electrification involve additional work when clearing 
wrecks, partial or total system shutdown for large power failures, safety problems 
with the exposed electrical system, and possible under-utilization of locomotives. 
Extra training will be required for those responsible for maintaining both electric 
and diesel locomotives. 



Manual Recommendations 
Committee 13 — Environmental Engineering 

Report on Assignment 4 

Industrial Hygiene 

R. S. Bryan, Jr. (chairman, subcommittee), W. D. Peters (vice chairman, subcom- 
mittee), W. H. Melgren, T. a. Tennyson, R. Singer. 

Your committee submits for adoption and publication in Part 4, Chapter 13 of 
the Manual, tlie following new Section 4.7 Sanitation Requirements for Portable 
Housing Units. 

4.7 SANITATION REQUIREMENTS FOR PORTABLE HOUSING 
UNITS 

4.7.1 General 

(a) The term "Portable Housing Unit" or "Portable Accommodation Unit" 
covers all self-contained hving accommodations which can be readily lifted from 
the deck of a flatcar or any other temporary foundation. 

(b) Portable housing units should be inspected every six months under a 
preventive maintenance schedule. This schedule should include the electrical system, 
tlie water and sewage disposal systems, all appliances, heating systems, the general 
condition of the unit as well as good housekeeping practices. 

4.7.2 Utilization of Units 

(a) Units are to be kept clean and tidy, floors are to be washed at regular 
inter\'als, particularly around appliances. All washing facihties are to be kept in a 
clean and sanitary condition and grating at shower stalls must be cleaned 
periodically. 

(b) Burning cigarettes ancd matches must not be placed or extinguished on 
counter tops or linoleum floors, as damage wfll result. "USE ASH TRAYS." 

(c) Under no circumstances must burning matches, cigarettes or ashes be 
deposited in recirculating flush-type chemical toilets. These units are constructed 
of ABS plastic material and will become easily damaged, causing inefficient opera- 
tion of the unit 

(d) Do not deposit paper towels, wet-strength tissue paper or other articles in 
toilets. Use toilet tissue only. These units are equipped with a self-cleaning filter 
and will become clogged if other types of paper are used. 

(e) If toilets other than recirculating flush-type chemical toilets are used, fol- 
low the instructions issued with the toilet unit. 

(f) All refuse must be placed in covered receptacles provided. 

(g) Each employee is responsible for maintaining his quarters in a clean and 
tidy condition. 

189 



190 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

4.7.3 Sanitation 

4.7.3.1 General 

(a) It is imperative that the area around all housing units be kept clear of all 
refuse and sewage. In no way is it permissible to drain sewage on the ground 
between or adjacent to the tracks. 

(b) Cleanliness and sanitary conditions must always be maintained around 
toilet and wash facilities. 

(c) The person in charge of tlie housing units should be responsible to ensure 
that sanitary regulations are strictly adhered to. 

(d) Local regulations must be met witli regard to dis^josal of all waste, garbage 
and drainage of water and sewer lines. 

4.7.3.2 Drinking Water 

(a) Water for human consumption must be obtained from a source approved 
by health authorities. Water obtained from a doubtful source, such as wells, lakes 
and rivers must be chlorinated. A simple method of water purification is as follows: 
Add 1 ounce of commercial bleach solution (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) to 5 U.S. 
gallons of water or one 5-grain Halazone tablet to 4 U.S. gallons of water. If Hala- 
zone tablets are used, allow one-half hour for purification period due to tablet dis- 
solving slowly. 

(b) Water Containers and Systems for Drinking Water and Culinary Purposes: 
All containers used for this purpose shall be tightly covered and provided with a 
tap outlet. They shall be sterilized once a week, or more often, if necessary by 
filling the container and adding 1 ounce of commercial bleach for a 5-gallon con- 
tainer; 10 ounces will sterilize a 50-gallon container. Closed water systems equipped 
widi filters require flushing and sterilization annually; systems with no filters require 
flushing and sterilization every three months or more often if contamination is 
suspected. Individual disposable cups and dispensers shall be provided and used 
for drinking water. Common drinking cups or dippers are prohibited. 

4.7.3.3 Refrigerators 

(a) Ice boxes should not be used unless essential, and when used shall be 
emptied and washed out weekly with a sterilizing solution. Electric refrigerators 
shall be emptied, defrosted and washed out once a month. (Use 1 teaspoonful of 
chlorox to 1 ounce of detergent-bactericide in a IM-gallon pail of hot water.) An 
open container of baking soda placed in refrigerators will assist in odor control and 
should be replaced each montii. In case of a breakdown, it is essential perishable 
foods be obtained on a day-to-day basis, particularly in warm weather. 

4.7.3.4 Dishes and Utensils 

(a) After each meal, all dishes, utensils and equipment shall be washed and 
sterilized using 1 ounce of detergent-bactericide powder to 1 gallon of hot water 
in a sink filled with hot water. Change water every 30 minutes. Cracked or chipped 
dishes and damaged table utensils shall not be used and are to be replaced. Clean 
dishes shall be stored in an enclosed cabinet above floor level. 

4.7.3.5 Insect Control 

(a) It is essential that all kitchen, dining, food storage and personal wash areas 
be kept free of flies, cockroaches and other insects. All doors, windows, and roof 
vents shall be properly screened and screen doors kept securely closed. A sufficient 



Manual Recommendations 191 

supply of insecticide and spray containers shall be kept on hand. Use of vapour 
strips is not recommended. 

4.7.3.6 Cleaning of Kitchen, Dining, Food Storage and Personal Wash Areas 

(a) Floors are to be swept and washed each day. All table tops in food and 
dining areas shall be covered with a smooth, seamless, impervious material and 
shall be washed following each meal using 1 ounce of chlorox to 1 U.S. gallon of 
hot water. Shelving and cupboards shall be maintained in a clean and orderly con- 
dition at all times. The use of food and vegetables storage bins shall be eliminated. 
Food preparation areas surrounding cook stoves are to be thoroughly cleaned and 
kept free from food spills, grease accumulations, etc. Foods shall be removed from 
tables following each meal and not replaced until 20 minutes before the next meal 
serving time. Any food tJwt is unfit or of a suspicious nature is to be condemned 
and replaced. The walls of all kitchen and dining areas shall be washed down a 
minimum of every sLx months and more frequently if required, using /2 cup chlorox 
to 1 U.S. gallon of hot water. 

4.7.3.7 Personal Cleanliness 

(a) Cooking and food-handling personnel shall wash their hands thoroughly 
with hot water and soap before starting work and after each visit to the toilet. 
Signs shall be posted to this effect. Cooks and all food-handling personnel shall wear 
clean, white clothing and aprons and shall carry current medical cards. 

4.7.3.8 Garbage and Waste Disposal 

(a) Polyethylene or plastic bags shall be supplied and used as garbage pail 
liners and shall be disposed of in accordance with local regulations, or by burying 
in a covered garbage pit where permitted. A garbage pit shall be prepared (where 
permitted) and located not less than 100 ft from the kitchen car. When the gang 
moves, covers will be removed and pits filled completely with earth. All liquid 
waste water shall be removed by approved drainage hoses or pipes to municipal 
sewers, where available, or to prepared sump pits, covered, located not less than 
50 ft from any gang car or unit. When this method is used, sump pits are to be 
completely filled and covered with earth when the gang moves. 

4.7.3.9 Toilets 

(a) Recirculating Toilets in portable accommodation units and other equip- 
ment shall be given a thorough cleaning and recharging every 5 to 8 days, or when 
liquid appears in the bottom of tlie bowl. To empty the recirculating toilet: (1) 
ensure drainage piping to sewer or sump pit is properly attached to exterior toilet 
drains; (2) open the valve after removing the front skirt; (3) allow waste to 
thoroughly drain tiirough drainage hose or pipe to sewer, sump pit, or tank truck; 
(4) open and close valve as required to rinse thoroughly and flush system several 
times using clean water; (5) close valve and replace skirt; (6) pour three meas- 
ured gallons of water into toilet bowl, press flush button and add deodorant-bac- 
tericide, in accordance with manufacturers instructions, into bowl while it is flushing. 
Once recharged, it will operate effectively for approximately 80 usages over a 
5- to 8-day period. Care is to be exercised to ensure that overfilling in the recharge 
routine above does not occur, causing damage and malfunction of the toilet. 
Whether pit privies or sump pits for recirculating toilets are used, extreme caution 
is to be exercised to ensure that pollution of any water course or well does not 
occur. 



192 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(b) If other type toilets are used, they must be in compliance with local health 
and sanitary regulations. 

4.7.3.10 Bunk Cars and Accommodation Units 

(a) All areas shall be kept in a neat and tidy condition at all times. The floors 
shall be swept and washed a minimum of once per week or more frequently if 
required. All windows shall be screened. All units and bedding shall be aired regu- 
larly, preferably once per week. Outside work clothing should not be kept or hung 
in sleeping areas, but should be kept in areas provided for this purpose. In portable 
accommodation units, tlie summer circulating fan system is to be used at all times 
in warm weather. The hanging of washing in rooms or sleeping areas is prohibited. 
All washing is to be hung only in areas provided for this purpose. All windows 
shall be thoroughly washed inside and out a minimmn of twice yearly. 

4.7.4 Shut-Down of Units 

(a) If units are to be shut-down for any lengthy period, the following steps 
should be taken: 

1. Drain all toilets and flush thoroughly. 

2. Drain all water systems in all type units. 

3. Open all faucets at sinks and showers. 



Manual Recommendations 
Special Committee on Concrete Ties 

J. R. Williams (chairman, committee), R. J. Brueske, K. C. Euscorn, W. E. Fuhr, 
C. L. Gattox, M. B. Hansen', D. L. JER^LAN•, T. C. Netherton, E. L. Robin- 
son, G. H. Way, J. W. Weber. 

Your committee submits for adoption and publication as Part 10 of Chapter 3 
of the Manual the following perfomiance specifications for concrete ties and fasten- 
ings. These specifications are a revised version of the preliminary specifications 
published in Bulletin 644, September-October 1973. The corrections to the prelimi- 
nary specifications published in Bulletin 650, November-December 1974, have been 
incorporated therein. 

Part 10 
Concrete Ties (and Fastening's) 

CONTENTS 

Section Page 

Foreword 195 

10.1 General Considerations 196 

10.1.1 Introduction 196 

10.1.2 Vertical Loads 197 

10.1.3 Lateral Loads 200 

10.1.4 Longitudinal Loads 200 

10.1.5 Rail 200 

10.2 Material 201 

10.2.1 General 201 

10.2.2 Concrete 202 

10.2.3 Metal Reinforcement 202 

10.2.4 Tie Pads 205 

10.2.5 Insulation 205 

10.2.6 Fastenings 205 

10.3 Tie Dimensions, Configuration and Weight 206 

10.3.1 Special Considerations 206 

10.3.2 Requirements 206 

10.4 Fle.xural Strength of Prestressed Monoblock Ties 208 

10.4.1 Flexural Performance Requirements for Prestressed Monoblock 
Designs 208 

10.4.2 Design Considerations 208 

10.4.3 Test Requirements for Approving the Design of a Monoblock 

Tie 209 

193 



194 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



10.5 Flcxural Strength of Two-Block Ties 210 

10.5.1 Design Flcwural Requirements for Two-Block Ties 210 

10.5.2 Test Requirements for Approving the Design of a Two-Block 
Tie 211 

10.6 Longitudinal Rail Restraint 211 

10.6.1 Requirements 211 

10.7 Lateral Rail Restraint 212 

10.7.1 Rail Fastening Requirements 212 

10.8 Electrical Properties 212 

10.8.1 Requirements 212 

10.9 Testing of Monoblock Ties 212 

10.9.1 Design Tests of Monoblock Ties 212 

10.9.2 Production Quality Control of Monoblock Ties 217 

10.10 Testing of Two-Block Ties 218 

10.10.1 Design Tests of Two-Block Ties 218 

10.10.2 Production Quality Control of Two-Block Ties 220 

10.11 Recommended Practices for Shipping, Handling, Application and Use.. 221 

10.11.1 Shipping 221 

10.11.2 Handling 222 

10.11.3 Placement and Initial Roadbed Support 222 

10.11.4 Placement of Rail and Fastenings in New Construction 222 

10.11.5 Tamping 223 

10.11.6 Track Geometry 223 

10.12 Ballast 223 

10.12.1 General Characteristics 223 

10.12.2 Quality Requirements 223 

10.12.3 Grading Requirements 223 

10.12.4 Handling 223 

10.12.5 Inspection 223 

10.12.6 Testing 224 

10.13 Commentary 224 

10.13.1 Flexural Strength of Monoblock Ties 224 

10.13.2 Fle.xural Strength of Two-Block Ties 225 

10.13.3 Longitudinal Rail Restraint 226 

10.13.4 Lateral Rail Restraint 227 

10.13.5 Electrical Properties 228 



Manual Recommendations 195 

FOREWORD 

This specification is intended to provide necessary guidance in the design, manu- 
facture and use of concrete ties and their components for main Hue standard gage 
railway track systems. The specification contains minimum performance requirements 
of components for concrete tie railway track based on a variety of permissible tie 
spacings and ballast depths. Track constructed of tie and fastener components meeting 
the specifications applicable to the anticipated usage should be expected to give 
satisfactory performance under current AAR-approved maximum axle loads. 

The specification covers materials, physical dimensions, and structural strength 
of prestressed monoblock and prestressed and conventionally reinforced two-block 
concrete ties. In addition, longitudinal and lateral load restraint requirements as 
well as the electrical performance requirements of rail fastener and tie combinations 
are given. Laboratory tests for tlie determination of the suitability of new designs 
are specified, as are necessary quality-control procedures during manufacture. The 
specification does not cover techniques nor equipment for the manufacture of 
concrete ties or fastenings. 

Where current specifications or recommended practices of other technical 
societies, such as the American Society for Testing and Materials or the American 
Concrete Institute, are appropriate, they are made part of this specification by 
reference. 

The following definitions are applicable to this specification: 

1. Cross Tie — A transverse component of a track system whose functions 
are the control of track gage and the transmitting of rail loads to ballast. 

2. Fastening — A component or group of components of a track system 
which affixes the rail to the cross ties. 

3. Flexure Strength — Resistance to bending. 

4. Insert — A device for securing an assembly and/or the rail to the tie. It 
may be cast in the tie at the time of manufacture or placed in a cored, 
cast or drilled hole in the tie. 

5. Lateral Load — A load, or vector component of a load, at the gage 
corner of the rail parallel to the longitudinal axis of tlie tie, and perpen- 
dicular to tlie rail. 

6. Longitudinal Load — A load along the longitudinal axis of a rail. 

7. Negative Bending — Bending of a concrete tie by application of load 
that produces tension in the top surface of the tie. 

8. Positive Bending — Bending of a concrete tie by application of a load 
that produces tension in the bottom surface of the tie. 

9. Prestressing Tendon — A strand, wire or bar, within a concrete member, 
which under tension, precompresses the concrete. 

10. Prestressed Tie — A tie utilizing precompressed concrete and prestressing 
tendons to resist flexure. Under design loads the tensile strength of the 
concrete in the tension faces of the tie is not exceeded. 

11. Prestressed-Reinforced Tie — A reinforced concrete tie which, in addi- 
tion to longitudinal reinforcing steel, uses prestressing tendons to resist 
bending but in which tension exceeding the tensile strength of the con- 
crete may occur in the precompressed concrete under design loads. If 
cracks do occur, the resulting crack widths do not exceed specified values. 



196 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

12. Pretensioned Concrete Tie — A prestressed concrete tie using pretension 
tendons to precompress concrete. 

13. PosTTENSiONED CONCRETE TiE — A prestressed concrete tie using post- 
tension tendons to precompress concrete. 

14. PosTTENsiONED Tendon — A reinforcing member which adds structural 
strength to a prestressed concrete tie by placing it in compression. This 
member is tensioned after the setting of concrete. 

15. Pretension Tendon (strand or wire) — A reinforcing member which adds 
structural strength to a prestressed concrete tie by placing it in compres- 
sion. This member is tensioned prior to tlie placement of concrete. 

16. Rail Seat — The area of the canted plane of a tie on which rail rests 
that lies within the confines of the rail base. 

17. Reinforced Concrete Tie — A tie reinforced with deformed steel bars, 
welded wire fabric, deformed wire, or bar or rod mats and using non- 
precompressed concrete. Under design loads the tensile strength of the 
concrete in tlie tension faces of the tie is exceeded; however, tlie resulting 
crack widths do not exceed specified values. 

18. Reinforcement or Reinforcing Steel — Steel, excluding prestressing 
tendons, introduced within a concrete tie to improve its structural 
strength. 

19. Structural Crack — A crack originating in the tensile face of the tie, 
extending to the outermost level of reinforcement or prestressing tendons 
and which increases in size under application of increasing load. 

20. Vertical Load — A load or vector component of a load, at right angles 
to a line joining the two rail seats of the tie and normal to the longitudi- 
nal axis of the rail. 

10.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 
lO.I.l INTRODUCTION 

In supporting and guiding railway vehicles, the track structure must restrain 
repeated lateral, vertical and longitudinal forces. As elements of the track structure, 
individual cross ties receive loads from the rails or fastenings and in turn transmit 
loads to the ballast and subgrade. Consequently, the design of a tie affects and is 
affected by characteristics of other components of the track structure. The use of 
concrete railway ties introduces different considerations into the design and installa- 
tion of track systems. When such systems are properly designed and the component 
parts properly interrelated, installed and maintained, concrete railway tie systems 
can provide track of superior quaHty. 

The analysis of requirements for such systems must necessarily involve not only 
the tie but all components of the track system, their interdependency and the condi- 
tions under which they must be applied. Thus, concrete tie track systems involve: 

• The rail, tie, fastenings, ballast, subgrade and base, 

• The quality of each component, method of manufacture, installation and 
maintenance, 

• The direction, magnitude and frequency of traffic-imposed loads; the effect 
of environmental factors such as temperature and weather and the overall 
economics of installation and maintenance, and 



Manual Recommendations 197 

• The need to support train weights and guide railway vehicles while restrain- 
ing repeated lateral, vertical and longitudinal forces. 

The performance specifications which follow provide the basic guidance needed 
in the selection, design and application of concrete railroad tie systems. Success in 
their application will require careful supervision on the part of the engineer to 
ensure that all components meet required standards and that the system is properly 
installed and maintained. 

10.1.2 VERTICAL LOADS 

10.1.2.1 Tie Spacing 

The spacing affects rail Hexure stress, compressive stress on ballast and roadbed 
and the Hexure stress generated in the ties themselves. For a given set of tie dimen- 
sions and wheel loads, the consequences of increasing tie spacing are higher rail 
bending moments and stresses within the individual ties. For the case of constant 
tie, ballast and subgrade characteristics, wider tie spacings bring about larger 
track depression per unit of wheel load, i.e., lowered track modulus. Conversely, 
reduction of tie spacing lowers unit stress and increases track modulus. 

These specifications cover concrete ties intended for track designs using center- 
to-center spacings of cross ties of between 20 and 30 inches. 

10.1.2.2 Cross Tie Dimensions 

Use of longer, wider, or stiffer ties which increase the tie-to-ballast bearing 
area has many of the same effects as reducing tie spacing. There are, however, 
limits beyond which an increase in tie size is ineffectual in reducing track stress 
and increasing track modulus. The concentration of tie-to-ballast load decreases 
with lateral distance from the rail. The rate of decrease of load with distance is 
higher for flexible tie materials and designs. There is, therefore, a point beyond 
which lengthening tie design will fail to significantly reduce unit liearing load. There 
are, in addition, required right-of-way clearances and machinery limitations which 
restrict tie length. 

Widening tie design has similar benefits to increases in tie length. Widening 
tie design, however, beyond the point where it is practical to compact ballast be- 
neath the tie is ineffective. 

These specifications cover tie designs between 7 ft 5 inches and 9 ft inches 
in length and between 8 inches and 13 inches in width at their bottom surface. 

10.1.2.3 Load Distribution 

The foregoing discussion and the requirements following presume that wheel 
loads applied to the rail will be distributed by the rail to several ties. This distri- 
bution of loads has been confirmed in field investigations. The distribution of load 
is dependent upon tie and axle spacing, ballast and subgrade reaction, and rail 
rigidity. The percentage of wheel-to-rail load carried by an individual tie varies 
from location to location. A conservative estimate of the distribution is given in 
Figure 10.1.2.3.1. While rail stiffness does influence these percentages, its effect 
is small compared to other factors. For the sake of simplification, the distribution 
factors are shown only as a function of tie spacing. The values chosen are intended 
to offset variations resulting from other influences. 

10.1.2.4 Impact Factors 

The requirements of these specifications are based on calculations including 



198 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Fig. 10.1.2.3.1 — Approximate percent of axle load carried by individual tie. 




22.5 25 

CENTER TO CENTER TIE SPACING IN INCHES 
(1) Sased on an increase of 10% due to greater mass and stiffness of concrete ties. 



Manual Recommendations 199 

an assimied impact factor. This factor is a percentage increase over static vertical 
loads intended to estimate the dynamic effect of wheel and rail irregularities. An 
impact factor of 150 percent has been assumed. 

10.1.2.5 Ballast and Subgrade 

In addition to tie size and spacing, ballast depth and subgrade modulus are also 
significant in the manner a particular track design restrains vertical loading. Increas- 
ing ballast depth tends to spread individual tie loads over a wider area of subgrade, 
thereby reducing the unit subgrade load and consequent track depression. Thus the 
effect of increased ballast depth can be similar, within limits, to that of reduced tie 
spacing. Stiffer subgrades do not require as low a ballast pressure as more flexible 
subgrades. Consequently, they are better able to tolerate wider tie spacings, smaller 
ties, more shallow ballast depths, or all three without failure or excessive track 
depression. 

10.1.2.5.1 Ballast and Ballast Pressure 

The engineer must insure that the design of track does not result in over-stress 
of ballast or subgrade. To do so, consideration must be given to wheel loads, dis- 
tribution factor, impact factor, unit bearing capacities of the ballast and subgrade, 
and to cross tie dimensions and spacing. 

10.1.2.5.1.1 Ballast Pressure 

While tie-to-ballast pressure is not uniformly distributed across or along the 
bottom of a cross tie, an approximate calculation can be made of "average" pressure 
at the bottom of the tie. The maximum ballast pressure has been found to occur 
several inches below this interface. Consequently, the calculated value of average 
ballast pressure at the bottom of the tie understates the maximum ballast pressure. 
The average pressure at the tie bottom is equal to axle load, modified by distribution 
and impact factors, and di\ided by the bearing area of the tie: 

-[^ + ^](-f^)* 

Average Ballast Pressure (psi) = -7 

where: P ^= wheel load in pounds. 

IF = Impact factor in percent. 

DF = distribution factor in percent (from Figiu-e 10.1.2.3.1). 

A ^= bearing area of cross ties in square inches. 

The recoimnended ballast pressiue shovdd not exceed 85 psi for high-quality, 
abrasion-resistant ballast. If lower quahty ballast materials are used, the ballast 
pressure should be reduced accordingly. 

10.1.2.5.1.2 Subgrade Pressure 

The pressure exerted by ballast on the subgrade depends upon the tie-to-ballast 



° For example: Given 8 ft 6 inches long by 12 inches wide concrete ties, what is the calcu- 
lated value of bearing pressure for a locomotive with .30,000-lb wheel load if the ties are to be 
spaced at 28 inches? 



IF 



l_ ' 100 
Average Ballast Pressure ( psi ) = 2P 



■]{-^) 



A 

_ 60,000 (2.5) (.57) 
~ 102 X 12 

= 69.9 psi 



200 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

pressure, the load distribution pattern through the ballast, and the depth of ballast. 
Refer to Section 10.12. 

10.1.3 LATERAL LOADS 

The lateral loads generated by moving railway equipment are applied by wheel 
treads and flanges to the rails, which in turn must be held in place by fastenings, 
ties and ballast. 

Lateral stiff^ness of rail distributes lateral loads to fasteners and their ties. 
Structural strength of fastenings and ties hold the rail to gage. The mass of ties, 
friction between the ties and ballast, lateral bearing area of ties (end surface), and 
the mass of ballast all act to restrain lateral tie movement. 

Lateral track stability can, therefore, be increased by decreasing tie spacing 
of ties of similar dimensions, increasing tie mass, increasing end bearing area of ties 
per unit length of track, and by increasing frictional resistance between ties and 
ballast. Structural strength of fastenings must be commensurate with the lateral load 
individual ties restrain, which in turn is determined by lateral rail stiffness and tie 
spacing. 

The magnitude of lateral loads which must be restrained depends not only 
upon the dimensions, configuration, weight, speed and tracking characteristics of 
the equipment, but also upon the geometric characteristics of the track structure. 
Both the gross geometry — whether the track is straight, curved or how sharply 
curved — ^and the detail geometry — the irregularities and small deviations from de- 
sign — influence the magnitude of lateral load. 

These specifications cover fasteners capable of restraining individual lateral 
wheel-to-rail loads of up to 14,000 pounds per linear foot of track when these lateral 
loads are accompanied by vertical loads of a similar magnitude. 

10.1.4 LONGITUDINAL LOADS 

The longitudinal load developed by the combination of thermal stress in 
continuous welded rail and by traffic is transferred by the fastenings to the ties and 
ultimately restrained by mass internal friction of ballast. Consequently, the longi- 
tudinal bearing area (side area) of ties per unit of track length, friction between 
bottom of ties and ballast, and physical properties of ballast ultimately determine 
the track resistance to longitudinal movement. Resistance to rail movement with 
respect to ties is determined by the characteristics of fasteners. While total restraint 
of longitudinal rail movement is generally desirable, there are situations where such 
restraint is impractical or undesirable. In conventional track construction, the limiting 
factor in longitudinal restraint is most often ballast resistance. These specifications, 
therefore, apply to track designs incorporating a minimum of 210 square inches of 
side of tie area per linear foot of track and to fasteners for use on such track, ofiFering 
1480 lb resistance to longitudinal rail movement per linear foot of rail. 

10.1.5 RAIL 

10.1.5.1 Flexure Requirement 

The interaction of rail and ties has been discussed in Articles 10.1.3 and 10.1.4 
with respect to distribution factors, tie spacing, and vertical loads. The flexure stress 
generated in rail under load is a function of applied bending moment and the section 
modulus of rail. Rail bending moment is in turn determined by wheel load, axle 
spacing, and track modulus. Most modern rail sections are capable of bearing current 



Manual Recommendations 201 

wheel loads on tie spacings of up to 30 inches with normal ballast support without 
distress. It is recommended that the engineer calculate the maximum bending stress 
for rail sections lighter than 100 lb/yd if their use is anticipated. The following 
equation may be used for this purpose: 

_ Mc^ _ ?c 4/~E^" 
^ - J / t 64a< 

Where: S =: maximum fiber stress in rail (psi). 

c = distance from neutral axis to outer edge of base or head (inches). 

/ = moment of inertia of rail section ( inches* ) . 

E = modulus of elasticity of steel (psi). 

At = track modulus (pounds/inch/inch). 

P = wheel load (pounds). 



M 



I El 
= P a/ ~^ — = bending moment ( inch-pounds ] 



10.1.5.2 RaU Joints 

(a) To achieve the maximum benefits and economy from the use of concrete 
raihoad ties it is recommended that, in main-line track, they be used in conjunction 
with continuous welded rail. If concrete ties are used in conventional bolted track 
or at the ends of continuous welded rail, care should be exercised to see that the 
juncture of two rails does not occur over a concrete tie. The magnitude of impacts 
on a tie placed under the juncture of two rails could be destructive to the rail seat 
and fastenings in high-speed track. 

(b) It is recommended that concrete ties not be installed within the limits 
of insulated joints or witliin the limits of special timber dimensions of turnouts and 
crossovers. 

10.1.5.3 Effect of Mass on Track Stability 

(Under development) 

10.2 MATERIAL 

10.2.1 GENERAL 

Because it is impractical at this time to provide a performance test to assure 
the durability of concrete ties and their accessories, it is necessary to include specifi- 
cations for the materials used in their manufacture. Deviation from the material 
specifications may only be made with the prior approval of the engineer. 



"Tor example: Given track modulus of 3,000 Ib/inch/inch and 90-lb RA-A rail with 
I = 38 7 inches* and c = 2.54 inches, what tensile stress is developed under a 30,000-lb wheel 
load? 



-w- 



EI 



64/i 



= 30.000 (2.54) y ^30) (10)« (38.7) 



-gg^ y 64 (3,000) 



1968 



9 { /l/ 6046.8 j = 17,362 psi 



"'First Progress Report of the Special Committee on Stresses in Track, Vol. 19 AREA 
proceedings, p. 887. 



202 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

10.2.2 CONCRETE 

The minimum 28-clay-clesign compressive strength of concrete used for concrete 
ties shall be 7000 psi as deteniiined by ASTM Method of Test C 39. The test cylin- 
ders shall be made and stored as specified in ASTM Specification C 31."* 

10.2.2.1 Cement 

Cement shall be portland cement and shall meet the requirements of ASTM 
Specification C 150. Air-entraining cement, if used, shall also meet the requirements 
of ASTM C 150. 

10.2.2.2 Aggregates 

Both fine and coarse aggregates shall meet the requirements of the AREA 
Specifications for Aggregates, Part 1, Section C, Chapter 8 of the AREA Manual. 

10.2.2.3 Mixing Water 

Mixing water shall meet the requirements of the AREA Specifications for Mixing 
Water, Part 1, Section D, Chapter 8 of the AREA Manual. In addition, the mixing 
water, including tliat portion of the mixing water contributed in the form of free 
moisture on the aggregates, shall not contain deleterious amounts of chloride ion."* 

10.2.2.4 Admixtures 

Additives containing chlorides shall not be used. 

10.2.2.5 Curing 

It is recommended that the concrete be cured by a method or procedure such 
as set forth in Part 1, Section P, Chapter 8 of tlie AREA Manual. 

10.2.3 METAL REINFORCEMENT 

10.2.3.1 

Wire and strands for tendons in prestressed concrete shall conform to "Specifi- 
cations for Uncoated Seven-Wire Stress-Relieved Strand and Wire for Prestressed 
Concrete" (ASTM A 421). Strands or wire not specifically itemized in ASTM A 416 or 
A 421, including stiands with constructions other than those listed in A 416, may be 
used provided they conform to at least the minimum requirements of these ASTM 
specifications and have no properties which make them less satisfactory than those 
listed in ASTM A 416 or A 421. 

10.2.3.2 

High-strength alloy steel bars for posttensioning tendons shall be proof- 
stressed during manufacture to 85 percent of the minimum guaranteed tensile 
strength. After proof stressing, bars shall be subjected to a stress-relieving heat 
treatment to produce the prescribed physical properties. After processing, the 
physical properties of the bars when tested on full sections, shall conform to the 



d' If the results of performance tests demonstrate satisfactorily to the user that the resistance 
to abrasion and weathering of the concrete is adequate in the railway track environment, the pro- 
visions of this requirement may be waived. 

<2> A chloride ion content greater than 400 ppm might be considered detrimental, and it 
is recommended that levels well below this value be maintained if practicable. 

Chloride ions contained in the aggregate and in admixtures should be considered in evaluating 
the acceptability of total chloride ion content of the mixing water. (From the commentary to 
ACI 318-71). 



Manual Recommendations 203 

following minimum properties: Yield strength (0.2 percent offset): 0.85 f's where 
f's is the ultimate strength of the prestressing steel. Elongation at rupture in 20 
diameters: 4 percent. Reduction of area at rupture: 20 percent. 

10.2.3.3 

Reinforcing jjars shall conform to one of the following specifications, except 
that yield strength shall correspond to that determined by tests on full-size bars; 
and for reinforcing bars with a specified yield strength of the reinforcing steel, fy, 
exceeding 60,000 psi, /,, shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent: 

(a) "Specifications for Deformed Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforce- 
ment" (ASTM A 615). 

(b) "Specifications for Rail-Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforce- 
ment" (ASTM A 616). If bars meeting these specifications are to be 
bent, they shall also meet the bending requirements of ASTM A 615 for 
Grade 60. 

(c) "Specifications for Axle-Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforce- 
ment" (ASTM A 617). 

10.2.3.4 

Plain bars for spiral reinforcement shall conform only to the strength require- 
ments and minimum elongation of the appropriate specification prescribed in Art. 
10.2.3.3. 

10.2.3.5 

Reinforcement to be welded shall be indicated on the drawings and the welding 
procedure to be used shall be specified. The ASTM specification shall be supple- 
mented by requirements assuring satisfactory weldability by this procedure in 
conformity with "Recommended Practices for Welding Reinforcing Steel, Metal 
Inserts, and Connections in Reinforced Concrete Construction" (AWS D 12.1). 
The supplementary specification requirements shall be designated in the order, and 
conformance with these requirements shall be confirmed by the supplier at the time 
of delivery. 

10.2.3.6 

Bar and rod mats for concrete reinforcement shall be the clipped type con- 
forming to "Specifications for Fabricated Steel Bar or Rod Mats for Concrete Rein- 
forcement" (ASTM A 184). 

10.2.3.7 

Plain wire for spiral reinforcement shall conform to "Specifications for Cold- 
Drawn Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 82), except that fy shall 
be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent if the yield strength specified 
in the design exceeds 60,000 psi. 

10.2.3.8 

Welded plain wire fabric for concrete reinforcement shall conform to "Specifi- 
cations for Welded Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 185), 
and to the stipulation of Art. 10.2.3.7 regarding measurement of fy, except that 
welded intersections shall be spaced not farther apart than 12 inches in the direction 
of the principal reinforcement. 



204 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

10.2.3.9 

Deformed wire for concrete reinforcement shall conform to "Specifications for 
Deformed Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 496), except that 
wire shall not be smaller than size D-4"* and that fy shall be the stress corresponding 
to a strain of 0.35 percent if the yield strength specified in the design exceeds 
60,000 psi. 

10.2.3.10 

Welded deformed wire fabric for concrete reinforcement shall conform to 
"Specifications for Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement" 
(ASTM A 947) and to the stipulation of Art. 10.2.3.9 regarding measurement of fy, 
except that welded intersections shall be spaced not farther apart than 16 inches in 
the direction of the principal reinforcement. 

10.2.3.11 

Steel pipe or tubing for composite members shall conform to one of the 
following: 

(a) Grade B, ASTM A 53. 

(b) ASTM A 500. 

(c) ASTM A 501. 

(d) Grade specified by the manufacturer and supported by design and test 
data subject to the approval of the engineer. 

10.2.3.12 

Structural steel used in conjunction with reinforcing for composite members 
shall conform to one of the following: 

(a) ASTM A 36. 

(b) ASTM A 242. 

(c) ASTM A 440. 

(d) ASTM A 441. 

(e) ASTM A 588. 

(f) Grade specified by manufacturer and supported by design and test data 
subject to the approval of the engineer. 

10.2.3.13 Reinforcement Placement and Spacing 

The placement and spacing of reinforcement, prestressing steel and prestressing 1 
ducts shall be in accordance with all applicable requirements of the AREA Manual, 
Chapter 8, Part 1, Section H — Metal Reinforcement Placing, as revised in 1970 
except that tolerances for placing shall meet the requirements of Art. 10.3.2.12. 1 

10.2.3.13a Supports ■ 

Reinforcement, prestressing steel, and ducts shall be accurately placed and 
adequately supported before concrete is placed and shall be secured against dis- 
placement within permitted tolerances. Welding of crossing bars shall not be 
permitted for assembly of reinforcement unless authorized by the engineer. 



<3* Deformed wire is denoted by the letter "D", followed by a number indicating the wire's 
cross sectional area in himdredths of a square inch. Thus, the minimum size deformed wire 
permitted in this specification must have a cross sectional area of 0.04 square inches. 



Manual Recommendations 205 

10.2.4 TIE PADS 

Abrasion-resistant pads or abrasion-, vibration- and impact-reducing pads shall 
be used between the rail and concrete ties on all main-line or other heavy-traffic 
tracks to minimize the possibility of abrasive action in the rail bearing area of the 
ties. It is recommended tliat such pads also be used on other trackage. 

10.2.4.1 Polyethylene Bearing Pads 

Polyethylene bearing pads, if used, shall be black high-density plastic, 60 to 65 
D-Durometer, meeting current ASTM Specification D 1248, Type III, Grade 3. 
Hardness shall be stable between -f 140 F and — 40 F. 

10.2.4.2 Elastomeric Bearing Pads 

Elastomeric bearing pads, if used, shall be of weather- and petroleum-resistant 
materials. Values for the following ASTM Test Method Specifications are under 
study: 

(a) ASTM Test Method D 573 for aging in air. 

(b) ASTM Test Method D 395, Method B, for compression set. 

(c) ASTM Test Method D 518, Procedure A and D 518-61, for resistance 
to the atmospheric ozone. 

(d) ASTM Test Method D 471 for resistance to water. 

(e) ASTM Test Method D 471 for resistance to oil. 

The hardness of such pads shall be between 60 and 80 A-Durometer as specified 
by the purchaser. A tolerance of ± 5 shall be permitted from that specified. Pads 
using ridges, grooves or other patterns are permissil^le, providing that such patterns 
do not reduce the protection offered by the pad. 

10.2.4.3 Other Types of Bearing Pads 

Bearing pads may also be made of nylon, laminated fiber, wood or other 
abrasion-resistant material. Such pads shall be used only with the approval of the 
engineer and shall meet specifications provided by the engineer. 

10.2.5 INSULATION 

Insulation shall be used where necessary to prevent interference with signal 
systems and deterioration of die fastening system through electrical leakage. 

10.2.5.1 Nylon Insulators 

Nylon insulators, if used, shall meet the requirements of the current ASTM 
Specification D 789, Type 1, Grade 2, Specification for Nylon Injection Molding 
and Extrusion Materials. 

10.2.5.2 Other Insulating Materials 

Other insulating materials such as epoxy coatings and fiberglass may be used 
if desired as long as they provide sufficient protection against electrical leakage and 
meet the approval of the engineer. (See Art. 10.9.1.14). 

10.2.6 FASTENINGS 

All fastening components, including hardware cast into the tie, shall be suitably 
resistant to corrosion and able to withstand repeated loads within the railway track 
environment without fatigue failure or excessive maintenance requirements. Use of 
metals of widely divergent electrical potential in contact or close pro.ximity to one 
another is not recommended. 



206 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

10.2.6.1 Cap Screws and Rail Clips 

Cap screws used with rail clips shall be a minimum of % inch in diameter and 
of sufficient length to provide a minimum engagement of 1 inch but not to exceed 
1/2 inches. They shall have a minimum proof load of 28,400 lb. 

10.3 TIE DIMENSIONS, CONFIGURATION AND WEIGHT 

10.3.1 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 

10.3.1.1 Track Machinery Limitations 

In addition to those considerations covered in Section 10.1 General Considera- 
tions, the following maximum dimensions will permit tamping with many present-day 
ballast tamping machines and will allow other related work to be handled in a 
mechanized manner: 

(a) Tie width z= 13 inches 

(b) Tie depth == 10 inches 

(c) Tie length = 9 ft 6 inches 

10.3.1.2 Weight 

For ease of handling it is recommended tliat the weight of tie not exceed 
approximately 800 lb. 

10.3.2 REQUIREMENTS 

10.3.2.1 Length 

The overall nominal length of concrete ties shall not be less than 7 ft 5 inches 
nor more than 9 ft 6 inches. A tolerance of plus Jz inch or minus /a inch from 
nominal length is permitted. 

10.3.2.2 Width 

The minimum width of ballast bearing area of tie shall not be less than 8 inches. 
Width of tie at top surface from rail seat area to end of tie shall not be less than 
6 inches. The maximum width must not exceed 13 inches. Tolerance of ± Ys inch 
from nominal width is permitted. 

10.3.2.3 Minimum Depth 

The minimum design depth of any section of tie shall not be less than 6 inches. 
A manufacturing tolerance of -f }i inch and — Ys inch is permitted from design 
depth. 

10.3.2.4 Maximum Depth 

Maximum design depth of any section of the tie shall not be more than 10 
inches. A manufacturing tolerance of -f }i and — }a inch is permitted from design 
depth. 

10.3.2.5 Track Gage 

The concrete tie/rail fastening system shall hold track gage to ± 1/16 incli 
from that specified, exclusive of mill tolerance in rail. Ties shall normally be manu- 
factured for 4 ft 8/2 inches track gage. If track gage other than 4 ft 8/2 inches is 
desired, it shall be so specified by the engineer. The center line of the tie shall be 
within /4 inch of tlie center line of track gage. 



Manual Recommendations 207 

10.3.2.6 Rail Cant 

The rail seat shall provide for a cant of 1 in 40 ± 2 toward center line of tie 
unless otherwise specified. 

10.3.2.7 Rail Seat Plane 

The rail seat shall be a flat smooth surface, ± 1/32 inch. 

10.3.2.8 Differential Tilt of Rail Seats 

A differential tilt in the direction of the rail of one rail seat to the other shall 
(on a width of 6 inches) not exceed 1/16 inch. 

10.3.2.9 Protrusion of Pretensioning Tendons 

Strands of wires shall not project more than 1 inch beyond the ends of the ties. 

10.3.2.10 End of Posttensioning Tendons 

To protect against corrosion, the ends of posttensioning tendons shall not 
protrude beyond the ends of the ties and shall be covered to the extent specified 
in Art. 10.3.2.11 with concrete, epoxy grout or other material approved by the 
engineer. 

10.3.2.11 Concrete Protection for Reinforcement Against Corrosion 

The following minimum specified cover for reinforcement, prestressing tendons, 
ducts, or prestressing end fittings'" shall be as follows: 

(a) Prestressed, precast cross ties ( pretensioned or post- 
tensioned ) % inch 

(b) Reinforced, precast cross ties: 

No. 6 bars, /4-inch wire, and smaller % inch 

Other bars one bar diameter 

10.3.2.12 Tolerances for Placing Reinforcement 

(a) The tolerance for clear concrete protection (cover) and for depth, d,^"^ 
for reinforcing steel shall be ± Ys inch; for prestressing tendons ± 1/16 inch. 

(b) The tolerance for longitudinal location of bends in reinforcing bars shall 
be ± 2 inches. 

(c) The tolerance for the location of ends of reinforcing bars shall be ± '2 inch. 

10.3.2.13 Surface Finish 

(a) The top and side surfaces of the ties shall present a smooth, uniform 
appearance. A random scattering of surface voids will not be cause for rejection. 
Heavy concentrations of surface voids or evidence of improper mixing, vibrating 
or curing will be cause for rejection. 

(b) The ends of the ties need not be flat planes or surfaces, but there shall 
be no evidence of tearing of the concrete where the prestressing strands emerge or 
of any void in contact with a strand. 

(c) Occasional spalling of a small portion of rail seat shoulders may occur 
during the stripping operation. Such spalling will not be cause for rejection unless 
it involves that portion of a shoulder against which the heel of rail fastening clip 
bears. 



<*' This does not apply to the ends of pretensioning tendons which may protrude from the 
end of the tie. See also Art. 10.3.2.9. 

<5) Distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement. 



208 Bulletin 655 — American Railway E ngineering Association 

(d) Concrete tics shall be marked with indented or raised letters or numerals 
to identify the manufacturer, type of tie and year of manufacture as approved by 
the engineer. 

10.4 FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF PRESTRESSED MONOBLOCK 
TIES 

10.4.1 FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESTRESSED 
MONOBLOCK DESIGNS 

Table I 





Spacingi ^ ) 
(Inches) 

21 


Required Flexural Capacity (Inch- Kips) Without Cracking 


Length{ ^ ) 


Rail Seat -\- 


Rail Seat—( ^ ) 


Center — 


Center + 


8'-0 


220 


115 


200 


90 




24 


220 


115 


220 


90 




27 


220 


115 


240 


90 




30 


220 


115 


260 


90 


8'-3 


21 


225 


115 


200 


90 




24 


235 


115 


210 


90 




27 


250 


115 


220 


95 




30 


260 


115 


230 


100 


8'-6 


21 


225 


115 


200 


90 




24 


250 


115 


200 


90 




27 


275 


115 


200 


100 




30 


300 


115 


200 


110 


8'-9 


21 


250 


115 


200 


95 




24 


275 


115 


200 


100 




27 


300 


115 


200 


110 




30 


325 


115 


200 


120 


9'-0 


21 


275 


115 


200 


100 




24 


300 


115 


200 


105 




27 


325 


115 


200 


115 




30 


350 


115 


200 


125 



"' For existing tie designs having reduced bottom width at center of tie: The rail seat and 
center positive flexural requirements shall be increased by 10% and the center negative flexural 
requirements shall be decreased by 10% (but shall not be less than 150 inch-kips) because of 
the redistributed ballast reaction associated with such designs. 

<2) For tie spacings other than those shown, flexure requirements shall be determined by 
interpolation. 

<3) The values shown in the Rail Seat ( — ) column are based on elastic fastenings having 
an overall vertical upward spring rate in the range of 200,000 to 350,000 lb per inch. (This 
spring rate is not necessarily linear and should be detemiined in the 0.00 to 0.02 inch deflection 
range. The Rail Seat negative values may not be adequate for more rigid fastenings. 



10.4.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 

10.4.2.1 

As well as satisfying the criteria in Table I, prestressed concrete monoblock 
ties must also comply with other criteria which accord with good design practice 
as laid down in ACI Code 318. 



Manual Recommendations 209 



10.4.2.2 

It is reconiiiiended that the maximum precompression after all losses at any 
point in the cross ties should not exceed 2,500 psi. 

10.4.2.3 

Furtliermore, in the case of ties to which the rails are to be fastened by elastic 
fastening systems, there should be a minimum pre-compressive stress at any vertical 
cross section through the rail seat area of 150 psi after all losses and without any 
applied load. Because the precessional wave just ahead of the wheels will create an 
uplift force from the rails to the ties and because the magnitude of this force will 
depend, among other things, on the weight of the ties and the rigidity of the 
fastening system, this minimum pre-compressive stress should be higher for rigid 
fastening systems. 

10.4.3 TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR APPROVING THE DESIGN OF A MONO- 
BLOCK TIE 

10.4.3.1 

The minimum negative and positive flexural capacity at the rail seats of the tie 
shall be as shown in Table I for the tie length and spacing to be used when tested 
in accordance with the Rail Seat Vertical Load Test described in Art. 10.9.1.4. 

10.4.3.2 

The minimum negative flexural capacity at the center of the tie shall be as 
shown in Table I for the tie length and spacing to be used when tested in accord- 
ance with the Negative Bending Moment Test described in Art. 10.9.1.6. 

10.4.3.3 

The minimum positive flexural capacity at the center of the tie shall be as shown 
in Table I for the tie length and spacing to be used when tested in accordance 
with the Positive Bending Moment Test described in Art. 10.9.1.7. 

10.4.3.4 

The tie must meet the requirements of the Rail Seat Repeated-Load Test 
described in Art. 10.9.1.5. 

10.4.3.5 

The tie must meet the requirements of the Bond Development or Tension 
Anchorage Test described in Art. 10.9.1.8. 



210 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

10.5 FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF TWO-BLOCK TIES 

10.5.1 FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR TWO-BLOCK DE- 
SIGNS 

Table II 
Requibed Flexxtral Capacity (Inch-Kips)'*' 



Length Tie 


Tie{ 2 ) 


Railseat — 


Positive^ 3 ) 


Railseat — Negative^ * ) 


Block 


Spacing 


















Inches 


Inches 


Reinf. Tie 


P/S Tie{ 1 ) 


Reinf. Tie 


P/S Tiei « ) 


30 


21 


150 


150 


105 


105 




24 


150 


150 


105 


105 




27 


150 


150 


105 


105 




30 


150 


155 


105 


110 


33 


21 


150 


150 


105 


105 




24 


150 


150 


105 


105 




27 


150 


155 


105 


110 




30 


155 


170 


110 


120 


36 


21 


150 


150 


105 


105 




24 


150 


155 


105 


110 




27 


155 


170 


110 


120 




30 


170 


185 


120 


130 


39 


21 


205 


225 


145 


160 




24 


225 


250 


160 


175 




27 


250 


275 


175 


195 




30 


270 


300 


190 


210 


42 


21 


250 


275 


175 


195 




24 


270 


300 


190 


210 




27 


295 


325 


210 


230 




30 


315 


350 


225 


245 



^1' Prestressed or prestressed-reinforced. 

