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Full text of "Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal"

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3472 
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FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 



LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 













OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



EDITED BY 



ONORARY SECRETARIES. 



The Honorary S 



JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 

18 7 3. 



CALCUTTA : 

^f\INTED BY p. ji. J3.0USE, J3APTIST ^/VllSSIOM P KESS, 

1873. 



\^ .q-a^fci -V^ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
List of Members of the Asiatic Society of Bengal on the 31st 

December, 1872, Appendix in February Proceedings, I 

Abstract Statement of Receipts and Disbursements of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal for the year 1872, Appendix in 

February Proceedings, , XVII 

Proceedings for January, 1873,.. 1-2G 

Do. for February, including Annual Report and Presi- 
dent's Address, 27-7-1 

Do. for March, 1873, 75-86 

Do. for April, „ ... 87-92 

Do. for May, „ ..... 93-120 

Do. for June, „ 121-135 

Do. for July, „ 137-152 

Do. for August, „ 153-170 

Do. for November, „ 171-191 

Do. for December, „ „ ,.. 195-207 

Index, 209 

Meteorological Observations for January to December, 1873. 



APPENDIX. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

On the 31ST December, 1873. 



LIST OF ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



The * distinguishes Non- Subscribing, the t Non-Kesident Members, 
and the J Life Members. 



N. "B. — Gentlemen who may have changed their residence, since this list was 
drawn up, are requested to give intimation of such a change to the Secretaries, in 
order that the necessary alterations may be made in the subsequent edition. Errors 
or omissions in the following list should also be communicated to the Secretaries. 

Gentlemen who are proceeding- to Europe, with the intention of not returning to 
India, are particularly requested to notify to the Secretaries, whether it be then - de- 
sire to continue as members of the Society, otherwise, in accordance with rule 14 B. of 
the Bye-lavts, their names will be remover] from the list at the expiration of three 
years from the time of their leaving India. 



Date of Election, i 


1860 Dec. 


5. 


1868 Sept. 


2. 


1860 July 


4. 


1872 April 


3. 


.1860 April 


4. 


1866 Jan, 


17. 


1871 June 


7. 


1860 Oct. 


3. 


1865 Jan. 


11. 


1872 Juno 


5. 


1871 Sept. 


6. 


3855 July 


4. 


1869 Feb. 


3. 


1870 Feb. 


2. 


1873 Aug. 


6. 


1850 Aug. 


3. 


1865 Nov. 


7. 


1860 Nov. 


1. 


1869 Dec. 


1. 


1873 March 5. 


1873 Jan. 


8. 


I860 July 


4 


1859 May 


4. 


1861 Feb. 


6 


1873 Feb. 


5 


1861 Sept. 


7 


1841 April 


7 



Abdullatif Khan Bahadur, The Hon., Mau- 

lavi. 
fAdam, E. M., Esq. 

tAbmad Khan, Sayyid, Bahadur. 
fAbsanullah, Kbwajah. 
{Aitchison, J. E. T., Esq., M. D. 
*Allan, Lieut.-Col. A. S. 
{Alexander. J. W., Esq. 

Amir Ali Khan Bahadur, Munshi. 
•Anderson, Dr. J., F. L. S. 
{Anderson, A., Esq. 
t Atkinson, E. T , Esq., C. S. 

Atkinson, W. S., Esq., M. A., F. L. S. 
f Attar Singh Bahadur, Sirdar. 

Baden-Powell, H., Esq., C. S. 
{Badgley, Capt. W. F. 

Balaichand Sinha, Bibu. 
fBall, V., Esq., Geol. Survey. 

Banerjea, Rev. K. M. 
{Barker, R. A., Esq., M. D. 

Barclay, G. W. W., Esq., M. A. 

Bate, Bev. J. D. 
{Batten, G. K. M., Esq., C. S. 

Bayley, E. C, TheHon'ble.,B. C. S., C. S. I 
fBayley, S. C, Esq., B. C. S. 

Bayne, R. B., Esq., B A. 
fBeames, J., Esq., B C. S. 

Beaufort, F. L. 3 The Hon. B. C. S. 



Calcutta 
Sambhar Lake 

via Jaipur 
Benares 
Dacca 

Mari, Panjab 
Europe 
Benares 
Calcutta 
Europe 
Futtehghur 
Nynee Tal 
Calcutta 
Loodiana 

Calcutta 

Shillong 

Calcutta 

Geol. S. Office 

Calcutta 

Beerbhoom 

Calcutta 

Allahabad 

Agra 

Calcutta 

Patna 

Calcutta 

Cuttack 

Calcutta 



Date of Election. 






1867 July 3. 


Belletty, N. A., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1869 Jan. 20. 


fBellew, Dr. P. F. 


Bombay Mint 


1871 March 1. 


Benedict, E., Esq., C. E., M. Inst. C. E. 


Calcutta 


1862 Oct. 8. 


Bernard, C. E., The Hon., B. C. S. 


Calcutta 


1872 Aug. 7. 


*Beverly, H., Esq., C. S. 


Europe 


1862 June 4. 


fBhau Daji, Dr. 


Bombay 


1864 Nov. 2. 


Bhudeva Mukerjea, Babu. 


Chinsurah 


1873 Aug. 6. 


fBingham, Lieut. C. T. 


Allahabad 


1872 Nov. 6. 


Bisset, Lieut. W. S. S., R. E. 


Calcutta 


1873 Dec. 3. 


Blackburn, J., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1857 Mar. 4. 


Blanford, H. F., Esq., A. R. S. M., F. G. S. 


Calcutta 


1859 Aug. 3. 


*Blanford, W. T., Esq., A. R. S. M., F. G. S. 


Europe 


1873 Aug. 6. 


Bligh, W. G., Esq. 


Muttra 


1873 April 2. 


Blisset, T. T., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1864 April 6. 


Blochmann, H., Esq., M. A. 


Calcutta 


1871 April 5. 


fBourne, T. W., Esq. 


Central Provinces 


1871 April 5. 


t Bourne, Walter, Esq., C. E. 


Madapur 


1868 Jan. 15. 


Boxwell, J., Esq., C S. 


Serampore 


1872 June 5. 


fBrooks, W. E., Esq., C. E. 


Khugoul 


1871 Jan. 4. 


Brough, R. S., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1866 Jan. 17. 


fBrown, Col. D. 


Moulmein 


1866 Nov. 7. 


fBrovvne, Lieut. -Col. Horace A. 


Thayetmyo 


1866 June 6. 


fBrownfield, C, Esq. 


Kamrup 


1868 June 3. 


fBuck, E. C, Esq., C. S. 


Cawnpore 


1871 July 5. 


Buckland, C. T., Esq., C. S. 


Hughli 


1866 June 6. 


Buckle, Dr. H. B., C. B. 


Calcutta 


1871 Sept. 6. 


fBuckle, H., Esq. 


Akyab 


1872 Jan. 3. 


*Butcher, W. D., Esq., M. R. C. S. 


Europe 


1873 Aug. 6. 


fButler, Capt., J. 


Samaguting, Na- 
ga Hills 


1869 Jan. 20. 


fCadell, A., Esq., B. A., C. S. 


Muzaffarnagar 


1863 June 3. 


Campbell, The Hon'ble Sir G., K. C. S. I. 


Calcutta 


1873 March 5. 


Cappel, A., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1860 Jan. 3. 


fCarnac, J. H. Rivett, Esq., B. C. S. 


Allahabad 


1868 Aug. 5. 


fChandramohan, Gosvami, Pandit. 


Gowhatty 


1863 Aug. 5. 


fChandranath Ray, Raja. 


Nator 


1872 Dec. 4. 


tChard, Rev. C. H. 


Thayetmyo 


1871 Sept. 6. 


fChisholm, R. F., Esq. 


Madras 


1868 Feb. 5. 


1 Clark, Major E. G., Bengal Staff Corps. 


Kheree, Oudh 


1871 March 1. 


Clarke, C. B., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1872 Aug. 7. 


fClutterbuck, Capt. F. St. Quintin. 


Attock 


1871 Oct. 4. 


*Cooke, H. G., Esq., C. S. 


Europe 


1868 Dec. 2. 


fCooke, J. E.. Esq. 


Haidarabad 


1872 June 5. 


*Court, Major M. H. 


Europe 


1873 Aug. 6. 


Cunningham, D. D., Esq., M. B. 


Calcutta 


1847 June 2. 


fDalton, Col. E. T., C. S. I., Staff Corps. 


Chota Nagpore 


1870 May 4. 


fDamant, G. H., Esq., C. S. 


Dinajpur 



Date of Election. 



1861 
1869 
1856 
1870 
1872 
1869 
1873 
1S64 
1862 
1853 
1870 
1859 
1869 
1870 
1873 
1867 
1S71 



Nov. 6. 

April 7 
June 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Oct. 

Jan. 8 

July 6 

May 7 

Sept. 7 

May 4 

Sept. 7 

Feb. 3 
March 8 

July 2 

June 5 
March 1 



1868 Oct. 7. 

1S63 May 6. 

1871 Dec. 2. 

1846 Jan. 7. 

1859 Nov. 2 

1871 Oct. 4. 

1863 Oct. 7. 



1859 Dec. 
1851 May 
1863 Jan. 

1868 May 

1869 Sept. 

1872 Dec. 
1861 Feb. 
1869 Oct. 
1863 June 
1871 Nov. 

1873 July 
1869 Sept. 



7. 

7. 
15 

6 

1. 

4. 

6. 
12. 

3 

1. 

2. 

1. 



fDavies, The Hon'ble E. H., C.S. I., B. C. S. 
fDay, Dr. F., F. L. S., F. Z. S. 
fDeBourbel, Major R., Royal Engrs. 
fDeFabeck, F. W. A., Esq., I. M. Service. 

Dejoux, P., Esq. 
fDelmerick, J. G., Esq. 
f Dennys, H. L., Esq. 

Devendra Mallik, B.ibu. 
fDhanapati Singh Dugbar, Ray, Bahadur. 

Dickens, Col. 0. EL, C. S. I. 
*Dobson, G.E., Esq., B. A., M. B. 
*Douglas, Col. C. 
*Drew, F., Esq. 

JDuke of Edinburgh, His Royal Highness 
fDurand, H. M., Esq., C. S. 
fDuthoit, W., Esq., C. S. 

Dvijendranath Thakur, Babu. 

*Eddowes, W., Esq., M. D. 
fEdgar, J. W., Esq., B. C. S. 
fElliot, J., Esq., M. A. 

*Elliot, Sir Walter, late M. C. S. 
fElliot, C. A., Esq., B. C. S. 
fEvezard, Col. G. E. 
Ewart, J., Esq., M. D. 

Fath AH, Maulavi. 
*Fayrer, Dr. J., C. S. I. 
fFedden, Francis, Esq., Geol. Survey. 

Field, C. D., Esq., M. A., C. S. 
fFisher, J. H., Esq., C. S. 
fForbes, Major, J. G., R, E. 
fForest, R., Esq., Civil Engineer. 
fForlong, Lieut.-Col. J. G. R,, M. S. C. 
fForsyth, T. D., Esq., C. B. 
fFoster, J. M., Esq., M. R. C. P. 

Fraser, Capt. E. 
fFryer, Capt- G. E., Dy. Commissioner. 



1867 Sept. 4. 



1873 Dec. 
1871 June 
1871 Aug. 
1859 Aug. 
1862 Feb. 
1867 Sept. 
1867 Dec. 



Fyfe, The Rev. W. C. 

f Gamble, J. S., Esq. 

Gangaprasad Sinha, Babu. 
fGangaprasad, Munshi. 

Gastrell, Col. J. E., Supdt. Rev. Survey, 
f Gauradas Baisak, Babu. 
fGauvain, Capt. V. 

Gay, E., Esq., M. A. 



Lahore 

India 

Oudh 

Jaipur 

Calcutta 

Delhi 

Nagpur 

Calcutta 

Azimganj 

Calcutta 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Europe 

Bhagalpur 

Ghazeepore 

Calcutta 

Erinpura 
Darjeeling 
Allahabad, Muir 
Central College. 
Europe 
Allahabad 
Poona 
Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Europe 

Geol. S. Office 

Calcutta 

Raipore 

Lucknow 

Dehra 

Lucknow 

Kasbgbar 

Nazira, Assam 

Calcutta 

Sandoway, Arra- 

kan 
Calcutta 

Silligoree 

Calcutta 

Moradabad 

Calcutta 

Jehanabad 

Calcutta 

Calcutta 



Date of Election. 






1859 Sept. 7. 


Geoghegan, J., Esq., B. C. S. 


Calcutta 


1869 Feb. 3. 


fGiriprasad Sing, Thakur. 


Allighur 


1861 Feb. 6. 


*Godwin-Austen, Major H. H., Topogra- 






phical Survey. 


Europe 


1869 Oct. 6. 


f Gomes, A. D. B., Esq. 


Sunderbuns 


1872 Nov. 6. 


*Gordon, C. B. P., Esq. 


Europe 


1862 July 2. 


fGordon, J. D., Esq., C. S. I., C. S. 


Mysore 


1869 July 7. 


f Gordon, Robert, Esq., C. E. 


Henzaday 


1871 March 1. 


fGovindacumar, Cliaudhuri. 


Dacca 


1863 Nov. 4. 


fGowan, Lieut.-Col. J. Y. 


Allahabad 


1866 June 6. 


Gribble, T. W., Esq., B. C. S. 


Calcutta 


1861 Sept. 4. 


fGriffin, L. H., Esq., B. C. S. 


Lahore 


1873 Aug. 6. 


Garisichandra Sinha, Kumara. 


Calcutta 


1861 Feb. 6. 


fGrowse, F. S., Esq., M. A., B. C. S. 


Muttra 


1871 Jan. 4. 


Gunendranath Thakur, Babu. 


Calcutta 


1864 Dec. 5. 


fGurucharan Das, Babu. 


Backergunge 


1871 June 7. 


Uabiburrahman, Maulavi. 


Calcutta 


1867 July 3. 


fHacket, C. A., Esq., Geol. Survey. 


Geol. S. Office 


1S69 April 3. 


fHrcberlin, The Be v. 0. 


Ranchee 


1866 Jan. 17. 


-(-Hamilton, Lieut.-Col. T. C. 


British Burmah, 
Rangoon 


1S55 March 7. 


fHamilton, R., Esq. 


Wardah 


1871 July 5. 


Hamilton, Col. 0. 


Calcutta 


1861 March 1. 


fHarachandra Chaudhuri, Babu. 


Mymensing 


1866 Nov. 1. 


Harendra Krishna Bahadur, Kumar. 


Calcutta 


1871 Feb. 1. 


fHarkness, T. F., Esq., C. S. 


Azimgarh 


1861 Feb. 2. 


fHarrison, A. S., Esq., B. A. 


Muir's College, 
Allahabad 


1859 Oct. 12. 


*Haughton, Col. J. G, C. S. I. 


Europe 


1873 May 7. 


Hector, Rev. John M. A. 


Calcutta 


1862 Aug. 6. 


Heeley, W. L., Esq., B. A., C. S. 


Calcutta 


1872 May 1. 


Heilgers, W., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1853 July 6. 


*Herschel, Sir W. J„ Bart., B. C. S. 


Europe 


1868 Aug. 5. 


fHobart, R. T., Esq., C. S. 


Etah 


1872 Nov. 6. 


fHolcombe, Lieut. W. A. 


Assam 


1872 Dec. 4. 


tHoernle, Rev. A. F. R„ Ph. D. 


Benares 


1868 Nov. 4. 


*Holroyd, Capt. W. R. M. 


Europe 


1873 Jan. 8. 


^Houston, G. L., Esq. 


JohnstoneCastle, 
Renfrewshire 


1863 Jan. 15. 


fHowell, M. S., Esq., C. S. 


Benares 


1871 April 5. 


Howell, A. P., Esq., C. S. 


Calcutta 


1866 Feb. 7. 


Hoyle, G. W. Esq. 


Calcutta 


1867 Aug. 7. 


tHughes, T. H., Esq., A. R. S. M.,F. G. S. 






Geol. Survey of India. 


Geol. S. Office 


1873 March 5. 


*Hughes, A. J., Esq., C. E. 


Europe 


1866 Jan. 17. 


tHughes, Captain W. G„ M. S. C. 


Arracan 


1870 Jan. 5. 


Hume, Allan 0., Esq., C. B., C. S. 


Calcutta 


1870 June 1. 


Hunter, W. W., Esq., LL. D., C. S. 


Calcutta 



Date of Election. 






1868 April 


1. 


Hyde, Lieut-Col. H., R. E. 


Calcutta 


1872 Dec. 


4. 


flbbetson, D. C. J., Esq., C. S. 


Karnal, Panjab 


1866 March 7. 


*Irvine, W., Esq., C. S. 


Europe 


1871 Marc] 


l8. 


Isaac, T. S., Esq., C. E. 


Calcutta 


1853 Dec. 


7. 


flsvariprasad Singh Bahadur, Raja. 


Benares 


1865 June 


7. 


f Jaykissen Das Bahadur, Raja, C. S. I. 


Allighur 


1873 Aug. 


6. 


Jogesachandra Datta, Babu. 


Calcutta 


1866 Feb. 


7. 


f Johnson, W. H., Esq. 


Sialkote 


1862 March 5. 


f Johnstone, Major J. W. DT., Dy. Commis- 








sioner. 


Bannu, Panjab 


1867 Dec. 


4. 


* Johnstone, Capt. J. 


Europe 


1873 Dec. 


3. 


fJohor, H. H., Maharaja of, K. C. S. I., 


New Johor, near 






K. C. C. I. 


Singapore 


1873 April 


2. 


Jones, F., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1869 April 


7. 


Kabiruddin Ahmad, Maulavi. 


Calcutta 


1871 May 


3. 


Kaliprasanna Ghosh, Babu. 


Calcutta 


1861 Dec. 


4. 


fKempson, M. Esq., M. A. 


Bareilly 


1867 Dec. 


4. 


King, G., Esq., M. B. 


Calcutta 


1867 March 6. 


fKing, Capt. H. W. 


P.&OCo.'sOffice 


1862 Jan. 


15. 


fKing, W., Jr., Esq., Geol. Survey of India. 


Geol. Surv. Office 


1867 March 6. 


fKnox, G. E., Esq., C. S. 


Allahabad 


1860 May 


5. 


Kurz, S., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1868 Feb. 


5. 


*Lees, L. H., Esq., M. D. 


Europe 


1859 Dec. 


7. 


fLeonard, H., Esq., M. A., C. E. 


Panjab 


1870 July 


6. 


Lethbridge, E., Esq., M. A. 


Calcutta 


1869 June 


2. 


*Leupolt, J. G, Esq., C. S. 


Europe 


1873 Feb. 


5. 


Lewis, T. R., Esq., M. B. 


Calcutta 


1861 Nov. 


2. 


Locke, H. H., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1869 April 


7. 


fLockwood, E. D., Esq., C. S. 


Monghyr 


1866 Jan. 


17. 


tLow, J., Esq., G. T. S. 


Almora 


1869 July 


7. 


Lyall, C. J., Esq., B. A., C. S. 


Calcutta 


1870 April 


6. 


JLyman, B. Smith, Esq. 


Japan 


1866 June 


6. 


*Macdonald, Major J., Staff Corps. 


Europe 


1873 May 


7. 


fMackay, W., Esq., C. E. 


Port Blair 


1873 Dec. 


3. 


McLeod, K., Esq., M. D. 


Calcutta 


1848 April 


5. 


fMaclagan, Col. R., R.E., F.R.S.E.,F.R.G.S. 


Lahore 


1867 July 


3. 


Macnamara, Dr. C. 


Calcutta 


1870 May 


4. 


fMacnaghten, C, Esq. 


Rajkote College, 
Kattyvvar 


1867 April 


3. 


Mahendralal Sircar, Dr. 


Calcutta 


1867 April 


3. 


fMainwaring, Lieut.-Col. G. B. 


Calcutta 


1862 Sept. 


3. 


fMallet, F. R., Esq., Geol. Survey. 


Geol. S. Office 


1852 Nov. 


3. 


Manickjee Rustamjee, Esq. 


Calcutta 


1872 Nov. 


6. 


fMan, E. H., Esq. 


Port Blair 



Date of Election. 






1869 July 


7. 


fMarkham, A. M., Esq., C. S. 


Bijnour 


1873 July 


2. 


fMarshall, C. W., Esq. 


Berhampore 


1873 Aug. 


6 


1 Marshall, Lieut.-Col. W. E. 


Mussooree 


1860 March 7. 


Medlicott, H. B., Esq., F. G. S., Geol. 








Survey of India. 


Calcutta. 


1871 Sept. 


6. 


fMiles, Capt. S. B. 


Bombay 


1870 July 


6 


Miller, A. B., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1867 June 


5. 


Milman, B., D. D., The Bight Eev. Lord 








Bishop of Calcutta. 


Calcutta 


1867 March 6. 


*Montgomerie, Major T. G-., B. E. 


Europe 


1854 Dec. 


6. 


Morris, G. G., The Hon'ble B. C. S. 


Calcutta 


1854 Oct. 


11. 


fMuir, Sir W., K. C. S. I., B. C. S. 


Allahabad 


1862 July 


2. 


fNapier of Magdala, Lord B., General 








G. C. S. I., G. C. B. 


Simla 


1869 May 


5. 


Nevill, G. Esq., C. M. Z. S. 


Calcutta 


1865 Feb. 


1. 


fNewal Kishwar, Munshi. 


Lucknow 


1871 Jan. 


4. 


*Newton, Isaac, Esq. 


Europe 


1872 May 


1. 


fNiranjan Mukerji, Babu. 


Benares 


1869 July 


7. 


fNursing Bao, A. V., Esq. 


Vizagapatam 


1871 July 


5. 


f Oates, E. W., Esq., C. E. 


Thayetmyo 


1851 June 


4. 


*01dham, T., Esq., LL.D., F. B. S. 


Europe 


1873 Aug. 


6. 


Olpherts, W. J., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1864 Mar. 


2. 


Falmer, Dr. W. J. 


Calcutta 


1873 Aug. 


6 


Barker, J. C, Esq. 


Calcutta 


1862 May 


7. 


Partridge, S. B., Esq., M. D. 


Calcutta 


1871 Dec. 


6. 


fBeal, S. E., Esq. 


Sibsagar, Assam 


1867 Mar. 


6 


Bearimohan Mukarji, M. A., Babu. 


Uttarparrah 


1860 Feb.' 


1. 


*Fearse, Lieut.-Col. G. G. 


Europe 


1868 Nov. 


4. 


fPearson, C. E., Esq., M. A. 


Lahore 


1873 Aug. 


6. 


Bedler, A., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1869 July 


7. 


Bell, S. Esq., 


Calcutta 


1864 Mar. 


2. 


Bellew, F. H., Esq., C. S. 


Hooghly 


1865 Sept. 


6. 


fFeppe, J. H., Esq. 


Banchi 


1868 May 


6. 


Feterson, F. W., Esq. 


Calcutta 


1835 July 


1. 


fFhayre, Major G„ Sir A. B.,K. C. S. I.,C. B. 


Europe 


1864 Nov. 


2. 


Bhear, The Hon'ble J. B. 


Calcutta 


1869 Feb. 


3. 


tBickforcl, J., Esq., M. A. 


Madras 


1868 April 


1. 


f Pramathanath Bay, Kumar. 


Digapati 


1872 Dec. 


4. 


Brananath Bandit, Babu. 


Bhawanipur 


1869 Feb. 


3. 


Pratapachandra Ghosha, B. A. 


Calcutta 


1871 June 


7. 


fPratt, Capt. C. S., Staff-Corps. 


Morar, Gwalior 


1862 Oct. 


8. 


fPulinavihari Sen, Babu. 


Berhampore 


1856 Mar. 


5. 


BajendraLila Mitra, Babu. 


Calcutta 


1871 June 


7. 


Bamakrishna Das, Babu. 


Calcutta 


1837 Feb. 


1. 


Bamanath Takur, The Hon'ble Baja. 


Calcutta 



Date ol' Election. 



1860 
1871 
1872 
1868 
1863 
1865 
1870 
1869 
1870 
1871 



Mar. 

July 

April 

April 

April 

Feb. 

Dec. 

July 

Jan. 

Sept. 



1871 Dee. 

1871 May 

1872 Feb. 
1870 May 

1873 Jan. 
18v0 May 
1869 Feb. 
1860 July 



1863 

1866 
1872 
1861 
1865 
1861 
1867 
1872 
1863 
1870 
1870 
1861 
1863 
1869 
1859 
1858 
1872 
1861 
1863 

1865 
1865 
1860 
1859 
1869 
1817 
1865 
1871 
1861 



fKeid, H. S., Esq., C. S. 
fBeid, J. E., Esq., C. S. 
Bichards, Dr. V. 

Eobb, G., Esq. 
f Eobertson, C, Esq., C. S. 

Eobinson, S. H., Esq. 

Eogers, A., Esq. 
fEoss, Lieut. J. C„ E. E. 
fEoss, Alexander G., Capt. Staff Corps. 

Eundall, Col. F. H., E. E. 

fSamuells, Capt. W. L. 

Sanderson, C, Esq. 
f Sashagiri Sastri, M. B. A. 

Satyanand Ghoshal, Eaja. 

Schlegel, F„ Esq. 

Scblicb, Dr. W. 

Schwendler, L., Esq. 



4. f Sbelverton, G., Esq. 



April 1, 

June 6, 

Aug. 7, 

Sept. 7, 

July. 5. 

Mar. 2 

May 1, 

July 3, 

Sept. 2, 

April 6, 

Sept. 7, 

Sept. 4, 

Nov. 4. 

Feb. 3. 

Mar. 2 

July 7 

Dec. 4 
Aug. 11 

Sept. 3 



Sept. 

April 

May 

Mar. 

Oct. 

June 

July 

April 

June 



f Sbowers, Lieut-Col. C. L. 
fSime, J., Esq., B. A. 
*Skrefsrud, Eev. L. O. 
fSladen, Major E. B. 

Smith, D. Boyes, Esq. M. D. 
fSpearman, Capt. H. B. 
fSteel, Capt. E. H., E. A. 
{Stephen, Carr, Esq. 
fStewart, E. D., Esq. 

Stewart, E., Esq. 
fSt. John, E. T., Esq. 

Stokes, Wbitley, Esq. 
fStoliczka, F., Esq., Ph. D., F. G. S. 
*Stracbey, The Hon'ble Sir J., K. C. S. I. 
fStubbs, Major F. W., Eoyal Artillery. 
fSutberland, H. C, Esq., B. C. S. 
fSwetenham, Capt. E. 

Swiuhoe, W., Esq. 

Syarnacharan Sarcar, Babu. 

Tawney, C. H., Esq., M. A. 
Taylor, E., Esq. 

Temple, The Hon'ble Sir E.,K.C.S.I.,B.C.S 
fTheobald, W., Esq., Geological Survey. 



6.1 tThomson, A., Esq. 



Thuillier, Col. H. L., E. A., F. E. S., C. S. I 
fTolbort, T. W. H., Esq., C. S. 
*Trefftz, Oscar, Esq. 
fTremlett, J. D., Esq., M. A., C. S. 



Allahabad 

Azimghur 

Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Mirzapur 

Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Booluudshuhur 

Edwardesabad 

Calcutta 

Hazareebagh 

Calcutta 

Madras 

Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Waltair, near Vi- 

zagapatam 
Umballa 
Delhi 
Europe 
Amherst 
Calcutta 
Bangoon 
Murree 
Jalandhar 
Serajgunj 
Calcutta 
Bassein 
Calcutta 
Yarkand 
Europe 
Lucknow 
Sylhet 
Prome 
Calcutta 
Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Calcutta 

Saharanpur 

Faizabad 

Calcutta 

Bunnoo 

Europe 

Moozuftam-arh 



Date of Election. 

1872 July 3. 

1873 April 2. 
1861 Sept. 4. 
1S63 May 6. 



1869 June 
IS 73 April 
1873 May 

1860 May 
1864 Feb. 
1864 April 



1870 June 1. 

1871 Feb. 1. 
1873 Jan. 8. 
1869 Aug. 4. 



1865 
1861 
1863 
1862 
1865 
1869 
1867 
1862 
1873 
1867 
1873 
1873 
1867 
1867 
1871 
1870 
1866 
1867 
1870 
1873 



Nov. 1. 

May 1, 

Oct. 7. 

Jan. 15, 

May 3, 

Sept. 1, 

Feb. 6. 

Oct. 8 

April 2 

Aug. 7, 

Jan. 8 

May 7, 

Jan. 16 

Mar. 6 
Mar. 
Aug. 
Mar. 
July 
Jan. 



Aug. 6 



1869 Sept. 1. 

1868 June 3 

1867 Mar. 6 
1862 



Trevor, W. S., Major K. E. 
Turnbull, E., Esq. 
Tween, A., Esq., Geological Survey. 
*Tyler, Dr. J. 

fTJdayachand Datt, Babu. 

Umesh Chunder Dutt, Babu. 
fUrmston, H. B., Esq. 

*Vanrenen, Major A. D., Bengal Staff Corps. 

f Verchere, A. M., Esq., M. D. 

Yijayarama Gujapati Baj Munnia Sultan 

Bahadur, Maharajah Mirza. 

fVrindavanachandra Mandala, Babu. 

fWaagen, Dr. W. 
*Wace, Lieut. B. 

Wahid Ali, Prince Jaban Qadr Muhammad 
Bahadur. 

Waldie, D., Esq., F. G. S. 
t Walker, Col. J. T., E. E., F. E. S. 

Waller, W. K., Esq., M. B. 
fWard, G. E. Esq., C. S. 

Waterhouse, Capt. J., B. S. C. 
fWestland, J„ Esq.. C. S. 
tWestmacott, E. V., Esq., B. A., C. S. 
*Wheeler, J. T., Esq. 
t White, E., Esq., C. E. 
} Wilcox, F., Esq. 
fWilliams, H. C, Esq. 
fWilliams, G. E. C, Esq., C. S. 
fWilliamson, Lieut. W. J. 
fWillson, W. G., Esq., B. A. 

Willson, James, Esq., B. A. 

Wilson, E. H„ Esq., C. S. 
tWise, Dr. J. F. N. 
fWood, Dr. J. J. 

Wood-Mason, J., Indian Museum. 
fWoodthorpe, Lieut. E. G., E. E. 

Yadulal Mallik, Babu. 

Yatandramoban Tagore, Eajah Bahadur. 
fYogendranath Mallik, Babu. 
*Yule, Col. H. E. E. 



Calcutta 
Calcutta 
Calcutta 
Europe 

Nowakhali 
Calcutta 
Eawul Pindi, 

Panjab 
Europe 
Benares 

Calcutta 
Balasore 

Europe 
Europe 

Garden Eeach 

Calcutta 

Debra Doon 

Calcutta 

Futtehgarh 

Calcutta 

Nagpur 

Eajmahall. 

Europe 

Bijnour 

Purulia 

Centl. Provinces 

Muzuffergarh 

Garo Hills 

Calcutta 

Dacca 

Calcutta 

Dacca 

Eanchi 

Calcutta 

Shillong 

Calcutta 
Calcutta 
Andul 
Europe 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Date of Election. 






1825 Mar. 


9. 


M. Garcin de Tassy, Memb. de l'lnstitut. 


Paris 


1821 „ 


6. 


Sir John Pbillippart. 


London 


1826 July 


1 


Count de Noe. 


Paris 


1831 „ 


7. 


Prof. C. Lassen. 


Bonn 


1835 May 


6. 


Prof. Lea. 


Philadelphia 


1842 Feb. 


4. 


Dr. Ewald. 


Gottingen 


1842 „ 


4. 


Right Hon'ble Sir Edward Ryan, Kt. 


London 


1843 Mar. 


30. 


Prof. Jules Mohl, Memb. de l'lnstitut. 


Paris 


1847 Sept. 


1. 


Col. W. Munro. 


London 


1847 Nov. 


3 


His Highness the Nawab Nazim of Bengal. 


Murshidabad 


1848 Feb. 


2. 


Dr. J. D. Hooker. 


Kew 


1848 Mar. 


8] 


Prof. Henry. 


Princeton U. S. 


1853 April 


6. 


Major-Gen. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K. C. B. 


London 


1858 July 


6. 


B. H. Hodsrson. 


Europe 


1859 Mar. 


2. 


The Hon'ble Sir J. W. Colvile, Kt. 


Europe 


1860 Mar. 


7. 


Prof. Max Midler. 


Oxford 


1860 Nov. 


7. 


Mons. Stanislas Julien. 


Paris 


1860 „ 


7. 


Dr. Robert Wight. 


London 


1860 „ 


7. 


Edward Thomas. 


London 


1860 „ 


7. 


Dr. Aloys Sprenger. 


Bern 


1860 „ 


7. 


Dr. Albrecht Weber. 


Berlin 


1868 Feb. 


5. 


Genl. A. Cunningham, C. S. I. 


India 


1868 „ 


5. 


Prof. Bapu Deva Sastri. 


Benares 


1868 „ 


5. 


Dr. T. Thomson. 


London 


1868 „ 


2. 


A. Grote. 


London 


1871 „ 


7. 


Charles Darwin. 


London 


1872 „ 


1. 


Sir G. B. Airy. 


London 


1872 June 


5. 


Prof. T. H. Huxley. 


London 



1844 Oct. 
1856 June 
1856 „ 
1856 „ 
1856 „ 
1859 „ 

1856 „ 

1857 Mar. 

1858 Mar. 

1859 Nov. 

1859 May 

1860 Feb. 
1860 „ 
1860 April 
1801 July 

1862 Mar. 

1863 July 
1866 May 
1866 „ 
1868 Feb. 
1868 „ 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Macgowan, Dr. J. 

Kramer, Herr A. von. 

Porter, Rev. J. 

Schlagintweit, Herr H. von. 

Smith, Dr. E. 

Tailor, J., Esq. 

Wilson, Dr. 

Neitner, J., Esq. 

Schlagintweit, Herr R. von. 

Frederick, Dr. H. 

Bleeker, Dr. H. 

Baker, The Rev. H. 

Swinhoe, R., Esq., H. M.'s Consul. 

Haug, Dr. M. 

Gosche, Dr. R. 

Murray, A., Esq. 

Barnes, R. H., Esq. 

Schlagintweit, Prof. E. von. . 

Sherring, Rev. M. A. 

Foucaux, M. F. H. 

Holmbde, Prof. 



Europe 

Alexandria 

Damascus 

Munich 

Beyrout 

Bussorah 

Bombay 

Ceylon 

Giesen 

Batavia 

Europe 

E. Malabar 

Amoy 

Munich 

Berlin 

London 

Ceylon 

Munich 

Benares 

Paris 

Christiana 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 



Date of Election. 

1838 Feb. 7. 
1865 May 3. 



Karamat Ali, Sayyid. Hooghly 

Dall, Rev. C. H. Calcutta 



LIST OF MEMBERS WHO HAVE BEEN" ABSENT FROM INDIA 
THREE YEARS AND UPWARDS.* 

Mule 14, A. — In the event of an Ordinary Member leaving India, and in the 
further event of his informing the Secretary by letter that he has no 
intention of returning, but desires to retain his privileges as an Ordinary 
Member, his subscription shall be 1 2 Rupees per annum, commutable 
into a single payment of Rs. 100. provided that if any such Member 
shall hereafter return to India, he shall thereupon become liable to pay 
his original subscription, subject to the operation of rule 10 B. 

Mule 14, B. — After the lapse of three years from the date of a Member 
leaving India, if no intimation of his wishes shall, in the interval, have 
been received by the Society, his name shall be removed from the list of 
Members. 

Date of leaving India. 
Adley, C. C. Esq., 1870 

AUardyce, A. Esq., 1870 

Asghar Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab, 1868 

Brandis, Dr. D., 1871 

Cole, Lieut. H. H., R. E., 1869 

Cowell, E. B., Esq., 1864 

Egerton, P. Esq., 1868 

Fytche, Major-G-enl. A., C. S. I., 1871 

Gray, R. Esq., M. B., 1870 

Gregory, Capt. J., 1870 

Hyde, E. Esq., 1871 

limes, F. W. Esq., M. D., 1871 

Latham, G. Esq., 1870 

Lees, Lieut. -Col. W. N., 1868 

Macauliff, M. Esq., 1871 

Neil, Dr. A., 1871 

Oldham, R. A. Esq., C. E., 1870 

Rattray, A. Esq., 1870 

Rogers, Capt. B., 1870 

Saunders, J. O'B. Esq., 1871 

Strachey, Major-Genl. R., 1871 

Thompson, Major G. H., 1864 

Thornton, T. R. Esq., 1870 

* These names will be removed from the next list of members unless intimation 
is meanwhile received from any of the members of their desire to retain the privileges 
of ordinary members under the operation of Rule 14 A. 



LOSS OF MEMBERS DURING 1873. 



By Retieement. 



J. H. Newman, Esq., M. D. 

J. C. Geddes, Esq., C. S. 

J. "W. Curtoys, Esq. 

Rev. J. P. Asliton. 

Dr. C. P. Tonnerre. 

Col. G. H. Saxton. 

Mr. E. VanCutsem. 

The Hon'ble Sir R. Couch, Kt. 

H. Woodrow, Esq. 

Col. B. Ford. 

Sultan Muhammad Bashiruddin. 

R. T. H. Griffith, Esq. 

Capt. T. H. Lewin. 

The Hon'ble R. Spankie. 

Dr. J. B. Baxter. ~ 

R. B. Smart, Esq. 



By Death. 



J. A. P. Colles, Esq., M. D. 

V. Irwin, Esq., C. S. 

Lieut. J. H. Bourne. 

W. McLaren Smith, Esq. 

N. T. E. Davey, Esq. 

J. L. Stewart, Esq., M. D. 

Edward Blyth (Hon. Member). 



Ajmere 

Puri 

Calcutta 

Do. 

Do. 
Ootacamund 
Calcutta 

Do. 

Do. 
Madras 
Chinsurah 
Benares 
Chittagong 
Allahabad 
Sandheads 
Centl. Provinces 



Calcutta 

Cuttack 

Shillong 

Calcutta 

Midnapoor 

Panjab 

Em-ope. 



ELECTIONS CANCELLED. 



C. P. Bird, Esq., C. S. 
Col. H. Drummond, 



Hissar 

Calcutta 



[ APPENDIX. ] 



ABSTRACT STATEMENT 



OF 



RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 



OP THE 



Asiatic Society of B 

for 
THE YEAR 1873. 



STATEMENT 
Abstract of the Cash Account 



RECEIPTS. 
Admission Fees. 1873. 1872. 

Received from Members, ... Rs. 1,424 



1,424 768 



Subscriptions. 
Received from Members, ... ... 8,296 2 



8,296 2 7,551 



Publications. 

Sale proceeds of Journal and Proceedings, ... 368 2 

Subscriptions to ditto, ... ... 1,109 10 6 

Refund of Postage Stamps, ... ... 8 14 6 

Ditto of Freight, ... ... 20 7 6 

Ditto of packing charges, ... ... 1 13 

Ditto of Commission from Babu P. C. Ghosha, 

on sales to the Registrar General's Office, 28 9 

Library. 
Sale proceeds of Books, ... 

Refund of Freight, 
Ditto of Postage Stamps, 

Secretary's Office. 
Commission on purchase of Postage Stamps, 
Saving of Salary, 
Received fine, &c. ... 

Vested Fund. 
Interest on the Government Securities from 

the Bank of Bengal, ... ... 238 4 



, 305 1 





7 3 





4 2 


<3 


5 15 





1 10 


9 


1 10 






Coin Fund. 
Sale proceeds of a Gold Moorshedabad Coin, 21 
Ditto ditto of 3 Copper Taghlak, ... 3 



1,537 3 1,276 8 9 



316 6 6 277 2 



9 3 9 19 11 



238 4 108 14 



24 



Building. 
Received from the Right Hon'ble the Secre- 
tary of State for India, being the Special 
House allowance, granted by Government 
of India from 23rd March, 1871 to 30th 
November, 1874, ... ... 12,916 2 



12,916 2 1 



Miscellaneous. 

Fund account, ... ... 200 

O. P. Fund, .. ... 71 8 2 

YusufAliMoonsb.ee, ... ... 419 10 

A. E. Gough, Esq. ... ... 10 

The Hon'ble J. B. Phear, ... ... 40 

731 12 2- 



Carried over, Rs. 24,761 2 7 



No. 1. 

of the Asiatic Society for 1873. 



DISBURSEMENTS. 



Publications. 

Paid Freight for sending Journal and Pro- 
ceedings, ... Rs. 

Ditto Lithographing and Engraving charges, 

Ditto Printing charges, 

Ditto Commission on sale of Books, &c. 

Ditto Binding charges, ... 

Ditto paper for Plates, 

Ditto Subscription to the Hindu Commentator, 

Ditto Purchase of Postage Stamps, 

Ditto Refund of the amount to Babu P. C. 
Ghosha, on the sale proceeds from the Re- 
gistrar General's Office, ... 

Ditto Petty charges, ,., 

Library. 
Paid Salary of Librarian, 
Ditto Establishment, ... ... 

Ditto Commission on sale of Books, ... 

Ditto Landing charges, 

Ditto Book-binding, ... .,". 

Ditto Subscription to Medical Gazette, 
Ditto Salary of Punkha-rnan, ... ... 

Ditto Insufficient Postage, 

Ditto Subscription to the Calcutta Review,... 

Ditto Purchase of Books, ... 

Ditto Bearing Postage, 

Ditto Petty charges, .,. ... 



51 3 

1,483 14 

5,189 10 

36 14 

13 8 

247 6 

10 

199 2 



Secretary's Office. 
Paid General Establishment, . .,, 

Ditto Secretary's Establishment, 
Ditto Purchase of Postage Stamps, 
Ditto Stationery, 
Ditto Insufficient Postage, 
Ditto Meeting charges, 

Ditto Commission on Subscriptions collected, 
Ditto Salary of Mali, 
Ditto Subscription to the Army List, 
Ditto ditto Directory, 
Ditto Printing charges, 
Ditto a Sheet Almanac, 
Ditto Advertising charges, 
Ditto a Copy of Postage Guide, ... 
Ditto Pee to the Bank of Bengal for Stamp- 
ing Bank Cheques, 
Ditto Repairing Clocks, 
Ditto Binding Paper Piles, 
Ditto ditto Ledgers, 
Ditto Freight, 
Ditto Petty charges, 



28 
10 



840 

120 

30 14 3 

8 9 

259 

15 

35 13 3 

114 

32 

149 6 3 

2 5 4 

24 12 6 



376 

1,679 8 

113 10 

39 10 

5 

148 3 

21 7 

57 

4 

14 

33 10 

1 

14 8 

1 



1 

36 
7 

15 
5 

37 



1873. 



1872. 



7,270 2 10 6,703 8 2 



1,518 13 11 1,344 4 3 



2,614 4 2,520 1 



Carried over, Rs. 11,403 1 1 





RECEIPTS 








1873. 




Brought over. 


Rs. 


731 12 


2 21 


761 2 7 


J. Beanies, Esq. 






37 


12 







A. M. Markham, Esq. 






1 


4 







W. T. Blanford, Esq. 


... 




49 


8 







Dr. V. Richards, 






2 


11 







Dr. J. P. N. Wise, 






1 


15 







Messrs. Triibner and Co. 




... 


134 


8 


4 




E. W. Clark, Esq. 









5 







The Government of North Western Provinces, 


13 


8 







Col. H. Hyde, 


... 




4 










Capt. S. B. Miles, 




... 





4 


4 




Babu Haris Chandra, Benares, ... 




5 


4 







G. Nevill, Esq. 






5 


5 







R. A. Barker, Esq. 


... 


... 


1 


2 







R B. Smart, Esq. 









2 







M. S. Howell, Esq. 









9 







A. V. Nursing Bao, Esq. 


... 







4 







Major F. W. Stubbs, 


... 


... 


4 


10 







E. T. Atkinson, Esq. 


... 


... 


4 


2 





998 13 10 



1872. 



748 14 3 



Carried over, Rs. 25,760 5 



DISBURSEMENTS. 



1873. 



1872. 



1 1 



9 11 



Brought over, Rs. 11,403 
Vested Fund. 

Purchase of 4^ per cent. Government Secu- 
rities, 

Paid Interest on ditto, 

Ditto Premium on ditto, ... 

Ditto Commission ditto, 

Ditto Fee for renewing Government Securities, 

Ditto Commission on collecting Interest on 
the Government Security, .. ... 

Ditto a receipt Stamp, 

Building. 
Paid House rate, ... ... 

Ditto Police and Lighting rate, ... .. 

Ditto Water rate, 

Fitting drainage and Water-pipe to the So 

ciety's Premises, 
Repairing outside of ditto, ... .. 

Ditto new works, 

Supplying new glasses to the windows, 

Miscellaneous, 
Subscriptions, 
O. P. Fund, 
Yusuf Ali Moonshee, 
Zoological Garden, 
Bank of Bengal Fund account, ... 
Indian Museum, 
S. E. Peal, Esq. 
The Rev. J. D. Bate, 
The Hon'ble J. B. Phear, 
J. G. Delmerick, Esq. 

The Government North Western Provinces, . . 
J. Beames, Esq. 
M. S. Howell, Esq. 
A. M. Markham, Esq. 
F. S. Growse, Esq. 
The Rev. A. T. R. Hoernle, 
Dr. J. F. N. Wise, 
A. M. Broadley, Esq. 
Khwajah Ahsanullah, 
The Rev. C. H. Chard, 
L. Schwendler, Esq. 
R. A. Barker, Esq. 
M. Sashagiri Sastri, 
E. B. Cowell, Esq. 
Messrs. Trubner and Co. 
Dr. F. Stoliczka, 
J. Wood-Mason, Esq. 
Capt. Raverty, 
Major G. E. Fryer, 
E. T. Atkinson, Esq. 
Sayed Ahmed Khan Bahadoor, ... 
Messrs. Asher and Co. 



1,910 9 7 — 

Carried over, Rs. 20,917 13 6 



, 5,700 





42 13 


3 


215 4 





14 14 


3 


s, 2 





L 

9 


5 


1 







— 5,975 




, 396 





210 





. 199 15 





. 307 12 





. 1,839 6 


6 


582 





4 1 


3 




3 539 






. 200 





. 600 1 


7 


543 7 





26 





332 





11 2 





1 15 





9 





40 





2 2 





10 2 





21 6 





9 





15 11 





5 7 





1 7 





13 





39 10 





1 10 





6 





2 6 





12 





10 





10 8 





1 





9 





6 8 





21 3 





10 





12 





6 





2 






4 4 



853 7 3 



RECEIPTS. 1873. 1871. 

Brought over, Rs. 25,760 5 
Balance or 1872. 
In the Bank of Bengal, ... — 767 9 4 

Cash in hand, ... - * 43 15 2 

■ yii o o 



Rs. 26,671 8 11 

(Sd.) BUDDINATH BYSACK, 

Cashier, 
Asiatic Society, Bengal. 

(Sd.) ' F. W. Peterson, 
(Sd.) Alexander Pedler, 

Auditors. 



DISBURSEMENTS. 



1873. 



1872, 



Brought over, Rs. 1,910 


9 


7 20,917 13 


6 


Major F. W. Stubbs, 


4 


10 







D. C. J. Ibbetson, Esq. 


10 


12 







C. W. Marshall, Esq. 


3 


15 







The Hohble E. C. Bayley, 





5 







H. C. Williams, Esq. 





4 







Capt. W. G. Hughes, 


1 










Capt. J. Butler, 


1 


6 







John Elliott, Esq. 





9 







Lecture, 


31 


8 


6 




Dr. J. M". Foster, 


1 


14 




1 Qfifi 1 3 


1 












22,884 10 


7 


Balance. 










In the Bank of Bengal, 


... 3,392 


14 


6 




Cash in hand, 


393 


15 


10 

3 TRR 1 A, 


4 






I 


Oj/OO ±*± 




*s. 26,671 8 


11 



3,786 14 4 
To be funded for Admis- 
sion Fees, ... 1,424 



Actual balance available, 2,362 14 4 



734 10 3 



(Sd.) BUDDINATH BYSACK, 

Cashier, 
Asiatic Society, Bengal. 

(Sd.) F. W. Peterson, 
(Sd.) Alexander Pedler, 

Auditors, 



STATEMENT 
Abstract of the Cash Account 



RECEIPTS. 



Oriental Publication. 



Eg. 



Received by Sale of Bibliotheca Indica,.. 
Ditto by Subscription to ditto, ... 
Ditto Refund of Postage and Packing charges, 
Refund of Commission from Babu P. C. 

Ghosha, on Sale to the Registrar General 

Office, 



2,776 2 

128 2 

41 14 



Asiatic Society of Bengal, ... 

Babu Bhaeya Lai, 

Thakur Greprasad Sing, 

Babu Yogodranarain Rai, 

Juggomohun Surma, 

K. Jyavier. Esq. 

M. Sashagiri Sastri, 

Babu Propliullo Chunder Banerjee, 

Honuman Row, Esq. 

Gopal Row Hury Desha Mookh,... 

Ramkrisha G. Bhadar Kur, 

Sanker P. Pandit, 

Paudita Chandi-a Kanta Tarkalanker, 

Babu Harendra Coomar Chaudhury, 

J. Woodburn, Esq. 

Balwant Rao Govind, 

China Tumby, G. W. 

Babu Braj Bhushan Das, ... 

F. S. Growse, Esq. 



Conservation of Sanskrit MSS. 

Received from the Accountant General of 
Bengal, in part of the amount sanctioned 
towards the conservation of Sanskrit MSS. 
being 2nd half of 1872-73, ... ... 1,550 

Refund of the amount paid Babu Rajendra 
Lala Mitra, as advance for purchase of 
Sanskrit MSS. ... ... 400 

Ditto ditto of the ditto paid travelling allow- 
ance, ... ... ... 25 

Sale proceeds of 27 copies Notices of Sanskrit 

MSS. ... ... ... ?7 



. 600 


1 


7 


80 








14 


6 


6 


26 


3 


9 


25 


5 


6 





12 





45 


12 





1 


14 








2 








4 





1 


2 





6 


14 





22 


12 





3 


6 





5 


4 


6 


4 


14 





3 








. 331 


13 





1 


8 






1873. 



1872. 



21 6 



2,970 3 9 2,570 4 8 



Government Allowance. 

Received from the General Treasury at 500 Rs. 

per month, . ... 6,000 

Ditto ditto additional grant for the publica- 
tion of Sanskrit works, at 250 per month,... 3,000 



9,000 9,000 



975 6 10 416 12 6 



2,002 3,543 



Carried over, Rs. 14,947 10 7 



XXI 



No. 2. 

Oriental Publication Fund, 1873. 



DISBURSEMENTS. 



Oriental Publication. 



Paid Commission on Sale of Books, &c, 

Ditto Packing charges, ... 

Ditto Postage Stamps, 

Ditto Freight, 

Ditto Advertising charges, 

Ditto Insufficient Postage, ... ... 

Refunded the Commission to Babu P. C. 

Ghosha, on Sales to the Registrar General's 

Office, 
Petty charges, 

Library. 

Paid Purchase of Sanskrit MSS. 
Ditto ditto of Persian MSS. 
Ditto ditto of Lithographed or Printed Edi- 
tions of Sanskrit MSS. 
Ditto Petty charges, 

Custody of Oriental Works. 

Paid Salary of the Librarian, 

Ditto Establishment, 

Ditto Stationery, 

Ditto Fee for Stamping Cheques, 

Ditto Book-binding, 

Ditto Bearing Postage, 

Ditto Repairing Glass-Case, 

Ditto Binding Ledger, 

Ditto Carbolic Acid, 

Ditto Printing charges, 

Ditto Books cleaning, 

Ditto Petty charges, 

Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. 
Paid Salary for Cataloguing Sanskrit MSS., 
at 30 Rs. per month, 

Akbarnamah. 
Paid Printing charges, 

Taittiriya Aranyaka of the Black 
Yajur Veda. . 

Paid Printing charges, ... 



476 5 


5 


35 4 





105 6 


10 


87 11 





400 





10 





1 

21 


6 


6 5 





372 2 





240 





165 





4 





360 





661 8 





32 2 





3 2 


(J 


34 4 





5 





6 3 


6 


2 





20 





56 





17 5 


3 


27 12 






360 



1873. 



1872. 



1,132 10 9 959 4 



777 6 323 14 



1,220 9 9 1,038 4 



360 360 



496 



277 4 



496 96 



277 4 151 8 



Carried over, Rs. 4,263 14 6 



xxn 
RECEIPTS. 1873. 1872. 

Brought over, Rs. 14,947 10 7 



Carried over, Rs. 14,947 10 7 



XX111 
DISBURSEMENTS. 1873. 1872. 

Brought over, Es. 4,263 14 6 

FARHANG-I-BASR"IDf. 

Paid Editing and Printing charges, ... 1,182 8 

1,182 8 1,153 

Ain-i-Akbari. 
Paid Editing and Printing charges, ... 619 

Ditto Preparing an English Index of Persons 
and things and Geographical Index to First 
Volume of English Translation of the Afn i 
Akbari, ... ... ... 80 

699 1,021 9 

Chaturvarga Chintamani. 
Paid Editing and Printing charges, ... 1,312 12 

1,312 12 1,312 12 

Tabaqat i Nasiri. 
Paid Messrs. Gilbert, Eevington, Printers, 

London, for Printing charges, ... ... 821 7 9 

Ditto Landing charges, &c, for bringing a 

box of ditto from the Jetty, ... ... 6 6 

827 13 9 533 
Sajia Veda. 
Paid Editing and Printing charges, 

1,205 6 6 656 6 
Maasir i 'Alamgirl 
Paid Maulawi 'Abdul Hai, for correcting 6£ 
forms of ditto, 



Srauta Sutra. 
Paid Editing and Printing charges, 

GOBILTA GRIHYA SUTRA. 

Paid Editing and Printing, ... 

Taittiriya Sanhitya. 
Paid Editing and Printing charges, &c. 

Prithiraj Easu. 
Paid Printing charges, 

Padishahnamah. 
Paid Editing and Printing charges, 

Atharvana Upanishad. 
Paid Editing and Printing charges, 

Chand's Poems. 
Paid Freight and Postage for sending 2 Pack- 
ages of ditto to the Eev. A. F. E. Hoernle, 
Benares, ... ... 

Sanhita Darpana. 
Paid Bearing Postage on a Copy of ditto, 

Copying MSS. 
Paid Copying MSS., 



. 1,205 6 


6 


L 

, 25 





. 435 





. 562 12 





. 342 





236 





. 652 14 





. 988 15 






2 











6 





20 


4 






25 445 

435 

562 12 474 

342 956 

236 

652 14 

988 15 332 9 

2 6 34 10 6 

6 

20 4 57 9 



Carried over, Rs. 12,756 15 9 



RECEIPTS. 1873. 1872. 

Brought over, Rs. 14,947 10 7 
Balance of 1872. 

In the Bank of Bengal, viz. 

Conservation of Sanskrit MSS. 3.976 8 5 
Dr. J. Muir, ... ... 898 10 

0. P. Fund, ... ... 1,262 8 9 

6,137 11 2 

Cash in hand, ... ... ... 10 8 8 

6,148 3 10 



Rs. 21,095 14 5 

(Sd.) BUDDINATH BYSACK, 

Cashier. 
Asiatic Society, Bengal. 

F. W. Peterson, 
Alexander Pedler, 

Auditors. 



DISBURSEMENTS. 1873. 1872. 

Brought over, Es. 12,756 15 9 



9 8 


6 


6 12 





2 15 





3 


2 


19 10 





3 7 





4 





3 


2 


1 11 





71 8 


2 


44 14 





1 8 





7 15 






Babu Braj Bhushan Das, 

Kavi Purapa Vencut Ratnara Pantua, 

Babu Bhaiya Lai, 

V. Subbiah, Esq. 

Thakura Giriprasad Singh, 

Jogendranarain Roy, ... 

Gopal Rao Hury Deshmukh, 

K. Jyavier, Esq. 

Pandita Chaudrakanta Tarkalanker, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

M. Sashagiri Sastri, 

F. S. Growse, Esq. 

Balwant Rao Govind, 

Conservation op Sanskrit MSS. 

Paid Salary for preparing Catalogue of Sans- 
krit MSS. ... ... .. 360 

Ditto ditto for translating the Sanskrit Cata- 
logue, ... ... .. 240 

Ditto printing charges of Notices of Sanskrit 
MSS. 

Ditto Postage for sending of ditto ditto, 

Ditto Freight for ditto ditto, 

Ditto Copying MSS. 

Ditto for Stationery, 

Ditto Purchase of Sanskrit MSS. 

Ditto Travelling Pandit as advance for tra- 
velling allowance, 

Ditto Packing charges, ... ,.. 

Ditto Salary for travelling Pandit, 

Ditto Printing Paper, 

Ditto repi'oduced by Photo-Zincography first 
of the Chaturvarga Hotra on tinted ground 
500 pulls only printing, ... ... 79 

Ditto Babu Rajendralala Mitra, as an advance 

for Purchase of Sanskrit MSS. .. ... 400 

Ditto a Blank Book in 6 quires for Register of 



170 7 



333 


8 





16 


5 


6 


14 


4 





55 


7 





74 


14 





290 


8 





25 








6 


12 





300 








28 


12 






MSS. 

Ditto Travelling allowance, 
Ditto Petty charges, 


: z 


6 

10 
3 


8 



13 








2,244 11 6 


Balance. 
In the Bank of Bengal, viz. 
Conservation of Sanskrit MSS. 
Dr. J. Muir, 
O. P. Fund, 


3,733 12 11 

898 10 

1,267 15 5 


5,900 
23 


6 
5 


4 
10 


Cash in hand, 


... 


5,923 12 2 











Ra. 2 1,095 14 5 

(Sd.) BUDDINATH BYSACK, 

Cashier. 
Asiatic Society, Bengal. 

F. W. Peterson, 
Alexander Pedler, 

Auditors. 



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/ 



PROCEEDINGS 



OP THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For January 1873. 



The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on Wednes- 
day, the 8th instant, at 9 P. M. 

T. Oldham, Esq., LL. D., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at the last 
meeting, were balloted for and elected Ordinary Members — 

G. L. Houstoun, Esq., J. Allen, Esq., H. C. Williams, Esq., C. S., 
H. L. Dennys, Esq., Lieutenant R. Wace, R. A., F. Schlegel, Esq., Colonel 
H. Drummond, R. E., Rev. J. D. Bate. 

The following are candidates for ballot at the next meeting — 

Richard Roskell Bayne, Esq., Architect, M. R. L, B. A., proposed by 
H. H. Locke, Esq., seconded by E. Gay, Esq., M. A. 

T. R. Lewis, Esq., M. B., proposed by Captain J. Waterhouse, second- 
ed by G. E. Dobson, Esq., M. B. 

The following gentlemen have intimated their desire to withdraw from 
the Society — 

Babu Bakhaldas Haldar. A. E. Gough, Esq. 

The election of C. P. Bird, Esq., is cancelled at his own request on his 
leaving India. 

Letters were read — 

From the Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department, 
forwarding a copy of the following paper by Lieutenant-Colonel Ross, 
Muskat. 



2 [Jan. 

An Account of the Tenets of the IB AD HI Sect of "OMAN. 
From a manuscript Arabic work entitled " The Keshf-ul-Ghummeh 
of the Sheikh Sirhan bin Sa'id Sirhan bin Mohammed-el-' Alawi, a native of 
'Oman," translated with prefatory Memorandum and Notes by E. C. Ross, 
Political Agent, Muskat. 

Prefatory Remarks. 

A large proportion of the Arabs inhabiting 'Oman, indeed the majority, 
belong to the sect of Muhammadans, called ' Ibadhi.' The origin, rise and 
distinctive doctrines of this particular sect seem to have been little known 
to European authors until very recent times. This is the more remarkable 
that the form of religion has, since its adoption in 'Oman, in the highest 
degree influenced the destiny of the people. From their peculiar opinions 
regarding the succession of ' Imams' arose their form of Government under 
a head at once endowed with spiritual and temporal authority. It is evi- 
dent how desirable it is that the fullest possible light should be thrown on 
this remarkable element in connection with the History of 'Oman. 

The only clear and correct account of this sect we owe to the Rever- 
end G. P. Badger, who, in an appendix to his work* on 'Oman, has given 
an account of the sect, and dispelled many erroneous ideas. 

Previous writers have touched on the subject, but either very cursorily, 
or, where more fully, with a large admixture of fallacy. 

By Niebuhrf the sect is mentioned as that of " Beiasi," Beiadi or 
Abadi, the " principal sect in 'Oman," but his notice of it is short and not 
wholly correct. 

In Wilsted's Travels^ they are mentioned as " Khuwarajites," and the 
following remark occurs : — 

" Their own Imam they regard in two points of view ; as a temporal 
governor, and an absolute indefeasibly appointed sovereign, whose authority 
is of God." 

The treatise on the Ibadhi tenets, a translation of which is now given, 
is extracted from a manuscript work of a native of 'Oman, the Sheikh 
Sirhan bin Said of the Beni 'Ali tribe. The work is entitled " Keshf-ul- 
Ghummeh-el-Jamal akhbar-el-ummeh," and contains an account of several 
Eastern nations, and amongst other things a valuable account of the history 
of 'Oman. The author having been himself an 'Omani of the Ibadhi 
persuasion, his account of the sect may be considered of value. It will be 
found corroborative of the points described in Mr. Badger's exposition. § 

* History of the Imams and Sayyids of 'Oman, 1871. Hakluyt Society. 

t Niebuhr, Travels, Trans, p. 185, vol. 2. 

% Travels in Arabia, p. 329, vol. 1. 

§ Much of the matter is common to Mahommedanism generally. 



1873.] E. C. Boss— Tenets of the lbadhi Sect of 'Oman. 



The sect was founded by 'Abdullah ben Ibadh, and its denomination is 
derived from the surname of the founder who was descended from the 
parent of the Tamim tribe.* 

Mr. Badger corrects the mistaken notion of this sect taking their 
name from the Arabic word meaning " white," or " pure," which was very 
generally entertained. Whether the patronymic was originally derived from 
the root verb, signifying " to be white," or not, matters little, but that a 
notion of whiteness attached to the name of the tribe Beni lbadhi is gathered 
from an oldf couplet in the Kamus emoted by Mr. Lane. 

'Abdidlah bin lbadhi was a man of learning, and apparently a sincere 
reformer. His doctrines were based on those of the Kharijites, or Seceders 
which he wished to free from extravagant and irrational errors. Still many 
essential points are retained, such as the doctrines concerning Imams or 
spiritual leaders. 

In so far the Ibadhis may be reckoned reformed Kharijites, but the 
latter term, though applied to them by the orthodox, would by no means 
be admitted by themselves. 

The commentary of the Koran in use amongst the priests of the 
Ibadhiyeh is that of Zamakhshari who was of the Mu'tazili sect of Khari- 
jites. 

Four sub-divisions of the lbadhi sect are mentioned in a work emoted 
by Mr. Badger, (The Kitab-el-Milal), but these no longer exist ; the sub- 
jects having become united in the time of Sayyid Sa'id bin Ahmad, the 

* Pedigree. 
Tamim. 
Zeid Menat. 
Sa'ad-el-Fizr. 
Ka'ab. 
'Am'r. 

El-'Harith [Tribe Mukais.] 
Sarim. 
Morra. 
E'Nazzal. 
Obadh. 
El-Housein. 
M'oawia. 
Kais. 

El-'Ahnaf. 
Tha'labeh. 
Tey'm-el-lat. 
Ibadh.. 
Ab'd Allah. 

t Jariyatun fi diriiha el fadhfadhi— Abyadhu mm Ukhti beni lbadhi. 
A damsel in her ample shift— whiter than the sister of the tribe Benu Ibadh 



From ' Genealogische Tabellen' of Dr. 
Wiistenfeld. 



4 E. C. Eoss — Tenets of the IMdhi Sect of 'Oman. [Jan. 

Imam, under the auspices of a priest, the Sheikh Ja'ad bin Khamis-el- 
Kharusi. 

As a general rule, the Yemen tribes embraced the Ibadhi religion, whilst 
those from Najd were more inclined to the orthodox sect. In recent times, 
some of the latter have adopted the Wahhabi religion. The Imams of the 
Ibadhiyeh were almost invariably selected from Yemen families. At the 
present time the religions title is in abeyance. 

With regard to doctrine it is thought that the dissertation of the 
Sheikh Sirhan may throw additional light on this part of the subject. 
Perhaps the most important feature as regards their history is their rejection 
of the Khalifates of 'Othman and 'All and then- assumption of the right to 
elect then- own Imams, whom they entitle " Imams of the Moslems." 
The so-elected Imam has had usually also political power.* 

A point much insisted on by Ibadhi teachers is, that the simple pro- 
fession of belief cannot cover criminal conduct, and that sin, whether of 
believer or infidel, is followed by punishment unless, in the case of the 
former, he publicly repents of his sins. 

The discrepancies between theory and practice in the religious obser- 
vances of this sect may have caused some misapprehension. Whilst many 
professed Ibadhis exhibit considerable laxity and licence, still, when the 
priests can have their will, they affect a puritan austerity and strictness, 
and would, if they had the power, enforce then- views with great harshness. 
In the matters of drinking of liquor, smoking, raiment, &c, the Ibadhi 
Muttawas, or priests, have proved themselves, when they had the opportu- 
nity, as bigoted and intolerant as their confreres of the Wahhabi sect. 

This refers to modern practice, but the founder .of the sect seems to 
have aimed at rational reform according to his lights, and many of the 
extreme and intolerant opinions of other sects have no place in that of 
the Ibadhis ; such fictions as the journey of the Prophet to heaven are 
rejected as merely figurative. On the whole the doctrines promulgated by 
'Abdullah bin Ibadhi are characterized by a puritanic, but not wholly in- 
tolerant spirit. 

E. C. Eoss, 
May, 1872. Political Agent at Mas/cat. 



* The official residence of the " Imams" was at one of the following towns : 

Nezwa Rostaek or Sohar — at these towns only could they perform Friday's 
devotional services. 



1873.] E. C. Ross— Tenets of the IbdclU Sect of 'Oman. 5 

Translation from the Keshf-ul- Ghummeh-el-Jdmi-el-akhbar-el-ummch of 
the Sheik Sirhdn ben Said-el- Alawi of 'Oman. 

Chapter XXIX. 

On the tenets of the Ibadhi sect, tohose is the true Religion, founded on 
the Book and the law, and concurrent testimony. 

The sect is denominated Ibadhi after the Imam of the Muslims, 'Ab- 
dullah bin Ibadh bin Teym-el-Lat bin Thalabeh bin Rahat-el-Elinaf bin 
Kais-el-Tamimi. He it was who withdrew from all the various erring sects 
such as* the Motezeliyeh, the Kaderiyeh, the Sefatiyeh, the Jahmiyeh,f 
the Khawarij Kawafidh,J and the Shiah. 

He was the first to expose their false doctrines and to nullify the bane- 
fulness of their heresies by convincing arguments and the clearest demon- 
stration. 

He grew to manhood in the time of Muawiyeh bin Ali Safiyan, and 
lived to the time of Abd-el-Malek bin Marwan,§ to whom he wrote his 
celebrated epistles and exhortations on moral conduct. 

The origin of the sect is traced up to 'Abdullah bin-el-Abbas, and 
Abusha'tha jabir-bin Zeyd. It derives from the people of Nahrawan|[ 
and Nakhileh and from the survivors from the fields of % Siffin and el- 
Jamal.** Further from the " companions," such as Ammar bin Yasir Kho- 
zeymeh bin Thabib (Tbe-Shaha detein) Mahommed and Abdullah bin 
Mesud, Hadifeh bin-el- Yemon, Ma-ath bin Hebl, Abd-er-Rhman-bin 'Owfj 
Selman the Persian, Bilat the Abyssinian, Sahib the Greek and 'Aisheh 
mother of the Faithful. Also from the accepted and well approved Khali- 
fehs Abu Bekr and 'Omar, the companions of the Flight, and the Ansars or 
co-adjutors, may God be pleased with them all. 

'Abdullah bin Ibadh confuted the several fallacies in the doctrines of 
the various heretical sects, which have been shewn in a previous part of this 
work. He taught that Faith (I'man) consists both in word and deedff and 
in following the precepts of traditional Law. 

In this religion there is no sanction excusing any shortcoming in 
respect of it. Nor is it permitted falsely to avow it. Nor to give way to 
the passions. For this religion recprires that the paths of righteousness be 
followed, and also belief in the following, viz. : — 

* The first three are properly included in the general term of Khawarij. 

f From Jahm bin Safwan. 

X The Rafidhi is a sect of the Shi'ahs of El Kufeh, so called from having forsaken 
one Zeyd bin Ali when he forbade them to speak against the companions of the 
Prophet. The term is applied to those who abuse 'Omar and Abu Bakr. 

§ From A. D. 661 to A. D. 705. 

|| i. e. the Kharijites defeated by 'AH at Nahrawan A. H. 38. 

IT Where Ali encountered Mnwiyeh. 

** Where Ali encountered 'Aisheh. 

ft i. e. that what is confessed in words as right must also be acted on. 



6 E. C. Ross— Tenets of the Ibaa%i Sect of 'Oman. [Jan. 

In God and his Angels : in His Scriptures and Prophets : in Paradise 
and Hell : in His promises and warnings : in the Resurrection and the 
Judgment and the Last Day : in the messages brought by the Prophets 
from their Lord. It is also necessary to believe that the Koran is the word 
of God sent down to His Apostle Muhammad : that His rewards are 
unrivalled, as His punishments are unequalled, and that the mercies He 
vouchsafes are great, even as the trials He imposes are great. Also that 
God is the Creator of all things, There is none other than He, His promises 
are not broken, nor His threats unfulfilled, for His word is true. That all 
that has been revealed through Muhammad bin 'Abdullah is manifest truth. 

The most High God : eyes perceive him not but he comprehendeth 
the vision.* He is All-knowing, All-wise. The limits of the Heavens 
contain Him not, He is God. There is none other God than He, the one, 
mighty. He is the Creator who maketh all things and giveth form thereto. 
Who raiseth up and finally disposeth of all. Life is His gift and He 
causeth to die. He is the Living who dieth not, All powerful. One and 
everlasting, unbegotten and unbegetting. All powerful to do that He 
willeth. Imagination comprehendeth Him not, nor do created forms resem- 
ble Him. Neither movement nor repose can be attributed to him. All in 
earth and Heaven is His, and that which is between. He knoweth all 
things before they exist. Time changeth him not. Possessor of might, 
majesty and power. Undying, without compeer, companion, or offspring. 
His word goeth forth and what He willeth is. Praise be to Him in whose 
hand is power over all tilings, to whom all things revert. 

The Religionf of Islam also is based on Faith. This % consists in 
testifying that there is but one God, without co-partner, that Muhammad 
was his servant and messenger sent to guide to the true Religion, making 
it manifest to people of all creeds, regardless of the scoff of the Infidel. 
Since the Religion was brought from God, it is manifest truth. No doubt 
nor uncertainty attaches to it. As to the coming Horn", there is no doubt 
of that, nor that God will raise the dead from their graves. But Islam in 
its completeness recmires the practice of the following observances : — 

Meligious Observances. § 

Firstly. — Prayer with its accompanying rites, conditions ;|| such as the 

* Koran VI. 103. The mental perception attains not to the knowledge of His 
nature. 

t Faith. 

X The orthodox describe Faith to consist in belief, 1st in God, 2nd His Angels, 
3rd Scriptures, 4th Prophets, 5th Resurrection, and His Decrees. 
§ 1, Prayer, 2, Almsgiving, 3, Fasting, 4, Pilgrimage. 
|| Conditions of Prayer. 
1. Members of the body must be free from impurity. 



1873.] E. C. Eoss — Tenets of the lbadhi Sect of "Oman. 7 

necessary purifications and washings ; observance of appointed times, 
selecting a pure place, and turning towards the Kibleh. 

Prayer must he offered with earnest intention, and any word or deed 
calculated to affect the perfection of the act must he avoided. It is need- 
ful to understand the essential principles of Prayer, to discriminate hetween 
those forms prescribed for persons at home and those for journeying. To 
know the observances for Fridays according to the ordinances of the Al- 
mighty as laid down by His Apostle and the just " Imams" who followed 
him. The believer should be acquainted with the forms of prayer for 
festivals, for the dead, and those to be repeated in times of trouble. Also 
the distinctions of voluntary and supererogatory prayers and the rest as 
enjoined by the Prophet. 

Alms. 

Secondly. — Alms.* The payment of Zekat, or Legal alms, from such 
property as the Law ordains. The obligations regarding this must be 
understood and the Zekat paid to the proper parties where the Nisabf 
(Estate) reaches the full value, the proper proportion being paid from the 
flocks. 

The Zekat-el-Fitr also must be paid, that is a| Sa' measure from the 
consumption of each person. The dole to be given to the proper persons 
among the poor.§ 

Fasting. 

Thirdly. — Fasting which consists in keeping the Fast of Eamadhan 
with sobriety and abnegation and in all things attending to what is laid 
down, and abstaining from all that is forbidden by God and His Prophet 
with knowledge of the proper rites. 

Pilgrimage. 
Fourthly. — Pilgrimage to the Holy House of God for those who are 
in a|| position to perform it, with the enjoined conditions, namely, abstain- 

2. Garments must be clean. 

3. A clean place is necessary. 

4. Fixed times must be observed. 

5. The face must be turned towards the Kibleh. 

* Alms are of two kinds, Zekat, or legal alms, and Sadakat, or voluntary. The 
first being divided by law on fixed conditions. 

•f The property must reach a certain value in cattle called Nisab. 

% Six pounds. This is paid at the termination of the Fast of Ramadhan. 

§ Alms are levied on five things, 1, cattle, 2, money, 3, corn, 4, fruits, 5, mer- 
chandize. The Ibadhis should pay to their Imam. 

|| Amongst the Ibadhis a person must have amassed sufficient for expenses, and 
one year's ordinary expenditure in addition, before making the pilgrimage. 



8 E. C. Eoss — Tenets of the IbMM Sect of 'Oman. [Jam - . 

ing from sin, tarrying on 'Arafat, visiting the Temple and making the 
circuit, and throwing the stones.* 

These rites must be accompanied by understanding of the obligations! 
and laws of the Pilgrimage, such as making atonement for slaying of gamej 
or the cutting down of trees. 

Beliffious Precepts and Laws. 
Generally it is necessary to observe the precepts of the Koran as to 
gifts to relations and parental piety, and acting righteously and avoiding 
evil. Also as to the Jehad or warring against infidels and rendering their 
dues to kinsfolk, wayfarers, &c. Instituted observances and civil laws must 
be attended to, including prohibition of wine, or other intoxicating liquor, 
also abstaining from food, or wearing of apparel forbidden by the Koran. 
***** 

It is forbidden to wail, beat the face, rend the garments, or tear the 
hair (in grief) . It is forbidden to make pilgrimage to the tomb of any save 
the Prophet. Women are forbidden to adorn themselves for any but their 
husbands, saving the wearing of a finger ring and anointing the eyes with 
collyrium. It is incumbent to salute the Faithful and return their salute. 
Silken clothes and gold are forbidden to men. In fine, the Believer must 
avoid all that God has forbidden, whether mentioned or omitted. 

Doctrine. 

It is essential to be free from tbe error of those who hold that good 
and evil are of God, and that all sins are capable of expiation. § 

Those who do the right whether written or unwritten should receive 
support. 

It is necessary to be clear of the errors of the sect of the Sefatiyeh,|| 
who believe that persons who indulge in things forbidden by God and 

* In Mina Valley the pilgrim throws 3 stones typical of Ibrahim driving away 
Satan who sought to tempt him. 

f The five chief points to be observed are : — 

1. The spirit or intention. 

2. Praying on Mt. 'Arafat, 

3. Shaving in Mina Valley. 

4. Circuit of the Temple. 

5. Running seven times from Safa to Merwa. 

j After donning the Ihram, or pilgrim's dress, the pilgrim must kill no game, and 
not even the vermin on their bodies under penalty of expiatory offerings. 

§ On this point the Ibadhis differ from Sunnites. 

|| The Sefatians, or Attributists, comprise Asharians, Mushebbehites, Keramiaus, 
Jabarians, and Morjians. 



1S73.] E. C. Ross— Tenets of the Ibddhi Sect of 'Oman. 9 

violate His prohibitions may still be in the Faith ; and who doubt His 
promises and warnings. 

The false doctrines of the sect called Morjiyeh* are also renounced by 
the Believers (Ibadhi), for they pretend that God will punish them for a 
limited period, after which He will release them from torment, and cause 
them to enter Paradise, receiving them after being angered against them. 

Let the errors of the sect of the Shia'h be repudiated. They pretend 
that God has commanded recognition of Vice-Regents, executors of His 
will on earth, and obedience to them. 

They believe that God has bestowed on these Vice-Regents (notwith- 
standing they be sinners treading the paths of error) power and dominion 
on earth, and that those who acknowledge and follow the Vice-Regents are 
pardoned their sins through their merits. 

The false doctrines also must be shunned of those who assert the 
Koran to have an outward and apparent, and an inward and hidden mean- 
ing, the former known to mankind in general, but the latter only to God's 
inspired Vice-Regents, by whom it is revealed to their faithful followers. 
They hold also that God at no time leaves the world without an inspired 
Vice-Regent. These are the tenets of the Ismi'iliyeh,f a sect of the Rafidhis. 
The latter are heretics who deny Abu Bakr and 'Omar, calling them 
oppressors who kept the rightful heirs from the Imamate. As to the 
Vicars of God on earth, they believe that a manj will appear in the latter 
days bringing verifications of their sayings. Another sect of errors is need- 
ful to be avoided, that of those who, like the Azarekeh,§ assert that persons 
dwelling in abodes, || not governed by the rules sent down by God, will not 
be accepted of God. That their good deeds will not avail them ; nor are any 
such meet for reward : neither are their sins forgiven. They assert that God 
will not excuse any for remaining therein unless they remove, and that those 
who die before removal, are infidels. But that those who have removed 
even though they be murderers or adulterers, or thieves, are Muslims, and 
have their reward with God, and that in the abode to which they have 
removed none shall be accounted impious or wicked. It is even as if they 
were in the house of the apostle of God. These Azarekeh also reject 
stoning (for adultery) and the beating of the drinker of intoxicating liquor, 
but allow attack on those who are inimical to their doctrines. These 
heresies must be avoided. 

* The Morjians rely on Faith alone. 

+ Isma'ilians, called by the Crusaders " Assassins," from " Hashishfn," i. e. eaters 
of hashish. The word ' assassin' is said to have been so adopted. 
X i- e. Mahdi. 

§ Azrekites so called from Nafa ben Azrek, a sect formerly found at Kuteef. 
|| i. e. countries or dwellings of Infidels. 



10 E. C. Eoss — Tenets of the Ibadhi Sect of 'Omdn. [Jan. 

The Ibadhis renounce the false teaching of those who hold that Mus- 
lims who commit mortal sins, are to be accounted neither as believers nor 
yet infidels (but in a middle state), and that God will punish this class of 
sinners otherwise than infidels are punished.* 

The Ibadhi sect oppose their false teaching who say that God is not 
the author of their actions, but that they themselves originate them, and 
that God does not guide the believers, nor distinguish them by his guiding 
mercy ; but that guidance to truth and wandering to error are alike op- 
tional, to choose which they will, and that God willeth not the actions of 
his servants, but that they are free to act in opposition to his will. These 
are the heresies of the Kadiriyeh and Mu'tazileh and the like. 

It is heresy to assert that God compels his servants to acts of obedi- 
ence or sin. It is also heresy to assert that God knoweth not all things 
before they happen, such are the tenets of the Jahmiyeh and the like, which 
must be avoided. It is needful to renounce and be clear of all who reject 
the Muslims and scoff at their religion. Also to renounce all who do not 
take the part of the Muslimsf and who do not acknowledge the true 
" Imam," J or who fail to aid those who do the right whether laid down or 
not. 

The foregoing are the laws and ordinances handed down to us by the 
just one from another. We do not impose our religion on children of 
perdition. We do not submit to the guidance of the worldly. We have 
not derived our belief from the foolish and ignorant. 

We have heard the Lord of mankind say in his perspicuous book : — 
" All ye who believe, fear God, and be with the just. Take no part 
with the licentious who work iniquity on earth and prosper not." 

We follow the just whose truth is known, and whose justice is renowned ; 
who are of excellent conduct and knowledge, the righteous, pious, and 
immaculate, excelling in wisdom and nobleness, in probity and integrity : 
in meekness and humility ; who earnestly attend to religious duties and 
observances, who are in the odour of religious learning, who have made 
religion manifest to mankind, cleansed it of the impure, and handed it 
down from generation to generation. We have followed the right with 
truthfulness and found it the most excellent path. 

We announce salvation to those who follow the truth ; and woe and 
ruin to those who swerve from it. To the latter we promise perdition and 
rejection on the day of judgment ; and we seek direction of Almighty 
God, and I ask forgiveness of Him and repent of all my sins. God bless 

* The orthodox hold such persons not to be infidels. The Kharijites considered 
them infidels. The sect of Mu'tazilites arose holding the middle view, 
f Meaning the I badhiy eh. 
J Imam of the Ibadhiyeh. 



1873.] Major Stubbs — Inscriptions from Lakhnau. 11 

Muhammad, bis chosen apostle, and bis family and companions. Blessings 
on the angels and prophets and all believers from the beginning to the end 
of time ! 

2. From Major F. W, Stubbs, Lakbnau, forwarding a copy of the 
following inscription on the tomb of Shaikh Mina, the patron saint of 
Lakhnau. 

(*•** c£j"~J cJj^ l ^* 9 J cA^ 3' lPj £ i+i^ wi-^ ^° S^* 

When Shaikh Mina, the gem of heaven's ring, left this world for non- 
existence, I said, "0 Friend, the date of his death lies in the words 'Shah i 
Marcldn u qiblah i 'dloum' (the king of men, and the cynosure of the world)." 

Mr. Blochmann said — - 

According to the above verse, Shaikh Mina would have died in A. H. 
881, or A. D. 1179. The biographical works on Muhammadan saints 
mention A. H. 870, or A. D. 1165, as the year of his death. I extract the 
following notice from the Khazinat ul Acfia (Labor Edition, p. 389). 

Shaikh Mina's real name was Shaikh Muhammad. He was born at 
Lakhnau, and was brought up by Shaikh Qiwamuddin, a dervish of 
repute. Shaikh Qiwam had a son, named Nizamuddin Muhammad 
Mina, who, disgusted with the retired life he had to lead in his fa- 
ther's house, went to Sultan Muhammad Shah, son of Firiiz Shah (1389 
to 1391 A. D.), and obtained a lucrative post. His father never forgave 
him for his worldliness. After several years, he returned to Lakhnau, in 
order to ask his father's pardon, and in his thoughtlessness he went on horse- 
back into the courtyard where his father's cell was. The father saw him, 
and said, " Unworthy son, do you dare to come on horseback to the cell of 
Darwish Qiwamuddin ?" The son pulled back the reins of his horse ; but 
in turning, the horse fell, and he was violently thrown on the ground, and 
broke his neck. The father looked upon this accident as a punishment in- 
flicted by God on his worldly son, and adopted Shaikh Muhammad, and 
gave him the name of Mina, which his own son had borne. Shaikh Mina, 
in course of time, became a great saint. 

A story is told of Shaikh Mina to shew that he was marked out 
a saint from his childhood. When five years old, he was taken to his 
teacher, and in the beginning of the first lesson, he was asked, according to 
Muhammadan custom, to say the formula ' Bismillali irrahmdn irralum? 
After be bad repeated the words, he was told to say A (alif), and when he 
had done so, to pronounce Be. But the boy would not say Be ; for, said he, 
" A is the first letter of Allah, and this is sufficient knowledge." In 
after-life even, Shaikh Mina is said to have frequently expounded the 
mysteries of the letter A. 



12 F. S. Growse — Inscriptions from Mathnra. [Jan. 

He did not many, and lived and died a strict ascetic. He often 
practised severe penances (riazat i shdqqali) and prayed at night sitting on 
a wall ; for should sleep overpower him, he would fall down and thus wake 
up and continue his prayers. Or he would place thorns and spikes round 
ahout himself, so that they might pierce his body, if he should fall down 
asleep. In winter, he used to put on wet clothes, and stand praying in his 
courtyard. 

Abulfazl in the A'in (p. 434, of my text edition), which was written in 
1596 A. D., says, ' Shaikh Mma lies buried at Lakhnau, and people believe 
that he was a saint.' 

Major Stubbs says that the tomb, from which the above inscription is 
taken, stands on the esplanade of Fort Machhi Bhawan in Lakhnau. 

3. From F. S. Growse, Esq., M. A., C. S., Mathura, forwarding copies 
of the following Persian and Hindustani Inscriptions on buildings in the 
city of Mathura, N. W. P. 

I. 

Lr, ^f** ^Jt Uj ^w cjLL ( _ 5 axJ[ j-^jl */ * ^Uwe j\yi\ e~<»| U3 &l)\ ±+2s>. 

UjJ osr* ^i\ ^'ii> ^LL is&t'WjZi * ^T f*i(3*0^i*3 u^^J^d^p 1 "^^ 

1. In the reign of Shah Alamgir Muhiuddin walmillah, the king of the world, 
A u r a n g z i b, who is adorned with justice, 

2. The lustre of Islam shone forth to the glory of God; for 'Abdunnabi 
Khan built this beautiful mosque. 

3. This second ' Holy Temple' caused the idols to bow down in worship. You 
will now see the true meaning of the text, " Truth came, and error vanished." [" Qo- 
ran, XVII, 83."] 

4. Whilst I searched for a tdrihh, a voice came from blissful Truth, ordering me 
to say ' Abdunnabi Khan is the builder of this beautiful mosque.' A. H. 1071, or 
1660-61. 

Mr. Growse writes as follows — ■ 

' This inscription is over the principal entrance to the Jami' Masjid 
which stands in the centre of the city on the site of an earlier Hindu" temple. 
The building is of considerable size and has four very lofty minarets, which 
with other parts of the fabric were once veneered with bright coloured plaster 
mosaics ; but only a few panels now remain, and the whole of the mosque 
is rapidly becoming a ruin.' 

Mr. Blochmann said — 

The builder of the mosque, 'Abdunnabi Khan, is known to us from 
the histories of Aurangzib's age. He is first mentioned as a partisan of 
Dara Shikoh, and fought against Aurangzib in the battle of Samogar, near 
A'o-rah (6th Eamazan, 1068, or 28th May 1658 ; vide Journal, A. S. Bengal, 
1870, Pt. I., p. 275). About a week after the defeat, he joined Aurangzib's 



1873.] H. Blochmann— Notes on Mathura. 13 

party, and was immediately afterwards appointed Faujdar of Itawah 
^Alamgirn., pp. 96, 115, 127). He retained this office till the 8th Mu- 
harram, 1070, or 15th September, 1659, when he was posted to Sirhind, 
vice Shaikh 'Abdul Karim Thaneswari, deceased. His successor at Itawah was 
Firiiz Mewati. 'Abdunnabi Khan was now a commander of Fifteen Hun- 
dred, 1500 horse. He had not been quite a year at Sirhind, when he was 
sent to Mathura. 

Chaklah Mathura, from the beginning of Aurangzib's reign, had been 
in charge of Ja'far, son of Allah Virdi Khan. Ja'far was a zealous partizan 
of Aurangzib, because Prince Shuja' had killed his father. He remained 
Faujdar till nearly the end of 1070, after having received the title of Allah 
Virdi Khan, (which his father had enjoyed) and was succeeded by Qasim 
Khan, who had been Faujdar of Muradabad.* But Qasim was murdered 
on his way to Mathura by the brother of his wife, and Aurangzib, in the 
very end of 1070 (August, 1660), appointed 'Abdunnabi Khan to Mathura. 
He must, therefore, have built the mosque soon after his arrival there. 
'Abdunnabi remained in his office for about nine years, and was killed in the 
very end of A. H. 1079 (May, 1668). The Madsir i 'Alamgiri (p. 83) has 
the following passage regarding him and his mosque. ' On the 21st Zi 
Hajjah, 1079 [May, 1668], his majesty received a report that 'Abdunnabi 
Khan had attacked some rebels that had gathered at Mauza' Sihora.f He 
was at first victorious, and succeeded in killing the ringleaders ; but in the 
middle of the fight, he was struck by a bullet, and died the death of a 
martyr. He was an excellent and pious man, and as courageous in war as 
successful in his administration. He has left a mosque in Mathura as a 
monument, which for a long time to come will remind people of him. Mu- 
hammad Anwar, son of 'Abdunnabi's brother, received from his Majesty a 
mourning dress of honor. % The property of the deceased lapsed [according 
to custom] to the state, and the imperial Mutacaddis reported the seizure 
of 93,000 gold muhurs ; 1,300,000 rupees ; and 1,450,000 rupees worth of 
property." 

The rebellion in Mathura district seems to have gained ground. " On the 
14th Kajab, 1080, [28th November, 1669], his Majesty left Dihli for Akbar- 
abad, and almost daily enjoyed the pleasures of the chase. On the 21st Rajab, 
whilst hunting, he received the report of a rebellion having broken out at 
Mauza' Rewarah, Chandarkah, and Surkhru.§ Hasan 'Ali Khan was ordered 

* Muradabad is called in the ' A'lamgirndmah (p. 126) " a place of disloyalty." 

f The MSS. have tjy*> and %\j^m». I referred the passage to Mr. Gi-owse who 
suggests Sihora, " in the Mahaban Parganah, a large village which has now a popu- 
lation of 2722 people. It is 5 or 6 niiles from Mathura, across the Jamuna, and 
adjoins Lohban." My MS. of the Tazkiratul-Saldtin has 8 yk .*». 

X This shews that 'Abdunnabi had no sons. 

§ MSS. £j~±j+a - jjL.jua - &y£>.y»$' 



14 H. Blochmann — Notes on Mathura. [Jan. 

to attack the rebels at night, which he did, and the firing lasted till 12 
o'clock the next day. The rebels, unable longer to withstand, thinking of 
the honour of their families, now fought with short arms, and many imperial 
soldiers and companions of Hasan 'Ali were killed. Three hundred rebels 
were sent to perdition, and two hundred and fifty, men and women, were 
caught. Hasan 'Ali, in the afternoon, reported personally the result of the 
fight, and was ordered to leave the prisoners and the cattle in charge of 
Sayyid Zain ul-'A'bidin, the jagirdar of the place. Qaf Shikan Khan also (who 
after 'Abdunnabi's death had been appointed Faujdar of Mathura) waited 
on the emperor, and was ordered to tell off two hundred troopers to guard the 
fields attached to the villages, and prevent soldiers from plundering and 
kidnapping children. Namdar Khan, Faujdar of Muradabad, also came 
to pay his respects, Cafshikan Khan was removed from his office, and 
Hasan 'Ali Khan was appointed Faujdar of Mathura, with a command of 
Three Thousand and Five Hundred, 2000 troopers, and received a dress of 
honour, a sword, and a horse. * * * On the 18th Sha'ban [1st January, 
1670], his Majesty entered A'grah. Kokila Jat, the wicked ringleader of 

the rebels of District* , who had been the cause of 'Abdunnabi's 

death and who had plundered Parganah Sa'dabad, was at last caught by 
Hasan 'All Khan and his zealous peshkdr, Shaikh Baziuddin, and he was 
now sent with the Shaikh to A'grah, where by order of his Majesty he was 
executed. Kokila's son and daughter were given to Jawahir Khan Nazir 
[a eunuch]. The girl was later married to Shah Quli, the well-known 
Chelah ; and his son, who was called Fazil, became in time so excellent a Hafiz 
[one who knows the Qoran by heart], that his Majesty preferred him to all 
others and even chaunted passages to him. Shaikh Baziuddin, who had 
captured Kokila, belonged to a respectable family in Bhagalpur, Bihar, 
and was an excellent soldier, administrator, and companion ; he was at the 
same time so learned, that he was ordered to assist in the compilation of the 
Fatdwd i'Alamgiri [the great code of Muhammadan laws]. He received 
a daily allowance of three rupees. "f (Madsir i 'Alamgiri, pp. 92 to 91.) 
Hasan 'Ali Khan retained his office from 1080 to Sha'ban 1087 (Octo- 
ber, 1676), when Sultan Quli Khan was appointed Faujdar of Mathura. 

It was during the incumbency of Hasan 'Ali Khan that Aurangzib 
commenced his crusade against Mathura. There were several imperial villas 
between Mathura and Brindaban, and as Aurangzib had often staved there, 
he must have been well accmainted with the state of Hinduism in the dis- 
trict. The order for the crusade was given in Bamazan 10S0, or February, 
1669 ; but no other cause is mentioned except religious zeal. The Madsir 

* The Bibl. Indica edition of the Madsir (p. 93) has Patnah — which is wrong. 
Another MS. has <Xj.*~x\3. Neither Khafi Khan, nor the author of the Tazkirat id- Said- 
tin, mentions the place. 

t The passage in the text edition is corrupt. 



1873.] H. Blochmann — Notes on Mathura. 15 

says (p. 95) — ' During the reign of Jahangh*, Biv Singh Deo Bundela,* 
the murderer of Abulfazl, had received permission to build at Mathura an 
idol house at a cost of 33 lakhs of rupees. This temple was now ordered 
to be destroyed, and in a short time, with the help of numerous workmen, 
this seat of error was utterly broken down. Glory be to God that in the 
present auspicious reign, in which the dens of error and idolatry are 
destroyed, so difficult an undertaking was successfully accomplished ! Seeing 
the strength of Islam and the power of true piety, the proud Rajas felt 
their breath burning in their throats, and they were speechless like pictures 
on a wall. The idols, large and small, which were adorned with costly 
jewels, were carried away from the temples of these irreligious people, and 
were taken to Agrah, where they were buried under the steps of Nawab 
Qudsiah Begum's mosque, so that people might for ever trample upon 
them. " Mathura itself was henceforth called ' Islamabad.' " 

Mathura is occasionally mentioned in the Tuzulc and the Pddishdh- 
ndmah. 

In 1028 [1619, A. D.], one Jadrup Gosain had come from Ujjain to 
Mathura. This Jadrup was a famous hermit, and both Akbar and Jahangh* 
had paid him visits. He had now come to Mathura, in order to worship on 
the banks of the Jamuna. Tuzulc, pp. 175, 279. 

In Rabi' I., 1038, Mathura was given as jagir to Mirza Isa Tarkhan 
(Am translation, p. 363). Padishahndmah, I., 230. 

Tigers infested the forests opposite to Mahaban, on the other side of 
the river. Allah Virdi Khan, the Qarawalbegi, or chief of the Shikaris, re- 
ported matters, and Shahjahan, in 1013, ordered a hunt, and killed four 
tigers. Log. cit., I., b., p. 5. 

On the 28th Rabi' II., 1015, Murshid Quli Khan was appointed Fauj- 
dar of Mathura and Mahaban, and he received orders to punish the rebelli- 
ous infidels there. This necessitated an increase of his contingent, and he 
was made a commander of Two Thousand, 2,000 horse. Log. cit., p. 105. 

Shahjahan in 1018, visited Mathura again, with a hunting party, and 
Allah Virdi Khan, " the tui/ulddr' of the place, was ordered to accompany 
the emperor as far as Palam. His eldest son, Ja'far, received a horse as a 
present, and was sent to the jagir of his father. 

In Ramazan, 1019, Aurangzib's wife gave birth to a prince at Ma- 
thura. Shahjahan gave him the name of Muhammad Sultan. 

In 1052, his Majesty heard that Allah Virdi Khan, who could not 
control his tongue, had given utterance to disloyal opinions. He was now 
punished and deprived of his jagir and mansab, and was sent to Dihli with 
orders to stay there ; but as his Majesty never forgets old servants, he gave 
Allah Virdi Khan Parganah Shukrpur, near Dihli, which had revenue of 

* Of UYchah. He is wrongly called in all histories Narsingh Deo. 



1G F. S. Growse — Inscriptions from Mathura. [Jan. 

31 lakhs of dams (10 dams = 1 rupee). His jagir at Mathura and 
Mahaban was given to A'zam Khan. 

In 1055, A'zam Khan, on account of old age, did not keep the rebelli- 
ous inhabitants of Mathura, Mahaban, and neighbouring places, in proper 
check, though he had his tuyid there, and Makramat Khan, governor of Dihli, 
who had successfully administered his province, received the Faujdari and 
Tuyiildari of Mathura, in addition to his duties and emoluments. Pddi- 
sMhndmah I., 230 ; I., b., 5,105 ; II., 23, 111, 170, 309, 425. 

Mr. Growse gives another inscription from the same mosque — 
.>l.jf cjU^j l^i. Jo jf. blj ^Uij ^jLa £*U 1 >s-~ /0 ,^j| 

1. May this Jami' Masjid of majestic structure sliine forth for ever like the 
hearts of the pious ! 

2. Its roof is high like aspirations of love ; its courtyard is wide like the arena 
of thought. 

II. 
Mr. Growse's second inscription is taken from the centre arch of a small 
mosque in the Mohanpur Mahallah — 

1. In the reign of Shah Muhammad Sh a h, 'Abdurrashid built this mosque. 

2. Thought suggested the tdrikh, ' He built a beautiful mosque.' [A. H. 
1158 ; or A. D. 1745]. 

The builder seems to be unknown, and the composer of the inscription has 
wisely not mentioned himself; because the first hemistich contains an 
absurdity in the repetition of the word Shah, and in the second hemistich 
there is a sad lapsus metri, as the letter 'ain in '^IM-urrashid must be 
elided. The metre is the khafif. 

Ths following two inscriptions from Mathura belong to the present 
century — 

III. 

t&Ua* (ji-<£> jit> &\j±> b-V* .JY* 1 ^y* J& * (*i^* *i^ iit$ ^& f^ J^'T <^i<^- *& 

e>l»i^- v^ (."0 j^-r*^ 1 *^ o«' ^r" L5 x: * ^<i J' £i>^ J '--»/♦* ci ^' t-jL^ja 

^ys^ I r r r *J~> 
Mr. Growse says that the inscription is taken from the Goghat of the 
Siva Tal, a large tank of very handsome architectural design, constructed 
by Raja Patni Mai, in 1807 A. D. 

The last line is not clear. The metre is Lonsr Eamal. 



1S73.] H. Blochmann — Cunningham's Bengal Inscriptions. 17 

IV. 

^^^*^**^*t« (j^t£)£iy*J3l g^U** 5 ^ 5 **} * ^*^J J , -^t , i J s^C^~Md , ' i>i - c ' *^ 
^•^-O^^t- c5 A *i^!*°l er*t(^ is* 1 ^' * J^H v^- L'*' 'H^ (^Jj&>^ ^ bj 

t£?' ** I A fl 1 **""' L5^' I r 11* <5 " UJO 

Mr. Growse says : — ' This inscription is in Hindustani, and is worked into 
the cornice of the central hall of a very elegant and elaborate building, erected 
by public subscription at the suggestion of Mr. Mark Thornhill, Collector of 
the district in 1856. It was intended as a rest-house for native gentlemen of 
rank, but has never yet been used for any purpose whatever. Indeed, though 
a good specimen of stone-carving, an art for which Mathura is famous, it is 
too delicate a work to be converted to any practical use except as a local 
Museum.' The metre of the Inscription is Long Hazaj. The second line is 
not clear. 

The following papers were read — 
1. — General Cunningham 's Bengal Inscriptions (Muhammad an Period). — 
By H. Blochmann, M. A., Calcutta Madrasah. 
(Abstract.) 

General Cunningham has sent to the Society a large number of Sans- 
krit and Muhammadan inscriptions for publication. The former have been 
taken charge of by Babus Pratapachandra Ghosh and Gaur Das Baisakh, 
the latter I have myself taken in hand. The Sanskrit inscriptions, 29 in 
number, are mostly from Bihar. A few of them have been deciphered. 
The Muhammadan inscriptions consist of 39 rubbings from Dihli, Ajmir, 
Badaon, Bianah, Irich, Kanauj, and other places in the North- West ; and 
of 65 from various places in Bengal and Bihar. 

It is my intention to give the members of the Society an account of 
the use which I have made of this splendid collection ; and I shall give this 
evening a short resume of the important contributions to our knowledge of 
Bengal history, which my readings have yielded. The Society owes a debt 
of gratitude to General Cunningham for the disinterested readiness with 
which he has placed a truly unique collection of rubbings at our disposal for 
publication in the Journal. 

I have often drawn the attention of the members to the un- 
satisfactory state of our knowledge of the Muhammadan Period of 
Bengal History. Though there can be no doubt that the courts of the 
independent kings of Bengal attracted writers of distinction, not a single 
3 



18 II. Blochnumn — CunnmgTiawCs Bengal Inscriptions. [Jan. 

work dealing exclusively with Bengal history, has come down to us. What- 
ever we know we glean from incidental remarks made hy the historians of 
the Dihli empire, or from the meagre extracts given in the Tabaqat i Akbari 
and Firishtah. Firishtah, a Dak'hin writer of the beginning of the 17th 
century, copied partly from the Tabaqat ; but either work contains informa- 
tion not given in the other, and I hope to give with General Cunning- 
ham's inscriptions a comparative analysis of both som*ces. 

Besides the Tabaqat and Firishtah, we have in the Tabaqat i Naciri 
valuable notes on the Muhammadan governors that ruled in Gaur or Lakh- 
nauti, after the overthrow of the last Hindu king of Bengal by Bakhtyar 
Khilji in 1203. This source has been completely used by Mr. E. Thomas. 
Lastly, we have a modern history of Bengal, entitled Riyazussalatin, written 
by Gbulam Husain, poetically styled Salim, of Zaidpur, and completed (as 
indicated by the title, which is a tarilchi name) in A. H. 1202, or A. D. 
1787-88, at the request of Mr. George Udney of Maldah. Stewart's ' His- 
tory of Bengal' is based upon this work. The Persian text has not been 
printed ; but a critical examination would be desirable.- Salim must have 
had access to works that no longer exist, for he gives details not to be 
found in the Tabaqat or Firishtah. 

These are the only written sources which we possess of the history of 
the governors and independent kings of Bengal, i. e. for a period of 335 
years, from 1203 to 1537, A. D. Our knowledge, therefore, is entirely 
derived from mere extracts and second-hand compilations, and it is no won- 
der that for several portions of that period we have no guide. The impor- 
tance of Bengal coins and inscriptions thus becomes apparent. 

Bengal coins have hitherto received more attention than inscriptions. 
Marsden, in 1823, and Laidley (a former Secretary of the Society) in 1846 
published Bengal coins, which for the first time revealed the importance of 
their testimony. But far greater results were obtained by Mr. E. Thomas, 
who examined the selections made from the 13,500 pieces of silver, which in 
August 1863 were found in Koch Bihar. His contributions, which refer 
to the years from 1203 to 1357 A. D., are the most important that have 
hitherto been made to Bengal History. For the remaining portion of the 
above period, viz., from 1357 to 1537 A. D., the coins have not yet been 
examined ; these scientific treasures lie still buried in public and private coin- 
cabinets. 

The most obscure portion of Bengal history, at the present stage of 
research, extends over more than sixty years, from 1385 to about 1150 
A. D. To this time belong the usurpation of the throne by a Hindu Baja, 
hitherto called Kanis or Kansa, — a corruption, as it would seem, of ' Ga- 
nesha' — , and the reigns of his son and grandson, who turned Muhamma- 
dans. Whether Ganesh himself became a Muslim, has not yet been proved. 



