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Full text of "Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series"

PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



California Academy of Sciences 



FOURTH SERIES 



Vol. XVIII 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

1929-1930 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

Col. George C. Edwards, Chairman 

Dr. C. E. Grunskt Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Editor 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XVIII 



1. A New Species of Corambe from the Pacific Coast of North 

America. By Frank M. MacFarland and Charles H. O'Don- 

oghue. PubHshed January 29, 1929 1 

Plates 1-3 

2. A New Bird Family (Geospizidae) from the Galapagos Islands. By 

Harry S. Swarth. Published January 29, 1929 29 

3. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Nesting Habits of the Gol- 

den Eagle. By Joseph R. Slevin. Published January 29, 1929 . . 45 

Plates 4-7 

4. Marine Miocene and related Deposits of North Colombia, By 

Frank M. Anderson. PubHshed March 29, 1929 73 

Plates 8-23 

5. A New Pecten from the San Diego Pliocene. By Leo George Hert- 

lein. PubUshed April 5, 1929 215 

Plate 24, Figs. 10-11 

6. A New Species of Land Snail from Kern County, California. By 

G. Dallas Hanna. PubHshed April 5, 1929 217 

Plate 24, Figs. 7-9 

7. A New Species of Land Snail from Coahuila, Mexico. By G. Dallas 

Hanna and Leo George Hertlein. Published April 5, 1929. ... 219 
Plate 24, Figs. 5, 6 

8. Some Notes on Oreohelix. By Junius Henderson. Published April 

5, 1929 221 

Plate 24, Figs. 1-4 

9. Notes on the Northern Elephant Seal. By M. E. McLellan David- 

son. Published April 5, 1929 229 

Plates 25, 26 

10. On a Small CoUection of Birds from Torres Strait Islands, and 

from Guadalcanar Island, Solomon Group. By M. E. McLellan 
Davidson. PubHshed April 5, 1929 245 

11. The Generic Relationships and Nomenclature of the California 

Sardine. By Cari L. Hubbs. Published April 5, 1929 261 

12. The Faunal Areas of southern Arizona: A Study in Animal Dis- 

tribution. By Harry S. Swarth. PubHshed April 26, 1929 267 

Plates 27-32 

13. The Escallonias in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California, 

with Descriptions of New Species. By AHce Eastwood. Pub- 
Hshed September 6, 1929 385 

Plate 35 



14. Studies in the Flora of Lower California and adjacent Islands. By 

Alice Eastwood. Published September 6, 1929 393 

Plates 33, 34 

15. Drepania, A Genus of Nudibranchiate MoUusks new to California. 

By F. M. MacFarland. Published October 4, 1929 485 

16. Some Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from Coalinga, California. 

By J. A. Cushman and C. C. Church. Pubhshed October 4, 1929 497 

Plates 35-41 

17 Report of President of Academy. By C. E. Grunsky 531-541 

18. Report of Director. By Barton Warren Evermann 542-579 

Report of Treasurer. By M. Hall McAllister 580-586 

Index 587 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 1, pp. 1-27, plates 1-3 January 29, 1929 



A NEW SPECIES OF CORAMBE FROM THE PACIFIC 
COAST OF NORTH AMERICA 

BY 

FRANK M. MacFARLAND 
Stanford University 

AND 

CHARLES H. O'DONOGHUE 
University of Edinburgh 

The Nudibranch genus Coramhe forms a group concerning 
whose structure, life history, affinities and distribution, much 
remains yet to be learned. The general features of its or- 
ganization seem to ally it to the phanerobranchiate Dorids, 
and in that group more especially to the Goniodorididse. It 
has been placed by Bergh in his System (1892) in a separate 
family, the Corambidse, and he indicates its probable close re- 
lationship to the little known, older genera Hypohranchuua A. 
Adams, and Doridella Verrill, rather characteristically re- 
ducing them to synonymy with his own, later genus. While 
these two are unknown from an anatomical point of view, it is 
reasonably certain that they should be united with Coramhe in 
the same family at least. In doing this we recognize the pri- 
ority and correctness of the name proposed by P. Fischer 
(1883), and use it instead of the later one by Bergh. The 
family diagnosis given by Fischer has been slightly modified 
in the light of later information than was then available. 
Should future studies establish the generic identity of Corambe 

January 29, 1929 



2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

with either or both HypohranchicBa and Doridella, the name 
given by Bergh would, of course, be cancelled in favor of the 
earlier one. 

Family Hypobranchi^id^ P. Fischer, 1883. 
Fischer, P., 1883, Manuel de Conchyliologie, Fasc. VI, p. 530. 

Body, notaeum, and rhinophores doridiform, branchiae pos- 
terior, below the notaeum margin and above the foot; anus 
median, posterior, between notaeum and foot; reproductive 
openings anterior on right side; radula narrow, multiserial. 

Genus 1. Hypobranchiaea A. Adams, 1847. 
Adams, A., 1847. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 23-24. 
Type: Hypohranchicsa fusca A. Adams. 
Yellow Sea. 

Genus 2. Doridella Verrill, 1870. 
Verrill, A. E., 1870. Amer. Journal Science and Arts, I, p. 408. 
Type: Doridella obscura Verrill. 

Vineyard Sound; Long Island Sound. 

Genus 3. Corambe Bergh, 1871. 
Bergh, R., 1871. Verh. k. k. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, XXI, pp. 1293-1294. 
Type: Corambe sargassicola Bergh. 
Sargasso Sea. 

Genus 4. Corambella Balch, 1899. 

Balch, F. E., 1899. Proc. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist., XXIX, p. 151. 

Type: Corambella depressa Balch. 

Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island. 

The present paper deals with the third of this list of genera, 
being a description with anatomical details of a new species of 
Corambe from the Pacific Coast of North America, for which 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND & O'DONOGHUE—NEW SPECIES CORAMBE 3 

the name Corambe pacifica is here proposed. Our grateful 
acknowledgments are due to Professor Walter K. Fisher, Di- 
rector of the Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, Cali- 
fornia, for the free use of the facilities afforded by that lab- 
oratory during the prosecution of the greater portion of this 
study. We are also greatly indebted to Mrs. Olive H. Mac- 
Farland for her generous cooperation in the preparation of the 
fisfures which illustrate this account. 



^fc>" 



Corambe Bergh, 1871 

Corambe Bergh, R., 1869. Bidrag til en Monographi af Phyllidierne. 
Naturh. Tidsskrift, 3 R, 5 B, p. 359; footnote. 

Corambe Bergh, 1871. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Mollusken des Sar- 
gassomeeres. Verh. d. k. k. zool.-bot. Gesellschaft Wien, 
Bd. XXI, pp. 1293-1297, Taf. XI, Fig. 21-27, Taf. XII, 
Fig. 1-11. 

Corambe Kerbert, C, 1886. Over het Geslacht Corambe Bergh. Tijd- 
schrift der Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging, 2 
Sen, D. 1, Afl. 2, pp. 5-6. (Abstract in Bull. Sci. du 
Nord, 2 Ser., 9, 1886, pp. 136-138.) 

Corambe Fischer, P., 1888. Note sur la presence du genre Corambe 

Bergh, dans le bassin d'Arcachon (Gironde). Bull. Soc. 

Zool. France, T. 13, No. 9, pp. 215-216. 
Corambe Fischer, H., 1889. Note preliminaire sur la Corambe testudinaria. 

Bull. Soc. Zool. France. T. 14, No. 10, pp. 379-381. 
Corambe Fischer, H., 1891. Sur I'anatomie du Corambe testudinaria. 

C R. Ac. Sci. Paris, CXII, pp. 304-307. 
Corambe Fischer, H., 1891. Recherches anatomiques sur un Mollusque 

appartenant au Genre Corambe. Bull. Sci. de la France 

et de la Belgique. T. XXIII (Ser. IV, Vol. II), pp. 

358-398, PI. IX-XIII. 

Corambe Fischer, H., 1896. Note sur la distribution du Genre Corambe. 
Jour. Conchyl. Vol. XLIII, pp. 235-236. 

Corambe Bergh, R., 1892. System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden. 
Wiesbaden. Semper's Reisen im Archipel der Philip- 
pinen. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Malacologische Un- 
tersuchungen, Bd. Ill, H. 18, pp. 166-168. 

Corambe Vayssiere, A., 1901. fitude comparee des Opistobranches des 
Cotes Frangaises de I'Ocean Atlantique et de la Manche 
avec ceux de nos Cotes Mediterraneennes. Bull. Sci. 
France et Belgique, T. XXXIV, p. 296. 

Corambe Vayssiere, A., 1913. Mollusques de France et des regions 
voisines. T. I., Paris, p. Z62). 



4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Body doridiform, oval, depressed; notseum somewhat con- 
vex, its margin wide, flattened, rounded in front, deeply 
notched in the median line behind, everywhere extending be- 
yond the foot; rhinophores retractile within sheaths, the stalk 
bearing an inner pair of wing-like, lateral expansions, and 
surrounded by an outer sheath, free above, united to the stalk 
below, and deeply cleft or entirely free behind; foot emar- 
ginate in front, rounded behind, smaller than the notseum, 
which completely conceals it. 

Branchiae posterior, of a few separate, pinnate plumes sym- 
metrically arranged on either side of the median line between 
the notseum and the foot ; anus median, posterior, between the 
two groups of branchial plumes ; tentacles short, nearly con- 
cealed by the notaeum. 

Pharyngeal bulb armed with two lateral thickenings at the 
buccal aperture; radula narrow, its rhachis naked, the inner- 
most, lateral tooth large, bearing a denticulate hook, the outer 
laterals few, small, with a simple hook; buccal ingluvies con- 
nate with the pharyngeal bulb. Glans penis unarmed. 

The genus Corambe is first mentioned by Bergh in 1869 in 
a brief footnote in a paper upon, the Phyllidiidse. The de- 
scription, "a dorid-like mollusk with strong mandibles, with 
numerous (24) rows of teeth, with four laterals upon either 
side of a median series," can scarcely be taken as an adequate 
diagnosis of the genus, since there are neither mandibles nor 
median teeth present, nor could the form be identified by this 
statement alone. In 1871, however, the same author published 
a more extended diagnosis, based upon a study of a single 
specimen of the genotype, Corambe sargassicola Bergh, taken 
upon drifting seaweed in the Central Atlantic in 42° 50' N. 
Lat,, and 46° 20' W. Long. The description is in many de- 
tails quite inaccurate and incomplete, probably owing to the 
lack of material. A second species, Corambe batava, from the 
Zuider-Zee, was described by Kerbert in 1886 in a very 
fragmentary manner. In 1889 H. Fischer described a third 
species, Corambe teshidinaria from the Bay of Arcachon, and 
in 1891 published an excellent anatomical account, which 
forms the actual basis of our knowledge of the genus. In the 
opinion of Vayssiere (1913), these three species are Identical, 
forming the single species Corambe sargassicola Bergh, which 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND & O'DONOGHUE—NEW SPECIES CORAMBE 5 

is not at all unlikely, though the accurate information respect- 
ing the species described by Bergh and by Kerbert, necessary 
to certainty in this regard, is lacking. 

The new species of Coranihe discussed in the present paper, 
differs markedly from the ones previously described. It has 
been taken by the authors in two widely separated localities, 
Monterey Bay, California, and at Nanaimo, British Colum- 
bia. In each instance the habitat is the same : Memhranipora 
colonies upon the large kelps and Zoster a, from which sur- 
roundings the minute animal is scarcely distinguishable. Its 
resemblance to a young colony of the bryozoan of similar size 
is even more perfect. 

The species of the genus at present may be listed as follows : 

1. Coranihe sargassicola Bergh, 1871. 

2. C. hatava Kerbert, 1886. 

3. C. testudinaria Fischer, 1889. 

4. C. paciUca MacFarland & O'Donoghue, new spe- 
cies, in which summary the first three are assumed to be valid 
and distinct species, in the absence of positive knowledge to 
the contrary. 

Corairlbe pacifica MacFarland & O'Donoghue, new species. 

Animal (PI. 1, fig. 1) elliptical, flattened, disk-like, slightly 
arched in the central region of the body, the notseum every- 
where extending beyond the foot, its margin wide and thin, 
with a deep, median, circular notch behind, elsewhere entire. 

Foot rounded equally in front and behind, its anterior mar- 
gin, beneath the head, with a deep, median notch revealing 
the mouth in the angle. 

Head small, covered entirely by the notseum, its angles pro- 
longed into short, blunt tentacles, directed outward and for- 
ward, their tips showing beyond the notaeum margin, when 
the animal is crawling freely. 

Rhinophores retractile into low, entire, thin-margined 
sheaths, the blunt, tapering tip of the stalk projecting above 
an incomplete, inner envelope, to which it is attached in the 
anterior, median line below, above free, the sheath-like expan- 
sion sloping rapidly downward behind to the rear of the stalk, 
with which it merges. Within this envelope the stalk bears a 



5 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

lower, plate-like expansion on either side, revolute backward, 
and inserted behind, above the more external sheath; a low, 
keel-like ridge, or plate, on the median, posterior side of the 
stalk. 

Anal opening posterior in the median line, immediately be- 
low the notch of the notasum margin; close to it at its right 
and slightly above is the single, renal opening, a minute pore. 
Reproductive openings three, close together, far forward on 
the right side, between the notseum and the foot. 

Branchiae a series of simple, pinnate plumes, ranging in 
number in mature individuals from six to 12 or 14 on each 
side, decreasing in size from behind forward, borne on either 
side of the anal opening, between the foot and the notasum, 
and limited to the posterior third of sides of body. A single, 
median plume is usually situated immediately above the anus. 
Lamellae of longest plumes 10 to 20 in number, opposite in 
arrangement upon sides of horizontally flattened shaft; at the 
insertion of the branchiae a series of large, simple, alveolar 
glands, mostly alternating with the bases of the plumes, and 
co-extensive with them. 

Color of dorsum a pale, translucent gray ground, the central 
area marked out by the pale, yellow-orange liver showing 
through the integument. Surrounding this central area is a 
whitish zone, determined largely by the foot showing through 
from below. Outside this zone and equal to it in width is the 
nearly transparent notaeum margin. This marginal zone is 
marked with irregular, continuous and discontinuous lines of 
clear baryta-yellow, arranged radially. Toward the center of 
the dorsum these lines become broken up into dots of color, 
and are more irregularly scattered. These radial lines with 
their cross connections resemble the walls of the zooecia of 
Meinbranipora to a very marked extent. Between the super- 
ficial, baryta-yellow markings are larger and smaller flecks, in 
general radial in arrangement, and lying deeper in the in- 
legument. These are largest and most numerous in the second 
zone, and become smaller and more rounded in the central 
area. The central and major portion of each fleck is terra 
cotta in color, and is usually edged with an incomplete line of 
black. Around the rhinophore bases they may form an almost 
continuous ring, but are usually clearly separate. Scattered 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND & O'DONOGHUE—NEW SPECIES CORAMBE J 

small, black flecks may also occur in the median area. In 
darker specimens the terra cotta spots are larger and more 
numerous, especially in the median region, their borders 
deepening to a greenish color, where not black. Foot clear 
gray, with a narrow, white, marginal line. Rhinophores 
clear, translucent gray, the sheath either the same or with a 
few small spots of terra cotta, baryta-yellow, or black. 

Radula formula 38-40 x (4-5 -f 1 -f + 1 + 4-5). Median 
tooth wanting. First lateral large, compressed, consisting of 
a slightly curved hook rising from the anterior angle of a 
large, erect base, the hook bearing three to seven denticles 
upon its inner margin. Upper posterior angle of the base of 
the first lateral thickened and pointed, forming a second, 
minor hook directed backward. Inner face of the base with a 
low, recurved, wing-like lamina, arising behind and below the 
lowermost denticles, and curving downward to the insertion 
of the base. Outer, lateral teeth, usually four, decreasing in 
size progressively outward, each consisting of a broad, 
rounded base bearing a slightly curved, simple, pointed hook. 
Rows of teeth not exactly opposite each other in the lateral 
halves of the radula. 

Pleural ganglia not fused with the cerebral ones, but united 
to them by short connectives. 

Length in life up to 13 mm., width up to 10 mm. 

Habitat: Upon brown kelps, mainly Macrocystis pyrifera 
(Turn.) Ag. and Nereocystis luetkeana P. & R., and upon 
Zostera marina L., bearing incrustations of Memhranipora 
villosa Hincks colonies, upon which the mollusks feed. Mon- 
terey Bay, California. Nanaimo, British Columbia. 

Holotype: No. 634, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., collected May 21, 
1928, by F. M. MacFarland, in Monterey Bay, Pacific Grove, 
California. Paratypes are deposited in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum, the British Museum, the Biological Station at Nanaimo, 
B. C, the Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, and 
in the authors' private collections. 

The careful study of Coramhe testudinaria by H. Fischer 
(1891) renders unnecessary a detailed account of the anatomy 
of this new species, save as regards certain features of pro- 
nounced difference found by us. Detailed dissections were 



8 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

made and supplemented by serial sections from material im- 
bedded in paraffin and in celloidin and stained in various ways. 

Habitat: The animals are seldom found separated from 
the Memhranipora colonies, and then probably through acci- 
dent. They have been seen actively feeding upon the colonies 
of Memhranipora villosa, which seem to be their chief food. 

One of us (O'Donoghue, 1926) has described in detail the 
ravages of Coramhe upon the bryozoan colony. "When 
young, even less than one mm. long, this mollusk has been 
seen inside the zooecium, from which it has eaten all the living 
matter. A more common point of attack, and the only one by 
larger Coramhe, is the growing edge of the colony which is 
either not protected by a chitinous covering, or else by one so 
thin that it affords no protection. This method of wounding 
produces a very characteristic indentation of the growing 
edge. If of short duration, it is surrounded by the growing 
zooecia, and all that is left of the point of injury is an area 
looking like a misshapen zooecium. However, if the attack is 
made at one place by several small Coramhe, or the animal re- 
mains a long time in the same place and grows considerably, 
the injury will be correspondingly greater and perhaps perma- 
nent. So prevalent are these attacks that it is rare to find 
under natural conditions an uninjured colony of, say, 10 mm. 
in diameter." But few traces of diatoms in the alimentary 
canal, such as Fischer cites, have been found, though they 
may be present at certain times of the year. Since the hard 
parts of the bryozoan do not appear to be eaten, it is not sur- 
prising to find no trace of them. The animals are sluggish, 
except when removed from the surface of the host, when they 
tend to move around rather actively, until they find their 
usual surroundings again. 

External characters : The general color of the dorsal aspect 
is a clear, translucent gray, veined and dotted with pale yellow 
or greenish yellow. The central area of the notseum is thickly 
set with light garnet-red or terra cotta spots, located deep be- 
low the surface. The edges of these flecks usually appear 
deeper in color than the center, at times becoming greenish or 
black. Intermingled with these spots are flecks of black and 
baryta-yellow. Toward the margins the baryta-yellow flecks 
tend to unite into irregular, radial lines, sometimes in pairs, 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND & O'DONOGHVE—NEW SPECIES CORAMBE g 

but usually single. Occasionally a series of irregular, longi- 
tudinal lines is developed in the median region. The foot is 
of clear gray, with a narrow, white, marginal line. Its central 
and posterior region is occupied by a vaguely defined, darker, 
greenish area, due to the denser viscera showing through the 
integument. The branchial plumes are transparent gray with 
a few scattered flecks of garnet upon them. The young forms 
have no color pattern, but are a pale, almost transparent gray, 
with the black eye spots clearly showing. 

Notaeum : The notaeum is very thick, slightly less so in the 
median area than at the sides. In general, its surface is 
smooth, or slightly roughened, the color markings exaggerat- 
ing the impression of a tuberculate surface. The low, cuboidal 
epithelium of the dorsal surface secretes a thick, cuticular 
layer, which shows distinct stratification in sections. Its thick- 
ness varies markedly in different specimens, sometimes being 
merely a moderate layer (Fig. 4), in others presenting a 
thickness six to 10 times the height of the cells producing it 
(Fig. 3). Without doubt the dorsal cuticle of the notaeum is 
periodically shed as a continuous sheet, and renewed, lines of 
cleavage parallel to the surface being shown in sections, and 
the detached, entire cuticle is frequently found in the aqua- 
riums, while animals still covered with the partially free cuti- 
cle are not uncommon. This phenomenon was also noted by 
Fischer (1891) in C. testudinaria, and appears to be without 
a parallel in other nudibranchs. Imbedded in this cuticular 
layer are abundant, conical, spine-like structures, in sections 
staining more strongly than the surrounding cuticle, and more 
resistant than it. These are the products of special, large, 
epithelial cells, occurring at intervals in the epidermis, each 
one of which secretes above it this cuticular modification. In 
those cases in which the general cuticle is but thin, these spines 
project freely above the surface, giving it a minutely rough- 
ened texture. Where the cuticle has become much thickened, 
two or three such spines may be seen in sections, one above 
the other, the lowermost and smallest resting upon the cell 
which has produced the series, the superimposed ones elevated 
above it in the order of their formation, and being cast off by 
the successive moultings of the cuticle, probably associated 
with growth periods (Fig. 3). A similar structure has been 



IQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

described by MacFarland (1918) for the palatal spines of a 
Tectibranch, Dolahella agassizii MacF. Toward the margin of 
the notseum these spines are increased in number, and are 
often closely crowded, while toward the central areas they are 
less numerous. Scattered among the cuticle-secreting cells are 
numerous, giant, mucous cells, the pear-shaped cell-body lying 
below the general epithelium and prolonged as a duct to its 
surface, from whence it is continued by a slender canal 
through the thickness of the cuticle. 

The wide notaeum margin conceals the head entirely. The 
angles of the latter are prolonged into short, blunt tentacles 
somewhat triangular in form. The tips of these tentacles may 
project beyond the notseum margin when the animal is crawl- 
ing freely, or may be entirely concealed. The same is true of 
the tips of the gills at the posterior end. 

The rhinophores (Fig. 2) are retractile within low, entire 
sheaths. The axis of the rhinophore is prolonged into a taper- 
ing, blunt tip, and bears two pairs of revolute lamellae. The 
outer pair of these (o) are united into a sheath-like structure, 
fused in front lengthwise to the greater portion of the stalk, 
being free only at the upper one-fourth, there encircling the 
rhinophore in a collar-like form, the margins curving down- 
ward around to the posterior face of the stalk, where they 
terminate a short distance apart. Within this outer invest- 
ment the second pair of laminae (i) are inclosed. Each arises 
from the side of the stalk as a thin plate curving backward, 
united below with the stalk, and their free, posterior margins 
terminate above those of the outer pair. In the median line, 
behind, a single, thin, keel-like ridge extends from near the 
tip of the rhinophore downward, dying away as the stalk of 
the latter enlarges toward the bottom of the inner, lateral pair 
of lamellae. Since these laminae are attached to the stalk of 
the rhinophore, are retracted with it, and bear the same rela- 
tion to it as the plates of the common, perfoliate clavus of the 
nudibranch rhinophore, they cannot be termed sheaths, that 
designation being restricted to the elevated margin of the 
opening of the notaeum, into which the rhinophore is with- 
drawn. This misuse of terms is committed by Bergh (1871, 
1892), and also by Fischer (1891). 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND & O'DONOGHUE—NEW SPECIES CORAMBE l\ 

Branchiae: The branchiae (Fig. 5) are located at the pos- 
terior end of the body, attached to the under surface of the 
notaeum above the foot, and arranged symmetrically in a sin- 
gle, horizontal row on either side of the anus, and usually 
united above it by a single plume. They vary in number on 
each side up to 12 or 14 in the largest individuals. They are 
simply pinnate plumes consisting of a flattened, tapering axis, 
upon either side of which is borne a series of oppositely ar- 
ranged, respiratory lamellae, varying in number up to 20. In 
the smallest, most anterior gills the plates are reduced to one 
or two, or the whole organ may be represented by the rhachis 
alone as a slight projection from the body wall. The branchiae 
increase progressively in length and in the number of lamel- 
lae toward the posterior end of the animal, the largest being 
usually the pair adjacent to the anal opening, or the second or 
third pair from it. The series extends forward not more than 
one-third of the length of the foot. In a specimen of 6.8 mm. 
body length the length of the plumes ranged from 0.25 mm. 
for the shortest to 0.95 mm. for the longest, which were the 
third pair from the posterior end of the series. In these last 
the lamellae reached 20 in number. In Corambe testudinaria, 
as described by Fischer, the number of branchiae is fewer, four 
to seven, and the number of lamellae on each side of the 
rhachis is much fewer (up to four). The lamellae are also 
arranged alternately upon the sides of the stalk, whereas in the 
present species they are opposite. The most anterior gill is 
stated by Fischer to be located nearly midway of the body 
length, which is decidedly farther forward than in our species, 
despite the greater number of plumes present in the latter. 
The tips of the posterior gills are visible at times beyond the 
notaeum margin, but ordinarily they are concealed, save below 
the median notch. A kind of respiratory movement has been 
noted in animals under observation in aquariums. The pos- 
terior end of the mantle is raised well away from the sub- 
stratum and the gills protruded to their fullest extent at ir- 
regular intervals. This reaction occurs more frequently when 
the water has been standing for some time. Movement of 
minute particles suspended in the water indicate a strong cur- 
rent laterally toward the sides of the body, beneath the no- 

January 29, 1929 



12 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

taeum margin, and backward past the gills and through the 
elevated, median, dorsal notseum notch. 

Bergh (1871) describes and figures in his Figs. 23 and 24 
of Plate XI and Fig. 1 of Plate XII for Corambe sargassicola 
Bgh., an entirely different type of gill, made up on either side 
of a group of thin, horizontal lamellae, 13 to 15 in number, 
obscurely arranged in an upper, wider and longer, and a 
lower, narrower and shorter set. No intimation of a pinnate 
arrangement is given, though later (1892, p. 165-166) he in- 
dicates this as a generic character, evidently following the 
more reliable observations of Fischer. 

Just above the line of insertion of the branchiae is a series 
of simple, alveolar glands, most of which alternate in position 
with the insertion of the gill stalks (Fig. 5, g). They are 
spherical in form, and are composed of large, clear, pyramidal 
cells extending from the basement membrane almost to the 
opening of the gland, leaving but a small lumen (Fig. 6). 
Each gland opens to the external surface through a very short 
and narrow duct near the base of the gill. No trace of the 
single, branched, median gland, described and illustrated by 
Fischer, is here present, though it is probably represented by 
this series of simple glands coextensive with the branchial in- 
sertion. When floating at the surface, the animal produces a 
very abundant, mucous secretion. Structurally, these glands 
appear to be of a mucous nature, but whether they contribute 
largely to this film of secretion or not has not been determined. 
As a rule such secretions are produced by the pedal glands to 
aid in adhesion or floating. 

Alimentary tract. The mouth is revealed in ventral view by 
the triangular notch in the anterior margin of the foot. The 
external lips are rather thick and glandular, and lead into a 
short, oral tube, the cuticle of which is but slightly thickened. 
The inner lips, surrounding the opening into the cavity of the 
pharyngeal bulb, are but slightly developed and show a moder- 
ate thickening of the cuticle on the sides, and ventrally extend- 
ing into the bulb. No clearly differentiated, lateral plates, 
such as are described by Bergh (1892), can be made out. The 
pharyngeal bulb (PI. 3, fig, 11) bears a thick-walled, muscular 
crop (c) above, such as is characteristic for the Goniodorid- 
idse. The posterior part of the radula sack forms a prominent 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND & O'DONOGHUE—NEW SPECIES CORAMBE 13 

median ridge {r. s.) upon the hinder face of the bulb. The 
radula is very small, attaining a length of but 0.25 mm. in a 
large specimen. Its dorsal surface is deeply grooved longi- 
tudinally in the median line. There are from 38 to 40 trans- 
verse rows of teeth present in large specimens. The half rows 
are not exactly opposite each other in the two sides of the 
radula, which, together with the minute size of the elements, 
renders the count of the rows difficult and often uncertain. 
The dental formula for the older part of the radula is 4+1+ 
0+1+4, in the younger portion, in the sheath, the laterals are 
frequently increased by one, giving a formula of 5+1+0 
+ 1+5. The rhachis is very narrow and destitute of median 
teeth, the innermost lateral (Figs. 15, 16) is relatively large 
and quite different from the remaining ones. In form it 
somewhat resembles that of A cant hod oris. From a roughly 
quadrilateral, compressed, basal portion a strong, somewhat 
curved hook arises at the anterior, upper angle. The hook is 
nearly equal to the base in height, is directed obliquely inward 
and backward, and is terminated by a blunt point. On the 
lower half of its inner margin is borne a series of four to 
seven pointed denticles. From the upper half of the inner 
face of the base a narrow, recurved, wing-like extension (Fig. 
16, w) projects downward, curving beneath the base as a ridge 
across to the opposite side. The posterior margin of the base 
is thickened, and its outer, upper angle (Fig. 15, a) forms a 
low, compressed, triangular hook, pointed backward. From 
the oldest, most anterior teeth of the radula backward, there 
is a steady increase in the dimensions of the teeth, but the rel- 
ative proportions remain about the same. In an average first 
lateral tooth the total height from insertion line on the base- 
ment membrane to the tip of the hook is 0.09 mm., while the 
height of the hook itself is 0.04 mm., and the greatest length 
of the base is 0.05 mm. The outer, lateral teeth, four to five 
in number (Figs. 12, 13, 14), consist of a rounded base, which 
is prolonged obliquely upward and backward as a simple, 
tapering, pointed hook, triangular in outline and rounded 
above, and below supported by a lamina, which dies away be- 
fore the tip is reached. The outer laterals tend progressively 
to be more and more compressed, and the fifth, when present, 
is usually reduced to a small, flattened plate. In length in an 



14 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

average row the second lateral measures 0.03 mm., the third 
0.026 mm., the fourth 0.025 mm., the fifth 0.022 mm., and the 
outermost 0.012 mm. 

The single pair of salivary glands form a compactly 
rounded mass lying upon the upper face of the pharyngeal 
bulb, at either side of the beginning of the oesophagus. They 
are alveolar in type, but slightly branched, and are composed 
of large cells, which leave but a small, irregular lumen, leading 
by a rather wide duct into the cavity of the bulb, lateral to the 
radula. Their staining character and general cytological 
structure indicate that the secretion is predominatingly mucous 
in nature. 

The strikingly thin-walled oesophagus, lined with ciliated, 
columnar epithelium throughout its extent, leads directly 
downward and backward to the anterior end of the stomach. 
Into it open at once the very wide, biliary passages of the 
liver. These are five in number, an anterior and a posterior 
lateral pair, and a single, posterior, median one, which bifur- 
cates into the posterior lobe of the liver. This organ presents 
a ventral, median, undivided portion from which project five 
lobes, an anterior and posterior one on either side, and a sin- 
gle, median, posterior one, which last shows a median, pos- 
terior notch externally, corresponding with the subdivision of 
its inner cavity. The right, anterior, paired lobe is quite 
small, its space being largely occupied by the anterior, genital 
complex, against the posterior face of which it extends as a 
narrow strip. Its fellow on the opposite side is large, nearly 
equalling the whole of the anterior genital mass in size. The 
posterior, lateral pair is likewise large and well developed. 
The walls of the liver are composed of a single layer of cu- 
boidal, granular cells lining the roomy lumen of the gland and 
the numerous short and wide sacculations opening into it. 
This cavity is strikingly large, with relatively simple ramifica- 
tions, and communicates widely with the cavity of the stom- 
ach, so freely in fact, that it is difficult to fix the boundaries of 
the anterior portion of the stomach, its contents passing 
readily into the cavity of the liver, where the main, digestive 
changes probably take place. What gives solidity and com- 
pactness of appearance externally to the organ, in fact, is the 
thick layer of the ovotestis, which invests the dorsal and lat- 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND & 0'DONOGHUE~NEW SPECIES CORAMBE J 5 

eral faces of the liver completely. Divested of this covering, 
the liver would present five, slightly ramified, broad and ir- 
regular tubes, resembling more the branched arrangement of 
the Aeolids rather than the compact liver of the Dorids. The 
median, dorsal surface of the ovotestis-liver mass is occupied 
by a wide depression passing its full length, in which are con- 
tained the stomach and intestine, the heart and pericardium, 
and the kidney. No "biliary cyst" can be distinguished. 

Between the adjacent liver lobes well developed, muscular 
septa unite the notseum and the foot and extend from the 
lateral body wall inward as far as the cleft between the lobes 
permits. Similar incomplete partitions are also found ex- 
tending obliquely inward between the sides of the pharyngeal 
bulb and the liver on the left, and the anterior, genital complex 
on the right. 

Dorsally, the stomach is clearly marked off, appearing as a 
retort-shaped sack, broadest at the left of the median line and 
narrowing into the rather slender intestine as it curves to the 
right, thence passing straight backward to the anus in the pos- 
terior, median line. Its wall is made up of cuboidal, ciliated 
cells, surrounded by a layer of circular muscle fibres and con- 
nective tissue. The epithelium of the intestine is the same, but 
its layer of muscle is very thin, and at times apparently absent. 
At the anus, however, the circular muscle is thickened into a 
well-developed sphincter, as noted by Fischer (1891). 

The anal opening is situated in the median line of the body 
at the posterior end, immediately below the notch in the 
notaeum. Close by, at the right and slightly above it, is the 
minute opening of the renal organ. Neither structure is con- 
spicuous externally. 

Nervous System: Close behind the salivary glands is the 
central, nervous system. The ellipsoidal, cerebral ganglia 
(Pis. 2, 3, figs. 8, 10, c), the largest of the group, are in contact 
along their inner faces, but are not fused, being connected by a 
distinct, broad, cerebral commissure above the oesophagus. Be- 
low the latter they are also connected by a delicate, sub-ceso- 
phageal commissure, recognizable in sections. From the an- 
terior portion of the cerebral ganglia are given off the nerves 
to the rhinophores and the eyes, each bearing an elliptical 
ganglion close to its origin (Figs. 8, 10, c.i, c.2), and three 



15 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

other pairs (Figs. 8, 10, c.^, c.4, c.§) to the buccal tentacles, 
and the mouth and head region. From the fifth of these, as a 
basal branch, or very close to its origin, is given off the cere- 
bro-buccal connective, which passes beneath the oesophagus to 
the buccal ganglion (Fig. 10 c.b.c, b). The optic nerves are 
rather short, the eyes small and deeply buried below the in- 
tegument, behind and medial to the rhinophores. The nearly 
spherical statocysts lie close in the outer angle between the 
cerebral and pedal ganglia. They measure ca. 0.03 mm. in 
diameter, and contain many ellipsoidal statoliths, 0.002 mm. 
by 0.003 mm. in diameter. Lateral to the oesophagus are the 
spherical, pedal ganglia (Figs. 8, 9, 10, p), second in size to 
the cerebral pair, and joined to them by short, cerebro-pedal 
connectives (Fig. 10, c.p.c). The pedal ganglia are united 
below the oesophagus by the usual, well developed, pedal com- 
missure (Fig. 9, p. c), and also by a distinct, more slender, 
parapedal commissure (Fig. 9, pp. c) separated some distance 
from the main, pedal one. These commissures are very much 
shorter than those figured by Fischer (1891) for C. testudi- 
naria. From the pedal ganglia are given off the stout, an- 
terior, median, and posterior pedal nerves, distributed to the 
corresponding regions of the foot, the latter two either arising 
separately, or from a common stalk, which soon bifurcates. 

Immediately behind the cerebral ganglia and slightly below 
them are the distinct pleural ganglia (Figs. 8, 9, 10), 
united with the cerebral and pedal ganglia by the cerebro- 
pleural and pleuro-pedal connectives respectively (Fig. 10, 
c-pl. c, pl.-p. c). As a rule in the Nudibranchiata the pleural 
ganglia are fused more or less completely with the cerebral 
pair, there being varying degrees to which this fusion is indi- 
cated externally. In Corambe testndinaria Fischer (1891), 
figures (1. c. Figs. 20, 21, 22) the cerebral and pleural (pleuro- 
palleal) ganglia as fused in a common, supra-oesophageal com- 
plex, as indicated by an external, transverse groove, and by 
the cerebro-pedal and pleuro-pedal connectives, arising from 
the fused, ganglionic mass. In the present species, however, 
the separation of the pleural from the cerebral ganglia is 
equally clear and unmistakable. This difference in such fun- 
damental structures in two allied species of the same genus is 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND & O'DONOGHUE—NEW SPECIES CORAMBE J 7 

very remarkable, and appears without a parallel, so far as we 
are aware, in the Nudibranch literature. 

Uniting the pleural ganglia below the oesophagus is the vis- 
ceral loop (Figs. 8, 9, V. c), bearing a ganglionic enlargement 
a short distance from its right end, which gives rise to a single 
nerve, dividing into a stronger, right and a more slender, left 
branch. The left one bears two small ganglia at a short in 
terval apart, from each of which fine nerves arise and pass 
backward to the viscera. The right nerve breaks up into a 
number of fine rami, which apparently pass mainly to the 
reproductive organs. From the pleural ganglia themselves 
anterior and posterior nerves arise. On the left side the pos- 
terior, pleural nerve is usually single, on the right it arises as 
either two, separate roots (Figs. 8, 10, pi. 2, pi. 2a, pi. 2b), or 
as a single one (Fig. 9). The one on the right side sends an 
anastomosing branch at once to the anterior, pleural nerve 
(Figs. 8, 9, pi. /). The anterior pleural nerve arises on the 
left side from the cerebro-pleural connective (Fig. 10, pi i), 
close to its union with the pleural ganglion usually, but re- 
ceiving fibres from both cerebral and pleural ganglia. In some 
cases, as in Fig. 9, it may be given off from the ganglion di- 
rectly. It divides at once into two branches which pass to the 
dorsum. 

Excretory System : The kidney consists of a roomy, thin- 
walled sack, mainly lying below the heart, and above the ovo- 
testis and liver. The semi-diagrammatic Fig. 17 of Plate 3 
represents the reno-pericardial system in outline, in its relation 
to the posterior portion of the body, as seen in longitudinal 
section. In its maximum width it extends across the full 
diameter of the visceral cavity. Anteriorly it narrows abruptly 
to about one-fourth of its greatest width, and is prolonged 
forward, slightly to the left of the median line, to a point ap- 
proximately opposite the middle of the anterior, genital com- 
plex, where it terminates in an irregular, blunt tip. Below, in 
the region of its greatest width, it sends a keel-like prolonga- 
tion downward (Fig. 17, v) into the dorsal, median furrow of 
the ovo-testis. The surface of its wall is simple and smooth, 
save for a small number of low, lateral and dorsal folds, 
which appear in front of the cardiac region. Its lining epi- 
thelium is made up of clear, cuboidal to columnar cells with 



18 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

basal nuclei. The renal syrinx (Fig. 17, s) is relatively large 
and is cylindrical in form. It opens through the pericardial 
floor at the right of the median plane, below the ventricle of 
the heart, is directed downward, backward, and to the right, 
narrowing into the slender, reno-pericardial tube (Fig. 17, 
r.p. t), which recurves in a loop at the right of the median, 
ventral lobe of the kidney to pass forward in contact with its 
right ventral wall, opening into its anterior prolongation well 
in front of the pericardium, and a short distance behind the 
pharyngeal bulb. The syrinx is lined with clear, cuboidal 
cells bearing very long cilia. Posteriorly, the wider portion of 
the kidney-sack narrows abruptly into a short, narrow, renal 
tube which opens externally (Fig. 17, r) above, and slightly 
to the right of the anus (Fig. 17, a; Fig. 5). The kidney dif- 
fers from that of C. testudhiaria as described by Fischer 
(1891), chiefly in its somewhat different outline, the local 
folds in the renal epithelium, and in the ventro-anterior, rather 
than anterior opening of the reno-pericardial tube into the 
renal sack. 

Reproductive System: The ovotestis, in a mature indi- 
vidual, forms a thick covering completely concealing the 
dorsal and lateral surfaces of the liver, its main lobes cor- 
responding in number and outline to those of the latter organ. 
From each lobe a branch of the hermaphroditic duct arises by 
the union of several tributaries from the follicles of the ovo- 
testis. These unite dorsally into the main duct near the 
median line, which passes forward to the inner face of the 
anterior, genital complex, made up of the nidamental or 
mucus, and albumen glands and the related ducts. This com- 
plex occupies the right, anterior quadrant of the body cavity. 
It is trapeziform in shape, as seen from above; its outer, 
longer face is convex, conforming to the contour of the body 
wall ; its inner face, one-half as long, is flattened against the 
left, anterior lobe of the liver-ovotestis below; its posterior 
face is directed obliquely outward and backward in close contact 
with the almost rudimentary right, anterior lobe of the liver- 
ovotestis ; while the anterior face slopes obliquely forward and 
outward in contact with the vaginal duct and penis. Upon the 
anterior, inner face the slender, hermaphroditic duct dilates 
into the ellipsoidal hermaphroditic ampulla, from the upper 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAND &■ O'DONOGHUE—NEW SPECIES CORAMBE \() 



• 



extremity of which a short duct continues into the cavity of 
the albumen gland, giving off at right angles the vas deferens. 
The latter has a thick, glandular wall, loops downward around 
the hermaphroditic ampulla upon the median face of the com- 
plex to its dorsal border, thence describes a free loop obliquely 
backward in front of the stomach, returning in a series of 
close turns, caused by the varying tension of the retractor 
muscle of the penis, which is inserted upon it immediately at 
the right of the central nervous system. The penis extends 
obliquely forward close to the right of the pharyngeal bulb 
in front of and parallel with the vaginal duct and the duct of 
the nidamental-albumen gland complex, to its external open- 
ing far forward on the right side of the body near the head. 
In its retracted condition this organ is made up of an eversible 
preputium, a rather thin-walled, muscular sack, at the bottom 
of which arises the glans penis. In its everted position, as 
shown in Fig. 7, p of Plate 2, it extends from the external 
opening as a cylindrical structure, terminated by the bluntly 
conical glans {g), and usually showing a few slight, circular 
rugas, while near the base of the glans proper is frequently 
found a more prominent ring-like thickening. The organ is 
entirely unarmed. 

Immediately behind the external opening of the penis sack is 
the vaginal orifice, and slightly below it is that of the duct 
from the accessory glands. The vagina (Fig. 7, v) passes in- 
ward along the upper and medial border of the genital mass, 
curves outward and describes a loop upon its upper, posterior 
face, recurving to the median plane, where it opens into the 
thin-walled, ovoid spermatotheca (Fig 7, s). Near its en- 
trance the much more slender, vaginal duct (Fig. 7, vag. d) 
emerges, passes forward in a short, straight course, receives 
the duct of the quite small, ovoid spermatocyst (Fig. 7 s. c), 
and passes into the interior of the accessory gland complex, 
opening into the irregular lumen of the albumen gland close to 
the entrance of the oviduct. The cavity of the nidamental 
gland is relatively roomy and simple, is connected by a short, 
ciliated passage with the albumen gland lumen, and opens ex- 
ternally by a wide, short duct, which parallels the penis and 
vagina, its separate opening being slightly below them. 
Fischer (1891) was unable to find a spermatocyst in C. testu- y- 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



• 



dinaria, but, with this exception, our results as to the general 
organization of the reproductive system are in agreement. 
The nidosomes are common upon the Memhranipora colonies 
and the adjacent surface of the kelp. Each consists of a nar- 
row, somewhat flattened band coiled in a close spiral of from 
one to three turns, attached by one margin. Each nidosome 
contains from 500 to 1500 capsules, and each capsule contains 
but a single tgg. The larger the animal the more capsules 
there are in the nidosome. It is not known whether one ani- 
mal can lay more than one nidosome at a time or in a season. 

Blood gland : Immediately behind the pharyngeal bulb, in 
contact with the central, nervous system, is located the blood 
gland, resting on the oesophagus. It is discoidal, nearly circu- 
lar in outline, with quite fine lobulations. 

The anatomy of the heart and the vascular system does not 
appear to differ materially from that described for Corambe 
testudinaria Fischer by that author, and hence need not be re- 
peated here. 

The following comparative tabulation indicates the most 
significant differences between our species and that of Fischer : 

Corambe testudinaria Fischer . Corambe pacifica MacF. & O'D. 

Maximum size 4 mm. long, 3.5 mm. Maximum size 13.0 mm. long, 10.0 mm. 

wide. wide. 

Branchiae 4 to 7 on each side, the most Branchiae up to 14 on each side, the 

anterior situated midway of body most anterior situated at 1 /3 of body 

length in large specimen. length from posterior end. 

Branchial lamellae few, up to 4 in num- Branchial lamellae up to 20 in number, 

ber, alternate on shaft of gill. opposite on shaft of gill. 

A single, posterior, branched, median A series of simple, alveolar glands at 

gland opening externally above renal bases of gill plumes. 

pore. Radula 35-40 X (4-5 + 1+0 + 1 + 

Radula 30-35 X (4 + 1+0 + 1+4) 4-5) 

A median, cuticular plate in front of Absent. General cuticular thickening 

radula. only. 

Liver tri-lobed. Liver five-lobed. 

Cerebral and pleural ganglia fused. Cerebral and pleural ganglia separate. 

No spermatocyst. Spermatocyst present. 



Vol. XVIII] MACFARLAXD & O'DOSOGHUE—NEIV SPECIES CORAMBE £1 /Oo 



LITERATURE 



Adams, Arthur, 1847. Notes on certain Molluscous Animals. <Proc. Zool. ' 

Soc. London, pp. 23-24 
Balch, F. E., 1899. List of Marine Mollusca of Cold Spring Harbor, Long 

Island, with Descriptions of one new Genus and two new Species 

of Nudibranchs. <Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 29, 7, pp. 

151-153, PI. I, Figs. 12-15. 
Bergh, R., 1869. Bidrag til en Monographi af Phyllidierne. <Naturhistorisk 

Tidsskrift, 3 R. V B. p. 359. 

1871. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Mollusken des vSargasso- 

meeres. <Verh. d. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. in Wien. XXL 

pp. 1293-1297, Taf. XL Fig. 21-27, TaL XH, Fig. 1-11. 

1892. System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden. < Semper 's 

Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen, Wissenschaftliche Resultate. 

Malacologische Untersuchungen, HI, 18, pp. 166-169. 
Fischer, H., 1889. Note preliminaire sur le Corambe testudinaria. <Bull. 

Soc. Zool. de France, 14, 10, pp. 379-381. 

1891. Sur r Anatomic du Corambe testudinaria. <Comptes 

Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris. CXH, pp. 304-307. 

1891. Recherches anatomiques sur un MoUusque appartenant 

au Genre Corambe. <Bull. Sci. de la France et de la Belgique. 

XXin, 2 (Ser. 4, Vol. 2), pp. 358-398, PI. IX-XH. 

1896. Note sur la distribution du Genre Corambe. <Journ. 

ConchyL XLHI, p. 235-236. 
Fischer, P., 1883. Manuel de ConchyHologie, Fasc. VI, Dec. 20, 1883, p. 530. 

1888. Note sur la presence du Genre Corambe dans la bassin 

d'Arcachon (Gironde). <Buh. Soc. Zool. France. T. 13, No. 9, 

pp. 215-216. 
Kerbert, C, 1886. Over het Geslacht Corambe, Bergh. <Tijdschrift der Ne- 

derlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging, 2 Ser., D. 1, Afi. 2, pp. 3-6. 

(Abstract in Bull. Sci. du Nord, 2 Ser., 9, 1886, pp. 136-138.) 
MacFarland, F. M., 1918. Sci. Results Exp. to the Tropical Pacific, XIX, 

The Dolabellina;. < Memoirs Museum Comp. Zool. Harvard. 

XXV, 5, pp. 319-321, PI. 9, Figs. 1-8. 
O'Donoghue, C. H., 1926. Observations on the early Development of Mem- 

branipora villosa Hincks. <Contrib. Canadian Biology and 

Fisheries, N. S. Ill, 8, p. 12. 
Vayssiere, A., 1901. Etude comparee des Opistobranches des Cotes Francaises 

de rOcean Atlantique et de la Manche avec ceux de nos Cotes 

Mediterraneennes. <Bull. Sci. France et Belgique, XXXIV, p. 

296. 

1903. Mollusques de France et des regions voisines. Paris^ 

I, p. 363. 
Verrill, A. E., 1870. Descriptions of some New England Nudibranchiata. 

<Amer. Jour. Science and Arts, Ser. II, 50, p. 408, Figs. 2, 3. 

1882. Catalogue of Marine Mollusca added to the fauna of the 

New England Region during the past ten years. < Trans. Con- 
necticut Acad. Sci. V, 2, p. 547, Fig. 5. 
Verrill, A. E. 8z Smith, S. I., 1873. Report upon the Invertebrate Animals of 

Vineyard Sound and the adjacent waters. <Report U. S. Com. 

Fish and Fisheries, 1871-72, Washington, p. 664. 

January 29, 1929 



9? CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Dorsal view of large, living Corambe pacifica IMacF. Sz O'D. X5. 

Fig. 2. Rhinophore from behind, o, outer lamina, /, inner lamina. X35. 

Fig. 3. Transverse section of epidermis and cuticle of notaeum. The cuboidal 
epithelium below secretes a thick cuticle, which is periodically 
shed, becoming split off by a cleft parallel to the epithelial layer. 
Large, special cells of the epithelium produce blunt, conical spines 
in succession, three generations of such spines being seen in the 
figure. X800. 

Fig. 4. Transverse section of epithelium of not^eum from near the margin. 
The cuticle is much thinner than in Fig. 3, it having been shed 
more recently. Three cuticular spines and a large, unicellular 
gland are shown. X800. 

Fig. 5. Posterior end of animal, as seen from the ventral aspect. The foot 
has been removed by a cut through the body wall above it, along 
the curved lines uniting a — a. The branchial plumes are seen in 
place, the ventral surface of the notaeum margin, with the 
median, posterior notch, lying behind them. A single, median 
plume, just above the anal opening, and ten lateral ones on either 
side are present. At the bases of the branchite the series of alveo- 
lar glands, g, shows through the integument. The intestine 
and renal sack open externally near the median line. X28. 

Fig. 6. Section of alveolar gland, situated at the base of the branchial plumes. 
X590. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVMI, No. 1 [ MACFARLAND AND O'DONOGHUE] Plate 1 






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24 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES L Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 2 

Fig. 7. Portion of Reproductive System, v. d, Distal part of vas deferens, 
extending into the everted preputium, through the wall of which 
its terminal portion is faintly seen. The everted preputium. 
tipped by the conical glans, g, forms the penis, p. Close to the 
right of the base of the penis is the external opening of the vagina, 
V, which leads inward to the spermatotheca, s; the short and 
narrow vaginal duct, vag. d, continues on into the accessory gland 
complex, and receives the duct of the spermatocyst, s. c, close to 
its entrance. X16. 

Fig. 8. Central Nervous System in dorsal view, c, Cerebral ganglia; c. 1. 
rhinophore ganglion and nerve; c. 2, optic ganglion, optic nerve, 
and eye; c. 3, c. 4, c. 5, nerves to buccal tentacles and mouth re- 
gion; p, pedal ganglia; pi, pleural ganglia, distinctly separate from 
the cerebral pair, to which they are joined by the cerebro-pleural 
connective, c-pl. c; pi. 1, first, pleural nerve, pi. 2, second, pleural 
nerve of left side; pi. 2a, pi. 2b, rami of second, pleural nerve of 
right side; v. c, visceral commissure, imiting the pleural ganglia 
below the oesophagus. X122. 

Fig. 9. Postero-ventral view of Central Nervous System, the severed 
oesophagus, o, being left in place, p. c, pedal commissure, pp. c , 
parapedal commissure, the other abbreviations as in Fig. 8. In 
this dissection the first, pleural nerve of the left side, pi. 1, 
arises directly from the ganglion, and not from the cerebro- 
pleural connective, as in Fig. 8, while on the right side the 
second, pleural nerve arises from a single root, dividing at once 
into pi. 2a, and pi. 2b, with anastomosing branches to pi. 1, as in 
Fig. 8. X122. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVlll, No. 1 [MACFARLAND AND O'DONCGHUE] Plate 2 



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25 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 3 

Fig. 10. Central Nervous System from the left side, b, Buccal ganglia; 
c-b. c, cerebro-buccal connective; c-p. c, cerebro-pedal connective; 
c-pl. c, cerebro-pleural connective; pl-p. c, pleuro-pedal connec- 
tive. Other abbreviations as in Figs. 8 and 9. X 122. 

Fig. 11. Pharyngeal bulb in side view, m, mouth; o, cesophagus; c, muscular 
crop; r. s, radula sack. X24. 

Fig. 12. Third, lateral tooth from above. X580. 

Fig. 13. vSecond, lateral tooth from below. X580. 

Fig. 13. Second, lateral tooth from below. X580. 

Fig. 14.' Second (2) to fifth, lateral teeth of radula, obliquely from above. 
X580. 

Fig. 15. Outer faces of first, lateral teeth of two, successive rows of radula. 

a, Small hook at upper, posterior angle of base. X580. 

Fig. 16. Inner face of first, lateral tooth of radula. w, winglike, basal ridge. 
X580. 

Fig. 17. Diagram of renal organ in its relation to the pericardium, as seen in 
longitudinal, perspective view, w, notaeum, cut lengthwise in the 
median line, through the posterior, median notch on the left ; 

b. c, body cavity; a, anus; p, pericardium, containing the heart; 
.s, renal syrinx, opening into the pericardium below the ventricle 
of the heart, and narrowing distally into the reno-peri cardial 
tube, r.p.t, which loops forward to open into the anterior pro- 
longation of the kidney sack, k,Sit b; v, median, ventral extension 
of kidney sack; r, external, renal pore. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIIl, No. 1 [ MACFARLAND AND O'DONOGHUE] Plate 3 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 2, pp. 29-43, 6 text figures January 29,|1929 



II 

A NEW BIRD FAMILY (GEOSPIZID^) FROM THE 
GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 

BY 

HARRY S. SWARTH 
Curator, Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy 

The expedition that was sent by the California Academy of 
Sciences to the Galapagos Islands during 1905 and 1906, 
secured a collection of birds numbering over 8000 specimens. 
Gifford (1913) reported upon the species (mostly water birds) 
from the Columbiformes to the Pelecaniformes (as entered in 
Sharpe's "Hand-List of Birds"), while Loomis (1918) cov- 
ered the Tubinares of the expedition in his "Review of the 
albatrosses, petrels, and diving petrels." The remainder of 
the collection (nearly 6000 skins), comprising all of the land 
birds except the one species of pigeon, remained untouched 
until the middle of 1927, when I began their study. A large 
part of the land-bird population of the Galapagos is comprised 
in the "ground finches" of the genera Geospisa, Cactospisa, 
and Camarhynchns (with which must be included Pinaro- 
loxias, of Cocos Island), and the "creepers" (Certhidea), and 
of these there are more than 4000 specimens at hand. A pre- 
liminary survey of the collection sufficed to show that the ex- 
tensive series of specimens available would in many cases shed 
new light upon unsettled questions, and would probably neces- 
sitate the description of some new fonns. It became evident, 

January 29, 1929 



30 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

too, that there were specimens in the collection representing 
undescribed species that were of interest and importance be- 
yond that attaching to mere "newness" alone. The specimens 
referred to are unfortunately few in number, comprising four 
skins representing three different forms, but they are all so 
trenchantly different from any bird previously discovered 
upon the Galapagos that their peculiar features may be dis- 
cussed without considering the possibility of their representing 
some previously unknown phase of an already described 
species. 

As regards most of the slightly differentiated and hitherto 
unrecognized island races that for one reason or another it 
may seem desirable to distinguish by name, the publication of 
their descriptions can await completion of the entire study. 
But the appearance of the exceptional birds above referred to 
suggests some questions that it seems to me well to have stated 
at once, for discussion, and, on my part, for consequent cor- 
rection if I have read my facts wrongly. 

The two most conspicuous groups of Galapagos land birds, 
those most abundant in species and individuals, have of late 
years been generally referred to two continental families. The 
so-called "ground finches," referred to one genus (Geospica) 
or to several, according to the views of different students, are 
regarded (and always have been, heretofore) as belonging to 
the Fringillidae (finches), as, curiously enough, has been also 
the Cocos Island Pinaroloxias inornata. The "creepers" (Ccr- 
thidea), after tentative assignment to the Fringillidse and 
Coerebidas, have lately been regarded as belonging with the 
Mniotiltid^e (American wood warblers), largely as the result 
of studies by Lucas (1894) and Rid§-\vay (1902). 

My own conclusions are that the "ground finches" of the 
Galapagos Islands and Cocos Island (Geospiza, etc.) are not 
of the Fringillid^e, that the "creepers" (Certhidca) are not of 
the Mniotiltidae, but that these two groups are very closely 
related to each other (far more nearly than either is to any 
continental family), and that the two together should be re- 
garded as forming one family, a family that is confined to the 
Galapagos Archipelago and Cocos Island. This family will 
assume the name Geospizidas, after Gcospiza- (Gould, 1837, 
p. 5 ) , the first genus described in these groups. 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—GEOSPIZIDJE 3J 

This opinion is contrary to most of those previously held by 
others, but the facts now available all point so unreservedly in 
one direction that I feel no hesitation in arriving at the con- 
clusion expressed. The characters of the several newly dis- 
covered forms that are here given names supply so unequivo- 
cally just the evidence needed to corroborate certain tentative 
conclusions that can be arrived at from many features found 
in common among the diverse species of this group, as to 
make the joining of these species under one family name a 
course that it seems to me is well-nigh inevitable. 

The family Geospizidae can not be defined to entire satisfac- 
tion at present, but the group may be roughly characterized, 
on the basis of external features, as follows : An assemblage 
of Passerine forms of small and medium size (wing 48.0 to 
95.0 mm.). Wing rather short and rounded; tail rounded, 
much shorter than wing. Tarsus and toes long, outstretched 
feet extending beyond tip of tail. Rictal bristles obsolete. 
Bill extremely variable in relative length, depth, and width. 
Feathers on lower back and rump long, dense, and fluffy. 
Coloration unlike in adult male and female (except in Cac- 
tospiza and some forms of Certhidea), but with great vari- 
ability on different islands in the number of males of any given 
form that ever attain "adult" plumage. Color of bill varies 
seasonally and with age, being black or dusky in adults of both 
sexes during the breeding season, yellowish or otherwise light 
colored in adults at other seasons and in the young. Confined 
to the Galapagos Islands and Cocos Island. 

As a necessary preliminary to further discussion, names may 
here be given to the several newly discovered species to which 
reference is made. First, it will be seen that I am reviving 
here the name Cactospiza, proposed by Ridgway (1896, p. 
546) as a subgenus (type, Cactornis pallida Sclater & Salvin), 
but, as it seems to me, deserving of full generic recognition. 
The species of Cactospiza are distinguished by relatively long, 
slender bill, with the line of the gonys slightly convex. In the 
slender-billed species of Geospiza the line of the gonys is 
straight or slightly concave. Cactospisa is further dis- 
tinguished by having no black in the plumage in any stage, 
and in that the sexes are alike in every respect. In the other 
genera of Geospizidse the sexes are unlike in every case except 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

in some forms of Certhidea. The genus Cactospiza will in- 
clude pallida in its several subspecific forms, heliobates, and 
giffordi. 

Intergradation between Certhidea and Cactospiza is defi- 
nitely shown in Cactospiza giffordi, but Cactospiza can not be 
said to occupy middle ground between Certhidea and Cama- 
rhynchus. To place the species pallida, heliobates, and gif- 
fordi in the genus Carnarhynchus would, therefore, in the light 
of their recognized leaning toward Certhidea, give a false idea 
of relationships, an impression that can be avoided by the gen- 
eric segregation of these several forms. 



Cactospiza giffordi*, new species 

Type: Male adult, No. 7522, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., col- 
lected by E. W. Gifford (orig. No. 1900), January 18, 1906, on 
Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Characters: Evidently nearly related to the pallida^helio- 
bates group, but much smaller and with more slender bill than 
any other described form in that group. 

Description of type and only known specimen: In rather 
worn plumage. Above brownish, about as in the darker ex- 
amples of pallida, with an olivaceous tinge. Top of head 
slightly darker than dorsum. A poorly defined superciliary 
stripe of yellowish from nostril to posterior corner of eye. 
Sides of head dirty brownish ; a poorly defined grayish spot on 
lower eyelid. Remiges and rectrices dusky, with narrow 
edgings of greenish olive; under wing coverts strongly tinged 
with yellow. Under parts of body and lower tail coverts plain, 
unstreaked; whitish, strongly tinged with yellow. Sides of 
breast and flanks grayish brown. On chin and throat irregu- 
lar flecks of the tawny color characteristic of the throat color 
in species of Certhidea. Bill black; feet dusky. "Testicles 
very large" (collector's notation on label). For measurements 
see table, page 42. 

•Named for Edward Winslow Gifford, Curator of the Anthropological Museum, 
University of California, who did a large proportion of the ornithological field work 
upon the California Academy of Sciences expedition of 1905-1906 to the Galapagos 
Islands, and who has published reports upon some of the birds collected. 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—GEOSPIZIDJE 33 

Camarhynchus conjunctus, new species 

Type: Male adult, No. 7713, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., col- 
lected by R. H. Beck, February 28, 1906, on Charles Island, 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

Characters: Intermediate in certain outstanding features 
between Camarhynchus and Certhidea. In measurements and 
in bulk lies between the maximum reached in Certhidea and 
the minimum in other species of Camarhynchus. The bill in 
particular is intermediate in shape and size between those of 
typical Certhidea and typical Camarhynchus. 

Description of type: In fresh, unworn plumage. Upper 
parts generally dull olive green, feathers of pileum with dusky 
centers, giving a blackish appearance to top of head. Sides of 
head like back; eyelids and faint superciliary line pale yellow- 
ish. Remiges and rectrices dusky, edged with olivaceous. 
Greater and middle wing coverts like back, narrowly edged 
with yellowish, producing two poorly defined wing bars. 
Below greenish yellow, paler than back. Sides of breast and 
flanks, and lower tail coverts, tinged with brownish ; middle of 
belly pale yellowish. Chin and throat indistinctly marked with 
tawny of the same shade as is characteristic of the throat 
patch in species of Certhidea. Feathers of throat and upper 
breast black-centered, producing a streaked appearance, the 
general effect of which is of poorly defined black lines sur- 
rounding a rather nebulous tawny throat patch. "Bill black; 
legs dark brown; testes large" (collector's notation on label). 

A second specimen, also an adult male, collected by Beck 
on the same day, is in rather more worn plumage. Color of 
upper parts is about as in the type, but below it is paler 
colored, more whitish and with less of the greenish hue. The 
black streaks on the breast are obscurely indicated, and the 
tawny on the throat is washed out and but faintly discernible. 
The rufous is more widespread than on the type, though, 
spreading to the sides of the head and invading even the super- 
ciliary line. "Bill black; iris dark brown; legs dark brown; 
testes large." For measurements see table, page 42. 



34 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

Camarhynchus aureus, new species 

Type: Male adult, No. 8121, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., col- 
lected by E. W. Gifford (orig. No. 1944), January 25, 1906, on 
Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Characters: Generally similar to Camarhynchus conjunctus 
but with slightly heavier bill and more uniform coloration. 

Description of type and only known specimen: In rather 
worn plumage. Upper parts faded, but evidently originally 
dull olive green. Remiges and rectrices dusky, narrowly 
edged with olivaceous. Closed wings, including coverts, uni- 
form with back. There are faint indications of light tips to 
the greater and middle wing coverts, and in fresh plumage 
there may have been discernible wing bars. Below, from bill 
to and including lower tail coverts, almost uniformly pale yel- 
low, broken only by a slightly mottled appearance on the 
breast, where the blackish bases of the feathers show through, 
and with sides of breast and flanks slightly darker. The yel- 
low of the under surface spreads over the sides of neck and 
face, over cheeks and ear coverts, to meet a broad yellow 
superciliary line that extends from bill and forehead back to a 
point well behind the eye. Bill blackish, with edges of upper 
and tip of lower mandible slightly paler. Feet and legs black- 
ish. For measurements see table, page 42. 

These two new forms from Charles and Chatham islands, 
conjunctus and aureus, appear to be closely related, and it 
might be that adequate series of the two would show plumage 
variation that would bring them even closer together than is 
indicated by the scanty material now available. The differ- 
ences apparent in the skins at hand, however, especially as two 
rather widely separated islands are represented, are such as to 
justify the present separation of the two forms. 

In these two puzzling species (conjunctus and aureus) re- 
semblance to Certhidea lies in general size and form and in 
certain peculiarities of markings. Resemblance to Camarhyn- 
chus appears in the more finch-like bill and in general colora- 
tion, which in conjunctus and aureus is very close to the un- 
streaked "immature" plumage of Camarhynchus prosthemelas. 
There may be significance in the fact that C. prosthemelas 



Vol. XVIII] 



SWARTH—GEOSPIZID^ 



35 



salvini from Chatham Island is strongly tinged with yellow, 
just as is the one specimen of C. aureus from that island. 

It is a debatable point as to whether conjunctus and aureus 
should not be segregated together in a separate genus. Such 
a genus would have to be based upon the combination of cer- 
tain characters, some of which in other species occur in 









Drawing by Mrs. Frieda Abernathy 

Species of Camarhynchus and Certhidea showing intergradation in bill 
structure between the two genera. Slightly larger than 
• natural size. 

A. Camarhynchus prosthemelas prosthemelas (No. 7756). 

B. Camarhynchus aureus (No. 8121). 

C. Camarhynchus conjunctus (No. 7713). 

D. Certhidea ridgwayi ? (No. 4862). 

E. Certhidea ridgwayi (No. 4643). 

F. Certhidea olivacea (No. 4538). 



Camarhynchus, some in Certhidea, and the genera already 
described in the Geospizidae are so nearly arbitrary in their 
nature that it seems to me undesirable to add another genus 
of uncertain definition. 

In Gould's (1837) first account of the Galapagos "finches," 
Geospiza is described as a new genus and Cactornis, Camar- 
hynchus, and Certhidea as subgenera under Geospiza, inferen- 
tially as of the Fringillidas, as they are spoken of collectively 
as "ground finches." Of Certhidea the comment is made (in 



^^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the third person, as written presumably by the secre- 
tary of the Society) "that although he confidently believed 
that it should also be referred to the same group with the 
three former, yet in its slighter form and weaker bill it has so 
much the appearance of a member of the Sylviadcu, that he 
would by no means insist upon the above view being adopted 
until the matter shall have been more fully investigated." 

Sclater & Salvin (1873, p. 16) placed Certhidea in the 
family Coerebidse, whence it was removed by Ridgway (1896), 
who, partly on the basis of anatomical studies by Lucas 
(1894), considered it as belonging to the MniotiltidcB, a con- 
viction that he (1902) has since repeated. Lucas found vari- 
ous points of difference between Certhidea and species of 
Coerebidse, but affinity with Mniotiltidae is founded mainly 
upon resemblances in the bones of the palatal region. 

Then Snodgrass (1903) published a most important paper, 
the results of careful comparative study of the anatomy of 
Geospisa, Cocornis (=Pinaroloxias) , and Certhidea, with 
descriptive matter and figures that merit careful scrutiny. His 
conclusions, reached through examination of the internal 
anatomy of these birds, are essentially the same as those to 
which I have been led by comparison of external features, but 
he did not push his argument to its logical outcome. His 
closing remarks on the structure of the skull read as follows : 
"All that the writer here intends is simply to call attention to 
the fact that there is a gradation in the skull characters of 
these three genera, progressing by almost equal steps from one 
extreme to the other. If any phylogenic theory can be based 
on this fact then the classification of the three genera accepted 
at present cannot be correct, for Certhidia is regarded as a 
member of the Mniotiltidae and Geospiza and Cocornis are 
placed in the Fringillidse. The Geospizce as birds have cer- 
tainly a most Fringillid appearance. The same, however, can- 
not be so positively asserted concerning the skull of even the 
least modified species." 

The alternatives, apparently regarded as inevitable, of 
placing these diverse groups either all in the Fringillidae or all 
in the Mniotiltidae, were so baffling as to cause Snodgrass to 
stop with the presentation of his really conclusive argument, 
and to refrain from proposing any change from the formerly 



Vol. XVIII] SfVARTH—GEOSPIZIDJE 37 

accepted but obviously false arrangement. I do not know that 
anyone has followed up the matter since. Sl 

Now as to externals. There are of course superficial fea-V 
tures in which Certhidea resembles species of Mniotiltidae and 
of Coerebidae; and the obvious dissimilarities between Certhidea 
and some forms of Geospiza and Camarhynchus are such as at 
first sight to render apparently ridiculous any assertion of 
close relationship between those groups. Let us see, however, 
what external features they have in common. Despite con- 
siderable differences in size, the largest Geospha at one ex- 
treme, Certhidea at the other, and the host of intermediate 
forms between, they are all very similar in proportions. They 
all have rather short, rounded wings, rather short tail, and 
long legs (toes in every case reaching beyond tip of tail in the 
prepared skin); Ridgway's (1901, 1902) diagnoses of the 
genera Geospiza, Camarhynchus, and Certhidea read surpris- 
ingly alike in describing the details of those parts. The pro- 
portions described, too, are not commonly found, if found at 
all, in the Mniotiltidse or in American species of Fringillidse. 
Then, there is a peculiar texture of plumage that is common 
to the several Galapagos forms, something well nigh impossi- 
ble to describe but obvious to any one handling specimens, and 
accompanying this there is a peculiarly thick growth of long, 
loose feathers on the lower back and rump of all the species 
concerned, such as I do not find at least in North American 
birds of the families to which they have been relegated. 

The color of the bill in Geospiza and related genera, and in 
Certhidea, sometimes black, sometimes light colored, has been 
described as an irresponsibly variable feature, not to be cor- 
related with anything else. Without going into details, which 
are voluminous and complicated, it may suffice here to say that 
the observed facts justify the conclusion that in all these birds, 
Geospiza and Certhidea alike, the bill in adults of both sexes 
is black during the breeding season, light colored at other 
seasons, and light colored in the young. 

In Geospiza a uniformly or nearly uniformly black plumage 
in the male, in Camarhynchus a black-headed plumage in the 
male, in Certhidea a chestnut-throated plumage in the male, 
are regarded as the most "perfect" or "fully mature" condi- 
tion of plumage. In each of these groups, taking any one 




38 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

form on the several islands on which it may occur, the "per- 
fect" plumage (black, black head, or chestnut throat, as the 
case may be) will be found in varying abundance on different 
islands, numerous (perhaps always present) on one, scarce on 
another, unknown on a third. This is a peculiar phenomenon 
that certainly seems like another link in the chain holding 
these diverse forms together. 

In some forms of Certhidea the juvenal plumage is plain 
colored and unmarked below, as in the adult, but in the young 
of Certhidea ridgwayi the lower parts are heavily streaked 
with dusky, just as in young of species of Camarhynchus. 

Nests and eggs of Certhidea have been described often with 
reservations that are significant in the light of the close rela- 
tionship that I believe is now demonstrated to exist between 
Certhidea and Caniarhynchus. Snodgrass & Heller (1904, p. 
349) make the following statement: "We shot a female of 
C. olivacea olivacea at Iguana Cove, Albemarle, from a nest 
containing three eggs. The nest was exactly like that of 
Geospisa fuliginosa and the eggs were identical in size and 
coloration with those of the same species. . . Hence, since 
we have no other examples we hesitate in ascribing this nest to 
Certhidea." There are other statements in literature (see 
Rothschild & Hartert, 1902, p. 385) likewise bearing evidence 
as to the similarity in nesting habits of the two groups of 
birds. Gifford (1919, p. 242) says of Pinaroloxias inornata: 
"This species combines the habits of a ground-feeding finch 
with those of a tree- feeding warbler." Pinaroloxias, further, 
combines the bill structure of Certhidea with the coloration of 
Geospisa. 

Now, added to these suggestive characters found in com- 
mon in Geospiza and Certhidea, comes the discovery of the 
several species above described, which appear to be connecting 
links between the two groups. It will be noted that, curiously, 
there are two separate points of contact between the "creepers" 
and the "ground finches." At one point, through Camarhyn- 
chus conjunctiis, there is what appears to be close connection 
between Certhidea and the group comprised in the black- 
headed Camarhynchus; at the second, through Cactospisa gif- 
fordi, connection between Certhidea and the plain colored 
species of Cactospiza. Camarhynchus conjunctus and C. au- 
reus in general appearance are closely similar to C. prosthe- 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—GEOSPIZIDJE 39 

melas, so much so that the type specimen of C. aureus was 
entered as prostheinelas in the field note book of the collector. 
Cactospiza giifordi, despite its small size, is obviously like C. 
pallida. Yet in conjunctus and giffordi both there is most un- 
expectedly displayed traces of the characteristically Certhidean 
cinnamon-tawny throat patch. As regards the type specimen 
of C. giffordi, it is suggestive that the note book of the col- 
lector, E. W. Gifford, contains the following comment: "I 
obtained one bird at about 350 feet elevation which seemed to 
be intermediate between Certhidea and Geospiza pallida. It 
was feeding like a Geospisa pallida on a branch of a tree." 

If further evidence in the shape of debatable specimens were 
needed it is found in a bird from Charles Island (No. 4862, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., female [immature?], May 29, 1906. 
See fig. D, p. 35. This specimen is like comparable examples 
of Certhidea ridgwayi of Charles Island in color and plumage, 
but the bill (not a variable feature in Certhidea) is larger than 
in that species, being as heavy as, and a little longer than, in 
Carnarhynchus conjunctus of the same island (see table of 
measurements). After careful study I do not know whether 
this bird is an example of Camarhynchu^ conjunctus (of 
which plumage stages and amount of variation are unknown) 
or of Certhidea ridgwayi. In other words, here is a specimen 
which I find myself unable to allocate, whether to the Fringil- 
lidae or the Mniotiltidae, as these families were formerly de- 
fined among Galapagos birds. 

Both Rothschild & Hartert (1899) and Snodgrass & Heller 
(1904) dissent from Ridgway's (1896, 1901) division of the 
"ground finches" into the several genera, Geospiza, Platyspiza, 
and Camarhynchus, claiming that intergradation of one sort 
or another necessitates the grouping of the whole aggregation 
under one generic name, Geospiza. The intermediates here 
described demonstrate further, pretty clearly it seems to me, 
the impossibility of drawing a line, or of expressing a clear 
definition of characters, dividing those genera from Certhidea. 
Logically, according to the standards adopted by the authors 
cited above as opposing Ridgway's treatment, all of these 
diverse forms, from the enormously large-billed Geospisa 
magnirostris down to the most delicate Certhidea, should be 
placed in the one genus, Geospiza. Furthermore, I believe 
that it would be possible, on the criterion of individual vari- 



40 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ation producing overlapping of characters between forms on 
different islands, to indicate a line of slightly differentiated 
subspecies under one specific name, that would include most of 
the described forms" of the several genera, and that would ex- 
tend through the extremes of bill structure and of color 
characters throughout the genera Geospiza, Canmrhynchus, 
and Certhidea. This statement is novel only in the inclusion 
of Certhidea in the closely linked chain of forms, for Ridgway 
long ago made precisely the same assertion regarding Geospi- 
za. In upholding the recognition of slightly differentiated 
local forms he says: "No other course, indeed, is practicable; 
for were 'lumping' once begun there could be no end to it, 
unless purely arbitrary limits were given to the species recog- 
nized, and if followed to a logical conclusion might easily end 
in the recognition of a single variable species, equivalent in its 
limits to the genus." (Ridgway, 1896, p. 468.) 

I feel, myself, that however logical and consistent it may be 
demonstrated to be to lump genera in this long list of diverse 
forms (fifty or more in number), it would not be desirable to 
do so. The course that I, personally, prefer to follow, is, first 
grouping the "finches" and "creepers" alike under the one 
family, Geospizidse, to recognize at least the genera Geospiza, 
Cactospiza, C amarhynchiis , and • Certhidea. It will be ad- 
mittedly impossible to formulate entirely satisfactory defini- 
tions of these genera, but their recognition will afford con- 
venient lines of demarcation between sections of a long list of 
species otherwise too unwieldy for satisfactory treatment. To 
group all of these diverse forms under one generic name 
would, it seems to me, defeat the purpose of nomenclature of 
giving us convenient handles to grasp. To recognize the 
genera indicated is admittedly indefensible on grounds of logic 
and consistency, and it will cause grief and indignation in the 
compiler of books and the arranger of "keys" for identifica- 
tion. It will, however, suit the convenience of whomever 
wishes to discuss in speech or writing the birds and the prob- 
lems involved, and that, to my notion, should be regarded as 
an important function of our nomenclature. 

Indication of relationships in nomenclature is of first im- 
fMDrtance, perhaps, but all of the known facts in the relation- 
ships of these birds can not be expressed in their names. To 
divide the Geospizidse into as many genera ;as I propose to do 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—GEOSPIZIDM ^\ 

may give an exaggerated impression of the taxonomic re- 
moteness of some species, but to lump them under a lesser 
number would assuredly give an even more erroneous im- 
pression of close connection between what are really distantly 
related forms. 

I feel that common family relationship of Geospiza, Cac- 
tospiza, Camarhynchus, Pmaroloxias and Certhidea is demon- 
strated beyond question, but the further problem as to the 
closest continental relative of the family Geospizidse is not so 
easily settled. Certhidea is sufficiently unlike any of the Frin- 
gillidse, and Geospiza and Camarhynchus sufficiently unlike 
any of the Mniotiltidae, to debar either of those groups from 
consideration as having supplied the immediate ancestor of the 
Geospizidse. The general situation is apparently much the 
same as we find in the Drepanididse of the Hawaiian Islands. 
In each case there has been wide divergence in bill structure 
among closely related species, and in the Hawaiian Islands, 
too, birds with sparrow-like bills were at first relegated to the 
family Fringillidae. Only after hot discussion were these ap- 
parent "finches" conceded to be Drepanids and listed alongside 
their slender-billed relatives. 

On the Hawaiian Islands species are mostly sharply dif- 
ferentiated, while on the Galapagos Islands, where we may be 
viewing results after a lesser period of isolation, we are 
troubled with innumerable intermediate stages. Strangely 
enough our strongest first feeling toward the existence of these 
equivocal races and individuals is not one of gratitude for 
light shed upon relationships, but of resentment at the havoc 
they create among our carefully ordered schemes of classifica- 
tion, and at the breaches they make between supposedly 
separated compartments in which we strive to arrange species 
and higher groups. In the Geospizidse of the Galapagos (as 
in the Drepanididse of the Hawaiian Islands) I think that we 
must realize that we are contemplating a group of birds that 
has been isolated on its island home since a remote period of 
time, and that has developed such distinctive group characters 
of its own as to have made it well nigh impossible now to 
recognize the nearest collateral mainland stock, if in fact there 
is today a corresponding terminal to a parallel line of descent 
upon the neighboring continent. 



42 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—GEOSPIZW^ 43 

Literature Cited 
Giflford, E. W. 

1913. The birds of the Galapagos Islands, with observations on the 
birds of Cocos and Clipperton islands (Columbiformes to 
Pelecani formes). Expedition of the California Academy of 
Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. VIII. Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., Fourth Ser., II, pt. 1, August 11, 1913, 
pp. 1-132, pis. 1-7. 

1919. Field notes on the land birds of the Galapagos Islands and of 
Cocos Island, Costa Rica. Expedition of the California 
Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 1905-'1906. 
XIII. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., Fourth Ser., II, pt. II, June 16, 
1919, pp. 189-258. 
Gould, J. 

1837. [Remarks on a group of ground finches from Mr. Darwin's 
collection, with descriptions of new species.] Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, pt. V, pp. 4-7. 
Loomis, L. M. 

1918. A review of the albatrosses, petrels, and diving petrels. Ex- 
pedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. XII. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
Fourth Ser., II, pt. II, No. 12, April 22, pp. 1-187, pis. 1-17. 

Lucas, F. A. 

1894. Notes on the anatomy and affinities of the Coerebidse and other 
American birds. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII, pp. 299-312, 
13 text figs. 
Ridgway, R. 

1896. Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

XIX, pp. 459-670, pis. LVI-LVII, many figs, in text. 

1901. The birds of North and Middle America. U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 

SO, part 1, XXX -f- 715 pp., 20 pis. 

1902. Idem, part II, XX + 834 pp., 22 pis. 

Rothschild, W., and Hartert, E. 

1899. A review of the ornithology of the Galapagos Islands. With 
notes on the Webster-Harris Expedition. Novit. Zool., VI, 
pp. 85-205, pis. V-VI, many text figs. 

1902. Further notes on the fauna of the Galapagos Islands. Notes on 

the birds. Novit. Zool., IX, pp. 381-418, pi. X, 2 text figs. 
Sclater, P. L., and Salvin, O. 
1873. Nomenclator avium neotropicalium. 

London. Pp. i-viii + 1-163. 
Snodgrass, R. E. 

1903. Notes on the anatomy of Geospiza, Cocornis, and Certhidia. Auk, 

XX, pp. 402-417, pis. XVII-XX. 
Snodgrass, R. E., and Heller, E. 

1904. Papers from the Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedition, 1898- 

1899. XVI. Birds. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., V, pp. 231-372. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 3, pp. 45-71, plates 4-7 January 29, 1929 



III 

A CONTRIBUTION TO OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE 
NESTING HABITS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE 

BY 

JOSEPH R. SLEVIN 
Curator, Department of Herpetology 

Early in the spring of 1916, my friend, the late Dr. John 
Van Denburgh, announced to me that he was preparing to 
again take up one of his boyhood hobbies, and to build up his 
oological collection, which at that time, contained a represen- 
tative series of sets of the birds around Los Gatos, the site of 
his father's home. He seemed to be greatly interested in 
securing eggs of the Golden Eagle (Aqiiila chrysaetos) , re- 
garding which he had carefully studied the available literature. 
I was asked to accompany him on his collecting trips, as he 
was none too good a climber, though I must confess that I am 
far from being one myself. Our activities commenced in 
April, 1916, and extended through a period of years, to and 
including the spring of 1922. The following notes cover our 
observations upon seven pairs of eagles during that time, all 
within Santa Clara and San Benito counties, California. For 
convenience I shall designate by numbers the different pairs 
of birds with which we became acquainted. 

January 29, 1929 



4^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pair Number One 

On April 30, 1916, we left San Jose quite early in the 
morning and motored to Almaden and then to the Uvas Creek 
country. Here, by the roadside, we met a small boy. Upon 
being asked if he knew where there were any birds' nests, he 
said that he did not, but did know where there was an eagle's 
nest ! He agreed to show it to us, and said that his sister had 
one of the eggs. With the boy in the tonneau of our machine 
we quickly reached his home, where the t.gg was soon in evi- 
dence. It was a very handsome eagle egg, but blown through 
two large, irregular holes at its ends. A price having been 
agreed upon. Dr. Van Denburgh was in possession of his first 
egg of the Golden Eagle. 

Taking the boy and his two brothers in the machine with 
us, we started for the nest. This, the boys said, had been 
found by their father's hired man, who climbed to it, took the 
two eggs, broke one in descending, and blew the remaining 
one. We crossed a low range of hills, and, as we were de- 
scending, the boys pointed out the nest, clearly visible from 
the well-traveled road, and but a few yards distant from it. 
It was indeed a surprise to us to find that the eagle had chosen 
a site so exposed to view and so close to human habitation. 
The large deciduous oak in which it was situated grows upon 
the side of a steeply-rounded hill, one of the first to rise above 
the level of the floor of the valley. Higher on the hill are a 
number of smaller white oaks and a little scattering sagebrush. 
The tree is a large one and originally had three main limbs, 
but one of these had fallen. Partly as a result of this mutila- 
tion, there are but few sheltering branches and the nest is but 
little hidden from view. 

This nest, which I shall call No. la (plate 4, fig. 1), is 
built upon a horizontal branch close to one of the main limbs 
of the tree at a height of about 40 feet. It is not a very large 
one, quite shallow and about 2^ feet in diameter. We had 
heard that eagles sometimes lay a second set when their first 
eggs of the year have been taken, and we hoped that these 
birds had done so. With much slipping and sliding on the 
grass we climbed the hill until we w^re level with the nest, 
when from the top of a small oak we could look directly into 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 47 

it, perhaps 50 yards away. Although we had seen the eagles 
circling about the neighboring hills, there were no eggs to 
reward us; the nest was empty. 

We next visited it on March 2, 1917, when we found it ap- 
parently in good repair, but empty. No eagles were seen. We 
did not return until March 25, when we found it still unoc- 
cupied. The season being now well along, we decided that the 
birds did not intend to use the nest this year, and that they 
probably had another in the vicinity, although we had seen no 
eagles about. We determined to make a careful search, and, 
separating, went in different directions, where the large trees 
grew. Dr. Van Denburgh went over the hill immediately be- 
hind the old nest and a mile or more towards the north. He 
had not gone far when he flushed an eagle from one of the 
lower branches of a large oak, but, although he searched far 
and wide, could find no nest. 

I, fortunately, was more successful. Crossing the road to a 
clump of large live oaks about half a mile to the south of the 
original nest, I found a large mass of sticks and branches 
which I thought might be an eagle's nest. Climbing to it, I 
found that it contained no eggs, but it seemed to be just ready 
for use, being lined with grass. This nest I shall call No. lb 
(plate 4, fig. 2). No eagles were seen near it. Returning on 
March 31, we found the old nest (la) still empty, but as we 
quietly passed under the new one (lb) and reached the trunk 
of the tree, we saw an eagle arise in the nest. When we spoke 
she sailed away. Climbing the tree I found one very light- 
colored egg. We left it, hoping for more. This nest was 
situated about 25 feet above the ground, and the climb was an 
easy one. It proved to be quite large, more than three feet in 
diameter, commanding a most extensive view toward the north 
and east. April 1 we returned to this nest just before dark. 
Again we found but the one egg and left it. April 6, 1917, 
found us back again. As the nest still contained only the one 
egg, we concluded that no more would be laid, and took it. 
Incubation was well begun. On April 24 both nests ( la, lb) 
were empty. 

Sunday, March 3, 1918, we went up to the highest point on 
the road. Leaving the machine there, we climbed the fence, 
walked across the pasture, and reached the tree which had 



48 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

held nest lb. Much to our surprise nothing remained of it ex- 
cept some scattered rubbish on the ground. Not a stick was 
to be seen at the site of the nest in the tree, although this nest 
had been a particularly large one and so firmly built that one 
could stand in it with perfect safety. Returning to the auto- 
mobile we rode down the steep, winding road, and were soon 
close to nest la. Finding it unoccupied we left, having seen 
no eagles about. 

We did not return again until April 7, when we arrived at 
nest la at 7 :35 P. M. As we approached we heard a homed 
owl hooting, and soon saw it sitting in the eagle's nest. When 
we were quite close the owl flew. Climbing to the nest, I 
found nothing in it but a lining of lichen, which 
seemed to be fresh. No eagles were seen. On April 20 we 
again inspected this nest, but found it empty and saw no 
eagles or owls. On May 4 we found this nest still empty ; nest 
lb had not been rebuilt. We spent several hours thereabouts, 
but saw no eagles until just as we were leaving, when both 
birds appeared circling low over the hill behind the site of 
nest lb. It is probable that they constructed another nest in 
the vicinity. 

In March, 1919, nest la still remained, but lb was entirely 
gone. One eagle was seen. This locality was not visited 
again until April 25, 1922. Nest la had disappeared. Care- 
ful and extended search revealed no nest although one eagle 
was seen two or three times during this visit, and also May 
4, 1922. 

Pair Number Tzvo 

We became acquainted with this pair on the Johnson Ranch, 
about 4y2 miles southeast of Hollister. This ranch, then 
farmed under lease by Joe Pacheco, lies on a series of low, 
rolling hills and is mostly grain fields and pasture with a few 
white oaks scattered about. As we approached the ranch we 
saw an eagle circling low over the hills perhaps a half a mile 
away. Through the hills winds a small stream known as 
Churchill Creek. At one point on this creek is a small clump 
of willows, and several of the oaks grow near it. We were 
told that many years ago the eagles had a nest (2a) in a large 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 49 

white oak at the edge of this stream and perhaps a quarter of 
a mile from Pacheco's house and barns, a nest that was very 
difficult to reach owing to the great size of the tree. Finally, 
the tree fell and the eagles selected another large white oak 
on a hillside a few hundred yards away. Here they built 
anew, in a situation which commanded a much more extensive 
view than they could have enjoyed from their former site in 
the creek bottom, and it was to this nest that we were led 
March 3, 1917. I shall call it No. 2b. 

Although no bird was flushed from the nest on our ap- 
proach, preparations were under way to climb to it, when a 
new one was discovered near the top of a large oak some 200 
to 300 yards away. This tree grew in the creek bottom, per- 
haps 20 feet from the stream, and close to a clump of willows 
at its edge. From the point at which we stood, near nest 2b, 
this new one, which I shall call 2c, looked like a huge brown 
ball near the top of the leafless oak. We walked across the 
pasture, and following a fence along the edge of a grain field, 
approached it. When we had reached the level ground on 
which the nest-tree grew, and were not more than 50 to 60 
feet from it, the bird arose and flew silently away. We did 
not see it again. 

This nest, 2c, is situated 45 feet from the ground. It rests 
firmly in a large crotch not far from the top of the tree, and 
is about 2}i feet in each of its dimensions. Our rope ladder 
was only 20 feet long, but it served to carry me past the most 
difficult part of the huge tree, my arms and knees carrying me 
up the remaining 25 feet. After some delay occasioned by 
the great size of the nest, the two eggs it contained were 
lowered, one at a time, with can and string, and when they 
reached the ground safely we rejoiced in the possession of a 
beautiful set of eggs of the Golden Eagle. 

With our treasures safely packed, we walked back to the 
machine. On the way we met Pacheco, who told us that the 
eagles had used another nest (2b) in 1916. He said that he 
had taken a young eagle from that nest and kept it some time, 
but, as it would eat nothing but ground squirrels and had to 
have a squirrel every day, he soon tired of his pet and put it 
back in the nest, where, under the care of its parents, it com- 
pleted its growth. 



50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

In the machine on the way back to town, our guide said that 
so far as he knew eagles never laid a second set the same year 
when their eggs had been taken, although they continued to 
use the same nest or nests during subsequent years. Notwith- 
standing this statement by one whose knowledge of eagles is 
great, we determined to investigate this matter ourselves, for 
we had heard rumors that eagles sometimes do depart from 
this rule. So, very appropriately as it turned out, the first of 
April found us back again on the Johnson Ranch. 

Leaving the machine at the house, we walked up through 
the fields and met Pacheco. He said that the eagles were 
nesting again, that he had seen the bird a couple of days be- 
fore on the nest where we had taken two eggs on March 3. 
We walked to the tree with high hopes of a second set. 
Armed this time with 50 feet of ladder, it was more easy to 
negotiate the climb. Alas for our hopes ! I found it empty. 
We were about to conclude that we had come too soon, when, 
on the ground close to the trunk of the tree, we discovered 
what appeared to be the contents of a fresh eagle's egg. As 
there was no shell to be found and as we found nearby other 
unmistakable evidence of his activities, we were forced to 
conclude that we were too late instead of too early — that some 
other oologist had been there just before our visit. 

Two photographs of this nest (2c) were taken. One (plate 
5, fig. 4) shows the general location in the tree and the situ- 
ation of the latter, in a grain field, with a fence on one side, 
and Churchill Creek with its clump of willows on the other. 
On April first the leaf -buds were just swelling on the bare 
twigs and the nest was plainly visible from a distance. The 
second photograph (plate 5, fig. 3) was taken from the ground 
directly below the nest. It shows the arrangement of the great 
limbs and the huge nest resting on them where they fork. 

Leaving this nest we went up the hill to examine nest 2b. 
On the way we found a sparrow hawk persistently sitting in a 
cavity in a white oak tree which recently had been chopped 
into, doubtless by our unknown fellow craftsman. Nest 2b 
showed no signs of recent occupation by the eagles. Its ap- 
pearance is shown in two photographs taken April 1, 1917 
(plate 5, figs. 1, 2). The large deciduous oak, with a trunk 
13 feet in circumference at the base, is situated in a hillside 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 51 

pasture, near a gully. The second photograph shows the nest 
and the twisted, rough-barked limbs. The nest is double, a 
more recent portion partly covering the older platform. We 
have since learned from Joe Pacheco that this nest (2b) was 
occupied later in 1917 and that one young eagle was reared 
there. If his observation and memory are correct this eagle 
must have made three layings that year. 

Late in February of the following year, we again visited 
this region, but found that recent rains had made the roads so 
difficult to travel that we did not attempt to reach the Johnson 
Ranch at that time. Saturday, March 2, 1918, found us eat- 
ing an early breakfast at Hollister. Leaving town at 7 A. M., 
a short drive through the rolling hills in the crisp morning air 
brought us to Pacheco's house. Leaving the machine near his 
barn we walked up Churchill Creek to nest No. 2c, from which 
we had secured a set of eggs the previous year, and arrived 
under it without having seen any eagles on the way. We put 
up the ladder and I climbed to the nest, finding it water-soaked 
and without any fresh lining, but otherwise in excellent 
condition. 

We concluded that the eagles were probably using nest 2b, 
and, going up the hillside to examine it, reached the tree at 
9 o'clock. We had been standing there talking for perhaps 
a minute when the bird slowly arose in the nest, seemed to 
step to its edge, and then sailed away. We did not see it 
again during this visit. With the aid of the ladder I quickly 
reached the nest and at half-past nine we had two nice eggs 
safely packed away. One, the lighter-colored egg, weighing 
4^4 ounces, was either fresh or infertile, while the more 
heavily blotched egg, weighing 43^ ounces, contained an em- 
bryo so well developed that eye pigment and small bones were 
evident on blowing it. 

Still seeking to find whether or not these birds would lay a 
second set this year we left town on April 6, and, arriving at 
the Johnson Ranch at 5 :45 P. M., we visited nest 2b. We 
walked under the nest and talked loudly, but the bird did not 
leave until we threw a clod up into the tree. Again she 
seemed to arise in the nest and step to its edge before sailing 
away. Rain began falling as we put up the ladder. Having 
secured a second set of two eggs, we were down and away at 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

6:35. The whiter egg of this set weighed 4%. ounces, while 
the more heavily blotched one was one-eighth of an ounce 
heavier. Both eggs contained small embryos, apparently of 
about the same age. 

On Saturday, March 1, 1919, we again returned to the 
Johnson Ranch. In the distance we saw an eagle soaring. As 
we walked along Churchill Creek numerous mud-turtles 
slipped into the water from the opposite bank where they had 
been sunning themselves. The leaf-buds of the deciduous 
oaks were much more swollen than we had found them on 
March 3, 1917, or March 2, 1918, and altogether spring 
seemed somewhat earlier than in those years. We went at 
once to nest 2b, on the hillside; only to find it empty. There 
was no fresh lining and green grass six or seven inches tall 
was growing from it. This nest, as I have mentioned, is a 
double one, a newer portion resting in part upon an older one. 
The newer portion has diameters of about four or five feet, 
while the whole structure has a long diameter of more than 
seven feet and a depth of about five feet. The accumulation 
of such a mass of material must have required a great number 
of trips on the part of the birds. While we were examining 
this nest we saw an eagle flying away from the other one 
(2c). When first seen it was about 50 feet from the nest, but 
we had no doubt that it had just left it. As we were too far 
away to have frightened the eagle we concluded that it proba- 
bly was engaged in repairing the nest. However, we thought 
it best to investigate. 

We went down the hill and across the field. When nearly 
under the nest (2c) we whistled and shouted and clapped our 
hands until we felt certain that it was unoccupied. We then 
threw the weight over a limb about half way up to the nest 
and hauled up the rope ladder. Starting up the tree I reached 
a point about five feet below the nest, when the eagle arose, 
looked down at me, opened its beak widely, uttered a curious 
sort of hiss, stepped to the edge of the nest and flew off. In- 
stead of going out of sight immediately, however, as these 
eagles usually do, this bird circled about within one or two 
hundred yards of us, so that we had an excellent view of its 
plumage. This seemed to be in fine condition, but was pale 
and quite grayish, especially about the head. We concluded 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 53 

that this bird, which had just left the nest, was a very old 
female, but of course we could not be certain as to the sex. A 
few seconds later the mate appeared and both birds circled 
quite close to us. The second bird was much darker than the 
first. This was just the reverse of what we had observed at 
nest 3b on March 4, 1917. 

The eagles circled about silently for a few minutes and then 
disappeared. Meanwhile, I had reached the nest and found 
that it contained two eggs. The nest seemed larger than it 
was two years before, doubtless growing with repairs. It had 
a depth of four feet, with horizontal diameters of four and 
four and a half feet, the nest cavity being about 18 inches in 
diameter and about six inches deep. It was freshly lined with 
grass. Resting on the top of the nest, at one side of the 
cavity, was a sprig of live oak covered with fresh green leaves. 
On our previous visits the nests of this pair of birds had not 
been decorated in this manner. We have found, however, 
fresh leaves in those of other pairs (see 3 and 5), and this 
habit of nest decoration or marking seems to be a common 
one. The two eggs, of quite different styles of coloration, 
were lowered to the ground and packed away. One is 
heavily blotched and resembles an egg of the second set of 
1918. In the other tgg the pigment is more evenly spread as 
a heavy suffusion about the smaller end. This egg is similar 
to one of the first set of 1918. The blotched egg weighed just 
4y2 ounces, while the other was about one-tenth of an ounce 
lighter. Incubation in the blotched egg had progressed so far 
that the eye pigment and vertebral cartilages were evident on 
blowing. The fonnation of the embryo had begun in the 
other egg, but was much less advanced, no eye pigment or car- 
tilage having been formed. 

On March 29, 1919, four weeks after collecting the set from 
nest 2c, we again motored to the Johnson Ranch, where we 
arrived about 6 P. M. Joe Pacheco came out to meet us, to 
report that he had seen the eagle on nest 2b about five days 
before, where she remained even when he rode under the tree. 
Nevertheless, he thought that we would find that she had not 
finished laying. We walked to the hillside tree without having 
seen an eagle, and no bird left the nest. On climbing up, it 
was found to contain one egg. The nest was lined with grass 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

and a twig of fresh eucalyptus leaves lay on it. We left it 
undisturbed and returned to the machine through a gentle 
shower of rain, the eagles still remaining unseen. On April 
10, 1919, we returned. The single egg was found on end in a 
somewhat mussed and apparently abandoned nest. No eagles 
were seen. The tgg is a very small one, weighing only 4.1 
ounces, and was fresh. 

We did not visit this pair of eagles again until March 13, 

1920, when we arrived at the Johnson Ranch at about three in 
the afternoon. We went at once to the nest on the hill (2b), 
which we found unoccupied, thoroughly wet by recent rains, 
and showing no renewal of its lining. While I was at the 
nest one of the eagles came sailing over from the south, in- 
spected us, and passed on toward the flat where the tree which 
contains the other one (2c) is situated. The eagle, however, 
did not visit that tree but sailed on out of sight to reappear 
later over the hill near nest 2b. Feeling reasonably certain 
that we would find something in nest 2c, we descended to the 
flat and walked over to the tree which contains the nest. 
Shouting and clapping failed to frighten any bird from it, but 
our experience in former seasons made us realize that eagles 
sometimes sit too persistently to be flushed this way, so we 
prepared to climb. While we were thus engaged two men 
rode up on horseback and said that they had seen an eagle 
carrying fresh green twigs to this nest two days before. We 
found that this observation on their part was probably correct, 
for on reaching it we were disappointed to find that it con- 
tained no eggs, although it had been freshly lined and held a 
number of fresh leafy twigs of eucalyptus. Only the one 
eagle was observed during our visit and we were in doubt as 
to whether the nest was about to be used or had already been 
robbed; or whether the old female eagle had met with some 
catastrophe and the green trimmings had been placed in the 
nest by the male, as in instances previously noted. 

Circumstances prevented our return until February 27, 

1921, when we found the nest on the flat (2c) unrepaired, 
while the one on the hill (2b) contained green leaves and 
fresh lining of dry grass not yet pressed into position. On 
March 18 both nests appeared as on March 6, except that the 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 55 

green leaves in nest 2b were no longer fresh. One eagle was 
observed flying near on each of these visits. 

Returning March 3, 1922, we found conditions as on 
February 27, 1921. The hillside nest (2b) contained unar- 
ranged fresh lining material of dry grass, fresh live oak leaves 
and a eucalyptus twig with fresh leaves. The lower nest (2c) 
was unrepaired. One eagle was seen soaring near. On March 
19 the lining of dry grass in nest 2b was found pressed into 
a well-formed cavity. The green oak and eucalyptus leaves 
were still present and a small branch of wild rose, with the deli- 
cate fresh leaves just beginning to wilt, was in the nest. While it 
is possible that the nest had been robbed within a day or two, 
we were inclined to believe that eggs had not yet been laid. 
The season appeared to be very late. 

April 4, 1922, we found both birds flying near the nest late 
in the afternoon. Returning to the ranch house we met Joe 
Pacheco, who said that on March 10 two men appeared at his 
house at 6 A. M. with two eggs which they had taken from 
this nest. April 15 we visited nest 2c and found it relined, 
with well-formed cavity and a branch of fresh eucalyptus 
leaves. This nest seemed just ready for use, but contained no 
eggs. On April 20 this nest (2c) was found in the same con- 
dition as on April 15, except that the green leaves were some- 
what dried. On May 13 nest 2c was still empty. Nest 2b con- 
tained a small branch with fresh green leaves. 

Pair Nimiber Three 

Our experience with our second pair of eagles having in- 
creased our desire to know more of these birds, we gladly ac- 
cepted the offer of our guide to lead us to other nests. On 
March 4, 1917, we set out in our machine for the Flint Hills. 
The road which we first tried was blocked by a deep mud- 
hole which we could not pass. Taking the main road to San 
Juan, we finally turned down a lane which led us to the flats 
by the river. The San Juan River here is quite wide. It did 
not, at this time, entirely cover its sandy bed. We removed 
our shoes and socks, rolled up our trousers and prepared to 
wade across. The water was quite shallow, nowhere more 
than a foot deep, but the sand seemed to "drop out" under our 



56 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

feet, often letting us down another foot or more. As there 
had been a heavy frost during the night, the water was icy 
cold and we were indeed glad when we reached the opposite 
bank and could warm our aching feet. 

The river here runs along the edge of the hills, which are 
furrowed by a number of small gulches or canyons. The hills 
are, in the main, bare pasture lands and grain fields, but here 
and there are a few trees, live and white oaks, which grow 
singly or in small groups, usually in the hollows or canyons. 
The first canyon we encountered held nothing of interest, so 
we passed on over a low hill to the second one. Well up on 
the side of this canyon stands a large, solitary live oak, and in 
the top of this tree, perhaps 30 feet from the ground, was an 
eagle's nest. It seemed not to have been used for some time, 
but was still fairly well preserved. I shall call it nest 3a. 

Passing on over the hill to the next canyon, we came upon 
the eagle, sitting quietly on one of the posts of a wire fence, 
and but little disturbed by our presence. When we were quite 
near, it flew a short distance and lit on the ground, where it 
remained for some time. Our guide called our attention to its 
pale head and general coloration, saying that this pallor was 
characteristic of very old birds. On the floor of the canyon, 
close to the river, is a group of four or five large live oaks, 
and as we drew near we saw a nest well up in the tallest of 
them. We walked under the trees but not until we shouted 
and clapped our hands did the eagle leave the nest. Then she 
flew slowly and came to the ground near her mate on the hill- 
side nearby. 

This nest, which I shall call 3b, is one of the smallest we 
saw. It was about two by two and one-half feet in diameter 
and contained comparatively little material. It was built on 
the main trunk of the tree where the latter curves more or less 
horizontally and forks before turning upwards again. Its 
height above the ground was 35 feet. While preparing to climb 
up to it, we discovered on the ground underneath large pieces 
of shell of an eagle's &gg. These fragments seemed to be but 
a few days old, for they were glazed with albumen. Our 
hopes of getting a nice set were considerably lowered, and our 
guide said it was hardly worth while to climb for one tgg. 
However, I climbed to the nest and discovered that it con- 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 57 

tained two beautifully marked eggs. These were so com- 
pletely covered with eucalyptus leaves that I could not see them 
as I looked down into the nest. Two or three small eucalyptus 
trees growing on the bank of the river a few yards away fur- 
nished a ready supply of these leaves, but we were unable to 
understand the eagle's reason for using them in this manner. 
Also, we wondered about the broken egg on the ground. How 
did it get thrown from the nest? Should we otherwise have 
gotten a set of three eggs, or was the third &gg laid to take its 
place ? The eggs taken were both fresh. 

April 1, 1917, found us again approaching the home of this 
pair of eagles. Nest 3a, on the hillside, appeared still in its 
somewhat dilapidated condition as we passed it. We had 
thought that the eagles might repair it and lay a second set 
there. Walking on, we soon reached the tree which contained 
the other nest (3b), from which we had secured eggs just 
four weeks before. Thus far we had seen no eagles, but when 
we shouted the eagle arose in the nest and, after a momentary 
pause, flew off over the hill. We did not see the bird again. 
Going up to the nest, another beautiful set of two eggs was 
found. It contained fresh eucalyptus leaves, as on our fomier 
visit, but the eggs were not completely hidden by them. In- 
cubation had begun in one ^gg, while the other was fresh. 

The following year, on Saturday, March 2, 1918, we re- 
turned to these nests. Nest 3a appeared much more dilapi- 
dated than in 1917; probably not more than half of it re- 
mained. The eagles evidently did not intend to use it. Nest 
3b was reached shortly after and appeared just as it had in 
1917. We saw no eagles but decided to climb to it. It was 
found apparently ready for use and contained two eucalyptus 
twigs covered with fresh leaves, the larger of them about a 
foot long. These we left undisturbed. There were no eggs. 

Leaving this nest we walked over the hills and up a long 
canyon, toward the home of pair number four. The hills were 
bare and we passed very few trees on the way. A little after 
noon we came upon a large live oak growing on the side of 
the canyon, from which, when we had nearly reached it, a 
large eagle flew. Our first thought was that the eagles had 
moved up here from their old site near the river, but careful 



53 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

search revealed no sign of a nest either in this tree or in others 
farther up the canyon. We returned to the nest by the river 
(3b) on March 16. It still contained the same eucalyptus 
twigs, somewhat dried, but nothing else, so it appeared that 
the eagles were not going to use it after all. The fresh leaves 
found March 2 had made us almost certain that they would. 
Our final visit to these nests, in 1918, was about four in the 
afternoon of April 6. No eagles were seen, but as we ap- 
proached nest 3b a pair of Western Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo 
horcalis calurus) circled about screaming. We found the nest 
had been newly lined with moss and contained two eggs of 
this hawk. 

