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Full text of "Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series"

PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



California Academy of Sciences 



FOURTH SERIES 



Vol. XIV 




1924 



printed from the 
John W. Hendrie Publication Endowment 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

[ 1925-26 } 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

George C. Edwards, Chairman 
C. E. Grunsky Barton Warren Evermann, Editor 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XIV 

Title-page i 

Contents iii 

1. Pectens from the Tertiary of Lower California. By Leo. G. Hert- 

Icin; published July 21, 1925 1 

2. Contribution to the Tertiary Paleontology of Peru. By G. Dallas 

Hanna and Merle C. Israelsky; published July 21, 1925 2'7 

3. A Note on Two of Hyatt's Liassic Ammonites. By C. H. Crick- 

may ; published July 23, 1925 77 

4. A New Species of MoUusk (Dentalium hannai) from Lower Cali- 

fornia, With Notes on Other Forms. By Fred Baker ; published 
July 2i, 1925 83 

5. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology, IL Korea or Chosen. By 

Joseph R. Slevin ; published July 23, 1925 89 

6. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology, HL Russian Asia and 

Manchuria. By Joseph R. Slevin ; published July 23, 1925 101 

7. New North American Spiders. By Ralph V. Chamberlin ; published 

August 14, 1925 105 

8. Anatomy of Lanx, a Limpet-Like Lymnaeid MoUusk. By H. 

Burrington Baker; published August 14, 1925 143 

Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences 
TO THE Gulf of California in 1921 

9. The Phalangida. By Ralph V. Chamberlin ; published August 14, 

1925 171 

10. Scellus virago Aldrich (A Two-Winged Fly) and Two Forms 

Closely Related To It. By M. C. Van Duzee ; published August 
14, 1925 175 

11. Bees in the Collection of California Academy of Sciences. By T. 

D. A. Cockerell ; published August 14, 1925 185 

Expedition to Guadalupe Island, Mexico, in 1922 

12. General Report. By G. Dallas Hanna ; published September 5, 

1925 217 

13. The Birds and Mammals. By A. W. Anthony ; published Septem- 

ber 5. 1925 277 

14. The Coleoptera. By Frank E. Blaisdell, Sr. ; published September 

5, 1925 321 

15. Anthidiine Bees in the Collection of the California Academy of 

Sciences. By T. D. A. Cockerell ; published September 5, 1925.... 345 

16. Studies in the Tenebrionidae, No. 2. (Coleoptera). By Frank E. 

Blaisdell, Sr., published September 18, 1925 369 

17. New Hemiptera from Western North America. By Edward P. 

Van Duzee ; published September 24, 1925 391 

18. Paleontology of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California. 

By G. Dallas Hanna ; published March 23, 1926 427 

19. Report of the President of the Academy for the Year 1925. By 

C. E. Grunsky ; published April 28, 1926 505 

20. Report of the Director of the Museum for the Year 1925. By 

Barton Warren Evermann ; published April 28, 1926 521 

Index to Volume XIV 567 



Jt^ojf 



ERRATA 



p. 58, line 23, should read Turritella suturzJis 

p. 70, line 28, should read Haimesiastrsea distans 

p. 198, line 1, should read C. coloradensis 

p. 200, line 12, should read H, viridescens 

p. 204, line 5, should read nigrifrons 

p. 446, line 5, and other lines, should read (?) Conus molis 

p. 463, line 28, should read Crassatellites subgibbotu* 

p. 464, line 11, should read "Crassatella gibbosa" 

p. 466, line 21, should read Lucina edentuloides 

p. 472, line 34, should read P. sancti-ludovid 

p. 474, line 10, should read sancti-Iudovici 

p. 480, line 18, should read Metalia spatagus 

p. 502, line 4, should read CasMs aubtuberosa 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES } 

Fourth Series 
Vol. XIV, No. 1, pp. 1-35, plates 1-6 July 21, 1925 



PECTENS FROM THE TERTIARY OF 
LOWER CALIFORNIA 

BY 

LEO G. HERTLEIN 
Leland Stanford Junior University 

In a study of a collection of Tertiary fossils from Lower 
California, a considerable number of species of Pectens were 
identified, several of which appear to be undescribed. The 
writer wishes to acknowledge the kind help received from Dr. 
J. P. Smith of the Leland Stanford Junior University ; he also 
wishes to thank Dr. G. Dallas Hanna and Mr. Eric K. Jordan 
of the California Academy of Sciences for the loan of Acad- 
emy material and helpful criticism of the manuscript. Permis- 
sion by Dr. B. L. Clark to examine material in the collection 
of the University of California is gratefully acknowledged. 
Acknowledgment is also due especially to Mr. C. H. Beal 
and to Messrs. B. F. Hake, C. R. Swarts and T. J. Cullen of 
the Marland Oil Company of California; and also to Mr. E. 
Call Brown of Los Angeles, California, for the material col- 
lected by them. The greater part of this material is now in 
the paleontological collections of the Leland Stanford Junior 
University; paratypes where available, and duplicates, are in 
the collections of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Previously described species of Pectens recognized in the 
collection are listed as follows, together with the L.S.J.U. and 
C.A.S. locality numbers from Lower California, and with the 

July 21, 1925 



2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

formation as far as known. The formation-names and the 
names of the quadrangles in the most part follow those adopted 
by the Marland Oil Company geologists. 

Pecten (Pecten) carrisoensis Arnold. Carrizo, Lower Pliocene. 

Loc. 45 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Pecten) cataractes Dall. Formation unknown. 

Loc. 52 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Pecten) cf. bellus Conrad. Salada, Pliocene. 

Loc. 49 (L.S.J.U.) ; loc. 928 (C.A.S.) 
Pecten (Pecten) hemphillii Dall. Salada, Pliocene, 

Loc. 48 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Pecten) keepi Arnold. Lower Pliocene? 

Loc. 44, 45, 50 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Pecten) lecontei Arnold. Salada, Pliocene. 

Loc. 48 (L.S.J.U.) ; loc. 928 (C.A.S.) 
Pecten (Patinopecten) cf. coosensis Shumard, Salada, Pliocene. 

Loc. 48 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Patinopecten) dilleri Dall. Salada, Pliocene. 

Loc. 48 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Lyropecten) near crassicardo Conrad. 

Loc. 57 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Plagioctenium) circularis Sowerby. 

Loc. 47, 48, 61 (L.S.J.U.) ; loc. 928, 930 (C.A.S.) 
Pecten (Plagioctenium) cerros<ensis mendenhalli Arnold. 

Carrizo, Lower Pliocene. Loc. 45, 51, 62, 69 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Plagioctenium) deserti Conrad. Pliocene. 

Loc. 45, 52, 55, 64 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Plagioctenium) invalidus Hanna. Pliocene. 

Loc. 52, 64 (L.S.J.U.) 
Pecten (Plagioctenium) purpuratus Lamarck. Salada, Pliocene. 

Loc. 48, 116 (L.S.J.U.) ; loc. 928, 930 (CA.S.) 

The localities (L.S.J.U.) and (C.A.S.) listed in the fore- 
going are as follows : 

Locality 44 (L.S.J.U.). Arroyo Fortuna, north of San Jose del Cabo, 
Lower California ; C. R. Swarts collector. 

Locality 45 (L.S.J.U.). Santa Rosalia, Lower California; C. H. Beal 
collector. 

Locality 47 (L.S.J.U.). Turtle Bay (San Bartolome), Lower Cali- 
fornia; B. F. Hake collector; Salada Pliocene. 

Locality 48 (L.S.J.U.). Mouth of large arroyo, northwest of Elephant 
Mesa, Scammon Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower California; B. F. Hake col- 
lector; Salada Pliocene. 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA 3 

Locality 49 (L.S.J.U.)- Slopes of Salada, three miles southeast of 
Turtle Bay, uppermost beds, San Cristobal Bay Quadrangle, Lower Cali- 
fornia ; B. F. Hake collector ; Salada Pliocene. 

Locality 50 (L.S.J.U.). Rancho Refugio, north of San Jose del Cabo, 
Lower California; C. R. Swarts collector. 

Locality 51 (L.S.J.U.). Arroyo las Palmas, Santa Rosalia, Lower 
California. 

Locality 52 (L.S.J.U.). El Zacato, on coast north of Santiago, Lower 
California; C. R. Swarts collector. 

Locality 55 (L.S.J.U.). Arroyo Asuncion, Scammon Lagoon Quad- 
rangle, Lower California; B. F. Hake collector. 

Locality 57 (L.S.J.U.). La Purisima Cliffs, San Ramon River, Lower 
California; E. Call Brown Collector. 

Locality 61 (L.S.J.U.). Coronados Island, Gulf of California; T. J. 
Cullen collector. 

Locality 62 (L.S.J.U.). Float, five kilometers north of Santa Rosalia, 
Lower California; C. H. Beal collector. 

Locality 64 (L.S.J.U.). Arroyo near La Palma, 12 miles northwest of 
Santa Rosalia, from pebbly sandstone near Comondu-Salada contadt. 
Lower California ; B. F. Hake collector. 

Locality 69 (L.S.J.U.). Arroyo de las Virgines, 10 miles northwest of 
Santa Rosalia, Santa Rosalia Quadrangle, Lower California; B. F. Hake 
collector. 

Locality 116 (L.S.J.U.). Cedros Island, off Lower California; H. 
Hemphill and others, collectors. Salada Pliocene. 

Locality 928 (C.A.S.). Cedros Island, off Lower California; G. D. 
Hanna collector ; Salada Pliocene. 

Locality 930 (C.A.S.). Turtle Bay, Lower California; G. D. Hanna 
collector ; Salada Pliocene. 

Of the species listed in the foregoing P. circularis and P. 
cataractes are found living in the Gulf of California at the 
present time. P. hellus has been listed from the Fernando, San 
Diego, and Santa Barbara Pliocene of California, and P. hemp- 
hillii has been listed from the Fernando and San Diego Pliocene 
formations of southern California. P. carrizoensis, P. deserti 
and P. keepi have been reported from the Carrizo formation. 
P. lecontei has been reported from the Pliocene of Cedros 
Island. P. invalidiis was described from the San Diego Plio- 
cene of Pacific Beach near San Diego, California. P. crassi- 
cardo has been reported as occurring throughout the Miocene 
of California, though it is most abundant in the Monterey- 
Temblor and Santa Margarita-San Pablo formations. P. cer- 
rosensis mendenhalli was originally described from the Plio- 



4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

cene of Lower California near Santa Rosalia, which was 
thought to be equivalent to the Carrizo. P. purpuratus occurs 
in the Salada Pliocene of Cedros Island and Turtle Bay, also 
in the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Chile, and it is at present 
found living in the waters of the Peruvian province of the 
Pacific ocean. P. cooscnsis occurs in the Miocene, Empire 
formation on the coast of Oregon and in the Montesano, 
Miocene of Washington. P. dilleri occurs in the Pliocene, 
Wildcat fomiation on Eel River in northern California and in 
the Fernando of the Santa Maria district near Santa Maria, 
California. 

The numerous species of the sections Pecten s. str., Lyro- 
pecten, Aequipecten, and Plagioctenium, indicate that warm 
water conditions prevailed in Lower California in the later 
Tertiary. The identity of many of the previously described 
species with those known from the Tertiary of California is of 
interesting significance, as are also the relations of the new 
species. The stratigraphy of Lower California has not been 
worked out in great detail as yet, nor has any great advance 
been made in the way of correlation with the Tertiary forma- 
tions of the western United States. Excellent work has, how- 
ever, been accomplished by Dr. Arnold Heim and others. A 
recent paper by Heim^ gives a good outline of the Tertiary 
stratigraphy of the southern half of the Peninsula of Lower 
California. 

Several Tertiary and Quaternary formations were recog- 
nized by Heim. The Tepetate formation, considered to be of 
probable Upper Eocene age, is well developed at the Rancho 
El Tepetate, (Lat. 24° 23', Long. 111° 8'). A stratum of 
about 20 meters of white siliceous shale appears at the base of 
the formation. This is followed by a considerable thickness of 
sandstones with smaller amounts of shales. Numerous Ortho- 
phragmma pratti Mich., occur in these beds, and Amphistegina 
niasi Verbeek, is also mentioned. The facies of the Tepetate 
formation, according to Heim, are chiefly neritic. 

The next younger formation recognized by Heim is the Puri- 
sima Nueva (Lat. 26° 11', Long. 112° 4'). These beds are said 
to be composed chiefly of light colored sandstones, with some 

' Geol. Mag. Vol. 59, p. 529-547, 1922. 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA 5 

layers of broken shells. The facies are neritic. At places the 
beds are considerably metamorphosed. Some of the species 
listed from this formation are: Mactra dariensis Dall, Pecten 
condylomatus Dall, Pecten oxygonum optimum Brown & Pils- 
bry, Racta gibbosa Gabb, Turritella tristis Brown, Balanus sp. 
The age of this formation was considered to be Upper 
Oligocene. 

Along the Arroyo Cadegomo and at Rancho San Ramon 
(Long. 112" 12'), the Monterey formation is typically de- 
veloped. This formation is composed largely of white silice- 
ous shale with smaller amounts of sandstones and, according 
to Heim, is quite similar to the Monterey formation of 
California. 

Conformably overlying and intergrading with the Monterey 
formation is the Isidro, named from the town of San Isidro 
on the left bank of the Arroyo San Gregorio. It consists 
largely of sandstones and shales and is neritic in facies. Genera 
of some of the fossils reported are: Area, Chione, Mytilus, 
Psammobia, Tellina( ?), Chrysodomus, Balanus. 

The Isidro is overlain, at some localities conformably, else- 
where unconformably, by the usually flat-lying Comondu, 
named for the oasis village of that name. This formation is 
chiefly composed of brownish sandstones and conglomerates, 
which are thought to be continental, of great extension, and 
Upper Miocene, or possibly Lower Pliocene, in age. 

Above, and slightly unconformable on the Comondu forma- 
tion, are the Cuesta sandstones, well developed at La Cuesta 
de La Purisima. No fossils have been found and the beds are 
probably continental and Pliocene in age. 

Unconformably overlying the Monterey at La Ventana, 
Heim found a marine conglomerate, which he suggested prob- 
ably corresponds to the Fernando Pliocene of California, but 
to which no formational name was given. 

At the cattle ranch La Salada, on the left bank of the Arroyo 
de La Salada, a marine Pliocene fomiation is well exposed, to 
which Heim gave the name Salada. This is composed largely 
of sandstones and occasional conglomerates with an upper 
calcareous stratum. These beds are thought to have been de- 
posited in shallow water. The formation appears to be quite 



5 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

extensively developed along the coast and at moderate dis- 
tances inland, and was recognized at several points. Genera 
of some of the fossils listed are: Chione, Mytilus, Tellina, 
Calliostoma, Conus, Oliva, Polinices, Turritella, Balanus. 

Along the Pacific coast, the Pliocene beds are covered by the 
Medanos, or older sand dunes. Marine shells are found in 
them which are thought to be of Pleistocene age. Some of the 
species found were: Area tuber culata Sby., Donax cf. eayen- 
nensis Lam., Tivela hryoniana (radiata Dall), oysters, etc. 

The writer has been informed by Mr. C. H. Beal that the 
conclusions reached by him and his associates concerning the 
Miocene stratigraphy of Lower California do not coincide in 
all respects with those of Dr. Heim. The Purisima Nueva of 
Heim was not recognized by them, and no fauna comparable 
to that listed by Arnold and Clark has been found in their col- 
lections. In the Pliocene, the Cuesta was not differentiated 
from the Comondu, and both together were considered to be 
the continental equivalent of the Salada. 

In this paper, the writer, following Arnold, has used the 
term Carrizo for certain beds in Lower California, notably in 
the vicinity of Santa Rosalia. He recognizes that, as pointed 
out by Vaughan^, the name Carrizo has been used several times 
in North American stratigraphy; furthermore, examination of 
faunas from Imperial County, California, indicates a possi- 
bility that the so called Carrizo of Carrizo Creek, Alverson 
Canyon and Coyote Mountain, may perhaps comprise more 
than one horizon. 

Several of the species listed in the present paper are from the 
Pliocene of Lower California. The Pecten fauna indicates 
that the Pliocene of Cedros Island is in general the equivalent 
of the San Diego Pliocene of Pacific Beach, near San Diego, 
California. The Salada is apparently equivalent to the Plio- 
cene of Cedros Island. There is, however, an indication in the 
fauna, that a horizon older than the Salada may be present on 
the west coast of Lower California, as well as on the east coast, 
and it is probable that some of the species referred to the 
Salada may belong to an older horizon. 

'Prof. Paper U. S. Geol. Survey No. 98, 1917, p. 357. 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA 7 

1. Pecten (Pecten) refugioensis Hertlein, new species 

Plate 1, figure 2; plate 5, figure 9 

Shell of medium size. Right valve practically smooth, orna- 
mented, however, by fine concentric lines of growth, and close 
to the beaks also by fine, faint, radiating ribs which, however, 
disappear at the umbo ; ventral margin smooth ; interior of the 
shell ornamented by about 19 dichotomous ribs; ears about 
equal and concentrically sculptured ; a slight groove showing 
where the ears meet the margins of the shell ; a slight byssal 
notch present on the anterior ear. Left valve fairly smooth, 
ornamented interiorly much as right, a depressed area which 
is lower than the margins extends from the beaks to about one- 
half the height of the shell ; ears slightly concave, ornamented 
by concentric lines of growth. Altitude 56 mm. ; longitude 
57 mm. ; diameter of right valve approximately 14 mm. ; apical 
angle of right valve approximately 97°. 

Type: Right valve. No. 49 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 50 (L.S.J.U.), Rancho Refugio, north of San Jose del 
Cabo, Lower California; Paratypes: No. 50 (L.S.J.U. collec- 
tion), and Nos. 1764, 1765, 1766 (C.A.S. collection), C. R. 
Swarts collector; Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene. 

This species also occurs at Loc. 44 (L.S.J.U.), from Arroyo 
Fortuna, north of San Jose del Cabo, Lower California; C. R. 
Swarts collector ; Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene. 

Pecten refugioensis appears to be a step between the sections 
Amusium and Pecten s. str. It has, in general, the shape of a 
Pecten s. str. and the concentric sculpture, ears and ribs are 
suggestive of an Amusium. It differs from P. keepi Arnold 
by showing scarcely any ribs on the exterior of the shell, and 
by its somewhat different shape. P. refugioensis differs from 
P. revolutus Mich., from the Miocene of Italy in having a 
smaller apical angle, a flatter shell, and differently shaped 
ears. 



g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

2. Pecten (Pecten) aletes Hertlein, new species 
Plate 2, figures 1 and 4 

Shell of medium size. Right valve moderately convex, orna- 
mented by about 11 rather broad, flat-topped radiating ribs, 
which anteriorly and posteriorly decrease in size, each rib with 
one to four narrow, slight, radial sulcations ; interspaces flat- 
bottomed, narrower than the ribs, occasionally bearing a tiny 
radiating riblet, the whole surface of valve sculptured by fine, 
close, concentric striae; ears subequal, marked by growth lines, 
but lacking all radial sculpture. Left valve slightly concave, 
with a pronounced depression toward the beak ; about nine flat- 
topped radial ribs, separated by interspaces about as wide as 
the ribs, the ribs and interspaces both covered by fine, sharp, 
concentric sculpture ; ears subequal, and somewhat concave, 
ornamented only by fine incremental lines. Altitude 62 mm, ; 
longitude 65 mm.; diameter of right valve approximately 13 
mm. ; apical angle of right valve approximately 100°. 

Type: Right valve, No. 44 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 50 (L.S.J.U.), Rancho Refugio, north of San Jose del 
Cabo, Lower California; Parafypes: No. 45 (L.S.J.U. collec- 
tion), and No. 1767 (C.A.S. collection), C. R. Swarts collector. 
Horizon not known ; probably Upper Miocene or Lower 
Pliocene. 

Pecten aletes differs from P. hcllus Conrad in the smaller 
number of ribs, which are finely sulcate. It differs from P. 
laqueatus Sowerby, from Japan, to which it is most closely 
related, in the fewer ribs; also in that the ears on the right 
valve of the present species appear to be straighter and not 
quite as arcuate as those of P. laqueatus. 

3. Pecten (Pecten) hartmanni Hertlein, new species 

Plate 1, figures 4 and 6 

Right valve excessively arched, ornamented by about 16 or 
17 rounded radiating ribs which become flattened toward the 
ventral margin of the shell ; anterior and posterior margins 
highly arcuate, smooth except for faint lines of growth ; ears 
somewhat convex and turned up slightly at the ends, the an- 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA 9 

terior sculptured by about four poorly defined radiating riblets 
which are crossed by concentric incremental lines, and cut by 
a slight byssal notch; left ear with a few faint radial riblets 
and slight concentric striae. Altitude 75 mm. ; longitude 65 
mm. ; diameter of right valve approximately 30 mm. ; apical 
angle of right valve approximately 88°. 

Type: Right valve, No. 48 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 54 (L.S.J.U.), Arroyo Mesquital, Lower California, above 
the yellow silts which are well exposed in this arroyo; C. R. 
Swarts and T. J. Cullen collectors; Lower Pliocene? 

Pec fen hartmanni differs from P. hemphillii Dall in pos- 
sessing a more highly arched right valve and in the shape of 
the ears, which in the present species are somewhat more 
concave. It differs from P. cataractes Dall in having fewer 
ribs, and in that the margins of the shell descend abruptly 
rather than expanding laterally, as in the case in Ball's species, 
and also in P. vogdesi Arnold. 

This species is named in honor of Mr. A. Hartmann, whose 
work in Lower California has added to the knowledge of tliat 
region. 

4. Pecten (Pecten) heimi Hertlein, new species 

Plate 1, figure 3 ; plate 3, figure 3 

Shell concavo-convex, equilateral, inequivalve. Right valve 
highly arched, and ornamented by about 20 or 21 rounded, 
radiating ribs which become flattened toward ventral margin, 
these separated by round-bottomed interspaces about one-half 
as wide as the ribs ; ribs and interspaces crossed by concentric 
incremental lines of growth ; ventral margin of shell rounded ; 
ears somewhat convex ; a distinct groove on right ear close to 
margin of shell, and byssal notch also present ; anterior margin 
of right ear somewhat convex; ear ornamented by about four 
or five radiating riblets and by concentric incremental lines. 
Left valve slightly concave and ornamented by about 17 or 18 
radiating ribs which are separated by round-bottomed inter- 
spaces, the ribs and interspaces crossed by fine concentric in- 
cremental lines; a depressed area present just below the beaks; 
anterior and posterior margins of valve flattened, higher than 



JQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the depressed inner area near beak, sloping abruptly to ears; 
ears concave and sculptured by fine incremental lines only. 
Altitude 75 mm. ; longitude 85 mm. ; diameter of right valve 
approximately 25 mm. ; apical angle of right valve approxi- 
mately 97°. 

Type: Right valve, No. 46 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 65 (L.S.J.U.), southern part of Arroyo San Gregorio, 
Lower California; Paratype: No. 47 (L.S.J.U. collection), E. 
R. Swarts and T. J. Cullen collectors; Lower Pliocene? 

Pecten heimi differs from P. hemphillii Dall in the number 
of ribs, which is greater in P. heimi, and in the ears which are 
smooth, and more convex in the present species than in P. 
hemphillii. From P. coalingensis Arnold and P. auburyi 
Arnold it is distinguished by its larger size and the more 
rounded shape of its ribs ; from P. vogdesi Arnold, by the fact 
that the shell in P. heimi does not flatten out at the ventral 
margin as does P. vogdesi, and P. heimi has a greater number 
of ribs than Arnold's species. P. heimi differs from P. hart- 
manni Hertlein, in being longer in proportion to the altitude, 
less inflated, and in possessing differently shaped ears. From 
P. astecus Bose, P. heimi is distinguished by the fewer, more 
rounded, broader ribs, in the present species; furthermore, 
P. heimi is larger and apparently more convex. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. Arnold Heim, whose 
work has added much to the knowledge of the geology of 
Lower California. 

5. Pecten (Pecten) beali Hertlein, new species 

Plate 2, figure 3 ; plate 5, figure 8 

Shell inequivalve, plano-convex, equilateral, the ventral 
margin evenly rounded. Right valve convex, ornamented 
by about 23 or 24 prominent, square, flat-topped, strongly 
medially sulcate radial ribs, with in some cases, fainter radial 
grooves superimposed; interspaces flat-bottomed and slightly 
narrower than the ribs, the whole surface sculptured by fine, 
regular, concentric lines; posterior ear sculptured by about 
four radial riblets, and by fine incremental lines. Left valve 
flat or slightly concave, ornamented by about 21 radiating ribs 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA \l 

separated by flat-bottomed interspaces, each of which bears a 
single small intercalated riblet, the ribs and interspaces crossed 
by fine concentric lines; a somewhat depressed area is found 
just below the beak; margins of shell somewhat concave, bear- 
ing four or five radiating ribs and fine concentric imbricating 
lines; ears somewhat concave, ornamented by three or four 
radiating riblets and by fine concentric lines of growth. Alti- 
tude 55 mm. ; longitude 56 mm. ; diameter of right valve ap- 
proximately 10 mm. ; apical angle of right valve approximately 
114°. 

Type: Right valve, No. 55 (L.S.J. U. type collection), from 
Loc. 64 (L.S.J.U.), pebbly sandstone near Comondu-Salada 
contact, Arroyo near La Peilma, Lower California; Paratype: 
Left valve No. 56 (L.S.J.U. collection), B. F. Hake collector, 
Salada, Pliocene. 

Pectcfi beali appears to be related to P. carrizoensis Arnold, 
but is larger, and the ribs are more numerous and more deeply 
sulcate. On the left valve the radial interspaces are orna- 
mented by small midribs which are lacking in Arnold's species. 
P. carrizoensis also is longer in proportion to the height than 
P. beali. 

This species is named in honor of Mr. C. H. Beal, whose 
information concerning Lower California has been much ap- 
preciated by the writer. 

6. Pecten (Lyropecten) modulatus Hertlein, new species 

Plate 3, figure 6 

Shell moderately convex, fairly heavy, showing slight areas 
of constricted growth. Right valve ornamented by about 14 
longitudinally sculptured radiating ribs, which are rounded in 
the earlier part of the shell, but which, toward the ventral 
margin, show a tendency to become flattened; interspaces of 
varying width but all narrower than the ribs, all containing 
a small midrib; anterior and posterior margins of shell orna- 
mented by fine longitudinal riblets; ears unequal, the anterior 
ear large, with large byssal notch and sculpture consisting of 
about seven well defined radial riblets and concentric growth 
lines, the left ear small in comparison with the large right, its 



J2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

posterior edge sloping down almost vertically to the margin of 
shell, the surface of the ear ornamented by about eight or more 
radiating riblets over which are superimposed fine longitudinal 
and concentric lines. Altitude 58 mm. ; longitude 60 mm. ; 
diameter of right valve approximately 14 mm. ; apical angle, 
right valve approximately 92°. 

Type: Right valve, No. 39 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 43 (L.S.J.U.), Mesa west of Mesa de las Auras, Scam- 
mon Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower California; B. F. Hake col- 
lector; Salada, Pliocene. 

Pecten modnlatiis bears some resemblance to P. vaughani 
Arnold, but is much larger and also has sculptured margins 
and prominent midriblets in the interspaces, while in P. 
vaughani the interspaces bear fine striae only. 

7. Pecten (Lyropecten) pretiosus Hertlein, new species 

Plate 2, figure 6 ; plate 3, figure 4 

Shell small. Right valve moderately arched, and orna- 
mented by about 17 or 18 rounded, radiating ribs, separated by 
somewhat narrower interspaces; ribs and interspaces sculp- 
tured by fine, radiating fines and crossed by fine, concentric 
lines of growth ; anterior and posterior margins turning down 
abruptly, and smooth except for incremental striae; ventral 
margin rounded and turned down abruptly ; anterior ear with 
a distinct byssal notch, and a slight groove also present be- 
tween ear and margin of shell ; about five radiating rib- 
lets crossed by incremental lines ornament the ear; posterior 
ear sculptured by about six or seven radiating riblets, crossed 
by incremental striae, the ear sloping downward and slightly 
posteriorly from the hinge line. Left valve ornamented by 
about 14 or 15 radiating ribs, the whole surface with sculpture 
similar to that of right valve ; ears sculptured much as on 
right valve. Altitude 27 mm. ; longitude 29 mm. ; diameter of 
right valve approximately 10 mm. ; apical angle of right valve 
approximately 87°. 

Type: Right valve. No. 38 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 59 (L.S.J.U.), Turritella bed above San Gregorio Lagoon, 
120 miles north of Magdalena Bay, Lower California, on the 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA I3 

trail from Arroyo Mesquital to La Purisima ; Paratypes: No. 
1770 (C.A.S. collection), from Loc. 59 (L.SJ.U.), and Nos. 89 
(L.SJ.U. collection), and 1771 (C.A.S. collection), from Loc. 
57 (L.S.J.U.), La Purisima Cliffs, on San Ramon River, Lower 
California; E, Call Brown collector; Isidro formation, Lower 
Miocene. 

The characteristic shape, sculpture, and shape of ears dis- 
tinguish this beautiful little Pecten from other species. 

8. Pecten (Aequipecten) percarus Hertlein, new species 

Plate 2, figures 2 and 5 

Shell moderately large, equilateral, subequivalve, moderately 
thin, somewhat compressed, the outline round. Right valve 
ornamented by about 22 moderately strong, rounded ribs, 
separated by round-bottomed interspaces which are not quite 
as wide as the ribs ; ribs and interspaces sculptured by regular, 
wavy, incremental lines, and, at irregular intervals, by stronger 
lines of growth ; hinge line about one-half as long as the disk 
and slightly indented at the beaks; ears unequal, the anterior 
with a large byssal notch and sculpture consisting of about 
six or seven radiating riblets, the posterior ear ornamented by 
about seven radiating riblets, both ears sculptured by incre- 
mental lines. Left valve more arched and sharper at umbo 
than right, and somewhat one-sided in appearance, the disk 
ornamented by about 25 or 26 rounded, radiating ribs, and 
also concentrically sculptured much as on right valve; ears 
ornamented by about six or seven radiating ribs, crossed by 
concentric incremental lines; ears slightly concave, anterior 
with a slight byssal notch. Altitude 82 mm. ; longitude 91 
mm. ; diameter approximately 12 mm. ; apical angle of valves 
approximately 118°. 

Type: No 42 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from Loc. 48 (L.S. 
J.U.), mouth of large arroyo northwest of Elephant Mesa, 
Scammon Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower California; Paratypes: 
No. 43 (L.S.J.U. collection) and Nos. 1768, 1769 (C.A.S. col- 
lection), B. F. Hake collector, Salada PHocene. 

This species is also found at Loc. 76 (L.S.J.U.), Salada 
on white clay northwest of Elephant Mesa west of Arroyo, 



J4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Scammon Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower California ; B. F. Hake 
collector; Salada, Pliocene. Also Loc. 928 (C.A.S.), Cedros 
Island; G. D. Hanna collector; Upper Pliocene. Also Loc. 
930 (C.A.S.), from Turtle Bay, Lower California; G. D. 
Hanna collector; Salada, Pliocene. 

Pecten percarus is distinguished from other west American 
Aequipectens by its large size, number of ribs, and its clear 
concentric incremental lines. 

9. Pecten (Plagioctenium) purpuratus Lamarck 
Plate 1, figure 1 ; plate 4, figures 2 and 4 

1836. Pecten purpuratus Lamarck, Hist, des Animaux sans Vertebres 

(edition by Deshayes and Edwards), Vol. 7, 1836, p. 134. 
1843. Pecten purpuratus Lamarck, Sowerby, Thesaurus Conch., Vol. 1, 

1843, p. S3, pi. 15, fig. 113; pi. 16, figs. 123-125. 
1855. Pecten purpuratus Lamarck, Reeve, Conchologia Iconica, Vol. 8, 

1855, Pecten, pi. 5, fig. 25. 
1910. Pecten purpuratus Lamarck, Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 37, 

1910, p. 149, pi. 26, figs. 5, 6. 

Lamarck's description is as follows: 

"P. testa alba, purpureo et nigro purpurascente varia ; radiis 26, con- 
vexis; intus zona purpureo-nigricante." 

Ball's description is as follows : 

"Shell orbicular, moderately convex, subequivalve, rather thin, with 
about 26 flat-topped ribs, laterally fringed, and separated by channeled 
interspaces ; colors white, rose color, and different shades of purple 
distributed in an irregular manner ; the interior zoned with blackish 
purple." 

Dall gave the recent distribution as being from Coquimbo, 
Chile, northward to Ecuador. 

The three heavy, radiating riblets on the anterior ear of the 
right valve, and the sharply serrated edges of the radial ribs 
are characteristic of Pecten purpuratus Lamarck. P. purpura- 
tus is found at the present time in the waters of the Peruvian 
province in the Pacific ocean. It occurs in the Pliocene and 
Pleistocene of Chile, but has not been reported previously from 
the Tertiary north of Panama. Specimens have been identified 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA J 5 

from the Salada Pliocene at Turtle Bay, Lower California, 
and from the Pliocene of Cedros Island. The right valve 
figured in this paper came from Turtle Bay, the left from 
Cedros Island. 

Possibly the left valve described as P. subventricosiis by 
Dall from southern California and referred to P. cerrosensis 
by Arnold, is identical with P. purpiiratus Lamarck. 

10. Pecten (Plagioctenium) cerrosensis Gabb 
Plate 6, figure 1 

1869. Pecten cerrosensis Gabb, Geol. Surv. Calif., Pal., Vol. 2, 1869, p. 32, 

pi. 9, figs. 55, 55a. 
1906. Not Pecten (Plagioctenium) cerrosensis Gabb, Arnold, Prof. Paper 

U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 47, 1906, pp. 123-124, pi. 44, fig. 5 ; pi. 

49, figs. 1, la, lb. 

Gabb's original description is as follows : 

"Shell equivalve, subcircular, broader than long, convex ; beaks small ; 
sides sloping concavely above, rounded below ; ears small, subequal, 
roughened and irregular, sinus very small. Surface marked by eighteen 
or twenty flat ribs, with flat or slightly concave interspaces ; margins un- 
dulated, the ends of the ribs being deeply emarginated, and the inter- 
spaces being prolonged into tongue-like processes." 

"Locality: Cerros Island, off the coast of Lower California: probably 
Miocene. Collected by Dr. J. A. Veatch." 

The dimensions of the type are approximately: altitude 210 
mm.; longitude 220 mm.; diameter 90 mm. It is No. 1091 
(Univ. Calif. Coll.) and is figured herewith through the kind- 
ness of Prof. Bruce L. Clark. 

It appears to the writer that several different species have 
been assigned to P. cerrosensis Gabb. Having examined the 
type which is in the collections of the University of California, 
it appears that the description and figures given by Arnold 
can hardly belong to the species described by Gabb ; the descrip- 
tion and figures given by Arnold do not coincide with the 
type, original figure or description. P. cerrosensis Gabb has 
18 to 20 ribs, a very slight byssal notch, and the ears, except 
for growth lines, are perfectly smooth, while in the figures 
shown by Arnold a deep byssal notch is present in the anterior 



16 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

ear of the right valve, there are more than 20 radiating ribs, 
and the ears are sculptured by radiating riblets. As stated 
elsewhere in this paper, one of Arnold's figures may be P. pur- 
puratus Lamarck, and the others appear to be P. suhdolus 
Hertlein. 

The slight byssal notch, unsculptured ears, and the number 
of ribs are characteristic of P. cerrosensis. 

11. Pecten (Plagioctenium) cerrosensis mendenhalli Arnold 

Plate 1, figure 5 

1906. Pecten (Plagioctenium) cerrosensis var? mendenhalli Arnold, Prof. 
Paper U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 47, 1906, pp. 84-85, pi. 25, figs. 2, 
2a, and 2b. 

Arnold's original description is as follows: 

"Shell, when adult, averaging about 75 millimeters in altitude. Similar 
to P. cerrosensis in shape, convexity, and ribbing, but differing from the 
latter in being much smaller when adult, having fewer ribs (about 19 in 
the former, while the latter has usually 21 or more), much less prominent 
incremental lines, and a relatively longer hinge line." 

"Dimensions (of a medium-sised specimen). — Alt. 43 mm.; long. 44 
mm. ; hinge line 28 mm. ; diameter 17 mm." 

"The type is from beds of probable Miocene age (the equivalent of the 
Carrizo Creek beds) at Santa Rosalia, Lower California, directly west of 
and across the Gulf of California from Guaymas, Mexico." 

Several different species have been referred to Pecten cer- 
rosensis mendenhalli Arnold by various workers. A specimen 
from near the type locality is figured herewith. This form is 
apparently more closely related to the true P. cerrosensis Gabb 
than are the other forms referred to the latter by Arnold. 

It should be mentioned that Gabb's original description of 
P. cerrosensis states that the ribs are 18 to 20 in number and 
not 21 or more. 

12. Pecten (Plagioctenium) calli Hertlein, new species 

Plate 4, figures 5, 6 and 7 

Shell small, inequivalve. Right valve slightly arched, orna- 
mented by about 16 or 17 rather high, narrow, rounded, radi- 
ating ribs separated by interspaces of about the same width as 



Vol. XI\ ] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA \y 

the ribs; anterior ear with a large byssal notch and sculpture 
consisting of about five radiating riblets crossed by concentric 
lines of growth; posterior ear sculptured by radiating riblets 
crossed by concentric lines of growth. Left valve slightly 
prolonged posteriorly, much more highly arched than right, 
and sloping rather abruptly from the umbos, sculptured by 
about 19 well developed, rather sharp, rounded, radiating ribs 
separated by interspaces about as wide as the ribs, ribs and in- 
terspaces crossed by fine concentric lines ; ears slightly concave, 
the anterior with a small notch and ornamentation consisting 
of five or six radiating riblets crossed by concentric lines of 
growth; posterior ear slightly prolonged at the hinge line, 
sculptured as right. Altitude 24 mm. ; longitude 24 mm. ; 
diameter of left valve approximately 7 mm. ; apical angle ap- 
proximately 90°. 

Type: Left valve. No. 68 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 53 (L.S.J.U.), first arroyo east of Santiago, Lower Csili- 
fomia, C. R. Swarts collector; Miocene? Paratype: No. 125 
(L.S.J.U. collection), same locality as the type; also No. 126 
(L.S.J.U. collection), from Loc. 63 (L.S.J.U.), intersection of 
Arroyo Fortuna with Arroyo Refugio, near San Jose del Cabo, 
Lower California, C. R. Swarts collector; also No. 127 (L.S. 
J.U. collection) from Loc. 60 (L.S.J.U. collection), west side 
of Elephant Mesa, Scammon Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower Cali- 
fornia, B. F. Hake collector: Isidro formation. Lower Mio- 
cene; also No. 1772 (C.A.S. collection), from Turtle Bay, 
Lower California, E. C. Johnson collector; Pliocene. 

Pecten calli differs from P. andersoni Arnold, in its nar- 
rower ribs and more highly arched left valve. From P. discus 
Conrad, and P. raymondi Clark, the present species is dis- 
tinguished by the differently shaped ribs and less circular out- 
line of the valves. From P. deserti Conrad and P. impostor 
Hanna, P. calli is distinguished by its high narrow, rounded 
ribs and only slightly arched right valve. From P. santa- 
rosanus Bose, P. calli is distinguished by the fewer higher ribs 
and by the presence of a profound rounded notch in the pos- 
terior ear of the left valve of the present species, which notch 
is lacking in P. santarosanus. 

July 21, 1925 



|g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This species is named in honor of Mr. E. Call Brown, 
whose cohection has added to the knowledge of the stratig- 
raphy of Lower California. 

13. Pecten (Plagioctenium) hakei Hertlein, new species 

Plate 4, figures 1 and 3 

Shell moderately arched, coarse and thick, slightly longer 
than high. Right valve ornamented by about 23 or 24 rounded 
to slightly flat-topped ribs, separated by narrower, round-bot- 
tomed interspaces, both the interspaces and ribs crossed by 
concentric incremental lines, and, in some cases, by rather 
strong lines of growth ; anterior ear with a large byssal notch, 
and sculpture consisting of about five or six radiating riblets, 
crossed by concentric incremental lines ; anterior and posterior 
margins of valves smooth except for concentric incremental 
lines ; ventral margin rounded ; posterior ear ornamented by 
about eight radiating riblets and by lines of growth, the 
posterior edge of the ear forming nearly a right angle with the 
hinge line. Left valve convex, higher at the umbo than the 
right valve, and ornamented by about 24 or 25 squarish, flat- 
topped, rounded ribs, separated by narrower, round-bottomed 
interspaces, the whole valve sculptured by concentric lines of 
growth ; ears slightly concave, ornamented by about six or 
seven radiating riblets. Altitude 90 mm., longitude 95 mm. ; 
diameter of right valve approximately 15 mm. ; apical angle of 
right valve approximately 114°. 

Type: Right valve, No. 40 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 47 (L.S.J.U.), Turtle Bay, Lower California; Paratypes: 
No. 41 (L.S.J.U. collection) and Nos. 1773, 1774 (C.A.S. col- 
lection), B. F. Hake collector; Salada, Pliocene. 

This species is also found at Loc. 46 (L.S.J.U.), post- 
Eocene sandstone, at north edge of a tilted mesa about five 
miles north of Abreojos Point, Ballenas Bay Quadrangle, 
Lower California, B. F. Hake collector ; Salada, Pliocene ; also 
Loc. 42 (L.S.J.U.) above San Juan Arroyo, about five miles 
southwest of Jesus Maria, Jesus Maria Quadrangle. Lower 
California, C. H. Beal collector; Salada, Pliocene. 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA jg 

Pcctcn hakci differs from P. cerrosensis mendenhalli Arnold 
in its larger size, more numerous ribs and stronger concentric 
sculpture and large byssal notch. It differs from P. pur- 
puratHS Lamarck in bearing more numerous ribs, and in having 
a less rounded outline ; also in lacking the lateral serrations on 
the radial ribs which characterize P. purpuratus. From P. 
cerrosensis Gabb, proper, it is distinguished by the much 
larger byssal notch in the anterior ear of the right valve, by the 
strongly sculptured ears, which, except for growth lines, are 
smooth in P. cerrosensis, and by the number of ribs, 23 to 24 
in the present species rather than 18 to 20 in the species de- 
scribed by Gabb. 

This species is named in honor of Mr. B. F. Hake, who col- 
lected considerable material which has added to the knowledge 
of the stratigraphy of Lower California. 

14. Pecten (Plagioctenium) cristobalensis Hertlein, 

new species 

Plate 3, figures 1, 2 and 5 

Shell large, fairly thick, in several specimens with strong 
lines of restricted growth; valves moderately arched. Right 
valve ornamented by about 24 flat-topped, squarish, radiating 
ribs, separated by flat-bottomed, slightly narrower, inter- 
spaces, the whole surface crossed by well defined, wavy, con- 
centric lines of growth ; anterior and posterior margins of valve 
smooth except for concentric incremental sculpture; ventral 
margin evenly rounded; ears unequal, the anterior ear with a 
large byssal notch, and ornamented by about five radiating rib- 
lets crossed by concentric lines of growth ; the posterior ear 
also bearing about five or six radiating riblets crossed by 
growth lines. Left valve slightly more convex than right and 
sculptured much as the latter, the anterior and posterior mar- 
gins with concentric lines of growth only ; ears ornamented by 
about eight or nine radiating riblets, the anterior ear with a 
slight notch. Altitude 117 mm. ; longitude 135 mm. ; diameter 
right valve approximately 17 mm.; apical angle of right valve 
approximately 100°- 110°. 

Type: Right valve. No. 36 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from 
Loc. 49 (L.S.J.U.), slopes of Salada three miles southeast of 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Turtle Bay, uppermost beds, San Cristobal Bay Quadrangle, 
Lower California; Paratypes: No. 27 (L.SJ.U. collection) and 
Nos. 1775, 1776 (C.A.S. collection), B. F. Hake collector; 
Salada, Pliocene. 

The species was also found at Loc. 48 (L.S.J.U.), at the 
mouth of a large arroyo northwest of Elephant Mesa, Scam- 
mon Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower California. 

Pecten cristohalensis is distinguished from P. cerrosensis 
mendenhalli Arnold, by its squarish, more numerous ribs. The 
greater number of radial, squarish ribs, separated by narrower 
interspaces, and the less strong development of concentric in- 
cremental lines, distinguish the present species from P. cer- 
rosensis Gabb proper. P. cristohalensis has a large byssal 
notch in the anterior ear of the right valve, and the ears are 
more strongly sculptured by radiating riblets than in P. cer- 
rosensis, in which the byssal notch is very slight, and, except 
for lines of growth, the ears are smooth. From P. callidus 
Hertlein, P. cristohalensis differs in the more numerous ribs, 
different ears, and rounder outline. The distinction between 
the present species and P. purpuratus Lamarck is based 
largely upon the character of the radial ribs and of the anterior 
ear of the right valve. The ribs of P. purpuratus are wider 
and lower than those of P. cristohalensis; and conversely, the 
interspaces are narrower in P. purpuratus ; furthermore the 
ribs of the latter species expand much more rapidly toward 
the ventral margin than do those of P. cristohalensis. The 
lateral serrations on the radial ribs, so strongly developed in 
Lamarck's species, are very slight in the present form. The 
presence of three very strong ribs on anterior ear of right valve 
of P. purpuratus with only a vestige of a fourth, rather than 
five less strong riblets as in P. cristohalensis, is also an evident 
and apparently constant difference. 

15. Pecten (Plagioctenium) subdolus Hertlein, new species 

Plate 5, figures 2, 4 and 7 

1906. Pecten (Plagioctenium) cerrosensis Gabb, Arnold, Prof. Paper 
U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 47, 1906, pp. 123-124, (ex parte), pi. 
49, figs. 1, la, lb. 

1869. Not Pecten cerrosensis Gabb, Geol. Surv. Calif., Vol. 2, 1869, p. i2, 
pi. 9, figs. 55, 55a. 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA 21 

Shell of medium size, the valves moderately convex. Right 
valve ornamented by about 21 rounded, radiating ribs which 
become broader toward the ventral margin, the ribs separated 
by round-bottomed, narrower interspaces, the whole surface 
ornamented by very fine radial striations and by concentric 
lines of growth; anterior and posterior margins sculptured 
only by concentric incremental lines ; ventral margin rounded ; 
ears unequal, the anterior with a well defined byssal notch, and 
sculpture of about six radiating riblets crossed by incremental 
lines ; the posterior also sculptured by about six or seven slight 
radiating riblets crossed by lines of growth, a very slight notch 
present. Left valve more arched than right and somewhat 
one-sided in appearance, ornamented by about 21 rounded, 
radiating ribs separated by round-bottomed interspaces about 
as wide as the ribs, the whole surface finely longitudinally 
striate and crossed by concentric lines of growth ; ears slightly 
concave, the posterior sculptured by very slight radiating rib- 
lets and concentric lines of growth, the anterior with a rounded 
notch, the surface sculptured by a few very slight radiating 
riblets and by concentric growth lines, the ornamentation in- 
distinct on weathered specimens. Altitude 50 mm. ; longitude 
50 mm. ; diameter approximately 17 mm. ; apical angle in each 
valve approximately 105°. 

Type: No. 51 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from Loc. 115 
(L.S.J.U.), Pacific Beach, San Diego, California; Paratypes: 
No. 52 (L.S.J.U. collection), and No. 1777 (C.A.S. collection), 
C. H. Sternberg collector; San Diego, Pliocene. 

This species also occurs at Loc. 116 (L.S.J.U.), in the Pli- 
ocene of Cedros Island, from which locality a specimen attains 
an approximate height of 110 mm. ; length 110 mm. ; diameter 
30 mm. 

From P. cerrosensis, P. suhdolus differs in its more numer- 
ous rounded ribs, large byssal notch, sculptured rather than 
smooth ears and usually smaller size. It differs from P. cal- 
lidus in its rounded ribs which are not as high as those of the 
latter, in the presence of fine radial striae on the disk, and in 
the less strong sculpture of the ears in the present species. 



22 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

16. Pecten (Plagioctenium) callidus Hertlein, new species 

Plate 5, figures 1, 3, 5 and 6 

Shell of medium size, the valves moderately arched. Right 
valve ornamented by about 21 or 22 rather hig-h, flat-topped, 
radiating ribs separated by narrower interspaces, tops of ribs 
smooth, but sides and interspaces sculptured by fine, sharp 
lamellae; anterior and posterior margins sculptured by con- 
centric lines of growth only; ventral margin rounded; ears 
unequal, the anterior with a large byssal notch and ornamented 
by about five or six radiating riblets crossed by concentric lines 
of growth ; the posterior sculptured by several radiating riblets. 
Left valve more convex than right and somewhat one-sided 
in appearance, with sculpture quite similar to that of right 
valve except that the interspaces are slightly wider; anterior 
ear carrying a small, rounded notch and ornamentation con- 
sisting of small, radiating riblets and concentric lines of 
growth; posterior ear sculptured much as the anterior. Alti- 
tude 55 mm. ; longitude 55 mm. ; diameter 19 mm. ; apical angle 
of valves approximately 105°. 

Type: No. 53 (L.S.J.U. type collection), from Loc. 116 
(L.S.J.U.), Cedros Island, Lower California; Paratypes: No. 
54 (L.S.J.U. collection), H. Hemphill collector; Salada, Plio- 
cene. 

This species was found also at Loc. 48 (L.S.J.U.), from 
mouth of big Arroyo northwest of Elephant Mesa, Scammon 
Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower California ; B. F. Hake collector ; 
Salada Pliocene. 

In the Fernando Lower Pliocene of southern California, at 
several localities, this species also appears to be quite abundant. 

Pecten callidus differs from P. suhdolus Hertlein in having 
higher, narrower, smooth rather than striate, flat-topped ribs, 
the interspaces crossed by very fine lamellae which are largely 
lacking in P. suhdolus. It differs from P. cerrosensis Gabb, in 
its larger byssal notch, radially sculptured ears, more numer- 
ous ribs, and usually smaller size. Possibly P. callidus was 
the square-ribbed species from the Fernando formation of 
southern California which Arnold referred to P. cerrosensis. 



Vol. XIV] HERTLEIN—PECTENS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA 23 

A few of the more important references consulted in the 
preparation of this paper are: 

1903. ARNOLD, R., The Paleontology and stratigraphy of the marine 

Pliocene and Pleistocene of San Pedro, California. Mem. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 3, 1903. 

1904. ARNOLD, R., The faunal relations of the Carrizo Creek beds of 

California. < Science, New Series, Vol. 19, 1904, p. 503. 

1906. ARNOLD, R., The Tertiary and Quaternary Pectens of California. 
Prof. Paper U. S. Geol. Survey No. 47, 1906. 

1917. ARNOLD, R., (and CLARK, B. L.), An Apalachicola fauna from 
Lower California. Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. 28, 1917, p. 
223. 

1906. BOSE, E., Sobre algunas faunas Terciarias de Mexico. Insti- 
tuto Geologico de Mexic6 Boletin No. 22, 1906. 

1869. GABB, W. M., Geological Survey of California, Paleontology, Vol. 
2, 1869. 

1915. HEIM, A., Sur La Geologic de la partie meridionale de la Basse 

Californie. <Comptes Rendus Ac. d. Sc. Paris, t. 161, 1915, 
p. 419. 

1916. HEIM, A., Reisen im siidlichen Teil der halbinsel Niederkalifor- 

nien. (4 p), Zeitschrift der Ges. f. Erkunde, Berlin, 1916. 

1921. HEIM, A., Vulkane in der Umgebung der Oase La Purisima auf 

der Halbinsel Niederkalifornien. (1 map, 3 pis., 7 figs.) Zeit- 
schrift fiir Vulkanologie, herausgeg. v. Imm. Friedlander, Bd. 6, 
1921, pp. 15-21. 

1922. HEIM, A., Notes on the Tertiary of Southern Lower California 

(Mexico). <Geol. Mag. Vol. 59, 1922, pp. 529-548. 

1924. JORDAN, E. K., Quaternary and Recent MoIIuscan Faunas of the 
West Coast of Lower California. <Bull. Southern Calif. 
Acad. Sci., Vol. 23, pt. 5, 1924, pp. 145-157. 

1895. MERRILL, G. P., Notes on the Geology and Natural History of the 
Peninsula of Lower California. < Report of the U. S. National 
Museum, 1895, pp. 976-995. 

1919. SMITH, J. P., Climatic Relations of the Tertiary and Quaternary 
Faunas of the California Region. <Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
4th Ser., Vol. 9, No. 4, 1919, pp. 123-173. 

1917. VAUGHAN, T. W., The Reef Coral Fauna of Carrizo Creek, Im^ 

perial County, California, and its Significance. Prof. Paper 
U. S. Geol. Survey No. 98, 1917, pp. 355-376. 



24 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate I 

Fig. 1. Pecten (Plagioctenium) purpuratus Lamarck; X^; plesiotype, left 
valve, No. 90 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 116 (L. S. J. U.), Cedros 
Island, Salada Pliocene; p. 14. 

Fig. 2. Pecten {Pecten) refugioensis Hertlein, new species; natural size; type 
right valve. No. 49 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll), .from Loc. 50 (L. S. J. U.), Rancho 
Refugio, north of San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. Upper Miocene or 
Lower Pliocene; p. 7. 

Fig. 3. Pecten {Pecten) heimi Hertlein, new species; X^^; type, right valve, 
No. 46 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 65 (L. S. J. U.), southern part of 
San Gregorio Arroyo, Lower California; p. 9. 

Fig. 4. Pecten {Pecten) hartmanni Hertlein, new species; X%; type, right 
valve. No. 48 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 54 (L. S. J. U.), Arroyo 
Mesquital, Lower California. Above the yellow silts which are well exposed 
in this arroyo. Lower Pliocene? ; p. 8. 

Fig. 5. Pecten {Plagioctenium) cerrosensis mendenhalli Arnold; X^; plesio- 
type, right valve. No. 91 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 62 (L. S. J. U.), 
float five kilometers north of Santa Rosalia, Lower California. Carrizo, Lower 
Pliocene? p. 16. 

Fig. 6. Pecten {Pecten) hartmanni Hertlein, new species; natural size; type, 
same specimen as figure 4; p. 8. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Ser., Vol. XIV, No. 1 



HERTLEIN] Plate 1 




25 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES' [Proc. 4th Sek. 



Plate II 

Fig. 1. Pecten (Pecten) aletes Hertlein, new species; X^^; paratype, left 
valve, No. 45 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 50 (L. S. J. U.), Rancho 
Refugio, north of San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. Upper Miocene or 
Lower Pliocene; p. 8. 

Fig. 2. Pecten (Aequipecten) percarus Hertlein, new species; X^; type, 
right valve, No. 42 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 48 (L. S. J. U.), mouth 
of big Arroyo northwest of Elephant Mesa, Scammon Lagoon Quadrangle, 
Lower California. Salada, Pliocene; p. 13. 

Fig. 3. Pecten (Pecten) beali Hertlein, new species; X%; type, right valve, 
No. 55 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 64 (L. S. J. U.), pebbly sandstone 
near Comondu-vSalada contact, Arroyo near La Palma, Lower California. 
Probably Carrizo, Lower Pliocene? p. 10. 

Fig. 4. Pecten (Pecten) aletes Hertlein, new species; X%; type, right valve. 
No. 44 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 50 (L. S. J. U.), Rancho Refugio, 
north of San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. Upper Miocene or Lower 
Pliocene? p. 8. 

Fig. 5. Pecten (Aequipecten) percarus Hertlein, new species; X%; type, left 
valve; same specimen as Fig. 2; p. 13. 

Fig. 6. Pecten (Lyropecten) pretiosus Hertlein, new species; X%; paratype, 
left valve, No. 89 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 57 (L. S. J. U.), La 
Purisima cliflfs on San Ramon River, Lower California; Isidro formation, 
Lower Miocene; p. 12. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Ser.. Vol. XIV, No. 1 



IHERTLEIN 1 Plate 2 




r 




N 




23 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Sf.r. 



Plate III 

Fig. 1. Pecten (Plagiocteuium) cristobalensis Hertlein, new species; natural 
size; paratype, right valve, No. 94 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.) from Loc. 49 (L. S. 
J. U.), slopes of Salada three miles southeast of Turtle Bay, uppermost beds, 
San Cristobal Bay Quadrangle, Lower California; vSalada Pliocene; p. 19. 

Fig. 2. Pecten (Plagiocteuium) cristobalensis Hertlein, new species; natural 
size; type, right valve. No. 36 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.). Same locality as Fig. 1 ; 
p. 19." 

Fig. 3. Pecten (Pecten) heimi Hertlein, new species; natural size; paratype, 
left valve. No. 47 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 65 (L. S. J. U.), southern 
part of San Gregorio Arroyo, Lower California. Lower Pliocene? p. 9. 

Fig. 4. Pecten (Lyropecten) pretiosus Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
type, right valve. No. 38 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 59 (L. S. J. U.), 
Turritella bed above San Gregorio Lagoon, 120 miles north of Magdalena Bay, 
Lower California, on the trail from Arroyo Mesquital to La Purisima. Isidro 
formation. Lower Miocene; p. 12. 

Fig. 5. Pecten (Plagioctenium) cristobalensis Hertlein, new species; natural 
size; paratype, left valve. No. 37 (L. vS. J. U. Type Coll.). vSame locality as 
Fig. 2; p. 19. 

Fig. 6. Pecten (Lyropecten) modulatus Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
type, right valve. No. 39 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 43 (L. S. J. U.), 
Mesa west of Mesa de las Auras, Scammon Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower Cali- 
fornia. Salada (?) Pliocene; p. 11. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Ser., Vol. XIV, No. 1 



[HERTLEIN] Plate 3 




-^Q CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate IV 

Fig. 1. Pecten (Plagioctenium) hakei Hertlein, new species ;X%; type, right 
valve, No. 40 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 47 (L. S. J. U.), Turtle Bay, 
Lower California. Salada Pliocene; p. 18. 

Fig. 2. Pecten (Plagioctenium) purpuratus Lamarck; X^; plesiotype, right 
valve. No. 1778 (C. A. S. Type Coll.), from Loc. 930 (C. A. S.), Turtle Bay, 
Lower California. Salada Pliocene; p. 14. 

Fig. 3. Pecten {Plagioctenium) hakei Hertlein, new species; X%; paratype, 
left valve. No. 41 (L. vS. J. U. Type Coll.). LocaHty same as Fig. 1 ; p. 18. 

Fig. 4. Pecten {Plagioctenium) purpuratus Lamarck, natural size; plesio- 
type, right valve, No. 1779 (C. A. S. Type Coll.), from Loc. 928 (C. A. S.), 
Cedros Island, Lower California. Salada Pliocene; p. 14. 

Fig. 5. Pecten {Plagioctenium) calli Hertlein, new species; X3; paratype, 
right valve. No. 125 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 60 (L. S. J. U.), west 
side of Elephant Mesa, Scammon Lagoon Quadrangle, Lower California. 
Isidro formation. Lower Miocene; p. 16. 

Fig. 6. Pecten {Plagioctenium) calli Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
type, left valve. No. 68 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 53 (L. S. J. U.), first 
arroyo east of Santiago, Lower California. Miocene? p. 16. 

Fig. 7. Pecten {Plagioctenium) calli Hertlein, new species; X3; paratype, 
left valve of specimen Fig. No. 5. p. 16. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Ser., Vol. XIV, No. 1 



[HERTLEINI Plate 4 




39 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIESCES [Proc. 4th Skr. 



Plate V 

Fig. 1. Pecten {Plagioctenhim) callidus Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
type, right valve, No. 53 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 116 (L. S. J. U), 
Cedros Island. Salada Pliocene, p. 22. 

Fig. 2. Pecten (Plagioctenium) subdolus Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
paratype, right valve, No. 52 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 115 (L. S. 
J. U.), Pliocene of Pacific Beach, near San Diego, California. San Diego 
Pliocene, p. 20. 

Fig. 3. Pecten {Plagioctenium) callidus Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
paratype, right valve. No. 54 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 116 (L. S. 
J. U.), Cedros Island. vSalada Pliocene, p. 22. 

Fig. 4. Pecten {Plagioctenium) subdolus Hertlein, new species; natural 
size; type, right valve. No. 51 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 115 (L. S. 
J. U.), Pliocene of Pacific Beach, near vSan Diego, California. San Diego 
Pliocene; p. 20. 

Fig. 5. Pecten {Plagioctenium) callidus Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
type, left valve. vSame specimen as Fig. 1; p. 22. 

Fig. 6. Pecten {Plagioctenium) callidus Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
paratype, left valve. No. 54 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), Same specimen as Fig. 3 ; 
p. 22.' 

Fig. 7. Pecten {Plagioctenium) subdolus Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
type, left valve. Same specimen as Fig. 4; p. 20. 

Fig. 8. Pecten (Pecten) beali Hertlein, new species; natural size; paratype, 
left valve. No. 56 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 64 (L. S. J. U.), pebbly 
sandstone near Comondu-Salada contact, Arroyo near La Palma, Lower Cali- 
fornia. Probably Carrizo, Lower Pliocene? p. 10. 

Fig. 9. Pecten {Pecten) refugioensis Hertlein, new species; natural size; 
paratype, left valve, No. 50 (L. S. J. U. Type Coll.), from Loc. 50 (L. S. J. U.), 
Rancho Refugio, north of San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. Upper 
Miocene or Lower Pliocene, p. 7. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 1 



[HERTLEIN] Plate 5 




34 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate VI 

Fig. 1. Pecteti (Plagioctenium) cerrosensis Gabb.; XVo; type, right valve 
(U. of Calif, collection), from Pliocene of Cedros Island, Lower California. 
Salada, Pliocene; p. 15. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 1 



HERTLEINl Plate 6 




PROCEEDINGS Z^,^**^'^ 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 2, pp. 37-75. plates 7 and 8 July 21, 1925 



II 

CONTRIBUTION TO THE TERTIARY PALEON- 
TOLOGY OF PERU 

BY 

G. DALLAS HANNA 

AND 

MERLE C ISRAELSKY 
Department of Paleontology 

Introduction 

In 1914 Mr. G. C. Gester collected a considerable number 
of Tertiary fossils in Peru and soon after presented them to the 
California Academy of Sciences. Dr. Roy E. Dickerson, then 
Curator of the Department of Paleontology, intended to pre- 
pare a report upon the collection for publication, and he identi- 
fied many of the species contained therein, but before the Avork 
was completed he was called to other duties. 

Later, through the kindness of Mr. John G. Burtt of the 
Shell Oil Company of California, another collection made in 
the same region by Mr. Arthur May was donated to the 
Academy. 

The purpose of this paper is to place on record these inter- 
esting and valuable collections. Through the development of 
the petroleum bearing fonnations of northern South America 
during recent years much attention has been attracted to the 
region and several extensive reports have been published on the 
geology and paleontology. Large collections have been made 

July 21, 1925 



33 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

in Panama and Colombia as well as in Peru, and the Academy 
has fared exceedingly well in the distribution of these. It is 
believed that the publication of further technical reports on the 
paleontology will aid geologists materially in the field work 
necessary to an accurate mapping of the areas of prospective 
or proved productivity. 

In the preparation of this report it was found necessary to 
prepare a checklist of species previously described and listed 
from the Tertiary of Peru. This has been so exceedingly help- 
ful to us that we believe it desirable to publish it at this time 
in order that all references to previous systematic work may 
be available in one place to future workers. It has been made 
as nearly complete as possible and it is not believed many refer- 
ences have been missed. In consulting the checklist, however, 
it should be remembered that a considerable number of species 
have been listed or described from Peru from formations older 
than the Tertiary, from the Cretaceous down to and including 
the Silurian. We have not collected references to these. 

We wish to express the appreciation of the Academy to Mr. 
Gester and Mr. Burtt for the collections concerned, and also to 
acknowledge our indebtedness to Dr. Dickerson for the work 
in the identification of species previous to our attempts. 

Previous Work 

In 1909 George I. Adams^ published "An Outline Review 
of the Geology of Peru" in which he gave a resume of previous 
work which had been done. His bibliography (pp. 428-430) 
professedly incomplete, contains 41 titles ; these include all the 
important papers on the paleontology of the region which had 
appeared up to that time. Since then two extensive accounts 
of the fossils of the Eocene and Miocene of Peru have apn 
peared ; one by Spieker^, the other by Woods, Vaughan, and 
Cushman^. As often happens, these books were printed the 
same year and since there is a conflict of names it became im- 
portant to know which was actually distributed first to the 
public. In response to inquiries made of the publishers it has 

'Annual Report, Smithsonian Institution for 1908 (1909) pp. 385-430, 5 pis. 

* Johns Hopkins University, Studies in Geology, No. 3, September 8, 1922. 

• In Bosworth, Geology of the Tertiary and Quaternary periods in the northwest 
part of Peru; Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, October 3, 1922, pp. XXII, 1-434, many 
plates. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 39 

been learned that Spieker's paper appeared on September 8, 
1922*; the Macmillan Company has stated that the vohime by 
Bosworth and others was published on October 3, 1922'*; 
therefore priority of publication is accredited to Spieker in the 
following checklist wherever a conflict has been found. 

Space has not been taken to give a running list of the species 
in the collections, but each one is noted in its proper place in 
the checklist. 



List of Collecting Stations in Peru 

328.6 "Near the top of a small hill on the south side of Corona peak." 
G. C. Gester, Coll. No. 7. 

329. "Ridge line near Corona Peak, north coast of Peru." G. C. Gester, 

Coll. No. 6. 

330. "Timbes Peru : — two miles up river at top of hill." G. C. Gester, 

Coll. (Pleistocene.) 

331. "Sea cliff; from a sand near the base of shale series, northeast of 

Punto Mero, Peru." G. C. Gester, Coll. 

333. "Cliff near base of shale series, northeast of Punto Mero, Peru." 

G. C. Gester, Coll. No. 18. 

334. "From sandy shale at Punto Sal Chico, Peru; dip. 25°-30° North." 

G. C. Gester, Coll. 

335. "Punto Sal Chico, Peru." G. C. Gester, Coll. 

336. "Near base of organic shale series at Quebrada, northeast of Moss 

Peak, Peru." G. C. Gester, Coll. 

338. "Qiffs of Punto Giganta, Peru." G. C. Gester, Coll. 

339. "Halfway up sea cliff, midway between Boca Pan and Sechunta, or 

about one mile northeast of Boca Pan, Peru." G. C. Gester, 
Coll. 

340. "Near top of sea cliff one-fourth mile southwest of Eloisa, nearly 

one mile southwest of Boca Pan camp, Peru." G. C. Gester, 
Coll. No. 2. 

341. "On a hill just a little southwest of Giganta Quebrada, Boca Pan, 

Peru." G. C. Gester, Coll. No. 3. 

342. "South side and one mile from entrance of Culebra Ora, Peru." 

G. C. Gester, Coll. 

* Letter dated January 14, 1925, from M. L. Raney, Librarian, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity to Dr. Barton W. Evermann, on file at the California Academy of Sciences. 

° Letter dated January 13, 1925, from Anne M. Collins, Mail Order Department, 
the Macmillan Company, to Dr. Barton W. Evermann, on file at the California 
Academy of Sciences. 

* All numbers refer to the catalog of the Department of Paleontology, California 
Academy of Sciences. 



40 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

343. "One to one-and-a-fourth miles north of des embarcadero, Culebra, 

Ora, Peru." G. C Gester, Coll. 

344. "Near top of cliff, above No. 339, midway between Boca Pan and 

Sechunta, Peru." G. C. Gester, Coll. 

345. "Negritos, Peru; one-fourth mile from camp." G. C. Gester, Coll. 

346. "Low cliff, near base, just north of Piedros Redondas, Peru." G. C 

Gester, Coll. 

555. "Cavacha de Conchas, on sea cliff one mile west of Payta, Peru." 

G. C. Gester, Coll. No. 4. 

556. "One-fourth mile southwest of Eloisa, or nearly one mile southwest 

of Boca Pan Well No. 2, Peru." G. C. Gester, Coll. No. 2. 
(Same locality as 340, above.) 

850. "Quebrada Mancora, Peru ; from transition beds between Heath 

shales and Trigal sandstone." Arthur May, Coll. No. 5. 

851. "Mouth of Quebrada Mancora, northern Peru; from same horizon 

as No. 850." Arthur May, Coll. No. 6. 

852. "One mile east of Boca de Quebrada Mancora, Peru; near base of 

Heath shale." Arthur May, Coll. No. 8. 

853. "Bluff at beach on south side of Caleta Sal, Peru ; transition zone 

between Heath shale and Trigal sandstone." Arthur May, 
Coll. No. 10. 

854. "El Convento (near La Breita) Peru; Carnoas shale." Arthur May, 

Coll. No. 11. 

855. "Massive white sandstone at Cabo Blanco, Peru." Arthur May, 

Coll. No. 16. 

856. "At beach one mile north of Negritos, Peru; Parinas sandstone of 

Bos worth." Arthur May, Coll. No. 17. 

857. "From the lower beds of the Upper Zorritos, Quebrada Boca Pan, 

Peru." Arthur May, Coll. No. 18. 

858. "Lower Zorritos formation at the head of Quebrada Heath, Peru." 

Arthur May, Coll. No. 19. 

861. "Turritella beds of the Negritos region, Peru." Arthur May, Coll. 

No. 25. 

862. "Middle sandy Heath formation at Cerro Marinero, Peru." Arthur 

May, Coll. No. 26. 



Description of Species 

The two collections studied contain a few species which 
appear to be undescribed up to this time and a few others, 
already described, but for which additional important charac- 
ters are shown. These are here taken up in detail. 



Vou XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 4I 

1. Turritella conquistadorana Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 7, figure 5 

Shell acute-conic, with an apical angle of 15"; suture de- 
pressed, with a strong collar-like rib just below; three less 
prominent primary ribs below the collar and with minor rib- 
lets intercalated. Altitude 23.7 mm. (apex missing) ; diameter 
5.1 mm. 

Type: No. 1707, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from locality No. 
850 (C.A.S. coll.) "Quebrada Mancora, Peru, Eocene;" Arthur 
May, coll. 

The new species resembles Turritella humerosa Conrad^ in 
general type of sculpture and apical angle, but has a much more 
pronounced carina and fewer primary ribs. The ribs on Tur- 
ritella merriami Dickerson^ are much finer than on the new 
species. 

2. Turritella cochleiformis Gabb 

Plate 7, figures 6 and 7 

Turritella cochleiformis Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 29. 
— Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 2, Vol. 8, 1878, p. 264, 
pi. 35, figs, 7, 7a. 

The figured specimens, Nos. 1708 and 1709 (C.A.S. coll.) 
came from locality No. 555 (C.A.S. coll.), "Cavacha de las 
Conchas, one mile west of Payta, Peru, on sea cliff." G. C. 
Grester, coll. It is believed that these show the characters of 
the species better than the original drawing. 

3. Turritella filicincta varicosta Spieker 

Plate 8, figure 6 

Turritella filicincta var. varicosta Spieker, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies 
in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 66, pi. 3, fig. 3. 

Opportunity is taken to illustrate the aperture of this vari- 
ation and to show the heavy callosity of the inner lip. The 

' Maryland Geol. Surv. Eocene, p. 148, pi. 27, figs. 1, la, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins 
Press. 1901. 

•Dickerson, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol., Vol. 7, No. 12, 1913, p. 284, pi. 
13, figs. 6a, 6b, 6c. 



42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

specimen figured, No. 1710 (C.A.S. coll.), is from locality No. 
328 (C.A.S. coll.), "near top of a small hill south of Corona 
Peak, Peru." G. C. Gester, coll. 

4. Faunus paytensis (Woods) 

Plate 8, figure 8 

"Cerithium" paytensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 87, pi. 10, figs. 7-9. 

The specimen here illustrated has a strong callosity on the 
inner lip which shows the species should probably be placed in 
the genus Faunus. The specimen figured. No. 1711 (C.A.S. 
coll.), is from locality No. 555 (C.A.S. coll.), "Cavacha de 
las Conchas, one mile west of Payta, Peru, on sea cliff." G. C. 
Gester, coll. 

5. Melanatria (?) gesteri Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 8, figures 1-3 

Shell, robust, spire turreted, composed of eight post-nuclear 
whorls; sutures deeply impressed, bordered above and below 
by an irregular, rounded, spiral, ridge; body whorl with these 
two ridges and three smaller ones below ; the uppermost of the 
three shows above the suture on the penultimate whorl ; colum- 
ella twisted, and apparently heavily calloused in full-grown 
specimens; these (No. 1712, C.A.S. coll.) have a decided anal 
sulcus in the upper angle of the aperture; peristome thin; canal 
of moderate length only. 

Measurements in millimeters 
Number Length Diameter 

1712 64.5±5 27.5 

1713 52±10 27.0 

1714 55±5 26.8 

Cotypes: Nos. 1712, 1713, 1714, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
from Loc. 334 (C.A.S. coll.) "Punta Sal Chico. Peru; 
Negritos [Eocene] formation;" G. C. Gester, coll. 

The series of specimens available for study shows consider- 
able variation, as would be expected in this, presumably a 
brackish-water inhabiting genus. The depth of the impression 
of the suture and the coarseness of the spiral ridges seem to be 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 43 

most subject to variation of all the shell characters and the 
three specimens chosen for cotypes were selected to illustrate 
these points. There is no trace of spines on the spire such as 
are found in Pseudo glaucoma lissoni from the same formation. 

It is not certain that these large shells belong- to the genus 
Melanatria Bowdich, the type of which appears to have been a 
spineless species; but for want of a genus where they can be 
placed with greater positiveness it seems that this is as satisfac- 
tory disposition of them as can be made at present. 

The species is named for Mr. G. C. Gester, whose field work 
has greatly enriched the collections of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

6. Siphonalia phosoidea Hanna & Israelsky, new species 
Plate 7, figure 10; plate 8, figures 5, 7 

Shell fusiform, ventricose, with apical angle of 38°, gently 
shouldered, with short open canal; sculpture consisting of 
numerous, nearly equally spaced spiral lirse, those on the base 
being coarser than the others; where crossed by growth lines 
nodules are formed; axial sculpture consisting of slightly ob- 
lique ribs which become strongest at shoulder where they form 
nodes (seven on body whorl) ; suture slightly raised, undu- 
lating; aperture elliptical, produced anteriorly into a short 
open siphonal canal; columella somewhat twisted; altitude 
45.4 mm. (spire and canal broken) ; diameter 21 mm. 

Type: No. 1716, Mus. Cahf. Acad. Sci., from locality No. 
328 (C.A.S. coll.) "near top of small hill south of Corona Peak, 
Peru; Zorritos formation;" G. C. Gester, coll. 

Paratype: No. 1717, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 
336 (C.A.S. coll.), from near base of organic shale series, 
"Quebrada northeast of Moss Peak, Peru;" Zorritos forma- 
tion ; G. C. Gester, coll. 

We have been unable to find any closely related species with 
which to compare this fossil. It is placed in the genus Si- 
phonalia, using that name in the broad sense in which western 
paleontologists have given it; if present tendencies in nomen- 
clature persist, the species inevitably, will be placed in another 
group. 



44 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

7. Clavilithes(?) atahuallpai Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 7, figures 8 and 9 

Shell fusoid, with body whorl longer than turreted spire; 
ornamented by fine spiral lines, which become rather heavy 
on base of body whorl; spire with apical angle of 70° and 
strongly noded, the body whorl slightly noded or not at all; 
shoulder tabulate for about 1% whorls from aperture; aper- 
ture suboval, inclined, notched at shoulder ; anterior canal open, 
narrow, curved, about same length as body whorl ; columella 
vertical, flexuous ; inner lip slightly calloused ; umbilicus incipi- 
ent; measurements of type, No. 1718: altitude 41.9 mm. 
(apex broken) ; diameter 24 mm. 

Type: No. 1718, paratype No. 1719, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
from locality No. 339, "near top of a small hill south of Corona 
Peak, Peru ; Zorritos formation ;" G. C. Gester, coll. 

The species has a surprising resemblance to Macron philcp- 
delphicus Harris". As the nuclear portion of the shell is miss- 
ing, the true systematic position is not known. Furthermore, 
certain of the characters appear fasciolaroid and the species 
may belong to an undescribed genus. 

The species is named for Atahuallpa, the last chief of the 
Incas. 

8. Clavilithes burtti Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 7, figure 11 

Shell broadly fusiform, heavy, early whorls strongly lirate, 
later ones weakly lirate; growth lines distinct; spire short; 
whorls sharply keeled at periphery; shoulder flat, inclined out- 
ward ; suture deeply impressed ; aperture ovate, opening into an 
open, narrow anterior canal; inner lip strongly calloused; 
columella nearly straight, smooth; altitude 63.4 mm., (spire 
and canal broken) ; diameter 37.3 mm. 

Type: No. 1720, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality No. 
850 (C.A.S. coll.) from "Quebrada Mancora, Peru; Eocene;" 
Arthur May, coll. 

•Harris, Bull. 11, Vol. 3, Amer. Paleont., pi. 7, fig. 8. 



Vol. X1\'] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 45 

This species may readily be distinguished from those de- 
scribed by Woods by its much shorter spire. 

Named for Mr. John G. Burtt of the Shell Oil Company, of 
California, through whose efforts a considerable number of 
specimens were received for this study. 

9. "Surcula" mayi Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 7, figure 12 

Shell thick, broadly fusiform; apical angle 70°; spire less 
than half as high as body whorl; whorls sharply angulated; 
fine spiral striations over whole of shell ; strong nodes occur 
on angulation of whorls; 15 on body whorl; shoulder some- 
what concave; growth lines indistinct on type; aperture ovate; 
inner lip heavily calloused ; a low, rounded, elongated tooth is 
present on the columella near the upper termination of the 
peristome, thus resembling many members of the family Bur- 
sidae; canal of moderate length, slightly twisted. Altitude 
62.9 mm. (spire and canal broken) ; diameter 38 mm. 

Type: No. 1721, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from locality No. 850 
(C.A.S. coll.) from "Quebradd Mancora, Peru; Eocene;" 
Arthur May, coll. 

This species can readily be distinguished from Surcula 
thompsoni WooDS^^by its greater apical angle and more numer- 
ous tubercles and from Surcula occidentalis Woods" by its 
relatively lower spire and greater angulation of the whorls. 

The species is named for Mr. Arthur May, who collected it 
and several of the other forms described herein. 

In accordance with present-day usage we have placed this 
large shell in the genus Surcula, although with a feeling that if 
generic discrimination continues in the future as it has of late 
years it must inevitably be transferred to some other group; 
typically, Surcula is a very different organism^^. 

" WcKxis, in Bosworth, Geology of N.W. Peru, Macmillan & Co., London, 1922, pi. 
17, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

" Qp. Cit., pi. 16, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

'^ See in this connection Anderson & Hanna, Fauna of the Type Tejon Eocene, Dec. 
Pprs. 11, Calif. Acad. Sci., 1925, p. 82. 



45 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

10. Natica coronis Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 8, figure 4 

Spire very high, composed of 5^ whorls which are evenly 
rounded and symmetrical; umbilicus partially open; parietal 
wall covered with a greatly thickened callous deposit; suture 
not deeply impressed. Altitude 34 mm. (originally about 
38 mm.) ; diameter 25 mm. 

Type: No. 1715, Mus. Cahf. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 328 
(C.A.S. coll.) "near the top of a small hill on the south side of 
Corona Peak, Peru; Zorritos formation;" G. C. Gester, coll. 

The exceedingly high spire of this species has made it im- 
possible to identify it with any of those previously described 
from the region. It has a still higher spire than Natica sub- 
clansa Sowerby^^, a very common and well known species from 
the Miocene of Santo Domingo, Gatun, Colombia and else- 
where. 



11. Crassatellites pizarroi Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 7, figure 1 

Shell medium in size, ledaeform, ornamentation consisting 
of concentric ribbing and deep, well defined lunule ; escutcheon 
present ; beaks depressed ; anterior end of shell well rounded, 
posterior elongated ; length 36.4 mm. ; height 22 mm. ; thick- 
ness 13.2 mm. 

Type: No. 1722, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 858 
(C.A.S. coll.) "head of Quebrada Heath, Peru; Zorritos form- 
ation, Miocene;" Arthur May, coll. 

The species is named for Francis Pizarro, the Spanish con- 
queror of Peru. It resembles in a general way C. berryi 
Spieker from the same formation, but lacks the very conspicu- 
ous concentric sculpture and the posterior angulation of that 
species. 

"Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Vol. 6. 1849, p. SI. See Maury, Bull. 29, Am. Paleo., 
1917, p. 136, pi. 23, fig. 14, for bibliographic references and notes. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 47 

12. Macrocallista cavachana Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 7, figure 3 

Shell small, ovate, very inequilateral ; beak situated about 
one-fourth the distance from the anterior end, incurved and 
prosogyrous; dorsal slopes steep, basal margin broadly round- 
ed ; lunule flat, not deeply circumscribed ; escutcheon not well 
defined; sculpture consisting of fine, concentric striae only; 
hinge plate narrow, not well preserved in type; length 23.5 
mm.; height 17.3 mm.; thickness, (1 valve) 5.7 mm. 

Type: No. 1723, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality No. 
555 (C.A.S. coll.) "Cavacha de las Conchas, one mile west of 
Payta, Peru, on sea-cliff ; Eocene ;" G. C. Gester, coll. 

The new species resembles in outline Macrocallista helencB 
Spieker^^, from the Zorritos, but lacks the comparatively heavy 
ribbing of that species, 

13. Chione sechuntana Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 7, figure 2 

Shell small, ovate-cordiform, sub-trigonal, gibbose, radiately 
and concentrically ribbed; beaks prominent, inflated, incurved 
and directed forward, situated about a third the distance from 
the anterior end; anterior end short, convex; posterior slope 
nearly straight along hinge line ; basal margin gently rounded, 
slightly notched posteriorly due to slight flexuosity; lunule 
round, well defined; escutcheon short and broad; length 21.5 
mm. ; height 19 mm. ; diameter 15.7 mm. 

Type: No. 1724, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality No. 
339 (C.A.S. coll.) "sea cliff, halfway between Boca Pan and 
Sechunta, one mile northeast of Boca Pan, Peru; Zorritos 
formation ;" G. C. Gester, coll. 

14. Corbula woodsi Hanna & Israelsky, new species 

Plate 7, figure 4 

Shell subtrigonal, inequivalve, the left being the larger; in- 
equilateral, gibbose, sharply angled behind; strongly and con- 
centrically striated ; beaks prominent, the right being a little the 

" Spieker, Johns Hopkins Univ., Studies in Geology No. 3, Baltimore, 1922, p. 145, 
pi. 9, figs. 3, 4. 



48 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

higher; both twisted inwardly and sHghtly forward; lunule 
not well defined; escutcheon long, broadly elliptical; a very 
deep channel, posterior to the beak tends to form a rostrum; 
length 17 mm. ; height 13 mm. ; diameter 10.1 mm. 

Type: No. 1725, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. No. 555 
(C.A.S. coll.) "Cavacha de las Conchas, one mile west of 
Payta, Peru ; on sea-cliff ; Eocene ;" G. C. Gester, coll. 

Named for Dr. Henry Woods, the eminent English paleon- 
tologist, in recognition of his work on the paleontology of 
Peru. 

It is recognized that in the deep posterior channel this shell 
departs from the usual Corbula-form, but we have not been 
able to place it \\^th certainty in any other group. 

Checklist of Species of Peruvian Tertiary 
Paleontology 

In the following checklist names of genera and species are 
arranged alphabetically as used by the various authors. Cross 
references to changes in nomenclature are supplied. In the 
preparation of the list it has been found that several Peruvian 
species have been given specific names which were not valid 
according to the rules of nomenclature in current use and 
these have been renamed herein. No attempt has been made 
to correct the genus-names except in those cases where the 
species have been considered in the foregoing part of this 
paper, or in the identification of the two collections concerned. 

The following is a list of new names proposed : 

Ampullina woodsi Turritella supraconcava 

Qavilithes atahuallpai Area retractata 

Clavilithes burtti Cardium spiekeri 

Columbella paytana Chione sechuntana 

Fusus talaraensis Corbula talarana 

Melanatria gesteri Crassatellites pizarroi 

Natica coronis Lucina talarana 

Siphonalia phosoidea Macrocallista cavachana 

Surcula mayi Pecten incus 

Terebra nelsoni Corbula woodsi 
Turritella conquistadorana 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 49 

Gastropoda 

Ampullina gabbi Woods. See Ampullina woodsi Hanna & Israelsky, 
new name. 

Ampullina ortoni Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch. Vol. 5, 1869, p. 27; Payta, 
Peru ; Tertiary. — Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Vol. 8, ser. 
2, 1878, p. 264, pi. 35, fig. 3; (Euspira). [Loc. 555, C.A.S. coll.] 

Ampullina paytensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 77, pi. 7, figs. 3, 4. Lobitos Formation, Eocene. 

Ampullina woodsi Hanna & Israelsky, new name. [Loc. 335, C.A.S. 
coll.] 

Ampullina gabbi Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 77, pi. 7, fig. 2. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 
Not Natica (Ampullina) gabbi Clark, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. 
Vol. 11, 1917, p. 166, pi. 19, figs. 12, 14, 15; San Lorenzo Oligocene, 
California. 

Aphera peruana Nelson. See Caticellaria peruana (Nelson). 

Argobuccinum sorritense Nelson. See Nassa sorritensis (Nelson). 

Besauconia pupoidea Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 89, pi. 11, figs. 6-8. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Bulla sp. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol, 2, pt. 1, 
1870, p. 186, not. fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Calliostoma noduliferum Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 187, pi. 6, fig. 1. Zorritos, Peru. 
Calliostoma (Eutrochus) noduliferum Nelson, Spieker, Pal. Zor- 
ritos Form., Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 92, pi. 1, figs. 7, 8. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 556, 
C.A.S. coll.] 

Cancellaria bradleyi Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1. 1870, p. 192, pi. 6, figs. 8, 9. Zorritos, Peru. 

Cancellaria la/rkinii Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 

2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 192, pi. 6, fig. 7. Zorritos, Peru. 

Cancellaria (Aphera) peruana (Nelson), Spieker, Paleontology of the 
Zorritos Formation Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology No, 

3, p. 42, pi. 4, fig. 13. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Aphera peruana Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 190, pi. 6, fig. 3. Zorritos, Peru. 

Cancellaria spatiosa Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 191, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Cancellaria triangularis Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 191, pi. 6, fig. 10. Zorritos, Peru. 

Cerithium chatwini Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 88, pi. 11, figs. 3-5. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 



30 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Cerithium grillanum Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 57, pi. 2, 
fig. 10. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Cerithium infranodatum Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 56, pi. 
2, fig. 9. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Cerithium Iceviusculum Gabb, Amer. Jour. Conch. Vol. 5, 1896, p. 27, Payta, 
Peru, Tertiary. — Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 2, Vol. 
8, 1878, p. 264, pi. 35, fig. 4. 

Cerithium negritosense Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 87, pi. 11, figs. 1, 2. Negritos Formation, Exjcene. 

"Cerithium" paytense Woods. See Faunus paytensis (Woods). 

Clavella solida Nelson. See Triumphus solida (Spieker). 

"ClcKuilithes" atahuallpai Hanna & Israelsky, this paper, p. 44, pi. 7, 

figs. 8, 9, Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Clannlithes burtti Hanna & Israelsky, this paper, p. 44, pi. 7, fig. 11. 

Eocene. 
Clavilithes harrisi Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 

1922, p. 97, pi. 13, figs. 5, 6. Negritos and Lobitos Formations, 

Eocene. 

Clavilithes incertus Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 100, pi. 14, fig. 3. Negritos Formation, (var. ? in Lobitos), 
Eocene. 

Clavilithes pacificus Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 99, pi. 13, fig. 10; pi. 14, figs. 1, 2. Negritos and Lower 
Lobitos Formations, Eocene. [Loc. 850, C.A.S. coll.] 

Clavilithes peruvianus Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 

Peru, 1922, p. 98, pi. 13, figs. 7-9. Negritos and Lobitos Formations, 

Eocene. 
Columhella buccata Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch ftir Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. 

Bd. 12, 1899, p. 647, pi. 19, fig. 7. Talara Formation, Miocene. 
Columbella longistoma Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min. Geol. Pal. 

Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 648, pi. 19, fig. 9. Talara Formation, Miocene. 

Columbella paytana Hanna & Israelsky, new name. 

Columbella tu^rita Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min. Geol. 

Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 648, pi. 19, fig. 11. Talara Formation, 

Miocene. 

Not Columhella turrita Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 

115. 
Columbella turrita Grzybowski. See Columhella paytana Hanna & 

Israelsky, new name. 
Conus berryi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 

Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 39, pi. 1, fig. 4. 

Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU ^\ 

Conus bocapanensis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 38, pi. 1, 
fig. 3, Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Conus sp. ind., A. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 194, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Comts cacuminatus Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 40, pi. 1, 
fig. 5. Upper Zorritos ( ?) Formation, Miocene. 
Conus sp. ind., B, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 194, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Conus molis var. bravoi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 2, 1922, p. 41, pi. 1, 
fig. 6. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Conus sp. ind., C. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 194, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Conus multiliratus var. gasa Johnson & Pilsbry, Spieker, Paleontology 
of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology 
No. 3, 1922, p. 37. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Conus (Litlwconus) sp. Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 108. Lobitos Formation, Eocene. 

ConuSj sp. ind. A, Nelson. See Conus bocapanensis Spieker. 

Conus, sp. ind. B, Nelson. See Conus cacuminatus Spieker. 

Conus, sp. ind. C, Nelson. See Conus molis bravoi Spieker. 

Crepidula, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 

2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 187, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 
Crucibulum inerme Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 

2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 188, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Cuma alternata Nelson. See Solenosteira alternata (Nelson). 

Cyprcea angustirima Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 55, pi. 2, 
figs. 7, 8. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Diastoma americanum Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 92, pi. 12, figs. 1, 2. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Dientomochilus (Ectinochilus) cf. laqueata (Conrad), Woods, in Bos- 
worth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 92, pi. 12, fig. 3. 
Lobitos Formation, Eocene. 

Dolium (Malea) camura (Guppy), Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 52. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Dolium (Malea) sp. indet., Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology No. 3, 1922, p. 53. 
Variegated Zorritos, Miocene. 

Eovasum peruvianum Douville, Journ. de Cbnch. Vol. 66, 1921, p. 4, pi. 
1, figs. 4a, 4b, 5. [Eocene], Peru. 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Faunus (?) lagunitensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 86, pi. 10, figs. 4-6. Lobitos Formation, Eocene. 

Faunus paytensis (Woods). 

"Cerithitim" paytense Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwest 
Peru, 1922, p. 87, pi. 10, figs. 7-9. Lobitos Formation, Eocene. 
Faunus paytense (Woods), Hanna & Israelsky, this paper, 
p. 42, pi. 8, fig. 8. [Locs. 555, 854, C.A.S. coll.] 

Fusus inflatus Grzybowski. See Fusus talaraensis Hanna & Israelsky, 
new name. 

Fusus paytensis Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 25. — Gabb, 
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 2, Vol. 8, 1878, p. 264, pi. 35, figs. 

1, la. Tertiary, Payta, Peru. 

Fusus talaraensis Hanna & Israelsky, new name. 

Fustis inflatus Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. 
Bd. 12, 1899, p. 648, pi. 19, fig. 5. Talara Formation, Miocene. 
Not Fusus inflatus Dunker, Philippi, Abbild. u. Beschr. Conch., 
Vol. 2, 1842-1851, p. 19, pi. 4, fig. 3. 
(Several times otherwise preoccupied.) 

Littorina laqueata Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 28. Tertiary, 
Payta, Peru. — Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 2, Vol. 8, 
1878, p. 264, pi. 35, fig. 5. 

Malea, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Cbnn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
1870, pt. 1, p. 196, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Marginella incrassata Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 

2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 197, pi. 6, figs, 5, 6. Zorritos, Peru. — Spieker, 
Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 43, pi. 1, fig. 9. Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Miocene. 

Melanatria acanthica Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 84, pi. 9, figs. 12-14. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Melanatria dimorphica Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 83, pi. 9, fig. 11. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Mehnatria gesteri Hanna & Israelsky, new species ; this report, p. 42. 

Melanatria propinqua Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 85, pi. 10, fig. 1. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Melanatria venusta Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 85, pi. 10, fig. 2. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Mitra, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 

pt. 1, 1870, p. 197, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 
Mitra labiata^^ Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch fur Min., Geol., Pal., Bl. Bd. 

12, 1899, p. 649, pi. 19, fig. 10. Talara Formation, Miocene. 

"CossMANN & PisSARO, Iconograph, 1907-1913, Vol. 2, pi. 42, figs. 202-210, illustrate 
a species from the Eocene of the Paris Basin which they call Mitra (Mitreola) labiata 
(Chemnitz). In the limited time available for search it has not been possible to 
ascertain whether Grzybowski's name for the Peruvian fossil conflicts with this one or 
not. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 53 

Morgania costata Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 83, pi. 9, figs. 7-10. Negritos Formations, Eocene. 

Morgania magna Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 82, pi. 9, figs. 5, 6. Negritos Formation (probably also Lower 
Lobitos), Eocene. 

Murex laqueoratus Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 51, pi. 2, 
fig. 4. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Myurella tuberosa Nelson. See Terebra nelsoni Hanna & Israelsky, 
new name. 

Myurella, sp. ind. A, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 193, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Myurella, sp. ind. B, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 193, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Nassa lagunitensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 95, pi. 12, fig. 12, pi. 13, fig. 1. Lobitos Formation, Eocene. 
[Loc. 850, CA.S. coll.] 

Nassa sorritensis (Nelson), Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 48, pi. 2, figs. 1, 2. Variegated Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Argobuccintim sorritense Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 196, pi. 7, figs. 1, 2. Zorritos, Peru. 

Natica coronis Hanna & Israelsky, new species, this paper, p. 46, pi, 8, 
fig. 4. Zorritos. 

Natica elata Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 
1899, p. 642, pi. 20, fig. 8. Talara Formation, Miocene. 

Natica (Naticina) sp. Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 77, pi. 6, fig. 9; pi. 7, fig. 1, Lobitos Formation, 
Eocene. 

Oliva, sp. ind., A, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 197, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Oliva, sp. ind., B, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 197, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Olivancillaria eocenica Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 105, pi. 16, figs. 3, 4. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Olivancillaria (Agaronia) peruviana Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of 
Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 106, pi. 16, figs. 5, 6. Lobitos Forma- 
tion, Eocene. [Loc. 328, CA.S. coll.] 

Phos (?) latirugatus Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 46, pi. 1, fig. 
12. Lower Zorritos, Miocene. 

Pirena peruviana Douville, Journ. de Conch. Vol. 66, 1921, p. 11, pi. 
2, fig. 3 [Eocene], Peru. [In the explanation of the plate, the name 
peruviana is given as a race of P. vellicata Bellardi.] 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pleurotonia, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 194, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Polinices porcana Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, p. 88, pi. 4, fig. 9. Lower 
Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Polinices subangulata Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 195, pi. 6, figs. 4, 12, 13. Zorritos, Peru.— 
Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins 
Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 87, pi. 4, fig. 8. Lower 
Zorritos and Variegated Formations, Miocene. 

Potamides occidentalis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 90, pi. 11, fig. 19. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 
[Loc. 857, C.A.S. coll.] 

Potamides ormei var. infraliratus Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 58, pi. 2, fig. 11. Lower and Upper Zorritos Formations, Mio- 
cene. [Locs. 329, 338, C.A.S. coll.] 

Pseudoglauconia lissoni Douville, Journ. Conchyl. Vol. 66, 1921, pp. 8, 9, 
fig. 1, pi. 2, fig. 1. [Eocene], Peru. 

Woods in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 85, 
pi. 10, fig. 3. Negritos Formation, possibly Lower Lobitos, Eocene. 
[Loc. 857, C.A.S. coll.] 

Pseudoliva mutabilis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 94, pi. 12, figs. 7-11. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 
[Loc. 331, CA.S. coll.] 

Pseudoliva parinasensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 93, pi. 12, figs. 4, 6. Negritos and Lobitos Formations, 
Eocene. [Loc. 333, C.A.S. coll.] 

Puncturella phrygia Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min. Geol. Pal. 
Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 642, pi. 20, figs. 12, 12a. Zorritos, Miocene. 

Purpura chocolatum Duclos, Gabb, Am. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 26, 
Payta, Peru, Tertiary. 

Pyrula peruviana Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Studies Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 54, pi. 2, figs. 5, 6. 
Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Pyrula roseta Grzybowski. See Triumphis solida (Nelson). 

Sigaretus excentricus Guppy, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min. 

Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 643, pi. 20, fig. 9. Talara Formation, 

Miocene. 
Siniim coralanum Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 

Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 89, pi. 4, fig. 10. 

Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 331, C.A.S. coll.] 
Siphonalia phosoidea Hanna & Israelsky, new species this paper, p. 43, 

pi. 7, fig. 10, pi. 8, figs. 5, 7. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 



Vol. XI\'l HANNA AXD ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 55 

Solarium nelsoni Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 76, pi. 6, figs. 6-8. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Solarium sexlineare Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 194, pi. 6, fig. 11. Zorritos, Peru. — Grzybowski, 
Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12. 1899, p. 642 (name 
spelled "sexlineatum" p. 655.), pi. 20, fig. 13. Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. — Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 109, pi. 18, fig. 1. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Solenosteira altcrnata (Nelson) Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 45, pi. 1, figs. 10, 11. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Cuma alternata Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 198, pi. 7, figs. 3, 4. Zorritos, Peru. 

Strepsidura pacifica Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 96, pi. 13, figs. 2-4. Negritos and Lower Lobitos 
Formations, Eocene. 

Strombina lanceolata (Sowerby), Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 198. Zorritos, Peru. 

Strombus furcatus Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min. Geol. Pal. Bl, 
Bd. 12, 1899, pi. 20, figs. 14, 14a. Talara Formation, Miocene. 

Strombus, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 

2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 192. Zorritos, Peru. 
Struthiolaria guttifera Grzybowski, Neues Jahrb. fiir Min. Geol. Pal. 

Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 647, pi. 19, fig. 8. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

"Surcula" mayi Hanna & Israelsky, new species, this paper, p. 45, pi. 7, 
fig. 12. Eocene. 

Surcula occidcntalis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 106, pi. 16, figs. 7-10. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Surcula thompsoni Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 107, pi. 17, figs. 1, 2. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Sycum americanum Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 101, pi. 14, fig. 4. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Telescopium peruvianum Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 91, pi. 11, figs. 13, 14. Lobitos Formation, Eocene. 

Terebra gausapata var. herviderana Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 35, pi. 1, fig. 1. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Terebra nelsoni Hanna & Israelsky, new name. 

Myurella tuberosa Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 

Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 193, not fig'd. 

Terebra tuberosa (Nelson), Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 

Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 

p. 36, pi. 1, fig. 2. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Not Terebra tuberosa Hinds, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1843, p. 

152. 



5^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Terebra tuberosa (Nelson). See Tercbra nelsoni Hanna & Israelsky, 
new name. 

Tritonhim pernodosum Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 26, 
Tertiary, Payta, Peru. — Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 2, 
Vol. 8, 1878, p. 264, pi. 35, fig. 2. 

Triumphis solida (Nelson), Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 
49, pi. 2, fig. 3. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 328, 
C.A.S. coll.] 

Clavella solida Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 199, not figured. Zorritos, Peru. 
Pyrula roseta Grzybowski, Neues Jahrb. Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 648, pi. 19, fig. 6. Zorritos Formation. 

Turbo belli Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 91, pi. 4, fig. 11. 
Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Collopoma lineatum Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 187, pi. 6, fig. 2. Zorritos, Peru. 
Not Turbo lineatus Da Costa, Brit. Conch. 1778, p. 100. 

Turbo belli var. cequifilicatum Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 92, pi. 4, fig. 12. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Turritella sp. cf. altilira Conrad, Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 110, pi. 19, figs. 2-4. Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. 

Turritella altilira Conrad, Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 59, 
pi. 2, fig. 12. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 856, 
C.A.S. coll.] 

Turritella altilirata Conrad, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. 
Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 645, pi. 20, fig. 7. (Spelled altilirata after 
Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1877, p. 341, pi. 44, figs. 9, 9a.) 
Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [See Turritella altilira Conrad.] 

Turritella alttirana Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 62, pi. 2, 
fig. 13 (reads 3 in text). Horizon unknown. 

Turritella plana Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 188, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 
Not Turritella plana, McCoy or Brinkhorst, 1861. 

Turritella anceps Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 81, pi. 8, figs. 12, 13; pi. 9, figs. 1, 2. Negritos Formation, 
Eocene. [Loc. 856, CA.S. coll.] 

Turritella annectens Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwest Peru, 
1922, p. 81, pi. 9, figs. 3, 4. Negritos and Lobitos Formations, 
Eocene. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 57 

Turritella bifastigata Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 189, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru.— Spieker, 
Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Studies Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 63, pi. 3, fig. 1. Upper Zorritos 
Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 329, C.A.S. coll.] 

Turritella hosworthi Woods, in Boswqrth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 80, pi. 8, figs. 8-10. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 
[Loc. 855, C.A.S. coll.] 

Turritella clwrana Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 86, pi. 4, 
fig. 7. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 338, CA.S. coll.] 

Turritella cochleiformis Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 29, 
Payta, Peru, Tertiary. — Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 
2, Vol. 8, 1878, p. 264, pi. 35, figs. 7, 7a. [Loc. 555, C.A.S. coll.] 

Turritella conquistadorana Hanna & Israelsky, new species, this paper, 
p. 41, pi. 7, fig. 5, Eocene. 

Turritella dickersoni Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 79, pi. 8, figs. 6, 7. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 
[Loc. 850, CA.S. coll.] 

Turritella douuillei Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 80, pi. 8, fig. 11. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 

Turritella (Haustator) filicincta Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch Min. Geol. 
Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, p. 645, pi. 20, fig. 2. Heath Formation, Miocene.— 
Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins 
Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 65, pi. 3, fig. 2. Lower 
Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Turritella filicincta var. varicosta Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 66, pi. 3, fig. 3. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Locs. 
328, 556, CA.S. coll.] 

Turritella (Haustator) gabhiana Grzybowski, Neues Jahrb. Min. Geol. 
Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 646, pi. 20, fig. 11. Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. 

Turritella gothica Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 645, pi. 20, fig. 10. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. — 
Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 110. 
Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 329, C.A.S. coll.] 

Turritella inca Grzybowski, Neues Jarhb. Min Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, p. 
644, pi. 20, fig. 1. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. — Spieker, Paleon- 
tology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in 
Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 7d. Upper Zorritos or Variegated Forma-" 
tion, Miocene. 

Turritella inca var. trita Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 73, 
pi. 3, fig. 4. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

July 21, 1925 



58 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

Turritella inconspicua Grzybowski. See Turritella prenuncia var. in- 

conspicua Grzy. 
Turritella infracarinata Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. 

Bd. 12, 1899, p. 643, pi. 20, fig. 5. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. — 

Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins 

Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 79, pi. 3, figs. 9, 10. Upper 

Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. ZZZ, C.A.S. coll.] 
Not Turritella infracarinata Grzybowski, Woods, in Bosworth, 

Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 109, pi. 18, figs. 2, 3. See 

T. nelsoni Spieker. 
Turritella infracarinata var. sorritoensis Spieker, Paleontology of the 

Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 

3, 1922, p. 80, pi. 3, fig. 11. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Turritella lissoni Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 

1922, p. 79, pi. 8, figs. 4, 5. Negritos Formation, Eocene. 
Turritella negritosensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 

Peru, 1922, p. 78, pi. 7, figs. 5-7; pi. 8, figs. 1-3. Negritos Formation, 

Eocene. [Locs. 345, 861, C.A.S. coll.] 
Turritella nelsoni Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 

Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 74, pi. 3, figs. 

5, 6. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Locs. 328, 336, C.A.S. 

coll.] 

Turitella suturalis Nelson (in part). Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and 

Sciences, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 188, not figured. Zorritos, Peru. 

Turritella infracarinata Grzybowski, Woods, in Bosworth, Geology 

of Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 109, pi. 18, figs. 2, 3. Zorritos 

Formation, Miocene. 
Turritella nelsoni var. rotundata Grzybowski, Spieker, Paleontology of 

the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, 

No. 3, 1922, p. 77, pi. 3, fig. 7. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Turritella rotundata Grzybowski, Neues Jahrb. Min. Geol. Pal. BI. 

Bd. 12, p. 643, pi. 20, fig. 6. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Turritella suturalis Nelson (in part), Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and 

Sciences, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 188. 
Turritella nelsoni var. trullissatia Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 

Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 

p. 78, pi. 3, fig. 8. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Turritella prenuncia Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 

Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, p. 81, pi. 4, figs. 

1-3. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 331, C.A.S. coll.] 
Turritella prenuncia var. inconspicua Grzybowski, Spieker, Paleontology 

of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in 

Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 83, pi. 4, fig. 4. Zorritos Formation, 

Miocene. 

Turritella inconspicua Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch Min. Geol. 

Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 644, pi. 20, fig. 4, Zorritos Formation, 

Miocene. v 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 59 

Turritella (Haiustator) robusta Grzybowski. See Turritella supraconcava 
Hanna & IsRAELSKY, ncw name. 

Turritella robusta var. abrupta Spieker. See Turritella supraconcava var. 
abrupta Spieker. 

Turritella rotundata Grzybowski. See Turritella nelsoni var. rotundata 
Grzybowski. 

Turritella supraconcava Hanna & Israelsky, new name. [Loc. 555, C.A.S. 
coll.] 

Turritella (Haustator) robusta Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. 
Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 646, pi. 20, fig. 3. Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. — Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 84, pi. 4, fig. 5. 
Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. Turritella, sp. ind. Nelson, 
Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 190, 
not fig'd. Zorritos. — Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 110, pi. 18, fig. 4, pi. 19, fig. 1. Zorritos 
Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 555, C.A.S. coll.]. 

Not Turritella robusta Gabb, Geol. Surv. Calif. Vol. 1, 1864, p. 135, 
pi. 21, fig. 94. Cretaceous, California. 

Turritella supraconcava var. abrupta Spieker. 

Turritella robusta var. abrupta Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorri- 
tos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 85, pi. 4, fig. 6. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Turritella suturalis Nelson. See Turritella nelsoni Spieker and Turri- 
tella nelsoni var. rotundata Grzybowski. 

Turritella tricarinata Brocchi, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. 
Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 644. Ovibo Formation, Oligocene. (This 
name was applied to a European fossil by Brocchi.) 

Turritella sp. ind. Nelson. See Turritella supraconcava Hanna & 
Israelsky, new name. 

Tympanotonus lagunitensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 90, pi. 11, figs. 10-12. Lobitos Formation, 
Eocene. 

Uvanilla, sp. ind.. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 187, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Vermetus, sp. ind.. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, 188, not fig'd. Zorritos. 

Volutilithes plicifera Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 28, Ter- 
tiary, Payta, Peru. — Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 2, 
Vol. 8, 1878, p. 264, pi. 35, fig. 6 (Volutoderma). 

V olutospina crassiuscula Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 104, pi. 15, figs. 6, 7; pi. 16, fig. 1. Negritos Formation, 
Eocene. 

Volutospina meridionalis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 105, pi. 16, fig. 2. Negritos and Lower Lobitos Forma- 
tions, Eocene. 



5Q CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

Volutospina peruviana Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 101, pi. 14, figs. 5-7; pi. 15, figs. 1-5. Negritos and 
Lobitos Formations, Eocene. [Loc. 850, C.A.S. coll.] 



Pelecypoda 

Amiantis incrassata var. ovoidalis Sacco, Spieker, Paleontology of the 
Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 
3, 1922, p. 146, pi. 9, fig. 5. Zorritos Formation?, Miocene. 

Anomia berryi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 127, pi. 7, figs. 
6, 7. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Anomia, sp. ind.. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 206, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Area (Scapharca) charanensis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 109, pi. 5, fig. 15. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Noetia) eholana Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 95, pi. 5, 
figs. 2, 3. Variegated (near base) Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Scapharca) erescetis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 116, 
pi. 6, figs. 3, 4. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Scapharca) fissicosta Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 102, pi. 5, fig. 11. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Scapharca) hispaniolana Maury (?), Spieker, Paleontology of the 
Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 
3, p. 110. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Scapharca) imporcata Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 

Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 

p. 113, pi. 5, figs. 19, 20. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area larkinii Nelson, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Greol. 

Pal., Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 633. 
Area larkinii Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, pt. 

1, 1870, p. 204, pi. 7, figs. 5, 6, 7. Zorritos, Peru. [Locs. 329, 338, 

341, 346, C.A.S. coll.] 

Area (Scapharca) larkinii Nelson, Spieker, Paleontology of the 

Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 

3, 1922, p. Ill, pi. 5, figs. 16-18. Horizon not known. 

Not Area larkinii Nelson, Grzybowski. See Area imporcata 

Spieker. 
Area (Noetia) modcsta Grzybowski. See Area retraetata Hanna & 

Israelsky, new name. Zorritos Formation. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 61 

Area (Anadara) nelsoni Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 119, pi. 
6, figs. 7, 8. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area obesiforniis Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 633, pi. 18, figs. 3, 3a. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Area (Scapharca) obesiforniis Grzybowski, Spieker, Paleontology 
of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in 
Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 115, pi. 6, figs. 1, 2. Upper Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Miocene. 

Area (Scapharca) pantheonensis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 99, pi. 5, figs. 8, 9. Variegated Formation, Miocene. 

Area raimondii Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 31, Tertiary, 
Payta, Peru. — Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 2, Vol. 8, 
1876, p. 264, pi. 35, figs. 10, 10a. 

Area retractata Hanna & Israelsky, new name. [Loc. 328, C.A.S. coll.] 
Area (Noetia) modesta Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. 
Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 635, pi. 18, figs. 4, 4a. Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. 

Not Area modesta Winchell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 
p. 15. 

Area reversa Gray, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl, 
Bd. 12, 1899, p. 634, pi. 17, figs. 1, la. Payta Formation, Pliocene. 

Area septifera Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 
1899, p. 633, pi. 18, figs. 2, 2a. Zorritos Formation, Peru. 
Area (Anadara) septifera Grzybowski, Spieker, Paleontology of 
the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geologfy, 
No. 3, 1922, p. 117, pi. 6, figs. 5, 6. Upper Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. 

Area (Scapharca) singewaldi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, p. 
103, pi. 5, figs. 12, 13. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Scapharca) singewaldi var. doma Spieker, Paleontology of the Zor- 
ritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 106. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Anadara) toroensis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 121, 
pi. 6, figs. 9, 10; pi. 7, fig. 1. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Anadara) toroensis var. erassa Spieker, Paleontology of the Zor- 
ritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 124, pi. 7, fig. 2. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Anadara) toroensis var. prolata Spieker, Paleontology of the Zor- 
ritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 125, pi. 7, fig. 3. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Area valdiviana Philippi, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. 
Bl. Bd. 12, p. 632, pi. 18, figs. 1, la. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Seapharca) vanholsti Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 106, 
pi. 5, fig. 14. Lower Zorritos (base) Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Seapharca) zapotalensis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 101, pi. 5, fig. 10. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Area (Cunearca) zorritensis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 96, 
pi. 5, figs. 4, 5. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Seapharca, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, 1870, p. 205, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Not Scaphairca zorritoensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of 
Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 112, pi. 18, fig. 5. 

Area (Cunearca) sp. ind. Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 98, 
pi. 5, figs. 6-7. Variegated Formation, Miocene. 

Axincea paytensis d'Orbigny, Gabb. See Glycymeris paytensis (d'Orb.) 
Gabb. 

Barbatia sp. Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, 
p. 62, pi. 1, fig. 4. Negritos, Eocene. 

Callista (Macroeallista) dickersoni Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of 
Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 71, pi. 4, fig. 6. Negritos, Eocene. 

Cardium affinis Nelson. See Cardium spiekeri Hanna & Israelsky, new 
name. 

Cardium (Trachycardium) peruvianum Spieker, Paleontology of the Zor- 
ritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 135, pi. 8, fig. 1. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Cardium, sp. ind.. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 203, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Cardium pertenue Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 30. Ter- 
tiary, Payta, Peru. (Subgenus Lcevieardium). — Gabb, Journ. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. Ser. 2, Vol. 8, 1878, p. 264, pi. 35, figs. 9, 9a. 

Cardium proeurvatum Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. 
Bd. 12, 1899, p. 638, pi. 17, figs. 2, 2a. Talara Formation, Miocene. 

Cardium spiekeri Hanna & Israelsky, new name. 

Cardium (Trigoniocardia) affinis (Nelson), Spieker, Paleontology 

of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, 

No. 3, 1922, p. 136, pi. 8, figs. 2, 3. Lower Zorritos Formation, 

Miocene. 

Hemieardia affinis Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 

Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 204, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Not Cardium affine von Munster, Neues Jahrbuch, Min., 1835, p. 

438. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA ANb ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 53 

Cardium subaucanum Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 637, not fig'd. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Cardium tcnuimargo Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. 
Bd. 12, 1899, p. 638, pi. 17, fig. 13. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Cardium (Trachycardium) zorritcnsis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zor- 
ritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 134, pi. 7, fig. 12. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Chione (Chione) angelana Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 152, 
pi. 9, figs. 10, 11. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Chione sp. ind., B, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 203, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Chione (Lirophora) hendersonii Dall, Spieker, Paleontology of the Zor-^ 
ritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 154. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. [Loc. 859, C.A.S. 
coll.] 

Chione (Liroplwra) latilirata (Conrad), Spieker, Paleontology of the 
Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 
3, 1922, p. 155. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Chione (Chione) propinqua Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 152, 
pi. 9, fig. 12. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Chione sechuntana Hanna & Israelsky, this paper, p. 47, pi. 7, fig. 2. 
Zorritos. 

Chione variabilis Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 202, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. — Spieker, Paleontology 
of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, 
No. 3, 1922, p. 150, pi. 9, figs. 8, 9. Upper Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. 

Chione, sp. ind^ A, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 

2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 202, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 
Chione, sp. ind. B, Nelson. See Chione (Chione) angelana Spieker. 
dementia dariena (Conrad), Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 

Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 

p. 141, pi. 8, fig. 5. Lower and Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

[Loc. 338, C.A.S. coll.] 

fHarvella, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 

Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 201, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 
dementia sp., cf. dariena (Conrad), Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of 

Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 113, pi. 20, fig. 4. Zorritos Formation, 

Miocene. 

Corbula (Cuneocorbula) acutirostra Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 176, pi. 10, figs. 18, 19. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Corbula arnoldi Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 74, pi. 5, figs. 7, 8. Negritos, Eocene. 

Corbula bradleyi Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 200, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Corbula (Albidis) bradleyi Nelson, Spieker, Paleontologfy of the 
Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
p. 171, pi. 10, figs. 13, 14. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Corbula (Cuneo corbula) bravoan-a Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 174, pi. 10, fig. 17. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Corbula (Cuneocorbula) fabiformis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 172, pi. 10, fig. 15. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Corbula lanceolata Grzybowski. See Corbula talarana Hanna & Israel- 
sky, new name. 

Corbula parinasensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 75, pi. 6, figs. 2, 3. Negritos, Eocene. 

Corbula peruviana Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 73, pi. 5, figs. 4, 5. Negritos, Eocene. 

Corbula (Aloidis) prenuncia Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 172, pi. 10, fig. 12. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Corbula (Cuneocorbula) propinqua Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins, Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, p. 174, 
pi. 10, fig. 16. Variegated Formation, Miocene. 

Corbula talarana Hanna & Israelsky, new name. 

Corbula lanceolata Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. 
Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 641, pi. 17, fig. 4. Talara Formation, Miocene. 
Not Corbula lanceolata Geinitz, Charac. Schichten Saech. — 
boehm. Kreide geb. 1843 (1842), p. 12, pi. 2, fig. 3.=Atiatina. 

Corbula waringi Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 74, pi. 5, fig. 6. Negritos, Eocene. 

Corbula woodsi Hanna & Israelsky, this paper, p. 47, pi. 7, fig. 4. 
Eocene. 

Corbula, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 200, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Crassatellites (Scambula) bcrryi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 131, pi. 7, figs. 9, 10. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Crassatellites charanensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 112, pi. 19, fig. 6; pi. 20, figs. 1-3. Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Miocene. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 55 

Crassatcllites gibbosa (Sowerby), Nelson. See Crassatellites (Scambula) 
nelsoni (Grzybowski). 

Crassatellites (Scambula) nelsoni (Grzybowski), Spieker, Paleontology 
of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, 
No. 3, 1922, p. 128, pi. 7, fig. 8. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
[Loc. 858, C.A.S. coll.] 

Crassatella gibbosa Sowerby, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 203, pi. 7, fig. 9. Zorritos, Peru. 
Venus nelsoni Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 639, pi. 19, figs. 2, 2a. Heath Formation, Miocene, 

Crassatellites pizarroi Hanna & Israelsky, this paper, p. 46, pi. 7, fig. 1. 
Zorritos. 