'-' For tie spacings other than those shown, the flexure requirements shall be determined by 
interpolation. 

"' The values shown in the Rail Seat-Postive, P/S Tie column above have been increased 
by 10% to allow for long-term losses in prestressed ties. The resulting values and the values 
shown in the Rail Seat-Positive, Reinf. Tie column above have been rounded ofiE to the next larger 
increment of 5 inch-kips. Where applicable they also have been increased to a minimum of 150 
inch-kips. 

<*^ 0.7 X Rail Seat-Positive requirement rounded to the next larger increment of 5 inch-kips. 

10.5.1.1 Allowable Cracking 

(a) Reinforced cross ties when subjected to loads producing flexure in the 
blocks must crack in order for the main reinforcement to work. Corrosion of steel 
reinforcement is related to crack width and external environment. The maximum 
crack width allowed in Art. 10.5. l.le. Table III, should not contribute to corrosion 
of steel reinforcement under normal railroad environments. 

(b) Cracks shall be measured on the side surfaces of the tie blocks at a level 
directly opposite the reinforcement closest to the tension face of the tie. If it is 
not possible to measure a crack at this level due to chipping of the concrete or 



Manual Recommendations 211 



surface imperfections, measurements shall be taken equidistant above and below 
this le\el and the two \alues averaged to obtain the width of the crack. 

(c) Cracks shall be measured using a hand-held graduated microscope of suffi- 
cient power and accuracy to measure crack widdis to the nearest 0.001 inch. 

(d) Cracks shall not extend to prestressing tendons or longitudinal reinforcing 
steel of less than % inch diameter. 

10.5.1. le T.\BLE III 





Xo. of Cracks* 


Max. Width — Inch 


Avg. Width — Inch 


1 


0.006 
0.006 
0.006 
0.006 




2 


0.005 


3 


0.004 


4 or more. 


0.003 







'Per side per tie block 

10.5.2 TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR APPROVING THE DESIGN OF A TWO- 
BLOCK TIE 

10.5.2.1 

The minimum positive and negative flexural capacity of the tie blocks shall be 
as shown in Table II for the tie block length and tie spacing to be used when 
tested in accordance with the Rail Seat Positive and Rail Seat Negative Moment 
Tests described in Arts. 10.10.1.4 and 10.10.1.5. 

10.5.2.2 

The ties must meet the requirements of the Rail Seat Ultimate Load Test 
described in Art. 10.10.1.9. 

10.5.2.3 

The ties must meet the requirements of the Rail Seat Repeated Load Test 
described in Art. 10.10.1.8. 

10.5.2.4 

The ties must meet the requirements of the Center Negative and Center Posi- 
tive Bending Moment Tests described in Arts. 10.10.1.6 and 10.10.1.7. 

10.6 LONGITUDINAL RAIL RESTRAINT 

10.6.1 REQUIREMENTS 

Fastenings for concrete ties must have the ability to restrain longitudinal move- 
ment of rail as detennined by test procedure specified in Art. 10.9.1.12, as follows: 
21-inch tie spacing, 2600 lb per tie per rail. 
24-inch tie spacing, 2900 lb per tie per rail. 
27-inch tie spacing, 3300 lb per tie per rail. 
30-inch tie spacing, 3700 lb per tie per rail. 

Welded rail must be laid at the proper temperature range or additional 
anchorage provided at the ends of strings. 



212 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

10.7 LATERAL RAIL RESTRAINT 

10.7.1 RAIL FASTENING REQUIREMENTS 

(a) Track constructed of concrete ties and appropriate fasteners shall not 
experience gage widening of more than }i inch when lateral wheel loads of 35,000 lb 
are apphed to one rail. (See Art. 10.9.1.13 for design tests.) 

(b) If a concrete shoulder is used to restrain the lateral movement of the rail, 
a suitable bearing surface shall be provided to transmit the lateral forces to the tie. 

(c) Inserts shall be arranged to distribute the load uniformly in the body of 
the tie and through the rail bearing area. The rail support insert shall withstand 
a pullout force of 12,000 lb. (See Arts. 10.9.1.9.1, 10.9.1.11 and 10.9.1.13 for design 
tests. ) 

10.8 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 

10.8.1 REQUIREMENTS 

Individual concrete cross ties for use in signal circuit tracks togetlier with their 
fastenings should be electrically isolated from the running rails so as to provide a 
minimum impedance of 20,000 ohms per tie when a-c energy of 10 volts, 60 Hertz 
is applied. (See Art. 10.9.1.14 for test procedure.) 

10.9 TESTING OF MONOBLOCK TIES 

10.9. 1 DESIGN TESTS OF MONOBLOCK TIES 

Prior to approval of concrete tie designs, monoblock concrete ties of the design 
under study shall be subjected to testing for compliance with these specifications. 
The tests specified herein shall be performed at testing facilities approved by the 
engineer within 30 days of casting. 

From a lot of not less than ten ties produced in accordance with these specifi- 
cations, four ties will be selected at random by the engineer for laboratory testing. 
For design testing of fastenings, the manufacturer shall also furnish a section of the 
tie or a concrete block with rail seat and rail fastening system identical to the 
concrete ties furnished for testing. 

The tie block and each of the four ties submitted for testing shall be carefully 
measured and examined to determine their compliance with the requirements of 
Sections 10.2 and 10.3. Upon satisfactory completion of this examinatin, the tie block 
and two ties, which shall be known and identified as Tie "1" and Tie "2", shall be 
subjected to performance tests specified in Arts. 10.9.1.4, 10.9.1.5, 10.9.1.6, 10.9.1.7, 
10.9.1.8, 10.9.1.9, 10.9.1.10, 10.9.1.11, and 10.9.1.12. The remaining two ties, which 
will be known and identified as Ties "3" and "4", will be retained by the engineer 
for further test use (Art 10.9.1.14) and as a control for dimensional tolerances and 
surface appearance of ties subsequently manufactured. 

10.9.1. 1 Sequence of Design Tests (Tie "1") 

The sequence of design performance tests using Tie "1" shall be as follows: 

(a) Rail Seat Vertical Load Tests (described in Art. 10.9.1.4) — Shall be per- 
formed on one rail seat, hereinafter designated rail seat A. 

(b) Negative Bending Moment Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.6). 



Manual Recommendations 213 

(c) Positive Bending Moment Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.7). 

(d) Rail Seat Vertical Load Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.4)— Shall be per- 
formed on the other rail seat, hereinafter designated rail seat B. 

(e) Rail Seat Repeated Load Test (described in Art. lOLQ.l.S)— Shall be 
performed on rail seat B. 

(f) Bond Development, Tendon Anchorage, and Ultimate Load Test (de- 
scribed in Art. 10.9.1.8) — Shall be performed on rail seat A. 

10.9.1.2 Sequence of Design Tests (Tie "2") 

The sequence of design performance tests using Tie "2" shall be as follows: 

(a) Fastening Insert Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.9) — Shall be performed 
on all inserts. 

(b) Fastening Uplift Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.10)— Shall be performed 
on one rail seat. 

(c) Electrical Resistance and Impedance Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.14). 

10.9.1.3 Sequence of Design Tests (Tie Block) 

The sequence of design performance tests using the tie blocks shall be as 
follows : 

(a) Fastening Repeated Load Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.11). 

(b) Fastening Longitudinal Restraint Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.12). 

(c) Fastening Lateral Restraint Test (described in Art. 10.9.1.13). 

10.9.1.4 Rail Seat Vertical Load Test 

With the tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure VII, a load increasing 
at a rate not greater than 5 kips per minute shall be applied until tlie load (P) 
required to produce the specified rail seat negative moment from Art. 10.4.1, Table I 
is obtained. This load shall be held for not less than 3 minutes, during which time 
an inspection shall be made to determine if structural cracking occurs. In like man- 
ner, the tie shall be supported and loaded as shown in Figure I to produce the rail 
seat positive moment from Art. 10.4.1, Table 1. An illuminated 5-power magnifying 
glass may be used to locate cracks. If structural cracking does not occur, the require- 
ments of each portion of tliis test will have been met. 

10.9.1.5 RaU Seat Repeated-Load Test 

Following the vertical load test on rail seat B, the load shall be increased at 
a rate of 5 kips per minute until the tie is cracked from its bottom surface up to 
the level of the lower layer of reinforcement. 

After removal of the static rail seat load necessary to produce cracking, and 
substitution of /l-inch pads for those shown in Figure I, the tie shall be subjected 
to 3 milhon cycles of repeated loading with each cycle varying uniformly from 4 kips 
to the value of I.IP. The repeated loading shall not exceed 600 cycles per minute. 
If, after the application of 3 million cycles, tlie tie can support the rail seat load 
(I.IP), the requirements of this test will have been met. 

10.9.1.6 Negative Bending Moment Test 

With the tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure II, a load increasing at 
a rate not greater than 5 kips per minute shall be applied until the load required 
to produce the specified negative center design moment from Table I is obtained. 

Bui. 655 



214 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

The load shall be held for not less than 3 minutes, during which time an inspection 
shall be made to determine if structural cracking occurs. An illuminated, 5-power 
magnifying glass may be used to locate cracks. If structural cracking does not occur 
the requirements of this test will have been met. 

10.9.1.7 Positive Bending Moment Test 

With tlie tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure III, a load increasing 
at a rate not greater than 5 kips per minute shall be applied until the load required 
to produce the specified positive center design moment from Table I is obtained. 
The load shall be held for not less than 3 minutes during which time an inspection 
shall be made to determine if structural cracking occurs. An illuminated, 5-power 
magnifying glass may be used to locate cracks. If structural cracking does not occur, 
the requirements of this test will have been met. 

10.9.1.8 Bond Development, Tendon Anchorage, and Ultimate Load Test 

(a) Pretensioned concrete ties shall be tested for bond development, and 
ultimate strength as specified below: 

( 1 ) With the tie supported and loaded at rail seat A as shown in 
Figure I, a load increasing at a rate not greater than 5 kips per 
minute shall be applied as follows: 

(i) If initial cracking occurs at or above I.IP, a total load of 1.5P 
shall be applied (the load P shall be as determined in "Rail 
Seat Vertical Load Test" for positive moment), 
(ii) If initial cracking occurs below I.IP, a total load of 1.75P 
shall be applied. 
If there is no more than 0.001-inch strand slippage determined by an 
extensometer reading to 1/10,000 suitably attached to the end of the 
tie, the requirements of this test will have been met. The load shall then 
be increased until ultimate failure occurs and the maximum load ob- 
tained shall be recorded. 

(b) Post-tensioned concrete ties shall be tested for tendon anchorage, and 
ultimate strength as specified below: 

With the tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure I, a load 
increasing at a rate not greater than 5 kips per minute shall be applied 
until a total load equal to that specified in Art. 10.9.1.8 (a), (i), or (ii) is 
obtained. If the tie can support this load for a period of not less than 
5 minutes, the requirements of this test will have been met. The load 
shall then be increased imtil ultimate failure of the tie occurs, and the 
maximum load obtained shall be recorded. 

10.9.1.9 Fastening Insert Tests 

(a) Threaded-Type Inserts 

To determine the ability of threaded inserts to resist the bolt tension and ability 
of the concrete rail seat to carry any differential vertical load between the rail and 
tlie concrete tie, the following test shall be performed on each insert as shown on 
Figure IV. An axial load of 12 kips shall be applied to each insert separately and 
held for not less than 3 minutes, during which time an inspection shall be made to 
determine if there is any slippage of the insert or any severe cracking of the concrete. 
If such failures occur, then the requirements of this test will not have been met. 
Inability of the insert itself to resist the 12-kip load shall also constitute failure of 
this test. 



Manual Recommendations 215 

Following successful completion of the insert pullout test, the following test 
shall be performed on each rail fastening insert to determine its ability to resist 
turning. A high-strength shoulder bolt of the proper diameter for the insert being 
tested and having a threaded length of 1% inches shall be threaded into the insert 
and torqued to 150 percent of the torque recommended by the fastener manufacturer 
for normal installation. The load shall be held for not less than 3 minutes. Ability 
of the insert to resist this torque shall constitute passage of this test. 

(b) Other Fastening Inserts 

Other fastening inserts shall be subject to the pull-out tests and torque test (if 
applicable) in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and as approved 
by the engineer. 

10.9.1.10 Fastening Uplift Test 

An 18- to 20-inch piece of the proper section of rail shall be secured to one 
rail seat using a complete rail fastening assembly, including pads, bolts, clips and 
associated hardware, as recommended by the manufacturer of the rail fastening 
system. In accordance with the loading diagram in Figure V, an incremental load 
shall be applied to the rail. The load P (measured load plus unsupported tie weight 
plus frame weight) at which separation of tlie rail from pad or pad from rail seat 
(whichever occurs first) shall be recorded. The load shall then be completely released. 
A load of 2P shall then be applied. The inserts shall not pull out or loosen in the 
concrete and no component of fastening system shall fracture nor shall the rail be 
released. 

10.9.1.11 Fastening Repeated-Load Test 

(a) An 18- to 20-inch section of new rail from which loose mill scale has 
been removed by wiping with a cloth shall be secured to the rail seat in the tie 
block using a complete rail fastening assembly. In accordance with the loading 
diagram in Figure V determine the load P that will just cause separation of the rail 
from the rail seat pad or the pad from the rail seat whichever occurs first. This 
load may be determined during the Fastening Uplift Test described in Article 
10.9.1.10 in which case a new set of fastening clips shall be used for the repeated 
load test. 

(b) An 18- to 20-inch section of new rail from which loose mill scale has been 
removed by wiping with a cloth shall be secured to the rail seat in the tie block 
using a complete rail fastening assembly. In accordance with the loading diagram 
in Figure VI, alternating downward and upward loads shall be applied at an angle 
of 20° to the vertical axis of the rail at a rate not to exceed 300 cycles per minute 
for 3 million cycles. The rail shall be free to rotate under the applied loads. One cycle 
shall consist of both a downward and an upward load. The magnitude of the upward 
load shall be 0.6P where P is the load determined in part (a) of this article. If 
springs are used to generate the upward load tlie downward load shall be 30 kips 
plus 0.6P. If a double-acting hydraulic ram is used to generate both the upward and 
the downward load, the downward load shall be 30 kips. 

This repeated load test may generate heat in elastomeric rail seat pads. Heat 
build-up in such pads must not be allowed to exceed 140 F. Heat build-up can be 
controlled by reducing the rate of load application or by providing periods of rest 
to allow cooling of the pad to take place. 

Rupture failure of any component of the fastening system shall constitute 
failure of this test. 



216 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

For this test, retorqueing of threaded elements subsequent to the completion 
of 500,000 cycles of load shall not be permitted without the written approval of 
the engineer. 

10.9.1.12 Fastening Longitudinal Restraint Test 

Following the performance of the Fastening Repeated Load Test, above, and 
without disturbing the rail fastening assembly in any manner other than retorqueing 
anchor bolts, the tie and fastening shall be subjected to a longitudinal restraint test. 
A longitudinal load shall be applied as shown in Figure X in increments of 500 lb 
with readings taken of longitudinal rail displacement after each increment. Readings 
of rail displacement shall be the average of the readings of two dial indi- 
cators reading to 1/ 1000th of an inch, one placed on each side of tlie rail with 
tlieir plungers parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rail. The load shall be applied 
in a direction coinciding with the longitudinal axis of the rail. The load shall be 
increased incrementally until a load of the value specified in Art. 10.6.1 for the an- 
ticipated tie spacing is reached. This load shall be held for not less than 15 minutes. 
The rail shall not move more than 0.25 inch during the initial 3-minute period, and 
there shall be no further movement of the rail after the initial 3 minutes. The 
fastening shall be capable of meeting the requirements of this test in either direction. 
If these criteria are met, the tie and fastenings will have successfully passed this test. 

10.9.1.13 Lateral Load Restraint Test 

With a suitable length of new rail of the size to be used in the track aflBxed 
to the tie block in a manner appropriate to the fastening being used, the entire 
assembly is supported and loaded as shown in Figure XI. The loading head is to be 
fixed against translation and rotation. The wood block shall be 10-in x 10-in x ?i-in 
thick, 5 ply, exterior grade plywood. 

(a) A preload of 20 kips is to be appUed to the rail to seat the rail in the 
fastening. Upon release of the preload, a zero reading is to be taken on the dial 
indicators which measure rail translation. Load is to be applied at a rate not to 
exceed 5 kips per minute until either 41 kips has been applied or the rail base has 
translated Va inch, whichever occurs first. Inability of the fastening to carry the 
41 kip load with /8 inch or less of rail translation shall constitute failure of this test. 
Complete failure of any component of the tie or fastening is cause for rejection. 

(b) With all load removed from the rail, a roller nest is placed between the 
fixed loading head and the wood block on the rail head. The roller nest shall not 
offer resistance to lateral movement of the rail head. After taking zero readings on 
the dial indicators, which measure gage widening and rail translation, a load of 
20.5 kips is to be applied at a rate not to exceed 5 kips per minute. Rail rotation, 
gage widening less rail translation, greater than Vi inch shall constitute failure of 
this test. 

10.9.1.14 Electrical Impedance Test 

(a) Two short pieces of rail are affixed to the tie, selected from Ties "3" and 
"4", using tie pads, insulators and fastenings in a manner appropriate to the fastening 
system to be used. 

(b) The complete assembly shall be immersed in water for a minimum of 6 
hours. 



Man ual Recommendations 217 

(c) Within 1 hour after removal from water an a-c 10-volt 60-Hertz potential 
is applied across the two rails for a period of 15 minutes. If the rails are rusty or 
contain mill scale, the contact points must be cleaned. 

(d) The current flow in amperes is read using an a-c ammeter and the im- 
pedance determined by dividing the voltage (10) by the current flow in amperes. 

(e) If the ohmic impedance determined in (c) above exceeds 20,000' ohms, 
the tie will have passed the test. 

10.9.1.15 Electrical Short Test 

The two inserts of each rail seat shall be connected together electrically and 
the tie checked for an electrical short between the two rail seats. The check shall be 
made by connecting one side of a commercial 110 volt a-c potential to one rail seat 
and the other side through a 75-watt light bulb to the opposite rail seat. Lighting 
of the bulb indicates direct short circuit. 

10.9.2 PRODUCTION QUALITY CONTROL OF MONOBLOCK TIES 

After the tie and rail fastening system have passed the tests in Art. 10.9.1 and 
have been approved by the engineer, further production of these items may proceed 
without further design testing. During production of such an approved design, 
quality-control tests must be performed to assure a unifonn, high-quality product. 

10.9.2.1 Daily Production Quality-Control Tests 

The following production quaHty-control tests shall be performed prior to de- 
livery and witliin 30 days of manufacture on one tie selected at random from every 
200 ties or fraction thereof produced each day: 

(a) The distance from center of track to center of rail seats shall be verified 
and, by use of a template, the rail seat configuration and insert location 
shall be verified for compliance with the requirements of Art. 10.3.2. 

(b) The Rail Seat Vertical Load Test, Art. 10.9.1.4, shall be performed. 

(c) The Fastening Insert Test, Art. 10.9.1.9, shall be performed on one insert 
per tie. 

(d) The Electrical Short Test, Art. 10.9.1.1.5, if applicable, shall be performed. 

10.9.2.2 Additional Quality-Control Tests 

To assure the production of cross ties and rail fastenings which comply with 
these specifications, the manufacturer shall institute whatever additional quality- 
control tests, including concrete compressive strength tests (see Art. 10.2.2), he may 
deem necessary, 

10.9.2.3 Failure to Pass Production Quality-Control Test 

Should any test tie fail the tests required by Art. 10.9.2.1, two additional ties 
from that same 200-tie lot shall be tested. In the event either of these ties fails, 100 
percent of the remainder of the 200-tie lot shall be either tested or rejected. 

10.9.2.4 Disposition of Test Ties 

Ties that pass the testing requirements and are not cracked or otherwise dam- 
aged after testing will be considered acceptable for use in track. 



218 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

10.9.2.5 Bond Development or Tendon Anchorage Quality-Control Test 

One tie selected at random from every 2,000 ties produced shall be subjected 
to tlie Bond Development or Tendonage Anchorage Test described in Art. 10.9.1.8. 
If the tie does not meet the requirements of 10.9.1.8, three additional ties shall be 
tested, and if any of the three ties do not meet the requirements of 10.9.1.8, the 
entire lot may be rejected at the option of the engineer 

10.9.2.6 Location for Inspection and Quality-Control Testing 

Quality-control testing of production ties may be performed at any test facility, 
including such facilities at the manufacturer's plant, provided they meet the approval 
of the engineer. Testing may be observed by the engineer or his designated repre- 
sentative if he so elects. Two copies of the results of all such tests shall be sub- 
mitted to the engineer within 7 days of the performance of the tests. 

10.10 TESTING OF TWO-BLOCK TIES 

10.10.1 DESIGN TESTS OF TWO-BLOCK TIES 

Prior to approval of two-block tie designs, concrete ties of the design under 
study shall be subjected to testing for compliance with these specifications. The 
tests specified herein shall be performed at testing facilities approved by the engi- 
neer within 30 days of casting. 

From a lot of not less than ten ties produced in accordance with these specifi- 
cations four ties will be selected at random by the engineer for laboratory testing. 
For design testing of fasteners the manufacturer shall also furnish a section of the 
tie or a concrete block with rail seat and rail fastening system identical to the 
concrete ties furnished for testing. 

The tie block and each of the four ties submitted for testing shall be carefully 
measured and examined to determine their compliance with the requirements of 
Sections 10.2 and 10.3. Upon satisfactory completion of this examination, the tie block 
and the two ties, which shall be known and identified as Ties "1" and "2", shall 
be submitted to performance tests. The remaining two ties, which will be known 
and identified as Ties "3" and "4", will be retained for further use and as a control 
for dimensional tolerances and surface appearances of ties subsequently manufactured. 

10.10.1.1 Sequence of Tests (Tie "1") 

The sequence of design tests performed with Tie "1" shall be as follows: 

(a) Rail Seat Positive Moment Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.4) shall be 
performed on each rail seat. 

(b) Rail Seat Negative Moment Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.5) shall be 
performed on each rail seat. 

(c) Center Negative Bending Moment Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.6). 

(d) Center Positive Bending Moment Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.7). 

(e) Rail Seat Repeated Load Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.8). 

(f) Rail Seat Ultimate Load Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.9). 

10.10.1.2 Sequence of Tests (Tie "2") 

The sequence of design tests performed with Tie "2" shall be as follows: 
(a) Fastening Insert Tests (described in Art. 10.10.1.10) shall be performed 
on all inserts. 



Manual Recommendations 219 



(b) Fastening Uplift Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.11) shall be performed 
on one rail seat. 

(c) Electrical Resistance and Impedance Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.15). 

10.10.1.3 Sequence of Tests (Tie Block) 

The sequence of design tests performed with the tie block shall be as follows: 

(a) Fastening Repeated Load Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.12). 

(b) Fastening Longitudinal Restraint Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.13). 

(c) Fastening Lateral Restraint Test (described in Art. 10.10.1.14). 

10.10.1.4 Rail Seat Positive Bending Moment Test 

With tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure I, a load increasing at a 
rate not greater than 5 kips per minute shall be applied until the load (P) required 
to produce the specified rail seat design positive moment from Art. 10.5.2, Design 
Flexural Requirements for Two-Block Ties, Table II, is obtained. This load shall 
be held for not less than 3 minutes, during which time an inspection shall be made 
to determine if structural cracking occurs. An illuminated 5-power magnifying glass 
may be used to locate cracks. If structural cracking does not occur or (in the case 
of reinforced or partially prestressed ties) crack widths do not exceed the widths 
specified in Art. 10.5.1.3 (c), the requir-ements of tliis test will have been met. 

10.10.1.5 Rail Seat Negative Bending Moment Test 

With tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure VII, a load increasing at a 
rate not greater than 5 kips per minute shall be applied until the load (P) required 
to produce the specified rail seat design negative moment from Table II is obtained. 
This load shall be held for not less than 3 minutes, during which time an inspection 
shall be made to determine if structural cracking occurs. If structural cracking does 
not occur, or (in the case of reinforced or partially prestressed ties) crack widths 
do not exceed the widths specified in Art. 10.5.1.3 (c), the requirements of this test 
will have been met. 

10.10.1.6 Center Negative Bending Moment Test 

With the tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure VIII, a load increasing 
at a rate not greater than 5 kips per minute shall be applied until a load of 7 kips 
causing a moment of 35,000 inch-pounds has been reached. If structural cracking 
does not occur on the gage faces of the blocks and the deflection at the center of 
the ties does not exceed 0.5 inch, the requirements of this test will have been met. 

10.10.1.7 Center Positive Bending Moment Test 

With the tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure IX, a load increasing 
at a rate not greater than 5 kips per minute shall be applied until a load of 7 kips 
causing a moment of 35,000 inch-pounds has been reached. If structural cracking 
does not occur on the gage faces of the blocks and the deflection at tire center of 
the ties does not exceed 0.5 inch, the requirements of this test will have been met. 

10.10.1.8 Rail Seat Repeated-Load Test 

With the tie supported and loaded as shown in Figure I, one rail seat of the 
ties shall be subjected to 3 million cycles of repeated loading with each cycle vary- 
ing uniformly from 4 kips to the value (I.IP) required to produce the specified 
rail seat positive bending moment from Table II. 



220 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

The repeated loading shall not exceed 600 cycles per minute. If, after tlie 
application of 3 million cycles, the tie can support the load (I.IP), the requirements 
of this test will have been met. 

10.10.1.9 Rail Seat Overload and Ultimate Load Test 

With the tie supported and the other rail seat loaded as shown in Figure I, 
a load increasing at a rate not greater than 5 kijis per minute shall be applied until 
a total load of 1.75P is obtained. If the tie can support this load for a period of 
not less than 5 minutes, the requirements of this test will have been met. The load 
shall then be increased until ultimate failure of the tie occurs, and the maximum 
load obtained shall be recorded. 

10.10.1.10 Fastening Insert Tests 

(a) Threaded-Type Inserts 

The test procedure specified in Art. 10.9.1.9 (a) shall be used to determine 
the acceptability of threaded-type inserts. 

(b) Other Fastening Inserts 

Other fastening inserts shall be subject to the pull-out tests and torque tests 
(if applicable) in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and as 
approved by the engineer. 

10.10.1.11 Fastening Uplift Test 

An 18- to 20-inch piece of rail of the proper section shall be secured to one 
rail seat using a complete rail fastening assembly, including pads, bolts, clips, and 
associated hardware, as recommended by the manufacturer of the rail fastening 
system. In accordance with the loading diagram in Figure V, an 18-kip load shall 
be applied and held for not less than 3 minutes. The inserts shall not pull out or 
loosen in the concrete and no component of the rail fastening system shall suffer 
any permanent deformation. 

10.10.1.12 Fastening Repeated-Load Test 

The Fastening Repeated-Load Test shall be performed following the test pro- 
cedure specified in Art. 10.9.1.11. 

10.10.1.13 Fastening Longitudinal Restraint Test 

Following the performance of the Fastening Repeated-Load Test, Art. 10.10.1.12, 
and without disturbing the rail fastening assembly in any manner other than re- 
torqueing anchor bolts, the Fastening Longitudinal Restraint Test shall be performed 
following the test procedure specified in Art. 10.9.1.12. 

10.10.1.14 Fastening Lateral Restraint Test 

The tie and fastening shall be tested for lateral restraint following the test 
procedure specified in Art. 10.9.1.13. 

10.10.1.15 Electrical Impedance Test 

The tie and fastening shall be tested for electrical conductivity following the 
test procedure specified in Art. 10.9.1.14. 

10.10.2 PRODUCTION QUALITY CONTROL OF TWO-BLOCK TIES 

After a tie and rail fastening system have passed tlie tests in Art. 10.10.1 and 
have been approved by the engineer, further production of these items may proceed 



Manual Recommendations 221 

without further design testing. During production of such an approved design, 
quality-control tests must be performed to assure a uniform high-quality product. 

10.10.2.1 Daily Production Quality-Control Tests 

The following production quality-control tests shall be performed prior to de- 
livery and within 30 days of manufacture on one tie selected at random from every 
200 ties or fraction thereof produced each day. 

(a) The distance from center of the tie to the center of the rail seats shall 

be verified and by use of a template, the rail seat configuration (includ- 
ing shoulders and inserts if they are used) shall be verified for com- 
pliance with the requirements of Art. 10.3.2. 

(b) The Rail Seat Positive Moment Test, Art. 10.10.1.4, shall be performed. 

(c) The Fastener Insert Test, Art. 10.9.1.9, shall be performed. 

(d) The Electrical Impedance Tests, Art. 10.9.1.14, if applicable, shall be 
performed. 

10.10.2.2 Additional Quality-Control Tests 

To assure the production of cross ties and rail fastenings which comply with 
these specifications, the manufacturer shall institute whatever additional quality- 
control test, including concrete compressive strength tests (see Art. 10.2.2.1), he 
may deem necessary. 

10.10.2.3 Failure to Pass Production Quality-Control Test 

Should any test tie fail the tests required by Art. 10.10.2.1 above, two additional 
ties from that same 200-tie lot shall be tested. In the event either of these ties fails, 
100 percent of the remainder of the 200-tie lot shall be either tested or rejected. 

10.10.2.4 Disposition of Test Ties 

Ties that pass the testing requirements and are not cracked or otherwise 
damaged after testing will be considered acceptable for use in track. 

10.10.2.5 Rail Seat Overload Quality-Control Test 

One tie selected at random from every 2,000 ties produced shall be subjected 
to the Rail Seat Overload Load Test described in Art. 10.10.1.9. If the tie does not 
meet the requirements of Art. 10.10.1.9, three additional ties shall be selected at 
random and tested. If any of the three additional ties do not meet the requirements 
of Art. 10.10.1.9, the entire lot may be rejected at the option of the engineer. 

10.10.2.6 Location for Inspection and Quality-Control Testing 

Quality-control testing and inspection of production ties may be performed 
at any test facility, including such facilities at the manufacturer's plant, provided 
they meet the approval of the engineer. The engineer shall be notified in advance 
of dates scheduled for quality-control tests. Testing may be observed by the engineer 
or his designated representative if he so elects. Two copies of all such tests shall 
be submitted to the engineer within 7 days of the performance of the tests. 

10.11 RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR SHIPPING, HANDLING, 
APPLICATION AND USE 

10.11.1 SHIPPING 

Concrete ties should be shipped in open-top cars. Ties must be securely braced 



222 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

for transportation to prevent any movement that will cause damage. Ties shall be 
shipped in a horizontal position and braced with wooden spacer blocks in such a 
manner that the top surface or cast-in-place hardware does not contact ties loaded 
above. Ties shall not be loaded higher than the top of the cars nor more than six 
layers deep. The purchaser shall specify the size of shipments in accordance with 
unloading facilities. 

10.11.1.1 Protection of Threaded Inserts 

If cast-in-place threaded inserts are included in ties, they shall be protected 
against entry of water and foreign matter by means of a plastic cap, plug or other 
suitable device approved by the engineer. Caps or plugs shall be placed in position 
at the time of manufacture, left in place during shipping and not removed until 
fastenings are aflBxed to the ties. 

10.11.2 HANDLING 

Unnecessary handling, redistribution and reloading of concrete ties should be 
avoided. To the extent practical, ties should be distributed in proper position for 
use without further handling. They shall be unloaded from cars in a manner that 
will not damage the ties. In no case shall ties be dropped from a truck or car to 
the roadbed. 

10.11.3 PLACEMENT AND INITIAL ROADBED SUPPORT 

In new construction care must be taken to insure that all concrete cross ties 
are uniformly supported on the roadbed and that no center-binding conditions de- 
velop prior to ballasting and tamping. If the subgrade condition indicates that there 
is inadequate or non-uniform support for the ties before placement of ballast, a 
minimum layer of 3 inches of ballast should be placed, leveled and compacted before 
placement of ties. Ties shall be installed at right angles to the center line of track 
at the designed spacing prior to rail installation. 

10.11.4 PLACEMENT OF RAIL AND FASTENINGS IN NEW CONSTRUCTION 

10.11.4.1 Tie Pads 

It is reconmmended that tie pads be shipped independendy of the ties. Rail seats 
should be clean and ties properly positioned prior to placement of pads. Pads should 
be accurately positioned and centered on the rail seat. Use of adhesive may be 
desirable to hold pads in place until rail is unloaded and fastened. 

10.11.4.2 Rail 

Rail must not be dropped into place. Where continuous welded rail is to be 
used, the use of rollers is recommended to facilitate its unloading and reduce the 
risk of dislocating ties and tie pads. 

10.11.4.3 Joints 

If jointed rail is to be used (see Art. 10.1.5.2) special fastenings may be re- 
quired within joint bar limits. Care must be exercised to see that such fastenings 
are clearly distinguishable and ordered in the proper amount. Care should also be 
taken to see that the actual juncture of two rails does not occur directly over a tie. 

10.11.4.4 Fastenings 

It is recommended that fastenings be shipped independently of ties. Where 
more than one type of fastening, such as gage and field fastenings or special joint 



Manual Recommendations 223 

fastenings, are to be used they shall be clearly marked to avoid confusion and avoid 
difficulties during their distribution and application. Fastenings shall be applied in 
the manner appropriate to their design and approved by their manufacturer. If 
threaded fasteners are used, the shank at tlie screw shall be dipped in petrolatum 
before assembly. 

10.11.4.5 

In corrosive environments, consideration should be given to protecting the 
external components of fastenings. 

10.11.5 TAMPING 

Tamping of concrete ties should be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 
5 of the Manual. 

10.11.6 TRACK GEOMETRY 

(a) It is recommended that concrete ties be installed on curves only if the 
curves have AREA-recommended, or equal, spiral approach and departure transitions. 

(b) It is recommended that concrete ties not be installed in curves designed 
for an unbalanced superelevation greater than 3 inches. 

10.12 BALLAST 

10.12.1 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Prepared ballast for use with concrete ties shall be of hard, strong, angular, 
durable particles, free from injurious amounts of deleterious substances and conform- 
ing to tlie requirements of these specifications. The most successful concrete tie 
installations to date have used sound granite, trap rock, or similar types of ballast 
and such types of ballast are, therefore recommended for use in conjunction with 
concrete ties. Current and proposed research may indicate that other ballast mate- 
rials also could be satisfactory. 

10.12.2 QUALITY REQUIREMENTS 

(Under study.) 

10.12.3 GRADING REQUIREMENTS 

Ballast grading requirements shall be in conformity witli Chapter 1 of the 
Manual. 

10.12.4 HANDLING 

Ballast shall be handled at the producing plant in such a manner that it is 
kept clean and free from segregation. It shall be loaded only into cars which are 
in good order, tight enough to prevent leakage and waste of material, and which 
are clean and free from rubbish or any substance which would foul or damage the 
ballast. The producer should not store ballast in cone-shape piles or make re- 
peated i:)asses of his equipment over the same levels in stock pile area. Tlie supplier's 
proposed method of handling ballast shall be subject to the approval of the engineer. 

10.12.5 INSPECTION 

If material loaded or being loaded does not conform to these specifications, 
the inspector shall notify the supplier to stop further loading until tlie fault has 



224 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

been corrected and dispose of all of the defective material without cost to the rail- 
road. The engineer reserves the right to reject any car of ballast arriving at the 
site for unloading that does not conform to the specifications. 

10.12.6 TESTING 

Prior to installation, the supplier shall provide tlie engineer with certified test 
results of ballast classification, quality, and grading as conducted by a testing labo- 
ratory accepted by the engineer. If, during ballast installation, the supplier changes 
the source of ballast, additional certified test results shall be provided. The supplier 
shall receive concurrence of the engineer as to the use of testing laboratory to make 
the aforementioned tests. 

Samples of the finished product for gradation and other required tests shall 
be taken from each 4,000 tons of prepared ballast, unless otherwise ordered by the 
engineer. The sample shall be representative and shall weigh not less than 150 lb. 

The supplier shall certify that ballast delivered to the railroad is typical of 
tliat upon which specified tests have been made. 

10.13 COMMENTARY 

10.13.1 FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF MONOBLOCK TIES 

Monoblock ties are stiff structural members that are loaded by the rails from 
the top and are supported on the ballast at the bottom. The loads applied at the 
top combined with the support reactions at the bottom will produce flexure in the 
ties. Maximum flexure occurs at the rail seats and at the center. Flexure is influenced 
by a number of factors discussed in Section 10.1 General Considerations. 

10.13.1.1 Wheel Loads 

In order to give satisfactory service a prestressed monoblock concrete tie should 
be capable of withstanding without cracking the maximum loads likely to be found 
in service. 

10.13.1.2 Rail Seat Load 

The rail seat load is that load transmitted by the rail to the rail seat of the tie. 

It is the design wheel load modified by the distribution and impact factors. For 
various tie spacings the following rail seat loads are used to determine the flexure 
requirements in Art. 10.4.2, Table I: 

Spacing, Inches Rail Seat Load, Pounds 
30 61,500 

27 57,050 

24 52,600 

21 48,150 

As rail seat loads are reduced so also are the flexural requirements of ties and 
the unit pressures on the ballast and subgrade. 

10.13.1.3 Ballast Reaction 

The load transmitted to the tie is resisted by the ballast at the interface be- 
tween the bottom of the tie and the ballast. Immediately following tamping the 
ballast reaction is concentiated under the tamped portions of the tie with little if 
any reaction occurring under the center portion of the tie. This condition usually 



Manual Recommendations 225 

produces positive flexure at the rail seats and the tie center. Over a period of time, 
because of repeated loads, vibration and crushing of ballast, the ballast will gradually 
compact, moving away from the areas of greatest concentration. The tie, therefore, 
settles slightly into the ballast, allowing the center portion of the tie to pick up 
a portion of the load thus reducing the amount of load carried by die tie ends. 

Redistribution of ballast reaction will continue until eventually a condition of 
uniform ballast reaction over the entire length of the tie is approached. This support 
condition produces positive flexure at the rail seats and negative flexure at the center 
of tie. It also makes possible a simple analysis for flexure in the tie by using the 
formulas : 



(l)M,=-^ 



where 



Mr = Moment at the rail seat 

W = Total vertical load in pounds/inch of tie length. 

Li = Distance from center line of rail to end of tie. 

(2) Mo = — 5 — ■ — Mr or - — -^^ 5- — ^ 



where 



Mc = Moment at center of tie. 
L2 = Distance center to center of rails. 



2(Rail Seat Load) 



2Li + L2 



W = Total vertical load in pounds/inch of tie length = 

Mr = Moment at the rail seat 
Li = Distance from center line of rail to end of tie. 
To insure ties that will not crack under normal service conditions the bending 
moments produced by this approach are considered adequate. 

10.13.2 FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF TWO-BLOCK TIES 

Two-block ties consist of two blocks of concrete connected by a third member. 
Under load, flexure will occur in the end blocks, and while flexure does occur in the 
connecting element, its flexural resistance is relatively small, thus one block is able 
to deflect with respect to the other. 

Consideration of distribution factor, impact factor, wheel loads, rail seat loads, 
and tie spacings are the same as for monobiock ties. 

10.13.2,1 Ballast Reaction 

For two-block ties each tie block must distribute a full rail seat load to the 
ballast. Assuming this distribution over a period of time will approach uniformity, 
the flexural requirements for a tie block may be determined by the formula 

where 

Mr = Moment at the rail seat 

to ^ Rail seat load in pounds/inch of tie block length. 
L is assumed to be one-half the lengtli of the tie block. 
The magnitude of the terms 10 and L are influenced by tie block length. This 
influences the flexural requirements. 

Flexural requirements for five lengths of tie blocks and four tie spacings are 



226 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

shown in Table II. Flexural requirements for block lengths other than those shown 
may be calculated, but in no case should the rail seat positive flexural capacity be 
less than 150 inch-kips. 

10.13.2.2 Tie Flexibility 

The connecting element of two-block ties should be sufficiently stiff to maintain 
track gage and tie integrity during handling, track construction and track mainte- 
nance. Under load, non-uniform ballast support reactions may cause differential 
deflection between the blocks of a tie. The connecting element must therefore be 
flexible enough to accept the maximum deflections likely to occur in track without 
damage to the element or to the concrete blocks. 

Minimiun stiftness and specific deflection without damage requirements have 
therefore been made a part of these specifications. 

10.13.3 LONGITUDINAL RAIL RESTRAINT 

Rail must be restrained to avoid excessive longitudinal movement. Longitudinal 
movement of rail can be induced by temperature change and/or traffic. 

10.13.3.1 Temperature-Induced Loads 

The longitudinal force due to temperature change may be determined using 
the formula 

(F-jrs ^^ 



2RAE 

Where F c= Total force in poimds required to fully restrain rail against any rail 
movement due to temperature variation from the rail temperature at 
laying. (Use formula F = As'!>^T, where A := area of rail cross section 
in square inches, s = internal temperature stress developed in the rail 
by the restraining forces, s = 30,000,000 X 1° X 0.0000065 = 195 psi. 
AT = temperature change from mean laying temperature in degrees F) 

/ = Joint restraint ( say / =z ) . 

S = Average tie spacing in inches. 

R =. Average tie resistance in pounds per tie per rail. 

A = Area of rail cross section in square inches. 

Ecz Modulus of elasticity (30,000,000 psi). 

D = Maximum rail end movement (say 0.375 inch). 

Solving for R: 

„_ F'S __ 35,870,087,2365 _,c,r>-,o 
2DAE " 291,375,000 -^^-^-^^ 

Where F = 75° X 195 X 12.95 = 189,394 lb 

D=0'.375 inch 

A r= 12.95 sq inches 

E = 30,000,000 psi 

S = 21 inches, 24 inches, 27 inches, 30 inches. 
For 21-inch tie spacing: R = 2585 lb (say 2.6 kips) 
For 24-inch tie spacing: Rr=2955 lb (say 2.9 kips) 
For 27-inch tie spacing: R=3324 lb (say 3.3 kips) 
For 30-inch tie spacing: R = 3693 lb (say 3.7 kips) 



Manual Recommendations 227 



10.13.3.2 Traffic-Induced Loads 

Only the larger of traffic-induced loads due to traction or braking need be con- 
sidered as tliey cannot occur together at a single point on a rail. This force is approxi- 
mately 10 kips. 

10.13.3.3 Tie Spacing 

Since only about 50 percent of the load on a rail is carried by the tie directly 
under it with the two adjacent ties carrying the remainder, we can arrive at the 
maximum force expected for ties spaced as follows: 

21-inch spacing, 50% of 10 kips + 2.6 kips = 7.6 kips 
24-inch spacing, 50% of 10 kips -f 2.9 kips = 7.9 kips 
27-inch spacing, 50% of 10 kips -f 3.3 kips = 8.3 kips 
30-inch spacing, 50% of 10 kips + 3.7 kips = 8.7 kips 

Since the greater weight of train should provide an increased friction between 
rail and tie and bet\veen tie and ballast, it is felt traffic-induced loads can be ig- 
nored insofar as longitudinal restraint is concerned. 

The restraint provided between rail and tie, howe\er, need not exceed the 
abihty of ballast section to restrain the moxement of ties longitudinally in the ballast 
section. It may also be assumed that, in continuous welded rail, some of the longi- 
tudinal force due to both braking and traction is transmitted ahead and behind and 
absorbed by ties not under or adjacent to the load. In studies made by AREA as 
reported in Vol. 56, 1955, the maximum individual tie pressure was recorded as 
2930 lb. This was in gravel ballast with ties spaced an average of 19.5 inches (24 
ties per rail). The study further concluded that, in gravel ballast, the holding power 
of such ballast, not frozen, should not be considered to exceed 1200 lb per anchor. 
Slag, limestone and granite ballast should be able to provide greater resistance to 
tie mo%ement. 

Concrete ties should at least equal the restraining ability of timber ties. 

10.13.4 LATERAL RAIL RESTRAINT 

Truck instability may occur in the wheel-rail interface due to excessive forces 
interacting between tlie wheel and rail in the lateral direction. These lateral forces 
tend to cause wheel Hanges to climb the gage side of tlie rail when there is excessive 
lateral flange pressure in relation to actual vertical loads. These lateral pressures 
are caused by one or more of the following conditions: 

(a) Nosing or hunting of truck assembhes at a repetitive frequency. 

(b) Centrifugal forces on curved track. 

(c) Impact due to irregular wheel and/or rail alinement or configuration. 

(d) Rotational acceleration of the vehicle body due to curvature changes. 

(e) Wheel friction from curve negotiation. 

10.13.4.1 Lateral Forces 

A rational determination of lateral force requirements on track fastenings would 
be to develop lateral and o\erturning reactions in tlie rail base to the degree tliat 
the wheel flanges will climb the rail before the rail would overturn. This limit may 
be determined by considering the ratio of lateral force to vertical load necessary 
to cause flange chmbing. 



2 28 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Studies made"* show that a ratio of vertical loads (Pi) to lateral forces (Pi) 
approaching unity will permit the wheel flanges to climb the rail. Therefore, using 
vertical wheel loads of 35,000 lb generated l^y a high-horsepower 6-axle locomotive 
as design criteria for maximum vertical loading (Pi), then we could expect a maxi- 
mum lateral pressure (Pi) to also be in the order of 35,000 lb. Consequently, con- 
sideration of the individual lateral forces referred to in Art. 10.13.4 need not be 
considered since lateral forces greater than 35,000 lb would cause wheels to climb. 

10.13.4.2 Lateral Force Distribution 

Reference to Fig. 10.2.3.1 covering the distribution of vertical loads to ties 
indicates that the tie directly imder the load will receive from 45 percent (20-inch 
centers) to 60 percent (30-inch centers) of the imposed vertical load while adjacent 
ties will each receive one-half of tlie balance. This distribution of loading is a func- 
tion of the rigidity of the track structure, which is greatest about the horizontal 
axis. 

However, rail stressed about the vertical axis by pressure induced by a wheel 
flange, has increased stability caused by torsional rigidity of the rail and the effect 
of the weight from wheels of adjoining trucks. The calculations to compare the two 
conditions of loading are complex, but for our purposes the resistance to bending in 
the vertical and horizontal axis are in the same order of magnitude under these 
conditions. Therefore, lateral loads applied to the tie may be expected to be dis- 
tributed in a manner similar to vertical loads. 

Based on the foregoing, the tie fastening system accommodates the following 
design stresses in combination: 

Horizontal Reaction: 

Lateral Force X Distribution Factor (DF) 
Vertical Reaction: 

[( ■^-'^' ^-- X ^i,^^) - ( J^-^fi^)] X OF 

10.13.5 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 

10.13.5.1 Signal Circuits 

The engineer must give consideration to the electrical environment in selecting 
concrete tie designs and specifications. While concrete is not a good conductor of 
electricity, it does not have sufiicient resistance or impedance, particularly when 
steel reinforcement is in close proximity to rail fastening components, to insure 
trouble-free operations of signal appliances depending upon electrical isolation of 
the rail if the rails are not insulated from the concrete. From the viewpoint of signal 
operation, the value of concern is the impedance per 1,000 ft of track rather than 
tlie impedance per tie. The former includes electrical leakage through ballast as 
well as the ties which can be expected to perform in wet trackage, and under a 
variety of voltages, both ac and dc. 

10.13.5.2 Electric Traction 

Electric propulsion systems most often rely upon ground return through track- 
age for circuit completion. Under these circumstances, it is desirable that the 
impedance between rails and ground (ballast and subsoil) not exceed certain maxi- 
mum values. 



<i* British Railways, Japanese National Railways and the Association of American Railroads. 