On March 2, 1919, we returned to the home of our third 
pair of eagles and found that not a stick remained of either 
nest 3a or 3b. In March, 1920, we looked again for a nest of 
this pair of eagles but were unable to find one. Only the old 
male eagle was seen. On February 27, 1921, we visited this 
locality again but there was not a- trace of a nest in either 
tree. The old male was again seen. 

On March 18, 1921, we determined to make one more at- 
tempt to find a new nest. Nothing had been done at either of 
the old nesting places, but in a small canyon between them we 
flushed the pale old eagle and his dark mate, both of which 
flew silently over the hill and disappeared. We looked again 
in every tree and found nothing in that canyon or elsewhere, 
until the search seemed hopeless. As a last chance we looked 
on a hillside, close to the road, where there were a few trees 
so small that it had seemed useless to examine them, and here 
we found a large nest only 25 feet above the ground (plate 4, 
fig. 3; plate 6, fig. 1). The tree showed unmistakable signs 
of having been climbed recently, so we were not surprised to 
find the nest empty. 

March 3, 1922, found us again approaching this nest (3c). 
When distant about a third of a mile, we observed a large 
bird perched on the top of the tree which contained the nest. 
We had covered half this distance when the bird, which proved 
to be the pale old male, flew down close to inspect us. He 
then flew back over the tree and disappeared beyond. When 
we arrived within 50 yards of the nest the dark female arose 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 59 

from the nest and quickly flew from view. An easy climb re- 
vealed two beautifully marked eggs resting on a fresh lining 
of dry grass. The nest, constructed of oak branches and twigs, 
is about three by four feet in diameter and two feet deep, its 
cavity being about five inches below the rim. The tree is a 
small white oak. Both eggs were perfectly fresh. One is 
almost covered with red pignient and weighed 43/2 ounces. 
The other tgg is white with a few small blotches at one end 
and weighed 4^ ounces. These eggs are of the same type as 
those secured in 1917, and probably were laid by the same 
dark female. This nest may have been built in 1918 and over- 
looked by us because of its improbable situation. 

April 4, 1922, we found this nest (3c) empty and no eagles 
in sight. After photographing it we went on and examined 
the trees where the other nests had been, but found nothing. 
The old male flew near us when we were close to the site of 
the nest 3b. On April 20 we returned and again found 
nothing at the sites of any of the nests we had seen previously. 
One old eagle flew by while we were near nest 3b. We gave 
up the search and went on to examine a Red-tail Hawk's nest 
farther down the river. About an eighth of a mile beyond the 
location of nest 3b we found a large nest about 35 feet up in 
an old Cottonwood tree. On looking closely we made out the 
tail and wing tips of a large bird protruding over the edge. 
On the ground below we found a number of dead sticks and 
twigs and a sprig of fresh, green, live oak leaves. After we 
had shouted and clapped our hands the eagle left and sailed 
away. Returning a half hour later we found the eagle again 
on the nest, this time faced in the opposite direction, and, as 
before, she left with reluctance. We found the nest (3d) to 
be about three feet in diameter and a foot and a half high, 
lined with dry grass on which lay two eggs. The blotched 
egg weighed 4^ ounces, the yellowish one 4^ ounces. Both 
were moderately advanced in incubation, the leg bones being 
about a half inch in length. June 3, 1922, we again visited 
this nest (3d). Both this nest and No. 3c were empty, and 
no eagles were seen about them or at the site of nest 3b. 



January 29, 1929 



50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pair Number Four 

Our acquaintance with our fourth pair of eagles began on 
the afternoon of March 4, 1917. Leaving the home of pair 
number three, we turned from the river and went over the 
hills and up a long narrow valley, where there were few trees. 
On went our guide up the valley, and then, turning to the left 
over a bare hill, he led us into a deep gulch with numerous 
large live oak trees. He went directly to one of the largest of 
these, and following him we saw a huge nest built far out on 
a nearly horizontal limb some 40 feet above the ground. A 
few moments' inspection sufficed to show us that the eagle's 
nest, which I shall call 4a, was not occupied. 

Two or three hundred feet farther up the gulch we found a 
still larger tree. Fifty feet from the ground was another large 
nest (plate 7, fig. 3), again built well out on a horizontal limb, 
and we could just see the eagle crouching low upon it. Soon 
she arose and flew away. As our ladder was not long enough 
to reach it we resolved to return later to this nest, 4b. 

Accordingly, a week later, on INIarch 11, we again tramped 
over the hills to this gulch, but this time from another direc- 
tion. On the way over, in a large live oak tree on a hillside 
near the lower end of this gulch, we found the remains of a 
still older eagle's nest, one that evidently had not been used 
for many years. As it was not more than a quarter of a mile 
from those in the gulch above, it was probably built by the 
same birds. I shall call this nest No. 4c. It was about 30 to 
35 feet above the ground. When we arrived at nest 4b the 
old eagle was not at home ; the nest contained two large, pale 
eggs. This nest was three feet in diameter and lined with 
dry grass. The eggs were not covered. Incubation had been 
well begun in both. We saw one eagle in the distance, cir- 
cling over the hills. On April 15 we returned, but found the 
nest empty and no eagles visible. This ended our observations 
for the year. 

On March 2, 1918, we arrived at nest 4b. It seemed to be 
in good repair, so, although we had seen no eagles, we decided 
to make the climb. It was found to be empty and showed no 
preparation for use. Nest 4a was much more dilapidated than 
a year before, and of nest 4c there now remained only a few 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 5^ 

Sticks. Leaving this gulch, we wandered up a long canyon 
running towards the northwest. After we had traveled a 
mile or more, we saw what we thought was a Red-tailed 
Hawk's nest in a small tree well up on the steep south side of 
the canyon. 

We climbed up hill until we were above the nest and could 
look into it. It contained no eggs, but a lot of downy feathers 
were sticking to the twigs and branches of which it was made. 
We saw no birds about and left convinced that this was a 
hawk's nest and would soon contain eggs. We returned to 
this nest (4d) March 17, 1918. Having found nest 4a still 
unrepaired and 4b still unoccupied, we went to the canyon 
towards the northwest, expecting to collect a set of Red-tailed 
Hawk's eggs from the nest found two weeks before. We 
walked up the bottom of the canyon and then straight up the 
side of the hill to the nest. When we had approached within 
about 40 feet of it, a beautiful, dark-plumaged eagle arose and 
sailed away. We could hardly beHeve our eyes, for it did not 
seem reasonable to find so large a bird on so small a structure, 
and we had no idea that it could be other than that of a Red- 
tailed Hawk. 

This nest was built at a height of about 18 feet, in a small 
deciduous oak which grew well up on the steep side of the 
canyon. The situation of the tree made the nest seem quite 
high and the view from it was very extensive (plate 4, 
fig. 4). Climbing higher up on the hillside, we were able to 
look into the nest and to see that it contained two eggs. There 
was much more down in and about it than we had seen in any 
other eagle's nest. On the ground below the tree was a lot of 
debris, either material wasted during its construction or the 
remains of some earlier platforms. 

The two eggs which this nest contained were unusually 
large. The only other eggs which we had taken before were 
those secured from nest 4b on March 11, 1917. Because of 
similarity in size of the eggs and because the nests are only 
about a mile apart we concluded that they belonged to the 
same pair of eagles. The two eggs taken March 17, 1918, are 
very dissimilar in appearance. One is quite heavily blotched. 
The other is entirely white, except for a few faint markings 
which may be either nest stains or very slight pigmentation. 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The blotched egg weighed just five ounces, while the white 
one weighed just a quarter of an ounce less. Both eggs were 
fertile, and in both incubation was well advanced, but more so 
in the blotched tgg. This would indicate that in this instance 
the Qgg first laid was larger and more heavily pigmented than 
the second one. Our last visit during 1918 was on April 7, 
when we found all three nests (4 a, b, d) unoccupied. 

On the second of March, 1919, we returned and found nest 
4a represented by a mere hatful of sticks. Nest 4c had en- 
tirely disappeared. Nest 4b, where we secured eggs in 1917, 
was not reduced in size, but looked ragged and deserted. 
Having made sure that it was not occupied, we left without 
climbing to it. Looking back we saw two eagles circling over 
the hill beyond. We did not visit nest 4d, which had con- 
tained eggs the previous year. 

On March 16 we returned for the purpose of inspecting 
nest 4d. As we approached the nest an eagle circled down 
towards us, coming quite close three or four times, and then 
flew farther up the canyon. Nest 4d was empty and showed 
no signs of occupancy. As we walked up the canyon the eagle 
again appeared but quickly passed from view. Two weeks 
later, March 30, we returned to this canyon and looked for a 
new nest but found none, although we saw an eagle leaving 
the canyon as we entered it. Nest 4d was empty and un- 
repaired. 

The following year on March 14, 1920, we climbed up over 
the hill from the south and entered the canyon within 100 
yards or so of nest 4d. An eagle appeared from somewhere 
near us, and, apparently in a state of excitement, crossed to 
the opposite side of the canyon, where it lit upon the ground. 
We found nest 4d deserted and much the worse for wear, but 
although we searched carefully we could find no other in the 
canyon. We did not visit the other canyon, where nests 4b 
and 4c were located. In 1921, the site of nest 4d was visited 
and the last remnants of the nest found on the ground under 
the tree. Search revealed no other in this neighborhood 
although one eagle was seen. 

On March 2, 1922, we again entered this canyon from the 
west. Approaching nest 4b, we flushed the eagle. The nest 
was found to contain one tgg, which we left undisturbed. Ten 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 53 

days later, March 12, we returned to nest 4b hoping to find 
two eggs, but fresh marks of climbing-irons showed that we 
were too late. As we departed, an eagle circled about us 
several times, 50 to 60 feet above our heads. 

Pair Number Five 

On Sunday, March 11, 1917, we arose early and, having 
had breakfast, were a few minutes later on our way in the 
automobile, bound for the Flint Hills. In the first canyon 
that we entered we came upon a screaming pair of Red-tailed 
Hawks and soon found their nest. It was situated well up in 
a large oak tree in a position which made it difficult of access. 
We decided a visit to it would take too much time, so pro- 
ceeded on our way. 

Perhaps a mile farther on we came to another canyon with 
a considerable growth of live oak trees. We were walking 
along the edge of this canyon, seeking an easy place to cross, 
when an eagle suddenly flew from a small tree on the opposite 
bank at a distance of perhaps 40 yards from us. A second 
glance showed us a nest, from which the eagle had flown. The 
tree is a small one, and the nest only 25 feet above ground at 
its base, but the fact that the tree grows close to the edge of 
the bank of the canyon adds 30 to 40 feet to the apparent 
height of the nest. The eagle silently disappeared down the 
canyon, and did not return while we were about. We scram- 
bled across the canyon and around on the bank above, taking 
a picture from a point nearly level with the nest. 

The climb to the nest was an easy one. It was lined with 
dry grass and some gray moss, and contained two well- 
blotched eggs. It was very large and probably had been in 
use many years. I shall call it nest 5a (plate 6, fig. 2). In- 
cubation was well started in both eggs. On the afternoon of 
April 1 we returned to the nest of our fifth pair of eagles. 
This we found empty, though its lining was in good order, as 
if ready for a second set. One eagle flew down the canyon 
while we were there. In consequence, we made a final visit 
on April 15, but found the nest empty. 

The following year we returned to this nest (5a) on March 
3, 1918. The eagle left the nest as we approached. Two 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

beautifully marked fresh eggs rewarded us. These are of the 
same type as those secured the previous year but are more 
heavily blotched. The one having the larger blotches weighed 
4.9 ounces, the other 4.8 ounces. The freshly blown shell of 
the first Q:gg weighed ^ oz. On March 17, just two weeks 
later, we were again in this canyon. No eagle left the nest. 
From the hill above we saw a whitish object in the nest, but 
were not certain what it was. Climbing to the nest, one very 
dirty, weather-stained Qgg was found. The nest was wet and 
disordered and seemed deserted. We concluded that the tgg 
was part of the first set and probably had been laid soon after 
our visit of March third. The tgg weighed 4.7 ounces, and 
was fresh. On April 7, 1918, this nest was empty. We saw 
one eagle fly down the canyon. 

March 2, 1919, we arrived at this gulch in the morning 
during a heavy shower. The eagle was not on the nest. I 
climbed up to it and found that it contained a lot of fresh 
lining materials, dry grass and lichen, not yet arranged 
and packed down. There were also a few small twigs of live 
oak with fresh green leaves. It appeared certain that the nest 
would be used later. We left without seeing any eagles, but 
on returning late in the afternoon, when the sky had cleared, 
we found them both flying over the canyon. On March 16 
we again visited this nest. Arriving at noon, we walked 
across the pasture, where for half a mile we could be seen 
from the nest. We crossed the canyon within 100 feet of it, 
shouted, and clapped our hands. Climbing up on the bank 
above the nest we tried to look through the branches. We 
concluded that the nest was empty but decided to climb up to 
it. Just as I reached the base of the tree, off flew the eagle 
and silently disappeared. I found two eggs lying in the cen- 
tral cavity of the nest, which was lined with lichen 
with an inner layer of green live oak leaves. The cavity 
measured about 12 by 15 inches, with a depth of about four 
inches. The whole nest had diameters of five and four and 
one-half feet, and was about two feet deep. The tgg which is 
more heavily marked at the small end weighed 4.25, while the 
other weighed 4.05 ounces. Incubation had just begun in the 
heavier tgg. The lighter one was fresh. 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 55 

On March 13, 1920, we again visited the canyon occupied 
by pair number five. An old eagle almost immediately flew up 
the canyon, passing over the nest on the way. We walked 
over toward the nest and crossed the canyon at the usual 
point, talking and shouting as we went. Then we climbed the 
hillside to a point just above the nest and perhaps 50 feet from 
it. Standing here, we could see the eagle sitting on the nest 
and watching us. As we walked closer, she arose and flew 
silently away. On climbing to the nest it was found to con- 
tain two eggs, which were considerably nest-stained and much 
less handsomely marked than any previously obtained from 
this pair. The nest was lined with grass and a few green oak 
leaves. 

In March, 1921, this nest showed no signs of repair or 
occupancy, and, although one eagle was seen flying in the 
canyon, no other nest was discovered. On March 2 and 12, 
1922, careful examination of this canyon revealed no new nest, 
although one eagle was seen. The old nest was unrepaired 
and seemed deserted. 



Pair Number Six 

Our friend and guide had told us of another nest which, to 
his personal knowledge, had been used by the eagles for 30 
years, though during this period there were some years, he 
believes, when they did not lay in it. He visited this nest with 
his son on March 11, 1917, and secured two eggs in which in- 
cubation was fairly well advanced. Unfortuntely one of these 
eggs was broken, but the remaining one he gave to Dr. Van 
Denburgh. This egg is of a type quite dififerent from those 
of any other pair of birds investigated by us. On April 15, 
1917, we visited this nest (plate 6, fig. 3). It is built in a 
great live oak which grows well up on the south side of a deep 
gulch, about Ij^ miles south of Sargents. The main road, 
about 300 yards away, may be seen from it. It was nearly 
dark when we reached the foot of this tree, but we soon con- 
vinced ourselves that it was not occupied. 

The next year, 1918, we returned to this nest, which I shall 
call 6a, on the morning of February 22. It appeared to have 



55 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

been damaged by the winter stomis, and a considerable por- 
tion of it was on the ground. No eagles were about, and we 
concluded that the birds did not intend to use it. We climbed 
to the top of the hill and went down another canyon, which 
we thought would lead us to nest 5a. We had walked per- 
haps half a mile when, as we had expected, Dr. Van Denburgh 
pointed out a nest, some 300 yards ahead of us. At that dis- 
tance it could not be seen clearly, but I had scarcely time to 
say that I thought it was the nest with which we were familiar 
when we saw an eagle leave it and fly off over the hill. As we 
drew nearer the situation looked less familiar. The trees 
seemed much too large and the bank too low according to our 
memory of nest 5a. However, it was not till we reached the 
base of the tree that we recognized it to be one in which we 
had found the nest of a Red-tailed Hawk in 1917. Nest 5a 
was in another canyon about a mile beyond. The hawk's nest 
had entirely disappeared; not a stick of it remained. The 
eagle's nest was a few feet higher in the tree and was built on 
much larger limbs. On the ground below were numerous dead 
oak branches and twigs, evidently dropped in constructing the 
nest. The structure seemed large enough to have been in use 
several years, yet we knew it to- be a new one, as there had 
been none there the year before. From the fact that the bird 
left while we were still so far away, we concluded that she had 
not laid, and that she probably was completing the lining of 
the nest when we discovered her. We left without climbing to 
the nest, which I shall call 6b. 

On March 3, 1918, we returned, arriving under the tree at 
8 o'clock in the morning. The bird was at home and did not 
fly until we threw a stick up into the tree, but there were no 
eggs. We then walked on to the next canyon to inspect nest 
5a. Returning later to nest 6b we found no eagle on it. Two 
weeks later, March 17, we found no eagle at nest 6b. Climb- 
ing up to the nest it was found to be still empty. We did not 
return again until April 7. Nest 6a was ragged and deserted. 
Nest 6b was empty, but on the ground beneath it we found 
the remains of a broken eagle's egg. 

The season now was so far advanced that we had no fur- 
ther expectation of adventures with eagles. We had, how- 
ever, found the nest of a Red-tailed Hawk near the upper end 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE 57 

of this canyon and decided to visit the canyon again in hopes 
of getting a set of eggs. Therefore, April 20 found us again 
in this canyon. As we passed under the eagle's nest (6b) we 
noted that it was unoccupied. Some 300 yards up the canyon, \^p^ 
an eagle circled down towards us, and then turned and flew ^ 
away. We went on to the Red-tail's nest, found it empty, and 
returned to the place where we had seen the eagle. A little 
higher on the hillside is a group of large live oaks. We had 
examined these trees several times in 1917 and 1918 and were 
certain that there was no nest in them. However, we had 
scarcely entered this little grove when we saw a big nest well 
up in one of the largest trees, and, as soon as we clapped our 
hands, off went the eagle. On climbing to the nest I found 
it to contain a nice pair of eggs. Incubation was well ad- 
vanced. I shall call this nest 6c. These eggs, taken from 
nest 6c on April 20, 1918, are of the same type as those se- 
cured March 11, 1917, from nest 6a. The fragments of an 
tgg found under nest 6b also were of this type. It is probable 
that this pair of eagles deserted their old nest and moved a 
mile or more to another canyon, where they not only laid 
twice, but actually built two nests. 

Returning in 1919, we examined these three nests (6a, b, c) 
on March 1 and 2. All three looked deserted. I climbed to 
nest 6c only, which was found empty and unrepaired. It 
measured about five by three and a half feet over all, and 
about two feet in depth. We saw no eagles in either canyon. 
On March 16 we returned and photographed these nests. 
Nest 6a is shown well out on a nearly horizontal limb which 
hangs over the canyon. Nest 6b (plate 7, fig. 4) may be seen 
well up in a large live oak which grows from the side of an- 
other canyon. As we entered the lower end of this second 
canyon, on the morning of March 16, we saw two eagles soar- 
ing well up in the canyon near the group of trees in which nest 
6c is located. This group of live oaks is shown in the photo- 
graph (plate 6, fig. 4). The nest does not show. It is near 
the top of the tree and at the extreme right of the central 
group. The eagles quickly disappeared, and we found these 
nests (6b, c) still unrepaired. 

After making a wide circle over the hills we entered the 
upper end of the first canyon, in which nest 6a is located. This 



gg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

canyon near its upper end, high on the hillside, becomes broad 
and shallow and has but few trees. As we walked down the 
canyon an eagle circled to meet us and then sailed off towards 
the left. Lower in the canyon are many trees, growing in two 
main groups that are separated by an area of open pasture. 
Nest 6a is in the lower group of trees. We had searched 
through the upper group twice in 1918 and were certain there 
was no nest there in March of that year. We now decided to 
search both groups again, and Dr. Van Denburgh started for 
the upper grove while I set out for the lower one. We had 
walked only a few yards when Dr. Van Denburgh saw the 
eagle sweep down close to a large tree near the edge of the 
upper group, and a few moments later he saw a nest in the 
tree. As he called me, a second eagle left the nest; both birds 
departed silently and we did not see them again. 

The tree is a large one but so well provided with branches 
that the 40-foot climb was not difficult. I soon reached the 
nest, looked over the edge, and with some excitement reported 
three eggs. I shall call this nest 6d (plate 7, fig. 1). It was 
very large, about 3^ feet deep with extreme diameters of 
about six and five feet. Its central cavity, about a foot in 
diameter and seven inches deep, was lined with dry grass, and 
held also a cluster of fresh oak leaves. The eggs are rather 
small and elongate, of the same type as those taken from nest 
6c in 1918, but much more beautifully blotched. They 
weighed 4.02, 4.01 and 3.99 ounces, respectively. The egg 
with the greatest weight was most heavily pigmented, and the 
lightest one least so. The lightest egg was infertile. Incu- 
bation in the other two eggs was well advanced, but had 
progressed further in the heavier egg, in which the bones were 
quite firm. From conditions in this set it would seem that the 
first egg laid is the largest and most pigmented. 

March 14, 1920, we again returned to the haunts of this 
pair of eagles, and ascending the canyon which contains nests 
number 6a and 6d, both were found unoccupied and showing 
no evidence of any repairs having been made. The former 
was very dilapidated, and the latter had been twisted out of 
position by the winter storms. One eagle was observed soar- 
ing over the top of the hill, but nowhere in the canyon did we 
find any other evidence of occupancy. This being so, we de- 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE gQ 

cided to see whether or not the eagles had moved back to the 
second canyon, in which nests 6b and 6c had been built during 
1918. From the opposite side of the canyon nest 6b appeared 
to be in excellent condition, but although we shouted and 
clapped our hands, no bird left it until we crossed the canyon, 
when the eagle quietly arose and flew away. We did not see 
the bird again. After some delay and difficulty the nest was 
reached and found to contain a set of three poorly marked 
eggs of the same general type as those secured from this pair 
in previous seasons. As we were successful here, we did not 
visit nest 6c. 

None of the nests of pair six showed any signs of repair or 
occupancy when visited by us in 1921, and no new nests were 
found. On March 2, 1922, nest 6d contained dry grass not 
yet pressed into shape. While descending the canyon we 
found a nest which we were quite certain must have been built 
since our visit in March, 1921. On climbing to this one, 6e, 
I found it to be in poor shape and unlined. One eagle was 
seen fllying about at the lower end of the canyon. Nest 6b 
was found to be in a good state of preservation, but unre- 
paired. There was no nest at the site of nest 6c. On March 
12 conditions were unchanged at nests 6b, d, and e. On 
March 18 there was no change in the lining of nest 6d, and 6e 
seemed unoccupied. On April 15 and 25, 1922, nests 6d and 
6e were unoccupied and no eagles were seen. 



Pair Number Seven 

About two o'clock in the afternoon of March 3, 1922, Dr. 
Van Denburgh and I arrived at the foot of a steep hill three 
and a half miles northwest from the town of San Juan. At 
the top of this hill rises a huge rock about 140 feet high, the 
upper portion of which forms a perpendicular clifif 95 feet 
high, facing a little west of north. Fifty feet below the top of 
this cliff is a recessed ledge upon which we had seen a nest 
two years before. The top of the rock is nearly level, and its 
southern end is buried in the earth of the hill-top, so that one 
can easily walk out to the brink of the precipice (plate 7, fig. 
2). The earth hill itself is quite steep. We spent 45 minutes 



70 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

climbing to the top, and only 15 minutes returning to the 
automobile. 

Just below the top of the hill we flushed a large dark eagle 
from the ground. At the base of the rock, below the nest, we 
found a number of dead oak branches and twigs, the freshly 
broken ends of which showed that they had been brought to 
the nesting place very recently. We lowered the rope ladder 
from the top of the rock until it hung directly in front of the 
nesting ledge. When the bottom of the 50-foot ladder reached 
the foot of the cliff the top of the ladder was about five feet 
above the nest. About 15 feet up from the bottom of the 
cliff is a ledge upon which two men can stand. We both 
climbed to this ledge and Dr. Van Denburg held the ladder 
while I climbed the remaining 30 feet to the nest. It proved 
to be a large one, about four by five feet, and freshly lined 
with dry grass, which had not yet been arranged and pressed 
down to form a cavity. As I descended I noticed old holes 
which had been drilled in the rock near a cleft which extended 
up from the ledge on which we stood. Later we noticed little 
steps cut in the rock below this ledge. These holes and foot- 
holds lead us to believe that this is the same nesting place that 
was robbed by J. R. Chalker in 1887 and 1888, as described in 
'The Ornithologist and Oologist" (XII, No. 6, 1887, pp. 
86-88; XIII, No. 8, 1888, p. 120). 

On March 12 we visited this nest again and took photo- 
graphs of the rock. One eagle soared about the hill and rock 
as we approached, and at one time flew within a few feet of 
the nest. This was found to be in much the same condition 
as on March 3. We returned on March 18. As we drew 
near, an eagle left the nest and disappeared over the top of the 
hill. Having climbed to the nest I discovered one beautiful 
Ggg rather evenly covered with small red spots. The dry 
grass had been smoothed and pressed down, forming a slight 
central cavity. The nest was without any down or green 
decorations. We departed again without seeing the eagle. 

April 4 we returned to the rock. When we were about 100 
yards away the eagle left the nest and silently flew straight 
down the valley. We found but the one egg, evidently a com- 
plete set. This egg weighed 4j^ ounces. Incubation was 
well begun, small bones being just distinguishable on blowing. 



Vol. XVIII] SLEVIN— NESTING HABITS OF GOLDEN EAGLE J\ 

On May 4, 1922, we found this nest, which I shall call No, 7a, 
empty, and no eagles about. This proved to be our last jour- 
ney in quest of the eggs of the Golden Eagle. 



All of the eggs mentioned in this paper and tabulated below 

are now in the collection of the California 

Academy of Sciences. 

Number of Eggs 
Museum Number Field Number in Set Date Collected 

4643 la 1 March ?, 1916 

4649 lb 1 April 6, 1917 

4650 2b 2 March 2, 1918 

4654 2b 2 April 6, 1918 

4660 2b 1 April 10, 1919 

4644 2c 2 March 3, 1917 

4656 2c 2 March 1, 1919 

4645 3b 2 March 4, 1917 

4648 3b 2 April 1, 1917 

4663 3c 2 March 3, 1922 

4665 3d 2 April 20, 1922 

4646 4b 2 March 11, 1917 

4651 4d 3 Mar. 3-17, 1918 

4647 5a 2 March 11, 1917 

4652 5a 2 March 17, 1918 

4657 5a 2 March 16, 1919 

4661 5a 2 March 13, 1920 

4662 6b 3 March 14, 1920 

4655 6c 2 March 20, 1918 

4658 6d 3 March 16, 1919 

4664 7a 1 April 4, 1922 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 3 



[SLEVIN] Plate 4 




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Fiq.4 



Fig. 1. Nest la. 
Fig. 3. Nest 3c. 



Fig. 2. Tree containing nest lb. 
Fig. 4. Nest 4d. 

January 29, 19J9 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 3 



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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

V^OL. XVIII, No. 4, pp. 73-213, plates 8-23 March 29, 1929 



IV 

MARINE MIOCENE AND RELATED DEPOSITS 
OF NORTH COLOMBIA 



BY 

FRANK M. ANDERSON 



Contents 

Page 

Introduction 74 

Post-Eocene Sequence 75 

Poso Series 76 

Structures 82 

Stratigraphic relations 83 

Age of the Poso series 85 

The Miocene Series 86 

Las Perdices group 89 

The Tubera group 91 

Local occturences 93 

Comparison of horizons 95 

Galapa-La Popa group 98 

Pliocene Deposits 99 

Correlations 102 

Description of Species 105 

Gastropoda 106 

Pelecypoda 146 

Foraminif era 179 

March 29, 1929 



74 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

Introduction 

The marine Eocene deposits of northern Colombia have al- 
ready been described in earlier papers^ and therefore require 
only general notice here. For the most part they occupy a 
broad synclinal area between the north coast of Colombia and 
the spurs of the northern Andes lying to the south. In the 
midst of this general syncline which extends for more than 160 
miles, there are pronounced anticlinal folds extending parallel 
with its axis and also with the coast. 

On the southern border of this syncline the Eocene rocks 
outcrop in an irregular zone following the contours of the pre- 
existing ranges and spurs, while upon its northern limb they 
outcrop in disconnected areas along the Caribbean coast from 
the west flank of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta to the 
Gulf of Uraba. A large area of these rocks, for example, lies 
wTSt of the Rio Magdalena, extending north from Arjona 
nearly to the sea, and to the southwest for an unknown dis- 
tance. The "Arjona group" mentioned in a former paper^ 
occupies this area. Farther to the southwest other areas of 
Eocene are found in the Coloso range, in the Cerro de Cispata 
near Lorica, in the Cerros de las Palomas, and in other dis- 
tricts about the head of the Rio Sinu. 

Wherever they are found the Eocene rocks are highly 
folded and are traversed by faults. In some cases they are 
much compressed and distorted, but they are sufficiently fossil 
bearing for identification. 

Post-Eocene Sequence 

The Eocene deposits of Colombia are for the most part, 
especially in the central areas of the syncline, overlaid by a 
sequence of strata of great thickness. In some places these 
later beds overlap the borders of the trough and along its 
coastal side flank it for many miles. While the succeeding 
divisions of this sequence are largely the result of reconnais- 
sance, and only qualitative study can be claimed for them, yet 
it is believed that the more important series are properly dis- 
tinguished, and their position in the column is undoubtedly 

'Anderson, F. M., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 17, 1928, pp. 1-29. 

=< Anderson, F. M., Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol Gaol., Vol. 10, 1926, p. 387. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 75 

correct. The maximum thickness of the post-Eocene fornia- 
tions is as much as 8,000 feet, of which the major part is re- 
ferred to the Miocene, and the remainder, some 3,000 feet, 
may be largely, if not wholly, Oligocene in age. There is as 
yet only an imperfectly defined boundary between the two, 
while in some localities there is evident unconformity, and this 
may later prove to be the general condition. 

In the Carmen-Zambrano section, elsewhere described,^ be- 
tween the proved Eocene and the fossiliferous Miocene above, 
there is a great body of clays, sandy shales and calcareous 
concretionary beds that were tentatively classed as Oligocene. 
Some of the shale in this interval appears to be equivalent to 
the "Bombo shales" of Beck,* while some of the strata may 
be lowermost Miocene, as described later. 

The lower and major part of this sequence, as it occurs 
here and at other points along the Colombian coast, has been 
given in this paper the name of "Poso series/' from the fact 
that in the Sinu region, where it was first recognized, and at 
other points on the north coast, various wells had been drilled 
into it for petroleum. It is well known to contain many seep- 
ages of oil and gas, and other evidences of having commercial 
possibilities as a source of petroleum. 

West of the area of the Arjona rocks referred to above, as 
to the east of Turbaco, a later series of considerable thick- 
ness outcrops over a wide zone, in contact with the Eocene on 
the east and fossil bearing Miocene on the north and west. 
This series is here highly folded into a succession of anticlines 
extending from the railroad northeasterly for some miles. 
The gas vents, mud volcanoes, or the "Turbacos" of von 
Humboldt, have their origin in this series of rocks. 

Its stratigraphic position is between the Eocene and the 
Miocene, and will doubtless find a place in the Poso series as 
described later, though whether the complete series is repre- 
sented here is not known. 

In the column drawn by Elfred Beck (p. 463), the "Huertas 
series" 1,000 feet in thickness, is divided into two nearly equal 
parts by the semblance of an unconformity, though it is not 
mentioned as such. 

sAnderson, F. M., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 17, 1928, p. 11. 
«Beck, Elfred, Econ: Geol., vol. 16, 1921, pp. 453-465. 



76 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The upper portion of the "Huertas series," as shown by the 
fossils, and as observed by the present writer, is properly 
Miocene, belonging to a group which will be described later. 

The lower portion immediately overlies the "Bombo shales," 
with which it appears to have stratigraphic continuity. The 
"Bombo shales" have been shown to be of Oligocene age, 
though this determination applies to not more than 500 feet 
of strata. 

The Poso series. For the purpose of recording some ob- 
servations made in the Tertiary districts of north Colombia in 
1914-1915, and at later dates, and to call out further discus- 
sion of the subject, the following pages have been selected 
from personal notes, reports of assistants, and from various 
data obtained by the writer, covering the general region of the 
Rio Sinii and its environs, which describe in some detail the 
formations that, in the light of present evidence appear to in- 
tervene between the Eocene and the Miocene series. 

From a report by Bruce G. Martin (1914) on the San 
Sebastian district, the following is taken : 

"Unconformably overlying the San Sebastian chert (Eocene), is a series 
of arenaceous and argillaceous sediments to which the name 'Poso series' is 
applied. These beds consist of hard to medium soft, coarse-grained, gray 
sandstone, and sandy clays and a small amount of limestone. Nearly all types 
and colors of sandstone and clay appear to be represented in this series. The 
lithology and sequence of beds can be best described by giving a cross-section 
at right angles to the strike." 

Extending easterly from the Cerro de San Sebastian, Mr. 
Martin's condensed section follows : 

d. Alternating hard coarse sandstone and medium grained, 

sandy shale 1000 feet 

c. Medium soft, fine grained, bluish gray sandstone and 

clay, with some concretionary limestone lenses. . . . 1500 feet 

b. Medium coarse, hard gray sandstone, and medium soft, 

blue or gray sandstone 900 feet 

Total 3400 feet 

Unconformity 
a. San Sebastian cherts, etc. (Eocene). 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA J'J 

His report then continues : 

"In the San Sebastian section all the beds have been folded into a mono- 
cline which dips rather steeply toward the southeast. The sequence of beds, 
as here exposed, continues northward for several miles. In a general way these 
stratigraphic divisions will hold true for the whole area." 

Botli Mr. Martin and John H. Ruckman described a similar 
series between the villages of Cocorilla and Purissima. Mr. 
Ruckman says in part, concerning this district : 

"The oldest rocks in the district are undoubtedly the cherts and hardened 
sandstones of the San Sebastian series (Eocene) which also make up practically 
the entire mass of the Cerro de Cispata. Overlying these, and in turn hidden 

by later deposits, there exists a series of very considerable thickness 

The concretion-bearing shale and limestone on the Lorica-San Antero road 
represents its lower limit. Upon the limestone are sandstones containing many 
large, purplish concretions. They also contain considerable limestone in 
layers, as well as small bits of limestone, possibly representing inclusions from 

strata beneath This series of limestones, shales and sandstones is 

probably, in part at least, equivalent to the Poso series [of Martin]. Over- 
lying the Poso series and overlapping it unconformably upon the San Sebastian 
cherts, there is a rather thin deposit of chert conglomerate, gravels and 
poorly consolidated sands. They are not well exposed northwest of Cocorilla, 
but are unquestionably identical with those farther south near the San Sebas- 
tian hills. Fossils obtained from these beds are comparatively recent forms, 
suggesting correlation with the La Popa (Miocene) group." . . . . 

Mr. Martin, later describing the district bordering on the 
Cispata Bay, and about the north end of the Cerro de Cispata, 
says: 

"The rocks of this district belong to two formations; the oldest geologically 
is the chert formation which makes up the main mass of the Cispata hills. 
. . . . This formation occupies the central part of the hills and probably 
underlies the chert conglomerate exposed in the small hill immediately north 
of San Antero. Unconformably upon this chert lies a varying thickness of 
chert conglomerate and gravelly sandstone. This conglomerate and sandstone 
appear to be several hundred feet thick along the east slope of the Cispata 
hills. The size of the chert fragments decreases in going from the base upwards. 
The sandstone overlying the conglomerate consists almost entirely of small 
grains of chert Overlying the conglomerate and cherty sand- 
stone, probably conformably, is a thick series of sandstones, sandy clays, and 

variously colored soft shales The upper portion of the series 

consists mainly of medium soft, argillaceous sandstone with a small amount 
of thin-bedded shale interstratified with it. These latter beds are well exposed 
along the crest of the San Antero hills. Another belt of mediimi hard sand- 
stone occupies a narrow area near the central part of the map, at the gas 



78 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

springs. The gas escapes from this member of the series The 

two largest areas of Umestone occur in the south central part of the district. 
The medium soft, argillaceous sandstone is represented in yellow, the clays 
and shales in citrine, the basal sandstone and conglomerate in brown, and 
the chert in red. A peculiar featiire of the series is the great lithologic varia- 
tion." .... 

The Poso series was followed southward up the valley of 
the Rio Sinu to above Monteria and along the east flank of 
the Cerros de las Palomas, where sandstones predominate in 
great thickness. At a locality 12 miles northwest of Cerete 
the formations are almost exclusively sandstones, often very 
siliceous, as if derived from underlying cherts. They stand 
at high angles with a strike of N. 70° E., and a dip of not less 
than 45° to the northwest. Mr. K. D. White, who visited this 
district after the writer's visit, says, in part : 

"All exposures of rock seen were phases of sandstone. In fact, no outcrops 
of pure shale were found. The lowest bed, forming the center of the anticline, 
is massive gray, micaceous sandstone, with interstratified layers of grit, also 
massive in bedding. The grit members have layers of conglomerate that are 
typically millstone grit. The entire series is ferruginous; above the grit beds 
the sandstones become finer grained, more compact and siliceous. Many 
seepages of petroleum issue from these sandstones." .... 

Concerning a locality some 12 miles west of Cerete, Mr. 
Martin says : 

"All the rocks observed are of sedimentary origin. They consist of shale, 
soft, sandy clays, fine and coarse grained sandstone, and conglomerate. . . . 
Thin layers of conglomerate and grit can be seen closely associated with fine 
sandstone and clay. The colors of these rocks vary from very light gray 

through blue, gray and yellowish gray to brown The rocks are 

well stratified in general, although in places the strata are so greatly crushed 
that the bedding could not be distinguished from fracture planes. The inclin- 
ation of the strata varies considerably Owing to [this fact] no 

well defined folds could be distinguished. In the vicinity of the gas and oil 
springs, where more detailed work was done the beds have been crushed 
and twisted to such a degree that it becomes impossible to recognize any 

definite structure The oil here appears to be seeping from 

greatly crushed clay shale and fine-grained sandstone. Some of the rock 
fragments have a strong odor of petroleum. The gas springs consist of eight 
or ten small vents from which small quantities of inflammable gas, water and 

mud are escaping Small mud cones from one to three feet high 

have been built up about the vents." .... 

Farther south and nearly west of Monteria, on the east 
flank of the Palomas range, the beds are less sandy and show 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 79 

a disposition to become shaley, but they exhibit the same 
structural conditions as before. Mr. Martin, who worked in 
this district, reports in part : 

"The younger beds consist of grits, massive sandstone, soft shaley sand- 
stone, and soft mudstones. The grits and massive sandstone are hard and 
usually thick-bedded. The shaley sandstones and mudstones are thin-bedded 

and greatly fractured The rocks are so arranged that three or 

four distinct lithologic divisions can be distinguished." . , , . 

His report divides the strata of this district as follows : 

1. An upper shale and sandstone member 1500 feet 

2. A sandstone and grit member 2000 feet 

3. A basal shale member 1500 feet 

Total 6000 feet 

The upper member of this section is probably later in age 
than the Poso series, and may be Miocene. The lower mem- 
bers are undoubtedly referable to this series. They are of a 
dark bluish or gray color, are considerably indurated, and are 
much folded and faulted. The strike is N. 20° E., and the in- 
clination is from 45° to 75°. 

There are two or more closely folded anticlines in the area 
examined and several seepages of petroleum and gas. Con- 
cerning these structures, Mr. Martin's report continues : 

"Along the axes of the folds the strata are often vertical. In going across 
the strike away from the axis the inclination gradually decreases, until dips 

as low as 10° are sometimes found The sequence of beds is similar 

over the entire area. Near the axis shales occur in every case. The petroletun 
[and gas] usually comes out with more or less acrid or sulphurous water, and 
accumulates on the spot as black asphaltiun, the gas springs often forming 
small mounds of mud, or 'mud volcans'." 

After an excursion made into the Palomas range, some 30 
miles southwest of Monteria, Mr. Ruckman reported : 

"Many interesting seepages of oil and gas were found together with many 

mud volcanoes, characteristic of this region No igneous or 

schistose rocks were observed, while jasper and chert occur only as float 
from the Palomas range." 

After describing the sedimentary beds from which the oil 
and gas were issuing, the report continues : 



8Q CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

"This series [of strata] .... is almost certainly Mr. Martin's 
'Poso series.' It is made up of a highly folded series of fine, thin-bedded, or 
massive, micaceous sandstone, and fine, rather hard, blue-black shale con- 
taining calcareous concretions and occasional lenses of limestone. Fragments 
of chert and limestone, similar to those in the Cerro de Cispata, forming several 
types of conglomerate were noted along the streams draining the Palomas 
mountains. The petroleimi of all the seepages noted was associated with the 

shale On the Quebrada Matamoras there is a very fine seepage 

of light oil. The oil comes directly from the shale, and evaporates, leaving 

only a stain on the shale The seepages extend for 600 feet along 

the creek, issuing with some gas. The bedrock is almost entirely shale standing 
nearly vertical, the lowest dip being 45° toward the Palomas mountains, 
suggesting an overturn." 

Rocks of the Poso series occur also near San Andres, 
though not in the thickness noted in the foregoing quotations. 
At a point on the San Andres-Momil road, some three miles 
east of the former place, an outcrop of these beds was noted 
in 1915. They consist of thin-bedded, dark, sometimes green- 
ish-gray clay shales and nodular, or concretionary, limestones. 
In places they are gravelly, with pebbles of hard, dark, si- 
liceous rocks, such as occur in the underlying Tofeme member 
of the Eocene. These shales have a strike of N. 30° E., and 
dip rather steeply to the southeast. They are overlaid by a 
brown or rusty-colored sandstone having a similar strike and 
dip, which, upon further observation, appears to rest uncon- 
formably upon the older series. These sandstone beds are 
fossiliferous, and belong unquestionably to the Miocene (Tu- 
bera) group, later described. These two formations are 
probably represented by the two portions of the "Huertas 
series" of Beck. 

On the coastward side of the Palomas range, the Cerro de 
Cispata, and the Coloso range, the Poso series is exposed in 
many localities. At the west foot of the Coloso range there 
is a series of somewhat indurated, dark tlay shales, sand- 
stones, and hard conglomerate, without fossils, as far as 
observed, folded into a sharply compressed syncline in which 
the aggregate thickness of strata is not less than 2,500 feet. 
This section was visited by Mr. Martin and the writer in 1914, 
and the conclusion was reached that the series was identical 
with the Poso series of his earlier report. The strike of the 
beds is roughly parallel with the general line of the coast, or 
nearly northeast and southwest. Seepages of oil were found 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA gj^ 

here issuing from shales near the base of the series, as is 
usually the case. 

Similar beds occur about Cispata Bay to the north and west 
of the Cerro de Cispata, and here too are found seepages of 
gas smelling of petroleum. 

The same series outcrops near Paso Nuevo and at other 
points along the coast. A few miles to the southeast of Moni- 
tos, beneath the sandy beds of the Miocene, which here follow 
the coast, standing at a high angle, there are hard, dark- 
colored shales and sandstones, also highly inclined (60° to 
75°), striking parallel to the coast line, and overlying the 
Eocene. Their observed thickness was estimated at 1,500 
feet, though it is probably more. Beneath are fossiliferous 
beds of Eocene age, and above are the Miocene sandstones 
with molluscan fossils. 

The shales here described have elsewhere been called the 
"Monitos shales," probably representing the Oligocene. 

Crossing the Rio Canalete somewhat above its mouth, and 
extending thence into the hills to the east of Cordoba, on the 
Rio Cordoba, there is a series of dark clay shales and sand- 
stones from which issue many seepages of light oil. This 
series is not only highly folded and perhaps faulted, but, more- 
over, the strata are much crushed and crumpled and in places 
reduced to a structureless complex. Overlying these beds 
along the coast and extending to the Bay of Arboletes, there 
are steeply inclined Miocene sandstones and shales with many 
well preserved fossils. 

Near the Bay of Arboletes and near the contact of the two 
sedimentary series is the great "mud volcano" of this district, 
rising about 75 feet above the coastal terrace, and covering 
some 40 acres of area. Much gas escapes from the pool of 
mud at the top, smelling strongly of petroleum. Not far away 
outcrop the underlying shales in which are found seepages of 
oil, and which are probably the source of the gas. The same 
body of shales extends along the coast for some miles toward 
the Gulf of Uraba. That this series of shales and standstones 
from which issue the oil and gas belongs to the Poso series 
there can scarcely be a doubt, although no fossils were found 
in it. 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

A nearly parallel zone of the same series of strata crosses 
the Quebrada del Aguila, a tributary of the Rio Canalete, 
about 15 miles east of the Bay of Arboletes. The locality is 
known as El Aguila, and is on the coast side of the Palomas 
range. Here hard sandstones and shales are well exposed, 
though much broken and faulted, and standing at a high angle. 
Five or six miles south of El Aguila similar shales and sand- 
stones are exposed in the bed of a small stream, and are less 
broken by faulting. The strike is about N. 30° E., and the dip 
is not less than 75° to the northwest. About 1,000 feet of 
strata are exposed here, from which seepages of oil and gas 
are issuing. Three miles to the north are the mud volcanoes 
of San Diego, which cover not less than 40 acres of area. 
These vents have brought to the surface many fragments of 
hard sandstone, calcite, limonite, lignite and other mineral 
debris. The water escaping with the gas is slightly saline. 

Many other examples of these formations could be given, 
though they seem unnecessary. One of their chief characteris- 
tics is the presence in them of seepages of petroleum and gas, 
and the accompaniment of the well-known mud volcanoes of 
this region. This characteristic, together with their frequent 
stratigraphic position between Eocene rocks below and often 
fossiliferous Miocene beds above, serves for their identification 
even where stratigraphic evidence is not complete. 

The oil is believed to be largely indigenous, though in part 
it may have originated in the underlying Eocene formations, 
which contain foraminiferal and other organic strata, and in 
some places are bituminous, though to a less degree than the 
strata of the Poso series. 

Structures. The structural conditions of the Poso series 
have been already suggested in the foregoing notes and quota- 
tions. As a whole the series is highly folded, if not faulted, 
and it has been much denuded subsequent to its folding. In 
the range of foothills west of the Rio Sinu, where the series was 
most studied, there are found two or more somewhat com- 
pressed anticlines with intervening synclines on the east slope 
of the Palomas range, and as many on the westward, or coast 
slope of the same. Such a fold is found in the vicinity of 



Vol. XVIIIJ ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA §3 

Arboletes Bay, and another farther inland. Still others are 
known in the vicinity of El Aguila and the Lorencita. 

Within these highly folded areas of the Poso series other 
strata both older and younger are involved, and in such cases 
the boundaries are often uncertain. In fact it would not be 
easy to disentangle the several series even were the country 
less covered with jungle and more accessible by roads than 
it is. 

The amount of faulting that has affected these Tertiary 
areas is not known, though there are many evidences that 
faulting even on a large scale has disturbed various sections of 
the country. One such fault has long been recognized, and 
appears in the section drawn by Beck (p. 465). This is 
probably the fault that traverses the west foot of the Coloso 
range, and is known as the "Bolivar fault." The full extent 
of this fault has not been ascertained, though it is not confined 
to the locality of the Coloso range. It extends from here 
southward toward Monteria, and northward toward San 
Cayetano, and may even connect with the faulting west of 
Arenal and of Usiacuri. 

Stratigraphic relations. The stratigraphic relations of the 
Poso series to the beds above and below have already been 
suggested in the foregoing paragraphs. Near Lorica in the 
Cerro de Cispata as well as in the Cerro de San Sebastian, the 
Poso series is found resting unconformably upon, or against, 
the cherts and other rocks of the Eocene. Along the west foot 
of the Coloso range the Bolivar fault complicates the problem 
by cutting the formations near the line of boundary between 
the Eocene and the Poso series, yet the lithologic contrast in 
the two is easily recognized. Also in the conglomerates of the 
latter are found many pebbles and boulders of the cherts that 
characterize the former. No other source than the strata of 
the Eocene appears to be possible for the pebbles of chert and 
jasper found in the conglomerates of the Poso series, and this 
fact, in the absence of direct evidence as to the age of the lat- 
ter, is sufficient to show that this series is at least post-Eocene. 

On the other hand, the Eocene is often richly fossiliferous 
in both Mollusca and Foraminifera, while the Poso series, 
with the exception of certain genera of the latter, is rather 



84 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

poor in fossil remains. In the section drawn by Werenfels^ 
for the district of Toluviejo, which possibly applies equally 
well to that of the lower Sinu valley, the "Toluviejo series," 
with its fauna of Lepidocyclina and Numulites species, is ten- 
tatively placed by him in the upper Eocene, though most of the 
genera mentioned in his text seem to have been found in the 
middle Oligocene of Santo Domingo.^ The "Pacini shales" 
of his section, for which he estimates a thickness of over 3,200 
feet, are possibly in part within the Poso series of the present 
paper, and, moreover, he assigns them to the Oligocene. The 
lower part of the Poso series, as found near San Antero, con- 
sists of calcareous concretionary shales as shown by Mr. 
Ruckman. 

The stratigraphic relations of his several "series," one to the 
other, are not stated by Werenfels, nor are they indicated in 
his section. It is not possible, therefore, to fix their position 
in the scale of the present plan with much confidence, though 
some suggestions may be offered regarding them. The cor- 
relation of the lower part of the Beck column with his "Pacini 
shales" appears to be erroneous, since the Tofeme formation 
of Beck is undoubtedly Eocene in age, as shown in a former 
paper.^ May it not be possible that the "Toluviejo series" 
of Werenfels is only the lower part of the Poso series, and 
that the "Pacini shales" correspond to the upper part? 

R. H. Liddle has given a "Composite geologic column" for 
western Venezuela,® in which the "Oligocene" strata of the 
Maracaibo basin are shown as having a maximum thickness 
of 5,500 feet, of which the Pauji shales, the lower part, con- 
stitute more than half. 

Only a few mollusks and Foraminifera (chiefly Lepido- 
cyclina) are mentioned to "indicate that the fomiation is of 
marine and not of deltaic origin." 

This group is followed historically by an uplift and erosion 
interval, while upon it, in some places, rests 1,000 feet of mas- 
sive coralline limestone and sandy beds, the San Luis forma- 
tion. Overlying this group is that of the Agua Clara shales, 

" Werenfels, A., Eclogae geol. Helvet., vol. 20, 1926, pp. 81-83. 

« Vaughan, T. W., and Woodring, W. P., Geol. Surv. Domin. Rep., Mem. vol. 1, 
1921, pp. 107, 108, etc. 

^Anderson, F. M., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 17, 1928, p. 4. 

« Liddle, R. A. The Geology of Venezuela, etc. 1928, pp. 54, 241, etc. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA g5 

sometimes 1,500 feet in thickness. These are described as 
"dark-gray, sandy, micaceous, locally very fossiliferous shales, 
which gradually become more sandy toward the top," and 
passing without visible structural break into the Cerro Pelado 
formation (Miocene) consisting of "massive or flaggy and 
shaley sandstones interbedded with arenaceous lignitic shale." 
Each of these groups is discussed at length in the body of the 
book, and some indications given as to the faunas of each, to- 
gether with notes as to their correlations. 

Without offering any final judgment as to the faunas and 
the correctness of the correlations, it may be remarked in pass- 
ing that the lists of molluscan genera and species given as 
representing the Agua Clara formation suggest its Miocene 
age, rather than Oligocene, and its equivalence, in part at 
least, to the Tubera group described later. These remarks do 
not apply, however, to the whole of the San Luis formation, 
which, according to Liddle, seems to be conformably overlaid 
by the Agua Clara group. 

Concerning the Pauji shales, and possibly a part of the San 
Luis formation, with the large Foraminifera Lepidocyclina 
species, there should be less question as to their Oligocene age. 
Their stratigraphic body and their fauna both seem compar- 
able to the middle Oligocene of Santo Domingo, as described 
by Vaughan and Woodring.® 

Along the Colombian north coast the Poso series described 
in the preceding pages is regarded as directly comparable to 
the latter, and therefore, also to the Pauji shales and related 
strata of western Venezuela. 

Age of the Poso scries. Unconformable relations between 
the Poso series and the underlying Eocene have already been 
shown at the type locality of the former near San Sebastian, 
and in the Cerro de Cispata northwest of Lorica. In the con- 
glomerates of the Poso series on the east slope of the Cerros 
de Las Palomas are found the cherts and other rocks of the 
underlying Eocene. Such facts are noted in other parts of the 
country. 

• Vaughan, T. W., and Woodring, W. P., Geol. Surv. Domin. Rep., Mem. vol. 1, 
1921, pp. 107-108. 



g^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Similar relations between the Poso series and the overlying 
Miocene were also pointed out in certain localities. Local 
evidence of such unconformity was found near Lorica as is 
shown in the report of Mr. John H. Ruckman, and near San 
Andres as noted on a preceding page. 

As for the definite assignment of the Poso series to the 
Oligocene at the present time there is some reservation. It 
may be in part Miocene, though there are reasons for believing 
that the larger part of it is older. The series as a whole is 
clearly post-Eocene as has been said, and in view of the occur- 
rence of undisputed Oligocene in other Antillean regions it 
should be expected to occur here also in commensurate volume. 

The general absence of molluscan fossils, which are abun- 
dant in the Miocene of north Colombia, the more varied 
lithology of the Poso series, as contrasted with the known 
Miocene, the frequent occurrence of petroleum or its indica- 
tions, not observed in the Miocene, and other features that 
could be mentioned, all suggest not only a different but older 
age than the Miocene of either of the groups that are de- 
scribed below. 



The Miocene Series 

Regarding the occurrence of Miocene deposits in Colombia, 
there is more satisfactory evidence than that regarding the Olig- 
ocene. On the geologic map of North America Willis shows later 
Tertiary deposits widely distributed over the northern parts of 
South America, particularly in the valley of the Orinoco, about 
Lake Maracaibo and in the valleys of northern Colombia, ex- 
tending far into the interior of the country, along the Magda- 
lena, the Cauca, the San Jorge and the Cesar rivers, about the 
Gulf of Uraba and along the west coast. Thence they extend 
into other countries bordering the Caribbean Sea. 

The areas actually covered by Neocene deposits in Colombia 
are much smaller than that shown on the map, and strictly are 
confined to relatively narrow zones along the coasts and along 
some of the larger rivers. For example, marine deposits of 
Neocene age do extend along the valley of the Magdalena in 
more or less continuity to the delta areas at the mouths of the 
Rios Sogamoso and Carare, where marine deposits give place 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA g/ 

to only partly marine in the Oponcito group. Above this the 
Miocene deposits are continuous but transitional in character 
until they connect with the non-marine deposits of the Barza- 
losa group of the upper Magdalena previously described. ^° 

A part of the marine Miocene strata of northern Colombia 
has already been described in earlier papers, though not the 
entire series. In fact, no complete statement of the marine 
sequence or of its distribution can be made at present. As for 
their distribution, the known Miocene deposits extend east- 
ward from the Gulf of Uraba along the Colombian coast to 
the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and beyond this range 
they occur again near Rio Hacha, and according to accounts 
they extend from there southward into the valley of the Rio 
Cesar, very possibly to its mouth where it connects with the 
Magdalena. At any rate they are believed to fill the entire 
valley above its mouth. 

Washburn and White^^ have given a thick section of Terti- 
ary sediments as occurring in the valley of the Rio Cesar, a 
large part of which is given a position between the lower 
Tertiary and the late Pliocene, but as no reference is made to 
fossils, it is impossible to conjecture what portion of the Mi- 
ocene column is represented in the section. 

Huntley and Mason" also give an immense section of pre- 
sumably marine Miocene strata (after Bossier) as occurring 
in southwestern Colombia along the Pacific coast. Some of 
the sandy shales contain fossils, but there is no attempt to in- 
dicate what part of the Miocene they represent, if, indeed, it 
is known. 

Eastward from the Gulf of Uraba the marine Miocene de- 
posits are not quite continuous, and are, moreover, involved 
with older formations and are known only in part, as will be 
shown later. 

Along the lower stretches of the Magdalena north of 
Mompos fossiliferous marine Miocene deposits underlie most 
of the surface, but in turn are also overlaid by later deposits, 
partly land-laid and partly marine. From the Magdalena the 

"Anderson, F. M., Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., vol. 38, 1927, pp. 612, etc. 

" Washburn, C, and White, K. D., Tr. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Eng., vol. 68, 
1923, p. 1026. 

" Huntley, L. G., and Mason, S., Tr. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Eng., vol. 68, 
1923, p. 1018. 



88 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Miocene deposits extend westward into the valley of the Rio 
San Jorge, and from there they pass into the valley of the 
Sinu, which they occupy in part. About the lower 
Sinu valley they enter into the composition of the lower hills 
near the coast, and possibly connect with the deposits along 
the coast about the Gulf of Morrosquillo. Miocene deposits 
overlie the Poso series near San Onofre and southward from 
this village toward Tolu and the Bay of Cispata. Along the 
coast to the southwest of Cispata Bay they appear again near 
Punta Piedras, Monitos, Bruquelles, Mangle, the Bay of Ar- 
boletes and farther toward the Gulf of Uraba, and along the 
Atrato river. 

In all these points beyond the Bay of Cispata the strata 
stand at a high angle dipping toward the sea, and with a strike 
nearly parallel with the coast line. For the most part they 
appear to be only sparingly fossiliferous, though enough fos- 
sils have been found for the definite determination of the mid- 
dle part of the Miocene. On the Ouebrado de Murindo, a 
tributary of the Rio Canalete, some 15 miles from the coast, 
fossiliferous beds occur, standing at high angles, as will be 
described later, from which numerous molluscan species have 
been obtained. 

In the districts about the lower Magdalena the Miocene 
deposits attain a great development, and a thickness much in 
excess of that found by the writer in other parts of the Co- 
lombian coast. In a former estimate of an incomplete section 
to the west of the river the thickness was given as 5,400 feet, 
or more. Other writers have given the thickness of the 
Miocene series in certain parts of the country as near 8,000 
feet, but without detailed infonnation as to the strata or the 
contained faunas. 

Later study of the section in the district west of Barran- 
quilla necessitates some modification of the divisions formerly 
proposed, since the apparent thickness is somewhat increased 
by faulting. 

Briefly, three distinct groups of strata have been recognized 
here as shown below, of which the central group constitutes 
at least half the entire series as known at present. They are 
approximately, as follows: 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA gg 

Galapa (La Popa) group 1650 feet 

Tuberd group 2650 feet 

Las Perdices group 1000 feet 

Total 5300 feet 

Las Perdices group. In the earlier statement^' referred to 
above there is a brief description of some 400 feet of strata 
outcropping near Las Perdices; about 15 miles west of Bar- 
ranquilla, which appeared to be of Miocene age, but which also 
appeared to be separated from the overlying Tubera group by 
a disconformity. No definite name was proposed for these 
beds, but in the present paper the above name is proposed. 
The group as here exposed consists of clay shales, sandy shales 
and hard cherty, or siliceous beds and some sandstone. 

The shales contain at this locality a few species of Mollusca, 
scales of fishes and bone fragments, sponge spicules and 
numerous Foraminifera, as mentioned in the former account. 
Samples of these shales were examined by Dr. G. Dallas 
Hanna, and his note regarding these forms is here included 
for completeness : 

"The shales contain a very considerable number of fossils, the groups 
being represented about as follows in order of abundance: (1) Radiolaria; 
(2) Diatomaceae; (3) Foraminifera; (4) Sponges; other organisms are scarce. 
There has been pyritization to a considerable extent and many of the chambers 
of the fossils are filled with iron sulphide. A great many of the diatoms have 
been replaced entirely and internal casts of the frustules are abundant. 
Coscinodiscus was the only genus definitely identified in this group. Many 
of the genera and some of the species of Radiolaria are the same as have been 
found in the famous deposit on Barbados Island and which Payne has put 
definitely in the Miocene. Some of the genera are: Stylodictya, Histiaslrum, 
Siylosphcera and Eucyrtidium. Foraminifera are scattered rather sparingly 
through the mass of the material, the common genera being: Glohigerina, 
Orbulina, Lagena, Truncatulina, Cassidulina, Nodosaria, Anomalina, Fron- 
dicularia, Plectofrondicularia and Bolovina. It is believed that these organisms 
oflfer a means whereby a definite correlation can be made with strata of known 
age elsewhere. This preliminary examination indicates that the formation 
lies very close to the base of the Miocene, if, in fact, it is not the lowermost 
part of the sediments of that period." 

A few miles to the north of this locality and west of Puerto 
Colombia, similar shales are exposed along the sea cliffs for a 
mile or more, with a strike of nearly east to west, and a dip 

"Anderson, F. M., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 16, 1927, p. 88. 

March 29, 1929 



90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

toward the south of 40° to 60°, and are here overlaid by fos- 
siliferous sandstones of the succeeding group, which also dip 
southward. The underlying shales contain a variety of micro- 
organisms, among which are Foraminifera, scales of fishes, 
the following molluscan fauna and coral : 

Cancellaria, new species. Turris albida (Perry) 

Afi/ra maMry« Anderson, new species , Cassis {Phalium) dalli Anderson, 

Scobinella moriereiQ) (Laville) new species 

Polinices prolactea Anderson, new Drillia eupora Dall 

species Dentalium granadanum Anderson, 
Psammobia (Gari ?) new species 

Cyathomorpha sp. 

While most of the species are new, and therefore not at 
present serviceable for correlation, yet they are definitely of 
Miocene aspect; a few of them indicate a low position in this 
series. From the stratigraphic evidence they clearly belong 
beneath the Tubera group, and are regarded as a northward 
extension of the Las Perdices group. 

Some 10 miles to the west of Barranquilla, and extending 
to the southwest, the lowest beds of the Miocene are brought 
to the surface along the axes of a series of anticlinal folds, 
faulted in part, extending from near Puerto Colombia to the 
vicinity of Cienega de Oro, a total distance of over 100 miles. 
Beds believed to be Oligocene are also brought up beneath the 
Miocene. 

Near the village of Usiacuri the lowest beds exposed con- 
sist of clay shales, shaley sandstone, and calcareous layers, in 
all some 600 feet in thickness which constitute a distinct strati- 
graphic group. These strata are here rather poor in molluscan 
remains, though microscopic marine organisms have been 
noticed in some of them. From such remains as have been 
found they are believed to be Miocene in age, and in part 
equivalent to those exposed along the beach west of Puerto 
Colombia, and at Las Perdices, or in other words to represent 
the Las Perdices group, as described above. 

Near the top of this group at Usiacuri, springs of sulphur- 
ous water issue from the strata, which give to this village its 
repute as a health resort. The water is bottled and sold in the 
neighboring towns as a health beverage. Here the lower 
group terminates above by a lithologic change in the character 



Vot. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA gi 

of the sediments, which become suddenly more sandy, and at 
the same time they also acquire a rich fauna of marine 
Mollusca. 

The line of separation between the Las Perdices group and 
the succeeding group here is probably near the springs of sul- 
phurous water, or immediately below the village, which is 
situated on the east flank of the fold. No angular uncon- 
formity in the strata was found here, though it is suggested by 
the lithologic change, the abrupt appearance of the marine 
Mollusca, and by the springs of sulphurous water. 

The thickness of the Las Perdices group is not at present 
known, though between Usiacuri and the axis of the fold to 
the west the exposed thickness of strata is probably not less 
than 1,000 feet. In other parts of the country it is believed to 
be greater. 

From a comparison of the three localities thus far studied it 
can be said that a disconformity is indicated, and that it 
probably can be fully demonstrated by further work in this 
field. 

Olsson described a disconformity between the Uscari for- 
mation of Costa Rica and the overlying Gatun,^* and an over- 
lap of the latter upon the older rocks of the region. Similar 
relations exist with regard to the Tubera group as was shown 
by Mr. Ruckman's account of the district about the lower Sinu 
valley. The stratigraphic position of this disconformity in the 
Colombian Miocene seems to be lower than the base of the 
Gatun group as found in the Canal Zone. However, this dis- 
conformity has not been shown to exist in the Canal Zone, 
unless the Emperador limestone should prove to belong prop- 
erly to a higher horizon than has usually been conceded for it. 
Vaughan has suggested that it may possibly find a place 
among the equivalents of the Langhian (Burdigalian) of 
Europe.'^^ May it not also be possible that the Uscari forma- 
tion of Olsson and the Las Perdices group of the present 
paper, when fully known, will find a similar place in the se- 
quence of Antillean stratigraphy ? 

The Tubera group. In the earlier paper to which reference 
has been made the writer gave a brief summary of the 

" Olsson, A. A., Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 784. ^^I 

"Vaughan, T. W., Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., vol. 3S, 1924, p. 731. '. 



92 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Colombian marine Miocene deposits as found in the vicinity of 
the lower Magdalena valley. On the basis of its fossil zones 
it was divided into horizons, lettered respectively from M to T 
in ascending order. 

The name Tub era group was first suggested for this 
sequence of strata in 1926^"^ but without any definite delimita- 
tion. Later the name was employed in a more definite treat- 
ment/^ and while recognizing the three distinct fossil ho- 
rizons, namely M - N, P, and R, the faunal contents of only the 
lower, M - N, was given, consisting of some 64 species of Mol- 
lusca. A tentative correlation of this and the succeeding ho- 
rizons was suggested, but without elaboration, since for the 
two upper horizons no faunal lists were given. 

The sequence of strata embraced in the Tubera group has a 
thickness of not less than 2,650 feet. It consists for the most 
part of incoherent sandstones and sandy shales, divisible into 
some local lithologic members, though none that seems to have 
any great areal extent. No conspicuous and essentially organic 
members have been discovered. 

The fossil horizons probably have greater geographic range 
and stratigraphic value. The group is well represented about 
Tubera mountain and its environs, whence the name. Of the 
sequence forming this group, horizon M - N is, at its type lo- 
cality, confined to the lower 550 feet. Horizon R falls within 
the upper 600 feet, while horizon P occupies a position near 
the middle, and is probably embraced within a stratigraphic 
range of 300 to 400 feet. 

Between these several horizons the beds are somewhat bar- 
ren of fossils, in the immediate district about Tubera moun- 
tain, and in fact as far as known elsewhere along the coast. 

In its geographic distribution the Tubera group extends 
over a wide region, and it appears to represent the more usual 
facies of the Colombian Miocene, whereas the older group has 
been definitely detected only within restricted areas. Within 
the limits of north Colombia this group lias been recognized 
at such distant points as the Gulf of Uraba, Arboletes Bay, 
Rio Canalete, Lorica, San Andres, Zambrano, El Banco, Tur- 
baco, Cartagena, Punta Pua, Tubera mountain, and along the 

"Anderson, F. M., Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 10, 1926, pp. 387 & 399. 
"Anderson, F. M., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 16, 1927, pp. 87-90. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 93 



west flank of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. However, 
it is believed to extend much farther, as into the valleys of the 
Rio San Jorge and the Rio Cesar. Only a few of the locali- 
ties in which the group occurs can be considered in detail at 
the present time. 

Local occurrences. Among the several districts in which 
the Tubera group has been proved is that of the upper drain- 
age of the Quebrada Murindo, a tributary of the Rio Canalete 
draining the west slope of the Las Palomas range. The district 
lies some 12 to 15 miles from the coast and somewhat farther 
from Monteria. Mr. K. D. White, who visited this district, de- 
scribes in detail a sharply folded anticline traversing it in a 
north to south direction, on the opposite sides of which he 
gives stratigraphic sections respectively 3,000 and 5,000 feet 
in thickness. Of these B - B is much the less complete, since it 
does not reach the axis of the fold. Section C - C crosses the 
axis upon which are found various seepages of oil, not found 
on the other. 

Of the latter section some 2,300 feet of the lower part is not 
fossiliferous. Fossils are found throughout section B - B, but 
through only the upper part, 2,700 feet, of section C - C. 
These sections are respectively represented by the numbers 
354 and 355, from which were obtained the following partial 
lists of species : 



Loc. 354 (C. A. S.) 
Pitaria tryoniana (Gabb) 
Cardium dominicense Gabb 
Cardium venuslum (?) Gabb 
Chatna scheibei Anderson 
Pecien vaginulus (?) (Dall) 
Cyclinella gatunensis Dall 
Conus consobrinus Sowerby 
Conus molis Brown & Pilsbry 
Turritella altilira Conrad 
Fusinus henekeni (Sowerby) 
Terebra cirra Dall 
Serpulorbis sp. 



Loc. 355 (C. A. S.) 
Pitaria cora (Brown & Pilsbry) 
Cardita scabricostala Guppy 
Cardium lingualeonis (?) Guppy 
Cyclinella gatunensis Dall 
Tellina cibaoica (?) Maury 
Area trinitaria Guppy 
Polinices subclausa Sowerby 
Oliva gatunensis Toula 
Potamides avus Brown & Pilsbry 
Bullaria paupercula Sowerby 
Strombus proximus Sowerby 
Strombina sp. 



Many other species could be added to these lists, but the 
number is perhaps sufficient. The lithologic character of the 
strata from which they come is similar to that of the Tubera 



94 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

group, and is in contrast with the underlying barren beds in 
which the seepages of oil occur along the axis of the fold. 

Near San Andres the Tubera group is represented by sun- 
dry localities, containing representative species, as the 
following : 

Loc. 302 (C. A. S.), four miles Loc. 303 (C. A. S.), three miles 

south of San Andres east of San Andres 

CylichneUa gatunensis Dall Chione walli Guppy 

Mactrella elegans (Sowerby) Tellina gatunensis (Toula) 

Natica guppy ana Toula Surcula servata Conrad 

Architectonica gatunensis (?) Toula Area sp. 

Loc. 350 (C. A. S.) Arboletes Bay 
Tivela mactroides (Bom) Bullaria paupercula (Sowerby) 

Cardium lingualeonis Guppy Olivella indivisa Guppy 

Cardium haitense Sowerby Potamides avus Brown & Pilsbry 

Chione mactropsis (Conrad) Bittium adele Dall 

At the hamlet Jesus del Monte, between Carmen and Zam- 
brano, near the base of the Miocene were obtained : 

Turris albida (Perry) Natica guppyana (?) Toula 

Cancellaria sp. Turritella altilira (?) Conrad 

Area sp. Glycymeris sp. 

At the village of El Banco on the Rio Magdalena, some 170 
miles above Barranquilla, a zone of crystalline rocks crosses 
the course of the stream. On the east flank of this zone at the 
mouth of the Rio Cesar, and immediately beneath the village, 
there are soft yellowish brown sandstones overlaid by blue 
clay shales forming a part of a thicker series which presum- 
ably rests upon the pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks, which 
crosses the river to the west. The sandstones have a gentle 
dip, 6° to 8°, to the eastward. One stratum is largely com- 
posed of broken and decomposed marine shells, but beneath 
this are standstones from which better preserved fossils may 
be obtained. Only a few species were collected, but a number 
of genera were recognized in these beds, including. Area, 
Glycymeris, Chione, Ostrea, Anomia, Pecten, Olivella, Tur- 
ritella, Terebra, Phos, Polinices and many others. None of 
the species characteristic of the lower horizon of the Tubera 
group were found, while nearly all of them were such as are 
found abundantly in the higher beds, horizon P of this group. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 95 

In view of the occurrence of the older crystalline rocks to 
the west, and the easterly dip of the Miocene beds, this occur- 
rence may be regarded as belonging to the Tertiary area of the 
valley of the Rio Cesar, rather than to that of the lower Magda- 
lena. The crystalline rocks here may be interpreted as form- 
ing a connecting link between the pre-Tertiary area of the 
Sierra Nevada and that of the Cordillera Central, as stated 
elsewhere. 

Comparison of horizons. At most places in Colombia where 
the Miocene beds have been noted by other writers they have 
been indiscriminately mentioned as representing the Gatun 
formation of the Canal Zone, though the definite basis for 
this view has not been given. However, in truth, most of 
the accessible exposures do represent horizons above that of 
M - N, the lowest part of the Tubera group. Whether this 
fact is due to overlap of the later horizons beyond the limits 
of the lower, or to other circumstances of deposition can not' 
now be stated. 

On the basis of faunal content only the middle portion of 
the Tubera group should be regarded as the equivalent of the 
Gatun formation of the Canal Zone. The expansion of the name 
"Gatun" to include all of the Miocene sequence, even where the 
sequence is a conformable series, does not appear to the writer 
as justifiable. 

The number of molluscan species obtained from the entire 
group by the writer has not exceeded 165, though from lists 
published by Dr. Pilsbry and others the total number could be 
considerably increased. Of the entire number obtained 38 
species are added in the present contribution as new species, 
and doubtless many others will subsequently be found. 

The stratigraphic range of many of these forms is of course 
not known at present. Some of them doubtless range 
throughout the Miocene while others are of short stratigraphic 
duration. 

For the purpose of correlation a list of 86 of the better 
known species have been selected from the total number as 
being most representative. This list segregates the species as 
to horizons, as far as known at present. Little more than a 
tentative attempt is claimed for the segregated lists as they 
here appear. 



96 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Species 



Terebra sulcifera Sowerby 

Terebra gatunensis Toula 

Terebra cirra Dall 

Terebra haitensis Dall 

Terebra bipartita Sowerby 

Conus sewalli Maury 

Conus imitator Brown & Pils 

Conus molis Brown & Pils 

Conus recognitus Guppy 

Conus planiliratus Sowerby 

Conus stenostomus Sowerby 

Turris albida (Perry) 

Drillia eupora Dall 

Cancellaria dariena Toula 

Cancellaria guppyi Gabb 

Cancellaria cossmanni Olsson 

Turritella altilira Conrad 

Turritella perattenuata Heilp 

Turritella fredeai Hodson 

Turritella mimetes Brown & Pils 

Turritella gatunensis Conrad 

Turritella cartagenensis Brown & Pils 

Crucibulum gatunense (Toula) 

Architectonica granulata (Lamarck) . , 
Architectonica quadriseriata (Sow.). . 

Natica guppyana Toula 

Natica cuspidata Guppy 

Polinices subclausa Sowerby 

Calliostoma grabaui Maury 

Calliostoma olssoni Matuy 

Oliva cylindrica Sowerby 

OUva sayana Ravenel 

Oliva brevispira Gabb 

Marginella ballista Dall 

Marginella conformis Sowerby 

Mitra dariensis Brown & Pils 

Mitra longa Gabb 

Scobinella morierei (Laville) 

Fasciolaria kempi (Maury) 

Fusinus henekeni (Sowerby) 

Murex domingensis Sowerby 

Murex mississippiensis Conrad 



Tuberd Group 



M-N 



R 



Other Regions 



Cer-I Ga-lTam- 
cado tun pa 



Vol, XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 



97 



Species 



Typhis siphonifera Dall 

Distortrix simillima (Sowerby) 

Cyprea henekeni Sowerby 

Cyprea gabbiana Guppy 

Malea ringens (Swainson) 

Sconsia laevigata (Sowerby) 

Strombina chiriquiensis Olsson 

Serpulorbis papulosa Guppy 

Serpulorbis granifera (Say) 

Petaloconchus sculpturatus Lea . . . . 

Area patricia Sowerby 

Area macdonaldi Dall 

Area actinophora Dall 

Area dariensis Brown & Pils 

Area lloydi Olsson 

Glyeymeris jamaieensis Dall 

Glyeymeris earbasina Brown & Pils. 

Glyeymeris lamyi Dall 

Ostrea megadon Hanley 

Pecten mortoni Ravenel 

Peeten demiurgus Dall 

Peeten pinulatus Toula 

Pecten bowdenensis Dall 

Spondylus bostrychites Guppy 

Crassatelites densus Dall 

Venericardia brassica Maury 

Cardita arata (Conrad) 

Cardita scabricosta Guppy 

Echinochama antequata Dall 

Cardium domingense Gabb 

Cardium lingualeonis Guppy 

Cardium gorgasi Hanna 

Cardium serratum Linnaeus 

Cardium venustum Gabb 

Dosinia delieatissima Brown & Pils. 
Dosinia acetabulum (?) Conrad. . . . 

Clementia dariena (Conrad) 

Cyclinella gatunensis Dall 

Cyclinella eyeliea (Guppy) 

Antigona caribbeana Anderson 

Antigona blandiana (Guppy) 

Callocardia gatunensis Dall 



Tuberd Group 


Other Reg 








Cer- 


Ga- 


M-N 


P 

* 


R 


eado 


tun 








* 


* 




* 


* 


* 






* 




* 


* 




* 


* 


* 
* 




* 


* 
* 


* 


* 
* 








* 


* 






* 


* 


* 




*? 




* 


* 
* 
* 
* 






* 
* 
* 
* 


* 


* 
* 






* 


* 


* 








* 


* 






* 


* 










* 


* 






* 


* 






* 




* 


* 








* 










* 










* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 

* 




* 


* 

* 


* 


* 








* 


* 
* 
* 
* 


* 




* 
* 

* 
* 


* 


* 
* 


* 




* 


* 


* 






*? 


* 


* 
* 






* 



Tam- 
pa 



98 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Phoc. 4th Seb. 





Tubera Group 


Other Regions 


species 


M-N 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 


* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


R 


Cer- 

cado 


Ga- 

tun 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 


Tam- 
pa 


Pitaria circinata (Bom) 

Pitaria cercadica Maury 


* 

* 

* 

* 


* 




Macrocallista macula ta Linnaeus 


* 


Chione nuciformis Heilprin 

Chione mactropsis (Conrad) 

Chione latilirata (Conrad) 

Tellina dariena Conrad 


* 


Tellina gatunensis (Toula) 




Semele sardonica Dall 


* 


Mactrella elegans (Sowerby) 

Labiosa gibbosa (Gabb) 




Labiosa gardnerse Spieker 





Galapa-La Popa group. In the table of correlations here in- 
cluded, above the uppermost horizon of the Tubera group 
there is a considerable sequence of beds the exact position of 
which in the column may be subject to debate. On account of 
their apparent conformity with the Tubera group they are 
here regarded as of Miocene age, though they may be 
younger. Such beds are found in the neighborhood of Galapa 
to the south of Barranquilla, and also at the base of La Popa 
hill near Cartagena. Near Galapa they consist of little con- 
solidated beds of calcareous sandstone, while at La Popa hill 
and about the Harbor of Cartagena they consist of well- 
stratified but somewhat incoherent sandy shales and clays with 
calcareous layers of marl. 

In the former locality the strike is generally N. 20° E. and 
the dip is easterly. The thickness is not definitely known, 
though an estimate of 1,650 feet is believed to be conservative. 
They are rich in marine fossils, among which Pecten pre- 
dominates although Doshiia, Cardium, and various gastropod 
forms have been found. 

The La Popa formation found in the vicinity of Cartagena 
has an aggregate thickness of 1,000 feet, or more, though it is 
not well exposed. The structural condition exhibited in these 
deposits is at variance with those of Galapa, in that the dis- 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 99 

trict is traversed by east to west faults that produce scarps of 
some prominence, as seen in the south face of La Popa hill 
itself, and in the north face of the hill of Cospique on the east 
side of the Harbor. 

In the syncline lying between the Tubera-Piojo uplift and 
the coast similar beds are found of which the contained fossils 
cannot now be given. 

These beds do not appear to cover the general areas of the 
older Miocene, but are local and are, as far as known, con- 
fined to districts near the present coast. None have been ob- 
served far inland. Not only are they conformable upon the 
Tubera group in the districts where they have been observed, 
but they participate in the structural features of the latter. 

From the fact that they are not coextensive with the Tu- 
bera group, but are local in their occurrence, it may well be 
sumiised that they do not form a continuous series with it, 
but may be separated from it by an unconformity the signifi- 
cance of which should not be overlooked. Possibly an uplift 
of the land areas near the close of the Miocene excluded the 
sea from the larger part of the region previously covered by 
it. For these reasons it would be well to reserve final judg- 
ment as to the proper position of the Galapa group until more 
data are obtained than the writer possesses at the present. 

Pliocene Deposits 

Contrary to the view expressed in the preceding paragraphs, 
the late Miocene epoch has often been regarded as one of up- 
lift for the general region of the Caribbean. This was at one 
time apparently the view of Dr. Vaughan,^^^ in whose conception 
an extensive emergence of land areas in late Miocene time was 
followed by warping and local submergence during the Pli- 
ocene, concerning which he says in part : 

"Subsequent to the Miocene there have been many oscillations of the 
West Indian area, and during perhaps Pliocene time there was profound de- 
formation." 

In the same paper Dr. Vaughan regards the Toro limestone 
of the Canal Zone as of Pliocene age, and with it classes 

"a Vaughan, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 103, 1919, pp. 608-609. 



IQQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

also certain deposits of Limon, Costa Rica, and others far to 
the east. Concerning the district about the lower Magdalena 
with which the present paper deals, he says (p. 594) : 

"Mr. George C. Matson collected at Barranquilla, Colombia, some fossils 
that belong to a fauna younger than that obtained around Usiacuri, and may be 
of Pliocene age." 

The rocks classed tentatively as Pliocene by the present 
writer are abundant around Barranquilla and the mouth of the 
Magdalena. A good section is found along the railroad be- 
tween Puerto Colombia and Salgar. The strata here un- 
dulate, but on the whole dip 10° eastward along the shore. 
The following sequence is the result of careful study of the 
beds exposed here : 

d. Upper coral limestone 250 feet 

c. Incoherent sandstones 350 feet 

b. Lower coral limestone 160 feet 

a. Sandy clay shales 150 feet 



Total thickness 910 feet 

These limestones contain a great variety of corals and many 
Mollusca including Cyprea, two species of Codakia, many 
species of Pecten, oysters, and various gastropods. The coral 
limestones resemble that in the quarries at Barranquilla, and, 
in fact, their connection is not difficult to trace on the surface. 
In these quarries which are worked for lime, there is a greater 
variety of corals than on the beach, and also of Mollusca. 
Here and in most places the corals and shells are largely re- 
duced to the condition of soft marls in which are some harder 
layers and lenses of coral rock. These beds may be followed 
along the Galapa road for many miles, where they are almost 
always horizontal in attitude. They seem to have been at one 
time more extensive toward the west but have suffered much 
denudation, leaving the limestone more or less local in its 
present occurrence. 

Quite similar beds cover the top of La Popa hill near Car- 
tagena, but here rise to an elevation of some 500 feet above 
the sea and have an inclination of about 15° or more toward 
the north. They form here a distinct reef, 75 to 80 feet in 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA IQl 

thickness, resting upon marly shale of about equal thickness 
which is underlaid by the sandy shales of the La Popa forma- 
tion. Beds of the same character cover the top of the hill of 
Cospique, and occur also at Turbaco at an elevation of about 
500 feet above the sea. Corals and molluscan shells are abun- 
dant in all of these points, and are usually reduced to charac- 
teristic marl. 

These supposed Pliocene deposits with coralline reefs of the 
sort here described occur at intervals along the Colombian 
coast, apparently not always resting upon the same horizon of 
the Miocene. Such beds are found on the island of Terra 
Bomba, Isla de Baru, Bayunca, and at points beyond the Bay 
of Cispata. 

The general attitude of these coral reefs and the associated 
beds does not appear to be harmonious with the underlying 
Miocene. They were not observed above an altitude of 500 
feet, while the Miocene often rises to much greater heights. 
The deposits appear to be in some respects, and in some places, 
unconformable upon the underlying Miocene, though a clear 
case of unconformity was not found. 

With regard to age there are some general stratigraphic 
facts that may be mentioned. Elevated beaches and late 
Quaternary deposits of beach origin skirt the hills near sea 
level, and Quaternary gravels form old valley floors in many 
parts of the country and along the coasts. Such deposits are 
nearly always horizontal, and clearly have no relation to the 
supposed Pliocene deposits, except to show their distinctly 
more recent origin. 

Only a few of the fossil corals so abundant and varied in 
these deposits have received any attention. Three species only 
have been noted from the reef on La Popa hill. On a visit to 
Cartagena in 1898 the Princess Theresa von Bayern personally 
went to the summit of La Popa hill and collected four speci- 
mens of coral from the reef that caps the same. These corals 
were left at the Academy of Sciences at Munich, and were 
later described by Herr Johanes Felix, under the following 
names : 

Orhicella theresiana Felix 
IsastrcBa turbinata Duncan 
Stephanocmnia fairbanksi (?) Vaughan 



102 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Concerning the first of these species Dr. Vaughan says that 
it is ''probably a synonym of Solenastrea bournoni M. Ed- 
wards & Haime." FeUx was unable to reach any conclusion 
as to age from his study of these corals, though he thought 
they were probably Miocene. 

Correlations 

While exact correlations of the Colombian Tertiary groups 
and horizons with others of the Caribbean and Central Ameri- 
can regions can not yet be made with complete confidence, a 
tentative attempt, based upon known facts may be well worth 
while. 

On the whole the Miocene series and groups seem to cor- 
respond fairly well with those of Santo Domingo, as for ex- 
ample the Yaque group, with the possible exception of its low- 
est member, the Baitoa formation, containing species, of 
Orthaiilax and associated forms. The fauna of the Las Per- 
dices group is not yet well known, but with further search it 
may well prove to be the equivalent of the Baitoa, as suggested 
in the accompanying table. Horizon M - N of the Tubera 
group lacks the species that characterize the Baitoa formation, 
and that are found in similar lower Miocene deposits of the 
Gulf Coast which have been correlated with it. On the other 
hand, a comparative study of its fauna shows horizon M - N 
of the Tubera group to be more closely related to the Cercado 
formation of the Yaque group than to any of the others, as 
the following statements will show. 

Of the 64 moUuscan species thus far found in this horizon, 
only 15 appear in the list from the Gatun formation given by 
Brown & Pilsbry, as enumerated by Vaughan. 

Of the species found in the Cercado formation, according to 
Maury, something more than 5 per cent are found also in the 
recent Antillean fauna. Of the 64 species of horizon M - N, 
not more than four are also found in the living faunas of the 
Pacific and Caribbean seas, and the number may be less. In 
any case it will not exceed 7 per cent of recent species, and 
this estimate is liberal. 

Horizon P of the Tubera group shows even stronger re- 
semblance to the Gatun fonnation of the Canal Zone. Of the 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA JQS 



a; 

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104 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



86 Species contained in the foregoing lists from the Tubera 
group, 37 are common to horizon P and the Gatun group, and 
of these 24 do not appear in the older beds of horizon M - N. 
Among the species not found in horizon M - N, but which 
appear to characterize the next fossil horizon and the Gatun 
as well, as found at the Spillway, are the following : 



Malea ringens (Swainson) 
Sconsia Icevigaia (Sowerby) 
Distortio simillima (Sowerby) 
Mitra dariensis Brown & Pilsbry 
Conus sewalli Maury 
Cancellaria dariana Toula 
Crucihulum gatunense (Toula) 
Turritella mimetes Brown & Pilsbry 



dementia dariena (Conrad) 

Callocardia gatunensis Dall 

Area actinophora Dall 

Area dariensis Brown & Pilsbry 

Tellina dariana Conrad 

Dosinia delicatissima Brown & Pils. 

Cardium domingense Gabb 

Cardium serratum Linnaeus 



To these others could be added, but are perhaps unneces- 
sary. An indirect evidence of their equivalency gives even 
better support. 

Although A. A. Olsson^® appears to have expanded the 
"Gatun group" to include beds both higher and lower than 
the strata found at the Spillway of the Canal, he counts no 
less than 334 species, of which he says about 13 per cent are 
identical, or closely related, to recent species. Of the 117 
species found in horizon P, 15 are represented in the recent 
faunas on the two sides of the Isthmus, or about 12.8 per cent, 
a figure very close to that of Olsson. 

Continuing the parallel comparisons, it can perhaps be 
shown that the equivalents of the Bowden fauna are to be 
found in horizon R of the Tubera group, and above it, though 
this is not apparent in the foregoing lists. 

The correlations suggested in the table for the series older 
and younger than the Miocene are tentative only, and have 
been sufficiently discussed in the preceding pages, the former 
under the heading of Stratigraphic relations of the Poso 
series, and the latter under other appropriate headings, to 
which little can be added here. 



>• Olsson, A. A., Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, pp. 183, 188, etc. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA JQS 

Description of Species 

On the following pages are noted most of the species that 
have been recognized in the marine Miocene groups of north 
Colombia, but without any claim of supplying an exhaustive 
list of the same. Without the aid of large collections of ma- 
terial from these groups that are available for comparison in 
other institutions of the country, much reliance has necessarily 
been placed upon published figures and descriptions which pre- 
sumably were intended to be adequate for this purpose. Some 
of the Miocene forms from the Carribbean region have, un- 
fortunately, been illustrated by unsatisfactory figures, but 
where this is the case the author of such has little ground for 
complaint if other writers fail to recognize his species. In 
many such cases later writers have gratuitously supplied bet- 
ter figures, and where this has been done recourse has been 
had to them. Photographic illustrations are thus available in 
the valuable contributions of Miss Maury, A. A. Olsson, 
W. P. Woodring, Dr. Pilsbry and his co-workers, and by 
others, so that one need not often go astray in his determina- 
tions of the better known forms. 

As might have been expected from the backward state of 
paleontologic study in the marine Miocene of South America, 
some new species have been brought to light, and when the 
material has justified it these new forms have been entered in 
the lists with proper description. In addition, a few forms 
already known from other Antillean regions have been illus- 
trated with, or without description when this has seemed 
desirable. 

The order in which the species have been taken up is almost 
without regard to any scheme of taxonomy, but merely that of 
a convenient arrangement of the forms noted. 



March 29, 1929 



105 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

Gastropoda 

1. Terebra sulcifera Sowerby 

Terebra sulcifera Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 47; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — -Guppy, (part) Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 
Lond., vol. 32, 1876, p. 525, pi. 29, fig. 8; Loc. as above. — Maury, 
Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 186, pi. 3, fig. 12; Loc. as above. 

This species is the largest of the Terebras found in the 
Caribbean Miocene, one incomplete specimen of 10 whorls 
measuring 95 mm. in length and 22 mm. in width near the 
base. If complete, this specimen would have a length of over 
120 mm. In size, as well as in the sculpture of the mature 
shell, this form resembles T. petiti Maury (not T. petitii 
Kiener), though the younger shells clearly have the sculpture 
described by Maury for T. sulcifera Sowerby, and these fea- 
tures are shown in the younger whorls of all the examples. 

This species was found at Loc. 267, C. A. S., in horizons 
M - N and R, and accordingly at the base and near the top of 
the Tubera group, and presumably its range is throughout the 
same. 

2. Terebra clethra ( ?) Maury 

Terebra clethra Maury, Monog. Foss. Ter. Brazil, vol. 4, 1925, p. 198-9, 
pi. 10, fig. 3; Lower Miocene, Rio Pirabas. 

Maury's type of this species was either of a small and rare 
form, or it was the earlier whorls of a larger species. The 
figure is said to have been drawn from a cast. Two specimens 
found near Usiacuri, Loc. 306, both incomplete, are 65 mm. 
in length, if entire. In form and ornamentation they resemble 
Maury's type too nearly to pennit their separation at present. 



3. Terebra gatunensis Toula 

Terebra (Oxymeris) gatunensis Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 
1909, p. 705, pi. 25, fig. 14; Gatun formation, Canal Zone. 

Terebra gatunensis, Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 
1911, p. 339, pi. 22, fig. 2; Gatun formation, C. Z.— Maury, Bull. 
Am. Pal. vol. 5, 1917, pi. 4, fig. 5; Cercado de Mao, Santo Domingo. — 
Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 208, pi. 1, figs. 4, 5, 6; Gatun 
stage. Canal Zone. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA JQ? 

This species was found in the day shale near the top of 
the Tubera group, horizon R, to the west of the Tubera 
mountain. 

4. Terebra cirra Dall 

Terebra (Acus) bipartita Sowerby, variety cirrus Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 18, No. 1035, 1895, p. 38. River Amina, Santo Domingo; 
Miocene. 

Terebra (Oxymeris) bipartita Dall, Trans, Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, 

pi. 59, figs. 13, 28, 29; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 
Terebra cirra Dall, Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 189, pi. 3, fig. 17; 

Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

This species has been found at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua, near the middle of the Tubera group, and at Loc. 
306, C. A. S., at the eastern border of Usiacuri village at 
about the same horizon. It has been collected also at Loc. 
299, C. A. S., two miles southwest of Baranoa; Loc. 325 and 
325-A, C. A. S., all representing horizon P of the Tubera 
group, of the Colombian Miocene. 

5. Terebra haitensis Dall 

Terebra (Hastula) haitensis Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 18, 1895, p. 35. — 
Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 35, pi. 59, fig. 30; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, 
p. 207, pi. 1, fig. 3; Gatun Stage, Costa Rica. — Maury, Bull. Am. 
Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 194, pi. 4, fig. 4; Cercado de Mao, Miocene, 
Santo Domingo. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 299, southwest of 
Baranoa, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, both near 
the middle of the Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene. 



6. Terebra bipartita Sowerby 

Terebra bipartita Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 47; 

Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 

187, pi. 3, fig. 14; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal. 

vol. 9, 1922, p. 207, pi. 1, figs. 1,2; Miocene, Costa Rica. 
Terebra (Acus) bipartita Sowerby, Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 18, 1895, 

p. 38; not T. (Oxymeris) bipartita (Sow.) Dall, 1903, pi. 59, figs. 13, 

28, 29, loc. cit. 



108 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This species has been found at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua, near the middle of the Tubera group, 20 miles 
north of Cartagena. 



7. Conus sewalli Maury 

Conus sewalli Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 201, pi. 5, fig. 3; pi. 6, 
fig. 3; Cercado de Mao, Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. 
Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 220; Gatun Stage, Canal Zone, Panama. 

Excellent examples of this shell were obtained at the Spill- 
way of the Canal in 1914; it has since been found at two lo- 
calities in northern Colombia, namely, Loc. 304, C. A. S., 
four miles east of Santa Rosa, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., 
near Punta Pua. Both are at central horizons of the Tubera 
group. 



8. Conus veatchi Olsson 

Conus veatchi Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 216, pi. 2, figs. 5, 8; 
Gatun Stage, Canal Zone, Panama. 

Only a single imperfect example of this species was found, 
and it was obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, near 
the base of the Tubera group, at the west foot of Tubera 
mountain. 



9. Conus imitator Brown & Pilsbry 

Conus imitator Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. 63, 1911, 
p. 342, pi. 23, fig. 4; Gatim formation. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 
9, 1922, p. 217, pi. 2, fig. 6; Gatun Stage, Canal Zone, Miocene, 
Costa Rica. 

This species was found at various localities in the Colom- 
bian Miocene. In many respects it resembles C. chipolanus 
Dall, from a low horizon of the Gulf Coast. It occurs at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizon M-N; Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near 
Cibarco; Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua; most of these 
are at central horizons of the Tubera group. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA J^QQ 

10. Conus molis Brown & Pilsbry 

Conus molis Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, 
p. 343, pi. 23, fig. 1; Miocene, Canal Zone. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., 
vol. 5, 1917, p. 200, Cercado de Mao, Miocene, Santo Domingo. — 
Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 214, pi. 2, figs. 1, 2; Miocene, 
Costa Rica. 

This species occurs quite abundantly in the Tubera group 
of the Colombian Miocene, but can not be regarded as a 
horizon marker. It has been obtained at Loc. 267, C. A, S., 
horizon M - N ; horizon P, and horizon R ; also at Loc. 299, 
near Baranoa; Loc. 304, C. A. S., near Santa Rosa; and Loc. 
351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua. Its occurrence is therefore at 
nearly all horizons of the Tubera group. 

11. Conus granozonatus Guppy 

Conus granozonatus Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 287, 
pi. 16, fig. 5; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., 
vol. 9, 1922, p. 222, pi. 3, fig. 15; Gatun Stage, Costa Rica. 

A single good specimen of this species was obtained at Loc. 
351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua. It is slightly larger and more 
robust than appears in either Guppy's or Olsson's figures, 
although in other respects the identification is satisfactory. 



12. Conus recognitus Guppy 

Conus solidus Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 45; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo; not C. solidus Sowerby, Conch. lUust., 
1841, pi. 56, No. 76.— Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 
1866, p. 287, pi. 16, fig. 1; Miocene, Jamaica. 

Comis recognitus Guppy, Proc. Sci. Assn. Trinidad, 1867, p.. 171. — Guppy, 
Geol. Mag., vol. 1, 1874, p. 409; new name proposed. — Guppy, Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 32, 1876, p. 527.— Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. 
Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 1583.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, 
p. 209, pi. 7, fig. 9; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. 
Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 218, pi. 2, fig. 9; Miocene, Costa Rica.— Pilsbry, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 327, pi. 19, fig. 2; Mio- 
cene, Santo Domingo. 

This species is one of the most abundant in the Tubera 
group of the Colombian Miocene. Like C. molis, it is not 
reg"arded as a horizon marker, since it is found at various 
levels. It has been obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizons 



110 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

P and R, and at Loc. 325-A, and 351, C A. S., the latter of 
which is central in the Tubera group. 

13. Conus planiliratus Sowerby 

Conus planiliratus Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p, 44. 
— GUPPY, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 287, pi. 16, 
fig. 7; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., 
vol. 3, 1903, p. 1583. 

A single specimen of C. planiliratus was obtained at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, near the base of the Tubera 
group. It has not been found at any other horizon, as far as 
known. 

14. Conus stenostomus Sowerby 

Conus stenostomus Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 44; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., 
vol. 22, 1866, p. 287, pi. 16, fig. 2.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 
1917, p. 203; Cercado de Mao, Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, 
Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 214, Gatun Stage, Canal Zone. 

Only a single good example of this species was obtained at 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, near the base of the Tu- 
bera group, at the west foot of Tubera mountain. According 
to Olsson, it occurs in the Gatun Stage of Port Limon, and 
Maury lists it from the upper Miocene of Spring^^ale, Trini- 
dad Island. 

15. Conus concavitectum Brown & Pilsbry 

Conus concavitectum Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 
1911, p. 341, pi. 23, figs. 5,6; Gatun formation, Canal Zone. — Olsson, 
Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 215; Gatun Stage, Canal Zone. 

Three specimens of this species were obtained at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain, 
which horizon is believed to closely represent the Gatun ho- 
rizon of the Canal Zone, Panama. 

16. Conus burckhardti ( ?) Bose 

Conus burckhardti Bose Bull. Inst. Geol. de Mex., No. 22, 1906, p. 50, pi. 5, 
figs. 39, 40.— Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 224, pi. 3, figs. 
4, 5; Miocene, Gatun Stage, Panama. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \\\ 

A single specimen of Conns that seems referable to the 
Mexican species was obtained at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua. In this example the spire is distinctly different 
from that of Bose's species in having the upper surface of the 
whorls rounded, or somewhat angulated along a median line, 
thus forming a succession of sloping steps, rather than a 
smooth, regular slope. In most respects, however, the shell 
closely resembles the Mexican form. A number of well pre- 
served examples of C. hnrckhardti was obtained at the Spill- 
way of the Canal in 1914, though none of them show the 
form of spire noted in the present example. 

17. Conus consobrinus (?) Sowerby 

Conus consobrinus Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 45. 
— GUPPY, Geol. Mag., vol. 1, 1874, p. 409, pi. 17, fig. 3.— Maury, 
Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 203, pi. 6, figs. 5, 6; Miocene, Santo 
Domingo. — Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 
330, pi. 20, figs. 7, 7a, 7b; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Two examples of a Conus found at Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain, closely re- 
semble Sowerby's species, although there are some differences 
of sculpture in the last whorl. In our examples the minute 
beads on the spiral ribs are rounded instead of being elongated, 
as in Sowerby's form. The lines of growth are arcuate, and 
in other respects the characters are nearly identical with those 
of Sowerby's species. 

18. Conus tortuosopunctatus Toula 

Conus (Cheliconus) tortuosopunctatus Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., 
Wien, Bd. 61, 1911, p. 507, pi. 31, fig. 21, b.— Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal,, 
vol. 9, 1922, p. 226, pi. 3, figs. 6, 11; Gatun Stage, Canal Zone. 

It would appear from the figures given by Toula and Olsson 
that the height of spire in this species is variable, as is so often 
the case. In our examples the spire is intermediate in height 
between the extremes found in these figures. In other 
respects the identification is completely satisfactory. These 
samples come from Loc. 351, C. A. S., near the middle of the 
Tubera group, probably near the horizon of P, at Tubera 
mountain. 



2J2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

19. Conus tuberacola Anderson, new species 
Plate 9, figures 4, 5 

Shell of medium size, probable height of holotype (incom- 
plete) 54 mm., width 3.4 mm., spire high, concavely turrited, 
earlier whorls coronated ; last two or three whorls smooth, but 
slightly excavated above; sides of older specimens smooth, in 
younger shells the sides are adorned with minute spirally ar- 
ranged beads, chiefly on the lower half of the shell ; aperture 
narrow. The shoulders of the last whorl sharp and abrupt; 
lines of growth strongly curved. 

This shell resembles C. consohrinus Sow., only in sculpture, 
but is relatively wider, has less strongly developed granula- 
tions on the sides. It also differs from C. toroensis Olsson in 
relative width and in form of spire. 

Holotype: No. 4623, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, near base of the Tubera group, where 
it appears to belong, and where several fair-sized specimens 
were obtained ; Miocene of Colombia. 



20. Conus crenospiratus Anderson, new species 

Plate 9, figures 6, 7 

Shell small, height of holotype 17 mm., width 10 mm., with 
graceful outline, low spire and somewhat rounded sides; in 
size, form and sculpture it recalls C. isomitratus Dall, from 
the Chipola beds of Florida ; upper surface of the whorls flat- 
tened ; sutures distinctly incised, but unlike Ball's species, the 
shoulders of the whorls are tuberculated, forming on the inner 
side of the suture a wavy, or crenulated line; body whorl or- 
namented by spiral lines, which become obsolete near the 
shoulder, but become stronger on the lower third of the whorl ; 
spiral threads are here flattened, or slightly concave in section, 
having the appearance of being double. 

Holotype: No. 4624, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, near the middle of the Tubera 
group, Colombia ; Miocene. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \\^ 

21. Turris albida (Perry) 

Pleurotoma albida Perry, Conch. Expl., 1811, pi. 32, fig. 4.— Dall, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., Harvard College, vol. 18, 1889, pp. 72-73.— Trans. 
Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1890, p. 28, pi. 4, fig. 8a.— Brown & Pils- 
BRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 343; Miocene, 
Canal Zone. 

Turris albida, Dall, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 90, 1915, p. 38, pi. 5, fig. 13; 
pi. 14, fig. 7; Orthaulax pugnax zone. Lower Miocene, Miss., and 
Santo Domingo.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917.— Olsson, 
Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 230, pi. 4, figs. 1, 2; Gatun Stage, Canal 
Zone, Panama. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon M - N, at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near the middle of the 
Tubera group, and at Loc. 266, C. A. S., on the Ouebrada 
Juan de Acosta, near the top of the Tubera group. Its range 
is, therefore, throughout the entire group, and it can not, ac- 
cordingly, be regarded as a horizon marker. 



22. Drillia eupora Dall 

Drillia eupora Dall, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 90, 1915, p. 42, pi. 5, fig. 3, 
Tampa Bay, Florida. 

Among the fossils collected from the Las Perdices shale one 
mile west of the pier at Puerto Colombia, Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon L, is an incomplete example of Drillia which includes 
most of the spire. One whorl is missing, though the axis it- 
self is complete. When entire, the shell was composed of at 
least 13 whorls, including the nuclear portion, forming an 
elongated, narrow, gently tapering spire. The penultimate 
whorl has 18 vertical ribs of the form described by Dr. Dall, 
crossed by revolving threads, five in number, and a subsutural 
collar bordered by a carinated ridge. The resemblance of this 
shell to Dall's figure, reinforced by his description, permits no 
other identification. This species does not appear to have 
been recognized before in the Miocene of the Caribbean bor- 
ders, though doubtless subsequent work will reveal its presence 
in other parts of the region. 



114 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

23. Cancellaria karsteni Anderson, new species 

Plate 10, figures 7, 8, 9 

Shell of moderate size, biconic in outline, heavy ribbed on 
the last whorls, spinose on the shoulders; height of holotype 
33 mm., width of body whorl 22 mm,; spire high and sharp, 
forming somewhat more than half height of shell; surface 
marked by heavy vertical ridges, of which there are about nine 
on last whorl ; these crossed by low revolving threads, with 
occasional intermediary lines; shoulders of whorl armed with 
strong spines, rising from the vertical ribs, pointing upward 
and outward ; upper surface of body whorl concave, rising on 
preceding whorl in a sort of clasping collar with wavy border; 
aperture . somewhat quadrilateral ; outer lip angulated near 
shoulder, and also midway between shoulder and terminus of 
canal ; inner lip thinly calloused, bearing three oblique plica- 
tions ; umbilicus closed. 

Holotype: No. 4630; paratype: No, 4631, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 267 (C. A. S. Coll.), horizon P, at the north 
end of Tubera mountain, Colombia; Miocene, It is also found 
at Loc. 305, C. A. S., near Turbaco, near the middle of the 
Tubera group, Colombia ; Miocene. 



24. Cancellaria hettneri Anderson, new species 
Plate 10, figures 5, 6 

Shell large, height of holotype 42 mm., width 28 mm., 
somewhat biconic in outline, heavily ribbed on the body whorl 
with irregular ridges extending to the base; spire high, sub- 
conic; upper slope of whorl rising in a collar, not quite clasp- 
ing, but slightly channelled or flattened above; surface orna- 
mented by revolving threads of three orders, heavy, inter- 
mediate and light; shoulders of whorls showing low spines 
directed outwardly; aperture subquadrate, narrowed above, 
terminating below in a straight canal ; umbilical chink distinct, 
but closed. 

This species is allied to C. harrtsi Maury, but is more 
coarsely sculptured, larger, and more spinose. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA H^^ 

Holotype: No. 4629, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., from horizon P, north slope of Tubera mountain, 
Colombia; Miocene. Two good specimens were obtained at 
this locality. 