1873.] H. Blochmann — Cunningham's Bengal Inscriptions. 19 

To the same period also belong two invasions of Bengal, one from the west, 
undertaken by the kings of Jaunpur ; the other from the east by the Ahoms 
of A'sam, who under Chadangpha in 1414 extended their conquests to the 
Karataya river (Dinajpur and Rangpdr). Whether Bengal Proper was made 
wholly or partially tributary to Jaunpur is not certain ; but it is clear from 
South Bihar inscriptions that the whole of Bihar was annexed to Jaunpur. 
The power of the kings of Bengal, therefore, in the first half of the 15th 
century must have been reduced to a minimum. 

No inscriptions belonging to this dark period of Bengal history have 
hitherto turned up ; and it seems as if coins alone could give the wanting 
information. For the clearing up of the final portion, from 1150 to 1537, 
A. D., though the coins have not yet been examined, many inscriptions have 
now come to hand ; and it may reasonably be hoped that future discoveries 
of inscriptions will clear up the few doubts that are left. 

Numerous as the inscriptions in Bengal appear to be, it seems strange 
that so few have hitherto found their way into our Journal. In fact, with 
the exception of three inscriptions given in the Journal for 1817, 1801, and 
1807, I know of no others that have been published. In 1870, I invited 
members of the Society to forward rubbings to Calcutta, and valuable Bengal 
inscriptions have since been received from Mr. E. V. Westmacott, Dr. J. Wise, 
and Mr. Walter M. Bourke, which together with General Cunningham's 
collection amount to about 120. Last month also I received from Balm 
Rajendralala Mitra an interesting rubbing from Rajshahi, which makes 
mention of a rebel king, who, in 1581, attempted to establish himself. 

Of all these inscriptions a few are useless, being quotations from the 
Qoran ; and about one-fourth refer to the 17th century, and are, therefore, of 
less importance. Of General Cunningham's 65 Bengal inscriptions, 3 are 
illegible, 19 are useless, 11 are of minor interest, and 28 are excellent.* 
Twenty -three of them come from Panduah near Maldah, which place General 
Cunningham, from the fact of its having once been the capital of Bengal, 
significantly calls ' Hazrat Panduah,' to distinguish it from Panduah in 
Hugh District ; 20 come from Gam- ; 1 from Maldah ; 1 from Munger ; 1 
from Rajmahall ; 1 from Lakki Sarai ; 1 from Satgaon ; 2 from Panduah 
in Hiigli ; and 12 from Sunnargaon and Dhaka District. They are nearly 
all inscriptions from old mosques. 

The historical value of all Bengal inscriptions received by the Society 

* One (marked 37) lias not yet been received. Useless are Nos. 2, 9, 10, 13, 14, 
15, 17, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 40, 43, 44, 46, 53, and Sunnargaon (K). Illegible are 
Nos. 28, 39, and Sunnargaon (G). Of little interest are 11, 12, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 
23, 24, 29, 38, and Sunnargaon, (J,L). Good are Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 25, 26, 27, 30, 
41, 42, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, and the Sunnargaon rubbings marked A, B, 0, D, 
E, F, H, J. Some of them have since been published. 



20 H. Bloehmann — Cunningham's Bengal Inscriptions. [Jan. 

inclusive of those that have been* published, may be estimated from the fol- 
lowing considerations : 

1. They confirm numerous facts given in the histories or elucidated 
from coins. 

2. They give the full names of fourteen kings. 

3. They shew that the governors of Bengal were also governors of 
Bihar. 

4. They mention a new prince, Hatim Khan, son of Firiiz Shah (I). 

5. They prove that Sikandar Shah reigned in 770 A. H., whilst the 
histories say that he died in 769 A. H. 

6. They shew that Naciruddin Mahmud Shah (I) reigned in 861, and 
continued to reign till the beginning of 864. 

7. That Fath Shah reigned in 8S6, whilst the histories commence his 
reign a year later. 

8. That Muzaffar Shah reigned in 898, whilst the histories commence 
his reign two years later. 

9. They mention a new king, 'Alauddin Firiiz Shah. 

That is, the inscriptions hitherto received, besides affording valuable 
testimony to the correctness of facts known before, reveal one new king, one 
new prince, and correct the chronology of the reigns of six kings of Bengal. 
The following is a list of Bengal inscriptions, published or about to be 
published. General Cunningham's inscriptions are marked [G. C.} 

1. ' Izzuddi'n Abul Fath Tughril, governor of Lakhnauti. 

1. Bihar ; Muharram, 640, or July 1242, A. D. Plate published in 
Journal, A. S. Bengal, 1871, Pt. I, PI. vii. 

2. Huknuddi'n Kai Ka'u's. 

1. Gangardmpur, 1st Muharram, 697, or 19th October, 1297 ; pub- 
lished in J. A. S. B., L872, p. 103. 

2. LaTcJchi Sard/, same date. [G. C] 

3. Shamsuddi'n Abul Muzaffar Fi'm'z Shall. 

1. Bihar, A. H. 709 ; plate published in J. A. S. B., for 1871, Pt. I, 
PI. viii. 

2. Trileni; 1st Muharram, 713, or 28th April, 1313. Published, 
J. A. S. B., 1870, Pt. I, p. 287. 

3. Bihar, 1st Bajab, 715, or 1st October, 1315. 
Firiiz Shah's son, Hatim Khan, governor of Bihar. 

Bengal under Dihli. Muhammad bin Tughluq, 732. Bihar. 

4. Abul Muja'hid Sikandar Sha'h, son of Ilyas Shah. 

1. Dinqjpwr, A. H. 765, or A. D. 1363-4 ; published, J. A. S. B., 
1872, p. 105. 

2. Hazrat Panduah, 6th Bajab, 770, or 14th February, 1369. [G. C] 



1873.] H. Blochrnarm — Ci/nningJiam's Bengal Inscriptions. 21 

5. Na'siruddi'n Abul Muzaffar Mahmu'd Sha'h (I). 

1. Sdtgaon; A. H. 861, or 1157. Published, J. A. S. B., 1870, p. 
293. The inscription does not contain the word ' Mahmud.' The letters 
are broken off, and my reading ' Husain Shah', to judge from inscriptions 
since published, is to be corrected to ' Mahmud Shah.' 

2. Dhaka, 20th Sha'ban, 863, or 13th June, 1159. Published, J. A. 
S. B., 1872, p. 108. 

3. Gaur, 28th Zil Hajjah, 863, or 26th October, 1459. [a. C] 

6. Ruknuddi'n AbulMuj a'hid Ba'rbak Sha'h, son of Mahmud Shah. 

1. Tribeni ; 1st Muharram, 860, or 11th December, 1455. Barbak is 
styled ' Malik,' not Sultan ; hence he was, in 860, governor of South- Western 
Bengal. Published, J. A. S. B. 5 1870, Pt. I, p. 290. 

2. Dindjpdr, 16th Cafar, 865, or 1st December, 1160.* 

7- Shamsudd'in Abul Muzaffar Yu'suf Shah, son of Barbak Shah. 

1. Panduah, 1st Muharram, 882, or 15th April, 1477. [G. C] 

2. Hazrat Banduah, 20th Eajab, 884, or 8th October, 1479. [G-. O] 

3. Gaur, 10th Bamazan 8S5, or 13th November, 1480. [G-. C] 

8. Jala'luddi'n Abul Muzaffar Fath Shah, son of Mahmud 
Shah (I). 

1. Dhaka, 1st Zil Qa'dah, 886, or 2nd January, 1482.f 

2. Dhdmrdi, 10th Jumada I., 887, or 27th June, 1482. Published, 
J. A. S. B. 1872, p. 109. 

3. Bikrampur, middle Eajab, 888, or August, 14S3. [G-. C] 

4. Simndrgaon, Muharram, 889, or beginning of A. D. 1484. [Gr. C] 

5. Sdtgaon, 4th Muharram, 892, or 1st January, 1487. Published, 
J. A. S. B., Pt. 1, 1870, p. 294. 

9. Na'sirucldi'n Abul Muja'hid Mahmu'd Shah (II). 

1. Hazrat Banduali. Date illegible. [Gr. C] This king differs 
slightly from No. 5, in the juhis-n&me. His name renders the statement of 
Haji Muhammad Qandahari probable that he was the son of Fath Shah ; for 
grandsons often bear the names of their grandfathers. 

10. Shamsuddi'n Abul-rTasr Muzaffar Shah. 

1. Hazrat Pandaah, 18th Bamazan, 898, or 5th July, 1493. [Gf. O] 

2. Dindjpdr, Eajab, year illegible. Published, J. A. S. B., 1872, 
p 107, where the julus name is wrong, the error having been corrected in 
the errata. 

11. 'Ala'uddi'n Abul Muzaffar Husain" Shah, son of Sayyid Ashraf. 

1. Manger, 903 ; mentions Prince Danyal. Published Journal, 
1872, p. 334. 

2. DhdJcd, 907, [G. C] 

3. Bonliara, in Bihar, 908. Published, Proceedings 1870, p. 112. 

* Eeceived with'a"note from E. V. Westmacott, Esq., C. S. 
f Received from Dr. J. Wise, Dhaka. 



22 Gr. E. Dobson — On a new species of Molossus,. [Jan. 

4. Gherm, in Bihar, 909. Published, Proceedings 1870, p. 297. 

5. MdltlaJ/, 911. [Gr. C] 

6. Hazrat Panduali, 915. [G. C] 

7 to 9. GW, two of 916, and one of 918. [G. C] 
10. Sunndrgdon, 2nd Rabi' II., 919, or 8th May, 1513. [G. C] 
Published, Journal, 1872, p. 333. 

11. Birbhum, 922. Published, Journal, 1861, p. 390. 

12. Sunndrgdon, 15th Sha'ban, 925, or 12th August, 1519. [G. C] 

13. Gaur, 925, or A. D. 1519. Published with plate, J. A. S. B., 

1871, Pt. I, p. 256. 

12. Na'siruddi'n Abul Muzaffar Nusrat Sha'h> son of Husain Shah. 

1. Sunndrgdon, 929, or 1523. [G. C] Published, Journal, 1872, 

p. 338. 

2. Sdtgdon, Ramazan, 936, or May, 1529. Published, Journal, 1870, 

p. 298. 

3. Gaur, Qadam Rasul, 937, or 1530-31. [G. C.]. Published, Journal 

1872, p. 338. 

13. 'Ala'uddi'n Abul Muzaflfar Fi'ru'z Sha'h, son of Nucrat Shah. 
1. Kalnali, 1st Ramazan, 939, or 27th March, 1533. Published, 

Journal, 1872, p. 332. 

14. Ghia'suddi'n Abul Muzaflfar Mahmu'd Sha'h (III.) son of Hu- 
sain Shah. 

1. GWr, Sa'dullahpur, 911, or 1531-35, [G. C.]. Published Journal, 

1872, p. 339. 

2. — Description of a remarkable new species of Molossus (Nyctinomus,) 
from Johore in the Malay Peninsula ; — by G. E. Dobson, B. A., M. B. 

The following description of a very interesting new species of Molossus 
is taken from a single male specimen, preserved in spirit, which was obtained 
by Mr. Wood-Mason's private collector at Johore. 

Molossus (Nyctinomus) Johorensis, n. sp. 

Ears large, circular, as in Nye. plicatus, Buch. Ham. ; united in front ; 
antitragus large, separated from the outer margin by a deep concavity ; 
tragus very small, square, superior margin slightly concave. In front, the 
inner sides of the ears are connected by a fold of integument passing for- 
wards on the muzzle as far as a point placed mid-way between the eyes and 
the extremity of the nostrils. This connecting band is continued upwards 
and backwards, between the ears, to a height of - l inch, forming a 
small funnel open behind, wide below and narrow above. At a distance of 
about 0"3 inch from the anterior connecting band the ears are again con- 
nected by a second fold of skin posterior and parallel to the first, about 



1^73.] G. E. Dobson — On a double-headed Snake. 23 

01 inch in vertical height. Between these two connecting folds of integu- 
ment and the sides of the ears a hollow square is contained. This concavity 
is empty and open only from above. At the base of the funnel shaped 
anterior boundary a few long hairs exist, similar to those found at the 
bottom of the frontal sac of some species of Phyllorhine Bats. The 
remaining portions of the cell and its boundaries are naked. 

The animals of this genus possess the power of folding the ear conch 
forwards, downwards, and outwards, thus closing the external ear ; when 
the ears are closed the funnel shaped portion of integument connecting 
them in front, in this species, is drawn forwards disclosing the cavity 
behind. In the erect condition of the ears the same funnel shaped projection 
is drawn backwards across this square hollow cavity, which it covers, as the 
pitcher of Nepenthes is covered by the leaf forming its lid. In this posi- 
tion the extremity of the funnel is flattened out, and lies in the space 
contained between the posterior connecting band and the top of the head. 

In other respects this species resembles Nye. plicatus very closely. The 
thumb is longer than in most species of the genus ; and the wing membrane 
is attached a short distance below the knee joint. 

.2 1 — 1 2 — 2 3 3 

Dentition — m. — ; c. - — - ; p. m. , m. , 

4 1—1 x 2—2' 3—3' 

The upper incisors are placed in the centre of the space between the 

canines, and are separated by a very narrow interval from each other. 

Length, head and body 2-8 inches ; tail 17 ; tail free from interfemoral 

membrane TO ; ear, 09 ; tragus 01 ; forearm 19 ; thumb 05 ; second 

finger 3 - G ; fourth finger 1*8 ; tibia 07 ; foot and claws, - 4. 

3. — On a double-headed snake presented to the Indian Museum by Dr. B. F, 
Thompson, Civil Surgeon, Huyhli ; — By Gr. E. Dobson, B. A., M. B. 

(Abstract.) 

Dr. Dobson exhibited, on behalf of the donor, a very remarkable double- 
headed monstrous form of snake (Lycodon aulicus). 

The specimen appears rather to represent two snakes fused into one at 
a short distance behind the neck, as each head is perfect, and is joined by a 
distinct neck with the body which soon becomes connected with the body 
of the other snake. The twin bodies are connected, before becoming 
completely united, by a band of skin about mid-way between the posterior 
extremity of the head and the point of complete union in one body. Total 
length of the specimen, measured from the snout of one snake to the tip of 
the tail, 73 inches ; snout to point of complete union 09 inches. 

The only other specimen of double-headed snake in the Indian Museum 
was sent to the Museum of the Asiatic Society by the Nawab of Dacca 
many years ago. It is a specimen of Naja tripudians about 18 inches long 



2j, Library. [Jajs - . 

with a second head nearly as large as the first, placed at right angles to the 
body, on the right side, at the posterior extremity of the first head which 
is directly continuous with the body. 

The paper will he published in the Journal as soon as the plate to 
accompany it is ready. 

LlBEAEY. 

The following additions have been made to the Library since the last 
meeting. 

Presentations. 
* # * Names of Donors in Capitals. 
Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic, Juillet, Aout, 1872. 

Jules Oirard. Essai d' orographic sous-marine de l'Ocean Atlantique meridional 

Dr. Martin.— Stir la statistique relative au denombrement de la population en Chine. 

Septembee, 1872. 

Positions occupies pendant l'ete paries Turkomans Tomouds nomades. — Explora- 
tion en Chine par le baron de Richthofen. Charles Gracl. — Les Colonies Hollandaises 
des Indes Orientales par F. de Hellwald. 

The Geographical Society oe Pabis. 
Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale ' de Naturalistes de Moscou, No. 1, 
1872. 

de Bourmeister P^adoszokowsky . — Supplement indispensable a l'article publiepar 
M. Gerstgecker en 1869 sur quelques genres d'hyineuopteres. Eugene de la Rue. — 
Observations sur la phyllomorphose du Syringa vulgaris, &c. Q. Milachewitch.— 
Remarques sur la structure de la columelle de Lonsdaleia. 

The Impebial Society op Natuealists op Moscow. 

Monatsbericht, Juli, 1872- 

H. Bammelsberg.— VJber die unterphosphorigsauren salze. (The author treats of 
the reduction of metals by these salts.) 

The Boyal Pbttssian Academy of Sciences op Beelin. 

A Geographical and Statistical Beport of the Dinagepore District.— 
By Major J. L. Sherwill. 

Statistical and Geographical Beport of the Moorshedabad District.— 
By Capt. J. E. Gastrell. 

Geographical and Statistical Beport of the District of Beerbhoom.— By 
Capt. W. S. Sherwill. 

Geographical and Statistical Beport of the District of Tirhoot.— By A. 

Wyatt, Esq. 

Geographical and Statistical Beport on the District of Tipperah.— By 

B. B. Smart, Esq. 

Geographical and Statistical Beport on the District of Fyzabad.— By 

Lieut. F. Coddington. 

Statistics of the District of Sarun, consisting of Sircars, Sarun and 
Chumparun.— By A. Wyatt, Esq. 



1S73.1 Library. 25 

Geographical, Statistical and General Report on the District of Hazaree- 
baugh. — By Capt. G. Hunter Thompson. 

Statistics of the District of Patna.— By the Revenue Surveyor. 

Report on the survey of the Derail Ghazee Khan District. — By Capt. 
H. C. Johnstone. 

Geographical and Statistical Report of District Mahomed Khan's Tanda 
of the Hyderabad Collectorate, Province of Sind. — By Capt. D. Macdonald. 

Statistics of the District of Behar. — By Capt. Sherwill. 

Statistics of zillah Midnapoor. — By J. S. Torrens, Esq. 

Statistics of the zillah of Shahabad. — By W. Travers, Esq. 

Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta. 

The Christian Spectator. January, 1873.— The Editor. 

Ramayana, edited by Hem Chandra, Vol. III. No. 3.— The Editor. 

The Rajas of Rajashahi, by Balm Kissory Chand Mitra.— The Author. 

Purchase. 

Comptes Rendus, Nos. 16-18, 1872. 

No. 16. — M. Tresca. — Rcleve methodique des resolutions de la commission interna- 
tionale du Metre, reunie a Paris en 1872. M. Ch. V. Zenger. — Sur 1' action des con- 
ducteurs disposes symetriquement autour d'nn electroscope. II. M. Schihtzenberger et 
Gerardin. — Sur un nouveau procede de dosage de lo'xygene libre. 

No. 17. — M. Tvon Villarceau. — Note accompagnant la presentation d'un Memoire 
et d'une lettre de M de Magnac, sur l'emploi des chronometres en mer. M. A. Calig- 
ny. — Theorie de plusieurs systemes d'ecluses de navigation. M. 0. Sedillot. — Sur 
les phenomenes de fermentation et leurs rapports avec la physiologie pathologique, 
a propos des etudes recentes de M. F. Monoyer sur la Zymologie. M. C. Dareste. — 
E'tudes sur les types osteologiques des poissons osseux. 

No. 18. — M. J. Boussinesq. — Essai sur la theorie des eaux courantes. M. 0. 
Dareste. — E'tudes sur les types osteologiques des poissons osseux (2e partie). M. M. 
A. Rabuteau et F. Parpillon. — Becherches stir les proprietes antifermentescibles efc 
Taction physiologique du silicate de soude. M. Rabuteau,. — Recherches cliimiques sur 
les feuilles de l'Eucalyptus globulus. M. Jacques. — Ouverture de deux plis cache - 
tes, concernant la conservation des matieres animal es au moyen du borate de soude 
et des borates en general. 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History. November, 1872. 

Rev. T. Hincks. — On the Hydroid Lar sabellarum, Gosse, and its reproduction. 

F. P. Pascoe. — Notes on Coleoptera, with description of new Genera and species 
Part II. Dr. J. E. Gray. — Notes on the Mud-Tortoises of India. J. F. 117< He- 
aves. — Notes on a deep-sea Dredging Expedition in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. A. 

G. Butler. — Description of new Myriopoda of the family Glomeridce. 0. Schmidt. — 
On Coccoliths and Rhabdoliths. Dr. A. Giinther. — Notes on a new species of 
Lizard from North Australia. T. A. Verrhruzen — Dredging Excursion to Iceland 
in June, July, 1872. Prof. 8. Lovdn.— On the structure of the Echinoidea. Rev. T. 
Hincks — Contributions to the History of the Hydroida. Rev . T. Hincks. — On Campy- 
onema a new genus of Polyzoa. Dr. A . Giinther. — Notice of some species cf fishes 
from the Philippine Islands. E. Blyth. — On the species of Asiatic two-horned Rhino- 



2fi Library. [Jan. 

Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. No. 9. 1871-1872. 
J. Vian. — Causeries ornifchologiques. Dr. Bousseaume. — E'tudes des genres Teino- 
stoma, Cyclostrema et Sk&nea (mollusques). If. Tournier. — Catalogue des Longicorcies 
recoltes par M. Th. Deyrolle en Imiretie, Mingrelie et Georgie. Dr. Dours. — Hyme- 
nopteres nouveaux du bassin mediterraneen. 

Revvie des deux Moudes, ler Novembre, 1872. 
M. Maxime du Camp. — Les Alienes a Paris — II — Les Asiles, La Surete a Bicetre. 
Journal Des Savants, Octobre, 1872. 

Be Qwatrefages. — Les races de 1' archipel Indien. J. Bertrand. — Theorie mathe- 
matique de 1' electricite. Didaurier. — Historiens anciens et modernes de l'Armenie. 

The Indian Annals of Medical Science. No. 30. 1873. 
The Calcutta Review. No. 111. January 1873. 
Revue Archeologique, October, 1872. 
E. von Harold's Coleopterologische Hefte. VIII. 



-. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OP THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For February, 1873. 



The Annual meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, the 5th of 
February, 1873, at 9 o'clock p. m. 

T. Oldham, Esq., LL. D., President, in the chair. 

According to the Bye-Laws of the Society, the President ordered voting 
papers to be distributed for the election of Officers and Members of Council 
for 1873, and appointed Mr. F. W. Peterson and Dr, Waldie, scrutineers. 

The President then called upon the Secretary to read the Annual 
Report. 

Annual Report for 1872. 

In presenting the Annual Report for 1872, the Council, while regretting 
that the financial resources of the Society have not increased so much as 
could have been wished, have, however, the satisfaction of congratulating 
it on an undiminished career of usefulness as evinced by the amount of its 
publications and the number of admissions of new members. 

At the close of 1871, there were 446 Ordinary members, of these 286 
were paying (112 being resident in Calcutta and 174 in the mofussil) and 
160 absent from India. 

During the year under review 32 new members have been elected, but 
only 25 of these have paid in their admission fees, and have been entered 
in the member list, whilst the Society has sustained a loss of 28 Ordinary 
members, viz., 18 by resignation, 2 by cancelling and 8 by death. 



28 Annua/ Report. [Fkb. 

The total number of Ordinary members at the close of 1872 is thus 
shewn to be 443, or three members less than at the end of the previous year. 
But in the member list for 1872, published with the Proceedings for 
February last, the names of five gentlemen* were retained although they 
had not till then paid in their admission fees ; and according to rule 
5 of the Bye-laws their election has become null and void. 

The actual total for the year is thus reduced to 438. Of which number 
277 are paying members, (105 resident in Calcutta, 172 in the mofussil,) 159 
are absent from India and 2 are life members, thus showing a sensible decrease 
in the number of paying members. 

The following table exhibits the mimber of paying and absent members 
for the last 10 years. 



Year. 




P 


aying 


Absent. 


Total 




Resident. 


Non-Resident. 






1863 


276 


(130, 


146) 


79 


355 


1864 


228 


(133, 


195) 


92 


320 


1865 


267 


(136, 


131) 


109 


376 


1866 


293 


(124, 


169) 


94 


387 


1867 


307 


(154, 


153) 


109 


416 


1868 


294 


(159, 


135) 


133 


427 


1869 


304 


(162, 


142) 


138 


442 


1870 


266 


(134, 


132) 


148 


414 


1871 


286 


(112, 


174) 


160 


446 


1872 


277 


(172, 


105) 2L.M. 159 


438 



Two Honorary members were elected during the year, viz. Professors 
G-. B. Airy and T. Huxley. 

The Council regret to announce the deaths of C. Home, Esq., C. S. 
Rev. J. Roberts, W. Abbey, Esq., Dr. T. C. Jerdon. Hon'ble Sir D. P. 
Macleod, C. B., K. C. S. I. Captain A. B. Melville, J. W. Laidlay Esq., 
and Sir W. Denison, K. C. B., Ordinary members ; also of Dr. T. Goldstucker 
who was a corresponding member of the Society, and Col. W. H. Sykes F. R. S., 
an Honorary member. 

The Society had the misfortune to lose their late Patron, the Right 
Hon'ble, the Earl of Mayo, who was assassinated in March. On the arrival 
of H. E. the present Viceroy, Lord Northbrook, the vacant office was tendered 
to him and graciously accepted. 

Museiim. 

The Council continue to carry out the provisions of Act XYII of 1866 
and transfer all Natural History and Archaeological donations received by 
them to the Trustees, Indian Museum. A list of these donations is given in 
the Appendix to the Proceedings. 

* Raja Amir Husain Khan Bahadur, C. F. Bligh, Esq., C. F. Daukes, Esq., G. C. 
Farr, Esq., J. O'Kinealy, Esq. 



1873.] Annual Report. 29 

The Trustees on the part of the Society were Mr. W. S. Atkinson, Mr. 
H. F. Blanford, Dr. F. Stoliczka and Col. J. E. Gastrell, who is to hold 
the office during the period the Superintendent of the Geological Survey 
continues President of the Society. 

Finance. 

The actual total receipt hy subscriptions from members during the year 
under review amounts to Rs. 7,551, against Rs. 8,516 of the previous year. 
The amount due from members on account of subscriptions is Rs. 5,685 
against Rs. 5,200 of the previous year and the Council would again earnestly 
urge on members the importance of punctual payments of their subscription, 
and the early paying up of all arrears. 

The following table exhibits an abstract of the accounts for 1872. 
Actual Income durtng 1872. 

Subscriptions, Rs. 7,551 

Admission fees, 768 

Publications, 1,276 8 9 

Library, 277 2 

Secretary's office, 19 11 

Vested Fund, 108 11 

Sundries, 718 14 3 

Rs. 10,750 2 

Balance in the Bank of Bengal, 2,236 5 7 

Cash in hand, 216 11 3 

Rs. 13,203 5 10 

EXPENDITURE DURING 1872. 

Publications, Rs. 6,703 8 2 

Library, 1,311 4 3 

Secretary's office, 2,520 1 

Vested Fund, 14 

Building, 853 7 3 

Coin Fund, 135 11 

Sundries, 731 10 3 

Balance in the Bank of Bengal, 767 9 4 

Cash in hand, _ 113 15 2. 



Rs. 13,203 5 10 



30 



Annual Report. 



[Feb. 



The expenditure for 1872 has slightly exceeded the estimate, but has been 
considerably in excess of the income as will be seen from the following table. 





Income. 


Expenditure. 




Estimate. 


Actual, 1872. 


Estimate. 


Actual. 




8,500 

1,000 

1,500 

250 







800 












7,571 

768 

1,276 8 9 

257 2 



19 11 



793 5 3 





5,000 

2,150 

100 

3,000 

1,000 

800 

































*6,703 8 2 




tl,344 4 3 
135 11 




2,520 1 




853 7 3 




709 8 3 






Rs.... 


12,050 





10,685 11 


12,050 








12,266 7 



The following is the estimated income and expenditure for 1873. 
Estimated Income foe 1873. 

Subscriptions, Es. 7,500 

Admission Fees, 750 

Publications, 1,200 

Library, 250 

Sundries, 750 

Coin Fund, Secretary's office, Building, 

Es. 10,450 

Estimated Expenditure. 

Subscriptions, Es. 

Publications, 3,050 

Secretary's office, 2,600 

Sundries, 800 

Building, 1,000 

Coin Fund, 

Library 3,000 

Es. 10,450 



* For further particulars see Appendix (1). 

f This does not represent the actual cost of the Library for the year. It is for 
keeping the Library establishment and for binding books, but the greater portion of the 
periodicals are lying unbound for want of sufficient funds. The cost of books purchased 
from Messrs. Williams and Norgate and Triibner is represented under liabilities. 



1S73.] Annual Report. 31 

Library. 

The Library received, in 1872 an addition of 859 volumes or parts of 
volumes. The greater portion of this addition is made up by donations 
from the Government and by exchanges with other Societies. 

In order to increase the usefulness of the library lists, the Council have 
directed that an abstract of the titles of articles in the various journals and 
other works received by the Society, likely to be of interest to the members 
of the Society, may be printed in the Proceedings. 

The collection of MSS. received an addition of 101 Sanskrit MSS. pur- 
chased by Babu Rajendralala Mitra and 4 MSS. copied for the Society. 

The Photographic Album of the Society has received 2 photographs of 
Lushai arms and utensils from the Surveyor General's Office. 

The English Agency of the Society has been transferred to Messrs. 
Triibner and Co. in place of Messrs. Williams and Norgate. 

The want of proper accommodation for the Society's Library continues to 
be very severely felt and the Council fear that under the present state of things 
it will be in vain to hope for any increase in its prosperity or in the enlarge- 
ment of its scope of usefulness. In reply to the application to Government 
for the sum of Rs. 400 monthly to cover the rent of the Society's house during 
the occupation of the present Building by the Indian Museum, the Society 
has been informed that the matter is under the consideration of Govern- 
ment, but it is confidently hoped that a favourable reply will soon be 
received. 

Coin Cabinet. 

During the year 19 silver, several Bactrian copper coins and 8 tin coins 
have been received as donations from members of the Society and others. 
29 silver Bactrian coins have been purchased at Rs. 110 by the Society. 

Journal. 

About 400 pages of the Journal, Part I, have been printed during the year, 
and- they have been illustrated by 16 lithographic plates. 300 pages of Part 
II have been published with 11 plates, and 212 pages of the Proceedings 
with 3 plates. The size of the Journal has been increased and the addi- 
tional cost of the change has added considerably to the expenses under this 
head. 

Bibliotheca Indiea. 

The Council have the pleasure to announce that the progress made in 
the publication of Oriental works during the past year has been in every 
respect satisfactoiy. The work done comprises 18 fasciculi of Sanskrit works, 
6 fasciculi of Persian works (including a double number) and 3 fasciculi of 
translations from the Persian. 



32 Annual Report. [Feb. 

Sanskrit. 

The eighteen fasciculi of the Sanscrit Series comprise portions of eleven 
different works ; four relating to the Sama Veda, three to the Yajur Veda, 
two to the Atharva Veda, and one each to the Smriti and Chhandas. 

Professor Mahesachandra Nayayaratna has completed the 4th volume 
of the Sanhita of the Black Yajur Veda, and is now employed on the iifth. 
The work comprises eight books, of which the first was edited by the late 
Dr. Koer, the second by Professor Cowell, and the major portion of the 
third by the late Pandit Rama Narayana Vidyaratna, on whose death the 
present editor took the work in hand. The last three books are short, and 
it is expected that one volume more will complete the undertaking. 

Babu Rajendralala Mitra has brought to a conclusion his edition of 
the Taittiriya A'ranyaka, on which he had been engaged for the last seven 
or eight years. It extends to 928 pages of text, 77 pages of Introduction, 
and 56 pages of a Table of Contents. The Introduction gives a complete 
analysis of the work in English, and the table of contents notices the subjects 
of the mantras seriatim. 

The Gropatha Brahmana of the Atharva Veda, which was originally 
undertaken by the late Pandit Harachandra Vidya Bhushana, and on his 
death made over to Babu Rijendralala Mitra, has also been completed. Tha 
editor has added to it an introduction in which the native characters and 
contents of the treatise have been described at length. The Babu has like- 
wise completed his edition of the Pratisakhya of the Black Yajur Veda. An 
English translation of the work by Professor Whitney having already 
appeared, it has not been deemed expedient to attach to this edition an 
Analysis in English. 

The Srauta Sutra of Satyayana has likewise been completed, and its 
editor Pandit Anandachandra Vedanta Vagisa is now engaged on the last 
fasciculus of the Tandya Brahmana of the Sama Veda, which, it is expected, 
will be completed in a short time. 

The Society's edition of the Pingila Chanddra Sutra and of the 
Atharva Upanishad of which one and two fasciculi, respectively, have been 
published, are also in a forward state, and will be brought to a conclusion 
during the current year. 

The same cannot, however, be said of the Sama Veda Sanhita and of 
Chaturvarga Chintamani of Himadri. Of the former, altogether five fasciculi 
have been published, and this brings up the work to the middle of the 3rd 
chapter, or about one-fifth of the whole. The task is a difficult and trouble- 
some one, and several years must elapse before it will be brought to a con- 
clusion. Of the latter, the first out of its four parts will be completed during 
the current year. 



1S73.] Annual Report. 33 

It lias been observed by some European scholars that the works under- 
taken by the Society are not rapidly brought to a conclusion, and the great 
delay which has taken place in the printing of some of the works, to a cer- 
tain extent, justified the complaint. But the voluminous nature of those 
works and the little time which can be devoted to their printing by the several 
editors engaged, who have all onerous official duties to discharge, render it 
impossible to press on our publications faster. The necessity of undertaking 
several works at the same time also apparently swells the list of incomplete 
works. Mutations in Indian society, so much more rapid than in Europe, 
and death, have likewise had much to do in checking progress ; but on the 
whole, the Council is satisfied that, bearing in mind the large number of 
works which are in the press, and the limited resources at command, the 
Bibliotheca is progressing as rapidly as could be expected. 

Persian Series. 

Of the Persian series, Mr. H. Blochmann has issued two fasciculi of 
the text of the Kin i Akbari (Fasc. XIV and XV). Fasc. XV completes the 
text of vol. I (600 quarto pages), and contains the first portion of an Index 
of about 4,500 geographical names of Upper India. About three fasciculi 
more will complete the text edition. He has also issued one fasciculus of 
the translation (Fasc. VI). 

Maulawi Zulfaqar 'All has issued three numbers of the Farhang i 
Rashidi. The first volume of this critical dictionary of the Persian language 
is now completed. 

Maulawi 'Abdurrahirn, of the Calcutta Madrasah, has issued a full index 
of names of persons and geographical names occurring in the Society's edition 
of the Padishahnamah. The index fills a double number, and renders, in the 
absence of a translation, the large work on Shahjahan's reign more accessible. 
No work will in future be issued without carefully prepared indexes, and 
steps have been taken to prepare indexes to works issued in former years. 
The index to the 'Alamgirnamah by Maulawi 'Abdul Hai is about to be issued, 
three forms only being wanting. Maulawi Agha Ahmad Ali has his index 
to the Maasir i 'Alamgiri in press. Maulawi 'Abdurrahirn has commenced 
the index to Khafi Khan. 

Two new works of importance have been commenced during last year, 
the text edition of the Akbarnamah, and the English translation of the 
Tabaqat i Naciri. 

The Akbarnamah by Abulfazl is the greatest historical work that 
India has produced. It consists of three volumes, the first of which 
treats of the Timurides, up to the death of Humayun ; the second 
volume contains the most detailed account of Akbar's reign till 1011, A. H., 
when Abulfazl, at Jahangir's instigation, was murdered by Raja Bir Singh 
Bundela of U 'rehab ; and the third volume is the Ain i Akbari. The edition 



34 Annual Report. [Feb. 

will also include the continuation of the Akbarnamah hy 'lnayatullah Muhibb 
Ali from the time of Abulfazl's death till the end of Akbar's reign (1014). 
Maulawi Agha Ahmad 'Ali of the Calcutta Madrasah has been appointed to 
edit the work, which will be issued in the same size and type as Mr. Bloch- 
mann's Ain. Two fasciculi have been printed. The edition is based upon 
nine MSS., belonging to the Society, the Fort William College, the Delhi 
MSS., and Maulawi Kabiruddin Ahmad. 

The other new work is the translation by Major H. Gr. Raverty of the 
Tabaqat i Naqiri. This work is being printed in England by Major Raverty 
himself. Two fasciculi were printed during the last year, and a portion of 
them will within a short time be received for distribution in this country. 
Major Raverty has sent the following report on the progress of his works. 

' I have much pleasure in stating, for the information of the Council of 
the Society, the progress I have made in translating the Tabaqat i Nacirn 
and other matters connected therewith. 

' When I first offered a translation to the Society, as stated in my letter 
on the subject, I intended merely to have made a fair copy of a translation 
I had made of the portions relating to India, in connection with my own 
particular studies in Muhammadan and Indian History, which I have been 
engaged in for the last eight or ten years — from the Society's printed 
edition of the text, edited by Lieut.-Col. W. N. Lees, LL. D. and his 
Maulawis, and a MS. in the India Office Library, which MS. and that be- 
longing to the Royal Asiatic Society appear to have been the copies from 
which the printed text was taken, which printed text, in many places, is 
unintelligible, and does not correspond with those MSS. 

' Having, subsequently, discovered a very old copy of tke text, and 
seemingly far more reliable, although defective at the end, and like all MSS- 
more or less defective in a few other places, on comparing it with the other 
named above, I found such considerable and important differences to exist 
between them, that I determined — even without " training a staff" for the 
purpose — to go over the whole translation again. 

' Our friend, Mr. Arthur Grote, to whom I am greatly indebted for assis- 
tance in many ways, also advised that I should avail myself of any other 
copies of the text that might be procurable. 

' In the preface to the printed text, the editor remarks — " When I com- 
menced the work, we had three copies [of the Persian text], one belonging 
to the Royal Asiatic Society, one in the India House Library, and one to the 
High Priest of the Parsis at Bombay. A little while afterwards, Colonel 
Hamilton, in reply to a circular of the Society, forwarded a copy from 
Dehli. These MSS. are all apparently good old copies, and are written in 
very different hands. It was supposed, then, that we had four distinct 
copies to collate ; but before long, it became apparent that the four had 



1873.] Annual Report. 35 

been copied from two MSS., so, in reality, we had only two * * * The 
Society had issued hundreds of circulars 'to all parts of India, and had failed 
to draw out more than two copies ; and the fact that the four old copies I 
had, had been copied from two MSS. seemed to indicate so clearly the 
great scarcity of MSS. of this work, that I decided to go on." 

' The editor's remarks are perfectly correct with regard to the India 
Office Library MS. and the Royal Asiatic Society MS. ; for the mistakes 
contained in the former, are repeated in the latter exactly, even where two 
or three pages of the history of Mas'ud of Ghaznin are inserted in the 
account of the Saljuqs. 

' Mr. Morley also mentions the Tabaqat as " a work of rare occur- 
rence ;" but, however scarce in India, it is not so in Europe. 

' On instituting inquiry, I found the Bodleian Library possessed one 
copy, and that there were two others in the British Museum. These were not 
to be procured on loan, and there was no other course for me to adopt than 
to proceed to Oxford and to London, to collate them, although I somewhat 
doubted whether it would be well to put the Society to the expense attending 
these journeys ; but Mr. Grote strongly advised me to do so. I first collated 
the Bodleian MS., a tolerably good copy, from Section VII, where I com- 
mence my translation, to the end of the work, line for line, and word for 
word. This completed, I went to London and collated the British Museum 
copies — one, a very good one : the other, ordinary — in the same manner, and 
completed that task also. Altogether these labours occupied six weeks • 
and I regret to say that my sight has suffered in consequence. 

' Having done this, I set to work ; and six of the sheets were put in 
type, when our energetic friend, Mr. Grote, obtained the Hamilton MS. 
which copy of the text the Earl of Crawfurd and Balcarres was so very kind 
as to place at our disposal for six months ; and, although it is not a very 
good copy, and defective at the end, it has been very useful. In the mean- 
time, we had endeavoured to obtain the loan of two copies in the Paris 
Library, as it was impossible for me to go there to collate them ; but after 
considerable delay, the favour was refused, on the plea that one was an 
autograph of the author's, and, therefore, could not be lent, and, that it 
would not be advisable to lend works of the kind to be taken out of Europe ! 
I shall have something to say respecting this " autograph" hereafter, as I 
think I can put my hand upon three or four " autographs," equally authen- 
tic. I have had no difficulty, however, in obtaining collations, from those 
MSS., of passages which were at all doubtful, through the great kindness 
of M. Garcin de Tassy and M. Zotenberg. I find that they are, by no 
means, the most correct copies, and that even the " autograph" contains 
similar blunders to those of the India Office Library, and the Royal Asiatic 
Society's MSS., and likewise, the very great blunder of the author, which 



36 Annual Report. [Feb. 

occurs in every copy collated, which I have noticed at pages 160 and 165 
of my translation. 

' At this time also, I heard from His Excellency State Counsellor Von 
Dorn, that the Imperial Public Library of St. Petersburg contained a copy 
of the text, and the Imperial Academy of Sciences, two copies ; and, that, 
without doubt, I could obtain them on loan. I applied to His Grace, the 
Secretary of State for India for aid, which was graciously granted ; and, 
through Lord Augustus Loftus, British Ambassador at the Russian Court, 
the Imperial Russian Government, in its proverbially enlightened man- 
ner, at once, most graciously, complied with my request ; and the three 
MSS. were, without delay, placed at my disposal, the first for three and the 
last for four months. 

' The Imperial Public Library MS., from all appearances, is, probahly, 
even more ancient than the copy I have referred to in the third para, of this 
communication, for it is written in the style Mullas generally write, 
although correctly written. The dais are marked with a diacritical point, 
and other letters are written in a peculiar manner denoting considerable 
antiquity. If either copy has a claim to be considered an " autograph," 
this is the one hest entitled to it ; hut I am sorry to say that it 
wants great part of Section XVII, and all the succeeding Sections. One of 
the Imperial Academy's copies is a modern one, comparatively, hut still 
exceedingly useful ; but the other, only a little defective in one or two 
places, and at the end of the last Section, is an exceedingly good one, and 
is also of considerable antiquity. 

' Having heen so fortunate as to ohtain these MSS., I determined to 
make the most of them, and also of Lord Crawfurd's MS., and laying aside 
the translation for a time, I collated these four copies, word for word, with 
the printed text [a specimen, after collation, 1 have sent to Mr. Grote to 
look at] ; and with constant application, I completed that laborious task, 
and returned the MSS. within a day of the prescribed time. 

' I found such difference to exist between the two best Petersburg copies, 
and the others, that I deemed it my duty not to have the proofs struck off, 
until I had made the corrections and emendations, which, as shown by them, 
were absolutely necessary : hence the extra cost of corrections for the first 
six sheets of the translation, which the Honorary Secretary has noticed in 
his letter, N"o. 365 of November 8th, 1872. This extra cost, I regret ; but, 
I hope I shall be considered justified in adopting the course mentioned. 

' As to the printed text I must say, with regret, hut conscientiously, 
that it is almost useless : there is scarcely a correct page in the book. But, 
when I consider that it was taken from two very incorrect copies of the 
original, it is not to be wondered at, and it was impossible it could be other- 



1873.] Annual Report. 37 

wise. Even as it is, after collating so many copies, the editing and reprint- 
ing of a correct text would be, by no means, a light or an easy task. 

' It will be observed that I have commenced the translation from Sec- 
tion VII., and from that Section, it will embrace the whole work. The 
first six contain — I, an account of the Prophets, Patriarchs, etc., the ancestors 
of Muhammad, and his life ; II., III., IV., the history of the Khalifahs ; and 
VI., the kings of Yam an. All these are of very little importance. The Vth 
Section is somewhat more important, and relates the history of the early 
Persian kings, but also contains so many errors, that a volume might be 
filled with notes to_correct and explain it, and, therefore, I determined to 
omit it. I can give a brief resume of the contents of those Sections to pre- 
cede Section VII, on completing the translation. 

' My references to Elliot's India are not directed, of course, to the whole 
of that work, but, merely to those portions of the Tabaqat i Naciri contained 
in it, which appear to have been taken chiefly from the printed text, and con- 
sequently very considerable differences will be found to exist between that 
translation and mine, which I have endeavoured to make available for the 
general reader, and not for scholars alone. 

' I do nOt expect there will be many typographical errors — even of a 
minor nature — but of such as may be found to have crept in, I will, on com- 
pletion of the work, give a list, with the Index and title page. 

The long and unctuous adulations addressed to, and the constant prayers 
offered for, the " Sultan of the Sultans of both Turk and 'Ajam," to whom the 
author dedicated his work, have been generally omitted or greatly reduced, 
and some of the introductions to Sections also, which are in a similar style, 
have been cut short, but in all other' cases, I have not " compressed" the 
translation in the least degree, and I may say that I have weighed every 
word and sentence, and have omitted nothing, not even the poetical quota- 
tions. I may have to compress some of the longer poetical extracts, if of no 
particular merit or interest, but not otherwise. 

' I have noticed a very remarkable difference in the mode of expression 
in scores of places — the signification the same, but so very differently ex- 
pressed — so much so, indeed, as to give one the idea that the Persian text 
must be a translation from another language. I have only space to men- 
tion this briefly now, but hope to do so in my prefatory remarks to the 
whole work, when complete. 

' Although the notes are numerous, and some somewhat long, I think 
it will be found that they were necessary to correct the author's incorrect 
statements, and the serious blunders he often makes. I may truly say 
I have neither spared time nor labour, in endeavouring to make the trans- 
lation acceptable to the Society and the public. 

' I cannot close this report without referring, briefly, to the kindness 



38 Annual Report. [Feb. 

and assistance I have hitherto received from various scholars ; and trust, 
when my labours shall have been brought to a close, to acknowledge them 
more particularly, and in suitable terms.' 

The following are the names of the Sanskrit works issued during the 
last year — 

The Sanhitd of Black Yajur Veda, toith the Commentary of Mddhava 
Acharya, edited by Pandit Mahesa Chandra Nyayaratna, Nos. 229 and 230. 
Fasc. XXV and XXVI. 

The Soma Veda Sanhita, toith the Commentary of Say ana Acharya, 
edited by Satyavrata Samasrami, Nos. 244 and 251, Fasc. IV and V. 

The Chaturvarga Chintamani by Hcmadri, edited by Professor Bharata- 
chandra S'iromani, Nos. 245, 257 and 262, Fasc. IV— VI. 

The Gobhilya Grihya Sutra tvith a Commentary by the Editor, edited 
by Pandit Chandrakanta Tarkalankar, No. 241, Fasc. III. 

The Goputha Brdhmana of the Atharva Veda, edited by Babu Rajen- 
dralala Mitra, No. 252, Fasc. II. 

The Atharvana Upanishads with the Commentary of Ndrdyana, edited 
by Ramamaya Tarkalankara, Nos. 219 and 265, Fasc. I and II. 

The Taittirya Pratisakhya with the Commentary entitled Tribhdshya- 
ratna, edited by Babu Rajendralala Mitra, Nos. 253 and 259, Fasc. II 
and III. 

The Tandc/a Mahdbrdhmana toith the Commentary of Sayana Acharya, 
edited by Pandit A'nandachandra Vedantavagis'a, Nos. 251 and 256, Fasc. 
XVII and XVIII. 

The Ghhandas Sutra ofPinyala Acharya toith the Commentary of Hala- 
yudha, edited by Pandit Vis'vanatha Sastri, No. 258, Fasc. II. 

The Srauta Sutra of Ldtydna with the Commentary of Agni Svami 
edited by Pandit A'nandachandra Vedantavagis'a, No. 260, Fasc. IX. 

The Taittirya Aranyaka of the Black Yajur Veda with the Commen- 
tary of Sayana Acharya, edited by Babu Rajendralala Mitra, No. 263, 
Fasc. XL 

The following are the Persian works issued during the last year — 
The Am i Akbari by Abul Fazl i Mubarak i 'Alldmi, edited by H. 
Blochmann, M. A., Nos. 248 and 264, Fasc. XIV and XV (partly index). 

The Farhang i Basludi by Mulld Abdur Rashid of Tattah, edited and 
annotated by Maulawi Zulfaqar 'Ali, Nos. 250 a 255 and 266, Fasc. VI— VIII. 
The Index to the Pddishdnamdh by Maulawi 'Abdur Rahim, No. 261 
(double number). 

Translations, 
The Ain i Akbari of Abul Fazl i 'Alldmi, translated in English by 
H. Blochmann, M. A., No. 247, Fasc. VI. 



1873.] Annual Report. 39 

The Talnqdt i Naciri of Sirajuddin Ifinhdj, translated into English 
by Major H. G. Raverty (printed in England) Fasc. I and II. 

Officers. 

The duties of the Secretaries were performed by Dr. F. Stoliczka and 
Mr. Blochmann till June, when Captain J. Waterhouse was appointed Gener- 
al Secretary and has since that time edited the Proceedings, conjointly with 
Dr. Stoliczka and Mr. Blochmann, who have retained charge of the Natural 
History and Philological parts of the Journal respectively. 

The office of Financial Secretary and Treasurer was held by Col. J. 
F. Tennant till the month of February when Col. Gastrell resumed charge 
of it. 

The Council have again much pleasure in recording their satisfaction 
with the good services of the Assistant Secretary, Babu Pratapchandra 
Ghosha, B. A., they have also favourably reported on the work done by Babu 
Manila! Baisak, Assistant Librarian, Sayyid Waliullah, store-keeper, and 
Babu Buddinath Baishak, Cashier. 

List of Societies and other Institutions with which exchanges of 

publications have been made dubing 1872. 
Batavia : — Societe des Sciences des Inderlandes. 
Berlin : — Royal Academy. 

Birmingham : — Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 
Bombay : — Royal Asiatic Society. 
Boston : — Natural History Society. 
Bordeaux : — Bordeaux Academy. 
Buenos Ayres :— Public Museum. 

Bruxelles : — Academie Roy ale des Sciences, &c, de Belgique. 
Cherbourg : — Societe Imperiale des Sciences Naturelles. 
Calcutta : — Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India. 

: — Tattvavodhini Sabha. 

: — Geological Survey of India. 

Christiania : — University. 
Dacca : — Dacca News and Planters' Journal. 
Dera : — Great Trigonometrical Survey. 
Dublin : — Royal Irish Academy. 

: — Natural History Society. 

Edinburgh : — Royal Society. 

Lahore : — Agricultural Society of the Panjab. 

Leipzig : — Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesellschaft. 

Liege : — Societe Royale des Sciences. 

London : — Royal Society. 

• : — Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 



40 



Annual Report. 



[Feb. 



London : — Royal Institution. 

-London Institution of Civil Engineers. 
: — Royal Geographical Society. 
: — Museum of Practical Geology. 

-Zoological Society. 

-Statistical Society. 
: — Geological Society. 

-Linnean Society. 

-Athenaeum. 

-Anthropological Society. 

■ : — Nature. 

: — Royal Astronomical Society. 

Lyons : — Agricultural Society. 

Moscow : — Societe des Naturalistes. 

Munich : — Royal Academy. 

Madras : — Government Central Museum. 

Manchester : — Literary and Philosophical Society. 

New York : — Commissioners of the Department of Agriculture. 

New Haven : — Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Netherlands : — Royal Society. 

Paris : — Ethnographical Society. 

■ : — Geographical Society. 

: — Asiatic Society. 

Stettin : — Entomological Society. 
St. Petersburg : — Imperial Academy of Sciences. 
Stockholm : — Royal Academy of Sciences. 
Vienna : — Imperial Academy of Sciences. 

-Anthropological Society. 

-Zoological and Botanical Society. 

-Imperial Geological Institute. 



Washington : — Smithsonian Institution. 



On the motion of the President, the report was unanimously adopted. 
The scrutineers then announced the elections of Officers and Members 
of the Council for 1873, as follows : 

T. Oldham, Esq., LL. D., President. 

Babu Rajendralala Mitra. -\ 

TheHon'bleE. C. Bayley, C. S., C. S. I. C Vice-Presidents. 

The Hon'ble J. B. Phear. ) 

Dr. F. Stoliczka. -^ 

H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A. 

Captain J. Waterhouse. 

Col. J. E. Gastrell. 



Secretaries and Treasurer. 



1873.] 



Annual Report. 



41 



Babu Rajendralala Mitra. 

The Hon'ble Sir K. Couch, Kt. 

T. Oldham, Esq., LL. D. 

Dr. F. Stoliczka. 

H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A. 

The Hon'ble J. B. Phear. 

Col. H. L. Thuillier, R. A., C. S. I. 

J. Wood-Mason, Esq. 

Captain J. Waterhouse. 

Col. H. Hyde, B. E. 

The Hon'ble E. C. Bayley, C. S., C. S. I. 

Rajah Jotendramohan Tagore. 

W. L. Heeley, Esq., C. S. 

L. Schwendler, Esq. 

Col. J. E. Gastrell. 



> Members of Council. 



Colonel Thuillier said — " With reference to the Annual Report which we 
have just heard read, I think it will be apparent to the meeting, that the 
Society is greatly indebted to our worthy office-bearers, the Secretaries 
and Treasurer, who have so persistently devoted their time and talents to 
the interests of the Society. Whether we look at the remarkable punctuality 
with which the Journal of the Society is published, or consider the various 
ways in which the Secretaries maintain the reputation of the Society, and the 
Treasurer our financial interests, our warmest thanks are eminently due to 
these gentlemen. 

" It is right to remind the meeting that the sole reason of Captain Water- 
house being appointed General Secretary was to relieve Messrs Blochmann 
and Stoliczka of some part of their various duties, at their own special re- 
quest, in order that they might be better able and have more time to attend 
to their respective departments in the Philological and Natural History 
branches, which they still so admirably fill. By the valuable assistance of my 
excellent friend, Captain Waterhouse, I have no doubt the various duties of 
editing the Journal and other matters connected with the Society will 
be even better performed than heretofore. 

I have therefore great pleasure in proposing a cordial vote of thanks 
to Messrs. Blochmann, Stoliczka, and Captain Waterhouse, the Secretaries, 
and Col. Gastrell, Treasurer." 

The proposal was seconded by Dr. Waldie and carried unanimously. 

The following gentlemen were elected to audit the accounts for 1872 : 
Messrs. L. Schwendler and F. W. Peterson. 



The President then read the following address, 



44 President's Address. [Feb. 

enlarge upon their own contributions to such collections, to depreciate the 
value of the Asiatic Society's collections. But I speak with a full knowledge 
of the feeling of true naturalists, and true palaeontologists, when I say that 
such a storehouse of the accumulated facts of generations, such an accumula- 
tion of original species, of the absolute labours of the great workers in the 
Natural Sciences, was simply invaluable. 

Gentlemen, I have dwelt upon this subject, although for many rea- 
sons I would have greatly preferred to pass it over in silence, because I 
have been made aware that a most erroneous, and strangely erroneous, idea 
prevails in certain places, that the Government of the country contri- 
butes largely towards the Asiatic Society's support. It is needless to tell 
you, as the members of the Society, that this is not so ; that we do not in 
fact receive one single pice of the public money as income of the Society, 
and have not for many years past. We acknowledge with thankfulness 
the liberality with which on some oocasions, when special wants were re- 
presented, the Government have aided the Society, but none of these have 
occurred for years past. We acknowledge that for years when unwilling 
to adopt other and better means of exhibiting to the people of this 
country the resources of the land in which they dwelt, the Government main- 
tained, at a rate of remuneration on which a decent clerk in an office would 
be supposed to starve, a Curator to take charge of collections to which the 
Society gave, free of all charges, room for exhibition and study, and also 
contributed the same small stipend to the support of a man of wide Euro- 
pean reputation, and who had devoted a lifetime to the Natural History of 
the country. But contributions to the Society, for the objects of the Society 
proper, there have been none. 

A sum of 6,000 Rs. per annum is now passed through the hands of 
the Society as Trustees for the publication and issue of the Bibliotheca In- 
dica, a noble and invaluable series of the standard vernacular literature of 
the country ; and one which well repays the limited outlay of 600£ a year. 
But the grant of this sum gives not one pice to the Society. It gives 
a very large amount of trouble, anxiety and responsibility, which are vo- 
luntarily borne by the Philological Committee and Council of the Society, 
rewarded only by the consciousness that they are doing good. But as I 
have said, not one fraction of this grant goes to the Society. The accounts 
are kept most strictly separate, as any one oan satisfy himself by a mere 
reference to the accounts of the Society. 

I refer also to this for another reason because I find in some Statis- 
tical returns of Educational and Scientific institutions recently issued by the 

Government of Bengal, the Asiatic Society is set down as possessed of an 
< endowment' of 190 Rs. per year. Now the facts of this were fully 

explained to the compiler of the tables, and I cannot understand how with 



1873.] Presidents Address. 45 

these facts before him, this statement should have been allowed to go to 
the public. This so-called endowment, gentlemen, is the interest on a few 
thousand rupees which the Society itself has invested in the funds of the 
country, the result chiefly of accumulated entrance fees of its members. 
It is just as clearly a part of the ordinary income of the Society as is the 
subscription which I, as an ordinary member, am called upon to pay annually, 
and can be dealt with by the Council in exactly the same way. It would 
indeed be well for the Society if it had an endowment even of small 
limits. And we shall feel indebted to the author of the tables or any 
one else, if he will establish such an endowment. But when such does 
not exist, the statement of it is likely to lead to serious misapprehension 
of the position of the Society. 

We rest, therefore, in the perfect confidence that the just and un- 
doubted claim of the Society for remuneration for the heavy damages in- 
flicted on the Society by the continued occupation of their premises and 
the consecment depreciation of their property, — in addition to the injury done 
by keeping the Societ}' in a position in which it can hope for few addi- 
tions to its numbers, and can offer but little advantages to its working 
members, — that this claim will be acknowledged without further demand, and 
that the Society will be freed from the heavy incubus under which it now 
rests.* 

During the year, the Society has lost by death eight ordinary, one hono- 
rary and one corresponding member. Among these were some distinguished 
in the ranks of science, and long supporters of our Society. 

The year had scarcely opened, when we were, in common with every 
well-wisher of the country, stunned by the fearfully sudden and awful death 
of the Viceroy, our Patron. It was not within the scope of the Asiatic 
Society's objects to discuss the many political questions which had more 
immediately engaged Lord Mayo's attention, but we could not fail to ap- 
preciate the earnest and thorough heartiness of Earl Mayo's character, or 
to feel profound regret at his being cut off in the very height of a success- 
ful career by the hands of an assassin. 

Lord Northbrook, his successor, has been pleased to accept the office 
of Patron of the Society, left vacant by Lord Mayo's death. 

* It is with the sincerest pleasure, that I am able to stop the printing off of 
these pages, and announce that the Government of India have, after careful consi- 
deration, acceded in full to the claims of the Society. This is peculiarly gratifying, 
to the Council of the Society, who have found themselves in the painful position of 
apparent opposition to the Government of the country, while, after the calmest and 
most unpi*ejudiced consideration they could give to the subject, they found their 
convictions of the justice of their claims so strong that they were unable to retreat one 
single step. They feel, therefore, most thankful that any further difference of opinion 
has been thus removed. 



Jo* President's Address. [ Feb. 

In Dr. Jerdoa, tlie Society has lost an old and well-tried friend and 
fellow-labourer. It is now more than thirty years since his ' Catalogue of the 
birds of the Peninsula' was published in the Madras Journal for 1S39. And 
the numerous papers which he has since published in that Journal and in the 
Journal of our own Society shew that his interest in this subject had never 
ceased. His ' Illustrations of Indian Ornithology' was among the earliest at- 
tempts at proper coloured figures of Indian Birds. His labours may be said 
to have culminated in his well known and oft quoted ' Manual of the 
Birds of India,' followed by his ' Game Birds of India.' Even after he had re- 
tired from active service, and left the country, his first desire was to publish a 
supplement to this valuable work, which he largely succeeded in doing by a 
series of papers in the ' Ibis.' Indeed it is a proof of how entirely his heart 
was wrapped up in the subject, that he was talking with his friend, Drescher, 
of the ' Birds of India' until within a few hours of his decease, not conscious 
of the danger that was impending over him. 

Nor did he, while thus devoting his attention chiefly to birds, neglect 
the other classes of Vertebrata. He had conceived the noble idea of furnish- 
ing students of Indian Natural History with monographs of each of these classes, 
which he accomplished so far as the Mammalia were concerned. Reptiles 
also had engaged his earnest attention for years, and were the subject of an 
active and extensive correspondence with Gray, with Cantor, and Blyth. Our 
Journal contains a catalogue of the Reptiles of the Peninsula of India, which 
shews how desirous he was to attain accuracy in his determinations, and since 
the publication of the Mammalia and Birds he had been most assiduously 
collecting Reptiles, and indeed the first portion of his monograph on the 
Reptiles of India was actually printed. I should notice also his very valu- 
able catalogue of Fishes, in the Madras Journal, while in a different branch 
of Natural History entirely, his descriptive account of the Indian Ants is one 
of the best yet published. He had contributed to Benson and Blanford 
many shells described by those writers, while many entomologists in India 
can point with satisfaction to valued specimens of beetles and butterflies for 
which they had been indebted to Jerdon's liberality. To all this range of 
natural knowledge he added a wide accmaintance with Botany and the plants 
of India, especially the ferns. 

Most of this work had been accomplished while Jerdon was in active ser- 
vice with his regiment, and dependent on his own resources for books, speci- 
mens, &c. for comparison. Gifted with remarkable powers of conversation, 
and with his memory richly stored with anecdotes of others, and observations 
of his own, he was a charming companion, while his untiring energy, and 
keen sense of personal enjoyment, were absolutely infectious. 

Jerdon has left behind him an immense store of valuable notes, and of 
coloured sketches from life, which we hope and trust may still be utilized. 



1873.] President's Address. 47 

With less originality perhaps than either Blyth or Bryan Hodgson, he has yet 
done more than any other individual for the Natural History of India, hy 
his valuable Manuals. And it is much to be wished that the series may be 
completed and brought up to date by some of his successors. Dr. Jerdon 
was an officer of the Madras army, and although in the course of his mili- 
tary service he had visited parts of Central India, it was not till late in his 
career that he had an opportunity of visiting and enjoying the glorious 
scenery of the Himalaya, which he did with a peculiar freshness and keen- 
ness of delight. 

Sir Donald McLeod was one of the oldest members of the Society. 
He joined our ranks in 1837, more than the third of a century since, and 
since that, has been an un deviating friend and supporter of the Society, tak- 
ing the liveliest interest in every step that marked its progress, or that 
tended to improve our knowledge of the peoples of this country and their his- 
tory. He was not an active contributor to our Journal, but was always an 
earnest supporter of science, and an able and disinterested adviser on all 
points. Of unbounded hospitality, which was exercised with a simplicity of 
courteousness and thoughtful kindness, which led all to look to him as a 
friend, of the widest and purest sympathies, Sir Donald McLeod possessed 
the singular power of attaching to himself all with whom he came in con- 
tact ; a power, which gave him a command over his fellow men, due rather to 
the influence of his individual character than to the grasp or power of his 
intellect. He was in fact a singularly loveable man, and will ever be re- 
membered by those among whom he lived so long, and over whom he had 
exercised a benevolent sway for years, as a friend and benefactor. The Society 
will feel his loss as an earnest and enlightened promoter of sound education. 

During the year we have also lost in Mr. C. Home, C. S., a valued con- 
tributor of several Archaeological papers to our Journal. He came to India 
at the age of 20 in 1843, and finally returned to England in 1869. He had 
been a member of this Society since 1863 up to the time of his death last 
year. 

Colonel Sykes, whose connection with Inctia dated almost from the very 
commencement of the century, had ever been an earnest cultivator of the 
Natural Sciences, and as Director of the East India Company a steady and 
warm supporter of every effort to promote the welfare of this empire. He 
had contributed to various journals many very excellent papers on the Geo- 
logy, Ornithology and Meteorology of India. 

From among our corresponding members, one name of high note has 
been removed by death. Theodore Goldstiicker, who died in Marcli 1872, at 
the early age of 51, was a native of Konigsberg. He commenced the study 
of the Sanskrit under Professor von Bohlen, at an early age. He also studied 
the Hegelian philosophy under Rosenkranz. At Bonn, he continued his 



48 President's Address. [Feb. 

studies under Schlegel and Lassen. His first publication was the Prabodha 
Chandrodaya, which appeared in 1812. He proceeded to Paris from Bonn 
and then became a pupil of Eugene Burnouf, and later he paid a short visit 
to England. In 1859 he was invited by Professor Wilson to come again to 
England and assist in the preparation of a new edition of his Sanskrit dic- 
tionary. He undertook the revision, but under his hands it became so vast 
an undertaking that only six fasciculi, containing the greater portion of the 
first letter, were published. A few years after his arrival in England, he was 
appointed Professor of Sanskrit at University College, London. In 1861, 
he published his essay on Panini, as introductory to a facsimile edition of the 
Manava Kalpa Sutra. He also carried through the press for the Indian 
Government a photo-lithographic facsimile of the Mahabhashya which is 
nearly complete. 

Dr. Groldstucker was elected a corresponding member of this Society 
in 1863. 

A general review of the work done by the Society during the year will 
I think show that there has been no diminution of zeal, no want of earnest 
and thoughtful work. 

The issue of the Bibliotheca Indica, which the Society have voluntarily 
undertaken to edit on behalf of the Government which supplies the neces- 
sary funds, has, on the whole, progressed very satisfactorily. I feel bound 
to allude to this subject rather more pointedly than otherwise I should feel 
justified in doing, because during the year some critical remarks have 
issued from the pen of one at least of the ablest orientalists of Europe. Prof. 
Weber in a review of the labours of the Society in connection with the Biblio- 
theca Indica, as extending from 1865 to 1870, acknowledges in a hearty man- 
ner the judicious selection of works for publication, and fully admits that 
the several editors, principally native scholars, have truly performed all that 
could have been at all expected from them. In truth, Professor Weber speaks 
only in terms of praise and approval, of the works selected and the mode in 
which they have been edited. But his objections are based, I may say almost 
solely, on the delays which have occurred in the issue of successive parts or 
fasciculi of various works which extend over many pages. Now, no one can 
be more thoroughly alive to the force of this objection than the Philological 
Committee of the Society, under whose special charge these publications are. 
But I fear Professor Weber's experience of the conditions of literary work 
of this kind in Europe, and in the midst of the learned centres of literary 
activity, where he resides, scarcely enables him to realize the almost unspeak- 
able difficulties which accompany the effort here. There is not among the 
long list of editors of our Bibliotheca, one single person who has not heavy 
and continuous official duties to perform which occupy by far the larger 
portion of his time, and which give none of that literary ease, so essential to 



1873.] President's Address. 49 

the satisfactory pursuit of such studies. Heavy critical work requiring con- 
stant thought, and much accuracy of comparison can in this country only be 
taken up, after the mind and after the body too are fatigued and jaded. And 
the wonder really is, that so much can be done as has been, not that more has 
not been accomplished. And further, the conditions of society here which lead 
to much more rapid changes than elsewhere, tend to retard, if not altogether 
to interfere with or interrupt, the progress of such editions. In many cases, 
the editors who have commenced the publication of works in this valuable 
series, bave been carried off' by illness, and new editors had to be sought out. 
In some cases owing to these causes, successive portions of the same work have 
been entrusted to the care of three and four different scholars. Every such 
change inevitably involves delay. Time is required to seek out a new editor ; 
he must fully acquaint himself with what has been done and what he is to 
continue and so months, and even years, pass over before the work can be 
satisfactorily resumed. I know of one case in our experience in which with 
all possible anxiety to publish as quickly as possible one of the most valuable 
remains in Hindi, the negotiation for editing the work has extended over 
years and nothing definite is, I believe, yet adopted. 

But further, owing to the necessary delay in the transmission of these 
fasciculi to places in Europe, Dr. Weber, in common with others, complains 
of the irregularity with which the fasciculi are received. This is a grievance 
under which we suffer in this country quite as much as European scholars 
can possibly do. The delays in the transmission of books are most vexatious 
and destructive to progress. But unquestionably these are not chargeable 
to the Society, for every care is taken to despatch as quickly as practicable 
the successive fasciculi. 

Of the several works noticed as still incomplete the past twelve months 
have seen the conclusion of some. The Taittiriya A'ranyaka, on which Babu 
Bajendralala Mitra has been engaged for the last seven or eight years has 
been completed, forming a volume in all of considerably more than 1000 pages ! 
It is accompanied by a complete analysis of the work in English, and a valu- 
able table of contents. The Gopatha Brahmana has also been completed by 
the same editor after it had been in the hands of another scholar, whose 
death interrupted his labours. In this also, an introduction is given describ- 
ing at length the nature, character, and contents of the work. Another work 
of high value completed during the year has been the Pratis'akhya of the 
Black Yajur Veda. For this, the preparation of an analysis in English was 
considered unnecessary, as Professor Whitney had aheady published a trans- 
lation. 

The S 'rauta Sutra of Lathyana has likewise been completed, and the learn- 
ed Pundit who has edited it, gives promise of the Tandya Brahmana of the 
Sama Veda, which he has undertaken. It is hoped, with some confidence, 



50 President's Address. [Fkb. 

that the Atharvaaa Upaaishad, and the Pingala Chhanda Sutra, will both 
be completed in the current year. 

The fourth volume of the Saahita of the Black Yajur Veda, has also been 
completed, and the fifth is in hand. Of the eight books constituting the work, 
the three which now remain are short, and another volume will probably suffice 
to complete the whole. We are more disposed to feel gratified at having 
been able to advance this important work, so far as it has proceeded, under the 
difficulties attendant on its publication, than to be dissatisfied with the 
time occupied. The first book was edited by the late Dr. Boer, the second by 
Professor Cowell who then left this country, and the greater portion of the 
third by Pandit Ramanaryaaa Vidyaratna, and, on his death, it was taken 
up by the present editor, Professor Mahesachandra Nayaratna. 

It will not be necessary to vindicate the Society from charges of delay 
and neglect with regard to its Arabic and Persian issues which are acknow- 
ledged to be progressing with favourable speed, and to contain the most 
valuable historical works known to exist. And the principle on which the 
Society has acted of confining then.' publications to works bearing on India 
meets full approbation. 

In connection with these subjects, I would myself as one not having 
the slightest pretension to such a knowledge of oriental languages as would 
justify my offering an opinion on the style in which these various works 
have been issued, express the gratification which I feel at finding scholars 
like Professor Weber, admitting fully the value of the series, and acknow- 
ledging the ability with which they have been conducted. But I would go 
further and venture to urge on those learned scholars who are so actively en- 
gaged in these pursuits, and who have b^ea for years earnestly and actively 
eadeavouriag to make known to the world the rich stores of literary wealth 
which this country offers for utilization, whether the publication of trans- 
lations into English accompanied by notes illustrating from other sources the 
text of their authors, would not gain for them a far wider and more numer- 
ous audience, and would not tend to advance very importantly the knowledge 
of their authors by bringing to their illustration the varied acquirements of 
others. 

As aa instance of how mach knowledge can be brought to bear upon a 
single text, of what a flood of light can be thrown upon a single phrase even, 
I would ask any one to study Yule's marvellous edition of Marco Polo, which 
though not issued within the year under review may serve as an instance 
of what one would desire to see done, in a very minor degree, towards the 
illustration of some of the great aatioaal works the text of which is givea ia 
the Bibliotheca Indica. I am aot saaguiae eaough to hope that maay, if 
iadeed any, ma}*- be fouad who could briag to their subject such a varied range 
of reading, so large and almost unlimited a stock of acquired, and still more 



1873.] President's Address. 51 

Wonderfully systematized, facts, such quaint and curious illustration derived 
from the most unexpected sources, and yet most aptly and charmingly brought 
to use. Nor can it he, that many will be found capable of conveying all this 
information with such a charming simplicity of language or with such a force 
and power of description, that fragmentary as the whole is, one is unable to 
lay down the book when once commenced. But much would undoubtedly be 
gained, while more information than can be obtained elsewhere would be 
made accessible to all. 

In connection with this subject, I am myself aware that for many years 
our able Secretary Mr. Blochmann has been bringing together from every 
source opened up to him in the course of his extended study, a complete 
index to all geographical names mentioned in these oriental works. This 
' Index Geographicus,' will be — if it ever see the light as we hope, and trust it 
will, — a glorious mine of knowledge charged with ore of the richest quality, 
and of the brightest and purest kind, and will really throw more light upon the 
changes, historical and political, dynastic and geographical, which have passed 
over this land, than any single collection that I can think of. Col. Yule has 
I rejoice to say undertaken to prepare for publication, and has far advanced in 
the work, a Manual of the Geography of India, which I have no doubt will 
contribute very largely to our acquaintance with the subject. He has indeed 
during the past year, given us a foretaste of the pleasure we are certain to 
derive from his labours, by a most masterly essay, introductory to the new edi- 
tion of the travels of Captain Wood to the souree of the Oxus. I would gladly 
dwell on this subject for a little. The district calls up every fanciful picture 
of Eden which may have joyed our childhood, and here we find all primeval 
tradition combining with all modern theory and knowledge, pointing out the 
cradle of our race, and the site of the Adamic Paradise, while its past history 
is interwoven with that of all the great Asiatic conquerors, and its coming 
history ' looms on the horizon rife with all the possibilities suggested by its 
position on the rapidly narrowing border-land between two great empires, 
one of them our own. ' 

But the wide range of the subject, and the value of Col. Yule's exhaus- 
tive interpretation of all available evidence bearing on it, would take up 
far more time than can now be spared. I would, however, commend this 
essay ' On the geography and history of the regions in the upper waters of 
the Oxus,' to every one who takes an interest in the early history of the 
country and of the many changes which have passed over it. 

In connection with these publications of the Society and others, we may 
perhaps take a glance at some other publications bearing on the Archaeolo- 
gy of India. The Journal of the Society for the past year will be found rich 
in such information. We have descriptions of the antiquities of Barantpur, 
Bindrabun, Gokul, Benares, Jaunpvir, Bengal and parts of Orissa. And 



52 President's Address. [Feb. 

Jjefore all others, the masterly account of Bihar by Mr. Broadley, contain- 
ing a mass of accurate description and information, the result of most zea- 
lously conducted researches and excavations. During the year also we have 
had the reports of General Cunningham, the Archaeological Surveyor, detail- 
ing his researches during the seasons of 1862 to 1865 and affording a rich 
treasure of historical and other information regarding the districts visited, 
Behar, Gya, Tirhoot, &c, with a full discussion of the accounts of FaHian and 
Hwen Thsang. The second year was devoted to Delhi, Mathura, Kanauj, Alla- 
habad, Ajudhya, &c. The third year's report takes up the Punjab and its 
ethnology and antiquities, while the fourth discusses the history of Jaipur, 
Ajmere, Gwalior, &c. A portion of these reports originally appeared in the 
Journal of this Society, but without the many and valuable illustrative plans 
and drawings which now accompany them. The work, in two goodly-sized 
volumes of more than 500 pages each, forms a convincing proof of the justice 
and wisdom of Lord Canning in first appointing General Cunningham to this 
task, and shews too what an almost exhaustless supply of valuable informa- 
tion bearing on the history, the architecture, the dynastic divisions and the 
geographical features of the country yet remains to be worked out. There 
is no question that many of the views put forth will be subject to modifica- 
tion and change as knowledge increases or more extended research is made. 
But this is the case in every such enquiry and in no way detracts from the 
value of these interesting reports. 

Another work published, or at least received in India, during the year 
treats of another and very interesting part of the archaeology of the country. 
The rites of sepulture, the curiously varied and complicated ceremonies ob- 
served by some people, and the simpler ritual which marks the proceedings of 
others give a special interest to all remains of the ruder monuments which 
in many countries mark the localities where the great dead have been interred, 
or their ashes entombed. Mr. Ferguson, to whom Indian archaeology is so 
largely indebted, has given us a very full and satisfactory account of these rude 
stone monuments in all countries and among others in India. The portion of 
his work bearing on India, is by no means so full or satisfactory as other 
parts. But seriously deficient as it is, it gives an approximation to the state 
of knowledge on the subject, which will be of vast use. Indeed the real 
value of all such general treatises consists in this, that they indicate the boun- 
dary between the known and the unknown, and enable students to start from 
the advanced posts of existing knowledge without wasting time in preliminary 
investigation, or going over ground which had been fairly examined before ; 
and in this point of view, such works as Ferguson's are of high value. But 
the very facility which they give ought to lead to early refutation or con- 
firmation of their statements. Such sweeping assertions as that these rude 
stone monuments do not exist in the valley of the Ganges or any of its tribu- 



1873.] President's Address. 53 

taries, could be so readily disproved, (and indeed it lias been) tbat tliere is no 
excuse for allowing it to remain before tbe world as a statement of facts. But 
I would hope for much more than this, and ask every one who has an oppor- 
tunity of seeing such monuments to figui'e them and give a careful description 
of them, so that not only their mere existence, but all their peculiarities may 
be known. 

Another work on Indian Ethnology and the habits and customs of the 
races inhabiting Bengal as the province is known now, which appeared during 
the year, is the splendid volume of Dalton's descriptive Ethnology. This was 
brought out at the cost of the Bengal Government, under the immediate 
supervision of the Council of this Society, and it is certainly one of the most 
admirably illustrated, as well as printed, books yet issued from Calcutta 
presses. But it has higher claims on attention than the mere get-up of the 
book. Col. Dalton has here given not only the information which he was 
able to obtain from others, but has told us in plain nervous language, and 
with a keen appreciation of humour throughout, his own experience with 
the wild tribes and peoples among whom his long service in India has almost 
exclusively been passed, and who have learned to know him so well, and 
knowing him to trust him so implicitly, tbat they who would flee in terror 
from other white faces come to him as an intimate friend and play with him 
as a loving child would with a revered parent. Indeed one of the great 
charms of the book is the insight you get into the true basis of those rela- 
tionships of intercourse and friendship which have existed for years between 
the writer and ' his children.' 

Descriptions ranging over such a wide circle of races could not be 
anticipated to be equally detailed or equally accurate in all. But if blemishes 
occur I hesitate not to say that those who read Col. Dalton's descriptions will 
rise from their perusal with enlarged information, and with matured sympa- 
thies. I would even suggest to the author whether he would not think of 
publishing a smaller and cheaper edition, taking advantage of any additional 
information which may have cropped up since, and using fewer illustrations 
thus rendering the work accessible to a much larger circle of readers. I must 
add that great credit is due to the Government of Bengal for the liberality 
with which it has enabled so nobly illustrated a volume in the ethnology 
of its provinces to be published. 

In addition to the truly valuable series of descriptive papers on the an- 
tiquities and history of vaiious places in India, we have in the Journal for 
the past year some curious coins illustrated, and notably a fine series of inscrip- 
tions of various dates, from some nearly five centuries old, down to last cen- 
tury and many throwing rich light on historical facts. It is hoped that 
this valuable series of the inscriptions may be continued, for General Cun- 
ningham has placed in our Secretary's hand, for decipherment and publication, 



54 President's Address. [Feb. 

all his unequalled collection of these records. It may be noticed as a curious 
illustration of the value of such, even when apparently so placed that they 
must be tolerably known, that an inscription, which records a king in Bengal 
hitherto entirely unknown, was brought from the well known town of Kalnah 
on the Hooghly, where it must have been seen by thousands of visitors, none 
of whom ever thought of deciphering or taking a rubbing of the inscription ! 
A rich store of facts, both historical and chronological, will doubtless be 
opened up by the careful examination of such inscriptions, and in no one's 
hands could the task have been placed with higher prospects of success than 
hi those of Mr. Blochmann. 

Under the garb of a small School Manual published by the School 
Book Society, Mr. Blochmann has also given to the public one of the best 
and most complete Manuals of the Geography and geographical statistics of 
India, which has yet appeared. The information is derived from the most 
recent sources, and is not a mere reprint or compilation of the obsolete state- 
ments of Thornton and others, and in the small space of a little pocket volume, 
it contains an immense amount of condensed information bearing on the 
area, position, population, antiquities, history and general relations of all the 
divisions of the country. 

If we turn our attention now to the division of our sciences represented 
by the second part of the Journal, I am justly able to congratulate the 
Society on a most fruitful and successful year. Dr. Day has continued his 
admirable Catalogue of the Indian Cyprinidae, of which this year has given 
us three fasciculi. He has also described the fish collected in Kach'h by 
Dr. Stoliczka and discussed the relation of some of the genera of the 
Siluroid group. 

The Mollusca of India have been illustrated by an excellent monograph 
of the Indian Clausiliae by Mr. W. Blanford and Dr. Stoliczka. The land 
shells of Penang, and of Burma and Arrakan, have been well illustrated 
and described. 

Dr. Dobson has continued his able and careful researches on the Bats 
of India and adjoining countries, describing several new and most important 
forms. I greatly wish we could hope to see from Dr. Dobson's accurate pen, 
a well illustrated monograph of Indian Bats. He must have already brought 
together nearly all the facts requisite for such a detailed catalogue, and the 
needful illustrations could readily be obtained in this country. I have no 
doubt that such a work would at once meet with all the support requisite 
to secure its success. There is a vast amount of information bearing on the 
Natural History of India already published, but published in such a scat- 
tered way, single papers here and there, in different journals and in different 
languages, that ordinary students, under the conditions of Indian life, have 



1873.] President's Address. 55 

no possible means of knowing what lias has been done, or what is already 
well known. Hence the supreme value of such monographs, compiled by 
those who have made a special study of the different groups and brought 
their knowledge up to date. No question such monographs would very 
rapidly require additions and call for alterations. Indeed this is the very 
result which would be sought by their publication, the bringing in new facts 
and exciting wider attention to the investigation. But this would not detract 
from their value, as statements of knowledge acquired up to a certain date, 
and as affording a safe and carefully determined point of departure, from, 
which future enquirers might start on their voyage of discovery. 

The contributions of our able Secretary, Dr. Stoliczka, are valuable as 
usual. Besides his molluscan papers to which I have just alluded, we have 
a remarkably interesting and valuable paper on the Mammals and Birds 
inhabiting Kutch, — an admirable type of what the study of local faunaj is 
capable of yielding. He has also given some valuable notes on new or little 
known Lizards, and on Indian Batrachia ; these papers on Kutch reptiles 
and Sind reptiles are sufficiently illustrated, and together constitute a range 
of additions to our knowledge of the Natural History of the country of 
the highest value and greatest scientific importance. 

Ornithology has added to its store in the papers by Mr. Brookes on the 
Birds of Cashmir, and his brief notes on the Eagles, and Swans, &c. Mr. 
Hume has given a short critical notice of some Burmese birds ; Major Godwin- 
Austen a third list of birds found in the Kasia and G-aro hills, while Mr. W. 
Blanford has described and beautifully illustrated the birds of Sikkim. He 
has also given in the Journal the last part of a very interesting and charm- 
ing account of his trip to the borders of Thibet in the Sikkim country, 
devoted entirely to the geological portion of his enquiries. 

But while this summary will give sufficient evidence that the study of 
Natural History has lost none of its absorbing interest, and that the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal has fully and nobly maintained its grand traditional posi- 
tion as the repository of most of the advances made in these enquiries in this 
country, we can also congratulate you, gentlemen, that activity has been 
shown in other directions also, and outside our ranks. There is at last a fair 
prospect of the ' Flora Indica,' commenced many years since by Drs. Hooker 
and Thomson, being carried out under Dr. Hooker's guidance, and we are 
delighted to welcome it as a great, and at the same time necessary, contribution 
to our means of progress. The ' Flora Sylvatica' of Beddome also progresses 
soundly : the ' Conchologica Indica' of Hanley and Theobald, a work which, 
with all its very serious shortcomings, will be of great utility and value — still 
finds support and appears with regularity, while during the year we have had 
to welcome a new candidate for this support in an Indian magazine devoted 
to Ornithology. We could have wished that the author had completed the 



56 President's Address. [Feb. 

several works which he had already commenced, rather than started a new 
publication. But we heartily welcome at the same time the issue of ' Stray 
Feathers.' It promises to he a useful catalogue of the Editor's very nohle 
collection of Indian Birds, and a means of rapid publication of novelties or 
corrections, always of much value with ornithologists. 

During the year also a very admirably illustrated work on the deadly 
Snakes of India has been issued at the cost of Government. The beautiful 
plates which are given with Dr. Fayrer's treatise on the Thanatophidia must 
always command attention and recommend the work, while unfortunately 
they also add so very seriously to the cost of the book as entirely to preclude 
the chance of its ever getting into the hands of any but the wealthy. The 
work too does not pretend to be more than a practical statement of facts con- 
cerning these dangerous enemies to human existence in the country. It has 
no scientific novelties or discoveries to render it important as a work of 
reference in libraries, while as we have said it is locked up from the general 
public to whom it might be useful by the extreme cost. Could not all the 
information be given in a far more accessible form and at a very trifling 
cost ? 

Other matters of high interest have been brought before the public, 
though not immediately through the Society. One of the most important 
and probably fruitful discoveries of modern years in Physiology has 
appeared in the modest form of an appendix to the eighth report of 
the Sanitary Commissioner with the Government of India. This is the 
discovery by Dr. Lewis of a Haematozoon, inhabiting the human blood, 
and certainly accompanying, and in all probability causing, peculiar con- 
ditions of the secretions, frequently rapidly fatal and always exceedingly 
injurious to health. This is scarcely the place to discuss the details of such 
a discovery which, bringing into notice a diseased condition hitherto totally 
unknown, and in all probability opening the road to further discoveries 
regarding obscure diseases, especially affecting countries situated as we here 
are within the tropics, opens up an entirely new but most important 
enquiry. 

The careful researches of Dr. Lewis associated with his able colleague 
Dr. Cunningham into the history and concomitant conditions of chole- 
raic affections, must be well known to most of our members. And I have 
no hesitation in saying that the last contribution of these gentlemen 
published in the same report I have alluded to, adds largely to the mass 
of facts, bearing on this, to India, all important subject. The accuracy with 
which every appearance is sifted, and the evidence investigated, before it be 
admitted as a fact, and the fulness of the information sought and obtained, 
will render the entire series of these admirably conceived and executed 
microscopical enquiries, altogether essential to the study of this malignant 



1873.] President's Address. 57 

disease, the cause of which is still so obscure and unknown. And I would 
add also, will form a very excellent contrast to the carelessly arranged and 
hastily admitted, or even distorted, evidence, which has more than once been 
adduced in support of some favourite hypothesis as to the mode of propaga- 
tion of this disease. 

Dr. Lewis has also given the results of a careful investigation of the 
condition of cysted meat, such as is frequently to be met within the bazar. 
And perhaps it may comfort many, who may have been alarmed by ideas of 
disease to be communicated by eating such food, to know that he has con- 
clusively shewn that such living organisms are entirely killed, if the meat 
containing them, be subjected for even five minutes to a temperature of 
no less than 145° Faht. Rarely indeed are human beings found so 
cannibal in their tastes, that their cooked food has not been subjected to 
this condition of temperature, and therefore rarely indeed can there be any 
fears of such diseased condition of the tissues being conveyed into our system. 
It is also a gratifying result of Dr. Lewis's enquiry, to notice the very 
rare occurrence of diseased meat of this kind, among the rations provided 
for our troops in this country. 

Though special in their application I cannot avoid bringing to your 
notice the extremely valuable series of volumes, prepared by my friend and col- 
league in the Geological Survey, Dr. Stoliczka, descriptive of the cretaceous 
fossils of South India. These volumes form an invaluable record descriptive 
of one of the finest and most extensive collections from a single formation 
and a single district, which has ever been brought together, and have been 
prepared with a fulness of illustration and a widely embracing accuracy of 
description which render them essential to the Palaeontologist, and almost 
equally essential to the recent Conchologist. We desire to acknowledge the 
liberality with which the Government of the country has provided the funds 
necessary to enable us to double the quantity issued in the year of this series 
descriptive of Indian Fossils, and we rejoice the more in this, because we 
read it as a convincing testimony that the loving labours of my colleague, 
Stoliczka, are really appreciated. I who can speak from experience of his 
unfailing energy, of his untiring research and marked accuracy, and of his 
wide range of knowledge of all the bearings of his subject, know full well 
the immense labour which these works represent, the high scientific value of 
that labour, and the great interest which they have excited among the 
Palaeontologists of Europe. But more than all this I know too, and 
appreciate fully, the unswerving loyalty to his task, which the author has 
invariably shewn, and the undeviating conscientiousness and devotion which 
he has brought to bear on its accomplishment. Not only do we feel the 
high claims that Dr. Stoliczka has to rank among the very first of living 
molluscan Palaeontologists, but personally I would testify also to the claims 



5S President's Address. [Feb. 

which he has established to be viewed as one of our very best friends and 
advisers, as well our ablest colleague. We have been making great efforts 
to complete the entire series of these cretaceous fossils which will form 
four very large volumes, convinced that they will be the very best proof of 
the ability of the author that can be submitted to the world of science at 
Vienna, as well as the noblest monument of his zeal and power. 

As speaking of the labour of the Geological survey I may here notice 
that we have been rewarded during the past year by one of the most impor- 
tant discoveries which stratigraphical palaeontology has made for several 
years. Dr. Waagen, whom ill-health has, I am sorry to say, driven to Europe 
again, has found true Ammonites in beds which from their other fossil contents 
will be unhesitatingly admitted as palaeozoic. There may be some slight 
question as to the exact horizon in the carboniferous series which these beds 
hold, or whether they may not to some extent represent the border land be- 
tween the carboniferous and permian, but Athyris Roissyri, A. suhtilita, Pro- 
ducta costata, &c. are species which will be at once admitted as carboniferous 
and these are the associates of the Ammonites. I had taken advantage of Dr. 
Waagen's wide knowledge of fossils and of their distribution in establishing a 
careful research into the stratigraphical relationships of the curiously dis- 
torted, and faulted rocks of the Salt-Range in the Panjab, from which some 
very interesting fossils had already been described by Koninck, Davidson, &c. 
and it was while so engaged that he was rewarded by this most important 
discovery. It would be passing into discussions rather too technical perhaps 
to enter here upon any consideration of how far this discovery is consistent 
with views based on the developmental theories now generally admitted 
in the explanation of the several homologies in such series as those acknow- 
ledged in the Cephalopoda. It will suffice to state that the fact of the occur- 
rence of a true Ammonite in unquestionably palaeozoic rocks is one calculated 
to excite as much surprise as did the announcement many years since of th e 
beautiful Ammonites (with Orthoceratites) found in the Triassic beds of 
Europe. The curious fossil, with some other of its associates, has been figured 
in the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. 

Viewed therefore as a whole, the year 1872 has not been unfruitful in 
natural history progress and a fair general activity in such pursuits has 
marked our Indian labours. 

Among the questions of cosmical interest which have excited the at- 
tention of the scientific world lately, none is of higher or wider importance 
than the transit of the Planet Venus across the disc of the sun, which is to 
take place in 187-1. For five years past, the attention of astronomers has 
been earnestly directed to preparation for the observations required. And 
every Government and people, deserving to be called enlightened, has aided in 
these combined operations. 



t 



1873.] President's Address. 59 

The last transit of Venus took place in 1760, more than a century 
since ; and it needs but little consideration of the immense improvements 
which have been made in the accuracy of construction of astronomical instru- 
ments, in the preparation of telescopes, and above all in the marvellously 
beautiful application of photography in self-recording instruments for such 
transient phenomena, to see that there is not only a well founded hope, 
but a certainty, that the determination of the elements of the vast calcula- 
tions to be based on the phenomena will be far more careful and more accu- 
rate than before. Fortunately also, another transit will recur within a short 
interval or in 1882, and with the experience gained in 187-1 and the extension 
of points of observation contemplated for 1882, we may I think confidently 
look forward to seeing that all-important determination of the distance of 
the earth from the sun established with extreme accuracy. On this, as is 
well known, depend all the dimensions of the solar system. The British 
Government have undertaken the provision of instruments and observers for 
five stations. These are selected with a special view to their value, as en- 
abling the best observations to be carried on. These five stations are, Oahu 
in the Sandwich Isles, Kerguelen Island in the Indian Ocean, Eodriguez a 
dependency of Mauritius, Auckland in New Zealand and Alexandria. Of 
the three first in the list, the longitude is to be determined accurately by a 
whole year's series of observations. Further, owing to the distance, the 
parties of observers must leave England more than six months before the time 
of transit. Instruments alone will cost considerably more than £10,000, 
conveyance, pay, sustenance as much more. This may seem a large sum, 
but as compared with the object in view, it is as nothing. The acquisition of 
knowledge of so much importance to all civilized nations, and the seizing 
on an opportunity of rare occurrence for fixing some of the most important 
astronomical and cosmical questions alone would have justified, nay would 
have demanded, the outlay of almost any sum. And I have no reason to 
doubt, that the answer to the suggestion to carry out this most important 
observation in a fitting manner from the head of the Treasury in Great 
Britain would have been precisely the same, ' they have no objection to offer 
to the expenditure, were the sum required ten times what it is.' 

In addition to the stations thus specially selected, the observatories of 
Melbourne, and Sydney, of the Cape of Good Hope, Madras and Bombay, will 
all be utilized. The whole sea board of the United States of America, and 
he Canadian localities will all be favourably situated for certain obser- 
vations and we may safely trust that the well known energy and zeal of our 
American brethren will not fail them here. To supplement the observations 
in the southern Hemisphere, by others in the northern, we must look to the 
Bussians who have in their widely spread territories many localities admir- 
ably adapted for such observations. For one special class of observations 



GO President's Address. [Feb. 

indeed, observations of the egress of the planet as retarded by parallax, these 
localities will be essential. But the well known skill of the Russian astro- 
nomers leads to the most implicit confidence that no portion of the required 
observations will be omitted in their hands. Such, gentlemen, are a few of 
the preparations which have been in progress for the observation of this rare 
phenomenon. And I am happy in now being able to announce to you 
that the Government of India have, on representations made to them of the 
value of a series of observations especially photographic in the clearer atmo- 
sphere of some high elevation in North India, at once sanctioned the necessary 
expenditure for instruments, and have telegraphed for their immediate pre- 
paration. 

In connection with this, the General Committee of the British Asso- 
ciation at their meeting in 1872, August last, requested the Council to take 
such steps as seemed desirable to urge the Indian Government to prepare 
these instruments, with the view of assisting in the Transit of Venus in 1874. 
And they added, — and to this I would ask your special attention — " and for 
the continuation of solar observations in India." 

It may perhaps appear to some that we have quite enough experience 
of solar effects in this country without establishing an observatory for the 
special study of such facts. The intimate connection of what we speak of 
as the weather with changes on the solar surface, the remarkable statements 
lately put forth apparently with good ground, that the cyclones of the Indian 
Ocean and its more southerly extensions are also connected with these changes, 
and the bold assertion of a belief, by Mr. Maury, whose opportunities for 
observation have been unequalled, that he is fully convinced that changes 
in the seasons can be foretold with the aid of a properly conducted and 
sufficiently wide system of observations, all these facts tend to show the vast 
interests involved and the high importance which naturally attaches to such 
observations. And we cannot but express an ardent hope, that it may 
commend itself to the Government of this country to maintain and render 
permanent the small establishment about to be fixed on some elevated spot 
for the observation of the transit of Venus, and so form one observatory to be 
maintained for a special object and with a view to a continuous and sus- 
tained system of observations of those peculiar phenomena. 

Col. Tennant, in submitting a brief statement of the advantages of such 
an observatory, has very justly insisted earnestly on the vast importance of 
determining beforehand the nature of the work to be done, and of carefully 
adhering to this system when once established. He pointedly refers to the 
glorious result of such a rigid adhesion to one object of work in the obser- 
vatory of Greenwich, established with a special view to perfecting the art of 
navigation. Since the days of Charles the Second, the efforts of the astrono- 
mers of Greenwich have been without cessation devote'd to building up what 



1873.] President's Address. 61 

Le Vender has called that ' prodigious series of observations,' which may be 
taken as the fundamental bases of the theory of the moon. For now all but 
two hundred years have their efforts been devoted to increase and to preserve 
these glorious records. And the practically beneficent result to all civilized 
nations, and more especially to those much interested in navigation, have 
been almost incalculable. 

I notice this point more prominently because I am thoroughly satisfied 
from experience now of many years in this country, that one of the great 
causes of the comparative failure of many well devised and for a time well 
carried out schemes of enquiry and observation has been this want of a 
maintenance of an established system fully thought out in the first instance 
and modified only so far as to improve and extend, without material alteration. 
This is unfortunately true of almost every department in this country. The 
agency is constantly changing and each successive occupant of a post thinks 
it incumbent on him to signalize his reign by some change, all the better 
if marked and defined. Another may succeed, and a certain amount of 
reversion to old systems be again introduced. But meanwhile half the value 
of the accumulated knowledge is gone, because it is not as it were referable 
to the same standard. This curious absence of any want of faith in the tra- 
ditional systems of operation which is to a large extent due to the rapid 
changes in the controlling elements in this country, and to the absence of 
those permanent officers, which in England are the mainspring of the ma- 
chinery, and maintain the works in steady operation, men who in the great 
offices at home are in reality those who keep the Government of the country 
going, forms a remarkable contrast to the perfection with which the mere 
paper records of former Governments are kept, records which however are 
with exceeding rarity, if ever, examined by new incumbents, until some 
difficult question be raised. 

But if a well designed system be once established with reference to 
such solar observations, and such studies of the motions of the satellites as 
Col. Tennant proposes, there can be very little doubt, that most valuable 
results will arise from a sustained systematic observation, which could never 
be expected from desultory action and interrupted system. 

And looking to the immense gain which would result from such an ob- 
servatory being at considerable elevation, above the mist and clouds which 
encumber the lower strata of the atmosphere in these countries there can be 
but little doubt that those results will be clearer and less obscure than could 
be the case at any lower elevation. 

It is hoped that the establishment of such an observatory might be 
made the means of instruction to many in practical astronomy, means at 
present entirely wanting in this country. That the people of this land can 
investigate such subjects with much success is well shown by the care and 



62 President's Address. [Feb. 

accuracy with which eclipses are calculated, while the visitor to Delhi or 
Benares will not have failed to he struck and deeply struck with the nohle 
remains of the observatories of old, and will have dwelt with grief on the 
decay of knowledge since the days when such wondrous erections w r ere not 
considered too costly or extensive for astronomical observations. Indeed it 
would seem that the maintenance of such observatories is one of those things 
which commend themselves to the wealthier natives of this land. And if 
trained observers, accustomed to work with the improved instruments of 
modern days, were available, I think we would be j ustified in anticipating 
that in many places such would be utilized ; and their results, guided into 
proper channels by advice and system, would prove most valuable adjuncts 
to any general system of investigation. It is certain, that the establishment 
of such an observatory does hold out hopes of a successful teaching of astro- 
nomy which have long been sought, but have never existed in this country. 
Another noble undertaking on the part of the British Government, in 
which Indian naturalists and geographers are deeply interested, is the ex- 
pedition of H. M. S. ' Challenger' for a three or four years' cruise, with a view 
to the investigation, by dredgings and other means, of the physical history of 
the bottom of the sea, its currents, its temperature, its depth. Looking to the 
wonderful results obtained by a similar expedition under the guidance of the 
veteran Agassiz round the south coast of America we are justified in anticipat- 
ing for the well organized and fully equipped expedition of the Challenger re- 
sults of the very highest importance to Natural History, to geology, and to 
physics. And we doubt not that these hopes will be fully verified. But we 
in India, are especially interested in this expedition, inasmuch as we are, as it 
appears to me, bound to make every effort to supplement the researches of th e 
Challenger, by similar investigations within our own waters. The Indian seas 
are not included, indeed have been excluded from the route adopted for the 
Challenger, and unless Indian naturalists can obtain the required information 
in other ways, there is no hope of obtaining it at all. A Committee of our 
Society has been organized for the purpose, as you are already aware ; the 
necessary funds for the purchase of instruments have been granted, and these 
instruments are in progress ; and it now only wants that a ship suited for the 
purpose may be placed at the disposal of the Committee, so that the work 
may be carried out. The ground to be examined is almost a virgin soil. There 
have not, that I am aware of, ever been any dredgings worth notice round our 
shores ; and even the recent littoral conchology of the Indian seas is very 
slightly known. An immense area of country is now formed of rocks of 
comparatively very recent formation round the coast of India, and it is simply 
impossible that the study of their rich molluscan fauna can ever be carried 
out effectively until the recent and living molluscs of the existing ocean are 
better known. 



1873.] President's Address. 63 

It may probably interest some who have not followed out the prepara- 
tion for these researches to mention briefly what has been done. The 
' Challenger' is a steam ship of nearly 1,500 tons burden. Her warlike arma- 
ments are removed as she is going essentially on a mission of peace. She 
carries no less than 600 gallons of alcohol, and 120,000 fathoms of line for 
soundings, with an ample supply of tubes and cups and vessels, all specially 
designed for bringing up the sand, mud, shells, &c. from the bottom of the 
ocean. A whole armoury of thermometers and other instruments, dredges, 
harpoons, cages for animals, Wardian cases for plants, &c, &c, accompany. 
In addition to the officers who have all been selected for then- special ac- 
quirements and who will carry on a complete series of magnetic observa- 
tions, there is Dr. Thomson who is at the head of the scientific part 
of the expedition ; Mr. Moseley and Dr. Von Seeben as naturalists ; Mr. 
Buchanan as chemist ; Mr. Wild, as artist, and a skilled photographer from 
the Koyal Engineers. The route is to be to Gibraltar and Madeira, thence 
across the Atlantic to Bermuda, east again to the Azores and Canaries ; west 
to Brazil, Trinidad, and then to the Cape of Good Hope. Thence she will 
proceed to Kerguelen Island, then to the Antartic ice regions, to Australia, 
Ne.w Zealand : then she will visit the Coral Islands, New Guinea, Torres 
Straits, Manilla and Japan. From Japan to Vancouver's Island and thence 
to Valparaiso, the Magellan Straits, Bio Janeiro, and England, where she is 
expected to arrive in lh76. 

Surely if such an undertaking can be accomplished in England, the 
great Government of India can carry out the comparatively petty labours 
which would be the lot of naturalists working up and down in Indian 
waters. 

*• Great pressure of other work, and I regret to say impaired health, have 
prevented my doing more than give you a very brief notice of some of 
the labours which have engaged the attention of the scientific world in In- 
dia during the past year. I must ask your indulgence for its many short- 
comings, and now conclude by thanking you very heartily for the kindly and 
ready support I have during the year invariably received from the mem- 
bers of the Society, and by wishing that the coming season may find the 
Society more prosperous and more successful. Experience of the past leaves 
no doubt as to the activity of its supporters in their various lines of research. 
We have only to trust that the needful funds may be available to enable their 
researches to be brought properly before the public. 



(52 President's Address. [Feb. 

accuracy with which eclipses are calculated, while the visitor to Delhi or 
Benares will not have failed to be struck and deeply struck with the nohle 
remains of the observatories of old, and will have dwelt with grief on the 
decay of knowledge since the days when such wondrous erections were not 
considered too costly or extensive for astronomical observations. Indeed it 
would seem that the maintenance of such observatories is one of those things 
which commend themselves to the wealthier natives of this land. And if 
trained observers, accustomed to work with "the improved instruments of 
modern days, were available, I think we would be justified in anticipating 
that in many places such would be utilized ; and their results, guided into 
proper channels by advice and system, would prove most valuable adjuncts 
to any general system of investigation. It is certain, that the establishment 
of such an observatory does hold out hopes of a successful teaching of astro- 
nomy which have long been sought, but have never existed in this country. 
Another noble undertaking on the part of the British Government, in 
which Indian naturalists and geographers are deeply interested, is the ex- 
pedition of H. M. S. ' Challenger' for a three or four years' cruise, with a view 
to the investigation, by dredgings and other means, of the physical history of 
the bottom of the sea, its currents, its temperature, its depth. Looking to the 
wonderful results obtained by a similar expedition under the guidance of the 
veteran Agassiz round the south coast of America we are justified in anticipat- 
ing for the well organized and fully equipped expedition of the Challenger re- 
sults of the very highest importance to Natural Histoiy, to geology, and to 
physics. And we doubt not that these hopes will be fully verified. But we 
in India, are especially interested in this expedition, inasmuch as we are, as it 
appears to me, bound to make every effort to supplement the researches of th e 
Challenger, by similar investigations within our own waters. The Indian seas 
are not included, indeed have been excluded from the route adopted for the 
Challenger, and unless Indian naturalists can obtain the required information 
in other ways, there is no hope of obtaining it at all. A Committee of our 
Society has been organized for the purpose, as you are already aware ; the 
necessary funds for the purchase of instruments have been granted, and these 
instruments are in progress ; and it now only wants that a ship suited for the 
purpose may be placed at the disposal of the Committee, so that the work 
may be carried out. The ground to be examined is almost a virgin soil. There 
have not, that I am aware of, ever been any dredgings worth notice round our 
shores ; and even the recent littoral conchology of the Indian seas is very 
slightly known. An immense area of country is now formed of rocks of 
comparatively very recent formation round the coast of India, and it is simply 
impossible that the study of their rich molluscan fauna can ever be carried 
out effectively until the recent and living molluscs of the existing ocean are 
better known. 