Manual Recommendations 



229 



<t LOAD 



Pk 



THE FOLLOWING FORMULA 
SHALL BE USED TO 
DETERMINE THE 
VALUE OF P 
P= 2M 



30" TO 'L track ^ , 




POSITIVE MOMENT AT THE 
RAIL SEAT AS REQUIRED IN 
TABLE I FOR PRESTRESSED 
MONOBLOCK TIES OR TABLE 
ni FOR TWO BLOCK TIES 



x'/2xWIDTH OF TIE RUBBER 
SUPPORT (50 DUROMET^R 
A SCALE) 



2" 

M 



2"x!"xWIDTH OF TIE 
RUBBER SUPPORT 
f50 DUROMETER 
A SCALE) 
SUPPORT 



FIGURE I POSITIVE RAIL SEAT MOMENT TEST 



^ SUPPORT 



(t_ TRACK AND LOAD 



(^ SUPPORT 



30 



3"..3'\ 



Pn 



30 




2" 



lij- 






l"x '/2"xWIDTH OF TIE 

RUBBER (50 DUR- |^-l4~ 
OMETER) SUPPOF^ jrin 



2" 



/5*sW 



THE FOLLOWING FORMULA 
SHALL BE USED TO DETERMINE 
THE VALUE OF P 

P=2M 
27 

M = NEGATIVE MOMENT AT THE CENTER 
OF THE TIE AS REQUIRED IN TABLE I 




2"xl"x WIDTH OF TIE RUBBER 
SUPPORT (50 DUROMETER 
A SCALE) 



TIE CENTER NEGATIVE MOMENT TEST 



FIGURE n 



230 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



(^ SUPPORT 



(^ TRACK AND LOAD (£_ SUPPORT 



30 



Pn 



30 

l"xl/2"xWlDTH0FTIE 
.RUBBER SUPPORT 
50 DUROMETER 
A SCALE 



THE FOLLOWING FORMULA 
SHALL BE USED TO DETERMINE 
THE VALUE OF P 

P= 2M 
27 

M= POSITIVE MOMENT AT THE CENTER 
OF THE TIE AS REaOiRtD iM TaBlE I 



TIE CENTER POSITIVE MOMENT TEST 




2"xl"x WIDTH OF TIE 
RUBBER SUPPORT 
50 DUROMETER 
A SCALE 



FIGURE m 



(^ LOAD 
'P=I2 KIPS 



HIGH STRENGTH ROD 
THREADED BOTH ENDS 




-CONCRETE TIE 



FIGURE rZ 



SUPPORT TO BE SEATED IN 
HYDROCAL, HYDROSTONE OR 
OTHER MATERIAL APPROVED 
BY THE ENGINEER 



INSERT PULLOUT TEST 



Manual Recommendations 



231 



LOADING FRAME 



?. LOAD AND RAIL 



(^ SUPPORT 
10" 



(I SUPPORT 




SUPPORT 
OPPOSITE 
END OF TIE 



ELEVATION 



MIN 



MIN. 



SUPPORT TO BE SEATED 
IN HYDROCAL, HYDRO- 
STONE OR OTHER MAT- 
ERIAL APPROVED BY 
THE ENGINEER- 




CONCRETE TIE 




BLOCKING TO PROVIDE 
UNIFORM BEARING 
UNDER RAIL BASE 



END VIEW 



FASTENER UPLIFT TEST 



FIGURE 3Z: 



232' Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



I 



t OF RAIL- 



FOR DETERMINATION 
OF P SEE ARTICLE 
10.9. 1. M (a) 



-0.6 P FOR DOUBLE ACTING 
HYDRAULIC RAM 

-30 KIPS FOR DOUBLE ACTING 
HYDRAULIC RAM 

'30 KIPS + 0.6P FOR SINGLE 
ACTING HYDRAULIC RAM AND 
SPRING NESTS 



GAGE SIDE OF RAIL 




TIE BLOCK SECURELY 
FASTENED TO SUPPORT 



SUPPORT- 



FIGURE m FASTENING REPEATED LOAD TEST 



Manual Recommendations 



233 



?. LOAD 



30" TO "t TRACK 



THE FOLLOWING FORMULA 
SHALL BE USED TO 
DETERMINE THE 
VALUE OF P 
P= 2M 



M= NEGATIVE MOMENT AT THE 
RAIL SEAT AS REQUIRED IN 
TABLE I ORTABueH 

r'x l/2"xWIDTH OF TIE 

RUBBER SUPPORT 

(50 DUROMETER,A SCALE) 




2x1 xWIDTH OF TIE 
I RUBBER SUPPORT 
J (50 DUROMETER.ASCAUE) 

•L SUPPORT 



FIGURE Sn RAIL SEAT NEGATIVE MOMENT TEST 



15 



w 



30" 



P = 7K MAX 



m 



30 



S 



52 



10" 



10 



TWO BLOCK TIE CENTER NEGATIVE BENDING TEST FIGURE 3ffll 



234 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



15 



s 



30" 



P = 7K MAX. 



3 0" 



^ 



a 



10 



10" 



TWO BLOCK TIE CENTER POSITIVE BENDING TEST FIGURE K 



Manual Recommendations 



235 




CO 



< 

I- 
liJ 



< 

z 

o 



o 



UJ 

I- 
< 



M 

UJ 
(T. 

CD 



236 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



P (41 ,000 LBS) 



DIAL GAGE FOR 
READING GAGE 
WIDENING- 





SUPPORT 



TEST BED 



DIAL GAGE 
FOR READING 
TRANSLATION 



FIGURE :ZL FASTENING LATERAL RESTRAINT TEST 



Manual Recommendations 
Committee 1 — Roadway and Ballast 

Report on Assignment 1 

Roadbed 

F. L. Peckover (chairman, subcommittee), J. R. Blacklock, D. H. Cook, G. W. 
Deblin, W. a. Eshbaugh, J. B. Haegler, H. O. Ireland, H. W. Legro, F. H. 
McGuiGAN, W. C. Murphy, J. E. Newby, S. R. Pettit, P. J. Seidel, W. M. 
Snow. 

Your committee recommends for adoption and publication in the Manual as an 
addition to present Manual material in Part 1 — Roadljed, tlie recommended practice 
Section 1.4 — Maintenance, as published in Bulletin 651, January-February 1975, 
pages 282 to 297, with the following editorial changes: 

Page 287, Fig. 1.4.4— change to Fig. 1.4.2. 

Page 288, Art. 1.4.2.2, 2nd last sentence — change Fig. 1.4.4 to Fig. 1.4.2. 

Page 291, Table 1.4.4— change to Table 1.4.1. 

Page 290, Art. 1.4.3.3.3, last sentence— change Table 1.4.4 to Table 1.4.1. 

Page 297, References, item 3 — change "To be presented . . ." to: Peckover, F. L., 
Treatment of Rock Falls on Railway Lines, Bui. 653, June-July 1975, p. 471-503. 



If Section 1.4 — Maintenance, is approved for publication in Part 1 — Roadbed, 
of Chapter 1 of the Manual, the following editorial changes in Section 1.1 — Explora- 
tion and Testing, and Section 1.2 — Design, will be necessary: 

Art. 1.1.2.3, para. 1, last line (p. 1-1-4): delete "Section 1.4 — Maintenance," 
substitute "Article 1.4.3." 

Art. 1.2.1, ]Dara. 3 (p. 1-1-11): delete "(to be prepared)," substitute "softening 
and squeezing of subgrade, frost heaving of track, rock falls, failures of earth slopes, 
and control of erosion." 

Art. 1.2.2.1.4, para. 6, last sentence (p. 1-1-14): delete "(see Section 1.4— 
Maintenance)." 

Art. 1.2.2.1.7, para. 3, last sentence (p. 1-1-19): delete "under Section 1.4 — 
Maintenance, on. . ." Substitute "in Article 1.4.2 on maintenance of . . ." 

Art. 1.2.2.2.6, 2nd sentence (p. 1-1-21): delete "Section 1.4 — Maintenance," 
substitute "Articles 1.4.3 and 1.4.5. ' 

Art. 1.2.3.6, last para. (p. 1-1-26): delete "Section 1.3 — Construction," sub- 
stitute "Article 1.3.5." 

Art. 1.2.3.7, 3rd para., 2nd .sentence (p. 1-1-26): delete "Section 1.4 — Main- 
tenance," substitute "Article 1.4.5." 

Table 1.2.5 (p. 1-1-32): increase print size for table number and title, for im- 
proved reference purposes. 

Art. 1.2.4.3.3, 1st para., 2nd sentence (p. 1-1-28): delete "Culverts," substitute 
"Culverts and Drainage Pipe." 

References (p. 1-1-30), item (2): delete: "Chicago," substitute "New York." 

Art. 1.2.5.3, 3rd para., 2nd line) (p. 1-1-31): after "sub-ballast" add "(see 
Article 1.4.1.2.)." 

Art. 1.2.5.5, 5th para., last line (p. 1-1-35): delete "Section 1.4 — Maintenance," 
substitute "Article 1.4.1.4." 

237 



238 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 9 

Vegetation Control 

H. C. Archdeacon (chairman, subcommittee), H. E. Bartlett, R. H. Bogle, Jr., 
E. B. Grant, T. J. Hernandez, P. R. Houghton, D. N. Johnston, H. E. 
McQueen, J. M. Nunn, G. D. Santolla, W. H. Stumm. 

Your committee submits for adoption and publication in Part 9 — Vegetation 
Control, Chapter 1 of the Manual, the accompanying Table 3 — Susceptibility of 
Woody Species to Herbicide Treatments. 

TABLE 3 - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 

The followlriR treatments are typical of those frequently used. This list Is 
not intended to be exhaustive. Additional Information on other chemicals is available 
through federal and state agencies, university extension services and suppliers. The letter 
code for treatments is not intended to jlmply anV order of preference, but is used solely 
to conserve space on the following table: 

STEM FOLIAr.E SPRAYS 

A. 2, A-DP plus 2, 4-D. 2 lb. plus 2 lb. per 100 gal. wateri 

B. Ester amine and oil soluble amine of 2, A-D plus 2, 4, 5-T. 2 lb. olus 

2 lb. per 100 g^l. water. 

C. 10 gal. Ammonium Sulfamate solution plus 1 qt. surfactant per 100 gal. water. 

D. Plcloram plus 2, 4-D. H lb. plus 2 lb. per 100 gal. water. 

E. Dlcamba plus 2, 4, 5-T (or 2. 4-D), 1 lb, plus 2 lbs. per 100 gal. water. 

DORMANT CANE SPRAYS 

F. Ester of 2, 4-D plus 2, 4, 5-T. 3 lb. plus 3 Ih . per 100 gal. oil. 
STUMP OR BASAL SPRAY 

G. Ester of 2, 4-U plus 2, 4, 5-T. 8 lb. plus 8 lb. per 100 gal. oil. 
AERIAL SPRAY 

H. Ester of 2, 4-D plus 2, 4, 5-T. 6 lb. plus 6 lb. as Invert emulsion 

or as conventional through ralcrofoil or other drift control devices or additives. 

DRY PELLET APPLICATIONS 



I. Plcloram lOZ pellets. 60 to 85 lbs. per acre. 
SUSCEPTIBILITY CODE 



S - Susceptible (over 90X rootkill) 

S-I - Susceptible to Intermediate (70Z to 90Z rootkill) 

I - Intermediate (50% to 70Z rootkill) 

I-P - Intermediate to Resistant (30% to 50% rootkill) 

R - Resistant (less than 30% rootkill) 



Manual Recommendations 



239 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



1 SPECIES 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


II 


I 




Acacia farneslana hulsache 
Alder (Alnus spp. ) 




I 


I 




I-R 


S-I 


S-I 




s 




Common (A. serrulata) 
j Red (A. rubra) 
j Speckled (A. Incana) 
Apple (Malus spp. ) 


S 
S 
S 


s 
s 
s 


I 
I 
I 


s 
s 
s 


S 
S 
S 


s 
s 
s 


s 
s 
s 


s 
s 
s 


S-I 

I 

S-I 




Common (M. pumlla) 


I 


I-R 


R 


I 


S-I 


I 


s 


I 
s 


S 




Crab (M. ionesls) 
Arborvltae, eastern 


I 


S 


I-R 


s 


S-I 


s 


s 




(Thuja occidentalls) 


S-I 


R 


I-R 


s 


s 


s 


I-R 




s 




Ash (Fraxinus spp.) 




















Blue (F. quadrangulata) 


s 


S 


I 


S-I 


s 


s 


s 


R 


S-I 




Red (F. Pennsylvanlca) 


I 


I-R 


I-R 


R 


s 


s 


s 


R 




Oregon (F. latlfolla) 




S 


S-I 




s 


s 
s 


s 
s 


R 
R 

R 


I 




White (F. amerlcana) 


I-R 


I-R 


I-R 


R 


s 




Black (F. nigra) 




I 


I-R 




s 


s 




s 




Aspen, quaking 




















(Populus tremuloldes) 


S 


S-I 


S 


S 


s 


S-I 


s 


s 






Azalea (Rhododendron spp.) 




















Piedmont (R. conescens) 




I-R 


I 


I 


I 


S-I 


S-I 


R 






Western (R. occldentale) 
Barberry, Allegheny 




S 


I 






S 


S-I 


R 






(Berberis canadensis) 




S 


I-R 




s 


I 

S-I 


S 
S 


s 

R 






Basswood (Tllla amerlcana) 


I-R 


I-R 


1-R 


s 


s 






Bayberry, north 






















(Myrica Pennsylvania) 


S 


S 


S-I 


S 


I 


s 


s 


s 






Bearberry 




















(Arctostaphylos uvaursl) 




I 


I 




I 


I 


s 


s 






Beech, American 






















(Fagus grandlfolla) 


I-R 


I-R 


I 


S-I 


S-I 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


s 




Birch (Betula spp.) 






















Yellow (B. lutea) 


s 


S 


S-I 


S 


S 


s 


s 


s 


s 
s 




River (B. nigra) 


s 


s 


S-I 


S 


S 


s 


S 


s 




Gray (B. popull folia) 


s 


s 


S-I 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 




Paper (B. alba var. papyrifera) 


s 


s 


S-I 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 
s 
s 




Black (B. lenta) 


s 


s 


S-I 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 




Blackberry (Rubus spp.) 


S-I 


s 


S-I 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 





240 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


u 


I 


Blackgum (Nyssa sylvatlca) 


I 




I-R 


S-I 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 


Blueberry (Vaccinlum spp.) 
Boxelder (Acer negundo) 


S-I 


S-I 


I-R 
S 


S-I 


s 
s 


S-1 
S-I 


s 

K 


R 

I 


s 

S-I 


Broom scotch (Gytlsum scoparius) 






I-R 




I 




s 


s 




Buckbrush, coral berry 

(symphoricarpus orbiculatus) 


S 




I 


s 


I 


S 


S-I 


I-R 


s 


Buckeye (Aesculus spp.) 

Ohio (A. glabra) 

Sweet, yellow (A. octandra) 
Buckthorn (Rhamnus spp.) 

California (R. California) 


I-R 


S-I 


R 
R 

R 




I 


s 
s 

S-I 


s 
s 

s 


I-R 
I-R 

I 




Common (R. Cathartica) 
Hollyleaf, redberry (R. Crocea 

var. lliclfolla) 






R 
R 




I 
I 


S-I 
S-I 


s 
s 


I 
I 




Butternut (juglans clnerea) 
Button bush, common (Cophalanthus 

occidentalis ) 


I-R 
S-I 




I-R 
R 


S-I 


I 


S-I 
S-I 


s 

s 


I-R 
I-R 


s 

s 


Cascara, buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana) 




I-R 


1-R 




S-I 


S-I 


s 


R 




Catalpa (Cacalpa spp.) 

Eastern (C. bignoniodes) 






S 




I 


S-I 


s 


I-R 


s 


Western (C. speclosa) 










I 


S-I 


s 


I-R 




Ceanothus (Ceonothus spp-.) 

Blue blossom (C. thy rsl f lorus ) 
Chapparal white thorn(C. leucodermis) 




S 

s 


S-I 


S 


I 
I 


s 
s 


s 
s 


S 
S 




Varnlshleaf (C. velutinus var. 

laevigatus ) 


S-I 


s 






I 


s 


s 


S 




Deerbush (C. Integer rimus ) 
Wedgeleaf (C. cuneatus) 


S-I 


s 
s 




s 


I 


s 
s 


s 
s 


S 
S 




Mountain whitethorn (C. Cordulatus) 




s 




s 




s 


s 


S 




Jersey tea (C. americanus) 
Jimbrush (C. sorediatus) 




s 

s 








s 
s 


s 
s 


S 
S 




1 Cedar (Juniperus spp.) 

Eastern red (J. Virginiana) 
Southern red (J. silicicola) 


I 
I 


R 
R 


S 
S 


S-I 
S-I 


s 
s 


S-I 
S-I 


S-I 
S-I 


R 
R 


s 

s 


Chamise, greasewood(Adenostoma 

Fasciculatum) 




S-I 


R 


S-I 


I 




s 


S 


s 


Cherry (Prunus spp.) 
Black (P. serotina) 


S-I 


S 


S 


S 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


I 


s 


Sweet (P. avium) 


s 


S 


S 


s 


s 


s 


s 


I 


s 


Choke (P. virginiana) 

1 


s 


S 


S 


s 


s 


s 


s 


S-I 


s 



Manual Recommendations 



241 



TABLE 3 CCONTINUED] - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


II 


I 


Chestnut (Castenea dentata) 


S 


S 


S-I 


s 


S 


s 


s 


S 




Chinkapin, Allegheny (Castenea pumlla) 




s 






I 


s 


s 


I-R 




Chlnaberry (mella azedarach) 




I-R 


I-R 






I 


s 


R 




Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) 




S-I 


s 








s 


S-I 




Condulla, lotewood (Condulla obtus- 




















IfoXia) 




s 










S-I 






Cottonwood (Populus spp.) 




















Plains (P. sargentll) 




S-I 


s 


s 




S-I 


s 


S-I 


s 


Rio Grande (P. Hlallzenl) 




I 










s 


S-I 


s 


Eastern (P. deltoides) 


S 


S-I 


s 


S-I 




S-I 


s 


s 


s 


Downy, black (P. het erophy 11a) 




S-I 


s 








s 




s 


Coyote brush (Baccharls pilularlis) 




s 


R 




I 




s 


I 




Creosotebush (Larrea dlvarlcata) 


I 


R 




S-I 




S-I 


I 


s 


Chrlstnasberry , toyon (Photlnla 


















arbutlfolla) 




S-I 


I 




I 




s 


I 




Currant (Rlbes spp.) 




















Gooseberry (R. montlgenum) 




s 




S 


S 




s 


S-I 


s 


Nutmeg (R. glutinasum) 




s 






s 




s 


S-I 




Prlckley (R. lacustre) 




s 






s 




s 


S-I 




Sierra (R. nevadense) 




s 




s 


s 




s 


S-I 




Sticky (R. vlscosisslmun ) 




s 






s 




s 


S-I 




Stink (R. bracteosum) 




s 




s 


s 




s 


S-I 




Trailing black (R. laxlflorum) 




s 






s 




s 


S-I 




Wax (R. cereura) 




s 






s 




s 


S-I 




Western black (R. petlolare) | 


s 




s 


s 




s 


S-I 




Winter (R. sangulneum) 




s 






s 




s 


S-I 




Cypress (Taxodlum spp.) 




















Common baldcypress (T. distichum) 


I-R 


R 


s 


I 


I 


1 


I 


R 


s 


Pond baldcypress (T. ascendens) 




R 


s 


I 


I 


I 


I 


R 


s 


Dangleberry (Raylussacla Frondosa) 




I 


I 




R 




s 






Deervetch, broom (Lotus scoparlus) 




s 






I 




s 


S-I 




Devll-s - walkingstick(Aralia splnosa) 


I 


S-I 


s 




I 


s 


s 


s 




Dewberry (Rubus spp.) 


I 


I 


R 


S-I 






s 


I-R 


s 


Dogwood (Cornus spp.) 




















Pacific (C. nuttalll) 


S-I 


s 


S 




s 


s 


s 


I 




Flowering (C. Florida) 


s 


S 


s 


s 


s 


s 


I 




Elder (Sambucus spp.) 




















Pacific red (S. calllcarpa) 




S-I 


S-I 




s 


S-I 


S-I 


I 


s 


Blueberry (S. cerulea) 




S-I 


S-I 




s 


S-I 


S-I 


I 


s 


Common (S. Canadensis) 

i 




S-I 


S-I 


R 

1 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


I 
1 


s 



242 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENT! 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


II 


I_ 


Elm (Ulmus spp.) 




















American (U. Americana) 


I 


I 


R 


S 


S 


S-I 


s 


I 


S 


Slippery (U. Fulva) 


I 


I 


R 


S-I 


s 


S-I 


s 


I 


s 


Winged (U. alata) 


I 


I 


R 


S-I 


s 


S-I 


s 


I 


S 


Evergreenchlnkapln (Castanopsls spp.) 




















Sierra (C. Sempe rvlrens ) 




I 






I 


S-I 


s 


I 




Golden (C. Chrysophylla var. minor) 




S-I 






I 


S-I 


s 


I 




Filbert beaked; hazel (Corylus cornuta) 


S 


S 


S-1 


S 


I-R 


s 


s 


s 


s 


Fir (Abies spp.) 




















White (A. concolor) 


I 


R 


S 


S 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


s 


Balsam (A. bulsamea) 


I 


I-R 


S 


S^I 


S 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


s 


Grand (A. grandls) 


1-R 


R 


S 


s 


S 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


s 


Noble (A. procera) 


I-R 


R 


S 


s 


S 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


s 


Gallberry, inkberry (Ilex glabra) 




S-I 






I-R 


S-I 


S-I 


I 




Goldenweed, f leece (Haplopappus arbor- 




















escens) 




S 














s 


Gooseberry (Ribes spp.) 




















California (R. Calif ornlcum) 




S 




s 


I 




S 


S-I 




Canada (R. oxyacanthoides ) 




S 


I 








s 


S-I 




Desert (R. velutlnum) 




S 






I-R 




s 


S-I 




Hupa (R. marshallli) 




S 










s 


S-I 




Sierra (R. roezlii) 




S 




s 


I-R 




s 


S-I 




Siskiyou (R. binominatum) 




S 




s 


R 




s 


S-I 




Tulare (R. tularense) 




s 










s 


S-I 




Whltestem (R. Inerme) 




S 










s 


S-I 




Gorse, common (Ulex europeus) 




S 






I 




s 


S-I 


s 


Granjeno (Celtis pulllda) 




S-I 










s 


S-I 


s 


Grape, riverbank (vltls riparia) 




S 


R 


S-I 


S-1 




s 


S-I 


s 


N. fox grape (V, labrusca) 




s 






S-I 




s 






Greasewood, black (Sarcobatus 




















vermlculatls) 




s 


R 




I 




s 


I 




Greenbrier, catbrler (Smllax rotundlfol- 




















ia) 




I-R 


R 


I 


I 






R 




Hackberry (Celtis occldentalis) 




S-I 


R 


S-I 


I 


s 


S-I 


I 


s 


Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) 




















Cockspur thorn (C. crus-galll) 


I 


I 


R 


S 


I 


I 


S-I 


I-R 


s 


Scarlet (C. coccinea) 




I 








S-I 








Flestry (C. succulenta) 





















Manual Recommendations 



243 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


r. 


H 


I 


Hazel (Corylus spp.) 

California (C. Callfornlca) 
American (see filbert) 

Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) 

Hickory (Carya spp.) 

Bitternut (C. cordlformls) 
Hockernut (C. tonentosa) 


I 

S-I 
S-I 


s 
s 

R 

S-I 
S-I 


s 
s 
s 

S-I 
S-I 


S 
S 
S 

S-I 
S-I 


S 

s 
s 

s 
s 


S 

S 

S-I 

S-I 
S-I 


s 

S-I 

s 


s 
s 

R 
S-I 


s 
s 

S-I 
S-I 


Pecan (C. pecan) 
Pignut (C. glabra) 
Shagbark (C. orata) 
Shellbark (C. laclnlosa) 


S-I 
S-I 
S-I 
S-I 


S-I 
S-I 
S-I 
S-I 


S-I 

S-I 
S-I 


S-I 
S-I 


s 
s 


S-I 
S-I 
S-I 






S-I 

s 
s 
s 


Holly (Ilex amerlcana) 

Honeylocust (Cledltsla trlacanthos) 


I 


I 

S-I 


I 

s 


S-I 
S-I 


s 
s 


S-I 
S-I 


s 

S-I 


I-R 
S-I 


S-I 

s 


Honeysuckle (Lonlecra Japonlca) 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


S 


s 


s 


s 


S-I 


s 


Hophornbeam (Ostrya vlrglnlana) 




s 


I 


S 


s 


s 


s 


I-R 


s 


Hornbeam, America (Carplnus carolinlana) 
llorsebrush, llttleaf (Tetradymla glabrata 
llorsechestnut (see Buckeye) 




s 

I-R 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 

S-I 


I-R 
I-R 


s 


Hydrangea, smooth (Hydrangea aborescens) 




s 


s 


s 


s 


s 


s 






Juniper (Junlperus spp.) 
Alligator (J. deppeana) 
One-seeded (J. monasperma) 


I 


R 
R 


I 


I 
I 


S-I 
S-I 




I-R 


R 


S-I 
S-I 


Utah (J. osteosperma) 
Western (J. Occident alls ) 

Kalmla (Kalmla spp.) 

Lambkill (K. angus 1 1 folia) 
Mountalnlaurel (K. latlfolla) 

Larch (Larlx spp.) 

Eastern (L. decldua) 


I 

I-R 
I-R 


R 
R 

I-R 
R 

R 


R 
R 

R 


I 

I-R 
I-R 


S-1 
S-I 

R 
I-R 

I-R 




I-R 
S-I 


R 

I-R 


S-I 

I 
I 


Western (L. Occident alls ) 
Leatherwood, Atlantic (Dlrea palustrls) 
Lilac (Syrlnga vulgaris) 
Locust (Roblnla pse udoac ac la) 


S-I 


I-R 

S 
S-I 
S-I 


S 
S 


S 


I-R 

I-R 

I-R 

S 




s 
s 
;-i 


S 

S-I 

S 




Hadrome, Pacific (Arbutls raenzlesll) 




s 








s 


s 


s 


s 


Manzanlta ( Arct os t apy los spp.) 
Howell (A. hlspldula) 




s 




S 












r.reenleaf (A. patula) 
Hairy (A. Columbiana) 
Whlteleaf (A. vlsclda) 


s 


s 
s 
s 


R 


S 


I-R 


s 
s 
s 


s 
s 


s 





244 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


c 


D 


F. 


F 


G 


II 


1 1 


Magnolia (Map.nolla spp.) 




















Cucumbertree (M. acuminata) 


I 


S-I 


s 




I-R 


S 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


Sweetbay (M. virp.lnlana) 


R 


R 


R 


I 


I-H 






I 




Maple (Acer spp.) 




















Red (A. rubrum) 


R 


I 


R 


S-I 


S-I 




s 


I-R 


s 


Silver (A. saccharlnum) 


I-R 


S 


s 


S 


S-I 








s 


Sugar (A. saccarophorum) 


S-I 


I-R 


I 


I 


S-I 


S-I 






s 


Vine (A. circlnatum) 


R 


I-R 


R 


I 


S-I 


S-I 






s 


Blgleaf (A. macrophy 11a) 




R 


R 


I 


S-I 


S-I 






s 


Mesquite, honey (P ros op is jullflora var. 




















glandulosa) 


R 


S 


R 


S-I 


I-R 




s 




s 


Velvet (Prosopis jullflora var. 




















velutlna) 




S 


R 




I-R 




s 






Mockorange (Phlladelphus vlrginalus) 


S-I 


S-I 










s 


s 




Mount ainmahogany (Cerocarpus spp.) 




I 












I 




Mountain misery, bear clover 




















(Chamaebatla follolosa) 




I 












I 


s 


Mulberry, red (Morus rubra) 




I-R 


R 




I-R 




S-I 


I-R 


s 


Oak (quercus spp.) 




















Black (q. nigra) 


S-I 


S-I 


S 


S-I 


S-I 




s 


S-I 


S-I 


Blackjack (Q. marllandica) 


S-I 


S-I 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


S-I 






S-I 


Bur (Q. macrocarpa) 


S 


S 


s 




S-I 


s 






S-I 


Canyon live (0. chrysolepls) 




S-I 








s 






S-I 


California scrub (Q. dumosa 




I 








s 








California white (Q. lobata) 




s 








s 








Chestnut (Q. prinus) 


S-I 


s 


S-I 


I 


S-I 


s 








Live (Q. virginlana) 


S-I 


S-I 


S-I 




S-I 


s 








Pin (Q. palustrls) 


S 


S-I 


S-I 




S-I 


s 






S-I 


Post (Q. stellata) 


S 


S 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


s 








Laurel (Q. laurifolia) 




S-I 


S-I 


S-I 




s 








Red (Q. rubra var. borealis) 


S 


S-I 


S-I 


I 


S-I 


S-I 






S-I 


Scarlet (Q. coccinea) 


S 


S-I 


I 


I 


S-I 


S-I 








Swamp white (Q, bicolor) 




s 


S 


S-I 




s 








Oregon white (Q. garryana) 




s 


s 






s 








White (Q. alba) 


S 


s 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


s 






S-I 


Ocean spray (Halodlscus discolor) 




S-I 








S-I 




s 




Oregongrape (Mahonia aquifolla) 




I 


I 






S-I 




I-R 




Osageorange (Madura pomifera) 




s 


R 




I 


S 


s 


S-I 


s 


Palmetto (Saval palmetto) 




S-I 


R 




I-R 




s 


S-I 




Pecan (Carya illinocnsis) 




I 


I 




I 


S-I 


s 


S-I 





Manual Recommendations 



245 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


I 


Persimmon (Ulospvros virglniana) 




I 


R 


s 


s 


I 


S-I 


S-I 


s 


Pine (Pine spp.) 




















E. White (P. strobus) 


S-I 


R 


S 


S 


s 


S 


S-I 


I-R 


s 


Loblolly (P. caeda) 


S-I 


R 


S 


s 


s 


s 






s 


Lodgepole (P. contarta) 


S-I 


R 


S 


s 


s 


s 






s 


Longlcaf (P. palustrls) 


S-I 


R 


s 


s 


s 


s 






s 


Pitch (P. rigida) 


S-I 


R 


S 


s 


s 


s 




s 


Ponderosa (P. ponderosa) 


S-I 


R 






s 


s 




s 


Red (P. resionsa) 




I 


s 


s 


s 


s 




s 


Shortlcaf (P. echlnata) 


I 


R 


s 


s 


s 


s 




s 


Slash (P. caribaea) 


S-I 


I 


s 


s 


s 


s 






s 


Sugar (P. lambertlana) 




I 






s 


s 






s 


Table mountain (P. pugens) 


S-I 


I 






s 


s 








Virginia (P. virglniana) 


S-I 


R 


I 


s 


S-I 


s 






s 


Western white (P. monticola) 




I 


s 




S 


s 






s 


Jack (P. bankslona) 


S-I 


I 


s 


s 


s 


s 






s 


Plum (Prunus spp.) 




















Chickasaw (P. angus tl folia) 




S 


s 




I 


s 


s 


S 




American (P. amerlcana) 


S-I 


S-I 


s 




I 


s 








Allegheny (P. alleghenlensls ) 




s 






I 


s 






s 


Poison ivy (Rhus radlcans) 


S-I 


S-I 


s 




S-I 






S-I 




Poison oak (Rhus spp.) 




















Common (R. toxicodendron) 


S-I 


s 


s 


S-I 


I 




S-I 




s 


Pacific (R. dlverslloba) 




s 


s 




I 






1 


Poplar, balsam (Populus balsamlfera) 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


S 


s 


s 


White (P. alba) 




S-I 








S-I 








Prlcklyash, common (Zanthoxylum 




















americanun) 


S-I 


I 


I-R 




S-I 




S-I 


s 


s 


Pricklypear (Opuntia spp.) 




















Fragile (0. fragills) 




I 


R 


s 


I-R 




S 


I 


s 


Mission (0. megacantha) 




I 














s 


Plains (0. polyacantha) 




I 














s 


Spreading (0. humlfusa) 




I 
















Privet, swamp (Forestlera acuminata) 


R 


I-R 


R 




I 


S 


s 




s 


Rabbltbrush ( Ch rysoth aranus spp.) 




















Douglas (C. viscldiflorus) 




I-R 


R 










s 




Greene (C. greenci) 




I 




s 


I 










Southwest (C. pulchellus) 




I-R 






I 











Bui. 655 



246 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


11 


I 


Raspberry (Rubus spp.) 




















Red (R. Idaeus) 




S-I 


I 


S 


s 








s 


Black (R. occldencalls) 




S-I 


I 


S 


s 








s 


Redbus (Cercis spp.) 




















Eastern (C. Canadensis) 


S-1 


I 


s 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


S 


S-I 


s 


Western (C. Occident alls ) 




I 


s 


s 


S-I 


S-I 






s 


Redwood (Sequoia sempe rvlrens ) 


I 


I 






s 


S 


S 


I 




Redcedar, western (Thuja pllcata) 


I 


R 


s 


S-I 


S-I 


I 


I 


R 


s 


Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) 




















Canadian (R. Canadense) 




R 


R 


I 




I 


I-R 


R 




Pacific (R. macrophy Hum) 




R 








I 








Rosebay (R. maximum) 


R 


R 


R 


I 


I 


I 








Rose (Rose spp.) 




















Arkansas (R. arkansana) 




I 


R 










S-I 




California (R. Californica) 




I 
















Cherokee (R. laevigata) 




I 


R 




s 










McCartney (R. bracteata) 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


s 


S 








s 


Multiflora (R. multlflora) 


S-1 


•I 


R 


s 


S-I 








s 


Sweetbrlar (R. eglanterla) 




I 


R 














Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) 




















Big (A. tridentata) 


s 


S 


R 


s 


I-R 






S 




Black (A. nova) 




s 




s 


I-R 










California (A. Californica) 




s 




s 


I-R 










Sand (A. fllifolia) 


s 


s 




s 


I-R 










Silver (A. cana) 




s 




s 


I-R 










Salal (Gaultherla shallon) 


I-R 


1-R 


R 




I-R 










Salmonberry (Rubus spectabllis) 


S-I 


S-I 


R 




S-I 






I 




Saltbush, fourwlng (Atrlplex canescens) 


S 


S 


R 










S-I 




Saltcedar (Tamarlx pentendra) 


I 


I 


I 


S-I 


I-R 




S-I 


S-I 


s 


Sassafras, common (Sassafras albldun) 


S-I 


S-I 


S-I 


s 


S-I 


I 




s 


s 


Serviceberry (Amalanchler spp.) 




















Allegheny (A. laevis) 


I 


S-I 








s 




I 


s 


Pacific (A. florida) 




S-I 








s 








Saskatoon (A. alnlfolia) 


S 


S-I 






S-I 


s 








Shadblow (A. Canadensis) 




s 






S-I 


s 








Snowberry (Symphorlcarpos spp.) 




















Common (S. alba) 


s 


s 






I 






I 




Western (S. Occident alls) 




s 






I 











Manual Recommendations 



247 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


I 


Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreun) 


I 


I-R 


R 


I 


I 


S 


S-I 


I 


s 


Splcebush, common (Llndera benzoin) 


S 


S 


S 


S 


I 


S 


S 


S-I 


s 


Spire a (Spiraea spp.) 




















Hardback (S. tomentosa) 


I 


X 


I 




I-R 




s 


S-I 


s 


Meadowsweet (S. alba) 




s 


I 




I-R 










Spruce (Plcea spp.) 




















Black (P. marlana) 


1 


R 


R 


I 


S-I 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


s 


Engclnann (P. engelmanni) 


I-R 


R 


R 




S-I 


S-I 






s 


Norway (P. abies) 


I 


R 


R 


I 


S-I 


S-I 






s 


Red (P. rubens) 


I 


R 


R 




S-I 


I 






s 


Sitka (P. sitchensis) 


1-R 


R 


R 




S-I 


I 






s 


White (P. glauca) 


I 


R 


R 




S-I 


I 






s 


Sumac (Rhus spp.) 




















Fragrant (R. aromatlca) 


S 


S-I 


R 


s 


S 


S-I 


S-I 


s 


s 


Laurel (R. laurlna) 




S 


R 


s 




S-I 






s 


Poison (R. vernix) 




s 


R 






S-I 






s 


Smooth (R. glabra) 




S-I 


S-I 


s 


s 


S-I 






s 


Staghorn (R. typhina) 


S 


S-I 


S-I 


s 


S 


S-I 






s 


Sweetfern (Comptonia peregrina) 




S-I 


I 




I 






I-R 




Sweetgum (Liquidambor styraciflua) 


S-I 


S 


S 


I 


I 


s 


s 


s 


s 


Sycamore (Platanus occi den talis ) 


s 


s 


S 


s 


S-I 


s 


s 


s 


s 


Tamarack (Larix laricina) 


S-I 


I 


I 




S-I 


s 


S-I 


I-R 


s 


Tamarisk (See Saltcedar) 




















Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) 




s 






I-R 


s 


s 


S-I 




Tarbush (Flourensia cernua) 




I 


R 




R 






I 




Tassajillo (See Pricklypear) 




















Thiinbleberry , western (Rubus parviflorus) 




I 






I 






I-R 


s 


Titi (Cliftonia monophylla) 




s 






R 


S-I 


S-I 


S-I 


s 


Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) 


s 


S-I 


I 




R 


s 


s 


I 


s 


Trumpetvine (Campsis radlcans) 


I 


I 


R 


S-I 


S 






I-R 


S-I 


Tulip tree (Li riodendron styraciflua) 


s 


S-I 


I 


s 


S-I 


s 


s 


S-I 


s 


Viburnum (Viburnum spp.) 




















Arrowwood (V. dentatum) 


s 


I 


I 




I 


S-I 


s 


I-R 


s 


Mapleleaf (V. ace rlf ollum) 




I 


I 




I 


S-I 






s 


Nannvberry (V. lentago) 


I 


I 


I 






S-I 




s 




Blackhaw (V. rufidulum) 


I 


I 


S-I 




I 


S-I 






s 


Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus 




















quinque folia) 


I 


I 


R 




I-R 






I-R 





248 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) - SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY SPECIES TO HERBICIDE TREATMENTS 



SPECIES 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


1 


Wahoo, eastern (Euonymus at ropurpureus ) 




S-I 






I-R 


S 


S 


I 




Walnut (Juglans nigra) 




S 


s 


S 


I-R 


S 


S 


S-I 


S 


Waxmyrtle (Myrica spp.) 




















Pacific (M. californica) 


I 


I 


R 




R 


S-I 


s 


I-R 


s 


Southern (M. cerifera) 


I 


I 


R 




R 


S-I 




1 


s 


Whltebrush (Aloysia lycloldes) 




I 






R 






I 




Willow (Sallx spp.) 




















Black (S. nigra) 


S-I 


S-I 


s 


S 


S 


I 


s 


s 


s 


Ditchbank (S. interior) 


S-1 


S-I 


s 






I 




s 


s 


Pacific (S. lasiandra) 






s 












s 


Red (S. laevigata) 




S-I 








I 






s 


Sandbar (S, exlgua) 




S-I 


s 












s 


White (S. alba) 




S-I 
















Yellow (S. lutea) 




S-I 
















Witchhazel (Hamamells spp.) 




















Common (H. vlrglnlana) 


S 


s 


s 




S 


s 


s 


s 


s 


Southern (H. macrophylla) 










S 










Yaupon (Ilex vomitorla) 




I 


I 


S-I 


R 






I-R 




Yerbasanta (Eriodictyon spp.) 




















California (E. Californicum) 




S-I 






I-R 






I 




Narrowleaf (E. angusti folium) 




S-I 






I-R 










Woolly (E. crassifolium) 




S-I 
















Yellowwood (Cladrast is lutea) 




S-I 






I-R 


's 


s 


I 




Yew (Taxus spp.) 




















Florida (T. floridana) 


S-I 


R 






S-I 


S-I 


S-I 


R 


s 


Pacific (T. brevifolia) 




I-R 






S-I 


S-I 






s 


Yucca (Yucca elata) 


S-I 


I 


R 




I-R 




s 


S-I 


s 



Manual Recommendations 
Committee 15 — Steel Structures 

Report on Assignment B 

Revision of Manual 

D. L. NoRD (chairman, Subcommittee on Revision of Manual), J. G. Clark (chairm.an. 
Subcommittee on Bibliography and Technical Explanation of Various Require- 
ments in AREA Specifications Relating to Steel Structures), R. I. Simkins (cfmir- 
man, Subcommittee on Continuous Welded Rail on Bridges), A. J. Wood 
(chairman, Subcommittee on Welded Steel Railway Bridges), D. S. Bechly, 
A. B. Belfield, Jr., E. S. Buxkenwald, E. Bond, T. J. Boyle, J. C. Bridge- 
farmer, H. L. Chamberlain, H. B. Cundiff, L. F. Currier, E. J. Daily, A. C. 
Danks, J. W. Davidson, F. P. Drew, J. L. Durkee, G. F. Fox, J. W. Hart- 
MANN, J. M. Hayes, G. E. Henry, C. A. Hughes, L. R. Hurd, M. L. Koehler, 
R. C. McMaster, D. V. Messman, W. H. Munse, G. E. Morris, R. D. 
Nordstrom, A. L. Piepmeier, M. Schifilacqua, A. E. Schmidt, F. D. Sears, 
H. Solarte, a. p. Sousa, J. E. Stallmeyer, Z. L. Szeliski, J. D. Tapp, Jr., 
W. M. Thatcher, R. N. Wagnon, C. R. Wahlen, R. H. Wengenroth, 
W. Wilbur. 

Your committee submits for adoption the following revisions to the SPECIFI- 
CATIONS FOR STEEL RAILWAY BRIDGES, Chapter 15 of the Manual: 

Page 15-1-15, Art. 1.3.14.3 — Unit stresses for combinations of loads, and 
page 1.5-2-7, Art. 2.3.2.3 — Unit stresses for combinations of loads, revise as follows: 

Change title of Articles by adding the words "or wind forces only." 

Redesignate subarticle 2.3.2.3 (c) as 2.3.2.3 (d). 

Redesignate subarticles 1.3.14.3 (b) and 2.3.2.3 (b) as 1.3.14.3 (c) and 2.3.2.3 
(c), respectively. 

Revise the last lines in present articles 1.3.14.3 (b) and 2.3.2.3 (b) to read 
". . . provisions of (a) or (b) alone," and delete the word "other" in the .second 
line. 

Subai-ticles 1.3.14.3 (a) and 2.3.2.3 (a) to remain as written. 

Add new subarticles 1.3.14.3 (b) and 2.3.2.3 (b) to read: 

"(b) The basic allowable unit stresses of Section 1.4 shall be used in the 
proportioning of members subject to stresses resulting from wind force only, as 
specified in Art. 1.3.8." 

On page 15-1-18, change Art. 1.4.2 to read as follows: 

1.4.2 Weld Metal 

( a ) Groove Welds 

Tension or compression 20,000 psi 

Shear 12,500 

(b) Fillet Welds 

Shear, regardless of direction of applied force. 

Electrodes or electrode-flux combinations with: 

60,000 psi Tensile Strength "* 16,500 

70,000 psi Tensile Strength * 19,000 

°but not to exceed 12,500 psi shear stress on base metal. 

249 



250 Bu lletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

On page 15-2-10, change Art. 2.4.2 to read as follow.s: 

2.4.2 Weld Metal 

In the formulas, F„ =r yield point of l)ase metal as specified in Art. 2.2.1 

(a) Groove Welds 

Tension or compression 55 F„ 

Shear 35 F„ 

(b) Fillet Welds 

Shear, regardless of direction of applied force. 
Electrodes or electrode-flux combinations with: 

70,000 psi Tensile Strength "19,000 psi 

80,000 psi Tensile Strengtli '22,000 

"but not to exceed 0.35 Fy shear stress on base metal. 
On page 15-1-34, delete subarticle (e) of Art. 1.11.4 and redesignate sub- 
articles (f), (g), (h) and (i) of Art. 1.11.4 as (e), (f), (g) and (h), respectively. 
On page 15-9-19, delete reference to Paragraph (e) in Art. 9.1.11.4 and 
redesignate the references to Paragraphs (f), (g), (h) and (i) in Art. 9.1.11.4 as 
(e), (f), (g) and (h), respectively. Cliange the word "paragraph" to "subarticle" 
wherever it appears in Art. 9.1.11.4. 

On page 15-3-5, delete Art. 3.1.12 (b). 

Revise, as follows, proposed new Section 8.3 — Anchorage of Decks and Rails on 
Steel Bridges, as published in Bulletin 650, November-December 1974, pages 242- 
245: 

Art. 8.3.4.1 Movable spans: Add new paragraph as follows: 
"(b) Deck and rails shall be anchored to the movable span as specified by tlie 
engineer to prevent movement during opening and closing." 

Delete all of Art. 8.3.5 and change designation of Art. 8.3.6 to 8.3.5. 



Your committee also submits for adoption tlie following editorial changes in 
the SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL RAILWAY BRIDGES, Chapter 15 of the 
Manual: 

On page 15-2-2, Art. 2.2.1 (c): change the requirements for forged steel from 
A 235 or A 237 to A 668. 

On page 15-2-2, Art. 2.2.1 (c): change the table for high-strength structural 
steel as follows: 

1. The thickness limitation column for A 572, Grade 60, be changed from 
"To 1, incl." to "To 1/4, inch". 

2. The thickness limitation column for A 572, Grade 50, be changed from 
"To 1/2, incl." to "To 2, incl.". 

3. The applicable to shape colvunn for A 588, Fy 50,000 be changed to "All." 

4. The applicable to shape column for A 588, Fy 46,000 be changed to "None." 

5. The applicable to shape column for A 572, Grade 50, be changed to 
"Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4." 

6. The applicable to shape column for A 572, Grade 42, be changed to 
"Group 5." 

On page 15-1-11, revise Art. 1.3.8 to read: 

"(a) The wind force on the imloaded bridge shall be taken at 50 lb per sq ft 
of surface as defined in Art. 1.3.7." 



Manual Recommendations 251 



On page 15-1-3, revise Art. 1.2.1 as follows: 

1. Change the requirement for forged steel from A 235, Class E, to A 688, 
Class D. 

2. Delete wrought iron. 

On page 15-1-3, Art. 1.2.1 (a): change "Specifications" to "Designations" and 
move "current" to modify requirements. 

On page 15-2-2, make the following changes: 

1. In Art. 2.2.1 (a), change "Specifications" to "Designations" and move 
"ciurrent ' to modify requirements. 

2. In Art. 2.2.1 (c), add footnote 4 at bottom of table: ("4" to be added 
to all but first column at left) 

"4 These data are for infonnation only and are current as of May, 1975." 
On page 15-9-4, delete the last sentence of the first paragraph and insert the 
bibliography reference (2) between the words "tests" and "were" in the next to 
last sentence of the first paragraph. 



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PART 2 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES 

Nofe: Discussion on subcommittee reports herein closes on January 
20, 1976. 



253 

Bui. 655 



Report of Committee 9 — Highways 




C. A. Christensen, 

Chairman 
L. T. Cerny, 

Vice Chairman 
G. U. Mentjes, 

Secretary 



J. E. Spaxgleh 
J. R. Summers 
P. A. Shuster 
H. L. Michael 
C. Shoemaker 
A. O. Kruse 
T. P. Cunningham 
C. W. Smith 
R. E. Skinner 
J. L. Whitmeyer 
P. J. McCuE 
W. W. Allen 
H. J. Barnes 
J. M. Bates 

J. P. BOLLING 

W. B. Calder 
A. L. Cabpenter 
J. W. Cruikshank 
F. Daugherty 
R. A. Downey 
L. L. George 
R. V. Gilbert 
H. D. Hahn 
C. I. Hartsell (E] 



WxM. J. Hedley (E) 

D. P. Insana 

P. G. Jefferis, Jr. 

M. D. Ken yon 

R. V. Loftus 

R. F. MacDonald 

R. A. Mather 

J. C. Miller 

H. G. Morgan (E) 

G. S. MUNRO 

R. D. Pamperl 

R. H. Patterson 

W. C. Pinschmidt (E) 

J. E. Reynolds 

H. A. Richards 

F. E. Rosencranz 

P. L. Sehnert 

M. R. S PROLES 

D. Veitch 

W. E. Webster 

H. J. WiLKINS 
H. L. WOLTMAN 
C. H. WORBOYS 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman 
and secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 

Progress report submitted as information page 256 

1. Grade Crossing Inventory and Accident Report Forms, Records and 
practices. 

Information is being gathered and the committee expects to develop 
recommendations for new report forms and signs in the coming year. 