25. Cancellaria dariena Toula 

Cancellaria dariena Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 1909, p. 704, 
pi. 28, figs. 1,2; Gatun formation, Canal Zone.— Brown & Pilsbry, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 345, pi. 24, figs. 1-4.— 
Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 69, 1917, p. 32; 
Gatun formation, Canal Zone.— Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, 
p. 252, pi. 6, fig. 8; Gatun Stage, Costa Rica. 

This Species has not been found abundantly in the Colom- 
bian Miocene, but it has been obtained at Loc. 351, C. A. S., 
near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, near the middle 
of the Tubera group. 

26. Cancellaria scheibei Anderson, new species 
Plate 10, figures 1, 2, 3, 4 

Shell large, robust, ovate in outline, smooth, with low spire ; 
height of holotype 54 mm., greatest width 40 mm. ; spire low, 
conical, sloping up from rounded shoulders; suture distinctly 
channelled; whorls about five, the younger three obscurely 
cancellated; aperture subovate, narrowed above, terminating 
below in a narrow, slightly curved canal ; outer lip sharp, lirate 
within near the outer edge ; inner lip strongly calloused, bear- 
ing three plications, the upper two being more widely sepa- 
rated, with three elongated beads on the pillar intervening. 

Holotype: No. 4627, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 306, 
C. A. S., from near Usiacuri, Colombia; paratype: No. 4628, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 304, C. A. S., near Santa 
Rosa, Colombia ; Miocene. 

This form remotely resembles C. IxEvescens Guppy, but is 
larger, smoother, more rounded, and has plications that are 
distinctly different from Guppy's species. It is more nearly 
related to C. solida Sowerby,^® found living on the Pacific 



" Sowerby, J. de C, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 2, 1832, p. SO. — Sowerby, 
Thes. Conchy., vol. 2, p. 440, pi. 92, fig. 4. 



115 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

coast from Panama to the Gulf of California. The essential 
difference may be one of descent, and of senility in the living 
form. The earlier form is larger, more robust, has a more 
rugose columella, with bead-like denticles intervening between 
the plaits, as already described. 

This shell is apparently not abundant, but it has been ob- 
tained at Loc. 304, C. A. S., near Santa Rosa; Loc. 306, 
C. A. S., near Usiacuri; Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco. 
It has not yet been found at the lowest horizon of the Tubera 
group, though a near ally does occur there. 

27. Cancellaria codazzii Anderson, new species 

Plate 14, figures 4, 5, 6, 7 

Shell of medium size, height of holotype 30 mm., width 18 
mm., biconic in outline, with numerous vertical ribs extending 
from suture to base; spire high, with five whorls below nuclear 
ones; nuclear whorls three, quite smooth; surface beautifully 
cancellated, with revolving threads at nearly equal intervals 
crossing the numerous vertical ribs in low, rounded bead-like 
nodes; upper surface of whorls slightly concave, rising in a 
collar-like expansion, not clasping; concave surface bearing a 
few revolving threads; suture distinctly channelled; shoulder 
of whorl not coronate, but bearing a wavy cord; aperture 
ovate, terminating in a narrow canal ; outer lip simple, lirate 
within ; inner lip not distinctly calloused, bearing three oblique 
plications on the pillar. 

Holotype: No. 4645; paratype: No. 4646, Mus. Cahf. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, Colombia; Mi- 
ocene, near the middle of the Tubera group. 

This shell is named in honor of Agostino Codazzi, explorer, 
surveyor, writer, and author of the first authentic map of 
Colombia. 

28. Cancellaria cibarcola Anderson, new species 

Plate 14, figures 1, 2, 3 

Shell of medium size, resembling in most respects C. 
scheihei, but smaller and less rotund. Its three nuclear whorls 
are quite smooth; its disposition toward a truly cancellated 



Voi» XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \\y 

sculpture in the young stages is more pronounced than in the 
preceding, and the spiral threads often show clearly on the 
fifth whorl below the nuclear ones. In outer form it recalls 
C. IcEvescens Guppy, from which, however, it is readily dis- 
tinguished by the arrangement of the plaits on the pillar. Two 
elongated denticles intervene between the upper and second 
plait which are widely separated. The internal lirations of the 
outer lip extend deeply into the interior, and the spiral threads 
become more distinct at the base of the body whorl. These 
features serve to distinguish this species from either of the 
preceding. Height of holotype 32 mm., width of body 22 
mm., height of aperture 25 mm. 

Holotype: No. 4643; paratype: No. 4644, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, Colombia; 
Miocene. 

This shell is found at all of the lower horizons of the Tu- 
bera group, and is a fairly abundant form. It has been ob- 
tained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizons M - N, P and R; Loc. 
299, 304, 325-A, and 351, C. A. S., the latter representing a 
central horizon in the Tubera group. 

29. Cancellaria cossmanni Olsson 

Cancellaria cossmanni Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 253, pi. 6, figs. 9, 
1 1 ; Gatun Stage, Costa Rica. 

This species has not been found abundant in Colombia. A 
single specimen was obtained at Loc. 325-A, near Cibarco, 
about the middle of the Tubera group. Its range is not 
known. 

30. Cancellaria moorei ( ?) Guppy 

Cancellaria moorei Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 289, 
pi. 17, fig. 7; Miocene, Jamaica. 

A single specimen that seems referable to Guppy's species 
was obtained at Loc, 306, C. A. S., at the east border of Usi- 
acuri village above the middle of the Tubera group. In spite 
of the fact that this species has not often been recognized in 
the faunas of the Caribbean region outside of the Bowden 



118 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

beds, the resemblance of the sample from Loc. 306 to Guppy's 
original figure does not permit of any other determination at 
present. 



31. Cancellaria guppyi Gabb 

Cancellaria guppyi Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 236; Mio- 
cene, Santo Domingo. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 228, 
pi. 10, figs. 7, 8; Cercado de Mao, S. Domingo. — Pilsbry, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 333, pi. 22, fig. 7; Loc. as 
above. 

In his Revision of Gabb's Tertiary Mollusca Dr. Pilsbry 
figures the type (or a lectotype) of this species. The rotund 
form and regularly cancellated sculpture are its striking 
characteristics. A single specimen was found at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, near the middle of the Tubera group. 



32. Turritella altilira Conrad 

Plate 17, figures 4, 5 

Turritella altilira Conrad, Pac. R. R. Repts., vol. 6, 1857, pt. 2, p. 72, pi. 5, 
fig. 19; Miocene, Isthmus of Panama. — Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 358, pi. 27, figs. 2, 3; Gatun 
formation. Canal Zone. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, pp. 
321, 322, pi. 14, figs. 4, 8, 9, 14; Miocene, Canal Zone. — Hodson, 
Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 11, 1926, p. 214, pi. 26, figs. 1, 4, 7, etc.; pi. 27, 
figs. 2-7; Miocene, North Venezuela. 

This shell is abundant in the Colombian Miocene. It is in- 
teresting to note that both Maury^° and Olsson"^ regard T. 
tornata Guppy, as a varietal form of this species, and that 
Cossmann admits-" that his T. guppyi is the equivalent of T. 
tornata, all of which beliefs seem to be well founded. Toula, 
furthermore,^^ regards his T. gabbi as being nearly related to 
T". altilira and T. tornata. 

The species occurs plentifully at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon 
M - N, of the Tubera group, and in higher horizons of the 
same. It has been found also at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua, and at Loc. 305, C. A. S., near Turbaco, and at 

=" Maury, C. J., Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, pp. 382-383. 
"Olsson, A. A., Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 323. 
"Cossmann, M., Rev. Grit, de Pal., 1909, p. 225. 
» Toula, F., Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 1909, p. 69S. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \\g 

Loc. 354, Quebrada de Murindo, a tributary of the Rio 
Canalete. 

Plesiotype: No, 4658, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, base of Tubera mountain, Colombia; 
Miocene. 



33. Turritella perattenuata Heilprin 

Turritella perattenuata Heilprin, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 1, 1887, p. 88, 
pi. 8, fig. 13; Pliocene, Caloosahatchie beds, Florida. — Dall, Trans. 
Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1900, p. 316, pi. 16, figs. 5, 9; Loc. as above; 
— var. prcBcellens Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 69, 1917, 
p. 36, pi. 5, fig. 12; Miocene, near Cartagena. 

This species has not often been Hsted among the forms 
found in the Miocene of the Caribbean region but it never- 
theless occurs at a number of Miocene horizons in Colombia. 
It has been found abundantly at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon 
M - N, of the Tubera group, at Loc. 347, C. A. S., near Tur- 
baco, and in the uppermost beds of the Miocene near Galapa ; 
it occurs also in the position of horizon P, at Loc. 306, 
C. A. S., near Usiacuri. It is therefore found at most of the 
fossil horizons of the Tubera group. 

34. Turritella fredeai Hodson 

Plate 17, figure 1 

Turritella rohusta Grzyb. var. fredeai Hodson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 11, 1926, 
p. 13, pi. 5, fig. 3; pi. 6, fig. 5; pi. 7, figs. 1, 6, 7; Miocene, Northern 
Venezuela. Not T. robusta Gabb, Geol. Surv. Calif., Pal. vol. 1, 1864, 
p. 135, pi. 21, fig. 94; Cretaceous of California. Not T. {Haustator) 
robusta Grzyb., upper Zorritos, Peru. 

Turritella abrupta Spkr., Anderson, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 16, 1927, p. 
89; horizon M, Tuberd, group, Colombia. Not T. robusta, var. 
abrupta Spieker, Johns Hopkins Univ. publ., Geol. No. 3, 1922, p. 85, 
pi. 4, fig. 6; Zorritos formation, northern Peru. 

Plesiotype: No. 4175, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of harbor of Carta- 
gena, Colombia; Miocene. 

Spieker' s form from northern Peru has been renamed by 
Hanna & Israelsky^* as T. supraconcava, as explained below. 

"Hanna, G. D. & Israelsky, M., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 14, 1925, p. 59. 



120 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Ser. 

When the writer listed the Colombian form as probably identi- 
cal with the Peruvian of Spieker, Hodson's recent paper had 
not yet reached us. A comparison of the Colombian fonns 
with Hodson's figures clearly shows their identity, while his 
illustrations serve as well to distinguish the northern form 
from the Peruvian. The specific name "rohusta" had already 
been employed at the date of Spieker's writing, and Hodson's 
form must take the name of his supposed variety. 

This species has been found at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon 
M - N, the lowest horizon of the Tubera group, and at Loc. 
351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, 
also in a low horizon. It occurs, however, in higher beds, as 
at Galapa, near the top of the Miocene section. 



35. Turritella mimetes Brown & Pilsbry 

Turritella mimetes Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 
1911, p. 357, pi. 27, fig. 1; Miocene, Canal Zone. — Olsson, Bull. Am. 
Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 321, pi. 14, fig. 5; Gatun Stage, Canal Zone. 

This species is not uncommon in the Gatun group of the 
Canal Zone where it was obtained by the writer in 1914. It 
occurs also at Loc. 325, C. A. S., near Baranoa, near the mid- 
dle of the Tubera group. 



36. Turritella gatunensis Conrad 

Turritella gatunensis Conrad, Pac. R. R. Repts., vol. 6, 1857, pt. 2, p. 72, pi. 5, 
fig. 20; Miocene, Isthmus of Panama. — Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. 
Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 1909, p. 694; Miocene, Canal Zone. — Brown 
& Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 358, pi. 27, 
figs. 4, 5, 9; occurrence as before. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 
1922, p. 320, pi. 14, figs. 12, 13; Miocene, Costa Rica, etc. 

This shell was obtained at the Spillway in considerable 
numbers by the writer in 1914, and has since been found plen- 
tifully in the Tubera group of Colombia. It occurs at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizons P and R. It has been obtained also 
at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of 
Cartagena, near the middle of the Tubera group, and at Loc. 

305, near Turbaco, about central in the group, and at Loc. 

306, near Usiacuri, in a position near the middle of the section. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^21 

37. Turritella cartagenensis Brown & Pilsbry 

Turritella cartagenensis Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 69, 
1917, p. 34, pi. 5, fig. 13; Miocene, near Cartagena. — Maury, Bull. 
Am. Pal., vol. 10. 1925, p. 385, pi. 42, fig. 13; Miocene, Trinidad 
Island. 

? Turritella bifastigata, HoDSON, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 11, 1926, pp. 48-50, pi. 30, 
figs. 1-6; Miocene, northern Venezuela. 

This is one of the most abundant forms of Turritella found 
in the Tubera group. Hodson has described and figured 
varieties of a Turritella under the name T. bifastigata Nelson, 
from the Miocene of northern Venezuela. The type of Nel- 
son's species came from the Tertiary (probably Miocene) of 
Peru, but was described without any illustration whatever. 
Hodson's figure (pi. 30, fig. 1) is from a lectotype not sup- 
plied by Nelson. It should be pointed out, however, that the 
varieties, supposedly of this Turritella, as figured by Hodson 
are such as would include T. cartagenensis Brown & Pilsbry, 
which itself shows variations of the same character. 

This species has been obtained from Loc. 306, C. A. S., 
near the village of Usiacuri; Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta 
Pua; Loc. 353, C. A. S.. near the Bay of Cartagena; and Loc. 
325-A, near Cibarco. Its vertical range is nearly central in 
the Tubera group. 

38. Crucibulum (Dispotaea) gatunense (Toula) 

Plate 13, figures 4, 5, 6 

Captilus ? gatunensis Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 1909, 
p. 692, pi. 25, figs. 1, 2; Gatun formation, Canal Zone. — Brown & 
Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 360; Gatun 
formation, Canal Zone. 

Two good examples of this hitherto imperfectly known 
species were obtained from the Spillway of the Canal in 1914, 
and are now in the collections of the California Academy of 
Sciences. The coiled apex is smooth, showing only faint 
lines of growth, but two mm. below the apex the shell becomes 
corrugated, at first by irregular squamose vertical threads, 
radiating downward, interrupted by uneven lines of growth. 
These radial markings become more irregular with growth, 

March 29, 1929 



122 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

forming a roughened, granular, radially marked surface. The 
outline of the base is sub-elliptical, with sharp, faintly crenu- 
lated margin. Toula's samples did not permit him to see the 
interior of the shell, but in ours the interior is clearly exposed 
in both examples. The shell possesses a well formed internal 
cup, semilunar in outline, attached to the wall of the shell on 
about one-third of its periphery, or in fact, is formed by the 
wall of the shell itself. This feature places it in the sub-genus 
Dispotcea (Say) Conrad, as has been stated by Dall. 

Plesiotypes: Nos. 4639, 4640, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from 
Loc, 323, C. A. S., Gatun locks at Spillway, Panama ; Miocene. 

A somewhat fragmentary example of this species was found 
at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, near the middle of the 
Tubera group. 



39. Architectonica granulata (Lamarck) 

Solarium granulatum Lam., An. s. Vert., vol. 7, 1822, p. 3. — Dall, Trans. Wag. 
Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1892, p. 329.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 
1917, p. 295, pi. 23, fig. 3; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Cadran (=Solarium) granulatum, Kiener, Icon., vol. 1, 1873, p. 4, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

Solarium gatunense Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 1909, p. 693, 
pi. 25, fig. 3; Miocene, Canal Zone. 

Architectonica granulata, Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, p. 232; living, 
Lx)wer California to Panama. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, 
p. 326, pi. 13, figs. 10-12; Miocene, Canal Zone, etc. — Maury, Bull. 
Am. Pal,, vol. 10, 1925, p. 388, pi. 40, fig. 1; Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

This species occurs abundantly in the Tubera group of the 
Colombian Miocene. Good examples have been obtained at 
the following places in northern Colombia : 

Loc. 266, C. A. S., Juan de Acosta creek, near Puerto 
Colombia; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, north slope of 
Tubera mountain; Loc. 299, C. A. S., near Baranoa, near the 
middle of the Tubera group; Loc. 305, C. A. S., near Tur- 
baco; and finally, Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, near the 
middle of the Tubera group. It thus appears that the vertical 
range of this species is confined to the middle part of the 
Tubera group. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^23 

40. Architectonica quadriseriata (Sowerby) 

Solarium quadrisertatum Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 
1850, p. 51, pi. 10, figs. 8a, b, c. — Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 
Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 291.— Guppy, Geol. Mag., vol. 1, 1874, p. 438; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 
1903, p. 1585; Miocene, Florida. 

Architectonica quadriseriata, Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 
228.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 389; Miocene, Trini- 
dad Island. 

Good examples of this species were obtained at the Spillway 
of the Canal in 1914, and it has since been found at Loc. 305, 
C. A. S., near Turbaco, and at Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near 
Cibarco, in both places near the middle of the Tubera group, 
or at horizon P. 



41. Natica guppyana Toula 

Natica {Stigtnaulax) guppyana Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 
1909, p. 696, pi. 25, fig.6; Miocene, Canal Zone. — Brown& Pilsbry, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 360.— Olsson, Bull. Am. 
Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 328, pi. 13, figs. 13-15; Gatun beds. Canal Zone, 
Panama. 

A large number of samples of this species was obtained at 
the Spillway of the Canal in 1914, and are now in the collec- 
tions of California Academy of Sciences. Equally good speci- 
mens have since been obtained from various localities in north- 
ern Colombia, as the following: 

Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, west foot of Tubera 
mountain; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, north slope of 
Tubera mountain; Loc. 325, C. A. S., near Usiacuri village; 
Loc. 325-A, near Cibarco; and Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta 
Pua. 

In most of these localities the samples came from a horizon 
near the middle of the Tubera group. 



42. Natica cuspidata Guppy 

Natica cuspidata Guppy, Agr. Soc. Trin. and Tobago, Ppr. No. 454, 1910, p. 5- 
pi. 2, fig. 4; Reprint, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 8, 1921, p. 162, pi. 8, fig. 4; 
Miocene, Trinidad I.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 391, 
pi. 40, figs. 9, 10; Loc. as before. 



124 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Two examples of this seemingly rare shell were found in 
the lowest horizon, M - N, of the Tubera group, at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., associated with many heavy shelled littoral species. 

43. Polinices subclausa Sowerby 

Natica subclausa Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 51; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., 
vol. 22, 1866, p. 290, pi. 18, fig. 8.— Guppy, Geol. Mag., vol. 1, 1874, 
p. 437.— Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 32, 1876, p. 519; 
Loc. as before. 

Polinices subclausa, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 1585. — 
Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 
360.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 300, pi. 23, fig. 14; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, 
p. 329, pi. 13, figs. 16, 17; Miocene, Canal Zone, Panama. 

In 1914 the writer obtained a few samples of this species 
at the Spillway of the Canal. Since then others have been 
obtained at Loc. 266, C. A, S., Arroyo Juan de Acosta, near 
the top of the Tubera group, and at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zon P, north slope of Tubera mountain. 

44. Polinices stanislas-meunieri Maury 

Polinices stanislas-meunieri Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 300, pi. 
23, figs. 15, 16; Miocene, S. Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 
9, 1922, p. 329, pi. 13, fig. 7; Gatun Stage, Canal Zone. 

A large number of samples of this species has been found in 
the Tubera group. It occurs in the following localities : 

Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, north slope of Tubera moun- 
tain; Loc. 325, C. A. S., east border of Usiacuri village; Loc. 
325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, and Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua. 



45. Polinices prolactea Anderson, new species 
Plate 14, figures 8, 9 

Shell of moderate size, subglobose, with low spire, open 
umbilicus, conspicuous callus, highly polished; aperture sub- 
lunar, narrowing behind to a subacute angle; callous rather 
heavy on the posterior part of the inner lip; narrowing to a 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 125 

thin line near the anterior part of the aperture ; surface marked 
by Hnes of growth, and near the base of the shell by faint 
spiral striations, not always visible. 

Several good examples of this species were obtained at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., in the Las Perdices beds below the Tubera 
group, a mile west of Puerto Colombia. 

Holotype: No. 4648, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon L, Los Perdices group, Puerto Colombia; 
Miocene. 

The nearest ally of this shell is Polinices lactea (Guilding), 
now living in the neighboring Bay of Cartagena. G. B. 
Sowerby has described a similar near relative from the coast 
of Chile as Natica solida.^^ 



46. Ampullaria tuberacola Anderson, new species 
Plate 16, figures 1, 2, 3 

Shell subovate, at least when full grown, deeply perforate, 
spire low in mature shells, whorls five or six, shell thin and 
with a deficiency of calcareous matter ; umbilicus open, funnel- 
form, angulated on the borders in adult shells ; suture distinct 
and slightly impressed ; upper surface of the whorls rounded 
and convex ; shoulder of last whorl sharply rounded, sides 
sloping toward the narrow base, making the form of the shell 
somewhat conical; height of holotype 52 mm., greatest wndth 
48 mm. 

Holotype: No. 4655; paratype: No. 4656, from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., from horizon R, Tubera village, Colombia; Miocene. 

The younger shell is more nearly sub-globose and bears a 
strong resemblance to A. (Pomus) canaliculata Lam., from 
Tropical America. Two examples of this shell w-ere found at 
Tubera village, Loc. 267, C. A. S., associated w^ith many 
strictly marine forms, such as Conns recognitus, Malea 
ringens, Ficiis colombiana, etc. It is quite probable that these 
non-marine shells were brought into this association by 
streams from a neighboring shore to the southwest. 

»Gcol. Observ. Darwin, Append, pt. 2, p. 612, pi. 3, figs. 40, 41. 



126 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

47. Calliostoma grabaui Maury 

Calliostoma grabaui Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 319, pi. 24, fig. 19; 
Zone G, Rio Gurabo, S. Domingo. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zons R and M - N ; Loc. 306, near Usiacuri village, and Loc. 
325, C. A. S., lower in the section; Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua. Its vertical range is, therefore, almost through- 
out the Tubera group. 



48. Calliostoma olssoni Maury 

Calliostoma (Eutrochus) olssoni Maury, Bull. Am. Pal. vol. 10, 1925, p. 399, 
pi. 43, figs. 6, 14; Upper Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

This elegant little shell has been obtained from various 
localities in the Colombian Miocene, as at Loc. 266, C. A. S., 
Arroyo Juan de Acosta; Loc. 299, C. A. S., near Baranoa; 
Loc. 306, C. A. S., Usiacuri village, etc. Its vertical range is 
confined to the upper part of the Tubera group. 



49. Calliostoma tropica Anderson, new species 

Plate 16, figures 6, 7 

Shell small, conical; height of holotype 17 mm., width 
15.5 mm., finely beaded, abruptly truncate below; spire sharply 
conical, sloping evenly to the basal border with which it forms 
an angle of about 80 degrees ; whorls 7 to 8 in number, sculp- 
tured with 6 to 8 finely beaded threads, crossed by lines of 
growth ; sutures marked only by a slight depression at the bor- 
der of the preceding whorl; base flattened, marked by 8 to 10 
flat revolving threads, also beaded, but wider than the spiral 
threads on the upper slope; aperture ovate in outline; umbili- 
cus closed. The species is characterized by its high conical 
spire and regular even slope, and also by its abruptly flattened 
base and finely beaded ornamentation. It is closely related to 
Calliostoma derbyi Maury from the Lower Miocene of Brazil. 

Holotype: No. 4168, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
horizon M - N, Tubera mountain, Colombia; Miocene. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 127 

50. Oliva cylindrica Sowerby 

Oliva cylindrica Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 45; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, 
p. 67, pi. 10, figs. 14, 14a; Zone G, Rio Gurabo, Santo Domingo. — 
PiLSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 335, pi. 23, 
figs. 2, 3; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 
1922, p. 88, pi. 7, fig. 1; Gatun Stage. 

Oliva gatunensis Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., 1909, Bd. 58, p. 702, 
pi. 25, fig. 12; Gatun formation, Canal Zone, Panama. 

Cossman seems to have given the first adequate description 
of this species in 1913 but it is not at present available. 
Maury has given two good figures, upon which much reliance 
is placed. 

Good examples were obtained at Loc. 299, C. A. S., three 
miles southwest of Baranoa, and at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zon M - N, near the base of the Tubera group. 



51. Oliva sayana Ravenel 

Oliva sayana Ravenel, Cat., 1834, p. 19. — Mazyck, Nautilus, vol, 28, 1915, 
p. 139. 

Oliva sayana var. immortua Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
vol. 69, 1917, p. 33, pi. 5, fig. 6; Miocene, near Cartagena, Colombia. — 
Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 261, pi. 7, figs. 6, 7; Gatun 
Stage, Costa Rica. 

This species and variety were obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon R, at Tubera village, near the top of the Tubera group 
of the Colombian Miocene. 



52. Oliva brevispira Gabb 

Oliva brevispira Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 215; Miocene. 
Santo Domingo. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 232, pi. 10, 
figs. 16, 17; Loc. as above. — Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
vol. 73, 1921, p. 335, pi. 23, fig. 4 (Type); Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zon M - N, of the Tubera group, and at Loc. 325-A, near 
Cibarco, about the middle of the same group. Its range is at 
least from the basal beds to the middle of the Tubera group 
of the Colombian Miocene. 



128 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

53. Oliva tuberaetisis Anderson, new species 

Plate 17, figures 2, 3 

Shell large, thick, robust in form, spire high and accumi- 
nate; height of hollotype 87 mm., width 37 mm., height of 
aperture 65 mm., thickness of shell at outer lip 5 mm. ; suture 
clean and incised; aperture expanding gradually toward the 
anterior end, narrowed at the top into a cleft ; outer lip smooth, 
simple and gently arcuate; inner border of aperture slightly 
calloused, a little depressed near the middle, and bearing 
oblique ridges below. 

Holotype: No. 4172; paratype: No. 4174, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 267-R of Tubera group; paratype: No. 4173, 
Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267-C, C. A. S., Tubera 
group, Colombia; Miocene. 

This species resembles most nearly O. couvana Maury from 
the Springvale group of the Miocene of Trinidad, but it has a 
larger, thicker and relatively heavier shell, and more ovate out- 
line. The external calluses are wider, and the plications are 
more pronounced, as judged by Maury's figures. Our species 
differs from O. proavia Pilsbry & Johnson in a somewhat simi- 
lar manner, not forgetting Maury's comparison. 

This shell is fairly abundant in horizon R of the Tubera 
group, and it was obtained also at horizon M - N, at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S.. and very probably it will be found at intervening 
horizons. 



54. Marginalia ballista Dall 

Marginella ballista Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, p. 47, pi. 4, fig. 6; 
Miocene, Tampa Silex beds, Florida. 

This Floridan species has not before been cited from the 
Miocene of the Caribbean region, although beds equivalent in 
age and ecologic conditions probably exist at many points 
therein. The form and surface features of our shell are too 
nearly like those figured and described by Dall to warrant any 
other determination of it. 

Dall has also described a varietal form of the same which he 
compares to M. incrassata Nelson, with which our species was 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^29 

for a time tentatively identified. Its identity with the Floridan 
form seems to be supported by the possession of four obHque 
plications, as well as by the thickened outer lip and low spire. 
A single example of this species was found at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain, 
in the Tubera group. 



55. Marginalia christinelladas Maury 

Marginella christinelladae. Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 234, pi. 11, 
fig. 6; Zone B, Miocene, Rio Gurabo, Santo Domingo. 

More than a dozen good examples of this species were 
obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope 
of Tubera mountain, and it was also found at horizon R, at 
Tubera village, and therefore at the middle and near the top 
of the Tubera group. 



56. Marginella coniformis Sowerby 

Marginella coniformis Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, Lond., vol. 6, 1928, 
1849, p. 42; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 288, pi. 17, fig. 2; Miocene, Trinidad 
Island. — Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 
1911, p. 348, pi. 24, fig. 12; Gatun formation, Canal Zone. — M.^ury, 
Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 234, pi. 11, figs. 5, 5a; Miocene, Santo 
Domingo. 

This species was obtained at the Spillway of the Canal in 
1914, and since then at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P of the 
Tubera group, on the north slope of Tubera mountain at a 
horizon believed to be the equivalent of the Gatun formation. 



57. Mitra dariensis Brown & Pilsbry 

Miira dariensis Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, 
p. 346, pi. 24, fig. 9; Gatun formation, Canal Zone. — Olsson, Bull. 
Am. Pal. vol. 9, 1922, p. 273, pi. 6, fig. 25; Gatun Stage, Canal Zone. 

Several good specimens of this species were obtained at the 
Spillway of the Canal in 1914, and since then it has been 
found at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, near the middle 
of the Tubera group. 



130 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

58. Mitra longa Gabb 

Mitra longa Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 219.— Brown & 
PiLSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 346, pi. 24, 
fig. 11.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 238, pi. 11, figs. 11, 
11a; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila., 
vol. 73, 1921, p. 339, pi. 24, fig. 3 (Type); Miocene, Santo Domingo. — 
Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 273, pi. 6, fig. 10; Gatun Stage, 
Canal Zone. 

Good examples of this species were found at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, and Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta 
Pua, in the latter case near the middle of the Tubera group ; it 
is believed to belong to both of these horizons. It occurs at 
Gatun, according to Olsson. 

59. Mitra mauryae Anderson, new species 
Plate 8, figures 4, 5 

Shell moderate in size, height of holotype, incomplete, 
32 mm., width 10 mm., somewhat biconic in form; spire a 
little longer than the body whorl; suture slightly impressed; 
whorls rounded above and slightly convex below the shoul- 
ders; body whorl obversely pyriform; spire (incomplete) con- 
sisting of six whorls ; sculpture cancellated ; aperture long and 
narrow; canal long and straight; outer lip thin, not lirate 
within columella bearing four plications, the larger above, 
slightly more distant than the others ; surface ornamented by 
20 vertical ribs on the penultimate whorl, crossed by seven 
spiral threads, the two forming a cancellated sculpture very 
similar to that of M. syra Dall. This latter species, from the 
Silex beds of Tampa, Florida, is its nearest ally, though only 
one-half the length of the Colombian fonn, and with a some- 
what more uniform taper to the apex. 

Holotype: No. 4619, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon L, gray shales along the beach one mile 
west of Puerto Colombia; Miocene. 

This species is known from only a single slightly imperfect 
specimen obtained from the gray shales along the beach a 
mile west of Puerto Colombia at Loc. 267-L, C. A. S. These 
shales underlie the Tubera group, and probably form a part 
of the Las Perdices group. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 131 

60. Scobinella morierei (?) (Laville) 

Plate 8, figures 6, 7 

Euchilodon morierei (Lav.) in Cossmann, Jour. Conch., vol. 61, 1913, p. 34, 

pi. 3, figs. 6, 7. 
Scobinella morierei, Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 251, pi. 4, figs. 3, 4; 

Gatun Stage, Canal Zone. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal. vol. 10, 1925, 

p. 345, pi. 34, figs. 1,8; Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

A single but beautifully preserved example of this interest- 
ing species was found in the clay shales, underlying the 
Tubera group a mile or more west of Puerto Colombia, asso- 
ciated with Turris alhida, Mitra iimuryce (n. sp.), Phalium 
dalli (n. sp.), Dentalium granadanitm (n. sp.), and others. 

This example is larger and more robust than the figures 
given by Olsson, but otherwise is not easily distinguished from 
the form found in the Canal Zone. The ratio of length to 
width is less, being more nearly 3 : 1 in greatest width. The 
aperture is relatively wider, and the columellar plications are 
different, though the difference seems hardly to be specific in 
value. The species has not been found in higher beds in 
Colombia, as far as known. 

Plesiofype: No. 4620, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 
267-L, gray shales along the beach one mile west of Puerto 
Colombia; Miocene. 



61. Fasciolaria olssoni Anderson, new species 

Plate 8, figures 1, 2, 3 

Shell large, thick, robust, biconic in form, smooth, showing 
lines of growth and faint spiral markings ; length of holotype 
(without apex) 79 mm.; greatest width 57 mm.; paratype 
with six whorls ; spire high, subconic, acuminate ; upper sur- 
face of the whorls concave, terminating above in a clasping 
collar; suture distinct above the collar; shoulder of body 
whorl bearing five or more rounded tubercles, forming short 
broad ridges below, but none above the shoulder; aperture 
oval, terminating above in an acute angle, below in a narrow 
straight canal; inner margin of aperture evenly calloused, 
outer lip lirate within, margin unknown; umbilical chink 



132 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

closed ; pillar slightly twisted, bearing three rounded plications. 
The largest example of this shell, although not complete, 
measures 113 mm. in length, and 71 mm. in width. The 
tubercles do not develop on the shoulders until about the fifth 
whorl, and become stronger on older shells. 

Holotype: No. 4617; paratype: No. 4618 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), from Loc. 267-P, C. A. S., Tubera mountain, Colombia; 
Miocene. 

The surface of the older shells become much pitted by wonn 
borings. This species is possibly the one listed and figured by 
Olsson as F. gorgasiana (Brown & Pilsbry).^® 

This shell is fairly plentiful in the Tubera group of the 
Colombian Miocene, and has been collected at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizons P and R, and at other points which repre- 
sent the horizon of the Gatun formation of the Canal Zone. 



62. Fasciolaria kempi (Maury) 

Siphonalia kempi Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 4, 1910, p. 138, pi. 5, fig. 5; 

Chipola marls, Florida Miocene. 
Fasciolaria kempi Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 245, pi. 12, fig. 4; 

Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

This shell is not rare in the Tubera group of the Colombian 
Miocene, and has been collected at Loc. 351, C. A. S., horizon 
near M - N, and at Loc. 305, C. A. S., near Turbaco. 

63. Fusinus henekeni (Sowerby) 

Fusus henekeni Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 49; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Guppy, Geol. Mag. Lond., vol. 1, 1874, 
p. 439.— Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 32, 1876, p. 524, 
pi. 28, fig. 6; Miocene, Haiti.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917 
p. 242, pi. 12, fig. 1; Cercado de Mao, Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Two examples of this species were found at the village of 
Tubera in the upper part of the Tubera group, Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon R. The rounded longitudinal ribs are pro- 
nounced on every whorl, from the nuclear to the body whorl, 
all of which are crossed by the strong spiral cords and lines 
described for this species. 

'« Olsson, A. A.— Bull. Am. Pal. vol. 9, 1922, p. 227, pi. 8, fig. 9; Gatun Stage, 
Canal Zone. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA i;^;^ 

64. Fusinus magdalenensis Anderson, new species 
Plate 15, figures 1, 2, 3 

Shell large, height of holotype, incomplete, 110 mm., width 
44 mm., fusiform, with high spire and long canal; spire con- 
sisting of nine whorls below the nuclear stage, the earlier ones 
only showing vertical ribs; spire sculptured by 10 to 15 strong 
revolving ridges, of two alternating ranks; body whorl con- 
taining 14 such ridges, only a few of which are of secondary 
rank; canal long and somewhat recurved near the terminus; 
pillar calloused throughout, and ornamented externally by 
spiral threads and cords alternating as above; spiral cords 
sharply ridged at the top. 

This shell bears some resemblance to F. henikeni (Sow.), 
var. veatchi Maury, but it is larger, has fewer and coarser 
spiral cords, longer and more recurved canal, and a clearly 
more calloused pillar. It is not unlike a large and strongly 
marked species from the Gulf of California, namely, Fusinus 
diipetitthouarsii (Kiener), and it may well be a precursor of 
the same. 

Holotype: No. 4651, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
horizon P, north slope of Tubera mountain, Colombia; 
Miocene. 



65. Melongena propatulus Anderson, new species 
Plate 11, figures 1, 2 

Shell large, heavy, height of holotype, incomplete, 108 mm., 
greatest width 91 mm., spire low and rounded, body pyriform 
or conical below the rounded shoulder, almost spineless, or 
having only few and inconspicuous spines on the shoulder of 
the whorl; holotype bearing two small, tubercle-like spines at 
the base, near aperture ; whorls five ; spire low but acuminate, 
rounded below the three nuclear whorls which form the apex ; 
suture covered by an elevated collar; aperture ovate, notched 
behind, slightly notched on the shoulder; outer lip showing a 
disposition to form crenulations ; inner lip broadly calloused ; 
canal broad, as in M. patulns; pillar broad, and flattened 
below ; surface marked by strong, flat spiral cords, crossed by 



134 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

strong wavy lines of growth; spiral cords stronger near the 
base, one or more cords bearing a few small tubercles. 

This shell has its closest ally in M. patulus, living on the 
Pacific coast and in the Gulf of California. Careful com- 
parison has been made with good examples of this species in 
the collectioBs of the California Academy of Sciences, and 
with M. melongetta Linn, from the Caribbean region. It dif- 
fers from both. 

Holotype: No. 4632, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
horizon R, Tubera village, Colombia; Miocene; embedded in 
sandstone near the top of the Tubera group. 



66. Solenosteira hasletti Anderson, new species 
Plate 16, figures 7-A, 8 

Shell not large, height of holotype 48 mm., width 30 mm., 
thickened, biconic in outline, spiney, not nodose ; spire pagoda- 
like, with 5 or 6 whorls more or less concave above, the whorls 
culminating above in a collar clasping the preceding one; 
suture completely covered; surface marked by numerous 
revolving threads ; on the upper slope four or five of these are 
heavier, with interspaces occupied by three to five finer 
threads, all of which, under the lens, appear beaded ; lower 
slope ornamented in the same manner, but with more numer- 
ous heavy threads; periphery of each whorl supporting about 
seven strong spines that point upward and outward, but- 
tressed by a low ridge beneath and above ; aperture ovate, with 
narrow angle above forming a notch ; outer lip slightly angu- 
lated, somewhat lirate within ; inner lip symmetrically curved ; 
pillar calloused near the aperture, recurved without; canal 
long and slightly recurved ; umbilical area calloused, but show- 
ing a decided depression. 

This shell is not unlike Solenosteira alternata (Nelson) 
from the Zorritos formation of Peru, but it is more strongly 
sculptured, and considerably more spinose in its mature form. 
It is found in many parts of the Tubera group, and was 
obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., in horizon M - N, and horizon 
P. It is named in honor of Mr. Thomas D. Haslett. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^35 

Holotype: No. 4169, Mus, Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 
267 — M-N, Tubera group, Colombia; paratype: No, 4170, 
C. A. S., from Loc. 305, C. A. S., Turbaco, Colombia; para- 
type: No. 4171, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 304, C. A. S., 
from four miles east of Santa Rosa, Colombia, on ranch of 
Mrs. Gomez; Miocene. 

67. Solenosteira santaerosae Anderson, new species 
Plate 13, figures 7, 8, 9, 10 

Shell of medium size, height of holotype, incomplete, 
47 mm., width 35 mm., subconic in form, spinose, spiral sculp- 
ture pronounced; whorls five to seven below the nucleus; 
upper slope of whorls broad, bearing about seven strong ridges 
extending to the clasping sutural collar, sculptured by numer- 
ous revolving lines; lower slope abrupt and concave down- 
ward, crossed by numerous revolving lines or threads, among 
which appear a few stronger cords near the center of the lower 
surface; shoulders set with strong spines, sloping downward 
on the body whorl, but upward on the younger whorls ; suture 
concealed by a clasping collar ; pillar thick and short, reflexed ; 
aperture ovate, narrowed above and at the canal ; canal 
reflexed; umbilicus large; general appearance of the shell 
slouching and depressed. 

Holotype: No. 4641, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 304, 
C. A. S., 4 miles east of Santa Rosa; paratype: No. 4642, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 305, C. A. S., horizon P, near 
Turbaco, Colombia; Miocene. 

This species is not infrequent in the Tubera group of the 
Colombian Miocene. It has been obtained at Loc. 299-A, 
C. A. S., near the middle of the group, at Loc. 304, and at 
Loc. 305, C. A. S., lower down in the group, though not at 
the lowest horizon. 

68. Phos tuberaensis Anderson, new species 
Plate 9, figures 1, 2, 3 

Shell of medium size, or large; spire high, somewhat tur- 
rited; height of holotype 50 mm., width of body whorl 
26 mm., whorls seven in number, convex, ornamented chiefly 



]^36 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

by spiral lines; two nuclear whorls smooth; next four whorls 
bearing low, rounded vertical ribs, and about 12 slightly 
raised spiral threads; upper slope of whorls concave; shoul- 
ders tuberculated ; body whorl having 10 low ribs, crossed by 
spiral threads, heavier on base of shell; aperture oval, nar- 
rowed above ; canal short, reflexed ; outer lip sharp, lirate 
within; pillar bearing one anterior plication, not crusted. 

Holotype: No. 4621, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain, 
Colombia; paratype: No. 4622, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from 
Loc. 305, C. A. S., near Turbaco, Colombia ; Miocene. 

This shell resembles Phos siibsemicostatus Brown & Pilsbry, 
but it is larger, has a more rugged sculpture and prominent 
tubercles. 

It is not unlikely that the two species are nearly allied, 
though they are not identical. 

This species is not rare in the Tubera group, and the type 
was obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, on the north 
slope of Tubera mountain. It has been found also at Loc. 
305, near Turbaco. 



69. Phos turbacoensis Anderson, new species 
Plate 15, figures 6, 7 

Shell large, heavy, strongly sculptured ; spire high, acumi- 
nate, heavily ribbed ; whorls nine in number, concave above, 
with slightly elevated collar; costate below the shoulder, hav- 
ing 12 heavy ribs which are crossed by five or six heavy 
revolving threads below the shoulder ; shoulder slightly tuber- 
culate; body whorl irregularly ribbed, and ornamented with 
strong spiral threads with wide interspaces; interspaces some- 
times containing intermediary lines; pillar short with one 
anterior plication; aperture arcuate-ovate; outer lip sharp, 
lirate within; pillar not calloused; canal short, reflexed; three 
nuclear whorls smooth; following six becoming gradually 
more strongly sculptured; height of holotype 55 mm., width of 
body whorl 27 mm., height of aperture 26 mm. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \yj 

Holotype: No. 4654, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 305, 
C. A. S., near the village of Turbaco, Colombia; Miocene. 

This shell resembles Phos veatchi Olsson, but it is larger, 
more strongly sculptured, and has a higher spire. 



70. Phos baranoanus Anderson, new species 
Plate 16, figures 4, 5 

Shell rather large, conico-ovate, spire high, acuminate; 
whorls nine in number, convex; suture distinct, not impressed; 
two nuclear whorls smooth; next five whorls bearing small 
vertical ribs and four to eight spiral threads, producing a finely 
cancellated sculpture ; last two whorls smooth, showing growth 
lines, but almost no spirals, except on the base; aperture 
arcuate-ovate, narrow above; outer lip sharp, lirate within; 
inner lip not crusted ; pillar bearing a single anterior plication ; 
canal reflexed. Height of the holotype is 51 mm., width 
21.5 mm. 

This shell is not rare in the Tubera group, and has been 
obtained at Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco; Loc. 299, 
near Baranoa; Loc. 325, near Usiacuri; and at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain. 

Holotype: No. 4657, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 325-A, 
C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain, 
Colombia; paratype: No. 4657-A, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from 
Loc. 299, C. A. S., near Plott's well S. W. of Baranoa, Colom- 
bia; Miocene. 



71. Murex domingensis Sowerby 

Murex domingensis Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849? p. 
49, pi. 10, fig. 5; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., 
vol. 5, 1917, p. 265, pi. 16, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6; Cercado de Mao, Miocene, 
Santo Domingo. 

A single specimen of this shell was found at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain, 
near the middle of the Tubera group. 

March 29, 1929 



138 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

72, Murex mississippiensis Conrad 

Murex mississippiensis Conrad, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 1, 1848, 
p. 116, pi. 11, fig. 30.— Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1890, 
p. 130.— Dall, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 90, 1915, p. 73, pi. 5, fig. 
10; Tampa Silex beds, Miocene, Florida, etc. 

A single example of this shell was obtained at Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, some 20 miles north of Cartagena, 
in the lower part of the Tubera group. 

73. Typhis siphonifera Dall 

Plate 9, figure 8 

Typhis siphonifera Dall, Bull., U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 90, 1915, p. 77, pi. 13, fig. 
9; Tampa Silex beds, Tampa, Florida. 

Typhis lingulifera Dall, var. coslaricensis (?) Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 
1922, p. 304, pi. 10, figs. 22, 29; Miocene, Costa Rica. 

A single example of this interesting species was found at 
Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, a few miles north of 
Usiacuri, and near the middle of the Tubera group, A careful 
comparison of this well preserved specimen with Ball's figure 
and description leaves no room for doubt as to its determina- 
tion, although the spire is slightly higher in our specimen. In 
this example the spire consists of seven whorls, including the 
two that form the nucleus. The specimen bears some resem- 
blance to T. linguifera Dall, but the latter has long and in- 
curved spines where the varices meet the shoulder of the 
whorl, giving it a decidedly spiney appearance. The tubes 
arising from the shoulder in the interspaces between the 
spines form a distinguishing mark. 

Plesiotype: No. 4625, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 
325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, Colombia; Miocene, 



74, Distortrix simillima (Sowerby) 

Triton simillima Sowerby, Quart, Jour, Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 48; 

Miocene, Island of Haiti. 

Persona simillima, Guppy, Quart. Joiu". Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 
288, pi. 17, fig. 13; Miocene, Jamaica. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 139 

Distortio (Distortrix, Persona) gatunensis Toula, Jahrb. d. K. K. Geol. Reichs., 
Bd. 58, 1909, p. 700, pi. 25, fig. 10; Gatun formation, Canal Zone.— 
Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 
356, pi. 26, fig. 8; Gatun formation. Canal Zone. 

Distortrix simillima, Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 271, pi. 17, figs. 
4, 5; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, 
p. 305; Gatun Stage, Canal Zone. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 
1925, p. 368; Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

A good number of examples of this shell was obtained at 
the Spillway of the Canal in 1914, and since then it has been 
collected at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizons P and R, and later at 
Loc. 325-A, near Cibarco, all of which represent a horizon 
near the middle, or in the upper part of the Tubera group of 
the Colombian Miocene. It has not been found in the lowest 
horizon of the same. 



75, Cypraea henekeni Sowerby 

Cyprcea henekeni Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, p. 45, 
pi. 9, fig. 3; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Gabb, Am. Phil. Soc. Trans., 
vol. 15, 1873, p. 235.— GUPPY, Geol. Mag. Lond., vol. 1, 1874, p. 440. 
— GuppY, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 32, 1876. p. 528. — 
Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 
356.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 278, pi. 19, fig. 4; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Two good examples of this species were obtained at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, at the west base of Tubera 
mountain, in the lower part of the Tubera group, and it has 
not yet been found higher in the group. 



76. Cypraea (Pustularia) gabbiana Guppy 

Plate 15, figures 4, 5 

Pustularia nucleus, Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 236. (Not 
of Linnaeus). 

Cyprcea pustulata, Guppy, Geol. Mag. Lond., vol. 1, 1874, p. 440. (Not of 
Lamarck). 

Cyprcea gabbiana Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 32, 1876, p. 528, 
pi. 29, fig. 10; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. 
Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1890, p. 165, 

Cyprcea {Pustularia) gabbiana, Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol, 5, 1917, p. 280, 
pi. 19, fig. 12; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 



140 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

A sing-le well preserved example of this species was obtained 
at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, near the middle of the 
Tubera group. The species is doubtless related to C. pustularia 
Lam., found in the Gulf of California, though it is narrower, 
and has more numerous transverse bars upon the bucal 
surface. 

Plesiotype: No. 4653, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., horizon P, near Punta Pua, Colombia; Miocene 



77. Ovula (Neosimnia) puana Anderson, new species 

Plate 9, figures 9, 10 

Shell small, length of holotype, broken, 20 mm., width 
10 mm., biconic, smooth, bearing a subcentral, angular hump, 
but little elevated; aperture narrow, outer lip apparently sim- 
ple, inner lip smooth and polished. 

Holotype: No. 4626, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, Colombia, near the middle of the 
Tubera group ; Miocene. 

This species is nearly related to Ovula emarginata Sowerby, 
from the Bay of Panama, but it differs in the elevation of the 
transverse hump. 

Only a single specimen of this shell was obtained at Loc. 
351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, near the middle of the Tubera 
group. It is herein included only for the purpose of making 
the record as complete as our material will permit. 

78. Malea ringens (Swainson) 

Plate 12, figtires 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 

Cassis ringens Swainson, Blith. Catal. 1822, App. p. 4. — Sowerby, Tankerv. 

Catal., 1825, App. 21. 
Dolium ringens (Swains.) Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 5, 1849, pi. 4, fig. 5; 

living, Payta, Peru. 
Malea ringens (Swains.) Conrad, Pac. R. R. Repts., vol. 6, 1855, pt. 2, p. 72, 

pi. 5, fig. 22; Miocene, Gatun, Panama. 

This species has not recently been listed from the Miocene 
of the Caribbean region, although Conrad reported it from 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ]^41 

Panama Miocene beds as early as 1855. It was obtained by 
the writer at the Spillway of the Canal in 1914, and since then 
at a number of points in the Tubera group of the Colombian 
Miocene. The identity of the fossil Colombian species with 
the living form from the Gulf of California is shown in the 
illustrations presented herein. It differs from the more com- 
mon form, Malea camura Guppy, in having a higher spire, 
narrower and flatter revolving ribs, as is illustrated in Maury's 
figure of the latter, and a longer canal. The outer lip is not 
preserved in most of our fossil examples, but it appears to be 
represented in Toula's figure (pi. 30, fig. 7),^^ which agrees 
with some of our material from Gatun. In the Colombian 
Miocene it was obtained at the following localities : 

Loc. 267, C, A. S., horizon P, north slope of Tubera moun- 
tain; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, Tubera village, near top 
of group; Loc. 299, C. A. S., near Baranoa, near middle of 
the group; Loc. 305, C. A. S., southeast of Turbaco, Depart, 
de BoHvar; Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, near the mid- 
dle of the group. 

Its range is, therefore, through the upper part of the 
Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene. 

Plesiotype: No. 4633, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., recent shell 
from Bay of Panama; plesiotype: No. 4634, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 267, C. A, S., horizon P, Tubera mountain ; 
plesiotype: No. 4635, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 299, 
C. A. S., horizon P, near Plott's well, S. W. of Baranoa, 
Colombia ; Miocene. 



79. Cassis (Phalium) dalli Anderson, new species 
Plate 14, figures 10, 11, 12, 13 

Shell small, height of holotype, young shell, 13 mm., width 11 
mm., globose, coronated, with moderate or low spire ; shell orna- 
mented by fine spiral sculpture covering the entire body, 
crossed by lines of growth; aperture lunate, outer lip thin on 
the two examples found ; canal short and recurved. The spire 
of this species consists of two smooth nuclear whorls, followed 
by three rapidly expanding whorls which are tabular above, 

='Toula, F., Jahrb. d. K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 61, 1911, p. SOO. 



142 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

angulated on the shoulder and convexly rounded below. The 
angles of the shoulder bear 12 to 13 flattened spines, elongated 
laterally, forming a distinct corona. This shell bears a certain 
resemblance to P. moniliferum (Guppy), but has a much finer 
sculpture, only a single row of tubercles, a lower spire, and is 
of smaller size. 

Holotype: No. 4649; paratype: No. 4650, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 267-L, Las Perdices group underlying the Tu- 
bera group a mile or more west of the Pier at Puerto 
Colombia; Miocene. 

This species is represented by two examples from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon L, the gray shales of the Las Perdices group 
underlying the Tubera group a mile or more west of the pier 
at Puerto Colombia. It has not been found at any higher 
horizon. 

80. Cassis (Phalium) moniliferum Guppy 

Cassis moniUfera Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 287, 
pi. 17, fig. 8; Miocene, Jamaica. 

Phalium moniliferum Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 274, pis. 18, 
figs. 4, 5; 19, fig. 1.— Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 307, 
pi. 12, fig. 11; Miocene. 

This species was obtained at the Spillway of the Canal in 
1914, but has not yet been certainly recognized in the Miocene 
of Colombia. 

81. Sconsia laevigata (Sowerby) 

Cassidaria Icevigaia Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1849, 
p. 47, pi. 10. fig. 2. 

Cassidaria sublcevigata Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, 
p. 287, pi. 27, fig. 9. 

Cassidaria laevigata, Guppy, Geol. Mag. Lond., vol. 1, 1874, p. 439. — Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 32, 1876, p. 525. 

Sconsia Iczvigata, Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, 
p. 356.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 275, pi. 19, fig. 2; 
Cercado de Mao, Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. 
Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 308. 

This species was obtained at the Spillway of the Canal in 
1914, and since then it has been collected at Loc. 267, C. A, S., 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^43 

horizon M - N, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 
in the latter case from near the middle of the Tubera group 
of the Colombian Miocene. It has not been found at any 
higher horizon, as far as known. 

82. Ficus colombiana Anderson, new species 
Plate 13, figures 1, 2 

Shell medium or large, pyriform, graceful in outline, sculp- 
ture decussated, suboval; height of holotype 41.5 mm., width 
29 mm., height of paratype (incomplete) 59 mm., width 
42 mm. ; spire low, even in young shells ; upper slope gentle, 
curving gracefully to the sides; nuclear whorls smooth; sculp- 
ture consisting of spiral cords widely spaced, with four or five 
intermediary lines, the central of which is stronger than the 
others ; aperture wide, suboval ; pillar slightly curved. 

Holotype: No. 4636; paratype: No. 4637, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera mountain, 
Colombia; Miocene. 

The nearest ally of this species is Picas decussata (Wood) 
from the Bay of Panama, Magdalena Bay and the Gulf of 
California. The principal difference in these species seems to 
be in the general outline and sculpture. The fossil species is 
more robust, has a shorter pillar and canal, and a much 
coarser sculpture. It differs from F. carhasea (Guppy), in 
its more rounded outline as well as in sculpture. 

This species is represented by four good examples from 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., two of which came from horizon P, and 
two from horizon R, and accordingly from the middle and 
upper part of the Tubera group. Other examples have been 
found at other localities in the middle part of the same group. 

83. Strombina chiriquiensis Olsson 

StromUna chiriquiensis Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 302, pi. 10, 
figs. 14, 24; Miocene, Costa Rica. 

This species was found abundantly at Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., 
near Cibarco, near the middle of the Tubera group of the 
Colombian Miocene. 



144 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

84. Dentalium granadanum Anderson, new species 

Plate 13, figure 3 

Shell large, subcircular in section, gently curved, tapering 
very gradually; both ends complete when found, but sub- 
sequently broken; surface sculptured by 24 rounded but irregu- 
lar longitudinal ribs, with no intermediate lines, the ribs con- 
tinuing to the basal end of the shell ; length of incomplete holo- 
type not less than 55 mm.; greatest width 11 mm. When 
complete this shell was not less than 100 mm. in length. Its 
nearest ally seems to be one from Costa Rica described by 
Olsson as D. uscarianum, coming from the Uscari stage of the 
Miocene. Its resemblance, however, to D. mississippiensis 
Conrad"** should be pointed out also. 

Holotype: No. 4638, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Log. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon L, Las Perdices group, Puerto Colombia; 
Miocene. 

A single example was obtained from the gray shales of the 
Las Perdices group below the Tubera group, a mile west of 
Puerto Colombia. 



85. Serpulorbis papulosa (Guppy) 

Vermetus papulosa Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 292, 
pi. 17, fig. 3; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 
Lond., vol. 32, 1876, p. 519; occurrence as above. 

Serpulorbis papulosa (Guppy) Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, 
p. 1585.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 291, pi. 22, fig. 10; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 
317, pi. 12, fig. 1; Gatun Stage, Costa Rica. — Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 376, as above. — Maury, Bull. Am. 
Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 377, etc.; Springvale horizon, Miocene, Trinidad 
Island. 

Examples of this species have been obtained at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua, in the latter case from near the middle of the 
Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene. 

«Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 1, 1848, p. 112, pi. 11, fig. 1. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^45 

86. Serpulorbis granifera (Say) 

Serpula granifera Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 4, 1824, p. 154, pi. 8, 
fig. 4.— Reprint, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 1, 1896, p. 330, pi. 8, fig. 4; 
Miocene, Maryland. 

Vermelus granifera, Martin, Md. Geol. Surv., 1904, p. 232, pi. 54, figs. 14, 15. 

Serpulorbis granifera, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1892, p. 303. — 
Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 291, pi. 22. fig. 9; Miocene, 
Santo Domingo. 

Examples of this species were obtained at Loc. 351, C. A. S., 
near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, near the mid- 
dle of the Tubera group. 



87. Petaloconchus sculpturatus H. C. Lea 

Petaloconchus sculpturatus Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 9, 1845, p. 233, 
pi. 34, fig. 3. 

Petaloconchus domingensis Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 
1849, p. 51, pi. 10, figs. 8, a, b, c. — Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 359; Gatun formation. Canal Zone. 

Petaloconchus sculpturatus, Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 25, 1875, p. 240; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., 
vol. 32, 1876, p. 519. 

Vermetus {Petaloconchus) sculpturatus, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 
3, 1892, p. 305.— Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, 
p. 377; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Petaloconchus sculpturatus, Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 318, pi. 14, 
figs. 10, 15; Miocene, Canal Zone. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 
1925, p. 378, pi. 41, figs. 2, 4, 7; Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

This species occurs frequently in the Tubera group of the 
Colombian Miocene. It has been obtained at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, and Loc, 351, C. A. S., near the 
middle of the group, and at Loc. 325-A, also near the middle 
of the group. It occurs at higher horizons as well, at other 
localities. 



146 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pelecypoda 

88. Yoldia pisciformis Brown & Pilsbry 

Yoldia pisciformis Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. 17, 
1917, p. 38, pi. 6, fig. 3; near Cartagena, Colombia. 

This species is abundant about Tubera mountain in the mid- 
dle part of the Tubera group, as at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zons P and R, Tubera group, and it has also been found at 
Loc. 304, C. A. S., four miles east of Santa Rosa, near the 
Colombian coast. 

89. Area (Scapharca) patricia Sowerby 

Area Patricia Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1850, p. 52; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Woodring, Science, vol. 62, 1925, pp. 
518, 519. 

Although Gabb was very confident that he had found and 
identified Sowerby 's species, Area patricia with the living 
Area girandis Brod. & Sowerby, it appears that his confidence 
was not well grounded in fact. W. P. Woodring has sum- 
marized the matter pertaining to the former species, including 
under it the following as synonymous : 

Area (Anadara) grandis (Brod. & Sow.), Gabb, 1873. 
Seapharca (Argina) tolepia Dall, 1898. 
Scapharca arthurpennelli Maury, 1917. 
Area {Argina) tolepia (Dall), Pilsbry, 1922, etc. 

This species has been found in the Tubera group of the 
Colombian Miocene at three different localities, and in fact 
seems to be quite common. In all of the examples the ribs 
number about 30, are slightly nodose, and the shell has the 
form and hinge characters described by Dall for his Seapharca 
tolepia. It occurs abundantly at Loc. 267, C. A. S., in hori- 
zons M - N, and P, Tubera mountain; Loc. 305, C. A. S., 
near Turbaco; and at Loc. 265, C. A. S., near Punta Paralillas, 
north of Monitos, on the Colombian coast. At the last point 
it was almost the only fossil found, but was sufficient to con- 
firm the Miocene age of the strata, determined as such on 
other grounds. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \^y 

90. Area (Noetia) macdonaldi Dall 

Area (Noetia) macdonaldi Dall, Smiths. Misc. Coll., vol. 59, 1912, p. 9. — 
Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 366, pi. 25, figs. 4-7; Miocene, 
Costa Rica. 

According to Dall this species is nearly related to Area 
trinitaria Guppy, from the Miocene of Trinidad Island. 
Examples of it were found at Loc. 323, C. A. S., at the Spill- 
way of the Canal in 1914, and subsequently at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizons M - N, and P, of the Tubera group, Tubera 
mountain, and at Loc. 299, C. A. S., near Baranoa, Colombia. 
It is one of the abundant forms of this group. 

91. Area (Scapharca) actinophora Dall 

Area {Scapharca) actinohpora Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1898, 
p. 647, pi. 2>i, fig. 26; Monkey Hill, Canal Zone. 

This species was collected at the Spillway of the Canal in 
1914, and subsequently at two separate localities in the Colom- 
bian Miocene, as at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera 
group, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, some 20 
miles north of Cartagena. At the latter locality three or four 
good examples were obtained which agree in all essentials with 
those of the Gatun formation. 

92. Area (Scapharca) dariensis Brown & Pilsbry 

Area {Scapharca) dariensis Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
vol. 63, 1911, p. 362, pi. 22, fig. 10; Gatun formation. Canal Zone. 

This species was found abundantly at the Spillway of the 
Canal in 1914, Loc. 323, C. A. S., and has since been found at 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera 
mountain, in the middle of the Tubera group. It appears to 
belong to the group of Area (Scaph.) ineqnilatcralis (Guppy) 
from the Miocene of Trinidad. 

93. Area (Area) oeeidentalis Philippi 

Area {Area) oeeidentalis Philippi, Abbild. und Beschreib., vol. 3, 1847, p. 29, 
pi. 4, figs. 4, a, b; living, Caribbean Sea. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., 
vol. 5, 1917, p. 327, pi. 29, fig. 3; Zone H, Miocene, Santo Domingo. — 
Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 353, pi. 22, fig. 1; Miocene, 
Costa Rica.— WooDRiNG, Mioc. Moll. Bowden, Jamaica, Carnegie 
Inst. Publ. No. 1925, p. 29, pi. 2, figs. 8, 9; Bowden beds, Jamaica. 



248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This species has been obtained abundantly in the Bay of 
Cartagena and has been collected from the Miocene beds of 
Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Carta- 
gena. It is a variable form and it would be surprising if it 
did not persist from the lower Miocene into the living fauna. 

94. Area (Anadara) usiacurii Anderson, new species 
Plate 19, figure 6; plate 20, figure 6; plate 21, figure 4 

Area grandis Brod. & Sow., Pilsbry (in part), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
vol. 73, 1921, p. 404; Miocene, near Cartagena, Colombia. 

Area grandis ? waringi F. & H. K. Hodson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 13, 1927, p. 7, 
pi. 7, figs. 1, 4; Miocene, N. Venezuela. 

Shell large, solid and heavy; nearly equivalve; length of 
holotype 105 mm., height 103 mm., thickness of valve from 
hinge plane to back 50 mm. ; radial ribs 27 in number, slightly 
flattened, heavy, beaded on the anterior surface, and less 
strongly so elsewhere ; intercostal spaces nearly equal in width 
to the ribs, marked by strong lines of growth; cardinal area 
broad, forming a nearly symmetrical triangle crossed by four 
to six grooves in fully grown specimens, sloping to the outer 
angles of the area, but not quite meeting on the median line ; 
hinge heavy, set with about 48-58 thin, close-set, often branch- 
ing teeth, which in the center are vertical, but toward the ends 
curve outwardly and are often broken by an oblique line; 
margin of shell strongly denticulate within, showing about 23 
broad denticulations. 

Holotype: No. 4158, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 306, 
C. A. S., at the northeast border of the village of Usiacuri, 
Colombia; paratype: No. 4159, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from 
Loc. 267 M - N, C. A. S., Tubera group, Colombia; Miocene. 

This species is even more nearly related to Area grandis 
Brod. & Sow. than is the form figured by Pilsbry as such, and 
by Maury as Area patrieia Sowerby^® for which the name 
Area patriareha is here proposed. A comparison of the hinges 
and cardinal areas clearly shows several marked differences. 
The branching of the cardinal teeth near the ends of the hinge 
in the Colombian species is a distinctive mark. Although Dr. 

28 Bull. Am. Pal. vol. 5, p. 337, pi. 27, fig. 1. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^49 

Pilsbry had in his collection nine specimens from the Colom- 
bian coast (p. 404) he seems not to have noted the points in 
which they doubtless differ from the Dominican species or 
from the form living at Panama and other Pacific points. 

This species is found in many parts of the Colombian 
marine Miocene associated with other purely marine forms. 
The holotype was obtained from Loc. 306, at the northeast 
border of the village of Usiacuri, more than 1,000 feet above 
the base of the group, where it is very abundant. The para- 
type comes from the uppermost part of horizon M - N of the 
Tubera group, though it is abundant in higher horizons, as 
P and Q, and in still higher beds near the village of Usiacuri. 

95. Area (Anadara) patriarcha Anderson, new name 

Area grandis Brod. & Sow., Gabb, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 
253 (in part); Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Area grandis Brod. & Sow., Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 
1922, p. 404, pi. 40, fig. 1; Miocene, Santo Domingo. Not Area 
grandis Brod. & Sow.; living, Bay of Panama, etc. 

Area patricia Sowerby, Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 337, pi. 27, 
fig. 1 ; Caimito, Rio Cana, Santo Domingo. 

This species has not yet been correctly reported from 
Colombia, although it appears to be quite abundant in the 
Miocene of Santo Domingo. As shown by the figure supplied 
by Maury the cardinal teeth are not numerous, and are cor- 
respondingly very coarse. It lacks many of the details of fonn 
and dentition given for Area grandis Brod. & Sow., and for 
Area (Anadara) iisiaeurii Anderson. 

96. Area (Seapharea) auriculata Lamarck 

Area auriculata Lam., An. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1819, p. 43; living fauna. — Dall, 
Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1898, p. 647; Miocene, Bowden, 
Jamaica.— M.\ury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 339, pi. 28, fig. 3; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 
362, pi. 22, fig. 3; Miocene, Costa Rica. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., 
vol. 10, 1925, p. 201, pi. 4, fig. 2; Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

This species has been found living in the Bay of Cartagena, 
and fossil in the Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene, as 
at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, the lowest member of 



J50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the group. A careful comparison of the fossil and living 
examples shows the fossil form well within the range of vari- 
ation in the living shells. 



97. Area (Scapharca?) veatchi Olsson 

Area veatchi Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 361, pi. 23, figs. 1-3; 
Gatun Stage, Miocene, Costa Rica. 

This species has been obtained from Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon M - N of the Tubera group of the Colombian Mio- 
cene. The species appears to be nearly related to, though not 
identical with Area patricia Sowerby, as understood in this 
paper. 



98. Area (Scapharea) medioamerieana (Olsson) 

Area medioamerieana Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 360, pi. 23, figs. 
4-6; Miocene, Costa Rica. 

Olsson has described this species as a variety of Area 
golfoyaqnensis Maury, but the specific differences seem so evi- 
dent, both as to form and ornamentation, that it should be 
regarded as distinct. The species seems more closely related 
to Area actinophora Dall, while Maury's species seems to be 
nearer to Area dariensis Brown & Pilsbry. 



99. Area (Scapharca) inequilateralis Guppy 

Area inequilateralis Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, p. 293, pi. 
18, figs. 2, a, b; Miocene, Jamaica. 

Barhatia (Diluvarea) inequalateralis Woodring, Mioc. Moll. Bowden, Jam., 
Carnegie Inst. Publ. No. 366, 1925, p. 45, pi. 5, figs. 1-3; Miocene, 
Jamaica. 

This species has been obtained from Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, from near the middle 
of the Tubera group, and from Loc. 299-A, C. A. S., between 
Cibarco and Chorrera, Tubera group, Colombian Miocene. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 15I 

100. Area cacica Olsson 

Area cacica Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 362, pi, 24, fig. 1; Miocene, 
Costa Rica. 

This species occurs at Loc. 299, C. A. S., near Baranoa, 
Colombia, in the central part of the Tiibera group, Colombian 
Miocene. 

101. Area (Scapharca) hispaniolana Maury 

Area (Scapharca) hispaniolana Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 340, 
pi. 30, figs. 9, 10; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

A single specimen of this species was obtained from each of 
the following localities : Loc. 304, C. A. S., four miles east of 
Santa Rosa; Loc. 306, C. A. S., near Usiacuri; and Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, 
Colombia ; all of them in the central part of the Tubera group 
of the Miocene. 

102. Area pittieri Dall 

Area pittieri Dall, Smiths. Misc. Coll., vol. 59, 1912, pt. 2, p. 9; Miocene, 
Costa Rica.— Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 364, pi. 24, 
figs. 2-6; Gatun Stage, Miocene, Costa Rica. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 305, C. A. S., near 
Turbaco; Loc. 349, C. A. S., near Galapa; and Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena. The 
first two occurrences are at points low in the Tubera group, 
though the last is probably near the top. 

103. Area (Seapharea) lloydi Olsson 

Area {Scapharca) lloydi Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 364, pi. 24 
figs. 10-12; Gatun Stage, Miocene, Costa Rica. 

This Species was obtained at Loc. 323, C. A. S., at the Spill- 
way of the Canal, in 1914; and since then at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P; and Loc. 306, C. A. S., Usiacuri; and 
also at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of 
Cartagena; all from the central part of the Tubera group. 



152 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

104. Glycymeris jamaicensis Dall 

Glycymeris jamaicensis Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1898, p. 608. — 
WooDRiNG, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 366, 1925, p. 24, pi. 2, 
figs. 1-3; Miocene, Bowden, Jamaica. 

This species has been found abundantly at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., horizon 
P, both of the Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene. 



105. Glycymeris carbasina (?) Brown & Pilsbry 

Glycymeris carbasina Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 
1911, p. 363, pi. 28, fig. 9; Gatun formation. Canal Zone. 

This species has been doubtfully identified among the forms 
found in the lowest horizon of the Tubera group. It appears 
to be related to the preceding from the Bowden beds of 
Jamaica. 

106. Glycymeris lloydsmithi Brown & Pilsbry 

Glycymeris lloydsmithi Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 
69, 1917, p. 39, pi. 6, fig. 6; Miocene, near Cartagena, Colombia. 

Several good examples of this species were obtained from 
Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Carta- 
gena, near the middle of the Tubera group of the Colombian 
Miocene. 

107. Glycymeris lamyi Dall 

Plate 22, figures 7, 8 

Glycymeris lamyi D.\ll, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 90, 1915, p. 122, pi. 20, 
figs. 11, 13; Tampa Silex beds, Tampa Bay, Fla., Lower Miocene. 

Glycymeris canalis, Olsson (in part, not Brown & Pilsbry), Bull. Am. Pal. 
vol. 9, 1922, p. 349, pi. 18, figs. 4, 5; Miocene, Costa Rica. 

Plesiotype: No. 4670, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 
325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, Colombia; Miocene. 

Dall's description and figures are sufficiently clear to enable 
one to recognize the species with considerable confidence. He 
seems to have had, however, only the young or immature 
shells upon which to base his description. His figures are 
almost twice natural size. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA J 53 

With further growth the number of primary ribs increases, 
and at the same time riblets appear on some of them. Super- 
ficially this species resembles G. trilobicosta Brown &: Pilsbry, 
but it is not only larger, but has a narrower, less expanded 
outline near the beaks, and intermediary riblets which are 
lacking in G. trilobicosta. 

Several good examples of this species were obtained at Loc. 
351, C. A. S., and at Loc. 325, C. A. S., all in the central part 
of the Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene. 

108. Glycymeris usiacurii Anderson, new species 

Plate 22, figures 3, 4 

Shell small, sub-circular, moderately inflated; beaks small, 
median, a little prominent; primary ribs 15 in number, 
rounded, widest in the central part of the shell, separated by 
a groove containing a single intermediary riblet; ligamental 
area small, almost obsolete ; line of the cardinal teeth rounded, 
not angular, set with eight teeth on each side of the median 
line, with a few rudimentary teeth near the middle; height of 
holotype 24 mm., length 24 mm., depth of single valve 7 mm. 

This species outwardly resembles G. canalis Brown & Pils- 
bry, but unlike it has intermediary riblets, and not so many 
cardinal teeth in the hinge. 

This form has been found plentifully at Loc. 325, C. A. S., 
a mile east of the village of Usiacuri, and nearly 2,000 feet 
above the base of the Tubera group, of the Colombian 
Miocene. 

Holotype: No. 4668, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 325, 
C. A. S., horizon P, near the village of Usiacuri, Colombia; 
Miocene. 

109. Ostrea haitensis Sowerby 

Ostrea haitensis Sow., Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1850, p. 53. — 
Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 346, pi. 31, figs. 1, 2; Zone D, 
Gurabo, Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Hodson, P., Bull. Am. Pal., 
vol. 13, 1927, p. 21, pi. 10, fig. 7, pi. 11, fig. 4, and pi. 12, fig. 4; 
Oligocene-Miocene, State of Falcon, western Venezuela. 

Ostrea vespertina (?), Jordan & Hertlein (not Conrad), Proc. Calif. Acad. 

Sci., vol. 15, 1926, p. 428; California Pliocene. 

March 29, 1929 



154 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Sowerby's species has some marked features of resemblance 
to O. vespertina Conrad (=0. veatchi Gabb) from the upper 
Tertiary of the CaHfornia coast, though identity is not 
claimed. Ostrca gatunensis Brown & Pilsbry, and O. costari- 
censis Olsson apparently belong to the same group, and at 
least may be regarded as analogous, if not identical forms. 

Ostrea haitensis has been found at Loc. 266, C. A. S., San 
Juan Acosta Creek, horizon R, and Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua. 



110. Ostrea megadon Hanley 

Ostrea megadon Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 106; living, west coast 
of Peru.— Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1898, p. 1586; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo, and Jamaica. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., 
Yol. 5, 1917, p. 347, pi. 34, fig. 3; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Ostrea cerrosensis Gabb, Geol. Surv. Calif., Pal. vol. 2, 1869, p. 35, pi. 11, fig. 
61; Cedros Island, Pliocene. 

This species was found abundantly at Loc. 299, C. A. S., 
west of Usiacuri ; Loc. 306, C. A. S., three miles south of 
Baranoa; Loc. 347, C. A. S., near Turbaco; all of which are 
below the middle of the Tubera group of the Colombian 
Miocene. 

In this group of oysters should probably also be included 
Ostrea messor Maury from the Miocene of Trinidad.^" 

It is worthy of note that O. megadon, O. haitensis, and 
O. vespertina should be so often found associated in the same 
beds. The two former are found together in the lower Mio- 
cene of north Colombia, the first and last are found in the 
Pliocene beds of the California coast. Ostrea vespertina 
(= 0. veatchi Gabb) occurs in the Pliocene of Cedros Island 
and in contemporaneous beds in the Imperial valley, Cali- 
fornia, and is reported as still living in the Gulf of California. 
Ostrea megadon occurs with the preceding on Cedros Island 
and in Pliocene beds of Ventura county, and is found living at 
Turtle Bay, Lower California. 

»« Bull. Am. Pal. vol. 10, 1925, p. 233, pi. 10, figs. 3, 4. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 155 

111. Pecten (Amusium) mortoni Ravenel 

Pecten mortoni Ravenel, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. 2, 1844, p. 96; 
Miocene, South Carolina. — Tuomey & Holmes, Pliocene Foss, S. 
Carolina, 1857, p. 27, pi. 9, figs. 1, 2; pi. 10, figs. 1, 2. 

Pecten {Amusium) mortoni, Clark et al., Maryland Geol. Surv., 1904, p. 372, 
pi. 99, fig. 1; Miocene, Maryland. 

Brown & Pilsbry have described two species of Amusium 
from the Gatun formation of the Canal Zone, either one, or 
both of which may represent this species. The differences 
pointed out by these authors between P. mortoni Rav., and 
P. (Amusium) lima Brown & Pilsbry seem unimportant. 
Examples obtained from the Spillway of the Canal, 1914, and 
afterward from the Tubera group, horizon M - N, are very 
similar, though the Colombian forms agree better with the 
characters of P. mortoni than do those from Gatun. In our 
specimens the ears are not depressed below the plane of the 
valve. The external surface is smooth, or marked only by 
faint lines of growth, the diameter of the largest example is 
143 mm., though larger specimens were seen. The angle of 
divergence in the dorso-lateral lines is near 123°-125°, vary- 
ing a little, as may be expected. The concentric growth lines 
nearly describe a circle, and the number of pairs of internal 
ribs is 22 to 24. The species is not rare in the Tubera group 
of Colombia. The best examples were found at Loc. 267,. 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, near the base of the Tubera group. 
It occurs also at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles 
north of Cartagena. 



112. Pecten (Plagioctenium) demiurgus Dall 

Pecten comparilis Guppy, Geol. Mag., vol. 1, 1874. (Not Tuomey & Holmes, 
1855). 

Pecten {Plagioctenium) demiurgus Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 
1898, p. 718, pi. 26, fig. 3.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, 
p. 237, pi. 14, fig. 5; pi. 16, fig. 6; Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

According to Maury, the shell, when full grown, sometimes 
measures as much as 75 mm, in altitude, and a little more in 
width. Ours are not so large, though larger examples were 
seen at the locality from which they came. It is abundant at 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, near the base of the 



156 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Tubera group. The gravelly beds of this horizon did not 
permit the extraction of the larger specimens. The propor- 
tions maintain in all of them. 



113. Pecten pinulatus Toula 

Pecten pinulatus Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., vol. 61, 1911, p. 491 
pi. 30, fig. 3; Miocene, Canal Zone. 

According to Toula's description and statement, the shell 
resembles that of Pecten cactaceus Dall, from the younger 
Tertiary of Tehuantepec. Our examples show a decided 
resemblance to Ball's species in surface ornamentation, 
although they are not so large. 

Two good examples were obtained from Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon M - N, where it is not rare in the gravelly beds with 
the preceding. 



114. Pecten atlanticola Anderson, new species 
Plate 19, figures 3, 7 

Shell small, nearly circular, or slightly oblique, appressed, 
left valve a little more convex than the right ; ears long, sub- 
equal, the anterior right ear bearing six radial riblets, the 
others mostly smooth; radial ribs on the body of the shell 13 
in number, rounded, with interspaces of nearly the same width 
as the ribs; ribs and interspaces crossed by distinct lines of 
growth; altitude of holotype 36 mm., length 40 mm., thickness 
10.5 mm. 

Holotype: No. 4661 ; paratype: No. 4661-A, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, north slope of Tubera 
mountain, Colombia; Miocene. 

There is a strong resemblance, and evident relationship 
between this species and P. prcevalidus Jordan & Hertlein,^^ 
from the Pliocene of Turtle Bay, Lower California. 

Several good specimens of this species were obtained at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizon P, north slope of Tubera mountain. As 
far as known this species belongs near the middle of the 



*> Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 15, 1926, p. 435, pi. 29, figs. 2, 3. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \c^y 

Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene, therefore near the 
Gatim horizon. 



115. Pecten (Euvola) bowdenensis Dall 

Pecten {Euvola) bowdenensis Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1898, p. 
713, pi. 29, fig. 1.— (?) BosE, Bol. Inst. Geol. Mex., No. 22, 1906, p. 27, 
pi. 1, figs. 8, 10. — WoODRiNG, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 266, 
1925, p. 63, pi. 7, figs. 8, 9; Miocene, Bowden beds, Jamaica. 

A single example of this shell was obtained from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain, 
from beds believed to be equivalent to the Gatun formation of 
the Canal Zone. 



116. Pecten macloskeyi Anderson, new species 
Plate 19, figures 4, 5 

Shell small, height of holotype 25.5 mm., length 24 mm., 
basal part circular, equivalve, beaks high, the borders forming 
an angle below 90 degrees; ears long, the anterior right ear 
bearing four corrugated riblets, the others nearly smooth ; sur- 
face ornamented by about 12 low, smoothly rounded ribs, with 
interspaces narrower than the ribs ; ribs on left valve very low, 
though not absent; all ribs more distinct on the younger shells. 

Holotype: No. 4662; paratype: No. 4663, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 267, C. A. S., north slope of Tubera mountain, 
Colombia; Miocene. 

This species is distinguishable from P. atlanticola by its 
smaller size, lower, more rounded ribs, narrower umbonal 
angle, and less circular outline. 

Several good examples of this shell were obtained at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., associated with P. atlanticola, from which it is 
readily separated. As far as known both mark the middle of 
the Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene. It is named in 
honor of Mr. Downs McCloskey, whose active interest aided 
much in the study of the section and in the collections. 



158 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

117, Spondylus bostrychites Guppy 

Spondylus bifrons Sowerby, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 6, 1850 (not 
of GoLDF. 1835); Miocene, S. Domingo. 

Spondylus bostrychites Guppy, Proc. Sci. Soc. Trinidad, 1867, p. 176. — Gabb, 
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 257.— Dall, Trans. Wag. 
Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1898, p. 758; 1903, p. 1586.— Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. 90, 1915, p. 124, pi. 19, fig. 4; Silex beds, Fla.— Maury, 
Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 354.— Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 413; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

A number of examples of this species were obtained at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, along with many other heavy 
shelled littoral forms, as shown elsewhere. 



118. Spondylus gumanomocon Brown & Pilsbry 

Spondylus americanus Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 257 (not 
of Lamarck); Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Spondylus gumanomocon Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 
64, 1912, p. 514.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 355.— 
Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 413, pi. 43, 
figs. 4, 5; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 
1922, p. 379, pi. 21, fig. 1; Miocene, Costa Rica. 

Several examples of a Spondylus corresponding" very closely 
to this form were obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon 
M - N, near the base of the Tubera group. They were associ- 
ated with the preceding form and other littoral species. The 
probability of their identity with the above species is very 
great. 



119, Anomia mamillaris Anderson, new species 

Plate 16, figures 9, 10 

Shell small, thin, smooth, translucent, circular in outline, 
convex; surface undulating, showing lines of growth, scaly 
near the umbones; umbone prominent, not quite central, inclin- 
ing forward; height of holotype 22 mm., length 23 mm., 
depth of single valve 8 mm, 

Holotype: No, 4165; paratypes: No, 4166 and 4167, Mus, 
Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, C. A. S., from horizon M - N, 
Tubera group, Colombia; Miocene. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA 159 

Several g^ood examples of this shell were obtained at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., in the lowest horizon M - N, of the Tubera 
group. 



120. Crassatellites berryi Spieker 

Crassatellites berryi Spieker, Johns Hopkins Univ. Publ. Geol., No. 3, 1922, 
p. 131, pi. 7, figs. 9, 10; Lower Zorritos, Peru. 

This species is abundant at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, 
Tubera village, north Colombia. As far as known it belongs 
only to this horizon, though its place in the Miocene of Peru 
is somewhat lower. 



121. Crassatellites (Scambula) densus Dall 

Crassatellites (Scambula) densus Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, 
p. 1472, pi. 39, figs. 9-12; Oak Grove, Florida. 

This Species was found plentifully in the lowest horizon 
M - N, of the Tubera group at Loc. 267, C. A. S., near the 
western foot of Tubera mountain, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., 
near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena. 



122. Venericardia brassica Maury 

Venericardia lerryi, var. brassica Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 323, 
pi. 30, fig. 5; Miocene, Trinidad. 

• Miss Maury has described this species as a variety of V. 
terryi Olsson, from the Miocene of Costa Rica, which it some- 
what resembles. 

In view of its larger size, more prominent ribs, exceeding 
those of the Costa Rican species, our samples are regarded as 
distinct from the latter, though identical with the Trinidad 
species. Three well-preserved specimens were found at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, of the Tubera group, Colom- 
bian Miocene. 



150 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

123. Venericardia trinidadensis Maury 

Venericardia trinidadensis Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 323, pi. 30 
fig. 6; Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

A single valve of a venericard identifiable with the above 
was obtained at Loc. 305, near Turbaco, from a central hori- 
zon in the Tubera group. Its range is not known. 



124. Cardita (Carditamera) arata (Conrad) 

Plate 20, figures 4, 5 

Cypricardia arata Conrad, Foss. Sh. Ter. Form., 1832, p. 20, pi. 5, fig. 1; 
Miocene, North Carolina, etc. 

Cardita {Carditamera) arata, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, 
p. 1413.— Maury, Monog. Serv. Geol. e Min. Brazil, 1925, p. 271, 
pi. 15, fig. 15; Miocene, Para, Brazil. 

The shell is of moderate size, length 31 mm., height 18 mm., 
thickness 16 mm.; elongated subquadrate, rounded before, and 
somewhat truncated behind; beaks near anterior end but not 
terminal, strongly incurved and proximate ; dorsal margin 
straight, ventral margin slightly arcuate; ribs 15 m number, 
with a tendency to become scaly, or even beaded, showing 
wavy lines of growth. 

Plesiotype: No. 4164, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267-B, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, Tubera group, Colombia; Miocene. 

This description is here introduced in support of the identi- 
fication of Conrad's species in the Miocene of north Colombia. 
Maury has stated that the species is found in the Chipola 
marls, associated with C. vaughani Dall, and in the lower Mio- 
cene of Para, Brazil, there is a very similar form. C. arata is 
said to be a widely distributed and abundant form, to which 
C. floridana Conrad, from the Pliocene of Florida is regarded 
as a successor. 

Several examples of this species were found at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, of the Tubera group of the Colom- 
bian Miocene. A comparison with samples of Conrad's species 
from Florida shows the only essential difference to be in the 
slightly more beaded ornamentation of the ribs in the more 
recent form. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \(y\ 

125. Cardita (Glans) scabricostata Guppy 

Cardita scabricostata Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 

293, pi. 18, fig. 10; Miocene, Jamaica. 
Venericardia scabricostata, Dall (part), Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, 

p. 1428.— Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 362, pi. iZ, fig. 1; 

Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Woodring, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. 

No. 266, 1925, p. 99, pi. 12, figs. 7-9; Miocene, Jamaica. 

Although Dr. Woodring does not include Maury's form as 
coming within the range of Guppy's species, it appears that it 
should not be regarded as a distinct form, and that it should 
have at least a varietal rank there. We have several good 
examples from five different localities, all of which approach 
the form figured by Maury, more nearly than that of 
Woodring. It occurs at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizons M - N, 
P, and R, Tubera mountain ; Loc. 306, near Usiacuri ; Loc. 
355, Murindo creek; and it was obtained at Loc. 323, C. A. S., 
at the Spillway of the Canal in 1914. 



126. Echinochama antiquata Dall 

Chama arcinella, Guppy, Geol. Mag., vol. 1, 1874, p. 450 (not of Linnaeus); 

Miocene, Bowden, Jamaica, and Santo Domingo. 
Echinochama antiquata Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3 1903, p. 

1404, pi. 54, fig. 9.— Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 390, 

pi. 28, fig. 8; Miocene, Costa Rica. 

This species occurs abundantly at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zon M - N, near the base of the Tubera group, and at Loc. 
351, C. A. S., in the middle part of the group, near Punta 
Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena. 



127. Chama scheibei Anderson, new species 

Plate 22, figures 1, 2 

Shell of moderate size, very inequal valves; height of holo- 
type 43 mm., length 37 mm.; left valve inflated, right valve 
nearly flat ; left valve with strongly recurved beak, right valve 
with smaller beak, less recurved ; surface bearing only obsolete 
spines, if any, and only on the posterior part of left valve ; 
right valve ornamented with wavy lamellae following lines of 
growth; anterior part and umbone of left valve somewhat 



1^2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

beaded. A faint depression extends from the beak near and 
parallel to the anterior margin. 

A number of samples of this species were found at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, near the base of the Tubera group, 
Colombian Miocene. 

Named in honor of the late Dr. Robert Scheibe of the 
Comicion Cientifica Nacional, Bogota. 

Holotype: No. 4667, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267-B, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, Tubera mountain, Colombia ; 
Miocene. 

128. Thyasira bisecta ( ?) (Conrad) 

Plate 21, figure 1 

Venus bisecta Conrad, Geol. U. S. Expl. Expd., 1849, p. 724, pi. 17, figs. 10, 

10a; Miocene, Astoria, Oregon. 
Cyprina bisecta Conrad, Am. Jour. Conch., vol. 1, 1865, p. 153; locality as 

above. 
Cryptodon bisecta, Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 17, 1895, p. 713, pi. 26. 

figs. 2, 5; living, Alaskan coast and southward. 
Thyasira bisecta, Dall, Prof. Ppr. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 59, 1909, p. 118; 

Miocene, Astoria, Oregon. 

According to Dall this species is found living on the 
Alaskan coast, in Puget Sound, and occurs in the Miocene of 
Oregon and perhaps of California. As no reference to its 
occurrence in the Caribbean region has been found, it seems 
well to record it here, even though doubtfully recognized. 
The species was found by K. D. White at Loc. 350, C. A. S., 
near Arboletes Bay in the upper Miocene beds of the Colom- 
bian coast. 

Plesioiype: No. 4664, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from loc. 350, 
C. A. S., Canalete Point, north coast of Colombia; Miocene. 

129. Diplodonta woodringi Anderson, new species 
Plate 22, figures 5, 6, 

Shell small, circular in outline, suborbicular, moderately 
inflated in the umbonal area ; anterior end more abruptly slop- 
ing than the rounded posterior; height of holotype 26 mm., 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^53 

length 25 mm., thickness 18 mm. ; beaks somewhat central, 
recurved, prominent ; lunule only faintly marked. 

Holotype: No. 4669, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 
325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, Colombia; Tubera group, 
Miocene. 

Two or three samples of this species were obtained, one 
from Loc. 325, C. A. S., and the other, the holotype, from 
Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, about horizon P of the 
Tubera group, not common. 

This species is named in honor of Wendell P. Woodring, 
whose work in the Caribbean Miocene and later formations is 
deserving of highest praise. 



130. Erycina turbacoensis Anderson, new species 
Plate 22, figures 9, 10 

Shell large, oval, depressed; length of holotype (incom- 
plete) 46 mm., height 35 mm., thickness 12 mm.; length of 
paratype (cast) 59 mm., height 45 mm.; beaks subcentral, a 
little nearer the posterior end, low, curved forward; lunular 
area small, impressed ; anterior dorsal margin nearly straight, 
anterior end produced, posterior shorter, rounded ; surface 
smooth, ornamented only by indistinct lines of growth. The 
hinge on the right valve of paratype is distinct, showing nor- 
mal character of Erycina. 

In form and general characters this species resembles 
Erycina fabulina Dall, from the Oak Grove Miocene, but it is 
many times larger. The figure of Semele sayi Toula^^ resem- 
bles this species somewhat, but seems to have a more decided 
concentric sculpture. 

This species was found at Loc. 305, C. A. S., near Turbaco, 
Colombia, in the lower part of the Tubera group. 

Holotype: No. 4671 ; paratype: No. 4672, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 305, C. A. S., near Turbaco, Colombia, in the 
lower part of the Tubera group ; Miocene. 

•2Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., 1909, Bd. 58, pi. 28. 



154 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

131. Cardium (Trachycardium) dominicense Gabb 

Cardium (Trachycardium) dominicense Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 
1873, p. 250.— Gabb, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 8, 1874, p. 
344; Miocene, Costa Rica. — Pilsbry & Brown, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 367; Gatun formation. Canal Zone. — 
Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 421, pi. 25, 
figs. 8, 9; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

A single good example of this shell was found by K. D. 
White in the Miocene beds of the Rio Canalete, near the 
mouth of the Quebrada Murindo, in the district of Arboletes 
Bay, Colombia. 



132. Cardium (Trachycardium) puebloense Anderson, 

new species 

Plate 19, figures 1, 2 

Shell of medium size, subquadrate, thick, equilateral, surface 
somewhat enamelled; length of holotype 40 mm., height 
44 mm., thickness 36 mm. ; umbones high and prominent, only 
slightly angulated behind ; ribs 30 to 34 in number, nearly 
smooth, though showing lines of growth; margins smooth, 
denticulate within, the posterior margin slightly serrate. A 
peculiarity of the sculpture is the linear division of the rounded 
ribs, separated by V-shaped interspaces; the anterior 18 or 20 
ribs are sometimes divided longitudinally by an elevated 
thread, the posterior 12 or 14 are so divided by a groove of 
equal strength ; in either case the ribs are marked by V-shaped 
incremental lines. These lines are apparent even on very 
young shells. This species appears to be related to C. linguu- 
leonis of the Jamaican Miocene, as illustrated by Woodring. 

Holotype: No. 4660, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon R, at the village of Tubera, Colombia; 
Miocene. 

The holotype was found at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, 
at the village of Tubera. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA I55 

133. Cardium (Trachycardium) lingualeonis Guppy 

Cardium lingualeonis Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, 
p. 293, pi. 18, fig. 7; Miocene, Jamaica. — Guppy, Geol. Mag., vol. 
1, 1874, p. 422; (Not Guppy, vol. 32, 1876, p. 531). 

Cardium {Trachycardium) lingualeonis, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 
3, 1900, p. 1084; Miocene, Chipola river, Florida. — Woodring, 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 366, 1925, p. 136, pi. 18, figs. 12, 13; 
Miocene, Bowden, Jamaica. 

This species occurs abundantly in the Tubera group, having 
been obtained at the following places : Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon M - N; Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles 
north of Cartagena ; in the latter of these places it occurs near 
the middle of the Tubera group. 

134. Cardium (Laevicardium) gorgasi Hanna 

Cardium {Lcevicardium) dalli TouLA, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 
1908, p. 722, pi. 27, fig. 6; Gatun formation, Miocene. — Brown & 
Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 367; (not 
C. dalli Heilprin, 1887). 

Cardium gorgasi Hanna, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 13, 1924, p. 160; new 
name proposed for the species. 

Two examples of this species, measuring respectively 
53 mm. and 45 mm. in height, were obtained at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, near the base of Tubera group, and 
another from Loc. 266, C. A. S., near the top of the same 
group. It differs from C. ( Lcevicardiuni) serratum Linnaeus 
in both form and ornamentation, is larger and a thinner form 
in which radial ribbing is present, though not prominent; 
while in the living form the radial markings are faint. In 
the fossil form the dorsal margin is elevated into a sharp 
ridge, slightly arched near the hinge, and the posterior end is 
produced and narrowed, while the living form is here dis- 
tinctly rounded. 

135. Cardium (Laevicardium) serratum Linnseus 

Cardium serratum LiNN^us, Syst. Nat. 1758, ed. 19, p. 680. 

Cardium (LcBvi cardium) serratum, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1900, 
p. 1110; Miocene, Bowden, Jamaica. — Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 367; Gatun formation. 
Canal Zone. — Woodring, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 366, 
1925, p. 145, pi. 19, figs. 14 to 16; Bowden, Jamaica. 



156 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This species has been found at Loc. 305, C. A. S., near 
Turbaco, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles 
north of Cartagena, north coast of Colombia, near middle of 
the Tubera group. The species is still living in the Caribbean 
waters, and was collected in the Bay of Cartagena and neigh- 
boring points in 1914. 

136. Cardium (Laevicardium) venustum Gabb 

Cardium venustum Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 251; Miocene, 
Santo Domingo. — Maury, Bull. Am, Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 213, pi. 
36, fig. 9; as above. — Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. 73, 1921, 
p. 421, pi. 25, figs. 2, 7; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

A good example of this shell was obtained at Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, near 
the middle of the Tubera group. 

137. Dosinia delicatissima Brown & Pilsbry 

Dosinia delicatissima Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 64, 
1912, p. 516, pi. 26, fig. 1; Miocene, Gatun formation. 

Dosinia (Artemis) acetabulum (Conrad), Toula (?), Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. 
Reichs., Bd. 58, 1908, p. 727, pi. 27, figs. 8, 8a. 

Examples of this species were obtained at the Spillway of 
the Canal in 1914, and subsequently at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena. They are indis- 
tinguishable, and seem to conform satisfactorily to the figure 
and description of the species given by Brown & Pilsbry. 

138. Dosinia (Artemis) acetabulum (?) (Conrad) 

Artemis acetabulum Conrad, Foss. Sh. Tert. Format., 1833, p. 20, pi. 6, fig. 1; 

Miocene, Maryland. 
Dosinia acetabulum Conrad, Foss. Med. Tert., 1838, p. 29, pi. 16, fig. 1. — 

Whitf., Monog. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 24, 1894, p. 73, pi. 13, fig. 2.— 

Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 403; Miocene, Costa Rica. 
Dosinia {Artemis) acetabulum (Conrad), Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. 

Reichs., Bd. 58, 1908, p. 727, pi. 27, figs. 8, 8a; Gatun formation, 

Canal Zone, Panama. 

A fossil Species probably referable to the above was obtained 
at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, near the middle of the 
Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA ^57 

139. Clementia (Clementia) dariena (Conrad) 

Meretrix dariena Conrad, House Doc. 129, 1855, p. 18; Miocene, Isthmus of 

Panama. — Pac. R. R. Repts., vol. 5, 1856, p. 328, pi. 6, fig. 55; 

occurrence as above. 
Clementia dariena, Gabb, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 8, 1881, p. 344, pi. 

44, figs. 16, 16a; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Dall, Trans. Wag. 

Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 1235, Sapote, Costa Rica. — Toula, 

Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., vol. 58, 1908, pp. 725-727, pi. 27, figs. 

9, 10; Gattm formation, Canal Zone. — Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 371, pi. 28, fig. 1.— Olsson, Bull. 

Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 404; Miocene, Costa Rica. — Woodring, 

Prof. Ppr. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 147-C, p. 34. 

Good examples of this species were obtained at the Spillway 
of the Canal in 1914 and it has since been collected at many 
localities in north Colombia, as at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizons 
M-N and P; Loc. 305, C. A. S., near Turbaco; Loc. 302, 
C. A. S., four miles south of San Andres; Loc. 351, C. A. S., 
near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena. 



140. Cyclinella gatunensis Dall 

Cyclinella gatunensis Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 1285, 
pi. 52, fig. 18; Miocene, Gatun, Panama. 

Several good samples of this species were obtained from 
Loc. 323, C. A. S., at the Spillway of the Canal in 1914, and 
it has since been found at various places in north Colombia. 
It occurs at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, Tubera village; 
Loc. 302, C. A. S., four miles south of San Andres, Dept. of 
Bolivar; upper horizon of the Miocene. As it has not hitherto 
been reported outside of the type locality its discovery in the 
Tubera group is interesting. 



141. Cyclinella cyclica domingensis Pilsbry & Johnson 

Dosinia cyclica Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 582, 
pi. 26, figs. 15a, b; Miocene, Trinidad. — Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. 
Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 1285; probably Santo Domingo Miocene. 

Cyclinella cyclica domingensis Pilsbry & Johnson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., vol. 69, 1917, p. 200; Miocene, Santo Domingo. — Pilsbry, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 73, 1921, p. 424, pi. 47, fig. 3; as 
above. 



158 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Phoc. 4th Ser. 

Three examples of this species were obtained at Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, near 
the middle of the Tubera group, Colombian Miocene. 

142. Antigona (Ventricola) blandiana (Guppy) 

Venus blandiana Guppy, Proc. Sci. Soc. Trinidad, vol. 3, 1873, pp. 85-86, 
pi. 2, fig. 8.— Geol. Mag., vol. 1, 1874, p. 436, pi. 17, fig. 8; Mio- 
cene, Trinidad. 

Antigona {Ventricola) blandiana, Woodring, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. 
No. 366, 1925, p. 157, pi. 21, figs. 5-9; Miocene, Bowden, Jamaica. 

This species has been found in the Tubera group at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizons M-N and P, and at Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., near Punta Pua, north of Cartagena. The species is 
closely related to Antigona fordi Yates,^^ now living on the 
Pacific coast from Monterey Bay to Panama (Dall). 

143. Antigona caribbeana Anderson 

Antigona caribbeana Anderson, Free. Calif. Acad. Sci., vol. 16, 1927, p. 90, 
pis. 2 and 3; Loc. 267, Horizon M - N, Tuberd group of Colombian 
Miocene. 

This is perhaps the largest representative of the genus yet 
found in the Caribbean Tertiary deposits. It has commonly 
been regarded as the Miocene form of Antigona tnulticosta 
(Sowerby), but upon a careful comparison it can be easily dis- 
tinguished by various characters, among which are the crenu- 
lations on the inner margin of the shell. It occurs plentifully 
in the basal beds of the Tubera group. 

144. Callocardia (Agriopoma) gatunensis Dall 

Callocardia {Agriopoma) gatunensis Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 
1903, p. 1260, pi. 54, figs. 1, 15; Gatun formation, Panama. — Brown 
& PiLSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, p. 370; occur- 
rence as above. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 407, pi. 
32, fig. 1; Miocene, Costa Rica. — M.\ury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 
1925, p. 298, pi. 27, figs. 5, 7; Miocene, Trinidad Island. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zon P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain, and at Loc. 

« Yates, Santa Barbara Nat. Hist. Soc. Bull. 2, p. 46. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA I59 

351, C. A, S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena. 
It occurs, therefore, near the middle of the Tubera group. 



145. Pitaria (Lamelliconcha) circinata (Born) 

Venus circinata Born, Test. Mus. Caes. Vind., 1778, p. 61, pi. 4, fig. 8; living in 
Caribbean waters. 

Chione circinata, Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 250; Miocene, 
Santo Domingo. 

Pitaria (Lamelliconcha) circinata, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, 
p. 1269; Gatun formation; Cumana, Venezuela, etc. — Maury, Bull. 
Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 379, pi. 37, fig. 1; Miocene, Santo Domingo. 
—Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 301, pi. 27, figs. 12, 13; Mio- 
cene, Trinidad Island. 

Pilar circinata, Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 1911, 
p. 370; Gatun formation. Canal Zone. 

Pitaria circinata, Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 408, pi. 31, figs. 3, 9; 
Miocene, Costa Rica. 

Numerous examples of this species were obtained from the 
Bay of Cartagena in 1914, and it has since been collected at 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, at Tubera village, and from 
Pliocene beds on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. 



146. Pitaria cercadica Maury 

Pitaria cercadica Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 380, pi. 37, fig. 10; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zon M - N, and horizon R, of the Tubera group, and should be 
found also in intervening strata. It is believed to be closely 
related to Pitaria alhida Gray ( ?), now living in the Bay of 
Cartagena. 



147. Pitaria acutecostata (Gabb) 

Callista acutecostata Gabb, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 15, 1873, p. 250, Miocene. 

Pitaria acuticostata, Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 380, pi. 37, fig. 2; 
Miocene, Santo Domingo. 

Pilar (Lamelliconcha) acuticostatus Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

vol. 73, 1921, p. 422, pi. 47, fig. 10; occurrence as above. 

March 29, 1929 



170 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This species is found at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, 
Tubera villag-e. In size and form it approaches very near to 
P. affinis Sowerby, now living in neighboring waters. 

148. Tivela mactroides (Born) 

Venus mactroides Born, Test. Mus. Caes. Vind., 1778. 

Cytherea mactroides, Reeve, Conch. Icon., 1863, pi. 5, figs. 18, a, b, c; living 
fauna, Caribbean region. 

Tivela mactroides, Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 26, 1902, p. 367; occur- 
rence as above. — Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 295, pi. 
26, fig. 8; pi. 27, fig. 3; Miocene, Trinidad. 

Numerous examples of this shell were obtained from the 
Bay of Cartagena and near by points in 1914, and it has since 
been found fossil at Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., near Cibarco, a 
little above the middle of the Tubera group. Comparison 
with the living form shows no essential difference in the fossil. 

149. Macrocallista (Chionella) maculata (Linnaeus) 

Venus maculata Linn^us, Syst. Nat. 1758, ed. 10, p. 680; living. 
Macrocallista (Chionella) maculata, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 

1903, p. 1256; Chipola beds, Florida. — Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 

9, 1922, p. 406, pi. 31, figs. 6, 7; Miocene, Costa Rica. — Maury, 

Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 279, pi. 25, figs. 1, 4, 5; upper Miocene, 

Trinidad. 

This species is found living in the Bay of Cartagena, and 
other Caribbean waters, and was found fossil at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta 
Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, in the lower and central 
parts of the Tubera group. 

150. Chione (Chamelea) nuciformis (Heilprin) 

Cytherea nuciformis Heilprin, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 1, 1887, p. 116, 
pi. 16, fig. 61; Pliocene, Florida. 

Chione (Chamelea) nuciformis, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, 
p. 1300; Miocene, Tampa Bay, Florida. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, near the middle of 
the Tubera group of the Colombian Miocene. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \y\ 

151. Chi one (Chione) walli Guppy 

Venus walli Guppy, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 22, 1866, p. 581, pi. 
26, fig. 16; Miocene, Trinidad. — Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., 
vol. 3, 1903, pp. 1291, 1587; Miocene, Trinidad, Bowden, Jamaica. — 
Spieker, Pal. Zorritos Format., Johns Hopkins Univ. Publ., Geol., 
No. 3, pp. 151, 154; Miocene, Peru. 

Chione {Chione) walli, Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 10, 1925, p. 311, pi. 28, 
figs. 2, 11, 15; Miocene, Trinidad. 

A species of Chione, probably referable to the above, was 
found at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizons M - N and R of the 
Tubera group. Its occurrence at both the bottom and top of 
the group makes it hkely that it will be found also at inter- 
vening horizons. 



152. Chione (Lirophora) mactropsis (Conrad) 

Gratelupia (?) mactropsis Conrad, House Doc. 129, 1855, p. 18; Isthmus of 
Panama. — Pac. R. R. Repts., vol. 5, 1856, p. 328, pi. 6, fig. 54; 
Miocene, Isthmus of Panama. 

Chione (Lirophora) mactropsis, Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, 
p. 1294; Gatun formation, Panama. 

Chione mactropsis, Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 417, pi. 30, figs. 7, 8; 
Gatun formation, Canal Zone. 

This species occurs abundantly in the Miocene at Gatun, 
and at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, Tubera group, and 
at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of 
Cartagena. 



153. Chione (Lirophora) latilirata (Conrad) 

Venus latilirata Conrad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 1, 1841, p. 28. — 
Conrad, Foss. Sh. Med. Tert., 1845, p. 68, pi. 38, fig. 3; Miocene. 

Chione (Lirophora) latilirata. Meek, Checkl. Mio. Foss. Am., 1864, pp. 9, 30. — 
Dall, Trans. Wag. Fr. Inst. Sci., vol. 3, 1903, p. 1298, pi. 42, fig. 3; 
Miocene. 

Chione (Lirophora) cartagenensis F. & H. K. Hodson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 13, 
p. 63, pi. 31, fig. 4; pi. 35, fig. 6; Miocene, Colombia. 

This species occurs at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N of 
the Tubera group, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, 
20 miles north of Cartagena. 



172 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

154. Chione atlanticana Anderson, new species 
Plate 23, figures 5, 6 

Shell of moderate size, subtriangular in outline; length of 
holotype 61 mm., height 51 mm., thickness 41 mm.; dorsal 
margin nearly straight, ventral margin broadly rounded, 
posterior angulated; beaks prominent; anterior slope short, 
projecting, forming angle with the ventral border; surface 
ornamented by raised concentric lamellae, fluted on the ventral 
side as in Chione guppyana Gabb, as described by Pilsbry.^* 

The lunule is relatively large and bordered by a sharply 
defined groove; escutcheon moderately wide, bordered by 
ridges ; inner border of shell finely crenulated. 

Holotype: No. 4676, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera mountain, Colombia; Miocene. 

This species is nearly related to Chione guppyana, but it 
differs from Gabb's species in being more nearly triangular in 
outline, straighter on the dorsal border, more prominent in 
front, and in lacking concentric lamellae along the ventral 
margin. 

This species has been obtained at Loc. 267, C. A. S., hori- 
zon P, where it was associated with Pilar ia circinata, Anti- 
gona caribbeana, and dementia dariena. 

155. Tellina costaricana Olsson 

Tellina costaricana Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 423, pi. 26, figs. 
6, 9; Gatun Stage, Costa Rica. 

This species is abundant at Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizons P 
and R, and also in the basal horizon M - N, of the Tubera 
group of the Colombian Miocene. 