1873.] President's Address. 68 

It may probably interest some who bave not followed out tbe prepara- 
tion for these researches to mention briefly what has been done. The 
' Challenger' is a steam ship of nearly 1,500 tons burden. Her warlike arma- 
ments are removed as she is going essentially on a mission of peace. She 
carries no less than 600 gallons of alcohol, and 120,000 fathoms of line for 
soundings, with an ample supply of tubes and cups and vessels, all specially 
designed for bringing up the sand, mud, shells, &e. from the bottom of the 
ocean. A whole armoury of thermometers and other instruments, dredges, 
harpoons, cages for animals, Wardian cases for plants, &c, &c, accompany. 
In addition to the officers who have all been selected for their special ac- 
quirements and who will carry on a complete series of magnetic observa- 
tions, there is Dr. Thomson who is at the head of the scientific part 
of the expedition ; Mr. Moseley and Dr. Von Seeben as naturalists ; Mr. 
Buchanan as chemist ; Mr. Wild, as artist, and a skilled photographer from 
the Royal Engineers. The route is to be to Gibraltar and Madeira, thence 
across the Atlantic to Bermuda, east again to the Azores and Canaries ; west 
to Brazil, Trinidad, and then to the Cape of Good Hope. Thence she will 
proceed to.Iverguelen Island, then to the Antartic ice regions, to Australia, 
Nqw Zealand : then she will visit the Coral Islands, New Guinea, Torres 
Straits, Manilla and Japan. From Japan to Vancouver's Island and thence 
to Valparaiso, the Magellan Straits, Bio Janeiro, and England, where she is 
expected to arrive in lb76. 

Surely if such an undertaking can be accomplished in England, the 
great Government of India can carry out the comparatively petty labours 
which would be the lot of naturalists working up and down in Indian 
waters. 

* Great pressure of other work, and I regret to say impaired health, have 
prevented my doing more than give you a very brief notice of some of 
the labours which have engaged the attention of the scientific world in In- 
dia during the past year. I must ask your indulgence for its many short- 
comings, and now conclude by thanking you very heartily for the kindly and 
ready support I have during the year invariably received from the mem- 
bers of the Society, and by wishing that the coming season may find the 
Society more prosperous and more successful. Experience of the past leaves 
no doubt as to the activity of its supporters in their various lines of research. 
"We have only to trust that the needful funds may be available to enable their 
researches to be brought properly before the public. 



(34- Business of the Monthly Meetinrj. [Feb. 

The Meeting then resolved itself into an ordinary Monthly Meeting. 

T. Oldham, Esq., LL. D., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The receipt of the following presentations was announced. 

From the author, a copy of a Eeport on the Bladder Worms found in 
Beef and Pork, by T. R. Lewis, M. B. 

On a Haematozoon inhabiting Human Blood, by T. R. Lewis, M. B. 

A Report of Microscopical and Physiological researches into the nature 
of the Agents producing Cholera, by T. R. Lewis, M. B. and D. D. Cunning- 
ham, M. B. 

2. From the Chief Signal Officer. Washington, TJ. S., Three weather 
charts. 

3. From the author, a copy of a work entitled Sherpur Bivarana or an 
accoimt of the Sherpur Pargana, District Mymensing, hi Bengali, Part I. 
Descriptive Geography, by Harachandra Chaudhuri. 

4. From the Royal Society of Tasmania, copy of results of 5 years Me- 
teorological Observations for Hobart Town and of Practical Hints to Emi- 
grants intending to proceed to Tasmania with a full description of the several 
countries and their products, and a paper on local industries by E. C. Novv- 
ell, Esq. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at the last 
meeting were balloted for and elected ordinary members. 
R. R. Bayne, Esq. 
T. R. Lewis, Esq., M. B. 

The following are candidates for ballot at the nest meeting. 

A. Cappel, Esq., proposed by T. Oldham, Esq., LL. D., seconded by L. 
Schwendler, Esq. 

A. J. Hughes, Esq., C. E., proposed by J. Wood-Mason, Esq., seconded 
by G. Nevill, Esq. 

G. W. Barclay, Esq., proposed by H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A., seconded 
by W. L. Heeley, Esq., C. S. 

Babu Satyadayal Banerji, B. L., zemindar, proposed by Babu Rajendra- 
lala Mitra, seconded by H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A. 

The following gentlemen have intimated their desire to withdraw from 
the Society. 

J. H. Newman, Esq., M. D. 

J. C. Geddes, Esq., C. S., Puri. 

The election of Col. H. Drummond, R. E., is cancelled at his own request. 

Letters were read — 

1. From the Assistant Secretary to the Government of Bengal, forward- 



1873.] Earthquahe at Kamrup. G5 

ing copies of the following correspondence on the earthquake felt at Kamrup 
on the 19th December last. 

No. 268ST, dated Sibsagar, the 30th December, 1872. 

From — Colonel H. HoPKOfSON, Governor- General 's Agent, North-East 

Frontier, and Commissioner of Assam. 

To — The Officiating Secretary to the Government of Bengal, General 

Department. 

I have the honor to submit, for the information of Government, an 
extract from Major Lamb's diary of the 19th December, 1872, regarding an 
earthquake which occurred in the Kamrup district on that date. I have not 
heard of the earthquake from any other district, but it appears to have 
been felt here (Sibsagar) slightly, though I myself did not notice it. 

Extract from the diary of Major Lamb, Deputy Commissioner, Kamrup. 
Thursday, ldth December. — " On my way back to camp, just as I was 
emerging from the sal forest,* I heard a sound, which at first I took to be 
caused by the beating of a large number of dholes or tom-toms, in a village 
about a mile or more in front of me, a little to the west of north, but after 
listening for a couple of seconds the sound was evidently progressing rapidly 
southward, and towards the direction of my camp, which was a mile to the 
west of where I was at the time, and gradually changed into what one 
might imagine a strong current of electricity would produce in passing 
through the earth from pole to pole southwards, shaking and rattling rocks 
and dispersing fragments in its progress just below the surface of the ground, 
the huge boulders being hurled down some rocky incline and shaking the 
very foundations of the earth at each rebound, until at last the sounds 
became more indistinct and resembled the sound of heavily laden waggons, 
going with considerable rapidity over a rough hewn rocky road ; and passed 
off like distant thunder. There was no more possibility of mistaking the 
direction the sound came from and went in, than there would have been 
if I had heard only guns fired in two distant places, for each report was 
distinct, and as the sound passed along, it disturbed first some people in the 
direction of the village I alluded to, and they set up a shout, next a flock of 
paddy birds was scared and rose en masse, and still further south and west 
a herd of cows grazing, suddenly ran together and faced the jungle to the 
north for a few seconds, and then all turned round and commenced a regular 
stampede till brought up by a bheel. My turn came next, I was in my 
howdah and had a pad elephant with me, on which sat a forest ranger who 
went to show me the teak plantation and reserve. The animals put up their 
trunks and stood still for a few moments, but hearing the subterranean 
sounds approaching, both turned and evinced an unmistakable desire to 

* In niouzah Pantan. 



GG Major Gill — On Ilemadpauli Temples in W. Berar. [Feb. 

seek refuge in the forest which was within a hundred yards of us. The 
mahout on my elephant, hy pressing the point of a hit of bamhoo he 
had to drive the animal with against its forehead, persuaded him to believe 
that there was more to fear from the front than the rear, and so the animal 
stood grumbling till the tremulous motion of the earth subsided and the 
rumbling ceased. I saw the pad elephant just disappearing into the forest 
with his riders, and sent men after them to pick the unfortunates up, if 
they chanced to have been thrown off, and waited some time, but as they 
did not appear, I continued my course back to camp, and had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing the runaway bringing his riders along at full speed in the 
same direction when I was near my tent. Being on an elephant, I did not 
feel the motion of the ground nor did I perceive the trees move or the 
earth undulate, but the villagers I spoke to, seemed to think it was more 
severe the further I proceeded ; and I noticed fissures in the moist sand of 
the river all in the same direction (east and west) athwart the course of 
the earthquake. I was met by a number of natives on my arrival, and they 
informed me that it was here almost as severe an earthquake as that which 
occurred in 18G9, and that the first smart shock had been followed by two 
slight ones at short intervals. I must have been just within the left or 
southern margin of the course the current passed along. To-morrow I hope 
to be able to ascertain how far northward the shock was felt." 



2. From the Secretary to the Government of India, Home Depart- 
ment, (Public) forwarding a set of 21 photographs taken by Major R. Gill 
of the temples in the Buldana and Bassein districts in west Berar. 

The following extracts from Major Gill's notes accompanying the pho- 
tographs are of interest. 

Extracts from notes on Hemadpauti Temples Sfc., made during a tour 
through a portion of West Berar in 186S, 1869 and in Mag, 1871 bg 
Major Gill. 

Jaipur Kotli'. 
At Jaipur Kotli, 14 miles north of Buldana, are two old temples ; the 
finest is in the centre of the village, and the smaller one outside at a short dis- 
tance to the south-east. The general plan of the larger temple is in the form 
of a cross, with the larger arm to the west, and the entrance to the east. 
The portico which formed the east end, however, has now almost entirely 
fallen away. The south wing contains two small recesses, the outer one 
open at the top ; the corresponding one in the north wing is only an enclosed 
recess containing a linga and yoni. The centre of the temple is fifteen 
feet two inches by fifteen feet one inch. In the centre of this the floor is 
slightly raised, forming a sort of square dais, at the corners of which are 
four columns eight feet eight inches in height, of the same style as those at 



1873.] Major Gill — On Hemadpauti Temples in W. Berar. 67 

Vide photographs 26 and 27. the entrance, and supporting an architrave of 
one foot three inches deep, over which is a frieze one foot in height. This is 
ornamented with geometrical patterns on both faces, and with rosettes in the 
centres of the under sides. From the frieze rises the usual Hemadpauti 
dome ornamented with chaste shell pattern sculptures. 

This temple is cpiite in the Jaina style of architecture of the early part 
of the 13th century. 

Amdapu'e. 

A'mdapur is 20 miles east of Buldana, and . about half a mile to the 
south of the village is a small hill bordered on the south and south-east by 
a deep picturesque ravine, and falling out into the plain by gentle undula- 
tions to the north and west. On the summit of this hill stands a fine 
modern temple dedicated to Bhowani, of whom there is an image bedaubed 
with red lead in the sanctuary which is curiously lit from above in such a 
way as to throw the full light upon the image, while the spectator sees it 
only through a chink in the door, and, the mandar being nearly dark, the 
effect may be somewhat startling to the ignorant. 

Near this temple are seen some fragments of a large colossal statue. 

Vide photograph 31. These are a pah- of feet six and a half feet from 

toe to heel, and a hand to match, so that the statue may have been from 
fifty to sixty feet high. This enormous figure has not been a monolith, but 
built up in pieces, as is evident from the heel being separate from the fore 
part of the foot which includes the ankles. Over the foot there is an anklet 
but there is no indication of the toe-joints or of the extensor muscles over 
them, while the ankles are on a level with one another. Near them is another 
pair of feet somewhat smaller. The villagers say that a fine Hemadpauti 
temple formerly stood on the site of the present Hindu one ; and this 
seems to be confirmed by the fragments built with it, and lying about in all 
directions. 

Sirpu'b. 
Sirpur is 56 miles east of Buldana, and a short distance to the west of 
it is the temple. It is entered by porticoes on the north, south, and east 
sides. The doors are five feet four inches high, and two feet nine inches 
wide, and the porticoes are ten feet wide by nine feet six inches deep. These 
have been supported by two pillars in front and two pilasters, one on each 
side the door, corresponding with those inside. In the north portico a third 

Vide photograph 35. pillar has been subsequently introduced to 

support the cross beam in front which had given way. In the centre of the 
temple are four columns nine and half feet and two feet three inches square 
at the base, forming a square ten feet nine inches on each side, in the mid- 
dle of which is a low circular dais seven feet eleven inches in diameter. In 

Fi'iephotographs33,31 ; and35. line with these pillars are pilasters on each 
wall, and in the corners are half pilasters. 



68 Major Gill — On Heuiadprniti Temples in W. Berar. [Feb. 

Maukar. 
Mahkar is nearly 28 miles west of Sirpiir. The temple is on the low 

spur of a hill, projecting from the lower or 
Vide photographs 1st Series, wegt gide of the t ftnd nearl almogt t 

6,7, 8, and 9 : 2ud Series, 37 and 38. , J 

the level of the Pen Ganga River ; it con- 
sists of a square court 21 feet 10 inches on each side, descended to by two 
steps on each face, and is surrounded by a triple colonnade, consisting of 60 
pillars in all, with 32 pilasters against the outer wall, one opposite to each 
row of columns. The entrance is by a small door in the east face. Inclu- 
ding the colonnades the length is 73 feet 1 inches, and the breadth 72 feet 
Vide photograph No. 38. 9| inches. The columns in their general 

style resemble those in most of the oldest temples all over British India, 
and are almost copies of those that still remain of the very oldest of the 
Jaina temples in Guzerat. The base and lower third or two-fifths of the 
shaft is square ; on each side there rises from the plinth to the level of the 
upper side of the base a triangular facet, and this ornament is repeated in 
front of the double cincture and fillets that terminate the square portion of 
the shaft. The next member is a deep octangular band carved with leaves 
above which the pillar may be regarded as circular, rusticated by a square 
block and a thin octangular fillet carved with geometrical patterns. Above 
the block the shaft is cut into scotias and torusas interrupted by triangular 
facets on four sides. The capitals are thin with a narrow squai-e fascine 
over a circular fillet and cyma recta, separated from the shaft by a torus. 
The capital is surmounted by a sur-capital of the quadruple-bracket sort so 
common in the Jaina temples at Girnar and elsewhere. The style and con- 
struction of the roof also is identical with the oldest Guzerat temples, and 
was doubtless connected historically with the style of the same western 
buildings through the Chalukya dynasty of Devagiri, now Dowlatabad. The 
columns are nearly equidistant, varying from six feet five inches to seven 
feet one inch ; they do not exceed eight feet in height, and are so arranged 
that every four form a square of nearly one, and from capital to capital 
large slabs of stones are laid to support the roof. From centre to centre of 
these others are placed covering in the corners, and leaving a small square 
in the centre, the corners of which are again enclosed as before, leaving a still 
smaller square which is shut in by one large slab usually ornamented by a 
rosette in centre. Over this three or four feet of debris complete the roof. 

In this building no cement of any kind has been used, as indeed lime 
was never employed by the Hindus before the Mahomedan invasion ; the 
stones are cut so as exactly to fit one upon another. 

Lona'r. 
At Lonar, nearly 12 miles south of Mahkur, there are several Hemad-. 
pauti temples and tanks, also a Hindu temple which has evidently been 



1873.] Major Gill — On Hemaipauti Temples in W. Berar. 69 

originally a Hemadpauti, if no Budhist's structure. Below this temple 

_., , _ . is a tank with flights of steps and terraces 

Vide photograph 24, 1st Series. ,. ™ , a ,, , 

leading down to it. 1 he water flows through 

the sculptured kind* of a hullock, and is fabled to come under ground all 

the way from the Ganges. People of all castes, men, women and children 

bathe promiscuously in it. The water is constantly removed as it passes 

through one aperture at the bottom as fast as it flows in. Below the Hindu 

, „ _ temple is the salt lake leading down to which 

Vide photograph 25, 1st Series. L ° £ 

there has been a magnihcent flight ol steps, 

a large portion of which still remains. 

Regarding this salt lake there is a wonderful legend of a giant named 
Lonasur who lived in a subterraneous abode, made by himself under a hill 
about a mile from the place where the village of Lonar now stands. When 
this monster had destroyed many human beings and animals, and threatened 
to overthrow even the gods, the latter became alarmed and supplicated 
Vishnu to relieve them from the danger. Vishnu assumed the form of a 
beautiful youth to gain over the assistance of the giant's two sisters. By 
then* assistance he discovered the subterraneous dwelling, and with a touch 
of his toe he threw off the covering of the den and found the giant asleep. 
Engaging in single combat with him Vishnu slew him, and buried him in 
the very pit he had made his home : this was the present salt lake of Lonar. 
Its water is supposed to be his blood, and the salt is his decomposed flesh. 
A hill standing, according to the Berar Gazetteer, 36 miles to the south-west 
of Lonar, but according to my informant only about a koss from it, is said 
to be the lid of the den thrown off by Vishnu, and is reported to coincide in 
shape and size with the surface of the lake. 

The lake is about a mile across, or three miles round, and is sup- 
Fide photograph No. 24, 1st Series, posed to be the crater of an ancient vol- 
cano. Round the top of the basin is about five miles, and the sides 
slope abruptly down, and are covered with jungle and trees. Immediate- 
ly round the lake are dense rings of tamarind, date, and babul trees, 
in which panthers, bears, and wild hog are frequently found, and in which 
pea-fowl generally abound. Nearly in the centre of the lake are two deep 
fissures hitherto unfathomed, through which impregnation takes place 
durino- the monsoon, when only pure crystals of salt (Dalla) are obtained from 
their edges by divers. But to enter these openings during the hot season 
would be certain death. Evaporation takes place to a very considerable 
extent during the hot season, and leaves a crystallized deposit (Papri) upon the 
surface that gives the lake the appearance of being frozen over. This deposit 
is carefully collected, as well as the earth (Bhuski) beneath it, which is also to 
a certain extent impregnated. These deposits are very valuable, and yield a 

* Head?— Ed. 



70 Major Gill — On TIemndpauti Temples in W. Berar. [Feb. 

handsome revenue to Government. Dalla is sold at .Rupees 85 per kandi ; 
papri at Rupees 18 to Rupees 25 ; and bhuski Rupees 8 to 10. The rent at 
present is Rupees 0,500 per annum on a three years' lease. 

The finest temple is outside the village to the south within a mudwalL 
When I first visited it, more than twenty years ago, the whole basement 
was buried in debris, but the sculptures were far more perfect than they are 
now. The basement has been unearthed, and the temple otherwise thrown 
open, and now the first sight of it takes one by surprise. 

Like those of Amruth and Somnath the whole exterior of this temple 

is one mass of sculpture, and the eaves and 
Tide photographs 1st Series, gQme of the borders are very beautiful ; but 
Son. 13, 14, 15, and 16. ■,/./• 

though the quantity of sculpture is so great, 

the subjects are comparatively few, — gods of the Hindu pantheon, obscenity 
in its grossest forms, dancing girls and musicians, and all the paraphernalia 
of debauchery. Many of the groups visible twenty years ago have since 
been knocked off, a piece of Vandalism similar to that acted at Ellora where 
several statues were emasculated to save the blushes forsooth of two prudish 
ladies : but still traces remain to render it a case of " honi soit qui mal 
y pense." 

The next Hemadpauti temple is to the north of the village, and midway 

between it and the temple and tank ; it con- 

VicU photographs 1st Series, gigts f port i co w [ t ^ sma n w ings at each 
Nos. 19 and 20. \ ° 

end open m iront, but enclosed on the other 

side and supported by three lines of columns and pilasters opposite each 
column in the third rank. It measures 102 feet by 20 feet, and there has 
been an enclosed building in a line with one of the wings. It is supposed 
to have been a place of almsgiving ; the recipients occupy the portico 
while the victuals were cooked in the enclosure. 

To the east of the large temple is a fine Hemadpauti tank. 
Half way along the road to the salt lake is another very pretty templa, 

and there are four others in the margin of 
Tide photographs 1st Series, tlie lak the three best of which are pic- 
tfos. 21, 22, and 28. . ' l 

turecl in the photographs. 

All these temples probably belong to about the 12th century when the 
Hindus seem to have been perfectly " mad upon their idols" and were only 
saved from utter degradation resulting therefrom by the inroads ■ of the 
iconoclastic followers of Islam. 

Dhotra'. 

Dhotra is about 30 miles north by west from Lonar, and about half a 
mile south-east of the village stands a very fine temple, and near it are the 
remains of a splendid tank, which if cleared out would yield a plentiful sup- 
ply of good water throughout the year to the poor villagers who have to go 



1873.] Major Gill — On Hemadpauti Temples in W. Berar. 71 

nearly a mile to secure only a scanty supply of water. The mere ruin of a 

second lies to the west, and a third, much 

Vide photographs, Nos. 43,44, sma Jl er but perfect to the north-west, on 

the outskirts of the village. 

Sa'tga'm. 

At Satgam, 21 miles west of Dhotra, there are five Hemadpauti temples. 

The principal one is just outside the west 

Vide photographs Nos 2, 3 & 4, wall of the village, and almost adjoining it. 
1st Series ; and 43, 49, 2nd Series. Qn thfl norfch gide aye t}jg remains of a 

Vide photograph No. 4G. small but beautiful temple which appears 

to have been originally in the same enclo- 
sure. The other three are closely within the village walls ; the largest of 
them is merely an oblong apartment containing the Linga and Yoni and an 

Vide photograph, No. 47. image of Granesh. There has been a verandah 
in front supported by four columns ; and the entrance has been elaborately 
sculptured. In the centre of this verandah is a large sculpture of NandL 
The next in size consists of four columns supporting the architraves, above 
which is the common simple roof. But the backs of the posterior pair of 
columns being only rough hewn, this may have only been the portico of 
another temple. 

The fifth is only a small cell distinguishable as Hemadpauti only by 
the pilasters on each side of the entrance. 

Notes. 

These temples are supposed by the natives to have been raised by de- 
mons in a single night, but from the title they generally bear they are 
ascribed to Hemad Kant or Hemadi Paut, who was prime minister to Ram 
Chandra Deva or Ram Deva Yado, the last of the Devagiri rajahs, of whom 

two copper-plate grants, dated respectively 
Journal, Asiatic Royal Society, m % d 12Q1 have been b . 

Vol. V., pages 178 and 188. ' * 

listed by Mr. Watham. He was also minis- 
ter in the reign of Madhao, the predecessor of Ram Deva and in possession of 
all the regal powers. Mr. Walter Elliot dates the ascensions of Madhao in 
A. D. 1261, of Ram Chandra in A. D. 1272, and of Shunkur Deva in a. d. 
1311. 

All these temples, as already remarked, are erected without any cement 
. of any kind. The different pieces are fitted together with the greatest accu- 
racy and partially secured by tenons and mortices left on and cut into the 
blocks. They have been built with distinct inner and outer facings much 
like modern Public Works Department works, only the stones were not 
splayed back ; and so the work was more likely to be durable. The interior 
of the wall was then filled up with rubbish, — the perfection of the beds of 
the stones is evidenced by the length of time they have stood. 



72 Library. [Feb. 

The style of lighting is wonderfully adapted to the character of the 
works and architectural features, all lights being raking strike only the 
edges of the endless angles, and the result is a subdued brilliancy which is 
exceedingly pleasing. 

Tbe natives say that beneath the lingas in these are buried heaps of 
treasures. 

The receipt of the following communications was announced. 

1. Note on two coins from Kausambhi by the Hon'ble E. C. Bayley 
C. S. I. 

2. History of Pegu by Major General Sir A. P. Phayre, C. B., K. C, 
S. I. 

Library. 

The following additions have been made to the Library since the last 
meeting. 

Presentations. 
* # * Names of Donors in Capitals. 

Memoirs, Part II, Vol. XXXIX, 

A. Saivitsch. — Les variations de la Pesanteur dans les Provinces Occidentales de 
l'Empire Russe. Prof. Cayley. — On the Geodesic Lines on an Ellipsoid, — The second 
part of a Memoir on the Development of the Disturbing Function in the Lunar 
and Planetary Theories J. W. L. Glaisher. — On the Law of Facility of Errors of 
Observations, and on the Method of Least Squares. 

The Royal Astronomical Society. 
Monatsbericht, August, 1872. 

Braun. — Nachtragliche Mittheilungen iiber die Gattungen Marsilia und Pilularia 
Peters. — Uber eine Sammlung von Batrachiern aus Neu- Freiburg in Brasilieu. 

The Royal Prussian Academy or Sciences of Berlin. 
Bulletin, Octobre, 1872. 
E. Masqueray. — Le Gulf Stream. 

The Geographical Society of Paris. 
Schriften, 1869—72, Jahrgang 10—13, Abtheilung lte. 
Prof. E. G. Zaddach. — Beobachtungen iiber des Vorkommen des Bernsteins und 
die Ausdehnung des Tertiargebirges in Westpreussen und Pommern. J. Schumann. — 
Preussische Diatomeen. Dr. A. Hensche. — Der Graberfund bei Fiirstenwalde. Dr. 
G. Berendt. — Ein geologischer Ausflug in die Russischen Nachbar-Gouvernements, 
Bob. Caspary. — Anhang, Pinus Abies, L. Arnold Ohlert. — Zusammenstellung der 
Lichnenen der Provinz Preussen. C. G. A. Brischke. — Die Hymenopteren der Pro- 
vinz Preussen. A. Mutter. — Ueber drei in der Provinz Preussen ausgegrabene 
Barenschadel. Paul Schiefferdecker. — Der Begriibnissplatz bei Stangenwalde. Dr. H. 
v. KUnggrdff. — Beschreibung der in Preussen gefundenen Arten und Varietaten der 
Gattung Sphagnum. Ernst Dorn. — Die Station zur Messung von Erdtemperaturen 
zu Konigsberg. 

The Royal Physico-Economical Society of Ivonigsberg. 



1873.] Library. 73 

La Langue et la Litterature Hindoustanies, en 1872 : Rhetorique et 
Prosodie des Langues de L'Orient Musulman, par M. Garcin de Tassy. 

The Author. 
A Report on the Bladderworms found in Beef and Pork, by T. R. 
Lewis, M. B. : — A Report of Microscopical and Physiological Researches into 
the Nature of the Agent or Agents producing Cholera, by T. R. Lewis, M. B. 
and D. D. Cunningham, M. B. ; — On a Hsematozoon inhabiting Human 
Blood : its relation to Chyluria and other diseases, by T. R. Lewis, M. B. 

The Authors. 
Sherepur Bivarana, part I, Geography, by Harachandra Chaudhuri. 

The Author. 
The Rajahs of Rajshahye, by Kissory Chand Mittra. 

The Author. 
Results of Five Years' Meteorological Observations for Hobart Town, 
by F. Abbott ; Practical Hints to Emigrants to Tasmania. 

The Royal Society of Tasmania. 
War Department Weather Charts. 

The Chief Signal Officer of Washington, U. S. 
The Christian Spectator, Vob II, Nos. 19, 20. 

The Editor. 

Ramayana, Vol. Ill, part 4. Edited by Hemchandra. 

The Editor. 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Paheontologia Indica, Vol. 
IV. 2. 

Br F. Stoliczka. — Cretaceous Ciliopoda of Southern India. 

The Supt. of the Geological Survey of India. 
Report on the Administration of Bengal, 187L-72. 

The Government of Bengal. 

JExclianqe. 
The Athemeum, Oct. and Nov., 1872. 
Nature, Nos. 166—168. 

Purchase. 
Revue des Deux Mondes, 15 Nov., 1 Dec, 15 Dec, 1872. 
Comptes Rendus, No. 19, 1872. 
M Th. du Moncel. — Note sur les Courants accidentels qui naissent au sein deg 
Hgnes telegraphiques dont un bout reste isole dans l'air. M. Grace-Calvert, — ■ 
Sur le pouvoir que possedent plusieurs substances d'arreter la putrefaction et le 
developpement de la vie protoplasmique. M. A Doran. — Sur les proprieties febrifuges 
et antiperiodiques des feuilles du Laurier d' Apollon. M. E. Ferriere. — Sur les causes 
de fievres intermittentes et les moyens de les combaitre. M. Picot. — Sur les propri?tes 
antifermentescibles du silicate de soude. M. Carbonnier. — Sur la reproduction et le 
developpement du poisson telescope, originaire de la Chine. 



74 Library. [Feb. 

No. 20, 1872. 

M. Becqu&rel. — M^mpire sur l'origine solaire do l'electricite" atmospherique. If. 
Dareste.— E'tudes sur les types osteolgiques des Poissons osseux. 
No. 21, 1872. 

M. Tresca. Note sur la forme qu'il convient de donner aux metres que la Commis- 
sion internationale doit construire. M. Bouillaud. Sur la theorie de la production de 
la chaleur auimalo. M. Jeannel. — Recherches sur la production naturale des azotates 
et des azotites. Application de l'engrais mineral a 1' horticulture. M. E. Bertin. — 
E'tude sur la ventilation d'un transport ecurie. M. L6on Vaillant. — Sur la distribution 
Geographique des Percina. M. F. Tisserand. — Sur la planete (116) Sir una. M. J. 
Bourget.— Theorie matheinatique des experiences acoustiques de Kundt. M. Cazin. — 
Sur l'euergie magnetique. M. L. Cailletet. — Recherclies sur l'acide carbonique liqaido. 

Nos. 22, 23, 1872. 

M. Tli. du Moncel. — Sur les courants accidentels qui naissent au sein des lignes 
telegraphiques dont un bout reste isole dans l'air. MM. A. Rabuteau et F. PapiUon. — 
Des effets tberapeutiques du silicate de soude. M. L. Vaillant. — Sur la valour de cer- 
tains caracteres employes dans la classification des Poissons. 
Journal des Savants, Novr. 1872. 
M. J. Berbramd. — Theorie mathematique de l'electricite. M. Dulaurier. — Historiena 
anciens et modernes de 1'Armenie. 

Eevue Archeologique, XI, 1872. * 

M. V. Guerin. — Decouverte du Tombeau des Maccabaes au Khirbet-ol-Medieh jadis 
Modin. 

Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, No. 10, 1872. 

Dr. Jousseaume. — E'tude des genres Teinostoma, Cyclostrema et Skenea. (Several 
Indian species are described). 

The American Journal of Science, No. 22, 1872. 
C. H. F. Peters. — Discovery of a new planet. 
No. 23, 1872. 
Joseph Leconte. — A Theory of the Formation of the great Features of the Earth's 
Surface. C. A. Yo ung.—~ Catalogue of bright Lines in the Spectrum of the Solar 
Atmosphere. J. 0. Draper. — Growth or Evolution of structure in seedlings. 

The Ibis, October, 1872. 

A. V. Walden. — On a collection of birds recently made by Mr. A. H. Everett in 
North Borneo. 0. Salvin. — Index to Ornithological Literature of 1871. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Dec. 1872. 

0. P. Cambridge. — On a new family and genus and two new species of Thely- 
phonidea, from Ceylon. Dr. A. Gunther. — On some new species of Reptiles and Fishes 
collected by J. Brenchley in Mongolia, Fejee Islands &c. Dr. A. Gunther. — On 
Psammoperca and Cnidon. 0. Ritsema. — On Crinodes Sommeri and Tarsolepig 
Remicaucla, in answer to Mr. Butler's remarks. 

Conchologia Indica, Part 5. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For Mai\ch, 1873. 



The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 5th instant, at 9 p. M. 

T. Oldham, Esq., LL. D., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The receipt of the following presentations was announced. 

1. From the Government of Bengal, a set of six Photogi'aphs of 
Antiquities of Dmajpiir, by J. H. Ravenshaw, Esq., C. S. 

2. From the Chief Commissioner of Mysore, 2 lithographed copies of 
each of the following transcripts in Sanskrit of the Gauja Agrahar and 
Koppa Gadde Sasanas.* 

W3ogrf^zjrFr f^n^TTi^ wifwrrr^ 1 

* See Proceedings for December, 1872, p. 193. 



76 Sanskrit Transcripts of Oauja Agraliar [Mahcti, 

itT3TW*i^reiJTTW*rqTfl WW^qf^gWrS WTTqfa W^ffo f^^Tf^ ^TO ^W^JJT 

^fuirg w'Tancarfsj ^tms. w^^fw Mws^p* W^isi^ v? ^Kuwmrd^f 

^W WTmf ^rf— W^J ^T^^J ^WFrKTfV ?TWW ^T^<^W ai<|4l<IUI<4ftf k * 

^fw*ft*<JtwTSwiT%wgirw^- ww ^;f%wwq%r% wrwww^grf^-^ % €t« ^ 

fajrpjl— WW qf%W— JnWWqTW^Tf^Kt^W^rwqTQT - <RI ^1%'!rJTrWWqT- 

?n»;*rTf^r^%*ftw sssj ^% f^w^r^— ww ^f%mjrrw*qrw^mf^'?|^'?tw 
%TrrgTizi— ww ^fw^qiw ^ifMrwwqT«^rf^^T^a^fa*jfag\w ^3«*r 
fjifw<*r wsrwiitf^— ww qrgflw^<iri fbww^Tw^n^^ifslw ^ns^- 

%TO— WWqf^fl^TW^qTW^fT^T^i^W ^f^rWSlTW— WW qf^fiJTTrlW- 

ww^wt^ ^Tfarrfafftw 3fW3\tefi— wwqf^flJiTWW^;i<rtw WT^Ti^fl^^- 
^ T tf%— wwqrqfl— JnwwqTW^wr^ ^ww^^fa^f^stw ^rq^rwqng— 

WW qfgwqTWW^RJJTTWWqTW^ ^^T^JT'^re^fa'jf^'Jl;* ^PnW^forWJlf- 
^_ cf ^3Tf^W^%r^r JTTWWqTW^PJJI^ftftW %[«T3TUT WW ^W^JTTrTWqrW^- 

^r^tf^fq^rif^w^fefsl^tf^Jri— ww ^w^TWAqTAfq^JT^sr^ylw 
^K%t^: — ww ^wwwwqrw^f^^T^f^wW^fawfet'rtw ^rwqTW— 

WW ^W^TWflW^^flTWW^TW^f^JI^qT^ff ^W wf^^r^%I# — WW qWW"q- 

%^ flTJiw^rw^f^Ji^qT^r^ff^tw ^w^^fif^fe^wfw— wwq4jTTWWTuw^f% 

JliqT^^f^ftW^JTT^f — WW ^TWWqTW^f^^q>^^f%f^cf%wfa**rtW=IT^- 
311— ww ^mwwqTw^%^T't»?tfl fflfcsuw— WW q4jHWWqTW^f*lf%"*H;w 

^^jnww^rw^fsRrtilw wirfeq^i^ w^itci v§ ^^pggtwT ^WTfa: II 
wrwT^TS'4 ^w^rpsTiwf <sr% <?jt^ qr^wtw *rq%: i 
^Twwrw *uf*rw; qrfjqt^rw vw *fi?r w-^w ttw^: h s 11 
^Twqr^fwwww ^Twr^wswqT^rw I 
wjwTw'ww^rsrrfw qr^rwT^rf v<( n 3 n 
w^^5tt: qTW^Wfw^^TT w ^ vrfwqT^www^^^fgm: | 

Tf^WW^ ^WW qixqT^f'fT W^q^W^ f¥K<?T^]fw II 
Srq^ITf^^fr f^TTWTTT^ %f*TWTW | , 

q^^fwiT^JT^WTWTii winNlrc w:if*fK ^qfw^r*? f^Tqf JTojqfwcrq 



1873.] and Koppa Gadde Sdsanas. 77 

^r*TT*J S^T^ WT^TT ^T^A^TT^ ^-TfcT3jffTqTrrf5rfa% ^<?TJT ^TTf*f 

^^fT^WT^ wqTJjq^T^f<T*w? ifaRT^q^' ^arsfiT^ffq^npq'JTW^- 

q^JTf*J ^^^^%Tfr^TTZT^fgtrriTRTWT^^^JT'l^ ^ *t *»*^t?^%?T^I 
rT^T qf^^mT<jfa^fwq^fl^^f^t3%^f^^'?tfl ^T#«WKf% W^T 



c\ 



*#r^rr«r ^rfasn qifeR^fT^r tot tot ^t^*t thwt: 11 

(sj^ f%) f^q^TT- t f>q fjwj^ i 
fqq^3fTf%*f ^fnl w^3^ q^qT^r* II 



78 F. II. Pullew — Wood and Soil dug out near Baddibati. [Makck, 

3. From the Editor, A copy of Meghaduta with commentaries, edited 
by Babu Prananath Pandit. 

4. From the Director General of Geological Survey of England and 
Wales, A copy each of several eai'lier Memoirs of the Survey with maps, &c. 

5. From the Chief Signal Officer, Washington, U. S. Three copies of 
the tri-daily Weather Bulletin. 

6. From F. H. Pellew, Esq., C. S., specimens of wood and soil dug out 
near Baddibati, District Hugh. 

The following letter accompanied the donation. 

" I send you three specimens. 1st of wood cut from a prostrate stem of 
a tree found in a stratum about five feet below mean sea level — or at the level 
of low tide — and about 25 feet below the present surface of land at Baddi- 
bati ; 2nd, of twigs found in the same stratum ; and 3rd, of some con- 
solidated earth at a little higher level — believed by some to be of vegetable 
origin, though I think it is only clay. These were found in excavations for 
the Hiighli drainage works, which I visited this morning. The logs or 
prostrate stems are pretty numerous, the wood, as you will observe, is quite 
soft and is cut clean through with the spade ; below the stratum is a soft 
greasy blue clay, — above are alternate strata of clay and sand. I have asked 
the engineer to look for littoral shells, which I looked for, but could not 
find. The prostrate trees look like trees stranded on a muddy beach of 
shore of a deltaic estuary. I have seen hundreds such near the mouths of 
the Sunderban khalls lying half buried in the same sort of mud. 

The importance of the ' find' lies in the fact that it proves, so far as it 
goes, that the Delta has not sunk since the deposition of this stratum. 

I would suppose that the land at Baddibati was then low estuary 
land with tidal creeks, such as the land east of Saugor Island is now, and that 
the Damuda and Ganges have since that period simply covered over this 
low land with strata of sand and clay at the same time pushing forward the 
shore. In other words that there has been nothing abnormal, no .subsidence, 
at any rate. 

This is contrary to the evidence afforded by other borings, but the 
question is whether the levels in the other cases were accurately taken. 
If they were, then the upright trees, &c. discovered far below the present sea 
level in those other cases, must be much more ancient than these — 
or else there must have been partial subsidences confined to particular 
localities." 

The President remarked on the interest attaching to all such notices of 
change of condition of surface, more especially when it was possible, as in 
this case, to determine the levels accurately. But he would advise much, 
caution in attempting to apply conclusions derived from such very local 
changes in a great delta to the delta at large. Such appearances of elevation 



1S73.] List of Committee Members. 79 

or depression are often very deceptive, and require great care in their appli- 
cation. 

6. From the Government of India, a set of 19 works on the East 
African dialects hy Dr. Steere of the English Mission in Zanzibar. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at the last meeting 
were balloted for and elected Ordinary Members — 

'A. Cappel, Esq. 

G. W. Barclay, Esq. 

A. J. Hughes, Esq., C. E. 

Babu Satyadayala Banerjea, B. L. 

The following are candidates for ballot at the next meeting — 

Frederick Jones, Esq., C. S., proposed by J. Wood-Mason, Esq., second- 
ed by Gr. Nevill, Esq. 

Edmund White, Esq., C. S., proposed by A. M. Markham, C. S., second- 
ed by H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A. 

Robert Turnbull, Esq., proposed by Babu Rajendralala Mitra, seconded 
Col. A. S. Allan. 

Babu Umesh Chunder Dutt, proposed by Col. A. S. Allan, seconded by 
Babu Rajendralala Mitra. 

T. T. Blissett, Esq., proposed by L. Schwendler, Esq., seconded by T. 
Oldham, Esq., LL. D. 

J. W. Curtoys, Esq., has intimated his desire to withdraw from the 
Society. 

The President reported on the part of the Council that the following 
gentlemen have been appointed to serve on the several Committees of the 
Society : — 

Finance. 
Babu Rajendralala Mitra. Col. H. Hyde, R. E. 

L. Schwendler, Esq. Col. A. S. Allan. 

Ltbka^t. 

The Hon'ble J. B. Phear. J. Anderson, Esq., M. D. 

Babu Rajendralala Mitra. J. Wood-Mason, Esq. 

Col. H. Hyde, R. E. G. Nevill, Esq. 

Col. A. S. Allan. Dr. Mahendralal Sirkar. 

W. L. Heeley, Esq., C. S. L. Schwendler, Esq. 



80 List of Committee Members. [March, 

Philology. 
The Hon'ble E. C. Bayley, C. S. I. 
Babu Rajendralala Mitra. 
W. L. Heeley, Esq., C. S. 

C. H. Tawney, Esq. 

Major General A. Cunningham, C. S. I. 

Rev. K. M. Banerjea. 

Babu Gour Dass Bysack. 

Dr. Mahendralal Sirkar. 

Moulavi 'Abdul Latif Khan Bahadur. 

Moulavi Kabiruddin Ahmad Sahib. 

J. Beames, Esq. 

F. S. Growse, Esq. 

Babu Dvijendranath Tagore. 

Natural History. 
J. Ewart, Esq., M. D. 
J. Anderson, Esq., M. D. 
W. S. Atkinson, Esq. 
J. Wood-Mason, Esq. 

G. Nevill, Esq. 

H. P. Blanford, Esq. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq. 
V. Ball, Esq. 
H. B. Medlicott, Esq. 

D. Waldie, Esq. 

G. E. Dobson, Esq., B. A., M. B. 
Dr. Mahendralal Sirkar. 

Physical Science. 
His Excellency Lord Napier of Magdala, G. C. B., G. C. S. I. 
Col. H. L. Thuillier, C. S. I. 
Col. H. Hyde, E. E. 
H. F. Blanford, Esq. 
D. Waldie, Esq. 
J. Wood-Mason, Esq. 

L. Schwendler, Esq. 

• 

Coins. 
Hon'ble E. C. Bayley, C. S. I. 
Babu Rajendralala Mitra. 
Major-General A. Cunningham, C. S. I. 
Major F. W. Stubbs. 



1873.] Government grant of House allowance. 81 

Rev. M. A. Sherring. 
J. G. Delmerick, Esq. 

The Committee op Papers. 
The Members of Council. 
The President said that the letter he was about to read to the mem- 
bers of the Society would explain itself. They were aware that a claim sub- 
mitted to the Government of India by the Council for rent of the house they 
occupied as a Museum, from the date at which Government had contracted 
to relieve the Society of these collections, had been for a long time under 
the consideration of Government. They would therefore hear the result with 
great satisfaction at finding that Government had assented to the claim of 
the Society in full. 

No. 68. 
From J. Geoghegan, Esq., Under Secretary to the Government of India, 
Department of Agriculture, Revenue and Commerce. 
To the Honorary Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Calcutta, dated 1st March, 1873. 
(Industry, Science and Art.) 

Sir, — With reference to your letter to the address of the Government 
of India in the Home Department, No. 47, dated the 29th January, 1872, on 
the subject of compensation for the loss of house accommodation consequent 
on delay in completing the new Museum building at Calcutta, I am directed 
to say that after full consideration of the circumstances of the case, His Ex- 
cellency the Governor- General in Council is pleased to accede to the request 
of the Committee of the Asiatic Society, and to grant the Society a special 
allowance of Es. 400 per mensem from the date fixed by law for the re- 
moval of the Museum collections, up to the date on which they may actually 
be removed. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your most Obedient Servant, 

J. Geoghegan, 
Under-Secretary to the Government of India. 
Eead a letter from F. S. Growse, Esq., M. A., C. S., on the proportion of 
the Muhammadan and Hindu population of the village of Dotana near 
Mathura. 

' On the high road between Delhi and Mathura, and about 22 miles from 
the latter city, is the village of Dotana, noticeable in this peculiarly Hindu 
part of the country for having as many as 715 Muhammadans, out of a total 
population of 1411. Scattered about in the fields by the road side are a 
number of Muhammadan buildings, mosques, tombs and dargahs, which 



82 E. C. Eayley. — Note on two Coins from Kausambhi. [March:, 

though of no architectural beauty, are sure to attract the notice of the travel- 
ler. John de Laet in his " India Vera" (1631) refers to it though he 
wrongly calls it Akbarpur, which is the name of the next village — and says 
" This was formerly a considerable town ; now it is only visited by pilgrims 
who come on account of many holy Muhammadans buried here." Annual 
fairs are still held in honour of three of these holy men, by name Hasan 
Shahid, Shah Nizam-ud-din and Pir Shakar-ganj, alias Baba Farid.* The 
present zamindars, who are in rather reduced circumstances, can tell me 
nothing about them and probably they were only local celebrities.' 

The following papers were read — 
1. — Note on two Coins from Kausambhi. — By the Hon'ble E. C. Batley, 

C. S. I., c. s. 

(Abstract,) 

The Hon'ble E. C. Bayley explained to the meeting the legends of two 
ancient coins received by him from Kausambhi, a ruined city in Allahabad 
District. They appear to belong to the second century before Christ. 

. A wood-cut of the coins is in course of preparation. 

2 — The History of Pegu.— By Sir Arthur P. Phayre, K. C. S. I., C. B. 

(Abstract.) 

This paper on the history of Pegu is chiefly derived from a MS. his- 
tory, written in the Talaing language. It includes the early legends as to 
the building of the city of Tha-htun, called also Suvarna Bhuuii, by colo- 
nists from ancient Kalinga or Talingana. This was before the death of Gau- 
tama Budha, B. C. 515. Pegu was founded by emigrants from Tha-htun 
A. D. 573, and the present paper follows the history of that kingdom until 
the death of king Bidzadirit, in the year 1421 A. D. 

The author also discusses the physical characteristics of the Talaings (a 
word derived of Talingana) or Mon people, and the affinities between their 
language and that of the Munda Kols of Chutia Nagpiir. 

The reading of the following paper was postponed. 

On the identification of certain Aboriginal Maces noticed in Col. Baltoii's 

Ethnology with those mentioned in Sanskrit works. — By Ba'bu 

Rangala'l Banerjea, Deputy Magistrate, Sugli. 

The receipt of the following communications was announced — 

1. New Burmese Plants, P. II., by S. Kurz, Esq. 

2. On the Indian species of the genus Thelyphonus, by Dr. F. Stoliczka. 

3. Notes on Malayan Amphibians and Reptiles, by Dr. F. Stoliczka. 

4. The Initial coinage of Bengal, P. II., by E. Thomas Esq. F. R. S. 

* Evidently 'jawabs' of the tombs of Hasan, son of 'AH, Nizamuddin Aulia of 
Dihli, and Farid iid-din 'Attar of Pak Patan. The Editor. 



1873.] Library. 83 



LIBRARY. 

The following additions have been made to the Library since the last 
meeting held in February last. 

* # * Names of Donors in capitals. 
Presentations. 
Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie, Novembre, 1872. 
Vivien de Saint Martin. — Essai sur les Castes dans l'lnde, par M. Esqner. 

The Geographical Society of Paris. 
Journal Asiatique, Juin, Juillet, Aout-Septembre, 1872. 
M. Joseph HaUvy. — Traduction des inscriptions Sabeenes, suivies de trois appen- 
dices. 

M. J. Oppert. — Pasargades et Mourghab. — Interpretation d'une inscription d'Ar- 
taxerces II, Mnemon, trouvee a Suse. M. G. Pauthier. — E'tude de 1' alphabet Cainbod- 
gien et manuel pratique de la langue Cambodgienne, par M. G. Janneau. 

M. Francis Gamier. — Chronique royale du Cambodge. M. Ch. Clermont-Ganneau, 
— Eesultats topograph iques et archeologiques des fouilles entreprises a Jerusalem par 
le Palestine Exploration Fund. G. Garrez. — Ueber das Saptacathakam des Hala, 
Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss des Prakrit, von Albrecht Weber. S. Guyard. — Note sur 
le chapitre du Farhang i Sjehangiri relatif a la dactylonomie. 

The Asiatic Society op Paris. 
Entomologische Zeitung, herausgegeben von dem Entomologischen 
Vereine zu Stettin, Jahrgang 1840-1872. 

The Entomological Society oe Stettin. 
Magnetische und Meteorologische Beobachtungen auf der K. K. 
Sternwarte zu Prag im Jahre, 1869-1871. 

The Imperial Observatory op Prague. 
Bollettino Meteorologico ed Astronomico del Begio Osservatorio dell 
Universita di Torino, Anno 1872. 

The Eoyal Academy of Sciences of Turin. 
Katalogos ton Arkaion Nomismaton, Tomos A' ; Apologismos toy 
Ethnikoy Arkailogikoy Moyesioy. 

The National Library of Athens. 
Ofversight af Kongl. Vetenskaps — Akademiens EorhandHngar, 1869, 
1870. 

Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps — Akademiens Handlingar, Bd. 7-8-9. 
Lefnadsteckningar ofver Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens, Bd. I 
Meteorologiska Jakttagelses i Sverige, 1867, 1868, 1869. 

The Eoyal Academy of Stockholm. 
The Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. II, No. II. 
J. Parle Harrison. — On the artificial enlargement of the Ear-lobe. A. W. Franks. 
—Description of the Tattooed man from Burmah. B. F. St Andrews St John. — A 



84 Library. [March, 

short Account of the TTill Tribes of North Aracan. II. S. St John. — The 

Ainos : Aborigines of Yeso. 

The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. X, No. 1. 
Fitz-Edward Hall. — Thirteen inedited letters from Sir W. Jones to Sir C.Wilkins. Bev. 
8. A. Rhea.— Brief Grammar and Vocabulary of Kuril ish Language of the Hakari District. 
W. B. Whitney. — Collation of a second manuscript of the Atharva-Veda-Praticakhya. 
Bev. A. Bunker. — On a Karen Inscription Plate.* Bev. /'. Mas >n. — The Pali language 
from a Burmese point of view. Bev. W. M. Thomson. — Traces of Glacial Action on 
the flank of Mt. Lebanon. E;ra Abbot. — On the Comparative Antiquity of the Siuaitic 
and Vatican Manuscripts of the Greek Bible. 

The American Oriental Society. 
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 41. 

G. W. Hayward. — Letters on his explorations in Gilgit and Tassin. — Captain 8. 
Osborn. — The Geography of the bed of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Mediter- 
ranean Sea. Major T. G. rie. — Report of the Mirza's Explorations from 
Cabul to Kashgar. Ccvpt. S. B. Miles an r. — Account of an Excursion 
into the Interior of Southern Arabia. Cajpt. A- F. P. Uarcourt. — On the Himalayan 
Valleys — Kooloo, Lahoul and Spiti. Major E. B. Sladen.— Exploration via the 
Irrawaddy and Bhamo to South-Western China. Majoi Vbramof. — The Princi- 
pality of Karatcgin. H. L. Jenkins. — Notes on a trip across the Patkoi Range. W. 
ElMs.— Results of the Observations taken by Mr. R. B. Shaw during his journey to 
Yarkand in 1870. 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. XVI, Nos. 3 and 4. 
No. 3. — Be Grespigny. — Northern Borneo. Blalciston. — Journey round the Island of 
Yezo. Morgan. — Palladius' journey through Manchuria. Ross. — Journey through Mek- 
ran. Lovett. — Survey of the Perso-Kelat Frontier. Shaw. — Position of Pein, Charchand 
Lob Nur &c. Montgomerie. — A Havildar's Journey from Chitral to Paizabad. Lovett. 
Route from Shiraz to Bam. 

No. 4. — Address at the Anniversary Meeting of the Royal Geographical 
Society, by Major General Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K. C. B. 

Classified Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Geographical Society 
to December, 1870. 

The Rotal Geographical Society oe London. 
Journal of the Chemical Society, August, Sept. and Oct. 1872. 
J. A. Wariklyn. — New tests for some Organic fluids. E. Beacon. — On Deacon's 
Method of obtaining Chlorine as illustrating some principles of Chemical Dynamics. 

The Chemical Society oe London. 
Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, Vol. VIII, part 2. 
Arthur Viscount WaJden. — A list of the Birds known to inhabit the Island of 
Celebes, with an Appendix. 

Catalogue of the Library of the Zoological Society. 
Revised list of the Vertebrated Animals in the gardens of the Zoological 
Society of London, 1871. 

The Zoological Society oe London. 

* See also Proceedings for 1872, page 138. 



1873.] Library. 85 

Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the British Museum, parts 1 and 2, by 
J. E. Gray. 

Catalogue of the specimens of Hemiptera Heteroptera, part V, by F. 
Walker. 

The Trustees of tiie British Museum. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum 
of Economical Geology, London, Vols. I-IV. and June 1S5G-1S70. 

Geological Report on Londonderry and parts of Tyrone and Farma- 
nagh. 

Reports on the Geology of Jamaica. 

The Geological Surtet oe Great Britain and Ireland. 

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1857-1869 
and 1870-72. 

The Institution oe Mechanical Engineers, Birmingham. 

Les Religieuses Bouddhistes, par Mme. Mary Summer. 

The Author. 

Meghadutam, edited by Prananath Pandit. 

The Editor. 

The Calcutta Journal of Science, Nos. 9 and 10. 

The Editor. 

Grammar of the Sindhi Language by Dr. E. Trumph. 

The Rt. Hon'ble the Secretary oe State eor India. 

Selections from the Records of Government, No. III. 

The Govt, oe N. W. Provinces. 

Anjili ya Bwana wetu na Mwokozi Isa Masiya kwa Mattayo 
(Gospel of St Matthew). 

Katekisimo ya Kanisa Ingrezi (English Church Catechism). 

Masoma ya Maandiko Matakatifu (Swaheli Scriptural Beading Lessons). 

Zaburi za Daudi (Psalms of David). 

Chuocha Kuyaendeleza Maneno za Kinuguja (Swaheli SpelHng Book). 

Sala za Subni na Jioni (Morning and Evening prayers). 

Katekisimo Fupi (Sbort Catechisms). 

Nyrnbo za Dini (From Ephrem Syrus). 

Mashairi ya Kimasihiya. 

Kitab u cha Ruth. (Book of Ruth.) 

Kitabu cha Nabii Yona (Book of Prophet Jonah.) 

Utenzi wa wokovu. 

The First Sixteen Psalms translated into Swaheli. 

Some account of the Town of Zanzibar by E. Steere. 

Collections for the Nyamwezi Language by E. Steere. 

Collections for a hand-book of the Shambala Language. 

Collections for the Yao Language, by E. S. Steere. 



86 Library. [Maech, 1873. 

Swaheli Tales, by E. Steere. 

Hand-book of the Swaheli Language, by E. Steere. 

The Goyeenmext or India. 
Ex dicing e. 
The Athenaeum for December 1872. 
Nature, Nos. 166-168. 

Purchase. 
Eevue Archeologique, Deer. 1872. 
Comptes Eendus, Nos. 24, 25, 26. 

No. 24. — 31. J. Moutier. — Snr les effets thermiques de 1'aimantation. M. Th. Du. 
Moncel. — Sur les courants accidentels qui naissent au sein d'une ligne telegraphique 
dont un bout reste isole dans Fair. 

Nos. 25, 26. — If. 0. M. Gariel. — Sur la distribution du Hagnetisme dans les 
aimants. M. Ch. V. Zenger. — Nouvelle Note sur Taction des conducteurs disposes 
symetriqueruent autoui- d'un electroscope. M. Renault. — Sur une application nouvelle 
de la reduction des sels d' argent pour obtenir la reproduction de dessins. 
American Journal of Science, No. 24, December, 1872. 
L. M. Rutherford. — On tbe stability of the Collodion Film. R. Gidgway.— On the 
relation between colour and geographical distribution of Birds. T. Leconte. — A 
Theory of the formation of the great features of the Earth's surface. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For April, 1873. 



3>SKO« 



A Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, the 2nd instant, at 
9 p. M. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Calcutta in the chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The receipt of the following presentations was announced — 

1. From the author, a copy of a printed paper entitled ' Additional 
Notes on the Raptorial Birds of North Western India,' by A. Anderson, Esq. 

2. From the Government of India in the Home Department. A set 
of six photographs of Antiquities in Dinajpur, taken by J. H. Ravenshaw, 
Esq., C. S. 

3. From the Government of Bengal, a copy of a photograph of a pillar 
dug out at Bannagar in Dinajpur, taken by J. II. Ravenshaw, Esq., C. S. 

4. From the Government of India, Home Department, copies of 
extracts from the Proceedings of the Chief Commissioner of British Burmah 
on the subject of Archaeological remains in that Province. 

5. From the Surveyor-General of India, a copy of the General Report 
of the Topographical Surveys of India, 1871-72. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at the last meeting, 
were balloted for and elected Ordinary Members — 
F. Jones, Esq., C. S. 
E. White, Esq., C. S. 
R. Turnbull, Esq. 
Babu Umesh Chunder Dutt. 
T. T. Blissett, Esq. 
The following are candidates for ballot at the next meeting — 
G. R. C. Williams, Esq., C. S., Muzaffarnagar, proposed by F. S. Growse, 
Esq., C. S., seconded by H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A. 

H. B. Armstrong, Esq., Her Majesty's 1/llth Regiment, proposed by 
G. E. Dobson, Esq., M. A., M. B., seconded by Capt. J. Waterhouse. 



88 Resignation of tie President. [April, 

W. Mackay, Esq., C. E., Port Blair, proposed by Dr. Stoliczka, seconded 
by V. Ball, Esq. 

The Eev. John Hector, M. A., proposed by the Eev. "W. Fyfe, M. A., 
seconded by D. Waldie, Esq. 

The Eev. J. P. Ashton and Dr. C. F. Tonncrre have intimated their 
desire to withdraw from the Society. 

Eead a letter from Dr. Oldham informing the Council of the necessity he 
was under of resigning the office of President on account of his being obliged 
by ill-health to take sick-leave to Europe. 

Also the following resolution passed by the Council on Dr. Oldham's 
resignation — 

Resolved that the Council of the Asiatic Society record their sense 
of the obligations the Society is under to Dr. Oldham for the zeal and 
ability with which he has discharged the office of President as well as for 
his unremitting exertions to promote the objects and interest of the Society 
during the long period of his membership since 1851, and express their deep 
regret at the cause which now compels him to resign the office of President • 
They also earnestly hope that he may he able to return to India with 
renewed health and strength, and resume his place among them once more. 

Colonel Thuillier on behalf of the Council begged to bring to the notice 
of the meeting the severe loss the Society was sustaining by the resignation 
of their esteemed President, Dr. Oldham. He felt certain that he was 
expressing the opinion of the Society at large, when he regretted the depar- 
ture of their President, and more especially owing to the cause which 
necessitated his leaving India. He thought the Society was deeply indebted 
to Dr. Oldham not only for his valuable services as President of the Society, 
but for many years of earnest labour in the cause of Science which was 
brought to bear on the interests of the Asiatic Society. He wished they 
might see Dr. Oldham back again with renewed health and vigour, when they 
might again have the great benefit of his services. 

The Council reported that consequent on Dr. Oldham's resignation, they 
had elected Col. H. Hyde, E. E., President of the Society, and Dr. S. B. 
Partridge a member of Council, subject to confirmation by the meeting. 

The proposed elections were carried unanimously. 

They also reported that they had appointed Mr. W. McLaren Smith, 
M. A., a member of the Library and Physical Science Committees. 

The following papers were read — 

I. The History of Regit, (continued). — By Major General Sir 
Arthur P. Phatre, K. C. S. I., C. B. 

(Abstract.) 

This paper is a continuation of the ' History of Pegu' read at the last 
meeting. It commences with the history of Eadzadirit's successors (end of 



1873.] Sir A. P. Phayre— History of Pegu. 89 

the fourteenth century) to Taka-rwutbi who, in 1540, was deposed hy 
Tabeng Shwehti, king of Taungu. The article also contains comprehensive 
and interesting notes on the early European travellers that visited Burmatb 
and an account of the dealings of the Portuguese. 

II. Studies in the grammar of Chanel Bardai. — By John Beames, 
Esq., B. C. S. 

(Abstract.) 

Mr. Beames having published the first fasciculus of his text edition of 
this ancient poet, has collected in this paper the grammatical peculiarities 
which Chanel's language exhibits. The illustrations are chiefly taken from 
the 1st, 19th, 64th, and 65th books. 

In the preface, Mr. Beames remarks on the MSS. which he has consulted. 
Historically, he says, the Baidlah MS., of which the Asiatic Society has a copy, 
has the best right to be considered the representative of the original text. 
Tod's and Caulfield's MSS., belonging to the Royal Asiatic Society, were made 
for the officers whose names they bear in the second decade of the present 
century. The Bodleian has no colophon, but agrees with Tod's. The 
Agrah MS. is the worst, and is most carelessly written of all. As 
Caulfield's MS. and the Bodleian are locked up in English libraries, they 
cannot be used ; and Mr. Beames and Dr. Hoernle take Tod's MS. as the 
basis of their text edition. 

Mr. Blochinann said — 

At the January meeting of the Society, I exhibited Arabic and 
Persian inscriptions from various places in Bengal, received from General 
Cunningham, Mr. W. L. Heeley, Mr. E. V. Westmacott, Dr. J. Wise, 
and Mr. Walter M. Bourke, and shewed the importance of mural evidence 
for the elucidation of Bengal history. I have since examined our collection 
of coins, in order to procure additional testimony, and have found several 
coins of great value. These coins are now in the hands of an artist ; and a 
plate of such as are new, will be issued together with my paper on the 
inscriptions. 

The coins are — 

(1). Four specimens of 'Iwaz coins, as lately published by Mr. E. 
Thomas in his Second Part of the ' Initial Coinage of Bengal.' 

(2). Three silver coins of Shihabuddin Abul Muzaffar Bayazid Shah, 
of A. H. 812, and 816. Is this the Dinajpur Rajah Ganesh (Kanis) ? 

(3). Three silver coins of Jalaluddin AbulMuzafiar Muhammad Shah, 
of A. H. 818 and 821. 

(4). One BarbakShahi, different from the one published by Marsden. 

(5). One FathShahi, of A. H. 886 — shewing the same date as Dr. 
Wise's inscription of that king. Mint town, Fathabad. 



90 H. Blochmann — On Bengal Coins and Inscriptions. [April, 

(G). Three NueratShahis, of A. H. 922 and 927. These coins were 
struck by Nucrat Shah during the lifetime of his father, which probably 
points to a successful rebellion. The mint town is K halif at a b ad, or 
H a v e 1 i, in Southern Jasar District, on the northern edge of the Sundar- 
ban, near Bagherghat. I have identified this town with the hitherto 
unknown Cuipitavaz on De Barros' Map, one of the " lost towns" of the 
Sundarban. 

(7). One coin of Firuz Shah (III), son of Nucrat Shah, of A. H. 939. 
Mint town Husainabad. 

In connexion with these additions to our knowledge, I may also state 
that the Society has since January received the following inscriptions, which 
will be immediately published. 

1. From Mr. J. G. Delmerick, Delia. 

One Balban Inscription from Sonpat, A. H. 670. 

Two Ibrahim Lodi Inscriptions, from the same place, of A. H. 928, 
and 930. 

A most interesting inscription in Sanskrit, of Samwat 1381, from 
Hariyana, which has been translated by Babu Rajendralala Mitra. 

2. From Babu Ganga Parsdd, Murdddbdd. 

One Babar Inscription, of A. H. 933, from Sambhal. 
One Akbar Inscription, of A. H. 980, from Amrohah. 
One Shahjahan Inscription, of A. H. 1051, from Amrohah. 
One Shahjahan Inscription, of A. H. 1067, from Sambhal. 

3. From Dr. J. Wise, Dhaka. 

A collection of Inscriptions from Shah Jalal's tomb at Silhat. The oldest 
are a Yusuf Shahi and a Husain Shahi ; the most recent belong to Aurangzib's 
reign. Dr. "Wise has also sent an interesting note on this legendary saint 
and conqueror of Silhat. 

Also, an inscription from 'Azimnagar, Dhaka District. 

4. From Mr. Walter Mr. Bourke. 
Five inscriptions from Rajmahall. 

The receipt of the following communications was announced — 

1. Notes, translation and reading of a set of three copper plate 
inscriptions found at Sambalpur. By Babu Pratapachandra Ghosha. 

2. On the History of Pegu, No. II. — By Major General Sir A. P. 
Phayre,K. C. S. I., C. B. 

3. Studies in the grammar of Chand Bardai — By JohnBeames, Esq.,C.S. 

4. On the genera Murina and Harpy iocephalus of Gray. By G. E. 
Dobson, B. A., M. B. 



1873] Library. 91 



Libbaey. 
The following additions have been made to the Library since the 
Meeting held in March last. 

Presentations. 
* # * Names of Donors in Capitals. 
Monatsbericht, September and October, 1872. 

Peters. — Uber den Vespertilio calcaratus, Prinz zu Wied, und eine neue Gattung 
der Flederthiere, Tylonycteris. Hildebrand. — Uber die Bestaubungs-verhaltnisse 
bei den Gramineen. 

The Eotal Peussian Academy of Sciences of Beblin. 
Bulletin, Decembre, 1872. 
Examen comparatif du trace des routes proposees pour unir l'Europe et les Indes 
par le sud du Caucase. 
Janvier, 1873. 
Dr. Martin. — L' extreme Orient. Clermont Ganneau. — Decouverte de la ville 
royale Chananienne de Gezer. 

The Geogeaphical Soceett of Paeis. 
Proceedings, 30th June and 31st July, 1872, parts 1 and 2. 
Mr. B. H. Tweddell. — On the application of water pressure to shop tools and Mecha- 
nical Engineering works. Mr. W. Proctor Baker. — On the Buchholz process of decor- 
ticating grain and making Semolina and flour by means of fluted metal rollers. 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineebs, Biemingham. 
A Manual of Diseases of the Eye, by Dr. C. Macnamara. 

The Author. 
A Treatise on Asiatic Cholera, by Dr. C. Macnamara. 

The Authob. 
Kumara Sambhava, in Bengali rhymes, by Babu Ranga Lai Banerji. 

The Authoe. 
Additional Notes on the Raptorial Birds of North Western India, by 
A. Anderson. 

The Authoe. 

The Editor. 



The Christian Spectator, Vol. II, Nos. 21 and 22. 
The Calcutta Journal of Medicine, Nos. 11 and 12. 



The Editoe. 
Professional Papers on Indian Engineering, Vol. II, No. 7. 

H, Bell. — Graphic Time Table. P. JDejoux. — Margohi cement. C. Fouracres. — 
Hydraulic Brake and Tumbler Shutters. Major A. M. Lang. — Eastern Ganges Canal 
Major H. Tulloch. — Masonry versus Earthen Dams. Cajpt. E. V. Ttvemlow. — Experi- 
ments on Selenitic Mortar. 

The Editoe. 



92 Library. [April, 1873. 

The Bamayana, Vol. 3, No. 5. 

The Editor. 
The Annals of Indian Administration, 1870-71, Vol. XV. part 2, and 
Vol. XVI, parts 1 and 2 :— 

Eeport on the Administration of the N. W. Provinces for 1871-72. — 
Annual Eeport on the Insane Asylums in Bengal in 1S71. — 
Report on the Excise Administration in the Lower Provinces for 
1871-72. 

Eeport on the Sanitary Administration of the Panjah for 1871. 
Statistics of the Crime of Dacoity. 

The Government op Bengal. 
General Eeport on the Topographical Surveys of India for 1871-72. 

The Surveyor General of India. 
Eesults of a Tour in Dardistan, &c. Vol. I., No. III. 

The Government of the Panjab. 

Purchase. 
Pratnakanira Nandini, Vol. V, No. 8. 
The Indian Antiquary, March, 1873. 

Ca.pt. J. 8. F. Mackenzie.— The Kulwadi of the Hassan district. J. Beames. — On 
the Sub-Divisions of the Brahman caste in Northern Orissa. Professor Ramlcrislina 
Gopal Bhandarkar. — Patanjali's Mahabhashya. Kashinath Trimbak Telang. — The date 
of Sri Harsha. E. Pvehalsek. — An Embassy to Khata or China, A. D. 1419. Capt. R. 
Cole. — Cromlechs in Maisur. 

JUxcliange. 

Nature, Nos. 170-74. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For M.ay, 1873. 

A meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal was held on Wednesday, 
the 7th instant, at 9 p. m. 

Col. Hyde, R. E., President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following presentations, received since the last meeting, were laid on 
the tahle — 

1. From the Government of India, Home Department, a copy of a 
photograph, taken hy J. H. Eavenshaw, Esq., C. S., of a pillar dug up at 
Bannagar in Dmajpur. 

2. From Sirdar Attar Singh Bahadur, Chief of Bhadaur, one silver 
and several copper coins. 

Mr. Blochmann said that the copper coins were all known and publish- 
ed, and belonged to the reigns of Mu'izz, Balban, and Muhammad Tughluq. 
One was a brass token of the forced currency of the last king. The silver 
coin was modern, but too much was cut away to allow of a reading. 

From the Government of India, Home Department, a set of 11 photo- 
graphs of views of Sunnargaon, taken by Mr. Brennand, Principal of the 
Dacca College. 

Mr. Blochmann said that the members would be disappointed if they ex- 
pected to find among the remains of Sunnargaon large and old buildings. The 
ruins are few, and belong to the 14th and 15th centuries, just as the inscrip- 
tions found there belonged to the same time. Dr. Wise, in a letter to him, 
remarked that the people there knew nothing of the importance of this old 
town ; not a single legend was known now-a-days. The splendour of the 
Nawabi period ; the encroachment of the river ; and the fact that towns in 
southern Bengal are collections of mud houses rather than what we under- 
stand by towns, go far to explain this fact. Though, like Satgaon, the seat 
of Muhammad governors and usurping kings, it is probable that neither 
town ever covered an extensive site. 



91 Inscriptions from Sonpat. [Mat, 

The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at the last meet- 
ing were balloted for and elected Ordinary Members — 

G. R. C. Williams, Esq., C. S. 

H. B. Urmston, Esq., H. M.'s l-14th Regt. 

W. Mackay, Esq., C. E. 

The Rev. John Hector, M. A. 

The following is a candidate for ballot at the next meeting — 

J. W. Johnston, Esq., M. D., 4th Regt. P. I., Abbotabad, proposed 
by Captain J. Waterhouse, seconded by H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A. 

The Council reported that on the recommendation of the Philological 
Committee they will print in their Bibliotheca Indica, Captain Graham's 
English translation of Badaoni. 

Col. Hyde exhibited electrotypes of 200 Greek coins from the British 
Museum. 

Mr. Blochmann exhibited the following Arabic and Persian inscriptions 
received from members of the Society. 

1. From Mr. J. G. Delmerick, Dihli, tracings of the following inscrip- 
tions from Sonpat. Mr. Blochmann reads and translates them as follows — 

1. The Sonpat Mosque. — Balban's reign. 

^.J sXi\ JJi Joe's] Jk\~J\ Xjy ^s fo^l <UjkJ\ *=*"*J SjUa'i 8^fc .iO^ 

jX ^*^ ly^^l u^i j&*-\y>\ er*-=^l _y°'-? *$&\ c^^t j lw&J| & 1 ** (J^h 

This building, the blessed Jami 'Mosque, was renewed during the reign of the great 
King, the shadow of God on earth, Ghiydsuddunya, wad din, who stands by- 
God's order, Abul Muzaffar Balban, the King, the aider of the Commander of 
the Faithful — may God perpetuate his kingdom ! — by the weak slave Mir Beg, son of 
Ahmad Beg, the muqfi' (Jagirholder) of Sonpat. Dated, the ausjjicious month of 
Kamazan (may God increase its honor !), 670. 

The name of the founder is not quite certain, as the diacritical mai'ks 
are wanting ; it may be Mir Lang instead of Mir Beg ; but the name of 
Ahmad Beg is clear. The letters of the inscription are thick and clumsy. 

2. The Khwa'jah Khizr Kha'n Darga'h, of Sonpat. 
fJ^^A iiM» '^)J> (^jJ y &£* &=»t^a». ^o !r).-k-^ Jr?:^ ojU.e &£ vir"° 

u-i * [ ~ fi^lj*^!^' v**z J \ *$% i>Vl JM J^l o [Jai -'l ^f c \J 



1873.] Delmerick — On Inscriptions from Sonpat. 95 

The portico of the tomb of K h w a j a h K h i z r Khan, son of Darya Khan Sliir- 
waui — may God have mercy upon both ! — wag erected on Monday, 15th Shawwal, 
928, in the reign of the just and liberal King, who relies on the assistance of the 
Merciful, A b u 1 M u z a f f a rlbrahim Shah, son of Sikandar Shah, son of Buhlul, 
the King. May God continue his kingdom and reign ! 

*-k*/0 ^jlxK ^f^' !;£&•=»■ lijJf &&$ l2>jUj> A-lAJj (j^'^ J ^bW y a ^l CiJ*- 

jJai/o ti) )jhk)\ j **«^| j*^U ^ti^w cAlJj^ tyj 11 ^ f+A f£»"*h ^*> <!>'. 

2(l/o ^.A^lj j^^ii. ^l^^&J jjmjI/CjM i>>« j*Uj Ajl-tl-w j <XxL> <iJl:L ^iJaJt** j(Li 

It AjU*»J j jj^ib <U.* Xj&'i w^ v=y 

With the help of God, who is blessed and exalted, and by His grace, the building 
of this tomb of the great and noble saint, Miyan Khwajah Khizr Khan, the deceased, 
the pardoned, son of Darya. Khan, son of the Shaikh of Shaikhs Shaikh Ahmad, son of 
the king of Shaikhs Shaikh Manduki DarwisL Shirwani — may God have mercy 
upon them, — zammdar of the town of Sonpat'h, was completed in the time of the 
king of kings, theconfirmer of the laws of Islam and the faith, the shadow of God in both 
worlds, who trusts to the aid of the Merciful, Abul Muzaffar Ibrahim Shah, son 
of Sikandar Shah, son of Buhlul Shah, the King — may God perpetuate his kingdom and 
rule ! — by order of Langar Khan Khizr, on the 15th Rajab — may the honor of 
this month increase, — A. H. 930. 

Regarding these three inscriptions, Mr. Delmerick has the following 
note : 

' The first inscription is of the time of Ghiyasuddiu Balban and bears the 
date Rajab, A. H. 670, or A. D. February, 1272. There is only one other in- 
scription of the time of this monarch extant, as far as I know, viz., that on the 
walls of the Jami' Masjicl at Garhmukhtesar in the Mirat District, and no- 
ticed by Thomas in his book on the Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Dilhi, 
page 136. 

' The inscription now for the first time published, is on the walls of the 
Masjid of Sayyid Naciruddin 'A'bidullah at Sonpat. 

' Local tradition states that Sayyid Naciruddin A'bidullah bin Ahmad, who 
was usually called Abba Muhammad Nacir, came from Arabia via, Egypt to 
Nishapur, where hearing that the Rajah of Kanauj gave large prices for Turki 
horses, he bought a number of such horses and resolved to take them himself 
to India for sale. He had sixty servants with him. On reaching Sonpat, 
Rajah Arjun Deo, who was the Governor of the District, prohibited the Say- 
yid from proceeding further, and wanted to get the horses by force. There 
was a fight and the Sayyid together with fifty-nine of his followers suffered 
martyrdom. Arjun Deo himself and many other Hindus were slain in this 
contest. One man alone of the Sayyid's party escaped. His name was Jaubar. 
He was protected by, and found an asylum with, Sheo Chand, a Brahman, 



<)G Delmerick — On Inscriptions from Sonjpat. [Mat, 

whose descendants are still residents of the town, and are the hereditary 
Qanungos of the parganah. 

1 The date of the death of the Say y id or horse merchant is said to be 
the 12th of Muharram, A. H. 287, or A. D. 19th January, 900. 

' The second inscription is over the doorway of the building which 
covers the tomb of Khwajah Khizr Khan, and is dated the 11th Bajab, A. H. 
930, or A. D. 16th May 1523. It is a beautiful edifice solidly constructed 
of sandstone, and in tolerably good preservation. The dome is lofty and 
grand. 

' I have been unable to ascertain what particular office or rank this 
Khwajah Khizr, the son of Darya Khan Shirwani, held at the time of his 
death. 

' There was a celebrated chief of that period called Darya Khan Lodi, 
who lived up to the time of Babar's conquest of Hindustan ; for he it was, as 
is commonly asserted by Muhammadan Historians, who invited Babar to 
invade his master's dominions. 

' Firishtah relates that " one day while the King (Sikandar Lodi) and 
" his court were playing at cliaugan, the bat of Haibat Khan Shirwani* by 
" accident came in contact with the head of Sulaiman, the son of Darya Khan 
" Lodi, who received a severe blow. This was resented on the spot by Khizr 
" Khan, the brother of Sulaiman, who galloping up to Haibat Khan struck 
" him violently on the skull. In a few minutes both sides joined in the 
" quarrel, and the field was in uproar and confusion. Muhammad Khan Lodi 
" and KhanKhanan Lodi interposing endeavoured to pacify Haibat Khan, 
" and succeeded in persuading him to go quietly home with them." 

" The king apprehensive of conspiracy retired immediately to the 
" palace, but nothing more transpiring he made another party at the same 
" game a few days after. On the road to the playground Shams Khan, a 
" a relative of Haibat Khan Shirwani, perceiving Khizr Khan, the brother of 
'' Sulaiman Lodi, instantly attacked him with his bat and knocked him off 
" his horse. The king abused Shams Khan grossly, and returned to his palace, 
" and could not be persuaded but that there was some plot in agitation." 

' In the above account, if we read Haibat Khan Lodi for Shirwani, Darya 
Khan Shirwani for Lodi, and Sulaiman Shirwani for Lodi, we shall find that 
a Lodi struck a Shirwani, upon which the brother of the Shirwani assaulted 
the Lodi. The quarrel was made up for the time by other Lodis persuading 
their kinsman to go quietly home with them. As the narrative at present 
stands, if we follow Firishtah strictly to the letter, we are perplexed in think- 

* In the Tarfkh-i-Daudi, {vide page 463 of Elliot's Muhammadan Historians of 
India, "Vol. IV) it is said that the bat of Daria Khan Shirwani struck Sulaiman, but this 
is manifestly an error, and shows that a confusion of titles and even names is not 
by any means uncommon with Indian writers or copyists. 



1873.] Pdm'pat Inscriptions. 97 

ing how the Loclis could have pacified a Shirwani so soon after the quarrel, 
and how they should have taken him to their home, which was not the home 
of the offended Shirwani. I am inclined, therefore, to correct the text of 
Firishtah to the extent ahove suggested, as I helieve the same to he an 
error. Thus I almost certainly identity Khwajah Khizr Khan Shirwani of the 
inscription with the Khizr Khan who took so prominent a part in the 
scuffle ahove described. 

' It is also stated by Firishtah that Khizr Khan was present during the 
successful operations against Chanderi, which took place during the latter 
part of the reign of Sikandar Lodi. 

Another interesting inscription received from Mr. J. G-. Delmerick, is 
the following, from the tomb of the renowned saint B u 'All Qalandar, 
Panipat. Mr. Delmerick says that the building has pillars of kasdoti, or 
touchstone, to which allusion is made in the inscription ; but there are no 
other inscriptions at Panipat. 

Bu 'All Qalandar died at Panipat on the 13th Ramazan, 724, or Sep- 
tember, 1324 ; vide Proceedings, As. Society, Bengal, for April, 1870, p. 125. 

Pa'ni'pat Inscription, 
^fjj ±L~z>. \j s^.x j^ap jac - ^ JU.^. j c^«( J^jy^«^ 

^Lk &i)\ fjjj }(U. J/jy iXw t^lwa. j^ jjijlij iJjCi JL» 

1. This tomb is the place where the light of God's glory and perfection ap- 
pears ; like Jesus, it gives life to the dead. 

2. Muqarrab Khan, the Plato of his age, had a son Rizqullah Khan. 

3. When Bu 'All [the Panipat Saint] recognized this Bii 'All [i. e. this great 
doctor], he [Rizqullah], thus honored, became the Aristotles of his age. 

4. He then ordered the erection of this paradisiac portico, below which each pillar 
is made of touchstone. 

5. I put thought to the touch, in order to discover the year of the building, when 
I beheld the gold of alchemy, 

6. And the year of its erection appeared in the value of the letters ' the noble 
Rizqullah Khan' [1071, A H., or A. D 1660]. 

Regarding Muqarrab Khan and his son Rizqullah Khan, vide my A'in 
translation, pp. 544, 545. Rizqullah died in the 10th year of Aurangzib's 
reign. The Maasir-ul-Umara states that the Dargah itself was built by 
Muqarrab Khan. 



98 G-anga Parshad — On Sambhal Inscriptions. [May, 

2. From Ganga Parshad, Esq., Deputy Collector, Muradabad, several 
readings of inscriptions from Sambhal, Amrohah, and Muradabad, N. W. P. 
The translations are by Mr. Blochmann. 

1. Ba'bar's Mosque at Sambhal. 

This mosque, according to Mr. Ganga Parshad, " is situated in Mahallah 
Kot, and faces east. It was originally a Hari Mandir, and was converted 
into a mosque by Babar's order. At the side is a tank for ablutions, and a 
very old well. The mosque has still a chain for the suspension of a bell, 
and a passage at the back for the wheeling round of worshippers. There 
are many inscriptions on stone tablets in this mosque shewing the dates of 
erection and repairs." The oldest is the following (metre, short Ramal) — 

ell* j <_£Iaj hy*\ g]j * JUX j cUii lJj| £cl*. 

(Ja^ j ye &! &D| \aJl*. * yb 4 X*sr /0 J$U. /♦»>■ 8^ 

Jjd &Kj f *■*.* ^ <6 * cAi>^ ^? cri* 5 "** v^j-'djS 

1. The collector of buildings of grace and beauty, the raiser of the standards of 
rule and of faith, 

2. The spreader of the wings of peace and tranquillity, the builder of the build- 
ings of knowledge and deed, 

3. Muhammad Babar, a Jam in dignity, — may God Almighty have him in 
His keeping ! — 

4. Kindled in India the lamp of power, when a ray of it fell upon Sambhal. 

5. To bvrild this mosque — may it be protected against destruction aud decay ! — 

6. He gave orders to his mean slave, who is one of his principal officers, 

7. MirHinduBeg, the intelligent and wise, who is an example to others 
in polite manners. 

8. And when in consequence of the order of the sovereign of the world, by the 
guidance of Providence, the mosque was completed, 

9. Its date was " the first day of the mouth of Rabi' I." (A. H. 933, or, 6th 
December, 1526, A. D.). 

This mosque was repaired in A. H. 1067 (A. D. 1656-57) by Rustam 
Khan Dak'hini, as stated in the following Tctrikh — 

oto ^h <*Jl^- (J-Jj; # c*«wji? <_5**-»l £J)13 Jt-w 



1873.] Ganga Parshad — On Muradabad Inscriptions. 00 

1. The Jami' mosque was adorned by the excellent Khan, whose title is Sus- 
tain Khan. 

2. The poet As'adf wrote down as TdAkh the words ' He adorned God's house.' 
(A. H. 1067.) 

Two other tablets mention the Tdrihlis — (1) buq'ah i faiz ; and (2) Sij- 
dahgahe khalq kardah. 

2. The Mura'da'ba'd Mosque. 
Muradabad is the old C h a u p 1 a h or Chaupalah, so called from in- 
cluding in its boundary four villages, viz., Bhadaura, Dindarpiirah, Manpiir, 
and Dihri. Rustam Khan Dak'hini called it Muradabad in honor of Prince 
Muradbakhsh, Shahjahan's son. The Jami' mosque, on the right bank of 
the Ramganga, stands on a high mound close to the bank, and has the fol- 
lowing inscription — 

li^wj j;^iy ^/f uij. * <>**> ^ j <& di. l '>\*) 
i/U 8^ erij <^j^ «jj 1 ^ * (.5^1 *-»^fj cM* j***t> *^ 

1. There was no mosque in Muradabad. where only Infidels and Hindus lived ; 

2. The just king Shihab-uddin Ghazi (Shahjahan) gave it, therefore, to Rustam 
Khan, 

3. And ordered this excellent officer to build in the town a pretty and graceful 
mosque. 

4. Thus he firmly established the building of his religion, and elevated, in this 
world, his faith. 

5. Many a clever writer, in order to find a tdrikh, dived ingeniously into the 
ocean of thought, 

6. And one of the wise, thus diving, brought up a pure pearl. 

7. The lustrous pearl is this, now listen, — it belongs to (the poet) Ahrari, not to 
the prophet Elias and the Messiah, — 

8. 'RustamKhan, by God's grace, reared the building of the house of faith.' 
(A. H. 1046, or 1636, A. D.) 

Mr. Blochmann said : — 

The builder of the mosque, Rustam Khan D a k 'h i n i, is frequently 
mentioned in the histories of Shahjahan's reign. The Madsir id TJmard also 
has a biographical note, from which I extract the following : 

Rustam Khan was a Chirgiz from Mount Elburz. He was sold as a 
slave, and came into the possession of the Nizam ul mulk of the Dak'hin. 



100 Blochmann — On llmtam Khan Dakluni. [Mat, 

His master, however, promoted him, made him an Amir, and gave him the 
title of Muqurrab Khan. He fought with his master against Shahjahan (3rd 
year of his reign). When the Nizam ul mulk imprisoned Fath Khan, (son 
of the renowed Malik 'Ambar) who had been Vakil and Commander-in- 
Chief, Muqarrab Khan received the command of the army, and Hamid 
Khan Habshi was made Vakil. A short time after, Fath Khan was released 
and restored to his office. Muqarrab Khan was, therefore, deposed ; and 
annoyed at this treatment, he fled to A'zam Khan, one of Shahjahan's officers, 
for protection, and solicited an appointment of the emperor. Shahjahan 
received him favorably, gave him presents and a lak'h of rupees, anrl appoint- 
ed him a commander of Five Thousand. Sometime after, in the fifth year 
of his reign, the emperor gave him Sambhal as tuyul, and, in the 18th year, 
the title of Mwstcm Klian. He then accompanied Prince Aurangzib on his 
expedition against Jhujhar Singh Bunclela, and in the 10th year, he devas- 
tated, with Sayyid Khan Jahan Barha, the country of 'Adil Shah, and was 
then allowed to go again to his jagir. In the 15th year, he operated with 
Prince Muradbakhsh against Jagat Singh of Mau, and accompanied Dara 
Shikoh to Qandahar. In the 19th year, he was ordered to accompany the 
army to Balkh, but to stay during the winter in Rohtas ; and when the 
emperor returned from Kashmir, Rustam Khan accompanied Prince Murad- 
bakhsh, whose left wing he commanded. After the conquest of Balkh, the 
Prince did not wish to stay any longer with the army, and the emperor sent 
Sa'dullah Khan to Balkh. He sent Rustam Khan to occupy Andkhiid and 
environs, and Rustam Khan defeated the Uzbaks in several smart engage- 
ments. When Aurangzib, after his arrival in Balkh, left the country to 
Nazr Muhammad Khan, Rustam Khan returned to his jagir in India. In 
the 21st year, he was present at the royal feast in the (new built) palace of 
Shahjahanabad. Soon after, he was sent to Kabul. In the 22nd year, on 
the rumour of a march of the Persians upon Qandahar, Aurangzib was sent 
there, and Rustam Khan commanded the rear ; but a short time after arri- 
val before Qandahar, he was sent to Bust, where he defeated the Persians, 
and took eleven guns with material. Shahjahan gave him the title of 
Firuzjang, and made him, on his return, a commander of Six Thousand, with 
5000 horse. In the 25th year, he was again with Aurangzib before Qanda- 
har, and again occupied, in the 27th year, the town of Bust, under Dara 
Shikoh. But not long after, the siege of Qandahar had to be raised, and 
Rustam Khan returned. In the 28th year, he marched with Sa'dullah 
against Chitor. In the following year, by Para's order, he was sent to 
Kabul, from where he was recalled in the 31st year, when the war for the 
succession had broken out. Rustam Khan attached himself to Dara Shikoh, 
and commanded, with Prince Sipihr Shikoh, the left wing in the battle of 
Samogar, near Agrah, in which Aurangzib defeated Dara. He was wounded, 
and died soon after of his wounds (1068). 



1S73.] Ganga Parshad — Amrohah Inscriptions. 101 

3. The Mosque of Amrohah. 

The following inscription is on the Jami' mosque of the old town of 
Amrohah. The town is rarely mentioned during the Mughul period ; but 
its families of Sayyids were renowned, like those of Manikpdr, Bilgram, and 
Barha. To them belonged the builder of the mosque, Sayyid Muhammad, 
of Amrohah, who held the post of Mir 'Adl, or Chief Justice, in the first 
half of Akbar's reign ; vide my Am translation, pp. 438, 490, where his 
biography will be found. 

The inscription is (Metre, Mujtass). 

e.J.5 j <-^j.> J^?- <_£J^ j*£\ «^f ff & \ 

&J| (Jlji jU^b Jl/O J (Sj.L= J&JQ 

Uftxlij l_ 0.wj| tteyS ^U. <*Jl«j 

Jjlij JjJ-i- J"**' &+SS-* j^JJ J.*/0 

jJj,U &+s:' iy\*« &.)iyo j\±^ 

& 1 &■$ l_ (3-1*. .ifjj! JS^jt <-a^ **" 

• v ^ " vj • 

1. In the reign of A k b a r, the victorious, the glory (jaldl) of power and religion 
the pivot of the kingdom and of the faith, the Padishah, the shadow of God, — 

2. (Time, without exaggeration, is the servant of his throne ; the stars, without 
hesitation, are his obedient servants), — 

3. The Jami' mosque at Amrohah, was built by the ornament of Muhammad's 
religion, the nobleman with whom people take refuge, 

4. Of exalted dignity, Sayyid Muhammad, the just, to whose praise people 
at all times sing homilies. 

5. Leave out the final he, and you will find the date in the words, ' the building 
of the exalted Chief Justice.' (i. e. 996—16, = A. H. 980, or A D. 1572.) 

4. The Fort of Amrohah. 

The following inscription belonged to the Fort of Sayyid 'Abdul Majid, 
alias Diwan, at Amrohah. The fort no longer exists ; only a portion of 
the wall and gate is preserved. 

^.J,ff AlJf 

* ^♦J'ij <J*J-> ^J| ^jt <*•♦•* <*i** cN-i" 5 V ^* Co^-w <XX-Lo <xj.jfjj.2w ^jLe 
aSi+XhvJCijc^ J Jr*A^./C l—)}'^- # tV*l ^-/O. j=k. <J*J.J (^j! »aw &Mt 
/*)jA <X*Jj jU-ij C^^i # o^.i.^.AJj) j\ ^jiJlvtf ^A^t^L 
^S* I • 6 I ***»• 

^^s^ |«a| <xi.« £jjUj| iy^*^°; j-^ ilj**^ e>^ JU^ !*^ <*Ui*lj 



102 Delmerick — Sarhal Inscription. [Mat, 

God is Great ! 

In the time of the great king, the second Lord of Conjunction, Shihab uddin 
Muhammad Shahjahan PadishahiGhaz i — may God perpetuate his reign ! — 
this fort was built by the refuge of Sayyids, Mi ran Sayyid Hamadan. 

1. When this joy-increasing fort, beautiful, firm, and exceedingly strong, 
was built, 

2. I took counsel with Thought and asked for a tdrikh, when he said, " Count 
the letters in the ' happy fort'." (A. H. 1051). 

Built by the servant Kamal Khan Khanahzad, in the blessed month of 
Ramazan, 1051. (December, 1641.) 

The names of the builder and the architect do not occur in the Pdcli- 
sJidhnamaJi. 

Mr. J. G. Delmerick has also sent to the Society readings of the follow- 
ing Sanskrit Inscriptions, which have been translated by Babu Rajendralala 
Mitra. 

1. S'arabala Inscription, Hariya'na' District. 

1. Salutation to that Ganadhipati (a) by adoring whose feet mankind obtain 
all that they can wish. 

2. May Satyala (b) with (his wives) Ambavati and Amba, preserve 
you, — the god by whose grace worshippers become objects of happiness. 

3. There is a country named Hariyana, which is like unto a heaven on the 
earth, and there stands in it the city of D h i 1 1 i built by the Tomaras. 

4. After the Tomaras, the Chahamanas, who were ardent in protecting 
their people, reigned in that city, whose enemies were all overcome. 

5. Next the Mlechchha S a h a b a d i n, (c) the fire of whose vigour had consumed 
to ashes the forest of his enemies, took the city by his might. 

6. Thenceforward up to this day it has been in the possession of the Turushkas, 
and now the auspicious King Muhammad Sahi (d) rules it. 

7. Next. In that city dwelt a family of merchants of Agrotola. (e) In it was 
born a Sadhu, named Sava-deva. 

8. His son was Lakshmidhara, who was like a bee on the two lotas-like 
feet of the lord of Luksmi (Vishnu). He was constant in the adoration of the gods 
and Brahmans, and was celebrated for his good-will towards all created beings. 

9. He had two sons, both not of this sinful Kali age, both like oceans of great- 
ness ; the first, by name Maha, was of mature understanding ; the younger G h i k a 
was of great fame. 

10. Maha, had a beautiful son named M e h 1 a, who was always bent on 
worshipping the gods, Brahmans and seniors. 

11. G h i k a, married the daughter of S' r i d h a r a, named V i r o, who was 
devoted to her husband. By her he had two sons. 

12. The elder (of these two) was K h e t a 1 a, an ocean of goodness and of 
polished behaviour. The younger was named P a i t u k a ; (/) his mind was full of 
respect for all seniors and Brahmans. 

13. In the minds of these two merchants, (Sadkus) K h etal'a and P a i t u k a, 
always disposed to meritorious works, a spot of ground outside the goodly village of 
Sarabala appeared agreeable. 



1873.] Rajendralala Mitra — On the Sarbal Inscription. 103 

14. There, for the eternal enjoyment of heaven by their parents, and for attain- 
ment of offspring, K h e t a 1 a and P a i t u k a caused a well to be excavated. 

15. This was written on Tuesday, the 5th of the waxing moon, in the month of 
Phalguna, in the year of the Veda, Vashu, fire and the moon (g) of the era of Vikramarka. 

16. In the village of S drab a la in the Pratigana (h) of In drapr ast h a, 
may this well last for ever, as also its maker with his family ! 

Samvat 1384, Phalguua Sudi 5, Tuesday. 

Notes. 

a. Ganes'a. 

b. I know of no Hindu divinity of this name, and therefore suspect 
this to he a mislection of some other word for S'iva, the husband of Amba. 

e. This is of course the Indian Corruption or Sanskritisation of Shihab- 
uddin. 

cl. In Sanskrit and old Hindi writings the Semitic Shah is generally 
written Sahi, with a dental sibilant and a final i. 

e. This is either the original, or a Sanskrit form, of the name of Agra, 
the merchants or baniyas of which place are well known all over India as 
the Agarwala baniyas. 

f. The u of this word is long in this place, but in the two subsequent 
stanzas it is short, according in the three different places to the exigencies 
of the metre ; what its true sound is, is not ascertainable. 

g. The numerical value of the words being equal to 1381 — thus ; 
Veda = 4, Vashu = 8, fire = 3, and moon = 1. 

h. No Sanskrit Dictionary gives this word. It evidently stands here 
for a province or a district. Perhaps it is a mislection of pratigata " in 
front of." 

^lf% il WlftS 1 *!^ W XT^TTm*Trr?<KT: I 

^W#J ^STT^rlft aiWTf^TcT^ ffW. II \ II 

fefwTwr *rrt ^ •frr^Tf^r fsrfrjm ii ^ n 

^T^WTT *ZVT%W- S?«TTTT^^TrTfq^T: II a II 
#^: ^T^ft^t ^%?T15fJ3Z% wft II * II 

tint ^*3i*^\W' ^i^^T^q^<T ii *> ii 



104 Eajenclralala Mitra— On the Nardin Inscription. [Ma.1, 

^f^aUT^Tnf -q: *3^TO*Rcr*K: II \° II 
^WM^Tf ^T^TT'sff *T<SqTT"?m | 

tfarTfa^T^rere «TOT*n^T^«T 1"<tt n U iP 
^^•tt^t ^ *ra ^wgar^fian^nT^t^rf^Tf! ii ^ u 

Til ^W^TT^Tfa^r^TW'rT^^mrgT f*}^ II ^ II 
TgrlW tTrpR^ ^T^WTOrp SPf II \ 8 II 
*W9f "qfT^JTTf^W f%fa?r WreT9T II S>* II 

fcrtfrog - ^T*i qrr^ra wr»n-: \\\i\\ 

qtt \^u T^ar^f^ * «wtX# II 
2. Inscription from Na'da'yana, near Indraprastha. 

1. Prosperity! He, (Ganes'a), wlio is known as the destroyer of every evil in 
behalf of those who seek his protection ; who bestows every favour to those who adore 
him with salutation ; who is the remover of misfortune — bears one prominent tooth 
like a crystal staff for the destruction of the enemies of the gods. 

2. May Chandika, who overthrows the enemies of the Lord of the Devas ; 
who sits on the shoulder of the buffalo giant ; who is bepraised by H a r i, I' s a, and 
the Lotus-born, for success of every kind ; who quickly bestows rewards to mankind ; 
who upholds the universe ; who is the protrectress of my family ; may she prove 
destructive to the sins of this world ! 

3. There is a great and virtuous province named Hariyana, where Krishna, 
along with Partha, careered for the suppression of sin. 

4. Therein exists the city of Dhilli, embellished with innumerable jewels, 
whence sin is expelled by the recitation of the Vedas by the knowers of the S'ruti, 
and which is resonant with the music issuing from the tinkling of ankle-ornaments 
of charming damsels, even as the river of heaven is with the voice of geese. 

5. There was born the renowned Mahammad Sahi, the crowning jewel of 
all earthly lords, the vigour of whose arms had overthrown all enemies ; the institutor 
of a new era ; the mighty. When he proceeds on hunting excursions, through fear the 
earth trembles, the ocean dries up, the mountains shake, and his enemies fly to distant 
quarters. 

6. Lineage described. There lived formerly in the village of Na day an a a 
merchant of the name of Govinda Deva and his family, all performing many 
virtuous acts, and were the glory (lit. standard) of the Rohitaka race. 



1873.] Bajendralala Mitra — On the Ndrdin Inscription. 105 

7. Unto Govinda Deva was bora a clever son named Eatna, even as a 
jewel is produced from the ocean. By him the auspicious and constant Gaganas'ri' 
was taken for wife. 

8. She bore unto him four renowned sons, the Ratnasadhus. These were 
G a n g a d h a r a, M a d h a v a, Lakshmana, and D a m o d a r a. 

9. The youngest among tbem, Damodara, having married the beloved 
V i r o d a, obtained the auspicious Dhira Deva, Krishna Deva, and other 
sons to the number nine. 

10. Among them Dhira Deva, the intelligent and knowing, was possessed of 
every accomplishment, well versed in mercantile work, in buying and selling, and an 
excellent judge of the qualities of cattle, land, gold, stuffs and jewelry. 

11. He married a noble and auspicious lady named Dhani. By her he had 
two sons, R i s a d a and S n d e v a. 

12. R i s a d a had two goodly sons by his wife R a j a s r i', namely, D u 1 1 a b h a 
Deva and S'rikara. 

13. The intelligent S'rikara was well versed in the law, and devoted to the 
worship of the lotus-like feet of the lord of Sri (Vishnu). He had two wives of 
good parentage, K a 1 1 y a, and Gangadis'ri. 

14. By them he got three accomplished and excellent sons: Prithvidhara 
by the eldest virtuous lady, and S'r i d h a r a and Solhana by the younger. 

15. To the west of Indraprastha there is a village named Nadayana. 
To the north of this village a well was caused to be excavated by S'ridhara for 
the gratification of his parents. 

16. " Is this the water of the celestial river, cool, sweet, and wholesome ? or 
is it nectar thrown here by the immortals ?" Thus exclaims the traveller when he 
proceeds home after drinking the sweet clear water of this well. 

17. Written by Madana Deva in the year four, eight, fire and moon, (a) of 
the era of Vikrama. On Thursday the 3rd of the wane in the month of Bhadra. 

Samvat 1384, on the 3rd of the wane in the month of Bhadra, Thursday. May 
good happen of this ! 

(a) Fire equal to 3, and moon equal to 1. The figures, being trans- 
posed according to the usual practice iu such cases, give the date 1381. 

5WTjf?PT ^Tfa^rf ^qfifs^^^H^ f?^: ii ^ ii 



10G Delmerick — On the Sarbal and Ndniin Inscriptions. |_M AY > 

fewtaft lTT<Cte f^TTffT T«TT 

f%^: l^hf *fi*T*H73 f% f^JTT^Tnq^Tfq f^f: II * II 
JTjf^^T WJ^3f*J^%W TT^\fT^^%^5 II ^ II 
^^FST ^W W&\ JUT^TT^t q'frTWfTT II *> II 

jf^t^tt *rrspr<3^FT<iiPrej^ ^t^t^ttt^^: H « II 
#hf^^g^reffowsrsrer?i^ ii <t 11 

^T^TH IgVi ^Wf *Rjf ^pftf^f^rTf I 
^TWlfWT ft^sTW^TT olfsTfTTf^^T || \*> II 
^T5lfw TWTWlf ffa^t Wmfw I 
^W ^if^^T# ^t^ WW: Vt II S^ II 

^ff^^f W^I W\^l SRllJTfwmftTOaf jrf^Tf II ^ II 
^t^NTC'Sre ^T^^T: J^T^RT^ irf^% ^T: | 

tJUn^lf^J^V^f fa<^f SHJ ^"T: ^f^TT ^taX^F II W II 

f%*f S^fi^rw Ktw fRifire f%fire «r^nc?T f%w^ne*r *j?r I 
Tfw fffcrere^^rer %vm ^tt ?i^vN w^r ^rrfa jt^wii^ii 

fasff*n^$f*3iT *tt? <5Wt^Rf 3TTTf^^ II v° II 

Regarding these two inscriptions, Mr. Delmerick writes as follows : — 

' By to-day's post I beg to forward for translation and publication 
copies of inscriptions on a couple of stone slabs now in the Delhi Museum. 

' They have been carefully transcribed by Bisashar Nath, a learned Pan- 
dit and teacher of Sanskrit in a school in the city. 

' The Naraina stone was given to me by Lalla Omra Singh, a member of 
the Delhi Municipality, and by me deposited in the museum. The inscrip- 
tion on it is in very good preservation. 



1873.] Dobson — On Murina and Harpy iocephalus. 107 

' I cannot ascertain how the Sarban stone found its way into the mu- 
seum. It has been there for several years, and the inscription on it is very 
much abraded and cut up, and the Pundit has had a great deal of trouble 
in decyphering it." 

' When these stones were originally set up, Naraina was, as you will per- 
ceive, called Narain, and Sarban Sarbal. Delhi was also then known as 
Dhilli, and not Dehli and Dilli as now written and pronounced. 

' The two wells to which these inscriptions relate appear to have been 
built by banias — and members of the same family within six months of 
each other, and during the reign of Muhammad-bin Tughluq in the Samvat 
year 1381, or A. D. 1327. 

' Naraina is 7 miles S. W. of Delhi, and Sarban is 5 miles south of Delhi. 
The two villages are six miles apart from each other. 