Cytherea affinis Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, p. 639, not figured. Heath Formation, Miocene. This species, 
being unfigured, can probably not be recognized without access to 
the original specimens ; the name is therefore not replaced herein, 
although it is preoccupied by Cytherea affinis Dujardin, Mem. Soc. 
Geol. France, Vol. 2, ser. 2, 1837, p. 260. 

Cytherea planivieta Guppy, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. 
Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 639, pi. 19, fig. 3. Heath Formation, 
Miocene. 

Dactylina chiloensis Molina, Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch. Vol. 5, 1869, 
p. 29. Tertiary, Payta, Peru. 

Dosinia (Dosinidea) delicatissima Brown & Pilsbry, Spieker, Paleon- 
tology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in 
Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 140, not fig'd. Lower Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. 

Dosinia grandis Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 201, not fig'd. Zorritos Peru. 

Dosinia (Dosinidea) grandis Nelson, Spieker, Paleontology of the Zor- 
ritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 138, pi. 8, fig. 4. Variegated Formation, Miocene. 

Dosinia lenticula Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 639, pi. 17, fig. 11. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Glycymeris paytensis (d'Orbigny). 

Axincea paytensis d'Orbigny, Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch. Vol. 5, 
1869, p. 31. Payta, Peru, Tertiary. 

Pectunculus paytensis (d'Orbigny), Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, 
Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 635. Payta Formation, Pliocene. 

THarvella, sp. ind. Nelson. See dementia dariena (Conr.). 

Hemicardia affinis Nelson. See Cardium spiekeri Hanna & Israelsky, 
new name. 



^g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Labiosa (Rceta) gabbi Pilsbry & Johnson, Spieker, Paleontology of 
the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, 
No. 3, 1922, p. 168, pi. 10, fig. 10. Upper Zorritos Formation, 1922. 

Labiosa (Rata) ventricosa Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma- 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geol., No. 3, 1922, p. 169, pi. 
10, fig. 11. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Leda acuminata Nelson. See Leda peruviana Dall. 

Leda acutisinuata Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 632, pi. 17, figs. 12, 12a. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Leda ingens Woods, in Bosw^orth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, 
p. 61, pi. 1, figs. 1-3. Negritos, Eocene. 

Leda peruviana Dall, Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 93, pi. 5, 
fig. 1. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Leda acuminata Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 205, pi. 7, fig. 8. Zorritos, Peru. [Name pre- 
occupied.] 

Lucina paytensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 70, pi. 4, fig. 5. Lobitos, Eocene. [Loc. 555, C.A.S. coll.] 

Lucina prosoptcra Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 636, pi. 17, fig. 16. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Lucina pulchella Grzybowski. See Lucina talarana Hanna & Israelsky, 
new name. 

Lucina talarana Hanna & Israelsky, new name. 

Lucina pulchella Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. 
Bd. 12, 1899, p. 637, pi. 17, fig. 15, Talara Formation, Miocene. 
Not Lucina pulchella Agassiz, Icon. des. Coq. Tert. 1845, p. 64; 
new name for L. divaricata Lamarck, (not Linnaeus). 

Lutraria hortensia Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 641, pi. 19, fig. 4. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Lutraria vctula Philippi, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. 
Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 641. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Macrocallista helcna Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 145, pi. 9, 
figs. 3, 4. Variegated Formation, Miocene. 

Macrocallista cavachana Hanna & Israelsky, this paper, p. 47, pi. 7, 
fig. 3. Eocene. 

Macrocallista dickersoni Woods. See under Callista. 

Mactra sorritensis Nelson. See Mulinia sorritensis (Nelson). 

Mactra, sp. ind. Nelson. See Mulinia sorritensis (Nelson). 

Meretrix bosworthi Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 72, pi. 5, fig. 1. Negritos, Eocene. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA Ahu ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU 57 

Meretrix negritosensis Woods, in Bos worth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 72, pi. 5, fig. 2; pi. 6, fig. 1. Negritos, Eosene. 
[Loc. 328, C.A.S., coll.] 

Mulinia zorritcnsis (Nelson), Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 165, pi. 10, figs. 8, 9. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Mactra zorritensis Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 201, not fig'd. 

Mactra sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 201, not fig'd. 

Mytilus euglyphus Woods, in Bos worth. Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 63, pi. 1, figs. 6, 7. Negritos, Eocene. 

Mytilus ungulatus Linn^us, Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch. Vol. 5, 1869, p. 

31. Tertiary, Payta, Peru. (A living species of the Chilian coast.) 

Niicula araucana Philippi, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. 
Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 631. Talara Formation, Miocene. 

Nucula minuscula Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 632, pi. 17, fig. 10. Talara Formation, Miocene. 

Ostrea buski Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, 
p. 65, pi. 2, figs. 3, 4. Negritos, Eocene. [Loc. 346, C.A.S. coll.] 

Ostrea gallus Valenciennes, Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch. Vol. 5, 1869, p. 

32. Tertiary, Payta, Peru. 

Ostrea inca Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, 
p. 64, pi. 1, fig. 9; pi. 2, figs. 1, 2. Negritos, Eocene. 

Ostrea iridescens Gray, Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ser. 2, Vol. 
8, 1878, p. 264. Tertiary, Payta, Peru. 

Ostrea latiareata Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 630, pi. 17, fig. 6. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Ostrea lunaris Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 
p. 630, pi. 17, fig. 5. Payta Formation, Pliocene. 

Ostrea oculata Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 629, pi. 17, fig. 3. Payta Formation, Pliocene [Loc. 346, 
C.A.S.] 

Ostrea sculpta Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 
1899, p. 631, pi. 17, figs. 8, 8a. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Ostrea,, sp. ind. A, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 205, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Ostrea, sp. ind. B, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 206, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Ostrea, sp. Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, 
p. 65, pi. 2, fig. 5. Negritos, Eocene. 

Panopcea, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 200, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 



^g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pecten densicincttis Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, p. 628, pi. 17, fig. 12. Payta Formation, Pliocene. 

Pecten incus Hanna & Israelsky, new name. [Locs. 329, 341, C.A.S. 
coll.] 

Pecten intercostatus Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal, 
Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 629, pi. 17, fig. 9. Payta Formation, Pliocene. 
Not Pecten intercostatus Griffith, Syn. Char. Carb. Limestone 
Foss, Ireland, 1844, p. 95, pi. 18, fig. 4. 

Pecten intercostatus Grzybowski. See Pecten incus Hanna & Israelsky, 
new name. 

Pecten paytensis Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
Vol. 12, 1899, p. 628, pi. 17, fig. 7. Payta Formation, Pliocene. 

Pecten purpuratus Lamarck, Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, 
p. 32. Tertiary, Payta, Peru. 

Pecten woodringi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 125, pi. 7, figs. 
4, 5. Upper Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Pecten, sp. ind., Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 205, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Pectunculus paytensis (d'Orbigny), Grzybowski. See Glycymeris pay- 
tensis. 

Perna arbolensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 65, pi. 3, fig. 1. Negritos and Lobitos, Eocene. 

Phacoides (Pseudomiltha?) insleyi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 132, pi. 7, fig. 11. Lower Zorritos, Miocene. 

Pholas, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, 
pt. 1, 1870, p. 200, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Pitaria (Lamelliconcha) cora var. cequicincta Spieker, Paleontology of 

the Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, 

No. 3, 1922, p. 149, pi. 9, figs. 6, 7. Upper Zorritos Formation, 
Miocene. 

Pitaria (Lamelliconcha) planivieta (Guppy), Spieker, Paleontology of the 
Zorritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 
3, 1922, p. 147, pi. 10, fig. 6. Lower Zorritos, Variegated, Miocene, 

Psammobia darzmni Phillipi, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. 
Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 640, Zorritos Formation, Miocene, 

Rceta gibbosa Gabb, Amer, Journ. Conch., Vol. 5, 1869, p. 30. Tertiary, 
Payta, Peru. — Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ser. 2, Vol. 8, 
1878, p. 264, pi. 35, figs. 8, 8a. — Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. 
Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, p. 640, Payta Formation, Pliocene. 

Scapharca (Argina) sullanensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 62, pi. 1, fig. 5. Lobitos, Eocene. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU (/) 

Scapharca zorritosensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, p. 112, pi. 18, fig. 5. Zorritos, Miocene. [The spelling of the 
specific name diflfers from Spieker's Area sorritensis. Loc. 346, 
C.A.S. coll.] 

Scapharca sp. ind. Nelson. See Area sorritensis Spieker. 

Semele solida Gray, Gabb, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ser. 2, Vol. 8, 
1878, p. 264. Tertiary, Payta, Peru. 

Solecurtus (Pharella) planifolliculus Spieker, Paleontology of the Zor- 
ritos Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 
1922, p. 163, pi. 10, fig. 7. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Solen micro sulcatus Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 
12, 1899, pi. 640, pi. 18, fig. S. Ovibio Formation, Oligocene. 

Strigilla prora Hanley, Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch. Vol. 5, 1869, p. 30. 
Tertiary, Payta, Peru. 

Tagelus gibbus (Spengler), Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Forma-* 
tion, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 162. 
Zorritos (?) Formation, Miocene. 

Solecurtus, sp. ind. Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 200, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Tellina (Eurytellina) ceqiiicinctOi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
pi. 158, pi. 10, fig. 3. Lower to Upper Zorritos, Miocene. 

Tellina (Angulus) pressa Dall, Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, 
p. 159, pi. 10, fig. 4. Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 
Tellina, sp. ind. B, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 
Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 201, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Tellina (Angulus?) singezmldi Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos 
Formation, Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922. 
p. 161, pi. 10, fig. 5. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Tellina sapotalensis Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 156, pi. 
10, figs. 1, 2. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Tellina, sp. ind. A, Nelson, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 201, not fig'd. Zorritos, Peru. 

Tellina, sp. ind. B, Nelson. See Tellina (Angulus) pressa Dall. 

Transenella herviderana Spieker, Paleontology of the Zorritos Formation, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies in Geology, No. 3, 1922, p. 143, pi. 9, 
figs. 1, 2. Lower Zorritos Formation, Miocene. 

Venericardia clavidens Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. 
Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 636, pi. 19, figs. 1, la. Zorritos, Miocene. [Locs. 
346, 555, G.A.S. coll.] 



yQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Venericardia planicosta Lamarck, Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of 

Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 66, pi. 3, figs. 2, 3; pi. 4, figs. 1-3. 

Negritos and Lobitos, Eocene. 
Venus (Chione) columhensis Sowerby, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, 

Min. Geol. Pal. Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 639. Payta Formation, Pliocene. 
Venus mimsteri d'Orbigny, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. 

Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 638. Heath Formation, Miocene. 

Venus nelsoni Grzybowski. See Crassatellites (Scambula) nelsoni (Grzy- 
bowski). 

Venus saginata Philippi, Grzybowski, Neues Jahrbuch, Min. Geol. Pal. 
Bl. Bd. 12, 1899, p. 638, Payta Formation, Pliocene. 



Crustacea 

Callianassa parinasensis Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 

Peru, 1922, p. 114, pi. 17, fig. 4. Lobitos, Eocene. 
Callianassa americana Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 

Peru, 1922, p. 115, pi. 17, figs. 5, 6. Negritos, possibly Lobitos, 

Eocene. 
Thaumastoplax eocenica Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 

Peru, 1922, p. 117, pi. 17, fig. 11. Negritos, Eocene. 
Xanthopsis errans Woods, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 

1922, p. 115, pi. 17, figs. 7-10. Negritos, Eocene. 



ECHINOIDEA 

Echinocyamus intermedius Hawkins, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 120, text fig. 25. Lobitos, Eocene. 



COELENTERATA 

Dendrophyllia peruviana Vaughan, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 134, pi. 23, fig. 3. Negritos, Eocene. 

Haimesistrcea distans Vaughan, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 132, pi. 22, fig. 5. Negritos, Eocene. 

HaimesiastrcEa humilis Vaughan, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 131, pi. 22, figs. 3, 4. Negritos. Eocene. 

Haimesiastrcea peruviana Vaughan, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 130, pi. 22, fig. 2. Negritos, Eocene. 

Oculina peruviana Vaughan, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 127, pi. 21, figs. 2-5. Negritos, Eocene. 

Paracythus peruvianus Vaughan, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 126, pi. 21, fig. 1. Negritos, Eocene. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA AND ISRAELSKY— PALEONTOLOGY OF PERU '] \ 

Perttviaster Vaughan, in Bosvvorth, Geology of Northwestern Peru, 
1922, p. 128. (Type P. peruviana Vaughan.) 

Penilviaster peruviana Vaughan, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 129, pi. 21, figs. 6, 7. Negritos, Eocene. 

StepJuinocoenia peruviana Vaughan, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 133, pi. 23, figs. 1, 2. Negritos, Eocene. 



FORAMINIFERA 

Lepidocyclina antillea Cushman, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 137, pi. 24, fig. 2. Lobitos, Eocene. 

Lepidocyclina antillea (?), Cushman, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 138. 

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) peruviana Cushman, in Bosworth, 
Geology of Northwestern Peru, 1922, p. 138, pi. 24, fig. 1. Lobitos, 
Eocene. 

Nummulites, sp. (?), Cushman, in Bosworth, Geology of Northwestern 
Peru, 1922, p. 139. 

Orthophragmina peruviana, Cushman, in Bosworth, Geology of North- 
western Peru, 1922, p. 138, pi. 24, fig. 3. Lobitos, Eocene. 



72 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 7 

Fig. 1. Crassatellites pisarroi Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 

1722, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 858 C.A.S., Zorritos, 
Peru. 

Fig. 2. Chione sechuntana Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 1724, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 339 C.A.S., Zorritos, 
Peru. 

Fig. 3. Macrocallista cavachana Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 

1723, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 555 C.A.S., Eocene, 
Peru. 

Fig. 4. Corbula woodsi Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 1725, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 555 CA.S., Eocene, 
Peru. 

Fig. 5. Turritella conquistadorana Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 
1707, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 850 C.A.S., Eocene, 
Peru. 

Fig. 6. Turritella cochleiformis Gabb, plesiotype 1708, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from locality 555 C.A.S., Eocene, Peru. 

Fig. 7. Same, plesiotype 1709, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. 

Fig. 8. "Claifilithes" atahuallpai Hanna & Israelsky, paratype 1719, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 339 C.A.S., Zorritos, 
Peru. 

Fig. 9. Same, type 1718, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. 

Fig. 10. Siphonalia phosoidea Hanna & Israelsky, new species, paratype 
1717, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from locality Z2)6 C.A.S., Zorritos, 
Peru. 

Fig. 11. Clavilithes burtti Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 1720, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 850 C.A.S., Eocene, 
Peru. 

Fig. 12. "Surcula" mayi Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 1721, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., from locality 850 C.A.S., Eocene, Peru. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 2 [ HANNA and ISRAELSKY] Plate 7 







^ 







^ 






/ O 




74 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 8 

Fig. 1. McJanatria (?) gcstcri Hanna & Israelsky, new species, cotype 
1712, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from locality 334 C.A.S., Eocene, 
Peru. 

Fig. 2. Same, cotype 1713, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. 

Fig. 3. Same, cotype 1714 Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. 

Fig. 4. Natica coronis Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 1715, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from locality 328 C.A.S., Zorritos, 
Peru. 

Fig. 5. Siphoiialia pliosoidca Hanna & Israelsky, new species, paratype 
1717, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from locality 336 C.A.S., Zorritos, 
Peru. 

Fig. 6. TiirritcUa filiciucta Grzy., var. z'oricusfa Spieker, plcsiotype 
1710, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from locality 328 C.A.S., Zorritos, 
Peru. Figured to show aperture. 

Fig. 7. Siplwiialia pliosoidca Hanna & Israelsky, new species, type 
1716, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from locality 328 C.A.S., Zorri- 
tos, Peru. 

Fig. 8. Fduiius paytoisc (Woons), plesiotype 1711, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci. from locality 555 C.A.S., Eocene, Peru. Figured to show 
callosity of inner lip. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vo'. XIV, No. 2 



HANNAand ISRAELSKY] Plate 8 











PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 3, pp. 77-81, plate 9 July 23, 1925 



III 

A NOTE ON TWO OF HYATT'S 

LIASSIC AMMONITES i 

BY 

C H. CRICKMAY 

While working on the Jurassic faunas of western North 
America I have found that there is a vast assemblage of 
nomina nuda — chiefly names applied with no, or with incom- 
plete, description by Alpheus Hyatt. To "rescue" all of these 
would be a stupendous, a well nigh impossible, task. However, 
as the types become located it will no doubt be possible to 
recognize and redescribe many of the species. On account of 
the interest attached to the Liassic ammonites because of their 
rarity a special search was made for the holotypes of two 
species described by Hyatt^ and supposed to be in the collection 
of the California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco. These 
are Arnioceras woodhulli and Vermiceras crossmani. 

1. Vermiceras crossmani Hyatt 

Plate 9, figures 1-5 

The type specimens of this species were eventually discov- 
ered in the museum of the California Academy of Sciences 
where the paleontological collections of the State Mining Bu- 
reau have been deposited. There are three fragments, one of 

* A. Hyatt: Jura and Trias at Taylorville, California. Bull., Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 
3, 1892, page 411. 

July 23, 1925 



yg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

which is obviously another species. Of the remainder, the 
specimen showing the internal whorls is taken as the lectotype. 
The third specimen which is a small portion of the outer whorls 
of a large individual will be regarded as a paratype. Of the 
lectotype, the following description can be given: On the 
youngest visible whorls (diameter=12 mm.) the ornament is 
of versi-radiate costae, about nine in a quadrant. The youngest 
whorls showing the venter (diam.=25 mm.) show a strong 
keel bordered by two deep and narrow sulci. The costae soon 
become slightly arcuate. 

At a diameter of 85 mm. geniculse become evident and the 
costae run up on to the venter and form a ridge bordering the 
sulci. At 104 mm., the major diameter of the specimen, tuber- 
culation is almost attained. At this size there are 13 costae in 
a quadrant. The suture line is not preserved. The following 
additional details are obtained from the paratype which is 
from a specimen of about 260 mm. diameter. At this size the 
costae no longer run into the ridges bordering the ventral sulci, 
and there is a concave area just below the ridges. This indi- 
vidualizes the latter, giving the shell the appearance of having 
three equal keels. The costae are about 20 in a quadrant. 

Measurements 

Diameter 25 mm. 104 mm. 260 mm. 

Width of umbilicus divided by diam. .54 .62 

Thickness divided by diam 33 .21 .14 

Umbilical suture to keel div. by diam. .26 ,19 .19 

The result is Vermiceras crossmani Hyatt, 1892; family 
Ammonitidae (=Arietidae). 

Holotype: No. 1760; paratype: No. 1761, Calif. Acad, of Sci., 
from Santa Fe district, Esmeralda County, Nevada; early 
Sinemurian age (Lower Jurassic). S. H. Crossman, Coll. 
Original No. 4089, Calif. St. Min. Bureau. 

2. Arnioceras woodhulli Hyatt 

The type specimens of Arnioceras woodhulli could not be 
found. It is believed by the authorities of the institutions con- 
cerned that they have been lost. Under such circumstances it 
might still be possible to recognize the species from the brief 



Vol. XIV] CRICKMAY— HYATT'S LIASSIC AMMONITES 79 

description and the comparison with Arnioceras humboldti 
which has been figured^ were the locality known. But Hyatt 
did not give this any more accurately than Inyo County, Cali- 
fornia. Hyatt described the species very briefly as resembling 
A. humboldti but having the pilse more closely crowded, and 
with slight constrictions at intervals on the adolescent whorls. 
These were said to disappear later, giving place to slightly 
arcuate costse. 

In view of the uncertainty connected with this species it 
might be thought best by some to declare the name invalid. 
This course would probably be quite justified but it seems a 
pity to take the step yet while so little is known of the Lias of 
the western states. It may be that Arnioceras woodhulli is the 
only Arnioceras in Inyo County, in which case its recognition 
would be relatively certain. It may be that there is no other 
species like it in the type area. Or perhaps some one of Hyatt's 
distinctions will prove distinctive when the entire fauna is 
known. For these reasons it is thought best not to decide this 
matter until considerable collections have been obtained from- 
the Liassic rocks of the type region. 



'A. Hyatt: Genesis of the Ariettdse, Smithsonian Contrib. to Knowl., No. 673, 
1889, p. 173, figs. 31-33. 



gQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 9 

Fig, 1. Vermiceras crossmani Hyatt. Holotype No. 1760 (Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci.) from Santa Fe District, Esmeralda County, 
Nevada. Lateral view, natural size. 

Fig. 2. Vermiceras crossmani Hyatt. Holotype. Cross section of outer 
whorl. 

Fig. 3. Vermiceras crossmani Hyatt. Paratype No. 1761 (Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci.) from Santa Fe District, Esmeralda County, 
Nevada. Lateral view, natural size. 

Fig. 4. Vermiceras crossmani Hyatt. Paratype, same specimen as Fig. 
3; ventral view, natural size. 

Fig. 5. Vermiceras crossmani Hyatt. Paratype, same specimen as Fig. 
Fig. 3; apertural view, natural size. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 3 



CRICKMAY] Plate 9 







PROCEEDINGS 

OV THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 4, pp. 83-87, plate 10 July 23, 1925 



IV 



A NEW SPECIES OF MOLLUSK (DENTALIUM 

HANNAI) FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA, 

WITH NOTES ON OTHER FORMS 



BY 

FRED BAKER 

In the course of a study of the members of the genus Denta- 
lium taken in the Gulf of California in 1921 by the Expedition 
from the California Academy of Sciences certain specimens, 
found in my own collection and labeled "Dentalium semir 
politum", seem to belong to a new species. The shells were 
taken many years ago in a series of dredgings at varying 
depths by the late Miss J. M. Cooke and myself off the south 
end of South Coronado Island, Lower California. The loca- 
tion proved to be very rich in mollusks and we took more than 
a dozen species and a genus (Bernardina) which were later 
described as new by Doctors Dall and Bartsch, chiefly from 
our material. The dredging was all done in a single afternoon. 

The species, on a superficial examination, is very like D. 
semipolitum, which is rather common in this region, and we 
overlooked the distinctive characters. 

July 23, 1925 



g4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

1. Dentalium hannai Baker, new species 
Plate 10, figures 4, 5 

Shell moderately curved, of medium size, very narrow at 
the apex but increasing- rather rapidly at first, less decidedly 
later; length about 12 times the diameter, translucent, shining, 
blue-white at the anterior end and becoming slightly creamy on 
the posterior half; sculpture of the earlier third consisting of 
28 fine, sharp, subequal ribs about a third as wide as inter- 
spaces, and all continuous, but gradually fading out at about 
a third of length of shell ; growth striae wavy and irregularly 
marked throughout; anal aperture, a slit on both convex and 
concave sides, but shorter and rounded on the latter, sharply 
pointed on the former; sides of apex grown inward, the slit 
occupying about a third of the diameter at this point; these 
inward projection of shell substance can hardly be called "a 
plug" in the sense that this word is commonly used in Scapha- 
poda; aperture circular, intersecting the axis at a right angle; 
peristome thin. 

Length 38.5 mm.; diameter of base 3.2 mm.; diameter of 
apex 0.6 mm.; length of slit, convex side, 1.5 mm., concave 
side 0.6 mm. 

Type: No. 1757, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from 10 to 18 
fathoms about one mile south of South Coronado Island, 
Lower California; Jeanette M. Cooke and Fred Baker, colls. 

The arrangement of sculpture resembles that of D. semi- 
politum B. & S. and D. inversum Desh. from the same region, 
and D. sectum Desh. from the Gulf of California, in having 
longitudinal sculpture on the posterior third, the rest of the 
shell being smooth. The apical angle is slightly greater than 
in any of these species, but the most marked difference exists 
in the anal slit ; this is wanting in semipolitum; on the concave 
side only in inversum; sectum differs radically in that is has a 
longer and oblique plug with the transverse slit not extending 
far on either the convex or concave side. 

Other smaller specimens than the type are very constant in 
most of the characters though differing in the proportion of 
sculptured to smooth parts on account of age. 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— A NEW SPECIES OF MOLLUSK §5 

The species is named for Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, Curator of 
Paleontology, California Academy of Sciences. 



2. Dentalium vallicolens Raymond 

Plate 10, figures 1-3 

This species was described in 1904^ from specimens dredged 
in relatively deep water off La Jolla, California, and neighbor- 
ing localities. It is much larger than D. hannai and in no 
specimens seen is there a notch or slit in the apical opening. 
The species has not been figured until now and this opportunity 
is taken to publish photographs of three specimens. Two of 
these (figs. 1,2) are No. 437 of the Scripps Institution collec- 
tion from 110 fathoms off La Jolla. These were undoubtedly 
used by Prof. Raymond in the description of the species; no 
type material was designated. The third specimen figured 
came from 120 fathoms off San Diego and has been presented 
to the California Academy of Sciences where it is No. 1758 
(Coll. Type material). 



»The Nautilus, Vol. 17, 1904, p. 123. 



85 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 10 

Figs. 1, 2. Dentaliuni vallicolens Raymond. Plesiotypes, No. 437 (Scripps 
Institution), from 110 fathoms, off La Jolla, California. En- 
larged slightly more than two diameters. 

Fig. 3. Dentalium vallicolens Raymond. Plesiotype, No. 1758 (Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences), from 120 fathoms off San 
Diego. Enlarged slightly more than two diameters. 

Fig. 4. Dentalium hannai Baker, new species. Type, No. 1757 (Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences), from 10-18 fathoms off South 
Coronado Island, Lower CaHfornia. Enlarged slightly more 
than two diameters. 

Fig. 5. Dentalium hannai Baker, new species. Type specimen; apex; 
enlarged six diameters. 



PROC.CAL.ACAD.SCI.,4thSeries.Vol.XIV, No.4 [ FRED BAKER | Plate 10 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 5, pp. 89-100 July 23, 1925 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO ORIENTAL HERPETOLOGY 
II. KOREA or CHOSEN 

BY 

JOSEPH R. SLEVIN 
Assistant Ctorator, Department of Herpetology 

The herpetological fauna of Korea or Chosen is represented 
in the Academy's collection by 24 species. These are two sala- 
manders, one discoglossid toad, one toad of the genus Bufo, 
one tree-frog, one engystomatid, five frogs, three lizards, eight 
snakes, and two turtles. Following is an annotated list of the 
species : 

1. Hynobius leechii Boulenger 

Our very large series has been reported upon by Dr. Dunn. 

31841 to 32126. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province. 

32127 to 32160. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province. 

32161 to 32167. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province 

32168. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province. 

32374. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province. 

35958 to 35975. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province. 

2. Onychodactylus fischeri (Boulenger) 

We have four adults (Nos. 32169 to 32172) and a very 
large series of larv« (Nos. 32173 to 32373; 32984 to 32993; 
and 35977 to 35988) all collected at Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do 
Province. Most of these have been recorded by Dr. Dunn. 

July 2i, 1925 



gQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

3. Bombina orientalis (Boulenger) 

Males collected in May and June have the horny breeding 
pads on the fore limbs. In our series of more than 100 Korean 
specimens there is a great variation in the extent and uniting 
of the black ventral markings. Males usually are much more 
warty above than females and have much larger v^ebs. They 
also show black dorsal markings much less distinctly than the 
females. However, there is a good deal of individual variation 
as regards all three of these sexual differences. Three young 
have very small webs. Our specimens are as follows : 

17667 to 17669. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, October, 1909. 

32413 to 32457. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 

32458 to 32478. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 

32479 to 32485. Sei-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 5, 1911. 

32486 to 32504. Hoi-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 22, 1911. 

32505 to 32514. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32515 to 32518. Sagawansa, June 8, 1911. 

32519. Musan Pass, May 22, 1911. 

35936 to 35938. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 



4. Bufo bufo asiaticus (Steindachner) 

Thirty toads from Korea agree very well with specimens 
from China. They differ from the toads of Japan in the ab- 
sence of the dark line along the lower jaw and in the less ex- 
tensive pigmentation of the belly and of the sides of the body. 

32375 to 32399. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, Korea, 
June 7, 191 1. The web is large in all. The tympanum is small or 
moderate, except in 32386, in which it is large. There is no 
black line on the lower jaw. Most of the specimens are with- 
out much ventral pigmentation; 32380, 32388, 32390, 32393, 
32394 show a few small dark spots on the belly; and 32379 
and 32385 have many small spots. The lateral pigmentation 
varies considerably in amount. 32385, 32396, 32398 each have 
a ridge of small tubercles in the position of a tarsal fold. 

32400 to 32411. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Prov- 
ince, Korea, June 10, 1911. The web is large. The tympanum 
is moderate or small. There is no dark line on the lower jaw. 
There is not much lateral pigmentation. 32401, 32404, 32409 



Vol. XIV] SLEVIN— ORIENTAL HERPETOLOGY (II) 91 

have numerous small spots on the belly; 32410, 32411 have a 
few small spots ; the others are unspotted. 32404 has a tarsal 
ridge of small tubercles. 

32412. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 5, 1911. 

35989. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 1, 1911. 
Large web. Small tympanum. No jaw line. No belly spots. 
Considerable lateral black. 

36009 to 36011. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Prov- 
ince, June 13, 1911. Large web. Tympanum moderate in 
36009, 36010; large in 36011. No dark jaw line. Little 
lateral black. 36009 has numerous small belly spots, and a 
tarsal ridge of tubercles. 

5. Hyla aboria japonica Giinther 

Our series from Japan and Korea show that it is not possible 
to distinguish a subspecies H. a. immaculata. Of 2>7 specimens 
collected at Kong-Ju, Korea, June 10, 1911, 33 have some web 
between the third and fourth fingers, while four (Nos. 32957, 
32966, 32971, 32975) have no web between these fingers. All 
of the four have loreal dark streaks, and these streaks are 
clearly shown, also, by all of the 33 except No. 32958, which 
has none, and Nos. 32950 and 32965, each of which has a mere 
trace. Loreal streaks are present in all our other Korean 
Hylas except two from Wonsan. These are No. 32929, in 
which there is a trace of the stripe, and No. 32932, in which the 
stripe is entirely wanting. Both have finger webs. 

32887 to 22926. Fusan, Kjong-San-Do Province, May 6, 1911. 

32927 to 32940. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

32941 to 32977. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32978 to 32983. Sei-Ko-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 13, 1911. 

35935. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 

36012 to 36024. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 13, 1911. 

6. Cacopoides borealis Barbour 

A large series of this little known species was secured at 
Chiksan, Korea, June 16, 1911 (Nos. 32520 to 32572 and 
Nos. 35939 to 35944). It may be supposed that the species 
was breeding at that time. Some of the specimens are nearly 



Q2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

black over all of the upper surfaces. Others are quite light in 
general coloration, with various cloudings, blotches, spots or 
dots of dark brown, slate or black. The light ground color in 
the less pigmented specimens may be gray or pale brown, 
sometimes with a trace of pink. 



7. Rana chinensis Osbeck 

Our Korean collections include about 109 specimens of this 
frog. They seem to show no difference in any way between 
Japanese and Chinese specimens. Frequently there is no dorsal 
line or band. Such specimens may resemble Rana plancyi, but 
may be readily distinguished by their dorsal dermal ridges 
which are lacking in Rana plancyi. 

32766 to 32790. Sei-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 15, 1911. 

32791 to 32824. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-'Do Province, May 8, 1911. 

32826 to 32839. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 

32840. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32844 to 32845. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32849. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32853. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32854 to 32863. Hoi-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 21, 1911. 

32864 to 32870. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

32873 to 32874. Sagawansa, June 8, 1911. 

32875 to 32886. Sei-Ko-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 13, 1911. 

35957. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 



8. Rana plancyi Lataste 

This frog seems not to be on record from Korea. Never- 
theless it must be fairly common there, as we have 14 specimens 
from four localities, as follows : 

32825. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 

32841 to 32843. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32846 to 32848. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32850 to 32852. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32871 to 32872. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 

36002 to 36003. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-'Do Province, June 10, 1911. 



Vol. XIV] SLEVIN— ORIENTAL HERPETOLOGY (11) 93 

9. Rana temporaria Linnaeus 

Our Korean collections include numerous frogs of the tem- 
poraria group. There is much variation, particularly in the 
position of the vomerine teeth, in specimens from the same 
locality. To the name Rana temporaria have been referred 
specimens which agree in having the dorsolateral ridge flaring 
out anteriorly toward the tympanum, the snout short, the web 
large or very large, and no definite light line along the upper 
jaw. The vomerine teeth may be between the choanae (asinNos. 
32727, 32763), between and behind (as in Nos. 32748, 32750, 
32751, 32762, 32765), or behind the choanse (as in Nos. 
32749, 32752, 32753, 32764). The outer metatarsal tubercle 
may be absent (No. 32749), but is present in nearly all. 

32700 to 32726. Pu-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 22, 1911. 

^2127. Hoi-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 21, 1911. 

32748 to 32753. Musan Pass, May 22, 1911. 

32754 to 32761. Wonsan, Kang^Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

32762 to 32765. Sei-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 15, 1911. 

35991 to 35997. Pu-Ryong, Ham-Gjong Do Province, May 22, 1911. 



10. Rana japonica (Giinther) 

The frogs which have been referred to this species agree in 
the possession of dorsolateral ridges which either are very in- 
distinct or wanting anteriorly, or run forward without bending 
out much toward the tympanum, long snouts, small webs, and 
usually a very distinct light line along the upper jaw. The 
vomarine teeth vary in position as they do in Rana temporaria, 
being sometimes between the choanse (as in Nos. 32738, 
32740, 32745, 32747), sometimes between and behind (as in 
Nos. 32728, 32731, 32733, 32735, 32736, 32737, 32739, 32741, 
32742, 32743, 32746), and sometimes quite behind the choanae 
(as in Nos. 32729, 32730, 32732, 32734, 32744). The outer 
metatarsal tubercle is usually absent (32729, 32730, 32731, 
32733), but may be present on one side only (36006, 36008) 
or on both sides (32728, 32732, 36028). Nos. 36029 and 
36030 have larger webs than the other specimens, and their 
snouts seem a little shorter. The dorsolateral ridge flares out 
somewhat in Nos. 35934, 36007 and 36008. 



94 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th See. 



32728 to 32733. 
32734 to 32747. 
35934. 
36004 to 36008. 
36028 to 36030. 



Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 
Sei-Ko-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 13, 1911. 
Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 
Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Prov., June 12-13, 1911. 
Sei-Ko-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 13, 1911. 



11. Rana rugosa Schlegel 

This frog has apparently not been previously recorded from 
Korea. It must, however, be common there, for we have more 
than 130 specimens from six localities. Korean and Japanese 
specimens appear to be identical. 

32573 to 32652. Fusan Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911, 

32653 to 32667. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

32668 to 32671. Sagawansa, June 8, 1911. 

32672 to 32678. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

32679 to 32686. Sei-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 15, 1911. 

32687 to 32698. Pu-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 22, 1911. 

32699. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

35955 to 35956. Fusan, Kjong-San-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 

35998 to 36000. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 12, 1911. 



12. Takydromus amurensis Peters 

This species is well represented in our collection by speci- 
mens from many localities in Korea. These are listed below : 



31685 to 31733. 

31777. 

31812. 

31818. 
31819 to 31823. 
31824 to 31828. 
31829 to 31836. 
31837 to 31839. 

31840. 

33013. 

33014. 

35976. 



Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong Province, June 10, 1911. 

Chiksan, K\vi-Do Province, Jime 16, 1911. 

Chiksan, Kw^i-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 

Musan Pass, May 22, 1911. 

Pu-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 22, 1911. 

Sei-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 15, 1911. 

Shoko, May 23, 1911. 

Hoi-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 21, 1911. 

Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

Shoko, May 23, 1911. 

Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 6, 1911. 



13. Takydromus wolteri Fischer 

This grass lizard is represented from only three localities in 
Korea. All of the specimens have one pore on each side. 



Vol. XIV] 



SLEVIN— ORIENTAL HERPETOLOGY (11) 



95 



31546 to 31684. 
31734 to 31735. 
31807 to 31811. 
31813 to 31817. 
33015. 
35945 to 35954. 



Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 
Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 
Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 
Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 
Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 
Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 



14. Eremias argus Peters 

This lizard was secured in good series at two localities in 
Korea, as listed below. These specimens seem not to differ 
from those we have received from China. 

31736 to 31776. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

31778 to 31806. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 

35933. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 22, 1911. 

36025 to 36027. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 14 ,1911. 



15. Natrix vibakari vibakari Van Denburgh 

This subspecies differs from that of the Japanese islands in 
having fewer urosteges. These vary from 55 to 65, average in 
nine specimens 61, while in A'', vibakari vibakari the counts 
vary from 63 to 83, average in 34 specimens 71.4. There is 
but little difference in the counts of males and females. 

Our Korean collections contain four of these snakes taken at 
Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. The counts 
of these specimens are given below. No. 31487 is the type. 
All have 19 scale rows. 



No. 


Sex 


Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 


Loreal 


Temporals 






stegea 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculara 






31485 


9 


148 


65o 


7-7 


8-8 


1-1 


2-3 


1-1 


1+1-1+1 


31486 


9 


142 


61c 


6-6 


8-8 


2-2 


3-2 


1-1 


1+1-1+1 


31487 


cf 


153 


64o 


7-7 


8-8 


1-1 


3-2 


1-1 


1+1-1+1 


31488 


9 


146 


56c 


7-7 


8-8 


1-1 


2-2 


1-1 


1+1-1+1 



16. Natrix tigrina tigrina (Boie) 

Our Korean collections include 27 snakes of this subspecies 
taken at the following localities : 



96 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



31448 to 31454. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 
31461 to 31469. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 
31489 to 31496. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 
31530 to 31531. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 
31544. Ujo, May 23, 1911. 

The counts of these specimens are given below. All have 19 
scale rows. The anal is divided. 



No. 


Sex 


Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 


Temporals 






steges 


stegea 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 




31448 


9 


171 


52 + 


7-7 


8-9 


2-2 


3-3 


1+1-1+1 


31449 


cf 


164 


71c 


7-7 


8-7 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31450 


& 


163 


71c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31451 


9 


163 


57 + 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31452 


9 


172 


43 + 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31453 


9 


167 


63c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31454 


& 


159 


67c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31461 


9 


168 


59c 


7-7 


8-9 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31462 


9 


163 


61c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31463 


& 


159 


71c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


4-4 


1+2-1+2 


31464 


cf 


164 


74c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31465 


9 


166 


50 + 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31466 


& 


165 


67c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31467 


9 


169 


65c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31468 


9 


165 


61c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31469 


9 


168 


64c 


7-7 


9-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31489 


cf 


163 


70c 


7-7 


8-9 


2-2 


3-3 


2-2 


31490 


& 


157 


71c 


7-7 


9-9 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+1 


31491 


cP 


155 


70c 


7-7 


9-8 


2-2 


2-2 


1+1-1+2 


31492 


& 


153 


70c 


7-7 


9-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31493 


& 


158 


69c 


7-7 


9-9 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31494 


& 


155 


68c 


7-7 


9-9 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31495 


d' 


158 


69c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31496 


9 


163 


72c 


7-7 


9-9 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31530 


& 


158 


69c 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31531 


& 


159 


62c 


7-7 


8-9 


2-2 


3-3 


1+2-1+2 


31544 


9 


161 


41 + 


7-7 


8-8 


2-2 


4-3 


1+2-1+2 



17. Elaphe rufodorsata (Cantor) 

Twenty-nine Korean specimens of this snake are at hand, as 
follows : 



17666. 
31457 to 31459. 
31470 to 31476. 
31477 to 31482. 
31498 to 31499. 



Fusan Kjong-Sang-Do Province, October, 1909. 
Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 
Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 
Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 10, 1911. 
Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 



Vol. XIV] 



SLEVIN— ORIENTAL HERPETOLOGY (II) 



97 



31502 to 31505. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

31532 to 31533. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 

31535 to 31536. Pu-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 22, 1911. 

31545. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 

33012. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 

The counts of these specimens are given below. All have 21 
scale rows. 



No. 


Sex 


Gaatro- 


Uro- 


Anal 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 


Temporals 






steges 


steges 




labiala 


labials 


oculars 


oculara 




17666 


9 


176 


50c 


2 


8-7 


10-10 


1—1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31457 


9 


179 


51c 


2 


7-8 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31458 


cf 


168 


59c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31459 


9 


179 


53c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31470 


d" 


169 


61c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


1+2-1+2 


31471 


9 


173 


50c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+2-2+3 


31472 


9 


179 


37 + 


2 


8-7 


10-9 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31473 


cT 


163 


61c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+2 


31474 


9 


178 


51c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+3-2+2 


31475 


9 


177 


50c 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


1 -1 


2-2 


2+2-2+8 


31476 


9 


174 


51c 


2 


8-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31477 


cf 


170 


61c 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31478 


9 


183 


51c 


2 


7-8 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+2 


31479 


9 


173 


51c 


2 


8-7 


10-9 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31480 


9 


177 


52c 


2 


7-7 


10-9 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+2-2+2 


31481 


cT 


169 


60c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+2-2+3 


31482 


<f 


168 


57c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+2-2+3 


31498 


cf 


161 


63c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+2-2+2 


31499 


9 


177 


49c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31502 


9 


174 


55c 


2 


7-8 


10-10 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31503 


cf 


168 


62c 


2 


8-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+2-2+3 


31504 


d' 


167 


61c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31505 


d* 


168 


62c 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+2 


31532 


cf 


171 


63c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1 —1 


2-2 


1+3-2+3 


31533 


cf 


167 


62c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31535 


cf 


161 


63c 


2 


7-7 


10-9 


1 —1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31536 


& 


163 


59c 


2 


7-7 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+2 


31545 


9 


175 


56c 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+2-2+3 


33012 


? 








7-7 


10-10 


1 — 1 


2-2 


2 -2 













18. Elaphe schrenckii Strauch 

Nine specimens were collected in Korea, as follows : 

31460. Fusan, Kjong-Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. 
31497. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 
31513 to 31519. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 



98 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



The scale counts are as follows 



No. 


Sex 


Scale 


Gastro- 


Uro- 


Anal 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 


Temporals 






rows 


steges 


steges 




labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculara 




31460 


9 


23 


222 


69c 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31497 


9 


23 


223 


67c 


2 


8-8 


9-9 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31513 


c? 


23 


216 


72c 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


2-2 


1-1 


2+3-2+3 


31514 


cf 


23 


217 


64 + 


2 


8-7 


11-9 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31515 


cT 


23 


221 


74c 


2 


8-8 


9-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31516 


cf 


23 


227 


67c 


2 


8-8 


11-11 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31517 


& 


23 


216 


72 + 


2 


7-8 


10-9 


1-1 


1-1 


2+3-2+3 


31518 


9 


23 


129 


71c 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31519 


9 


23 


128 


66c 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


1-1 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 



19. Elaphe dione (Pallas) 

Eight specimens of this snake have been received from 
Korea as follows : 

31455 to 31456. Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 1911. 

31500. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

31520 to 31522. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 

31534. Pu-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 22, 1911. 

31541. Sei-Shin, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 15, 1911. 

The scale counts are given below. 



No. 


Sex 


Scale 


Gastro- 


Uro- 


Anal 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 


Temporals 






rows 


steges 


steges 




labials 


labials 


oculara 


oculars 




31455 


cf 


25 


203 


64c 


2 


8-8 


10-11 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+2 


31456 


9 


25 


205 


71e 


2 


8-8 


11-11 


2-3 


2-2 


2+4-2+4 


31600 


9 


27 


199 


62c 


2 


8-8 


11-11 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31520 


cf 


25 


199 


73c 


2 


8-8 


11-11 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31521 


9 


25 


200 


59c 


2 


8-8 


11- 


2-2 


2-2 


2+4-2+3 


31522 


cf 


25 


193 


71c 


2 


8-8 


10-11 


2-2 


2-2 


2+4-2+3 


32534 


9 


25 


193 


60c 


2 


8-8 


11-11 


1-1 


2-2 


2+4-2+4 


31541 


9 


23 


197 


56 + 


2 


8-8 


10-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 



20. Coluber spinalis (Peters) 

Our only Korean specimen of this snake (No. 31529) was 
taken at Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. It is a 
female with scales in 17 rows, gastrosteges 203, urosteges 86 



Vou XIV] 



SLEVIN— ORIENTAL HERPETOLOGY (II) 



99 



complete, anal divided, supralabials 8-8, infralabials 9-10, pre- 
oculars 2-2, postoculars 2-2, loreal 1-1, and temporals 
2+2—2+2. 

21. Dinodon rufozonatum (Cantor) 

This species seems to be rather rare in Korea. Its occurence 
there has been known from one or two specimens without exact 
data. We have received only one, caught at Fusan, Kjong- 
Sang-Do Province, May 8, 1911. It is No. 31483, a male, with 
17 scale rows, gastrosteges 201, urosteges 73 complete, 
anal single, supralabials 7-7, infralabials 9-9, preoculars 2-2, 
postoculars 2-2, no loreal, and temporals 2+3 — 2+3. 

22. Agkistrodon blomhoffii brevicaudus Stejneger 

Fourteen specimens of this subspecies are at hand from the 
following localities: 

31506. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

31508. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

31510. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

31512. Wonsan, Kang-Won-Do Province, June 7, 1911. 

31523 to 31527. Chiksan, Kwi-Do Province, June 16, 1911. 

31537 to 31539. Pu-Ryong, Ham-Gjong-Do Province, May 22, 1911. 

31542. Shoko, May 23, 1911. 

31543. Musan Pass, May 22, 1911. 

The scale counts are as follows : 




:. L^ ^ 




ft' #? 



No. 


Sex 


Scale 


Gastro- 


Uro- 


Anal 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 


Temporals 






rows 


steges 


steges 




labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 




31506 


9 


21 


145 


42c 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31508 


9 


21 


143 


33c 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31510 


9 


21 


147 


38c 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+4 


31512 


d' 


21 


146 


49o 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


3-2 


2+2-2+2 


31523 


9 


21 


146 


38c 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31524 


cf 


21 


149 


54c 




7-7 


11-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+4-2+4 


31525 


& 


21 


147 


48c 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31526 


9 


21 


150 


43c 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


3-3 


2+2-2+2 


31527 


9 


21 


145 


45c 




8-7 


11-11 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31537 


d' 


21 


147 


27 + 




7-7 


11-11 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31538 


& 


21 


145 


47c 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31539 


9 


21 


155 


43c 




7-7 


10-10 


2-2 


2-2 


2+3-2+3 


31542 


9 


21 


156 


41c 




7-7 


11-10 


2-2 


3-3 


2+3-2+3 


31643 


d- 


21 


163 


42c 




7-7 


11-10 


2-2 


3-3 


2+3-2+3 



JOO CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

23. Geoclemys reevesii (Gray) 

One typical specimen of this turtle (No. 31437) was col- 
lected at Kong-Ju, Tschhung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10, 
1911. 



24. Amyda maackii (Brandt) 

Sixteen soft-shelled turtles were collected at Kong-Ju, Tsch- 
hung-Tschhong-Do Province, June 10-14, 1911. These are 
Nos. 31438 to 31447 and 36055 to 36060. These turtles agree 
in having the interocular and especially the temporal dark 
stripes broader and more conspicuous than in Chinese speci- 
mens. They also have much more of the fine yellow dotting 
on all of the dorsal surfaces. They seem to differ from 
Chinese turtles only in color. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 6, pp. 101-103 July 23, 1925 



VI 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO ORIENTAL HERPETOLOGY 

III. RUSSIAN ASIA and MANCHURIA 

BY 

JOSEPH. R. SLEVIN 
Assistant Curator, Department of Herpetology 

The fauna from these regions represented in the Academy's 
collection, although small, has nevertheless proved of value for 
comparison with material from adjacent territory. It is repre- 
sented by one salamander, one frog, four snakes, and one 
turtle. 

Russian Asia 
1. Hynobius keyserlingii (Dybowskii) 

Our only specimen (No. 14578) was collected at Xanka 
Lake, Ussuri Province. 

2. Rana temporaria Linnaeus 

Three frogs from Russian Asia seem to fall within the limits 
of individual variation in this species. 

No. 14575, collected at Xanka Lake, Ussuri Province, May 
7, 1908, has large webs, vomerine teeth between and somewhat 

July 23, 1925 



102 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



behind the choanae, and large inner metatarsal tubercles. The 
outer metatarsal is present. 

Two specimens are labeled "Ussuri ?" No. 14576 has small 
webs, vomerine teeth between and behind the choanae, and 
inner metatarsal tubercles small. No. 14577 has large webs, 
teeth well behind the choanae, and inner metatarsal tubercles 
small. This last specimen has a dorsal stripe. Neither has 
outer metatarsal tubercles. 

The dorsolateral ridge flares out anteriorly toward the tym- 
panum in these three frogs. 

3. Natrix tigrina lateralis (Berthold) 

One female snake of this species (No. 14580) was collected 
at Vladivostoc. It has scales in 19 rows, gastrosteges 159, 
urosteges 55c, anal divided, supralabials 7-7, infralabials 8-8, 
preoculars 2-2, postoculars 3-3, loreal 1-1, and temporals 

l-j-2— 1+2. 

4. Elaphe schrenckii Strauch 

A female (No. 14583), taken at Vladivostoc, in 1903, has 
23 scale rows, gastrosteges 218, urosteges 66c, anal divided, 
supralabials 8-8, infralabials 10-10, preoculars 2-2, postoculars 
2-2, loreal 1-1, and temporals 2+3 — 2+3. 

5. Agkistrodon blomhoffii intermedius (Strauch) 

Stejneger is followed in the use of this name for two spe- 
cimens from Vladivostoc, although their scale counts are 
similar to those of Korean specimens. They are Nos. 14585 
and 14586. Their counts are as follows : 



No. 


Sex 


Scale 
rows 


Gastro- 
steges 


Uro- 
steges 


Anal 


Supra- 
labials 


Infra- 
labials 


Pre- 
oculars 


Post- 
oculars 


Temporals 


14685 
14586 


9 


21 

21 


150 

147 


43c 
46c 


1 
1 


7-7 
7-7 


10-9 
10-10 


2-2 
2-2 


2-2 
2-2 


l+3-l-f3 
H-2 -1-1-2 



Vol. XIV] SLEVIN— ORIENTAL HERPETOLOGY (III) JQS 

Manchuria 
1. Natrix tigrina lateralis (Berthold) 

The counts of two specimens labeled "North East Man- 
churia" are as follows : 



No. 


Sex 


Scale 
rows 


Gastro- 
steges 


Uro- 
steges 


Anal 


Supra- 
labials 


Infra- 
labials 


Pre- 
oculars 


Post- 
oculars 


Temporals 


33016 
33017 


9 


19 
19 


162 
160 


58c 
57c 


2 
2 


7-7 

7-7 


8-9 
9-9 


2-2 

2-2 


4-4 
3-3 


1+2-1+2 
1+2-1+2 



2. Amy da maackii (Brandt) 

One large specimen (No. 14587) collected at Harbin, Man- 
churia, in 1907, agrees in coloration with our series from 
Korea. Our Chinese specimens seem to represent a different 
species. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 7, pp. 105-142; text figs. 1-64 August 14, 1925 



VII 
NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 

BY 

RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN 
Harvard University 

The new spiders described in this paper were noted in con- 
nection with a study of the spiders collected by the Expedition 
of the California Academy of Sciences to the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia in 1921 upon which a report has previously been 
published.^ 

I am indebted to Prof. C. R. Crosby for the preparation of 
descriptions of several species of Linyphiidse, the name of each 
such species being accordingly followed by his name in the 
text. 

LIST OF THE SPECIES 

AviCULARIID^ 

1. Brachybothrium shoshoneum Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Cephalothorax, sternum and legs fulvous or yellowish. Ab- 
domen similar above but grey behind and laterally; the venter greyish 
yellow. 

Pars cephalica low, rather flat and widely slanting to fovea thoracica. 
Fovea short and deep, the radiating lines rather coarse. Anterior median 
eyes with centers on or near the median transverse line of the ocular 

^ Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Vol. XII, No. 28, 1924. 

August 14, 1925 



106 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



area; close to the posterior median eyes, than which they are smaller. 
Chelicerse rather small, the cephalothorax being nearly i.I times their 
antero-posterior length. On convex antero-dorsal surface at mesal side 
conspicuously elevated and bearing a dense patch of stout, basally spini- 
form setae. Tarsi slightly flexuose. Paired claws with five or six teeth, 




Brachybothriuni shoshoneum 

Fig. 1. Right palpus of male, ectal view. 2. Apical part of the 
same, more enlarged. 3. Tarsus and metatarsus of leg I of 
male, anterior view. 

the unpaired claw smooth. Tibia I with a patch of long, stout spines on 
anterior surface just distad of middle; somewhat produced at middle 
beneath, and bearing there several longer and much stouter spines. 
Metatarsus I broadly produced beneath proximad of the middle (fig. 3). 
Palpus as shown in figs. 1 and 2. 

Length, 11.2 mm.; Cephalothorax, 5.6 mm.; Tib. + pat. I, 5 mm.; Tib. 
-|- pat. IV, 5 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z.,=^ No. 1149, {$). 

Type locality: Troy, Idaho. 

2. Eurypelma duplex Chamberlin, new species 

Male: Body and legs clothed with rusty brown hair of the usual type. 
Carapace as wide as long. Thoracic fovea nearly three-fourths the dis- 
tance from anterior end to base. Anterior row of eyes viewed from in 

* Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEIV NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 107 

fiont strongly procurved ; medians about their diameter apart, less than half 
as far from the equal laterals. Posterior median eyes much smallicr than 
the laterals, elongate ; much closer to posterior laterals than to anterior 
medians. Claws of legs dentate proximad of middle. Tibia of leg I with 
the usual bilobate process at distal end, the outer branch more curved 
and about a third longer than the inner branch. Inner (anterior) surface 
of coxa I with many setae, spine-like at base. Some similar spinescent 




Eurypehna duplex 

Fig. 4. Inner side of apex of bulb of male palpus. 

setae on caudal face of coxa of palpus. Tibia of palpus bearing four 
spines on inner side, two submedian and two toward distal end. Spines 
with double line of serrations as shown in fig. 4. 

Length, 28 mm. ; cephalothorax, 12 mm. ; width, 12 mm. Tib. -|- pat. I, 
18 mm.; met. I, 12 mm.; Tib. + pat. IV, 18.2 mm.; met. IV, 17 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., $ . 

Type locality: Orizaba, Mexico. 

Closely allied to E. longipes Cambridge and E. serrafa 
Simon. It differs from the former in having a strongly de- 
veloped carina on the inner surface of apex of bulb. It differs 
from serrata in having this carina, as well as the lower edge, 
strongly serrate, with a smooth, weaker carina between these 
two, and in having fewer spines on inner surface of the tibia 
of the palpus. It is smaller than either of the two species 
mentioned. 

3. Eurypelma epicureana Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Cephalothorax, legs and abdomen below clothed with brown 
hair. The dorsum of the abdomen clothed with shorter, dense, black hairs 
and longer bright rusty red hairs which are sparser caudally, where they 
leave a blackish spot more or less exposed. 



JQg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Carapace longer than wide. Fovea .65 of the distance from anterior 
end to posterior end. Anterior row of eyes strongly procurved, a line 
tangent to lower margin of median eyes being nearly tangent to upper 
margin of lateral eyes. Anterior median eyes about their diameter apart ; 
obviously smaller than the laterals. Posterior row of eyes equal in 
length to the anterior row. Posterior median eyes somewhat obvate, 
nearly touching the larger lateral eyes behind, farther removed, though 
by less than their radius, from the anterior medians. Qaws of legs with 
a few weak teeth proximad of middle. Tibia I with the usual bifurcate 




Eurypelma epicureana 

Fig. 5. Anterior view of bulb of male palpus. 

spur, the longer outer branch of which is bent mesad at tip. Metatarsus 
I curved toward base as in lanceolntum. On anterior face of coxa I, 
both above and below suture, the setae are in part spinescent at base. 
Inner surface of tibia of palpus with six spines. Apical portion of bulb 
as shown in fig. 5. 

Length, 40 mm.; cephalothorax, 20 mm.; width, 17.2 mm.; Tib. + pat. 
I, 21 mm.; met. I, 12.2 mm.; Tib. + pat. IV. 21 mm.; met. IV, 18 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1140, $ ; Paratype, M. C. Z., 
No. 1141. $. 

Type locality: Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 

Related to E. lauceolatum Simon. It differs from that 
species, aside from coloration and different proportions, also 
decidedly in the form of the stylus of bulb, which approaches 
more nearly to that of vagans Ausserer. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEVV NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS IQ^ 

4. Eurypelma stoica Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Body clothed with rusty brown hair. 

Cephalothorax longer than wide, with the fovcola about seven twelfths 
the distance from anterior end to caudal. Anterior median eyes clearly 
less than their diameter apart and not quite so far from the laterals. 
Anterior row in front view strongly procurved. Posterior median eyes 
elliptic, much smaller than the laterals, with which they are subcontiguous ; 
distinctly recurved from anterior median eyes. Tarsal claws typically with 
three weak teeth near middle. Anterior face of coxa I with no hairs of 
basally stout or spinescent form. Tibia I with the double spine at distal 




Eurypelma stoica 

Fig. 6. Anterior view of bulb of male palpus. 

end of usual general form, the outer branch longest, both branches curved 
somewhat toward each other, each terminating in a stout spine. Meta- 
tarsus I straight throughout. Inner side of tibia of palpus bearing six or 
seven spines. Bulb short, the apical portion spatuliform with lower 
margin finely serrate. See fig. 6. 

Length, 23 mm.; cephalothorax, 11.5 mm.; width, 9.5 mm. Tib. + pat. 
IV, 14.7 mm.; met. IV, 13.8 mm. Tib + pat. I, 14.8 mm.; met. I, 8.2 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1142, S . 
Type locality: Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 

LlNYPHIID^ 

5. Ceraticelus creolus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Carapace and scuta of abdomen yellowish brown, the legs and 
soft parts of abdomen clearer yellow. 

In the form of the cephalothorax suggesting C. emertoni (Cambridge), 
to which it is obviously related. The head protruding forward over the 

August 14, 1925 



110 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



clypeus, rounded, not at all subdivided. The upper scutum of abdomen 
covers most of the dorsum ; ventrally there is the usual epigastric plate 
and in addition one in front of spinnerets. The palpus has the tibial 
apophysis distally very slender, and bent nearly at right angles to the 
basal part but not uncate as it is in C nubiliccps Chamberlin, which is 
also a Louisiana species. It appears to differ clearly from other species 
of the same group in details of the bulb which are shown in figs. 9 and 10. 

Length, L4 mm. 

Female: Heavier than the male, with the cephalothorax normal. The 
abdomen retains the epigastric plate and the plate in front of spinnerets 
less developed but with no trace of the dorsal plate. 

Length, 1.9 mm. 





Ceraticelus creoliis 

Fig. 9. Right palpus of male, ventral view. 10. The same, dorsal 
view. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1106, S ; Allotype, M. C. Z., 
1107, ?'; Paratypcs, M. C. Z. 

Type locality: Benton, Louisiana; R. V. Chamberlin coll. 



6. Ceratinopsis atolmus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : This is a small form in which the cephalothorax is brown, with 
the eye region black. The legs yellow. Abdomen dusky. 

Head narrow, with the lateral eyes prominent but not on distinct tuber- 
cles. The species is characterized chiefly by the structure of the palpus. 
In this it suggests C. anglicanus but is readily distinguishable in details 
both of the tibial apophysis and of the bulb of the palpus as shown in 
figs. 11 and 12. 

Length, 1.8 mm. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 



HI 





Ceratinopsis atolmus 

Fig. 11. Left palpus of male, ventral view. 12. The same, sub- 
dorsal view. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., 1105. 

Type locality: Springfield, Tennessee. 

Genus Spirembolus Chamberlin 

In the genus Spirembolus Chamberlin the embolic division 
of the palpal organ is developed into a remarkable spiral as 
shown in figure 20. There is little variation in the palpal 
organ in the different species and it is, therefore, not figured 
for all. 





Spirembolus perjucundus 

Fig. 15. Cephalothorax, lateral view. 

Spirembolus vallicolens 

Fig. 16. Cephalothorax, lateral view. 



112 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Key to Species of Spirembolus, Males 

Hi. Femur of palpus armed at tip on the inner angle with a 
small but distinct whitish process, 
bi. Clypeus viewed from the side nearly straight, protrud- 
ing (fig. 16) S. vallicolcns Chamberlin 





Spirembolus spirotiibtis 

Fig. 17. Tibial apophysis of male palpus, 
lateral view. 



18. Cephalothorax, 





Spirembolus monticolcns 

Fig. 19. Male palpus, to show tibial apophysis. 

Spirembolus spirotubns 

Fig. 20. Palpal organ, ventral view. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 



113 



h,. Clypeiis viewed from the side distinctly concave below 

the anterior median eyes (fig. 13) 

5. synopticiis, new species 

3.2- Femur of palpus unarmed at tip. 

b\ Tibial apophysis without a tooth on the mesal side. 

(fig. 19) S. monticolcns Chamberlin 

b^. Tibial apophysis with a distinct tooth on the mesal side, 
(fig. 17). 

Ci. Head abruptly elevated behind (fig. 15) 

S. perjucundus, new species 

C2. Head more gradually elevated (fig. 18) 

S. spirotithus (Banks) 

7. Spirembolus synopticus Crosby, new species 

Male : Cephalothorax brown, with radiating lines. Seen from the side 
the dorsal line ascends evenly to the posterior eyes with scarcely any de- 
pression at the cervical groove. Anterior median eyes projecting for- 
ward. Clypeus broad, nearly perpendicular, evenly and distinctly con- 
cave (fig. 13). 





Spirembolus synopticus 

Fig. 13. Lateral view of cephalothorax. 14. Male palpus to show 
tibial apophysis. 



Posterior row of eyes gently recurved; the median eyes slightly nearer 
to each other than to the lateral ; anterior row procurved, the median 
much nearer to each other than to the lateral. Sternum and labium nearly 



JJ4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

black. Endites yellow, mottled wih grey; large and very broad at the tip 
with a hardened ridge on the edge next to claw of the chelicera. Sternum 
separating the hind coxae by less than their length and squarely truncate 
behind. 

Legs yellow, palpi paler ; tibia, metatarsi and tarsi of the first legs, and 
tibia and metatarsi of second, armed on the outside with a series of short 
forward-curved hairs. Abdomen grey. Palpus has the femur nearly as 
long as the rest of the palpus. At the meso-distal angle there is short 
white round-pointed process. Tibial apophysis very long, and curved, 
with a strong sharp tooth on the mesal side (fig. 14). 

Length, 2 mm. 

Holotype: Cornell Univ., $ ; Paratype, M. C. Z., $ . 

Type locality: Berkeley, California, Nov., 1919. Three 
males taken by sifting. (Henry Dietrich). Other locality, 
Stanford, California, 1920-21. One male from branches of 
pine. (J. C. Chamberlin). 

When Banks described Tiso spirotobus he mentioned an- 
other species from Washington state. I found in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology a specimen from Olympia, Washing- 
ton, which is doubtless the one to which he referred. It is a 
specimen of vS". synopticus. 



8. Spirembolus perjucundus Crosby, new species 

Male : Cephalothorax brownish with darker radiating lines ; viewed 
from above evenly rounded on the sides and broadly rounded in front, 
not constricted at the cervical groove ; viewed from the side, the dorsal 
outline is arched to the cervical groove, where there is a distinct depres- 
sion. Head strongly elevated, rounded over the top to the anterior me- 
dian eyes ; clypeus very wide, nearly vertical in the upper part, protruding 
below (fig. 15). Posterior eyes in a gently procurved line, the median 
nearer to the lateral than to each other. Anterior eyes in a strongly 
procurved line, the median much smaller than the lateral, subcontiguous, 
and widely separated from the lateral. Anterior median eyes higher than 
the posterior median. Ocular area clothed with short stiff hairs directed 
upward and backward. Sternum dark grey over brown ; endites brownish 
yellow, mottled with grey. Legs and palpi light brownish yellow, the legs 
abundantly clothed with short curved hairs. 

Abdomen dark grey or black. Palpus with the femur nearly as long as 
the rest of the segments combined, the patella half as long as the femur, 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS W^ 

and the tibia, including the apophysis, as long as the patella. Femur not 
armed on the inner angle with a white process. Tibial apophysis very 
long and slender, armed on the mesal side with a distinct tooth. Palpal 
organ similar to that of the other species. 
Length, 1.7 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1250, $ ; Paratype, Cornell Univ., 

Type locality: San Gregorio Beach, San Mateo Co., Cali- 
fornia, 1920-21. (J. C. Chamberlin). Other locality: Berk- 
eley, California, Nov., 1919. (Dietrich). 



Genus Tortembolus Crosby, new genus 

Head of male elevated into a large lobe which does not bear 
the eyes, and provided with postocular pits. Palpal organ 
similar to that of Spirembohis. The embolic division of the 
spiral type. There are three full turns of the spiral and the 
basal part forms part of the coil. 

Genotype: T. tortitosus Crosby, new species. 

I would also place in this genus Dismodicus alpinus Banks 
and Lophocarenum fasciatum Banks (of which Diplocephalus 
castigaiorius Crosby is a synonym). In Dismodicus bifrons 
Blackwall, the type of that genus, although the head of the 
male is elevated in much the same way as in Tortembolus, the 
palpal organ is of a different type. Tortembolus is distin- 
guished from Spirembolus Chamberlin by the form of the head 
and the presence of postocular pits; the palpal organ is of the 
same type in both genera. 

Key to the Species of Tortembolus, Males 

ai. Abdomen distinctly marked with alternating light and dark 

transverse bands fasciatiis (Banks) 

aa. Abdomen not distinctly banded. 

bi. Tibial apophysis short and broad alpinus (Banks) 

ba. Tibial apophysis long and slender. 

Ci. Epigastric plates very finely striate 

tortuosus, new species 

C2. Epigastric plates coarsely striate 

demouologicus, new species 



116 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser, 



9. Tortembolus tortuosus Crosby, new species 

Male : Cephalothorax greyish brown with the margin and the radiating 
lines darker. Cephalic lobe paler with a fine greyish longitudinal line m 
the middle. Viewed from the side, gradually ascending to the cervical 
groove ; head elevated into a very large rounded lobe whicli does not bear 
the eyes. It is slightly retreating in front so that it partly overhangs the 




Fig. 21 





Tortembolus tortuosus 

Fig. 21. Cephalothorax, lateral view. 22. Palpal organ, ventral 
view. 2Z. The same, lateral view. 



posterior median eyes, and is bounded on each side by a distinct groove 
in which there is a small round pit back of and above the posterior lateral 
eye. Clypeus nearly vertical and slightly convex (fig. 21). Posterior 
eyes when viewed directly from above gently recurved, the median about 
their diameter from the lateral and a little farther from each other. An- 
terior eyes in a straight line, the median smaller than the lateral, subcon- 
tiguous, separated from the lateral by radius of median. 



Vol. XI\] CHAMDERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS Hy 

Sternum grey over brown, smooth and shining. Endites yellowish 
marked with grey. Hind coxse separated by nearly their length. Legs 
brownish yellow. Front tarsi and metatarsi equal. Abdomen grey. The 
epigastric plates small, and widely separated by soft integument; the 
striations very fine ; the stridulating tooth on hind coxae well developed. 

Femur of palpus compressed and somewhat keeled below ; patella about 
two thirds as long as femur; except at base, as broad as femur; tibia 
short but armed with a very long, slender apophysis which ends in a 
minute recurved hook opposite the angle on the back of the tarsus ; the 
paracymbium is broad and flat and bent into a rounded hook; basal part 
of the embolic division a broad coiled band, after one turn it becomes a 
black coiled rod ; there are three complete turns to the spiral ; tip sup- 
ported by a membranous conductor, lying near a pointed process (figs. 
22 and 23). 

Length, 1.1 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1251, S ; Paratypes, M. C. Z., 
Cal. Acad. Sci., and Cornell Univ. 

Type locality: Stanford, California, 1920-21. Three males. 
Other locality' Mayfield, California, October 30, 1920. Sev- 
eral males. (J. C. Chamberlin). 



10. Tortembolus demonologicus Crosby, new species 

Male : Cephalothorax greyish brownish yellow, with the radiating 
line and the margin darker. Viewed from above, rounded on the sides 
and scarcely, if at all, constricted back of the eyes. Cephalic does not 
overhanging the posterior median eyes, which are fully visible when 
viewed from directly above, marked over the top with a double grey line. 
Viewed from the side, ascending evenly to base of cephalic lobe, which is 
very high and rounded over the top, not retreating in front above the 
eyes. Clypeus convex (fig. 24). 

Posterior eyes in a gently recurved row, the median a little farther from 
each other than from the lateral. Anterior eyes in a gently recurved row, 
the median smaller, subcontiguous, separated from the lateral by nearly 
the diameter of the median. Sternum grey over brown, darker towards 
the margin, smooth and shining. Endites brownish yellow tinged with 
grey. Hind coxae separated by less than their diameter. Legs and palpi 
pale yellowish, palpal organ closely resembling that of T. tortuosiis, but 
the terminal coil of the embolus not so long, and the basal part of the 
embolic division narrow (figs. 25 and 26). 

Abdomen grey, a light line on each side beneath ; epigastric plates 
broadly separated by grey integument ; striations coarse, there being only 
five or six transverse lines. 

Length, L3 mm. 

August 14, 1925 



118 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 





Fig. 24 




Tortembolus demonologicus 

Fig. 24. Cephalothorax, lateral view. 25. Palpus, mesal view. 
26. The same, ectal view. 



Holotype: Cornell Univ., $ ; Paratypes, M. C. Z. 

Type locality: Berkeley, California, December, 1919, 
(Dietrich). Other locality, Mayfield, California, October 30, 
1920. Two males. (J. C. Chamberlin). 



11. Neriene redacta Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Cephalothorax elongate and conspicuously narrowed caudad, 
dusky fulvous, without definite markings; legs fulvous, a little dusky; 
abdomen blackish, formed much as in coccinea, strongly constricted at 
middle. 

Chelicera with a stout tooth at proximal end toward mesal side ; femur 
of palpus on proximal half with a patch of conspicuous cusps on ventral 
and mesal sides ; palpal organ as shown in fig. 27. 

Length, 3 mm. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 



119 



Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1095, $ . 

Type locality: Punta Gorda, Florida. 

This species, while resembhng in size and general appear- 
ance A'', coccinea (Hentz), differs rather widely in the struc- 
ture of the palpal organ, in the presence of the cusps on the 




Neriene redacta 

Fig. 27. Left palpus of male, mesal view. 

femur of the palpus, etc. It is closer to N. clathrata ( Sunde- 
wall) in the structure of the palpus, though this is clearly dis- 
tinct in the form of the tegulum, etc. It is different in the more 
pronounced constriction of the abdomen and in its smaller size. 



12. Neriene dogmatica Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Carapace blackish brown, the color deeper along margin, but 
with no definite markings. Proximal half of femur of palpi yellowish, 
distal half and the more distal joints blackish. Femora of all legs yel- 
low at proximal end, elsewhere dusky, more or less streaked with yellow. 
Tibiae with a dark annulus at distal end and one near middle commonly 
incomplete, three annuli, typically obscure, on anterior legs. Metatarsi 
with dark annulus at distal end and a much larger one in middle region ; 
the posterior tarsi in particular may show a submedian annulus. Abdomen 
nearly black everywhere excepting in a light stripe over each antero- 
lateral corner and caudad a little beyond middle, this stripe with white 
or silvery spots anteriorly. In the palpus the patella wholly lacks a 



120 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



process and the tibia is simply extended distally on the dorsomesal side 
but shows no true apophysis. Details of the bulb shown in fig. 28. 
Length, 4.2 mm. 




Neriene dogmatica 

Fig. 28. Right palpus of male, mesal view. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1109, $ . 

Type locality: Jasper Ridge, San Mateo Co., California. 
Winter of 1920-21. Joseph C. Chamberlin. One adult and 
one immature male. 

This species is placed in Neriene because of its palpal char- 
acters rather than on the basis of the eyes, the eyes of the 
posterior row differing but little in size. It may be distin- 
guished from clathrata, redacta, and the others, in the form of 
the tegulum, which lacks a distal process, and in otlier details 
of the palpus. 



13. Microneta evadens Chamberlin, new species 

Male : This is a small species having both cephalothorax and abdomen 
dusky, without markings, and the legs yellow. 

Cephalothorax considerably longer than wide ; eye-region elevated ; 
clypeus depressed below eyes and slanting slightly forward to base of 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERUN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS \2\ 

chelicerse, convex from side to side. Chelicerae straight; lower margin 
with a series of four small teeth, the upper margin with a series of six 
or seven. 

The species is clearly characterized by structural features of the palpus. 
The tibia is elevated above segment to tarsus and bears on the caudal 
surface of the elevation a caudally directed tooth. The cymbium bears a 




Microneta evadcns 

Fig. 29. Right palpus of male, dorsoectal view. 

short rounded process at its caudal end and mesodistad of this a longer, 
apically somewhat uncate process. The paracymbium is furcate at its 
outer end, the lower prong being long, as shown in fig. 29. 
Length, 1.8 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1103, $ . 

Type locality: Wellesley, Massachusetts. One male taken 
in May. 



14. Bathyphantes wana Chamberlin, new species 

Male : This species seems to stand apart, with B. micaria Emerton, 
from other North American species in the form of the chelicerae and 
palpi. The chelicerae are strongly narrowed at distal ends, above which, 
in side view, they appear to bulge strongly. Fig. 32. Each chelicera is 
armed near middle on anteromesal surface with a distinct tooth. The 
palpus is superficially characterized by having two processes or horns on 
the dorsum of the cymbium toward its base on the inner margin. See 
fig. 30. 



122 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Carapace, sternum and chelicerae dusky. Legs yellowish. Abdomen 
dusky, somewhat paler above but without definite markings, or at most 
with faint suggestion of cross marks. 

Length, 2.8 mm. 





Bathyphantes wana 

Fig. 30. Right palpus of male, mesal view. 31. Tibia and basal 
part of tarsus of same, ectal view. 32. Right chelicera, ectal 
view. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1097, $ ; Paratypes, M. C. Z., 
No. 1098. 

Type locality: Oyster Bay, New York. Other localities. 
Three Mile Id., Lake Winnepesaukee, New Hampshire, May 
29, 1906; Long Id., Maine, May 17, 1904; Ithaca, New York, 
pasture near Lake Beebe, July 31, 1909. 




Bathyphantes micaria 

Fig. 33. Paracymbium and tibia of male palpus, ectal view. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 123 

This species has been heretofore confused with B. micaria 
Emerton. In the latter the upper part of the chehcera is less 
thickened and in lateral view notably less convex. A character 
of particular importance is that the cymbium of the male pal- 
pus in micaria has only one process, which is longer and more 
curved than either of the two present in ivana (fig. 33). The 
distal end of the tibia in the male palpus has a process or ele- 
vation but is narrower and shorter. 



15. Bathyphantes dentichelis Chamberlin, new species 

Male : A species placed tentatively in Bathyphantes, though not typical 
in a number of characters. It resembles certain species of Neriene (Liny- 
phiella as typified by coccinea Hentz) in the elongate cephalothorax which 
is narrowed conspicuously behind the middle and also in front of it. 
The abdomen is narrowed at front end and is moderately constricted at 
the middle, so that the animal as a whole suggest some of the ant-like 
forms. Qypeus, as viewed from above, convex from side to side; de- 




Bathyphantes dentichelis 

Fig. 34. Right palpus of male, ectodorsal view. 

pressed below the eyes. Posterior row of eyes straight or slightly pro- 
curved ; the medians a little larger than the laterals, nearer to each other 
than to the latter; lateral eyes on each side contiguous, prominent; anterior 
median eyes small, close together, much farther from the laterals. 
Chelicerae of male distinguished by being armed down the anterior face 



124 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



with a series of fine conspicuous teeth, much as in species of Erigone; 
constricted distally adjacent to base of claw; a prominent tooth on ven- 
tral margin of furrow near base of claw and directed distad. Legs long 
and slender ; with few or no spines ; metatarsus I a little shorter than 
Tibia I. 

Carapace dusky. Legs flavous. Abdomen blackish with a light-colored 
annulus about the median constriction. 

Palpus, fig. 34. 

Length, 2 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1096, $ . 
Type locality: New Orleans, Louisiana. 



Thomisid^ 

16. Philodromus syntheticus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Carapace fulvous, dusky on the sides and on posterior end of 
pars cephalica. Clypeus crossed by two vertical bands composed of dense, 
fine black dots ; chelicerse also densely dotted on front face. Sternum and 





Philodromus syntheticus 

Fig. 35. Left palpus of male, ectal view. 36. The same, ventral 
view. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN— NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 125 

coxae of legs beneath, yellow; legs yellowish, marked with black; the 
patellae, femora, tibiae and metatarsi with numerous black dots, those 
on tibiae and metatarsi tending to condense in bands at the ends 
and also at middle in case of the metatarsi. Abdomen with the usual 
spear-shaped black mark at base followed behind by two longitudinal 
black marks on each side of middle, these converging caudad and uniting 
in front of spinnerets. Sides of abdomen finely dotted with black, the 
venter immaculate. 

Anterior row of eyes slightly recurved ; eyes subequal ; median eyes a 
little more than their diameter apart, less than their diameter from the 
laterals; posterior row of eyes strongly recurved, the eyes equidistant; 
area of median eyes narrower in front than behind. Palpus, figs. 35 
and Z6. 

Length, 5 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., $ . 

Type locality: Patagonia, Arizona, May, 1913. R. V. 
Chamberlin. 

In the greater length of the second legs this species is 
among those suggesting Ebo, but the relations of the eyes 
separate it from that genus. 



Lycosid.e 
17. Pardosa heretica Chamberlin, new species 

Female : Under alcohol the carapace appears nearly black excepting 
for the median light stripe behind the eyes which is as wide as the eye 
area ; sternum blackish brown ; legs also blackish or blackish brown, 
lighter distally ; abdomen blackish above, somewhat lighter along the 
middle, the venter lighter as usual. 

Anterior row of eyes much shorter than the second, procurved ; median 
eyes decidedly larger than the laterals, more than their radius apart and 
about an equal distance from the laterals. Upper margin of furrow of 
chelicera with three teeth, the lower with but two, which are large. Epi-^ 
gynum, fig. 37. 

Length, 6 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., 9 . 

Type locality: Patagonia, Arizona. R. V. Chamberlin 
coll. 



126 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 




Pardosa heretica 

Fig. 37. Epigynum. 

Readily distinguished in having only two teeth on lower 
margin of furrow of chelicera but three on the upper margin 
as in Lycosa, and in the peculiar form of the epigynum. 



OXYOPIDuE 

18. Oxyopes classicus Chamberlin, new species 

Female: Carapace brown with the usual median dorsal lighter stripe 
and a vertical light line on clypeus widening below. Sternum yellow at 
the middle and brown at the sides. Labium nearly black, the endites 
brown. Legs brown, the femora darkened and other joints annulate. 




Oxyopes classicus 

Fig. 38. Epigynum. 

Venter of abdomen with a median longitudinal dark band, each side of 
which it is light from numerous fine yellow dots on a duller, more greyish 
background. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEIV NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 127 

Abdomen broad anteriorly, more robust than in sal tic us, with caudal 
end abruptly narrowing to an acute point. The species seems easily 
distinguishable from O. salticus Hentz, aside from different details of 
coloration, in the form of the epigynum, the forwardly projecting process 
of which is rounded at the end and parallel-sided, not acute (fig. 38). 

Length, 8 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., 9 . 

Type locality: Altoona, Florida. One female. 



19. Oxyopeidon haytianum Chamberlin, new species 

Female : In general size and appearance this species resembles O. 
cubanum. It differs in the form of the clypeus, which is more nearly 
vertical and is not so conspicuously convex and curved back at its lower 
end. It differs also in the form of the abdomen, which is high behind, 
with the posterior declivity descending almost vertically to the spinneretes. 

Carapace light chestnut, clothed with narrow white scales ; chelicerae 




Oxyopeidon haytianum 

Fig. 39. Epigynum. 

similar; sternum and legs yellowish; abdomen ventrally light and without 
markings ; dorsum clothed with brown and white scales. Anterior eyes 
rather more widely separated than in cubanum, with the median nearer 
to each other than to the laterals instead of equidistant. Epigynum, fig. 
39. 

Length, 7 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1189, $ . 

Type locality: Hayti. One female. Crew coll. 



128 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

20. Oxyopeidon communicans Chamberlin, new species 

Female: This species differs from haytianum in having the carapace 
higher behind just in front of the posterior declivity than in the eye- 
region instead of having the dorsal line descend gradually caudad. 

Carapace brown, somewhat dusky on the sides and clothed with white 
scales. Sternum and coxse of legs beneath yellow. Legs fulvous or 
light brown, vaguely annulate with dark. Abdomen slender, regularly 
narrowing caudad from middle, the dorsal line evenly descending, not more 




Oxyopeidon communicans 
Fig. 40. Epigynum. 

abruptly bent at caudal end ; a black spear-shaped mark at base above 
and some black chevron lines behind ; the sides also blackish ; the venter 
pale, marked with one or more black lines. Eyes of anterior row equi- 
distant ; no transverse depression above the anterior row of eyes. Epi- 
gynum, fig. 40. 
Length 5.5 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1190, 9 . 

Type locality: Hayti. One female. Crew coll. 



21. Oxyopeidon cubanum Chamberlin, new species 

Hamataliwa grisea Banks (not of Keyserling), in part, Second Rep. 
Cent. Exp. Sta. Cuba, 1909, p. 167. 

Female : Integument of carapace fulvous, dusky over sides and cly- 
peus ; sternum yellowish ; chelicerse clothed with white scales. Legs ful- 
vous, in part somewhat dusky, the metatarsi obscurely triannulate and in 
life it is possible that other joints may have showed annuli. Abdomen 
dark in a mark at base and over sides ; also in a longitudinal median 



Vol. XIV 1 CIIAMDERLIX—NEIV NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 



129 



ventral band ; it is wholly denuded of hair at present and the markings 
as in life cannot be determined. 

Anterior row of eyes strongly recurved, eyes equidistant, the laterals 
greatly exceeding the medians, as usual. Posterior row of eyes strongly 




Oxyopeidon cuhanuni 

Fig. 41. Epigynum. 

procurved, with the medians two-thirds as far from the laterals as from 
each other. Abdomen conspicuously pointed behind over posterior third 
of its length, but without distinct lateral tubercles. Epigynum, fig. 41. 
Length, 6 mm. 

Holotypc: M. C. Z., No. 1187, 9. 

Type locality: Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Baker coll. 
One female. 



22. Oxyopeidon tuberculatum Chamberlin, new species 

Haviataliwa grisea Banks (nee Keyserling), in part. Second Rep. Cent. 
Exp. Sta. Cuba, 1909, p. 167. 

Female : The specimen has been too long preserved to show color 
markings at all clearly. At present the entire carapace is a uniform dusky 
fulvous and is clothed with scales that appear dark. Sternum and legs 
yellowish, with femora of the latter dusky; annuli may have been present 
in fresh specimens but they do not show at present. No definite markings 
are now apparent on abdomen. 

Head strongly transversely furrowed or depressed above eyes, the de- 
pression more sharply pronounced than in cubanum with which the eyes 
nearly agree in their relations. The abdomen is pointed behind as in 



130 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



cubanum, but is characterized by the presence of a conspicuous tubercle 
on each side just in front of the narrowing caudal region. Epigynum, 
fig. 43. 

Length, 4.6 mm. 





Oxyopeidon tuberculatum 

Fig. 42. Abdomen. 43. Epigynum, probably not quite mature. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., 1188, 2. 

Type locality: Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. 

Salticid^ 

23. Sitticus synopticus Chamberlin, new species 

Female : Under alcohol the carapace shows a distinct median longi- 
tudinal light stripe extending from a light area in the ocular region 
caudad and down the posterior declivity; black each side of the median 
stripe ; sides light excepting a black marginal line ; sternum and legs 




Sitticus synopticus 

Fig. 44. Epigynum. 



flavous, unmarked. Abdomen yellow below ; dorsum dark at the sides 
with a median light stripe enclosing a lanceolate dark mark anteriorly, 
from which two lines extend out on each side to the dark area. 



Vol, XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS I3I 

Tibia I has below two pairs of spines and a single spine at anterior 
end ; one spine on anterior face ; tibia II has three spines under posterior 
border and a single spine on anterior face. Epigynum as shown in fig. 44. 

Length, 5.5 mm. ; cephalothorax, 3 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., 1057, 9 . 

Type locality: Sausalito, Cal. R. V. Chamberlin coll. 

Genus Anicius Chamberlin, new genus 

Resembles Wala in general appearance but differs in having 
a compound, two-cusped tooth on the lower margin of the 
furrow of the chelicera. Cephalothorax relatively a little 
longer and more nearly parallel-sided. Quadrangle of poster- 
ior eyes wider than long, as wide in front as behind, shorter 
than thoracic division. Anterior row of eyes with line of 
upper edges a little recurved, nearly straight. Tibia I with 
three pairs of spines beneath; tibia II with two seriate spines 
beneath as in Icius. Abdomen slender, narrowed caudad. 
First legs much heavier and longer than the others and the 
fourth clearly exceeding the third. 

Genotype: Anicius dolius, new species. 



24. Anicius dolius Chamberlin, new species 

Male : In general light in color. A band of white hair along each side 
of carapace above a darker border. Palpi and first legs blackish, strongly 
contrasting with the three last pairs of legs, which are light yellow, much 
as in Wala. Abdomen with two longitudinal bands of white hair corre- 
sponding to those of carapace ; the intervening dorsal region bordered 
with a deep-colored line on each side, a dark median band sending out 
branches to these lines, herring-bone like, and clothed with iridescent 
scales ; venter with three dark longitudinal lines combined with each 
other at ends, a lighter stripe along each side. 

First legs much heavier and longer than the others. Palpus, fig. 45. 

Length, 4 mm.; cephalothorax, 1.8 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1066, $ . 

Type locality : Guadalajara, Mexico. One male. 



132 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 





Aniciiis dolius 

Fig. 45. Right palpus of male, ventral view. 46. Tibia and basal 
part of tarsus of same, ectal view. 



25. Phidippus pogonopus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Carapace with integument brown, rubbed bare in type ; clypeus 
bearing long, greyish-brown hair; chelicerae green in front. First legs 
heavily fringed beneath; the fringe of femur long, black excepting proxi- 





Phidippus pogonopus 

Fig. 47. Right palpus of male, ventral view. 48. Tibia and base 
of tarsus of same, ectal view. 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN— NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS I33 

mally where white; fringe of patella black on ectal half, white on mesal; 
fringe of tibia black excepting a few white hairs at proximal end ; fringe 
of metatarsus white on proximal portion, black on distal ; fringe of tarsus 
white; the other legs are also fringed ventrally, the fringe becoming 
more sparse from second to fourth legs. Integument of abdomen dor- 
sally showing a light band at base ending squarely at middle where each 
angle is extended laterally ; an oblique light line on each side of this basal 
mark and behind it two transverse light lines on each side ; a clothing of 
light grey or white hair over anterior face and back on the sides, some 
being also still present on middorsal region though here most are rubbed 
off the type specimen. Integument of venter paler but clothed with fine, 
longer black hair. Palpus, figs. 47 and 48. 
Length, 9 mm ; cephalothorax, 4.5 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., 1069, $ . 

Type locality: Green River, Utah, 1921. R. V. Chamber- 
lin Jr. One adult male and one immature specimen. 



26. Phidippus molinor Chamberlin, new species 

Female : Integument within ocular area reddish, elsewhere on the 
carapace of a duller color, black about eyes ; carapace clothed with light 
grey hair, uniform, without distinct bands; clypeus densely clothed with 
white hair; white hair also on upper part of chelicerse. Legs brown, hair 




Phidippus molinor 

Fig. 49. Epigynum. 

grey, with the usual longer dark setae. Integument of dorsum of abdomen 
chocolate colored, with an H-shaped light mark in anterior region, the 
cross-piece extended caudad at middle ; a pair of light spots behind the 
H-mark and farther behind two oblique lines on each side proceeding 
from the light area of the sides ; sides crossed with broken oblique bars 
of chocolate color ; venter with a median dark stripe, the lateral parts 



134 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



light; abdomen clothed with whitish hair or scales like those of carapace 
and legs, this hair apparently denser on the light areas of integument. 

Epigynum, fig. 49. 

Length, 7.8 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1071, $ . 

Type locality: Mill Creek Canyon, Utah. One female. R. 
V. Chamberlin. 



27. Dendryphantes mylothrus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Integument of both cephalothorax and abdomen dark, nearly 
black. On carapace a band of white hair along each side back of the 
posterior eye and extending to and down the posterior declivity ; a trans- 





Dendryphantes mylotlvrus 

Fig. 50. Left palpus of male, ectal view, 
view. 



51. The same, ventral 



verse band of white hair behind posterior eyes, with white hair also back 
of anterior eyes. Legs blackish throughout excepting tarsi or tarsi and 
metatarsi which are less dusky. Abdomen very dark, a band of white 
hair about anterior end and caudad along the sides with some also dor- 
sally but with no distinct markings on dorsum shown by type. 

The species is characterized particularly by the form of the embolus 
which, while distally suggesting that oi D. capitatus, is clearly different 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN~NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 



135 



in the longer and decidedly curved proximal portion. See further figs. 
50 and 51. 
Length, 5.5 mm ; cephalothorax, 3 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1055, $ . 

Type locality: Mill Creek Canyon, Utah. R. V. Cham- 
berlin coll. 

Females from the same locality and perhaps belonging with 
this male specifically are in coloration and general structure ap- 
parently very close to capitattis and ceneolus, the epigynum 
being of the same type as in the latter species. 



28. Dendryphantes mimus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Coloration much as in sausalitanus ; carapace similarly dark 
and with a broad band of white hair on each side; legs similarly but 
not so strongly darkened. Abdomen with median region darker, bordered 
with a lighter stripe on each side, the sides and lateral portion of dorsum 
dark excepting for a light band around anterior end and extending back 






Dendryphantes mimus 

Fig. 52. Epigynum. 53. Right palpus of male, ventral view. 
54. The same, ectal view. 



135 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

on each side to spinnerets; dorsum without markings or with some paler 
chevron marks obscure. 

Chelicerae small, vertical. Spines under tibia, I, 3-3, with those under 
the posterior border much more widely separated than the anterior ones. 

Palpus short, with the tarsus comparatively large as in sausalitanns 
rather than as in melanomerus and mathetes; embolus furcate as in capi- 
tatus but the main branch straight and truncate at the end (figs. 53 and 
54). 

Length, 4 mm ; cephalothorax, 2 mm. 

Female : What is presumably the female of this species differs in color 
from the male in having the legs yellow and unmarked with dark, or 
the posterior pairs with an obscure annulus at distal end of joints ; cara- 
pace lighter above; white bands of sides uniting and covering posterior 
declivity; head in eye region clothed with grey hair and dark ones inter- 
mixed ; clypeus and upper part of chelicerae clothed with white hair. Ab- 
domen with a median longitudinal pale stripe bordered on each side, with 
a more or less interrupted dark band in which are some deeper spots, the 
median region enclosing a herring-bone mark which extends nearly to 
spinnerets ; a light band across anterior end and extending caudad on each 
side to spinnerets. 

Epigynum, fig. 52. 

Length, up to 6 mm. when abdomen is extended ; cephalothorax, 2 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., 1047, $ ; Allotype, M. C. Z., 1048, 
5 ; Paratypes, M. C. Z. 

Type locality: Pecos, New Mexico. R. V. Chamberlin. 

Other locality: Del Norte, Colorado. 



29. Dendryphantes apachecus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Carapace dark. The type is too much rubbed to determine 
character of the original hair covering accurately, but it obviously had 
normally white hairs on the sides and posterior declivity of carapace, 
these being denser along the lateral borders. Chelicerae black. Femora 
of legs dark, the color of the first ones deepest, black or nearly so ; other 
joints lighter, but the patellae and tibiae, especially of the anterior pairs, 
more or less dusky. Integument of dorsum of abdomen black along each 
side, leaving a paler median stripe over entire length which encloses a 
dark lanceolate mark in its anterior two thirds ; a white stripe across 
anterior end and back along each side; lower part of sides dark, the 
midventral region paler. 



\'0L. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 



137 



Chelicerae oblique, the claws rather long and somewhat sinuous. Palpi 
slender, the tarsus small. Bulb and apophysis as shown in figs. 55 and 56. 
Characterized readily by the form of the embolus. 

Length, 4.2 n:m; cephalothorax, 2 mm. 





Dendryphantes apachccus 

Fig. 55. Right palpus of male, ectal view. 56. The same, more 
enlarged, ventral view. 

Holotypc: M. C. Z., No. 1051, $ ; Paratype, M. C. Z., No. 
1052. 

Type locality: Precise locality uncertain, but possibly 
Thatcher, Arizona. R. V. Chamberlin, 1913. Other locality, 
Ft. Collins, Colorado. R. V. Chamberlin, 1904. 



30. Dendryphantes sausalitanus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : A broad band of white hair below eyes on each side ana ex- 
tending caudad to posterior declivity, some white hairs also above eyes 
of first row and mesad of others. Femora entirely black, or, posterior 
ones in particular, paler at proximal end ; patellae black distally ; tibiae 
entirely dark or, on posterior legs, with the dark color tending to condense 
into a broad band ; metatarsus dark distally, the color tending to diffuse 
in anterior legs ; tarsi pale ; tarsus of palpus dark, with some white scales 
above ; coxse of legs pale. Sternum blackish. Abdomen wholly dark ex- 
cepting for the usual light band across anterior end and part way back 



138 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



on sides ; the dorsum in the two types showing no markings, or, in one, 
with vague traces of paired spots of white hair. 

CheHcerfe small, only a little oblique. Spines of antior tibise as usual. 
Palpus, figs. 57 and 58. 

Length, 4.2 mm. ; cephalothorax, 2 mm. 





Dendryphantes sausalitanus 

Fig. 57. Right palpus of male, ectal view. 58. The same, more 
enlarged, ventral view. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1045, $ ; Paratype, M. C. Z., No. 
1046, $. 

Type locality: Sausalito, California, 1909. R. V. Cham- 
berlin coll. 

In general appearance suggesting ceneohis, but readily dis- 
tinguished from that and related species in the peculiar notched 
tibial apophysis of the male palpus and the form of the embolus. 



31. Dendryphantes mathetes Chamberlin, new species 

Male: Carapace dark; clothed along lateral borders with a band of 
white hair narrowing forward as in melanomerus, the upper part of 
carapace in the type rubbed so that character of its clothing cannot be 
ascertained. Legs colored as in melanomerus. Chelicerae dark, the an- 
terior face black. Abdomen dark below and on sides ; a narrow light 



\0L. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 



139 



band around anterior end and extending caudad on each side to or be- 
hind middle; two Hght lines corresponding to those in melanomerus but 
these meeting at an angle on the dorsum and preceded by, more or less 
confluent with, a second chevron which in turn is preceded by a pair of 
light marks, the middorsal region appearing light caudad to spinnerets. 
Spines under tibia I, 3-3, the posterior three a little more widely spaced 
than the anterior ones; spines under tibia II, 1-3, 





Dendryphantes mathetes 

Fig. 59. Right palpus of male, ectal view. 60. The same, ventral 
view. 

Chelicerae of ordinary size, oblique, the claws more sinuous and more 
uniformly narrowing distad than in melanomerus. 

Palpus, figs. 59 and 60. The form of the embolus is distinctive. The 
palpus is heavier and its tarsus larger than in melanomerus. 

Length, 3.5 mm. ; cephalothorax, 2 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1043, S ; Paratype, M. C. Z., No. 
1044, $. 

Type locality: Claremont, California, 1909. R. V. Cham- 
berlin coll. 



32. Pellenes contingens Chamberlin, new species 

Female : Integument of carapace blackish ; clothed with grey hair, and 
with the usual longer dark bristles. Clypeus white, with a dark oblique 
stripe beginning at each anterior median eye. Legs also clothed with grey. 
Abdomen clothed with grey hair ; a band of white across anterior end ; two 



140 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

white transverse or oblique marks on each side of dorsum, one near and 
one behind middle, a median white spot between the levels of these two 
and a smaller one behind it; venter clothed with lighter, nearly white hair. 




Pellenes contingens 

Fig. 61. Epigynum. 

Tibia I with three pairs of spines beneath. Tibia II with four spines 
beneath, one at distal end under anterior border and three under posterior 
border, of which the distal may apparently be sometimes absent. Epi- 
gynum, fig. 61. 

Length, 7 mm. ; cephalothorax, 3 mm. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., No. 1064, 9 ; Paratype, M. C. Z., 
1065. 9. 

Type locality: Guadalajara, Mexico. 



33. Pellenes grammaticus Chamberlin, new species 

Female : Integument of carapace darkest, blackish, on head, a lighter 
band on each side of dorsal part of thorax; clothed with greyish hair; no 
definite bands detectable, though the specimen is considerably rubbed. 
Clypeus clothed with white hair, with no darker markings. Legs with 




Pellenes grammaticus 

Fig. 62. Epigynum. 

integument strongly annulate with black, the blackish color more or less 
diffused on anterior legs on joints proximad of the metatarsi. Integu- 
ment of the abdomen dark, nearly black above, with a median herring-bone 
stripe over its entire length, this stripe fulvous, and also light marks on 
the sides ; dorsum rubbed nearly bare, but whitish hair is present over 



Vol. XIV] CHAMBERLIN—NEW NORTH AMERICAN SPIDERS 14^ 

anterior surface and back along sides ; venter clothed with light grey 
or whitish hair, the integument beneath being mottled with dark. 

Tibia I with five spines beneath, two under anterior border and three 
under the posterior, the distal two of these paired with the corresponding 
anterior ones. Tibia II with four spines, one at distal end under anterior 
border and three under posterior border of which the distal one is re- 
duced. Epigynum, fig. 62. 

Length, 6 mm. ; cephalothorax, 2.8 mm. 

Holotye: M. C. Z., No. 1068, ?. 

Type locality: Thatcher, Arizona, 1913. R. V. Cham- 
be rhii. 



34. Pellenes leuceres Chamberlin, new species 

Female : Carapace clothed with light grey or whitish hair throughout, 
with no bands or markings. Clypeus with a dense clothing of white hair 
excepting for an oblique dark band under each anterior median eye. Legs 




i 



^, 



Pellenes leuceres 

Fig. 63. Epigynum. 

also clothed with hair like that of carapace. Abdomen clothed through- 
out with light grey or whitish hair like that of carapace, the venter a 
clearer white. Epigynum, fig. 63. 
Length, 6.5 mm. ; cephalothorax, 3.2 mm. 

Holotye: M. C. Z., No. 1063, 5. 

Type locality: Auburn, Alabama, July, 1909. R. V. Cham- 
berHn. 

This species suggests sabulosus Peckham, but differs in the 
more uniform coloring of hairs of thorax and abdomen which 
lack the distinct bands and spots. It has similarly oblique lines 
on the clypeus, but these are black instead of chestnut. The 
epigyna are very similar. 



J42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

35. Pellenes neomexicanus Chamberlin, new species 

Female : Carapace clothed throughout with grey hair, showing no dis- 
tinct markings. Clypeus clothed with white hair, with no trace of dark 
spots or bands. Legs yellow, clothed with white scale-like hairs. Ab- 
domen rubbed bare ; the integument dark, with oblique light stripes up 
the sides ; venter yellow. 

Tibia I very short, bearing below four spines, one under anterior bor- 
der and three in series under posterior border. Tibia II also with four 
spines beneath arranged as on tibia I. Epigynum, fig. 64. 

Length, 7 mm. ; cephalothorax, 2.5 mm. 




Pellenes neomexicanus 

Fig. 64. Epigynum. 

Holotype: M. C. Z., 1067, 9 . 

Type locality: Albuquerque, New Mexico. R. V. Cham- 
berlin. 

In form of epigynum suggesting P. carolinensls, but readily 
distinguished by dififerent color markings, spining of legs, etc. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 8, pp. 143-169, plates 11-14 August 14, 1925 



VIII 

ANATOMY OF LANX, A LIMPET-LIKE LYMN^ID 

MOLLUSK 

BY 

H. BURRINGTON BAKER 
University of Pennsylvania 

In a recent paper, Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry^ pointed out that the 
genus Lanx differed from the Ancylidae in the position of the 
apex of the shell, in the absence of a distinct pseudobranch, 
and in the Lymnaeid form of the jaw and dentition. For 
these reasons, he decided that the Lancidae should be separated 
as a family, with Lymnaeid rather than Ancylid affinities. 

About the same time, Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, Curator of 
Paleontology, California Academy of Sciences, wrote me that 
he had specimens of Lanx with the animal, originally preserved 
in formalin, and very generously put them at my disposal. 
One lot, from which the dissections were made, consisted of 
seven specimens of Lanx alta (Tryon) from Klamath River 
(on rocks in swift water), Klamathton, California, collected 
by G. A. Coleman (Nov. 13, 1924). Although considerably 
retracted and stiffened by the formalin, they made very satis- 
factory material for dissection. The other set consisted of 
smaller and somewhat lower specimens (slightly approaching 
Lanx suhrotundata) from Rogue River, 6 miles south of 
Grants Pass, Oregon, collected by G. D. Hanna (Nov. 15, 

1 1925, Naut. XXXVIII, 73-75. 

August 14, 1925 



244 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

1924) ; it was used in the preparation of a second series of 
transverse sections. The identifications were made by Dr. 
Pilsbry, whose many helpful criticisms were of greatest assist- 
ance. The dissections were worked out and figured at the 
Zoological Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Especial acknowledgment is due Dr. Eleanor Carothers, of 
the same laboratory, for the preparation of two very valuable 
series of transverse sections. As those cut from a Rogue River 
specimen show less maceration than the series from typical 
Lanx alta, the former are used for some of the histological 
figures, but only in cases where the essential structure is the 
same in both forms. The series are stained with alum-co- 
chineal and counter-stained with orange G. 

In order to facilitate comparison of the figures made from 
different animals, the measurements in millimeters are given 
below for the shells of the individuals studied. 

Length Width Height 



Klamath River; 


; No. 1 


15.9 


77 (12.3) 


50 (8.1) 


Figs. 2-4, 16 




No. 2 


14.5 


75 (10.9) 


50 (7.2) 


Figs. 5, 6, 14, 15 




No. 3 


13.0 


76 (9.9) 


48 (6.2) 


Figs. 7-13, 17-19, 21 




No. 4 


12.9 


72 (9.3) 


45 (5.8) 


Figs. 23, 24 




No. 5 


12.8 


79 (10.1) 


52 (6.6) 


Fig. 1 




No. 6 


12.2 


79 (9.6) 


54 (6.6) 






No. 7 


11.1 


83 (9.2) 


54 (6.1) 




Rogue River ; 


No. 8 


9.3 


82 (7.6) 


43 (4.0) 


Figs. 20, 22, 27 



Eleven specimens, from some of which the animals were 
taken for dissection, are in the collection of type material of 
the California Academy of Sciences where they bear Nos. 1783- 
1794. Others from the same lots have been deposited in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Like the shell, the body is broadly conical, with the apex 
distinctly in front of the center and slightly to the left (fig. 
2). The dorsal side of the cephalic end shows transverse 
wrinkles between and around the bases of the broadly tri- 
angular tentacles, just in front of which are the rather prom- 
inent eyes. The male sex-opening is an inconspicuous orifice 
at the bottom of a conical depression, just behind the posterior 
end of the right tentacle (fig. 1). The roughly crescentic 
ventral surface of the head is covered with coarse bosses; the 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LANX I45 

T-shaped mouth is on a prominence a short distance in front 
of the groove which borders the foot. 

The foot is large and has a very thick, muscular sole, well 
adapted for attachment to rocks in swift water. Its sides are 
somewhat wrinkled, due to the retraction, but are otherwise 
quite smooth and lightly pigmented. Its epidermis is a simple 
columnar epithelium, while its interior contains a rather loose 
network of interlacing muscle-fibers. Just above the sole 
(F, fig. 11), the interspaces are filled with masses of mucous 
cells, but above this denser zone is a much broader one with 
numerous sinuses (S, fig. 11). The female sex-opening ap- 
pears as a prominent longitudinal slit with thick lips, in the 
upper portion of the right side of the foot, about Ys the body- 
length from the anterior end of the animal (fig. 1). 

When the shell is removed (fig. 2), the cut ends of the 
columellar muscle-fibers appear as a white band which com- 
pletely surrounds the visceral dome, except for a small gap 
(sometimes closed dorsally) just above the lung. Immediately 
behind this gap, a stout column of muscle (M, fig. 3) is sep- 
arated from the remainder of the ring ventrally, but partially 
fuses near the shell. All of the muscle-strands descend ventrad 
from the shell (or scar) as a dense mass (M, fig. 11 ), to spread 
out widely between the sinuses of the foot. This is a very dif- 
ferent arrano^ement from the three columns of muscle in Hebe- 
tancylus moricandi (von Ihering; 1891, Bull. Sci. France- 
Belg. XXIII, fig. iv-8). 

The visceral dome inside of this columellar ring is covered 
by a very thin, darkly-pigmented, but slightly translucent 
membrane, which practically consists of a single layer of flat- 
tened cells; this is fused to the inside of the ring a short dis- 
tance below the attachment of the latter to the shell. Outside 
of the muscle-scar, the mantle forms a broad, continuous, jet- 
black band, covered with concentric wrinkles (figs. 8-10), and 
margined with white at its free border. This band is slightly 
narrower on the left side (appears much more so in fig. 2, due 
to the steeper slope of the left side) and is slightly notched at 
the center of its anterior end. The epidermis of this black band 
consists of simple columnar epithelium which is full of very 
opaque pigment. The outer, white band develops higher, but 

August 14, 1925 



J46 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

non-pigmented cells (figs. 8-10) ; below these, numerous neu- 
rocytes suggest that this zone has a sensory function. 

The thick, muscular, free mantle juts out some distance all 
around the foot. Under its edge is a thickened fold (fig. 1), 
which forms the special organ for aeration; this is heaviest just 
behind the gap in the muscle-ring and decreases in prominence 
in both directions until it is practically obsolete at the anterior 
mantle-notch. The large sinuses in this fold (S, figs. 8-10) 
are drained by two mantle veins which join, opposite the 
muscle-gap, to form the principal pulmonary vessel or vena 
cava. The common opening of the lung and hind-gut is a little 
to the right of the posterior end in the very edge of the mantle 
(A, figs. 1-3). The lower side of the free mantle is covered by 
a simple columnar epithelium similar to that of the foot. 
Although clumps of nerve cells are quite frequent in this vi- 
cinity, I am unable to distinguish a definite "osphradium" in 
any of my preparations, unless the plications of the cavity be- 
hind the confluence of the lung and hind-gut (A, fig. 8) repre- 
sent such a structure. 

The lung is clearly vestigial and must play practically no 
role in respiration. It is roughly comma-shaped (broken lines, 
fig. 2), with the point of the comma at the confluence with the 
hind-gut and the elongate dot across the front of the visceral 
dome (Z, fig. 11), mainly behind the pericardium. Its lining 
consists of a single layer of very flat cells (fig. 7) and does 
not appear to be associated with any special blood-spaces. The 
enormous pericardium (fig. 6) lies between the lung and the 
anterior region of the muscle-ring (H, fig. 2). The renoperi- 
cardial orifice (X, fig. 6) is opposite the middle of the ventricle 
of the heart. The elongate kidney lies (K, fig. 2) above the 
lung parallel to the pericardium. The lumen of the main por- 
tion is rendered complexly sacculate (fig. 6) by cords and 
trabeculse (K, fig. 11) of the same rather low, columnar cells 
that form its lining; these partitions disappear as the kidney 
passes gradually into the ureter (U, fig. 9), which is also sur- 
rounded by similar epithelium. These renal epithelia (fig. 7) 
are characterized by the peculiar position of the nuclei near the 
luminal ends of the cells and by the rather large vacuoles 
nearer their outer ends ; the tissue appears to have a marked 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LANX 147 

affinity for the orange G but practically none for the red stain. 
Inside of the mantle, the ureter (U) is about half as large as 
and lies laterad to the lung (Z, fig. 10), into which it opens 
(fig. 9) about 2 mm. above the confluence of the latter with the 
hind-gut (fig. 8). 

From the above, it will be seen that the pallial complex of 
Lanx is Lymnaeid in its general plan, and has nothing in com- 
mon with that of the Ancylidae; even the gill-like fold is of 
quite different character from the pseudobranch of the latter 
family. In comparison with Lymncea stagnalis^ and Lymncea 
reflexa^, the reduction in size of the lung is not out of pro- 
portion to that of the entire visceral mass. However, 
the lack of venation and the confluence with the hind-gut 
appear to indicate that the lung of Lanx plays a relatively un- 
important part in the aeration of the blood. In addition, the 
entire visceral dome and the pallial cavity appear to be twisted 
posteriad and to the right, as if the spire had more than un- 
coiled ; the position of the shell-apex slightly to the left and in 
front of the center also seems to indicate a slight degree of 
hyperstrophy. As will be described below, this torsion is ac- 
companied by a peculiar dislocation of the visceral and abdomi- 
nal ganglia (fig. 16). 

Attention is also called to the fact that, in many features, the 
arrangement of the pallial complex shows a remarkable paral- 
lelism with that of the Veronicellidae*, in which group the 
"lung" appears to have degenerated even more completely into 
a sort of secondary ureter. Protancylns pileolus Sarasin" also 
has a common opening for the lung and hind-gut, but this is 
near the middle of the left side of the body; this last species 
develops a left pseudobranch, quite like that of the Planorbidae 
and Ancylidae, in addition to blood-sinuses in the right mantle**. 

The thick-walled ventricle (fig. 6, 11) is very large, and 
heart-shaped, with the point (aorta) towards the left side and 
the emarginate border towards the right. The auricle is much 
more slender and has very thin walls. The preservation of the 



' Pilsbry; 1900, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, LII, fig. xvii-2. 
8F. C. Baker; 1911, Chicago Acad. Sci., Sp. Publ. 3, pi. I. 
<Sarasin; 1899, Land-Moll. Celebes, figs, xiv, 124-127 and Pelseneer, 
ac. r. Belg. LIV, 21-26, figs, vi-49, 52-55. 
'1898; Siissw.-Moll. Celebes, 86-88, pi. xiii. 
•op. cit., figs. 170, 177. 



148 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

specimens impedes a detailed study of the arterial system, but 
the main aorta does curve ventrad, pass under the bursal sac 
and bifurcate to form a cephalic aorta which goes first to the 
gizzard, and a visceral (intestinal) aorta with large branches 
to the genitalia and visceral mass. The pulmonary vein (vena 
cava), which passes through the muscle gap, is formed by the 
confluence of the two mantle veins and vessels from the sinuses 
of the foot. The large "right" mantle vein drains the sinuses 
of the posterior and sinistral portions of the gill-fold, while 
the smaller "left" one comes from the limb along the anterior 
portion of the right mantle edge. 

This circulatory system appears quite like that of LymiKEa 
emarginata mighelsi\ but the pulmonary network is practically 
lacking and the mantle veins are correspondingly enlarged. 
The enormous relative size of the heart in Lanx alta must 
insure a rapid circulation of the blood, which would com- 
pensate in part for the reduction in area of the aerating mem- 
branes and the apparent dependence on dissolved oxygen. 
However, it is just possible that the animal can breathe air, as 
I found bubbles in the lung of one preserved specimen. The 
pallial complex and mantle fold of the Rogue River form are 
very similar to those of typical Lanx alta, but the lung and 
ureter occupy a relatively larger portion of the free mantle 
while the aerating sinuses are correspondingly smaller. 

As already mentioned, the closed mouth (fig. 1) of Lanx is 
T-shaped and opens on the ventral side. The cross-bar of the 
T is reinforced dorsally by the principal jaw, while the lateral 
sides of the longitudinal slit are strengthened by the two, so- 
called accessory jaws. The last (fig. 24) are simply vaguely- 
outlined thickenings of a general, "horny" stratum that covers 
the margins of the mouth and is continuous with that of the 
true jaw. This median jaw (fig. 24) is broadly crescentic 
with the cutting margin slightly emarginate, either side of the 
middle, so as to form a slight median projection. Its upper 
side is finely striate at right angles to the cutting margin, while 
its inner side is strengthened by a crescentic thickening which 
runs parallel to the imbedded edge. 

'F. C. Baker; 1900, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 11, pi. vi. 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LANX I49 

The radular formula of Lanx alta is about 16-6-1-6-16; the 
transverse rows are ahiiost straight in the central and lateral 
fields, but are directed obliquely anteriad in the marginal 
region. The small central (fig. 23) is asymmetrical and bi- 
cuspid, with a stout, aculeate, major cusp and a left minor one. 
The large 1st lateral has a small base and a large, squarish, 
very thin, bicuspid reflection; the major cusp (mesocone) has 
a low entoconal angulation and a higher one on the ectoconal 
side. The ectocone itself is small, acuminate, and sometimes 
slightly hooked. The other lateral teeth are slightly smaller 
and the entoconal wing becomes higher until the 7th tooth is 
distinctly tricuspid. The marginal teeth have very small bases 
and elongate reflections; usually the 9th develops another en- 
toconal notch which on the 10th separates a distinct cusp. The 
remainder of the teeth are practically all 4-cusped, although 
one or two of the minute outermost ones commonly develop 
more points. 

Through the generosity of Dr. Pilsbry, I have been able to 
examine radulse mounted by him from Lanx subrotundata 
(Tryon), L. patelloides (Lea), and L. (Walkcrola) klamathen- 
sis Hannibal. A radula of L. subrotundata from Elkton, Ore- 
gon (A.N.S.P. 78630) has very similar inner teeth to those of 
L. alta, but all of the marginals could not be counted in the 
specimen examined. The radular formula of specimens of 
L. patelloides from Redding, California (A.N.S.P. 72741), is 
about 12-6-1-6-12. The teeth in the three radulae examined 
are all very similar to those of L. alta and have the same asym- 
metrical, bicuspid centrals; while the occasional presence of 
another minor cusp on the latter® would not be extraordinary, 
I doubt whether the central is ever symmetrical. The radular 
formula of L. (Walkerola) klamathensis from Upper Klamath 
Lake, California (A.N.S.P. 113843), is about 15-6-1-6-15. 
The teeth are very similar to those of L. alta, but the minor 
cusp of the central is slightly reduced and the bases of the 
laterals are a little larger in proportion to the reflection. 
Walker's figure (1918, fig. 53) clearly shows these characters, 
but the smaller number of teeth (12-5-1-5-12) suggests that 
his radula is from a younger or smaller animal. 

« Walker; 1918, Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., Misc. Coll. 6, fig. 51. 

August 14, 1925 



J 50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

A radula of Lanx (Fisherola) lancides (Hannibal) from a 
dried specimen (A.N.S.P. 113838), collected in the Snake 
River at Lewiston, Idaho, by H. Hemphill (1911) shows a 
quite different dentition. The radular formula is 28-8-1-8-28 
and the rows are sha^jed somewhat as in L. alta. The minor 
cusp of the asymmetrical, bicuspid central (fig. 25) is almost 
obsolete. The laterals have much smaller reflections and the 
mesocone and ectocone are connected by a thin shelf which 
commonly develops two weak and extremely variable cusplets. 
This shelf decreases in prominence on the outer laterals, while 
the entoconal wing becomes higher, until the 9th tooth has only 
one '.-estigial cusplet between the ectocone and mesocone but 
shows a distinct entocone. Beyond the 9th, each marginal 
has a rather short reflection which bears three cusps : a sub- 
spatulate mesocone, a small, sharp entocone, and a larger, 
pointed ectocone. One or two of the minute outermost teeth 
often develop additional cusplets, but the tricuspid condition 
is maintained with remarkable uniformity through most of the 
marginal series. The median jaw (fig. 26) of this species is 
much thinner and more elongate than that of L. alta; the 
lateral thickenings show signs of their derivation from a plaited 
condition. 

Superficially, the buccal mass of Lanx alta (fig. 4) is a large, 
ovoid body, from which the short, blunt radular pouch pro- 
jects, slightly below the center of the posterior end. Several 
minor protractor muscles are present, but long retractors ap- 
pear to be lacking. The two, small, light-colored, amorphous, 
salivary glands (S) are above the oesophagus but extend an- 
teriad around both sides of the buccal mass ; their ducts enter 
the substance of the mass and empty into the dorsum of the 
pharynx, either side of the gullet. Histologically, they consist 
of small alveoli composed of vacuolate cells, which are re- 
markably similar in appearance to those of the mucous glands 
of the foot. 