156. Tellina dariena Conrad 

Tellina dariena Conrad, House Doc, 129, 1855, p, 18. — Conrad, Pac. R. R. 
Repts., vol. 5, 1856, p. 328, pi. 6, fig. 53; Isthmus of Darien, Mio- 
cene. — Gabb, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 8, 1881, p. 343, pi. 
44, fig. 13. — Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol, 63, 
1911, p. 368.— Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 424, pi. 26, 
fig. 3; Gatun, Canal Zone. 

»*Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. vol. 73, 1921, p. 423. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA l^-^ 

Tellina rowlandi Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 1908, p. 728, 
pi. 28, fig. 11; Gatun, Canal Zone. 

This species has been found at Loc. 304, C. A. S., near 
Santa Rosa, and at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Piinta Pua, 20 
miles north of Cartagena. 



157. Tellina gatunensis (Toula) 

Macoma {Tellina) gatunensis Toula, Jahrb. der K. K. Geol. Reichs., Bd. 58, 
1908, p. 729, text figure 10, a; Gatun, Canal Zone. 

Tellina gatunensis. Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 63, 
1911, p. 368; Gatun formation. Canal Zone. 

Macoma gatunensis, Olsson, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 9, 1922, p. 429; Gatun Stage, 
Costa Rica. 

Several good examples of this species have been obtained 
from various localities in north Colombia, as at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizons M-N and P; Loc. 303, C. A. S., about 
three miles north of San Andres, Dept. of Bolivar, etc. One 
of these examples exposes the hinge clearly, showing that it is 
a typical Tellina of the group T. radiata Linnaeus, found in the 
West Indies. The occurrence of this species with many others 
of the Tubera group at San Andres is to be specially noted. 



158. Tellina (Eurytellina) aequiterminata (?) 
Brown & Pilsbry 

Plate 23, figure 4 

Tellina cBquiterminata Brown & Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 
64, 1912, p. 517, pi. 26, fig. 5; Gatun formation, Canal Zone. 

A rather large Tellina was found at Loc. 304, C. A. S., 
four miles east of Santa Rosa, which in outline and general 
characters conforms to the above species, though in size it 
agrees more nearly with T. radiata Linnaeus. The left valve 
is somewhat more concave in longisection than in T. radiata, 
and the sculpture is different. The surface is marked by undu- 
lations and finer concentric lines, which at the posterior end 
become lamellar. The growth lines form an obtuse angle on 
crossing the posterior angle of the shell. Approximate length 
60 mm., height 35 mm., thickness 11 mm. 



174 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Plesiotype: No. 4675, Mus. Calif. Acad, Sci., from Loc. 304, 
C. A. S., horizon P, four miles east of Santa Rosa, Colombia ; 
Miocene. 



159. Tellina (Eurytellina) aequicincta Spieker 

Tellina (Eurytellina) cequicincta Spieker, Paleont. Zorritos Form., Peru; 
Johns Hopkins Univ. Publ. Geol., No. 3, 1922, p. 158, pi. 10, fig. 3; 
Zorritos group, Miocene, Peru. 

Two specimens of a Tellina were obtained at the village of 
Tubera, Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, which seem to be refer- 
able to this species. In form and sculpture the resemblance is 
striking, and there appears to be no reason for doubting their 
identity. 



160. Tellina (Eurytellina) cibaoica (?) Maury 

Tellina {Eurytellina) cibaoica Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 387. pi. 
38, fig. 10; Zone H, Rio Cana, Santo Domingo. 

A single specimen of Tellina was found at Loc. 304, 
C. A. S., east of Santa Rosa, that conforms to Maury's 
description and figure of this Dominican form. It seems to be 
related to Tellina striata Chemnitz, from the West Indian 
province. 



161. Tellina protolyra Anderson, new species 
Plate 21, figures 2, 3 

Shell small, height of holotype 25 mm., length 34 mm., 
thickness 12 mm., partly elliptical, truncated behind, rounded 
in front, more broadly rounded on the ventral margin ; peaks 
posterior to a central position, high, pointing forward, 
excavated in front forming a sort of lunule-like depression; 
inequivalve, the right valve being flatter and slightly concave 
in advance of the umbonal angle; posterior dorsal margin 
nearly straight, formed by a narrow carina-like ridge on 
either side, giving the posterior dorsal slope a groove-like 
character; surface ornamented by acute, elevated, concentric 
threads with relatively wide, concavely open interspaces, 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA J 75 

almost smooth, or faintly striated, and evenly spaced from 
beak to ventral margin. 

This species is clearly related to Tellina lyra Hanley which 
is found living at Tumbez, Peru, which is probably a successor 
to our species. The examples of this species were all found at 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, of the Tubera group of the 
Colombian Miocene. 

Holotype: No. 4163, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267-B, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, of the Tubera group, Colombia; 
Miocene. 

162, Semele claytoni ( ?) Maury 

Semele claytoni Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 391, pi. 35, fig. 9; 
Miocene, Cercado de Mao, Santo Domingo. 

A single specimen of Semele that seems referable to this 
Dominican species was found at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near 
Punta Pua, Colombia. 

163. Semele sardonica Dall 

Semele sardonica Dall, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 90, p. 154, pi. 20, figs. 4 
and 7; Miocene, Tampa Bay, Florida. 

A single well preserved valve of a Semele was obtained at 
Loc. 351, C. A. S.. near Punta Pua, Colombia, that is identi- 
fiable with Ball's species from the lower Miocene of Florida. 

164. Psammosolen sancti-dominici Maury 

Psammosolen sancti-dominici Maury, Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 5, 1917, p. 392, pi. 
37, fig. 13; Miocene, Cercado de Mao, Santo Domingo. 

A single determinable specimen of Psammosolen was 
obtained at Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, that seems to 
be referable to Maury's Dominican species. 

165. Mactra (Mulinia ?) atlanticola Anderson, new species 

Plate 20, figures 1,2, 3 

Shell of moderate size, length of holotype 50 mm., 
height 43 mm., thickness 33 mm. ; robust, ventricose, smooth. 



J76 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ornamented only by concentric growth lines; beaks rather 
high, nearly central or a little in advance of central, curved 
slightly forward ; anterior and posterior slopes straight, 
anterior end broadly rounded, posterior end more narrowly 
rounded; lunular area flattened, or somewhat concave under 
the beaks ; shell not gaping behind, not angulated, but for the 
most part regularly rounded. 

Holotype: No. 4161 ; paratype: No. 4162, Mus. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., from Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, of the Tubera 
group, at the west end of Tubera mountain, Colombia; 
Miocene. 

The nearest known related species is Mulinia densata Con- 
rad, in the upper Miocene of California, although it has a 
heavier and more solid shell than the Colombian examples 
here described. 

Several good specimens of this species were found at Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, of the Tubera group, at the 
west foot of Tubera mountain. There is an outward resem- 
blance to other Caribbean forms, but the hinge reveals its gen- 
eric class. 



166. Mactrella (Harvella) elegans (Sowerby) 

Plate 21, figures 5, 6 

Mactra elegans Sowerby, Tank'v. Catal. Append. (116), p. ii, pi. (i), fig. 3; 
living at Panama and Pacific points. — Carpenter, Rept. Brit. Ass'n. 
Adv. Sci., 1857, pp. 174, 227; living at Panama and other points. 

Harvella pacifica Conrad, Amer. Jour. Conch., vol. 3, 1867, p. 192; vol. 5, p. 

108, pi. 12, fig. 2; living at Panama. 
Mactrella {Harvella) elegans, Dall, Nautilus, vol. 8, 1894. 

Conrad described H. pacifica as living at Panama, and 
attempted to distinguish his supposed new form from 
H. elegants (Sowerby) to which he refers as a Floridan 
species. Dall discredits Conrad's name, on the ground of lack- 
ing sufficient basis, at least until further evidence was found. 
Although Sowerby's original description has not been seen, in 
view of the known variability in such forms, it appears 
unlikely that Conrad's discrimination is sound. Two species 
so similar are not likely to occur together. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA YJJ 

A comparison of the fossil species with representatives of 
the living form does not permit of any distinction that can be 
maintained in either form, size or sculpture. 

A number of good samples of this species was found at Log. 
267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, of the Tubera group, at the west 
foot of Tubera mountain. 

Plesiotypes: Nos. 4665 and 4666, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, of the Tubera group, at the 
west foot of Tubera mountain, Colombia; Miocene. 

167. Labiosa (Raeta) gibbosa (Gabb) 

RcEta gibbosa Gabb, Amer. Jour. Conch., vol. 5, 1870, p. 30; Miocene, Peru. — • 
Gabb, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 8, 1874, p. 264, pi. 35,' 
figs. 8, 8a. 

Two well preserved samples of this species were obtained at 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, Tubera village, near the top of 
the Tubera group, and three of the same form were found at 
Loc. 351, C. A. S., near Punta Pua, some 20 miles north of 
Cartagena. In referring these to Gabb's Peruvian species iden- 
tification is based entirely upon his description and figures, as 
no comparative material was available from his locality. 

168. Labiosa (Raeta) gardnerae Spieker 

Labiosa (Rceta) gardnerce Spieker, Johns Hopkins Univ. Publ. Geol., No. 3, 
1922, p. 168, pi. 10, fig. 10; upper part of Zorritos, Miocene, Peru. 

A number of samples of this species was obtained from dif- 
ferent parts of the Tubera group at the following points : 

Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, Tubera group; Loc. 299, 
C. A. S., central part of the Tubera group; Loc. 325, C. A. S., 
central part of the Tubera group; Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., mid- 
dle part of the Tubera group. 

The species seems, therefore, to range from the central to 
the upper part of the Tubera group. 

169. Labiosa (Raeta) hasletti Anderson, new species 

Plate 23, figures 2, 3 

Shell large, inflated in front, somewhat produced and nar- 
row behind; height of holotype 47 mm., length, incomplete, 



J 78 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

61 mm., thickness 39 mm.; test thin, somewhat nacreous; 
beaks a little in advance of central, prominent and rather 
heavy; posterior slope slightly concave; shell thickest a little 
in advance and above the median plane; umbonal ridges 
inclined forward ; surface marked by strong concentric ridges, 
some of which are not continuous. 

This species is related to L. (Rceta) gibbosa, but is thicker, 
less produced in front and relatively more produced behind. 
It has not the straight posterior slope of Gabb's species. 

This species is abundant at Loc. 267, C. A. S., in horizon 
P, on the north slope of Tubera mountain. It has been named 
in honor of Mr. Thomas D. Haslett, by whose courtesy and 
aid the investigation of this district was greatly facilitated. 

Holotype: No. 4674, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera mountain, Colombia; Miocene. 

170. Periploma caribana Anderson, new species 

Plate 23, figvire 1 

Shell sub-nacreous, large, compressed, nearly circular in 
outline, and nearly equivalve; beaks relatively small, umbones 
not prominent, sub-central, crossed by an acute transverse 
ridge extending downward from the beaks; anterior end 
short, broadly rounded, quite closed ; posterior slope straight 
at first, then rounded, narrower than in front ; surface marked 
by undulating concentric ridges and lines of growth, the 
former stronger near the ventral margins; hinge not well 
known; height of holotype 61 mm., length 71 mm., thickness 
27 mm. 

This shell is apparently rare, though three specimens were 
found in the upper part of the Tubera group. Its nearest rela- 
tive is probably Periploma peralta (Conrad) from the St. 
Mary's formation at Cave Point, Maryland. Its distinctness 
from this species is very evident upon a careful comparison 
and study of Conrad's description and figure. 

The three samples obtained were found at Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., at horizon R, Tubera village. 

Holotype: No. 4673, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon R, Tubera village, Colombia ; Miocene. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \yg 



FORAMINIFERA 

From the lowest horizon, M - N, of the Tubera group a 
number of micro-organisms were obtained from the matrix of 
the larger mollusks which were submitted for determination 
to Mr. C. C. Church. His notes regarding these forms are as 
follows : 

"The few Foraminifera obtained from this material are, for the most part, 
so poorly preserved that specific determination is practically impossible, 
although genera can be distinguished easily, and in the case of the large, well 
preserved Amphistegina the specific characters are quite clear. 

"171. Amphistegina lessoni D'Orbigny 

"This species is known from the Tertiary to the Recent and is a common 
form in the Miocene and Pliocene of the Atlantic coastal plain of the United 
States. It is known to exist at the present time in the tropical areas of the At- 
lantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, and is commonest in water of less than 30 
fathoms in depth, but it also occurs at greater depths. 

"The species is highly variable in form, and ranges from a thin complanate 
disc to a subspherical test. In the younger and smaller individuals the um- 
biUcal area is a pronounced boss of clear shell material. 

"In the larger and flattened forms the umbilicus is not so prominent. The 
largest form noted is more than one millimeter wide and very thin. The 
material associated with the Foraminifera shows every indication of having 
been deposited in shallow water. 

"172. Qulnqueloculina auberiana (?) D'Orbigny 

"There is not much doubt that this form belongs to the species here 
assigned, but the fact that there are no very complete, or well preserved speci- 
mens makes it necessary to indicate a possible error. 

"173. Lituotuba lituiformis (?) (H. B. Brady) 

' ' This genus is represented by a single individual which is not very well pre- 
served. The name of the genus is after Cushman's latest classification, but it 
is best known as Trochammina Parker & Jones." 

Besides the Foraminifera listed above there are a few other 
microscopic forms which deserve some mention. Among these 
are three species, and perhaps as many genera, of Ostracoda; 
also several small or embrvonic forms of bivalves and 
gastropods. 



180 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



California Academy of Sciences Localities 

Following is a brief description of the fossil localities 
referred to in the preceding text, notes, tables, etc., and are of 
record in the Museum of the California Academy of Sciences: 



Locality 265 (C.A.S.). 
LocaUty 266 (C.A.S.). 
Locality 266-A(C.A.S.). 

Locality 267 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 296 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 297 (C.A.S.). 
Locality 298 (C.A.S.). 
Locality 299 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 302 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 303 (C.A.S.). 

LocaHty 304 (C.A.S.). 

LocaHty 305 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 306 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 323 (C.A.S.). 
Locality 325-A (C.A.S 

Locality 325-B (C.A.S 
Locality 347 (C.A.S.). 
LocaHty 348 (C.A.S.). 



Punta Piedras, three miles south of Paso Nuevo, De- 
partment of Bolivar, Colombia; marine Miocene. 
Quebrada San Juan de Acosta, near Puerto Colombia, 

Department of Atlantico, Colombia; marine Miocene. 
Falls in small creek, two miles west of Tuber a 

mountain. Department of Atlantico, Colombia; 

marine Miocene. 
Tubera mountain, Dept. of Atlantico, Colombia; 

M - N, 1.5 miles west of Tuber d. village; 

P, 1 mile west of Tubera village; 

R, Tuberd. village, near summit of the mountain. 
East border of Usiacuri village, Dept. of Atlantico, 

Colombia; 2000 feet above the base of the Tuberd 

group. 
Three miles west of Barranquilla, Colombia; coralline 

limestone, Pliocene. 
One mile east of Usiacuri village, Dept. of Atlantico, 

Colombia; top of Tuberd group, Miocene. 
Three miles southwest of Baranoa, Dept. of Atlantico, 

Colombia; west flank of the Usiacuri anticline, near 

well of Wm. Plotts; Miocene. 
Ranch of Sr. Banda, four miles south of San Andres, 

Dept. of Bolivar, Colombia; Tuberd group, Miocene. 
Two miles east of San Andres, Dept. of Bolivar, 

Colombia; Miocene. 
Four miles east of Santa Rosa, Ranch of Sra. Gomez, 

Dept. of Bolivar, Colombia; Tuberd group, Miocene. 
Near Turbaco, 16 miles east of Cartagena, Dept. of 

Bolivar, Colombia; Tubera group, Miocene. 
Usiaciu-i village, Dept. of Atlantico, Colombia; middle 

of Tuberd group, Miocene. 
Gatun Locks, Gatun, Canal Zone, Panama, Miocene. 
). Between Chorrera and Cibarco, Dept. of Atlantico, 

Colombia; near middle of Tubera group, on west 

flank of Usiacuri anticline, Miocene. 
).East of Usiacuri village (same as Loc. 306), Dept. 

of Atlantico, Colombia, Miocene. 
La Popa Hill, near Cartagena, Colombia; top of 

Miocene. 
Village of Turbaco, Dept. of Bolivar, Colombia, 

Pliocene. 



Vol. XVIII] ANDERSON— MARINE MIOCENE OF NORTH COLOMBIA \^\ 



Locality 349 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 350 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 351 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 353 (C.A.S.). 
Locality 354 (C.A.S.). 

Locality 355 (C.A.S.). 

• Locality 356 (C.A.S.). 

LocaHty 357 (C.A.S.). 



From four to five rhiles southwest of Barranquilla 

Colombia; top of the Miocene. 
Arboletes Bay, Dept. of Bolivar, Colombia; upper 

Miocene. 
Near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of Cartagena, Dept. 

of Bolivar, Colombia; Tuberd group, Miocene. 
Near Cospique Hill, Cartagena harbor, Colombia. 
Quebrada de Murindo, above Pedro de Claver, Dept. 

of Bolivar, Colombia; Tuberd group, Miocene. 
Quebrada de Murindo, 30 miles west of Monteria, 

Dept. of BoUvar, Colombia; Tubera group, Miocene. 
Pedro de Claver, Quebrada de Murindo, 30 miles west 

of Monteria, Dept. of BoHvar, Colombia, Miocene. 
Emory Wood Company's camp, Rio Canalete, west of 

Monteria, Dept. of Bolivar, Colombia; Miocene. 



182 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb, 



Plate 8 

Fig. 1. Fasciolaria olssoni Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4617 
(C. A. S. type coll.), Loc. 267 C. A. S., horizon P, Tuberd group; 
Tuberd mountain; p. 131. 

Figs. 2, 3. Fasciolaria olssoni Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 4618 
(C. A. S. type coll.), front and rear views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon R, Tuberd group, Tuberd village; p. 131. 

Figs. 4, 5. Mitra maurycs Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4619 
(C. A. S. type coll.), front and rear views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon L, Las Perdices group, one mile west of Puerto Co- 
lombia; p. 130. 

Figs. 6, 7. Scohinella morierei (?) (Laville). Plesiotype No. 4620 (C. A. S. 
type coll.), front and rear views, Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon L, 
Las Perdices group, one mile west of Puerto Colombia; p. 131. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



[ANDERSCN ] Plate 8 








March 29. 1929 



184 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Skr. 



Plate 9 

Figs. 1, 2. Phos tuberainsis Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4521 
(C. A. vS. type coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, north slope of Tubera mountain; p. 135. 

Fig. 3. Phos tubemensis Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 4622 (C. A. S. 
type coll.), Loc. 305, C. A. vS., near Turbaco, 14 miles east of 
Cartagena; p. 135. 

Figs. 4, 5. Conns tuberacola Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4623 
(C. A. S. type coll.), front and top views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon M - N, Tubera group, west foot of Tubera mountain; 
p. 112. 

Figs. 6, 7. Conns crenospiratns Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4624 
(C. A. S. type coll.), front and top views, X2; Loc. 351, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, near Punta Pua, 20 miles north of 
Cartagena; p. 112. 

Fig. 8. Typhis siphonifera Dall. Plesiotype No. 4625 (C. A. S. type coll.), 
X2; Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera group, near Cibarco, 
a few miles north of Usiacuri, Colombia; p. 138. 

Figs. 9, 10. Ovula {Neosimnia) piiana Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 
4626 (C. A. S. type coll.), front and rear views, X2; Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera group, near Punta Pua, north of 
Cartagena; p. 140. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



[ANDERSON] Plate 9 













18(3 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 10 

Figs. 1, 2. Caiiccllaria scheibei Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4627 
(C. A. S. type coll.), front and rear views; Loc. 306, C. A. .S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, near Usiacuri village: p. 114. 

Figs. 3, 4. Cancellaria scheibei Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 4528 
(C. A. S. type coll.); 3, front view, 4, slightly rotated to show 
plaits; Loc. 304, C. A. S., horizon P. Tubera group, near vSanta 
Rosa; p. 114. 

Figs. 5, 6. Cancellaria hetineri Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4629 
(C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, north slope of Tubera mountain: p. 114. 

Figs. 7, 8. Cancellaria karsteni Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 463:) 
(C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 305, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, near Turbaco, 14 miles east of Carta- 
gena; p. 114. 

Fig. 9. Cancellaria karsteni Anderson, new species. Paratj-pe No. 4531 
(C. A. S. type coll.), view showing columellar plaits; Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera group, Tubera mountain; p. 114. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



ANDERSON J Plate 10 












](^i^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 11 

Figs. 1, 2. Melongena propatuliis Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 
4632 (C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon R, Tubera group, Tubera village; p. 133. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVill, No. 4 



ANDERSON] Plate 11 





J90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES I Proc. 4th Skr. 



Plate 12 

Figs. 1, 2. Malea ringens (Swainson). Plesiotype No. 4633 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), rear and front views of mature shell, Bay of Panama, 
Hemphill collection; recent; p. 140. 

F'gs. 3, 4. Malea ringens (Swainson). Plesiotype No. 4634 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), front and side views of mature shell, outer Hp missing; 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera group, north slope of 
Tubera n:ountain; p. 140. 

Figs. 5, 6. Malea ringens (Swainson). Plesiotype No. 4635 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), rear and front views of younger shell; Loc. 299, C. A. S., 
near Plotts' well, southwest of Baranoa, Colombia: p. 140. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



ANDERSON] Plate 12 




^-im 





192 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Skk. 



Plate 13 

Fig. 1. Ficus iPyriila) colombiana Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4636 
(C. A. S. type coll.), aperture view; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon 
P, Tubcra grcup, north slope of Tuhera mountain; p. 143. 

Fig. 2. Ficus (Fyrula) cclombiana Anderson, new species. Paratvpe Xo. 
4637 (C. A. S. type coll.), Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, Tul^era 
grcup, Tuhera village; p. 143. 

Fig. 3. Dentuliuni gramiduuum Anderson, new species. Holotype Xo. 4638 
(C. A. S. type coll.), broken shell, parts joined with clay, outer 
layer of shell missing in part; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon L, Las 
Perdices group, west of Puerto Colombia; p. 144. 

Figs. 4, 5. Criicilvlum (Dispotcea) gatunen^e (Toula). Plesiotype Xo. 4630 
(C. A. S. type coll.); 4, side view showing granular surface, X2; 
5, interior showing cup, X2 : Loc. 323, C. A. S., Spillway of Gatun 
Locks, Canal Zone; p. 121. 

Fig. 6. Crucibulum (Disfotcea) gatunen^e (Toula). Plesiotype Xo. 4640 (C. 
A. S. type coll.), side view of smaller shell, X2; Loc. 3ili, as above; 
p. 121. 

Figs. 7, 8. Solenosteira santceracF Anderson, new species. Holotype Xo. 

4641 (C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 304. C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, four miles east of Santa Rosa. Co- 
lombia; p. 135. 

Figs. 9, 10. Solenosteira santcerosce Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 

4642 (C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 305, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tuljcra group; p. 135. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



[ANDERSON | Plate 13 













]^94 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Skr. 



Plate 14 

Figs. 1, 2. Cancellaria cibarcola Anderson, new species. Holotype Xo. 4643 
(C. A. S. type coll.); 1, front view; 2, rotated to show columellar 
plaits; Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., horizon P, near Cibarco, Tnbera 
group; p. 1 16. 

Fig. 3. Cancellaria cibarcola Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 4644 
(C. A. S. type colh), rear view of smaller shell; Loc. 325-A, as 
above; p. 116. 

Figs. 4, 5. Cancellaria codazzii Anderson, new species. Holotype Xo. 4645 
(C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, near Cibarco, north of Usiacuri 
village; p. 116. 

Fig. 6. Cancellaria codazzii Anderson, new species. Paratype Xo. 4646 
(C. A. S. type coll.), broken shell showing columellar plaits; 
Loc. 325-A; p. 116. 

Fig. 7. Cancellaria codazzii Anderson, new species. Paratype Xo. 4647 
(C. A. S. type coll.), young shell, X2; Loc. 325-A, as above; 
p. 116. 

Fig^-. 8, 9. Polinices prolactea Anderson, new species. Holotype Xo. 4648 
(C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon L, Las Perdices group, west of Puerto Colombia; p. 124. 

Figs. 10, 11. Cassis (Phuliuni) dalli Anderson, new species. Holotype Xo. 

4649 (C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views, X2; Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon L, Las Perdices group, west of Puerto Colombia; 
p. 141. 

Figr. 12, 13. Cassis (Phalium) dalli Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 

4650 (C. A. S. type coll.), rear and front views, X2; Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon L, Las Perdices group, as above; p. 141. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIIl, No. 4 



ANDERSON! Plate 14 
















196 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 15 

Figs. 1, 2. Fusiniis magdalenensis Anderson, new species. Holotype No 
4651 (C. A. S. type coll.), front and rear views of incomplete 
shell; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera group, Tubera moun- 
tain; p. 133. 

Fig. 3. Fusiniis magdalenensis Anderson. Paratype No. 4652 (C. A. vS. type 
coll.), fragment showing character of long canal; Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., as above; p. 133. 

Figs. 4, 5. Cyprcea {Pustularia) gabbiana Guppy. Plesiotype No. 4653 
(C. A. S. type coll.), upper and basal views, X2; Loc. 351, 
C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera group, near Punta Pua, north of 
Cartagena, Colombia; p. 139. 

Figs. 6, 7. Phos turbacocnsis Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4654 
(C. A. S. type coll.), front and rear views; Loc. 305, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, near Turbaco, 14 miles east of Carta- 
gena; p. 136. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCl., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



[ANDERSON] Plate 15 






298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. -Ith Ser. 



Plate 16 

Figs. 1, 2. Ampullaria tiibcracola Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 
4655 (C. A. S. type coll.), front and basal views of mature shell; 
Loc. 267, C. A. S.. horizon R, Tubera group, Tubera village; 
p. 125. 

Fig. 3 Ami uUaria tuheracola Anderson, new species. Paratype, No. 4656 
(C. A. S. type coll.), rear view of young shell; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
as above; p. 125. 

Fig. 4. Phns baranoaiiiis Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4657 (C. A. S. 
type coll.), front view; Loc. 299, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera 
group, near Plotts' well, southwest of Baranoa, Colombia; p. \?>1 . 

Fig. 5. Phos haranoanus Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 4657a (C. A. 
vS. type coll.), aperture view showing lirate interior; Loc. 299, 
C. A. S., as above; p. 137. 

Figs. 6, 7. Cnllioitoma trof.ica Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4168 
(C. A. S. type coll.), side and basal views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon M- N, Tubera group, west foot of Tubera mountain; p. 126. 

Figs. 7- A, 8. Solenosteira hasletti Anderson. Holotype No. 4169 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), rear and front views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M- N, 
Tubera group, west foot of Tubera mountain; p. 134. 

Fig. 9. Anomia mamillaris Anderson. Holotype No. 4165 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), Loc. 267, C. A. vS., horizon M-N, Tubera group, as above; 
p. 158. 

Fig. 10. Anomia mamillaris Anderson. Paratype No. 4167 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), Loc. as above; p. 158. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVlll, No. 4 



[ANDERSON] Plate 16 










March 29, 1929 



200 CAUFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 17 

Fig. 1. Tiirritdla fredeai Hodson. Plesiotype 4175 (C. A. vS. type coll.), 
example from Ijasal beds of Tubera group near Punta Pua, 20 
miles north of Cartagena; p. 110. 

Figs. 2. 3. Oliva tuheraensis Anderson. Holotype No. 4-172 (C. A. S. type coll.), 
front and rear views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, Tubera 
group, Tubera village; p. 128. 

Fig. 4. Tiirritella altilira Conrad. Plesiotype No. 4658 (C. A. S. type coll.), 
Loc. 267, C. A. vS., horizon M - N, Tubera group, west foot of 
Tubera mountain; p. 118. 

Fig. 5. Turritella altilira Conrad. Plesiotype No. 4659 (C. A. S. type coll.), 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, as above; p. 118. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



ANDERSON 1 Plate 17 







202 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCBS [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 18 

Figs. 1, 2. Area {Anadara) grandis Broderip & Sowerby. Plesiotype No. 
4160 (C. A. S. type coll.), interior and exterior views of right 
valve. Example from Bay of Panama, F. M. Anderson, col- 
lector. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No, 4 



ANCEKSONl Plate 18 





204 C.4LIF0RXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 19 

Figs. 1, 2. Cardium {Trachycardium) pueblcense Anderson, new species. 
Holotype No. 4660 (C. A. S. type coll.), left side and front views; 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon R, Tubera group, Tubeia village; 
p. 164. 

Fig. 3. Pecten atlanlicola Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4661 (C. A. 
S. type coll.), right valve; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera 
group, north slope of Tubera mountain. Department of At- 
lantico; p. 156. 

Fig. 4. Pecten macloskeyi Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4662 (C. A. 
S. type coll.), right valve; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera 
group, north slope of Tubera mountain; p. 157. 

Fig. 5. Pecten macloskeyi Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 4663 (C. A. 
S. type coll.), left valve of small shell; Loc. as above; p. 157. 

Fig. 6. Area (Anadara) Msiaciirii Anderson. Holotype No. 4158 (C. A. S. 
type coll.), interior of left valve; Loc. 306, C. A. S., horizon P, 
Tubera group, near Usiacuri village; p. 148. 

Fig. 7. Pecten atlanticola Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 4661a (C. 
A. S. type coll.), left valve; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, as 
above; p. 156. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series. Vol. XVIIl, No. 4 



[ANDERSON] Plate 19 




206 CALIFOKXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Skr. 



Plate 20 

Figs. 1, 2. Mactrn [Afulhna?) atlanticola Anderson, new species. Holotype 
No. 4161 (C A. S. type coll.), side and anterior views; Loc. 
267, C. A. S., horizon, M - X, Tuberd group, west foot of 
Tubera mountain; p. 175. 

Fig. 3. Mactra {Mulinial) atlanticola Anderson. Paratype No. 4162 
(C. A. S. type coll.), interior view, showing hinge parts in right 
valve; Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon P, as above; p. 175. 

Figs. 4. 5. Cardila iCardilamera) arala (Conrad). Plesiotype No. 4164 
(C. A. S. type coll.), exterior and interior views of left valve; 
Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, Tubera grouj:), west foot of 
Tubera mountain; p. 160. 

Fig. 6. Area {Anadara) usiacurii Anderson. Holotype No. 4158 (C. A. S. 
type coll.), exterior of left valve; Loc. 306, C. A. S., horizon P, 
Tubera group, near village of Usiacuri; p. 148. 



PROC CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVlll, No. 4 



[ANDERSON] Plate 20 







208 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 21 

Fig. 1. Thyasira bisecta (?) (Conrad). Plesiotype No. 4664 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), cast, left valve; Loc. 350, C. A. S., near Arboletes Bay 
upper beds of the Tubera group; p. 162. 

Figs. 2, ?>. TeUina f^rotolyra Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4163 
(C. A. S. type coll.), side and top views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon M - N, Tubera group, west foot of Tubera mountain; 
p. 174. 

Fig. 4. Area (Anadara) iisiaciirii Anderson. Paratype No. 4159 (C. A. S. 
type coll.), interior of left valve, showing crowding of cardinal 
teeth; Loc. 267, C. A. S:, upper part of horizon M - N, Tubera 
group, west foot of Tubera mountain; p. 148. 

Fig. 5. Mactrella (Harvella) elegans (vSowerby). Plesiotype No. 4665 (C. A. 
S. type coll.), Loc. 267, C. A. S., horizon M - N, Tubera group, 
west foot of Tubera mountain; p. 176. 

Fig. 6. Mactrella (Harvella) elegans (Sowerby). Plesiotype No. 4666 (C. A. 
S. type coll.), Loc. 267, C. A. S., as above, showing hinge left 
valve; p. 176. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



[ANDERSON] Plate 21 




210 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4tii Skr. 



Plate 22 

Figs. 1, 2. Chama scheibei Anderson, new species. Holutype, No. 4667 
(C. A. S. type coll.), exterior of left and right valves; Loc. 267, 
C. A. S., horizon M - N, Tubera group, west foot of Tubera 
mountain; p. 161. 

Figs. 3, 4. Clycymeris usiacurii Anderson, new species. Holotypc No. 4668 
(C. A. wS. type coll.), external and internal views of left valve; 
Loc. 325, C. A. vS., horizon P, Tubera group, east of Usiacuri 
village; p. 153. 

Figs. 5, 6. Diplodonta woodringi Anderson, new species. Holotyjjc No. 4669 
(C. A. S. type coll.), side and top views; Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, near Cibarco; p. 162. 

Figs. 7, 8. Clycymeris lamyi Dall. Plesiotype No. 4670 (C. A. S. type coll.), 
external and internal views; Loc. 325-A, C. A. S., horizon P. 
Tubera group, near Cibarco, Colombia; p. 152. 

Fig. 9. Erycina tnrbacoensis Anderson, new species. Holotypc No. 4671 
(C. A. S. type coll.), Loc. 305, C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera grouj), 
near Turbaco, 13 miles east of Cartagena; p. 163. 

Fig. 10. Erycina tnrbacoensis Anderson, new species. Paratype No. 4672 
(C. A. S. type coll.), Loc. 305, C. A. S., as above; p. 163. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



ANDERSON] Plate 22 













212 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Skr. 



Plate 23 

Fig. 1. Periploma caribana Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4673 
(C. A. S. type coll.), exterior view of left valve; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon R, Tubera group, Tubera village; p. 178. 

Figs. 2, 3. Labiosa (RcEta) hasletti Anderson, new species. Holotype \o. 

4674 (C. A. S. type coll.), top and side views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tulsera group, north slope of Tubera mountain; p. 177. 

Fig. 4. Tellitia (Eurytellina) cequiterminata Brown & Pilsbry. Plesiotype Xo. 

4675 (C. A. S. type coll.), Loc. 304. C. A. S., horizon P, Tubera 
group, four miles east of Santa Rosa, 12 miles north of Carta- 
gena; p. 173. 

Figs. 5. 6. Chione atlanticana Anderson, new species. Holotype No. 4676 
(C. A. S. type coll.), side and anterior views; Loc. 267, C. A. S., 
horizon P, Tubera group, north slope of Tubera mountain; p. 172. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 



lANDERSON] Plate 23 









PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

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Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 5, p. 215, plate 24 April 5, 1929 



V 
A NEW PECTEN FROM THE SAN DIEGO PLIOCENE 

BY 

LEO GEORGE HERTLEIN 

Pecten (Plagioctenium) ericellus Hertlein, new species 

Plate 24, figures 10, 11 

Shell small, moderately convex; hinge line straight. Right 
valve ornamented by about 22 subrounded, fairly low radiat- 
ing ribs which are separated by narrower interspaces; two 
tiny midribs are present along the base of the sides of the 
major ribs; ribs and interspaces crossed by concentric lines of 
growth ; anterior and posterior margins ornamented by con- 
centric lines of growth; ventral margin rounded; ears unequal, 
the anterior with a well-defined byssal notch, and sculpture of 
about five or six radiating riblets crossed by incremental lines ; 
the posterior ear sculptured by about four or five radiating rib- 
lets crossed by lines of growth, no notch present. Altitude 
28 mm. ; longitude 29. 1 mm. ; diameter of right valve approxi- 
mately 7.5 mm. ; apical angle in right valve approximately 94°. 

Holotype: No. 2998, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 1132 
(C. A, S.), Pacific Beach, San Diego, California, C. H. Stern- 
berg collector; San Diego, Pliocene. 

This interesting little species differs from P. invalidiis 
Hanna, and P. circularis Sowerby, in its numerous low, more 
rounded, narrower ribs and in the possession of fine secondary 
ribs along the base of the sides of the major ribs. 

This species is named for the late Eric Knight Jordan. 

April 5, 1929 



PROCEEDINGS 

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CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 6, pp. 217, 218, plate 24 April 5, 1929 



VI 

A NEW SPECIES OF LAND SNAIL FROM 
KERN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

BY 

G. DALLAS HANNA 

Helminthoglypta berryi Hanna, new species 

Plate 24, figures 7, 8, 9 

Shell of medium size, globose, composed of 5 3^ well- 
rounded whorls; suture deep; umbilicus completely closed in 
the holotype, almost closed in the paratype; white or pale 
brown, bandless (in all specimens seen) ; upper portion of 
whorls sculptured with irregular growth ridges, almost ribs ; 
lower portion of body whorl with a series of malleations, 
becoming pits in some cases; these pits roughly arranged in 
spiral order and almost obliterate the growth lines near the 
margin of the shell; the line of demarcation between the 
series of growth ridges above and the malleations below is 
very sharp and is approximately in the position of the color 
band as usually developed in this genus; aperture large and 
capacious; outer lip moderately reflected; terminations of 
peristome connected by a wash of callus over the body whorl. 
Diameter (holotype) 22.5 mm., height 21 mm.; diameter 
(paratype 1493) 23 mm., height 21 mm. 

Holotype: No. 1492; paratypes: Nos. 1493, 1494, Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., collected by G. D. Hanna eight miles northeast of 
Bakersfield, Kern County, California. 



.^v^ 



218 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

The first known specimens of this remarkable species were 
found in 1926 in the S. W. >4 Sec. 32, T. 27 S., R. 29 E., 
M. D. M., about two miles north of Poso Creek and five miles 
east of the mouth of Granite Creek. These were somewhat 
imperfect and seemed so unusual in character and habitat that 
better material was awaited for description. This was found 
in 1927, 1^ miles southeast of the top of Round Mountain, 
Sec. 30, T. 28 S., R. 29 E., M. D. M., about three-fourths 
mile north of Kern River and four miles east of Oil City ; this 
is the type locality. Specimens were also found further east 
on Sec. 34, T. 28 S., R. 29 E., M. D. M., and fragments were 
seen scattered in other places. It is evident that the species is 
fairly widely distributed in this district. 

All of the shells found were dead,^ but the one made the 
holotype has the epidermis and the pale brown color 
preserved. All were found on the slopes of dry, barren, ashy 
hills, usually, but not always, on northern slopes. No rock 
outcrops occur near where the shells were found, but invari- 
ably they were in torn up earth where cattle had trampled 
during wet weather. This peculiar habitat, with the pale color 
and absence of a band, leads to the supposition that the animal 
is a burrowing form. After having collected snails rather 
extensively in the forests and among the rocks of California, 
I was most astonished to find this one on soft, powdery, ashy 
hills. 

The shape is suggestive of the shell found near Monterey 
called calif ornicnsis, but in other characters there is little 
resemblance. 

The species is named for Dr. S. Stillman Berry in recogni- 
tion of his extensive studies of west American land shells. 

^ Since this was written Dr. Berry has collected living specimens of what appears 
to be the same species in the Kern River oil field and the characters as outlined are 
confirmed in most respects; the living shell seems thinner than the dead ones upon 
which the description was based. The habitat is definitely proved not always to be 
the ashy hills as at first supposed. 



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Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 7, pp. 219, 220, plate 24 April 5, 1929 



VII 

A NEW SPECIES OF LAND SNAIL FROM 
COAHUILA, MEXICO 

BY 

G. DALLAS HANNA and LEO GEORGE HERTLEIN 

In the autumn of 1926 several species of land shells from 
central, southern Coahuila, Mexico, were added to the collec- 
tions of the California Academy of Sciences. One species of 
Holospira appears to be undescribed. The specimens were 
collected about 16 kilometers north of Ramos Arizpe on the 
road to Paredon, Coahuila, Mexico. 

Holospira aguerreverei Hanna & Hertlein, new species 

Plate 24, figures 5, 6 

Shell white, composed of 13.5 whorls, the earliest 2.5 
smooth, the succeeding three rather indistinctly ribbed ; those 
following and constituting the body of the shell with only 
faint growth lines, almost glossy; the greatest diameter is at 
the fourth and fifth whorls from the last, thus producing a 
spindle-shaped shell ; last whorl with about 19 costse ; the number 
is rather indefinite because close behind the apertural expansion 
the ribs decrease in size and are close together; some of the 
later ribs are slightly sinuous below due to the constricted 
basal cord; imperforate; aperture projecting slightly beyond 
last whorl, roundly triangular in form, without lamellae; lip 
expanded uniformly, brilliant, glossy white; between the lip 



220 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

and the umbibial region, the ribs continuing from the outside 
are much finer and somewhat indistinct close to the lip ; sutures 
deeply impressed in the embryonic portion constituting the first 
five whorls, elsewhere the whorls are much flattened; the 
upper and outer part of the free portion of the last whorl is 
very sharply angulated between the lip and the shell ; the basal 
portion becomes a cord through the presence on both sides of 
a depression. 

Measurements 
Length Diameter 

21.7 mm. 6.0 mm. Holotype, No. 2848 (C. A. S.) 

23.3 mm. 6.1 mm. Paratype, No. 2849 (C. A. S.) 

22.5 mm. 6.4 mm. Paratype, No. 2850 (C. A. S.) 

20.5 mm. 6.1 mm. Paratype, No. 2851 (C. A. S.) 

Holotype: No. 2848; paratypes: Nos. 2849-2853, Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., from 16 kilometers north of Ramos Arizpe, 
Coahuila, Mexico; Santiago E. Aguerrevere, collector. 

The species apparently comes closest to H. semisculpta 
Stearns,^ from San Carlos, Chihuahua, but the last whorls are 
not so constricted as in that species. H. mesolia Pilsbry,^ from 
Terrell County, Texas, appears to belong to the same group of 
species but is even more constricted toward the base than 
seuiisciilpta. H. pasonis Dall^ is another similar but much 
more coarsely-ribbed species basally and lacks the basal keel. 
H. coahuilensis (Binney)* from "Cienga Grande," 
Coahuila, which might be expected to be closest to the shell here 
described, is a much larger species, being 29 mm. long, lacks 
the basal keel and has only about 10 ribs on the last whorl, 
according to Pilsbry.^ 

The species is named for Mr. Santiago E. Aguerrevere who 
made the collection. 

» Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 13, 1890, p. 208, pi. IS, figs. 1, 4. 

2 Nautilus, Vol. 26, 1912, p. 89. 

» Nautilus, Vol. 8, 1895, p. 112. 

*Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. 1, 1865, p. SO, pi. 7, figs. 4, 5. 

» Man. Conch., Vol. 15, sen 2, 1903, p. 92. 



\o 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 8, pp. 221-227, plate 24 April 5, 1929 



VIII 
SOME NOTES ON OREOHELIX 

BY 

JUNIUS HENDERSON 

Oreohelix peripherica castanea (Hemphill) has long been a 
puzzle to me. A great deal of material from Mr. Hemphill 
in many public and private collections, labelled castanea, or 
rather castaneus, bears no resemblance to the form that he 
originally designated by that name. For example, there are 
in the University of Colorado Museum seven such lots from 
the Hemphill collection. The specimens from White Bird, 
Idaho, labelled castaneus, are just like some that are labelled 
hicolor, while two others from the same place, labelled castct- 
neus, show some indications of the variegated colors of vari- 
abilis, but are more depressed and differ in sculpture and some 
other characters. White Bird is a locality where some exten- 
sive and intensive collecting should be done and the material 
from each station studied as a whole, before being divided into 
varieties, in order to comprehend the real significance of 
Hemphill's "varieties." 

I have always considered castanea a very slightly differ- 
entiated color form, almost an exact synonym of Oreohelix 
peripherica albofasciata (Hemphill)^ and still do, but that does 
not dispose of the whole problem. Henry Hemphill, in his 

» See Henderson and Daniels. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., LXVIII, 330-334, 
1916. Henderson, Univ. Colo. Studies, XIII, 116-117, 1924. Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci.. Phila.. LXVIII. 343-357, 1916. 



222 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

notes published by Binney,^ gives an account of an interesting 
and variable fauna of snails which Binney called Patula, but 
now called Oreohelix, at the locality where the Bear River 
breaks through the low range of mountains south of Cache 
Junction, Utah, into the Salt Lake Valley. Among other 
things, he says that at the foot of a cliff he "found a colony 
of the ribbed variety castaneus. This spot is continually 
shaded, the sun never shining on it. Most of this colony are 
faintly marked with the broad white band of albofasciata, but 
a few are plain chestnut-colored." This is plainly the type 
locality of castanea and the vicinity is also the type locality of 
typical albofasciata and several other varieties of peripherica. 
On page 32, Binney gives the localities for castanea as fol- 
lows : "Box Elder County, Utah; also Celilo, 15 miles from 
The Dalles, Oregon. (Hemphill.)" In a footnote he says of 
the Celilo colony: "Probably a colony brought down by the 
Columbia. It was not found on a subsequent visit." Whence 
was it brought by the Columbia? Surely not from the Box 
Elder County locality, which is the type locality of castanea, 
for that is not in the Columbia drainage and has not been 
except when, during the greatest Pleistocene expansion of 
ancient Lake Bonneville, it established an outlet at the north- 
ern end of the basin. Furthermore, the Celilo colony is not 
the same thing at all as that called castaneus by Hemphill in 
his note. 

On Plate 2, figures 11 and 14, Binney shows castanea as a 
rather dark, strongly-ribbed form, one figure being quite high- 
spired, as in typical albofasciata, the other being depressed, but 
such difference in elevation is often seen in colonies of Oreohelix. 
It seems perfectly clear that the Utah material first mentioned by 
Hemphill and figured by Binney in his figure 14, if not figure 
11, must be considered the typical form — the real castanea — 
and figure 14 the type figure. It seems also perfectly clear that 
this is merely a variable melanistic form of albofasciata, in 
which the broad, white peripheral band is more or less 
obscured by a wash of brown, a phenomenon not at all uncom- 
mon in Oreohelix, especially in 0. depressa. All of the 
material assignable to peripherica or any of its varieties that 

^ Binney, 2nd Supplement to 5th Vol. Terr. Air-breathing Moll. U. S. and adjacent 
territories, p. 31, 1886. 



Vol. XVIII] HENDERSON— NOTES ON OREOHELIX 223 

I have seen in collections, or found myself, have been from 
the Salt Lake Valley and its tributaries. 

Binney and Hemphill called all snails now placed in the 
genus Oreohelix varieties of Helix (or Patula) strigosa, even 
such very diverse things as haydeni and cooperi. In the Uni- 
versity of Colorado Museum three examples (No. 7140) from 
the Hemphill collection are labelled "//. strigosa v. castaneus, 
Utah." Two of them are almost typical albofasciata, but the 
other has the peripheral band somewhat obscured and may be 
considered castanea. In what Hemphill considered his "Main 
Collection," now in the California Academy of Sciences, of lot 
No. 7589, bearing a similar label, there are five specimens, all 
quite dark, the peripheral band showing but dimly, hence typi- 
cal castanea. Lot No. 7590, four specimens, bearing a similar 
label with the additional words "paler — longer," are light, 
uniform brown. I have selected the best example of No. 7589 
in the Academy collection as a lectotype, which has been 
assigned the number 2986 in the type collection (C. A. S.). 
It is fully adult and has five whorls. Its size, form and sculp- 
ture are well represented by Binney 's figure 14; figure 1 
accompanying the present paper is from a photograph of it by 
the author; diameter 15.5, altitude 13 mm. In the University 
of Colorado Museum there are two specimens of this form that 
I found near the tunnel at Wheelon, Utah, very close to the 
northern boundary of Box Elder County, and certainly but a 
very short distance from the type locality of castanea. 

The Oregon material presents greater difficulty. In order 
fully to understand the Hemphill material scattered through 
many collections, one must remember that he had a habit of 
dividing the specimens from a given colony into "varieties," 
based mostly upon slight differences in color or elevation of 
spire, often well marked in typical examples but grading com- 
pletely into one another, and the division of his material was 
not always made altogether consistently. Furthermore, he 
was very careless about his locality labels, left many of them 
very vague, and did not give the locality in the same language 
in the different "varieties" from the same colony. 

Thus his Oreohelix material from Oregon probably all came 
from the single colony at Celilo, as I concluded from an 
examination of the material itself, though some of it is labelled 



224 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

merely "eastern Oregon," and Celilo is not in eastern Oregon,, 
except in the loose sense in which the term "eastern" is often 
used to distinguish the more arid portions of Washington and 
Oregon from the moist belt of the western portions of the 
states. Celilo is on the northern boundary of Oregon west of 
the middle north-south line. To reinforce the conclusion 
drawn from an examination of the material, we have the fact 
that Hemphill and Binney mention no other Oregon locality 
for this genus than Celilo, and the further fact that in three of 
five lots examined the locality is given as "eastern Oregon, 
near Celilo." California Academy of Sciences' Nos. 7681 
and 7684 are labelled Helix strigosa var. cooperi, while Nos. 
7587 and 7588 are labelled Helix strigosa var. castaneus, yet I 
am rather confident that these all came from one variable 
colony, such as are not uncommon with the genus Oreohelix, 
and I am equally confident that they have nothing to do with 
either cooperi or the form that he called castaneus from the 
type locality in Utah. No. 7587 carries the additional words 
"elevated, smooth," while No. 7588 reads "depressed, smooth, 
one reversed." University of Colorado Museum No. 7142, 
from the Hemphill collection, is labelled "Helix alternata Say 
var. castaneus Hemphill, eastern Oregon." I believe this lot is 
also from Celilo. I cannot identify any of this Oregon ma- 
terial with any described species and am therefore naming and 
describing it as new. 



Oreohelix variabilis Henderson, new species 

Plate 24, figures 2, 3, 4 

Shell rather elevated, solid, whitish, variegated with small, 
irregular, very light-brown blotches; whorls 5^, fairly con- 
vex, bluntly angled at the periphery, the angulation continuing 
at least to beginning of last whorl, but not to the aperture: 
transverse sculpture rather coarse, irregular striae, about as in 
cooperi and depressa, crossed by very fine, obscure, irregular, 
incised, spiral lines. Under a lens of good power the whole 
surface of the last whorl appears rough and coarse. The last 
whorl turns more decidedly downward toward the aperture 
than in most species of Oreohelix, the ends of the peristome 



N'OL. XVIII] HENDERSON— NOTES ON OREOHELIX 225 

coming rather close together and being connected by a very 
thick callus, thus forming an almost continuous peristome. 
This feature is not entirely accidental, as it is as well developed 
in several other specimens, though on others the callus is thin- 
ner and the downward turn of the whorl not quite so pro- 
nounced. The aperture is very oblique, somewhat wider than 
high, the abrupt downward turn at the base giving the ap- 
pearance of a strong rib within, parallel with the lip. Diame- 
ter 22 mm.; altitude 16 mm. The smallest example in this lot 
of 12 specimens has a diameter of 15 mm., altitude 11 mm. 

Holotype: No. 2987; paratypes: Nos. 2988, 2989, Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., from Celilo, Oregon. Henry Hemphill collector. 

Some examples of this lot exhibit a few faint, narrow, 
spiral color bands both above and below the periphery. Four 
specimens of the five in lot No. 7681 exhibit one strong brown 
band just below the periphery, a broad band just below the 
suture, the two separated by a whitish band, with traces of 
finer bands on the base. The fifth example is coarsely ribbed, 
with broad, blackish bands, and does not seem to belong with 
the rest at all. It is not unlikely that it belongs with the Utah 
material and was mixed with this lot before the material was 
numbered. I have found much evidence of such mixtures in 
Hemphiirs collections. Lot No. 7587 consists of five slightly 
more elevated shells, each pretty well covered with a reddish- 
brown wash, but on the base showing the characteristic color- 
ing of this species and being in other ways unlike castanea. 
The same is true of the five examples in lot No. 7588, but they 
are rather depressed and one of them is reversed. The five 
specimens in lot No. 7142, University of Colorado Museum, 
are similar to No. 7587, but average a little smaller. 

In the more elevated examples of variahilis the spire is dis- 
tinctly more straightly conical than in elevated forms of 
cooperi or peripherica (-\- castanea, etc.), which tend more 
toward a dome-like outline. Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry writes me 
that he has found in the Hemphill material in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia two topotypic specimens of 
O. variabilis which long ago had been placed with their large 
collection of cooperi and hence overlooked. 



226 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 24 

Fig. 1. Oreohelix peripherica alhofasciata, color form castanea (Hemphill)' 
diameter, 15.5 mm.; lectotype No. 2986 (C. A. S. type coll.), 
from Box Elder Co., Utah; p. 221. 

Fig. 2. Oreohelix variabilis Henderson, new species; diameter, 22 mm.; holo 
type No. 2987 (C. A. S. type coU.), from near Celilo, Oregon' 
p. 224. 

Fig. 3. Oreohelix variabilis Henderson, new species; diameter, 20.1 mm.; 
para type No. 2988 (C. A. S. type coll.), from near Celilo, 
Oregon; p. 224. 

Fig. 4. Oreohelix variabilis Henderson, new species; diameter, 19.4 mm.; 
paratype No. 2989 (C. A. S. type coll.), from near Celilo, 
Oregon; p. 224. 

Fig. 5. Holospira aguerreverei Hanna & Hertlein, new species; true length 
21.7 mm., diameter 6.0 mm.; holotype No. 2848 (C. A. S. type 
coll.), from 16 kilometers north of Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, 
Mexico; p. 219. 

Fig. 6. Holospira aguerreverei Hanna & Hertlein, new species; side view of 
specimen shown in fig. 5; p. 219. 

Figs. 7, 8, 9. Helminthoglypta berryi Hanna, new species; diameter, 22.5 mm. J 
holotype No. 1492 (C. A. S. type coll.), from eight miles north- 
east of Bakersfield, Kem County, California; p. 217. 

Figs. 10, 11. Pecten {Plagiodenium) ericellus Hertlein, new species; altitude, 
28 mm.; holotype No. 2998 (C. A. S. type coll.), from locality 
1132 (C. A. S.), Pacific Beach, San Diego, CaUfomia. PUo- 
cene; p. 215. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8 

fHERTLEIN, HANNA, HANNA& HERTLEIN, HENDERSON] Plate 24 









8 





PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE ^ 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 9, pp. 229-243, plates 25, 26 April 5, 1929 



IX 

NOTES ON THE NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL 

BY 

M. E. McLELLAN DAVIDSON 
Assistant Curator, Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy 

After passing through various nomenclatural vicissitudes, 
the elephant seal of southern waters had apparently arrived at 
a certain permanence in Macrorhinus leoninus until the 
appearance, in 1909, of Lydekker's paper "On the Skull- 
Characters in the Southern Sea-Elephant."^ Basing his 
studies on the skulls of two males from Macquarie Island, a 
male from Chatham Island, a female from the "Antarctic 
Seas," a male from the Crozet group, and an old male from 
the Falklands. Lydekker reached the conclusion that the dif- 
ferences found in the palatal regions of these specimens war- 
ranted the recognition of the following species and subspecies : 
Macrorhinus leoninus typicus [=M. I. leoninus] (Juan Fer- 
nandez) ; M. I. falclandicus (Falkland Islands), perhaps 
inseparable from the typical race; M. I. uiacquariensis (Mac- 
quarie and PChatham islands) ; and M. crosetensis (Crozet 
and PKerguelen and Heard islands). 

In this paper no attempt was made to discuss the cranial 
features of the Northern Elephant Seal, but Lydekker noted 
that the characters exhibited by the palatines of a skull of that 
form were sufficient for its recognition as a distinct species. 
In an appended note, resulting from a communication from 

» p. Z. S. 1909, pp. 600-606. 

April 5, 19J9 



230 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Rothschild, it was remarked that should the northern species 
prove to be identical with that from Juan Fernandez and 
Chile, the specific name leoniiiiis should be reserved for the 
animals of that region, and the elephant seals from the Falk- 
lands, and from Macquarie and Chatham islands should be 
known respectively as M. falclandicus falclandicus and 
M. f. macquariensis. The reason for this division is obscure 
in view of the statement that the Falkland Island race was 
perhaps inseparable from the typical leoninus. 

Lydekker's paper proved but the prodrome of one by Lonn- 
berg.^ While recognizing the probability of a widely distrib- 
uted species being separable into geographic races, Lonnberg 
found himself unable to accept Lydekker's conclusions. The 
characters upon which the latter's species and subspecies were 
founded (with the exception of the breadth of palate in the 
Crozet example), all fell within the range of variation exhib- 
ited by the series (seven adult and semi-adult males, three 
young males, and one adult female) from South Georgia 
examined by Lonnberg. 

With a series of five males and four females from Guada- 
lupe Island, one male from the Falklands, two or three from 
Macquarie, and two or three from Crozet Island at his dis- 
posal, Rothschild^ continued the discussion. Although the 
promised article, giving the constant characters by which the 
various subspecies might be recognized, has not yet appeared, 
Rothschild confessed his faith in the validity of Mirounga 
leonina leonina (coasts of California and adjacent islands, 
wintering on Chilean coasts), M. I. patagonica (Falkland 
Islands, South Georgia, and ?South Shetlands), M. I. kergue- 
leiisis = M. I. crosettensis [.yfc] (Herd, Kerguelen, Crozet 
islands, etc.), M. I. peronii (islands of Bass Straits), and 
M. I. macqiiarieitsis (Macquarie Islands). 

Apparently Rothschild was governed largely in his decision 
as to the unity of the species by a report from Harris "that he 
must reach the island [Guadalupe] before the middle of May 
or the Sea Elephants would have migrated to the south." 
Rothschild states that he "looked up the matter, and . , . 
found that, although a few stray individuals might formerly 

2 p. Z. S. 1910, pp. 580-588. 

3 Nov. Zool., XVII, pp. 445-446. 



Vol. XVIII] DAVIDSON— NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL 231 

have led a pelagic life north of the Equator, the bulk of the 
Northern Sea Elephants migrated in the hot weather to the 
Chilean coast and the islands near (Juan Fernandez, Masa- 
fuera, etc.)," but the sources of his information are not 
revealed. 

That rookeries are more or less completely deserted sub- 
sequent to the breeding season is hardly sufficient for the 
determination of a migration in any particular direction. 
Breeding grounds in the southern hemisphere (Kerguelen, 
South Georgia, and Macquarie, etc.) are similarly vacated 
after the season of reproduction, and the fact that elephant 
seals have been found in the Antarctic pack ice (65° 08' S.)* 
and at Cape Royds {77° 40' S.)° in January is evidence of a 
movement away from, rather than across, the equator. 

Moreover, the information furnished by Harris was inac- 
curate. Scammon® found several cows and their young, the 
latter apparently but a few days old, on Santa Barbara Island 
in June, 1852. Townsend^ reports finding a pup three weeks 
old on Guadalupe Island, October 9, 1883; and the new-born 
young he met with on the Lower Californian islands in 
1883-84 were dropped at various times between November 1 
and February 1. In 1911, he saw a dozen or more females 
with very young pups on March 5 at Guadalupe Island. In 
the Academy's collection are skull and skeleton of a pup a few 
weeks old taken on Guadalupe Island, May 8, 1914. 

Reports from recent expeditions visiting Guadalupe Island 
during the summer months indicate the presence of a consid- 
erable herd at that season. The Tecate Expedition^ reported 
the presence of 264 adult animals, July 12, 1922, and 300 four 
days later. Mexican officials visiting the island in early Sep- 
tember of the same year found 150 females and an equal num- 
ber of pups about 30 inches in length.^ In 1923, 366^" were 
counted on July 16, and on August 30 of the succeeding year 

'Wilkes, C, Nar. U. S. Expl. Exped,, II, p. 291. 

"Wilson, E. A., Geog. Jour., XXV, p. 393; Nat. Antarctic Exped., N. H., Zool., 
II, p. S3. 

"Marine Mammals of the North-western Coast of North America, p. 118. 

'Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, p. 93; Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXV, p. 407. 

«Hanna, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., XIV, p. 229; Anthony, Jour. Mam., V, 
p. 146; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Sen, XIV, pp. 310, 313. 

» Anthony, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser., XIV, p. 313. 

"Huey, Science, n. s., LXI, p. 406; Anthony, Jour. Mam., V, p. 148. 



232 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

124" occupied the beach. A total of 465 animals was found 
on the island on June 23, 1926/^ 

This evidence of an extended breeding season and the pres- 
ence of a considerable herd of elephant seals in North Ameri- 
can waters during all seasons seem to militate against the view 
of a migration of these animals to Juan Fernandez, especially 
as Anson^^ found elephant seals with young on that island dur- 
ing his stay, from June 10 to September 19. It is stated that 
the young were born during the "winter." 

With a view to aiding in the determination of the status of 
the elephant seals of the north Pacific, the Academy's series 
of specimens has been examined. These examples apparently 
but inadequately represent the Guadalupe animals, skulls of 
greater length, two feet (605 mm.)^* and 556 mm.,^^ having 
been known. It has been deemed advisable, however, to place 
the measurements on record, together with notes on structural 
characters. 

In order to facilitate comparisons with previously published 
figures, percentages of basal length of skulls, in addition to the 
actual measurements, have been given in the appended table. 
The incomplete skulls appear to be those of adult males. The 
open pulp cavities of the canines and the condition of the 
sutures in the largest complete skull bear witness to the ani- 
mal's immaturity, and even the skulls of the somewhat older 
females show that the possibilities of additional growth had 
not been exhausted. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. Charles Anderson, Director of 
the Australian Museum, Sydney, and Mr. George P. Engel- 
hardt, Curator of the Department of Natural Sciences, 
Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, an examination of the skulls of 
two adult males from Macquarie Island and one adult male 
from South Georgia has been made possible. The measure- 
ments of these specimens are given below. 

In basal length the complete skulls of the males in the 
Academy's collection fall considerably short of those from 

" Huey, Science, n. s., LXI, p. 406. 

"Huey, Jour. Mam., VII, p. 160. 

^*Cf. Thomas, Jour. Voy. to the South Seas in 1740-44, p. 40. 

^'Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VIII, p. 93. 

"Huey, Jour. Mam., V, p. 241. 



Vol. XVIII] 



DAVIDSON— NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL 



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Vol. XVIII] DAVIDSON— NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL 235 

South Georgia and Macquarie Island, but it must be borne in 
mind that all save one were from young animals. From the 
zygomatic breadth of the two incomplete skulls it may be 
assumed that their length would be nearly equal to the largest 
South Georgia ones, and the previously mentioned skulls 
measured by Townsend and Huey exceed in this dimension. 
It may be noted that the crania of two adult females from 
Guadalupe surpass by 60 and 35 mm. Lonnberg's South 
Georgia example. 

In the South Georgia specimens as well as in the Guadalupe 
ones the greatest relative zygomatic width occurred in quite 
young animals. It is, therefore, of significance that while the 
zygomatic breadth of only one adult or semi-adult from South 
Georgia fell below 70 per cent of the basal length, only one 
(an immature female) from Guadalupe Island had a zygo- 
matic breadth of more than 70 per cent. 

Six of Lonnberg's series have the relative width of skull at 
the posterior edge of the meatus auditorius externns more than 
64.84 per cent, the highest attained by all but one young from 
Guadalupe. Specimens from South Georgia and Macquarie 
Island, measured by the author, and Turner's Heard Island 
skulls are 63.76, 57.57, 63.65, 64.4, and 61.2, however. 

The length of palate in the Guadalupe elephant seals varied 
in relation to the basal length from 40.80 (young) to 52.83 
per cent. Even the smallest of Lonnberg's series did not fall 
below 45.0 per cent, and three exceeded 52.83 per cent. The 
Macquarie Island animals measured by the writer proved to 
have a relative palatal length of 53.26 and 56.02, but the one 
measured by Lydekker was 52.7 per cent. 

The width of palate in Lonnberg's series varies from 37.1 
to 32.2 per cent of basal length, and the same measurement in 
the Guadalupe specimens is from 32.2 to 28.61 per cent. 
Skulls measured by Lydekker had a palatal breadth varying 
from 35 to 39.3 per cent, and 36.12 and 36.42 are the per- 
centages of the Macquarie Island skulls given in the table 
above. 

It might have been supposed that the width of skull at the 
level of the upper posterior premaxillary suture might bear 



236 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

close relationship to the palatal breadth, but this did not mani- 
fest itself in the measurements. The variations in that dimen- 
sion in the Guadalupe examples easily fall within the limits of 
those of the southern seals. 

In the case of the least frontal width of skull, a decided 
difference between the northern and southern animals is evi- 
dent. That measurement in South Georgia and Macquarie 
skulls ranges from 20.5 to 14.73 per cent of the basal length, 
with the exception of one of 12.2 per cent, and from 15.1 to 
13.6 in Heard Island examples. The percentage in Guadalupe 
ones is from 14.07 to 11.75. 

It is unfortunate that the proportionate measurements of 
the two larger incomplete Guadalupe Island skulls are not 
available for comparison, as they might have made it possible 
to attain a fairer estimate of the northern elephant seal. The 
comparisons would also be of greater value were it known how 
nearly similar in age were the animals whose skulls were the 
source of the figures. From a study of the measurements pre- 
sented in these tables, however, and those recorded by Lydek- 
ker and Lonnberg, it would appear that, although many of its 
cranial dimensions fall within the range of variation exhibited 
by the elephant seal of the southern oceans, the Guadalupe 
animal possesses a relatively narrower skull. Whether 
degeneration, due to the near approach of the northern race to 
extinction, is a factor involved in the reduction in breadth is 
a debatable point. 

The extent of variability manifested in the form of the 
skull and its component parts makes any decision based upon 
a limited series of slight value. One character believed to be 
sufficiently constant to separate the northern from the south- 
ern animals was discovered. In Guadalupe Island examples, 
it was found that in the dorsal aspect the premaxillae as they 
extend backward also expand laterally, the lateral outline being 
distinctly convex in its basal half. The southern specimens 
examined all appear to have the lateral margins of the pre- 
maxillae parallel. 

It would seem, therefore, that there is sufficient justification 
for regarding the northern elephant seal as a separate species, 
Macrorhinus angustirostris. 



Vol. XVIII] 



DAVIDSON— NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL 



237 



In the examination of the Academy's series of specimens 
certain other skeletal and anatomical characters have been 
noted which seem of sufficient value to record. Although it is 
not so pronounced a feature as in the South Georgia and 
Macquarie Island skulls, the premaxillary tubercle is present in 
all the Guadalupe specimens. In this latter series the meseth- 
moid has never been seen to reach the upper surface of the 
skull as it does in the southern specimens. The pterygoid 
processes of the Academy's specimens are inclined to be small 
and rather slender. The skull of one of the females (No. 
1137) has both palatines divided into two parts by a suture. 
In the skull of the male pup (No. 961), probably only a few 
weeks old, is seen indications of the cranial element found by 
Cleland^® in Cystophora cristata and other Pinnipedia, and 
believed by him to correspond to the paroccipital of Owen in 
osseous fishes. 

There is great individual variation in the dentition of the 
Academy's Guadalupe series, its extent being evident in the 
following formulae: 



2 — 2 



C. 



2 — 2 



I. 



1 — 1 



2 — 2 



2 — 2 



I. 



2-2 



C. 



— 1 



— 1 



— 1 



— 1 



P.M. 


4 


— 


4 


4 


— 


3 


P.M. 


4 


— 


4 


4 


— 


4 


P.M 


4 


— 


4 


4 


— 


4 


P.M 


4 


— 


4 


4 


— 


4 


P.M 


4 


— 


4 


4 


— 


4 


T) A/r 


4 


— 


4 



— re. A. s. 

M. ; ] No. 962 

— [female 



1 

-; P.M. , 

1 



1 



M. 



M. 



M. 



M, 



1 fC. A. S. 
-; ]No. 1139 



— I male 



1 fC. A. S. 

-; Nos. 1136 and 879 



— [males 

— 1 fC. A. S. 
j Nos. 963 and 961 (pup) 



— 1 [males 

— 1 fC. A. S. 
■^No. 1137 



— 2 [female 



— 1 



M.- 



— 1 



4 — 4 



2 — 2 



rc. A. S. 

No. 1138 
young female 



« Rept. Brit. A. A. S., 1902, pp. 646-647. 



238 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The vertebral formula of the Guadalupe specimens appears 
to be: cervical, 7; dorsal, 15; lumbar, 5; sacral, 3; caudal, 9. 
The absence of a tenth caudal vertebra may, however, be due 
to mischance in the preparation of the skeleton. In compari- 
son with corresponding parts figured by Turner^'^ the spinous 
process of the cervical vertebrae is much elevated. This 
character is evident even in the vertebrae of a pup. The 
hypapophysial tubercle of the atlas is well developed, and the 
lateral laminae are considerably depressed apically, giving the 
low^r margin of that vertebra a very sinuous outline. The 
breadth of the anterior articular surfaces of the axis appears 
to be proportionately small. The spinous process of the atlas 
of Nos. 1139, male, and 1137, female, resembles that figured 
by Turner, but this process in the other males is decidedly 
broader. The centrum of the third cervical is more nearly 
oval or elliptical oval. In the seventh vertebra, the transverse 
processes are not depressed apically as are they in Turner's 
example. In no case would a straight line drawn between 
their lowest apices touch the lower margin of the centrum. 

On the ventral surface of only the anterior and posterior 
dorsal vertebrae is evidence of a keel discovered. The bodies 
of the lumbar vertebrae are slightly flattened, or, in some 
instances, double keeled so that a ventral groove is formed. 

In No. 1136, male, the epiphyses of the first and second, 
and the second and third sacrals are anchylosed to one another, 
but not to the centra. In No. 1137, female, the three sacral 
vertebrae and anchylosed, and in No. 962, female, four verte- 
brae in the sacral region are fused. 

In the Academy's series the first and second caudal vertebrae 
are possessed of a neural arch. One specimen has the arch 
present in three, and another specimen has the laminae of the 
third caudal nearly united to form an arch, and the fourth is 
very deeply grooved. 

The scapulae of the Guadalupe seals exhibit considerable 
variation in form, which is made evident in the following 
table : 

" Voy. Challenger, Zoology, XXVI, Seals, pis. II-IV. 



Vol. XVIII] 



DAVIDSON— NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL 



239 





Greatest 


Greatest 


Percentage of 


Sex 


depth 


width 


width in depth 


Females 


115.00 


122.00 


106.08 




207.00 


192.00 


92.75 




205.00 


205.00 


100.00 


Males 


180.00 


173.00 


96.11 




195.00 


210.00 


107.69 




250.00 


265.00 


106.00 




235.00 


240.00 


102.12 



The skins in the Academy collection were examined and a 
count of the vibrissae made. The arrangement of the brow 
bristles differs, but there are usually eight to ten in the group. 
A single bristle is found on each side of the median line of the 
head about halfway between the nostril and eye. The mys- 
tacial bristles are arranged in seven rows, the total number 
varying from 46 to 49. In this regard there seemed to be 
such a marked difference between these numbers and those 
given by Allen^" that the result was verified by count of the 
papillae on the under surface of the hide. It appears that the 
number of maxillary bristles of the Guadalupe Island animals 
is considerably greater than that of the South Georgia ones. 
Murphy^*^ found that his specimens exhibited 39 maxillary 
bristles on each side. 

I am pleased to acknowledge indebtedness to Dr. G. Dallas 
Hanna, Curator, Department of Paleontology, and Mr. Joseph 
Mailliard, Curator Emeritus, Department of Ornithology and 
Mammalogy, for the photographs used in illustrating this 
paper. 



"U. S. Geol. Surv., Misc. Pub., XII, p. 743. 
" Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIII, p. 76. 



240 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 25 

Fig. 1. Northern Elephant Seal, male. Guadalupe Island, Mexico, July 12, 
1922. Photograph by G. Dallas Hanna. 

Fig. 2. Northern Elephant Seal, male. Guadalupe Island, Mexico, July 12, 
1922. Photograph by G. Dallas Hanna. 



PROG. CAL. ACAD. SCI.. 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 9 [ DAVIDSON ] Plate 25 




FiQ.l 




Fiq.Z 



2^2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 26 

Fig. 1. Anterior surface of atlas of Macrorhinus angustirostris. Photograph 
by Joseph MailHard. 

Fig. 2. Anterior surface of axis of Macrorhinus augusiirostris. Photograpli In- 
Joseph MailHard. 

Fig. 3. Anterior surface of third cer\-ical vertebra of Macrorhinus angustiros- 
Iris. Photograph by Joseph Mailliard. 

Fig. 4. Anteiior surface of seventh cervical vertebra of Macrorhinus angustir- 
oslris. Photograph by Joseph Mailliard. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 9 



DAVIDSON] Plate 26 




Fiq.l 



Fiq.2 




Fig.3 




Fig.4 



PROCEEDINGS /f 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 10, pp. 245-260 April 5, 1929 



ON A SMALL COLLECTION OF BIRDS FROM 

TORRES STRAIT ISLANDS, AND FROM GUA- 

DALCANAR ISLAND, SOLOMON GROUP 

BY 

M. E. McLELLAN DAVIDSON 
Assistant Curator, Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy 

In the years 1920 and 1921, Mr. J. August Kusche visited 
Australia and the Papuan region for the purpose of assembhng 
general natural history collections. Among the specimens he 
secured was a small number of birds from Prince of Wales 
and Thursday islands, Australia, and Guadalcanar Island. 
Solomon Group. These skins, now in the museum of the 
California Academy of Sciences, form the basis of the present 
paper. 

None of the localities visited was an ornithological terra 
incognita. Torres Strait islands have been worked on sev- 
eral occasions by collectors. The bird life of certain of the 
islands has been quite thoroughly investigated, others still 
present opportunities for the study of their native fauna, and 
all are interesting because their position renders them suitable 
as observatories in the study of the migratory movements of 
Australian and Papuan birds. Both Prince of Wales and 
Thursday islands have already been ornithologically explored, 
but, despite this fact, the present assemblage of specimens 
includes species apparently not previously reported from 
Prince of Wales Island. 

AprU S, 1929 



246 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Prince of Wales Island (10° 40' S., 142° 10' E.) is the 
largest of the islands of the group bearing that name. It is 
about 14 miles from the mainland, and covers an area of nearly 
12 square miles. Thursday Island (10° 40' S., 142° 20' E.) 
lies to the northward, and is only about 900 acres in extent. 
All the islands of the group are hilly, and on them are peaks 
which rise to an elevation of nearly 700 feet. In former days, 
Prince of Wales Island supported a native population of about 
500 persons, but at the present time the numbers are greatly 
reduced. The desultory mining operations carried on there 
have resulted in no extensive settlement as there is on Thurs- 
day Island, where Port Kennedy has become the metropolis 
of the Torres Strait pearl fisheries. 

Lying ofif the eastern coast of New Guinea is the Solomon 
Group, of which Guadalcanar Island (9° 30' S., 165° E.) is 
one of the largest and best known. This island is about 82 
miles long, and averages a breadth of 25 miles. Lofty forest- 
clad mountains rise in the eastern and southern portions, Mt. 
Lammas attaining an elevation of 8005 feet. The descent of 
these mountains to the sea is abrupt on the east and south, but 
to the north extend rolling prairies covered with high grass. 
From May to November the island is swept by the southeast 
trade wind, and during the period from December until April 
the inequitable northwest monsoon makes itself felt. These 
moisture-laden winds result in a coastal rainfall of 100 to 150 
inches a year, and a precipitation in the mountains that is said 
to be between 400 and 500 inches annually. Several navigable 
rivers, flowing northward, aid in carrying off the surplus 
water. 

In spite of the reputed ferocity of the natives, the Solomon 
Islands have received due attention from naturalists, and the 
labors of nineteeth century pioneers blazed a trail for more 
finished work on the part of their successors. In the 20th 
century. Lord Rothschild's interest in the Papuan islands has 
resulted in the amassing of excellent collections of birds from 
the Solomon Islands in Tring Museum, and his studies, and 
those of Hartert, have aided greatly in giving us a compre- 
hensive knowledge of their avifauna. Nevertheless, there 
remain to be learned many facts in variation, distribution, and 
migration. It is, therefore, to be regretted that the collection 



Vol. XVIII] DAVIDSON— BIRDS FROM TORRES STRAIT ISLANDS 247 

here under consideration lacks detailed information regarding 
the localities in which the collecting was done. But facts 
obtained from the specimens themselves seem worthy of 
presentation. 

In its entirety, Mr. Kusche's collection comprised 138 bird 
skins, representing 56 species and subspecies. From July 20 
to August 18, inclusive, 1920, examples of 27 species were 
taken on Prince of Wales Island ; during five days of Septem- 
ber (7 to 11, inclusive), specimens of eight species were 
secured on Thursday Island; and between November 26, 1920, 
and January 30, 1921, representatives of 25 species were 
added to the collection on Guadalcanar Island. Ten Mega- 
podins eggs were obtained on Savo Island, off Guadalcanar 
Island, on February 18, 1921. 

List of Species 
1. Megapodius reinwardt brenchleyi Gray 

Nos. 2996-3005: eggs, February 18; Savo Island. 

The incubation of one of these eggs had begun, the remain- 
der were fresh. The ground color of these eggs varies from 
almost pure white to light buff (Ridgway). The overlying 
color ranges from pinkish buff, through a pale Isabella, to 
avellaneous. Oates^ gives 2.8 (71.2 mm.) and 3.05 
(77.5 mm.) inches in length, and 1.75 (44.5 mm.) and 1.9 
(48.2 mm.) inches in breadth as the extreme measurements 
of his series. The extremes exhibited by the Academy's 
series are: 73.7 mm. and 81.0 mm. in length, and 45.2 mm. 
and 49.1 mm. in breadth. 

2. Ptilinopus regina Swainson 

Nos. 24410-11: female, August 16; male, August 17; 
Prince of Wales Island. 

Both birds are in fresh plumage. The coloration of No. 
24410, female, is very intense for one of that sex. On the 
under tail-coverts of this example, a bar of orange-red inter- 
venes between the narrow yellow tip of the feather and a 

>Cat. Birds* Eggs Brit. Mus., I, 1901, p. 16. 



248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

central band of magenta. The presence of this last color is 
apparently unusual, and it is not mentioned in the descriptions 
of the species given by Salvadori^ or Mathews.^ 

3. Ptilinopus superbus (Temminck) 

No. 23312: male, August 16, 1920; Prince of Wales 
Island. 

Fresh plumage has just been assumed. "Eyes red-brown. 
Legs and feet blood-red. Call, a low iiuiii" (Kusche). 



4. Jotreron viridis lewisi (Ramsay) 

No. 22425: female, January 18; Guadalcanar Island. 

"Bill orange-yellow. Legs and feet crimson" (Kusche). 
The feathers of the forehead and chin are gray tipped with 
green.* 

5. Megaloprepia magnifica assimilis (Gould) 

Nos. 24407-08: male, August 18; female, August 17; 
Prince of Wales Island. No, 24409: male, September 10; 
Thursday Island. 

The specimens at hand differ from the Megaloprepia assimi- 
lis [=M. m. keri Mathews) figured by Mathews^ in having 
the fresh feathers of the upper parts a more golden green with 
bronze reflections. The breast feathers are apically Indian 
purple (Ridgway), and a subterminal band of dark madder 
violet (Ridgway) intervenes between that color and the suc- 
ceeding green area. The measurements (in millimeters) of 
the series at hand are as follows: Culmen, 15.5, 14.5, 16.5; 
wing, 180.0, 181.0, 183.0; tail, 148.0, 156.0, 145.0; tarsus, 
23.5, 22.0, 22.5. In size these birds appear to approach 
M. m. poliura, but differ from individuals of that race in 
having the under tail-coverts washed with gamboge. 

» Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XXI, 1893, p. 95. 
»B. Austr., I, 1910-11, pp. lOS, 107. 

*C/. Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XXI, 1893, p. 153; Hartert, Nov. Zool., II, 
1895, p. 63, footnote; and Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool., VIII, 1901, p. 109. 
" B. Austr., I, pi. 26. 



Vol. XVIII] DAVIDSON— BIRDS FROM TORRES STRAIT ISLANDS £49 

According to a note on the label, the oviduct of the female 
contained two ova. 



6. Globicera rufigula (Salvadori) 

No. 24424 : male, December 3 ; Guadalcanar Island. 
A moult, involving- contour plumage as well as remiges and 
rectrices, is nearly complete. 



7. Chrysauchoena humeralis humeralis (Temminck) 
No. 24414: female, July 28; Prince of Wales Island. 

8. Geopelia placida placida Gould 
No. 24413: male, August 3; Prince of Wales Island. 

9. Caloenas nicobarica nicobarica Linnaeus 

Nos. 24445-48: females, January 2 and 9; males, January 
17 and 27; Guadalcanar Island. 

10. Porphyrio indicus neobritannicus Meyer 

No. 24422 : male, December 2 ; Guadalcanar Island. 

In the specimen under examination the foreneck and breast 
are greenish cobalt, in distinct contrast to the remainder of 
the under parts. The thighs and abdomen are concolor. For 
birds exhibiting these characters, Hartert** has presented cogent 
arguments for the use of the specific name indicus Horsfield, 
rather than calvus Vieillot. But, unless it proves that repre- 
sentatives of two species of Porphyrio are resident in the 
Solomon Islands, it will be necessary to regard neobritannicus 
as a race of indicus, not of melanotus.'' 

•Nov. Zool., XXXI, 1924, pp. lOS-106. 

^ Cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., XXXI, 1924, p. 108; Mathews, Syst. Av. Austr., 1927, 
p. 101. 



250 CALIFORNIA ACADEl^y QF SCIENCES [P»oc. 4th Sek. 

11. Pluvialis dominicus fulvus (Gmelin) 

No. 24442 : female, January 1 1 ; Guadalcanar Island. 
The remiges are only slightly worn, but the remainder of 
the plumage is much abraded. 



12. Actitis hypoleucus (Linnaeus) 

No. 24894: female, August 17; Prince of Wales Island. 
This is a bird in worn garb. 



13. Orthorhamphus magnirostris neglectus (Mathews) 
No. 24423: male, January 17; Guadalcanar Island. 

14. Demigretta sacra novaeguineae (Gmelin) 

Nos. 24416-17: male, January 12; female, January 30; 
Guadalcanar Island. No. 24418: specimen without data. 

The subspecific name has been but tentatively applied to 
these specimens. The female is almost pure white. A few 
dark streaks appear in the contour plumage, and dark tips are 
in evidence on some of the remiges and rectrices. The plum- 
age of the male is devoid of white, and the dataless example 
has a white line on the throat. The specimens yield the 
following measurements (in millimeters) : Culmen, 86.0, 
85.0, 85.0; wing, 295.0, 265.0 (worn), — ; tail, 98.5, 90.0, 
— ; tarsus, 75.7, 70.5, 74.0. In size these specimens approach 
a female collected at Apia, Samoa, which measures : Culmen, 
84.5; wing, 265.0 (worn) ; tail, 94.0; tarsus, 70.0. 

15. Nycticorax caledonicus hilli Mathews 

No. 24415 : male, September 9; Thursday Island. 

This bird appears to be much paler than that figured by 
Mathews.® The mantle is fawn, but approaches mars brown 
(Ridgway) on the interscapulars. 

» B. Austr., in, pi. 193. 



Vol. XVIII] DAVIDSON— BIRDS FROM TORRES STRAIT ISLANDS 251 

16. Anas superciliosa pelewensis Hartlaub & Finsch 
No. 2442 1 : male, November 26 ; Guadalcanar Island. 

17. Leucospiza hiogaster pulchella (Ramsay) 

Nos. 24405-06, 24436-38: immature males, December 26 
and 30; adult male, January 18; immature female, January 5; 
adult female, January 23 ; Guadalcanar Island. 

The adult female is in greatly worn dress. 

18. Haliastur indus ambiguus Briiggemann 

Nos. 24419-20: female, December 22; male, December 23; 
Guadalcanar Island. 

"Iris brown. Bill ochre. Legs yellow. The stomach of 
the male contained a bird" (Kusche), 

19. Eos grayi Mathews & Iredale 

Nos. 24364-68 : males, December 4 and 28, and January 8 ; 
female, January 8 ; Guadalcanar Island. 

A moult which involves all the feather tracts is in evidence 
in these examples. 

20. Trichoglossus haematodus aberrans Reichenow 

Nos. 24361-63: female, December 4; males, December 4 
and January 8; Guadalcanar Island. 

These specimens have the occiput purplish brown and the 
throat purple. In two individuals the unspotted dark green 
area of the central abdomen is quite evident. The plumage in 
every case is much worn, but feather renewal has begun on 
the forehead, crown, and flight feathers. 

21. Kakatoe galerita fitzroyi (Mathews) 

Nos. 24371-73 : female, August 7; males, August 8; Prince 
of Wales Island. 

The auriculars of these examples are strongly tinged with 
yellow, in this respect differing from the type of fitzroyi as 



252 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

described by Mathews." The measurements (in milUmeters) 
of the series are: Cuhnen, 37,0, 37.2, 42,0; wing, 305.0, 
298.0, 316.0; tail, 159.0, 164.0, 175.0; tarsus, 24,0, 24.5, 25.0. 



22. Ducorpsius ducorpsii Pucheran 

Nos. 24369-70 : female, January 5 ; male, January 6 ; 
Guadalcanar Island. 

The basal reddish orange of the feathers of the lores, sides 
of head, nape, throat, breast, flanks, and upper tail-coverts is 
quite conspicuous in the case of the male. The presence of 
this color is mentioned by Finsch,^° but it is ordinarily dis- 
regarded in descriptions of this species. 



23. Lorius roratus solomonensis (Rothschild & Hartert) 

No. 24360 : female, January 22 ; Guadalcanar Island. 

The contour plumage has been recently assumed, but all 
but one rectrix and the outer primaries have still to be 
replaced. 



24. Megapodargus papuensis baileyi (Mathews) 
No. 24316: male, July 28; Prince of Wales Island. 

25. Eurystomus orientalis solomonensis Sharpe 

Nos. 24312-15: males, December 20 and 21; female, 
December 22 ; Guadalcanar Island. 

A white patch is present on the chin of each of the speci- 
mens, "Iris ruby red. Bill and legs vermilion" (Kusche). 

26, Dacelo leachii kempi Mathews 

Nos. 24303-08: adult male, August 4; males [adult 
females], July 27; females [immature males], July 29 and 
August 4 ; Prince of Wales Island, 

»Nov. Zool., XVIII, 1911, p. 264. 
"Papag., I, 1867, p. 312. 



Vol. XVIII] DAVIDSON— BIRDS FROM TORRES STRAIT ISLANDS 253 

An immature male (labeled "female") taken on August 4, 
has the tail basally dark blue, and only slight indications of 
brown are present on the outer webs of the lateral rectrices. A 
somewhat younger male, labeled "female," has the proxinal 
two-thirds of the tail dark blue, and the distal portion brown 
banded with blue. The rectrices of this specimen are quite 
narrow, the central ones measuring six and the lateral ones 
four millimeters less than the corresponding feathers of the 
adult bird. Two birds taken on July 27 are marked as 
"males" ; but, although they appear to be older than the imma- 
ture male dated July 29, there is no indication of an advance 
into the plumage of the adult male, the tails being brown to 
the base. 

In these examples the white of the throat merges into light 
cream buff (Ridgway) on the breast and abdomen. The 
amount of dark vermiculation on the under surface is vari- 
able. One adult female is very heavily marked, but the lower 
parts of the adult male are very faintly lined. 



27. Lazulena macleayii macleayii (Jardine & Selby) 
No. 24310: female, July 29; Prince of Wales Island. 

28. Sauropatis sancta confusa (Mathews) 

No. 24309: female, August 4; Prince of Wales Island. 
No. 24308 : male, September 7 ; Thursday Island. 

The female (apparently immature) has feather renewal in 
progress on the occiput, cervix, and entire under parts. 

29. Sauropatis chloris alberti Rothschild & Hartert 

No. 24311 : female, December 4; Guadalcanar Island. 

This individual has the pale occipital spot, said to charac- 
terize alberti,^^ but there is evidence of the very narrow super- 
ciliary line to be found in "perplexa" (= Sauropatis chloris 
solomonis)}^ 

" Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool., XV, 1908, p. 361. 
" Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool., XV, 1908, p. 361. 

April 5, 1929 



254 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

30. Rhytoceros plicatus mendanae Hartert 

Nos. 24431-35: male [not sexed], December 3; male, 
December 25; males [females], January 3 and 17; female 
[immature male], December 25; Guadalcanar Island. 

Two black-headed individuals collected on January 3 and 17 
are clearly females, although they are labeled "males." An 
immature bird, with an ochraceous-tawny head, is marked 
"female." This example is just acquiring adult plumage, and 
new feathers are appearing in the contour plumage of the 
other birds. "Iris yellowish brown. Base of bill dull crimson. 
Skin below bill light blue" (Kusche). 



31. Cosmaerops ornatus ornatus (Latham) 

Nos. 24339-44: males, July 25 and 30, August 2 and 14; 
female, August 4 ; Prince of Wales Island. 

A male taken on August 14 is undergoing extensive replace- 
ment of the body feathers. The remainder of the specimens 
appear to be in unworn garb. A few undeveloped feathers are 
in evidence on chin and throat. 



32. Lamprococcyx russatus (Gould) 

Nos. 24355-56: males, July 25 and 29; Prince of Wales 
Island. 

According to the collector, the iris of the bird taken on July 
25 was red, that of the one secured on July 29, dark brown. 
The assumption of new plumage is just begun on the head and 
throat. 



33. Polophilus phasianinus melanurus (Gould) 

No. 24322 : male, July 27 ; Prince of Wales Island. 

This is an individual in striped plumage. "Iris black. 
Upper mandible straw yellow, lower mandible white. Legs 
and feet blue-gray" (Kusche). 



VpL. XVIII] DAVIDSON— BIRDS FROM TORRES STRAIT ISLANDS 255 

34. Nesocentor milo milo (Gould) 

Nos. 24426-30: males, December 21, January 10 and 11; 
females, January 2 and 12; Guadalcanar Island. 

Fresh flight feathers are being acquired by one of the males 
and one female. A male in its first contour plumage has a few 
pin feathers still present on the rump and abdomen. 

35. Kempia flavigaster terraereginae (Mathews) 
No. 24452: male, August 10; Prince of Wales Island. 

36. Pachycephala astrolabi Bonaparte 

Nos. 24337-38, 24455 : males and immature female, 
November 30; Guadalcanar Island. 

The immature female has the upper surface, including the 
tail, bright yellowish olive, the head and interscapulars being 
strongly washed and pied with kaiser brown. There are faint 
indications of a yellow cervical collar. The inner webs of the 
lateral rectrices are narrowly margined with pale cinnamon 
buff. Externally the wing is kaiser brown, and the throat, 
forebreast, and auriculars are washed with the same shade. 
The under tail-coverts are lemon yellow, which, also, suf- 
fuses the lower breast and abdomen. The lower surface is 
obsoletely streaked by the dusky shaft stripes of the feathers. 

37. Leucocirca leucophrys (Latham) 
No. 24451 : male, January 7; Guadalcanar Island. 

38. Mastersornis rubecula yorki (Mathews) 

No. 24391 : male, August 10; Prince of Wales Island. 

This individual is an immature bird in the garb of a female. 
The plumage is greatly worn, and no fresh feathers are in 
evidence. 



256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sep.. 

39. Graucalus novaehollandiae connectens (Mathews) 

Nos. 24329-31: male, July 30; females, August 1 and 2; 
Prince of Wales Island. No. 24332 : female, September 7 ; 
Thursday Island, 

The black is wanting from the forehead of the male, and the 
throats of all the examples are freckled. The plumage in 
every case is greatly abraded, but new rectrices being devel- 
oped by the female taken on September 7 are the only evi- 
dence of feather replacement. In view of Campbell's^^ record 
of an unusual specimen from the Torres Strait islands, the 
measurements of this series may be of interest. Culmen, 26.5, 
26.0, 26.0, 28.0; wing, 190.0. 192.0, 192.0, 193.0, 189.0; tail, 
130.0, 143.5, 135.0, 138.0; tarsus, 28.0, 30.0, 28.5, 28.0. 



40. Graucalus hypoleucus stalked (Mathews) 

Nos. 24333-36 : males, July 27 and August 1 ; females, 
July 27 and 29 ; Prince of Wales Island. 

The characters of hypoleucus, rather than those of 
papueyisis,^* appear to be exhibited by this series. In every 
case the throat is white, and the secondaries exhibit distinct 
white margins. A plumage renewal, which has already 
affected the secondaries, lateral rectrices, and throats of three 
of the specimens, is in progress. 

41. Karua leucomela yorki (Mathews) 

Nos. 24357-59, 24392: female [male], July 29; females, 
August 2, 3, and 14 ; Prince of Wales Island. 

A specimen taken on July 29 wears the dress of the male 
although it is marked "female" by the collector. The under 
tail-coverts appear to be rather pale in this series, but the ver- 
miculations on the under surface of the females are quite pro- 
nounced. The inner secondaries have been recently acquired 
in all the examples, and a few pin feathers are present on the 
throat of the female taken on August 2. 

"Emu, XX, 1920-21, p. 61. 

"CA Hartert, Nov. Zoo!., XII, 1905, p. 224; Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1915, Jubilee 
Suppl., No. 2, p. 128; Campbell, Emu, XX, 1920-21, p. 61; and Mathews, B. Austr., 
IX, 1921-22, p. 126. 



Vol. XVIII] DAVIDSON— BIRDS FROM TORRES STRAIT ISLANDS 257 

42. Edoliisoma erythropygium erythropygium Sharpe 

No. 24456: male [female], December 31; Guadalcanar 
Island. 

This specimen, in newly acquired contour plumage, although 
marked "male," seems to possess the characters ascribed to the 
adult female of this species. 

43. Sphecotheres flaviventris flaviventris Gould 

Nos. 24345-51, 24353: males, August 15, 16, 17, and 18; 
female [immature male], August 16; Prince of Wales Island. 
No. 24352: male, September 9; Thursday Island. 

The immature (marked "female") is just passing into the 
plumage of the adult male. A moult involving all the feather 
tracts is well advanced in two instances ; in others, the renewal 
of the plumage has only barely begun. 

44. Artamus leucorhynchus leucopygialis Gould 

No. 24354 : male, July 25 ; Prince of Wales Island. ' 

45. Caleya megarhyncha griseata (Mathews) 

Nos. 24453-54 : male, September 7 ; female, September 9 ; 
Thursday Island. 

46. Microchelidon hirundinacea yorki (Mathews) 

Nos. 24381-82: males, August 12 and 17; Prince of Wales 
Island. 

Both individuals are possessed of the short tail supposed to 
characterize this race. This feature measures 26.5 and 
26.2 mm. in the specimens in hand. Mathews^^ gives 28.0 mm. 
as the tail length of the type of this subspecies and 32.0 mm. 
for hirundinacea. 

"Nov. Zool., XVIII, 1911, p. 387. 



'^.^ 



258 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ses. 

47. Cyrtostomus frenatus australis (Gould) 

Nos. 24374-79: males, July 25, 26, and 29; female, July 
25 ; Prince of Wales Island. 

The adult males of this series have the breast and abdomen 
light cadmium (Ridgway) rather than lemon yellow as has 
macgillivrayi. The bills measure 20 and 21 mm. An imma- 
ture male, collected on July 26, has metallic feathers appear- 
ing on the throat. The renewal of the body plumage of the 
remainder of the specimens is well advanced. 



48. Cyrtostomus frenatus flavigastra (Gould) 

No. 24380 : male, January 7 ; Guadalcanar Island. 

This example is an immature individual. A renewal of the 
flight feathers, as well as of the contour plumage, is in 
progress. 



49. Myzomela erythrocephala kempi Mathews 
Nos. 24320-21 : males, September 11 ; Thursday Island. 

50. Melomyza obscura munna (Mathews) 

Nos. 24317-19: females, July 26 and 27, and August 9; 
Prince of Wales Island. 

The measurements of this series (in millimeters) are: 
Culmen, 19.0, 18.5, 18.5; wing, 68.0, 70.5, 68.0; tail, 52.0, 
55.0, 54.0; tarsus, 18.5, 18.1, 18.0. For a female from Cape 
York, Mathews^^ gives the following measurements : Culmen, 
15.0; wing, 60.0; tail, 45.0; tarsus, 18.0. The type of apsleyi, 
a male, from Melville Island measures: Culmen, 18.0; wing, 
72.0; tail, 55 ; tarsus, 19.0. It would seem, therefore, that the 
birds from Prince of Wales Island approach more nearly in 
size those from Melville Island than they do those from the 
adjacent mainland. 

The feather replacement of the specimen taken on August 9 
is nearly complete, and it is well under way in the other 
individuals. 

"B. Austr., XI, 1923-24, p. 331. 



Vol. XVIII] DAVIDSON— BIRDS FROM TORRES STRAIT ISLANDS 259 

51. Dorothina lewinii ivi (Mathews) 

Nos. 24439-41 : males, August 10 and 18; female, August 
12; Prince of Wales Island. 

52. Neophilemon orientalis yorki (Mathews) 

Nos. 24323-28 : males, July 24, 26, and 27 ; females, July 
20 and August 1 ; Prince of Wales Island. 

The collector has indicated that in two females the irides 
were "blood-red," and in one male that they were "gray." 

53. Mimeta sagittata subaffinis (Mathews) 

Nos. 24393-95 : male, July 26; females, August 10 and 13 ; 
Prince of Wales Island. 

The extent of the white on the rectrices of these examples 
varies considerably. The measurements yielded are : Culmen, 
30.0, 30.0, 31.5; wing, 145.0, 142.0, 144.0; tail, 107.0, 104.0. 
103.0; tarsus, 25.0, 22.5, 24.5. 

54. Neomimeta flavocincta kingi (Mathews) 

Nos. 24396-97: male and female, September 10; Thursday 
Island. 

The contour plumage of both specimens is fresh, but the 
replacement of flight feathers has only commenced. 

55. Acridotheres tristis tristis (Linnaeus) 
No. 24402 : male, December 7 ; Guadalcanar Island. 

56. Lamprocorax cantoroides cantoroides (Gray) 

No. 24443 : male, November 30 ; Guadalcanar Island. 
"Iris orange" (Kusche). 



260 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4ih Ser. 

57. Metallopsar metallicus nitidus (Gray) 

No. 24444: immature male, November 30; Guadalcanar 
Island. 

A single individual, in its first contour feathers, appears to 
belong under this head. The pileum is dark brown slightly 
glossed with purple. The dark brown feathers of the cervix 
are margined with a paler shade, producing an ill-defined, 
striped collar. The throat is narrowly, and the remainder of 
the under surface broadly, streaked with blackish brown on a 
white or buffy white ground. The flanks are dark brown. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE / Cfcj ' 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES \^^ 



/> 



Fourth Series x^^ 

Vol. XVIII, No. 11, pp. 261-265 April 5, 1929 



XI 

THE GENERIC RELATIONSHIPS AND NOMENCLA- 
TURE OF THE CALIFORNIA SARDINE 

BY 

CARL L. HUBBS 
Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 

Confusion has long obtained and still prevails regarding the 
generic relationships and nomenclature of the California sar- 
dine. The earlier history involved is of no distinct pertinence 
to the present discussion, and will not now be recounted. We 
shall pick up the story with Regan's 1916 contribution.^ In 
that paper, Regan referred the California sardine, as well as 
the related or identical species of Chile, Japan, Australia and 
South Africa, to the European genus Sardlna. 

Shortly thereafter, Jordan," apparently on the advice of 
Scale, synonymized Sardina Antipa, 1906, with Sardinia Poey, 
1858. He did so because Scale had located, in the collections 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, a specimen thought 
to be the type of Poey's species, Sardinia pseudo-hispanica, 
and showing the generic characters assigned by Regan to 
Sardina. 

More recently, Thompson" pointed out a number of 
trenchant characters, more or less overlooked before, which 

^Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, 18, 1916, 11. 

2 Copeia, 56, 1918, 46 (see also. The Genera of Fishes, Stanford Univ. Publ., Univ. 

Sen, pt. 3, 1919, 299, and pt. 4, 1920, 512). 

= Fish and Game Comm. Calif., Fish Bull., No. 11, 1926, 8-17. 

April S, 1929 



262 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

serve to distinguish the sardines of California and Chile from 
those of Europe. The differences which he noted are as fol- 
lows : ( 1 ) in the American species there is usually a row of 
dark blotches behind the head, typically not apparent in the 
European; (2) the scales, as Regan had already observed, are 
arranged in a very different and in a regular order, each alter- 
nate row not being nearly overlapped by the one in front (the 
apparent number of rows, therefore, is equal to, instead of 
being about half as numerous as, the true number) ; (3) the 
ventral scutes are weaker and less keeled, and have less 
expanded bases; (4) the gillrakers on the lower limb, unlike 
those of the European sardine, become gradually and mark- 
edly shortened toward the angle of the arch, and they differ 
markedly in number at comparable sizes ; (5) the interopercle is 
more expanded and widely exposed behind the preopercle; and 
(6) the opercular ridges (and preopercular edge) are strongly 
oblique instead of being nearly vertical. All of these points I 
have completely verified. Other differences, pointed out by 
Thompson, involving the proportionate sizes of the parts or 
the position of the fins, appear less trenchant and need not be 
now considered. 

One point not specified by Thompson, nor by Regan, is that 
the gillrakers of the upper limb fold down over those of the 
lower limb near the angle, whereas they do not do so in the 
European species. This very character Regan* elsewhere used 
in the primary separation of the genera of one division of the 
family. 

Another difference in gillraker structure, equally trenchant, 
has just been discovered by Dr. Henry B. Bigelow, who has 
kindly allowed me permission to announce the interesting dis- 
covery. In the European sardines ( pilchardus and sardina) 
we find that the minute processes on the gillrakers are simple, 
slightly-bent, sharply pointed spines, about one-third as long 
as the width of the gillrakers and spaced about three in a dis- 
tance equal to this width. In the Californian species, and I 
find this equally true of the Chilean, Japanese and Australian 
fonns, these processes are complex, for they are composed of 
a flask-shaped base or stalk and a distinct, fimbriate, grooved, 
leaf-like terminal element. The processes are nearly half, 

■•Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, 19, 1917, 297-298. 



\-0L. XVIII] HUBBS— CALIFORNIA SARDINE 263 

sometimes more than half, as long as the gillrakers are wide, 
and are more crowded, as about five occur in a space equal to 
this width. The appearance of the gillrakers of Californian 
and European sardines, under a microscope, is strikingly 
unlike. The complex structure and greater length and crowd- 
ing of these gillraker processes, as well as the longer and more 
numerous gillrakers, and their overfolding in the Californian 
and related sardines, provide a straining apparatus much finer 
than that possessed by the European species. This may per- 
haps be correlated with their living in seas in which diatoms 
are relatively more abundant, and crustaceans scarcer, than 
in European waters. 

Even without recourse to the "splitting" tendencies of the 
day, it appears necessary to divorce generically the Californian 
and European sardines. Their differences, particularly in 
scale arrangement and in gillraker structure, are too funda- 
mental and too trenchant to permit of their continued alloca- 
tion in a single genus. The question of their immediate com- 
mon origin is even thrown open to some doubt. 

The generic separation of the Californian and European 
sardines reopens of course the problem of the proper generic 
name for each. It is necessary first to consider Poey's Sar- 
dinia pseudo-hispanica. The specimen so labelled in the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, and stated to be Poey's type in 
Jordan's note, I have fortunately been able to reexamine. It 
certainly is not the type, for it is decidedly smaller than the 
one specimen described by Poey. Furthermore, it is not even 
conspecific, for it has 51 vertebrae, including the hypural, 
whereas Poey gives 46 as the number for pseudo-hispanica. 
In other respects, for instance, the lower number of dorsal 
rays, this alleged type fails to meet Poey's description. The 
specimen is probably a mislabelled example of the California 
sardine; at least it belongs to the same genus, for it agrees 
with it in every one of the characters listed above as dis- 
tinguishing the Californian from the European species. A 
main reason for thinking that the specimen in question did not 
even come from Cuba is that there appears to be no other 
indication whatever of the occurrence of a sardine of either 
the Californian or the European type anywhere in the western 
Atlantic. 



264 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

It is clear from Poey's description that his Sardinia pseudo- 
hispanica is not closely related to either the Californian or 
European sardine. There is very good reason to believe that 
he had the common West Indian species, Sardinella anchozna 
Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1847, which in turn is thought by 
Regan"' to be identical with the European Sardinella aurita 
Cuvier & Valenciennes, the type-species of Sardinella. We 
find, for instance, that the number of vertebrae in anchovia is 
46, just as in Poey's type of pseiido-hispanica. Jordan and 
Evermann's® Clupanodon pseudohispaiiicus is apparently the 
same species as their Sardinella anchovia. 

It is therefore impossible to refer either the Californian or 
the European sardine to the genus Sardinia Poey, 1858. That 
name should, I think, be synonymized with Sardinella Cuvier 
& Valenciennes, 1847. 

The generic name Sardina Antipa, 1906, therefore becomes 
available for the European species, which with Regan we may 
call Sardina pilchardiis (Walbaum). No generic name, how- 
ever, appears to be available for the California sardine. I 
now supply this obvious need : 

Sardinops Hubbs, new genus 
Type-species, Maletta ccerulea Girard, 1854. 

Diagnosis. Clupeidse with the upper jaw not notably 
notched on the mid-line ; the gillrakers of the upper limb folded 
over those of the lower limb, which become markedly and 
progressively shortened toward the angle; carina of glosso- 
hyal not denticulate;^ no bilobed dermal flap on shoulder- 
girdle; opercle with strong and markedly oblique ridges; pre- 
opercular edge strongly sloping; interopercle widely exposed 
behind preopercle ; scale-rows regularly spaced, the lateral 
scales all with subequal exposed areas; radii on the scales 
nearly vertical, and paired on each side of median line; keels 
on ventral scutes weak; last two rays of dorsal and anal fins 
somewhat enlarged ; a row of dark spots typically developed 
on upper sides behind head. 

=Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, 19, 1917, 378. 
'Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 47, pt. 1, 1896, 423 and 429. 
'See Chabanaud, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., SI, 1926, 156-163. 