The following papers were read — 

1. On the Genera Murina and BZarpyiocephalus of Gray, — By G. E. 
Dobson, B. A., M. B., Staff Surgeon BZ. M's British Forces. 

The Genus Murina was formed, in 1812, by Dr. J. E. Gray for the 
reception of Yespertilio suillus, Temm. which was shown to possess 
characters generically distinct from other species of Chiroptera, and later 
Vespertilio karpia, Pallas, was made the type of a new genus BZarpyio- 
cephalus by the same author. 

These species remained the sole representatives of their respective 

genera till last year when two new species of Murina were added M. 

yrisea, Hutton, and M. cyclotis, Dobson, — and a second species of BZarpyio- 
cephalus, from the North- Western Himalaya was described by Dr. W. 
Peters under the name of BZ. BZuttoni. 

The genus BZarpyiocephalus is distinguished from Murina according to 
Dr. Gray* by having the wing-membrane attached to the base of the toes 
while in the latter genus it extends along the toe as far as the base of the 
claw ; also by the hairiness of the feet and interfemoral membrane, and by 
the possession, in adults, of a single premolar only, in the upper jaw. 

I lately described a new species of Murina — M. cyclotis — which pre- 
sents characters peculiar to both genera as given by Dr. Gray. It so resem- 
bles BZarpyiocephalus harpia, Pallas, in the peculiar form of the nostrils, and 
the distribution, quality and even colour of the fur as to appear on a super- 
ficial examination to be an immature specimen of that species. But while 
thus agreeing generally with BZ. harpia, it differs in having the wing mem- 
brane attached to the base of the claws instead of to the base of the toes, 
and so belongs equally to both genera. This convinced me that the distinc- 
tions enumerated by Dr. Gray were not sufficient to separate these species 

* Synopsis of the genera of VespertilionidcB and Noctilionidce ; Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist. 1866, p. 66. 



108 Dobson — On Murina and Harpyiocephalus. [Mat, 

into different geneva, and as the name ' Murina'' had the priority of Harpy- 
iocephalus I placed the new species in the former genus. 

I was obliged to defer publishing these remarks till I should have had 
an opportunity of examining skeletons of both species. Meanwhile I re- 
ceived Dr. Peters's paper with descriptions of two of the species referred to 
above in which he adds that it is scarcely possible any longer to maintain. 
Harpyiocephalus and Murina as distinct genera ; he does not, however, 
unite them, probably for the same reason. 

An examination of the skeletons of Murina cyclotis, and Harpyiocepha- 
lus harpia has confirmed the opinion previously formed of their affinity. 
The chief differences are to be found in the skulls, the remaining parts of 
the skeletons of both species corresponding in all respects. 

Compared with M. cyclotis, the skull of H. liarpia is much shortened 
in front of the anterior origin of the zygoma, the distance between the infra- 
orbital foramen and the inner incisor being the same in both skulls, though 
their respective lengths are as 10 : 12. This shortness of the muzzle in H. 
harpia diminishes the length of the tooth-row and leaves no room for the 
third molar which is constantly absent in adult animals, probably pushed 
out by the growth of the other teeth. These might be regarded as impor- 
tant differences, were it not that two authors have mentioned the presence 
of an additional tooth in the young animal, and in Dr. Peters's description 
of H. Huttonii, a third molar is referred to. 

The mandible of H. harpia is also, correspondingly shortened, and the 
teeth are crowded between the canine and the anterior edge of the coronoid 
process ; the third molar is much smaller than the second, and being placed 
on the commencement of the ascending ramus is elevated by its longest 
cusp above the others. 

The teeth in M. cyclotis are very similar to those in H liarpia, both 
upper premolars are large and bear about the same proportion to the canines 
and molars as they do in that species, agreeing in this respect with M. 
grisea, lately described by Dr. Peters,* but differing remarkably from M. 
suillus in which the first upper premolar is much smaller than the second 
which equals the canine in vertical extent. 

In H. harpia, the skull is proportionately more swollen and elevated 
between the centres of the zygomatic arches than in M. cyclotis, and the 
sagittal crest much more developed ; the bases of the skulls are very similar, 
the only difference observable being the greater backward prolongation of 
the palate bones behind the molar teeth in H. harpia, but this is perhaps 
more apparent than real as the absence of the third molar adds to the 
length. 

* Monatsber. Berlin Akacl, April 1872, p. 288. 



1873.] Dobson — On Marina and Harpyioccphalus. 109 

The mandibles in both species have a striking generic resemblance in 
the elevation of the coronoid process above the condyle. In H. harpia the 
eoronoid process is probably more developed than in any other species of 
bat, and its outer surface is deeply hollowed out for the insertion of muscles. 
Its shape is very similar to that of the common Dog, but proportionately to 
the length of the jaw it is much more developed. Corresponding to this 
great development of the coronoid process of the mandible, the teeth are 
very stout and thickly coated with enamel ; the cusps of the molar are short 
and blunt and the canines much thickened, the small incisors even present- 
ing the same peculiarity. 

In M. cyclotis, the coronoid process is considerably elevated above the 
condyle, and its external surface is deeply hollowed, but its general form is 
triangular, not rounded as in the forxuer species. The molars are stout and 
their cusps not so acute as in other species of Yeapertilionidce, resembling 
most those of H. harpia. 

The peculiar form of the teeth of S. harpia is evidently connected with 
the nature of the food of the animal. The stout bluntly pointed teeth, well 
coated with enamel, are admirably adapted to crush the hard cases of 
coleoptera, especially of the larger kinds which a bat of the size of this spe- 
cies might be expected to capture. In the stomach of one examined by me 
the crushed cases of some species of these insects were found in abundance. 

As we become better acquainted with the habits of these animals, it 
will probably be found that the food of this species is restricted to certain 
species of coleoptera possessing extremely hard cases which would effectually 
resist the feebler though more acutely pointed teeth of other bats inhabit- 
ing the same localities. 

The form of the teeth, the great development of the coronoid process 
and shortness of the mandible, are all evidently subservient to the same ob- 
ject, and have become modified simultaneously to suit the food of the animal. 
The teeth of the Asiatic and African Elephants differ much more re- 
markably than do the teeth of some species of bats belonging to very dis- 
tinct families, and yet few zoologists venture to place them in different 
genera. 

Professor Flower has well remarked that there is " too much impor- 
tance attached to the characters of the teeth, their modifications depending 
on adaptation mainly, and not essentially indicative of affinity."* 

The conjoined genera, united under the common name Marina, con- 
tain five species, enumerated above, of which M. harpia and M. suillus are 
most widely separated. These form a very natural group, readily distin- 
guished from all other genera of Vespertilionidce by the peculiarly shaped 
projecting nostrils taken in connection with the dental formulas. 
* Proc. Zool. Sue. Loud. 1869, p. 5. 



HO Dobson — On the Asiatic species of Molossi. [May 

Note. — In a short paper, containing notes on some species of Chiroptera collected 
by Mr. Theobald in Burma, published by me in the ' Proceedings' for August, 1872, 1 
mentioned that I had obtained specimens of Cynonycteris amplexicaudatus, Geoff, 
from North-Western India. 

I have since learned from Mr. W. T. Blanford, who sent me these speoimens, that 
I have given a wrong locality for them, as they were taken by him in the Nernakduu 
Salt Caves, Kishnu Island, in the Persian Gulf. 

The mistake in the locality, referred to above, was due to the label sent by Mr. 
Blanford having been misplaced after the receipt of the specimens. 

In the Pi-oceedings for December last I described a new species of Vespertilio, 
collected by Captain W. G. Murray in Kashmir, under the name of V. macropus. 1 
discovered since, quite accidentally (as there is no copy of the " Mammals of Austra- 
lia" in Calcutta,) that this name had been used for an Australian bat by Mr. Gould 
and consequently cannot be again employed. I propose, therefore, for this new spe- 
cies the name Vespertilio longipes. 

2. On the Asiatic species of Molossi. — By G. E. Dobson, B. A.,M. B. 

(Abstract.) 

The paper commences with an account of the distribution of the species 
of this very remai'kable and well defined group. The Molossi are divided into 
five genera, of which two only, Nyctinomus and Chiromeles, are found in 
the continent of Asia and its islands. By far the greater number of species 
belong to the genus Molosstts, and are confined to the Western Hemisphere. 

Two new species of Nyctinomus are described, one from Bengal and 
the Panjab, A 7 ", tragatus, and one from China, A 7 ", insignis. The former re- 
sembles A 7 ", plicatus, Buch. Ham. very closely in size and in general aspect, 
but differs in possessing a much larger tragus, in the development of the 
ears and in the place of attachment of the wing membrane ; the latter, a 
lar^e species, had been named by Mr. Bly th in his Catalogue of the Mammals 
in the Museum of the Asiatic Society, but not described. 

The number of Asiatic species of Molossi described prior to 1873 were 
three one Chiromeles and two Nyctinomi, and to these three more are added, 
making sis the total number now known. 

The paper will appear in the Journal. 

3. On Rhopalorhynclms Kroyeri, a new genus and species of Pycnogo- 
mdce.—By J. Wood-Mason, Esq. 

The paper will appear in Journal Part II, No. 3, 1873. 

4. Note regarding certain type specimens of Batrachia in the Asiatic 
Society's Museum. — By W. Theobald, Esq. 

The passage I wish to draw attention to in a paper of Dr. J. Anderson 
in the P. Z. S. of London for February, 1871, is the following : " It will be 



1873.] W. Theobald— On type specimens of Batraclda. Ill 

observed that a number of Mr. Blyth's types of Batraclda in the Indian 
Museum have been identified. These are of peculiar interest, as Mr. Theo- 
bald was under the impression, when he drew up his Catalogue of the Rep- 
tiles in the Asiatic Society's Museum, that they had disappeared from the col- 
lection." On first being informed of this fact some time last year, I received 
the intimation with pleasure, thinking that I had been guilty of an over- 
sight in the haste with which the Catalogue was compiled, but having recent- 
ly had my attention re-drawn to the subject by Dr. J. E. Gray's repeated 
attacks on me, as regards the Testudinata, a full reply to which I am now 
preparing, I thought I would look into the " how and why" I came to over- 
look the above types, and the following is the result at which I have arrived, 
that whilst bearing full testimony to the patient research of Dr. Anderson, 
and the perfect fairness wherewith his remarks are written, I cannot but 
see there are some difficulties in the way of accepting his conclusion. 

The first Batrachian type I was supposed to have overlooked, Megalophrys 
gig as, Blyth 71, is thus entered in Dr. Anderson's paper, and I cannot see how 
it is possible that Dr. Anderson can be right, but the facts are these. 

" Rana Liebigii, Gunther. 

Megalophrys gigas, Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XX p. 410, XIII 
p. 299, and XXIV p. 717. 

Bona Liebigii, Gth. p. 38, 1860 p. 157 pt. 28, fig. A. 

Hylorana erythrcea, Schlegel, Theobald Cat. Hep. As. Soc. Museum 
p. 84 (J. A. S. XIII supra is a typographical error for XXIII)." 

Now the object I had in view in preparing the Catalogue was quite 
distinct from the far more laborious one subsecpiently carried out by Dr. 
Anderson, namely, a critical examination of each individual specimen, and 
was mainly to record the number and names of specimens in the As. Soc. 
Museum at the time, as they stood recorded, recently in Mr. Blyth's own 
handwriting, on the labels attached to the bottles. As Mr. Blyth had 
described two species of Megalophrys, as among presentations to the Museum, 
I entered both species with references in the Catalogue, but as I could dis- 
cover no specimens of the genus in the Museum, nor any specimens having 
that name on their label, I presumed that they had been lost. Doubtless 
what did take place, with respect to the species claimed as re-discovered by 
Dr. Anderson, was that Mr. Blyth, being satisfied it was no Megalophrys, 
removed the label. There is, however, a difficulty in accepting Dr. Ander- 
son's identification which has not been explained or alluded to. As a matter 
of fact, the specimen which Dr. Anderson considers he has identified as the 
type of Megalophrys G-igas, was presented by Capt. W. S. Sherwill from Sik- 
kim, and was an adult male ; whilst the specimen identified as the above type 
under Hylorana erythrcea in my Catalogue was labelled in Blyth's hand- 
writing as presented by Major Berdmore from Mergui, and is moreover a 



112 W. Theobald — On type specimens of Batracli'ut. [Mas'. 

large female ! a fact corroborated by Dr. Anderson in re-examining the spe- 
cimen. As stated by me the specimen was really labelled by BIyth nigro- 
mttatus, which I have ranked as a synonym of Ekytiiiueus, and was the 
type of that species. 

The next species to which I would advert is Diplopelma Berdmorei, 
Blyth, which Dr. Anderson charges me with confounding with Z>. 
pulchrum, Gth. Now Dip. Berdmorei is one of the commonest and best 
marked frogs in Pegu, and I am perfectly familiar with it ; yet Dr. An- 
derson had full warrant for what he said, for by a ridiculous typographical 
blunder Dip. Berdmorei is printed in italics, as though a synonym of the pre- 
ceding species, the name of which, being an Indian frog is entered by me 
according to my plan, though no specimens were in the Museum. Though 
Dr. Anderson was really mistaken in this matter, he was fully justified in what 
he said so far, but I am not convinced that his recognition of the types 
said to be missing is correct. Dip. Berdmorei is subject to very little variation 
in colour or size, and it is more likely than not, that among :four specimens 
from any part of Burmah he could find one which " accurately agrees with 
Blyth's measurements." As a matter of fact, however, the 4 bleached spe- 
cimens catalogued by me, were labelled as presented by Col. Phayre from 
Arakan, whilst the type of " Engystoma Berdmorei, J. A. S. XXIV p. 720, was- 
presented by Capt. Berdmore from Schwe Gyen. I cannot therefore hold 
that the authority of an original label can be superseded on the grounds of an 
accidental agreement or measurement in a frog subject to such slight va- 
riation as that in question. I am not aware if I am supposed to have over- 
looked any other types than the above, which it appears in the last degree 
questionable if I really did overlook, but I merely bring forward the subject 
in order that so curious an error of so accurate an observer as Dr. Anderson 
should not be perpetuated, to the bewilderment of whoever may hereafter 
desire to examine Mr. Blyth's types. 

Dr. Stoliczka regretted that Dr. Anderson was not present to explain 
the mistake complained of by Mr. Theobald. He said that though he had 
in this case little doubt about the correctness of Dr. Anderson's specific 
identifications, still a mistake about Blyth's typical specimens might have 
occurred, unless specimens from different localities, but belonging to the 
same species, had been put together in the same bottle with the type 
specimens. In such cases one could really do no more than select that 
specimen as the type, which precisely agreed with the original description. 

5. A Contribution towards a Monograph of the Passalidce. — By Dr. F. 
Stoliczka. 

(Abstract.) 

The author said that his object in examining the Indian representa- 
tives of this family was chiefly to test the views expressed by Dr. Kaup 



1873.] F. Stoliczka— On the Passalidce. 113 

regarding their classification in a recent Monograph of the Passalidce. The 
present communication is only preliminary to a more extensive monograph, 
hut the author thought it desirable to put on record the results which he had 
at present obtained, because he was shortly to proceed with the expedition to 
Central Asia, which might last for nearly two years. 

There are 29 species enumerated in the paper. Regarding several of the 
known ones, notes on distribution, etc., are given, and eight species are de- 
scribed as new. All the species which are known to occur in India, includ- 
ing Ceylon and Burma and the country extending southward to Singapore, 
have been noticed. The arrangement of the groups and genera adopted 
by Kaup in his recent monograph has been followed. The paper will be 
published in the third number of the Journal. 

The author did not claim to be a supporter of the views of the philosophical 
school of naturalists, but he spoke in a few general terms on the principles of 
classification, adopted by Dr. Kaup, a classification of which Dr. Kaup may 
almost be called the originator, and of which he certainly is the most im- 
portant representative and the greatest supporter. The principle which the 
philosophical school, as represented by Kaup, adopts, is briefly the following. 
The naturalists say that we have to arrange our zoological specimens accord- 
ing to three heads — first, according to the anatomical system ; secondly, ac- 
cording to the organ of sense ; thirdly, according to the different parts of the 
body ; these being the three chief constituents which make the animal 
what it is. Arranging the different components of each of these according 
to their value we obtain the following table. 

B. Sense. C\ Part of bod)/. 

eye head. 

ear chest. 

nose rump. 

tongue belly. 

sex sacral region. 

Now, to give an example — the class of animals in which the nervous sys- 
tem, the eye and the head, in proportion to the body, become most highly 
developed is undoubtedly the Mammalia. In the same way we get for 
number II. the birds, as the type of respiration-animals, the third the Pep- 
tiles (with the Amphibians), inclwdmg the most voluminous forms, the fourth 
the Fishes with the belly most developed, and the fifth the Mollusca. These 
five classes are regarded as the members of the first sub-kingdom. The 
addition of the Mollusca to the other four does not look a very fortunate one, 
and it would be perhaps more appropriate to separate the Amphibians from 
the true Reptilians, as they are in reality two entirely different classes. 
Again it does look very strange that in the fifth division the sexual system 
is entered as corresponding to the eye and ear, and it is not apparent why 





A. Anat. system. 


I. 


nervous 


II. 


respiratory 


[II. 


osseous 


IV. 


muscular 


V. 


dermal 



114 F. Stoliezka — On the Passalidce. [Mat, 

the sacral region should be the most developed part of the body in the Mol- 
lusca. 

The general plan exhibited in the above table is, however, followed by 
Dr. Kaup through all the five sub-kingdoms. Thus, he places — and I think 
rightly — the PsiUacidce, as the most highly organised of birds, in the first fa- 
mily of the five tribes into which the birds are divided. On the same principle 
the Brevvpermes with the Dinomidce form the centre of the third tribe, and the 
OaUinacece, which are the most stupid birds, take the lowest position. Among 
Reptilians the Chameleontidce are the highest, and the Dinosaurii the 
largest ; the former belonging to the first, the latter to the third tribe. 

The above table is thus applied to every group, and is carried into the 
greatest detail in the Passalidce. The largest known form, Proculus Gori/i, is 
considered as the centre of the family, which is separated into Aulacocyclince 
Eriocnemina, Proculmce, Neleince, Passalince. Dr. Kaup complains, that 
naturalists very often mistake analogies for affinities. Nature, he says, does 
not like affinities, but dissimilarities, and consequently in a natural arrange- 
ment not the species following each other, but always the next following is 
affined to the preceding. Each genus of the Passalidce is thus divided into 
five species, of which the first is small and most convex, the second smallest 
and most depressed, the third the largest, the fourth smaller and the fifth 
the next largest. This system is carried out in a really most wonderful 
way, and the exceptions to it are apparently very few. Only in one instance, 
in the genus Basiliauus, has the author described seven species, but these 
form two different groups, which are, however, by Kaup himself regarded as 
belonging to the same genus. In Leptaulax one species is added, but 
another which Dr. Kaup adopts, is believed to be merely a synonym. 
This new law of development, or whatever it may be called, is believed by 
its originator to be the greatest discovery which systematic zoology has 
made. We must leave it to time and research, which will no doubt tell us 
the real value of this practical philosophic idea. In the present instance 
the author thought it only desirable to bring the rudiments of the system, 
as stated by Dr. Kaup, before the members of the Society, and expressed a 
hope that somebody would give a little thought to it. 

Speaking of recent suggestions, Dr. Stoliezka thought he might allude 
to one affecting the system of nomenclature in Zoology. All these 
suggestions, whether they become generally acknowledged or not, shew the 
direction in which the working zoological minds of men are at present 
occupied. 

Professor Halting in Utrecht has recently drawn the attention of 
zoologists to the unsatisfactory conditions under which zoological nomencla- 
ture labours. The number of names is becoming so varied and so alarmingly 
large, that no human mind can remember these heterogeneous appellations. 



1873.] F. Stoliczka— On the PassalidcB. 115 

A more rational nomenclature is, therefore, desirable, as an aid to the memory. 
This, Harting says, should he so constructed that any naturalist from hearing 
the name pronounced should immediately know to which group a certain 
animal belongs. His suggestion is to the effect that all the higher divisions 
should terminate in res. Now, for each of the five principal divisions of the 
animal kingdom, he takes one of the vowels, a ; e, i, o, u, and thus we shall 
have — 



I. 


Vertebrata, = 


Ares 


= Spondylozoa. 


II. 


Articulate/, = 


E res 


= Artlvrozoa,. 


III. 


Mollusca (or Saccata) = 


Ires 


= Malacozoa. 


IV. 


Radiata = 


Ores 


= Actmozoa. 


V. 


Coelenterata = 


Ure s 


= Amorphozoa. 



Taking No. I, as an example, he proposes to prefix the term ares with 
different consonants, in order to form names for the sub-divisions, thus — 

Mammalia = Pares. 
Aves = Cares. 

Reptilia = Fares. 

Pisces = Sares. 

Retaining the Pares as a further example, Harting proceeds further to divide 
them thus : 

Placentalia = P 1 a r e s. 

Didel/phia = P r a r e s. 

Erpetodelpliia, = P s a r e s. 

Then the Placentalia or P 1 a r e s are sub-divided : 

Bimcma or Hominidce = Amplares. 

Quadrumana = Acplares. 

Chiroptera = Atchphares. 

Carnivora = Asplares. 

Eodentia = Arplares. 

As a further example of the system proposed, the Arplares or Rodentia are 
taken, and divided thus into : 

Sciurina == Larplares. 

Castorina — Carplares. 

Arvicolina = Sarplares. 

etc. 

Then the Sciurina or Larplares are divided into a certain number of genera, 
for which the termination a, as indicating a mammal should be adopted (e, in case 
of birds, etc) . Thus we get : 

Sciurus = S c i u 1 a r p 1 a. 

Pteromys = Pterolarpla. 

Spermnp hilus = Spermolarpla. 

Arctomys = Arctolarpla. 

Tamias = Tamolarpla. 

Myonv.s = M y o 1 a r p 1 a. 



11G F. Stoliczka — On the Passalida. [May, 

No generic name should exceed five syllables. 

This system would of course answer admirably if we could calculate ma- 
thematically the number of existing genera and species, or if our science were 
concluded and not undergoing a constant change ; but as these conditions do 
not obtain, it is not likely that the system will find many supporters. Still the 
suo-crestion has thrown been out, and discussion on the subject has been in- 
vited, because it is a very important one, and because the want of regulating 
our nomenclature in some way or other is generally felt. 

Mr. Phear did not pretend fully to apprehend Kaup's system, but he 
would ask Dr. Stoliczka, whether the method of separating species by re- 
ference to three cardinal characteristics each taken out of a set of five, did 
not of itself immediately lead to the grouping of species also in sets of five. 
Each single set of five species might of course be defined as constituting a 
genus ; or a definition of genus might be made in reference to the same cha- 
racters such as would lead to the like result. But he confessed that he 
could not understand how in any other than some such way as this, any 
principle of arrangement deserving to be called a natural principle could 
bring about such very artificial looking classes, as Dr. Stoliczka mentioned. 

In reply to Mr. Phear's observation Dr. Stoliczka stated that the num- 
ber five selected by Dr. Kaup is, according to him, by no means arbitrary. 
It is dictated by the five anatomical systems, etc.. Any other larger or small- 
er number would of course not suit the theory. The classificatory number 
five is an old one, chiefly introduced by Oken, and Swainson used it in Or- 
nithology. As regards the second point, Kaup's answer is decided. He 
says, for instance, that anybody who has thoroughly understood his reason- 
ing, will see that a larger form of Passahdo; than Proculus Joryh cannot 
exist. In the same way he states that a sixth species in the same genus can- 
not exist, if it be really a good species, and not a variety of either of the other 
five. Should anybody find a sixth species in one genus, and should there be no 
mistake in the generic definition itself, the system would of course be in- 
validated. Kaup says that he would be the first to give it up, if really con- 
vinced of the fact. The system itself, of course, requires improvements, pro- 
bably alterations in the minor arrangement, which may be suggested by the 
discovery of new species. There can be no doubt, Dr. Stoliczka said, that 
Kaup's definitions of the genera and species are on the whole wonderfully 
correct. It is very difficult to find a single mistake, and if anybody come 
to the conclusion that he has discovered one, he will do well to revise his 
materials repeatedly, before he puts forth his statement as final. Dr. Stoliczka 
said he was speaking from experience in throwing out this suggestion. 

Mr. Blanford said that from Dr. Stoliczka's account of Dr. Kaup's 
theory, it appeared to him to be a retrograde attempt. " The great value 
of Darwin's theory is, that it had rendered Natural History a Science of causes 



1873.] F. Stoliczka— On the Passalidce. 117 

and effects, and had taught modern naturalists to regard classification as true 
only when it is hased upon those affinities which result from community of evo- 
lution. A true classification therefore on this view is to he regarded as the final 
result of the science, and is to be patiently worked out by studying the causes 
that have determined it. Dr. Kaup's system sweeps away all this, and seeks 
to impose in its stead, an arbitrary Procrustean plan of creation, fanciful 
and mystical to the last degree. It is allowable and even beneficial in the 
early days of a Science to adopt an artificial classification of objects, since 
any arrangement is better than none. But to seek to impose such a system 
on the Zoology of the present clay, and to sort and manipulate species and 
genera to make them succumb to an a priori hypothesis, appears to be an 
attempt to set up as a leading principle of science the maxim " Si les faits 
ne s 1 accordant pas avec ma tlieorie, tant pis pour les faits." 

Dr. Stoliczka, in reply, expressed his astonishment at Mr. Blan- 
ford's unjustifiable remarks. He said that that was not the way to 
treat mental productions. Dr. Kaup was an old naturalist of very high 
standing, and his system, as proposed, was by no means a fanciful one ; 
it was based upon those characters of organisation which make the animal 
what it is — and that was no fancy. Philosophic systems had from time imme- 
morial occupied the greatest minds, and not fancies. Dr. Kaup had not only 
not thrown out a suggestion of a fanciful arrangement, but he had given his sys- 
tem a definite form, he had established rules, he considered that he had found 
the law according to which nature works in development, and that only accor- 
ding to this could the animals exist. He had given a fair test to his system 
in working out one group of animals in the most minutely detailed manner, 
and he asked the scientific world for an opinion, whether he had succeeded 
in this or not ; he wished to be disproved, if wrong. Now, how unfair 
it would be, if all this mental work were to be rejected with phrases. 
We required first of all facts, not words or ideas. Dr. Kaup's defini? 
tions of genera and species were not made up in the first instance according 
to a fanciful scheme, they were drawn from the animals themselves. Careful 
observations and facts were the ground on which we must in the first instance 
meet Kaup. Philosophic treatment of the facts must follow, in order to so 
meet the genial naturalist. 

Dr. Stoliczka said he had taken up the study of the Passalidce, because 
he wished to test Kaup's conclusions on his own materials, and because he 
thought it a priori almost impossible that a really natural classification would 
be obtainable in the way suggested by Kaup. After devoting some time to 
this subject — certainly only with scanty materials — he must express his 
grave doubts as to the validity of the system in the form at present proposed 
by Kaup ; but he would be sorry to have spoken, if he had said that the sys- 
tem was really invalidated by his researches. He was not prepared to say that. 



IIS F. Stoliczka — Note on Andamanese and Nicobarese Reptiles. [Mat, 

Such an elaborate system as this had full claim to be heard on the audi alteram 
partem principle ; we must not presume that it was wrong, because it was so 
very simple. People very often overlook things nearest them. Hasty conclu- 
sions would, in this instance particularly, be absolutely of no value at all. 

0. Notes on some Andamanese and Nicobarese Reptiles. — 
By Dr. F. Stoliczka. 
(Abstract.) 
After a few general remarks relating to the distribution of certain 
Reptiles on these islands, the author gives a detailed description of Phelsuma 
Andamanense, of a new Gymnodactylus from Preparis Island, of a new Mocoa 
from South Andaman, and of a new Tiaris from the island of Tillangchang. He 
exhibited a male and female of the remarkable little snake Typhloscineus Nico- 
baricus which is shewn to be a Dibamios, the males of which have hind-limbs 
while the females have none, thus confirming an opinion, which was some 
time ago put forth by Prof. Schlegel. 

Mr. G. E. Dobson exhibited and presented to the Society's album pho- 
tographs of a mosque at Tribeni near Hughli taken by him in December 

last. 

The place was described by Mr. D. Money in the XVIth Vol. of the 
Society's Journal, and its Muhammadan antiquities by Mr. Blochmann in 
the XXXIXth Vol. part I, p. 280, for 1870. 

Also the following photographs of the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
Southern Andaman Island, taken by him, with Mr. T. P. Lewis's assistance, 
when at Port Blair last year. 

No. 1. A photograph of the Chief of one of the tribes in the vicinity 
of Port Blair and his wife, with necklace of finger and toe bones of her an- 
cestors. 

No. 2. Photograph of the same individuals standing. 

No. 3. Photograph of a woman from Rutland Island. 

No. 4. Group of five young Andamanese women. 

No. 5. Group of Andamanese men and women. Widow in centre 
with skull of her deceased husband. j 

The receipt of the following communications was announced — 

1. Notes and translation of General Cunningham's inscriptions from 
Behar. — By Babu Pratapa Chandra Ghosha. 

2. Metrical Translations from Chand.— By F. S. Growse, Esq., M. A. 

3. Note on the genus Oymnops.—Bj W. T. Blanford, F. G. S., C. M. 

Z. S. 

4. On Aquila bifasciata and Aquila orientalis. — By W. E. Brooks, Esq. 

C. E. 



1873.] Library. 119 

5. Algse collected by Mr. Kurz in Burma and Arrakan, determined by 
Dr. Zeller, High Councillor of Finance in Stuttgart. 

6. Descriptions of two new species of Indian land-shells. — By Dr. F. 
Stoliczka. 



Library. 

The following additions have been made to the Library since the 
Meeting held in March last. 

Presentations. 
* # * Names of Donors in Capitals. 

Bulletin, Fevrier, 1873. 

V AVoi Desgodins. — Mots principalis des langues de certaines tribus qui habitent 
les bords du Lan-tsang kiang, du Lou-tze-kiang, et de l'lrrawaddy. Francis Gamier. — 
Navigation du Yang-tse-kiang. Legrand de la Liraye. — Expedition du Bourayne. 

Delaporte. — Le Tong-King. La Chaine des Garos. Les Louchais. Lettre du 
Japon. Explorations Russes dans l'Asie Centrale. 

The Geographical Society oe Paris. 
Instructions for testing Telegraph Lines and technical arrangements in 
office, by L. Schwendler, Part II, Section I. 

The Author. 

The Editor. 

The Editor. 

The Editor. 



Pratna Kamra Nandini, Vol. V, Nos IX-XII. 
The Calcutta Journal of Medicine, Nol. VI, Nos. 1-2. 
The Christian Spectator, Vol. VI, No. 26. 
The Flora Sylvatica, Parts XV and XVI. 



The Government of India. 
Report of the Charitable Dispensaries under the Government of Bengal 
for 1871. 

Report on the Administration of the Income Tax in 1871-72. 
The Proverbs of the inhabitants of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, by 
Capt. T. H. Lewin. 

The Government of Bengal. 
General Report on the Eevenue Survey operations of the Upper and 
Lower Provinces for 1871-72. 

The Superintendents of the Revenue Survey. 
Palseontologia Indica, Cretaceous Fauna of Southern India, Vol. IV. p. 3. 
F. Stoliczka. — The Ecbinodermata. 

The Superintendent of the Geological Survey of India. 
Shahab Saqeb, by Maulavi Zil-lul-Karim. 

Habibar Rahma'n. 



120 Library. [May, 

Exchcmge. 

Nature, Nos. 174-178. 

Purchase. 

The Indian Antiquary, Part XVI. 

G. H. Damant.—On the dialect of the Palis. Dr. Buhler.—Abhmanda. the Gauda. 
Rev. M. Phillips.— The Seven Pagodas. Capt. J. 8. F. Mackenzie— On the rules which 
govern Kanarese Poetry. P. M. Purnaiya.— The Calendar of Tipu Sultan. Service 
Tenures in Ceylon. Archaeology of Maisur. 



N 



* 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For June, 1873. 



oJ«<c 



• The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 4th instant, at 9 P. M. 

Col. H. Hyde, R. E., President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The receipt of the following presentations was announced — 

From the Trustees, Indian Museum, a set of the Minutes of the 
Trustees, Vols. I to V. 

The following gentleman, duly proposed and seconded at the last meet- 
ing, was balloted for and elected an Ordinary Member — 

J. W. Johnston, Esq., M. D., 4th P. I. 

The following are candidates for ballot at the next meeting — 

H. M. Durand, Esq., C. S., proposed by J. Wood-Mason, Esq., seconded 
by J. H. Rivett-Carnac, Esq., C. S. 

Captain Fraser, 3rd Madras Cavalry, proposed by W. McLaren Smith, 
Esq., M. A., seconded by Captain J. Waterhouse. 

C. V. Marshall, Esq., Berhampore, Moorshedabad, proposed by J. Wood- 
Mason, Esq., seconded by Captain J. Waterhouse. 

Col. Gr. H. Saxton has intimated his desire to withdraw from the Socie- 
ty after the third quarter of the current year. 

The President announced that Dr. Stoliczka having resigned the posts 
of Natural History Secretary and Member of Council on proceeding with 
the mission to Kashgar, the Council have appointed J. Wood-Mason, Esq., 
Natural History Secretary, and elected J. Westland, Esq., C. S., a Member 
of the Council, in place of Dr. Stoliczka. 



122 Beames — On the edition of Chand. [Jtrans, 

The Secretary read the following extract of a letter from J. Beames, 
Esq., C. S. 

" As some misapprehension seems to exist as to the nature of the task 
now heing carried on in respect to Chand's poem, I beg to state as follows : 
" I have undertaken merely to supervise the production of a printed 
text of Chand from a good and complete MS. I do not undertake to correct 
what seem to he errors in the MS., because when more is known about the 
poem, it may turn out that what we now think errors, are really correct. 

" The object of the Society, I take it, is merely to put into the hands of 
scholars the poem itself as it stands. It is not now accessible to the public 
at large, because it is only in MS., but when it is in print, hundreds of scholars 
in various places can work at it, and their labours will, I hope, result eventually 
in a correct text. Many hundred years have elapsed since the text of Homer 
and Virgil were first put into print, yet scholars have not yet left off altering 
and improving the text. I think it would be almost dishonest in me to 
tamper with the text of the MS., by so doing I should perhaps mislead all 
future generations of scholars by giving currency to what my own im- 
perfect knowledge deems right, instead of what the poet really wrote. 

" The two points open to discussion at present are the division of the 
words and the metres. 

" On the first of these points I would only say that the division I have 
made is not intended to be an ex-cathedra declaration that I am right. It 
is merely a suggestion. In a large majority of cases there can be no doubt, 
in doubtful passages future scholars are at liberty to alter as they please. The 
question will probably be a debatable one for centuries to come. 

" As to the metres, I could easily by doubling single letters, reducing 
double letters to single, and otherwise hocussing the text, bring the metres 
into accordance with the modern rules of Hindi prosody. But this I will 
not do, it is not fair. I put before the world the exact spelling of my MS. 
and scholars can manipulate it as they like. What the world wants, is not 
Prithiraja Easo by Beames, but Prithiraja Raso by Chand. 

" Having thus clearly stated my ' platform,' I beg to retire from the 
controversy for which I have neither time nor taste. If critics like to pull 
the text to pieces, they can, it matters nothing to me. It is not I who wrote 
the poem, but Chand, I am a mere printer's devil putting what Chand wrote 
into type, and if scholars find fault with Chand, they may cudgel him to 
their heart's content, it is no affair of mine." 

Also a letter from the Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign 
Department, conveying the thanks of the Viceroy and Governor-General in 
Council to the Society for their offer of cordial co-operation and assistance 
in furthering the Scientific objects of the Yarkand Mission, and stating that 



1873.] Memorandum for guidance of the Yarkand Mission. 123 

H. E. in Council would be glad to be favoured with any further observa- 
tions which might occur to the Council of the Society, as to the specific 
points to which the attention of the officers attached to the Mission should 
be directed. 

In compliance with this request, the following memorandum has been 
drawn up by the Natural History and Physical Science Committees, and 
submitted to Government. 

Memorandum of Subjects for Scientific Observation to which the attention 
of the Members of the Yarkand Mission may be particularly directed. 

As the Council of the Society have not been informed of the strength 
and qualifications of the scientific party which has been, or will be, selected 
to accompany the Yarkand Mission, or of the routes they will follow, and the 
facilities available for carrying out those investigations which seem the 
most desirable, it is somewhat difficult to form an idea of the particular 
branches of science in which the members of the Mission will best be able 
to make observations, but without going into details they will endeavour to 
notice the principal points to which attention may most advantageously be 
directed. 

Zoology and Botany. — The knowledge of Zoology and Botany to be 
obtained from these regions will chiefly depend upon the facilities and 
assistance which the Naturalist of the Expedition will have in procuring and 
transporting Zoological and Botanical specimens. There can be no doubt 
that both, and particularly the former, will prove of great interest, not only 
for the study of our Indian fauna, but also as being intermediate between 
that of India and Siberia on the one hand, and that of the Mediterraneo- 
Caspian and the Northern Chinese and the Japanese on the other hand. It 
would be very interesting to notice whether any and which of the birds and 
also of the mammals which leave Siberia during the winter for the South, 
remain in the Trans-Himalayan valleys. 

Such observations would greatly aid the study of the geographical 
distribution of animals. Beliable observations regarding the forms of animal 
and vegetable life at great altitudes will be of particular interest, and 
especially so on the Karakoram range, which is not only the true watershed 
between north and southern Asia, but virtually the average highest mountain 
range in the world. 

If any limestone caverns be met with, they should be carefully searched, 
especially if of great extent, for any traces of the existence of a subterranean 
blind fauna such as has made the caves of Carniola in Europe, and of 
Kentucky in America, so famous. The position in the cave of such animals 
as may be found should be noted, so that the observations of Schiodte — that 
those animals nearest the mouth of the caves of Carniola were most nearly 



124 Memorandum for guidance of lh e Yurie and Mission. [JUNE, 

allied to forms co-existing in the surrounding country, and had their eyes 
least affected of all, while of those that occupied the deepest recesses 
none had even representatives in the fauna of the country around, and all 
had their organs of vision completely aborted by disuse, — may receive cor- 
roboration . 

Geology. — In Geology there is an immense field for observation. One 
of the principal tasks for the Geologist should be to construct a geological 
section across the Himala} r an and Karakoram ranges, a section which would 
bear comparison with similar ones made across the Alps in Europe. It is 
needless to say that the officer entrusted with this work should be well 
acquainted with the geological structure of the Alps. 

Collections of fossils made in these regions would materially aid in 
establishing a proper correlation between the geological formations of the 
Himalayas and those of the Alps. It is known from previous travellers 
that the large plain of Tibet was formerly inhabited by huge Pachyderms 
such as, Elephants, Mammoths, &c. similar to those which we find on this 
side of the Himalayas in the Sewalik deposits. As yet only stray frag- 
ments of these ancient relics have reached the scientific world, and an en- 
deavour should be made not only to collect as many of these fossils as pos- 
sible, but also to ascertain the age and stratigraphical relations of the 
deposits which contain them. Further, it is possible that the great Vienna 
and Hungarian Miocene basin, which gradually retreated towards the Caspian 
Sea as the centre, extended eastwards as far as the Pamir heights. Any 
information on the subject would prove of very great geological interest. 
We know on the one hand that the Eocene nummulitic deposits are found 
in Japan, while the southern parts of China, according to the recent ex- 
plorations of Baron Bichthofen, chiefly consist of crystalline and other rocks 
not younger than the Trias. It is possible that the Eocene Sea extended 
from Europe right through Central Asia to Japan. Geological data bearing 
on this subject should be recorded with particular care. 

Mineralogy. — Among useful minerals, Coal may be found, as it is 
believed that rocks of the carboniferous age have been brought from beyond 
the Karakoram. Again the Geological position of Jade, Turquoise, Amber, 
and other minerals brought from Trans-Himalayan regions, should as far 
as possible be ascertained. The Gold-washings should if possible be 
inspected. 

Physical Geography. — The general physical features of a country are 
so intimately connected with its Geological Structure, that a Geologist 
ought to be able to do justice to them, if he co-operate with the Topographi- 
cal Surveyor. Particular attention should be paid to the former extent and 
depth of the Central Asian lakes and water-basins, and their gradual diminu- 
tion, because information on this subject will give us an idea of the former 



1873.] Memorandum for guidance of the Yarhand Mission. 125 

greater richness of animal and vegetable life in those regions, and because it 
is intimately connected with evaporation. The existence and nature of 
saline deposits such as Borax, Salt, Carbonate of Soda, &c, should not be 
overlooked in connection with this subject. The extent, flow, and progress 
of glaciers should be noted. 

The party should be supplied with the instruments necessary to make 
these observations, and also with a suitable instrument, by which the evapo- 
rating power of the air can be, at least approximately, determined at differ- 
ent elevations in the valleys and on large glaciers. 

Meteoeology. — Whether Meteorological observations can be taken with 
any degree of fulness must depend greatly on the means of transport. If 
these do not admit of instruments being taken, other than such as are 
most compact and portable, it will be necessary to restrict the observations 
to the temperature and humidity of the air, to the direction and estimated 
force of the wind, the occurrence of rain, and the forms, quantity and move- 
ments of the clouds : but if the means of carriage suffice, a barometer, radia- 
tion-thermometer, an anemometer and an actinometer should be taken, and 
also a small rain-guage. The chief points to which attention should be given 
are the following : 

1. The diurnal range of temperature in the shade ; which may be ex- 
pected to be very great in so dry a country. Care will be required in select- 
ing a proper place for the thermometers to guard them from being affected 
by direct radiation to or from the clear sky. 

2. The minimum temperature of radiation at night should be observed 
whenever possible by a thermometer placed on the ground, and fairly expos- 
ed to the sky. In taking these observations, it is necessary, if the ground is 
not level, to place the instrument in a slight hollow or on black woollen 
cloth in a shallow box, or it will be affected by the convection of the air, 
and show a temperature many degrees higher than one protected from this 
influence. It is probably greatly owing to this cause that the registered 
temperature of nocturnal radiation at certain of the Himalayan stations ap- 
pears to be but little below that of a shaded thermometer. 

3. Any observations of tbe absolute heating power of the sun will be 
very valuable, since the dryness of the air is such, that its absorption of solar 
heat must be small. At such times particular attention should be paid to 
the clearness of the atmosphere from dust, since if a dust haze prevails to 
any great height, the absorption of solar heat by the atmosphere may be 
very considerable. If the means of transport do not allow of an actinome- 
ter being taken (Hodgkinson's is the best) the maximum heat of the sun, 
taken by a black bulb thermometer in vacuo, will be valuable. 

5. Observations of barometric pressure will probably be made for the 
determination of heights. If possible, a few sets of hourly observations ex- 



120 Memorandum for guidance of the Yarkand Mission. [June, 

tending from midnight to midnight should he taken, for showing the range 
and periods of the diurnal oscillation. At the Himalayan hill stations, the 
morning minimum is most frequently the absolute minimum of the day, 
which is far from being the case in the plains of India. 

It will be interesting to see whether on the more elevated parts of the 
Himalaya and Trans-Himalayan plateaux, the oscillation follows the 
same law as on the Indian plains or that of the hill stations. Also how the 
epochs of maximum and minimum vary in the higher latitudes. 

6. A register of the direction and (in the absence of an anemometer) 
the estimated force of the wind according to the Brunfort Scale, is specially 
important. Particular attention should be given to the direction in which 
the clouds drift. 

It is stated by Mr. Shaw that in Eastern Turkistan, the wind is chiefly 
from the north up to the great mountain range, whereas it appears from 
Hooker's and others' observations, that to the south of Tibet it is from the 
south at all times of the year. It is scarcely necessary to say that among 
the mountains, the winds are greatly affected by the direction of the valleys, 
so that the movement of the clouds is the best criterion of that of the great 
air currents. But any observations on the local variations of the wind will 
be of interest. Its diurnal changes in the valleys and in the passes are worthy 
of special observation. The violent winds from the south which blow through 
the passes during the afternoon hours are described by many travellers, and 
are referred by General Strachey to the heating and rarefaction of the air over 
the lofty table-lands of the interior. 

Nio-ht winds also blow down the valleys, which are probably streams of 
ah- cooled by radiation and gravitating like water down the hill slopes and 
beds of the valleys. Any observation on them, the time they set in, their 
duration and force, and the temperature of these winds will be important. 
Also then- upper and lower limits. 

7. The humidity of the air will necessarily be very low. It should be 
observed when actinometer observations are taken ; and whenever hourly ob- 
servations of the barometer are made, those of the hygrometer should be made 
also. Besides these, observations of the wet and dry bulb thermometer 
should be taken at other times as often as practicable. The movements of 
the clouds have already been referred to. Their quantity, forms, and esti- 
mated height at different seasons should also be attended to. These and the 
wind observations may be made at all times without the aid of instruments 
other than a compass. 

Magnetic Observations. — The only attempt to procure Magnetic 
Observations in Thibet and Turkistan of which the Council are aware, was 
made in 1857 by the Brothers Schlagentweit, one of whom lost his life in the 
expedition. They only made a small number of observations and none 



1873.] Memorandum for guidance of the YarJeand Mission. 127 

have since been attempted, so that the magnetic condition of the country 
north of the Himalaj^as may be looked upon as utterly unknown. 

John A. Bourn who made a Magnetic Survey of part of Southern India 
in 1854 remarked in the year 1860, that the magnetic lines in India are so 
abnormal, and so discordant with the usual theory, that a thorough examina- 
tion of the whole area about the Himalayas was strongly to be recommend- 
ed. As the subject is one of extreme importance and as the opportunity 
now presented of making such observations is one which may not occur for 
some time, the Council would urge upon the attention of the Government, 
the desirability of taking advantage of it as far as may be practicable and 
would suggest that Col. Walker, the Superintendent of the G. T. Survey, 
should be consulted on the subject, and be asked, if he has not already done 
so, to make arrangements for the supply of such of the necessary instruments 
as may be available in India, and can be taken with the expedition. . 

If possible the intensity should be determined at a few places, but if 
the 'time at the disposal of the observer should not be sufficient for the 
determination of this, observations of the declination and dip at even a few 
points would be valuable. 

Geography. — The appointment of an officer of the G. T. Survey, under 
the direction of Col. Walker, R. E., is a guarantee that the interests of 
geographical science will be furthered to the utmost possible extent, and 
considering that Col. Walker is most probably in possession of all available 
information regarding the geography of these regions, it seems unnecessary 
to the Council to enter into details on this subject beyond pointing out the 
desirability of making, if possible, an exploration in advance, North and East 
from Yarkand, towards Karashar. 

Ethnology. — An endeavour should be made to ascertain whether any 
traces of a pre-historic race of man exist. Caves and sub-recent gravel 
deposits ought to be searched for any human or animal remains they may 
contain. Attention should be paid to the physical characteristics of the 
different races inhabiting the regions visited by the Mission, and any 
information as to their origin, migrations, language and dialects, the 
distinctive appellations of the tribes and their subdivisions would be valuable. 
In all cases when possible, measurements, and photographs showing the 
general appearance and costume, as well as the distinctive facial characteristics 
and shape of the heads of males and females of the different races and tribes, 
should be taken and carefully recorded. 

History and Antiquities. — It is unknown what historical records and 
ancient remains exist in Turkistan, but every opportunity should be taken 
of securing oral and written information, with copies of any inscriptions 
bearing on the history and anticmities of the countries visited by the Mis- 



128 V. Ball — On Children found living with Wolves. [June, 

Endeavour should be made to obtain the following MSS — 

1. Tar'ikh i Iiashide, by Mirza Haidar Gurgani. It is a history of 
Kashghar to the reign of 'Abdurrashid, king of Kashghar (16th century), 
and contains interesting descriptions of Tibbet, Kashghar and Kashmir. 

2. TazTcirah Muqim Khani. — A histoiy of the Uzbak Khans of 
Transoxiana. 

3. Any other history of the family of Chingiz Khan, especially of 
more modern date. For the history of Kashghar during the 17th, 18th and 
19th centuries we have no work whatever. 

4. A TazTcirah, or history of the literature, of Kashghar and surround- 
ing countries. 

5. Nasahn amahs, or genealogical works on the tribes in Kipchak, 
Bukhara, Kashghar, and Mughulistan (Mongolia) in general. 

A Collection of Coins, Plans, Photographs, and descriptions of Budhist 
and Muhammadan antiquities will also be very valuable. 

Mr. H. BAvett-Carnac said that, as being a member who seldom had 
an opportunity of attending the meetings of the Society, he had some 
diffidence in making a suggestion. He quite thought with the President, 
that the members of the Mission had been so well selected, that there was 
little likelihood of anything of real interest escaping their attention. But 
as the Government of India had asked the Society for suggestions, and as 
suggestions had been made in some detail on one or two points, he (Mr. 
Pdvett-Carnac) would ask that the members of the Mission might be 
requested to gather what information they could regarding any tumuli, or 
barrows they might pass on their journeys. It would be very interesting 
to learn how far these tumuli resembled, both in their construction and 
contents, those discovered in many parts of India, and it might perhaps 
hereafter be possible to trace, with the help of an unbroken chain of these 
remains, the inroads, at a very early date, of tribes from the centre of Asia 
into India. 

The following papers were read : 

1. Notes on Children found living with Wolves in the North Western Pro- 
vinces and Oudh. — By V. Ball, Esq., B. A., Geological Survey of 
India. 

(Abstract.) 
The author after some prefatory remarks, gives the following extract 
from a letter he had received from the Bevd. Mr. Erhardt, Superintendent 
of the Orphanage at Secundra, in reply to his request for information regard- 
ing a boy in that Institution, who was alleged to have been found living 
with wolves. 



1873.] V. Ball— Oh Children found living with Wolves. 129 

" We have had two such hoys here, hut I fancy you refer to the one 
who was brought to us on March 5th, 1872. He was found hy Hindus, 
who had gone hunting wolves in the neighbourhood of Mynpuri. Had 
been burnt out of the den, and was brought here with the scars and wounds 
still on him. In his habits he was a perfect wild animal in every point of 
view. He drank like a dog, and liked a bone and raw meat better than 
anything else. He would never remain with the other boys, but hide away 
in .any dark corner. Clothes he never would wear, but tore them up into 
fine shreds. He was only a few months among us as he got fever and gave 
up eating. We kept him for a time by artificial means but eventually he 
died. 

" The other boy found among wolves is about thirteen or fourteen years 
old, and has been here almost sis. He has learnt to make sounds, speak he 
cannot ; but he freely expresses his anger and joy ; work he will at times, 
a little ; but he likes eating better. His civilisation has progressed so far 
that he likes raw meat less, though he still will pick up bones and sharpen 
his teeth on them. 

" Neither of the above are new cases however. At the Lucknow Mad- 
house there was an elderly fellow only four years ago and may be alive now, 
who had been dug out of a wolves' den by a European doctor, when, I forget, 
but it must be a good number of jqwcs ago. 

" The facility with which they get along on four feet (hands and feet) is 
surprising. Before they eat or taste any food they smell it, and when they 
don't like the smell, they throw it away." 

Mr. Ball then quotes the well-known story (vide Ann. and Mag. Nat 
Hist., 1851 p. 1G3) of the capture of one of these wolf -reared children on 
the banks of the G-umpti, who was afterwards taken to Lucknow and who is 
in all probability the " elderly fellow in the Lucknow Madhouse" referred 
to in Mr. Erhardt's letter. 

The writer then draws attention to a remarkable feature in all the 
stories, viz., that the wolves are invariably alleged to have communicated 
much of their natural ferocity and notably untamable disposition to their 
foster children, and attempts to account for their somewhat unwolf-like 
treatment of them. 

The author, in conclusion, states that his object in putting forward 
this account, is to bring about a thorough investigation of a subject which, 
if these stories of wolf-reared children could be substantiated, must prove of 
considerable physiological interest and importance. 

Mr. Blanford said he could not think the evidence adduced by any 
means satisfactory, and he would he glad could any one endowed with some 
amount of judicial scepticism, visit the Secundra Orphanage and ascertain 
as far as possible on what kind of testimony, these accounts of wolf-children 



130 Cul. E. T. Dalton — Rude Stone Monuments in Glmtia Nagptir. [June, 

really rested. He did not of course question that the Superintendent of the 
Secundra Orphanage wrote in good faith that which he really believed. 

After some further discussion it was agreed, on the motion of the Pre- 
sident, that the Secretary should write to the Superintendents of the Secun- 
dra Orphanage and the Lucknow Lunatic Asylum so as to obtain, if possible, 
further information on the subject. 

2. Sude Stone Monuments in GJiutid Nagpur. — By Col. E. T. 
Damon, C. S. I., Commissioner of Chutid Ndgpwr. 

(Abstract.) 

Col. Dalton describes in this paper the sepulchral and monumental 
stones of the Kols. He first mentions those which he saw in the Saranda 
Pir (Singhbhum District), the inhabitants of which are of the Munda type 
of Kols, who, to judge from their Mongolian features, are a very primi- 
tive race. The author also gives a sketch of the great Munda burial ground 
of Chokahatu, ' the place of mourning,' in Lohardagga District, where he 
counted 7,360 tombs, mostly of the dolmen or cromlech form, all close toge- 
ther, covering an area of seven statute acres. The horizontal slabs of the 
-tombs are generally huge masses of gneiss, often exceeding 15 feet in length 
and 4 feet in breadth. 

The monumental stones are less in number than the sepulchral, and they 
resemble in many details the Kasia cenotaphs described by Col. Yule. 

Photographs of the Chokahatu Burial Ground and sketches of monu- 
mental stones accompany the paper. 

Mr. Blanford said, any one acquainted with the monuments of the 
Khasia Hills must be at once struck with the many points of resemblance 
between them and those, sketches of which accompany Col. Dalton's paper. 
The most important point to be noticed is the association of the upright 
stone, the menhir with the low flat dolmen in front ; an association which is 
invariable on the Khasi Hills, and, according to Major Godwin- Austen's ac- 
count, has not received any other explanation than that of custom. He 
says " The tall upright stones are called Mao bynna, from mao, a stone, 
lynna to make known, literally ' a monument.' They are also known by the 
term Mao shinran, the male stone, while the flat seat-like slab in front, is 
called Mao Kynthai the female stone, representative of all life, being in 
pairs. My informant explained this, by saying the monument would be im- 
perfect without the flat stone or its female adjunct." The similarity of the 
arrangement, combined with the fact that the Mundas are stated by Col. 
Dalton to have a decided Mongol physiognomy, is very remarkable, and sug- 
gests a closer connection than usual between two tribes now separated by 
the whole extent of the plains of Bengal. 



1873.] H. F. Blanford— On 'Rude Stone Monuments. 131 

On the other hand, certain important differences must not be overlook- 
ed. First in the number of the Menhirs. Col. Dalton's sketches exhibit a 
single menhir to each dolmen. This the speaker believed is never the case 
on the Khasi Hills. The number is never less than three, and the greatest 
number noticed by Major-G-odwin Austen is eleven, the number being, however 
always odd. Again, it appears from Col. Dalton's account, that the Munda 
stones are sepulchral monuments. This is not the case on the Khasi Hills, 
at all events now. They are there of a votive character and have no connec- 
tion with funeral customs. A person who is ill or who desires the assist- 
ance or protection of an ancestor, vows a certain number of stones, if he re- 
covers from his illness, or if the ancestor proves propitious. The ancestor 
who is supposed to have power in the case in question, is discovered by the 
breaking of eggs or other means of divination, and sometimes when the 
favours are prolonged and repeated, additional stones are set up, in acknow- 
ledgement of the benefits received. 

Col. Dalton does not refer to Major Godwin-Austen's account and may 
not have seen the original, but he is probably acquainted with it as it is quot- 
ed in Fergusson's ' Stone Monuments' of which he speaks in his paper. The 
original, published in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute is the 
most complete description the speaker had seen of the stone monuments of 
the Khasi Hills. If Col. Dalton should have any further opportunity of 
examining the Munda monuments, it would be of interest to ascertain 
whether there is no instance of a multiple arrangement of the menhirs, and 
whether they are ever set up as votive memorials. His account seems to 
leave no doubt as to the sepulchral character of those he describes. 

Mr. H. Rivett-Carnac submitted that the paper, with its illustrations, 
contributed by Colonel Dalton was of the greatest interest, as giving 
another case of a tribe, living in an unfrequented hill-country, which 
appeared to have practised from time immemorial, and still to continue 
to practise, a system of erecting monuments over their dead, similar to 
the pre -historic remains observed in the hill-country, and comparatively 
inaccessible tracts of other parts of India. In the basalt, or trap country, 
where boulders of trap only could be obtained, the tumuli took the form of 
barrows, or circular mounds surrounded with boulders. When the sandstone 
formation was reached, where it was not difficult to split the block of stone 
into slabs, burying places somewhat similar to these shewn by Colonel 
Dalton, took the place of the barrows. These had been figured, and 
described by Colonel Meadows Taylor, C. S. I. and other members of the 
Society, and he (Mr. Rivett-Carnac) had had the honor of bringing the 
subject of some of the tumuli in Central India to the notice of the Society. 

His chief interest in these tumuli and their contents was their striking 
resemblance (pointed out by Colonel Taylor) to those that existed in many 



132 Dr. J. Anderson — On Manilas of Chut id Nuypur and Burma. [June, 

parts of Europe. During his recent visit home, he (Mr. Rivett-Carnac) had 
had an opportunity of visiting the excellent Prehistoric Museum presented 
to the town of Salisbury by Messrs. Blackmore and Stevens, and he had 
been much struck with the great similarity between the remains dug out 
of the barrows of Central India, (which had been exhibited to the Society) 
and those discovered in the English Barrows. 

As in Europe so in India, these tumuli were generally to be found in 
what, for a long time, at least, must have been very inaccessible parts of the 
country. The tribes in India who kept up the old customs were, so far as 
he could understand, quite a different race from their neighbours of the 
plains, and the view seemed to be generally accepted that these hill-men 
were all that now remained of the tribes found in India by the Aryans on 
their taking possession of the country. Future enquiries, and discoveries 
might, perhaps, establish the view which had been suggested in many 
quarters, that the builders of the tumuli in Europe and Asia were originally 
of the same Central Asian stock, one portion of which, in ages past had 
marched westward, another moving southward towards India. As time 
went on other, other and more powerful hordes, following the same routes 
taken by their predecessors several centuries before, drove into the woods 
and fastnesses these so-called aboriginal tribes, whose common origin is 
suggested by the similarity in the monumental remains found in many 
parts of Northern Europe, and also in Central and Southern India, and 
among the hills inhabited by the tribes of which Colonel Dalton had given 
the Society so interesting a description. 

Dr. Anderson remarked that the fact mentioned by Col. Dalton that the 
Mundas of Chutia Nagpur exhibit distinct traces of a Mongolian origin in the 
style of their features was one of great interest. Many years ago, Mr. Logan 
had pointed out, and more recently Sir George Campbell, that there is a simi- 
larity between the language of the aboriginal tribes of Chutia Nagpur and 
the language of the Burmo-Malayan people. In connection with this 
subject, there is an interesting commentary, or verification of Col. Dalton's 
statement regarding the Mongolian affinity of the Kolarians, to be found 
in the last number of the Philological Section of the Asiatic Society's 
Journal. There Sir A. Phayre points out that the first syllable of the 
word Munda which is the word used to designate the language of several 
tribes of the western highlands of Bengal, is identical with the race name of 
the people of Pegu, and he is of opinion that the Mun or Talaing people 
of Pegu are of the same stock as the Kols. Thus these two authorities 
arrive at the same conclusion independently of each other and by two widely 
different methods. 

The word Muang which is of such frequent occurrence in Western 
Yunan, and along both banks of the Cambodia, would seem to be the same 



1873.] Col. Mainwaring — On the term Mun, Mivon or Mon. 133 

as the Pegu Mun, for it means a district or country. In all probability, it 
was first applied to the aboriginal people of these parts, but as they gradu- 
ally disappeared before the conquerors, or were absorbed by them, it was 
eventually transferee! to the country which they had inhabited, or was re- 
stricted to districts in which they had been originally in great force. 
"We thus find in Yunan Mungla, which would appear to be identical with 
the Kolarian Munda. 

Col. Mainwaring said — 

I have been requested to say a few words with regard to a remark 
made by Sir Arthur Phayre in his interesting narrative ' On the History 
of Pegu' which appealed in the last number of the Asiatic Society's Journal. 
In alluding to the inhabitants of Pegu, who, Sir A. Phayre says, are called 
" Mun, Mwon or M6n," he refers to Csoma de Koros' Tibetan Dictionary 
for the definition of the word, there rendered,— a general name for all the 
people between Tibet and the plains of India, — by which Sir A. Phayre infers, 
that the inhabitants of Pegu may have originally emigrated from the Hills 
near Tibet. Csoma De Koros, when inscribing the aforequoted passage in 
his Dictionary, must have been mistaken or must have written vaguely : 
for of course there are numerous tribes who inhabit the hills between Tibet 
and the plains of India, and to all of these, the term Mon is certainly not 
applied by the Tibetans. The appellation may have formerly been, or 
may still be, given to other races, but in Sikim and the neighbouring 
countries north and east, the Tibetans apply the term Mon alone to the 
Lepchas. None of the other races are so denominated ; for instance the 
race, Europeans call Butia, (which literally means ' a Tibetan,' from *JS Bod, 
Tibet), they distinguish by the name of Hlo-pa, literally Southerners ; the 
Nepalese they call ' Bal po' (from ^QT^'^QI Bed po i/iil, the country of 
wool), &c. It might therefore be considered probable that the inhabitants 
of Pegu and the Lepchas might have originated from one source. The 
physical conformation and features of the Mon of Pegu, as represented by 
Sir A. Phayre, certainly correspond to that of the Lepcha ; he describes 
them as short, stout and fair, especially the Karen tribes, who when young, 
" are not darker than southern Europeans." The great criterion, however, 
the language, tends to prove that no affinity exists between them. From test- 
words in the Mon language of Pegu, taken from Dalton's Ethnology, I can 
find no analogy between that language and the Lepcha tongue. Sir A. 
Phayre ascribes the fairness of complexion that exists among the Pegu race, 
to local causes. I should certainly not assume the same cause for that of the 
Lepchas, whom I have often seen, especially in former days, quite as fair as 
Europeans ; that they must have emigrated, at some early period, from 
beyond the Himalayas, is undoubted ; a people and language, so noble and 
perfect such as existed under the name of Pong, (by Europeans designated 



131 Library. [June, 

Lepchas), when Darjiling was first established, could never have been 
generated in the wilds and isolation of the Himalayas, the body of the people 
may still exist, and may, perhaps, yet be discovered, probably in the north 
of China about Mongolia or Manchuria. 



The receipt of the following communications was announced — 

1. On a new species of Kite. By A. Anderson, Esq., with a note by 
W. E. Brooks, Esq., C. E. 

2. Rude Stone Monuments in Chutia Nagpur. By Col. E. T. Dalton 
C. S. I. 

Library. 

The following additions have been made to the Library since the meet- 
ing held in May last. 

Presentations. 
* # * Names of Donors in Capitals. 
Bulletin, Mars 1873. 

Col. H. Yule. — L'orographie et le system des eaux du Pamir. (Extract from the 
author's essay in Wood's " Sources of the Oxns"). N. de Khanikoff. — Les documents 
sur le Khanate de Khiva. (An abstract of the sources of information available re- 
garding the Khanate of Khiva). Vivien de St. Martin. — Voyage d' exploration en Indo- 
Chine. L'Abbe Desgodins. — Vegetation des sommets au Nord de Yerkalo. Hauteurs 
entre Yerkalo et Bathang. (The first of these papers also contains some meteorologi- 
cal observations taken on the range separating the Lan-tsang Kiang from the 
Kin-cha-Kiang near Yerkalo.) 

The Geographical Society op Parts. 
K. Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Monats- 
bericht, December, 1872. 

Poggendorff, — Beitrag zur niiheren Kenntniss der Elektromaschine (Zweiter Art). 
Peters, — Uber Hydrus fasciatus, Schneider, und einige andere Seeschlangen. Hagen, — 
Beobachtungen iiber die Bewegung der Luft und des Wassers. 

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences op Berlin. 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Proceedings, Oct. 1872. 

A. Morton, — On the ejector condenser for steam engines, dispensing with an air 

pump. A. C. Hill. — On the working of the improved Compound Cylinder Blowing 

En"-ines and Howard Boilers at the Lackenby Iron Works, Middlesbrough. Colonel 

(3lay } — On an improved construction of Tool for Turning metals at increased speed. 

The Institution op Mechanical Engineers, Birmingham. 

Bengal Social Science Association, Transactions, Vol. VI. 

Address by the President. The Hon. J. B. Phear.—On some features of Litiga- 
tion in Bengal. W. Clarice.— On Tied Arches. Tlie Rev. J. Long. — Village commu- 
nities in India and Russia. Mr. J. Geoghegan. — Indian Cooley Emigration. Peary 
Mohun Moolcherjee. — Agriculture in Bengal. 

The Benqal Social Science Association. 



1873.] Library. 135 

Geological Survey of India. 
Memoirs, Vol. X, pt. I. 

B. B. Foote. — Geology of Madras. H. B. Medlicott. — Satpura Coal Basin. 
Pa lseontologia Indica, Vol. IV. Pt. 4 Cretaceous Fauna of Southeren 
India. 

Dr. F. Stoliczka. The Corals or Authozoa, &c. 
Eecords, Vol. VI. pt. 2. 

V. Ball. — The Bisrarnpur Coal-field. F. B. Mallet. — Mineralogical Notes on the 
Gneiss of South Mil zapur and adjoining country. 

Tiie Superintendent of tiie Geological Survey of India. 
Sketch Map of the Countries between Hindustan and the Caspian Sea 
April 1873. 

The Surveyor General of India. 
Indian Museum. 
Minutes of the Trustees, from Sept. 18G6 to March 1872. 

Trustees of the Indian Museum. 
Martyn's Universal Conchology, 2 Vols. 

Dr. F. Stoliczka. 
Eeport of the Sanitary Commissioner for Bengal for 1871, by Ch. J. Jack- 
son, M. D. — Eeport on the Administration of the Eegistration Department 
in Bengal for 1871-72, by H. Beverley. — Eeport on the Administration of 
the Salt Department for 1S71-72. 

The Government of Bengal. 
Exchange. 
Nature, Nos. 180-183. 

Purchase. 
Pratna-kamra-Nandini, Vol. VI. No. 1. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

j^or July, 1873. 

A meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal was held on Wednesday, 
the 2nd instant, at 9 o'clock p. M. 

Col. H. Hyde, R. E., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at the last meet- 
ing were balloted for, and elected ordinary members — 
H. M. Durand, Esq., C. S. 
Captain E. A. Eraser, 3rd M. L. C. 
C. W. Marshall, Esq. 

The following are candidates for ballot at the next meeting — 

J. C. Parker, Esq., Calcutta, proposed by J. Wood-Mason, Esq., 
seconded by Capt. J. Waterhouse. 

W. J. Olpherts, Esq., proposed by Walter Bourne, Esq., seconded by 
W. E. Brooks, Esq., C. E. 

Lieut. C. T. Bingham, Bengal Staff Corps, proposed by Lieut. -Col. J. Y. 
Gowan, seconded by Capt. J. Waterbouse. 

Kumara Grischandra Sinba Bahadur, proposed by Babu Rajendralala 
Mitra, seconded by Col. H. Hyde, R. E. 

Babu Jogeshchandra Dutt, proposed by Babu Rajendralala Mitra, 
seconded by H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A. 

Alexander Pedler, Esq., proposed by H. F. Blanford, Esq., seconded by 
H. B. Medlicott, Esq. 

Col. W. E. Marshall, Bengal Staff Corps, D. P. W., Fyzabad, proposed 
by J. Ewart, Esq., M. D., seconded by Capt. J. Waterhouse. 

W. G. Bligh, Esq., Asst. Engineer, Agra Canal, proposed by F. S. 
Growse, Esq., M. A., C. S., seconded by H. Blochmann, Esq. 



138 Celt from the Narbada Valley. [July, 

Capt. W. F. Badgley, B. S. C, Deputy Superintendent Topographical 
Survey, proposed by Major H. H. Godwin-Austen, seconded by Capt. J. 
Waterbouse. 

Lieut. K. G. Woodtborpe, R. E., Assistant Superintendent Topographi- 
cal Survey, proposed by Major H. H. Godwin-Austen, seconded by Capt. 
J. Waterhouse. 

The President announced that the Council have nominated Col. J. E. 
Gastrell as a Trustee of the Indian Museum, on behalf of the Society, in 
place of Dr. Stoliczka. 

Mr. H. B. Medlicott exhibited a stone implement from the Ossiferous 
" Pliocene" deposits of the Narbada valley. 

Mr. Medlicott invited attention to the perfectly regular, pointed oval, 
form of the celt as proving it to be unquestionably manufactured. On the 
important point of geological position, it is equally satisfactory, having 
been dug by Mr. Hacket of the Geological Survey, out of the stiff clay on the 
bank of the Narbada near Bhutra, north of Gadarwara. Some twenty feet of 
ossiferous gravel rested on the clay ; the whole being about one hundred feet 
below the present surface-level of the deposits. Dr. Falconer from first to 
last applies the term Pliocene to these beds and to their mammalian fossils, 
and with the conviction that human remains would be found in them. 

Mr. Medlicott drew attention to the immense antiquity implied by the 
name Pliocene ; and proved from Dr. Falconer's own writings that it had 
been knowingly applied by him, quite independently of its fixed meaning 
in the scale of geological formatious, and simply as expressing for the mamma- 
lian fauna that approximation to existing forms by which relation, as applied 
to the molluscan fauna, the name was intended, and is universally used, to 
indicate the youngest Tertiary formations. Dr. Falconer pointedly noted 
the great distinctions of the old Narbada fauna from that of the Sivaliks, 
and its strong affinities with existing forms ; nowhere insisting upon it as 
specifically Pliocene. 

Mr. Medlicott further pointed out from purely geological considera- 
tions that no such antiquity could be assigned to the old alluvium of the 
Indian rivers ; that he could not regard them as older than the late Pleistocene 
or Quaternary, i. e. on about the horizon of the implement-bearing gravels of 
the river-valleys of northern Europe. 

Mr. Blochmann exhibited several rubbings and tracings of inscriptions 
received from Jaunpur, Panipat, and Muzaffarnagar, the former from Gene- 
ral Cunningham, the latter from Mr. J. G. Delmerick, Dihli, and Mr. A. 
Cadell, C. S. He said— 



1873. J Gen. Cunningham 's Jaunpicr Inscriptions. 139 

At the January meeting of the Society I exhibited a large number of 
Bengal inscriptions received from General Cunningham, and I now propose 
to exhibit, at this and subsequent meetings, his inscriptions from various 
places in the North-Western Provinces. I shall commence with the five in- 
scriptions of the bridge over the Grumti at Jaunpur. The bridge was built in 
975 (or 975-76) A. H., or A. D. 1567-1568, by a Kabuli architect (ustdd) 
of the name of Afzal 'AH, at the cost of Mun'im KhanKhanan.* In the 
existing gazetteers, it is stated on the authority of the Jcmnpurndmah 
that the builder is Fahim, a freed man of Mun'im Khan ; but we know from 
history that Fahim was a slave of Mun'im's successor, Mfrza 'Abdurrahim 
KhanKhanan (Ain translation, p. 338). 

Jaunpu'r. 
I. 

fijS (JjJjiJ lj lIj ,jj( vi»~J * j|<X-o jJl* |**i/o ^lili. ^Lk. 
(¥±*x)\ C-U-a* iJJ** £\j 2S^ * C**»|^aUs ^Jk+Aftwo Jrf^e jf 

1. Khan Khanan Mun'im, the centre of the world, built this bridge by the grace 
of the Bountifal. 

2. His name is Mun'im ['one who confers benefits'], because he bestows favors 
upon mankind and shews mercy. 

3. He has thus opened for himself a passage over the C^'dt i mustaqimf towards 
the beautiful gardens of Paradise. 

4. You will arrive at the date if you throw the word bad out of ' Oiratul- 
mustaqim.' 

May God Almighty have this building in His keeping! The composer and 
writer of these verses is Muhammad Muhsin, a sinful man, son of Amir Hashim. 

The value of the letters of the words ' Ciratul Mustaqim' is 981, and if 
we subtract the value of the letters of ' bad,' i. e. 6, we get 981 — 6 = 975, 
A. H. The metre of the verses is short JRamal. 

II. 

* His biography will bo found in my Am translation, pp. 317, 384. The tdrikh 
given there is corrected below. Vide also Stewart's History of Bengal, p. 103. 

+ The faithful before entering Paradise have to pass over a bridge called Qirdt 
ul mustaqim, ' the established path,' which leads over a bottomless pit, but is as narrow 
and as sharp as the edge of a sword. 



140 Jaunpur Inscriptions. [Jult, 

1. The Khan Khanan of heavenly bounty, whose door is the cynosure of all 
wise hearts, 

2. Built a stono bridge over the surface of the river, over which good people 
pass at all times. 

3. As this bridge was built by the grace of God 4 its tdrikh is the words ' Fazli 
allah' [the grace of God], 

This gives 976 A. H. The metre is Ifutaqarib i sdlim. 

III. 

j£\ *+=?*> ^J\ j4L. fjjlkJi _,j| aJU| Jji jylkJLJijCif jX la* ^ti*J| ^lifls^t 

« ^la. ^ *i*> ^J| ^Jb * Ji" j^Jt 0.~A J^eUSf 

This lofty edifice and noble foundation was successfully completed in the reign of 
his Majesty, the great Sultan, the exalted Khaqan, in whom the marks of royalty ap- 
pear, the shadow of God, Abul Ghazi Jalalnddin Muhammad Akbar Padishah, at the 
private cost of the generous Lord. The following tdrikh contains his name, and the 
year in which (the bridge) was built and completed — ' The builder of this (is) Mun'im 
Khan.' [A. H. 975.] . 

IV. 

II «>.*«} f»U3b ^-bj^ ^-U <J.-ai| ^U*»|^./A*J} 

This lofty bridge was completed under the superintendence of the effect of great 
effects [one word illegible] among men, Khwajah Shaikh Nizamuddin, who is the son 
of Hazrat Makhdum i A'zam — may God sanctify his dear secret ! — and by the skill of 
the master of the age, Ustad Afzal 'Ali of Kabul. 

V. 

The last inscription is a Ruba'i, of which, however, the first line is ille- 
gible. The last is — 

When I looked for a tdrikh from the unseen world, (angels) said — * The bridge of 
Muhammad Mun'im Khan.' A. H. 975. 

Maulawi Khairuddin of Allahabad has given hi his Jaunpiirnamah the 
first two inscriptions, together with a description of the bridge itself. 

In the third inscription, Akbar is called Abul Ghazi, instead of Abul 
Path. 

2. Pani'pat. 

Mr. J. G. Delmerick has sent to the Society a tracing of the following 
inscription from Pani'pat. 



1873.] Inscriptions from Panipat and Muzqffarnagar. 141 

The builder of this edifice is Firuz Muhammad Lutfullah, the Afghan. The build- 
er of this religious edifice, during the reign of the King of Kings, Sikandar Shah, son of 
Buhlul Shah, the king, was by the kindness of God vouchsafed the grace to erect the 
vault of the tomb of the revered Shaikh of Shaikhs and saints, Shaikh Jalaluddm 
(the glory of truth, the law and the faith) — may God sanctify his dear secret ! Dated, 
2nd Shawwal, 904. [13th May, 1499, A. D.] 

Nothing is known of the builder. The saint, however, is a well-known 
personage, and all biographical works on Muhammadan Saints contain bio- 
graphical notes of him. His full name is Shaikh Jalaluddin, (son of) Mahmud 
of Kazarun, a town in Persia ; but his real name was Muhammad, son of 
Mahmud, Shaikh Shamsuddin Turk of Panipat having conferred on him the 
title of Jalaluddin, ' the glory of the Faith.' He is the author of the Zdd ul- 
akbar, and he was twice in Makkah. It is said that he daily fed one thousand 
people, and even during his hunting excursions, of which he was passionately 
fond, his table always contained miraculously food for one thousand people. 
Many miracles are related of him. He was in high favour' with Firuz Shah. 
Shaikh Jalal died on the 13th Eabi' I, 765 (20th December, 1363) and lies 
buried, together with his five sons, in Panipat. 

II. 

Mr. Delmerick also sent a tracing of a Hindustani inscription from 
Panipat. It seems that the tomb of Ibrahim Lodi was repaired in 1867 
by the local authorities of that town ; but unfortunately they have given the 
emperor Babar a wrong name, calling him Ghiyasuddin Babar, instead of 
Zahiruddin Babar. 



Muzaffarnagar. 

From A. Cadell, Esq., C. S., the following readings of inscriptions from 
Majherah and Mornah, connected with the Sayyids of Barha* (Muzaffarnagar 
District). 

* Vide Ai'n translation, pp. 389 to 395 ; Journal, A. S. Bengal, for 1871, Pt, I, 
p. 260 ; Proceedings, A. S. Bengal, November, 1872, p. 166. 



142 A. Anderson — On a new species of Kite. [July, 

I. 

(.ji g&jS *=*> k)\±!\ ^j ma. ^ji a^r *j Uj (j»fo&jl» 

# c$lrF A , -*■' , **•" cs^' **•*" 

1. Lord, forgive our sins ; for we are sinners and thou art forgiving. 

2. Thou art good, but we are wicked and have committed endless crimes. 

The date of the death of Miran Sayyid Husain, the good, who has obtained pardon 
and forgiveness, is the 5th Jumada, II, 1000. [9th March, 1592.] 

II. 

From the Mosque at Mbrnah. 

In the reign of Muhammad Shah, Padishah i Ghazi, this mosque was ordered to be 
built by the chaste lady of the age, Bibi Jhabbu, at the cost of nine thousand rupees, 
in the month of Qatar, 1138, [October, 1725], the eighth year of the auspicious acces- 
sion. 

Mr. Cadell writes — " This is one of the last of the substantial Sayyid 
buildings. Bibi Jhabbu was the wife of Nawab Hasan Khan, an Imperial 
Bakhshi, during the reign of Muhammad Shah. Mornah is a Chatrauri 
settlement, and tbe Mornah Sayyids with other Chatrauris came to the front 
when the Tihanpuris lost ground." 

Tbe following papers were read — 

1. On a new species of Kite, and notes on the genus Milvus generally. — By 
Andeew Anderson, Esq., F. Z. S., with a note by W. E. Bkooks, 
Esq., C. E. 

(Received 5th June, 1873 ) 
It is now nearly three years since I first recognized an undescribed 
species of migratory kite which appears to have escaped the notice of Indian 
Ornithologists, and the matter has been allowed to remain sub judice until 
I could be quite certain that the bird now brought before tbe public was 
really new to science. I have, however, alluded to it from time to time in a 
series of papers that have been published by the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don, (" Notes on the Raptorial birds of North Western India"), from which 



1873.] A. Anderson — On a new species of Kite. 143 

the following extracts are taken, as giving some particulars relative to the 
habits of the bird in question. 

" I have, however, specimens of a kite with all the characters of Milvus 
major, but considerably smaller. It is also a cold weather visitant, and is 
equally shy as the former. Mr. Brooks has examined these kites in my 
collection and agrees with me in referring them to another species : they 
may be Milvus affinis, or perhaps more probably M. melanotis of Tem- 
minck." 

" Undoubtedly we have three species of kites in India, two of them 
being migratory." P. Z. S. 1872, p. 79. 

" The small Marsh kites I have before referred to (p. 79) first made 
their appearance in ones and twos before the end of September ; and they 
were then terribly wild ; just as much so as Milvus major. Later in the 
season (December and January,) they became gregarious, and confined them- 
selves to marshes and grassy swamps. As the season advanced, so their 
wariness seemed to wear off ; and as the country dried up, they began asso- 
ciating with the village kites, till they became just as audacious as their 
allies M. Govinda. 

" I have seen as many as fifty of the small Marsh kite on the wing at 
a time ; and the conspicuous white or pale-buff patches under the wings 
suffice to distinguish them from the village kites at a glance." 

" Early in the season the Marsh kites appear to keep to the open 
country, and then do not intermingle with the other species ; but I have 
come across numerous places where villages are situated on the banks of 
swamps ; and then, of course, both kinds are always to be seen together. 
They have now (14th March,) nearly vanished, and by the end of the month 
I do not think one will be left." P. Z. S. 1872, p. 623. 
Milvus palustkis, sp. nov. 

The kite for which I have proposed this name, is somewhat smaller 
than M. govinda, Sykes ; but in point of coloration it is very nearly a fac- 
simile of M. major, Hume ; in fact a perfect miniature of that species. 
"While the amount of white under the wings, extending in some examples to 
two-thirds of the length of the primaries (confined, however, to the inner 
webs) , and the rich rufous tone of the plumage generally, tend to assimilate 
M. palustris to M. major, these characters tend equally to separate the 
former from either of the other two species, viz., M Govinda and M. affinis, 
Gould (P. Z. S. 1837) ; i. e., supposing the latter to be really worthy of 
specific distinction as an Indian bird.* There is also a considerable amount 

* Mr. Blyth, in his " Commentary on Dr. Jerdon's ' Birds of India.' " (Ibis, 1866, 
p. 248), does not appear to think that the ordinary Indian Kite is separable into two 
species : — " In every assemblage of Indian Kites there is much disparity of size, some 
males being considerably smaller than the largest females ; and the former would 



144 A. Anderson — On a new species of Kite. [July, 

of white and pale buff about the head and neck of the new bird, which is 
never present in its common congener 31. govinda, from which it has not 
hitherto been discriminated. 

The following are the dimensions of specimens that have been forwarded 
to illustrate this paper : 



No. 


1 


? Etawah district, 


Length 22 in. ; 


wing 


17 


No. 


2 


? Mainpuri district, 


:> 21 „ : 


> » 


16f 


No. 


3 


& Etawah district, 


,, 20i „ ; 


i v> 


16 


No. 


4 


4 Shahjahanpur district, 


20 „ ; 


» 


16 



These measurements correspond with those of the Australian bird (31. 
a finis, Gould), which Mr. Gurney states he has received from parts of In- 
dia, and which Mr. Hume* separates from 31. Govinda (vera), on account 
of " its duller tints, and smaller size."f The italics are mine. The new 
kite, therefore, cannot be the Australian bird (31. affinis), for, so far from 
approaching 31. Govinda in coloration, it differs widely from that species : 
(1) by its rufous toned plumage, and (2) by the white under the wings; 
which are characteristic of our new bird. 

Neither can it be 31. melanotis, Temminck, as I at one time supposed 
it might have been ; for Mr. Gurney informs me (in epist.) that specimens 
of this kite, which he has received from Japan, vary from 25 to 28^ inches 
in length (according to sex), with wings from 18i to 21i inches long, which 
measurements are exactly similar to those of 3£. major. J For the sake of 
comparison I forward a $ specimen of this kite, to shew the vast difference 
in size between it and our new bird ; and yet how close they are in point 
of colour. 

At one time I was inclined to believe that the subject of the present 
paper was perhaps only the young of 31. Govinda ; but a comparison with 
a Futtehgurh-born bird,§ will shew that this is quite impossible. The 
difference between the two species is sufficiently striking to be quite appa- 
rent to an ordinary observer. 

seem to be undistinguishable from the Australian affinis ; but I am not disposed to 
accept the opinion that there are two separable races of Milvus in the Indian and 
Indo-Chinese subregions." &c, &c. 

* Cf. " Stray Feathers," 1873, p. 161. 

f The examination of a large series of the common kites clearly shews that it is 
quite impossible to say where affinis ends, and where Govinda begins. As to the 
" duller tints" of the former, I find that this peculiarity is far from constant ; and as 
to its " smaller size" I would give it as my opinion, that merely nominal difference 
in this respect in a bird measuring twenty one inches long cannot be sufficient to 
constitute a distinct species. 

J Mr. Hodgson was aware of the existence of this large kite, as his drawings 
contain figures of it under the name of " Milvus Indicus," Hodgson. 

§ Also sent with this paper. 



1873.] W. E. Brooks — Note on a new species of Kite. 145 

The small Marsh kite is an extremely abundant species in the N. W. 
Provinces, and its appearance in September or October is a sure harbinger of 
the cold weather. It is gregarious, associating at times in large flocks ; and in 
this respect it differs from its larger ally (31. major") which, as a rule, is a 
solitary bird. 

Early in the season they are both extremely shy, thus affording a mark- 
ed contrast to the permanently resident species (31. Govinda). 

The summer habitat of 31. palustris is still a desideratum. I have 
satisfied myself beyond doubt that it does not breed within our limits, 
numerous dissections proving the bird to be a late breeder. 

In concluding my remarks on this subject, I wish to place on record 
the probable existence of another species of kite, considerably black- 
er and larger than the ordinary run of full sized Govindas. I have one 
specimen of this kite, a $ of the same dimensions as 31. major, but differ- 
ing in the shape of its nostril (a characteristic feature in Raptorial birds) 
from 'all the other Indian species of Kites. 

At first I inclined to the belief that in this bird I had got hold of 
the European 31. migrans, Bodd ; the more so, as Mr. Gurney has recorded 
it from Affghanistan. But on comparing this large black kite with a Rus- 
sian-killed 31. migrans, the difference between the two birds is very marked. 
The former was a breeding bird, with testes enormously developed, or I 
might have been inclined to have considered it merely a melanoid variety 
of M. major. 

Note by W. E. Brooks. 

I quite agree with my friend, Mr. Anderson, in separating this kite. 

The tendency to pale buff under the wings is a remarkable characteris- 
tic of 31. palustris, to which 31. major is not subject ; and in this respect it 
is not always an " exact miniature" of its large congener. 

I have long known this kite, and once imagined it to be 31. melanotis, 
Temm. and Schl. but the latter is now, I think, almost proved to 
be identical with M. major, Hume. I quite believe in their identity ; 
for a bird so strikingly resembling 31. major as 31. melanotis does according 
to all accounts, is sure to have a corresponding amount of white under the 
wing. The alleged want of white in the wing of the latter is the only differ- 
ence observed. This amount of white under the wing of 31. major is varia- 
ble ; sometimes it is clear white, at other times only a mottling of white on 
the basal half of the inner webs of the primaries. 

With reference to the idea entertained by Messrs. Hume and Anderson 
that there are two species of dusky kites of the Govinda type in India ; I 
cannot believe in anything of the sort. I have one of the larger dusky kites 
referred to by Mr. Anderson, and I have examined his bird too ; I have also 



J 16 W. E. Brooks — JVolc on a new species of Kite. [July, 

collected kites numerously from Etawah to Asausol, places distant apart 
about 700 miles, and I cannot find any specific difference in plumage. The 
wing varies from 16 to 18 inches in length ; but this is no greater varia- 
tion than M. major is subject to ; and the range of wing in Aquila bifasciata 
is from 20 to 24 inches, according to specimens in my collection. The dus- 
ky kites can be obtained ivith any length of wing between 16 and 18 incites, 
but they are one and all precisely identical in other respects. The male, too, 
is often quite as large as the average female. This should be taken into 
account before making another species of Govind kite. I do not agree with 
Mr. Anderson regarding the difference of nostril. Many of my smallest 
Govind kites have the same nostril. It is just such an amount of slight indivi- 
dual variation, as regards nostril, as I have observed in other species. 

I think, therefore, that we may safely conclude that we have only three 
true kites in India : JK. melanotis, M. Govinda or affinis, and M. palus- 
tris. 

I have never seen Indian-killed examples of M. migrans or M. JEgyp- 
tius. 

With regard to the types of If. Govinda, Mr. Gurney in a letter to 
me, dated 5th July, 1872, says, " Many years ago I examined in the Museum 
of the East India Company the two type specimens from which the late 
Col. Sykes originally described his M. Govinda. One of them appears to me 
to be identical with the Australian M. affinis, the other to be a somewhat 
larger bird, and I think of the form intermediate between M. melanotis and 
M. affinis, if such there really be as a distinct race." 

It would appear from the foregoing that there is some difference be- 
tween the two type birds of M. Govinda ; and a critical re-examination of 
them is much to be desired. For my own part, I am not at all satisfied 
that Milvus Govinda is not Milvus melanotis. 

The original description of Sykes' species is to be found in P. Z. S., 
1832, p. 81. 

Only two dimensions are given ; " Longitudo corporis 26 unc. ; and, 
"cauche 11." The former is, I think, fatal against M. Govinda being the 
bird ive now recognize as that species, i. e., the common Calcutta kite. The 
following are total lengths of several kites, the sexes of which were carefully 
ascertained : 

inches. 

M. major, & 25£ 

» » ° 25^ 

» » + 25V 

» » + 25 4 

» » + ^4-3 

94<i 

jj J» .tra a 



1873.] a. E. Dobson— On Indian Pteropi. 117 

M. Govinda S . 21 

4 22 

& 23| 

& 22 x 

g " J according to Mr. Hume 

" ." I " * " " t»» *\ m ' Stray Feathers. ' 

M. major, J or ? ... 277 to 29 ' J 

From the above dimensions it is apparent that a bird, in the flesh mea- 
suring 26 inches, cannot be our common kite. The probability is greatly 
in favour of its being M. melanotis. 26 in. could only be obtained by measur- 
ing a stretched skin of our common kite, and this an accomplished natura- 
list like Col. Sykes would hardly have done. 

I have heard that Col. Sykes' types are all carefully packed away in 
boxes, and it is to be hoped moths' eggs have not been packed up with 
them. How necessary it is that these valuable types should be in some 
museum where they might be properly cared for, and accessible. In the 
British Museum they would be well cared for, and thither they ought to be 
sent. 

There are several of Col. Sykes' types which require re-examination, and 
especially that of Sylvia Rama. Dr. Jerdon was under the impression 
that the true S. Rama was the smaller and more rufous bird separated by 
Mr. Hume as " Jerdonia agricolensis" after examining a series of both 
birds which I had prepared. The dimensions of Col. Sykes' original de- 
scription favour Dr. Jerdon's view ; for they decidedly indicate the smaller 
bird. I may mention in passing that the larger bird which Mr. Blyth 
regarded as Sylvia Rama, has been identified by Dr. Tristram with Sylvia 
caligata, Licht. 

I have digressed thus from the subject in hand to shew the necessity 
for Sykes' types being accessible ; and I know from experience, that it is a 
dangerous thing to shut up specimens in the tightest of boxes, unless they 
have been previously thoroughly baked. The chances are that all these 
valuable types have been reduced to a confused mass of feathers, or rather 
of the remains of feathers. 

2. Notes on the Pteropi of India and its Islands, ivith descriptions of some 
new or little known species. — By G. E. Dobson, B. A., M. B., Staff 
Surgeon H. M.'s British Forces. 

(Abstract.) 
According to Drs. Peters' and Gray's lists of the species of Pteropus no 

less than fifty species exist of which half inhabit a few small islands in the 

Malay Archipelago, and one species only Pt. medius, Temm. is known from 

the Continent of India and Burma. 



148 J. Wood-Mason — On Phasmidce. [July, 

The writer believes that many of the so-called species which go to make 
up the large number from Malayana have been founded on insufficient 
grounds, as several are distinguished solely by the colour of the fur, a most 
fallacious character in many orders of Mammals, and especially so in the 
Ghiroptera. Distinctions based on the shape of the skull and size and form of 
the teeth are not satisfactory, for it should certainly be possible to determine 
the species to which a given vertebrate animal belongs without first finding 
it necessary to kill and make a skeleton of it. 

A very valuable character for distinguishing the species of Pteropi, as well 
as other species of Ghiroptera, is shown to exist in the shape and relative 
size of the ears, the importance of which has not been sufficiently recognised. 
This if taken in connection with accurate measurements will, in most cases, if 
not in all, be found quite sufficient. 

Pt. nicobaricus, Fitz. et Zel., from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 
is redescribed as it is impossible to recognise the species from the 
original description in the Zoology of the Novara expedition.* This 
species is at once distinguished from Pt. meclius by the form of its ears 
which are rounded, not acutely pointed at the tips. 

A well-marked variety of Cynopterus marginatus, G. andamanensis, is 
described, and Cynopterus Sherzeri, Fitz. et Zel. from the Nicobars distin- 
guished from other species of the genus, the original description of this 
species being cmite useless as a means of diagnosis. 

A new species of Cynonycteris from the Malay Archipelago, G. minor, 
is also described. This species is readily distinguished from G. amplexi- 
caudatus, Geoff, by its small ears which are also proportionately much 
narrower. 

Other species of Indian Pteropi are redescribed, and a new genus, 
JEonycteris, is established for the reception of Macroglossus spelceus, Dobson. 

3. Description of a new species of Vespertilio from the North-Western 
Himalaya. — By G. E. Dobson, B. A., M. B. 
(Abstract.) 
The new species for which the name Vespertilio murinoides is proposed, 
resembles V. murinus, L. but is distinguished by its smaller size, by the 
shape of the ears and tragus which is very acutely pointed, not subacute, as 
in the latter species, and by the small size of the first upper premolar. 
Both papers will appear in the Journal. 

4. Note on certain species of Phasmidce hitherto referred to the genus 

Bacillus. — By James Wood-Mason, of Queen's College, Oxford. 

The discovery which I have to announce, viz., that the true males of 

Bacillus insignis and its allies are to be sought in insects of the type of 

* Reise der Oester. Freg. ' Novara/ ibaugethiere, p. 11. 



1873.] J. Wood-Mason — On Phasmidce. 119 

Lonclwdes Stilpnus, Westw., Lonclwdes pseudoporus, Westw. Lonclwdes 
Bussellii, Bates, &c, affords another instructive illustration not only 
of the extreme imperfection of our knowledge of this family of Orthop- 
terous Insects, but also of the utter futility of any attempt satisfactorily to 
distribute the species composing it into genera, until we shall be in posses- 
sion of the true pairs of many more of the described species. 

In 1869 M. Henri de Saussure* proposed, prematurely as it turns out, 
to divide the genus Bacillus into three subgenera, one {Bacillus) for the 
reception of B. Bossii and its allies, another (Bamulus) for B. humilis, 
Westw., B. carinalatus, Sauss., &c, and a third (Baculum) for B. cun- 
icularis, Westw., B. ramosus, Sauss, &c. ; and in the first part of my memoir 
on the Phasmidce,] I provisionally referred to the last named subgenus 
one known and three new species, pointing out that these agreed together 
in having the last dorsal abdominal segment longitudinally grooved, and 
mentioning, in the description of each species, the presence, in the posterior 
border of this segment, of an emargination filled by a well-developed supra- 
anal plate which is invariably to be found in the females of all species of Lon 
chodes. I have long felt convinced that the insect of which a description 
is appended, was the male of my Bacillus (Baculum) insignis but have 
thought it better to wait for evidence confirmatory of the fact. This 
has, at length, reached me from Ceylon, thanks to Mr. Hugh Nevill, C. C. 
C, who has been kind enough to send me, amongst other species of great 
interest and value, the two sexes of an insect agreeing admirably with 
M. de Saussure'sJ description of L. pseudoporus, Westw. 

The discovery of the male of B. insignis will obviously also necessitate 
the transference of the following species to the genus Lonclwdes : — Bacillus 
cunicularis et Hypliereon, Westw. B. patellifer et scytale, Bates, B. ramo- 
sus, Sauss., B. Pentliesilea et furcillatus, Wood-Mas. ; and I strongly 
suspect that B. Westwoodi et scabriusculus will eventually have to follow 
them to the same genus. 

Lonchodes insignis. 

£ Bacillus (Baculum) insignis, Wood-Mason, Journ. A. S. B., Vol. XLII, 1873, 

pp. 51, 52, pi. V. fig. 1, 2. 

$ Body of excessive tenuity. Antennae perfectly filiform, 24-jointed, 
reaching nearly to the apex of the anterior femora. The head is almost a 
complete miniature of that of the female and in the specimen from which the 
dimensions given below are taken has two minute tubercles between the eyes 
representing the well-developed horns of the opposite sex. Three dark dorsal 

* Mel. Orth. Fasc. II, pp. Ill, 112. 
t Journ. A. S. B., 1873Pt. II, No. I. 
% Op. cit., pp. 120, 121. 



150 J. Wood-Mason — On Phasmidce. [July, 

streaks, one median and two lateral, pass along the whole length of the body 
from the head to the end of the 6th abdominal segment. Both meso- and 
metathorax are dilated at either end hut especially at the insertion of the 
legs, and have each a raised median dorsal carina. The six basal abdominal 
segments are slightly expanded at each end, as in spirit specimens of the 
female ; the 7th and 8th are shorter than the preceding, sub-equal, and 
gradually widen, the former from the base to the apex, the latter from the 
apex to the base ; the last is scarcely longer than these, and cleft for rather more 
than a third of its length, but the sides of the cleft are so closely approximat- 
ed that no hiatus is visible as in many other species ; seen from the side, this 
segment terminates in an obtuse, scarcely deflexed tip. The legs are devoid 
of all traces of the foliaceous lobes so conspicuous in the female, but present the 
same general structure ; the intermediate femora are just perceptibly curved, 
and the four posterior tibiae have a few inconspicuous spinules towards the 
apical end. 

Total length, 4 in. 1\ lin., ant. 15|, head 2, proth. If, mesoth. 12, me- 
tath 11, abd. 24 + 6 = 30 lin., ant. legs 19 + 22 + 6£ = 4 in., inter, legs 
12 -f- 12 + 5 = 2 in. 5 lin., post, legs 15 + 16 + 4£ = 3 in. 

Hab. Samagooting, Naga Hills, with the female. Collected by Cap- 
tain Butler. 

The author exhibited the specimens referred to in the preceding note, 
and also invited the attention of the meeting to the following fine series of 
Australian insects belonging to the same family : 

Lonchodes, n. sp., $ 2 . Hab. N. Queensland. 

LopapJms coccophagus, G. B,. Gray, $. Hab. Samoa. 

Cyphocrania Goliath, Gray, ? . 

Oypliocrania JEnceladus, Gray, $ 2 . 

Acrophylla violascens, Leach, $ 2 . 

Podacanthus Typhon, Gray, $ Hab. Champion Bay, N. W. Australia. 

Podacanthus viridiroseus, Curtis, 2 . 

Tropidoderus Childreni, Gray, $ 2 et. 9 var. 

Extatosoma tiaratum, MacLeay, $ 2 et larva. 

The reading of the following papers was postponed. 

1. Authorities for the History of the Portuguese in India. By T. W. 
H. Tolbort, Esq., C. S. 

2. Note on two copper-plate grants of Govinda Chandra of Kanouj- 
By Babu Rajendralala Mitra. 



1873.] Library. 151 



Library. 

The following additions have heen made to the Library, since the meet- 
ing held in June, last. 

Presentations. 
# * # Names of Donors iu Capitals. 
Monatsherieht, January, 1873. 

Schott — Einige Zusatze und Verbesserungen zu seiner Abhandlung iiber die 
iichten Kirgisen. Borchard.t — Untersuchungen iiber die Elasticitat fester isotroper 
Korper unter Beriicksichtigung der Warme. Dove — Die meteorologischen Untei'- 
schiede der Nordhalfte nnd Sudhalfte der Erde. 

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences of Berlin. 
Bulletin, April, 1873. 

E. 0. Bey — Essai geographique sur le nord de la Syrie. Khiva. (Exti-ait d'un 
travail du Colonel Venioukof.) 

The Geographical Society of Paris- 
Actes, 3 e Ser., 33 e Annee— 1871-72. 
M. Under — Discours sur l'origine des aurores polaires. 

The National Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bordeaux. 
Zamidar-o-Praja, (a Bengali pamphlet on the relations of landlord 
and tenant). By Nilakamala Mukerji. 

The Author. 
Professional Papers on Indian Engineering, May, 1873. 
A. Nielly — Report on experiments made on Kankar Mortars and Concrete. E. A. 
Bibold — Retrogression of level in canals. W. W. Culcheth — Quantity of water 
for various crops. Captain A. Cunningham — Transverse strain in pillars. Major 
H. Tulloch — Masonry conduits versus Iron pipes. Major H. Tulloch — History of the 
water supply of Bombay. 

The Editor. 
The Calcutta Journal of Medicine, March and April, 1873. 

The Editor. 
The Christian Spectator, Vol. II, No. 24. 

The Editor. 
Ramayana, Vol. 3, No. 7. 

The Editor. 
Vetala Panchavinshati. 

Babu Ra'jendrala'la Mitra. 
Memorandum on the Metals and Minerals of Upper Burmah. By 
Captain G-. A. Strover. 

The Flora Sylvatica, part XXVI, by Major R. H. Beddome. 
Kitab-ul-Twazih fi Asu-lil-Ashri, (Human Anatomy in Arabic). 

The Government of India. 



152 Library. [July, 

Paleeontologia Inclica, Vol. I, Part 1. Jurassic Fauna of Kutch. 
W. Waagen — The Cephalopoda (Belemnitidaa and Nautilidao). 

Tile Geological Survey op India. 

Purchase. 

The Indian Antiquary, June, 1873. 

L. Rice — Nagamangala Copper-plate Inscription. W. Ramsay — Sapta Sringa. 
Capt. S. B. Miles — Archaeological remains in Mekran. Dr. Biihler — On a Prakita 
Glossary entitled Paiyalachhi. Rev. F. Kittel — Coorg Superstitions. W. F. Sinclair 
— Notes on Natural History. Dinshah Ardesliir Taleyarhhan — Legend of Vellur. 
Three Copper-plate grants from the Krishna district. Archaeology of Belari district. 

Exchange. 

Nature, Nos. 181-187. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For August, 1873. 



The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on "Wednesday t 
the 6th instant, at 9 o'clock p. M. 

Col. H. Hyde, R. E., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following presentations were laid on the table — 

1. From the Government of India — 

A copy of " Report of a Tour made by Captain Miles to Kedj and 
Punjgoor and his return via Kurrachi." 

A copy each of iEsop's Fables and the Gospel of St. Luke, translated 
into the Swaheli language by Dr. Steere, Zanzibar. 

A copy of a " Diary of a Journey from Bunder Abbas to Baghdad, via 
Seistan, Meshed and Teheran" by Mr. G. Rozario, late in medical charge 
of the Seistan Mission. 

2. From the Imperial Government of Brazil — A copy of a work entit- 
led " Climat, Geologie, Faune, et Geographie Botanique du Bresil," by Mr. 
E. Liais. 

3. From the Directors of the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences 
two copies of '•' Photographien naar Oudheden van Java, door J. van Kins- 
bergen." 

The following letter accompanied the donation — 

' We have the pleasure to inform you that through the Netherlands In- 
dia Steam Navigation Company we have forwarded to the address of your 
Society, as per enclosed bill of lading, a case containing a collection of pho- 
tographs representing part of the antiquities of Java. 

' In the 33rd volume of the Transactions of our Society will be found an 
elaborate monograph on Hinduism in Java, a posthumous work of the Rev. 
J. F. G. Brumund, Protestant Minister at Batavia, who, at the suggestion of 



154 Photographs of Hindu Antiquities in Java. [August,, 

our Society, was entrusted by the Government of Netherlandish India with 
the task of visiting and describing the remains of the Hindu period, but who 
unfortunately was prevented by his untimely decease from accomplishing 
his studies, leaving unfinished a work which, when completed, would unques- 
tionably have become one of the most interesting sources of our knowledge 
of the pre-Mahomedan period of Java. 