The flattened ventral portion (B. fig. 22) of the buccal 
cavity is roofed by the radular membrane (R), which curves 
around the anterior end of the radular cartilage. The last is 
a large, bilobed structure (C) with large spaces between the 
anastamosing trabeculse of harder substance (fig. 27). Ven- 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LANX 151 

trad and anteriad (R, fig. 22), it presents a smooth, even curve, 
over which the radula is shghtly convex, while dorsad, it de- 
velops a U-shaped grove (U), into which the radula is con- 
cavely folded. This groove is continuous with the almost cylin- 
drical radular pouch, which lies between the two, bluntly- 
rounded, posterior horns of the cartilage. The pharynx (P) 
is not separable from the buccal cavity ; both are lined by simple 
columnar epithelium which is somewhat lower than that of the 
epidermis. Under the radular membranes, this epithelium be- 
comes still lower, so that it consists of a layer of practically 
cuboid cells. 

The oesophagus opens out of the dorsal side of the pharyn- 
geal portion of the buccal cavity just opposite the anterior end 
of the radular cartilage ; at first, it is enclosed in the walls of 
the buccal mass above the radular pouch (G, fig. 22), but ap- 
pears superficially (G, fig. 11) on the posterior end of the 
mass. From here, it extends to the gizzard, which lies a little 
behind and to the left of the center of the animal. No sharply 
demarcated crop is present, but the posterior end of the gullet 
is externally thrown up into longitudinal ridges and would 
appear to be adapted for considerable distension. The rather 
thin walls of the oesophagus are mainly composed of a layer 
of very high, darkly-staining, columnar cells, which internally 
form coarse, longitudinal folds that increase in prominence 
towards the gizzard. 

The entire stomach is obliquely tilted dorsad, with the 
elongate, cone-shaped, thin-walled pylorus above and twisted 
first to the right and then abruptly to the left. The gizzard is 
bilobed as in Lymnsea®, has extremely thick, muscular walls, 
and contains rounded bits of sand, diatom shells, pieces of tubu- 
lar algae and much unidentifiable material. The upper end of 
the pylorus receives two large ducts (L, figs. 4, 5) from the 
anterior and posterior lobes of the liver. Its very tip, beyond 
these ducts, is slightly separated by a weak constriction and 
bears ventrally (posteriad) a small, ovoid diverticulum. (In 
another specimen, this is considerably longer than in D, fig. 5), 
This pouch is lined by high, columnar epithelium, very similar 
to that of the pylorus and gizzard. 

»F. C. Baker; 1900, figs, iv, C-E. 



J 52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

From the stomach, the intestine (fig. 3) runs ahiiost to the 
left side (where it appears on the dorsal surface of the visceral 
mass), then bends across the anterior border of the liver (just 
under the edge), loops through the posterior portion of this 
digestive gland to return to the anterior border at the right 
side, where it turns abruptly downward, and passes posteriad 
along the left side of the lung to the posterior opening of the 
common cavity (A, figs. 8, 9, 10). Like all of the digestive 
tract, the intestine is lined by simple columnar epithelium ; this 
is slightly lower in the first limb than in the fourth, but is low- 
est in the fifth limb or hind-gut, which, however, has clumps 
of higher cells that form the plicse. Besides the slender colum- 
nar cells with dense, darkly-staining cytoplasm, there occur 
larger, rounded goblet-cells with large vacuoles; in the hind- 
gut (fig. 12), these are mainly restricted to the higher folds. 
As already mentioned, the lung (Z, fig. 10) joins the hind-gut 
(A) a short distance above the common opening; in this re- 
gion, the cavity is enlarged, very coarsely plicate, and lined by 
higher, columnar epithelium somewhat similar to that of the 
epidermis. 

The bilobed liver or pancreas forms an alveolate, lenticular 
mass which almost covers the posterior M of the visceral mass. 
The small anterior (L, fig. 3; morphologically right?) lobe 
lies above the gizzard and between the first two limbs of the 
intestine, while the much larger posterior (morphologically 
left?) portion lies between the first, third and fourth limbs, ex- 
tends slightly outside of the last and invades the base of the 
free mantle (L, fig. 10) through the muscle-gap; this invasion 
is greater in a Rogue River specimen and may be due in part 
to the retraction of the animals studied. The large hepatic 
alveoli are mainly composed (fig. 13) of very large columnar 
cells (liver cells) with large vacuoles, around the small, sub- 
basal nuclei, and more opaque globules in the cytoplasm near 
the lumen of the gland. These principal cells are interspersed 
with clumps of lower, more rounded cells (lime-cells) with 
much larger nuclei and denser cytoplasm. These two types 
stand out very distinctly in the stained sections as the liver cells 
are colored yellow, while the lime cells are bright red. 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LANX 153 

The genitalia (fig. 14) are bulkier than all of the remainder 
of the viscera taken together. The ovotestis is larger (T, fig. 
3) than the liver, but is mainly imbedded beneath the latter. 
It is also irregularly lens-shaped with an emarginate anterior 
margin, is light yellow in color, and consists of complexly in- 
tertwined series of cords with closely-packed alveoli, like ex- 
cessively attenuate bunches of raisins^". These all lead into an 
ovoid sac a little back of the center of the mass. All of the 
individuals examined, regardless of their size (see above), 
appear to be sexually mature; the spermatozoa are much more 
conspicuous than the ova (note dates of collection). 

The anterior portion of the ovisperm duct, just behind the 
ovoid sac, is slender and naked, but the major portion is cov- 
ered by a dense mass of large, very thin-walled alveoli, which 
are closely packed into the right side of posterior end of the 
ovotestis and actually appear on the dorsal surface of the vis- 
ceral mass between the third and fourth limbs of the intestine 
(D, fig. 3). The cavities of these sacs are crowded full of 
spermatozoa and must act as seminal vesicles or reservoirs. In 
the ovotestis, the sperm are grouped with their heads together 
in disc-shaped masses, each of which lies against a large cell 
somewhat similar to the Sertoli cells of vertebrates, but, in the 
reservoirs, they are quite irregularly massed, although they 
still tend to lie parallel to each other. The ovisperm duct itself 
bifurcates on the surface of the carrefour; one twig goes to the 
seminal duct while the other develops a small spherical body 
(talon?) and enters the carrefour itself. 

The oviduct may be divided into four regions : ( 1 ) the car- 
refour" ; (2) the prebulbar oviduct; (3) the bulbous enlarge- 
ment; and (4) the postbulbar or vaginal portion; in addition, 
it develops two glandular diverticula : ( 1 ) the albumen gland ; 
and (2) the oviducal diverticulum or "nidamental gland." 
The carrefour or spermoviduct (uterus of authors) receives 
the ovisperm duct and that of the albumen gland ; it is a nar- 
row, transversely sacculate and complexly plicate tube which 
lies between the head of the false prostate and the base of the 
albumen gland. Its walls are almost entirely composed of a 
simple epithelium which varies in height from the very slender, 

"Cf. F. C. Baker; 1900, fig. iii-F. 

" Lacaze-Duthiers; 1899, Arch. Zool. Exp. (3) VII, 110. 



J54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

columnar cells of the plicae, to the almost cuboid ones of the 
intermediate regions. The albumen gland is gray in color, 
semicircular and considerably flattened; it lies under the ovo- 
testis towards the left (right in a Rogue River specimen) side 
of the floor of the haemocoele. The sections show it to be di- 
vided into numerous alveoli which are lined by a single layer 
of rather low, columnar cells that stain a bright red and are 
superficially similar in appearance to those of the oviducal 
bulb but contain much larger vacuoles and larger nuclei (fig. 
21). 

The oviducal diverticulum or "nidamental" gland (second 
accessory albuminiparous gland of F. C. Baker, 1911) is an 
ovoid body which opens at the junction of the carrefour and 
prebulbar oviduct. Both in gross and histological structure, 
this body looks like a small edition of the oviducal bulb; its 
lumen is similarly reduced by numerous laminae, which are 
composed of two layers of columnar cells that are stained a 
brilliant red in the serial sections. 

The prebulbar portion of the oviduct is a rather stout tube, 
with a few, coarse, internal plicae. The simple columnar epi- 
thelium which composes the main portion of its wall (fig. 20) 
consists of remarkably large cells with small, basal or central 
nuclei and numerous, clear vacuoles, which, under low magni- 
fication, give this tissue the very distinctive appearance of deli- 
cate lace-work. Outside of these gland-cells is a very thin 
layer of squamous cells with scattered muscle-fibers. 

The oviducal bulb or uterus is a pear-shaped enlargement 
which is sharply demarcated from the preceding tube but 
tapers rather gradually into the postbulbar portion. While 
somewhat flattened, it does not show as prominent a longi- 
tudinal groove as does the "first accessory albuminiparous 
gland"^" in most species of Lymnaea. In Lanx alta, this groove 
is actually a thin region of the wall (fig. 14-A) ; if the bulb is 
split lengthwise along this line, the closely-packed, laminate 
plications of the remainder of the wall can be spread out like 
the leaves of a book and are seen to be oblique to the long axis 
of the organ. These plicae consist of a double layer of the 
simple columnar epithelium which lines the bulb ; the dense 

"F. C. Baker; 1911, pi. x-xv. 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LANX 155 

cytoplasm of its large cells are stained a brilliant red in the 
serial sections. This tissue must be very similar to that which 
composes the folds of the "third division of the oviduct or 
uterus"^^ in Lymncea ovata. Outside of the epithelium, the 
walls develop a very thin layer of fibrous tissue and squamous 
cells. 

The postbulbar or vaginal portion of the oviduct is similar 
in diameter to the prebulbar tube, although it is slightly en- 
larged just above its confluence with the bursal stalk. Its thick 
walls are largely composed of circular muscle, although vary- 
ing amounts of longitudinal fibers are usually gathered into 
two groups on opposite sides of the tube. The deeply plicate 
lumen (fig. 14-B) is lined by a comparatively thin, rather 
featureless, simple columnar epithelium. 

The stalk of the bursa (spermatheca) is rather slender, al- 
though very slightly enlarged near its base, and lies along the 
dorsal side of the bulbar and postbulbar portions of the oviduct. 
Its terminal sac, which is imbedded (B, figs. 3, 11) near the 
left side of the hsemocoele, is roughly heart-shaped and very 
large. In addition to the thin outer layer of fibrous cells, both 
stalk and sac have a lining of very peculiar, simple columnar 
epithelium, which is thrown up into weak plications (B, fig. 
11). The cells of this tissue (fig. 18) are very slender; their 
cytoplasm is dense and stains rather darkly, but the large, sub- 
central nuclei are markedly vacuolate, so as to give to a tangen- 
tial section somewhat the appearance of the cartilage of verte- 
brates. The luminal ends of these cells are produced into an- 
astamosing, ameboid masses from which separate roughly 
globular pieces of what appears to be the cytoplasm of the cell 
itself. The spacious lumen of the bursal sac contains many of 
these corpuscular structures^* in a mass of granular material ; 
this leads me to suspect that the bursa is actually a gland which 
secretes some sort of thick, viscous material as an aid in copula- 
tion. The vagina proper, beyond the confluence of the bursal 
stalk and the oviduct, is very short, almost obsolete, but the 
peculiar form and heavy walls of the postbulbar oviduct give 
it much the appearance of the vagina of some of the terrestrial 
pulmonates. 

"J. Klotz; 1889, Jena. Zeitschr. Nat. XXJII, figs, ii-11, 17. 
" C£. Lacaze-Duthiers; 1899, fig. iv-9. 



J 55 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The very long and tortuous seminal duct can be divided into 
six rather distinct regions: (1) the first or false prostate; (2) 
the very short duct between the first and second prostates; 
(3) the second or true prostate; and (4, 5, 6) the first free, 
the imbedded, and the second free portions of the extremely 
long vas deferens. Ventral to the carrefour, the first prostate 
begins as a flattened, plicate, fan-shaped, blind sac ; the portion 
below the entrance of the ovisperm duct forms an elongate, 
flattened, irreg'ularly-lobed body which is folded into a com- 
pact mass near the left side of the body below the oviduct. 
(In a Rogue River si>ecinien, it is on the right side and the 
blind end extends through the muscle-gap into the base of the 
mantle.) Its flattened lumen (fig. 14-C) is much more spaci- 
ous and its walls correspondingly thinner than those of the true 
prostate. The columnar cells (fig. 19) which line the cavity 
have small nuclei surrounded by large vacuoles which restrict 
the cytoplasm to very thin trabeculae ; often the luminal ends of 
several cells support a large bubble of transparent secretion. 
Unlike the vacuolate cells of the albumen gland (fig. 21), these 
on the male side are but slightly stained in the serial sections. 
Like most parts of the reproductive system, the outside of the 
organ is covered with a very thin layer of pigmented cells ; 
these give the surface of this glandular sac an areolate ap- 
pearance. 

The second or true prostate is roughly tongue-shaped and 
lies (P, fig. 3) just anterior to the oviducal bulb. It consists 
of an enlargement of the seminal duct, lined by ciliated, cuboid 
epithelium, and surrounded by closely-packed, radiating, tubu- 
lar glands (fig. 14-D). Each of these secretory pouches is 
made up of large rounded cells with their long axes parallel to 
that of its very small central lumen, so that a transverse sec- 
tion of a tubule shows five or six at one time. The nucleus of 
each cell (fig. 17) is on the side opposite the lumen of its pouch 
and the cytoplasm is crowded with rather large, quite dense 
globules. The structure of this prostate must be quite similar 
to that of Lymncua ovata, although the published figures'^ do 
not show the lumina of the tubules or the cell boundaries. 

"Klotz; 1899, figs, ii-12. 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LA!^X I57 

Below the prostate, the first free portion of the vas deferens 
is rather stout and quite long; it is coiled near the right side 
of the haemocoele, mainly anteriad to the oviduct and bursal 
stalk. The imbedded section is somewhat narrower and 
scarcely convoluted ; it passes out through the muscle-gap and 
runs along the outside of the columellar muscle-ring (I, fig, 
11) from the base of the oviduct to that of the penis. The 
second free portion extends in a tortuous course through the 
h?emocoele (H. fig. 3) over to the left side of the body and back 
again to enter at the apex of the penis; although narrower 
than the first free portion, the greater part of its length is 
quite stout and thick-walled. The last few millimeters, which 
are mainly coiled around the penis and under the anterior 
pallial nerve, are considerably narrowed, so that their con- 
voluted lumen is visible through the walls. The entire vas 
deferens is lined by a single layer of ciliated, cuboid epithelium. 
Outside of this is a thick envelope of circular muscle, usually 
with two groups of longitudinal fibers on opposite sides but 
rather close to the epithelial lining. I am unable to detect any 
gland cells outside of the epithelium ; those figured from the 
vas deferens of Lyinncua ovata^^ look very much like cross- 
sections of longitudinal muscle but they are represented as 
much larger than the circular fibers in the same figure. 

The entire male copulatory organ, termed here the penis, 
is very similar to that of LymncEa^'^ ; that is, it consists of an 
elong-ate-ovoid, preputial portion (penis-sac) and a somewhat 
constricted hyper phallus (penis, F. C. Baker) with a faint ter- 
minal knob. The hyperphallus (fig. iii-15) or capsule of the 
verge is not sharply demarcated externally from the remainder 
of the penis and is about ^ the total length of the organ. Its 
walls are rather thin and contain numerous sinuses which 
give them somewhat the appearance of erectile tissue. The 
hyperphallar lumen is almost completely filled by the elongate, 
pointe, penial papilla or verge (glans or penis of authors), 
which is probably the only portion that penetrates the vagina 
of the female. The vas deferens, with its convoluted lumen, 
enters the base of the verge ; the continuation of the sperm 
canal, which extends to the very tip, is quite narrow and cir- 

'SRlotz; 1889, fig. ii-14. 

" F. C. Bater; 1911, pi. xxv. 



I eg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

cularly plicate. This arrangement appears quite similar to 
that in LymncBa ovata^^. The larger sac of the penis has rather 
thick, solid, muscular walls, which internally develop trans- 
verse plications and two large pilasters (fig. 14-E), that cer- 
tainly resemble those of Lyuincsa auricularia^^. The penis is 
lined by high, columnar epithelium which extends up into the 
cavity of the hyperphallus. 

The main body of the penis receives two branched muscles 
on its anterior side and three on its posterior. A slip (cut in 
fig. 14) from the upper of the anterior two, is attached to the 
apex of the hyperphallus so that, in my retracted specimens, 
this structure is bent back on the anterior side of the larger 
sac of the penis. The posterior muscles extend to the base 
of the thickened column of muscle behind the gap in the 
columellar ring. 

This origin of the hyperphallar retractor from an anterior 
muscle appears to be quite different from the arrangement in 
LymncBa^^, but it must be remembered that, in Lanx alta, all of 
these muscle bands arise from some part of the columellar 
muscle-ring. Otherwise, the genitalia are so similar to those 
of Lymiicea that they might almost pass for those of a species 
of that genus, although the enormous size of the ovotestis and 
the seminal reservoirs would appear to be rather distinctive. 

On account of the stiffness of the organs, which prevent 
their safe manipulation without rupture, the study of the 
nervous system from my material is especially difficult. The 
general arrangement appears quite similar to that of Lymncsa 
sfagnalis and L. pcregra-^ and to that of L. reHexa^', but the 
ganglionic ring is concentrated along the long axis of the body 
and stretched transversely to the right (fig. 16). This dextral 
distortion, which especially affects the visceral-abdominal com- 
plex, has already been correlated with the posterior position 
of the common pulmonary and anal opening. 

The cerebral commissure is rather long. Each cerebral 
ganglion is roughly triangular, with enlargements (lobes) at 
each corner. The nerves from the left one are: acoustic, 

"Klotz; 1889, figs, ii-15, 16. 

J»Hugo Eisig; 1869, Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool. XIX, figs, xxv-8, 9. 

"T. C. Baker; 1911, pi. x-xv. 

" Lacaze-Duthiers; 1872, Arch. Zool. Exp. I, pi. xvii. 

"F. C. Baker; 1911, pi. v. 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LANX ^59 

optic (O, fig. 16), tentacular (T), superior frontolabial (L), 
middle labials (C), nuchal (N) and the subcerebral commis- 
sure (X; satellite of anterior labial artery). In addition, the 
right one gives off the penial and hyperphallar (H) ; these 
can be separated almost to their bases and appear to branch 
off just below a special, ridge-like enlargement of the gang- 
lion. The cerebrobuccal connectives are rather long, but loop 
transversely so that the buccal ganglia are quite close to the 
cerebral (moved away in my figure). These buccal or stoma- 
togastric ganglia are relatively large and give off at least the 
radular (R), deep pharyngeal, lateral pharyngeal and an- 
terior pharyngeal branches; the last sends a twig (S) to the 
salivary glands along their ducts. 

The cerebropleural connectives are very short so that the 
pleural ganglia are closely approximated to the cerebral. The 
left pleurovisceral connective is relatively long but the right 
visceral and pleural ganglia are in close juxtaposition. Each 
visceral ganglion gives off an anterior (M) and a posterior 
(P) pallial nerve; those of the right side are larger. The left 
visceral is closely united to the abdominal ganglion, although 
a distinct, stout connective is present between the latter and 
the right visceral. The abdominal ganglion gives off the sub- 
intestinal (G; genital), the aortic (A; anal), a root to the 
right anterior pallial, and one or two minute nerves to the 
body wall. 

The cerebropedal and pleuropedal connectives are short and 
stout, but the pedal commissure is a little longer. The pedal 
ganglia are large and not greatly affected by the dextral dis- 
tortion of the abdominal complex. Each gives off six sizable 
branches: superior (K) and inferior (I) cervicals, superior 
(D, anterior), central (E) and inferior (F, posterior) pedals 
and a columellar (U). The otocysts are near the anterior ends 
of the dorsal surfaces of the pedal ganglia. 

The general shape and buried position of the eyes is quite 
similar to that in Lymncua stagnalis^^, but a large sinus sur- 
rounds the outer half of each; it forms a rather large cavity 
between the thin corneal epithelium and the inconspicuous layer 
of connective tissue which underlies the thickened epidermis. 

»Simroth; 1876, Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool. XXVI, fig. xv-12. 



i^Q CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This sinus is so large and the overlying epidemiis and sub- 
dermis so opaque (in preserved specimens) that a small, 
rounded boss is the only superficial indication of the position 
of each eye. The lens is large and the pigmented layer very 
thick, especially at its inner end, but the outer fibrillar processes 
of the retinal cells are poorly developed except in a little cup 
directly behind the center of the lens. The optic nerve is 
quite widely separated from the tentacular one. 

In the posterior portion of each tentacle, the transverse sec- 
tions show the presence of a small, sensory pocket, with a 
groove which runs posteriad and ventrad from it. On the 
ventral side of this pocket is a mass of ganglionic tissue. The 
retracted condition of my specimens prevent the accurate de- 
scription of the shape of this structure, as the deep folds of the 
tentacle obscure its position. Mucous glands, similar to those 
in the foot, are present in and around the base of the tentacles. 
My failure to find a definitely localized osphradium or organ 
of Lacaze-Duthiers has already been reported. 

These anatomical data all substantiate Dr. Pilsbry's dem- 
onstration that Lanx is a derivative of the Lymn^eidse and is 
not closely related to the Ancylidse. As Dr. Pilsbry has often 
pointed out, the terrestrial pulmonates appear to have a con- 
stantly recurrent tendency to produce slug-like forms. A sim- 
ilar propensity in the Basommatophora seems to lead towards 
ancyliform shells and bodies. In the Lancidse, specialization of 
the other organs has not gone so far as in the Ancylid deriv- 
atives of the Planorbidse; in fact, it is very remarkable that 
Lanx combines such profound changes of external form with 
such trifling divergencies in the internal anatomy, especially 
in that of the genital and digestive systems. 

On the basis of much of the anatomy, Lanx could scarcely 
be separated from the Lymnaeidae, but its peculiar modification 
of the pallial complex appears to be sufficient grounds for the 
retention of the Lancidje as a distinct family, with the follow- 
ing definitive cliaracters : 

1. The limpet-like shell and the reduction of the visceral 
mass, especially at the expense of the digestive glands. 

2, The almost complete ring of columellar muscle. 



Vol. XIV] BAKER— ANATOMY OF LANX Jgl 

3. The development of the mantle edg-e into a special organ 
for aeration, with the coincident enlargement of the heart and 
mantle veins. 

4. The vestigial "lung" and its confluence with the hind-gut. 

5. The distinctly posterior allocation of the common open- 
ing of the lung and hind-gut, which appears to be correlated 
with the distortion of the ganglionic ring in the same direction 
and with the hyperstrophic position of the apex of the shell. 

6. The enormous size of the ovotestis and seminal reser- 
voirs. 

7. The asymmetrical, bicuspid central and the squarish re- 
flections of the laterals in the radula. 



Description of Figures 

All drawings are made with the aid of the camera lucida. 
The histological figures represent somewhat idealized optical 
sections ; the cells are oriented so that the lumen of the gland 
or organ is towards the top of the plate. 



1^2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Plate 11 

Scales represent lengths of five millimeters. 

Fig. 1. Ventral view of retracted animal within outline of shell. 
Common opening of the lung and hind-gut (A) and positions 
of male and female sex openings indicated. Magnification the 
same as in fig. 2. 
Fig. 2. Dorsal view of animal after removal of shell. Visceral dome, 
surrounded by columellar muscle-ring, represented as slightly- 
more transparent than is actually the case. Broken lines give 
outlines of lung, ureter and end of hind-gut. 

A common opening of lung and hind-gut. 

H auricle of heart (dotted outline). 

K kidney (dotted outline). 

U opening of ureter into lung. 

Fig. 3. Dorsal view of visceral mass inside of columellar muscle-ring 
(cut at anterior end), after removal of roofing membrane, 
pallial complex and most of free mantle. Lines of demarca- 
tion between anterior and posterior lobes of liver and be- 
tween latter and ovotestis are accentuated. Broken lines 
show course of hind-gut through free mantle. Scale is upper 
one of the two. 

A common opening of lung and hind-gut. 

B bursal sac. 

D seminal reservoirs of ovisperm duct. 

H second free portion of vas deferens. 

L anterior (smaller) lobe of liver. 

M heaviest column of muscle-ring. 

O oviducal bulb. 

P second or true prostate. 

T ovotestis (lighter than liver). 

Fig. 4. Anterior portion of digestive system, removed and straightened 
out. Buccal mass, salivary glands (S), oesophagus, gizzard 
(bilobed), pylorus with ends of two hepatic ducts (L), and 
beginning of intestine. Magnification practically the same as 
in fig. 3. 
Fig. 5. Left side of junction between pylorus (at left) and intestine (at 
right). Magnification about that of fig. 6. 

D pyloric diverticulum. 

L cut end of left hepatic duct. 

Fig. 6. Kidney and pericardium, dissected loose and turned back sharply 
to right, so as to be viewed from ventral side. Ureter still 
remains in normal position, as viewed dorsally. Scale is 
placed under that of fig. 3. 

X position of renopericardial orifice. 

Fig. 7. Optical section across partition between ureter (above) and lung 
(below) to show columnar epithelium of former and squam- 
ous lining of latter. This is an enlargement of a small por- 
tion of fig. 10. Magnification as in fig. 12. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 8 [ H. B. BAKER ] Plate 11 




154 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 12 

Scales of figs. 8 to 10 (under last) and 11 represent one millimeter; 
those of figs. 12 and 13 (under former) fifty microns. Figs. 8 to 11, 
although diagrammatic, are actual drawings of stained sections (animal 
retracted). The following letters are the same in all figures: 

A. . . .hind gut. M. . . .columellar muscle. 

B. . . .bursal sac. O oviduct. 

F foot (dense portion). P.... second prostate. 

G oesophagus. S.... blood sinuses. 

H. .. .ventricle of heart, pericardium. T. . . .ovotestis. 

I imbedded portion of vas deferens. U .... Ureter. 

K kidney. V. . . . free vas deferens. 

L liver (in muscle gap). Z "lung" cavity. 

Fig. 8. Transverse section through right free mantle at confluence of 
hind-gut and "lung." 

Fig. 9. Same at external ureteric opening. 

Fig. 10. Same at muscle gap, near junction of ureter and kidney. 

Fig. 11. Cross-section through entire animal. This section is not exactly 
transverse, but passes more anteriad at the left side, so that 
it cuts ventricle of heart (in pericardium) as well as anterior 
region of kidney and "lung." Besides the structures labeled, 
three more loops of free portions of vas deferens, as well as 
all four regions of oviduct, are included. Also, tip of radular 
pouch and of left horn of its cartilage appear below and to 
left of oesophagus (G). All organs have shrunk slightly, 
so hsemocoele appears extraordinarily spacious. 

Fig. 12. Optical section through a fold of hind-gut; intestinal epithelium 
(above) with two goblet-cells. 

Fig. 13. Optical section of three "liver cells" and two "lime cells" of 
hepatic alveolus. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 8 [ H. B. BAKER ] Plate 12 




10 



f -■■. *o-- ■,:.**..'■ ■■■■■■. ^- • 




15 



J^g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 13 

Scale of fig. 14 represents length of five millimeters; that of fig. 16, 

two millimeters; those of 17 to 20, fifty microns. 

Fig. 14. Genitalia with male and female sex openings in usual relations, 
but with organs straightened out and arranged so as to be 
seen at best advantage. Hyperphallar retractor cut so as to 
straighten out penis. Transverse sections cut with razor and 
viewed by surface illumination. Scale of sections can be 
judged by comparison with main figure. 

A Transverse section through oviducal bulb. 

B Through postbulbar (vaginal) portion of oviduct. 

C Through first or false prostate. 

D Through second or true prostate. 

E Through larger sac of penis. 

Fig. 15. Optical, sagittal section of hyperphallus, made from slightly flat- 
tened mount in Farrant's medium. 

Fig. 16. Ganglionic ring in natural position, except for slight anteriad 
displacement of buccal ganglia; viewed from dorsal side. 
Nerves labeled : 

A aortic or anal (abdomi- L anterior frontolabial. 

nal ganglion). M anterior pallial 

C middle labial (cerebral (visceral gang.). 

ganglion ) . N nuchal. 

D superior pedal (pedal O.... optic. 

ganglion). P posterior pallial. 

E. .. .central pedal. R....radular (buccal 
F. .. .inferior pedal. ganglion). 

G subintestinal or genital. S salivary. 

H hyperphallar and penial, T tentacular. 

I inferior cervical. U. . . .columellar. 

K superior cervical. X subcerebral commissure. 

Fig. 17. Transverse optical section of a cell from tubule of second pros- 
tate. Scale is upper one in lower left corner of plate. 

Fig. 18. Three cells from epithelium of bursal sac. Magnification as in 
fig. 12. 

Fig. 19. Two cells from epithelial lining of first prostate. Magnification 
as in fig. 12. 

Fig. 20. Rogue River specimen; epithelial lining and outer layer (below) 
of prebulbar region of oviduct. Scale is lower one of the 
two. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series. Vol. XIV, No. 8 [ H. B. BAKER ] Plate 13 







J^g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 14 

Scale of fig. 22 represents length of one millimeter; those of 24 and 26, 
one-half millimeter ; those of 23 and 25, fifty microns. 

Fig. 21. Three cells from epithelium of albumen gland. Magnification as 
in fig. ii-12. 

Fig. 22. Rogue River specimen ; cross-section a short distance behind an- 
terior end of buccal mass. The section is not quite transverse, 
so that the radular cartilage is cut farther anteriad on the 
right side. 

B lower portion of buccal cavity. 

C radular cartilage. 

G oesophagus. 

M posterior end of mouth. 

P pharyngeal cavity. 

R functional, anterior portion of radula. 

U posterior, folded portion of radula. 

W muscular walls of buccal mass. 

Fig. 23. Central and 1st lateral of radula slightly separated but otherwise 
in usual relations to each other; also 7th and 14th teeth (1st 
and 8th marginals). The hair-line represents the shape of the 
right half of a transverse row with positions of central, 7th 
and 14th teeth and edge of radula marked. 

Fig. 24. Median jaw with approximate outline of right accessory thicken- 
ing. 

Fig. 25. Lanx (Fisherola) lancides; radula from dried specimen, collected 
in Snake River at Lewiston, Idaho, by H. Hemphill 
(A. N. S. P. 113838). Central and 1st lateral in usual rela- 
tions; also 9th and 17th teeth (1st and 9th marginals). On 
account of the larger number of teeth in this species, these 
examples are directly comparable to those figured for L. alta. 
The hair-line represents shape of right half of transverse 
row with positions of central, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th teeth 
and edge of radula marked. 

Fig. 26. Lanx (Fisherola) lancides; median jaw of specimen in fig. 25. 

Fig. 27. Rogue River specimen; detail of radular cartilage. Magnification 
as in fig. 12. Pigment granules near nuclei are very 
characteristic. 



PROC. CAL ACAD. SCI., 4th:Series, Vol. XIV, No. 8 [ H. B. BAKER ] Plate 14 








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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 9, pp. 171-173 August 14, 1925 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 

OF SCIENCES TO THE GULF OF 

CALIFORNIA IN 1921 

THE PHALANGIDA 

BY 

RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN 
Harvard University 

Although I am assured by Joseph C. Chamberlin, who had 
special charge of the collecting of the Arachnida, that special 
efforts were made to find phalangids during the Expedition 
of the California Academy of Sciences in 1921, none whatever 
was found on the islands of the Gulf of California. Specimens 
were secured, however, at three points on the adjacent main- 
land, namely, at Puerto Escondido, Lower California, at No- 
gales, Arizona, and at Guaymas, Sonora. The specimens se- 
cured represent the two new species described below. 

Phalangiid^ 

1. Liobunum escondidum Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Dark reddish brown above ; a lighter band beginning anteriorly 
at the stink-pore on each side and extending caudad and uniting with the 
band of other side across posterior portion of abdomen, but the light 
areas usually obscure posteriorly. Eye-tubercle light mesally, dark along 



■No. 33 of the Gulf Expedition papers. 

August 14, 1925 



172 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ridges. Venter light brown. Coxae of legs without marks ; trochanters 
ordinarily dusky or blackish at sides. Legs reddish brown, paler distally; 
the patellae and the tibiae at distal ends blackish ; the femora also often 
darker at proximal end. Chelicerae yellow throughout. Palpi light brown, 
more yellowish distally. 

Abdomen appearing blunt from above, the last segments being bent 
down. Dorsum evenly granular throughout. Ventral surface of abdomen 
wholly smooth. 

Eye-tubercle smooth excepting for a few scattered spinous points on 
the ridges. 

Legs long. Coxae finely granular ; each with a series of crowded, narrow 
tubercles or teeth both on anterior and on posterior margin, the seriate 
tubercles from simple to trifid. 

Femur of palpus about equal in length to the tarsus and to the tibia + 
patella; strongly armed with spinous points beneath. Patella bearing 
spinous points on all sides ; without an inner apophysis. Tibia with 
spinous points which are more numerous beneath. Tarsus without spinous 
points. 

Length, 6.25 mm.; femur I, 11 mm.; femur H, 17 mm.; femur III, 11 
mm.; femur IV, 15 mm. 

Type: Male, No. 1642, Mas. Calif. Acad. Sci., and paratypes 
in Mns. Calif. Acad. Sci. and M.C.Z., Puerto Escondido, 
Lower Calif., taken June 14, 1921, by Joseph C. Chamberlin. 
In all, four males were taken "along creek bed near fresh 
water" at an elevation of 1600 ft. 



2. Trachyrhinus sonoranus Chamberlin, new species 

Male : Body above yellowish along the sides, the middle region brown- 
ish, the color deepest in spots adjacent to the yellow on each side; brown 
mottlings also on the sides; eye-tubercle on base of a dark brown or 
blackish delta-shaped outline the anteriorly directed apex of which is 
open or broken. Ventral surface in general clear yellow, but the coxae of 
the legs spotted with brown at the sides and especially distally. Palpus 
yellow excepting for a dark spot at distal end of femur and dark mark- 
ings on patella and tibia. Chelicerae clear yellow. Legs in general brown, 
the patellae sometimes nearly black, the legs lighter, yellowish distally, the 
femora and tibiae often light at distal ends. 

The body is flat and hard. Two sharply defined transverse sulci behind 
the eye-tubercle separating off the abdomen. Surface of abdomen hard, 
densely covered with contiguous pits or cup-like depressions ; posterior 
segments I>cnt down ventrad so that the abdomen in dorsal view appears 
almost truncate. Ventral surface more finely roughened than the dorsum. 
Coxae densely granular and tubercular, the tubercles over distal portion in 



Vol, XIV] CHAMBERLIN—1\HE PHALANGIDA IJl, 

particular conical, but none of these in definite marginal series. Coxa II 
much narrower than I and III below which it extends like a wedg-e. 
Coxae in order of thickness, II, I, III, IV. 

Eye-tubercle armed behind and in front, as well as above, with stout, 
conical spines which form two irreg^Jlar rows, one adjacent to each eye, 
thus leaving a median longitudinal space free from them. 

Mandibles small, of ordinary form. 

Palpus slender ; the femur about equal in length to tibia -[- patella. 
Trochanter and femur with numerous spinous points below ; patella with 
similar points especially laterally and above and on its inner side bearing 
a short and rounded but distinct apophysis ; tibia a little more than twice 
as long as thick, densely clothed on all sides with spinous points ; tarsus 
with a few spinous points beneath. 

Legs long. Trochanters strongly tuberculate. Other joints with longi- 
tudinal rows of teeth which are weaker and finer on patellae, and tibiae. 
Tibia II with six false joints. 

Length, 7 mm.; femur I, 7 mm.; femur II, 13 mm.; femur III, 8 mm.; 
femur IV, 9.5 mm. Length of leg IV, 39 mm.; of leg III, 29 mm.; of leg 
II, 51 mm.; of leg I, 28 mm. 

Type: Male, No. 1643, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., Guaymas, 
Sonora, April 15, 1921, J. C. Chamberlin, ''taken under a stone 
in a patch of dry grass on ledge of cliff near summit (400 
ft.)". Paratopes in Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. and M.C.Z., one 
taken at Guaymas with holotype and six specimens taken by 
E. P. Van Duzee at Nogales, Arizona, Apr. 4, 1921. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OK THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 10, pp. 175-183, text figs. 1-23 August 14, 1925 



SCELLUS VIRAGO ALDRICH (A TWO- WINGED FLY) 
AND TWO FORMS CLOSELY RELATED TO IT 

BY 

M. C. VAN DUZEE 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

In the two tables of species of the North American Scellus 
published since 1907 the first couplet reads about as follows: 

Third joint of antenna very long and pointed virago Aldrich 

Third antennal joint very short 2 

Below two more species are described with antennae formed 
the same as in virago, and which would pass for that species if 
no typical specimen of virago were at hand to compare them 
with. 

In 1915 I took a series of Scellus at Great Salt Lake, Utah, 
which I determined as virago, and had no doubt of the de- 
termination until 1923 when my brother sent me two speci- 
mens taken in California, which I found very distinct from 
those taken in Utah. In January, 1924, while at the National 
Museum I looked up the type of virago and found both my 
forms quite distinct from that species. I am redescribing 
virago to cover the points in which the three forms differ and 
giving full descriptions of the new forms. These three species 
differ from all our other species in having the third antennal 
joint very long and pointed. They have very long anal ap- 
pendages issuing from between the fourth and fifth abdominal 

Amgust 14, 1925 



176 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

segments ; these I am calling the outer appendages, although I 
doubt whether they are morphologically the same as the outer 
lamellae of other Dolichopodidae. Below these are two or three 
pairs of appendages which I am calling the inner appendages. 
I am greatly indebted to Dr. J. M. Aldrich for the loan of 
one of the type specimens of virago from which to make the 
drawings for this paper. 

Table of the males o£ the virago group: 

1. Middle tibia with long curled hair only near the tip (fig. 7) 

virago Aldrich 

Middle tibia with long curled hair on nearly their whole length 
(figs. IS & 23) 2 

2. Long anal appendages arising between fourth and fifth ab- 

dominal segments nearly bare, except at tip (fig. 18) 

varipennis, new species 

Long anal appendages with long curled hair on apical two 
thirds of one edge (fig. 8) crinipes, new species 



Scellus virago Aldrich 

Aldrich, Entomological News, Vol. xviii, p. 133, 1907; Greene, No. 
2529, Procs. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 65, Art. 16, p. 3, original description 
copied, figs. 8, 15, 19 and 28, 1924. 

Male: Antennae much elongated, the joints being 8-3-25 twenty-fifths 
of a millimeter long. Four black bristles and several long white hairs 
above each anterior coxa ; fore coxae with a few small pale hairs on an- 
terior surface and several black bristles, extending upward from the tip ; 
middle trochanters with several small black hairs, hind ones with black 
bristles ; fore femora with numerous bristles below, some of those near 
the base being about as long as the thickness of the femora; middle 
femora slender, somewhat arched, nearly bare below, but with a few 
bristles on apical third of anterior surface, two bristles above and one or 
two on ix)sterior surface, also a row of short, delicate hairs on the lower 
surface ; posterior femora with two rows of hairs below, which are a 
little longer than those on the sides, the hind femora a little more thick- 
ened than the middle ones, but not as much so as the anterior pair ; fore 
tibiae (figs. 5, 6) with hairs below on basal half and stout bristles on 
apical half, these hairs not as long as the diameter of the tibia at base, 
and the bristles scarcely as long as the thickness at point of insertion ; 
on anterior surface, before apical fourth a moderately large, stout, curved 
spine, shining black when viewed from below, but green and dull when 
seen from above; the large projection below at tip shining black, with a 
pair of little bristles at tip, several stout, very short, erect spines near 
the tip on apical margin where there is also a number of long hairs or 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—SCELLUS VIRAGO ALDRICH lyj 

bristles extending upward towards the tarsus ; on the inner margin a row 
of short hairs, the upper portion of the end of the tibia rounded and 
fringed with short, close-set, yellow hairs; middle tibiae (fig. 7) on the 
lower surface of basal three-fourths with only straight or slighly bent 
hair, on apical fourth a cluster of curled hairs, twice as long as diameter 
of thickened end of tibia; below with two subapical bristles; anterior 
surface with seven long bristles, nearly as long as second joint of middle 
tarsi ; beyond these a pair of bristles a little shorter, one nearly above the 
other, and at apical eighth another short bristle ; on upper surface near 
basal fourth one pair of bristles and a single one at middle on posterior 
edge ; posterior tibiae without bristles, but with a stripe of very short 
yellow hair on upper posterior edge of apical fourth, widest apically; 
these tibiae bent outward a little at tip when viewed from above; all tibiae 
with more or less of apical portion of a beautiful blue ; rrtiddle basitarsus 
(fig. 7) with several bristles, the two nearest base 2/5 of a millimeter 
long; posterior basitarsus with two bristles above, one near the base and 
one at basal third ; also a smaller bristle at apical third. 

The anal appendage which issues from between the fourth and fifth 
segments (fig. 1) is about 2.4 millimeters long, the apical portion spoon- 
shaped, the narrow part whitish, black at base and fringed on one edge, 
except at base, with pale hairs; the apical portion, or spoon (fig. 2) has 
these pale hairs continued to tip, this fringed edge narrowly black and 
with a stripe of curled hair on the inner edge of the black border; apical 
margin to lower angle of tip very narrowly black; lower angle with a 
cluster of spreading, whitish bristles ; two pairs of inner appendages visi- 
ble, first pair (fig. 3) large, black and fringed with small hairs above; 
second pair (fig. 4) smaller and black, tipped with two small stiff little 
hairs. 



Scellus crinipes M. C. Van Duzee, new species 

Male : Length, exclusive of anal appendages, 5 mm. ; of wing 7 mm. 
Face long, quite wide, covered with white pollen (not silvery) reaching 
the lower corner of eye ; portion below suture longer than wide ; lower 
edge rounded ; palpi and proboscis black, the former with white pollen ; 
antennae elongated, black; first two joints taken together about equal to 
lower portion of face, third joint equal to length of upper part of face; 
joints of antennae 8-3-28 twenty-fifths of a millimeter long; arista nearly 
apical, 8/25 of a millimeter long ; front black, with brown pollen in 
central portion, that above antennae and on a narrow space along orbits, 
whitish; upper orbital cilia formed of five black bristles on each side; 
one pair of postverticals, and quite an abundant beard of long whitish 
hair. 

Dorsum of thorax opaque with a grayish brown pollen, which leaves 
a narrow coppery line each side of acrostichal bristles, and a large space 
of same color before scutellum; a broad, poorly defined, shining stripe 

August 14, 1925 



178 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

on the sides of the dorsum v.-heii viewed from behind; bristles of thorax 
inserted in dark brown dots ; pleurae more black, with white pollen ; 
scutellum with one pair of bristles; propleura with three black bristles 
and a few pale hairs above fore coxa ; abdomen short, bronze-colored, 
with green and coppery reflections, dulled with white pollen ; each visible 
segment with three shining black dots on lower part of sides ; hairs on 
the abdomen small, pale ; hypopygium mostly concealed. There are anal 
appendages projecting from between fourth and fifth segments on sides 
of dorsum (fig. 8), long and narrow with a large spoon-shaped end, black 
at base but otherwise mostly white; upper margin of spoon (fig. 9) nar- 
rowly blackish, outer angles each with a small black spot ; on one edge 
of narrow portion and extending onto the spoon is a fringe of quite 
long pale hairs; at each outer angle of the spoon is a somewhat fan-shaped 
cluster of hairs, which appear brown in certain lights; three pair of inner 
appendages; the first (fig. 10) black, with a thorn-like projection on side 
and fringed with small hairs; second (fig. 11) yellowish with a curved 
thorn on side and with end enlarged; third pair (fig. 12) yellow, halter- 
like. 

All coxse black with white pollen ; anterior surface of fore coxae with a 
few pale hairs and with a row of five, rather small, black bristles on 
outer edge of apical half; middle and hind coxse with a few stiff black 
hairs at tip; all femora and tibiae green; fore tibiae on most of apical two- 
fifths black with some coppery reflections ; all tarsi black, sometimes more 
or less greenish ; fore femora thickened, with numerous spines below, 
those near the base nearly as long as thickness of femora at point of in- 
sertion, those near tip short; anterior tibia (figures 13, 14) thickened and 
bent; on anterior surface a little beyond middle a large, slightly bent 
thorn ; about opposite this thorn on lower edge begins a row of large, 
black, stubby bristles ; when viewed from tip along inner surface these 
bristles bend inward and there are several bristles around the thorn that 
bend towards those in lower row ; at tip is a large lobe extending down- 
ward, which has a row of small hairs on edge nearest femora, two small 
bristle-like hairs at tip, and delicate hairs on apical edge, where there are 
also a few stubby spines near tip; on upper portion of end of tibia ate 
some small yellow hairs ; middle femora long, not thickened, arched, with 
a few short bristles, six on upper and four or five on lower anterior edge, 
none as long as diameter of femora; middle tibiae (figs. 15, 16) with long, 
black, curled hair on nearly their whole lower surface, these hairs a little 
longer near tip; on upper posterior edge of middle half, is a row of eight 
bristles scarcely as long as diameter of tibia at their insertion ; commenc- 
ing on upper anterior edge a little beyond the middle is a row of long, 
deep black bristles, this row slants downward and becomes a dense cluster 
just beyond apical third; they are as long as the thickened end of tibia; 
two moderately long bristles below and two above near apical end of 
tibia; posterior femora and tibia long and rather slender, the former only 
a little thicker than middle femora, and with a few short bristles, the 
latter without bristles; all tarsi plain; first joint of fore tarsi with rather 



Vol. XIV] 



VAN DUZEE—SCELLUS VIRAGO ALDRICH 



179 




Explanation of Figures 
Fig. 1, virago Aldrich, anal appendage. Fig. 2, virago, tip of anal ap- 
pendage seen from the rear. Fig. 3, virago, first inner appendage of the 
hypopygium. Fig. 4, virago, second inner appendage. Fig. 5, virago, 
fore tibia, posterior view. Fig. 6, virago, tip of fore tibia, anterior view. 
Fig. 7, virago, middle tibia and base of tarsi. Fig. 8, crinipes, new species, 
anal appendage. Fig. 9, crinipes, tip of anal appendage seen from above. 
Fig. 10, crinipes, first inner appendage of the hypopygium. Fig. 11, 
crinipes, second inner appendage. Fig. 12, crinipes, third inner appendage. 



jgQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

long, dense, delicate hairs below ; posterior basitarsus with several small 
bristles on upper surface, two being slightly longer than diameter of 
joint. Following are lengths of tibioe and tarsal joints in twenty-fifths of 
a millimeter: fore tibia, 44; joints of fore tarsi, 42-29-19-11-8; middle 
tibia, 84; joints of middle tarsi, 49-24-14-9-8; posterior tibia, 78; joints 
of posterior tarsi, 57-35-19-12-8. Calypters whitish with a brown tip and 
short white cilia. Halteres yellow. 

Wings grayish on posterior half, tinged with brown from the costa to 
back of third vein, in basal half of discal cell, extending back of fifth vein 
and along fourth vein; a distinct brown spot on bend of last section of 
fourth vein, and a double spot on the cross-vein ; costa as far as tip of 
first vein yellowish, other veins brown, except at extreme base ; tips of 
third and fourth veins close together; sixth vein reaching about half-way 
to wing margin; cross vein 20, last section of fifth vein 12 twenty-fifths 
of a millimeter long, the latter at nearly right-angles to wing margin ; the 
former oblique, but not parallel with the wing margin. 

Female: Length 4.5-6 mm.; of wing 6-7.2 mm. Color of all parts about 
same as in male; face a little wider; joints of antennae 8-4-18 twenty- 
fifths of a millimeter, arista 15/25; fore femora with spines below as in 
male; anterior tibia thickened, with a small projection below at tip, which 
has a fringe of stiff hairs on the edge nearest the femora; these tibiae with 
several bristles on upper surface and two rows below, two or three of the 
bristles in the lower anterior row being as long as thickness of tibia; 
middle femora and tibiae nearly straight and plain with a few short scat- 
tering bristles. Following is length of tibiae and tarsal joints in twenty- 
fifths of a millimeter: fore tibia, 47; joints of fore tarsi, 35-25-17-11-7; 
middle tibia, 86; joints of middle tarsi, 48-23-15-9-8; posterior tibia, 101; 
joints of hind tarsi, 51-32-20-11-8. Wings about as in the male. 

Described from five males and eight females ; one pair taken 
at mouth of Bear River, Utah, July 2, 1916, by Dr. Alexander 
Wetmore ; the others taken by me in the grass on the shore at 
Saltair, Great Salt Lake, Utah, June 8, 1915. The type and 
allotype are from among the latter specimens and are in the 
author's collection. Paratypes in the California Academy of 
Sciences and the U. S. National Museum. 



Scellus varipennis Van Duzee, new species 

Male : Length, without the anal appendages, 7 mm. ; with appendages, 
9.5 mm.; length of wing, 8 mm. Face wide; palpi and face covered with 
yellowish gray pollen ; front opaque with brown pollen, except a narrow 
line of pale pollen along the orbits; antennae (fig. 17), black; length of 
its joints in twenty-fifths of a millimeter are 10-4-28, and of arista, 8; 
arista inserted close to the tip; upper part of the posterior orbits with six 
large black bristles; one pair of postverticals ; beard abundant, long, white. 



Vol. XIV] WAN DUZEE—SCELLUS VIRAGO ALDRICH 

T 



181 




Explanation of Figures 

Fig. 13, crinipes, fore tibia, seen from above. Fig. 14, crinipcs, fore tibia, 
anterior view. Fig. 15, crinipes, middle tibia, upper anterior view. Fig. 
16, crinipes, middle tibia, posterior view. Fig. 17, varipcnnis, new species, 
antenna of male. Fig. 18, varipcnnis, anal appendage. Fig. 19, varipcnnis, 
first inner appendage of the hypopygium. Fig. 20, varipcnnis, second inner 
appendage. Fig. 21, varipcnnis, third inner appendage. Fig 22, vari- 
pcnnis, fore tibia, anterior view. Fig. 23, varipcnnis, middle tibia and 
base of tarsi. 



2g2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY '^F SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Dorsum of thorax coppery, so thickly covered with grayish brown pollen 
as almost to conceal the ground color, except on the posterior flattened 
space before the scutellum, with a narrow dark line each side of the small 
acrostichal bristles ; dorsocentrals small, except posterior two ; prothorax 
with three large black bristles and several pale hairs above fore coxa; 
scutellum more green than thorax and with one pair of marginal bristles; 
dorsum of abdomen coppery, covered with white pollen on sides; each 
segment with three black dots on lower edge of sides ; abdomen with six 
visible segments on dorsal line ; the long anal appendages issue from be- 
tween fourth and fifth segments, on sides of the dorsum (fig. 18), bend 
near the base and from that point extend almost directly backward, base 
black, middle portion white and most of the spoon-shaped end brown ; be- 
fore base of spoon a yellowish horn and beyond this a pale appendage, 
which seems to be formed of flattened bristles fused together at their base; 
a large, more or less fan-shaped tuft of pale bristles at tip of spoon; upper 
portion of hypopygium concealed within seventh segment of abdomen, up- 
per part of posterior surface with a number of pale bristles extending back- 
ward; three pair of inner appendages, the first (fig. 19) black, wide, 
with two points, each tipped with a tuft of yellow hairs ; the fringe of 
hairs on upper edge more grayish; second pair (fig. 20) yellow, quite 
slender and bent, with a few short hairs near middle; third pair (fig. 
21) black, elongate, rounded at tip, fringed with pale hairs, widely sep- 
arated, being placed on each side near the venter of fifth segment. 

Coxae black or slightly coppery ; anterior pair covered with dark gray 
pollen on front surface, which has a few pale hairs and also a row of 
very short black bristles on apical half ; middle coxae with black bristle- 
like hairs at tip ; all trochanters with several small spines or bristles ; all 
femora coppery, dulled with gray pollen, sometimes with green reflections 
at base ; anterior pair much thickened at base, tapering to their tips, with 
many stout bristles below, those at base long, the ones near tip very short ; 
fore tibiae (fig. 22) 52 twenty-fifths of a millimeter long, stout, with a 
large projection below at tip, metallic green, dulled with gray pollen, 
tip black, this color extending as a stripe on posterior surface nearly to 
middle, with a row of about six short, stout bristles extending basad from 
the end of black stripe, but not reaching base; on lower anterior surface 
with a row of larger bristles, which are as long as thickness of tibia, and ex- 
tend along lower edge of projection at tip of tibia to its apex, those on 
the projection shorter and spine-like; above tip of projection two of these 
spines and a fringe of yellow hairs at tip of tibia. The thorn usually 
found on anterior surface of tibia in this genus is represented by a 
small, shining black, elevation on the surface near apical third, this with 
the appearance of a black transverse line with two slight elevations, the 
upper of which is only slightly raised above the surface; middle femora 
long, bent, a little thickened in the middle, without any long bristles, their 
hair black, except a row of short, very delicate pale ones on lower pos- 
terior surface; middle tibia (fig. 23) green, dulled with gray pollen, with 
coppery reflections on upper surface, except at tip; lower posterior sur- 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—SCELLUS VIRAGO ALDRICH lg3 

face dark, shining green; tibise a little thickened and bent downward just 
before tip ; below close to tip a pair of long curved thorns and a pair of 
shorter bristles above near tip ; two long bristles on upper posterior sur- 
face of basal half; on anterior surface is one long bristle near base above 
and a row of three long ones beginning at middle; beyond these two 
smaller ones, one below the other. The whole lower surface of these 
tibice is covered with long, black, curled hair; many of these hairs, longer 
than thickness of tibia; they are mostly of nearly equal length from base 
to near tip, where they end abruptly, leaving tip of tibia bare; viewed from 
above there is a dense bunch of very black, long, curled hair near tip on 
posterior surface, these connected with those on lower surface; posterior 
femora distinctly thickened, with three rather small bristles on upper 
surface of apical third; near lower edge of anterior surface of basal half 
is a row of black bristles, also another row of bristles on lower edge of 
anterior surface of apical half ; posterior tibia 102 twenty-fifths of a 
millimeter long and bent near apical third when seen from above; lower 
surface hollowed out before tip, which projects a little downward at apex; 
lower surface of apical third with a row of small black spines which end 
before tip; on upper posterior surface a stripe of dense, very short, yellow 
hairs, which reach from tip nearly to middle; first joint of anterior tarsi 
with a dense fringe of short golden yellow hairs on whole of lower an- 
terior surface, and a fringe of longer black hairs on lower posterior sur- 
face, first joint of middle tarsi (fig. 23) with several long bristles at base 
below, fully as long as curved thorns at tip of tibia; also several shorter 
bristles beyond these ; hind tarsi with two or three bristles above, which 
are as long as diameter of joint; length of joints of tarsi given below 
in twenty-fifths of a millimeter; joints of fore tarsi, 37-28-20-14-11; of 
middle ones, 56-25-18-11-10; joints of hind tarsi, 58-41-26-15-11. Calypters 
and halteres yellow, the former with white cilia. 

Wings tinged with brown, posterior margin and center of cells more 
gray; a conspicuous whitish spot back of fifth vein near root of wing; 
they have a dark brown spot on the bend of last section of fourth vein 
and a double spot on the cross-vein ; sixth vein faint, not reaching wing 
margin; last section of fifth vein 12, of cross-vein 23, twenty-fifths of a 
millimeter long. Described from two males. 

Type: Male, No. 1647, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
C. L. Fox, August 2, 1922, at Lake City, Modoc Co., Califor- 
nia. Paratype, male, same data. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 11, pp. 185-215. August 14, 1925 



XI 

BEES IN THE COLLECTION OF CALIFORNIA 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

BY 

T. D. A. COCKERELL 

University of Colorado \ 

1. Colletes myroni Cockerell 

Female: San Francisco, California, April 30, 1911 (J. A. 
Kusche). This is a surprising* record, as the species was de- 
scribed from Colorado. The head and pleura have black hair, 
while that on the thorax above is bright ferruginous. 



2. Colletes slevini Cockerell, new species 

Female: Length about 11 mm., anterior wing 7 mm.; black, the head 
and thorax densely covered with clear tawny yellow hair, becoming 
whitish on cheeks and thorax beneath, on dorsum of thorax rather short 
but not moss-like, and without black hairs intermixed ; head broad, orbits 
converging below ; malar space much broader than long ; mandibles 
black; clypeus densely and coarsely striate-punctate, glistening; antennae 
entirely black, flagellum short ; mesothorax smooth and shining on disc 
posteriorly; base of metathorax transversely channelled, with plicae at 
sides ; tegulae very dark brown ; wings hyaline, appearing milky ; stigma 
small, dark brown; nervures black, second cubital cell very broad, receiv-l 
ing recurrent nervure in middle ; legs with pale hair ; abdomen with the 
first segment opaque except posteriorly, the punctures fine and weak ; 
following segments more shining, all with apical yellow hair bands i^ale 
and not very dense ; first segment with much yellowish hair at base, and 

August 14, 1925 



jg^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

long hairs overlapping the middle part. Basal nervure falling consid- 
erably short of nervulus. 

Easily known from such species as C. americana Cresson by 
the dull, not polished, first abdominal segment. In this it 
rather resembles C. andreivsi Ckll., but differs from it by 
being considerably smaller and less robust, with very much 
shorter wings. 

Type: Female, No. 1648, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by L. S. Slevin, September 24, 1922, at Paraiso Springs, 
Monterey County, California. 

3. Colletes daleae Cockerell 
Three females. La Paz, June 29 (Ferris). 

4. Hylaeus conspicuus (Metz) 

Males: Santa Clara County, California, July 1, 1916 (W. 
M. Giffard). Compared with cotypes received from Metz. 
Mokelumne Hill, California, September (Blaisdell), 

5. Hylaeus asininus (Cockerell & Casad) 

Males: Potholes, Imperial County, California, April 10, 
1923 (Van Duzee). 

6. Hylaeus giffardiellus Cockerell, new species 

Male : Length about 6.5 mm. ; black, with the face markings deep 
chrome yellow and the wings fuliginous ; orbits little converging below, 
face broad, entirely deep yellow (orange) below level of antennre ; supra- 
clypeal mark much longer than broad, not notched above ; lateral marks 
cut off mesad at about middle of supraclypeal mark, but extending as 
bands up orbital margins, ending abruptly but not dilated (style of H. 
citrinifrons Ckll.) ; labrum with a yellow spot and mandibles largely yel- 
low; scape a little dilated, with a yellow stripe in front; flagellum bright 
ferruginous beneath; front and mesothorax (except posteriorly) dull, 
with very dense fine punctures ; scutellum shining, the strong punctures 
distinctly separated; posterior face of metathorax dull, with a narrow 
shining median groove; prothorax above (except middle) and tubercles 
broadly yellow; tegulae with a yellow spot; anterior tibise in front, middle 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES Jg/ 

tibiae broadly at base and a mark at apex, and !)asal half of hind tibiae, 
yellow ; basitarsi pale yellow, more or less dark at apex ; first recurrent 
nervure reaching apical corner of first cubital cell ; abdomen strongly and 
distinctly punctured ; first segment with a small fringe of white hair at 
sides ; second and third segments swollen in middle so that their apices 
appear depressed; hind margin of fourth and fifth segments faintly 
reddish. 

Allied to H. citrinifrons (Prosopis citrinifrons Ckll.), but 
easily separated by the color of the antennas, the longer supra- 
clypeal marks, and strongly punctured abdomen. The face is 
much broader than in H. stevensi Crawford. 

Type: Male, No. 1649, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
W. M. Giffard, May 24, 1917, in San Joaquin Co., California. 
Paratype, one male, same data. 



7. Parandrena concinnula Cockerell 

Males from Whittier, Calif., Feb. 22, 1911, on flowers of 
Rhus (P. H. Timberlake). This is the first exact locality for 
the species. 



8. Diandrena perchalybea (Viereck) 

Females: Carmel, California, May 19 (Van Dyke). The 
hair of the head and thorax above is conspicuously paler than 
in a specimen from Washington State, whence the species was 
described, but the difference cannot indicate another species. 
The bees, like the birds and mammals, tend to melanism north- 
ward in the Pacific coast region, but good series from many 
localities will be required before we can fully elucidate the 
phenomenon and clearly distinguish whatever local races may 
exist. This work should of course be done by a resident of 
one of the coast States. 

A male from Mokelumne Hill, California (Blaisdell), is re- 
ferred here, though the male of D. perchalybea has not been 
described, and the reference should be confirmed by field ob- 
servations. It is exceedingly like the males of D. nothocalaidis 
Ckll. and D. cyanosoma Ckll, the abdomen being duller than 
in the former, but more shining than in the latter. In all three 



Jgg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the face has long- white hair, black along the orbits. In D. 
cyanosoma the area of metathorax is finely wrinkled or sub- 
reticulate all over, with short transverse rugae on each side of 
middle line; in D. nothocalaidis it is quite different, with fewer 
rugae, and well separated longitudinal ones in the basal part. 
In the) male supposed to belong to D. perchalybea, it is sculpn 
tured practically as in D. nothocalaidis, but the posterior angle 
of the enclosure is much wider. The flagellum is much redder 
than in D. nothocalaidis. 

The metathoracic sculpture of the male differs appreciably 
from that of the female D. perchalybea, but the difference is 
similar to that in the undoubted sexes of D. nothocalaidis. 

9. Nomia melanderi Cockerell 

Four males from Payette, Idaho, June 29, 1922 (Van 
Dyke), and one from Los Banos, California, May 22, 1918 
(Van Duzee), have black tegulae, and no green band on first 
abdominal segment, and must be referred to A^. melanderi. The 
abdominal bands are bluish green, and the antennae and struc- 
ture of abdomen, etc., are as in A^. acus Cockerell, which is ap- 
parently to be called A^. melanderi acus, being merely a slightly 
modified southern race. 

10. Nomia califomica Cockerell 

Preston, Idaho, 19 females, July 17, 1922 (Van Duzee) ; 
Logan, Utah, 4 females. July 18, 1922 (Van Duzee) ; Pot- 
holes, Imperial Co., California, 1 female, April 11, 1923 (Van 
Duzee). The Californian specimen has narrower bands than 
the others. The Utah and Idaho records represent a great ex- 
tension of range, but I cannot find any grounds for separating 
them from A^. califomica. 

11. Halictus pavonotus Cockerell, new species 

Female (type) : Length 8 to 9 mm.; head, thorax and abdomen green, 
legs and antennae black; hair of head and thorax abundant, rather long, 
erect, fringed with ochreous, but practically white on cheeks and lower 
part of thorax ; face broad, inner orbits curved, but eyes not distinctly 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES \^g 

cmarginate ; clypeus prominent and produced, shining black, its upper part 
green, the surface longitudinally grooved; mandibles slender, black, rufes- 
cent at tip; supraclypeal area brassy; sides of face and front shining, but 
middle of front dull; mesothorax peacock green (purple in specimen from 
Golden Gate Park), dullish because very densely and finely punctured; 
scutellum shining, well punctured, depressed in middle ; area of metathorax 
broad, well-defined, obtusely pointed behind, entirely covered with fine 
rugae, which at sides form delicate ribs ; sides of metathorax minutely 
roughened and dull ; tegulje punctured, piceous with hyaline margins, 
posteriorly with a red spot; wings hyaline, slightly brownish, stigma dull 
amber, nervures dilute fuscous ; second cubital cell very broad, receiving 
recurrent nervure considerably before its end ; third cubital subquadrate, 
narrowed about a third above; basal nervure falling short of nervulus; 
legs with abundant dull white hair, stained with red on outer side of 
middle tibiae, a pale reddish tuft at end of hind basitarsi ; hind spur curved, 
simple (wholly without spines) ; abdomen blue-green, shining, first seg- 
ment highly polished ; bases of second and following segments broadly 
covered with dull white tomentum, the apical portions also with appressed 
white hairs, evident only in certain lights, the apical half of the abdomen 
becoming very hairy ; basal part of second ventral segment black and very 
finely cross-striate. 

San Francisco, California, March 30, 1913 (Van Dyke), 
March 30, 1919 (Van Duzee), and April 20, 1913 (Van 
Dyke). Also one labelled "Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 
April 21, 1912 (J. C. Thompson)." 

Male : Length hardly 8 mm., more slender ; head and thorax with much 
white hair, not tinged with ochreous ; clypeus green at base, rosy in 
middle, black at apex, where it is strongly bigibbous; supraclypeal area 
bluish green, shining; flagellum long, moniliform, dull red beneath; meso- 
thorax and scutellum shining, but closely punctured ; wings clear ; tarsi 
dark. Taken at San Francisco, October 29, 1911 (Van Dyke). 

A completely isolated species in our fauna, having the ap- 
pearance of the South American genus Pseudagapostemon 
Schrottky, but differing in the simple hind spur of hind tibia. 
There is a slight general reseinblance to H. aqiiilcB Ckll., from 
New Mexico. 

Type: Female, No. 1650, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. C. Van Dyke, March 30, 1913, at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. 



J90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

12. Halictus ovaliceps Cockerell 

Females : Meadow Valley, Plumas County, California, 3500- 
4000 ft., June 5 (Van Dyke) ; Nanaimo, B. C, Biological Sta- 
tion, June 23 (Van Duzee). The British Columbia specimen 
has the flagellum almost entirely black and the first abdominal 
seg^ient dark except the broad apical margin. 

13. Halictus aspilurus Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length 7 mm. ; anterior wing about 4.6 mm. ; head, thorax 
and legs black; abdomen shining, very bright ferruginous; basal part of 
first tergite infuscated, black at sides, other segments with dusky suf4 
fused spots at extreme sides, the apex red without spots ; hair of head 
and thorax very scanty, white, long and erect on mesopleura,' forming a 
narrow, dense fringe along upper margin of prothorax and about tuber- 
cles ; mandibles with about the apical half dark red; head broad, about 
circular seen from in front ; clypeus shining, very sparsely punctured ; 
front dull, excessively closely and minutely punctured ; flagellum ob- 
scurely reddened beneath toward end ; mesothorax and scutellum shining, 
with very minute punctures, quite dense on mesothorax; area of metn- 
thorax semilunar, microscopically reticulated ; posterior truncation shin- 
ing; tegulse rufous with dark base; wings hyaline, faintly reddish; stigma 
large, reddish sepia ; nervures rather pale brown ; first recurrent meeting 
second intercubitus ; second cubital cell very broad below ; legs with 
whitish hair ; hind spur pectinate ; abdomen without hair-bands. 

Resembles H. ovaliceps, but easily known by the round head. 
From H. arizonensis Crawford it is known by the character of 
the pubescence and the entirely red apical part of abdomen. 

Type: Female, No. 1651, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, May 22, 1920, at Pleyto, Monterey Co., 
California. 

14. Halictus farinosus Smith 

Female: Santa Monica, California (F. C. Clark). The 
hind spur of the hind tibia is serrate; in the closely related 
H. lerouxii Lep. it is dentate. 

Female: Tuolumne County, California, June 16 (W. M. 
Giffard). 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 191 

15. Halictus (Seladonia) catalinensis Cockercll 

Female: Santa Cruz Island, California, May 16 (Van 
Duzee). Described from Catalina Island. 

16. Halictus vanduzeei Sandhouse & Cockerell 

Two females. La Paz, June 29 (Ferris). These have the 
face narrower than the type, but otherwise agree. 

17. Agapostemon digueti Cockerell 
Numerous males. La Paz, June 29 (Ferris). 

18. Agapostemon texanus vandykei Cockerell, new subspecies 

Female: Size of A. texanus, but yellowish green, with strong and 
beautiful golden reflections on face and abdomen ; hair of head and 
thorax pale ochreous ; wings dusky all over with a reddish tint. Less 
conspicuous features are the broader face, more finely plicate area of 
metathorax (with slight indications of a differentiated median space) 
and more finely striate posterior truncation. It does not resemble A. 
texanus iowensis Ckll., and compared with that form, the strise on 
truncation of metathorax are much more nearly vertical (less trans- 
verse). The area of metathorax is more like that of A. texayius subtilior 
Ckll., but that form is quite differently colored. From A. borealis Craw- 
ford, which is another segregate from A. texanus, the present form will 
be known by the smaller size and golden (instead of bluish) reflections. 

As the three specimens are alike, we doubtless have a dis- 
tinct subspecies or race. 

Type: Female, No. 1652, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. C. Van Dyke, June 25, 1921, in Yosemite Valley, Cali- 
fornia. Paratypes, two females, same place, July 1, 1921. 

19. Sphecodes arvensiformis Cockerell 

Males: Lagoon, Utah, June 30 (Van Duzee) ; Sobre Vista, 
Sonoma County, California, May 12 (J. A. Kusche). 5. 
arvensiformis was described from the female. These entirely 
black males are referred to it on the basis of probabilities, but 
the reference should be confirmed by biological observations. 



192 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

They very closely resemble the male of S. arvensis Patton, but 
are distinctly larger, with darker wings, and more robust 
flagellum. The Utah form differs from that of California by 
the uniformly dusky wings, those of the latter being pale, with 
the apical margin broadly dusky. In the California specimen 
the first recurrent nervure meets the second intercubitus ; but 
one Utah specimen has the second cubital cell rather broad, 
with the recurrent nervure near its end, while the other has the 
cell narrow, and the recurrent near the middle. I extracted the 
genitalia from the California specimen and the Utah one with 
broad second cubital, and do not see any material difference. 
Females of ^. arvensiformis have the second cubital narrow. 
As matters stand at present, it appears necessary to refer these 
black males to 5*. arvensiformis, but future work may prove the 
existence of more than one species of this alliance in the region 
concerned. 

20. Perdita pyrifera Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length about 5.5 mm. ; head and thorax green, the meso- 
thorax shining yellowish green, and very sparsely punctured ; wings 
remarkably short, strongly dusky, stigma and nervures sepia brown ; 
abdomen flattened, dullish, entirely light yellowish ferruginous except a 
pair of suffused black spots on first segment, and a black line at each 
extreme side of second ; the second and third segments may show suffused 
and faint traces of transverse yellowish bands ; head ordinary, facial 
quadrangle longer than broad ; no supraclypeal or dog-ear marks ; clypeus 
shining black, sparsely punctured, with a very slender median pale line 
(sometimes reduced to a dot) on upper part; labrum black, prominent, 
concave in middle ; mandibles light yellow, black at end ; lateral face 
marks large, very pale yellow, pear-shaped, the very acute upper end on 
orbit at about level of antennae; flagellum pale yellowish beneath; front 
dull ; cheeks unarmed ; tubercles and two marks on upper border of pro- 
thorax light yellow; pleura shining; tegulse dark in front, very pale be- 
hind ; second cubital cell very large, greatly narrowed above ; anterior 
and middle femora robust ; legs black, or very dark brown ; anterior and 
middle knees, and broad stripe down their tibiae in front, pale yellow. 

Runs in my table next to the much smaller and quite differ- 
ent P. chamcEsarachcc Ckll. Superficially, it resembles P. rufi- 
cauda Ckll., but is easily separated by the jX)lished mesothorax, 
and first recurrent nervure joining second cubital cell a short 
distance from base, instead of meeting tlie intercubitus. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 193 

Type: Female, No. 1653, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, May 22, 1920, at Pleyto, Monterey Co., 
California. Paratypes, two females, same data. 

21. Perdita claypolei Cockerell 

Female: Mt. San Antonio, California, 5000 ft., at flowers 
of Eriogonum fasciciilatum, August 22 (Timberlake). The 
head and thorax are yellowish green instead of blue-green as 
they are in a cotype from Mt. Lowe. 

22. Perdita exclamans imperialis Cockerell, new subspecies 

Female: Lateral face-marks linear above, not reaching level of ocelli; 
bands on abdominal segments narrower, those on second and third like 
those on fourth and fifth. The hind margin even except for a broad 
median notch, and the obhque extensions at extreme sides to edge of 
abdomen ; yellow mark on lower part of cheeks reduced to a small spot. 

Type: Female, No. 1654, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, April 8, 1923, at Potholes, Imperial Co., 
California, on mesquite. Typical exclamans Ckll. also visits 
mesquite. 

23. Perdita cleomellae Cockerell, new species 

Female (type): Length about 4 mm.; head and thorax shining dark 
green, with white or cream-colored markings, the mesothorax and scutel- 
lum very highly polished ; head ordinary, cheeks unarmed ; labial palpi 
with last three joints together shorter than first; labrum, mandibles (ex- 
cept apically), clypeus, quadrate supraclypeal mark; and lateral marks 
forming broad bands ending obliquely at level of antennae, white; cheeks 
dark, with white hair ; no dog-ear marks ; scape creamy-white ; flagellum 
dark, pallid beneath, and the tip pallid above ; collar and tubercles cream- 
color ; tegulse hyaline with a white spot ; wings clear hyaline, stigma and 
marginal cell margined with brown ; first four legs and hind femora 
cream color, hind tibias and tarsi blackish, the tibiae pale at base ; abdomen 
cream-color with four entire black bands ; apical plate red ; venter en- 
tirely pale. 

Male : Length a little over 3 mm. ; face polished, entirely creamy-white 
below antennae, the lateral marks extending some distance up sides of 
front, ending very obliquely ; flagellum light brown above, pale yellow 
below ; hind tibiae pale yellow ; abdomen with five bands, but they are 
more or less brown, especially the last two. 

August 14, 1925 



J94 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Both sexes at flowers of Cleomella obtusifolia; Barstow, 
California, September 12, 1924 (P. H. Timberlake). Numer- 
ous specimens were taken on the flowers. The female comes 
close to P. interserta Ckll., from Los Angeles County, Cali- 
fornia, but is easily separated by the small size and white mark- 
ings. There is also some resemblance to the much larger P. 
townsendi Ckll. The male shows some resemblance to P. ex- 
damans atramentata Ckll, from Sonora. Two paratypes have 
been deposited in the collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

24. Perdita timberlakei Cockerell, new species 

Female (type) : Length slightly over 4 mm. ; head and thorax shin- 
ing dark blue-green, yellowish green or mesothorax ; head small, without 
light markings, but mandibles ferruginous beyond base, scape pale yellow 
in front, flagellum dusky reddish beneath; upper border of prothorax and 
tubercles pale yellow ; tegulae hyaline, with a yellow spot ; wings hyaline, 
stigma and marginal cell dusky-margined ; legs black, with the anterior 
tibix very broadly light lemon-yellow in front, their tarsi pale reddish ; 
middle tibiae with a yellow stripe ; abdomen black, with four lemon- 
yellow bands, only the first reaching the lateral margins ; first segment 
yellow at base, and this connected with a large discal more or less tri- 
lobed yellow spot ; venter brown. 

Male : Length about 3 mm. ; face below antennae, labrum and mandi- 
bles, clear white, the lateral marks extending to a point about half way 
up front ; scape robust, light yellow in front ; flagellum light yellow be- 
neath ; yellow on upper border of prothorax reduced to a spot at each 
corner; anterior and middle femora yellow beneath; first four tibiae 
yellow, hind tibiae yellow in front; abdomen dark brown, with yellow 
bands at bases of second and third segments, and vestiges of one on 
fourth. 

At flowers of an annual Eriogonum, Riverside, California, 
September 24, 1924 (P. H. Timberlake). Runs in the tables 
near to P. subfasciata Ckll. and P. punctifera Ckll., but is quite 
distinct. It is not at all allied to P. ftorissantella Ckll., which 
visits Eriogonum in Colorado. Two paratypes have been de- 
posited in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 

25. Perdita vittata Cockerell 
Two females, La Paz, June 29 (Ferris). 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 195 

26. Spinoliella peninsularis Cockerell 
Very many specimens, both sexes, La Paz, June 29 (Ferris). 

27. Spinoliella edwardsii (Cresson) 

Male and female: Huntington Lake, California, 7000 ft., 
July 10 (Van Duzee). The female is of the form lateralis 
(Cresson) ; male, Fallen Leaf Lake, Lake Tahoe, July (L. S. 
Rosenbaum) , 

28. Spinoliella scutellaris (Fowler) 

Both sexes; Salt Lake City, Utah, June 25 (Van Duzee) ; 
male. Lagoon, Utah, June 30 (Van Duzee) ; females, Logan, 
Utah, July 18, and Saltair, July 12 (Van Duzee). The male 
is easily known by the abruptly dark apical part of the antennae. 
The female was described by Fowler as Calliopsis visaliensis. 
The type of 5. scutellaris was taken by Woodworth at Fresno, 
that of visaliensis by the same collector at Visalia, both on 
May 9. 

It is now clear that 6', scutellaris peninsularis Ckll. is a dis- 
tinct species, Spinoliella peninsularis. The male, collected by 
Ferris at La Paz, June 29, has the flagellum white beneath to 
the end. 

29. Spinoliella anthidius (Fowler) 

Male : Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mts., California, July 
(F. C. Clark). Fowler's description is of the male, not female 
as he has it. The abdominal bands, broadly interrupted sub- 
laterally, are very distinctive. This species has previously been 
known only from Fowler's type, collected by Woodworth at 
Tulare. 

30. Spinoliella triangulifera Cockerell, new species 

Female: Length slightly over 7 mm.; black, with cream-colored sub- 
equilateral triangular marks at lower corners of face, and large cream- 
colored spots at sides of first four abdominal segments, those on first two 
rounded, on the others transverse, pointed mesad ; hair of head and thorax 



j^^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

quite long and abundant, grey, more brownish dorsally ; clypeus shining, 
with irregular strong punctures, and a very inconspicuous median pale 
line, not extending more than half way down ; flagellum obscurely reddish 
beneath ; mesothorax highly polished, very sparsely punctured ; tegulse 
black ; wings strongly greyish ; stigma and nervures dark brown ; abdomen 
broad, shining. 

Type: Female, No. 1655, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. C. Van Dyke, July 1, 1921, at Yosemite Valley, Cali- 
fornia. 

Closely allied to S. edivardsii yar, lateralis (Cress.), but 
smaller, the wings not so strongly reddened, more greyish, and 
the scutellum not excavated or depressed in middle. It is also 
related to S. ohscurella (Cress.), but that species is larger, 
with flagellum bright ferruginous beneath, and continuous 
bands on abdomen. 



31. Spinoliella equina Cockerell, new species 

Female (type) : Length nearly 7 mm.; black, with cream-colored mark- 
ings; hair of head and thorax dull whitish, dorsally becoming brownish; 
eyes green; mandibles whitish at base, then red, apically black; labrum 
black; clypeus light, with a large black horse-shoe shaped mark (the arms 
ending on upper margin), from which there is a small projection on each 
side, or rarely the middle of clypeus is entirely black, except a small pale 
spot ; superaclypeal and dog-ear marks present ; lateral face marks very 
broad triangles with base on orbit, the upper point acute, level with an- 
tennje; flagellum rather dull red beneath, except at base; mesothorax shin- 
ing, sparsely punctured ; post-scutellum and obscure spot on tubercles 
cream-color ; tegulae piceous ; wings hyaline, very faintly dusky ; stigma 
slender, very pale reddish, nervures brown ; anterior and middle knees, and 
anterior tibiae in front, pale yellow; anterior tarsi red; abdomen with 
cream-colored bands, interrupted on first two segments (very broadly on 
second), notched or slightly interrupted on third, entire on fourth; all 
these bands excavated sublaterally behind. 

Male : Described by Swenk and Cockerell as the male of 6". Iicsperia, 
but evidently belonging to the present species. 5". hesperia Swenk & Ckll. 
must be restricted to the form described from the female, which has bright 
yellow markings. 

The female resembles S. anstralior Ckll., but that species 
lacks the dog-ear marks (at each side of supraclypeal mark), 
and has the postscutellum black. The face-marks of female 
vS". equina resemble those of the much larger S. sehrata (Cress). 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES \^'J 

Type: Female, No. 1656, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, August 21, 1919, at Stockton, California. 

The above species of Spinoliella may be separated by the 
following key : 

Lower side of flagellum with end broadly black or very dark, abrupt- 
ly contrasting with the creamy-white before; males 

scutellaris (Fowler) 

Flagellum not thus colored 1 

1. Clypeus entirely pale or with only a pair of black dots; males.. 2 
Clypeus not, or not all, pale ; females 4 

2. Large species, fully 10 mm. long; face light yellow 

anthidius ( Fowler) 

Much smaller species 3 

3. Flagellum dark or reddish beneath edwardsii (Cresson) 

Flagellum pale yellowish beneath equina Ckll. 

4. No pale color at sides of clypeus, which has only a median pale 

stripe 5 

Sides of clypeus with large pale spots or all pale 6 

5. Larger, wings reddish, scutellum excavated or depressed in 

middle edwardsii lateralis (Cresson) 

Smaller, wings greyish, scutellum not excavated or depressed in 
middle triangiiUfera Ckll. 

6. Lateral face marks short, or reduced to dots. scutellaris (Fowler) 
Lateral face marks long, reaching to level of antennae above.... 

equina Ckll. 



32. Calliopsis pugionis Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length a little over 7.5 mm. ; black, with the anterior and 
middle knees shining yellow, an interrupted yellow band on upper margin 
of prothorax (but tubercles black), and lemon-yellow markings on face, 
as follows: triangular supraclypeal mark (highly polished and im- 
punctate), lateral corners of clypeus broadly, and upper and lateral mar- 
gins narrowly, with a dagger-shaped median line from the upper margin, 
hardly reaching half way to apex, and very broad lateral face-marks, 
separated from clypeus at upper part, and ending acutely on orbital 
margin above level of antennae; face very broad; eyes deep green; mandi- 
bles red in middle ; flagellum bright ferruginous beneath ; hair of head 
and thorax largely white, but dorsally pale fulvous, short on thorax above ; 
mesothorax closely punctured; base of metathorax highly polished; tegulae 
dark brown ; wings brownish, stigma and nervures brown ; abdomen shin- 
ing, with four white hair-bands, that on first segment broadly interrupted 
in middle; hind margins of segments rufescent; ventral segments with 
transverse depressions, deep on second. 



jQg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Nearest to E. coloradensis Cresson, but easily separated by 
the color of the face-marks. 

Type: Female, No. 1657, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, June 3, 1917, at Soboba Springs, River- 
side Co., California. 



33. Panurginus atriceps (Cresson) 

Male: Carmel, Monterey County, California, March 25 
(Van Duzee). Known by the entirely black face of the male, 
and the first recurrent nervure meeting first intercubitus, or 
even falling basad of it. It is related rather to P. albopilosus 
(Lucas), of Spain and Algeria, than to the other N. American 
species. 

Females: Portland, Oregon, July 3 (W. M. Giffard). 



34. Hesperapis pellucidus Cockerell, new species 

Male : Length about 7 mm. ; black, with abundant pure white hair ; 
runs in my table and Crawford's to H. larrea Ckll., which it very closely 
resembles, having the same size and appearance, clear wings, and long 
white hair covering clypeus. It differs thus : flagellum black, with at most 
a very obscure reddish tint beneath ; mesothorax more distinctly punc- 
tured ; extreme base of metathoracic area dull and granular ; first recur- 
rent nervure nearer base of second cubital cell, and much nearer to base 
than second to apex ; basal nervure not so remote from nervulus ; hind 
margins of abdominal segments with broad dense pure white bands of 
tomentum. The insect has the aspect of a small Colletes. 

Numerous males from San Francisco, California, April 20- 
June 6 (E. P. Van Duzee and F. E. Blaisdell). There is a 
rather close general resemblance to H. leucura Ckll., from 
Lower California. 

Type: Male, No. 1658, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, June 6, 1920, at San Francisco, California. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES I99 

35. Halictoides davidsoni Cockerell 

Many males from Huntington Lake, Fresno County, Cali- 
fornia, 7000 ft., July 4 to 28 (E. P. Van Duzee and F. C. 
Clark), and one from Cascada, Fresno County, 6000 ft., July 
29 (Van Duzee). There are also two females from Hunting- 
ton Lake, July 8 (Van Duzee). The female runs in my table 
(Entom. News, 1916, p. 62) to the same place as H. mulleri 
Ckll., but is readily known from that species by the absence of 
the broad bands of dull white tomentum at bases of abdominal 
segments, though there is a very slender band at base of fourth 
segment, only visible when the segment is much exserted. 
Other features are the greenish, highly polished and strongly 
punctured mesothorax, the long, black hair on clypeus, and the 
flagellum only very obscurely reddish beneath. 

36. Halictoides (Cryptohalictoides) spiniferus (Viereck) 

Males from Huntington Lake, Fresno County, California, 
July 9 to 28 (E. P. Van Duzee and F. C. Clark). Described 
from Nevada; Miss Stinchfield (now Mrs. Ferris) informed 
me that the female had been taken at Gem Lake, Calif. 

37. Halictoides virgatus Cockerell 
Male: Bradley, California, April 27 (Van Duzee). 

38. Halictoides mulleri Cockerell 

Male : Pyramid Park, El Dorado County, California, 8000 
ft., August 8 (Van Dyke). In this specimen the scape is un- 
usually stout. 

39. Halictoides holocyaneus Cockerell, new species 

Male : Length about 9 mm. ; head, thorax and abdomen steel blue, the 
region below the ocelli yellowish green, and the abdomen greenish; legs 
also more or less metallic; hair of head and thorax abundant, dull white, 
with some dark hair at sides of face, and long dense pure white hair on 
clypeus; head broad, facial quadrangle broader than long; mandibles 
ferruginous at apex; lower part of front excavated in middle; antennae 



200 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

very long, dark, the flagellar joints modose, and obscurely reddish beneath 
between the modes ; mesothorax shining, finely but not densely punctured ; 
scutellum highly polished, hardly punctured in middle ; base of meta- 
thorax roughened ; tegulae piceous ; wings smoky hyaline, stigma and 
nervures reddish brown, the color dull ; first recurrent nervure as far from 
base of second cubital cell as second from apex ; legs with dull whitish 
hair, not greatly modified ; middle femora stout ; hind femora very stout, 
claviform ; hind trochanters spined ; hind tibiae very robust ; abdomen 
without hair bands, but with thin white hair on first three segments, and 
black beyond; fifth ventral segment with a cuneiform red area in middle. 

Easily known by the blue color and relatively unmodified 
legs. It is much larger than A'', viridcsccns Crawford, from 
California. 

Type: Male, No. 1659, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. C. Van Dyke, July 8, 1922, at Baker, Oregon. Paratype, 
one male, same data. 



40. Halictoides spilurus Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length about 7 mm. ; head and thorax dark green ; clypeus, 
antennae and legs black ; abdomen rufof ulvous, the first segment black 
except apical margin, second black at sides, and sufFusedly blackened in 
middle, third laterally very broadly black, but both second and third have 
broad depressed hyaline margins beyond the black, fourth and fifth with 
narrower black bands laterally, the black in all cases strongest along the 
hind margins of the elevated part of the segment, giving the eflfect of 
broad oblique stripes or bands ; head, thorax and legs with long erect 
white hair, but much black on upper part of clypeus and scape, and on 
thorax above the hair is slightl}' yellowish ; the hair is very long and 
spreading on hind tibiae ; head transversely oval, facial quadrangle much 
broader than long ; mandibles obscurely reddish apically ; clypeus trans- 
verse, shining, strongly but not very densely punctured ; front and vertex 
granular ; mesothorax shining, with close small punctures ; scutellum 
polished, not so distinctly punctured; area of metathorax transversely 
broadly and deeply hollowed, channel-like, finely striate ; tegulse piceous, 
very dark; wings greyish hyaline, stigma and nervures dark brown; first 
recurrent nervure nearer to base of second cubital cell than second to 
apex ; legs ordinary, spurs ferruginous ; first abdominal segment polished, 
with very weak punctures; rest of abdomen shining, but less brilliant; 
apical tuft red; fourth ventral segment with a broad transverse depression. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 201 

Very distinct by the color and markings of the abdomen. 

Type: Female, No. 1660, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, July 12, 1919, at Huntington Lake, 
Fresno Co., California, at 7000 ft. Paratypes, two females, 
same place, July 22, 1919. 

41. Pseudomelecta calif ornica (Cresson) 
Oracle, Arizona, July 24 (J. O. Martin). 

42. Ericrocis arizonensis Baker 

Oracle, Arizona, July 24, 1924, at sunflower (Van Duzee). 
Oracle is the type locality, the original specimens having been 
collected there by Osier. 

43. Triepeolus verbesinae (Cockerell) 

Both sexes: Oracle, Arizona, July 24 (Van Duzee). One 
male is from sunflower. 

44. Triepeolus pacis Cockerell, new species 

Male: Length about 8.3 mm.; black, with the ornaments of head and 
thorax above very pale ochreous, of pleura, coxae and face (which is 
densely covered with hair), white; scape black, very obscurely reddish at 
apex ; flagellum bright ferruginous at extreme base (with a black mark 
on inner side), otherwise black; eyes dark grey; tegulae bright ferrugi- 
nous ; wings dusky hyaline, nervures and stigma piceous ; legs bright 
ferruginous, hind tibise suffused with dusky on outer side, but there cov- 
ered with appressed white hair; hair on inner side of hind basitarsi light 
orange ; hind spurs black or nearly so ; apical plate of abdomen dark 
brown, long and nearly parallel-sided. Labrum dusky in middle, ferrugi- 
nous at sides ; mandibles red in middle ; mesothorax with a pair of rather 
short stripes, reaching anterior margin, but not connected with marginal 
band, which only goes to anterior corners; scutellum strongly bigibbous ; 
axillae prominent ; upper part of mesopleura with a broad transverse band 
of dense white hair, below this the surface is thinly hairy, the very dense 
punctures with shining margins visible ; abdominal bands even and entire, 
except that the light hair at base of first segment is interrupted ; black 
area on first segment a very broad band, ending very obliquely at sides ; 
lateral corners of black on second segment rounded, not sharply acute; 
venter with much pure white hair, the outstanding fringe pale yellowish. 



202 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Related to T. blaisdelli Ckll. & Sandh., to which it runs in 
my recent table, but easily separated by the dark scape and 
flaggellum, the area of metathorax bare except at sides, the 
larger and darker stigma, etc. From T. mensce Ckll. it is easily 
known by the color of flagellum, etc. The transverse band on 
first abdominal segment is much broader than in T. norco Ckll. 

Type: Male, No. 1661, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
G. F. Ferris, June 29, 1919, at La Paz, Lower California. 

45. Oreopasites vanduzeei, Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length a little over 5 mm., with broad convex abdomen ; head 
and thorax black, with white hair, shining silvery on face, sides of 
thorax and metathorax, thin on thorax above, not hiding surface ; ab- 
domen entirely clear ferruginous, with thin pure white hair-bands more 
or less developed at sides of segments; legs ferruginous, with the an- 
terior femora darkened above, and the hind spurs dark ; labrum, mandi- 
bles and lower edge of clypeus dusky red, the labrum elongated, broadly 
rounded at end ; antennae ferruginous beneath ; tegulae dusky red ; wings 
hyaline, faintly dusky. I have not ventured to extract the mouth parts 
from the unique specimen, but they are extruded, and the labial palpi 
measure about as follows in microns: first joint 575, second 350, third 
and fourth each 50; the maxillary palpi clearly show five joints. I can- 
not demonstrate the basal tubercle-like joint which should be present. 
The marginal cell is considerably shorter than in O. scituli Ckll., and the 
mesothorax is strongly and densely punctured. The basal portions of 
the abdominal tergites are finely and densely punctured. 

The only species previously known, 0. scituli^ was found to 
be parasitic on Spinoliella in Colorado. The new species was 
taken at the same locality, on the same day, as a quantity of 
Spinoliella equina, and with little doubt is parasitic in the nests 
of that bee. 

Type: Female, No. 1662, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, August 21, 1919, at Stockton, California. 

46. Exomalopsis pulchella arida Cockerell 

A very long series, including both sexes, indicates that what 
1 recorded as E. siniilis is, as I then suspected, only a variety 
of pulchella. Both pulchella and siniilis were described from 
Cuba, and presumably represent the variation of the species in 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 203 

that island. The form from Lower California appears to be 
a distinct race for which the above name is available. Most of 
the sj?€cimens in the series now before me distinctly belong to 
arida as originally defined, but some have the hair of hind tarsi 
pale ferruginous, lacking the blackish or grayish color. La 
Paz, June 29 (Ferris), 

47. Exomalopsis (Anthophorula) chionura Cockerell, 

new species 

Female (type) : Similar to E. chlorina Ckll. (from New Mexico), but 
eyes not or not distinctly green ; stigma dark brown ; mesothorax polished, 
without evident punctures (distinctly punctured in chlorina) ; white bands 
on second and third abdominal segments broader laterally. It is also very 
close to E. texana Friese, differing by the dark tegulae (clear red in 
texana), dark stigma (pale amber in texana) and pure white (instead of 
creamy) hair on abdomen. 

Male : Similar in most respects, but with narrower face ; the clypcus 
(except two spots), labrum and basal part of mandibles pale yellow; 
flagellum long, dull ferruginous beneath. Compared with the male of 
E. coquilletti (Ashmead), it is readily separated by the shorter flagellum, 
and pure white hair on abdomen. The male of E. chlorina is unknown. 

I hesitated whether to call this a distinct species, or a race 
of E. chlorina, but it seems best to regard it as a species, on 
account of the difference in the sculpture of the mesothorax. 
Presumably the closely related species of this group have dif- 
ferent flower-visiting habits. E. chlorina is known to visit 
Sphacralcea (Malvaceae). 

Type: Female, No. 1663, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, August 19, 1919, at Stockton, California. 
Paratypes, four females, one male, same data. 

48. Diadasia nigrifrons epileuca Cockerell, new variety 

Female : Length about 8 mm., anterior wing 7.5 ; antennae entirely 
black; pale hair of thorax above and of occiput, clear white, not ochreous ; 
light hair of abdomen confined to first segment, the other segments with 
very little hair. 

Type: Female, No. 1664, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, July 25, 1918, at Sisson, Siskiyou Co., 
California. 



204 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The forms assigned to D. nigrifrons are not all alike, the 
known females being separable thus : 

Flagellum subtestaceous beneath; hair of thorax above and occiput 
pale ochreous ; abdomen with pale hair only on first segment 

nigifrons ( Cr . ) proper. 

Antennse entirely black 1 

1. Length about 8 mm.; hair of thorax above and occiput white; 

abdomen with pale hair only on first segment 

var. epilenca Ckll. 

Length 10.5 mm. ; hair of thorax above, and occiput ochreous ; 

abdomen with pale hair on first two segments 

var. nerea (Fowler) 

Whether these differences indicate well-defined races, or 
merely individual variation, is not at present known. 

49. Diadasia australis (Cresson) 

One male, San Antonio District, Lower California, July 12 
(Ferris). 

50. Megachile pugnata pomonae Cockerell 

Female: Huntington Lake, Fresno, California, 7000 ft., 
July 30 (VanDuzee). 

5L Megachile wootoni calogaster Cockerell 

Female: Huntington Lake, Fresno County, California, 
7000 ft., July 16 (Van Duzee). 

52. Megachile fidelis Cresson 

Female: Kings River Caiion, Fresno County, California, 
July 6 (Van Dyke). 

53. Megachile perihirta Cockerell 

Ryer Island, Solano County, California, June 16 (F. H. 
Wymore). Three females reared from the nest, sent by Prof. 
E. O. Essig. The female of this species was described as M. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 205 

grindeliarum Ckll. Compared with Colorado specimens, the 
Californian bees differ a Httle in being distinctly less shining 
(especially on the abdomen) and by having the eyes (in dry 
condition) dark brown. 

54. Megachile vandykei Cockerell, new species 

Female: Length 13 mm., width of abdomen 5 mm.; entirely black, 
with entirely black coarse pubescence, very abundant on face and thorax 
above, thin on upper side of abdomen, which is of the short broad type; 
mandibles broad, quadridentate ; clypeus transverse, convex, extremely 
densely rugosopuncjate, with a polished shining spot at middle of upper 
edge, and a median band in which the surface is shining between the 
punctures, lower margin thickened, slightly emarginate in middle ; cheeks 
broad and rounded ; mesothorax with disc polished, with scattered rather 
small punctures; scutellum closely and finely punctured; area of meta- 
thorax short, dull, the metathorax beyond somewhat shining; tegulae 
black, finely punctured ; wings dilute brownish, nervures piceous ; basal 
nervure meeting nervulus ; hind basitarsi broad ; abdomen shining, with 
scattered very fine punctures ; ventral scopa entirely black. 

Resembles M. morio Smith, but smaller. I have seen the 
type of M. morio in the British Museum ; it is said to be from 
the "United States," but presumably came from Florida. There 
is a series of superficially similar black Megachile species in 
Peru. This is another melanic bee from Meadow Valley ! 

Type: Female, No. 1665, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. C. Van Dyke, June 21, 1924, at Meadow Valley, Plumas 
Co., California, 5000-6000 ft. 

Chelostomopsis Cockerell, new genus 

Small bees allied to Chelostoma, but labial palpi four jointed, with 
two outstanding small joints; maxillary palpi three-jointed; lower margin 
of clypeus v/ith a long median process, obtuse or truncate at end, parallel- 
sided ; basin of first abdominal segment rather small, with a distinct rim; 
first recurrent nervure joining second cubital cell some distance beyond 
base. Type Chelostomopsis rubifloris (Chelynia rubifloris Cockerell). 

True Chelostoma has only one outstanding small joint to 
labial palpi. This is also true of the subgenus Gyrodroma 
Thomson, type nigriconiis Nylander. I designate nigricornis 
as the type of Gyrodroma. because of the confusion concerning 



206 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Thomson's other species, which he called florisomnis, whereas 
it was really campanularum. 

Formicapis of Sladen has a process on clypeus, but it is 
broad-conical, and the position of the first recurrent nervure is 
quite different. The marginal cell of Formicapis is more nar- 
rowed apically. 

In addition to the type species, the new genus includes 
Chelostomopsis australis (Chclostoma australis Cockerell). 
Only the female is known. 



55. Chelostomopsis rubifloris edwardsii (Cockerell) 

Female: Yorkville, Mendocino County, California, May 1 
(Van Duzee). Typical C. rubifloris is from Seattle. 



56. Chelostomopsis australis nanus Cockerell, new subspecies 

Female: Length 6.5-7 mm. (typical australis about 9 mm.); wings 
distinctly dusky; area of metathorax polished and shining; red on second 
abdominal segment greatly reduced or wanting. 

The type of C. australis was from near Los Angeles; the 
present form seems to be only a subspecies. The first recurrent 
nervure is much more remote from the base of second cubital 
cell than the second from apex of that cell. This is not the 
case with Cephalapis jacintana, which might perhaps be con- 
fused with it on account of the red at sides of base of abdomen. 

Type: Female, No. 1666, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by F. C. Clark, August, 1913, in Bear Valley, San Bernardino 
Co., California. Paratype, one female, same data. 



57. Cephalapis jacintana (Cockerell) 
Male: Bryson, California, May 18 (E. P. Van Duzee). 

58. Ashmeadiella howardi Cockerell 

Male: Bryson, Monterey County, California, May 18 (Van 
Duzee). 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 2ff7 

59. Ashmeadiella crassa Cockerell 

Female: Mokelumne Hill, California, September 6 (Blais- 
dell). This is a larger, robust form, which may prove separ- 
able when the male is known. I have found quite parallel 
supposed variation in A. meliloti Ckll., but here also I am not 
without misgivings concerning the specific identity of the large 
and small forms. 

60. Chelynia rubi (Cockerell) 

Melanostelis betheli Ashmead is a synonym; Melanostelis 
may be regarded as a subgenus. Both sexes from Fallen Leaf 
Lake, California, June 26-July 26 (Van Dyke) ; Yosemite 
Valley, California, male May 15, female June 23 (Van Dyke) ; 
female, Meadow Valley, Plumas County, 3500-4000 ft., June 1 
(Van Dyke). The original type female, from Seattle, has the 
light bands on first two abdominal segments very narrowly in- 
terrupted; they are not at all interrupted in the Californian 
specimens. 

The male is only 6 to 7 mm. long, and has pure white hair 
on face, and much white hair on thorax; hair of pleura clear 
white. 

6L Chelynia franciscana Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length about 8 mm. ; head and thorax green, abdomen blue- 
green, almost a peacock blue, the hind margins of the segments not purple; 
pubescence black; scape metallic; flagellum black, very faintly reddish 
beneath ; mesothorax yellowish-green, shining, with coarse punctures ; 
pleura blue-green, densely punctured; base of metathorax rugose; tegulse 
green ; wings strongly dusky ; legs blue-green ; middle tibiae bidentate at 
end; abdomen polished, brilliant, the depressed hind margins of the seg- 
ments much more finely and closely punctured than the part before ; apical 
tergite not modified. 

Allied to C. pavonina Ckll., but readily separated by the 
polished abdomen, with the hind margins of the segments not 
purple. 



208 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Type: Female, No. 1667, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, June 6, 1920, at San Francisco, California. 



62. Chelynia chlorocyanea Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length about 8 mm. ; with deep rich peacock blues and greens, 
the head deep blue, becoming green between antennae, mesothorax and 
scutellum blue suffused with green, pleura dark purple-blue, abdomen with 
first segment steel blue, the others green with hind margins of segments 
purple-blue, becoming black at edge; pubescence black, dense on face; 
scape dark blue ; flagellum brownish beneath ; mesothorax coarsely and 
closely punctured, the anterior middle prominent and shining ; scutellum 
closely punctured ; tegulae blue, closely punctured ; wings dusky ; legs 
purple-blue ; abdomen shining, but closely punctured, so that the whole 
surface appears roughened; in lateral view the hind margins of the ventral 
segments appear pale ; last tergite not modified. 

Close to C. pavonina Ckll., and perhaps only a variety or 
race, distinguished by the color of the thorax. C. pavonina 
occurs in Colorado. 

Type: Female, No. 1668, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by F. E. Blaisdell, in April, at Mokelumne Hill, California. 



63. Chelynia leucctricha Cockerell, new species 

Female (type) : Length 7.5 to 9 mm.; head, thorax, abdomen and legs 
brilliant blue, suffused with greenish on clypeus, middle of front, and 
mesothorax ; hair of head and thorax clear white, with black hairs 
sparsely intermixed, the white hair of face conspicuous; clypeus dull; 
scape blue, flagellum very obscurely brownish beneath ; mesothorax with 
very large punctures, but shining between the punctures, which are not 
very dense on disc; scutellum shining, with large punctures; tegulse blue- 
green ; wings dilute fuliginous ; abdomen shining but roughened, the hind 
margin of the first segment brilliant purple, of the others decreasingly 
purplish ; hind margins of ventral segments appearing white in lateral 
view. 

Male: Length 7 mm.; differing in the usual sexual characters. 

Both sexes. Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mts., California, 
August 1913 (F. C. Clark). Huntington Lake, California 
(type locality), female, July 4, 1919, 7000 ft. (E. P. Van 
Duzee) ; Fallen Leaf Lake, July 14, 1915 (Van Dyke). 



V^OL. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 209 

Related to C. pavonina, but easily known by the white hair 
on face. 

Type: Female, No. 1669, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. P. Van Duzee, July 4, 1919, at Huntington Lake, Fresno 
Co., California. 



64. Chelynia fragariella Cockerell, new species 

Male : Length about 6 mm. ; not very robust, dark blue, the metathorax 
and region of ocelli greenish ; abdominal markings cream color, consisting 
of bands across the first three segments, and a pair of short stripes on 
fourth ; band on third segment narrowly interrupted, that on second con- 
stricted, all three bands shallowly emarginate sublaterally behind ; head 
and thorax with outstanding white hair; scape slightly metallic, flagellum 
dark; mesothorax densely punctured; area of metathorax shining; tegulae 
dark reddish, narrowly metallic in front ; wings brownish hyaline ; basal 
nervure going basad of nervulus ; small joints of tarsi somewhat reddish; 
abdomen shining. 

Related to C. elegans (Cresson), but much smaller, and dif- 
ferently colored. 

Type: Male, No. 1670, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. C. Van Dyke, August 5, 1912, at Strawberry Valley, El 
Dorado Co., California. 



65. Chelynia holocyanea Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length slightly over 6 mm. ; bright steel blue throughout, shin- 
ing; first three abdominal segments with narrow widely interrupted dull 
white bands, the third reduced to a pair of short transverse stripes, at 
least as far apart as the length of either; hair of head and thorax thin, 
mixed black and white; middle of face greenish; clypeus densely punc- 
tured ; flagellum obscure brown beneath ; mesothorax polished, with well 
separated punctures; area of metathorax shining; tegulae blue, with a 
dark red spot behind ; wings dilute fuliginous ; abdomen shining ; apex 
with black hair. 

Related to C. subcceriilea (Cresson), but much smaller, and 
with fewer markings on abdomen. It is also much more 
brightly colored. 



21Q CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Type: Female, No. 1671, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by F. E. Blaisdell, July 12, 1919, at Huntington Lake, Fresno 
Co., California, at 7000 ft. 



66. Chelynia nitidula Cockerell, new species 

Male : Length about 6.5 mm. ; rich deep blue, with cream-colored bands 
on first four abdominal segments, and a pair of transverse marks close 
together on fifth ; the band on first segment is constricted in middle, the 
others narrowly interrupted, and all are very shallowly excavated poster- 
iorly on each side; hair of head and thorax white, mixed with black, en- 
tirely black on mesopleura; flagellum black; disc of mesothorax shining, 
with well separated punctures; area of metathorax shining; tegulse very 
dark, submetallic ; wings dilute fuliginous ; abdomen shining. There is 
long black hair on the scutellum. 

Related to C. subccentlca (Cress.) and C. pulchra (Craw- 
ford). From the former it is separated by the small size and 
large amount of white hair on thorax above, as well as the rich 
blue color. It is much smaller than C. pulchra, which occurs 
in the Rocky Mountain Region. 

Type: Male, No. 1672, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, May 19, 1920, at Bryson, Monterey Co., 
California. 



67. Chelynia subglauca Cockerell, new species 

Male: Length about 6 mm.; similar to C. nitidula, but differing thus: 
head and pleura very dark blue, thorax above very dark green, abdomen 
almost black, but with a bluish tint, the second band not interrupted ; hair 
of face, cheeks and pleura black, but of mesothorax entirely white; mar- 
ginal cell broader in proportion to its length. 

Probably a melanic race of C. nitidula, and also very close 
to C. suhccenilca. 

Type: Male, No. 1673, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. C. Van Dyke, July 25, 1920, at Paradise Valley, Mt. Rainier, 
Washington. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 21 1 

The above species of Chelynia may be separated thus : 

Black, with white bands on abdomen rubi Ckll. 

Blue or green 1 

1. Abdomen without tegumentary bands 2 

Abdomen with whitish tegumentary bands 4 

2. Hair of face light; end of abdomen obtuse (males) or acute 

(females) leucotricha Ckll. 

Hair of face entirely black ; females 3 

3. Abdomen more shining; head and thorax green. franciscana Ckll. 
Abdomen less shining, more punctured; head purple blue 

chlorocyanea Ckll. 

4. Mesothorax densely punctured; hair of pleura pure white 

fragariella Ckll. 

Mesothorax shining, not densely punctured on disc 5 

5. Hair of mesopleura white; white marks only on first three ab- 

dominal segments ; female holocyanea Qcll. 

Hair of mesopleura black or dark grey; white marks or bands 
on five segments ; males 6 

6. Mesothorax bright steel blue nitidula Ckll. 

Mesothorax dark green subglauca Ckll. 

Subsequent work may show that some of these represent 
varieties or races rather than species, but at present no inter- 
mediates are known. 



68. Stelis laticincta Cresson 

Cascada, Fresno County, California, 6000 ft., July 29, 1 
male, 1 female (Van Duzee) ; Cazadero, September 2, male 
(Van Duzee); Stockton, August 21, male (Van Duzee). 
Cresson described the female; I described the male in 1904. 
The species is very variable in the male, in the width of the 
bands along anterior orbits, the amount of yellow on the 
pleura, and the presence or absence of yellow on the sixth ab- 
dominal tergite. It seems probable that there are two or three 
separable races, but more material is needed to demonstrate 
this. 

Mr. W. M. Giffard collected in Santa Clara County, Cali- 
fornia, July 16, a female S. laticincta agreeing with Cresson's 
description in having the clypeus black with a yellow spot on 



212 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

each side. A female from Cazadero, California, has the clypeus 
yellow with the upper margin broadly black. 

69. Stelis sexmaculata Ashmead 

Male: Blue Lakes, Lake County, California, May 16 (Van 
Duzee). The specimen has eight spots on the abdomen, as is 
frequently the case. 

70. Stelis carnifex Cockerell 

Female: S. Sonoma County, California, June 26 (Kusche) ; 
compared with the cotype from Nevada, the face is wider and 
the head more densely punctured. 

Male : Phillips Station, Placer County, California, July 24 
(Blaisdell). 

This species, as now understood, appears to be very variable. 
Additional material may show that it should be divided. 

71. Stelis montana Cresson 

Both sexes, Oregon, the male Warner Mts., Lake County, 
June 19 (Van Dyke) ; the female Wallowa Mts., Baker County, 
July 6 (Van Dyke) ; female, Park City, Utah, July 3 (Van 
Duzee). 

72. Stelis callura Cockerell, new species 

Male : Length 9 mm. ; very robust, dark rich purple, including legs, 
greenish in middle of face, particularly supraclypeal area, flushed with 
greenish on mesothorax and scutellum, middle of postscutellum entirely 
green; pubescence entirely black; facial quadrangle much longer than 
broad, clypeus excessively densely punctured; scape green, flagellum black; 
mesothorax densely punctured, but shining between the punctures on disc ; 
tegulge largely metallic, strongly punctured ; wings hyaline, more or less 
stained with brown along the veins, which are black; second recurrent 
going well beyond end of second cubital cell ; abdomen with very rich 
purple (rosy-purple) suflfusion. 

Related to ^. carnifex Ckll., but much larger than the male 
of that species, and with paler wings. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 213 

Type: Male, No. 1674, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, June 24, 1922, in Parley Canon, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 



73. Stelis fremonti Cockerell, new species 

Females: Length fully 10 mm.; similar to S. montana, but larger and 
more robust; mesothorax dull and more densely punctured; first recur- 
rent nervure joining second cubital cell at a distance fully equal to half 
length of intercubitus ; face strongly suffused with purple; abdomen rich 
deep indigo blue, very densely punctured. 

Perhaps a race of 5. montana, but apparently distinct. 

Type: Female, No. 1675, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by E. C. Van Dyke, June 18, 1922, in Fremont National Forest, 
Klamath Co., Oregon, at 5000 ft. 

The above species of Stelis may be separated thus : 

Blue or green, with no marks on abdomen, and with black hair on 

face 1 

Without metallic colors 6 

1. Small, about 7 mm. long ; males 2 

Larger, 9 mm. or over 3 

2. Abdomen shining, not very densely punctured; mesothorax olive 

green montana Cresson 

Abdomen very densely punctured; mesothorax h\\ic.carnifex Ckll. 

3. Abdomen shining green ; females montana Cresson 

Abdomen blue or purple, less shining 4 

4. Abdomen deep purple ; wings nearly clear callura Ckll. 

Abdomen rich blue ; wings dilute fuliginous 5 

5. Larger ; mesothorax dull and more densely punctured 

fremonti Ckll. 

Smaller ; mesothorax less densely punctured ; female 

carnifex Ckll. 

6. Abdomen black, with greenish-white lateral spots 

sexmaculata Ashm. 

Abdomen with entire deep yellow bands laticincta Cress. 

Ail except the two last belong to the subgenus Pavostelis 
Sladen. 



214 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

74. Xylocopa varipuncta Patton 

Both sexes; Soboba Springs, Riverside County, June 3 
(Van Duzee). 

75. Xylocopa orpifex Smith 

Mt. St. Helena, Napa County, CaHfornia, June 9 (Van 
Duzee) ; S. Sonoma County., male April 6, female July 10 
(J. A. Kusche) ; Yosemite Valley, June (Van Dyke) ; Laurel 
Dell, Lake County, August 2 (Van Duzee). 

76. Xylocopa virginica (Drury) 
Plummers L, Md., May 25 (Blaisdell). 

77. Xylocopa californica Cresson 

Yosemite Valley, June 10 (Van Dyke) ; Carrville, Trinity 
County, California, June 29 (Van Dyke). 

78. Xylocopa arizonensis Cresson 
Fort Bliss, Texas, May 1 (J. L Carlson). 

79. Bombus sonorus Say 

One from La Paz, June 29 (Ferris). Also taken by the 
Academy Expedition at La Paz, June 28; Tiburon Island, 
(Academy Expedition), July 4 (Van Duzee) ; Sierra Laguna, 
5400 feet, August 15. 

80. Ceratina tejonensis Cresson 

Male : Yorkville, Mendocino County, California, May 
1 (Van Duzee). The apex of the abdomen presents an obtuse 
median projection, after the style of the much smaller C. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—BEES 215 

nanula Ckll., whereas according to H. S. Smith's key it should 
be more after the style of C. dupla Say. However, the speci- 
men agrees with Cresson's description, and I think it is refer- 
able to his species. 

Female: Shasta County, Calif., June 26 (J. A. Kusche). 
Known from C. paciiica H. S. Smith by the entirely green 
tubercles and absence of a large impunctate area on pleura. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 12, pp. 217-275, text figs. 1-2, plates 15-19, September 5. 1925 



XII 

EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND, MEXICO, 

IN 1922 

GENERAL REPORT 

BY 

G. DALLAS HANNA 
Cifrafor, Department of Paleontology 

Introduction 

At the Berkeley meeting of the Pacific Division of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1921 
there was appointed a "Committee on the Conservation of 
Marine Life of the Pacific," Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, 
Chairman.^ The first task which the Committee undertook 



' The full membership of the committee was as follows when the expedition was 
organized: 



Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Chair- 
man, California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, Secretary, Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

W. E. Allen, Scripps Institution for 
Biological Research, La Jolla, Calif. 

A. W. Anthony, Museum, San Diego So- 
ciety of Natural History, San Diego, 
Calif. 

Professor Wm. A. Bryan, Museum of 
History, Science and Art, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

Dr. Harold C. Bryant, Museum of Ver- 
tebrate Zoology, Berkeley, Calif. 

Professor John N. Cobb, College of Fish- 
eries, University of Washington, Seat- 
tle, Wash. 

Capt. W. C. Crandall, Scripps Institu- 
tion for Biological Research, La Jolla, 
Calif. 



Dr. C. McLean Eraser, University of 
British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C. 

Dr. Harold Heath, Stanford University, 
Calif. 

Dr Wm. E. Hitter, Scripps Institution 
for Biological Research, La Jolla, Calif. 

Norman B. Scofield, California Fish and 
Game Commission, San Francisco, Calif. 

Alvin Seale, Steinhart Aquarium of the 
California Academy of Sciences, San 
Francisco, Calif. 

Professor Edwin C. Starks, Stanford 
University, Calif. 

Dr. F. B. Sumner, Scripps Institution 
for Biological Research, La Jolla, Calif. 

Dr. Walter P. Taylor, IJ. S. Bureau of 
Biological Survey, care Scripps Institu- 
tion for Biological Research, La Jolla, 
Calif. 

Will F. Thompson, California Fish and 
Game Commission, San Pedro, Calif. 

September 5, 1925 



2jg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

was the making of recommendations to the proper authorities 
for the conservation of certain of the marine mammals of that 
ocean. In the case of a few species, such as the Alaska fur 
seal, there existed sufficient authoritative information in gov- 
ernmental reports to enable the advocation of certain measures 
which, it was believed, would aid materially in bringing them 
back to their former abundance and commercial importance. 

But with other species practically nothing was known of 
their present status or condition ; indeed, the very existence of 
some of them was in doubt. The Committee at once proceeded 
to devise means whereby this deficiency could be filled in order 
that definite facts might be available for it to use in urging 
measures of protection. This absence of late information was 
notably true in respect to the Guadalupe elephant seal, Guada- 
lupe fur seal and southern sea otter, all of which once existed 
in great abundance along the shores of California and Lower 
California. The latest data in respect to them had been secured 
many years ago and was not sufficiently recent, it appeared, 
to warrant an active campaign for the preservation of the 
species. 

Therefore, through the activities of the Committee, an expe- 
dition was dispatched from San Diego, California, on July 9, 
1922, to the islands off the west coast of Lower California 
for the primary purpose of securing information in regard to 
the three above-mentioned species of sea mammals. The fol- 
lowing institutions actively cooperated in the enterprise : 

National Government of Mexico, 
California Academy of Sciences, 
San Diego Society of Natural History, 
Scripps Institution for Biological Research, 
National Geographic Society. 