Vol. XVIII] HUBBS—CALIFORNIA SARDINE 265 

Examples of the pilchards or sardines of Chile, Japan and 
Australia all agree fully with this generic diagnosis, and are 
clearly congeneric with Sardinops ccsriilea (Girard), as prob- 
ably is also the South African species ocellata, which is known 
to share most of the characters listed above in common with 
ccendea. It is, in fact, not clear whether the species of these 
various regions are different from one another. Pending a 
much needed critical comparison of good material from all 
these localities, I merely list the species as usually recognized : 

1. Sardinops ccerulea (Girard), 1854. Californian. 

2. Sardinops sagax (Jenyns), 1842. Chilean. 

3. Sardinops melanosticta (Temminck & Schlegel), 1846. Japanese. 

4. Sardinops neopilchardtis (Steindachner), 1879. Australian. 

5. Sardinops ocellata (Pappe), 1853. South African. 

The distinctness of Sardinops cccrulea is particularly doubt- 
ful, especially since Thompson (I. c.) was unable to diflferen- 
tiate it specifically from 5. sagax. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 
Vol. XVIII, No. 12, pp. 267-383, plates 27-32, 7 text figures April 26, 1929 



XII 

THE FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA: 
A STUDY IN ANIMAL DISTRIBUTION 

BY 

HARRY S. SWARTH 
Curator, Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy 

Introduction 

During the summer of 1927 the Department of Orni- 
thology and Mammalogy of the California Academy of 
Sciences conducted three field trips to southeastern Ari- 
zona. The region visited comprised the lowlands surround- 
ing the Santa Rita Mountains, from 30 to 60 miles south- 
east of Tucson and a short distance north of the United 
States-Mexico boundary line. Personnel and itineraries 
of the three parties were as follows: H. S. Swarth and 
Joseph MaiUiard, with Raymond Gilmore as assistant, left 
San Francisco by automobile on May 6, arriving at Pata- 
gonia, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, on May 10. There 
we were joined by David M. Gorsuch, who remained with 
us throughout our stay, as a volunteer aid. With Patagonia 
as a center, collecting was carried on along the eastern base 
of the Santa Rita Mountains and some distance to the east- 
ward, from May 10 to June 2. Camp was then shifted to 
the western base of the Santa Ritas, near the Florida 
Ranger Station, at the mouth of Stone Cabin Canon, where 
we remained from June 2 to 21. Return to San Francisco 
was accomplished on June 25. 

April 26, 1929 



268 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

Joseph Mailliard, with Floyd C. Rankin as assistant, left 
San Francisco by automobile on August 23 and arrived at 
Patagonia on August 27. They left Patagonia on October 
13, reaching home on October 17. Miss Mary E. McLellan, 
travelling by train from San Francisco to Tucson, collected 
in Madera Canon, on the west side of the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains, September 3 to October 13. Mr. Sam Davidson was 
a volunteer aid in collecting mammals during part of that 
time. Specimens collected upon all three trips include 1127 
birds and 423 mammals. 

For necessary permits to carry on the collecting of the 
above mentioned material we were indebted to the courtesy 
of the Arizona Fish and Game Department, through Mr. 
D. E. Pettis, State Game Warden. We are also under great 
obligations to Mr. Marshall Ashburn for permission to 
camp upon and to hunt over the extensive Ashburn Ranch 
(formerly the Pennsylvania Ranch) in the Sonoita Valley. 

In pursuing the study of this collection I have found it 
necessary to call upon various institutions and individuals 
for the loan of specimens and for information, all of which 
was most generously granted. I am under obligations for 
such help to Dr. Alexander Wetmore, Assistant Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution, who authorized the loan to me 
of numerous specimens from the collection of the United 
States National Museum, including the type of Agelaius 
phceniceus sonoriensis; to Dr. Charles W. Richmond for ad- 
vice upon various subjects and for specific information re- 
garding the above mentioned type specimen; and to Mr. 
Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., for identification of the specimens of 
Myotis we collected. To Mr. Paul G. Redington, Chief of 
the Bureau of Biological Survey, I am indebted for the loan 
of specimens and for permission to use unpublished data 
from the files of the Survey bearing upon the distribution of 
certain species of Citellus and Ammospermophilus in Ari- 
zona; and to Major E. A. Goldman, of the same Bureau, I 
am indebted for the identification of specimens of Perogna- 
thus, Dipodomys, and Sigmodon, and for information re- 
garding other species. From the Museum of Vertebrate 
Zoology of the University of California, through Dr. J. 
Grinnell, Director, I received the loan of specimens when- 
ever they were desired, and facilities for working at the 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 269 

Museum whenever I chose to do so. From the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, through Mr. Outram Bangs, I was 
permitted to borrow a series of skins of Sayornis nigricans. 
From the Field Museum of Natural History, and from the 
Museum of Leland Stanford, Jr., University, I also received 
the loan of specimens. From Dr. L. B. Bishop I received 
the loan of specimens, including an important series of 
Agelaius, and data upon many Arizona-taken bird skins in 
his collection. The half-tones illustrating this report are 
all from photographs taken by Mr. Joseph Mailliard. Mrs. 
Mary McLellan Davidson, Assistant Curator of the De- 
partment of Ornithology in this institution, drew the distri- 
bution maps and rendered important help also in other 
ways. 

In the following accounts of the species of birds and mam- 
mals collected I have for the most part limited my remarks 
to statements bearing upon distribution. Facts pertaining 
to nesting or other activities have been omitted in most 
cases where the species concerned is more or less well known. 
They have been included in a few cases where it seemed 
worth while, and, also, data pertaining to migration and 
molt in birds have been briefly presented, in the belief that 
these facts were worth placing upon record. 

The Region Visited and the Problem Involved 

Our field work in southeastern Arizona was primarily for 
the purpose of studying the local distribution of animal life 
in the section visited, which comprised the lowlands sur- 
rounding the Santa Rita Mountains. Years ago the writer 
had collected birds extensively and mammals in lesser num- 
bers in that general region, and he had been struck by cer- 
tain outstanding features in the delimitation of species 
there. The opportunity now presented itself of acquiring 
further data on the subject, and field work was pushed ac- 
cordingly with the object of gathering specimens and infor- 
mation that would bear upon the distribution of lowland 
forms. The several mountain ranges of southern Arizona 
rise much like islands from a surrounding sea of plains. 
Their bird and mammal faunas are peculiar and are sharply 
differentiated from those of the surrounding lowlands, but 



270 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[ Pboc. 4th Sbb. 




Fig. A. Map of southern Arizona, showing region studied and localities 
visited by the California Academy of Sciences expeditions of 1927. Broken 
lines indicate approximate boundaries of Western Desert Area and Eastern 
Plains Area. 



they are quite well known and in any event have no bearing 
upon the peculiar differentiation of faunas that distin- 
guishes different lowland areas. So, while the Santa Rita 
Mountains, as a conspicuous boundary line between two 
lowland differentiation areas, formed a center for our field 
work, and were even, perforce (through lack of camping fa- 
cilities elsewhere), the site of our base camps for work on 
their west side, little attention was paid to the typically 
high zone species of birds and mammals, and only one or 
two brief trips were made to high altitudes. 

In southern Arizona, from the Colorado River on the 
west, east to the Santa Rita Mountains, the general appear- 
ance of the lowlands is everywhere about the same. Except 
for limited areas along the river bottoms it is desert of the 
most arid type, covered with a fairly dense growth of desert 
plants, a chaparral composed of many different shrubs, 
bushes and cactuses. This chaparral, as in desert regions 
elsewhere, is in the shape of isolated clumps of vegetation of 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



271 




Fig. B. Map showing distribution in southern Arizona oiLophortyx gambelii 
gainbelii and Callipepla squamata pallida. Symbols indicate published record 
stations; broken line indicates approximate northern and southeastern boun- 
daries of L. g. gambelii; solid line indicates approximate northern and western 
boundary of C. s. pallida. 



greater or less extent, separated by areas of bare ground. 
Cactus of several species are important plants, there being 
thickets of low-grovi^ing cholla almost everywhere, and in 
places scattered individuals or extensive "forests" of the tall 
and conspicuous giant cactus. The cactus plants are an im- 
portant factor in the economics of birds and mammals, so 
much so that the very existence of several bird species in a 
region is dependent upon the presence of the giant cactus. 
The few river beds are marked by rows of tall cottonwoods, 
with a lesser growth of willows and arrow- weed, the latter 
sometimes forming dense jungles of considerable extent. 
Mesquite, catclaw, ocotilla and the creosote bush are all 
present in abundance, and each occurs in almost pure stands 
over large areas, and there are many other species of trees 
and bushes that enter into the composition of the plant 
covering of this area. It is desert, but well covered with 
shrubby or tree-like vegetation. There is relatively little 
grass anywhere. 



272 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[ Pnoc. 4th Ser. 



..<:^s \ 












VV''ii,' 




'^■ 












%: 



t'. 



RN DESERT AREA Wl 



^\ 



1 .«v--"\ 






X^ 






,0 









^ 






n 










O Corvus cryptoleucns 
+ Colaptes c. mearnsi 



I'H, 



CiujUi 



Fig. C. Map showing distribution in southern Aiizona of Colaptes chrysoides 
mearnsi and Corvus cryptoleucns. S>Tnbols indicate published record stations; 
broken line indicates approximate northern and eastern boundaries of Colaptes 
c. mearnsi; solid line indicates approximate northern and western limits of 
Corims cryptoleucus. 



East of the Santa Rita Mountains is an entirely different 
sort of region, and the transition from one to the other is 
abrupt. Desert chaparral is there replaced by grassy plains. 
In some rocky foothill sections there may be found small 
tracts of "brush" or a few scattered cholla cactuses, and in 
places there are extensive stands of creosote, but for the 
most part there are illimitable stretches of rolling hills or 
gently sloping plains covered with grass and with almost 
nothing else. In some low-lying swales the shorter prairie 
("grama") grass is replaced by growths of "sacaton," a 
coarse bunch grass eight or ten feet high. In parts of the 
foothill country tree yuccas form the most conspicuous 
plant growth, and there are places on the grassy plains 
where small mesquites cover many miles, spaced so regu- 
larly and so uniformly of a size as to give the impression of 
a young peach orchard. 

In the western desert area the elevation of the lowlands 



Vol,. XVIII] SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



273 



rises from a little less than 100 feet above sea level on the 
lower Colorado River to nearly 4,000 feet at the vv^estern 
base of the Santa Rita Mountains. On the eastern grassy 
plains the average elevation is probably between 4,200 and 
5,000 feet. From the south-central portion of Arizona 
southward and westward and along the western border the 
summers are long and intensely hot, while the winters are 
mild. In the southeast the heat of summer is not so intense 
and the winters are somewhat colder. The annual mean 
temperature at Tucson is 68° Fahrenheit, at Fort Hua- 
chuca, 61°. 

Table op Temperatures in the Western Desert Region (at Tccson) and in the Eastern 

Plains Region (at Fort Huachuca) 





WINTER 


SPRING 


SUMMER 


FALL 




Mini- 
mum 


Maxi- 
mum 


Mean 


Mini- 
mum 


Maxi- 
mum 


Mean 


Mini- 
mum 


Maxi- 
mum 


Mean 


Mini- 
mum 


Maxi- 
mum 


Mean 


Tucson 


op 

10 



op 

90 

79 


op 

52 
4.5 


op 
22 
16 


op 

106 

97 


op 

66 
60 


op 

40 

37 


op 
112 
104 


op 

85 

77 


op 

21 
15 


op 

107 
99 


op 
70 


Fort Huachuca. . 


63 



There is considerable difference in the rainfall and hum- 
idity of the two regions. The valley of the Colorado in 
southwestern Arizona, with an annual rainfall of less than 
three inches, represents the extreme conditions as to aridity 
in the United States. Such conditions prevail along the 
southern boundary of Arizona eastward over most of Pima 
County, but in the eastern portion of that county, as the 
higher mountains are approached, the precipitation in- 
creases, the average annual rainfall at Tucson being 9.8 
inches. Farther east it becomes still higher, being 16.2 
inches at Fort Huachuca.* 

It is thus seen that the two sections of southern Arizona 
that are contrasted in the present study (the boundary line 
between indicated by the Santa Rita Mountains) present cer- 
tain slight differences of altitude, of temperature, and of 
rainfall, that are correlated with different types of vegeta- 



*The meteorologic data cited is taken from Climatology of the United States, by A. .1. Henry 
(U. S. Dept. Agric, Weather Bureau, Bull. 2, 1906), in which publication see also plate XXVl, 
showing normal annual precipitation in the United States. 



274 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[ Phoc. 4th Ser. 




o 

+ 



Otocoris a. adusta 
Myiarchus t. magister 



*' "■'-■ 



Fig. D. Map showing distribution in southern Arizona of Myiarchus lyran- 
nulus magister and Otocoris alpestris adusta. Symbols indicate published record 
stations ; broken line indicates approximate northern and eastern boundaries of 
Myiarchus t. magister; solid line indicates approximate boundaries of Otocoris 
a. adusta. 



tion and with well marked differences in the faunas of the 
two regions. To define the two as occupying different life 
zones, the western Lower Sonoran, the eastern Upper 
Sonoran, does not seem satisfactory. The western section 
is, of course, emphatically Lower Sonoran in every respect. 
The eastern section is slightly higher altitudinally, of slight- 
ly greater rainfall, and of slightly lower temperature, and 
may be conceded to present some Upper Sonoran aspects. 
At the same time, wherever the eastern grassy plains are 
invaded bj^ limited growths of shrubs, bushes, or trees, these 
are in most cases Lower Sonoran desert species, such as 
mesquite, cholla cactus, ocotilla, etc. In the mountains of 
this section the foothill regions immediately above the 
plains possess characteristic Upper Sonoran assemblages 
of plants and animals which do not descend any lower. In 
some parts of the plains there are limited numbers of charac- 
teristic Lower Sonoran desert birds (Scaled Quail, White- 



Vol. XVIIII SWARTH—FAU.^AL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



275 




o 






C^ c.. 



p. 



"^5 



5^ 






WEST 



DESERT AREaVU\ 






'X ''•■ 









^■ 



r 



^^ 












.* 



-.■^ 



tl 



X\«^£V 






'IT 



% 

^^^S^^^"^^^ 






.0 






W 



'S^' 



Citelhis t. neglectvis 
Citellus s. caneseens 









•ii, 



















^-EASTERN PLAINS AREA 




Fig. E. Map showing distribution in southern Arizona of Citellus terelicaudus 
neglectus and C. spilosoma caneseens. Symbols indicate record stations, mostly 
from hitherto unpublished data supplied by the United States Bureau of Bio- 
logical Survey. 



winged Dove, Phainopepla, Vermilion Flycatcher, and 
others) and mammals (species of Peromyscus, Onychomys, 
Lepus, and others) associated with such species as the 
Prong-horn, Prairie Dog, Horned Lark, and others, that 
occur elsewhere in Upper Sonoran and higher. 

The two sections, on the whole, do not seem to me to show 
differences of life zones in their contrasting characteristics, 
but to be comparable rather to the "faunal areas" described 
by Grinnell (1915, pp. 9-12) in his treatment of the distri- 
bution of birds in California. The extreme southeastern 
corner of Arizona appears to be definable as a faunal area 
distinct from the regions to the westward and to the north- 
ward. The western boundary of this faunal area is the sub- 
ject of the present study. Of the boundary line elsewhere 
I can speak with less assurance, but on the northwest the 
Santa Catalina Mountains may perhaps mark the dividing 
line. Of the extent of this faunal area eastward into or 
through southern New Mexico, and southward into Mexico 



276 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



I Proc. 4th Sbr. 




Fig. F. Map showing distribution in southern Arizona of Ammospermophilus 
harrisii. Symbols indicate record stations, mostly from hitherto unpublished 
data supplied by the United States Bureau of Biological Survey. 



I know nothing, but my impression is that the faunal area 
I am describing in the southeastern corner of Arizona, forms 
the northwestern portion of a much more extensive area 
over the regions mentioned. 

Aside from Mearns' (1907) divisions along the United 
States-Mexico boundary hue, there has been no previous 
attempt to indicate in Arizona any faunal divisions other 
than life zones, but it seems feasible now to outline, though 
in loose terms and with rather indefinite boundaries, at 
least five faunal areas into which the state can be divided. 
The Western Desert Area and the Eastern Plains Area, 
with which this paper is mainly concerned, are capable of 
fairly exact definition, and the boundary between these two 
can be closely indicated. To the northward of these areas 
is the Central Plateau Area, with the Mogollon Plateau as a 
center and extending diagonally nearly across the state, 
from the Grand Caiion at the northwest, to the White 
Mountains at the southeast. In extreme northeastern Ari- 
zona, centering about the Painted Desert and the Little 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



277 




Fig. G. Map showing approximate boundaries of habitat of Lepus alleni 
alleni in Arizona. Symbols indicate known stations of occurrence. 



Colorado River, is what may be designated as the North- 
eastern Desert Area. In the northwest, north of the Colo- 
rado River, is a region concerning which I have no first 
hand knowledge, but which presumably is faunally related 
to the Great Basin. 

The boundary line I have indicated between the Western 
Desert Area and the Eastern Plains Area does not accord 
with that described by Mearns (1907, pp. 73-74, pi. II) in 
his study of the mammals of the Mexican boundary. I can 
not appreciate any reason for the dividing line he draws 
across the desert midway between Tucson and Yuma, with 
the "Western Desert Tract" to the westward, the "Ele- 
vated Central Tract" to the eastward. Neither is there 
any general division of forms in mammals, birds or plants 
along that line, nor is there any marked change in altitude 
or climate. The same species and subspecies of mammals 
and birds, with few exceptions, and the same sorts of vege- 
tation range from the Colorado River eastward to the west 
base of the Santa Ritas. Grinnell (1914) has shown how 
potent a barrier the Colorado River is as regards the mam- 



278 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES I Proc. 4th Seb- 

mals of the deserts on either side. In the bottom lands the 
same species of birds and mammals occupy both sides of the 
stream, forming a characteristic river-bottom fauna; this 
fauna as a whole is distinctly that of the Arizona valleys to 
the eastward. My conception of the deserts of southwestern 
Arizona are as comprising one faunal area, extending from, 
and including, the bottom lands of the west bank of the 
Colorado River east to the western base of the Santa Rita 
Mountains. The northern boundary of this desert area 
may be very roughly indicated as extending from the vi- 
cinity of Fort Mohave on the Colorado River, in a south- 
easterly direction toward Phoenix and Tucson, following 
the bases of the mountains northeast of those cities. 

Faunal conditions at the western boundary of this area, 
along the Colorado River, are presented by Grinnell (1914) 
in fullest detail. It has been my aim in the present paper 
to give as exact a statement as circumstances permit of 
conditions at the eastern border of this faunal area. Con- 
siderably more collecting of small mammals is necessary, 
however, for the filling out of details. 

There are certain conspicuous diurnal mammals whose 
restriction to one or the other of the two areas here consid- 
ered is apparent to even rather casual observation. Fore- 
most of these is Lepus alleni, as detailed beyond. The re- 
striction of this species east and west within the wider habi- 
tat of Lepus calif ornicus is one of the most peculiar delimita- 
tions among North American animals. In former years the 
Prairie Dog {Cynomys ludovicianus arizonensis) was abun- 
dant in southeastern Arizona. Whether or not it has sur- 
vived persecution by governmental rodent control activities 
I do not know, but until at least 1907 there were large 
numbers on the plains between the Huachuca Mountains 
and Bisbee, and a small and singularly isolated colony some 
30 miles farther north, between Fort Huachuca and Fair- 
bank. It is a curious fact that the species did not extend 
farther north and west over apparently suitable ground. 
Whether or not it ever reached as far west as the Santa Rita 
Mountains I do not know; it probably never went beyond. 

The Prong-horn (Antilocapra americana) was fairly nu- 
merous in southeastern Arizona in years past. Upon my 
first visit to the region, in 1896, there were still herds of 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 279 

15 or 20 to be found in the San Pedro Valley, and single ani- 
mals or two or three together were seen by me near the 
Huachucas and near the east base of the Santa Ritas as late 
as 1902 and 1903. In 1907 I was told by cattlemen that 
none remained in that section. The species occurred also 
in places west of the Santa Ritas, and may still do so here 
and there, but I do not believe ever in such numbers as on 
the plains to the eastward. 

The small ground squirrels, Ammos'permophiliis and Citel- 
lus, afford good examples of delimitation of range, and re- 
placement of one species by another in the two regions. Of 
the smaller nocturnal mammals too little is known to com- 
pile any long or exact list of species confined to one section 
or the other. The pocket gopher (Thomomys) , prone as this 
genus is to become differentiated into local forms, apparent- 
ly is not to be divided in the two regions here considered. 
Over most of the country no gophers occur, being entirely 
absent from the hard, dry uplands, distribution taking 
place along riparian surroundings of the river beds. So 
division of races of Thomomys in this section is apparently 
entirely altitudinal. 

Among birds there are many striking replacements of 
species or subspecies in the two regions. Some of the most 
conspicuous are the Gambel Quail and Scaled Quail, and 
Western Meadowlark and Texas Meadowlark. Some less 
noticeable replacements are found in subspecies of the Red- 
winged Blackbird, Cliff Swallow, and Curve-billed Thrasher. 
It will be noted that although the Western Raven is com- 
mon in the Lower Sonoran zone of southeastern California 
and southwestern Arizona, it is rare and mostly an Upper 
Sonoran species in southeastern Arizona, being replaced on 
the Lower Sonoran plains of that region by the White- 
necked Raven. 

There is a longer list of bird species from southwestern 
Arizona than from the southeast, the varied vegetation of 
the southwest affording congenial surroundings to many 
that do not occur on the grassy plains. On the other hand, 
there are certain conspicuous bird species of the southeast- 
ern plains that are pretty closely confined to that region, 
such as the Swainson Hawk, Scorched Horned Lark, and 
White-necked Raven. There are in the southeast some 



280 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 1 Phoc. 4th Seb. 

Upper Sonoran species characteristic of the region that oc- 
casionally descend as far as the upper edge of the plains, 
and that form one of the several factors tending to give an 
Upper Sonoran aspect to the lowlands. Some of these are 
the Western Nighthawk, Western Yellow-wing Sparrow, 
and the Azure Bluebird. The last mentioned species was 
not encountered by us, but information recently received by 
me from Dr. L. B. Bishop, and from Mr. Edward C. Jacot, 
of Prescott, Arizona, justifies its inclusion in my statement. 

The accompanying lists of mammals and birds may serve 
to convey an idea of the two contrasting faunas. It must 
be borne in mind, though, that these are not hard and fast 
divisions and that in many cases species mainly confined to 
one of the two regions may extend more or less into the other 
territory. This is especially true of certain birds of the 
river bottoms, which, occurring in greatest abundance in 
southwestern Arizona, penetrate in lesser numbers along 
the more sparsely brush-margined streams of the southeast. 
This applies to such species as Song Sparrow, Pyrrhuloxia, 
Least Vireo, and Yellow Warbler. The same is true of 
certain species of the chaparral of the mesa. 

A striking feature of our findings along the dividing line 
between the two opposed faunal areas is the manner in 
which many species from either side extend short distances 
beyond the normal boundary. As a basis for our work the 
Santa Rita Mountains were a convenient line of demarca- 
tion, and forming as they do a colossal wall across the plains, 
they might easily be supposed to be a barrier in fact as they 
are in appearance. Again and again, though, we found 
western species ranging clear around the mountains in a 
ribbon-like habitat below the eastern foothills, and, con- 
versely, eastern species extending around to the western 
base of the range. The Allen Jack Rabbit, in small num- 
bers, occurs eastward as far as Sonoita and Patagonia, but 
at that point finds some insuperable obstacle to its farther 
extension over the open plains beyond, an obstacle that has 
no existence for the more widely spread Black-tailed Jack 
Rabbit. The Scaled Quail ranges westward around the 
mountainous wall, to be stopped below the western foothills 
by some impalpable barrier that absolutely forbids farther 
progress. So, at any point around the base of the moun- 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 281 

tains one may find in greater or less abundance an infiltra- 
tion of species that properly belong on the opposite side, 
with assurance that within a short distance east or west, as 
the case may be, those species will be found to disappear. 

The elucidation of this feature in the distribution of spe- 
cies along this boundary line entails in the case of many of 
the small nocturnal mammals more extensive trapping 
than we were able to accomplish. With such an animal as 
Dipodomys spectahilis the conspicuous mounds and burrows 
are sufficient to advertise its presence, but with many others 
it is not usually safe to generalize as to their status in either 
of the faunal areas upon the basis of a limited number of 
specimens from a few localities. With diurnal mammals 
and birds the facts are more readily apparent. 

Another interesting aspect of distribution in this part of 
Arizona is found in the manner of occurrence of certain mi- 
gratory birds. The McCown Longspur, Chestnut-collared 
Longspur, and Baird Sparrow are all common migrants on 
the eastern grass-lands, but they do not occur on the west- 
ern deserts. The Lark Bunting, however, which might be 
expected to adhere as closely to the open prairie, is far more 
abundant in western Arizona. 

There are certain bird species that have almost or en- 
tirely disappeared from Arizona in recent years, exact infor- 
mation regarding which would be of great value and inter- 
est in this connection. I refer to the Masked Bob-white 
(Colinus ridgwayi), the Rufous-winged Sparrow {Aimophila 
carpdlis), and the Botteri Sparrow (Peuccea hotterii). In all 
likelihood these three birds were mainly inhabitants of 
grasslands, and there seems little reason to doubt that their 
disappearance was due entirely to the overstocking of the 
ranges with cattle. When years of drought came every 
vestige of their natural cover was destroyed. This explana- 
tion has been advanced by Brown (1904) to account for 
the disappearance of the Bob-white, and it probably ex- 
plains also the nearly complete extinction locally of the two 
species of sparrows. The Cassin Sparrow, with similar 
habitat predilections, is migratory, if, in fact, it breeds in 
this region at all. So it survives in Arizona and is to be 
found, we may assume, in the same sort of surroundings 
that were formerly shared with its vanished relatives. 



282 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



(Pboc. 4th Seb. 



The delimitation of the ranges of species, east or west, as 
described in this paper, must be understood to apply to a 
relatively narrow area bordering the Arizona-Mexico boun- 
dary line. Thus, certain of the birds here ascribed to a 
western habitat are known to occur farther east into New 
Mexico and Texas, but this eastern extension of range 
occurs either north or south of the region here under dis- 
cussion. 



Western Desert Area 

Lophortyx g. gambelii 
Melopelia a. trudeaui 
Scardafella inca 

Asturina plagiata 
Micropallas w. whitneyi 
Dryobates s. cactophilus 
Colapies c. meamsi 
Myiarchus t. magister 

Corvus c. sinuatus 
Agelaius p. sonoriensis 
Sturnella neglecta 



Melospiza m. saltonis 
Cardinalis c. superbus 
Pyrrhuloxia s. sinuata 
Guiraca c. interfusa 
Piranga r. cooperi 
Petrochelidon I. lunifrons 
Vireo b. arizonse 
Vermivora luciae 
Dendroica a. sonwana 
Toxostoma c. pahneri 
Toxostoma bendirei 
Polioptila ni. melanura 



Birds 

Eastern Plains Area 
Colinus ridgwayi 
Callipepla s. pallida 



Buteo swainsoni 



Otocoris a. adnata 
Corvus cryptoleucus 
Agelaius p. nevadensis 
Sturnella m. hoopesi 
Ammodramus s. bimaculalus 
Peucasa botterii 
Aimophila carpalis 



Petrochelidon I. melanogastra 



Toxostoma c. curviroslre 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



283 



Western Desert Area 

My Otis c. pallidus 
Citellus t. neglectus 
Ammospermophilus harrisi 

Thomomys f. toltecus 
Perognathus amplus 
Perognathus h. baileyi 
Perognathus p. pricei 
Dipodomys s. spectdbilis 
Dipodomys m. merriami 

Onychomys t. torridus 
Reithrodontomys m. megalotis 
Peromyscus e. eremiais 
Peromyscus m. sonoriensis 

Sigmodon h. cienegx 
Neoloma a. albigula 
Lepus a. alleni 
Lepiis c. eremicus 
Sylvilagus a. arizonse 



Mammals 

Eastern Plains Area 

Myotis c. californicus 
Citellus s. canescens 

Cynomys I. arizonensis 
Thonwmys f. toltecus 

Perognathus p. pricei 

Dipodomys m. olivaceus 
Dipodomys o. ordii 
Onychomys t. torridus 
Reithrodontomys m. megalotis 
Peromyscus e. eremicus 
Peromyscus m. sonoriensis 
Peromyscus I. arizonx 
Sigmodon h. cienegx 
Neotoma a. albigula 

Lepus c. eremicus 
Sylvilagus a. arizonx 



April 26, 1929 



284 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



I Pboc. 4th Seb. 



Check-List of the Birds 



1. Chlidonias nigra surinamensia (Gmelin) 53. 

2. Netlion carolinense (Gmelin) 

3. Querquedula cyanoptera (Vieillot) 54. 

4. Dafila acuta tzitzihoa (Vieillot) 55. 

5. Ardea herodias tregamai Court 56. 

6. Butorides virescens anthonyi (Mearns) 57. 

7. Rallus virginianus Linnseus 58. 

8. PoTzana Carolina (Linnseus) 59. 

9. Fulica americana Gmelin 

10. Gallinago delicata (Ord) 60 

11. Pisobia minulilla (Vieillot) 61. 

12. Tringa solitaria Wilson 62. 

13. Aclitis macularia (Linnaeus) 63. 

14. Oxyechics vociferus tociferus (Linnseus) 64. 

15. Callipepla squamata pallida Brewster 

16. Lophortyx gambelii gambelii Gambel 65. 

17. Cyrtiinyx montezumx mearnsi Nelson 66. 

18. Columba fasciata fasciata Say 67. 

19. Zenaidura macroura marginella 68. 

(Woodhouse) 69. 

20. Melopelia asiatica trudeaui (Audubon) 70. 

21. Chxmepelia passerina pallesceris Baird 71. 

22. Scarda/ella in.ca (Lesson) 72. 

23. Catharies aura septentrionalis Wied 73. 

24. Accipiter celox (Wilson) 74. 

25. Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) 75. 

26. Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi (Aadubon) 76. 

27. Buteo borealis calurus Cassin 77. 

28. Buteo swainso7ii Bonaparte 78. 

29. Asturina plagiata Schlegel 79. 

30. Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus) 80. 

31. Cerchneis sparveria pkalsena (Lesson) 81. 

32. Polyborus cheriway (Jacquin) 82. 

33. Asio wilsonianus (Lesson) 83. 

34. Otus asio eineraceus (Ridgway) 84. 

35. Bubo virginianus pallescens Stone 85. 

36. Speotyto cunicularia hypogsea (Bona- 

parte) 86. 

37. Micropallas whitneyi whiineyi (J. G. 87. 

Cooper) 88. 

38. Geococcyx californianus (Lesson) 89. 

39. Coccyzus americanus occidentalis 

Ridgway 90. 

40. Ceryle alcyon caurina Grinnell 91. 

41. Dryobates scalaris cactophilus Oberholser 92. 

42. Dryobates arizonx arizonse (Hargitt) 93. 

43. Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis Baird 

44. Melanerpes formicivorus aculeatus 94. 

Mearns 95. 

45. Centurus uropygialis uropygialis Baird 

46. Colaptea cafer collaris Vigors 96. 

47. Colaptes chrysoides mearnsi Ridgway 97, 

48. Phalxnoptilus nuttallii nuttallii 98, 

(Audubon) 99, 

49. Chordeiles virginianus henryi Cassin 100, 

50. Chordeiles acutipennis texensis Lawrence 101, 

51. Aero7iautes saxatalis (Woodhouse) 102, 

52. Eugenes fulgent (Swainson) 103, 



Archilochus alexandri (Bourcier & Mul- 

sant) 
Calypte costse (Bourcier) 
Cynanthus latirostris Swainson 
Tyranrnis verticalis Say 
Tyrannus vociferans Swainson 
Myiarchus tyrannulus magister Ridgway 
Myiarchus cineraacens cinerascens 

(Lawrence) 
Myiarchus tuberculifer olivascens Ridgway 
Sayornis sayus sayus (Bonaparte) 
Sayornis nigricans nigricans (Swainson) 
Nutlalloniis mesoleucus (Lichtenstein) 
Myiochanes richardsonii richardsonii 

(Swainson) 
Empidonax difficilis difficilis Baird 
Empidonax iraillii brewsteri Oberholser 
EmpidoiMX hammondii (Xantus) 
Empidonax griseus Brewster 
Pyrocephalus rubimis mexicanus Sclater 
Camptostoma imberbe Sclater 
Otocoris alpestris adxista Dwight 
Otocoris alpestris occidentalis McCall 
Cyanocilta stelleri diademata (Bonaparte) 
Aphelocoma sieberi arizonx (Ridgway) 
Corvus corax sinuatus Wagler 
Corvus cryptoleucus Couch 
Molothrus ater obscurus (Gmelin) 
Tangavius xneus xneus (Wagler) 
Agelaius phoeniceus nevadensis Grinnell 
Sturnella magna hoopesi Stone 
Sturnella neglecta Audubon 
Icterus parisorum. Bonaparte 
Icterus cucullatus nelsoni Ridgway 
Icterus bullockii (Swainson) 
Euphagus cyanocephalus cyanocephalus 

(Wagler) 
Passer do7nesticus (Linnaeus) 
Carpodacus cassinii Baird 
Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (Say) 
Astragalinus psaliria hesperophilus 

Oberholser 
Spimis pinus pinus (Wilson) 
Calcarius ornatus (J. K. Townsend) 
Pooecetes gramineus confinis Baird 
Passerculus sandwichensis nevadensis 

Grinnell 
Ammodraimis bairdii (Audubon) 
Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatua 

Swainson 
Chondesles grammacus strigatus Swainson 
Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster) 
Zonotrichia gambelii (Nuttall) 
Spizella passerina arizonx Coues 
Spizella breweri Cassin 
Junco phxonotus palliatus Ridgway 
Amphispiza bilineata deserticola Ridgway 
Peucxa cassinii (Woodhouse) 



Vol. XVIII 1 SW ART H— FAUN AL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



285 



104. Aimophila ruficeps scottii (Sennett) 134. 

105. Melospiza melodia sallonis Grinnell 1-35. 

106. Melospiza melodia fallax (Baird) 136. 
Melospiza lincolnii lincolnii (Audubon) 137. 
Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus Baird 
Oberholseria chlorura (Audubon) 138. 
Cardinalis cardinalis superbus Ridgway 139. 
Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata (Bonaparte) 140. 
liedymeles melanocephalus nielanocepha- 141. 

lus (Swainson) 142. 

113. Guiraca cxrulea interfusa Dwight & 143. 

Grisoom 144. 

Passerina amcena (Say) 145. 

Spiza americana (Gmelin) 146. 

Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger 147. 

Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson) 148. 
Piranga hepatica oreophasma Oberholser 

Piranga rubra cooperi Ridgway 149. 

Pelrochelidon lunifrons melanogastra 150. 

(Swainson) 151. 

Hirundo erythrogasira Boddaert 152. 
Tachycinela thalassina lepida Mearns 

Stelgidopleryx serripennis (Audubon) 153. 

Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot 154. 

Phainopepla niiens (Swainson) 155. 
Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides 

Swainson 156. 

Vireosylva gilva swainsonii (Baird) 157. 

128. Lanivireo solitarius cassinii (Xantus) 158. 

129. Lanivireo solitarius plumbeus (Coues) 1.59. 
Vireo huttoni slephensi Brewster 160. 
Vireo belli arizonse Ridgway 161. 
Vermivora lucix (J. G. Cooper) 162. 
Vermivora ruficapilla gutturalis (Ridg- 163. 

way) 164. 



107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 



114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 
118. 
119. 
120. 

121. 
122. 
123. 
124. 
125. 
126. 

127. 



130 
131 
132 
133, 



Vermivora celata lutescens (Ridgway) 
Dendroica xstiva sonorana Brewster 
Dendroica xstiva brewsteri Grinnell 
Dendroica auduboni auduboni (J. K. 

Townsend) 
Dendroica nigrescens (J. K. Townsend) 
Dendroica lownsendi (J. K. Townsend) 
Oporornis tolmiei (J. K. Townsend) 
Geothlypis Irichas scirpicola Grinnell 
Geothlypis trichas occidentalis Brewster 
Icteria virens longicauda Lawrence 
Wilaonia pusilla pileolata (Pallas) 
Wilsonia pusilla chryseola Ridgway 
Setophaga picta Swainson 
Mimus polyglottos leucopterus (Vigors) 
Toxostoma curvirostre curvirostre (Swain- 
son) 
Toxostoma curvirostre palmeri (Coues) 
Toxostoma bendirei (Coues) 
Toxostoma crissale crissale Henry 
Heleodytes brunneicapillus couesi 

(Sharpe) 
Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletiis (Say) 
Catherpes mexicanus conspersus Ridgway 
Thryomanes bewickii eremophilus 

Oberholser 
Troglodytes aedon parkmanii Audubon 
Sitta carolinensis nelsoni Mearns 
Bxolophus wollweberi annexus (Cassin) 
Psaltriparus plumbeus (Baird) 
Auriparus flaviceps flaviceps (Sundevall) 
Regulus calendula calendula (Linnceus) 
PoUoptila cxrulea amcenissima Grinnell 
Polioptila m,elanura melanura Lawrence 
Hylocichla uslulata ustulata (Nuttall) 



General Accounts of the Birds 

1. Chlidonias nigra surinamensis (Gmelin) 

Two specimens (Nos. 29822-29823), birds of the year, 
were collected six miles north of Patagonia, September 8. 
There are few records of the occurrence of this species in 
Arizona, but it was collected bj^ Henshaw in August in 
Cochise County (Henshaw, 1875, p. 487; Saunders, 1896, 
p. 22) and is probably a fairly regular late summer migrant 
in the southeastern section of the state. 



2. Nettion carolinense (Gmelin) 

Small flocks were seen on cattle ''tanks" near Patagonia, 
on September 22, when an immature male (No. 29824) 
was collected, and on the 23rd, when a female (No. 29826) 
was shot. 



286 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pkoc. 4th Seb. 

3. Querquedula cyanoptera (Vieillot) 

A few birds, paired or singly, appeared on the several 
reservoirs and "tanks" on the Ashburn ranch, May 11 to 
20. We were told that prior to our arrival ducks of several 
species had been of fairly common occurrence there. Pre- 
sumably the few we saw were the last straggling migrants. 
A female Cinnamon Teal (No. 29825) was collected Sep- 
tember 23, and others were seen. 

4. Dafila acuta tzitzihoa (Vieillot) 

A flock of ten or twelve seen near Patagonia, September 
1, and one specimen (No. 29827) preserved. Ducks that 
may have been of the same species were seen later, in 
September and October. 

« 

5. Ardea herodias treganzai Court 

A single bird, possibly the same individual, was seen near 
Patagonia several times during the first two weeks of Sep- 
tember. 

6. Butorides virescens anthonyi (Mearns) 

An adult female (No. 29407) was taken on one of the small 
lakes on the Ashburn ranch, May 24, and a young female 
(No. 29828) at the same place, September 15. The species 
is known to breed in southern Arizona. 



7. Rallus virginianus Linnaeus 

Seen several times (May 11 to 20) on the lakes on the 
Ashburn ranch. There are very few records of the occur- 
rence of this species in Arizona (see Swarth, 1914, p. 17), 
and, while it has been found nesting in the White Moun- 
tains (Goldman, 1926, p. 163), there are no breeding records 
from any more southern locality. The birds that we saw 
may have been migrants. 

8. Porzana Carolina (Linnseus) 
One seen near Patagonia on September 13. 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 287 

9. Fulica americana Gmelin 

A pair of coots were settled during May on one of the 
lakes on the Ashburn ranch, presumably nesting or pre- 
paring to do so. 

10. Gallinago delicata (Ord) 
One seen near Patagonia on September 9. 

1 1 . Pisobia minutilla ( Vieillot) 

One specimen (No. 29833) was collected at a cattle 
"tank" near Patagonia on September 19. 

12. Tringa solitaria Wilson 

Four specimens collected, taken August 29, August 31, 
September 10, and September 11, respectively, all within a 
few miles of Patagonia (Nos. 29829-29832). It is not pos- 
sible to designate these with certainty as of either of the two 
subspecies into which this species has been divided, Tringa 
solitaria solitaria and T. s. cinnamomea. Two are males, two 
females. The two females possess the marking on the inner 
web of the outer primary that is supposed to distinguish 
cinnamomea, the two males do not. None of the four is 
markedly cinnamomeous in dorsal spotting, all being essen- 
tially like eastern birds in this regard. Wing measurements 
(in millimeters) are as follows: males, 127, 136; females, 
134, 138. Comparison with Ridgway's (1919, pp. 358, 363) 
measurements of the two subspecies will show how incon- 
clusive these figures are. I have elsewhere (Swarth, 1926, 
p. 70) given my reasons for doubting the existence of two 
distinguishable subspecies of Tringa solitaria. 

13. Actitis macularia (Linn sens) 

Several seen on the Ashburn ranch, usually at the muddy 
margin of the watering places of the cattle, at intervals 
until May 22. Two collected near Patagonia in the fall, on 
August 31 and September 20, respectively (Nos. 29834- 
29835). 



/fy^^ 



288 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ( Pboc. 4th Seb. 

14. Oxyechus vociferus vociferus (Linnseus) 

Relatively abundant in the Sonoita Valley. This is an 
arid region, of course, with little to attract even as adaptable 
a wader as the Killdeer, but wherever there was surface 
water some were to be found. Newly hatched young ap- 
peared during the second week in May. One specimen was 
collected near Patagonia on August 30 (No. 29836). 



15. Callipepla squamata pallida Brewster 

This, the common quail of the southeastern portion of 
Arizona, was surprisingly rare in the valley of the Sonoita. 
In previous years I had found it in fair abundance in the 
nearby valley of the San Pedro River, but along the So- 
noita, so I was told, quail never had been common. How- 
ever that may be, we saw but one pair of Scaled Quail dur- 
ing our stay in this region, this at a point some five miles 
north of Patagonia, on May 20. On our several trips be- 
tween Patagonia and Tucson, we invariably began to see a 
few as soon as we rounded the north end of the Santa Rita 
Mountains. On the mesa along the west base of the Santa 
Ritas they were abundant, slightly outnumbering the 
Gambel Quail in that section. The harsh, clanging, two- 
syllabled call-note of the Scaled Quail was a familiar sound, 
heard mostly in the early morning. During the first three 
weeks in June the birds were almost invariably in pairs, 
sometimes two, three, or even four pairs, being seen in 
company. A female shot June 4 had not yet begun to lay, 
but contained an egg about half-formed. On June 14 a 
young bird was seen, scuttling along with its parents, so 
tiny that it seemed likely that the rest of the brood was 
not yet hatched. 

The territory immediately below the west base of the 
Santa Rita Mountains is the westernmost limit of the Scaled 
Quail's range. A pair seen several miles north of Conti- 
nental (some ten miles west of the mountains) represents 
our farthest point of observation in that direction. I know 
of no records west of the Santa Cruz River. Farther north 
the species is known to range west to Oracle (some 60 miles 
exactly north of our Santa Rita station), which point it 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 289 

apparently reaches by way of the valley of the San Pedro. 
The section about Tucson, midway between the Santa Rita 
Mountains and Oracle, is inhabited (exclusively, I believe) 
by the Gambel Quail. It is noteworthy that the Scaled 
Quail skirts the apparent barrier of the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains to the western base of the range, where it is halted by 
some condition that is less obvious to the view, though 
more effective, than the mountain wall. The only apparent 
change in the valley beyond lies in its gentle descent to a 
lower altitude (from about 4000 feet at the Florida Ranger 
Station to 2400 feet at Tucson). Vegetation and other 
factors remain essentially the same. 

Four specimens of Scaled Quail were collected, three 
males and one female (Nos. 29408-29411). 

16. Lophortyx gambelii gambellii Gambel 

A pair that were seen on May 28 a few miles east of Pata- 
gonia were the only ones noted in that region in the early 
summer. In the fall several flocks were encountered there. 
In the western foothills of the Santa Ritas and on the mesa 
below, this was a common species. Newly hatched young 
were encountered on June 5, and others, somewhat larger, 
were often seen thereafter. Young that were unable to fly 
were frequently found several miles from the nearest water, 
in contradiction to the theory advanced by Grinnell (1927b, 
p. 528) regarding Lophortyx californica, that the young 
would perish unless hatched within a short distance of 
where water could be obtained. (In this connection see 
Vorhies, 1928.) 

This is a more western bird than the Scaled Quail, and 
finds in the Santa Rita region its eastern limit in southern 
Arizona, though its general range extends to western Texas. 
Our work was in a section that forms marginal territory, 
where the ranges of Scaled and Gambel quails overlap. The 
Gambel Quail, however, does not extend to the east side 
of the Santa Ritas in anything like the numbers of the 
Scaled Quail on the west side. There are a few scattered 
records of occurrence a little farther to the eastward, near 
Fort Huachuca and near Tombstone, but the species is 
rare anywhere east of the Santa Rita Mountains. 



290 CAUFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

Thirteen specimens were collected (Nos. 29413, 29414, 
29837-29845, 30247, 30248) : two adult males on the Santa 
Rita Range Reserve in June ; two females in Madera Canon, 
September 26; three males and six females at points near 
Patagonia, September 11 and October 6. The fall birds had 
all completed, or nearly completed, the molt. On one young 
female shot October 6 a few feathers of the juvenal plumage 
still persist. 

17. Cyrtonyx montezumae mearnsi Nelson 

On June 18 two (not a pair) were seen and an adult male 
(No. 29412) collected in Stone Cabin Caiion at an elevation 
of about 7000 feet. During the fall collecting, a young male 
(No. 30246) almost entirely in juvenal plumage, was col- 
lected in Madera Canon on September 17, one of a small 
flock. A single bird, believed to be of this species, was 
flushed from a corn field in the San Rafael Valley, Sep- 
tember 30, and a flock of about 20 in grass land near the 
railroad station of Sonoita on October 11. 

18. Columba fasciata fasciata Say 

During the last week in May a few Band-tailed Pigeons 
were seen in Monkey Spring Caiion, on the Ashburn ranch. 
About our camp at the Florida Ranger Station they were 
present in numbers. Acorns were ripening at that time in 
the clump of oaks that sheltered our camp and the pigeons 
were constantly in the trees, paying very Uttle attention to 
our presence. They seemed to come from a distance to feed 
here, apparently from high up in the mountains, where, 
presumably, they were nesting. Two specimens were col- 
lected, both adult males (Nos. 29415-29416). On September 
1 and 2, flocks were seen near Patagonia. In Madera Cafion 
small flocks were seen during the first week in October, the 
last on October 7. 

19. Zenaidura macroura marginalia (Woodhouse) 

A common species throughout southern Arizona, and 
found in fair numbers in the territory where we were work- 
ing. Nests with eggs were found near Patagonia the middle 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 291 

of June, several of them in small mesquite trees, six or eight 
feet from the ground. 

Mourning Doves were abundant about Patagonia at the 
end of August and early in September, and in lesser numbers 
at that season on the west side of the Santa Rita Mountains. 
Three specimens were collected in Madera Canon, a young 
male September 12, and adult male and female October 5 
(Nos. 30249-30251). 

20. Melopelia asiatica tnideaui (Audubon) 

In the Sonoita Valley, near Patagonia, there were some 
White-winged Doves when we arrived (May 10), and they 
increased in numbers daily. We were told that they first 
had been seen but a few days before we came. At the west 
base of the Santa Ritas they were numerous, and by the 
time we had moved to that side they were nesting. A nest 
with two eggs, incubation advanced, was found June 7. It 
was in a hackberry overhanging the edge of a wash, the 
nest placed on a flat crotch some ten or twelve feet above 
the floor of the gully. 

The White-winged Dove is not at all common nor of 
general distribution farther east in Arizona; west to the 
Colorado River it is everywhere in the lowlands. In pre- 
vious collecting in Cochise County (immediately east of 
the Patagonia region) I had found it nesting along the San 
Pedro River, though not nearly so abundantly as along the 
Sonoita; in the Huachuca Mountains (some 25 miles east 
of the Sonoita) I never found it nesting at all. 

At the end of August there were a few of these doves 
about Patagonia, and they were seen occasionally nearly 
throughout September. The last was noted on September 
23. Eleven specimens were collected (Nos. 29417-29425, 
29846, 29847), all from the vicinity of Patagonia, nine adults 
in May, a molting adult September 22, and a young bird 
August 30. 

21. Chaemepelia passerina pallescens Baird 

First seen on the Ashburn Ranch May 17, and at inter- 
vals during the next two weeks. At the west base of the 
Santa Ritas the species was present in small numbers. 



292 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Ser. 

Four specimens were collected, adult male and female, on 
the Ashburn Ranch, May 29 (Nos. 29426-29427), another 
pair (Nos. 29848-29849) two miles south of Patagonia on 
September 13. 

22. Scardafella inca (Lesson) 

One seen in a garden in Patagonia on May 28, and others 
noted in the vicinity of the town in August and September, 
the last on September 23. Two collected, on August 30 
and September 11, respectively (Nos. 29850-29851). The 
later taken individual was still in the midst of the annual 
molt. 

23. Cathartes aura septentrionalis Wied 

Abundant throughout the region. It was striking to see 
the way in which the Turkey Buzzard has adapted itself to 
a new source of food. Many small mammals are killed by 
autos on the highways over the desert, among which jack 
rabbits are the most conspicuous. The Buzzards haunt the 
roads and descend upon the crushed rabbits a very short 
time after they are killed. It was noteworthy with what 
agility these ungainly birds would avoid an approaching 
machine, waiting until it had come within few yards before 
swinging out to one side, out of the way, then back to the 
carcass without delay. As many as eight or nine Turkey 
Buzzards were seen around one dead rabbit, and the car- 
casses were, of course, usually disposed of within a few 
hours. 

24. Accipiter velox (Wilson) 

An immature male was collected near Patagonia on Sep- 
tember 28 (No. 29854). It is a common migrant in the 
region. 

25. Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) 

Frequently observed, on both sides of the Santa Ritas. 
A pair remained about our camp at the Florida Ranger 
Station so persistently that it seemed likely that they had a 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 293 

nest nearby. Two specimens were collected (Nos. 29428- 
29429), a male near Patagonia, June 1, in immature plum- 
age, very worn and faded, and an adult female, near the 
Florida Ranger Station, June 6. 



26. Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi (Audubon) 

Several seen in a flight of Swainson Hawks near Sonoita, 
on September 16. 



27. Buteo borealis calurus Cassin 

Of fairly common occurrence throughout the lowlands of 
Arizona, and seen by us at frequent intervals throughout 
our stay. Two specimens were collected (Nos. 29430- 
29431), both in immature plumage and apparently non- 
breeding birds, taken on May 17 and June 14, respectively. 



28. Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte 

A summer visitant to Arizona, where it is most numerous 
on the open plains. We first met with the species on May 
23, when a single bird was taken in San Rafael Valley; 
May 25 a number were observed at the same place. On the 
west side of the Santa Ritas the species was not abundant, 
but several pairs were scattered over the mesa. A nest 
found on the Santa Rita Range Reserve contained on June 
11a single egg, on June 16 a newly hatched young bird. It 
was in a palo verde, the tallest tree in the vicinity, about 20 
feet from the ground. The nest was a bulky structure, 
about four feet across, built entirely of rather large sticks 
and twigs. With the young bird we found the remains of a 
very small cottontail rabbit and a kangaroo rat. Both par- 
ent birds remained in the vicinity when the nest was visited, 
circling about and screaming, but not venturing near. 

A large flight of migrating Swainson Hawks was seen on 
the plains near Sonoita on September 16, two birds at about 
the same place on September 23. Three specimens were 
collected (Nos. 29432, 29433, 29855) : a male in immature 
plumage, badly worn, on May 23, an adult female, not yet 



294 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES (Pboc. 4th Seb. 

laying, on June 2, and an immature female, September 16. 
The first contained in its stomach the remains of a lizard, 
the second, mammal fur. 



29. Asturina plagiata Schlegel 

Seen in the vicinity of Patagonia several times during 
September. Two specimens collected on September 24, an 
adult male and an immature male (Nos, 29852-29853). The 
adult is just finishing the molt from the immature plumage. 



30. Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus) 

Seen occasionally, most often on the west side of the 
Santa Ritas. One was observed eating a dead rabbit by the 
roadside, an animal that had not been killed by the eagle 
itself. 

31. Cerchneis sparveria phalsena (Lesson) 

A fairly common species in this region during the summer. 
About Patagonia pairs were spaced along the Sonoita and 
in the bottoms of the canons descending from the Santa 
Ritas and the Patagonia Mountains, where rows of syca- 
mores and other large trees afforded nest sites and look-out 
posts. West of the Santa Ritas Sparrow Hawks occur 
mostly where giant cactus supplies the needed nest cavities. 

A nest with four eggs was found in Temporal Canon at 
about 4500 feet elevation. May 28, in a natural cavity in a 
sycamore, about 11 feet from the ground. This canon is 
broad and open, with barren slopes on either side, affording 
the open country that the Sparrow Hawk seems to require. 

Two adult males were collected near Patagonia, on May 
18 and 20, respectively, and a female below the mouth of 
Madera Canon, October 5 (Nos. 29434-29435, 30252). 

32. Poly boms cheriway (Jacquin) 

Seen on several occasions in the Santa Cruz Valley be- 
tween Tucson and the Santa Rita Mountains. One was ob- 
served standing by a pool of water at the roadside some 20 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 295 

miles south of Tucson, on June 2. On June 10, on the Santa 
Rita Range Reserve, I shot at one that was feeding with 
some Turkey Buzzards on a dead jack rabbit, but it flew 
away, though mortally wounded. Two days later I found 
the dead bird and saved the complete skeleton. This indi- 
vidual was in excessively worn and faded plumage, and be- 
ginning the annual molt. Other Caracaras were seen in 
the same general region. 



33. Asio wilsonianus (Lesson) 

A young bird (No. 29436), recently out of the nest, was 
collected at about 5000 feet altitude in Stone Cabin Caiion, 
Santa Rita Mountains. It was accompanied by one of the 
parent birds. This young bird was, of course, hatched in 
the immediate vicinity of the place where it was found, and 
it constitutes, I believe, the first breeding record for the 
species in Arizona. I do not know that it has ever been 
reported as nesting anywhere so far south. 



34. Otus asio cineraceus (Ridgway) 

At our camp near the mouth of Stone Cabin Canon, 
Screech Owls were heard calling occasionally at dusk. In 
the late evening of June 1 3 an entire family was discovered 
in trees near the camp, and an adult male and a male and 
female in juvenal plumage were collected (Nos. 29439- 
29441). 

35. Bubo virginianus pallescens Stone 

Seen on several occasions in the vicinity of Patagonia, 
and less often on the Santa Rita Range Reserve. So far 
from being helpless in day time, the several Horned Owls 
that were observed at the latter place were as wary as any 
hawk, taking flight in the blazing sunshine when the ob- 
server was still out of gun-shot range, and flying to such a 
distance as successfully to avoid pursuit. 

Two adult females (Nos. 29437-29438) were collected near 
Patagonia in May, on the 14th and 27th, respectively. The 
stomach of the first contained remains of a wood rat 



296 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Ser. 

(Neotoma) and a large snake. These two birds are darker 
colored than the average example of pallescens, being closely 
similar to certain specimens of pacificus from the San Joa- 
quin Valley, California. In one the feet are immaculate 
and nearly white, in the other they are heavily spotted on a 
tawny ground. A third specimen (No. 29856), collected 
near Patagonia on September 30, is paler colored than the 
others, and much nearer the mode of pallescens. 

36. Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea (Bonaparte) 

Seen but once, a single bird in the San Rafael Valley, 
May 23. It is hard to understand the absence of this spe- 
cies from the region. In previous visits to southern Ari- 
zona I had found Burrowing Owls in prairie dog towns, but 
rarely elsewhere, and had assumed that their absence was 
due to the lack of burrowing animals that could supply 
them with homes, though it would seem that the large kan- 
garoo rat of the region and the several species of small 
ground squirrels might meet the need. To emphasize the 
problem, I had brought to my notice conditions in Imperial 
Valley, California, through which we passed on our way 
home. Here, in the cultivated sections, redeemed from the 
desert in recent years. Burrowing Owls are as abundant as I 
have seen them anywhere, as they certainly w^ere not under 
original desert conditions. In Imperial Valley there are 
no mammals better suited to dig holes for the owls than the 
species found in Arizona, where the birds are so nearly 
absent, so it would seem that there must be other reasons 
explaining their presence or absence in any section. 

37. Micropallas whitneyi whitneyi (J. G. Cooper) 

There are no giant cactuses in the Patagonia region, and 
but very few near our camp-site on the west side of the 
Santa Ritas, and the Elf Owl is so closely associated with 
this plant during the breeding season that it is useless 
searching for it elsewhere. A scanty assemblage of cactuses, 
not over ten or twelve plants all told, is scattered over the 
mesa east of Continental, and these were examined on 
June 15. One family of Elf Owls was collected, an adult 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 297 

female with two newly hatched young (Nos. 29442-29444), 
and a second adult was seen in another cactus, too high 
up in the plant for the ladder to reach. The species is 
almost unknown east of the Santa Ritas. 



38. Geococcyx califomianus (Lesson) 

Seen a number of times in the vicinity of Patagonia, but 
not nearly so numerous as in the chaparral about Tucson. 
Abundant on the Santa Rita Range Reserve, as elsewhere 
in this valley, and usually in pairs at the time of our visit 
in June. An adult male was collected near Patagonia on 
May 25, an immature male in Madera Canon, September 
10, and an adult female below Madera Canon, October 8 
(Nos. 29445, 30253, 30254). 



39. Coccyzus americanus occidentalis Ridgway 

First observed near Patagonia, May 25. Others were 
seen and heard several times during the next few days, and 
it seemed evident that they were just arriving from the 
south. Several were seen near the Florida Ranger Station 
during June, and two were collected there, an adult male 
and female, taken June 14 and 16, respectively (Nos. 29446- 
29447). The female contained in its stomach two green 
caterpillars and a lizard 100 millimeters long, the latter 
swallowed entire and rolled into a coil. This seems a 
startling diet for a tree-dwelling cuckoo, but there is at 
least one other instance reported, also from the vicinity of 
Tucson, of a lizard being taken by one of these birds 
(Visher, 1910, p. 282). During the last week in August 
cuckoos were seen in fair abundance about Patagonia, and 
in lesser numbers somewhat later, the last on September 11. 
Four specimens were taken at that time (Nos. 29857-29860). 

The validity of the subspecies occidentalis has been ques- 
tioned by W. E. Clyde Todd (1922, p. 213), and, it seems to 
me, on good grounds. Between the eastern and western 
races of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo there is a slight average 
difference in size, the western bird being the larger and with 
a somewhat heavier bill. There is a rather wide range of 
variation in specimens from any one locality, as shown in 



298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

the accompanying table, and the largest eastern birds do 
not fall far short of the maximum measurements of western 
specimens (see Ridgway, 1916, pp. 12-19). Birds from the 
Pacific coast are the largest, those from central Arizona near 
the type locality of occidentalis (the Santa Rita Mountains) 
are intermediate in size. The subspecies would have a 
better claim to recognition if restricted to the Pacific coast, 
but I am unwilling to suggest the changes in nomenclature 
that such a course would necessitate. I retain the name 
occidentalis here in deference to the opinions of others, but 
the subspecies is certainly as slightly differentiated as any 
in our Check-list, and I feel that no violence to the facts 
would result from suppression of the name. 

40. Ceryle alcyon caurina Grinnell 

Seen occasionally during September, along the Sonoita 
below Patagonia and about the small lakes on the Ashburn 
ranch, where two specimens were collected on September 
20 (Nos. 29861-29862). One was taken in Madera Canon, 
far from any fish-inhabited water, on September 14 (No. 
30255). 

41. Dryobates scalaris cactophilus Oberholser 

In southeastern Arizona, east of the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains, the vast areas of prairie land are for the most part 
unsuitable to this species. Wherever even a scanty growth 
of chaparral has found a foothold, though, the Cactus 
Woodpecker is pretty sure to occur, for it does not require 
large trees. Along the streams and washes in this same 
area, as elsewhere, it does frequent the sycamores and other 
larger growths, but these do not form the preferred habitat. 
In the lowlands west of the Santa Rita Mountains this 
woodpecker is in the surroundings that suit it best. It does 
not frequent the giant cactus (I do not believe that there is a 
known instance of its nesting in one), but stays nearer the 
ground, in choUa cactus, creosote bush, catclaw or other 
low-growing vegetation. 

Seventeen specimens were taken: from Patagonia, five 
in May and four in September; from the Santa Rita Range 



Vol. XVIII) SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



299 






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April 26, 1929 



300 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th Sek. 

Reserve, three adults and two juveniles (June 6 and 7) ; from 
lower Madera Canon, three collected in September and 
October (Nos. 29448-29457, 29863-29866, 30256-30258). 



42. Dryobates arizonae arizonae (Hargitt) 

An Upper Sonoran zone species that barely descends 
into the region where we did most of our work in the spring. 
In the Patagonia section, a few individuals follow the scat- 
tered oaks down to the edge of the valley, where an adult 
male was collected May 19. A few were seen, also in oak 
trees, near the western base of the Santa Ritas, where an 
adult male was taken on June 7, and a full-grown ju venal 
on June 18. 

Specimens were collected at Fort Crittenden, September 
19, at a point five miles west of Patagonia, October 7, and 
three in lower Madera Canon, September 6 and 23, and 
October 3. Eight specimens in all were taken (Nos. 29458- 
29460, 29867, 29868, 30259-30261). Male birds shot Sep- 
tember 6 and 19 still retain traces of the juvenal head 
marking. 



43. Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis Baird 

A winter visitant to the region. Specimens were taken 
at Patagonia, October 6, and at Sonoita, October 11 (Nos. 
29869-29870). 



44. Melanerpes formicivorus aculeatus Mearns 

Breeding in small numbers in the Patagonia region, 
mostly in the sycamores and other trees along the Sonoita. 
We collected five specimens there on dates ranging from 
May 14 to June 1, all adults. More abundant in the fall, 
when eight were collected near Patagonia and Fort Critten- 
den on dates ranging from September 9 to October 12. Five 
were taken in Madera Canon between September 3 and 24. 
Eighteen specimens in all were preserved (Nos. 29461-29465, 
29871-29878, 30262-30266). 



Vol. XVIII J SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 301 

45. Centurus uropygialis uropygialis Baird 

Very few seen in the spring, either about Patagonia or on 
the west side of the mountains, neither place seeming to 
afford needed conditions. They are most abundant in 
groves of giant cactus and in mesquite-grown river bottoms. 
We collected one specimen, an adult male, near Patagonia 
on May 15 (No. 29466). More abundant about Patagonia 
in the fall, when eight specimens were taken, between 
August 29 and October 8 (Nos. 29879-29886). Birds col- 
lected during the first week in September were still in the 
molt. 



46. Colaptes cafer collaris Vigors 

There were a few Red-shafted Flickers in the valley near 
Patagonia, and more in the wooded foothills of the nearby 
Santa Rita Mountains. A full grown juvenile (No. 29468) 
was collected three miles southwest of Patagonia, June 1. 
On the west side of the Santa Ritas an adult male (No. 
29469) was taken near the head of Stone Cabin Canon 
(7000 feet altitude) on June 18. The latter is the most 
heavily marked bird, as regards size of black spots on the 
under parts, and the black crescent on the breast, that I 
have seen from any region. Common in Madera Cafion 
(5200 feet altitude) in the fall. 

47. Colaptes chrysoides meamsi Ridgway 

The Gilded Flicker is so closely confined to the giant cac- 
tus, at least during the nesting season, that it is little more 
than a chance to find one elsewhere. At Patagonia, which 
is beyond the eastern limit of the giant cactus in this sec- 
tion, perhaps six or seven of the Flickers were seen during 
the month we spent there. During several previous years, 
when I collected assiduously and for long periods of time 
in the region immediately to the eastward, in Cochise 
County, Arizona, not a single Gilded Flicker was observed 
there. The eastern foothills of the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains may thus be taken as the eastern limit of the range of 
the Gilded Flicker in southern Arizona. We saw the species 
occasionally on the Santa Rita Range Reserve, west of the 



302 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY' OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Seb. 

mountains, but not often, for there were but few giant cac- 
tuses in the region where we worked. 

Two specimens, adult male and female, were collected 
on the Ashburn Ranch, north of Patagonia. The female 
(No. 29470, May 30) is a normal example of the species. 
The male (No. 29467, May 17) has the usual yellow color 
of the wings and tail of chrysoides replaced by red, as in 
cafer. In fact, the only feature by which the specimen can 
be recognized as an example of chrysoides is its small size. 
The bird is similar to specimens described and discussed by 
Grinnell (1914, p. 136), and its appearance doubtless is to 
be explained in the same way, namely, as the result of a 
"proneness to replacement of yellow by red, without there 
having been any interbreeding with another species" 
(Grinnell, loc. cit). It should be pointed out, though, that, 
in the specimen in hand, the red is decidedly deeper than in 
Grinnell's Colorado River specimens, being of exactly the 
shade seen in cafer] and that the dark markings generally 
(such as the dusky bars on the upper surface) are decidedly 
darker and more extensive than is usual in chrysoides, being 
again just as in cafer. Were it a hybrid between cafer and 
chrysoides, though, it seems likely that the size of the bird 
would have been greater than it is. Its measurements are 
those of the smaller Colaptes chrysoides mearnsi. 

48. Phalsenoptilus nuttallii nuttallii (Audubon) 

Poor-wills were heard every evening at our camp on the 
Ashburn Ranch, near Patagonia. One specimen, an adult 
male (No. 29491), that was collected there on May 27, re- 
sponded to a whistled imitation of its call note by approach- 
ing instantly and alighting on a fence post within a few 
yards of the imitator. They were seen and heard with fair 
frequency about our camp near the Florida Ranger Station 
during June. 

49. Chordeiles virginianus henryi Cassin 

A Nighthawk was flushed by Gilmore from the limb of an 
oak tree, near old Fort Crittenden, May 30. No Texas 
Nighthawks were seen by us in this region, nor (in my 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 303 

experience) does texensis ordinarily roost in trees. The 
Western Nighthav^^k does so habitually, and I have no 
doubt that the bird seen w^as of this species. 

50. Chordeiles acutipennis texensis Lawrence 

Extremely abundant in the lowlands west of the Santa 
Rita Mountains but not seen by us east of that point. 
Frequently abroad during the day in the hottest sunshine. 
A set of two eggs (much incubated) was taken on June 4. 
The sitting bird was exposed to the full glare of the sun, 
the eggs being placed on a gravelly ridge, at the base of a 
little mesquite, some six feet high, which gave no sheltering 
shade. Three skins of this species were preserved, an adult 
female (parent of the above described set of eggs), an adult 
female taken on June 1 1 , and a downy nestling taken June 
13 (Nos. 29492-29494). 

51. Aeronautes saxatalis (Woodhouse) 

Seen in both the eastern and western foothills of the Santa 
Ritas, and on many occasions. One specimen was collected, 
an adult male, June 2 (No. 29471). For the use of the name 
saxatalis see the discussion of this case by Oberholser (1920, 
p. 294), with whose conclusions I am in accord. No one 
who has seen the White-throated Swift in life can doubt 
the application of Woodhouse's description. 

52. Eugenes fulgens (Swainson) 

A Transition zone species within whose confines we barely 
entered. An adult male (No. 29472) was collected in Stone 
Cabin Canon at about 7000 feet altitude, June 18, and one 
or two female hummingbirds that may have been of this 
species were seen near our camp at the mouth of the canon. 

53. Archilochus alexandri (Bourcier & Mulsant) 

This was the only species of hummingbird definitely iden- 
tified by us in the vicinity of Patagonia. Adult males were 
seen not uncommonly, and a great many more females, 



304 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th Seb. 

usually along streams or washes, about sycamores and 
willows. An adult female was collected on the Ashburn 
Ranch, May 12 (No. 29473), and a young bird, full grown, 
in Madera Canon, September 13 (No. 30268). 



54. Calypte costae (Bourcier) 

Definitely identified only in the vicinity of our camp near 
the Florida Ranger Station. A young bird and the accom- 
panying female parent were collected on June 16 (Nos. 
29474-29475). No adult males were seen. 



55. C3manthus latirostris Swainson 

An adult female was collected in Madera Caiion, Septem- 
ber 13 (No. 30267). This, I believe, is the latest fall date 
upon which the species has been taken in Arizona. 



56. Tyrannus verticalis Say 

A common species in the lowlands of Arizona. Seen in 
some numbers on both sides of the Santa Rita Mountains, 
from the lowest foothills out into the valleys. Kingbirds 
of both species were numerous about Patagonia early in 
September and remained in diminishing numbers until 
October 11. The difficulty of distinguishing between 
veriicalis and vociferans in life, especially in their molting 
condition at that time, prevented the securing of definite 
dates of departure of each species. An adult verticalis (No. 
29889) was taken on September 7, then in the midst of the 
annual molt. 



57. Tyrannus vociferans Swainson 

Very abundant in the Sonoita Valley, and in scarcely 
lesser numbers in the western foothills of the Santa Ritas. 
An extremely noisy species at the beginning of the nesting 
period, but restricting its worst clamor to the early morning 
hours. At our camp on the Ashburn Ranch I was awak- 
ened every morning by an outrageous chorus of these birds, 
beginning shortly before the first gray appearance of dawn 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 305 

and continuing until nearly sunrise, when the noise ceased 
rather abruptly. Occasionally some restless individual 
would awaken an hour or two before dawn and begin his 
shrill outpourings, but meeting with no response, would 
subside for the time being. By the second week in June 
the kingbirds had quieted down and called but little. 

Adults collected near Patagonia during the first two 
weeks in September are molting, with the old remiges and 
rectrices partly replaced by half-gTown new feathers. Two 
young birds (September 5 and 6) are mostly in juvenal 
plumage. In one the juvenal rectrices are being replaced 
by new feathers. In the young bird the tail feathers are 
shorter than in the later plumages, and are narrowly tipped 
with rusty brown. In the succeeding feathers the ends are 
broadly margined with yellowish gray. The specimens at 
hand do not show conclusively that the juvenal remiges also 
are renewed at this time but it seems likely that they are. 
The latest taken fall specimens were collected on October 2 
at Patagonia, on October 6 in Madera Canon. 

Fifteen specimens in all were collected (Nos. 29476-29482, 
29887, 29888, 29890-29892, 30269-30271), ten adults and 
two juveniles near Patagonia, three adults in Madera 
Canon. 



58. Myiarchus tyrannulus magister Ridgway 

Seen in small numbers in the eastern foothills of the Santa 
Rita Mountains. The first arrival appeared on the evening 
of May 15, and others were observed during the next few 
days. A mated pair was collected in Temporal Canon at 
4800 feet altitude. From the region east of the Sonoita 
Valley there are no records of the occurrence of this bird, 
though a great deal of careful ornithological work has been 
done there. In the Santa Cruz Valley, west of the Santa 
Ritas, the species is known to be fairly common, but it 
nests almost entirely in giant cactus, and there being none 
of these plants near our camp on the west side of the moun- 
tains, we saw no Arizona Crested Flycatchers there. Three 
specimens in all were collected, an adult male and two adult 
females (Nos. 29483-29485). For the use of the name 
Myiarchus tyrannulus magister see Hellmayr, 1927, p. 162. 



306 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ( Pboc. 4th Seb. 

59. Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens (Lawrence) 

A common species, mostly in the Lower Sonoran life zone, 
and seen by us in every section visited. Four specimens, 
two adult males and two adult females, were collected in the 
spring, three from the vicinity of Patagonia and one from 
the mouth of Stone Cabin Canon, on dates ranging from 
May 11 to June 11 (Nos. 29486-29489). An adult male 
(No. 29893) taken near Patagonia on September 13, has 
nearly completed the annual molt. 

60. Myiarchus tuberculifer olivascens Ridgway 

This is a species primarily of the Upper Sonoran zone, 
scarcely venturing down into the areas where most of our 
work was carried on. There were a few still migrating 
when we arrived at the Ashburn Ranch, May 10, and several 
were seen or heard there during the next week. A few were 
observed near the mouth of Stone Cabin Caiion during 
the third week in June. One specimen was collected, an 
adult male taken on the Ashburn Ranch, May 14 (No. 
29490). I am following Hellmayr (1927, p. 186) in using the 
name Myiarchus tuberculifer olivascens. 

61. Sayomis sayus sayus (Bonaparte) 

Fairly abundant and of general distribution in the valleys 
of southern Arizona. At our camp on the Ashburn Ranch a 
pair of SayPhoebes had a nest in the well, built in a crevice 
in the dirt wall about 15 feet down. This is a favorite nest- 
ing site with the species in this region and I have seen a 
number of nests similarly placed, in wells or in mine 
shafts The young of the birds under observation hatched 
out during the last week in May, judging from the actions 
of the parents. Two specimens of Say Phoebe were col- 
lected, adult female and male taken May 14 and 23, re- 
spectively (Nos. 29495-29496). 

62. Sayomis nigricans nigricans (Swainson) 

Not common. There was a nest in a barn on the Ashburn 
Ranch, and a few of the birds were seen elsewhere, always 
around human habitations. 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 307 

Three were collected near Patagonia, one September 4, 
two September 15, and two in lower Madera Canon, Sep- 
tember 10 and 21, respectively (Nos. 29894-29896, 30272, 
30273). These birds have just finished the molt, and the 
color of their fresh, unfaded plumage was so different from 
any California skins at hand as to warrant comparison with 
as much other material as could be assembled. Through the 
courtesy of the officials in charge, I was able to examine a 
series of 15 skins from central Mexican locaUties from the 
collection of the United States Biological Survey, a series 
of 25 from central Mexican localities from the collection of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and specimens from 
northern Lower Cahfornia from the collection of the Mu- 
seum of Vertebrate Zoology. 

The Arizona birds are slaty black, in notable contrast to 
the more brownish color of comparable California birds. 
It will be noted that this same slaty black coloration is the 
distinguishing feature of Sayornis nigricans salictaria, de- 
scribed by Grinnell (1927a, p. 68) from northern Lower 
California, based upon fresh-plumaged birds, and, in fact, 
the two series, from southeastern Arizona and from 
northern Lower California, are practically indistinguish- 
able in appearance. Comparison with specimens from 
northern and central Mexico failed to disclose any from 
those regions of the same shade, though some were taken at 
the same season of the year. Mexican birds were essen- 
tially like those from California. It accordingly seems pos- 
sible (in fact it seems to be the only explanation for the sit- 
uation) that the slaty-black hue of freshly molted birds is 
an evanescent feature, fading quickly in life, and that in 
prepared skins this color alters appreciably in the course of 
years, even in tightly closed museum cases. My Arizona 
birds and GrinnelFs '^salictaria," collected recently, at the 
same season, are alike in slaty-black color. Central Mexi- 
can birds and Californian birds at hand that were taken at 
the same season of the year were all collected ten years ago 
or more and are again alike in their more brownish hue. 
Grinnell's (1927, p. 69) brunnescens, from the Cape San 
Lucas district, Lower California, based upon old skins, is 
characterized (in part) by relatively brownish coloration. 

I at first inclined to the belief that the Arizona form rep- 



308 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th Ser. 

resented the northern hmits of Sayornis nigricans nigricans, 
of central Mexico, with the Pacific coast of CaUfornia occu- 
pied by another subspecies, S. n. semiatra (see Nelson, 1900, 
p. 125), but in the light of the specimens here assembled, as 
described above, I can adopt no other course than to call 
them all by the one name, nigricans. The presence or ab- 
sence of black streaking on the lower tail coverts, defined by 
Nelson as a differentiating character between nigricans and 
semiatra, I do not find to be of any subspecific value as 
between Arizona and California birds (see Brewster, 1902, 
p. 119; Ridgway, 1907, p. 598, footnote). 

63. Nuttallornis mesoleucus (Lichtenstein) 

!. A single bird, a late migrant, was collected on the 
Ashburn Ranch, May 12 (No. 29497). During the fall mi- 
gration one was taken at Patagonia on September 22, one 
in Madera Canon on September 24. For the use of the 
name Nuttallornis mesoleucus see Hellmayr, 1927, p. 189. 

64. Myiochanes richardsonii richardsonii (Swainson) 

N. A common summer bird of the Upper Sonoran zone in 
southern Arizona, and found by us in some numbers in the 
foothill region on both sides of the Santa Rita Mountains. 
The sycamores and other trees along the stream beds form 
the preferred habitat. Six specimens were collected: from 
the Patagonia region. May 23, August 31, September 5, 
October 8; from Madera Canon, September 3 and 10 (Nos. 
29498, 29898-29900, 30275, 30276). 
! • -^ . 

65. Empidonax difficilis difficilis Baird 

A summer visitant to the Transition zone of the moun- 
tains of southern Arizona. During May the species was 
migrating in the valleys, and a belated migrant was col- 
lected far from the mountains on the Santa Rita Range 
Reserve as late as June 7. One taken near the mouth of 
Stone Cabin Canon on June 10 may have been nesting 
near by. During the fall migration the species was abun- 
dant on both sides of the Santa Ritas. Nineteen specimens 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 309 

w^ere collected, five on dates ranging from May 21 to June 
10, 14 on dates ranging from September 4 to 28 (Nos. 29499- 
29503, 29901-29904, 30277-30286). An adult female shot 
September 7 has not yet begun the annual molt. 

66. Empidonax traillii brewsteri Oberholser 

Seen several times in the vicinity of Patagonia during 
the latter part of May. One was shot in Temporal Caiion 
(4500 feet altitude) on May 28, two near Patagonia on 
September 28, and one in Madera Caiion, September 17 
(Nos. 29905-29906, 30287). 

67. Empidonax hammondii (Xantus) 

An adult male was collected seven miles north of Pata- 
gonia on May 12; two others were shot near Patagonia in 
the fall, on September 24 and October 3, respectively 
(Nos. 29504, 29907, 29908). The last taken specimen, an 
adult female, is apparently just beginning the annual molt. 

68. Empidonax griseus Brewster 

One bird, mostly in juvenal plumage (No. 29909), was 
collected at Fort Crittenden on September 19, the only 
time the species was encountered. The Gray Flycatcher 
is not known to breed anywhere in Arizona. 

69. Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus Sclater 

Abundant in the lowlands wherever there is water avail- 
able. Pairs were spaced at frequent intervals along the 
water courses and they were about all the ranch houses, but 
the birds were seldom seen on the open cactus-covered mesa. 
A nest was found on the Sonoita on May 13, with three eggs 
nearly ready to hatch, in a cottonwood, 20 feet from the 
ground. It was a flimsy affair, and nearly hidden in the 
relatively large fork in which it was placed. Others found 
later were similarly placed and of similar construction. 

The species was abundant about Patagonia at the end of 
August but had nearly disappeared before the end of 



310 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th Ser. 

September. Last seen October 2. Seen only once in Ma- 
dera Canon, on September 21. Specimens taken early in 
September had almost or entirely finished the molt. Twenty 
specimens were collected, nine males and eleven females 
(Nos. 29505-29513, 29910-29919, 30288). 

70. Camptostoma imberbe Sclater 

Two birds, adult male and female (Nos. 29514, 29515), 
were collected by Mailliard and Gorsuch in Temporal 
Canon (4800 feet altitude). May 20, and others were seen 
the same day. These may have been migrating, for sub- 
sequent visits to the canon were fruitless, so far as this 
species was concerned. On September 13 Mailliard shot 
an adult female (No. 29920) two miles south of Patagonia. 
This bird has nearly finished the annual molt and is in 
fresh fall plumage, but it is very little different from the 
May specimens. It is slightly more yellowish below and 
more olivaceous above. 

This little flycatcher is apparently one of the rarest of 
birds north of the Mexican boundary. In all probability 
it is a regular summer visitant to parts of southern Arizona, 
but, due to its unobtrusive nature and the small numbers 
in which it occurs, it has been overlooked by most collectors 
in that region. 

Previous occurrences in Arizona known to me are as 
follows: Five specimens, adult and young, taken by F. 
Stephens near Tucson, during April and May, 1881 
(Brewster, 1882, p. 208). These birds were collected, so 
Mr. Stephens told me, in the Santa Cruz River bottom, 
above San Xavier Mission, some ten to fifteen miles from 
Tucson. One specimen collected by F. Stephens "near 
Tucson" in April, 1884 (Bendire, 1895, p. 325). Two 
specimens, adult and young, collected by F. Stephens and 
H. S. Swarth at the same place on the Santa Cruz River as 
where Stephens' first birds were taken, June 11, 1903 
(Swarth, 1905, p. 47). One specimen collected by R. D. 
Lusk, on the San Pedro River ten miles above its junction 
with the Gila, March 1, 1911 (Bailey, 1923, p. 32). One 
specimen, a young female, in the collection of J. Eugene 
Law (No. 8028, coll. J. E. L.), collected by Mr. Law at 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 311 

Harrington's, on the old road between Vail and Benson, on 
the southeastern slope of the Rincon Mountains, September 
5, 1919. One specimen in the Field Museum of Natural 
History, collected at Tucson, May 29, 1887. Three speci- 
mens in the collection of Dr. L. B. Bishop (Nos. 34848- 
34850, coll. L. B. B.), two males and a female, taken near 
Tucson on June 28, August 23, and July 10, 1922, respec- 
tively. 

71. Otocoris alpestris adusta Dwight 

East and northeast of the Santa Rita Mountains there are 
vast areas of grass land furnishing ideal surroundings for 
horned larks, which breed there in abundance. We found 
them in numbers in San Rafael Valley (about 5000 feet 
altitude), from which section open plains extend uninter- 
ruptedly toward the Huachuca Mountains and farther, into 
Mexico. A few horned larks were seen at old Fort Crit- 
tenden, and they were fairly numerous beyond this point, 
to the northward, along the road rounding that end of the 
Santa Rita Mountains. 

On the west side of the mountains, this species is de- 
cidedly rare. I saw a few there in June, 1903 (Swarth, 
1905, p. 79), but none on this visit. Even a scanty growth 
of widely scattered bushes suffices to keep them away. 
There are records of occasional birds seen about Tucson, 
but only in vdnter; the only ones that I, myself, have seen 
from there were of the more western subspecies, leucan- 
siptila. West of Tucson there is little suitable country for 
horned larks until the Colorado River is crossed. 

Nineteen adult specimens of the Scorched Horned Lark 
were collected during May (Nos. 29516-29534), one from a 
point seven miles north of Patagonia, May 22, the others 
from San Rafael Valley, May 23 and 25. Young birds were 
seen flying on the two latter dates. 

In the fall there proved to be but a small proportion of 
adusta among the enormous flocks of horned larks that fre- 
quented the plains. The series collected at that time in- 
cludes only six individuals that are referable to adusta, 
collected at various dates from September 1 to October 9 
(Nos. 29988-29993). I found similar conditions existing 



312 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ( Proc. 4th Seb. 

years ago near the Huachuca Mountains in the fall, that is, 
relatively few adusta among a preponderant number of 
occidentalis, indicating a deserting of the breeding grounds 
by adusta during the winter months. 

72. Otocoris alpestris occidentalis McCall 

Horned larks were found in large numbers in the fall in 
San Rafael Valley and on the grassy plains near Sonoita. 
Sixty-seven specimens (Nos. 29921-29987) that were col- 
lected upon various dates between September 1 and Oc- 
tober 9 I have referred to the subspecies occidentalis. Some 
of the first taken birds are still in process of molt. 

73. Cyanocitta stelleri diademata (Bonaparte) 

Abundant in the Transition zone of the Santa Rita 
Mountains, but not seen in summer at the low level at 
which we were camped. Three adults were collected in 
Stone Cabin Canon, at about 7000 feet altitude, on June 
18 (Nos. 29535-29537). 

74. Aphelocoma sieberi arizonae (Ridgway) 

A common bird in the Upper Sonoran oak-covered foot- 
hills of the Santa Rita Mountains. During May a few in- 
dividuals wandered down into the bottom lands along the 
Sonoita, but none was nesting at so low an altitude. Present 
in fair abundance about our camp at the west base of the 
mountains, near the Florida Ranger Station. Thirty-three 
specimens were collected (Nos. 29538-29553, 29994-30005, 
30289-30292), 24 from the east and nine from the west side 
of the mountains. In this species the bill is entirely black 
only at full maturity. In the young it is blackish above 
and mostly flesh-colored below, the black gradually spread- 
ing as the bird matures. More than a full year is required 
for the bill to become entirely black, and many birds taken 
in the spring and summer, otherwise adult in appearance, 
still have the parti-colored bill, a reliable indication of 
their age. Two such females collected on May 26, from 
the appearance of their ovaries evidently were not breeding, 



Vol. XVIII J SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 313 

and from the full-feathered condition of the lower parts just 
as evidently had not been sitting on eggs. So in some cases, 
at least, this species does not breed until two years old. 

The type locahty of Cyanocitta ultramarina var. arizonce 
Ridgway, is Fort Buchanan, and there are certain interest- 
ing details regarding the discovery of the species at that 
place, as recounted by Florence Merriam Bailey (1923, p. 
33, footnote). Most of our specimens from the east side 
of the Santa Ritas were collected within five miles of the 
site of Fort Buchanan, and some were shot from oak trees 
about the ruined buildings of Fort Crittenden, which had 
been established at a later date on practically the same 
spot as the older Fort Buchanan. 

i The series includes two nearly full-grown young, taken 
on May 26 and 30, respectively, birds still in ju venal 
plumage throughout as late as September 5, and others in 
the post-juvenal molt during the first week in October. The 
annual molt of the adult is also finished early in October. 

75. Corvus corax sinuatus Wagler 

Ravens were fairly common in the Sonoita Valley, but 
owing to the difficulty of distinguishing between sinuatus 
and cryptoleucus in life, it is impossible to state their relative 
abundance. My impression is, though, that sinuatus was 
the common form in this rather more wooded region, and 
that cryptoleucus replaced it entirely in the plains region 
immediately to the eastward. Neither species appeared to 
be nesting in May, or at any rate those seen were not so 
occupied. They were generally encountered in small flocks, 
six to ten in number. West of the Santa Rita Mountains 
ravens were less common, and there sinuatus was the only 
form definitely identified, recognized by its call note. 

One specimen (No. 29554) was collected near Patagonia, 
June 2, and there is one other example from southern Ari- 
zona at hand, from the collection of G. Frean Morcom, 
taken by Frank Stephens near Tucson, June 4, 1903. Ravens 
of this species from southeastern Arizona may be assumed 
to belong to the subspecies sinuatus. These two birds are 
somewhat larger than ravens from southern California, as 
are several other Arizona specimens that I have handled. 



314 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ( Pboc. 4th Seb. 

The measurements given below, as far as they go, give some 
weight to Oberholser's (1918, p. 224) assignment of the sub- 
species darionensis to the mainland of southern California, 
as compared with the larger sinuatus from points farther 
east, but the variation that may be encountered in one lo- 
cality (see table below, and also Grinnell, 1914, p. 156) 
renders it unwise to generalize on a few specimens. The 
latest monographer of the group (Meinertzhagen, 1926) 
lumps darionensis and sinuatus. 

The ravens that I have examined from southeastern Ari- 
zona show the same feature that Grinnell (loc.cit.) notes on 
birds from the Colorado River, of greater whiteness at the 
base of the feathers of neck and upper breast, as compared 
with specimens from the Pacific slope of Cahfornia. It 
might be desirable to recognize a coastal form, darionensis, 
and a desert-inhabiting form, sinuatus, on the basis of the 
slight differences in color and average measurements just 
described. But in that case I could not follow Oberholser 
(loc. cit.) in his assertion of extensive overlapping of these 
subspecies in southern Arizona. I do not believe that more 
than one form of Corvus corax can be recognized there. 
This subspecies is continuously distributed and fairly abun- 
dant over the deserts of southeastern California and south- 
western Arizona; it abruptly becomes rare when the grass 
land (the habitat of Corvus cryptoleucus) is reached in the 
southeastern corner of the latter state. 

76. Corvus cr5rptoIeucus Couch 

A few White-necked Ravens were seen in San Rafael 
Valley on May 23 and 25, and a flock of fifty or more on 
September 1. The species was probably included among 
the many ravens seen near Patagonia. It has been previ- 
ously reported from points immediately west of the Santa 
Rita Mountains, and we may have seen it there, too, but 
we did not positively recognize the species among the few 
ravens there observed. One specimen was collected, an 
adult female taken in San Rafael Valley, 15 miles east of 
Patagonia, May 25 (No. 29555). 

Tucson and Oracle represent the westernmost points of 
record for this species in Arizona. It is not common west 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



315 



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316 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Paoc. 4th Seb. 

of the grass-covered plains of the extreme southeastern 
corner of the state. 



77. Molothrus ater obscurus (Gmelin) 

A common species in the lowlands of southern Arizona, 
and seen by us in some numbers in all sections visited. 
Early in May the Dwarf Cowbirds were not yet laying, 
judging from those we dissected. A non-breeding male shot 
on May 27 was in parti-colored plumage, with patches of 
glossy feathers interspersed among the duller colored first 
year feathers. This bird was not molting. Twenty-three 
specimens were collected, all from points near Patagonia 
(Nos. 29556-29574, 30006-30009). The series includes one 
bird in juvenal plumage, taken on September 6, and three 
adults nearly through the annual molt, taken on October 2. 

78. Tangavius aeneus aeneus (Wagler) 

It seems reasonable to believe that this species has en- 
tered Arizona during recent years. It was first reported by 
Visher (1909, p. 307) from the vicinity of Tucson, and has 
since been observed by others, there and elsewhere in south- 
eastern Arizona, where, in fact, it is now an abundant sum- 
mer visitant. That all of the earlier collectors in the state 
could have overlooked the bird seems unlikely in the ex- 
treme, and it is especially improbable that it could have 
escaped so keen an observer as Herbert Brown, who lived 
for years in a locality where this Cowbird is now abundant. 

About Patagonia the Bronzed Cowbird was observed a 
day or two after our arrival on May 10, and in greatly in- 
creased numbers toward the end of the month. It was last 
seen September 6. Bands of six or eight attended individual 
horses or steers, often in company with Dwarf Cowbirds, 
trotting closely alongside the selected animal in order to 
take advantage of the small patch of shade it afforded, and 
showing a marked preference for feeding by the animal's 
head. On our several drives up and down the Santa Cruz 
Valley south of Tucson, Red-eyed Cowbirds were always 
seen, especially about irrigated sections. About our camp 
at the mouth of Stone Cabin Caflon, the species was not 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 317 

abundant, but a few of the birds were seen at intervals 
throughout our staj^ Females collected near Patagonia 
on May 19 contained partly formed eggs. 

I was puzzled at first at a difference in the color of the 
eyes of different adult males. Later observation showed 
that although in a freshly killed adult male the eye was 
bright red, in an hour or two it had greatly faded, and by 
the time the specimen reached the skinning table the eye 
was an inconspicuous reddish brown. The females collected 
present a parti-colored effect, due to the head, neck and 
upper back, in varying degrees, being clothed in more re- 
cently acquired plumage than that covering the rest of the 
bird. They are not in process of molt, no pin feathers 
being present, but on the parts indicated the feathers are 
unworn and of soft gray or blackish coloration, in sharp 
contrast to the brownish and rather frayed plumage else- 
where. Nineteen specimens were preserved, nine adult 
males, nine adult females, and one juvenile (Nos. 29575- 
29590, 29592, 30010, 30011). 

79. Agelaius phoeniceus nevadensis Grinnell 

Red-winged Blackbirds were found breeding in small 
numbers in the Sonoita Valley, and a series of 13 speci- 
mens collected, eight males, four females, and a juvenile 
female (Nos. 29591, 29593-29604). The young bird, just 
out of the nest, was taken on May 29. 

In southeastern Arizona there are not many places suit- 
able for Agelaius, but wherever a little marsh land or reed- 
grown ponds or reservoirs are found, small colonies become 
established. The birds are thus scattered at wide intervals 
over the southeastern portion of the state, and very pos- 
sibly northward along its entire eastern boundary. This, 
the Red-winged Blackbird of eastern Arizona, is not the 
same as the subspecies occupjdng the Colorado Valley. 
Notable features of the Colorado Valley race are the long, 
slender bill, and (in the. female) pale coloration. Con- 
spicuous points of difference distinguishing the more eastern 
bird are the heavier, shorter bill, and the darker coloration 
of the female. This bird has been recorded several times as 
neutralis (see Swarth, 1914, p. 47), but it is not of that sub- 



318 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEffCES [Pboc. 4th Sbr. 

species, and comparison shows such close resemblance to 
a series of Agelaius from northern Nevada that I am 
placing the Arizona race under the same name, nevadensis. 
This form I am convinced occupies most, or all, of Arizona 
east of the Santa Catalina and the Santa Rita mountains. 

The type specimen of Agelaius phoeniceus sonoriensis un- 
fortunately was collected within what I consider to be the 
breeding range of nevadensis in Arizona. This bird (coll. 
U. S. National Museum No. 49771, female [though marked 
"male" in two places on the label], collected at Camp 
Grant, 60 miles east of Tucson, Arizona, February 10, 1867) 
has been available to me for examination. It has also 
recently been the subject of careful study by A. J. van 
Rossem (1926, p. 227), who has pointed out certain pecul- 
iarities of the specimen. His suggestion that its true iden- 
tity may lie in the direction of the later-described fortis 
may be correct, and at any rate serves to indicate the in- 
determinate nature of this unfortunately chosen type 
specimen. It differs from the mode of the Agelaius of the 
lower Colorado Valley, to which the name sonoriensis has 
been generally applied, in having a distinctly heavier, stub- 
bier bill, in which particular it can not be matched in a large 
series of Colorado River birds. In coloration, however, it 
is closely similar to some females from the Colorado River, 
and correspondingly different from the mode of nevadensis 
and fortis. Altogether, I am disposed to let the name 
sonoriensis continue to stand for the Colorado River form, 
and to regard the type specimen as a stray or migrant, a 
winter-taken bird from beyond the normal breeding range 
of the subspecies. There has been already such a confusion 
of the names applied to this race, as well as to the proper 
type locality, that I am unwilling to suggest a change that 
might cause further trouble. 

The point I wish to emphasize here is the fact that there 
are two subspecies of Agelaius phceniceus breeding in south- 
ern Arizona, one occupying the valley of the lower Colorado 
River and its tributaries as far east as Tucson, the other, 
the region east from the Santa Catalina and Santa Rita 
mountains. Breeding birds from Phoenix and Tempe are 
mostly indistinguishable from Colorado Valley specimens. 
Breeding birds from near Tucson are intermediate, some of 



Vol. XVIII J SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 



319 



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320 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

them having distinctly heavy and stubbj^ bills, as compared 
with the slender-billed western race, but on the whole they 
are best associated with the Colorado Valley subspecies. 

80. Stumella magna hoopesi Stone 

Meadowlarks were seen by us in San Rafael Valley on 
May 23 and 25, in pairs, widely spaced over the grassy 
plains. Later a number were seen at the northeastern base 
of the Santa Ritas, some miles north of Camp Crittenden. 
They were more abundant in both places at the end of the 
summer, in September and October. Specimens collected 
were all of the subspecies hoopesi, and I am satisfied that 
all the meadowlarks seen east of the mountains were of that 
form. The characteristic song of neglecta was never heard. 
There is a specimen of neglecta at hand, collected by D. M. 
Gorsuch near Patagonia, March 5, 1927, and I, myself, 
have taken the species in the fall somewhat farther east, 
near the Huachuca Mountains, but the facts suggest neg- 
lecta to be a winter visitant only in that part of Arizona. 

Hoopesi has apparently an unusually protracted breed- 
ing season and a correspondingly lengthened period of 
plumage change. A female shot in San Rafael Valley on 
May 25 had laid part of its set, but on the same day a 
young bird was collected, nearly full-grown and able to 
fly. Other young birds, almost entirely or altogether in 
Juvenal plumage were taken as late as October 4. An adult 
shot September 1 is still in worn breeding dress, having not 
yet begun the molt, and another collected October 4 is in 
the midst of the change, tail-less and scarcely able to fly. 
On the other hand, an adult taken September 14 is practic- 
ally through the molt. 

It seems impossible to indicate characters that will dif- 
ferentiate hoopesi and neglecta in all stages of plumage. 
Call notes and songs of the two are unfailing indicators in 
the field. In the adult bird the presence or absence of 
yellow on the malar region is the best single character, and 
it is one that is usually to be depended upon. Neglecta is 
not a grayer colored bird than hoopesi, though it has been 
so described. In fact, California examples of neglecta are 
generally of a decidedly richer brown. In neglecta the yellow 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 321 

of the underparts is not paler than the average of hoopesi. 
Some fall specimens of hoopesi have the yellow decidedly 
of an orange hue, but this is not always the case, and such 
spring specimens of hoopesi as I have handled have the yel- 
low about as in negleda, paler than in most California ex- 
amples of that species. Usually in fresh fall plumage 
hoopesi is more buffy on flanks and lower tail coverts than 
is negleda. Juvenal-plumaged hoopesi and negleda are not 
to be distinguished, so far as I can see. Length of tarsus, 
shorter in negleda, longer in hoopesi, is the most reliable 
structural character that I have found. 

We collected 35 specimens of Sturnella magna hoopesi, 
mostly from San Rafael Valley, a few from the vicinity of 
Sonoita (Nos. 29606-29611, 29615, 30021-30048). 

81. Sturnella neglecta Audubon 

As mentioned above, a specimen of negleda (No. 30749) 
was shot by D. M. Gorsuch near Patagonia, March 5, 1927, 
the only record we have for the species on the east side of 
the Santa Ritas. In the Santa Cruz Valley a few meadow- 
larks were seen as we passed along the road some ten or 
twelve miles south of Tucson, and, though these were not 
specifically identified, it seems likely that they were 
negleda, which has been found in that section before. 
Hoopesi has never been taken there. 

We saw no meadowlarks on the Santa Rita Range Re- 
serve while we were there in June. On the nearby mesa 
below the mouth of Madera Caiion, Miss McLellan saw 
none in the fall until October 7, on which day a number 
suddenly appeared. Two collected proved to be negleda 
(Nos. 30293-30294). 

82. Icterus parisorum Bonaparte 

Our camp near Patagonia (elevation 4700 feet) was just 
below the level at which this species breeds in this region. 
The song was heard occasionally on the hillsides above, 
and now and then one of the birds was seen. At our camp 
at the west base of the mountains (elevation 4000 feet) 
conditions were about the same. Three specimens were 



322 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

collected, all breeding males (Nos. 29612-29614). These 
are all in plumage stages intermediate between the juvenal 
and the fuU-plumaged male. It is a curious fact that in 
southern Arizona, while high-plumaged birds preponderate 
when the species first arrives from the south, in March and 
April, breeding birds are, in my experience, almost all in 
the imperfect, presumably immature, stage. A correspond- 
ing stage exists in the males of the other two orioles in this 
region, nelsoni and hullocki, but not nearly so commonly. 
High-plumaged birds are in the majority in those two 
species. 

83. Icterus cucullatus nelsoni Ridgway 

Present in small numbers in the vicinity of Patagonia; 
abundant in the lowlands at the west base of the Santa 
Ritas. Thirteen specimens were collected (Nos. 29616- 
29628), consisting of five fully mature males, two males 
breeding but in imperfect plumage, and six adult females. 



84. Icterus bullockii (Swainson) 

A common species in the Patagonia region, frequenting 
mostly the rows of cottonwoods and sycamores along the 
stream beds. On the west side of the mountains the Bullock 
Oriole was much less abundant, thus reversing conditions 
as observed in the Arizona Hooded Oriole. Five specimens 
were collected (Nos. 29629-29633), three high-plumaged 
males, one breeding male in immature plumage, and one 
adult female, all taken near Patagonia. 



85. Euphagus cyanocephalus cyanocephalus (Wagler) 

An adult female (No. 29605) was taken on the Ashburn 
Ranch, May 13. Exact manner of occurrence of the species 
there can not be stated, as it was some days before I realized 
that the small companies of black birds we were seeing were 
Bronzed Cowbirds, not the Brewer Blackbird. The species 
is doubtless a winter visitant to the region, and the one bird 
collected was probably a straggler that had lingered after 
most of its kind had gone on. In the fall a few were seen 



Vol. XVIII J SWARTH—FAUSAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 323 

near Fairbank on September 26. About Patagonia flocks 
were passing through, apparently migrating, during the 
first week in October. 

86. Passer domesticus (Linnseus) 

Present in fair abundance in the Patagonia region. To be 
seen everywhere about human habitations, and some birds 
were even noted carrying building material into cotton- 
wood trees far removed from any houses. Much less com- 
mon at the west base of the Santa Ritas, where, in fact, 
only a few were seen. In southern Arizona generally the 
species has arrived everywhere where conditions are satis- 
factory. This general dispersal has been accomplished 
within the last 25 years (see Swarth, 1914, p. 50). 

87. Carpodacus cassinii Baird 

A common winter visitant to southern Arizona, mostly 
in the mountains. One specimen (No. 29634), an adult 
female, taken near Patagonia, May 20, was the only one 
seen. This bird had undoubtedly Ungered beyond the usual 
time of departure. 

88. Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (Say) 

Present in fair abundance both in the Patagonia region 
and at the west base of the mountains. Full-grown young 
were flying about by June 1. Four specimens collected 
(Nos. 29635-29637, 30295), an adult male, adult female, 
juvenile female, and an (apparently) immature male. The 
last mentioned specimen, collected October 11, is in an un- 
usual plumage for this species. It is a male bird that has 
passed beyond the juvenile stage but has not acquired the 
usual red plumage. It is in the streaked female plumage 
but with small patches of red, little more than traces, on 
breast, top of head, and rump. 

89. Astragalinus psaltria hesperophilus Oberholser 

Present in fair abundance, and breeding, in the Sonoita 
Valley near Patagonia, in lesser numbers at the west base 



324 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Ser. 

of the Santa Ritas. Ten specimens were preserved (Nos. 
29638-29640, 30049-30055) : In the early summer two adult 
males and one full-grown juvenile, the latter collected on 
June 5; in the fall seven specimens, on dates ranging from 
August 29 to October 8. Arizona examples of this species 
are to my eye indistinguishable from Calif ornian specimens. 
In both regions partly black-backed individuals occur, such 
as served as a basis for the name arizonce. I do not believe 
that increasing age brings on an increased amount of the 
black, but rather that it is individual variation and that 
it becomes rather more common toward the east. 



90. Spinas pinus pinus (Wilson) 

A few Pine Siskins still lingered in the vicinity of Pata- 
gonia during the month of May, two specimens (Nos. 
29641, 29642), collected May 19 and 21, respectively, being 
the last that were seen. Siskins from southern Arizona 
average rather paler colored and are less heavily streaked 
below, as compared with specimens from the Pacific coast. 
These differences may indicate an approach toward the 
Mexican subspecies, macropterus, but I can not detect any 
corresponding variation in size. In southern Arizona, more- 
over, the Pine Siskin occurs only as a winter visitant, and 
such birds may, of course, have come from some region 
far to the northward. Definite breeding records in Arizona 
are all from the Mogollon Divide and northward. There is 
apparently an hiatus here between the southern breeding 
limit of S. pinus pinus and the habitat of S. pinus macrop- 
terus, of Mexico. 



91. Calcarius ornatus (J. K. Townsend) 

A migrant and winter visitant in southeastern Arizona. 
First appeared in San Rafael Valley October 9, seen there 
again in some numbers on October 10, and near Sonoita 
on October 11. Twelve specimens were collected (Nos. 
30056-30067). 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 325 

92. Pooecetes gramineus confinis Baird 

Seen during the fall migration, when it appeared in 
abundance on the mesa below Madera Canon, and in the 
vicinity of Patagonia. Fourteen specimens were collected 
at each of these locaHties, 28 in all (Nos. 30068, 30069, 
30071-30082, 30296-30309), on dates ranging from Sep- 
tember 13 to October 11. 



93. Passerculus sandwichensis nevadensis Grinnell 

Among the swarms of sparrows that appeared in the fall 
in the grassland east of the Santa Ritas there were some 
Savannah Sparrows. Five specimens were collected, two 
in San Rafael Valley, three near Sonoita, between Sep- 
tember 14 and October 11 (Nos. 30070, 30083-30086). All 
are of the subspecies nevadensis. 

94. Ammodramus bairdii (Audubon) 

Two specimens collected in San Rafael Valley, a molting 
and very ragged adult on October 1 , another nearly through 
the molt, October 10 (Nos. 30087, 30088). The species has 
been reported as occurring in large numbers in this part of 
Arizona in the fall (Henshaw, 1875, p. 253) and in the 
spring (Swarth, 1904, p. 38). It has not been found any- 
where west of the Santa Rita Mountains. ' 

95. Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatus Swainson 

We found a few Western Grasshopper Sparrows in San 
Rafael Valley, 15 miles east of Patagonia, May 23 and 25. 
There were swales in which there was a fairly dense growth 
of tall ''bunch-grass," and the birds could not be forced to 
leave this shelter. In the fall they were found in the same 
place, and also near Sonoita. There are previous records 
by Henshaw (1875, p. 25) and by Nelson (see Bailey, 1923, 
p. 38) of midsummer occurrences in the Sonoita Valley. 
We collected eight specimens (Nos. 29643-29646, 30089- 
30092) : four adults, not yet breeding, May 23 and 25 ; two 
in Juvenal plumage, September 7, October 4; a molting 



326 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sbr. 

adult, October 10; one in fully acquired winter plumage, 
October 6. 

96. Chondestes grammacus strigatus Swainson 

Common in the vicinity of Patagonia and elsewhere in 
the Sonoita Valley. Three specimens collected there in May 
(Nos. 29647-29649). Not seen at the western base of the 
Santa Ritas during June, but one specimen collected below 
Madera Caiion on September 27 (No. 30310). 

97. Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster) 

Fairly common in the Sonoita Valley early in May, being 
one of the last of the migrants to depart. Last seen May 
24. Three specimens collected (Nos. 29650-29652). An 
immature female was collected below Madera Canon, 
October 6 (No. 30312). 

98. Zonotrichia gambelii (Nuttall) 

First seen at the western base of the Santa Ritas, below 
Madera Canon, on September 27, and found in increasing 
numbers soon after. Immatures were greatly in excess of 
white-crowned adults. Five specimens collected, between 
September 27 and October 5 (Nos. 30311, 30313-30316). 
For my reasons for using the binomials, Zonotrichia leu- 
cophrys and Z. gambelii, see Swarth, 1926, p. 123. 

99. Spizella passerina arizonae Coues 

Does not breed in southern Arizona but appears in num- 
bers toward the end of the summer. One of the most abun- 
dant of birds during September and October about Pata- 
gonia and in Madera Canon. There were many streaked 
juveniles in the first arriving flocks. A few individuals had 
finished the post-ju venal molt by the middle of September, 
but these were exceptions. An adult collected on September 
17 had hardly begun to molt and molting birds were col- 
lected throughout September and in early October. Eighteen 
specimens were taken in the Patagonia region, and 35 in and 



Vol. XVIII] SW AKTH—FAVN AL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 327 

below Madera Canon, on dates ranging from September 2 
to October 10 (Nos. 30093-30110, 30328-30362). 