2. Merits and Economics of Types of Grade Crossing Surfaces. 
Report on performance of railbound concrete slab crossing on EJ&E in 
Griffith, Ind • Page 257 

3. Summary Reporting of Significant Piil)Iications on Grade Crossing 
Safety. 

Summarized reports furnished as information page 258 

4. Evaluation of Developments in Passive and Xon-Train-Actuated Grade 
Crossing Warnings. 

No report for past year's acti\ ity. 

5. Study of Motor Vehicle Codes and Drivers' Licensing Practices. 

Progress report submitted as information page 263 

255 

Bui. 655 



256 Bulletin 655 — American Railwa y Engineering Association 

6. Air Rights for Highways Over Railroad Property. 

No report for past year's activity. Highway Researcli Board's Report 
No. 142 has recently been released and it will be reviewed by tlie 
committee. 

7. Evaluation of Developments in Train-Actuated Grade Crossing Warn- 
ings, Collaborating as Necessary or Desirable with Communication and 
Signal Section, AAR. 

No report for past year's activity. 

8. Investigate Uses and Types of Rumble Strips and Their Adaptability 
for Approaches to Highway-Railway Grade Crossings. 

Progress report submitted as information page 264 

9. Study of Public Pedestrian Crossings. 

Progress report submitted as information page 266 

10. Summary Reporting of Administration of State Crossing Safety 
Programs. 
A new subject. No report for past year's activity. 

The CoMMrrxEE on Highways, 

C. A. Christensen, Chairman. 



Report on Assignment B 

Revision of Manual 

J. E. Spangler (chairman, subcommittee), J. M. Bates, C. A. Christensen, L. T. 
Cerny, J. W. Cruikshank, F. Daugherty, R. V. Gilbert, H. D. Hahn, C. I. 
Hartsell, D. p. Insana, P. G. Jefferis, R. V. Loftus, R. F. MacDonald, 
G. U. Mentjes, J. C. Miller, G. S. Munro, R, E. Skinner, David Veitch, 
W. E. Webster, Jr., C. H. Worboys. 

Consideration is now being given to revisions in portions of the miscellaneous 
section of Chapter 9 of the Manual. Proposals include the substitution of the DOT- 
AAR Crossing Inventory Form for the Highway Grade Crossing Record now shown 
on pages 9-M-6 and 9-M-7, changes in the Accident Report on pages 9-M-4 and 
9-M-5, revision of the type of barriers used in closing grade crossings and at dead- 
end streets on pages 9-M-2 and 9-M-3, and deletion of sample sheets showing record 
of delays at grade crossings (pages 9-M-8 and 9-M-9). 



Hi ghways 257 

Report on Assignment 2 

Merits and Economics of Types of Grade Crossing Surfaces 

p. A. Shuster (chairman, subcommittee), W. B. Calder, L. T. Cernv, C. A. 
Christensen, J. W. Crudcshank, T. P. Cunningham, R. A. Downey, R. V. 
Gilbert, H. D. Hahn, C. I. Hartsell, Wm. J. Hedley, A. O. Kruse, R. V. 
LoFTus, G. S. MuNRo, R. D. Pamperl, R. H. Patterson, F. E. Rosencranz, 
G. Shoemaker, W. E. Webster, Jr., C. H. Worboys. 

On page 159 of Volume 74 of the AREA Proceedings, there is a report on an 
inspection of a new design concrete slab crossing in the vicinity of Diisseldorf, 
Germany, by a committee member. 

In October of 1973, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway installed four of these 
crossings at Broad Street in Griffith, Indiana, at the request of the city. The city 
contributed tlie additional cost of these slabs over the cost of the solid timber crossing 
that the railroad had intended to install at its own cost. The initial reaction to the 
crossing by the city was very favorable, with smootli riding qualities evident to the 
motorists. However, within five months of the time of installation, various problems 
started to occur, especially the breaking of the hardware holding the rail to the steel 
rod which runs under the rail (in this design crossing there is no direct attachment 
of the crossing slabs to the cross ties, only attachment to the bar running under 
the rail). The washers and bolts and spring clips experienced breakage and the 
concrete-filled bags supporting the slabs on top of the tie experienced an approximate 
15% failure rate. An additional problem was the fact that the insulation, which is 
required if this crossing is used with track circuits, did not hold up and numerous 
calls of the signal maintainer were necessary on overtime. Considerable bridge and 
building time was also required for maintenance of the crossings. 

At present, maintenance is stabilized at approximately one gang day (four men 
per gang) every two months. The manufacturer has been working with the railroad, 
and at various times redesigned hardware and insulation were substituted for that 
already in the crossing. The manufacturer has now proposed a new type insulation 
for the two crossings which are in signal territory and a new reactive spring washer 
to absorb some of the stresses in the hold-down hardware. 

In view of the above it is the opinion of this committee that this crossing should 
still be regarded as in the developmental stage, especially if use on heavy-duty track- 
age is involved. During all tliis time the highway riding qualities have remained 
smooth, but this has been only with considerable maintenance on die railroad's part. 
The opinion of the railway is that it would have been better to install the railroad's 
standard full-depth timber crossing, as this design can often go with no maintenance 
for ten or more years under similar conditions. The subcommittee intends to report 
further on additional developments on this particular crossing. 

This is a progress report submitted as information. 



258 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 3 

Summary Reporting of Significant Publications on 
Grade Crossing Safety 

H. L. Michael (chairman, subcommittee), L. L. George (vice chairman, subcom- 
mittee), W. W. Allen, J. P. Bolling, A. L. Carpenter, L. T. Cerny, C. A. 
Christensen, M. D. Kenyon, A. O. Kruse, R. V. Loftus, P. J. McCue, R. A. 
Mather, R. D. Pamperl, R. H. Patterson, H. A. Richards, R. E. Skinner, 
C. W. Sauth, J. R. Summers, David Veitch, J. L. Whitmeyer, H. J. Wilkins, 

H. L. WOLTMAN. 

INTRODUCTION 

The Subcommittee assignment continues to be the reporting in summary format 
of significant publications or developments in grade crossing safety. This year four 
publications and progress on several significant research projects in grade crossing 
protection are reported. 

"The Effectiveness of Automatic Protection in Reducing AccroENT Frequency 

AND Severity at Public Grade Crossings in California/' California 

Public Utilities Commission, Transportation Division, and 

Railroad Operation and Safety Branch, Traffic 

Engineering Section, San Francisco, California, 

June 30, 1974. 

This report is more comprehensive than were previous annual studies of this 
same title. The executive summary of the report, slightly modified in the opening 
paragraph, summarizes the content very well and follows. 

This study was sponsored by the Office of Trafiic Safety of California to assist 
the California Public Utilities Commission in performing its duties related to grade 
crossing regulation, to determine the scope of the vehicle-train accident problem 
in California, to gauge the effectiveness of various types of warning devices being 
currently advocated by the Commission, and to critically investigate tlie possible 
use of warrants or criteria to assist in recommending wliere monies should be spent 
on railroad-highway grade crossing warning improvements. The study provides infor- 
mation regarding the installation of various warning devices and the cost to the 
public. 

The project was segregated into four separate studies based upon: (1) a ques- 
tionnaire mailed to all cities and counties in California; (2) an examination of the 
before-and-after accident histories of 1,552 grade crossings currently protected by 
automatic devices; (3) a summary of the actual and estimated costs of installing 
automatic warning devices at 1,296 locations; and (4) an examination of the feasi- 
bility of using warrants or criteria to assist in placing grade crossing warning devices. 

The questionnaire designed to appraise local concern and awareness of the 
vehicle-train accident problem in California was mailed to 380 cities and counties. 
The local governmental agencies were requested to describe their decision-making 
processes, including whether or not they used specific warrants or criteria, how 
they rated the relative importance of several physical conditions common to many 
pre-existing hazard indices, sufficiency rating and regression equations and how 



Highways 259 

they specifically felt about the j^racle crossing pio,i;iam as handled by the Public 
Utilities Commission. 

The effectiveness analysis was designed to assess the capacity of various warn- 
ing devices in reducing the number of vehicle-train accidents and their related 
deaths and injuries. In all, 1,552 locations were chosen where automatic warning 
was installed between January 1, 1960, and December 31, 1970. Compared, for 
each crossing, were the number of accidents, deaths and injuries per year, and the 
number of deaths and injuries per accident. 

In order to gauge the installation costs of automatic warning, 1,296 locations 
were chosen where automatic warning was proposed or installed between January 1, 
1966, and December 31, 1973. In addition to listing the actual or estimated in- 
stallation cost at each location, each crossing's previous warning devices, number 
of tracks, railroad, type of device installed and the proposed year of installation 
were documented. 

To examine the possible use of warrants or criteria in the installation of auto- 
matic signals, 115 locations were chosen at random from the 1,552 crossings used 
as input locations for the effectiveness analysis. Only crossings presently protected 
by automatic devices were chosen for the purpose of examining past policies of the 
Commission as it concerns warning improvement to try to pinpoint any discernible 
patterns. The detailed information on each crossing was used to: (1) develop a 
regression equation to predict accident rates; (2) compare several hazard indices 
and sufficiency rating equations; and (3) explore the use of joint study or a limited 
diagnostic approach. 

The four separate studies included in this project have shown or at least indi- 
cated the following: 

( 1 ) There is little concern among local governmental agencies regarding 
the grade crossing situation in California as it exists today. 

(2) Many agencies feel the financial responsibility for installation of auto- 
matic warning should be borne by the State or Federal government. 

(3) The use of warrants or criteria to assist in the installation of auto- 
matic warning is not widespread, although many agencies feel the State 
should adopt criteria or warrants in some form. 

(4) Local agency engineers responded that average daily vehicular traffic, 
daily train traffic, comer visibility, vehicular and train speed, in that 
order, are the most important physical characteristics to be considered 
when contemplating a grade crossing warning improvement. 

(5) Responses to the questionnaire ranged between criticism of the "dicta- 
torial and seemingly arbitrary way in which the Commission staff 
administers the program" to praise for the grade crossing program and 
a desire for the retention of the informal manner as presently pursued 
by the Commission staff. 

(6) Vehicle-train accidents and casualties between 1965 and 1972 were 
reduced by 41%. 

(7) The 1,552 locations examined experienced a 69% reduction in the 
number of vehicle-train accidents per year, an 86% reduction in deaths 
and an 80% reduction in the number of injuries per crossing year after 
the installation of automatic warning devices. 



260 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



(8) Due to their ability to seize the attention of approaching motorists, 
both flashing-light signals and flashing lights with automatic gates 
ofi^er the ability to drastically reduce the number of vehicle-train acci- 
dents and related casualties. 

(9) Keeping in mind severely limited functional definitions, urban grade 
crossings bear significantly higher vehicle-train accident rates than 
rural crossings do, and are less affected by the installation of auto- 
matic signals in terms of accident reduction. 

( 10 ) Automatic warning has its limitations, but will go a long way toward 
the elimination of vehicle-train accidents if combined with good driver 
judgment. 

(11) The benefits enjoyed from the installation of automatic warning come 
at the expense of significant public and private investment, the cost of 
installing flashing lights averaging $8,919 and automatic gates $18,682 
over the 1966 to 1973 period. 

( 12 ) By 1973, the average cost of installing flashing lights and automatic 
gates had risen to $10,671 and $23,534, respectively. 

(13) Some factors which appear to affect the installation cost of automatic 
warning include the geometries and physical conditions of the cross- 
ing, the type of device installed, the proximity of adjacent grade cross- 
ings protected by automatic devices, the complexity and sophistication 
of track circuitry required, and finally, the railroad involved. 

(14) In addition to the installation cost, automatic warning requires signifi- 
cant periodic maintenance. For the year 1972, using a $30 per relative 
unit cost, this amounted to $456 average at crossings protected by 
flashing lights and $949 at crossings protected by automatic gates. 

( 15 ) Large volumes of research material are presently available concerning 
methods of determining urgency or priority of warning improvement 
of railroad crossings. 

( 16 ) No universal agreement has been reached between the interested 
parties on the conclusions of the past studies, and the actual methods 
of approach from hazard index equations and sufficiency ratings to 
predictive equations resulting from regression analyses have come 
under attack. 

(17) The attempt to design a regression analysis approach to predict future 
accident rates from simultaneous combinations of several independent 
variables did not prove fruitful. It is the staff's opinion that this is due 
to the lack of accurate data over the study period and the small 
sample size because of the low incidence of vehicle-train accidents. 

(18) Hazard index and sufficiency rating equations generally address them- 
selves to improvement priorities and not to the most efficient type of 
warning device. 

( 19 ) Due to the multiplicity of characteristics found in California's trans- 
portation network, it is the Commission staff's position that single equa- 
tions cannot be adopted with good conscience on a statewide basis. 

(20) The method favored by the study staff incorporates the expertise of all 
parties involved, and is based upon the joint recommendations of rail- 
road, local agency, and Commission engineers. The limited diagnostic 



Highways 261 

method is dependent upon accurate, complete, up-to-date information 
on each crossing within a jurisdiction and is adaptable to any number 
of computational priority detemiinations. 
(21) The key word is cooperation backed by a genuine realization of the 
needs and constraints of the parties involved. Any method or set of 
warrants, or criteria, used to assist in determining grade crossing 
warning improvements will run into difficulty for the simple reason 
that three separate and distinct organizations are involved, each with 
its own needs, constraints and responsibilities. To encourage participa- 
tion, any method adopted must remain flexible and receptive to all 
parties concerned. 

Proceedings, 1974 National Conference on Railroad-Highway Crossing 
Safety, Sponsored by U.S. Deft, of Transportation, August 19-22, 1974. 

The report contains many brief articles on railroad-highway crossing safety by 
practitioners from all parts of the United States. The contents are best summarized 
briefly by a listing of the tides of these articles. 

Partners in Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Improxement Programs 

Estabhshing a Grade Crossing Safety Program 

Partners in Improvement and Establishing a Crossing Safety Program 

New Approaches to Program Management 

Establishing the Program Mix 

Urban Railroad Relocation 

Research and New Developments 

National Crossing Inventory and Numbering 

Proposed National Railroad-Highway Crossing Inventory 

Accident and Accident Severity Prediction Equations 

New Passive Devices (Pooled Fund Research Project) 

In-\'ehicle Warning Systems for Railroad Grade Crossing Applications 

Model for Evaluation of Alternative Grade Crossing Resources 

Rail Safety/Grade Crossing Warning Research Program 

"Railroad-Highway Vehicular Movement Warning Devices at Grade 

Crossings," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 

IA-11, No. 2, March-April 1975, Paul Longrigg. 

The abstract of this paper is as follows: 

"Railroad operations have for many years been plagued with poor safety per- 
formance at grade crossings. Many lives are lost each year in accidents at crossings, 
to say nothing of costly injuries and property damage sustained. The situation has 
gotten worse with the adxent of soundproofed cars, being driven at high speed in 
c-onditions of poor visibility. Clearly, then, some improved method of warning 
motorists as they approach a grade crossing is needed. Analysis of a critical en- 
counter between a road veliicle and a locomotive reveal that the presently used 
equipment is inadequate to meet the needs of present-day high-speed vehicles. A 
system of vehicular mo\ement warning devices is described in this paper that might 
improve to some extent die safety of grade crossing operations. Two methods are 
detailed. One involves static directional sonic devices positioned at the crossing; 



262 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

warning activation is made on a real-time closing velocity determination. The other 
system employs a special variety of cattle-guard in the roadway, to issue a tactile 
warning. Both systems are designed to give adequate warning to a motorist in a 
critical encounter situation as he approaches the crossing with a convergent loco- 
motive on the track(s). A bonus feature in die use of selectively activated static 
directional sound warning sources would be the curtailment of urban noise levels, 
where trains presently use the mobile audible source to issue warnings." 

FrasT Year Review: Protection and Advance Warning Signs at Railroad- 
Highway Grade Crossings, Minnesota Highway Department, 
St. Paul, Minnesota, December 1974 

This brief report summarizes the condition of the signs and the accidents at 
grade crossings on two Burlington Northern lines where new or improved existing 
protection signs and advance warning signs were installed in 1973. The findings 
were that 7.4% of the signs had been vandalized (gunshot damage) in tlie first 
year although some of these were still satisfactory for use. Thirteen of 580 signs 
were missing and seven others were in need of replacement or re-erection. 

A comparison of accidents during the year with accidents during previous pe- 
riods is also made. No conclusions, however, could be reached as the after-period 
number of accidents were so few. 

RESEARCH IN PROGRESS 

Considerable research and implementation continued in the area of railroad- 
highway grade crossing safety. The Norfolk & Western Railway reports two new 
studies on passive signing in Ohio using yellow crossbucks with black border with 
an auxiliary information sign, "Look for Train," also being used in one of the 
studies. 

The State of Florida is carrying out the mandate of legislation effective July 1, 
1972, which placed regulatory authority over public rail-highway crossings in the 
Department of Transportation and directed that a program be adopted which would 
eliminate hazards at such crossings. A five-year program for warning devices has 
been adopted with completion in 1980. A total of 2,991 crossings are to be 
signalized. 

The Lieutenant Governor's Conference at its meeting in 1974 adopted the 
following Resolution: 

WHEREAS, the rail-highway grade crossing is one of the most critical areas 
of traffic accidents in the nation, involving 7,000 injuries and 1,500 deaths 
annually on our streets, roads and highways; and, 

WHEREAS, accidents at dangerous crossings can be completely eliminated; 
and, 

WHEREAS, there is an urgent need to afford relief to the environment and 
to avoid the economic loss to society from traffic delays at rail-highway grade 
crossings in boda urban and rural areas; 

BE IT RESOLVED, that the Congress is requested to appropriate sufficient 
funds for mandatory use to eliminate hazardous rail-highway grade crossings 
both on and off the Federal-aid system by constructing overpasses and under- 
passes, relocating streets or highways to eliminate grade crossings and clos- 
ing unnecessary grade crossings. 



Highways 263 



CONCLUSION 



The availabiUty of funds under the 1973 Safety Act passed by Congress em- 
phasized the importance of impro\ing safety at railroad-highway grade crossings 
and provided funds for initiation of such improvements. Although the State high- 
way departments appeared to be slow in initiating such a program, there are clear 
indications that effective programs are being developed and that many improve- 
ments will be made. It should be emphasized, however, that, as Georgia officials 
recently pointed out, the funds allocated for 1974-75-76 will only permit improve- 
ment of about 5% of the total grade crossings in that State. Obviously much addi- 
tional work is required. 

In \ie\v of these facts and the growing activity in the grade crossing field, it 
is recommended that the assignment of this subcommittee be continued as it cur- 
rently e.xists. 



Report on Assignment 5 

Study of Motor Vehicle Codes and 
Drivers' Licensing Practices 

A. O. Kruse (chairman, subcommitiee), H. W. Barnes, J. M. Bates, J. P. Bolling, 
W. B. Calder, a. L. Carpenter, L. T. Cerny, C. A. Christensen, M. D. 
Kenyox, R. A. Mather, G. U. Mentjes, J. E. Reynolds, P. L. Sehnert, P. A. 
Shuster, J. R. Summers, R. F. Spars, H. J. Wilkins, H. L. Woltman. 

In January of 1975 >our committee sent letters to the Governor's safety repre- 
sentatives of all of tlie States and Territories forwarding a copy of a model section 
entitled, "Railroad Grade Crossing Information for Driver License Manuals." 

Replies were recei\ed from 19 States, the District of Columbia and three Terri- 
tories. All replies indicated tliat faxorable consideration \\ould be given to including 
the information in future editions of the States' drivers' manuals wliere this infor- 
mation is not now a part of the manual. 

The committee plans to make furtlier contact with those States \\ hich have not 
responded. 

This is a progress report submitted as infonnation. 



264 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 
Report on Assignment 8 

Investigate Uses and Types of Rumble Strips and Their 

Adaptability for Approaches to Highway-Railway 

Grade Crossings 

R. E. Skinnek {chairman, subcommittee), W. B. Caldeh, L. T. Cerny, C. A. 
Christensen, R. a. Downey, L. L. George, C. I. Hahtsell, J. C. Miller, 
G. S. MuNRO, R. H. Patterson, F. E. Rosencranz, P. L. Sehnert, P. A. 
Shuster, W. E. Webster, Jr., H. J. Wilkins, C. H. Worboys. 

The use of "rumble strips" as a traffic control device continues to be a subject 
of interest to many people in the highway, academic and railroad fields. As evidence 
of this interest, tlie following is a partial list of a number of publications related 
to this subject. 

1. "Effect of Rumble Strips on Traffic Control and Driver Behavior," M. L. 
Kermit and T. C. Hein, Highway Research Board Proceedings, Vol. 41, 
1962, pp 469-482. 

2. "Rumble Strips at Hazardous Locations," Better Roads, Vol. 35, No. 1, 
Jan. 1964, pp 16-21. 

3. "Effect of Rumble Strips at Rural Stop Locations on Traffic Operation," 
R. D. Owens, Highway Research Record, 170, 1967, pp 35-55. 

A comprehensive investigation of the influence of rumble strips on traffic 
operations at rural stop locations showed that a reduction in traffic speed, 
better stop sign observance and a decreasing trend in accidents were 
obtained. 

4. "Rumble Strips Used as a Traffic Control Device," Highway Focus, 
Vol. 4, No. 3, 1972, pp 35^1. 

Twenty-Three experimental rumble strips used on approaches to nine 
intersections to give audible warning of dangers ahead. Three different 
Rumble Strip configurations were used and a before and after accident 
survey showed tliat rumble strips can be used as a temporary method 
of warning motorists. They are of little value as permanent installations. 

5. "Use of a Rumble Strip to Reduce Maintenance and Increase Driving 
Safety," R. Gaboon, Highway Research Board, Special Report 107, 1970, 
pp 89-98. 

An experiment to design recessed rumble strips to give the same effect 
as raised markers. These recessed rumble strips can be used in areas 
where snow plows are operated. 

6. "Use of Rumble Strips to Reduce Maintenance and Increase Driving 
Safety," K. D. Fairmont, Utah State Department of Highways, Interim 
Report 1968. 

7. "Development of an Effective Rumble Strip Pattern," W. R. Belles, 
Traffic Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 7, 1969, pp 22-25. 

The type, purpose and action of various itimble strips installed in the 
various states are described. The problems associated with an experimental 
rumble installation on durability and eftectivness in reducing accidents 
are also discussed. 



Highways 265 

8. "Rumble Ships Revisited," M. L. Kemiit, Traffic Engineering, Vol. 38, 
No. 5, 1968, pp 26-30L 

Accident figures before and after the installation of rumble strips. 

9. "In Further Support of Rumble Strips," D. W. Hoyt, Traffic Engineering. 
Discusses accident reduction at nine rumble strip installations in Illinois 
and presents pertinent data in support of this highway feature as an 
effective safety device. 

10. "Rumble Strips for Safety," G. J. Lindman, Highway Focus. 

Some traffic control devices become so familiar tliat they do not register 
in a driver's mind, while monotonous roads can lead a driver into a semi- 
conscious state. Rumble strips can correct this problem by alerting a 
driver tlirough an audible noise and vibration through the steering wheel. 
Accident data before and after installation are presented. 

11. "Grooved Rumble Strips as a Traffic Control Device in Pennsylvania," 
R. W. Taylor, A Thesis in Civil Engineering, November, 1974, Pennsyl- 
vania State University, Graduate School, Department of Civil Engineering. 
A conclusion is drawn that grooved rumble strips are effective in reducing 
accidents, especially in concrete pavements. The writer, however, sug- 
gests rumble strips be used as an interim measure (three years) until 
a more lasting design change can be incorporated, for example, traffic 
signal installation. 

This is a progress report submitted as information with tlie recommendation 
that this assignment be continued in order that further information can be developed 
and reported to the Association. 



266 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 9 

Study of Public Pedestrian Crossings 

J. L. Whitmeyer (chairman, subcommittee), W. W. Allen, W. B. Calder, A. L. 
Carpenter, L. T. Cerny, C. A. Christensen, J. W. Cruikshank, T. P. Cun- 
ningham, F. Daugherty, H. D. Hahn, C. I. Hartsell, Wm. J. Hedley, D. P. 
Insana, R. F. MacDonald, G. U. Mentjes, J. C. Miller, J. E. Spangler, 
R. F. Spars, D. Veitch, C. H. Worboys. 

Pedestrian grade crossings are an important safety issue to both the railroads 
and public jurisdictions. Although relatively few such crossings exist as compared to 
vehicular grade crossings, which pedestrians also use, increasing attention is being 
directed to improve site conditions and warnings for pedestrian use. 

Unique signs and automatic warning signals for pedestrian crossings have been 
developed in three states (see accompanying appendices). These signs and devices 
closely follow the pattern of standards found in die Manual on Uniform Traffic Con- 
trol Devices relating to at-grade railroad crossings. Although standard railroad type 
flashing signals, gates and bells are in use at some crossings, variations range from 
a single flashing-light signal with one red light in each direction to a vertical pair 
of flashing yellow lights and sign. A few signals are fitted with the larger 12-inch 
roundels for maximum light distribution. The automatic bell continues to be an 
eftective audible warning to pedestrians, whetiier used alone or in conjunction with 
lights. Railroads favor signs and signal devices which are stock items for simplified 
maintenance and economic reasons. 

Of growing importance and concern are the "bikeway" crossing proposals 
resulting from recent legislation. A California city is actively considering the adop- 
tion of standards to cover at-grade bicycle crossings and pathways on railroad prop- 
erty. Their proposal calls for the use of one red flashing-light signal with back 
light and bell at each crossing to include a sign to read "BICYCLES ONLY," similar 
to the State's standard pedestrian sign. 

Railroad opposition to pedestrian and bicycle crossings is often overruled by 
State authority. A recent Wisconsin order specified a crossing should be 8 ft wide, 
composed of black top widi a flange plank, provided with cross bucks, arterial 
"STOP" signs and advance warning signs. The city was obligated to remove vege- 
tation in the immediate vicinity of the crossing. Subsequently, the railroad granted 
an easement to the city for the public bicycle trail crossing cross its right-of-way. 

Conversely, cooperation between a railroad and a public agency often results in 
a negotiated license agreement, and can result in a private crossing under control 
of the railroad with the city indemnifying the railroad through public liability and 
property damage insurance naming the city and railroad as co-insured. 

A California committee composed of representatives from the railroads, cities. 
State and Commission is actively engaged in a study of bicycle crossings with par- 
ticular emphasis on probable need for bikeway crossings of railroads separate from 
highway crossing, the type of crossing construction which should be considered, 
possible use of dismount barriers and need for automatic warning devices. The report 
is expected to be available in late 1976. 

This report is submitted as information with recommendation that the subject 
be continued. 



Highways 



267 



Appendix A 



California Public Utilities Commission 




PEDESTRIAN RAILROAD GRADE CROSSING SIGN 


- 


* 18" * 


■ 




r r 


RAILROAD 


2" 






R> /r 


3" 
t 


30" 


/xx\ 


1 






\y x/ 


1 






CROSSING 


T 
2" 






PEDESTRIANS 


iV 




' 


ONLY 


t } 






Black Lettering on Whit 
Reflectorized Silver Ea 


e or 
ckground 



268 Bulletin 655— American Railway Engineering Association 

Appendix B 

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING PROTECTION 
Flashing-light Type 



Approximately 
8 feet 



& 





Crossing Bell 



Pedestrian Railroad 
Grade Crossing Sign 



4 inch Pipe Post 




Highways 



269 



Appendix C 

RECOMMENDED BY TRAFFIC ENGINEERING DIVISION, 
CITY OF CHESAPEAKE, VIRGINIA 

Pedesti'ian Railroad Grade Crosslnp; Sign 



Yellow 
Black - 



Standard Va. Depv. 
of Hwy. Sign W-$2-A 



?" Red" Lenses 
Flasher 





\ I 



PEDESTRIANS 
ONLY " 

STOPIZ^ 

WHEN FLASHING 




U2' 




Red Letteiing on White Background 



270 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Appendix D 






7^ 

^SIDEWALK 



V^ 



Public Utility Commissioner of Oregon, Railroad Division, Standard No. 2P 
Pedestrian Flashing Light Signal (Preliminary). 



Highways 



271 



Appendix E 



OlirAR^fr-ENT or PUBLIC WORKS 

BUREAU OF ENGINEERING 

CITY OF DE3 MCuNES, IOWA 



Project: BICYCLE TRAILS 



-J 



WHITE 
ON R£0 






BLACK 
ON WHITE V 




■^ 



r 



PRIVATE 

RJtR 




CROSSING 
V J 



Report of Committee 11 — Engineering Records and 
Property Accounting 




R. D. Igou, Chairman 
L. F. Grabowski, 

Vice Chairman 
G. R. Gallagher, 

Secretary 

M. F. McCORCLE 



p. 


G. McDermott 


w 


, C. Kanan 


R. 


L. Ealy 


A. 


P. Hammond, Jr, 


C. 


J. McDonald 


C. 


E. Bynane 


J. 


C. KiRCHEN 


F. 


B. Baldwin (E) 


P. 


J. Beyer, Jr. 


J. 


M. Bourne 


W 


. F. Burt 


R. 


H. Campbell 


J. 


R. Cressman 


R. 


M. Davis 


C. 


R. DOLAN 


W 


. V. Eller 


L. 


D. Farrar 


J. 


R. Geary 


C. 


C. Haire (E) 


M 


. J. Hebert 


P. 


J. Hendricksen 


E. 


H. Hofmann 


P. 


R. Holmes 


J. 


J. Hoolahan 


L. 


W. Howard 



x\. J. Hull, Jr. 
G. F. Ingraham 
J. W. Kelly 
W. F. Liszewski 
R. W. Lively 
J. G. Maker 
J. L. Manthey 

D. C. Maris 

J. C. McKeague 
S. Miller, Jr. 
G. L. MuCHOW 
R. F. Nelson 
J. J. O'Hara 
C. F. Olson 
A. H. Patterson 
H. L. Rest all (E) 
J. M. Randles 
P. W. Roberts 
R. S. Shaw, Jr. 
V. E. Smith 

E. E. Strickland 
J. B. Styles 

T. A. Valacak 
H. R. Williams 

Committee 



( E ) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman 
and secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 
No revisions to report. 

2. Bibliography. 

Progress report, submitted as infonnation piige 274 

3. Office and Drafting Practices. 

No report. AFE field inventory reports and as-built plans under study. 

4. Special Studies. 

No report. Methods for preparing standard form AFE estimates by 
mechanized process under study. 

5. Application of Data Processing. 

Final report on simplified methods of allocating recorded cost of 

reported units, submitted as information page 274 

6. Valuation and Depreciation. 

Progress report, submitted as infonnation page 276 

7. Revision and Interpretation of ICC Accounting Classifications. 

Progress report, submitted as information page 277 

The Committee on Engineering Records and Property Accounting, 

R. D. Icou, Chairman 



273 



274 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 
Report on Assignment 2 

Bibliography 

p. G. McDermott (chairman, subcommittee), P. J. Beyer, Jr., J. R. Chessman, 
C. R. DoLAN, L. D. Farrar, A. P. Hammond, R. D. Igou, J, L. Manthey, 
J. J. O'Hara, E. E. Strickland, T. A. Valacak. 

Your committee submits the following report of progress, presenting additional 
references with annotations. 

OFFICE PROCEDURE 

Reprographics, September 1974, page 13, "Pre-printed Overlay Film Saves 
Drafting Time." 

A forward-looking manager will always look for new techniques that elimi- 
nate repetitive drafting chores. 

Modern Office Procedures, June 1974, "Calculators: More for the Money;" 
"Jackets: A Compact Way to Dress Up a File System." 

Reprographics, October 1974, page 4, "Reprographics Techniques — Basic Pho- 
tofabrication Terminology." 

A new concept involving the production of parts through the use of chemical 
rather than physical action. 

Reprographics, October 1974, page 11, "Quantity Production of Computerized 
Engineering Drawings." 

Substitution of keyboards and lightpens for pencils and straightedges. 

Modern Railroads, February 1975, pages 51-53. "What Price Money." 

This article focuses on the problem of how can railroads carry and finance debt 
at 12% when they are only earning 4%. 

Progressive Railroading, March 1975, pages 31-34. "The Future of Engineer- 
ing — M/W Management." 

The key to understanding our present position and future expectations is to 
acknowledge that certain management techniques will be needed. 



Report on Assignment 5 

Application of Data Processing 

A. P. Hammond, Jr. (co-chairman. Subcommittee on Accounting Phases), C. J. 
McDonald (co-chairman. Subcommittee on Engineering Phases), C. E. Bynane, 
R. H. Campbell, C. R. Dolan, R. L. Ealy, W. V. Eller, G. R. Gallagher, 
J. G. KmcHEN, W. F. LiszEWSKi, J, B. Styles, H. R. Willl^ms. 

METHODS OF ALLOCATING RECORDED COSTS TO 
REPORTED UNITS IN THE TRACK ACCOUNTS 

The compilation of ledger values for the track accounts is becoming increas- 
ingly burdensome. It is recognized throughout the industry, particularly by those 
in valuation and property accounting work, that steps must be taken to develop a 
less complicated, yet acceptable, method of compiling these ledger values. 



Engineering Records and Property Accounting 275 

A simplified method of allocating costs recorded in the books of accounts to 
the reported track account units, or so-called "average pricing," is considered to 
be the best solution to the problem. In selection of a system, the units to be used 
and the method of developing the unit cost to be applied will vary for different 
carriers depending upon the type and condition of the basic record and the detail 
reflected therein. 

This report is presented as a brief summary of the answers to a questionnaire 
submitted to members of the full committee. 

1. The valuation section was selected as die primary segment for balancing 
costs and averaging unit costs. 

2. Most members recommend allocating average unit costs on a weighted 
basis to main tracks, branch lines and side tracks by valuation sections 
to units in the track accounts. 

3. Nearly all the members responding would compile actual units of Ac- 
count 3, Grading, for ledger \alue puiposes and several would do the 
same for Account 11, Ballast, due to the wide variation used in con- 
struction. The majority of the members would consolidate units by rail 
pattern weights or by homogenous rail groups for the other track ac- 
counts. Most carriers who maintain detailed track records would continue 
to use actual recorded quantities in allocating average unit costs to de- 
velop ledger values. 

4. Establishing units for controlling averages in the track accounts other 
than Account 10, Other Track Material, poses little difficulty. The same 
results can be obtained whether units such as cubic yard, each, mbm., 
cwt., gross ton, net ton, track foot, track mile, etc. . . . , or combinations 
such as gross ton per track mile are used. Account 10, Otlier Track Ma- 
terial, has numerous minor units currently recorded in the property rec- 
ords, and most members recommend consolidating these units into a few 
major units for controlling averages. Three possible units are: 

(a) Rail displacement materials . . . unit each or cwt (includes frogs, 
swatches, crossing frogs, etc.). 

(b) Track fastenings . . . unit each or cwt (includes joints, tie plates, 

anchors, etc.). 

(c) Other items . . . unit each or cwt (includes bumping posts, rail 
flange lubricators, etc.). 

In conclusion the committee believes that tiiere is a need for a pricing system 
to be developed entailing the restructuring of valuation, field and accounting re- 
porting. These reports must interface with the computer in order to produce the 
required records, controls and reports. 



276 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 6 

Valuation and Depreciation 

C. E. Bynane (cluiirnuin, subcommittee), J. R. Chessman, W. V. Eller, G. R. 
Gallagher, L. F. Grabowski, M. J. Hebert, P. J. Hendricksen, E. H. 
HoFMANN, P. R. Holmes, N. J. Hull, Jr., R. D. Igou, J. G. Maher, D. C. 
Maris, P. G. McDermott, C. J. McDonald, S. Miller, Jr., J. B. Styles, 
H. R. Williams. 

(A) CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH 
REGULATORY BODIES AND COURTS 

ICC Bureau of Accounts 

During the fiscal year 1975 the Commission continued its five-year cyclical 
review of equipment depreciation and the Accounting and Valuation Board issued 
32 railroad equipment depreciation orders. Depreciation analyses of all road property 
accounts for all eligible Class I railroads were completed during fiscal 1975 and 51 
railroad road property depreciation orders were issued. 

The road property depreciation analyses of all eligible Class I railroads reinforced 
the tentative findings of tlie fiscal 1974 study for 14 Class I carriers in that the 
results were in line with expectations, and tlie anticipated large deficiency in past 
accrued depreciation has not developed. As mentioned in last year's report of this 
subcommittee, problems witli salvage determination and experience were particularly 
troublesome in the deprication analysis and the chief of tlie Depreciation Branch has 
advised the chairman of this subcommittee that he would welcome input from Com- 
mittee 11 members on their views with respect to a more satisfactory method of 
accounting for salvage proceeds. 

As information, an Interim Coordinator's report on Ex Parte 271, Net Investment 
— Railroad Rate Base and Rate of Return, by Commissioner Dale W. Hardin was 
issued on March 3, 1975, 345 ICC 410, and summarizes the findings of the prelimi- 
nary analysis of the 1974 road property depreciation study for the 14 Class I railroads. 
The report is well wordi reading, particularly with respect to the discussion about 
Accounts 3, 5 and 39 (grading, tunnels and subways, and public improvements — 
construction ) . 

Internal Revenue Service 

Closely related to the discussion about Accounts 3 and 5 in the above-mentioned 
Coordinator's report to the ICC is one of the issues decided in favor of the taxpayer, 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway and affiliated companies versus the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, Docket Nos. 5904-70, 5646-71.64 TC-No. 35, filed June 2, 1975, 
wherein it was decided that petitioner's (C&O) investment in grading and tunnel 
bores had, as a result of obsolescence foreseeable in 1954, reasonably determinable 
useful lives such as to entitle petitioner to depreciation deductions for such invest- 
ment in tax years 1954 through 1963. 

In the same decision there are two other subjects treated and decided, one being 
ratable depreciation of track structures based on obsolescence foreseeable in 1954 
wherein the taxpayer's petition for such deduction was denied, the other subject 
being the determination of the fair market value of petitioner's recovered reusable 



Engineering Records and Property Accounting 277 



rail wherein the court developed its version of a compromise between the IRS and 
petitioner's versions which produced an interesting and apparently favorable result 
for die petitioner. 

The abo\e-nientioned decision in full is reconunended reading for everybody 
interested in \aluation and depreciation. 



Report on Assignment 7 

Revisions and Interpretations of ICC Accounting 
Classifications 

J, G. KmCHEN (chairman, subcommittee), J. M. Boubne, T- R- Geaky, N. J. Hull, 
G. F. Ingraham, J. W. Kelly, W. F. Lisze\\'ski, J. G. Maher, D. C. Maris, 
P. G. McDermott, J. McKeague, S. Mu-ler, P. W. Roberts, T. A. Valacak. 

This is a progress report, presented as information, on changes affecting engi- 
neering records and property accounting only. 

ICC Order No. 32153 (Sub. No. 5) with a service date of January 22, 1975, 
Accounting for Accumulated Depreciation on Improvements to Leased Property, 
establishes a new and separate Account 733, Accrued Depreciation; Improvements 
on Leased Propert>', and transfers these amounts from Account 785 which now is 
Accrued Liability-; Leased Property, and will include only the lessee's unsetded liabili- 
ties to the lessor. Eftecti\e January 1, 1975. 

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Order No. 36125 with a service date of 
April 11, 1975, Reporting E.xtraordinary, Unusual or Infrequently Occurring Events 
and Transaction; Prior Period Adjustments; the Effects of Disposal of a Segment of 
a Business. These include instructions for clarifying the criteria for extraordinary 
items, for prior period adjustments and reporting rules for certain accounting changes 
and provides new guidelines for detennining materiality. Also, definitions for a 
segment of a business and related accounting terms and instructions for reporting 
the operating results and gain or loss on disposal of a segment. 

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Order No. 36137 with a service date of May 
20, 1975, Revision of Rules on Classification of Carriers. This proposal would in- 
crease the minimum railway operating rexenue from $5 to $10-million for Class I 
carriers and establish time period for qualifying and changing classifications. 

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Order No. 36141 with a service date of 
April 1, 1975, Corporate Disclosure Regidations, would require carriers to re\eal 
in their annual reports details of their parents and subsidiaries, who votes dieir 
common stock, business affiliations of the company's principal officers and executi\ es 
and details of long- and short-term debt and financing lease arrangements. 



i 

I 



Report of Committee 14 — Yards and Terminals 




B. H. Price, Chairman 

P. C. White, 
Vice Chairman 

G. H. Chabot, Secretary 

R. F. Beck 

H. L. Bishop 

J. F. Chandler 

H. B. Christiansox 

A. W. NiEMEYER 

C. E. Stoecker 



p. E. Van Cleve 


C. F. Intlekofer 


J. Zaenger 


J. B. Kerby 


R. P. AiNSLIE 


A. S. Krefting (E) 


M. J. Anderson 


W. L. Krestinski 


J. K. AusT 


C. J. Lapinski 


R. O. Balsters 


J. A. LeMaire 


A. E. Blermann 


S. J. Levy 


\V. O. Boessneck (E) 


E. T. LucEY 


R. O. Bradley 


S. N. MacIsaac 


R. E. Bredberg 


J. G. Martin 


H. E. Buchanan 


A. Matthews, Jr. 


C. M. Burnette 


H. J. McNally 


H. P. Clapp 


R. E. Metzger 


M. K. Clahk 


C. H. Mottier (E) 


D. y. Clayton 


F. J. Olsen 


E. H. Cook 


W. L. Patterson 


A. Y. Dasburg 


J. C. Pinkston 


F. D. Day 


W. P. Rybinski 


D. J. DeIvernois, Jr. 


W. A. Schoelwer 


P. P. Dunavant, Jr. 


J. G. Skeen 


R. D. D\TfMAN 


W. D. Slater 


V. H. Freygang 


E. SZAKS 


M. R. Gruber, Jr. 


L. G. TiEMAN 


H. L. Haanes 


J. N. Todd (E) 


J. N. Hagen 


A. J. Trzeciak 


D. C. Hastings 


H. Watts, Jr. 


I. M. Hawver 


J. C. Weiser 


Wm. J. Hedley 


C. C. Yespelkis 


L. J. Held 


J. R. Zebrowski 


F. A. Hess (E) 


Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman 
and secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 

The committee has completed its work on the revision of Chapter 14 
of the Manual, and properly voted on and approved the revision by 
letter ballot. The revised material is published in Part I of this Bulletin. 
Revision of tlie glossary, as it pertains to Chapter 14, is now in progress. 

1. Classification Yards: 

(a) Gradients for Flat and Saucer Yards. 

Final report, submitted as information, with the recommendation 

that it be considered as possible future Manual material page 280 

(b) Yard and Terminal Design Criteria to Decrease Car Detention. 

Final report, submitted as information page 283 

2. Bulk Material Handling System, Collaborating as Necessary or Desirable 
witli Committees 6, 8 and 15. 



279 



280 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Work is progressing on this subject but no report will be available for 
at least a year. The committee has expressed willingness to present an 
illustrated feature on this subject at the Annual Technical Conference 
in March. 

3. Terminal Facilities for Handling Solid Waste Material from an Ecology 
Standpoint, Collaborating as Necessary or Desirable with Committee 
13. 

No progress has been made on this subject since it was assigned. 
However, a new subcommittee chairman has been appointed and it is 
anticipated tliat substantial progress will be made in the next year. 

4. Car Rollability Research. 

There has been no activity concerning this subject pending further ad- 
vice and direction from the Association. 

5. Trends in Intermodal Facilities. 

Progress is being made on this subject and it is anticipated that the 
subcommittee will make its report in 1976. 

6. Facilities for Line Repair and Servicing of Diesel Locomotives, Col- 
laborating as Necessary or Desirable witli Committees 6 and 13. 

A preliminary report has been written and is being revised. The report 
on this subject should be submitted to the Association in 1976. 

7. Yard System Design for Two-Stage Switching. 
No progress to report on this subject at this time. 

The Committee on Yards and Terminals, 

B. H. Price, Chairman. 



Report on Assignment la 

Gradients For Flat and Saucer Yards 

p. E. Van Cleve (chairman, subcommittee), R. O. Balsters, R. F. Beck, R. E. 
Bredberg, C. M. Burnette, G. H. Chabot, D. V. Clayton, A. V. Dasburg, 
F. D. Day, P. J. DeIvernois, Jr., R. D. Dykman, J. N. Hagan, D. C. Hastings, 
L. J. Held, F. A. Hess, J. B. Kerby, J. A. LeMaire, B. H. Price, Jr., R. J. 
Samoska, p. C. White. 

This progress report is submitted as infonnation, for possible future Manual 
material. 

This report is confined primarily to the "flat" or "saucer" yard, where cars are 
classified by the shuttling movement of the switch engine, with the cars being "drilled" 
or "kicked" to roll freely into the classification tracks. Not included in the scope of 
this report are the retarder-less low hump yard or the flat yard where cars are 
shoved to rest. 

While the flat and saucer yards (hereafter referred to collectively as flat yards) 
far outnumber any other type of yard in use, apparently only a few were constructed 



Yards and Terminals 281 



with gradient design as a primary consideration. In most cases, the apparent over- 
riding factors were such things as topographical restraints, grading costs, space 
limitations, and conformance with fixed elevations, such as adjoining main-line profile 
and public grade crossings. 

An analysis of subcommittee member responses to this assignment indicates 
tliat during the past decade or two greater emphasis has been placed on designing 
and building flat yards with optimmn gradients for switching. 

A review of flat yards where gradient has been a major design factor indicates 
the following preference for gradients in the direction of switching ( see Figure 1 ) : 



-4— E- 



^ 




KI 




•DIRECTION OF SWITCHING 



FIGURE I. Flat Yard for Single Direction Switching 

Segment A — Switching Lead (or Drill Track). Gradient here is not critical since 
cars are nomially released on or close to the ladder ( Segment B ) . However, since 
this segment accommodates constant bi-directional movement, the gradient should 
be relatively flat, with 0.00 percent preferred. 

Segments B and C — Ladder and Switch to Clearance Point. The preferred 
gradient is "slightly" accelerating, which means that the grade must descend suffi- 
ciently to overcome rolling resistances, including switch and curve resistance. The 
preferred gradients for these segments range from -0.20 percent to -0.30 percent, 
although one railroad used a percent grade for die ladder, probably on the premise 
that cars would be released near the switch of their classification track. 

Segment D — Clearance Point to Clearance Point. The preferred design gradient 
for tliis segment is "slightly" decelerating, ranging from -0.10 percent to 0.00 percent. 

Segments E, F, G — "Leaving" End of Yard. Segments E and F should have 
sufficient plus gradient to prevent roll-outs, and thus minimize the need for retarders 
or skates. The percent gradient selected is not too important if the yard is to be used 
only for single-direction switching. 

However, when conditions permit, it is highly desirable to design a flat yard 
for switching at both ends, even when current operations might not require double- 
end switching. Thus, the flat yard for double-end switching would have gradients 
G, F, and E, the same as A, B, and C, respectively, and gradient D would be eitlier 
level or slightly descending from each end toward the center. The yard profile would 
resemble a saucer. 

Wliile the Manual for Railway Engineering contains virtually no design infor- 
mation for flat yards, the engineer can and should review the section of the Manual 
on hump classification yard design, as much of this material can be applied to flat 
yard design. Having done this, a summary of the primary considerations for flat 
yard design is as follows: 



282 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

1. Objective 

The ideal objective is tlie design of a series of gradients so that each car will 
roll to and stop at the far end of the classification yard, or will roll to coupling at 
an acceptable speed. The following objectives are the minimum to be expected: 

(a) Deliver cars having a practical maximum rolling resistance to the 
clearance point under adverse weather conditions. 

(b) Deliver cars of most frequently occurring rolling resistance to tire far 
end of the yard, or to some desired intermediate point, if block size does 
not require filling the track. 

(c) Permit maximum switching rate and acceptable coupling speeds. 

2. Rolling Resistance 

The designer must be familiar with car rollability and the factors which con- 
tribute to rolling resistance. The yard gradients must be tailored for the prevailing 
climatic conditions, including wind speed, wind direction, temperature, rain and 
snow. Gradients must be compensated for resistances from turnouts, curves, gage, 
and possible track irregularities. 

3. Equipment and Commodities 

The designer should be familiar witli the type of equipment to be used and com- 
modities to be handled. A predominance of roller-bearing or non-roller-bearing cars 
will affect gradient selection. In a yard where mostly empty cars or bulk commodi- 
ties are handled, it is possible that gradients can be increased, thus creating higher 
impacts, but increasing the percentage of cars tliat will couple. 