The Government of Mexico provided the Fisheries Patrol 
Boat Tccate for the work and met all expenses while the party 
was in the field ; and that country was represented by the fol- 
lowing official personnel : Professor Carlos Cuesta-Terron, 
Curator of Fishes and Reptiles of the National Museum of 
Mexico, in charge of the expedition ; Professor Jose M. Gal- 
legos. Explorer of the National Museum of Mexico; Sr. 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 219 

Joaquin Palacios, Inspector of Lighthouses ; Sr. Rudolpho 
Lascano, Assistant Inspector of Lighthouses ; Sr. Enrique 
Gonzales. Insi)ector of Fisheries ; and Sr. Luis Rubio, Taxi- 
dermist. 

The Committee was represented by the writer (Secretary) 
and Mr. A. W. Anthony. They also represented the California 
Academy of Sciences and the San Diego Society of Natural 
History, respectively, and were placed in charge of the scien- 
tific work of the expedition. Advantage was taken of this 
exceptional opportunity to secure scientific data in other 
branches of natural history in this little know'n and seldom 
visited region. Mr. Joseph R. Slevin, Assistant Curator, De- 
partment of Herpetology, and Mr. Frank Tose, Chief Taxi- 
dermist, accompanied the expedition from the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences. Mr. Ernest Hinkley went from the San 
Diego Society of Natural History. The Scripps Institution for 
Biological Research, being actively engaged in oceanographic 
studies of broad scope, sent Mr. P. S. Barnhart for the sys- 
tematic collection of water and plankton samples and ocean 
temperatures. 

The motor ship Tecate was admirably suited to the work in 
hand and the success of the expedition was in no small measure 
due to the constant interest of Captain Victor Angxilo and his 
w^ll trained crew. Everything possible was done to aid the 
observers and collectors during the five weeks in the field. (See 
pi. 15, fig. 1.) 

The expedition returned to San Diego on August 16 after 
having visited the following desert islands : Guadalupe, San 
Martin, Cedros, the three San Benitos, Natividad, San Roque, 
Asuncion, Magdalena, and Santa Margarita. Landings were 
also made at Ensenada, San Quintin Bay, San Bartolome Bay 
and Abreojos Point on the Peninsula of Lower California. 
Besides making observations and extensive collections of nat- 
ural history specimens at all of these places, the coast line was 
studied at close range for considerable distances from the vesel, 
particularly around the long bight known as San Cristobal 
Bay where elephant seals are known to have once hauled out 
on the sands in aJjundance. Also a large number of samples of 

September 5, 1925 



220 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

animal and plant life of the open ocean (plankton) and tem- 
perature records were systematically collected. 

Specimens were obtained in the various groups in approxi- 
mately the following numbers: birds and mammals, 300; rep- 
tiles and amphibians, 1000; insects, 1100; land shells, 2000; 
marine fossils, many; and miscellaneous fishes, invertebrates, 
and plants. These have all been submitted to specialists and 
the technical reports upon them will be published in due time. 
It is already known that numerous strange and rare forms 
of animal life are represented in the collections, many of them 
being entirely new to science. Readers interested in the sub- 
jects are referred to these final reports for complete and techni- 
cal information. In the following pages an attempt has been 
made to give the most interesting features of these desert isles 
and the general results of our search for the fur seals, elephant 
seals and sea otters. 

Organization 

The organization of the expedition w^as largely the result of 
the activities of Dr. Barton Warren Evermann and Mr. A. W. 
Anthony, Directors of the California Academy of Sciences 
and the San Diego Society of Natural History, respectively. 
Through them the cooperation of the National Government 
of Mexico was obtained and the success of the undertaking 
was assured. It was understood informally that Sr. Ing. 
Ignacio Romero, Agente General de la Secretaria de Agricul- 
tura y Fomento, Tijuana, B. C., was an enthusiastic supporter 
of the enterprise from the start and aided in many ways in 
arranging the details necessary for the despatch of the Tecate 
and party. 

The following general memorandum was prepared before 
departure of the expedition and was distributed for guidance 
in the work proposed. 

"1. Designation. — The expedition will be known as the Expedition of 
the Committee on Conservation of Marine Life of the Pacific of the 
Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science functioning under authority of the Committee on Pacific Investi- 
gations of the Division of Foreign Relations of the National Research 



Vol. XIVJ HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 221 

Council, and conducted under the patronage of the Mexican Government, 
the California Academy of Sciences, the Scripps Institution for Biological 
Research, the Sau Diego Society of Natural History, and the National 
Geographic Society. 

2. Personnel. — The expedition will be made on the Fisheries Patrol 
Vessel Tccatc which the Alexican government has generously detailed for 
the purpose, and will be under the general direction and supervision of 
Sefior Carlos Cuesta-Terron of the National Museum of Mexico, who 
will have associated with him a number of scientific gentlemen of his 
country. 

[American members of the scientific staff were then listed. Seep. 217.] 
The scientific investigations will be under the immediate direction of 
Messrs. Hanna and Anthony. 

3. Field of operations. — Islands and their surrounding waters off the 
west coast of Lower California, particularly the islands of Guadalupe, 
San Benito, Cedros, and Natividad ; also Magdalena Bay and other points 
on the mainland. 

4. Purpose. — The primary purpose of the expedition is to make investi- 
gations to determine as fully as may be the present abundance and condi- 
tion of the southern fur seal, southern sea otter, and elephant seal in the 
localities visited. 

It is known that each of those three important and valuable marine 
mammals was at one time quite common not only about the islands men- 
tioned but also about the islands on the California coast as far north 
as the Farallons. Records believed trustworthy show that in the years 
1808 to 1811, more than 203,000 fur seals were taken on the Farallon 
Islands, besides many thousands on the Channel Islands, Cedros and other 
islands ofif the coast of Lower California. Records also show that the 
southern sea otter was at one time very abundant in the great kelp beds 
about these same islands, more than 22,000 having been taken prior to 
1806. The elephant seal was once abundant on Guadalupe Island and on 
other islands on this coast. 

It is generally believed that each of these interesting animals is now 
extinct or nearly so ; but certain recent discoveries indicate that at least 
small remnants of each of the three species still exist. It is the purpose 
of this expedition to find out the facts in-so-far as is possible and place 
them before the State Departments of the United States and Mexican 
governments in the hope that the necessary steps may be taken by the two 
governments through an international treaty for the adequate protection 
of these valuable natural resources. 

5. Other scientific investigations. — The scientists of this expedition 
will avail themselves of the exceptional opportunities for making a gen- 
eral survey of the fauna and flora and geology of the islands visited. 
They will be equipped for making collections in various branches of nat- 



222 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4Tif Ser. 

ural history, particularly of birds, mammals, insects, shells, botany, and 
fossils. These islands have been but little explored and it is believed that 
many new species will be discovered. Provision is made for taking photo- 
graphs, both still and moving, adequate for illustrative and educational 
purposes." 

(Signed) Barton Warren Evermaxn 

Director of the Museum of the California 
Academy of Sciences, and Chairman of the 
Committee on Conservation of Marine Life of 
the Pacific. 

(Signed) G. Dallas Hanna 

Secretary of the Committee on Conservation 
of Marine Life of the Pacific. 

The National Geographic Society through its President, Dr. 
Gilbert H. Grosvenor, contributed the sum of $500.00 to aid 
in defraying the e.xpenses of the expedition. This was used 
for photographic purposes with the understanding that prints 
from all official still-camera pictures should be furnished to the 
Society accompanying an article suitable for publication in its 
magazine.^ 

Of 360 exposures made with a 4x5 camera, 314 negatives 
were obtained, suitable for illustrative purposes. Prints of 
these were furnished to the National Geographic Society; the 
San Diego Society of Natural History; the National Govern- 
ment of Mexico; the California Academy of Sciences; and 
various members of the party. The negatives have been depos- 
ited in the latter institution. In addition to the above, several 
members of the party took photographs, prints of which were 
furnished to the Academy. About 800 feet of motion picture 
negative was made of the herd of elephant seals on Guadalupe 
Island. This has been deposited in the Academy and prints 
were furnished to the National Government of Mexico and the 
San Diego Society of Natural History. 

Upon the completion of technical reports of the scientific 
collections obtained it was understood that an equitable division 
of specimens would be made among the institutions represented. 

In addition to the account of the expedition published by the 
National Geographic Society, announcements giving major 

- See — A Cruise among Desert Islands, by G. Dallas Hanna and A. W. Anthony. 
Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, pp. 70-99, 33 photographs. (Various 
portions of this article were widely quoted as for instance: Illustrated London News, 
Sept. 29, 1923, Vol. 163, No. 4406, pp. 564-565, 9 photographs.— Literary Digest, Vol. 
79, No. 8, Nov. 24, 1923, pp. 50-52.) 



Vol. XIV] 



HANXA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 



223 



facts appeared in Science and other publications before de- 
parture and after returning.^ 



Date Arrived 

July 9 

9 5 . 00 PM 

10 

11 2.00 pm 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 2.00 pm 

19 

20 

21 

22 10.00 AM 

23 

24 9.30 pm 

25 

26 

27 

27 3.00 pm 

28 

29 

30 

31 1.00 pm 
Aug. 1 

1 11.00 am 

2 

2 7 . 30 AM 

2 

2 6 . 00 PM 

3 

3 9 . 00 AM 

4 

4 9 . 00 AM 

5 

6 

7 6 . 00 AM 



ITINERARY 
Place Departed 

San Diego 9.00 am 

Ensenada 

Ensenada 3 . 00 pm 

Guadalupe Island 

Guadalupe Island 

Guadalupe Island 

Guadalupe Island 

Guadalupe Island 

Guadalupe Island 

Guadalupe Island .... 5 . 30 pm 

San Quintin Bay 

San Quintin Bay 

San Quintin Bay 

San Quintin Bay 4 . 00 pm 

Cedros Island 

Cedros Island 7 . 00 am 

Magdalena Bay 

Magdalena Bay 

Magdalena Bay 

Magdalena Bay Noon 

Santa Margarita Island 

Santa Margarita Island 

Santa Margarita Island 

Santa Margarita Island 9.00 am 

Abreojos Point 

Abreojos Point 6.00 am 

Asuncion Island 

Asuncion Island 6.00 AM 

San Roque Island 

San Roque Island .... 1 1 . 00 AM 

San Bartolome Bay 

San Bartolome Bay ... 6.30 am 

Natividad Island 

Natividad Island 6 . 30 am 

Cedros Island 

Cedros Island 

Cedros Island 

Cedros Island 



Region Visited 



Elephant Beach 

Cypress Grove and South 

side 
Esparsa Canon 
Pine Ridge 

Jack's Bay and south end 
South end ; east side 

Santo Domingo 



Bernstein's Abalone Camp 
Bernstein's Abalone Camp 
Village 



Village 

Cactus Forest 
Rancheria 
V^illage 



North part 



Bernstein's Abalone Camp 
Bernstein's Abalone Camp 
Bernstein's Abalone Camp 
Grand Canon 



3 Evermann, Barton W. (Catalina Islander, Vol. 9, No. 28, pp. 1, 10, July 26, 1922.) 
Evermann, Barton W. (Sports Afield, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 102-103, Avigust, 1922.) 



Evermann, Barton W. (Science, n. s. Vol. 56, No. 1440, pp. 135-137, August 4, 1922.) 
Evermann, Barton W. (Pacific Fisherman, Vol. 20, No. 8, p. 16, August, 1922.) 
(San Diego Union, Thursday, August 17, 1922.) 
(Golden Gate Pathfinder, Vol. 3, No. 34, p. 2, August 27, 1922.) 
(Golden Gate Pathfinder, Vol. 3, No. 38, p. 2, Sept. 24, 1922.) 
(Golden Gate Pathfinder, Vol. 3, No. 40, p. 2, October 8, 1922.) 
(Catalina Islander, Vol. 9, No. i7, pp. 6-7, September 27, 1922.) 
(Science, n. s. Vol. 51, No. 1453, pp. 503-504, November 3, 1922.) 
W. (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. 11, pp. 665-667. 



Hanna, G. Dallas. 
Hanna, G. Dallas. 
Hanna, G. Dallas. 
Hanna, G. Dallas. 
Hanna, G. Dallas. 
Hanna, G. Dallas. 
Evermann, Barton 



August 22, 1923.) 



224 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Date Arrived 

Aug. 8 1 . 00 AM 

10 10.00 am 

10 

11 7 . 00 AM 

12 

12 9.30 am 

13 

13 9.00 am 

13 

14 Noon 

14 

14 5.30 pm 

14 

15 9.00 am 

15 

16 9.00 am 



Place 

Cedros Island 

Cedros Island 

Cedros Island 

Cedros Island 

Cedros Island 

West Benito Island . 
West Benito Island . 
East Benito Island . . 
East Benito Island . . 
San Quintin Bay . . . 
San Quintin Bay . . . 
San Martin Island . . 
San Martin Island . . 

Ensenada , 

Ensenada 

San Diego 



Departed 





3 


00 pm 


7 


00 am 


8 


30 am 


2 


00 pm 


2 


30 PM 


7 


00 PM 


11 


30 am 



Region Visited 
North end 

Bernstein's Abalone Camp 
Bernstein's Abalone Camp 
Abalone camp on west side 



Middle Benito also 




JifagdaleT 

Santa Margarit 



3T*T0Tt MILCS 



Fig. 1. A sketch map showing the region visited by the expedition of 1922; 
drawn by James M. Darley; from National Geographic Magazine, 
July. 1923. 



Vol. XI\ ] HANS A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 225 

The region covered in the above itinerary is included in the 
following- series of sailing- charts of the Hydrographic Office 
of the U. S. Navy;* it is therefore not believed necessary to 
reproduce a general map of the area other than the sketch 
shown above. 

Area covered Chart number 

General, West Mexico 1006 

San Diego to San Quintin Bay 1149 

San Quintin Bay to Cedros Island 1193 

Cedros Island to Abreojos Point 1310 

Abreojos Point to Cape San Lazaro 1493 

Cape San Lazaro to Cape San Lucas 1664 

Cape San Lazaro to Cape San Lucas 621 

Todos Santos Bay 1046 

Guadalupe Island 1681 

Hassler Cove 1686 

San Quintin Bay 1043 

Cedros Island 1 192 

San Benito Islands 1 194 

San Bartolome Bay 1204 

San Ignacio Lagoon 1492 

San Roque and Asuncion Islands 1268 

Magdalena Bay 1636 

The night before the Expedition left, the members gathered 
around a dinner table at La Jolla and listened to an exposition 
of its aims and objects given by various persons directly inter- 
ested in it. Informal talks were given by Dr. Barton Warren 
Evermann, Sr. Jose M. Gallegos, Dr. Fred Baker and others. 

Next morning, July 9, at nine the lines of the Tecatc were 
cast off at San Diego and Ensenada was reached at five the 
same day. The Mexican officials were hosts at a dinner given 
to the rest of us that evening. At three p. m. of the tenth the 
last of the stores had been taken aboard and the ship was 
headed toward Guadalupe Island, 170 miles to the southwest. 

Off Point Banda there are 10 rocks, white from the occu- 
pancy of them by various birds, chiefly brown pelicans, Brandt's 
cormorants and western gulls. Eight of these rocks were occu- 
pied by California sea lions, the total number being estimated 

* See, "Mexico and Central America Pilot (West Coast)," Hydrographic Office, U. S. 
Navy, Publication No. 84, 6th Edition, 1920, and Supplement to same issued in 1923. 
In each of these there is an index map of the area covered; on this map all of the 
charts issued by the office are indicated. 



226 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

at 250. Close watch was kept for sea otters and fur seals in 
the kelp beds as the Tecate passed close inshore here but, as 
was to be expected, none was seen. Formerly both species lived 
at this point in great abundance and it is not so many years 
ago that 30 sea otters were killed ; this was the last time a 
large number was slaughtered. Since then the species has been 
practically extinct and in a region where a century and a half 
before thousands were killed in a single season. 

Before darkness closed in about the little motorship, two red 
phalaropes were seen feeding on the sea. They were in full 
fall plumage and it seems incredible that they had been to the 
breeding grounds in northern Alaska and had returned this 
far south already on the fall migration. They must surely 
have remained behind the great flocks which annually follow 
the American coast to the Arctic regions. 

On the 11th, at ten a. m., Mr. Slevin, with eyes trained to 
the sea, announced Guadalupe Island in sight. Two hours 
later, between banks of fog, the ruggedness of the black 
scorched cliffs of the north end was in plain sight and at three 
p. m. we landed at the place called "Northeast Anchorage." 

A settlement had formerly been at this place; sometimes it 
consisted of soldiers and their families ; again the occupants 
were those trying to successfully exploit the goats of the island. 
At this time the place was not inhabited but one of the sheds 
almost filled with dried meat and skins indicated that people 
had occupied the place not more than one or two years pre- 
viously. The best of the buildings was a two story adobe house 
used by officers of the military party; it was painted white. ^ 

On the trip across from Ensenada, Mr. Barnhart and I alter- 
nated taking samples of water from the surface of the sea. 
These water samples were collected by tying a small bottle to 
the bottom of a silk net. Three full buckets of known capacity 
were poured into the net, the plankton collecting in the bottle. 
The minute animal and plant life was killed and preserved with 
formalin, a label was added and the sample packed away for 
use of Dr. W. E. Allen in oceanographic study. These samples 
were taken every hour during the cruise, when the vessel was 
under way. 

»See fig. Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, p. 72, July, 19J3. 



\0L. XIV] HAXXA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 227 

While camp was being established on shore, Mr. Slevin and 
I walked up the canon back of the buildings about a mile. The 
country is excessively rough and shows evidences of volcanism 
on a grandiose and awe-inspiring scale on every side. Huge 
caves and caverns festooned with ragged lava line the chffs 
on both sides of the canon. In some places strata of scoria, 
cinders and loose rocks are bedded as if they might have fallen 
in water from a spouting volcano. Subsequent to deposition 
the beds were violently disturbed because it is not unusual to 
see the dip of the strata change 90° in 100 yards. No fossils 
of any kind were found so it cannot be certain that any of the 
material was laid down in the sea. 

The caiion showed evidence of considerable water at a not 
very distant date. Large water holes, lined with fresh sedi- 
ment were in the bed of the stream but not a spot now ap- 
peared to be moist. All of the vegetation in that vicinity was 
likewise dry except the poppies and one or two other kinds of 
plants. Wild oats, waist high, grew^ in profusion where there 
was soil. Goats w^ere excessively abundant everywhere and 
were well fed. Doubtless there had been sufificient rain in 
earlier months to produce plenty of pasturage. But the dried 
bleached bones strewn over the ground in greatest profusion 
showed that famine had spread over the herd in other years 
and had taken enormous toll. Probably, as in most of Lower 
California and the outlying islands, rain is scant and very 
irregular on Guadalupe. Certainly the greatest part of the 
island is a desert of the most barren sort. 

No cats were seen during the brief sojourn in the caiion 
that evening and during the rest of our stay on the island they 
successfully evaded us. Several skulls w^ere collected at various 
places. Mr. Hinkley took one from a well (salty) at the land- 
ing place. Another was later found at the extreme south end 
of the island shown'ng that this pest has completely overrun the 
place. Escaping as pets or abandoned by former occupants, 
this animal has reverted to the wild state and has wreaked 
havoc among the birds. We saw evidence of this everywhere 
we went. The Kaeding's petrels were apparently preyed upon 
the most. The action of the cats could be plainly read from 
the record on the ground. The petrels live among the loose 



22g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

rocks and in the holes of the cliffs, where the cats apparently 
have no difficulty in capturing them as thej^ go and come. 
Many were seen with only the top of the head eaten away. 

In this cafion we took five species of land snails : two Pupil- 
lid?e; two Micrarionta and the strange Binneya iiofabilis found 
elsewhere only on Santa Barbara Island, off southern Cali- 
fornia. Here on Guadalupe it is very abundant and appears 
to be identical in every way with those of the northern island. 
It is about halfway between a true snail and a slug. Many 
of the snail shells had been broken and the soft parts extracted 
by mice. 

The house mouse is apparently very abundant all over the 
island; specimens were collected which do not differ from 
individuals of other lands. The species probably came acci- 
dentally with personal baggage, has increased enormously, and 
probably will completely exterminate the land shell fauna. 
Probably numerous species of insects have already disappeared 
through this agency. The cats, of course, will not eat the 
mice as long as they can subsist on birds. 

Mr. Slevin looked carefully for lizards on many parts of 
the island but failed to find a single one. Prof. Cuesta-Terron 
stated that he had a report of a specimen having the characters 
of a Xantusia but it was not sufficiently reliable to be credited 
without supporting evidence. Mr. Slevin's failure to find a 
species of reptile of any kind naturally leads us to believe none 
lives there. 

Late in the evening of July 1 1 an osprey was shot at the 
landing place ; this species had not previously been reported 
from Guadalupe Island. 

On the morning of July 12, with all hands on board the ship 
sailed around the north end of the island to the elephant seal 
rookery. On the way around, the beach was scanned at close 
range for Guadalupe fur seals but none was seen. Only in one 
place, a cave three-fourths of a mile north of the elephant seal 
rookery, did there appear to be any suitable ground where the 
fur seal might be expected. This was occupied by a few of the 
elephant seals. 

The landing was made early in the forenoon at the north- 
west end of a short beach composed of black sand and on which 



\< L. XI\'] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 229 

the elephant seals were located. Immediately back, huge, un- 
scalable, lava clififs rose to an elevation of 2000 feet. It was 
with much misgiving that we rowed in as quietly as possible, 
each moment expecting the animals to catch our scent or the 
noise of the oars and desert the place for the rest of the day. 
That invariably would have been the procedure if we had been 
approaching any of the northern rookeries of hair seals or sea 
lions I had visited. But they let the first boat load of us land 
without troubling themselves at all ; the nearest ones, however, 
were some 50 yards away.*' (See pi. 16, fig. 1.) 

With motion picture equipment and Graflex camera we 
climbed a spur at the west end of the rookery and proceeded 
to take a series of pictures as rapidly as possible. Each turn 
of the crank and each snap of the camera I expected to be my 
last opportunity, but the lazy animals slept on. Other visitors 
coming ashore hid under a low cliff until the photography from 
the distance was finished. Some of them were then asked to 
walk slowly toward the herd. It was expected that a motion 
picture of them all rushing into the sea would prove an item 
of interest. Every one was equally surprised when the men 
walked right out among the huge beasts, slapping an occasional 
one on the back as a sign of greeting. 

A count of the herd was made from this high point before 
the men went among the animals but it was subsequently dis- 
carded when it was found that a much more accurate census 
could be obtained from enlargements of some of the photo- 
graphs. We thus determined the number present to be 264. 

All of those present were males except one female. She was 
timid and left the beach soon after we arrived. It was noted 
that the long pendant snout of the male was represented in the 
female by a short and scarcely noticeable elongation. I do not 
believe the female can inflate her "trunk" as does the male and 
thus produce a resonance chamber or sound box to accentuate 
the ponderous snore-like sound the latter frequently make. 

There was one young seal on the beach, perhaps a yearling, 
and its silvery coat of hair fairly glistened in the sun. It like- 
wise deserted us soon after we made our presence known. 



« Anthony (Journal Mammalogy, Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug., 1924, pp. 145-152, pis. 17-20) 
has given an account of the elephant seal herd in 1922, 1923, and contributed other 
data of historical value. 

September 5. 1925 



230 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

On the beach, down among the animals we made many close- 
range studies and photographs. (See pi. 16, fig. 2.) This was 
shedding time^ and we were all much surprised to see some 
animals with large flakes of epidermis peeling off of their 
bodies, bringing the old hair with it. Much of this cast-off 
skin littered the beach. The underside of the neck of the well 
grown male was very greatly creased and corrugated, and the 
color was brilliant geranium pink. Otherwise the coloration 
was a somber drab or gray, like the unspotted hair seals to 
which they are somewhat distantly related. The corrugations 
on the necks have been called scars from fighting, but they 
seem to be too regular and unifonn. I think it is purely a 
sexual character of the species. The only fighting scars I saw 
were on the backs. 

The animals were all excessively fat. On those occasions 
when we were able to get one to go into the water, wrinkles 
or waves of fat traveled the length of the body as it moved 
on the sand, undoubtedly aiding in the movement forward or 
backward. In coming from the water great deliberation was 
shown, advantage apparently being taken of the last ounce of 
"push" in the breaking surf. Locomotion was exceedingly slow 
and laborious on land; the diminutive front flippers are used 
to a certain extent to pull the huge bulk forward but they and 
the muscles which actuate them are entirely inadequate. The 
hind limbs project backward at all times and while they are 
very serviceable in swimming they serve no useful purpose on 
land. 

One curious habit we noticed on land was the throwing of 
showers of sand up over and on the backs as they lay stretched 
out. The front flippers, one at a time are used for this and in 
some cases an animal looked like a huge pile of volcanic sand 
with flippers projecting at one end and nose at the other. Why 
this is done remained to us inexplicable when we left. 

On several occasions we succeeded in causing a full grown 
bull to raise his head and shoulders to their full extent; then 
they are considerably taller than a man. The teasing to which 
they were subjected caused only the mildest sort of protest. 
This consisted only of throwing the head back high over the 

' See figure in Nat. Geog. Mag., \'ol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, p. 77. 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 231 

back and opening wide the mouth. On no occasion was an 
attempt made to bite one of us although ample opportunity- 
was afforded had the animals been so disposed. How different 
were they in their docility from an equal number of fur seal 
bulls, which would have torn us literally to shreds under simi- 
lar circumstances ! On two or three occasions members of the 
party would place a hand on the back of an animal and vault 
over, rather than go around. 

One of the strangest things to me about the elephant seals 
was the manner in which the snout (erroneously called trunk) 
was inflated, balloon-fashion, and allowed to dangle in the 
widely opened mouth when the head was thrown far back to 
utter the indescribably weird sound they make.^ The noise 
(it can hardly be called a note), although of very low pitch, 
has peculiar carrying properties and the source is difficult to 
locate. So far as we could see the snout (about 12 inches long) 
was put to no other purpose. It can be of no value in the 
capture of food, else the young and females would likewise 
be thus provided. 

The Mexican naturalists wished to obtain a specimen for 
their National Museum and this afforded an opportunity to 
investigate the food habits of the species. But the stomach 
was empty, except for some sand, and the natural food remains 
a mystery. 

The breeding ground proper is at the southeast end of the 
beach and above high tide mark. Here were the remains of six 
dead animals, too far decomposed for careful examination. 
From them it was supposed that the ground had not been 
occupied probably later than March and perhaps earlier. 

Many points in the life history of this strange beast remain 
unknown. For instance, where were the females and young? 
Certainly not around Guadalupe. It has been suggested that 
they migrate to the coast of Chile. This may be correct, but 
the animals seem ill adapted to so long a journey. Our obser- 
vations indicated that they were not so adept in swimming as 
such species as the sea lions. They could hardly catch the in- 
credibly swift pelagic fishes such as tuna, albacore, yellowtail. 
etc., which abound about Guadalupe. Moreover, there appeared 



» See figure in National Geog. Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, p. 76. 



232 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

to be no records of the species between Guadalupe and Chile. 
Truly this is an animal of mystery. 

All of us were impressed with the apparent stupidity of the 
elephant seals. One man with a rifle could kill in a short time 
all of the herd then present. Years ago they were so butchered 
and the fat was rendered into oil. This continued to such an 
extent that the animal was supposed for a while to be extinct. 
It was very gratifying to us to see that there was at least a 
nucleus left to perpetuate the species and at least not yet will it 
follow the dodo and passenger pigeon into oblivion. After 
making due allowances for animals absent it would seem that 
the entire herd in 1922 must have contained not many fewer 
than 1,000" of all classes. 

Upon our return to San Francisco the Committee under 
whose auspices the expedition was organized, took steps imme- 
diately to urge the Government of Mexico adequately to pro- 
tect this relic of a bygone age of which it happened to be cus- 
todian. Our associates from that country took similar action 
and as a result on October 27, 1922. President Obregon issued 
the following proclamation declaring Guadalupe Island a 
reservation. 

SUBJECT 

Marginally a stamp which says : — United States of Mexico. — Presidency 
of the Republic. — Resolution of the Bureau of Agriculture and Public 
Works : 

CONSIDERING 

That the island of Guadalupe, of Lower California, and its territorial 
waters possess natural riches alike in forestry material and in herds, and 
in game and fish, numbering among its species many of rare occurrence, 
which species are in danger of extinction, owing to the immoderate ex- 
ploitation of which they have been the object; 

That the Federal Government must protect those species which con- 
stitute an inexhaustible fount of riches for the Government and the people 
of Mexico. 

For that reason, I have considered it well to dictate the following 

RESOLUTION. 

Article 1. — The island of Guadalupe of Lower California, as well as the 
territorial waters surrounding it, remains reserved for the protection and 

'Anthony (Jouni. Mammalogy, ^'ol. 5, No. 3, Aug., 1924, p. 148) has stated that he 
believed 1250 total to be a conservative estimate of the herd in 1923, a year later. 



VcL. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION rO GUADALUPE ISLAND 233 

development of the natural riches which they contain, alike in forestry 
material and in herds, and in game and fish. 

Article 2. — There be named the technical and administrative personnel 
necessary for the administration and protection of the said riches. 

Given in the residence of the Federal Executive Power, on the 19th 
day of the month of October of one thousand nine hundred and twenty- 
two.— THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES OF MEXICO.— A. OBREGON.— SEAL.— Published and exe- 
cuted.— THE UNDER SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND PUB- 
LIC WORKS COMMISSIONER OF THE BUREAU.— RAMON P. DE 
NEGRI.— Seal. 

It is a copy which I certify agrees with the original. 

Mexico, October 27, 1922. 

THE SECONDARY CHIEF CLERK. 
Gmo. S. Segutn. — Seal. 

It is to be hoped that all loyal subjects of all civilized nations 
will respect this decree and permit the elephant seals to live 
their lives and perpetuate the species for the benefit of future 
generations of mankind. 

After Mr. Tose had completed the making of the sketches 
he had in mind and had collected some accessory material, such 
as rocks, plants, dried elephant seal epidermis, etc., we sailed 
back to our shore camp. The articles mentioned were to be 
used for the preparation of a group of the mounted animals 
which the California Academy of Sciences had received sev- 
eral years previously and which was to be installed in the new 
Steinhart Aquarium, then under construction. 

At the elephant seal beach, Mr. Anthony and others saw a 
wandering tattler fly listlessly from rock to rock in the most 
unconcerned and nonchalant manner. This bird has always 
been an enigma to me. I have seen it in summer on practically 
every north Pacific island I have visited from Guadalupe to 
the center of Bering Sea, and others have reported it as far 
south as the Revillagigedo group. Yet breeding records seem 
to be entirely wanting. It spends our winter months in the 
southern hemisphere and there is a possibility that its breeding 
ground is south of the equator. 

On the way back from the elephant seal beach to our shore 
camp two yellowtail tuna were caught from the deck and 
proved to be a desirable addition to our already excellent bill 
of fare. The fishes were taken on a bone "gig" trolled far 



234 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

behind the ship on a piano wire "leader" and very strong line. 
When a strike was made this powerful swimmer made the 
line fairly sing back and forth as it was hauled in, hand over 
hand. Such procedure would doubtless break the heart of a 
light tackle enthusiast but fishing for fun and fishing for food 
must always be separated. 

That night as we were getting into our blankets at 10 
o'clock under a starlit sky, we were greeted by a slight earth- 
quake, lasting almost a minute — merely a gentle reminder of 
the immeasurable forces which have built this mountain peak 
from 12,000 feet beneath the waves to 4,000 feet above. 

The next day, July 13, the party separated in order the better 
to cover more ground in our limited time. Messrs. Slevin. 
Gallegos, Barnhart and Hinkley, leaving in the early morning, 
took the trail up the canon back of the buildings. After about 
six hours of steady, weary climbing, up the excessively rough 
lava slopes they eventually reached the forest of cypress trees 
near the top. Here Dr. Edward Palmer had camped in a ver- 
itable paradise in 1875. He found strange birds in abundance 
and a profusion of wild flowering plants. 

No less than four species of the birds he found are now 
absolutely extinct and except for the museum specimens and his 
notes they are forever lost to humanity. There is some strange 
and lonely sadness that comes over us when we think of the 
last of a species of one of nature's creations having passed its 
span of existence. Paleontology tells us that hundreds of thou- 
sands of species have so passed on in times gone by ; neverthe- 
less, when v'e see one go we feel the loss the same as we do 
when a dear relative has received a last farewell. 

The species of birds thus far exterminated on Guadalupe 
are: Guadalupe Caracara, Guadalupe Flicker, Guadalupe 
Towhee, and Guadalupe Wren. 

The caracaras were abundant when Dr. Palmer was at the 
island but ten years later (1885), when Mr. Walter E. Bryant 
collected on Guadalupe for the California Academy of Sci- 
ences, he found them being killed by the soldiers stationed 
there "to protect the goats." It was evidently believed that the 
young kids were killed by the caracaras and, although the 
birds ranged from the sea shore to the highest peak, they were 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 235 

soon all killed. The destruction was made easy because, it is 
said, the birds resorted to the water holes on top of the island 
to drink. 

The other three lost species, the flicker, wren and towhee, 
have gone because they were unable to protect themselves from 
the house cats, running wild. 

Our party saw no sign of any of these four species although 
special search was made for them. There was one other resi- 
dent, the Guadalupe petrel, which we expected to find but did 
not. The last report of a naturalist previous to our visit ( 1906) 
stated that the birds were being rapidly killed by the cats. 
Our visit was too late in the season for us to say if all are 
gone or not. 

In the vicinity of the spring near the cypress grove the party 
estimated the number of goats at 5,000. Naturally the water 
hole was in a foul and filthy condition. The animals have in- 
creased to a prodigious extent since they were first "planted."^" 

There are two stories told as to the early introduction of this 
pernicious pest on Guadalupe. One has it that the early whalers 
sailing from New England "planted" goats on all of the out- 
lying and uninhabited islands in their track in order to provide 
a supply of fresh meat for their crews without the necessity 
of visiting a port where risk of desertion was always great. 
This version may be true, but when Dr. Palmer was on the 
island in 1875, the animals were there but had not increased 
sufficiently to cause any damage. In 1885 Green^^ stated there 
were many thousand. 

The other version came to me after I returned to San Fran- 
cisco. It was related to me by one John McCormick. One of 
the early whalers, Captain Breen, obtained a concession from 
the Mexican Government to raise goats on Guadalupe and in- 
troduced the nucleus of a herd there in 1872. This concession 
passed to Captain Breen's son who in turn willed a one-third 
interest to Felix Franquient and two-thirds to Sammy Solo- 
mon. EfiForts to confirm this story were unsuccessful. Mr. Mc- 
Cormick told me he had reports that there were several million 
goats on the island and when informed that our party esti- 
mated the number at 40,000 to 60,000 his interest waned ! 

" See fi^re in Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, p. 84, from photograph 
by J. M. Gallegos. 

"Bulletin Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 1, .■\ug. 29, 1885, p. 215. 



236 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



However the goats originally reached Guadalupe, they have 
increased enormously and through inbreeding have developed 
into a motley race colored white, red, brown, spotted, blotched, 
and black ; curious malformations of horns have also resulted. 
They are at perfect ease on the tablelands of the top, on the 
perpendicular cliffs of the seashore or the steep-walled cavern- 
ous canons. They were not very shy at the time of our visit. 
Two of them took up a station on the face of a vertical cliff 
close behind our camp and the ledge on which they had a foot- 
ing was so narrow they apparently could not turn around to 
get back the way they went. Their bleating was somewhat 
annoying at times but finally one of them half jumped, half 
slid, to a talus slope 50 feet below. A safe landing was made 
and the goat trotted away as if that was an every-day occur- 
rence. The cowboy propensities of one of our deck hands 
finally became irresistible and he lassoed the other animal and 
hauled it down.^- 

Several times we saw goats go deliberately to the sea and 
drink, and we were satisfied that this was practically the only 
method the majority of them have of quenching their thirst 
during the dry season. It is believed that many of them never 
visit the sources of freshwater on the island. 

The party, while on the top of the island, collected a consid- 
erable supply of seeds of the Guadalupe cypress, a marvelously 
beautiful and graceful tree, entirely distinct from all other 
known cypresses. It is sometimes called "blue cypress" because 
of the blue-gray color of the foliage. For many years, the 
species was represented in California only by a few beautiful 
specimens on the grounds of the state capitol at Sacramento, 
two smaller ones in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, and 
some others in Balboa Park, San Diego. None of these had 
ever produced seed. Therefore, Mr. John McLaren, Superin- 
tendent of Golden Gate Park, was very grateful for the supply 
of seeds brought back to him. A great many of them grew un- 
der the expert attention they received and may be exi>ected to 
furnish shade to the children of the park long after the last 
one on Guadalupe has been "barked" and killed by the goats. 
Those who saw the grove there in 1922 stated that no small 



" See figure in Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, p. 82, July, 1923. 



Vol. XIV] HAXMA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 237 

trees were found at all. The goats evidently eat every seedling 
which starts. In addition they had peeled the bark from many 
of the large trees to a point as high as they could reach. 

The presence about the water hole on top of the island of a 
horse, six mules and 14 burros caused considerable astonish- 
ment to the party some of whom would have liked immensely 
to have received some assistance from these sturdy animals 
before they succeeded in negotiating the steep descent of the 
mountain. They reached camp, greatly fatigued, soon after 
dark. 

Mr. Anthony and I rowed south from the landing, six or 
seven miles in order to make a careful search in the water and 
on land for fur seals but the quest was fruitless. 

We landed at the first large caiion south of the buildings and 
spent two hours collecting on shore. Signs of house mice 
showed that these animals were excessively abundant. The 
rock slides were occupied by numerous Kaeding's petrels. 
These birds are chiefly nocturnal in their movements on land, 
and each night at our camp we heard them chattering among 
the rocks and canons. Several were attracted to the lights on 
the ship and were captured easily. They are evidently not as 
expert on the wing as one would be led to expect by watching 
the birds gracefully skim the waves of the open sea ; Mr. Slevin 
found two dried carcasses impinged on the thorns of the 
"cholla" cactus. 

On July 14 Messrs. Anthony, Slevin, Terron, Barnhart, 
Tose and I rowed southward to a large caiion (Esparsa 
Caiion) which opens to the sea about three miles south of the 
Northeast Anchorage. The primary object was to secure seeds 
of the palm trees, about 1,000 of which grew above an eleva- 
tion of 750 feet at this place. No ripe seeds were found and 
small trees which could possibly be transplanted were missing. 
Evidently not a new tree has started for a great many years, 
another blot against the goats. (See pi. 19, fig. 2.) 

We succeeded in collecting a few other species of plants 
which the goats could not reach. Our method was to scale a 
cliff as far as possible and then shoot a fragment of the plant 
from its place of growth. Practically nothing edible for the 
goats could be reached by us ; they are better cliff climbers 



238 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. s'th Ser. 

than we. Several things indicated that there might be fresh 
water underground in this canon or as springs farther up. 

The remainder of the party either worked in camp or in that 
vicinity during the day. 

Early on the morning of July 15 Messrs. Terron, Anthony, 
Slevin, the engineer of the Tccatc and I went to the top of the 
pine ridge, a knife-like promontory 2,500 to 4,000 feet high, 
on the northwest end of the island. We ascended from the first 
canon north of the Northeast Anchorage and followed the crest 
of the ridge southeast about three miles. 

Enormous, senile, wide spreading pines were very common 
on the top; some of them were beautiful specimens but many 
were dead or dying and a great many more had fallen. When 
we stopped on our southward march the pines were growing 
scarcer and the beautiful Guadalupe oak had appeared in con- 
siderable numbers. 

Both of these trees are peculiar to Guadalupe and it is said 
there is not a living specimen of the oak elsewhere and very 
few pines. We were very anxious to secure acorns but system- 
atic search failed to reveal a single one. We even climbed 
numerous trees in hopes of finding one lodged in a crotch or 
cavity but this failed. One botanist has stated that the acorns 
of this oak are the largest in existence so we were greatly dis- 
appointed in our failure. 

With the pines we were more successful and a large supply 
of cones was brought back. As with the cypresses and palms, 
the goats have for many years effectually prevented any new 
growth and if some one does not succeed in transplanting the 
oak this beautiful species in a few more years will be forever 
lost. 

The top of this ridge and a considerable distance down on 
the seaward side is bathed in almost constant fog. It was only 
between banks of this that we were able to get a glimpse, now 
and then, of the country round about and to take some pic- 
tures. The trees condense a great deal of moisture from these 
clouds and underneath many of them the ground was very 
moist. 

Sr. Cuesta-Terron suggested that if Guadalupe could be 
made a government reservation it should be possible to fence 



Vol. XIV] HAXNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 239 

certain favorable forested areas of all the species of trees and 
thus keep the goats out. If this admirable idea can be carried 
out it no doubt will serve to perpetuate in their native habitat 
the five species which are otherwise doomed to certain extinc- 
tion when the present generation of individuals is gone. These 
are the oak, pine, palm, cypress, and cedar. 

We found none of the beautiful undergrowth of shrubs and 
succulent plants of this forest which was so fascinating to Dr. 
Palmer 50 years before. It is believed that about 100 native, 
endemic species of plants may have been entirely exterminated 
by the goats in this time. 

We were greatly disappointed at finding no flickers, wrens 
or towhees. The dusky kinglet was also not seen although it 
had previously been found in the trees we visited. We did see 
about 15 individuals of the red-breasted nuthatch and many 
Guadalupe juncos. Guadalupe rock wrens and Guadalupe house 
finches were very abundant. Apparently these species had com- 
pleted the rearing of young for the year and no eggs were 
found. Three red-tailed haw^ks were seen; this species is com- 
mon on the island and was seen almost every day. A great 
blue heron was seen on shore. 

Messrs. Tose and Hinkley worked closer to camp during the 
day and after the pine ridge party had returned the shore camp 
was broken and all hands went on board the Tecate for the 
night. Mr. Barnhart had spent the day studying the fishes 
about the shores near camp. Our facilities did not permit the 
preservation of an extensive collection of this interesting group, 
a fact which we regretted whenever we saw the intense blue 
Azurina hirundo over the kelp gardens. Mr. Anthony had 
helped to collect the type and two other specimens of this* beau- 
tiful fish 25 years previously and they still remain the sole 
museum records of the species. We saw considerable numbers 
of them, but never many at one time ; they persistently refused 
to take any bait we had to offer. 

One of the most striking features of Guadalupe was the very 
unusual tameness of some of the birds. Rock wrens'^ were at 
almost every landing and juncos and finches were abundant 
among the trees. (See pi. 17, fig. 2.) All three species were 
most confiding and fearless in their behavior. If we sat down 



See figure in Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, p. 73. 



240 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

to eat a lunch and remained motionless for a few minutes, one 
or more of them would alight on our boots or hats. The 
strange part of it is that the cats have not as yet exterminated 
these species as well as some others. 

This habit was in great contrast to all species on Cedros 
Island visited a few days later. There the birds, all species, 
were so wild and wary that it was almost impossible to collect 
specimens. I know of no explanation of these facts. Human 
beings visit one island as often as the other and probably never 
have the small birds been molested in either place other than 
by collectors. 

The next morning, July 16, at eight o'clock, the ship got 
under way and sailed around the north end again to the ele- 
phant seal beach. The shore and caves were examined closely 
by rowing along just outside the surf line; we had high hopes 
of being as fortunate in our location of fur seals as we had been 
with elephant seals but there was no sign of the objects of our 
search on this end of the island. At the last cave before reach- 
ing the elephant seal beach there were 22 elephant seals hauled 
on a small sand bank and 14 just outside in the water. There 
appeared to be more of the animals on the rookery beach than 
on the day we made the count but we did not stop to check the 
earlier figures. 

Cruising on down the west side of the island slowly we 
examined minutely every nook and corner where it appeared 
at all likely fur seals might be. At one p. m. we anchored off 
Jack's Bay, halfway down the island and went ashore to ex- 
amine the ancient fur-seal rookery ground. Here was located 
originally a rookery with as many animals on it as any of the 
largest breeding grounds of the Pribilof Islands. 

The boundaries of the great rookery could be traced almost 
exactly by the smooth and polished rocks which had been worn 
this way by the trampling of thousands upon thousands of flip- 
pers for many, many years. At the western end of the rookery 
there was the outline of the hauling ground for the adolescent 
males, the bachelors, extending far back of the beach line. 
And back of it there was a canon with a causeway, fenced off 
with built-up rocks and logs of the native palm tree. The latter 
were thoroughly decayed showing that a great many years 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 241 

had elapsed since they were put in place. At the upper end of 
the causeway on a little tableland was a corral, partially demol- 
ished. 

The rookery proper occupied a fringe on a boulder beach 
about half a mile long lying east of the hauling ground. In 
front, and awash during the highest waves, there is a rough 
and jagged lava reef. The tide pools of this undoubtedly fur- 
nished admirable places for the young pups to learn to swim. 
At the eastern end of the rookery was what appeared to be the 
killing ground and a flat smooth area for pegging out the skins 
to dry. In the early days of fur-seal work this method of 
curing was employed instead of the use of salt which has been 
used now for about 75 3^ears. At the eastern end of the rookery 
were the rock walls of eight houses. No framework was left. 
They were probably covered with the skins of the elephant 
seals. 

We could not walk over this deserted ground without form- 
ing a picture of the grand sight it must have been when the 
first visitors built their rude huts and began the relentless 
slaughter of the fur-seal herd. Those who are familiar with 
the history of the Alaska fur-seal herd know what a waste 
there has been. It is recorded that the killing was done by 
Aleutian islanders brought down by the intrepid Yankee sailors 
for the purpose. The Aleutians were under the domination of 
Russia at that time and the Americans were able to arrange to 
do the work on shares ; they were navigators, the Russians 
were not. It appears that parties of the Alaskan natives were 
landed with water at the rookery grounds and there left to 
make the season's catch. After the work was done the ship 
returned for them and took them away again. Evidently the 
greatest need was for water and a well had been dug near the 
buildings. It had caved in badly and showed no sign of moist- 
ure of any kind in the bottom. 

It was here at Jack's Bay that Dr. Charles H. Townsend 
collected four fragmentary skulls of fur seals in 1888. They 
were found to represent a species decidedly distinct from the 
Alaska fur seal ; in fact they were more closely related to those 
that live in the Antarctic regions than to those of the Arctic. 
The Guadalupe species was named Arctocephalus townsendi by 



242 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Dr. Merriam, and the four skulls in the original collection 
form the sole representation of the species in the world. Al- 
though many people have searched for the species since, it 
appears to be extinct. 

In going over the rookery ground we had expectations of 
finding bones but were disappointed. It appears that in this 
desert air bones disintegrate very rapidly and fall to a powder. 
Even some bones of goats were almost completely destroyed 
and they could not have been there longer ago than about 1880. 
The great fur-seal rookeries were exploited chiefly between the 
years 1800 and 1810. 

Here at Jack's Bay Messrs. Slevin and Tose collected vari- 
ous and sundry species of insects and shells and succeeded in 
getting one house mouse. This is a dry, barren part of the 
island and the mice have lived here for many generations, 
without water the greater part of the time, yet they do not 
appear to differ from this pest elsewhere. 

I here succeeded in finding in the rock pools a few indi- 
viduals of the marine shell Uvanilla regina Stearns, a beautiful 
species originally found on Guadalupe and not certainly known 
elsewhere. 

That afternoon we sailed slowly down the remainder of 
the west side of the island but finding nothing of importance 
we anchored in the bight known as "South Anchorage" for the 
night. 

Two fair-sized islets at the south end of Guadalupe known 
as Inner and Outer islands were examined minutely for fur 
seals but none was found. On a shelf of Inner Island we saw 
14 California sea lions sleeping quietly in their solitude. 

These islands are very interesting geologically. One is built 
of lava, like most of Guadalupe, and is a crater, bowl-shaped 
on the inside. The sea has eaten into the rocks so that a per- 
pendicular wall is left all around. Next day from an elevation 
on Guadalupe we could see water inside the crater, but whether 
it was fresh or salt could not be determined. The other island 
rises out of the water, a sheer monolith with perpendicular 
walls going down into deep water. This one was composed of 
a light brown massive rock very decidedly different from the 
stratified lava of which the crater is built. 



Vol. XIV] 



HANNA—EXPEDITIOX TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 



243 



In the early morning of July 17 Messrs. Anthony, Tose, 
Hinkley, Barnhart and I went over the reef ground near 
South Anchorage, this being an excellent hauling place for fur 
seals should any be around, but not a sign of an animal was 
found. 




Fig. 2. Sketch of South Rookery, an abandoned fur seal breeding ground on 
Guadalupe Island. — 1, Steep escarpment leading to high land above. 
— 2, Main rookery ground, excessively rough with blocks and boulders 
of lava; many worn smooth and polished from trampling of the fur 
seals. — 3, A wrecked dory. — 4, Squares represent walls of human 
habitations. — 5, Trail leading to smooth tableland about 50 feet 
above level of rookery. — 6, Smooth sandy area used for pegging out 
seal skins to dry. — 7, Round, flat topped piles of stones, presumably 
used for platforms for piling skins. 

At one time this area was occupied by a vast rookery of 
Guadalupe fur seals. As at Jack's Bay the boundaries were 
plainly traceable by the flipper-polished rocks. The rookery 
occupied a stretch of coastline at least three-fourths of a mile 
long, the rocks being greatly worn; evidently the ground was 
occupied for a very long period of time and if this feature be 
a safe means of estimating the age of a rookery, then Guada- 



244 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

lupe was inhabited much before the Pribilof Islands by the 
herds there. 

On top of a tableland was a smoothed-off area used as a 
pegging-out ground, in many cases the pegs were still present 
but grealy worn by the wind blown sand. Piles of boulders, 
carefully arranged in circles may have been used as a place to 
put the fresh skins before pegging to keep them clean and free 
of sand ; no other use could be thought of to which they might 
have been put. (See pi. 15, fig. 2.) 

Near the beach line there were the remains of the stone 
walls of nine houses, similar in every way to those previously 
seen at Jack's Bay. (See pi. 17, fig. 1.) 

The country at this end of the island is an exceedingly bar- 
ren desert, where even the goats find difficulty in maintaining 
an existence. The uplands were very rough and rugged with 
strewn lava and in one patch of this a little cactus belonging to 
the genus Mammillaria was collected. Until then the only other 
form of this group found was the "cholla." 

Under some vegetation near the beach Mr. Slevin and I col- 
lected two species of Hemiptera and two beetles we had not 
previously found on the island. 

In the afternoon we continued slowly with the ship up the 
eastern side of the island, examining the shores very carefully 
for fur seals. About two miles north of the south end of the 
island we found more ancient rookery ground, the occupied 
area being only about one-half mile long, but near by were the 
remains of 19 houses. Evidently this was the most favorably 
located of the rookeries for human habitation although we 
could see little reason for choice in the matter. Probably the 
workmen here walked across to the other rookeries for sealing 
work. 

Of course we were much disappointed at finding no living 
fur seals. It would seem that if the last hunters had left any 
breeding animals at all, they would have increased sufficiently 
by now to have been seen under the close scrutiny we gave the 
shores. The absence of bones on the old killing fields and 
rookeries also disappointed us because we had hoped to be able 
to add at least some pwDrtions of skeletons to the collections. 

After we had cruised northward along the eastern shore to 
the point where we left off with the rowboat a few days before, 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 245 

the ship was headed for San Qiiintin Bay on the peninsula 
of Lower California. 

This we reached at two p. m. of July 18 and Messrs. An- 
thon}-, Tose, Slevin, Barnhart and I went ashore to collect on 
the west side of the bay. 

Miscellaneous specimens of various kinds were taken, among 
which were a rattlesnake and a lizard, found by Mr. Slevin. 
These pleased him very much because up to this time he had 
not gotten anything for the Department of Herpetology. He 
had been unable to verify the vague reports of the lizard on 
Guadalupe.^* 

The remainder of our party went ashore on the east side of 
the bay at the village to arrange for the use of an automobile 
the following day. 

The next morning, July 19, Messrs. Angulo, Cuesta-Terron, 
Anthony, Slevin and I secured a light automobile in the village 
of San Quintin for use during the day. Mr. Green, the post- 
master, owned the machine and we drove northeastward about 
15 miles, diagonally across a level plain, then over gently roll- 
ing hills to the mouth of a cafion which comes out of higher 
mountainous country to the eastward. At the mouth of the 
canon there is a huge land-mark in the form of a red rock 
escarpment and near by a well kept farm has the name "Red 
Rock Ranch." We were treated to huge figs, four inches long, 
delicious watermelons and tomatoes, all irrigated with water 
from the stream in the cafion. 

From the ranch we drove up this stream about three miles 
to the Mission of Santo Domingo, once a populous and impor- 
tant station on the line of civilized habitations from the capital 
of Lower and Upper California, Loreto, to San Francisco, 
Now a few natives were left and they seemed to be fairly 
prosperous, with well kept farms and houses. Conspicuous 
among the buildings was a schoolhouse which would be a 
credit to many small communities in the United States. The 
"dobe" walls of the mission yard were mostly in ruins but one 
of the buildings was still well kept and was used regularly 
for church services, 

" See Green, Bulletin Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 1, 1885, p. 220, who reported having 
seen "two or three small lizards." Mr. Slevin thinks that if a species of lizard did 
once live on the island it is probable that the cats have destroyed them all by now. 

September 5, 1925 



246 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Collecting in this vicinity was not particularly encouraging 
so we returned early to the plains where a few antelope ground 
squirrels were taken as they rested, bird fashion, in the tops 
of the sage brush. Also just before dusk Captain Angulo and 
others derived considerable pleasure in securing some jack 
rabbits for us for specimens. I had missed an easy rifle shot 
at a coyote early in the afternoon and it took me some time to 
recover. 

The village of San Quintin consisted of a few miscellaneous 
houses, the most conspicuous of which was the old "Company 
House." Many years before, this had been the scene of con- 
siderable activity by a "colonization" company but it did not 
turn out well. Mr. Anthony had been with the company as a 
surve3^or and had collected many valuable specimens of birds 
in this vicinity. The place was also interesting to those of us 
from the California Academy of Sciences because our Secre- 
tary, Mr. W. W. Sargeant, had also been on hand with the 
first contingent of "settlers." 

While we were working on the east side of the bay, Messrs. 
Gallegos, Tose, Hinkley and Barnhart collected on the west 
side and secured many valuable specimens. 

On July 20, Messrs. Anthony, Gallegos, Slevin, Barnhart 
and Tose worked on the west side of the bay adding many 
more specimens to our rapidly growing collection. 

I found it profitable to visit some low cliffs, not over 20 feet 
high, on the east side of the bay and just south of the village. 
Here I succeeded in getting a very large collection of fossil 
shells consisting of several thousand specimens. 

The geology in the vicinity of San Quintin is comparatively 
simple. In late Pleistocene the present bay was a broad inden- 
tation of the sea and ocean-living species were very abundant. 
Subsequent elevation raised the bottom on the east side in a 
broad fold. The preservation of the fossil shells is excellent, 
many of them retaining some of the original coloration. How 
far back toward the foothills this embayment extended cannot 
be determined but probably it went to the first terrace, the be- 
ginning of a long series of rolling hills or mesa. This terrace 
is said also to contain fossils but none were secured. It is 
probably much older than the outcrops on the bay. The moun- 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 247 

tainous country to the east of this terrace is metamorphic, the 
age not having been determined. 

On the west side of the bay there is a chain of low volcanic 
cones not over 300 feet high. Lava has spread outward from 
these as far as the bay shore and on top of a broad shelf of this 
there are other Pleistocene marine sediments but with a dif- 
ferent set of fossils. Among those collected were some huge 
Schizotherous clams, fully eight inches long. 

The broad plain east of the bay was once occupied by great 
numbers of deer and antelope but they have almost disappeared 
on account of the activities of "sportsmen" from further north, 
and hunters employed by mining companies to provide fresh 
meat for their camps. 

On July 21 we completed our work at San Ouintin Bay. 
Messrs. Anthony, Slevin, Tose, Gallegos, Hinkley and I all 
worked at collecting on the west side. A few insects were 
found but no species was abundant. Coyotes, wood rats, and 
rabbits were abundant, as well as several species of desert field 
mice. One of the rarities collected was a very small species of 
shrew. Birds were very scarce about the bush-covered hills, 
Bell's sparrow being the dominant form. Mr. Slevin succeeding 
in securing eight rattlesnakes for the collection, a few of them 
being taken by other members of the party. There is no ques- 
tion but experience in this as in other lines makes for efficiency. 
He seemed to know just which brush thickets to explore and 
with his little .22 caliber shot pistol he captured three other 
species of snakes as well as a large number of lizards belonging 
to five or more species. 

Three species of land snails were very common among the 
brush thickets on the west side, the most noticeable one being 
the large Micrarionta stearnsiana here about to the southern 
extremity of its range. 

We left the bay at four p. m. and slowly made our way out 
through the tortuous channel at the entrance. This is so diffi- 
cult to follow that it would be dangerous for a boat much 
larger than the Tecate or for a navigator unfamiliar with the 
water. 

During the night Mr. Barnhart took water and plankton 
samples at regular intervals on the way to Cedros Island. I 



248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

relieved him at five a. m. At one place a peculiar temperature 
condition was found ; this dropped about five degrees in a dis- 
tance of eight miles and rose suddenly on the opposite side. 
This was interpreted to mean a submarine obstruction to the 
free flow of currents and a consequent "up-welling" of the 
colder waters from below. 

At eight a. m. of July 22 we were in sight of Cedros Island 
and the east shore was followed southward. The sea was with- 
out a ripple and as we cruised close in shore we were able to 
note some of the interesting features of this remarkable island. 
Near the north end we passed the site of a copper and gold 
mine, abandoned long ago. It was visited later and notes were 
made of surroundings. 

Nearly every slightly elevated rocky pinnacle or promontory 
along the shore was occupied by a pair of ospreys with their 
nest. In some of these young birds could be seen, almost as 
large as their parents. 

About halfway between the north end and the Grand Caiion 
in the center of the island, a crosswise fault extends northwest. 
On the south side of this break what appeared to be Tertiary 
sediments had been elevated about 200 feet above the sea. This 
deposit extends southward about two miles and is lost beneath 
the sea due to another fault. This elevation is entirely distinct 
from another which has lifted the greater part of the east side 
of the island out of the water about 20 feet. The old beach 
line was plainly seen from the ship. 

At noon we landed near the south end of the island where 
Bernstein Brothers of San Quintin and San Diego have an 
abalone packing plant. They have two outlying collecting 
camps with two divers each and enough of these fine mollusks 
are obtained to keep 14 shore men employed. 

The plant consisted of boiler, cooking vats, and wire drying 
frames. Canning machinery and a dock were in course of in- 
stallation. They had a large launch which made regular runs 
to San Diego and two smaller ones to attend the collecting 
camps. 

The abalones were brought in in the shell and consisted 
chiefly of the species, Haliottis corrugata. The meats were 
cooked three times in boiling water at intervals of a week or 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 249 

two. Between times they were dried in the sun on the wire 
netting, the entire process taking about six weeks. 

The meat when dry is hard as a piece of untanned leather 
and is brown in color but it has a very agreeable flavor. The 
product is shipped to China and Hawaii, some of the shells 
going elsewhere to various markets. It was stated by the 
Superintendent, Mr. Charles Bernstein, that five tons of fresh 
meat made one ton dried. 

In the afternoon all of the party went ashore for collecting. 
Most of us followed the pipe line inland about two miles and 
thence another mile to a large spring. Here a permanent sup- 
ply of very good water is had. At the source a very consid- 
erable area is grown up with rank water vegetation and no 
doubt the accumulation of this through years has retarded the 
flow of water somewhat. If it were cleaned out probably a 
sufficient supply could be had for much greater industrial needs 
or even a limited amount of irrigation. 

Tracks of deer and goats were abundant about the spring 
and a few small trees cast a most welcome shade. Birds were 
excessively scarce and so wild as to be almost unobtainable. 
Some rather interesting insects were found, among others be- 
ing a huge dragonfly four inches long. Numerous land shells 
peculiar to Cedros Island were picked from certain desert 
plants. They were hibernating in closely-sealed shells. In the 
spring, large numbers of a minute freshwater gastropod were 
found, probably belonging to the genus Paludestrina. Also 
there and in the stream leading to the pipe line entrance, Mr. 
Slevin collected numerous specimens of a small frog. 

Here we made our first acquaintance with that strange mon- 
strosity, the elephant tree of Cedros. It grows very close to the 
ground, the highest being not more than about 12 feet tall. At 
the base many of them were fully two feet in diameter and the 
thick club-shaped limbs taper rapidly to nothing. The trees 
had shed their leaves but were in full bloom, each one a gor- 
geous mass of beautiful pink. 

We made a much more extended stay on Cedros on our re- 
turn and detailed observations will be left until we come to 
that. But that evening Mr. Anthony and I put out many traps 
hoping to catch a very small pocket gopher which I saw during 



250 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the afternoon. Our attempt was futile, but we did capture a 
lizard in our trap which Mr. Slevin stated had not previously 
been taken on Cedros. Strange to say, he did not get another 
specimen. 

At seven a. m. of July 23 we sailed for Magdalena Bay, far 
to the southward. Between Natividad Island and the peninsula 
great numbers of cormorants were flying from east to west in 
long flocks. For half an hour they passed at a rate conserva- 
tively estimated at 100 per minute. 

Many petrels and shearwaters were seen but no albatrosses 
cared to follow us south of Cedros Island. During the day 
we sailed for hours through loose flocks of red phalaropes. 
They were evidently southward bound but found time to en- 
gage busily in catching minute animal life from the surface of 
the sea for food. 

On July 24 we had four hours' delay out at sea due to engine 
trouble, but our engineer seemed to be able to apply the proper 
remedy and we continued later to Magdalena Bay, arriving 
after nightfall. During our stop at sea a collection of surface 
dwelling organisms was secured with a dip net. Among the 
interesting forms thus secured were several larval fishes; 
among them we were able to identify pipe fishes, flying fishes, 
and the bonito or skipjack of the mackerel family. Some of 
these were barely out of the egg and they offer a possible clue 
to the breeding area of the tuna for which the naturalists of 
the U. S. S. Albatross searched in vain for several years. 

We passed Cape San Lazaro as the sun settled behind a 
bank of clouds on the western horizon leaving the brilliantly 
shining stars to light a tranquil sea. The atmosphere, the 
water, everything about us told us in unmistakable terms that 
we were approaching the tropics. 

As we entered the bay we passed close to Sail Rock, a target 
for the U. S. Navy in other days, and at nine-thirty p. m. we 
anchored in front of the village of Magdalena. 

During the trip down from Cedros Island whales were 
sighted only twice. The scarcity of these cetaceans was a 
surprise because it was in these waters that much of the pelagic 
whale industry was concentrated during the early part of the 
19th century. 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 251 

Swordfish and tuna were common on the way down and we 
caught a few bonito and skipjack on the gig. Some of the 
bonito contained ripe eggs indicating that the spawning season 
was at hand. 

Man-o-war birds, Heermann's gulls, elegant terns and brown 
pelicans came to meet us when we were about 15 miles out 
from the bay. In the late evening red phalaropes settled abun- 
dantly on the water ; some of them still retained the red plum- 
age of the breeding season. A black-footed albatross sailed 
past us in the afternoon and after one look departed in disgust. 
Least, Soccoro, black and Kaeding's petrels were common all 
day, their lazy but tireless flight often being the only sign of 
life on a glassy sea. 

In the morning of July 25 Messrs. Tose and Hinkley went 
south from the village along the bay shore and by noon had 
collected about 20 birds. 

Mr. Anthony and I went north to a mangrove swamp where 
four hours were spent in the almost impenetrable tangle, often 
up to the waist in mud and water. In this we succeeded in 
securing three specimens of the rare mangrove warbler but 
did not get one of the rails which we could hear from time to 
time. It is said that these birds blend into their surroundings 
so perfectly that it is only by long experience that the collector 
is able to secure them with regularity. 

Mr. Slevin worked north of the village and took about 70 
lizards and two snakes. 

Magdalena Bay is so large that the eastern shore cannot be 
seen from the village on the west side. North and south there 
is inland water for about 100 miles, much of it shoal but the 
anchoring ground is large and safe. There are a great many 
sand and mud flats and lagoons lined with mangroves and 
coarse grasses. In these lagoons there were formerly great 
numbers of turtles and their bones and shells still line the 
beaches. California gray whales used to visit the lagoons but 
the species now appears virtually extinct. Porpoises, however, 
were often seen in the bay waters. 

The village of Magdalena consists of several frame houses 
and concrete warehouses. It was established as a concession 
granted to a colonization company, not now in existence. The 



252 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

chief source of revenue was the lichen called "Orchilla." This 
grows luxuriantly on cactus and other desert plants of the 
region and was shipped to Germany for use in dye manufac- 
ture until chemists working with coal tar derivatives obtained 
better colors. Boats seldom call at the village any more. A 
company of marines located here had just completed the erec- 
tion of a radio station. 

Water has to be brought by boat from the east side of the 
bay, there being none near where the village is located. The 
important commodity sells for 50 cents per barrel. 

On July 26 Mr. Anthony and I again visited the mangrove 
swamp and succeeded in securing seven more mangrove war- 
blers. Also three Xantus' jays were taken; this is likewise a 
rare species in ornithological collections. I was surprised to 
find numerous living specimens of a huge Littorina adhering 
to the semisubmerged roots of the mangrove. 

We walked across the sand dunes to the ocean beach to the 
westward where a considerable number of marine mollusks 
was collected. This seemed to be a favorite place for the cap- 
ture of turtles by the people of Magdalena. We counted 65 
shells of those recently killed. The sex of at least 40 could 
be determined and they were all found to be females. It is 
said the turtles are killed with harpoons as they approach 
the sand beaches to lay their eggs. 

Mr. Slevin continued to add largely to the collection of 
reptiles, the most important being three specimens of a lizard 
called "whip-tail." He took four on the previous day; only 
one had been known previously. 

Other members of the party were variously engaged; Sr. 
Gallegos continued to add to his collection of insects and 
plants ; and Messrs. Tose and Hinkley worked with the birds 
continuously. 

On the morning of July 27 Mr. Anthony brought in all of 
the traps which had been placed out at this place. Very few 
specimens of mammals were taken and they were chiefly rats 
of the genus Neotoma and desert mice belonging to Pero- 
myscus and Perognathus. 

I spent the morning collecting fossil shells from a large de- 
posit which is exposed to an elevation of 20 feet above the bay 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND £53 

immediately north of the village a few rods. Here in a soft 
uiiConsolidated sand were great numbers of shells, many species 
being rare in collections. The age of the deposit is Pleistocene 
and it represents an elevated beach line similar to what has 
already been described at San Quintin and Cedros Island. 
Prior to this late elevation the land on which the village stands 
was an island and Magdalena Bay had a broad entrance to 
the northward. This permitted free entrance of ocean water 
and with it ocean-dwelling species of animals. With the eleva- 
tion of the land the north entrance was closed but the lagoon 
extending far to the northward inside the belt of seashore 
sand dunes is a remnant of it. It is said that this lagoon is 
connected with the sea to the northward thus in fact leaving 
Magdalena an island at present although it is more like a pen- 
insula. The mountains back of the village are metamorphic 
and igneous and therefore have been above the sea for a long 
period of time. During the Pleistocene at least, the range was 
an island, far removed from other high land, and even now 
partakes of the characters of an island. Therefore, it would 
be expected that sedentary animals such as mammals and in- 
sects, and also the plants, would have been modified by isola- 
tion and have become separate species or subspecies. This 
appears to be true in many cases. 

We left the anchorage at Magdalena at noon of July 27 and 
went to the village located on Santa Margarita Island 20 miles 
to the southward. To get there we had to pass through a 
rather difficult channel, the southern half of the bay being 
much shallower than the northern. 

Santa Margarita Island occupies the same position with 
reference to Magdalena Bay as the San Francisco Peninsula 
does to San Francisco Bay. The island has been subjected to 
the same elevation of Pleistocene sediments around the shore 
lines as has been described for other places. It is divided into 
two parts both the northern and southern being mountainous 
and composed of metamorphic or igneous rocks. The low pass 
two miles long, north and south, connecting the two parts, is 
level and on the western side is fringed by a belt of enormous 
sand dunes. Near the center of the isthmus country there is a 
zone of sedimentary rocks chiefly thinly bedded but hard sand- 



254 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Stones. No fossils could be found in them but they had the 
appearance of being pre-tertiary on account of the alteration 
which has taken place. The strata dip to the westward about 
80° and strike about northeast-southwest. 

A great deal of magnesite has been collected about the lower 
slopes of the mountains of both sections of the island. Com- 
paratively large quantities have been shipped out and some 
trucks and other machinery were still on hand. It was under- 
stood that under the laws of Mexico the concession under 
which the deposit had been exploited had been automatically 
cancelled not long before our arrival. The manner of forma- 
tion of the magnesite is an interesting problem, a solution 
of which was not evident from my brief study. The mineral 
seemed to be fairly pure and occurred chiefly as loose chunks 
or nodules having mammillary structure, as though deposited 
from mineral springs. 

Here at Santa Margarita was a well equipped plant for the 
manufacture of oil and meal from fish. It was idle at the 
time but in good condition. Apparently some difficulties had 
arisen in regard to the collection of the fish for working up. 
It was said that a small species resembling an anchovy was the 
chief raw material and no difficulty had been encountered in 
securing a sufficient supply by the use of a 200-foot seine on 
the neighboring beaches. By this method many other species 
were secured; particularly abundant were several species of 
sharks. 

Near the wharf there was a building which had been put up 
for use as a turtle cannery. It had a concrete floor and was 
used as a habitation at the time of our visit. Much of the 
machinery was still in place. We were infomied that the orig- 
inal concession had been granted many years previously to a 
man named O. Sandaval but no attempt at operation had been 
made for 15 or more years. 

The ship was tied up to the dock here and most of us went 
ashore. Mr. Anthony and I put out some traps and collected 
a few desirable birds. We also found a snake (a black racer) 
which Mr. Slevin considered very desirable. I found many 
excellent specimens of a species of land shell (Bulimulus) re- 
lated to a form which lives in the Cape Region farther south 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 255 

on the peninsula. Mr. Hinkley secured a specimen of the 
endemic and greatly desired jack rabbit. Mr. Slevin secured 
all previously recorded species of reptiles except a rattlesnake. 

This seemed like a very excellent collecting station and we 
regretted that we could not spend a week or a month in the 
vicinity. Across the bay to the eastward the great and intri- 
cate mangrove swamps and islands invite the naturalist most 
enticingly. Mr. Barnhart found a strange water temperature 
condition in Magdalena Bay. Where we anchored at Magda- 
lena it was 64°F. Farther out and closer to the entrance it was 
68°. Outside it was 74° and at Margarita it was 71°. Why 
is the water so cold in the north part of the bay? We could 
not suggest an answer. 

On the morning of July 28 we found only four mammals 
in the traps, two wood rats and two mice (Perognathus). I 
shot two bats near the wharf in the early morning light as they 
were flying along a low cliff near the fertilizer plant. 

Mr. Slevin and I walked south into the mountains of the 
south half of the island, thence to the "ranch" on the west side 
of the isthmus, and back through the mountains of the north 
half. Numerous interesting birds were taken some of which 
belong to the fauna of the Cape Region. This appears to be the 
extreme northern limit of distribution of this remarkable 
fauna. Woodpeckers and cardinals, peculiar to the region 
south were especially attractive. The former make their nest- 
ing holes in the trunks of the giant cactus. The cardinal's 
song did not appear to differ from that of the familiar bird 
of the middle west although this one is a different species. 

Among the reptiles collected there were several specimens of 
a desert iguana which is an excessively rapid runner. In action 
the tail is folded upward, the front legs placed close beside the 
body and the hind legs only are used. 

Messrs. Anthony, Tose and Hinkley secured some more 
desirable birds and another jack rabbit. Insects were very 
scarce but we secured a few species. 

The climate at Magdalena is very uniform throughout the 
year. The nights are cool, the days hot. A breeze usually 
blows on the water in the afternoon but inland that part of the 
day is uncomfortably warm. Rain seldom falls, sometimes 



256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

only at intervals of years. Far to the eastward over the Gulf 
of California, black clouds with flashes of lightning were 
plainly visible at night. 

At the so-called "ranch" one family lived in a shed with 
brush roof, no walls, doors or stove. They had a small patch 
cleared of brush where watermelons, tomatoes, and date palms 
were growing with practically no attention. Water was avail- 
able at about 15 feet depth and was used for household pur- 
poses but we found it to be too salty to satisfy our thirsts. 
The ranch is in a valley of about 10 square miles densely 
grown with brush, small trees and giant cactus. Undoubtedly 
there is fairly fresh water at a moderate depth over the entire 
area. It would seem that farming could be more extensively 
prosecuted if there was a market for the product. 

July 29 proved to be an excellent day for collecting. Messrs. 
Cuesta-Terron, Slevin, Gallegos, Tose, Barnhart, Hinkley, 
Anthony, Captain Angulo and I went across the isthmus to 
the ranch, the Captain being the pilot of one of the auto trucks 
left behind by the magnesite company. He proved his ability 
as a navigator on land as well as on the sea. 

Considerable time was spent in the giant cactus forest 
where we found ripe fruit as large as a medium sized orange 
and with a flavor similar to a raspberry. They were delicious 
eating and were very effective in allaying the thirst the unini- 
tiated always experiences in a hot desert afternoon. 

Many birds were found in this forest, the most important 
for us being the Cape Region species. The woodpeckers were 
evidently very fond of the cactus fruit and many ospreys had 
selected these strange trees for nesting sites. Some of the 
bulky structures had become so heavy through years of addi- 
tions that the trees had collapsed. ^^ 

The rank desert vegetation of the vicinity of the "ranch" 
enabled us to secure some attractive insects, and two species of 
land shells (Bulimulus and Micrarionta) were common. Mr. 
Slevin made very important additions to the reptile collection, 
one being a rattlesnake not previously known from this island. 

Another specimen of the jack rabbit was taken, this making 

"See figures in Nat. Gcog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, pp. 90, 91. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 257 

the third for our party, and the Mexican naturalists have taken 
one. 

On the morning of July 30 we ran the line of traps at the 
first break of day in hopes of getting to our specimens before 
the ants, but we were unsuccessful. The voracious insects had 
completely spoiled several otherwise valuable specimens ; all we 
could do was to preserve them in alcohol. The ants are noc- 
turnal in most of the places in which we have trapped this 
season and an animal is no sooner caught than it is attacked. 
In spite of this difficulty Santa Margarita Island furnished us 
with several specimens of very rare desert mice. 

It was with reluctance that we left this anchorage at nine 
a. m. and started northward on the journey back to San Diego. 

At one p. m. of July 31 we anchored behind the point of 
land known as Abreojos (eyes open). On the way north we 
followed the shore sufficiently close so that we would have 
discovered any herd of elephant seals or other conspicuous 
animals which might have been hauled out. It was in one of 
the long bights of this shore line that Dr. C. H. Townsend col- 
lected several elephant seals for the National Museum about 
1888. 

Messrs. Anthony, Gallegos, Slevin, Barnhart and I went 
ashore for collecting, the landing being made at two shacks 
used in other seasons by spiny lobster fishermen. Many turtle 
bones, lobster carcasses and mollusks were drifted upon the 
beach. I could not help but regret that equipment was not 
available to dredge the ocean bottom because it was here that 
Henry Hemphill had made a very extensive collection of shells 
many years ago. Numerous species taken there by him have 
not been found elsewhere. 

The most conspicuous shells on the beach were the pismo 
clam. It is prophesied that here will be an important fishery for 
this mollusk at some future date. 

A burro trail with fresh tracks led to the northeast to an- 
other lobster camp toward San Ignacio lagoon. 

Mr. Anthony stated that the plain back of this point is one 
of the few remaining ranges of the pronghorn antelope. A 
fairly fresh horn was picked up near the camp, so the species 
is probably not yet exterminated. 



258 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

No land snails could be found in the limited time devoted 
to the search. 

An examination was made of the geological structure out- 
cropping on the shore at the first point northeast of the usual 
a.nchorage. Here for about 1000 feet there was an exposure 
of hard sandstone and shale, dipping southwest at an angle of 
about 15°. Above, and unconformably upon that series is an 
even greater thickness of heavy conglomerate which weathers 
slowly and forms rocky projecting reefs upon which grow the 
great kelp gardens of the point. Above the conglomerate late 
Pleistocene sediments rest with great angular unconformity. 
The shells, however, were not well preserved. Fishes were ex- 
ceedingly abundant about the point. 

We arrived at Asuncion Island on August 1 at eleven a. m. 
and the anchor had scarcely been dropped when some one of 
the crew caught a "jewfish" weighing about 150 pounds. Later 
one was taken which weighed nearly 400 pounds. Several 
bonito were taken on the troll before we arrived. 

Most of the party went ashore soon after arrival. Messrs. 
Anthony, Cuesta-Terron and I examined all shores carefully 
for fur seals but found none. At the same time I estimated 
each group of California sea lions as we passed. The figures 
of course were hurriedly arrived at but the total, males, fe- 
males and young, was close to 4000 animals.'® To this, as an 
integral part of this rookery, should be added about 1000, 
subsequently found on Angulo Rock near by. All of the 
beaches were lined with the animals and they kept up an inces- 
sant roar with their barking. Harems seemed to contain from 
15 to 18 cows and the young pups were learning to swim in 
the tide pools. Many of the bulls were badly scarred from 
fighting, a condition which would largely disappear if some of 
the surplus males could be eliminated. 

This species was found to be very abundant on most of the 
favorable breeding grounds south of the Mexican Boundary. 
There are likewise large rookeries off the coast of California. 
Certainly the species has sufficiently recovered from its early 
persecution for the surplus males to be taken for commercial 
purposes. The skins arc large, uniform in thickness, and make 

>« See figures in Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, pp. 85, 86. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 259 

excellent leather. The fat and flesh make an oil and animal 
meal of a quality which is equal to, or better than, the average 
derived from whales. 

The manner in which the commercialization of such a species 
can be undertaken without exposing it to unlimited slaughter is 
a problem difficult indeed to solve. Permits or concessions 
might be granted to private parties by Mexico and California, 
limiting the catch to males only and the number to be specified 
by proper authorities after investigation. While this method of 
operation looks practicable at first glance it apparently never 
works out to any other conclusion than the commercial exter- 
mination of the species concerned. It has been tried repeatedly 
in many different countries and has always failed to perpetuate 
the species in the same abundance with which the work was 
started. 

Another plan of operation, often suggested and tried is to 
permit unrestricted slaughter by all persons during an open 
season. This likewise almost always fails in the perpetuation 
of a marine species in its original abundance and there are 
few successes with land animals. The reason is not hard to 
find. When such slaughter begins large catches are made with 
ease but as more people engage in the enterprise and the num- 
ber of individuals of the species hunted becomes smaller, in- 
creased efforts must be expended to get a profitable catch. 
These efforts are of two classes ; ( 1 ) political activity such as 
the securing of longer open seasons, and fewer restrictions, 
bribing of enforcement officials, etc.; and (2) increased effi- 
ciency of hunters. 

One of the most difficult of all classes of beneficial legisla- 
tion to secure is a measure to more adequately conserve or per- 
petuate a wild species which is being commercially exploited. 
Practically never are commercial interests willing to submit to 
protective restrictions until the species with which they are 
concerned is approaching industrial extinction. 

Therefore, the time to provide and apply protective measures 
is when the species is still abundant and not exploited. 

In the case of the California sea lions I think absolute prohi- 
bition of any slaughter whatsoever should be maintained by 
Mexico in its territorial limits as well as on the high seas. 



2^0 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The same should be done by California and the United States. 
While this is in force a treaty should be made between the two 
countries whereby no killing would ever be permitted except 
on land and by duly authorized agents of the respective 
governments. 

In this manner the Fish and Game Commissions of the two 
countries could develop a market for the amount of surplus 
available and for that only. Revenues of course would pass to 
the governments. 

Objection to this method of operation is possible because it 
may suggest certain doctrines of socialism, but it has been 
tried and found successful, whereas no other method ever has 
succeeded in conserving a species of marine mammal. 

On Asuncion Island Mr. Slevin took 30 specimens of one 
species of lizard; no others appear to live there. Land shells 
were scarce and semifossilized ; no live ones were found. In- 
sects also were very rare but we succeeded in finding six 
species. 

The island is a vast roosting place for birds, but few species 
breed. Brandt's cormorant is the most abundant of the latter 
and these form black, close, compact "islands" on the level 
stretches of white sand. Each mass contains a thousand or 
more birds. This close association seems to be for the purpose 
of protection from the gulls because, ordinarily, these did not 
molest the shags at all. But if we disturbed the "island" colony 
at all, causing the parents to desert young or eggs, the gulls 
flocked down in great numbers, breaking eggs and killing 
young indiscriminately. After we learned this we endeavored 
to cause as little disturbance in the island routine as possible. 

The Brandt's cormorant builds its nest of marine algae and 
the structures are low and filthy. The Farallon cormorant, 
which is common on the higher land, builds its nest of sticks 
and lines it with quill feathers. Some of the nests were built 
in the low trampled bushes of the island; others were placed 
in the open and raised to a height of three feet." 

A few pairs of brown pelicans nest on the island, but it is 
chiefly a roosting place for hundreds of thousands of these 
birds. 

" See figures in Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, pp. 92. 93. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 261 

The western gull nests in small numbers and there were 
burrows of Cassin's auklet or some shearwater everywhere 
where there was soil. These holes were unoccupied. 

Both species of cormorants and the pelicans had fairly fresh 
eggs, newly hatched young and young ready to fly, so the 
nesting season must be greatly prolonged. 

Frazer's oystercatchers and black turnstones were fairly 
common and in the late evening a few Heermann's gulls 
flew in. 

The vicinity of Asuncion Island is wonderfully rich in ma- 
rine life. A huge jelly fish, vivid magenta in color, and with 
streamers 20 feet long was abundant. South of the island 20 
miles there was a sudden lowering of the temperature of the 
sea water to 61° F., 13° colder than outside Magdalena Bay. 
The cold water probably accounts for the abundance of sea 
life, at least in part. 

A short distance northwest of Asuncion Island there is a 
flat-topped rock 50 feet high on which we collected eight 
species of beetles in less than an hour. The rock is very con- 
spicuous as the island is approached from the south. Because 
of the different species of insects from those found on Asun- 
cion, a name for this rock is needed and we proposed to honor 
it with the name of our congenial captain, Victor Angulo. 

Geologically, Asuncion Island is composed almost entirely 
of Jurassic Franciscan Chert, or a chert which is very similar 
to this widespread and well known fomiation in California. 
On the north side there appeared to be some metamorphism. 
The island, like so many other places in the region, has been 
subjected to a comparatively recent short submergence and 
subsequent elevation to about 25 feet. 

Traps were put out in the evening and next morning they 
contained 14 specimens of Peromyscus. 

On Aug^ist 2 we left Asuncion Island at six a. m. and went 
ashore on San Roque Island at seven-thirty a. m. It is similar 
in almost every way to Asuncion but is only about 65 feet high. 
The steamer San Jose went on the rocks here in 1921 and there 
was a great deal of wreckage strewn about. The hull was 
firmly wedged between the rocks. 

September 5, 1925 



252 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Brandt's cormorants were found in enormous numbers but 
the only nests of the Farallon species were around the shores 
on piles of driftwood. About 1,000 Heermann's gTills were 
perched on one rock ; very few young were among them. 

Several hair seals were seen in the water in the bight on the 
south side of the island but all efforts to secure specimens failed. 
Field mice were abundant but we took none during our short 
stay. No land shells were found and only three species of 
beetles were taken. 

We left San Roque at eleven a. m. and anchored in the north 
end of San Bartolome (Turtle) Bay at six p. m. Messrs. 
Anthony, Tose, Slevin and I went ashore with a lantern after 
dark. Traps were put out and in a bunch of sagebrush we 
found a rattlesnake which Mr. Slevin promptly shot. 

The low sea cliff at the landing consisted of sandstones dip- 
ping to the westward. Several species of fossils were collected 
which later showed the age of the rocks to be Pliocene. 

Two Peromyscus were found in the traps next morning 
(August 3) and we left San Bartolome Bay at six-thirty a. m. 
It was an exceedingly attractive place to work but our mission 
was insular and we could not stay. 

At nine a. m. we went ashore on the south end of Natividad 
Island, where the entire party worked all day. 

This is another bird island par excellence. Gulls, shearwaters 
and cormorants nest on the highest parts. Many pelicans were 
seen resting but none seemed to nest. The Brandt's cormoranis 
form "islands" on the level stretches near shore, while the Far- 
allon species goes to the higher interior and builds nests as on 
Asuncion Island. 

Of land birds we saw only desert sparrows, ravens and duck 
hawks. The latter nest on the island in very accessible places; 
a person could walk directly to some of the nests. 

The island is tunneled with the burrows of black-vented 
shearwaters. About 40 of these burrows were excavated and 
five birds were thus secured. One was a young of the year, the 
others adult. Apparently the birds continued to visit their 
burrows long after the nesting work was done. About eight 
species of insects were secured. Dead land shells (Micrarionta) 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 263 

were everywhere in abundance but not a live one could be 
found. Mr. Slevin took two species of lizards. 

Geologically the island is very old. Shales and sandstones in- 
clined from 0° to 75°, extend from the south end northward at 
least four miles. No fossils were found and the age was not 
definitely determinable but the sediments are certainly older 
than Tertiary. The island has been subjected to a recent sub- 
mergence down to at least 100 feet. It was then elevated before 
any considerable quantity of sediment could accumulate. 

Six species of cactus were seen, the most conspicuous being 
the long shafts of the group commonly called giant cactus. 
Shrubbery was very scarce but there was abundant evidence 
to show that when there is rain a quick and luxuriant growth 
of succulent plants follows quickly. All were dead and parched 
when we were there. 

On August 4 the traps on Natividad Island were found to 
contain 1 1 Peromyscus. Many of the traps had been sprung by 
ravens and gulls. Those most successful were set about some 
bushes which contained very filthy cormorants' nests; there 
were numerous mouse-burrows under the nests. Some speci- 
mens were also taken in the traps set in shearwater burrows, 
these seemingly forming a haven for mice and lizards as well 
as birds. 

We left Natividad Island soon after daylight and arrived 
again at Bernstein's abalone plant on Cedros Island at nine 
a. m. Everyone was glad to get ashore here for various rea- 
sons, chiefly because of the abundance of freshwater. The 
party divided in various directions. 

Mr. Slevin and I visited the spring from which the water 
supply is derived and secured more detailed observations on 
this little oasis. It is situated on the crest of a ridge between 
2,000 and 3,000 feet high and an area of two or three acres 
is overgrown with rank vegetation. Cedar trees and elephant 
trees grow around the margin and some of the grass is 10 
feet high. Many strange plants and insects were collected. 
Birds were not common and were excessively wild. Where the 
water first flows out it is delicious but as it flows down the 
canon to the reservoir intake of the pipe line it passes through 
a mineralized belt and takes up a considerable amount of this. 



254 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

If the pipe were extended to the spring itself a much larger 
and better supply of water would be obtained. (See pi. 18, 
%.2.) 

Our complete line of traps put out late in the evening did not 
contain a single mammal on the morning of August 5. Signs 
of Perognathus were abundant but the animals consistently 
avoided any bait we offered. We went after them with pick 
and shovel on the 5th and succeeded in capturing one. 

In the afternoon I put some traps out in a cafion about two 
miles above the camp where the only sign of woodrats had been 
found on this end of the island. In setting the line I found a 
rattlesnake in a hole under a bank and Mr. Slevin came to my 
aid with his trusty pistol. It turned out to be Crotalus exsul 
the type locality of which is Cedros Island. 

A good series of fossils from the Pliocene beds south of the 
camp was obtained during the day. 

On August 6 we found our traps had caught one woodrat 
and three Peromyscus. One more of the latter was taken dur- 
ing the day. Messrs. Tose and Hinkley visited the spring and 
secured several birds. They also took one cottontail rabbit, a 
few of which had previously been taken there by some of us. 

Mr. Slevin and I went almost to the top of Mt. Cedros north- 
west of the camp. Stunted cedars are scattered over the upper 
1 ,000 feet of the mountain and cactus was common there. No 
deer were seen but we came across a small herd of goats. For 
some reason these animals have not increased as they did on 
Guadalupe. The elephant trees grow to the very top of the 
island and some of them, long cut away, indicated a trail. The 
bark of the tree is white or buff and peels off like a paper 
birch. The outer layer is very thin ; this is followed by a green 
layer, also very thin; and that in turn by a pulpy part about 
one inch thick. When the bark is punctured a thick, sticky, 
cream-like liquid exudes in considerable quantities at the season 
of our visit. (See pi. 19, fig. 1.) 

In the early morning of August 7 the ship was moved to the 
mouth of Grand Canon, about the middle of the eastern shore 
and collections were made throughout the day. 

Three male deer were shot and carried to the beach. The 
animals are here very common, tame and unafraid. One was 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 265 

taken with the .22 cahber rifle. Trails were well beaten from 
the shore to the highest point. 

In this valley there are some fine groves of elephant trees, 
the largest seen thus far. The cedars are found from a little 
above sea level to the top of the mountains but they are small 
and stunted. No trees comparable to those 12 inches in diame- 
ter at Bernstein's spring, were found. 

Messrs. Slevin, Anthony, the Chief Engineer of the Tecate 
and I went to the top of the Pine Ridge on the north side 
of the canon. This was photographed by Dr. Townsend'^ from 
the bottom of the caiion and the pine trees standing soldier-like 
on the rim were mistaken for "cedars." (See pi. 18, fig. 1.) 
He mentioned "one spring" in the canon but every branch 
canon we explored had one or more. In some there was water 
in considerable amount but no place was the vegetation as rank 
as about the one from which Messrs. Bernstein get their water. 
Above one spring there were the stone walls of an old cabin, 
long ago abandoned. Some assayer's supplies near by indi- 
cated that it may have been a camp of a prospecting party. 

On the morning of August 8 our traps contained only one 
woodrat, two Peromyscus and one Perognathus. Captain An- 
gulo, the Chief Engineer and I went up the canon again in 
search of deer and succeeded in getting a female for the collec- 
tion. This species of deer is found only on Cedros Island and 
was reported extinct at one time. There were no specimens 
of it in any western museum prior to our visit, so, in view of 
the abundance of the species, we felt justified in taking four. 
The doe taken today was prepared for the National Museum 
of Mexico. 

In view of the fact that the Cedros Island deer has been 
reduced in numbers, at least once, to the verge of extinction 
through the activities of hunters and the likelihood of the 
same being rei>eated whenever people in large numbers visit 
that region, the Mexican naturalists on the expedition, Messrs. 
Cuesta-Terron and Gallegos, determined to make recommenda- 
tions to their government for some means of protection of the 
species. Accordingly, upon their return, the situation was ex- 
plained to the Secretary of Agriculture and Public Works and 

18 Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. 35, 1916, p. 411, fig. 9. 



256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

on May 28, 1923, the killing of this deer was prohibited from 
June 1, 1923, to May 31, 1928, through the issuance of a 
proclamation by the President of Mexico. 

Since this action was taken as a direct result of investiga- 
tions made by this expedition, the text of the proclamation is 
herewith quoted in full, the translation into English from the 
Spanish having been made by Miss M. E. McLellan of the 
California Academy of Sciences. 

SUBJECT 

PROCLAMATION PROHIBITING THE KILLING OF CEDROS ISLAND DEER 

Alvaro Obregon, Constitutional President of the United States of 
Mexico, considering that, owing to the excessive hunting of the deer 
(Odocoilcus cerroensis \^cerrosensis']), the species has greatly diminished 
on the island of Cedros, situated on the western coast of Lower Cali- 
fornia, of which reproduction is necessary in order that it does not become 
extinct, in exercising the power which is conceded to me in clause I of 
article 89 of the Federal Constitution, and with a basis of the articles 51 
in the clause III of the law of the first of October of 1894 and 50 of the 
law of the twenty-first of December of 1909, I have held well to promul- 
gate the following 

REGULATING ORDINANCES WHICH ESTABLISH THE PROHIBITION OF 
THE HUNTING OF THE Yi'EER (ODOCOILEUS CERROENSIS [CERROSENSIS]) 
ON THE ISLAND OF CEDROS. 

Article 1. — It is prohibited for five years, beginning with the first day 
of June next, to hunt, capture, kill, or injure in any way whatever the 
deer (Odocoilcus cerroensis Icerroscnsisl) on the island of Cedros, sit- 
uated on the western coast of Lower California. 

Article 2. — The prohibition includes the distribution or sale of the prod- 
ucts originating in the animals referred to in the preceding article. 

Article 3. — It will be considered as proof of the infraction of the fore- 
going article, the use of anything that alters the products of the deer, 
change of name, or the employment of any other means of deceit. 

Article 4. — The violation of the preceding ordinances will be punished 
by a fine from $50.00 to $500.00, which not being paid, will be commuted 
to fifteen days imprisonment, and which will be imposed by the Bureau of 
Agriculture and Public Works or its Agent Generals. 

Article 5. — The repetition will be punished by the penalty which, depend- 
ing upon circumstances, should have been imposed for the last offence 
committed, with an addition to the fine : 

1. — To one sixth part, if the offence shall be less than the former. 

2. — To a quarter part, if both shall be of equal gravity. 

3. — To one third part, if the last shall be more serious than the pre- 
ceding. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 267 

4.— If the former fine shall have been remitted or the repetition shall 

not be the first, the amount may be double of that related to tne 

previous infractions. 

Article 6. — The act shall be considered a repetition when the culprit 

has been condemned on a former occasion for an offense of the same kind 

within the six months previous to the last. 

Article 7. — For the imposition of the penalty, there will be considered 
as accomplices all the persons who by whatsoever means participate in the 
infractions of the ordinances contained in articles 1 to 3. 

Article 8.— Because the Agent Generals of the Bureau of Agriculture 
and Public Works, imposes the penalties which are mentioned in the pre- 
ceding articles, they will draw up the related report and transmit a copy 
of it to the said Bureau. 

Article 9. — The fines which are imposed in accordance with the regula- 
tions contained in the foregoing articles, will be made effective for the 
management of the Federal Tax Office, exercising, on its part, the eco- 
nomic-co-operative power determined by the Fiscal Law. 

Article 10. — In all cases of the imposition of penalties, the animals cap- 
tured or killed shall be seized, also the weapons, ammunition, and hunting 
equipment which are found in the possession of the offenders. 

Article 11.— If the animals seized be alive, they shall be returned to the 
place in which they were taken, and if they be dead, they shall be suitably 
disposed of. The weapons, ammunition, and equipment seized shall be 
disposed of by the said Federal Tax Office, except in the cases in which 
the Bureau of Agriculture and Public Works decides to use them. 

Given in the palace of the Executive Federal Power in Mexico, on the 
seventeenth day of the month of May of one thousand nine hundred and 
twenty-three.— THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRESIDENT OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF MEXICO, A. OBREGON.— Published and exe- 
cuted.— THE UNDER SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND PUB- 
LIC WORKS, COMMISSIONER OF THE BUREAU, R. F. DE 
NEGRI.— Seal. 

After lunch the ship was moved to the north end of the 
island where an extensive mining- camp was once located. 
Three old buildings and the remnants of a wharf were still 
standing near the beach although they had not been utilized 
for about 25 years. Several burros greeted us upon our arrival. 
They apparently still had memories of their human associations. 

Messrs. Tose and Hinkley worked up the caiion toward the 
old mine and, with the exercise of the greatest care succeded 
in getting only one bird, a Say's flycatcher. This is a fair 
commentary on the scarcity and wildness of the birds of Cedros. 
There must be a reason for this situation but, try as we would, 
we could not learn what it was. 



258 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Fishes were excessively abundant and several large jewfish 
were hooked at the anchorage.^® Sardines formed a zone for 
half a mile out to sea. Mr. Anthony saw schools of yellow- 
tailed tuna 100 yards wide and half a mile long, and inshore 
numerous small "halibut" were caught "jumping" from the 
water. Out in a boat over the rocks and kelp gardens it was 
bewildering to watch the constant struggle for existence among 
the living things. When a tuna or barracuda entered the shoals 
of smaller fishes pandemonium reigned for several minutes. 
The sardines are preyed upon from below by many fishes and 
above by the birds. Their existence must be one adventure 
after another. 

From the observations thus far made it appears that the 
greater part of Cedros Island is composed largely of Jurassic 
sediments — Franciscan cherts, sandstones, and in one place in 
Grand Cafion, conglomerate. Much alteration and metamor- 
phism has taken place and from the excessive amount of frac- 
turing it appears to be on or near a fault zone. At the south- 
western corner of the island there has been some volcanism 
and at the north end the land is e^reatlv disturbed with intru- 
sions of serpentine. On the eastern side there are Pliocene 
sediments at one and probably two points. 

On August 9 Messrs. Anthony, Slevin and I went up a 
cafion south of the landing to the top of Gill Peak, thence 
north down the mountain side through a pine forest to the old 
mine. From the top of the mountain we could see the western 
shore of the island with its extensive outlying kelp beds. This 
was the habitat of numerous sea otters about 100 years ago 
but if any are left they are very scarce. We saw none nor did 
we hear any reports of any. Except for the work we did later 
on the southwest side of the island the western shore is unex- 
plored, biologically. 

Extensive operations have been undertaken at the old mine. 
About 20 buildings and much of the machinery remain on the 
ground. The ore is a white rock said to have been rather rich 
in copper and gold. Large quantities were shipped from the 
mine to San Diego for smelting but this form of operation did 
not pay. We could not investigate the underground workings 

i»See Nat. Geog. Mag., \'ol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923. p. 83. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 269 

because of caving at the entrance. The ore on the dump was 
leached and the stream bed below was blue green in color. 
In operation the ore was hauled in carts down the steep canon 
bottom to the wharf. A cobblestone road was built in the creek 
bed at great expense but it has almost completely washed out. 
Pipe lines are mostly rusted out and the entire plant is in an 
advanced state of decay. A visit to such a place makes one sad 
to think of the great amount of toil and money used and hard- 
ship endured for naught. It is a graveyard of human effort. 

Messrs. Tose and Hinkley saw four more deer during the 
day but did not take any of them. On our trip to Gill Peak 
we saw only abundant signs of the animals. During this entire 
trip of about seven hours' duration we saw four land birds and 
four only. These were three wrens and a shrike. 

Late in the evening Mr. Anthony and I visited the sea-lion 
rookery at the north end and estimated the number of animals 
at approximately 1000. Harems had completely broken up 
and the herd was hauled on the beaches away from the rookery 
ground. We wanted to be sure no fur seals had hauled out 
here near the sea lions. On the way back we were greatly im- 
pressed by the inconceivable numbers of fishes in these clear 
waters. 

On the morning of August 10 Messrs. Tose and Hinkley 
returned to the ship after a cold night spent sleeping in the 
hills. They wanted to be out late in the evening and at daylight 
in the morning in hopes of securing specimens which otherwise 
are unobtainable, particularly birds, but little success attended 
their commendable efforts. They did bring back another male 
deer. 

At seven-thirty a. m. we left the mine anchorage and re- 
turned again to Bernstein's camp. His launch, the Marian, 
had been there the day before and left supplies for the Tecate. 
At anchor we found the auxiliary schooner, Gipsy Girl, from 
San Pedro, California, with Captain Farnsworth, Mr. Peabody 
and Dr. Spencer on board. 

We left the anchorage the same day and stopped for the 
night at the west end of South Bay, too late to explore much. 



270 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Traps were put out, however, and next morning, August 11, 
they contained six Peromyscus and one Perognathus. At six 
a. m. we sailed around the southwest corner of Cedros to the 
abalone collecting station maintained by Bernstein Brothers. 
The station is on the southwest peninsula in the protection of 
some off shore projections called "Red Rocks." 

Messrs. Tose, Hinkley and Slevin went ashore collecting at 
eight a. m. After tramping all day and until five p. m. that 
evening, the ornithologists came back with the news that they 
had found a skull of an elephant seal on the beach. This was 
an interesting record as it showed something of the former 
distribution of the species. After nine hours of search the same 
men saw only one land bird, a wren. Mr. Slevin took 57 
lizards representing only two sj^jecies. Messrs. Cuesta-Terron, 
Gonzales, Angulo, Anthony and I visited the abalone divers at 
work in the kelp and examined the red rocks at close range. 
The outer one had 50, the inner 250 California sea lions, but 
no fur seals. Both islands are low and the surf breaks over 
them in storms. 

One of the men at the camp had killed a female deer that 
morning and he gave us the skin and skull. He also gave us 
two other skins, a pair of fine buck horns and a good skull of 
a porpoise. 

We ate lunch on shore at the camp and at two p. m. I went 
down in one of the diver's outfits in 24 feet of water. It was 
the most marvelous sight I have ever seen. The sensation ex- 
perienced of mioving about among the fishes, the star fishes, 
the anemones and the giant swaying fronds of seaweed is inde- 
scribable. Purple coraline algae covers much of the rocky bot- 
tom at this point and against it as a background the golden 
garibaldis looked like gems. Many other fishes swam about 
and inspected me from all angles. It was rather disconcerting 
to have them stare into the helmet at me. Abalones were very 
common but they carried so many other things about, growing 
commensually on their shells, that they were difficult to see at 
first. The diver in operation prys them loose with a bar and 
puts them in an iron basket to be hauled to the surface. These 
men stay down for four hours at a time but I found it very 
fatiguing after a few minutes. 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 271 

The country in the vicinity of this camp is exceedingly 
barren and dry.^" There is very little vegetation of any kind. 
One of the men told us there was a third giant cactus tree on 
the west side of Cedros Mountain in addition to the two found 
by Mr. Slevin and me on the south side. This may be of in- 
terest to botanists because the species would very likely be over- 
looked on casual inspection of the island, yet it is a definite 
resident. The two individuals we examined were about 1 5 feet 
high. 

During our stay on Cedros Island we did not see any of the 
do2:s which are said to have g-one wild on the island. Cats are 
said also to be found in the hills, and the people at Bernstein's 
main camp had a gentle young kitten which they said had come 
to them two months previously. 

At seven a. m. of August 12 we left the abalone station 
at Red Rocks after taking up the traps and the six wild mice 
they contained. The ship was taken to the harbor on West 
Benito Island, where we went ashore at nine-thirty a. m. 
Messrs. Cuesta-Terron, Anthony and I spent the rest of the 
forenoon surv^eying the shores for fur seals but we found none. 
It has been reported that these animals may have been on the 
San Benito Islands since they were exterminated on Guadalupe. 
Mr. Rufus A. Coleman, a member of the California Academy 
of Sciences, visited West Benito in 1916 with the steamer 
Albatross and saw some animals which he thought possibly 
may have been fur seals. We found only about 150 California 
sea lions on the rookery ground. 

On the beach opposite the landing we found many bones of 
elephant seals and four fairly good skulls were saved. Our 
cook on the Tecatc stated that he was on West Benito six 
months in 1918 in a lobster camp and saw two elephant seals 
on the same beach. About the same time six were found on the 
southeast corner of East Benito, one of which he shot. The 
islands were probably used only for a hauling ground and the 
presence of these remains here, on Cedros Island, and the ani- 
mals found in 1888 at San Cristobal Bay, may furnish a clue 
as to the migration of the species from Guadalupe. Miss M. E. 
McLellan has called attention to the belief of some naturalists^^ 



'" See figure in Nat. Geog. Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, p. 90. 
" See Anthony, Journ. Mammalogy, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1924, p. 149. 



272 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

that the elephant seal of Chile and Guadalupe are one and the 
same species. While statements of Harris and Rothschild^^ 
cannot as yet be definitely disproved it is doubtful if the north- 
ern animal can cross the equator twice each year and still be 
where the records show it to have been on certain dates. The 
two groups may be the same species but I doubt if they are 
part of the same herd and if they ever associate together. 

The afternoon of August 12 was spent in general collecting. 
Least, black and Soccoro petrels were taken from burrows and 
in rock slides. (See pi. 17, fig. 3.) Some fresh eggs were found. 
A specimen of McGregor's house finch, confined to the San 
Benitos, was one of the very desirable species of birds taken. 
San Benito sparrows were common. 

Land shells ( Micrarionta pandorcs) were living in abundance 
in the rock slides and a sufficient number was taken to study 
the excessive variation of the species. 

House cats have gone wild on this island as on most of the 
others visited. 

On West Benito there was a camp for the collection and dry- 
ing of abalones ; it was owned by a Japanese who had a con- 
cession for the work. Large quantities of "meats" were on the 
frames drying and the methods employed were essentially the 
same as those already described. All fuel and freshwater has to 
be brought from San Diego as there is none of either on the 
San Benitos." 

No signs of mice or rats were seen on West Benito Island 
but lizards belonging to one species were common. 

In the early morning light of August 13 Messrs. Slevin, 
Anthony and I rowed to Middle Benito Island for two hours' 
collecting. No land shells were found but many desirable beetles 
were collected. San Benito sparrows and a duck hawk were 
collected. Least, Socorro and black petrels and western 
gulls nest on the island. Cats are apparently very abundant if 
we may judge by the remains of petrels about the burrows. A 
great many elephant seals and sea lions have been killed on the 

^^ Rothschild, Notes on Sea Elephants (Novitates Zoologicse, Vol. 17, 1910, pp. 445. 
446). 

^ See figure in Nat. Geog. Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, p. 94. 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 27Z 

island in the past; their bones were abundant. Many bones 
of whales also were seen. 

No mice or rats were found on the island but there were 
small lizards belonging- to the genus Uta. 

After breakfast the ship was moved to East Benito and 4 J/2 
hours were spent in shore collecting. Land shells of the Micra- 
rionta group were abundant and I found another species be- 
longing to the family Pupillidse not previously known from the 
islands. It was found only in one rock pile on the east side 
of the island. 

San Benito sparrows were collected and I took a mummi- 
fied hermit thrush from the thorns of a "cholla." One house 
finch was seen. That species is now practicaly extinct and it is 
somewhat doubtful if any other field collector will ever see it 
alive. If the absence of the birds was due to migration then 
the distinctness of the form might well be questioned. Pelicans 
nest on the east side of the island and Brandt's cormorants on 
the west. 

About 1,000 California sea lions were found on the east side 
in the "fiords." Mr. Slevin took lizards belonging to the genus 
Uta on this island. On East Benito Island I had the interesting 
experience of being stung on the knee by a scorpion, and thus 
an opportunity was afforded to test the "deadliness" of this 
arachnid. The sensation was about that of being stung by a 
honey bee but the pain did not last as long. A slight but tem- 
porary swelling resulted and the spot was red for perhaps a 
week. An hour after the sting the wound would never have 
been noticed except for a slight itching which was noticeable 
for fully a month afterwards. 

There is some evidence of house mice on East Benito ; many 
small land shells were broken open in a manner similar to those 
on Guadalupe, the work there having been attributed to the 
mice. Cats were also abundant on East Benito and they were 
wreaking havoc among the petrels. 

The three San Benito Islands are small and close together 
in an east- west line. The westernmost one is about 661 feet 
high and is composed largely of Franciscan chert of Jurassic 
age, beautifully contorted and laminated. There has been some 



274 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

metamorphism of the sediments on the south side.^* The Mid- 
dle Island, the smallest of the three, is composed entirely of 
chert. East Benito is high and rugged and largely metamor- 
phic. Schist, marble and quartz are abundant rocks. Only the 
tops of the three conspicuous hills disclose the Franciscan chert 
formation. All of the islands show the Pleistocene submer- 
gence and subsequent uplift. They were not down long because 
the sediments deposited are very superficial. The eastern island 
seems to have been down the shortest time and the fiord forma- 
tion of the shore line indicates that it was not elevated to the 
original level again. 

Most of the available shore lines of the islands were occu- 
pied by California sea Hons.^* 

We left East Benito Island at two p. m. for San Quintin 
Bay. A brisk northerly wind and heavy swell held us back all 
afternoon and the following night. 

We arrived at San Quintin at noon of August 14 and hur- 
riedly took on fuel. This being completed at two-thirty p. m. 
we left at once for San Martin Island, near the entrance of the 
bay. It was five-thirty p. m. before we were safely anchored 
but all of the party hurried ashore to collect as much as possible 
before darkness overtook us. 

The main part of the island is volcanic, and densely covered 
with cactus, brush and huge blocks of lava. Caves and blow- 
holes are everywhere and at the top there is a crater. 

Several species of plants are found only on this island, one 
being a magnificent Dudleya waist high. 

The deep cavities and crevices are occupied by numerous 
woodrats with black feet. The Japanese in the past have at- 
tempted to destroy these rodents, first by introducing cats then 
by burning the brush systematically but neither course proved 
effective. The cats appear to live on birds and beach debris. 

A frame house in good condition was formerly occupied by 
a Japanese abalone camp but was empty at the time of our visit. 
Net racks close by were being used by the purse seiners to re- 
pair their fishing gear. Three of their boats anchored in the 
little cove where we were for the night. They were manned by 
Austrians. 



*♦ See figures in Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, July, 1923, pp. 86, 87. 



Vol. XIV] HANKA— EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND 275 

I succeeded in finding four or five species of land snails on 
the island and Mr. Tose collected a rock wren, which has been 
described as a distinct subspecies. 

A snake was seen among- the great lava blocks but it could 
not be captured, much to the regret of Mr. Slevin ; no species 
had ever been collected on San Martin. 

At seven p. m. the boats were hoisted and we sailed for En- 
senada. This we reached at nine a. m, of August 15. The day 
in port was largely spent in packing collections and equipment 
and making general preparations to disembark next day at San 
Diego. This we did at nine a. m. when the expedition came 
to its logical end. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 12 



HANNAI Plate 15 




Fig. 1. 



The Mexican Government's Fisheries Patrol Boat, Tecate, at anchor at East 
Benito Island. The Tecate was motor driven and had a cruising radius of 
about 1000 miles. 







■^. 



1. r 



zJOdC^fi^v^. 



^^^. 








Fig. 2. One of the circular, flat-topped piles of stones on the smooth "pegging out" 
ground of the ancient fur seal killing ground of South Rookery, Guadalupe 
Island. Presumably these piles of stones were used as a place to assemble 
the skins so as to keep them clean, either before or after drying, but probably 
before. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 12 



[HANNA] Plate 16 




Fig. 1. A general view of the herd of elephant seals on the beach at Guadalupe Island, 
July 12, 1922. 




')^«*i^ 




Fig. 2. A full grown male elephant seal in eharacteristic resting attitude on the beach at 
Guadalupe Island. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI,, 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 12 



HANNAI Plate 17 




Fig. 1. Walls of one of the houses occupied about a centur\- ago by the hunters who 
succeeded in totahy exterminating the fine Guadalujse Island fur seal. 






Fig. 2. Guadakii)e Island house finch. Fig. 3. Downy young of black petrel on West Benito Island. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 12 



HANNAl Plate 18 




^•^^^ 



Fig. 1. Grove of pine trees on the crest of a ridge on the north side of Grand Canon, 
Cedros Island. These have been erroneouslv called "cedar trees." iSee 
Tovvnsend, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. 35, 1916, fig. 9, p. 412.) 




Fig. 2. Vegetation in tlu' little oasis surmundinjj Bernstein's Spring, the largest sujjply 
of potable water on any of the islands off the west coast of Lower California. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 12 



HANNAI Plate 19 




Fig. 1. Characteristic attitude of Cedros Island elephant tree; the barrenness of the 
landscape otherwise, is noteworthy. 




Fig. 2. A portion of the grove of palm trees in Esparsa Canon, Guadalupe Island. No 
}'oung trees or seedlings could be found, and unless the species is transplanted 
to safe surroundings, it must inevitably disappear, due to the depredation of 
the goats on the island. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 13, pp. 277-320. September 5, 1925 



XIII 

EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND, MEXICO, 

IN 1922^ 

THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 

BY 

A. W. ANTHONY 

The "Tecate" sailed from San Diego, July 9, touching at 
Ensenada the same day to pick up several of the Mexican 
members of the party. From that port it sailed direct to 
Guadalupe Island which was circumnavigated. A week was 
devoted to that island, including- two trips to the top and pine 
belt at the north end. From Guadalupe the vessel returned 
for fuel to San Quintin, where three days were spent making 
investigations before proceeding to Magdalena Bay and return, 
touching at all the coast islands en route with the exception of 
San Geronimo, as well as collecting to a limited extent at 
several mainland points. The expedition returned to San 
Diego, August 16, having sailed over 1,400 miles. 

Owing to the season, the collections of birds were quite un- 
satisfactory, all species being in moulting condition. How- 
ever, the expedition served as a reconnoissance to enable us to 
plan for further work in the future. 

As there have been but few papers treating of the insular 
life of Lower California, a brief sketch of the islands in their 
relation to the mainland may be of interest. With the excep- 
tion of Guadalupe, all the islands of that part of the coast have 

^ This is paper No. 2 of the Tecate Expedition. No. 1, the Narrative, gives a com- 
plete itinerary. See this volume, pp. 217-275. 

September 5, 1925 



273 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

at some time been a part of the mainland. All but the above 
exception lie at no great distance off shore and the water be- 
tween is of a depth indicating a somewhat recent separation. 
At all points from San Quintin south to Magdalena Bay, in- 
cluding both islands and mainland, is found abundant evidence 
of a recent uprising of from 20 to 30 feet above the present 
sea level. In his pai:>er on the geology of this section. Dr. 
Hanna will treat this subject in full. 

Land mammals are found on all of the islands with the ex- 
ception of Guadalupe and the Benitos. The first mentioned has 
neither reptiles nor mammals, except introduced mice, goats 
and cats, while the Benitos boast one species of lizard. Cedros, 
lying 15 miles from nearest points of the mainland, is the 
largest island, save those bordering Magdalena Bay on the 
west, which are so nearly a part of the mainland as to bar them 
from the brotherhood of islands. Viscaino, in 1602, visited 
Cedros, and he, with other explorers of this early day, men- 
tions rabbits as "black as jet with fur softer than a beaver's." 
They must have been well bleached since that day, and have 
been ever since I have known them. Some of the early Spanish 
explorers also credit Cedros with a considerable population of 
"bold Indians." So far as present records go, there is no evi- 
dence of this or other coast islands south of the Coronados ever 
having been inhabited by Indians. 

At an early date a coast whaler left goats on Guadalupe and 
Cedros, with the evident intent of securing a supply of fresh 
meat. Though Cedros seems to be better suited than Gua- 
dalupe for the requirements of a reasonable goat, they never 
seem to have become overly abundant on that island. Gua- 
dalupe, however, has been for many years so overstocked, des- 
pite the thousands that have been killed, that the entire floral 
life of the island is doomed. Many species of plants, and some 
genera peculiar to the island, have been entirely exterminated, 
and not even a pine, oak or palm can look down upon a seedling 
to replace the aged trees now beginning to fall. A sprout of any 
kind is nipped as soon as it is above the soil. It is estimated 
that a goat census of Guadalupe would show from 30,000 to 
50,000 animals. As long ago as 1887. when the present writer 
first became acquainted with the islands, 15,000 goat skins per 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 279 

annum were being exported without causing any noticeable 
difference in the herds. Since that day, many concessionaires 
have attempted the business and failed, owing to the slight dif- 
ference between the cost of skins and the selling price on the 
mainland. 

If the goats have been busy in reducing the floral list of the 
island, the cats that were introduced at some time in the past 
have lost no time in exterminating the birds. At this date all 
of the land species have been reduced to no better than ten per 
cent of their abundance in 1887, and several have entirely dis- 
appeared. For several years past there have been no records of 
the Guadalupe Caracara, flicker, towhee or wren (Thryomanes 
brevicauda) , and they no doubt are totally extinct. Kinglets 
and crossbills, formerly plentiful in the pines at the north end 
of the island, were not found by us, and they quite likely belong 
to the list of those destroyed by cats. The end of all the land 
species of the islands, with the exception of such as Buteo 
borealis caliirus, is a matter of but a few years. Within the 
past 25 years the fishermen of the Lower California coast, 
chiefly Japanese, have introduced cats on every island north of 
Magdalena Bay, and the effect is noticeable at this early day. 

Upon the San Benito Islands, the land birds, abundant but a 
few years ago, have almost disappeared. At the time I last 
called at these islands in 1898, one might easily have collected 
a dozen Carpodacus mcgregori in an hour. In August of the 
current year, four of our party for two days made this species 
a special object, with the result that one was secured and 
another seen. Petrels and other small water birds have also 
suffered heavily on Guadalupe, and unless there may be some 
other as yet undiscovered nesting ground of the Guadalupe 
Petrel it will soon be extinct. The only known colony at the 
north end of Guadalupe seems to be entirely destroyed. A few 
birds seem to have been nesting in the cliffs, and if such 
colonies are sufficiently extensive the species may endure for 
several years. 