100. Spizella breweri Cassin 

A very few, the last departing migrants, were seen near 
Patagonia in May, the last on May 15. In the fall they re- 
turned in large numbers, both at Patagonia, east of the 
Santa Ritas, and below Madera Canon, on the west side. 
Eighteen specimens were collected, one on May 12, the 
others between August 30 and October 12 (Nos. 29653, 
30111-30117, 30317-30327). 

101. Junco phaeonotus palliatus Ridgway 

A common species in the Santa Rita Mountains at a 
higher altitude than that where most of our collecting was 
carried on. Seven specimens were collected in Madera 
Canon during September (Nos. 30363-30369). 

102. Amphispiza bilineata deserticola Ridgway 

Fairly common on the rocky hills bordering the Sonoita 
Valley near Patagonia. Abundant at the west base of the 
Santa Ritas, on the Santa Rita Range Reserve and through- 
out the valley below. Young out of the nest were collected 
on June 5 and a bird still in ju venal plumage was taken 
September 23. The fall molt lasts well into October. 
Twenty-two specimens were collected (Nos. 29654-29659, 
29692, 30118-30120, 30370-30381). 

103. Peucaea cassinii (Woodhouse) 

Not seen during May and June. In the late summer, 
eight specimens (Nos. 30121-30128) were taken within ten 
or twelve miles of Patagonia between August 27 and Sep- 
tember 23. Six (Nos. 30382-30387) were collected below 
the mouth of Madera Canon on September 27 and 28 ; they 
seemed to be present there only during two or three days. 
The species has not been proven to breed in southern Ari- 
zona, and this series does not definitely settle the question. 



328 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Seb. 

If it were not for the fact that we failed to find this bird in 
May and June (and I was searching for it over the exact 
ground where it was found in the fall) I would have as- 
sumed that the series taken in August and September were 
certainly representative of a breeding species. One bird 
collected on August 27, just beginning the annual molt, is 
marked as having "testes still fully enlarged," and adults 
and young collected during September are variously ad- 
vanced in the molt. It seems likely, though, that the species 
is a migrant here from some more northern point. 

It is noteworthy that neither Peuccea botterii nor Aimo- 
phila carpalis were seen by us though we were in the exact 
region where both had been found in abundance in years 
past. So far as I know neither species has been observed 
in Arizona for many years. These species of Peuccea and 
Aimophila occupied the grass-grown lowlands, and it is 
possible that the over-grazing of this region which had for 
one result the disappearance of Colinus ridgwayi also 
brought about the local extinction, or near-extinction, of 
the less conspicuous sparrows. Peuccea cassini, apparently 
not a breeding species, returns on migration, but the 
others, deprived of shelter on their nesting grounds, seem 
to be gone, or, at any rate, to have become extremely scarce. 

104. Aimophila ruficeps scottii (Sennett) 

The Sonoita Valley is just below the breeding limit of 
this species, which is primarily a bird of the Upper Sonoran 
zone. A few were seen in Temporal Canon and elsewhere 
in the surrounding hills, and some were found also near 
the western base of the Santa Ritas, in Sawmill, Stone 
Cabin and Madera canons, above 4000 feet. Birds in 
Juvenal plumage were taken as late as September 14, and 
an adult not yet beginning the annual molt on September 
13. Ten specimens were collected, including three juve- 
niles (Nos. 29660-29662, 30129-30132, 30388-30390). 

105. Melospiza melodia saltonis Grinnell 

We found song sparrows only in the river bottom a few 
miles below Patagonia, where an abundance of tangled 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 329 

vegetation, long grass and running water made a favorable 
combination that was not encountered elsewhere. Four 
specimens were collected there on June 1, two adults and 
two juveniles, and five more between September 2 and 
October 8 (Nos. 29663-29666, 30133-30137). Young in 
Juvenal plumage throughout were taken as late as Sep- 
tember 15. 

These birds are darker colored and more heavily streaked 
on the breast than comparable specimens from the Colorado 
River. I have collected similarly dark-colored song spar- 
rows near Fairbank, on the San Pedro River, some 30 miles 
northeast of Patagonia, and these two localities may be re- 
garded as close to the eastern limit of the range of the sub- 
species saltonis. 

106. Melospiza melodia fallax (Baird) 

One specimen collected near Patagonia, October 8 (No. 
30138). This subspecies occurs as a winter visitant in south- 
ern Arizona. For use of the name fallax for the Rocky 
Mountain Song Sparrow see Grinnell, 1914, p. 174. 

107. Melospiza lincolnii lincolnii (Audubon) 

A common migrant and winter visitant. Four speci- 
mens collected near Patagonia, between September 21 and 
October 7 (Nos. 30139-30142). 

108. Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus Baird 

A common species in the foothills and at the base of the 
mountains on both sides of the Santa Ritas. The nesting 
season is evidently a long one; a male taken September 8 
had testes still in breeding condition. On May 11 a nest 
was found containing three fresh eggs, and at the same time 
nearly full-grown young were flying about. A nest in course 
of construction was found on May 20. Such nests as I saw 
were in willow or mesquite, from five to seven feet above 
the ground. On the Santa Rita Range Reserve, several 
miles from the mountains, during the third week in June, 
Canon Towhees were abundant and in loosely assembled 



330 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Pboc. 4th Seb. 

flocks of as many as eight or ten birds. A young bird still 
in Juvenal plumage was collected on September 18; the 
annual molt of the adults is not finished until nearly the 
middle of October. Twenty-nine specimens were collected 
(Nos. 29667-29679, 30143-30152, 30392-30397). 

109. Oberholseria chlcnira (Audubon) 

A late migrant through southern Arizona in the spring. 
A few stragglers were seen at intervals near Patagonia dur- 
ing the first three weeks in May, the last on May 20. They 
re-appeared in numbers early in September on both sides 
of the mountains. Eight specimens were collected, two 
in May, six between September 7 and October 3 (Nos. 
29680, 29681, 30153-30156, 30398-30400). 

110. Cardinalis cardinalis superbus Ridgway 

Abundant in the western foothills of the Santa Rita 
Mountains. Not seen by us in May in the Sonoita Valley; 
so far as I know the species has not been found breeding 
east of this point in southern Arizona. At the western base 
of the Santa Ritas a nest was found on June 7 at the 
mouth of Stone Cabin Carion, placed on a branch of a 
mesquite, about six feet from the ground. It contained two 
young birds, probably about a week old. Four specimens 
were collected near Patagonia in the fall, three on Septem- 
ber 9, one on October 5. A young male shot September 9 
is in the midst of the post-juvenal molt, with large tracts 
of red plumage. The bill is still black. An adult female 
taken the same day is also ragged with molt, and an adult 
male taken October 5 has nearly completed the molt. Six- 
teen specimens in all were collected (Nos. 29682-29691, 
30157-30160, 30547, 30548). 

111. Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata (Bonaparte) 

Seen at various points at the north end and along the 
western base of the Santa Rita Mountains, but nowhere 
as abundantly as the Arizona Cardinal, which it resembles 
so closely in general appearance and in habits. On June 



Vol. XVIII J SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 331 

8, five adult males were seen chasing each other through 
a mesquite thicket. Two specimens were collected, adult 
males, taken near the mouth of Sawmill Canon (Nos. 
29693, 29694). 

112. Hedymeles melanocephalus melanocephalus 

(Swainson) 

The Sonoita Valley is probably just below the lower limit 
of the breeding range of this species, but migrating indi- 
viduals passed through there in numbers during the first 
three weeks in May. At the same time others were nesting 
in the surrounding canons at only a slightly higher level. 
A nest found in Temporal Canon on May 20, contained 
three eggs. It was the usual flimsy structure, placed near 
the end of a drooping sycamore limb, about 12 feet from 
the ground. Fairly common in September, both at Pata- 
gonia and in Madera Canon. Twelve specimens collected, 
seven adults in early summer, five immatures in the fall, 
between August 28 and September 21 (Nos. 29695-29701, 
30161-30163, 30401, 30402). 

113. Guiraca caenxlea interfusa Dwight & Griscom 

A common summer visitant in southern Arizona to such 
lowland localities as have some running water. The first 
arrival was seen near Patagonia on May 14, and increasing 
numbers appeared during the next two weeks. The species 
was present, but not common, at the western base of the 
Santa Rita Mountains, where specimens were taken near 
the Florida Ranger Station. A few were seen along the 
road side in irrigated sections of the Santa Cruz Valley 
during June; the species is known to be fairly abundant 
there. The latest fall specimen was taken near Patagonia 
on September 28. An adult male shot on August 28 has 
not begun the post-nuptial molt. Young males taken 
September 5 and 28 are in first winter plumage through- 
out. Twelve specimens collected, eight adult males, one 
adult female, three immature males (Nos. 29702-29709, 
30164-30167). I am following Dwight and Griscom (1927, 
p. 4) in applying the name interfusa to the Arizona race of 
the Blue Grosbeak. 

Apra 26, 1929 



332 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ( Proc. 4th Ser. 

114. Passerina amoena (Say) 

Migrating commonly in the Sonoita Valley. First seen 
on May 12, and abundant a few days later. An adult 
male observed at the Florida Ranger Station on June 16 
may have been an indication that the species was nesting 
there, farther south in Arizona than it has yet been found 
breeding. An adult male and two adult females were 
collected in the vicinity of Patagonia, May 19 and 27 
(Nos. 29710-29712), seven more between August 30 and 
October 3 (Nos. 30168-30174). Young birds mostly in 
Juvenal plumage were shot early in September. An adult 
male taken September 28 and a female on October 3 have 
nearly finished the molt. In the male bird the blue body 
color is almost entirely hidden by brown feather tips. 
Wearing away of these tips would reveal the usual summer 
plumage. 

115. Spiza americana (Gmelin) 

An immature female (No. 30175) was collected by Mail- 
liard four miles south of Patagonia on September 24. The 
species has previously been recorded from Arizona by 
Henshaw (1875, p. 295), who took specimens on the San 
Pedro River, at Fort Crittenden and at Fort Lowell, in 
August and September, 1873 and 1874; and by Scott 
(1887, p. 205), from a specimen taken by Herbert Brown 
at Tucson, September 11, 1884. 



116. Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger 

A flock of 300 or more seen near Continental on Septem- 
ber 25, and two birds at a point five miles north of Pata- 
gonia on October 13. A common winter visitant to the 
region. 

117. Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson) 

Migrating commonly along the Sonoita Valley during 
the middle of May. Common until May 20, and one bird 
collected as late as May 28. Three specimens were pre- 
served, two males and one female. Seen again in the fall. 



Voi,. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 333 

when specimens (all birds of the year) were collected at 
Patagonia, August 28 to September 11, and in Madera 
Canon, September 4 to 15. Ten specimens in all were col- 
lected (Nos. 29713-29715, 30176-30179, 30403-30405). 

118. Piranga hepatica oreophasma Oberholser 

This is a species mostly of the Transition zone, and its 
occurrence in the foothills near Patagonia was merely as a 
migrant, and a rather uncommon one. It was not seen on 
the floor of the valley, but usually in the oaks of the sur- 
rounding hills. A female collected in Temporal Canon 
(altitude about 4500 feet) on May 28 was evidently incu- 
bating eggs at the time. The species was seen occasionally 
in the canons at the western base of the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains in June, and fairly commonly in Madera Canon in 
the fall. Five specimens were collected in May and June, 
three red-plumaged males, one male, adult but in female 
plumage, and one adult female (Nos. 29716-29720). Six 
collected in Madera Canon between September 8 and 25 
(Nos. 30406-30411) are all nearly through the molt. 

119. Piranga rubra cooperi Ridgway 

An abundant species in the Sonoita Valley and but little 
less so at the western base of the Santa Ritas. Near Pata- 
gonia mating was going on during the second week in May, 
the birds frequenting mostly the rows of large cottonwoods 
and sycamores along the stream beds. Although the 
species is so common there, that section marks practically 
the eastern limit of the breeding range in southern Ari- 
zona. At the base of the Huachuca Mountains, some 30 
miles east of Patagonia, the Cooper Tanager occurs as an 
uncommon migrant ; there are no breeding records from that 
range. 

Sixteen specimens were collected in the early summer, 
twelve males and four females (Nos. 29721-29736). These 
are all breeding adults, but one of the males is almost in- 
distinguishable from females, having just a few pale red 
feathers scattered over head and body, a second has some- 
what more of such reddish areas, while a tliird has the 



334 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th 8er. 

throat, pileum, intercapulars, and tail as brilliantly red as 
in the fully mature male, the red areas being sharply de- 
fined against the generally yellowish body coloration. The 
remaining nine male birds are in uniformly bright red plum- 
age. None of the parti-colored birds is in process of molt. 
It has been assumed that this imperfect plumage is a sign 
of immaturity and that several years are required for its 
perfection. This may be true, but I do not think that it 
has been proved. The parti-colored birds are relatively 
rare, not nearly so common as the red males, and if each 
individual passed through the same sequence of plumages 
the mottled birds should be the more numerous. 

Ten were collected near Patagonia in the fall, between 
August 28 and October 7 (Nos. 30180-30189). Two males, 
shot August 28 and 31, respectively, are changing from 
yellow to red plumage, and on these birds there are rem- 
nants of yellow over all parts. Fully mature males, red 
throughout, and nearly or quite through the annual molt, 
were taken September 6 and 28, and October 7. Immature 
birds, entirely through the post juvenal molt, were col- 
lected August 28 and 29. 

120. Petrochelidon lunifrons melanogastra (Swainson) 

A few cliff swallows were nesting on buildings in the 
town of Patagonia and elsewhere in the valley, and they 
were abundant there during the first half of September. 
Four specimens (Nos. 30190-30193) were collected near 
Patagonia on August 31, one adult male in worn breeding 
plumage and three young birds. These skins are not such 
as to show subspecific characters very well, but there is a 
series of breeding birds in the collection of Dr. L. B. 
Bishop from this same region, unmistakably of the sub- 
species melanogastra. 

121. Hirundo erythrogastra Boddaert 

A fairly common summer visitant to southern Arizona, 
mostly about human habitations. Seen in and about 
Patagonia until the middle of September. Two specimens 
collected on September 16 (Nos. 30194-30195). 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 335 

122. Tachycineta thalassina lepida Mearns 

Abundant about Patagonia during the first two weeks 
in September. Two young birds (Nos. 30196, 30197) 
were collected on September 7 and 10, respectively. 



123. Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon) 

Found nesting, or preparing to do so, along various dry 
stream beds in the Sonoita Valley. A female collected on 
May 22 had laid part of its set. Two specimens collected 
(Nos. 29737, 29738). 

124. Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot 

Two birds, presumably a pair, seen, and one (No. 29739) 
collected, on the Ashburn Ranch, May 29. These were 
probably late migrants or winter visitants; the species is 
not known to breed in this region. 

125. Phainopepla nitens (Swainson) 

Present in small numbers about Patagonia when we 
arrived early in May, and increasing greatly toward the 
end of the month. On the west side of the mountains, 
in June, flocks of Phainopeplas (loose assemblages of 20 
or 30 individuals) appeared every afternoon, flying up 
Stone Cabin Canon. Six specimens collected (Nos. 29740, 
29741, 30412-30415), including four males in fresh fall 
plumage that were taken below Madera Caiion, October 10 
to 13. 

126. Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides Swainson 

A rare bird in the vicinity of Patagonia, where it was 
seen on but a few occasions. West of the mountains, on 
the Santa Rita Range Reserve, shrikes were present in 
fair abundance. During the second week in June several 
broods of young were encountered, evidently just out of 
the nest. Seven specimens were collected there, three 
adults and four juveniles (Nos. 29742-29748). The old 
birds (June 10, 13, 13) are in badly worn plumage but not 



336 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Seb. 

yet beginning to molt. The young (June 8, 14, 16) are in 
Juvenal plumage throughout. In the fall a molting adult 
was taken near Patagonia, September 8, and two imma- 
tures below Madera Canon, September 26, and October 1, 
respectively (Nos. 30198, 30416, 30417). 



127. Vireosylva gilva swainsonii (Baird) 

A few seen, presumably migrating, near Patagonia, the 
last on May 21. Abundant in the fall, when two specimens 
were taken near Patagonia and six in Madera Canon on 
various dates between September 5 and 21 (Nos. 30199, 
30200, 30418-30423). An adult shot September 5 had not 
3'^et begun the annual molt. 



128. Lanivireo solitarius cassinii (Xantus) 

A common migrant. One specimen collected at Fort 
Crittenden, September 19, and nine in Madera Canon, be- 
tween September 13 and 26 (Nos. 30201, 30424-30432). 



129. Lanivireo solitarius plumbeus (Coues) 

One specimen (No. 30433) taken in Madera Canon on 
September 20. This probably is about as late a date as 
the species remains. 



130. Vireo huttoni stephensi Brewster 

One bird collected at the lower edge of the oak belt 
on the Ashburn Ranch, May 21, and one in Madera Canon, 
September 19 (Nos. 29749, 30434). 



131. Vireo belli arizonae Ridgway 

Rather uncommon in the Sonoita Valley. At the western 
base of the Santa Ritas this is a common bird, and indi- 
viduals were heard singing on all sides in the mesquite 
thickets. The preference the Arizona Least Vireo shows 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 337 

for mesquite-bordered dry washes is a life history trait that 
contrasts strongly with the California Least Vireo's choice 
of willow-grown bottom lands. In the Sonoita Valley 
near Patagonia there are willow bordered streams, such as 
the California bird frequents, but Least Vireos were de- 
cidedly rare there, in contrast to their abundance in 
mesquite thickets elsewhere. Three adults were collected 
in June below Sawmill Cafion, and one in Madera Canon, 
September 16 (Nos. 29750-29752, 30435). These and other 
Arizona specimens at hand bear out the validity of the 
subspecies arizonw, as yet not recognized in the A. 0. U. 
Check-list. 



132. Vennivora luciae (J. G. Cooper) 

Abundant in the Sonoita Valley near Patagonia, and 
somewhat less numerous at the west base of the Santa Rita 
Mountains. A nest with four eggs was taken on the 
Ashburn Ranch, May 19. It was in a hole (apparently an 
old knot hole) in the trunk of a mesquite, three and one-half 
feet from the ground. The hole was about iM inches 
across, and about 3 inches high. The nest, about 1}4 
inches in diameter, was only an inch or so within the open- 
ing, and the eggs could be seen from outside. The nest 
was composed of shreds of dry mesquite bark, some feathers, 
and mammal fur. Six skins of the Lucy Warbler were pre- 
served, two males and six females, all adult (Nos. 29753- 
29758). 

133. Vermivora ruficapilla gutturalis (Ridgway) 

A common migrant. Five specimens from Patagonia 
and six from Madera Canon, on various dates from August 
31 to September 27 (Nos. 30202-30206, 30436-30441). 



134. Vermivora celata lutescens (Ridgway) 

Two collected near Patagonia on the fall migration, on 
September 16 and October 3, respectively (Nos. 20307, 
20308). 



338 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Sbb. 

135. Dendroica aestiva sonorana Brewster 

136. Dendroica aestiva brewsteri Grinnell 

Yellow warblers were seen daily during May in the So- 
noita Valley, but not in any numbers. Brewsteri was mi- 
grating through the region at the time, and of the five 
yellow warblers collected, four (Nos. 29759-29762) proved 
to be of this subspecies. These were taken May 12, 13, 
and 15. One specimen of sonorana, a breeding bird, was 
shot on May 18 (No. 29763); an adult male in fresh fall 
plumage was taken on August 31 (No. 30209). Migrating 
examples of brewsteri were collected in Madera Caiion on 
September 6 and 15 (Nos. 30442, 30443). 

137. Dendroica auduboni auduboni (J. K. Townsend) 

A few migrants were still passing through the Patagonia 
region during the second week in May. Two specimens 
were collected on May 14 (Nos. 29764, 29765). Last 
seen on May 15. 

138. Dendroica nigrescens (J. K. Townsend) 

Breeds commonly in the live-oak belt. Three speci- 
mens (Nos. 30444-30446) collected in Madera Canon in 
the fall, the last on October 10. This is, perhaps, as late 
a date as the species has been reported in southern Arizona. 

139. Dendroica townsendi (J. K. Townsend) 

A few migrating individuals seen early in May. Last 
observed May 17. 

140. Oporornis tolmiei (J. K. Townsend) 

Migrating in small numbers early in May. One speci- 
men collected on May 13, the last observed (No. 29766). 
Abundant in the fall. Six taken near Patagonia and two 
in Madera Canon, from August 28 to September 29 (Nos. 
30210-30215, 30447, 30448). 



Vol. XVllI] SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OP SOUTHERN ARIZONA 339 

141. Geothlypis trichas scirpicola Grinnell 
142. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis Brewster 

The breeding yellowthroat of southern Arizona is dis- 
tinguishably different from the migrant that passes through 
the region. To the breeding bird I have in previous pub- 
lications apphed the name scirpicola (Swarth, 1912, p. 71), 
as I do here, in order to indicate this difference, but this is 
an unsatisfactory arrangement. Specimens are hard to 
obtain and there are few available. I feel that an adequate 
series might show the yellowthroat of southeastern Arizona 
to belong to the form melanops, of the Mexican plateau. 
An adult male collected by myself on the San Pedro River, 
July 6, 1902, and sent at that time to Mr. Ridgway for 
his inspection was pronounced by him as ''approaching 
Geothlypis trichas melanops." (In this connection see 
also Ridgway, 1902, p. 674, footnote.) It is a large, bright 
colored bird, with the lower parts almost entirely yellow. 

A few pairs of yellowthroats occupied the limited areas 
where suitable surroundings exist in the vicinity of Pata- 
gonia. An adult female was taken in tules bordering one 
of the small lakes on the Ashburn Ranch on May 24, 
another along the Sonoita three miles south of Patagonia, 
on June 1 (Nos. 30739, 30740). Two adult males that 
were collected near Patagonia on September 15 are in the 
midst of the annual molt (Nos. 30216, 30217). The mi- 
grating form (occidentalis) was sparingly present in the 
Sonoita Valley early in May. Two specimens (Nos. 
29767, 29768) were collected, the last on May 19. 



143. Icteria virens longicauda Lawi'ence 

A common bird in the Sonoita Valley. Not often seen, 
but in full song and heard daily at many different points. 
Five specimens collected: three adults taken in May; a 
young bird in the post-juvenal molt, September 2; an 
adult nearly through the annual molt, September 9 (Nos. 
29769-29771, 30218, 30219). 



340 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Seb. 

144. Wilsonia pusilla pileolata (Pallas) 
145. Wilsonia pusilla chryseola Ridgway 

This species (represented most abundantly by the sub- 
species pileolata) is a common migrant in southern Arizona. 
It passes through later in the spring than most transients, 
and was seen in some numbers near Patagonia during May, 
when three specimens of pileolata (Nos. 29772-29774) were 
collected. In the fall, at the same place, six specimens 
of pileolata (Nos. 30222-30227) and two of chryseola (Nos. 
30220-30221) were taken from August 28 to September 
15. In Madera Canon, September 7 to 26, five specimens 
of chryseola (Nos. 30449-30453) and two of pileolata (Nos. 
30454, 30455) were secured. 



146. Setophaga picta Swainson 

A common species in the Transition zone of the Santa 
Rita Mountains. Seen by our party whenever individuals 
ascended the cafion above the Florida Ranger Station 
to a level a few hundred feet above our camp. Full-grown 
young were flying about during the first week in June. 
Abundant in Madera Canon during September. By Sep- 
tember 1 young birds had all passed through the post- 
juvenal molt and were indistinguishable from adults. One 
specimen taken near Patagonia, September 15. Thir- 
teen specimens in all were preserved (Nos. 29775-29777, 
30228, 30456-30464). 



147. Mimus polyglottos leucopterus (Vigors) 

Abundant everywhere in the lowlands. About Pata- 
gonia and at the west base of the Santa Ritas the Mock- 
ingbird was one of the most common birds. Numerous 
below Madera Cafion in the fall, when two were taken, on 
October 10 and 12, respectively. Fiye specimens in all 
were collected (Nos. 29778-29780, 30465, 30466). 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUXAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 341 

148. Toxostorna curvirostre curvirostre (Swaiiison) 
149. Toxostorna curvirostre palmeri (Coues) 

Thrashers of this species occur in small numbers in 
the Sonoita Valley and elsewhere eastward from the Santa 
Ritas, in great abundance from the western base of the 
mountains westward. J. Eugene Law (1928, p. 151) has 
called attention to the fact that the form occurring in the 
southeastern corner of Arizona is curvirostre, and not pal- 
meri, which assertion is borne out by the material we 
collected. Ten specimens were taken in the Patagonia 
region, two males and two females, adult, in May, three 
males and one female, adult, in September and October, 
and two in juvenal plumage, one shot May 14, the other 
September 6; and four were collected at the west base of 
the Santa Ritas, two adults in October and two juveniles 
in June (Nos. 29781-29787, 30229-30233, 30467, 30468). 
For the purpose of this study this series has been sup- 
plemented by additional specimens from Tucson and 
from points in Cochise County, in extreme southeastern 
Arizona. 

Differences between the two lots, east and west of the 
Santa Ritas, are, in most cases, fairly apparent, especially 
so in the freshly assumed fall plumage. The eastern 
birds {curvirostre) are rather more slaty above, have fairly 
well marked white wing bars, have sharply defined white 
tips to the outer rectrices, and the breast spots are large 
and fairly well defined. The western birds {palmeri) are 
browner above, lack the wing bars, have the tail spots 
obscurely indicated or else entirely wanting, and have 
the breast spots less distinct. There are some anomalous 
specimens at hand from points east of the mountains 
that may be explained as illustrating intergradation be- 
tween two closely related subspecies, or, perhaps, as being 
wanderers (they were taken out of the breeding season) 
from their normal habitat. As a rule, though, birds from 
the two regions are sufficiently unlike to justify Law's 
(JLoc. cit.) disposition of them. It will be noted that the 
eastern boundary of Toxostorna c. palmeri, as here re- 
stricted, is the same as that of Toxostorna bendirei. 

On Mav 13 a nest of curvirostre was found near Pata- 



342 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sbb. 

gonia containing three eggs, nearly ready to hatch; at the 
same time full grown young were seen. On May 28 a 
set of four eggs was taken. As a bird in juvenal plumage 
was collected on September 6, the nesting season is ob- 
viously of long duration. On June 5 a nest of palmeri 
was found containing newly hatched young. In nestlings 
the iris is whitish, changing to yellow during the post- 
ju venal molt. 

150. Toxostoma bendirei (Coues) 

Not seen on the east side of the Santa Rita Mountains. 
On the mesa at the western base of the range the species 
was probably fairly numerous, but owing to its close re- 
semblance to the more abundant palmeri it was not possible 
to make sure of the identity of all the thrashers that were 
seen. One specimen of bendirei was preserved (No. 29788), 
a male shot on June 9, mostly in juvenal plumage. 

151. Toxostoma crissale crissale Henry 

The Crissal Thrasher is not nearly so generally dis- 
tributed as are the Palmer and Bendire thrashers, and it 
is also much more secretive in its habits. Not seen by 
us in Sonoita Valley. Neither did we find it upon the 
cholla-covered mesa below the western base of the Santa 
Ritas, but it was discovered in some mesquite-grown 
washes at the mouth of Sawmill Caiion. Three birds 
were collected there, two adult males on June 12 and 17, 
respectively, and a juvenile male on June 13 (Nos. 20789- 
20791). An adult male (No. 30469) was taken in a similar 
wash below Madera Canon on October 12, and others 
were seen. 

152. Heleodytes brunneicapillus couesi (Sharpe) 

Not seen by us in Sonoita Valley, where there is but little 
cactus suitable for the nesting sites that this bird prefers. 
On the Santa Rita Range Reserve it is an abundant spe- 
cies. Nests with small young were found there during the 
first week in June, and full-grown young were flying about 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 343 

at the same time. Late in June birds were seen at work 
upon newly constructed nests, but these may have been 
built merely as resting places, and not necessarily for the 
reception of eggs. Cactus Wrens sometimes use nests 
thus throughout the year. Six specimens of Cactus Wren 
were preserved, four adults and two juveniles (Nos. 29702- 
29706, 30470). 

153. Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus (Say) 

Seen occasionally in the spring in the vicinity of Pata- 
gonia and also at the west base of the Santa Ritas, but not 
common in either place. Abundant in lower Madera 
Caiion in September. Eight specimens collected (Nos. 
30471-30477, 30234). 

154. Catherpes mexicanus conspersus Ridgway 

One specimen, an adult male (No. 29797), was collected 
near our camp on the Ashburn Ranch, May 16, and others 
were heard singing in Temporal Canon, near by. A pair 
of Canon Wrens had a nest in a shed at the Florida Ranger 
Station. One was collected in Madera Canon on October 
4 (No. 30484). The species is of general distribution in 
suitable places in southern Arizona. 

155. Thryomanes bewickii eremophilus Oberholser 

Found near Patagonia in the live oaks and underbrush 
of the rocky hills bordering the valley, where full-grown 
young were seen during the last week in May. Not abun- 
dant, and even less numerous in June at the western base 
of the mountains. Common in Madera Canon, however, 
in September. Fourteen specimens collected (Nos. 29798- 
29803, 30235, 30236, 30478-30483). 

156. Troglodytes aedon parkmanii Audubon 

Breeds in the mountains at a higher altitude than that 
at which most of our work was done, moving down after 
the breeding season to the foothills and valleys. Fairly 



344 CAUFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Psoc. 4th Sbb. 

common in lower Madera Canon throughout September. 
Six specimens collected (Nos. 29804, 30237, 30485-30488). 

157. Sitta carolinensis nelsoni Mearns 

A few of these nuthatches, the breeding season apparently 
over, appeared at the lower level of the oaks on the hills 
bordering the Sonoita Valley, during the third week in 
May. Others were seen there in September and in Madera 
Caiion in October. Eight specimens in all were collected, 
including two juveniles taken on May 26 (Nos. 29805- 
29807, 30238-30240, 30489). 

158. Baeolophus wollweberi annexus (Cassin) 

A common resident of the live-oak belt in the Santa 
Ritas, as in the other mountain ranges of southern Ari- 
zona. In the vicinity of Patagonia a few individuals 
appeared from time to time in the oaks on the surround- 
ing hills. Abundant in Madera Cafion in the fall. The 
post- Juvenal molt of young birds, and annual molt of 
adults, are not completely over until nearly the end of 
September. Sixteen specimens were collected (Nos. 29808- 
29810, 30241-30245, 30490-30498). 

159. Psaltriparus plumbeus (Baird) 

Another Upper Sonoran species that barely extends 
down to the floor of the Sonoita Valley, where but few were 
seen. As early as May 12, Lead-colored Bush-tits were 
seen in flocks, as though the nesting period was quite 
over. Ten specimens were collected, two adults and five 
young near Patagonia in May, and three molting birds 
in Madera Canon, September 12 and 15 (Nos. 29811- 
29817, 30499-30501). The juveniles all had dark-colored 
eyes; in the adults the eye was white. 

160. Auriparus fiaviceps flaviceps (Sundevall) 

A common desert species of general distribution in the 
lowlands of southern Arizona. A nest with two eggs was 
found in Temporal Caiion, May 20. Abundant in and 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 345 

below Madera Canon in September and October, ascending 
up to 4800 feet. Fourteen specimens were preserved 
(Nos. 29818, 29819, 30502-30512, 30514). 

161. Regulus calendula calendula (Linnaeus) 

Seen near Patagonia during the first week in October. One 
collected in Madera Caiion on October 11 (No. 30513). 

162. Polioptila caerulea amoenissima Grinnell 

An Upper Sonoran zone species that we saw in small 
numbers in the foothill country bordering the Sonoita 
Valley and at the western base of the Santa Ritas. One 
specimen collected at Patagonia, September 22, and jfive 
in Madera Canon, September 7 to 21 (Nos. 30244, 30515- 
30519). For use of the name amoenissima see Grinnell, 
1926, p. 494. 

163. Polioptila melanura melanura Lawrence 

In small numbers at the western base of the Santa Rita 
Mountains, in the chaparral of the Santa Rita Range 
Reserve. For the use of the name melanura see Penard, 
1923, p. 335, and Grinnell, 1926, p. 496. 

164. Hylocichla ustulata ustulata (Nuttall) 

A few migrating Russet-backed Thrushes were seen near 
Patagonia, the last on May 30. Of three birds collected 
(Nos. 29820, 29821) two are so nearly intermediate in ap- 
pearance between ustulata and swainsoni as to make them 
difficult to place. I have collected other specimens of the 
same nature in Arizona. The occurrence of such indeter- 
minate specimens is, perhaps, an answer to the query raised 
by Van Rossem (1925, p. 37), who suggests that there is 
possibly specific difference between ustulata and swainsoni. 



346 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Pboc. 4th Ser 



Check-List of the Mammals 

1. Myotis velifer velifer (Allen) 18. Perognathua penicillatus pricei Allen 

2. Myotis californicus cali/ornicus 19. Dipodomys spectabilis spectabilis Merriam 

(Audubon & Bachman) 20. Dipodomys merriami merriami Mearns 

3. Myotis thysanodes thysanodes Miller 21. Dipodomys merriami olivaceus Swarth 

4. Corynorhintts rafinesquii pallescens Miller 22. Dipodomys ordii ordii Woodhouse 
6. Antrozous pallidus pallidus (h^ C^OTit€) 23. Onychomys tori-idus torridus (Couea) 

6. Spilogale ambigua lile&rns 24. Reithrodontomysinegalotismegalotis 

7. Mephitis estor Merriam (Baird) 

8. Urocyon cinereoargenteus scottii Mearns 25. Peromyscus eremicus eremicus (Baird) 

9. Otospermophilus gram.m,urus grammurus 26. Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis 

(Say) (Le Conte) 

10. Citellus spilosoma canescens (Merriam) 27. Peromyscus leucopus arizonse (Allen) 

11. Citellus tereticaudusneglectusCM.enmm) 28. Peromyscus boylii rowleyi {Allen) 

12. Ammospermophilus harrisii (Audubon & 29. Sigmodon hispidus cienegse A. B. Howell 

Bachman) 30. Neotoma albigula albigula Hartley 

13. Thom.om.ys fuhus toltecus Allen 31. Mus musculus musculus Linnseus 

14. Thomoviys fuhus intermedius Mearns 32. Lepus alleni alleni Mearns 

15. Perognathus flatus flxiTus "Bsiad. 33. Lepus californicus eremicus Allen 

16. Perognathvs amplus Osgood 34. Sylvilagus auduboni arizonx (Allen) 

17. Perognathus baileyi baileyi Merriam 



General Accounts of the Mammals 
1. Myotis velifer velifer (J. A. Allen) 

Four specimens collected (Nos. 5963-5966), all females 
and all from the same tunnel (McCleary's mine, altitude 
about 5000 feet), from which specimens of Myotis t. thysan- 
odes and Corynorhinus r. 'pallescens were also taken. One 
was collected on September 27, and three on October 1. 

2. Myotis californicus californicus (Audubon & Bachman) 

One specimen (No. 5967) collected in Madera Canon, 
altitude 4800 feet, on October 6. In the treatment accorded 
the subspecies of Myotis californicus by Miller & Allen 
(1928, p. 148, map 11), it will be noted that the dividing 
Une drawn between the forms californicus and pallidus in 
southern Arizona accords with that separating the Western 
Desert Area and the Eastern Plains Area. 

3. Myotis thysanodes thysanodes Miller 

Seven specimens collected (Nos. 5956-5962). These are 
all males and were all taken at the same place, in a mining 
tunnel (McCleary's mine), at about 5000 feet altitude in 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 347 

Madera Canon, one on September 27, three on October 1, 
and three on October 9. 



4. Corynorhinus rafinesquii pallescens Miller 

Three specimens collected. No. 5687, female, was taken 
in a cave in a limestone ledge bordering the Sonoita, seven 
miles north of Patagonia, on May 23. It contained one 
fetus. Nos. 5954, 5955, males, were found in a tunnel 
(the McCleary mine), in Madera Canon at about 5000 feet 
elevation, on September 27. In the rocky ledge along the 
Sonoita there are series of caves, large and small, which, 
apparently, are occupied at some time of the year by a large 
number of bats. Our investigations in May disclosed very 
few, not more than six or eight individuals all told. These 
few bats were active and alert, departing at the first indi- 
cation of danger. 



5. Antrozous pallidus pallidus (Le Conte) 

The adobe cabin that we occupied on the Ashburn Ranch 
evidently sheltered a number of bats, between the walls 
and under the roof. Several Pallid Bats were caught on 
May 23 and 24, as they issued from crevices in the walls 
at dusk, and two, both females, were preserved (Nos. 
5688-5689). Two more, male and female, respectively, 
were collected at the same place on August 29 (Nos. 
5941-5942). 



6. Spilogale ambigua Mearns 

An adult male (No. 5948) was trapped in Madera Canon, 
altitude 5200 feet, on September 30. 



7. Mephitis ester Merriam 

An adult female (No. 5910) was trapped near the mouth 
of Stone Cabin Caiion, June 9. 

AprU 26, 1929 



348 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th Skb. 

8. Urocyon cinereoargenteus scottii Mearns 

Gray Foxes are fairly common in the Arizona mountains, 
extending down into the lowest foothills. One specimen, 
an adult female (No. 5911), was obtained by our party, 
trapped near our camp on the Ashburn ranch, seven miles 
north of Patagonia, on May 21. 

9. Otospermophilus grammurus grammurus (Say) 

An Upper Sonoran species that descends into Sonoita 
Valley at a few points. We saw ground squirrels occa- 
sionally along a rocky ledge bordering the bed of the So- 
noita near the Ashburn ranch house, and four specimens 
(Nos. 5893-5896), adults in rather worn pelage, were col- 
lected there in May. Seen at about 5200 feet elevation in 
Madera Carion. 

10. Citellus spilosoma canescens (Merriam) 

A small colony was found on the grounds about the old 
buildings of Fort Crittenden, where the animals were using, 
in part at least, burrows of Dipodomys spectahilis. Two 
specimens, adult females, were trapped there on June 1 
and September 16, respectively (Nos. 5892, 5940), and a 
young male (No. 5939) was shot at a nearby locality, near 
Sonoita, on September 7. I was told that the species 
occurred in small numbers on the west side of the Santa 
Ritas, toward the north end of the range, but we saw none 
there ourselves. From the Santa Ritas eastward this spe- 
cies entirely replaces Citellus tereticaudus neglectus (see 
Mearns, 1907, p. 337), which in some respects it closely 
resembles. I have found it at various scattered points in 
southeastern Arizona, but never in any such numbers as 
neglectus attains to the westward. Canescens, moreover 
(and the same holds true of obsidianus, the only other sub- 
species of this species with which I am acquainted), is far 
more wary and retiring than the races of tereticaudus, so 
that even when present in fair abundance it may be over- 
looked. 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAVNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 349 

11. Citellus tereticaudus neglectus (Merriam) 

A common species on the desert plains from the Santa 
Rita Mountains v^^estw^ard, though by no means of general 
distribution. We found colonies along the road leading 
from Madera Canon to Helvetia, covering circumscribed 
areas a few miles below the base of the mountains. Seven 
specimens (Nos. 5885-5891) were collected there on June 
10 and 14, all scantily haired and nearly all in process of 
pelage renewal. 

On June 10, Gorsuch, walking through a Citellus colony, 
caught sight of the tail of a Gila Monster (Heloderma 
suspectum) in one of the burrows, and, as he watched, the 
reptile slowly backed out. About its mouth Citellus hair 
adhered and when the lizard was killed and opened a 
spermophile was found in its stomach, swallowed entire, 
head first. Snakes, from their greater abundance, are 
probably a more serious menace, but from either of these 
enemies the spermophiles must be well-nigh helpless in a 
system of burrows that does not provide several outlets. 
In the colonies observed here the holes were in gravelly, 
hard-packed ground, and (though I made no excavations) 
I received the impression that the burrows were of rather 
simple construction. Some of the animals, however, were 
seen going in and out of kangaroo rat holes, in mounds 
that were honeycombed with runways, where doubtless 
they were in greater safety. 

Round-tailed Spermophiles were occasionally seen in 
mesquite trees, ten or fifteen feet from the ground. I saw 
one, surprised in such a situation by one of our party who 
walked below without seeing the animal, that remained 
quietly aloft until the danger had passed, when it descended 
to the ground and to its nearby burrow. 



12. Ammospermophilus harrisii (Audubon & Bachman) 

Abundant on the Santa Rita Range Reserve, as it is over 
much of the lowlands of Arizona west of that point. As 
far as I know, the species does not occur along the Arizona- 
Mexico boundary line east of the Santa Rita Mountains. 
We did not see it in the Sonoita Valley, I never saw it in 



350 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Phoc. 4th Seb. 

previous years collecting in southern Cochise County, and 
Mearns (1907, p. 304-305) comments upon its absence from 
that section. Its range, then, in southern Arizona extends 
from the Colorado River east to the west base of the Santa 
Ritas. Farther north in the state, probably from the base 
of the Mogollon escarpment south about to the latitude 
of Fort Bowie, it extends eastward into New Mexico. 
The local distribution of this and the other small ground 
squirrels {Ammospermophilus and Citellus) of Arizona pre- 
sents various peculiar features. Although it is not unusual 
to find two species in the same locality, still, as a rule, 
they are segregated, and some one species, is, invariably, 
I believe, greatly in preponderance at any one place. Thus, 
in the section where we were working Ammospermophilus 
harrisii was abundant over the greater part of the slope 
extending from Madera and Sawmill caiions down to the 
Santa Cruz River. Some miles north of the mouth of Saw- 
mill Canon there are large colonies of Citellus tereticaudus 
negledus, where very few of A. harrisii were seen. Between 
Tucson and the Santa Catalina Mountains, some years 
ago, I found the Citellus abundant, to the absolute exclusion 
of the Ammospermophilus. I have not been able in the 
places indicated to correlate the presence or absence of these 
species with soil conditions, as described by Grinnell (1914, 
pp. 219, 224) from the valley of the Colorado River. No- 
where in this general region are there areas of wind-drifted 
sand, such as Grinnell describes as the preferred habitat of 
tereticaudus. The ground is almost uniformly hard and 
gravelly except in the river bottoms, and there no sper- 
mophiles were seen. 

Ammospermophilus harrisii is a diurnal animal, active 
throughout the day, and, when present, conspicuously in 
view. In trapping in the region where this ground squirrel 
occurs I lost a large proportion of small mammals, destroyed 
in the traps, and came to the conclusion that harrisii must 
be responsible. The specimens were mutilated through 
being nibbled at, the leg bones of a rat or mouse being 
left attached to the everted skin, so the damage must have 
been done by a small-sized animal. As specimens of 
Ammospermophilus were found thus eaten in the traps 



Vol. XVIII J SWARTH—FAUXAL AREAS OF SOUTHER!^ ARIZONA 351 

when I kneviT that they had been trapped during the day, 
it was evident that a diurnal species was at least partly 
responsible. The damage was most frequently inflicted 
where Ammospermophilus was abundant, so altogether I 
am inclined to lay the blame on that species. Mearns 
(1907, p. 305) comments upon the carnivorous habits of this 
ground squirrel. 

Ammospermophilus harrisii saxicola was described by 
Mearns (1896, p. 444; 1907, p. 306) from southwestern 
Arizona, as distinct from A. h. harrisii of the region where 
we collected. I have compared the fourteen adults we 
collected on the Santa Rita Range Reserve (see table, p. 
352) with a series of twenty-four comparable adults from 
the lower Colorado River, in the Museum of Vertebrate 
Zoology and am unable to appreciate the color differences 
described by Mearns. Neither do I find such differences in 
measurements as Mearns ascribes to the two forms (see 
table, p. 352, and compare with tables given by Mearns 
[1907, pp. 307-309], and by Grinnell [1914, p. 220]). 
Consequently I agree with Grinnell {loc. cit.) in the con- 
elusion that Ammospermophilus harrisii salicicola Mearns 
is not deserving of recognition. 



13. Thomomys fulvus toltecus Allen 

14. Thomomys fulvus intermedius Mearns 

Pocket Gophers were abundant in the lowlands bordering 
the Sonoita. Throughout this portion of Arizona I think 
it is true that these animals in the lowlands are restricted 
to the vicinity of streams and to irrigated land adjoining, 
being entirely absent from the rocky foot-hills, the desert 
mesa, and the grassy plains. In the Patagonia section we 
found them only in the bottom lands. At the western 
base of the Santa Ritas no gopher sign was found anywhere 
on the Santa Rita Range Reserve or in the part of Stone 
Cabin Canon where we were camped. In September, Miss 
McLellan found gophers in Madera Canon, where five 
were trapped near the 5000-foot contour and workings seen 
up to about 7000 feet. 



352 



CAUFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[ Pboc. 4th Ser. 



Measurements in millimeters of adult Ammospermophilus 
harrisii from the Santa Rita Range Reserve, Pima County, 
Arizona. 



Collection 


No. 


Sex 


Date 


Total 
length 


Tail 
vertebrae 


Hind 
foot 


C. A. S. 


5873 


c^ 


June 


7, 1927 


225 


81 


42 


C. A. S. 


5875 


d" 


June 


8, 1927 


255 


91 


41 


C. A. S. 


5884 


(^ 


June 


13, 1927 


223 


79 


36 


C. A. S. 


5871 


9 


June 


5, 1927 


233 


80 


40 


C. A. S. 


5872 


9 


June 


5, 1927 


238 


78 


39 


C. A. S. 


5874 


9 


June 


7, 1927 


226 


80 


39 


C. A. S. 


5870 


9 


June 


8, 1927 


235 


78 


40 


C. A. S. 


5876 


9 


June 


8, 1927 


246 


83 


43 


C. A. S. 


5877 


9 


June 


8, 1927 


228 


80 


39 


C. A. S. 


5878 


9 


June 


8, 1927 


232 


80 


40 


C. A. S. 


5880 


9 


June 


11, 1927 


225 


83 


40 


C. A. S. 


5881 


9 


June 


15, 1927 


223 


83 


41 


C. A. S. 


5882 


9 


June 


15, 1927 


230 


88 


40 


C. A. S. 


5883 


9 


June 


13, 1927 


225 


80 


36 



Average. 



231.7 81.7 39.3 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 353 

Bailey (1915) ascribes the gopher of the lovv^lands of this 
part of Arizona to Thomomys fulvus toltecus, that of the 
mountains to T. f. intermedius. Applying to our Patagonia 
series the characters ascribed to toltecus, and to the Madera 
Canon specimens those of intermedius, I can follow him in 
this division. The Patagonia specimens, 28 in all (Nos. 
5724-5751), are larger and duller brown. The five from 
Madera Caiion (Nos. 5949-5953) are smaller, richer brown, 
and black-backed. 

Our specimens of toltecus were all taken in one pasture, 
seven miles north of the town of Patagonia, at about 4500 
feet altitude, and on the border line between the Upper 
and Lower Sonoran zones. We saw no gopher sign in such 
purely Lower Sonoran localities as we visited, where con- 
ditions were evidently unfavorable to the species. Bailey 
(lac. cit., p. 86) ascribes to toltecus a Lower Sonoran habitat, 
but it occurs also in some Upper Sonoran localities, as in 
the foothills of the Huachuca Mountains. There must be 
many such places where disconnected areas inhabited by 
toltecus are far more widely separated than are the habitats 
of toltecus and intermedius. In the Huachucas, for instance, 
there is practically continuous distribution of pocket 
gophers from the mountain tops down the canons eastward 
to where they open upon the plains. Then there is a wide 
plains area devoid of these animals until the bottom lands of 
the San Pedro and Babocomari rivers are reached. As 
Bailey points out, the differences in subspecific characters 
occur as between specimens from the mountain tops and 
those from the mountains' base (between which there is 
essentially continuous distribution), while close resem- 
blances exist between widely separated lowland distribution 
areas. It is a peculiarity in subspecific differentiation that 
is worthy of future study. 



15. Perognathus flavus flavus Baird 

Two specimens (Nos. 5787, 5788) were obtained, trapped 
near our camp at the mouth of Stone Cabin Canon, on 
June 9 and 10, respectively. The trap line was laid along 
a north-facing slope, grass covered and with scattering 



354 



CAUFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Pboc. 4th Skb. 






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Madera Canon, Sta. Rita 
Madera Canon, Sta. Rita 
Madera Canon. Sta. Rita 


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Madera Canon, Sta. Rita 
Madera Canon, Sta. Rita 


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Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 355 

oak trees. No other pocket mice were taken in this Une, 
and this species of Perognathus was not otherwise found 
by us. 

16. Perognathus amplus Osgood 

Found only on the Santa Rita Range Reserve, where 
four were trapped, three on June 13, one on June 16 (Nos. 
5783-5786). Two are adults, two in juvenal pelage. The 
first three secured were taken within a few hundred yards 
of each other, the fourth about a mile distant, in trap lines 
that were about five miles northwest of the Florida Ranger 
Station, and a mile or more from the base of the mountains. 



17. Perognathus baileyi baileyi Merriam 

A rather uncommon species in the section of the Santa 
Rita Range Reserve where we were trapping. Eight speci- 
mens (Nos. 5752-5759) were preserved and a few more 
discarded (damaged in the traps) from our trap lines there 
during June. Somewhat more abundant during October 
immediately below Madera Canon, where 17 skins were 
obtained (Nos. 5970-5985, 6037). On the plains bordering 
the western base of the Santa Rita Mountains was the only 
place where we found the species. None was taken in the 
foothills and none east of the mountains. One was found 
in the stomach of a rattlesnake {Crotalus airox). 



18. Perognathus penicillatus price! Allen 

Eleven from the vicinity of Patagonia, twelve from the 
Santa Rita Range Reserve, and two from lower Madera 
Canon (Nos. 5760-5782, 5968-5969). The species was 
decidedly rare in the Patagonia region, where the specimens 
preserved represent the entire catch for a month. At the 
western base of the mountains it was more numerous, and 
many more were caught than were preserved. No juveniles 
were taken at Patagonia, during May, but on the Santa Rita 
Range Reserve, during June, the young were as numerous 
as adults. 



356 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES . [Pboc. 4th Ser. 

19. Dipodomys spectabilis spectabilis Merriam 

A common species in the higher portion of the Santa Rita 
Range Reserve. Twenty-three specimens (Nos. 5848-5870) 
were trapped there during June, all adults. No young 
ones were seen or trapped, and none of the females collected 
contained embryos or was nursing. Three specimens (Nos. 
5933-5935) were trapped at Fort Crittenden in September. 
The conspicuous mounds and other workings of the animal 
were not seen elsewhere on the east side of the Santa 
Ritas, and it may be doubted that the species extends 
farther east in the near vicinity of the boundary line. 

For life history and other information regarding this 
species, as observed in the exact section where we were 
working, see Vorhies and Taylor, 1922. 



20. Dipodomys merriami merriami Mearns 

Extremely abundant west of the Santa Rita Mountains, 
where it is of general distribution over the desert plains 
and up to the base of the mountains. Forty-six specimens 
(Nos. 5802-5847) were prepared during June, all from the 
Santa Rita Range Reserve, and many more trapped animals 
were discarded for various reasons. 



21. Dipodomys merriami olivaceus, new subspecies 

Type. — Male adult, skin and skull, No. 6235, Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci., collected by Sam Davidson (orig. No. 39), 
October 28, 1928, Fairbank, Cochise County, Arizona. 
Measurements of type: Total length 243.0 mm.; tail ver- 
tebrae, 141.0; hind foot 37.0; ear, 12.0. Skull: greatest 
length, 36.5 mm.; breadth of skull across bullae, 23.0; 
spread of maxillary arches, 17.2; greatest length of nasals, 
13.5; greatest width of rostrum near end, 3.2; width of 
maxillary arch at middle, 5.0. 

Diagnosis. — A slightly differentiated race of Dipodomys 
merriami, varying from typical D. m. merriami in darker 
coloration and in slightly larger skull with appreciably 
higher brain case. 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 357 

Material examined. — Three specimens from Fairbank, 
Arizona, in the collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences; ten specimens from Fairbank, Arizona, in the 
Stanford University collection; nine specimens from Fair- 
bank, Arizona, and three from the east base of the Hua- 
chuca Mountains, Arizona, in the collection of the Field 
Museum of Natural History. 

Remarks. — We collected no specimens of four-toed 
kangaroo rats east of the Santa Rita Mountains. I knew, 
however, that the species occurred in that general region, 
having collected some, years before, at the east base of the 
Huachuca Mountains, and the manner of occurrence there, 
in comparison with conditions west of the Santa Ritas, 
made it seem desirable to make close comparison of speci- 
mens from the two regions. We had abundant material 
from the western area, but none from the eastern. To aid 
us in supplying this need, Mr. Sam Davidson, of Palo 
Alto, California, who was in Tucson temporarily, made a 
trip to Fairbank, where he trapped three specimens on 
October 27 and 28, 1928. I was also able to borrow speci- 
mens from the Stanford University collection and from the 
Field Museum of Natural History, as above indicated. 

From the western base of the Santa Rita Mountains 
westward throughout the lowlands of southwestern Arizona 
(the Western Desert Area), D. m. merriami is one of the 
most common, perhaps the commonest, small mammal. 
In the Eastern Plains Area kangaroo rats are rare, occurring 
in small colonies at widely scattered intervals. Apparently 
open grass land is not suited to their needs, for they usually 
occur in sandy washes, where soft ground and low scattered 
bushes afford more congenial surroundings. 

Examination of specimens shows the presence of certain 
slight differentiating characters that can be associated 
with animals from the two regions. Of these features 
color is the most outstanding. 

Olivaceus is relatively dark colored, more olivaceous, as 
compared with the bright reddish hue of typical merriami, 
a difference that shows strongly in comparing series from 
the nearby localities of Fairbank and the Santa Rita 
Range Reserve. Merriami is markedly variable in colora- 



358 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ( Paoc. 4th Seb, 

tion, as pointed out by Grinnell (1922, p. 74), but the 
Fairbank specimens stand outside the Hmits of variation 
in any series of merriami examined from western Arizona 
or southeastern California. Coloration of olivaceus is 
practically indistinguishable from that of Dipodomys ordii 
ordii, which occurs together with olivaceus in southern 
Arizona. In fact, a specimen of ordii, labelled merriami, 
was found among the borrowed skins. In the skull, the 
slightly greater general size and higher brain case of 
olivaceus are average characters that hold fairly well, 
though there is overlapping between the two forms in 
these regards. 

Once the peculiar features of the Fairbank specimens 
were appreciated, the possibility suggested itself of their 
being the same as the form Dipodomys ambiguus Merriam 
(1890, p. 42), described from El Paso, Texas, and later 
regarded as a subspecies of D. merriami. A series of 
'^ ambiguus" was loaned me by the United States Biological 
Survey, with the added information that that form was now 
considered by mammalogists of the Survey as indistinguish- 
able from typical merriami. With this opinion I can concur, 
as the El Paso specimens in the series are indistinguishable 
from my series from the Tucson region. The series of 
"ambiguus," however, includes two skins from Jarilla, 
New Mexico, and one of these is exactly like olivaceus in 
color. Whether or not this indicates intergradation be- 
tween the two forms in that region I can not say; no such 
close resemblance appears in any series from points west 
of the Santa Rita Mountains. 

I wish to emphasize the fact that olivaceus is not a strong- 
ly marked form. It is admittedly a faintly indicated 
subspecies, of average heavier build and darker coloration 
than merriami in about the same degree, as at the western 
edge of the merriami habitat, the variant simiolus is 
slightly smaller and paler colored. As these differences do 
exist, however, and, moreover, as they can be correlated 
with markedly different physical surroundings and living 
conditions, it seems to me desirable to have names for each 
of the forms concerned. 

That the El Paso specimens should prove to be the same 
as those from Tucson is probably an indication of con- 



Vol. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 359 

tinuous distribution of merriami between the two points 
through a belt to the northward of the habitat of olivaceus. 
After the above account was written there was pubHshed 
the description by Goldman (1928, p. 141) of Dipodomys 
merriami mayensis, from southern Sonora, Mexico, which 
is also described as a dark colored form. The possibility 
suggested itself, of course, of mayensis and olivaceus being 
synonymous, but, although I have not made direct compari- 
son of specimens, the skull characters of mayensis that are 
emphasized by Goldman and demonstrated in his measure- 
ments are not features of olivaceus. Mayensis appears 
to be a different, and probably a more strongly marked, 
subspecies. 

22. Dipodomys ordii ordii Woodhouse 

Present in small numbers in the Sonoita Valley. Thirteen 
specimens (Nos. 5789-5801) were trapped between May 16 
and 30, all in rather sandy bottom lands bordering the 
Sonoita River, a few miles north of Patagonia. The series 
includes three half-grown young, collected on May 27 and 
29. 

23. Onychomys torridus torridus Coues 

Not common in the Sonoita Valley. Trap lines in a 
section of the bottom lands where the soil was rather light 
and sandy produced six specimens in about two weeks. 
Other trap lines where conditions were different did not 
catch any. West of the mountains, on the Santa Rita 
Range Reserve, the species was far more abundant, and 
some were caught almost every night. Thirty-seven 
specimens in all were preserved, six from the vicinity of 
Patagonia (Nos. 5652-5657), twenty-two from the Santa 
Rita Range Reserve (Nos. 5658-5679), and nine from below 
the mouth of Madera Caiion (Nos. 5986-5992, 6032). 

Another species, Onycho7nys leucogaster ruidosce, occurs 
east of the Santa Ritas, as at Fairbank (Hollister, 1914, p. 
448), but we failed to find it and have no data showing 
whether or not the two species occur over precisely the 
same ground. 



360 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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362 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th Seb. 

24. Reithrodontomys megalotis megalotis (Baird) 

Evidently rather rare throughout the region. Four 
were trapped near Patagonia, on May 15, 18, 19, and 28, 
respectively, and three of them preserved (Nos. 5639, 
5684, 5685). One was caught at the mouth of Stone Cabin 
Canon, June 11 (No. 5683). 



25. Peromyscus eremicus eremicus (Baird) 

Eleven specimens collected: One from near Patagonia, 
and ten from the foothills at the western base of the Santa 
Rita Mountains (Nos. 5628-5635, 5641, 6017, 6018). The 
Patagonia specimen (from a trap line that produced P. I. 
arizoncB and P. m. sonoriensis) was the only example of this 
mouse that we caught in that region. At the western base 
of the mountains eremicus was found mostly in rocky places 
in the lowest foothills. Only one or two were caught on 
the Santa Rita Range Reserve, and those on the bottoms 
of gulleys leading from the hills. No Peromyscus of any 
kind was caught on the level floor of the Range Reserve, 
where other species of rodents were decidedly abundant. 



26. Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis (Le Conte) 

Four specimens (Nos. 5647-5649, 5651) were trapped 
in bottom lands adjoining the Sonoita River, some six 
miles north of Patagonia, in the same trap lines that were 
producing Dipodomys, Perognathus, and Onychomys. Not 
one was collected in all the trapping that was carried on at 
the western base of the Santa Ritas. I have not found the 
species to be common anywhere in southeastern Arizona. 



27. Peromyscus leucopus arizonae (Allen) 

Seven specimens (Nos. 5638, 5640, 5642-5646) were col- 
lected near Patagonia, in the same trap lines that produced 
our few examples of sonoriensis. This was in sandy or 
gravelly bottom lands. None of this species was taken in 
the rocky localities that harbored rowleyi, nor was any 
collected on the west side of the Santa Ritas. 



Vol. XVIII1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 363 

28. Peromyscus boylii rowleyi (Allen) 

Abundant in the mountain ranges of southeastern Ari- 
zona, down to the lower limit of the Upper Sonoran zone; 
absent from the plains. Twenty-seven specimens pre- 
served from the Patagonia region, 47 from the vicinity of 
the Florida Ranger Station, and from lower Madera Canon 
(Nos. 5591-5627, 5636, 5637, 5650, 5994-6016, 6019-6026, 
6029-6031). All taken at our Patagonia station were in 
rocky outcroppings bordering the Sonoita River, at the 
lower edge of the oak woods. None was found on the valley 
floor where other species of Peromyscus were trapped. 



29. Sigmodon hispidus cienegae A. B. Howell 

Three cotton rats (Nos. 5680-5682) were taken near our 
camp seven miles north of Patagonia, on May 20, 21, and 
23, respectively. One was found drowned in a ditch, the 
other two were caught in the same trap on a sandy stretch 
adjoining the Sonoita River bottom, far from water at 
that season, and where I had been trapping Dipodomys 
and Perognathus. Several piles of brush, like small, flat- 
tened, wood rat "houses" had attracted my attention 
there, but no wood rats were caught, and the traps were 
undisturbed after the cotton rats were captured. Two 
more were trapped on marshy ground bordering the Sonoita 
a short distance below Patagonia on September 21 and 23, 
respectively. These two were females, containing the one 
12, the other 14, embryos! 

I am applying to these specimens the name Sigmodon 
hispidus cienegce A. B. Howell (1919, p. 161), at the sugges- 
tion of Major E. A. Goldman, and without myself making 
any study of the systematic status of the group. No less 
than five names are in use for cotton rats from different lo- 
calities in southern and central Arizona, with few specimens 
available from any one place. The dift'erences involved are 
mostly of size, and size has been shown by Grinnell (1914, 
p. 230) to vary so much in one of the races that some doubt 
may be felt as to the validity of at least some of the sub- 
species described. 

April 26. 1929 



364 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

30. Neotoma albigula albigula Hartley 

Of common occurrence nearly everywhere in Upper and 
Lower Sonoran zones, but less numerous about Patagonia 
than on the west side of the mountains. On the Santa 
Rita Range Reserve wood rats were especially abundant, 
and their nests, often of great size, were conspicuous nearly 
everywhere in the chaparral. Many more specimens were 
trapped than could be skinned, but 39 were preserved, as 
follows: from Patagonia, 20 (Nos. 5690-5709), collected in 
May; from Stone Cabin Cafion and the adjacent Santa 
Rita Range Reserve, 14 (Nos. 5710-5723), collected in 
June; from lower Madera Cafion, 5 (Nos. 5943-5947), 
collected between September 23 and October 8. 

A large proportion of the wood rats trapped were infested 
with larvae of a species of bot-fly, huge grubs often nearly 
an inch long, lying just under the skin. These were most 
often found on the throat, where the rat seems powerless 
to dislodge them. Twelve of the 39 specimens preserved 
had grubs so located. They are mostly on animals taken 
during June. It was noticeable that the other rodents of 
the region were free of this sort of pest, which, however, 
was also common on rabbits. 



31. Mus musculus musculus Linnaeus 

One was trapped in brush land, some distance from any 
houses, near Patagonia on May 27 (No. 5683). 



32. Lepus alleni alleni Mearns 

Extremely abundant in the vicinity of Tucson. The dis- 
tribution of this species in Arizona is of more than ordinary 
interest, occurring as it does over a relatively restricted 
area, and having its range delimited by factors that are 
dijHicult to comprehend. As we travelled east in Arizona 
we found this hare rather abruptly plentiful at a point 
about one-third of the way from Florence to Tucson, 
which point in fact marks approximately the known western 
boundary of its range. On the Santa Rita Range Reserve 
it was so numerous that it was no uncommon occurrence 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 365 

in the early morning for 12 or 15 of these hares to be in 
sight at once, fleeing at the approach of our auto along the 
road. The species occurs in small numbers in the Sonoita 
Valley, where we saw several within a few miles of Pata- 
gonia, but it is decidedly rare there and elsewhere along the 
east base of the Santa Rita Mountains, and does not occur 
at all in the open country still farther east. 

In the original account of Lepus alleni (Mearns, 1890, 
p. 294), the habitat is said to lie ''between Phoenix and Ben- 
son," a statement that has been repeated in other publica- 
tions. I doubt if it extends quite as far northwestward as 
Phoenix, and it certainly does not reach as far east as Ben- 
son. The vicinity of Pantano, about 20 miles west of Ben- 
son, marks the eastern boundary of the species. Minor 
<;orrections of range of this sort may appear unimportant, 
but in this and some other desert species of the same region 
there is significance in their distribution that will be under- 
stood eventually only by close attention to just such 
details. 

A subspecies of Lepus californicus (L. c. eremicus) 
occurs about the Tucson region in company with alleni 
and in about equal numbers. We saw them together 
repeatedly on the Santa Rita Range Reserve, sometimes 
sitting under the same bush or running away side by side. 
The species Lepus californicus, however, occurs uninter- 
ruptedly across the desert plains of southern Arizona, 
from the Colorado River to New Mexico. The dividing 
line between two subspecies of this species, eremicus and 
deserticola, lies somewhere near the western limit of L. 
alleni, but this is the only coincidence between any bounda- 
ries of the two species and it is doubtful if there is any real 
correlation there. It is difficult to imagine the factors that 
delimit the range of one species of jack rabbit and permit 
the other to pass unhindered, but that there are such factors 
must be realized by anyone noting the sharp delimitation 
of the one species, alleni, within the wider habitat of the 
other, californicus. 

Lepus alleni is placed by Nelson (1909, p. 115) in the 
Lepus callotis group, or white-sided jack rabbits, the mem- 
bers of which have a peculiar habit of flashing the white 
markings on their haunches from one side to the other as 



366 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th Ser. 

they flee from pursuit. This habit is described and figured 
by Nelson (lac. ciL, p. 115, pi. 1), as observed in Lepus 
callotis, in terms that do not entirely accord with my own 
observations upon L. alleni. In the text and on the plate 
cited the changing white area is described and figured as 
on the sides and flanks of the animal. My own observa- 
tions (made with the above account fresh in my mind) were 
of an animal on which the white area covered the entire 
rump and extended forward barely to include the flanks. 

On rabbits seen at close range, quiet and not alarmed, the 
white hardly shows at all. The white hairs are dark-tipped 
and in the smooth-lying pelage the white is hidden. Evi- 
dently it is flashed into view by a twitching of the skin, 
as described by Nelson, that raises the white hairs con- 
spicuously. As the startled jack rabbit departs it is 
usually quartering, rarely going straight away from the 
observer, and always the haunch in view shows a flash of 
white. As it bounds along it turns constantly, exposing 
sometimes one flank, sometimes the other, the white area 
shifting with every turn, but not extending forward be- 
yond the haunches. The black dorsal line of the tail is 
always conspicuous against the white rump, pointing 
straight down when the animal is at rest. When the left 
haunch is presented, conspicuously white, the tail is pulled 
over, pointing sharply to the left; with the right haunch 
flaring white the tail points to that side. Apparently the 
skin on one side or the other is drawn taut by the same 
action that pulls the tail to left or right, as the case may be. 
It all goes so quickly as to be obviously automatic. 

Another peculiar habit of Lepus alleni is, as it starts to 
run, to make four or five long hops on the hind legs alone, 
kangaroo fashion, without touching the fore-feet to the 
ground, and then to settle down to the ordinary mode of 
locomotion. Occasionallj^, with ears keenly erect, the 
kangaroo hops are again resorted to in flight, to get sight 
or sound of possible pursuers. This is something that I 
have never observed in any other species of rabbit, but it 
is the usual thing with alleni. 

We collected five specimens of Lepus a^Zem.* A half -grown 
female. May 14, and an adult male. May 19, near Pata- 
gonia; an adult male and two adult females on the Santa 



Vol. XVIII] SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 367 

Rita Range Reserve, collected on June 6, 8, and 16, re- 
spectively (Nos. 5902, 5903, 5906-5908). 

33. Lepus calif ornicus eremicus Allen 

In great numbers on the Santa Rita Range Reserve and 
elsewhere on the desert plains v^est of the Santa Ritas. 
Decidedly rare in the Sonoita Valley, east of the mountains, 
but occurring throughout this region and over the plains 
to the eastward. Throughout the lowlands of extreme 
southeastern Arizona there is lack of cover, and jack rabbits 
are scarce accordingly, but patches of sacaton grass shelter 
a few, and others may occasionally be jumped from most 
bare and unpromising situations. There is no break in 
the east and west distribution of this jack rabbit, though 
it exists in much smaller numbers on the southeastern grassy 
plains than on the southwestern deserts. Three specimens 
were preserved, all adult males collected during May 
within seven miles of Patagonia (Nos. 5904, 5905, 5909). 

34. Sylvilagus auduboni arizonae (Allen) 

In abundance over the lowlands west of the Santa Rita 
Mountains. East of the mountains it was relatively scarce, 
being influenced by lack of shelter on the grassy plains 
just as the jack rabbit is, though as a smaller animal it can 
take advantage of more hiding places. I have found cotton- 
tails on the open plains sheltered under dessicated carcasses 
of cattle, the dried skin over the bones being all that was 
left, and this forming a very acceptable haven. Five 
specimens were preserved, four from the vicinity of Pata- 
gonia in May, one from the Santa Rita Range Reserve 
in June (Nos. 5897-5901). 



368 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [ Proc. 4th Seb. 

Literature Cited 

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BaUey, V. 

1915. Revision of the pocket gophers of the genus Thomomys. U. S. Dept. 
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Bendire, C. 

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Brewster, W. 

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1902. Birds of the Cape region of Lower California. Bull. Mus. Comp. 
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Brown, H. 

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Dwight, J., and Griscom, L. 

1927. A revision of the geographical races of the blue grosbeak {Guiraca 

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Goldman, E. A. 
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Grinnell, J. 

1914. An account of the mammals and birds of the lower Colorado Valley, 

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pp. 67-72. 
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LXV, pp. 528-529. 

HeUmayr, C. E. 

1927. Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field 

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Vol,. XVIII 1 SWARTH—FAUNAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN ARIZONA 369 

Henshaw, H. W. 

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Law, J. E. 

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Meams, E. A. 
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with a general summary of the natural history, and a list of trees. 
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text figs. 

Meinertzhagen, R. 

1926. Introduction to a review of the genus Corvus. Novitates ZooIogicsB, 
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Miller, G. S., and Allen, G. M. 

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1920. Aeronautes melanoleuciis (Baird) versus Aeronautes saxatilis (Wood- 
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370 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ( Troc. 4tii Ser . 

Saunders, H., and Salvin, O. 

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Scott, W. E. D. 

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Todd, W. E. C, and Carriker, M. A., Jr. 

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Visher, S. S. 

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1910. Notes on the birds of Pima County, Arizona. Auk, vol. 27, pp. 

279-288. 

Vorhies, C. T. 

1928. Do southwestern quail require water? Amer. Nat., LXII, 1928, pp. 
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Vorhies, C. T., and Taylor, W. P. 

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tion, Univ. Ariz.), 40 pp., 9 pis., 3 text figs. 



372 CALIFORXIA ACADE.Ur OF :<CIEXCES [ Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 27 

Fig. 1. Western foothills of the Santa Rita Mountains; in the distance is Ele- 
phant Head, a rocky pinnacle near the southern end of the range. 
Scattered live-oaks clothe the foothills, especially on north-facing 
slopes, down to the edge of the plains. Photo taken in June, 1927. 

Fig. 2. Santa Rita Range Reserve below Sawmill Canon. There are places 
immediately below the western foothills where limited areas on 
the plains are relatively free of brush, grass covered, and with a 
sparse growth of small mesquites. Photo taken in June, 1927. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 12 



SWARTH ] Plate 27 








Fig.2 



April 26, 1929 



374 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [ Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 28 

Fig. 1. .Santa Rita Range Reserve. The vegetation here shown is of the type 
that is prevalent over the lowlands of this region, with cactus of 
several species conspicuous everywhere. This is the habitat of 
such birds as Palmer Thrasher, Cactus Wren, Gambel Quail, and 
Black-throated Sparrow; of such mammals as jack rabbits and 
cotton-tails, Harris Ground Squirrel, kangaroo rats, pocket mice, 
and grasshopper mice. Photograph taken in June, 1927. 

Fig. 2. The giant cactus is conspicuous over some parts of the plains but it is 
not of general distribution. There is a long list of bird species 
that nest by preference in woodpecker holes in the cactus, and 
there are some of these birds that in Arizona rarely occur far 
from this plant. Some species of widely diverse character that 
are closely associated with the giant cactus are the Elf Owl, 
Gilded Flicker and Arizona Crested Flycatcher. Photo taken 
thirty miles west of Tucson, June 21, 1927. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 12 



[SWARTH] Plate 28 





• ■.■■i,;f;%f^y 



Fig.2 



376 C ALIFORM A ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES Proc. 4th Ser. 



Platk 12'.» 

Fig. 1 . Sonoita Valley between Patagonia and Fort Crittenden ; the Santa Rita 
Mountains in the distance to the westward. The low foothills 
liere shown supi)ort a sparse growth of scriil)ljy live-oaks (mostly 
on north facing slopes), with little or no underbrush. The ground 
is green with grass after the rains, but at the time when this 
l)hotograph was taken it was bare and jjarched, well-nigh de- 
nuded of grass by grazing cattle. Photo taken in May, 1927. 

Fig. 2. In .some parts of the eastern foothills yuccas cover large areas in almost 
pure stands. They form the favorite haunt of the Scott Oriole. 
Photo taken May 28, 1927. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 12 



SWARTH ] Plate 29 




. -^a**-' \ \9ri^' v*''*''^' 






Fig.1 




P.g.^ 



378 C ALIFORM A ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [ Proc. 4th Ser 



Plate 30 

Fig. 1. The western edge of the San Rafael Plains, twenty miles east of Pata- 
gonia; the Santa Rita Mountains in the distance, to the west- 
ward. It is about at this point that the last rolling foothills 
merge into the open plains. Photo taken in September, 1927. 

Fig. 2. The San Rafael Plains. From this point eastward the lowlands are 
mostly open prairie, destitute of any vegetation but grass. There 
are occasional small tracts of brush land, and along the washes 
there are a few cottonwoods, willows and other trees. These 
plains are the habitat of the Swainson Hawk, White-necked 
Raven, Texas Meadowlark, and Scorched Horned Lark. In mi- 
gration they are occupied by Chestnut-collared and McCown 
longspurs, and by Baird, Savannah, and \Yestern Vesper spar- 
rows. Photo taken in September, 1927. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 12 



ISWARTH ] Plate 30 




Fig.l 




380 CALIFORMA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES |Proc. 4th Ser 



Plate 31 

Yi^. 1. Mound and l)iin()\\s of Dipodonnja spccUihilis. Other small mammals 
were coiLstantly caught in traps set about these movmds, such as 
Dipodoiuys mcrriami, Ammospermopinlus harrisii, and species of 
Perognathu.s. There seemed to be very few individuals of Dipo- 
domys spectabilis in any one mound, and the elaborate systems 
of runways were entered freely by other species. Photo taken 
on the Santa Rita Range Reserve, June, 1927. 

Fig. 2. Travertine rock bordering the Sonoita River n(>ar Patagonia, showing 
the entrances of caves, some of which extended to great depths. 
They were inhabited by several species of bats, by the Rock 
Scjuirrel {OtosjHr»iophilus (priniinurus), by Wood Rats {Neotoma 
albigula), and by an occasional Horned (^wl (Bubo virginianus 
p(iUc>tccNs). Photo taken in May, 1927. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 12 



[SWARTH] Plate 31 




Fig.l 




r.^.2 



382 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [ Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 32 

Fig. 1 . The Sonoita River, flowing along the eastern foothills of the Santa Rita 
Mountains, is bordered by rows of tall cottonwoods, sycamores, 
and willows, with, in many places, dense thickets of lower grow- 
ing shrubbery below. In such surroundings are found Arkansas 
and Cassin kingbirds, Vermilion Flycatcher, Cooper Tanager, 
Bullock and Arizona Hooded orioles, Sonora Yellow Warbler, 
and Lucy \^'arbler. Photo taken seven miles north of Patagonia, 
May, 1927. 

Fig. 2. The crumbling walls of .some of the adobe buildings comprising old 
Camp Crittenden; Santa Rita Mountains in the distance. It 
was here that H. \V. Henshaw made an important collection of 
birds in 1S74. On open ground between the buildings we found 
small colonies of Citellus spilosoma canescens and Dipodomys 
spectabilis. Photo taken May 30, 1927. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 12 



SWARTH ] Plate 32 





Fig.2 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 13, pp. 385-391 September 6, 1929 



XIII 

THE ESCALLONIAS IN GOLDEN GATE PARK, SAN 
FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. WITH DE- 
SCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES 

BY 

ALICE EASTWOOD 
Curator, Department of Botany 

The conditions in Golden Gate Park are very favorable to 
these beautiful South American shrubs. They grow vigor- 
ously, bloom profusely, and almost continuously. Mr. John 
McLaren, the eminent superintendent of the parks of San 
Francisco, has always been interested in introducing new 
plants from other countries and the escallonias seem to have 
been especially successful. Fifteen different kinds are now in 
Golden Gate Park. Great confusion prevails concerning the 
names of many of these escallonias. Some are undescribed, 
probably hybrids; while others are almost universally incor- 
rectly named by nurserymen and gB.rdeners. One authentic 
hybrid has been produced in the Park by Mr. Peter Rock, the 
superintendent of the nursery. He pollinated Escallonia mon- 
teindensis with pollen from Escallonia macrantha and the best 
seedling proved to be an exceptional plant which is named in 
his honor. The different escallonias will be described in this 
article. 

September 6, 1929 



386 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4tii Ser. 

1. Escallonia rockii Eastwood, new hybrid 
(E. fjmcrantha X E. montevidensis.) 

Tall, widely branching shrubs with striate and slightly 
angled branches ; leaves obovate, obtuse, tapering to a short 
petiole, irregularly glandular-denticulate, upper surface gla- 
brous and glossy, lower paler and with a few scattered 
glands, blades about 5 cm. long, 2 cm. wide; inflorescence a 
loosely branching thyrsoid panicle, often more than a foot 
long, the |>eduncles and pedicels minutely puberulent; bracts 
and bractlets with marginal glands ; calyx broadly turbinate 
with some glands on the margin of the widely separated, subu- 
late teeth ; corolla pale pink or white with the buds and tips of 
the petals a darker pink, the claws somewhat spreading but 
forming a tube about 8 mm. long; filaments and style of equal 
length, the yellow anthers and green capitate stigmas inserted 
in a low yellow rounded disk. 

This is one of the most vigorous species in the Park and in 
flower almost continuously. There are bushes in the Park 10 
to 15 feet high. 

Type: Herbarium Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 78638, collected 
in Golden Gate Park, December, 1917. 

2. Escallonia franciscana Eastwood, new hybrid 

Tall shrub with erect, stout branches, glandular and viscid 
throughout ; leaves thick, oblong to elliptic, tapering to a 
short, thick, margined petiole, apex acute or obtuse, margin 
finely but unevenly crenulate, the lower part entire, both sur- 
faces with large dark glands, more numerous and conspicuous 
on the lower surface; inflorescence a narrow panicle, very 
viscid throughout, as if varnished ; calyx as long as the ovary, 
about 4 mm., open-campanulate with slender subulate divi- 
sions; corolla pink, the claws of the petals almost 1 cm. long 
and conniving to form a distinct tube, the spreading roundish 
limb much shorter ; filaments shorter than the style and both 
stamens and pistil included in the corolla tube, the style in a 
cup-like disk surmounting the ovary. This is the common tall, 
pink-flowered escallonia with the odor of slippery elm, gen- 
erally known as Escallonia rosea, a name belonging to a quite 
different species. It is one of the oldest in cultivation in the 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— ESC ALLON IAS IN GOLDEN GATE PARK ^gy 

Park and has spread by cuttings to other parks and gardens. 
It seems to be related to Escallonia illinita Presl., or to E. 
viscosa Forbes, both of which have white flowers and different 
leaves. The color of the flowers and the heavy texture of the 
leaves suggest a connection with E. macrantha, which may be 
one of its parents. The strong odor emanating from the 
bushes suggests a relationship with E. illinita, but to most 
people the odor is not disagreeable as that is said to be. 

Type: Herbarium Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 78584. collected in 
Golden Gate Park. July 31, 1918. 

3. Escallonia macrantha Hook. & Arn. 
(Hook. Bot. ^liscell. 3 : 341. 1833. Bot. Mag., t. 4473.) 

This is the most generally cultivated species in California 
and is in bloom several times a vear accordins: to the fre- 
quency of pruning and watering. As it grows in the Park, it 
agrees exactly with the plate in the Botanical Magazine where 
it was first figured. It is generally advertised in catalogues as 
Escallonia rubra, a name belonging to another species. Escal- 
lonia macrontha is a compact spreading shrub, densely clothed 
with broad, thick leaves, shining on the upper surface and 
wnth many larg-e glands on the lower. The flowers are a 
lovely crimson in short, close panicles, the claws conniving to 
form a tube as long as the limb is wide. It is the largest 
flowered escallonia, the size of the flower differing slightly 
according to the fertility of the soil, the amount of water, or 
the vigor of the shoot. 

4. Escallonia rubra R. & P. 
(Pers. Syn. 2:235.) 

An erect shrub with many erect branches temiinated by 
narrow panicles or sometimes by simple racemes. The leaves 
are rather thin, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, tapering- to a 
short margined petiole and narrowing to an acute apex, almost 
glabrous with the glands on the lower surface very few. The 
flowers are bright crimson, the claws of the petals conniving 
into a narrow tube twice as long as the limb; calyx with tri- 
angular spreading divisions; pistil and anthers slightly 



333 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

exserted, the style inserted in a conical receptacle surmounting 
the ovary. 

Near the Pershing monument there is a cluster of these 
shrubs and some can be found almost always in bloom. 

5. Escallonia punctata DC. 
(Prod. IV: 3. 1830.) 

This is a related species with leaves pointed at both ends. 
It is glandular throughout except the corolla and upper leaf 
surface. The flowers are sometimes solitary or in few- 
flowered corymbs, the corolla a beautiful crimson, the claws of 
the petals forming a tube and the open-campanulate calyx 
becoming red, the divisions slender subulate. The insertion 
of the stigma is similar to that of E. rubra, but the flowers 
resemble those of E. macrantha. 



6. Escallonia pterocladon Hook. 
(Bot. Mag. t. 4827. 1855.) 

7. Escallonia exoniensis Hort. ex Handl. 
(Trees Kew, pt. 1 : 227.) 

These two species are very similar, as is to be expected, 
since the latter is a hybrid between E. pterocladon and E. 
rubra, raised in Veitch's nursery, Exeter, England. Both have 
distinctly ridged stems and erect branches temiinated with 
panicles of many flowers. Escallonia pterocladon has white 
flowers, while those of E. exoniensis are beautifully tinged 
with pink and the inflorescence is more spreading. The plant 
figured in the Botanical Magazine has simpler inflorescence 
than any in the Park. Both have flowers with the claws of the 
petals conniving to form a tube, but the calyx of E. pterocla- 
don is smooth while that of E. exoniensis is glandular. Both 
are dainty and beautiful in bloom and grow luxuriantly in the 
Park. 

Near the Pershing monument they are planted with 
E. rubra. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— ESC ALLONI AS IN GOLDEN GATE PARK 339 

8. Escallonia rubricalyx Eastwood, new hybrid 

The orig-in of this form is obscure. It may be the same as 
Escallonia rubra var. iJor alba Lodd., Bot. Cab., t. 1291, and 
is perhaps a hybrid between E. rubra and E. grahamiana. It 
is a spreading shrub, never becoming tall, with slender 
branches. The flowers are in small, few-flowered panicles 
with white petals forming a short tube, and with red calyx. 
The bushes have a rounded outline and are profusely flowered. 
The leaves resemble those of E. grahamiana. 

Type: Herbarium Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 78611, collected 
in Gk)lden Gate Park, August, 1918. 



[The two following cscallonias with large panicles of white flowers 
are often confused, as they are somewhat superficially alike, but they 
really belong to different sections because of essential differences in the 
flowers.] 

9. Escallonia montevidensis DC. 
(Prod. 4:4. 1830.) 

The leaves of this species have a little notch at the top, the 
petals of the flowers do not form a tube, and the stamens and 
pistil are conspicuously exserted. On account of the butter- 
flies and other insects that swarm over the bushes when in 
flower, this is called the butterfly-bush in the park. It has 
only one season of bloom in late summer, with large, rounded 
panicles of white flowers. The finest bushes are along the 
border of Stow Lake, where there is always an abundant sup- 
ply of water. 

10. Escallonia grahamiana Gill ex Hook, & Arn. 
(Bot. Miscell. 3:343. 1833.) 

This was figured as Escallonia glandulosa in Sweet's British 
Flower Garden, 4; t. 81. A specimen was sent to Mr. W. J. 
Bean of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew for verification and 
for comparison with the type. In cooperation with Mr. T. A, 
Sprague of the Royal Herbarium, the identification was veri- 
fied. The leaves of this species are never notched at the apex, 
but in shape otherwise similar to those of E. montevidensis. 
The panicle is not rounded at the top but pyramidal, the petals 



390 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

have claws that connive to form a tube, the stamens and style 
are not conspicuously exserted, the insects do not hover over 
this in swarms, and its period of bloom is longer and more 
irregular. The sessile glands interspersed through the in- 
florescence doubtless suggested Sweet's name, but there are 
other species much more glandular. It becomes so badly in- 
fested with the Citrophilus mealy bug, Pseudococcus gahani 
Green, that it is being removed in many places. It has gone 
under more names than any other species. 

11. Escallonia philippiana Engler 
(Linnsea, 36:571. 1869-70.) 

This is considered by some botanists to be a variety of E. 
virgata Pers., Syn. 1 : 234. Until recently there was but one 
plant in the Park. It is a low. much-branched shrub with the 
branches curving downwards and densely clothed when in 
flower with short, leafy branches ; leaves small, glabrous and 
deciduous ; flowers in the leaf axils ; petals white, spreading, 
without claws ; filaments and style very short. This escal- 
lonia resembles a leptospermum in general appearance when in 
flower, 

12. Escallonia langleyensis Vilm. & Bois. 
(Frut. Vil. Cat. 1: 131.) 

This is a hybrid between E. philippiana and E. punctata and 
was produced in Mr. Veitch's nursery. Exeter, England. It 
has the habit and foliage of E. philippiana, but is not so stiff. 
It has the beautiful crimson flowers with short, broad claws 
and the glandular pubescence of E. punctata. 

13. Escallonia organensis Gardner 
(In Hooker's Icones : t. 514. 1843.) 

This has recently been introduced into the nursery and is not 
yet planted out. The leaves are narrowly obovate with red 
margins ; stems also red. It is figured in the Botanical Maga- 
zine : t. 4274 with a densely flowered, compact, rounded pani- 
cle. The petals are a lovely rose-color with a dark red spot 
at the throat above a short tube. 



Vol. XVIIIJ EASTWOOD— ESCALLONIAS IN GOLDEN GATE PARK 39I 

14. Escallonia pulverulenta (R. & P.) Pers. 
(Syn., 1:235. 1805-7.) 

This cannot be mistaken for any other species. The flowers 
are white, densely crowded in a long spike resembhng a tail, 
and the stigma is 2-cleft. The whole plant is downy and 
viscid. Escallonia berteriana DC, Prod., IV: 665 is a 
smoother form of this, which has been named E. pulverulenta 
glaber Engler, Fl. Bras., XXV: 149. 

It is not in the Park, but the name has been incorrectly 
applied to other species. 

15. Escallonia revoluta R. & P. 

(Pers., Syn. 1:235. 1805-7.) 

This species is also unmistakable. It is a tall, coarse, erect 
shrub said to attain the height of 30 feet. The whole plant is 
covered with a thick white down. The tubular white flowers 
are very densely clustered in large terminal pyramidal pani- 
cles. The leaves are thick and revolute. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 14, pp. 393-484, plates 33, 34 September 6, 1929 



XIV 

STUDIES IN THE FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 
AND ADJACENT ISLANDS 

BY 

ALICE EASTWOOD 
Curator, Department of Botany 

Introduction 

In the spring of 1925, the California Academy of Sciences 
sent an expedition to the Revillagigedo Islands off the Pacific 
coast of Mexico. The U. S. Navy Department detailed the 
U. S. mine-sweeper Ortolan for the use of the Academy. Mr. 
H. L. Mason accompanied the expedition as botanist. On the 
way to the islands a short stop was made at Guadalupe Island 
and a small collection of plants was secured. Clarion Island 
was reached April 26, and from then until May 11, Clarion, 
Socorro and San Benedicto islands were explored. On the 
return trip, the vessel stopped at the Tres Marias Islands, May 
14-24, and collections were made on Maria Madre, Maria 
Magdalena and Isabella islands. From there the vessel sailed 
north along the west coast of Lower California and made 
landings at Cape San Lucas, Magdalena Bay, Turtle Bay, 
Cedros Island, San Ouintin Bay, and San Martin Island. 
Mr. Mason is preparing the report on the Botany of the Revil- 
lagigedo Islands, but it is not yet ready. The present writer 
has worked up all the other collections except that from the 
Tres Marias Islands. The collection on these islands was 
made at the end of the dry season and the specimens were very 
poor. Duplicates were sent to Paul C. Standley, an authority 

September 6, 1929 



394 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

on Mexican plants at the National Herbarium, and were 
named by him. 

The reports on Guadalupe Island, Cedros Island and Tres 
Marias Islands include all the species that have been reported 
from those islands, with the names of the collectors and refer- 
ences to the publications. This assembling of all the known 
species that have been published from those islands will be a 
great help to future explorers. 

Many species were originally described from certain of the 
localities where landings were made by the Ortolan Expedi- 
tion and topotypes were collected whenever possible. Lists of 
the topotypes have been added, supplementing those repre- 
sented in the collections. 

List of the Plants 
Recorded from Guadalupe Island, Mexico 

Guadalupe Island lies 135 miles from the coast of Lower 
California and 250 miles south of the border of the United 
States. It is about 20 miles long from north to south and 3 to 
7 miles wide. From a narrow beach the island rises abruptly 
to a sort of plateau indented by precipitous canons and at the 
top traversed by ridges, the highest rising on Mount Augusta 
to an elevation of about 4000 feet. The northern part of the 
island is less arid than the southern, due to the heavy fogs 
which are so dense that the moisture condensing on the trees 
forms small streams from which some of the springs are sup- 
posed to be fed. Groves of pines and cypresses are on the 
uplands and on the sides of some of the canons at the northern 
end evergreen oaks are found. Palms grow in warm canons 
that are sheltered from the winds. 

This island has been known to navigators since early 
times and was noted by Vancouver, though he did not stop 
there. Goats were introduced long ago to furnish fresh meat 
to passing vessels. Later the island was purchased by a Cali- 
fornian company and was stocked with angora goats. These 
have multiplied excessively and have almost completely de- 
stroyed the vegetation so that today but little remains of one 
of the most remarkable floras on the Pacific coast. 

The first knowledge of this flora came from the collection 
of Dr. Edward Palmer, who spent from February to May, 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 395 

1874, exploring and collecting. The results were published by 
Sereno Watson, who wrote the first account of the island, in- 
cluding a list of the collection with Dr. Palmer's notes, in the 
eleventh volume of the Proceedings of the American Acad- 
emy, pages 105-121. One hundred and nineteen species were 
listed, representing 99 phanerogams, 6 ferns, 11 mosses and 
4 hepatics, of which 42 phanerogams and 1 hepatic have been 
described as new. 

Dr. Edward Palmer brought back seeds of the cypress and 
palm. Today fine trees of the cypress are to be found in vari- 
ous parts of California, notably a row along the State Capitol 
building at Sacramento and others in Golden Gate Park. The 
palms are found in various parts of the state. 

Dr. Edward L. Greene spent a week on the island, late in 
April, 1885, and collected 120 species, adding 15, of which 

10 were described as new, the other 5 being introduced species 
of wide distribution. The results of his trip were published in 
the Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences, volume 
1:214-228. Besides an interesting account of the island, he 
published the new species and the list in the same volume. 

Dr. Palmer made a second trip, from March 27 to April 3, 
1889, and collected 72 species, adding 14, of which 4 were 
new. This list was published by Dr. George Vasey and Dr. 
J. N. Rose in their first volume of the Contributions of the 
U. S. National Herbarium, pages 21-27, 1890. 

Dr. F. Franceschi^ spent the latter part of December, 1892, 
and the early part of January, 1893, on the island. Besides 
an account of the island, which was published together with 
the list of species in the fourth volume of Zoe, pages 130-139, 
1893, he wrote articles for several garden magazines. The 
phanerogams were named by Mrs. Katherine Brandegee and 
the lichens by Dr. E. L. Greene. Among his collections were 

11 endemic species and one which Dr. Greene described as a 
new genus founded on a specimen in the Herbarium of the 
California Academy of Sciences, which he named Petromecon 
frutescens Pitt., 5 : 294, 1905. The other species, Petromecon 
palmeri, I.e., 296, was originally described as Eschscholtzia 
pdmeri Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., 1 :23. 1890. 

*This was the name under which he published. His true name is Dr. Eroanuele 
Orazio Fenzi. 



396 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

In the fifth volume of Zoe is an account of the Voyage of 
the Wahlberg, a vessel owned and used by A. W. Anthony in 
exploring the islands and coast of Lower California. Mr. 
T. S. Brandegee accompanied the expedition as far south as 
San Jose del Cabo, and among the places visited in the early 
spring of 1897 was Guadalupe Island. No full list of species 
was published, but 10 species were added, all from the main- 
land of California. In June of the same year an expedition 
consisting of Messrs. Rufus L. Green, Charles B. Wing and 
Wilbur W. Thoburn visited the island to make certain fur- 
seal investigations. They collected some plants, a list of which 
was published by Dr. William Russel Dudley in *'The Fur- 
Seals and Fur-Seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean," part 
III : 280-283. 1899. Thirty-seven species were collected, one 
a new species of Calandrinia, and 2 species were added. 

Dr. G. Dallas Hanna and J. R. Slevin, in July, 1923, visited 
the island in the interest of the California Academy of 
Sciences, and made a small collection and photographed the 
pines and cypresses. 

The last collection was that of H. L. Mason while botanical 
collector for the expedition of the California Academy of 
Sciences to the Revillegigedo Islands in 1925. Mr. Mason 
was on the island only two days (April 19-20), and in stormy 
weather, so that a small collection of only 43 species was 
made. Two weeds not before reported and nine topotypes 
were collected. 

In the present list of species the collector's name is given 
after each species with the exception of that made by Green, 
Wing and Thoburn. This is indicated as Dudley's list. Three 
lists have been made to show the relationship of the flora. 
The list of species first described from Guadalupe Island num- 
bers 51, the list from the mainland or islands off the coast of 
California numbers 74, while that of widely distributed species 
numbers 35. It will be seen from these lists, as well as from 
the general list, that the flora is related more to that of the 
mainland of California than to that of the peninsula of Lower 
California or the islands adjacent. It suggests a former con- 
nection with the mainland and is perhaps the remnant of 
another peninsula extending south and paralleling that of 
Lower California. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 



397 



List of Species 
Originally described from Guadalupe Island, Mexico 

(Stars indicate types and daggers indicate topotypes in the Herbarium 
of the California Academy of Sciences.) 



^Cupressus guadalupensis Watson 
\Pinus radiata binata Lemmon 
Erythea edulis Watson 
Brodicea insularis Greene 
"fQuercus tomentella Engelm. 
Phoradendron guadalupensis 

Trelease 
^Atriplcx palmer i Watson 
Hesperonia heitnerlii Standley 
Talinum guadalupense Dudley 
^Eschscholtcia elegans Greene 
\Eschscholtsia ranwsa Greene 
^Petromecon palmeri Greene 
*Petromecon frutescens Greene 
Thysanocarpus erectus Watson 
Trifoliuin palmeri Watson 
*Hosackia ornithopus Greene 
Lupinus niveus Watson 
*Lupinus guadalupensis Greene 
\Sph(eralcea sulphurea Watson 
Splueralcea palmeri Rose 
^Lavatera occidentalis Watson 
Mentzelia dispersa Watson 
CEtiothera guadalupensis Watson 
Hesperalcea occidentalis Watson 
Convolvulus macrostegius Greene 
Gilia guadalupensis Brand 



Gilia pygmcea Brand 
Phacelia phyllomanica Gray 
Phacelia floribunda Greene 

fCryptanthe maritima Greene 
Cryptanthe foliosa Greene 
Harpagonella palmeri Gray 
Pogogyne tenuiflora Gray 
Calamintha palmeri Gray 
Nicotiana petuncefolia Greene 
Solanum calvum Bitter 
Solanum profundeincisum Bitter 
Castilleja guadalupensis Brandegee 
Mimulus latifolius Gray 
Marah guadalupensis Greene 
Galium angulosum Gray 
Stephanomeria guadalupensis 

Brandegee 

jCorethrogyne cana Greene 

^Ftanscria camphorata Greene 
Hemisonia frutescens Gray 
Hemisonia palmeri Gray 

\H emisonia greeniana Rose 

■\Perityle incana Gray 

■[Perityle grayi Rose 
Baeria palmeri Gray 
Senecio palmeri Gray 



List of Species chiefly Californian 



N otholcena tiewberryi D. C. Eaton 
Polypodium californicum Kaulf. 
Polypodimn scouleri H. & G. 
Pityrogramma triangularis Maxon 
Pcllcea mucronata D. C. Eaton 
Polystichum munitutn Presl. 
Juniperus californica Carr. 
Phyllospadix torreyi Watson 
Dissanthelium californicum Benth. 
Brodicea lugens Greene 
Hesperocnide tenella Torr. 
Pterostegia drymarioides F. & M. 



Suceda californica Watson 
Aphanisma blitoides Nutt. 
Montia perfoiiata Howell 
Calandrinia menziesii T. & G. 
Calandrinia maritima Nutt. 
Stellaria nit ens Nutt. 
Tissa macrothcca Britt. 
Tissa pallida Greene 
Ranunculus hebecarpus H. & A. 
Lepidium lasiocarpum Nutt. 
Thelypodium lasiophyllum Greene 
Tillcea erecta H. & A. 



398 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Ribes sanguineum Pursh. 
Heuchera ? 

Alchemilla cuneifolia Nutt. 
Rhus laurina Nutt. 
Ceanothus cuneatus Nutt. 
Ceanothus crassifolius Torr. 
Rhamnus crocea Nutt. 
Trifolium amplectens T. & G. 
Trifolium microcephalum Pursh. 
Hosackia grandiflora Benth. 
Vicia exigua Nutt. 
Crossosoma californicum Nutt. 
Frankenia grandifolia Ch. & Schl. 
Sanicula mensiesii H. & A. 
Mentselia micrantha T. & G. 
Opuntia prolifera Engelm. 
Epilobium minutum Lindl. 
Arctostaphylos, sp. 
Dodecatheon clevelandi Gray 
Gilia nevinii Gray 
Collomia gilioides glutinosa Gray 
Nemophila racemosa Nutt. 
Ellisia chrysanthetnifolia Benth. 
Emmcnanthe penduliflora Benth. 
Pectocarya penicillata DC. 



Amsinckia vernicosa H. & A. 
Amsinckia intermedia F. & M. 
Lycium californicum Nutt. 
Solanum wallacei Parish. 
Castilleja foliolosa H. & A. 
Antirrhinum speciosum Gray 
Antirrhinum nuttallianum Benth. 
Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth. 
Specularia biflora Gray 
Githopsis specularioides Nutt. 
Microseris linearifolia Gray 
Microseris lindleyi Gray 
Malacothrix clevelandi Gray 
Agoscris heterophylla Greene 
Micropiis californicus F. & M. 
Filago arizonica Gray 
Filago californica Nutt. 
Gnaphalium sprengelii H. & A. 
Lepiosyne gigantea Kell. 
Baeria coronaria Gray 
Baeria gracilis Gray 
Eriophylliim ccespitosum Dougl. 
Amblyopappus pusillus H. & A. 
Matricaria discoidca DC. 
Artemisia californica Less. 



List of Species widely distributed, probably introduced 



Aristida adscensionis L. 

Muhlenbergia microsperma Kunth. 

Polypogon monspeliensis Desv. 

Phalaris intermedia Bosc. 

A^ena fatua L. 

Brom^us sterilis L. 

Bromus trinii Desv. 

Hordeuni murinum L. 

Juncus bufonius L. 

Parietaria fioridana Nutt. 

Chenopodium album T,. 

Chenopodiuin miirale L. 

M esembryanthemum crystallinum L. 

Silcne antirrhina L. 

Silene gallica L. 

Myosurus minimus L. 

Lcpidiuin bipinnatifidum Desv. 

Sisymbrium canescens Nutt. 



Brassica nigra Koch 
Brassica campestris L. 
Oligomeris glauccscens Camb. 
Erodium moschatum L'Her. 
Erodium cicutarium L'Her. 
Melilotus indica All. 
Malva borealis Wallm. 
Daucus pusillus Mx. 
Anagallis arvensis L. 
5'o/an»w nigrum L. 
Litiaria canadensis L. 
Plantago patagonica Jacq. 
Galium aparine L. 
Sonchxis oleraceus L. 
Sonchus tencrrimus L. 
Hypochceris glabra L. 
Cf'n^aurea melitensis L. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD—FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 399 

POLYPODIACE^ ; Fern Family 

1. NotJwlcena neivherryi D. C. Eaton, Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club iv : 12. 1885. Type locality, San Diego. "Throughout 
the island," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi, Hanna & Slevin. 
Mason 1532. 

2. Polypodium californicum Kaulf., Enum. Fil. 102. 
1824. Type locality, California. "Abundant at north end," 
Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. Mason 1533. 

3. Polypodium scoideri Hook. & Greville, Icon. Fil. 1 : 
pi. 56. 1828. Type locality, Columbia River region. "En- 
circling the trunk of a single tree," Palmer. Hanna & Slevin, 
"On oak trees." 

4. Pityro gramma triangularis Kaulf., Maxon, Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 17:173. 1913. This was reported as 
Gymnogramme trangularis Kaulf. Type locality, San Fran- 
cisco. "In crevices of the highest cliffs in the middle and 
south end of the island," Palmer. Franceschi. Mason 1514. 

5. Pellcea mucronata D. C. Eaton, U. S. & Torr. Mex. 
Bound. Surv. Bot. 233. 1859. This was reported as P. orni- 
thopus Hook. Type locality, hills near San Francisco Bay. 
"Rare in crevices of highest cliffs," Palmer. Franceschi. 

6. Polystichiim munitum Kaulf., Presl., Tent. Pter. 83. 
1836. This was reported as Aspidium munitum Kaulf. Type 
locality, California. "Only two clumps seen at the northern 
end in a rocky place inaccessible to goats," Palmer. 



CONIFERS ; Pine Family 

7. Junipcnis calif ornica Carr., Rev. Hortic. Ser. IV, 
iii : 352. 1854. Type locality, California. "Over the middle 
of the island and occasionally at the south end in low valleys 
and ravines, forming groves about fifteen feet high," Palmer. 
"Now upon the verge of extinction," Greene. Not since 
collected. 

8. Cupressiis guadalupcitsis S. Watson, Proc. Am. 
Acad. 14:300. 1879. Type locality, Gmd^ilupe Island. "In 
irregular clusters in the middle of the island," Palmer. "A 
fine grove near the springs," Greene. "On plateau at the top 
of the island opposite northeast anchorage," Hanna & Slevin. 



400 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Dudley's list. Hanna & Slevin collected cones from two dif- 
ferent trees, one having the large cone characteristic of the 
type and the other with cones as small and globular as those 
of Ciipressiis govcniana Gord. 

9. Finns radiata biiiata (Engelm. ), Lemmon, West Am. 
Cone-Bearers 42. 1895. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. 
This pine differs from typical Pinus radiata in having two 
needles in a sheath instead of three, and much shorter leaves. 
The cones are much smaller, but are without prickles and are 
of the same shape as those of the type ; otherwise it might be 
referred to Pinus inuricata D. Don. Perhaps it should be 
regarded as a distinct species. ''High elevations at the north 
end, the largest seven and a half feet in circumference and 
averaging seventy feet high; at the extreme northern end and 
facing the bay the trees assume a hedge-like form," Palmer. 
Greene. Franceschi. Hanna & Slevin. Dudley's list. 

ZOSTERACE.^; Eel-grass Family 

10. Phyllospadix torreyi S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
14:303. 1879. Tr/?^ /oca/iVv, Santa Barbara. Dudley's list, 

POACEiE; Grass Family 

11. Aristida adsccnsionis L., Sp. PI. 82. Type locality, 
Ascension Island. This was reported in Dr. Palmer's second 
collection as Aristida bromoides H. B. K. "In deep caiions," 
Palmer. Rose (see Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 22: 544). Mason 
1540. 

12. Miihlcnbergia microsperma (DC.), Kunth., Rev. 
Gram., i: 64. 1829. Type locality, Me^iico. This was reported 
as M. debilis Trin. "Growing in abundance on warm slopes in 
the middle of the island," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. 
Mason 1541. 

13. Polypogon motispeliensis (L.), Desf., Fl. Atlant., 
i : 66. Type locality, Europe. "Common about springs," 
Green. Franceschi. Dudley's list. 

14. Phalaris caroliniana Walt., Fl. Carol. 74. Type 
locality, Carolina. Voyage of the Wahlberg, T. S. Brandegee, 
(Zoe5:22). 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 40I 

15. Avena fatiia L., Sp. PI. 80. Type locality, Europe. 
"Several small patches in open places on the best soil," Palmer. 
"Very little seen," Greene. "Very common," Mason 1542. 

16. Bromiis sterilis L., Sp. PI. 77. Type locality, Europe. 
"On warm hillsides sometimes in large patches as if sown, at 
the south and middle of the island," Palmer. Mason 1843. 

17 Bromus trinii Desv., in C. Gay, Fl. Chil. 6:441. 
1853. Reported as Trisetum barbatum Steud. Type locality, 
Chile. "Abundant at southern end due to wet season," 
Palmer. 

18. Hordeiim mnriniim L., Sp. PI. 85. Type locality, 
Europe. "Only a few tufts seen near the cabins on the 
plateau," Greene. "Very common," Mason 1544. Dudley's 
hst. 

19. Dissant helium calif ornicuni Benth., in Hook., Icon. 
PI. t. 1375. 1881. Type locality, Catalina Island. (Reported 
as Stenochloe calif ornica Nutt). 