4. Yard Configuration 

If possible, a track should be designated for each classification to be made. 
However, it should be remembered that a flat yard is best suited to a situation 
where the number of switching cuts is small. While fairly large volmiies of cars 
can be handled in a flat yard, a large number of cuts reduces its effectiveness. 

Body tracks should preferably be on tangent and of sufficient capacity to hold 
the volumes of each classification under normal circumstances. 

Ladders should be designed to minimize distance to clearance point, and pro- 
vide maximum yard capacity. Switches should be as close together as possible for 
efficient hand throwing. Multiple frog angle ladders allow the designer to provide 
a compact layout; however, when hand tlirow switches are used, the layout must 
be such that all switch stands are on the outside of tlie ladder. Inside switch stands 
should be used only when push-button power switching is provided. 

5. Gradients 

In a flat-yard drilling operation, the car when it is uncoupled is not unlike tlie 
car leaving a group retarder in a hump yard, in that each car has just departed from 
its last point of human control. Hence the basic design formula for the hump yard 
from group retarder to clearance point could be applied to flat yard design, as 
follows: 

Drop from uncoupling point to clearance point = SRe + ^ C-{-SW + a 
where 



Yards and Terminals 283 



S = Distance in feet 
fl, = Rolling resistance for easy rolling car expressed decimally 

A z:^ Curvature in degrees of central angle 

C = Curve resistance in feet of drop per degree of central angle 
Sti; = S\vitch resistance in feet 

a — Difference in \elocity head at clearance and velocity head at uncoupHng 
point for easy rolling cars. 

The gradients in the body tracks must not produce unacceptable acceleration of 
easy-rolling cars. 

6. Drainage 

The flat yard will have a natural tendency to contain water, since its profile 
will usually take the shape of a saucer. Good drainage is imperative to maintain 
good track grade, ahgrmient and structure. In most cases, a subsurface drainage 
system will be required, unless the subgrade is very porous. 



Report on Assignment lb 

Yard and Terminal Design Criteria to 
Decrease Car Detention 

R. F. Beck (chairman, subcommittee), R. P. Aixslie, C. M. Burnette, C. H. Cil\bot, 
H. B. Christiansox, D. X. Claytox, A. \'. Dasburg, F. D. Day, P. J. DeIv^er- 
xois, Jr., J. X. Hagax, D. C. Hastings, F. A. Hess, C. F. Ixtlekofer, J. B. 
Kerry, J. A. LeMauie, S. J. Levy, E. T. Lucey, J. G. Martix, H. J. McNally, 
W. L. Patterson-, B. H. Price, W. A. Schoelwer, J. G. Skeex, W. D. Slater, 
C. E. Stoecker, L. G. Tiemax, H. Watts, P. C. White, J. R. Zebrowski. 

This report is submitted as information, with the recommendation that the 
subject be discontinued. 

The basic fundamentals of good yard and terminal design have not changed 
throughout the years. Newer operating and organization concepts, together with the 
introduction of sophisticated equipment, pro\ide us with an opportunity to increase 
operating efficiency, thus decreasing car detention time. Howexer, the basic funda- 
mentals of yarding the train, classifxing tlie cars and departing die train in the 
minimum amount of time and at the least cost have not changed. Therefore, the 
criteria for yard and terminal design cannot concern itself solely with the physical 
plant, but must also include the design of the organization and die operating plan. 
In other words, the design criteria must be viewed as a major system with both the 
designer and operator playing an integral part. Failure of any one of the many sub- 
systems can increase car detention time, and tiiis important concept must be recog- 
nized by all concerned. 

Continuous new developments in the data processing field, together with newer 
organization concepts have made possible computerized, real-time car moxement 
and information systems. Railway operations are a fertile field for this new technology 
and substantial progress can be made in operating efficiency, thus reducing cost and 
at the same time iiiipro\ing customer ser%ice. Mo\enient of cars through the receiv- 
ing, classification, and departure functions is an integral part of such a system. Such 



284 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

a system maintains a perpetual inventory of cars by track location in which all cars 
are under the constant sui-veillance of the system, thus providinji for maximum car 
utilization. Car infonnation and location on a real-time and exception basis are 
immediately available via an increasing variety of output devices which are an 
indispensable aid to the planning process. Such systems also permit the exercise 
of overall control of yard and terminal operations and can be made an integral part 
of a railroad-wide management information system. The key to the success of such 
systems is the development of a complete and dependable car record as soon as 
possible. This is of paramount importance because such information is vital to the 
financial, statistical, cost, traffic, accounting and other staff functions. 

The computer and related interface equipment have made possible the virtual 
complete automation of the entire classification operation. Automatic car identification 
coupled with mini-computers and other devices can automatically input car infor- 
mation into the system. Thus the complete control of receiving, classification and 
departure operations becomes but a subsystem of the overall car movement and 
information system. 

The following overall and specific criteria should be considered when attempting 
to reduce car detention time. All of the items listed may or may not bear on any 
particular installation depending upon the type of facility being studied. The follow- 
ing information also directly relates to flat yards although some modification of the 
criteria may be required. 

I. Determine Workload for the Terminal 

A. Forecast rail network transport demand. 

B. Estimate demands on the terminal: 

1. Number and size of car blocks. 

2. Train schedules. 

3. Interchange, industry, intermodal and other services. 

II. Overall Design Considerations Relating to Terminal Operations 

A. Avoid interference between movements, minimize total car movement, and 
optimize all transportation operations: 

1. Track and related facilities: 

(a) strategically located crossovers, connections, leads, and tracks, 

(b) ample running tracks and escape routes for arriving, switching, 
classification, departure, and other movements, 

(c) dual hump tracks and scissor crossovers, 

(d) remote control power operated switches, route control, shove indi- 
cators, and signaling, 

(e) track facilities for special transportation functions including auxiliary, 
local, through yards, etc., 

(f) sufficient space between tracks for yard lighting, specialized equip- 
ment, car inspection, and running repairs, 

(g) space for expansion, 

(h) dragging equipment and broken flange detectors, journal and track 

oilers, 
(i) movement sensors, automatic car identification and blue flag systems, 
( j ) yard cleaning equipment, switch heaters, snow blowers, and related 

snow removal equipment. 



Yards and Terminals 285 



2. Ancillary facilities: 

(a) lighting for safe and optiiniiin night operations, 

(b) towers and control facilities to monitor and manage operations, 
combined where possible, to avoid duplication, 

(c) comnumication systems including radio, loudspeakers, pneumatic 
tube systems, digital displays and printouts, television and teletype, 

(d) roadways, parking areas, drainage, noise and pollution control, 
sewage disposal, water supply, fire protection, etc., 

(e) engine and caboose servicing, car repair, car cleaning, piggyback, 
refrigerator servicing and other facilities at strategic locations, 

(f) crew, office, and miscellaneous buildings, 

(g) noise level and other environmental considerations. 

3. Speed the movement of cars through receiving, classification, departure 
and other terminal yards and tracks: 

(a) computerized automatic humping, switching, speed control, weighing, 
distance to go, etc., 

(b) real time and historical digital print and readouts of all car move- 
ment information required by transportation operation, 

(c) all car movement information required by other departments, 

(d) automatic trouble-shooting information. 

4. Reliable facilities: 

(a) easy to maintain facilities, holding down time to a mininunn, 

(b) level of maintenance to limit derailment and program downtime 
of facilities based upon an overall sound preventive maintenance 
program, 

(c) backup systems in important areas such as power supply, com- 
nmnications, and computer systems, 

(d) safety and security of operation. 

5. Trained personnel and the simplest operating procedures and equipment. 

B. Use two stage or other forms of nudtiple pass sorting wherever: 

1. The desired number of blocks greatly exceeds the number of available 
classification tracks, or 

2. Numerous blocks are desired for a train. 

III. Specific Design Considerations Relating to Car Movement 

A. Receive cars quickly with minimum interference: 

1. Track design to avoid interference between moves. 

2. Sufficient trackage for near-peak requirements. 

3. Tracks of sufficient capacity to avoid doubling. 

4. Alignment and gradients to eliminate derailments and runouts. 

B. Classify cars at a maximum practical rate consistent with the overall trans- 
portation operations: 

1. Weigh cars accurately and economically without slowing the humping 
rate. 

2. Avoid catchups in the classification area: 

(a) bleed cars thoroughly to avoid sticking brakes, 

(b) speed movement throughout all classification tracks as much as 
possible, 

(c) multiple cuts, where permissible. 



286 Bulletin 655 — American Railway Engineering Association 

3. Utilize the best economical track arrangements, gradients, and control 
systems based upon AREA recommendations taking into account: 

(a) wind, temperature, snow, sleet, fog, moisture, storms, 

(b) type of tiaific including long, short, empty and loaded cars, 

(c) range of rolling resistance, 

(d) predominance of resistance for type of cars handled, 

(e) easy separation of cuts, 

(f) minimum distances between crest and clearance points, utilizing 
lap switches, 

(g) capacity of retarders to handle design parameters, 
(h) capacity of control system and components, 

(i) track cmvature, 

(]) starting cars that have been stopped in the retarders. 

4. Release cars from retarders at speeds consistent with minimum car and 
lading damage: 

(a) use of decelerating gradients immediately beyond the group re- 
tarders with as short a switching length as possible with maximum 
turnout speeds, 

(b) design for as low a curvature as possible togetlier with the optimum 
number of tracks per group consistent with the foregoing, 

(c) provide non-accelerating gradients on tangent track for preponderance 
of cars humped, 

(d) provide devices to assist cars around curves to help reduce the 
range of rolling resistance, 

(e) deliver cars to clearance point at the most advantageous speed, 

(f) design for optimum track length in classification yard consistent 
with operating requirement keeping in mind the range of rolling 
resistance. 

C. Provide for as continuous a classification operation as practical by considering: 

1. Interference between road, yard, and hump engines. 

2. Travel time between receiving yards and the hmiip lead. 

3. Time between successive cuts on the hump lead. 

4. Escape routes for trimmers and other moves from the hump end. 

5. Caboosing time tlirough efficient track layout and servicing facilities. 

D. Reduce hump engine trimming time to an absolute minimum: 

1. Classify cars to die correct track. 

2. Minimize catchups by correct design and control systems. 

3. Assign classifications to serve tlie maximum spread of cars being humped. 

4. Provide an optimum number of classification tracks. 

E. Remove cars and trains from the classification yard promptly: 

1. Skates, retarders, uphill gradients or otiier means of avoiding runouts. 

2. Recoupling aids to keep couplers open. 

3. Long leads to interior of groups to speed up operation and reduce travel 
time. Design leads to minimize travel time in pull down operations. 

4. Coordinate all mechanical and transportation departure functions, prefer- 
ably from one location. 

5. Track centers as wide as possible to permit mechanized inspections. 

6. Sufficient yard air. 

7. Efficient waybill procedures. 

8. Track facilities similar to tliose recommended for receiving yards. 



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RECEIVED 

MAR 4 1976 

American Railway j. l sTAujira 

Engineering Association— Bulletin 



Bulletin 656 January-February 1976 

Proceedings Volume 77* 



CONTENTS 

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES 

Scales (Special Committee) 2*' 

Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance (22) 299 

Environmental Engineering (13) 323 

Maintenance of Way Work Equipment (27) 333 

Clearances (28) 337 

Buildings (6) 341 

Timber Structures (7) 351 

Concrete Structures and Foundations (8) 353 

Steel Structures (15) 359 

Roadway and Ballast (1) 363 

Ties and Wood Preservation (3) 367 

Rail (4) 373 

Economics of Plant, Equipment and Operations (16) 383 

Engineering Education (24) 401 

Electrical Energy Utilization (33) 403 

VANCOUVER REGIONAL MEETING 

Luncheon Address by A. F. Joplin 415 

Address — Railway Signaling, by H. W. Trawick 419 

Address — Railway Bridges on Canadian National's Mountain Region, by 

L. R. Morris 425 

Address — Investigation into Causes of Rail Corrugations, by J. Kalousek, 

R. Klein 429 

Address — Rock Slope Stability on Railway Projects, by C. O. Browner, 

Duncan Wyllie 449 

Directory of Consulting Engineers 474—1 



•Proceedings Volume 77 (1976) will consist of AREA Bulletins 654, Septembei^ 
October 1975; 655, November-December 1975; 656, January-February 1976; and 858, 
June-July 1976 (Technical Conference Report issue). Blue-covered Bulletin 657, April- 
May 1976 (the Directory issue), is not a part of the Annual Proceedings of the Association. 



BOARD OF DIRECTION 

1975-1976 

President 
J. T. Ward, Senior Assistant Chief Engineer, Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, 500 Water 
St., Jacksonville, FL 32202 

Vice Presidents 
John Fox, Deputy Chief Engineer, Canadian Pacific Rail, Windsor Station, Montreal, 

PQ H3C 3E4 
B. J. WORLEY, Vice President— Chief Engineer, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific 

Railroad, Union Station, Room 898, Chicago, IL 60606 

Past Presidents 

D. V. Sartore, Chief Engineer — Design, Burlington Northern, Inc., 176 E. Sth St., St. 

Paul, MN SS 101 
R. F. Bush, Chief Engineer, Erie Lackawanna Railway, Midland Bldg., Cleveland, OH 
441 IS 

Directors 
R. W. PEifBER, Chief Engineer — Design and Construction, Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road, P. O. Box 1198, Louisville, KY 40201 

E. Q. Johnson, Senior Assistant Chief Engineer, Chessie System, P. O. Box 1800, 

Huntington, WV 2S718 

W. E. FuHR, Assistant Chief Engineer— Staff, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacilic 
Railroad, Union Station, Room 898, Chicago, IL 60606 

B. E. Pearson, Chief Engineer, Soo Line Raikoad, Soo Line Bldg., Room 1520, Minne- 
apolis, MN 55440 

P. L. Montgomery, Manager Engineering Systems, Norfolk & Western Railway, 8 N. 
Jefferson St., Roanoke, VA 24042 

E. C. HoNATH, Assistant General Manager Engineering, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railway, 900 Polk St., Amarillo, TX 79171 

Mike Rovgas, Chief Engineer, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, P. O. Box 471, Green- 
ville, PA 16125 

J. W. DeValle, Chief Engineer Bridges, Southern Railway System, 99 Spring St., S. W., 
Atlanta, GA 30303 

R. L. Gray, Chief Engineer, Canadian National Railways, P. O. Box 8100, Montreal, 
PQ H3C 3N4 

E. H. Waring, Chief Engineer, Denver & Rio Grande Western Raikoad, P. 0. Box 
5482, Denver, CO 80217 

Wm. Glavin, General Manager, Grand Trunk Western Railroad, 131 W. Lafayette 
Blvd., Detroit, MI 48226 

G. H. Maxwell, System Engineer of Track, Union Pacific Railroad, 1416 Dodge St., 
Omaha, NE 68179 

Treasurer 

A. B. HiLLMAN, Jr., Chief Engineer, Belt Railway of Chicago, 6900 S. Central Ave., 
Chicago, IL 60638 

Executive Director 

Earl W. Hodgkins, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 

Assistant to Executive Director 
N. V. Engman, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 

Administrative Assistant 
D. F. Fredley, 59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, IL 60605 

Published by the American Railway Engineering Association, Bi-Monthly, Januaiy-Febniary, April- 
May, June-July, September-October and November-December, at 
S9 East Van Buren Street, Chicago, 111. 60605 
Second class postage at Chicago, 111., and at additional mailing offices. 
Subscription $15 per annum 
Copyright © 1976 
American Railway Engineering Association 
All rights reserved. 
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or data retrieval 
system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopying, 
recording, or otherwise — without the prior written permission of the publisher. 



Report of the Special Committee on Scales 




F. D. Day, Chairman 
V. H. Freygang, 

Vice Chairman 
M. R. Gruber, Jr., 

Secretary 



l. l. lowehy 
Emil Szaks 
B. F. Banks 
N. A. Wilson 
O. T. Almarode 
R. F. Beck 
R. T. Brumbaugh 
H. E. Buchanan 
E. W. Buckles 
G. H. Chabot 
J. L. Dahlrot 
R. H. Damon, Jr. 
T. A. DeAlba 

0. C. Denz 

J. L. FiNNELL 

J. E. Foreman, Jr. 
G. F. Graham 
J. A. Hawley 

1. M. Hawvek 
L. J. Held 

A. L. Hunter 



D. K. Johnstone 

D. E. Keeper 
S. H. Levinson 

V. L. LOWERY 

P. J. McCoNVILLE 

E. J. MicoNO 
R. E. Park 
N. S. Patel 
B. H. Price 
W. H. Rankin 
S. H. Raskin 
A. E. Robinson 
J. J. Robinson 
K. D. Tidwell 
J. N. Todd 

L. J. Walker 
P. C. White 
J. Zaenger 



Committee 



Those whose names are shown hi boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman and 
secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 



B. Revision of Manual. 

Proposed Belt Conveyor Scale Rules, submitted as information 



page 288 



1. Location of Scales for Coupled-in-Motion Weighing. 

Progress report, presented as information page 295 

2. Survey of All Scales in America Used for Weighing Railroad Cars. 

No report. 

3. Statistical Data for Coupled-in-Motion Weighing and Testing. 

An advance report on this assignment was published in Bulletin 654, 
September-October 1975. 

4. NBS Handbook 44 Joint Study with State Weights and Measures 
Officials. 

No report. 

The Special Committee on Scales, 

F. D. Day, Chairman. 



287 



Bui. 656 




288 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 
Report on Assignment B 

Revision of Manual 

L. L. LowERY (chairman, stihcommittee), all members of the Special Committee on 
Scales. 

Your committee presents, as infomiation only, the following belt conveyor scale 
rules. These rules, with possible minor revisions, will be submitted for adoption and 
publication in the Manual in 1976, following letter ballot approval by the committee. 

PROPOSED BELT CONVEYOR SCALE RULES 
S.2.28 BELT CONVEYOR SCALES 

5.2.28.1 Definition 

The following is intended to apply to devices installed on belt conveyors for 
the purpose of weighing bulk materials carried by conveyors to ascertain weights, 
and to the system to which they are applied and become part of. 

5.2.28.2 Capacity 

The system should be designed and rated so that material flowing over the scale 
will remain within 50% to 98% of scale capacity and should be adequate and constant. 

5.2.25.3 Conveyors 

(a) Each conveyor on which a belt scale is located should be rigid in design 
and so constructed that it is free from vibration and is not subject to stress that 
would cause any deflection. It should not exceed 1,000 ft in length from center of 
head pulley to center of tail pulley. 

(b) Each conveyor on which a belt scale is located should be equipped with a 
gravity take-up that is of adequate weight so as not to allow slippage of the belt 
on the drive pulley. With such weight properly weighted, the belt should remain in 
contact with all troughing idlers in the weight-sensing element area at all times. 

(c) The conveyor on which the scale is located should be free from interference 
from all other operations. 

(d) The system should be so designed that the complete contents of each indi- 
vidual car may be guaranteed to pass over the scale. 

(e) Incline of the conveyor belt should not be in excess of 18 to 20 degrees. 

5.2.28.4 Infeeds 

(a) Sufficient impact idlers should be provided in the conveyor imder each infeed 
so as not to cause a deflection of the belt during the time material is being introduced. 

(b) All infeed gates, feeders, etc., should be positive in action and so designed 
that material will flow freely through them when opened or placed in operation. 
They should also be positive in their closing action so that leakage does not occur. 

5.2.28.5 Instrumentation 

(a) A rate-of-flow indicator should be installed and correctly calibrated. The 
indicator should also be equipped with a 24-hour disc or strip chart to serve as a 



Scales 289 

permanent record, along with a high and low cut-off alarm system. This is to help 
prevent under or overloading of the scale. The alann should be operational at not 
lower than 35^ or greater than 98% of scale capacity. The type of alarm used (i.e., 
audio or visual) should be determined by the merits of each individual application. 
Such system should not be outfitted with a switch to disconnect either the chart or 
alarm system. Any exceptions to this rule will be at the discretion of the serving rail 
carrier or its agent. 

(b) A fast-count totalizer should be installed and should register in units of 
1/10 of a ton, or as determined by the serving rail carrier. 

(c) A ticket or tape printer (detemiined by each individual application) and 
printing to the equivalent numerals as indicated in (b), should be installed. It is 
essential that the printer mounting will guarantee vibration-free operation. 

5.2.28.6 Cabinets 

(a) Scale and instrumentation cabinets should be purged witli clean, dry air. 

(b) Where scales and component parts are subject to a rapid or extreme change 
in temperature, heaters should be installed as suggested by manufacturer. 

(c) Scales located near large bodies of water, operations that require use of 
quantities of water, or any area of high humidity, should have heaters installed in 
scales and/or instrumentation as suggested by manufacturer. 

5. 2.28.7 Protection of Scales and Instrumentation 

(a) Scales and especially instrumentation should be protected from the elements 
by weather-proof structures. Control rooms that house instruments should be air 
purged with air conditioning, fans with filters, heaters, etc., so that a dust-free area of 
greater density will be created on the inside than is outside. Such system is required 
to preserve all electronic instnunents. 

(b) Scale housing and instrumentation should be securely locked. 

5.2.28.8 Wind Screens 

Wind screens should be erected around the entire weighing element. 

5.2.28.9 Guards 

(a) Sufficient guards should be erected around "live" scale parts located near 
walk-ways so that persons will not touch such parts or deposit equipment in their 
vicinity. 

(b) In some cases, "live" parts of scales should be painted in contrasting colors 
so as to warn persons against touching them. The application of this Rule will be at 
the discretion of the serving carrier or its agent. 

5.2.28.10 Interference 

Hydraulic machinery, large motors, or any equipment which will cause excessive 
vibration or noise should not be placed in, or affixed to, the control room. 

5.2.28.11 Access to Scale 

Adequate access to scale should be provided. This includes a walk-way, step, 
etc., so that servicing can be accomplished with ease. 



290 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

5.2.28.12 Simulated Load Testing Equipment 

Adequate simulated load testing equipment, to be applied on the belt over the 
weight-sensing element, approximating 80% of the rated capacity of the weighing 
system, is required. A suitable storage area should be provided so tliat such equipment 
does not rust or deteriorate from abrasive or coating action. See S.2.28.15. 

Note: The following suggested practices, if followed, will greatly facilitate testing 
and operation of the system. 

1. At least two persons or more on location should be thoroughly familiar 
with the scale and its operation. 

2. Control over entire system should be exercised by the scale operator to 
insure adequate loading of the weighing device. 

3. Unautliorized personnel should be discouraged from loitering in the scale 
and instrumentation areas. 

4. Where test chains are used, adequate cables, bridles, hooks, etc., should be 
provided to hold the chains in place on the belt as recommended by tlie 
scale manufacturer. 

5.2.28.13 Tolerance Values 

(a) Material Test Tolerance 

All belt scales should be material-tested and adjusted to within 0.25% with 
repeatability. The spread between plus or minus figures should not exceed 0.25%. 

(h) Maintenance Tolerance 

All belt scales should maintain a 0.5% tolerance between material used. The 
spread between plus or minus figures should not exceed 0.5%. 

(c) Zero Tolerance 

All belt scales should maintain a zero balance of 0.1% for 10 minutes before use, 
and after sufficient warm-up of the belt. 

(d) Repeatability Tolerance 

All belt conveyor scales using simulated load testing equipment should be tested 
for a repeatability of not greater than 0.1% for at least 5 consecutive tests. The 
spread between plus or minus figures should not exceed 0.1%. 

5.2.28.14 Types of Tests Defined 

(a) Material Testing 

All belt conveyor scales should be material-tested before acceptance. Three to 
five such tests are required, with 10 to 15 car (or in some cases heavy truck) loads 
per test. If the weighing system is designed for individual car weights, the weight 
of each individual car should be in tolerance. 

(b) Maintenance Testing 

All belt conveyor scales should be maintained within a 0.5% tolerance between 
material tests, by using a simulated load test. Such tests should be conducted on a 
weekly basis, preferably as soon after actual use of die belt as possible. 

(c) Repeatability Test 

All belt conveyor scales should be tested for repeatability each time a Main- 
tenance Test is made and before Material Tests are run. 



Scales 291 

S.2.28.15 Standard Procedure for Tests 

(a) Scale and entire installation should be checked for confomiity with the 
above-listed rules and regulations. The scale and all component parts should be com- 
pletely installed and in good operating condition before any tests will be made. 

(b) The belt length and weight of chains per foot should be accurately measured 
so as to determine tons per foot of belt travel during chain tests. 

(c) The belt should be run at least 20 minutes before test begins in order to 
warm it up. At temperatures below 40 F, the wann-up time should be of longer 
duration. 

(d) Following warm-up, belt should be run for at least 10 minutes to detennine 
zero of scale. During this time, the zero reading should be constant. 

(e) After establishing that tlie scale holds its zero, 10 circuits of the belt should 
be run with the simulated load testing equipment in place on belt. In some instances, 
where the belt is long, only three circuits of the belt are required. 

If test chains are used, they should be held securely in place on the belt as the 
scale manufacturer recommends. 

If tests utilizing other than the above methods are contemplated, tlie approval 
of the serving rail carrier or its agent should be secured. 

Note: When other than test chains are used, onhj idlers of the highest quality 
and requiring lubrication daily should he used. Such idlers should he insialled on the 
iceighing element and for at least jive idler spaces before, and for at least five idler 
spaces after, the weighing element. Further, each week correct idler level should he 
determined with a string level. If any one, or more, of the above named idlers are 
out of level, the scale shotdd not be used until correction is made. Idlers with loorn 
bearings should be replaced. 

(f) Five more simulated load tests should then be run, with results of each test 
reading within 0.1% of the first test outlined in paragraph (e) above. This will 
establish repeatability. 

(g) If the scale has repeatability, 15 loads should tlien be weighed over the scale, 
at 50% to 98% capacity. A load is construed as a rail car load or truck load of high 
capacity. 

Note: In instances where procurement of rail cars proves difficult, 10 loads per 
test may be substituted. This is a calibration test and may have to be made several 
times in order to bring the iceighing device within the acceptable tolerance of 0.25%. 

(h) After the scale has been properly calibrated, three separate material tests, 
all within 0.25% with material being loaded at 50% to 98% of capacity, should then be 
made. Each test should consist of 15 loads. (Here again 10 loads per test may be 
substituted in the event rail cars are difficult to obtain.) 

(i) Following three successful material tests, five simulated load tests should 
again be made in order to establish a calibration factor, if needed. 

( j ) On successful completion of all tests, the scale should again be checked for 
zero. At this time, it will also be established that a service contract has been con- 
summated with a qualified belt scale service organization. 

(k) Material scale tests should be made once every six months, or as directed 
by the serving rail carrier or its agent. 



292 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(1) The material acceptance tolerance of 0.25^ should be maintained for 30 
days, and at any time the scale is overhauled or material tested by an authorized 
scale man. 

(m) A maintenance tolerance of 0.5% should be maintained by the user at all 
times after the scale is accepted. This may be assured by conducting tests at least 
once a week as outlined in paragraph (i) above, using the established calibration 
factor. 

(n) The rail carrier should be contacted at least two weeks before material 
tests are made to insure that sufficient cars are available. 

(o) Copies of weekly tests should be made available to the serving rail carrier 
or its agent. 

(p) Proof of weight for belt conveyor scales should be in the form of a printed 
weight ticket and rate-of-flow chart showing the scale was utilized between 50% 
and 98% of its capacity. The rate-of-flow chart should be dated corresponding widi 
cars in loading or unloading sequence. All of these records should be preserved 
together. 

(q) In instances where material testing can be satisfactorily performed weekly. 
Simulated Load Tests are not required. Copies of weekly tests, however, should be 
made available to the serving rail carrier or its agent. (See S.2.28.12) 

Definition of Terms Used in Connection with Belt Conveyor Scales 

Air Purge: The act of creating an atmosphere greater on the inside than outside, 
using clean, dry air, to discourage dust and other foreign matter. 

Belt Conveyor: An endless moving belt for transporting material from place to 
place.* 

Belt Conveyor Scale; ( Belt Scale ) ; ( Conveyor Scale ) : A device installed 
on a belt conveyor to measure the weight of bulk material being conveyed." 

Bend Pulley: A roller placed on the return side (underside) of a conveyor belt 
to turn its direction or to measure speed of belt. 

Cable Conveyor: A belt conveyor utilizing cable or rope as the supporting member 
for the conveyor on which the idlers are mounted. 

Calibrated Plate: A suitable metal plate, provided by the scale manufacturer, 
determined to have the same effect on a nuclear scale as a specified load or 
bulk material on the belt conveyor. A calibrated plate is the equivalent of a test 
chain or test weights used with other types of belt conveyor scales.* 

Chain: See Test Chain. 

Chart Recorder: A device used with a belt conveyor scale which records the rate- 
of-flow of bulk material over the scale at any given time. A recorded chart 
together with a record of weight constitutes proof of weight. 

Concave Curve: A change in the angle of inclination of a belt conveyor where 
the center of the curve is above the conveyor.* 

Convex Curve: A change in the angle of inclination of a belt conveyor where tlie 
center of the curve is below the conveyor.* 

Conveyor Stringers: Support members for the conveyor on which the idlers are 
mounted. 



* Taken from National Bureau of Standards Handbook 44. 



Scales 293 

Counter ( Remote ) : A numerical display in a location remote from the scale 
showing the tons (or pounds) of material that have been conveyed over the 
scale. 

Disc Chart: See Chart Recorder. 

Drive: The device or apparatus used to transmit energy from a motor to move the 
conveyor belt. 

Feeders: See Infeed. 

Gate: See Infeed. 

Gravity Type Wipers: A scraping or wiping device used to clean residue from the 
belt on the return side ( underside ) of the belt in the vicinity of the head pulley. 
The \\'iper is affixed to one end of an ann which has a weight hanging from the 
other end. The weight is such that the wiper is held against the belt. 

Head Pulley: The pulley at tlie discharge end of the belt conveyor. The power 
drive to drive the belt is generally applied to the head pulley." 

Idler Space: The center-to-center distance between idler rollers measured parallel 
to the belt." 

Idler Fr.\me: The frame or device which holds the idler rollers, affixed to the 
conveyor stringers. 

Idler or Idler Rollers: Freely turning cylinders mounted on a frame to support 
the conveyor belt. For a flat belt the idlers may consist of one or more horizontal 
cylinders transverse to the direction of belt travel. For a troughed belt, the 
idler will consist of one or more horizontal cylinders and one or more cylinders 
at an angle to the horizontal to lift the sides of the belt to fonn a trough.* 

Infeed: The gate, short belt, vibrator feeder, stroker feeder, etc., that deposits 
material on the belt conveyor to be weighed. 

Integrator: The "heart" of the belt conveyor scale. A device which integrates tlie 
speed of the belt with the weight of the material to produce tons (or pounds) 
per hour. The integrator may be electronic or mechanical and may be one of 
numerous patented designs. 

Lagged Pulley: See Swedged Pulley. 

L0.A.DING Point: The location at which material to be conveyed is applied to the 
conveyor. 

Master Totalizer: See Totalizer. 

Nuclear Type (non-contract) Scale: A device consisting of a source of nuclear 
radiation and a detector for that radiation. Absorption of radiation determines 
the mass of the material passing between the source and the detector." 

Printer: A device used to imprint on tickets, tape, or other papers, tlie tons (or 
pounds) of material Uiat have passed over the scale in a given time. (Such as 
per car or per train weights.) 

Pulley: A cylindrical roller over which the belt passes to change direction, such as 
the head pulley or tail pulley or bend pulley. 

Rate-of-Speed Detector: A device usually operated in conjunction with electronic 
load cell belt conveyor scales which transmits the speed of tlie belt to tlie 
integrator. Several types are in use, the most popular being eitlier a small 
generator whose voltage output is in direct relationship to the speed of the belt; 



' Taken from National Bureau of Standards Handbook 44. 



294 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

or a slotted disc mounted between a photo electric cell and light source which 
converts each pulse of light to an electronic signal to the integrator. 

Rated Capacity: That value representing the weight tliat can be delivered by 
the device in one hour.* 

Registration: The unit of weight in which the scale is calibrated, such as 5,000 lb, 
tons, long tons, metric tons, etc. 

Rope Conveyor: See Cable Conveyor. 

Simulated Weight Test: A test using artificial means of loading the scale to deter- 
mine the perfonnance of a belt conveyor scale.* 

Skirting: Stationary side boards or sections of belt conveyor attached to the con- 
veyor support frame or otlier stationary support to prevent tlie bulk material 
from falling off the side of the belt* Usually used at infeeds. 

Snubbed Pulley: See S wedged Pulley. 

Stringer: See Conveyor Stringer, 

Strip Chart: See Chart Recorder. 

Strip Heater: A thermostatically controlled heading strip (usually of the Calrod 
type) used to heat the scale or component parts sufficiently to prevent 
condensation. 

S wedged Pulley: A drive pulley with a vulcanized rubber coating molded in a high 
friction pattern to prevent slippage of the belt under load. 

Swivel Idler: An idler frame pivoted in its center to the idler stringers so tliat it 
may change position. Tracking idlers are mounted beside the troughing idlers 
so that if the belt rides off center the pressure on the tracking idler forces the 
swivel idler to turn, thus realigning the belt on the conveying idlers. 

Tail Pulley: The pulley at tlie opposite end of the conveyor from the head pulley.* 

Take-up: A device to assure sufficient tension in a conveyor belt that the belt will 
be positively driven by the drive pulley. A gravity take-up consists of a hori- 
zontal pulley free to move in either tlie vertical or horizontal direction with 
the dead weights applied to the pulley shaft to provide the tension required. 
A jack or screw take-up consists of a device that must be manually adjusted 
to move the tail pulley to increase or decrease tension. A hydrauUc take-up 
consists of hydraulic cylinders mounted on either side of both ends of the tail 
pulley. Wlien properly activated, the hydraulic cylinders will move tlie tail 
pulley to increase or decrease tension on the belt. 

Take-up Guides: Guides or tracks on either side of the gravity take-up weight to 
prevent horizontal movement of that weight. 

Test Chain: A device consisting of a series of rollers or wheels linked together in 
such a manner as to assure uniformity of weight and freedom of motion to 
reduce wear, with consequent loss of weight to a minimum.* 

Totalizer: A device used witli a belt conveyor scale to indicate the weight of ma- 
terial which has been conveyed over the scale. The master weight totalizer is 
the primary indicating element of the belt conveyor scale. An auxiliary vernier 
counter used for scale calibration is not (necessarily) part of tlie master weight 
totalizer. Auxiliary remote totahzers may be provided. The totalizer shows the 
accumulated weight and may be non-resettable or may be reset to zero to 
measure a definite amount of material conveyed. 



* Taken from National Bureau of Standards Handbook 44. 



Scales 295 

Tracking Idlers: Usually small c>linders vertically mounted on shafts affixed to 
a swivel idler frame. The purpose is to allow the side of the belt to rub against 
the tracking idler, forcing the swi\el idler frame to turn, thus realigning the belt. 

Training Idlers: Idlers of special design or mounting intended to shift the belt 
sideways on the conveyor to assure the belt is centered on the conveying idlers.* 

Tripper: A device for unloading a belt conveyor at a point between the loading 
point and die head pulley.** 

Wing Pulley: A pulley usually used as tire tail pulley, made of widely spaced 
metal bars in order to set up a vibration to shake loose material off the under- 
side (return side) of tlie belt. The use of such a pulley is definitely not recom- 
mended unless the conveyor stringers under the scale are thoroughly braced 
with their own support. 

Wiper: See Gravity Type Wiper. 



' Taken from National Bureau of Standards Handbook 44. 

Report on Assignment 1 

Location of Scales for Railroad 
Coupled-in-Motion Weighing 

E. SzAKS (chairman, subcommittee), R. F. Beck, H. E. Buchanan, J. L. Dahlrot, 
O. C. Denz, J. L. FiNNELL, J. A. Hawley, I. M. Hawver, V. L. Lovitery, 
E. J. MicoNo, N. S. Patel, K. D. Tidwell. 

A SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR SELECTING 
A COUPLED-IN-MOTION WEIGHING SYSTEM SITE 

The prerequisites in selecting a site for installation of a coupled-in-motion 
weighing system are those which will permit the entire train to be weighed to move 
over the predetermined point in such a manner that the effects upon weight transfer 
from car to car will be minimized in weighing functions. The train must approach 
the facility and move over the weighing device at a constant, steady speed of be- 
tween 3 to 5 mph, but not to exceed 6 mph. The train should be moved over the 
facility in a slow, steady movement, that is, one in which the train is not being pulled 
with tlie ( diesel ) locomotive throttle in more than the first or second position, gener- 
ating about 200 amp of power, so as to prevent the train being stretched severely. 
At the same time, tlie train should not be bunched, or shoved by its rear end, as a 
result of using either the independent or dynamic brakes. The train handling must 
be such as to prevent all slack action. All automatic air brakes and hand brakes 
on cars must be fully released. 

The number of cars to be handled at a given time over the weighing device 
should be given careful consideration. The maximum number of cars to be handled 
in a single train may dictate the grade and curvature which can be tolerated to 
maintain the proper weighing speed, and at the same time cause cars to move over 
the device in such a manner as to produce acceptable results. Generally, die site 
selection should be such that the existing grade and curvature will so compensate 
for each other that cars will move over the device in a non-accelerating mode. 



296 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Additionally, the device should be located so tliat a train originating and having 
cars to be weighed would pass over the weighing device without change of consist 
or train-order standing. The foregoing condition is one requiring special consideration 
where car identification may become a concern. Bi-directional use of the device, 
eitlier pushing or pulling, should be an item to be recognized. 

The coupled-in-motion type of weighing requires a high standard of mainte- 
nance, in fact, a standard approaching perfection of maintenance work. The high 
standard of maintenance is necessary to insure that the approach and retreat, the 
ballasted track on either end of the device, and tlie weight or load-receiving elements 
will be stable in that the dynamics of moving cars will be minimized. 

Before a site is definitely selected, a test train or trains having the proposed 
consist to be weighed should be run over the site. Observers on both the engine 
and on the ground should carefully check tlie actual train handling requirements at 
the proposed site. 

It is desirable to prepare a questionnaire which might point out a number of 
items necessary to be considered for the proposed location of the weighing device. 
Questions contained in tlie evaluation are oriented to stimulate interest in planning 
for operating or transportation conditions, construction, maintenance and other 
factors which may have an effect upon the location of the weighing system. There 
are seven general scopes listed as items to be followed. These seven scopes are out- 
lined as follows: 

1. Train Handling 

1.1. What will be the maximum number of cars handled in a train or cut of 
cars at one time? 

1.2. What will be the minimum number of cars handled in a train or cut of 
cars at one time? 

1.3. Can the train speed be reduced without use of the automatic air brake 
as the train approaches the scale site? 

1.4. Must train be stopped before being weighed? 

1.5. If stopped, can a speed of 5 mph be attained before reaching the scale 
site without slack action? 

1.6. Will train brakes be fully released? 

1.7. Can train speed be controlled using diesel dynamic brake? 

1.8. Can train speed be controlled using diesel independent brake? 

1.9. Will train be shoved by its rear end moving over scale? 

1.10. Will train be bunched moving over track scale? 

1.11. Will engineer use throttle to pull train over track scale? 

1.12. Will engineer use more than throttle position No. 2 or about 200 amp 
power to pull train over scale? 

1.13. Will train be stretched moving over scale? 

1.14. If stretched, can vertical movement of couplers be observed? 

1.15. Can slack action be prevented? 

1.16. Will train drift over the scale site? 

1.17. If the train is stopped on the scale for any reason, can it be started again 
without slack action? 



Scales 297 

1.18. If stop is made on scale, can the train be started witliout taking slack? 

2. Train Operation 

2.1. Will train be delayed approaching track scale due to train handling 
characteristics? 

2.2. Will following trains be critically delayed? 

2.3. WiU opposing trains be critically delayed? 

2.4. Does the track scale location permit holding a train to be weighed? 

2.5. Does the track scale location pennit holding a train that has been weighed? 

2.6. Must all trains pulling over the track, pull over track scale? (Maximum 
speed 10 mph) 

2.7. Will difficulty be encountered in train handling account of slack action, 
the result of grade conditions? 

2.8. Will difficulty be encountered in train handling because of over-speed? 

2.9. Will train stall on scale? 

2.10. Is scale location desirable for bi-directional weighing? 

2.11. Is scale location desirable for westbound weighing only? 

2.12. Is scale location desirable for eastbound weighing only? 

2.13. Will train consist be changed due to set-off westbound? 

2.14. Will train consist be changed due to pickup westbound? 

2.15. Will train consist be changed due to set-off eastbound? 

2.16. Will train consist be changed due to pickup eastbound? 

2.17. WiU scale location adversely affect train operation beyond the scale site? 

2.18. Will train operation leaving scale be adversely affected critically account 
of wet rail conditions otherwise not encountered? 

3. Physical Characteristics 

(Witliin 200 car lengths maximum cut or train length in botli directions from 
track scale location) 

3.1. Is grade satisfactory approaching scale? To satisfy 1.9 and 1.12. 

3.2. Is grade satisfactory leaving scale? To satisfy 1.9 and 1.12. 

3.3. Is track alignment less than 4" approaching the scale site? 

3.4. Is track alignment less than 4° leaving the scale site? 

3.5. Can a train or cut of cars move over the scale without the use of sand 
under the locomotive? 

4. Easy Accessibility to Scale 

4.1. During construction? 

4.2. For daily maintenance? 

4.3. For supervising operations? 

4.4. To prevent vandalism? 

5. Local Operations 

5.1. Will scale location interfere with local or mine run operations? 

5.2. Will scale location adversely afifect local operations? 

5.3. Does scale location require dead or running rail design? 



298 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

6. Scale Geography 

6.1. Will scale location interfere with operations during construction period? 

6.2. Will scale be located so as to be affected by high water conditions? 

6.3. Will snow conditions affect operation of scale? 

6.4. Will winter snow and ice accumulation be controlled? 

6.5. Can scale location be adapted to bi-directional weighing? 

6.6. Will scale location permit push and pull weighing in both directions? 

6.7. Is scale attendant required? Will remote ACI be used? 

6.8. Is the use of a spring switch at tlie exit end of scale pullout track objection- 
able? 

6.9. Will the scale be located within yard limits? 

6.9.1. Will the location of the device reflect delay to switching operations? 

6.10. WiU the scale be outside of yard limits? 

6.11. Will operating, transportation or maintenance agreements enter into the 
selection of a scale site? 

6.12. When the weighing system fails, what course of action will be followed? 
(Load Cells) (Cabling) 

6.12.1. Take trains to another location for weighing? 

6.12.2. Back train over the scale installation and attempt to rerun or 
re weigh? 

6.12.3. Hold train for scale to be repaired? 

6.13. Is the location of the proposed scale proper from an operating standpoint? 

6.14. Would another location of the proposed scale be preferred from an oper- 
ating standpoint? 

6.15. If another location should be considered, please explain. 

6.16. What types of freight will be weighed on the proposed device? 

6.17. What types of cars will be weighed? 

6.18. Can weight, rate, freight charges and other infomiation be applied to 
"waybill" witliout delay to the train? 

6.19. Must a completed "waybill" document accompany the car after it has 
been weighed, or may it travel with another type of document? 

7. Testing Requirements 

7.1. Will device location permit testing at the required intervals without undue 
delay? 

7.2. Are rail cars readily available for testing purposes? 

7.3. Are crews readily available for testing? 

7.4. Is a static scale readily available for coupled-in-motion testing procedures, 
if it be necessary? 

7.5. Does the static scale used for comparison purposes meet a strain test of 
zero error? 

7.6. Refer to AREA Manual, Chapter 14, Part S— Scales (1973), Items S.1.1 
and S.1.1.2. 



Report of Committee 22 — Economics of Railway- 
Construction and Maintenance 









R. W. Bailey 


.^Kl^m^ 






F. S. Barkeh 


/^^^ 






A. S. Barr 


/ " .^sSitll 


L 




C. D. Barton 

A. BORXHOFT 

J. W. Brent 
R. G. Brohaugh 


^jM 


i 




J. S. Busby 


r 




L. B. Cann, Jr. 


^'^iml^^M 


1 




A. W. Carlson 
J. R. Clark 
W. H. Clark 
S. A. Cooper 
M. H. Dick 

H. B. DuRRANT 

L. C. Gilbert 
Wm. Glavin 
C. R. Harrell 


H. C. MiNTEER, 


Chairm 


an 


W. H. Hoar 


John Fox, Vice 


Chairman 


B. G. Hudson 


P. A. COSGROVE, 


Secretary 


|. C. Hunsberger 


J. A. Caywood 




J. T. Hunter 


J. T. Sullivan 




R. D. Johnson 


J. A. Naylor 




C. Johnston 


Mike Rougas 




H. W. Kellogg (E 


T. P. Woll 




H. W. Kimble 


W. J. Jones 




W. E. Laird 


A. E. Shaw, Jr 




G. LiLJEBLAD 


H. B. Berkshire 




L. A. Loggins (E) 


R. J. ASCHMEYER 






J. M. LO-WTIY 



A. L. Maynard 
J. R. Miller 

E. T. Myers 

G. M. O'Rourke (E) 

M. E. Paisley 

R. W. Pember 

G. G. Phillips 

C. T. PoPMA 

R. W. Preisendefer 

F. L. Rees 
M. S. Reid 

C. L. Robinson 

G. E. SCHOLZE 

H. W. Seeley 
R. G. Simmons 
N. E. Smith 
W. B. Stackhouse 
J. St.\ng 

J. E. Sunderland 
W. A. Swartz 
S. W. Sweet 

D. D. Thomas 
H. J. Umberger 
J. D. Vaughan 
I. T. Ward 

"G. E. Warfel 
G. H. Winter 

F. R. WOOLFORD (E) 
B. J. WORLEY 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman and 
secretar>-, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 

A complete revision of Chapter 22 of the Manual was published in 
Bulletin 645, November-December 1973. Portions of the new material 
were reviewed and revised during the past year, and the entire new 
chapter, as revised, has been approxed by the Board of Direction. It 
will be issued in the 1975 Manual Supplement. 

1. Analysis of Operations of Railways That Ha\e Substantially Reduced 
the Cost of Construction and Maintenance of Way Work. 

Progress report, submitted as information page 301 

2. Study to Establish New Equated Mileage Parameters. 
Study is in progress and will be continued. 

3. Economics of Producing Continuous Welded Rail by In-Track Welding. 
Study has been made and a report on this subject will be submitted 
in the committee's next report. 



299 



300 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

4. Use of Track Analyzer Car in Inspection of Track and Maintenance 
Planning. 

A progress report is being prepared. 

5. Comparative Costs of Cleaning Ballast Vs. Ballast Replacement in 
Track Rehabilitation. 

Final report, submitted as information page 312 

6. Economics of Installing Bonded Insulated Joints in Field Vs. Shop 
Fabrication, and Economics of Bonded Joints Vs. Field Welds to 
Connect CWR. 

Final report, submitted as information page 318 

7. Determine the Economics of Work Equipment Vs. Small Machines or 
Hand Labor on High-Density Lines with Limited Track Time. 

No report. 

The Committee on Economics of Railway 
Construction and Maintenance, 

H. C. MiNTEER, chairman. 



Cljarles! 3^ap Mvigfyt 

1885=1974 

Charles Ray Wright, retired assistant chief engineer of the former New York, 
Chicago & St. Louis Railroad (now part of the Norfolk & Western Railway), passed 
away at his home in Cleveland, Ohio, on September 4, 1974, at the age of 89. 

Mr. Wright was born at Ravenna, Ohio, on June 10, 1885. He was educated in 
the public schools and the Case Institute of Applied Science and entered the service 
of the NYC & St L in the engineering department on April 16, 1906. After serving 
in various positions in the engineering department, he was appointed division 
engineer on September 15, 1919, serving in that capacity on several divisions until 
his appointment as assistant chief engineer on September 1, 1940. He retired on 
July 1, 1955, after more than 49 years of continuous railroad service. 

Mr. Wright joined the AREA in 1920 and was for many years an active and 
valuable member of Committee 22. After his retirement, he was elected a Member 
Emeritus. 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 301 

Report on Assignment 1 

Analysis of Operations of Railways That Have 

Substantially Reduced the Cost of Construction 

and Maintenance of Way Work 

J. T. Sullivan (chairman, subcommittee), Arlie Bornhoft, L. B. Cann, Jr., A. W. 
Carlson, W. H. Hoar, B. G. Hudson, R. W. Preisendefer, W. B. Stackhouse, 
D. D. Thomas, J. T. Ward, H. E. Wilson. 