The present list of birds and mammals is of species seen 
and mostly collected, but one or two are included on evidence 
furnished by others ; the source of such data is mentioned 
in the text. Many species not mentioned are known to occur 

September 5. 1925 



9gQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

within the limits of the region covered, but after an absence 
of a quarter of a century, I am in doubt as to their present 
status and will leave them for future investigation. 

List of Species of Birds 
1. Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet 

This species was quite common at all seasons as far south as 
28 degrees, at least. At the time of our visit, all had abandoned 
their nesting grounds and were at sea. Nowhere did we see 
flocks of more than five or six — more often single birds or 
pairs. Two specimens in badly worn plumage were taken at 
Guadalupe. 

2. Brachyramphus hypoleucus. Xantus's Murrelet 

This species was in badly worn plumage and several of the 
birds seen at sea seemed unable to leave the water. They 
were not uncommon as far south as Magdalena, but none was 
found on land. In digging for eggs of Oceanodroma at San 
Benito Island, August 12, a downy 0. monorhis was found in 
a burrow with an addled tgg of the Murrelet. I have never 
found this species nesting in a burrow of this nature, the many 
eggs that I have taken in the past being either among the rocks 
or under overhanging curtains of thick grass or other vegeta- 
tion. In either situation, subdued daylight reached the brood- 
ing bird. I am inclined to think this Murrelet pairs for life, as 
it is quite the rule to find either a pair of birds or at most two 
pairs in company. 

3. Stercorarius parasiticus. Parasitic Jaeger 

This species is not uncommon along the coast covered, but 
is not often seen as early as August. On July 31 three or four 
were noted south of Abreojos Point, Lat. 26° 40' N. They 
were not seen again. 

4. Larus occidentalis. Western Gull 

The dominant species of the genus, and the only one nesting 
at present in the region under discussion. About Guadalupe 
Island a few were seen. July 11 to 17. with young not yet on 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 281 

the wing. There seemed to be only a scattering few gulls about 
this off-shore island, as not over 10 to 12 pairs were seen at 
any one spot. On all other islands they are more or less abun- 
dant as far as Magdalena Bay. Young, but a short time from 
the tgg, were seen as late as the first of August, and these 
belated broods may perhaps be due to the rookeries being 
raided earlier in the season by fishermen, who take the eggs as 
long as they can be found in an edible condition. 

5. Larus heermanni. Heermann's Gull 

On the voyage south, this species was not seen until we 
reached San Quintin Bay, July 18, where a dozen in juvenile 
plumage were noted. They were seen sparingly south to Mag- 
dalena Bay, and on August 2 at San Roque Island a flock of 
about 1,000 were met with, mostly immature birds. Formerly 
there was a nesting colony on this island, but from indications 
I would say it has been destroyed by the resident fishermen. 
From notes furnished me by those who have recently visited 
the nesting grounds of this gull in the Gulf of California, I do 
not hesitate to state that unless protection is offered at once 
the species will soon be extinct. Large colonies are still found 
nesting on the islands to the west of Guaymas, but boats from 
that port haunt the nesting grounds as long as there is any 
chance of securing one more tgg, and the tgg that hatched 
has been the rare exception. A few years ago this was one of 
our common gulls along the coast of California, as far north 
as Santa Barbara. At all seasons of the year a few at least 
might be depended upon to be found along the kelp beds out- 
side the harbor of San Diego. During the past six years only 
one has been noted. A few seen on the rocks at La Jolla, fif- 
teen miles north of San Diego, the past year are all that I have 
any record of. 

6. Xema sabini. Sabine's Gull(?) 

Off Abreojos Point, July 31, we met with large flocks 
of shearwaters and elegant terns feeding on the very abundant 
fry. With the thousands of the above species were several 
small gulls that filled the requirements for this species better 
than any other. Owing to their distance from the boat, positive 



282 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

identification was impossible. We again fell in with 25 or more 
of the same species off Todos Santos Islands, August 15, under 
exactly similar conditions. 

7. Sterna m.axima. Roval Tern 

Formerly this species, like the Heermann's Gull, was abun- 
dant all along the coast of southern and Lower California. 
They were seen at San Quintin Bay and Cedros Island during 
our voyage in July and August, but only in very small num- 
bers. I can only attribute their scarcity to the fact that the 
fishermen have raided the nesting grounds to such an extent 
that the species is becoming rare on this coast. 

8. Sterna elegans. Elegant Tern 

The elegant tern was seen at several stations from San 
Quintin south to Magdalena Bay, but like the royal, there 
were but few compared to their former abundance. At Abre- 
ojos Point, however, on July 31. we found a large mixed flock 
of sea birds feeding on sardines. Ninety-eight per cent of the 
flock — estimated to be 25,000 birds — was of this species, with 
young of the year predominating. I have been told that 
formerly there was a large nesting colony of this species on 
San Roque or Asuncion Island, but that the constant persecu- 
tion had driven them away. As all of the islands along this 
coast for 500 miles are used as permanent fishing camps during 
the entire nesting season, and as the Japanese and Austrians 
composing the personnel of these stations depend on eggs for 
their table, so long as any are to be found, there would seem to 
be small chance for any of the gulls and terns. If the toll of 
eggs exacted by the fisherman was the sum total paid, the dam- 
age might be safely disregarded, but as will be instantly recog- 
nized by any who have visited an island where gulls are to be 
found, and terns or cormorants are nesting, the real slaughter 
begins when man, followed by a cloud of screaming gulls. 
drives the nesting birds from their eggs or young. The gulls, 
pouncing down on the undefended nests, destroy eggs or young 
by thousands, and a frequent disturbance of this nature, even 
though no eggs are taken by the fishermen, will naturally des- 
troy the species. 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 283 

9. Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern 

A few of this species were seen with the last mentioned at 
Abreojos Point, also a few at San Ouintin Bay on August 14, 
the vanguard of the fall migration. 

10. Sterna antillarum. Least Tern 

At Abreojos Point there were half a dozen of the least terns 
fishing in the shallow water inside the surf line. They did 
not seem to care for the company of the thousands of their 
larger cousins and the deeper waters. 

11. Chlidonias nigra surinamensis. Black Tern 

One or two of the black terns were seen with the large flock 
of elegant terns at Abreojos, and a day or two later a few 
along the kelp beds 100 miles north. This species is not un- 
common during the fall migrations about the kelp beds of the 
entire coast, but does not seem to linger long. 

12. Diomedea nigripes. Black-footed Albatross 

This species seems to be far less common along the southern 
coast than it was 25 years ago. On our cruise to Magdalena 
Bay none was seen until we neared Guadalupe Island, July 11, 
when two were picked up at daybreak and followed the ship 
until we reached the island. They were seen sparingly as far 
south as between 25° and 26°. Formerly I found the short- 
tailed albatross (D. alhatriis) equally common and over the 
same range as nigripes, but none was seen the past summer, 
nor have I seen during the past two years an albatross of either 
species between Point Loma and the Coronado Islands, where 
they were formerly of regular occurrence, though I have visited 
these islands perhaps 20 times within the time mentioned. The 
raids made by the Japanese on the nesting colonies between 
Hawaii and Japan no doubt account for the present scarcity of 
birds along our coast. 



2g4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY Of SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

13. Fulmarus glacialis. Fulmar 

The skull of a fulmar was picked up on the beach at the 
south end of Cedros Island. While fulmars are more or less 
common during the winter months along this coast, we were 
too early to meet with them, 

14. Puffinus creatopus. Pink-footed Shearwater 

This species was found more or less abundant all along the 
coast and for 50 miles or more at sea. Their presence seemed, 
as with all of the other shearwaters, to depend entirely on the 
small fish on which they feed. At several points along the 
shore flocks of many thousands of shearwaters were seen. 
Always such flocks were composed of the several species of 
Puffinus found on this coast, with a sprinkling of gulls, cor- 
morants and pelicans. 

15. Puffinus opisthomelas. Black-vented Shearwater 

Generally distributed over the entire region covered by the 
expedition and by far more abundant near Natividad Island, 
where the largest known nesting colonies are found. On 
August 4th, Dr. Hanna and the writer opened 25 or more 
burrows, with the result that four birds were secured, one 
being a juvenile, showing but little of the natal down, other- 
wise the plumage was not to be distinguished from the adults. 
From the tracks about the burrows I think that the birds 
visited the nests each night, though for what reason after the 
young had departed, would be hard to say. On a former visit 
to Natividad, in September, I found fresh tracks about the 
entrances of the burrows, but did not succeed in taking any 
birds, though many nests were opened. Fresh eggs in abun- 
dance have been found in the Natividad colonies in April, the 
birds beginning to occupy the burrows some weeks earlier but 
at just what date we have, as yet, no records, but it is evident 
that at least five months are spent in the region of the breeding 
grounds. On Natividad, as at Guadalupe and the San Benitos 
where this species nests to some extent, the introduced cats 
have killed many adult birds. As cats have been recorded on 
all of the known nesting islands of the s[>ecies, it would seem 



Vol. XIVJ ANTHOSV—rHE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 285 

to be only a matter of time until the shearwater will be extinct. 
On two or three occasions shearwaters, the size of opistho- 
melas, were seen that were ashy gray above and below but 
otherwise similar to that species. No specimens having been 
secured it is not safe to venture at identification. 



16. Puffinus griseus. Sooty Shearwater 

The notes on P. crcatopMs will apply to this species as well. 
They were quite common wherever large flocks of shearwaters 
were met with, which was whenever we encountered schools 
of small fish. 



17. Puffinus bulleri. New Zealand Shearwater 

The positive identification of a shearwater at gunshot range 
is somewhat of a venture and as no specimens of this species 
were obtained it might seem dangerous to include the species 
among those noted. However, a large Puffinus with pure white 
underparts and other characters assigned to bulleri was fre- 
quently seen between Ensenada and Magdalena Bay, and I 
have little doubt as to its being this species. In April, 1897, I 
met with similar birds as far south as Cape St. Lucas. At that 
time they all seemed to be flying north in either quite small, 
scattered flocks or singly. None was taken, but I then, as 
now, would unhesitatingly pronounce them bulleri. If it is not 
this species it is probably P. chlororliynchus. 



18. Halocyptena microsoma. Least Petrel 

This diminutive petrel was not noted until we were nearly 
at Magdalena Bay, when a few were seen at sea (July 24). 
They were inconspicuous at all times, owing, perhaps, to the 
fact that it was their nesting season and only the non-breeders 
might be expected at any distance from the San Benito 
Islands, which is their only breeding ground so far recorded. 
On these islands we found them abundant, August 12, at which 
date we took fresh eggs and downy young, the last a ball of 
down, smoky black in color. So far as my experience goes, 



7g5 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the least petrel does not nest in a burrow in the ground as do 
the different species of Oceanodroma with which I am famihar. 
Of the many nests I have seen, all were in bare rocky slides, or 
similar localities in the rocks, where subdued light might reach 
the bird. 



19. Oceanodroma leucorhoa kaedingi. Kaeding's Petrel 

While the Tecate lay at anchor at the north anchorage at 
Guadalupe, July 11-16, this species was quite in evidence, evi- 
dently nesting in the high lava cliffs that almost overhung the 
beach. Soon after nightfall their calls might be heard, as 
those birds that had spent the day at sea came in to land. 
After lip. m. there was comparative quiet until just liefore 
daybreak, when for a short time the calling began once more, 
to cease entirely at dawn. The lights of the vessel attracted a 
number of birds aboard and these constitute the only speci- 
mens taken, except a juvenile about a week old that was taken 
from a crevice in the lava. This specimen, No. 25561, Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, is nearly uniform sooty gray, 
slightly lighter below. A few petrels that were considered 
kaedingi were seen at sea as far south as Ballenas Bay, but 
they were by no means common even in the region of their 
nesting grounds on Guadalupe. Dead bodies of this species 
were found impaled on the needle-like spines of the "cholla" 
cactus which is quite common on many parts of Guadalupe, 
the bird evidently having flown into the death trap in the dark. 
Cats also have taken a large toll, as is attested by the many 
half-eaten bodies in many parts of the island. 



20. Oceanodroma macrodactyla. Guadalupe Petrel 

Guadalupe Island is, so far. the only recorded habitat of this 
species. In my several visits to this island I have never seen 
the bird except as I took them from the nesting burrows. They 
nest far earlier than the other species of the genus, half-grown 
young being found as early as May 25, while August would 
produce young of O. melania of similar size. It is, of course, 
highly probable that the species leaves the island at the end of 



Vol. XIV] ANTHOXY—THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 287 

the nesting season, but its whereabouts during that part of the 
year when it is not at home at Guadalupe still remains a mys- 
tery. In former years there was a considerable colony along 
the ridge in the pine growth at the north end of the island. 
The present writer visited this spot May 26, 1892, and found 
the birds abundant. In July of the current year the same ridge 
was explored and but little was seen to indicate a recent occu- 
pation of the nesting- ground. A few burrows were seen, but 
they seemed to be very old. In 1892 dozens of dead birds were 
seen, where cats had torn away the breast, leaving wings and 
tail, enough to identify the species. Half a dozen similar dried 
bodies were seen last July, but so few that we were of the 
opinion the colony was about finished. 



21. Oceanodroma melania. Black Petrel 

This species was seen more or less commonly from the time 
we left San Diego until we returned, but was rare ; nor was it 
seen at all far from shore. Nests are not uncommon on the 
Coronado Islands, but on the San Benito Islands are perhaps 
the largest breeding grounds of the species so far discovered. 
August 12, we found many nesting birds with eggs fresh to 
hatching as well as half -grown young. The nests were usually 
at the end of a crooked burrow, some two and one-half feet to 
four feet from the entrance, though a few were found in loose, 
shelly rock slides. This and the other species of the genus 
found on the coast might select a similar location and often do, 
but this is more often in stygian darkness at the end of a three- 
foot burrow. This species, in common with the other smaller 
birds of the Benitos, has suffered heavily from the introduced 
cats. 



22. Oceanodroma monorhis. Swinhoe's Fork-tailed Petrel 

It is with considerable hesitation that I attempt a classifica- 
tion of this group. O. ''socorroensis" has in the past been the 
accepted species, being more or less common from the Coro- 
nado Islands to the San Benitos during the nesting season. I 
cannot say at this writing just how many times in the past I 



2gg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

have taken from the same nesting burrow white-rumped "so- 
corroensis" and equally typical "monorhis" with no white at 
all, but if I were to trust to memory, I would say that that 
was as often the case as otherwise. I have before me birds 
from the Coronado Islands as well as from the Benitos that 
agree exactly with the descriptions and measurements of 
monorhis, and that were from the same colonies as white- 
rumped birds or those with white flanks. Unfortunately the 
collectors neglected to so mark the specimens as to enable one 
to separate the "pairs" where two birds were found in the 
same burrow. A large series of petrels, from either of the 
above localities, shows that one might by selection separate 
several species or races were it not for the troublesome inter- 
grades. Birds with pure white rumps, those with white flanks 
and every form of gradation to sooty-black and typical 
monorhis can be selected. At this writing, and in the light of 
the material before me, it might seem the safer course to side- 
step the issue and leave the decision to further developmnts. 
Letters, however, from W. E. Clyde Todd, of the Carnegie 
Museum at Pittsburgh, and Mr. A. J. Van Rossem, of Pasa- 
dena, California, both of whom have access to large series of 
the "socorroensis — monorhis" group would indicate that there 
was but a single species represented with a wide variation in 
the plumage of the rump. At San Benito Island we found the 
birds nesting August 12, and secured fresh eggs as well as 
young a week or more from the ^gg. We saw the species at 
sea as far south as Magdalena Bay, where, on July 27, a few 
were seen inside the entrance of the bay in company with 
O. melania. 

23. Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus. Farallon Cormorant 

Seen more or less commonly as far as Magdalena Bay. but 
very largely replaced by the following species south of Abre- 
ojos Point. During the first half of August this species, in 
common with the Brandt's, was found nesting on all of the 
islands north of 27°. Fresh eggs, those far advanced in in- 
cubation, and from that to young on the wing, was the status 
of all the rookeries visited as late as August 13. I think the 
lack of uniformity may be accounted for by the destruction of 



Vol. XIV] ANTHOSY—THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 289 

the eggs by western gulls. The two species of cormorants 
breeding along this coast are more extensively preyed u^x^n by 
the gulls than any other species and should the cormorants be 
driven from the nests, eggs and young by the hundreds are 
immediately destroyed. As has been noted earlier in this 
paper, all of the islands are used, during a great part of the 
year, by fishermen, who undoubtedly cause a very disturbed 
condition, innocently or otherwise. They are the indirect cause 
of the destruction of many thousands of cormorants as well as 
other sea birds. The Farallon cormorants were always found 
occupying the higher and more precipitous parts of the islands, 
leaving to the following species the gentle slopes and level 
land. 

24. Phalacrocorax penicillatus. Brandt's Cormorant 

Much more abundant than the preceding species. Despite 
the disturbed condition of the nesting grounds, there were 
large rookeries on most of the islands visited. On the more 
level parts of San Roque and Asuncion were several large 
rookeries that at the time of our visit were occupied by hun- 
dreds of young, ranging from those able to fly to squabs but 
just hatched. As one approached the nesting grounds, the 
young crowded toward the side farthest removed from the in- 
truder, until it seemed as if it would be impossible to introduce 
another bird into the interior without the aid of a w^edge, so 
tightly were they massed. As the danger became more evident, 
the compact raft moved faster, the older birds in the lead pro- 
gressing by a series of awkward hops which soon left the 
younger members behind. As more speed seemed desirable the 
wings were called upon, waved about like flails, and so upset 
the balance that immediately the youngster that was merely in 
a slow hurry at best was thrown forward on his face and quite 
as often as otherwise stepped on his own neck and was unable 
to get up. If crowded, the half-grown young will take to the 
water and escape by swimming, though many times such birds 
are unable to regain the nesting ground owing to the low cliffs 
bordering the sea below the rookeries. The fate of such birds 
is somew^hat doubtful, as they are as yet unable to secure their 
own food. 

September 5. 192.5 



290 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY Of SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sf.r. 

25. Pelecanus californicus. California Brown Pelican 

An abundant species along shore throughout the trip, but 
rare in deeper waters. A single immature bird seen at Guada- 
lupe is my only off-shore record. At Magdalena Bay they were 
noticeably more abundant than at any point north. At many of 
the islands, notably San Roque and Asuncion, we found fresh 
eggs and newly hatched young, as well as birds on the wing. As 
only a single brood is raised and young are to be found in late 
February or early March, the late nesting can only be explained 
on the ground of reported disturbances, as noted under s^^ecies 
above mentioned. 

26. Fregata aquila. Man-o'-war-bird 

Very abundant south of 26°. This species formerly nested 
extensively in the mangrove swamps about Magdalena Bay, but 
repeated raids on the part of the natives who use the eggs for 
food have reduced their numbers. Owing to the nature of the 
mangrove growth, it is quite difficult to reach the nests, which 
fact has been the only restraining influence in preserving the 
nesting grounds in this region. 

27. Oidemia perspicillata. Surf Scoter 

A few only seen in San Quintin Bay — non-breeding birds, 
no doubt, that did not migrate. Such cases are common. 
During the winter the species is very abundant ail along the 
coast. 

28. Erismatura jamaicensis. Ruddy Duck 

A single bird in San Quintin Bay is the only record for the 
voyage. 

29. Guara alba. White Ibis 

Seen only in the mangroves at Magdalena Bay, where it was 
not very abundant. As the more remote parts of the jungle 
north of the settlement were not visited, it may be that the 
species was less rare than our observations would indicate. 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 291 

30. Ardea herodias sanctilucae. Espiritu Santo Heron 

Not uncommon on the islands near shore and at most, if 
not all, of the mainland stations. Two or three were seen at 
Guadalupe Island. 

31. Hydranassa tricolor ruficoUis. Louisiana Heron 

Seen only in the mangroves about Magdalena Bay, where it 
was common. Formerly I have taken specimens as far north 
as San Quintin, but I think it was never abundant there. 

32. Butorides virescens frazari. Frazar's Green Heron 

Found not uncommonly at Magdalena Bay, where they 
shared the mangrove thickets with the above species. 

33. Nyctanassa violacea. Yellow-crowned Night Heron 

A single specimen shot on a reef at San Benito Islands is the 
only record. 

34. Rallus beldingi. Belding's Rail 

None seen, but the frequent notes of Rallus heard in the 
mangroves at Magdalena Bay leave little doubt as to the 
species and its abundance. 

35. Phalaropus fulicarius. Red Phalarope 

The first of the migrating phalaropes were noted July 11. 
when two were seen between Ensenada and Guadalupe Island. 
After that date they rapidly increased in abundance until the 
18th, when they seemed to be in full force. They were not 
seen over 50 miles off shore. 

36. Lobipes lobatus. Northern Phalarope 
Seen but once, August 2, off San Roque Island. 



292 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

37. Pisobia minutilla. Least Sandpiper 

38. Ereunetes mauri. Western Sandpiper 

On July 26, a small flock of "sand peeps" was seen on a 
mudbar in the mangroves of Magdalena Bay. None was shot 
and positive identification was difficult. The two species usually 
migrate in company and it is quite probable that the flock was 
composed of both species. A week later we met with them 
migrating and in early August they were seen at all of our 
anchorages north of Magdalena. 

39. Limosa fedoa. Marbled Godwit 

A few were seen at San Quintin on July 21. They occur 
sparingly all summer in all of the suitable localities from Mag- 
dalena Bay north, the summer residents being non-breeding 
birds that have failed for some reason to follow the migration 
north. 



40. Totanus melanoleucus. Greater Yellow-legs 

Two were seen on a mudbar in the mangroves at Magda- 
lena Bay, July 26. The one secured was in fair summer 
plumage. 



41. Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus. Western Willet 

First seen at Abreojos Point, July 31, in a company of 
mixed shore-birds, evidently the first of the migrants. Quite 
common at San Quintin, August 14. 



42. Heteroscelus incanus. Wandering Tattler 

First seen at Guadalupe Island, July 11. While not common 
at this island, they were frequently seen along its rocky shores. 
The same may also be said of all the islands visited. Although 
found at all seasons of the year, those that linger through the 
summer are probably not nesting birds. I have found downy 
young seeking cover under the overhanging edges of glaciers 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 293 

of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska, conditions hardly in keep- 
ing with those of the sun-scorched shores of the Lower Cali- 
fornia islands. 

43. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper 

First seen at Magdalena Bay in company with greater yel- 
low-legs, July 26, after which they were seen at any suitable 
location north to San Martin Island. This species is rather 
common along the islands and coast of Lower California dur- 
ing the winter months, inhabiting rocky broken beaches in 
company with its larger relative, the wandering tattler. They, 
like the last, are seldom seen in companies of more than three 
or four, more often singly or in pairs. 

44. Numenius americanus. Long-billed Curlew 

Seen at San Ouintin, July 18. Not uncommon at that point 
where, like the marbled godwit, it is a left-over from the spring 
migration. 

45. Numenius hudsonicus. Hudsonian Curlew 

A few found along the ocean beaches all summer, being like 
the above, non-breeders. This species seems to prefer the clean 
sands of the open beach and is not often seen on the mud-flats 
of the bays, where the long-bills thrive. A small flock of 
hudsonicus was seen at the entrance of San Quintin Bay, 
July 14. 

46. Squatarola squatarola cynosurae. Black-bellied Plover 

A few seen among the migrating shore-birds at Abreojos 
Point, July 31, the first to arrive from their summer home. 

47. Oxyechus vociferus. Killdeer 

One or two noted near the settlement at the mouth of Santo 
Domingo Caiion, fifteen miles north of San Quintin. The 
species is resident in such localities, where freshwater furnishes 
congenial surroundings. 



294 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE^ [Proc. 4th Ser. 

48. Charadrius semipalmatus. Semipalmated Plover 
A small flock seen at Magdalena Bay, July 27. 

49. Charadrius nivosus. Snowy Plover 
A small flock seen on the beach at Abreojos Point. 

50. Arenaria interpres morinella. Ruddy Turnstone 

A flock seen at Abreojos Point. The single bird that was 
secured was in almost full nesting plumage. 

51. Arenaria melanocephala. Black Turnstone 

Rather common at Abreojos Point, July 31, after which it 
was seen on all the rocky beaches north to San Martin Island. 
Two were seen at Guadalupe, July 16. 

52. Haematopus frazari. Frazar's Oystercatcher 

Seen on all the rocky shores from the south end of Mag- 
dalena Bay north. Often seen in company with bachinaiii to 
which it ofifers a striking contrast. 

53. Haematopus bachmani. Black Oystercatcher 

Not seen south of Asuncion Island, where it was common. 
From that point north it was common on all suitable beaches. 

54. Lophortyx californica vallicola. Valley Quail 

Common in the section east of San Quintin which is the 
only spot visited that was suited to its requirements. 

55. Zenaidura macroura marginella. 

Western Mourning Dove 

Found breeding on Cedros Island, July 22, when young just 
from the nest were seen. 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 295 

56. Cathartes aura septentrionalis. Turkey Vulture 

Quite common at any of the larger islands except Guadalupe 
and as far as Margarita Island at the southern end of Mag- 
dalena Bay, 

57. Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi. Harris's Hawk 

Seen but once, near San Quintin, where the species is not 
uncommon along the timbered cafions east of that point. 

58. Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-tail 

Several were seen on Guadalupe Island and one specimen 
taken. 

59. Falco peregrinus anatum. Duck Hawk 

Formerly quite common, nesting on all of the islands north 
of Magdalena. Few were seen, however, on the voyage of the 
Tecate, due, perhaps, to the season being that when the birds 
might be expected to be scattered far from their nesting haunts. 
A line specimen was taken on San Benito, August 13. 

60. Polyborus cheriway. Audubon's Caracara 

Seen only at Margarita Island, where it was seemingly rare. 
There is little doubt but the Guadalupe Caracara is extinct ; no 
signs of it could be found by members of our party, nor have 
any who have visited the island during the past 20 years re- 
ported living birds. 

61. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. Osprey 

First seen at Guadalupe Island, where a specimen was 
secured. Quite common at Cedros Island and most of the 
stations visited. On Margarita Island there are dozens of 
nests built on tops, or on projecting limbs, of the giant cactus. 



296 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [PRoc 4th Ser. 

62. Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea. Burrowing Owl 

Seen only at San Quintin. The burrowing owl was form- 
erly found on the San Benitos, Natividad and other islands of 
the coast, where it was resident. It is possible that it has been 
exterminated by the cats. 

63. Geococcyx califomianus. Roadrunner 
Seen only at San Quintin. 

64. Dryobates scalaris lucasanus. San Lucas Woodpecker 

This species was common, feeding on the ripe fruit of the 
giant cactus, on Margarita Island. Not met with elsewhere. 

65. Centurus uropygialis brewsteri. Brewster's Woodpecker 

A rather abundant species in the giant cactus growth on the 
west side of Margarita Island, where it was feeding on the 
ripe fruit of the cactus. All the specimens taken were in badly 
worn plumage, but indicate a strongly marked race. 

66. Chordeiles acutipennis inferior. Texas Nighthawk 

A few seen at Magdalena Bay and on Margarita Island. 
The single specimen taken (No. 25530 C.A.C. ) agrees fairly 
well with skins before me, from southern California, except 
that it is slightly smaller. 

67. Aeronautes melanoleucus. White-throated Swift 

On the southeast side of Guadalupe Island we saw a number 
of these swifts cruising about the cliffs overhanging the sea. 
It was near this same spot that I found, in May, 1892, a nest 
but so far back in a crevice in the lava that without tools to 
enlarge the opening it could not be reached, though the sticks 
composing the structure could be plainly seen. On July 19 I 
saw several swifts in company with cliff swallows flying about 
a cliff at the mouth of the Santo Domingo Canon, 15 miles 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 297 

north of San Quintin. Several years ago I saw this species 
entering- abandoned woodpecker holes in the giant cactus near 
San Fernando, about 75 miles south of San Quintin. 

68. Calypte anna. Anna's Hummingbird 

At the north landing on Guadalupe Island we saw a hum- 
mer in female plumage that seemed to be this species. It es- 
caped, however, leaving its identity in doubt. W. E. Bryant 
recorded the species from the island many years ago. 

69. Calypte costae. Costa's Hummingbird 

This species seemed to be the only one we met with at Mag- 
dalena Bay and Margarita Island, where several were taken in 
late July. Specimens were secured also at Cedros Island. 

70. Myiarchus cinerascens pertinax. 

Lower California Flycatcher 

Flycatchers of the ash-throated group were seen several 
times on Margarita Island, but no specimens taken. I sup- 
posed them to belong to this subspecies. 

71. Sayornis sayus. Say's Flycatcher 

Common about San Quintin. On Cedros Island it was seen 
several times. A young male (No. 25531, C.A.S., August 
8, south end Cedros Island) is somewhat darker above than 
specimens of similar age from southern California, with slight- 
ly narrower bill. The difference may be individual, however. 

72. Sayornis nigricans. Black Phoebe 

Seen only in the Santo Domingo Canon near San Quintin. 

73. Otocoris alpestris actia. California Horned Lark 

The Otocoris of San Quintin. I refer to this form with 
some hesitation, as no additional specimens are at hand, a sin- 
gle juvenile in the collection of the Academy being the only 



298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

bird taken. At Abreojos Point a small flock of horned larks 
was seen and three badly worn and juvenile specimens secured. 
They seem very small and can hardly be reconciled to any of 
the recognized races, they being, I suppose, enertera Oberholser. 

74. Aphelocoma californica hypoleuca. Xantus's Jay 

A rather common inhabitant of the mangrove swamps north 
of the anchorage at Magdalena Bay. Not seen elsewhere. 

75. Corvus covax sinuatus. Raven 

A common species throughout the trip. Seen at every sta- 
tion except at Guadalupe. 

76. Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis. House Finch 

Common at San Ouintin and at the nearby mission of Santo 
DominsfO. 



';=>" 



77. Carpodacus amplus. Guadalupe House Finch 

Formerly one of the most abundant land birds on the island 
but now reduced to about 10% of its abundance 25 years ago, 
the destruction being due to the thousands of cats that infest 
all parts of the island. The species nests largely in the cactus 
found over most parts of the island, which fact saves the nest- 
lings until able to flutter to the ground, where they fall nn easy 
prey. 

78. Carpodacus mexicanus dementis, 
San Clemente House Finch 
Common on Cedros Island. Five specimens were obtained. 

79. Carpodacus mcgregori. McGregor's House Finch 

A quarter of a century ago this was one of the few land 
species that was common on the San Benito Islands. Today 
they are so nearly extinct that I doubt another specimen being 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 299 

taken for science. Like the last mentioned species, they have 
fallen victims to the cats. A single specimen was all we had 
to show for four guns in two days. A second specimen was 
reported as seen. 



80. Astragalinus praltria hesperophilus. 

Green-backed Goldfinch 

Two females taken at the south end of Cedros Island. They 
seemed to be nesting in small numbers on this part of the 
island. Those taken are somewhat smaller than typical speci- 
mens from southern California, but whether the difference is 
constant will remain for further specimens to determine. 



81. Passerculus beldirigi. B elding Sparrow 

Seen only at San Quintin, where it is common in the salt 
marsh. 



82. Passerculus rostratus rostratus. Large-billed Sparrow 

This species winters on all of the islands, I think, except 
Guadalupe, and had just begun to make its appearance when 
we noted a few along the beaches at the north end of Cedros, 
August 9. A single specimen was taken on San Martin Island, 
August 14. 



83. Passerculus rostratus guttatus. San Lucas Sparrow 

A few noted in the mangrove swamps of Magdalena Bay, 
and a single specimen taken July 26. 



84. Passerculus rostratus sanctorum. San Benito Sparrow 

Found only on the three islands of the San Benito group, 
where they are still common but greatly reduced from their 
former abundance. The cats are again to be given the credit. 



300 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

85. Junco insularis. Guadalupe Junco 

Becoming rare on the island, though it was at one time the 
most abundant species. 

86. Amphispiza bilineata deserticoia. Desert Sparrow 

Common at San Quintin, Cedros and Magdalena Bay- 
region. 

87. Amphispiza belli. Bell's Sparrow 
Common at San Quintin and San Martin Island. 

88. Pipilo crissalis senicula. Anthony's Towhee 

Common in the hills east of San Quintin. A full-fledged 
young was taken at the Santo Domingo Mission. July 19. 

89. Cardinalis cardinalis igneus. San Lucas Cardinal 

Rather common at "The Ranch" six miles west of the land- 
ing at Margarita Island, where the dense thickets offered con- 
genial surroundings. Very shy and difficult to secure, one 
specimen only being taken. 

90. Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons. Cliff Swallow 

Common and nesting under the eaves of the houses at San 
Quintin, where nestlings were seen, July 20. On the same 
date a large flock was seen circulating about the face of a cliff 
at the mouth of the Santo Domingo Canon. A small flock, 
doubtless migrating, was noted flying over the mangroves at 
Magdalena Bay, July 26. 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 301 

List of Species of Mammals 

In the following list of mammals the nomenclature of 
Miller's "List of North American Land Mammals in the 
United States National Museum" has been followed. 

As the series of Lower California mammals in the collections 
of the San Diego Museum of Natural History and the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences are very incomplete, I have been 
obliged to depend in many instances on the collections in the 
U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey and the American Museum 
of Natural History, New York. My thanks are due Dr. E. W. 
Nelson and H. E. Anthony for comparison of several species 
with the types. 

1. Balaenoptera physalus. Pacific Finback Whale 

Whales were often seen along the coast and about all of the 
islands with the exception of Guadalupe. They were nowhere 
common, and all that were identified with reasonable certainty 
were of this species. It is quite probable, however, that some 
seen were humpbacks. 

The larger cetaceans are more abundant during the winter 
months in the region covered by this paper, but they were 
formerly far more abundant than today. In the past, when the 
fall migration was at its best (November) I have seen more 
whales in one school than were seen during the entire southern 
voyage. At the time mentioned, 25 years ago, the California 
Gray (Rhachianectes glaucus) was the most common species 
and was daily seen along shore, often inside the kelp beds, 
within half a mile of the beach. During the past two years I 
have seen just two of this species and had reports of two 
more, while the Sulphur Bottom (Sibbaldiiis sulfiireus), form- 
erly quite common, has not been seen at all. The modern 
method of whaling has sounded the death knell. Commercial 
whaling is about a thing of the past and, unless something is 
done soon toward protecting them, several species will soon 
become commercially, if not actually, extinct on this coast. 

Nearly all of the whales seen during the voyage of the 
Tecate were close in-shore, frequently at the edge of extensive 
kelp beds and, as they were usually seen in pairs, it is not un- 



302 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

likely that they were mating. In late July and early August, 
there was a very extensive run of sardines along the entire 
coast and, as these small fishes furnish many of our BalccnidcB 
with a large part of their feed, that may account for the entire 
absence of whales in deep water and their presence along the 
shores where the sardines abounded. 

During the winter of 1920-21, a steam whaler established 
a station in Magdalena Bay and spent several months at that 
point. From the bones still to be seen on the beach, they must 
have killed several whales but, as they never repeated the 
venture, it is quite probable it was not a commercial success. 

2. Orcinus ater. Black Killer 

Killers were formerly much more common on the Lower 
California coast than the results of our late voyage would in- 
dicate. But one small school of s^'ven or eight was seen several 
miles off San Quintin, July 18. There is no question but the 
killers are a bitter enemy of the entire BalcEuidcu. While I have 
never myself seen the species attack a whale, I have often been 
told by reliable authority of combats that resulted in the death 
of the larger "fish." It may be that the present rarity of 
Orcinus is directly due to the scarcity of whales. The Orca 
often reaches a size (twenty feet or more) equal to that of 
a small whale, but whalers never attempt its capture, as it is of 
little or no value. 



3. Grampus griseus. Grampus 

A single specimen, identified as this species, was seen off 
San Quintin, July 18. South of Cedros Island there were 
several times when large porpoises were seen, but under con- 
ditions rendering identification impossible. Tiiey may have 
been this species. 



4. Delphinus delphis. Common Dolphin 

On the southwest side of Cedros Island we found a well 
preserved skull of this species. 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 303 

5. Notiosorex crawfordi crawfordi. Gray Shrew 

A specimen taken in the edge of a salt marsh on the west 
side of San Quintin Bay is not separable from skins from the 
region of San Diego in the collection of the San Diego Society 
of Natural History, 



6. Pipistrellus hesperus hesperus. Western Bat 

At the anchorage at Margarita Island we met with a flight 
of bats at daybreak, July 28. They were seeking shelter in the 
ledges along the shores. Two were secured and are not to be 
distinguished from specimens taken at San Diego and the 
Colorado Desert. 



7. Canis peninsulae. Peninsula Coyote 

Not uncommon at San Quintin, where one or two were seen. 
Skulls were secured at Magdalena Bay. 

8. Enhydra lutris nereis. Southern Sea Otter 

Formerly very abundant on the coast of Lower California, 
as far south at least as Natividad Island. The early records 
abound in stories of the numbers of sea otter found along this 
coast where, alas, they were soon exterminated, or at least so 
reduced that they became almost a myth. 

In 1807 the ship Dromio from Boston is recorded as 
trading for 1700 otter skins at Ensenada, then inhabited by a 
few Indians who must have taken the animals along the kelp 
beds adjacent to that bay. Capt. Benjamin Morrel in 1825-31 
made four voyages to this coast from the Atlantic and men- 
tions "immense numbers of whales, seals, and otters at San 
Quintin and Cenizas (San Martin) Island." 

In 1887 when I first became acquainted with the region of 
Todos Santos Bay and the former haunts of the sea otter, they 
were generally considered as extinct. There were, however, a 
few of the old-time hunters that assured me that in the region 
of certain kelp beds south of Ensenada there were a few to be 
found. This, I learned, was true, and a small colony was 



3Q4- CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

established that by now might have been of large commercial 
importance had it been protected. Unfortunately, it was 
discovered by certain "beach combers" in 1897, and to the 
best of my information some 50 were killed. There is a report 
of 28 being killed eight or nine years later at the same point, 
but I am unable to authenticate it. That a few still exist, 
as far south as Cedros, there can be little doubt, as one was 
killed by a fisherman in 1919, at San Benito Island 15 miles 
west of Cedros. They were formerly abundant along the kelp 
beds found along the weather side of Cedros and the Benitos, 
and in time may be re-established there, if unmolested. 



9. Zalophus californianus. California Sea Lion 

An abundant species on most of the islands visited except 
Guadalupe, where one rookery of a dozen was found and a 
few scattered individuals along the shores that might have 
made the Guadalupe count as much as 50 animals. They were 
about abandoning the breeding rookeries in August so that a 
census of the various colonies was out of the question, but 
from what we found I would place the present count of sea 
lions, of the coast of Lower California, at fully 150% above 
what might have been found in 1900. At the last date the 
species was being persecuted for hides, the rookeries being 
raided constantly during the season of reproduction. Fre- 
quently hundreds of young were left to starve beside the bodies 
of the slain mothers. At Asuncion Island in 1898, I found 
a rookery of not over 50. The count at this island in August, 
1922, was over 5,000. As San Roque Island, only six miles 
north of Asuncion, was almost deserted by Zalophus, it is quite 
probable that Asuncion was being used as a hauling ground 
for sea lions from both islands. 

At Cedros Island there were several large rookeries, but at 
the time of our visit the animals had begun to scatter and it 
was not possible to secure a census. I had confidently expected 
to find at the north end of this island the star sea lion rookery 
of the coast, as that was its condition in 1898 when it was 
populated by some 2,000 breeding animals. At the time of our 
visit, August 9, there were 1.500 Zalophus hauled on the sand 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 305 

beach at the north bay and some 700 on a beach about two 
miles south. On the east side of the island two detached rocks 
formed ideal resorts for sea lions, but we found only 300 at 
this point. San Benito Islands, where Townsend, in his report 
of the Albatross Expedition in 1911, mentions finding 1,700 
Zalophus, gave us not over 400. 

We frequently met with sea lions many miles from the 
known hauling grounds and far from land, indicating a scat- 
tered condition quite different from what would be found in 
April when a large percentage w^ould be collected on the breed- 
ing rookeries. On the Lower California islands the pups are 
born about June 10, and are about six weeks or two months 
old before they go into the water, though a young sea lion a 
week old can and will swim if forced to do so. A baby sea 
lion spends a large part of its early life in sleep, which is sur- 
prisingly difficult to disturb. The present writer has, on 
several occasions, visited a rookery where the beach w^as strewn 
with sleeping pups, seated himself among them and gathered 
one or two into his lap, and played with them for several min- 
utes before they were sufficiently aroused to realize the true 
situation. Their surprise was always laughable, as they voiced 
a horrified baby imitation of daddy's roar and perhaps made a 
bluff at amputating a human hand or tw^o. A newly-born sea 
lion is possessed of a full set of needle-like teeth and ample 
strength to make them serviceable, but, of the many that have 
by their actions promised to seriously mutilate me, none has yet 
drawn blood, and such fierce savage beasts have, after a ten- 
minutes' fondling, refused to be left alone and frequently 
follow^ed, bawling, along the sand, as if they were losing their 
best friend. 

In this connection might be mentioned an incident in which 
a sea lion figured, which illustrates the confiding nature of the 
animal when it is not persecuted. In April, 1922, a seaplane 
from the North Island Aviation Field made a landing at sea 
about 30 miles from the Coronado Islands and about the same 
distance from the mainland. Shortly after the plane came to 
rest, the pilot heard a scratching on the side of the machine and 
looking over saw a yearling sea lion investigating the strange 
craft. The door to the cockpit was held open and the invita- 
tion promptly accepted, the seal returning to San Diego by air- 

September 5, 1923 



306 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

plane. I visited the station a few days later and found the 
visitor to be a yearling female and as eager to be noticed as 
any pet kitten. Though given the freedom of the bay, it 
always returned to its new home on being called and never at 
any time showed any disposition to return to the company of 
its fellow lions. 



10. Arctocephalus townsendi. Guadalupe Fur Seal 

That fur seals of some species were at one time abundant 
on most, if not all, of the islands of the peninsula, as well as 
those of Californ'^, cannot be disputed. There are undoubted 
records of many thousands of skins being taken from the 
Farallons and the islands south to Cape St. Lucas. At this 
time it is largely a matter of conjecture as to even the genus. 
During the fur seal controversy between England and the 
United States in 1892, Dr. Charles H. Townsend and the 
present writer visited Guadalupe Island in the hope of securing 
specimens of the fur seal said to have once existed there. The 
net result of our trip was four more or less broken skulls upon 
which was based a genus and species new to North America, 
Arctocephalus townsendi. In Dr. Townsend's report he men- 
tions several living specimens as being seen but not taken. In 
the light of recent events, I have some doubts as to the animals 
seen were really fur seals ; they may have been young California 
sea lions. The yearling Zalophus is quite easily mistaken under 
conditions such as we encountered, and though we may have 
seen Arctocephalus it is by no means certain. However, in 1893. 
there were said to have been 35 fur seals killed on Guadalupe 
and 15 the year following, the last being the final record, so 
far as I know, although I am of the opinion that a few were 
taken from year to year for some time. One of the chief ob- 
jects of the voyage of the Tecate in 1922 was to secure all 
evidence possible as to the fur seal in the past and to ascertain 
if living animals were to be found. 

On July 16 we examined the old rookery at Jacks Bay on the 
weather (west) side of the island, where the skulls of Arcto- 
cephalus were found in 1892. At this point we found a re- 
markably well defined rookery, marked by well polished rocks, 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 307 

that at one time accommodated fully 30,000 adult seals. As is 
well known to those familiar with the habits of fur seals, they 
restrict themselves to certain limits, preferably a boulder- 
strewn beach, where in time — hundreds of generations perhaps 
— the rocks become polished and the rookery limits defined as 
sharply as if painted. A short distance inland from the rookery 
are eight stone huts, four of which were seemingly for store- 
houses and four for living quarters. The walls only are left, 
and it is evident that the roofs were of canvas or hides. Still 
further inland is an extensive area of land cleared of stones 
and, leading to it from the rookery, a walled driveway, the 
walls being of stones and palm logs — the cleared space being 
the killing and skinning grounds. 

From the evidence obtainable, this was the work of Russians, 
who came from the north with Aleuts not less than 125 years 
ago. Not a bone or fragment is left of the many thousands of 
fur seals killed there in the past. At the south end of Guada- 
lupe is a still larger rookery, estimated to have been populated 
by 30,000 or more. Here, as at Jacks Bay, are a number of 
stone walls marking the sites of storehouses and living quar- 
ters. On the beach above the rookery, the cleared area is 
marked by thousands of wooden pegs once in use to hold the 
skin stretched until dry enough to store for shipment. Many 
of the pegs today mark the outlines of what was a seal skin 
over 100 years ago, and so kindly have the elements treated the 
wood that there is scarcely any decay, but here, as at the 
northern rookery, no bones of Arctocephalus were found. A 
somewhat smaller fur seal rookery was found on the east side 
of the island, and it was estimated that at one time Guadalupe 
was populated by at least 100,000 fur seals, old and young. 

I have knowledge of two fur seals being shot on the west 
San Benito in about the year 1890. 

While the Guadalupe Fur Seal was resident to a far greater 
degree than its northern relative, there were periods each year 
for some two or three months when it left the islands and dis- 
appeared. Where it went the hunters were unable to tell me, 
nor can I even say at what time of the year it migrated. During 
a large part of the time it was found about the island. It in- 
habited the many caves found here, and there is a chance that 



308 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

some such cave dwellers may have been overlooked at the time 
we were exploring the islands. 

I find among the early records of the islands some very inter- 
esting notes on the fur seal, as the log of the Port au Prince, 
a whaler that sailed from England, February 12, 1805, and 
toucned at Cedros for a cargo of elephant seal oil. Leaving 
Cedros on August 23, she proceeded to the Benitos 15 miles 
west, where in 19 days, 8,338 fur seals were killed. The ship 
Dromio, out of Boston, arrived at "Shelvrocks Island" 
(Socorro) in November, 1808, and in two weeks killed 3,000 
fur seals. Another early navigator states that as he found the 
northern islands — Santa Barbara Islands and those of Lower 
California — being sealed by the Russians, he proceeded to 
Socorro where, in a day's search he saw some 20 fur seals 
and 1,500 sea lions. The fur seal outlook not being inviting. 
the ship did not engage in that trade. 

The fur seals of Guadalupe must have been commercially ex- 
terminated by the Russians early in the last century, for noth- 
ing seemed to have been known of them during the American 
occupation of California until about 1876, when they were acci- 
dentally discovered by a schooner from San Diego, and for a 
short time a profitable trade was enjoyed by a number of small 
craft. The curtain was rung down on the last act in 1894, 
when 15 were said to be the season's catch. We have authentic 
records of 5,575 being killed at Guadalupe and San Benito 
between 1876 and 1894. Whether there will be others in the 
years to come remains to be seen. 



11. Phoca richardii geronimensis. 

San Geronimo Harbor Seal 

This species never was very abundant on the coast of Lower 
California, but a few were seen on the sand bars in San Ouintin 
Bay. On San Roque Island, August 2. there were a dozen or 
more on the rocks. They seem to avoid the company of other 
species, and are more at home on the sand bars and mud flats 
of enclosed waters than the rocky shores and surf that seem 
to suit the requirements of Zalophus. 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 309 

12. Macrorhinus angustirostris. Elephant Seal 

The history of this most interesting- species is filled with 
tragedy. Once it was abundant from the region of Santa Bar- 
bara to Magdalena Bay, some 800 miles of coast line. It became 
so reduced in numbers, due to extensive slaughter on the part of 
the early whalers who killed the animal for the oil, that as long 
ago as 1869, Scammon regarded it as "nearly, if not quite, ex- 
tinct." Since that day naturalists have several times unexpect- 
edly encountered a small family and, in killing them, have 
secured for science what they honestly looked upon as the last 
of the species. Although the taking of these last survivors was 
regarded as regrettable in the extreme, it was considered justi- 
fied, on the grounds that the species was doomed to die at the 
hands of whalers or sealers, and museums were in need of the 
specimens. 

The present condition of the remnant of the once abundant 
species speaks volumes for its ability to rebuild, if given oppor- 
tunity. In 1911, Charles H. Townsend found 150 on the west 
side of Guadalupe, at the same hauling grounds where he and 
the present writer found nine in 1892, — of which seven were 
killed for the National Museum at Washington. On the return 
of Dr. Townsend's expedition, the newspa|)ers of the coast 
featured the rediscovery of this strange creature in such man- 
ner that the public was led to think that the capture of one 
meant an independent fortune for the captor, and as a result 
to be expected the fishermen of southern California flocked 
to the spot to reap the harvest. It would be impossible to state 
how many were killed, but they were numerous and, needless 
to state, the specimens thus killed were of no value to museums. 
The Mexican Government, at this stage of the game, placed an 
embargo on the killing of elephant seals, and, for a time at 
least, the few living were given a respite. 

In the winter of 1920-21, an enterprising whaler, hearing 
of the occurrence of the species on the coast of Lower Cali- 
fornia, outfitted for a cruise that was intended to bring their 
history to an end. Fortunately, however, it was supposed that 
the elephant seals were in the Gulf of California. Guadalupe 



3IQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Island was not visited, and the voyage, from a commercial 
point, was a failure. 

About the time plans were being made for the total extermi- 
nation of this species by way of the whaler's try-pot, a com- 
pany operating a fertilizer plant in California applied to Dr. 
Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences, tor information 
as to the whereabouts of the sea elephants, stating they wanted 
to use what were left for a few days' run of their plant. Need- 
less to state, the information was not given, and while some 
cabbage field may have lost a temporary stimulant, the ele- 
phants were given another reprieve. In July, when the Guada- 
lupe elephant bjach was visited by our expedition, we found 
264 animals hauled on the sand, 14 of which seemed to be 
young of the year and presumably there was an equal number 
of mothers. While the adult animals are quite fearless, even 
almost impossible to disturb to the extent of causing them to 
leave the beach, the pups were rather timid and before the dis- 
parity of sexes was noticed all the pups had gone to sea, and 
with them the females, leaving only the bulls to interview the 
intruding naturalists. At this date (July 12) the younger ani- 
mals had seemingly finished the moult and were in a dark 
gray or blackish coat, — ^black when first emerging from the 
water. Most of the larger bulls were in a tattered, ragged 
condition, indicating the extreme moult, the neck and anterior 
parts of the body being hung with streamers of cuticle and 
hair, oftentimes several inches in length, hanging from pink or 
flesh-colored undersurface, suggesting a bad case of sunburn. 

In moulting, not only is the hair renewed but the entire 
cuticle seems to be shed, the beach being strewn with patches 
of the old coat oftentimes as large as a man's hand. On ex- 
amination of these detached patches of cuticle and pelage, it is 
difficult to tell at a glance which was the inner side, the hair 
extending 3 mm. beyond the cuticle on its inner surface and 
10 mm. for the exterior measurement. The color is somewhat 
lighter on the flesh side as well. These animals with the old 
moulting coats were more or less uniform yellowish-tan, or 
what is generally recognized in the West as "buckskin" color, 
contrasting strongly with the darker — almost black — coats of 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 2)\\ 

the younger males that had completed the mouU. The pups 
that we assumed to be of the current year were about 175 
pounds in weight, dark gray above, with an obscure motthng 
of the coat in certain hghts, suggestive of the spots in the 
coloring of Phoca richardii, the upper coloring gradually fad- 
ing to a very light gray — almost white — below. 

A yearling size juvenile was estimated to be of about 500 
pounds weight and, like the adults, uniform dark gray. In the 
adult female the coloring is similar, the only difference being 
in the almost total lack of the nasal development so character- 
istic of the adult male. In this respect they resemble quite 
closely the undeveloped males. A male elephant seal was shot 
for the Mexican collections and, though several shots were re- 
quired to dispatch the animal, those 10 feet distant paid little or 
no attention to the disturbance. The stomach contents of this 
animal was a small amount of the volcanic sand of which the 
beach is composed. 

In 1892 I found sand and pebbles the size of hens' eggs in 
the stomachs of those taken for the National Museum, and in 
only one was there any indication of the food — a fish, Sebas- 
todes( ?), of about one and one-half pounds, together with a 
few fronds of kelp that were doubtless unintentionally taken 
along with the fish, was taken from the stomach of one young 
male. 

Before landing, the animals spend some time along the surf 
and it is quite possible that digestion is complete before they 
land. The stones and sand are no doubt taken from time to 
time in capturing their finny prey, and is not in any manner 
intentional. Similar matter has been reported as found in the 
stomachs of sea lions and fur seals, and has been mentioned as 
"ballast" that is taken by the seal before going into the 
water, — a story that should be classed with that of the hoop- 
snake. 

An alarmed elephant seal will often "back up" at a pace ex- 
ceeding that usually shown in advancing. This is accomplished 
by repeated, sudden jerking of the hind flippers and posterior 
part of the body, and is suggestive of the progress of a freshly 



312 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

captured lobster. At times they will back down the beach and 
into the surf in this manner rather than turn and perhaps lose 
sight of the object that threatens. Upon coming out of the 
water, the adults leisurely crawled up to a point well above the 
tide, frequently pausing to rest, as if the effort were con- 
siderable. No use is made of the posterior limbs, the body 
being laboriously dragged along by action of the short but 
very powerful front flippers and the muscles of the abdomen, 
somewhat as an "inch worm" progresses. Finding a spot 
suited to its ideals, the animal usually proceeds to pitch sand 
over its back, using the front flippers as shovels until the upper 
parts are well sanded. The same shovels and lava sand also 
come in play as means of defence, for on several occasions 
when an animal was disturbed by members of our party a dis- 
charge of sand, sent with almost the force of bird shot, caused 
a hasty withdrawal. It was quite evident that the barrage was 
intended as a defence, for while the sand intended as a cover- 
ing for the back is always tossed six or eight feet in the air, 
to land largely on the animal, when intended for the face of a 
man it was shot backward at a low angle, the seal looking back 
over the shoulder to note the effect and turning with surpris- 
ing quickness to keep the intruder in range of its artillery. 

The adult males are somewhat quarrelsome and, to judge 
by the battle-scarred necks and shoulders, indulge in some com- 
bats that are decidedly sanguinary. At the time of our visit, 
however, an armistice had been declared. Two bulls meeting 
often snapped at each other, raising the heads to a surprising 
height — eight feet or more, — mouth open and attitude 
threatening in the extreme, and such battles resulted in more 
threats. When challenging, the bulls often curved the flexible 
proboscis over into the wide open mouth until it must have 
been nearly at the base of the tongue. At such times they 
gave voice to the only sound I have heard, a loud gurgling 
roar, that might be compared to a much magnified snore. I 
have heard this note when half a mile or more from the ani- 
mal. At times, also, the trunk is elevated and recurved until 
it points almost backward. At rest and in its normal position, 
it is withdrawn until it overhangs the mouth but little and rests 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS At^D MAMMALS 313 

ill two or three grotesque folds, extending back nearly to the 
eyes. 

Estimating the number of female and immature elephant 
seals on the basis of the adult males we found on the beach in 
July, the entire Guadalupe herd should easily be 1,000 animals. 
There were over 300 adult males on the main beach on our 
return, July 16, and at the entrance to a large cave north of 
the beach we found 36 more, all males. The cave being all but 
closed by the high tide, we were unable to ascertain what might 
be inside. The Mexicans, however, on a subsequent visit to 
the island early in September, found "150 females and an equal 
number of pups about thirty inches in length inside the cave." 
If this information regarding the young is correct, those which 
we saw in July and considered as young of the year were about 
ten months old — as the pups of the California sea lion, Zalo- 
phus, are fully 30 inches in length at birth. There would seem 
to be something further needed in way of data before we defi- 
nitely state that the animals seen were in fact Macrorhinus. 

Several years ago there were a number of elephant seals 
captured at Guadalupe and taken to one of the amusement 
piers near Los Angeles, where for a time they were on exhibi- 
tion. A storm destroyed the pier and the seals escaped. On 
two or three occasions the species has been reported from dif- 
ferent points along the Santa Barbara Channel, and it is quite 
probable that it is the escapes that were seen. There may 
perhaps be a small breeding herd established at some of the 
outlying islands which, if protected, will in time re-establish 
the species in its old-time haunts among these islands. 

For several years past a few elephant seals have been seen 
about the San Benito Islands, but it is certain that no colony 
has yet been established there. They have been seen in May 
and October and in sunicient numbers to indicate that more 
than a mere few might have wandered from the main herd. 
They no doubt in due time, if the present protection is en- 
forced, will regain their lost rookeries on San Benito and 
Cedros. We found a number of badly weathered skulls on 
each of the above mentioned islands, where the whalers of 50 
years or more ago had killed the animals for their oil. 



314 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The Mexican Government has recently designated both 
Guadakipe and Cedros islands as animal refuges, with a very 
heavy penalty for any infraction of the lav^. If the regulations 
are enforced, there is no doubt but the present species, as well 
as others, the future of which is in danger, may enjoy many 
more years of existence. 

13. Peromyscus eremicus cedrosensis. 

Cedros Island White-footed Mouse 

Specimens are in the collections from each of the five sta- 
tions made on .Cedros Island. The species seemed to be rare 
in the interior, out very common along the beaches. 

14. Peromyscus eremicus polypolius (?) 

Margarita White-footed Mouse 

Several Peromyscus were taken on Margarita Island, but all 
were so badly mutilated by ants that little could be learned of 
the external appearance. One specimen was seemingly of an 
almost uniform ashy or pearl gray, lighter below, — perhaps 
an albino. 

15. Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis. 

Sonoran White-footed Mouse 

It is with some hesitation that I refer a single Peromyscus 
from San Quintin to this race. The specimen is immature and 
agrees in a general way with specimens from southern Cali- 
fornia of similar age, but the tail is much more sharply bicolor 
and the lower parts more decidedly white than any in the col- 
lection of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 

16. Peromyscus maniculatus coolidgei. 
Coolidge White-footed Mouse 
At San Bartolome Bay two specimens were taken. 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 315 

17. Peromyscus maniculatus geronimensis. 

Ashy-gray White-footed Mouse 

Very abundant on Natividad Island, the only station in its 
habitat at which we touched. 

18. Peromyscus maniculatus cineritius. 
San Roque White-footed Mouse 

Very abundant on Asuncion Island. San Roque Island, the 
type locality of this subspecies, is but six or seven miles from 
Asuncion and with exactly similar conditions and environment. 
No traps were set on San Roque, so I am unable to make a di- 
rect comparison with specimens from that island. Specimens 
were sent to the American Museum of Natural History and 
compared with types by my son, H. E. Anthony, who states : 

"Very close to cineritius of San Roque ; belly a trifle whiter, 
hind feet seeming to lack dusky ankles of San Roque series. 
It is possible that the Asuncion animal is a slightly character- 
ized subspecies of maniculatus distinct from cineritius, but a 
larger series of specimens from Asuncion as well as from San 
Roque is needed to establish this point. No apparent skull 
differences." 

19. Peromyscus maniculatus magdalenae. 
Magdalena White-footed Mouse 
Common on Magdalena Island. 

20. Neotoma intermedia intermedia. 
Intermediate Wood Rat 
Common about San Quintin Bay. 

21. Neotoma intermedia pretiosa. 

Matancita Wood Rat 

Quite common on both Magdalena and Margarita islands. 



315 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sm. 

22. Neotoma bryanti. 

Cedros Island Wood Rat 

Neotoma were found more or less abundantly in all parts of 
Cedros Island, more common in the northern end and among 
the more broken parts of the island and rather scarce at the 
south end, where the land is lower and less suited to their 
requirements. 

23. Epimys rattus alexandrinus. 

Roof Rat 

A specimeil taken on the west side of San Quintin Bay op- 
posite the settlement. At some time within the past two years 
a large steamer was wrecked on San Roque Island, evidently 
introducing rats at that point, as a dead Epimys was seen on 
the beach. 

24. Mus musculus musculus. 

House Mouse 

Mice of this genus are more or less distributed over Guada- 
lupe Island and, as they are more abundant in the sections ad- 
jacent to the fur-seal rookeries, it is not improbable that they 
were introduced by the Russians a century or more ago. A 
single immature mouse was shot at Jacks Bay on the west side 
of the island. If this specimen represents the normal color of 
the race at present found on Guadalupe, it is a very interesting 
illustration of evolution. The upper parts are a rich brown, 
several shades darker than any specimen in the collection of the 
San Diego Museum of Natural History; below, somewhat 
lighter. It will be better, however, to await further specimens 
before separating the race. 

25. Perognathus helleri. 

Heller's Pocket Mouse 

The type of this species was taken at San Quintin, where 
pocket mice are quite common. For some reason they were 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 317 

very hard to trap at the time of our visit, and but two were 
secured, both from the west side of the bay. 



26. Perognathus penicillatus albulus. 

Magdalena Island Pocket Mouse 

At Magdalena Bay we found this race not uncommon, but 
owing to the ants destroying the specimens only two w^ere 
secured in condition worth saving. 

27. Perognathus anthonyi, 

Anthony's Pocket Mouse 

For the past quarter of a century this species has been rep- 
resented by the single type in the collection of the Biological 
Survey, collected by the present writer at South Bay, Cedros 
Island. During the summer of 1922 we found the species 
rather commonly distributed over the island, from the sandy 
arroyos at the beach to the rocky hillsides nearly or quite, to 
the tops of the higher mountains. For some reason, this 
species was very difficult to secure in traps and only six speci- 
mens were taken. The series, however, shows a very inter- 
esting condition of moult, which is perhaps best expressed in 
Dr. Nelson's letter regarding the series : 

"The specimens of Perognathus from Cedros Island have 
been compared with the type taken by you at South Bay many 
years ago. One of these from the west side of Cedros Island, 
like the others from South Bay, agrees closely with the type. 
These specimens in fresh pelage are, however, nearly through- 
out more blackish, less brownish, than the tyj>e, which is in a 
worn and somewhat faded pelage. In one of your examples, 
however, the pelage change is evidently progressive, beginning 
on the anterior part of the body. The brownish rump and hind 
legs still in worn pelage very closely resemble the faded pelage 
of the type, showing that the apparent difference in general 
color is only seasonal. These specimens of Perognathus an- 
thonyi are of considerable interest, as, up to the time of this 
second collection, the type had remained unique." 



313 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The work of this species so closely resembles the hills that 
mark the burrows of Thomomys that for many years I have 
felt certain that there was a species of that genus to be found 
on Cedros Island. Dr. Hanna, though experienced in collect- 
ing pocket gophers, was also misled by the many "dumps" 
along the gulches and it was not until we had dug into several 
of the burrows and unearthed a pocket mouse that we reluc- 
tantly agreed that we had been deceived. 



28. Dipodomys merriami parvus. 
San Bernardino Kangaroo Rat 
Not uncommon at San Quintin. Three specimens. 

29. Dipodomys platycephalus. 

One night was devoted to the traps at Abreojos Point, but, 
though signs of Dipodomys were noted in several places, no 
specimens were taken. An owl pellet, which was found near 
the beach, contained the skull and bones of the above species. 

30. Ammospermophilus leucurus peninsulae. 

Lower California Ground Squirrel 

Common on the plain east of San Quintin, where two were 
secured, July 20. 

31. Lepus calif ornicus martirensis. 

San Pedro Martir Jack Rabbit 

Two jack rabbits taken at San Quintin in July are somewhat 
puzzling. If one is to judge from the coloring as given in 
Nelson's "Rabbits of North America," tliev would be classed 
as martirensis, to which form I have provisionally assigned 
them ; though the measurements agree more closely to those of 
hennettii. 



Vol. XIV] ANTHONY— THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 319 

32. Lepus californicus magdalenae. 

Magdalena Island Jack Rabbit 

On the west side of Margarita Island we found this strongly 
marked race rather common, but not easily collected owing to 
its keeping largely in the thick growth of underbrush found 
along this side of the island. A half-grown young was shot 
July 29. ' 

33. Sylvilagus bachmani cinerascens. 

Ash-colored Cottontail 

A single specimen of the brush rabbit from San Quintin I 
have regarded as this race. There is nothing to distinguish it 
from specimens taken at San Diego, either in color or measure- 
ments, though the locality is well within the range of exiguus 
and considerably south of recorded capture of cinerascens. 

34. Sylvilagus bachmani cerrosensis. 

Cedros Island Cottontail 

Two specimens of this species were secured from Cedros 
Island. 

35. Odocoileus cerrosensis. 

Cedros Island White-tailed Deer 

We found this deer fairly common on Cedros Island, though 
since its discovery a quarter of a century ago it has been re- 
duced to the point of extinction by mining operators that de- 
pended upon venison to furnish meat the year round for a 
large force of workmen. The last company working the mines 
at the north end of Cedros is said to have left several dogs 
that have multipled until at this date several large packs are 
roaming the island and killing many does and fawns. In 
August we secured several specimens and saw others. 



320 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

36. Antilocapra americana peninsularis. 

Lower California Antelope 

Formerly quite abundant from San Quintin south to Turtle 
Bay, but reduced at this writing to but a remnant of its former 
numbers, due chiefly to hunters hired by American corporations 
operating mines and quarries within the range of the species. 
The only evidence we found was a horn, from a recently killed 
animal, at Abreojos Point. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 14, pp. 321-343. September 5, 1925 



XIV 
EXPEDITION TO GUADALUPE ISLAND, MEXICO, 

IN 1922^ 

THE COLEOPTERA 

BY 

FRANK E. BLAISDELL, Sr. 

This report covers the Coleoptera taken by the expedition of 
the CaHfornia Academy of Sciences to Guadalupe and other 
islands off the west coast of Lower California in July and 
August, 1922. This expedition was made possible through the 
courtesy of the Mexican Government, which placed its fish- 
eries patrol boat Tecate at the services of the Academy and 
the San Diego Society of Natural History and collaborated 
with those institutions in the work of the expedition. No 
entomologist accompanied the party, but a very good series of 
insects was secured through the efforts of Dr. G. Dallas Hanna 
and Mr. Joseph R. Slevin, who devoted as much time to this 
work as they could spare from their other duties. The fact 
that 14 new species and a good series of other rare beetles 
were taken fully justifies the effort made. 

'This paper is No. 3 of the Tecate expedition. No. 1, the Narative, gives a complete 
itinerary. See this volume, pp. 217-275. 

September 5. 1925 



322 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

List of the Species Taken 
1. Cicindela latisignata Lee. 

One female at San Quintin, July 19, by Dr. Hanna. The 
legs and propleura rather more coppery than usual. 

2. Cicindela haemorrhagica Lee. 

A series of nine specimens taken at San Quintin, July 19, 

Magdalena Bay July 26, and Cedros Island August 7, by Dr. 

Hanna. 

I 

3. Cicindela sigmoidea Lee. 

Nine specimens were secured at San Quintin, July 19, by 
Dr. Hanna. 



4. Calosoma semilaeve Lee. 

Two good specimens and one badly damaged specimen were 
collected at San Quintin, July 20, and on Guadalupe Island, 
July 13 and 15, by Dr. Hanna. 



5. Celia calif ornica Dej. 

A moderate series was taken on Guadalupe Island, July 13 
and 15, by Dr. Hanna. 



6. Amara insignis Dej. 

A small series obtained on Guadalupe Island, July 13 and 15, 
by Dr. Hanna. 



7. Calathus obscurus Lee. 

Three specimens were taken on the main land at San Quin- 
tin, Lower California, on July 19, by Dr. Hanna. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 323 

8. Calathus guadalupensis Casey 

A fine series of this large species was taken on Guadalupe 
Island, July 13 and 15, by Dr. Hanna. 

9. Platynus (Leucagonum) guadalupense Casey 

In this species the body is more abbreviated than in maculp- 
collis Dej. Three specimens. Guadalupe Island, July 15, by 
Dr. Hanna. 

10. Pinacodera semisulcata Horn 

A moderately large series of this species was secured on 
Asuncion Island, August 1, by Dr. Hanna. 

11. Pinacodera sulcipennis Horn 

Three specimens were taken by Dr. Hanna at San Quintin, 
July 19. 

12. Dicheirus piceus Men, 

Guadalupe Island, July 14, N. E. Landing. One specimen 
secured by Dr. Hanna. 

13. Anisotarsus flebilis Lee. 

A single example of this species was found on Guadalupe 
Island, July 17, by Mr. Slevin. 

14. Creophilus villosus Grav. 

A single example of this common and widely distributed 
species was taken on Guadalupe Island, July 15, by Mr. Slevin. 

15. Trichochrous margaritae Blaisdell, new species 

Form parallel to slightly oblong-ovate and moderately convex. Lustre 
dull. Color nigro-piceous ; legs bright rufous ; antennae more or less 



324 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

rufo-piceous distally, toward base rufous ; first joint usually rufo-piceous ; 
terminal two joints of the maxillary palpi blackish at apex; mouth parts 
more or less pale, labrum rufous ; elytra at apex more or less obscurely 
reddish. 

Pubescence slightly squamiform above, dense, short, recumbent, with 
no evidence of longer intermixed hairs; color ashy. Lateral pronotal 
and elytral fimbriae moderately short, not very closely placed. Body be- 
neath with finer, longer and more sparsely placed hairs. 

Head relatively small, subtriangular, muzzle short; front scarcely im- 
pressed, punctures fine and not crowded. Eyes prominent. Antennae 
moderately stout and extending length of terminal joint beyond pronotal 
base. 

Pronotum about a fourth to a third wider than long; apex truncate in 
moderate circular arc ; apical angles obtusely rounded ; sides scarcely 
subangulately arcuate just behind middle at point of greatest width, 
thence feebly arcuate and converging to apex and base ; base broadly 
arcuate with the angles broadly rounded ; disk rather strongly and evenly 
convex ; punctures fine and not dense. 

Elytra about twice as long as wide, moderately and evenly convex ; 
sides parallel, punctures fine and not dense. Abdomen finely and rather 
densely punctate. 

Male : Narrower and more parallel. Fifth ventral truncato-sinuate. 
Female: Rather more oblong-ovate, and a little w^ider; fifth ventral 
rather subangulately arcuate at apex. 

Length (types) 1.6-2.4 mm.; width .8-1 mm. 

Type: Male, No. 1676, and allotype, female, No. 1677, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Dr. G. D. Hanna, July 29, 1922, 
on Santa Margarita Island. Paratypes in the collection of the 
Academy and in that of the author. 

According to Casey's table of species, margaritcs falls near 
innocetts Casey and apicalis Casey. Innocens is more elongate 
with less dense and pale fulvous pubescence. In apicalis the 
pronotum is transversely oval and the body stouter, with the 
elytra more widely testaceous at apex. A series of 15 speci- 
mens has been studied. 

16. Necrobia rufipes De G. 

One specimen of this cosmopolitan species taken on Guada- 
lupe Island, July 11, by Dr. Hanna. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 325 

17. Nemognatha insularis Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate. Color fulvous throughout, except the antennae, tips of 
femora, tibiae and tarsi, which are deep black. Surface sparsely clothed 
with short and nearly erect black hairs, those of the under parts longer. 

Head finely and rather thickly punctate ; eyes oblong-oval, slightly sinu- 
ate anteriorly; maxillae slender, moderately short, attaining base of me- 
tasternum when the head is flexed against the presternum; antennae ex- 
tending to about middle of elytra. 

Pronotum subquadrate, slightly widest in anterior third, angles round- 
ed; apex rather arcuate, feebly sinuate in middle third; sides feebly 
arcuate, slightly convergent posteriorly ; base arcuate ; disc moderately 
and quite evenly convex, very finely and not densely punctate. Elytra 
finely and not very closely punctate. Spurs of the metatibiae, equal and 
slender. 

Male : Abdomen with sparsely placed and rather long black hairs ; 
fourth and fifth segments with median tufts of pale hairs; sixth seg- 
ment apparently impressed and deeply emarginate, emargination tri- 
angular and about twice as deep as wide at base. 

Length (types) 7.5-9 mm. ; width 2-2.4 mm. 

Insularis approaches nearest to an unnamed Sierran species. 
It should follow scutellaris Lee. in our lists. 

Type: Male, No. 1678, and allotype, female, No. 1679, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Dr. G. D. Hanna, August 4, 
1922, at Bernstein's Spring, on Cedros Island. Paratype, one 
male in collection of the author. 



18. Buprestis aurulenta L. 

One specimen taken on Guadalupe Island, July 15, by Dr. 
Hanna. 



19. Agrilus blandus Horn 
One specimen taken on Cedros Island by Dr. Hanna. 

20. Dermestes vulpinus Fab. 

A moderate series was taken by Dr. Hanna at the following 
places : Asuncion Island, August 1 ; San Roque Island, August 
2; Abreojos Point, July 31. 

September 5, 1935 



326 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

21. Rhagodera laticeps Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate, a little more than three times as long as wide, slightly 
wider posteriorly and moderately convex. Color nigro-piceous and usual- 
ly more or less covered by a grayish coating. 

Head nearly quadrate, slightly dilated anteriorly and coarsely punctate ; 
front with or without impressions, when distinct noticeable along the 
frontal suture, on vertex and broadly and feebly within the eyes ; super- 
ciliary ridge acute but not raised above the eyes as in costata; sides of 
front obliquely emarginate at oblique suture. 

Pronotum broader than long, sides arcuate anteriorly, becoming broadly 
sinuate, convergent, straight or parallel to base, where the angles are 
subrectangular and slightly prominent posteriorly; sides feebly denticu- 
late ; disk strongly bicostate, costae scarcely arcuate and parallel. 

Elytra oblong, slightly widest behind ; humeri subrectangnjlar ; sutural, 
marginal and the discal costae entire and subacutely elevated; intervals 
with two rows of large, coarse, but not strongly impressed punctures. 
Body clothed with short scale-like hairs. 

Length (type) 7.5 mm. ; width 2.4 mm. 

Type: Female, No. 1680, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by Hanna and Slevin, August 13, 1922, on San Benito Island. 
Paratypes, 12 females in the Academy collection and in that of 
the author. 

R. laticeps varies in size just as tuberctUatus does; it is no 
larger and is distinct from both that species and costatus. 
Horn's description of costatus is too meager and unsatisfac- 
tory ; he states that it is more depressed than tuherculatus, with 
all the costae more prominent and with deeper interstitial punc- 
tures. This is not so with laticeps, for the costae and inter- 
stitial punctures are less strongly marked, the elytra are widest 
behind the middle ; the basal angles of the pronotum are really 
a little more than rectangular, but I do not consider them 
acute and posteriorly produced as Horn states of costatus. 

R. laticeps is much less rough and less strongly sculptured 
than tuherculatus. From Horn's description I drew the in- 
ference that costatus is as strongly or more strongly sculptured 
than tuherculatus. 



22. Melanophthalma distinguenda Com, 

Four specimens, all taken at N. E. Landing on Guada- 
lupe Island, July 11, by Hanna and Slevin. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 2>27 

23. Scymnus guadalupensis Blaisdell, new species 

Form moderately broadly oval, slightly narrowed anteriorly. Abdominal 
post-coxal arc normal, not quite attaining the apical margin of first seg- 
ment, arcuate throughout, curving forward externally and attaining the 
basal margin of the segment. Presternum rather wide and feebly con- 
vex between the coxae ; carinae feeble and converging slightly anteriorly, 
entire, intervening surface glabrous. Body bicolored, pale above and 
somewhat nubilate. Pubescence sparse, short, pale flavate in color and 
irregularly directed. Color beneath deep black; legs rather dark luteo- 
fiavate; head, pronotum and elytra, more or less castaneous. 

Head piceo-castaneous, front plane, finely and sparsely punctate. 

Pronotum transverse, sides discontinuous with those of the elytra, 
feebly arcuate and parallel; base lobed at middle third, thence obliquely 
and very feebly arcuate; disk blackish in central and basal two-thirds 
and narrowly so along the apical margin behind the head, punctures 
sparse and slightly coarse. 

Elytra narrowly black on the sutural margins, and very indefinitely 
clouded on each elytron near the base ; punctures scarcely coarse and 
sparsely placed, finer along the suture. Scutellum black. Beneath 
densely and rather coarsely punctate, including the post-coxal plate. 

Length 2 mm.; width 1.5 mm. 

Type: No. 1681, Mus, Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Mr. 
Slevin, July 17, 1922, at the South Anchorage, Guadalupe 
Island. 

Fall, in his "List of the Coleoptera of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Islands," does not mention a sing-le species of Scymnus 
as having- been taken on Guadalupe Island. The single speci- 
men at hand is well preserved and surely does not agree with 
anything mentioned by Casey in his "Revision of the American 
Coccinellidae, nor apparently with any species given in the 
Biologia. 

S. guadalupensis resembles nehulosiis at first sight. Its color 
is darker, the post-coxal lines are complete, the prosternum is 
less convex and the carinae feeble and more widely separated, 
with the intervening surface glabrous. In nebiilosus the post- 
coxal lines are incomplete, the prosternum more convex, cari- 
nae stronger and more evidently converging anteriorly with the 
intervening space narrower. 



328 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

24. Coccinella califomica Mann. 

Nineteen specimens. Guadalupe Island, July 11-15, col- 
lected by Hanna and Slevin. 

25. Exochomus fasciatus Casey 

One specimen was secured at each of the following places: 
San Quintin, July 19; Natividad Island, August 3; Santa 
Margarita Island, July 29 ; all by Dr. Hanna. 

26. Cistelid, undetermined species 



I 



27. Cryptadius inflatus Lee. 

Seven specimens, Natividad Island, August 3 ; Asuncion 
Island ; Angulo Rock, August 1 ; San Roque Island, August 
2 ; secured by Hanna and Slevin. 



28. Stibia williamsi Blaisdell, new species 

Form ovate, about twice as long as wide, elytra somewhat inflated, 
strongly convex. Color dark nigro-^iceous ; legs and antennae slightly 
rufo-piceous ; surface shining and glabrous, head and pronotum slightly 
duller. 

Head rather coarsely and confluently punctate; deflexed epistomal lobe 
triangular, line forming the upper margin of the deflexed portion not 
strong and, as usual, continuous with the sides of the front when viewed 
from above ; mandibular tooth subapical. Antennae long and slender, 
tenth joint attaining pronotal base. 

Pronotum transverse and moderately convex ; apex truncate in moder- 
ate circular arc ; apical angles rectangular and subacute ; sides broadly 
arcuate, slightly straighter posteriorly than anteriorly, margin acute but 
not noticeably beaded; basal angles obtuse and distinct; base slightly 
sinuate laterally ; disk densely but not very coarsely, and more or less 
confluently, punctate; punctures rather discrete along the lateral margin. 

Elytra oval, about a third longer than wide, somewhat inflated ; disk 
with nine discal series of moderately strong punctures and a short scutel- 
lar row which is more or less confused and indistinct ; the series becom- 
ing obsolete on the apical declivity before the apex; intervals with few 
extremely fine punctules. Body beneath strongly and coarsely punctate 
on the metasternum, punctures slightly finer on the prosternum, still 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA $29 

finer on the abdomen toward base, and distinctly fine on last three seg- 
ments. Legs moderate in length, finely and rather evenly punctate. 

Male : Usually a little smaller than the opposite sex ; elytra less broadly 
oval, abdomen less convex. 

Length (types) 8,5-9.5 mm.; width 4-4.5 mm. 

Type: Female, No. 1682, and allotype, male, No. 1683, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Hanna and Slevin, August 13, 
1922, on Middle San Benito Island. Paratypes, same data and 
from East and West San Benito Islands, August 12, 13, 1922. 
106 specimens studied. 

In 5". piincticollis the elytral series of coarse punctures are 
entire and attain the apex. In zvillmmsi the series become ob- 
solete on the apical declivity as in Triorophus. In hannai the 
form is narrower in both sexes and not in the least inflated, 
punctuation of head and pronotum coarser and more evidently 
coalescent; punctuation of abdomen stronger. 6*. sparsa is 
more polished, the pronotal punctures discrete and well separ- 
ated and basal angles of pronotum very small and acute. 6*. 
opaca is very different in its dull surface and convex elytral 
intervals. 



29. Stibia hannai Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate suboval, elytra not inflated and strongly convex. Color 
nigro-piceous ; legs and antennae ruf o-piceous ; luster shining, head and 
pronotum slightly duller, surface glabrous. 

Head coarsely and confluently punctate; deflexed epistomal lobe ob- 
tusely triangular, line forming upper limit of deflexed portion continu- 
ous with sides of front, not strong, but more so than in williamsi; sur- 
face impressed behind the raised frontal line. Antennae slender, extend- 
ing to beyond the pronotal base. 

Pronotum transverse, widest before the middle; apex truncate; apical 
angles acutely rectangular; sides broadly arcuate, straighter behind and 
converging to the base, margin acute; base slightly arcuate at middle 
and feebly sinuate laterally; basal angles obtuse and distinct; disk quite 
coarsely, densely, and more or less confluently punctate, slightly and nar- 
rowly impressed along lateral edge, where the surface is shining and 
glabrous with the punctures finer and discrete. 

Elytra oval, about twice as long as wide, sides subparallel ; base equal 
to pronotal base, humeri obtuse and distinct; sides broadly arcuate to 
apex, the latter rather narrowly rounded; disk with unimpressed striae 



330 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

of rather large and closely placed punctures which become more or less 
obsolete before attaining the apex; intervals obsoletely punctulate. 

Abdomen rather coarsely and not closely punctate on first three seg- 
ments, punctures finer on fourth and fifth segments. Sterna and side 
pieces coarsely and strongly punctate. Legs moderately and somewhat 
finely, densely punctured. 

Male : Usually smaller and rather less elongate. Female : Larger and 
rather more elongate. Elytra similar in the two sexes. 

Length (types) 7-8 mm.; width 2.5-3 mm. 

Type: Female, No. 1684, and allotype, male, No. 1685, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Hanna and Slevin, August 1, 
1922, on Angulo Rock, Asuncion Island. Paratypes, same data 
and Natividad Island, August 3, 1922, in collection of the 
Academy and in that of the author. 46 specimens studied. 

S. hannai differs distinctly from williamsi in its narrower 
and more elongate form, and coarser punctuation of head and 
pronotum; elytral striae less abbreviated on apical declivity 
than in williamsi. Other differential considerations are given 
under the latter species. 



30. Centrioptera spiculifera Lee. 

This species occurs on Santa Margarita Island, where a 
single specimen was obtained by Hanna and Slevin July 29. 



31. Centrioptera pectoralis Blais. 

One specimen taken at Grand Caiion, Cedros Island, August 
7, by Hanna and Slevin. 



32. Argoporis ebenina Horn 

San Benito Island. Four specimens were collected on 
August 13, by Hanna and Slevin. 



33. Argoporis impressa Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate oblong-oval, subparallel and moderately convex. Color 
black; legs and antennae concolorous, dark rufous or lighter, antennae 
frequently somewhat darker ; luster dull and feebly shining. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 33 1 

Head very finely and rather densely punctate, sides not broadly re- 
flexed ; surface depressed along frontal suture, front feebly convex ; epi- 
stoma feebly and evenly convex, apex slightly arcuate, with a very small 
emargination at middle, on each side of which is a feeble tumescence. 
Antennae short, moderately robust and slightly incrassate, joints seven to 
10 transverse. 

Pronotum subquadrate, a little wider than long; apex feebly arcuate, 
apical angles obtusely rounded ; sides broadly arcuate, very gradually 
convergent to base, the latter transverse and rather broadly beaded lat- 
erally ; disk very minutely and subobsoletely punctulate, moderately con-- 
vex and more or less arcuately declivous antero-laterally. 

Elytra oblong-oval, two and a half times longer than pronotum; base 
equal to pronotal base, humeri minutely prominent ; sides broadly arcuate 
and parallel, arcuately convergent posteriorly to the rather broadly round- 
ed apex; disk with feebly impressed s1ri?e of rather coarse punctures, the 
latter somewhat strongly impressed; intervals flat or slightly convex, ex- 
tremely minutely punctulate. 

Legs rather slender, finely punctulate. Abdomen finely punctulate and 
more or less rugulose. 

Male : Usually a little larger than female. Middle of first abdominal 
segment with a small tubercle, the latter slightly raised and rounded, 
surrounding surface not noticeably more punctate. Posterior femora with 
a moderately slender acute tooth, about three times as long as wide at 
middle, edges very finely denticulate, especially posteriorly. Female 
usually smaller than male. Edges of tibial groove of posterior femora, 
finely denticulate in distal half. 

Length (types) 13-12 mm. ; width 4.2-3.9 mm. 

Type: Male, No. 1686, and allotype, female, No. 1687, Mus. 
CaHf. Acad. Sci., collected by Hanna and Slevin, August 3, 
1922, on Natividad Island. Paratypes, same data and from 
Angulo Rock, Asuncion Island, August 1, and San Roque 
Island, August 2, 1922. About 38 specimens studied. 

The males of the several species present differential charac- 
ters as follows : A. inconstans has a truncate epistomal apex 
and rufous legs, the femoral teeth are long; in cequalis the 
femoral teeth are truncate at tip and the epistomal apex arcu- 
ate; cbcnina has black legs (sometimes rufous), the epistomal 
apex truncate and the elytra more smoothly sculptured, nitida 
has three equidistant teeth on hind femur, while in costipennis 
the elytra are sulcate and the femoral teeth are large, acute, 
with finely denticulate edges; alutacea has the teeth bifid and 
the edges finely denticulate, while bicolor has two small, acute 
and exactly equal teeth which are widely separated. 



332 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

34. Cerenopus concolor Lee. 

A single specimen was found at Bernstein's Spring, on 
Cedros Island, August 4, by Dr. Hanna. 

35, Eleodes pygmaea Blais. 

San Quintin, Lower California, one example, July 19, Dr. 
Hanna, collector. 

36. Eleodes insularis Linell 

Two females of this species were found at Grand Cafion, 
Cedros Island, August 7, by Hanna and Slevin. 

37. Eleodes militaris Horn 

Four specimens, Grand Canon, Cedros Island, August 7, 
by Hanna and Slevin. 

38. Eleodes adumbrata Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate, subfusiform oval to ovate, moderately convex, scarcely 
inflated. Color deep black, luster dull, feebly shining. 

Head moderate, slightly transverse before the post-ocular line ; front 
slightly convex, finely and irregularly punctate, punctures may be sparse 
along median line; sides straight and convergent in front of eyes, epi- 
stomal apex transverse, scarcely sinuate, angles obtuse, frontal suture 
evident or obsolete. Eyes moderate in size, slightly more prominent 
than side of front at anterior canthi. Antenns slender, last three joints 
about as wide as long, scarcely wider than the preceding joints which 
are longer than wide; fourth joint equal in length to fifth and sixth 
taken together. 

Pronotum about a third wider than long, widest at middle; apex arcua- 
to-truncate between the acute and moderately anteriorly prominent apical 
angles ; sides quite evenly and broadly arcuate from apex to base, with 
a very feeble tendency to become sinuate near the angles, marginal bead 
fine ; base broadly arcuate and about equal to apex ; basal angles obtuse 
and not in the least prominent ; disk rather strongly and evenly convex 
from side to side ; rather strongly declivous at the apical angles where 
the surface of the angles is slightly impressed; extremely finely to sub- 
obsoletely punctate. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 333 

Elytra oval, obtusely pointed behind, about a third longer than wide; 
base broadly and feebly emarginate, adapted to and equal to the pronotal 
base ; humeri obtuse, angle distinct but not in the least prominent ; sides 
broadly arcuate becoming somewhat straighter and oblique in apical third 
to apex ; disk moderately convex on dorsum, more strongly and rather 
broadly rounded laterally, finely punctate ; punctures equal ; strial series 
more or less distinct ; interstitial punctures sparse and irregular ; intervals 
more or less convex giving a feebly costate appearance ; arcuately and 
rather gradually declivous posteriorly. 

Abdomen finely and sparsely punctate, more or less rugulose; punctures 
denser on fifth segment, each with a brownish seta, the latter dense on 
and about the apical margin. Legs moderately long, relatively slender, 
closely and finely punctate, each puncture with a small brownish seta; 
posterior tibiae slightly arcuate ; anterior femora armed in both sexes ; 
inner edge of the tibial groove slightly explanate with tooth at about 
apical fourth, thence sinuate to apex. 

Male : Narrower and subfusiform-oval. Abdomen on same plane as 
sterna, moderately convex, flattened at middle of first three segments, 
more or less impressed in median line; anterior tarsal grooves open. 
Female broader and more ovate; abdomen more strongly and evenly 
convex. 

Length (types) 24-22.0 mm.; width 8.5-9 mm. 

Type: Female, No. 1688, and allotype, male, No. 1689, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Hanna and Slevin, August 13, 
1922, on Middle San Benito Island. Paratypes, same data and 
from East and West San Benito Islands, and on Asuncion 
Island, August 1, 1922, in collection of the California Academy 
of Sciences and in that of the author; 17 specimens studied. 

E. adumbrata belongs to the eschscholtzii group of the sub- 
genus Eleodes and should follow inUata in our lists. It differs 
from all others of the group by the fine, equal elytral punctu- 
ation ; in the typical form, the elytra are subcostate. 



39. Eleodes discincta Blaisdell, new species 

This species is closely related to adumbrata, but differs 
mainly in the flat elytral intervals; strial punctures usually 
slightly larger than the interstitial, and never as coarse as in 
luccB or inflata. Otherwise it is similar to adumbrata. It also 
belongs to the eschscholtzii group and should follow adum- 
brata in our lists. It also presents greater variation in size 



034 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

and the males are markedly elongate, somewhat resembling the 
same sex in longicollis and gigantea. 

Length (types) 25 mm. ; width 9-10 mm. The largest and 
most elongate male from Asuncion Island, measures 32.5 mm. 
in length and 9 mm. in width ; largest and most robust female 
from Santa Margarita Island, measures 33 mm. in length and 
12 mm. in width. 

Type: Female, No. 1690, and allotype, male. No. 1691, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Dr. G. D. Hanna, August 3, 
1922, on Natividad Island. Paratypes, same data, and on 
Angulo Rock, Asuncion Island, Cedros Island and on Santa 
Margarita Island, July 29, 1922. 

E. discincta occurs also on the mainland at San Quintin if 
two females in the author's collection are correctly labelled. I 
believe these specimens were taken on a former expedition sent 
out by the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos 
Islands in 1905-6, and were collected by Mr. F. X. Williams. 

40. Eleodes inepta Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate, subfusiform oval, about three times as long as wide, 
moderately convex. Color deep black, very dull in luster and alutaceoits. 

Head rather small, short before the post-ocular line; front convex, 
finely, sparsely and irregularly punctate, each puncture with a small fer- 
ruginous hair; sides of the front feebly arcuate and convergent anteriorly, 
apex of the epistoma truncate and the angles obtuse and somewhat 
rounded. Eyes small. Antennae slender, joints less elongate than in 
armata and less stout than in militaris, not in the least incrassate. 

Pronotum quadrate, widest at middle; apex arcuate between the angles, 
which are acute and equilaterally triangular ; sides evenly and broadly 
arcuate from apex to base, the latter broadly and, feebly arcuate ; basal 
angles obtuse and distinct ; disk evenly and quite strongly convex, laterally 
noticeably declivous, very minutely and not closely punctulate. 

Elytra elongate, base feebly emarginate, equal to and adapted to the 
pronotal base ; humeri obtuse, distinct and not in the least prominent ; 
sides broadly and evenly arcuate, obliquely convergent to apex in rather 
more than apical third, apex quite narrowly rounded ; disk rather more 
than moderately convex on the dorsum, a little more strongly and broadly 
rounded laterally, punctures fine, equal in size, rather widely spaced in 
unimpressed and feeble striae, the interstitial punctures forming a single 
more widely spaced series. 

Abdomen moderately convex, slightly flattened along the middle third 
but not impressed on the first three segments in the type; apical margin 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 335 

of the fifth ventral segment thickly set with short ferruginous setae. 
Legs relatively long, moderately slender; all femora armed; hind 
tibiae arcuate in basal two-thirds, thence straight and thickened to apex. 
Tarsi rather long; plantar grooves of the front tarsi widely open. 

Length 23 mm. ; width 7.6 mm. 

Type: Male, No. 1692, Mus. Cahf. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Hanna and Slevin, August 1, 1922, on Angulo Rock, Asuncion 
Island. 

E. inepta is described from a unique. It is sufficiently dis- 
tinct from all other members of the armata group. From the 
standpoint of analogy, it is expected that inepta will vary as 
regards the size and sculpturing of individuals. It is to follow 
armata in our lists. 



41. Eleodes morbosa Blaisdell, new species 

Form suboblong-ovate to ovate, about twice as long as wide, resembling 
certain forms of omissa of the subgenus Melaneleodes. Q)lor black, some- 
what piceous, especially the appendages ; luster moderately shining, head 
and pronotum somewhat alutaceous. 

Head relatively moderate in size ; front slightly convex, sparsely and 
finely punctate, frontal suture more or less evident, surface slightly im- 
pressed within the supra-antennal convexities where the punctures are 
somewhat denser. Eyes and posterior canthi a little more prominent than 
the sides of the front, which are convergent anteriorly, epistomal apex 
truncate, or very feebly sinuate. Antennae comparatively slender and 
moderate in length, terminal three joints slightly incrassate and slightly 
transverse; joints four to eight inclusive a little longer than wide, the 
eighth being subtriangular. 

Pronotum about a fifth or a fourth wider than long, widest slightly 
in front of the middle ; apex slightly and broadly emarginate between 
the anterior angles, which are subacutely rectangular and slightly promi- 
nent anteriorly ; sides broadly and rather strongly arcuate from apex to 
base, but less so behind the middle, marginal bead fine; base broadly and 
feebly arcuate; basal angles obtuse, not rounded and deflexed; disk 
moderately strongly convex, feebly and narrowly impressed along the 
sides within the bead, evenly declivous antero-laterally, punctures very 
fine and rather widely separated, evenly distributed. 

Elytra oval, base truncate and equal to the pronotal base, humeri obtuse 
but distinct; sides evenly and broadly arcuate, somewhat oblique to apex 
in apical third, apex quite narrowly rounded; disk rather strongly convex, 



336 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

slightly less so on the dorsum, rather arcuately declivous posteriorly; 
punctures moderately small, closely placed in unimpressed striae, and more 
widely spaced interstitial series ; punctures becoming more or less con- 
fused laterally and on the apex where they are finely but distinctly 
muricate. 

Abdomen rather finely and not densely punctate. Legs moderate and 
relatively short, rather densely sculptured and sparsely clothed with fer- 
ruginous setae. All of the femora armed ; tooth of the anterior femora 
small and acute, of the middle and posterior femora small and obtuse; 
all of the tibiae slightly arcuate, especially in basal third. 

Males : Narrower. Abdomen less convex and impressed along the 
middle of the first three segments. Plantar grooves open on all the tarsi. 
Elytra somewhat more obliquely declivous posteriorly. Female : broader, 
abdomen more convex. 

Length (types) 17-18.5 mm.; width 6.5-8 mm. 

Type: Female, No. 1693, and allotype, male. No. 1694, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Hanna and Slevin, August 1, 
1922, on Angulo Rock, Asuncion Island. Paratypes, same data 
and on San Roque Island, August 2, 1922. 157 specimens 
studied. 

E. morbosa is a very unique type in the fauna of the 
western coast, as it has more of the facies of a Melaneleodes 
than a member of the armata group of the subgenus Eleodes. 
All of the femora are armed. It agrees with certain species 
of the Mexican fauna in these respects, but its true relation to 
the armata group cannot be determined until some of the Mexi- 
can species have been carefully studied, especially as regards 
the genitalia ; it may have to be placed in a different section of 
the armata group. 



42. Megasattus erosus Horn 

One imperfect specimen was taken on Cedros Island at 
Bernstein's Spring, August 4, by Hanna and Slevin. 



43. Ccelotaxis punctulata Horn 

A series of 24 specimens of this species was picked up at 
N. E. Landing, Guadalupe Island, July 11-15, by Hanna and 
Slevin. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 337 

44. Conibius guadalupensis Casey 

N. E. Landing, Guadalupe Island, July 11-14; Pine Ridge, 
July 15, Hanna and Slevin. 13 specimens. 



45. Tonibius sulcatus Lee. 

San Quintin, Lower California, July 19, Dr. Hanna. 2 
examples. 

46. Tonibiastes costipennis Horn 

A single specimen was secured on Santa Margarita Island, 
July 29. 

47. Ccelocnemis slevini Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate, rather strongly convex. Color deep black, shining; 
surface glabrous. 

Head moderately large, widest between the antennae, thence convergent 
and straight anteriorly to the epistomal apex, the latter truncate, angles 
obtuse and slightly rounded ; front impunctate, with few vague impres- 
sions, frontal and oblique sutures more or less evident. Eyes not in the 
least prominent, just noticeably convex. Antennae short, attaining about 
the basal third of the pronotum, slightly and gradually clavate, distal 
five joints compressed, eleventh widest. 

Pronotum about a fourth or less wider than long, widest near the 
middle ; apex truncate in rather moderate circular arc ; apical angles quite 
broadly rounded into the sides, which are rather strongly and evenly 
arcuate before the middle, thence convergent and more or less broadly 
and rather feebly sinuate to the base, marginal bead very fine ; base trun- 
cate and more or less obsoletely margined ; basal angles obtuse to rec- 
tangular and perfectly distinct; disk moderately strongly convex, im- 
punctate and sculptureless ; rather more strongly declivous antero-laterally, 
more so postero-laterally in about basal fourth, where it appears slightly 
compressed. 

Elytra oblong-oval, usually widest behind the middle, strongly convex, 
moderately less so and slightly depressed on the dorsum ; base truncate, 
not wider than the pronotal base ; scutellum small and triangular ; humeri 
very obtuse and rounded ; sides broadly and quite evenly arcuate, rather 
less so anteriorly, apex oval ; disk rather obliquely and arcuately declivous 
posteriorly, with eight rows of unimpressed and fine punctures, which are 
rather unevenly spaced in the series ; a ninth or marginal row is present 
against the margin throughout the length ; series rather less evident on 
the apical declivity ; intervals impunctate in the specimens at hand. 



338 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIE^CES [Proc. 4th See. 

Body beneath obsoletely sculptured ; abdomen somewhat rugiilose. Legs 
moderately long ; middle and posterior femora rather slender ; obsoletely 
sculptured. 

Male: Narrower; sides of the pronotum more broadly and evenly 
arcuate, not subangulate at middle; abdomen less convex and more 
strongly oblique to the sterna. Female : broader and more evidently widest 
behind the elytral middle ; pronotal sides subangulate, rather more sud- 
denly and broadly sinuate posteriorly ; abdomen subhorizontal. 

Length (types) 22.5-27 mm.; width 8.5-11 mm. 

Type: Female, No. 1695, and allotype, male. No. 1696, Mus. 
CaHf. Acad. Sci., collected by Hanna and Slevin, August 7, 
1922, in Grand Canon, Cedros Island. Paratypes, same data, 
in the collectioil of the Academy and in that of the author. 
Described from five specimens. 

After much study and deliberation, by comparing the above 
small series with nearly a thousand specimens from all parts 
of the Pacific Coast, Nevada and Arizona, I came to the con- 
clusion that slevini is a distinct species. It resembles magna 
more than any other ; in the female, however, the pronotal 
sides are subangulate with the disk slightly depressed at that 
point. It is not closely related to dilaticollis or obesa. 



48. Cratidus rotundicollis Horn 

Five specimens of this rare species were taken on Cedros 
Island, August 7, and on Asuncion Island at Angulo Rock, 
August 1, by Hanna and Slevin. 



49. Amphidora tenebrosa Horn 

A single specimen was taken at San Quintin, Lower Cali- 
fornia, July 19, by Dr. Hanna. 



50. Helops guadalupensis Casey 

This fine species was secured on Guadalupe Island, July 15 
and 17 at the South Anchorage, by Mr. Slevin. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 339 

51. Helops benitensis Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate oval, subparallel, about two and a half times longer than 
wide. Color black; legs and antennae dark rufo-piceous ; luster shining. 

Head densely and deeply punctate, punctures moderately coarse and 
more or less confluent; sides convergent anteriorly, emarginate at the ob- 
lique suture ; epistoma truncate at apex, surface impressed on the frontal 
suture and along the sides to the apical margin of the epistoma. Eyes 
not more prominent than the sides of the front. Antennae slender, third 
joint about equal to combined length of fourth and fifth; joints 4 to 8 
longer than wide, subequal in length; terminal four joints compressed 
and gradually incrassate. 

Pronotum about as wide as long, widest at middle; apex slightly arcu- 
ate in moderate circular arc; sides broadly arcuate, rather more strongly 
so in middle third, marginal bead fine; angles obtuse; base subtruncate; 
disk not impressed, densely and evenly punctate, punctures moderately 
coarse and coalescing slightly. 

Elytra oval, base slightly bi-marginate ; scutellum very short and trans- 
verse, entering very slightly between the elytra; humeri obtuse and dis- 
tinct ; sides evenly and broadly arcuate, apex rather broadly rounded ; 
disk striato-costate, intervals convex, especially on the apical declivity, 
strial punctures rather coarse, closely placed and rather deep, striae not 
impressed ; intervals very finely punctulate ; no interstitial tubercles on 
sides or apex. 

Propleura rather coarsely punctate, with more or less coalescence. 
Abdomen moderately convex, finely and rather sparsely punctate, each 
puncture with a fine recumbent hair. Legs slender and relatively short ; 
anterior tarsi noticeably dilated and clothed beneath with pale hair densely 
placed ; middle and posterior tarsi with similar hair but arranged along 
the margins and at apex of the joints. 



Length 10 mm. ; width 4 mm. 

Type: No. 1697, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Hanna 
and Slevin, August 13, 1922, on Middle Benito Island. 

Very distinct from any species of Helops known to me. At 
first there was some doubt as to whether or not it was a Helops. 
It answers to the generic test. The front is not as widely 
dilated as in other species and not or scarcely more prominent 
than the improminent eyes, covering base of mandibles as 
usual ; clypeus short, coriaceous. The striato-subcostate elytra 
is rather unique. 



340 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

52. Catorama pusillum Lee. 

Two specimens of this small species were taken on Santa 
Margarita Island, July 29, by Dr. Hanna. 

53. Megasominus thersites Lee. 

One imperfect specimen and the elytra of another were 
picked up on Cedros Island, on August 4, by Hanna and 
Slevin. 

54. Ipochus insularis Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate oblong-oval to slightly oblong-ovate, strongly convex. 
G)lor black to nigro-piceous and more or less shining. Pubescence abun- 
dant. Surface clothed throughout with erect, soft, pale, moderately long 
hairs that are very sparsely scattered ; and coarser, recumbent, somewhat 
fulvous hairs ; these latter densely but unevenly distributed, forming a 
pattern, particularly on the front and vertex of the head and peripheral 
parts of the pronotal disk, and a rather broad parasutural stripe on the 
apical declivity of each elytron, besides irregular and anastomosing patches 
on the disk, leaving a central oblong glabrous area across the suture in 
basal half. Antennae densely clothed with a very fine appressed pile. Ab- 
domen with moderately long hairs ; distal half of femora clothed with 
pale fulvo-cinereous hairs with intermixed small black spots, tibiae more 
or less densely invested with similar hairs and with tuft of fulvous 
hair on outer surface in apical third. 

Head moderately convex, with few scattered punctures and a fine 
median impressed line ; f ronto-epistomal line transverse and rather promi- 
nent. Antennae about as long as body. 

Prothorax subglabrous, cylindrically convex and nearly as long as wide, 
base and apex truncate, sides moderately arcuate ; surface with very small, 
closely placed punctures, and larger and sparsely placed asperities, espe- 
cially on the sides and across the apex. 

Elytra about twice as long as wide, or slightly less, and oblong-sub- 
cylindrical in form, more or less abruptly declivous posteriorly ; disk with 
sparsely placed asperities. Body finely sculptured beneath. Legs moderate ; 
femora moderately and gradually clavate, the anterior less so. 

Male : Elongate oblong-oval and subcylindrical, elytra scarcely wider 
than the prothorax. Female : Elongate oblong-ovate, usually slightly 
flattened on the elytral disk; elytra somewhat widest behind middle and 
slightly wider than prothorax. 

Length (types) 10.5 mm.; width 3.5-4.5 mm. 



Vol. XIV J BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 34 1 

Type: Male, No. 1698, and allotype, female, No. 1699, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by Hanna and Slevin, August 13, 
1922, on Middle San Benito Island. Paratypes, same data, in 
collection of the Academy and in that of the author. Eight 
specimens. 

/. insularis is quite distinct from fasciatus and its races. The 
most salient characters are its large size and distinct elytral 
asperities. The distribution of the elytral pubescence is dis- 
tinctly different in pattern from that seen in fasciatus, where 
it forms transverse fasciae. 

55. Estola sordida Lee. 

Bernstein's Spring, Cedros Island, August 4, collected by 
Slevin and Hanna. 

56. Ortholeptura insignis Fall 

One example of this fine species was found on Guadalupe 
Island, July 15, by Hanna and Slevin. 

Plenaschopsis Blaisdell, new genus 

This new genus differs from Trigonoscuta chiefly in having 
the corbels of the metatibise obscurely defined externally by 
spines, surface of corbel convex in its anterior half and covered 
with short, thick and obtuse spines or scales ; sinuate posterior- 
ly, with the outer angle prolonged and obtuse ; corbels closed 
off from the articular cavity by a row of spines which are not 
closely placed ; articular cavity not scaly as in Trigonoscuta. 
Genotype, Plenaschopsis pilosisquajna Blaisdell, new species. 

The following characters are common to both genera : Ocu- 
lar lobes absent, antennal scrobes lateral and directed inferior- 
ly; third joint of all the tarsi wider than second and deeply 
lobed ; anterior tibiae dilated at tip ; antennal scape long, passing 
the eyes. 

General fomi and appearance that of Trigonoscuta. The 
tribe Trigonoscutini, as defined by Pierce, must be revised so 
as to include the present genus. A tabular statement of the 
differences between the two genera may be given as follows: 



342 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Metatibial corbels closed. 

Corbels concave; external angle not produced; articular cavities 
strongly cavernous and scaly Trigonoscuta Motsch. 

Corbels convex anteriorly, feebly defined laterally, sinuate, with the 
external angle produced; articular cavities not deeply cavernous 
and not scaly Plenaschopsis, n.g. 



57. Plenaschopsis pilosisquama Blaisdell, new species 

Form oval, less elongate than Trigonoscuta pilosa Motsch., robust, 
slightly more narrowed anteriorly than posteriorly. Color black, legs 
nigro-piceous, tarsi slightly lighter; surface densely covered with cinere- 
ous and plumbeo-'cinereous scales, scarcely variegated in the type and 
clothed with sparsely placed, nearly erect greyish hairs; scales of two 
kinds, one round or oval as in T. pilosa, the other oval and villous or 
covered with minute filaments so as to appear shaggy. 

Head and rostrum as long as the pronotum. Rostrum suboblong, dis- 
tinctly narrower than the head and separated from it by a fine transverse 
subangulate line; upper surface finely canaliculate, tip truncate; scrobes 
deep and arcuate, with the superior margin distinct to and passing near 
the lower margin of the eyes, the latter oval, slightly oblique. Antenna 
moderately long; scape almost gradually clavate, passing beyond the eyes 
posteriorly; funicle seven-jointed, first three obconic, first and second 
elongate, first nearly three times as long as wide, second slightly more 
than twice as long as wide; third a little longer than wide; four to six 
as long as wide and subglobular ; seventh larger and about as long as the 
sixth and twice as wide as long; club oval. Front finely canaliculate be- 
tween the eyes. 

Pronotum a little broader than long, narrower in front; sides strongly 
arcuate, subapical impression very feeble; apex arcuate, slightly sinuate 
at middle ; disk strongly arcuate from side to side, and suddenly and very 
briefly declivous before the base in middle two fourths, rather coarsely 
and closely punctate. 

Elytra broadly oval, rather less than a third longer than wide ; scutellum 
small and triangular; humeri broadly rounded; sides broadly and rather 
moderately strongly arcuate; disk strongly convex, rather abruptly and 
arcuately declivous posteriorly, with rows of rather fine punctures, which 
are very slightly impressed. 

Body beneath not densely scaly; third and fourth abdominal segments 
equal in length; hairs sparse and rather long; scales of the under surface 
nearly all shaggy as they are on sides of pronotal disk, and on sides, base 
and apex of the elytra, with a few similar ones above the eyes ; elsewhere 
the scales are round or slightly oval. Legs not closely scaly, hairs quite 
long and flying. 



Length 6.6 mm. ; width 4 mm. 



Vol, XIV] BLAISDELL—THE COLEOPTERA 343 

Type: Female, No. 1817, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by Dr. Hanna, August 3, 1922, on Natividad Island. 

In pilosisquama the peculiar shaggy scales, less widely open 
antennal scobes just before the eyes, antennal joints four to six 
subglobular, and the different corbels of the hind tibiae will 
amply distinguish this species from Trigonoscuia pilosa, which 
it resembles in most all other characters. Described from the 
unique type. 



te 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 15, pp. 345-367 September 5, 1925 



XV 

ANTHIDIINE BEES IN THE COLLECTION OF THE 
CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

BY 

T. D. A. COCKERELL 

University of Colorado 

1. Anthidium angelarum Titus 

Females: Colton, May 26-28 (Van Duzee) ; hills back of 
Oakland, May 8 (Van Dyke) ; Santa Monica (F. C. Clark) ; 
Stone Caiion, Monterey Co., April 21 (Van Duzee) ; Poway, 
San Diego Co., June 10 (Blaisdell) ; all in California. 

Males: Cisco, July (Mrs. H. E. Ricksecker) ; Meadow Val- 
ley, 3500-4000 ft., June 5 (Van Dyke) ; Poway, San Diego 
Co., May 31 (Blaisdell) ; South Sonoma Co., July 1 (Kusche) ; 
all in California. 

2. Anthidium nebrascense Swenk 

Swenk described this (1914) from Nebraska and Wyoming. 
The following year he recorded it from Truckee, Calif. The 
Californian specimens before me show variation, but they 
agree so closely with the description of A. nebrascense that I 
do not know how to separate them. They are close to A. titusi 
Ckll., but the end of the abdomen is different. 

Males: Panoche Canon, Fresno Co., April 29 (Van Dyke) ; 
Colton, May 26-28 (Van Duzee) ; Poway, San Diego Co., 
May 16 (Blaisdell); hills back of Oakland, May 15 (Van 

September 5, 1925 



346 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Dyke) ; Santa Monica (F. C. Clark) ; Stone Canon, Monterey 
Co., April 21 (Van Duzee) ; all in California. 

The only female which seems likely to belong to these males 
is the one which I have identified as A. emargitiatum atripes 
Cresson, but the type (male) of atripes is certainly not nebras- 
cense. I must leave the final decision about the supposed atripes 
to those who can study the species in the field. The black scutel- 
lum of the nebrascense males certainly argues against their 
association with the supposed atripes; but Swenk has what he 
regards as female nebrascense from Wyoming, and it had two 
linear marks on scutellum. 

3. Anthidium hcsperium Swenk 

Females: Mokelumne Hill, October (Blaisdell) ; San Diego 
(Blaisdell); Millbrae, San Mateo Co., .Sept. 1 (Blaisdell); 
Cr3^stal Lakes, San Mateo Co., June 25 (Van Duzee) ; all in 
California. The first abdominal segment usually has an inter- 
rupted band instead of four spots, but the insect agrees other- 
wise with Swenk's description, based on females from Palo 
Alto and Pacific Grove. The male is unknown. The species 
seems to belong to late summer and early fall, the earliest date 
being June 25, the other known dates in July, September and 
October. 

4. Anthidium atriventre Cresson 

Females: Meadow Valley, Plumas Co., Calif., 6000-7000 ft., 
June 17 (Van Dyke) ; Sparta, Baker Co., Oregon, July 2 (Van 
Dyke). Cresson described it from California (Hy. Edwards). 

5. Anthidium titusi Cockerell 

Males: Kings River Canon, Fresno Co., Calif., July 3 (Van 
Dyke) ; Huntington Lake, Fresno Co., Calif., 7000 ft., July 4 
(Van Duzee). These specimens have the scutellum entirely 
black. The Kings River Canon specimen has hair of head and 
thorax above pale fulvous. The reference of these California 
insects to A. titusi must be considered provisional, or at least 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—ANTHIDIINE BEES 347 

tlK.v may be racially distinct. However, the form and structure 
agree well. 

6. Anthidium blanditum Cresson 

Female: South Fork Kings River, Fresno Co., Calif., July 8 
(Van Dyke). This is smaller than Cresson's type, and has two 
elongate black marks on clypeus, no spot beneath tubercles, 
abdominal bands on segments 2 to 4 narrowly interrupted, 
and the femora rather differently marked. I assume that it 
represents only a variation, but more material is desirable. It 
is readily known from angelicum by the angulation at sides of 
last segment. The abdominal bands are broad and deep yellow. 

7. Anthidium fresnoense Cockerell, new species 

Female : Length about 8.5 mm. ; robust, black, head and thorax with 
white hair, pure white on thorax above ; eyes bluish green, black at lower 
end ; head entirely black, including mandibles, except a round yellow spot 
above each eye ; mesothorax very densely punctured ; large mark on 
tegulse in front, very small one behind, end of the obtuse tubercles, 
and elongate marks on axillae and scutellum, yellow ; scutellum depressed 
in middle posteriorly ; legs black, the tibiae with yellow stripes, not reach- 
ing the apex; hair on inner side of hind basitarsi black; wings dusky, 
second cubital cell long; abdomen with five lemon-yellow bands, and on 
first segment four marks, the outer ones large and quadrate, the inner 
consisting of transverse stripes ; bands on segments 2 to 6 all narrowly 
interrupted and emarginate at sides anteriorly ; ventral scopa dark gray- 
brown, white anteriorly and at sides. 

Differs from A. palliventre Cress, by the scutellum, axillae 
and tibiae being conspicuously marked with yellow. The lemon- 
yellow abdominal bands at once separate it from A. teituiflorde 
Ckll. 

Type: Female, No. 1729, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 12, 1919, at Huntington Lake, Fresno 
Co., California, at 7000 ft. elevation. 

8. Anthidium xanthognathum Cockerell, new species 

Female: Length 7-8 mm.; compact, black with rather pale, dull yellow 
markings; hair of head and thorax dull white, varying to fulvous above; 



348 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se«. 

eyes pea-green, black at lower end ; face all black but mandibles yeftow, 
more or less stained with red ; a pale yellow spot above each eye, meso- 
thorax shining between punctures ; tegulae broadly in front, end of the 
obtuse tubercules and two transverse marks on scutellum, pale yellow ; 
the axillje may also be marked with yellow ; wings somewhat dusky ; small 
joints of tarsi ferruginous; all the tibiae with a yellow mark at base, or 
front pair with a stripe nearly to apex ; hair on inner side of hind basi- 
tarsi pale ferruginous ; abdomen with four marks on first segment, the 
lateral ones large and quadrate ; segments two to six with narrowly inter- 
rupted bands, on 2 and 3 broadly emarginate at sides in front; on sixth 
segment the band is reduced to a pair of large transverse subpyriform 
spots ; ventral scopa entirely white. 

Type: Female, No. 1730, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Dr. F. E. Blaisdell, September 6, 1896, at Mokelumne Hill, 
California. Variant form from Soboba Springs, California, 
June 5, 1917 (Van Duzee). The alternative statements in the 
description refer to the latter. Resembles fresnoense, but 
smaller, with yellow mandibles. 



9. Anthidium fontis Cockerell, new species 

Male (type): Length about 9 mm.; black with yellow markings, pale 
on face, but deep lemon-yellow on abdomen ; head and thorax with abun- 
dant long hair, fulvous dorsally, otherwise whitish ; eyes entirely pea- 
green ; antennae black, flagellum very obscurely brov/n beneath ; mandibles, 
except apex, clypeus, lateral face marks (truncate above at about level of 
antennae) and dots above eyes, all yellow; mesothorax very densely punc- 
tured ; tegulae broadly in front and spot behind, tubercles, two lines on 
scutellum, stripes from end to end of anterior and middle tibiae, and 
apical and basal spots on hind tibiae, all yellow; basitarsi pale yellow, small 
joints red; wings dusky; first abdominal segment with large lateral and 
pyriform median spots; segments 2 to 6 with narrowly interrupted bands, 
more or less emarginate anteriorly at sides ; seventh segment entirely 
dark red, with very broad short lobes, much broader than distance between 
either and the median spine ; last ventral segment with a deep median 
sulcus. 