PHOENICACE^; Palm Family 

20. Erythea adulis (Wendl), S. Watson, Bot. Gal. 
2:212. 1880. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "Frequent 
in deep, warm ravines from the northern end to Jacks Bay; 
the only thing on the island having a tropical look. It attains 
a height of about forty feet, averaging about fifteen inches in 
diameter. Each tree bears one to four clusters of fruit four 
feet in length and each weighing 40 to 50 pounds. The fruit 
is eaten by man, goats, birds and mice. In flower near the 
end of March," Palmer. Greene. "Northwestern part of the 
island, the principal grove not less than one mile and a half 
long by half to a mile in breadth. There and in a few other 
parts where palms are still growing in small numbers their 
range in altitude appears to be between 300 to 1000 feet. A 
few expanded flowers were to be found already at the begin- 
ning of December, but the general blossoming takes place in 
January and the fruits are said to ripen in April," Franceschi 
Dudley's list. 



402 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

JUNCACE^ ; Rush Family 

21. J uncus bufonius L., Sp. PI. 328. Type locality, 
Europe. "From the middle to the north end of the island 
growing abundantly in very springy places," Palmer. Greene. 



LILIACE^ ; Lily Family 

22. Brodicua insularis Greene. Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2:134. 
1886. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. Greene listed this as 
B. capitata Benth. Palmer collected it on his second trip. 
Greene describes it with leaves an inch broad and scape often 
more than four feet high. It was exceedingly common on the 
plateau all about the spring. 

23. Brodicea lugens Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2:142. 
1886. This was identified by T. S. Brandegee, one of the 
additions collected on the Voyage of the Wahlberg as com- 
mon on the slopes of Sparrmann's Canon. The type locality 
of this species, which Greene later transferred to Calliprora, is 
mountain summits back of Vacaville, California. It seems 
improbable that this rare species of which Greene claims to 
have been the only collector can be the same as the Guadalupe 
Island species. 

CUPULIFERffi ; Oak Family 

24. Quercus tomentella Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. 
Louis 3 : 393. 1877. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This 
was first considered identical with Q. chrysolepis Liebm. 
"Frequent at the north end and occasionally found in the 
canons on both sides of the island, often large specimens 40 
feet high and widespreading ; timber good and durable though 
knotty," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. Hanna & Slevin. 
Mason 1537. 

URTICACE^; Nettle Family 

25. Hesperocnide tenella Torr., in Pacif. Rail. Rep. 
4:139. 1857. r3;/>^ /oca/i/3;, Napa Valley. "In damp, shady 
places among high rocks in the middle of the island," Palmer, 
Greene. Franceschi. 



Vol. XVIII] • EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 4Q3 

26. Parietaria Horidana Nutt., Gen. Am. 2:208. 1818. 
Type locality, "Near St. Mary's, West Florida." "Abundant 
in situations similar to the preceding," Palmer. Greene. 
Hanna & Slevin. Mason 1509, 1510. 

LORANTH ACE^ ; Mistletoe Family 

27. Phoradendron giiadalupense Trelease, Univ. 111. Bull. 
13:29. 1916. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This was 
reported in Watson's list as P. bolleanum Eichler. "Near the 
north end on Jiiniperns and Cupressus, more frequently the 
former," Palmer. This has not since been collected. 

POL YGON ACE^ ; Buckwheat Family 

28. Pterostegia drymarioides Fisch. & Meyer, Ind. Sem. 
Hort. Petrop, 2:48. 1835. Type locality, Bodega Point, 
California. "In the shade of rocks in the middle, and more 
rarely at the south end," Palmer. Greene. Mason 1526. 

CHENOPODIACE^; Salt Bush Family 

29. Chenopodium album L., Sp. PI. 219. Type locality, 
Europe. "Only one plant near the sea on the east side," 
Palmer. Greene. Hanna & Slevin. 

30. Chenopodium murale L., Sp. PL 219. Type locality, 
Europe. "A few plants near the landing, evidently a new- 
comer," Greene. Franceschi. Dudley's list. Mason 1520. 

31. Atriplex palmeri S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
11: 146. 1876. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "Only at 
the south end in rounded bushes about 13^ feet high," Palmer. 
Greene. Hanna & Slevin, Dudley's list. Mason 1538. 

32. Atriplex rosei Standi., N. Am. FI. 21:60. 1916. 
Type locality, Guadalupe Island. Rose 15022 in part. 

These two species of Atriplex are considered subspecies of 
A. barelayana (Benth.), Dietr. The first, A. barclayana 
palmeri, and the second, A. barclayana dilatata (Greene), Hall 
& Clements, Phylogenetic Method in Taxonomy, 315. 

33. Suceda californica S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
9:89. 1874. Type locality, Salt marshes of San Francisco 
Bay. Mason 1539. 



404 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [-Proc. 4th Ser. 

34. Aphanisma blitoides (Nutt.), ex Moq. in DC. Prod. 
13:54. 1849. Type locality, San Diego, California. Bran- 
degee, Voyage of the Wahlberg, Zoe, 5 : 22. 

ALLIONACE^; Four O'Clock Family 

35. Hesperonia heimerlii Standi., Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 13.412. 1911. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. 
This was reported as Mirabilis calif ornica Gray. "Of com- 
pact branching habit in crevices in the walls of cafions on the 
east side," Palmer. This was also collected at the south end 
on Palmer's second trip, Greene. Rose. Franceschi. 
Dudley's list. 

FICOID ACE^ ; Fig Marigold Family 

36. Mesembryanthcmum crystallinum L., Sp. PI. 480. 
Type locality, Cape of Good Hope. "On beach at landing," 
Greene. Dudley's list. 

PORTULACACE^; Portulaca Family 

37. Montia perfoliata Howell, in Eryth. 1:38. 1893. 
Reported as Claytonia perfoliata Don. North America. "All 
over the island," Palmer. "Corolla small and more purple," 
Greene. Franceschi. 

38. Calandriniu mensiesii (Hook.), T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 
1 : 197. Type locality, south of the mouth of the Columbia. 
"All over the island in masses," Palmer. "Smaller than in 
California, white flowers very frequent," Greene. Mason 
1507. 

39. Calandrinia maritima Nutt., in T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 
1 : 197. Type locality, San Diego. Collected by Brandegee on 
the Voyage of the Wahlberg, Zoe, 5 : 22. 

40. Talinum gnadalupense Dudley, Report Fur-Seal 
Investigations, part 3 (1896-97), p. 282. Leaves thick and 
fleshy oblanceolate, 2-5 cm. long, all radical. Root fusiform 
fleshy, broadening at top into a short rhizoma extending 
laterally. Flowering panicles 3-5 dm. in height, ascending, 
naked except for the deltoid acuminate scarious bracts at the 
bases of the divaricate, scattered branches which occupy the 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 495 

upper half. Flowers in terminal close clusters. Sepals 2, 
roundish, persistent. Petals rose-colored, broadly obovate, 
nearly 1 cm. long". Stamens numerous. Slender exserted style 
with 2-3-lobed stigmas. Capsule broadly ovoid acute. Walls 
3-valved, splitting- from above. Placenta basal. Seeds disk- 
shaped, numerous. 

CARYOPHYLLACE^ ; Pink Family 

41. Stellaria nitens Nutt., in T. & G., Fl. N. Am. 1 : 185. 
Type locality, "Plains of the Columbia." "At middle and 
north end under rocks," Palmer. 

42. Silene antirrhma L., Sp. PI. 419. Europe. "Only 
in caiions on east side near beach," Palmer. 

43. Sileiie gallica L., Sp. PI. 417. Europe. "Sparingly 
in middle of island," Palmer. "Very common in lower cypress 
groves," Greene. Dudley's list. 

44. Tissa macrotheca (Hornem), Britt. in Bull. Torr. 
Bot. Club 16: 129. 1889. California. "Common on exposed 
sides of hills, in arroyos and sides of canons," (Palmer on 
second trip). Franceschi. Dudley's list. 

45. Tissa pallida Greene, ex Britton, 1. c. Type locality, 
San Francisco. "Collected with the preceding but not so 
common," (Palmer on second trip). 

RANUNCULACEiE; Buttercup Family 

46. Ranunculus hebecarpus Hook & Arn., 'Bot. Beech. 
Voy. 316. 1844. California. "Abundant on warm slopes in 
the middle of the island," Palmer. "Only in the shade of 
Quercus tomentella," Greene. 

47. Myosurus minimus L,, Sp. PI. 284. Europe. "In 
the middle of the island and at the north, near springs," 
Greene. 

PAPAVERACE^; Poppy Family 

48. Eschscholtsia elegans Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
1 : 182. 1885. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. Small 
annual with delicate dissected foliage and rotate flowers not 



406 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

an inch wide. On summit of Guadalupe. Palmer. Greene. 
Mason. 

49. Eschscholtda ramosa Greene, Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club, 13:217. 1886. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. 
Annual, dendroid, in habit. Pods 3 3^ in long. Palmer. 
Greene. Dudley's list. Mason 1500. 

50. Petromecon palmeri Pitt., 5 : 293. 1905. Type 
locality, Guadalupe Island. This is the same as E. palmeri 
Rose. Palmer. 

51. Petromecon frutescens Greene, 1. c, 294. Type 
locality, Guadalupe Island. Larger than the preceding and 
less succulent, stigmas 4. Type in Herb. Gal. Acad. Sci. 
Franceschi. 

CRUCIFERffi; Mustard Family 

52. Thysanocarpus erectus S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
II: 124. 1876. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "In clear, 
level spots only between Jacks Bay on west side and Mt. 
Augusta," Palmer. It has never been found again. 

53. Lepidium lasiocarpwn Nutt., in T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 
I: 115. Type locality, Santa Barbara. "In ravines in the 
middle of the island, rarely at south end," Palmer. Greene. 
Mason 1516. 

54. Lepidium hipinnatifidum Desv., Journ. Bot. 3 : 165. 
1814. Reported by Watson as L. mensiesii DC. "Generally 
abundant," Palmer. Mason 1524. 

55. Thelypodiimi lasiophyllum (H. & A.), Greene in 
Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 13: 142. 1886. California. This was 
reported in Watson's list as Sisymbrium reflexum Nutt. 
"Abundant in the middle and at the south end," Palmer. 
Greene. 

56. Sisymbrium canescens Nutt., Gen. Am. 2 : 68. Vir- 
ginia to Georgia. "In great abundance," Palmer. Greene. 

57. Brassica nigra Koch., in Roehl, Deutschl. FL, ed. 3, 
4: 713. Europe. "In considerable quantity in the middle of 
the island," Palmer. 

58. Brassica campestris L., Sp. PI. 666. Europe. "A 
few plants near the cabins," Greene. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA ^QJ 

RESED ACE^ ; Mignonette Family 

59. Oligomeris glaucescens Camb., in Jacquem. Voy. 
Bot., 4:24. t. 25. Europe. Reported as O. suhulata Boiss. 
"In deep, warm cafions, middle of island, occasionally south," 
Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. Dudley's list. Mason 1522. 



CRASSULACE^; Stonecrop Family 

60. Tillcua erect a Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beech. Voy. 24. 
1884. California. "In large patches among rocks and sage- 
brush," Palmer. Besides the typical form, a variety was also 
collected which was doubtfully referred to T. leptopetala 
Benth. Greene also collected it. 



SAXIFRAGACE^; Saxifrage Family 

61. Rihes sangmneum Pursh., Fl. Am. Sept. 1 : 164. 
"Only two plants in shade of cliffs at north end," Palmer. 
This is probably some other species, as the type locality of the 
true R. sanguineum Pursh., is Vancouver Island, and it has 
been found in California only at the extreme north. 

62. Heuchera f "A single plant in a rock crevice, 

not in bloom," Palmer. Franceschi. 

ROSACE.ffi ; Rose Family 

dZ. Alchemilla cuneifolia Nutt., in T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 
1 : 432. Type locality, Santa Barbara. "Among rocks and 
sagebrush at north end, also around a spring where it was 
much larger," Palmer. Greene. This was identified as A. 
occidentalis Nutt., but that is a northern species, while A. 
cuneifolia was described from specimens collected at Santa 
Barbara. Both may be too near A. arvensis Scop. 

GERANIACE^; Geranium Family 

64. Er odium moschatum L'Her., Ait. Hort., Kew ed. 
1,2:404. Europe. "Middle of the island," Palmer. Greene 
saw very little of this. Franceschi. Dudley's list. Mason 
1517. 



408 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

65. Erodium cicutarium L'Her, 1. c. 414. Europe. 
"Abundant all over the island," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. 
Dudley's list. 

AN ACARDIACE^ ; Sumach Family 

66. Rhus laurina Nutt.. in T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 1:219. 
Type locality, Santa Barbara. "Four found in crevices of 
high rocks," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. Dudley's list. 

RHAMNACE-ffi; Buckthorn Family 

67. Ceanothus cuneatus Nutt., in T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 
1 : 267. Type locality, "gravelly islands and bars of the Wah- 
lamet above the dry falls." "Middle of island, three small 
shrubs seen, not in flower," Palmer. 

68. Ceanothus crassifoUus Torr., Pac. Rail. Rep. 4:75. 
1857. Type locality, Cajon Pass. "Only three alive at base 
of Mt. Augusta," Palmer. "A small seedling plant near 
cabins," Greene. Franceschi. 

69. Rhamnns crocea Nutt., in T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 1 : 261. 
Type locality, Monterey. "Six found in crevices of high cliffs 
in the middle of the island," Palmer. This is exceedingly 
variable in the size and shape of the leaves. The specimen 
collected by Mason is a mere scrap. However, Dr. Hanna and 
Mr. Slevin collected fine specimens from an arborescent shrub 
with leaves from elliptical to almost orbicular, 4.5 cm. long 
to 3.5 cm. wide, obtuse at apex and base with margin finely 
serrulate. It comes nearest to R. pirifolia Greene, Pitt., 3:15, 
described from specimens collected on Santa Cruz Island. 
The leaves of specimens in Herb. Gal. Acad. Sci. of R. piri- 
folia from the type island have leaves relatively much longer 
than wide, while those of R. insularis Kellogg from Cedros 
have much smaller leaves more like those of typical R. crocea 
Nutt. Hanna & Slevin. Mason 1528. 

LEGUMINOS^; Pea Family 

70. Trifolirim amplectetis , T. & G., Fl. N. Am. 

1 : 319. California. "Rare, only on beach at east side of 
island," Palmer. Franceschi. Mason 1511. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIF0RNL4 409 

71. Trifolium micro cephalmn Pursh., Fl. Am. Sept. 
2:478. Type locality, "On the banks of Clarck's River." 
"Very abundant at middle and north end of island,'' Palmer. 
Greene. Dudley's list. Mason 1512. 

72. Trifolium palmeri S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
11:132. 1876. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "Rather 
abundant in the middle of the island and around a spring-," 
Palmer. Franceschi. Mason 1513. 

73. Lupimis nivens S. Watson, 1. c. 126. Type locality, 
Guadalupe Island. "Only in the middle of the island on higfh 
cliffs," Palmer. Greene saw one flowering specimen and what 
appeared to be numerous seedlings. Franceschi. 

74. Litpinus giiadalupcnsis Greene, Bull. Gal. Acad. Sci., 
1 : 184. 1885. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "On high 
plateau," Greene. Type in Herb. Cal. Acad. Sci. 

75. Hosackia ornithopus Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 185. 1885. Type from Guadalupe Island in Herb. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. "Frequent in the middle of Guadalupe Island," 
Franceschi. Dudley's list. Palmer collected the same, re- 
ported as H. argophylla Gray. 

76. Hosackia grandiUora Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. 
17:365. 1837. California. "Among trees in the middle of 
the island," Palmer. Greene. 

77. Melilotus iiidica All, Fl. Pedem. 1 : 308. India. 
"Common along the beach, ascending into shady cafions," 
Palmer. This was collected by Dr. Palmer on his second visit 
and was probably introduced bv the goats. 

78. Vicia exigua Nutt., in T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 1 : 272. 
Type locality, plains of Oregon and upper California. "Among 
rocks, center of island, only one seen," Palmer. Greene re- 
ported it as not uncommon and Palmer reported it on his 
second visit as common in shady sides of ravines at the north 
end. 

M ALVACE/E ; Mallow Family 

79. Sphceralcea sulphnrea S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
11: 125. 1876. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "In large 
bunches three feet high in crevices of highest rocks from mid- 
dle to the southern end where most abundant," Palmer. Fran- 
ceschi. Greene. One plant seen by Mason 1506. 

September 6, 1929 



410 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

80. SphcEralcca palmeri Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
1 : 23. 1890. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This was col- 
lected by Dr. Palmer on his second trip. "On all exposed 
places on the south end of the island." According to Dr. 
Rose, the carpels are narrower and longer than in the preced- 
ing, but it must be closely related. 

81. Lavatera occidentalis S. Watson, 1. c. 125. Type 
locality, Guadalupe Island. "Conspicuous plant on cliffs in 
the middle of the island," Palmer. Greene describes the largest 
shrubs as 10 feet high. Franceschi. Hanna & Slevin, 

82. Malva borealis Wallm., in Liljebl, Svensk. Fl., ed. 
3 : 374 Europe. "Very common on eastward slope," Palmer. 
Greene. Franceschi. Dudley's list. Mason 1530. 

DILLENIACE^ 

83. Crossosonm californicum Nutt., Journ. Acad. Phila., 
N. S. 1:150. t. 22. 1847. Type locality, Catalina Island. 
"In crevices of cliffs overhanging a cafion in the middle of the 
island," Palmer. "Only nine bushes found, accessible only by 
the aid of a rope," Greene. Franceschi. Hanna & Slevin 
(specimens shot down). 

FRANKENIACE^; Salt-weed Family 

84. Frankenia grandifolia Ch. & Schl., Linnsea 1 :35. 
1826. Type locality, near San Francisco. On the side of the 
bank near the northeast anchorage. Dudley's list. 

UMBELLIFERffi ; Parsley Family 

85. Daucus pusilliis Mx., Fl. Bor. Am. 1 : 164. Carolina. 
"Abundant through the middle of the island," Palmer. 
Greene. 

86. Sanicula menziesii Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beech. Voy., 
142. 1844. California. "Two plants only, without flowers 
or fruit, in rock crevices, middle of the island," Palmer. 

LOASACEiE ; Blazing Star Family 

87. Mentzelia dispersa S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
11 : 115 & 137. 1876. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "In 
ravines at the middle and south end," Palmer. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA ^\\ 

88. Mentzelia micrantha (H. & A.), in T. & G. Fl. N. 
Am. 1 : 535. California. "Only on beach near landing," 
Greene. 

CACTACE^; Cactus Family 

89. Opuntia prolifera Engelm., in Am. Journ. Sci. 11. 
14:338. 1852. Type locality, San Diego, California. Greene. 
Franceschi. Dudley's list. Mason 1547, not collected. Com- 
mon throughout the island. 

90. N eomammillaria goodridgii (Scheer), Britt. & Rose, 
Cactaceae, 4: 158. Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. 
Dudley's list. 

ONAGRACE^ ; Evening Primrose Family 

91. Epilohium minutum Lindl., in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 
1 : 207. Northwest coast of America. "Only at north end 
among rocks and sagebrush," Palmer. "Two or three plants 
only seen," Greene. 

92. CEnothera (Sphcero stigma) gtiadalupensis S. Watson, 
Proc. Am. Acad., 11 : 115 & 137. 1876. Type locality, Gua- 
dalupe Island. "Only two plants in a ravine on east side near 
beach," Palmer. 

ERICACE^; Heather Family 

93. Arctostaphylos sp. Greene found a single seedling 
plant not more than two or three years old under a cypress. 

PRIMULACE^ ; Primrose Family 

94. Dodecatheon clez'elandi Greene, Pitt. 1 : 213. 1888. 
Type locality, San Diego. This is the species reported by 
Palmer, Greene, and Franceschi, and collected in flower by 
Anthony. A specimen of Anthony's collection in the Her- 
barium of the California Academy of Sciences indicates this 
species. 

95. Anagallis an'ensis L., Sp. PI. 148. Europe. "Only 
one plant found near beach," Palmer. "Only one plant on top 
of island," Greene. 



412 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Skk. 

OLEACE^; Olive Family 

96. Hesperalcua paUneri Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11:83. 
1876. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This was described 
as a new genus from Guadalupe Island. Dr. Palmer reported 
it as a tree with sulphur-colored flowers in a terminal panicle. 
Three Hve trees only were seen in a canon on the east side; 
no young trees seen, but many dead ones. As this has never 
been found again, the species is probably extinct. 

CONVOLVULACE^; Morning Glory Family 

97. Convohnilus macrostegiiis Greene, Bull. Gal. Acad. 
Sci. 1:208. 1885. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This 
was reported by Watson as C. occidentaiis Gray. "In crevices 
of high rocks hanging down six feet or more," Palmer. "A 
thousand flowers on one plant," Greene. Franceschi. 

POLEMONIACE^; Phlox Family 

98. Gilia giiadalupensis Brand., Das Pflanzenreich, 
4:134. 1907. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This was 
described together with the next from specimens collected by 
Dr. Palmer on his first visit, and both listed in Watson's 
report under Gilia piisilla calif ornica Gray. "Abundant under 
brush and in protected places in the middle of the island." 
Palmer. 

99. Gilia pygmcua Brand., 1. c. 

100. Gilia nevinii Gray, Syn. Fl., 1. Suppl. 411. Type 
locality, San Clemente Island. This was reported by Watson 
as Gilia multicaitlis millefoliata. "Localities similar to the 
preceding, flowers blue and showy or cream-colored with a 
violet base," Palmer. Franceschi. Dudley's list. Mason 1905. 

101. Collomia gilioides glutinosa (Benth.), Gray, Proc. 
Am. Acad. 8:260. 1870. Type locality, California. "Abun- 
dant in similar localities to the preceding," Palmer. Greene 
lists this as Gilia divaricata Nutt. The species described in 
this aggregate are very closely related. 



Vol. XVIU] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 4^3 

HYDROPHYLLACE^; Waterleaf Family 

102. Nemophila racemosa (Nutt.), Gray in Proc. Am. 
Acad. 10: 315. (1875.) Type locality, San Diego, California. 
This was reported in Watson's list as N. aurita Lindl. "On 
warm slopes middle of the island ; rarely at south end," 
Palmer. Since Greene and Dr. Franceschi found only A''. 
racemosa at the same place, probably Watson was mistaken, 
owing to poor specimens. 

103. Ellisia chrysanthemif alia Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. 
17:274 (1837.) California. "Abundant under sagebrush, 
throughout the island," Palmer. Greene reported it as 
Eucrypta. Franceschi. Mason 1525. 

104. Emtnenanthe penduliflora Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc. 
17: 281. 1837. California. "Rocky ravines in the middle of 
the island," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. Mason 1515. 

105. Phacelia phyllotn-anica Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11 : 87. 
(1876.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "Rare in crevices 
of high rocks in the middle of the island," Palmer. Greene 
reports it as often more than six feet high. Franceschi. 

106. Phacelia Uorihiinda Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1:200. (1885.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. It was 
reported by Watson as P. phyllomanica interrupta Gray. 
"Frequent in rocky ravines at middle and south end," Palmer. 
Greene reports it as an annual from lower parts of the island. 
Dudley's list. 

BORAGINACEiE; Borage Family 

107. Harpagonella palmeri Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11 : 88. 
(1876.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "Only at the 
south end," Palmer. Greene. 

108. Pectocarya penicillata A. DC, Prodr. 10: 120. Type 
locality, California. "With the above," Palmer. 

109. Amsinckia vernicosa H. & A., Bot. Beech. Voy. 370. 
Type locality, California. "Very abundant at south end," 
Palmer. 

110. Amsinckia intermedia F. & M., Ind. Sem. Petrop. 
1 : 26. Type locality. Bodega Head. This was reported 
among the additions collected on the vovage of the Wahlberg. 
Zoe 5 :22. 



414 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

111. Cryptanthe maritima Greene, Pitt. 1:117. (1887.) 
Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This was described as 
Krynitskia nuiritinia by Greene, and listed in Watson's report 
on Palmer's collection as Eritrichium angtistifolium Torr. 
"At south end and near beach," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. 
Dudley's list. Mason 1501. 

112. Cryptanthe foliosa Greene, Pitt. 1:113. (1887.) 
Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This was described as 
Krynitskia foliosa Greene. It was reported by Watson as 
Eritrichium utriculatiim Torr. "Canons in the middle of the 
island," Palmer. Greene reports this as the same as E. ranio- 
sissima Gray. Franceschi. 

LABIATE ; Mint Family 

113. Pogogyne tenuiflora Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11 : 100. 
(1876.) T'3;/'^ /oca/jV^f, Guadalupe Island. "Very rare among 
sagebrush on the eastern side," Palmer. This has never been 
collected again and is probably extinct. 

114. Calaminiha palmeri Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11: 100. 
(1876.) Tj/'^j /ocato^;, Guadalupe Island. "Abundant among 
trees and sagebrush in the middle of the island, strong-scented 
and not eaten by goats," Palmer. Greene. 

• 

SOLANACEiE ; Nightshade Family 

115. Nicotiaiia pctiinceflora Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. .Sci. 
1:209. (1885.) 73'/'^ /oca/// v^ Guadalupe Island. This was 
reported by Watson as A^. higelovii Watson. "Only in a few 
places in the center of the island, in open spots and good soil; 
flowers greenish yellow, bronzy below. The leaves stick to the 
goats' hair," Palmer. Greene. 

116. Lycium calif ornicum Nutt., ex Gray in Bot. Cal. 
1 : 542. Type locality, San Diego, California. "Extreme 
south end on rocky bluffs, not abundant," Palmer. Mason 
1540. 

117. Solanum wallacei (Gray), Parish in Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci., Ser. 3:2:166. 1901. This was reported as 5. xanti 
Gray, and has been named 5". xanti wallacei by the same 
author. Type locality, Catalina Island. "Only in the middle 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 415 

of the island in large bunches about two feet high, in the 
crevices of the rocks, blooming all the year," Palmer. Greene. 
Franceschi. 

118. Solarium (Morella) profundeincisum Bitter, in Fedde, 
Repert. 12:80 (1913.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. 
This is Palmer's No. 61, and 60 in part, reported as Solanum 
nigrum douglasii Gray. "Only two plants on the beach on the 
east side ; flowers white, small," Palmer. 

119. Solanum (Morella) calvum Bitter, 1. c. 81. Type 
locality, Guadalupe Island. This was reported as S. nigrum 
var. under Palmer's No. 60 in part. "Rare in the middle of 
the island and in a canon near the beach on the east side, in 
rich level spots; flowers purple or white; fruit black," Palmer. 
Greene also reported a Solanum related to 5. nigrum. Bitter's 
type is white-flowered. 



SCROPHULARIACE^ ; Figwort Family 

120. Castilleja foliolosa H. & A., Bot. Beech. Voy. 154. 
California. "Rare, only middle of the island," Palmer. 

121. Castilleja guadalupensis Brandegee, Zoe 5:166. 
(1903.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. Brandegee col- 
lected this in an almost inaccessible spot on the western cliff. 

122. Mimulus latifolius Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11:95 
1876. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "Only in the middle 
of the island, scattered in warm, moist spots," Palmer. 
Greene. 

123. Antirrhinum specie sum (Nutt.), Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. 7:376. 1868. Type locality, Catalina Island. Gal- 
vesia speciosa Nutt. PI. Gamb. 149. t. 22. "Frequent in 
crevices of high rocks in the middle of the island," Palmer. 
Greene. 

124. Antirrhinum nuttallianum Benth., in DC. Prod. 
1 1 : 592. Type locality, San Diego, California. "Rather rare 
in deep, warm caiions in the middle of the island," Palmer. 
Greene. Mason 1523. 

125. Linaria canadetisis (L.), Dumont, Bot. Cult. 2:96. 
North and South America. "Rare on sides of canons in the 
middle of the island," Palmer. 



415 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Ser. 

126. Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth., Scroph. Index, 13. 
California. Brandegee in Voy. Wahl., Zoe 5 : 22. 

PLANTAGINACEZE; Plantain Family 

127. Plantago patagonica Jacq., Ic. Rar. t. 306. South 
America. "South end of island," Palmer. Collected on both 
trips. Greene. 

CUCURBITACE^; Gourd Family 

128. Marah guadalupensis (S. Watson), Greene, Leafl. 
2:36. (1910.) This was reported a.s Megarrhisa guadahipen- 
sis Watson. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "In crevices of 
high rocks in the middle of the island ; flowers white ; fruit 
green," Palmer. "Fruit conspicuously flattened laterally," 
Greene. Franceschi. 

RUBIACE^; Madder Family 

129. Galium angnlosum Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11:74. 
(1876.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "A single small 
shrubby plant in a crevice of a high cliff in the middle of the 
island ; flowers greenish white," Palmer. 

130. Galium aparine L., Sp. PI. 108. Europe. "Common 
on warm, shady hillsides in the middle and more rarely at the 
south end," Palmer. Greene. Dr. Franceschi saw two speci- 
mens but collected none. 

CAMPANULACE^; Harebell Family 

131. Specularia hiHora (R. & P.), Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
1 1 : 82. ( 1876.) Type locality, Chile. "Rare in the shade of 
rocks and sagebrush on hillsides in the middle of the island," 
Palmer. 

132. Githopsis specularioidcs Nutt., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, 
N. S. 8:258. (1843.) Type locality, plains of the Oregon 
near the outlet of the Wahlamet [Willamette]. "Abundant 
at the middle and north end under sagebrush and dead 
branches; flowers white, turning to blue after gathering," 
Palmer. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 4^7 

CICHORIACE^; Chicory Family 

133. Sonchns oleraceus L., Sp. Pi. 794. Europe. "Very 
rare on warm slopes in the middle of the island," Palmer. 
"Very common on the eastward slope of the island," Greene. 
Franceschi. Hanna & Slevin. Dudley's list. Mason 1531. 

134. Sonchus tenerrimus L., 1. c. Europe. This was 
found only by Palmer on his second trip, who reported it as a 
very slender form 2-8 inches high in shady cafions at the 
south end. 

135. Microseris lincarifolia (DC), Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
9:209. (1874.) California. "Only in the middle of the 
island on stony ridges, eaten closely by goats," Palmer. 
"Abundant and very rank about the springs and the cypress 
groves where the goats do not now range," Greene. 
Franceschi. 

136. Microseris liiidleyi (DC.), Gray, 1. c. 210. Western 
shores of North America. This has been collected by Bran- 
degee. Voyage of the Wahlberg, Zoe 5 : 22, 

137. Malacothrix clevelmidi Gray, Bot. Cal. 1 : 433. Type 
locality, San Diego. "Abundant among rocks and trees in the 
middle of the island," Palmer. Greene. 

138. Stcphanomeria guadalupcnsis Brandegee, Zoe 5 : 104. 
Type locality, Guadalupe Island. Collected by Brandegee in 
Sparrman's Caiion. The clumps of white leaves growing on 
the nearly perpendicular, dark-colored clififs are very con- 
spicuous. 

139. Agoseris heterophylla (Nutt.), Greene, Pitt. 2: 178. 
(1891.) California. "About the springs in grassy ground, 
fine large specimens," Greene. 

140. Hypochceris glabra L., Sp. PI. 810. Europe. A 
single plant, not before reported. Mason 1529. 

COMPOSIT.ffi ; Sunflower Family 

141. Corethrogyne cana (Gray), Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 1 : 223. (1885.) Ty/^t' /oca/zV^', Guadalupe Island. This 
was reported by Watson as Diplostephium canum Gray. 
"Large shrub, about four feet high, of loose habit, found only 
in the crevices of high, rocky cliffs; flowers yellow," Palmer. 



418 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Greene saw but one plant. It was six feet high, but not in 
flower. Franceschi. 

142. Micro pus calif amicus Fisch. & Meyer, Ind. Sem. 
Hort. Petrop. 2:42. Type locality, Bodega Head, California. 
"On dry, gravelly slopes in the middle of the island," Palmer. 
No other collector has found this species, which is so common 
on the mainland. 

143. Filago arizonica Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 8 : 652. 
1873. Type locality, Verde Mesa, Arizona. "On level ground 
at south end," Palmer. Greene. Mason 1527. 

144. Filago calif ornica Nutt., in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. N. 
S. 7:405. 1841. Type locality, Santa Barbara. "A fine 
growth about the springs north of the middle portion of the 
island," Greene. Franceschi. Dudley's list. Mason 1527a. 

145. Gnaphalium sprengelii Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beech. 
Voy. 150. California. "Only in the middle of the island on 
stony ridges," Palmer. Greene saw only one plant and the 
species has not since been collected on the island. 

146. Franseria camphorata Greene, in Bull. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 1 : 192. 1885. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. This 
was reported by Watson as Franseria bipinnatifida Nutt. 
"One of the most conspicuous plants at the south end, growing 
in thick, roundish clumps, giving the country a greenish-white 
appearance, flower buds red, bloom straw-color," Palmer. 
Greene in his description alludes to the strong camphor odor 
for which it is named. "Not common," Dudley's list. Mason 
1518. 

147. Leptosyne gigantea Kellogg, in Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
4: 198. (1870.) Type locality, San Miguel Island. "Only 
two plants found in the crevices of high rocks, five feet high 
and branching near the top," Palmer. This has not since been 
collected. 

148. Hemitonia frutescens Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11 : 79. 
(1876.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "In compact 
bunches in the crevices of high rocks, a few small plants 
among bushes," Palmer. Greene. Dudley's list. 

149. Hemiconia palmeri Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
1:24. (1890.) Tv/?^ /oca/zV^;, Guadalupe Island. This was 
collected by Dr. Palmer on his second visit, and was reported 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 4^9 

as common on the south end of the island in all exposed 
places. 

150. Hemitonia greeneana Rose, 1. c. Type locality, 
Guadalupe Island. Dr. Palmer reports this as common at the 
south end in all the arroyos and cafions along the beach. It 
is a very homely plant, growing in great clumps in barren 
places. Hanna & Slevin. 

151. Perityle incana Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11:78. 
(1876.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "Very common in 
the middle of the island in the crevices of high rocks hanging 
in massive bunches of yellow bloom," Palmer. Greene. 
Franceschi. Dudley's list. Mason 1519. 

152. Perityle grayi Rose, in Coult. Bot. Gaz. 15:118. 
(1890.) 73;/'^ /oca/2>;y, Guadalupe Island. This was reported 
by Watson as P. etnoryi Torr., and is probably the plant that 
Greene reported as P. calif arnica Benth. "Scattered through 
some of the caiions on the east side, flowers white, showy," 
Palmer. Franceschi. "Abundant," Dudley's list. Mason 
1502. 

153. Baeria palmeri Gray, Bot. Cal. 1 : 376. Type locality, 
Guadalupe Island. "Abundant in warm, low spots in the 
middle and at the south end, flowers showy," Palmer. 
Greene. 

154. Baeria coronaria (Nutt), Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
19:23. (1883.) Type locality, Sa.n Diego, CaViiornia.. Col- 
lected only on the Voyage of the Wahlberg, Zoe 4:130. 

155. Baeria gracilis (DC.), Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 9: 196. 
(1874.) California. Collected only on the Voyage of the 
Wahlberg, Zoe 5 : 22. 

156. Bahia lanata DC, Prod. 5:657. "A single plant on 
a rocky, open spot in the middle of the island," Palmer. It 
has not been found since. Franceschi reported an Eriophyl- 
lum which may be the same. 

157. Amblyopappus pusillus Hook.& Arn.,in Hook. Journ. 
Bot. 3 : 321. (1841.) Chile. "In low ground at the southern 
end," Palmer. Greene. "Common on south facing slope," 
Mason 1508. 

158. Matricaria discoidea DC, Prod. 6:50. Cahfornia. 
"Around springs in the middle of the island," Palmer. 
Greene. Franceschi. 



420 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

159. Artemisia calif ornica Less., in Linnaea 6 : 523. ( 1831.) 
California. "Common," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. 

160. Senecio palmeri Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11:89. 
(1876.) Type locality, Guadalupe Island. "'White sage,' 
very abundant on warm slopes, about three feet high, a free 
and showy bloomer," Palmer. Greene. Franceschi. 

1*61. Centaurea melitensis L., Sp. PI. 917. Type locality, 
Malta. Dudley's list. Mason 1521. 

List of Plants recorded from Cedros Island, Mexico 

Cedros Island, the largest of the islands along the coast of 
Lower California, lies about 40 miles distant from the shore 
and midway of the peninsula. From the northern extremity 
it widens to about 9 miles at the south and is about 20 miles 
long. It is of volcanic origin and mountainous, with many 
peaks, the highest of which is less than 4000 feet elevation. 

Several collections of plants have been made on the island. 
In the present list the names of the collectors will be given in 
chronological order with each species. There have been three 
published lists and the species not on those lists have been 
taken from the scattered descriptions of Dr. Kellogg in the 
publications of the California Academy of Sciences and in 
revisions and monographs. There may be some that have 
been overlooked, as it is scarcely possible to be certain that 
every reference has been found. 

The first collection was made by Dr. Veatch. who visited 
the island in 1859 to investigate the reports of its mineral 
wealth. He brought back a small collection which he gave to 
the recently-founded California Academy of Natural Sciences, 
and the specimens were named by Dr. Albert Kellogg. Some 
of them were beautifully figured in colors in the Hesperian, 
later described in the publications of the California Academy 
of Natural Sciences, and all were new to science. Dr. Streets 
visited the island in 1876. collecting a few specimens, but no 
list was published. Mr. Lyman Belding made a small collec- 
tion in April, 1882, there being a few references to his speci- 
mens. The first important collection following that of Dr. 
Veatch was made by Dr. E. L. Greene in 1885. He spent 
three days in April and published a delightful description of 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 421 

the island and the trip in Pittonia 1 : 194-208. Eighty-two 
species were collected, 19 being new. In 1889, Lieut. Charles 
F. Pond of the U. S. Ship Ranger, while surveying the Lower 
Californian shores and islands, made a small collection on 
Cedros Island, which was listed by Dr. Greene in Pitt. 1 : 266- 
268. Of nine species listed five were described as new. The 
next important collection was made by Dr. Edward Palmer, 
who spent five days on the island in March, 1889. The list of 
his collection was published by Dr. George Vasev and Dr. 
J. N. Rose in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1 : 13-20. He collected 
97 species, six of which were new, and 44 were added to the 
known flora of the island. In 1897, T. S. Brandegee visited 
this island on the voyage of the Wahlberg and the list of his 
additions was published in Zoe 5:23. There were 31 species 
added, one new, namely Gilia wicialis Brandegee, a scrap of 
which is in the herbarium of the California Academy of 
Sciences. On the 1905-1906 expedition of the California 
Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands a short stop 
was made on the island and a few plants collected by Alban 
W. Stewart. Dr. G. Dallas Hanna made a small collection 
when he visited the island in 1922. Dr. J. N. Rose and others 
have made some collections, but no lists of their plants have 
been published, their collections being occasionally noted in 
revisions and monographs. The last collection is that of H. L. 
Mason, the botanical collector on the expedition of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences to the Revillagigedo Islands in 
the spring of 1925. He collected 53 species from June 3-6, 
adding Asclepias subulata Dene., Dudleya Candida Britton, 
Dudleya sp., Polypogon monspcliensis Desv., Carex spissa 
Bailey, Eleocharis caribcca Blake, Acalypha californica Benth. 
In the present paper four lists have been made, the first 
being the 55 species which were first described from Cedros 
Island. Those in this list marked with a star are the types in 
the herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences, those 
marked with a dagger are topotypes in our herbarium. The 
second list consists of 33 species first described from Lower 
California or the mainland of Mexico. The third is a list of 
64 species which were originally described from the mainland 
of California or Arizona. The fourth is a list of widely- 
distributed species consisting of 23, generally known as weeds. 



422 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



List of Species first described from Cedros Island 

(Stars indicate types and daggers indicate topotypes in the Herbarium 
of the California Academy of Sciences.) 



fjuiiipcrus cerrosianus Kell. 
*Agave sebastiana Greene 
\Eriogonum molle Greene 
^Eriogonum pondii Greene 

Eriogonum taxifoliutn Greene 
fHarfordia fruticosa Greene 

Hesperonia cedrosensis Standi. 

Thysanocarpus p aimer i 

Vasey & Rose 
fHosackia nudata Greene 
*Hosackia flexuosa Greene 

Lotus cedrosensis Greene 
* Astragalus fastidiosus Kell. 
^Astragalus insularis Kell. 

Astragalus cedrosensis 

Vasey & Rose 

Viscainoa geniculata Greene 
fVeatchia cedrosensis Gray 
*Rkus lentil Kell. 
■fRhamnus insularis Kell. 
^Sphceralcea fulva Greene 

Abutilon lemmoni Watson 
^Eucnide cordata Curran 
*Peialonyx linearis Greene 

Cocheniica pondii Walton 

Neomamillaria goodridgei 

Britt. & Rose 

Ferocactus chrysacanthus 

Britt. & Rose 
*Xylonagra arborea 

Donn. Sm. & Rose 



*CEnothera cedrosensis Greene 
*Garrya veatchii Kell. 
*Arctostaphylos veatchii Kell. 

Gilia veatchi Parry 

Gilia uncialis Brandegee 
*Phacelia ixodes Kell. 

Phacelia cedrosensis Rose 
jCryptanthe cedrosensis Greene 
fVerbena lilacina Greene 
*Salvia cedrosensis Greene 

Teucrium glandulosum Kell. 
*Monardella thymifolia Greene 
"fLycium cedrosense Greene 
"fPhysalis greenei Vasey & Rose 

Nicotiana greeneana Rose 

Diplacus stellatus Kell. 
*Pentstemon cedrosensis Kell. 
*Galium stellatum Kell. 
*Trixis calif ornica Kell. 
fBrickellia cedrosensis Greene 
\Aplopappus tridentatus Blake 

Franseria lancifolia Rydb. 
*Viguiera lonata Kell. 
*Encelia stenophylla Greene 
fEncelia calif ornica asperifolia 

Blake 

Verbesina hastata Kell. 

Porophyllum cedrense 

Rose & Standi. 
*Senecio cedrosensis Greene 

Eriophyllum crucigerum Rydb. 



List of Species 
First described from Mexico or Lower California 



Notholmia Candida Hook. 
Cheilanthes brandegei D. C. Eaton 
Ephedra peninsularis Johnston 
Muhlenbergia microsperma Kunth. 
Eriogonum intricatum Benth. 
A triplex bar clay ana Benth. 
Draba sonorw Greene 
Arabis pectinata Greene 



Tillcea connata R. & P. 
Dudieya Candida Britton 
Ribes viburnif olium Gray 
Ribes tortuosum Benth. 
Ltipinus pondii Greene 
Phaseolus filiformis Benth. 
Parosela benthami Standi. 
Parosela megacarpa Standi. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 



423 



Acalypha californica Benth. 
Euphorbia polycarpa Benth. 
Zisyphus parryi Torr. 
Frankenia palmeri Wats. 
Mentzelia adherens Benth. 
Echinocereus maritimus Schum. 
Machcerocereus gummosus 

Britt. & Rose 
Asclepias subulata Dene. 
Cryptanthe maritima Greene 



Datura discolor Bemh. 
Antirrhinum junceum Gray 
Antirrhinum watsoni 

Vasey & Rose 
Echinopepon minima Watson 
Bebbia juncea Greene 
Franseria chenopodifolia Benth. 
Franseria camphorata leptophylla 

Gray 
Perityle grayi Rose 



List of Species found also on the mainland 



Pellaa andromedafolia Fee 

Pityrogramma triangularis Maxon 

Pinus muricata Don 

Melica imperfecta Trin. 

Stipa lepida Hitchc. 

Carex spissa Bailey 

Carex angustata Boot 

BrodicEa capitata Benth. 

Celtis douglasii Planch. 

Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. 

Pterostegia drymarioides 

Fisch. & Meyer 

Aphanisma blitoides Moq. 

Atriplex microcarpa Dietr. 

Atriplex californica Moq. 

Calandrinia maritima Nutt. 

Polycarpum depressum Nutt. 

Clematis pauciflora Nutt. 

Delphinium cardinale Hook. 

Lepidium menzicsii DC. 

Thysanocarpus laciniatiis Nutt. 

Athysanus pusillus Greene 

Jsomeris arborea Nutt. 

Heteromeles arbutifolia Roem. 

Hosackia maritima Nutt. 

Euphorbia misera Benth. 

Euphorbia albomarginata T. & G. 

Ditaxis californica Heller 

Simmondsia californica Nutt. 

Mentzelia involucrata Watson 

Rhus laurina Nutt. 

Rhus integrifolia Nutt. 

Bergerocactus emoryi 

Britt. & Rose 



Echinocereus engelmanni Parry 

Opuntia sp. 

Apiastrum angustifolium Nutt. 

Bowlesia septentrionalis C. & R. 

Cilia gracilis Hook. 

Ellisia chrysanthemifolia Benth. 

Nemophila aurita Lindl. 

Plagiobothrys coo peri Gray 

Pectocarya linearis DC. 

Atnsinckia intermedia 

Fisch & Meyer 
Salvia columbaria Benth. 
Mimulus cardinalis Dougl. 
Antirrhinum subsessile Gray 
Calium angustifolium Nutt. 
Lonicera subspicata H. & A. 
Marah macrocarpa Greene 
Rafinesquia californica Nutt. 
Microseris linearifolia Gray 
Malacothrix clevelaiidi Gray 
Aplopappus venetus Blake 
Baccharis sarothroides Gray 
Filago arizonica Gray 
Gnaphalium sprengelii H. & A. 
Iva hayesiana Gray 
Hemizonia fasciculata T. & G. 
Perityle greenei Rose 
Baeria gracilis Gray 
Amblyopappus pusillus H. & A. 
Porophyllum gracile Benth. 
Artemisia californica Less. 
Cutierrezia sarothrce Britt. & Rose 



424 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



List of Species widely distributed 



Adianium capillus-veneris L. 
Typha, sp. 

Polypogon monspeliensis Desv. 
Agrostis verticUlata Vill. 
Bro-mus trinii Desv. 
Festiica octoflora Walt. 
Elcocharis caribcca Blake 
Scirpus riparius Spreng. 
Juncus acutus L. 
Parietaria floridana Nutt. 
Chenopodium album L. 
Chenopodium murale L. 



Mesembryanthon um crysfallinum L. 
Silene gallica L. 
Sisymbrium canescens Nutt. 
Capsella bursa-pastoris Medic. 
Oligomcris glaucescens Camb. 
Er odium cicutarium L'Her. 
Malva borealis Wallm. 
Heliotr opium cnrassavicum L. 
Galium, aparine L. 
Sonchus tenerrimus L. 
Sonchus olcraccus L. 
Senecio sylvaticus L. 



POLYPODIACEiE; Fern FamUy 

1. Admntmn capillus-veneris L., Sp. PI. 1096. Europe. 
This is the widely distributed maiden-hair fern. Greene. 
Mason 2002. 

2. Pcllcea andromedcefolia (Klf.), Fee, Gen. 129. 1850- 
52. CaHfornia. Greene collected this under pines at the sum- 
mit of the island. Palmer. 

3. Notholcena stilphurea (Cav.), J. Sm.,Bot.Voy. Herald 
1:233. 1854. Ptcris sulphurea Cav., Descr. 269. 1802. 
California & Chile. Mexico. A small fern with white, 
powdery coating. Greene collected this on dry hillsides and 
reported it as Notholcena Candida Hook. Palmer. Mason 
2001. 

4. Cheilanthes hrandegei D. C. Eaton, Bull. Torr. Club 
17:215, t. 104. 1890. Type locality, Magdalena Island. 
Palmer. 

5. Pityro gramma triangularis (Kaulf.), Maxon, Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 173. (1913). Gymno gramma triangu- 
laris Kaulf. Enum. Fil. 72). 1824. Type locality, San Fran- 
cisco. California. Brandegee. 



PIN ACE^ ; Pine Family 

6. Juniperus cerrosianus Kell., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
2:97. 1861. Type locality, Cedros Island. A low shrub up 
to 5 feet, fruit large and very blue. Veatch. Greene. Palmer. 
Hanna. Mason 1991. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 



425 



7. Pinus nmricata D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. 17:441. 
1837. Type locality, near San Luis Obispo, California. This 
pine g-rows on the summit of the ridges. The trees have 
slender trunks and some attain a height of 70 feet. Greene. 
Pahner. Hanna. Mason 2021. 

GNETACE^ ; Joint- Fir Family 

8. Ephedra peninsularis Johnston, Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot. 
7:431. 1922. T^;/?^ /ocatov, Magdalena Island. This grew 
at the north end of the island. Palmer. Mason 2021. 

TYPHACE^; Bulrush Family 

9. Typha angustifolia L., Sp. PI. 971. Europe. This 
is the common cat-tail or bulrush. The specimen consists of 
leaves only, but they are narrow as in this species and 6 feet 
long. Mason 2010. It may be the same as the Typha reported 
in Anthony's collection as T. latifolia L. 

POACE^ ; Grass Family 

10. Polypogon monspeliei'isis (L.), Desv., Fl. Atlant. 
8:67. 1797. Alopecurus monspeliensis 'L., Sp. PI. 61. 
Europe. A common weed. Mason 2016. 

11. Agrostis verticillata Vill., Prosp. PI. Dauph. 16. 
1779. Europe. Palmer found a small plot near the spring. 
Mason 1995. 

12. Melica imperfecta Trin., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI. 
Sci. Nat. 2 : 59. 1836. California. Palmer. 

13. Muhlenhergia microsperma (DC), Kunth., Rev. 
Gram. 1 : 64. 1829. Mexico. This was reported in Palmer's 
collection as M. debilis Willd. 

14. Bromus trinii Desv., in Gay Fl. Chile 6: 441. 1853. 
Chile. This was reported in Palmer's list as Trisetum harba- 
tum Steud. 

15. Festiica octoiiora Walt., Fl. Carol. 81. 1788. South 
Carolina. This was reported in Palmer's list as F. tenella 
Willd. 

16. Stipa lepida Hitch., Am. Journ. Bot. 2:303. 1915. 
Type locality, Santa Inez Forest Reserve, California. Palmer. 

September 6, 1929 



426 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Prcc. 4th Ser. 

CYPERACE^; Sedge Family 

17. Carex spissa L. H. Bailey, in Hemsl. Biol. Centr. 
Amer. 4:94. 1886. Type locality, San Diego. A stout 
sedge with glaucous leaves, brownish at base. Mason 1997. 

18. Carex angustata Boot., in Hook. Fl. Am. Bor. 2:218. 
Columbia River. This was collected by Greene in the deepest 
caiion, in wet ground. This may have been the preceding, as 
he was uncertain about the species. 

19. Eleocharis carihcca (Rottb.), Blake in Rhodora 
20:24. 1918. Scirpiis carihceus Rottb., Descr. PI. Ran 
Progr. 24. 1772. Type localitv, St. Croix, Caribsea Island. 
Mason 2011. 

20. Scirpus riparius J. & C. Presl., Rel. Haenk. 1 : 193. 
South America. Greene reported this as frequent in moist 
saline soil. 



JUNCACEiE; Rush Family 

21. Juncus acutus L., Sp. PI. 325. Europe. This was 
reported by Greene as /. rohustus S. Watson, now regarded 
as a synonym. It grew at the spring near the seashore and is 
a stout rush with a rank growth. Palmer. Mason 1936. 

AMARYLLIDACE^; Century Plant Family 



22. Agave sebastiana Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 214. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. Mason 
collected this in flower and fruit. It grew to a height of 8 
feet. Mason 1936. 



LILIACE^ ; Lily Family 

23. Brodicea capitata Benth., PI. Hartw. 339. Type 
locality, Monterey. Brandegee. 

URTICACE^; Nettle Family 

24. Parietaria Horidana Nutt., Am. Gen. 2:208. Type 
locality, near St. Mary's, West Florida. Palmer collected this 
amid rocks and bushes in canons. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA ^27 

25. Celtis douglasii Planchon, in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. Ill, 
10: 29. Type locality, arid region along the Columbia River. 
The authority for this is C. S. Sargent's Manual of the Trees 
of North America, page 322. Collector not stated. 



POLYGONACE^ ; Buckwheat Family 

26. Eriogonum fasciadatum Benth., in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
17:411. 1837. Nevada and Arizona. Greene. Palmer. 
Mason. 1987. 2028. 

27. Eriogonum mollc Greene, Pitt. 1 : 207. 1888. Type 
locality, Cedros Island. Greene. Hanna. 

28. Eriogonum pondii Greene, Pitt. 1:267. 1889. 
Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. Pond. Palmer. 
Stewart. Mason 2026. 2018. 

29. Eriogonum taxifoliiim Greene, Pitt. 1 : 267. 1889. 
Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. 

30. Eriogonum intricatunt Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 46, 
t. 22. 1844. Type locality, San Bartolome Bay. This grew 
on the summit of the ridge. Brandegee. Mason 2037. 

31. Harfordia fruticosa Greene, in Parry Davenp. Acad. 
Sci. 5 : 28. 1886. Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene re- 
ports this as the commonest shrub at all lower and middle ele- 
vations. It grows to a height of 3 feet. Veatch. Greene. 
Pond. Palmer. Stewart. 

32. Pterostcgia drymarioides Fisch. & Meyer, Ind. Sem. 
Hort. Petrop. 2 : 48. Type locality. Bodega Bay. Palmer 
collected this in the shade of bushes and rocks. 



CHENOPODIACE^; Salt-bush Family 

33. Chenopodium album L., Sp. PI. 219. Europe. 
Brandegee. 

34. Chenopodium murale L., Sp. PI. 219. Europe. 
Greene. Palmer. 

35. Aphanisma hlitoides Nutt.. Moq. in DC. Prodr, 
132 : 54. 1849. Type locality, San Diego, California. 
Palmer. 



428 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

36. Atriplex microcarpa (Benth.), Dietr. Syn. PI. 5 : 536. 
Obione microcarpa Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 48. 1844. Type 
locality, San Diego. Palmer. 

37. Atriplex calif ornica Moq., in DC. Prodr. 132:98. 
1849. California. Greene reported this as frequent near the 
seashore. 

38. Atriplex harclayana (Benth.), Dietr. Syn. PI. 537. 
Obione barclayana Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 48. 1844. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. This grew in abundance near the 
beach. Palmer. 

ALLIONACE^; Four O'clock Family 

39. Hesperonia cedrosaisis Standley. in Contr. U. S. 
Natl. Herb. 12:362. 1909. Type locality, Cedros Island. 
Streets. Greene. Palmer. Brandegee. This was reported 
as Mirabilis calif ornica Gray. 

FICOIDACE.^; Fig Marigold Family 

40. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., Sp. PI. 480. 
Cape of Good Hope. Brandegee. 

PORTULACACE^; Portulaca Family 

41. Calandrinia niaritima Nutt., in Torr. & Gray Fl. N. 
Am. 1 : 19. Type locality, San Diego. Brandegee. 

CARYOPHYLLACE^; Pink Family 

42. Poly car pmn depressnm Nutt., in Torr. & Gray Fl. N. 
Am. 1:17. Type locality, San Diego. Palmer found this at 
the highest point of the north end under pines. 

43. Silene gallica L., Sp. PI. 417. Europe. Brandegee. 

RANUNCULACE^; Buttercup Family 

44. Clematis pauciHora Nutt., in Torr. & Gray Fl. N. 
Am. 1 : 65. Type locality, San Diego. Greene found two or 
three plants in one of the principal canons. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD—FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 429 

45. Delphinium cardinale Hook., Bot. Mag. t. 4887. 
1855. This was described from the collections of Wm. Lobb 
introduced into cultivation. Brandegee. 



CRUCIFER^; Mustard Family 

46. Draha sonorcc Greene, in Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2 : 59. 
1886. Type locality, northwestern Sonora. Palmer found 
only one plant on the side of a caiion. 

47. Sisymbriiiin canescens Nutt., Am. Gen. 2:68. Vir- 
ginia to Georgia. Greene. Palmer. 

48. Lepidium menziesii DC., Syst. 2:539. Northwest 
coast, collected by Menzies. Palmer collected this in exposed 
places. 

49. Arahis pecthwfa Greene, Pitt. 1 : 287. 1889. Type 
locality, San Bartolome Bay. Palmer reported this as rather 
common but scattering. 

50. Thysanocarpits palmeri Vasey & Rose, Contr. U. S. 
Natl. Herb.'l : 14. 1890. Type locality, Cedros Island. This 
is described as having purple flowers and pods. According to 
S. Watson it is closely related to T. erectus S. Wats., and 
according to Greene to T. emargiiiatiis Greene. Palmer found 
only a few plants in a level place. 

51. Thysonocarpus laciniatus Nutt., in Torr. & Gray Fl. 
N. Am. 1 : 118. Type locality, Santa Barbara. Brandegee. 

52. Athysamis pusillns (Hook.), Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 1 : 72. 1885. Type locality, Monterey. Brandegee. 

53. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.), Medic. Pfl. Gatt. 1 : 85. 
Thlaspi bursa-pastoris L., Sp. PI. 647. 

CAPPARIDACE^; Caper Family 

54. Isomeris arbor ea Nutt., in Torr. & Gray Fl. N. Am. 
1 : 124. Type locality, San Diego. Greene. Palmer. Mason 
1999. 

RESEDACE/E; Mignonette Family 

55. Oligomeris glaiicescens Camb., in Jacq. Voy. Bot. 24, 
t. 25. Mediterranean region. Greene. Palmer. 



430 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

CRASSULACE^ ; Stonecrop Family 

56. Tillcoa connata R. & P., Fl. Peru 1 : 70. Ecuador to 
Peru. This was reported in the list of Palmer's collection as 
T. Icptopetala Benth. 

57. Dudlcya Candida Britton, in Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 
2: 18. 1903. Type locality, Coronado Islands, Lower Cali- 
fornia. This is much shorter than the type as described but 
otherwise seems to agree. The sepals and petals are farinose, 
the latter pale yellow tinged >vith pink. Mason 2003a. 

58. Diidleya sp. This is without basal leaves. The 
cauline leaves are reflexed and the pink flowers densely clus- 
tered at the summit of the red stems; in fruit, the branches 
elongate and the arrangement of the pods is strongly secund. 
Mason 2038. 



SAXIFRAGACE^ ; Saxifrage Family 

59. Rihes z'ibuniifoliiDu Gray, in Proc. Am. Acad. 
17: 202. 1881-82. Type locality,, near All Saints Bay, Lower 
California. Brandegee. 

60. Ribes tortiiosinn Benth., in Bot. Voy. Sulph. 17. 1844. 
Type locality, San Ouintin, Lower California. Brandegee. 

ROSACEJE; Rose Family 

61. Heteromeles arhutifolia (Ait. f.). M. Roem. Syn. 
Rosifl. 105. 1847. California. Greene collected this in bud, 
on the summit of the ridge. Mason 2029. 

LEGUMINOS^; Pea Family 

62. Hosackia nudata Vasey & Rose, in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 1 : 14. 1890. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. 
Greene. Palmer. Mason 1990. This is a sparsely leaved, 
divaricately branching plant with subsessile flowers changing 
from yellow to orange. 

63. Hosackia Hexuosa Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 :82. 
1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. 

64. Hosackia maritima Nutt., in Torr. & Gray Fl. N. 
Am. 1 : 327. Type locality, Santa Barbara. Palmer. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOH ER CALIFORNIA 43^ 

65. Lupinns poiidii Greene, Pitt. 1 : 288. 1889. Type lo- 
cality, San Bartolome Bay, Lower California. Palmer. Mason 
2040. This is annual and related to L. ariaonicus S. Watson. 

66. Astragalus fastidiosiis (Kell.), Greene in Bull. Gal. 
Acad. Sci. 1 : 186. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. 
Veatch. Greene. Palmer. Mason 2033. Flowers white, 
pods inflated. 

67. Astragalus insularis Kell., in Bull. Gal. Acad. Sci. 

1 : 6. 1884. Type locality, Gedros Island. Veatch. Palmer. 
Mason 1994. Prostrate, with smaller inflated pods than the 
preceding". 

68. Astragalus cedrocensis Vasey & Rose, in Gontr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 1: 15. 1890. This is annual and related to A. 
niittalliamis DG. Palmer. 

69. Phaseolus filiformis Benth., in Bot. Voy. Sulph. 13. 
1844. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Streets. Pond. 
Palmer. Mason 1988. A slender vine with pink flowers and 
3-lobed leaves. 

70. Parosela benthami (Brandegee), Standi., Gontr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 23 : 460. 1922. Dalea benthami Brandegee, 
Proc. Gal. Acad. Sci. II. 2: 148. 1889. Type locality, Santa 
Margarita Island, Lower Galifornia. Pond. Palmer. 

71. Parosela megacarpa (S. Wats.), Standi., Gontr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 23 : 460. Dalea megacarpa S. Watson, Proc. 
Am. Acad. 20:359. 1885. Type locality, Sonora, Mexico, 
Greene. 

GERANIACE^; Geranium Family 

72. Erodium cicutarium L'Her., in Hort. Kew, ed. 

2 : 404. Europe. Brandegee. 

ZYGOPHYLLACE^ ; Lignum Vitae Family 

73. Viscainoa geniculata (Kell.), Greene, Pitt. 1:163. 
1888. Staphylca geniculata Kellogg, Proc. Gal. Acad. Sci. 
2:22. 1859. Type locality, San Sabastian Bay. This shrub 
has large, yellowish white flowers and a strongly 4-lobed 
inflated pod which reminded Kellogg of the pod of Staphylea. 
Veatch. Greene. 



432 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4tii Ser. 

EUPHORBIACEiE; Spurge Family 

74. Acalypha calif ornica Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 51. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Mason 2021. 

75. Euphorbia misera Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 51. Type 
locality, San Diego. Mason (without number). Mason's 
specimen is very poor and the determination uncertain. 

76. Euphorbia alb o mar gin at a Torr. & Gray, in Pac. Rail. 
R. Report 2: 174. Type locality, headwaters of the Colorado. 
Greene. 

77. Euphorbia polycarpa Benth.. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 50. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Brandegee. 

78. Ditaxis calif ornica (Brandegee), Heller, Muhl. 8: 60. 
1912. Argythamnia calif ornica Brandegee, Zoe 5 : 230. 1906. 
Type locality, Marshall Canon, 7 miles west of Coachella, 
Riverside County, California. Brandegee. 

BUXACE^ ; Box Family 

79. Simmondsia calif ornica 'Nutt, in Hook. Lond. Journ. 
Bot. 3:400. 1844. t. 16. Type locality, San Diego. Veatch. 
Palmer. Veatch's specimen was described by Kellogg as 
Galphimia pabulosa and figured in the Hesperian. 

ANACARDIACE^; Sumac Family 

80. Veatchia cedroscnsis (Kell.), Gray in Bull. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. 1 : 4. Rhus veatchiana Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 2:24. 1859. 1884. Type locality, Cedros ls\an± This 
is the peculiar elephant tree. Veatch. Greene. Palmer. 
Stewart. Hanna. Mason 1905. 

81. Rhus Icntii Kell., in Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2:16. 
1859. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. 
Palmer. Stewart. Hanna. Mason 1985. The fruit is a 
berry as large as a small cherry. 

82. Rhus integrifolia (Nutt.), Benth. & Hook., ex S. 
Watson in Wheeler's Report Bot. 84. Styphonia integrifolia, 
Nutt.. in Torr. & Gray Fl. N. Am. 1 : 220. Type localities, 
San Diego and Santa Barbara. Greene. Palmer. Mason 



Vol. Will] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 433 

2039, leaves entire. 2034, most of the leaves entire but some 
are 2-3 divided. 

83. Rhus laurina Nutt., in Torr. & Gray Fl. N. Am. 
1 : 219. Type locality, Santa Barbara. Greene. Mason 1981. 

RH AMNACE^ ; Buckthorn Family 

84. Rhamnus insularis (Kell), Greene, Bull. Gal. Acad. 
Sci. 2:302. 1887. Type locality, Cedros Island. It was 
published as R. insulus Kell, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2:20. 
1859. Veatch. Greene. Palmer. Hanna. 

85. Zicyphus parryi Torr., in Bot. Mex. Bound Surv. 46. 
1859. Type locality, San Felipe, California. Palmer's speci- 
mens were so named by Dr. William Trelease. It was col- 
lected in canons and on mountain sides. 

MALVACE^ ; Mallow Family 

86. Sphceralcea fulva Gr^tnt,V\ti. \: 201. 1888. Type 
locality, Cedros Island. Streets. Greene. Palmer. Mason 
2031. The entire plant is yellowish tomentose and the flowers 
red. 

87. Ahiitilon lemmoni S. Watson, in Proc. Am. Acad. 
20:357. 1885. Type locality, near Santa Cruz, Sonora. 
Streets. 

88. Malva borealis Wallm., in Liljebl. Svensk. Fl. ed. 
3 : 574. Europe. Brandegee. 

FRANKENIACE^ ; Salt-weed Family 

89. Frankenia palmeri S. Watson, in Proc. Am. Acad. 
11 : 124. 1876. Lower California on the gulf side. Greene. 
Palmer. 

LOASACE^; Blazing Star Family 

90. Eiicnide cordata (Kell), in Curran, Bull. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 1:137. 1885. Mentzelia cordata Kellogg, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. 2 : 33. 1859. Type locality, Cedros Island. 
Veatch. Greene. Palmer. Mason 1902. Flowers white 
with numerous stamens, leaves cordate irregularly crenate. 



434 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

91. Petalonyx linearis Greene, in Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 188. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. 
Palmer. Mason 2019. 

92. Mentselia adhcerens Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 15. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Streets. Palmer. 

93. Mentzelia- involucrata S. Watson, in Proc. Am. Acad. 
20:367. 1885. San Bernardino County. Brandegee. 

CACTACEiE; Cactus Family 

94. Opuntia sp. This was listed by Greene as Opuntia 
engelinamii, which at that time was an aggregate. The 
species may be O. occideiitalis Engelm. & Bigelow, which is 
distributed from southwestern California to northern Lower 
California and adjacent islands. Britt. & Rose Cactacese 
1 : 146. 

95. Echinocerens eugelmanni (Parry), Riimpler in 
Forster Hadb. Cact. ed. 2:805. 1885. Cereus engelmanni 
Parry in Engelm. Am. Journ. Sci. II. 14:338. 1852. Type 
locality, mountains about San Felipe, San Diego County, 
California. Greene. 

96. Echinocereus maritimus (Jones), Schuman, Gesambt. 
Kakteen 27. 1898. Cereus maritimus Jones, Am. Nat. 
17:973. 1883. Type locality, Ensenada, Lower California. 
Brandegee. 

97. Machcero cereus giimmosus (Engelm.), Britt. & Rose, 
Cactacese 2:116. 1920. Cereus gummosus Engelm, in 
Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2:162. 1889. Lower 
California and adjacent islands. Brandegee. 

98. Bergerocactus emoryi (Engelm.), Britt. & Rose, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12:474. 1909. Cereus emory 
Engelm., Am. Journ. Sci. II. 14:338. 1852. Boundary 
between Lower California and California. Greene. 

99. Ferocactiis chrysacanthus (Orcutt.), Britt. & Rose, 
Cactaceae 3:127. Echinocactus chrysacanthus Orcutt., Rev. 
Cact. 1 : 56. 1890. Type locality, Cedros Island. This is 
probably Echinocactus emoryi reported by Greene. 

100. Neomaminillaria goodridgei (Scheer), Britt. & Rose, 
Cactacese 4:158. 1925. Mamniillaria goodridgei Scheer, 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 435 

Salm- Dyck. Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 91. 1850. Type 
locality, Cedros Island. Greene. 

101. Cochemiea pondii (Greene), Walton, Cact. Journ. 
2:51. 1894. Mammillaria pondii Greene, Pitt. 1:268. 
1889. Type locality, Cedros Island. 

ONAGRACE^; Evening Primrose Family 

102. Xylonagra arborea Donn. Sm. & Rose, Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 16:294. 1913. Qinothera arborea Kellogg, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2 : 32. 1859. Type locality, Cedros 
Island. Veatch. Greene. Mason 2023. A shrub with 
bright red fuchsia like flowers in racemes, growing in thickets. 

103. CEnothera cedrosensis Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 187. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch, Greene. 
Mason 2085. 

UMBELLIFER^; Parsley Family 

104. Apiastrum angustifolium Nutt., in Terr. & Gray Fl. 
N. Am. 1 : 644. Type locality, San Diego, California. Palmer. 

105. Bozvlesia septenfrionalis C. & R., Contr. U. S. Natl. 
Herb. 7:31. 1900. Type locality, near Tucson, Arizona. 
Brandegfee. 



-65 ' 



GARRYACE^; Fringe-bush Family 

106. Garrya veatchii. Kell, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 40. 
1873. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. 

ERICACE^ ; Manzanita Family 

107. Arctostaphylos veatchii Kell, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
2:19. 1863. T^;/?^ /oca/z7v, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. 
This was collected by Greene in the region of the pines near 
the summit. He reported it as ^4. bicolor Gray. 

ASCLEPIADACE^; Silkweed Family 

108. Asclepias subulafa Dene., in DC. Prodr. 8:571. 
"Nova Hispania." One of the leafless species. Stewart. 
Mason 2020. 



436 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Ser. 

POLOMONIACE^ ; Phlox Family 

109. Gilia veatchii Parry ex Greene, in Bull. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 1:198. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. 
Greene. Palmer. A shrub with evergreen leaves resembling 
a juniper, viscid and fragrant; flowers ochroleucus tinged on 
the outside with bronze-purple, 

110. Gj/m MHc/a/w Brandegee, in Zoe 5 : 107. 1901. Type 
locality, Cedros Island. This was collected by Brandegee 
near the summit of the highest mountains on the sides of 
gulches and under the shade of bushes. It is related to G. 
dianthoides Nutt. 

111. Gilia gracilis Hook., Bot. Mag. t. 2924. California. 
Brandegee. 

HYDROPHYLLACE^; Waterleaf Family 

112. Phaceliu ixodes Kell., Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1:6. 
1884. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. 
Palmer. Stewart. Hanna. Mason 2000. Flowers bluish 
white in scorpioid spikes, elongating in fruit; entire plant 
glandular hairy. 

113. Plmcelia cedroseiisis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
1 : 18. 1890. Type locality, Cedros Island. This species is 
very hispid with slender bristles. Palmer collected it in the 
shade of bushes in canons. 

114. Ellisia chrysanthemifolia Benth., in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
17:274. 1837. California. Palmer. 

115. Nemophila aurifa Lindl., Bot. Reg. t. 1601. Cali- 
fornia. Pond. 

BORAGINACE^ ; Borage Family 

116. Cryptanthe cedroseiisis Greene, Pitt. 1:117. 1887. 
Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. Palmer. 
Mason 2035.' 

117. Cryptanthe maritima Greene, Pitt. 1:117. 1887. 
Type locality, Guadalupe Island. Palmer. 

118. Pectocarya linearis DC, Prodr. 10:120. Chile. 
Palmer. 



Vot. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 437 

119. Heliotropium curassavicum L., Sp. PI. 130. Cosmo- 
politan. Pond. 

120. Plagiohothrys cooperi Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
20:285. 1885. Type locality, S2inT>\tgo. Palmer. 

121. Amsinckia intermedia F. & M., Ind. Sem. Hort. 
Petrop. 2:26. 1836. Type locality, Bodega Head, Sonoma 
County, Calif. Brandegee. 

VERBENACE^; Verbena Family 

122. Verbena lilacina Greene, in Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci 
1:210. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. 
Palmer. Mason without a number. A tall shrubby species 
with fragfrant lilac flowers in terminal heads. 



*-fc.' 



LABIATE ; Mint Family 

123. Sahna cedrosensis Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1:212. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. 
Palmer. Mason 2027. A shrub with blue flowers, growing 
along talus slopes. 

124. Salvia columbaricB Benth., Lab. Gen. et Sp. 302. 
California. Brandegee. 

125. Teticrium glandulosum Kell., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
2 : 23. 1863. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. 
Palmer. Flowers white with pink shading. 

126. Monardella thymifolia Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1:211. 1886. Type locality, Ctdvosls\?in6.. Greene. Mason 
2022. Low shrub, the flowers pink to purple. 

SOLANACE^; Nightshade Family 

127. Lycium cedrosense Greene, Pitt. 1 : 268. 1889. Type 
locality, Cedros Island. A glandular pubescent spinescent 
shrub with small, red berries. Pond. Palmer. Mason 2014. 

128. Physalis greenei Vasey & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 1 : 18. 1890. Type locality, Cedros Island. Streets. 
Ponds. Palmer. Stewart. 

129. Nicotiana greeneana Rose. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
1 : 18. 1890. Type locality, Cedros Island. Palmer. 



438 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

130. Datura discolor Bernh., in Linnaea in Litt. 8: 138. 
1833. West Indies. Brandegee. 



SCROPHULARIACE.ffi ; Figwort Family 

131. Mimuhis cardinalis Dougl. ex. Benth., Scroph. Ind. 
28. California. Greene. Palmer. Mason 1993, flowers red; 
2017, flower yellow. 

132. Diplacus stellatus Kell., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2: 19. 
1863. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. 
Palmer. 

133. Pcntstenwn cerroscnsis Kell., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
2:19. 1863. Type locality, Cedros ls\3ind. Veatch. Greene. 
Belding. Palmer. Mason 2024. A showy species with red 
flowers. 

134. Antirrhinum jimceum (Benth.), Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. 7:377. 1868. Maurandia juncea Benth., Bot. Voy. 
Sulph. 41. 1844. From San Diego to the Bay of Magdalena. 
Veatch. Streets. Greene. Pond. Palmer. Mason 1984. 
This was described and figured by Kellogg as Saccularia 
veatckii, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2: 174. 1863. 

135. Antirrhinum subscssile Gray, in Coult. Bot. Gaz. 
9:55. 1884. Type locality, S3.n Diego. Palmer. 

136. Antirrhinum zvatsoni Vasey & Rose, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 11:533. 1888. Type locality, SdA-iQnentm. Palmer. 

RUBIACE^; Madder Family 

137. Galium angustifoHum Nutt., in Torr. & Gray Fl. N. 
Am. 2 : 22. Type locality, San Diego. Greene. 

138. Galium aparine L., Sp. PI. 108. Europe. 
Brandegee. 

139. Galium stellatum Kell, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2:97. 
1863. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. 

CAPRIFOLIACE^ ; Honeysuckle Family 

140. Lonicera subspicata Hook. & Arn,, Bot. Beech Voy. 
349. California. Brandegee. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 439 

CUCURBITACE^; Gourd Family 

141. Echinopepon minima (Kell.), S. Watson, Proc. Am. 
Acad. 24:52. 1889. Marah minima Kellogg, Proc. Cai. 
Acad. Sci. 2 : 18. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. 
Street. Palmer. 

142. Marah macrocarpa Greene, Leafl. Bot. Obs. 2:36. 
1910. From Santa Barbara to Cedros Island. Greene. 

CICHORIACE^; Chicory Family 

143. Rafinesquia califoniica Nutt., in Trans. Am. Phil. 
Soc. N. S. 7:429. 1841. Type locality, San Diego. 
Palmer. 

144. Microseris lincarifolia (DC.), Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
9:207. 1874. Calais linearifolia DC, VrodiV., 7 \^S. 1838. 
California. Palmer. 

145. Malacothrix clevelandi Gray, Bot. Cal. 1 : 433. Type 
locality, San Diego. Greene. Palmer. 

146. Sonchns tenenimus L., Sp. PI. 794. Mediterranean 
region. Palmer, more common than the next. 

147. Sonchus oleracens L., Sp. PI. 794. Cosmopolitan. 
Palmer. 



MUTISIACE^; Mutisia Family 

148. Trixis califoniica Kell., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2: 182, 
53. 1862. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. 
Palmer. Mason 2004. 



COMPOSITE; Sunflower Family 

149. Brickellia ccdrosensis Greene, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
10:86. 1883. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. 
Greene. Palmer. Mason 2004. 

150. Gutierrczia sarothra; (Pursh), Britt. & Rusby in 
Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 7:10. 1887. Solidago sarothrce 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 540. 1814. On the plains of the Mis- 
souri. Greene. Mason 1992. 



440 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

151. Aplopappus tridcntatus (Greene), Blake, Contr. U. 
S. Nat. Herb. 23. 1493. 1926. Type locality, Cedros Island. 
Veatch. Greene. Palmer. Mason 1998. 

152. Aplopappus venetus (H. B. K.), Blake, Contr. U. 
S. Natl. Herb. 23. 1492. 1926. Baccharis veneta H. B. K., 
Nov, Gen. & Sp. 4: 68. 1820. Type locality, Cuernavaca, 
Mexico. Greene. Palmer. 

153. Bebbia jnncea (Benth. ), Greene, Bull. Gal. Acad. 
Sci. 1 : 179. 1885. Carphephorus junceiis Benth., Bot. Voy. 
Sulph. 21. 1844. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Greene. 
Palmer. 

154. Baccharis sarothroides Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
17:211. 1881. San Diego County, California. Greene. 
Mason 2009. 

155. Filago arizonica Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 8:652. 
1873. Type locality, Verde Mesa, Arizona. Palmer. 

156. Gnaphalium sprengelii H. A., Bot. Beech. Voy. 150. 
California. Palmer. 

157. Franseria chenopodifolia Benth., Bot. Sulph. 20. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Gi'eene. Palmer. Mason 
2012. 

158. Franseria lancifolia Rydb.. N. Am. Fl. 33 : 36. 1922. 
Type locality, Cedros Island. Brandegee. According to Dr. 
Standley, this is a form of the preceding with less pubescent 
fruit. 

159. Franseria camphorata Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 192. 1885. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. Greene. 
Palmer. 

160. Franseria camphorata Icptophylla Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. 22:309. 1887. Type locality, San Fernando, Lower 
California. Greene. 

161. Iva hayesiana Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11 : 78. 1876. 
San Diego County, California. Greene. 

162. Viguiera lanata (Kell.), Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
17:218. 1881-82. Bahiopsis lanata Kellogg, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. 2 : 35. 1859. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. 
Greene. Streets. Belding. Pond. Palmer. Mason 2036. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 441 

163. Encelia stenophylla Greene. Bull. Torr. Club. 10:41. 
1883. Type locality, Cedros Island. Veatch. Greene. 
Palmer. Mason 1989. 

164. Encelia calif arnica asperifolia Blake, Proc. Am. Acad. 
49:368. 1914. Type locality, Cedros Island. Streets. 
Pond. Palmer. Mason 2015. 

165. Verbesina hastata Kell. ex Curran, in Bull. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. 1 : 140. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. 
Veatch. Greene. Palmer. This was reported as Encelia 
cedrosensis Rose, in Palmer's list. 

166. Hemitonia fasciculata (DC), Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. 
Am. 2:397. California. Greene. Hartmannia fasciculata 
DC, Prodr. 5:693. 1836. 

167. Ferity le greenei Rose, in Coult. Bot. Gaz. 15:117. 
1890. Type locality, Santa Cruz Island, California. Veatch. 
Streets. Greene. Palmer. 

168. Perityle grayi Rose, I. c. Type locality, Guadalupe 
Island. Palmer. 

169. Eriophyllinn crucigentm Rydb., N. Am. Fl. 34:96. 
1915. Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. Palmer. This 
was reported as E. confertiflorum (DC). Gray. 

170. Baeria gracilis (DC), Gray. Proc. Am. Acad. 9: 196. 
1874. California. Burrielia gracilis DC, Prodr. 5 : 664. 
1836. 

171. Amhlyopappus pnsillus Hook. & Arn., in Journ. Bot. 
3:321. 1841.^ Chile. Palmer. 

172. Porophyllum gracile Benth., in Bot. Voy. Sulph. 29. 
1844. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Greene. Pond. 
Palmer. 

173. Porophyllum cedrense Rose & Standi, ex Rydb., Fl. 
N. Am. 34: 189.' 1916. 73;/)^ /oc«//V_v, Cedros Island. Rose. 

174. Artemisia calif ornica Less., in Linnaea 6: 525. 1831. 
California. Greene. 

175. Senecio cedrosensis Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 194. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island. Greene. 
Palmer. 

176. Senecio sylvaticiis L., Sp. PI. 868. Europe. Palmer. 

September 6, 1929 



442 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

A List of Plants 
Recorded from the Tres Marias Islands, Mexico 

The first list of plants from the Tres Marias Islands was 
published by Dr. J. N. Rose in N. Am. Fauna. U. S. Dept. 
Agr., No. 11, pages 77-91. It was based on a collection made 
the last of May at the close of the dry season in 1897 by E. 
W. Nelson and E. A. Goldman. One hundred and twelve 
species were recorded from Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena 
and Maria Cleofa islands, of which 1 1 were described as new. 
The next collection was that of H. L. Mason when on the 
expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Revil- 
lagigedo Islands in 1925. Collections were made on Maria 
Madre, Maria Magdalena and Isabella islands from May 16-24 
at the end of the dry season and about 120 species were col- 
lected. Owing to the incomplete condition of most of the 
specimens, a duplicate set was sent to the United States Na- 
tional Herbarium for the authoritative determinations of Mr. 
Paul C. Standley, an authority on Mexican plants. In Octo- 
ber, 1925, Mrs. Roxana S. Ferris made a much better collec- 
tion, owing to the more favorable time of the year. She col- 
lected only on Maria Madre from October 21-27 and found 
64 species, 10 being new, published with 4 plates in Contr. 
Dudley Herb. 1:65-81, the title of her paper being: Pre- 
liminary Report on the Flora of the Tres Marias Islands. 

The greater number of the species listed are of wide dis- 
tribution in the tropics, a few are peculiar to the adjacent 
mainland, and 21 have been described as new species, two of 
which are now considered synonyms. More extended and 
thorough exploration of these islands will undoubtedly dis- 
cover many more species. It is with the desire to help future 
explorers that these lists have been brought together. 

List of Species 
First described from the Tres Marias Islands 

(Stars indicate types and daggers indicate topotypes in the Herbarium 
of the Cahfornia Academy of Sciences.) 

fAristolochia tresmaricB Ferris \Cracca arcuata Rydb. 

■fForchammeria sessilifolia Standi. fAtelia insularis Standi. 

Acaciella ferrisce Britt. & Rose Zanthoxylon insularis Rose 

Mimosa ferrisce Britt. & Rose Zanthoxylon nelsoni Rose 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 



443 



Zonthoxylon ferriscE Standi. 
Pilocarpus insularis Rose 
Esenbeckia nesiotica Standi. 
Gymnanthes insoluta Ferris 
Acalypha verbcnacea Standi. 
Astrocasia peltata Standi. 
Euphorbia tresmarice Standi. 



■\Buxus pubescens Greenm. 

Matayba spondioides Standi. 

Ternstroetnia maltbya Rose 

Begonia californica brevibracteata 

Ferris 
*Salvia aliena Greene 

Beloperone nelsoni Greene 



POLYPODIACE^ 

1. Adiantum trapezoides Fee, Gen. 117. 1850-52. 
Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico. Mason 1822, Maria Magdalena. 
Ferris 5704. 

2. Adiantum concinniim H. B. Willd., Sp. 5:451. 
1810. Tropical America. Nelson 4273, Maria Madre. 

3. Adiantttm tenerum Sw3.rtz,Frod. 135. 1788. Mexico. 
Nelson 4281, Maria Madre. 

4. Adiantum poiretii Wikstr., Vet. Acad., Hdl. 1825, 
443. 1826. Tropical Africa, East Indies, Mexico. Ferris 
5632. 

5. Ceropteris calomenalos (L.), Under., Bull. Torr. 
Club 29 : 632. 1902. Gymnograuinia calomenalos Kaulf. 
Tropical America, Natal, Africa. Nelson 4333, Maria Madre. 

6. Dryopteris patens (SW.), O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 
2:813. 1891. Aspidium patens Swartz. Cosmopolitan. 
Nelson 4316, Maria Madre. 

7. Dryopteris karwinskyana (Mett. ), O. Kuntze, Rev. 
Gen. PI. 2:813. 1891. Mexico, Guatemala. Ferris 5711. 

8. Aspidium trifoliatum (L. ), Swartz, Schrad. Journ. 
1800-, 30. Tropical America. Nelson 4280, Maria Madre. 

9. Pteris longifolia L., Sp. PI. 2 : 1074. Cosmopolitan. 
Nelson 4201, Maria Madre. 

10. Conic gramme americana Maxon, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 17:607. 1916. Mexico. Ferris 5712. 

11. PellcEa seemanni Hook., Sp. Fl. 2:141, t. 107b. 
1858. Mexico. Ferris 5706. 



CYCADACE^ 

12. Zamia loddigesii Miq. Hoev. & De Vriese, Tijdschr. 
10: 72. Mexico. Nelson 4329, Maria Cleofa. 



444 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

POACE^ 

13. Syntherisma sangitinalis (L.), Dulse, Fl. Hautes-Pyr. 
77. Digitaria sail guinalis (L,.), Scop. Cosmopolitan. Mason 
1844, Maria Madre. Ferris 5642. 

14. Panicum faiscicidatutn Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. 22. 
Jamaica. Ferris 5675a. 

15. Panicum ramosum L., Mant. 8:29. Asia. Ferris 
5675. 

16. Panicum trichoides Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Occ. 24. 
Jamaica. Ferris 5701, 5605. 

17. Lasiacis niscifolia (H. B. K.), Hitch., Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 15:16. Mexico. Mason 1818, Maria 
Magdalena. 

18. Lasiacis divaricata (L.), Hitch., Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 15:16. Jamaica. Ferris 5656. 

19. Oplismenus burmanni (Retz.), Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 
54. Tropics. Ferris 5674. 

20. Chcctochha griscbachii (Fourn.), Scribn., U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull. 4:39. Mexico. Ferris 5574. 

21. Chcctochloa macrostachya (H. B. K.), Scrib. & 
Merr., U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull. 21 : 29, Fig. 16. 
Mexico. Ferris 5755. 

22. Cenchnis cchinatus L., Sp. PI. 1050. Jamaica. 
Mason 1848, Santa Isabella Island. Ferris 5725. 

23. Aristida ternipcs Cav., Icon. 5 : 46. Panama. Fer- 
ris 5724. 

24. Sporobolus argutits (Nees), Kunth., Enum. PI. 
1:215. Brazil. Ferris 6615. 

25. Pappophonmi alopccuvoidcs Vahl., Symp. Bot. 3:10. 
t. 51. Tropical America. Ferris 5616. 

26. Boiitcloua aristidoides (H. B. K.), Griseb., Fl. Brit. 
W. Ind. 537, in obs. Mexico. Ferris 5753. 

27. Eragrostis ciliaris (L.), Link., Hort. Berol. 1:192. 
Jamaica. Ferris 5641. 

28. Jouvea pilosa (Presl.), Scrib., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
25 : 143. 1896. Acapulco, Mexico. Ferris 5587. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 445 

29. Gouinia N. Sp., fide Hitchcock. Mason 1845, Santa 
Isabella. 

30. Panicum trichoides Swartz, Proclr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 
24. 1788. Jamaica. Nelson 4257 as P, hrcvifolium L., 
Maria Madre. 

31. Eleusine indica Gaertn., Fruct. 1 : 8. India, Jamaica. 
Nelson 4305, Maria Madre. 

32. Dactylocteiiium (sgyptiacum Willd., Enum. Hort. 
Berol. 1029. 1809. Africa, Asia, America. Nelson 4317, 
Maria Magdalena. 

33. Arundo donax L., Sp. PI. 81. Europe. Nelson 
4332. Maria Cleofa. 



CYPERACE^ 

34. Cyperus incompletus Link., Hort. Berol. 1:319. 
West Indies. Nelson 4259, Maria Madre. 

35. Cyperus ligularia L., Amoen. Acad. 5:81. West 
Indies. Nelson 4330. Maria Cleofa. 

36. Cyperus compress^.is L., Sp. PI. 46. Cosmopolitan. 
Ferris 5650. 

37. Cyperus tenerrimus J. & C. Presl., Rel. Haenk. i : 166. 
Mexico. Ferris 5718. 

38. Cyperus cayennensis (Lam.). Britt., Bull. Dept. 
Agr. Jamaica 5 : Suppl. 1 : 8. West Indies. Ferris 5567 and 
5564. 

39. Cyperus brunneus Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. i:116. 
West Indies. Ferris 5678. 

40. Cyperus Ottonis Boeck., in Linnsea 36:350. 1861- 
62. West Indies. Ferris 5737. 



ARACE^ 

41. ? Philodendron polytomum Schott., in Bonplandia 
7:164. 1859. Central America, Mexico. Ferris 6249. 

42. ? Philodendron anistonium Schott., in CEstr. Bot. 
Zeitschr. 8:179. 1858. Central America, Mexico. Ferris 
6258. 



446 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

BROMELIACE^ 

43. Tillandsia circinnata Schl, in Linnaea 18: 430. 1844. 
Central America, Mexico. Mason 1742, 1719, 1765, Maria 
Madre. 

44. Tillandsia juncea Le Conte, Ann. Lye. N. York 
2:130. 1828. Southern United States, Mexico, South 
America. Mason 1723, Maria Madre. 

45. Tillandsia halhisiana Schult. f. Syst. 7:11. 1212. 
Florida, Mexico, West Indies. Mason 1722, Maria Madre. 

46. Tillandsia fascicnlata Swartz, Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 
56. Florida, Mexico, West Indies. Mason 1764, Maria 
Madre. Ferris 3635. 

47. Hechtia sp. A specimen with leaves only. Mason 

1755. 

COMMELINACE^ 

48. Commelina virginica 1.., Sp. PI. ed. 11:61. Eastern 
United States, Tropical America, South America to Patagonia. 
Ferris 5685. 

49. Tinantia modesta Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
11. 3:175. 1889. Type locality, Miraflores, Mexico. 
Ferris 5703. 

AMARYLLIDACE^ 

50. Agave pacifica Trelease, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
23:118. 1920. Type locality, Creston Island, Mazatlan. 
Mason 1756, Maria Madre. 

DIOSCORIACE^ 

51. Dioscorea sp. Ferris 6264. 

MARANTACE^ 

52. ? Calathea cyclopliora Baker, Kew Bull. 1895:17. 
British Guiana. Ferris 6263. 

ORCHIDACE^ 

53. Oncidium sp. Mason 1823, Maria Magdalena. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 447 

PlPERACE^ 

54. Peperomia pellucida (L.), H. B. & K., Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 1 : 64. American & African tropics. Ferris 5707. 

55. Piper aduncum L., Sp. PI. 29. Tropical America. 
Nelson 4283, Maria Madre. 

MORACEiE 

56. Ficus cotinifolia H. B. & K., Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2 : 49. 
Mexico, Central America. Mason 1739 and 1763, Maria 
Madre. Ferris 5677. 

57. Ficus mexicana Miquel., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 
3:300. Mexico, Central America. Ferris 5681. 

58. Ficiis petiolaris H. B. & K., Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2 : 49. 
Type from near Mazatlan, Mexico. Ferris 5653. 

59. Ficus involuta (Liebm.), Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. 
Bat. 3 : 298. Central America and Mexico. Nelson 4182, 
Maria Madre. 

60. Ficus padifolia H. B. & K., Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2: 47. 
Central America, Mexico. This was reported as Ficus radii- 
lina Watson. Type locality, near Batopilas, Chihuahua. 
Nelson 4261, Maria Madre. 

URTICACE^ 

61. Myriocarpa longipcs Liebm., in Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 
5:ii:307. 1851. Central America and Mexico. Nelson 
4275, Maria Madre. 

62. Celtis monoica Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 
3:139. Type locality. Vera Cruz. Nelson 4236, Maria 
Madre. 



LORANTHACE^ 

63. Phoradendron toimisendi Trelease, Gen. Phorad. 
112. t. 163. 1916. Type locality, Socorro Island. Mason 
1733, Maria Madre. 



448 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Phoc. 4th Ser. 

OLACACE^ 

64. Ximenia americana L.. Sp. PI. 1193. Cosmopolitan 
tropics. Mason 1705 and 1830, Maria Madre. 

65. Agonandra racemosa (DC), Standi.. Journ. Wash. 
Acad. Sci., 10: 506. 1920. Mexico. Mason 1786 and 1777, 
Maria Madre. 

ARISTOLOCHIACE^ 

66. Aristolochia taliscana H. & A., Bot. Beech. Voy. 309. 
Type locality, Jalisco, Mexico. Mason 1697 and 1778, Maria 
Madre. Ferris 5685. 

67. Aristolochia tresmarice Ferris, Contr. Dudley Herb. 
1:68. 1927. Type locality, Maria Madre. Mason 1788, 
Maria Madre. Ferris 5689. 

68. Aristolochia pardina Duch.. Ann. Sc. Nat. IV. 2:47. 
1854. Type locality, Colima, Mexico. Nelson 4304, Maria 
Madre. 

POLYGONACE^ 

69. Antigonon Icptopus H. & A., Bot. Beech. Voy. 308. 
t. 69. Common in Mexico, type from West coast. Mason 
1698, Maria Madre. 

70. Coccoloba schiedeana Lindau., in Engler., Bot. 
Jahrb. 13: 187. 1890. Central America and Mexico. Mason 
1806, Maria Magdalena. 

71. Coccoloba leptostachya Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 159. 
It came from Columbia and is not given as Mexican by Stand- 
ley. Nelson 4315, Maria Magdalena. It is probably the pre- 
ceding species. 

AMARANTHACE^ 

72. Ircsine interrupta Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 156. 
Type locality, Tepic, Mexico, Central America. Nelson 4234, 
Maria Madre. Mason 1812, Maria Magdalena. 

73. Achyranthes aspcra L., Sp. PI. 204. Cosmopolitan 
tropics. Mason 1814, Maria Magdalena. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIF0RNL4 449 

74. Celosia nitida Vahl., Symb. Bot. iii : 44. Tropical 
America. Ferris 5648. 

75. Gomphrena sonorce Torr., in Bot. Mex. Bound. 181. 
Type locality, mountains near Santa Cruz, Sonora. Ferris 
5606. 

76. Amaranthus brand egei Standi., N. Am. FI. 21 : 109 
1917. Tvpe locality, Cofradia near Culiacan, Sinaloa. Ferris 
5649. 

77. Amaranthus sp. Ferris 5620. 

ALLIONACE^ 

78. Commicarpus scandens (L.), Standi., Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 12:373. 1909. West Indies. Mason 1703, 

•Maria Madre. Ferris 5581. 

79. Boerhaavia caribcea Jacq., Obs. Bot. 4:5. West 
Indies. Mason 1714, Maria Madre. Ferris 5607. 

80. Boerhaavia erccta L., Sp. PI. 3. Mexico. Ferris 
5604 and 5719. 

81. Abronia maritima Nutt. ex S. Watson, Bot. Cal. 2: 4. 
Type locality, San Pedro, California. Mason 1795, Maria 
Magdalena. 

PHYTOLACCACE^ 

82. Phaidothanmus spinescens Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
20:294. 1885. Sonora, Sinaloa, Lower California. Mason 
1741, Maria Madre. Ferris 5564. 

83. Stegnospenna halimifolium Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 
17. t. 12. Type locality. Cape San Lucas. Nelson 4184, 
Maria Madre. Mason 1702, Maria Madre. 

84. Phytolacca octandra L., Sp. PI. 11:631. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4293, Maria Madre. 

AIZOACE^ 

85. Trianthenm portidacastrnni L., Sp. PI. 223. Cosmo- 
politan. Ferris 5734. 

86. Sesuvium portulacastrum L., Syst. ed. 10: 1058. 
Cosmopolitan. Mason 1847, Santa Isabella. 



450 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

MENISPERNACE^ 

87. Cissampelos pareira L., Sp. PI. 1031. Cosmopolitan 
in tropics. Nelson 4233 and 4262, Maria Madre. Mason 
1704 and 1775, Maria Madre. 

PORTULACACE^ 

88. Portulaca oleracea L., Sp. PI. 445. Cosmopolitan. 
Ferris 5754. 

89. Talimtm paniculatum (Jacq.), Gaertn., Fruct. 2 : 219. 
t. 128. Tropical America. Ferris 5628. 

HERNANDIACE^ffi 

90. Hernandia guianensis Anbl.. PI. Guian. 2 : 848. West 
Indies and South America. Ferris. 

PAPAVERACE^ 

91. Argemone mexicmia L., Sp. PI. 508. Cosmopolitan. 
Flowers yellow. Mason 1716, Maria Madre. 

92. Argemone ochroleuca Sweet., Brit. Fl. Gard. 3. t. 
242. Cosmopolitan. Nelson 4318, Maria Magdalena. This 
is the same as Argemone mexicmia ochroleuca Prain. Flowers 
white. Mason 1713, Maria Madre. 

CAPPARIDACE^ 

93. Cratceva tapia L., Sp. PI. 444. Tropical America. 
Mason 1750, Maria Madre; and 1850, Santa Isabella. Nel- 
son 4274, Maria Madre. 

94. Capparis indica (L.), Fawc. & Rendle in Joiirn. 
Bot. Brit. & For. 52 : 144. West Indies and South America. 
Mason 1759, Maria Madre. This was reported as C. breynia 
L., Nelson 4219, Maria Madre. 

95. Capparis cynophallophora L., Sp. PI. 534. West 
Indies, Central America, South America. Nelson 4302, 
Maria Madre. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 45^ 

96. F orchammeria sessilifolia Standi., Journ. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 14:212. 1924. Type locality, Maria Madre. 

Nelson 4239, type. Mason 1734 and 1735, Maria Madre. 
Ferris. 



MIMOSACE^ 

97. Entada polystachya (L. ), DC, Mem. Legiim. 12. 
Tropical America. Ferris. 

98. Prosopis chilensis (Mol.), Stuntz, U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Bur. PI. Ind. Inv. Seeds 31 : 85. Cosmopolitan. Mason 1725, 
Maria Madre. Ferris 5580. 

99. Mimosa ferriscu Britt. & Rose, Contr. Dudley Herb. 
1 : 70. 1927. Type locality, Maria Madre Island. Ferris 
5563, type. 

100. Acacia cyinbaspina Sprague & Riley, Kew Bull. 
1923 : 394. Type locality, Guaymas, Mexico. Ferris 5646. 

101. Acaciella fcrrisicc Britt. & Rose, N. Am. Fl. 23: 101. 
1928. Type locality, Maria Madre. Ferris 5679 and 5610, 
type. 

102. Acacia pennatnla (S. & G.), Beiith. in Hook. Lond. 
Journ. Bot. 1 : 390. 1842. Mexico and Central America. 
Mason 1840, Maria Madre. 

103. Alhiazia occidentalis Brandegee, in Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 11. 3:222. Type locality, San Jose del Cabo, Lower 
California. Nelson 4252 and 5592, Maria Madre. Mason 
1757, Maria Madre. Ferris 5727. 

104. Pithecolohiiim dulcc Benth., in Lond. Journ. Bot. 
3:190. 1844. Cosmopolitan tropics. Nelson 4285, Maria 
Madre. 

105. Pithecolohium lanceo latum (H. & B.), Bth. in Lond. 
Journ. Bot. 5: 105. 1846. Tropical America. Ferris 6255. 

106. Pithecolohium tortum Mart., in Flora 20: 11. 1837. 
Tropical America. Ferris 5625. 

107. Lysiloma micro phylla Bth., in Lond. Journ. Bot. 
3:83. 1844. Type locality, Leon, Guanajuato. Ferris 5728 
and 5659. 



452 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

C-ffiSALPINIACE^ 

108. Cassia occidentalis L., Sp. PI. 377. West Indies. 
Mason 1718, Maria Madre. 

109. Cassia emarginata L., Sp. PI. 376. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4192 and 4297, Maria Madre. Mason 
1738, Maria Madre. 

110. Cassia atomaria L., Mant. PI. 68. Tropical America. 
Nelson 4321, Maria Magdalena. Mason 1831, Maria Madre. 
Ferris 5566. 

111. Cassia hiHora L., Sp. PI. 378. Tropical America. 
Nelson 4194 and 4196, Maria Madre. Mason 1762, Maria 
Madre. Ferris 5568 and 5666. 

112. Cassia tora L., Sp. PI. 376. Cosmopolitan tropics. 
Ferris 5631. 

113. CcEsalpinia crista L., Sp. PI. 380. Cosmopolitan 
tropics. Mason 1802, Maria Magdalena. 

FABACE^ 

114. Ateleia insularis Standley, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
20:175. 1919. 73;/)^ /o<:a%, Maria Madre Island. Nelson 
4186, Maria Madre. Mason 1843, Maria Madre. Ferris 
5573 and 5742. 

115. Galactia striata (Jacq.), Urb., Symb. Antill. 2:320. 
Tropical America. Mason 1820, Maria Magdalena. 

116. Canavalia maritinm (Aubl.), Thou, in Journ. de Bot. 
Desv. 1:80. 1813. Cosmopolitan tropics. Mason 1794, 
Maria Magdalena. Ferris 5735. 

117. Canavalia mexicana Piper, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
20: 569. 1925. Type region, Sinaloa, Mexico. Nelson 4190, 
Maria Madre. Ferris 5579. This was reported in Nelson's 
list as Canavalia gladiata DC. 

118. Crotalaria puniila Orteg.. Hort. Matr. 23. West 
Indies. Nelson 4248, Maria Madre. Ferris 5668. This is 
probably the same as Crotalaria lupnlina H.B.K. 

119. Indigofera salmoniHora Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 5 : 140. 1897. Type locality, Imala, Sinaloa, Mexico. 
Ferris 5654. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 453 

120. Meibomia procumbens (Mill), Britt., Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico and Virgin Islands 5 : 404. 1924. West Indies. Ferris 
5603. This is probably Nelson's 4287 reported as Desmodium 
sp., Maria Madre. 

121. Erythrina occidentalis Standi., Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 20:180. 1919. Type locality, Mazatlan. Mexico. 
Nelson 4303, Maria Madre. Mason 1787, Maria Madre. 
Ferris 6252. This is the same as Erythrina lanata Rose. 

122. Cracca arcuata Rydb., N. Am. Fl. 24:166. 1923. 
Type locality, Maria Madre Island. Ferris . Nelson's 
4193 as Tephrosia, Maria Madre. 

123. Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir), H. B. K., Nov. Gen. 
et Sp. 6: 283. West Africa, American tropics. Nelson 4310, 
Maria Madre. 

124. Nissolia nelsoni Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
5:162. fig. 26. 1899. Type locality, Oaxaca Valley of 
Mexico. Ferris. 

125. Bauhinia sp. Nelson 4300, Maria Madre. 

126. Phaseolns sp. Nelson 4319, Maria Magdalena. 

127. Rhynchosia pyramidalis (Lam.), Urb., Fedde Rep. 
15: 318. West Indies. Mason 1819, Maria Magdalena. 

128. Rhynchosia minima DC, Prodr. 2: 385. Cosmopoli- 
tan tropics. Nelson 4206, Maria Madre. Reported as Doli- 
cholus niinimiis (L.), Medic. 

129. Rhynchosia precatoria (H. B. K.), DC, Prodr. 
2:385. Cosmopolitan tropics. Nelson 4179, Maria Madre. 
Reported as Dolicholiis phmeoloides (Swartz), Kuntze. 



OXALIDACE^ 

130. Oxalis sp. Ferris 6818 and 6819. 

ERYTHROXYLACE^ 

131. Erythroxylon mexicaniim H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et Sp. 
5 : 178. Type locality, Chilpancingo, Gnerrero. Ferris 5732. 



454 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ZYGOPHYLLACE^ 

132. Guaiacum coultcri Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. N. S. 
5:312. 1855. Type from Sonora. Nelson 4180, Maria 
Madre. Mason 1760, Maria Madre. Ferris 5632. 

133. Kallistroomia parviHora Norton, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
9:153. 1898. Type locality, Agricultural College, Missis- 
sippi. Ferris. 

RUTACEiE 

134. Zanthoxylon insularis Rose, U. S. Dept. Agr. N. Am. 
Fauna No. 14: 79. 1899. Type locality, Maria Madre Island, 
also Socorro Island. Nelson 4278, Maria Madre. 

135. Zanthoxylon nelsoni Rose, U. S. Dept. Agr. N. Am. 
Fauna No. 14:79. 1899. Type locality, Maria Madre 
Island. Nelson 4279, Maria Madre. 

136. Zanthoxylon ferrisice Standi, Contr. Dudley Herb. 
1 : 72. t. 2. f. 3. 1927. Type locality, Maria Madre Island. 
Ferris 5690. 

137. Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl., Eclog. 1 : 29. t. 10. 
West Indies. Mason 1837, Maria Madre. 

138. Pilocarpus insularis Rose, U. S. Dept. Agr. N. Am. 
Fauna No. 14: 80. 1899. Type locality, Maria Madre Island. 
Nelson 4307, Maria Madre. 

139. Amyris halsamifera L., Syst. ed. X:1000. West 
Indies. Mason 1824, Maria Magdalena. 

140. Esenbeckia nesiotica Standi., Contr. Dudley Herb. 
1 : 73. 1927. Type locality, Maria Madre Island. Nelson 
4237. Ferris 5699. 

SIMAROUBACE^ 

141. Picramnia sp. Nelson 4276, Maria Madre. 

BURSERACE^ 

142. Bursera simaruba (L. ), Sargent, Garden & Forest 
3:260. 1890. Tropical America. Mason 1767, Maria 
Madre. 



Vol. XVIIl] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 455 

143. Bursera gummifera L., Sp. PI. ed. 11:471. Nelson 
4227, Maria Madre. This is probably the same as the 
preceding. 

MELIACE^ 

144. Trichilia hirta L., Syst. Nat. ed. X : 1020. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4214 and 4309, Maria Madre. Mason 
1700 and 1737, Maria Madre. Ferris 5662. 

MALPIGHIACE^ 

145. Buhchosia palmeri S. Wats., Proc. Am. Acad. 22 : 401. 
Type locality, Tequila, Jalisco, Mexico. Ferris 5565. 

146. Bunchosia sp. Mason 1707, Maria Madre. 

147. Heteropterys Horihunda H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et 
Sp. 5: 166. Tropical America. Nelson 4323, Maria Magda- 
lena. Synonym of Banisteria laurifolia L., Sp. PL ed. II : 611. 

EUPHORBIACEiE 

148. Celccnodendron niexicanuiii Standi., Contr. Dudley 
Herb. 1 : 76. 1927. Type locality, Mazatlan, Mexico. Mason 
1850, Santa Isabella Island. Ferris 6261. 

149. Sapium pedicellatuni Huber, Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. 
11.6:352. 1906. Mexico. Ferris 5663. 

150. Gymnanthes insolita Ferris, Contr. Dudley Herb. 
1 : 75. 1927. Type locality, Maria Madre Island. Ferris 
5695. 

151. Manihot carthaginensis (Jacq.), Miiell. Arg. in DC. 
Prod. 15": 1073. Tropical America. Ferris 5745. 

152. Jatropha sp. Ferris 5710. 

153. Bernardia mexicana (H. & A.), Miiell. Arg. in Lin- 
nsea 34: 172 1865-66. Central America, South America and 
Mexico. Ferris 5627. 