This report is submitted as information. It deals with the Canadian Pacific 
Limited, Weston Frog and Switch Manufacturing Shop at Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
Canada. This report further deals with the double-tracking of the Canadian National 
Railways' Prairie Region utilizing concrete crossties and welded rail. Information 
for this report was obtained in conjunction with a meeting of Committee 22 held 
on June 9 and 10, 1975, at Winnipeg. 

The CP's Weston Frog and Switch Manufacturing Shop fabricates all types 
of special trackwork products for exclusive use on the CP system. Research, develop- 
ment, and engineering is performed by the office of the chief engineer with all 
trackwork production under the supervision of the motive power and rolling stock 
department in accordance with CP and AREA specifications. 

The present shop is the outgrowth of two separate system shops now integrated 
into one shop centrally located at the mid-point of the CP system. Research for the 
modernization of this shop started in 1969 with complete investigation into each 
manufacturing phase to facilitate use of existing machinery and select die most 
modern equipment to meet present and future trackwork production requirements. 
Originally, the former shops, located at Winnipeg and Montreal, employed approxi- 
mately 145, but with modernization and improved manufacturing techniques, this 
force has been reduced to 75, including supervision. Shop construction commenced 
in 1971 in conjunction with machinery procurements, etc., and trackwork production 
continued on a reduced scale. Completion of the shop was in late 1972, although 
the CP is continually upgrading with small machines, tooling, jigs, fixtures to con- 
stantly improve techniques and productivity. 

This shop manufactures parts for a complete turnout, including heel-block 
assemblies, guard rails, switch stand assemblies, plates, switch points, frogs, and bolts. 
Also, special rail assemblies, rail-bound manganese and diamond crossings, and 
double-slip switches are fabricated. Insulated gage plates, riser slide plates, turnout 
plates, special flat seat tie plates, and miscellaneous cut seat plates are produced. 

The rail required for trackwork products is brought into the shop area via rail 
where it is ofl:-loaded by overhead gantry cranes. The cranes then handle the rail 
into a cropping saw where it is cut to various lengths for product manufacture. From 
tliis location, the precut sections are moved into tlie main shop building by means of 
a conveyor which passes through the wall of the building. Once inside, the sections 
are handled by overhead cranes to the various product manufacturing locations. 

When manufacturing switch points, the necessary straps are fastened to the 
precut rail sections, the clamped assembly is placed into a drill wlicre all holes are 
drilled simultaneously, and from there, the drilled section is passed to milling 
machines which are programmed for final machining of the appropriate point. The 



302 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

two mainline rail sections for the CP are 132 RE and 115 RE with considerable 
maintenance requirements for existing 130 RE-HF and 100 RE-HF sections. Switch 
point production in these sections consists of 11 ft, 16 ft 6 in., and 22 ft lengths 
with limited quantities of 13 ft and 39 ft cun'ed points for use in No. 20 turnouts. 

The CP uses the built-up design guard rail with adjustable blocks with all 
132-lb and 115-lb rails produced in special chrome rail. Guard rail lengths are 8 ft 
3 in., 11 ft 6 in., 13 ft 8 in., and 18 ft. Manganese steel guard rails are no longer 
used on the CP. 

Complete heelblock assemblies for four-hole design, fixed position, with no 
sliding heel are fabricated. The assemblies consist of block, joint bars and shoulder 
bolts, complete. 

Switch stands are complete assemblies for use as ground, low intermediate and 
high position complete with eye bolts, masts, and targets. 

Rail-bound manganese steel frogs are machined and assembled. In addition, 
some spring frogs are manufactured for specific locations. To supplement new frog 
requirements, the CP has two reclamation frog shops located at Montreal and Leth- 
bridge. The rebuilds are primarily rail-bound manganese with some built-up and 
solid manganese. 

All new frog construction utilizes special chrome rail M'ith explosive depth 
hardening of the manganese steel insert castings. Approximately 15 miles from the 
shop area, the CP has an area for perfonnance of depth hardening. At this location, 
there is a work platform approximately 5 ft in height, 10 to 12 ft in width, and 
approximately 30 ft long. This structure is built with wooden timber sidewalls 
witli the center filled with sand. Transport to this site is by specially equipped truck 
with a bed and boom for handling the steel inserts. The truck is also equipped with 
a special box for movement of explosives from the storage magazine to the work 
platform. 

The casting is placed on the sand bed of the platform, thoroughly cleaned, and 
adhesive added to the clean casting before applying sheet type explosive. The ex- 
plosion is then set off from a remote position by a detonator, with each casting 





immJ 


i£^^ 


I 






xm « - 


'""^^gmj 



Fig. 1 — Preparing frog casting for depth hardening. 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 303 




Fig. 2 — Frog casting ready for explosii 



304 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

receiving three blasts. Tlie first shock results in approximately 300 Brinell hardness, 
the second 340 to 350, and the third 375. Depth hardening by this process has proven 
able to proN'ide a service life of 100,000,000 to 120,000,000 tons where previously 
60,000,000 tons was normal for a frog casting on the CP line. At the present time, 
this method of depth hardening costs approximately $250 per casting. 

Weston Fhog and SwrrcH Manufacturing Shop 
1974 Production 

Switch points (varying lengths) 1,663 each 

Guard rail assembly 492 each 

Heelblock assembly 294 each 

Switch stand assembly 484 each 

Plates ( various types ) 23,000 each 

Frogs ( new ) 454 each 

Frogs ( reclaimed ) 600 each 

Special rail assemblies 2,641 tons 

This modern shop is well equipped to supply the needs of the CP. 
The CP is well pleased with the results of their operation and feel that the 
expenditures for construction have been economically justified by results to date. 

DOUBLE-TRACKING ON THE CANADIAN NATIONAL 

On June 10, Committee 22 inspected new mainline hack construction being 
performed by the Canadian National Railways on its Prairie Region. The CN is 
constructing a second mainline from Winnipeg to Portage on the Rivers subdivision, 
Mile 6.87 to Mile 52.17. The project calls for the installation of two-directional 
double-track CTC with intermediate signals for following moves. Track will be 
signalled for 80 mph operation. Double high-speed crossovers will be installed at 
Mile 14.3 and a passing track will be constructed at Mile 32 to Mile 33.5 which 
is to be situated between the two main tracks where it may be used as a crossover 
as well as for overtake in both directions by trains on either track. At the Assiniboine 
River bridge. Mile 50.5, single track will be maintained wih No. 20 equilateral 
turnouts placed at both ends wliich will give additional capabilities. The new aline- 
ment will have a paralleling track on 15-ft track centers with the existing line. 

The track section is to be built using concrete crossties on 24-in. centers carrying 
132 RE rail in 1,170-ft strings. Project calls for 496,566 lin ft of 132-lb continuous 
welded rail. The strings are being joined by thermite welding in the field. Approxi- 
mately 121,000 concrete crossties will be installed. New turnouts will include four 
No. 20 equilaterals, eight No. 20 turnouts, eighteen No. 12 turnouts and one 132-lb 
manganese diamond. Three prestressed bridges are to be located at Mile 17.3, Mile 
30.8 and Mile 49.3. This project will include 12 power switches, 34 CTC signals, 
approximately 250,000 ft of underground cable, 750,000 ft of line wire, 170 DC 
track circuits, and 12 compressed air snow removal systems at four sites. 

Grading is being performed by a contractor, and it is estimated that 450,000 
cu yd of material will be moved when constructing the subgrade. Approximately 
392,000 cu yd of sub-ballast is to be brought by air-dump cars from River Manitoba, 
a 200-mile round trip. The subgrade cross-section is to have no less than 21 in. of 
pit-run sub-ballast topped with 12 in. of crushed rock ballast under the tie, giving 
full depth of crushed rock of 18 in. once the cribs have been filled. Approximately 

(Text continued on page 309) 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 305 




Fig. 3 — Concrete ties and welded rail on the CN. 



306 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 



' " ^ ^>?- '' i. 




Fig. 4 — Thermite welding on the CN. 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 307 




Fig. 5 — No. 20 turnout under construction. 



308 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 




Fig. 6 — Unloading concrete crossties onto the roadbed. 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 309 




Fig. 7 — Distributing and spacing concrete crossties. 

238,000 cu yd of crushed-rock ballast will be brought in by work train from Wat- 
comb, a 600-mile round trip. 

Concrete crossties are transported on special tie cars with each car having six 
bundles of 30 ties each, or 180 ties per car. The ties are off-loaded tlirough use of 
an off-track mobile crane driving on compacted subgrade and utilizing a specially 
manufactured steel tie-handling rack. The rack is placed under the bundle, lifted 
from the car, and placed at intervals on two wooden ties positioned on the subgrade. 
Unloading of ties is dependent upon the amount of track time; however, the operation 
is capable of unloading as many as eight carloads per worktrain day. 

Once the ties are unloaded on the roadbed, they are distributed tlirough the use 
of a rubber-tired straddle-axled crane and anodier special lifting device. The ties 
are handled six at a time from the bundles and placed at tlie proper spacing. Proper 
alinement of ties is controlled by a specially made gage which runs on the near rail 
of the adjacent track. The concrete crossties are manufactured to CN specifications, 
rail fasteners are applied by a six-man gang using sledge hammers; however, this 
process is to be mechanized in the near future. 

Once ties are unloaded and properly spaced, welded rail is unloaded from a rail 
train to tlie ties. The rail is off-loaded from tlie end of a rail car of the worktrain 
occupying the dead track to specially designed rollers. This eliminates delays incurred 
by heavy mainline traffic. Once the rail is placed on tlie tie seat, the tie pad is 
applied, after which the rail is fastened to the tie. 

In summary, the project which started in 1973 is scheduled for completion 
in 1976 and will result in a double-track mainline track structure consisting of 
concrete crossties and 132-lb welded rail. In 1974 this section of tlie CN's track 
handled 40 trains per day with 43.8 million gross tons. Annual tonnage is expected 
to increase to 80 million gross tons in 1980 and 85 million gross tons in 1985. 



310 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 




Fig. 8 — Applying rail fasteners. 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 311 




Fig. 9 — Portable roller used in unloading welded rail from worktrain to concrete 

ties on roadbed. 



312 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 5 

Comparative Costs of Cleaning Ballast Versus Ballast 
Replacement In Track Rehabilitation 

W. J. Jones (chairman, subcommittee), A. S. Barr, J. S. Busby, J. R. Claiuc, H. W. 
Kellogg, Guy Liljeblad, E. T. Myers, Mike Rougas, G. E. Scholze, J. E. 
Sunderland. 

Yovir subcommittee submits the following reiJort as information. Comments and 
criticisms are welcome. 

Cutbacks in rail and tie renewals are commonplace during periods of depressed 
business activity because of tlie large amount of money involved in such items. To 
a lesser extent, retrenchments also occur in reballasting programs. However, by and 
large, a certain amount of maintenance money is expended for ballast in tlie day-to- 
day maintenance of track. 

In the aggregate, the value of ballast that is consumed annually represents a 
sizeable sum. The AAR reported that Class I carriers spent $36,837,000 for ballast 
in 1973 and $45,183,000 in 1974, excluding transportation costs. 

Ballast Is Indispensable to the Safety of Track 

Unless a full ballast section (of quality material) is maintained at all times, 
track will develop irregularities in surface, line, and gage. The nmnber of slow orders 
required will rise. Joint pumping will increase, accelerating joint wear and rail-end 
batter. Partially exposed ties are more vulnerable to destruction by a derailed wheel. 
Threat of sun-kinks will multiply. The overall result will be a sharp increase in the 
cost of ordinary track maintenance or a reduction in maintenance standards. Thus, 
it is apparent that a relatively substantial quantity of ballast must be provided almost 
daily, on almost all roads. 

There are 330,000 miles of railroad track in this country. Assuming an average 
of 2,500 cu yd of ballast per mile and a cost of $4.00 per yard for ballast in place 
(conservative at today's prices), we find that ballast represents an asset worth $3.3 
biUion. Accordingly, everything practical should be done to protect this investment 
and, concurrendy, to economize in ballast expenditures, wherever possible. 

An adequate ballast section is indispensable to the efficient maintenance of 
every class of track. Basically, ballast consists of selected materials placed on the 
roadbed for the purpose of holding the track to the desired line and surface. For 
ballast to be considered "adequate," it must possess specific physical properties and 
it must meet fixed functional requirements. 

Requirements of Good Ballast 

Good ballast should be sound, hard, tough, clean, heavy, sharp-faced and 
nonconductive. Desirably, ballast should be available in abundant supply, close to 
the point of use, and at an economical price per cubic yard. Ballast gradation between 
minimum and maximum allowable sizes should be such as to pennit ballast to com- 
pact readdy in the track. 

To be functionally satisfactory, ballast should: 

1. Provide a firm bearing for the ties and distribute the wheel loads uniformly 
over the roadbed. 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 313 

2. Provide propei- drainage. 

3. Afford a means for the elimination or reduction of capillary action. 

4. FiU the spaces behveen the ties and form a shoulder from tie ends to sub- 
grade, thereby holding the ties in the proper position, while resisting 
lateral forces exerted by the wheel against the rail. 

5. Retard vegetal growth within tlie track area. 

6. Facilitate track work, particularly during periods of rainy weather. 

7. Provide resilient and elastic support of ties and rail. 

Foul Ballast Adversely Affects Maintenance 

With respect to the physical properties of good ballast, aU of them are relatively 
permanent by nature, except one — cleanliness. Ballast commences to get dirty soon 
after it is put in track and subjected to traffic. Fine particles of dirt and other foreign 
matter enter the ballast from spilled lading, locomotive sanding, wind- and water- 
carried soils, subgrade material working into the ballast, and attrition of the ballast 
itself. 

Water enters the ballast from above as rainfall and from below by capillary 
action. When water and dirt combine, drainage is impaired. Vegetal growth is en- 
couraged; ties pump; line and surface deteriorate; and wear of rail, fastenings and 
ties accelerates. Ballast loses its resiliency and is no longer capable of properly 
distributing loads from the track to the subgrade. Moreover, as determined recently 
in the Track-Train Dynamics studies, increased lateral forces are encountered in 
track with frozen ballast, or tightly consolidated ballast polluted by sand. 

As the ballast becomes fouled, track maintenance becomes more difficult and 
more expensive. The condition soon reaches the point that something must be done. 
The maintenance manager must decide whether to clean part or all of the ballast 
section, plow out the dirty ballast and provide an entire new section of fresh ballast, 
or make a nominal surfacing raise on existing ballast and fill in the voids surrounding 
the ties with fresh ballast. 

Source of Information 

In order to learn what is being done in this regard and to develop the cost 
associated with current practices, a questionnaire was sent to representatives of 30 
railroads. Twelve written replies were received and verbal infonnation was supplied 
from four others. The answers were tabulated and unweighted averages computed 
without regard for miles of lines maintained, tonnages carried, etc. 

The replies were quite similar and are summarized as follows: 

1. Quality ballast is preferred over inferior . grades, even though first cost 
is greater and longer haul involved. 

2. Ballast supply is adequate for all needs for all responding roads. 

3. Ballast cars are in short supply on two-thirds of the roads responding to 
questionnaire. 

4. Average cost of ballast is $2.70 per cubic yard, FOB car.^ 

5. Ballast is hauled an average of 155 miles from source to point of use. 

6. Ballast moves on, and is unloaded by, through freight in the majority 
of cases. When not unloaded by through freight, cars are set out for 
pick-up and dmnping by work train. 

7. Average cost of work train is $525 for a 12-hour day. 



1 All prices, wages, rates, etc., are based on 1974 figures. 



314 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

8. In retimbering ahead of surfacing operation, an average of 611 cross 
ties per mile are installed by the tie gang at an average labor cost per tie 
of 0.65 man-hour.^ This compares to 0.19 man-hour per tie where ties 
are installed in conjunction with operation of undertrack plow. (Cost 
figure for ties renewed while undercutting-cleaning was not available.) 

9. An average of 414 cu yd of ballast per mile are required for 2-in. sur- 
facing raise and 700 cu yd for 3-in. raise, compared to 2,528 cu yd 
behind plow and 525 cu yd with undercutter-cleaner. 

10. An average of 420 track feet per hour are undercut and cleaned, 6 in. 
below bottom of ties. Daily production with undertrack plow is 3,660 ft. 

11. Surfacing raises are made every 4 to 5 years. Interval between under- 
cutting-cleaning is 9 years. Customarily, the undertrack plow is used 
only once at a given location, to dispose of an inferior quality or heavily 
polluted ballast. 

12. The majority of the respondents advised that their interest in under- 
cutting-cleaning would heighten if they could be assured of 1,000 ft per 
hour production. 

Advantages of Undercutting-Cleaning 

1. Removing all the ballast from the track to a specified depth below the 
bottom of tie, screening out the dirt, sand and otlier undesirable material, 
and returning tlie clean ballast to the track for making an appropriate 
raise is the only sure way of restoring resiliency and drainage to the track. 

2. Established grades are preserved. This is particularly important with 
respect to meeting existing track crossings and road crossings at grade, 
bridge ends, station platforms and turnouts. Also, established grade rela- 
tionship with adjoining tracks is not disturbed, thus precluding the need 
for reworking or raising walkways and inner track areas. 

3. Vertical clearances in tunnels and beneath overhead structures are not ad- 
versely afi^ected. Occasionally, oppoitunity exists to improve upon tlie 
clearance. 

4. Subgrade widths remain unaltered, thereby avoiding the expense involved 
in restoring or widening embankments to adequately support the track or 
to prevent loss of ballast. 

5. It helps to preserve dwindling resources of ballast material. 

Disadvantages 

1. Rate of progress with present equipment is relatively slow. Usually a 
minimum of three to four hours undisturbed track occupancy is necessary 
to justify the expense of set-up and making run-off. Excessive train delays 
are frequent. (Improvements are being made in the design and method 
of operation of the equipment aimed at speeding up undercutting- 
cleaning. ) 

2. A substantial portion of ballast is wasted. For efiiciency of cleaning opera- 
ation, screen openings must be large enough for pollutants to pass freely, 
at an acceptable rate of production. Too large a screen opening results 
in an increase in ballast wastage. Too small an opening causes the screen 
to overload or results in a less than satisfactory job of cleaning. 



2 Average hourly rate for laborer is $4,624, and for foreman $5,565. 



Econo mics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 315 

3. During periods of restricted maintenance allowances, there may not be 
sufficient allowance to support the operation. 

4. To be economically feasible, there must be enough work for the under- 
cutter-cleaner to justify the cost of the equipment. 

5. The cleaning operation produces a lot of dust which is drawing more and 
more attention by ecologists. Some incorporated areas prohibit the use 
of ballast cleaning equipment and issue citations when the equipment is 
operated. 

Shoulder Ballast Cleaning 

Shoulder ballast cleaning produces worthwhile benefits. However, this operation 
is not to be performed in lieu of undercutting-cleaning nor is shoulder ballast 
cleaning considered as a substitute for a surfacing raise. 

The ballast in the shoulders makes up 35% to 40% of the total ballast section. 
It is essential for the shoulders to be kept open so that water will not impound in 
the track. Keeping the shoulders clean will aid in preventing the formation of 
"mud-socks" at tie ends. Additionally, clean shoulders will permit some leaching out 
of dirt and sand from the "cribs" and "eyes." Unfortunately, however, once the 
ballast under the ties is fouled and consolidated to tire point that it has lost its 
cushion, and drainage is impaired, shoulder cleaning cannot materially mitigate the 
problem. 

Application of Undertrack Plow 

It is not economical to contend with an inferior grade of ballast. For years 
native materials, gravels, cinders, soft sedimentary rock and other materials — 
locally available — were frequently used as ballast on branch lines, secondary mains 
and — in some cases — on primary mains, due to the ease of accessibility and cost of 
such ballast. However, the increase in axle loads and die increase in train speeds 
soon proved the inadequacy of subquality ballast. The sooner it is replaced with 
quality ballast, the better, from all standpoints. 

The quickest and most economical way to dispose of unwanted ballast is by 
use of the undertrack plow. There are locations, however, where, due to physical 
restrictions and clearances, it is not feasible to plow, e.g., through station platforms, 
in tunnels and beneath overhead structures with tight vertical clearance. 

The principal advantage of the imdertrack plow in skeletonizing track is its 
high-production capacity. Other advantages are: ( 1 ) Ties are renewed at very low 
unit cost, (2) Selection of ties for renewal is facilitated and a better job of marking 
is possible since the whole tie is visible, and (3) Where necessary, track realignment 
is performed with minimum efl^ort. 

Disadvantages are: (1) Track must be occupied by maintenance crew for a 
relatively long period of time before track is readied for resumption of traflBc; (2) 
The operation usually results in heavy tie renewals, which could represent too large 
a percentage of the available tie program; (3) Adjustments must be made in grade 
at crossings, bridge ends and switches, else other methods must be employed to 
remove ballast in approach to such fixed grade points; ( 4 ) A large quantity of ballast 
must be available on a daily basis to fill in the skeletonized track. This requires an 
adequate supply of ballast cars to keep the program moving forward (two-thirds 
of the respondents to questionnaire advised that ballast cars were in short supply); 
and (5) Slow orders are usually extensive in length and duration and involve 
comparatively low speeds. 



316 Bulletin 656 — American Rail way Engineering Association 

Pros and Cons in Making Surfacing Raises 

Historically, it has been the practice on the majority of railroads in this country 
for tracks to be gi\'en periodic surfacing raises to improve the riding quality. Except 
for special locations, such as on mountain grades where locomotive sanding occurs, 
and in isolated locations, e.g., where ballast section has been fouled with silt from 
Hooding, very little out-of-face cleaning of ballast is done. The majority of returns 
to questionnaire indicates that ballast cleaning has never been performed on those 
properties. Instead, whenever ballast fails to function as intended, a nominal track 
raise is made on the old ballast and fresh ballast is brought in to fill the voids 
around the ties. 

With modern machinery, supported by a relatively small crew, it is possible 
to surface track quickly and economically. Other advantages are: (1) Maintenance 
of existing tie bed compaction, (2) Does not require taking track out of service 
very long, and (3) Does not require a large quantity of ballast at any one time, nor 
a large number of ballast cars. 

Disadvantages are considerable. Principal ones are: (1) Benefits are short-lived 
and value of new ballast is not fully realized since track is raised on existing ballast 
(with vaiying degrees of contamination) and new ballast is spread as top-coat on 
top of die ballast section; (2) What clean ballast there is in the cribs that finds its 
way beneath the ties is subject to rapid contamination from the dirty ballast below; 
(3) Frequent raising of track surface, coupled with normal deterioration of embank- 
ments, results in placing track on a pinnacle. To correct this condition requires 
restoration and/or widening of the subgrade to prevent loss of ballast and creation 
of centerbound track; (4) Bridge structures and crossings must be raised compatible 
to raise in track grade. This involves extra expense. 



SUMMARY 

1. A clean ballast section is essential to the economical maintenance of track. 

2. When ballast fouls to the point of losing its resiliency and cushion, the cost 
of track maintenance rises, or the track standard must be reduced. 

3. Ballast in track represents a sizeable investment. 

4. Average cost of high-speed primary main line ballast is $2.70 per cubic yard, 
FOB car, at loading site. Cost of transporting and placing ballast, including 
ownership, operation and maintenance of equipment expense plus maintenance of 
way labor, etc., brings the cost of ballast in place to $4.00, or more, per cubic yard. 

5. There is approximately one-half (0.5) cubic yard of ballast per lineal foot 
of track, where standard ballast section calls for 8 in. of ballast under the tie. This 
equates to a ballast value in excess of $2.00 per foot of track. 

6. Thus, if track can be undercut to a depth of 8 in. and the ballast screened 
at a cost of less than $1.60 per foot, then undercutting-cleaning is the economical 
method to adopt. (It is assumed that 20% of the ballast will be lost in the cleaning 
process when much of the minus %-m. material passes through the screen with the 
dirt and sand. ) From Appendix A we find that cost to clean ballast computes to 
$1.06 per track foot. 

7. Undercutting-cleaning provides the most positive and practical method of 
restoring ballast to its original condition. However, it is recognized that there can 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 317 



be local considerations precluding the use of die undercutter-cleaner. In such cases, 
of necessity, other methods must be employed to reinstate those properties and 
functions inherent in good ballast, so that ballast will fulfill all of its intended 
functions. 

APPENDIX A 

ESTIMATED COST TO CLEAN BALLAST WITH 
THE UNDERCUTTER-CLEANER 

ASSUMPTIONS 

New machine cost — $500,000 

Machine life — 12 years 

Interest at 8? on undepreciated value 

ANNUAL COST 

Depreciation $ 41,670 

Interest 21,600 

Maintenance 50,000 

Fuel and supplies 25,000 

Mechanic (including additives) 19,500 $157,770 

Labor: (Including additives) 

Operators (2) 39,000 

Laborers (Foreman -f 8 men) 115,080 154,080 

TOTAL $311,850 



PRODUCTION 

An average of 420 ft/hour, 3 hours daily, 
working 90% of the time.' 

420 X 3 X 5 X 52 (.90) = 294,840 track feet 

COST TO UNDERCUT AND CLEAN PER TRACK FOOT $1.06 



' The new equipment being manufactured offers increased production and efficiency with 
almost 100% assurance of further economies. 



318 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 6 

Economics of Installing Bonded Insulated Joints in 

Field Vs. Shop Fabrication and Economics of 

Bonded Joints Vs. Field Welds to 

Connect CWR 

A. E. Shaw, Jr. (chairman, subcommittee}, R. J. Aschmeyer, A. Bornhoft, 
W. Glavin, C. R. Harrell, J. R. Miller, G. G. Phillips, D. D. Thomas, 
H. J. Umberger, J. T. Ward. 

ECONOMICS OF INSTALLING BONDED INSULATED JOINTS IN 
FIELD VS. SHOP FABRICATION 

The bonded insulated joint has been in production and available to the industry 
for about 5 years. Presently, they are manufactured by at least 3 companies and 
in appearance and construction, they are very similar. The joint consists of a special 
steel joint bar with a permanently bonded insulation material on the side of the bar 
toward the rail. This bar is bonded to the rail joint by epoxy material and held in 
place by either high-strength bolts or fasteners. 

The procedure for installation in the field is fairly complex and must be ad- 
hered to or failures will result. A typical instruction for instaUing, broken into 
functions, is as follows: 

1. Cut and Drill 

(a) Rail is cut with rail saw if necessary. Care must be taken to ensure a 
vertical cut. 

(b) Rail holes are located using templet. 

(c) Rail holes are drilled with single rail drill using flat-head drill bits, 
1-5/16 in. 

(d) Grinder deburrs and hones holes carefully. Rail brand and any burrs on 
rail ends are ground off. 

(e) Rail ends are flame-hardened with oxyacetylene torch. 

2. Sandblasting 

(a) Sand-blast rail ends about 19 in. from each end to remove all scale and 
rust. 

3. Apply Bars 

(a) Rail ends are examined to see if they are in tension or compression. 

(b) In compression, a hydraulic jack opens the ends, the end post is inserted, 
and the jack removed. 

(c) In light tension, sufficient anchors are removed and rails are pulled 
with railpuUer to tlie end post, and anchors are replaced. If gap remains, 
it is closed by heating. 

(d) Blast-cleaned areas of rails are washed with special solvent. 

(e) Heat is directed to the sides of the rail until the top of the head reaches 
200 F. 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 319 



(f) At temperature, the blast-cleaned area is lighdy washed widi solvent, 
the rail hole bushings are installed and the joint bars, which have been 
spread with epoxy cement during die preparation of the rails, are put 
in place. 

(g) High-strength bolts or fasteners are used. They are put through one 
bar and the bar is moved into position against the rail. This allows a 
visible check to see that they do not push out the rail hole bushings. 
The odier bar (flange side) is mounted on the protruding bolts or 
fasteners. 

(h) The bolts or fasteners are pulled up from the center alternately to each 

end. 
(i) Heat is applied and bars are brought to 200 F. At 200 F, heat is cut 

back and bars maintained at 200 F for 10 minutes. 

4. In Service 

(a) If rail traffic is expected, the joint is cooled to 150 F with water spray 
from a garden sprayer. 

(b) Because elapsed time of all fimctions is approximately one hour, however, 
because advance joints are in preparation, the average time is much 
lower. 

Some railroads feel, to ensure quality control, they cannot use field-installed 
joints; therefore, they have the bonded insulated joint made up in a piece of rail 
at a shop and dien this section of rail is installed in track by field welding the two 
ends or the use of standard joint bars. An analysis has been made of various railroads 
and transit companies comparing the installation of bonded insulated joints, which 
are fabricated at a shop, shipped to the field, and then installed in track vs. bonded 
insulated joints installed directly in track. 

A questionnaire was sent to 32 railroads and 6 transit companies representative 
of the industry. Twenty-six railroads and five transit companies responded. Of these 
companies, all but three railroads are using bonded insulated joints to varying 
degrees. Three transit companies use them, one does not, and one could supply no 
information. Ten railroads and two transit companies use only shop fabrication. 
Four railroads and one transit company use field application only. The remainder 
of the respondents use both shop and field installations. 

For shop fabrication, five railroads and one transit company reported using 
39-ft lengths of rail including the insulated joint. Four railroads reported using 13-ft 
lengths. The remaining railroads and transit companies use rail lengths varying from 
11 to 26 ft, including the joints. Ele\en companies stated they did not offset the 
joint in the rail for balance in handling and eight reported they did. In general, 
the companies using longer lengths of rail offset the joint. 

All respondents reported either using fully heat-treated rail, mill end-hardened 
or field end-hardened rail in both shop and field installation of joints. Eighteen re- 
spondents reported AREA specifications for end squareness to be satisfactory for 
installation of bonded insulated joints. Four reported squareness to be unsatisfactory 
and recut each piece, placing the end post between the mating cut ends. 

Failure rate, defined as a joint which had epoxy cement bond failure within 
30 days after being installed in track, has been negligible. Most companies reported 
no failures, and those that reported failures indicated they were less than 1% with 
the exception of one railroad which indicated it had 75% failure in field-applied 

Bui. 656 



320 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

joints. However, this same railroad reported no failures in shop-fabricated joints. 
One railroad with over 7,000 shop-fabricated joints installed within the last five 
years reported no failures. 

The number of bonded insulated joints in track as reported by the different 
companies varied greatly from 2-7,000 but, of course, this is to be expected as the 
length of time they have been in use varied from one to five years. The railroad 
reporting 7,000 joints in track also reported using tliem the longest. Also, the various 
railroads and transit companies surveyed had vastly different mileages and operating 
conditions. 

All of the companies surveyed indicated they were well satisfied with the 
success of this type of joint and most indicated they intended to use more of them 
in the future. Several were awaiting results of their tests before moving further. 
One railroad reported using standard joint bars to fasten shop-fabricated joints to 
adjacent rails, one reported using both joint bars and field welding. The remainder 
of respondents reported field welding of the joint assembly. 

The cost of shop fabrication of bonded insulated joints varied so greatly, as 
reported by the respondents, that an average figure would be meaningless. Various 
manufacturers report they charge $20 to $35 for installation of a joint on rail received 
at their shop. Material costs of joint and shipping of rail to and from shop are 
additional. One large railroad, which reported having over 7,000 bonded joints in 
track, indicated the cost to fabricate in their shop to be $35 per joint. The average 
cost of installing the section of rail, including bonded insulated joints by respondents 
who field weld them in track, was $210 each. 

The average cost of field installation of bonded insulated joints was reported 
to be $120 each. The question was asked as to the estimate of aimual savings by 
using bonded joints vs. other types. All reported not enough experience as yet to 
compare. A number of companies felt the savings would be substantial as time 
went on. 

The bonded insulated joint has been around for a relatively short time; however, 
judging from the response and answers to the questionnaires sent out, its acceptance 
and use is certainly reducing the labor cost of maintaining the many thousands 
of insulated joints in use over the country. It appears the field installation is more 
economical. 

ECONOMICS OF BONDED JOINTS VS. FIELD WELDS TO CONNECT CWR 

The laying of continuous welded rail has markedly reduced maintenance by 
eliminating nearly all of the bolted joints, but on those remaining, connecting tlie 
strings together, maintenance has increased greatly because of stresses they are 
subjected to in cold weather with resulting excessive end gaps, broken and damaged 
bolts, and in severe cases, pull-aparts. In addition, the large end gaps cause excessive 
normal batter with more than normal surfacing required. 

In order to detemiine the economics of connecting strings of CWR together 
with field welds vs. bonded joints, an analysis has been made of various railroads 
and transit companies as to tlieir practice. A questionnaire was sent to 32 railroads 
and 6 transit companies representative of the industry. 

Five transit companies returned the questionnaire; three reported they used 
thermite type field welds for connecting strings of CWR, and tlie other two did not 
or had no information. The cost of installation, including material, ranged from $80 
to $400 per joint with an average of $240. No transit companies reported using 
bonded joints. Failure of field welds was reported very low, less than 2 percent. 



Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance 321 

Twenty-six railroads responded and of them, two ha\e no welded rail, and two 
have welded rail but use standard joint bars for connecting the strings. The remaining 
lines use thermite type field welds for connecting strings of CWR. Two lines also 
use bonded joints, three railroads either use bars which have been ground at the 
center to fit over the upset material of the weld, or a "safety strap." One hne uses 
these only on high side of curves 2° and over. 

Costs of installing field welds ranged from $60 to $150 with the average being 
894 each. The a\erage cost of installing bars or "safety straps" was reported to be 
$33 a joint. 

Failure rate was reported \ery low on both field welds and bonded joints — 
less than 2 percent. 

The results of the sur\e>' indicate there are few railroads using bonded joints 
to comiect strings of CWR and there appears to be no economic savings by so doing. 



Report of Committee 13 — Environmental Engineering 




C. E. DeGeer, Chairman 
W. H. Melgren, 
Vice Chairman 
A. J. Dolby, Secretary 



R. C. Brownlee 
R. R. Holmes 
T. W. ZWICK 
R. S. Bryan, Jr. 

L. R. BURDGE 

D. S. Krieter 
Barbara J. Rust 
W. F. Arksey 
A. F. BuTCosK 

W. M. CUMMINGS 

W. p. Cunningham 

J. C. DiETZ 

J. H. Flett 

J. W. GWYN 

W. M. Harrison 
T. L. Hendrlx 
K. K. Hersey 
J. D. HoFF, H 
D. J. Inman 
F. O. Klemstine 

R. M. LiNDENMUTH 

F. L. Manganaro 



W. D. Mason, Jr. 
R. G. Michael 

C. F. Muelder 
E. T. Myers 
G. H. Nick 

M. F. Obrecht 
L. W. Pepple 
W. D. Peters 
Robert Singer 
R. J. Spence 
T. A. Tennyson 

L. R. TiERNY 

J. W. Webb, Jr. 

D. R. York 

M. L. Williams 
R. G. Bielenberg 

E. S. Johnson 
R. J. Thompson 

J. J. DWYER (E) 

H. L. McMuLLiN (E) 
Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman and 
secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the Anwrican Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 

Under way is the continual updating of "Glossary of Terms" and "Di- 
rectories of Pollution Control Agencies." 

1. Water Pollution Control. 

Progress report on "Box and Hopper Car Cleaning," presented as 
infonnation page 325 

2. Air Pollution Control. 

The assignment to "Investigate Guide Standards, Including Instrumenta- 
tion for Preliminary Measurements of Stationary Stack Emissions," 
will be continued to include latest government requirements. 

3. Land Pollution Control. 
No report. 

4. Industrial Hygiene. 

Section 4.7 "Sanitation Requirements for Portable Housing Units," was 
published in Part 1 of Bulletin 655, November-December 1975, with 
the recommendation that it be adopted and published in the Manual. 

5. Plant Utilities. 
No report. 



323 



3 24 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

6. Corrosion Control. 

Progress report, "Use of Plastic Pipe," presented as information .... page 327 

7. Noise Pollution Control. 
No report. 

The Committee on ENvmoNMENTAL Engineering, 

C. E. DeGeer, Chairman. 



1915=1975 

John L. Engler, construction engineer for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railway at Topeka, Kansas, died on February 5, 1975, at Topeka. 

Mr. Engler was born on June 16, 1915, at Chapman, Kansas, and was graduated 
from Chapman High School. He received his degree in civil engineering from Kansas 
State University, Manhattan, Kansas, and joined the Santa Fe Railway in 1937 as 
a chainman at Topeka. During 1938 and 1939 he worked for the Kansas State High- 
way Commission, returning to the Santa Fe Railway in June 1939. 

Mr. Engler entered military service in 1941, and following World War II he 
worked as an admeasurer for the Panama Canal and as a design engineer for the 
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in Nebraska before returning to the Santa Fe in 1953 at 
Topeka. Mr. Engler was promoted to assistant engineer in 1956 and construction 
engineer with headquarters in Topeka in 1971. 

We of Committee 13 knew John as dedicated engineer who contributed much 
to the work of our committee. 



Environmental Engineering 325 

Report on Assignment 1 

Water Pollution Control 

R. C. Brownlee (chairman, subcommittee), R. G. Bielenberg, L. R. Burdge, C. E. 
DeGeer, J. W. GwYN, D. J. Inman, E. S. Johnson, R. M. Lindenmuth, 
P. M. Miller, R. J. Thompson, D. R. York. 

PROBLEMS IN THE DISPOSAL OF WASTE FROM BOX CAR AND 
HOPPER CAR CLEANING 

Your committee submits as information the following report pertaining to the 
disposal of wastes from box car and hopper car washing, with the intention of 
developing furtiier information and data for eventual submission for publication 
in die Manual. 

General 

As with other railroad pollution problems, in order to reduce the initial pollution, 
and to obtain the most economical and efficient control, it is essential to have the 
cooperation of all departments of the railroad. To insure this cooperation, it is most 
desirable to have pollution control administered by the chief executive officer of the 
railroad. 

Waste from box car and hopper car washing facilities presents a most difficult 
problem for treatment and disposal. Large facilities present little chance for inven- 
tory or pre-inspection of the cars, and the logistics involved in switching the cars 
to avoid shock loadings on the treating facilities make this practice unfeasible. Treat- 
ment facilities must therefore be designed on the basis that concentrations of pollutant 
constituents in wastewater will be variable and impossible to anticipate. Technology 
is available for the treatment of practically all organic compounds; however, removal 
of high concentrations of dissolved solids common to washwaters is difficult and 
expensive. 

Precleaning Cars 

Dissolved salts and otlier solids cannot be treated biologically and cannot be 
filtered. A logical approach to die problem of high concentrations of dissolved solids 
in the wastewater is to remove the soluble solids from the cars in a dry form rather 
than attempting to remove them from solution in the wastewater. 

Box cars can be hand-swept or vacuumed, provided that consideration be given 
to health hazards, control of air pollution, and collection and disposal of the dry 
material. Precleaning of hopper cars can be accomplished to varying degrees by 
opening the hopper doors ahead of the washer facility. The cars may be vibrated 
with mechanical vibrators or shaken with an engine to facilitate removal of dry 
material. Sand or grit blasting of hopper cars has been considered by some railroads. 
Pollution control, health hazards and disposal of dry materials must be given 
proper consideration. 

Washwater Characteristics 

Commodities commonly carried by box and hopper cars and which find their 
way into the wastewaters from washing facilities can generally be classified as 
"organic" or "inorganic." Organic materials such as grains, sugar, cereals, oils, and 
meals contribute high concentrations of BOD and suspended solids to the wastewater. 



326 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Inorganics common to car washer wastewaters include: potash which contributes 
liigh concentrations of chlorides and potassium in dissolved forms; cement and lime 
which raise the pH of the wastewater and combine with insolubles to form deposits 
in tile drain lines; fertilizers which are soluble in water and contribute nutrients 
such as sulphates, nitrogen compounds and phosphates; borates which are somewhat 
soluble in water and toxic to many plants; sand, coal and ores which are slightly 
soluble and may contribute heavy metals to the wastewater. 

Common problems associated witli treatment of car washer wastewater include 
the removal of suspended solids, reduction of BOD, identification and containment 
of toxic compounds, the adjustment of pH, and the difficult problem of excessive 
concentrations of dissolved solids. Removal of nutrients must also be considered. 

Treatment Methods 

Generally, primary treatment of wastewater from car washer facilities should 
accomplish the removal of floating and settleable solids. Primary treatment should 
include ponding of the wastewater in order to bufi^er shock loads resulting from 
washing cars containing the same type of commodity. 

Primary treatment facilities should include a sloping pad on the washer facility 
to retain heavy settleable solids, a small grit chamber at the edge of the pad with a 
solids dragout device for removal of floating and settleable solids, and a settling 
pond sized to buffer shock loads and afford retention time for clarification of smaller 
floating and settleable solids. 

Secondary treatment of wastewater may include lagoons, aeration equipment or 
trickhng filters. In favorable climates reasonably efficient BOD removal can be 
accomplished by floculative and aerobic lagoons. Additional biological treatment 
is accomplished by surface aerators in lagoons, diffused aeration in lagoons, spray 
ponds, activated sludge facilities and trickling filters. Activated sludge plants are 
available from vendors as packaged plants ready to set on foundations. 

Tertiary treatment for removal of suspended solids and nutrients can be accom- 
plished by floculation-sedimentation, air floatation systems and various other methods 
for stripping nutrients. 

Receiving Waters 

The degree of treatment required will vary according to the pollutant contents 
of tlie wastewater and die effluent criteria that are required for discharge into streams 
or municipal sewers, based on the economics involved. Generally, tlie allowable 
limitation on concentrations of dissolved solids and nutrients make the discharge 
of wastewater into storm sewers or other open waterways and lakes impossible even 
with extensive pretreabiient of the wastewater. Evaporation ponds and irrigation offer 
alternatives in certain areas which have favorable climatic conditions and where suffi- 
cient property is available to accommodate tliese methods. Gonsideration must be given 
to suppression of odors and the prevention of percolation of wastewater into ground- 
water strata. Generally, it is more economical to discharge the wastes into municipal 
sanitary sewers as it requires less treatment. 

Summary 

Remember — clear water is not necessarily clean water. Wastewater which has 
been conventionally treated for the removal of BOD, suspended solids and other 
objectionable constituents may still contain extremely high concentrations of dissolved 



Environmental Engineering 327 



salts. This treated wastewater, although it may appear clean, can actually be unfit 
for discharge into waterways or even municipal sanitary sewers. 

The major problems associated with the disposal of wastewater from box car 
and hopper car washing lies not in con\entional treatment of the effluent, but in 
the reduction of the concentration of dissoKed solids. From the standpoint of waste 
disposal, it is infinitely easier to handle soluble solids in tlieir dry form than to 
dissolve them in the washwater and then try to remoxe them from the wastewater. 



Report on Assignment 6 

Corrosion Control 

D. S. Krieter (chairman, subcommittee), J. H. Flett, F. O. Klemstine, W. D. 
Mason", Jr., R. G. Michael. 

Your committee submits the following report on the Use of Plastic Pipe as 
information. 

USE OF PLASTIC PIPE 
GENERAL 

Plastic pipe can be used in a variety of piping applications in the railroad 
industry' where strength, chemical resistance and ease of installation play important 
roles. Plastic pipe is found in such railroad applications as water mains, chemical 
feed lines for cooling towers and waste treatment facilities, drainage lines and loco- 
motive wash racks. It is the intent of this committee report to serve as a guide in 
selecting the proper type of plastic pipe based on tlie material to be handled. Since 
plastic pipe in many cases is competitive in cost with steel, it is important to check 
the operating conditions for such parameters as high temperature and/or pressure 
since the use of plastic pipe under these conditions is largely restricted. 

By far the most commonly used types of plastic pipe are polyethylene and 
polyvinyl chloride ( P^'C ) . Certain \'ariations of these exist in the form of high- and 
low-density polyethylene and chlorinated poly\inyl chloride (CP\'C). In addition, 
there is axailable a polypropylene pipe which, altliough less common than PVC and 
polyetliylene, has certain desirable characteristics. There is also a widespread use 
of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polyester and epoxy glass reinforced 
pipe. The application for each type of pipe depends not only on the operating 
temperature and pressure of the material to be transported, but on the chemistry 
of the material and in some cases, location. The general physical and chemical charac- 
teristics of each t\pe of pipe are briefly outlined in the following sections, and care 
should be taken to avoid selecting a plastic pipe which may be wholly unsuitable 
for the intended application. 

The polyethylene pipes generally have the lowest operating temperatures and 
pressure ranges followed by PVC, ABS, CPVC and glass fiber reinforced epoxy in 
that order. Among the most common uses for polyetliylene pipe include low-pressure 
water systems; small above-ground drainage lines; natural gas lines; distilled, 
demineralized, and zeolite water hues; corrosive liquids and gases. 

Polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) finds widespread use in pressure piping and 
drainage systems, water service, drain, waste and vent systems, gas service, chemical 



328 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

feed piping and water well casings. This type of pipe is definitely not suitable for 
piping certain petroleum products (e.g., gasoline, fuel oil). 

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe is used mainly for hot- and cold- 
water distribution systems and hot and cold chemical piping. 

Acrylonitrile butadiene stryene pipe (ABS) is used in many railroad applications 
involving drain, waste and vent systems, pressure piping and drainage systems, water 
service and gas service. 

Glass fiber reinforced epoxy, being one of tlie most durable types of plastic pipe, 
is usually used for severe piping conditions where the other types are not suitable. 
One of the most prominent railroad uses is in locomotive wash rack piping where 
hot corrosive chemicals are piped under high pressure. 

POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC PIPE 

Properties 

Generally, they are insoluble below 50 C, but at higher temperatures high- 
and low-density polyethylenes are soluble in hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydro- 
carbons. The polyethylene pipes are decomposed by strong oxidizing agents (fuming 
HNOs and H2SO1), slowly attacked by halogens and chlorinating agents (chlorosul- 
phonic acid, phosgene, thionyl chloride). Solvents at elevated temperatures include: 
toluene, xylene, tetralin, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. 
They are relatively insoluble and unaffected by polar solvents (alcohols, esters, 
ketones), vegetable oils, water, alkalis, most concentrated acids (including HF) 
and at room tempera tiu'e, ozone (in absence of ultra-violet light). 

Moisture 

Polyethylene pipe is very resistant to water witli an increase in weight after 
immersion at 20 C (68 F) for a year, of less tlian 0.2%. Higher temperatures could 
bring about a chemical change with an increase in water absorption. As previously 
mentioned, polyediylene is widely used for chemical feed lines under ambient tem- 
perature conditions. 

Permeability 

Transmission of gases and vapors would be least in high-density polyethylene 
pipe. Permeability with organic vapors is lowest with strongly polar materials and 
rises according to the following general order: alcohols, acids, nitroderivatives, alde- 
hydes and ketones, esters, ethers, hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons. 

Melting Point 

For low-density polyethylene pipe this range would be 109-125 C (228-257 F), 
and for high-density pipe, 130-135 C (266-275 F). 

Mechanical and Physical Properties 

It is difficult to correlate tlie stress-strain properties of polyethylene pipe with 
basic characteristics such as density, crytallinity and melt flow index, since the 
conditions of preparation of the specimen and the test itself greatly affect the results. 
In general, however, properties involving small defonnations (e.g., modulus, creep) 
depend upon crystallinity and thus upon density; for large deformations (e.g., tensile 
strength, creep rupture), molecular weight and branching appear to be determining 
factors. 



Environmental Engineering 329 

POLYPROPYLENE PLASTIC PIPE 

Properties 

Polypropylene pipe can be decomposed by strong oxidizing agents (e.g., HNOa, 
bromine, oleum), especially when warm (i.e., very readily attacked by hot con- 
centrated H2SO4). It is dissolved only at elevated temperatures by aromatic hydro- 
carbons (e.g., xylene, tetralin, decalin), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., 
chlorofonn, trichloroethylene ) above 80 C (176 F). It is swollen by aromatic 
hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons at room temperature, also by esters, 
etliers and by various aqueous oxidizing agents (e.g., 10% HNO3, 10% KMnOj, dilute 
H2O2). It is relatively unaffected by many organic liquids at room temperature 
(e.g., alcohols, glycols), and aqueous solutions including moderately concentrated 
acids and alkalis but less satisfactorily above 60 C ( 140 F ) . In brief, polypropylene 
pipe is more readily oxidized than polyethylene, the rate of attack and range of 
reagents increasing with temperature use, and may not be suitable for use in certain 
types of chemical feeding applications. 