Female : Length about 8-8.5 mm., with bright lemon-yellow markmgs ; 
eyes bluish green, black below ; greater part of mandibles, clypeus except 
two coalescent black triangles above, lateral face marks, broadly truncate 
below level of antennae, and large triangular spots above eyes, all yellow; 
the yellow on thorax and legs includes bent stripe along each side of 
mesothorax, broad marks on axillae and scutellum, marks on tegulae ante- 
riorly and posteriorly, tubercles, stripes on apical part of anterior and 
middle femora beneath, spot on hind femora, broad bands on outer side 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—ANTHIDIINE BEES 349 

ot all tibL-E and large marks on hind basitarsi; first abdominal segment 
with four spots, the inner one transverse but not linear ; segments 2 to 6 
with broad bands, the first two slightly interrupted, the others notched, 
the first deeply, the second shallowly emarginate at sides, the last with a 
double emargination (two notches) at each side in front; ventral scopa 
entirely pale. 

Type: Male, No. 1731, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, between May 31 and June 3, 1917, at Soboba 
Springs, Riverside Co., California. Paratypes: Four males and 
one female, same data; one female Bryson, Monterey Co., 
Calif., May 18, 1920 (Van Duzee). Allied to A. angclarum 
Titus, but certainly distinct, especially by the terminal seg- 
ment of the male abdomen. 



10. Anthidium permaculatum Cockerell, new species 

Female: Length 10-10.5 mm.; robust, black, with very pale yellow mark- 
ings ; hair of head and thorax dorsally fulvous, otherwise white ; clypeus 
broadly black in middle, with an elongate pale mark on each side ; lower 
edge of clypeus bidentate at each side ; lateral face marks large, obliquely 
truncate above; mandibles with a large yellow mark; a cuneiform yellow 
mark above each eye; yellow of thorax and legs consisting of large spot 
on front and small behind on tegulae, stripes along edge of mesothorax 
above, tubercles, marks on axillae and scutellum, stripes on under side of 
anterior and middle and spot on hind femora, outer face of tibiae, and 
mark on hind basitarsi; small joints of tarsi ferruginous; hair on inner 
side of hind basitarsi reddish brown; wings dusky; first abdominal seg- 
ment with four marks, the inner ones larger and subtriangular ; segments 
2 to 6 with broad bands, on 2 interrupted in middle and deeply notched 
at sides, the median parts broad claviform, on 3 narrowly interrupted in 
middle and deeply notched at sides in front, on 4 and 5 deeply notched 
in middle and shallowly emarginate at sides ; sixth segment strongly 
angulate at sides posteriorly, nearly all pale, the light color doubly 
emarginate at each side in front ; ventral scopa pure white. 

Type: Female, No. 1732, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. C. Van Dyke, July 2, 1922, at Sparta, Baker Co., Oregon. 
Paratype: Baker, Oregon. June 3, 1922 (Van Dyke). Known 
from A. hesperinm Swenk by the very pale abdominal bands 
and the sixth segment strongly dentiform at sides. The last 
character and the face marks separate it from A. emarginatum 
Say, which it superficially resembles. 

September 5, 1925 



350 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

11. Anthidium divisum Cockerel!, new species 

Female : Length about 7.5 mm. ; compact, black, with cream-colored 
markings; hair of head and thorax reddish above, otherwise white; eyes 
sea-green, black at lower end; base of mandibles, large patch at each 
side of clypeus, not reaching upper end, lateral face marks adjacent to 
sides of clypeus and not quite reaching orbits, and spot above eyes, 
yellowish white ; mesothorax very densely punctured ; anterior and pos- 
terior spots on tegulae, hardly visible stripe above, well developed marks 
on axillae and scutellum, tubercles, and stripes on all the tibiae, not 
reaching apex, cream-color ; hair on inner side of basitarsi light ferru- 
ginous ; wings somewhat dusky ; abdomen with four spots on first seg- 
ment, the outline of the discal ones straight behind and strongly convex 
in front ; segment 2 to 6 with narrowly interrupted bands, that on 5 not 
quite interrupted, band on 2 deeply notched anteriorly at sides ; ventral 
scopa pure white. 

Type: Female, No. 1733, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, June 24, 1922, in Parley Canon, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. Paratype: Cayton, Shasta Co., California, July 13, 
1918 (Van Duzee). Variety with clypeal markings reduced to 
a small round spot on each side, lateral marks to small nearly 
divided marks next to clypeal margin and stripe on anterior 
tibiae divided into two, from Pine View, Utah, July 21, 1922 
(Van Duzee). Allied to permaculatum but considerably smaller 
and the lateral face marks not larger than the clypeal marks. 



12. Anthidium divisum ornatifrons Cockerell, new variety 

Female : Clypeal patches larger, approaching in middle line, and be- 
tween them, with its base touching them, a small yellowish triangular 
mark, its apex directed upward. 

Type: Female, No. 1734, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. C. Van Dyke, June 15, 1924, at Meadow Valley, Plumas 
Co., California, at 3500-4000 ft. The face marks rather 
suggest A. sagittipictum Swenk. 



13. Anthidium divisum nanulum Cockerell, new variety 

Female : Very small, length about 5.3 mm. ; markings distinctly yel- 
lower than in the other two forms ; clypeus very pale yellowish, with a 
pair of black triangles, contiguous at base, their apices pointing down- 
ward, on upper part, and also a very small black spot next to the lower 



Vol. XIVJ COCKERELL—ANTHIDIINE BEES 35 [ 

margin in middle ; lateral marks filling space between clypeus and eye, 
and broadly truncate a short distance above level of top of clypeus ; spots 
above eyes pyriform. 

Type: Female, No. 1735, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, May 20, 1920, at Bryson, Monterey Co., 
California. Perhaps a distinct species. 

The following key will facilitate the separation of the fe- 
males described above : 

Face entirely black 1 

Face not all black 2 

1. Larger ; mandibles black fresnoense Ckll. 

Smaller ; mandibles yellow xanthognathum Ckll. 

2. Middle of clypeus black from base to apex 3 

Middle of clj-peus not black to apex 5 

3. x^bdominal bands deep yellow hesperium Swenk 

Abdominal bands pale 4 

4. Larger; lateral face marks much larger than clypeal marks 

permaculatum Ckll. 

Smaller; lateral marks not larger than clypeal ma.rks . . divisum Ckll. 

5. Abdominal bands and clypeal marks cream-color 6 

Abdominal bands yellow or orange 7 

6. Larger ; area between clypeus and eye not all light 

divisutn ornatifrons Ckll. 

Smaller ; area between clypeus and eye all light 

divismn nanulum Ckll. 

7. Upper edge of clypeal yellow W-like f otitis Ckll. 

Not so ; clypeus with spots or stripes 8 

8. Larger ; (for other characters see description) 

pecosense fragariellutn Ckll. 

Smaller 9 

9. Last segment yellow, strongly angulate at sides blanditum Cress 

Last segment not angulate at sides angelarum Titus 



14. Anthidium mormonum Cresson, and allies 

In 1878 Cresson described this species from a single male 
obtained by Ulke in Utah. In 1879 he described A. blanditum, 
based on a couple of females collected by Morrison in Nevada. 
In 1904 I described A. pecosense and A. hernardinum, the lat- 
ter with three varieties. In 1911 I remarked, "The female of 
A. pecosense so nearly agrees with the description of A. blandi- 
tum from Nevada as to suggest that the two represent varia- 



352 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

tions or races of one species." Swenk in 1914 made the com- 
bination A. blandituni pecosense (CklL). Certainly we have 
here a group of very closely allied forms, difficult to classify 
correctly. The relatively large A. hcrnardinnm, with rich 
orange markings, the apical lobes of the male abdomen very 
broad, the axillae orange, and other good characters, may be 
set aside as distinct. A. ariduni (A. beniardinum aridtim 
Ckll.) is certainly distinct from the others by the pointed apical 
lobes of the abdomen, scape yellow in front, entirely black 
axillae, etc. 

Three males from Beaver Creek, Kamas, Utah, July 4, 1922 
(Van Duzee), must be referred to A. pecosense, though the 
apical lobes of abdomen are variable, in one specimen spreading 
instead of parallel. The hair of thorax above is fulvous ; the 
axillae have small yellow spots ; the yellow of anterior tibiae 
is continuous. These differ from A. mormonnm by the fulvous 
dorsal pubescence, the large discal spots on first abdominal 
segment and the more spreading apical lobes of abdomen, with 
broader and shallower sinus between lobes and median spine. 
It is thus unsafe to assert that mormonnm and pecosense are 
one species, though it may be that they will prove inseparable, 
or only racially distinct. 

The males described from California as varieties fragariel- 
lum and zvilsoni of A. beniardintini belong rather to the mor- 
monum-pecosense-hlanditiim alliance, as shown by the apical 
lobes of abdomen and the merely spotted axillae. They evi- 
dently represent a single species, but the dorsal hair of thorax 
is white in fragariellnm, yellow-fulvous in ivilsoni. The zvilsoni 
form is represented by three males from Meadow Valley, 
Plumas County, California, 4000 ft., June 8 and 15 (Van 
Dyke), except that these have the yellow on anterior tibiae 
interrupted, whereas in typical zvilsoni it is continuous. The 
fragariellnm form is represented by males from Meadow Val- 
ley, 3500-4000 ft.. June 21 (Van Dyke) ; South Fork Kings 
River, Calif., July 8 (Van Dyke), and Fallen Leaf Lake, Calif., 
July (L. S. Rosenbaum). The last has the yellow on anterior 
tibiae interrupted, but it is entire on the other two, and also in 
typical fragariellnm. 

These California males run smaller than A. pecosense and 
have more yellow on apical segment of abdomen. In the type 



Vol. XIV) COCKERliLL—ANTHIDIINE BEES 353 

of fragaricllum, but not in the others, the yellow on first seg- 
ment of abdomen consists of a pair of large cuneiform patches, 
deeply incised posteriorly. This also has large yellow patches 
on anterior and middle femora, but the series shows that these 
vary. I conclude that the Californian insect is a valid sub- 
species of A. pecoscnse. The name fragaricllum is to be pre- 
ferred over zvilsoni, having priority where it is first printed, 
in the table published May, 1904. 

Coming now to the females, we fortunately have a couple 
from Meadow Valley, 3500 to 4000 ft., June 8 and 21 (Van 
Dyke), certainly belonging with the males just recorded. The 
one of earlier date has hair of head and thorax above deep ful- 
vous ; in the other it is much paler but not white. In both the 
clypeus is entirely yellow. This insect agrees with the descrip- 
tion of A. blanditiim except for the fact that there is a large 
oblong yellow patch on mesopleura, and perhaps also in the 
more fulvous dorsal pubescence. The patch on pleura seems 
to be of little importance because a female of the same species 
from Fallen Leaf Lake, California, June 26 (Van Dyke), has 
the mesopleura entirely black. The same is true of one from 
Guerneville, Sonoma Co., Calif., May 30 (Van Dyke). These 
with black pleura have the hair of head and thorax above 
strongly fulvous. The female of A. pecosensc, as identified by 
me from Flagstaff, Arizona, differs from the above Californian 
females in being larger, in having the mesopleura black, and 
yellow only bordering the tubercles ; the dorsal hair is red. A 
female from Strawberry Valley, California (Davidson), which 
I ascribed to A. hernardinum, is small and agrees in all essen- 
tial particulars with the one from Fallen Leaf Lake. It is better 
referred to A. fragaricllum. Thus the whole series discussed 
will stand for the present thus : 

A. bcrnardimim Ckll. 
A. aridum (Ckll.) 
A. mormonitm Cresson 
A. blanditmn Cresson ( ?? of mormonum.) 
A. pecoscnse Ckll. ( ? var. of inormonum-\-blanditiim.) 
A. pecosensc fragaricllum (Ckll.) {'^^^^blanditum.) 
A. pecoscnse fragaricllum var. zvilsoni (Ckll.) (apparently 
not a valid race). 



354 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

The question marks can only be removed by further investi- 
gation. 



15. Anthidium tricuspidum Provancher 

California: Mokelumne Hill, June (Blaisdell) ; Crystal 
Lakes, San Mateo County, June 25 (Van Duzee) ; Cazadero, 
September 2 (Van Duzee). San Diego, Calif. (Blaisdell), 
male. Oregon: Crater Lake, 7000 ft.. July 16 (Van Dyke). 



16. Anthidium bernardinum Cockerell 

California : Mill Creek Caiion, San Bernardino Co., Septem- 
ber 21 (Van Duzee). The males are variable; hair on thorax 
above white or fulvous; scape practically all black or with a 
large yellow mark. 



17. Anthidium emarginatum atripes Cresson 

The following females differ from typical A. emarginatum 
in having the tibiae entirely black. I can refer them only to 
Cresson's atripes, based on a male from Nevada. 

California: Huntington Lake, Fresno Co.. 7000 ft., July 4 
and 27 (Van Duzee) ; Meadow Valley, Plumas Co., 3500 ft., 
June 21 (Van Dyke) ; Blue Lakes, Alpine Co.. July and Aug- 
ust (Blaisdell). 

These females are distinguished among those with creamy- 
white markings by the white ventral scopa, face entirely black 
and scutellum and axillae having prominent light markings. 
It is, however, a source of perplexity that I do not find a cor- 
responding series of males. The possible males have the scutel- 
lum and axillae entirely black, or at least with very small light 
spots, and certainly do not represent any form of A. emargi- 
natum. These females appear to agree with A. emarginatum 
except for the black tibicC. Only field observations will deter- 
mine the actual facts. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—ANTHIDIINE BEES 355 

18. Anthidium maculosum Cresson 

Females from Yosemite Valley, Calif., June 21 (Van Dyke) ; 
Sisson, Calif., July 24 (Van Duzee), and Mokelumne Hill, 
Calif. (Blaisdell). Males from Anacapa Island, May 15 (Van 
Duzee), Huntington Lake, 7000 ft., July 27 (Van Duzee), 
Mill Creek Canon, San Bernardino Co., Sept. 21 (Van Duzee), 
all in California, and Hereford, Arizona, July 12 (J. R. 
Slevin). Cresson in 1878 described A. luaculosum from fe- 
males collected in Utah and California; in 1916 he designated 
Utah as the type locality. In 1904 I described A. lupincllum 
from the male collected in New Mexico, and in 1923 recorded 
this species from the Gulf of California region. The six Cali- 
fornia and Arizona males before me are considerably larger 
than the type of lupincllum, but otherwise identical. I have 
now no doubt that lupinellum is the male of maculosum, and 
the species is to be known by the latter name. 

19. Anthidium palliventre Cresson 

This was based on a female collected in California by Hy. 
Edwards, characterized by the entirely black face, scutellum 
and axillae, hair of the head and thorax above yellowish, ven- 
tral scopa entirely pale. The same collector obtained A. cali- 
forniciim, described from males. After a good deal of per- 
plexity I am now compelled to conclude that they are sexes 
of one species, which takes the prior name A. palliventre. 
However, the color of the scopa varies from white to nearly 
all black, only the sides remaining white. I am convinced that 
this is not a specific character. Such variation has been re- 
corded before, as in A. astragali Swenk. The females assigned 
to palliventre come from San Francisco, Calif., April (Van 
Dyke) and May (Kusche); Colma, Calif., August 15 
(Kusche), and San Miguel Island, Calif., May 20 (Van Du- 
zee). The last mentioned is unusually large with corners of 
sixth abdominal segment prominent. These all differ from the 
female of A. temiiHorce Ckll. in having abdominal bands more 
or less interrupted in middle and the divisions claviform mesad. 
The male (A. calif ornicuni Cress.) comes from Colma, Calif., 



356 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES' [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Aug. 15 (J. A. Kusche), and San Francisco, May 10, 21 and 
30 (Kusche), and April 20 (Van Dyke). The dorsal hair of 
head and thorax is ferruginous, whereas in males from Los An- 
geles (Davidson) it is white, as I recorded in 1904. 

20. Anthidium plumarium Cockerell, new species 

Male: Aspect of A. calif oniicum, including the red dorsal pubescence. 
At first I thought it a mere variety or race, but it is surely a distinct 
species by the following characters: Lateral apical lobes of abdomen 
stout but pointed (broadly rounded in calif oniicum) ; mandibles broader; 
mouth parts ferruginous ; upper edge of clypeus black with two pointed 
extensions downward ; sixth abdominal segment with only two small 
yellow spots. 

Evidently derived from A. calif ornicum (palUventre). 

Type: Male, No. 1736, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, June 5, 1924, at Meadow Valley, Plumas 
Co., California. 

21. Anthidium tenuiflorae Cockerell 

This Rocky Mountain species proves to extend into the Paci- 
fic coast region. The females are very like those of A. palUven- 
tre, but may be separated by the abdominal bands being very 
narrowly interrupted, the divisions not claviform but strap- 
shaped. The eyes are also darker. The ventral scopa is usually 
mainly or almost wholly black, but it varies to all light in 
Huntington Lake specimens. Females are from Huntington 
Lake, Calif., 7000 ft., July 4 (Van Duzee) ; Steen Mountains, 
Oregon, June 25 (Van Dyke), and Longmire, Rainier Na- 
tional Park, Wash., July 27 (Van Dyke). The last mentioned 
has the bands unusually slender. Males are from Longmire 
(same date as females) and Crater Lake, Oregon, 7000 ft., 
July 17 (Van Dyke). 

22. Anthidium banningense Cockerell 

The following references are to males; the basitarsi are 
cream colored in front and the anterior and middle tibiae have 
a s[X)t. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—AXTHIDIINE BEES 357 

California: Meadow Valley, Plumas Co., 3500-4000 ft., 
June 21 (Van Dyke) ; Huntington Lake, Fresno Co., July 4 
(Van Duzee) : Blue Lakes, Alpine Co., August (Blaisdell). 
Utah: Logan, July 14 (Van Duzee); lateral apical spines of 
abdomen broader; sixth and seventh segments entirely black. 
Apparently not a race, as one of the Meadow Valley si>ecimens 
is the same. 

Readily known from male A. emarginatum by the long nar- 
now lateral apical lobes of abdomen and the tegtuiient of scutel- 
lum wholly black. 

23. Anthidium angulatum Cockerell, new species 

Male: Similar to E. emarghiatnm Say, but rather less robust; abdominal 
bands conspicuously paler (creamy white), and reduced to fine lines at 
the broad emarginations ; hair of thorax above white ; scutellum entirely 
black or with a pair of minute pale marks. Apical lobes of abdomen 
angulate as in A. emarginatum. Differs from A. emarginatum atripcs 
Cresson by the broad band on fifth abdominal segment and pair of large 
comma-like marks on sixth, small pale marks on bases of tibiae, and 
creamy white basitarsi. The clypeus may have or lack two small black 
spots. Perhaps to be regarded as a Californian race of A. emarginatuvi. 

Type: Male, No. 1737, Mus, Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 7, 1919, at Huntington Lake, Fresno 
Co., California, at 7000 ft. Paratype, one male, taken by Dr. 
E. C. Van Dyke, July 11, 1915, at Fallen Leaf Lake, California. 

24. Anthidium brachyurum Cockerell, new species 

Male : Length about 10 mm. ; black, the head and thorax with white 
hair, very fainty tinged with yellowish dorsally; flagellum obscurely red- 
dish beneath except basally ; light markings cream-color, the light parts 
being entire clypeus, lateral marks, truncate at about level of antennae, 
mandibles except apically (red just before the black apex), small spots 
above eyes, tegulae in front and small mark behind, small marks at bases 
of tibiae, elongate mark near end of front tibiae, subquadrate mark at 
apex of mid tibiae, the basitarsi, large lateral and small dorsal marks on 
first abdominal segment, second segment similar but with larger dorsal 
marks, segments 3 to 5 with narrowly interrupted bands, deeply emar- 
ginate laterally, sixth with very large hook-like marks ; seventh segment 



358 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

entirely black with very broad low lateral lobes narrowly separated from 
the central spine ; tubercles, mesothorax, axillse and scutellum entirely 
black ; eyes pea-green ; mesothorax extremely densely punctured ; wings 
dusky; hair on inner side of hind tibiae white. 

With the type I associate two other specimens differing in 
some respects : 

Salt Lake City, Utah, June 27, 1922 (Van Duzee) ; hair of 
head and thorax above abundant, light fulvous; apical lobes 
separated from spine by a deeper, rounded, emargination, 
but hardly half breadth of lobe; sixth seginent with two 
large pyriform marks. 

Redding, California, July 7, 1918 (Van Duzee) ; subapical 
marks on anterior tibije very minute; marks on sixth seg- 
ment smaller; emargination between lobes and spine rather 
shallow and not abrupt. I think these are all one species, 
however. It is known from the related species by the broad 
low apical lobes of abdomen. Its nearest relative appears 
to he A. montivagum Cresson. 

Type: Male, No. 1738, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Mrs. H. E. Ricksecker, in July, 1920, at Cisco, California. 

25. Anthidium hamatum. Cockerell, new species 

Male : Length about or nearly 13 mm. ; black, the head and thorax with 
abundant white hair, grayish dorsally ; light markings cream-tolor, con- 
sisting of entire clypeus, lateral marks (filling space between clypeus and 
eyes and obliquely truncate above, the inner corner meeting upper corner 
of clypeus), mandibles except apex, spot at end of scape, small spot 
above eyes, tegulse anteriorly and small spot behind, tubercles (which are 
obtuse), two very small lines on hind border of scutellum, marks at 
bases of tibiae, spot at apex of middle tibiae, basitarsi, large lateral and 
narrow transverse dorsal marks on first abdominal segment, bands on 
segments 2 to 5 (narrowly interrupted in middle and very widely emar- 
ginate at sides) and a pair of hook-like marks on sixth segment; apical 
segment and mesothorax entirely black; eyes gray; mesothorax extremely 
densely punctured ; wings dusky ; apical lobes of abdomen wide apart, 
obtuse, the outer side strongly concave, distance between lobes and spine 
much greater than width of lobes. The lobes resemble in form those of 
A. mormonum Cress, but are much wider apart. 

Type: Male, No. 1739, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 8, 1922, on Mt. Timpanogos, Utah. 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—ANTHIDIINE BEES 359 

26. Anthidium spinosum Cockerell, new species 

Male: Length about or slightly over 11 mm.; black, the head and thorax 
with abundant white hair, inclined to grayish dorsally ; light markings 
cream-color, consisting of clypeus (except a pair of black lines on upper 
part), lateral marks (filling space between clypeus and eye, with upper 
end rounded), greater part of mandibles, spots above eyes, mark on tegulse 
in front, two very small spots on scutellum (or none), basitarsi (but 
tibiae all black), four spots on first abdominal segment (the lower smaller 
but not linear), bands on segments 2 to 5 (very narrowly or not quite 
interrupted in middle, very broadly emarginate at sides, the inner portion 
thick), and a pair of comma-like marks on sixth segment; eyes greenish 
gray; scutellum shining on disc; wings dusky; hair on inner side of 
hind basitarsi dark brown ; tubercles entirely black, produced and spini- 
form ; apical lobes of abdomen of the same type as those of A. hamatum. 

Type: Male, No. 1740, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Dr.E. C. Van Dyke, July 11, 1915, at Fallen Leaf Lake, Cali- 
fornia. Paratype, one male, same data. I had taken this for a 
form of A. hamatum until I noticed the entirely different spini- 
form tubercles. . 

The new species described above and a related form may be 
separated as follows, all being males with the abdominal bands 
whitish or very pale : 

Apical lobes finger-like; clypeus with two black spots 

banningcnse Ckll. 

Apical lobes angular angulatum (Tkll. 

Apical lobes broad and rounded 1 

1. Apical lobes twice as broad as space between them and median spine 

: bra<:hyurum Ckll. 

Apical lobes not thus broadened 2 

2. Tubercles creamy white, obtuse seen from above hnmatum Ckll. 

Tubercles black, sharply pointed seen from ahowt. . . .spuvosum Ckll. 



27. Anthidium flavicauduni Cockerell, new species 

Male: Length about or nearly 11 mm.; black with yellow markings 
(reddened by cyanide in type); head and thorax with white hair; eyes 
brown ; flagellum obscurely reddish beneath ; mesothorax extremely 
densely punctured; tubercles not spiniform; wings dusky; apical lobes 
of abdomen rounded, wide apart, apically much narrower than the dis- 
tance between them and spine; spines at sides of sixth segment short 
and pale ; yellow markings as follows : entire clypeus, lateral marks 
(ending above on orbit at level of antennae, but the inner corner at top 
of clypeus, the oblique upper side curved) ; mandibles (except apex nar- 



350 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY Of SCIE.NCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

rowly), subpyriform spots above eyes, spot on front of tegulse, tubercles, 
elongate marks on scutelium, shorter ones on axillae, stripes on anterior 
and middle femora beneath, elongate mark on hind femora apically, entire 
outer face of tibiae, basitarsi (small joints of tarsi clear ferruginous), 
broad bands on abdominal segments 1 to 6, on 1 broadly interrupted m 
middle and deeply emarginate or excavated posteriorly at sides, on 2 and 
3 rather narrowly interrupted in middle and deeply but not widely exca- 
vated anteriorly at sides, on 4 very narrowly interrupted in middle and 
much more shallowly excavated anteriorly at sides, on 5 deeply notched 
in middle and merely undulate at sides, sixth yellow except black hind 
margin, seventh yellow with spine and broad apices of lobes black; 
venter with much white hair. 

Differs from A. pecosense wilsoni (Ckll.) by the entirely 
black mesothorax and much shorter spines at sides of sixth 
segment (in wilsoni they are long- and dark) ; they are how- 
ever, closely allied. In wilsoni the tegulae have the whole outer 
margin yellow. 

Type: Male, No. 1741, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 26, 1918, at Sisson, California. 



28. Anthidium puncticaudum Cockerell, new species 

Male: Length about 11 mm.; black with lemon-yellow markings; hair 
of head and thorax white ; eyes pea-green ; mesothorax dull and granular ; 
scutelium dull, with a little shining area on disc posteriorly; wings dusky; 
tubercles black, sharply pointed but not spiniform; spines at sides of 
sixth abdominal segment long and black; lobes of terminal segment broad 
and rounded, produced, the ends separated by more than their width from 
the spines; lemon-yellow markings as follows, entire clypeus, lateral 
marks (filling space between clypeus and eye and obliquely truncate 
above), mandibles except tips, spot above eyes, mark on tegulae in front 
and small one behind, stripes on all the tibiae (on middle ones inter- 
rupted), basitarsi (small joints ferruginous), four spots on first and also 
on second abdominal segments, the dorsal spots on first small, but on 
second large and similar to the corresponding parts on third, where, as 
also on fourth, they are connected by a slender line with the lateral spots, 
fifth segment with a narrowly interrupted band, widely excavated ante- 
riorly on each side, similar to that on fourth, sixth with two large suboval 
marks, notched on outer side, apical segment with two small yellow spots. 

Among the species with entirely black thorax this is known 
by the deeply incised or divided lateral portions of abdominal 
bands, the entirely black scutelium, seventh segment with only 



Vol. XIV) COCKERELL—AXTHIDIINE BEES 361 

two small yellow spots, clypeus all yellow and apical lobes of 
abdomen elongate though broadly rounded. 

Type: Male, No. 1742, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 

E. P. Van Duzee, May 26-28, 1917, at Colton, California. 

29. Anthidium lucidum Cockerell, new species 

Male; Length about 10 mm.; black, with lemon-yellow markings; hair 
of head and thorax white. Resembles A. puncticaudttm, but smaller and 
more slender, with apical lobes of abdomen narrower, obtusely pointed, 
abdomen more shining, upper part of clypeus with two large hook-shaped 
black marks, lateral face marks going very little above level of top of 
clypeus, tubercles tipped with yellow, scutellum with two very small 
yellow marks, bands on tibiae reduced and broken, first abdominal segment 
with only lateral spots, and these not very large, second segment with 
band like that on third, sixth with two hook-shaped marks, seventh all 
black. This is closer to A. titttsi Qcll., differing by the entirely black 
scape, clypeal marks much deeper yellow, face marks lemon-yellow, ab- 
dominal bands, etc. 

The California form which I have regarded as A. titiisi has 
the scape black and the abdominal bands strongly yellow. It is 
between the two and perhaps better associated wdth A. lucidum, 
but additional observations are desirable. A. angiilatum Ckll. 
is also related but clearly distinct. 

Type: Male, No. 1743, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 

F. C. Clark, July 20, 1919, at Huntington Lake, Fresno Co., 
California, at 7000 feet. 

Anthidiellum Cockerell 

Dianthidium subg. Anthidiellum Ckll., Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., Ill, p. 3 

(1904). Type strigatum Panzer. 
Anthidium subg. Cerianthidiutn Friese, Europ. Bienen, Lief. 3, p. 304 

(1923). For strigatum Panz. and inerme Fr. Type, now designated, 

strigatum Panzer. 

This widespread and well characterized group may well 
stand as a genus. It includes such species as the following, 
described under Anthidium or Dianthidium: Anthidiellum stri- 
gatum (Panzer), Europe; A. strigatum lutcum (Friese), 
Greece; A. leucorhinum (Ckll.), Siberia; A. truncatiforme 



352 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES XPRoc. 4th See. 

(CklL), Gold Coast; A. tegivaniensc (Ckll.), S. Africa; A. 
compactum (Smith), S. Africa; A. cucullatum (Friese), 
Africa; A. eiseiii (Ckll.), Lower California; A. pcrplcxum 
(Smith), Georgia; A. ehrhorni (Ckll.), California; A. roberf- 
soiii (Ckll.), California; A. gilense (Ckll.), New Mexico. 

30. Anthidiellum robertsoni (Cockerell) 

Females: Kings River Canon, Fresno Co., Calif., 5000 ft, 
May 25, and July 2 (Van Dyke) ; Mokelumne Hill, Calif. 
(Blaisdell); Colestin, Jackson Co., Oregon, July 30 (Van 
Duzee) ; Salt Lake City, Utah, July 1 (Van Duzee). 

Males: Mokelumne Hill, Calif. (Blaisdell); Mill Creek 
Canon, San Bernardino Co., Calif., Sept. 21 (Van Duzee). 
This species was discovered by Dr. Davidson at Rock Creek 
and Los Angeles, Calif.; it'is surprising to find it extending 
its range to Oregon and Utah and well up into the mountains. 

31. Anthidiellum robertsoni citrinellum Cockerell, new race 

Male : Face marks bright lemon-yellow ; a short yellow line on thorax 
behind each tegula ; abdominal bands deep chrome yellow. 

Type: Male, No. 1744, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 17, 1919, at Huntington Lake, Fresno 
Co., California, at 7000 ft. 

32. Dianthidium sayi Cockerell 
Females: Salt Lake City, Utah, July 1, 1922 (Van Duzee). 

33. Dianthidium provancheri Titus 

Females: Cascada, Fresno Co., Calif., July 29, 1919, 6000 
ft. (Van Duzee). 

34. Dianthidium singulare (Cresson) 

California: Meadow Valley, Plumas Co., 3000-4000 ft., 
June 13, one male (Van Dyke). 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—ANTHlDIINE BEES T,()^ 

35. Dianthidium singulare perluteum T. & W. Cockerell 

California: South Fork Kings River Canon, Fresno Co., 
5000 ft., July 5, 2 females, 2 males (Van Dyke). Described 
in 1904 from the female. The male has the end of the abdomen 
broadly trilobed, the seventh segment yellow without markings, 
the lateral lobes rounded, the middle one obtusely pointed and 
ferruginous at end. 

2)6. Dianthidium singulare melanognathum Cockerell, 

new subspecies 

Female : Marked like typical D. singulare from Nevada but mandibles 
black with a yellow spot at base; wings dusky; black mark on clypeus 
fusiform; coxal spines very long. 

Type: Female, No. 1745, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 7, 1919, at Huntington Lake, Fresno 
Co., California, at 7000 ft. 

37. Dianthidium pudicum Cresson 

Females: Longmire, Rainier National Park, July 27 (Van 
Dyke) ; Huntington Lake, Fresno Co., Calif., 7000 ft., July 4, 
1919 (Van Duzee) ; Strawberry Valley, Eldorado Co., Calif., 
August 14 (Van Dyke). The clypeus may be entirely black or 
may have a small light spot at each extreme side. 

Males: Fallen Leaf Lake, Calif., July 17 (Van Dyke) ; Salt 
Lake City, Utah, June 27 (Van Duzee). 

38. Dianthidium consimile (Ashmead) 

Females: Ashland, Oregon, Aug. 2 (Van Duzee) ; Colestin, 
Oregon, July 30 (Van Duzee) ; also the following places in 
California: Cascada, 6000 ft., July 29 (Van Duzee); Bear 
Valley, San Bernardino Mts., Aug. (F. C. Clark) ; Cayton, 
Shasta Co., July 13 (Van Duzee) ; Mokelumne Hill, June 
(Blaisdell) ; Mill Creek Canon, San Bernardino Mts., Sept. 21 
(Van Duzee). 



364 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Males, all from California, as follows: Mokelumne Hill, 
June and Sept. (Blaisdell) ; Cascada, Fresno Co., July 29 
(Van Duzee) ; Soboba Springs, Riverside Co., June 1 (Van 
Duzee) ; Mill Creek Caiion, San Bernardino Mts., Sept. 24 
(Van Duzee) ; South Fork Kings River, July 8 (Van Dyke). 
The Kings River one lacks the yellow spot on mesopleura. 

As in the allied D. provancheri the face markings are cream 
colored in the male, lemon-yellow in the female. The female 
clypeus has the middle broadly or narrowly black, there is a 
well developed triangular supraclypeal mark and a bar-like 
yellow mark below the anterior ocellus. In the male the clypeus 
is all light, the supraclypeal mark is a mere dot, and the mark 
before the ocellus is absent or represented by a very small line. 
The abdominal bands are broadly and deeply emarginate at 
sides posteriorly in the male but with much smaller emargina- 
tions or entire in the females. It seems difficult to associate as 
sexes insects so different, but I believe they certainly belong 
together. 

Ashmead (1896) described what he called the female, but 
part of the description refers to the male, part to the female. 
In 1904 I reported what I took for D. consimilc, but it was 
really D. provancheri Titus. In 1916 (Pomona Jl. Ent. and 
Zool., VIII, p. 63) I gave characters to separate the males of 
the two species. 



39. Dianthidium parvum (Cresson) 

Females: Logan, Utah, July 18 (Van Duzee). The clypeus 
has a cream-colored spot on each side : the scutellum is black 
with a pair of extremely small light marks. 

Males: Logan. Utah, July 18 (Van Duzee) ; Ashland, Ore- 
gon, Aug. 2 (Van Duzee) ; and the following places in Cali- 
fornia : Cay ton, Shasta Co., July 13 (Van Duzee) ; Strawberry 
Valley. El Dorado Co., Aug. 4 (Van Dyke) ; Huntington 
Lake, Fresno Co., 7000 ft.. July 26 (Van Duzee) ; Bear Val- 
ley, San Bernardino Mts., Aug. (F. C. Clark) ; Mill Creek 
Canon, San Bernardino Mts., Sept. 21 (Van Duzee). 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—ANTHIDIINE BEES 355 

40. Dianthidium parvum baculifrons Cockerell, new race 

Female : Face marks light yellow including lower lateral corners of 
clypeus, so that the black part of the clypeus rapidly narrows apically; 
a short yellow bar below middle ocellus; entire margin of scutellum 
broadly, and axillae, yellow; lateral emargination of abdominal segments 
short, deep and rounded; scopa shining white (distinctly yellow in D. 
parvum). 

This is intermediate between D. parvum and D. provancheri, 
differing from the latter by the paler face markings, with more 
black on clypeus; hind tibiae black with a large pale yellow 
patch at base above, and sixth abdominal segment entirely 
black. It should perhaps be considered a form of D. provan- 
cheri, or a distinct species. Titus described only the male of 

D. provancheri. 

Type: Female, No. 1746, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 

E. P. Van Duzee, June 5, 1917, at Soboba Springs, Riverside 
Co., California. 

Callanthidium Cockerell, new genus 

Outer recurrent nervure going beyond end of second cubital 
cell ; no pulvillae on feet. On account of these characters I 
thought to refer these bees to the neotropical genus Hypan- 
thidiiirn, in which certain African and Indian species have al- 
ready been placed. These large North American forms are, 
however, strongly divergent, not only by their size, but espe- 
cially in the armature at the apex of the abdomen. The sixth 
segment is deeply emarginate in the middle in the female and 
the apex of the male abdomen shows a median spine and large 
lateral lobes. There is some affinity with Dianthidium, to which 
genus I wrongly referred the type species in 1914. Type, C. 
illustre (Anthidium illustre Cresson). 

41. Callanthidium illustre (Cresson) 

California: Yosemite Valley, June 21 (Van Dyke) ; Soboba 
Springs, Riverside Co., June 2 (Van Duzee) ; Poway, San 
Diego Co., May 24 (Blaisdell) ; Meadow Valley, Plumas Co., 



356 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

3500-4000 ft., June 21 (Van Dyke) ; Bear Valley, San Ber- 
nardino Co., July 13 (F. C. Clark) ; Claremont (C. H. Muz- 
zall) ; Colton, May 26 (Van Duzee) ; Cayton, Shasta Co., July 
13 (Van Duzee). 

The next species is closely allied but is readily separated by 
the black femora. 

In 1904 I described a supposed species, Anthidium serranum, 
from Rock Creek, California. It was recognized as valid by 
Swenk in 1914, but I now consider it only a variation of Cal- 
lanthidium illustre, to be called C. illustre serranum. It is not 
even certain that it is a valid race. 

42. Callanthidium conspicuum (Cresson) 

California: Fallen Leaf Lake, July 17 (Van Dyke). Ore- 
gon: Fremont National Forest, Klamath Co., 5000 ft., June 
18 (Van Dyke). 

I have an apparently authentic female of Dianthidium balli 
Titus, labelled "Blydenburgh." On comparison with C. con- 
spicuum it proves to be identical. 

43. Callanthidium formosum (Cresson) 

Oregon: Crater Lake, 7000 ft., July 17 (Van Dyke). 

Described (under Anthidium) from Colorado, There are no 
pulvillae and the species is near to C. conspicuum, but easily 
separated by the end of the male abdomen, the emargination 
of which is broader than Cresson's figure shows. I had sug- 
gested that this might be the male of Dianthidium cressonii 
D. T., but that has pulvillae, much darker wings, and the first 
recurrent nervure ending far from base of second cubital 
cell (practically at basal corner in C. formosum). 

44. Callanthidium formosum pratense Cockerell, new species 

Male: Yellow stripes on head above nearly meeting in middle line; 
yellow marks on mesothorax in front larger ; tegulse with very large yel- 
low patch ; scutellum with a pair of yellow stripes ; first abdominal seg-' 
ment with the yellow marks produced in hook-like form ; band on third 



Vol. XIV] COCKERELL—ANTHIDIINE BEES 2)67 

segment narrowly continuous in middle, and not notched behind ; seventh 
segment yellow right across, and the median spine only about half as 
long as the distance between it and the lateral lobes. As in the typical 
form, the lateral lobes are pointed, with the extreme apical face straight 
or slightly concave. 

Type: Male, No. 1747, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, June 17, 1924, at Meadow Valley, Plumas 
Co., California, between 6000 and 7000 feet. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 16, pp. 369-390 September 18, 1925 



XVI 
STUDIES IN THE TENEBRIONID^, NO. 2 

(COLEOPTERA) 

BY 

FRANK E. BLAISDELL, Sr. 

The first number of the present studies appeared in the En- 
tomological News of January, 1918 (Vol. XXIX, p. 7.). The 
new species and subspecies of Eleodes described below have 
accumulated since the publication of my Monographic Revi- 
sion of the Eleodiini (Bull. 63, U. S. Nat. Mus.) in 1909. 
The material studied since then has cleared up the doubtful 
status of several of the phases given at that time. Mr. Leng 
in a foot-note (p. 227) in the Catalogue of the Coleoptera of 
America North of Mexico, remarks that I have more recently 
elevated several such names to higher rank, "the original pre- 
sumption in such cases having been apparently erroneous," 

In the mass of heterogeneous material upon which I based 
my monograph, there were numerous instances in which the 
specimens were too few for a correct and definite understand- 
ing of the relationships ; as a result, many subspecies and races 
were not recognized and unwittingly considered as forms, — 
not wholly from ignorance in many cases, but more truly as 
acts of conservatism, I having believed it to be more logical 
and truthful to raise than to lower a grade, whenever more 
positive data warranted it. 

September 18, 1925 



^JQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

From the standpoint of taxonomy, the solution of the ques- 
tion of specific relationship is not going to come from the 
study of dried museum specimens, but must be the result of 
careful ontogenetic and ecologic studies of large series of 
specimens collected in the different geographic regions. 
Such research must be pursued with untiring zeal if we are to 
arrive ultimately at some conception of the laws governing the 
divergence of organisms. 

The raising of certain forms to a definite grade does not 
invalidate the conception of such intra-specific groups, for even 
then the specific aggregates will be made up of variants, as no 
two individuals of any species can be exactly alike as regards 
size, form, sculpturing and color, no matter how much re- 
stricted taxonomically. With Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, I prefer 
to use the term "phase" in a generic sense to include all vari- 
ants of a species, subspecies or variety. When a species is 
limited taxonomically the intra-specific, intra-subspecific or 
intra-varietal variants can be grouped according to size, form, 
sculpturing or color, each group constituting a form. These 
are really ecological groups. I expressed these same ideas in 
my monograph. 

In 1909 I presented the conception of forms as a means of 
directing attention to the variation within specific units so as 
to make them objects of research. I advised that forms should 
not he given a place in a check-list, for on the very face of the 
matter they are absolute synonyms according to the author 
and from the standpoint of taxonomy. We must have laws 
and rules of guidance, otherwise everything passes into con- 
fusion, and yet to enforce them rigidly or literally may retard 
science rather than advance it. The enforcement of laws or 
the application of rules must be tempered by good judgment, 
this is absolutely necessary, for no law or rule is strictly ap- 
plicable in all cases; hence the need of flexibility in the appli- 
cation of a rule. Certain recent changes in our nomenclature 
have been founded on paleographic facts much to the con- 
fusion of other branches of science. 

A word or two regarding extremists versus the intermediate 
path. Conservatism, when extreme, retards the progress of 
science. Most of this is due to the exercise of the personal 
equation rather than to biological inquiry. A species relegated 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE TENEDRIONIDJE 2>7\ 

to synonymy is supposed to be defunct for all time and yet 
some synonymical lists are rich in research material. The 
other extreme usually overrates biological facts, but the result 
more than balances the harm done by the stimulus it gives to 
discussion and research. Why not pursue the more logical and 
sane path, — bury the personal equation and let intensive re- 
search dictate the biological data ; the deductions will then be 
both progressive and scientific. 

Forms may be said to constitute ecological groups, for the 
units of a species exhibit individual differences which are very 
evidently due to environment and not to reactions in the germ 
plasm. It may be admitted that environmental conditions will 
affect the germ plasm in the course of centuries. Environ- 
mental conditions are constantly changing and therefore un- 
staple : They change from day to day, from month to month, 
and from year to year ; first warm then cold, dry and then wet, 
over a whole region or any part of a region, even to small and 
restricted areas. That is why one season yields notable vari- 
ations and the next something still dift'erent. 

A consideration of the principle ecological factors capable 
of bringing about variations in size, form, sculpturing and 
color in organisms, includes temperature, humidity, quantity 
and quality of food, coupled with geographical position. Any 
one taking cognizance of these facts should eliminate if possi- 
ble all individual variations (forms) of known or described 
species, subspecies and varieties before describing any of them 
as new to science. Let it be kept in mind that the earth is 
Nature's great experimental laboratory and that it is an in- 
finite field for research. 

The limitation of species, subspecies and varieties is quite 
arbitrary in the present state of our knowledge. A species as 
at present defined, with its subspecies and varieties constitutes 
a specific complex. I believe that all subspecies and varieties 
should be recognized aiid named as they constitute taxonomic 
subgrades. The main idea in doing this is to make them ob- 
jects of research. The definition of a species is too well known 
for me to repeat it, but I would like to make known what I 
understand by subspecies and variety or race. The usual ency- 
clopedic definition leads the student in a circle so that he 
usually knows just as much after his investigation as he did 



372 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

when he began. My definitions have been formulated from 
observations in the field. 

I assume that I am dealing- with a specific phase worthy of 
subspecific grade whenever a series of specimens has been col- 
lected in some particular geographical region apart from the 
type and, as a whole, presents some notable difference in form, 
size, sculpturing or color from the type. 

I assume likewise that a variety (race) is to be recognized 
when a series of specimens presents some minor but constant 
difference in size, form, sculpturing or color from the type, 
and usually inhabits the same geographical region, but in some 
areas the varietal phase may predominate. A subspecies or va- 
riety interbreeds with the t)^pe if inhabiting the same geo- 
graphical region or area. The regions of distribution of type, 
subspecies and variety may overlap and this accounts in part 
for the confusion which exists regarding what constitutes a 
subspecies oi variety. I believe that ontogenetic research must 
decide the relationships in the Insecta. The student in the 
field must work out the distributional and seasonal phases. 

Forms in the sense defined above should be recognized, 
studied and properly placed in collections, and discussed in 
current papers and monographs, but not given in a check-list. 

The following new species, subspecies, and varieties are 
presented at the present time : 

1. Telabis nevadensis Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate oblong-oval, a little more than twice as long as wide, 
moderately convex. Color piceous brown, dark rufous beneath, legs paler; 
luster dull to somewhat shining. 

Head a little transverse, sides moderately convergent and feebly arcu- 
ate before the eyes, the latter somewhat prominent and coarsely faceted; 
epistoma slightly produced, arcuato-truncate at apex, sides briefly oblique 
from the shallow emarginations ; front very slightly convex, very feebly 
and broadly impressed laterally within the sides, moderately and dis- 
cretely punctate, punctures somewhat coarser, deeper and more or less 
coalescent on the epistoma ; vertex more or less strigose. Antennae long 
and slender. 

Pronotum nearly twice as wide as long; apex moderately emarginate, 
angles obtuse and blunt ; base feebly bisinuate, marginal bead rather broad 
and flat in middle third ; basal angles obtuse and distinct ; sides evenly 
and moderately arcuate, feebly convergent anteriorly, margin rather thin 



Vol. XI\] BLAISDELL—THE TENEBRIONID^ 373 

and narrowly rcflcxed, slightly crcnulale ; disk moderately convex, dis- 
cretely punctate; punctures smaller in middle third, thence somewhat 
coarser and more oval, with their margins quite distinct and not coales- 
cent; sides narrowly impressed but rather more widely so toward the 
basal angles. Proplcura with a few scattered hairs; rather coarsely, but 
not densely punctate, punctures shallow ; intervals somewhat prominent 
longitudinally. 

Elytra oblong, about a half longer than wide, sides parallel and feebly 
arcuate, apex broadly rounded, humeri obtuse and not in the least promi- 
nent, although somewhat exposed; disk moderately convex, finely and 
subasperately punctate, punctures somewhat confused at base, sides and 
apex, series quite distinct in the central area. 

Sterna sparsely and not very coarsely punctate; punctures shallow; 
mesosternal epimera irnpunctate ; transverse metasternal ante-coxal line 
well defined and almost entire. Abdomen moderately evenly convex, finely 
and very sparsely pimctate along the middle, rather more coarsely so 
laterally; under surface of the body clothed with scattered hairs. 

Length (types) 6-6.5 mm.; width 2.4-2.8 mm. 

Holotypc, male, and allotype, female, in my collection. 
Paratypcs in the collection of Mr. Warren Knaus and in that 
of the author. 

Type locality: Las Vegas, Nevada, collected July 31, 192L 
A series of five specimens. 

This si^ecies evidently falls into the series with Casey's 
iitcana and aiiiica, both from Utah. In nevadensis the punc- 
tuation of the head and pronotum is discrete, not very dense 
(rather more abundant in the female), shallow and scarcely 
asperate, not muricate ; the vertex of the head may be more or 
less longitudinally strigose. According to Casey, uteana is 
piceous black in color and arnica is pale testaceous, and he 
makes no mention of the vertex of the head being strigose in 
either species. 



2. Eleodes quadricollis lassenica Blaisdell, new subspecies 

Form and sculpturing similar to that of quadricollis Esch., but more 
strongly and densely punctate throughout. Color intense black. 

Pronotum more arcuately and strongly declivous laterally, and as a 
result more strongly convex from side to side. Anterior spurs of the 
protibise more elongate in both sexes. 

Male : Narrower elongate-oval. Female : Ovate, sides more arcuate ; 
elytra just noticeably inflated. Sexes otherwise as in quadricollis. 



374 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Length (types) 17-18.5 mm.; width 7-8.5 mm. 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male, in the author's col- 
lection. 

Type locality: Martin's Spring, Lassen County, California. 
Section 14. Tp. 31 N, R. 9 E. Collected by Mr. J. O. Martin, 
on July 10th. 1922. A single pair. 

In huHieralis Lee. the pronotal marginal bead is visible 
throughout the length when viewed vertically from above; in 
quadricollis and related species the lateral marginal bead is 
more or less invisible from above. The main diagnostic 
characters of lassenica, are the denser, stronger sculpturing and 
less elongate form. 



3. Eleodes parowana Blaisdell, new species 

Form oblong-oval to oblong-ovate, rather strongly convex, a little more 
than twice as long as wide. Color deep black and feebly shining. 

Head moderate in size, densely punctate before the eyes ; vertex 
sparsely punctate ; sides arcuate at the supra-antennal convexities, thence 
straight and convergent to the frontal angles, the latter obtuse ; epistoma 
broadly and evenly emarginate ; frontal sutures not evident. Antennse 
rather stout and moderate in length, tenth joint transversely oval, the 
three-jointed club very slightly wider than the preceding joints. 

Pronotum quadrate to slightly transverse, widest at apical third ; apex 
truncato-emarginate in moderate circular arc ; sides quite strongly arcuate 
in apical half, thence straight, oblique and moderately convergent to base, 
marginal bead fine ; apical angles nearly rectangular ; base transverse and 
the angles obtuse but not in the least rounded ; disk moderately strongly 
convex, declivous laterally, finely and rather densely punctate, punctures 
slightly larger laterally, those of the central area being a little more 
widely separated. 

Elytra oval, base sinuate lateral to the scutelluni, the latter triangular ; 
humeri obtuse and rather distinct; sides evenly arcuate, apex moderately 
narrowly rounded ; disk costate, costje moderately convex, smooth and 
sparsely punctulate, intervals finely and more abundantly, irregularly 
punctate; punctures on the apical declivity slightly muricate. Legs mod- 
erate in length and stoutness, as well as rather densely sculptured. Tarsi 
moderately stout. 

Male: More elongate oblong-oval, front of head more convex. Pro- 
notum subquadrate, widest at middle as viewed from above. Elytral 
hiten'als alternately costate. Abdomen very slightly oblique to the sterna, 
strongly impressed at middle of first two segments, inter-coxal process 
broad. Anterior spurs of the protibiae produced and moderate in stoutness. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE TENEBRIONWJE 375 

Female: Oblong-ovate, broader. Pronotum wider than long, widest in 
front of the middle. Elytra costate as in the male with the intervening 
intervals more or less convex, sides with an incipient margin; apical de- 
clivity arcuate and moderately abrupt. Abdomen rather strongly convex. 
Anterior protibial spur produced and thickened as in the female of 
qiiadricollis. 

Length (types) 15-16.5 mm.; width 6-7.8 mm. 

Holotypc, female, and allotype, male, in my collection. Para- 
types in that of Mr. Warren Knaus of McPherson, Kansas. 
Collected on "the Mammoth," at top of Parowan Mountains, 
Utah, on July 12-22, 1921, at an elevation of 10,000 feet, by 
Mr. Knaus, while on the Mininger-Hoover Ex^Dedition. 

Four specimens studied. The elytral sculpturing of paro- 
wana is unique in the qiiadricollis section of the subgenus 
Melaneleodes. Extending backward from the humeri is an 
angulation indicating the beginning demarcation of the in- 
flexed sides from the dorsum of the elytra, as observed in 
tricostata and pediu aides, although the elytra are strongly 
convex and not depressed as in the latter species. In parozvana 
the anterior protibial spurs are produced and stout as in 
qiiadricollis. In the tricostata group the spurs are produced 
but they are not so stout. This new species is a most interest- 
ing and surprising addition to the subgenus Melaneleodes. 

4. Eleodes parowana mimica Blaisdell, new variety 

Mimica resembles parowana in most characters, but differs, 
chiefly in the character of the sculpturing, as follows : Form 
rather more robust, integuments rather denser. Elytral sculp- 
turing more strongly developed and like that observed in the 
oval form of tricostata; alternate intervals strongly convex, 
surface scabrous from rather fine and quite densely placed 
muricate punctures ; the intermediate intervals may become 
feebly subcostate. 

In parowana the elytral punctures are very fine and quite 
equal throughout, scarcely at all or very feebly asperate at 
times. In other words in parozvana the punctuation resembles 
that observed in typical porcata Casey, except that the punc- 
tures are equal in size. In mimica the punctuation is like that 
of tricostata Say. The pronotum and the anterior tibial spurs 



376 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

are as in the quadricollis group. In the tricosfata group the 
pronotum is distinctly transverse. 

Length (types) 17-16 mm. ; width 6.5-7 mm. 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male, in my collection. 
Paratypes in that of Mr. Tanner. 

Type locality: Bryce Canon, Utah. Collected by Mr. 
Vasco M. Tanner on July 27th, 1922. 



5. Eleodes fuscipilosa Blaisdell, new species 

Form rather elongate subfusiform-ovate to ovate, slightly depressed 
above and a little more than twice as long as wide. Color black through- 
out, luster rather dull. 

Head rather small, front very feebly convex, impressions obsolete, 
densely and rather finely punctate, punctures much sparser on the vertex ; 
epistoma subtruncate at apex, sides quite straight and slightly convergent 
anteriorly, angles distinct and rather narrowly rounded, supra-antennal 
convexities feeble. Eyes rather narrow. Antennae moderate in length, 
gradually and very slightly incrassate in outer joints; joints four to seven 
longer than wide and obconical, eighth triangular, ninth and tenth slightly 
transverse, eleventh obovate and rather obliquely truncate at tip. 

Pronotum subquadrate, relatively small, widest at about the middle, 
base and apex subequal ; apex quite truncate and the angles very distinct, 
obtuse and not prominent anteriorly ; sides rather evenly but not strongly 
arcuate, almost straight posteriorly and moderately convergent to base, 
marginal bead fine ; base feebly and broadly arcuate, the angles obtuse ; 
disk rather evenly convex, most strongly so laterally and declivous as 
usual in the quadricollis group, finely and almost evenly punctate, punc- 
tures well separated. 

Elytra suboval, base scarcely wider than the pronotal base, slightly 
emarginate and adapted to the pronotal base; sides moderately arcuate, 
convergently so to apex in apical fourth, the apex rather narrowly 
rounded ; disk more or less depressed, more or less moderately and more 
abruptly rounded into the deflexed sides, rather abruptly and arcuately 
declivous posteriorly ; surface quite discretely muricato-granulate, gran- 
ules small and shining at summit, not well developed in the central sutural 
area, irregularly placed, but with a suggestion of a serial arrangement 
when viewed longitudinally from behind; each granule with a short 
nearly erect and somewhat stiff brownish hair which is scarcely conspic- 
uous. Epipleura rather narrow and but slightly wider toward base. 

Sterna finely and rather densely muricato-punctate. Abdomen finely and 
rather closely punctate ; segments rather strongly convex antero-pos- 
teriorly. Legs moderate in length and stoutness. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE TENEBRIONIDX y?7 

Male: Narrower, subfusiform-ovate. Pronotum about as wide as long; 
antennae slightly stouter; elytral disk less depressed. Abdomen slightly 
oblique to the sterna; first and second segments flattened in middle third, 
with a median longitudinal impression. Tarsi rather stout ; first protarsal 
joint not noticeably thickened at apex beneath. Anterior protibial spur 
distinctly lengthened and stouter than the posterior. 

Female : Broader and ovate. Pronotum slightly wider than long. An- 
tennae rather less stout. Elytral disk noticeably flattened. Abdomen hori- 
zontal and moderately strongly convex. Tarsi rather less stout. Anterior 
protibial spur very distinctly enlarged. 

Length (types) 14-16 mm.; width 5-8 mm. 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male, in my collection, both 
collected at Parowan, Utah, at an elevation of 6000 ft., on 
July 24-25, 1921, by Mr. Warren Knaus while on the Minin- 
ger-Hoover Expedition. 

FuscipUosa belongs to the quadricollis section of the genus 
on account of the enlarged anterior protibial spurs. It differs 
from all others of the group in the relatively small head and 
pronotum and brownish pubescence of the elytra. It should 
follow coloradensis in the list of species. 



6. Eleodes reducta Blaisdell, new species 

Form oblong-ovate, about two and a third times longer than wide and 
moderately strongly convex. Color deep black, luster somewhat shining. 

Head moderate in size, front very slightly convex, impressions feebly 
indicated, most marked within the supra-antennal convexities ; densely 
and irregularly punctate, with small impunctate areas, punctures rather 
small, becoming still smaller and sparser on the vertex ; sides rather arcu- 
ately prominent over the antennal base, thence becoming sinuate, straight 
and obliquely convergent to the narrowly rounded epistomal angles ; apex 
of the epistoma broadly and feebly emarginate. Eyes narrow. Antennae 
moderate in stoutness and length, attaining the pronotal base; joints four 
to eight slightly longer than wide, ninth about as long as wide and sub- 
globular, tenth slightly wider than long, eleventh short obovate and trun- 
cate at tip. 

Pronotum subquadrate, widest at about the middle ; apex truncate in 
circular arc, apical angles obtuse and distinct ; sides broadly and moder- 
ately arcuate, becoming straight or slightly sinuate to base, marginal bead 
very fine ; base broadly but not strongly arcuate, sometimes feebly sinuate 



378 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

at middle ; basal angles obtuse ; disk evenly convex, more strongly so lat- 
erally, marginal bead more or less visible from above, punctures small 
and distinct, more or less regularly placed and not crowded. 

Elytra oval, less than twice as long as wide ; base feebly emarginate 
and adapted to the pronotal base, slightly wider than the latter, humeri 
obtuse and not prominent ; sides broadly and moderately arcuate, con- 
verging to apex in apical third, the latter rather narrowly rounded ; disk 
moderately convex on the dorsum, more strongly so laterally but not 
rounding broadly into the moderately inflexed sides, punctures feebly 
muricate, rather evenly distributed, although slightly denser at the sides 
and apex where they become more strongly muricate, irregularly placed, 
with unimpressed strise evident ; rather abruotly and arcuately declivous 
posteriorly. 

Sterna more or less finely muricato-punctate ; abdomen more sparsely 
punctate. Legs of moderate length and stoutness. 

Male: Narrower, pronotum about as wide as long. Abdomen slightly 
oblique to the sterna, first two segments flattened in the central area, 
with a slight median longitudinal impression. Protarsal plantar grooves 
open, first joint not noticeably thickened at apex beneath. 

Female : Broader, pronotum a little wider than long. Abdomen hori- 
zontal and rather strongly convex. Protarsal plantar grooves closed on 
the first joint, the latter prominent at apex beneath and set with small 
black spinules. Anterior protibial spurs enlarged and thickened. 

Length (types) 15-17.5 mm.; width 6-7.5 mm. 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male, in my collection. A fe- 
male paratype is in the collection of Mr. Vasco M. Tanner. 
Dixie Normal School, St. George, Utah. Collected near Cove 
Fort on the Beaver County line, Utah, June 20th, 1922, by 
Mr. Tanner. 

Reducta is related to humeralis, but at first sight resembles 
obsoleta forma punctata, and is readily separated from it by the 
enlarged anterior protarsal spurs of the female. The form is 
less robust than m humeralis and the sculpturing is less dense 
and more muricate; in humeralis the sculpturing is dense, 
more granular and very minutely muricate, the lateral pro- 
;iotal margin is distinctly visible from above as a result of the 
disk being less arcuately declivous at the sides. Coloradensis 
is more robust and less elongate. The elytra in fuscipilosa are 
clothed with short brownish hairs, while in concinna the ely- 
tral sculpturing consists of small discrete shining granules. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE TENEBRIONIDJE 379 

7. Eleodes mazatzalensis Blaisdell, new species 

Form elongate-ovate, somewhat depressed, a little more than twice as 
long as wide. Color deep black and shining. 

Head moderate in size, about as long as wide, almost flat, feebly im- 
pressed laterally ; punctures moderate in size, not crowded, slightly smaller 
and somewhat sparser on the vertex. Antennae moderate in length, slightly 
compressed distally, scarcely at all incrassate; third joint very little longer 
than the fourth and fifth taken together; fourth joint just the least longer 
than the fifth; fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth subequal in length, last two 
very little stouter and feebly triangular ; ninth and tenth oval, scarcely 
longer than wide ; eleventh oblong-oval, a little longer than wide and 
rather broadly rounded at apex. 

Pronotum about two-sevenths wider than long, widest slightly in ad- 
vance of the middle ; sides rather broadly arcuate in anterior three- 
fourths, thence moderately convergent and feebly sinuate to base, mar- 
ginal bead fine ; apex truncate ; apical angles obtuse and distinct ; base 
very feebly arcuate and about equal to the apex ; basal angles obtuse, 
almost distinct ; disk moderately and evenly convex from side to side, 
feebly so antero-posteriorly, quite strongly declivous laterally behind the 
middle, noticeably so at the apical angles, surface finely and sparsely 
punctulate, slightly alutaceous. 

Elytra oval, feebly wider posteriorly, sides broadly arcuate, apex mod- 
erately broadly rounded ; disk with distinct lines of punctures, the latter 
moderate in coarseness, rather closely but irregularly spaced, intervals 
with an irregular line of sparsely placed punctules ; surface rather de- 
pressed in the central area, almost vertically declivous posteriorly. Humeri 
small and acute. 

Sterna quite densely punctured. Abdomen finely punctato-rugulose ; 
horizontal in both sexes. Legs moderate in length ; the posterior notice- 
ably longer in relative proportion than the anterior. 

Male : Somewhat narrower. Abdomen feebly flattened along the middle 
of the first three segments. Inner spur of the anterior tibiae a little stouter 
than the outer; plantar grooves open on all the tarsi, except at the tip of 
the first joint of the anterior tarsi, where it is closed by a transverse 
row of coarse blackish spinules. 

Female : Slightly broader. Antennae relatively a little longer ; abdomen 
evenly but not strongly convex. 

Male, length 14 mm., width 6 mm.; female, length 18 mm., 
width 7 mm. 

Holotype, male, and allotype, female, in the collection of the 
Entomological Department of the Agricultnral College of Cor- 
nell University, Ithaca, New York. Para type, female, in the 
anthor's collection. Types bear the label : Lot 445, Sub. 3. 



380 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Type locality: Mazatzal Mountains, Arizona, collected 
Sept. 1-3. 

The anterior tarsi are imperfect on both types, only the first 
and second joints being present. The sexes are similar in 
form, and suggestive of the females of dissimilis Blais. In 
the latter the plantar grooves of the anterior tarsi are open in 
both sexes, and the elytral punctuation is finer. The tarsal 
characters and tibial spurs correlate mazataalensis with the 
carbouaria section of the subgenus Melaneleodes. A second 
female in the Agricultural College collection is more finely 
sculptured. 



8. Eleodes coloradensis Blaisdell, new species 

In my Monographic Revision of the Eleodiini this species 
was recorded as a form of humeralis Lee. (Forma tubcrcitlo- 
inuricata). The collecting of recent years has contributed 
much toward the elucidation of the relationship between cer- 
tain phases that were of dubious status at the time the above 
monograph was written. I made no mistake, however, in con- 
sidering the above species as related to humeralis Lee. I gave 
simply the relationship as I interpreted it from the meager 
material that was before me at that time. I will now present 
a modified description considering it a species : 

Form robust and less elongate than humeralis Lee. Pronotum more 
arcuately declivous laterally, with the margins more or less invisible from 
above. Elytra more coarsely and strongly sculptured, subtuberculately 
muricate with the punctures much sparser than in humeralis. 

Length (types) 16-16 mm.; width 5.5-7 mm. 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male, in my collection. Both 
types were collected in Colorado, the male by C. V. Riley. 

In coloradensis the elytral granules are larger and more like 
tubercles. It is separated from humeralis by the more robust 
form, sparser and coarser sculpturing of the elytra, as well as 
the more abruptly declivous sides of the pronotal disk. It is 
more robust than fuscipilosa, with a relatively larger head and 
pronotum and the absence of distinct hairs on the elytra. In 
rileyi Casey the elytral sculpturing is sparser and not asperate. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE TENEBRIONID/E 3gl 

9. Eleodes concinna Blaisdell, new species 

This species was considered as humcralis forma graiinlato- 
muricata in my Monograph (Bull. 63, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1909). 
Many specimens collected in Nevada, Lassen and Plumas 
counties in California have been studied and compared during 
the last decade. My present conviction is that it should have 
full specific rank. Concinna may be defined as follows : 

Form elongate, oblong-ovate to ovate, less robust and more sparsely- 
sculptured than humeralis Lee. Elytra moderately convex on the dorsum, 
sides more or less broadly rounded ; disk less densely sculptured with 
small muricate granules which are shining at their summit. 

Length (types) 15.5-16 mm.; width 5.8-7 mm. 

Holotype, male, and allotype, female, in my collection. The 
male was collected in Lassen County, California, and the ac- 
companying female was taken at Carson, Nevada. 

Distribution: Nevada (Verdi, April — Blaisdell; Carson 
City, July; Reno, — Wickham; Utah, — Riley). California 
(Lassen County; Plumas County, April 25th, — Essig.) 

The specimens from Lassen County, California, "have the 
elytra discretely granulate; each granule under low power of 
magnification is polished and shining, under high power the 
granules are minutely pointed at their summit." This form of 
sculpturing constitutes the typical phase. 

10. Eleodes wenzeli Blaisdell, new species 

Form oblong-oval with elytral disk flattened. Color deep black, luster 
somewhat alutaceous, surface smooth, almost glabrous. 

Head relatively small, front very slightly convex, impressions obsolete, 
punctures fine, discrete, slightly coarser on the epistoma ; sides feebly 
arcuate over the antennal fossse, thence feebly sinuate and straight, con- 
verging to the narrowly rounded epistomal angles, apex of the epistoma 
feebly and broadly emarginate. Antennae moderate in length, joints four 
to seven slightly longer than wide, subequal, seventh slightly shorter, ter- 
minal joint not thickened, as long as wide, subglobular and slightly 
compressed. 

Pronotum subquadrate, as wide as the elytra, widest slightly in ad- 
vance of the middle; apex slightly emarginate in feeble circular arc; 
apical angles subacute and slightly prominent anteriorly ; sides broadly 
and moderately arcuate in anterior two-thirds, thence less so, straight 



0O7 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Puoc. 4th Ser. 

and very moderately convergent to the basal angles, marginal bead dis- 
tinct and moderately fine ; base very feebly arcuate ; basal angles obtuse ; 
disk moderately and evenly convex, finely and not closely punctate, basal 
impressions obsolete. 

Elytra oblong, narrowing posteriorly, about twice as long as wide ; base 
feebly emarginate and adapted to the pronotal base, humeri slightly ex- 
posed, small and obtuse ; sides broadly arcuate, subparallel, gradually 
converging to apex in apical third, apex rather narrowly rounded ; disk 
flattened on the dorsum, moderately convex, rather abruptly rounding 
into the moderately inflexed sides, arcuately and rather obliquely declivous 
posteriorly, finely, not closely and quite evenly punctate, punctures not 
subasperate, obsoletely striate. Epipleura very gradually widening toward 
base and comparatively narrow. 

Sterna and abdomen shining, feebly and not densely sculptured. Legs 
moderately long, femora rather stout ; tarsi somewhat slender. 

Male: Form oblong, parallel; elytra flattened on the dorsum. Abdomen 
oblique, to the sterna and impressed in the middle third of the first two 
segments. 

Length 19 mm. ; width 8 mm. 

Holotype, male, in the author's collection, taken in the 
Chisos Mountains of Texas, on July 24, by Mr. H. A. Wenzel, 
after whom the species is named. 

Wenaeli belongs to the pc din aides group of the subgenus 
Melaneleodes. It can readily be recognized by its smooth, 
finely sculptured integuments and alutaceous luster. In spccu- 
HcoUis the pronotal disk is polished and shining, the elytra 
rather strongly sculptured. Neomexicaua is duller in luster 
and the elytra are rather densely but not coarsely subasper- 
ately sculptured, while pedinoides is larger, more shining and 
the elytra striate; asperata Lee. has the elytra more strongly 
and very distinctly muricate at the sides and on the apex. 



11. Eleodes speculicollis Blaisdell, new species 

Similar in form to neomexicaua Blais. Surface more shin- 
ing, the pronotal disk polished. 

Pronotum evenly and moderately convex, basal impressions feeble or 
obsolete ; base broadly and not strongly emarginate at middle ; disk with 
several fortuitous impressions, not present in the males. 

Elytra moderately feebly convex on the dorsum, laterally rather less 
broadly rounded than in ncomexicana; surface obsoletely striate, inter- 
vals indicated as faint subglabrous lines, punctures confused, rather dense 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE TENEBRIONW.^ ^^:^ 

and somewhat fine, not at all granulato-muricate, except slightly so on the 
apex. Legs rather less stout. Otherwise as in ncomexicana Blais. 

Length (types) 20-21 mm.; width 7-9 mm. 

Holotypc, female, No. 1812, and allotype, male, No. 1813, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by C. D. Duncan, July 9, 
1921, on Livermore Peak, Davis Mountains, Texas. Paratypes, 
two males, one in the collection of the Academy and one in 
that of the author, same data. 

Spcculicollis is readily separated from neomexicana by its 
shining integuments and polished pronotal disk and smoother 
elytral sculpturing. Three males and one female have been 
studied. It is the author's belief that neomexicana Blais. 
should be considered a distinct species and not a race of pedi- 
noides Lee. 



12. Eleodes obscura glabriuscula Blaisdell, new subspecies 

Similar to dispcrsa Lee. Color deep black, surface smooth 
and shining. 

Elytral sculpturing consisting of stria; of coarser punctures; intervals 
with a single series of similar punctures that are more widely spaced 
with the surface slightly rugose laterally and on the apex, where the 
punctures become more or less asperate and the sculpturing confused ; 
punctures simple on the dorsum. 

Sterna and abdomen polished. 

Male narrower as in dispersa. 

Female broader and rather less elongate. 

Length (types) 30-28 mm.; width 10-11 mm. 

Holotype, female. No. 1814, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
by C. D. Duncan, July 12, 1921, at Alpine, Texas. Allotype, 
male, collected by C. D. Duncan, July 9, 1921, on Livermore 
Peak, Davis Mountains, Texas. 

In the form deleta Lee. the elytral sulci are obsolete, except 
at the sides behind the middle, where some faint traces of them 
are seen ; the punctures are submuricate and arranged in strise, 
distinct on the dorsum, but confused at the sides ; betw^een the 
rows are distinct punctures as in obscura Say; posteriorly 
abruptly declivous and furnished with rows of tubercles, alter- 

September 18, 1925 



384 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIES^CES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

nately large and small. In arata Lee. the elytral sulci are 
deeper than in siilcipennis Mann, and therefore quite different 
from glahriuscula. 

13. Eleodes hispilabris connexa Lee. 

This subspecies was unknown to me in nature when my 
monograph was written. A couple of years ago a pair of spe- 
cimens collected at Albuquerque, New Mexico, came into my 
possession. Both sexes are narrower than in hispilabris Say, 
and the integuments are denser. Le Conte's description very 
correctly defines the subspecific characteristics : "Elongate, 
black and bright, thorax moderately punctulate with sides 
rounded, anterior angles acute and slightly prominent; basal 
angles obtuse. Elytra elongate oval, intervals subconvex and 
more or less rugose, subacute posteriorly." Type locality, 
Prairie Paso, Texas. It is a distinct subspecies. 

14. Eleodes hispilabris nupta Say 

This variety of hispilabris Say was first described from spe- 
cimens taken at Laredo to Ringhold Barracks, Texas. It is 
less elongate, more robust and the elytra are more or less in- 
flated, sometimes markedly so. Many specimens are more or 
less broadly rufous along the elytral suture. Nnpta has been 
heretofore quite rare, not many specimens having been col- 
lected in recent years. 

I have recently received the loan of twenty- four specimens 
from the entomological collection of the University of Kansas, 
through the kindness of Prof. R. H. Beamer ; also seven spe- 
cimens from Mr. Warren Knaus of McPherson, Kansas. Both 
series were collected on the sand hills about Medora, Kansas. 
Those from the University collection were taken on April 13th, 
1925, with the exception of one specimen which was collected 
in SheiTnan County, Kansas, at an elevation of 3600 feet by 
Mr. F. X. Williams. The latter specimen is quite identical 
with one in my own collection secured at Fort Supply, Okla- 
homa. Those loaned to me by Mr. Knaus were in part also 
collected in April, on the 25th, the others on September 17th, 
1916. 



Vol. XI\] BLAISDELL—THE tenebrionid^ 385 

A pair was first submitted to me for identification and I 
thought that they represented a new race of hispilabris Say, 
until I saw the entire series. Niipta Say has a wider distribu- 
tion than was at first beheved. The body form of the Kansas 
series is more hke that of the females of the carhonarux, omissa 
and quadricollis sections of the subgenus Melaneleodes Blais. 
The small prothorax, shorter and broader, and the more or 
less inflated elytra gives quite a different facies from that of 
the typical hispilabris Say. 

The specimens collected in September are more decidedly 
red along the suture than those collected in April. This may 
be due to a somewhat immature condition or to retardation 
and alteration in the chemical constitution of the pigment. 
The darker individuals appear to have firmer integuments. 



15. Eleodes dentipes montana Blaisdell, new variety 

Form and color of dentipes. Pronotum very finely but not densely 
punctate. Elytra with unimpressed stria; of rather coarse and closely 
placed punctures, with single interstitial series of slightly smaller and 
rather more widely spaced punctures; series not confused laterally or 
apically. 

Length (types) 24-23 mm.; width 8.1-9.2 mm. 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male, in my collection. Col- 
lected in the Santa Cruz Mountains, near Mt. Hermon, Santa 
Cruz County, California, on July 20, 1922. 

In dentipes Esch. the pronotal punctuation is a little coarser 
and that of the elytra finer and confused laterally and apically. 
In confinis Blais. the punctuation is still finer and the sides of 
the pronotum are straight posteriorly and not in the least sinu- 
ate before the basal angles. In perpunctata Blais. the form is 
more elongate, the punctuation variable and the sides of the 
pronotal disk are impressed, dull and granulate within the 
bead. Dentipes and montana have the pronotal disk glabrous 
and transversely convex from bead to bead. Tidarensis is 
more alutaceous, the legs and antennae are slender and the 



3g^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

elytra are oval, the humeri being obsolete. In the race 
marincu Blais, the elytral punctures are diffuse and of equal 
size throughout and the form is rather more robust. 

16. Eleodes dentipes tularensis Blaisdell, new subspecies 

Form elongate, subfusiform oval. Color black, luster rather dull. 

Head about a third wider than long, feebly convex and with very shal- 
low impressions within the antennal convexities ; finely and sparsely sub- 
asperately punctate, punctures rather dense laterally and on the epistoma. 
Antennae rather long, moderately slender, last three or four joints slightly 
wider. 

Pronotum about a seventh wider than long, base quite equal to the apex, 
the latter feebly emarginate in circular arc, finely or obsoletely beaded; 
base feebly arcuate and finely beaded ; sides broadly and rather moder- 
ately arcuate, briefly sinuate before the basal angles which are distinct 
but feeble; apical angles small, dentiform and more or less everted; 
disk rather evenly and moderately convex, finely and sparsely punctate, 
scarcely denser laterally, not impressed along the margin but narrowly 
opaque with granulate punctures, marginal bead fine, rather thin and very 
feebly reflexed. Propleura sparsely, rather finely, subasperately punctate 
with scattered rugulse. 

Elytra fusiform-oval to oval. Base equal to the pronotal base, trun- 
cate to feebly bisinuate ; humeri very small or absent ; sides quite evenly 
arcuate, rather narrowly rounded at apex ; disk moderately arcuate, more 
strongly rounded laterally, rather obliquely declivous apically ; evenly and 
sparsely punctate, punctures equal in size, arranged serially in the central 
area, and closely placed in the series, interstitial punctures rather widely 
spaced, all becoming confused laterally and on the apex where they are 
minutely muricate, with the prickles discernible. 

Parapleura finely and more thickly punctate. Abdomen sparsely punc- 
tate, punctures finely subasperate. Legs rather long and noticeably slender. 

Male : Narrower and fusiform oval in form. Abdomen nearly on a 
plane with the sterna, very moderately convex and just noticeably flat- 
tened along the middle. 

Female : Broader, elytra more oval. Abdomen a little more convex. 
Legs less slender. 

Male, length 15.5 mm., width 8 mm.; female, length 14 
mm., width 9 mm. 

Type locality: Northfork, Fresno County, California. Col- 
lected by Mr. Henry Dietrich on March 4, 1920. 



\'0L. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE TENEBRIONWJE 337 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male in my collection; para- 
fvpcs in Mr. Dietrich's and my own collection. A female para- 
type has been placed in the collection of the California Academy 
of Sciences by Mr. Dietrich. A series of twelve specimens 
have been studied. 

The salient characteristics of titlarensis are the absence of 
humeri and the unusually slender legs. The anterior femora 
have a small triangular tooth at about the outer fourth. Con- 
finis Blais. is found in the foothills on the west slope of the 
Sierras and coast range foothills as well, and is a robust race 
with the pronotal sides without basal sinuations. Perpunctafa 
Blais. is a larger and more elongate race, legs long and stout, 
sides of the pronotal disk noticeably impressed along the lat- 
eral margins ; the latter character being entirely absent in 
fularnisis. Marines Blais., a stouter more compact race found 
in Marin County, California, has the elytral punctuation dis- 
tinct, the punctures diffuse and of equal strength throughout. 

17. Eleodes parvicollis alticola Blaisdell, new variety 

In form similar to trita, but less opaque and more finely 
punctured. Oblong-ovate, a little more than twice as long as 
wide. Head finely punctate, the punctures slightly denser at 
the periphery. 

Pronotum about a fifth wider than long; finely and not very closely 
punctate, punctures slightly larger and somewhat granulate laterally in 
the marginal area, where the disk is very feebly impressed ; apex, sides, 
base and angles as in producta. Propleura rather sparsely granulato- 
punctate, more or less rugulose on the coxal convexities. 

Elytra less elongate than in producta and planata, about a third longer 
than wide; base truncate, wider than the pronotal base; sides moderately 
arcuate, apex obtusely and somewhat narrowly rounded ; disk somewhat 
flattened, but moderately convex, less so in basal fourth, obliquely and 
arcuately declivous posteriorly; surface not eroded, moderately densely 
punctate, punctures slightly muricato-granulate, laterally and apically. 

Prosternum rather densely punctate, elsewhere the punctures are more 
widely separated and not coarse. Abdomen densely and not very finely 
granulato-punctate on the first and second segments, less so on the third, 
fourth and fifth finely and sparsely punctate. Legs moderately stout. 
Sexual differences as in trita. 



3g8 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Length (types) 14-14.5 mm.; width 6.5-7 mm. 
Types, male and female, in my collection. 

Type locality: Piute Mountain, Kern County, California; 
collected May 29th, 1913. Many specimens have been iden- 
tified. 

Alticola is more shining and less coarsely punctate than 
trita Blais. although similar in form. Plaiiata Esch. is more 
elongate and there is greater difference in body form between 
the sexes, besides it inhabits a different geographical region — 
the oak groves of the great valleys, while trita and alticola 
are found at higher altitudes in the mountains. Constricta Lee. 
is more strongly and coarsely punctate, with the elytra more 
depressed on the disk and the basal constriction of the pro- 
notum is stronger and more abrupt, with the sides perfectly 
straight and parallel before the basal angles; in alticola the 
sinuations are more gradually formed and the sides not par- 
allel. 



18. Eleodes manni dilaticollis Blaisdell, new variety 

Form oblong-oval, less than twice as long as wide, more robust and less 
elongate than manni Blais. Color deep black. 

Head more transverse and the antennae rather shorter than in nwnni. 
Pronotum distinctly more transverse than in the latter species and more 
strongly and a little more coarsely, closely punctate. Elytra more broadly 
oval, humeri more or less distinct, disk more noticeably muricately punc- 
tate laterally and about the apex. Otherwise as in manni. 

Length (types) 13-15.5 mm.; width 5.6-7.6 mm. 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male, and paratypes in my 
collection. Mr. M. C. Lane of Ritzville, Washington, also pos- 
sesses paratypes and collected the types at Sprague, Washing- 
ton, on May 15, and June 19, 1921; other specimens were 
secured at Lake McElroy, Paha, Washington, on May 24th. 
In the types the humeri are distinct. A considerable series 
has been studied and the differential characters have been 
found constant. 



Vol. XIV] BLAISDELL—THE TENEBRIOMID^ 389 

In parvicollis Esch. and its races the pronotal punctures are 
smaller and more distinctly separated. In manni var. variolosa 
Blais, the elytra are more coarsely and subrugosely sculp- 
tured, a character resembling that observed in cordata Esch. ; 
the pronotum is less transverse and subequal in the sexes. In 
dilaticollis the pronotum is much more transverse in the female. 
In horni Blais. and its race monticola Blais. the sculpturing is 
finer, legs more slender and the surface luster more opaque. 
As a rule manni and its race dilaticollis have the pronotal sides 
less abruptly sinuate at base than is found in parvicollis and 
its races. These characters are maintained in larger series. 
Sierra Blais. is more alutaceous, elytra more parallel with the 
humeri more or less distinct. 



19. Eleodes nigrina difformis Blaisdell, new subspecies 

Form and size variable, more robust than typical nigrtna Lee, mimic- 
ing omissa Lee. ; the males less elongate. Color black, luster more or less 
moderately shining. Sculpturing as in nigrina. Comparative stoutness 
of appendages variable. 

Male : Less elongate and broader, differing but little from the female 
in form. 

Female: Broader on the average than the female of ttigrina; pronotum 
quadrate to a fourth wider than long. 

Length (types) 20-20.5 mm.; width 8-9 mm. Variations in 
size; largest female, length 23 mm., width 9.5 mm.; smallest 
female, length 15 mm., width 6 mm. 

Holotype, female, and allotype, male, in my collection. Para- 
types in the collection of Mr. M. C. Lane. Ritzville. Wash- 
ington, and in my own. The types were collected at Lind, 
Washington, on April 10, 1920. 

I am indebted to Mr. Lane for a generous series showing 
the remarkable variation in body fonn and size. Most of these 
specimens were taken in the vicinity of Ritzville, in September 
and October, 1921. 

Large series of nigrina Lee. show an adherence to a uni- 
form body form, and the individuals are more elongate and 
duller in luster, while the race perlonga Blais. is more elongate, 
polished and shining. Schivarzi Blais. has a differently formed 



390 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

pronotiim and is on the whole more robust as regards the 
dorso-ventral thickness of the body. Nevadensis Blais. is more 
slender, very dull and alutaceous in surface luster. 

Neobaphion Blaisdell, new genus 

This genus is proposed to receive Eleodes planipenms Lee. 
The genital characters are embaphionoid and the body form 
that of an Eleodes. It is therefore to be placed between Eleodes 
Esch. and Embaphion Say. in our lists. Since the Monograph 
on the Eleodiini (Bull. 63, U. S. Nat. Mus.) was written, at 
least three new species have been studied, unfortunately as 
uniques, but all referable to the genus as given above. For 
further data consult the above cited monograph. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 17, pp. 391-425 September 24, 1925 



XVII 

NEW HEMIPTERA FROM WESTERN NORTH 

AMERICA 

BY 

EDWARD P. VAN DUZEE 
Curator, Department of Entomology 

The present paper contains the descriptions of 41 new spe- 
cies and subspecies of western Hemiptera. In great part these 
represent species that have accumulated through the field 
work of the curator of the department of entomology, in Cali- 
fornia and neighboring states. Their study has been inciden- 
tal to the determination of the Hemiptera in the collection of 
the Academy, during the past five years, and are now pub- 
lished so the names can be used in work now in progress on 
our interesting western insect fauna. 

1. Vanduzeeina calif ornica Van Duzee, new species 

Larger and less hairy than balli with a longer and more 
parallel head ; testaceous brown, closely fuscopunctate, apex 
of scutellum with an oblong pale spot. Length 6-7 mm. 

Head as wide between the eyes as long, but slightly narrowed apically, 
sides nearly rectilinear ; cheeks shorter than tylus, their surface depressed 
next the prominent median portion of the tylus, their apex roundedly 
truncate ; bucculae high and subacutely angled as in balli. Sides of pro- 
notum distinctly sinuate anteriorly, the anterior angles prominent ; in 
balli nearly rectilinear or very feebly arcuated ; transverse median impres- 

September 24, 1925 



392 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

sion feeble. Upper surface less convex transversely than in halli. Punc- 
tures on venter hardly as close as on dorsum, the median line smooth. 
Vestiture short, gray. Rostrum attaining apex of second ventral segment. 
Color soiled testaceous brown, closely fuscopunctate, the head, pro- 
notum and connexivum more or less tinged with rufous ; lower surface 
of head and sides of pectus nearly black; apex of scutellum with an 
oblong pale spot, rounded anteriorly and widened on hind margin, spar- 
ingly fuscopunctate and often outlined with fuscous ; dorsum sometimes 
with a slender median white line more or less complete ; pronotum 
usually with a pale point either side before the black annular callosities ; 
expanded anterior angles pale ; connexivum annulate at base of each 
segment. Antennae fuscous, the incisures pale. Legs fuscous, the knees 
and tarsi pale. 

Described from four male and three female specimens taken 
at Cisco, Calif., July, 1911, by Dr. Charles von Geldern and 
one taken by Dr. E. C. Van Dyke in Yosemite Valley Park, 
June 26, 1921. 

The larger size, short sparse vestiture, sinuated pronotal 
margins, more parallel head and pale apical spot on scutellum 
will distinguish this species. As in allied scutellerids the male 
is more uniform in coloration with the pale markings more or 
less obsolete. 

Type: Male, No. 1748, and allotype, female, No. 1749, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected in July, 1911, by Dr. Chas. von 
Geldern, at Cisco, Calif. 

2. Vanduzeeina borealis Van Duzee, new species 

Differs from californica in being larger, in having the 
cheeks more convex with their margins more acute and over- 
hanging, and the disk of the pronotum more feebly, trans- 
versely impressed. The specimens at hand, two females, 
show a more distinct percurrent pale median carina above and 
the apical pale spot on the scutellum is scarcely indicated and 
is more triangular in form. Anterior pronotal angles more 
rounded, the humeral angles bounded by deeper depressions. 
Length 7.5-8 mm. 

Described from two females, one taken by Mr. Wheeler at 
Emerald Lake, B. C, August 15, 1915. the other from Golden, 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 393 

B. C. This should perhaps be considered as a subspecies of 
calif ornica but it has the aspect of a distinct species. 

Type: Female, No. 1750, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected 
August 15, 1915, at Emerald Lake, B. C. Allotype in author's 
collection. 



3. Margus repletus Van Duzee, new species 

Size and aspect of ohscurator Fabr., but with legs and an- 
tennae more robust, surface more strongly dotted with fuscous, 
tylus more rounded and less prominent and the spines of the 
antenniferous tubercles more acute. Length 8 mm. 

Head a little longer than broad across the eyes ; ocelli more distant than 
in ohscurator, obviously nearer the eye than to the median line; tylus 
scarcely exceeding the cheeks, rounded, not compressed and prominent as 
in ohscurator. Antennas stout ; segment I as long as head to hind margin 
of eye, one-fourth as wide as long, strongly narrowed on basal third; 
segments II and III subequal to I, IV a little shorter and thicker than III ; 
tooth on antenniferous tubercle terete, exceeding the tubercle by width 
of segment II. Pronotum narrower than in ohscurator, the expanded sides 
recurved, anterior angles broader and more obtuse ; median line sub- 
carinate behind the transverse depression ; nervures of membrane stout, 
strongly anastomosing as in inconspicuns; whole upper surface strongly 
punctured, each puncture with a short golden hair. Rostrum attaining 
anterior line of intermediate coxae. Male genital segment shorter, vertical, 
broadly sinuate at apex. 

Color testaceous gray, tinged with yellowish on head and connexivum ; 
maculated and strongly punctured with fuscous, including the legs and 
antennse, the connexivum and tibiae alternated with darker areas ; beneath 
pale, dotted with rufous or fuscous, these punctures forming a row on 
hind edge of each ventral segment ; vertex showing a pale median mark 
at base and two raised spots either side of base of tylus ; tip of antennae 
rufescent. 

Described from one male taken in Palm Cafion, San Jacinto 
Mts., Calif., at 2000 feet elevation, June 12, 1909, by Mr. 
Fordyce Grinnell. In Stal's key this runs to nigropunctatus 
but differs in several particulars. 

Type: Male, No. 1751, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Fordyce Grinnell June 12, 1909, in Palm Canon, San Jacinto 
Mts., California. 



394 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

4. Cydamus abditus Van Duzee, new species 

Allied to fcmoralis and like that species with a long black- 
tipped spine at each humeral angle and at apex of scutellum; 
testaceous yellow, tergum, membrane, and apical segment of 
antennce castaneous or black. Length 6-7 mm. 

Head narrowed behind the eyes, as long there as half the width of the 
vertex between the eyes; cheeks not meeting over the tylus. Segment I of 
antennae attaining apex of head; II and III subequal; IV a little shorter 
than II and III together, but little thinner than anterior femora, tapering 
to either end. Rostrum attaining hind coxae; segment I much thickened, 
reaching posterior line of eyes; II twice longer than III and IV together; 
III one half of IV. Pronotum oblong, a fourth longer than wide, together 
with the head closely punctate ; a broad transverse impunctate area covers 
the callosities ; humeral spines erect, acute, as long as width across the 
ocelli. Scutellum narrow, smooth, with a marginal row of punctures; 
apical spine erect, as long as the humeral. Elytra coarsely punctate, 
reaching apex of third abdominal segment; clavus with three regular rows 
of punctures ; corium with two strong veins, the areoles edged with a 
row of coarse punctures ; membrane a mere margin to the oblique apex 
of the corium. Abdomen smooth and polished. Osteolar canal auriculate, 
prominent. 

Color testaceous-yellow, paler beneath ; membrane, broad vitta on ter- 
gum, genital segment and humeral and scutellar spines black ; eyes and 
apical segment of antennae castaneous, the latter paler at either end; 
antennae and legs faintly punctate with dusky ; tip of rostrum black. 

Described from two male and five female examples taken by 
me from under stones at Nogales, Arizona, April 3, 1921. In 
structural characters this species is allied to femoralis but it is 
very distinct otherwise. 

Type: Male, No. 1752, and allotype, female. No. 1753, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, April 3, 1921, 
at Nogales, Arizona. 

5. Lygidea essigi Van Duzee, new species 

Closely related to ohscura Renter, a little broader, darker 
colored, head fuller and antennae thicker. Length 6 mm. 

Male: Vertex strongly convex, highly polished, basal carina slender, 
with a deep depression before it, median line very feebly impressed ; 
clypeus less prominent than in obscura, its basal incisure shallow ; eyes 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 395 

smaller than in obscura. Antennae stouter; segment I a fifth longer than 
width of vertex ; II nearly three times as long as I and distinctly more 
slender; III and IV together more than half of II, IV a third of III. 
Rostrum reaching on to base of hind coxae. Pronotum broader before than 
in obscura, the rounded anterior angles attaining outer third of eyes ; trans- 
versely depressed behind the prominent polished callosities; sides slightly 
concave, hind margin distinctly emarginate ; surface behind the transverse 
impressed line closely deeply punctate ; elytra distinctly widened to near 
apex of corium, parallel in obscura. Sinistral clasper much as in obscura, 
stouter, dorsal member longer and more curved, ventral member meeting 
the dextral clasper in an almost straight line, not at an angle as in the 
related species. 

Color black; cheeks, except at base, a very obscure median line on 
vertex, a broader one on posterior lobe of pronotum, collum and cuneus, 
except at apex, pale yellowish ; vestiture pale, rather conspicuous on 
scutellum and elytra; membrane deep smoky and a pale annulus at apex 
of areole ; legs and beneath pale yellow with a broad black vitta either 
side, covering most of the genital segment; apex of femora and tips of 
tibi.e fuscous, the tarsi mostly black; antennae black; rostrum mostly pale. 
Described from the unique type. 

It is impossible to identify this with Lygidea morio Rent., a 
species still unknown to me in nature. 

Type: Male, No. 1754, Mtis. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Prof. E. O. Essig, May 19, 1922, at Los Altos, Santa Clara Co., 
California. 



6. Camptobrochis slevini Van Duzee, new species 

Size and aspect of rnUvcntris Knight but belonging to his 
group II having the scutellum punctate and the arolia without 
a deep cleft. Apparently allied to atriventris Knight but dif- 
fering in many respects; deep black, cuneus red, head and 
scutellum opaque, rugose-punctate. Length 5 mm. 

Male: Head one-half as wide as base of pronotum; closely rastrate- 
punctate and opaque, with sparse white hairs. Segment I of antennae 
much exceeding the head, II stout, two and a half times as long as I; 
III and IV wanting in type. Pronotum with coarse shallow punctures ; 
hind margin broadly emarginate, the humeri scarcely retreating; sides 
ecarinate. Scutellum flattish, opaque, closely rugose-punctate including 
the basal lobe. Elytra closely, finely punctate, the embolium confined to 
basal third and scarcely reflexed ; cuneus closely rugose-subpunctate. 



396 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Rostrum attaining apex of hind coxse; mesosternum and pleura? in part 
opaque. Sinistral notch of male genital segment rounded, the sinistral 
clasper broad, flattened and rugose, its apex becoming terete and curved 
under around apex of segment. 

Color black, moderately polished ; the head, collum and scutellum 
opaque or scarcely shining; base of vertex, tip of scutellum, middle of 
tibiae and most of tarsi testaceous; thickened inner margin of corium 
beyond tip of clavus and the cuneus red, the latter with basal and apical 
angles blackish; margin of acetabulae and osteolar region vvhitish. De- 
scribed from the unique type. 

In size, form and coloring this species recalls Pocciloscytus 
venaticns. It is somewhat aberrant in this genus but does not 
better fit into any other. 

Type: Male, No. 1755, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
Mr. L. S. Slevin, September 18, 1920, at Carmel, California. 
It affords me pleasure to dedicate this species to its discoverer. 



7. Strongylocoris unifcrmis Van Duzee, new species 

Allied to rohiistns Uhler, but with the legs and antennas 
entirely black and wnth different male genitalia. Length 4 mm. 

Vertex convex and highly polished ; clypeus a little shorter than in 
rohustus; antennae a little shorter and more robust. Dextral male clasper 
forming a semicircle vertically but without lateral curvature, within 
widened in a bluntly rounded lobe at basal third, and at distal third 
armed with a very acute tooth, the long slender apical member acute, 
becoming castaneous at tip. Sinistral clasper small, slender, its acute apex 
sharply incurved over the sedeagus. 

Color deep polished black, apical half of the antennae becoming fuscous, 
membrane deep fuliginous toward its apex with a paler mark at apex of 
cuneus. Antennae and sides of pronotum and elytra with a few brown 
hairs. 

Described from two males and eleven females taken on sage 
brush at Heber, Utah, July 5, 1922. The almost uniform 
black color and long, acutely produced dextral male clasper 
will distinguish this species. 

Type: Male, No. 1756, and allotype, female, No. 1757, taken 
by E. P. Van Duzee, July 5, 1922, at Heber, Utah. 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 397 

8. Largidea pudica Van Duzee, new species 

A little larger than fnarginata; polished luteous-brown, 
slightly tinged with red, the cuneus red ; vertex, mark on pro- 
notum and the antennae blackish. Length 4.5 mm. 

Male : Head larger with the eyes more prominent than in marginata. 
Antennae about as in marginata; segment I a little longer than the vertex 
when viewed from above ; II as long as head and pronotum together ; 
III and IV slender, together nearly one-half of II. Pronotum a half 
wider than long, more convex above than in marginata, the sides less 
strongly carinate and nearly rectilinear ; hind edge more broadly exca- 
vated ; surface less closely punctured. Scutellum broader and more convex 
with the sides steep, the depressed tip acute ; punctures subobsolete. Elytral 
punctures larger, more distant and becoming subobsolete. Rostrum 
scarcely surpassing middle of mesosternum. Surface sparsely clothed 
with cinerous appressed hairs which become denser on callosities and 
vertex. 

Color a lurid luteous-brown ; apex of tylus and cheeks, a narrow median 
cloud or two crescentic vittae on face, region of callosities and basal lobe 
of scutellum black; antennae reddish fuscous, the base of segment I 
clearer red ; hind edge of pronotum pallid ; cuneus red ; membrane faintly 
smoky, the veins fuscous ; legs and abdomen in part reddish, the tarsi, 
rostrum and mesosternum blackish. 

Described from two males, one taken by me at Colestin, 
Oregon, the other taken by Mr. W. M. Giffard at Tallac, Cali- 
fornia, August 22, 1916. The polished surface and luteous- 
brown color gives this species quite a different aspect from 
marginata. 

Type: Male, No. 1758, Mus. Cahf. Acad. Sci., taken by E. P. 
Van Duzee, August 1, 1918, at Colestin, Oregon. Paratype in 
collection of the author. 



9. Orthotylus plucheae Van Duzee, new species 

Allied to hamatus, smaller with different male genitalia, 
base of tylus with a dark spot ; pale greenish, tinged with yel- 
low, membrane faintly smoky, segment I of antennae dusky in 
male. Length 4.5-5 mm. 

General characters essentially those of hamatus, the pronotum more 
convex and more narrowed before, with its sides distinctly concavely 
arcuated. Sinistral male clasper terete, reaching but about half way to 



398 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

apex of genital segment, exceeded by the brown chitinized spine-like 
ventral member. Dextral clasper ligulate, curved over and considerably 
passing the middle of the segment, its truncate apex with a minute sharp 
ventral tooth, its dorsal edge notched at basal third and armed there with 
a short parallel tooth. In hamatiis the sinistral clasper is much larger 
and more slender and pointed, and the dorsal notch of the dextral clasper 
is larger with a longer tooth. Rostrum attaining hind edge of meso- 
sternum. 

Color pale yellowish green, minutely white-pubescent; antennae of male 
dusky with the inner face of segment I pale ; membrane faintly but obvi- 
ously smoky, with pale veins; tip of tarsi and of the rostrum black. 

Described from 6 males and 3 females taken on Pluchea 
sericea at Potholes, Imperial Co., California, April 13, 1923. 
This is very close to hamatits but the smaller size and much 
less developed male genitalia would seem to indicate specific 
distinction. 

Type: Male, No. 1759, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, April 13, 1923, at Potholes, California. 



10. Orthotylus demensus Van Duzee, new species 

Size and aspect of languidus but with thicker antennae, 
shorter pubescence and different male genitalia. Length 5 mm. 

Male : Head as long as in languidtis. Antennae thicker ; segment I 
scarcely as long as distance between the eyes; II three times as long as I 
and nearly as stout; III and IV wanting on material before me. Pronotum 
21/2 times as wide as long, sides rectilinear or scarcely concave (in lan- 
guidus fully half as long as wide, with sides concave). .Elytra parallel. 
Rostrum not attaining intermediate coxae. Sinistral clasper transversely 
developed, dorsal member attaining upper plane of segment, broad, sub- 
parallel, rounded at apex ; ventral member narrow, acute, produced back- 
ward making the apical line of the clasper oblique and nearly rectilinear. 
Dextral clasper nearly square, the dorsal basal angle rounded, the dorsal 
apical acutely incurved. Vestiture soft and white but shorter than in 
languidus. 

Color pale yellowish green or almost whitish, the fuscous mesonotum 
showing through the pronotum ; basal lobe of scutellum tinged with ful- 
vous ; elytra more greenish, the veins clear pea-green, areoles sprinkled 
with green dots at base of the hairs ; membrane very slightly enf umed 
and iridescent; antennae and legs yellowish, tips of tarsi black. 



\ OL. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 2D9 

Type: Male, No. 1760, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
C. A. Hill, July 8, 1917, at Prescott, Arizona. Paratypes, two 
males, same data. 



11. Orthotylus cupressi Van Dtizee, new species 

Dusky green with fulvous scutellum; surface clothed with 
rather long- black hairs; outer half of membrane deeply infus- 
cated, cut by a white spot at apex of areole. Length 5 mm. 

Male : Head broad, convex above, somewhat obscuring the basal carina ; 
clypeus but moderately prominent. Rostrum attaining apex of hind coxae. 
Pronotum short, twice wider than long, regularly arcuate before. Scutel- 
lum, large, rather convex. Elytra nearly parallel, the costa but feebly 
arcuated. Sinistral clasper developed transversely in an open crescent, 
its dorsal member about twice longer than its basal thickness, acute at 
apox ; ventral member broadly obliquely truncate at apex, its upper angle 
forming a short curved hook, its lower curved and very acute, nearly 
attaining the base of the dextral clasper ; the latter, also, subcrescentic, 
its ventral member ligulate with its twisted truncated apex at median line 
of the segment, its dorsal member forming a short erect acute tooth. 

Color a dull, almost an olive, green, paler toward the costa, the tylus 
and front of pronotum tinged with yellow ; cuneus paler with a whitish 
cloud at base ; membrane infuscated, its outer half, including the areoles, 
darker with a pale mark at apex of the areole; tergum black; beneath 
paler, the mesosternum tinged with fulvous-brown ; legs and antennae 
yellowish green, clothed with short black hairs ; apical two segments of 
antennae infuscated, the tarsi becoming black at apex. 

Described from one male and three female examples taken 
by me on Sargeant's Cypress growing on "Cypress Ridge" at 
Fairfax, Marin Co., Calif., April 30, 1922, and May 11, 1919. 
This species is very distinct from any heretofore described. 
Its dark green color, fulvous scutellum, heavy black vestiture 
and infuscated membrane will distinguish it, while the male 
claspers are unlike those of any other species known to me. 
It has slightly the aspect of an Ilnocora but does not pertain to 
that genus. 

Type: Male, No. 1761, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, April 30, 1922, at Fairfax, California. 



400 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

12. Orthotylus contrastus Van Duzee, new species 

Form and aspect somewhat of Teratocoris discolor Uhler. 
Large, elongate-ovate; black; legs, median line on pronotum, 
and elytra whitish, the latter with a large fuscous mark on 
apex of corium. Length 6 mm. 

Female : Head short, polished ; clypeus unusually prominent ; antennae 
long; segment I as long as head viewed from side; II four times as long 
as I ; III not quite one half of II ; IV missing in type. Pronotum cam- 
panulate ; sides strongly concave, the constriction farther back than in 
affinis; callosities convex, polished ; posterior lobe and scutellum minutely, 
transversely rastrate-shagreened. Elytra widened to apex of corium. 

Color dull black; head and callosities polished; apex of cheeks and 
collum ferruginous; orbits of eyes above, median vitta on posterior lobe 
of pronotum and elytra obscure whitish; base of clavus and an irregular 
spot on apex of corium black, the latter mark extended anteriorly next 
the costal nervure and on discal areole, outer margin of clavus dusky; 
cuneus with a blackish mark on inner edge near apex ; membrane smoky ; 
paler along middle and at apex of cuneus, the pale nervures margined 
with darker; rostrum, except apex, legs and disk of venter pale; extreme 
base and apex of tibiae and the tarsi dusky. Described from the unique 
type. 

This large black and white species is so distinct from any 
other described form it seems safe to found the species upon 
a unique female. 

Type: Female, No. 1762, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 8, 1922, on Mt. Timpanogos, Utah, at 
an elevation of nearly 8,000 feet. 

13. Parthenicus brunneus Van Duzee, new species 

A slender testaceous-brown species, obscurely irrorate with 
sanguineous ; membrane deeply infuscated, with paler areoles. 
Length 4 mm. 

Male : Vertex rather flat ; clypeus small but prominent and much com- 
pressed; segment I of antennae a little longer than basal width of vertex; 
II tive times the length of I ; III and IV together equal to II. Pronotum 
sca'-cely twice wider than long. Elytra narrow, parallel, the costa 
scarcely arcuated. Legs long for the genus, the hind femora proportion- 
ately narrower ; hind tibia; nearly as long as the corium. Male claspers 
small and obscure. 



^'0L. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 4QI 

Color light testaceous-brown, sparsely irrorate with irregular sangui- 
neous blotches, these becoming fuscous dots on the pronotum ; head and 
anterior area of pronotum yellowish, obscurely irrorate with red ; region 
of callosities more or less infuscated; membrane quite deeply infuscated, 
veins dotted with red, the areoles and adjacent spots at apex of cuncus 
paler ; vestiture consisting of black scale-like hairs and longer pale hairs 
along costa, on sides of pronotum and on vertex ; antennae paler toward 
base ; segment I with a brown dot near base beneath ; pectoral pieces and 
coxse without irrorations ; venter irrorate with red ; femora irrorate with 
brown, the posterior more closely so ; tibiae with large brown dots ; tarsal 
claws black. 

Described from two male and three female examples taken 
on Baccharis. The large eyes, elongate narrower form and 
long hind legs would ally this species with Argyrocoris but it 
is certainly a Parthenicus. The larger size, darker color, black 
scale-like vestiture, dotted hind femora and red dotting on 
elytra and veins of membrane will distinguish this species from 
haccharidis Knight. 

Type: Male, No. 1763, and allotype, female, No. 1764, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, September 
9, 1917, at Berkeley, California. Paratypes, same data. 



14. Parthenicus sabulosus Van Duzee, new species 

Related to soror but allied to candidus by the spotted mem- 
brane ; soiled white irrorate with croceous or brown ; mem- 
brane coarsely, conspicuously dotted. Length 3.5 mm. 

Male : Head broader than in soror with smaller eyes ; pronotum broader 
anteriorly ; elytral costa feebly arcuated. Rostrum reaching well on to the 
base of the venter. Claspers larger than in soror, the dextral forming 
more than a half circle, its apex elbowed at the median line of the genital 
segment with its incurved tip slender and very acute. 

Color whitish tinged with yellow on the head ; pronotum and elytra 
sparsely and sometimes obscurely dotted with croceous or pale san- 
guineous, these dots becoming brownish at times ; region of callosities 
and base of scutellum more or less infuscated ; membrane white, coarsely 
and sparsely dotted with fuscous, with two marginal clouds beyond apex 
of cuneus; beneath sparsely dotted with sanguineous with a lateral fus- 
cous vitta on venter ; antennae slightly darker at apex ; segment I with a 
faint subapical annulus ; femora minutely dotted with fuscous beyond 
the middle, the posterior more heavily so, forming a fuscous cloud there 



402 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

which omits the tip ; vestiture silvery, becoming golden along claval 
suture, on cuneus and about callosities; a tuft of black scales at apex of 
clavus and two more on apical margin of cuneus. 

Described from two males and 11 females taken on Arte- 
mesia. This species, with aridits Knight and canescens Van 
D., have coarsely dotted white membranes. 

Type: Male, No. 1765, and allotype, female, No. 1766, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, July 1, 1922, 
at Salt Lake City, Utah. Paratypes, same data. 



15. Parthenicus pallidicollis Van Duzee, new species 

Closely allied to picicollis Van D. but paler in color with the 
pronotum mostly whitish ; largely sanguineous with the hind 
femora and scutellum darker and the pronotum pale. Length 
4.5 mm. 

Male : Vertex broader and fuller with the eyes smaller than in pici- 
collis; segment II of antennae slightly longer than basal width of prono- 
tum, the latter obviously longer with the sides less oblique than in pici- 
collis. Elytral costa distinctly arcuated, in picicollis essentially straight. 
Claspers about as in picicollis, the subapical ventral tooth of the dextral 
less prominent. 

Color above soiled creamy white, the elytra more or less washed or 
blotched and irrorate with sanguineous, more conspicuously so on base 
of cerium and on the cuneus, inner angle of corium with a pale fuscous 
cloud more or less distinct ; clypeus, cheeks and arcs of front more or 
less sanguineous ; antennae pale, segment I tinged with red ; pronotum 
pale or lurid, more or less irrorate with red about the borders, becoming 
piceous-red on sides inf eriorly and sometimes across the callosities ; scu- 
tellum dark piceous-red; membrane deeply infuscated as in picicollis 
but with a distinct pale lunule at apex of cuneus which is only indicated 
in its ally, veins red, usually with a white mark at apex of larger areole; 
beneath and hind femora piceous-red, more or less irrorate with pale ; 
tibiae pale with rather large red dots ; antennae pale, segment I red, pale 
at apex. III and IV slightly infuscated; coxae and rostrum infuscated; 
vestiture of short golden scales and longer pale hairs on head, sides of 
pronotum and base of costa. Described from 30 examples representing 
both sexes. 

This species may be distinguished from rubromaculosus 
Knight (1925) by the larger size, deep red scutellum sides of 



Vol. XIV] VAN DU ZEE— NEW HEMIPTERA 403 

pronotum and hind femora, and the pale fuscous color on inner 
field of corium. 

Type: Male, No. 1767, and allotype, female, No. 1768, Mas. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, July 23, 1918, 
at McCloud, Siskiyou Co., California. Paratypes, same data. 

16. Parthenicus discalis Van Duzee, new species 

Near covillccu Van D., and running to that species in my 
key of 1918; antennas longer, lower surface and femora 
sanguineous. Length 3.75 mm. 

Head about as in picicollis, distinctly more produced than in covillece, 
its length beyond the eye about equal to the length of the eye ; antennae 
distinctly longer than in covillee, as long as the elytra to tip of cuneus; 
segment II five times the length of I. 

Color pale croceous ; apex of head, segment I of antennae, its extreme 
tip excepted, deflexed sides of pronotum, scutellum and femora except 
ai base, dark sanguineous ; base of elytra, a cloud on inner angle of corium 
touching apex of clavus and extended down the commissure to base of 
membrane, cuneus and beneath, lighter sanguineous or slightly irrorate 
with pale; sternum, coxae and rostrum pale; tibise and tarsi pale, the 
former with a few sanguineous dots; claws black; membrace deep fus- 
cous with an obvious pale lunule at apex of cuneus, the veins san- 
guineous ; antennae, except segment I, whitish scarcely dotted with red ; IV 

somewhat infuscated ; pale surface above showing no red irrorations. 

« 

Described from three females. These specimens are with- 
out a hairy vestiture. 

Type: Female, No. 1769, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, October 18, 1917, on Mt. Wilson, California. 
Paratypes, same data. 



17. Parthenicus grex Van Duzee, new species 

Allied to psall aides and junipcri, larger, testaceous-yellow, 
the elytral pigment coagulated in spots and varied with small 
sanguineous blotches; membrane slightly enfumed, with a 
darker spot beyond the cuneus. Length 4.5 mm. 

Macropterous male : Head broadly convex across vertex, the impres- 
sion at base of clypeus not as deep as in the allied species; clypeus com- 



404 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

pressed and subacute at tip. Antennae long; segment I surpassing clypeus 
by a third its length, linear; II three times I; III and IV together equal 
to II. Rostrum reaching to middle of venter. Pronotum but slightly 
convex, trapezoidal, sides straight, anterior margin one half the posterior. 
Elytral costa gently arcuated; surface clothed with short golden pubes- 
cence intermixed with a feW black hairs across apex of corium, on inner 
margin of cuneus and at apex of clavus; costa and pronotal margins 
with longer golden hairs ; vertex and pronotum anteriorly with a few 
silvery scale-like hairs. Claspers large ; sinistral subterete, curved about 
the margin of the segment, abruptly slender, acuminate and incurved 
beyond the middle ; dextral slender, curved, abruptly oblique and acumi- 
nate at tip; both fringed above with long pale straight hairs. 

Color testaceous-yellow, more or less tinged with croceous, especially 
on head and hind femora, the color on the elytra apparently coagulated ; 
the elytra dotted with irregular sanguineous blotches and points which 
may be mostly absent, but are more persistent along costa ; membrane 
faintly enfumed with a darker cloud beyond tip of cuneus and a fainter 
one at apex ; veins yellowish with a few sanguineous points ; antennae 
pale, subinfuscated at apex; beneath paler; tip of rostrum and tarsal 
claws black; hind tibiae with obscure sanguineous points, eyes red. 

Described from three males and four females. Three of the 
latter are brachypterous, being broad-oval, with membrane 
scarcely exceeding apex of cuneus. 

Type: Male, No. 1770, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, August 21, 1919, at Stockton, California. 
Paratypes, same data. 



18. Cixius vandykei Van Duzee, new species 

Allied to hasalis, distinguished by its broader and more 
setose elytra, narrower vertex and different male genitalia. 
Length 5-6 mm. 

Head more produced than in basalts; vertex nearly as long on its 
median line as wide at base, (in basalis scarcely one half as long as wide), 
at apex subacutely angled ; apical compartments narrower, their outer 
angles more produced posteriorly; base of vertex more deeply elliptically 
excavated. Pronotum narrower and more produced before, its hind mar- 
gin more deeply, acutely excavated ; lateral carinae of mesonotum more 
distant and outwardly arcuate than in basalis. Elytra shorter and broader, 
with the costa strongly and almost regularly arcuate; inner sector (radial 
vein) forked a little farther from base than in basalis, all veins heavily 
dotted, with longer black setae. Front more narrowed at base, with the sides 



Vol. XIV] VAN DU ZEE— NEW HEMIPTERA 405 

straight nearly to apical angles. Expanded apex of male plates longer 
and more rounded ; anal teeth of pygofer short, more divergent, not long 
and parallel as in ba^alis. 

Color paler, testaceous-yellow, clouded with piceous-brown or fulvous- 
brown on head and thorax ; front and clypeus quite uniformly brownish, 
the carinae paler, the lateral with small pale spots at apex of front ; 
elytra hyaline, feebly milky white, veins strongly dotted with fuscous and 
more or less marked with the same color in the female, mostly in the 
form of a large discal spot, sometimes forming a longitudinal cloud on 
clavus which may cover more or less of the cerium ; beneath and legs 
pale, the femora with a faint brown subapical cloud. 

Described from two males and four females taken as fol- 
lows: Lag^mitas Caiion, April 23, 1916 (E. C. Van Dyke) ; 
Lagunitas, July 4, 1909 (Van, Dyke) ; Muir Woods, July 19, 
1914, and Ross, July 7. 1921 (E. P. Van Duzee) ; Mt. Tamal- 
pais, June 23, 1918 (E. P. Van Duzee), all in Marin Co., 
Calif.; Berkeley, Calif., July 30, 1922 (J. O. Martin). 

Type: Male, No. 1771, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 7, 1921, at Ross, California; allotype, 
female, No. 1772, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. C. 
Van Dyke, July 4, 1909, at Lagunitas, Calif. 



19. Cixius praecox Van Duzee, new species 

Very near cultus Ball but with the elytral nervures infus- 
cated, the radial and outer branch of ulnar veins forked on the 
same line (in cultus the radial forks a little basad of the outer 
ulnar) ; lateral pronotal carinse bent abruptly where they touch 
the hind margin (in cultus forming a more rounded angle) ; 
male plates more arched, uniting in an almost circular arc (in 
cultus angularly connivent) ; apical member a little broader 
and more oblique ; sides of ventral sinus of pygofers more ob- 
lique, with the basal tooth larger than in cultus; front propor- 
tionately longer than in cultus. Length 5 mm. 

Color essentially as in cultus; elytra more whitish opaque, 
the cross nervures and apices of all veins marked with fuscous ; 
costa and commissure typically alternated with obscure fus- 
cous ; stigma fuscous, white at base. Veins undotted. 

Type: Male, No. 1773, and allotype, female, No. 1774, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by G. F. Moznette, March 14, 1915, 



406 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



at Corvallis, Oregon. Paratypes, one female, same data ; one 
female, Shasta Co., Calif., July 17, 1921 (J. A. Kusche), and 
one male and two females taken by Mr. W. Downes at Ver- 
non, B. C, Sept. 27, 1919, and Enderby, B. C, Oct. 10, 1920. 



20. QEcleus subrefiiexus Van Duzee, new species 

Apparently allied to addendus Dist., aspect of fidvidorsum 
but with the elytral nervures nearly impunctate and the costa 
slightly expanded at base. Length 5 mm. 

Vertex about as in fulvidorsiim but more narrowed to the base, but 
little exceeding the eyes; front broad below, regularly narrowing to the 
base, more abruptly to the apex where it is about twice wider than at 
base; carina prominent, the median nearly obsolete at base. Pronotum 
short, angularly excavated behind ; mesonotum with five distinct carinse. 
Elytra wider than in the allied species with a broader costal areole, the 
margin at base narrowly explanate exterior to the costal vein. Genital 
segment of male shallowly notched with a slender, almost linear, median 
tooth, which slightly exceeds the sides of the segment; stiles much as in 
fulvidorsiim but quite strongly connivent at apex. 