' Together with the proposal of our Direction to entrust to the Rev. 
J. F. G. Brumund the description of the various monuments, we called the 
attention of the India Government to the necessity of having the monuments, 
at least the most interesting of them, reproduced by an able photographer, 
and according to our advice, Government made choice of Mr. v. Kinsbergen,. 
who under our control and according to our instructions has been occupied 
for some years in forming the collection of which a copy is now presented to 
your learned Society through our instructions, but in the name of the Govern- 
ment of Netherlandish India. 

' The photographs are accompanied by a catalogue from which you will 
please to observe that only the smaller part of them has been described in 
the above quoted work of Mr. Brumund, a new copy of which will be found 
in the parcel, containing the latest publications of our Society, which we 
have at the same time forwarded to your address. 

' Nearly all the antiquities that have been found in the Residencies of 
Bagelen, Gidiri, &c, were photographed after the death of Mr. Brumund, 
and till now our endeavours to find a person capable of continuing the labours 
of our lamented colleague, have been unsuccessful. On the other hand how- 
ever, Mr. v. Kinsbergen has again been commissioned by Government to 
complete the present collection of photographs by reproducing in detail that 
most splendid monument in the residency of Kadce known to all students 
of Hindu art and history under the widespread name of the Boro Boedoer. 

' Some more remnants of the earlier period of history in that part of 
Java will be added to the collection, and through the liberality of our 
Government, the learned world in Europe will in a couple of years have at 
their disposal a nearly complete representation of the most remarkable 
remains of the Hindu period, which have escaped the mutilating hand of 
man, and the destructive influence of time and climate.' 

The President drew the attention of the meeting to the unusually 
valuable and interesting nature of this fine collection of photographs and 
proposed a vote of thanks to the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences. 

Mr. Blochmann seconded the proposal, and it was carried unanimously. 

4. From the French Minister of Marine, Paris. — A copy of " Voyage 
d'Exploration en Indo-Chine," by M. M. de Lagree and Gamier. 

A vote of thanks to the French Department of Marine for this splendid 
work, proposed by the President, seconded by Mr. Blochmann, was carried 
unanimously. 



1873.] Mr. Blochnann on Coins from Bupar. 155 

Mr. Blochmann exhibited the following two coins forwarded to him for 
exhibition by the Rev. Mr. Carleton, Rupar. 

1. A Qutbuddiri MubdraksMM, silver and copper. New variety. 
Square. Weight, 83.3S6 grains. A. H. 719. 

Obveiise.— v | 1 >kJl y I &>M j k>*h v-kJ' fMl |* l/0 ^t 
Reverse. — In a small circle &U| &a.i.i±» jUS'jIw 

and along the four sides— o-fc^^fjJ!-*! ^ [j . C^lr'' ly^L* 
Similar coins were published by Mr. Thomas, ' Chronicles,' pp. 179 to 
183. 

2. A coin struck by MxCizzuddin Mubarak Shall. Silver. New varie- 
ty. Round. Weight, 71.812 grains. A. H. 833. 

Obverse.' — Arr ai'Jal**^ &&«> &M\ oJLx a Li iJA.)* ## ^^\ ^Itl-Ji 
and in a small square, inserted into the middle the second line &j\j — 
whatever these words may mean. 

Reverse. — Within a square, the Kalimali. The square is inscribed in 
a lozenge, and the four spaces between the sides of the square and sides of 
the lozenge contain the names of the four Khalifahs. In the first line of the 
obverse, the coin has a punch mark. Vide Thomas, ' Chronicles,' p. 333. 

A letter was read from the Rev. Mr. Erhardt, Superintendent of the 
Secundra Orphanage, in reply to a letter of the Secretary, written in 
compliance with the resolution passed at the general meeting in June, asking 
for further information as to the fact of the finding of certain children in 
the company of wolves. Mr. Erhardt gave no new facts, but stated his very 
strong belief of one of the children referred to having been burnt out of a 
wolves' den, such belief being founded on the extremely animal-like and filthy 
propensities of the child when brought to the asylum, the recent burns on 
his person and the testimony of the persons who brought him. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded, were balloted for 
and elected ordinary members. 

J. C. Parker, Esq. 

W. J. Olpherts, Esq. 

Lieut. C. T. Bingham. 

Kumara Grischandra Sinha Bahadur. 

Babu Jogeshchanclra Dutt. 

Alexander Pedler, Esq. 

Col. W. E. Marshall. 

W. G. Bligh, Esq. 

Capt. W. F. Badgley. 

Lieut. R. Or. Woodthorpe, R. E. 

D. D. Cunningham, Esq., M. B. 

Capt. J. Butler, (re-elected). 



156 Cunningham's Inscriptions from j&dpri, Makobd, Sfc. [August, 

Mr. E. Van Cutsem has intimated his desire to withdraw from the 
Society. 

Mr. H. Blochmann exhibited rubbings of the following inscriptions 
received from General A. Cunningham, C. S. I., in continuation of the 
rubbings shewn at the last meeting. 

Ra'pri'. 
The 'Alauddin Khilji Inscription of the Tdgah at JRapri. 

Yji t$&; <J-^ 3 tPl** 4 " «^lj i iJ>\i>ji &&J*1 *-Nj& ^*^ i^l * 1 -^ 

jjj(£ ^l^jl&i. (^•^♦^ 1^ «-2-J^t ^y j CJ-i^-*"' 1 J"*'^"" ^ ^jUaLJl M-* &+s: K 

t_£)Uj| j.4-i ^/o t-Ax&IwJt ^ /♦**!>»» <XlJ| ^-.^l j ^i* aU( J^ij filial*. 

II <XjU*j.^ j^^c (_^=>-l ***» Ai^*- 4-^t Ja-c ^Liyo, 

The building of this noble work [took place] by the grace of God and the assis- 
tance of the Almighty and the favour of the Lord, during the time of the reign of 
the second Alexander, 'Alauddunya wad din, who is distinguished by the kind- 
ness of the Lord of the worlds, Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah, the king, the 
helper of the Commander of the Faithful, and during the governorship of the mean 
slave of his Majesty, K af ur, the Eoyal — may God accept it from them, and may God 
give them an excellent reward ! In the middle of the blessed month of Ramazan (may 
God increase its honor ! ) of the year 711. [End of February, 1312, A. D.] 

The tablet measures 5 feet by 2 feet, and consists of four lines. 
The letters are thick and clumsy. 

The inscription refers to the end of 711, when Malik Kafur came back 
to Dihli laden with the treasures of Malabar and Dhiir Samundar. 

R a p r i is often mentioned in early Muhammadan history. It lies 
S. E. of Agrah, on the left bank of the Jauiuna, opposite to Batesar. It is 
now in ruins, the chief town of the Parganah being Shikohabad (named 
after Dara Shikoh). 

Mahoba'. 

M a h o b a lies near the southern boundary of the N. W. Provinces, 
halfway between Kanhpur and Sagar. 

During the Muhammadan rule it belonged to Sirkar Kalinjar, and was 
famous for its excellent betel leaves, of which it had annually to furnish 
120,000. During the reign of Firiiz Shah (III) it was for a long time the 
jagir of Nacir Khan, and after him that of his son Sulaiman (A. H. 781, or 
A. D. 1379). Baddoni, I, 251. 

The Ghiyasuddin Tughluq Inscription on the Mosqtce of JSIahobd. 
+)U J$l — £ (_jJ*J s(^p cSAli *^. ^Jj/o^ Lvij y ^^'d^-s 



1873.] MaJiohd Inscriptions. 157 

,(M£*» ^y* i*JUUx> kA^^^-i jS^j j j${^') &> ^—ji^lf* 

JilisA^j^ Cjl-i>! C^* ^~? 

o*.«ljf <}.:5:~"' ,0 C >=^ j|^J,> j j i *£*-*>(; j.ijO^.-.j ^^^.J .J^aJl^j ^ 

1. By the favour of God the good news arrived that the Mosque had been built 
at Mahoba, 

2. During the reign of the king of the seven zones, the centre of royalty, the 
asylum of Islam, 

3. Ghiyas uddunyawaddin, a second Jam, whose throne is (as high as) 
the heaven, Tughluq, the king of the world, 

4. ' A king who, like Alexander, by the force of his club and sword, conquered 
countries. 

5. May he, like the heaven, be kind in his reign, and may the throne of his king- 
dom be everlasting in the world ! 

6. A mean slave of the famous king, in whose reign the mosque was completed, 

7. MalikTajuddaulak, the fortunate, mild as Muhammad, whose excellent 
name is Ahmad. 

8. Has with the help of God * * * * (illegible) 

9. When twenty-two years had passed beyond 700, he built the door, the wall, 
and the courtyard of the mosque. 

10. It was in Rabi 'II. of the Hijrat, that Ids kind hand was engaged in build- 
ing this edifice. 

Thus the mosque was built by Malik Tajuddin Ahmad, in Rabi' II, 
722, A. H., or May, 1322, A. D. 

An imperfect reading of this inscription, together with two modern in- 
scriptions from the Hamirpur District, were some time ago received by the 
Society from Mr. E. T. Atkinson, C. S. The first of the modern ones refers 
to the building of a Mosque and the digging of a well by one Khwajah 
Firuz during the reign of Aurangzib, but the reading is not metrical. The 
second inscription is (metre, Ichafif) — 

^LL ^jIsw ato V T ^^ Jfl-c JJJU iylj ^ v^ 4- **^ 

1. In the reign of 'A'lamgi r, the king, this well, which is like the water of 
life, was dug. 

2. The Fort was without water. Genius, therefore, said that the date was 
given in the words ' A'b dad Hdtim Khan,' ' Hatini Khan procured water.' 

This gives A. H. 1113, or A. D. 1701. 



158 General Cunninghams Dilili Inscriptions. [August, 

Dihli'. 
1. The Firuz Shah Inscription of 753 A. H. 

fj&f&lj *x*"*"N ijaUL J-^j)] pity lit f»l*»j *£** *M ^Le *li| J^wj Jl» 
_jj| (i^r^Jl t>A J U J (J^tyt fk*x> ^l^s f &£( ^Usl*. eJjj, <*(.£ ;j O.s:~* /0 ^j! 
4ix> aU| JLftS yjla. jdUi jfiii+J] u ^i/o^/|j.Ax>| ^Jyo ^f^o j^j ^f ^^.j C**a^J 

The Prophet of God — may God's blessings rest on him ! — says, " If you see that 
the man pledges himself to the mosque, testify in his favour ; for God says, ' Surely he 
who believes in God and the last day, will build the mosques of God.' [Qoran.] 

The building of this mosque [took place] in the time of the reign of the great 
Sultan, the exalted sovereign, who trusts in the help of the Almighty, Abul MuzafFar 
Firuz Shah, the king, — may God perpetuate his kingdom aud rule ! The builder of 
this religious edifice is the slave who hopes in God's mercy, Bahadur Maul a, the 
freed slave (mania) of the Commander of the Faithful, who is called Nisar Khan — 
may God accept it of him ! On the first day of Ramazan, 753. [11th October, 1352.] 

The inscription measures about 4| feet by 2 feet, and consists of four 
lines without the usual bars between the lines. The letters are clumsy, and 
there are no diacritical points. Hence my reading of the name of the builder 
* Nisar Khan' is somewhat doubtful. 

The inscription is of interest as it belongs to the very beginning of 
Firuz Shah's reign. 

2. The Sikandar Shah Inscription of 900 A. H. 

iDjZ-i' ^ cj/^=» l&ijZj. iDj*""* £> } jjli^lj ^i^vJl ^Ual*. ^ j$ i-ajj-w &*£j 
dXi\ Ala. &)]£ ^Ual** }$l& Jj.A t J <jJ x[£ j*.&«> j&kj\ ji\ ^*s^}\ AjJlilU &[}J\ 

|| Ajl+W &L* JjJJI £XJj JjLo \j£. Ujpj ### «Vs*f^J| +ya±j* 

God who is blessed and exalted has said, " Surely the mosques belong to God, do 
not call on any one else besides God" [Qoran]. The building of this excellent work 
of piety [took place] during the reign of the king of kings, the ruler of the inhabited 
quarter of the world, the chosen of the Lord who said ' Let there be,' and it was, who 
trusts in the assistance of the All-merciful, Abul Muzaffar Sikandar Shah, son 
of Buhlul Shah, Sultan Kalah — may God perpetuate his kingdom and rule and elevate 
his condition and dignity ! This door of the building of the Jami' Masjid [one word 
without meaning] was erected by the pardoned, deceased Abu Amjad * * * * 
[illegible]. Dated 1st Rabi' I, 900. [30th November, 1494]. 



1873.] Beetles Inscriptions from Bianah and Ajmir. 159 

This inscription contains nine lines, separated by the usual bars, and 
looks more like a headstone than a mosque inscription. 

3. Inscription from the tomb of one Daitlat Klidn (A. H. 020.). 
^J sUj^AXw ejU^Jt ^i-e 0SjU\ Ja*J\ plzfi)}] ^ihi^ ^L* ±f J(i 

II aj'**-^ i i^y*^ *J-w v^j 8*° {r c <**^ X) ^'j-^ *♦#* iy^- ^j& jte*)jj* 

In the auspicious reign of the great exalted Sultan, who trusts in the All-merci- 
ful, Sikandar Shah, son of Buhliil Shah, the king, — may God perpetuate his 
kingdom and rule ! — this vault was built by the slave who hopes in the mercy of the 
Creator, Daulat Khan *** Khwajah Muhammad. 1st Eajab, 920. [23rd August, 
1514.]. 

Mr. T. W. Beale, of Partabpurah, Agrah, the learned author of the 
• Mift ah uttaivarikh , has sent the following readings of inscriptions. 

1. Bia'nah. 
" There is a place of worship of the Hindus, about 11 Jcos from the 
Qacbah of Bianah, in the district of Bhartpur, called " Barmadh Mata." Irt 
the 7th year of Jahangir (1022 A. H.), Maryam Zamani (^^j^i/ ), the 
daughter of Raja Bihari or Bhara Mai and mother of Jahangir, caused a 
garden and a Baoli (a well with steps) to be built there, which cost her 
20,000 Rs. At present, there is no sign of the garden, but the building 
which is over the Baoli still exists. It is built with red stone and has the 
following inscription on a slab of marble." 

^AUj U &x> j\ w< ili c>£, t£)'t~»- jjyfjlya. jmJix'i jy &L£ <v*j 






IS" 

I -rr 

1. In the reign of the king Niiruddin Jahangir, the world became a rose- 
bed, from the moon to the fish. 

2. By order of his mother Maryam Zamani, from whom the divine light 
shone forth, 

3. This garden and this well were nicely built, so much so, that from shame the 
face of Paradise got pale. 

4. Genius expressed the date of the building in the words, ' The 7th year of 
the Imperial accession.' [A. H. 1022, or A. D. 1613.] 

The phrase ' from the moon to the fish' is often used by poets, and is 
an allusion the old belief that the earth rests upon a fish ; hence ' from the 
moon to the fish' means ' the whole earth.' 

2. Ajmi'r. 

" Jahangir writes in the Tuzuk i Jahangiri, that there is a large tank 
in Ajmir, and that when he visited the place in 1024 A. H., he named it 



100 Inscription from Arjrali. [AUGUST, 

" Chashmah i Nur" (' Fountain of light') after his own name Nuruddin, and 
ordered a building to be erected on its hanks, which is still standing. The 
following inscription is to be seen at the top of the building, which shows 
the year of its erection, 1024 A. H." » 

_^j«^5j (_£>jj| ^ cfljT e; l f^ * ^J^** w«'jJ^ **™^> <->^k-> 
I •rp 

1. When the fortunate king of the seven realms, whose praise cannot be express- 
ed in writing, — 

2. The light of the house of Shah Akbar, the sovereign of the time, Shah 
Jahangir, — 

3. Came to this spring, the water flowed in consequence of his liberality, and 
its soil became the elixir of life. 

4. The king named it ' Fountain of Light,' and Khizr's water [the water of 
life] derives its taste from it. 

5. In the 10th year of the accession of the victorious king, by order of the well- 
meaning ruler, 

6. This building at the side of the ' Fountain of Light' became, by the decree 
of fate, an ornament of the world. 

7. Genius expressed the date of its completion in the words, ' the Mahall of 
Shah Nuruddin Jahangir.' A. H. 1024 [A. D. 1615]. 

3. A'grah. 

The following is the Tarikh of the famous Isma'il Beg, who was im- 
prisoned by the Mara.tb.as in the Fort of Agrah in the time of the blind 
emperor Shah 'Alam, and died there in the year 1214, A. H. His tomb is 
still to be seen at Agrah, bearing the following inscription — 

mr 5 

1. When Ihtisham uddaulah I s m a' 1 1 K h a n left for Paradise, 

2. A voice from heaven expressed the date of his death in the words ' Alas, 
a great man has gone from this world.' A. H. 1214 [A. D. 1799-1800]. 

Regarding Isma'il Beg, vide Keene's History of the Mogul Empire, 
Book II, Chapter V. 



1873.] T. W. H. Tolbort— History of the Portuguese in India. 161 

The following papers were read — 
1. Authorities for the History of the Portuguese in India. — By 
T. W. H. Tolbobt, B. C. S., Miydnwali, Bannii. 
(Abstract.) 

Mr. Tolbort gives in this paper a list of the authors whose works are 
most valuable for the History of the Portuguese in India. He limits the 
range of these authorities to the period between 1193 when Vasco da Gama 
discovered India, and 1663 when the capture of Cochin by the Dutch finally 
broke the power of the Portuguese, and established the supremacy of others 
in the East. During that period the adventures of the Portuguese form a 
chapter of Universal History. In years subsequent to 1663, the subject, 
though not devoid of incidents of gallantry and romance, dwindles to one 
of national rather than universal interest. 

The oldest work is by Correa, who came in 1512 as amanuensis to Al- 
buquerque to India. Then follow Joao de Barros (died 1570), whose ' Da 
Asia' is looked upon as a classical work, and Couto, the continuator of De 
Barros, after whom the works of many other authors are described. 

The author also gives references to Muhammadan writers, and notices 
in conclusion the Dutch and Portuguese records that still exist at Goa and 
other settlements, selections from which were printed between L866 and 
1869 by Sr. Eivara of Goa. 

2. Notes on two Copper-plate Grants of Govindachandra of Kanouj . — By 
Ba'bu Ra'jekdrala'la Mitea. 

The two copper plates, which form the subject of the paper, were lately 
discovered in the village of Basahi in the Etawah district, and sent for 
notice by Mr. E, T. Atkinson, B. C. S. One of them bears date 
Samvat 1161 = A. D. 1103, and the other 1174. Both record grants of 
villages to Brahmans by Raja Govindachandra Deva of Kanouj. The paper 
gives a summary of the dates of the last line of Kanouj kings from Yasovi- 
graha to Jayachandra, the last sovereign, from whom the country passed into 
the hands of Moslim rulers ; and notices a number of taxes and cesses which 
zemindars were authorized to impose on the people, including among others, 
a chowkidary tax, a tax on justice, a percentage on mortgages, and cesses 
on mines, salt-pits, mowa and mango trees, khaskhas grass, and trade in 
precious metals. Annexed to the paper are transcripts and translations of 
the two records. 

3. On a new genus and species (Hylceocarcinus Humei) of Land Crabs 
from the Nicobar Islands. — By J. Wood-Mason. 
The species described in this paper is very closely allied to the members 
of the West Indian and Brazilian genera, Gecarcinus and Pelocarcinits, but 



1G2 Dr. Waldie — Filtration of Hxighli wafer. [Augi IT, 

differs from both in that the infra-orbital lobe is not united to the front. 
The external maxillipeds are similar in form to those of the latter but in the 
mode of insertion of the three terminal joints of these appendages Hylceo- 
carcinus diners from both genera, forming a transition from the one to the 
other : in Gecarcinus the third joint completely hides the terminal ones which 
are inserted on its inner face ; in Hylceocarcinus it hides all but the external 
ed o, e of the first of these joints : and in Pelocarcinus these joints are insert- 
ed at the middle of its anterior margin and are completely uncovei^ed. In 
Jli/heocarciuus, as in its New World allies, the dactylopodites of the ambu- 
latory legs are armed with six rows of spines. 

A male and a female were taken by the author on Treis Island, Nico- 
bars, and another male by Mr. A. 0. Hume, C. B., on Narcondam Island, 
Andamans. 

The paper will appear in the next number of the Journal. 

4. Descriptions of new species of JJnionidce. — Bi/ W. Theobald. 
This paper will appear in Part II, No. 4, of the Journal. 

Dr. Waldie made the following brief remarks on some investiga- 
tions he was engaged in, regarding the filtration of the water of the river 
Hughii during the rainy season — 

The filtering operations at Palta for the water supply of Calcutta have, 
during the rainy season, been attended with great trouble and difficulty, 
and remedies had been proposed for this based upon experience in water 
filtration in England. He, the speaker, however, who had long been ac- 
quainted with the difficulty, had always maintained that it arose from a 
peculiarity in the water itself, and that conclusions drawn from experience 
with English river water were not applicable to the case. Hitherto he had 
not been able to support his view otherwise than by arguments drawn from 
the difference of circumstances in the two cases and by the actual facts 
observed in the filtration. A few days ago a new idea occurred to him by 
which he thought it probable that the nature of the peculiarity of the water 
might be explained, which he had immediately put to the test of experi- 
ment, and with such a satisfactory result that he intended to follow it up, 
and would, with permission, bring it before the Society at the first oppor- 
tunity. The title of the proposed communication would probably be, 
" An experimental enquiry into the characteristics of the nmddy water of 
the Hughii during the rainy season, with reference to its purification." 

The President announced that there would be a recess of two months 
and that the next meeting would be held in the month of November. 



1873.] Library. 1B3 

LlBTtAKY. 

The following additions have been made to the Library since the meet- 
ing held in July last. • 

Presentations. 
# *^ Names of Douors in Capitals. 

Royal Society, Proceedings, Nos. 139-143. 

No. 139. A. Rattray — Further experiments on the more important Physiological 
Changes induced in the Human Economy by Change of Climate. A. Ransome — On 
the mechanical conditions of the Respiratory Movements in Man. 

No. 140. E. Raxj Lankester — A contribution to the knowledge of Haemoglobin. 
J. Norman Lockyer — Researches in Spectrum-Analysis in connexion with the spectrum 
of the Sun. 

No. 1-11. J. N, Lockyer and G. M. Seabrooke — On a new method of viewing the 
Chromosphere. R. J. Lee — Further remarks on the Sense of Sight in Birds. W. Hug- 
gins — Note on the Wide-slit Method of viewing the Solar Prominences. Professor 
Owen — On the Fossil Mammals of Australia, family Mocropodidce. H. C. Bastian — 
Note on' the origin of Bacteria and on their relation to the process of Putrefaction. 

No. 142. Br. W. Kowalevsky — On the Osteology of the Hyopotamidce. F. Gu- 
thrie — On a new relation between Heat and Electricity. H N. Moseley — On the Ana- 
tomy and Histology of the Land-Planarians of Ceylon, with some account of their habits, 
and a description of two new species, and with notes on the Anatomy of some European 
Aquatic species. H. Airy — On Leaf-arrangement. 

No. 143. Rudolph von Willemoes-suhm — On a new Genus of Amphipod Crusta- 
ceans. J. D. Macdonald — On the Distribution of the Invertebrata in relation to the 
theory of Evolution. H. C. Bastian — On the temperature at which Bacteria, Vibriones 
and their supposed Germs are killed when immersed in fluids or exposed to heat 
in a moist state. The Earl of Rosse — The Bakerian Lecture : On the Radiation of Heat 
from the Moon, the Law of its Absorption by our atmosphere and its variation in 
amount with her Phases. E. A. Schaffer — On the structure of striped Muscular 
Fibre. Sir B. C. Brodie — Note on the synthesis of Marsh-Gas and Formic Acid and 
on the Electric Decomjaosition of Carbonic Oxide. J. H. Gladstone and A. Tribe — On 
an Air-Battery. 

Philosophical Transactions, Vol. 161, part II, and Vol. 162, part I. 

Vol. 161, Part II. General Svr E. Sabine. — Eecords of the Magnetic Phenomena 
at the Kew Observatory, Analysis of the Principal Disturbances shown by the Hori- 
zontal and Vertical Force Magnetometers of the Kew Observatory from 1859 to 1864. 
Archdeacon Pratt — On the constitution of the Solid Crust of the Earth. N. Story - 
Maskelyne — On the Mineral Constituents of Meteorites. H.E. Roscoe — On the Measure- 
ment of the Chemical Intensity of Total Daylight made at Catania during the Total 
Eclipse of December 22nd, 1870. W. C. Williamson — On the Organization of Fossil 
Plants of the Coal-measures: Calamites. A. Giintlier — Description of Geratodus, a 
genus of Ganoid Fishes, recently discovered in the rivers of Queensland, Australia. 

Vol. 162, Part I. — E. G. Stone — An experimental determination of the Velocity of 
Sound. P. M. Duncan — On the structure and affinities of Gv.ynia annulata, Dune. 
with remarks upon the persistence of Pateozoic Types of Madreporaria. A. Macalister 
— The Myology of the Cheiroptera. W. C. Williamson — On the organization of the 
Fossil Plants of the Coal-measures : Lycopodiacese, Lepidodendra, and Sigillariaj. 



1G1 Library. [August, 

Catalogue of Scientific Papers compiled and published by the Royal 
Society of London, Vol. VI. (1800-1863). 

The Royal Society op London. 

Zoological Society of London, Proceedings, 1872, March-June. 
J. Anderson — On some Persian, Himalayan and other Reptiles. E. W. H. 
Holdsworth — Catalogue of Birds found in Ceylon, with some remarks on their habits 
and local distribution and description of two new species peculiar to the Island. 

W. E. Brooks — On the Imperial Eagles of India. Dr. J. E. Gray — On the Genua 
Clielymys and its allies from Australia. Major H. H. Godwin- Austen— Description 
of new Land and Fresh-water shells from the Khasi, N. Cachar and Naga Hills. Sir 
V. Brooke — On Hydropotes inermis and its Cranial characters as compared with those 
of Moschus moschiferus. A. H Garrod — On the Mechanism of the Gizzard in 
Birds. J. Anderson — On a supposed new Monkey from the Sunderbans to the East 
of Calcutta. R. Swinhoe — Descriptions of two new Pheasants and a new Garrulax 
from Ningpo, China. F. Moore — Descriptions of new Indian Lepidoptera. E. W. H. 
Holdsivorth — Note on a Cetacean observed on the west Coast of Ceylon. A. Giinther — 
On the Reptiles and Amphibians of Borneo. Viscount Walden — Notice of an appen- 
dix to his memoir on the birds of Celebes. A. Anderson — Additional notes on the 
Raptorial Birds of North-Western India. S. /. Boiuerbank— Contributions to a general 
history of the Spongiadce, Capt T. Hutton — On the Bats of the North-Western 
Himalayas. Dr. J. Murie — On the Indian Wild Dog. Observation on the Macaques, 
I. The Bornean Ape. On the Cranial Appendages and Wattles of the Horned 
Tragopan. 

Index to the Proceedings, 1861-70. 
Transactions, Vol. VIII, Part 3. 

The Zoological Society of London. 

Geological Society of London, Journal, No. 113, February, 1873. 
H. Woodward — On Eocene Crustacea from Portsmouth. 

The Geological Society of London. 
Chemical Society of London, Journal, November 1872, to April 1873, 
with Supplementary Number containing Index and Title-page to Vol. X. 

Novr. 1872. Professor Cannizzaro — Considerations on some points of Theoretic 
Teaching of Chemistry. 

Sept. 1873. W. C. Roberts — On the condition of the Hydrogen occluded by Palla- 
dium, as indicated by the Specific Heat of the Charged Metal. W. H. Hartley — On the 
Standardising of Acids. E. Nicholson — Analysis of the water of the Mahanuddy. 

The Chemical Society of London. 

The Statistical Society, Journal, 1872, Parts III— IV. 
J£. Jeula — Some statistics relating to the Traffic through the Suez Canal. 

The Statistical Society of London. 

Royal Geographical Society, Proceedings, Vol. XVI, No. 5, Vol. XVII, 
No. 1. 

Vol. XVI, No. 5. Shaw — Central Asia in 1872. Strachey— The Scope of 
Scientific Geography. 



1873.] Library. 165 

Vol. XVI. No. 1. Godwin- Austen — The Garo Hills. Macdonald, Tanner, Badgley 
— The Lushai Expedition. 

The Royal Geographical Society of London. 

The Eoyal Asiatic Society, Journal, Vol. VI, Part II. 

James Fergusson — On Hiouen-Thsang's Journey from Patna to Ballabhi, and note 
on the same. Col. 11. Yule — Northern Buddhism. — Hwen Thsang's account of the 
Principalities of Tokharistan. Dr. H Kern — The Brhat Sanhita. E. Thomas. — The 
Initial Coinage of Bengal. S. Beal— The Legend of Dipankara Buddha. 

The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Royal Institution, Proceedings, Vol. VI, Parts V-VI. 

No. 56. Professor Tyndall — On the Identity of Light and Latent Heat. Dr. 
Gladstone — On the Crystallisation of Silver, Gold and other Metals. G. W. Siemens — 
On measuring Temperatures by Electricity. S. Evans — On the Alphabet and its origin. 

No. 57. J. N. Lockyer — On the Eclipse Expedition of 1871. — A. V. Harcowrt — 
On the Sulphui-ous impurity in Coal Gas. N. Story-Maskelyne — On Meteoric Stones. 
Prof. Abel — On the more important Substitutes for Gunpowder. Prof. Odling — On 
the History of Ozone. 

The Royal Institution of London. 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Minutes of Proceedings, Vols. 3, 4, 6-17, 
19-34. 

Catalogue of the Library, 2 Vols. 
Transactions, Vols. 1, 2, 3. 

The Institution of Ciyil Engineers, London. 

Birmingham Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Proceedings, January, 
1873. 

W. Baines — Description of an improved apparatus for working aud interlocking 
Railway Signals and Points. 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Birmingham. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, Proceedings, 1871-72. 

E. Sang — On the Computation of the Strength of the Parts of Skeleton or Open 
Structures Professor Tait — Laboratory notes : on ThermoElectricity." D. H. Mar- 
shall — On the relation of Magnetism to Temperature. Professor Tait — Note on a 
singular property of the Eetina. W. J. M. Banhine — On the Decomposition of Forces 
Externally applied to an Elastic Solid. Professor W. Thomson — Notice of a new 
family of the Echinodermata. Professor Tait — Address on Thermo-Electricity. 
Professor W. Thomson — On the Crinoids of the " Porcupine" Deep-sea Dredging 
Expedition. 

Transactions, Vol. XXVI, Part IV. 

J. A. Brough — On the Lunar diurnal Variation of Magnetic Declination at Tra- 
vandrum, near the Magnetic Equator, deduced from Observations made in the 
Observatory of His Highness the Maharajah of Travancore J. H. Balfour — Remarks 
on the Ipecacuanha Plant as cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, with 
a memorandum as to the mode of transmitting specimens to India. 

The Royal Society of Edinburgh. 



1G6 . Library. [AUGUST, 

Journal Asiatique, 6me Serie, No. 74, (Index to the sixth series, 
comprising the years 18G3-72) ; and 7me Serie, Vol. I, Nos. 1. 2. 

M. Feer — E'tudes Bouddhiques. M. S. Gwjard — 'Abd ar-Razzaq et son traits de 
la predestination et du lib re arbitre. 

The Asiatic Society op Paris. 

Anthropological Society of Paris, Bulletins, lime Serie, Tome VII, 
Fasc. 1 — 4 (Jan. to June.) 

Rousselet — Sur les Frantcis du royaume de Bhopal. — Sur un ne'gritto des forets 
de 1' Inde Centrale. 

The Anthropological Society of Paris. 
Bulletin, 1873, Mai. 

The Geographical Society of Paris. 

Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, Monatshericht, 1873, No. 1. 

Abhandlungen, 1871. 

Elirenberg. — Uebersicht der seit 1847 fortgesetzten Untersuchungen iiber das von 
der Atmosphiire unsichtbar getragene reiche organische Leben. Elirenberg — Nach- 
trag zur Uebersiclit der orgauisclien Atmospharilien. Weber — Ueber ein zum weissen 
Yajus gehoriges phonetisches Compendium, das pratijndsutra. 

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences of Berlin. 

K. K. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien. Almanac, 1872. 

Sitzungsherichte, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, Band 
LXV, Ahth. I. II. Ill, Heft 1-5. January to May, 1872. 

Abth. I. Heft 1-2. Tscliermak — Die Meteoriten von Shergotty und Gopalpur. 

Heft 3-5. v. Reuss — Palaontologiscbe Studien iiber die alteren Tertiarschichten 
der Alpen. Brauer — Beitrage zur Kenntniss der PhylloTpoden, 

Abth. II. Heft 1-3. Maty — Ueber das Verhalteu der Oxybenzoesaure und Para- 
oxybenzoesiiure in der Blutbahn. 

Register zu den Banden Gl bis 64 der Sitzungsherichte, VII. 

Denkschriften, Band XXXII. 

Sitzungsherichte, Philosophisch-Historischen Classe. Band LXX, Heft 
1-3. January to March, 1872. 

Pflzmaier — Zur Gescliichte der Erfindung und des Gebrauches der Chinesischen 
Schriftgattungen. Milller — Zendstudien : III. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Rom. 
Spracbe : II. 

Band LXXI. Heft 1-4. April to July, 1872. 
Frankl — Ein mutazilitischer Kalam aus dem 10 Jahrbundert. 
Register zu der Banden 61-70 der Sitzungsherichte, VII. 
Denkschriften, Band XXI. 

Miklosicli — Uber die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der Zigeuner Euroiia's : I. 
Archiv fur osten-eichische Gescliichte, Band XLVII, (first half). Pontes 
rerum Austriacarum (CEsterreichische Geschicts Quellen), Abth. II. Band 
XXXVI. 

The Imperial Royal Academy of Sciences of Vienna. 



1873.] Library. 167 

K. K. Geologischen Reichanstalt zu Wien. General Register tier 
Bande XI-XX des Jahrbuches, mid der Jahrgiinge 1860-1870 der Verhand- 
lungen. 

Jahrbuch, Band XXII, No. 4. 

The I. R. Geological Institution of Vienna. 

Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Bel- 
gique. Annuaire 1872-73. 

Memoires, Tome XXXIX, 1872. 

Memoires couronnes et autres memoires publies par 1' Academie Royale. 
A. Perrey — Notes sur les tremblernents de terre en 1868-69 avec supplements 
pour les armees auterieures, de 1843 a 1868. 

Bulletins. Tomes XXXI-XXXIV, 1871-72. 

Observations des Phe"nomenes periodiques pendant l'annee 1870. 

Notices extraites de 1' Annuaire de 1' Observatoire Royal de Bruxelles 
pour 1873, par le directeur A. Quetelet. Centieme Anniversaire de Fonda- 
tion (1772-1872), 2 vols. 
Royal Belgian Academy oe Science, Literature and the Fine Arts. 

Anuales Meteorologiques de 1' Observatoire Royal de Bruxelles, par 
Adolpbe Quetelet. 

Tables de Mortalite et leur developpement, par Ad. Quetelet. 

The AuTnoR. 

Schriften des Vereines zur Verbreitung naturwissenschaftlicher Kennt- 
nisse in Wien. Band XII, 1871-72. 

The Society. 

Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou. Bulletin, No. 2, 1872. 
Baron de Chaudoir — Observations sur cpielques genres de Carabiques, avec la 
description d'especes nouvelles. 

The Society. 
Societe de Pbysique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve, Memoires, 
Tome XXI. Parts 1-2. 

Part 1. M. Antoine Morin — Matiere gelatiniforme ; Albuminose, Exalbumine, Ga- 
lactine. 

Part 2. M. D. Colladon — Effets de la foudre sur les arbres et les plantes ligneuses 
et 1' eniploi des arbres comme paratonnerres. 

The Society. 
Anales del Museo publico de Buenos Aires. Entrega XI, (quinta del 
tomo secundo). 

Climats, Geologie, Faune, et Geographic Botanique du Bresil, par Emma- 
nuel Liais. 

The Imperial Government op Brazil. 

Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. Tijdsclirift 

voor Taal-Land-en Volkenkunde, Deel XVIII, serie 6, Dl. I, All. 2. 3. 4. 



108 Library. [August, 

Deel XIX, serie 6 and 7, Dl. I. Afl. 1-6. Deel XX. serie 7, Dl. I, II, Afl. 
1, 2, 3, Verhandelingen, Deel XXXIII— XXXV. 

XXXIII. J . F. C. Brumund. — Bijdragen tot de Keimis van het Hindoeisrae. 
Notulen van de Algemeene en Bestuurs-Vergaderingen. Deel VIII, 
Nos. 1 4, 1870. Deel XIX, 1871. 

Eerste vervolg catalogus der Bibliotheek en catalogus der Maleisclie, 
Javaansche en Kawi hand-schriften van het Bataviaasch genootschap van 
Kunsten en Wetenscbappen. 

Oudheden van Java, op last der Ned.-Indische Regerina, gephotogra- 
phierd van J. van Kinsbergen. (A collection of photographs of Hindoo 
Antiquities in Java.) 

The Batavian Society oe Arts and Sciences. 
The Christian Spectator, Vol. Ill, Nos. 25, 26. 

The Editor. 
Professional papers on Indian Engineering, No. IX, July 1873. 
Major H. Tulloch, R. E. — On the Kennery, Toolsie, Enoor and Vehar Lake Extension 
projects for the Water Supply of Bombay. Capt. Allen Cunningham — On Well 
Foundations. 

The Editor. 
Calcutta Journal of Medicine, Vol. VI, Nos. 5 and 6. 

The Editor. 
Report of the Meteorological Reporter to the Government of Bengal 
and Meteorological Abstract for 1872. 

H. F. Blanford, Esq. 
A fragment of Indian History, from the Latin of Johannes de 
Laet. 1631, by E. Lethbridge. 

The Author. 

The Author. 



Varietes Orientales, par Leon de Rosny. 



Anjili ya Luka (Gospel of St. Luke, in Swaheli). 
Hadithiza Esopo, (iEsop's fables, in Swaheli). 

Home Department. 
Diary of a journey from Gwadur to Karachi through Western Mekran, 
by Capt. S. B. Miles, Asst. Pol. Agent, Mekran Coast. 

Diary of a journey from Bunder Abbas to Bagdad via Seistan, Meshed, 
and Teheran, by Mr. G. Rozario, in Medical charge, Seistan Mission, 1872. 

Foreign Department. 

A Sketch of the History of Orissa from 1803 to 1828, with appendices, 
by G. Toynbee, Esq., Canal Revenue Superintendent, Cuttack. 

General Report of Public Instruction in Bengal for 1871-72. 

A Report on the District of Rungpore, by E. G. Glazier, C. S., Offg. 
Magistrate and Collector, Rungpore. 



1873.] Library. 169 

Report on the Revenue Survey Operations of the Lower Provinces from 
1st Oct. 1870 to 30th Sept. 1871. 

GOVERNMENT OF BENGAL. 

Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. VI, Part 3. 
Notes on a Celt found by Mr. Hacket in the Ossiferous deposits of the Narbada 
Valley (Pliocene of Falconer) ; on the age of the deposits by Mr. H. B. Medlicott ; on 
the associate shells, by Mr. W. Theobald. W. King — Notes on the Barakars (Coal 
measures) in the Beddadanole field, Godaveri District. W. Hughes — Coal in India. 
W. Theobald — On the Salt-Springs of Pegu. 

Tiie Geological Survey of India. 

Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine, effectuee pendant les annees 1866, 
1867, 1868, par une Commission Francaise presidee par M. le Capitaine 
de Fregate, Doudart de Lagree, publie sous la direction de M. le Lieut, de 
vaisseau, Francis Gamier. In two volumes, with two atlases of plates. 

Exchange. 
Athenaeum, January and February, 1873. 
Nature 188—191. 

Purchase. 

Journal des Savants, December 1872. 
De Quatrefages. — Les races de l'archipel Indien. 
Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, 1871-72, Nos. 11 and 12. 
H. Gilmiki — Catalogue raisonne" des Cole"opteres, Cicindilides et Carabides, et 
Ch. Oberthur — Catalogue raisonne" des Le"pidopteVes rapporte's par M. Th. Deyrolle 
de son Exploration Scientifique en Asie Mineure, descriptions des esp^ces nouvelles. 
The Indian Annals of Medical Science, No. XXXI, July 1873. 
D. D. Cunningham — Translation of Prof. Max v. Pettenkofer on " Typhoid Fever : 
its relation to Soil water." W. J. Moore — Native practice in Bajputana. V. Richards 
— Experiments with Snake Poison. 

The Indian Anticpiary, Vol. II, Parts XIX, XX. 

XIX, On copying Inscriptions. J. Beames — The early Vaishnawa poets of 
Bengal : No. 2 — Chandi Das. H. J. Stokes — Walking through Fire. E. Rehatsek — 
Translation of Lassen on Satrunjaya and the Jains. W. F. Sinclair — Stone and 
Wooden monuments in Western Khandesh. 

XX. Major J. W. Watson — Story of Ban! Pingla. W. F. Sinclair — List of 
Weapons used in the Dekhan and Khandesh. 67. H. Damant — Inscriptions on a 
Cannon at Eangpur. F. J. Leeper — The Naladiyar. Rev. M. PMllvps — Tumuli in 
the Salem District. W. F. Sinclair — Notes and Legends connected with Animals II, 
J. A. Maij — Notes on the Bhondas of Jaypur. 

BooTcs purchased. 
Hindoo Tales, translated from the Sanskrit of the Dasakumaracharitam, 
by P. W. Jacob. 

The Life of H. T. Colebrooke, by Sir E. T. Colebrooke. 



170 Library. 

Viae et Regna, descriptio ditionis Moslemicae, auctore Abu'l-Kasim Ibn 
Haukal, (Part II, of M. J. de Goeje's Bibliotlieca Geographorum Arabico- 
rum). 

Ein Mutazilitischer Kalam, aus dem 10. Jahrhundert, von. Dr. P. F. 
Frankl. 

Zur Cliaracteristik Galal-ud-din us-Sujutis und Seiner Literarisehen 
Thatigkeit, von Dr. Ignez Goldziber. 

Ceremonia apud Indos, quae vocatur jatakarma, by J. J. Speijer. 

Worterbuch zum Rig- Veda, von Hermann Grassmann, Part II. 

Die Verwantschaftsverhaltnisse der Indogermaniseben Sprachen, von 
Johannes Schmidt. 

Grammaire de la Langue Mandchou, par Lncien Adam. 

Rhetorique et Prosode des Langues de l'Orient Musulman, par M. 
Garcin de Tassy. 

Abhandlung zm 1 zerstreuung der vorurtheile iiber das alte und neue 
Morgenland, von H. Ewald. 



PROCEEDINGS 



or THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For November, 1873. 



The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 5th instant, at 9 o'clock p. M. 

Col. Hyde, R. E., President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following presentations were laid on the table — 

1. From the Royal University of Norway, small collections of 
Minerals and Coleopterous insects, also a Medal issued by the University in 
commemoration of the Millenary Jubilee celebrated 18th July, 1872, in the 
Kingdom of Norway, which Kingdom was constituted by the king Harald 
Haarfager in the year A. D. 872. 

The President remarked that no list or description of the minerals had 
been received, but they would be sent to the Superintendent of the Geologi- 
cal Survey for classification and afterwards deposited in the Museum. 

2. From Babu Yadavachandra Mukerji, a large palm-leaf MS. of 
the Ramayana, Ayodhyakanda found floating in the river Hugh, at Kamar- 
hati. 

3. From Sirdar Attar Sing Bahadur, a copy of Sakhee Book or de- 
scription of Gooroo Gobind Singh's Religion and Doctrines. 

From Eroud Tamoorus Deenshah Unclaschariah, Editor of " Shavuk 
Nameh," through Mr. B. Cowasjee. a copy of his Gujrati Poetry. 

4>. From Col. Guthrie, a cast of a Bengal coin of Firuz Shah the 
Second. 

Mr. Blochmann said : — 

This cast is taken from an apparently unique silver coin in the British 
Museum. The coin was struck by Saifuddin Abul Muzaffar Firuz Shah 
(II.) of Bengal, in 893 A. H. I have collected what little there is known of 
this king in my " Contributions to the History and Geography of Bengal." 

5. From H. Beveridge, Esq., C. S., a copper-plate inscription found 
at Bakirganj. 



172 Copper-plate Inscription found at Buleirganj. [Nov. 

The following letter accompanied the donation — 

" The copper plate was found in May last by one Ram Kumar Bhis- 
mali while he was digging a tank at the village of Brahmandi in the north 
of this district and not far from the Madaripur bazaar. It was found at a 
depth of eight or ten cubits under the earth. It is supposed that the plate 
belonged to the Boy family, who first settled in Brahmandi. The place 
where it was found is near the house of Sam Sundra Rai, who is the only 
surviving descendant of the family. No one here can decipher the inscrip- 
tion. I am indebted for the possession of the plate and for the above parti- 
culars to one of my Deputy Collectors, Babu Hari Mohan Sein. 

The following gentlemen are candidates for ballot at the next meeting. 

J. Sykes Gamble, Esq., Assistant Conservator of Forests, Silligoree, pro- 
posed by S. Kurz, Esq., seconded by Dr. W. Schlich. 

His Highness the Maharaja of Job ore, K. C. S. I., K. C. C. I., pro- 
posed by Mr. J. Wood-Mason, seconded by the President. 

M. L. Dames, Esq., C. S., Assistant Commissioner, Karnal, Panjab, pro- 
posed by J. Delmerick, Esq., seconded by D. C. Ibbetson, Esq., C. S. 

Bartle O'Brien, Esq., M. D., proposed by Mr. J. Wood-Mason, seconded 
by Dr. V. Richards. 

J. Elliott, Esq., M. A., Professor of Mathematics in the Muir Central 
College, Allahabad, proposed by Mr. A. S. Harrison, seconded by Captain J. 
Waterhouse. 

J. Blackburn, Esq., proposed by D. Waldie, Esq., seconded by Captain 
J. Waterhouse. 

Kenneth McLeod, Esq., M. D., Secretary to the Surgeon General, 
Indian Medical Service, proposed by H. F. Blanford, Esq., seconded by C. 
Tawney, Esq. 

The following gentlemen have intimated their desire to withdraw from 
the Societjr : — 

The Hon'ble Sir R. Couch, Kt. 
H. Woodrow, Esq. 
Col. G. H. Saxton. 
Col. B. Ford. 
Sultan Muhammad Bashiruddin. 

Mr. Wood-Mason exhibited a specimen of Carcinus mcenas, Pennant, 
taken in 1866 or 67 at Point de Galle Ceylon by Dr. J. Anderson. Compari- 
son of this specimen with those from the Mediterranean lately received from 
Prof. Cornalia of Milan had enabled him to be sure of the correctness of his 
previous identification from the published figures and descriptions. The 
species appeared to have an exceedingly wide distribution, being to be found 



1873.] W. E. Brooks — On Aquila ncevioides. 173 

in abundance on the shores of the British Isles, and of the United States 
"whence it extended to the Arctic Sea, and on all the Mediterranean coasts : 
it had also been recorded by Heller from Rio Janeiro, and specimens would 
doubtless ultimately be met with in the lied Sea. 

The President announced that the Council had appointed Mr. A. Ped- 
ler a member of the Physical Science and Library Committees. 

The following papers were read — 

1. Notes on Aquila ncevioides, A. fulvescens and A. vindhiana. 
By W. E. Brooks, C. E. 

Having received from my friend, the Rev. Dr. Tristram, an African 
example of the true Aquila ncevioules, Cuv., I am in a position to state that 
the Indian bird hitherto known under that name is quite a different species, 
viz. — Aquila fulvesce ns, Gray, as is clearly shewn in Gray and Hardwicke's 
" Illustrations of Indian Zoology." 

Our Indian species can easily be distinguished from the African bird : 
1, by its small round nostril, and 2, by its plain blade unbarred tail. The 
nostril of the African bird is long and vertical, like those of A. vindhiana, 
A. mof/ilnilc, and A. bifasciata. Its tail also, is a well-barred one, in 
character like that of A. vindhiana. 

Some years ago, I sent two of the rare A. fulvescens to England for 
identification ; the one a buff or tawny immature bird, and the other a 
dark rufous brown adult. By the English ornithologists they were pro- 
nounced to be identical with the African A. ncevioides ; and as such were 
accordingly entered in our Indian lists. Dr. Jerdon also accepted the 
identification. 

I am glad to have been able at last to find out the mistake, and so to 
re-establish the fine species so long suppressed on account of its supposed 
identity with another species. It will be remembered that another species 
of the same author, A. bifasciata, has also been restored to its rightful 
place, after having been for years confounded with A. mogilnik (A. im- 
perialis). 

The term A. fulvescens has been erroneously applied, as Mr. Gurney 
first pointed out to me, to our common Wokhab, whose correct name is 
A. vindhiana, Franklin : a glance at the plate of A. fulvescens in Grav 
and Hardwicke's work sufficing to shew not this only, but also that the 
species intended is the rare one hitherto confounded with A. ncevioides. 
A. fulvescens, by its roundest of round nostrils and plain black tail, is at 
once distinguished from the other two in any stage of plumage : it has tawny 
immature plumage and a dark red-brown adult one. 

A. ncevioides has also a tawny plumage and a darker brown one. Its 



174 W. E. Brooks — On Aquila ncevioides. [Nov. 

fine rich warm colours will at any time separate it from the dull-coloured 
Indian Wokhab, A. vindliiana. 

A. vindliiana has a light and a dark plumage ; but the light one is 
merely a pale whity-brown ; and this pale plumage instead of being 
characteristic of immaturity is on the contrary the plumage of the adult 
bird, as far at least as my observations go. I have repeatedly shot these old 
whity-brown birds from the nest. Some examples fade more than others, 
and I believe this pale plumage to be more the result of the colour not being 
fast than the mark of any particular age. I have in one and the same 
species, viz., in Aquila ncevia, examples almost black, and others pale sandy 
brown ; so widely different, in fact, are examples of the two extremes of 
coloration that any one not acquainted with the characters of the species 
would be much perplexed. 

I should observe that A. fulvescens is only a cold weather visitant to 
the plains of India, while A. vindliiana and A. navioides are non-migratory 
species. 

I append a description of the specimen of A. ncevioides, as it may 
prove useful. 

Aquila ncevioides, Cuvier. 
Whole body plumage, from head to tarsus, a rich light reddish brown or 
tawny ; on the breast and sides are some feathers with part of one web 
patched with purple brown ; wing coverts, both lesser and greater, a mixture 
of very pale and dark brown, varied with tawny, the pale colour predomina- 
ting and occupying the margins of the feathers, scapulars and inter-scapu- 
laries, rich purple brown, with tawny terminal stripes to each feather ; giving 
the bird a very striped appearance about the shoulders and mantle ; primaries 
blackish, but paler and barred on their inner webs towards the bases ; 
secondaries lighter and pale-tipped, being very conspicuously barred on both 
webs ; tertials still paler, and well-barred on both webs ; lining of wing 
lio-ht reddish brown ; axillaries the same ; lining-feathers under tertials 
nearly pure white ; tail hoary brown, barred in the same manner as that of 
A. vindliiana. There is no conspicuous pale tip. The eyebrow is very 
distinct and black, much blacker and better marked than in either of the 
other eagles referred to in this paper. The tibial and tarsal plumes are 
lono- and fine, and of as bright a red or tawny, as any other part of the 
body ; the lower tail coverts are also of the same bright tawny red. One 
peculiar characteristic of this eagle is the strong purple gloss on the brown 
of the scapulars and upper wing coverts. The nostril is a long vertical one 
as in A. mogilnik and A. vindliiana, and also similar to that of A. bifas- 
ciata. 

This is one, and the well known stage of this eagle's plumage, but it 



1873.] D. WnUie— Purification of the Muddy Water of the Huyli. 175 

has also another of a darker brown, as shewn in the illustration of the 
1 Ibis' for April 1865. 

Length about 26 inches ; wing 1975 ; tail 10 - 5 ; bill at front 2 in. ; 
from gape 2 4 ; height at base 1*12 ; tarsus 325 ; mid toe and claw 3 in. ; 
hind do. 2 25 ; bill dark horny, bluish grey at base ; cere apparently bright 
yellow ; feet the same ; claws black. 

Hab. — Great Namaqua Land. 

2. Notes on the Certhiince of India. — By W. E. Beooks, C. E. 
The author recognizes five species two of which are described as new. 
The paper will appear in the forthcoming number of the Journal. 

3. On the Muddy Water of the Huyli during the rainy season with reference 

to its purification and to the Calcutta Water-supply . — By D. Waldie, 

Esq., F. C. S. 

Abstract. 

The author commenced by referring to a long series of experiments made 
by him in 1868 and 1869 on the best kind of sand to be used in the filters 
at Palta for the supply of water to Calcutta, and on the merits of a particu- 
lar contrivance called Spencer's Regulating Cup proposed to be used in these 
filters and alleged to be of great value in filtration. His enquiries resulted 
in the condemnation of that cup as possessing no special advantage over 
other plans for producing the same effect that it had, and in his recommend- 
ing the employment of a finer sand than that used generally in England, 
for the filtration of the Hugli water during the rainy season, during which 
period it is attended with peculiar difficulty. It had been found of late, as 
the demand for water increased, that the difficulty in supplying it had be- 
come very serious. This difficulty had been treated as a failure of the plan 
adopted, which had been condemned on account of its departure from the 
principles of filtration recognised in England ; and it was proposed to remedy 
this by reverting to practice founded on these principles and more especially 
to the use of the Regulating cup. 

The author on the other hand maintained the correctness of his results 
and conclusions, and contended that the proposals just mentioned were found- 
ed upon principles fundamentally erroneous, because the real source of diffi- 
culty lay in the peculiar quality of the river water during the rains, which 
caused it to penetrate deep into the sand in a way which English waters 
similarly treated did not do. He connected this peculiarity with the large 
rainfall, limited to four or five months of the year, though he could not with 
certainty explain the reason why it did so. Nevertheless he firmly adhered 
to it as a fact. 

About the 1st of August last, an idea suggested itself to him of a cause 
by which possibly the peculiarity might be accounted for, and a reference 



176 D. Waldie — Purification of the Muddy Wafer of (lie Jliujli. [Nov. 

to experiment shewed that it was correct. The difficulty in the settling of 
the mud arises from the great state of dilution of the water. Some facts 
had been long observed hy chemists bearing more or less directly on the 
subject, and special observations had been made, particularly by Bkey and 
Schloesing, on the separation or precipitation of mud from water ; a consi- 
deration of all these things suggested that if the deficiency of saline matter in 
the water of the rains was made up by the addition of such matters to it, 
so as to bring the water up to the standard of that of December or January, 
the mud would then settle much more readily and possibly be so much 
altered as to enable the water to be filtered easily. This was found by 
experiment actually to be the case. The saline matters in the water act as 
precipitants of the mud if in sufficient quantity : during the rains they are 
not in sufficient quantity, if doubled they are. Assuming 7 grains of Car- 
bonate of Lime (in solution) as equivalent to the salts of Lime and Magnesia 
in 100,000 grains of the Hugli water at its extreme degree of dilution, the 
addition of an equal quantity of Carbonate of Lime (in solution) or of Carbo- 
nate of Magnesia (in solution) or of Sulphate of Lime precipitates the mud 
well. Double the equivalent of Chloride of Calcium is requisite as it has only 
half the efficacy. The alkaline salts have comparatively little influence. 
The salts of lime and magnesia, particularly the carbonates, held in solution 
by carbonic acid, are the chief active ingredients in producing the effect. 
They cause the very fine particles of clay to coalesce and aggregate into 
larger and denser ones which in the course of 21 to 18 hours settle well, and 
the water can then be filtered easily. The clay has been said to be coagu- 
lated and the term seems appropriate. 

Corroborative evidence has been found in the peculiarities of some river 
waters on the European continent, particularly those of Alpine origin, which 
are liable to occasional unusual dilution and accompanying muddiness, such 
as the Garonne, from which Marseilles is supplied. A peculiar system of 
filtration is employed there, appropriate to the purpose. The river waters 
in England are liable to no such extreme changes, consequently their muddy 
water has no such peculiarities or only to a comparatively small degree. 

It was found on extending the enquiry that acids, alkalies and alkaline 
earths, and many other saline substances possessed the same property, and 
many of these to a much greater degree. Thus salts of Manganese and 
Copper and protosalts of Iron are effective in considerably smaller quantities 
than salts of Lime and Magnesia, and salts of the sesquioxides, namely, Alu- 
mina and peroxide of Iron are the most effective of all. Tables are given in 
the paper shewing approximately the quantities of these substances necessary 
or sufficient to produce the same effect. The differences iu power between 
common salt and Lime salts, and between Lime salts and Ferric salts are 
very great. 



1873.] D. Waldie— Purification of the Muddy Water of (he Mitgli. 177 

Thus for instance taking Carbonate of Lime dissolved by excess of Car- 
bonic acid as tbe standard, Sulphate of Lime is about equally effective, com- 
mon salt and alkaline salts generally have only about one-twentieth part 
of the power, Protosulphate of Iron has about six times the power and Per- 
sulphate or Perchloride of Iron about forty times the power, so that a very 
small quantity of persalts of Iron is sufficient. It is to be understood that 
with the minimum quantities employed a period of from 21 to 48 hours was 
always given to produce the effect. The quantities necessary are only given 
as approximations, and there is more doubt connected with those for the 
salts of the heavy metals and sesquioxides than with those of the earths and 
alkalies, because, on account of the early cessation of the rains, the river 
water began to lose its peculiar difficulty in clearing while these salts were 
being experimented on. The comparison is therefore not so much to be 
depended on, but the differences in relative power are much greater than had 
been previously noticed by other observers ; this, at least, in their applica- 
tion to this particular water. 

The author had quite recently met with Schloesing's original paper 
which previously he had seen only very briefly and imperfectly abstracted, 
and found that Schloesing's results were very similar to his own, and that 
he also suggested similar means for treating highly diluted muddy water 
difficult to settle, namely, that of restoring it to its natural condition by the 
addition of Lime salts or other of its normal constituents. Eut he did not 
push the enquiry further. The extension to other salts and the discovery 
of the very small proportion of salts of Alumina and Peroxide of Iron, parti- 
cularly of the latter, that are sufficient when an interval of 24 to 48 hours 
is given for settling, to purify the water, so that it can be filtered easily, 
greatly favours the probability of the application of the principle in practice. 

• Details are given in the paper. 

Mr. Blanford said he had listened with much interest to Mr. Waldie's 
account of his investigations into the action of salts in solution, in facilitat- 
ing the precipitation of matter mechanically suspended in the water. Mr. 
Pedler had found that, by adding to the water a quantity of lime equal to 
that in solution, and precipitating the whole as insoluble calcium carbonate, 
(a well known method of softening hard water) the suspended matter, how- 
ever fine, was carried down with the precipitate but the process described 
by Mr. Waldie appeared to rest on some different principle, which yet re- 
mained to be elucidated. With respect to the regulating cups, which he 
understood had not been tried hj Mr. Waldie, he thought it would have 
been more satisfactory if he had experimented upon them before utterly 
condemning them. Looking at the question from an a priori point of view, 
it certainly seemed that an upward filtration is likely to be more effectual 
in removing fine matter in suspension than the downward method ; and he 
knew that Mr. Clark had much confidence in these cups. 



178 H. F. Blanford— On the Climate of Bengal. [Nov. 

Dr. Waldie then exhibited one of the Spencer's cups and explained that 
the water was completely filtered before it reached the cups and so there 
could not possibly be any upward filtration ; all that the cups could do 
was to prevent more than a certain quantity of water passing in a given 
time, which could be done equally well or better by other arrangements. 
The cup had been actually tried during the whole rainy season of 1869 
and the conclusions come to had been derived from these experiments. 

Mr. H. B. Fenwick C. E., in charge of the Water Works at Palta, gave 
a brief description of some experiments made with the Spencer's cups which 
proved conclusively that they would not answer the purpose intended. 

Mr. Fenwick said, that at Mr. Clark's suggestion he had tried the cups ; 
a filter 12'X12' was constructed at Palta fitted with four of Spencer's regu- 
lating cups and was supplied from the same source as the large filters. The 
discharge was found to be in proportion to that of the large filters as 3 to 1 ; 
the materials were then removed and four of the holes in each regulating cup 
stopped up, the discharge then amounted to 2f to 1 ; two more were then 
stopped up, thereby reducing the original ten holes to four in each cup, and the 
discharge was then 2 to 1 in proportion to that from the large filters. Dur- 
ing the rainy season the water which flowed from this filter was very much 
inferior in transparency to that from the large filters during the same period, 
in fact it was very inferior to that from the large filters at their worst. 

4. On the Climate of Bengal. — By H. F. Blanford Esq. 

Although Bengal is situated for the most part without the tropical 
zone, its climate is characteristically tropical. The mean temperature of 
the whole year varies between 80° in Orissa and 71° in Asam ; that of 
Calcutta being 79°. 

In the annual range of the temperature, as well as in point of humidity 
and rainfall, the eastern and western portions of the province are strongly 
contrasted. In Kachar, nearly 200 miles from the sea, the mean temperature 
of June is 82°, that of January 645°, and the highest and lowest temperatures 
recorded during 5 years, viz., 99° and 43° shew an absolute range of 56° 
only. At Chatgaon, on the sea coast, the recorded range does not exceed 
49°. On the other hand, Patna has a mean temperature of 87 - 2° in June 
and 60-7° in January ; and in 1869, the highest and lowest temperatures 
registered were 116--'i° on the 12th May, and 369° on the 3rd and 4th of 
January ; the absolute range of this single year was therefore 794°. It is pro- 
bable that some parts of Bihar, the neighbourhood of Gya for instance, 
experience a range somewhat greater than that of Patna. 

The highest temperature recorded in Calcutta during the last 18 years 
is 106°, which has been reached twice only ; viz., in May 1867 and again 
in May of the present year. The lowest temperature 52 - 7° has been record- 



1873.] H. F. BTanford— On the Climate of Bengal. 179 

ed also twice, viz., in January 1860 and 1861, and 52-8° has been observed 
twice, viz., in January 1857 and 1861. The extreme absolute range of the 
temperature of the Capital is therefore a little over 53°, and the mean tem- 
peratures of December and May are 68-5° and 85° respectively. The annual 
rise and fall of temperature exhibits some other local variations. Thus in 
Orissa and the Western part of the Gangetic Delta, December is the coldest 
month of the year ; elsewhere the temperature reaches its minimum in Janu- 
ary. This difference is due to the sea-winds setting in on this part of the 
coast very early in the year ; whereas on the Arakan coast and in Bihar, 
their influence is not felt till much later in the season. 

May is the hottest month of the year in all parts of the Lower Provinces 
with the exception of a part of Bihar, Asam and Kachar. In the former, the 
average temperature of June is a little above that of May ; and in the latter 
districts, which enjoy a comparatively cool but humid atmosphere in April 
and May, the temperature rises slowly and uniformly up to July or August. 
In upper Asam it is higher than in the lower part of that province, from 
May to October ; and higher also than in Kachar. The mean temperature of 
Sibsagar in July and August is 81'7,° that of Goalparah 8T2°, and that 
of Silchar 82.° 

During the rains, the temperature of the Hazaribagh plateau, to the 
West of the Delta, falls more rapidly than that of any other part of Bengal. 
Between May and October, the fall at Hazaribagh is rather more than 
11° ; while at Barhampur, under about the same latitude, it is only 4>^° ; at 
Calcutta little more than 3°, and even at Patna it does not exceed 8°. This 
peculiarity appears to be due principally to the cloudiness of the plateau in 
the daytime, whereby the sun's heat is rendered less intense ; and to the 
greater radiation at night. This fact has an important bearing on the value 
of Hazaribagh as a station for European troops, and as a sanitarium For 
invalids from the plains. 

The high humidity of the atmosphere in Bengal, and more especially 
in its Eastern districts, has become proverbial ; and if the term be used in 
reference to the quantity of vapour in the air, as measured by its tension, the 
popular belief is justified by observation. But if used in the more usual 
sense of Relative Humidity, that is, as referring to the percentage of vaoour 
in the air, in proportion to that which would saturate it, the average annual 
humidity of a large part of Bengal is considerably lower than that of England. 
In illustration of this, I give a comparative table of the mean vapour tension 
and relative humidity of London and Calcutta in each month of the year 
and the mean of the whole year ; the data for the former place beino- taken 
from an Essay on the Climate of London by the late Professor Daniell • those 
for the latter from the results of the hourly observations registered at the 
Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, and computed in the Meteorological Office 



180 



H. P. Blanford — On the Climate of Bengal. 



[Nov. 



of Bengal. The former are deduced from 17 years, the latter from 1-1 years 
observations. 





Mean vapt 


wr tension in thousandt) 


s of 


an inch. 








Jan. 


Feb. 

•264 

•549 


Mar. 

•280 
•695 


Ap. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


London, ... 

Calcutta,.. 


•245 

•487 


315 

•805 


•340 
•889 


■490 
917 


•531 
•951 


•530 
•950 


•468 
•950 


•3S9 
•828 


•310 

•605 


•2S1 
•489 


•376 inch. 
•762 „ 



Mean Melative Humidity. 

Saturation 100. 





Jan. 

97 
71 


Feb. 

94 

68 


Mar. 

89 
67 


Ap. 

84 
69 


May 

82 
73 


June 

82 
81 


July 

84 

85 


Aug. 

85 

86 


Sep. 

91 

85 


Oct. 

94 

78 


Nov. 

96 
73 


Dec. 


Year. 


London, ... 

Calcutta,... 


97 

72 


89 
76 



The quantity of vapour in the air of Calcutta, relatively to the dry air, 
is then, on the average of the year, about twice as great as in that of London ;* 
but the relative humidity of the former equals that of the latter only in 
the three first months of the rains, which are among the driest months of 
an European climate. 

The absolute humidity of the atmosphere is greatest on the coast of 
Orissa and the Sunderban, and diminishes inland as the distance from the 
sea increases. In the cold weather and spring months, this decrease is rapid 
everywhere, except in Eastern Bengal. In Kachar, however, the quantity of 
moisture in the air is as great as on the coast of Chatgaon, and even exceeds 
it, excepting between the months of February and May. Daring the hot 
weather months, the proportion of vapour to dry air increases steadily and 
rapidly in all that part of Bengal in which the hot westerly winds are not 
a regular phenomenon of the season ; that is to say, on the Gangetic delta, 
in Eastern Bengal, and on the maritime plain of Orissa ; but on the high 
ground further west and in Bihar, as well as generally in the N. W. Pro- 
vinces, its increase is slower up to M^ay or June, and it then rises rapidly 

* In Calcutta the vapour of water constitutes on an average about two and a 
half per cent, by volume of the atmosphere ; in London only one and a quarter. Next 
to the temperature, this is perhaps the most important climatal difference of the two 
places in all that affects health. 



1873.] H. F. Blanford— On tie Climate of Bengal. 181 

almost to an equality with that of the maritime region. This is clearly 
traceable to the winds ; since, in the former region, winds from the sea predo- 
minate throughout the hot season, mitigating its temperature indeed, but 
at the same time rendering the atmosphere damper ; and producing, when 
the air is calm, that oppressive feeling of sultriness, which is so trying to 
persons accustomed to the drier atmosphere of Bihar and the North- West. 

The relative humidity of air or its nearness to saturation depends on 
the temperature as well as on the absolute cpiantity of vapour it contains. 
If the latter be constant, the air, as is well known, is drier with a high tem- 
perature than a low one. Thus arises, in the cold weather months, the 
apparent anomaly that, although the absolute humidity of Upper India at 
that season is considerably less than that of Bengal, its relative humidity 
does not undergo a corresponding diminution, owing to its lower tempera- 
ture. At Banaras for instance and even at Labor, as appears from the 
Panjab reports, the relative humidity of the air in January and February 
exceeds that of Dhaka and Barhampur. In this sens3 the driest period of 
the year falls later and later in the spring months as we proceed inland. 
At Sagar Island, January is the driest month ; at Calcutta, February and 
March ; at Patna, April ; at Banaras, April and May ; while at Lahor and all 
places in the Panjab, May and June are the months of greatest siccity. 
The frequency of rain depends on relative rather than absolute humidity ; 
the quantity of rain that falls, other things being equal, chiefly on the abso- 
lute humidity of the air. 

Eastern Bengal, including Kachar and Silhet, and the Himalayan Tarai, 
are the districts of the heaviest rainfall. Their average annual fall almost 
every where amounts to 100 inches ; and on the exposed hill flanks, and at 
their foot, even this large amount is greatly surpassed. Thus Silhet has an 
annual average of 141 inches. Darjiling 126 inches, the Rangbi Cinchona 
plantation 175 inches, Buxa Fort 280 inches, (the average of three years,) 
and Cherra Punji the enormous amount of 527 inches ; this last is the high- 
est average rainfall hitherto recorded in the world. The rainfall is also 
higher on the plains of the coast than on those lying more inland. Thus 
Sagar Point has an average of 87 inches and Calcutta 6(3, False Point 74 
inches and Katak 52'5. The lowest rainfall in the provinces under the 
Bengal Government is that of the Southern portion of Bihar, including 
Monghyr, Gya and Patna, where the annual fall does not much exceed 40 
inches ; and in the case of the last mentioned station is only 37 inches. North 
of the Ganges, it increases gradually up to the Himalaya ; and, on the south, 
up to the high ridge of forest-clad country which is drained by the Son, 
the Damudar and their tributaries. In this tract, where the monsoon 
winds from the opposite coasts of India meet, the fall of the few stations 
that have hitherto furnished registers, ranges between 50 and 60 inches. In 



182 H. F. Blanford— On the Climate of Bengal. [Nov. 

Calcutta the highest rainfall on record is that of 1871, when it amounted 
to 9331 inches; the lowest during the last forty-five years is that in 1837, 
when the registered fall was as low as 4361 inches. In subsequent years the 
lowest falls were those of 1S38 (53 - ? inches), 1853 (52"08 inches) and 
1860 (5261 inches) ; up to the present year 1873, which now, (in November.) 
exceeds that of 1837 by about one inch only. The Cherra Punji register 
of 1861 records a fall of 805" inches, of which 3l>6" inches fell in the 
month of July alone ; hut it is not clear that this register is deserving 
of complete reliance. Twelve inches of rain in one day is however, far from 
unusual at Cherra Punji. On the 13th June, 1861, an equal quantity fell in 
Calcutta within 21 hours, and on the 11th May 1835 the same quantity fill 
within three hours. 

By far the greater part of the rainfall of Bengal falls between the months 
of June and October. Showers occur also in the hot weather months, and 
in the months of February and March hail-storms are not infrequent. In 
the Eastern districts, rain occurs occasionally in the cold weather months, 
but is less common in the Delta and the country further Westward, except- 
ing in the N. W. Provinces and the Panjab. In the Eastern districts and 
in Asam, rain is more abundant in all the earlier months of the year, and 
in April it sets in heavily, and reaches its maximum about June or July. 
Further to the West, the rains usually set in in June, and July and August 
are the months of the heaviest fall. 

Except at the hill stations and in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
hills, the average proportion of cloud-covered sky varies between one-third 
and one-half of the whole. At Darjiling, on an average, the proportion of 
clouded sky to sunny sky is as 2 to 1. In Lower Bengal generally it is 
about 1 to 2 ; being however, rather higher on the coast. December and 
January are on the whole the brightest months of the year ; but November, 
February and March are almost equally serene. June, July and August are 
the months of greatest obscurity. In these former months, the proportion 
of cloud is on an average from 10 to 15 per cent., in the latter months from 
65 to 85 per cent. 

These observations refer to visible dense cloud, but the depth of the 
sky tint indicating the pressure or absence of diffused cloud in the upper 
regions of the atmosphere would appear to follow a different law. No sys- 
tematic observation has been made on the colour of the sky, but as the results 
of my own casual observations I gather that the sky tint is, on an average, 
much paler in the cold weather, than during fine intervals of the rains, 
indicating a greater quantity of condensed moisture at great altitudes. 

The wind system of Bengal is so often referred to as a familiar illustra- 
tion of the monsoons, that it might seem almost superfluous to re-describe 
a subject treated of in every text book on Meteorology. But it appears 



1873.] H. F. Blanford— On the Climate of Bengal 183 

from recent investigations, that, however well known at sea, the character 
and origin of the monsoons on the land have been very generally misunder- 
stood. The monsoons are not two undivided currents, flowing to and from 
Central Asia during about equal periods of the year ; but appear rather to 
consist, at each period, of at least two principal currents, the one tending 
to or from Northern India, the other to or from the interior of China ; and 
there are probably other minor currents originating or terminating at other 
centres. The Indian branch of the winter monsoon originates in the plains 
of the Panjab, the Gangetic valley, and the uplands of Central India ; also in 
upper Asam ; and blows as a very gentle wind towards the two great 
bays that wash the East and West coasts of the Peninsula. During this 
season, a Southerly wind prevails steadily on the Himalaya at heights above 
6000 or 8000 feet, descending lower on the Western than on the Central 
part of the range. This appears to be the upper return current of the win- 
ter monsoon, and corresponds to the anti-trade of the trade wind 
region. It descends on the plains of Upper India, where the atmos- 
phere is characteristically calm at this season ; and brings the winter 
rains. It is less frequently felt in Lower Bengal, where the wind is 
variable from North and North- West ; but to the eastward in Kachar, 
southerly winds are very prevalent at the winter season. In Northern 
India the two branches of the northerly monsoon appear to diverge towards 
the opposite coasts, from a line characterized hj a ridge of higher mean 
barometric pressure, which passes from the Panjab through Banaras to 
Katak. This monsoon ceases on the coast line of Bengal in the month of 
February, when in the lower atmosphere, sea winds set in. At first these 
are restricted to the immediate neighbourhood of the coast ; but as the sea- 
son advances and the heat of the interior plains rises under the influence of 
the returning sun, they penetrate further and further inland, and are drawn 
from greater distances at sea. In the interior of India, the wind becomes 
more Westerly, and blows towards Lower Bengal and Chutia Nagptir, not 
as a steady current, but as day winds, which in April and May are highly 
heated by the parched and heated soil, and constitute the well known hot 
winds of those months. Where these two currents meet, the thunder-storms 
well known as North- Westers are generated. Like the thunder-storms of 
Europe and the dust-storms of the Panj.ib, they are due to convection cur- 
rents ; and in Bengal owe their prevailing movement from the West or North- 
West quarter to the strength of the land wind, which maintains its course 
in the upper atmosphere above the opposite sea-wind which is felt at the 
land surface. At this time the N. W. wind continues to blow unsteadily in 
the South of the Bay ; but calms are not infrequent ; and it is not till June 
that the Southerly winds of the bay become continuous with the South East 
Trades of the South Indian Ocean, and that the South West monsoon, pro- 



ISi H. F. Blanford — On the Climate of Bengal. [Nov. 

perly so called, sets in in India. This blows from both coasts, and the two 
branches meet along a line which about coincides with the Southern margin 
of the Gangetic plain. Both tend towards the Panjab, the region of the 
greatest heat at this season ; and becoming gradually drained of their vapour 
in their passage over the land, that which remains on their reaching the 
plains of that province, suffices only to afford a scanty rainfall, inadequate to 
mitigate the temperature, and only rendering the heat more oppressive by 
increasing the relative humidity and diminishing the evaporative power of 
the air. 

As an element of climate, apart from its secondary effects on the winds 
and consequently on the humidity, rainfall, &c, the pressure of the atmos- 
phere is, as far as is known at present, of subordinate importance. In 
Bengal, as in most tropical countries, its variation, except during the passage 
of cyclones, is small ; scarcely amounting to an inch on the extremes of the 
year. The average pressure of the air in Calcutta, 18 feet ahove sea level, is 
equal to that of a column of mercury at the freezing point, 29'793 inches in 
height or to 14"6 lbs. on the square inch. It is highest in December, when the 
mean pressure. similarly estimated, amounts to 30011 ins. ; and lowest in June 
and July when it falls to 29 551 ins. on the average of the month. The daily 
variation is greatest in April, when the barometer falls on an average "111 inch 
between 9 A. M. and 5 P. M. \ and least in July, when the corresponding change 
does not exceed 090 inch, and the day and night barometric tides are nearly 
equal. The irregular variations being small as compared with those experienced 
in extra-tropical countries, and the regular variations so much more strongly 
marked, it follows that, as a weather-glass, the barometer is apt to mislead per- 
sons who are unacquainted with the laws of its local changes ; since the rough 
generalizations, which serve to interpret its action in Europe, no longer hold 
good even approximately in India. In certain cases indeed, its action would 
seem to be anomalous. Thus it generally rises rapidly before one of those 
thunder-storms that are so common in the hot weather ; and at Cherra Punji, 
the extraordinary rainfall of which would lead most persons to anticipate a 
generally low pressuie during the rainy season, after allowing for differences 
of elevation, the pressure is, on an average, considerably higher than in Wes- 
tern Bengal, the N. W. Provinces and the Panjab at this time of the year. 
Moreover, it appears from information supplied by Major H. H. Godwin- 
Austen that at this place the barometer rises before heavy rain, and remains 
high as long as the rain continues. When interpreted with proper precau- 
tions, the barometer is, nevertheless, as trustworthy and valuable a monitor 
of impending weather in India as it is elsewhere. 

The storms prevalent in Bengal are of two classes. First those of the 
hot weather already noticed, which are formed over the land, and are of the 
nature of convection currents, like the summer storms of Europe ; and second, 



1873.] H. F. Blanfovd— On the Climate of Bengal. 185 

those more extensive and destructive storms, that originate over the Bay of 
Bengal, and are most frequent at the changes of the monsoons. These lat- 
ter have received the distinctive name of Cyclones ; and the name is perhaps 
as good as any other, since in them a vorticose motion of the wind is a 
strongly marked character, and one of great practical importance ; but it is 
by no means a character peculiar to these storms, since it may frequently 
be observed in a slight degree in the ordinary North-Westers, and Tornados 
which are apparently merely a severe form of the North- Wester, and differ 
from a typical cyclone only in their originating over the land, in their inferior 
size and shorter duration. It may be indeed that the direction of their 
circulation is not so constant as in the greater storms, but existing evidence 
is insufficient to settle this point. The dust-storms of the Upper Provinces 
also, have been shewn by Dr. Baddeley to consist of one principal and numer- 
ous minor vortices, exactly like the larger storms of oceanic origin. The pres- 
sure of the wind in Tornados and even in ordinary North- Westers is some- 
times comparable with that of cyclones, and, within a limited area, the former 
are not less destructive. There is an important difference in the character 
of the surface wind in these two forms of land storms. In the North- Wes- 
ter the violent wind usually precedes the storm, blowing outwards, and being 
in fact a descending current brought down by the friction of the falling 
rain. The centripetal currents which feed the storm are not felt at the 
ground surface, though they may frequently be traced in the motions of the 
lower clouds. In the Tornado, on the other hand, as in the true cyclone, the 
violent surface winds are centripetal and vorticose. 

The Cyclones felt in Bengal begin, in all cases, over the Bay ; and the 
more violent and extensive storms, which alone reach the land, probably require 
many days to form before they move forward from their place of origin. 
Some of the most destructive that have passed over Bengal, have proceeded 
from the neighbourhood of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Their rela- 
tive frequency in the different months of the year is shewn in the following 
table, which includes storms of all parts of the Bay, and those that have 
been felt on all parts of its coasts, Bengal included. 

January, 2 May, 17 September, 3 

February, ... June, 4 October, 20 

March, 1 July, 2 November, 11 

April, 5 August, 2 December, 3 

Of these seventy-three storms, twenty-three have been felt in Bengal 
or on its coasts, and all between the months of April and November inclu- 
sive. Their course is usually North across the Gangetic Delta, North West 
from the Orissa coast. The motion of the wind is in an involute spiral, 
revolving in a direction opposite to that of the hands of a clock, as in all 
cyclonic storms in the Northern Hemisphere. The greatest pressure of the 



1SG Library. [Nov. 

wind in these storms has yet to be ascertained. The highest that has been 
registered in Calcutta, by an Osier's Anemometer, is 50 Ins. to the square foot ; 
but this was in a storm of no remarkable violence, and one which did but 
little injury in Calcutta. The centre of the storm, at the time, was passing 
some 15 miles to the East of the city, and the barometer stood at 28 - 712. 
In the far more severe storms of the 2nd November, 1867 and the 5th Octo- 
ber, 1861, the Anemometer was blown away, under a pressure of 36 fts. to the 
square foot, so that no register of their maximum force was obtained. There 
is a prevalent impi*ession that cyclonic storms have been more frequent of 
late years than formerly, but the belief does not appear to rest on any sound 
basis of fact. Since the destructive storm of October. 1861, the attention 
of the public has been attracted to the subject more steadily than in former 
years ; and many a storm that would have escaped notice, or, if reported in a 
newspaper paragraph, would have been speedily forgotten, is now made the 
subject of general conversation for the time, and recorded with all procura- 
ble detail, in the annual Meteorological Reports. To this cause probably 
may be attributed the popular belief in the greater frequency of storms in 
recent years. 1869 and 1872 were both stormy years. 

The reading of the following papers was postponed — 

1. On a secondary sexual character in Squilla rajrfiidea, Fabr. By 
J. Wood-Mason, Esq. 

2. Enumeration of Burmese Palms. By S. Kurz, Esq., 

3. Note on two Muhammadan Gold Coins. By the Hon'ble E. C. 
Bayley, C. S. I. 

4. On the Ruins of Dimapur, in the Naga Hills. By Major H. H. 
Godwin- Austen. 

Libeaht. 
The following additions have been made to the Library since the 
meeting held in August last. 

Presentations. 
* # * Names of Donors in Capitals. 
Royal Society, Proceedings, Nos. 144-145. 

No. 144. J. Norman Lockyer — Researches in Spectrum-Analysis in connexion 
with the Spectrum of the Sun. No. II. Major W. A. Ross — On Jeypoorite a 
Sulph-antimonial Arsenide of Cobalt. C. Meldrum — On a periodicity of Rainfall in 
connexion with the Sun-spot Periodicity. 

No. 145. H. G. Bastian — Further observations on the temperature at which 
Bacteria, Vibriones, and their supposed Germs are killed when exposed to heat in a 
moist state; and on the causes of Putrefaction and Fermentation. O. C. Podc and 
E. B. Lankester, — Experiments on the Development of Bacteria in Organic Infusions. 
T. Lauder Brunton and J. Fayrer — On the Nature and Physiological Action of the 
Poison of Naja Tripudans and other Indian Venomous Snakes. F. Chambers. The 



1873.] Library. 187 

Diurnal Variations of the Wind and Barometric Pressure at Bombay. TV. K. Parker. 
— On the structure and development of the Skull in the Pig (Sus scrofa). Lieut. -Col. 
A. R. Clarke. — Results of the comparisons of the Standards of Length of England, 
Austria, Spain, United States, Cape of Good Hope, and of a Second Russian Standard, 
made at the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton. 

The Royal Society or London". 
Zoological Society of London, Transactions, Vol. VIII, Parts 1-5. 
Part V. P. If. Duncan. — A Description of the Madrepora/ria dredged up during 
the Expeditions of " H. M. S. Porcupine" in 1889 and 1870. 

The Zoological Society op London. . 
Geological Society, Quarterly Journal, No. 111. 

The Geological Society of London. 
Statistical Society, Journal, Part I, 1S73. 

The Statistical Society op London. 

Royal Geographical Society, Proceedings, Vol XVII, No. 2. 
Goldsmid. — Journey from Bunder Abbas to Mash'had by Sistan. Rawlinson — 
Notes on Seistan. Rawlinson. — On Badakshan and "VVakhan. 

The Royal Geographical Society op London. 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Proceedings, May, 1S73. 
0- W. Cooke. — On Wenham's Heated- Air Engine. 

The Institution op Mechanical Engineers, Birmingham. 
Anthropological Institute, Journal, Vol. Ill, No. 1. 

TT. L, Distant. — The Inhabitants of Car Nicobar. Sir Duncan Gibb.' — On the 
Looshais. 

The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 
East Indian Association, Journal, Vol. VII, No. 1. 

The East Indian Association op London. 

Hand-List of the Specimens of Shield Reptiles in the British Museum 

by Dr. J. E. Gray. — Catalogue of the specimens of Hemiptera ILeteroptera 

in the British Museum, Parts VII, and VIII, by P. Walker. — Catalogue 

of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum, by W. Wright. 

The Trustees op the British Museum. 

Journal Asiaticpie, VII° Serie, No. 3. 

If. E. Renan. — Note sur deux inscriptions Nabateennes. Ch. Bruston. — L'inscrip- 
tkm de Dibon, traduite et aunotee If. Ad. Neubauer. — Un Coinmentaire Samaritain 
incomiu. 

The Asiatic Society of Paris. 
Socidte Anthropologirme, Bulletins, ll e Serie, Tome VIII, Fasc. I. 
De Quatrefages. — Surdes populations du bassin de 1' Amour. Faidherbe — Sur 
les dolmens d'Afrique. 

The Anthropological Society of Paris. 
Societe Gdographique, Bulletin, Juin, 1873. 

Khiva (Extrait d'un article du Colonel Venioukof), (suite et fin) — Esquisso du 
pays a Test de la mer Caspienne et de la mer d' Aral. 

The Geographical Society of Paris. 



188 Library. [Nov. 

Aeaddmie National des Sciences de Bordeaux. Actes, 3° Serie, 34 e 
Annee, Trimestres 1-2. 

The National Academy of Sciences, and Arts of Bordeaux. 

Societe Boyale des Sciences de Liege. Memoiivs, 2" !C Serie, Tome 3. 

J. Siclirf. — Considerations zoologiques but la determination de l'espece. E. 
Charlier. — Observations de teratologic. 

The Boyal Society of Sciences of Lie'ge. 
Monatsbericht, Februar, Marz und April, 1873. 

Maiz und April. Lepsias. — Uber Magnet und Eisen bei den alten Aegyptern, 
Weber. — "Dber das Mahabhasbya des Patanjali, nacb der ini vorigen Jahre in Benares 
erschienenen Ausgabe. 

The Boyal Brussian Academy of Sciences of Berlin. 

Norges Officielle Statistik, udgireen i Aaret 18G9-1872. — Criminal 
statistike Tabeller for Kongeriget Norge for Aaret 1865, 1866, 1868, 1S69, 
1870.— Fattig-Statistik for 1867, 1868, 1869.— Beretning om Skolere ^Esen- 
ets Tilstand, for 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870.— Tabeller Vedkomencle Skiftevse- 
senet i Norge, 1868, 1869, 1870.— Oversigt, 1869, 1879.— Den Norske 
Statstelegrafs Statistike for 1869, 1879. — Kommunsele Forholde i Norges 
l an d — g By Kommuner, 167-68. — De Offentlige Jerubaner, 1871 — Tabeller 
vedkommende Norges Handel og Skibsfart, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871.— Beret 
Dinger om Amternes (Economiske Tilstand, 1866-70. — Tabeller vedkom- 
mende Falkenmsengdens Bevtegelse, 1856-65. 

Lappisk Mythologi, J. A. Friis. Den Norske Lodo, udgiven af den 
Geografiske opmaaling, Hefte 1. Den Norske Turistforenings Arbog fur 
1871. Forbandlinger i Videnskabs Selskaleet i Cbristiania, aar 1871. Nyt 
Magazin for Naturvidens kaberne, xix, 1 og, Hefte 2. Statistisk Handbrog 
for Kono-eriget Norge. On the Bise of land in Scandinavia by S. A. Sexe. 
Becherches sur la Chronologie E'gyptienne, par J. Lielbein. On some 
remarkable forms of Animal Life, from the great deeps, off the Norwegian 
Coast, by Gr. O. Sars. Forekomster af Kise i Visse Skifere i Norge, ved 
E. B. Miinster Carlinologiske Bidrag til Norges Fauna, af Gr. O. Sars, 
(mysider). De Skandinaviske og Arktiske Amphipoder, af Axel Boeck. 
Die Bflanzenwelt Norwegens, von Dr. F. C. Schubeller. Anvisning til. 
Konstruktion af Lystfarloler og Bade, af, C. Archer. Norsk Meteorologisk 
Aarbag for 1871. 

The Boyal University of Norway, Christiania. 

Bulletin, Tome XL VI, Nos. 3, 4. 

No 3. N. Lubimoff. — Neue Tbeorie des Gesiclitsfeldes und der Vergi'oesserung 
der optischen Instrumente. Victor Motsclwulsky — Enumeration des nouvelles especea 
de coleopteres rapportes de ses voyages. (Contains notices of some Indian species). 

The Imperial Society of Naturalists, Moscow. 
Bijdragen tot de Taal-Land-en Volkenkunde, 3 e Volgr., Deel VII, 
Stuk 1, 2. 



1873.] Library. 189 

St. 1. Dr. J. Pijnappel. — Over de kermis, die de Arabieren voor de komst der 
Portngeezen van den Indischen Arckipel Bezaten. Dr. J. Pijnappel. — Enkele 
Aanmerkingen op Wallace's Insulinde. 

The Academy of Sciences of Netherlands-India. 
Proceedings, Parts 1-3, 1872. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Calcutta Journal of Medicine, July 1873. 

The Editor. 
Ramayana, 3rd vol, 8th part. 

The Editor. 
The Christian Spectator, Sept. 1873. 

The Editor. 
Holi, Devi-Chhadam Lila, Premasru-varshan, Prema-phula vari, Phu- 
lon-ka-Guchchha, Vedic killing is not a killing, Jaina-Kutihala, Vidyasun- 
dara Nataka, Agarvalon-ki-utpatti, Sujana-Satak, by Harischandra. 

The Author. 
Pakhanda Vidamvana, by Kavi Kishna. 
Sundari-Tilaka, by Mannulala. 
Gopala-lila-kavyam, by Ramachandra. 

Harischandra. 
Nidana, translated by Udayachanda Datta. 

The Translator. 
A Travel to "Western India, by Kedar Nath Dass. 

The Author. 
Grammar of the Bengali Language, by W. Carey. 

Ba'bu Ea 'jendrala la Mitra. 
Minutes of the Trustees of the Indian Museum, April 1872 to March 
1873. 

The Trustees of the Indian Museum. 
Catalogue of MSS. from Gujrat, No. 4. 

The Government of Bombay. 
Report on the Meteorology of the Panjab for 1872. 

The Government of the Panja'b. 
Report of the Calcutta Medical Institutions for 1S72. 

The Government of Bengal. 
Lahore to Yarkandj by G. Henderson and A. O. Hume. 
Flora Sylvatica, by Beddome, Part XVII. 

The Goyernment of India. 
The Indian Antiquary, August, 1873. 
Major J. W. Watson. — Story of Kani Pingala. 

The Goyernment of India. 



190 Library. [Nov. 

Purchase. 
The Quarterly Review, Nos. 267, 208, 209. 
No. 268. Central Asia. 
The Westminster Review, January, April and July, 1S73. Nos. 85—87. 

No 87. Emigration and the Coolie Trade in China. 
The Quarterly Journal ofScience, January, April, July, 1873. Nos. 37—39. 

No. 37. W. Crookes. — On the probability of Errors in Experimental Eesearches. — 
B. A. Proctor. — Condition of the Moon's surface. A solution of the Sewage Problem. — 

No. 38. Atmospheric Life Germs. Capt. 8. P. Oliver— The Dolmen mounds and 
Amorpholithic monuments of Brittany. 

No. 39. M. Ponton. — Actinism and Magnetism. W. W. Wood. — The Mineral 
Riches of the Philippines. 

The Edinburgh Review, Nos. 279, 280, 281. 

No. 279. The Administration of Berar. 

No. 280. Trade Boutes to Western China 

No. 281. Recent events in Affghanistan. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Yol. II. Nos. 61—68. 
January to August, 1873. 

No. 61. B. Swinhoe. — On a new species of Nettapus (cotton-teal) from the river 
Yaagtsze. M. F. Plateau — Physico-chemical Investigations upon the Aquatic Arti- 
culate. 0. C. Marsh. — Notice of new and remarkable Fossil Birds. 

No. 62. E. R. Larikester.-^- Summary of Zoological observations made at Naples 
in the winter of 1871-72. Dr. J. E. Gray.— Notes on Tortoises. Dr. J. E. Gray.— On 
a new Freshwater Tortoise from Borneo (Orlitia Borneensis). 

No. 63. Dr. J. E. Gray.- — On the original Form, Development and Cohesion of 
the Bones of the Sternum of Chelonians, with Notes on the skeleton of Sphargis. 
H. J. Carter. — On Whales in the Indian Ocean. 0. 0. Marsh. — On a new Sub-class of 
Fossil Birds. Dr. J. E. Gray. — On two new Free Sponges from Singapur. A. 
Schneider. — On the developmental History of Petromyzon. 

No. 64. Professor Ernst Hackel. — On the Callispongice, their position in the Ani- 
mal kingdom and their relation to the Theory of Descendence. Dr. J. E. Gray. — 
Observations on Pigs (Sus, Linnaeus ; Setifera, Illinger) ; and their skulls, with the 
description of a new species. F. Smith. — Description of a new Species of Fossorial 
Hymenoptera in the collection of the British Museum. 

No. 65. E. Ray Lankester. — Ou the Primitive Cell-layers of the Embryo as the 
bases of Genealogical classification of animals, and on the origin of Vascular and 
Lymph systems. H. J. Carter. — Points of distinction between the SpongiacUe and the 
Foraminifera. Dr.J.E. Gray.- On the definition of Rhinoceroses (BMnocerotes) and 
on the characters afforded by their skulls. E. Favre. — On some works relating to a 
new classification of Ammonites. 

No. 66. Alphonse de Candolle. — On the advantage of a Dominant Language for 
Science. Dr. A. Giinther. — Contribution to our knowledge of Ceratoplvrys and Megaii- 
lophrys. 

No. 67. W. King. — On some characters of Lingulaanatina illustrating the stiidy 
of Fossil Palliobranchs. H. J. Carter. — On two new species of G-ummineee with 
special and general observations. Dr J. E. Gray. — Description of two new Species of 
Bush-buck (Cephalophus) from Western Africa. A. W. E. O'SJiaugJmessy — Herpetolo- 
gical Notes. /. Wood-Mason. — On Nephropsis Stewarti, a new genus and species of 



1873,] Library. 191 

Macmrcms Crustaceans, dredged in deep water off the Eastern Coast of the Andaman 
Islands. Dr. J. E. Gray. — Notes on the Family Chelydradce. T. Gill.— Note on the 
Scombrocotlus salmoneus of Peters, and its identity with Anoplopoma fimbria. Dr. F. 
Kraass. — The skeleton of Sphargis coracla from Surinam. Dr. J. E. Gray — Damonia 
unicolor, a new species of Water-Tortoise from China, sent Toy Mr. Swinhoe. 
M. Envoy. — On Hylodes Martinicensis and its Metamorphoses. 

No. 68. A. G. Sutler. — Answer to Dr. Stoliczka's Notes on Indian species of 
TheVyphorvus. A. G.Butler. — A monographic Revision of the genus Fhrynus with des- 
criptions of four remarkable new species. H. W. Bates. — On the Longicorn Coleop- 
tera of Japan. Dr. J. E. Gray. — Notes on Chinese land-Tortoises (Trionychice,), with 
the description of a new species. Dr. J. E. Gray. — On the Deer of the West Coast of 
South America, with the Description of a new species from Peru. Royal Society. — 
Dr. W. Kowaleresky on the Osteology of the Hyopotamidaz. Dr. J. E. Gray.— On the 
Skull of the spectacled Bear of Peru and of the Helarctos from Malacca and Java. 
Dr. J. E. Gray — On the Skeleton of E'ogia Macleayii. Dr. J. E. Gray. — On a Salaman- 
dar from Shanghai. 

The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, January 
—August, 1873. Nos. 297—304. 

No. 298. 0. Heaviside. — On the best arrangement of Wheatstone's Bridge for 
measuring a given resistance with a given Galvanometer and Battery. 

No. 299. T. P. B. Warren. — On a method of testing Submarine Telegraph Cables 
during Paying-out. 

No. 300. 0. Heaviside. — On an advantageous method of using the Differential 
Galvanometer for measuring small Resistances. L. Schwendler. — On Differential Gal- 
vanometers (Reprint from Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal). A. S. Davis. — The 
Vibrations which Heated Metals undergo when in Contact with Cold material, treat- 
ed mathematically. 

No. 301. A. M. Mayer. — On the effects of Magnetization in changing the Dimen- 
sions of Iron, Steel and Bismuth bars, and in increasing the interior capacity of 
hollow Iron Cylinders. 

No. 302. 0. Heaviside. — On Duplex Telegraphy. H. Wilde. — On some improve- 
ments in Electromagnetic Induction Machines. 

No, 304. J. W. S. Glaisher.— On the form of the Cells of Bees. 
Journal of the Chemical Society, 1873, May — July. 

May. /. if. Gladstone and A. Tribe. — Researches on the Action of the Cop- 
per-zinc Couple on Organic Bodies. J. H. Gladstone and A. Tribe. — Observations 
on the Nature of the Black Deposit on the Copper-zinc Couple. 

June. H. Sprengel. — A Method of determining the Specific Gravity of Liquids 
with ease and great exactness. 

July. Dr. 0. W. Siemens. — On smelting Iron and Steel. 

The Numismatic Chronicle, 1873 Parts 1-2. 
Part I. S. E. L. Poole.— On Mint characteristics of Arabic coins. 
Part II. S. E. L. Poole — On the coins of the Muwahhids in the British Museum. 

The Ibis, 1873, January, April and July. Nos. 9—11. 

No. 9. R. S winlwe. — On a new species of Little Bittern from China. A. Ander- 
son. — On the Nidification of certain Indian Birds. E. Blyth. — Addenda to the Avi- 
fauna of India. Dr. /. Murie. — Fragmentary Notes on the Guacharo or Oil-bird 



102 Library. [Nov. 

(Steatornis Owrvpensis). W. T. Stanford. — Descriptions of new species of Nectarinia 
Silta and Pants from Persia and Baluchistan. 

No. 10. Oa/pt. J. It. Lloyd. — On a new species of Barbet from Western India 
P. L. Sclater. — Note on the Pyranga roseogularis of Cabot. R. Swinhoe. — On a new 
Chinese Owl of the genus Ketwpa. R. B. Sharpe. — On the genus Platystira and its 
Allies. T. SaVvadori. — Note on Homochlamys luscinia, Salvad. Dr. J. Murie. — On 
the Upwpidae and their relationships. W. T. Blanford — Notes on " Stray Feathers." 
W. T. Blanford. — Description of a new Jay and a new Woodpecker from Persia. 

No. 11. R. Swinhoe. — On the Rosy Ibis of China and Japan (Ibis nippori). J. E. 
Itarting. — On a rare or little known Limicolos. 0. Salvin and D. G. Elliot. — On two 
species of Trochilidm of the Genus Lophornis. G. N. Lawrance. — Remarks on Neomor- 
pkus pueherani and its Allies. Arthur Viscount Walden. — On a Collection of Birds 
recently made by Lieut. R. W. Ramsay. 

Revue cles Deux Mondes, 1873, Jan — Aout. 

15 Fev. 31. Jules Clave. — Orissa, une Province Anglaise de L'Inde. 

15 Mars. Le Japon depuis 1' abolition du Taicounat, les reTormes et les progr6s 
des Europeens. If. A. Vambery. — Les Russes dans L'Asie Centrale. 

15 Juillet. M. F. Papillon. — Les nouvelles matieres explosives d'apres les plus 
recens Travaux. La Guerre de Sumatra. 

Revue Archeologique, 1873, Jan. — Juillet. Nos. 1 — 7. 

No. 2. ill. F. Lenormant. — La plus ancienne inscription en langue Assyrienne. 

No. 5. M. G. Maspero. — Sur la Stele le l'intronisation trouvee au Djebel-Barkal. 
Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, 1873, Nos. 1 — 8. 
Journal des Savants, 1873,Jan.— Juillet. 

Mai. M. Chevreul. — La veVite sur l'invention de la photographie. 

Juin. M. C. Deferemery. — Memoires de Baber. 
Comptes Rendus, Tome 76, Nos. 1 — 16, Tome 77, Nos. 1 — 4. 

No. 2. M. Picot — Sur les proprietes antifermentescibles du silicate de soude. 

No. 3. M. 0. Tamin -Despalles. — Rapport entre les observations ozonom^triques 
et la mortalite. 

No. 5. M. Becquerel. — Memoires sur les piles electro-capillaires a courant cons- 
tant. P. Secclii — Sur les protuberances et les taches solaires. 

No. 6. M. Th. du Moncel. — Note sur les conditions de maximum de la resist- 
ance des galvanometres. MM. A. Laussedat et A. Ma/agin — Sitr l'emploi du Baro- 
metre anero'ide de poche et d'une nouvelle formula hypsometrique d'une grande sim- 
plicity. M. Faye — Explication des taches solaires. 

No. 8. M. Dumas. — Rapport verbal sur un ouvrage de M . Fayrer intitule" " Histoire 
des Serpents venimeux de l'lnde ou " The Tlianotophidia of India" . — M. J.Raulin. — 
Sur la maladie des vers a, soie. Mill. L. Troost et P. Hautefeuille. — Recherches sur 
la dissolution des gaz dans la fonte, l'acier et le fer. (Continued in No. 9.) 

No. 10. M. A, Be'cha.mp. — Sur les microzymas normaux du lait, comme cause de 
la coagulation spontanee, et de la fermentation alcoolique et acetique de ce liquide. 

No. 11. M. Janssen. — Passage de Venus ; nie'thode pour obtenir photographique- 
ment l'instant des contacts, avec les circonstances physiques qu'ils presentent. 

No. 13. M. J. Jamin. — Sur la theorie de l'aimant normal et sur le moyen d'aug- 
menter indefiniment la force des aimants. M. A. Bechamp. — Sur l'alcool et l'acide 
acetique normaux du lait, comme produits de la fonction des microzymas. 

No. 14. M. Becquerel. — Me"moires sur les piles et actions electro-capillah-es. 



1873.] Library. 193 

No. 15. M. Chasles. — Explication du teste d'Abonl Wefa sur la troisie"me inega- 
lite de la Lune. M. Th. du Moncel. — Note sur les effets produits par les courants 
sur le mercure irnmerge dans differentes solutions. P. Sccchi. — Notices sur le climate 
de la Chine. 

No. 18. M. Th. du Moncel.— Be Note sur les effets produits par le3 courants 
electriques sur le mercure irnmerge" dans diflerentes solutions. MM. A. Bechamp et 
A. Estor. — Faits pour servir a l'histoire des microzymas et des bacte"ries. Transfor- 
mation physiologique des bacteries en microzymas, et des microzymas en bacteries, 
dans le tube digestif du meme animal. 

No. 20. M. Tresca. — Note sur les propriety mecaniques de differents bronzes. 

No. 22. M. Puissex. — Note sur le passage de Venus devant le soleil en 1882. 
P. Secchi — Essai pendant une Eclipse solaire de la nouvelle methode spectroscopique 
proposee pour le prochain passage de Venus. 

No. 24. M. E. Peliijot. — Sur les alliages employes pour la fabrication des 
monnaies d'or. 

No. 25. P. Secchi.- — Nouvelle seVie d'observations sur les protuberances solaires ; 
remarques sur les relations qui existent entre les protuberances et les taches. 

No. 26. M. Tacchini — Nouvelles observations constatant la presence du magne- 
sium sur le bord entier du Soleil. 