Moisture 

The increase of weight of polypropylene pipe after six months submergence 
in aqueous environment at 20 C (68 F) is under 0.5%; at 60 C ( 140 F) it is under 2%. 

Mechanical and Physical Properties 

Tensile strength of general-purpose polypropylene pipe is 2.8 to 3.5 kg/mm^ 
(4,126 to 5,426 psi). 

Impact strength of general-purpose grade is 0.4 to 2.2 ft-lb/in. of notch; of 
high-impact grade, 1.5 to 12 ft-lb/in. of notch. Polypropylene pipe has poor impact 
strength at sub-zero temperatvires, as the glass temperature lies between 4 and — 12 C 
(39 and 10 F), and its use under tliese circumstances should be avoided. 

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PIPE 

Properties 

Polyvinyl chloride pipe can be dissolved by tetrahydrofuran, cyclohexanone, 
methyl ethyl ketone and dimethylformamide, also by mixtures of solvents such as 
acetone with carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride or benzene and etliyl acetate 
with carbon tetrachloride. PVC pipe can become swollen by aromatic and chlorinated 
hydrocarbons, nitroparaffins, acetic anhydride, aniline and acetone. It is, however, 
relatively unaffected by water, concentrated alkalis, non-oxidizing acids, hypochlorite 
solutions, aliphatic hydrocarbons, oils and ozone. Decomposition can occur, however, 
by concentrated oxidizing acids (HoSOi, HNO3, HsCrOi) which slowly attack the 
polymer. The particular rate of decomposition may be increased in the presence of 
lime or iron or their compounds. 

Generally for PVC pipe, chemical stability is good and weatherability is excellent, 
but it is adversely affected by ultra-violet light. Rigid PVC surface absorption of 
water after 32 days immersion at 20 C (68 F) was 5 g/nr (0.001 Ib/ft^), for the 
plasticized PVC this is as high as 200 g/nr (0.04 lb/ft"). Absorption increases 
greatly with temperature. Rigid PVC pipe is brittle below —40 C (—40 F), hard 
and tough at room temperature and softens at 80 to 85 C ( 176 to 185 F). Plasticized 
PVC is flexible down to —50 C (—58 F) and serviceable up to 75 C (167 F). In 
air above 100 C (212 F) both rigid and plasticized PVC decompose, and full de- 
composition occurs above 180 C (356 F). This pipe finds widespread use as 
underground water mains. 



330 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Mechanical Properties 

Tensile strength of rigid PVC = 4.25 to 5.6 kg/mnr (6044.8 to 7964.9 psi) 
and falls with a rise of temperature. 

Compression strength of rigid PVC is 5.6 to 6.7 kg/mm'' (7964.8 to 9529.4 psi). 

Impact strength of rigid PVC is 0.8 ft-lb/in. of notch; the elastic modulus 
(Young's) of rigid PVC is about 280 kg/mnr (394,244 psi). 

POLYESTER AND EPOXY PIPE 
(GLASS REINFORCED) 

Properties 

The properties given relate to the general-purpose grades of polyester and 
epoxy pipes available. These pipes are relatively unaffected by aliphatic hydrocarbons 
(petrol, mineral oils, non-polar chlorinated hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride, 
tetrachloroethylene ) , alcohol, non-o.\idizing acids, organic acids and salt solutions. 
Polyester pipe can be decomposed by polar chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, 
trichloroetliylene ) , ketones, phenol, aniline, esters (ethyl acetate), alkalis and 
oxidizing acids. 

Water resistance for polyester pipe is generally very good with an average weight 
increase after one year in water at 25 C (77 F) of approximately 1.1%. 

Mechanical Properties 

At low-temperatures, glass-reinforced polyester pipe exhibits increases in certain 
properties due to stiffening. Among these are the tensile, flexural and compression 
strengths which are reported to rise to values as much as 50 to 100% higher than 
at 25 C (77 F). Due to the many kinds of polyester and epoxy reinforced pipes 
cxurently on the market, it becomes very difficult to accurately summarize such 
parameters as tensile and compression strengths of this class, and it is suggested that 
the user contact tlie manufacturer for specifications on a particular application. The 
liber glass reinforced pipes seem to be a popular choice for locomotive wash rack 
piping and condensate return lines to boilers. This is due not only to ease of installa- 
tion and cost, but long-run serviceability under extreme pH and pressure conditions. 
Certain grades of epoxy fiber glass pipe have successfully been used in chemical feed 
lines for locomotive wash rack at pressure of 400 psi and temperature of 60 C (140 F). 

REFERENCES 

1. The Chemist's Companion, John W^iley and Sons, Inc., New York; 1972, pp. 
414-416. 

2. Handbook of Common Polymers, Chemical Rubber Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 
1971, pp. 3-13, 22-27, 110-119, 258, 268-271. 

3. Textbook of Polymer Science, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1971, pp. 
4, 124, 215, 386-388, 419-i22, 506-507. 

4. W. J. Engle, Atr Force Civil Engineer, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1969, pp. 32-r 

5. M. F. Obrecht and J. R. Myers, Heating /Piping/ Air Conditioning, August 1973, 
p. 59. 

6. I. C. Brown et al. Plastic Pipe and Its Uses on Railroads, AREA Proceedings, Vol. 
61, 1960, pp. 303-306. 



Environmental Engineering 



331 





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Report of Committee 27 — Maintenance of Way 
Work Equipment 




F. H. Smith, Chairman 

C. H. Olds, 
Vice Chairman 

D. E. Crawford, 
Secretary 

W, A. MacDonald 

J. P. ZOLLMAN 

V. R, Ehquiaga 



W. F. Cogdill 
M. L. Stone 
P. V. Divine 
E. T. Daley 

W. J. GOTTSABEND 

L. J. Calloway 
L. E. Conner 
R. E. Dove 
R. P. Drew 
J. M. Driehuis 
H. F. Dully 
y. O. Elliott 
"E. H. Fisher 
W. D. Gilbert 
R. E. GoRSucH 
O. T. Harmon, Jr. 
S. R. Horn 

N. W. HUTCHESON (E) 

C. Q. Jeffords 
R. M. Johnson 
J. Kelly 

M. E. Kerns (E) 
C. F. King 
W. F. Kohl 
W. E. Kropp (E) 
H. F. Longhelt 



R. L. Matthews 
C. E. McEntee 
A. E. MoRRiss, Jr. 
R. E. Murbock 
T. J. O'Donnell 

C. A. Peebles 

J. R. Pollard, Jr. 

A. G. Pronovost 
J. E. Quirk 

R. S. Radspinner 

D. F. Richardson 

B. F. RiEGEL 

T. R. RiGSBV 
J. W. Risk (E) 

R. T. RUCKMAN 
D. R. SCHENCK 
D. SCHULZ 

J. R. Smith, Jr. 

J. T. Smith 

"S. E. Tracy (E) 

C. R. Turner 

J. L. Van Meter 
S. W. Walker 
N. White 
J. W. Winger 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman and 
secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 
No report. 

1. Reliability Engineering as Applicable to Work Equipment Design and 
Manufacture. 

No report. 

2. Machine Design — Hydraulic and Electrical Systems. 

Progress report, presented as information P'lge 334 

3. Machine Design — Engines. 
No report. 

4. Machine Design — Drive Train, Including Clutch, Transmission, Final 
Drive and Power Take-Offs. 

No report. 

5. Machine Design — Bearings, Suspension, Frame and Brakes. 
No report. 

333 



334 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

6. Study Design of Cars Used by Maintenance of Way Department, Such 
as Ballast Cars, Equipment Transport, Tie Cars, Rail Cars, Etc. 

No report. 

7. Temperature Compensated Stress-Adjustment Equipment for Use During 
or After Laying CWR, Collaborating as Necessary or Desirable with 
Committee 4. 

No report. 

8. Applied Metallurgy — Maintenance of Way Work Equipment. 
No report. 

9. Data Processing for Work Equipment Evaluation, Information and 
Control, Collaborating as Necessary or Desirable with Committee 32. 
No report. 

The Committee on Maintenance of Way Work Equipment, 

F. H. Smith, Chairman. 



Report on Assignment 2 

Machine Design^ — Hydraulic and Electrical Systems 

J. p. ZoLLMAN {chairman, subcommittee), L. E. Conner, D. C. Johnson, M. E. 
Kerns, A. E. Morriss, Jr., Dave Schulz, C. R. Turner, J. L. Van Meter. 

Your committee submits tlie following report as information for guidance of 
equipment manufacturers and railway maintenance personnel in the design, con- 
struction and evaluation of hydraulic systems. 

Hydraulic systems shall conform to the specifications of the National Fluid 
Power Association (NFPA), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and 
International Standards Organization (ISO), except that where a conflict occurs, the 
following will apply: 

1. Upon completion of manufacture and before any operation shall begin, all 
parts of the hydraulic system shall be clean and free from scale, rust, dirt and any 
other contaminant. Threads, flares, holes, cuts and machining must be deburred 
and cleaned. 

2. Hydraulic reservoirs of 10-gal capacity or larger shall be designed with the 
following considerations : 

a. Place the bafile(s) in the reservoir so as to separate the pump inlet port 
from the settling part of the reservoir. The baffle(s) should direct the flow 
toward the reservoir walls for maximum cooling capacity and maximum 
lay-over time. 

b. Provide sufficiently large access panels for complete periodic cleaning, 
maintenance and inspection. 

c. Provide an air inlet large enough to maintain conditions of Item 12. The 
air inlet shall be equipped with a 25 micron or liner filter, A cartridge type 
is preferred. 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 335 

d. Provide a filler with at least a 100-mesh screen protected from external 
damage with a minimum capacity of 5 gal per minute with 500 SSU fluid 
viscosity and with a filler cap that can be locked with a large railroad 
padlock. 

e. Provide thermometer to indicate reservoir operating temperature at the 
add-point fluid level and protected from damage. 

f. Provide a static fluid level gage to show full-point and add-point pro- 
tected from damage. 

g. When immersion heaters are provided to control fluid viscosity during 
cold weatlier start-up, place the heater(s) so removal is possible without 
draining reservoir. 

h. A non-integral reservoir is preferred. 

3. Fluid temperature shall not exceed 180 F maximum in the reservoir outlets 
while operating in a 110 F ambient temperature. The minimum fluid temperature 
after 45 minutes operation shall be 85 F with ambient temperature of 20 F. 

4. A full-flow testing tee(s) shall be provided adjacent to the pressure side 
of hydraulic pump(s). A return-line full-flow tee shall be placed ahead of return 
line filter. 

5. Where failure of power plant or pump can immobilize components in a 
position which could prevent moving the machine, an emergency hand pump shall 
be provided in the circuit. Large machines shall be equipped with battery-operated 
emergency pump where more than 5 minutes are required to move all components 
within the clearance diagram of the track occupied, by means of a hand pump. 

6. The total return and/or pressure line flow shall pass through filters rated 
at 25 microns or finer equipped with a condition indicator. 

a. In closed loop systems, filtration as recommended by pump manufacturer 
will apply. 

b. Magnetic particle attraction shall be provided in the filters or reservoir. 

c. Filtration of the return flow from the pilot section of pilot-operated valves 
is not required. 

7. All hydraulic hose assemblies exposed to the below-listed pressures, or less 
pressure, must have reusable screw-together hose fittings. On all metallic wire- 
reinforced hose using reusable hose fittings, the outermost layer of wire reinforce- 
ment must be braided for fitting retention. 



Pressure 


Hose I.D. Size 


PSI 


(Inches) 


5500 


}i 


4500 


% 


4000 


^ 


3250 


% 


3000 


% 


2500 


1 


2250 


m 


1750 


m 


1250 


2 



a. Hoses must be protected from abrasion, excessive bending and excessive 
heat. 



336 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

b. Hose and fluid conductors must have a bursting pressure safety factor of 
four. 

c. Hose is preferred. Where tubing is used, 37-degree flared ends are required. 

8. Tubing and piping shall be mounted to minimize vibration, and tubing 
shall have only gentle bends to change direction or compensate for thermal expan- 
sion. Tube bend radii shall not be less than three times the inside diameter. 

9. Wherever practicable, valves shall be manifold mounted. 

10. Complete circuit diagram shall be provided. Only NFPA, ANSI and ISO 
symbols shall be used in graphical diagrams. Pictorial and cutaway diagrams are 
also permissible where they add to the ease of understanding tlie circuit. Diagrams 
shall be large enough to be easily followed for trouble shooting. 

11. Galvanized pipe and fittings shall not be used. 

12. The vacuum at the pump inlet(s) shall not be more tlian 60% of pump 
manufacturer's recommendations or 4 inches mercury, whichever is less at standard 
conditions. Test opening shall be provided. 




L. ScHMiTZ, Chairman 
L. R. Beattie, 

Vice Chairman 
J. E. Beran, Secretary 



Committee 28~ 


-Clearances 


R. R. Snyder 


C. F. Intlekofer 


D. W. LaPorte 


E. W. Jantz 


E. E. Kessler 


R. G. Klouda 


W. S. TUSTIN 


A. J. KOZAK 


F. A. SvEc 


E. C. Lawson 


M. L. Power 


G. W. Martyn 


P. T. Sarris 


A. Mooney 


E. Berenot 


J. R. Moore 


E. S. BlRKENWALD (E) 


W. E. MORGUS 


A. V. Bodnar 


F. B. Persels 


G. M. Buck 


C. E. Peterson (E) 


R. P. Christman 


R. T. Pritchett 


J. E. COSKY 


W. P. SiLCOX 


J. A. Crawford 


E. C. Smith 


S. M. Dahl (E) 


C. H. Stephenson 


M. E. Dust 


J. E. Teall 


C. W. Farrel 


W. J. Trezise 


G. E. Henry 


M. Van Kuixen 


J. C. HOBBS 


M. E. Vosseller 


G. P. HUHLEIN 




L. R. HuRD 


Cotnmittee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman and 
secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 
Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 
No report. 

1. Investigate the Practicability of Using Disposable Coded Placards for 
Identifying Shipments of Excessive Dimension and/or Weight that 
Could Be Used in Conjunction with the Automatic Car Identification 
System. 

The title and purpose of this subcommittee has been revised to "Investi- 
gate the Practicability of Using Disposable Placards or Other Appro- 
priate Marking for Identifying Shipments of Excessive Dimensions 
and/or Weight." This change was felt necessary due to tlie Automatic 
Car Identification System not being fully developed as intended and 
a standard, easily recognized placard being more practical and better 
serving die purpose of identifying these loads. Current placards of 
various railroads are now being studied as a possible basis for a new 
common design. 

2. Compilation of the Railroad Clearance Requirements of the Various 
States. 

State clearance law changes are continuing to be compiled and a revised 
tabulation will be published when a significant revision or revisions 
are accumulated. 



337 



338 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

3. Investigate New Methods and Development of Equipment for Recording 
Measurements of Clearance of Structures Along Right-of-Way and 
Overall Dimensions of Cars and Loads. 

Progress report, submitted as information page 339 

4. Restudy and Possibly Revise "Clearance Diagrams — Fixed Obstruc- 
tions," Now in the Manual. 

No report. 

5. Revise "Suggested Methods of Presenting Published Clearances," Now 
in the Manual. 

A suggested new format has been developed for presenting clearance 
information in Railway Line Clearances. However, it was felt that a 
canvas of subscribers by questionnaire, using the suggested format as 
a basis, could coordinate the needs and desires of all concerned in a 
final design that would be the most acceptable and usable by the 
greater majority if not all who use the publication. This will be done 
in the near future. 

9. Investigate the Possibility of Including the Truck Center Dimension of 
All Cars in the Official Railway Equipment Register, Collaborating 
as Necessary or Desirable with the Mechanical Division, AAR. 
This investigation has just been completed and it was found to be 
possible to include this additional information in the publication by 
action of the individual railroads and car owners. A formal report is 
now being prepared. 

The Committee on Clearances, 

L. ScHMiTZ, Chairman. 



Clearances 339 

Report on Assignment 3 

Investigate New Methods and Development of 

Equipment for Recording Measurements of 

Clearances of Structures Along Right-of- 

Way and Overall Dimensions of 

Cars and Loads 

W. S. TusTiN (chairman, subcommittee), E. Berendt, C. W. Parrel, G. P. Huhlein, 
R. G. Klouda, W. E. Morgus, R. R. Snyder. 

A questionnaire submitted to all members of Committee 28 requesting infor- 
mation on their metliods of obtaining clearances and clearing shipments resulted in 
replies from 20 raihoads. Of this representative 20, 11 railroads reported obtaining 
their field clearance measurements manually with a survey party, three reported a 
combination of the manual method and the use of a "feeler" type clearance car, 
three reported use of the "feeler" type clearance car only, and the remaining three 
reported use of a photographic "scope" car. Two new methods mentioned were 
stereoscopic photography used by the Swiss Federal Railways and a system using 
photoelectric cells. However, these methods are not currently being used in this 
country and there was not enough information available for proper evaluation. 

Five railroads of the representative 20 reported using computers in clearing 
oversize sliipments on tlieir lines, the remaining 15 using the old clearance chart 
method, however, three of these indicated they were currently developing computer 
programs. 

Investigation on this subcommittee assignment has been completed and a final 
report now being prepared detailing the various current methods of obtaining 
clearance infonnation in this country. This will be submitted for possible inclusion 
in tlie Manual when completed. 



Report of Committee 6 — Buildings 




W. C. Sturm, Chairman 

E. P. BOHN, 

Vice Chairman 
O. C. Denz, Secretary 



T. H. Seep 
J. G. Robertson 
W. C. Humphreys 
Richard Hale 
j. a. comeau 
D. A. Bessey 
W. F. Abmstkong 
S. D. Arndt 

F. R. Bartlett 

G. J. Bleul 
G. T- Ghamraz 

F. b. Day 

C. M. DiEHL 

G. W. Fabrin 

C. S. Graves (E) 
A. R. Gualtieri 
W. G. Harding (E) 
J. W. Hayes 
H. R. Helker 
S. B. Holt 



K. E. HORNUNG 

C. R. Madeley 
R. J. Martens 
R. W. Milbauer 
L. S. Newman 
John Norman 
L. A. Palagi 
T. F. Peel 
P. W. Peterson 
R. E. Phillips 

R. D. POWRIE 

R. F. Roberts 
J. H. Rump 

J. E. SCHAUB (E) 

H. A. Shannon, Jr. 

J. S. Smith 

S. G. Urban 

W. M. Wehner 

T. S. Williams (E) 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman and 
secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Raitway Engineering Association: 
Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 

Subcommittee assisted on Assignments 1 and 2 in placing report in 
decimal format for publication as Manual material. Subcommittee to 
review Chapter 6 of the Manual for possible revision and upgrading. 

1. Design Criteria for Maintenance of Way Equipment Repair Shops. 
Final report, submitted for adoption and publication in the Manual, 
was printed in Part 1 of Bulletin 655, November-December 1975. 

2. Design Criteria for Elevated Yard Office Buildings. 

Final report, submitted for adoption and publication in the Manual, 
was printed in Part 1 of Bulletin 655, November-December 1975. 

3. Design Criteria for Freight Forwarding Facilities. 
Outline for proposed report reviewed at summer meeting. 

4. Inspection and Maintenance of Railway Buildings. 

A series of reports on various components of railway buildings will 
be submitted under this assignment. The first report, which will cover 
inspection and maintenance of roofs, will be published in 1976. 

5. Architectural Design Competition. 

Report on progress of tlie Competition and the Competition Problem 
submitted as information page 342 

The Committee on Buildings, 
Walter Carson Sturm, Chairman. 

341 



342 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 5 

Architectural Design Competition 

D. A. Bessey (chairman, subcommittee), E. P. Bohn, J. A. Comeau, F. D. Day, 
G. W. Fabrin, R. Hale, J. W. Hayes, S. B. Holt, K. E. Hornung, W. C. 
Humphreys, C. R. Madeley, R. J. Martens, R. W. Milbauer, L. S. Newman, 
L. A. Palagi, p. W. Peterson, R. E. Phillips, R. D. Powrie, J. G. Robertson, 
J. H. Rump, H. A. Shannon, W. C. Sturm, S. G. Urban. 

Your committee submits the following report, as information, on tlie direction 
of an Architectural Design Competition for college and University students: 

GENERAL STATEMENT 

The AREA Board of Direction at its meeting on March 25, 1975, approved 
the funding of an Architectural Design Competition for college and university 
students during the Fall of 1975. 

In staffing the architectural or building departments of railway companies it 
is necessary to familiarize tlie architectural students throughout the United States 
and Canada with railroad architecture and to bring about an awareness of employ- 
ment opportunities in the railroad industry. There is a definite need to improve 
communications between the railroad industry and colleges and universities having 
architectural programs. 

The idea of conducting an Architectural Design Competition was originally 
proposed in 1971 which resulted in the fonnation of a special subcommittee to 
contact various universities and to prepare a preliminary draft of the program. Upon 
receiving favorable response from the universities, the subcommittee proceeded 
to develop the program. 

The building selected by the committee for the competition was a control 
tower and service building for a railroad classification yard. It was felt by the 
committee that this type of building would offer the participating student a challeng- 
ing and informative project. 

The preliminary draft of the Competition was sent to 79 colleges and universities 
in the United States and 10 in Canada; as of October 1, 1975, 27 universities, 24 in 
the United States and 3 in Canada, have elected to participate. Approximately 800 
students will be involved in the Competition. A representative of Committee 6 has 
been assigned to each school participating. He will act as an advisor, who will assist 
the school's architectural staff in matters dealing with the Competition. D. A. Bessey, 
a former chairman of Committee 6, has been appointed director of the Competition 
and will administer the Competition for the committee. 

The entries will be judged by a panel of seven railroad architects who are 
members of Committee 6 and who represent a general cross section throughout the 
United States and Canada. All entries are to be submitted to the director of the 
Competition by January 31, 1976, and will be judged in mid-February. 

Cash awards of $500 for first prize, $250 for second prize and 5 honorable 
mentions of $50 each have been authorized by the Association. The winning student 
will be invited to appear at the Annual Technical Meeting of the AREA to be held 
at the Palmer House in Chicago, and will give a presentation of his winning entry 
on March 23 as part of a special feature to be presented by Committee 6. 



Buildings 



343 



The members of Committee 6 have devoted considerable time and effort in the 
preparation and implementation of the Competition. The committee is looking for- 
ward to an interesting and worthwhile relationship between the railroad industry 
and the architectural students in colleges and universities throughout the United 
States and Canada. 



LIST OF PARTICIPATLXG UNIVERSITIES 



University of Arkansas 
Fayetteville, Arkansas 
E. F. Jones, Chairman 

University of .Arizona 

Tucson, Arizona 

Robert E. McConnell, Dean 

Arizona State University 

Tempe, .Arizona 

Robert G. Hershberger, Dean 

Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana 

Anthony J. Costello, Dean 

Boston Architectural Center 

Boston, Massachusetts 

Sanford R. Greenfield, Director 

University of California 

Berkeley, California 

Richard C. Peters, Chairman 

Catholic Universit>' of America 
\Va.shington, D. C. 
Forrest Wilson, Chaimian 

Clemson University 
Clemson, South Carolina 
Harlan E. McClure, Dean 

University of Colorado 

Boulder, Colorado 

Robert C. Utzinger, Director 

University of Detroit 
Detroit, Michigan 
Brvmo Leon, Dean 

Georgia Institute of Technology 

Atlanta, Georgia 

Paul M. Hefternan, Director 

Harvard University 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 
George Anselevicius, Chairman 

University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 
G. Day Ding, Head 

University of Kentucky 
Lexington, Kentucky 
Anthony Eardley, Dean 



University' of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
Ralph Rapson, Head 

University of Nebraska 

Lincoln, Nebraska 

W. Cecil Steward, Dean 

University of Notre Dame 

South Bend, Indiana 

.Ambrose M. Richardson, Chairman 

Oklahoma State University 
Stillwater, Oklahoma 
Mark T. Jaroszewicz, Head 

University of Oregon 

Eugene, Oregon 

Wilmot G. Gilland, Head 

Pratt Institute 
Brooklyn, New York 
Alan J. Forrest, Director 

Rhode Island School of Design 
Providence, Rhode Island 
Derek Bradford, Dean 

University of Southern California 
Los Angeles, California 
Gerald G. Weisbach, Asso. Dean 

Texas Tech University 

Lubbock, Texas 

Nolan E. Barrick, Chairman 

Tuskegee Institute 
Tuskegee, Alabama 
Charles C. Hight, Head 

University of Calgary 
Calgary, Alberta, Canada 
James McKeller, Head 

Nova Scotia Technical College 
HaUfax, Nova Scotia, Canada 
P. Manning, Director 

University of Waterloo 
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada 
Fraser Watts, Director 



344 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 
RULES OF THE COMPETITION AND PROGRAM 



ARCHITECTlim 
COMPETITION 



CONTROL TOWER 

AND 

SERVICE BUILDING 

FOR 

RAILROAD 
CLASSIFICATION YARD 



I liMERICAN 
I llAILWAY 
I HNGINEERING 
m ttsSOCIATION 



COMMITTEE 



6 



BUILDINGS 



Buildings 345 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 

The American Railway Engineering Association is a non-profit organization 
whose objective is the advancement of knowledge pertaining to the scientific and 
economic location, construction, operation and maintenance of railways. Founded 
in 1899, its membership is primarily composed of employees of the Engineering 
Departments of Railway Companies. Committee 6, which is sponsoring this Compe- 
tition, is the Buildings Committee of the American Railway Engineering Association, 
whose membership consists of Architects, Building Engineers and Designers. 

Rules of the Competition 

Judging of the Competition 

The entries in tlie Competition will be impartially judged based on aptness of 
tlie solution and originality of design. The judges will be 

R. Hale, Architect, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, Los Angeles, Calif. 

AA in Architecture, Los Angeles City College and BA in Architecture, University 
of Southern California. License: California & Arizona. Certified: NCARB. 

K. E. Hornung, Assistant Chief Engineer — Structures, The Milwaukee Road, Chicago. 
Architectural Engineering, Iowa State, and BA, University of Minnesota. License: 
Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. 

W. C. Humphreys, Architect, Penn Central Transportation Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, and Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
License: Illinois, New York, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Connecticut and New 
Jersey. 

L. S. Newman, General Architect, St. Louis-San Francisco Railway, Springfield, Mo. 
BA in Architecture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Okla. License: 
Missouri and Tennessee. 

L. A. Palagi, Architect, Ellington Miller Co., Chicago. 
Illinois Institute of Technology. License: Illinois. 

R. D. Powrie, Senior Architect, Canadian Pacific Rail, Montreal, Que. 

BA, University of Toronto. License: Order of Architects of Quebec, 

S. G. Urban, Architect (Retired), Missouri Pacific Railroad. 

Master of Architecture, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. License: Missouri 
and Texas. 

Method of Submission 

Entries shall be submitted on two white illustration boards measuring 30 inches 
by 40 inches securely fastened together. No name or school affiliation shall appear 
on the face of the board. Name and address of entrant together with school affiliation 
shall be placed on the reverse side of each board in an area 3 inches by 5 inches and 
shall be covered by an opaque white index card securely taped so name, address 
and affiliation cannot be seen. Boards shall be shipped together so that both parts 
of each entry may be numbered vipon arrival. Boards shall be titled as shown in 
Exhibit 1. 

Date of Submission 

Entries shall be sent to the Director of the Competition: 



346 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

D. A. Bessey, Architect 

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad 

Room 809, 516 W. Jackson Blvd. 

Chicago, Illinois 60606 (Telephone: 312-236-7600) 

Entries must be received prior to midnight, January 31, 1976, to be con- 
sidered. Winners will be notified no later than February 20, 1976. 

Awards 

The following awards will be made: 

First Prize $500 
Second Prize $250 
Honorable Mention (5) $ 50 each 

Drawings to Become Property of AREA 

All drawings entered will become the property of the American Railway 
Engineering Association. Drawings may be published in the Proceedings of tlie 
Association and in industry trade publications at the discretion of the Association. 

Winner to Appear at Annual Technical Conference 

The first-place winner will be invited to appear at the Annual Technical Con- 
ference of the Association to be held at the Palmer House, Chicago, on March 23, 
1976. Winner shall be prepared to give a 10-minute oral presentation of his entry. 
Travel, lodging and food for the winner shall be arranged and paid for by the 
Association. 

Presentation Requirements 

The "Design Presentation" should be considered as the presentation normally 
given by an architect to a client. It should be executed in a professional manner. 
Presentation requirements are as follows: 

1. Site plan at 1/16" = I'-O" 

2. All floor plans at Js" = I'-O" with indication of furniture and equipment 

3. Two elevations at %" = I'-O" indicating finish materials 

4. Cross section at M" = I'-O" indicating materials used in consruction 

5. Perspective of building 

Note: Site plan, floor plans, elevation and section to be done in black and 
white. Color may be used on perspective only. 

Inquiries 

Inquiries shall be made to the director of the Competition and his decisions 
shall be final and binding. 

Note: A draft of a report on Elevated Yardmaster's Towers prepared by AREA 
Committee 6 and containing recommendations for the design of this type of structure 
is attached. It is to be noted that information included in this report is of recom- 
mendatory nature and is not binding upon the railroads or participants in the compe- 
tition but is submitted as information only. 

W. C. Sturm, Chairman E. P. Bohn, Vice Chairman 

Senior Project Engineer Engineer Buildings 

Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway Louisville & Nashville Railroad 

Joliet, 111. Louisville, Ky. 



Buildings 



347 



Exhibit 1 




CONTROL TOWER AND SERVICE BUILDING 
^ 4 FO» RAILROAD CLASSIFICATION YARD 



AREA COMMITTEE 6 
COMPETITION 



coja 

'Mm. 



zo' 



40 



(REAR Of BOARD ) 




348 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

The Problem 

General Scope 

The problem consists of a design for a Control and Service Bulding for a 
railroad classification yard. A classification yard is a railroad facility that receives 
freight trains and individual freight cars that are uncoupled and classified into 
nuinerous yard tracks where trains are made up and dispatched to various desti- 
nations. The particular type of classification yard in this problem is commonly called 
a "hump yard. " The operation of the hump yard involves the uncoupling of cars 
at the top of an incline allowing tlie cars to move by gravity down the incline and 
be automatically switched into various yard tracks. There are devices called retarders 
tliat apply pressure against the wheels of the freight cars as they move down the 
incline which regulate their speed. The Building in the problem is the central control 
point for the entire hump yard operation. 

The Building will house air compressors which produce compressed air to 
operate the retarding equipment. There will also be shop facilities to maintain the 
equipment, welfare and washroom facilities for employees, electronic equipment, 
computer room and the operators control station. 

Site Information 

The Building will be located south of tire classification yard tracks as indicated 
on the site plan (Exhibit 2). 

Provide parking facilities for 30 automobiles which shall be located soutli of 
the building and separated from the railroad yard operation. 

The railroad property line is parallel to tlie main hump track and is located 
200 ft south of the proposed building location. Parallel to the railroad right-of-way 
line is a frontage road widi a 100-ft right-of-way. Beyond the frontage road is a 
four-lane interstate highway with a residential development located south of the 
interstate highway. 

There is a mass transit bus line operating on the frontage road. 

Zoning Ordinances 

A nearby airport restricts the total height of buildings to 45 ft. 

Building Code 

Current edition of Uniform Building Code or National Building Code of Canada. 

Fire Limits 

Building shall be of fire-resistant construction. 

Building Design Criteria 

1. Compressor room widi a minimmn of 600 sq ft containing two air compres- 
sors. The compressors measure 5 ft x 10 ft x 6 ft high, weigh 8,000 lb each and are 
mounted on vibration absorption pads. The electric control cabinet for the compres- 
sors will be wall-mounted with a dimension of 2 ft deep x 18 ft long x 6 ft high. 

2. Small elevator — maximum four passengers. 

3. Mechanical room for heating and air-conditioning equipment. 

4. Shop and storage room for moderately heavy bench work. Area shall be a 
minimum of 500 sq ft and shall be used for repauing "car retarding equipment." 
The largest component of this equipment weighs 300 lb. 



Buildings 349 

5. Washroom facilities for yard switching crews and maintenance personnel, 
consisting of locker room, toilet room and lunch room area. The vending machines 
are to be located in the lunch room area. Locker room to accommodate seventy 
18- X 18- X 72-in. lockers. Lockers may be back to back. A maximum of 30 personnel 
will occupy this space at any one time. 

6. Electronic equipment room witli minimum of 800 sq ft. The equipment 
which controls tlie operation of the car retarders and switching is mounted on shelf 
type racks 2 ft wide x 4 ft long and 8 ft 6 in. high. The equipment racks are installed 
in rows with a minimum of 4-ft aisles between racks with access to both sides of 
racks. 

7. Storage room of a minimum of 200 sq ft for electronic parts which shall be 
adjacent to electronic equipment room. 

8. An area for light bench work to repair electronic component. The largest 
of these components weighs 20 lb. This repair function is a one-person operation. 

9. Communication equipment area with a minimum of 200 sq ft. 

10. Operators control room with a minimum of 200 sq ft. The room shall contain 
a control console which is an 8 ft long x 3 f t wide table. The operator sitting at the 
table shall have a clear view to the east, north and west and shall be able to view 
the ground at a point 70 ft nortli of the building and beyond. The top of the table 
shall be 35 ft above ground level. 

11. Computer room with a minimum of 500 sq ft, which shall contain a raised 
floor 12 in. above the structural floor which shall contain power and control cables 
for the computer equipment. 

12. Office for computer room supendsor and two clerks. 

13. Toilet facilities for control room operator and computer room personnel. 
There will be a maximum of four people of each sex at any one time and tliere shall 
be separate toilet facilities for men and women. 

General Information 

The railroad yard and the general site in the vicinity of die building shall be 
restricted to railroad employees only. 

The hump yard operation is carried out 24 hours a day, seven days a week. 

The building shall he air-conditioned. 

There shall be two air reservoir tanks located east or west of the building and 
relatively close to the compressor room. Tank size is 8 ft in diameter and 30 ft long. 

The car retarder system produces a high-frequency sound of 120 decibels at 
100 ft. 



350 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 




Report of Committee 7 — Timber Structures 




W. S. Stokely, 
Chairman 

J. A. GlSTAFSON, 

Vice Chairman 
J. W. Chambers, 
Secretary 



J. BUDZILENI 

J. M. Helm 

j. H. HuzY 

G. X. Sells 

R. C. Moody 

H. R. Stokes 

B. T. King 

G. K. Clem 

M. J. Marlow 

R. E. Anderson 

T. E. Brassel 

F. H. Cramer (E) 

M. J. Crespo 

A. R. Dahlberg 

B. E. Daniels 
H. E. Dearing 

K. L. DeBlois (E] 
D. J. Engle 
S. L. Goldberg 
D. C. Gould 
R. W. Gunther 
J. A. Hawley 



W. C. Kirkland 
D. I. Kjellman 
H. G. Kriegel 

L. R. KUBACKI 
R. E. KUEHNER 

C. V. Lund (E) 

D. H. McKibben 

C. H. Newlin 
W. A. Oliver 
\. I. Pinson 
R. P. Rasho 

J. J. Ridgeway 

D. y. Sahtore 

F. E. Schneider (E) 

J. W. Storer 

R. W. Thompson, JR- 

W. A. Thompson 

J. B. WeRxNer 

N. E. Whitney 

A. Youhanaie 

S. J. Zajchowski 

Committee 



( E ) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chainnan and 
secretary, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 
Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Re\ision of Manual. 
Xo report. 

2. Grading Rules and Classification of Luml>er for Railway Use; Speci- 
fications for Structural Timber, Collaborating with Other Organizations 
Interested. 

Xo report. 

3. Specification for Design of Wood Bridges and Trestles. 
No report. 

4. Methods of Fireproofing Wood Bridges and Trestles, Including Fire- 
Retardant Paints. 

Final report, submitted as information page 352 

5. Design of Structural Glued-Laminated W'ood Bridges and Trestles. 
Xo report. 

7. Repeated Loading of Timber Structures. 
Xo report. 

8. Protection of Pile Cut-Offs; Protection of Piling Against Marine 
Organisms by Means Other Than Preservative. 

No report. 



Bui. 656 



351 



352 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

9. Stud>- of In-PIace Presei-vative Treabiient of Timber Trestles. 
No report. 

10. Non-Destructive Testing of Wood. 
No report. 

The Committee on Timber SxRUCTtrRES, 

W. S. Stokely, Chairman. 



Report on Assignment 4 

Methods of Fireproofing Wood Bridges and Trestles, 
Including Fire-Retardant Paints 

G. N. Sells (chairman, subcommittee), B. J. King, M. J. Marlow, B. E. Daniels, 
D. H. McKiBBEN, N. E. Whitney, J. B. Werner, J. W. Stoker, H. G. Kriegel. 

Your committee submits the following report as information. Due to the 
inactivity of research in this field, the committee recommends tliat the subject be 
discontinued until such time as new products are available and warrant the re- 
creation of a subcommittee. 

The reader is directed to reports on this topic in the reports of Committee 7 
contained in AREA Proceedings, Volumes 40, 42, 51, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61, 62 
and 64. 

Currently there are two products being actively marketed in die area of timber 
fireproofing. Both are known by proprietary names. One of the products is designed 
to be applied to a completed structure, the second is applied to the timber members 
by a plant process prior to assembly to a structiu-e. 

A member road reports the following experience with an applied type product 
placed in service in July of 1974. 

The material was applied to twenty 6-pile bents averaging 8 ft in height with 
one pair of sway braces ( no sash brace ) and the exposed sides of caps, stringers and 
decking. 

An estimated 9300 sq ft of surface in tlie bents and decking was coated with 
approximately 345 gal of the material to a thickness of 45 mils. Spraying time was 
approximately 1200 sq ft per hour. 

The installation was made very closely following the manufacturer's recom- 
mendations and guidelines with one exception. The pump was placed directly in 
the drum and, in the other bung, a pressure relief valve and gage were inserted, 
making the drum a pressure pot instead of using the prescribed pressvire pot. This 
eliminated tiie labor of transferring the material as well as cleaning up tlie pressure 
pot. 

Sufficient time has not yet elapsed to fully evaluate the durability of the material; 
however, one inspection, at age 7 months, showed no change in the appearance 
or features of the material as applied. 



Reporf of Committee 8 — Concrete 
Structures and Foundations 




T. L. Fuller, Chairman 
J. W. DeValle, 
Vice Chairman 
R. J. Brueske 
T. R. Moore 
G. W. Cooke 
J. M. Williams 
J. R. Williams 
T. R. Kealey 
W. F. Baker 
E. R. Blewitt 
W. E. Brakenstek 
X. D. Bryant 



G. F. Dalquist 
M. T. Davisson 

J. T. DOHERTY 

B. M. DORNBLATT 

R. A. DoRscH 

D. H. DowE (E) 
M. E. Dust 

F. C. Edmonds 
J. A. Erskine 
Benard Fast 

G. W. Gabert 
W. L. Gamble 

E. F. Grecco 

R. J. Hallawell 
W. A. Hamilton, Jr. 

C. W. Harman 
P. Haven, U 
W. P. Hendrix 

J. O. HOLLADAY 

A. K. Howe 
W. R. Hyma 

J. R. IWINSKI 

T. F. Jacobs 

F. a. Kempe 
R. H. Kendall 

F. W. Klaiber 
Louis Lange, Jr. 
R. H. Lee 

G. F. Leyh 
J. K. Lynch 
E. F. Manley 



E. C. Mardorf 
J. F. Marsh 
R. J. McFarlin 
L. M. Morris (E) 
E. S. Neely, Sr. 
David No\ick 
R. E. Pearson 
J. A. Peterson 
J. E. Peterson 
M. Pekarsky 
H. D. Reilly 
E. D. Ripple 

E. E. RUNDE 

H. R. Sandberg 

J. H. Sawyer, Jr. 

M. P. Schindler 

J. E. Scroggs 

J. R. Shafer 

J. P. Shedd 

L. F. Spaine 

C. H. Splitstone (E) 

W. B. Stanczyk 

R. G. Stilling 

Anton Tedesko 

M. FUAT TiGRAK 

W. J. VENxm 
J. W. Weber 
J. O. Whitlock 
W. R. Wilson (E) 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chainnan and vice chairman 
are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 

No manual recommendations made this year. 

1. Design of Masonry Structures, Collaborating as Necessary or Desirable 
with Committees 1, 5, 6, 7, 15 and 28. 

Brief status statement page 354 

2. Foundations and Earth Pressures, Collaborating as Necessary or Desir- 
able with Committees 1, 6, 7 and 15. 

Brief progress report, submitted as information page 355 

3. Waterproofing for Railway Structures, Collaborating as Necessary or 
Desirable with Committees 6, 7 and 15. 

Brief progress report, submitted as information page 355 



353 



354 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

4. Concrete Components for Timber Trestles, Collaborating as Necessary 
or Desirable with Committee 7. 

Brief progres report, including drawing, submitted as information . . page 355 

5. Pier Protection (Fender Systems) at Spans on Navigable Streams, Col- 
laborating as Necessary or Desirable with Committees 7 and 15. 

Brief progress report, submitted as information page 357 

The Committee on Concrete Structures and Foundations, 

T. L. Fuller, Chairman. 

Report on Assignment 1 

Design of Masonry Structures 

J. R. Moore (chairman, subcommittee), W. F. Baker, W. E. Brakensiek, J. "W. 
DeValle, J. T. Doherty, R. A. Dorsch, M. E. Dust, F. C. Edmonds, J. A. 
Erskine, T. L. Fuller, G. W. Gabert, W. L. Gamble, E. F. Grecco, W. A. 
Hamilton, C. W. Harman, W. R. Hyma, F. A. Kempe, F. W. Klaiber, 
R. H. Lee, G. F. Leyh, J. K. Lynch, J. F. Marsh, R. E. Pearson, J. E. Peter- 
son, E. D. Ripple, J. H. Sawyer, J. E. Scroggs, R. K. Shortt, L. F. Spaine, 
A. Tedesko, M. Fuat Tigrak, W. J. Venuti, J. W. Weber, J. O. Whitlock, 
J. R. Williams, W. R. Wilson. 

The subcommittee is continuing work on changing design loading to E-80 
from E-72 and other upgrading of tlie design portions of Chapter 8 of the Manual. 

Work has continued on ultimate strength load factor design as a possible 
alternate to working stress design for concrete bridges. Standard concrete spans 
(designed by working stress method) are being analyzed by load factor design and 
ultimate strength methods to develop correlations between the methods. 



Concrete Structures and Foundations 355 

Report on Assignment 2 

Foundations and Earth Pressures 

G. W. Cooke (cliairman, subcommittee), G. F. Dalquist, M. T. Davisson, B. M. 

DORNBLATT, B. FaST, P. HaVEN, II, R. J. HalLAWELL, J. D. HOLLADAY, 

T. R. Kealey, R. H. Kendall, E. F. Manley, E. C. Mardorf, D. Novick, 
M. P. ScHiNDLER, J. R. Shafer, W. B. Stanczyk. 

Revisions to Manual material submitted for adoption were published in Bulletin 
650. This included entire new Part 3 — Specifications for Design of Spread Footings. 

Work is in progress on revisions to Part 4 — Pile Foundations, and to Drilled 
Shafts and Caissons, originally published as information in Bulletin 641, January- 
February 1973. 

Work is in progress to discover reasons for inconsistencies in the results obtained 
using the Coulomb and Boussinesq fonnula in Part 20 for point, line and strip 
surcharge loadings. 



Report on Assignment 3 

Waterproofing for Railway Structures 

J. M. Williams (chairman, sxih committee), E. R. Blewitt, W. P. Hendrix, A. K. 
Howe, J. R. Iwinski, L. Lange, M. Pdcarsky, H. D. Reilly, E. E. Runde, 
R. G. Stilling. 

Work is in progress for possible inclusion of ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer 
(EPDM) as an alternate to butyl membrane or rubberized asphalt and plastic film 
membrane. 

Report on Assignment 4 

Concrete Components for Timber Trestles 

J. R. Williams (cJiairman, subcommittee), W. F. Baker, J. W. DeValle, G. W. 
Harman, J. R. Iwinski, E. E. Runde, J. E. Scroggs. 

The subcommittee has completed plans for a precast, prestressed concrete cap/ 
sill for usage in timber trestles. This was developed to meet tlie various requirements 
of railroads presently using concrete caps in conjunction with suppliers of those 
caps. Standardization on the recommended cap should benefit both users and 
suppliers. Typical connection details were not developed, as it is felt that these 
details come under the jurisdiction of Conunittee 7 — Timber Structures. 

Details of cap/sill are shown as information in the accompanying drawing. 
(See page 356). 



356 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 



AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CAP AND/OR SILL 
FOR TIMBER PILE TRESTLE 





0" TO 8" "X" SPACES AT. 8" EACH 




VARIES 






A '' (li '' ill '' iTi '' iT) 1'^ 






1 1 1 1 1 lYl^HOLE 1 [ 1 1 









PLAN VIEW 



0" TO 8" 4" "X" SPACES AT 8" EACH 



il>HOLE 




M 



> 



ELEVATION 



GENERAL NOTES 

1. CAP TO BE MANUFACTURED IN ACCORDANCE 
WITH A.R.E.A. SPECIFICATION 8-17. 

2. CONCRETE = 6,000 RSI AT 28 DAYS 

3. CEMENT = A. S.T.M. CI50 UNLESS NOTED 

4. AGGREGATES' 3/4" MAX. 

5. STRAND = A. S.T.M. A4I6 

6. REINFORCING = A. S.T.M. A82 

7. FINISH = AS FORMED, FREE FROM HONEYCOMBS 

OR VOIDS 

8 ALL HOLES TO BE OPEN, FULL SIZE AND 
TRUE. CLOSED OR MISALIGNED HOLES MUST 
BE REAMED OUT TO FULL SIZE BEFORE 
LEAVING PLANT. 

9. TAPERED CAP WEIGHS 222 LBS. PER LIN. FT. 
RECTANGULAR CAP I4i/2"x 15", WEIGHS 226 LBS. 
PER LIN. FT. 

lO IT IS INTENDED THAT THE UNIT WILL BE CAST 
IN THE UP-SIDE DOWN MANNER SO THAT THE 
BEARING SURFACE FOR THE STRINGERS WILL 
BE SMOOTH AND FLAT. THE TAPER SHOWN IS 
FOR EASE OF REMOVAL FROM FORMS. THE 
UNIT MAY BE CAST IN THE RECTANGULAR 
SHAPE WITHOUT TAPER AT THE OPTION OF THE 
MANUFACTURER. 

II. FOR DETAILS OF HARDWARE AND FASTENINGS 
REFER TO CHAPTER 7 OF THE MANUAL. 




.250 SPIRAL 
AT 31/2 IN. PITCH 

I2-I/2IN,DIA, 
250X STRANDS 
AT 24,600 LBS 
EACH 



TYPICAL SECTION 

TOLERANCES 
OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 

LENGTH -2 IN. 

WIDTH +1/4 IN. 

DEPTH +1/8 IN. 

ALIGNMENT: 
VARIATION FROM STRAIGHT LINE 

HORIZONTALLY + 1/4 IN. 

VERTICALLY ±'/eiN. 

HOLE SPACING: 8 IN ±1/2 IN. 



THE 3/4" CHAMFER AT THE TOP CORNERS 
SHALL BE SPECIFIED AS A MAXIMUM. 



Concrete Structures and Foundations 357 

Report on Assignment 5 

Pier Protection (Fender Systems) at Spans on 
Navigable Streams 

T. R. Kealey (chairman, subcommittee), W. F. Baker, R. J. Brueske, J. W. 
De\'alle, T. L. Fuller, C. W. Harman, W. R. Hv^L'^, J. R. Iwinski, E. E. 

RUNDE, J. E. SCROGGS, J. O. WhITLOCK, J- R- WiLLIAMS. 

This is die first year of this subcommittee. Work is in progress in preparation 
of design factors for fender systems, exposure conditions, study of forces exerted 
by moving \essels and t\-pes of fender systems presently being utiHzed. 