Color creamy white; claspers fuscous or nearly so; middle line of vertex 
blackish; mesonotum fulvous varied with brown; elytra obscurely fusco- 
hyaline; nervures white with scattering black setae, in the male those 
toward the apex springing from brown points ; abdomen more or less 
overspread with black. 

Described from seven male and four female examples taken 
on Plnchea sericea at Potholes, Imperial County, California, 
April 7-13, 1923. Allied to fiilvidorsum by the characters of 
the vertex, front, mesonotum and male genitalia; separable 
by the almost undotted elytral nervures and the narrowly ex- 
panded costa. CEclcus siiowi Ball is a much larger and 
broader species of a more fulvous color and broader costal ex- 
pansion. Of this latter species I took one pair in copula at 
Potholes, Calif., resting on a poplar bush. A few sj^ecimens 
of snhreflexiis taken April 8 were found on Atriplex. 

Type: Male, No. 1775, and allotype, female, No. 1776, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, April 13, 1923, 
at Potholes, Calif. 



Vol. XIV] VAM DU ZEE— NEW HEMIPTERA 4Q7 

21. Pissonotus giffardi Van Duzee, new species 

Very close to dclicatus but distinguishable by the distinctly 
longer legs and different male genitalia. Length, brachypter- 
ous fonn, male, 2.5 mm., female, 3.5 mm. 

Male: Vertex scarcely longer than broad, feebly arcuate before; lat- 
eral carinae sharp, well elevated; median obscure; apical fovse obvious. 
Front twice longer than broad, sides very feebly arcuate, almost parallel ; 
carinse prominent, the median obscurely forked a little above the lower 
angle of the eyes. Carinae of clypeus prominent, the median obsolete 
near base. Antennae long, surpassing tip of clypeus, clothed with mmute 
black hairs; basal segment as long as width of front; second about one 
third longer. Pronotum nearly as long as vertex, truncate behind ; carinae 
prominent, the lateral attaining hind margin, the fovae deep, about a third 
wider at base than at apex. In delicatus the lateral carinae are more 
oblique and do not quite reach the hind margin of pronotum. Mesonotum 
a little longer than pronotum ; median carina prominent, lateral distinct 
but slender. Elytra on commissure as long as pro- and mesonotum 
together, attaining apex of second tergal segment ; subcoriaceous, polished ; 
venation obscure. Legs very long, the hind tibiae as long as vertex, pro- 
and mesonotum and elytra combined, or even a little longer to tip of the 
shorter apical spines ; first segment of hind tarsi as long as width of head 
across the eyes. 

Aperture of male pygofers broad ovate, the sides forming an obtuse 
lobe either side ventrally ; the anal hooks long, following the margin of 
the pygofers, their black apex slender, curved outward and lying on the 
thickened base of the ventral opening; the ventral spines slender, black, 
lying near to and parallel with the apex of the anal hook; stiles short and 
broad, their length equal to their combined width, their broad rounded 
apices incurved and subcontiguous. Marginatus has the anal hooks equally 
long but their apices are thicker, pale and parallel, the ventral spines are 
represented by pale tubercles and the stiles are broad, flat, moderately 
divergent and truncate at apex. 

Color honey-yellow, paler on pronotum, across the apex of the front 
and on the breast and legs ; elytra strongly tinged with castaneous ; their 
apex white, usually marked at middle with a blackish spot in the males ; 
abdomen pale rufo-piceous in the male, the genital area whitish with a 
piceous cloud covering the stiles ; legs lineate with brown, the base with 
a spot exteriorly and the apex of the tarsi blackish; the usual black band 
covers the base of the fore coxae and clypeus and extends on to the pleural 
pieces. 

Described from 10 male and 20 female examples taken on 
tar weed near Grossmont, 17 miles east of San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, June 2, 1919, by Mr. W. M. Giffard. It gives me 

September 24, 1925 



408 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

pleasure to dedicate this species to Mr. Giffard who has done 
more than anyone else to ekicidate the delphacid fauna of 
Cahfornia. 

Type: Male, No. 1777, and allotype, female, No. 1778, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by W. M. Giffard, June 2, 1919, at 
Grossmont, California. 



22. Cyrtolobus pictus Van Duzee, new species 

Near inermis Emmons, agreeing with that species in the 
form of the dorsal crest, in the unicolorous pale green female 
and the strongly maculated male ; differing in the shorter pro- 
notum and in the markings of the male. Length 4-5 mm. 

Allied to van but smaller, dorsal crest lower with the anterior sinus 
scaicely indicated in the male; in the female with the crest more uni- 
formly arcuate with an anterior sinus ; apex of pronotum even shorter 
than in vati, not attaining tip of fourth apical vein; face not as flat as in 
van; smooth, polished, uneven, obscurely punctured toward apex of 
cheeks, incisures of clypeus deep, its apex rounded. Elytra hyaline, in 
male with veins heavy and fuscous, the apex with a small smoky cloud, 
about half of which lies on the apex of the areoles. Female without such 
cloud, the veins pale, concolorous ; surface sparsely clothed with short 
erect hairs. 

Color a uniform pale green in female ; male a clear greenish yellow on 
face pronotum, legs and margins of pleural pieces; face with a median 
vitta, a cloud either side and the clypeal sutures black ; pronotum with a 
mark above each eye, the apex and a broad triangular vitta behind the 
middle, black, including a dorsal yellow mark; anterior to this vitta is a 
broad vague oblique maculate area either side meeting above the humeri. 
These markings on the male leave the anterior portion of the pronotum, 
a ravher wide, oblique, median vitta, a dorsal spot more or less completely 
connecting with this vitta, and a wide transverse subapical band, yellow. 
In van this dark color is more extended with the included pale dorsal 
spot larger. Edges of abdominal segments and genital pieces mostly yellow. 
Femora black in the male, with their apices broadly yellow, the tibiae 
minutely dotted. 

Descriljed from 8 male and 12 female examples beaten from 
oaks growing along the canon of the south fork of the Provo 
River at Vivian Park, Utah. This species is really nearest to 
inennis Say and like that species might almost as properly be 
placed in subgenus y\tymna. The male may be distinguished 



Vol. XIV] VAM DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 409 

by the different and more extended yellow markings of the 
pronotum. In acutus, which was taken in company with this 
species, the female shows more maculation on the pronotum 
and the pale markings of the male are narrower and do not 
include the front of the pronotum. It is also larger and has 
the pronotum more pointed at apex. The females of pictiis 
differs but little from those of inermis and the female specimen 
from Ogden, Utah, recorded by me in my Studies on the Mem- 
bracidce (Bui. Buf. Soc. Nat. Sci., ix, p. 90, 1908) belongs 
here. 

Type: Male, No. 1779, and allotype, female, No. 1780. Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, July 7, 1922, 
at Vivian Park, Provo Cafion, Utah. 



23. Mesamia pagana Van Duzee, new species 

Near nervosa Osb. but with the submarginal black line on 
vertex with three interruptions and the costal area without 
supernumerary transverse veins. Length 4.25 mm. 

Male: Head almost as wide as prontum; vertex flat, anterior margin in 
a rounded arc, one-fourth longer at middle than at eye, edge acute and 
slightly reflexed. Pronotum nearly twice as long as vertex. Elytra not 
flaring at apex ; about six transverse veinlets between inner sector and 
claval suture; costal area without supernumerary veins; clypeus strongly 
widened at apex. Valve short, broadly arcuated; plates long-triangular, 
acute and slender at apex, edge long-ciliate. 

Color obscure greenish yellow varied with darker; vertex whitish on 
anterior and posterior margins ; anterior submargin with a heavy black 
line interrupted at middle and on either side; behind this is a dusky line 
which touches the other at either end. Face dusky yellow; front pale 
brown with paler arcs and a heavier black basal line ; cheeks with a longi- 
tudinal dusky line below the eyes; pronotum dusky greenish, yellowish 
anteriorly; scutellum yellow either side, the impressed line black; elytra 
greenish yellow, veins conspicuous, fuscous ; apex of claval areoles and 
narrow margin of membrane dusky, the claval suture with three large, 
vague, pale spots ; legs pale, posterior with tibial dots and apex of tibiae 
and tarsi black; abdomen black, marked with yellow, these markings form- 
ing a slender line on the hind ihargin of each segment ; a large testaceous 
spot either side on venter, the connexivum mostly yellow ; plates pale 
with a spot at base and sutural lines near apex fuscous. 



410 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Described from the unique type. Apparently allied to ner- 
vosa Osb. (Fla. Ent. VI, p. 20, 1922) but the want of costal 
transverse veins and the coloration will most quickly distin- 
guish it. 

Type: Male, No. 1781, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 24, 1922, at Kings Station, Davis Co., 
Utah. 



24. Mesamia diana Van Duzee, new species 

Larger than coloradeiisis with a flatter and more angled 
vertex; elytra strongly veined. Length 4.5 mm. 

Head scarcely narrower than pronotum ; vertex flat, anterior edge 
sharp, somewhat reflexed, strongly angled ; front a little broader than in 
coloradcnsis, sides more arcuated below; clypeus slightly widened to tip. 
Pronotum a fourth longer than vertex; elytra moderately flaring; inner 
sector connected with claval suture by numerous transverse veinlets ; 
costal areole with six to eight oblique veinlets, heavily marked with 
fuscous. 

Male valve short, subacute, angulate ; plates long-triangular, their acute 
tips surpassing the pygofers ; last ventral segment of female angularly 
excavated nearly to the middle, with a square, feebly bifid, median tooth ; 
pygofers broad spindle-shaped, nearly equalling the oviduct. 

Color cinereous tinged with yellow on vertex, anterior margin of prono- 
tum and scutellum, more marked in male; subapical line on vertex inter- 
rupted at middle where there is a triangular extension backwards either 
side of the median pale line; behind this a transverse dusky cloud con- 
necting the ocelli and obscuring the disk of the vertex; median incised 
line black at base. Face pale, more or less clouded with brown, espe- 
cially on base of front where a few pale arcs are discernible, extreme 
base with a concentric black line. Pronotum irrorate with brown and 
pale; scutellum dusky at basal angles, the incised line dark. Elytra milky- 
cinereous, the veins strong, fuscous, disk of areolesi mostly with fuscous 
cloud. Legs and beneath whitish, the pleurae marked with black ; tibial 
dots and apex of tibiae and tarsal joints black; venter pale yellow, hind 
margin of segments blackish. 

Described from one female and three males taken by me in 
San Diego County, California, as follows: Mussey's, August 
7, 1913 and April 12, 1914; Lakeside, May 7, 1913; Alpine, 
June 8, 1913. This species has the broad fomi of Aligia in- 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA ^l\ 

scripta but the flatter vertex with hooked siibmarginal Hne, 
and the strongly veined unclouded elytra will distinguish it. 

Type: Female, No. 1782, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, August 7, 1913, at Mussey's, San Diego Co., 
California. Allotype and paratypes in collection of the author. 



25. Aligia californica Van Duzee, new species 

Related to inscripta with a similarly angulated vertex; 
longer and more slender, quite uniformly inscribed with fus- 
cous. Length 5 mm. 

Female : Head distinctly wider than pronotum ; vertex flat, quite 
strongly angled before, typically two-thirds as long as pronotum but vary- 
ing to one half its length; front scarcely longer than wide, sides nearly 
rectilinear below antennae; clypeus slightly widened at apex. Hind margin 
of pronotum subangularly emarginate. Elytra four times as long as wide, 
with numerous transverse false veins, especially in costal, subapical and 
sutural areoles of corium. Last ventral segment produced on its median 
fourth with a linear central notch. 

Color pale testaceous, tinged with fulvous on vertex and scutellum ; 
vertex with a pair of small spots behind apex, another pair either side 
near base ; sometimes a point within the ocelli and a broken transverse 
band just behind the ocelli brown, the broad incised line black; front 
with obscure arcs, outer angles of lorae with black points ; pronotum mot- 
tled with brown, anteriorly pale with three large spots either side ; 
scutellum with two discal dots, a small lateral spot either side and a 
transverse band before the apex brown, the curved incised line black; 
elytra whitish, venation brown, becoming fuscous on costa and apex; 
commissural vein and tips of claval veins white, with a fuscous spot ante- 
rior to each white vein and one at apex indicated ; disk of a few of the 
areoles with vermiculate inscriptions ; beneath pale, slightly varied with 
brown ; anterior and intermediate femora bilineate ; tibiae with strong 
black dots ; pale spines of pygofers set in black points, sides of oviduct 
black. 

Male : Proportionately shorter than the female ; valve short, broadly 
angled ; plates acutely triangular, but little shorter than wide at base, 
sides straight. 

Described from 8 females, 7 of which were beaten from cha- 
parral and juniper bushes at Mill Creek Canon, San Bernar- 
dino Mountains. The other I took at Pine Hills, Cuyamaca 
Mountains, California, October 19, 1913. Three individuals 



412 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

have the vertex distinctly shorter but I fail tO' detect any spe- 
cific differences. Also two males: Colestin, Jackson Co., Ore- 
gon, August 1, 1918, and Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co., Cali- 
fornia, June 23, 1918. 

Of Aligia inscripta, in addition to the type, I have seen ex- 
amples from San Diego Co., Pasadena, Mt. Wilson, Stanford 
University, Mt. Tamalpais, Alameda, Cazadero, Bryson, and 
Cayton, California. These have the last ventral segment of 
the female about as in calif ornica but differ in their stouter 
form and banded elytra. 

Type: Female, No. 1783, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, September 22, 1923, in Mill Creek Canon, 
San Bernardino Mts., Calif.; allotype, male. No. 1784, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, August 1, 
1918, at Colestin, Oregon. 



26. Aligia colei Van Duzee, new species 

Related to calif oniica but more strongly colored with more 
produced vertex and truncate female segment. Length 5 mm. 

Head wider but scarcely shorter than pronotum, flat, produced in a 
right angle and subacute at tip, the margin rounded ; elytral venation 
conspicuous. Last ventral segment of female nearly truncate, the apex 
slightly produced and notched. Valve of male scarcely angled; plates 
somewhat longer than broad at base, becoming narrow at apex ; sides 
ooncavely arcuated, apices diverging, brown with pale basal area, the 
tips and bristles white. In this species the sides of the front are a little 
more arcuated and the clypeus is wider than in californica. 

Color testaceous tinged with fulvous on vertex, scutellum and anterior 
margin of pronotum; markings of vertex as in californica with the three 
pairs of points larger, one pair at apex and one next each eye; pronotum 
with a whitish longitudinal median line ; markings of scutellum as in 
californica but darker; elytra whitish hyaline with heavy fuscous vena- 
tion ; a transverse dusky band at middle and another before apex some- 
times indicated ; commissure with three white areas followed by fuscous 
marks against the tips of the nervures ; apex of membrane more or less 
clouded with dark; beneath pale varied with fuscous; anterior femora 
biannulate with fuscous before, the intermediate with a subapical annulus; 
face with distinct arcs, its median line and disk of cheeks and lorae pale. 



Vol. XIV] VAN DU ZEE— NEW HEMIPTERA 41 3 

Described from one male and four females taken in Mill 
Creek Canon, San Bernardino Mts., 3800 ft. elevation. The 
sharper vertex, more truncate female segment and banded 
femora will distinguish this species from inscripta and cali- 
fornica. The markings are stronger than in californica and 
usually the transverse bands are indicated. I take pleasure in 
naming this species for our dipterist, Dr. F. R. Cole, formerly 
of Redlands, California, whose guest I was, and near whose 
summer cottage I took the species. 

Type: Male, No. 1785, and allotype, female, No. 1786, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, September 22, 
1923, in Mill Creek Cafion, California. 

27. Aligia modesta occidentalis Van Duzee, new subspecies 

Differs from the eastern form of the species in being more 
slender in all parts, in being more strongly colored, in having 
the vertex very feebly angled and the last ventral segment of 
the female slightly produced and notched at the middle. 
Eleven specimens, all females, are in the Academy collection. 
They were taken in California as follows : Mt. Diablo, July 
14, 1916; Niles Canon, July 15, 1916; Cloverdale, August 3, 
1916; Cayton, July 17, 1918; and Sonoma Valley, August 
1916 (W. M. Giffard) all taken on oaks. Also taken by Mr. 
Giffard in Placer Co., Calif., August 19, 1916. What I be- 
lieve to be the male of this form I took at Laurel Dell, Lake 
Co., Calif., August 3, 1916, and Mr. Gift'ard took a second ex- 
ample in Placer Co., August 19, 1916. 

Type: Female, No. 1787, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 14, 1916, on Mt. Diablo, California. 

28. Platymetopius diabolus Van Duzee, new species 

Near nasutus, vertex shorter, pronotum broader, elytra 
longer, vertex strongly banded ; face yellow ; legs and beneath 
mostly black; male valve pointed. Length 4-4.5 mm. 

Vertex one half longer than wide, right angled; pronotum considerably 
wider than head, four-fifths as long as vertex. Female segment rather 



414 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

short, roundedly truncate, slightly produced either side of a small median 
notch; py gofer stout, two and a half times as long as ultimate segment. 
Valve of male broad-triangular, as long as wide, apex subacutely angled ; 
plates as broad as valve, blunt at apex, surpassing valve by less than its 
length ; pygofers considerably exceeding plates. 

Color cinereous ; vertex black dotted with brown posteriorly, crossed by 
a broad, slightly angled yellow band which sometimes is broken into four 
spots ; apex irregularly yellow ; pronotum sprinkled with black transverse 
dashes, especially anteriorly, the sides almost clear; anterior margin 
smooth, yellow ; scutellum varied with black and yellow ; elytra quite 
regularly varied with fuscous and whitish obscuring the ordinary round 
white spots ; veins fuscous, mostly slenderly edged with pale ; a band 
across the anteapical areolcs and the apex more heavily marked, with a 
whiter band including the apical transverse veins and forming a large 
round spot beyond apex of clavus ; face pale yellow to fulvous ; base of 
front pale and irrorate, with the angled vitta traceable but little either 
side the middle; extreme tip of clypeus black; legs and pectus black; 
tibiae pale, dotted ; abdomen varied with brown and black, the genitalia 
pale, especially the male valve. 

Described from one male and four females taken on Mt. 
Diablo, California, July 14, 1916. Among the species with 
produced and banded vertex this may be distinguished by the 
pointed male valve, yellow face and black tip of the clypeus. 

Type: Male, No. 1788, and allotype, female, No. 1789, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, July 14, 1916, 
on Mt. Diablo, California, Paratypes, same data. 

29. Platymetopius planus Van Duzee, new species 

Size and aspect of orcgonensis; vertex broader and flatter, 
with the pronotum nearly immaculate ; genitalic characters 
very distinct. Length 5 mm. 

Vertex flat, horizontal, scarcely impressed before apex ; its length equal 
to width between the eyes; sides subacute, rectilinear; apex subacute; 
pronotal angles not prominent. Front unusually wide for the genus, 
width between antennae one half the length ; clypeus moderately con- 
stricted at middle. Elytral venation indistinct on disk, transverse costal 
veinlets scarcely oblique. Genital pieces small ; valve obtuse-triangular, 
about as long as apical width of clypeus ; plates obtuse, not wider than 
valve, about as long as clypeus, distinctly exceeding the broad truncate py- 
gofers. Female segment short, truncate, about one half as long as wide, 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 41 5 

with a conspicuous notch and rather deep sinuation either side the center, 
the sides oblique ; pygofers short, hardly one-half longer than wide. 

Color light fulvous as in oregonensis; vertex paler with edge and 
median line pale ; elytra apparently opaque over the tergum ; a round 
white spot in each of the areoles and between the costal veinlets, the 
basal and claval areoles with a few obscure spots ; beneath pale. 

Described from four males and three females taken by me 
as follows: McCloud, Siskiyou Co., July 23, 1918; Sisson, 
July 25, 26, 1918: Cayton, 'july 15, 1918; Mt. Tamalpais, 
June 23, 1918, all in California. The broad flat horizontal 
vertex, transverse costal veinlets and peculiar genital charac- 
ters will distinguish this very distinct species. 

Type: Male, No. 1790, and allotype, female, No. 1791, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, July 15, 1918, 
at Cayton, Shasta Co., California. 



30. Platymetopius pexatus Van Duzee, new species 

Related to trilincatus but darker with apex of vertex five- 
lineate with white; the colors darker, apical white spot on 
elytra elongated, and different male genitalia. Length 5 mm. 

Head greatly produced, two and a half times as long as wide between 
the eyes ; sides straight or slightly concave in female, the narrow tip 
rounded : face concave in profile ; front transversely strongly convex be- 
tween the eyes, four times as long as wide between the antennae ; clypeus 
strongly widened at apex. Last ventral segment of female short, sub- 
angulate at apex where there is a small but distinct notch ; pygofers short, 
hardly twice longer than ultimate segment, bristles short and stout. Male 
valve large, rounded-triangular, sides rectilinear or nearly so ; plates 
small, much narrower than valve or pygofers, exceeding the valve by 
one-half its length and reaching basad but little more than half the 
length of the valve, sides sinuate, apices narrow, rounded ; pygofers stout, 
blunt, exceeding the plates by little more than half the length of the 
valve. 

Color fulvous varied with fuscous and pale ; vertex whitish, closely 
longitudinally vermiculate with fuscous, forming four fuscous lines be- 
fore the middle thus leaving five pale vittse, three as in trilineatus and 
one marginal either side; pronotum with seven, scutellum with four 
obscure pale vittse; elytra deep fulvous-brown, especially on the disk, 
opaque ; veins distinct ; round white spots obscure basally, three on the 
commissural margin larger, those of the outer apical and subapical areoles 



415 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

elongated, oblique ; costa with about five oblique white spots alternating 
with the black veins ; wings inf uscated ; face lightly inf uscated, obscurely 
irrorate; basal line conspicuous; apex with a white dot; beneath fulvous-" 
brown varied with fuscous ; tibiae paler, with black dots. 

Described from three females and a male taken by Mr. 
W. M. Giffard in Placer Co., Calif., August 20, 1916, at 3000 
ft. ; a female taken by me at Descanso, San Diego Co., October 
18, 1913, and a female from Mill Creek Caiion, San Bernar- 
dino Mts., Calif., taken September 22, 1923. With the latter 
I took three females I believe to be trilineatus Ball beaten from 
yerba santa. They differ from Ball's description only in being 
more fulvous and in having the lateral lines of the vertex more 
distinct. 

Type: Female, No. 1792, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., taken by 
E. P. Van Duzee, September 22, 1923, in Mill Creek Canon, 
San Bernardino Mts., California. 



31. Deltocephalus discessus Van Duzee, new species 

Closely allied to siguatifrons; proportionately broader and 
shorter; vertex longer and flatter; valve of male shorter and 
broadly rounded ; plates narrower ; pygofers longer, surpass- 
ing the plates by about the median length of the plates. Ulti- 
mate ventral segment of female shorter, truncate, its outer 
angles a little longer and roundedly prominent; inner angles 
rounding to a shallow, narrow, median notch, the fundus of 
this notch touching an obscure rounded pale lobe, somewhat 
as in signatifrons; pygofers broader and proportionately 
shorter than in the related species. Colors a little darker than 
in typical signatifrons, with more black on the legs and venter ; 
markings of the legs and vertex substantially the same. Length 
2.75 mm. 

Described from two females and seven males taken by me 
at Pine Valley, San Diego Co., California, at 4000 feet eleva- 
tion. This possibly should be considered as a mere race of 
signatifrons but it seems to me best to give it specific rank as 
typical signatifrons has been taken at Keen Camp in the San 
Jacinto Mts., but a little farther north, and at Blitzen River, 
Oregon. 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEIV HEMIPTERA ^\J 

Type: Male, No. 1793, and allotype, female, No. 1794, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, April 24, 1920, 
at Pine Valley, California. 

32. Deltocephalus cahuilla Van Duzee, new species 

Near miscellns Ball ; pale yellow with two to four spots at 
apex of vertex and a few marks on elytra fuscous; vertex 
produced, triangular. Length 3.4 mm. 

Head wider than pronotum ; vertex flat, produced and right angled 
before; apex subacute as in misccllns; sides of front sHghtly approaching 
at apex; clypeus oblong, slightly narrowed to the feebly rounded apex; 
cheeks unusually wide beyond the lorse ; pronotum scarcely shorter than 
vertex, feebly sinuated behind ; anterior curve of pronotum occupying 
two-thirds its length ; elytra wide, equalling or a little exceeding the 
abdomen; costa well arcuated. Ultimate ventral segment of female short, 
as long as the penultimate, apex cut squarely oflf, with a rounded notch 
either side of an equal and rounded median lobe. Valve of male large, 
broadly rounded ; plates short, exceeding valve by two-thirds its length, 
their sides straight and apices rounded ; pygof ers about equalling the 
plates. 

Color yellowish white, deepened on head, anterior margin of pronotum 
and scutellum ; vertex with about four marginal spots, two apical and two 
nearer the ocelli, fuscous, the latter pair often obsolete or sometimes 
accompanied by a pale brownish cloud inwardly ; base often with two 
darker oblique dashes either side ; elytra subopaque, polished ; veins pale, 
sometimes obscurely edged with brown toward apex ; in pale examples 
there is usually a fuscous mark on disk of clavus, one on the commissure, 
one against the first cross-vein on corium, and possibly one at apex of 
inner apical areole ; apex often with an incomplete fuscous vitta ; face 
pale with brown marks toward apex, sutures black ; legs pale ; abdomen 
black, segmental margins and more or less of venter pale ; pleurae em- 
browned. 

Described from numerous examples taken by me at Keen 
Camp, San Jacinto Mts., California, June 6-12, 1917, and a 
series taken by Mr. W. M. GifYard at Pine Valley, San Diego 
Co., April 24, 1920, all swept from grass. 

Type: Male, No. 1795, and allotype, female. No. 1796, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, June 10, 1917, 
at Keen Camp, California. 



418 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

33. Deltocephalus zephyrius Van Duzee, new species 

Apparently closely related to nigriventer but with darker 
elytra, vertex wanting the transverse band, clypeus constricted 
and ultimate ventral segment of female rounded at sides. 
Length 2.75-3 mm. 

Head wider than pronotum, convex in both diameters, the anterior edge 
broadly rounded to front as in Euscelis ; apex produced in somewhat less 
than a right angle ; pronotum slightly longer than vertex, its curve ante- 
riorly occupying two-thirds its length ; elytra longer than abdomen, ner- 
vures distinct ; face typical of genus, the clypeus moderately constricted, 
apex rounded, scarcely equalling the cheeks. Ultimate ventral segment of 
female rather long, bilobed, the outer angles rounded, median line incised 
almost to base and overlapping as in nigriventer. Male genitalia about as 
in nigriventer ; valve short, feebly angled ; plates large, transversely con- 
vex, sides feebly sinuate, becoming oblique to the rounded reflexed apex ; 
bristles long, pale. 

Color cinereous-brown, tinged with yellow on head and scutellum; vertex 
with a round black spot within and behind each ocellus ; apex sometimes 
with a pair of faint spots; incised line scarcely darker; anterior margin 
of pronotum paler ; elytra subopaque ; nervures white, mostly edged with 
fuscous, the transverse veins more conspicuously white ; face pale, the 
sutures, about six arcs on front and apical spot on clypeus fuscous ; sub- 
antennal cavities black; legs mostly pale, the hind tibiae black in female, 
edges and spines pale ; pectus and abdomen black, sides of male valve 
narrowly pale. 

Described from four male and five female examples taken 
by me at Forks, Clallam Co., Wash., July 4, 1920. This 
species has the genital characters of nigriventer almost exactly 
but it is in no way related to compactus, the form of the head 
and color characters separating it widely from that species. 
Two brachypterous specimens are paler and have the elytra a 
little shorter than the abdomen. Deltocephalus contrarasi Van 
D. from Sonora is larger with a shorter vertex and thickened 
elytra with very pale veins. It has, however, the satiie convex 
rounded vertex and is certainly related. 

Type: Male, No. 1797, and allotype, female. No. 1798, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, July 4, 1920, at 
Forks, Washington. 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 4^9 

34. Scaphoideus nugax Van Duzee, new species 

Allied to scalaris; with shorter elytra but with the same fomi 
of head; fulvous yellow, deepened on disk of elytra. Length 

4 mm. 

Male : Head distinctly narrower than pronotum ; vertex subacutely 
pointed, not depressed, edge rounded, length on median line equal to 
width between the eyes ; elytra subhyaline, veins distinct, three or four 
supernumerary veinlets on clavus, claval veins not hooked on commissure. 
Valve broad, triangular ; plates twice longer than valve, acutely triangular, 
sides sinuated, marginal bristles stout. 

Color clear fulvous yellow, deeper on disk of elytra above the tergum ; 
base of vertex, anterior margin of pronotum and edge of scutellum pos- 
teriorly whitish, apical areoles of elytra considerably enfumed, the elytral 
veins paler, transverse veins and apex of claval veins thickened and white ; 
beneath and legs pale, dots at base of tibial spines scarcely darker. 

Type: Male, No. 1799, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, August 5, 1923, at Mill Valley, Marin Co., 
California. Paratype, one male, taken by J. C. Bradley at 
Berkeley, Calif., in August, 1908, in collection of the author. 

35. Scaphoideus minis Van Duzee, new species 

Forni and aspect of albonotatus but with the shorter and 
rounded head of Euscelis ; color cinereous with an immaculate 
yellowish vertex and variegated elytra with three pale com- 
missural areas; Female segment very characteristic. Length 

5 mm. 

Female : Head slightly wider than pronotum ; roundedly subangulate 
before; vertex convex, broadly rounded to the front, length next the 
eye three fifths that on median line; front wide for this genus, its basal 
width five sevenths its length, sides below antennae rounded to clypeus, 
the latter much constricted near base with its sides straight and apex 
rounded ; lorse large, one half as broad as long ; antennal seta; elongated. 
Pronotum a third longer than vertex, humeri subangulate. Elytra with 
two or three supernumerary veinlets in clavus and two in costal areole 
beyond node. Last ventral segment with median third produced in a long 
parallel tongue to the middle of the pygofers, apex of this strap-shaped 
piece cleft to about its middle leaving a long subacute tooth lying either 
side of the oviduct ; exterior to this central process the margin forms a 
rounded tooth-like lobe, separated from the median process by an acute 
notch, and outwardly slopes away to the rounded lateral angles. Valve of 



420 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

male very short, subtriangular ; plates about four times the length of the 
valve but hardly half the length of the long pygofers, obtusely triangular 
with the sides feebly sinuate. 

Color cinereous ; vertex pale yellowish. Immaculate ; pronotum scarcely 
irrorate in the type; elytral nervures fuscous, the disk of the larger and of 
the apical areoles largely fuscous, including rounded whitish spots ; front 
fulvous-brown with pale arcs and median line ; clypeus, lorae and cheeks 
pale yellowish, the latter with a blackish cloud exteriorly ; beneath pale, 
feet and pleural pieces more or less clouded with fuscous; tergum black; 
antennae with subapical annulus and most of seta black. 

Type: Female, No. 1800, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, April 10, 1923, on creosote bush, at Potholes, 
Imperial Co., California. Allotype, male. No. 1801, Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, May 16, 1917, at 
Coachella, Riverside Co., Calif. Paratype, one dainaged female 
taken with the allotype. In the allotype the pygofers are 
shaped exactly as in the female but without the oviduct and 
with the male plates and valve. It is not unlikely this speci- 
men may be an hermaphrodite in which case the characters 
of the male genitalia may have become much modified from 
the form normal for the species. 



36. Euscelis gentilis Van Duzee, new species 

Apparently allied to shastus Ball ; form and aspect of rcla- 
tivus nearly ; smaller with shorter pronotum and more pointed 
vertex; soiled yellowish-testaceous with a black dot behind 
each ocellus connected by a brown band and with two brown 
dots on pronotum anteriorly. Length 4.5 mm. 

Head a little wider than pronotum, bluntly triangular before; vertex 
flat on the disk and a little sloping, one-half wider than long; front 
rather narrow for this genus, a little longer than wide between the ocelli, 
sides straight above, converging a little to apex ; clypeus oblong, parallel, 
rounded at apex. Pronotum short, a little more than twice wider than 
long ; latero-posterior margins almost reaching the eyes ; Elytra long as 
in rclativiis; clavus and apex with several supernumerary transverse veins, 
texture subcoreaceous. Last ventral segment of female short, trisinuate, 
the middle broadly, slightly, produced, the angles more prominently so; 
pygofers broad but not subangulate. Valve of male short, broad-triangu- 
lar ; plates long-triangular, obtuse, four times longer than valve, sides 
feebly arcuate. 



Vol. XI\'] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 421 

Color soiled yellowish-testaceous, a little clearer on head and scutellum ; 
vertex with a round black spot behind each ocellus, a faint brown cloud 
connecting these spots and some marks near anterior margin more or 
less apparent ; pronotum faintly varied with brownish, with two median 
brown marks anteriorly ; elytral veins pale, more or less distinctly edged 
with brown, more apparent apically ; front with fuscous arcs and pale 
median line; tergum, pleurae and base of venter marked with brown, more 
extended in male; ocelli pink; hind tibiae with faint brown points at 
base of spines. 

Type: Female, No. 1802, and allotype, male, No. 1803, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, August 2, 
1916, at Hobergs Resort, Lake Co., California. 



Z7 . Euscelis almus Van Duzee, new species 

Allied to frigidus Ball, a little narrower with more pointed 
head ; vertex with three round black spots one of which is 
discal ; elytra faintly fuliginous with pale nervures and fuscous 
marks in apical areoles. Length 4 mm. 

Head a little wider than pronotum, vertex nearly horizontal at base, 
broadly rounded to base of front, polished. Front moderately broad, one- 
half longer than broad, nearly flat; sides slightly narrowed to apex; 
clypcus oblong, apex rounded, sides feebly excavated ; lorae narrow. 
Pronotum a little longer than vertex, outer angles broadly rounded. 
Elytra with one or two supernumerary cross veins near apex of costa. 
Last ventral segment of female rather deeply, angularly excavated. Valve 
of male longer than ultimate segment, roundingly triangular ; plates long, 
obtuse at apex, sides feebly arcuated, contracted at base. 

Color pale yellowish, deeper on head ; vertex with three round black 
spots, the median paler, placed forward of the lateral and minutely 
notched before; lateral placed near the eyes and just above the line of 
the ocelli ; face with a row of four large black spots below the margin, 
the lateral on the temples above the antennae ; sutures of the face and 
about six arcs fuscous ; pronotum scarcely darkened across the disk and 
on anterior margin ; scutellum usually with black spots near basal angles 
and two brown discal dots, apical field sometimes with two brown spots. 
Elytra pale smoky with conspicuous pale nervures; apical transverse 
veins marked with brown and a brown vitta borders the apical veins ; 
pleural pieces and abdomen more or less black, the last ventral segment 
of female with a black spot at fundus of notch; suture and dorsum of 
male pygofers black; legs pale, claws black. 



422 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Described from three male and three female specimens. 
The seven large round black spots on head (three on vertex 
and four below margin) are a conspicuous character of this 
species. While recalling frigidiis the characters of the head 
and elytra place this species in subgenus Conosanus. 

Type: Female, No. 1804, and allotype, male. No. 1805, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, May 23, 1918, 
at Los Bancs, Merced Co., California. 



38. Euscelis finitimus Van Duzee, new species 

Color and aspect somewhat of the female of Eittetfix 
bartschi but with the front and vertex of Euscelis; polished 
light fulvous brown with pale veins and irrorations; vertex 
with a black mark behind the eyes. Length 5 mm. 

Head little wider than pronotum, obtusely angled ; vertex nearly flat, 
about two-thirds wider than long; front broad, its length and width sub- 
equal, sides straight above, incurved to clypeus, abruptly raised above 
level of cheeks; clypeus oblong, a little narrowed to the rounded apex; 
pronotum long, twice as long as vertex, sides broadly rounded behind 
the eyes ; elytra shaped much as in Eutettix subcenea with arcuate costa 
and flaring tips, with four or five supernumerary veinlets in outer areole 
of clavus. Last ventral segment of female broadly excavated, the outer 
angles subacute, middle with a broad short lobate tooth which is feebly 
angled ; pygofers short and broad. Valve of male short, broad-triangular 
and convex, a little shorter than the pygofers. 

Color light fulvous brown, clearer beneath, polished ; vertex with an 
angular black mark on each side between ocellus and eye, but showing 
a tendency to being drawn out into a transverse band ; anterior to these 
spots are two curved darker lines either side the middle and another in- 
dicated near the hind margin ; pronotum irrorate with pale, with a large 
pale area behind the eyes; elytral nervures, except the marginal, pale; 
minute points at base of tibial spines and claws black. 

The polished fulvous surface gives this insect somewhat the 
aspect of a Eutettix but it is a Euscelis of the Conosanus 
group. 

Type: Female, No. 1806, and allotype, male. No. 1807, Mus 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, July 31, 1918, 
at Colestin, Oregon. 



Vol. XIV] VAN DUZEE—NEW HEMIPTERA 423 

39. Lonatura pupa Van Duzee, new species 

Closel}^ allied to ininuta Van Duzee, a little larger with a 
longer vertex and different form of last ventral segment. 
Length 3 mm. ^' ., 

Macropterous female : Vertex a little longer than width between the 
eyes, forming a right angle, with the apex obtuse ; surface convex as in 
minuta. Elytra a little longer than abdomen; nervures distinct; second 
cross-nervure prominent; front a fourth longer than wide, rather 
abruptly narrowing to clypeus, the latter narrower at apex with the sides 
straight. Ultimate ventral segment one half longer than preceding, 
arcuately narrowing to a bluntly angular apex; pygofers slender, equalling 
the oviduct. 

Color pale yellowish, a little more deeply colored on head, paler be- 
neath ; elytra subhyaline, nervures yellowish ; tergum and oviduct mostly 
black; eyes brown; ocelli and tip of rostrum black. 

Lonatura nana Van D. from the Gulf of California region 
is wider with very different ultimate segment. 

Type: Female, No. 1808, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by 
E. P. Van Duzee, July 12, 1922, at Saltair, Utah. Paratypes, 
two females, same data. 



40. Thamnotettix lenis Van Duzee, new species 

Size and aspect of helvimis Van D. ; a small green species 
with yellow pointed head, dark front and short truncate male 
plates. Length, male, 4.75 mm., female, 5.5 mm. 

Head much wider than pronotum ; vertex acutely triangular, almost as 
long as width between the eyes; front narrow, almost one-half longer 
than wide, base acutely angled, profile slightly concave ; sides straight, 
but slightly contracted at base of clypeus ; the latter parallel sided, but 
little narrowed at apex. Last ventral segment of female rather long, apical 
margin broadly arquate, with a shallow notch either side the median line, 
leaving a broad short median tooth which is minutely emarginate and 
is included in a black cloud lying behind each sinus ; pygofers short and 
stout, not twice longer than wide and almost entirely clothed with long 
stout bristles. Valve of male large, obtusely triangular; plates as long 
on median line as the valve, cut off square at tip, sides straight ; pygofers 
narrow, exceeding plates by the median length of the plates, closely 
clothed with stout white bristles as in the female. 

September 24, 1925 



424 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Color light green becoming yellow on vertex, anterior margin of pro- 
notum and on the scutellum, apex of elytra more hyaline, scarcely clouded, 
veins yellow; front brown with arcs and margin more or less yellow, 
sutures dark; pleurae and abdomen black, margins, apex of abdomen, 
edge of male valve and last ventral segment and the pygofers of female 
yellow; male plates whitish, the pygofers black; legs pale, the pale spines 
set in small brown dots. 

The unusually pointed head and peculiar genitalia will dis- 
tinguish this small green species. 

Type: Male, No. 1809, and allotype, female, No. 1810, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, May 18, 1920, 
at Bryson, Monterey Co., California. Paratypes, two males, 
two females, taken as follows : Bradley, Monterey Co., Cali- 
fornia, April 23, 1917 (E. P. Van Duzee); Santa Cruz, Cali- 
fornia, June 8, 1917 (W. M. Giiifard). 



41. Thamnotettix verutus Van Duzee, new species 

Near vastula in size, form and color but with distinct geni- 
talia ; light green, more yellowish on head and scutellum; 
apex of elytra smoky ; male plates large, triangular, exceeding 
the pygofers. Length 5.5 mm. 

Male : Head well produced, right-angled before, apex subacute ; vertex 
flat, broadly rounding to the front ; front strongly convex transversely, 
as long as wide, sides straight above, gently rounding to the clypeus, the 
latter rectangular, with straight sides. Pronotum scarcely shorter than 
vertex ; more deeply excavated behind than in vastula. Valve broad, short, 
slightly angled ; plates, taken together, rather longer than their basal 
width and distinctly exceeding the pygofers, triangular, subacute at apex, 
their sides very feebly concave from near base. 

Color clear green, becoming yellowish on head, anterior margin of 
pronotum and scutellum ; elytra subopaque, the costa apically paler ; 
apical areoles smoky; front paler with a brown cloud either side; tergum 
(except narrow margin), sternum, base of vertex and genital hooks black. 
Legs and their spines whitish. 

Female with vertex shorter than in male. Last ventral segment narrow, 
constricted near base, sides beyond gradually approaching, outer angles 
rounded; middle one-half shallowly excavated, base of excavation straight, 
impressed and blackened ; oviduct black, considerably exceeding the 
pygofers. 



Vol. XIV] VAN DU ZEE— NEW HEMIPTERA 425 

Described from a good series taken, by me as follows: 
Bryson. Calif., April 24, 1917, May 18-20, 1920; Bradley, 
Calif., April 23, 1917, May 22, 1920; Soboba Springs, River- 
side Co., Calif., May 30, 1917; San Jacinto, Calif., May 29, 
1917: Dixon, Calif., June 3, 1920. Also taken in Shasta Co., 
Calif., July 17, 1921, by J. A. Kusche. Like all its green allies 
this species when teneral has a pale bluish look from the black 
tergum showing through the imperfectly pigmented elytra. 
The large triangular, scarcely excavated plates of the male 
will distinguish this species. 

Type: Male, No. 1811, and allotype, female, No. 1812, Mas. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., collected by E. P. Van Duzee, May 20, 1920, 
at Bryson, Monterey County, California. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, No. 18, pp. 427-503, text fig. 1, plates 20-29 March 23, 1926 



XVIII 

PALEONTOLOGY OF COYOTE MOUNTAIN, 
IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

BY 

G. DALLAS HANNA 
Curator, Department of Paleontology 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction 428 

Location 429 

Previous work 430 

Geology of the district 432 

Age of the deposits 433 

Names of formations 434 

Oil possibilities 436 

Indeterminate species 436 

Collection stations 437 

Bibliography 440 

Gastropoda (arranged alphabetically) 442 

Pelecypoda (arranged alphabetically) 460 

Echinodermata 479 

Corals 480 

Fishes 483 

March 33, 1936 



428 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Introduction 

When I assumed the duties of Curator of the Department 
of Paleontology in 1919, I found in the Department two large 
collections of fossil mollusks from Coyote Mountain, Imperial 
County, California. These had been borrowed for study and 
report by former Curator, Roy E. Dickerson, and he had done 
a very considerable amount of work in the identification of 
the species. . Up to the time of his departure, he was unable 
to complete the work to his satisfaction, and in 1920, he 
turned the matter over to me either to finish or return the col- 
lections to their owners. After due consideration, the advice 
of Dr. J. P. Smith and Dr. B. L. Clark was taken and the 
work of identification was completed as nearly as possible and 
the collections were returned. 

Publication has been withheld until this time because it was 
found that the fauna needed for critical comparison was to be 
had only in the Gulf of California. Until the Academy sent 
its expedition there in 1921, no collection of consequence was 
available in any western museum for consultation. That year, 
through the untiring industry of Dr. Fred Baker, a very large 
number of the known species of that province was brought 
back. Also through his efforts the larger forms have been 
identified and it has been possible to compare the Coyote 
Mountain fossils with them. 

This procedure has prevented a very considerable number 
of inaccuracies which would have been inevitable had the re- 
port been published in 1921. The most fertile source of error 
would have been due to making comparison of this relatively 
poorly preserved material with living and fossil species from 
east American and West Indian points. Unquestionably, the 
Coyote Mountain fauna is closely related to that of the 
Atlantic, but so is the fauna of the Gulf of California. In no 
great number of cases does this similarity amount to exact 
identity of species. Without a good Gulf of California collec- 
tion for comparison, grave errors would have been un- 
avoidable. 

The tropical fauna of the Gulf of California is so vastly 
different from any known from the California coast that with 
only the latter and eastern collections available, the natural 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 429 

conclusion students would reach would be to associate the 
Coyote Mountain forms with those of the Atlantic of similar 
tropical facies. 

Even with the Gulf of California collection for comparison, 
this report could hardly have been completed without the 
hearty cooperation of many paleontologists. Particularly must 
appreciation be acknowledged to Dr. Fred Baker; Dr. J. P. 
Smith; Dr. B. L. Clark; Dr. Roy E. Dickerson; Mrs. Kate 
Stephens; Mr. Chas. H. Sternberg; Dr. W. H. Dall; and Mr. 
W. C. Mansfield. 

Location 

Coyote Mountain, sometimes called Carrizo Mountain, is 
located in the western part of the Colorado Desert, Imperial 
County, California. It is close to the great granite range 
which extends from Mount San Jacinto on the north to Mount 
San Pedro Martir in Lower California. 

The base of the mountain is about three miles north of 
Coyote Wells, a watering station on the highway from San 
Diego to El Centro and Yuma. The United States-Mexican 
boundary is about four miles south of Coyote Wells. 

The crest of the mountain is a ridge about five miles long 
extending almost east and west. The surrounding country is 
excessively barren desert and most of the usual erosion- 
features comm.on to such surroundings are found. Thus there 
are broad gravel washes, steep box cafions and many perpen- 
dicular escarpments. 

North of Coyote Mountain about ten miles there is another 
and larger mountain mass, likewise an intrusion through Ter- 
tiary sediments, now known as Fish Creek Mountain. Be- 
tween it and Coyote Mountain is the flood plain of Carrizo 
Creek. This is a very ancient waterway ; in the granitic moun- 
tains which it traverses it has cut a great gorge, celebrated for 
its scenic features. 

Coyote Mountain is now easily reached since it is only three 
miles from a paved highway. Light automobiles are usually 
driven almost any place on the desert floor and by following 
the wider washes it is possible to drive into several of tlie 
main cafions. Alverson Caiion can thus be reached. 



430 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

Previous Work 

The original discovery of the Coyote Mountain upHft was 
made by W. P. Blake, geologist with the Pacific Railroad Sur- 
vey. The party with which he traveled camped on Carrizo 
Creek where this stream flows out of its caiion and is lost in 
the sands of the Colorado Desert. Here some fossils were 
found and collected.^ These were subsequently described by 
Conrad^ as Ostrea heermanni, Anomia subcostata and Pecten 
deserti, all new species and Ostrea vespertina, previously de- 
scribed from San Diego. ^ With only these four species, 
Conrad thought the age of the deposit from which they came 
was probably Miocene. 

I do not find any other publication based upon original in- 
vestigations until the report of Charles R. Orcutt was issued 
in 1890. (See bibliography for references.) He traveled 
extensively in the Colorado Desert at an early date, and, it 
appears, made large collections of fossils from the marine sedi- 
ments in the Coyote Mountain district. He mentioned par- 
ticularly corals and oysters. Much of his data was reprinted 
in 1901. 

H, W. Fairbanks next collected in the region about 1892 
and some of the corals he secured were sent to Dr. T. W. 
Vaughan who described them in 1900. There were two species 
and one subspecies of these. 

Dr. Stephen Bowers made another collection of corals in 
1901 and published a short paper on his observations. This 
collection was likewise studied by Dr. Vaughan, who pub- 
lished some notes on it in Science in 1904. 

This latter collection was so interesting that Dr. Vaughan 
arranged to have Dr. Bowers and Mr. W. C. Mendenhall visit 
the locality and a veiy much more extensive collection was 
made. A brief list of some of the MoUusca contained in the 
collection was published in 1906 by Dr. Ralph Arnold. He 
also included a preliminary list of the corals and described 
two new species of Pecten from the locality. As a result of 

• See Blake, Pac. R. R. Repts., Vol. S, 1857, pp. 120123. 

• Op. cit., pp. 325-326, pi. 5. The original clescriptions (without illustrations) ap- 
peared in an octavo appendix to the preliminary report of the geologist of the survey, 
published in 1855 as House Executive document 129, 33rd Cong. 1st Sess. ; citations 
are usually made to the final quarto report in Vol. 5. 

• It so happens that descriptions of the two first mentioned appeared in February, 
1855, without illustrations in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science of 
Philadelphia, p. 257. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 431 

Mr. MendenliaH's visit, iie published in 1910 the most exten- 
sive account we have of the geology of the district. 

One of the sea urchins collected in 1904 was appropriately 
described the same year by Charles E. Weaver as Clypeaster 
bowersi. 

Dr. John C. Merriam of the University of California recog- 
nized the importance of this locality from a paleontological 
standpoint and had two large collections made there about 
1911-1913. One of these was by Messrs. Kew and Buwalda; 
the other by Kew and English. As a result of these visits, the 
most extensive collections thus far taken were assembled. 

In 1914 Dr. Kew published a paper on the echinoids of the 
region in which several new species were described. He also 
included a geologic sketch map and cross section of Coyote 
Mountain. He also published a list of the Mollusca which 
had been identified. Only ten of the names were given un- 
qualifiedly and none of these were gastropods ; all except four 
had been described from these deposits. 

This paper was followed in 1916 by one by J. O. Nomland 
on Cretaceous and Tertiary corals of California and Oregon 
in which one species from Coyote Mountain was described. 

In 1917 Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan published an extensive 
account of the corals collected in 1904 by Messrs. Mendenhall 
and Bowers. He made extensive comparisons with other 
faunas and gave a fairly complete resume of all previous work 
in the region. (It should be noted that the explanations be- 
neath the two figures on Plate 93, Prof. Ppr. 98, No. 5, U. S. 
Geol. Sur. are reversed.) 

Dr. R. E. Dickerson read a short paper before a meeting of 
the Geological Society of America in 1918 (published only in 
abstract form) in which previous views on relationships of 
the Coyote Mountain deposits are given. This was followed 
in the manuscript by a list of the Mollusca he had identified 
from the collections. 

Many collections have been made in the region from time 
to time, the most important of which I have knowledge being 
the following: 

1. The Blake collection which Conrad studied. 

2. The Orcutt collections of 1888 and 1890, studied and 
reported upon by him. 



432 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [PROc. 4th Ser. 

3. The Fairbanks collection which went to the University 
of California and the corals of which were studied by 
Vaughan. 

4. The Bowers collection of 1901, the corals of which were 
sent to Vaughan while the mollusks eventually came to the 
California Academy of Sciences. 

5. The Mendenhall and Bowers collection of 1904 which 
went to the U. S. Greological Survey and the corals of which 
were studied by Vaughan. 

6. The Kew and English collection of 1912 which went to 
the University of California. 

7. The Kew and Buwalda collection of 1913 which went to 
the University of California. The echinoids of the last two 
collections were studied by Kew. 

8. The Stephens and Sternberg collection of 1920 which 
went to the San Diego Society of Natural History. 

9. The California Academy of Sciences collection of 1921 
made by the writer. 

10. Stanford University collection made at various times 
and by various collectors. 

11. A private collection made at various times by Sternberg 
and distributed to several institutions. 

Geology of the District 

During my visits to Coyote Mountain, I examined many of 
the caiions minutely, but my purpose was chiefly to search for 
fossils. Therefore, I am not in a position to add much to the 
two excellent accounts of structural conditions which have 
been published.* The most important parts of these papers 
were quoted by Vaughan (U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 98, pt. 
5, 1917, pp. 355-360). In general, these observers agreed 
that Coyote Mountain was an island of granitic and metamor- 
phic rocks, of possibly Carboniferous age at the time of de- 
position of the Tertiary sediments. This deposition was 
accompanied in its early stages by some volcanism of minor 
character. One of the most evident features as the mountain 
is approached, is the manner in which all strata dip away from 

♦Mendenhall, Journ. Geol. Vol. 18, 1910, pp. 336-355. Kew, Univ. Calif. Publ. 
Geol. Vol. 8, 1914, pp. 39-60. 



Vol. XIV] HASNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 433 

the center in every direction. Erosion has cut away many of 
the soft clay layers and left hard sandstone or oyster reefs pro- 
jecting as isolated hills in "bad land" areas. Many of the 
reefs are composed almost entirely of organic calcite, chiefly 
oysters, firmly consolidated and in one place at least partially 
turned to marble. In other places, there are large areas com- 
pletely covered with oyster shells, anomias, pectens and barna- 
cles. These are weathered out free, and except for an etching 
from, the wind-blown desert sand, are in a perfect state of 
preservation. 

Much of the core of the mountain is composed of marble 
and quarrying operations on a prospective scale have been 
carried on at many places. Unquestionably some of it is very 
beautiful rock. 

The best fossil-collecting locality is on the south side of the 
mountain, a little west of the center in a wash called Alverson 
Cafion. Fossils occur there in many kinds of sediments, but 
the preservation is notoriously bad. Many of them can only 
be had as casts, while most of the others are so badly crystal- 
lized that the finer details of sculpture are obscured. The 
richest layers are sandstone, firmly cemented with calcite. 
Extraction of fossils from this material was found to be ex- 
ceedingly difficult except in a few favorably weathered 
surfaces. 

Age of the Deposits 

Various age determinations have been made of the Tertiary 
sediments on the flanks of Coyote Mountain usually referred 
to as "Carrizo Creek" which cuts through a portion of them. 
Conrad, with four species of Mollusca, thought the age was 
Miocene. 

Orcutt in 1890 supposed it to be Cretaceous, basing the 
decision upon the oysters and corals. 

Vaughan in 1900 with two species and a subspecies of coral 
gave the age as "doubtfully Cretaceous." 

Arnold in 1906 called it Miocene and correlated with the 
Etchegoin of central California which he also called Miocene, 
but which has been determined to be lower Pliocene. 



434 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Vaughan in 1910 gave the age as lower Miocene as de- 
termined by Messrs. Dall and Arnold. 

Kew in 1914 stated that "The echinoderm fauna seems to 
indicate a comparatively late age, as several of the forms are 
very closely related to species living in the Gulf of California 
at the present time." In 1920 he referred all of them to the 
Pliocene. 

In 1916 Nomland referred the coralliferous beds to the 
Pliocene. 

Vaughan in 1917 stated that 'The fauna of Carrizo Creek 
is related to Pliocene and Post-Pliocene faunas of Florida and 
the West Indies and can scarcely be older than lower 
Pliocene." 

Dickerson followed in 1918 with a Miocene age determina- 
tion correlating the sediments with the Gatun formation of 
Panama. 

It is quite evident that considerable diversity of opinion as 
to the age has existed. A critical study of the Mollusca con- 
tained in the various collections I have examined, leads me to 
agree that the age cannot be greater than lower Pliocene and 
I am much inclined to the belief that the greater portion is 
middle and upper Pliocene. 

There appears to be good reason to suspect that more than 
one Pliocene formation is represented on the flanks of Coyote 
Mountain. Very little reason exists for the placing of the 
coral reef, the lowermost exposed fossiliferous stratum, with 
the great oyster reefs of the upper part. 

Names of Formations 

For a long time the deposits about Coyote Mountain have 
been called "Carrizo Creek" beds, or "Carrizo" formation; 
the latter was proposed definitely in 1914 by Kew," but 
Vaughan® has shown that these names are inapplicable because 
of prior use elsewhere. This is to be regretted, but it seems 
that current usage demands a different name. Since we are 
unable as yet to correlate definitely any of the fossil bearing 
strata with any named fonnation elsewhere, I would propose 
that it be known as the "Imperial Formation" in the future. 

•Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Vol. 8. 

•U. S. Gcol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 98, 1917, p. 367. 



Vol. XIV] HASM A— COYOTE MOU.VTAIN I'OS^JL:^ 435 

The tyi>c locality should be tnken as the coral reef exposed in 
Alverson Canon on the south side of the niountaiTi. 

This coral reef has a distinctive fauna. It is succeeded by 
about 200 feet of very fossiliferous calcareous sandstones for 
which I would propose the name "Latrania Sands." It is this 
formation which contains the large general assemblage of 
marine Mollusca, a representation which indicates the presence 
of pure ocean water. 

Above the Latrania Sands there are enormous de^x^sits of 
clay, the i>eculiar properties of which may make it of com- 
mercial value at some future time. In order that these may 
have a name for reference I would propose that they be 
called the "Coyote Mountain Cla3'^s." They are extensivel)'" 
developed over wide areas but the type locality has been select- 
ed in the foothills bordering the southeast slope of Coyote 
Mountain. 

Above these clays, and interbedded with them near the top 
to some extent, are extensive deix)sits of oyster shells for 
which the name ''Yuba Reefs" has been selected. The type 
locality has been chosen as a prominent hill made up of the 
material, thoroughly cemented and partially metamorphosed, 
located on the east em\ of the Coyote Mountain uplift. A gap 
between the hill and the mountain affords a good trail from 
Coyote Wells on the San Diego-El Centro Highway to the 
north side of the mountain. The same reefs are found on 
Yuha Buttes, Superstition ^Mountain, Signal Mountain, and 
especially near where Carrizo Creek flows out of the mountains 
to the westward. 

,The Yuha Reefs are followed by an enormous thickness of 
silt deposited in the freshwaters of the ancient Lake Coahuila, 
an appropriate name for which is the "Coahuila Silt." It is 
exposed where the San Diego-El Centro Highway crosses 
New River about a mile west of El Centro. The total thick- 
ness of these silts is not known but they contain freshwater 
fossils to the base of the exposure indicated. 

Thus, according to the above nomenclature, Conrad's fossil 
mollusks came from the Yuha Reefs. Kew's echinodenns 
are from the Latrania Sands; and Vaughan's corals from the 
Imi^erial Formation. It is believed that further work will 

March 23, 1926 



436 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES | Proc. 4th Ser. 

necessitate further subdivision rather than a consolidation of 
the above formations. 

In this connection it is proper to add that Coyote Moun- 
tain has been called "Carrizo Mountain" in some reports. Also 
Fish Creek Mountain, the next one to the north of Carrizo 
Creek, has been called "Black Mountain," "Barrett Moun- 
tain," and "Fish Mountain." 

Oil Possibilities 

At various times attempts have been made around the 
flanks of Coyote Mountain to obtain oil, but I think in every 
case, without adequate preliminary geological investigation. 
If this had been made, I can see no reason for the drilling of 
more than one well in that vicinity. This statement is based 
upon the following facts : 

1. No adequate source of petroleum exists. While some 
exposed strata are very fossiliferous, all except the oyster reefs 
are far from being sufficiently so to be considered as a source 
of petroleum in commercial quantities. The oyster reefs have 
no adequate cover. The great deposits of shales and clay 
shales are barren of organisms. The basal marbles cannot be 
considered at all in this connection. 

2. The structure about Coyote Mountain is monoclinal; all 
strata dip away from the mountain. There is no known place 
for oil to accumulate. There is only one possible exception to 
this statement within a radius of five miles of the mountain, 
to my knowledge. Yuha Buttes, five miles to the southeast, 
is evidently an anticlinal, dome-shaped fold. But it was tested 
to a depth of over 1 100 feet many years ago without evidence 
of oil. 

Indeterminate Species 

The various collections studied have contained a consider- 
able number of species so poorly preserved that positive specific 
identification cannot be made. While it is true that leaving 
them out of the present list will give the impression that the 
complete fauna is smaller than it actually is, no useful purpose 
would appear to be served by including a lot of generic names. 



Vol. XI\ ] HAWNA—COYOTE MOUiWTAIN FOSSILS 437 

The fauna of the PHocene beds of Coyote Mountain is a 
large one, and if it could be seen in its entirety, it would ap- 
proximate, probably, the present one of the Gulf of California 
in size ; but induration has proceeded to such a degree that only 
a small ^wrtion can be obtained unless some new localities with 
better preservation are discovered. Mere names of genera, 
derived from fragments, do not give a satisfactory picture of 
a fauna, but they are sometimes included in lists as padding. 
Space is now too valuable to warrant such procedure unless 
some other purpose can be served. 

Therefore, only those species have been included in the fol- 
lowing pages which could be identified with reasonable assur- 
ance of their correctness. No doubt inexperience has thus 
caused the omission of some species which might have been 
included had the author been more familiar with related 
faunas. This loss, however, is believed to be more than offset 
by the inaccuracies which would have resulted from attempts 
to place the fragments in question. 

Collecting Stations 

The three largest collections studied have been appropriately 
numbered in the respective museums, and the following list i« 
a transcript of the various localities from which each lot was 
obtained. Although collecting stations have been duplicated 
by the several collectors, the numbers have been kept separate, 
consistently, in the body of the paper, the institution to which 
each pertains being appropriately indicated by initial letters. 

Stations of the University of California 

735. Near the center of the Yuha Buttes, Imperial County, California, 

and at the top of the anticline there; south of the main road 
from El Centro to San Diego ; about four miles north of the 
Mexican boundary ; W. S. W. Kew and W. E. English, colls. 

736. About 200 yards south of the axis of the anticline in Yuha Buttes, 

Imperial County, California; W. S, W. Kew and W. E. English, 
colls. 

737. South side of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California, in a 

wash heading northwest from the road near the base of the 
formation ; W. S. W. Kew and W. E. English, colls. (Alverson 
Caiion.) 



438 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

738. From two small washes on the west side of the cut made by the 

stream in which No. 737 is located, at the base of Coyote Moun- 
tain, Imperial County, California, west of the road from Coyote 
Wells to Carrizo Spring via Coyote Mountain ; W. S. W. Kew, 
W. E. English and J. P. Buwalda, colls. (This locality is in a 
branch of Alverson Canon, Original Nos. 4 and 55.) 

739. At the head of the south branch of Alverson Canon, Coyote Moun- 

tain, near the divide leading to Carrizo Creek, Imperial County, 
California; W. S. W. Kew and W. E. English, colls. 

740. Alverson Canon, Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California, 

near the contact of lavas [?] and sandstones; VV. S. W. Kew 
and W. E. English, colls. 

2062. In wash halfway between Coyote Mountain and Carrizo Spring, 

Imperial County, California; Upper beds of formation; W. S. W. 
Kew and J. P. Buwalda, colls. ; April, 1913. 

2063. In Garnet Canon, north side of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, 

California; about halfway to head of canon and from basal beds 
lying on the complex ; W. S. W. Kew and J. P. Buwalda, colls. ; 
May, 1913. 

2064. At the head of G.irnet Canon, north side of Coyote Mountain, Im- 

perial County, California; basal beds; W. S. W. Kew and J. P. 
Buwalda, colls. ; May, 1913. 

2065. Near the head of Garnet Cafion, Imperial County, California; hard 

shales containing g> psum ; W. S. \V. Kew and J. P. Buwalda, 
colls.; May, 1913. 

Localities 735, 7?>6, and 2062 are from the "Yiiha Reefs" ; 
the remainder are from the "Latrania Sands" as defined above. 

Stations of the U. S. Geological Survey 

3919. East end of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California; Stephen 
Bowers, coll.; 1904 (Original No. 165). 

3921. "Barrett's Oil Well" about 20 miles north of the Mexican lx>undary. 

Imperial County, California; Stephen Bowers, coll. 1904 (Ori- 
ginal No. 168). [This locality is near Carrizo Creek wash and 
on a direct line between Coyote Mountain and Fish Creek Moun- 
tain; See map of Mendenhall, reprinted by Vaughan.] 

3922. At the head of Garnet Canon on the north side of Coyote Mountain, 

Imperial County, California; Stephen Bowers, coll.; 1904 (Ori- 
ginal No. 166). 

3923. Alverson Canon, on the south side of Coyote Mountain, Imperial 

County, California; Stephen Bowers and W. C. Mendenhall, 
colls.; 1904 (Original No. 164). 

6836. Carrizo Creek, Colorado Desert. California, January, 1890. 

6847. Ravine about one mile south of Alverson Canon, Coyote Mountain, 
Imperial County, California; Stephen Bowers and W. C. Men- 
denhall, colls.: January 20, 1904 (Original No. 163). 



Vol. XIV] HAN^fA -COYOTE MOU\'TAI\' FOSSILS 439 

[In addition to tiie above material, the U. S. National Mu 
seum probably contains some of the original specimens col- 
lected by the members of the Pacific Railroad Survey and 
studied by Conrad. There is also a collection of corals from 
Fish Creek J^Iountain, which has a direct bearing upon the 
present collections. It is No. 7616 (Original No. 167). (See 
Vaughan, U. S. Geological Survey Prof. Ppr. 98, 1916, p. 
350.) Localities 3919, 3921, 6836 and 6847 are supposed to 
have come from the "Yuha Reefs" ; localities 3922 and 3923 
contain material from both the "Latrania Sands" and "Im- 
perial Formation" as defined above.] 

Stations of the California Academy of Sciences 

680. Alverson Canon, Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California; 

from coarse sandy limestone above coral reef. 

681. Alverson Canon, Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California; 

from the coral reef which crosses the canon toward its source. 

682. From the first narrow, box canon east of Alverson Canon, Coyote 

Mountain, Imperial County, California. 

683. From the second canon east of Alverson Canon. Coyote Mountain, 

Imperial County, California. 

684. North side of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California; from 

canon one-half mile north of road to marble quarry but west of 
red hills on north side of road. 

685. Northeast corner of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California; 

from a bank 100 yards south of road to marble quarry; in the 
flat betv/een red hills on the north and Coyote Mountain on the 
south. 

686. One mile northwest of James Well, east of Coyote Mountain, Im- 

perial County, California; from a high projection of a solid shell 
reef; the reef dips east about 30°. 

687. From a clay shale layer which underlies the shell reef hill (No. 

686), Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California. 

688. From a wash two miles west of James Well and one mile south of 

base of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California. 

689. Oyster reef near same place as No. 688. 

690. From first knoll northwest of thef shell reef hill (No. 686), Coyote 

Mountain, Imperial County, California. 

691. Uppermost layers one mile northwest of James Well and east of 

base of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California. 

692. Oyster bed one-half mile northeast of James Well and two miles 

northeast of base of Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, 
California. 

693. Yuha Buttes, Imperial Count>-, California. 



440 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

701. A miscellaneous collection of fossils received without definite lo- 
cality data, other than Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, Cali- 
fornia, from California State Mining Bureau, collected by Dr. 
Stephen Bowers. 

[All of the above Academy collections except No. 701 were 
made by the writer in January, 1921. Localities 680, 682-685 
are from the "Latrania Sands"; locality 681 is from the Im- 
perial Formation; localities 686-693 are from the "Yuha 
Reefs" as defined above.] 

Bibliography 

The following list of titles is not intended to be complete 
for the whole of the desert region of southeastern California. 
Only those references are given which pertain to the geology 
of the vicinity of Co3^ote Mountain, and which have been used 
in the preparation of this paper. A long list which deals with 
other phases of the interesting region, particularly Imperial 
Valley and the Salton Sea, has been intentionally omitted be- 
cause they have no direct bearing on the paleontology of the 
district here treated. One exception is made in the case of a 
detailed account of desert trails and watering places, a publica- 
tion of incalculable value to any one who may make explora- 
tions of any kind in the region. 

Arnold, Ralph — The faunal relations of the Carrizo Creek Beds of Cali- 
fornia. Science, n. s., Vol. 19, 1904, p. 503. 

— Paleontology of the Coalinga District, Fresno and 

Kings counties, California. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 396, 1909. On p. 
44 the Carrizo Creek formation is correlated with the Etchegoin of 
San Joaquin Valley upon the presence of Pecten dcserti Conrad. 

Blake, Wm. P. — Pacific Railroad Survey Reports, Vol. 5, 1857, pp. 108, 
120-123. On the pages cited is given an account of the occurrence 
of the fossils at the mouth of Carrizo Creek. 

Bowers, Stephen — Reconnaissance of the Colorado Desert Mining District. 
California State Mining Bureau, separate publication, 1901, 19 pp. 

Brown, J. S. — Routes to Desert Watering Places in the Salton Sea Re- 
gion, California. U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper No. 
490-a, 1920. The same, much enlarged and with a great deal of 
general information, by the same author appeared as "The Salton 
Sea Region of California." U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 
No. 497, 1923, pp. 1-292; maps. 



Vol. XIV] H.-1.VN.4— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 44^ 

Conrad, T. A. — Pacific Railroad Survey Reports, Vol. 5 (Geology), 1857, 
App. 2, pp. 325-326, pi. 5. Four species of fossil Mollusca are de- 
scribed from a locality near where Carrizo Creek flows out of the 
mountains on the west to the valley floor. A footnote on the title 
page states that the descriptions were originally published in 1855 in 
the appendix to the Preliminary Report on Geology by Wm. P. 
Blake. See House Executive Document, No. 129, 33rd Cong. 1st 
Sess. 1855. 

DiCKERSON, R. E. — Mollusca of the Carrizo Creek Beds and their Carri- 
bean Afiinities. (Abstract), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 29, 1918, p. 148. 

Fairbanks, H. W. — Eleventh Ann. Rept. Calif. State Mineralogist, 1893, 
pp. 88, 90. 

Kew, Wm. S. W. — Tertiary Echinoids of the Carrizo Creek Region in the 
Colorado Desert. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Vol. 8, 1914, 
pp. 39-60. 

Cretaceous and Cenozoic Echinoidea of the Pacific 

Coast of North America. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Vol. 12, No. 2, 
1920. The Coyote Mountain echinoderms are redescribed in this 
paper. 

Mendenhall, W. C. — Notes on the Geology of Carrizo Mountain, San 
Diego County, California. Journal of Geology, Vol. 18, 1910, pp. 
336-355. 

Merrill, J. H. — Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and 
Imperial counties (California). Advance Report Calif. State Min- 
eralogist, Dec. 1914, pp. 1-113. The same was reprinted in 1916 as 
a part of the 14th Ann. Rept. Calif. St. Min. for 1913-1914 pp. 633- 
743. Much information on the geology of Imperial County is con- 
tained in this report. On p. 105 is reproduced a photograph showing 
borings of marine mollusks in marble on the slopes of Coyote 
Mountain. At the end of the paper, 20 references to places in the 
State Mining Bureau's publications are cited which deal with the 
geology or mineral resources of Imperial County ; most of these 
treat of mining operations. 

NoMLAND, J. O. — Corals from the Cretaceous and Tertiary of California 
and Oregon. Univ. of Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Vol. 9, 1916, 
pp. 59-76. 

Orcutt, Charles R. — Geology of the Colorado Desert. 10th Ann. Rep. 
Cal. State Min. for 1890, pp. 899-919. A bibliography and long ac- 
count of the fossils are given. 

— The Colorado Desert. West Am. Scientist, Vol. 12, 

No. 102, 1901. 

Vaughan, T. W. — A Calif ornian Tertiary Coral Reef and its bearing on 
American Recent Coral Faunas. Science N. S. Vol. 19, 1904, p. 503. 

— The Eocene and Lower Oligocene Coral Faunas of the 

United States. U. S. Geol. Surv. Monog. No. 39, 1900. On pp. 142 
and 151, pis. 15, 17, three Imperial County corals are described. • 



442 CALIFORNIA ACADEi\fy OF SCIENCES {Paoc. 4th Ser. 

Vaughan, T. W. — In Arnold, Tertiary and Quaternary Pectena of Cali- 
fornia, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 47, 1906. On p. 22, is given a 
list of Coyote Mountain fossil corals ; some new names without 
descriptions appear. 

— The Reef -coral Fauna of Carrizo Creek, Imperial 

County, California, and its Significance. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. 
Ppr. 98, pt. 5, 1917, pp. 355-386, pis. 94-102. This important paper 
gives a complete resume of the geology of the district up to the 
date of publication. 

Weaver, C. E. — New Echinoids from the Tertiary of California. Univ. 
Calif. Publ. Geol. Vol. 5, 1908, pp. 271-274. 



Gastropoda 
Architcctonica quadriceps Hinds 
Plate 20, figures 5, 6 





Specimens examir 


fed 




ocality 


Collection 




Number 


55 


U.C. 




5 


738 


U.C 




3 


681 


C.A.S. 




1 


6847 


U.S.G.S. 




1 



The best preserved one of the above (Loc. 738, U.C.) has 
been figured. All have been crystallized and this has tended to 
obscure the fine sculpture. In size, shape, and sculpture the 
fossils agree very well with the figure of quadriceps given by 
Tryon,^ but the spiral cords are not broken into beads as in the 
Gulf of California species commonly called granulata S. 
quadriceps was described from Panama.® 

2. Bullaria striata Bruguiere 
Plate 20, figure 9 

Butla striata Brug. Pilsbry, Man. Conch. Vol. 15, 1893, p. 332, pi. 37, figs. 

42-46. 
Bullaria striata attenu^ta Dall, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Vol. 3, pt. 

2, 1892, p. 219, pi. 13, dg. 10a. 

' TtYON, Man. Conch. Vol. 9. 1887. p. 10. pi. 4, 6g3. 39, 40. 
• Hinds, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1844, p. 23. 



Vol. XIV] HANWA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 443 

Bulla paupcrcnla Sovverbv, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Ix)ndon. Vol. 6, 1849, 
p. 52— Gabb. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. Vol. 15, 1873, p. 246— Guppv, 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. Z2, 1876, p. 518. 

Bnlhria paupercula Sowerbv, Maury, Bull. Am. Pal. No. 29, 1917, p. 182, 
pi. 3, fig. 8. 





Specitnens examined 




.ocality 




Collection 


Number 


680 




CA.S. 


1 


682 




CA.S. 


13 


3922 




U.S.G.S. 


2 


3923 




U.S.G.S. 


2 


6847 




U.S.G.S. 


5 



B. striata is a species now found living in the Mediterranean 
Sea and Pilsbry has shown that the West Indian living shells, 
usually called B. amygdala Dilhvin, cannot be separated 
from it. 

Dall''* listed the species as striata from the Bowden, Jamaica 
deposits, which were then thought to be Oligocene in age. 
Maury, however, continued to use the name paupercula for the 
fossils from Santo Domingo because "Sowerby's species has 
been so much used it seems best to retain it for the fossil." 

The figures of Pilsbry are as nearly identical with the Cali- 
fornia fossils as it appears necessary for them to be. Shape 
and size are very nearly the same. The fossils are somewhat 
eroded and crystallized, but it is possible to see that there were 
six spiral lines on the base and three near the apex of those 
best preserved. The apical umbilicus is wide and the angula- 
tion of the shell there is marked. The specimen illustrated 
herewith measures 26.1 mm. in altitude and 14 mm. in diam- 
eter. The loosening of the outer layer of the shell has pro- 
duced a columellar channel which, being artificial, should be 
ignored in comparisons. There does not appear to be a Gulf 
of California living "analogue" of this West Indian form, nor 
has anything like it been recorded from the Isthmuses of 
Tuhauntepec and Panama fossil deposits. Whether present- 
day taxonomists would give the Jklediterranean form so wide a 
geographic and stratigraphic range as this cannot be answered, 
but, accepting the work of the past, no biologic reason could 
be discovered in the fossils to warrant their separation. 

'Trans. Wag. Free In.st. Vol. 3, pt. 6, 1903, p. IS83. 



444 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

3. Cancellaria obesa Sowerby 
Plate 20, figures 3, 4 





Specimens examined 




Locality 




GDlIection 


Number 


701 




C.A.S. 


1 


4 




U.C. 


1 


738 




U.C. 


36 


• • 




S.D.S.N.H. 


5 



Shape and sculpture in this series are variable, but less so 
than among an equal number of living shells from Magdalena 
Bay, Lower California. Some of the fossils are almost smooth 
on the body whorls, a senile character apparently, while others 
are heavily cancellated. Between the two fonns, there is every 
stage of intergradation. The name, C. tirceolata Hinds ap- 
pears to have been applied to the strongly marked forms, and 
if this name be admitted, it should certainly be applied to some 
of the above fossils. 

The largest of the above listed specimens (S. D. S. N. H. 
coll. ) is 45 mm. in altitude and 23 mm. in diameter, but living 
specimens have been seen which considerably exceed these 
dimensions. 

The Gatun species, C. dariena Toula," seems to be strongly 
marked constantly, and differs otherwise from the Coyote 
Mountain fossils. 

4. Cassis subtuberosa Hanna, new species 
Plate 20, figure 8 ; plate 29, figures 2, 3 

Shell with a single row of low, close-set tubercles around 
the periphery of the last half of the last whorl ; spiral striation 
absent but last part of last whorl irregularly longitudinally 
ribbed ; spire moderately elevated, conical ; columellar face and 
expanded outer lip roughly triangular in shape ; 1 1 low lamel- 
lar teeth on the outer lip; columellar face irregularly ridged 
in the lower part ; the upper projecting angle somewhat eroded 
due to wear before the specimen was preserved. 

The species is most closely related to C. tuberosa Linnaeus. 
In addition to the type specimen two others are in the series of 
shells examined, but only one is of value in defining the species. 

"Jahr. K. K. Geol. Reich., Vol. 58, 1908, p. 703, pi. 25. fig. 13, pi. 28, fig. 2. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 445 

This is a younger individual than the type and three indistinct 
rows of tubercles are visible on the body whorl. This suggests 
C. sulcifcra Sowerby,'^ but all three rows in that species con- 
tinue to develop to maturity. 

The upper projection of the enamelled columellar face is ex- 
tended almost exactly in the same proportion in the younger 
individual of subtitberosa as in C. tuberosa. This specimen 
indicates that there may be intergradation between the fossils 
and living forms if sufficient material were at hand for study. 
In neither of the fossils are the tubercles massive nor do the 
earlier ones show in the aperture of the shell as in C. tuberosa. 

Type and paratype: In the collection of the University of 
California from Loc. 738, Alverson Canon, Coyote Mountain, 
Imperial County, California. Another very poorly preserved 
specimen is listed under locality 701 (C.A.S.). Casts of the 
type and paratype are Nos. 1799 and 1800 (C. A. S. coll.). 

The finding of this fossil Cassis is believed to be the first 
definite record of one of the larger species of the genus on the 
west coast of North America, either living or fossil. So far as 
I am aware, none has been found in the Tertiary deposits of 
the West Indies or the southern states, although three species 
are found living there at the present time. C. tuberosa was not 
found by F. M. Anderson in any of the fossil deposits of 
Colombia or the Isthmus of Panama, but recent specimens 
were secured by him at the former place. One of these has 
only five tubercles on the periphery of the last whorl. Two 
other specimens in the California Academy of Sciences from 
the Bahama Islands have eight and six respectively. In every 
case these assume the character of blunt spines and are rather 
distantly separated. 

5. Cerithium incisum Sowerby 

Lampania inctsa Sowerby, Thes. Conch. Vol. 2, 1855, p. 868, fig. 152. 
Cerithium incisum Sowerby, Tryon, Man. Conch. Vol. 9, 1887, p. 142, pi. 26. 

Four specimen from Loc. 682 (C.A.S.) agree with the shell 
which Tryon has figured under the above name. The best one 
is fairly well preserved, but the upper part of the spire is 
lacking. 

" Ouart. Tourn. Geol. vSoc. Lond.. Vol. 6, 1849, p. 47, pi. .10, fig. 1. Maury, Bull. 
Aon. Paleo. No. 29, 1917, p. 110, pi. 18, figs. 1, 2, 3. 



446 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [P«oc. 4th Sf.r. 

6. Conus fergusoni Sowerby 
Plate 21, figures 6, 7 

Conus fergusoni Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 145, pi. 15, 

fig. 1. 
(?)Conus nwUis Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1911, p. 

343, pi. 2i, fig. 1 (Gatun formation, Isthmus of Panama). 

A single adult and 17 young of a large cone from Loc. 738, 
have been referred to this living species of the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia and southward. The large one has been somewhat 
crushed out of shape and otherwise is imperfect, but the cor- 
rectness of the identification is fairly certain. This specimen 
is 89.7 mm. in altitude and 52 mm. in greatest diameter. 
While the identity of it with the living form is advisable, there 
is considerable doubt as to the correct name which should be 
applied. C. fergusoni was described from a living specimen 
from Panama and has since been found at numerous localities 
on the west coast. The California Academy of Sciences' col- 
lections contain a good series. In them there are also several 
fine specimens from the Gatun beds of the Isthmus of Panama. 
They appear to be identical with the species from there 
which was named C. mollis by Brown and Pilsbry. Both 
series show some variation in height of spire and the sculpture 
between the sutures. 

In the original description of C. mollis, comparison is made 
with Conns haytensis Sowerby,^" a species which was described 
without illustration from the Santo Domingo Miocene. 
Maury,^^ however, figured it and remarked upon the closeness 
of C. mollis to it. If they should prove to be the same, as 
seems likely, C. haytensis will replace both names, fergusoni 
and mollis. 

The young examples from locality 738 are all more or less 
imperfect and could, with equal propriety, be determined as 
any one of a dozen named species. Through crystallization 
they have lost their finer sculpture and many of them are 
crushetl and broken. The shape does not deviate from that 
of fergusoni sufficiently to be noted herein. 

'- Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. 6, 1849. p. 44. 
»»Bull. Am. Pal. No. 29. 1917, p. 35, pi. 5, fig. 1, 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 447 

7. Conus planiliratus Sowerby 

Conns ploniliratuj Sowerbv, Quart. Joiirn. Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. 6, 1849, 
p. 44— Maurv, Bull. Am. Palco. No. 29, 1917, p. 47, pi. 7, fig. 10. 

.\t locality 738 nine small specimens of Conus were col- 
lected. All are imperfect, being badly crystallized and the 
sculpture is in no condition to warrant very definite identifi- 
cation. They seem to be closer to this Miocene species of West 
Indian and Panama deposits than to any other. In the most 
perfect specimen there are about 20 spiral grooves, but whether 
the ridges have been cut transversely, it is impossible to ascer- 
tain. The shape of the spire is about the same as that of plani'- 
liratus of which the California Academy of Sciences has a 
large series from Panama. The largest specimen from Coyote 
Mountain, however, is only 19 mm. in altitude and 10.5 mm. 
in greatest diameter. 



8. Conus regularis Sowerby 

Plate 21, figure 8 

Conus regularis Sowerby, Conch. 111. 1841, fig. 45 — Dall, Free. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol. 38, 1910, p. 221. 





Specimens examined 




Locality 




Collection 


Number 


682 




C.A.S. 


11 


55 




U.C. 


4 


6847 




U.S.G.S. 


2 



The above name is applied to the Coyote Mountain fossils 
with the meaning attached to it given by Dall in the publica- 
tion, cited above, and not as defined by Tryon.^"* Most of the 
above specimens show traces of bold square maculations very 
distinctly. In the fossils, the color of these spots is brown, in 
the living shells, red. 



"Man. Conch.. Vol. 4, 1884, p. 37, pi. 11, figs. 98, 99, 100. 1, 2. 



,.#C.A/'>\ 



448 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

9. Crepidula onyx Sowerby 

One specimen collected by Mr. Frank Stephens at Coyote 
Mountain is in the collection of the San Diego Society of 
Natural History'. It is rugose like one figured by Tr>^on.^'^ 



10. Crucibulum spinosum Sowerby 

Specimens examined 

Locality Collection Number 

680 C.A.S. 2 

682 C.A.S. 1 

51 U.C 2 

3922 U.S.G.S. 1 

All of the above specimens are somew hat imj^erfect, but no 
characters could be discovered by means of which they could 
be distinguished from living specimens of this widespread 
and highly variable species. 



1 1 . Fasciolaria princeps Sowerby 



Number 





Specimens examined 


Locality 




Q)llection 


56 




U.C. 


738 




U.C. 


688 




CA.S. 


701 




C.A.S. 


3922 




U.S.G.S. 


3923 




U.S.G.S. 



The best preserved of the above specimens (Loc. 738 U.C.) 
are referred to F. princeps without hesitation. The species is 
found living from Magdalena Bay, Lower California, to 
Panama, and a considerable series has been available for com- 
parison. It is understood that the shells of the species are 
almost indistinguishable from those of F. papulosa (F. gi- 
gantea Keiner) of the east coast, but considerable differences 
exist in the operculums. Under the circumstances, it seems 
logical to refer the fossils to the western form. 

" Man. Conch., Vol. 8, p. 128, pi. 37, fig. 37. 



Vol. XIV] HANN A— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 449 

12. Ficus decussata Wood 
Plate 21, figure 9 





Specimens examined 




Ivocality 
55 
682 


Collection 
U.C. 
C.A.S. 


Number 
2 
2 



One of the specimens from the last lot mentioned above is 
fairly well preserved; it measures 30 mm. in altitude; 22.5 
mm. in diameter. The other specimens are small casts not 
readily determinable with certainty, but presumably the same. 
Even the best preserved has so crystallized that the minute 
sculpture cannot be discerned and apical characters have been 
lost. Burnett Smith^*^ in treating of the morphology of the 
genus gave apical characters for the separation of most of the 
living species, but did not indicate the constancy of sculpture 
in a large series of shells from one locality. 

East American paleontologists do not seem to have adopted 
the genus-name Ficus Bolten, in place of Pyriila Lamarck, as 
proposed by DalP^ in 1909. Western students have generally 
accepted the change and their example is followed herein, 
without, however, giving consideration to the merits of the 
case. 

F. decussata is the name generally used for the common, 
species found living in the Gulf of California. A large series 
collected in 1921 by the Expedition from the Academy has 
been available for comparison and within the lot, variation in 
sculpture is sufificient to cover the Coyote Mountain fossils. 

13. Littorina varia Sowerby 

Two specimens from Loc. 6836 (U.S.G.S.) have been re- 
ferred to this exceedingly variable species. They show no 
trace of spiral sculpture. The best one is figured and measures, 
altitude 25.5 mm. ; diameter 20 mm. 

The species belongs to a tropical group which is exceedingly 
widespread. The east coast representative is L. scabra Lin- 
naeus ; this can scarcely be separated from varia with certainty. 

"Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1907, pp. 208-219. pi. 17. 
"U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 59, 1909, p. 74. 



450 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Sek. 

14. Malea ringens Swainson 
Plate 21, figure 10 





Specimens examined 




Locality 


Collection 


Number 


53 


U.C 


1 


55 


U.C 


22 


56 


U.C 


2 


738 


U.C. 


3 


7Z9 


U.C. 


3 


680 


CA.S. 


3 


681 


C.A.S. 


1 


682 


C.A.S. 


1 


701 


C.A.S. 


4 


3919 


U.S.G.S. 


2 


3922 


U.S.G.S. 


1 


2923 


U.S.G.S. 


3 


6847 


U.S.G.S. 


1 



This large series consists of some well preserved si>eciinens 
and others which are merely casts. The largest is only 75 mm. 
in altitude, which is small as compared with some recent si)eci- 
mens from the Gulf of California. The number of spiral ribs 
varies from 13 to 20 and there appear to be no characters for 
specific separation of the fossils from living specimens. 

The name M. cainura was given to a fossil from Santo 
Domingo in 1866" and Gabb^'* has stated that it is the same as 
M. ringens. As camura, Maury'° has figured it from Santo 
Domingo, and it has been listed under that name from Gatun." 
The two forms are certainly very close, perhaps identical. 

15. Mitra sulcata Swainson 

Two imj)erfcct specimens from Loc. 738 (U.C.) have been 
referred to this species in the sense in which Tryon-- used the 
name. The preserved sculpture is identical with that of living 
specimens from the west coast of Central America which are 
available for comparison. 

"GupFV, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, Vol. 22, 1866, p. 287, pi. 17, fig. 9. 

"Trans. Am. Phil. Sec, Vol. 14, 1873, p. 223. 

=*BuLL. 29, Am- Paleo., 1917, p. 112. pi. 19, fig. 3. 

" Brow.n & PiLSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. .Sci. Phila., 1911, p. 356. 

"Man. Conch.. Vol. 4, 1882, p. 139. 



Vol.. XIVJ HANSA-COYOTE MOVNTAiyj FOSSILS 451 

16. Mitrularia equestris Liniueus 

Five casts of what appeared to be this species were collected 
on Coyote Moiuitain by Mr. Frank Stephens for the San Diego 
Society of Natural History. 

17. Modulus unidens Lister 

Three specimens from locality 6847 (U.S.G.S.) and seven 
fiom locality 682 (C.A.S.) are almost certainly referable to 
this variable species found living in the Gulf of California as 
well as on the east coast. All are crystallized so that the finer 
sculpture cannot be seen, but they agree with small specimens 
of unidens in shape. The margin is rather sharply carinate 
and the base has about five spiral cords. The largest specimen 
is five mm. in diameter. The tooth on the columella does not 
differ from that of living specimens from the Gulf of 
California. 

18. Natica unifasciata Lamarck 





Specimens exami 


ned 




Locality 


Collection 




Number 


738 


U.C. 




7 


682 


CA.S. 




2 


6847 


U.S.G.S. 




3 



These specimens appear to belong to unifasciata as repre- 
sented in collections available from Panama northward and 
by fossils from the Pleistocene deposits of Magdalena Bay. 
Lower California. Nevertheless the identification is attended 
with some uncertaintv due to the difficulties of determining 
s]>ecies in the genus and the comparatively poor preservation 
of the Coyote Mountain fossils. 

19. Natica uber Valenciennes 

Of this species there are LS specimens from locality 738 
(U.C), one from locality 6847 (U.S.G.S.) and four from 
locality 682 (C.A.S. ). It is known from Pleistocene deposits 
of the west coast of Lower California, the Galapagos Islands 

March 23, 1926 



452 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc 4th Ser. 

and Payta, Peru, and lives now from the Gulf of California as 
far south as Callao, Peru, according to Dall.-' 

20. Nerita scabricostata Lamarck 

A fragment of a Nerita 10 mm. across came from locality 
738 (U. C). Only the upper surface of the first two whorls 
is preserved. The sculpture of this is the same as of A''. 
scabncostata, a living species found from the Gulf of California 
to Panama. 

21. Neritina picta Sowerby 

Eleven si)ecimens of this sj^ecies came from locality 6847 
(U.S.G.S.) and 77 from locality 682 (C.A.S.). This large 
number shows, as usual in the species, considerable variation 
in fonn. In many of them the color is preserved and corre- 
sponds fairly well with that of living A^ picta from the Gulf 
of California and southward. 



22. Oliva spicata Bolten 
Plate 21, figures 4, 5 





Specimens examined 




rocality 




G)llection 


Number 


6847 




U.S.G.S. 


5 


738 




U.C. 


70 


682 




C.A.S. 


8 


.. 




S.D.S.N.H. 


9 



This large series contains no variations which are not found 
in a series of recent specimens of equal size from the Gulf of 
California. The form named angulata by Lamarck does not 
seem to be entitled to even subspecific rank because it is found 
with typical spicata and there appears to be perfect intergrada- 
tion between the two. This is true of the fossils as well as the 
recent specimens. 

The east coast analogue of this species is O. reticularis 
Lamarck. It likewise is subject to considerable, but less vari- 
ation and in a large series intergradation with spicata is 

»Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 37, 1910, p. 235. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 453 

thorough, jiarticularly when the fossils are considered. Since 
the latter name has precedence the eastern shells will probably 
eventually take a subspecific name. 

The synonymy of North American living species of Oliva 
has been thoroughly worked out by Johnson, " Mazyck"*^ and 
Vanatta.'-' 

The fossil forms exhibit the great range of variation in size 
for which the recent species is know. The largest specimen 
in the collections measures 78.5 mm. in altitude and 38.3 mm. 
in diameter. Another broken one was 45 mm. in diameter. 
The large specimens show a tendency to have an angulated 
periphery. Johnson" has listed 27 specific and subspecific 
names which have been applied to living specimens. 

23. Olivella gracilis Broderip and Sowerby 

At Loc. 738, there was obtained a single badly broken speci- 
men of a slender Olivella, having no characters distinct from 
the recent species of the Gulf of California. 

24. Solenosteira anomala Reeve 

Plate 20, figures 1, 2 

Nine specimens which have been identified as this species 
came from locality 738 (U.C). They are the same as Bose^* 
listed and figured as Melongena mengeana Dall, from Paso 
Real cerca de Tuxtepec, Oaxaca deposits which he called Plio- 
cene. The species lives on the west coast of Mexico at the 
present time and is found living and in Pleistocene beds at 
Magdalena Bay on the Pacific side of the Peninsula of Lower 
California. The fossils from Imperial County, Califoniia are 
identical with S. anomala as figiu'ed by Tryon^" and repre- 
sented by various specimens in the collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences. Tryon called the species a synonym of 
Melongena pallida (Brod. & Sowby.), but the differences 

"Nautilus, Vol. 24, 1910-11, pp. 49, 64, and 121; Nautilus, Vol. 28, 1915, pp. 97 
and 114. 

=» Nautilus, Vol. 28, 1915, p. 139. 

=« Nautilus, Vol. 29, 1915, p. 67. 

=^Naut., Vol. 28, 1915, p. 115. 

=« Bull. Inst. Geol. Mex. No. 22, 1906, p. 40, pi. 4. figs. 25, 26. 

=»Man. Conch., Vol. 3, 1881, p. 109, pi. 42, figs. 212. 213. 



454 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

seem sufficiently great to be recognized. It is true, however, 
that several allied species of the group form an intergrading 
series. 

25. Strombus galeatus Swainson 





Specimens examined 




Tx)cality 




Collection 




Number 


738 




u.c. 




2 


680 




CA.S. 




2 


682 




C.A.S. 




2 


701 




CA.S. 




2 


3923 




U.S.G.S. 




2 



Most of these specimens have weathered out as internal 
casts, but size and shape are so nearly identical with living ones 
of this abundant Gulf of California species that they are un- 
hesitatingly classed as the same. 

26. Strombus gracilior Sowerby 

Four si^ccimens, some of which are well preserved, have 
come from localities 682 and 701. They do not differ in any 
noteworthy feature from recent and fossil shells in the collec- 
tion from Magdalena Bay, Lower California, and a very large 
.«eries collected in the Gulf in 1921 by Dr. Fred Baker. 

27. Strombus obliteratus llanna, new species 

Plate 20, figure 7 

Shell similar to Strotiibiis Qraniilatus Grav but shorter and 
stouter; a row of prominent spines situated on the shoulder of 
all the whorls ; this is succeeded on the body whorl by another 
row, below ; although these are smaller than the shoulder row, 
they are much more pronounced than the middle row of 
nodules on the body whorl of S. (^rmnilatiis.^'^ The third and 
lowermost row of nodules on the latter is replaced in 5. oblit- 
eratus by a spiral ridge : between this and the rows of spines, 
there is no indication of s])iral sculpture which is so pro- 
nounced in the recent species ; no granulation is present on the 

="'Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. 7, 1885, p. 110, pi. 3, fig. 2. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSUS 455 

inside of the outer apertural margin in the type or any of the 
other specimens which are well enough preserved to show it. 
Altitude 61 mm. ; diameter, 45 mm. 

Type: No. 1809, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 682, 
Alvcrson Canon, Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, Cali- 
fornia; G. D. Hanna, coll. 





Specimens examined 




Locality 




Collection 


Number 


680 




C.A.S. 


1 


682 




CA.S. 


6 


701 




CA.S. 


17 


738, 53, 55.56 




U.C. 


5 


6847 




U.S.G.S. 


3 


.. 




S.D.S.N.H. 


1 



While having undoubted close relationship with S. granu- 
latus this species does not appear to intergrade with it in the 
important characters mentioned. 



28. Terebra gausapata Brown & Pilsbry 

Plate 22, figures 4, 5 

One specimen was found at Loc. 738 (U.C). It is very 
well presented as shown by the figure herewith. Its identity 
with the species described by Brown & Pilsbry^^ is not 
doubted. Of that species there are four specimens from Gatun 
in the California Academy of Sciences and some of them do 
not differ appreciably from the one from Imperial County, 
California. Brown & Pilsbry apparently had but a single 
specimen upon which to base their original description and 
therefore were unable to make any statement as to the vari- 
ation or the relationship of the species. Attention is there- 
fore called to the fact that the spiral striation which they men- 
tion as being present on the sutural band can scarcely be dis- 
cerned in some specimens while in others it is very plain. The 
tiumber of ribs on each whorl varies from 14 to 18 in speci- 
mens from Gatun and the one from southern California has 
20. Spiral threads below the sutural band var}' in number 
from three to five. 

"Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. 1911. p. 340, pt. 22. figs. 8. 9. 



456 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Se*. 

Some specimens of T. pedroana Dall have convex spires like 
T. gausapata, but they are rare and differ in sculpture. So far 
as a large series of the former show, the two species cannot be 
connected by a series of intergrades. The fossils seem closer 
to the east coast Pliocene and recent species, T. dislocata (Say) 
than to the west coast forni. T. martini English, from the 
Fernando Pliocene of California is a shell similar in size to 
gausapata but the vertical ribbing is much more pronounced in 
most specimens and the spiral lines are obsolete or nearly so. 

29. Terebra protexta Conrad 

Terebra protexta G)NRad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 3, 1843, p. 26 — 
Tryon, Man. Conch., Vol. 7, 1885, p. 25, pi. 6, fig. 98. 

A single poorly preserved specimen of a Terebra was se- 
cured at Loc. 682 (C.A.S.) which has the very fine ribbing of 
this common species of Florida. There is no species known 
from the west coast of America at the present time which ap- 
pears to approach this condition. The specimen did not ex- 
ceed 10 mm. in length when it was perfect. 

30. Turns albida(?) Perry 





Specimens examined 




ocality 
738 
6847 


Q)llection 

u.c 

U.S.G.S. 


Number 
6 

1 



The last measures 34.5 mm. in length and 19 mm. in width. 
If T. albida includes all of the variations which DalP^ and 
Maury^^ attribute to it then certainly it mu.st include the speci- 
mens from Imperial County, California. Of the numerous 
variations the latter resembles most the one figured by Maury^' 
as r. a. barret ti (Guppy)" from the Miocene of Jamaica. The 
range of the, species is given as from the Oligocene of Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, through the various Tertiary horizons of the 
West Indies, Florida and the Isthmus of Panama to the 
Recent. A large series of fossils from Gatun shows no such 

"Trans. Wag. Inst.. Vol. 3, 1890, pt. 1, p. 28, pi. 4, fig. 8a. 

» Bull. 29, Am. Pake, 1917, p. 214, pi. 8, figs. 4-8. 

" op. cit. fig. 5. 

"Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, Vol. 22, 1866, p. 290, pi. 17. fig. 6. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA—COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 457 

lange of variation as Maury has figured, and they have more 
numerous ribs and are nearer unifomi in size than the speci- 
mens from California. If these latter were not imperfect, it 
would be possible to say definitely whether they were the 
same, but they all lack canals, and, moreover, the shell sub- 
stance is crystallized so that the finer sculpture is obliterated. 
No west coast species is known with which comparison can 
be made. 

31. Turritella impcriaJis Hanna, new species 
Plate 21, figures 1, 2, 3 

Shell robust, slender, apical angle from 10° to 12" ; suture 
well impressed; whorls deeply constricted in the middle, thu.^ 
fomiing spiral ridges, the upi^er of which is slightly the larger ; 
each ridge slopes gently to the center and to the suture; both 
are indistinctly noded in the type specimen; in others nodes 
are much more evident; between the two ridges there are four 
faint spiral threads in the ty[>e; in some specimens these are 
scarcely visible and in others they are stronger, varying in 
number from two to six ; aperture circular with the exception 
of the deep constriction between the two ridges. 

Type: In the Univ. Calif. Coll. from Loc. 738 (U. C.) 
Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California; collected by 
W. S. W. Kew. A cast of the type is preserved as No. 1811, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. collection of type material. 

The type specimen is 55 mm. long and 25 mm. in diameter. 
The entire length of this specimen was about 125 mm. 





Specimens examined 




Locality 


Q)llection 


Number 


738 


U.C. 


62 


6847 


U.S.G.S. 


3 


680 


CA.S. 


1 


681 


C.A.S. 


6 


682 


CA.S. 


4 


683 


CA.S. 


3 


685 


CA.S. 


8 


688 


CA.S. 


1 


701 


CA.S. 


4 



458 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Paoc 4th Se«, 

This Species undoubtedly belongs to a group which attained 
maximum development in the Miocene and Pliocene of the 
east coast from Maryland to the West Indies. Variation 
among them has been so great that many names have been 
applied. DalP*' has stated that these . . . "will probably 
be diminished when sufficient material has been brought to- 
gether and carefully studied." On actual comparison of the 
western shells with Miocene material from the Chipola Marls 
of Florida some specimens of the latter are found which af>- 
proach very closely. These I take to be T. terebriformis Dall,*^ 
an unfigured species. The only observable difference which 
appears to be constant is the lack of nodes on the spiral ridges. 
Size, shape and other sculpture appear to be identical. 

The representative of the group in the Gatun formation of 
Panama is T. altilira Conrad,"" the spiral ridges of which are 
high, and very decidedly crenulated. In no instance is inter- 
gradation with the California specimens approached. 

Another closely related Miocene species is T. tornata 
Guppy^® of Santo Domingo. The ridges on that species also 
are beaded and it appears never to reach such a large size as 
the others which have been mentioned. 

From the Pliocene of Florida comes the large species, T. 
perattcnuata Heilprin*" which belongs to the same group but 
appears to differ from the southern California species to a 
greater extent. In it there is a greater tendency to accessory 
spiral ribs, some of them almost equaling in strength the two 
major ones. 

Species of undoubted alliance are not lacking in present seas 
although none of them appears to reach the large size of the 
fossils. Thus T. exoleta Linnaeus of the Gulf of Mexico and 
T. coopcri Carpenter of the west coast are similar in general 
form although both appear to be constantly different. The 
spiral ridges are much less heavy but they remain just two in 
number. The latter species has been found in Pliocene de- 
posits of Lower California, as well as living.** 

"Trans. Wag. Free Inst., Vol. 3, pt. 2. 1892, p. 316. 

" op. cit. p. 311. 

»» For a full discussion of this species see Buown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1911, p. 358. 

»»See Maury. Bull. Am. Paleo. No. 29. 1917. p. 294. pi. 4g, fig. IS. 

"Trans. Wag. Free Inst.. Vol. 1, 1887, p. 88. pi. 8. fig. 13— Dall, opt. cit., Vol. 3, 
pt. 2, 1892. p. 316, pi. 16. figs. 5, 9. 

" See Dall, Trans. Wag. Free Inst.. Vol. 3, 1892. pt. 2, p. 316— -Tryoo. Man. 
Conch., Vol. 8. 1886. p. 200. pi. 61, fig. 61. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 459 

There is another Uving- species, a single specimen of which 
was dredgfed near the mouth of the Gulf of California, 7". 
maruma Dall*" which appears from the figure to belong- to the 
same group. 

32. Vasum caestum Broderip 





Specimens examined 




Locality 




Collection 


Number 


6847 




U.S.G.S. 


1 


680 




CA.S. 


1 


682 




CA.S. 


1 


, , 




S.D.S.N.H. 


1 



This species has been recorded living from Mazatlan, 
Mexico, by Carpenter*-^ and from San Diego, California by 
Dall.** Several conchologists, including Tryon,*® have con- 
sidered it identical with the east coast living species, V. muri- 
catum (Born) and it is possible that if there were good series 
including fossils from both sides, available for study, no dif- 
ferences of a constant character could be found. I have had 
no living specimens from the west coast for comparison, but 
the only difference between the fossils and living east coast 
material seems to be in the weaker spirals of the former. The 
specimen from the San Diego Society of Natural History 
shows only a ridge for the anterior row of spines. It is 
badly broken but measures 93 mm. in altitude and 83 
mm. in diameter. The U. S. Geological Survey specimen 
has a single row of spines. And the young example from lo- 
cality 682 (Calif. Acad. Sci.) has a row of spines with a ridge 
below. The columellar plaits number either four or five. 
With a large series of living and Pleistocene shells from the 
east coast of Colombia available for comparison, it does not 
seem that there are specific differences Ijetween them and the 
California fossils, but the problem must remain open until 
living specimens from the west coast can be obtained. 

The status of the fossil species, V. haitensis (Sowerby), 



«6 



"Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo!., Vol. 43, 1908, No. 6, p. 327. pi. 11, fig. 14. 
" Maz. Cat., p. 456, 1857. 

♦«Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 37, 1910, p. 211. 
"Man. Conch., Vol. 4. 1882, p. 71. 

"Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, Vol. 6, 1849, p. SO. Vol. 32, 1876. p. S23. pi. 
29. fig. 3. 



460 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

and V. h, engonatum Dall/^ from the Florida and West Indian 
Tertiary deposits, has not been investigated in this connection. 
Maury*^ considered the two very close but did not pass upon 
the near identity of the fossils with living shells. 



33. Vermicularia cburnea Reeve 

This is the only member of the family Vermetidae w^hich has 
been found in the Imperial County deposits. Six specimens 
have come from locality 682 (C.A.S.). Some of them are 
fairly well preserved and agree with specimens found living at 
San Diego, California, and in the Gulf. 





Pelecypoda 




34. Anomia subcostata Conrad 






Plate 23, figures 3, 4, 5 






Specimens examined 




/ocality 


Collection 


Number 


51 


U.C 


19 


55 


U.C. 


2 


3919 


U.S.G.S. 


4 


3922 


U.S.G.S. 


6 


6836 


U.S.G.S. 


3 


684 


C.A.S. 


39 


687 


CA.S. 


9 


690 


C.A.S. 


11 


701 


CA.S. 


7 



Among this large number there is exhibited great variation 
in shape, sculpture and weight. The radial sculpture ranges 
from very decided ribs to none at all and a separation into two 
species with this character as a basis would l^e valueless. 

The name given above is used because Conrad's type came 
from Carrizo Creek, and he described and figured the shell so 
that it can be recognized, but it is quite possible that these 
fossils are not separable from some of the recent species which 
have earlier names. 

" Trans. Wag. Free Inst. Sci., Vol. 3. pt. 1, 1890, p. 100. 
-Bull. Am. Pal. No. 29, 1917, p. 84. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 461 

ARCID.E 

Most collectors have obtained numerous specimens of areas 
in the Coyote Mountain deposits and vicinity, but the preserva- 
tion has been so poor that specific identification cannot well be 
attempted. Most of these have been casts; in the few cases 
where the shell substance is preserved, it is so badly crystal- 
lized that external sculpture is largely obliterated. 



35. Atrina Stephens! Hanna, new species 

Plate 27, figures 3, 4 

Shell robust, inflated, beaks acutely pointed; both margins 
concave toward beaks ; growth ridges rough but not scaled] or 
spinose; radial ridges on posterior two-thirds of shell; these 
are wavy in cross section, but not spinose ; byssal area flat, the 
opening 3.5 mm. wide; valves gape broadly. Length 200 
mm. ; thickness, 60 mm. ; width, 112 mm. 

Type: Preserved in the Museum of the San Diego Society 
of Natural History ; plastotype, No. 1816, Calif. Acad. Sci. from 
Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California; Chas. H. 
Sternberg, coll. 

This species appears to be more closely related to A. oldroydi 
than any other; comparison has been made with the type of 
that species in Stanford University and it is found to have a 
convex swelling on the ventral margin; the radial ridges do 
not extend on the ventral half of the shell and the byssal area 
is not so flattened. 

The type only has been collected ; but numerous specimens 
of what appeared to be the same were seen by the writer em- 
bedded in an overhanging cliff on the north side of Coyote 
Mountain where they could not be reached. 

This species is named for Mr. Frank Stephens, veteran 
naturalist and collector of San Diego, Calif. 



452 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Sun. 





36. 


Bamea costata Linnaeus 
Plate 28, figures 5, 6 
Specimens examined 




Locality Collection 
701 C.A.S. 
51 U.C. 
6847 (324575 U.S.N.M.) U.S.G.S. 


Number 
2 
S 
1 



The specimen figured is 58.5 nmi. long and 20.7 mm. high. 
The others are but httle if any larger. All are internal casts 
and well preserved, but dorsal plates are lacking. Regarding 
the identification of the specimens with the coinmon east coast 
sf>ecies, it should be said that they correspond exactly in shape, 
number of ribs and form of sculpturing on the inside of the 
shells. The species is found living on the east coast from 
Massachusetts south to Brazil and fossils date back to the 
Pliocene according to Dall.*" The Miocene species of the east 
coast differs little from it. The use of the generic name 
Bamea Risso, instead of Pholas Linnseus, is in accordance 
with the definition of the genus as given by Dall. 

In addition to some peculiar borings found in the coral 
heads in Alverson Caiion, Coyote Mountain, the California 
Academy of Sciences' Collection (Loc. 701) contains four 
specimens which are distinctly the work of Lithophaga or 
Pholadidea. The holes have been made in massive marble, 
subsequently filled with fine sediment and solidified. No rem- 
nants of the shells remain. They came from the collection of 
the California State Mining Bureau and may represent some 
such specimens as those photographed by Merrill*** and pub- 
lished in 1914. 

Cardiid^ 

The various collections contain numerous casts of at least 
three species of the genus Cardium. They resemble, in sliape, 
living species of the Gulf of California, but without external 
sculpture positive identification would not be safe, 

« Trans. Wap. Free Inst. Sci.. Vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898. p. 816. 

•"a Merrill, F. I. H. Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial GMinties [Cali- 
fornia). Calif. St. Min. Bur. 14th Ann. Kept., for 19131914 (1916], p. 73S; advanc* 
copy Dec. 1914. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA—COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILi, 453 

37. Chama frondosa Broderip 

In th<i coral reef of Alverson Canon, locality 681 (Calif. 
Acad. Sci.) 13 si^ecimens of this species were secured. The 
maximum size is about 70 mm. by 50 mm. which is considered 
small. Exteriorly the shell substance has been greatly bored 
by other organisms and incrusted with bryozoa and worms. 
The limestone matrix adheres very tenaciously to both the in- 
side and outside of the shells. The species has been recorded in 
the Gulf of California as far north as Guaymas,''" and DalP^ 
gives its range as extending from San Diego, California, to 
Peru. 

38. Codakia colpoica Dall 





Specimens examined 




ocality 




Q)llection 


Number 


3922 




U.S.G.S. 


3 


6847 




U.S.G.S. 


3 


680 




C.A.S. 


2 


682 




C.A.S. 


6 



All of the above are more or less imperfect and the valves 
are firmly united so that the hinges cannot be seen. In shape 
and sculpture they agree perfectly with specimens from the 
Gulf of California. 

This is the species which was formerly called C. tigerina by 
Cai*penter and others. Dall,'"'' however, pointed out the dif- 
ferences between the west and east coast forms in his "Synop- 
sis of the Lucinacea" and described tlie one from the Gulf of 
California as new. 

39. Crassitellites subgibbosus Hanna, new species 

Plate 28, figures 1, 2, 3, 4 

Shell similar to C. gibbosus Sowerby but less swollen, and 
in specimens of the same size, the posterior end is longer and 
less up-turned. Surface roughened by growth ridges of un- 
equal strength: unibones with three heavy undulations; hinge 
area and teeth similar to gibbosits as figured by Nelson''"^ except 

»" Carpenter, Catalog Mazatlan Shells, 1857, p. 89. 

"Bull. 112. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1912. p. 33. 

"Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 23, 1901. p. 821, pi. 41, fig. 4. ^*^ M"' A J 

"'•Trans. Conn. .Acad. Arts and Sci., Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1870, p. 203, pi. 7, fig. 9. /-^'v^NVD n> Ai / 




4^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

that the central cardinal of the right valve of our species has a 
side brace, or spur projecting into the resilium; also in sub- 
gt-bbosus there does not appear to be the crenulation between 
the first and second cardinals of the right valve which he 
showed. Length, 55 nun. ; height, 41 mm. ; thickness, 29 mm. 
(Type.) 

Type: No. 1818, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 682, 
Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California; G. D. Hanna, 
coll. Paratype: In Univ. Calif. Coll. from Loc. 738 (U. C). 
Cast of same, No. 1819, Calif, Acad. Sci. 

"Crassitella gibbosa" was described by Sowerby^* from 
Middle America and illustrated by Reeve.^^ Its range is given 
by DalP' as extending from the Gulf of California to Paita, 
Peru. While no specimens of the species have been available 
for comparison, no fossils from Imperial County have been 
found which agree with the two figures to which reference has 
been made. Reeve's figure shows a specimen with a slightly 
up-turned posterior extremity and the ventral margin has a 
compound curve toward that end. Our specimens do not ap- 
pear to have such a curve. The ventral margin of gibbosus 
appears much more convex than subgibbosus. 

Comparison need hardly be made with the fossil species of 
Panama, Costa Rica and the Isthmus of Darien, C. reevei Gabb 
and C. mediamericanus Brown and Pilsbry, Both of them 
have regular ribbing on the surface, concentric with the 
growth lines. 

The material available has been 10 specimens from locality 
738 (U.C), two from locality 3923 (U.S.G.S.) and 13 from 
locality 682 (C.A.S.). 





40. 


Divaricella ebumea Reeve 
Plate 26, figures 8, 9 
Specimens examined 




Locality 




Collection 


Number 


738 




U.C 


10 


682 




CA.S. 


8 . 


6847 




U.S.G.S. 


4 



" Proc. Zool. Soc.. Vol. 2. 1832, p. 56. 

» Con. Icon. Crassitella, 1843, pi. 1. fig 1. 

^ Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. Vol. 37, 1910, p. 260. 



Vol. XIV] MASS' A— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 4^$ 

Except for the slightly coarser sculpture, these specimens 
do not differ from some from the Galapagos Islands; others 
found in the Pleistocene deposits at Magdalena Bay, Lower 
California, appear identical ; the same is true of many shells 
from the Gulf of California. Preservation of the Coyote 
Mountain fossils is not good and the valves are associated so 
firmly that hinges could not be examined. 



41. Dosinia dunkeri Philippi 





Specimens examir. 


ted 




Locality 




Collection 




Number 


738 




u.c 




12 


682 




CA.S. 




1 


3919 




U.S.G.S. 




2 


3923 




U.S.G.S. 




1 



The best preserved of the above specimens is figured. It 
measures: length 68.2 mm.; height, 71 nmi. ; thickness (one 
valve) 18.1 mm. The state of preservation is such that they 
cannot be satisfactorily separated from dunkeri, a species 
found living from Panama north to the head of the Gulf of 
California. 



42. Echinochama calif omica Dall 

Echinoch-atiui californica, Dall, Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Vol. 3, 
pt. 4, 1903, p. 1404. 





Specimens exatnined 




ocality 


Gjllection 


Number 


682 


CA.S. 


1 


3923 


U.S.G.S. 


2 



The above specimens from Coyote Mountain are not per- 
fectly preserved but there is little doubt that they belong to the 
species californica, from Lower California. 

The east American analogues are E. arcinella Linnaeus, a 
living form, and E. antiqimfa Dall from various fossil horizons 
dating back to the Miocene. All fonn a group of closely re- 
lated species, the separation of which has not been very 
satisfactory. 



4^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES | Proc. 4th Shr. 

43. Glycymeris gigantea Reeve 

Of this large species there are five specimens from Loc. 738 
(U.C.) collected by W. S. W. Kew. No other collector seems 
to have met with it in that region. Comparison has l>een made 
with living specimens from the Gulf of California as well as 
with Reeve's description and figure and no differences of ap- 
parent consequence could be detected. 



44. Cyathodonta undulata Conrad 





Specimens examined 




Locality 




Collection 


Number 


4 




U.C. 


1 


681 




C.A.S. 


1 


3923 




U.S.G.S. 


1 



These are casts and are somewhat smaller and thinner 
than living specimens from San Diego, California, supposed 
to be C. dubiosa Dall,^' an unfigured species. In describing 
C. mtdulaia, Conrad^^^ gave no definite locality, but Dr. Dall 
has stated that it is found at Lapaz and other places in the Gulf 
of California. 

45. Lucina edentuloides Verrill 

Lucina edentuoides Verrill, Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 23, 1901, 
p. 802. 





Specimens examined 




Locality 




Collection 


Number 


738 




U.C. 


1 


680 




C.A.S. 


1 


681 




C.A.S. 


5 


683 




CA.S. 


4 


701 




C.A.S. 


25 


6847 




U.S.G.S. 


3 



Of this species there are numerous specimens in the various 
collections, all of which, it appears, were collected from a hill 
slope on the west side of Alver.son Canon, Coyote Mountain. 
At a point where the coral reef crosses the stream bed these 
shells are weathered out and can be had in considerable num- 

"Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 49, 1916, p. 445. 

"a Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., \"ol. 4, 1849. p. ISS. 