Tome 7. No. 1. M. P. Bouillaud — Nouvelles recherches cliniqucs sur la localisation 
dans les lobes cerebraux anterieurs de Taction par lfiqnelle le cerveau concourt a, la 
faculte psyclio-physiologique de la parole. M. Berthelot — Sur la chaleur de combinai- 
son rapportt€ a l'etat solide; nouvelle expression thermique des reactions. M. E. 
Vicaire. — Sur la constitution du Soleil et la theorie des taches. M. H . Tarry . — Les 
Cyclones du Soleil compares a, ceux de notre atmosphere. M. E. DeJfortria. — Decou- 
verfce des makis et du clieval, a. Te"tat fossiles dans les phosphorites du Lot. 

No. 2. M. Becquerel. — Sur le mode d' intervention de l'eau dans les actions 
chimiques pendant le melange des solutions salines neutres, acides et alcalines. 
II. Tli. du Moncel. — Note sur le magn^tisme. M. M. Baux et Sarrau. — Sur la chaleur 
de combustion des matieres explosives. 

No. 3. P. Secchi. — Sur les spectres du fer et de quelqnes autres metaux, dans 
l'arc voltaique. M. Tacchini. — Nouvelles observations spectrales, en disaccord avec 
quelques-unes des theories emises sur les taches solaires. M. Th. Schloesing. — Etude 
de la nitrification dans les sols. M. Jacquemin. — L'acide pyrogallique en presence de 
l'acide iodique. 

No. 4i. M. C. Sidillot. — Dela galvanocaustie thermique ouelectro-thermie, appli- 
quee aux operations chirugicales. P. Secchi. — Nouvelles recherches sur le diametre 
solaire. M. C. Flammarion. — Sur la planete Mars. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol. V, Nos 25 — 31. 
January — July, 1873. 

No. 25. /. W. Draper. — Researches in actino- chemistry. On the distribution of 
Chemical Force in the Spectrum. (Concluded in No. 26). 

No. 26. 0. C. Marsh. — On the gigantic fossil Mammals of the Order Dinocerata. 

No. 27. 0. N. Rood. — Observations on the duration and multiple character of 
Flashes of Lightning. A. M. Mayer. — On the effects of Magnetization in changing the 
dimensions of Iron, Steel and Bismuth bars. (Part I). 

No. 28. A. M. Mayer. — On a simple device for projecting on a screen the deflec- 
tions of the needles of a Galvanometer. 0. C. Marsh. — Additional observations on 
the Dinocerata. 



19-1 Library [Nov. 

No. 29. J. D. Dana. — On the Origin of Mountains. C S. Hastings, — Comparison 
of the Spectra of the Limb and of the centre of the Sun, made at the Sheffield Scienti- 
fic School. J. Trowbridge. — Induced currents and derived circuits. F. II. Bigcloiv. — 
On a method of measuring induced currents. N. D. 0. Hodges. On methods of 
determining the resistance of a battery, deduced from Poggendorf's mode of measur- 
ing Electromotive Forces. 

No. 30. J. D. Dana. — On some results of the Earth's contraction from cooling, 
including the origin of Mountains and the nature of the Earth's interior. (Continued 
in No. 31.) 0. A. 

Young. — Note on the use of a diffraction " grating" as a substitute for the train of 
prisms in a Solar Spectroscope. 

No 31. 0. N. Rood. — A convenient Eye-piece Micrometer for the Spectroscope. 

Hewitson's Exotic Butterflies, Nos. 85 and 86. 

Dr. Pott's Etymologische Forscliungen, Band 4. 

Huxley's Critiques and Addresses. 

I. Administrative Nihilism. II. The School Boards. III. On Medical Educa- 
tion. IV. Yeast. V. On the formation of Coal. VI. On Coral and Coral Reefs. 
VII. On the methods and Results of Ethnology. VIII. On some fixed points in 
British Ethnology. IX. Palasontology and the Doctrine of Evolution. X. Bio- 
genesis and Abiogeuesis. XI. Mr. Darwin's Critics. XII. The Geneology of Ani- 
mals. XIII. Bishop Berkeley on the Metaphysics of Sensation. 

Max Miiller's Introduction to the Science of Religion. 

Exchange. 
The Athenaeum, July, 1873. 
Nature, Nos. 197—201. 



'7° 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

For December, 1873. 



The Monthly General Meeting was held on Wednesday, the 3rd instant, 
at 9 p. M 

The Hon. J. B. Phear, Vice-President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The receipt of the following presentations was announced — 

1. From the author, a copy of a work entitled " A Phrenologist 
amongst the Todas," hy Lieut.-Col. W. E. Marshall, B. S. C. 

2. From the author, a copy of a pamphlet entitled " Substances used 
for Food. Brink and Smoking by the natives of Bengal," by Babii Pratapa- 
chandra Ghosha. 

3. From the author, a copy of " The Prosody of the Persians," by 
H. Blochmann, Esq. M. A. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed and seconded at the last meet- 
ing were balloted for and elected ordinary members : — 
J. Sykes Gamble, Esq. 
H. H. the Maharaja of Johor, K. C. S. I. 
M. L. Dames, Esq., C. S. 

B. O'Brien, Esq., M. D. 
J. Elliott, Esq. 

J. Blackburn, Esq. 
K. McLeod, Esq., M. D. 
The following are candidates for ballot at the next meeting— 

C. F. Mag-rath, Esq., C. S., proposed by H. F. Blanford,Esq., seconded 
by C. H. Tawney, Esq. 

J. L. Peppe, Esq., proposed by J. H. Peppe, Esq., seconded by Col. E. 
T. Dalton, C. S. I. 

C. Heintze, Esq., proposed by H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A., seconded by 
Captain Waterhouse. 



196 Course of Scientific Lectures. [Dec. 

The following gentlemen have intimated their desire to withdraw from 
the Society. — 

R. T. H. Griffith, Esq. 
Captain T. H. Lewin. 
The Hon. R. Spankie. 
Dr. J. B. Baxter. 
R. B. Smart, Esq. 

The Council reported that Messrs. H. B. Medlicott and J. Geoghegan 
had heen elected Members of Council in place of the Hon. Sir R. Couch 
and J. Westland, Esq., resigned. 

The Chairman announced that the Council had, on the recommendation 
of the Philological Committee, sanctioned the publication of the Aitareya 
A'ranyaka, and the Brihaddhevata in the Bibliotheca Indica at the sugges- 
tion of Prof. Max Miiller. 

The Council also reported that 24 oil paintings belonging to the 
Society's collection, comprising the majority of the portraits of by-gone 
members of the Society, with a few of the valuable paintings by Rubens and 
other old masters, had been put into the hands of Mr. D. Garrick to be 
cleaned and repaired at a cost of about Rs. 1,075. This step was rendered 
absolutely necessary by the very bad condition of many of the paintings, 
and should have been done long ago had the funds of the Society permitted it. 

The Chairman announced that it was proposed to hold a series of 
lectures on popular science and subjects connected with India, during the cold 
season and that arrangements had been made for commencing the series by a 
lecture on " Recent Discoveries in Spectrum Analysis," by A. Pedler Esq. 
Lectures had also been promised by — 

The Hon. J. B. Phear — " On Glimpses of old India through the pages 
of Manu." 

Mr. H. F. Blanford— " On the Winds of Northern India." 

Mr. Blochmann — " On Thoughts and Ideas peculiar to the East." 

Mr. J. Wood-Mason — " On Embryology." 

Babu Rajendralala Mitra — " On Recent Oriental Researches." 

The sequence of the lectures had not yet been finally arranged, but it 
was proposed to hold two lectures in January and February, and one or 
more in March. 

On account of the extremely limited space at the Society's disposal, it 
had been found necessary to limit the number of tickets to 200. As there 
were about 130 resident members in Calcutta, it was not possible to give 
each member two tickets, one for himself and one for a friend. The Council 
had therefore arranged that one ticket should be sent to each resident 
member, and that members who required another ticket, should obtain one 



1873.] H. Blochmann — Inscriptions from Oenl. Cunningham. 197 

more on application to the Secretary, as far as they were available, and 
further that those members who did not intend to make use of their tickets 
either for themselves or for a friend, should be begged to return them in 
order that they might be available for others. The Council trusted that 
members would assist them in carrying out these arrangements, so that the 
inconveniences arising from the want of a larger hall might be felt as little 
as possible. 

The lectures would be open to ladies. 

Capt. J. Waterhouse exhibited some photographic prints produced by 
the collotype process and pointed out the advantages of the process as a 
substitute for the ordinary methods of photographic and lithographic 
printing and engraving. 

Mr. Blochmann exhibited the following inscriptions received from Gene- 
ral Cunningham, C. S. I. 

Dihli'. 
I. 

Inscription from the tomb of the renoivned Shaikh Farid i BuTchari. 

A biography of this excellent man will be found in my A'in translation, 
pp. 413, 620. The town of Faridabad, south of Dihlj, is called after his 
name, and numerous buildings erected by him still exist in Bihar, Dihli, 
Faridabad, Lahor, and Ahmadabad. The inscription consists of fourteen 
lines, and the slab measures 7 feet by 1^ feet. 

c^. ^/j.3 <d-*j jc> - a-jAj y j oj*j y (S&M ^^\ ctujt ^i*** # aJUi u 

^cjlsr! *+sk| 4>a« ^\ o.Jji ±x£ ^jli j(Li lj yS\ ^Cy)\ jAU ^ilj^f^c 

LT^JJ c5 — ^l J>y~?i ^ — 1 * ^^ ^AU >jj13 jg 

O God! 

Wonderful is the King, the Living, who neither dies, nor passes away. 

In the reign of 'Arsh-ashyani J a 1 a 1-u d-d i n A k b a r Padishah i Ghazi, Shaikh 
Farid, sonofSayyid Ahmad Bukhari, was distinguished by the favors of that 
monarch, and during the just rule of Nur-uddin Jahangir Padishah, son of Akbar 
Padishah, he was honored with the title of Murtaza Khan. 

In the 9th year of the accession, corresponding to 1025 A. H.,* he joined God's mercy. 

* It is curious that a chronological mistake should occur on the tombstone of so 
famous a man as Farid i Bukhari. The ninth year of Jahangir's reign lasted from 9th 
Safar, 1023, to 17th Safar, 1024. But the tdrihh of Farid' s death given in the A'in 



19S H.- Blochmann — Inscriptions from Genl. Cunningham. [Dec. 

1. When Murtaza Khan joined God, the realm of futurity was opened to him. 

2. The angels proclaimed the following tarikh, ' bad pur w&r i Uakt rUhash,' ' .May 
his spirit he fidl of divine light !' 

II. 

The following inscription General Cunningham found on a marble 
tomb outside the 'Alai Darwazah, Qutb, Dihli. It consists of four lines, 
and is 3 feet long and 13 inches broad. 

The inscription, which reads like' the preface of a Manuscript, records 
the building by some saintly Sayyid of the vault which he had destined for 
his own resting place. 

(>~o'i K^-^- vitbi^?'* *$ J^G&J tU-^- &H&J c^r^ <^r* a V^' ^' |**"^ 

J %€yi yjU^Joo *£ i\ij]A~>. ;Vli ciiAJ AjS ^l) ^il fay ^JiU 3 

I.Jvlaiw j Jz*.* A$&aJ Sjifo^e oUs: j j IT^Ij d^ j tx^yCji j\ ilf;lj i — J^ 

i^oldA c^5.^^ jfjji; I. ^Jjl c£-V ^irV ^-^^^ ^ c*KasJ| ^y* 

tU*« Xflj.laJ) j &LJI U. Jtx> jc-^iil *JJI <J^£ (V* J^^l <^/2-> ^ L£*JjC *j$ 

j^JoJSJkJ j J,:| .^.J ,iVjdJjJU i£***VjJ! lHA j ^ m*3^*« cy<X« ^^ <*i cij.*J 

^j| <Le>^ j IT"*' fr^ 3 ^. <i_j-**^ Siii^i i — K*»* u/i-*""' (•^•"^ U^ii.,j| 

AJ) ,jl$ ^ 4-*^ .1 J*«U &*£j jI o^a.^. J| ^l^iS) t/aAi l^£-o tkUj ^l^j 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Clement ! 

Praise and prayer such as the angels near the dome of holiness and the dwellers in 
the gardens of love are daily engaged in, be my offering to God, on whose road the 
worshippers of the heavenly throne willingly give up earthly pleasures and the rewards of 
future life ; and peace without end and numerous blessings on the fragrant spot and 
shining tomb of the Intercessor on the day of resurrection, and on his pure family and 
friends, for ever and ever. And through the Prophet, the giver of benefits and the bestower 
of piety, God, in His eternal will, has permitted him (the builder), — who holds the rank 
of a guide, resembles Muhammad in praiseworthiness, is an 'Alj in purity, possesses the 

leaves no doubt that he died in 1025 ; hence he died either in the end of the 10th or in 
the 11th year of Jahangir's reign. The 11th year commences on the 1st Eabi' I, 1025. 



1873.] H. Blochmann — Inscriptions from Genl. Cunningham. 199 

character of Husain, and is descended from Husain, a noble scion of the great Sayyids, the 
essence of trustworthy great men, who in his contempt of the world is a Jesus, and in his 
retirement like Moses on the Mount of Solitude, who is assisted by the Almighty, the pole 
of the faith and the way, a Hasani and Husaini Sayyid, — to found this noble edifice and 
pleasant building ; and it is his last will that, when the term of his life (may it stretch to 
the day of resurrection !) come to an end and when honored with the call, ' enter, ye faith- 
ful, in peace, amen !' he will take his flight to the dome of holiness and the gardens of love, 
this noble vault be his shining tomb. 

This vault was completed in Zi Qa'dah, 9-M [April, 1538, A. D.]. 

Bada'on. 
I. 

The following inscription was found by General Cunningham on the 
northern door of the Jami' Masjid of Badaon. It does not seem to refer 
to the building of a mosque. At least the word ' masjid' is not mentioned. 

The inscription is of value, because it belongs to the very beginning 
of Muhammad ibn Tughluq's reign. 

The stone measures 2 feet 7 inches by 1 feet 6 inches. 

<jUj J di.&ts'^lj.j! Aayi) &JJ! JJa ,J.^I S r *W| '£\**.!\ *jjl> yc) 

This edifice was ordered to be built by his high majesty, the shadow of God, the 
merciful, A b u 1 M u j a h i d, son of Tughluq Shah, the king, — may God perpetuate 
his kingdom and ride ! In the year 726. The architect is Husain* *, Kotwal in the 
District of Badaon [A. D. 1320]. 

II. 

The next inscription refers to the building of Qutb-uddin's Jami' 

Mosque in Badaon. Qutb-uddin was Jahangir's foster brother, and was 

killed at Bard wan by Slier Afkan, Nur Jahan's first husband. Vide Ain 

translation, p. 496, where his son Ibrahim Kishwar Khan is also mentioned. 

^ (ij Jt^j.A.w j j\y£b | ♦ / f AL« ^jlc 2S^^tj j^\ i>*=:' c (^JO-Jl J^W <>$£ jo 

In the reign of JaUkddin Muhammad A k b a r, Padishah i Ghazf, anno 
1013, this Mosque was erected by Q u t b-u d d i n K h a n C h i s h t i, commonly known as 
Shaikh Klnibii, the foster brother of Abul Muzaffar Sultan Salim Shah i Ghazf, son of Jalal- 
ud-din Muhammad Akbar Shah, under the superintendence ofNawab Shaikh Ibra- 
him, son of the above mentioned Khan. The writer of the edifice is 'Abdul Malik Qazi. 

The inscription consists of two lines separated by a thick stroke, at the 
end of which there is a royal umbrella, and is 5 feet long and 11 inches 
broad. The short sides are mihrdbi (A'in translation, p. 30, note 2). 



200 H. Blochmann — Inscriptions from Qenl. Cunningham. [Dec. 

This inscription is also given in the * Tarikh i Badaon,' or ' Chronicle 
of the Town of Badaon,' by Bakhtawar Singh, Sub- Judge of Grorak'hpur 
(printed by the Rohilk'hand Literary Society, 8vo., 84 pp., 1868, in Urdu), 
where it is said that the slab stands to the right of the Mihrab. To the 
left of it stands the following (metre, short Hazaj). 

III. 
jy&S ^LL Ss* Jix" idJti tjtpay* ^i,±J] L^Jai ^U. ^g\x> 

^) aIJ! UJli. ^1 ^U. s * J. i^a. J& j) vjU ^j 

1. The building of the late Qutb-uddin Khan was firmly erected by Kishwar 
Khan's order. 

2. When through the care of Shaikh Faiz-ullah i Chishti, it was with every grandeur 
completed, 

3. Thought told me to say from my heart as tarikh the words ' Jchdliqd alldhu 
akbar,' ' O Creator ! God is great.' 

The value of the letters of the tarikh is 1021, i. e., A. D. 1612. 
The inscription measures 4 feet by 14 inches. 

The Iltitmish inscription of 628 [A. D. 1230] and the 'A'lam Shah 
inscriptions at Badaon were published in the Journal, for 1872, Pt. I, p. 110. 

Champanagar, near Bhagalpur, Bihar. 

The following inscription was found by General Cunningham at a 
Dargah, called the Mashan i Bardri, or ' domicile of virtues,' where some 
Sunni ' Makhdum,' or saint, is buried. 

The slab measures 2 feet 4 inches by 15 inches, and contains three lines. 

« &4^j aU| fj$ Ji.fi It Ai* aUi KS i ) ^1+1* || &ic aJUi ^j 

^Uj Aj ^J g.X'cY ^.A^vo j(<^.*» jfaa^J O^O^jjJLJ'.^a. ^.Jjj-J ?t.» cM»^ *b!> Al ~ 

M I *rr j± j t5*« j ;!>* ***• ii * 3 ^ <J*V *jl>** **?£> v J J ojU^s 

(The Muhammadan creed, and the names of the four Khalffahs.) 
When the weakest of the slaves of God, Khwajah Ahmad Samarqandi, by order of the 
distinguished Nawab, the Prince of the people of the world, Shah Parwiz, son of 
Jahangir, was appointed Faujdar of Sirkar Munger, he found grace to build this shining 
vault. A. H. 1032 [A.D. 1622-23]. 

Kanauj. 

" East of the town of Kanauj," says Mr. T. W. Beale in his Mift&h- 
uttawarihh (p. 127)," there is a Dargah, near the old fort, on an eminence. 
Inside are two vaults built of red and white stone. One of them had an 



1873.] H. Blochmann — Inscriptions from Oenl. Cunningham. 201 

inscription with a date, but the letters were illegible or had broken away. 
The people living at the place say that the children of Makhum Jahaniyan 
are buried here. Near their vault is a mausoleum with a high dome and 
four minarets, and inside are four tombs, without inscription ; but in a cor- 
ner stood a large stone, which had formerly been attached to the doorway. 
From the inscription on it, it is clear that in 881 A. H., or 1476 A. D. 
during the reign of Husain Shah of Jaunpur, one Shah Hari Khan, son of 
Fath Khan, built the mausoleum." 

Mr. Beale then gives an imperfect reading of the inscription. General 
Cunningham took a photograph of the slab, which I read as follows : — 

t£ * M 'Jsfij J Vi) *i ** ji^t-ct^ itfij * %SMm ^j\ tj^ j\ ** g*J «< x '" c-^' 

•i.-jj.i* iJiJl+f jU.?- jt JUIS" * J^U. &l L s^\j «Xx-» (jU >_jJ0 

1. This wonderful edifice, which is higher than the heaven, and this unparalleled 
portico, which is full of ornaments, 

2. Was built in the auspicious reign of Husain Shah, whose glory in the 
present age is victorious. 

3. It was planned byShahHariKhan, son of Fath Khan, to whom, by the 
grace of God, the whole world is subject. 

4. May his life be devoted for thousand years to the prosperity of the kingdom ; for 
this kingdom rests for ever on the strength of his character. 

5. It was in the year 881 A. H., that the date of the building was written. 

6. The builder of this portico is Sayyid Raju, son of Jalal, whose perfections 
illuminate the earth. 

7. The writer of this inscription is a poor learned man and poet, and hopes in the 
mercy of the Supreme King. 

In the third line, the metre shews that Shah Hari Khan is the son of 
Fath Khan. The word hicad in the 7th line, is a most extraordinary form 
for hashcad, the well known abbreviation of hashtcad. In the Journal for 
1872, Part 1, p. 113, I condemned this form as absurd ; but General 
Cunningham drew my attention to this inscription from Kanauj and two 
others from Malwah, in which hicad also occurs. There is, therefore, no 
doubt as to its existence, although we have to remember that no dictionary 
gives it, and that it only occurs in inscriptions written by wretched poets. 

How wretched the above inscription is in point of versification, may be 
seen from the last line, where kdtib-huruf, and worse still hazrat akbar, are 
used ' ob metrum' without Izafat. 



202 S. Kurz — On Burmese Palms. [Dec. 

" The inscription inside over the entrance of the vault," says Mr. Bcale, 
" informs us that the building was once seriously damaged by an earth- 
quake, and that it was repaired, in 1209 A. H. [A. D. 1791], by one 'Abbas 
'Ali, a descendant of the builder." 

There is another mausoleum in Kanauj on the banks of the Kali Nai, 
with a high dome. The building is surrounded by high walls. An inscription 
over the gate informs us that it is the resting place of one Shaikh Nagah, 
who died in A. H. 1009 [A. D. 1G00], and that the builder and writer of 
the inscription is Rukn-uddin, son of 'Ala-uddin 'ITsmani. 

But a Mausoleum of greater renown is the Rauzah of Shaikh Kabir 
Bala Pir, which is likewise situated on the banks of the Kali Nai. Bala Pir 
was the son of Shaikh Qasim Qadiri, who lies buried in Chandalgarh. Bala 
Pir died during the reign of Shahjahan on the 10th Ramazan, 1051. For 
the inscriptions, vide Miftah uttawarikh, p. 250. 

The following papers were read : — ■ 

1. Enumeration of Burmese Palms. By S. Kuez, Esq. 

[Received October 9th]. 
(Abstract). 

The paper contains an enumeration of 42 species of Burmese palms 
besides 6 doubtful or imperfectly described species of rattans. Amongst 
the 42 species 8 are new, and some of them are of intense interest, 
like Calamu tegrunis and O. Andamanies. A gigantic stemless Corypha 
(C. viacropoda) indigenous to the Andamans, produces fan-shaped leaves up- 
wards of 30 feet in length. All the new species are illustrated, and figures 
given also of other incompletely known palms on the 25 plates which 
accompany the paper. 

This paper will be published in the Journal, Part II, 1874. 

2. Note on two Muhammadan Gold Coins. Hj the Hon. E. C. Bat- 
let, C. S. I. 

This note will appear in the Journal, Part I, No. IV. 

3. On the Pains of Dimapur, on the Dunsiri Piver, A'sdm. By 
Major H. H. Godwin-Austen, F. R. G. S., F. Z. S. Deputy Superintend- 
ent, Topographical Survey of India. 

This paper will be published in the Journal, Part I, 1874. 

4. The Bhadit, and the Bduris. — By Upendra. Chandra Mttkerjea, 
Bankurah. 

The festival most remarkable in the district of Bankurah, and in that 
part of the non-regulation province of Chutia Nagpur which goes under the 
name Manbhum (and better known as Parulia), is the Bhadu, which 
takes that name on account of its celebration in the month of Bhadra. 



1873.] U. C. Mukerjea— The BUdu and the Bauris. 203 

The Bhadu originated with the Baulis, the aborigines of Bankurah 
and Purulia. It is celebrated on the two last days of the month of 
Bhadra, and is personified in an idol of a small size representing a young 
girl, seated on a lotus or sometimes on a small square table : like all Hindu, 
idols, the Bhadu wears a coronet on the head, and is decorated with garlands. 
The month of Bhadra is an interesting season for the people of Bankurah. 
In the beginning of the month, the idol is ushered into the house of every 
well-to-do Bauri woman with shouting and singing ; and every evening (till 
the end of the month) there is a gathering of women and girls round the 
Bhadu, who pay homage in songs to their adored deity. It is interesting to 
note that the Bhadu is not actually worshipped with mantras, as it has not 
got the sanction of the Hindu religion, but is adored with songs. The 
Bauris are probably the descendants of the adjoining hill tribes, and are an 
able-bodied and strong race who follow the hard and laborious profession 
of the paUci bearer. In complexion they are dark, but in their structure 
they are symmetrical and well proportioned. Their food consists generally of 
rice of the coarsest kind, dal, and meat of all sorts, especially pork. The 
women are of a robust make. Country spirit is their chief drink, and the 
great peculiarity is, that women and men generally join when drinking and 
singing. At marriage feasts women sing round the bride and bridegroom, 
and men play the " madal." Their music is not harmonious, the sound of 
the " madal" resembles that of an English drum. But to return to the 
Bhadu. The last two days of the month of Bhadra are passed in continually 
beating the tom-tom : at night people get no sleep ; and the whole town 
seems to be as it were in a state of complete excitement : on the Sanskranti, 
or the last day of the month, the drawing of the idol in the famous tank of 
Duberband takes place. 

History of the Bhadu. — The Bhadu saw the light only twenty-five 
years ago in some village within the Pachet Raj in the district of Maii- 
bhiim. It is said that one of the Bajahs of Pachet had a little daughter, 
who was the very personification of humanity and beauty. She was noted 
for her extreme kindness towards the Bauris and other lower orders of the 
people whose extreme poverty had excited her compassion. This little girl 
died very early in the month of Bhadra, and on her death the people round 
Kashipur commenced to worship her. According to others, Bhadu had 
its origin in the royal house of Pachet, where the Ban! in memory of her 
daughter Bhadrabatti had a small idol prepared and adored in the month 
of Bhadra when her daughter died. 

Whatever may have been the origin of the Bhadu, it has a hold on the 
lower orders of the people, who in the absence of other idols to worship, 
adore the Bhadu with songs. 

It is difficult to trace the derivation of the word Bauri, as it is difficult 



204 U. C. Mukerjea— The Bhddu and the Bawrfo. [Dec. 

to derive the names of races like the Bhils, the Kols, the Dhangars. They 
are divided into the following classes : — 

1. Sikhoria. 2. Molo. 3. Dholo. 4. Pano. 

The Sikhoria appear to have come from Sikh.orbh.um (in the district 
of Purulia), the Molos from Malahhum (in the district of Bankurah, 
formerly known as the land of wrestlers), the Dholo from Dholbhum (in the 
district of Purulia), and the Pano from Puri. 

The marriage ceremony is thus celebrated : the bride and bridegroom 
are placed under an artificial tree, which is specially prepared for the occasion, 
when a twig of the Mahwa tree and a pot of water from a Brahman's house are 
brought, and the head Bauri of the bridegroom's family then takes the twig 
and dips the same into the pot of water and sprinkles the water on the 
heads of the bride and bridegroom ; the ceremony is concluded by handing 
round spirits and meat. The barking of a dog at the time of the wedding 
is looked upon as a good omen, and some of the people present generally 
manage to bring in a dog, which is then beaten till the auspicious bark is 
heard. 

The following is a specimen of the songs sung by the Bauris in worship- 
ping Bhadu : — 

1. Our princess Bhadu is quite a stranger to any want ! Ah ! our 
chaste gold Bhadu, thy (infant) milk-drinking throat is dried for want of 
drink. 

( O csut *rfa, c*rr*?r?r wrsrc^i, stfam f^ f*r\TpR i 

2. We will go to the goldsmiths and have a throne prepared, upon 
which our darling princess Bhadu shall play. 

9ftc«r fit* "sr^r sr^r tf^j <^ fwz ©Tsrwt^t n 

3. My Bhadu, delicate and gay, how beautiful is thy gold nose 
ring ; we shall wrap thy body with kerchief, and thy breast with muslin. 

( 8 ) c*wfl ctfcsfl, ^wji retEsn wi *t% 511 SR^t I 

4. The day is over, the evening has come, adjust your hair, my child ; 
do not weep, O Bhadu. No more shall I send thee to thy father-in-law's. 

( <t ) ^t? ^t\ftc"5 fkz^ ^tw c<f <$z<[zw *$m c«n i 
$t:^ *iTC?r?r ihfe^r ^Tc? ctt^ s?*i c*ti 1 1 

5. At whose house hast thou been, O Bhadu? who hath worshipped 
thee ? thou hast red sandal powder upon thy breast and red j aba (a red Indian 
flower) on thy feet. 



1873.] Librar//. 2Q5 

( *> ) <st£ ^rtsrt? ytt ^c?x^ stfcaf csm *tf?n ?rte i 

3TtW<r ^*fTT> ^sfSf ^Sfj «ttC?T «tC\5 2ft«t^W II 
G. Bhadu is in her offended mood, in which she has passed the night ; 
break thy angry mood, O Bhadu, thy dear lover is at thy feet. 

( °i ) 4ttfw rotf? ^*t ^sra ^rr^it c«fl i 

<5T*?r srcsr ^t?r "jttR^ *tmzw ^ft?i csri n 

7. I have brought odorous flowers from forests, the Malathi (Jasmin) 
to make a garland for Bhadu seated on her couch. 

(fr) ^^ ^R siw fifa vlw$ ^rcar I 
ft^i ^£3 c^w c^«tt ^tim fifa ^^c^ 1 1 

8. We shall smear thy temples with scented sandal essence, adjust thy 
tuft of hair turned a little askance, and blacken the edges of thy eyes. 

( * ) ^ *ftstf$ srrft«ft» ^fif ^rror?r £ftc«i?r -<r i 

9. Bhadu, my delicate girl — my life's treasure ! I lose my sense every 
minute I lose sight of thee. 

The reading of the following paper was postponed — 
On a secondary sexual character in Squilla raphidea, Fabr. By J. 
Wood-Mason. 

Library. 

The following additions have been made to the Library since the 
meeting held in November last. 

Presentations. 
* # * Names of Donors in Capitals. 
Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland, Vol. Ill, Part 3, 
1872-73. 

A. Macalister.—K Description of two Veddah Skulls from Ceylon. Meadows Tay- 
lor — The Coal-Fields of Central India, from the Reports of the Geological Survey of India 
and other Official Sources. 

The Royal Geological Society of Ireland. 
Bulletin de la Soci^te de Geographic, Juillet, Aout, 1873. 
Juillet. Joseph Halevy. — Voyage au Nedgran. 

Aout. Elisee Reclus. — Note relative a Fhistoire de la mer d'Aral. Triangulation de 
l'lnde Anglaise. 

La Socle 'te ' de Ge'ographie, Paris. 
Congres International des Orientalistes, Ire Session, 1873. 

Tile Congress. 
Monatsbericht der Koniglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 
zu Berlin, Mai, 1S73. 

Peters.— Uher zwei Giftschlangen aus Afrika, und fiber neue oder weniger bekannte 
Gattungen und Arteu von Batrachiern. 

Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlln. 



20G Library. [Dec. 

Schriften der Koniglichen Physikalisch-Oekonomischen Gesellschaft 
zu Konigsberg. Jahr XII, Abtli. 2. 
Konioliche Physikalisch-Oekonomiscile Gesellschapt ZU KoNIOSBERG. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. XII, No. 89. 

Tiie American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 
Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. II. 
Part I, No. III. 

'Elliott Conhs. — On the Osteology and Myology of DidelpTiys Virginiana. 
Part II, No. I. 
A. S. Packard. — On the Development of Lunulas Polyphemus. 

Part II, No. II. 
E. S. Morse. — On the early stages of Tereorattilina septentrionalis. 

The Boston Society op Natubal History. 
Memoir of Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, by G. E. Ellis. 
The complete Works of Count Rumford, Vol. I. 

The American Academy op Arts and Sciences, Boston. 
A Phrenologist amongst the Todas, by Lt. Col. W. E. Marshall, B. S. C. 

The Author. 

The Prosody of the Persians, by H. Blochmann, M. A. 

The Author. 

Substances used for Food, Drink and Smoking, by the Natives of 
Bengal, by Pratapachandra Ghosha. 

The AuraoR. 

Notes on the Avifauna of the Aleutian Islands. Supplement to the 
" Revision of the Terebratulidce" with additions, corrections and revisions 
of the Grcmiidcs and Dlscinidce. Notes on the Genus Anisothyrls, Conrad, 
with a description of a new species, by W. H. Dall. 

The Author. 

Et lidet Fund af Mynter, fra lite Aarhundrede. Om Vsegten aef nogle 
Smykker fra Olcltiden sef sedelt Metal, samt om de paa saadanne anbragte 
Betegnelser af Vsegten, by C. A. Holmboe. 

The Author. 

Professional Papers on Indian Engineering, October, 1873. 

Addis' Single-Kail Tramway. W. H. Price. — Portland Cement at Kurrachee. 
Capt. J. L. L. Morant. — The Breek's Memorial School at Ootacamund, Nilagirries. Major 
H. TullocJi.— -The Water-supply of Bombay. E. A. Sibold. — Distribution of Canal Water. 

The Editor. 

The Calcutta Journal of Medicine, No. 9, 1873. 

The Editor. 

The Christian Spectator, Nos. 28, 29 and 30. 

The Editor. 



1873.] Library. 207 

The Grammar of the Thibetan Language, by A. Csoma de Koros. 
Principal Heads of the History and Statistics of the Dacca District. 

Major H. H. Godwin-Austen. 
Catalogue of Sanscrit MSS. existing in Oudh, fasc. III. 

The Dieectob of Public Insteuction, Oudh. 

The Indian Antiquary, October and November, 1873. 

October, M. J. Walhouse. — On some formerly existing antiquities of the Nilgiris. 
A. K. Nairne. — Musalman remains in the South Konkan. Traces in the Bhagavatgita, 
of Christian Writings and Ideas. J. F. Fleet. — Notes on Inscriptions of Gaddak in the 
Dambal Taluka of the Dharwad District. 

November, Rev. F. Kittel. — On the Karnataka Vaishnava Dasas. Major J. W. 
Watson. — Legends of the earlier Clmdasama Ras of Junagadh. A. K. Nairne. — Musalman 
remains in the South Konkan. L. Rice. — Jaina Inscriptions from Sravana Belgola. Rev. 
F. J. Leeper. — The Naladiyar. F. Rehatsek. — Deri phrases and Dialogues. Capt. F. W. 
West. — Ivari Dastur in Jesht Purnima. 

The Goveenment oe India, Home Depaetment. 
Record of the March of the Mission to Seistan, by Surgeon H. W. 
Bellew. 

The Goveenment oe India, Foeeign Depaetment. 

Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. VI, Part 4. 
G. W. H. Hughes. — Note on some of the Iron Deposits of Chanda, Central Provinces. 
V. Ball. — Barren Island and Narkondam. W. Theobald. — Stray Notes on the Metalli- 
ferous resources of British Burma. 

The Goveenment oe India, Revenue Depaetment. 

Report on the Administration of the Income Tax in the Lower 
Provinces for 1872-73. 

Report on the Administration of the Salt Department for 1872-73. 

Report on the Administration of the Registration Department in 
Bengal for 1872-73, by R. H. Wilson. 

Report on the Revenue Survey operations of the Lower Provinces for 
1871-72. 

Papers regarding the Tea Industry in Bengal. 

The Goveenment op Bengal. 

Exchange. 
Nature, Nos. 205—208. 

Purchase. 
Pratna-hamra-Nandini, Nos. 2-6. 
The Calcutta Review, October, 1873. 
Rennell's Memoir of the Map of Hindustan. 
Bruce's Annals of British India, 3 vols. 



INDEX. 



Page 

Abbey (Mr. W.), Death of, ... ... 28 

'Abdullah bin Ibadh, ... ... ... ... 35 

'Abd-un-nabi Khan, Builder of the Mathura Mosque, ... ... 12 

Abd-un-nabi Khan, a partizan of Dara Shikoh, ... ... 12 

Aboriginal Races, in Dalton's Ethnology, Identification of, ... 82 

Accounts, Abstracts of, ... ... ... xviii — xxxii 

Acrophylla violascens, ... ... ... ... 150 

Address, President's, ... ... ... ... 41 

Aitareya A'ranyaka, publication of sanctioned, ... ... 196 

Ajmfr, Inscriptions of Jahangir, from ... ... ... 159 

Akbar Inscription, from Amrohah, ... ... ... 90 

'Alauddin Khilji Inscription from Rapri, ... ... ... 156 

Allah Virdi Khan, tuyaldar of Mathura, A. H. 1048, ... 15 

Allen (Mr. J.), Election of, ... ... 1 

Amdapur (W. Berar), Temple at, ... ... ... 67 

Amrohah, Inscriptions from Mosque and Fort of, ... ... 101 

Andamanese, Photographs of, ... ... ... 118 

„ Reptiles, Notes on, ... ... ... 118 

Anderson (Dr. J.), on the Mundas, ... ... ... 132 

„ (Mr. A.), on a New Kite, ... 134 

Aquila bifasciata, ... ... ... ... 173 

„ fulvescens, ... ... ... ... 173 

„ imperialis, ... ... ... ... 173 

„ mogilnik, ... ... 173 

„ nsevioides, "... ... ... ... 173 

„ vindhiana, ... ... ... ... 173 

Arjun Deo, Governor of Sonpat, ... ... ... 95 

Ashton (Rev. J. P.), Withdrawal of ... ... ... 88 

Atkinson (Mr. W. S.), Trustee for the Society, ... ... 29 

Auditors, Election of, ... ... ... ... 41 

Babar Inscription, from Sambhal, ... ... ... 90 

Bacillus, Notes on Species of, ... ... ... ... 148 

„ carinulatus, ... ... ... ... 149 

„ cunicularis, ... ... ... ... 149 

„ furcillatus, ... ... ... ... 149 



210 Index. 

Par/c 

Bacillus humilis, ... ... 149 

„ hyphereon, ... ... ... ••• 149 

„ insignis, ... ••• ••• ••• H'8 

„ Pentliesilea, ... ... ••• ••• 149 

„ ramosus, ... ••• ••• ••• 149 

Rossii, ... ... ... ••• 149 

„ scabriusculus, ... ... ... ••• 149 

„ scytale, ... ... ... ••• 149 

„ Westwoodi, ... ... 149 

Badaon, Inscriptions from, ... ... ••• 199 

Badaoni, Translation of, ... ••■ 91 

Baddibati, Wood dug out at, ... ... ... 78 

Badgley (Capt. W. F.), Election of, ... 155 

Balban, Inscriptions of, from Sonpat, ... ... ... 90, 9-1 

Ball (Mr. V.) , on Wolf-reared Children, ... 128 

Banerjea (Babii Satyadayala), Election of, ... ... 79 

„ (Babii Rangalala), on Identification of Aboriginal Races,... 82 

Bannagar, Pillar of, ... ... ... ... 87 

Barbak Shall, Rukn uddin Abul Mujahid, king of Bengal, 21 

Barclay (Mr. G. W.), Election of, ... ... ... 79 

Basbir uddin ( Sultan Muhammad) , Withdrawal of 172 

Bassein Temples (W. Berar), Photographs of, ... ... 66 

Batavia, Antiquities of, ... ... 153 

Bate (Rev. J. D.), Election of, ... ... ... 1 

Batrachia, Type specimens of, ... 110 

Bauris, of Bankurah, the ... ... ... 202 

Baxter (Dr. J. B.), Withdrawal of, ... 196 

Bay ley (the Hon. E. C), Notes on two coins from Kausambhi, ... 72, 82 

„ on two Muhammadan Gold Coins, 1S6, 202 

Bayne (Mr. R. R.), Election of, ... 16 

Beale (Mr. T. W.), Inscriptions from Agrah, Bianah and Ajmir, ... 159 

Beames (Mr. J.), on Chand's Grammar, ... ... IS 

on the Text of Chand, ... 122 

Bengal, Climate of, ... ... ... ... 178 

„ Invasion of, ... ... ... ... 19 

„ Sanscrit and Muhammadan Inscriptions from, ... 17 

Bhadu, festival of, ... ... ... ... 202 

Bianah, (Dist. Bhartpur), Inscriptions from, ... ... 159 

Bibliotheca Indica, Report on,... ... ... ... 31 

Bingham (Mr. C. T.), Election of, ... ... ... 155 

Bird (Mr. C. P.), Election cancelled, ... 1 



Index. 



211 



Birsingh Deo Bundela's temple at Mathura destroyed, 

Blackburn, (Mr. J.), Election of, 

Bladder Worms, Report on, 

Blanford (Mr, H. F.), on Stone Monuments, .. 

„ a Trustee for the Society, 

„ on Hugh Water, 

„ on tlie Climate of Bengal, 

„ (Mr. W. T.), Note on the genus Gymnops, 
Bligh (Mr. W. G.), Election of, 
Blissett (Mr. T. T.), Election of, 
Blochmann (Mr. H.), Notes on Bengal Coins, 

„ on Bengal Inscriptions, 

„ on Coin of Balban, 

„ on Coin of Firuz Shah, 

„ on Coins of Qutbuddin and Mu'izzuddin, 

„ on Inscriptions from Mathura, 

„ on Inscriptions from Rapri, 

„ on Inscriptions from Sonpat and Muradabad 

„ on Rustam Khan Dak'hini, ... 

„ on Shaikh Mina, 

„ on Sunargao /, ... 

Bourke (Mr. W. M.), inscriptions from Raj m ah all, 
Brihaddhevata, publication of. sanctioned. 
Brooks (Mr. W. E.), Contributions of, 
„ Notes on Eagles, 

„ on Certhiinse, 

„ on the genus Milvus, 

„ on Indian Eagles, 

Bu 'Ali Qalandar, of Panipat, 
Burmah, Archaeological Remains of, 
Burmese Algae, 

„ Palms, Notes on, 
Butler (Capt. J.), Re-election of, ... 

Cadell (Mr. A.), inscriptions from Muzaffarnagar District, . 
Cappel (Mr. A.), Election of, 
Carcinus mamas, exhibited, 
Carleton (Rev. Mr.), Coins from Rupur, 
Celt from the Narbada Valley, 
Certhiinto of India, Notes on the, 
Challenger, Expedition of the,... 
Champanagar (near Bhagalpur), inscriptions from, ... 



Page 
15 
195 
57, 01 
130 
29 
177 
178 
118 
155 
87 
89 
17 
93 
171 
155 
12 
150 
91 
£9 
11 
93 
90 
196 
55 
173 
175 
112 
118 
97 
87 
119 
lhG, 202 
155 
111 
79 
172 
155 
138 
175 
62 
200 



212 



In ilex. 



Chand Bardai, Grammar of, 
„ Edition of, 

„ Metrical Translation of, 

Chandangpha, of A'sain, invades Bengal, 
Chiromeles, 

Chokaliatu Burial Ground, Photographs of, ... 
Cholera, Microscopic Researches on, ... 
Chutia Nagpur, Rude Stone Monuments in, ... 
Coin Cabinet, Report on, 
Coin of Firuz Shah II, of Bengal, 
Coins, Bengal, notes on, 
„ gold, Muhammadan, 
„ Greek, Electrotypes of, 
„ from Kausambhi, Notes on, 
„ of Mu'izz, Balban, and Muhammad Tughluq,... 
„ of Mu'izzuddin Mubarak Shah, 
„ of Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah, ... 
Committees, Election of. 
Communications received, 
Council, Election of, 

„ Election of Members of, ... 
Couch (Sir R.), Withdrawal of, 
Cunningham (General A.), Inscriptions from, 

(Mr. D. D.), Election of, 
Curtoys (Mr. J. W.) , Withdrawal of, . . . 
Cynonycteris amplexicaudatus, 

„ minor, 

Cynopterus andamanensis, 
., marginatus, 

„ Sherzeri, 

Cyphocrania Enceladus, 

„ Goliath, 

Dalton (Col. E. T.), on Rude Stone Monuments in Chutia Nagpur 
Dames (M. L. Esq.), Election of, 
Darya Khan Lodi, 

„ Khan Shirwani, of Sonpat, 
Day (F.), on Indian Cyprinidae, 
Delmerick (Mr. J. G.), Inscriptions from Sonpat and Panipat, 

„ Inscriptions from Hariyana and .Nadayana 

„ Inscriptions from Panipat, 

Denison (Sir W.), Death of, 



Page 

90, 89 

122 

118 

19 

110 

130 

64 

130 

31 

171 

89 

91 

94 

82 

93 

155 

155 

155 

72, 90, 18, 134 

41 

88, 121, 196 

172, 197 

17, 138, 156, 197 

155 



79 

148 

148 

148 

148 

148 

150 

150 

130 

195 

96 

96 

54 

94 

102 

140 

28 



Index. 213 

Page 

Dennys (Mr. H. L.), Election of, ... 1 

Devagiri Rajahs, ... ... ... ... 71 

Dhotra (W. Berar), Temple at, ... 70 

Dihli, Inscriptions from, ... ... 158, 197 

Dimapur, (A'sam), Ruins of, ... ... ... 186, 202 

Dinajpur, Photographs of the Antiquities of, ... ... 75,87 

Diploplerna Berclmorei, ... ... ... ... 112 

„ pulchrum, ... ... ..*. ... 112 

Dobson (Dr. G. E.), on a Double-headed Snake, 23 

„ on Indian Pteropidae, ... ... 147 

„ on Molossi, ... ..- ... 110 

„ on Molossus (ISTyctinomus), ... ... 22 

„ on the genera Murina and Harpyiocephalus of 

Gray, ... ... ...90, 107 

„ on Vespertilio, ... ... ... 148 

Dotana near Mathura, ... ... ... 81 

Drummond (Col. H.), Election of, ... ... ... 1 

„ Election Cancelled, ... ... 64 

Durand (Mr. H. M.), Election of, ... 137 

Dutt (Babu Jogeschandra), Election of, ... ... 155 

„ (Babu Umeschandra) , Election of, ... ... ... 87 

Earthquake, in Kamrup, ... ... ... 65 

East African dialects, works in, ... ... ... 79 

Elliot (Mr. J.), Election of, ... ... ... 195 

Engystoma Berclmorei, ... ... ... ... 112 

Ethnology of Bengal, Col. Dalton's, ... ... ... 53 

Extatosoma tiaratum, ... ... ... ... 150 

Farid i Bukhari, Tomb of, at Dihli, ... ... ... 197 

Eath Shah, Jalal-uddin Abul Muzaffar, king of Bengal, 21 

Finance, Report on, ... ... ... ... 29 

Firuz Shah, 'Ala-uddin Abul Muzaffar, king of Bengal, ... ... 22 

Firuz Shah II of Bengal, Cast of a Coin of, ... ... 171 

Firuz Shah, Inscription of, at Dihli. ... ... ... 158 

Firuz Shah, Shams-uddin Abul Muzaffar, king of Bengal, ... 20 

Ford (Col. B.), Withdrawal of, ... 172 

Fraser (Capt. E. A.), Election of, ... ... ... 137 

Ganga Parshad, Inscriptions from Sambhal, Muradabad and Amroha, 90, 98 

Gamble (Mr. J. S.), Election of, ... ... ... 198 

Gastrell (Col. J. E.), a Trustee for the Society, 29,138 

Gauja Agrahar Sasana, Transcript of,... ... ... 75 

Geddes (Mr. J. C), Withdrawal of, ... 64 



211 



Index. 



Geoghegan (Mr J.)> Elected Member of Council, 

Ghiyasuddin Balban, ... 

G-hiyasuddin Tugbluq, Inscription at Mahoba, 

Ghosha (Pratapaehandra), on General Cunningbam's Inscriptions, 

„ on Sambalpur Inscription, 

Gill (Major), on Hemadpauti Temples in Berar, 
Godwin-Austen (Major H. H.), on Ruins of Dimapur, 
Goldstiicker (Prof. T.),- Death of, 
Gougb (Mr. A. E.), Withdrawal of, 
Griffith (Mr. R. T. H.), Withdrawal of, 
Growse (Mr. F. S.), Metrical Translations from Chand, 
„ on Mathura Inscriptions, 

„ on Popvdations of Dotana, near Matbura 

Gymnops, Notes on, 
Haematozoon, Report on, 
Haldar (Babu Rakkaldas), Withdrawal of, 
Harpyiocephalus, Notes on, 
Harting's system of Zoological nomenclature 
Hasan 'Ali Khan, Faujdar of Mathura, 
Haveli, district Jasar, identification of, 
Hector (the Rev. J.), Election of, 
Hemadpauti Temples in W. Berar, Notes on, 
History of the Portuguese in India, Authorities for the, 
Home (Mr. 0.), Death of, 
House Allowance granted, 
Houstoun (Mr. G. L.), Election of, ... 
Hughes (Mr. A. J.), Election of, 
Hugh Water, Filtration of, during the Rainy season, 
Husain Shah, 'Ala-uddin Abul Muzaffar, king of Bengal, 
Hyde (Col. H. E.), Elected President, 
Hylseocareinus Humei, 
Hylorana erythrsea, 
Ibadhi sect of 'Oman, Tenets of the, 
Ibrahim Lodi, Inscriptions of, from Sonpat, 
Index Geographicus, 
Inscription from 'Ahdurrashid's mosque in Matbura, 

„ copper-plate, from BaqLrganj, 

„ of Govindachandra, of Xanauj, 

Inscriptions from Jaunpur, Panipat and Muzaftarnagar, 
„ from Sarabala, Hariyana District, 

„ Persian and Hindustani from Mathura, 



Page 

196 

95 

156 

118 
90 
GO 
ISO, 202 
2s, 17 
1 
196 
118 
12 
81 
118 
56, (j^ 
1 
107 
111 
11 
90 
•91 
06 
150 
28, 47 
81 
1 
79 
175 
21 
88 
161 
111 
2 
90 
51 
16 
171 
150, 161 
138 
102 
12 



162, 



Index. 



215 



Jrage 

Inscriptions from Rapri, Mahoba. Dibli, Bianah, Ajmii* and Agrah, 156, 197 

„ Sanscrit and Mubammadan from Bengal, ... ... 17 

„ from Sonpat, Sambbal, Amrobab, Silhat and Rajmahall, 90, 91 

Muradabad,.. 99 

97 

11 

39 

160 

13 

1 

13 

5 

66 

19 

153 

117 

28,46 

121 

195 

22 

87 

31 

5 

20 

65 

200 

18 

113 

2 

3 

94 

5 

76 

186, 202 

28 

65 

161 

196 

196 

64 

56 



„ on tbe mosque of Rustam Khan Dak'hini 

„ on tbe tomb of Bii 'All Qalander Panipat, 

„ on tbe tomb of Shaikh Mina, Lakhnau, 

Institutions Excbanging Bublications, List of, 

Isma'il Beg's tomb at Agrah, 

Itawah, 'Abdunnabi Kban, Faujdar of, 

Ja'ad, Sheikh, unites the sects of the Ibadhis, 

Ja'far, Faujdar of Mathura, 

Jabmiyeh Sect, tbe, 

Jaipur Kotli (W. Berar), Temple at, 

Jaunpur. Inscription, ... 

Java, Hindu antiquities of, ... 

Jerdonia agricolensis, ... 

Jerdon (Dr. T. C), Death of, 

Johnston (Mr. J. W.), Election of, ... 

Jobore (Maharaja of), Election of, 

Johore, Molossus (Nyctinomus) from, 

Jones (Mr, F.), Election of, ... 

Journal, Report on, 

Kadiriyeh Sect, the, 

Kai Kaiis Ruknuddin, king of Bengal, 

Kamriip, Earthquake in, 

Kanauj, Inscription from, 

Kanis or Kansa, Hindu king of Bengal, 

Kaup's system of Zoological classification, 

Keshf-ul-Ghummeh, 

Kharijites, Doctrines of the, 

Khwajah Khizr Khan's Dargah, Sonpat, 

Khawarij Sect, the 

Koppa Gadde Sasanas, Transcript of, 

Kurz (Mr. S.), on Burmese Palms, 

Laidlay (Mr. J. W), Death of, 

Lamb (Major), on Earthquake in Kamrup, 

Land-crab from the Nicobar Islands, 

Lectures, Programme of, 

Lewin (Capt. T.), Withdrawal of, 

Lewis (Dr. T. 11.), Election of, 
„ Works of, ... 



21G Index. 

Parje ■ 
Library, Additions to the, ... 24, 72, 83, 91, 119, 131, 151, 1G3, 205 
„ Report on, ... ... ... ... 31 

Lonar (W. Berar), Temple and Lake at, ... 68 

Lonchodes insignis, ... ... ... ... 149 

„ pseudoporus, ... ... ... ... 149 

„ Bussellii, ... ... ... 119 

„ stilpnus, ... ... ••• ••• H9 

Lopaphus coccophagus, ... ... ... 150 

Lycodon aulicus, ... ... ... ••• 23 

Mackay (Mr. W.), Election of, ... ... ... 94 

Macroglossus spelaeus, ... ... ... ••• 148 

Macleod (Sir D. F.), Death of, ... ... ...28,47 

Mahkar, (W. Berar), Temple at, ... 68 

Mahmud Shah, Ghiyas-uddin Abul Muzaffar, king of Bengal, ... 22 

Mahmud Shah, Nasir-uddin Abul Mujahid, king of Bengal, ... 21 

Mahmud Shah, Nasir-uddin Abul Muzaffar, king of Bengal, ... 21 

Mahoba, Inscription from, ... ... 156 

Mainwaring (Col.), on the term Mun, Mwon or Mon, ... 133 

Marshall (Mr. C. W.), Election of, ... 137 

Marshall (Col. W. E.), Election of, ... ... ... 155 

Maryam Zamani, mother of Jahangir, ... 159 

Mathura, 'Abdunnabi Khan's Mosque at, ... ... 12 

„ Aurangzib's Crusade against, A. H. 10S0, ... ... 14 

„ called Islamabad, ... ... ... 15 

rebellion in, A. H. 1079, * ... 13 

Mayo (Rt. Hon. Earl), Death of, ... ... ... 28, 45 

McLeod (Dr. K.), Election of, ... 195 

Medlicott, (Mr. H. B.), on stone implement from the Narbada Valley, 138 

5J elected a Member of Council, ... 196 

Meeting, Annual, ... ... ... ... 27 

Monthly General, 1,64,75,87,93,121,137,153,171,195 

Megalophrys gigas, ... ... ... ... HI 

Melville (Capt. A. B.), Death of, ... ... ... 28 

Members, Election of, ... 1, 64, 79, 94 121, 137, 155, 195 

„ List of, ... ... ... ••• I 

Proposed, Ordinary, 1, 64, 79, 87, 94, 121, 137, 172, 195 

Withdrawal of, ... 1, 64, 79, 121, 156, 172, 196 

Meteorological Reports, ... ... ... ••• I 

Milvus, Mr. A. Anderson on the genus, ... ... 142 

„ affinis, ... ... ... 143 

„ govinda, ... ... ... ••• H3 



Index. 



217 



Milvus, major, ... 
„ melanotis, 
„ migrans, 
„ palustris, 
Mitra (Babu Rajendralala), on Kanauj Inscriptions, 

„ on Sarbal and Naraio inscriptions, 

Molossi, Asiatic Species of, ... 

Molossns (Nyctinomus), remarkable new species of, ... 
Mornab (Mnzaffarnagar), Mosque at, 
Moteyeb'zeb Sect, tbe, ... 
Mubammad 'ibn Tughluq, 
Mukerjea (N. C), on Bhadu and tbe Bauris, 
Mundas of Cbutia Nagpur, 
Mun or_M6n races of Pegu, 
Muqarrab Khan, of Panipat, ... 
Muradabad Mosque, Inscription from, 
Murina genus, Notes on the, ... 

Mursbid Quli Khan, Faujdar of Mathura, A. H. 1015, 
Museum, Report on, 
Mu'izz-uddin Mubarak Shah, Coin of, 
Muzaffarnagar, Inscriptions from, 

Muzaffar Shah, Shams-uddin Abul Nasr, king of Bengal, 
Mu'izz Balban, Coin of, 

Nadayana, near Indraprastha, Inscription from, 
Najd tribes, the, adopt Wahhabi religion, 
Naja tripudians, double headed, 
Newman (Dr. J. H.), Withdrawal of, 
Nicobarese Reptiles, Notes on, 
Nur-uddin Jahangir, Inscription at Bianah, ... 
Nusrat Shah, Nasir-uddin Abul Muzaffar, king of Bengal, 
Nyctinomus, 

„ insignis, 

„ plicatus, 

„ tragatus, ... 

,, Johorensis, 

O'Brien (Mr. B.), Election of, 
Observatory, Physical, for India, 
Officers, Report on the,... 
Oldham (Dr. T.) , President of the Society, ... 

„ Resignation of office of President, 

Olpherts (Mr. W. J.), Election of, 



Par/e 
143 
145 
145 
143 
L50, 161 
102 
110 
22 
142 
5 
199 
202 
132 
133 
97 
99 
107 
15 
28 
155 
141 
21 
93 
104 
4 
23 
64 
118 
159 
22 
110 
110 
22 
110 
22 
195 
60 
39 
40 
88 
155 



218 



Index. 



Oman, Ibulhi sect of, ... 

Paintings, restoration of, ... ... 

Palms of Burma, 

Panipat Inscriptions, 

Parker (Mr. J. C), Election of, 

Partridge (Dr. S. B.), elected a Member of Council, 

Passalidse, Monograph of the, 

Pedler ( Mr. A.), Election of, ... 

„ Member of the Physical Science and Liby 

Pegu, History of, 

Phasmidee Australian, exhibited by Mr. J. "Wood-Mason, 
Phayre (Major-General Sir A.), History of Pegu, 
Podacanthus Typhon, ... 
„ viridiroseus, 

President, Election of, ... 
Presentations, Receipt of, ... ... 61, 75, 

Pteropi, Indian, Notes on the, 
Pteropus medius, 

„ nicobaricus, ... 
P}^cnogonida, New Genus and species of, 
Qutb-uddin, Mubarak Shah, Coin of, ... 
Qutb-uddin Khan, Mosque of, at Badaon, 
Rana Liebigii, 
Rapri, Inscription from, 
Rawafidh sect, The, 
Report, Annual, 

Reptiles, Andamanese, and Nicobarese, Notes on, 
Rhopalorhynchus Kroyeri, 
Rivett-Carnac (Mr. H.), on Stone Monuments, 
Rizqullah Khan, of Panipat, ... 
Roberts (Rev. J.), Death of, 

Ross (Lieut.-Col.), on the Ibadhi sect of 'Oman, 
Rustam Khan Dak'hini, of Muradabad, 
Saif-uddin Abul Muzaffar, Firuz Shah (II), of Bengal, 
Salt-lake, at Lonar (W. Berar), 
Sambhal, Babar's Mosque at, ... 
Samogar, near Agrah, Battle of, 
Sarabala Inscription, Hariyana district, 
Satgam (W. Berar), Temples at, 
Saxton (Col. G. H.), Withdrawal of, 
Schlegel (Mr. F.), Election of, 





'Page 
2 




196 




186,202 




.97, 110 




155 




88 




112 




155 


. Com.,. 


173 




. 82, S8 




150 




. 82, 88 




150 




150 




40, S8 


87, 121, 


153, 171 




. 117 




. 117 




118 




110 




155 


... 


199 




. Ill 




150 




5 




27 




. 118 




110 




. 131 




97 




28 


... 


2 




99 




17L 




09 


... 


98 




12 




102 




71 


... 


121 




1 



Index. 219 

Page 

Secretaries, Election of, ... ... ... 40 

Sefatiyeh sect, The, ... ... ... ... 5 

Shah Jahan, Inscriptions of from Amrohah and Sambhal, ... 90 

Shah Jalal, Tomb of, at Silhat, ... 90 

Shaikh Mina, Inscription on the tomb of, at Lakhnau, ... 11 

Sherpur Bivarana, ... ... ... ... 64 

Shiah sect, The, ... ... ... ... 5 

Sikandar Shah, Abul Mujabid, king of Bengal, ... ... 20 

Sikandar Shah, Inscription of, at Dihli, ... ... 158 

Sinha Bahadur (Kumar Girischandra), Election of, ... ... 155 

Sirpur (W. Berar), Temple at, ... ... ... 67 

Siva Tal, Mathura, Inscription from, ... ... ... 16 

Smart (Mr. B. B.), Withdrawal of, ... ... ... 195 

Smith .(Mr. W. McL.), Elected Member of the Library and Phy- 
sical Science Committees, ... ... ... 88 

Snake, Double-headed, ... ... ... ... 23 

Sonpat, Inscriptions from, ... ... ... 94 

Spankie (Hon. E.), Withdrawal of, ... 195 

Stoliczka (Dr. F.) ; Contributions of, ... ... ... 55, 75 

„ on Anclamanese and Nicobarese Reptiles, ... 118 

„ on Indian Land Shells, ... ... 119 

„ on the Passalidse, ... ... ... 112 

„ Resignation of Nat. Hist. Secretaryship, ... 121 

„ Trustee for the Society, ... ... ... 29 

Stone Monuments in Chutia Nagpur,... ... ... 130 

Stubbs (Major F. W.), on Shaikh Mina inscription, ... ... 11 

Sunnargaon, Photographs of, ... ... ... 93 

Sykes (Col. W. H.), Death of,... ... 28,47 

Sylvia caligata, ... ... ... ... 147 

„ Rama, ... ... ... ... ... 147 

Taj -uddin Ahmad, of Mali oba, ... ... ... 157 

Tasmania, Meteorological Observations of, ... ... ... 64 

Theobald (Mr. W.), on Type specimens of Batrachia, ... 110 

„ on Unionidse, ... ... ... 162 

Tolbort (Mr. T. W. H.), on the Portuguese in India,... 150, 161 

Tonnerre (Dr. C. F.), Withdrawal of, ... 88 

Tribeni, Moscrne at, ... ... ... ... 118 

Tropidoderus Childreni, ... ... ... ... 150 

Tughril, 'Izz-uddin Abul Path, Governor of Lakhnauti, ... 20 

Turnbull (Mr. E.), Election of, ... 87 

Urmston (Mr. H. B.), Election of, ... ... ... 94 



220 Index. 

Page 

Van Cutsem (Mr. E.), Withdrawal of, ... 150 

Venus, Transit of, ... ... ... ... 59 

Vespertilio, harpia, ... ... ... ••• 107 

„ longipes, ... ... ... ... 110 

„ rnacropus, ... ... ... ... 110 

„ murinoides, ... ... ... 148 

„ murinus, ... ... ... ... 148 

„ new species of, from N. W. Himalaya, ... ... 148 

„ suillus, ... ... ... ... 107 

Vice-Presidents, Election of, ... ... ... 58 

Waagen (Dr.) Paleeontological discoveries of, ... ... 40 

Wace (Lieut. R.), Election of, ... ... ... 1 

Waldie (Dr. D.), on filtration of Hugli Water, during the rainy 

season, ... ... ... ... 175 

Weather Bulletins, from Washington, U. S., ... ... ... 78 

Weather Charts, ditto ditto, ... ... G4 

West Berar, Hemadpauti Temples in, ... ... ... 66 

Westland (Mr. J,), Member of Council, ... ... 121 

White (Mr. E.), Election of, ... 87 

Williams (Mr. H. C), Election of, ... ... 1 

Williams (Mr. G. R. C.), Election of, ... 94 

Wise (Dr. J.), Inscriptions from Silhat, ... ... 90 

Wolf-reared children, Notes on, ... ... ... 128 

Wood, dug out at Baddibati, near Hugli, ... ... 78 

Wood-Mason, (Mr. J.), appointed Natural History Secretary, ... 121 

„ Australian Phasmida; exhibited by, ... 150 

„ notes on species of Bacillus, ... ... 148 

„ specimen of Carcinus msenas, exhibited by, . . . 172 
„ on a new genus and species of Land-crabs 

from the Nicobar Islands,... ... 161 

„ on new genus and species of Pycnogonida, ... 110 

Woodrow (Mr. H.), Withdrawal of, ... ... ... 172 

Woodthorpe (Lieut. E. G.), Election of, ... ... ... 155 

Yarkand Mission, Suggestions for the, ... ... 122 

Yemen tribes, the, embrace Ibadhi religion, ... ... ... 4 

Yiisuf Shah, Shams-uddin Abul Muzaffar, king of Bengal, ... 21 

Zeller (Dr. G.), on Burmese Algse, ... ... ... 119 

Zoological classification, Kaup's system, ... ... 113 

Zoological nomenclature, Harting's system, ... ... ... 114 



Meteorological Observations. 



distract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1873. 

Latitude 22° 83' \" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34" East. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygronietrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





o ^ 


Range of the Barometer 
during t]ie day. 


Dry Bulb 
mometer. 


Range of theTe 
ture during the 


mnera- 
day. 


Dale. 
















_,FPct 








£ a 










53 * CO 


Max. 


Min. 


DifF. 




Max. 


Min. 


Dill. 




1— < += rt 

3. 








"^ 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Indies. 


Inches. 











o 


1 


29.923 


30.000 


29.860 


0.140 


65.8 


75.2 


58.5 


10.7 


2 


.922 


29.992 


.873 


.111 


60.5 


77.5 


58.0 


19.5 


3 


.873 


.934 


.809 


.125 


00.6 


73.0 


57.5 


20.5 


4 


.911 


.978 


.867 


.111 


67.3 


79.0 


58.2 


20.8 


6 


.907 


.991 


.835 


.156 


69.1 


79.8 


59.4 


20.4 


6 


.853 


.917 


.801 


.116 


71.5 


83.6 


61.5 


22.1 


7 


.818 


.903 


.805 


.098 


73.4 


84.0 


00.5 


17.5 


8 


.932 


30.005 


.857 


.118 


72.6 


81.0 


08.5 


12.5 


9 


.988 


.071 


.941 


.130 


03.3 


71.4 


57.5 


13.9 


10 


.952 


.037 


.886 


.151 


02.2 


71.5 


54.8 


10.7 


11 


.980 


.053 


.922 


.131 


01.5 


69.5 


54.7 


14.8 


12 


.996 


.069 


.931 


.135 


01.2 


71.5 


63.0 


18.5 


13 


.994 


.008 


.921 


.144 


62.1 


72.5 


53.5 


19.0 


14 


.970 


.060 


.920 


.140 


65.7 


78.5 


55.0 


23.5 


15 


.923 


29.983 


.865 


.US 


69.5 


80.3 


62.8 


17.5 


10 


.930 


30.012 


.857 


.155 


08.4 


78.0 


69.5 


18.5 


17 


.902 


29.981 


.818 


.133 


68.4 


78.7 


60.0 


18.7 


18 


.96 1 


30.039 


.905 


.134 


09.3 


80.0 


62.0 


18.0 


19 


.990 


.061 


.912 


.122 


71.5 


78.0 


07.7 


10.3 


20 


30.030 


.091 


.975 


.116 


69.9 


77.5 


64.0 


13.5 


21 


.070 


.160 


30.018 


.142 


70.0 


79.0 


02.5 


16.5 


22 


.075 


.155 


.010 


.145 


69.8 


77.5 


02.7 


14.8 


23 


.066 


.156 


.002 


.154 


69.8 


78.5 


62.7 


15.8 


24 


.033 


.123 


29.960 


.103 


70.1 


78.5 


03.2 


15.3 


25 


29.950 


.029 


.834 


.145 


70.7 


80.0 


61.9 


18.7 


26 


.918 


29.903 


.808 


.130 


71.2 


80.5 


05.4 


15.1 


27 


.933 


30.019 


.868 


.151 


68.7 


78.6 


G0.fi 


18.0 


28 


.963 


.046 


.907 


.139 


08.1 


77.3 


55.8 


21.5 


29 


.987 


.060 


.937 


,123 


67.5 


79.0 


58.7 


20.3 


30 


30.002 


.081 


.940 


.141 


07.9 


79.0 


58.0 


21.0 


31 


.017 


.101 


.971 


.130 


70.2 


82.0 


60.0 


22.0 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb. 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at tha- 
several hours during the day. 






Meteorological Observation*. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* 

taken at the Surveyor General's OjJ'iee, Calcutta, 
in the month of January 1873. 



Daily Moans, &e. of felie Observations and of 11 ie Hygronietrical elements 
dependent (hereon. — (Continued ) 





u 


■+a 


■+j 


1 


<V-i 

o 




'p ^ A 


• i z. 




<d 

rP 

H 




p 
'o 

P-+ 


ft 


CD 

u 


p, 03 
a cm 
f> O 




5 £ £ 


Date. 


P 
■+3 M 


o 
o 


CD 
P. 


> 
o 


•8 

o 

CO 


o o 

■^e2 

rP 


"8 -3 5 

k* CD cc 
r _ ( ** CD 


° ~ to 




CD 0) 


rQ 


Tj 


_ n 


rt £ 


"S ^Q 


rt "s "5 


5 : P 1 




S o 


^ 

« 


CD 
■+5 
P 


"3 a 


3§ 

B & 


a P 


c c^ 






C3 rj 

o p. 


b 


s 


fr£ 


c3 P 
CD t* 


^ Pi 


rP r" CD 


C3 — rt 

CD r O M 




% ' 


p 


o 


ft 


% 




«1 


fc=H 
3 




o 


o 





o 


Inelies. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


G0.7 


5.1 


56.6 


9.2 


0.467 


5.18 


1.86 


0.74 


2 


60.9 


5.6 


56.4 


10.1 


.464 


.14 


2.05 


.72 


3 


60.9 


5.7 


56.3 


10.3 


.462 


.13 


.08 


.71 


4 


59.9 


7.4 


54.0 


13.3 


.428 


4.73 


.64 


.64 


5 


G2.6 


6.5 


57.4 


11.7 


.480 


5.28 


.50 


.68 


6 


66.1 


5.4 


61.8 


9.7 


.555 


6.09 


.29 


.73 


7 


68.5 


4.9 


64.6 


8.8 


.600 


.66 


.21 


.75 


8 


68.8 


3.8 


05.8 


6.8 


.634 


.94 


1.72 


.80 


9 


55.4 


7.9 


48.3 


15.0 


.352 


3.93 


2,58 


.60 


30 


54.8 


7.4 


48.1 


34.1 


.350 


.91 


.38 


.62 


31 


53.8 


7.7 


46.9 


14.6 


.336 


.75 


.41 


.61 


32 


54.7 


6.5 


48.8 


12.4 


.358 


4.01 


.09 


.00 


23 


66.1 


60 


60.7 


11.4 


.382 


.28 


1.99 


.68 


34 


69.8 


5.9 


55.1 


10.6 


.444 


.93 


2.09 


.70 


35 


63.6 


5.9 


58.9 


10.6 


.504 


5.55 


.33 


.70 


16 


61.9 


6.5 


66.7 


11.7 


.409 


.16 


.46 


.08 


.17 


61.7 


6.7 


66.3 


12.1 


.462 


.10 


.52 


.67 


18 


66.5 


3.3 


63.9 


5.9 


.595 


6.55 


1.40 


.82 


39 


67.8 


3.7 


64.8 


6.7 


.613 


.73 


.65 


.80 


20 


65.0 


4.9 


61.1 


8.8 


.513 


6.97 


2.01 


.75 


2L 


64 6 


6.4 


60.3 


9.7 


.528 


.81 


.19 


.73 


22 


6-1.3 


5.5 


59.9 


9.9 


.521 


.73 


.22 


.72 


23 


64.5 


5.3 


GO. 3 


9.5 


.528 


.81 


.14 


.73 


24 


64.4 


5.7 


59.8 


10.3 


.520 


.71 


.32 


.71 


25 


65 


5.7 


60.4 


10.3 


.530 


.83 


.35 


.71 


2G 


65.5 


6.7 


60.9 


10.3 


.539 


.92 


.38 


.71 


27 


59.9 


8.8 


52.9 


15.8 


.412 


4.55 


3.14 


.59 


28 


57.4 


8.7 


50. i 


15.7 


.379 


.20 


2.90 


.59 


29 


59.1 


8.4 


52.4 


15.1 


.405 


.48 


.94 


.60 


SO 


60.2 


7.7 


51.0 


13.9 


.428 


.72 


.79 


.63 


31 1 


63.1 


7.1 


57.4 


12.8 


.480 


5.27 


.78 


.06 



All the Hygrometrical elements are computed Ivy the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observation ? 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 187 '6. 

Hourly Moans, &e. of the Observations and of the Hygronietrical elements 

dependent thereon. 



Hour. 



o ^ 

MS 



.Range of tiie Barometer 

for each hour during 

the month. 






M:i 



Mi 



Diff. 



*~1 H 



pq£ 


Eange of the Tempera" 
fcura for each hour 
during tlie month. 


fi 1 


Max. 


Min. Diff. 





Inches. 


Inches. 


Indies. 


Inches. 








1 

1 




o 


Mid- 


















Eight. 


29.967 


30.086 


29.853 


0.233 


64.2 


70.8 


57.0 


13.8 


1 


.956 


.077 


.836 


.241 


63.5 


70.5 


56.0 


14.5 


2 


•946 


.070 


.826 


.241 


62.8 


70.0 


55.5 


14.5 


3 


.936 


.056 


.817 


.239 


62.1 


69.6 


64.5 


15.1 


4 


.932 


.049 


.811 


.238 


61.5 


69.2 


64.0 


15.2 


5 


.912 


.062 


.815 


.247 


61.1 


69.0 


53.0 


16.0 


6 


.955 


.074 


.836 


.238 


60.5 


68.7 


63.0 


15.7 


7 


.975 


.094 


.858 


.236 


60.2 


68.5 


53.0 


15.5 


8 


30.001 


.124 


.871 


.253 


62.0 


69.7 


55.0 


14.7 


9 


.027 


.150 


.885 


.265 


65.6 


70.5 


59.5 


11.0 


10 


.037 


.160 


.903 


.257 


09.5 


73.5 


62.7 


10.8 


11 


.024 


.153 


.890 


.263 


72.3 


77.4 


65.0 


12.4 


Noon. 


29.995 


.125 


.868 


.257 


74.6 


80.6 


67.0 


13.6 


1 


.962 


.082 


.810 


.242 


76.2 


82.4 


68.6 


13.8 


2 


.933 


.050 


.815 


.235 


77-3 


8.3.7 


69.0 


14.7 


3 


.914 


.037 


.808 


.229 


77.8 


84.0 


69.5 


14.5 


4 


.907 


.029 


.805 


.224 


76.6 


82.5 


68.0 


14.5 


5 


.912 


.030 


.801 


.229 


75.2 


81.0 


60.8 


14.2 


6 


.923 


.041 


.826 


.215 


72.0 


77.6 


61,5 


13.1 


7 


.940 


.062 


.841 


.221 


70.1 


75.5 


62.5 


13.0 


8 


.960 


.072 


.861 


.211 


68.5 


73.5 


61.2 


12.3 


9 


.971 


.083 


.874 


.209 


67.1 


72.4 


59.5 


12.9 


10 


.982 


.098 


.882 


.216 


66.0 


71.5 


58.5 


13.0 


11 


.978 


.092 


.875 


.217 


65.2 


71.0 


58.0 


13.0 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month. 



IV 



Meleorological Observations, 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1873. 



Hourly Means, &e. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued). 



Hour 



Ther- 


CD 


+-5 

.3 
o 


o 


o 

o 
o 


rQ 


O 




05 


o 


13 


> 


£ 


t> 


<H 


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<u 


O 




w 




A 




-t-J 


« H 


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Tj 


-Q 


S3 . 


« a 


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pq 


P. 






« 2 


>> 


a 


>»5 


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&* 




o 
O 


Jb p-l 

p w 


S^ 



o .a 



P- o 



i S3 







13 ° 


-. 


"« — ft 


lete 

unit 


f M 




c3 © 


Pt H "S 


m - ■ a 


o 3,2 


Ti a J 

S t>Va 
5.13 § 

^2 ni '43 


Additi 

Tape 
comp 



Mid- 
night 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



60.8 
60.3 
59.8 
59.3 
58.8 
68.1 
6.80 
5.77 
5S.9 
60.6 
62.5 
63.2 



Noon. 


63.9 


1 


61.4 


2 


6 L.9 


3 


65.0 


4 


61.1 


5 


61.* 


6 


65.0 


7 


61,2 


8 


6:5.5 


9 


62.6 


10 


62.1 


11 


61.5 



3.1 
3.2 

3.0 
2.8 
2.7 
2.7 
2.5 
2.5 
3.1 
5.0 
7.0 
9.1 



10.7 

11.8 

12.1 

12.8 

12.2 

10.5 

7.0 

5.9 

5.0 

4.5 

3.9 

3.7 



57.7 
57.1 
57.1 
66.8 
66.1 
56.0 
55.7 
55.1 
5,3.1 
56.3 
56.9 
55.9 



56.1 
56.1 
56.2 
56.0 
55.9 
57.3 
59.4 
59.5 
69.5 
59.0 
59.0 
5S.5 



6.5 
6.1 

5.7 
5.3 
5.1 
5.1 
48 
4.8 
5.9 
9.0 
12.6 
16.4 



18.2 

20.1 

21.1 

21.8 

20.7 

17.9 

12.6 

10.6 

9.0 

8.1 

7.0 

6.7 



Inches. 

0.485 
.4S0 
.475 
.470 
.464 
.458 
.453 
.449 
.459 
.467 
.472 
.456 



.464 
.459 
.4(31 
.158 
.156 
.178 
.513 
.515 
.515 
.506 
.506 
.198 



T. gr. 

5.38 
.35 
.30 
.26 
.19 
.13 
.08 
.03 
.14 
.18 
.18 

4,99 



5.05 
4.99 
.99 
.95 
.91 
5.20 
.61 
.65 
.68 
.60 
.61 
.52 



T. gr. 

1.31 

.20 
.11 
.01 

0.97 
.95 
.89 
.88 

1.11 
.82 

2.70 

3.59 



4-15 
.67 
.99 

5.18 

4.83 
.17 

2.89 
.38 

1.97 
.72 
A7 
.39 



0.80 
.82 
.83 
.81 
.81 
.84 
.85 
.85 
.82 
.74 
.66 
.58 



.55 
.62 
.50 
.49 
.51 
.56 
.66 
.70 
.74 
.77 
.79 
.80 



All the Hygroinotrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the lie-suits of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General 3 s Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of January 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 





u 


<t> o 




<& - 


fee > . 




^ K 


c 073 




O o 


f3rQ P 


<o 


X £ 


d.-t^ in 1 


ft 


d * 

^ n 





Wind 



Prevailing 
direction. 









1 ^ 


>-> 


tA 












L5 °= 


C3 


O 


M <u 


ft 


13 


1 £ 




P- 



w General aspect of the Sky. 



1 



130.0 


2 


122.6 


S 


127.5 


4 


124.9 


6 


130.0 


6 


135.2 

- 


7 


139.0 


8 


127.0 


9 
10 


129.0 

128.0 


11 


124.7 


12 


122.0 


13 


122.2 


14 


131.2 


15 

16 


133.0 

128.5 


17 


129.6 


18 


124.0 



hicht 



\N NEA WN W 
j W N W & N W 

SSE&NW 
N W & W N Yv r 
W by S &W N W 

W by S & S S W 
S S W & W N W 

SbyWiNNTV 

IN" & N W 
S E, ENE & NW 

NNE&NN W 

NE&N W 

N N E & W by N 

[Variable 
W by N, W & 

s s w & w 

NE&ENE 

E N E & W by N 

S & W by S 



Miles 

74.8 33. Slightly foggy at midnight 

& 1 a. m., & from 7 to 10 r. m. 
50.5 B. Slightly foggy from 5 to 9 
a. m., & 7 to 10 p. M. 

49.7 B. Slightly foggyafc6& 7 a.m. 

6 from 7 to 10 p. m. 
B. Slightly foggy from 7 to 

9 p. M. 

79.9 B to 2 p. M., N i to 5 p. m. 
B to 11 p. 51. Slightly foggy from 
4 to 7 a. m., & 7 to 10 p. M. 

65.4 B. Slightly foggy at 6 a. m., 

7 to 8 p. m. 

43.0 B. Slightly foggy from 6 to 8 

A. M. 

71.3 B to 8 a. m. S to 12 a. m. B 

to 11 p.m., Slightly foggy from 
3 to 6 A. M. 
193.5 B. Slightly foggy at 7 & 8 p.m. 
61.9 B. Slightly foggy from 7 to 1 1 
p. m. 

94.4 B. Slightly foggy from mid- 
night to 3 A. M. 

450 B. Slightly foggy from 7 to 

11 P. M. 

33.0 B. Slightly foggy from mid- 
night to 3 at 6, 7 & 11 a. m., & 
from 7 to 9 p. m. 

30.0 B. Slightly foggy from 5 to 8 

A. M. 

143.8 B. Slightly foggy at 7 & 8 p. m. 

74.8 B. Slightly foggy at 10 & 11 

P. M. 

68.6 B. Slightly foggy at midnight 

& 1 A. M. 

36.2 B to 4 a. m. S to 11 a. m., ~i 
to 4 p. m. B to 11 p. m., Foggy 
from 4 to 9 a. m. 



v i Cirri, — i Strati, ^i Cumuli, \_i Cirro-strati, ^-i Cumulo-strati, w.i Nimbi, 
V.i Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
li rain, D drizzle. 



■{ Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hour!// Meteorological Observation* 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of January 1873. 









Solar Eadia 


ion. 


Weather, &c. 




u 

43 a 

o o 
a 




Wind. 




03 


Prevailing 


o 

1_J 'V. 




General aspect of the Sky. 


53 

n 


C3 Qg 


"3 ^;Z> 
m t-i 


direction. 








i o ilnches 




11) 


Miles 




19 


123.4 




NNE&NE 




51.3 


B to 5 A. M. S to 11 A. M., v_ i 
to 5 p.m. B to 11 p. m., Foggy 
from 3 to 10 a. m. 


20 


124.8 


... 


NE&ENE 




120.1 


\i to 2 a. m., V-d to p. m. 

to 7 P. m. B to 11 P. 51. 


21 


128.0 




EKE 




94,8 


B to 1 p. m., v_i to 6 p. m. 
B to 11 P. M. 


£2 


125.0 


... 


EHE4B 


• • • 


81.8 


B to 1 a. m., Vd to 8 a. jr. B 
to 11 a. M. v_i & °i to 5 p. M. 
B to 11 P. M. 


23 1 




S E & E by N 




4G.3 


Chiefly B. Slightly foggy from 














4 to 7 a. m. at 8 & p. m. 


24 


131.0 


... 


EbyN&NW 




31.8 


B. Slightly foggy from 5 to 
7 A. M. & 8 to 10 P. IT. 


25 


133.5 




RE&NNW 




33.2 


B to 12 a. m., \i & \_i to 6 
p.m. B to 11 p.m. Slightly foggy 
at 8 p. m. 


26 


133.0 


SE&NNW 




41.7 


B to 4 A. m. to 9 A. M. B to 














11 p. m., Foggy from 1 to 9 a. m. 














& 9 to 11 P. M. 


27 


133.8 




NNE&BrWW 




7S.1 


B. 


2 s 


130.2 




N N E & F N W 




101.4 


B. 


29 


131.2 




N by W& MW 




108.3 


B. 


SO 


128.0 


... 


Niwe w 




101.4 


B. Slightly foggy at 10 & 11 

P. M. 


SI 


133.0 




NWHE 




33.2 


B. Slightly foggy at 8 &9 p.m. 



\i Cirri,— i Strati, ~i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, r^_i Cumulo-strati, wi Nimbi, 
V* Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning , 
R. rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. 



vu 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Oljice, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of January 1873. 

Monthly Results. 



Mean height of the Barometer for the month 
Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 a. m. on the 21st 
Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 5 p. m. on the Gth 
Extreme range of the Barometer during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Pressures 
Ditto ditto Min. ditto 
Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month 



Indies. 
29.962 
30.160 
29.80L 

0.359 
30.038 
29.903 

0.135 



Mean Dry Bull) Thermometer for the month 
Max. Temperature occurred at 3 p. m. on the 7th 
Min. Temperature occurred at 5, 6 & 7 A. M, on the 12th 
Extreme range of the Temperature during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month 



o 

68.0 
81,(> 
53.0 
31.0 
77.9 
60.1 
17.8 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 



Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month 



. 61.8 

6.2 

. 56.8 

. 11.2 

Inches. 
. 0.470 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 5.19 

Additional Weight ot Vapour required for complete saturation ... 2.34 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.G9 



Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 



o 

128.8 



Rained No. day, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours ... 
Total amount of rain during the month 
Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month 
Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ,,, N. W. & N 



Inches. 

Nil 

Nil 



Nil 
N. W. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



Meteorological Obsena tion 3 . 



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Meleorologicul Observations. 



IX 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of February 1873. 

Latitude 22° 33' 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34" East. 

Height of the Cistern of tlie Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of tlie Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 







Range c 


f the Bai 


ometer 


£ _ 


Range 


of the Tempera- 






dm 


ing the d 


W- 




ture cl 


uring the 


day. 


Date. 
















» „ CO 


Max. 


Min. 


Diflf. 




Max. 


Min. 


DifF. 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 








o 


o 


1 


29.994 


30.082 


29.940 


0.142 


71.4 


82.4 


61.5 


20.9 


2 


30.036 


.114 


.957 


.157 


70.4 


78.7 


64.5 


14.2 


3 


.106 


.194 


30.049 


.145 


68.7 


78.5 


60.0 


18.5 


4 


.042 


.112 


29.966 


.146 


66.2 


74.6 


59.5 


15.1 


5 


29.972 


.060 


.891 


.169 


67.7 


79.4 


57.9 


21.5 


6 


.975 


.065 


.916 


.149 


69.4 


80.8 


59.0 


21.8 


7 


.982 


.057 


.939 


.118 


70.7 


82.0 


60.4 


21.6 


8 


.993 


.072 


.953 


.119 


72.8 


84.0 


63.0 


21.0 


9 


.918 


.018 


.884 


.134 


75.2 


86.5 


65.2 


21.3 


10 


.972 


.061 


.927 


.134 


74.8 


84,3 


67.5 


16. S 


11 


.960 


.039 


.908 


.131 


73.1 


84.3 


63.0 


21.3 


12 


30.005 


.102 


.915 


.157 


* 71.8 


83.0 


62.6 


20.4 


13 


29.998 


.092 


.935 


.157 


69.6 


81.5 


59.5 


22.0 


14 


.982 


.057 


.928 


.129 


69.9 


82.2 


58.5 


23.7 


15 


.976 


.067 


.911 


.156 


70.9 


83.2 


59.8 


23.4 


16 


.935 


.011 


.869 


.142 


71.8 


81.4 


60.5 


23.9 


17 


.945 


.011 


.890 


.121 


73.5 


86.5 


03.0 


23.5 


18 


.995 


.070 


.940 


.130 


75.5 


86.7 


66.0 


20.7 


19 


30.022 


.111 


.954 


.157 


75.7 


87.7 


05.5 


22.2 


20 


29.956 


.047 


.868 


.179 


76.6 


89.0 


66.5 


22.5 


2L 


.853 


29.923 


.783 


.140 


77.3 


8S.0 


68.0 


20.0 


22 


.869 


.958 


.810 


.148 


78.2 


88.3 


69.5 


18.8 


23 


.805 


.883 


.722 


.161 


79.7 


90.6 


73.3 


17.3 


24 


.745 


.807 


.686 


.121 


79.3 


91.3 


69.0 


22.3 


25 


.767 


.8-16 


.719 


.127 


80.6 


92.5 


72.0 


20.5 


26 


.772 


.852 


.723 


.129 


80.4 


92.4 


71.7 


20.7 


27 


.761 


.837 


.697 


.140 


81.3 


93.5 


73.0 


20.5 


28 


.808 


.901 


.718 


.186 


77.6 


86.7 


69.0 


17.7 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly ohservations, made at th® 
several hours during the day. 



Meteor o log ica I Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the man Hi of February 1873. 



Diiilj Means, &c. of the Obser rations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Con I 'nine J.) 





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Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


63.9 


7.5 


57.9 


13.5 


0.488 


5.34 


3.01 


0.04 


2 


62.4 


8.0 


56.0 


14.4 


.458 


.03 


.07 


.02 


3 


60.3 


8.4 


53.6 


15.1 


.422 


4.00 


.03 


.01 


4 


59.8 


6.4 


54.7 


11.5 


.438 


.85 


2.27 


.68 


6 


60.2 


7.5 


54.2 


13.5 


.431 


.75 


.71 


.64 


6 


61.6 


7.S 


55.4 


14.0 


.449 


.94 


.92 


.63 


7 


64.3 


6.4 


59.2 


11.5 


.509 


5.59 


.59 


.08 


8 


66.5 


6.3 


61.5 


11.3 


.550 


0.02 


.09 


.69 


9 


68.9 


6.3 


64.5 


10.7 


.607 


.01 


.76 


.71 


10 


65.8 


9.0 


59.5 


15.3 


.515 


5.01 


3.05 


.61 


11 


63.4 


9.7 


55.6 


17.5- 


.452 


4.94 


.85 


.56 


32 


61.0 


10.8 


52.4 


19.4 


.4i*5 


.44 


4,01 


.53 


33 


59.9 


9-7 


52.1 


17.5 


.401 


.42 


3.48 


.56 


14 


59.9 


10.0 


51.9 


18.0 


.398 


.39 


.59 


.55 


35 


60.9 


10.0 


52.9 


18.0 


.412 


.53 


.70 


.55 


36 


62.3 


9.7 


54.3 


17.5 


.4:12 


.73 


.72 


.56 


37 


66.9 


6.6 


62.3 


11.2 


.5(55 


0.17 


2.73 


.09 


38 


67.6 


7.9 


62.1 


13.4 


.501 


.11 


3.35 


.05 


39 


67.4 


8.3 


61.6 


14.1 


.552 


.00 


.51 


.03 


20 


67.7 


8.9 


61.5 


15.1 


.550 


5.98 


.79 


.01 


21 


69.0 


8.3 


63.2 


11,1 


.582 


6.31 


.67 


.03 


22 


70.7 


7.5 


65.4 


12.8 


.626 


.77 


.48 


.66 


23 


72.1 


7.3 


67.3 


12.4 


.000 


7.19 


.53 


.67 


21 


70.5 


8.8 


64.3 


15.0 


.603 


6.52 


4.07 


.02 


25 


74 6 


6.0 


70.4 


10.2 


.736 


7.94 


3.07 


.72 


20 


73.2 


7.2 


03.2 


12.2 


.080 


.40 


.54 


.08 


27 


72.8 


8.5 


66.8 


14.5 


.65 5 


.04 


4.20 


.63 


28 


64.9 


12.7 


56.0 


21.6 


.458 


4.95 


5.12 


.49 



Ail the Hygromefcrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations xi 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mo%th of February 1373. 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 



Hoi 



o " 

5 2^ 
cs PR co 



JRange of the Barometer 

for each hour during 

the month. 



Max. 



Min. 



Diff. 



PR B 

p a 

S3 jl 



Eange of the Tempera- 
ture for each hour 
during the month. 



Max. 



Min. 



Diff. 



Mid- 
night. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Noon 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



9 
10 
11 



inches. 


Inches. 


29.935 


30.107 


.927 


.101 


•918 


.090 


.908 


.078 


.907 


.074 


.921 


.081 


.940 


.102 


.957 


.125 


.981 


.159 


30.006 


.183 


.015 


.194 


.001 


.182 


29.975 


.117 


.944 


.119 


.913 


.085 


.892 


.067 


.881 


.057 


.881 


.049 


.890 


.057 


.902 


.076 


.921 


.097 


.935 


.107 


.9 32 


.110 


.937 


.111 



Inch 



29.73-8 
.729 
.723 
.718 
.723 
.730 
.735 
.751 
.733 
.801 
.807 
.798 



.770 
.737 
.708 
.696 
.686 
.686 
.688 
.711 
.710 
.757 
.763 
.717 



Inches. 



0.369 
.372 
.367 
.360 
.351 
.351 
.367 
.371 
.376 
.382 
.387 
.381 



.377 
.382 
.377 
.371 
.371 
.363 
.369 
.362 
.357 
.350 
.317 
.367 



69.3 
68.6 
67.8 
67.2 
66.5 
65.8 
65.2 
61,7 
67.0 
71.4 
75.7 
78.9 



81.5 
83.2 
81.4 
85.0 
84.6 
83.3 
79.7 
76.3 
71.3 
72.1 
71.3 
70.3 



77.5 
76.5 
75.6 
75.0 
71.7 
71.2 
73.5 
73.7 
75.0 
79.0 
83.0 
86.8 



89.1 
92.0 
93.2 
93.5 
92.4 
90.0 
86.1 
82.7 
80.1 
79.0 
78.5 
78.1 



62.2 
61.5 
60.5 
60.0 
59.5 
59.0 
58.5 
57.9 
60.5 
64.4 
66.4 
67.5 



60.0 
71.3 
73.3 
71,0 
74.6 
71.0 
70.5 
69.0 
67.0 
65.5 
61.0 
63.0 



15.3 
15.0 
15.1 
15.0 
15.2 
15.2 
15.0 
15.8 
31.5 
14.6 
16.6 
19.3 



20.4 
20.7 
19.9 
19.5 
17.8 
16.0 
15.9 
13.7 
13.4 
13.5 
14.5 
15.4 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month. 



Xll 



Meteorological Observation*. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of February 1873. 



Hourly Means, &c. of tlic Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued). 



Hour. 



pq 






P4 



& 



o 



fi 



p 



A' 



r3 



■g d 



c3 a> 

§ ^ 



£•-2 



Mid- 
night. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Noon 
1 
2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



65.1 
64.5 
64.0 
63.6 
63.1 
62.6 
62.0 
61.7 
63.0 
61.7 
66.1 
66.8 



67.1 

67.5 
67.9 
68.0 
67.8 
68.3 
68.9 
68.0 
67.2 
66.3 
66.1 
65.8 



4.2 
4.1 
3.8 
3.6 
3.4 
3.2 
3.2 
3.0 
4.0 
6.7 
9.0 
12.1 



14.4 

15.7 

16.5 

17.0 

16.8 

15.0 

10.8 

8.3 

7.1 

6.1 

5.2 

4.5 



61.7 
61.2 

61.0 
60.7 
60.4 
60.0 
59.4 
59.3 
59.8 
59.3 
59.4 
58.3 



57.0 
56.5 
56.3 
56.1 
56.0 
57.8 
61.3 
62.2 
62.2 
61.4 
61.9 
62.2 



7.6 

7.4 

6.8 

6.5 

6.1 

5.8 

5.8 

5.4 

7.2 

12'l 

16.3 

20.6 



24.5 
26.7 
28.1 
28.9 
2S.6 
25.5 
18.4 
14.1 
12.1 
11.0 
9.4 
8.1 



laches. 

0.554 
.544 
.541 
.536 
.330 
.523 
.513 
.511 
.520 
.511 
.513 
.494 



.473 

.465 
.462 
.459 
.458 
.486 
.546 
.563 
.563 
.548 
J.557 
.563 



T. gr. 

6.09 
.01 

5.98 
.92 
.88 
.80 
.69 
.68 
.75 
.60 
.58 



.08 

4.98 

.94 

.90 

.88 

6.20 

.90 

6.11 

.14 

.00 

.12 

.19 



1.74 

.66 

.50 

.43 

.31 

.24 

.22 

.12 

.55 

2.75 

3.93 

5.14 



623 

.91 

7.37 

.63 

.51 

6.73 

4.82 

3.58 

2.98 

.60 

.21 

1.89 



0.78 
.78 
.80 
.81 
.82 
.82 
.82 
.84 
.79 
.67 
.59 
.51 



.45 
.42 

.40 
.39 

.39 
.44 
.55 
.63 
.67 
.70 
.74 
.77 



All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the llesults of the Hour!// Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of February 1873. 



Solar Badiation. Weather, &c. 



R 



o o 



tr. > . 



Wind 



Prevailing 
direction. 







05 


t>a 




t-. " 


« 7 












R ^ 


P4 


P" 



p ^» ."S General aspect of the Sky. 



o 
l! 134.0 
2 131.2 



3 130.8 

4 125.0 

5 135.0 

6 133.3 

7 138.0 

8 138.0 



141.0 

135.0 

139.0 

136.5 
138.7 



14 135.0 

15 135.0 

16 140.5 
7 142.5 

144,0 
142.0 



N E & N W 
N W & N E 



N E 
N E & W by N 

W N W & N W 

N W 

W& WN W 

WNW&WbyN 

W S W & S S W 

N&NbyW 

NNE&N W 

NNE&NE 
NE&N W 

N W 

N W&ENE 
WNW&NUW 
W by S & S S W 

SS W 
W S W&NW 



0.2 
0.2 



Miles 

76.0 

9S.2 



126.5 
124.5 

G0.2 
44.4 
34.5 
26.5 

50.8 

102.6 

75.6 

101-4 
90.6 

102.9 

102.0 
79.0 
74.0 

84.5 
79.9 



B. 

B to 6 A. m. v_i to 10 A. M., 
B to 11 p. M. Slightly foggy from 
8 to 10 p. M 

B. to 2 p. m. \i to 6 p. m. B 
to 11 p. M., 

v_ i & \i to 1 a. m. B to 4 A. 
m. Vi to 9 a. m. S to 3 p. u. v_i 

to 6 P. M. B to 11 P. M. 

B. Slightly foggy from 7 to 9 
p. M. 

B. Slightly foggy at 7 & 8 a. 
m. & 8 & 9 r. m. 

B. Slightly foggy from 5 to 7 

A. 11. 

B. Slightly foggy at 5 & 6 a. 

B to 2 p. m., "i to 5 p. m. B 
to 11 p.m. Slightly foggy from 4 
to 7 A. M. 

B. Slightly foggy from 8 to 

11 P. M. 

B. Slightly foggy at midnight 
& 1 a. m., & from 8 to 10 p. m. 

B Foggy from 8 to 11 p. m. 

B Foggy from midnight to 6 a. 
m. 

B Slightly foggy at 9 & 10 p. 

M. 

B. 

B. Slightly foggy at 8 p. m. 
B to 3 p. m. \i to 7 p. m. B 
to 11 p. m. Foggy from 5 to 9 a. 

M. 

B to 8 a.m. M to 6 p.m. B to 
11 p.m. Foggy from 4 to 7 a.m. 
Chiefly \i. 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, ""i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, r ^-i Cumulo-strati, wi JN T imbi> 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, overcast, T thunder, L lightuiuS, 
R rain, D drizzle. 



XIV 



Meleorological Oh nervations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of February 1873. 

Solar Radiation, "Weather, &e. 







Oj «> 






-r > . 




5 c 






02 V3 


6 « = 


Oj 


*t3 


e ^ £ 


P 


% S 





Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



>. 










o 




fc^ 


V' 


— 


^ 






ai 








a; 


cS 


O 


r—. 




P 


<S3 




=- 




K- 



w 1 General aspect of the Sky. 



2i> 
21 

22 



o 
141.5 

142.8 

141.0 



23 142.2 



24 145.0 



25 



144.0 



26 145.0 

27 141.5 

28 138.0 



Inclu 



SS W 
W r by S 

W&SSW 

SSW&S 

W by jN t & W byS 

S 



s, sw&ssw 

SW&SbyW 
NbyW&WbyN 



Mile. 

S0.5 \i to 3 p. m. B toll p. sr. 
115.3 B to 8 a. m., \i to 11 a. jr. 

Vi to 8 p. m. B to 11 p.m. 
50. 8 B to 1 a. m. W to 7 a. M. B 
to 11 p. m. 

107.6 B to 2 a. m. \i to 4 a. m. S 
to 9 a. m. B to 11 p. ji. Foggy 
at 6 a. m. 

119.2 B. Slightly foggy from 3 to 7 

A. M. 

102.7 B to 4 a. m. S to 6 a. m.*B to 
2 p. m. v_i to 4 p. m. B to 11 p. 

M. 

183.5 B. 
252.2 B. 
199.7 B. 



\i Cirri,— i Strati, ~i Cumuli, V-i Cirro-strati, r^.i Cumulo-strati, wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, overcast, T thunder, L lightning 
H- rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. 



xv 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth oj February 1873. 

Monthly Results. 



Moan height of the Barometer for the month 
Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 a. m. oh the 3rd 
Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 & 5 P. M. on the 2ith 
JSirtreme range of the Barometer during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Pressures 
Ditto ditto Min. ditto 
Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month 



Inches. 
. 29.935 
. 30.194 

29.686 
, 0.508 
, 30.016 
. 29.872 
. 0.141 



Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month 
Max. Temperature occurred at 3 r. m. on the 27th 
Min. Temperature occurred at 7 a. m, on the 25th 
Extreme range of the Temperature during the mouth 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 

Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month 



o 
73.9 
93.5 
57.9 
35.6 
85.1 
61,6 
20.5 



. 65.7 

8.2 

60.0 

. 13.9 

Inches. 
. 0.523 



Troy grain. 
Mean "Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 5.71 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 3.30 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.6-i 



Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 



o 
13S.4 



Indies. 
Rained No. day, — Max. fall of rain during 21 hours ... ... Nil 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... Kil 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ,,, ,,, ... ]Vj"j2 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ,., N. W. & 3S". E. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



XVI 



Meteorological Observations, 



$ 
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Pi 
CD 


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r= 


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Meteorological Observations. 



xvu 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the wonl/t of March 1873. 

Latitude 22° 33' 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 31" East. 

Height of tlie Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrouietrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





o *-* 

+» t 3 • 

.5° 3 13 

W Jo 


Range of the Barometer 
during the day. 


Dry Bulb 
mometer. 


Range of the Tempera- 
ture during the day. 


Date. 
















_. R <N 








pi fc 










i s ro 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




Max. Min 


Diff. 




1 J " 
i — , ^ r: 








^H 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 





o 


o 


o 


1 


29.873 


29.959 


29.830 


0.129 


74.8 


86.4 


64.8 


21.6 


2 


.858 


.937 


.789 


.148 


75.7 


86.5 


66.0 


20.5 


3 


.830 


.885 


.774 


.111 


78.4 


88.3 


70.7 


17.6 


4 


.898 


.990 


.829 


.161 


77.0 


86.5 


68.5 


18.0 


5 


.892 


.972 


.818 


.154 


78.8 


88.0 


71.0 


17.0 


6 


.923 


.998 


.884 


.114 


72.7 


75.0 


70.0 


5.0 


7 


.85)1 


30.027 


.833 


.191 


74.9 


81.5 


68.0 


16.5 


8 


.887 


29.973 


.828 


.145 


72.7 


81.0 


66.6 


14.4 


9 


.954 


30.021 


.891 


.130 


72.3 


80.5 


65.0 


15.5 


10 


.951 


.030 


.8S0 


.150 


73.2 


83.5 


63.8 


19.7 


11 


.910 


.003 


.829 


.174 


75.9 


86.5 


67.0 


19.5 


12 


.856 


29.931 


.776 


.155 


79.1 


90.7 


69.3 


21.4 


13 


.815 


.889 


.747 


.142 


80.4 


89.8 


73.0 


16.8 


14 


.865 


.956 


.792 


.104 


77.4 


83.8 


73.0 


10.8 


15 


.902 


.979 


.839 


.140 


77.9 


89.0 


68.5 


20.5 


16 


.908 


.980 


.859 


.121 


79.5 


90.0 


71.2 


18.8 


17 


.908 


.989 


.835 


.154 


81.3 


91.6 


73.0 


18.6 


18 


.884 


.971 


.816 


.155 


80.8 


91.4 


72.0 


19.4 


19 


.823 


.901 


.744 


.160 


81.6 


93.5 


72.8 


20.7 


20 


.781 


.849 


.701 


.148 


82.8 


95.0 


74.5 


20.5 


21 


.803 


.878 


.731 


.147 


83.1 


91.7 


75.5 


19.2 


22 


.781 


.853 


.702 


.151 


81,6 


97.8 


75.0 


22.8 


23 


.780 


.843 


.705 


.138 


85.8 


99.0 


76.5 


22.5 


24 


.798 


.890 


.731 


.159 


85.8 


97.0 


77.0 


20.0 


25 


.822 


.915 


.756 


.159 


85.4 


95.0 


78.0 


17.0 


26 


.786 


.849 


.724 


.125 


81.7 


95.5 


77.6 


17.9 


27 


.792 


.863 


.724 


.139 


83.4 


92.2 


77.0 


15.2 


28 


.819 


.884 


.763 


.121 


83.4 


93.0 


76.0 


17.0 


29 


.896 


.968 


.833 


.135 


83.1 


92.4 


77.0 


15.4 


30 


.896 


A 71 


.822 


.152 


82.9 


93.2 


75.5 


17.7 


31 


.865 


.144 


.770 


.174 


84.3 


97.5 


75.7 


21.8 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at th# 

several hours during the day. 