Report of Committee 15 — Steel Structures 




L. F. Currier, Chairman 
D. S. Bechly, 
Vice Chairman 

D. L. NoRD 
W. D. Wood 
F. P. Drew 
C. A. Hughes 
J. G. Clark 

R. I. SiMKINS 

H. A. Balke 
J. E. Barrett 
Jan Berger 

L. N. BiGELOW 

E. S. BiRKENWALD (E) 



Edward Bond 
T. J. Boyle 
J. C. Bridgefarmer 
C. J- Burroughs 
H. L. Chamberlain 
R. W. Christie 

H. B. CUNDIFF 

E. J. Daily 

A. C. Danks 

T. W. Davidson 

L. D. Davis 

E. B. Dobranetski 

J. L. DURKEE 

N. E. Ekrem 
T. W. Fisher 
"G. F. Fox 

G. K. GiLLAN 
C. E. GiLLEY 

J. W. Hartmann 
J. M. Hayes (E) 
G. E. Henry 
L. R. HuRD 
R. D. Hutton 
m. l. koehler 
l. r. kubacki 
Andrew Lally 
E. M. Laytham 
K. H. Lenzen 
A. D. M. Lewis 
H. B. Lewis 
H. M. Mandel 
R. C. McMaster 



James Michalos 

D. V. Messman ( E ) 
G. E. Morris, Jr. 
Fred Moses 

r. h. moulton 
v. v. mudholkar 

W. H. MUNSE 

R. D. Nordstrom 
W. H. Pahl, Jr. 

A. L. PlEPMEIER 
R. G. PlERRJES 

F. a. Reickert 
W. W. Sanders, Jr. 

M. SCHIFALACgUA 

A. E. Schmidt 

F. D. Sears 

G. R. Shay 
Hernan Solarte 
A. P. SOUSA 

J. E. Stallmeyer 
Z. L. Szeliski 

E. S. Thoden 

W. M. Thatcher 

R. N. Wagnon 

C. R. Wahlen 

R. H. Wengenroth 

W. Wilbur 

E. N. Wilson 

A. J. Wood 

J. A. Zeleznikar 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman and vice chairman, 
are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 
Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 

Revisions to Specifications for Steel Railway Bridges submitted for adoption 
were published in Part 1 of Bulletin 655, November-December 1975. 

1. Develop Criteria for the Design of Unloading Pits, Collaborating with Com- 
mittees 7 and 8. 

No report. 

2. Obtain Data From Wliich the Frequency of Occurrence of Maximum Stress 
in Steel Railway Bridges May Be Detennined Under Service Loading. 

No report. 

3. Protection of Steel Surfaces. 
No report. 



359 



360 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

7. Bibliography and Technical Explanation of Various Requirements in AREA 
Specifications Relating to Iron and Steel Structures. 

No report. 

10. Continuous Welded Rail on Bridges, Collaborating as Necessary or Desirable 
\\'ith Committee 4. 

Revisions to Specifications submitted for adoption were published in Part 1 
of Bulletin 655, November-December 1975. 

The Committee on Steel Structures, 

L. F. Currier, Chairman. 



Iron and Steel structures 361 



3Rolanb barker Babisf 
1884=1974 

Roland Parker Davis, Life Member of the American Railway Engineering 
Association and Member Emeritus of Committee 15 — Steel Structures, died on 
December 11, 1974, at his home in Morgantovvn, West Virginia. 

He became a Member of AREA in 1914 and a Life Member in 1949. He had 
been a member of Committee 15 for many years and became Member Emeritus 
upon his retirement from West Virginia University in 1955. He is well remembered 
for his wise counsel during his tenure on Committee 15. He contributed much to 
the development of specifications for the design of steel bridges. 

He was bom on August 2, 1884, at Beverly, Massachusetts, the son of Parker 
Stephen and Julia Andrews Davis. Upon completing his education in the public 
schools at Be\erly, he entered die Massachusetts Institute of Technology from which 
he received the S. B. degree in 1906. After working as a draftsman for the American 
Bridge Company for one year, he resumed his education, entering Cornell University 
from which he was graduated with tiie M.C.E. degree in 1908. He was married 
to Bessie Belle Strantzch of Springfield, Missouri, on June 16, 1910. 

Dr. Davis continued at Cornell University, serving as an instructor in engineering 
while pursuing studies and research leading to his doctorate, which was awarded 
in 1914. He joined the faculty of West Virginia University in 1911, as associate 
professor in the Department of Civil Engineering. He subsequently served as pro- 
fessor and head of structural engineering, associate dean of the college of engineering, 
and in 1932 was elevated to tlie position of dean of the College of Engineering 
which he held until his retirement in 1955. 

In addition to his teaching appointments at West Virginia University, he also 
served the State of West Virginia as bridge engineer beginning in 1914. He was 
infiuential in organizing the State Road Commission of West Virginia, which was 
formed in 1919. When its headquarters were moved from Morgantown to Charleston, 
he continued to serve as a consultant to the Commission's bridge department. 

Although his services were largely devoted to the State of West Virginia, he 
served as a consultant in connection witii the design and construction of the 
Thatcher Ferry Bridge over the Panama Canal, completed in 1962. 

He was active in several professional and technical organizations. He served 
as a director of the American Society of Civil Engineers from 1937 to 1939. He was 
vice president of ASCE in 1940. He was made an Honorary Member of ASCE in 
1968. He was a member of Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Xi, and a National Honor Member 
of Chi Epsilon. He had been a member of the Kiwanis for over 50 years. 

He was the co-author of two major l)ooks, both written in coHaboration with 
the late Professor H. S. Jacoby of Cornell University: Foundations of Bridges and 
Buildings, 1914 and 1925, and Timber Design and Construction, 1929. 

He is survived by his wife, Bessie Belle Strantzch Davis; a nephew who grew 
up in his home, J. A. W. Davis; a brother, Clifford Davis of Massachusetts; a sister, 
Mrs. Elsie Davis Upton of Beverly, Massachusetts; and several other nieces and 
nephews. 

E. S. BlRKENWALD 

J. M. Hayes 



Report of Committee 1 — Roadway and Ballast 




E. L. Robinson, 
Chairman 

N. E. Whitney, 
Vice Chairman 

W. J. Sponseller, 
Secretary 

M. B. Hansen 

F. L. Peckover 
C. E. Webb 

J. L. ViCKERS 

W. M. Dowdy 
R. L. Williams 
J. B. Farris 
H. C. Archdeacon 



A. G. Altschaeffl 
R. D. Baldwin 

H. E. Bartlett 
C. W. Bean 
R. H. Beeder (E) 
R. J. Bennett 

C. R. Bergman 
T. R. Blacklock 
R. H. Bogle, Jr. 

E. W. BURKHARDT 

B. E. Butterbaugh 
R. M. Clementson 

D. H. Cook 
M. W. Cox 
G. W. Deblin 
H. K. Eggleston 
G. E. Ellis 

W. P. Eshbaugh (E) 

E. E. Farris 
T. J. Faucett 
G. C. Fenton 
J. S. Fluke 

F. B. Grant 

J. B. Haegler, Jr. 
R. T. Haggerstrom 
W. T. Hammond 
R. D. Hellweg 
T, J. Hernandez 
P. R. Houghton 
H. O. Ireland 

G. Jess 

B. J. Johnson 



D. N. Johnston 
J. A. KUHN 

H. W. Legro (E) 
W. S. Lovelace 

K. J. LUDWIG 

J. K. Lynch 

F. H. McGuigan 

H. E. McQueen 

B. C. MOHL 

W. G. Murphy 
J. E. Newby 

F. P. Nichols, Jr. 

J. M. NUNN 

R. V. Perrone 
R. H. Peterson 
W. B. Peterson 
S. R. Pettit 
H. E. Richards 

G. D. Santolla 
P. J. Seidel 

W. M. Snow 

E. H. Steel 
W. H. Stumm 

F. A. Tijan, Jr. 
R. H. Uhrich 

S. S. Vinton (E) 
M. E. Vosseller 
J. B. Wackenhut 
A. J. Wegmann (E) 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman and 
secretar>', are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

1. Roadbed. 

Publication in the Manual of Section 1.4 — Maintenance, was recom- 
mended in Part 1 of the November-December 1975 Bulletin. This 
completes revision of the entire Part 1 — Roadbed, of the Manual. 

2. Ballast. 

Progress report on ballast research presented as information page 364 

3. Natural Waterways. 

A draft of a proposed revision to Part 3, Section 34, has been com- 
pleted and will be ready for publication in the November-December 
1976 Bulletin. 

4. Culverts and Drainage Pipe. 

A study is vmderway to investigate the need for test specifications for 
aluminum pipe and its application in the railroad roadway. 



363 



364 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

5. Pipelines. 

Consideration is being given to provide recommendations for use of 
casing pipe larger than 42-inch diameter. 

6. Fences. 
No report. 

8. Tunnels. 
No report. 

9. Vegetation Control. 

A Manual addition, Table 3 — Susceptibility of Woody Species has 
been published in Part 1 of the November-December 1975 Bulletin. 
Part 9 of the Manual requires constant review due to environmental 
control laws concerning the use of some chemicals. This is a con- 
tinuous task for your committee. 

The Committee on Roadway and Ballast, 

E. L. Robinson, Chairman. 



Report on Assignment 2 

Ballast 

C. E. Webb (chairman, subcommittee), R. H. Beeder, R. J. Bennett, E. W. Burk- 
HARDT, H. K. Eggleston, G. E. Ellis, R. D. Hellweg, J. K. Lynch, F. P. 
Nichols, R. H. Peterson, W. B. Peterson, R. H. Uhrich. 

The following report on ballast research is presented as information. 

BALLAST AND FOUNDATION MATERIALS 
RESEARCH PROGRAM 

The Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign is currently conducting a broadbased research program in the areas of 
ballast and subgrade materials, via a contract with tlie Association of American 
Railroads. This AAR-U of I contract is part of a larger project sponsored by the 
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. 

A review committee consisting of W. S. Autrey, chief engineer System, Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, R. M. Browai, chief engineer. Union Pacific, C. E. Webb, assistant 
vice president, Southern Railway, and F. L. Peckover, engineer of geotechnical 
services, Canadian National, was established for this program. 

The general extent of the research is to conduct an investigation of die physical 
properties, behavioral characteristics, and associated economics of commonly em- 
ployed railroad ballast and foundation (subgrade) materials. 

The nature of the six phases of activity of tlie project as well as their status 
are as follows. 

Phase I: Technical Data Bases 

The relevant literature pertaining to the pertinent properties of granular 
materials and fine-grained soils, ballast materials, and analytical structural models. 



Roadway and Ballast 365 



has reen reviewed. A report entitled, "Technical Data Bases Report," has been 
completed. 

Phase II: Development of a Structural Model and Materials 
Evaluation Procedures 

A "mechanistic structural analysis model" has been developed and testing 
procedures established for evaluating the properties of tlie ballast and foundation 
materials needed as inputs to the structural model. The finite element structural 
analysis model considers the stress-dependent behavior of the ballast and founda- 
tion materials. The structural model output includes stresses and displacements in 
tlie ballast and foundation materials, tie plate reactions, rail moments and deflec- 
tions, and tie moments and deflection. A report entitled, "Development of a 
Structural Model and Materials Evaluation Procedures," has been completed. 

Pil\se III: Parameter Studies and Sensitivity Analyses 

The structural model was utilized to establish tlie eftects of major design 
parameters on the response of the track support system. The parameters considered 
included: 1) subgrade soil resilience properties, 2) ballast and sub-ballast material 
resihence properties, 3) ballast and sub-ballast diicknesses, 4) ballast-tie parameters, 
and 5) rail-tie parameters. A summary report for Phase III is being prepared for 
submission to AAR. 

Phase IV: Materials Evaluation Study 

A series of laboratory tests are being conducted with selected foundation soils 
and ballast and sub-ballast materials to determine their pertinent engineering 
properties. The ballast, sub-ballast, and foundation materials selected for inclusion 
in the laboratory study represent a range in both engineering properties and t\'pes 
and sources of materials. In addition to the standard AREA specification tests, 
repeated-load triaxial tests (elastic and permanent deformation measurements), 
particle index tests, crushing value tests, lateral restraint capability tests, and ballast 
degradation tests (1 X 10" load repetitions) are being conducted. Phase I\' activities 
have not yet been completed. 

Phase V: Economic Evaluation 

Costs associated with the use of various types of ballast material w ill be identi- 
fied and the cost eftectiveness of the ballast materials ranked both as to transportation 
costs and stabilitv'. Phase V has not >et been completed. 

Phase M: Prepar.\tion of Conclusions, Summary and Recommendations 

Data and information obtained from the technical literature and that developed 
in the project will be summarized and analyzed. Appropriate conclusions and rec- 
ommendations will be developed and areas of technological need will be identified. 

The principal project investigators are Dr. Q. L. Robnett, Dr. M. R. Thompson, 
and Dr. W. W. Hay of tlie University of IlHnois. The principal investigator on the 
entire contract is Dr. Gregory C. Martin from the Association of American Raiboads. 

The availabilit> of completed reports can be obtained by writing to the Asso- 
ciation of American Raflroads Technical Center, 3140 S. Federal St., Chicago, IL 
60616. 



Report of Committee 3 — Ties and Wood Preservation 




C. p. Bird, Chairman 

E. M. ClMMINGS, 

Vice Chairman 
J. E. HiNSON, Secretary 

F. J. Fudge 



J. T, Skerczak 
R. J. Shelton' 

L. C. COLLISTER 

K. C. Edscorn 
G. H. Way 

J. \V. A. Acer 

H. C. Archdeacon 

W. F. .Arksey 

A. B. Baker 
S. L. Barkley 
W. W. Barnette 
R. S. Belcher (E) 
G. W. Brenton 

C. A. Burdell 

C. S. Burt (E) 

D. Carter 
M. J. Crespo 
D. L. Davies 

R. F. Dreitzler 
I. A. Eatox 
D. E. Embling 
W. E. FUHR 

B. J. Gordon 



J. K. Gloster 
D. C. Gould 
R. D. Hellweg 
R. P. Hughes (E) 

G. P. HUHLEIN 

R. G. Huston 
R. E. Kleist 
L. W. Kistler (E) 
M. A. Lane 

D. B. Mabry 
G. H. Xash 

T. J. O'DONNELL 

R. B. Radkey 

H. E. Richardson 

R. H. Savage 

K. W. Schoeneberg 

G. D. Summers 

R. C. Weller 

F. M. Whitmore 

J. L. Williams 

E. L. Woods 
R. G. Zeitlow 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman 
and secretary', are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Raihvatj Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 

Revision of Manual Parts 1 to 9 \\as completed in 1973, submitted for 
re\ae\v and approxal to tlie Board Committee on Publications and the 
AREA Board of Direction and has now been approved for publication. 
Further revisions to Part 10, Specification for Concrete Ties (and 
Fastenings), have been proposed and the revised specification was 
published in Part 1 of the November-December 1975 Bulletin, for 
reconsideration. 

2. Cross and Switch Ties. 

Report on 1975 treating plant inspection page 368 

3. Wood Presenatixes. 

Brief progress report on investigation of 3 APR6 preservative is pre- 
sented as information P^ige 368 

4. Preser\ative Treatment of Forest Products. 
No report. 

5. Service Records of Forest Products. 

(a) Aimual Tie Renewal Statistics as Compiled by the Economics and 
Finance Department, AAR. 

These statistics were published as an advance report in Bulletin 
654, September-October 1975. 



367 



368 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(b) Investigate Suitability of Imported Cross Ties. 

A brief progress report is presented as information page 369 

6. Collaborate with AAR Research Departinent and Otlier Organizations 
in Research and Other Matters of Mutual Interest. 
No report. 

The Committee on Ties and Wood Preservation, 

C. P. Bird, Chairman. 



Reporf on Assignment 2 

Cross and Switch Ties 

J. T. Skerczak (chairman, subcommittee), H. C. Archdeacon, W. W. Barnette, 
C. P. Bird, C. A. Burdell, M. J. Crespo, E. M. Cumnungs, F. J. Fudge, 
J. K. Gloster, J. E. HiNsoN, M. A. Lane, G. H. Nash, H. A. Richardson, 
R. H. Savage, K. W. Schoeneberg, R. C. Weller, R. G. Zietlow. 

Extent of Adherence to Specifications for Cross and Switch 
Ties as Observed on Field Inspection 

On May 21st, 1975, 12 members of Committee 3 inspected cross and switch 
ties at a treating plant in Muncy, Pa. The plant was found to be neat and clean 
with very good drainage and generally excellent housekeeping. Ties were stacked 
9x2 for the Reading Company and 9x1 for the Penn Central to a height of 17 
rows. 

Ties in storage were predominantly mixed oak with lesser amounts of mixed 
hardwoods. Ties were inspected visually at unloader-separator-trimmer. Quality was 
generally good, selective dowelling being used for anti-splitting control. Tie sizes 
were in accordance with AREA specifications. 

The plant treats approximately 1,200,000 ties annually with 60/40 and 80/20 
creosote-coal tar solutions, to net retentions of 6 and 7 lb per cu ft, using vapor 
drying and Rueping metliods, adhering to AREA specifications. 

Report on Assignment 3 

Wood Preservatives 

R. J. Shelton (chairman, suhcommittee), C. P. Bird, C. A. Burdell, L. C. 
CoLLiSTER, D. L. Davies, F. J. FuDGE, J. E. HiNSON, G. H. Way. 

Your committee submits the following progress report as information, pertaining 
to the evaluation of "3APR6" as a wood preservative. 

In 1974, Subcommittee 3 was approached by an eastern manufacturer of wood 
preservatives to evaluate for approval its preservative, "3APR6." 

The preservative and process were described as a water-soluble monomer intro- 
duced into the wood cells in a closed cylinder by first applying a high vacuum for 
one-half hour followed by introduction of the liquid monomer into the cylinder under 



Ties and Wood Preservation 369 

pressure for one-half hour to help increase penetration. Polymerization of the 
monomer then takes place in tlie wood. 

Upon visiting the plant, the subcommittee decided that the preservative may 
have some merit and should be evaluated. It was verified tliat 21 ties which had 
been treated with "3APR6" had been in service at Easton, Pennsylvania for over 
seven years. A visit to this site was scheduled for the joint field trip of the AREA 
Committee and RTA Research Group for May 22, 1975. Three of the 21 ties were 
marked for removal for furdier testing. One-half of each of these ties was shipped 
to the Forest Utilization Lab at Mississippi State University for soil block and 
strength tests. These ties have been removed and tlie tests at Mississippi State 
University are now under way. 

The manufacturer is also having several independent laboratories evaluate 
its "3APR6." Plate wear tests will be run, but plans for this test have not been 
finalized. 

At present, the subcommittee is not trying to draw any conclusions as to the 
merit of the product, but is collecting as much data from as many different sources 
as possible. After these data are collected, it will be reviewed by Subcommittee 3, 
at which time we will make recommendations to Committee 3 as to the acceptance 
of "3APR6" as a preservative for ties and wood products. 

Report on Assignment 5 

Service Records of Forest Products 

K. C. Edscorn (chairman, subcomtnittee), L. C. Collister, M. J. Crespo, E. M. 
CuMMiNGs, J. K. Closter, H. E. Richardson, R. H. Savage, G. D. Summers. 

Your committee submits the following report, as information, on the beginning 
of its investigation to determine the suitability of various woods which have been 
imported into the United States for use as cross ties. 

In order that it might be determined which railroads have foreign species of 
wood in use as cross ties, a letter was sent to the 17 largest Class I roads asking 
them to list the number and species in track as well as date of installation, location, 
type of preservative treatment and class of track. Replies were received from 10 
railroads only 4 of which indicated they have installations of foreign woods. These 
are shown in the accompanying table. (See pages 370-371). 

We will continue to gather infomiation about the service and durability of 
the cmTent installations so that progress on this assignment can be reported in 
subsequent Bulletins. It is obvious that several years of service will be required 
before a sound evaluation can be made. 



370 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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Report of Committee 4 — Rail 




R. M. Brown, Chairman 

H. F. LONGHELT, 

Vice Chairman 
A. B. Merritt, Jr., 

Secretary 
R. F. Bush 

R. C. POSTELS 

W. J. Cruse 
E. T. Franzen 
G. H. Maxwell 
R. E. GoRsucH 
E. H. Waring 
D, H. Stone 

L. A. LOGSDON 



V. R. Terrill 

J. I. Adams 

B. C Anderson 

S. H. Barlow 

D. A. Bell 

R. E. Catlett, Jr. 

L. S. Crane 

P. K. Cruckshank 

Daniel Danyluk 

A. R. DeRosa 
Emil Eskengren 
R. C. Faulkner 
M. A. Ferguson 

B. R. Forcier 
W. H. Freeman 
A. H. Galbraith 
R. G. Garland 
G. H. Geiger 
W. J. Gilbert 

R. L. Gray 
J. H. Greason, Jr. 
R. E. Haacke 
V. E. Hall 

C. C. Herrick 
W. H. Huffman 
T. B. Hutcheson 
A. V. Johnston 
K. H. Kannowski 
R. R. Lawton 
W. S. Lovelace 
J. F. Lyle 

T. C. Mackenzie 



Ray McBrian (E) 

T. L. Merritt 

"B. R. Meyers (E) 

F. W. Michael 

C. E. Morgan (E) 

G. L. MUHDOCK 

B. J. Murphy 

B. F. Overbey 

C. F. Parvin 
C. O. Penney 

G. L. P. Plow (E) 

T. M. Rankin 

"M. S. Reid 

I. A. Reiner 

R. B. Rhode 

H. L. Rose 

C. N. Scott 

A. E. Shaw, Jr. 
L. H. Shisler 
W. A. Smith 

B. D. Sorrels 

C. L. Stanford 
R. K. Steele 
Erich Thomsen 
G. S. Triebel 
M. S. Wakely 
G. H. Way 

C. E. Weller 

S. T. WiECEK 

H. M. Williamson 

M. J. WiSNOWSKI 

Committee 



(E) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman, and 
secretan.', are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects; 

B. Revision of Manual. 
No report. 

1. Collaborate witli AISI Technical Subcommittee, Welding Contrac- 
tors, Suppliers of Field Wielding, Rail Grinding and Rail Testing 
Conhactors on Matters of Mutual Interest. 

No report. 

2. Collaborate with AISI Technical Committee on Rail and Joint Bars in 
Research and Otlier Matters of Mutual Interest. 

(a) Study the subject of obtaining rails longer tlian 39 ft., looking 
to developing die optimum length of rail that will be acceptable, 
based on handling metliods, supply of cars for shipping, the 
number of rails which can be obtained from steel company ingot 
molds, and other necessary considerations. 

No report. 



373 



374 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

3. Rail Failure Statistics. 

Brief status statement, included in Commentary. 

4. Up-date Data on Methods and Equipment for Making Welding Repairs 
to Rail and Turnouts. 

No report. 

5. Rail Research and Development. 

Progress report, submitted as information page 376 

6. Joint bars: Design, Specifications, Service Tests, Including Insulated 
Joints and Compromise Joints. 

No report. 

7. Laying of Continuous Welded Rail. 

Statistics showing track miles of CWR laid by years since 1933, sub- 
mitted as information page 376 

8. Maintenance of Continuous Welded Rail. 

Brief status statement, included in Commentary. 

9. Standardization of Rail Sections. 

Progress report, submitted as information page 382 

10. Effect of Heavy Wheel Loads on Rail. 
No report. 

11. Field Welding. 
No report. 

12. CWR Field Handbook. 

Brief status statement, included in Commentary. 



COMMENTARY 

On September 27, 1975, recommendation was submitted by Chairman Brown 
of Committee 4 to the Board of Direction for approval to consolidate Assignment 3, 
"Rail Failure Statistics," and Assignment 9, "Standardization of Rail Sections," into 
one revised Assignment 3, "Rail Statistics." 

In the past, reports on both Assigmnents 3 and 9 of Committee 4 have been 
confined to rail statistics. Assignment 3 covering a compilation of data on rail failures 
illustrated by numerous statistics and graphs, and Assignment 9, a brief statistical 
summary of the annual tonnage rolled and shipped from Canadian and United States 
rail mills in each individual rail section. 

In connection with Assignment 3, the last report of rail failure statistics was 
made in Bulletin 641 of January-February 1973. These statistics were discontinued 
in 1973 as it was recognized that the statistics being assembled had little or no value 
as efforts were being made to compile these numbers from all railroads in the country 
and the majority of the roads that were attempting to report did not maintain the 
records that were necessary to furnish Committee 4 with reliable statistics; conse- 
quently, the statistics tliat were published weren't realistic. 

Since that time, however, the FRA and Congress have become deeply involved 
in the problem of upgrading railroads throughout the country and in so doing have 



Rai_l 375 

been attempting to develop numbers from any source to support the effort. The 
condition of raU in tracks of the American Railroads is, of course, one of the primary 
problems within the industry and one of the largest items of expense required to 
upgrade the properties that are in trouble. Consequently, the FRA has been attempt- 
ing to assemble data for its own use and for presentation before congressional 
committees on these rail conditions, and both FRA and congressional conuuittees 
have been critical of the fact that the AREA, representing the engineering arm of 
the industry, doesn't have any statistics such as those we attempted to assemble on 
rail failures to further their study of our problems. 

When this matter was brought up at the last Rail Committee meeting in Chicago 
on June 16-17, 1975, it was discussed thoroughly and it was the consensus of all 
present that we should attempt to assemble such statistics to the extent that they 
are available from major roads which do maintain reliable records on rail defects. 
Consequently, it was concluded that we would again attempt to assemble such 
statistics only from those roads who can furnish reliable numbers and at least have 
these available for future reference within the industry and a\ailable to Government 
agencies for their use as required. 

As stated above, both of these assignments are primarily confined to rail sta- 
tistics which are very beneficial and worthwhile; however, compilation of rail 
statistical data does not require or justify the assignment of two separate subcom- 
mittees presently represented by 27 different members of Committee 4 and it was 
therefore recommended assignments 3 and 9 be consoHdated into one revised Assign- 
ment 3, "Rail Statistics." This recommendation was appro\'ed by the Board of 
Direction at its meeting November 13, 1975. 

It also has been apparent Committee 4 has an area of conflict with Committee 
5 — Track, as Chapter 5-5-4, "Laying Continuous Welded Rail (CWR)," and 
Chapter 5-5-4.1, "Maintenance of Continuous Welded Rail," are also the same 
subjects of Committee 4 — Rail, Assignments 7 and 8, respectively. 

In view of this conflict, Committee 4 presented tliis matter to the Board of 
Direction and on November 13, 1975, the Board transferred Assignments 7 (Laying 
of Continuous Welded Rail), 8 (Maintenance of Continuous Welded Rail) and 12 
(CWR Field Handbook) from Committee 4 — Rail to Committee 5 — Track. 

The Committee on Rail, 

R. M. Brown, Chairman. 



376 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Report on Assignment 5 
Rail Research and Development 

W. J. Cruse (chairman, subcommittee), B. C. Anderson, R. M. Brown, Daniel 
Danyluk, a. R. DeRosa, G. H. Geiger, R. E. Gorsuch, R. E. Haacke, W. H. 
Huffman, T. B. Hutcheson, H. F. Longhelt, W. S. Lovelace, T. C. 
Mackenzie, A. B. Merritt, Jr., J. L. Merritt, C. O. Penney, J. M. Rankin, 
W. A. Smith, R. K. Steele, D. H. Stone, G. H. Way, M. J. Wisnowski. 

Advance progress report was published in Bulletin 654, September-October 
1975. 

Field inspections were carried out as a cooperative effort of die Rail Research 
and Development Subcommittee of AREA Gommittee 4 — Rail, the AISI Technical 
Subcommittee on Rail and Accessories and the AAR Research and Test Department. 

On July 30, 1975, an inspection was made of a service test installation of fully 
heat-treated, induction head-hardened, intermediate manganese and standard control- 
cooled rail on the Ghessie System in the vicinity of Oakland, Maryland. On August 
19, 20 and 21 inspections of service test installation of fully heat-treated, induction 
head-hardened, high silicon and standard control-cooled rail on the Burlington 
Northern in Montana and Washington were made. The report of their findings will 
be made available in 1976. 

As information, the Ad Hoc Committee on Rail Research, made up of representa- 
tives of AREA, AAR and AISI, have contacted a number of railroads throughout 
this country and Canada and, with their cooperation, established a number of new 
rail test sites for gathering rail defect statistics. This effort is part of the ongoing 
cooperative research work having to do with the study of rail defects and the 
metallurgy of rail steels. 

Report on Assignment 7 

Laying of Continuous Welded Rail 

G. H. Maxwell (chairman, subcommittee), R. M. Brown, Daniel Danylxik, 
A. R. DeRosa, Emil Eskengren, A. H. Galbraith, R. G. Garland, W. J. 
Gilbert, R. L. Gray, R. E. Haacke, L. A. Logsdon, H. F. Longhelt, A. B. 
Merritt, Jr., B. J. Murphy, R. C. Postels, R. B. Rhode, H. L. Rose, 
A. E. Shaw, Jr., B. D. Sorrels, E. H. Waring, C. E. Weller. 

Your committee submits as information the following statistics showing tlie 
number of track miles of CWR laid by years for the period 1933 to 1974, inclusive. 



Rail 



377 






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380 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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Rail 381 

Track Miles of Continuous Welded Rail Laid By Years, 1933-1974 



1933 


0.16 


1934 


0.95 


1935 


4.06 


1936 


1.52 


1937 


31.23 


1939 


6.04 


1942 


5.48 


1943 


6.29 


1944 


12.88 


1945 


4.8] 


1946 


3.91 


1947 


18.70 


1948 


29.93 


1949 


33.05 


1950 


50.25 


1951 


37.25 


1952 


40.00 


1953 


80.00 


19.54 


87.00 



Oxy- Electric 

acetylene Flash Total 

1955 194.50 72.0 266.50 

1956 372.33 89.10 461.43 

1957 390.47 159.65 550.12 

1958 148.11 312.13 460.24 

1959 378.65 691.92 1070.57 

1960 299.42 961.20 1260.62 

1961 94.13 926.50 1020.63 

1962 310.59 1183.34 1493.93 

1963 497.52 1360.48 1858.00 

1964 586.76 1796.74 2383.50 

1965 700.59 1655.74 2356.33 

1966 746.61 1984.71 2731.32 

1967 784.28 1800.27 2584.55 

1968 643.10 2543.61 3186.71 

1969 674.35 2930.01 3604.36 

1970 800.30 5378.32 6178.62 

1971 504.28 3604.72 4109.00 

1972 422.91 4011.29 4434.20 

1973 465.68 4084.27 4767.37" 

1974 273.79 4183.48 4457.27 



49688.78' 



Bre.'Vk-Down of Continuous Welded Rail Laid in 1974 — Track Miles 



Main Track 

Sidings & Yard Tracks 



Total includes 217.42 miles reported by Norfolk & Western in 1973, but breakdown 
not available. 



Oxyacetylene 


Electric 


Flash 




New 


Secondhand 


New 


Secondhand 


Totals 


113.03 


147.64 


2437.76 


1542.39 


4240.82 


.31 


12.81 


6.47 


196.86 


216.45 


113.34 


160.45 


2444.23 


1739.25 


4457.27 



382 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Report on Assignment 9 

Standardization of Rail Sections 

E. H. Waring (chairman, subcommittee), R. M. Brown, R. F. Bush, P. K. Cruck- 
SHANK, W. J. Gilbert, W. H. Huffman, H. F. Longfelt, A. B. Merritt, Jr., 
F. W. Michael, B. J. Murphy, B. F. Ovehbey, R. C. Postels, J. M. Rankin, 
I. A. Reiner, G. S. Triebel, G. H. Way, M. J. Wisnowski. 

During the past year, Subcommittee 9 has secured from the American Iron 
and Steel Institute Technical Committee on Railroad Materials a summary of the 
tonnage of rail shipped from Canadian and United States steel mills to North Ameri- 
can Railroads. A tabulation of this information is included herewith. 

It is noted that 891,382 tons or 87.52% of tlie total rail shipped was in sections 
to which it is recommended that purchases of new rail be limited. 

Consolidated Report of Rail Shipped to North American Railroads from 
North American Rail Producing Mills in 1974 by Weight and Section 









Tons 


Weight 


Section 


% Total 


Shipped 


140' 


AREA 


6.11 


62,203 


136* 


AREA 


14.43 


147,033 


133 


AREA 


8.30 


84,514 


132* 


AREA 


36.24 


369,176 


131 


AREA 


0.01 


60 


130 


AREA 


0.05 


559 


130 


PS 


0.03 


286 


122 


CB 


2.59 


26,398 


60 KG/M 


UIC 


0.01 


89 


119* 


AREA 


6.08 


61,920 


115* 


AREA 


17.19 


175,094 


112 


AREA 


0.09 


872 


100* 


AREA 


5.61 


57,101 


100 


ARA-A 


0.96 


9,792 


90* 


ARA-A 


1.86 


18,855 


85 


CP 


0.18 


1,821 


75 


BS-11 


0.26 


2,673 



* Recommended section 



TOTAL 



100.00 



1,018,446 



Report of Committee 16 — Economics of Plant, Equipment 

and Operations 




M. B. Miller, 

Chairman 
L. A. Durham, Jr., 

Vice Chairman 
M. J. Shearer, Jr., 

Secretary 

G. RUGGE 

J. R. WiLMOT 

T. C. NORDQUIST 

R. p. Hoffman 

D. H. Noble 

T. D. Kern 

R. D. Penhallegon' 

J. C. Martin 

"R. E. .\hlf 



C. Bach 

J. W. Barriger (E) 

J. \\'. Barriger 

K. W. Bradley 

W. G. Byers 

R. L. Carstens 

J. B. Clark 

R. P. Corxwell 

L. P. Dl\mond 

W. T. Dlxon 

R. H. Dunn 

G. B. DuTTON, Jr. 

J. J. Eash 

S. Fog ARTY 

J. A. Forbes 

B. G. Gallagher 

G. R. Gaspard 

A. J. Gellman 

A. M. Handwerker 

G. E. Hartsoe 

W. W. Hay 

L. W. Haydon 

J. P. Holland 

M. C. Holowaty 

E. C. HONATH 

G. R. Janosko 
H. C. Kendall 
T. J. Lamphier 
R. J. Lane 
A. S. Lang 
K. L. Lawson 
J. H. Marino 
R. G. Maughan 



R. McCann 

R. L. McMurtrie 

C. J. Meyer 

R. L. Milner (E) 

J. Neben 

J. F. Pabtridge 

W. L. Paul 

J. S. Reed 

F. J. Richter 

V. J. Roggeveen 

A. L. Sams 

R. J. Schiefelbein 

J. H. Seamon 

T. C. Shedd 

L. K. SiLLCOx (E) 

M. L. Silver 

T. H. Sjostrand 

J. J. Stark, Jr. 

J. M. Suss MAN 

G. M. Tabor 

J. E. Teal (E) 

C. L. TowLE (E) 
R. Turner 

D. E. Turney, Jr. 
K. B. Ullman 

H. Wanaselja 

L. E. Ward 

F. Wascoe 

D. M. Weinroth 

D. B. Weinstein 

P. B. Wilson 

T. D. WoFFORD, Jr. 

Committee 



( E ) Member Emeritus. 

Those whose names are shown in boldface, in addition to the chairman, vice chairman, and 
secretar>-, are the subcommittee chairmen. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your committee reports on the following subjects: 

B. Revision of Manual. 
No report. 

2. Engineering Methods and Economic Considerations Involved in 
Improving the Quality of Transportation Service. 

Final report, presented as information page 384 

3. Determination of Factors, Including Various Traffic Volumes, Af- 
fecting Maintenance of Way E.\pense and Effect of Using Such 
Factors, in Terms of Equated Mileage or Other Derived Factors, 
for Allocation of Available Funds to Maintenance of Way, Col- 
laborating as Necessary or Desirable with Committees 11 and 22. 



Bui. 656 



383 



384 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

(a) Additional Maintenance Cost Due to Operating 100-Ton 

Unit Trains. 
No report. 

4. Economic Evaluation of Methods for Reducing the Probability 
of Derailments. 

No report. 

5. Economics of Freight Cars with Characteristics Approaching the 
Limits of Accepted Designs. 

No report. 

6. Factors Involved in Rationalization of Railway Systems. 
No report. 

7. Applications of Industrial Engineering Functions to the Railroad 
Industry. 

No report. 

8. Economics of Systems for Control of Train Operation, 
No report. 

The Committee on Economics of Plant, Equipment and Operations, 

M. B. Miller, Chairman. 



Report on Assignment 2 

Engineering Methods and Economic Considerations 

Involved in Improving the Quality of 

Transportation Service 

J. R. WiLMOT (chairman, subcommittee), D. B. Weinstein (vice chairman, sub- 
committee), J. W. Barriger, W. J. Dixon, G. R. Gaspard, A. J, Gellman, 
J. P. Holland, J. H. Marino, J. S. Reed, T. C. Shedd, M. L. Silver, J. M. 
SussMAN, H. Wanaselja, L. E. Ward, F. Wascoe, D. M. Weinroth. 

This is a final report, presented as information. 

Quality is an intangible which is not readily susceptible to exact definition 
or measurement. As anyone who watches TV commercials knows, it means differ- 
ent things to different people and it may mean different things to the same person 
at different times and in different places. 

The scope of this report is confined to quality in railroad freight service. The 
principal elements of quality in the order of their probable awareness to most cus- 
tomers are: 

1. Rehabihty 

a. In arrival at destination 

b. In elapsed time 

c. In equipment availability 



Economics of Plant, Equipment and Operations 385 



2. Schedule Compatibility with Customer's Requirements 

a. In departure and arrixal times 

b. In elapsed time 

3. F"reedom from loss and damage 

Loss and damage, the last item on the preceding list, is different from die 
others. Both its extent and its cost can be measured, and the railroad industry has 
long been aware of the desirabihty of minimizing them. There is a voluminous 
record of the efforts towards that objective and of occasional accomplishments. This 
aspect of quality will not be covered in this report. 

The proper, or acceptable, level of quality will vary with commodities and with 
customers. On traffic for which there is intermodal competition the railroads must 
at least match the quality of the other mode (usually truck) or offer a rate at a 
discount below the truck rate, or accept the alternative of foregoing the traffic. 
Here, an economic equation must answer whether the costs to the railroads of 
bringing their quality- of service up to the truck level can be accomplished without 
increasing rates above those of the truckers. On traffic which is captive to tlie 
railroads an vmacceptable level of quality will in the short run put the railroad 
and the customer in an adversary stance both in day-to-day operations and in 
regulatory proceedings and in the long run will lead the customer to seek pro- 
duction and distribution methods and locations which minimize rail transportation. 
Normally, improvements in railroad methods and procedures — sometimes in con- 
junction with modifications in the customer's practices — should be the means of 
bringing substandard service up to the level required by the customer. Tradeoffs 
between functions should be sought to hold the rate or the customer's total costs 
to existing levels. There will be occasions when substandard service reflects a de- 
pressed rate, and an improvement in service quality will be contingent upon an 
upward adjustment of the rate. 

At the time when the railroads provided virtually the only intercity freight 
transportation the quality of service produced by conventional railroad operating 
practices was the quality expected by customers. These conventional practices 
were — and frequently still are — oriented toward operating convenience rather than 
customer service. The growth of other transport modes has been paralleled by 
changes in industrial production and distribution patterns. A large part of the goods 
in today's economy are in the hands of companies of national scope with control of, 
or an overview interest in, their product from raw material source through process- 
ing or component production to manufacture or assembly to distribution center. 
Long hauls may be required between each step, requiring an integration of trans- 
portation with production. In this scheme, in order to optimize production schedules, 
the reliability, or predictability, of transportation movements has taken on much 
greater importance. Concurrently, centralization of industrial planning has brought 
a greater sophistication in the treatment of the time value of money, which ap- 
pears in efforts to minimize investment in goods flowing through the production 
and distribution process, with resulting lower inventory margins to protect against 
irregularities in transportation schedule performance. The railroads, as well as 
industrial companies, have become aware of the time value of money, as is evident 
from the fact that every car in the railroad-owned fleet is no longer priced for off- 
line rental at one dollar per day. 



3 86 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

For the customer who has a traffic movement tied to a particular railroad, 
sei'vice failures or car shortages may stop his production line or leave his dealers 
out of stock. While this railroad may be the customer's only railroad, this customer 
is not the railroad's only customer. The railroad's objective is to integrate this cus- 
tomer's traffic into its network in a manner that will produce a profit over a year's 
time. Satisfying the customer's requirements calls for more accommodation on the 
part of the railroad than of the customer. For example, railroad schedules and the 
records by which performance is usually measured are nomially in terms of tenninal- 
to-terminal time, but the customer's reliability requirements are in tenns of dock- 
to-dock time. 

There must be a meeting of the minds on the level of quality required and 
the acceptable attainment level. Railroad line-haul service cannot be performed 
under exactly identical conditions from day to day, and unlike a product, units 
that do not meet the quality standard cannot be rejected by either a quality-control 
inspector or the customer. 

The association between quality and productivity was pointed out in the re- 
port of the Task Force on Railroad Productivity in 1973.^ This report highlights 
some of the impediments to greater productivity which must be overcome. One 
of these is the diffusion of proprietary responsibility among a large niunber of 
companies, while at the same time each company, on the average, must share 
about one-half of its traffic with other companies. The result has been that invest- 
ments and methods directed at upgrading the quality of service have been more 
frequent when applied to the half of the traffic which is single-hne than to the 
half which is interline. The interline traffic tends toward longer hauls of higher- 
rated commodities, but agreement between companies on the costs and benefits 
of service improvement has not been easy. 

The Productivity report brings out that most railroad mergers have been paral- 
lel ones, emphasizing cost reductions by avoiding duplications of plant and service. 
Savings in costs and improvements in service are not mutually exclusive, but, as 
the report states, trucking company mergers are usually end-to-end, with improve- 
ments in service the primary objective. For this reason and others, not all readily 
adaptable to the railroad industry, a single-line strategy in the trucking industry 
has resulted in interline hauls with their divided responsibility being exceptional, 
a feature which should be recognized in railroad service. 

The authors of Improving Railroad Productivity found five particularly promis- 
ing areas for innovation, which are: (1) the development of a containerization 
strategy; (2) a freight car management system; (3) revised train scheduling and 
operations (especially, shorter, more frequent trains); (4) costing, pricing and 
profit analysis; and (5) improved management planning. These areas in the context 
of the report are associated with improved productivity. Throughout the report, 
however, there is a very clearly implied association between improvement in pro- 
ductivity and improvement in quality of service, revenue and profit. 

A recent dialogue on productivity and its association with quality in transporta- 
tion appeared with the fuel crisis. Several tabulations from neutral sources were 
published showing energy consumption per ton-mile for various transport modes, 
with highly favorable rankings for the rail mode. Some trucking industry spokes- 
men have protested, however, that a truck ton-mile and rail ton-mile are not equal. 



I Improving Railroad Productivity, Final Report of the Task Force on Railroad Productivity; 
National Commission on Productivity and the Council of Economic Advisers, November 1973. 



Economics of Plant, Equipment and Operations 387 

because they contend that the former contains a higher quahty component, for 
such factors as speed, reliabiUty and unified control from dock to dock. 

The MIT/Southem Railway Study 

Probably the most fully documented study on the quality of railroad service — 
specifically, on the key aspect of rehability — \\as performed by the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology for the Federal Railroad Administration during 1971 and 
1972. Following the report of its investigation and research, from November 1972 
to January 1974, MIT with FRA funding made a case study on tlie Southern Rail- 
way to implement and apply its findings under actual operating conditions. The 
results of this case study were published in Miirch 1974." 

One region of the Southern was selected for the stud>', and the first-phase 
activity was the collection of data on current performance at the levels of origin- 
destination, corridor, yard, and train, with which reliability was measured. The 
ability of the Southern's management information system to measure reliability be- 
fore and after implementation of recommended changes was critical to the success 
of the case study and such an ability should be a part of any service improvement 
program. 

Sample pages of two regular reliability reports produced by the Southern are 
illustrated. Figure 1 is a reproduction of one page (for one origin) of a monthly 
summary of transit time between major terminal pairs on the system. For example, 
from Origin CIXCI (Cincinnati) to Destination NO LA (New Orleans) 785 cars 
moved during the month, on 639 of which sufficient data were captured for proc- 
essing in the report. The mean time of the 639 cars was 91 hours. The greatest 
concentration of traffic in four consecutive 12-hour periods of trip time was 75 
percent (see "Four Period" column), the sum of the percentages in frequency dis- 
tribution columns 6, 7, 8 and 9, by period, with a difference of 1 percentage point 
due to rounding. 

Figure 2 is a reproduction of a page of tlie supporting detail for Figure 1. The 
first four lines of data show for the 639 cars measured in Figure 1 the origin and des- 
tination tenninal times bracketed in 4-hour periods and the total transit time ex- 
cluding origin and destination terminal time bracketed in 12-hour periods. The 
following blocks of data show for the cars moving between die origin-and-destina- 
tion pair by each of several alternate routes the origin and destination time as in 
the summary block, with the additional breakdown of the total transit time into 
hue-haul time between each terminal in 6-hour brackets and intermediate terminal 
time in 4-hour brackets. 

The Southern is continuing to develop its perfonnance measurement reporting 
and is using an improved version of the reports illustrated here. Reference is now 
made to standard trip times, together with other measures which facilitate identi- 
fication of variations from acceptable performance. 

The study team selected situations on the Southern for testing strategies for 
rehabilit>- improvement, based on its prior investigation and research. Any such 
strategy, it concluded, must achieve one or more of the following results : ( 1 ) im- 
prove reliability of local service at origin or destination; (2) improve reliability of 
train connections at intermediate yards; (3) improve the consistency of routing 



- MIT Report No. R74-28, Improving Railroad Reliability: A Case Study of the Southern 
Railway; Studies in Railroad Operations and Economics, Volume 10, by Carl D. Martland. 



388 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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390 Bulletin 656 — American Railway Engineering Association 

between origin and destination; (4) reduce the number of times cars are switched; 
or (5) reduce the number of extraordinary delays caused by no-bills, misroutes 
and mechanical failures. 

Five distinct tests were made in the case study. These will be described briefly 
to show the diversity of approaches to the improvement of reliability. 

1. The first test situation involved the irregular performance of Trains 93 
and 4 between D and A, resulting in very poor service between those 
points. The implemented recommendations were to operate tlie trains 
on a daily schedule rather than irregularly, to operate them beyond A to 
E with stops only to pick up and set off cars at A, to assign tsvo sets of 
power exclusively to these trains, and to use the trains for A — E traffic 
as well as D — E traffic. 

2. The problem for which the second test sought a solution was one of long 
delays on high-cost empty cars between the time they were released by 
the industry, passed through a satellite yard and departed on an out- 
bound train from the classification yard, A. The trouble was traced to 
the satellite yard, and the implemented recommendation was that per- 
formance standards be set for the satellite yard to the end that all empties 
in the yard at midnight would arrive at Yard A by 10:00 am and that 
empties should not remain in the satellite yard more than 20 hours. 

3. The third test revolved around poor origin and destination performance 
on an agricultural commodity originating at local stations and assembled 
at Yard K for movement on through trains. Investigation disclosed that 
much of the traffic was humped at two or more classification yards and 
that connections at Yard K from local trains to 96, the tlirough train 
handling the traffic, required more than 25 hours on the average. The 
recommended strategy, which was tested, was to operate Train 96 on a 
scheduled daily basis rather than irregularly from Yard K to Yard C, to 
move all traffic for C and beyond in a single block to Yard C, and when- 
ever possible to block cars for C and beyond prior to their arrival at K 
and thus bypass classification at K. 

4. For the fourth test, the problem was that more than 20 percent of the 
cars from Yard F to Yard E instead of moving direct on Train 34 moved 
on Train 15 to Yard A, an intermediate point, where they were humped 
and dispatched on one of several trains, with added transit time of 10 
to 40 hours. The recommendations made effective were to move traffic 
from Yard F to Yard E on Train 34 whenever possible, but, in default, 
to hold for Train 34 the next day (4 pm) rather than for Train 15 (next 
day, 8 am), and as a last resort to move traffic on Train