Vol.. XIVJ HASNA—COYOm MOUSTAIN 1-OSSJLS 4(,/ 

bers. In every case seen they were crystallized and the valves 
were fastened together so that the hinge structure could not 
be ascertained. The shape, however, coincides with that of 
living specimens found from Magdalena Bay, Lower Cali- 
fornia, southward. The beaks of this species are more cen- 
trally j>laced than in the one of the West Indies. 

46. Metis excavata Sowerby 

Plate 23, figure 6 

One specimen in an excellent state of preservation was se- 
cured by Kevv and English at locality 738 (Univ. Calif.). It 
is 47.5 mm. from the beak to the ventral margin and does not 
differ in any noticeable character from s[)€cimens found in the 
Gulf of California living at the present time. 

47. Ostrea heermanni Conrad 
Plate 22, figures 7, 8 ; plate 23, figures 1, 2 

Ostrea heermanni Conrad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1855, p. 267 — 
G)NRAD, House Ex. Doc. 129, 33rd Cong. 1st Sess., 1855, p. 15 — 
Conrad, Pac. R. R. Repts., Vol. 5, 1857, p. 325. 

"Very irregular in form, thick, ovate and often dilated; 
lower valve shallow ; exterior very irregular, with large dis- 
tant angular radiating ribs and with pits, irregular cavities; 
cartilage pit broad and oblique ; upper valve flat or concave, 
with a profoundly irregular surface. Length, 5.75 inches; 
height, 6.5 inches." (Original description.) 

Although this species has not been previously figured, so far 
as I have been able to determine, there is no mistaking the fact 
that Conrad had specimens of the only large circular oyster of 
the Coyote Mountain region. It is excessively abundant in 
many places and also excessively variable. Uneroded speci- 
mens, however, show clearly that it is an irregularly ribbed 
si^ecies. The two specimens figured herewith show the 
characters well. Blake stated in a footnote to Conrad's de- 
scription that although Dr. Heermann picked up the original 
specimens from the bed of Carrizo Creek, there was no doubt 
but that they came from the fonnation near at hand. I saw 
.some examples in the cliffs of Alverson Canon that were fully 
a foot in diameter. 

March 23, 1926 



458 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sf.r. 

48. Ostrea iridcscens Gray 
Plate 26, figures 4, 5, 6, 7 

There are a few scattered beds of this fine species about 
Coyote Mountain wliere the shells occur in cliaracteristic 
abundance on the surface. At locaHties 689 and 692 (C.A.S. ) 
there were secured four and 15 respectively. These do not 
differ from recent specimens of the Gulf of California which 
are characterized by the arrangement of the shell substance in 
comparatively flat and regular layers. O. chileiisis Philippi, 
the western representative of O. virginica Gmelin according to 
Dall,^® has the layers irregular and often somewhat crenulated. 
O. iridcscens was first adequately described by Carpenter in 
1857.*^ 



49. Ostrea vespertina Conrad 

Plate 26, figures 1, 2, 3 

Specimens examined 



Locality 


Q)llection 


Number 


3919 


U.S.G.S. 


2 


3921 


U.S.G.S. 


12 


3922 


U.S.G.S. 


7 


3923 


U.S.G.S. 


4 


6836 


U.S.G.S. 


5 


6847 


U.S.G.S. 


1 (=324, 601 U.S.N.M.) 


324602 


U.S.N.M. 


1 


738 


u.c. 


6 (=55 W.S.W.Kew) 


 •  • 


u.c. 


8 (=51 W.S.W.Kew) 




u.c. 


1 ( S3 W.S.W.Kew) 


3003 


u.c. 


2 


Unnumbered 


.... 


8 


681 


CA.S. 


5 


682 


C.A.S. 


3 


683 


CA.S. 


15 


684 


CA.S. 


11 


690 


CA.S. 


3 


691 


CA.S. 


5 


694 


CA.S. 


2 


701 


CA.S. 


6 



«» Nautilus, Vol. 28, p. 3, 1914. 
•»Cat. Mazatlan Shells. 1857, p. 157. 



Vol. XIVI HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAm FOSSILS 459 

When the above list was made out, it was believed to be best 
to unite all the plicate oysters of the Coyote Mountain region 
under one name. Sufficient comparative material was lacking 
for a logical separation of species. Therefore the collections 
listed from the U. S. Geological Survey and the University of 
California contain some specimens of 0. hecriimnni as well as 
O. vespertina. 

Since the list was made and the collections returned, a large 
amount of comparative material, living and fossil from the 
Gulf of California region has been obtained, and it is believed 
that a separation into two species can be made with reasonable 
certainty, the large one taking- the name O. hcermanni. 

Ostrca vespertina was first described from San Diego (Con- 
rad, Journ, Phila. Acad. Sci.) in 1853, but was not figured 
until Conrad considered the specimens obtained by Blake from 
the Colorado desert where Carrizo Creek flows out of the 
Laguna Mountains upon the valley floor. Subsequent collect- 
ing at San Diego by many experienced workers has resulted in 
obtaining but one plicate oyster and that is the one described 
by Gabb*"^ from Cedros Island as O. veatchii. That the latter 
is synonymous with vespertina can scarcely be questioned. The 
identity was pointed out by Dall in 1898*'" and concurred in by 
Arnold in 1909.°^ The former considered both names as well 
as O. heermanni Conrad, the equivalent of O. haitensis Sower- 
by, 1850, an east American species. The later views of Dall 
regarding the living species of western oysters are set forth in 
a little paper published in 1914."* Here we find 0. veatchii 
given the status of a species. 

Whether the Carrizo Creek and Coyote Mountain oysters 
called vespertina are the same as San Diego specimens ori- 
ginally given that name cannot be stated with certainty, but 
seems probable. Around the flanks of Coyote Mountain the 
shells form great reefs, thoroughly consolidated and cemented, 
in some places already partially converted to marble. Such 
metamorphism is unusual for such late deposits in western 
North America. 

«Geol. Surv. Calif. Pal., Vol. 2, 1869, p. 35, pi. 11, fig. 61. 
« Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898, p. 686. 
" U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 396, 1909, p. 78. 
" Nautilus, Vol. 28, 1914, p. 3. 



470 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

50. Panopc gencrosa Gould 





Specimens examined 




-ocality 




G)llcction 


Number 


738 




U.C. 


4 


3923 




U.S.G.S. 


1 


682 




CA.S. 


1 


688 




C.A.S. 


1 


701 




CA.S. 


2 



As usual with this species, a considerable amount of varia- 
tion is shown in the series. The specimen from Locality 3923 
(U.S.G.S.) is particularly attenuated anteriorly, but not more 
so than some living shells. 



51. Pecten carrizoensis Arnold 

Pecteti carrizoensis Arnold, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 47, 1906, p. 59, 
pi. 4, figs. 1, la, lb, 2, 3, 3a. 

Specimens examined 

Locality Collection Number 

3922 U.S.G.S. 1 

6847 U.S.G.S. 2 (Numbered 324, 575, U.S.N.M.) 

738 U.C. 9 

680 CA.S. 6 

682 CA.S. 7 

The original specimens of this species came from the vicinity 
of Coyote Mountain and the most perfect among the above is 
a juvenile 31.8 mm. in diameter. P. steanisii Dall, P. dicgciisis 
Dall and this species form a group of flat sided pectens which 
are much alike. P. stcarnsii has the greatest number of ribs 
and each one is divided by a longitudinal sulcus. P. carri- 
zoensis has the least number of ribs (about 20) and they are 
more rounded (less square) than in either of the other species. 



52. Pecten dcserti Conrad 

Plate 25, figures 1, 2, 3 

This species was originally described from si>ecimens col- 
lected in the region by Blake and, being common, is very well 
known. The various collections studied have contained a great 



Vol. XIVJ 



HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 



471 



many specimens of it. The species is most common in the 
hard "oyster reefs" of the uppermost beds exposed. Some 
places tliese beds are consohdated into finn rock; aguin they 
have disintegrated and the desert floor then becomes carpeted 
with the shells of Pectcn descrti, Ostrea vcspcrtina and Anemia 
sfihcostata. They thus become scattered far and wide. 



53, Pecten keepi Arnold 





Specimens examined 




Locality 


Gjllection 


Number 


3922 


U.S.G.S. 


2 


Z9Zi 


U.S.G.S. 


2 


6847 


U.S.G.S. 


4 


324, 562 


U.S.N.M. 


I 


738 


u.c. 


3 


739 


u.c 


2 


680 


CA.S. 


7 


681 


CA.S. 


7 


682 


CA.S. 


2 


683 


CA.S. 


1 


687 


CA.S. 


1 


688 


C.A.S. 


1 


701 


CA.S. 


4 



The species was described from these deposits and seems to 
have no close living relative on the Pacific coast, but belongs 
with P. zic^ag Linnaeus of the West Indies and P. mortoni 
Ravenel®* of various east coast fossil deposits. 

It is one of the most common species in the Coyote Moun- 
tain region. Specimens were seen in the black limestone which 
caps a southern slope of the mountain east of Alverson Canon 
where the matrix was so hard that the shells could not be ex- 
tracted, and the stone rang like tempered steel when struck 
with a hammer. No specimens were seen higher up in the 
sequence of strata than that, but from there downward to the 
basal exposure (the coral reef in Alverson Canon) the shells 
were everywhere in evidence. 



Bose, Inst. Geol. Mex. Bull. 22, p. 24, pi. 1. figs. 3, 6, 9, pi. 8, pi. 9, 6ff. J. 



472 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sed. 

54. Pecten mediacostatus Hanna, new species 

Plate 22, figure 6; plate 24, figure 2 

Shell small, altitude a little greater than length, equilateral 
and equivalve, not noticeably inflated. Surface sculptured with 
23 (in the type specimen) ribs which are regularly rounded 
and are largest in the center of the valve. These ribs are strong 
at the ventral margin of the shell but are scarcely visible 
within 18 mm. of the beak; interspaces occupied by riblets, one 
to each, about one-third the size of the major ribs; in the better 
preserved specimens there is a fine even concentric sculpture 
of lirulae looped over the ribs, appearing as though cut with an 
engraving tool; anterior ear marked with five (in cotype) 
radiating riblets while the posterior (in the type) is smooth 
except for fine even concentric sculpture. Measurements of 
type specimen, a single right valve, altitude 37.2 mm. ; length 
30 mm. (slightly compressed longitudinally) ; thickness 
8.5 mm. 

Type: No. 1830, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. Trom Loc. 681 
(C. A. S.) Alverson Cafion on the south side of Coyote Moun- 
tain, Imperial County, California, in the Pliocene coral reef 
about midway up the caiion. 

There is only one west coast species with which the scul^v 
ture of this can be compared, Pecten estrellanus (Conrad) of 
Miocene and lower Pliocene strata. That species is more in- 
flated, longer than high, and the ribs extend entirely to the 
beak ; moreover, the ribs are squarish and interspaces chan- 
neled on each side of the smaller riblet. 

Twenty-seven specimens were obtained from the coral reef 
of Alverson Canon, Loc. 681, and one from Loc. 683, both of 
the California Academy of Sciences' series. The reef is a well- 
marked feature of the topography as one ascends the caiion, 
yet it does not appear to have been explored heretofore, since 
none of the numerous collections seen has contained this 
species. Like P. sancto-ludovici the specimens are more or less 
poorly preserved and usually somewhat crushed out of shape. 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 473 

55. Pecten mendenhalli A mold 
Plate 25, figures 4, 5 





Specimetis examined 




Locality 




Gjllection 


Number 


3922 




U.S.G.S. 


4 


3923 




U.S.G.S. 


13 


324, 549 




U.S.N.M. 


1 


738 




u.c 


10 


2064 




u.c 


7 


681 




CA.S. 


1 


701 




C.A.S. 


2 



Shape and sculpture are as Arnold*'*' has described. Each 
ear is consistently heavily sculptured with several ribs, but 
these are shown as smooth in P. cerrosensis Gabb.®^ The 
species, circularis, deserti, and mendenhalli are undoubtedly 
very closely related. With a large series of specimens from 
different places, it is possible all would be found to constitute 
an intergrading series, but at present some of the connecting 
links seem to be absent. 

56. Pecten sancti-ludovici Anderson and Martin 
Plate 22, figures 1, 2, 3 

This species was described*"^ from material collected "along 
the west side of San Juan River about one-half mile above the 
mouth of Navajoa Creek, Northeastern San Luis Obispo 
County, California," by Bruce Martin. Other specimens were 
taken in the near vicinity. All came from strata of the "Santa 
Margarita" formation or Upper Miocene. The type, a para- 
type, and six other specimens from the type locality, are in the 
California Academy of Sciences and all are beautifully 
preserved. 

Until now the species does not appear to have been found 
elsewhere, but in the coral reef of Alverson Canon, Imperial 
County, California, Loc. 681 (CA.S.) 12 specimens were 
taken. Two additional specimens were taken at Loc. 683 
(CA.S.) and there is a crushed one from Loc. 2064 (U.C). 
All are somewhat broken and crushed, but they are placed 

**\J. S.GeoI. Surv. Prof. Pap. 47, 1906, p. 84, pi. 25, figs. 2, 2a, 2b. 

"Geol. Surv. Calif. Pal., Vol. 2, 1869, pi. 9, fig. 55. 

"Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th ser.. Vol. 4, 1914, p. 55, pi. 3, figs. 10a, 10b. 



474 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Psoc. 4th Sejc 

with the Santa Margarita fonn without hesitation. Rarely 
are examples of any species from two localities so nearly 
identical. 

The sculpture of the species at once recalls hastatus and if 
only the right valve were known, it could be easily taken for 
that. The number of ribs is about the same, likewise the ser- 
rations of the riblets ; but there is no tendency in sanctp- 
ludovici for the ribs to be double or in pairs. The main dis- 
tinguishing feature, however, is the fact that while the left 
valve only of hastatus has about nine ribs, in sancto-ludovici 
the number is the same as in the right. 

57. Pecten subnodosus Sowerby 
Plate 25, figure 6 





Specimens exami 


ned 




Locality 




Q)llection 




Number 


738 




U.C 




6 


680 




CA.S. 




1 


690 




CA.S 




4 



These specimens are not perfectly preserved, but with a 
large series of living and fossil shells from the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia region for comparison, there is believed to be no ade- 
quate reason to doubt the identity. None of the above speci- 
mens had so many riblets between the main ribs as have been 
seen in some living shells, but this is probably due to the small 
series; certainly some living individuals, unquestionably sub- 
nodosus, have as few riblets as these. As in P. etch^goini 
farther north, the strength of the nodes varies greatly in a 
series of shells. 

58. Phacoides xantusi Dal I 
Plate 28, figure 7 ; plate 29, figure 1 

Pka-coides xantusi Dajll, Nautilus, Vol. 18, 1903, p. 110. 
Phacoides childreni of authors; not of Gray. 





Specimens examined 




Locality 


Collection 


Number 


738 


U.C. 


3 


2064 


U.C 


1 


3923 


U.S.G.S. 


3 


681 


CA.S. 


17 



Vol. XIV] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS \y$ 

The above specimens are all more or less crystallized so that 
the finer sculpture is obliterated, and the valves are so firmly 
fastened tog-ether that the hinge structure has not been ex- 
amined. This and four other species, one of the Miocene and 
Pliocene of California,®" one of the east American recent 
fauna, ^° one east American Pliocene form,'^ and one of the 
Florida Miocene,^'- form a group of closely related forms. The 
Coyote Mountain fossils, however, seem to be most closely re- 
lated to the shells found living- in the Gulf of California at the 
present time. It has already been listed as P. childrcni from 
the Pliocene of Lower California at San Juan by Dall (Op. 
cit. 1903). 

59. Pinna latrania Hanna, new species 

Plate 27, figure 1 ; text figure 1 

Shell thin, long and slender, apical angle acute {27") ; sur- 
face apparently unmarked externally by ridges, ribs or spines, 
except for a heavy longitudinal mid-rib in each valve; this is 




Fig. 1. Outline of Pinna latrania, n. sp. 

rounded convex, internally and apparently sharply carinate 
externally and divided longitudinally, the two parts being 
united by cartilage ; the length of this rib is unobtainable from 
available material, but in other species it does not extend en- 
tirely to the beak ; each valve is deeply sulcate at the mid-rib 

"P. sanct<scruns Arnold. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 396, 1909. p. 57, pi. 6, fiff. 6. 
" P. childreni Gray. 

"P. smithwoodwardi Maury, Bull. 29, Am. Paleo., 1917, p. 204, pi. 35, fig. 6. 
^P. caloosaensis Dall Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Vol. 3, pt. 6. 1903, pi. 28, 
fig. 1. 



476 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

SO that in looking down upon it, it is double-looped. Length 
of type specimen, 135 mm. ; width from hinge line down, 
63 mm.; gape posteriorly, 51 mm.; length of hinge line, 116 
mm. ; length of byssal scar, 85 mm. 

Type: No. 324,593 (U. S. Nat. Mus.) from Log. 3922 (U. S. 
Geol. Surv.), Coyote Mountain, Imperial County, California. 
A cast of the type is No. 1837 (C. A. S. Coll.). 

The type specimen lacks both anterior and posterior ends 
and is largely a decorticated cast. A paratype in the Museum 
of the San Diego Society of Natural History was collected 
at the same locality by Mr. Frank Stephens. This specimen 
shows the shape of the posterior end of the shell. A cast of 
it is preserv-ed as No. 1838 of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

60. Pinna mendenhalli, Hanna, new species 
Plate 27, figure 2 

Shell thick and heavy; apical angle obtuse (47°); outer 
surface without sculpture or distinct ribs ; there is a low longi- 
tudinal ridge, however, on the ventral half of each valve ; mid- 
rib exceedingly heavy (7 mm. thick in a fragment preserved 
on one specimen) ; rounded on the interior and apparently 
sharply carinate on the exterior. Each valve appears to be 
divided through this rib for at least a portion of its length be- 
cause in the remnants of the shell preserved on the casts, there 
are ligament scars as shown in the figure. The gape extends 
the full length of the shell and the byssal scar appears to do 
the same; beak and posterior margins not seen. Greatest 
length of type, 167 mm. ; greatest breadth, 98 mm. ; thickness, 
58 mm. ; full dimensions were : length about 200 mm. and 
breadth 100 mm. ; thickness of the paratype is 66 mm. 

Type: No. 324,593 (U. S. Nat. Mus.) from locality 3922, 
(U. S. Geol. Surv.). One paratype from the same place bears 
the same number. Both specimens are imperfect and little 
better than internal casts. A cast of the type is preserved as 
No. 1839 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

This species is unlike any other from west coast Tertiary 
and appears to resemble P. calooscensis Dall" from the Florida 

"Ter. Faun. Fla., Vol. 3. pt. 4, 1898, p. 660, pi. 26, fig. 4. 



Vol. XIV) HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 477 

Pliocene in a general way. The resemblance, however, is only 
in structure and not in form because that species has an apical 
angle of only about 18°. It is closer to P. latrania, new 
species, from the Imperial County deposits than any other 
known to the writer. 

The species is named for Mr. W. C. Mendenhall, who, with 
Dr. Stephen Bowers, collected the type material and who very 
kindly gave nie much infonnation relative to the occurrence 
of fossils. 

61. Spondylus calcifer Carpenter 

In the collections of fossils from Coyote Mountain, there 
are several specimens which do not appear to differ from this 
living species of the Gulf of California. Two are from Loc. 
3923 (U.S.G.S.); one from Loc. 53 (2064) (U.C.) ; and 
one from locality 685 (C.A.S.). Not any of these, however, 
has reached the ponderous size which is attained by some living 
examples of the sp>ecies. Consequently they have been com- 
pared with the young of calcifer. All are more or less imper- 
fect. The best is from the first locality mentioned and it has 
been figured. It is seen to be very irregularly spinose; con- 
centric sculpture is almost absent; the beak is very high and 
the ligamentary canal continuous to the apex. 

I have seen 12 names which have been applied to west coast 
Spondylidae, and there may be others. Most of these, how- 
ever, have been applied to various and sundry modifications of 
the forms known as pictorum and limhatus, no representa- 
tives of which appear in the fossil beds at the head of the 
Gulf. 

62. Spondylus bostrychites Guppy 

Plate 24, figures 3, 4 

Spondylus bostrychites Guppy, Proc. Sci. Soc. Trinidad, p. 176, 1867— 
Gabb, Geol. Santo Domingo, 1873, p. 257— Dall, Tert. Faun. Fla., 
Vol. 3, pt. 4, 1898, p. 758— Dall, Bull. 90, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1915, p. 
124, pi. 19, fig. 4— Maury, Bull. 29, Am. Paleo., 1917, p. 190, pi. 32, 
fig. 4. 

This species, first described as 6". hifrons in 1849,^* was not 
figured until 1915, and then very imperfectly. No one has 

'« Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. 6, 1849. p. 53. 



478 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IPaoc. 4th Sfi«. 

shown the hinge area although Sowerby stated in his original 
description; that it is "easily distinguishable by the area of one 
valve being very narrow and that of the other valve being- 
rather broader, though still narrow." Both Gabb's and 
Guppy's mention of the species bostrychites are in publications 
which are very inaccessible and no one has thus far given a 
description of the species, since those authors wrote. Identi- 
fication would have probably been impossible had it not been 
for the fact that our specimens were compared directly, with 
Guppy's type of bostrychites and other material in the National 
Museum. This was done through the kindness of Mr. W. C. 
Mansfield. 

Giippy's type was a young individual similar to the one 
Maury) has figured. Ball's figure is of an older example, but 
neither of them shows the minute sculpture which appears to 
be characteristic ; at any rate, it is present on the type and 
others. 

At Loc. 738 (U.C.) and also at Loc. 685 (C.A.S.) a speci- 
men was secured. The former is the more i)erfect and has 
been figured. The spines are arranged in five radial rows, but 
they have been broken away so that their length cannot be 
compared with those of bostrychites. In the intervening spaces, 
there are from five to nine smaller radial ridges which become 
slightly spinose toward the outer margin of the shell. These 
are irregular in size. The surface is marked by very small, 
wavy, concentric lines which are broken into many papillae, 
particularly toward the center of the shell. The) hinge area is 
slightly heavier than in the specimens from Santo Domingo 
which were compared, but this is a variable character in the 
genus. The ligamentary groove extends to the apex. Apex 
not elevated or spiral. Valves of about equal size and con- 
vexity. In the latter respect the species differs from 6". scotti 
Brown & Pilsbry" and the larger species which they did not 
figure and therefore cannot be recognized. 

The specimen figured, although somewhat broken, measures 
86 mm. in a line parallel to the hinge, and 99 mm, high. The 
larger specimen measures 115 mm. by 125 mm. but it likewise 
is imperfect. If perfect, the latter dimension would be in- 
creased by about 10 mm. 

"Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phi!a.. 1912, p. 514, pi. 25, figs. I, 2. 



Vol. XIV) 



HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 



479 



63. Tagelus californianus Conrad 

A single specimen of Tagelus was obtained at Loc. 6847 
(U.S.G.S.). It does not dififer from specimens of the above 
species which is exceedingly common in the Gulf of California. 
It measures: length, 55 mm. ; height in center. 22.3 mm. ; thick- 
ness as preserved, 13.5 mm. 

ECHINODERMATA 

64. Clypcaster bowersi Weaver 

Specimens examined 

I^ocality Collection Number 

680 C.A.S. 2 

682 C.A.S. 1 

701 C.A.S. 2 

3919 U.S.G.S. 1 

3922 U.S.G.S. 2 

39^1 U.S.G.S. 2 

This huge species was described from deposits on Coyote 
Mountain, and there it is very abundant. The writer does not 
feel competent to pass judgment upon its validity, but with 
probably better living material from the Gulf of California 
available foil comparison than has heretofore been gathered 
together in a western museum, it seems exceedingly doubtful 
if the fossils are reallv distinct. 



65. Clypeaster deserti Kew 

Specimens examined 
I.-ocality 
680 
3919 

No living species comparable to this was' collected in the 
Gulf of California in 1921 by the Academy and it is not known 
if there be one there. 



Collection 


Number 


CA.S. 


2 


U.S.G.S. 


1 



Locality 

680 

3919 

3922 



66. Encope tenuis Kew 

Specimens examined 

Collection 
CA.S. 
U.S.G.S. 
U.S.G.S. 



Number 
6 
2 
2 



'C^^ 



/. 









4g0 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Paac. 4th Ser. 

67. Hippnoe calif omica Kew 

One well-preserved specimen from Loc. 3922 (U.S.G.S.) is 
somewhat crushed, but it is the best preserved representative 
of the species in existence so far as the writer knows. It cer- 
tainly is better than the one which Kew used for a type and 
which also came from Coyote Mountain deposits. 

68. Metalia spatagus ( ?) Linnaeus 
Plate 24, figure 1 

Metalia maculosa Agassiz, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. 3, 1872, pp. 144, 

598, pis. 21b, 26, 38. 
Metalia spatagus Linn^us, Clark, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. 46, 

No. 2, p. 210. 

This identification of the single specimen of spatangoid 
echinoderm from locality 3919 (U. S. Geol, Surv.) is attended 
with some doubt because of poor preservation. The specimen 
is small; length, 32 mm. ; width, 25 mm. ; height, 15.6 mm. It 
is so eroded that none of the markings or plates remains but 
resembles in shape some specimens of Metalia spatangiis from 
the Gulf; of California. The lateral petals of the fossil are 
somewhat decumbent and may be the mark of a new species, 
but the writer is not sufficiently acquainted with the group to 
venture a description on such fragmentary material. Kew has 
recorded no species of the group from Coyote Mountain and 
apparently this is the first and only specimen that has been 
found there. One would naturally expect such forms as 
Meoma grancUs, but thus far they have not been found. 

Corals 

The coral fauna of the Coyote Mountain district is exceed- 
ingly interesting and has been thoroughly studied by Dr. T, W. 
Vaughan. No less than 12 named fonns are found in the 
various reefs. The locality is remarkable in being the north- 
ernmost representation of the groups in west American Ter- 
tiary, Quaternary, or Recent faunas. At the present time, reef 
building corals are not abundant on the west coast north of 



Vol. XIV] HANN A -COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 481 

the Tres Marias Islands, althoug^h this scarcity may, in part, 
be due to imperfect exploration about the islands of the Gulf 
of California. Some fine specimens, stated to have come from 
there were on display at the interstate exhibition held in 
Mazatlan, Sonora, in 1925. 



69. Dichocoenia merriami (Vaughan) 

Favia merriami Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Monog. 39, 1900, p. 142, pL 
15, figs. 5, 5a-c.— NoMLAND, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol., Vol. 9, 1916, 
p. 60. 

Dichocania merriami Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof Ppr. 98, 1917, 
p. 370, pi. 94, figs. 1. la. 



70. Dichoccenia merriami crassisepta Vaughan 

Dichocoenia merriami crassisepta Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 
98, 1917, p. 371, pi. 94, figs. 3, 3a. 



71. Eusmilia solida (Nomland) 

Madripora solida Nomland, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol., Vol. 9, 1916, p. 60. 
Eusmilia carrizensis Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. No. 98, 
1917, p. 369, pi. 95, figs. 1, la. 

Dr. T. W. Vaughan told me on January 18, 1922, his species 
should be referred to the name selected by Mr. Nomland. 



72. Maeandra bowersi (Vaughan) 

Diploria bozversi Vaughan [nomen nudum] U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 
47, 1906, p. 22. 

M(£andra bowersi Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 98, 1917, p. 374, 
pi. 101, figs. 1, la. 



73. Porites carrizensis Vaughan 

Porites carrizensis Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 98, 1917, p. 375, 
pi. 102, figs. 5, 5a, 5b, 6, 6a. 



4g2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

74. Siderastrea califomica Vaughan 

Siderastrea califomica Vaughan [nomen nudum] U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. 
Ppr. 47, 1906, p. 22.— Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 98, 
1917, p. 375, pi. 102, figs. 2, 2a, 3, 4. 

75. Siderastrea mendenhaJli Vaughan 

Siderastrea ntendenhalli Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 98, 1917, 
p. 374, pi. 101. figs. 3, 3a, 4. 

76. Siderastrea mendenhalli minor Vaughan 

Siderastrea mendcnhaUi minor Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 
98, 1917, p. 375, pi. 102, fig. 1. 

77. Solenastrea fairbanksi (Vaughan) 

Stephanocania fairbanksi Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Monog. 39, 1900, 

p. 151, pi. 17, figs. 11, 11a. — Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 

47, 1906, p. 22.— NoMLAND, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol., Vol. 9, 1916, 

p. 60. 
Flesiastrca calif arnica Vaughan [nomen nudum], U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Prof. Ppr. 47, 1906, p. 22. 

Solenastrea fairbanksi Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 98, 1917, 
p. 372, pi. 95, figs. 3, 3a. 

7'i^. Solenastrea fairbanksi columnaris (Vaughan) 

Stephanoccenia fairbanksi columnaris Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Monog. 

39, 1900, p. 151, pi. 17, figs. 10, 10a.— Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Survey, 

Prof. Ppr. 47, 1906, p. 22.— Nomland Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol., Vol. 

9, 1916, p. 60. 
Solenastrea fairbanksi columnaris Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. 

Ppr. 98, 1917, p. 373, pi. 96, figs. 1, la. 

79. Solenastrea fairbanksi minor Vaughan 

Solenastrea fairbanksi minor Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 
98, 1917, p. 373, pi. 97, figs. 2, 2a-2c 



Vol. XI\-] HANNA— COYOTE MOUNTAIN FOSSILS 483 

80. Solenastrea fairbanksi normalis Vaughan 

Solciiasfrca fairbankxi normalis Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Ppr. 
98, 1917, p. 2>7i, pi. 96, figs. 2, 2a-2c, pi. 97, figs. 1, la. 



Fishes 

81. Carcharodon arnoldi Jordan 

Plate 23, figure 7 

A well-preserved tooth of this shark was found at Loc. 
3922 (U.S.G.S.) (No. 324542 U.S.N.M.). A cast of it is 
preserved as No. 1842 (C.A.S. Coll.). The identification was 
made by Harold Hannibal when the paper by Dr. Jordan and 
him was in preparation." 



"See Bull. So. Calif. .\cad. Sci., Vol. 22, pi. 2, July 1923, p. 55, for the record of 
the species in "Carrizo Creek." 



434 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 20 

Figs. 1, 2. Solcnosteira anomala (Reeve). Loc. 738 (U.C. Coll.); cast 

of plesiotype, No. 1808 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 3, 4. Cancellaria obcsa Sowerby. Loc. 738 (U.C. Coll.); casts 

of plesiotypes, Nos. 1797 and 1798 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 5, 6. Architectonica quadriceps (Hinds). Loc. 738 (U.C. Coll.); 

cast of plesiotype, No. 1795 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Fig. 7. Stromhtis ohliteratus Hanna, n. sp. Type No. 1809 (C.A.S. 

Coll.), from Loc. 682. 

Fig. 8. Cassis subtuberosa Hanna, n. sp. Paratype from Loc, 7v38 

(U.C. Coll.); cast of same. No. 1800 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Fig9. Bullaria striata (Bruguiere). Plesiotype, No. 1796 (C.A.S. 

Coll.), from Loc. 682. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



HANNAJ Plate 20 






' ^/ 






486 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 21 

Figs. 1,2. 3. TurritcUa iiiipcrialis Hanna, n. sp. Type and paratypes, 
Loc. 738 (U.C. Coll.) : casts of same. Nos. 1811 and 1812 
(C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 4, 5. Olha spicata (Bolten). Loc. 738 (U.C. Coll.); casts of 

plesiotypes, Nos. 1806 and 1807 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 6, 7. Conns fergusoni Sowerby. Loc. 738 (U.C. Coll.); casts of 

plesiotypes, Nos. 1801. 1802 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Fig. 8. Conns rcgularis Sowerby. Plesiotype, No. 1803 (C.A.S. 

Coll.), from Loc. 682. 

Fig. 9. Ficiis dccussata (Wood). Plesiotype, No. 1804 (C.A.S. 

Coll.), from Loc. 682. 

Fig. 10. Malca ringcns Swainson. Plesiotype, No. 1805 (C..\.S. 

Coll.), from Loc. 682. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



HANNAJ Plate 21 









March 23, 1926 



^gg CAIJUORXIA ACADEMY OF SCitlSCES [Proc. 4th Si£R. 



Plate 22 

Figs. 1,2, 3. Pcctcn sancii-ludovici Anderson & Martin. Figs. 1, 3 

from plesiotypes, Nos. 1834, 1835 (C.A.S. Coll.), from 

Log. 681. Fig. 2 from plesiotype in U. C. Coll., from 
Loc. 55 (738). 

Figs. 4, 5. Tercbra gausapata Brown & Pilsbry. Plesiotype from 

Loc. 738 (U.C. Coll.) ; cast of same, No. 1810 (C.A.S. 
Coll.). 

Fig. 6. Pcctcn iiicciiacosfntits Hanna, n. sp. Paratype, No. 1831 

(C.A.S. Coll.), from Loc. 681. 

Figs. 7, 8. Ostrca liccninunii Conrad. Plesiotype, No. 1825 (C.A.S. 

Coll.), from Loc. 693. 



PROC. CAL ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



HANNA] Plate 22 



9^ %i 



i 





% 












490 



CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCBS [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 23 

Figs. 1,2. Ostrca hccnnauni Conrad. Plesiotype, No. 1826 (C.A.S. 

Coll.), from Loc. 693. 

Figs. 3, 4, 5. Aiioniia sitbcostaia Conrad. Plesiotypes, Nos. 1813, 1814, 
1815 (C.A.S. Coll.), from Loc. 684. 

Fig. 6. Metis cxcavata Sowerby. Plesiotype from Loc. 738 (U.C. 

Coll.) ; cast of same, No. 1841 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Fig. 7. Carcharodoii arnoldi Jordan. Plesiotype, No. 324,542 

(U.S.N.M. Coll.) ; cast of same. No. 1842 (C.A.S. Coll.). 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



■^k 



[HANNA] Plate 23 






'^^ 



J^'^ 
<^''i 






^' 





s 



m 



t-^. 








^PL 




r 



^ 



492 CALIfORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 24 

Fig. 1. Mcialia spatagus? (Linnjeus). Plesiotype, No. 324.541 

(U.S.N. M. Coll.) ; cast of same, No. 1822 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Fig. 2. Pcctcn mcdiacostatus Hanna, n. sp. Type, No. 1830 (C.A.S. 

Coll.), from Loc. 681. 

Figs. 3, 4. Spu)idylus bostrych'iics Guppy. Plesiotype from Loc. 7i% 

(U.C. Coll.); cast of same, No. 1840 (C.A.S. Coll.). 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



HANNA] Plate 24 



IT -s^*.' 







494 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES TPkoc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 25 

Figs. 1, 2, 3. Pcctcti dcscrti Conrad. Plesiotype from Loc. 738 (U.C. 
Coll.) ; cast of same, No. 1844 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 4, 5. Pcctcn iiiendciihalli Arnold. Plesiotype from Loc. 2064 

(U.C. Coll.) ; cast of same, No. 1833 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Fig. 6. Pcctcn suhiiodosiis Sowcrby. Plesiotype from Loc. 738 

(U.C. Coll.) ; cast of same. No. 1829 (C.A.S. Coll.). 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



HANNAl Plate 25 






.if-tj^. 






496 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 26 

Figs. 1,2, 3. Ostrca 2'cspcrtina Conrad. Plesiotype, from Loc. 738 (U.C. 
Coll.); cast of same, No. 1827 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. Ostrca iridcsccns Gray. Plesiotypes, Nos. 1823, 1824, from 
Loc. 692 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 8, 9. DivariccUa cbiinica (Reeve). Plesiotype, from Loc. 738 

(U.C. Coll.) ; cast of same, No. 1820 (C.A.S. Coll.). 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



HANNAl Plate 25 









/ 





{ 



>N. 



<\ 



7^' 



6 




49g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIHNCHS | 1'roc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 27 

Fig. 1. Pinna latrania Haniia, n. sp. Type, No. 324,593 (U. C. Nat. 

Mus. Coll.), from Loc. 3922 (U.S.G.S.) ; cast of same, 
No. 1827 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Fig. 2. P'unia mcudcuJiaUi Hanna, n. sp. Type, No. 324,593 (U. S. 

Nat. Mus. Coll.), from Loc. 3922 (U.S.G.S.) ; cast of 
same. No. 1839 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 3, 4. Atrina stephcnsi Hanna, n. sp. Type in San Diego Society 

of Natural History from Coyote Mountain, Imperial 
County, California; cast of same, No. 1816 (C.A.S. 
Coll.). 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No 18 



[HANNA] Plate 27 







5f;0 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIBNCES IProc. 4th Si;r. 



Plate 28 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. Crassatcllitcs sitbgibbosiis Hanna, n. sp. Figs. 1, 2, from 
paratypes, from Loc. 738 (U.C. Coll.) ; casts of same, 
No. 1819 (C.A.S. Coll.) ; figs. 3, 4, from type, No. 1818 
(C.A.S. Coll.), from Loc. 682. 

Figs. S, 6. Banica costata (Linnseus). Plesiotype, No. 324,575 (U. S. 

Nat. Mus. Coll.). from Loc. 6847 (U.S.G.S.) ; cast of 
same. No. 1817 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Fig. 7. Phacoidcs xantusi Dall. Plesiotype, from Loc. 738 (U.C. 

Coll.) ; cast of same, No. 1836 (C.A.S. Coll.). 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



HANNAl Plate 28 












502 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Skr. 



Plate 29 

Fig. 1. Phacoidcs xaiitiisi Dall. Plesiotype from Loc. 738 (U.C. 

Coll.); cast of same, No. 1836 (C.A.S. Coll.). 

Figs. 1, 2. Cassis siibtiibcrosiis Hanna, n. sp. Type from Loc. 738 

(U.C. Coll) ; cast of same, No. 1799 C.A.S. Coll.). 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XIV, No. 18 



[HANNA] Plate 29 




^2,7 













■>j. 



• <11 




^ -^^Jli 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XIV, Nos. 19 and 20, pp. 505-566 _ April 28, 1926 



XIX 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE ACADEMY 

FOR THE YEAR 1925 



BY 

C. E. GRUNSKY 
President of the Academy 

It is with pleasure and satisfaction that your President again 
calls attention in this Annual Report to progress made and to 
work done by the Academy, through its staff of scientists and 
their assistants, during the year 1925. 

There has been but slight change in membership which now 
stands at 1099. The accession of new members and losses are 
shown in the following analysis : 

Members on January 1, 1925 1107 

New members, during 1925 77 

Total 1 184 

Deceased in 1925 16 

Resigned 15 

Dropped for non-payment of dues 54 

Total 85 

Members on January 1, 1925 1099 

April 28, 1926 



506 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES FProc. 4th Ser. 

The membership consists of : 

Patrons 16 

Honorary members 23 

Life members 87 

Fellows 23 

Members 950 

Total 1099 

The Academy carries on its list of patrons the following 
names : 

Living 

Mr. George C Beckley Mr. A. Kingsley Macomber 

Dr. Frank E. Blaisdell, Sr. Mr. John W. Mailliard 

Mr. William B. Bourn Mr. Joseph Mailliard 

Mr. William H. Crocker Mr. M. Hall McAllister 

Mr. Peter F. Dunne Mr. Ogden Mills 

Dr. Barton Warren Evermann Mr. William C. Van Antwerp 

Mr. Herbert Fleishhacker Mr. Edward P. Van Duzee 

Mr. Joseph D. Grant Dr. E. C. Van Dyke 

Deceased 

Mr. William Alvord Mr. James Lick 

Mr. Charles Crocker Mr. Alexander F. Morrison 

Mr. John W. Hendrie Mr. Amariah Pierce 

Mr. Henry M. Holbrook Mr. Ignatz Steinhart 

Mrs. Charlotte Hosmer Dr. John Van Denburgh 

The following list of members deceased during the year in- 
cludes a number of those who have been active at one time or 
another in the Academy or wlio have in other ways than giving 
of their time aided the Academy in its scientific work. Mr.T. S. 
Brandegee and Miss Catherine Hittell are notable in this class 
and will be kept in grateful memory by all who knew them. 
And then there are many whose prominence among their 
fellow-men and whose friendly good will and active coopera- 
tion have been of material assistance to the Academy. I need 
mention only such names as Mr. John A. Hooper, Mr. M. H. 
de Young, Mr. I. H. Morse, and others. It was with particu- 
lar regret that news of the passing of Prof. Jose M. Gallegos 
in September, 1925, was received so soon after his participa- 



Vol. XIV] GRUNSKY— PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 19^5 507 

tion as a scientist delegated by Mexico in the Academy's Re- 
villagig"edo expedition. 

Deceased 

Mr. George H. Anderson Member September 12, 1925 

Mr. T. S. Brandegee Life April 8, 1925 

Mr. John I. Carlson Member January 10, 1925 

Mr. Walter E. Dean Life July 13, 1925 

Mr. M. H. de Young Member February 15, 1925 

Mr. Kimball G. Easton Member March 22, 1925 

Prof. Jose M. Gallegos Member September 24, 1925 

Miss Catherine H. Hittell Member April 18, 1925 

Mr. John A. Hooper Member 1925 

Mr. Ira Kahn Member September 11, 1925 

Miss Gertrude Twyman Member 1925 

Sr. Don Manuel Villada Honorary 1925 

The following whose deaths occurred on the dates named 
are here recorded for the first time : 

Dr. Gustav Hambach Member June 20, 1922 

Mr. John L. Koster Member December 1, 1923 

In the year 1925 eleven free lectures were delivered at the 
stated meetings of the Academy, as follows : 

January 7 A Naturalist's Visit to northern British Columbia, illus- 
trated, by Mr. H. S. Swarth, Curator of Birds, Mu- 
seum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California. 

March 4 Salt Water Barriers, illustrated, by Dr. C. E. Grunsky, 

President California Academy of Sciences. 

April 1 Symposium on the proposed Revillagigedos Expedition of 

the California Academy of Sciences, participated in by 
various members of the Museum staff. 

May 6 The Wild Flowers of Western Canada, illustrated with 

colored slides, by Mr. W. C. McCalla, Edmonton, Al- 
berta, Canada. 

June 3 San Francisco during the Seventies, illustrated, by Mr. 

Charles B. Turrill, San Francisco, California. 

July 1 An Account of the Recent Revillagigedo Islands Expedi-" 

tion, illustrated, by Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, Curator of 
the Department of Paleo'ntology, California Academy 
of Sciences. 

Augusts Flowers of the northern Sierra Nevada, illustrated, by 

Miss Alice Eastwood, Curator of Botany, California 
Academy of Sciences. 

September 2... Fish and Game Protection, illustrated, by Mr. E. R. Zion, 
San Francisco, California. 



508 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Sek. 

October 7 Ears, by Dr. J. Sterling Kingsley, Berkeley, California. 

November 4 The Biology of Our Introduced Rats, illustrated, by Mr. 

Tracy I. Storer, Assistant Professor of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of California. 

December 2 Number, by Dr. Rufus L. Green, Professor of Mathema- 
tics, Stanford University. 

The Sunday afternoon lectures at the Museum building" 
were continued throughout the year except during the vacation 
months of summer. Despite the inadequacy of the temporary 
lecture room, the attendance at these lectures has been satis- 
factory. These lectures have included the following : 

January 4 The California School System and Teacher Training, by 

Dr. Archibald B. Anderson, President, San Francisco 
State Teachers' College. 

January 11.... The Training of Teachers for the Public Schools, by Dr. 
W. W. Kemp, Dean of the School of Education, Uni- 
versity of California. 

January 18 Answering the Critics of the Public Schools, by Dr. Harry 

B. Wilson, Superintendent, Berkeley Public Schools. 

January 25 The Aim of High School Education and how we are at- 
taining it, by Mr. J. P. Nourse, Principal, Galileo 
High School, San Francisco. 

February 1 Knowing How and Why, by Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, 

President of Stanford University. 

Februarys California's Program of Education, by Hon. Will C 

Wood, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

February 15... Early Spring Flowers of the Bay region, illustrated, by 
Miss Alice Eastwood, Curator of Botany, California 
Academy of Sciences. 

March 1 Why Education in America is Difficult, by Dr. Ellwood 

P. Cubberley, Dean of the School of Education, Stan- 
ford University. 

March 8 The Financial Aspects of Education in California, by Mr. 

A. R. Heron, Assistant Superintendent Public Instruc- 
tion, Sacramento. 

March 15 Peoples of the Philippines, illustrated, by Prof. E. D. 

Merrill, Dean of the College of Agriculture, Uni- 
versity of California. 

March 22 Bird and Animal Friends, illustrated with motion pictures, 

by Mr. William L. Finley, expert photographer of 
wild animal life and noted naturalist and lecturer; and 
Cruising the British Columbia Coast, illustrated with mo- 
tion pictures, by Mr. Arthur Newton Pack, Secretary, 
American Nature Association and Associate Editor 
of Nature Magazine. 



Vol. XIV] GRUNSKY—PRESIDEt^T'S REPORT FOR l9^5 509 

March 29 G)rals : What they are, what they eat, and how they grow, 

illustrated, by Dr. T. Wayland Vaug^an, Director, 
Scripps Institution for Biological Research, La JoUa, 
California. 

April 5 A Glimpse of the State University at work, by Dr. Monroe 

E. Deutsch, Dean of the College of Letters and 
Science, University of California. 

April 12 The Lure of California's National Forests, illustrated, by 

Mr. Wallace Hutchinson, United States Forest Serv- 
ice, San Francisco. 

April 19. .... . .The Life of the Forest, by Dr. E. P. Meinecke, Consulting 

Pathologist, United States Forest Service, San 
Francisco. 

April 26 California's Forest Fire Problem, illustrated, by Mr. Paul 

G. Redington, District Forester, United States Forest 
Service, San Francisco. 

May 3 National Forest Highways and Byways, illustrated, by Mr, 

Frank Bonner, United States Forest Service, San 
Francisco. 

May 10 Conceptions of the Earth as a Whole: Measuring the 

Earth and Mapping its Surface, illustrated, by Dr. 
George F. McEwen, Oceanographer and Curator of 
the Oceanographic Museum, Scripps Institution for 
Biological Research, La Jolla, California. 

October 4 Travel and Big Game Hunting in East Africa, illustrated, 

by Major Norman B. Livermore, San Francisco, Calif. 

October 11 The Plants and Animals of Fanning and Washington 

Islands, Equatorial Coral Islands of the Pacific, illus- 
trated, by Dr. W. B. Herms, Professor of Parasi- 
tology, University of California, Berkeley, California. 

October 18 Among the Gilbertese Natives of Certain Equatorial Coral 

Islands of the Mid-Pacific Ocean, illustrated, by Dr. 
W. B. Herms, Professor of Parasitology, University 
of California, Berkeley, California. 

October 25 The Alps of the King-Kern Divide, illustrated, by Mr, 

John J. Mazza, San Francisco, Calif, 

November 1 Some Interesting Animals, a chalk talk for the children, 

illustrated, by Dr. J. Sterling Kingsley, Berkeley, 
California. 

Novembers The Biology of Our Introduced Rats, illustrated, by Dr. 

Tracy I. Storer, Assistant Professor of Zoology, 
University of California. 

November 15... The Maori, New Zealand Tourist Resorts and the Pacific 
Islands, illustrated, by Mr. F. E. Tomlinson, Official 
Publicity Photographer of New Zealand, 

November 22. . .The High Sierra from Yosemite to Mount Whitney, illus- 
trated, by Air. Francis P. Farquhar, San Francisco, 



510 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

November 29. . .Timbuctoo and the Land of the Blacks, illustrated, by Dr. 
David P. Barrows, Professor of Political Science, 
University of California. 

December 6.... The People of Santo Domingo, illustrated, by Mr. M. E. 
Beall, Berkeley, California. 

December 13... The Largest and Oldest Living Things in the World, in 
the Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, illus- 
trated with stereopticon slides, by Colonel John R. 
White, Superintendent Sequoia and General Grant 
National Parks. 

December 20. . .The Apache Trail, illustrated with stereopticon slides and 
motion pictures, by Mr. Harry S. Swarth, Curator of 
Birds, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, 
California. 

The continued contribution of the Academy to the advance- 
ment of science is evidenced by the following list of publica- 
tions issued by the Academy in 1925 : 

OCCASIONAL PAPERS No. XI — Fauna and Stratigraphic Relations 
OF THE Tejon Eocene at the Type Locality in Kern County, 
California, by Frank M. Anderson and G. Dallas Hanna. 

Vol. XI, 1921 — Index, Title Page and Contents of the Proceedings of 
THE California Academy of Sciences for 1921. 

Vol. XIII, No. 27, pp. 431-440 — Report of the President of the Academy 
for THE Year 1924, by C. E. Grunsky. 

Vol. XIII, No. 28, pp. 441-494 — Report of the Director of the Museum 
for the Year 1924, by Barton Warren Evermann. 

Vol. XIII — Index, Title Page and Contents of the Proceedings of the 
California Academy of Sciences for 1923. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1, pp. 1-35 — Pectens from the Tertiary of Lower Cali-i 
fornia, by Leo G. Hertlein. 

Vol. XIV, No. 2, pp. 37-75 — Contribution to the Tertiary Paleon- 
tology OF Peru, by G. Dallas Hanna and Merle C Israelsky. 

Vol. XIV, No. 3, pp. 77-81 — A Note on two of Hyatt's Liassic Am- 
monites, by C. H. Crickmay. 

Vol. XIV, No. 4, pp. 83-87 — A New Species of Mollusk (DentaUmn 
hannai) from Lower California, with Notes on other Forms, by 
Fred Baker. 

Vol. XIV, No. 5, pp. 89-100 — Contributions to Oriental Herpetology 

II. Korea or Chosen, by Joseph R. Slevin. 

Vol. XIV, No. 6, pp. 101-103 — Contributions to Oriental Herpetology 

III. Russian Asia and Manchuria, by Joseph R. Slevin. 

Vol. XIV, No. 7, pp. 105-142 — New North American Spiders, by Ralph 

V. Chamberlin. 
Vol. XIV, No. 8, pp. 143-169 — Anatomy of Lanx, a Limpet-like Lym- 

N.CID Mollusk, by H. Burrington Baker. 



Vol. XIV] 



GRU.\SKY— PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 19^5 



511 



Vol. XIV, No. 9, pp. 171-173 — Expedition of the California Academy 

OF Sciences to the Gulf of California in 1921, the phalangida, 

by Ralph V. Chamberlin. 
Vol. XIV, No. 10, pp. 175-183 — Scellus virago Aldrich (A two-winged 

Fly) and two forms closely related to it, by M. C. Van Duzee. 
Vol. XIV, No. 11, pp. 185-215 — Bees in the Collection of California 

Academy of Sciences, by T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Vol. XIV, No. 12, pp. 217-275 — Expedition to Guadalupe Island, 

Mexico, in 1922, General Report, by G. Dallas Hanna. 
Vol. XIV, No. 13, pp. 277-320 — Expedition to Guadalupe Island, 

Mexico, in 1922. the Birds and Mammals, by A. W. Anthony. 
Vol. XIV, No. 14, pp. 321-343 — Expedition to Guadalupe Island, 

Mexico, in 1922, the Coleoptera, by Frank E. Blaisdell, Sr. 
Vol. XIV, No. 15, pp. 345-367 — Anthidiine Bees in the Collection of 

the California Academy of Sciences, by T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Vol. XIV, No. 16, pp. 369-390 — Studies in the Tenebrionid/E, No. 2, 

(Coleoptera), by Frank E. Blaisdell, Sr. 
Vol. XIV, No. 17, pp. 391-425 — New Hemiptera from Western North 

America, by Edward P. Van Duzee. 



The present net income of the Academy, apart from funds 
received from San Francisco for the operation and mainten- 
ance of the Steinhart Aquarium, is about $80,000. Of this 
amount about $10,000 is annually applied to a reduction of in- 
debtedness and the rest is expended on scientific research' work 
and the upkeep of the Academy's exhibits. Both the Museum 
and the Aquarium are open to the public daily without charge. 

The wisdom of the arrangement with the lessee of the 
Academy's Market Street property made in 1909, according to 
which the rent is readjusted frequently, based on reappraisals 
of the value of the real estate, is amply demonstrated by the 
actual result. There was, as the result of such reappraisal in 
1924, an increase in income due to this cause alone of $8,712. 
The gross income from this property in the year 1926 is esti- 
mated at $92,097 from which, to determine net income (with- 
out allowance for depreciation), there should be deducted 
$12,925, the interest on the unpaid balance of the loan secured 
by this property which now stands at $235,000, it having been 
reduced $15,000 in the past year. 

The Academy has received a number of valuable bequests 
and donations during the year which include the bequest of 
the late Henry M. Holbrook, preliminarily noted in last year's 
report of the President, of a notable collection of moths and 




512 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Paoc. 4th Ser. 

butterflies together with $2,000 for the installation of this col- 
lection. A very handsome and instructive exhibit has resulted. 

Dr. Frank E. Blaisdell (under date of Aug. 22, 1925) pre- 
sented to the Academy his collection of over 100,000 speci- 
mens of Coleoptera. This donation of great scientific value 
has followed closely that made by Dr. E. C. Van Dyke in 
December, 1924, which, as noted in last year's report, is also 
estimated at over 100,000 specimens. 

Mr. Edward P. Van Duzee, Curator of Entomology, under 
date of August 4. 1925, presented to the Academy his collec- 
tion of more than 30,000 specimens of Hemiptera. This col- 
lection probably excels any other collection of this order in 
this country. 

In grateful recognition of these valuable donations Dr. 
Edward C. Van Dyke, Dr. Frank E. Blaisdell and Mr. 
Edward P. Van Duzee are now classed as Patrons of the 
Academy, 

Another important contribution to the material in the De- 
partment of Entomology was made by John E. Carey in Janu- 
ary, 1925. This consists of 500 specimens of Lepidoptera col- 
lected in Panama. 

Mr. Ogden Mills has added $1000 to sums previously con- 
tributed in order that the setting of the Grizzly Bear habitat 
group might be improved. The rearrangement of this group 
is now in progress. — the work being done with funds contrib- 
uted by Mr. Mills. 

The most notable scientific activity of the Academy during 
the past year was an expedition to the Revillagigedo Islands, 
of which a detailed account is presented in the report of the 
Director of the Museum. Thanks to the interest of the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, Curtis D. Wilbur, the cooperation and assist- 
ance of the United States Navy Department was secured and 
the U. S. mine sweeper Ortolan was detailed to convey the 
scientists to and from the islands. Sailing on April 15, 1925, 
each of the islands in the group was visited and the expedition 
returned on June 12, bringing much new information and 
valuable collections which will be studied with publication of 
results in due course. 

The Library continues to grow. Many new accessions of 
valuable publications and occasional rare editions of scientific 



Vol. XIV] GRUNSKY—PRESlDEh'TS REPORT FOR 1925 5I3 

books have been made possible by a somewhat larger allot- 
ment of funds for the purpose than usually available. 

The Steinhart Aquarium has been operated with scrupulous 
adherence to the requirement that expenditure be kept within 
the amounts of funds allotted by the City and County of San 
Francisco for its operation. The Academy has exercised great 
care in keeping its requests for funds as low as compatible 
with efficient management. Nevertheless, the allotted funds 
have been somewhat below the actual needs, with the result 
that there has had to be some curtailing of the program of 
collecting specimens. The continued popularity of the Aqua- 
rium evidenced by large attendance is gratifying proof of its 
value as an educational adjunct to the Academy and as a source 
of much pleasure and benefit to multitudes of people. 

The Academy, through a Committee under the leadership 
of Mr. M. Hall McAllister, continues, among other activities, 
its cooperation with other organizations in the preservation of 
wild life. In this matter, as in any others related to the natural 
sciences, the Academy is at all times ready to act as trustee and 
would be only too glad to be placed in command of facilities 
that would permit large increase of its activities. 

The need for more space for the research work of the cura- 
tors and their assistants and for natural history exhibits, and 
the need of an adequate auditorium, grows more pressing 
from day to day. Year after year in our annual reports at- 
tention has been called to this pressing requirement to permit 
the Academy to function properly. Aside from a small annual 
sinking fund (about $10,000) which is being applied to a re- 
duction of the indebtedness which was incurred when the 
Academy's Market Street property was improved by the erec- 
tion of a modern 10-story office building, all of the Academy's 
income is expended in research work and in maintaining and 
adding to its research collections and exhibits. The public is, 
perhaps, not as fully advised of the contributions which the 
Academy has made to the advancement of science as it should 
be. The results of studies along lines of natural history do 
not as a rule lend themselves to spectacular display. The 
hardworking entomolgist, ornithologist, botanist, herpetolo- 
gist, paleontologist, ichthyologist, as the case may be, is con- 
tent to find the results of his studies made of record in printed 



514 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

form for the use and benefit of mankind. His is the satisfac- 
tion in the doing and in the knowledge that in some measure he 
has broadened the foundation on which civiHzation rests. The 
great mass of the people, however, do not see what is being so 
laboriously and so well done on most slender means. 

As this year marks the tenth anniversary of the completion 
and opening of the first unit of the Academy's museum build- 
ing in Golden Gate Park, it will be fitting to review briefly the 
activities of the Academy during this decade with the hope 
that the further financial assistance for increased activity and 
usefulness may not be too long deferred. 

Before presenting this condensed review, a word may not 
be out of place in appreciation of the generous endowments 
and bequests which have made the Academy's activities possi- 
ble. These are small in the aggregate compared with some of 
the munificent endowments of similar institutions and colleges 
of learning on the Atlantic Coast and in the Middle West. 
There is to be noted, for example, the recent Munsey bequest 
of some $20,000,000 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art at 
New York ; the $2,000,000 gift by Mr. J. G. Shedd of Chicago 
for an aquarium; $1,000,000 endowment by Henry T. Towne 
of New York for a Museum of Peaceful Arts ; Julius Rosen- 
wald's $1,000,000 toward the establishment of an Industrial 
Museum ; and the Wilson Catherwood bequest of $250,000 to 
the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, besides more than 
$70,000,000 in recent years which have been placed at the dis- 
posal of universities or to be used in establishing new institu- 
tions of learning. 

The endowments and bequests have, like all similar provi- 
sions for repositories of knowledge and for research, helped 
not alone to make for the progress of mankind, but, also, to 
establish that balance so essential from the economic stand- 
point between the producing class and the non-producers or 
consumers, which is every country's safeguard of continued 
and dependable prosperity. It is obvious that practically all 
outgo for scientific research gets into local circulation. It 
goes for the necessities of life, for food, shelter, clothing, edu- 
cation, recreation, transportation and what not. It goes from 
hand to hand at least 12 times in a year. Our little budget, 
for example, of $75,000 to $80,000 will probably account for 



Vol. XIV] GRUNSKY—PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 192$ 515 

nearly $1,000,000 of business annually within California, to 
the advantage of both middleman and producer. From the 
economic standpoint, therefore, the liberal endowment of such 
institutions as this Academy is amply justified and no more 
appropriate outlet for large accumulations of wealth than in 
the making of such endowments and bequests to worthy in- 
stitutions could possibly be found. 

The first large scale aid came to the Academy from James 
Lick, to whom it is indebted for the Market Street lot between 
Fourth and Fifth Streets now worth over $800,000, the build- 
ing on which produces a net annual return of about $75,000. 

Next in the order of magnitude is the Ignatz Steinhart be- 
quest of $250,000 for the Aquarium, to whose popularity a 
phenominally large list of visitors bears ample and gratifying 
testimony. 

Then there is a fund of $20,000 contributed by Charles 
Crocker to aid in compensating those engaged in scientific 
studies; $5,000 contributed by Wm. Alvord for use by the 
Department of Botany and a $10,000 bequest by John W. 
Hendrie to assist in publishing papers on scientific subjects, 
besides a large number of donations for the installation of 
habitat groups and other exhibits ranging in amount from $50 
to over $8,000, but which amount in the aggregate to more 
than $40,000. 

Among the valuable collections which have enriched the 
Academy's stock of material in its various departments are the 
following: 

Collections donated or bequeathed 

Hemphill Collection (shells) 

John W. and Joseph Mailliard Collection (ornithological and 

oological) 
Kleeberger Collection (botanical) 

E. C. Van Dyke Collection (entomological) 

F. E. Blaisdell Collection (entomological) 
E. P. Van Duzee Collection (entomological) 
\V. G. Wright Collection (entomological) 

W. Otto Emerson Collection (ornithological) 

John Van Denburgh Collection (ornithological and oological) 

John Van Denburgh (library) 

L. S. Smith (library) 

Barton W. Evermann (library) 



516 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

Collections purchased znnth contributed funds 

Edward H. Taylor (herpetological) 
Prager Collection (botanical) 

And now as to a summary of what has been accomplished 
in these recent years : 

1 . The first unit of the museum building of the Academy in 
Golden Gate Park was completed and dedicated in 1916. 

2. The Steinhart Aquarium as an adjunct of the Academy's 
building's in Golden Gate Park was completed and opened to 
the public in 1923. 

3. The available 18 large-size alcoves (17 in the museum 
building and one in the aquarium) have been filled with high 
class exhibits of birds and mammals in natural environment. 

4. The research collections of material in the several de- 
partments have made steady and in some departments phe- 
nomenal growth, so that, despite the almost complete loss of 
material in the fire of 1906, these collections are now quite 
notable as will appear from the following brief summary. 

The Botanical Department of the California Academy of 
Sciences was not reestablished until 1912. From the nucleus 
of types saved from the great fire, the collection has grown so 
as to fill 81 cases, 31 of which on account of restricted space 
have had to be placed in the hall of the research wing of the 
Museum Building adjoining the Botanical Department. There 
are now 138,432 specimens in the herbarium, mounted, num- 
bered and stamped. It is the most cosmopolitan collection on the 
Pacific Coast and is unsurpassed in its collection of the exotics 
which are cultivated out of doors in California and which 
represent plants from all parts of the world. It is considered 
the Pacific Coast authority on these plants and is constantly 
consulted. The herbarium is also rich in Alaskan and Yukon 
plants and probably has the best collection on the Pacific 
Coast. Our Californian collection is fairly complete though 
still surpassed by collections in other herbariums of the Pacific 
Coast which have had much longer time in which to accumu- 
late material and which have had many more collectors. 

Valuable additions have been made by exchange with some 
of the large herbariums of the world. The Royal Herbarium 



Vol. XIV] GRUNSKY— PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR i9^5 Sl7 

at Kew, England; the National Herbarium at Washington; 
the Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Mass. ; the Arnold Arbore- 
tum, Jamaica Plain, Mass.; and the New York Botanical 
Garden have all been most generous in making exchanges. 

The greatest donation was that of the Prager Herbarium, 
which was purchased in 1921 through the generosity of Wm. 
H. Crocker, Wm. F. Herrin, A. F. Morrison, J. C. Augsbury, 
J. D. Grant, Wm. M. Fitzhugh and Wm. C. Van Antwerp. 
This was one of the largest private herbariums in Germany 
and added about 26,000 species and over 50,000 specimens to 
the Academy's herbarium. This collection is especially rich in 
Australian, South African, Asia Minor and Arctic and 
European species and contains many paratypes. 

Doctors Fred and Charlotte Baker donated a valuable col- 
lection which they made in Japan and China. Professor R. 
Kleeberger donated his herbarium, which included his own 
collections made in Connecticut and also a set of the Kellogg 
and Harford collections made in California in the 1860's. 
Mrs. Abbott gave the Academy her deceased husband's collec- 
tion known as the Dr. E. K. Abbott collection. It is rich in 
specimens from Monterey County, also in a collection from 
France made many years ago in the region memorable as the 
chief seat of the world war. Valuable collections from Chile 
and from China have been secured by purchase. The specimens 
collected on the various expeditions elsewhere noted have 
added many species to the collection besides furnishing valu- 
able material for exchange. 

The Academy's paleontological collection was entirely de- 
stroyed in 1906. It has since then been restored to greater 
size. The specimens run into millions. Invertebrate paleon- 
tology of western North America is better represented in the 
Academy's collection than anywhere else. Much comparative 
material is in the collection obtained from many typical locali- 
ties elsewhere in the world. The collection of organic shales, 
which have a definite relation to the pretroleum industry, is 
by far the largest in existence. In the collection of type ma- 
terial the number of catalogued specimens of various kinds 
now exceeds 2000. The growth of the entire paleontological col- 



518 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

lection is reported by the Curator to have made a phenomenal 
growth in the last ten years. Because of inadequate space in 
the main laboratory it has been necessary to store tem[X)rarily 
many hundreds of thousands of specimens in the almost inac- 
cessible basement of the Museum building. 

The Academy's ornithological collection is l^est developed in 
marine birds, shore birds and ducks and geese. The specimens 
of birds in the collection (skins, skeletons and alcoholics) now 
number 39,425. The sets of eggs number 8,991. The im- 
portant accessions are as follow : 

Birds 

Galapagos Exhibition, 1905-6, 8688 skins. 

Dr. Louis B. Bishop, April 6, 1907, 369 skins (gift). 

California Fish and Game Commission, April 4, 1908, 102 skins (gift). 

Mr. Theodore J. Hoover, August 13, 1909, 1121 specimens (gift). 

Mrs. Alice Locke, Sept. 23, 1911, 263 specimens (purchase). 

Emerson Collection (W. H. Crocker), September 16. 1920, 706 speci- 
mens (gift). 

Emerson Collection (John W. Mailliard), September 16, 1920, 1110 
specimens (gift). 

Mailliard Collection (J. & J. W. Mailliard), 10,785 specimens, 1919 

(gift). 

Gulf of California Expedition, 1921, 25 specimens (exploration). 

Lower California Expedition, 1922, 126 specimens (exploration). 

Revillagigedos Expedition, 1925, 534 specimens (exploration). 

Mr. J. August Kusche, June 21, 1921, 152 specimens from Australia 
and the Solomon Islands (purchase). 

Mr. C. J. Wilson, December 15, 1922, 81 specimens from the Malay- 
Peninsula (gift). 

Eggs 

Mailliard Collection (Gift of J. & J. W. Mailliard). 1919, 3,270 sets. 

Galapagos Expedition, 1905-06, 818 sets (exploration). 

Gulf of California Expedition, 1921, 511 set (exploration). 

Revillagigedos Expedition, 1925, 59 sets (exploration). 

Dr. John Van Denburgh (through Mr. Douglas Van Denburgh). 
November 6, 1924, 1311 sets and 16 nests (gift). Of particular 
value because of the 29 sets of Golden Eagle. 

Dr. Harry R. Painlon, December 8, 1924, 386 sets (gift). 

The Academy possesses 1 egg of California Vulture (value $750) ; 
1 egg of Black Swift (value $75) ; and a fine series of the eggs 
of the Elegant Tern and Aleutian Sandpiper. Of the last two the 
Academy probably possesses the finest series extant. 

Dr. G. Dallas Hanna (Pril)ilof collections), 769 sets (exploration). 



\0L. XIV] GRUNSKY—PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR rg^S 519 

Of Mammals there are in the Academy 5250 si)ecimens 
(skins and skulls). Among the principal accessions of these 
are to be noted : 

W. W. Price Collection, 991 skins, small mammals from Eldorado and 

Mono counties ; and Douglas County, Nevada. 
H. O. Jenkins Collection, 506, chiefly Monterey and Santa Clara 

counties. 
Mr. A. K. Macomber, Gorilla from Belgian Congo, July 25, 1924. 
Lower California Expedition, 1921, 70 specimens. 
Galapagos Expedition, 1905-06, 120 specimens. 

During the past ten years the Academy's Department of 
Entomology has grown from a small unorganized collection 
until it now ranks among the large collections of the country, 
containing approximately 500,000 specimens, and, so far as 
west American material is concerned, probably takes first rank, 
with a very large proportion of its material carefully deter- 
mined and well arranged in systematic order and therefore 
available for comparison and study. The following valuable 
collections, as already noted, have recently been added to the 
Academy's material : 

The E. C. Van Dyke Collection of over 100,000 specimens. Coleoptera. 

The F. E. Blaisdell Collection of over 100,000 specimens. Coleoptera. 

The E. P. Van Duzee Collection of over 30,000 specimens. Hemiptera. 
John E. Carey Collection of over 900 Lepidoptera. 

The Academy's collection of reptiles and amphibians has 
been re-built since 1906. It now numbers over 59,000 speci- 
mens and is one of the largest in America. The collection of 
Galapagos tortoises is the largest and most complete in exist- 
ence. The collection from the Pacific Coast is unsurpassed by 
any other museum. The oriental collections are large and 
valuable. 

The Academy's library, too, is notable. This now consists 
of an extensive and valuable collection of books, periodicals 
and pamphlets on all branches of natural history and related 
subjects. 

For a fuller understanding of the work which has been ac- 
complished by the Academy, reference should be had to its 



520 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

publications, of which the enumeration elsewhere in this re- 
port of the publications in 1925 gives a fair idea. This report 
would become too extended to attempt a review of the pub- 
lished material, even though restricted to the last ten years 
only. 

It is a pleasure to be able thus to present in condensed form 
the results of the Academy's activities and it is only necessary 
to refer to this summary to show how enthusiastic and able 
has been the work of the Academy's curators and their assist- 
ants. For them and for the Academy itself let me hope for 
further continuous and generous encouragement and support 
by the public whom the Academy is endeavoring to serve. To 
all who have in any way contributed to the Academy's activi- 
ties and successes, it makes grateful acknowledgment. 



Vol. XIV] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1925 521 

XX 

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR FOR THE YEAR 1925 

BY 

BARTON WARREN EVERMANN 
Director of the Museum and of the Aquarium 

The annual report of the Director for the year 1924 was 
presented to the Academy at the annual meeting, February 
18, 1925. 

The scientific and educational activities of the Museum were 
maintained during the year 1925 in a satisfactory manner. 
The members of the scientific staff have been active not only in 
adding to the collections in their respective departments but 
also in arranging and classifying the collections and in re- 
search work. 

Personnel 

The personnel of the Museum staff has not greatly changed. 
Mr. Frank Yale, who had been in the service of the Academy 
many years, died March 12, 1925. Miss Margaret Dold, Li- 
brary Assistant, resigned May 28 to accept a position in the 
Mechanics Institute Library; Frank Ashworth, assistant jani- 
tor, left January 8, 1925, and was succeeded by Ralph Borden 
January 12, who remained until February 22, when he was 
replaced by M. D. Phillips, who remained only a short time 
when William E. Nicherson served a few days, when he was 
followed by C. A. Bellas June 1 to August 31, Milward Lavin 
July 13 to September 4, and Hugh R. Jones September 12. 

On July 1, the Department of Fishes was established with 
H. Walton Clark as Assistant Curator. 

The employes of the Museum on January 1, 1926, were as 
follows : Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Director and Execu- 
tive Curator of the Museum, Editor of the Academy publica- 
tions and Director of the Steinhart Aquarium ; W. W. Sar- 
geant, Secretary to the Board of Trustees; Miss Susie M. 
Peers, Secretary to the Director ; Joseph W. Hobson, Record- 
ing Secretary; Mrs. Constance W. Campbell, office assistant, 

April 28, 1926 



522 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sb». 

part time; Raymond L. Smith, office assistant; Miss Mabel 
E. Phillips, check-room attendant; Miss Alice Eastwood, 
Curator, and Mrs. Kate E. Phelps and Miss Clara Tose, as- 
sistants, Department of Botany ; Edward P. Van Duzee, Cura- 
tor; Dr. F. R. Cole, Curator in Dipterology; Hartford H. 
Keifer, Assistant Curator, and J. O. Martin, temporary as- 
sistant. Department of Entomology; H. Walton Clark, As- 
sistant Curator, Department of Fishes ; Joseph R. Slevin, As- 
sistant Curator, Department of Herpetology ; Dr. G. Dallas 
Hanna, Curator; Eric Knight Jordan, Assistant Curator, and 
Leo G. Hertlein, temporary assistant, Department of Paleon- 
tology; Joseph Mailliard, Curator, and Miss Mary E. Mc- 
Lellan, Assistant Curator, Department of Ornithology and 
Mammalogy; Dr. Walter K. Fisher, Curator, Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology; Frank Tose. Chief Taxidermist, and 
James F. Campbell. Russell Hendricks, Chandler Smith. Cecil 
Tose, Ralph Keating. Douglas Kelly, and Mrs. A. M. Hill, 
student assistants, Department of Exhibits ; Edward P. Van 
Duzee, Assistant Librarian ; C. A. Bellas. Library Assistant ; 
William C. Lewis, janitor; Hugh Jones, assistant janitor; 
Mrs. Johanna E. Wilkens, charwoman; Patrick O'Brien, day 
watch; Archie McCarte, night watch. 

Accessions to the Museum and Library 

The accessions to the museum and library have been, as in 
former years, many and valuable. An itemized list is given in 
the appendix to this report (pp. 549-559). A few of the more 
notable are mentioned in the President's report (p. 516). 

Cooperation with Public and Private Schools, with 
Other Institutions, and with Individuals 

Cooi^eration of the Academy with the schools, other institu- 
tions, and individuals continues close and mutually helpful. An 
arrangement was made with Mrs. Anna V. Dorris. in 
charge of visual instruction in the public schools of Berkeley, 
whereby the following portable habitat groups were prepared 
for use in the Berkeley public schools: Western Robin. 
Western Meadowlark, San Francisco Towhee, California 
Shrike, California Woodpecker, Gila Woodpecker, Barn Owl, 



Vol. XIV] 



EyERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1925 



523 



Marsh Birds, Spring Pocket Mouse, Cliickaree, Golden- 
mantled Ground Squirrel, California Ground Squirrel, and 
Weasel. These have been in constant use during the year. It 
is hoped that other groups may be prepared this year. 

Visitors to the Museum in 1925 

The total number of visitors to the Museum in the calendar 
year 1925 was 553,423, the greatest in the history of the 
Museum with the exception of 1924, when it was 646,033. 

The number of visitors by months and years since the open- 
ing, September 22, 1916, is shown in the following table : 

Month 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 

January 23170 25260 17241 27013 25755 19038 15270 32364 34989 

February 22058 23698 17586 23450 25679 18534 20529 44439 29295 

March 31606 26810 27397 25419 28279 27922 26341 39935 39168 

April 32175 23274 25994 32208 24939 36057 21911 41332 40257 

May 26154 26391 28369 37107 25517 27237 37597 48152 38137 

June 32123 29843 32248 36207 29406 27131 39511 58281 51775 

July 37193 31420 48028 52492 43186 36263 64530 91329 69921 

August 24619 31137 43730 53470 39422 34787 50849 105130 77847 

September . 16448 27866 29847 34007 42013 31458 28408 69870 82814 637i7 

October .. 36933 20629 14743 30463 33500 24861 19459 66894 43074 40418 

November . 27718 21810 8531 25246 19347 18593 19080 48766 37611 35634 

December . 15002 21693 19588 21188 21340 15062 13339 36707 21572 32245 

Total... 96101 321096 290542 351497 403566 332157 307255 498775 646033 553423 

Total number of visitors since opening, September 16, 1916, has been 
3,800,445. 

The public and private schools of the state continue to avail 
themselves of the educational uses of the Museum and the re- 
search collections. 

The number of schools visiting the museum is so great that 
we cannot print the list, much to our regret. The following 
summary must suffice : 



Schools of San Francisco : 

Total Number Visiting Pupils 5643 

Total Number Visiting Teachers 169 

Total Number Visiting Classes 184 

Schools Outside of San Francisco : 

Total Number of Pupils 1373 

Total Number of Teachers 48 

Total Number of Classes 55 



5643 



1373 



7016 



524 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Piioc. 4th Ser. 

Museum Activities and Growth 

The past year has witnessed commendable activity in each 
of the several departments of the Museum. The various cura- 
tors and their assistants have shown great zeal and industry 
and have made excellent progress in the orderly arrangement 
and care of the collections in their charge. The field work was 
unusually extensive and productive, as set forth in detail in 
the respective departmental reports; mention need be made 
here of only a few of the more notable activities. 

The U. S. S. Ortolan Expedition of the California Academy 
of Sciences to the Revillagigedo Islands was one of the most 
important ever sent out by the Academy. Our scientific stafif 
for several years had been casting longing eyes toward that 
interesting group lying 300 to 600 miles off the Pacific coast 
of Mexico. As no very careful study had ever been made of 
the fauna and flora of those islands, it was believed that an 
expedition to them would yield results of considerable scien- 
tific importance and interest and add greatly to the natural 
history collections of the Museum. 

Upon making our wishes known to the U. S. Navy De- 
partment, Secretary Curtis D. Wilbur very generously detailed 
the U. S. S. minesweeper Ortolan for the use of the Academy 
in making the survey. 

The Ortolan outfitted at Mare Island Navy Yard, from 
which place she sailed on April 15, with M, M. Nelson, Lieu- 
tenant, U. S. Navy, in command. 

The Academy was represented by the following: Dr. G. 
Dallas Hanna, curator of paleontology, in charge; Mr. Joseph 
R. Slevin, assistant curator of herpetology, assistant chief; 
Frank Tose, chief taxidermist; Hartford H. Keifer, assistant 
curator of entomology ; Eric Knight Jordan, assistant curator 
of paleontology ; H. L. Mason, botanist ; John T. Wright, col- 
lector in ornithology and mammalogy; Raymond Duheni, offi- 
cial photographer. 

Upon arriving at San Diego, where the Ortolan stopped to 
take on certain supplies, the scientific staff was joined by Pro- 
fessor Francisco Contreras, Director Museo Nacional de 
Mexico; Dr. Octavio Solis, Director of the Botanical Garden 



Vol. XIVJ EVERMANN— DIRECTOR S REPORT FOR I9^s 525 

of Chapultepec, Mexico, and Professor Jose Maria Gallegos, 
who accompanied the expedition as representatives of the 
Mexican government and as guests of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

Mention should be made of cooperation with the Scripps 
Institution for Biological Research whereby the Academy un- 
dertook to secure for the Institution samples of water and 
plankton at intervals along the route of travel. 

A detailed general report of the expedition will be published 
soon.^ The extensive collections obtained have been assigned 
for study and report to specialists in the various groups ; their 
reports will be published in the Academy's Proceedings. Let 
it suffice to say at this time that the Expedition visited each 
of the islands of the Revillagigedo group (Clarion, Socorro, 
Roca Partida and San Benedicto), also Guadalupe Island to 
inspect the elephant seal rookery there, several islands of the 
Tres Marias archipelago, and a number of islands and stations 
in Lower California were visited en route northward and 
valuable collections made at each. This expedition, which re- 
turned to San Francisco June 10, is regarded as the most im- 
portant and most successful the Academy has ever sent out. 

Curator Mailliard of the Department of Ornithology and 
Mammalogy carried on field investigations in Siskiyou County, 
northern California, in May and June, in Placer County in 
June, July and December, and in Modoc County in September 
and October which resulted in important additions to our 
knowledge of the birds and mammals of those regions. 

In September and October Assistant Curator Miss McLellan 
carried on investigations in the states of Sinaloa and Mayarit, 
Mexico, during which she obtained an excellent series of the 
birds of tliat region which will prove of much value in the 
study of the collections obtained at the Tres Marias Islands 
by the Ortolan expedition. 

The growth of the Department of Entomology has been un- 
precedented. The additions to the Department's collections 
total more than 182,000 specimens. These include the Blais- 
dell collection of 100,000 Coleoptera and the Van Duzee col- 
lection of 30,000 Hemiptera. 

*This report has now been published. See Vol. XV, No. 1, pp. 1-113, of these 
Proceedings. 



526 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The additions to the collections in the Department of Herpe- 
tology numbers 3,253 specimens of reptiles and amphibians. 

The Herbarium under Miss Eastwood's able and energetic 
management has grown by leaps and bounds and now numbers 
more than 138,0CX) sheets of mounted specimens. 

The growth of the Department of Paleontology has been no 
less notable. The additions to the collections have been many 
and important, perhaps the largest being a very large and 
valuable series of minerals, fossils, and shells from the Philip- 
pines, Java, and Sumatra donated by Dr. Roy E. Dickerson, 
for several years the efficient and energetic curator of the 
Department. 

The Department of Exhibits has been active in the prepara- 
tion and installation of new habitat groups, chiefly of the small 
panel type, of which the following were completed within the 
year: California Woodpecker, Lazuli Bunting, Point Reyes 
Mountain Beaver, and Warner Mountain Cony. These are 
all excellently done and are very attractive exhibits. 

The Library has received a good number of accessions by 
gift, exchange and purchase, the total being about 967 volumes 
and about 100 pamphlets. 

For a number of years no binding was done, but this yeai 
1163 volumes were bound at a cost of $1,614.75. 

Use of the Academy Library and Coi-lections 
BY Investigators and Students 

Use of the Academy library and the educational and research 
collections in the respective departments increases each year. 
While many of our members make use of the library, it is be- 
lieved that many others would do so if they realized how well 
the library is now supplied with current scientific periodicals, 
outing magazines, standard works of reference, and recen: 
authoritative publications in the various departments of physi- 
cal and biological science. It is hoped that our members may 
get in the habit of visiting the library when they desire in- 
formation in any department of science which can be found in 
our publications. Members and their friends are cordially in- 
vited to visit the various department laboratories and collec- 
tions when they wish to see any species of animal or plant of 



Vol. XIV] 



EWERMANN—DI RECTOR'S REPORT FOR 19^5 



527 



which we have specimens. In some of our tlepartments the 
collections are quite extensive and the visitor will probably find 
specimens of the particular species he wishes to see. 

Troop 20 of the Boy Scouts under Scout Master Harold E. 
Hanson, continues to meet weekly in the Academy's Audi- 
torium. The Academy is glad to be able to extend this cour- 
tesy to the Boy Scouts. Various other organizations have 
from time to time held special meetings in our Auditorium. 



Conservation of Wild Life 

The Committee on the conservation of wild life has been 
active during the year. The annual meeting of the Committee 
was held February 10, 1926, at which reports of the various 
volunteer observers were read. The census of big game ani- 
mals in each region where the Academy has an observer, is 
as follows : 

Mountain Sheep 

Inyo Mountains east of Big Pine, Edwin H. Ober, observer. . .42 
Riverside and San Bernardino counties, E. L. Hedderly, observer. 72 
Mt. San Antonio, Los Angeles G)unty, A. T. Shay, observer. . .18 

132 

Antelope 

Mt. Dome, Siskiyou County and adjacent territory, John O. 

Miller, observer 175 

Lassen County, W. G. Durbin, observer 26 

Fresno County ; no report 

Kern County, Los Angeles Refuge, E. L. Hedderly, observer. . .11 

212 

Valley Elk 

Kern County, Miller and Lux herd, L. E. Nance, observer 800 

Yosemite Paddock, W. B. Lewis, observer 13 

Colusa and Yolo counties, C. Swanson, observer 15 

San Luis Obispo County, C. C Rossi, observer 11 

Monterey County, C. S. Olmsted, observer 30 

Laguna Mountains, San Diego County, Dr. Harry M. 

Wegeforth, observer 35 

904 



i;^ I L I S Ti A 



528 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IPaoc. 4th 3b«. 

National Park Reports 

Yelloivstone National Park, Horace M. Albright, Supt. 

Elk: Park, North herd 17,242 

Jackson Hole 19,442 

36,685 

Buffalo : Lamar River 753 

Cold Creek 125 

878 

Antelope 417 

Mountain Sheep : 

Actual count 195 

Estimated 600 

795 
Moose : 

Actual count 170 

Estimated 525 

695 

Mule Deer 1,800 

Whitetail Deer 12 

Black Bear 200 

Grizzly Bear 75 

Grand Canyon National Park, J . Ross Eakin, Supt. 

Mountain Sheep, estimated 500 

Antelope, actual count 9 

Deer, estimated 2,720 

This does not include the Kaibab herd of deer which con- 
tains about 5,000 

Zion National Park, Richard T. Evans, Supt. 

Mountain Sheep, estimated 100 

Mule Deer 500 

McKinlcy National Park, Henry P. Karstens, Supt. 

Caribou, estimated 30,000 

Mountain Sheep 10,000 

Grizzly Bear, quite plentiful. 
Moose, not common in Park. 



\0L. XIV] EVERM ANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 192$ $29 

Glacier National Park, Charles J. Kraebel, Supt. 

Moose, count 69 

Elk, count 567 

Deer, Blacktail, count 764 

Deer, Whitetail, count 1,311 

Mountain Sheep, count 724 

Mountain Goat, count 943 

Bear, Grizzly, count 51 

Bear, Black and Brown, count 76 

Crater Lake National Park, Charles Goff Thomson, Supt. 

Bear 9 

Deer, Blacktail 60 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, Roger W. Toll, Supt. 

Deer, Blacktail, estimated 3,000 

Mountain Sheep, estimated 400 

Elk, estimated 200 

Bear, Black and Brown 35 

Rainier National Park, Oiven A. Tomlinson, Supt. 

Deer, Blacktail, count 350 

Mountain Gk)at, count 250 

Bear, Black, count 200 

Elk, count 15 

M. Hall McAllister, Chairman. 



Stein HART Aquarium 

The activities of the Aquarium for 1925 are fully covered in 
the report of the Superintendent. Let it suffice to say here 
that the Aquarium continues to grow in attractiveness and 
popular interest. The number of visitors for the year exceeded 
one million, including 382 school classes in charge of 350 
teachers and containing 9,866 pupils. 

The interest which the public takes in the Aquarium is 
shown not only by the large number of visitors but in many 
other ways; for example, various f>ersons have given to the 
Aquarium within the year a total of 728 fishes, turtles, snakes 
and other live animals. On the other hand the Aquarium has 
given to schools and individuals during the year a total of 
1,858 small aquarium fishes and other objects. 



530 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

The Academy in this way encourages the use of small bal- 
anced aquariums in homes and schools. 

Aquarium Personnel 

A number of changes in the personnel of the Aquarium have 
taken place within the year, due chiefly to resignations on 
account of the inadequate salaries paid. The employes with 
scarcely an exception have been and are efficient and indus- 
trious, performing their respective duties with enthusiasm and 
pride, but better salaries must be paid if we are to retain the 
most efficient. 

The present personnel is as follows : 

Dr. Barton Warren F^vermann, Director, part time ; W. W. Sargeant, 
Secretary, part time ; Susie M. Peers, Secretary to the Director, part time ; 
Mrs. Constance W. Campbell, office assistant, part time; Alvin Seale, 
Superintendent ; Wallace Adams, Assistant Superintendent ; Herbert 
Brandt, collector; Clynt S. Martin, chief engineer; Warren R. Hayes, 
assistant engineer ; P. E. Shepherd, assistant engineer ; S. J. Shenefield, 
carpenter and general utility man; Charles Brandt, chief attendant; C. E. 
Guidry, assistant attendant ; Robert J. Lanier, electrician and assistant 
attendant; Patrick O'Neill, janitor; Frank J. Maxwell, assistant janitor; 
Dora Arnold, doorkeeper; James Kavanaugh, police officer. 

Acknowledgments 

As in the past, many courtesies and favors of one kind or 
another have been shown the Academy by various organiza- 
tions and individuals. Space does not pennit individual 
acknowledgments of all, but the Academy is grateful to all 
who have helped it in any way and who have shown interest in 
its work. First, to those who have contributed to the educa- 
tional program of the Academy by giving one or more lectures 
in our Sunday afternoon and Wednesday evening lecture 
courses, the grateful thanks of the Academy are due; also to 
those who have donated specimens to the departments or books 
to the library. Special mention should be made of the deep 
interest which the Southern Pacific Company, the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe Railway System, and the Los Angeles 
Steamship Company have shown in the scientific and educa- 
tional work of the Academy, Each of these companies has 



Vol. XIV] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 19^5 53] 

rendered material assistance to members of the staff in con- 
nection with their field studies of the fauna, flora, paleontology 
and geology of the state, and in making collections of live 
fishes for the Steinhart Aquarium. With their generous co- 
operation the Academy is able to carry on its research and 
educational work much more comprehensively and thoroughly 
than would otherwise be possible. 

Publications by the Museum Staff 

The following bibliography lists the papers published by the 
Museum and Aquarium staffs in the year 1925. In the case 
of Dr. Hanna it includes his 1924 titles inadvertently omitted 
from the annual report for that year. 

Qark, H. Walton. 

1. Lynvuea aurkulata (Linn.) in California. <Nautilu?, Vol. 
XXXVIII, No. 4, pp. 125-126, April, 1925 (With G. Dallas 
Hanna). 

Eastwood, Alice 

1. The Madrono. <California Out of Doors (Tamalpais Conserva- 

tion Club organ), January, 1925. 

2. Sequoia versus Eucalyptus. < California Out of Doors, April, 

1925. 

3. The Rose Family on Mount Tamalpais. < California Out of 

Doors, July, 1925. 

4. The Aftergrowth of a Mountain Fire. <California Out of 

Doors, January, 1926. 

5. Review of R. S. Ellsworth's The Giant Sequoia. <Bull. Sierra 

Qub, Vol. XII, No. 2, pp. 204-205, 1925. 

6. Annual Report, Department of Botany for 1924. <Proc. Calif. 

Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII, No. 28, pp. 467-468, May 29, 
1925. 

Evermann, Barton Warren 

1. Save the Elephant Seals. <Catalina Islander, January 21, 1925. 

2. Pollution of the Sea. <Mid-Pacific Magazine, Vol. XXIX, No. 

3, March, 1925, pp. 563-565. 

3. Report of the Director of the Museum (of the California Acad- 

emy of Sciences) for the year 1924. <Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
4th Ser., Vol. XIII, No. 28, pp. 411-487, May 29, 1925. 

4. Are Elephant Seals destructive to the fisheries? <California Fish 

and Game, Vol. XI, No. 2, April, 1925, pp. 78-79. 



532 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Seb. 

5. The Steller Sea Lion Rookery on Ano Nuevo Island, California, 

in 1924. (Joint author with G. Dallas Hanna). < Journal of 
Mammalogy, Vol. VI, No. 2, May, 1925, pp. 96-99, pis. 8-10. 

6. John Van Denburgh. 1872-1924. < Science, N. S., Vol. LXI, No. 

1585, May 15, 1925, pp. 508-510. 

7. Museum of the California Academy of Sciences. < Municipal 

Record, San Francisco, Vol. XVIII, No. 33, p. 268, August 13, 
1925. 

8. Steinhart Aquarium (of the California Academy of Sciences). 

<Municipal Record, San Francisco, Vol. XVIII, No. 33, p. 
276, 1 plate, August 13, 1925. 

9. Earthquake Studies. <The Commonwealth, Vol. I, No. 17, pp. 

205-206, September 1, 1925. 

10. Natural Fisheries Resources of the Sea (chiefly of the Pacific) 

whose Conservation will require International Cooperation. 
<Fur Industry Year Book 1925, pp. 62-66. 

11. The Marine Mammals of the Pacific. <The Columbia Port Di- 

gest, November, 1925, pp. 5-6. 

12. A Check List of the Fishes of Hawaii (Junior author with David 

Starr Jordan). < Journal of the Pacific Research Institution, 
Vol. I, No. 1, January (December 31, 1925), 1926, pp. 2-15. 

13. The Steinhart Aquarium. <The Amateur Aquarist, Vol. I, No. 

10, winter 1925-26, pp. 113, 120 and 121, 

Hanna, G. Dallas 

1. Succitiea avara Say, from the Pleistocene Tar Pits of California. 

< Nautilus, Vol. XXXVII, No. 3, p. 106, January-, 1924. 

2. Review of, "The Mollusca of the Southwestern States, XI." By 

Henry A. Pilsbry & James H. Ferriss. <Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., Vol. LXXV, pp. 47-103, 1923. <Nautilus, Vol. 
XXXVII, No. 3, p. 107, January, 1924. 

3. Sperm Whales at St. George Island, Bering Sea. <Journal of 

Mammalogy, Vol. V, No. 1, p, 64, February 9, 1924, 

4. Temperature Records of Alaska Fur Seals. <Journal of Physi-" 

ology, Vol. LXVIII, No. 1, pp. 52-53, March, 1924. 

5. Rectifications of Nomenclature. <Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th 

Ser., Vol. XIII, No. 10, pp. 151-186, March 18, 1924. 

6. Freshwater Mollusks of Eagle Lake, California. <Proc. Calif. 

Acad. Sci., 4th Sen, Vol. XIII, No. 7, pp. 131-136, 1 pi., March 
18, 1924. 

7. Description of a New Genus and Species of Freshwater Gastro- 

pod Mollusk (Scales petrolia) from the Etchegoin Pliocene of 
California. By G. D. Hanna & E. G. Gaylord. <Proc. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII, No. 9, pp. 147-149, 1 fig., March 
18, 1924. 

8. Smaller Foraminifera for Stratigraphy. <Bull. Am. Assn. 

Petrol. Geok)gists, Vol. VIII, No. 2, pp. 246-250, March-April, 
1924. 



Vol. XIV] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 19^5 533 

9. A New Species of Whale from the Type Locality of the Mon- 
terey Group. By G. Dallas Hanna & Mary E. McLellan. 
<Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII, No. 14, pp. 237- 
241, pis. 5-9, June 14, 1924. 

10. Insects in the California Tar Traps. < Science (n.s.), Vol. 

LIX, No. 1538, p. 553, June 20, 1924. 

11. Resignation of A. H. Proctor. (Unsigned.) <U. S. Dept. Com- 

merce, Fisheries Service Bulletin, No. Ill, August 1, 1924. 

11a. Annual Report, Department of Invertebrate Paleontology for 
1923. <Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. XII, No. 33, pp. 
1264-1265, October 10, 1924. 

12. Review of "Indications of a Gigantic Amphibian in the Coal 

Measures of Kansas." By H. T. Martin. <Univ. Kans. Sci. 
Bull., Vol. XIII, No. 12, pp. 103-114, 3 pis., July, 1922. <Pan- 
American Geologist, Vol. XLII, No. 5, p. 235, October, 1924. 

13. Foraminifera from the Eocene of Cowlitz River, Western Wash- 

ington. By G. Dallas Hanna & Marcus A. Hanna. <Univ. 
Wash. Publ. Geol., Vol. I, No. 4, pp. 57-64, pi. XIII, October, 
1924. 

14. A Little about Diatoms. By G. Dallas Hcuma with photographs 

by W. M. Grant. <The Record (Associated Oil Company 
Publication), San Francisco, Vol. V, No. 9, pp. 6-8, 10 photo- 
graphs, September, 1924. 

15. The same, reprinted. <CaHfornia Engineer (University of Cali- 

fornia), Vol. Ill, No. 4, pp. 107-108, 8 photographs, December, 
1924. 

16. Miocene Marine Vertebrates in Kern County, California. 

<Science (n.s.). Vol. LXI, No. 1568, pp. 71-72, January 16, 1925. 

17. The Study of Subsurface Formations in California Oilfield De- 

velopment. By G. Dallas Hanna & H. L. Driver. <10th Ann. 
Rept. Calif. St. Min. Bur., Oil & Gas Supervisor, Vol. X, No. 3 
(Monthly Chapt. Sept. 1924), pp. 5-26, 10 figs, in text (Issued 
March 10, 1925). 

18. Fauna and Stratigraphic Relations of the Tejon Eocene at the 

Type Locality in Kern County, California. By Frank M. 
Anderson & G. Dallas Hanna. <Occ. Pprs. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
Vol. XI, pp. 1-249. 16 pis., March 18, 1925. 

19. Discussion of "Diatom Theory of Origin of Petroleum in CTali- 

fornia." By Jun-ichi Takahashi, Sendai, Japan. Read May 
3, 1924, at Stanford Univ. Calif, before meeting of Cordilleran 
Section of Geological Society of America. <Bull. Geol. Soc. 
Am., Vol. XXXVI, No. 1, p. 207, March, 1925. 

20. The Academy of Sciences expedition to the Revillagigedo Islands. 

<Science (n.s.), Vol. LXI, No. 1579, pp. 359-360, April 3, 1925. 
Published in Oakland Tribune, S. F. Examiner, Qironicle, 
Bulletin and Call. 



534 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

21. Naturalists to Explore Strange Islands off Mexico. <San 

Francisco Examiner, Svinday, April 12, 1925, p. K 7, four photo- 
graphs. 

22. Lymnaa auricularia (Linn.) in California. By G. Dallas Hanna 

& H. Walton Clark. <Nautilus Vol. XXXVIII, No. 4, pp. 
125-126, April, 1925. 

23. Some Land Shells from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. < Nautilus 

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 4, pp. 122-125, April, 1925. 

24. Correlation of the Organic Shales of the San Joaquin Valley, 

California. By E. G. Gaylord & G. D. Hanna. <Bull. Am. 
Assn. Petrol. Geol., Vol. IX, No. 2, pp. 228-234, pis. 4-5, March- 
April, 1925. 

25. (Annual Report, Department of Paleontology for 1924.) <Proc. 

Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. XIII, No. 28, pp. 476-478, May 29, 1925. 

26. The Steller Sea Lion Rookery on Ano Nuevo Island, California, 

in 1924. By Barton Warren Evermann & G. Dallas Hanna. 
<Journ. Mammalogj'. Vol. VI, No. 2. pp. 96-99, pis. 8-10, Alay, 
1925. 

27. Scientists return with Rarities from Islands off Mexico. <The 

San Francisco Examiner, Sunday, June 28, 1925. 

28. Contribution to the Paleontology of Peru. By G. Dallas Hanna 

& Merle C. Israelsky. <Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. 
XIV, No. 2, pp. 37-75, pis. 7, 8, July 21, 1925. 

29. Zalophancylus, a Fish Vertebra, not a Mollusk. < Nautilus, Vol. 

XXXIX, No. 1, p. 18, July, 1925. 

30. Photograph of Fur Seal Census Taker on Pribilof Islands. 

< Popular Mechanics Magazine, Vol. XLIV, No. 1, p. 87, July, 
1925. 

31. The Extraction of Fossils from Refractory Rocks. <Journal of 

Geol., Vol. XXXIII, No. 5, pp. 555-557, July-August, 1925. 

32. The Age and Correlation of the Kreyenhagen Shale in California. 

<Bull. Amer. Assn. Petrol Geolog., Vol. IX, No. 6, pp. 990- 
999, September, 1925. Read before September, 1924, Meeting 
of Pacific Section of Amer. Assn. Pet. Geol. at Los Angeles. 

33. Additional records for Lytnncea auricularia. By G. Dallas Hanna 

& H. Walton Clark. < Nautilus, Vol. XXXIX, No. 2, p. 71, 
October, 1925. 

34. Was there a Pacific Continent? <Science (n.s.). Vol. LXII, No. 

1613, pp. 491-492, November 27, 1925. 

Hertlein, Leo G. 

1. Pectens from the Tertiary of Lower California. <Proc. Calif. 

Acad. Sci.. 4th Ser., Vol. XIV, No. 1, pp. 1-35, July 21, 1925. 

2. New Species of Marine Fossil Mollusca from Western North 

America. < Bulletin Southern Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 24, Pt. 2, 
pp. 39-46, 1925. 



Vol. XIV] El'ERMAN\'— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR ryis 535 

3. A Summary of the Nomenclature and Stratigraphy of the Marine 
Tertiary of Oregon and Washington (with Colin H. Crickmay). 
<Proc. Amer. Phil. See, Vol. LXIV, No. 2, pp. 224-282. 1925. 

Jordan, Eric Knight 

1. Notes on the Fishes of Hawaii with descriptions of six new 
species. <Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. Vol. LXVI, 1925, Art. 33, 
pp. 1-43, pis. 1-2. 

Mailliard, Joseph 

1. Census of Birds' Nests in the Music Concourse, Golden Gate 

Park, San Francisco, California, for 1924. <The Gull, Vol. 
VII, No. 2, February, 1925. 

2. Some New Rodent Records for Northeastern California. <Jour- 

nal of Mammalog>', Vol. VI, No. 1, pp. 57-58, February 9, 1925. 

3. Notes upon the Numerical Status of Rodent Populations in Parts 

of California. <Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. VI, No. 2, pp. 
102-105, May 12, 1925. 

4. Annual Report of the Department of Exhibits for 1924. <Proc. 

Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII, Nos. 27-28, pp. 472-473, 
May 29, 1925. 

5. Annual Report, Department of Mammalogy for 1924. <Proc. 

Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Sen, Vol. XIII, Nos. 27-28, p. 475, May 
29, 1925. 

6. Annual Report, Department of Ornithology for 1924. <Proc. 

Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII, Nos. 27-28, pp. 475-476, 
May 29, 1925. 

Slevin, Joseph R. 

1. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology, II. Korea or Qiosen. 

<Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. XIV, No. 5, pp. 89-100, 
July 23, 1925. 

2. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology, III. Russian Asia and 

Manchuria. <Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., Vol. XIV, No. 
6, pp. 101-103, July 23, 1925. 

3. Annual Report, Department of Herpetology' for the year 1924. 

<Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. XIII, No. 28, p. 473, May 29, 
1925. 

Van Duzee, Edward P. 

1. Notes on a Few Hemiptera from the San Bernardino Mountains, 

California. < Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Society, Vol. 
XX, pp. 89-90, April, 1925. 

2. -A. Third Record for Emphoropsis depressa Fowler [Note]. 

< Pan-Pacific Entomologist, Vol. I, p. 155, May, 1925. 

3. Annual Report, Department of Entomology for 1924. <Proc. 

Calif. Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, Vol. XIII, pp. 469-472, May, 1925. 



536 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

4. Report on the Library for 1924. <Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 

XIII, p. 474, May, 1925. 

5. [Note on] Luceria tranquilla Grote. <Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 

Vol. I, p. 185, May, 1925. 

6. A new Mirid from Arizona. <Pan-Pacific Entomologist, Vol. II, 

p. 35, August, 1925. 

7. [Note on] The Van Duzee Gjllection of Hemiptera. <Pan-' 

Pacific Entomologist, Vol. II, p. 15, August, 1925. 

8. New Hemiptera from Western North America. <Proc. Calif. 

Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, Vol. XIV, pp. 391-425, September, 1925. 



Department Reports 
Department of Botany 

A total of 138,432 sheets of mounted herbarium specimens are now 
numbered and stamped. Of the 299 families of plants, according to the 
latest system of classification, all but 15 are represented in the herbarium. 
Ten of these consist of a single genus and have been removed from larger 
and well known families ; the remaining five belong in the tropics and 
have few genera. 

Several important collections by exchange and purchase which have 
added many rare species and genera to the herbarium have been acquired ; 
428 in exchange, chiefly North American from the National Herbarium, 
Washington, D. C. ; 622 of the J. F. Duthie collection from the Himalaya 
Mountains, and 285 of the A. Stolz collection from Lake Nyassa, Africa, 
by exchange from the Royal Herbarium, Kew, England ; 375 Chilian 
plants purchased from the collector. Dr. E. Werderman, an authority on 
Chilian plants; 185 Chinese plants, a continuation of the McClure Hainan 
Island collection, purchased from Canton Christian College, China; and 
627 from Hood River region, Oregon, purchased from the collector, 
L. F. Henderson of the University of Oregon. 

The curator made several short trips to various parts of northern 
California in the spring and collected as follows : 64 species on a one- 
day trip over Mount Hamilton from San Jose to Livermore; 11 species 
from an early trip to lone, Amador County; 148 species from a short 
trip to Madera and Raymond, Madera County; 149 species from Potter 
Valley, Mendocino County ; and 214 from the foot of Mount Sanhedrin, 
Lake County. On a trip to Portland, Oregon, to attend the meeting of 
the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, collections were made in Oregon, Washington and Idaho. At 
Portland, 11 species were collected, 25 on the Columbia Highway, 48 at 
Wind River Forestry Station, 291 at Pullman and vicinity, and 63 at 
mouth of the Salmon River. 

Besides a number of contributors whose names will appear in the gen- 
eral list and whose contributions consisted of one or two specimens sent 
usually for identification, the following made valuable contributions to 



Vol. XIV] EVERMANN—DIRECTOF'S REPORT FOR i9^5 537 

the herbarium: W. J. Classen, Cold Bay, Alaska, 27; George Haley, 
from Unalaska, Unimak and St. Paul Island, Alaska, 135; William Vo- 
triede, 83, Eldorado County ; Mrs. G. Earle Kelley, 29, from Round Valley, 
Mendocino County; A. F. Graff, 17, Cazadero, Sonoma County; W. P. 
Steinbeck, 15, Calaveras County; Mrs. Joseph Clemens, 23, from Texas; 
Cecil Hart, 23 desert plants, Southern California; Mrs. E. C. Sutliffe, 
20, Marin County; Mrs. J. C. Augsbury, 17, Yosemite region; Mary E. 
Webb, 26, Santa Barbara; Mrs. E. C. Wright, 71, Mono Lake region; 
Mrs. Ilsien Nathalie Gaylord, 26 mosses from the eastern United States; 
F, V. Coville, 17 specimens of Ribes from California; Eric Walther, 115 
specimens of cultivated plants. 

The collections from the islands off the coast of Mexico made on the 
California Academy expedition in the spring have not yet been named or 
listed, but will undoubtedly add many new species to the collection as 
well as duplicates for exchange. 

In continuation of exchange, duplicates from our herbarium have been 
sent to the following institutions: Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 
Mass., 210; Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Mass., 47 Lower California; 
Royal Herbarium, Kew, England, 133 Galapagos duplicates and 155 mis- 
cellaneous specimens; 247 miscellaneous specimens to Pomona College, 
Claremont, California. 

Besides the regular herbarium work which takes a great deal of time 
in a rapidly growing herbarium, much time has been given to the identi- 
fication of exotics, as the Academy is now regarded as the California 
authority, our collection of the exotics cultivated in California being the 
most complete. 

Popular addresses have been given on botanical subjects, conservation 
of the wild flowers, and the history and botanical features of Golden Gate 
Park, to schools, Parent-Teachers Associations, floral societies, federation 
of women's clubs and individual clubs, Alpine, Sierra, and Tamalpais 
Conservation Club, and Girl Scouts. Two lectures have been given for 
the Academy and one at the Portland meeting. 

The Botanical Club holds weekly meetings or excursions and has now 
about 75 members. A class of Park gardeners meets in the herbarium 
two evenings a month. This is to enable the ambitious men to learn the 
names and relationships of the species in the park. The exhibition of 
cultivated and native flowers in bloom out of doors is one of the popular 
features of the museum and is consulted by many people throughout the 
year. Hundreds of species are exhibited during the year, each labelled 
with scientific and common name and native home. Mrs. Johanna Wilkens 
keeps it clean and in order, and, without her careful attention, it would 
not be possible to have it always looking nice. My assistant, Mrs. George 
H. Phelps, does all the mounting of the rapidly increasing collection, be- 
sides many other duties such as putting the additions into their proper 
places in the herbarium, looking after the specimens being dried, writing 
labels of duplicates, besides other duties that do not require botanical 

knowledge. 

Alice Eastwood, Curator. 

April 28, 1926 



538 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Department of Entomology 

Nineteen twenty-five was another year of active advance in the Depart- 
ment of Entomolog>'. Two large collections were added to the Academy 
resources; specimens received from other sources number more than the 
average; the mounting and labelling of accumulated material made avail- 
able for study much which before had potential value only, and the addi- 
tion of new cases permitted the rearranging of the collections to be ad- 
vanced rapidly. 

Additions to the department collection during 1925, received through 
the ordinary activities of the department, numbered 27,301 specimens. In 
addition, two large collections were formally presented to the Academy 
which merit special mention. On August 22, Dr. F. E. Blaisdell presented 
to the Academy his entire collection of Coleoptera, numbering at least 
100,000 specimens. These were given under the same conditions as was 
the Van Dyke collection presented last year, conditions that allow the 
donor the free use and control of the material during his life time, assures 
its permanent preservation, and, with the Van Dyke collection, places in 
the possession of the Academy a remarkably complete series of the beetles 
of North America, which, in the case of the western species, are repre- 
sented by exceptionally large and valuable series showing geographical 
and ecological variation. The other collection mentioned is the curator's 
private collection of Hemiptera numbering perhaps 30,000 specimens. This 
collection, accumulated through more than 30 years of systematic work 
on that order of insects, represents a very large proportion of the species 
known from America north of Mexico up to 10 years ago, and, added to 
the extensive collection of western Hemiptera already in the Academy 
collection, forms a representation in that order of insects perhaps unsur- 
passed so far as our North American fauna is concerned. 

Of the ordinary accessions of the year the largest item is the material 
taken by the curator's assistant, Mr. H. H. Keifer, on the Academy's ex- 
pedition to the Revillagigedo Islands, numbering 10,753 specimens. The 
work of determining this material has only just begun, but undoubtedly 
many new and rare species will be found in it. Other notable additions 
during the year were : from Mr. A. J. Bassenger, 2210 specimens includ- 
ing a large and interesting series of Diptera from Alaska; from Mr. 
C. L. Fox, 3,114 specimens consisting of Diptera and Coleoptera from 
eastern Washington and western Idaho and a valuable series of Hymenop- 
tera from Arizona; from Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, 1954 insects of orders other 
than Q)leoptera from Oregon and eastern Washington and other locali- 
ties ; from Mr. J. C. Huguenin, 1870 miscellaneous insects; from Mr. 
Walter M. Giffard, 320 leaf-cutting bees from about Lake Tahoe, Cali- 
fornia; from Mr. E. A. Dodge, a collection of 478 tiger beetles made 
many years ago by his brother, Mr. G. M. Dodge, and including many 
rare species, also from Mr. Dodge a collection of 211 moths from Exeter, 



Vol. XIV] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR ms 539 

California, secured by his son, the late Ralph M. Dodge; from John E. 
Carey, 905 Lepidoptera from Panama including many rare and beautiful 
forms. Other valuable donations to the department collection were made 
by Mr. Louis Slevin, Mr. E. R. Leach, Mr. J. O. Martin, Mr. Geo. Haley, 
Dr. J. A. Comstock, Mr. David M. McKell, Mr. B. H. Murray, Mr. Eric 
Walther, Mr. Joseph Mailliard, Mrs. H. J. Smith, Mr. Frank Mason, Mr. 
J. G. Grundell, and others. In addition to these donations 3800 insects 
were secured by the curator and his assistant in field work in the Bay 
region. 

On January first, Mr. Hartford H. Keifer was added to the department 
staff as full-time assistant, and, through his continued and faithful efforts, 
much has been done toward mounting and labelling accumulated material. 
Mr. J. O. Martin completed the installation of the Holbrook collection of 
butterflies, which now is well displayed on specially constructed multiplex 
frames in the bird hall. Following the completion of the Holbrook col- 
lection, he has been working part time on the incorporation of the Van 
Dyke collection into that of the Academy in the new unit boxes recently 
adopted in this department. Over 26,000 specimens from the Van Dyke 
collection have been so arranged and the work is being pushed as rapidly 
as possible. The balance of the material taken on the Arizona expedition 
of 1924 has been mounted and, with the Holbrook collection, brings the 
total additions to this department for 1924 up to 30,700 specimens. 

The Academy is under renewed obligations to Messrs. Barnes and 
Benjamin for the determination of moths in its collection. Through this 
assistance most of the moths, exclusive of the micros, are now determined 
and the arranging of the collection will be pushed as rapidly as boxes be- 
come available. Prof. P. A. Qaassen of Cornell University has deter- 
mined the stone-flies in the collection and these are now available for 
study. Dr. E. C. Van Dyke has devoted much time and effort during the 
year to checking over the Academy collection of beetles as fast as they 
are arranged in the unit boxes. So far, the families Cerambycidae, 
Buprestidse, Scarabiidse, Cicindelidse and the Cychriini have been gone 
over by him and are now available for the use of students of these inter- 
esting insects. 

The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, initiated in 1924, has reached the middle 
of the second volume. This effort to give the West a place in the en-i 
tomological literature of the country is meeting with much encourage- 
ment. While it is not yet self-sustaining, that goal does not seem as 
distant as it did, and with moderate assistance for a few years it should 
attain independence and show growth both in size and quality. 

The growth of the Department of Entomology during recent years has 
been most encouraging and, with continued support, the Academy of 
Sciences will have a collection of insects that will rank among the largest 
and most valuable in the country. 

Edward P. Van Duzee, Curator. 



540 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Department of Exhibits 

So much of the time of the personnel of this department has been di- 
verted to other matters that there is less to report as accomplished in the 
field of exhibits than has been the case in previous years; but, in spite 
of interruptions, Mr. Frank Tose, chief taxidermist and group artist of 
the Museum, has arranged and installed four more panel groups in the 
Bird and Mammal halls, all of which have attracted much favorable 
comment. The four groups are : California Woodpecker, Lazuli Bunting, 
Point Reyes Mountain Beaver, and Warner Mountain Cony. The Cali- 
fornia Woodpecker Group is especially interesting in that it shows the 
combination of a nesting hole and a tree that is thickly inset with acorns, 
well exemplifying the characteristic storage habit of this bird. The Moun- 
tain Beaver and the Cony groups exhibit two species of small mammals 
so rarely seen by the public that the majority of people do not even 
know of their existence. 

The rearranging of the Grizzly Bear Group, which was commenced late 
in the fall of 1924, extended well into January, 1925. In the early spring 
a number of birds were collected and mounted in preparation for that 
time when the proposed seasonal groups of the birds of Golden Gate Park 
become realities. In between times some fine work was done on wax 
reproductions of beautiful Colorado Desert cacti, to be installed in the 
present desert group to make it even more attractive. 

A matter that occupied several weeks of departmental time was the 
construction and the placing in position for future use of cases for panel 
groups in all available spaces in order to save the time and labor involved 
by the old method of setting in position cases for each group as needed. 
The backs of these newly installed cases and the backs of all those al- 
ready arranged with groups have have been so treated as to make them 
harmonize with the backgrounds and accessories of the large habitat 
groups into which they project. The camouflaging of these projecting 
backs has greatly improved the appearance of the large groups and added 
to their charm. 

Mr. Tose was detailed, with Mr. J. T. Wright as assistant, to represent 
the departments of Ornithology and Mammalogy on the expedition that 
started about the middle of April to the Revillagigedo and Tres Marias 
islands and returned toward the end of June. The preparation of equip- 
ment before starting and the finishing up of the temporarily prepared and 
cold storage specimens obtained on this expedition, with the voyage itself, 
occupied these members of the department from the first of April until 
well into July. 

Later in the year, practically a month was occupied by Mr. Tose in 
making from a cast a life-sized model of a great Leatherback Turtle for 
the Department of Herpetology. 



Vol. XIV] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1925 541 

While the demand for portable school groups does not seem to have 
lessened, there has been no time available, with the present force, for the 
construction of new ones, and the only work carried on in this line has 
been the reconstruction of some that had been damaged by accidents. The 
portable school groups now in use consist of one each of the following: 
Sandpipers and marsh birds, California Woodpecker, Gila Woodpecker, 
Barn Owl, Western Meadowlark, California Shrike, San Francisco 
Towhee, Western Robin, Sierra Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel, Cali- 
fornia Ground Squirrel, Sierra Chickaree, Redwood Weasel, and Spiny 
Pocket Mouse. 

Student assistants in this department have been as follows : James F. 
Campbell, for the greater part of the year; Miss A. M, Hill, short course 
in accessory work; J. T. Wright, first half of year; Russel Hendricks and 
Cecil Tose, part time; and several school boys at various periods. 

Joseph Mailliard, Curator. 



Department of Fishes 

This Department was established August 29, 1925, at which time Mr. 
H. Walton Qark was made assistant curator. Mr. Clark had been a 
scientific assistant in the United States Bureau of Fisheries for many 
years, during wliich he was chiefly engaged in biological investigations 
relating to fishes and the fisheries and in studies of the geographic dis-^ 
tribution of fishes. When the Steinhart Aquarium was established in 
1923 Mr. Clark was made chief collector, which position he held until 
transferred to his present position. 

The establishment of a department of fishes seemed necessary in order 
that proper attention might be given to systematic and life-history studies 
of the fishes of California and elsewhere in connection with the Aquarium 
and the Museum. Considerable collections of fishes have already been 
acquired, the principal regions represented being California, the Hawaiian 
Islands, China, and the Revillagigedo and Tres Marias islands oflf the 
Pacific coast of Mexico. These will all be studied, carefully identified 
and put in order as rapidly as possible. 

It is the intention to install in the Aquarium laboratories a carefully 
identified reference series of specimens in alcohol of all the species of 
fishes of California, both fresh and salt water, and, as time and oppor- 
tunity permit, similar series of the species found in the other Pacific coast 
states. Teachers, anglers and others often come to the Aquarium or the 
Museum and make inquiry about some fish they have seen but which they 
do not find in the Aquarium. It is hoped that when our reference series 
has been established, we shall be able to show to such inquirers a speci- 
men of any species of fish about which they ask. 

During the year Mr. Clark has devoted most of his time assisting Dr. 
Jordan and the Curator with the preparation of a revised check-list of 



542 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the fishes of North and Mi