XT1U 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly. Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

iu the mouth of March 1 b 7 3 . 



Daily Means, Sec. of tho Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — ( Cmi/ituied.) 























it 


-li 


■+J 


(e 


o 


o .£j 


o c ~ 


~ i 








d 
"S 


P 

0) 




C3 z^t 


Ti £ 2 


E 5 tA 

^i a 


Date. 


■+3 t- 


O 

o 


p 


> 
o 

-a 


o 

'-+3 

03 


c o 

-£ -S 


r— 1 ^ ® 


» p.g 

£ £ <5 




0> o 

a 


=1 

pq 


P. 






'5'rQ 


g = S 

c c ~, 
■t: ts' S 


tr. C -= 

* u a 

f- 1- 4-1 






b 


5 


b£ 


C3 «3 


<" a 


2< s 








p 


o 

o 


p 




i«5 


■aH 


— 1 










o 


o 


Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


62.S 


12.0 


54,4 


20.4 


0.434 


4.72 


4,54 


0.51 


2 


66.5 


9.2 


60.1 


15.6 


.525 


5.70 


3.81 


.60 


8 


71.9 


6.5 


67.3 


11.1 


.666 


7.21 


.10 


.70 


4 


69.1 


7.9 


63.6 


13.4 


.590 


6.40 


.49 


.65 


6 


72.0 


6.8 


67.2 


11.6 


.664 


7.17 


.27 


.69 


6 


68.6 


4,1 


63.3 


7.4 


.623 


6.83 


1.85 


.79 


7 


69.1 


5.8 


65.0 


9.9 


.617 


.73 


2.55 


.73 


8 


67.5 


5.2 


63.3 


9.4 


.584 


.39 


.29 


.74 


9 


610 


8.3 


57.4 


14.9 


.480 


5.25 


3.33 


.61 


30 


6 1. 7 


8.5 


57.9 


15.3 


.J St! 


.33 


.49 


.60 


11 


67.1 


8.8 


60.9 


15.0 


.539 


.86 


.71 


.61 


12 


71.7 


7.4 


66.5 


12.6 


.648 


7.00 


.53 


.67 


13 


74.0 


6.4 


69.5 


10.9 


.715 


.71 


.23 


.71 


14 


71.6 


5.8 


(J 7. 5 


9.9 


.670 


.27 


2.74 


.73 


15 


69.0 


8.9 


62.8 


15.1 


.574 


6.22 


3.94 


.61 


16 


69.9 


9.6 


63.2 


16.3 


.582 " 


.28 


4,38 


.59 


17 


70.0 


11.3 


62.1 


19.2 


.561 


.03 


5.21 


.54 


18 


70.0 


10.S 


62.4 


18.4 


.567 


.10 


4.97 


.55 


19 


72.5 


9.1 


66.1 


15.5 


.6 10 


.87 


.47 


.61 


20 


75.2 


7.G 


69.9 


12.9 


.725 


7.77 


3.98 


.66 


21 


76.7 


6.4 


72.2 


10.9 


.781 


8.36 


.50 


.71 


22 


75.9 


8.7 


69.8 


14.8 


.722 


7.71 


4.68 


.62 


23 


76.5 


9.3 


70.0 


15.8 


.727 


.74 


5.09 


.60 


21 


75.5 


10.3 


68.3 


17.5 


.68S 


.33 


.50 


.57 


25 


758 


9.6 


69.1 


16.3 


.706 


.53 


.15 


.59 


26 


74.1 


10.3 


67.2 


17.5 


.664 


.09 


.33 


.57 


27 


77.8 


5.6 


73.9 


9.5 


.824 


8.83 


3.13 


.74 


28 


77.6 


5.8 


73.5 


9.9 


.814 


.72 


.24 


.73 


29 


76.7 


6.4 


72.2 


10.9 


.781 


.36 


.50 


.71 


£0 


75.1 


7.8 


m.6 


1 3.3 


.717 


7.69 


4.10 


.65 


31 


75.8 


8.5 


69.8 


14.5 


.722 


.71 


•57 


.63 



AJ.1 the Hj'gronitjtrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



xix 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken, at the Surveyor General's OJjice, Calcutta, 

in the month of March 1ST 3. 

Hourly Means, &c. of tlie Observations and of the Hygvometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





o rt 


Bange 


:>f the Barometer 


p2 


Bange 


of the Tempera' 




3 £ +s 


for each hour ( 


uring 


pq 3 


lure 


for eacli 1 


lour 






tlio month 






durii 


g the month. 


Hour. 








fig 












Max. 


Min. 


DiiF. 


S-3 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 












Vr-l ETI 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 











o 


Mid- 


















night. 


29.864 


29.984 


29.794 


0.190 


75.3 


81.0 


67.6 


13.4 


1 


.853 


.975 


.781 


.194 


74.8 


81.0 


C6.8 


14,2 


2 


.843 


.965 


.768 


.197 


74.2 


80.8 


66.0 


14.8 


3 


.835 


.952 


.749 


.203 


73.7 


80.5 


C5.5 


15.0 


4 


.833 


.941 


.750 


.191 


73.2 


80.3 


65.0 


15.3 


5 


.850 


.952 


.762 


.190 


72.6 


80.0 


64.0 


16.0 


6 


.869 


.968 


.782 


.186 


72.1 


79.0 


63.S 


15.2 


7 


.888 


.980 


.803 


.177 


72.2 


78.0 


G3.9 


14,1 


8 


.916 


30.003 


.827 


.176 


74,6 


80.5 


67.5 


13.0 


9 


.933 


.023 


.843 


.180 


78.2 


84.1 


68.4 


15.7 


10 


.937 


.030 


.842 


.188 


81.4 


88.0 


72.0 


16.0 


11 


.926 


.022 


.831 


.191 


84.3 


91.8 


74.0 


17.3 


Noon. 


.901 


.004 


.802 


.202 


86.6 


94.5 


74.8 


]9.7 


1 


.867 


29.970 


.761 


.209 


88.1 


96.6 


73.7 


22.9 


2 


.837 


.947 


.736 


.211 


89.1 


98.0 


73.0 


25.0 


3 


.814 


.936 


.716 


.220 


89.6 


99.0 


73.5 


25.5 


4 


.801 


.924 


.701 


.223 


89.5 


99.0 


74,2 


24.8 


6 


.798 


.916 


.702 


.214 


87.9 


98.0 


75.0 


23.0 


6 


.805 


.925 


.723 


.202 


84.9 


93.0 


74,5 


18.5 


7 


.818 


.940 


.736 


.204 


81.8 


87.5 


73.6 


13.9 


8 


.841 


.966 


.767 


.199 


79.7 


85.3 


72.8 


12.5 


9 


.860 


.987 


.782 


.205 


78.3 


84.0 


71.3 


12.7 


10 


.873 


.997 


.805 


.192 


77.0 


82.4 


70.0 


12.4 


11 


.872 


.995 


.803 


.192 


76.1 


82.0 


68.9 


13.1 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means aro derived from the observations made at the several 
Lours during the mouth. 



XX 



"Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Result* of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Offwe, Calcutta, 

in the month of March 1S~3. 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued), 



Hour. 



EH 



m 






£ 



P3 



FM 



P 



O 



o 

mi 



en 
i' i 

a 1 



;-. "~~ 








o o • 

+= O 


Humi- 
satura- 

y- 




"53 .tJ ft 




bf, o 


?J to 


£ ~m 




cS « 


be a a 


9« 


dition 
apour 
>niplet 


^8j 



M ""d '+» 



Mid- 
night 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



71.8 
71.5 
71.3 
70.9 
70.6 
70.1 
69.7 
69.8 
71.0 
72.1 
72.5 
72.6 



Noon. 


72.2 


1 


72.2 


2 


72.1 


3 


72.0 


4 


72.1 


5 


72.2 


6 


73.0 


7 


72.8 


8 


72.8 


9 


72.6 


10 


72.5 


11 


72.3 



3.5 
3.3 

2.9 
2.8 
2.6 
2.5 
2.4 
2.4 
3.6 
6.1 
8.9 
11.7 



14.4 

15.9 

17.0 

17.6 

17.4 

15.7 

11.9 

9.0 

6.9 

5.7 

4.5 

3.8 



69.3 
69.2 
69.3 
68.9 
68.5 
68.1 
67.8 
67.9 
68.5 
67.8 
66.3 
64.4 



63.6 
62.7 
61.9 
61.4 
61.7 
62.8 
64.7 
66.5 
68.0 
68.6 
69.3 
69.6 



6.0 
5.6 

4.9 

4.8 

4.7 

4.5 

4.3 

4.3 

6.1 

10.4 

15.1 

19.9 



23.0 

25.4 

27.2 

28.2 

27.8 

25.1 

20.2 

15.3 

11.7 

9.7 

7.7 

6.5 



Indies. 

0.711 
.708 
.711 
.701 
.692 
.684 
.677 
.679 
.692 
.677 
.644 
.605 



.590 
.572 
.557 
.548 
.554 
.574 
.611 
.648 
.681 
.695 
.711 
.717 



T. gr. 

7.74 
.72 
.75 
.66 
.57 
.47 
.42 
.45 
.56 
.33 

6.49 
.47 



.27 
.08 

5.90 
.80 
.85 

6.10 
.53 
.97 

7.35 
.52' 
.70 
.79 



T. gr. 

1.66 

.54 

.31 

.30 

.25 

.19 

.11 

.10 

.64 

2.92 

4.33 

5.81 



687 

7.64 

8.22 

.53 

.44 

7.54 

5.96 

4,43 

3.37 

2.76' 

.19 

1.84 



0.82 
.83 
.85 
.86 
.86 
.86 
.87 
.87 
.82 
.72 
.62 
.53 



.48 
.44 
.42 
.41 
.41 
.45 
.52 
.61 
.69 
.73 
.78 
.81 



All theHygroinetrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteoroloyieal Ob.se r cations. 



Abstract of the Results of (lie Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of March 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather. <fec. 





ii <D 


ri • 


tr. > . 


^ a 


a o t* 






KrZ 


a ,+a U 




3*° 



Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



- 



cd O 
ft ^ 



General aspect of the Sky. 



o 


Inches 1 


139.5 




140.5 




142.5 




1. 139.5 


... 


141.3 






0.02 


137.5 


0.10 


i 138.2 


1.06 


136.5 




) 138.0 




139.0 




- 145.0 




144.0 




I 139.4 


... 


142.0 




144.0 

1 


... 



Variable. 

N JN W & S 
S 

S&S E 

S by E & S 
Variable. 



S & Variable. 



Variable. 



W, NW&NbyE 

[WN W 

E S E, E by N & 

E&N W 



S by W 
S S W 

S S W&N W 



S&S s w 

Variable. 



0.8 
0.5 



6.0 



2.8 



Miles 

75.6 

56.5 

122.8 

216.8 

90.9 
159.6 



96.2 
138.1 

109.4 

116.0 
75.5 



120-9 

148.8 

134.9 



146.1 
91.2 



B. 
B. 

B to 

to 1 1 p. 

B to 



v i to 4 p. m. B 



M., 



8 A. M. 

M. 

3 a. m., v_i to 2 p. 
Vi to Up. m. 

Clouds of different kinds, 

S. to 5 a M. O to 7 p. m., \_i 
to 9 p. m., M to 11 p. m. Slight- 
ly foggy at 11 p. m. Light R 
between 6 & 7, at 12 a. m., 2 
& 5f p. M. 

Clouds of different kinds. 
Tat 8i a m. Light 1{ between 
3 & 4 & at 9 a m. 

_S to a. m. O to 9 a. m., Vi & 
~i to 7 p.m. B to 1 1 p. m. High 
wind between If & 2 a.m. Slight- 
ly, foggy from 8 to 10 p. m. Light- 
ning from midnight to 2 a. m. E 
from 2^ to 7 a. m. 

B. 

B. 

B to 11 a. m., ~i to 3 p. m. B 
to 11 p. m. Slightly foggy from 
5 to 7 A. M. 

B. Slightly foggy at 6 a. m. 

B to 11 a. m., \i & ^i to 2 
p. m. B to 4 p. m., Vi to 11 p. m. 

B to 5 A. M., Vi to 10 A. M. O 
to 8 p m., Vi to 11 p m. Brisk 
wind at 2\ p M. D at 3| p m. 

\i to 4 am. B to 8" a M. \i 

tO 11 P M. 

O to 6 A M. \i to 10 A M. B 
to 6 P M. \i to 11 P M. 



\i Cirri,— i Strati, r - i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, ^ j Cumulo-strati, wi oN'imib, 
' Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning,' 
R rain, D drizzle. 



X2U1 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of March 1873. 



Solar Badiation, Weather, &c. 







0) 3> 




~ A 


tr c • 










o o 
go •.n 


Cr3 ^ 


n 




rH r— l 



Win p. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



rt © 



General aspect of the Sky. 



17 142.5 



18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
26 

2 

28 

2d 
30 



31 



(Indies 



142.0 
141.0 

140.2 

141.8 
145.0 
143.0 
144.5 
141.5 
140.0 
137.0 
139.0 

139.0 

138.8 



142.7 



S by E & E 



S,SSW&WIN T W 

s w & s 
s&sw 

S by W & S W 

S S E & S S W 

S,S W&N W 

W S W & S by TV 

Variable. 

S by W & S 

S & S by E 

S by E & S 

S 

S by E & S by W 



S by E & S 



0.4 

0.2 

0.2 

0.2 



0.2 



Mile. 
94.4 



104.8 
135.1 

246.8 

329.9 
115.2 
191.1 
1(55.5 
122.3 
137.8 
191.7 
216.7 

180.2 

173.1 



224. 



AM. v^i 

B to 11 



to 5 p m. B 

v_i to 4 pm. B 



\_i 



\i to 4 a m. Vi to 7 
to 2 r m. ^i to 6 p M. 

I' M. 

B. 

B to 3 p m. 

to 1 1 P M. 

B to 1 I' M 
tO 11 P M. 

Chiefly B. 

B. 

B. 

B. Foggy at 6 & 7 A. M. 

S to 6a. m. Bto 11 P. M. 

B. 

B. 

B to 6 A. 31. S to 10 A. M. B to 

11 P. M. 

B to 4 A. M. S to 8 A. M. B to 

11 P. M. 

B to 11 a. jr., clouds of dif- 
ferent kinds to 8 P. m. B to 11 
p. m. Fogsry from 5 to 7 a. m- 
T & Lat7 p. m. 

B. 



\i Cirri,— i Strati, ^i Cumuli, \— i Cirro-strati, <-\..i Cumulo-strati, wi Kimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S utratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning 
E- rain, D drizzle. 



Meleoro log 'tea I Observa tio ti s . 



xxlii 



Abstract of the Remits 0/ the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's OJjice, Calcutta, 

iu the mouth oj March 1873. 

Monthly Results. 



Mean height of the Barometer for tlie month 
Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 \. nr. on the 10th 
Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 p. m. on the 20th 
Extreme range of the Barometer during (he month 
Mean of the daily Max. Pressures 
Ditto ditto Min. ditto 
Mean daily range of the Barometer during the mouth ... 



Indies. 
29.860 
30.030 
29.701 

0.329 
29.939 
2i).792 

0.147 



Mean Dry Bull) Thermometer for the month 
Max. Temperature occurred at 3 & 4 y. ai. on the 23rd 
Min. Temperature occurred at G a. jr. on the 10th 
Extreme range of the Temperature during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month 



o 

79.8 
99.0 
63.8 
3.5.2 
90.0 
71.9 
18.1 



Mean Wet Bull) Thermometer for the month 

Mean Dry Bull) Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 



Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month 



. 71.8 

8.0 

. 66.2 

. 13.G 

Inches. 
. 0.642 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 6.92 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 3.83 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.64 



Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 



o 

110.8 



Indies. 
Pained 4 days. — Max. fall of rain during 21 hours ,., ... ].06 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 1.18 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... , ti 0.98 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ,,, S. & S. by E. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



XXIV 



Meteorological Observations, 



B<3 






fac .-£ 



=: 




*a 


b? 


?? 




£ 


= 


*<- 




'_ 


P 


S:' 




^ 








n-j 


rQ 


Q 




= 




<o 




$ 


cS 

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rtClM'flOShiXKO-' g H CI « ^ U5 O b « S O H 



Meteorological Observations. 



ixv 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in (lie month of April IS73. 

Latitude 22° 33' I" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34" East. 

Height of the Cistern of (lie Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, Sec. of the Observations and of the Ifygrometricul elements 

dependent thereon. 







Range 


>f the Barometer 


lulb 

1 


I? tinge 


of theTe 


nrpera- 




if. 5~ 


during the ( 


«■/■ 


H 3 


ture c 


tiring the 


day; 


Date 
















3j : J 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


rt - 


Mux. 


Min. 


Diff. 




3 








^ 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


O 








o 


1 


29.827 


29.912 


29.731 


0.181 


83.7 


94.7 


76.0 


18.7 


2 


.780 


.818 


.703 


.145 


83.6 


92.5 


76.0 


16.5 


8 


.743 


.821 


.651 


.170 


81.0 


94.0 


78.5 


15.5 


4 


.678 


.749 


.609 


.140 


84.6 


93.6 


78.0 


15.6 


5 


.692 


.752 


.631 


.121 


83.0 


87.0 


80.2 


6.8 


6 


.765 


.846 


.695 


.151 


82.9 


89.7 


77.5 


12.2 


7 


.839 


.901 


.765 


.136 


80.5 


87.3 


76.6 


10.7 


8 


.837 


.933 


.702 


.171 


81.0 


90.0 


74.5 


15.5 


9 


.780 


.860 


.692 


.168 


83.8 


94.0 


75.0 


19.0 


10 


.726 


.809 


.654 


.155 


86.1 


98.5 


77.8 


20.7 


11 


.619 


.699 


.522 


.177 


87.2 


102.0 


78.2 


23.8 


12 


.561 


.631 


.494 


.137 


89.3 


103.5 


78.6 


24.9 


13 


.609 


.683 


.551 


.132 


88.3 


101.9 


80.3 


21.6 


14 


.616 


.736 


.585 


.151 


88.1 


99.0 


82.0 


17.0 


15 


.653 


.726 


.591 


.132 


88.0 


99.7 


80.2 


19.5 


16 


.716 


.788 


.663 


.125 


87.6 


98.2 


81.9 


16.3 


17 


.751 


.815 


.694 


.121 


87.6 


99.7 


80.0 


19.7 


18 


.787 


.867 


.742 


.125 


85.9 


94.3 


77.5 


16.8 


19 


.862 


.974 


.787 


.187 


79.4 


87.4 


71.7 


15.7 


20 


.838 


.908 


.773 


.135 


77.1 


84.0 


73.0 


11.0 


21 


.783 


.848 


.714 


.131 


77.2 


85.5 


71.0 


145 


22 


.735 


.804 


.650 


.151 


82.1 


91.5 


72.6 


18.9 


23 


.732 


.816 


•6o4r~ 


r 1.62 
.is-', 


84.9 


93.5 


78.4 


15.1 


21 


.762 


.838 


.653 


85.0 


93.5 


77.8 


15.7 


25 


.751 


.828 


.661 


.167 


86.4 


94.3 


80.5 


13.8 


26 


.715 


.777 


.631 


\ .143 


86.7 


9(5.3 


81.0 


15.3 


27 


.697 


.762 


.015 


.147 


87.2 


96.0 


81.0 


15.0 


28 


.694 


.757 


.608 


.149 


81.2 


94,8 


73.5 


21.3 


29 


.729 


.818 


.665 


.153 


79.3 


84.2 


75.0 


9.2 


30 


.692 


.755 


.599 


.156 


80.4 


92.0 


76.0 


16.0 
1 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bn!b 
Thermometer Means are-derived, from the hourly observations, made at the 
solera! hours daring the day. 



XSVi 



TiJeteorohnneal Observations. 



'Abstract of the Ih'snlts of the Hourly Meteorological ()l/.n>r rati onto 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta <, 

in the mouth of April 1873. 



lenity Mentis, A'f. of tin 1 Observations iiikI of !!;<> ! ! )'gn miet riral elements 
dependent 1 hereon. — { ( 'onlltined.) 



Bale 






si 

o PI 



£ 



'3 
pq 



ft 



Ph 

|b 
o 

ft 

(B 
P. 

s 

O 

o 



ft 



ft. 3 

ft 



03 u 



C O 



-.a 



o o fl 
o -a g 

P 2*3 

— < ^ O 

g | s 

III 



i 5 

- .^ ta 

- - r 
gfij 
~ .- 3 





o 


o 


o 


1 

o 


Indies. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




3 


76.8 


6.9 


72.0 


11.7 


i 0.776 


8.30 


3.77 


0.69 


2 


77.1 


6.5 


72.5 


11.1 


.787 


.44 


.59 


.70 


3 


78.5 


5.5 


74.6 


9.4 


.813 


9.03 


.1 1 


.74 


4 


77.2 


7.1 


72.0 


12.6 


.776 


8.28 


4.11 


.67 


5 


78.0 


5.0 


74.5 


8.5 


.840 


9.01 


2.81 


.76 


6 


76.2 


6.7 


71.5 


11.4 


.763 


8.20 


3.59 


.70 


7 


75.5 


5.0 


72.0 


8.5 


.776 


.35 


2.63 


.76 


8 


75.4 


5.6 


71.5 


9.5 


.763 


.21 


.93 


.74 


9 


77.6 


6.2 


73.3 


10.5" 


.81 >9 


.65 


3.45 


.72 


30 


7S.8 


7.3 


73.7 


32.4 


.819 


.74 


4.21 


.68 


31 


79.7 


7.5 


75.2 


12.0 


.860 


9.15 


.22 


.68 


32 


78.9 


10.4 


72.7 


3 6.6 


.792 


8.38 


5.83 


.59 


33 


80.8 


7.5 


76.3 


12.0 


.890 


9.46 


4.34 


.69 


34 


81.8 


6.3 


78.0 


10.1 


.940 


.99 


3.73 


.73 


35 


81.4 


6.6 


77.4 


10.6 


.922 


.79 


.89 


.72 


36 


80.6 


7.0 


76.4 


11.2 


.893 


.51 


4.01 


.70 


37 


80.1 


7.5 


75.6 


12.0 


.871 


.25 


.27 


.68 


38 


79.8 


6.1 


75.5 


10.4 


.868 


.27 


3.60 


.72 


39 


74.9 


4.5 


71.7 


7.7 


./GO 


8.30 


2.32 


.78 


20 


73.5 


3.6 


71.0 


6.1 


.751 ■ 


.15 


1.77 


.82 


2L 


73.1 


4.1 


7o.2 


7.0 


.732 


7.94. 


2.01 


.80 


22 


76.0 


6.1 


71.7 


10.4, 


.768 


8.26 


3.25 


.72 


23 


80.1 


4.8 


76.7 


8.2 1 


.902 


9.64 


2.85 


.77 


21 


79.4 j 


5.6 


75.5 


9.5 


Ms 

.H7i» 


.27 


3.26 


.74 


25 


80.2 


6.2 


75.9 


10.5 


.36 


.70 


.72 


2 a 


80.4 1 


6.3 


76.6 


30.1 


.899 


-.56 


.62 


.73 


27 


81.2 


6.0 


77.6 


9.6 


.928 


.87- 


.50. 


.74 


28 


78.5 


5.7 


74.5 


9.7 


.840 


.00 


.24 


.74 


29 


75.1 


4.2 


72.2 


7.1 


.781 


8 .43 


2.16 


.80 


30 1 

1 

• • i 


76.6 


3.8 


73.9 


6.5 


.824 


.88 j 

1 


.06 


.81 



Ail the Hygroinetrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Obser cations 



xxvu 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Snrrct/or (HeiteraVs Office, Calcutta, 

i it ih c m o a th of Jjj ril 1 8 1 b . 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Ifygi'onietrical elements 

dependent thereon. 



'Z ~ s- 

ifo.tr - 1 Hn 



J'auge of the Barometer 

for each hour during 

tlie month. 



Max. 



Min. PiH'. 



o 

jz ° 

p s 



Bange of the Tempera- 
t ure for each hour 
duriii<r the month. 



Max. .' Min. : Dill". 



hie 



Tnches. I Inches, hiches. 



Mid- 






night. 


29.745 


21) 


1 


.7:55 




2 


.723 




3 


.711 




4 


.710 




- 


799 










6 


.740 




7 


.761 




8 


.787 




9 


.707 




10 


.802 




11 


.787 





Noon. 

1 
.2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



.771 
.712 
.712 
.(387 
.673 
.666 
.(177 
.691 
.717 
.739 
.753 
.082 



.870 
.853 
.811 
.826 
.838 
.851 
.870 
.957 
.974 
.938 
42 
.922 



.892 
.881 
.857 
.819 
.835 
.825 
.851 
.833 
.810 
.801 
.878 
.873 



29.500 
.515 
.529 
.518 
.529 
.511 
.572 
.598 
.020 
.025 
.031 
.022 



.002 
.574 
.551 
.520 

.503 
.491 

.191 







.581 
.5SQ 

.'71 



.310 
,308 
312 
308 
309 
307 
304 
359 
354 
313 
311 
3U0 



.290 
.307 
.300 
.323 
.330 
.331 

.:;:,; 

.320 

.2H2 

.280 

fc.298 

.299 



80.1 
79.8 
79.3 
79.0 

78.0 
78.4 
78.2 
78.8 
81.0 
83.9 
86.6 
88.9 



90.8 
92.2 
93.0 
92.7 
91.6 
89.7 
86.8 
84.5 
82.7 
81.8 
81.1 
80.4 



83.5 

83.2 
82.8 
82.4 
82.0 
82.2 
82.0 
82.5 
85.0 
88.0 
91.7 
95.5 



98.5 

100.0 

102.5 

103.4 

103.5 

102.0 

975 

93.0 

88.4 

80.7 

85 I 

81.0 



72.7 
72.4 
71.8 
715 
71.3 
7 1 .0 
71.0 
71 5 
72.0 
73.1 
75.0 
70.7 



76.3 
80.0 
80.5 
717 
732 
75.0 
735 
75.0 
715 
74.0 
715 
73.0 



10. s 
10.8 
11.0 
10.9 
10.7 
11.2 
110 
11.0 
13.0 
1-1.9 
10. 1 
18.8 



22 2 

20. 
22.0 
28.7- 
30.3 
27.0 
21.0 
18.0 
13.9 
12.7 
10:9 
11.6 



Tlie Mean Height of the Barometer,, as likewise the DryandAYel Ihi'b 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during, the mouth. 



XX.V1U 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hour/// Meteorological Observation* 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of Ajjril 1 S73. 



Hourly Moans, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued) . 





i 

v 




a 


St 


o 




*c 3 • 

eJ3 Z 


"Z 3 




M 
H 


£ 


"3 


P 




r- 3 




*■** '■}. >. 




-S3 


0/ 




o 


o 


«_ w 


•g f-i t. 




Hour. 


13 


Q 




> 

o 

c-3 


'-3 


C o 

fcf: u 




o :'5 
a, -j 




Ci I- 


,£) 


^ 


,a 


ri . 


'S 3 


2 r 2 


tr e 2 




g a 
£5 


pq 

P 


P. 

s 

c 
O 


t>>'3 
P M 


W 3 - 
„ O 


r3 


"3 o 'pi 


















Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




Mid- 


















night.. 


77.1 


3.0 


75.0 


5.1 


0.3.54 


9.22 


1.62 


0.85 


1 


76.8 


3.0 


74.7 


5.1 


.8-16 


.14 


.61 


.85 


2 


76.6 


2.7 


74.7 


4.6 


.816 


.14 


.15 


.86 


3 


76.4 


2.6 


74.6 


4.4 


.813 


.13 


.87 


.87 


4 


76.2 


2.4 


74.5 


4.1 


.810 


.11 


.27 


.88 


6 


76. L 


2.3 


74.5 


3.9 


.810 


.11 


.20 


.88 


6 


76.1 


2.1 


74.6 


3.6 


.813 


.12 


.13 


.89 


7 


76.5 


2.3 


74.9 


3.9 


.851 


.21 


.23 


.88 


8 


77.6 


8.4 


75 2 


5.8 


.860 


.21 


.90 


.83 


9 


78.7 


5.2 


75.1 


8.8 


.857 


.17 


2.96 


.76 


10 


79.4 


72 


75.1 


11.5 


.857 


.12 


4.02 


.69 


11 


79.9 


9.0 


74.5 


14.4 


.840 


8.92 


5.12 


.64 


Noon. 


80.0 


10.8 


73.5 


17.3 


.814 


.60 


6 24 


.57 


1 


80.4 


11.8 


73.3 


18.9 


.809 


.50 


.95 


.55 


2 


80.6 


12.4 


73.2 


19.8 


.806 


.46 


7.35 


.54 


3 


80.3 


12.4 


72.9 


19 8 


.797 


.38 


.30 


.53 


4 


79.8 


11.8 


72.7 


18v9 


.792 


.35 


6.84 


.55 


6 


79.1 


10.6 


72.7 


17.0 


.792 


.38 


5.99 


.58 


6 


73.7 


8.1 


73.8 


13.0^ 


.822 


.75 


4.46 


.66 


7 


7S.3 


6.2 


74.0 


10.5 


!$27 


.81 


3.51 


.72 


8 


77.7 


5.0 


74.2 


8.5 


.832 


.93 


2.79 


.76 


9 


77.8 


40 


75.0 


6.8 


.854 


9.18 


.22 


.81 


10 


77.4 


3.7 


74.8 


6.3 


.849 


.15 


.02 


.82 


11 


77.1 


3.3 


74.8 


5.6 


.819 


.15 


1.79 


.84 



All tkeHygrometrical elements are computed l>v the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of (lie Ilesnlts of (lie Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of Aj.ril 1873. 

Solar Jiiuliiitioii, Weather, &c. 



Wind. 



* I x •.§ a -J. 2 ! Prevailing 

= \~ 5 i'~~0, direction. 



"US c 



General aspect of the Sky. 



1 138.0 

2 137.S 

3 142.0 
4. I3J.2 

5 120.0 

I 

6 129.0 

7 122.0 

8 113.0 

9 110.1 



10 113.5 

11 149.5 

12 151.5 

13 143.0 

14 145.7 

15 145.3 

I 

16 112.8 

17 144.0 

18 143.6 



19 115.2 



20 113.8 



Inches 



0.20 



S by W & S 

S & S by E 
S, 8 by \Y ASSWj . 
S 8 W & s 

SSWAS 

s & s s w 

S by E & S 
S S W & S by E 

SbyE,SbyW&S 



s s w&sw 

S W & S S W 0.1 



Miles 
199.0 

I 203.5 
260.5 

271.7 

287.1 

179.2 

88.5 
123.8 

157.8 i 



S 8 TV & S W 
S W & S S W 

S 8 W & 8 by Vv 

s s w 

S8W4S 

s w&s 
ssw&s 



SE&SSW 



0.2 
J. 5 
0.2 

0.2 



1.3 
3.3 



9.2 



X -? 



1.02 S S E & Variable. 0.8 



B to 2 a.m., \i to 1 a.m. B to 
3 p.m., i to 8 p. si. B to 11 p.m. 

B to 5 a. m., x i to 1 1 p. m. 

\i to! i'.M.,Vi & \i to 11 p.m. 
i to 5 A. m., \-i to 11 A. M., 
i\i to 4 i\ m., V-i to 11 p. m. 

O to 5 a. m. 8 to 7 p. m. O to 

11 P.M. 

to 10 a. M. S to 6 p. m., Vi 

to 11 P. M. 

Chiefly O. 

Vi to 8 A. M. O to 12 A. M., 

Vi to 7 p. m. B to 11 p. m. 

B tO 6 A. M.. Vi to lit A. M. 



2:i2.3 
262. 1 
2452 

151.2 

221.0 

220.1 

200.7 
200.3 
258.3 



322.1 



B to 12 
i to 7 v. m 



15 u 



Vi to 4 p 

1 1 r. m. 



B. 

B. 

B. 

Chiefly B. 

Scuds to 9 a. m. B to 9 p. m. 

Scuds to 1 1 P. M. 

Scuds to 8 A. M. B to 1 P.M.," 1 ! to 

I P.M. B to 8 p.m., ^i to 11 p. M. 
Vi to 10 A. M. B tO 11 P. M. 
Chiefly B. 

Chiefly Vi Brisk wind from 

II a. m. to 11 p. m. Latl0& 
11 p. m. D at 10 p. m. 

'" i & Vi to 6 a. m. O to 3 p. m. 
V-i to 7 p. m., S to 11 p. m. 
High wind from 6| to 1\ a. m. 
L at midnight and from 9 to 
1 1 P. m .T at 6f and 7i a. m. 
Slight E from 6^ to 9 a. m. 

8 to 7 A. M., O and VN_i to 
11 p. M. T and E from 11 a. m. 
to 1 p. m. 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, ^ i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, ^ i Cumulo-strati, wi Nimib, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, 8 stratoni, overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
E rain, D drizzle. 



XXX 



"Meteorological Obserra/iank. 



Abstract of the llexnllz of the Hour!// Meteorological Observation* 

taken al (he Surveyor (leiicrii/'s OJJice, Calctilta, 

in (he month of Apr. I |s?.'3. 



Solar lindiuti 



Wl-BtlliT, &< 





^ 


c 0) 
















o o 


— -^ ' 3 | 


• 


75 


cB* 1 


4i 




J -:,P 



Wind 



Prevailing 
direction. 



~~ General aspect of the Sky. 






2ll 132.0 



22 137.0 

23 139.0 



Indies 
0.15 



24 140.2 

25 141.0 

26 145.5 

27 142.0 

28 148.0 



... 



21* 



30 



133.8 



142.7 



0.40 



0.0/ 



N E &, Variable. 

S 
S S W & S 

S E & S 
S by E & S by Y\ 

S by E & S 
S S E. S & S by I 

S & S by E 

E 

S S E & E by S 



11. - Mile. 
0.5 ; 185.7 



0.9 146.5 

3.0 30U.0 



1.0 252.5 
2.0 ' 297.0 



2.3 



!75.5 



1.7 298.5 
30.4 278.8 



3.5 273.3 






2.9 



151.3 



\_i to 1 A. M., O to 9 A. m . , <~ i 
to 5 p. m.. B to 1 1 p. si. T at 3 
a. m. Lat 2 and 3 a. m. Slight 
K from 2 to 5 and at 8 a. m. 

Chiefly B. 

B i<> 7 a.m., Scuds and >_ i to 1 
p. m. 13 to 11 v. m. Brisk wind 
from 8 to 1 H A. M., L on Kal 8 
p. m. D between 9 and 10 p. m. 

11 to 7 a. m., -\ to 2 p. J!., 
clouds of different kind to! 1 p.m. 
Li on N E between 7 and 8 p. m. 

Clouds of different kinds. 
Brisk wind from 3i to G | p. m. 
L between S and 9 P. M. 

Scuds to 4 a. M.. Vi to 8 a. m., 
B to 3 p. M., v-i to 11 p. m. 
Brisk wind from li to 8 p. M. 

Sends to 9 a. m.. B to 1 1 p. m. 
Brisk wind from 2j to 6 p. m., 
T at 6 p. m. 

Scuds to 3 A. M., W to 8 A. M. 
-i to 4 p. M., O to 1 1 p. m. 
Violent strom from 5 j to Of p.m. 
Tat 5, 6, 10 and 11 P. M. L 
from G to 11 p. m., E at G and 
between 10 and 11 r. M. 

O to 12 a.m., clouds of different 
kinds to 1 1 p. M. High wind from 

to 10^ a. m., T at midnight, 
10 .V a. M.. and 2i p. m. L at 
midnight. Slight E between mid- 
night and 1 and 10 and 11 a. m. 

B to 4 a. m., S to 8 a. m., ^i 
to 4 p. m., S fo 9 p. m., B to 
1-1 p. m. Brisk wind between 
4i- and 5| p. m., T from 4 to 
G p. M.j D at2i and 41 p. m. 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, ^~i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, ^_i Cmmdo-strati, wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning 
R. rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. w\\ 

Abstract of I lie Results of (lie Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of April 1873. 

Monthly Kksui.ts. 



Mean height of Hie Barometer for Llie month 
Max. Iieigiit of the Barometer occurred at 8 a. m. oii tlie 19th 
Blin. height of the Barometer occurred at 5 & ii p. si. ou the 12th 
Extreme range of the Barometer during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Pressures 
Ditto ditto IM in. ditto 
JUean daily range of the Barometer during the month 



Inches. 

29.738 

29.974 

29.494 

0.480 

29.809 

29. 658 

0.151 



Menu Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month 
Max. Temperature occurred at I >>. m. on the 12th 
Min. Temperature occurred at 5 & 6 a. m, on the 21st 
Extreme range of the Temperature during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month 



o 
84.2 
103.5 
71.0 
32.5 
93.8 
77.3 
10.5 



Mean Wet Bull) Thermometer for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 

Computed Mean Dew- point for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 

Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month 



. 78.1 
0.1 

73.8 
. 10.4 

Inches. 
. 0.822 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 8.80 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 3.44 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.72 



Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 



o 
138.3 



Inches. 
Eained 8 days. — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours ... ... 1.02 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 1.84 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... ifi ... 1.58 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ,., ... S. S. W & S. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground, 



Meteorological Olsercatiom 



C<3 


r< 

4) 

tr 


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& 

5 

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a> 
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In 
to 

a 

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b'r. 



co 

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3 
a 

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a> 

s 



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Pi 
O 
m 

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O 

U 
O 

^0 

5 
c 


■110 uivy 




~ 






CO 


1IO Ullljf 

■UO UIU}{ 
UO UIUJJ 


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r-c H-( rH CO 


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CO CO St 01 <M CO 10 J.^ 00 33 CC 


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CI 


i-l 01 r-l 1-1 01 




rH rH 01 Ol rH r-, 


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sl 


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•jkl *q "a 

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•uo uiuji 




r-l Ol r-l i-l rH 


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rH Ol r— rH rH 




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rH01C0-r3 > l0C0t>00C»O-H 



Meteorological Obsen,. 



xxxm 



Abstract of the Uesidls of (he Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at tke Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of May 1^73. 

Latitude l%° 33' 1" North. Longitude SS° 20' 31." East. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygromctrieal elements 

dependent thereon. 





O ^ 


Bange of the Bai 
during the d 


•omcter 


£1 


Bange of the Te 

lure during the 


npera- 

day. 


Date. 


— - — . 
I — _■.;' t 








S 'r 1 










H . CO 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


£j 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




y+a OS 








- H 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 





o 





o 


1 


29.6G2 


29.737 


29.553 


0.184 


82.7 


93.0 


75.5 


17.5 


2 


.6 i 1 


.697 


.579 


.118 


83.7 


92.4 


76.0 


16.4 


3 


.668 


.735 


.579 


.156 


84.0 


91.7 


72.2 


22.5 


4 


.771 


.833 


.723 


.110 


75.6 


90.5 


71.0 


19.5 


5 


.839 


.927 


.770 


.157 


79.1 


88.0 


71.0 


17.0 


6 


.864 


.933 


.785 


.148 


79.6 


88.7 


71.0 


17.7 


7 


.842 


.918 


.776 


.142 


83.4 


92.0 


75.3 


16.7 


8 


.816 


.900 


.731 


.M59 


85.5 


94.0 


80.1 


13.9 


9 


.818 


.880 


.755 


.125 


86.5 


96.0 


80.0 


16.0 


10 


.814 


.884 


.738 


.146 


87.6 


97.3 


8O.0 


17.3 


11 


.727 


.805 


.649 


.156 


88.7 


99.5 


80.0 


19.5 


12 


.682 


.752 


.602 


.150 


88.8 


100.1 


81.5 


18.6 


13 


.730 


.798 


.660 


.138 


87.2 


94.8 


80.4 


14.4 


14 


.744 


.810 


.689 


.121 


89.3 


100.2 


80.5 


19.7 


15 


.742 


.818 


.669 


.149 


89.9 


100.0 


81.8 


18.2 


10 


.731 


.810 


.656 


.154 


90.3 


100.5 


82.0 


18.5 


17 


.698 


.769 


.651 


.118 


91.1 


101.7 


82.6 


19.1 


18 


.697 


.756 


.650 


.106 


91.4 


1030 


83.2 


19.8 


19 


.687 


.756 


.613 


.143 


92.0 


104,2 


83.0 


21.2 


20 


.6G9 


.734 


.607 


.127 


92.1 


104.5 


83.3 


21.2 


21 


.627 


.691 


.543 


.148 


92.3 


10G.0 


83.5 


22.5 


22 


.592 


.651 


.514 


.137 


91.4 


104.0 


83.2 


2i >.8 


23 


.574 


.650 


.405 


.155 


89.8 


99.0 


82.0 


17.0 


24 


.646 


.702 


.5 S3 


.119 


87.3 


97.0 


76.5 


20.5 


25 


.676 


.731 


.58 1 


.147 


80. 6 


98.8 


77.0 


21.8 


26 


.666 


.725 


.589 


.136 


87.5 


96. 5 


79.0 


17.5 


27 


.677 


.751 


.610 


.141 


83.7 


91.5 


79.4 


12.1 


28 


.608 


.673 


.5:57 


.136 


82.1 


88.5 


78.9 


9.6 


29 


.524 


.589 


.430 


.159 


84.4 


91.5 


79.5 


12.0 


30 


.467 


.515 


.392 


.123 


84.3 


91.3 


80.0 


11.3 


31 


• .442 


.505 


.374 


.131 


8G.0 


93.7 


81.3 


12.4 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and AVet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at the 
several hours during the day. 



SXX1V 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of May 1873. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 



Date. 


H 


4> 
43 

o 
eg 


.3 
"o 

P 

--d 
<u 


P< 

a 


?j Bulb above Dew 
Point. 

1 


o 

o 

a 

o 

"•+3 


Pi Ci 

k ° 
e*-i -t-» 


«H m ■ 

O o (3 

!§> s s 

K =" s! 

^ - "o 
O O ft 

pi 


can degree oi' H Timi- 
dity, complete satu- 
ration being unity. 




£ 


P 


o 

o 


P 


% 


^.s 


<i 


r^5 




o 


o 


o 





Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


78.4 


4.3 


75.4 


7.3 


0.865 


9.30 


2.42 


0.79 


2 


79.4 


4.3 


76.4 


7.3 


.893 


.58 


.49 


.79 


3 


79.2 


4,8 


75.8 


8.2 


.876 


.39 


.78 


.77 


4 


72.9 


2.7 


71.0 


4.6 


.751 


8.17 


1.31 


.86 


5 


74.5 


4.6 


71.3 


7.8 


.758 


.20 


2.33 


.78 


6 


74.3 


5.3 


70.6 


9.0 


.741 


.00 


.69 


.75 


7 


7(5.7 


6.7 


72.0 


11.4 


.776 


.31 


3.65 


.70 


8 


79.4 


6.1 


75.1 


10.4 


.857 


9.15 


.57 


.72 


9 


79.7 


6.8 


75.6 


10.9 


.871 


.27 


.83 


.71 


10 


80.7 


6.9 


76.6 


11.0 


.899 


.56 


.96 


.71 


11 


80.0 


8.7 


74.8 


13.9 


.849 


.00 


4,96 


.65 


12 


800 


8.8 


74.7 


14.1 


.816 


8.97 


5.03 


.64 


13 


77.4 


9.8 


71.5 


15.7 


.763 


.11 


.26 


.61 


14 


80.1 


9.2 


74.6 


14.7 


.843 


.92 


.29 


.63 


15 


82.0 


7,9 


77.3 


12.6 


.919 


9.72 


4.74 


.67 


16 


80.9 


9.4 


75.3 


15.0 


.862 


.12 


5.51 


.62 


17 


79.1 


12.0 


71.9 


19.2 


.773 


8.16 


6.81 


.55 


18 


79.2 


12.2 


71.9 


19.5 


.773 


.14 


.96 


.54 


19 


81.1 


10.9 


74,6 


17.4 


.843 


.89 


.47 


.58 


20 


81.7 


10.4 


75.5 


16.6 


.868 


9.14 


.27 


.59 


21 


82.3 


10.0 


76.3 


16.0 


.890 


.38 


.12 


.60 


22 


83.6 


7.8 


78.9 


12.5 


.967 


10.20 


4,90 


.68 


23 


82.2 


7.6 


77.6 


12.2 


.928 


9.83 


.59 


.68 


24 


78.9 


8.4 


73.9 


13.4 


.824 


8.78 


.63 


.66 


25 


78.2 


8.4 


73.2 


13.4 


.806 


.59 


.55 


.65 


26 


78.9 


8.6 


73.7 


13.8 


.819 


.71 


.78 


.65 


27 


80.0 


3.7 


77.4 


6.3 


.922 


9.89 


2.18 


.82 


28 


78.8 


3.6 


76.3 


6.1 


.890 


.57 


.04 


.82 


29 


79.5 


4.9 


76.1 


8.3 


.885 


.48 


.83 . 


.77 


30 


79.7 


4.6 


76.5 


7.8 


.896 


.59 


.69 


.78 


31 


80.3 


5.7 


76.3 


9.7 


.890 


.50 


3.41 


.74 



Ail the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



xxxv 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

■in the month of May 187 S. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





O °3 


.Range 


of the Barometer 




Range 


of the Tempera- 




fcrj en ^ 


for each hour 
the niontl 


during 
i. 


ture for each hour 
during the month. 


Hour. 




1 


I 


fi.3 










C3 HH CO 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


O 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




£:§ 




1 


1 


^ 










Inches. 


Indies. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


O 


o 


o 


o 


Mid- 


















night. 


29.701 


29.933 


29.478 


0.455 


81.0 


86.5 


71.6 


14.9 


1 


.091 


.874 


.408 


.406 


81.3 


86.0 


71.3 


14.7 


2 


.680 


.854 


.457 


.397 


80.9 


85.3 


71.2 


14.1 


3 


.670 


.810 


.446 


.394 


80.6 


81.6 


71.0 


13.6 


4 


.671 


.821 


.434 


.390 


80.2 


83.8 


71.0 


12.8 


5 


.685 


.866 


.445 


.421 


80.1 


83.6 


71.0 


12.6 


6 


.699 


.861 


.403 


.401 


80.2 


83.5 


71.0 


12.5 


7 


.720 


.883 


.479 


" .404 


81.4 


85.2 


72-0 


13.2 


8 


.737 


.912 


.490 


.416 


84.2 


88.5 


76.7 


11.8 


9 


.748 


.918 


.505 


.413 


87.4 


92.0 


79.7 


12.3 


10 


.718 


.917 


.491 


.426 


90.2 


95.6 


82.4 


13.2 


11 


.740 


.927 


.478 


.419 


91.8 


98.6 


84.0 


14.6 


Noon. 


.720 


.910 


.452 


.464 


93.2 


101.2 


79.4 


21.8 


1 


.701 


.893 


.431 


.462 


91.2 


104.0 


74.0 


30.0 


2 


.674 


.860 


.405 


.401 


94.9 


101,5 


71.0 


33.5 


3 


.651 


.835 


.386 


.419 


95.3 


100.0 


71.6 


34.4 


4 


.631 


.809 


.374 


.435 


94.8 


100.0 


71.5 


34.5 


5 


.020 


.798 


.392 


.404 


93.3 


103.9 


71.0 


32.9 


6 


.032 


.788 


.394 


.394 


90.3 


100.7 


71.0 


29.7 


7 


.647 


.807 


.407 


.400 


87.3 


90.0 


71.0 


25.0 


8 


.671 


.832 


.418 


.414 


85.6 


92.0 


71.0 


21.0 


9 


.688 


.860 


.423 


.437 


84.2 


89.8 


72.0 


17.8 


10 


.699 


.900 


.444 


.450 


82.8 


87.6 


72.1 


15.5 


11 


.701 

p 


.927 


.440 


.487 


82.3 


86.8 


71.0 


15.8 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month, 



\KX\ t 



Meteorological 01 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* 
taken, at tlie Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of May 1873. 



3 fourij- Means, Sec. of tlie Observations and of tlie Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Contin ued) . 



Hour. 


Mean Wet Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 


> 

o 

pq 
>•> 

p 


'o 

Fh 

fs 

o 
P 

OB 

a 

o 
Q 


p 

o 
t> 
o 

pq i 

p* 


o 
1 

o 

a . 


Mean Weight of Vapour 
in a Cubic foot of air. 


Additional Weight of 
Vapour required for 
complete saturation. 


Mean degree of Humi- 
dity, complete satura- 
tion being unity. 







o 








Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




Mid- 


















night. 


78. 5 


3.1 


76.3 


5.3 


0.890 


9.59 


1.75 


0.85 


1 


78.5 


2.8 


76.5 


4.8 


.896 


.65 


.59 


.86 


2 


78.2 


2.7 


76.3 


4.6 


.890 


.59 


.51 


.86 


3 


78.0 


2.6 


76.2 


4.4 


.887 


.58 


.43 


.87 


4 


77.9 


2.3 


76.3 


3.9 


.890 


.61 


.27 


.88 


5 


77.9 


2.2 


76.4 


3.7 


.893 


.64 


.20 


.89 


6 


78.1 


2!l 


76.6 


3.6 


.899 


.69 


.19 


.89 


7 


78.8 


2.6 


77.0 


4.4 


.910 


.81 


.46 


.87 


8 


79.7 


4.5 


76.5 


7.7 


.896 


.59 


2.65 


.78 


9 


80.6 


6.8 


76.5 


10.9 


.896 


.54 


3.91 


.71 


20 


81.0 


9.2 


75.5 


14.7 


.868 


.18 


5.11 


.63 


11 


81.0 


10.8 


74.5 


17.3 


.840 


8.87 


6.40 


.58 


Boon. 


80.7 


12.5 


73.2 


20.0 


.806 


.47 


743 


.53 


1 


79.9 


14.3 


71.3 


22.9 


.758 


7.95 


8.41 


.49 


2 


79.4 


15.5 


70.1 


21.8 


.729 


.64 


9.05 


.46 


8 


79.9 


15.4 


70.7 


24.6 


.744 


.78 


.11 


.46 


4 


79.6 


15.2 


70.5 


24,3 


.739 


.74 


8.91 


.47 


5 


80.4 


12.9 


72.7 


20.6 


.792 


8.32 


7.63 


.52 


6 


80.1 


10.2 


74.0 


16.3 


.827 


.75 


5.88 


.60 


7 


79.9 


7.4 


75.5 


11.8 


.868 


9.23 


4.18 


.69 


8 


79.6 


6.0 


75.4 


10.2 


.865 


.24 


3.52 


.72 


9 


78.7 


5.5 


71,8 


9.4 


.849 


.09 


.15 


.74 


10 


78.9 


3.9 


76.2 


6.6 


.887 


.52 


2.23 


.81 


11 


78.7 


3.6 


76.2 


6.1 


.887 


.51 


.04 


,.82 



All theHygrometrical elements are computed by tlie Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations, 



xxxv u 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
iu the month of May lS7o. 

Solar Radiation, Weatlier, Sec. 







o y 




3 • 


tr > . 




rr a 


!j Onj 


• 


02 ■- 






y. jq 


C d* n 


- 


W S 


■3^,0 


M 


n u 


pqi* 1 



Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



^ .-£ General aspect of the Sky. 



ea o 

Pi TB 



1 110.8 0.35 



2 142.5 



3 143.0 



4 137.0 



6 13G.0 



134.8 



Inch 



138.8 

142.0 
139.0 



0.GG 



0.94 



0.G0 



0.27 



S by W, S & S E 9.6 



SE&S 



S S W & S 



Variable 



Variable 

Variable 

SW&WSW 
S W&S 

•s &s w 



0.4 



10.3 



25.0 



5.2 



Miles 
175.0 



216. G 



250.6 



222.6 



228.2 

165.3 

107.0 

126. 3 
164.6 



S to 3 A. M., B to 7 A. M.,^i 
to 1 P. M.,v_i to 4 P. M..oi to 7 
p. M., B to 17 p. m. High wind 
from 4f to 6J p. m. T at 6 p. m. 
It. between 5 & 6 p. m. 

B to 4 A. H.,W to 9 A. M.,V_i 
to 12 A. M.,^i to 3 P. m., S to 
9 p.m. B to 11 p.m. T at 5 p.m., 
L from 7f to 9 p. m. 

S to 7 a. M.,^i to 5 p. is.., O 
to 8 p. m., S to 11 p. m. High 
wind from 6 to 6} p. m., T from 
51 to 7 p. M., L from 6 to 10 
p. m. It between 5 & 6 and at 
8 p. M. 

B to 4 a. m., clouds of dif- 
feront kinds to 9 a. M.,^i to 12 
a. m., O to 11 p. m. Storm from 
12| a. m. to IV p. m. High 
wind between 10 & 11 p. m. 
T &, L from 1 to lip. 11. K 
from 1 to G & at 8 p. m. 

O to 7 a. m.,W to 11 a. M.,"i 
to 8 p. m., O to 11 p. m. High 
wind from 9 to 10.} p.m. L from 
7 to 11 p. m. T Si It between 
91 to 11 p.m. 

O to 3 A. M.,^i to 7 A. M.,\i 

to 11 A. M.,^i to 6 p. m., B to 11 

p. M. L at midnight & 1 a. m. 

Slight It from midnight to 2 a.m. 

S to 3 a. m., W to 7 a. m., i 

to 11 A. M. B to 11 P. M. 

\i to 7 a. m., Vd to 1 p. m. 
"dto 3 p. m. B to 6 p. m., \i to 

11 P. M. 

B to 4 A. m., v_i to G A. M. B 
to 1 P. M., \i to 11 P. M. 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, 
V>i Cirro-enmnli, 
It rain, D drizzle. 



^i Cumuli, \_i Cirro-s 
B clear, S stratoni, O 



trati, ^-i Cumulo-strati, Vv_i Nimib, 
overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 



XXXVU1 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of /he Results of the Hourly 'Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

i u tit e vi 011th oj' May 1 S 7 3 . 



Solar Eadiation, Weather, &e. 





j_^ 


« S? 







Sf§-d 




CO 'S 


<§*§ 


<u 


r< h3 


«d 2 


n 







Wind. 



Prevailing 
di ret' Li on. 



- 



r3 o 



General aspect of the Sfcy. 








Inches 


10 


143.0 




1] 


145.8 


... 


12 


146.0 


... 


13 


146.0 




U 


147.5 


... 


15 


144.2 




16 


143.7 




17 148.3 




18 146.5 




19 151.2 




20 150.5 




21 1 150.0 




22 150.2 




23 


142.7 




21 


143.0 





SW4WSW 
S TV & Variable 

S & Variable 



2.8 



WNW&Variable .. 
TV S TV 

S&STV 



S W & Variable 

Variahle 

TV by N 

S W & W by S 

W & S S TV 

STV&TVSTV 

s w &s 
ssw 



0.2 



2.0 



Mile. 
191.0 

166.8 



175-6 

153.9 
152.1 
159.6 



145.1 
129.6 

124.9 
139.9 
138.9 
182.7 
207.0 
306.0 



S S W & S by E 11.0 401.3 



I B to 4 A. M., V_i to 6 A. M. T 
\i to 9 p. M., v_i to 11 p. m. 

\i to 6 a. m. B to 1 p. m., ^i 
& M to 6 P. M. B to 9 p. m., \i 

toll P. M. 

\i to 11 A. m., Vi to 2 p. M. r 
\i to 5 P. m. O to 8 p. M.,Vi to 

II p. m. Brisk wind between 7 
& 7\ p. m. T & L from 6f to 8 
p. M. D between 7 & 8 p. m. 

v_i & \i to 4 A. M. S to 7 a. 
m., Vi to 8 p. M. B to 11 P. M. 

\i to 4 a. m. B to 12 a. M., ^i 
to 6 p. M.,\i to 11 P. M. 

B to 2 p. m., "4 to 8 p. M. B 
1 p. m. T at 5 p. M. L on N at 

p. M. 

\i to 8 a. M. B to 11 P. M. 

B to 6 a. m., Vi to 9 A. M. 
B to 11 p. m. 

B. 

B. 

S tO 1 A. M. B to 11 P. M. 

B. 

Chiefly B. 

B to 7 p. m., clouds of different 
kinds to 11 P. m. Brisk wind 
from 12| a. m. to h\ & 11 to U\ 
p. m. L from 8y to 10 p. m. 

O to 2 a. M., Vi to 8 A. M., 
Scuds to 11 a. M..,^i to 8 P. M. 
O to 11 p. M. Strong wind from 
11| to 12 p. m. L. from 8 to 11 
p. m. Dat 8| p. m. 



\i Cirri — i Strati, ~i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, rv_.i Cumulo-strati, wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning 
11 rain, 1) drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. 



xxxix 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
gin, the month of May 1873. 

Solar Badiation, "Weather, &c, 



£* 



o 
145.0 



141.7 
106.0 

136.5 

140.0 
140.5 

141.7 



bo t> 



Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



PM 






Inches 



0.82 



0.06 



0.03 
0.05 



Variable 



S S W 



S by W & S 



S & S by W 



Sby W &ENE 

ENE&NE 

N E & E by N 



4,0 



1.0 



5.0 



0.2 
0.4 

1.2 



239.2 

280.4 

182.4 

124.0 

133.8 
154.0 

218.2 



General aspect of the Sky. 



O to 2 A. M., B to 4 A. M.,W 

to 10 a. M.,-i to 4 p. M.,Vd to 
8 p.m. S to 11 p.m. Brisk wind 
from midnight to 0| a. m. L at 
midnight & 1 a. m. and from 8 
to 11 p. M 

O to 5 a. m.,V,t to 8 a. M.,->i 
to 6 p. m. B to 11 p. m. T at 
4 p. m. L from midnight to 2 
a.m. Dat 12f a. m. &4 I P. M. 

B to 6 a. M.,^,i to 10 a. m. O 
to 2 p. m. S to 4 p. M.,Vd to 6 
p. m. B to 11 p.m. High wind 
from 11 to IHa.m. T from l<)£ 
a. m. to 1 p. m. B at 8 and from 
11 to 12i A. M. 

B to 3 a. m., olouds of dif- 
ferent kinds to 11 p. M. Tat 12 
a. m. & 3| p. m. L between 7 
& 8 p. m. Slight B at 12 a. m. 
and 3f p. m. 

S to 5 a. M.,V_i to 7 A. M.,^1 

to 2 p.m. ^i to 7 p.m. S to 11 P.M. 

O to 7 a. M.,^i &\i to 7 
p. M.,Hi to 9 p.m. B to 11 p. m. 
Light B at 10| a. m. & 1| *>• m. 

S to 6 a. M.,^i to 4 p. M., 
clouds of different kinds to 11 
p. m. Slight B at 5 P. M. 



y.CK™ "7? Str f ti '" i Cumuli, \_i Cirro-strati, ^i Cumnlo-strati wi Nimbi, 
W Lirro-Cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
It rain, D drizzle. & ' 



M eieorological Observations. 



xl 



Abstract of (he Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month oj May 1873. 

Monthly Hesults. 



Mean height of the Barometer for the month 
Max. height of the Barometer occurred at Midnight on the 6th 
Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 p. M, on the 31st 
Extreme range of the Barometer during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Pressures 
Ditto ditto Min. ditto 
Mean daily range of the Barometer during the mouth ,., 



Indies. 
29.089 
29.933 
29.374 

0.559 
29.750 
29.610 

0.140 



Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month 
Max. Temperature occurred at 3 & 4 p. m. on the 21st 
Min. Temperature occurred at 6 a. m, on the 5th 
Extreme range of the Temperature during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month 



Mean "Wet Bull) Thermometer for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 



Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month 



o 
86.6 
106.0 
71.0 
35.0 
90.5 
79.5 
17.4 



. 79.3 
7.3 

. 74,9 
. 11.7 

Inches. 
. 0.851 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 9.06 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 4.08 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.09 



Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 



o 
142.2 



Inches. 
Earned 12 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours^ ... ... 0.94 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 3.78 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... ... ... 3.28 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ... S. W &■ S. S. W. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



Meteorological Observations, 



«3 






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I / 



Meteorological Observations. 



xlii 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observalio?is 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of June 1873. 

Latitude 22° 33' \" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34," Ea« ' , 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





o *-« 

oj P fi, 


Bange 
du 


i>f the Bai 
ring the d 


ometer 

»y- 




Bange of the Tempera- 
ture during the day. 


Date. 
















o3 2 i! 








s Si 










Mas. 


Min. 


Diff. 


03 2 

03 r-3 


Mas. 


Min. 


Diff. 












£ H 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


o 


o 


o 


o 


1 


29.407 


29.455 


29.325 


0.130 


87.6 


99.0 


82.5 


16.5 


2 


.412 


.471 


.327 


.114 


91.4 


103.0 


84.0 


19.0 


3 


.506 


.592 


.456 


.130 


88.8 


95.2 


86.0 


9.2 


4 


.577 


.661 


.522 


.139 


88.4 


94.2 


83.0 


11.2 


5 


.619 


.672 


.558 


.114 


89.3 


96.4 


84.5 


11.9 


6 


.617 


.682 


.529 


.153 


89.1 


96.5 


82.0 


14,5 


7 


.583 


.649 


.509 


.140 


88.1 


95.0 


82.6 


12.4 


8 


.556 


.602 


.500 


.102 


88.1 


95.6 


82.0 


13.6 


9 


.561 


.603 


.499 


.104 


88.5 


96.2 


82.0 


14,2 


10 


.554 


.602 


.467 


.135 


89.1 


97.0 


82.0 


15.0 


11 


.478 


.537 


.399 


.138 


88.4 


95.4 


83.0 


12.4 


12 


.415 


.477 


.326 


.151 


89.0 


98.7 


83.5 


15.2 


13 


.424 


.494 


.370 


.124 


85.9 


98.7 


78.0 


20.7 


14 


.462 


.511 


.391 


.120 


83.6 


92.9 


78.5 


14.4 


15 


.451 


.495 


.393 


.102 


85.4 


91.5 


81.2 


10.3 


16 


.487 


.533 


.432 


.101 


80.8 


83.5 


78.5 


5.0 


17 


.505 


.548 


.451 


.097 


83.2 


90.7 


79.0 


11.7 


18 


.476 


.521 


.411 


.110 


85.1 


92.7 


78.8 


13.9 


19 


.490 


.531 


.442 


.089 


86.3 


93.0 


80.0 


13.0 


20 


.491 


.531 


.435 


.096 


88.8 


96.2 


83.3 


12.9 


21 


491 


.526 


.437 


.089 


89.2 


96.8 


83.5 


13.3 


22 


.486 


.542 


.426 


.116 


88.8 


98.5 


79.5 


19.0 


23 


.533 


.601 


.491 


.110 


86.9 


95.5 


79.8 


15.7 


24 


.512 


.601 


.488 


.113 


89.1 


95.0 


84.0 


11.0 


25 


.517 


.566 


.452 


.114 


90.2 


98.5 


84.2 


14.3 


26 


.472 


.518 


.409 


.109 


92.1 


102,3 


84.5 


17.8 


27 


.492 


.547 


.422 


.125 


92.4 


102.8 


85.3 


17.5 


28 


.537 


.583 


.457 


.126 


89.3 


99.8 


81.0 


18.8 


29 


.543 


.591 


.470 


.121 


88.0 


97.2 


82.6 


14.6 


30 


.563 


.600 


.502 


.098 


85.7 


93.7 


82.5 


11.2 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at the 
several hours during the day. 



xli 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of June 1873. 



Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 



Date 



H 



£ 



pq 





fe 


a 




'o 


P 


Pn 


o 


Is 


o 


CD 


,J2 


P 


es 


■■d 


rC 






-<^> 


2 +j 


d 
P. 

a 

o 


. o 


O 


P 



o3 =« 



£ 





O O d 


P. OS 




W <+-( 


S t3 -tl 


k O 


1*8 £ 


C+-. -+3 




O O 
£c2 






dditional 
Vapour r 
complete 


1 o3 

.<" d 


< 



P r-5 O O 





o 











Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


81.3 


6.3 


77.5 


10.1 


0.925 


9.84 


3.68 


0.73 


2 


83.3 


8.1 


78.4 


13.0 


.952 


10.04 


5.06 


.67 


3 


84.1 


4.7 


81.3 


7.5 


1.043 


1 1 .06 


2.94 


.79 


4 


83.4 


5.0 


80.4 


8.0 


.014 


10.76 


3.08 


.78 


5 


83.5 


5.8 


80.0 


9.3 


.001 


.62 


.59 


.75 


6 


82.4 


6.7 


78.4 


10.7 


0.952 


.08 


4.04 


.71 


7 


81.6 


6.5 


77.7 


10.4 


.931 


9.90 


3.82 


.72 


8 


81.1 


7.0 


76.9 


11.2 


.908 


.64 


4.08 


.70 


9 


81.5 


7.0 


77.3 


11.2 


.919 


.76 


.12 


.70 


10 


81.9 


7.2 


77.6 


11.5 


.928 


.83 


.29 


.70 


11 


82.0 


6.4 


78.2 


10.2 


.946 


10.05 


3.79 


.73 


12 


82.5 


6.5 


78.6 


10.4 


.958 


.17 


.91 


.72 


13 


80.1 


5.8 


76.0 


9.9 


.882 


9.41 


.46 


.73 


14 


79.7 


3.9 


77.0 


6.6 


.910 


.75 


2.28 


.81 


15 


82.0 


3.4 


79.6 


5.8 


.989 


10.56 


.12 


.83 


16 


79.5 


1.3 


78.6 


2.2 


.958 


.34 


0.73 


.93 


17 


80.2 


3.0 


78.1 


5.1 


.943 


.12 


1.77 


.85 


18 


81.3 


3.8 


78.6 


6.5 


.958 


.23 


2.34 


.81 


19 


82.0 


4.3 


79.0 


7.3 


.970 


.35 


.67 


.80 


20 


84.0 


4.8 


81.1 


7.7 


1.037 


.99 


3.01 


.79 


21 


83.5 


5.7 


80.1 


9.1 


.005 


.64 


•52 


.75 


22 


82.7 


6.1 


79.0 


9.8 


0.970 


.29 


.71 


.74 


23 


79.9 


7.0 


75.7 


11.2 


.873 


9.30 


.95 


.70 


24 


83.2 


5.9 


79.7 


9.4 


.992 


10.53 


.59 


.75 


25 


82.9 


7.3 


78.5 


11.7 


.955 


.10 


4.49 


.69 


26 


83.2 


8.9 


77.9 


11,2 


.937 


9.88 


5.53 


.64 


27 


84.6 


7.8 


79.9 


12.5 


.998 


10.50 


.04 


.68 


28 


82.9 


6.4 


79.1 


10.0 


.973 


.32 


3.89 


.73 


29 


83.4 


4.6 


80.6 


7.4 


1.021 


.86 


2.82 


.79 


30 


82.3 


3.4 


79.9 


5.8 


0.998 


.65 


.15 


.83 



Ail the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



xliv 



Abstract of tie Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of June 1873. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





© » 


.Range of the Barometer 


rO 


Eange of the T 


?mpera- 




.-3 )j -u 

be vu ^3 


for each hour during 
the mouth. 


93 


tiire for each hour 
duriner the month. 




'5 s^ 








hS 








Hour 








PS 










§w3 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


a S3 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff.. 












^ 










Inches. 


Inches. ] 


nches. ] 


nches. 





o 





o 


Mid- 


















night. 


29.526 


29.649 i 


29.413 ( 


3.236 


84.1 


88.5 


79.0 


9.5 


1 


.514 


.631 


.389 


.242 


83.9 


87.8 


79.2 


8.6 


2 


.502 


.616 


.382 


.234 


83.7 


87.0 


79.2 


7.8 


3 


.491 


.609 


.383 


.226 


83.5 


86.7 


79.0 


7.7 


4 


.490 


.612 


.394 


.218 


83.3 


86.5 


79.0 


7.5 


5 


.502 


.630 


.405 


.225 


83.2 


86.2 


79.0 


7.2 


6 


.514 


.634 


.410 


.224 


83.3 


86.4 


78.8 


7.6 


7 


.531 


.660 


.434 


.226 


84,3 


87.0 


79-9 


7.1 


8 


.515 


.672 


.433 


.239 


86.1 


89.2 


79.5 


9.7 


9 


.549 


.670 


.452 


.218 


88.2 


92.0 


78.6 


13.4 


10 


.547 


.665 


.410 


.225 


90.4 


95.2 


78.5 


16.7 


11 


.541 


.653 


.434 


.219 


92.0 


96.7 


78.5 


18.2 


Noon. 


.527 


.637 


.405 


.232 


93.6 


98.5 


78.8 


19.7 


1 


.507 


.617 


.372 


.245 


94.6 


100.4 


79.4 


21.0 


2 


.486 


.595 


.356 


.239 


94,8 


102.0 


80.3 


21.7 


3 


.464 


.578 


.338 


.240 


95.0 


103.0 


81.0 


22.0 


4 


.451 


.559 


.325 


.234 


94,3 


102.6 


81.3 


21.3 


5 


.452 


.558 


.338 


.220 


92.4 


101.5 


81.0 


20.5 


6 


.463 


.570 


.347 


.223 


89.6 


98.8 


78.0 


20.8 


7 


.482 


.604 


.362 


.242 


87.6 


94.0 


78.0 


16.0 


8 


.506 


.630 


.391 


.239 


86.5 


91.7 


78.5 


13.2 


9 


.525 


.682 


.410 


.272 


85.6 


90.4 


79.0 


11.4 


10 


.541 


.666 


.428 


.238 


84.7 


89.0 


79.0 


10.0 


11 


.541 


.656 


.428 


.228 


84.4 


88.7 


79.0 


9.7 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month. 



xlv 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taJcen at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of June 1873. 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued). 



Hour 






s a 



o 

-3 

B 
m 

p 



-S 

'o 

PH 
is 

P 



r£2 



H r- 



ft 



c .a 

ft To 
T. .^ 

l> 

o o 



o 




Mid- 
night. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Noon. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



o 





o 





Inches. 


T. gr. 


T.gr. 


81.3 


2.8 


79.3 


4.8 


0.979 


10.48 


1.73 


81.4 


2.5 


79.6 


4,3 


.989 


.60 


.53 


81.4 


2.3 


79.8 


3.9 


.995 


.66 


.41 


81.3 


2.2 


79.8 


3.7 


.995 


.66 


.34 


81.2 


2.1 


79.7 


3.6 


.992 


.63 


.30 


81.2 


2.0 


79.8 


3.4 


.995 


.69 


.20 


81.4 


1.9 


80.1 


3.2 


1.005 


.77 


.16 


81.9 


2.4 


80.2 


4.1 


.008 


.79 


.49 


82.5 


3.6 


80.0 


6.1 


.001 


.68 


2.27 


82.9 


5.3 


79.7 


8.5 


0.992 


.53 


3.23 


82.9 


7.5 


78.4 


12.0 


.952 


.06 


4,61 


83.3 


8.7 


78.1 


13.9 


.943 


9.93 


5.43 


83.4 


10.2 


77.3 


16.3 


.919 


.66 


6-42 


83.6 


11.0 


77.0 


17.6 


.910 


.53 


7.02 


83.6 


11.2 


76.9 


17.9 


.908 


.51 


.14 


83.7 


11.3 


76.9 


18.1 


.908 


.51 


.23 


83.5 


10.8 


77.0 


17.3 


.910 


.55 


6.86 


82.9 


9.5 


77.2 


15.2 


.916 


.65 


5.89 


82.2 


7.4 


77.8 


11.8 


.934 


.89 


4,44 


81.6 


6.0 


78.0 


9.6 


.940 


.99 


3.53 


81.6 


4.9 


78.7 


7.8 


.961 


10.24 


2.86 


81.5 


4.1 


78.6 


7.0 


.958 


.23 


.53 


81.0 


3.7 


78.4 


6.3 


.952 


.19 


.23 


81.3 


3.1 


79.1 


5.3 


.973 


.42 


1.89 



0.86 
.87 
.88 
.89 
.89 
.90 
.90 
.88 
.83 
.77 
.69 
.65 



.60 
.58 
.57 
.57 
.58 
.62 
.69 
.74 
.78 
.80 
.82 
.85 



All theHygronietrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations. 



xb 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of June 1873. 

Solar Badiation, Weather, &c. 

"Wind 





10 1i 


cS • 


fcjj t* . 


^ ° 


« O rrj 


O o 


PrQ S 




«^ 


M a 


a ,-^ n 




3J°! 



Prevailing 
direction. 









aj 


>-, 


£ 


« £ 








- 


o 




P 


0> 


Ph 




K- 



Is J5» .-£ General aspect of tlie Sky. 



o 
145.0 


Inches 
0.36 


144.0 


. . . 


143.0 


0.07 


137.0 




146.0 


. . ■ 


147.0 


... 


145.0 




141.0 




145.0 




147.0 




140.2 




144.0 





S E 
S E, W S W & S 

ssw&s 
wsw 

W by S & S 
S by W & S 

S S W & S 

s&s s w 

S & S by E 

S by E & S S E 

S S E & S E 

S E & E by N 



lb Miles 
4.0 137.4 



1.0 



0.2 



0.6 
0.3 
0.4 



172.8 
279.1 



2.0 322.0 



280.1 

288.6 



0.5 2S2.0 



257.0 
239.1 
234.9 
179.6 

120.8 



S to 6 A. M., \i to 10 A. M., r\{ 

to 5 p. M. S to 11 p.m. T between 
If & 2| & at 5 p. m. L at 2 & 4 
a. m. E from If to 2^ p. m. 

\i to 3 a. m., S to 7 a. m. \i 
to 7 p. m. S to 11 p. m. 

S to 10 a. m., ^i to 7 p. M. O 
to 11 p. m. T at 8| a. m. LonN 
W at 8 and 9 p.m. S light E from 
6| to 9| at llf a. m. & 7\ p. m. 

O to 6 a. m., S to 10 a. m. ~i 
to 2 p. m. \i to 9 p. m. O to 11 
p. at. L at 11 p. m. D at 11J 
p. M. 

O to 7 a. m., Va to 2 p.m. ^i 
to 5 p. m. \i to 11 p. m. 

x i to 7a. m., <~>i to 6 p. m. S 
to 11 p. m. L between 7 & 8 and 
at 10 p. m. D between 8 and 9 
p. M. 

S to 1 a. M., \i andv_i to 3 
a. m. O to 8 a. m. ^i to 6 P. M. 
B to 9 p. m. \i to 11 p. m. 

\i to 5 A. M.j V>i to 10 A. M., 
°i to 6 p. m., \i to 11 p. m. 

\i to 8 a. m., ^i to 7 p. M. B 

to 11 P. M. 

B to 4 A. M., \i to 7 A. M., ^i 
to 5 P. M., \i to 11 P. M. 

\i to 2 A. M. S to 9 A. M., ^i 
to 3 p. m. \i to 11 p. m. L on N 
E between 7 & 8 p. m. 

\i to 3 a. m. S to 8 a. m., ^i 
to 5 p. m. S to 11 p. m. T at 4| 
p. m. L on S W from 8 to 10 
p. m. D at 5| a. m. 3| & 4| p.m. 



\i Cirri,— i Strati, ^i Cumuli, \_i Cirro-strati, 'V-i Cumulo-strati, wi Nimib, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
E rain, D drizzle. 



xlvii 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of June 1873. 

Solar Eadiation, Weather, &c. 



u 


a> J> 


o o 


£*5 


3 u 





Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



t--. 









- 



General aspect of the Sky. 



13! 136.5 



14 



15 
16 

17 



138.2 



121.0 



137.0 



18 


139.0 


19 


139.0 


20 


141.5 


21 


140.0 


22 


142.0 



Inches 
1.64 



lh 
SE&W 9.0 



0.86 W S W& Variable 4.3 



0.06 
0.50 

0.43 



E SE & Variable .. 
E& S 



0.06 



S &S W 

SS W&S w 

ss w&sw 
sw&s 

s s w & sw 

s s w & s w 



2.8 



9.0 



Mile. 

102.1 S to 6 a. m., \i to 10 a. m. S 
to 3 p. m. O to 11 p. m. High 
wind between 3f & 4| p. m. T & 
L between 4 & 5 p. m. E at 4, 5 

l& 7 P. M. 

166-9 O to 9 a. m.. °i to 4 p. m. O 
toll p. M. High wind from 5 J 
to 5f P. M. T between 2 & 3 a. m. 
& from 4 to 5 h p. m. L between 
2 & 3 a. m., & from 5^ to 10 p. m. 
E at 2\ a.m., & from 5* to 8p.m. 

O to 11 a. M. S to 11 p. M. T 
at 3h p. m. 

0"to6 p.m. S to 11 p.m. Tat 
9| a. m. L on W at 8 p. m. Light 
E after intervals. 
81.2 S to 11 a. m., r-d to 6 p. m. O 
to 8 p. m. B to 11 p. M. Brisk 
wind between 6f & 7 p.m. Slight 
E at 3 1, 7 a. m. & between 7 & 

8 P. M. 

31.9 Bto 3 a. m., Vi to 7 a. M.,\i 
to 12 A. m., «^i to 3 P. M. S to 11 
p. m. L at 8 & 9 p. m. T & E 
between 9 & 10 p. m. 
155.9 S to 8 a. m., W to 4 p.m. S 
to 11 p. m. L at 8 p. m. 

S to 2 a. m. O to 7 a. M., \i 
to 9 A. M., °i to 12 A. m., \i to 
5 p. m. O to 11 p. m. L on N E 
at 8 p. m. 
77.9 O to 2 a. m. S to 8 a. m., \i 
to 4 p.m. S to 7 p.m.O to 11 P.M. 
\i to 12 a. m. S to 7 p. m. O 
to 11 p. m. High wind from 8 to 
8f & 9| to 1 p. m. T at 9£ p.m. 
L from 7 to 11 p. m. Light E at 
&10 p. M. 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, °i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, rv_.i Cumulo-strati, v^_i Nimbi, 
Vd Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning 
E- rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. 



xlviii 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
gin the month of June 1873. 

Solar Badiation, Weather, &c, 





o © 


43 d 

o o 


bC !> 


Gua 
abo 
mid 







Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



m a 



- 






o Inches 



146.0 

145.0 

138.5 
145.0 



145.6 
143.9 



142.0 



136.8 



0.02 



0.30 



s s w 
s s w&s w 

N E & Variable. 
N W & S by W 



S by W & S 

s & s s w 



SS W&S SE 



S&SE 



0.5 



3.2 



4.3 



0.9 



0.4 



154.7 

79.2 

73.8 
106.9 



108.2 
169.6 



139.8 



121.6 



General aspect of the Sky. 



O to 6 a. m., \i & W to 2 

P. M. \i to 7 P. M. S to 11 P. M. 

L at midnight & from 8 to 10 
p. m. Light 11 at midnight & 9f 

M 

<— i to 1 A. M. O to 6 A. M., W 
to 1 p. m. S to 11 p. m. Brisk 
wind at 9| p. m. L at 8 & 9 p.m. 
D at 4§ a. m. 

O to 8 a. M. S to 12 a. m., \i 

to 11 P. M. 

B to 2 a. m., Vi to 8 a. m. B 
to 11 A. m., \i to 6 P. M. B to 

11 p. m. L on N at 10 p. m. 
Chiefly B. 

S to 5 A. M., Vd to 11 A. M. 

Clouds of different kinds to 4 
p. M. O to 11 P. M. High wind 
between 5i & 5| p. m. T at 6 
p. M. L from 6 to 9 p. M. Slight 
K from 6 to 8 p. m. 

B to 1 a. m. S to 8 a. m., ^i 
& v_ i to 3 p. m. S to 7 p. M. O 
to 11 p. m. T from 2f to 4| p.m. 
D at 4 & 6|p. m. 

S to 5 a. m ., \i to 7 a. M.,^i 
o 12 a. m. O to 4 p m. S to 8 

m. O to 11 p. m. T from 12| 
a. m., to 2| p. m. L at 2| p. m. D 
at 12* a. M. 1 & 3 p. m. 



\i Cirri — i Strati, "i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, A_i Cumulo- strati wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-Cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, orercast, T thunder, L lightning, 
It rain, 1) drizzle. 



xlix Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month oj June 187 o. 

Monthly Results. 



Indies. 

Mean height of the Barometer for the month ... ... ... 29.508 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 9 p. m. on the 6th ... 29.682 

Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 p. m. on the 1st ... 29.325 

Extreme range of the Barometer during the month ... ... 0.357 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures ... ... ... ... 29.561 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto ... ... ... ... 29.448 

Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month ... ... 0.118 



o 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 87.9 

Max. Temperature occurred at 3 y. m. on the 2nd ... ... 103.0 

Min. Temperature occurred at 6& 7 p. m, on the 13th ... ... 78.0 

Extreme range of. the Temperature during the month ... ... 25.0 

Mean of the daily Max. Temperature ... ... ... ... 96.1 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, ... ... ... ... 82.0 

Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month ... ... 14.1 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 82.2 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 5.7 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month ... ... ... 78.8 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ... 9.1 

Inches. 
Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 0.964 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 10.25 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 3.39 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.75 

o 

Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month ... ... 141.4 



Inches. 

Rained 16 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours' ... ... 1.64 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 4.30 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... ,.. ... 3.44 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ... S. S. W & S. 

* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



Meteorological Observations, 



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3 ^ A 



Meteorological Observations, 



li 



Ahdracl of Ike Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

iu the vi on I h of July 1873. 

Latitude l%° 33' 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 31," East. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above th» sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observation's and of the Uygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





o *-< 


Kange of the Ba 


vometer 


1* 


Range 


of the Tempera- 




j3 <B .+2 


during the < 


ay. 




ture 


luring the day. 


Date 








■ 










Max. 


Min, 


Did. 


*£ 


Max. 


Min. 


Dill. 




N? W 








£ H 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 





o 


o 


o 


1 


29.561 


29.605 


29.488 


0.117 


85.2 


91.7 


82.0 


9.7 


2 


.556 


.606 


.517 


.089 


83.7 


87.5 


81.0 


6.5 


S 


.563 


.608 


.507 


.101 


83.0 


87.0 


80.5 


6.5 


4 


.509 


.548 


.437 


.111 


83.1 


87.4 


80.0 


7.4 


5 


.493 


.534 


.425 


.109 


81.5 


85.8 


79.2 


6.0 


6 


.474 


.515 


.414 


.101 


83.0 


87.0 


79.4 


7.0 


7 


.484 


.568 


.430 


.138 


S3.8 


91.4 


80.5 


10.9 


8 


.522 


.565 


.456 


.109 


83.8 


87.5 


81.0 


6.5 


9 


.478 


.525 


.428 


.097 


83.5 


88.4 


81.4 


7.0 


10 


.459 


.503 


.394 


.109 


84.8 


92.0 


80.2 


11.8 


11 


.459 


.506 


.406 


.100 


83.3 


90.0 


80.5 


9.5 


12 


.426 


.479 


.357 


.122 


82.4 


87.0 


80.0 


7.0 


13 


.387 


.429 


.317 


.112 


82.8 


88.6 


80.5 


8.1 


14 


.427 


.507 


.371 


.136 


81.3 


83.0 


79.6 


3.4 


15 


.491 


.528 


.431 


.097 


82.6 


89.0 


79.5 


9.5 


16 


.473 


,515 


.403 


.112 


84.0 


88.5 


81.0 


7.5 


17 


.429 


.494 


.364 


.130 


84.5 


91.0 


81.0 


10.0 


18 


.299 


.404 


.194 


.210 


80.5 


82.2 


79.5 


2.7 


19 


.379 


.463 


.314 


.149 


83.6 


89.3 


79.5 


9.8 


20 


.461 


.521 


.417 


.104 


85.5 


90.2 


82.0 


8.2 


21 


.512 


.552 


.477 


.075 


84.2 


91.0 


81.8 


9.2 


22 


.498 


.559 


.412 


.147 


85.6 


92.0 


81.0 


11.0 


23 


.453 


.503 


.386 


.117 


83.4 


87.6 


81.0 


6.6 


24 


.466 


.528 


.410 


.118 


83.6 


88.8 


80.6 


8.2 


25 


.516 i 


.565 


.456 


.109 


83.9 


88.5 


80.3 


8.2 


26 


.513 ! 


.571 


.441 


.130 


85.1 


90.3 


81.8 


8.5 


27 


.468 i 


.515 


.426 


.089 


82.4 


84.5 


80.5 


4.0 


28 


.511 i 


,577 


.462 


.115 


81.1 


86.0 


77.5 


8.5 


29 


.559 


.615 


.5 


.106 


81.8 


87.0 


77.5 


9.5 


30 


.585 ; 


.616 


.525 


.091 


84.4 


89.3 


80.2 


9.1 


31 


.559 


.597 


.499 


;098 


83.0 


85.8 


80.5 


5.3 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at the 
several hours during the day. 



lii 



Meteorological Observation*. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Ol/xerpation$ 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of July 1873. 

Daily Means, Sic. of tlie Observations and of the Hygromefcrieal elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 











* 


C« 


Fh 


v, ^ • 


, 




A 


-4-2 


-^ 


O 


o.Si 


O o « 


"Z. 2 


Date 


H 


> 

o 

03 


'o 

Pn 

CD 
P 


P 

> 

o 

c3 


O 

u 

a 

'■+3 


P. S3 

> o 

"sis 


r— 1 ^ » 


2 * -^ 

o^ to 
» p"..g 

£ S 1/ 




0) O 


,fl 


m 


r& 


rt u 


°S ^5 


05 b t 


bi rfl 




s ° 


3 


2 
P. 


9^ 

,_ o 
t'Pn 


S3 P^ 


S3 =3 
l2 A 


% S'g 


to o rf 

BJ"- Oj 




£ 


p 


o 


P 


£ 


g- 


<< 


3 




o 





o 





Indies. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


81.5 


3.7 


78.9 


6.3 


0.967 


10.34 


2.27 


0.82 


2 


80.6 


3.1 


78.4 


5.3 


.952 


.21 


1.86 


.85 


3 


80.5 


2.5 


78.7 


4.3 


.961 


.33 


.49 


.87 


4 


80.6 


2.5 


78.8 


4,3 


.964 


.36 


.50 


.87 


5 


80.1 


1.4 


79.1 


2.4 


.973 


.49 


0.82 


.93 


6 


80.3 


2.7 


78.4 


4.6 


.952 


.21 


1.61 


.86 


7 


81.1 


2.7 


79.2 


4.6 


.976 


.45 


.65 


.86 


8 


81.6 


2.2 


80.1 


3.7 


1.005 


.75 


.35 


.89 


9 


81.3 


2.2 


79.8 


3.7 


0.995 


.66 


.34 


.89 


30 


81.2 


3.6 


78.7 


6.1 


.961 


.29 


2.17 


.83 


11 


81.2 


2.1 


79.7 


3.6 


.992 


.63 


1.30 


.89 


12 


80.5 


1.9 


79.2 


3.2 


.976 


.50 


.11 


.90 


13 


81.2 


1.6 


80.1 


2.7 


1.005 


.77 


0.98 


.92 


14 


79.9 


1.4 


78.9 


2.4 


0.967 


.43 


.81 


.93 


15 


80.8 


1.8 


79.5 


3.1 


.986 


.00 


1.08 


.91 


16 


81.8 


2.2 


80.3 


3.7 


1.011 


.82 


.35 


.89 


17 


82.1 


2.4 


80.4 


4.1 


.014 


.85 


.50 


.88 


18 


79.6 


0.9 


79.0 


1.5 


0.970 


.46 


0.52 


.95 


19 


80.8 


2.8 


78.8 


4.8 


.964 


.34 


1.69 


.86 


20 


82.2 


3.3 


79.9 


5.6 


.998 


.65 


2.07 


.84 


21 


82.1 


2.1 


80.6 


3.6 


1.021 


.92 


1.32 


.89 


22 


82.0 


3.6 


79.5 


6.1 


0.986 


.53 


2.23 


.83 


23 


81.2 


2.2 


79.7 


3.7 


.992 


.63 


1.33 


.89 


24 


81.2 


2.4 


79.5 


4.1 


.986 


.57 


.46 


.88 


25 


81.3 


2.6 


79.5 


4.4 


.986 


.57 


.56 


.87 


26 


81.7 


3.4 


79.3 


5.8 


.979 


.46 


2.11 


.83 


27 


80.8 


1.6 


79.7 


2.7 


.992 


.66 


0.95 


.92 


28 


79.5 


1.6 


78.4 


2.7 


.952 


.25 


.92 


.92 


29 


79.2 


2.6 


77.4 


4.4 


.922 


9.93 


1.47 


.87 


30 


80.7 


3.7 


78.1 


6.3 


.913 


10.10 


2.21 


.82 


31 


80.2 | 


2.8 


78.2 


4.8 


.946 


.15 

1 


1.67 


.86 



Ail the Hygrlonietriea elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of July 187 3. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrieal elements 

dependent thereon. 





' o 3 


.Range 


of the Bn 


rometer 


r3 


Range 


of the Tempera- 




fcr. aj j 

trj ?^ 


for each hour 
the niontl 


during 


3 ^ 

p a 


tore 

duri 


for each hoxir 
ng (he month. 


Hour 




' 














Max. 


Min. 


1 Diff. 




Max. 


Min. 


Did, 












£ H 










Tndtos. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


O 


o 





o 


Mid- 


















night. 


29.509 


29.609 


J 29.335 


0.274 


81.7 


83.9 


77.6 


6.3 


1 


.495 


.603 


.325 


.278 


81.5 


83.5 


77.5 


6.0 


2 


.483 


.598 


.321 


.277 


81.3 


83.2 


77.5 


5.7 


3 


.471 


.590 


.314 


.276 


81.1 


82.8 


77.8 


5.0 


4 


.104 


.583 


.323 


.260 


80.9 


82.6 


77.9 


4.7 


5 


.475 


.600 


.339 


.261 


80.7 


82.5 


78.0 


4.5 


6 


.486 


.602 


.341 


.261 


80.8 


82.8 


78.5 


4.3 


7 


.498 


.614 


.323 


.291 


81.4 


84.0 


795 


4.5 


8 


.511 


.612 


.332 


.280 


82.6 


84.8 


80.5 


4,3 


9 


.516 


.615 


.312 


.303 


84.0 


87.0 


80.0 


7.0 


10 


.518 


.616 


.311 


.305 


85.0 


88.0 


81.0 


7.0 


11 


.509 


.616 


.291 


.325 


85.8 


90.0 


80.7 


9.3 


Noon. 


.494 


.596 


.260 


.336 


86.6 


91.7 


80.8 


10.9 


1 


.475 


.580 


.231 


.349 


86.9 


91.0 


80.2 


10.8 


2 


.458 


.559 


.204 


.355 


86.7 


91.6 


81.5 


10.1 


3 


.443 


.544 


.197 


.347 


86.2 


92.0 


81.5 


10.5 


4 


.430 


.538 


.194 


.344 


85.8 


91.5 


81.0 


10.5 


5 


.431 


.525 


.211 


.314 


85.1 


88.8 


79.5 


9.3 


6 


.442 


.539 


.224 


.315 


84.2 


88.6 


77.7 


10.9 


7 


.462 


.561 


.261 


.300 


83.3 


86.7 


77.5 


9.2 


8 


.483 


.582 


.293 


.289 


82.8 


86.0 


77.5 


8.5 


9 


.504 


.595 


.326 


.269 


82.4 


85.1 


77.5 


7.6 


10 


.517 


.607 


.344 


.263 


82.1 


84.7 


77.5 


7.2 


11 


.517 


.615 


.339 


.276 


81.9 


84.2 


77.5 


6.7 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month. 



llv 



"Meteorological Observation* 



Abstract of the JlesuUs of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at (he Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of July 187o. 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrienl elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued): 



Hour. 


■an Wet Bulb Ther- 
onieter. 


y Bulb above Wet. 


mputed Dew Point. 


y Bulb above Dew 
oint. 


»an Elastic force of 
apour. 


■an Weiffht of Vapour 
a Cubic foot of air. 


ditional Weight of 
apour required for 
>mplete saturation. 


>nn degree of Humi- 
fy, comolete satura- 
on being unity. 




s a 


P 


o 
Q 


P^ 


^ 




^ 


^1 ^ '-£ 




o 


O 


o 





Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




Mid- 


















Bight. 


80.4 


1.3 


79.5 


2.2 


0.986 


10.62 


0.75 


0.93 


1 


80.2 


1.3 


79.3 


2.2 


.979 


.55 


.76 


.93 


2 


80.0 


1.3 


79.1 


2.2 


.973 


.49 


.75 


.93 


3 


79.9 


1.2 


79.1 


2.0 


.973 


.49 


.75 


.93 


4 


79.7 


1.2 


78.9 


2.0 


.967 


.43 


.67 


.94 


5 


79.6 


1.1 


78.8 


1.9 


.961 


.40 


.61 


.94 


6 


79.7 


1.1 


78.9 


1.9 


.967 


.43 


.61 


.94 


7 


80.2 


1.2 


79.4 


2.0 


.983 


.58 


.69 


.94 


8 


80.8 


1.8 


79.5 


3.1 


.986 


.60 


1.08 


.91 


9 


81.3 


2.7 


79.4 


4.6 


.983 


.51 


M 


.86 


10 


81.7 


3.3 


79.4 


5.6 


.983 


.49 


2.01 


.84 


11 


81.8 


4.0 


79.0 


6.8 


.970 


.35 


.48 


.81 


Noon. 


S2.2 


4.4 


79.6 


7.0 


.989 


.51 


•60 


.80 


1 


82.4 


4.5 


79.7 


7.2 


.992 


.57 


.68 


.80 


2 


82.4 


4.3 


79.8 


6.9 


.995 


.60 


.58 


.80 


3 


82.0 


4.2- 


79.1 


7.1 


.973 


.38 


.61 


.80 


4 


82.0 


3.8 


79.3 


6.5 


.979 


.41 


.39 


.81 


5 


81.6 


3.5 


79.1 


6.0 


.973 


.40 


.17 


.83 


6 


81.0 


3.2 


78.8 


5.1 


.961 


.31 


1.90 


.85 


7 


80.9 


2.4 


79.2 


4.1 


.976 


.48 


.45 


.88 


8 


80.7 


2.1 


79.2 


3.6 


.976 


.48 


.27 


.89 


9 


80.6 


1.8 


79.3 


3.1 


.979 


.53 


.08 


.91 


10 


80.6 


1.5 


79.5 


2.6 


.986 


.60 


0.91 


.92 


11 


80.5 


1.4 


79.5 


2.4 


.986 


.62 


.82 


.93 



All the Hygrowetrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meieo rolog ica I Observations. 



lv 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken, at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in (he mouth of July 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 



& [ 





SJ <v 


CB • 


br > . 


t a 


c3 O tS 


. Sc 
atio 




Max 
radi 


SI.* 



W 



Prevailing 
direction. 









* 


0» 








C3 w 


oi 


O 




A 


"~Q> 


P4 




I-* 



U r^» -13 General aspect of the Sky. 



10 



o 


Inches; 


137.5 


0.09 ; 


132.5 


0.13 


134,0 


0.51 

• 


130.0 


0.16 | 


... 


0.42 i 


131.0 


0.04 


144.5 


0.35 


132.0 


0.42 


147.0 




139.0 


0.41 



E S E & S by E 



lb 
0.2 



Miles 
123.0 



S E & S 



S & S E 



S S E & S 



E S E & S E 



S & S S E 



S by E & S W 



2.8 



S E & S S E 0.7 163.9 



S E & S by E 



0.5 ' 91.0 



1.2 126.2 



O to 5 a. m. S to 8 a. si.. <->i 
to 6 p. m., \i & v-i to 11 p. m. 
Light P. between 5 & 6, at 12| 
A. m., & 6j p. M. 

S to 6 a. m., °i to 6 p. m., \i 
to 11 p. m. T at 6| a. m. Slight 
E at 6. «)i, 101 A M & j p M 
1.0 : 117.5 i B to 6 A. M., ~i to 5 P. ST.. \ 
to 9 p. m. S to 11 p. m. T between 
12 a. M., & 1 p. m. Slight It be- 
tween 9 & 10 at 12^ a. m. 1± 
between 3 & 4 & at 10| p. si. 

\i & v_i to 6 a. m.j ^i to 9 
p. m. O to 11 p. m. T at 4|- p. m. 
Slight E at lO.i a. m., 2§-, 9k, 10| 

& iu p.m. 

O to 11 a. st., -"-a to 6 p. m., 
\i to 11 p. m. Slight E between 

I & 2, at 6f, 9f, 10| a- m., be- 
tween 1 & 2 & at 3J p. m. 

B to 2 A. M. O to 8 A. M., r>i 

to 5 p. St., ^i to 11 p. m. Light 
E at 5, 7 a. m., & 1 p. si. 

\i & V— i to 2 a. si. O to 8 A.M. 
^i to 4 p. m., Vi to 9 p. si. S to 

I I p. m. Slight E at 5h 6, 7 a.m. 
2U,4|p.m. 

v_i to 3 a. si. O to 6 a. M., "M 
to 4 p. si. S to 11 p. si. E at 8| 
from 12| a.m. 2, at 4§ & 5| p.m. 

O to 1 a. m., \i & \_"i to 4 
a. si.. ~i to 12 a. si. O to 4p.m. 
W to 11 p. 3i. T between 1 & 2 
P.M. D at midnight 2| & 4 p.m. 

\i to 2 A. si., W to 8 A. M., 
~i to 3 p. M. O to 11 p. m. T be- 
tween o& 6 and at 11^ p.m. Lat 
11 p. si. Slight Efrom5 to IHp.m. 



115.8 



36.0 



158.1 



66.9 



112.9 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, ^i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, <^-i Cnmido-strati, wi Nimib, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
R rain, D drizzle. 



lvi 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Remits of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* 

taken at the Surveyor General's ({//ice, Calcutta, 

in the month of July 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, Sec. 





^i 


<o 0> 




o o 


fan > . 




03 £ "d 
<5 5 


<b 


K T3 


««B 2 


eti 
R 


C3 eS 





Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



Pn 



rf o 
R jS 



General aspect of tlie Sky. 



11 



141.3 



12 134.5 



13 137.8 

14 ... 
15, 141.0 

10 128.0 



142.0 



is 
19 

2<) 

21 



140.0 
140.0 
138.0 



Inches H, 

0.52 S W & S S W 



1.10 

010 
0.19 
0.16 



S S W & Variable 0.8 



S S W & S w 

S W & W S w 

S w 



0.07 S W & S S W 



0.48 

1.80 
0.31 

0.07 

0.60 



Yariable 

N N E & Variable 

S S w 

S s w 
S S W & S by w 



1.0 



1.0 



Mile. 
106.8 



47.6 

13.9 

148.0 

31.4 

97.6 

184.0 
230.0 

193.3 

92.2 



O to 11 A. M., ^i to 2 P. SI. O 
to 11 p.m. L at midnight, 3 a.m. 
& ll|p. m. Slight E after inter- 
vals. 

S to 12 a. m. O to 5 p. m. S 
11 p. M. L from midnight to 2 
a. m., & at If p. M. T & E from 
U to 3 P. M. 

Chiefly O. Slight, Eat 1, 1J, 
2| & 5 p. m. 

"Chiefly O. Slight E after in- 
tervals. 

Clouds of different kinds. T 
at 3£ & 8 p. M. L at 8 p. m. 
Slight E after intervals from 

10| A. M. 

B to 2 A. M., \i to 5 A. M., 

W to 10 a.m., O to 2 p.m. ^i to 

6 p.m. S to 11 p. m. Light E. on 

10£ a.m 2 & between 6 & 7 p.m. 
S to 5 a. m., -i to 3 p. m. O 

to 11 p. m. T at 3| & 9 p. M. 

Slight E at 3, 11|, 12| A. M., 

3|, 4| & S| p. m. 
"Chiefly O. T at 2 p. m. E 

nearly the whole day. 

O to 5 a. m., \i to 10 A. M., 
i to 8 p. m. B to 11 p. M. L on 

an W at 8 p. m. E at midnight. 
S to 4 a. M., v_i to 6 a. m., 
i to 7 p. m. B to 11 p. m. Tat 

2| p. m. Slight E at 3f p. m' 
"S to 9 a. m., "i to 3 p. m. O 

to 6 p. m., \i & M to 11 p. m 

T from 1 to 4 p. ai. E at 1 & 4£ 

P. M. 



\i Cirri,— i Strati, ~i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, rv_i Cumulo-strati, wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning 
E. rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. 



lvii 



Abstract of the Results of the Hour!// Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
gin the month of July 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c, 



P 



22 
2:'. 

24 

2.3 
26 

27 

28 

29 

30 
31 



-2 a 
o o 

. ej 



o 
137.0 



128.5 

138.8 

138.7 
134.0 



a ~0 



Indies 



130.0 



136.5 
95.2 



Wind. 



Prevail ina; 
direction. 



Ph 



SbyW,E&EbyN 



0.33 E by N & E ! 0.8 



0.38 



0.02 



*2.05 
3.26 
0.73 



E & S 



[W 
SSE.SSW&Sby 



s s w & s w 

s w 

s w 

"W& s w 

s w&ssw 
s w&s 



1.4 

0.4 

0.8 



2.0 
3.5 
1.2 






60.6 
165.2 

219.4 

203.8 
157.5 

157.0 

111.3 

203.3 

197.4 
107.0 



General aspect of tlie Sky. 



S to 4 a. m., Vi to 7 a. m., \i 
to 10 a. m., ^i to 7 p. si., \i to 
U p. m. L on Wat 8 p. m. D at 
5 1 p\r. 

\i to 4 a. m. O to 12 A. M. 
clouds of Different kinds to 1 1 
p. m. T between 11 & 12 a. m. L 
at 9 & 10 p. M. Slight E after 
intervals. 

S to 5 a. m. O to 9 a. M., "i 
to 6 p. m. B to 11 p.m. T at 12i 
a. m. E between 11 & 12 a. m., 
at 3 J, 5.V and 7| p. m. 

Clouds of Different kinds. 
LightE at 2\, 3|, lOi 11 & 12 

A. M. 

S to 11 a.m., ~i & \i to 3 p.m. 
O to 11 p. m. L from 7| to 11 
p. m. D at Z\, 3| a. m. R at 11 

P. M. 

O to 8 p. m. S to 11 p. m. T 
from If to 5 a. m. L at 2 a. m. 
R from midnight to 12 a. m. 

\i and \__i to 4 A. M. O to 11 
p. m. T at 5| p. m. D at 51 a.m. 
R from 1 1 to 11 p. m. 

Chiefly O. Slight R from mid. 
night to 6 a. m., at 2 & between 
7 and 8 p. m. 

S to 3 a. m., \i to 1 p. m. O 

to 4 P. M. S to 11 P. M. 

O. L on S W at 8 & 9 p.m. D 
at 7, 8, 10| a. m.. 74 & life p.m. 



\i _ Cirri — i Strati, ~i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, rv_i Cumulo-strati wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-Cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
R rain, D drizzle. 

* Fell on the 26th and 27th. 



lviii Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

iu the mouth of July 1873. 

Monthly Results. 



Indies. 
Mean height of the Barometer for the month ... ... ... 29.483 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 and 11 a.m. on the 30th... 29.610 
Mill, height of the Bai-ometer occurred at 4 p. m. on the 18th ... 29.194 

Extreme range o? the Barometer during the month ... ... 0.422 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures ... ... ... ... 29.536 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto ... ... ... ... 29.422 

Mean daily range of the Barometer during the mouth ... ... 0.114 



o 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 83.4 

Max. Temperature occurred at 3 r. m. on tlio 10th and 22nd ... 92.0 

Min. Temperature occurred at 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. on the 28th and 29th.. 77.5 

Extreme range ? of the Temperature during the month ... ... 14.5 

Mean of the daily Max. Temperature ... ... ... ... 88.2 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, ... ... ... ... 80.4 

ifeaa daity range of the Temperature during the month ... ... 7.8 



Mean Wet B i db Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 80.9 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 2.5 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month ... ... ... 79.1 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ... 4.3 

Inches. 
Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 0.973 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 10.45 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 1.51 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.87 

o 

Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month ... ... 135.0 



Inches. 

Eained 30 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours n ,.. ... 3.26 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 14.76 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... ... ... 13.60 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ... S. W & S. S. W. 

* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



Meleo rological Observations , 



lis 



£ V 



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fcr. 


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Meteorological Observations. 



Ix 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the /Surveyor Ueneral's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of August 1873. 

Latitude 22° 33' 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34.." East. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.1 1 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygronietrical elements 

dependent thereon. 



Date. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 



=« 






o 








+J 




^3 




+2 


'53 

W 


o 

- 


PR 




— 


OT 




<K 


OQ 


(1) 




-<J 


a 


+j 





Range of the Barometer 
during the day. 



Max. 



Min. 



Diff. 



Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


29.576 


29.666 


29.523 


.641 


.686 


.583 


.617 


.672 


.540 


.551 


.607 


.468 


.521 


.565 


.457 


.560 


.647 


.503 


.625 


.689 


.576 


.690 


.743 


.546 


.714 


.755 


.663 


.705 


.779 


.646 


.713 


.774 


.666 


.756 


.798 


.717 


.717 


.763 


.655 


.667 


.728 


.609 


.657 


.709 


.589 


:662 


.719 


.607 


.679 


.720 


.625 


.678 


.729 


.627 


.676 


.735 


.592 


.654 


.724 


.585 


.678 


.737 


.604 


.681 


.734 


.599 


.666 


.725 


.610 


.642 


.695 


.566 


.629 


.689 


.561 


.630 


.710 


.556 


.606 


.655 


.542 


.545 


.604 


.468 


.489 


.533 


.426 


.537 


.600 


.484 


.570 


.618 


.507 



Inches. 

0.143 
.103 
.132 
.139 
.108 
.144 
.113 
.097 
.092 
.133 
.108 
.081 
.108 
.119 
.120 
.112 
.095 
.102 
.143 
.139 
.133 
.135 
.115 
.129 
.128 
.154 
.113 
.136 
.107 
.116 
.111 



3 ^ 

rn to 

fig 
a s 



3 



Range of the Tempera- 
ture during the day. 



Max. 



81.8 
82.5 
83.6 
84.5 
82.3 
81.2 
81.3 
82.7 
83.3 
80.9 
80.2 
79.5 
80.2 
82.1 
83.3 
84.2 
84.9 
83.3 
84.0 
83.9 
86.5 
86.0 
83.8 
85.3 
86.1 
85.5 
85.7 
83.2 
82.7 
83.0 
84.3 



Min. 



Diff. 



o 


o 


86.0 


80.0 


89.5 


79.0 I 


89.5 


78.6 i 


92.0 


80.5 


85.5 


80.0 


84.2 


79.5 


83.5 


80.0 


86.8 


79.5 


86.3 


82.0 


83.2 


77.4 


83.9 


76.6 


83.4 


77.0 


83.9 


77.2 


88.0 


78.6 


89.5 


79.0 


90.8 


80.8 


89.5 


82.0 


90.0 


79.5 


90.5 


79.0 


90.7 


80.0 


92.3 


82.5 


91.5 


83.0 


88.3 


81.4 


90.0 


81.5 


92.3 


82.2 


90.0 


82.5 


91.8 


81.5 


89.0 


80.0 


88.5 


79.5 


87.6 


80.2 


90.5 


81.0 



6.0 

10.5 

10.9 

11.5 

5.5 

4.7 

3.5 

7.3 

4.3 

5.8 

7.3 

6.4 

6.7 

9.4 

10.5 

10.0 

7.5 

10.5 

11.5 

10.7 

9.8 

8.5 

6.9 

8.5 

10.1 

7.5 

10.3 

9.0 

9.0. 

7.4 

9.5 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at tli® 
several hours during the day. 



Ij 



•Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the mou Hi of August 1873. 

Dail j Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent (hereon. — ( Continued.) 



Date. 



pq 



pq 



R 



P4 



o 






pi & 



O .~ 

t> o 
o o 

br u 

'S3 
>~ s 



O _c - '£ S 



+3 , . '~ 

a - ^ 

S3 'rj £ 

h~ a) in 



= 
o 
-.3 P*. 



S *1 tM 



— 



C 1 



- - ~ 



- p a 

£ s s 

g - 3 

: >,2 

~ -to ^> 



a> r j f-, 





o 


o 


o 





Indies. 


T. gr. 


>' T. gr. 




1 


79.9 


1.9 


78.6 


3.2 


! 0.958 


1 10.32 


1.08 


0.91 


2 


80.3 


2.2 


78.8 


3.7 


.964 


j .36 


.28 


.89 


3 


80.5 


3.1 


78.3 


5.3 


.949 


.18 


.85 


.85 


4 


81.0 


3.5 


78.5 


6.0 


.955 


.23 


2.12 


.83 


5 


80.1 


2.2 


78.6 


3.7 


.958 


.30 


1.28 


.89 


6 


79.6 


1.6 


78.5 


2.7 


.955 


.29 


0.92 


.92 


7 


79.6 


1.7 


78.4 


2.9 


.952 


.25 


.99 


.91 


8 


80.0 


2.7 


78.1 


4.6 


.943 


.32 


1.60 


.86 


9 


81.1 


2.2 


79.6 


3.7 


.989 


.60 


.33 


.89 


30 


78.9 


2.0 


77.5 


3.4 


.925 


9.98 


.12 


.90 


11 


79.0 


1.2 


78.2 


2.0 


.946 


10.21 


0.67 


.94 


12 


78.2 


1.3 


77.3 


2.2 


.919 


9.91 


.72 


.93 


13 


78.9 


1.3 


78.0 


2.2 


.940 


10.15 


.73 


.93 


24 


79.7 


2.4 


78.0 


4.1 


.940 


.11 


1.40 


.88 


15 


80.2 


3.1 


78.0 


5.3 


.940 


.09 


.84 


.85 


16 


80.5 


3.7 


77.9 


6.3 


.937 


.04 


2.20 


.82 


17 


81.6 


3.3 


79.3 


5.6 


.979 


.46 


.03 


.84 


18 


80.2 


3.1 


78.0 


5.3 


.940 


.09 


1.84 


.85 


19 


80.6 


3.4 


78.2 


5.8 


.946 


.13 


2.04 


.83 


20 | 


81.3 


2.6 | 


79.5 


4.4 


.986 


.57 


1.56 


.87 


21 


82.9 


3.6 


80.7 


5.8 i 


1.024 


.91 


2.19 


.83 


22 


82.1 


3.9 


79.4 


6.6 


0.983 


.47 


.44 


.81 


23 


81.0 


2.8 


79.0 


4,8 


.970 


.40 


1.70 


.86 


24 


81.6 


3.7 


79.0 1 


6.3 


.970 


.37 


2.27 


.82 


25 


81.9 


4.2 


79.0 


7.1 


.970 


.35 


.60 


.80 


26 


81.9 


3.6 i 


79.4 


6.1 


.983 


.49 


.23 


.83 


27 


81.9 


3.8 


79.2 


6.5 


.970 


.41 


.39 


.81 


28 


80.7 


2.5 


78.9 


4.3 


.967 


.39 


1.50 


.87 


29 


SO. 6 


2.1 


79.1 


3.6 


.973 


.45 


.27 


.89 


30 


S1.2 


1.8 


79.9 


3.1 


.998 


.72 


.10 


.91 


31 


81.8 j 


2.5 


8o.o ; 


4.3 j 


1.001 | 


.72 


.56 


.87 



AJ1 the Hygrlometrica elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



Ixii 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month oj' August 187 &. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygroruelrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





o * 

jf -~ ■ 

it. t A 

■J g ej 

— ^ 

. 1 ~* 


Bange of the Barometer 

for each hour during 

the month. 


Mean Dry Bulb 
Thermometer. 


Bange of the Tempera- 

t tire for each hour 
during the month. 


Hour. 


I | 
Max. Min. Dill'. 


Max. Min. Diff, 



fiiclies. Inches. . Inches. Inches. 



Mid- 
night. 


29.654 


29.767 


29.514 


0.253 


81.4 


85.0 


77.6 


7.4 


1 


.644 


.716 


.507 


.239 


81.2 


85.0 


77.3 


7.7 


2 


.6:i3 


.735 


.502 


.233 


80.9 


83.5 


77.2 


6.3 


3 


.622 


.725 


.483 


.212 


80.8 


83.3 


77.2 


6.1 


4 


.615 


.717 


.172 


.215 


80.7 


83.5 


77.2 


6.3 


5 


.627 


.751 


.482 


.269 


80.6 


83.0 


77.0 


6.0 


6 


.611 


.766 


.498 


.268 


80.6 


83.0 


77.2 


5.S 


7 


.657 


.780 


.513 


.267 


81.0 


83.5 


77-5 


6.0 


8 


.670 


.782 


.525 


.257 


82.3 


85.0 


77.8 


7.2 


9 


.681 


.788 


.533 


.255 


83.5 


87.0 i 


77.4 


9.6 


10 


.683 


.798 


.533 


.265 


84,8 


89.0 


78.0 


11.0 


11 


.676 


.798 


.518 


.280 


85.8 


90.5 


79.4 


11.1 



Noon. 


.661 


.790 


.508 


.282 


86.2 


91.0 


78.5 


12.5 


1 


.639 


.761 


.176 


.285 


86.8 


92.0 


78.5 


13 5 


2 


.613 


.715 


.155 


.290 


86.8 


92.3 


79.0 


13.3 


3 


.594 


.736 


.432 


.301 


86.8 


92.0 


79.3 


12.7 


4 


.580 


.721 


.126 


.295 


86.6 


92.3 


79.7 


12.6 


5 


.578 


.726 


.131 


.295 


85.3 


91.3 


80.0 


11.3 


6 


.588 


.734 


.138 


.296 


81.2 


88.5 


78.2 


10.3 


7 


.6i»7 


.711 


.l~i 


.289 


83.3 


86.6 


78.0 


8.6 


8 




.748 


.480 


.268 


82.9 


86.0 


78.6 


7.4 


9 


.651 


.760 


.502 


.258 


82.4 


85.8 


76.6 


9.2 


10 


.667 


.767 


.516 


.251 


82.0 


85.7 


76.8 


8.9 


11 


.665 


.771 


.519 


.255 


81.7 


85.0 


77.8 


7.2 



The Me;. i. Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 

Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours daring the month. 



lxiii 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of August 1873. 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued). 



Hour. 


Mean Wet Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 


Dry Bulb above Wet. 


.3 

'o 
is 

n 

CD 

a 

o 
O 


Dry Bulb above Dew 
Point. 


Mean Elastic force of 
Vapour. 


Mean Weight of Vapour 
in a Cubic foot of air. 


Additional Weight of 
Vapour required for 
complete saturation. 


Mean degree of Humi- 
dity, complete satura- 
tion being unity. 










o 





Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




Mid- 


















night. 


79.8 


1.6 


78.7 


2.7 


0.961 


10.35 


0.92 


0.92 


1 


79.7 


1.5 


78.6 


2.6 


.958 


.32 


.89 


.92 


2 


79.6 


1.3 


78.7 


2.2 


.961 


.37 


.73 


.93 


3 


79.5 


1.3 


78.6 


2.2 


.958 


.34 


.73 


.93 


4 


79.5 


1.2 


78.7 


2.0 


.961 


.37 


.67 


.111 


5 


79.5 


1.1 


78.7 


1.9 


.961 


.37 


.64 


.94 


6 


79.5 


1.1 


78.7 


1.9 


.961 


.37 


.64 


.94 


7 


79.8 


1.2 


79.0 


2.0 


.970 


.46 


.68 


.94 


8 


80.4 


1.9 


79.1 


3.2 


.973 


.47 


1.11 


.90 


9 


80.6 


2.9 


78.6 


4.9 


.958 


.28 


.72 


.86 


10 


81.2 


3.6 


78.7 


6.1 


.961 


.29 


2.17 


.83 


11 


81.3 


4,5 


78.1 


7.7 


.943 


.06 


.77 


.78 


Noon. 


81.6 


4.6 


78.4 


7.8 


.952 


.15 


.84 


.78 


1 


81.9 


4.9 


79.0 


7.8 


.970 


.33 


.88 


.78 


2 


82.1 


4.7 


79.3 


7.5 


.979 


.42 


.79 


.79 


3 


82.1 


4.7 


79.3 


7.5 


.979 


.42 


.79 


.79 


4 


81.7 


4.9 


78.8 


7.8 


.9i!l 


.27 


.87 


.78 


5 


81.5 


3.8 


78.8 


6.5 


.964 


.29 


.35 


.81 


6 


81.1 


3.1 


78.9 


5.3 


.967 


.37 


1.87 


.85 


7 


80.8 


2.5 


79.0 


4.3 


.970 


.42 


.51 


.87 


8 


80.7 


2.2 


79.2 


3.7 


.976 


.48 


.31 


.89 


9 


80.4 


2.0 


79.0 


3.4 


.970 


.41 


.17 


.90 


10 


80.2 


1.8 


78.9 


3.1 


.967 


.41 


.06 


.91 


11 


80.0 


1.7 


78.8 


2.9 


.964 


.38 


0.99 


.91 



All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations. 



lxiv 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's 0[]ice, Calcutta, 
in the month of August 1873. 









Solar Radiation, 


Weather, &c. 






t>r. > . 


Wind. 






CO -J 








c 


Prevailing 


jj ai " 'S 


General aspect of the Sky. 


la 
P 


i- 


l—i ,— 1 


direction. 


« on tf o 

S £ P ^ 






o 


Inches 




lb 


Miles 




1 


139.0 


0.74 


SSW.SE&SSE 


1.2 


77.4 


O to 10 A. M. S to 11 P.M. 
Slight E at after intervals. 


2 


139.8 


0.08 


SE&E S E 




178.9 


O to 5 p. m., Vd to 9 a. m. 
~i to 1 p.m., O to 5 p. m., \i to 
9 p. m., B to 11 p.m. T between 
2 & 3 p. m. Light R at 124 a.m. 
1|, 2| & 3.| p. m. 


3 


145.0 


0.13 


SSE&SE 




97.0 


B to 2 A. M. Vv_i to 4 A. M., 
v_i to 7 a. m. ^i to 5 p. m., \i 
to 11 p. m. Tat 4£ & 5 ^p. m. 
L between 7 & 8 p. m. Slight R 
at 4| a. m. 3 & 4 p. m. 


4 


141.0 


0.07 


SSE,SE&EbyS 


0.8 


72.4 


v_i to 2 A. m., \i to 6 A. M. 
~ito 11 p. m. Tat4£p. m. Liyht 
R at 3| & 4,i p. M . 


6 


:i39.0 


0.11 


SE&E 


0.6 


154.8 


S tO 8 A. M., ^i to 11 P. M. 

Light R afterintervals, after 9 


6 




0.34 


S E& S 


1.9 


^230.5 


A. M. 

O to 4 p. m. S to 8 p. m., v__i 
to 11 p. m. Slight R at afterin- 
tervals from 2 a. m. to 1| p. m. 


7 




0.05 


S&S SE 




170.0 


Vd to 5 a. m. O to 4 p. m., Vd 
to 11 p. m. Light R at 5i, 6k, 
10 & 11 A. M. 


8 


129.0 




S S E & SS W 




122.0 


S to 6 p. m., Vd to 11 p. m. 












D at 8 a. m. 


9 


125.5 




ssw&s 




191.1 


O. D at 1, 8, 1H a.m. & 6 p.m. 


JO 




0.32 


S& SS w 




177.2 


O to 6 p. m. S. to 11 p. m. L. 












from 8 to 10 p. m. Slight R from 












6h to 12 A. M. 


U 




1.12 


SSW&S 




107.1 


O to 4 p. m. S to 7 p. m. O to 

11 P. M. T at llf A. M. & 8 P. M. 

L at 8 p. m. R from 10| a. m. 
to 4 & 8 to 11 p. M . 


12 




*1.61 


s w & s s w 


0.8 


91.2 


O. Slight R from midnight 
to 7, 11 a. m. to 2 & at 6 p. m. 



v i Cirri, — i Strati, ~i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, ^ i Cumulo-strati, Vs_i Nimib, 
W Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
R rain, D drizzle. *Feel since 8 p. m., of the 11th 



lxv 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of August 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 




Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



W r. 






General aspect of the Sky. 






13 ... 
14, 140.0 

15 142.5 
I 

16 145.0 

17 149.0 
IS 142.0 

19 144.0 



20 146.0 

21 1 140.5 
22 145.2 



Inches 
1.27 



0.70 



0-11 



0.07 



SSW&SbyW 



lb 



... WSW&SSW 



0.10 S S W & S w 



0.93 



0.37 



WW, sw&s .. 



S by E & W S W 



W S W &S W 



Milt 
83. 



41.5 



S S W & S by W 



SE&S 

S by W & S S E 
S by E & S by W 



O to 5 p. m. clouds of dif- 
ferent kinds to 11 p. M. 11 from 
3| to 8 a. m. D from 9 a. m. to 
4 p. m. & at 10| p. ji. 

O to 5 a. M., \i to 8 a. M. O 
to 10 A. M. ^i to 7 P. M., \i to 
11 p. si., Slight R at 10 a. m. 
51, 6£, 8&11p. m. 

O to 3 a. m., Vi to 1 p. m. ^i 
to 4 p. m. O to 11 p. m. L at 11 
p. m. Light R between midnight 
!& 1 at If, 2h a. m., 7 & 10 p. m. 

Clouds of different kinds. L 
at midnight, 7 & 8 p. m. Slight. 
R at 5 |a. m., & 10 p. m. 

O to 6 a. m., ^i to 4 p. m. O 
to 8 p. m S to 11 p. m. Tat 6 
p. m. L at 7 p. m. 

O to 8 A. M., rsi to 7 p. m. S 
to 11 p. m. T between 4 & 5 p. jr. 
L at 10 & 11 p. m. Light B at 1, 
2, 3, 7 a. m. 4,5, 6 & 8f p. m. 

Vv_i to 2 A. M., v— i to 9 A. M., 

^i to 3 p. m. O to 11 p. m. L at 
midnight & 1 a. m., & from 7 to 
10 p. m. T & R from 6| to 11 

P. M. 

S to 5 a. m., Vi to 9 A. M., oi 
to 2 p. m. Oto 7 p. M. B to 11 
p. m. L at midnight. T & 11 be- 
tween 3 & 4 p. m. 

S to 6 a. m., -i to 7 p. m. S 
to 11 p. m. L on S from 7 to 10 
p. M. 

S to 1 a. m. B to 5 a. m., ^i 
to 7 P. M. B to 11 P. M. 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, ~i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, r>_i Cvunulo-strati, Vs i Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning 
R. rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. 1\ 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of August 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c, 





Oi OJ 


o o 


tc > 


Gua 

abo 
und 







Wind. 



Prevailing- 
direction. 



Ph 



o 
23 134.5 



140.0 
142.0 

146.0 
141.5 

133.2 
132.0 

133.3 



Inches 
0.04 



0.14 



0.04 



0.31 
0.70 

0.40 



143.0 0.48 



SbyE&ES E| ... 

ESE&NE ... 
E S E & S W 

S W & E by S 

S E, E & S by E 

E by S & E j 1.3 
E & S E ' 5.6 

S W & S S W 



S S W& S S E 



1.2 



o3 o 



109.0 

70.0 
104.4 

86.3 
147.4 

172.9 
222.6 

240.2 

107.6 



General aspect of the Sky. 



B to 2 a. si., v_i to 7 a. M., ^i 
to 2 p. m. O to 4 p. m. S to 11 
p. M. T at 2J p. m. Light R at 
12| a. m. 3 & 4|- p. M. 

M to 6 a. si., \i & ~i to 12 
a. m. S to 2 p. m., \i to 6 p. si., 
^ito 11 p. si. L from 7 to 11 p.m. 

^i to 1 a. m. B to 5 a. si., \i 
to 8 a. si., ~i to 7 p. si., M to 
11 p. si. L at midnight & 1 a. si. 
Slight R at 5 & 7k p. m. 

B to 4 a. si. S to 10 a. si., ^i 
to 7 p. si. B to 11 p. m. Light R 
at H & 2| p. si. 

B to 3 a. m., \i to 6 a. m. S 
to 9 a. si., ~i to 8 p. si. B to 11 
p. si. L on W at 7£ p. m. T & D 
between 5 & 6 p. si. 

Chiefly S. Slight Rfrom 1* to 
3, at 6 & 9| p. si. 

Cliiefly 6. Brisk wind from 
2§ to 6 p. m. T between 11 & 12 
A. si. L on W at 11 p. si. Slight 
R after intervals. 

O to 2 p. si., \i to 9 p. si., B 
to 11 p. si., L from midnight to 

a. si. Slight R at If, 3f, 4f, 
9 a. si., 1 & 4| p. si. 

B to 3 a. si. S to 5 a. si.,\i to 

9 A.M.,^1 to 1 P. ST. O to 5 P. ST., 

\i to 9 p. si., Vi to 11 p. si. T 
at 1 p. si. L from midnight to 2 
a. si. & at 11| p. si. R between 
1 & 2 & 5 & 6 p. si. 



\i _ Cirri — i Strati, '"i Cumnli. v_i Cirro-strati, ^-i Cumnlo-strati wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-Cumuli. B clear, S stratoni, O overcast. T thunder, L Ikhtninff 
R rain. D drizzle. P °' 



Ixvii 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* 

taken at the Surveyor General' 's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of August 1873. 

Monthly Results. 



Mean height of the Barometer for the month 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 and 11 a.m. on the 

Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 p. m. on the 29th 

Extreme range of the Barometer during the month 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto 
JSlean daily range of the Barometer during the month ... 



12th 



Inches. 

. 29.637 

. 29.798 

. 29.426 

. 0.372 

, 29.694 

, 29.574 

, 0.120 



Mean Dry Bulh Thermometer for the month 

Max. Temperature occurred at 2 & 4 y. m. on the 21st and 25th 

Min. Temperature occurred at 9 p. m. on the 11th 

lixtreme range of the Temperature during the month 

Mean of the daily Max. Temperature 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
JLTean daily range of the Temperature during the month ... 



o 

83.3 
92.3 

76.6 
15.7 

88.3 

80.0 

8.3 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month 

Mean Dry Bulh Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 



Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month 



,. 80.6 
2.7 

. 78.7 
4.6 

Inches. 
. 0.961 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 10.31 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 1.62 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.86 



Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 



o 
139.9 



Pained 27 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours 
Total amount of rain during the month 
Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month 
Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ... S. S. W & 



Inches. 

1.27 
10.23 



9.84. 
S. E. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



Meteorological Observations. 



lxviii 




Meteorological Observations. 



Ixix 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of September 1873. 

Latitude 22° 33' V North. Longitude 88° 20' 34," East. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above tlie sea level, 18.1 1 feet, 

Daily Means, Sic. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrieal elements 

dependent thereon. 







Range < 


>f the Barometer 


r£ 


B si n ge 


of the Tempera- 




. bo a •% 


dll 


'ing the day. 






tare c 


living the 


day. 


Date. 
































u-l +^ OS 


Max. 


Min. I 


)iff. 




Max. 


Min. 


Din", 




Inches. 


Inches. 


[nclies. In 


ches. 


o 


o 


o 





1 


29.5G4 


29.613 


29.507 < 


).106 


83.9 


89.3 


81.0 . 


8.3 


2 


.5 s;» 


.642 


.529 


.119 


83.0 


89.0 


80.0 


9.0 


3 


.507 


A 29 


.482 


.147 


84.0 


80.5 


79.5 


10.0 


4 


.504 


.550 


.429 


.121 


83.4 


88.0 


80.0 


8.0 


5 


.517 


.580 


.446 


.134 


S2.7 


89.0 


80.0 


9.0 


6 


.581 


.652 


.527 


.125 


78.6 


80.5 


76.5 


4,0 


7 


.660 


.711 


.612 


.099 


8-2.0 


86.8 


78.0 


8.8 


8 


.698 


.740 


.319 


.091 


85.0 


90.0 


80.5 


9.5 


9 


.69 1 


.741 


.631 


.110 


86.0 


90.0 


82.2 


7.8 


JO 


.646 


.696 


.557 


.139 


85.0 


91.0 


80.5 


10.5 


11 


.627 


.684 


.549 


.135 


84.6 


91.2 


82.0 


9.2 


12 


• 554 


.627 


.469 


.158 


82.1 


86.5 


80.0 


6.5 


13 


.599 


.666 


.525 


.141 


81.7 


87.8 


79.0 


8.8 


14 


• 658 


.703 


.605 


.008 


81.3 


86.2 


79.5 


6.7 


15 


•729 


.795 


.662 


.133 


83.5 


89.5 


79.3 


10.2 


ir, 


.782 


.850 


.709 


.141 


84,9 


90.5 


80.0 


10.5 


17 


.802 


.872 


.742 


.130 


84,0 


87.6 


82.0 


5.6 


18 


.783 


.856 


.721 


.135 


84.6 


89.5 


80.3 


9.2 


19 


.750 


.808 


.680 


.128 


84.8 


89.8 


81.0 


8.8 


20 


.708 


.769 


.643 


.126 


85.0 


91.0 


81.5 


9.5 


21 


.666 


.716 


.610 


.106 


86.1 


90.8 


82.4 


8.4 


22 


.639 


.690 


.588 


.102 


86.6 


92.0 


82.0 


10.0 


23 


.644 


.689 


.595 


.094 


86.8 


92.5 


82.5 


10.0 


24 


.682 


.732 


.636 


.096 


87.0 


93.0 


82.5 


10.5 


25 


.707 


.762 


.658 


.104 


83.7 


87.5 


81.5 


6.0 


26 


.718 


.772 


.665 


.107 


85.8 


92.0 


81.0 


11.0 


27 


.727 


.792 


.668 


.124 


86.6 


92.8 


82.2 


10.6 


28 


.711 


.755 


.647 


.108 


86.5 


92.5 


82.5 


10.0 


29 


.739 


.816 


.683 


.133 


86.6 


93.6 


81.5 


12.1 


30 


.791 


.859 


.736 


.123 


84.6 


91.5 


81.0 


10.5 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Balb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at the 
several hours during the day. 



Ixx 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of September 1873. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygroraetrical elements 

dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 



Date 


ean Wet Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 


ry Bulb above Wet. 


mrputed Dew Point. I 


ry Bulb above Dew j 
Point. 


can Elastic force of 
vapour. 


c .£ 
p., rt 

|> O 

O o 

"it ."« 

'Z r^ 

§ * 


dditional Weight of 
Vapour required for 
complete saturation. 


(■•in degree of II umi- j 
dity, complete satu- ( 

ration being unity, j 




3 


P 


o 


P 


a 


g. rt 


< 


S 
















Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


81.4 


2.5 


79.6 


4.3 


0.989 


10.60 


1.53 


0.87 


2 


80.6 


2.4 


78.9 


4,1 


.967 


.09 


.4:', 


.88 


3 


81.1 


2.9 


79.1 


4.9 


.973 


.42 


.75 


.86 


4 


81.3 


2.1 


79.8 


3.6 


.995 


.m 


.30 


.89 


5 


80.5 


2.2 


79.0 


3.7 


.970 


.42 


.30 


.89 


6 


77.7 


0.9 


77.1 


1.5 


.913 


9. 88 


0.50 


.95 


7 


79.6 


2.4 


77.9 


4.1 


.937 


10.08 


1.39 


.88 


8 


81.0 


4.0 


78.2 


6.8 


.946 


.11 


2.42 


.81 


9 


81.7 


4.3 


78.7 


7.3 


.961 


.26 


.65 


.80 


10 


81.7 


3.3 


79.4 


5.6 


.983 


.49 


.04 


.84 


21 


81.9 


2.7 


80.0 


4.6 


1.001 


.70 


1.69 


.86 


32 


80.1 


2.0 


78.7 


3.4 


0.961 


.35 


.16 


.90 


33 


79.6 


2.1 


78.1 


3.6 


.943 


.14 


.23 


.89 


34 


79.6 


1.7 


78.4 


2.9 


.952 


.25 


0.99 


.91 


35 


81.1 


2.4 


79.4 


4.1 


.983 


.54 


1.46 


.88 


36 


81.8 


3.1 


79.6 


5.3 


.989 


.58 


.91 


.85 


37 


81.4 


2.6 


79.6 


4.4 


.989 


.60 


.57 


.87 


38 


81.0 


3.6 


78.5 


6.1 


.955 


.23 


2.16 


.83 


39 


81.3 


3.5 


78.8 


6.0 


.964 


.31 


.15 


.83 


20 


81.5 


3.5 


79.0 


6.0 


.970 


.37 


.16 


.83 


21 


81.8 


4.3 


78.8 


7.3 


.964 


.29 


m 


.80 


22 


81.1 


5.5 


77.8 


8.8 


.934 


9.95 


3.19 


.76 


23 


81.9 


4.9 


79.0 


7.8 


.970 


10.33 


2.88 


.78 


24 


81.4 | 


5.6 | 


78.0 1 


9.0 


.940 


.01 


3.28 


.75 


25 i 


80.7 


3.0 


78.6 


5.1 


.958 


.28 


1.79 


.85 


26 


80.9 


4,9 


77.5 


8.3 


.925 


9.88 


2.95 


.77 


27 


81.6 


5.0 


78.6 


8.0 


.958 


10.21 


.93 


.78 


28 


81.1 


5.4 


77.9 


8.6 


.937 


9.98 


3.12 


.76 


29 


80.6 


6.0 


77.o ; 


9.6 


.910 


.69 


.45 


.74 


30 


80.0 


4.6 


76.8 


7.8 


.905 


.67 


2.72 

1 


.78 



All the Hygroraetrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



Ixx 



distract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of September 187S. 

Hourly Means, Ac of the Observations and of the Hy geometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





Z " 


.Range of the Barometer 


z.. 


J 


aiige of the Tempera- 




f 33 • 


for eacl) hour during 


n S 




ture for each hour 




Ho 


the month. 


03 

p a 

£ 93 
88 -5 




during the month. 


Hour. 


1 
Max. Min. Dill". 


Max. Min. Diff. 




-^a 











Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. 



Mid- 



night. 


29.679 


29.819 


29. 529 


! 0.290 


82.4 


85.0 


79.0. 


6.0 


1 


.668 


.807 


.519 




82.0 


84.7 


78.6 


6.1 


2 


.659 


.797 


.510 


.287 


81.7 


84.5 


78.2 


6.3 


3 


.650 


.790 


.503 


.287 


81.5 


8 i,2 


77.5 


6.7 


4 


.615 


.782 


.490 


.292 


81.3 


81,0 


77.5 


6.5 


5 


.60S 


.788 


.198 


.290 


81.2 


83.7 


77.5 


6.2 


6 


.673 


.800 


.511 


.289 


81.1 


83.4 


76.5 


6.9 


7 


.687 


.830 


.518 


.312 


81.6 


84.0 


77-2 


6 8 


8 


.708 


.858 


.525 


.333 


83.3 


85.7 


77.5 


8.2 


9 


.720 


.872 


.550 


.322 


85.1 


87.7 


78.0 


9.7 


10 


.719 


.864 


.5 M 


.323 


86.5 


89.5 


78.0 


11.5 


11 


.707 


.852 


. .529 


.323 


87.5 


91.2 


78.5 


12.7 


Noon. 


.689 


.825 


.513 


.312 


88.2 


92.1 


78.0 


14.1 


1 


.662 


.787 


.489 


.298 


88.7 


92.5 


77.5 


15.0 


2 


.637 


.771 


.460 


.311 


88.7 


93.6 


77.7 


15.9 


3 


.618 


.7^3 


.429 


.324 


87.6 


93.0 


78.4 


14.6 


4 


.611 


.718 


.440 


.308 


87.3 


92.5 


79.5 


13.0 


5 


.614 


.746 , 


.439 


.3f)7 


86.5 


91.8 


79.3 


12.5 


6 


.625 


.754 


.462 


.292 


85.2 


89.0 


79.5 


9.5 


7 


.617 


.779 


.486 


.293 


84.3 


87.8 


80.2 


7.6 


8 


.671 


.799 


.511 


.288 


83.7 


86.6 


80.2 


6.4 


9 


.689 


.824 


.538 


.286 


83.3 


86.5 


80.0 


6.0 


10 


.699 


.835 


.540 


.295 


82.8 


86.0 


80.0 


6.0 


11 


.69-1 


.839 1 


.536 


.303 


82.6 - 


85.5 


79.0 


6.5 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wei Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 

hours during the month. 



lxxii 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of September 1873. 



Hourly Means, &c. of tlie Observations and of the Hygronietrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued). 



Hour. 



H 



CO o 



g 



Mid- 
night 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



80.7 
80.5 
80.4 
80.2 
80.1 
80.0 
79.9 
80.2 
80.5 
81.0 
81.5 
81.6 



P3 



► 
P 

•-a 

CD 

P< 



1.7 
1.5 
1.3 
1.3 

1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.4 
2.8 
4.1 
5.0 
5.9 






a a. 
-I 



a. 3 









"~ fl P ~ 



5 S-a 



2 


o 


^ -a 


* 


<L 


^ =3 


w 




£' be 


a> 


bi 


S a 


cc 

"pn 


0> 
PI 


g"8 



79.5 
79.4 
79.5 
79.3 
79.3 
79.2 
79.1 
79.2 
78.5 
78.1 
78.5 
78.1 



2.9 
2.6 
2.2 
2.2 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.4 
4.8 
7.0 
8.0 
9.4 



Inches 

0.986 

.983 

.979 
.979 
.976 
.973 
.976 
.953 
.9 13 
.953 
.913 



T. gr. ! T. gr. 



io.no 

.56 
.62 
.55 

.55 
.52 
.49 
.52 
.'25 
.08 
.18 
.04 



1.01 
0.91 

.75 
.76 
.69 
.69 
.GS 
.82 
1.68 
2.49 
.92 



•~ .2 



0.91 
.92 
.93 
.93 
.94 
.94 
.94 
.93 

.80 

.78 
.74 



Noon. 


81.8 


' 6.4 


7S.0 


10.2 


.940 


9.99 


.77 


.73 


1 


81.7 


7.0 


77.5 


11.2 


.925 


.82 


4.14 


.70 


2 . 


81.9 


6.8 


77.8 


10.9 


.934 


.91 


.05 


.71 


3 


81.4 


6.2 


77.7 


9.9 


.931 


.90 


3.62 


.73 


4 


81.4 


5.9 


. 77.9 


9.4 


.937 


.98 


.43 


.74 


5 


81.3 


5.2 


78.2 


8.3 


.946 


10.09 


.01 


.77 


6 


81.1 


4.1 


78.2 


7.0 


.946 


.11 


2.50 


.80 


7 


81.2 


3.1 


79.0 


5.3 


.970 


.40 


1.88 


.85 


8 


80.9 


2.8 


78.9 


4.8 


.967 


.37 


.70 


.^6 


9 


80.8 


2.5 


79.0 


4.3 


.970 


.12 


.51 


.87 


10 


80.6 


2.2 


79.1 


3.7 


.973 


.45 


.30 


.89 


11 


80.6 


2-0 


79.2 


3.4 


.976 


.5o j 


.18 


.90 



All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations. 



N\m 



Abstract of lite lies/ills of (lie Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of September 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 





~ • 




o 




<Jj ■- 






«. 




- 

p 



WlND. 



s "TO 



Prevailing 
direction. 



Pu 



>-j .-£ General aspect of tlie Sky. 
vg '5 

P i: 



1 136.0 



1 uclies 
I 0.0'J 



l!> Miles 
SS E & E S E 1.0 138.4 



6 ... 

7 134.0 



\i to 8 a. m. -i to 12 a. m. S 
to 5 p. si. \i to 1 1 p. m. L. on 
S W at Midnight, Slight R at 
1§ & 4 p. M. 
E S E & S E 38.2 Clouds of different kinds, 

Light R after intervals. 

3 143.0 ; ... E & S li 182.0 \i to 1 a. m S to 5 a. m. \ i 

to 8 a. m. ^i to 6 p. ii. \i to 11 
p. m. D at \2k a. si. 3| & 11± 

P. M. 

4 123.0 0.11 S E & S ... 196.3 1 Scuds to 8 a. m. ^i to 7 v. m. 

\i to 11 p. m. T at U & 3 p. m. 

Slight R, at 1| a. m. l.\, 3, 5 & 

7 P. M. 

0.70 | S & E S E 0.8 190.7 i to 7 a. m. "i to 1 p. m. O 

to 5 p. m. V>i to [9 p. m. O to 1 1 
p. m. T between 2 & 3 p. m. It 
from 2| to 3 1 , al 5 & 11 p. m. 

2.32 S S W 4 Shy W, 1.8 182.7 I O. R nearly the whole day. 



8, 139.0 



9 137.8 



10 136.5 



11 



133.7 



0.19 S by W & S W 

SW&WbyS 

... WbyS&WbyN 
0.29 W by N & E by S 



0.29 



E by S & IF 



1.0 



178.0 | O to 9 a. m. "i to 6 p. m. B 

to 11 p. m. T from 1 to 3 a. m. 

Slight R from Midnight to 3 at 

7^ & 9 A. M. 
133.8 ^i to 2 a. ii. v_i to 6 a. si. B 

to8A.ii.-~ito3p.il. \itoll 

P. M. 

98.8 \i to 12 a. si. \_i to 6 p. m. 
B to 8 a. m. \_i to 11 p. m. L 
on N E at 6h p. si. 



106.2 



109.9 



\-i A\i to 8 a. m. "i to 3 
p. m. O to 11 p. 3i. T at 2| Si 4 
p. M. L on S between 8 & 9 P. m. 
Slight R at 2£, 4 1, 6^ 9 & 10 

P. M. 

O to 1 A. M. \i to 9 A. M. ~i 
to 2 p. m. O to 5 p m. S to 8 
p. si. \i to 1 1 p. si. T at 3 p.m. 
L at 7. 8 A 1 1 p. si. R at 3 & 4 p.m. 



V i Cirri, — i Strati, "" i Cumuli, s_i Cirro-strati, >~>-i Cumulo-strati, v^_i Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
It rain, D drizzle. 



XXIV 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of September 1873. 

Solar Eadiation, Weather, &c. 





•j 


a, "^ 




- a 


w. fe . 




o 


5 2^3 , 




X 'Z 


6 * 5 


c 


y-^ 


-i .; o 


R 




rJ5 



Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



• b : j-. £' General aspect of the Sky. 






o ITnches 
12 131.0 0.72 



E 



lb 

2.4 



Mile. 
115.3 



13 136.0 0.75 E S E, S E& SSE 2.0 238.0 
14] 130.0 0-13 | S E & S by E ... ! 185.7 



15 112.0 0.07 

i ! 

16 147.0 | 0.06 

| 

17 139.5 

18 140.2 

19 143.5 

20 143.5 



21 



144.0 



SbyE,SSE&SSW ! 
SS W 

S W, & S by E 

S by E & S S W 
S S W & S W 

S S W 

S S W & W 



149.8 

98.5 

94,1 

98.4 
133.0 
170.1 

150.4 



S to 2 a. m. W to 6 a. m. O 
to 7 p. M. S to 11 p. m. L from 
Midnight to 2 a. m. & at 8 p. m. 
'I! at of. Hi & from 12| a. m. 

to 2 P. M. 

Chiefly O. T between 2 & 3 
p. m. 1\ from Midnight to 3 at 
8h 9§, 11 a. m. & 2£p. m. 

S to 1 a. hi. M to 4 a. m. S 
to 7 a. m. ^-i to 1 p. m. O to 8 
p. m. \i to 11 p. m. T at 11 
a. m. L on S W at 4a.m. Light 
E at 8$, 10f, 12 a. m. & 5 p. M. 

\i to 8 a. m. ^i to 7 p. wr. 15 
to 1 1 p. m. Light K at 1^, 5, 5k 
& 6g p. it. 

B to 2 a. m. \i to 9 a. m. '"i 
to 6 p. m. O to 11 p. m. T at 9 

6 K) p. m. L from 7 to 10 p. m. 
Light E at 5i, 9 & 11 p. m. 

O to 1 A. M. \i to 5 A. M. S 
to 8 A. m. \i to 11 A. m. O to 3 
P. M. \i to 7 P. M. B to 11 P. M. 

I) at Midnight. 

B to 7 a. m. ^i to 5 p. m. si 
to 7 p. m. B to 11 p. m. L on 

W W at Midnight 7 & 8 p. m. 

B to 5 A. m. \i to 10 A. M. 
~i to 12 a. M. \i to 6 p. M. 

to 11 P. M. 

B to 8 a. M. ^i to 3 p. M. 
to 7 p. m. B to 11 p. m. L on 
at 7 & 10 p. ii. T & D at 

P. M. 

B to 7 A. M. \i to 
~i to 1 p. m. S to 5 p. 

7 p. m. B to 11 p. Ji. L on N at 

ni p. m. 



B 

\i 
N 
9A 



10 A. M. 
M. \i to 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, 

V.i Cirro-cumuli. 

E- rain, D drizzle 



^i Cumuli, \_i Cirro-strati. o_ i Cumulo-strati, wi Nimbi, 
B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, I thunder. L lightning 



Meteorological Ohservations. 1x3 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of September 1873. 

Solar Badiation, Weather, &c, 



o 
I 141.8 

143.0 



139.0 
131.0 

141.5 



143.0 
144.4 



Qj 


o 




fcf. S> 




a o 

PS -O 


-T3 


3 


cd 


P 




« 


C 


ae| 


r— 1 





\Y 



Prevailing 
direction. 









Jj 




fc^ 


y. £ 


t>> 


.■t: 








C3 


c 


^ j- 







Pn 




t-* 



Inches 



146.8 
139.0 



S W & W by N 

W by N & W 

W, N W & S W 

S W & s s w 



s s w & s w 



s w & w 
s w 



S W,E& S byE, 
SbyE & Eby S 1 



General aspect of the ^y. 



95.7 
113.3 

99.0 
120.8 

139.9 



128.0 
135.3 



104.8 
95.8 



B to 12 a. si. '-i to 5 p. M. 
B to 11 r. m. 

B to 6 a. it. V>i to 8 a. si. B 
to 1 1 a. si. ^i to 4 p. m. B to 1 1 
p. m. T at 2| & 3| p. m. D at 
3| p. 31. 

B to 5 p. M. \i to G p. 3i. O 
to 11 p. 3i. Tat 4 p. m. 

8 to 8 A. 31. Vd to 1 P. M. 
S to 5 p. m. \i & v_i to 11 p. sr. 
T at U & 4| p. 3i. 

Bto 1 a. m. W to 10 a. 3r. 
\i to 1 p. 31. ^i to 4 p. 3i. B 
to lip. m. LonNE at 11 p. m. 

B to 1 p. m. \i to Up. m. 

B to 7 a. 3i. \i to 1 p. 3i. ~i 
to 4 p. 31. \i to 6 p. 3i. B to 11 
p. 3i. D at 2\ p. si. 

B to 10 a. m. ^i to 8 p. 3r. v_i 
to 11 p. M.LonNW between 
9J & 101 P . M . j) at 6 i P M 

Clouds of different kinds T 
at 4j & 5 p. si. D at 3J p. m. 



N i .9j. rri ~7, { Strati '"i Cumuli, V_i Cirro-strati, n_j Cumulo-strah wi Nimbi, 
W Cirro-Cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning. 
K rain, D drizzle. ° 



lxxvi M( teorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Ojjice, Calcutta, 
in the mouth of September 1873. 

Monthly Results. 



Indies. 

Mean height of the Barometer for the month ... ... ... 29.668 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 9 a. m. oh the 17th ... 29.872 

Miu. height of the Barometer occurred at 3 p. m. on the 4th ... 29.429 

Extreme range of the Barometer during the month ... ... 0.443 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures ... ... ... ... 29.726 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto ... ... ... ... 29.605 

Mean daily raiuje of the Barometer during the mouth ... ... 0.121 



o 

Mean Dry Bulh Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 84.3 

Max. Temperature occurred at 2 y. M. ou the 29th... ... 93.6 

Min. Temperature occurred at 6 p. M. on the 6th ... ... ... 76.5 

Extreme range of the Temperature during the month ... ... 17.1 

Mean of the daily Max. Temperature ... ... ... ... 89.7 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, ... ... ... ... 80.7 

Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month ... ... 9.0 



Mean Wet Bulh Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 80.9 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 3.4 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month ... ... ... 78.5 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ... 5.8 

Inches. 
Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 0.955 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 10.23 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 2.05 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.83 

o 

Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month ... ... 137.3 



Indies. 
Rained 21 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours ... ... 2.32 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 5.82 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... ... ••• 5.44-. 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ... S. S. W & S. W. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



Meteorological Observations, 



lxxvii 



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•no ui«}£ 












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•110 Ulll)[ 








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av "n: •& 




ci 


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■uo nnsy 

A\ \M 
•uo ninj[ 








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01 M 01 -H 










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rHrH 




H CO 01 01 rH rH 


•no uii!j[ 




"M A 'q AV 


<N 


01 CI CI CI CI 01 01 — • rH iH 


CO 


rH 01 rH Ol rH 01 "1 11 01 01 


■no tnx!'j£ 


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w 


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rH01JOTjlU5COfc»00ffl-JrH 



Meteorological Observations. 



lxxv 



rui 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of October 1873. 

Latitude 22° 33' \" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34" East. 

Height of tlie Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





O u 


Range 


?f the Barometer 


""2 ^ 


Bange 


of the Tempera- 




.if' S^ 


during the d 


ay. 




ture c 


uring the 


day. 












P ° 








Date. 
















n^Zi 








a a 










1 «« 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 





o 





o 


1 


29.709 


29.858 


29.725 


0.133 


84.9 


91.0 


79.5 


11.5 


2 


.788 


.855 


.724 


.131 


84.8 


91.5 


80.0 


11.5 


3 


.777 


.842 


.701 


.141 


85.7 


93.0 


78.5 


14.5 


4 


.773 


.827 


.713 


.114 


83.9 


89.5 


79.2 


10.3 


5 


.788 


.854 


.739 


.115 


84.4 


91.0 


78.0 


13.0 


6 


.832 


.907 


.782 


.125 


82.6 


89.5 


76.8 


12.7 


7 


.843 


.915 


.778 


• 137 


82.1 


88.8 


76.0 


12.8 


8 


.844 


.908 


.792 


• 116 


81.8 


88.5 


75.5 


13.0 


9 


.877 


.950 


.825 


.125 


81.5 


87.5 


75.0 


12.5 


JO 


.891 


.963 


.827 


• 136 


82.6 


89.1 


• 77.0 


12.1 


11 


.882 


.950 


.818 


• 132 


79.4 


86.2 


77.0 


9.2 


12 


.784 


.851 


.703 


• 148 


80.4 


87.6 


76.0 


11.6 


13 


.771 


.835 


.712 


• 123 


80.9 


88.0 


76.5 


11.5 


14 


.839 


.903 


.799 


.104 


81.2 


88.3 


75.8 


12.5 


15 


.824 


.888 


.754 


.134 


82.3 


89.0 


76.5 


12.5 


16 


.812 


.880 


.770 


• 110 


82.9 


90.0 


76.8 


13.2 


17 


.840 


.907 


.794 


.113 


82.6 


90.5 


76.5 


14.0 


18 


.840 


.905 


.781 


.124 


83.5 


90.4 


77.0 


13.4 


19 


.813 


.864 


.749 


•115 


83.7 


90.5 


79.5 


11.0 


20 


.838 


.904 


.775 


.129 


84,3 


91.5 


79.0 


12.5 


21 


.857 


.915 


.806 


.109 


84,6 


90.8 


80.7 


10.1 


22 


.864 


.931 


.813 


.118 


83.8 


89.5 


79.4 


10.1 


23 


.874 


.941 


.825 


.116 


81.8 


87.8 


77.6 


10.2 


24 


.862 


.932 


.810 


.122 


81.9 


88.6 


7c. 5 


12.1 


25 


.871 


.919 


.827 


.092 


82.0 


88.5 


7(i.8 


11.7 


26 


.850 


.919 


.797 


.122 


80.4 


86.3 


74.0 


12.3 


27 


.821 


.881 


.764 


.117 


80.6 


87.5 


75.2 


12.3 


28 


.827 


.884 


.781 


.103 


77.5 


85.Q 


71.2 


13.8 


29 


.848 


.902 


.809 


.093 


77.8 


87.3 


70.5 


16.8 


30 


.870 


.961 


.819 


.142 


78.3 


88.2 


70.0 


18.2 


31 


.857 


.923 


.799 


.124 


.778 


87.8 


69 3 


18.5 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at the 
several hours during the day. 



ki 



CX1X 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the mouth of October 1873. 



Daily Means, <&c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent tli ere on. — (Continued.) 



Date. 


u 

0) 

A 

H 

w . 


0) 

o 

OS 


'3 

P-< 
ft 


[5 
P 

t> 
o 


o 
u 

a 

o 
'-J2 
w 


c .b 

p. rt 

> o 

° % 

'Z ~s 


al Weight of 
r required for 
?te saturation. 


B «S &» 

- 1'5 

-i; to 
» p.. c 

z ~ £ 




g o 


3 

p 



P. 

a 

o 
O 


n.s 
P 


Kg 




IJ'l 
< 






o 


o 


o 


o 


Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


80.0 


4.9 


76.6 


8.3 


0.899 


9.61 


2.88 


0.77 


2 


80.0 


4,8 


76.6 


8.2 


.899 


.61 


.85 


.77 


3 


80.1 


5.6 


76.2 


9.5 


.887 


.47 


3.33 


.74 


4 


79.2 


4.7 


75.9 


8.<» 


.879 


.42 


2.71 


.78 


5 


77.3 


71 


72.3 


12.1 


.783 


8.37 


3.94 


.68 


6 


74.0 


8.6 


68.0 


14.6 


.681 


7.30 


4.38 


.63 


7 


74.0 


8.1 


68.3 


13.8 


.688 


.39 


.12 


.64 


8 


73.1 


8.7 


67.0 


14.8 


.659 


.08 


.32 


.62 


9 


75.7 


5.8 


71.6 


9.9 


.766 


8.23 


3.08 


.73 


10 


76.7 


5.9 


72.6 


10.0 


.790 


.49 


.19 


.73 


11 


76.6 


2.8 


74.6 


4.8 


.843 


9.11 


1.51 


.86 


12 


77.1 


3.3 


74.8 


5.6 


.849 


.15 


.79 


.84 


13 


77.5 


3.4 


75.1 


5.8 


.857 


.23 


.87 


.83 


14 


76.9 


4.3 


73.9 


7.3 


.824 


8.88 


2.33 


.79 


15 


77.1 


5.2 


73.5 


8.8 


.814 


.74 


.84 


.76 


16 


75.9 


7.0 


71.0 


11.9 


.751 


.05 


3.74 


.68 


17 


76.1 


6.5 


71.5 


11.1 


.763 


.20 


.48 


.70 


18 


76.9 


6.6 


72.3 


11.2 


.783 


.39 


.61 


.70 


19 


78.2 


5.5 


74.3 


9.4 


.835 


.96 


.11 


.74 


20 


76.6 


7.7 


71.2 


13.1 


.756 


.08 


4.20 


.66 


21 


77.7 


6.9 


72.9 


li:7 


.797 


.52 


3.87 


.69 


22 


77.7 


6.1 


73.4 


10.4 


.811 


.69 


.41 


.72 


23 


76.1 


5.7 


72.1 


9.7 


.778 


.36 


.04 


.73 


21 


76.2 


5.7 


72.2 


9.7 


.781 


.38 


.06 


.73 


25 


74.9 ' 


7.1 


69.9 


12.1 


.725 


7.79 


.68 


.68 


26 j 


72.9 


7.5 


67.6 


12.8 


.672 


.25 


.69 


.66 


27 


72.4 


8.2 


66.7 


13.9 


.653 


.03 


.98 


.64 


28 


70.1 


7.4 


64.9 


12.6 


.615 


6.67 


.37 


.66 


29 


70.1 


7.7 


64.7 


13.1 


.611 


.62 


.51 


.65 


30 


69.6 


8.7 


63.5 


14.8 


.588 


.35 


.93 


.62 


31 


68.0 j 


9.8 


61.1 

1 


16.7 


.543 


5.87 


4.26 


.58 



Ail the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



h 



Abstract of (lie Results of the Hour/// Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of October 187 '6. 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 



Hour 



i — i ^» ♦-» 



- 



#■3 



Bange of the Barometer 

for each hour during 
tlie month. 



Max. 



Min. 



Diff. 



pq B 


<» 


^a 


J- o 


w a 


a S3 





Range of the Tempera- 
ture for each hour 
during tlie month. 



Ma 



Mi 



Diff, 



Mid- 
night 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Noon. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Indies. 



29.8 lo 
.831 
.823 
.814 
.815 
.828 
.815 
.860 
.881 
.897 
.81)6 
.878 



.855 
.826 
.801 
.785 
.779 
.783 
.794 
.811 
.831 
.816 
.851 
.848 



Inches. 



29.915 
.905 
.903 
.892 
.886 
.893 
.906 
.927 
.959 
.963 
.959 
.937 



.911 

.885 
.855 
.848 
.844 
.840 
.853 
.883 
.898 
.918 
.924 
.919 



Inches. ! Inches. 



29.767 
.762 
.759 
.749 
.739 
.755 
.764 
.775 
.806 
.814 
.810 
.793 



.769 
.751 
.723 
.707 
.701 
.703 
.713 
.738 
.760 
.772 
.783 
.776 



0.148 
.143 
.144 
.143 
.147 
.138 
.142 
.152 
.153 
.149 
.149 
.144 



.142 
.134 
.132 
.141 
.143 
.137 
.140 
.145 
.138 
.146 
.141 
.143 



78.9 
78.5 
78.0 
77.6 
77.2 
76.8 
76.5 
77.1 
79.6 
82.7 
84.9 
86.9 



87.8 
88.0 
88.2 
88.2 
87.6 
86.3 
84,2 
82.6 
81.4 
80.4 
79.8 
79.1 



82.0 
82.0 
81.8 
81.7 
81.5 
81.2 
81.0 
82.0 
84.7 
86.6 
89.5 
90.0 



92.0 
92.5 
92.5 
93.0 
91.6 
90.5 
88.8 
87.5 
86.0 
83.7 
83.5 
82.6 



73.0 
72.7 
72.5 
72.0 
71.5 
70.7 
69.3 
69.3 
734 
77.0 
79.2 
82.0 



84.0 
79.3 
77.5 
78.9 
79.9 
79.5 
79.0 
78.0 
76.0 
75.5 
75.0 
73.5 



9-0 

9.3 
9.3 

9.7 
10.0 
10.5 
11.7 
12.7 
11.3 

9.6 
10.3 

8.0 



8.0 

13.2 

15.0 

14.1 

11.7 

11.0 

9.8 

9.5 

10.0 

8.2 

8.5 

9.1 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise tlie Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month. 



lxxxi 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hour!// Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of October 1873. 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the HygrometricaJ elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued) . 



Hour. 



H 

"3 
pq 



£ 






ft 



Fh 



pi 

a 

o 

O 



ft 



Is 

t>> o 



M 1 

MP* 






a | 



on <u kj 

. 1 ?H 

y P * 

^a 

o 






o 



tx £ 











o 








Inches. 


T. gr. 


T.gr. 




Mid- 


















night. 


75.6 


3.3 


73.3 


5.6 


0.809 


8.73 


1.74 


0.83 


1 


75.3 


3.2 


73.1 


5.4 


.803 


.70 


.65 


.84 


2 


75.1 


2.9 


73.1 


4.9 


.803 


.70 


.49 


.85 


3 


74.8 


2.8 


72.8 


4.8 


.795 


.62 


.45 


.86 


4 


746 


2.6 


72.8 


4.4 


.795 


.64 


.31 


.87 


5 


74.3 


2.5 


72.5 


4.3 


.787 


.56 


.27 


.87 


6 


74.0 


2.5 


72.2 


4,3 


• .781 


.48 


.27 


.87 


7 


74.4 


2.7 


72.5 


4.6 


.787 


.54 


.38 


.86 


8 


75.0 


4.6 


71.8 


7.8 


.771 


.31 


2.38 


.78 


9 


75.8 


6.9 


71.0 


11.7 


.751 


.05 


3.67 


.69 


10 


76.3 


8.6 


70.3 


14.6 


.734 


7.84 


4.65 


.63 


11 


76.4 


10.5 


70.1 


16.8 


.729 


.76 


5.49 


.59 


Noon. 


76.4 


11.4 


69.6 


18.2 


.717 


.62 


.98 


.56 


1 


76.1 


11.9 


69.0 


19.0 


.704 


.46 


6.22 


.55 


2 


76.5 


11.7 


69.5 


18.7 


.715 


.58 


.18 


.55 


3 


76.2 


12.0 


69.0 


19.2 


.704 


.47 


.29 


.54 


4 


76.0 


11.6 


69.0 


18.6 


.704 


.47 


.05 


.55 


5 


76.3 


10.0 


69.3 


17.0 


.711 


.56 


5.46 


.58 


6 


76.6 


7.6 


71.3 


12.9 


.758 


8.11 


4.13 


.66 


7 


76.7 


5.9 


72.6 


10. 


.790 


.49 


3.19 


.73 


8 


76.2 


5.2 


72.6 


8.8 


.790" 


.50 


2.77 


.75 


9 


75.8 


4.6 


72.0 


7.8 


.790 


.52 


.42 


.78 


10 


75.5 


4.3 


72.5 


7.3 


.787 


.51 


.24 


.79 


11 


75.3 


3.8 


72.6 


6.5 


.7yo 


.54 


1.99 


.81 



All the Hygroinetrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations, 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth oj October 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 

WlKD 



u 


0> OJ 


s3 • 


tc P- . ] 


^ "=> 


oi Otj 1 


O o 


p^s a 




O ^ a 


3H 





Prevailing 
direction. 







as 

Pn 


Daily 
Velocity. 



2 ^ ."S General aspect of tlie Sky. 



1 




140.0 


2 


144.6 


3 


145.0 


4 


139.4 


5 


138.5 


6 


135.6 


7 


137.0 


8 
9 


133.8 
139.0 


10 


137.8 


11 


134.0 


VI 


144.5 


13 


138.0 



Inclu 



2.05 



0.20 

0.07 
0.08 



E SE & E 

E &SE 
SE &E 



SW&NE 

E N E & N by W 

N N E & W H"W 

WNW 

N by W & W]y W 

N W & E by S 

E, E by S & S 
S & S by E 

E SE,EbyN&E 

EKE 



lb 



1.8 



0.8 
4.0 



0.7 



Miles 

87.4 

100.9 
101.5 

112.6 

112.4 
134.8 

189.2 

81.5 
35.5 

101.5 

113.5 

126.9 
176.9 



B to 7 a. m., r\\ to 6 p. si., \i 
to lip. II. 

B to 7 a. m., ~ito 6 p. m. B 
to 11 p. si. 

\i to 1 a. m. B to 4 A. 51., \i 
to 7 A. m., v_i to 11 A. si., "d to 
11 p. m. T& L at 8^ & 11 p. jr. 
R at 8 & 9 p. m. 

S to 4 a. m., v_i to 8 a. jr. 
Vd to 1 p. m. S to 5 p. m., 
\i to 8 p. si. B to 11 p. m. 
T at midnight. L at midnight & 

1 A. M. 

B to 11 a. m., ~i to 5 p. m. B 

to 1 1 P. M. 

B to 5 A. m., \i to 11 A. M. B 
to 5 p. si., \i to 9 p. si. B to 11 
p. si. 

B to 6 a. m., \i to 2 p. sr. B 
to 1 1 p. m. Slightly Foggy from 

1 to 4. A. M. 

B. 

\_ito4 a. si., B to 6 A.si.,Vd to 
5 p. si. B to 8 p. M.,Vd to 1 1 p. m. 

Vd to 6 a. si., \i to 12 a. si., 
^d to 4 p. si. S to 11 p. si. 

O to 7 a. si. S to 6 p. si. O to 
11 p. 3i. Strong wind at 12f a. 3r. 
Slight R at 5| a. si. 1, 8| & 9£ 

P. 31. 

O to 3 A. 31., \i to 7 A. 51., *i 
to 6 p. si. B to 11 p. si. Slight R 
at 5| p. si. 

B to 4 a. bi. O to 8 A. 31., ^i 
to 6 p. 3i. B to 11 p. si. L at 6.j 
p. si. Slight R at 8| a. si. 1| & 

2 p. si. 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, ^d Cumuli, \_i Cirro-strati, ^-i Cumulo- strati, -w_i Nimbi, 
Vd Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoui, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
R rain, D drizzle. 



lxxxiii 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Itesults of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of October 1873. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 





l_ 


a> ft> 




C3 — 


b/ *- . 




o o 


°3 2 t3 




»2 - S 


o * s 


ft) 


K ^5 


C £ ti 


P 


£ s 





Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



). 










• 


X 3 


kl 


-w 












S ft 




o 


p 


45 


&J 




K* 



General aspect of the Sky. 



I o 
14 139.0 



15 136.8 

16 135.0 

17 138.0 
I 

18 141.5 

19 140.7 



20 137.0 
21j 145.0 

22 138.0 

23 132.8 



iin Les 



24 

25 
26 

27 
28 



141.0 
138.8 
142.0 
139.0 
136.8 



29; 129.0 
30j 135.8 

31 140.0 



EN E 

E N E&EbyN ... 

EbyN J... 
E bj NiENE ... 

EKE 
EK E,E &S SE 

sE&a 

E & S E 

S S E & S by E 

S by E 
SbyE,ESE&EbyS 

E by S & E 
E 

E&NNE 
NNE,N E&EbyN 



E by N & E N E 

ENE&N 

N & N by W 



0.5 
0.8 



Mile. | 

248.5 B to 3 a. m., \i to 6 a. m., ^i 
to 4 p. m., \i to 6 p. m. E to 11 

P. M. 

137.8 B to 5 a. M..\i to 12 a. m. -i 

to 5 P. M. B to 11 P. M. 

88.8 | B to 10 a. m., "»i to 5 p. m. B 

to 11 P. M. 

97.4 B to 10 a. m., \i to 6 p. m. 
B to 11 P. M. 

94.7 j Bto 11 a. at., v_i to 3 p. m. B 

to 11 P. M. 

85.7 i B to 1 A. M. S to 5 A. M., W 
jto 7 A. M. B to 10 A. M., r>i to 6 
IP. M. B to 11 P. M. 

92.8 I B. 

65.5 B to 2 a. m., Vi to 5 p.m. B 
to 11 p. m. D at 4| a. m. 

72.7 i B to 4 a.m., clouds of different 

kinds to 6 p. ii. B to 11 p. m. 
70.0 I B to 3 a. m., Vi to 3 p. m., \i 

to 6 P. M. B to 11 P. M. 

B to 3 a. m., Vi to 8 a. m. \i 

to 12 a.m. S to 11 p.m. Dat 1 p.m. 
19.0 B to 1 a. m., \ i to 7 p. m. B 

11 P. M. 
71.0 B to 4 a. m., Vi to 8 p. m. B 

to 11 P. M. 

15.7 B to 5 a. m., \i to 11 p. m. 

B to 4 a. m., \i to 7 p. m. B 

to 11 P. M. 

B to 5 A. m., \i to 11 P. M. 
B to 3 a. m., \i to 8 p. m. B 
91.0 'to 11 p. m. 

\i to 3 a. m. B to 12 a. M.,\i 
184.2 to 7 p. m. S to 11 p. m. 



\i Cirri, — i Strati, ^i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, rv_i Cumulo-strati, w_i Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightinng 
i E- rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. 



xxxiv 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of October 1873. 

Monthly Results. 



Mean height of the Barometer for the month 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 9 a. m. on the 10th 

Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 p. si. on the 3rd 

Extreme range of the Barometer during the month 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto 
Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month 



Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month 
Max. Temperature occurred at 3 p. M. on the 3rd ... 
Min. Temperature occurred at 6 & 7 a. m. on the 31st 
Extreme range of the Temperature during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 



Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month 



Inches. 


... 29.834 


... 29.963 


... 29.701 


.. 0.262 


... 29.899 


... 29.778 


... 0.121 


o 


... 82.0 


... 93.0 


... 69.3 


... 23.7 


... 89.0 


... 76.4 


... 12.6 


... 75.6 


6.4 


... 71.1 


... 10.9 


Inches. 


... 0.753 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of "Vapour for the month ... ... ... 8.10 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 3.37 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.71 



Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 



o 
138.5 



Eained 6 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours 
Total amount of rain during the month 
Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month 
Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ... E. & E. N 



Inches. 

. 2.05 
2.40 



2.17 
E. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



Meteorological Observations . 



Ixwv 



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Meteorological Observations. 



lxxviii (_ W* v / 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's OJice, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of November 1873. 

Latitude 22° -3:3' 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34" East. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer ahove the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, See. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





o u 


Range 


of the Barometer 


r£5 


Eange 


of the Tempera- 




SOS'S 


during the c 


a 7- 


E2 is 

fig 


ture during tlu 


s day. 


Date 
















r-^S 








^ 










|j" 


Max. 


' Min. 


Diff. 




Max. 


Min. 


Di IF. 




^ C* 








^ 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


o 








o 


1 


29.870 


29.933 


29.823 


0.110 


76.2 


86.2 


68.5 


17.7 


2 


.8S5 


.952 


.828 


.124 


78.2 


88.2 


70.0 


18.2 


3 


.931 


.988 


.878 


.110 


78.1 


82.0 


74,0 


8.0 


4 


.998 


30.076 


.915 


.131 


80.8 


87.5 


76.5 


11.0 


5 


30.013 


.091 


.948 


.143 


82.0 


89.5 


76.0 


13.5 


6 


.012 


.085 


.955 


.130 


82.5 


90.7 


75.0 


15.7 


7 


.01 1 


.071 


.957 


.114 


82.6 


90.5 


76.4 


14,1 


8 


29.996 


.067 


.928 


.139 


81.4 


88.3 


76.3 


12.0 


9 


30.003 


.074 


.917 


.127 


79.2 


86.5 


72.8 


13.7 


JO 


.017 


.076 


.972 


.104 


75.8 


85.0 


68.4 


16.6 


11 


.029 


.095 


.978 


.117 


73.9 


84,7 


64,5 


20.2 


12 


.035 


.115 


.969 


.146 


74.3 


85.0 


65.5 


19.5 


13 


.025 


.088 


.975 


.113 


74.9 


84,5 


67.0 


17.5 


14 


.012 


.080 


.953 


.127 


75.3 


85.2 


67.0 


18.2 


15 


.035 


.104 


.972 


.132 


76.2 


85.5 


68.7 


16.8 


16 


.063 


.132 


30.017 


.115 


74.5 


85.0 


66.3 


18.7 


17 


.056 


.138 


29.986 


.152 


74.3 


84,0 


66.2 


17.8 


18 


.028 


.110 


.967 


.143 


72.9 


83.0 


64.0 


19.0 


19 


.038 


.100 


.983 


.117 


74,0 


82.2 


66.5 


15.7 


20 


.035 


.101 


.979 


.122 


73.5 


82.7 


65.5 


17.2 


21 


.017 


.092 


.955 


.137 


73.0 


83.0 


66.0 


17.0 


22 


M7 


.096 


.969 


.127 


73.0 


82.4 


66.5 


15.9 


23 


.023 


.088 


.961 


.127 


72.0 


81.0 


65.5 


15.5 


24 


.013 


.077 


.957 


.120 


74,2 


84,5 


65.8 


18.7 


25 


.034 


.105 


.977 


.128 


74.5 


84.5 


66.0 


18.5 


26 


.031 


.105 


.970 


.135 


75.0 


83.3 


67.5 


15.8 


27 


.006 


.057 


.949 


.108 


73.7 


78.5 


69.7 


8.8 


28 


29.951 


.003 


.885 


.118 


71.9 


75.6 


69.0 


6.6 


29 


.977 


.050 


.918 


.132 


69.4 


73.2 


65.0 


8.2 


30 


30.034 


.077 


.996 


.081 


69.0. 


74.6 


64.2 


10.4 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and AYet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at the 
several hours during the day. 



lxxix 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of November 1873. 



Daily Means, Slg. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 



Date. 


A 
H 

-+s ft 
<U Pi 


ry Bulb above Wet. 


a 
'o 

P-i 

fs 

P 

Q 
+3 

P 
P. 
| 


P 

> 
o 

W.9 


en 

O 

a> 
u 

a 

o 


2 tl 

c .a 

p.. cS 

> o 

C O 
if o 


iditional Weight of 
Vapour required for 
complete saturation. 


ean degree of Humi- 
dity, complete satu- 
ration being unity. 




£ 


P 


o 


P 


1^ 


^" 9 


< 


3 




o 


o 


o 





Inches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


64.1 


12.1 


55.6 


20.6 


0.452 


4.90 


4.76 


0.51 


2 


69.4 


8.8 


63.2 


15.0 


.582 


6.30 


3.95 


.62 


3 


73.6 


4.5 


70.4 


7.7 


.736 


7.97 


2.25 


.78 


4 


76.5 


4.3 


73.5 


7.3 


.814 


8.78 


.29 


.79 


5 


77.2 


4.8 


73.8 


8.2 


.822 


.84 


m 


■ 1 1 


6 


76.0 


6.5 


71.4 


11.1 


.761 


.17 


3.17 


.70 


7 


76.1 


6.5 


71.5 


11.1 


.763 


.20 


.48 


•70 


8 


76.1 


5.3 


72.4 


9.0 


.785 


Ao 


2.82 


• 75 


9 


71.2 


8.0 


65.6 


13.6 


.630 


6.80 


3.76 


.61 


10 


66.6 


9.2 


60.2 


15.6 


.527 


5.72 


.82 


.60 


11 


65.3 


8.6 


59.3 


14.6 


.511 


.57 


.41 


.62 


12 


66.3 


8.0 


60.7 


13.6 


.536 


.83 


.29 


.61 


13 


67.2 


7.7 


61.8 


13.1 


.555 


6.05 


.23 


.65 


14 


68.0 


7.3 


62.9 


12.4 


.576 


.28 


.12 


.67 


15 


68.2 


8.0 


62.6 


13.6 


.570 


.19 


.47 


.61 


16 


66.7 


7.8 


61.2 


13.3 


.541 


5.94 


.21 


.65 


17 


66.9 


7.4 


61.7 


12.6 


.554 


6.03 


.OS) 


.66 


18 


65.4 


7.5 


69.4 


13.5 


.513 


5.60 


.13 


.64 


19 


67.4 


6.6 


62.8 


11.2 


.574 


6.27 


2.77 


.69 


20 


66.5 


7.0 


61.6 


11.9 


.552 


.02 


.88 


.68 


21 


66.1 


6.9 


60.6 


12.4 


.531 


5.84 


.92 


.67 


22 


65.3 


7.7 


59.1 


13.9 


.508 


.55 


3.21 


.63 


23 


65.4 


7.2 


59.6 


13.0 


.516 


.65 


.01 


.65 


21 | 


67.5 


6.7 


62.8 


11.4 


.574 


6.27 


2.82 


.69 


25 


673 


72 


62.3 


12.2 


.565 


.16 


3.02 


.67 


26 


67.2 


7.8 


61.7 


13.3 


.554 


.03 


.28 


.65 


27 


67.0 


6.7 


62.3 


11.4 


.565 


.17 


2.79 


.69 


28 


65.3 


3.6 


60.0 


11.9 


.523 


5.73 


.75 


.68 


29 


65.2 


4.2 


61.8 


7.6 


.555 


6.11 


1.75 


.78 


30 


65.0 


4.0 


61.8 


7.2 


.555 


.12 


.61 


.79 



Ail the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



ft 
lxxk 



Abstract of (lie Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of November 187U. 

II urly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent tliereon. 





i — u w 

~ 

-'-ICO 

jS S 


flange of tlie Barometer 

for eaeli lionr during 

the inoiitli. 


p2 

►.a 

p a 

i § 


llange of tlie Tempera- 
lure for each hour 
during the month. 


our 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


Max. 


Min, 


Diff, 



Mid- 
night 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Noon 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7- 

8 

9 
10 
11 



In,-!, 



Inch 



fncht'S. Indies. 



30.008 30. 079 29.872 0.207 

.07:} .860 .213 

.060 .851 ' .209 

.053 .837 i .216 

.052 .833 .219 

.069 .8-16 | .223 

.084 .871 | .213 

.101 .81)5 ' .200 

.115 .918 ! .197 

.138 .933 .205 

.130 .926 .204 

.115 .901 .211 



.000 

29.993 

.986 

.983 

.995 

30.012 

.030 

.053 
.071 
.070 
.052 



.025 
29.1)93 
.969 
.957 
.953 
.961 
.974 
.993 
30.011 
.024 
.029 
.022 



.085 
.050 
.019 
.017 
.019 
.026 
.044 
.064 
.076 
.090 
.097 
.089 



.885 

.856 
.834 
.830 
.825 
.823 
.810 
.856 
.879 
.902 
.908 
.902 



.200 
.191 
.185 
.187 
. 1 94 
.203 
.204 
.208 
.197 
.188 
.189 
.187 



72.1 
71.5 
70.8 
70.3 
69.9 
69.4 
68.9 
69.1 
71.8 
75.6 
78.6 
80.8 



82.2 
83.1 
83.5 
83.4 
82.2 
80.6 
78.1 
76.4 
75.2 
74.1 
73.2 
72.5 



79.2 
78.5 
78.0 
77.7 
77.0 
76.6 
76.5 
76.7 
80.0 
83.8 
86.0 
88.2 



89.1 
90.3 
90,5 
90.7 
89.0 
87.6 
85.0 
83.5 
82.8 
81.5 
80.5 
79.7 



65.5 

65.2 
C5.0 
Cl.7 
61,5 
64.2 
64.0 
65.0 
66-7 
68.3 
69.3 
70.5 



71.8 
72.5 
72.8 
72,5 
72.0 
70.5 
69.5 
68.5 
67.5 
66.5 
65.5 
65.0 



13.7 
13.3 
13.0 
13.0 
12.5 
12.4 
12.5 
11.7 
13.3 
15.5 
10.7 
17.7 



173 

17.8 
17.7 
18.2 
17.0 
17.1 
15.5 
15.0 
15.3 
15.0 
15.0 
14.7 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month. 



Ixxxi 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of lite Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of November 1873. 



Hourly Means, &e. of fclie Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued). 



Hour. 



H 
pq 









o 



A 



l>»'o 



W 3 



p* .* 


^ ^ 


o .p! 


°.o J i 


P. c3 


'-t-i PI 


> o 




1*11 "i 


t+_( 4J 


g-a s 


O O 


-P o 


££■* 


bn o 


i 1 ?H 


9* 


ditiona 

apour 

mplete 




<1 



■~. PI 





o 





o 


o 


Inches. 


Mid- 












night. 


C7.8 


4.3 


61.4 


7.7 


0.605 


1 


67.3 


4.2 


63.9 


7.6 


.595 


2 


66.8 


4.0 


63.6 


7.2 


.590 


3 


66.3 


4.0 


63.1 


7.2 


.580 


4 


66.0 


3.9 


62.9 


7.0 


.576 


5 


65.6 


3.8 


62.6 


6.8 


.570 


6 


65.2 


3.7 


62.2 


6.7 


.563 


7 


65.3 


3.8 


62.3 


6.8 


.565 


8 


66.7 


5.1 


62.6 


9.2 


.570 


9 


68.4 


7.2 


63.4 


12.2 


.5S6 


10 


69.4 


9.2 


63.0 


15.6 


.578 


11 


70.2 


10.6 


62.8 


18.0 


.574 


Noon. 


70.1 


12.1 


61.6 


20.6 


.552 


1 


70.2 


12.9 


61.2 


21.9 


.544 


2 


70.6 


12.9 


61.6 


21.9 


.552 


3 


70.5 


12.9 


61.5 


21.9 


.550 


4 


70.2 


12.0 


61.8 


20.4 


.555 


5 


70.6 


10.0 


63.6 


17.0 


.590 


6 


70.9 


7.2 


65.9 


12.2 


.636 


7 


70.5 


5.9 


66.4 


10.0 


.646 


8 


69.9 


5.3 


66.2 


9.0 


.642 


9 


69.3 


4.8 


65.9 


8.2 


.636 


10 


68.7 


4,5 


65.1 


8.1 


.619 


11 


68.2 


4.3 


64.8 


7.7 


.613 



T. gr. 

6.63 
.52 

.48 
.38 
.34 
.28 
.20 
.22 
.26 
.37 
.24 
.18 



5.91 
.83 
.90 
.89 
.96 

6.35 
.89 

7.03 

6.99 
.95 
.78 
.72 



T. gr. 

1.90 

.86 

.72 

.70 

.64 

.58 

.54 

.56 

2.19 

3.09 

4.14 

.89 



5.63 

6.03 

.10 

.07 

5.58 

4,66 

3.33 

2.69 

.38 

.12 

.04 

1.91 



0.78 
.78 
.79 
.79 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.80 
.74 
.67 
.60 
.56 



.51 
.49 
.49 
.49 
.52 
.58 
.67 
.72 
.75 
.77 
.77 
.78 



All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations. 



lxxxii 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of November 1873. 

Solar Badiation, Weather, &c. 





O o 
C/2-- 

. C3 


Eain Guage 

1J ft. above 

Ground. 


<0 

n 



"VY ] N D 



Prevailing 
direction. 









s 


>-. 


t>i 


H 7 












C3 






ft 


'o 


P^ 




t> 



gLi^ .-£ General aspect of the Sky. 



o 

1 135.0 

2 139.5 

3 103.0 



4 141.0 

5 : 135.0 

6 1 140.0 
7 136.5 



8, 138.0 

9 132.8 

10j 138.7 
llj 133.0 

12 137.5 

13 137.0 

14 133.0 
15J 131.0 

16 133.4 

17 136.5 

18 129.4 

19 129.4 



20 132.0 



21 130.0 



lnclu 



0.01 



N by W & N N E 

N&NE 
NE&EbyS 



E by S & S S W 

SSW&N by W 

N by W & N E 

ME&S 

s s w, sw&w 

N E 

ENEiNW 
NHW&NE 
NE&ENE 

HE&E NE 
ENE&S8W 

SSW4NE 

NE&N 
E by N & N by E 

NbyE&NNW 

NbyE&ENE 
E N E & N 

N, N by W & N E 



lb 

0.5 



Miles. 
233.3 
192.9 
139.8 



61.8 

54.8 

95.2 

77.2 

83.1 

104.6 

99.3 
81.0 
82.9 

93.1 
74.2 

89.8 

109.3 
100.4 
101.6 

42.7 
64.7 
79.0 



\i 

Chiefly \ i 

\i &\-i to 7 a. m. O to 6 p.m. 
Vi to 11 p. m. D at 8\, 10|, 12 

A. M. 1 & 8 P. M. 

\i & Vi to 11 a. si., «-ni to 6 
r. si. B to 11 p. m. T at 3 J p. m. 

B to 9 a. m., ^i to 5 p. m. B 
to 1 1 P. M. 

B. 

Vi to 1 a. m. B to 3 p. m., Vi 
to 6 p.m., \i to 11 p.m. Slightly 
foggy at 4 & 5 a. m. 

B to 11 a. m., ^i to 7 p. m. B 

to lip. M. 

Vi to 1 A. M. B to 4 A. m., Vi 

to 6 A. M. B to 11 P. M. 

B. 
B. 

B to 9 a. M., \i to 6 p. m. B 
11 p. m. Foggy from 9 to 11 p.m. 

Chiefly B. 

B. Slightly foggy at 8 & 9p.m. 

B to 8 a. m., \i to 2 p. m. B 
to 11 p. m. 

B. 

B. 

B to 
toll p. 

B to 



m., \i to 5 p. m. B 



5 a. 

M. 

4 A. M., \i to 10 A. M., 

/-\i to 6 p. M. B to 11 p.m. Slightly 
foggy from 9 to 11 p. m. 

B to 10 a. m., \_i to 6 p. m. 
B to 11 p. m. Slightly foggy at 
midnight & 1 a. m. 

B to 6 a. m., \i to 1 p. M. B 
to 11 P. M. 



\iCirri, — i Strati, ^i Cumuli, \_i Cirro-strati, ^-i Cumulo-strati, W-i Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
E rain, D drizzle. 



Ixxxiii 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's OJJice, Calcutta, 

in the month of November 1873. 

Solar Radiation, "Weather, &c. 





u 


<B » 




o o 

GGVP 


bfj > . 






Cj 


H^5 


«d | 


R 







Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



PM 



General aspect of the Sk}'. 



27! 

28; 

29| 
30 



o 
129.4 



130.0 
134.0 
136.0 
128.0 



112.0 
100.0 

93.0 



Inches 



NE 



N E ONE 



ESEiE 



E&EiNE 



ENEAN 



N by W & N 
0.04 KNE, N&KbylN 



0-09 



E by N 
Variable 



Mile. 
116.8 



136.5 
73.7 
84.1 

132.1 



96.5 
113.4 

84.9 

76.2 



\i to 5 a. m., ^_i to 8 a. 3i. B 
to 11 A. M., v_i to 6 P. M. B to 
111 p. M. Slightly foggy from 
midnight to 2 A. M. 

13 to 3 a. M., v_i to 7 P. M. B 
to 11 p. m. Slightly foggy at 

11 P. M. 

B to 6 a. M., \i to 1 p. m. >. i 
to 6 P. M. B to 11 P. M. Slightly 
foggy at midnight. 

B to 6 a. m., \i to 5 p. m. B 
to 7 p. M., \i to 11 p. m. Slight- 
ly foggy at 11 p. st. 

\i to 10 a. m., Vi to 9 p. m. 
O to 11 P. m. Slightly foggy at 
midnight. 

O. Dat 11 p. m. 

Chiefly O. D after intervals. 

O. D after intervals. 

Chiefly O Slightly foggy at 7 

P. M. 



\i Cirri,— i Strati, ~i Cumuli, V_i Cirro-strati, rv_.i Cumnlo-strati, wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightinng 
R. rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. lxxxiv 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of November 1873. 

Monthly Eesults. 



Indies. 

Mean height of the Barometer for tlie month ... ... ... 30.007 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 9 a. m. on the 17th ... 30.188 

Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 5 p. m. on the 1st ... 29.823 

Extreme range of the Barometer during the month ... ... 0.315 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures ... ... ... ... 30.074 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto ... ... ... ... 29.950 

Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month ... ... 0.124 



o 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 75.6 

Max. Temperature occurred at 3 r. M. on the 6th ... ... 90.7 

Min. Temperature occurred at 6 a. m. on the 18th ... ... 64.0 

Extreme range of the Temperature during the month ... ... 26.7 

Mean of the daily Max. Temperature ... ... ... ... 83.9 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, ... ... ... ... 68.7 

Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month ... ... 15.2 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 68.5 

Mean Dry Bidb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 7.1 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month ... ... ... 63.5 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ... 12.1 

Inches. 
Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month ... ,., ... 0.588 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 6.39 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 3.09 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.67 

o 
Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month ... ... 129.8 



Inches. 

Rained 4 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours ... ... 0.09 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 0.14 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... ... ... 0.05 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ... N. E. & E. 1ST E. 

* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



Ixxxv 



Meteorological Observations, 



ft T3 



<0 




r£i 


Bj 




Ph 






hf 




o 




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Meteorological Observations. 



xciv 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of December 1878. 

Latitude 22° 38' 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34" East. 

Heightof the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sealevel, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 



Date 



o « 
a> 

+s +^ . 

-1 ttf 

1» s ~ 

• — S Cj 

_ H-l "M 
S „. CO 

L_i +3 CO 



Range of the Barometer 
during the day. 



Max. 



Min. 



Diff. 






Eange of the Tempera- 
ture during the day. 



Max. 



Min. 



Diff. 





Indies. 


Indies. 


Indies. 


Indies. 


o 


o 


o 


o 


1 


30.002 


30.073 


29.925 


0.148 


73.1 


81.5 


66.8 


14.7 


2 


29-990 


.056 


.930 


.126 


74.4 


82.7 


66.5 


16.2 


3 


30.013 


.076 


.957 


.119 


73.9 


78.6 


70.4 


8.2 


4. 


29.996 


.071 


.931 


.140 


72.8 


80.4 


67.5 


12.9 


6 


.990 


.049 


• 950 


.099 


71.9 


80.5 


63.1 


17.4 


6 


30.019 


.092 


• 978 


.114 


71.8 


80.0 


64,8 


15.2 


7 


.021 


.098 


.965 


.133 


72.8 


80.6 


66.5 


14.1 


8 


.036 


.120 


.979 


.141 


71.0 


77.2 


66.8 


10.4 


9 


.032 


.103 


.968 


.135 


71.8 


81.5 


64.6 


16.9 


10 


.05 1 


.131 


.991 


.140 


72.7 


82.5 


64.5 


18.0 


11 


.062 


.110 


30-017 


.093 


72.3 


78.0 


69.0 


9.0 


12 


.093 


.160 


.034 


.126 


73.8 


80.0 


70.0 


10.0 


13 


.089 


.177 


.025 


.152 


69.9 


77.8 


63.0 


14.8 


14 


.044. 


.122 


29-974 


.148 


68.4 


77.0 


61.9 


15.1 


15 


.066 


.130 


30.019 


• 111 


68.7 


78.5 


61.0 


17.5 


16 


.107 


.180 


.058 


.122 


69.7 


78.4 


62.5 


15.9 


17 


.119 


.197 


.060 


.137 


69.6 


78.0 


61.5 


16.5 


18 


.059 


.146 


29.980 


.166 


69.6 


78.4 


62.5 


15.9 


19 


.000 


.086 


.944 


.142 


69.3 


7S.5 


61.6 


16.9 


20 


29.996 


.079 


.938 


.141 


69.4 


78.3 


62.2 


16.1 


21 


30.055 


.137 


30.001 


.136 


69.1 


7S.5 


6f.O 


17.5 


22 


.072 


.140 


.023 


.117 


67.5 


76.5 


59.0 


17.5 


23 


.051 


.139 


29.989 


.150 


68.0 


77.5 


60.9 


16,6 


24 


29.996 


.066 


.933 


.133 


67.8 


78.0 


60.0 


18.0 


25 


30.004. 


.080 


.955 


.125 


66.9 


77.8 


57.5 


20.3 


26 


.009 


.086 


.958 


.128 


67.6 


78.3 


58.0 


20.3 


27 


29.966 


.064, 


.897 


.167 


68.1 


79.6 


58.5 


21.1 


28 


.911 


29-985 


.862 


.123 


69.8 


80.0 


61.5 


18.5 


29 


.951 


30-013 


.898 


.115 


67.3 


74.0 


61.2 


12.8 


30 


30.004 


.087 


.946 


•111 


63.9 


715 


57.8 


, 13.7 


31 


.015 


.095 


.954 


.141 


63.4 


73.3 


55.5 


j 17.8 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made at the 
several hours during the day. 



XcV 



Meteorological Ohsen ■■ 



Abstract of the Results of the Hour/// Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of December 1873. 



Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygroniefcrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Contained.) 



Date 


si 
H 


o 
a 

pq 


Computed Dew Point. 


Dry Bulb above Dew 
Point. 


Mean Elastic force of j 
vapour. 


c .it 

i> o 
o o 

i a 


Additional Weight of 
Vapour required for 
complete saturation. 
1 


Mean degree of Humi- 
dity, complete satu- 
ration being unity. 




o 


o 


o 





Indies. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




1 


68 2 


4.9 


64.3 


8.8 


0.603 


6.60 


2.19 


0.75 


2 


69.7 


4.7 


66.4 


8.0 


.016 


7.06 


.09 


.77 


3 


67.4 


6.5 


02.8 


11.1 


.574 


6.27 


.74 


.70 


4 


015 


8.3 


57.9 


1 L.9 


.488 


5.33 


3.38 


.01 


5 


63.1 


8.8 


56.1 


15.8 


.159 


.U3 


.45 


.59 


6 


63.6 


8.2 


57.0 


] 1.8 


.173 


.18 


.27 


.61 


7 


64.6 


S.2 


5S.0 


11.8 


.489 


.34 


.37 


.61 


8 


63.1 


7.9 


56.8 


11.2 


.170 


• .16 


.( 19 


.63 


9 


64.5 


7.3 


58.7 


13.1 


.501 


.91 


2.96 


.65 


10 


67.5 


5.2 


63.3 


9.1 


.581 


6.39 


.29 


.74 


11 


69.8 


2.5 


67.8 


4.5 


.677 


7.-11 


1.17 


.86 


12 


ON. 3 


5.5 


!, 1 


9.4 


.0(15 


6.62 


2.36 


.74 


13 


63.3 


0.6 


58.0 


11.9 


.489 


5.38 


.60 


.67 


14 


01.2 


7.2 


55.4 


13.0 


.449 


4,95 


.67 


.65 


15 


02.3 


6.4 


57.2 


11.5 


.476 


5.24 


A3 


.68 


i<; 


62.6 


7.1 


56.9 


12.8 


.472 


.IS 


.75 


.05 


17 


63.5 


0.1 


58-6 


11.0 


.199 


.50 


.40 


.70 


18 


03.8 


5.8 


59.2 


10.4 


.509 


.62 


.28 


.71 


19 


03' S 


5.5 


59.1 


9.9 


.513 


.64 


.19 


.72 


20 


63.4 


6.0 


58.6 


10.8 


.199 


.50 


.36 


.70 


21 


01.9 


7.2 


56.1 


13.0 


.459 


.06 


.72 


.05 


22 


60.2 


7.3 


51.4 


13.1 


.431 


4.79 


.63 


.05 


23 


01.3 


0.7 


S5.9 


12.1 


.150 


5.ol 


.49 


.67 


21 


61.2 


0.6 


55.9 


11.9 


.156 


.01 


.11 


.67 


25 


0O.2 


6.7 


54.8 


12.1 


.110 


4.86 


.42 


.67 


26 


01.1 


32 


56. I 


11.2 


.464 


5.12 


.32 


.69 


27 


62.9 


5.2 


58.7 


9.4 


.501 


.54 


01 


.73 


28 


01,1 


5.4 


60.1 


9.7 


.525 


.77 


.18 


.73 


21) 


62.5 


4.8 


58.7 


8.6 


.501 


.54 


1.83 


.75 


3D 


58.2 


5.7 


53.1 


10.8 


.415 


4.63 


2.00 


.70 


31 


58.2 


5.2 


53.5 


9.9 


.421 

1 


.69 


1.84 


.72 



Ail the Hygrometrieal elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteorological Observations 



-\:x\ 



Abstract of the Res/fits of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of December 187 5. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygromctrical elements 

dependent thereon. 



Hour 



, — i i.. *^> 



\fr 






JRange of the Barometer 

for each hour during 

the month. 



Max. 



Min. 



Diff. 



r3 



Range of the Tempera- 
ture for each hour 
during the month. 



Max. 



Min. 



Diff, 



Mid- 
night 
1 
2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Noon 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



filches. 



30.032 

.0-2:) 

.01 I 

.004 
.002 
.014 

.030 
.( >p< I 
.074 
.098 

.100 
.081 



.050 
.017 

29.990 
.97.6 
.1)70 
.976 
.990 

30.000 
.022 
.03.6 
.013 
.038 



Inch 



30.123 
.113 
.107 
.101 
.115 
.125 
.138 
.148 
.172 
.197 
.195 
.175 



.138 
.10(5 
.079 
.065 
.060 
.071 
.077 
.098 
.119 
.13(3 
.129 
.131 



Inch 



29.916 
.906 
.901 
.893 
.895 
.910 
.923 
.936 
.963 
.985 
.964 
.946 



.921 
.906 
.892 
.862 
.862 
.863 
.87 1 
.886 
.902 
.916 
.925 
.920 



fm-li 



(I 



.207 
.207 
.206 
.208 
220 
215 
215 
212 
209 
212 
231 
229 



.217 
.200 
.187 
.203 
.198 
.208 
.203 
.212 
.217 
.220 
.204 
.211 



on. 7 

66.1 
65. 1 

64.8 
01.2 
63.7 
63.2 

02.9 
01,0 
(IS. I. 

71.8 
64.6 



70.3 
77.5 
78.1 
78.3 
76.9 
75.4 
73.o 
71.3 
70.0 
68.8 
67.8 
67.1 



73. 1. 
73.2 

72.7 
72.0 
71.8 
71.0 
7o. s 
70.4 
71.0 
73.5 
77.5 
81 > 5 



81.2 
82.5 
82.7 
82.5 
si.:; 
79.5 
78.0 
70.7 
76.0 
755 
71,5 
74.0 



60.0 
58 8 
58.0 
57.5 
57.0 
56.0 
55.5 
55.5 
56 5 
61.2 
64.3 
66.3 



08.3 
70.0 
70.3 
715 
70.0 
69.0 
66. L 
65.0 
03.5 
02.5 
61.5 
GO. 5 



13 1 
1 l. I 
14.7 
1 1,5 
1 L8 
15.0 
15 3 
1 1.9 
1 15 
12.3 
13.2 
1 L.2 



12.9 
12.5 

12.4 

llo 

11.3 

10.5 
11.6 
11.7 

12.5 
13.0 
13.0 
1 3 5 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry mid Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month. 



xcvn 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

tal-en at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of December 1873. 



Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued). 



Hour 



u 




a> 




A 




H 




-Q 




^ 




pq 




-1-3 




<u 


f-i 


£ 




H 


a 


os 


o 


tH 


a 


r^ 





£ 



pq 



Ph 
A 

<a 

1* 

P. 

a 

o 
O 



P 



pq 



£P4 





e« 




o 




HI 




Cl 




fH 




,o 








o 








+3 






CO 






53 






w 







O 
c8 




£ 


r^ 



o O 



! pi 



"Vh fcj 




O o 




cJh 


Pi 


-if 


O 


•&s 




oS 1 


"3 .ft 


Fh 


£g 


cS 




m 








eo 


Pi b 

O Pi 


CB 


"43 2 


P< 


•T3 p. 




rd ri 


Pi 




o 



5 p) 



^ t3 '+3 





a 





! 

o 


o 


1 itches. 


T. gr. 


T. gr. 




Mid- 


















night. 


63.0 


3.7 


60.0 


6.7 


0.523 


5.79 


1.44 


0.80 


1 


62.4 


3.7 


59.4 


6.7 


.513 


.68 


.42 


.80 


2 


61.8 


3.6 


58.9 


6.5 


.504 


.59 


.36 


.80 


3 


61.3 


3.5 


58.5 


6.3 


.498 


.53 


.30 


.81 


4 


60.8 


3.4 


57.7 


6.5 


.485 


.38 


.31 


• .80 


6 


603 


3.4 


57.2 


6.5 


.476 


.29 


.30 


.80 


6 


60.0 


32. 


57.1 


6.1 


.475 


.30 


.19 


.82 


7 


59.7 


3.2 


56.8 


6.1 


.470 


.25 


.18 


.82 


8 


60 6 


4.0 


57.4 


7.2 


.480 


.33 


.45 


.79 


9 


62.2 


6.2 


57.2 


11.2 


.476 


.25 


2.37 


.69 


10 


63.8 


8.0 


57.4 


14.4 


.480 


.26 


3.19 


.62 


11 


65.3 


9.3 


58.8 


15.8 


.503 


.47 


.73 


.60 


Noon. 


65.8 


10.5 


58.4 


17.9 


.496 


.38 


4.31 


.56 


1 


66.2 


11.3 


58.3 


19.2 


.494 


.35 


.69 


.53 


2 


66.3 


11.8 


58.0 


20.1 


.489 


.29 


.93 


.52 


3 


66.4 


11.9 


58.1 


20.2 


.491 


.31 


.97 


.52 


4 


66.0 


10.9 


58.4 


18.5 


.496 


.37 


.49 


.56 


5 


66.0 


9.4 


59.4 


16.0 


.513 


.58 


3.85 


.59 


6 


66.2 


6.8 


60.8 


12.2 


.537 


.88 


2.88 


.67 


7 


65.5 


5.8 


60.9 


10.4 


.539 


.92 


.41 


.71 


8 


65.0 


5.0 


61.0 


9.0 


.541 


.95 


.05 


.74 


9 


64.3 


4.5 


60.7 


8.1 


.536 


.90 


1.81 


.77 


10 


63.6 


4.2 


60.2 


7.6 


.527 


.82 


.66 


.78 


11 


63.2 


3.9 


60.1 


7.0 


.525 


.81 


.51 


.79 



All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 



Meteo'rolog ica I Obsefva lions . 



xevm 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meie&rolot/ical Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth ot December 1873. 

Solar Radiation. Weather. &c. 







<D 0) 






bfD > . 




7^ a 


<a o t3 










x ;3 




P 


^3 H|CS 

l—l 1— 1 



Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



; 3 I ^» .-S General aspect of the Sky. 

■i oo I « o 

H U I I— I O 

P4 ! I> 



1 


u 
125.0 


2 


132.8 


3 


102.0 


4 


123.0 


5 
6 

7 
8 


130.0 
124-.2 

129.0 
127.7 


9 


132.5 


10 


132.0 


11 


118.5 


12 


126.0 


18 

11 
15 


130.0 
130.0 
129.0 


16 


131.5 


17 


131.5 


IS 


130.0 



Inches! 

EKE 

E by N & E N E 

ENE&NE 

NE&N 

NE&N 

NNE&NE 

NjE 
NE &ENE 

ENE 

E by N, E, & S 
0.82 Is, E SE&ENE 

ENE 

E N E & N by W 

NKW4N by W 
N N W & E N E 

ENE 

EN E 

ENE 



0.5 



lb | Miles. 
44.2 

97.9 

151.6 

174.6 

168.2 
175.3 

127.0 



65.6 

75.8 
96.2 

107.5 

121.2 
126.0 
121.9 

113.7 

84.2 

73.4 



\i & v_i to 3 p. m. B to 11 

p. m. Slightly foggy at 6 &, 7a.m. 

13 to 6 a. m., \i to 1 1 a. m-., ^i 
to 4 p. m., Vi to 11 p. m. 

Vi to 2 a. m. O to 11 p. 
at 3 p. m. 

m., Vi to 7 



M. D 



v_i to 9 a. 
\i to 11 p- m- 
\i & \_i 



P. M., 



Vi to 10 a. m., \ i to 11 p. m. 

\i to 3 a. m. O to 5 a. m., v_i 

to 10 a. m., Vi to 3 p. m., v_i to 

5 P. M. B to 11 P. M. 

B to 3 a. m., ^i to 7 a. m. B 

to 11 A. m. x — i to 6 P. M. B to- 
ll p. M. Slightly foggy from 7 
to 9 P. M. 

B to 8 a. m., Vi to 2 p. m. v_i 
to 4 p. m. B to 11 p. m.; 

S to 5 a. m. O to 11 p. m. E, 
from 9| to 11 a. m. & at 4§, 8, 

6 9 P. M. 

O to 1 a. m., *4 to 8 a. m. B 

to 11 P. M. 

B. 

B. 

B to 4 p. m., \i to 6 p. m., B 
to 11 P. M. 

B to 6 a. m., \i to 5 p. m. B 
to 11 P. M. 

B to 5 a. m., \i to 10 a. m. B 
to 4 p. m., \i to 9 p. m. B to 11 
p. m. Slightly foggy at 5 & 6 
a. m. & 9 & 10 p. M 

B to 6 a. m. \i to 6 p. M. B to- 
ll p. m. Slightly foggy at 10 & 
11 P. M. 



\iCirri, — i Strati, '"'i Cumuli, \_i Cirro-strati, ^ iCumulo-strati, Vs_i Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoui, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning, 
B rain, D drizzle. 



XC1K 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of December 1873. 

Solar Badiati on, Weather, <kc. 





u 


<D « 




25 d 
o o 


t.n> . 




rt Or— 




GO "43 

C3 


^ I 


gj 


M ^5 


rt e£ IH 


p 







Wind. 



Prevailing 
direction. 



MS-? 



1 *£ 

u » N o 

P-i I i" 



General aspect of the Sky. 



o 
19 130.5 



20 
21 

2-2 
23 

24 
25 

26 

-J 7 
28 
29 
30 
31 



133.4 
132.5 

127.0 
128.0 

131.7 

130.0 

133.7 
129.0 
136.0 
125.5 

128.0 
127.0 



Inches 



ENE 

ENE&SE 
WE 

N E &' N N W 
N & N E 

NE 
KE&E 

E 

E& S W 

S W & S S w 
SSW.NNW&N 
N N E & N by W 

NbyW&WNW 



I! 



0.4 



Mile. 

77.9 



62.5 
116.8 

42.7 
199.9 

149.1 

81.5 

56.5 

47.1 

117.5 

138.7 

143.7 

89.3 



B to 11 a. m., \_i to 1 r. m. B 
to 11 p. m. Slightly foggy from 
9 to 1 1 p. m . 

B fo 11 A. M., \_i to 3 P. M. 
;B to 11 p.m. 

B to 12 a. m., v_i to 2 p.m. B 
to 11 p. m. Slightly foggy at 6 
& 7 a. M. 

B. 

B to 12 a. m., v__i to 3 p. m. B 
to 11 P. M. 

B. 

B. Slightly foggy from at 7 & 

8 A. M. 

B. Slightly foggy from 6 to 8 
v. m. & 7 to 11 p. ar. 
B. Slightly foggy from 5 to 7 

A. M. 

B to 1 p. m., ^i to 4 p. m. B 

to 8 P. H., ^i to 11 P. M. 

Vi to 6 a. m. B to 12 A. M.\_i 
to 5 P. M. B to 11 P. M. 

B. Slightly foggy from 9 ito 

11 P. M. 

B. Slightly foggy at midnight 
& 1 from 6 to 10 a. M. & 8 to 

11 P. M. 



\i Cirri ,— i Strati, ~i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, rv. i Cumtdo- strati, wi Nimbi, 
Vi Cirro-cumuli, B clear, S stratoni, O overcast, T thunder, L lightning 
E- rain, D drizzle. 



Meteorological Observations. c 

Abstract, of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Ojjice, Calcutta, 

in the month oj December 1873. 

Monthly Results. 



Mean height of the Barometer for the month 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 9 a. m. on the 17th 

Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 3 & 4 p. ai. on the 28th 

Extreme range of the Barometer during the month 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto 
Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month 



Inches. 

30.027 
30.197 
29.862 
0.335 
30.102 
29.909 
, 0.133 



Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month 
Max. Temperature occurred at 2 p. m. on the 2nd ... 
Min. Temperature occurred at 6 &7 A. m. on the 31st 
Extreme range of the Temperature during the month 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point 



Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month 



o 
69.9 

82.7 
55.5 
27.2 
78.5 
62.8 
15.7 



,. 63.6 

6.3 

. 58.6 

. 11.3 

Inches. 
. 0.499 



Troy grain. 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 5.50 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 2.18 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.09 



Mean Max. Solar radiation Thermometer for the month 



o 
128.3 



Inches. 
Rained 2 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours ... ... 0.82 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 0.82 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge* attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... ... ... 0.73 

Prevailing direction of the Wind ... ... E. N. E. & N E. 



* Height 70 feet 10 inches above ground. 



CI 



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