154. Acalypha verhenacea Standi., Contr. Dudley Herb. 
1 -.75. 1927. Type locality, Maria Madre Island. Probably 
Nelson 4260, Maria Madre. Ferris 5669. 

155. Acalypha setosa A. Rich., Fl. Cub. Fanerog. 2:204. 
West Indies, Mexico. Ferris 5653. 



456 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

156. Tragia volubilis L., Sp. PI. 980. Cosmopolitan 
tropics. Ferris 5655. 

157. Croton fragilis H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2:75. 
North, Central and South America. Ferris 5601. 

158. Croton ciliato-glandulosus Ort., Hort. Matr. 51. 
Central America, West Indies, Mexico. Nelson 4218. Maria 
Madre. 

159. Astrocasia peltata Standi., Contr. Dudley Herb. 
1 : 74. 1927. Type locality, Maria Madre Island. Ferris 
5571. 

160. Phyllanthus niicrandrus Miiell. Arg., in Linnsea 
32:27. 1863. North, Central and South America, Mexico. 
Ferris 5647 and 5569. 

161. Phyllanthus adenodiscus Miiell. Arg., in Linnaea 
32:23. 1863. Type locality, Papantla, Vera Cruz. Mason 
1706, Maria Madre. Ferris 5697 and 5575. 

162. Pedilanthus sp. Ferris 5700. 

163. Ditaxis lanceolata (Benth.), Pax. & Hoffni., in 
Engler Pflanzeureich 4. 147c: 71. 1912. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Mason 1790, Maria Madre. 

164. Euphorbia schlechtendalii Boiss., Cent. Euphorb. : 18. 
Central America and Mexico. Nelson 4294, Maria Madre. 
Mason 1849, Santa Isabella Island. Ferris 5609. 

165. Euphorbia plicata S. Watson, in Proc. Am. Acad. 
21:438. 1886. Type locality, Hacienda San Miguel, south- 
western Chihuahua. Mason 1724, Maria Madre, and 1808, 
Maria Magdalena. 

166. Euphorbia incerta Brandegee, in Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci. Ser. II. 3: 171. 1891. Type locality. El Mogote oppo- 
site La Paz. Mason 1800, Maria Magdalena. 

167. Euphorbia (no leaves). Mason 1840, Maria Madre. 

168. Euphorbia graminea Jacq., Select. Am. 151. West 
Indies, Central America, Mexico. Ferris 5702. 

169. Euphorbia adenoptera Bertol, Misc. Bot. 3 : 20. t. 23. 
Tropical America. Ferris 5651. 

170. Euphorbia hirta L., Sp. PI. 454. Cosmopolitan 
Tropics. Ferris 5626. 

171. Euphorbia sp. Ferris 5640. 



Vol. X\1U] EASTIVOOD—FLOITA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 457 

172. Euphorbia nelsonii Millsp., Bot. Gaz. 26: 268. 1898. 
Nelson 4294, Maria Madre. = Eupliorbia schlechtcndalii. 

173. Eupliorbia subccFrulea tresinaricu Millsp., U. S. Dept. 
Agr. N. Am. Fauna No. 14: 88. 1899. Type locality, Maria 
Madre Island. Nelson 4298 and 4202, Maria Madre. 
= Euphorbia tresniaria: Standley. 

174. Euphorbia sp. Nelson 4268, Maria Madre. 

175. Garcia nutans Rohr., Skrivt., Nat. Hist. Selsk. 
Kjobenh. ii:217. t. 9. 1792. West Indies, South America, 
Mexico. Nelson 4228, Maria Madre. 

BUXACE^ 

176. Biixus pubescetis Greenmann, Proc. Am. Acad. 
v33:481. 1898. Type locality, Mrusl Madre Is\a.nd. Nelson 
4221, Mason 1836, "Maria Madre. Ferris 5676. 

HIPPOCRATEACEiE 

177. Hippocratca sp.. Nelson 4226, Maria Madre, and 
4320, Maria Magdalena. 

SAPINDACE^ 

178. Paullinia sessiliflora Radlk., Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb 
1:317. 1891. Type locality, Colima, Mexico. Nelson 4210, 
Maria Madre. Mason 1730, Maria Madre. 

179. Thouinidium decandrum (H. & B.) Radl, Sitzb. 
Math.-Phys. Akad. Munchen 8:284. Central America and 
Mexico. Mason 1832, Maria Madre. Ferris 5743. 

180. Scrjonia mexicana (L.) Willd., Sp. PI. 2:465. 
Tropical America. Nelson 4231, Maria Madre. Mason 1809, 
Maria Magdalena. 

181. Thouinia paucidentata Radlk., Field Mus., Bot., 
i : 403. 1898. Yucatan and Campeche. Ferris 5617. 

182. Matayba spondioides Standi, Contr. Dudley Herb. 
1:77. 1927. Type locality, M2ir\d,Md.drQ. Ferris 5721. 

183. UrviUea idmacea H. B. K., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5 : 105. 
t. 440. Tropical America. Nelson 4210, Maria Madre. 

September 6, 1929 



458 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

184. Cardiospermum corindutn L., Sp. PI. 366. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4328, Maria Magdalena. = Cardiosper- 
mum halicacabum L. 

RHAMNACE^ 

185. Kanvinskya latifolia Standi., Contr. U. S. Nat, 
Herb. 23 : 716. 1923. Type locality, Tepic, Mexico. Mason 
1833, Maria Madre. 

186. Karzuinskya humboldtiana (Roem. & Schult.) Zucc. 
Nov. Stirp. i:351. Central America, Mexico and Texas. 
Ferris 5618. 

187. Zicyphus sonorensis S, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
24:44. 1889. 73;/)^ /oca%^ Guaymas, Mexico. Mason 1830 
and 1766, Maria Madre. Ferris 5585. 

188. Colnbrina arhorea Brandegee, Zoe 4:401. 1894. 
Type locality, Zacatecas, Mexico. Nelson 4213, Maria Madre. 
= Colubrina glomerata (Benth.) Hemsl., Biol. Centr.-Amer. 
Bot. 

VITACE^ 

189. Cisstis sicyoidcs L., Syst. Nat, ed. X. 2:897. 
Tropical America. Nelson 4198, Maria Madre. 

MALVACE^ 

190. Abutilon dugesii S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
21:447. 1886. T^r/'cWoca/ifj', Guanajuato, Mexico. Mason 
1771. Maria Madre. 

191. Abutilon sp. Mason 1810, Maria Magdalena. 

192. Abutilon reventum S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad., 
21 : 418. 1886. Type locality. Hacienda San Jose, Chihua- 
hua. Nelson 4242. Maria Madre. 

193. Abutilon lignosum (Cav.) Don., Hist. Dichl. PI. 
i:501. 1831. West Indies, Mexico, Central America, South 
Florida, Texas. Ferris 5583. 

194. Abutilon sp. Ferris 5615. 

195. Sida acuta Burm., Fl. Ind. 147. 1768. Cosmopoli- 
tan, tropical, and subtropical. Ferris 5749. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNL4 459 

196. Sida angustifolia Lam., Encycl. i:4. 1785. Cos- 
mopolitan tropics. Ferris 5608. 

197. Malvastnmi coromandelianum (L.) Garcke, Bon- 
plandia 5 : 295. 1857. Cosmopolitan, tropical and sub- 
tropical. Mason 1828, Maria Madre. 

198. Hibiscus tiliacens L., Sp. PI. 694. Cosmopolitan 
tropics. Nelson 4328, Maria Magdalena. 

199. Wissadiila hirsutiflora (Presl.) Rose, Contr. U. S, 
Nat. Herb, i: 306. 1895. Type locality, Acapulco, Guerrero. 
Mexico. Nelson 4250, Maria Madre. 

BOMBACACE^ 

200. Ceiba cesculifolia (H. B. K.) Britt. & Baker, Journ. 
Bot. Brit. & For. 54: 175. 1896. Type locality, Campeche, 
Guatemala. Mason 1768, Maria Madre. Ferris 6260. 

STERCULIACE^ 

201. Melochia tomentosa L., Syst. ed. X:114. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4205, Maria Madre. Mason 1696, Maria 
Madre. Ferris 5595. 

202. Guaziima ulmifolia Lam., Encycl. 3:52. 1789. 
Tropical America. Nelson 4325, Maria Magdalena. 

203. Helicteres baruensis Jacq., Enum. PI. Carib., 30. 
1760. Tropical America. Ferris 5693. 

OCHNACE^ 

204. Ochna sp. Nelson 4238, Maria Madre. 

THEACEiE 

205. Taonabo inaltbya?ia (Rose) Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 8:322. 1905. 'Type locality, Maria Madre. T. S. 
Maltby 105. Nelson 4242, Maria Madre. 

VIOLACE^ 

206. Hybanthus riparius (H. B. K.) Standi, in litt. 
Ferris 5715 and 5718. 



4^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

FLACOURTIACE^ 

207. Prockia cruets L., Syst. Nat., ed. X: 1074. Tropical 
America. Ferris 5694. 

208. Myroxylon -flexuosum (H. B. K.) Kuntze, Rev. 
Gen. PI., i : 44. 1891. Central America and Mexico. Ferris 
6262. 

209. Cascaria ohovata Schlecht, in Linnaea 13:434. 
1830. Mexico. Ferris 6256. 

210. Cosearia dohcophylla Standley, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 23 : 846. 1923. Type locality, Picacho, Oaxaca. Ferris 
5590. 

211. Casearia nitida (L. ) Jacq., Enum. PI. Carib. 21. 
1760. Tropical America. Nelson 4270 and 4308, Maria 
Madre. 

212. Casearia sylvestris Swartz, Fl. Ind., Occ. 2:752. 
1800. Tropical America. Nelson 4341, Maria Madre. 

213. Casearia sp. Nelson 4326, Maria Magdalena. 

PASSIFLORACE^ 

214. Passiflora subcrosa L., Sp. PI. 958. Tropical 
America. Mason 1772, Maria Madre. Ferris 5098. 

215. Passiflora holosericea L., Sp. PL 516. Type locality, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico. Mason 1711, Maria Madre. Ferris 
5586 and 5739. 

216. Passiflora sp. Nelson 4249, Maria Madre. 

LOASACE^ 

217. Mentaelia aspera L., Sp. PI. 516. West Indies. 
Ferris 5660. 

BEGONIACE^ 

218. Begonia calif ornica brevibrocteata Ferris, Contr. 
Dudley Herb. 1 : 79. 1927. Type locality, Maria Madre. 
Ferris 5708. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD—FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 45]^ 

CACTACE^ 

219. Opuntia sp. Ferris 5576. 

220. Pachvcercus pecten-aboriginum (Engelm. ) Britt. & 
Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 422. 1909. Type locality. 
Hacienda San Miguel, Chihuahua. Ferris 5744. 

221. Selenicereus vagans (K. Brandg. ) B. & R., Cactaceae 
2:205. 1920. Tv/^e- /oca/i7y, Mazatlan. Ferris 6251. 

222. Neomamillaria sp. Ferris 5748. 

223. Lemairocereus sp. Ferris 6267. 

224. Cephalocereiis purpusi Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 
2:56. 1920. Type locality, y[2iZ2.t\d.n. Ferris 6266. 

RHIZOPHORACE^ 

225. Rhizophora mangle L., Sp. PI. 443. Tropical 
America. Mason 1799, Maria Magdalena. 

COMBRETACEiE 

226. C one car pus erectiis L., Sp. PI. 176. Tropical 
America and Western Africa. Mason 1785, Maria Madre. 

MYRTACE^ 

227. Psidiiim sp. Nelson 4306, Maria Madre. 

ARALIACE^ 

228. Gilibcrtia insularis Rose, U. S. Dept. Agr. N. Am. 
Fauna No. 14:83. 1899. Tropical America. Nelson 4282, 
Maria Madre. = Gilibertia arborea (L.) Marchal. 

THEOPHRASTACE^ 

229. Jacquinia anrantiaca Ait.. Hort. Kew, ed. H : 2 : 6. 
1811. Tropical America. Mason 1690 and 1784, Maria 
Madre. 

230. Jacquinia macrocarpa Cav., Ic. 5 : 55. t. 483. Tropi- 
cal America. Nelson 4208, Maria Madre. Ferris 5698. 



4^2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

PLUMBAGINACEZE 

231. Plumbago scandens L., Sp. PI. ed. II: 205. Tropical 
America. Ferris 5661. 

LOGANIACEiE 

232. Buddleia sessiliflora H. B. K., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 
2: 345. t. 183. 1817. Type locality, City of Mexico. Nelson 
4183, Maria Madre. Mason 1780, Maria Madre. Reported 
in Nelson's list as Buddleia verticillata (HBK.). 

APOCYNACEiE 

233. Plumeria acutifolia Poir., Encycl. Suppl. 2:667. 
1811. Mexico. Ferris 5633. 

234. Thevetia ovata (Cav.) A. DC, in DC. Prod. 8: 344. 
Central America and Mexico. Ferris 5684. 

235. RauzvolUa canescens L., Sp. PI. ed. II, 303. Tropical 
America. Mason 1839, Maria Madre. 

ASCLEPIADACE^ 

236. Macroscepis ohovata H. B. K., Nov. Gen. & Sp.  
3:201. t. 133. 1819. Type locality, Campeche. Ferris 

5577. 

237. Marsdenia macrophylla (H. & B.) Fourn., in Mart. 
Fl. Bras. 6*:321. 1885. American tropics. Mason 1701 and 
1841, Maria Madre. 

238. Marsdenia edulis S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 24: 61. 
1889. Type locality, Guaymas, Mexico. Mason 1792, Maria 
Madre. 

239. Vincetoxicum probably; fruit only. Mason 1710, 
Maria Madre. 

240. Gonolohus sp. Fruit only. Nelson 4313a, Maria 
Madre. 

CONVOLVULACE^ 

241. Jacquefnontia pentantha (Jacq.) Don., Hist. Dichl. 
PI., 4:283. 1838. Tropical America. Nelson 4251, Maria 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 453 

Madre. Ferris 5671. This was reported in Nelson's list as 
Jacquemontia violacea Choisy. 

242. Operculina alatipcs (Hook.) House, Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club 33 : 499. 1906. Tropical America. Ferris 5657. 

243. Qiiamodit coccinea (L.) Moench., Meth. 453. 
1794. Cosmopolitan tropics. Ferris 5658. 

244. Qiiamodit pinnata (Desv.) Boj., Hort. Maurit. 224. 
Type locality, Island of Mauritius. Cosmopolitan tropics. 
Ferris 6250. 

245. Ipomcea pcdicellaris Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 135. 
Type locality, Acapulco, Mexico. Ferris 5572. 

246. Ipomcea triloba L., Sp. PI. 161. Tropical America. 
Ferris 5597. 

247. Ipomcea hederacea (L. ) Jacq., Collect, i: 124. Cos- 
mopolitan tropics. Ferris 5644. 

248. Ipomcea mimitiflora (Mart. & Gal.) House., in Ann. 
N. Y. Acad. Sci. 18: 239. 1908. Ferris 5639. 

249. Ipomcea pes-caprce (L.) Roth., Nov. Sp. PI. 109. 
Cosmopolitan tropics. Ferris 5746. 

250. Ipomcea botia-nox L., Sp. PI. ed. U : 228. Cosmo- 
politan. Nelson 4269, Maria Madre. = Calonyction acul- 
eatum (L.) House. 

251. Ipomcea pedmicidaris Bertol, Fl. Guatim. 8. t. 2. 
Mexico and Central America. Nelson 4235, Maria Madre. 

252. Cuscuta sp. Mason 1721, Maria Madre. Common on 
several species. 



BORAGINACE^ 

253. Cordia tinifolia Willd., in Roem. & Schult., Syst. 
Veg. 4:800. 1819. 73;/?^ /ocaI/Vt, Acapulco, Mexico. Mason 
1740, Maria Madre. 

254. Cordia cana M. & G., Bull. Acad. Brux. IP: 331. 
1844. Type locality, Oaxaca, Mexico. Nelson 4296, Maria 
Madre. Mason 1779, Maria Madre. Ferris 5629. 

255. Cordia sonorce Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1 : 106. 
t. 9. 1891. Type locality. Alamos, Sonora. Nelson 4207, 
Maria Madre. 



454 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

256. Heliotropium indicum L., Sp. PI. 130. Cosmopoli- 
tan Tropics. Nelson 4253, Maria Madre. Mason 1715, 
Maria Madre. 

257. Heliotropium parviftorum L., Mant. PI. 2:201. 
Tropical America. Mason 1717, Maria Madre. 

258. Hcliotropiwn curassaz'icum L., Sp. PI. 130. Cosmo- 
politan tropics. Nelson 4313, Maria Madre. 

259. Heliotropium phyllostachyum Torr., Bot. Mex. 
Bound. 137. Type region, western Texas and Mexico. 
Ferris 5750. 

260. Tournefortia voluhilis L.. Sp. PI. 140. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4209, 4217 and 4229. Mason 1712, Maria 
Madre. 

261. Tournefortia glabra L., Sp. PL 141. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4189, Maria Madre. Mason 1729, Maria 
Madre. 

262. Tournefortia hirsutissima L., Sp. PI. 140. Tropical 
America. Mason 1781, Maria Madre. 



VERBENACE^ 

263. Avicennia nitida Jacq., Enum. PI. Carib., 25. 1760. 
Tropical America. Mason 1793, Maria Magdalena. 

264. Priva echinata Juss., Ann. Mus. Par. 7:69. Tropi- 
cal America. Ferris 5643. 

265. Lantana horrida H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 261. 
1817. Tropical America. Nelson 4187, Maria Madre. 
= Lantana camara L. 

266. Citharexylum afUne Don., Edinburgh New Phil. 
Journ. 11:238. 1831. Type locality, Ch2i\co, U^^\zo. Nel- 
son 4311, Maria Madre. 

267. JEgiphila pacifica Greenm., Proc. Am. Acad. 2>c> : 435. 
1898. Type locality, Estero, Mexico. Nelson 4245 and 
4254. Maria Madre. = ^Egiphila deppeana Steud. Nom. 
Bot. ed. II. 1 : 29. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 455 

LABIATE 

268. Hyptis cmoryi Torr., Ives, Rep. Colo. Riv. 20. 
southern Arizona and Lower California. Nelson 4223, Maria 
Madre. Mason 1736, Maria Madre. 

269. ? Salvia niaaatlanensis Fernald., Proc. Am. Acad. 
35:515. Type locality, Mazatlan, Mexico. Ferris 5636. 

270. Salvia hyptoides Mart. & Gal, Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 
IP: 74. Central America and Mexico. Ferris 5705. 

271. Salvia aliena Greene, Pitt. 1:157. Type locality, 
Maria Madre. Collected by W. J. Fisher. Type in Herb. 
Cal. Acad. Sci. Nelson 4247, Maria Madre. 

272. Stachys coccinea Jacq., Hort. Schoenb. 3:18. t. 284. 
Mexico and Texas. Nelson 4265, Maria Madre. 



SOLANACE^ 

273. Nicotiana trigonophylla Dunal., DC. Prod. 13^:562. 
Mexico. Nelson 4212, Maria Madre. Mason 1694, Maria 
Madre. 

274. Solarium refractum H. & A., Bot. Beech. Voy. 304. 
Type locality, Tepic. Mexico. Mason 1732, Maria Madre. 

275. Solanuni, perhaps new sp. Mason 1816, Maria 
Magdalena. 

276. Solaninn deiiexum Greenm., Proc. Am. Acad. 
32:301. Type locality, Cuicatlan, Mexico. Ferris 5670. 

277. Solanum torziim Swartz, Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 47. 
Cosmopolitan tropics. Nelson 4185, Maria Madre, Mason 
(a leaf only). 

278. Solanum hicolor Willd. Roem. & Schult, Syst. Veg. 
41 : 661. Tropical America. Nelson 4322, Maria Magdalena, 
as S. callicarpcefolinin. 

279. Solamiin lanceccfoliuni Jacq., Coll. Bot. 2:286. 
Tropical America. Nelson 4240, Maria Madre. 

280. Solaninn nigrum L., Sp. PI. 186. Cosmopolitan. 
Nelson 4200, Maria Madre. 

281. Solanum verhascifoliiiin L., Sp. PI. 184. Cosmopoli- 
tan tropics. Nelson 4216, Maria Madre. 



456 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

282. Physalis crassifolia Benth. var., Bot. Sulph. 40. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Mason 1791. 

283. Physalis pubescetis L., Sp. PI. 183. Probably the 
preceding. Nelson 4255, Maria Madre. 

284. Physalis nicandr aides Schlecht, Linnaea 19:311. 
Mexico. Ferris 5582. 

285. ? Physalis lagasccu Roem. & Schlecht, Syst. 4 : 679. 
Cosmopolitan tropics. Ferris 5717. 

286. Datura discolor Bernh., in Tromms., N. Journ. 
Pharmac. 26: 149. West Indies. Nelson 4197, Maria Madre. 

287. Bassovia stramoniifolia (H. B. K.) Standi., Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 23:1303. Central America and Mexico. 
Nelson 4232, Maria Madre. Reported as Bassovia donnell- 
smithii Coulter, 

SCROPHULARIACE^ 

288. Russelia sarmentosa Jacq., Nelson 4289, Maria 
Madre. This is probably the same as the following. 

289. Russelia verticillata H. B. K., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 
2: 360. Central America and Mexico. Ferris 5614. 

290. Stemodia pusilla Benth., Bot. Sulph. 114. Type 
locality, Tepic, Mexico. Ferris 5688. 

291. Capraria hiHora L., Sp. PI. 628. Tropical America. 
Nelson 4195, Maria Madre. Mason 1695, Maria Madre. 

BIGNONIACE^ 

292. Cydista sp. Mason 1770, Maria Madre. 

293. Bignonia ceqiiinoctialis L., Sp. PI. 623. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4324, Maria Magdalena. (Cydista). 

ACANTHACE^ 

294. Beloperone nelsoni Greenman, Proc. Am. Acad. 
33 : 488. Type locality, Maria Madre. Nelson, Maria Madre. 

295. Elytraria squamosa (Jacq.) Lindau, Anal. Inst. Fis. 
Geogr. Costa Rica, 8:299. Type region, Guadalajara, 
Mexico. Mason, no number. Ferris 5645. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD—FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 4^7 

296. Didiptera resupinata Juss. Arm. du Mus. 9 : 263. 
Mason 1798, Maria Magdalena. 

297. Jitsticia sp. Ferris 5692. 

RUBIACE^ 

298. Coutarea pterospernia (Watson) Standley, N. Am. 
Fl. 32: 127. Type locality, Guaymas, Mexico. Nelson 4211. 
Mason 1726, Maria Madre. Ferris 5602. 

299. Randia thurberi Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 24 : 53. 
Type locality, between Rayon and Ures, Sonora. Ferris 5726. 

300. Hamelia versicolor Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 21:416. 
Type locality. Barranca near Guadalajara, Mexico. Ferris 

5578. 

301. Guettarda elliptica Swartz, Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 59. 
West Indies and Mexico. Ferris 5723. 

302. Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard, 
4 : 44. Tropical America. Ferris 5636 and 5722. 

303. Borreria asperifolia (Mart. & Gal.) Robinson, Proc. 
Am. Acad. 45 : 409. Mexico. Ferris 5673. 



CUCURBITACE^ 

304. Corallocarpus emetocatharticus Cogn., Bull. Soc. Bot. 
Belg. 30:279. 1891. Tropical America. Mason 1709, 
Maria Madre. Ferris 5621. 

305. Momordica charantia L., Sp. PI, 109. Cosmopolitan 
tropics. Mason 1699. Maria Madre. 



COMPOSITA^ 

306. Eupatorium sp. Mason 1728, Maria Madre. 

307. Eupatorium sp. Nelson 4225, Maria Madre. 

308. Eupatorium sp. Nelson 4244, Maria Madre. 

309. Eupatorium collinum DC. Prod., 5 : 164. Mexico. 
Nelson 4199, Maria Madre. 

310. Eupatorium quadrangulare DC, Prod. 5: 150. Cen- 
tral America and Mexico. Ferris 5696. 



458 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

311. Vernonia canesccns H. B. K., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 
4:35. pi. 317. 1820. Tropical America. Ferris 5713. 

312. Dccachceta hccnkeana DC, Prod. 5:133. Mexico. 
Ferris 5716. 

313. Mikania cordifolia Willd., Sp. PI. 3: 1746. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4299, Maria Madre. 

314. Conysa lyrata H. B. K.. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4:70. 
Ecuador. Nelson 4290 and 4312, Maria Madre. 

315. Baccharis glutinosa Pers., Syn. PI. 2:425. South 
America, Mexico, Colorado and Texas. Nelson 4291, Maria 
Madre. 

316. Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass., Diet. Sci. Nat. 42:3. 
1826. Tropical America. Nelson 4181, Maria Madre. 
Mason 1693 and 1773, Maria Madre. 

317. Melampodium flacciduin Benth., Vidensk. Meddel. 
86. Central America. Ferris 5638. 

318. F<?<:fw ar^naWa Benth., Bot. Sulph. 110. 1844. Type 
locality, Acapulco, Mexico. Ferris 5741. 

319. Pedis linifolia L., Syst. Nat. ed. X:1221. West 
Indies. Ferris 5634. 

320. Pcrityle micro glossaB&nt\\.. Bot. Sulph. 119. 1844. 
Type locality, Realejo, Mexico. Nelson 4266, Maria Madre. 

321. Parthenium hysterophoriis L., Sp. PI. 988. Tropical 
America. Nelson 4267, Maria Madre. 

322. Porophylliim punctatum (Mill) Blake. Contr. Gray 
Herb. n. ser. 52:58. 1917. Central America and Mexico. 
Nelson 4292, Maria Madre. Mason 1797, Maria Magdalena. 

323. Tnxis calif omica Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
2:182. f. S3. 1863. Type locality, Cedros Island. Mason 
1758, Maria Madre. 

324. Trixis wrightii Rob. & Greenm., Proc. Am. Acad. 
40: 14. 1904. Type locality, near Mazatlan. Ferris 5593. 
This was reported in Nelson's list as Trixis frutescens R. Br. 
Maria Cleofa. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 459 

Species collected at Cape San Lucas, Lower Calif., 

May 28, 1925 

1. Phoradcndron calif ornicum Nutt., Journ. Acad. 
Philad. II. 1 : 185. 1884. California. This leafless para- 
site was collected on Pithecolohinm confine Standi. It is par- 
tial to the Leguminoscc. 1868. 

2. Phoradendron penUisulare Trelease, Univ. 111. Bull. 
18:50. 1916. Type locality. Cape San Lucas. This was 
collected on Jatropha. 1873. 

3. Antigonon leptotes H. & A., Bot. Beech. Voy. 308. 
t. 69. 1840. Type locality, Tepic, Mexico. This beautiful 
vine with rosy flowers is common in cultivation and is known 
under many names in different parts of Mexico. 1861. 

4. Batis muntinia L., Syst. Nat. ed. X. 1289. Cosmo- 
politan. A common plant in saline soil, widely distributed. 
1860. 

5. Esenbeckiu flava Brandegee, Zoe 1 ; 378. t. 12. 1891. 
Type locality, San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. A small 
tree with oblong, pale, downy leaves and woody seed-pods 
splitting into 5 parts, very rough warty on the outside. 1675. 

6. Pithecolohinm confine Standi., Contr. \j. S. Nat. 
Herb. 20:11 191. 1919. Type locality, Cape San Lucas. 
Spiny shrub with long cream-color stamens and large woody 
pods. 1869. 

7. Civsalpinia calif ornica (Gray) Standi., Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 23:426. 1923. Ccesalpinia mexicana calif ornica 
Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 5:157. 1862. Lower California. 
Flowers yellow, pods velvety. 1868. 

8. Jatropha cercidiphylla Standi., Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 23 : 639. 1923. Type locality, between San Luis Potosi 
and Tampico, Mexico. 1872. 

9. Jatropha miilfifida L., Sp. PI. 1006. Tropical 
America. A plant with stinging hairs and a large root. The 
leaves are palmately lobed, the divisions ending in long hairs. 
1867. 

10. Cyrtocarpa edulis (Brandegee), Standi., Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 23 : 659. 1923. Tapiria edulis Brandegee, Zoe 



470 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Ser. 

5:78. 1900. Type locality, San Jose del Cabo, Lower Call 
fornia. 1862. 

11. Bumelia occidoitalis Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. 
Bot. 2:298. 1881. Type locality, Sonora Alta. Coarse 
shrub with spreading branches and small flowers clustered in 
the axils of the alternate leaves. 1866. 

12. Asclcpias siibulata'DtC2i\snQ,T>C,'Pvodv.d>:S7\. 1844. 
Type locality, Nova Hispania. Sandy ridges on the beach. 
1863. 

13. Cynanchuni pabneri (S. Watson) Blake, Contr. 
Gray Herb. II. 52:83. 1917. Pattalias palmeri S. Wsitson, 
Proc. Am. Acad. 24: 60. 1889. Type locality, Muleje, Lower 
California. 1870. 

14. Ipomcea pcs-caprce (L.) Roth., Nov. Sp. PI. 109. 
1821. Convolvulus pes- caprce L., Sp. PI. 159. The 
beach morning glory, common on tropical beaches. 1876. 

15. Beloperone calif ornica Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 38. 
1844. Type locality. Cape San Lucas, Shrub with red bi- 
labiate flowers and small 2-valved seed pods on thick stems. 
1871. 

16. Behbia atriplicifolia (Gray) Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 1 : 181. 1885. Carphephorus atriplicifolia Gray, Proc, 
Am. Acad. 5 : 159. 1861. Type locality. Cape San Lucas. 



Species first described from Cape San Lucas by Bentham 
IN the botany of the voyage of the Sulphur, 1844; 

Not collected by Mason. 

lonidiutn fruticulosum Pedis iKultiseta 

Galphimia angustifolia Aplopappus arenarius 

Drymaria holosteoides Acoma dissecta 

Drymaria crassifolia Physalis glab}-a 

Stegnosperma halimifolia Hyptis laniflora 

Hedyotis asperuloides Euphorbia leucophylla 
Mitracarpium lineare 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 



471 



Species first described by Asa Gray from Xantus' 
Collection, at or near Cape San Lucas ; 

Not collected by Mason. 

(Proc. Am. Acad. 5 : 153-173. 1861.) 



Poly gala xanti 

Hibiscus ribifolius 

Bursera microphylla 

Dalea chrysorhiza 

Coursetia glandulosa 

Ccesalpinia mexicana 

Mimosa xanti 

Phichca subdecurrens parvifolia 

Viguiera deltoidea 



Viguiera tomentosa 

Coreocarpus hcterocarpus 

Heterospermiim xanti 

Macreightia intricata 

Hyptis tephrodes 

Buddleia crotonoides 

Celosia floribunda 

Euphorbia gymnoclada Engelm. 



Species first described by other authors 
Not collected by Mason. 

Bartschella schumanni (Hildmann) B. & R. Cactaceae 4: 58. 
Bcerltaavia xanti Watson. Proc. Am. Acad. 24 : 69. 
Elaphrium epinnatum Rose. Fl. N. Am. 25 : 243. 
Pedis bennetti Klatt. Leopoldina 25 : 108. From N. Am. 
Dudleya xanti Rose Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3 : 23. 



Species collected at Magdalena Bay, 
Lower California, May 29-30, 1925. 

1. Agave riiargaritcB T. S. Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. IL 2:206. 1889. Type locality, Margarita Island. 
Lower California. This differs from the type in shorter 
stamens. The flowers are yellow, the leaves short and almost 
orbicular up to where they narrow to the horny point, stems 
about 6 feet high. 1892. 

2. Phoradendroyi dieguetii Van Tiegh, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris 1:31. 1895. Type region, Lower California. 
The host of the type was Quercus. Brandegee collected it on 
Veatchia and Mason on Bursera. 1941. 

3. Atriplex harclayana (Benth.) Dietr., Syn. PL 5: 537. 
1852. Ohione barclayana Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 48. 1844. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. A common prostrate white- 
leaved species. 1912. 




472 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

4. Allenrolfea occidcniaUs (S. Watson) Kuntze, Rev. 
Gen. 346. 1891. Halostachys occidentaUs S. Watson, Bot. 
King Exped. 293. 1891. Type region, Great Basin. This 
grew along the beach. In California it is found in the most 
alkaline soil. 1917. 

5. Siiceda ramwsissima (Standi.) Johnston. Proc. Gal. 
Acad. Sci. IV. 12:1017. 1924. Dondia ramosissima 
Standi. N. Am. Fl. 21 : 91. 1916. Type locality, Lees Ferry, 
Arizona, 1910. 

6. Hesperonia Icevis (Benth.) Standi., Gontr. U. S. 
Natl. Herb. 12: 363. 1909. Oxyhaphus Iccvis Benth. I. c. 44. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. With smooth wiry branches, 
succulent leaves and purple flowers. 1944. 

7. Ahronia maritima Nutt., in Wats. Bot. Gal. 2:4. 
1880. Type locality, San Pedro, Galifornia. Prostrate with 
thick leaves and dark purple flowers in umbels. 1951. 

8. Batis maritima L., Syst. Nat. ed. X. 1289. 1750. 
A cosmopolitan plant found in saline soil. 1901. 

9. Sesuvium sessile Pers., Syhop. 2:39. 1807. A cos- 
mopolitan plant in saline soil. 1291. 

10. Drymaria holosteoides Benth.. 1. c. Type locality, 
Gape San Lucas, Lower Galifornia. A spreading plant with 
slender stems ; flowers small, white and together with the 
small leaves fascicled where the stems branch. 1908. 

11. Oligomeris glaucescens Gamb., Jacq. Voy. Bot. 24. 
t. 25. Type region, around the Mediterranean. A spreading 
herb on salt flats with terete leaves and small flowers in spikes. 
1913. 

12. Diidlcya albifJora Rose, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Card. 3: 13. 
1903. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. The leaves are in dense 
rosettes, broad at base, apex acuminate. The flowers are 
white and the base of the rosette is densely clothed with dead 
leaves. 1898. 

13. Calliandra calif ornica Benth., 1. c. 14. t. 11. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. A very poor specimen of this beau- 
tiful plant. 1945. 

14. Phaseolus Uliforuiis Benth., 1. c. 13. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. A slender vine with trifoliate leaves, leaflets 
3-lobed; flowers rose purple, solitary or in pairs. 1930. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 473 

15. Hosackia hryanti T. S. Brandegee, Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. II. 2 : 144. 1889. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. 
Flowers almost sessile, tinged with pink, in umbels. The speci- 
men is almost leafless. 1931. 

16. Parosela brandegei Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
10: 106. 1905. Dalea ramosissima Benth., 1. c. 11. t. 10. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. The flowers are in spikes, 
corolla rose color and calyx clothed with white hairs. The 
leaflets are minute and thickly covered with glands. 1896. 

17. Parosela divaricata (Benth.) Rose, Contr. U. S. 
Natl. Herb. 8 : 305. 1905. Dalea divaricata Benth. 1. c. 12. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Flowers small, blue and white. 
1888. 

18. Phaca candidissima Benth., 1. c. 13. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Foliage white-tomentose, flowers purplish, 
pods inflated. 1954. 

19. Krameria parvifolia Benth., 1. c. 6. t. 1. Type lo- 
cality, Magdalena Bay. Shrubby. The specimen very poor. 
1953. 

20. Biirsera microphylla Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 5: 155. 
1861. Type locality, Sierras Tule, Sonora, Mexico. A low 
shrub with stout spreading branches. 1922. 

21. Bursera rhoifolia (Benth.) Johnston, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. IV. 12: 1058. 1924. Elaphrium rhoifolium 
Benth., 1. c. 11. t. 7. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. The 
simple-leaved one was named by Bentham E. hindsianuni and 
the trifoliate E. rhoifolium 1. c. 10. t. 7. Brandegee claims 
that this is a variable character and the two should be con- 
sidered a single species. 1901, 

22. Acalypha calif ornica Benth., I. c. 51. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Low shrub with the leaves dark green, 
crenately margined, ovate and often cordate; flowers in small 
dense purplish spikes. 1906. 

23. Croton punctatus Jacq., Coll. 1 : 166. Type locality, 
Carolina. Leaves silvery white, oblong to elliptical. 1949. 

24. Croton magdalence. Millsp., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
II. 2 : 220. 1889. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Leaves 
almost orbicular, densely white-tomentose. 1932. 

September 6, 1929 



474 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

25. Pedilanthus niacrocarpus Benth., 1. c. 40. t. 23a. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Steins, erect, leafless, fruits 
red, drooping-. Native name, "Gallito." 1891. 

26. Ditaxis serrata nmgdalence (Millsp.) Eastwood n. 
comb. Argythamnia serrata magdalencu Millsp., Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. 11. 2:221. 1889. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. 
The specimens are poor but show the characteristic farinose 
seeds. The leaves of the variety are quite unlike the typical 
form being suborbicular to obovate and generally obtuse. The 
whole plant is clothed with spreading as well as appressed 
hairs. 1950. 

27. Euphorbia polycarpa Benth., 1. c. 50. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Without a number, accidentally collected on 
another specimen. 

28. Simmondsia calif ornica Nutt., in Lond. Journ. Bot. 
3:400. t. 15. 1844. Type locality, San Diego, California. 
A common spreading shrub with opposite pale leaves and 
dioecious flowers in capitate axillary clusters. 1902. 

29. Veatchia discolor (Benth.) T. S. Brandegee, Proc. 
Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 2 : 140. 1889. Schinus hicolor Benth., 1. c. 
11. t. 9. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. This is the remark- 
able tree commonly known as "elephant tree." 1934, flowers 
white. 1935, flowers pink. 

30. Maytenns phyllanthoides Benth., 1. c. 54. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. Dioecious shrub with pale stems and 
leaves, fruit 3-sided. Male 1916, female 1915. 

31. Cardiospermum tortiiosum Benth., 1. c. 8. t. 6. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. Tortuous spreading shrub with 
small white flowers and twice compound leaves, the ultimate 
divisions often 3-lobed. 1942. 

32. Abutilon calif ornicum Benth., 1. c. 8. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Flowers orange an inch in diameter, leaves 
cordate, white-tomentose. 1911. 

33. Hibiscus denudatus Benth., 1. c. 7. t. 3. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Flowers rose-purple, more than an inch in 
diameter; leaves white-tomentose but yellowish when dried. 
1884. 

34. Gossypimn davidsoni Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
5:82. 1873. Type locality, San Jose del Cabo, Lower Cali- 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 475 

fornia. Leaves cordate, entire; flowers large, yellow. 1936. 
1937 similar but flowers smaller. 

35. Melochia tomentosa L., Syst. Nat. ed. X, 1247. 
Type locality, Jamaica. Leaves white-downy on short petioles, 
ovate to lanceolate-oblong", crenate. flowers rose-purple. 1894. 

36. Foiiqiiicra splendeyis Engelm., Wislez. Mem. North 
Mex. 98. 1848. Type locality, Jornada del Muerto. New 
Mexico. This is commonly known as Ocotilla and is one of 
the most characteristic plants of the Colorado desert. When 
in bloom it is a wonderful sight, the tall thorny stems crowned 
with clusters of brilliant red flowers. 1886. 

37. Passiflora fruticosa Killip., Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
12: 256. 1922. Type locality, Santa Maria Bay, Lower Cali- 
fc)rnia. This is a shrubby passion flower. 1919. 

38. Rhizophora mangle L., Sp. PI. 443. Type locality, 
Caribbean Sea. This is commonly known as the mangrove 
and is common along tropical shores. The specimens seen did 
not grow over ten feet in height. Common in saline flats. 
1914. 

39.^ Borragea fruticulosa (Benth.) Donn. Smith & Rose. 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16:298. 1913. Gaura fruticulosa 
Benth., 1. c. 75. Gongylocarpus fruticulosa T. S. Brandegee, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 2: 158. 1889. Type locality, Mag- 
dalena Bay. This is a shrub with pink flowers; the seed-pods 
become imbedded in the woody stem. 1885. 

40. Metastelnia calif ornica Benth., 1. c. 33. t. 18. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. A slender-stemmed vine with small 
leaves and tiny flowers on filiform pedicels at the leaf axils. 
1939. 

41. Sarcostemma areiiarium Benth., 1. c. 34. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. 1929. 

42. Asclepias albicans S. W^atson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
24:59. 1889. Type locality, near Los Angeles Bay, Lower 
California. A leafless species. 1883. 

43. Jacquemontia abutiloides Benth., I. c. 34. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. A shrub with white-tomentose 
cordate, almost sessile leaves and blue flowers. 1893. 

1 Borragea frutescens (Curran) Donn., Smith & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
16:298. 1913. Gongylocarpus frutescens Curran, Proc, Cal. Acad. Sci. II. 1:231. 
1889. The type is in the Herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences. 



476 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

44. Cordia palmeri S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 24 : 62. 
1889. Type locality, in ravines in the high mountains above 
Guaymas, Mexico. According to Dr. Pahiier the native name 
is Yerba del pasmo. The shrub is aromatic with white 
flowers. 1906. 

45. Cryptantha grayi (Vasey & Rose) Macbride, Contr. 
Gray Herb., II. 48:43. 1916. Krynitckia grayi Vasev & 
Rose. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 11:536"! 1888. Type locality, 
Lagoon Head. Along sea cliffs. 1297. 

46. Avicennia nitida Jacq. Enum., Fl. Carib. 25. 1760. 
Type locality, Isle of Martinique. A low spreading shrub 
with cream-yellow flowers ; leaves opposite with the upper 
surface darker than the lower. It grows at the edge of man- 
grove swamps. 1909. 

47. Hyptis cmoryi Gray in Torr. Ives Rep. Colo. Riv. 
20. 1860. Type locality, Upper Colorado River, Arizona. 
Aromatic shrub with opposite leaves, the upper surface darker 
than the lower. Flowers small, in densely-flowered panicled 
spikes. The calyx is densely white-wooly and the corolla 
violet. 1946. 

48. Lycium brez'ipes Benth., 1. c. 40. Type locality, Mag- 
dalena Bay. A stiff spreading shrub with small purple flowers 
and red berries. 1918. 

49. Physalis crassifolia Benth., 1. c. 40. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. A spreading herb with yellow flowers and 
fruit a berry in an inflated calyx. 1900 and 1952. 

50. Solanum hindsiamim Benth.. 1. c. 30. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. A white-tomentose shrub growing in creek 
bottoms with rotate flowers and fruit a berry. 1903. 

51. Antirrhinum cyathiferiim Benth., 1. c. 40. t. 19. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. A perennial herb with small purple 
flowers and the seeds like tiny shallow cups. 1953. 

52. Hoitsfonia mucronata (Benth.) Robinson, Proc. Am. 
Acad. 45:401. Hcdyotis mucronata Benth., 1. c. 19. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. A low, much branched shrub with 
opposite or fascicled, short, linear leaves and salverform, pink 
flowers in terminal clusters. 1947. 

53. Hofmeisteria fasciculata (Benth.) Walp., Report. 
Bot. 6 : 106. 1847. Helogyne fasciculata Benth. 1. c. 20. t. 14. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 477 

Type locality, Magdalena Bay. An herbaceous composite 
without rays, the heads on long peduncles. 1897. 

54. Ericamerm diffusa Benth., 1. c. 23. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Shrubby with small rayless heads in pani- 
cles and terete spreading leaves. 1938. 

55. Bebbia jimcca (Benth.) Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. 
Sci. 1 : 180. 1885. Carphephorus jiinceus Benth. 1. c. 21. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Almost leafless shrub with 
flowers in rayless heads in open few-flowered panicles. 1895. 

56. Ferity le emoryi Torr., in Emory Notes Mil. Recon. 
142. Type locality, Carrizo Creek, San Diego County, Cali- 
fornia. This and the following are poor specimens with the 
leaves shrivelled, but the general shape, the small heads with 
white rays and the character of the akenes seem to indicate 
this polymorphic species. 1890. 

57. Perityle sp. The akenes of this differ from the pre- 
ceding, the leaves are less dissected and the heads smaller. 
P. californica Benth. collected by Hinds at Magdalena Bay is 
quite different having yellow rays and different leaves. 

58. Franseria magdaloice T. S. Brandegee, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. II. 2:170. 1889. Type locality, Magdalena 
Island. The burs of this species have hooked spines. 1889. 

59. Franseria chenopodiifolia Benth., 1. c. 26. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. The leaves of this species are not 
dissected as in the preceding but are ovate, much paler on the 
lower than the upper surface and the spines on the burs are 
straight. 1887. 

60. Encelia conspersQ Benth., 1. c. 26. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Shrubby, the flowers on long branching 
peduncles, disk purplish-brown, rays yellow. 1948. 

61. Vigiiiera subincisa Benth., 1.* c. 27. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. Shrubby; leaves rather thin, green, irregu- 
larly and deeply toothed, acuminate; peduncles long, branch- 
ing at summit, the medium heads on slender pedicels, disk and 
rays yellow. 1933. 

62. Vigiiiera deltoidea chenopoditia (Greene) Blake. 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 54: 91. 1918. Vigiiiera chenopodina 
Greene, Leaflets 2: 154. 1911. Type locality, between Santo 



478 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Domingo and Mantancita, Lower California. Shrubby with 
opposite entire canescent leaves. 1904. 

63. Coreocarpus disscctus (Benth.) Blake, Proc. Am. 
Acad. 49:344. 1913. Acoma dissecta Benth., 1. c. 29 t. 17. 
Type locality, Magdalena Bay. Shrubby, 2-3 feet high ; leaves 
dissected with the ultimate divisions narrowly linear ; pedun- 
cles surpassing the leaves and terminated by a few-flowered 
panicle of small heads, the disk and ray flowers yellow. 1899. 

64. Porophyllum gracile Benth., 1. c. 29. Type locality, 
Magdalena Bay. An aromatic shrub growing on rocky slopes ; 
stems wiry with few, almost filiform leaves, heads rayless, the 
involucre of 5 bracts each having 2 rows of linear glands, 
pappus tawny. 1920. 

65. Porophyllmn tridentatum Benth., 1. c. 30. An aro- 
matic shrub common on the beach ; leaves with 3-5 sharp teeth, 
heads rayless on short peduncles, the 5 bracts of the involucre 
with glands at the top. 1968. 



List of Species first described by Bentham 

IN THE BOTANY OF THE SULPHUR; NOT COLLECTED BY MaSON 



Janusia calif ornica 

-Fagonia calif ornica barclayana 

Fagonia californica 

^Dalea canescens 

Phaca vestita 

Ment sella adhcerens 

Perityle californica 

Franseria hispida 

Coreocarpus parthenioides 

Dysodia anthemidifolia 

Cuscuta patens 



Martynia althceifolia 

Maurandia juncea 

Ahronia gracilis 

Allionia malacoides 

Pterostcgia viacroptcra 

Euphorbia californica 

Euphorbia eriantha 

Serophyton lanccolattim (Ditaxis) 

Panicum californicum 

Spartina leiantha 

Chondrosium polystachyuni 



Species collected at Turtle Bay June 1-2, 1925 

1. Ephedra peninsularis Johnston, Univ. Calif. Pub. 
Bot. 7:437. 1922. Type locality, Magdalena Island. The 
scales at the joints are 2-cleft. Male 1977, female 1976. 

-Fagonia barclayana (Benth) Ryd., Fl. N. Am. 25: 104. 

^ Parosela peninsularis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8:304. Dalea canescens 
Benth. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 479 

2. Eriogonum pondii Greene, Pitt. 1 : 267. 1889. Type 
locality. Cedros Island, Lower California. 1960. 

3. Atriplex julacea S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
20:370. 1885. Type locality, Todos Santos Bay, Lower 
California. 1963. 

4. Atriplex linearis S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 24: 72 
1889. Type locality, Guaymas, Mexico. 1964. 

5. Siiceda hrevifolia (Standi.) n. comb. Dondia hrevi- 
folia Standi. N. Am. Fl. 21 : 92. 1916. Type locality, New- 
port, California. 

6. Phaca candidissiina Benth., Bot. Voy. Stilph. 13. 
1844. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. 1967. 

7. Euphorbia misera Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 51. 
1844. Type locality, San Diego, California. 1963. 

8. Simmondsia calif ornica Nutt., Lond. Journ. Bot. 
3:401. 1844. Tv/'^ /oca/zVv, San Diego, California. 1961. 

9. Veatchia cedrosensis (Kellogg) Gray, Bull. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. 1:4. 1884. Rhus vcatchiana Kellogg, Proc. 
Cal. Acad. Sci. 2 : 24. 1859. Type locality, Cedros Island, 
Lower California. 1969. 

10. Rhus lent a Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 2:16. 
1859. Type locality, Cedros Island. 1970. 

11. Sphccralcea fidva Gvttnt,V\\.t. \: 201. 1888. Type 
locality, Cedros Island. 1968. 

12. Frankenia grandifolia Ch. & Schl., Linnaea 1 : 35. 
Type locality, San Francisco Bay, California. 1956. 

13. Frankenia palmeri S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
11:124. 1876. Type locality, gulf shore of Lower Cali- 
fornia. 1950. 

14. Fouquiera peninsularis Nash, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
30:455. 1903. Type locality, La Paz, Lower California. 
1957. 

15. Petalonyx linearis Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 188. 1885. Type locality, Cedros Island, Lower Cali- 
fornia. 1958. 

16. Asclepias snhulata Decaisne, in DC. Prodr. 8:571. 
1844. 1973. 



430 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

17. Sarcostemma arenariiim Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 34. 
1844. Type locality, Magdalena Bay. 1974. 

18. Hofnieisteria pluriseta Gray, Pac. R. R. Rep. 4:95. 
t. 9. 1857. Type locality, Caiion of the Williams River, 
Arizona. 1975. 

19. Tri.vis calif ornica Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. 2 : 353. 
1882. Type locality, Cedros Island. 1962. 

20. Aplopappus spinulosus scabrellus (Greene) Blake, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 52:24. 1917. Eriocarpum scabrel- 
lum Greene, Erythea 2:108. 1894. Type locality, Los 
Angeles Bay, Lower California. 

21. Giitierrezia sarothrce pauciflora Eastwood, n. var. 
This differs from typical forms in having few flowers, often 
solitary heads terminating slender bracteate branchlets. The 
entire plant is intricately branched. It comes nearest to G. 
divergens Greene but has smaller heads and fewer flowers in 
each head. 1971. 

22. Franseria camphorata Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 192. 1885. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. 1972. 



Species collected at San Quintin, Lower California, 

June 7, 1925 

1. Ephedra calif ornica S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
14:300. 1879. Type locality, S2inD\Qgo. 2058 and 2059. 

2. A triplex jidacea S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
20:370. 1885. Type locality, Todos Santos Bay, Lower 
California. 2046. 

3. SiKcda ramosissinm (Standley) Johnston, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci. Ser. 4. 12:1017. 1924. Dondia ramosissima 
Standley, N. Am. Fl. 21:91. 1916. Type locality. Lees 
Ferry, Arizona. 2047. 

4. Abronia gracilis Benth, Bot. Sulph. 44. 1844. Type 
locality, Magdalena Bay. Our material consists of two small 
annual plants whose identification is uncertain as the speci- 
mens are not fruiting. 2061. 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD— FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 481 

5. Mesemhryanthemum crystalliniun L., Sp. PI. 480. 
Type locality. Cape region, South Africa. The common ice 
plant which is on all the beaches from Santa Barbara County 
south. 2045. 

6. Isomeris arhorea Nutt., in Torr. & Gray. Fl. N. Am. 
1 : 124. Type locality, San Diego. This is the shrub so com- 
mon along the coast with yellow flowers in racemes and droop- 
ing inflated pods. The leaves are trifoliate. 2052. 

7. Dudleya cultrata Rose, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3: 16. 
1903. Type locality, San Quintin Bay. This does not agree 
in all respects but is probably this species. 2057. 

8. Simmondsia californica Nutt., in Hook. Lond. Journ. 
Bot. 3 : 400. t. 16. 1844. Type locality, San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. 2060. 

9. ^scuhis parryi Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 17:200. 
1881-82. Type locality, northern part of Lower California. 
This is the shrubby buckeye of the region. 2051. 

10. Sphceralcea sp. A shrub 2-4 feet high, with flowers 
white and pink tinged. This seems near S. fulva Greene. 
2053. 

11. Frankcnia grandifolia Ch. & Schl., in Linn?ea 1:35. 
1826. Type locality, San Francisco Bay. Common in salt 
marshes. The common name is Yerbe del Rheuma. 2047a. 

12. Cuscuta californica graciliiiora Engelm., Trans. Acad. 
Sci. St. Louis 1 : 499. 1859. Type locality. Nova California. 
The common dodder, on a composite. 2055. 

13. Lyciuni richii Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 6:46. 1862. 
Type locality, La Paz, Lower California. A thorny shrub 
with spreading branches, small fleshy, obovate leaves, small, 
salverform, purplish flowers and red berries. It was common 
along the beach. 2048. 

14. Stcphanomeria exigua Nutt.,. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 
N. Ser. 7:428. 1841. Type locality, plains of the Rocky 
Mountains. This is not typical but is probably a form of this 
variable species. It comes near to one described as Ptiloria 
exigiia deani Macbr. from Sweetwater Valley, San Diego 
County. 2062a. 



482 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

15. Guticrre^ia sarothra: (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby., 
Trans. N. Y. Acad. 7: 10. 1887. Type locality, plains of the 
Missouri. 2062. This may be the host of the Cuscuta. 

16. Aplopappus fasciculatus Vasey & Rose, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 11:530. 1889. Type locality, San Ouintin Bay. 
2050 and 2056. 

17. Amblyopappus pusillus H. & A. Hook. Journ. Bot. 
3:321. \84l' Type locality, Chile. 2054. 



Species first described from San Ouintin 
Not collected by Mason. 

From Dr. Edward Palmer's collection, described hy Vasey & Rose, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 11 : 527 to 536. 

Hosackia tvatsoni Phacelia pahneri 

Hosackia pahneri Solanum palmer i 

Ribes palmeri Antirrhinum zvatsoni 

Senecio peninsularis Krynitzkia grayi 
Gilia laxa 



Species first described by other authors 
Not collected by Mason. 

Agave orcuitiana Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22:47. 

Ribes tortuosum Benth, Bot. Sulph. 17. 

Astragalus anemophilus Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 186. t. 213. 

Hosackia disticha Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 186. 

CEnothera crassifolia Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 188. 

Senecio ammuphilus Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 193. 

Pholisma deprcssum Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 198. 

Physalis muriculata Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 209. 

Pterostegia galioides Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 213. 

Stylophyllum attenuatum (Watson) B. & R., Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 3:36. 



Species collected at San Martin Island June 9, 1925 

1. Atriplex decumbens S. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
12:275. 1877. Type locality, near Sslu Diego. A low pros- 
trate perennial on the sand dunes. 2070. 

2. Atriplex leucophylla Dietr., Syn. PI. 5:536. C'di- 
fornia. 2070. This differs from the preceding in leaves dif- 



Vol. XVIII] EASTWOOD—FLORA OF LOWER CALIFORNIA 433 

ferently shaped and alternate instead of opposite. Both are 
prostrate and equally white and were included under the same 
number. 

3. Abronia maritima Nutt., ex S. Watson in Bot. Calif. 
2:4. Type locality, San Pedro, California. 2072. 

4. Dudleya anthonyi Rose, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Card. 3 : 13. 
1903. Type locality, San Martin Island. The leaves of this 
beautiful species are densely white-farinose in a cluster almost 
a foot across. The flowers become dark rose on pedicels 
almost an inch long and in widely spreading panicles termi- 
nating the leafy stems. 2068. 

5. Dudleya cultrata Rose, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Card. 3: 15. 
1903. Type locality, San Quintin Bay, Lower California. 
The clusters of leaves at the base are much shorter than the 
preceding and not farinose. The flowers are in more densely 
flowered panicles on pedicels shorter than the corolla. Like 
many in this genus the corolla is yellow turning red in fading. 
2076. 

6. Hosackia ivatsoni Vasey & Rose, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 11:528. 1888. Tj//)^ /oca/iiv. San Quintin Bay. Stems 
slender, much branched; small leaves trifoliate; umbels 
2-flowered on very short peduncles. 2078. 

7. Phacelia ixodes plumosa (Kellogg) Brand, Pflan- 
zenreich 4: 112. 1913. Phacelia plumosa Kellogg. Mss. in 
Herb. Univ. Cal. Type locality, San Martin Island. 2080. 

8. Nicotiaim clevelandi Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. II. 
1 : 242. Type locality, Chollas Valley, near San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. 2069. 

9. Cryptanth intermedia (Gray) Greene, Pitt. 1:114. 
1887. Eritrichium intermedium Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
17:225. 1881-82. Type from southern part of California. 
2077. 

10. Lycium richii Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 6:46. 1862. 
Type locality, La Paz, Lower California. 2073. 

11. Encelia calif ornica Nutt., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. N. S. 
7:2)S7. 1841. Type locality, San Diego or Santa Barbara. 
California. 2074. 



434 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

12. Franseria camphorata Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
1 : 192. 1885. Type locality, Guadalupe Island. 2071. 

13. Ferity le rotundifolia (Benth.) Brandegee, Zoe 4:210. 
1893. Amauria rotundifolia Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. 31. 
Type locality, San Quintin, Lower California. 2079. 

14. Senecio lyoni Gray, ex Lyon in Coult. Bot. Gaz. 
11:335. 1886. Type locality, Catalina Island, California. 
2076. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No, 14 



EASTWOOD) Plate 33 




Fig. 1. Guadalupe Cypress at the edge of the cypress Fig. 2. First cypress tree met with, just helow the 

grove. timber line. 





*. ' .V. 



-v, 



- V 



*« 









" " ^' "■' X- "*" 










; • , "* • :'-- .^ •*% . ',^ ■^*' -s 



W -V -^7^^ 







>  •;: -.i^ 



Fig. 3. Cypress grove on top of the plateau. 



Fig. 4. Looking north on tup of the plateau. I'ine 
forest in the distance. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 14 



EASTWOOD) Plate 34 




Fig. 1. Oak trees on the steep northwest slope 
showing fog bank coming in over the 
ridge. 



Fig. 2. Oak trees on llie northwest slope just below 
the highest ridge. 




L\'4kX 


W 


m f 


-41 


m 


■» 
*" 


%■ •' 


' la- 


B^ 


■^ 


Imta 


J 




at 


i 

i 



Fig. 3. First group of pines before reaching the Fig. 4. Pine trees on top of the pl;iteau nnrtheast 

plateau at the north end of the island. end of the island. 



GUADALUPE ISLAND 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII. No. 15, pp. 485-496, plate 35 October 4, 1929 



XV 

DREPANIA 

A GENUS OF NUDIBRANCHIATE MOLLUSKS 

NEW TO CALIFORNIA 

BY 

F. M. MacFARLAND 

Department of Anatomy 

Stanford University, California 

Through the kindness of Dr. Myrtle E. Johnson of the San 
Diego State College, I received while at the Hopkins Marine 
Station at Pacific Grove, last September, a fine living specimen 
of a phanerobranchiate Dorid, collected by her at La Jolla, 
San Diego County, California. After a study of the general 
external features, the animal was preserved for further exami- 
nation. The coloration showed that it agreed with a form 
described by Cockerell in 1901 under the name, Thecacera 
velox CklL, from the same region, but a slightly more detailed 
examination made it equally evident that the animal in ques- 
tion is not a Thecacera Flem., but belongs to the genus Dre- 
pania Lafont, in an entirely different subfamily. To fix the 
status of this interesting member of our molluscan fauna, a 
brief anatomical study has been made of the specimen, the 
results of which are presented herewith. 

The genus Drepania was discovered by A. Lafont at Arca- 
chon on the southwest coast of France, and was described by 
him in a short paper in the "Journal de Conchyliologie" in 
1874, with Drepania fusca Lafont as the type species. 

Abraham (1877) in his ''Revision of the Anthobranchiate 
Nudibranchiate Mollusca", p. 238, without a personal study 
of specimens, considered that the differences between Ancula 

October 4, 1929. 



485 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Loven and Drcpania Lafont were not adequate to separate 
them generically, and reduced the latter to synonymy with the 
older genus Ancula Loven. But Bergh (1881) in describing 
Drepania grceffei from Trieste, in the Northern Adriatic, 
showed clearly in his brief anatomical study of a single speci- 
men that the new genus was undoubtedly distinct, not only in 
the external characters listed by Lafont, but also in the radula 
and mandibular plates. This view was not shared by Fischer 
in 1883, however, Drcpania being given subgeneric rank 
under Ancula in his "Manuel de Conchyliologie", p. 525. 

A third species, Drepania tartanella v.Ih., was described by 
von Ihering in 1885,. from a specimen taken in the Bay of 
Naples. A figure of the whole animal, drawn from life, is 
given as one of the illustrations of the brief description. Von 
Ihering also records the taking of a single specimen of the 
Trieste species, D. grceffei Bgh., at Naples. The close simi- 
larity of these two, the differences being practically slight ones 
of color details alone, warrants the conclusion that they are 
but variants of the same species. Their relation to Drepania 
fusca Lafont cannot at present be determined until an ana- 
tomical study of the latter has been made. In 1892 Bergh 
listed the three species as identical, in which case the first of 
them, Drcpania fusca Lafont would have priority. Vayssiere 
(1913) gives Drepania Lafont full generic rank, lists D. tar- 
tanella V. Ihering and D. grccifei Bergh, but, curiously, makes 
no mention of the genotype D. fusca Lafont from Arcachon 
in his list of Opisthobranchs of France. 

Drepania Lafont 1874 

Drepania Lafont, 1874. Description d'un nouvelle genus de Nudibranches 

des cotes de la France. <Journal de Conchyliologie. 3S, 

XIV, Vol. XXII, p. 369-370. 
Bergh, R. 1881. Beitrage zu einer Monographic der Polyceraden 

II. Verh. d. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesellschaft in Wien. Jahrg. 

1880, p. 9-12. Taf. X, F. 10-15. 
von Ihering, H. 1885. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Nudibranch- 

ien des Mittelmeeres. II. Malacozool. Blatter, N.F. 8, 

p. 36-39, Taf. I, F. 2, Taf. II, F. 8, 9. 
Bergh, R. 1892. System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden, 

p. 164-165. 
Vayssiere, A. 1913. Alollusques de la France et des Regions 

voisines, I. p. 356-357. PI. 37, F. 5-6. 



Vol. XVIII] MacFARLAND—DREPANIA 487 

Body limaciform; rhinophores perfoliate, non-retractile, 
each with a basal external process; branchiae trifoliate, simply 
pinnate, on each side a single, extrabranchial appendage; ten- 
tacles digitiform ; foot narrow, its anterior angles produced. 

Labial disc armed on each side with a mandibular lamella, 
with denticulate margin. Radula very narrow, the rhachis 
naked ; a single pleural tooth on each side with an elongate 
denticulate margin. Buccal ingluvies present. Glans penis 
armed with a series of hooks. 

1. Drepania ftisca Lafont, Bay of Biscay, Arcachon. 

2. D. grcoffei Bergh, Adriatic Sea, Trieste, Naples. 
D. tartan ella, von Ihering, Bay of Naples. 

3. D. velox, (Cockerell), La Jolla, California. 

The original generic description of Lafont (1874) is as 
follows : 

"Corpus molle, laeve, supra convexum, postice acuminatum ; caput 
arcuatum; tentacula antica cylindrica; tentacula superna clavata, medio 
lamellosa, appendice falciformi, ad basin munita; branchiae 3, plumosae, 
appendice laterali, falciformi, utrinque munitae ; pes angustus, superne 
dilatus et utrinque productus ; orificium genitale infra tentaculum dex- 
trum superum situm." 

Bergh (1881) added to this diagnosis the general features 
of the radula, the mandibular plates, and the penis armature, 
with the doubtful statement that the buccal ingluvies is rudi- 
mentary. In his single specimen, 4.5 mm. in length, it may 
•have so appeared, but in the one I have studied it is well 
developed. Hence I have modified the genus diagnosis of 
Bergh (1892) "buccal ingluvies rudimentary" to what is given 
above. The generic characters as given by Vayssiere (1913) 
are substantially the same. 

Drepania velox (Cockerell) 

Thecacera velox Cockerell. Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Three New Nudi- 
branchs from California. "Journal of Malacology", VIII, 
3, p. 87. 

The original description published by Cockerell is as 
follows ; 



488 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

"Length about 12 millim., narrow, general form of T. pennigera. 
White, marked with black stripes, appendages tipped with orange. Foot 
tentacles and oral tentacles both long, the first white with a purple-black 
line beneath, continuous with the lowest body-stripes ; oral tentacles 
with the apical three-fourths bright orange. Rhinophores laminated, with 
a terminal finger-like process; apical third (including more than half of 
the laminated portion) bright orange. Rhinophore sheath taking the form 
of a thickened tentacle, about as long as the rhinophore, lateral of the 
rhinophore and curling behind it ; this pseudotentacle is purple-black 
above and white beneath, with the end broadly orange ; the anterior lobe 
of the sheath, found in T. pennigera, is wholly wanting in T. velox. 
Appendages latero-posterior to branchiae formed as in T. pennigera, 
with the apical half orange (a small black spot beneath at the base of 
the orange), the upper side, from the base of the orange for- 
ward, with a broad purple-black stripe, these stripes passing 
forward and joining in the middle line of the back anterior to the 
branchiae, thence sending a short process forward, and another backward 
on to the median branchial plume, meeting the orange of its extremity. 
Branchial plumes three, about as in pennigera, bipinate, the lateral ones 
with a purple-black patch and a little orange mark beyond ; the middle 
one broadly orange at the end. Hind end of foot bright orange, the 
black bands stopping abruptly at the orange. The purple-black longitud- 
inal stripes are a dorsal and two on each side ; the dorsal begins very 
broadly on the front of the head, and thence narrows tmtil it ends some 
distance before the branchiae; posterior to the branchiae it is continued, 
and goes nearly to the end of the foot. The subdorsal stripes are inter- 
rupted in the region of the branchiae, but otherwise are nearly entire. 
There are very short stripes in the area between the dorsal and subdorsal 
stripes, about the middle of the anterior part of the back. The lateral 
stripes border the narrow sole, and are continuous, but end before the 
subdorsal ones." 

The above description of the color markings and general 
external topography given by Cockerell is clear, but he evi- 
dently made no anatomical study of the animal, and was led 
astray by the superficial resemblance to Thecacera which it 
shows, overlooking, however, the very significant fact that the 
rhinophores are not retractile within sheaths, and that what he 
interpreted as representing such a sheath is actually nothing of 
the sort, but an external, basal, finger-like process. 

For the determination of the subfamily as between the 
Polycerinae and the Goniodoridinse, a simple, anatomical 
examination of the pharyngeal bulb must be made to ascertain 
the presence or absence of an ingluvies, or crop-like diverticu- 
lum, characteristic of the Goniodoridinae. This, together with 



Vol. XVIII] MacFARLAND—DREPANIA 489 

a study of the radula would have fixed the systematic position 
without question, another ilkistration of the danger of relying 
solely upon external characters in identifying these beautiful 
animals. These become all the more untrustworthy in pre- 
served material which often loses all semblance of its living 
form and color. 

The specimen from Dr. Johnson was received in vigorous 
living condition, despite its journey by mail. After a study of 
its external form and coloration, it was preserved in formalin- 
alcohol, in which the black and orange markings remained 
nearly unchanged. The total length of the extended living 
specimen, when crawling freely, was 16 mm; in the preserved 
condition it shortened to 8.3 mm. The general shape (PI. 35. 
figs. 1,2) is limaciform, smooth, arched above, the sides being 
but slightly set off from the margin of the foot. The branchial 
plumes are nearly midway of the length of the animal; they 
are three in number, bipinnate, in part simply pinnate, non- 
retractile into a sheath, and are directed obliquely upward and 
backward. Immediately in front of the branchial plumes is a 
well marked cardiac elevation from the sides of which, on 
either side, a fing"er-like blunt tapering process curves hori- 
zontally backward beside and behind the plumes. The rhino- 
phores are 2 mm. in length, clavate, perfoliate with 10-12 
leaves, the stalk above terminating in a blunt point. External 
to the base of each rhinophore is a blunt, cylindrical or very 
slightly tapering process, two-thirds of the length of the organ, 
horizontal for the most part, and curving around on the dor- 
sum behind the rhinophore. It is 1.2 mm. in length, and 
exhibits but slight movement. The interpretation of this 
structure as a part of a rhinophore sheath led Professor 
Cockerell astray. The rhinophore of Thecacera is retractile 
into a large and distinct sheath, the margin of which is pro- 
longed into two lobes. His view that this basal, external pro- 
cess represents one of these lobes cannot be held valid, since 
the rhinophore in this animal and in Drepania is non-retractile 
into a sheath, no trace of any such structure being present. 
They are clearly homologous, however, to the basal processes 
of the rhinophore found in the allied genus Ancula. 

The outer angles of the margin of the head are prolonged 
into a tentacle-like process on either side, 1.1 mm. in length, 



490 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

directed obliquely forward, outward and upward. These are 
not actively used as tactile organs, as are those formed by 
the angles of the foot immediately below, but seem more rigid, 
and comparable to the velar processes of Polycera. They can- 
not be termed oral tentacles in the strict meaning of the term. 

The anterior angles of the linear foot are prolonged into 
long tapering processes, 1.4 mm. in length, slightly grooved 
ventrally (PL 35, fig. 3) throughout their full length. These 
are kept in active motion, being constantly in use as tactile 
organs, exploring in every direction as the animal moves. No 
black line, such as described by Cockerell, was found in the 
specimen at hand. 

The anal opening is median, behind and included within the 
arc formed by the bases of the branchiae. The minute renal 
opening is close beside it. The reproductive openings are on 
the right side, far forward, below and slightly in front of the 
rhinophore. 

The general ground color of the living animal is a trans- 
lucent gray. The terminal one-third of the rhinophores, the 
terminal one-third of their basal processes, nearly the whole 
of the anterior, head margin processes, the tips of the branchiae 
and the terminal one-fourth of their lateral, basal appendages, 
and the tip of the tail are all a deep, rich orange. Five nar- 
row longitudinal stripes of black, an unpaired median, a 
paired dorso-lateral and a lateral pair form very striking 
markings. The median band of black extends from the 
frontal margin backward, between the rhinophores to the 
cardiac elevation in front of the branchiae, where it 
joins a crescentic transverse band, which extends out on 
the dorsal surface of the lateral, branchial appendages 
through two-thirds of their length. Behind the branchiae, 
the median stripe extends nearly to the tip of the tail. The 
paired dorsolateral bands extend from immediately behind the 
basal processes of the rhinophores along the dorsolateral sur- 
face of the body nearly to the tip of the tail, being interrupted 
opposite the lateral branchial appendages for a short distance. 
The lateral paired bands extend from the sides of the head, 
immediately behind and below the head margin processes 
along the body parallel to the foot, with slight interruptions, 
toward the tip of the tail, which they do not reach. These five 



Vol. XVIII] MacFARLAND—DREPANIA 491 

longitudinal stripes of black vary in width along their course, 
and are probably frequently interrupted by slight breaks of 
continuity in some individuals. Midway between the rhino- 
phores and the branchial plumes, on either side of the dorsal 
median band, is a short stripe of black. The dorsal surface of 
the basal appendages of the rhinophores bears a stripe of 
black extending from its base to the terminal orange extremity. 
The axis of each branchial plume bears a short, linear spot of 
black, in one case double, upon its outer, basal surface. 

In alcohol the black stripes remain unchanged, the orange 
color becomes much paler. 

In the endeavor to preserve the specimen as much as possi- 
ble, no detailed study of its anatomy has been attempted. The 
pharyngeal bulb shows at once the well developed, muscular 
crop-like enlargement (PI. 35, fig. 4,c) characteristic of the 
Sub-family Goniodoridinae, and not of the Polycerinae, to 
which Thecacera belongs. The bulb measured 0.55 mm. in 
length and 0.45 mm. in width. Close at the anterior end of 
the oesophagus, on either side, lie the small, rounded saccular 
salivary glands (PI. 35, fig. 4,^). The radula sack projects 
but slightly as a rounded eminence below and behind in the 
median line. (PI. 35, fig. 4,^) The oral tube is short and 
rather wide, its opening being a vertical slit, guarded on either 
side above by a triangular, mandibular plate bearing closely 
set, short spines, directed forward, the most anterior, mar- 
ginal ones visible from in front, as in PI. 35, fig. 6, where 
they project freely across the upper half of the opening of the 
tube, as seen from in front. The plates are approximately a 
right angled triangle in form, slightly wider than long (PI. 
35, fig. 5), and are covered throughout the most of their 
extent by these short, pointed, chitinous spines. Those near- 
est the anterior margin are the strongest and best developed, 
reaching 0.030 mm. in length and 0.007 mm. basal diameter, 
(PI. 35, fig. 7). Those farther back are considerably less 
strong and prominent, many being quite slender. The lateral 
plates represent thickenings in the cuticle of the mouth cavity 
and are unconnected with each other, save by the general cuti- 
cular lining. Bergh (1881) describes and figures a similar 
armature for Drepania graeffei Bgh., cordate in shape and 
with a denticulate anterior border, the remaining surface of 



492 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the plate being strongly netted, as if made up of thickened 
ridges and not of projecting spines, as here. 

The radula is short and rather broad, its total length 
measuring 0.6 mm. It is made up of 24 transverse rows of 
teeth, each row being made up of a single lateral tooth on 
either side of a naked rhachis, the dental formula thus being 
24 X (1.0.1). Each lateral tooth (PI. 35, figs. 8-10) is 
strongly convex in front, concave behind, and wide from side 
to side. The rather narrow, crescerltic base rests obliquely 
upon the basal membrane, its inner end, nearest the rhachis, 
being in advance of the outer one. From the anterior margin 
of the base arises a broad and thin convex expansion, its up- 
per margin being coarsely and irregularly denticulate, and 
culminating in a strong, pointed cusp, borne on the thickened, 
outer margin, and directed obliquely inward and backward 
toward the median line. External to this cusp the shell-like 
plate is expanded into a smaller wing; on the inner side the 
margin slopes rapidly downward as a crescentic ridge toward 
the median end, and bears a single series of some 8 to 11 
irregular, sharp denticles, triangular in form and of varying 
height. In PI. 35, fig. 8 a typical lateral tooth from the 
right side of the radula is shown, as seen from above ; in fig. 
9 a similar tooth is seen from in front and slightly below; 
while in fig. 10 the same tooth is represented after having been 
rotated toward the right, so as to show most of its basal sur- 
face and the full extent of the strong outer cusp, while the 
inner denticulate ridge is nearly concealed by the uptilted 
outer margin. The real form of these teeth is by no means 
evident at first sight, and the radula requires prolonged study 
before its structure is clear. The width of one of the lateral 
teeth from the first or oldest row of the radula is 0.033 mm., 
that of one from the 9th row is 0.065 mm., while in one of 
the youngest rows, toward the end of the radula sheath, it 
reaches 0.084 mm. In D. grcuffei Bgh., according to Bergh 
(1881), the total number of rows in the radula is 51, over 
twice as many as here, and the width of the oldest lateral tooth 
is 0.055 mm., that of the youngest 0.16 mm. The number of 
denticles is much larger, varying up to 22-24 on each tooth, 
the whole organ being somewhat straighter and less convex 
than in this Californian species. Von Ihering (1885) states 



Vol. XVIII] MacFARLAND—DREPANIA 493 

that the radula of D. tartanclla von Ih. is identical with that 
of D. grcsffei Bgh., save for the somewhat less number of 
denticles, as is shown by his figure. He gives the width 
("length") of a tooth as 0.085 mm., without indicating from 
which part of the radula the tooth in question is taken. 

The short oesophagus (PI. 35, fig. 4, oe) leads directly- 
back into the stomach, which is completely inclosed in a deep 
furrow in the dorsal surface of the liver. The intestine is 
directed forward for a short distance from the posterior end 
of the stomach, thence looping sharply backward it passes in 
a straight course to the anal opening in the median region of 
the back, just behind the crescentic line of origin of the bran- 
chial plumes. Close to it is the renal pore, connected by a very 
short tube to the roomy, simple kidney sack, which in turn, 
communicates with the overlying pericardium by the small, 
elliptical renal syrinx. 

The large eyes lie deep below the integument, close beside 
the cerebral portion of the cerebro-pleural ganglia, to which 
they are attached by very short optic nerves. Close behind, 
and slightly below the eyes, are the sessile otocysts, filled with 
minute otoconia. The cerebro-pleural ganglia are fused into 
a single ovoid mass, 0.3 mm. long by 0.18 mm. in greatest 
diameter, with only a shallow furrow obscurely indicating the 
approximate line of union. The cerebral portions of each side 
are connected above the oesophagus by a short and rather 
strong cerebral commissure. Below the cerebro-pleural 
ganglia are the large spherical pedal ganglia, 0.165 mm. in 
greatest diameter, and united to those above by the usual 
cerebro-pedal and pleuro-pedal connectives. The pedal pair 
is united below the oesophagus by a very short pedal com- 
missure. The lack of material prevented the working out of 
further details. 

The ovotestis is in close contact with the liver, the superior 
and anterior surfaces of which it nearly conceals. The an- 
terior end overlaps the anterior genital complex, the superior 
oval face of the latter being beveled obliquely backward and 
downward. Fig. 11 of PI. 35, shows the relationships of the 
conduits of the anterior genital complex as seen in dorsal 
view, they being displaced somewhat to render the connec- 
tions evident. The accessory glands have been omitted for 



494 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

clearness. The short and slender hermaphroditic duct hd, 
passes directly to the ellipsoidal hermaphroditic ampulla which 
lies upon the dorsal, right side of the complex. From its 
anterior end, in close contact with the underlying nidamental- 
albumen gland mass the hermaphroditic ampulla (h. a.) nar- 
rows abruptly to a slender duct which divides into the vas 
deferens and the oviduct. The oviduct passes at once into 
the lumen of the albumen gland, the vas deferens, v.d., 
thickens rapidly into a white, thick-walled, glandular tube, 
passes backward to the left of the hermaphroditic ampulla, 
describes a close loop at the posterior end of the anterior 
genital complex, returns forward along its left border to the 
anterior end, narrows slightly and passes into the preputium, 
p. The latter is ca. 0.5 mm. long by 0.15 mm. in greatest 
diameter, not as thick as the prostatic portion of the vas 
deferens, and contains the strongly retracted cylindro-conic 
glans. In PI. 35, fig. 13, the wall of the preputium, p, is dis- 
sected away, except at the base, exposing the glans, g. In fig. 
12 the distal end of the glans is represented under a higher 
magnification as a transparent preparation. The lumen is 
lined by a series of closely set, curved spines, the tips of which 
are directed outward. These extend back for a distance of 
0.14 mm. from the tip, the longest and strongest, 0.03 mm. in 
length, with a basal diameter of 0.006 mm., being farthest 
away from the opening, fomiing a narrow band which is suc- 
ceeded by an intermediate zone of about one half the height of 
the longest, and these in turn, by a more distal band of longer 
and more slender ones. Typical spines from each of these 
three regions are shown in detail in PI. 35, figs. 14 and 15. 
For D. grceffei Bergh (1881) describes and figures a glans 
armature of hooks, much more irregular in form, notched or 
toothed and reaching a height of 0.015 mm. In D. tartanella 
according to von Ihering (1885) the amiature is made up of 
simple hooks ranging from 0.021 to 0.028 mm. in height. 

The other branch of the hermaphroditic duct, beyond the 
hermaphroditic ampulla, is the very short oviduct, which opens 
at once into the lumen of the albumen gland, the cut end of the 
duct being shown in fig. 11. Close by it emerges the slender, 
uterine duct (PI. 35, fig. 11 u. d.) which receives the very 
short duct of the nearly spherical spermatocyst, s. c, 0.4 mm. 



Vol. XVIIIl MacFARLAND—DREPANIA 495 

in length by 0.34 mm. in diameter. Beyond this point the 
uterine duct closely parallels the vaginal duct to which it is 
attached, and opens into the larger, nearly spherical sperma- 
totheca, s, lying on the right, upper surface of the complex. 
From the spermatotheca the vaginal duct, vag. d., leads to the 
vagina into which it dilates, opening externally close behind 
the orifice of the preputium, on the right side of the head, 
opposite and below the base of the right rhinophore. Imme- 
diately below it is the opening of the external duct of the 
mucus gland. The maximum diameter of the vagina is 0.135 
mm., the diameter of the vaginal duct near the spermatotheca 
is 0.06 mm., the total length of both vagina and vaginal duct 
from the external opening to the spermatotheca is 1.78 mm. 

My grateful acknowledgements are due to Dr. Myrtle E. 
Johnson for the specimen here reported upon, as well as for 
numerous other collections which I have received from her 
hands, and to my wife for her unfailing and skilled coopera- 
tion in the preparation of the figures of the accompanying 
plate. 

Bibliography. 

Abraham, P. S., 1877. Revision of the Anthobranchiate Nudibranchiate 
Mollusca with Descriptions or Notices of forty-one hitherto 
undescribed Species. <Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 238. 

Bergh, R., 1881. Beitrage zu einer Monographie der Polyceraden, II. 
Verh. d. k.-k., zool.-bot. Gesellsch. in Wien. Jahrg. 1880, 
p. 9-12, Taf. X, Fig. 10-15. 

1892. System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden. Malacol. 
Unters. Ill, 18. <In Semper's Reisen im Archipel der Philip- 
pinen, Wiss. Res., Th. II. p. 164-165. 

Cockerell, T. D. A., 1901. Three new Nudibranchs from California. 

Journal of Malacology, VIII, 3, p. 85-87. 
Fischer, P., 1883. Manuel de Conchyliologie. Fasc. VI, p. 525. 
Lafont, A., 1874. Description d'un nouveau genre de Nudibranche des 

cotes de France. Journ. de Conchyliologie, Vol. XXII, 3 S, T. 

XIV, p. 369-370. 

Von Ihering, H., 1885. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Nudibranchien des 
Mittelmeeres. II. Malacozool. Blatter, N. F. 8, p. 36-39, Taf. 
I, F. 2, Taf. II, F. 8, 9. 

Vayssiere, 'A., 1913. Mollusques de France et des Regions voisines. I. 
p. 356-357, PI. Z7, F. 5, 6. 



496 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 35 

Fig. 1. Drepania velox (Cockerell) in side view, drawn from living specimen. 
X 6. 

Fig. 2. Drepania velox (Cockerell) in dorsal view, drawn from living speci- 
men. X 6. 

Fig. 3. Ventral view of anterior region of body. X 6. 

Fig. 4. Pharyngeal bulb in side view, freed from muscular attachments and 
the nerve collar, c, the buccal ingluvies, or muscular crop; 5, the 
posterior median projection containing the radula sack; oe, the 
anterior end of the oesophagus; g, the saccular salivary gland. 
X 30. 

Inner surface of the left mandibular plate showing its armature of 
spines. X 122. 

Front view of oral tube cuticle, the muscles having been removed. 
The two mandibular plates, p, are seen obliquely from the out- 
side, their anterior marginal spines showing at the sides of the 
upper half of the mouth opening. X 122. 

A group of the marginal spines of a mandibular plate under higher 
magnification. X 278. 

Typical first lateral tooth from middle region of right side of radula, 
as seen from above. X 450. 

Similar lateral tooth seen obliquely from in front and below. X 450. 

The same lateral tooth rotated to the right, showing the external face 
and a part of the base. X 450. 

Fig. 11. Relations of the reproductive conduits in the anterior genital com- 
plex. For the sake of clearness the albumen and mucus glands 
have been omitted and the ducts are spread apart and separated 
from their closely packed condition, h.d, hermaphroditic duct 
leading from the ovotestis behind; h.a, hermaphroditic ampulla; 
at the anterior end it narrows and divides into the short oviduct, 
shown as a cut end, which enters the albumen gland at once, and 
a very much longer vas deferens, v.d, the thicker segment of 
which forms the highly glandular prostatic portion; p, the penis, 
shown in detail in Figs. 12 and 13; s.c, the spermatocyst, opening 
by a very short duct into u.d, the uterine duct, which extends 
from its emergence from the albumen gland to the spermato- 
theca, s\ vag^, the vaginal duct, dilating distally into the 
vagina, v. X 20. 

Fig. 12. Distal end of glans penis viewed as a transparent object; a, its arma- 
ture of spines, probably eversible. X 200. 

Fig. 13. Penis. The wall of the preputium p, has been cut away so as to dis- 
close the glans, g, within. The lumen is faintly seen extending 
through the organ and dilating toward its tip, where the arma- 
ture shown in Fig. 12 is borne. X 80. 

Fig. 14. Detail of typical spines of the penis armature, taken from the 
region a in Fig. 12. X 380. 

Fig. 15. Detail of typical spines from the distal end of the penis armature. 
X 380. 



Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7, 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10, 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVill, No. 15 



[MacFARLAND] Plate 35 




H M,c R 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 16, pp. 497-530, plates 36-41 October 4, 1929 



XVI 

SOME UPPER CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA .^ 

FROM NEAR COALINGA, CALIFORNIA l- 



BY 

J. A. CUSHMAN 

AND 

C. C. CHURCH 

In that part of the Alcalde Hills just west of the town of 
Coaling-a, Fresno County, California, included in Section 2, 
T. 21 S., R. 14 E., a group of shallow wells has been drilled 
and oil production has been obtained at a depth of from 500 to 
600 feet. The oil is of low gravity, averaging about 18 to 20 
degrees Baume and the production per well at the present time 
is from one to twelve barrels a day. 

In this general area the surface rocks have been mapped as 
Vaqueros, of Lower Miocene age,^ but later work indicates 
that they are much younger, probably Santa Margarita, which 
is LTpper Miocene. These sandy beds are separated from the 
Chico Cretaceous, and possibly some Tejon Eocene, below by 
an angular unconformity. 

The above mentioned wells are thus known to penetrate a 
large proportion of sandy beds with interbedded shale above 
the known oil zone and on drilling deeper the gray clay shales 
of the Chico are encountered. 

Through the kindness of Mr. O. F. Darling of the Cali- 
fornia Northern Petroleum Co., we received a good set of 

^ Ralph Arnold & Robert Anderson, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 398, 1910. 

October 4, 1929. 



498 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Paoc. 4th Sek. 

samples from this company's well No. 19, in Section 2, T. 
21 S., R. 14 E. Oil bearing sands were cored at a very shal- 
low depth but the well was deepened with the expectation of 
locating a deeper, more productive zone. At a depth of 614 
feet and on down to the last sample sent in which came from 
a depth of 1135 feet, gray, fine grained clay shale was cored 
in which poorly preserved upper Cretaceous fossils were 
found. Those identified were, Inoceranms and Baculites. On 
breaking down and washing this shale, a well preserved fauna 
of small foraminifera was obtained which a subsequent exami- 
nation proved to be not only different from that found in the 
Moreno above, but entirely new to California paleontology. 
This difference in the fauna as well as the lithology, further 
strengthened our view that the shale was Chico and not Mo- 
reno. The fact that such forms have not heretofore been 
reported from the upper Cretaceous of California, together 
with the possibilities of geologic correlation which they offer, 
makes the discovery of additional interest. This material from 
1135 feet has been entered in the records of the California 
Academy of Sciences' records as Loc. No. 1421. 

The brown and lavender organic shales of the uppermost 
Cretaceous in the Coalinga district known as the Moreno 
shales are not in evidence here but become increasingly impor- 
tant toward the north until at the type locality, north of 
Coalinga in Moreno Gulch, on the east flank of the Panoche 
Hills, the exposure attains a maximum thickness of 2000 feet.^ 
Dr. G. D. Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences, 
made an extensive collection across this section at the type 
locality in September, 1925, on which he later published his 
paper, "Cretaceous Diatoms from California."" At this 
time he noted the presence of foraminifera, and in a short 
paper by J. A. Taft* & G. D. Hanna, published in the Bulletin 
of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in 1926, 
he has this to say, "The upper 200 feet of the exposure was 
found to be a dark brown clay shale with much organic mat- 
ter but very few fossils. This gave way gradually to a light, 
buff-colored shale about 200 feet thick, which in its most 

= Robert Anderson & Rot>ert W. Pack, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 603, 1915. 
'G. D. Hanna, Occ. Pprs. Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 13, 1927. 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA 499 

fossiliferous part contained great numbers of impressions of 
foraminifera, chiefly belonging to the genus Sipliogenerhia. 
The calcareous tests of the fossils have been completely dis- 
solved away.*" Through the kindness of Dr. Hanna a sample 
of this fossiliferous shale was obtained and good wax impres- 
sions of the prominent Siphogenerina were made. 

This Siphogenerina was first listed and figured as a Sagrina 
by F. M. Anderson, along with several genera now known to 
have come from the Eocene.^ In a later paper by G. D. 
Hanna on "The Age and Correlation of the Kreyenhagen 
Shale in California," reference is made to the genera listed by 
Anderson in which he says, "The large Nodosaria mentioned 
and the Cristellaria (Fig. 19, Plate 13, called Vagimilina) 
appears to be confined to that portion of the Eocene in Cali- 
fornia above the middle. The species which he identified and 
pictured as Sagrina came from the upper part of the Cre- 
taceous shales which, north of Coalinga, at some places under- 
lie the Eocene shale, with no apparent unconformity or change 
except in faunal content.*^" 

The foraminifera included in the present paper are of inter- 
est, as they represent Cretaceous species most of which were 
widely distributed in upper Cretaceous seas. The large 
majority of the species have been already described in papers 
by d'Orbigny, Reuss, Alth, Egger, Franke, and others, from 
upper Cretaceous formations of Europe. Many of these 
species are also present in the upper Cretaceous of Texas and 
other portions of the Gulf Coastal region. Some of them are 
known from the uppermost Cretaceous of Mexico and Trini- 
dad. A few of the forms are striking and new, but the num- 
ber is small compared to the total number of species repre- 
sented. This is also true of the American Cretaceous in gen- 
eral, and a large proportion of the species will be found to be 
identical with those described from central Europe. This is 
not always as apparent from a study of published figures as it 
is when one compares actual specimens from the two areas. 

*J. A. Taff & G. D. Hanna, Bull. American Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Vol. 10, No. 8, 
1926, pp. 812-814. 

» Frank M. Anderson, Calif. Acad, of Sci. Proc. 3rd Ser., 1905, Vol. 2, No. 2. 
• G. D. Hanna, Bull. American Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Vol. 9, No. 6, 1925, p. 992. 



5Q0 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

As this fauna probably represents the uppermost Cretaceous 
corresponding rather closely with the Navarro of Texas and 
the Velasco of Mexico, a comparison of those two faunas is of 
interest. In both cases, Glohigerina, Globorotalia and Giim- 
belina are apparent. It is known that these forms represent 
pelagic adaptation. It is therefore noteworthy that Glohi- 
gerina and GiimheUrm are absent in the California collection 
and that Globorotalia, although typical, is rare. It may there- 
fore be inferred that this California locality represents an area 
perhaps somewhat cut off from the main ocean of that time, 
and into which pelagic forms were not carried to any great 
extent. 



Family Textulariid^ 

Genus Spiroplectammina Cushman, 1927 

1. Spiroplectammina anceps (Reuss) 

Plate 36, figures 1, 2 

Textularia anceps Reuss, Die Verstein. bohm. Kreide, 1845, p. 39, pi. 8, 
fig. 79, pi. 13, fig. 78; Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, 
p. 234, pi. 13, figs. 2 a, b. — Beissel, Abhandl. kon. Preuss. geol. 
Landes., vol. 3, 1891, p. 68, pi. 13, figs. 14, 16. — Egger, Abhandl. 
kon. bay. Akad. Wiss. Munchen, CI. II, vol. 21, 1899, p. 25, pi. 24, 
figs. 35, 36. 

Test much compressed, rapidly increasing in width from 
the initial end, greatest width near the apertural end; early 
chambers especially in the microspheric form in a planispiral 
arrangement, later becoming biserial, chambers low and broad, 
thickest near the median portion of the test, thence thinning 
toward the periphery; sutures very slightly depressed, some- 
what oblique, nearly straight; wall arenaceous, smoothly 
finished; aperture elongate, low, at the base of the inner 
median margin of the last- formed chamber. Length 0.60 mm. ; 
breadth 0.35 mm. ; thickness 0.10 mm. 

This species is recorded from numerous localities in the 
upper Cretaceous of Germany and occurs in the equivalent 
formations of the Gulf Coastal Plain region of the United 
States. 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFBRA 50I 

Family Verneuilinid^ 

Genus Gaudryina d'Orbigny, 1839 

2. Gaudryina oxycona Reuss 

Plate 36, figures 3, 4 

Gaudryina oxycona Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, p. 229, 
pi. 12, figs. 3 a-c; vol. 46, 1862 (1863), p. 33.— Franke, Abhandl. 
geol. pal. Instit. Univ. Greifswald, vol. 6, 1925, p. 15, pi. 1, figs. 
20 a, b. 

Test elongate, conical, tapering, nearly circular in trans- 
verse section ; very early chambers triserial, later ones biserial ; 
sutures distinct, slightly depressed, nearly at right angles with 
the periphery; wall finely arenaceous, very smoothly finished; 
aperture elongate, low, at the inner median margin of the 
chamber in a decided depression. Length 0.55 mm. ; breadth 
0.30 mm. 

The California specimens agree well with European Cre- 
taceous material of this species. 

3. Gaudryina ruthenica Reuss 

Plate Z6, figures 5, 6 

Gaudryina ruthenica Reuss, in Haidinger's Nat. Abhandl., vol. 4, 1851, 
p. 25, pi. 4, fig. 4. — Franke, Abhandl. geol. pal. Instit. Univ. 
Greifswald, vol. 6, 1925, p. 16, pi. 1, figs. 25 a, b. 

Test elongate, tapering, greatest diameter toward the aper- 
tural end, earliest chambers triserial, later biserial, adult cham- 
bers high, becoming as high or higher than broad; sutures 
fairly well marked, sloping slightly backward from the center, 
slightly curved ; wall rather coarsely arenaceous, somewhat 
roughly finished ; aperture in the earlier stages at the base of 
the inner margin of the chamber, in the adult becoming termi- 
nal and rounded but without a neck or lip. Length 0.75 mm. ; 
breadth 0.35 mm. ; thickness 0.30 mm. 

This species is known from several localities in the upper 
Cretaceous of Germany. 

The peculiar change in shape and position of the aperture 
is characteristic. It resembles Heterostomella in the terminal 



502 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

aperture, but does not have the neck and lip characteristic of 
many of the species of that genus. 



Family Silicinid^ 

Genus Silicosigmoilina Cushman & Church, new genus 

Genoholotype, Silicosigmoilina calif ornica Cushman & Church, n. sp. 

Test in the early stages nearly planispiral, later becoming 
sigTnoid ; wall finely arenaceous with siliceous cement ; aper- 
ture at the end of the tubular chamber without apertural teeth. 

This genus strongly resembles Sigtnoilina in the calcareous 
imperforate group. Sigmoilina has calcareous cement even 
though the wall is, in some species, encrusted with arenaceous 
material, and is divided into definite chambers and the aperture 
typically has a simple, linear tooth. 

The strongest acid fails to make any impression on these 
Californian Cretaceous forms and they occur with such thin- 
v/alled calcareous forms as Buliinina in great abundance. 
Silicosigmoilina is most closely related to Rzehakina, another 
genus characteristic of the upper Cretaceous. 

4. Silicosigmoilina californica Cushman & Church, 

new species 

Plate Z6, figures 10, 11, 12 

Test compressed, nearly circular or oval in side view, some- 
what rhomboid in end view, periphery subacute, usually with 
a definitely marked portion in side view ; chambers in the earli- 
est stages planispiral, later sigmoid; sutures fairly well 
marked, not deeply depressed; wall finely arenaceous, firmly 
cemented with a siliceous cement, smoothly finished; aperture 
simple, oval, without a tooth ; white or light gray in color. 
Length 0.75 mm.; breadth 0.55-0.65 mm.; thickness 0.25- 
0.40 mm. 

Holotype: No. 4714; paratypes: Nos. 4713, 4715, Mus. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., from Loc. 1421 (C. A. S.), Cahfornia 
Northern Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Sec. 2, T. 21 S., 
R. 14 E., M. D. M., Fresno County, Cahfornia; depth, 1135 
feet; upper Cretaceous. 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA 5Q3 

This is probably the most abundant species in the collection, 
and occupies the same place in the fauna that Rzehakina does 
in the upper Cretaceous material of Trinidad. 

Family Miliolid^ 

Genus Quinqueloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 

5. Quinqueloculina sp. ? 

Plate 36,. figures 7, 8, 9 

There is a single specimen figured here which belongs to 
Qiiinquelociilina, but lack of further material makes it difficult 
to place it specifically. It is the only specimen of this family 
which is rare in most other upper Cretaceous faunas related to 
this California one. 

Family Lagenid^ 
Genus Lenticulina Lamarck, 1804 
6. Lenticulina rotulata Lamarck 

Plate 2)7, figures 1, 2 

Lenticulina rotulata Lamarck, Ann. Mus., vol. 5, 1804, p. 188; vol. 8, 1806, 
pi. 62, fig. 11. 

The synonymy of this species is very difficult to straighten 
out without a reference to original specimens representing the 
various authors' ideas. The type specimens in the Defrance 
Collection at Caen, France are intact and show that this is a 
very definite species of the upper Cretaceous. Identical speci- 
mens occur in the upper Cretaceous of other parts of Europe 
and in this country. Very many of the records for the species 
from Recent seas and from Tertiary deposits do not belong to 
the species however. 

7. Lenticulina williamsoni (Reuss) 

Plate Z6, figures 13, 14 

Cristellaria williamsoni Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 44, pt. 1, 1861 
(1862), p. 327, pi. 6, fig. 4.— Egger, Abhandl. kon. bay. Akad. 
Wiss. Miinchen, Q. II, vol. 21, 1899, p. 120, pi. 11, figs. 7, 8. 



504 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

There are a few specimens in the California collection that 
are very close to this species of Reuss as developed in the 
upper Cretaceous of various parts of Germany. 



8. Lenticulina sp.? 
Plate 2,7, figures 11, 12 

The figured specimen is left under the genus only as there 
are not enough specimens to give full specific characters. 



Genus Robulus Montfort, 1808 

9. Robulus trachyomphalus (Reuss) 

Plate 2>7, figures 6, 7 

Robulina irachyomphala Reuss, in Haidinger's Nat. Abhandl., vol. 4, 
pt. 1, 1851, p. 34, pi. 2, fig. 12. 

The figured form seems very closely related to Reuss's 
species from the Cretaceous of Europe. Bagg records the 
species from the Cretaceous of New Jersey, but no specimens 
are figured. 



10. Robulus lepidus (Reuss) 
Plate 2i6, figures 15, 16 

Robulina lepida Reuss, Verstein. bohm. Kreide, vol. 2, 1845-46, p. 109, 
pi. 24, fig. 46. 

Cristellaria lepida Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 52, pt. 1, 1865, 
p. 454; in Geinitz, Palaeontographica, vol. 20, pt. 2, 1874, p. 106, 
pi. 23, fig. 4. — Egger, Abhandl. kon. bay. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen, 
CI. II, vol. 21, pt. 1, 1899, p. 117, pi. 12, figs. 27, 28; Ber. nat 
Ver. Passau, 1907, p. 36, pi. 2, figs. 1, 2.— Franke, Abhandl. geol. 
pal. Instit. Univ. Greifswald, vol. 6, 1925, p. 75, pi. 6, figs. 14 
a, b. — CusHMAN, Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petr. Geol., vol. 10, 1926, 
p. 599, pi. 19, figs. 10 a, b. 

This species has been recorded from numerous localities in 
the Cretaceous of central Europe. It occurs also in the Cre- 
taceous, Velasco Shale, of Mexico. 



Vol. XVIII] CVSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA 595 

Genus Saracenaria Defrance, 1824 

11. Saracenaria triangularis (d'Orbigny) 

Plate 37, figures 13, 14 

Cristellaria triangularis d'Orbigny Mem. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 1, vol. 4, 
1840, p. 27, pi. 2, figs. 21, 22.— Reuss, Verstein. Bohm. Kreide, 
1845, p. 34, pi. 8, fig. 48; in Geinitz, Grundr, Verstein, 1845-46, 
p. 663, pi. 24, fig. 29.— d'Orbigny, Prod. Pal., vol. 2, 1850, p. 281, 
No. 1375.— Reuss, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 7, 1854, 
p. 68; Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 46, pt. 1, 1862 (1863), pp. 70, 
93. — Berthelin, Mem. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 3, vol. 1, 1880, 
p. 55. — Beissel, Abhandl. kon. Preuss. geol. Landes., n. sen, vol. 
3, 1891, p. 53, pi. 10, figs. 1-9. — Matouschek, Lotos., vol. 43, 1895, 
p. 146. — Egger, Abhandl. kon. bay. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen, CI. II, 
vol.- 21, 1899, p. 117, pi. 12, figs. 5, 6; Ber. nat. Ver. Passau, 
1907, p. Z6, pi. 2, figs. 19-21. — Heron-Aixen and Earland, Journ. 
Roy. Micr. Soc, 1910, p. 421.— Franke, Verb. Nat. Hist. Ver., 
vol. 59, 1912 (1913), p. 279.— Chapman, Bull. Geol. Surv. W. 
Australia, No. 72, 1917, p. 30, pi. 9, fig. 80. 

Test fairly large, the early portion completely coiled, later 
chambers somewhat uncoiled and the test becoming triangular 
in transverse section; chambers distinct, few in number; su- 
tures distinct but not depressed, curved; wall smooth except 
for the sides of the apertural face which are somewhat 
thickened ; aperture at the angle of the upper end, radiate. 
Length of figured specimen 0.90 mm.; breadth 0.55 mm.; 
thickness 0.45 mm. 

This species was described by d'Orbigny from the Cre- 
taceous of the Paris Basin and is recorded from the upper 
Cretaceous of various parts of Europe and Australia. Bagg 
records it without figures from the Cretaceous of New Jersey. 



Genus Marginulina d'Orbigny, 1826 

12. Marginulina humilis (Reuss) 

Plate 2)7, figures 3, 4, 5 

Cristellaria humilis Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 46, pt. 1, 1862 
(1863), p. 65, pi. 6, figs. 16, 17. — Cushman, Bull. Amer. Assoc. 
Petr. Geol., vol. 10, 1926, p. 601, pi. 19, fig. 8. 

Specimens very similar to those figured from the Velasco 
Shale of Mexico occur in this California Cretaceous material. 

October 4, 1929. 



505 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sbr. 



It was described by Reuss from the Cretaceous of Germany, 

and 

age. 



and has been recorded from England in formations of similar 



13. Marginulina modesta Reuss 

Plate 37, figures 8, 9, 10 

Marginulina modesta Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, p. 207, 
pi. 7, fig. 5.— Franke, Verh. Nat. Hist. Ver., vol. 59, 1912 (1913), 
p. 275. 

The specimen figured is a typical one of this species with its 
rounded transverse section, uncoiling form slightly compressed 
in the earlier stages. It is already known from the upper Cre- 
taceous of central Europe. 



14. Marginulina elongata d'Orbigny 

Plate 38, figures 1, 2, 3 

Marginulina elongata d'Orbigny, Mem. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 1, vol. 4, 
1840, p. 17, pi. 1, figs. 20-22.— Reuss, Verstein. Bohm. Kreide, 
vol. 1, 1845-46, p. 29, pi. 13, figs. 28-32; vol. 2, p. 106, pi. 24. 
fig. 30. — Matouschek, Lotos, vol. 43, 1895, p. 144. — Franke, 
Verh. Nat. Hist. Ver., vol. 59, 1912 (1913), p. 275; Abhandl. 
geol. pal. Instit. Univ. Greifswald, vol. 6, 1925, p. 54, pi. 4, fig. 23. 

Test elongate, the early chambers close coiled and somewhat 
compressed ; later chambers uncoiling and increasing in thick- 
ness so that the last-formed ones are nearly circular in trans- 
verse section, chambers increasing in length as added in the 
uncoiled portion; sutures distinct but only slightly depressed 
in the last, uncoiled portion; wall smooth; aperture in the 
adult terminal, radiate. Length of figured specimen, 
1.00 mm. ; breadth 0.30 mm. ; thickness 0.28 mm. 

This species is known from the Cretaceous of central 
Europe, being described originally by d'Orbigny from the 
Cretaceous chalks of the Paris Basin. 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA 59/ 

15, Marginulina bullata Reuss 

Plate 38, figures 4, S, 6 

Marginulina bullata Reuss, Die Verstein. bohm. Kreide, 1845-46, vol. 1, 
p. 29, pi. 13, figs. 34-38 ; in Geinitz, Grundr. Verstein, 1845-46, 
p. 656, pi. 24, fig. 16; Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, 
p. 205, pi. 6, figs. 4-6. — Matouschek, Lotos, vol. 43, 1895, p. 144. — 
Egger, Abhandl. kon. bay. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen, Q. II, vol. 21, 
1899, p. 96, pi. 9, figs. 12, 13 (not 9, 10).— Franke, Verh. Nat. 
Hist. Ver., vol. 59, 1912 (1913), p. 275; Abhandl. geol. pal. Instit. 
Univ. Greifswald, vol. 6, 1925, p. 55, pi. 4, fig. 25. — Cushman and 
Jarvis, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 4, 1928, p. 96, 
pi. 14, figs. 7, 8. 

Test composed of few chambers, the earher ones close 
coiled, the last two or three uncoiled and globular, all cham- 
bers strongly inflated; sutures distinct, slightly depressed; 
wall smooth throughout; aperture in the adult terminal, radi- 
ate. Length of figured specimen, 0.70 mm. ; breadth 
0.35 mm. ; thickness 0.32 mm. 

This species is known from the Cretaceous of Europe and 
of Trinidad. It also occurs in the upper Cretaceous of Texas. 



16. Marginulina jonesi Reuss 

Plate 38, figures 7, 8, 9 

Marginulina jonesi Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 46, pt. 1, 1862 
(1863), p. 61, pi. 5, figs. 19 a, b. — Berthelin, Mem. Soc. Geol. 
France, ser. 3, vol. 1, 1880, p. 34. — Chapman, Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, vol. 50, 1894, p. 709; Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc, 1894, p. 164, 
pi. 4, fig. 24. — Sherlock, Geol. Mag., dec 6, vol. 1, 1914, p. 259, 
pi. 18, fig. 15.— Neaverson, Geol. Mag., 1921, p. 462. 

Test elongate, early portion compressed and chambers close 
coiled, later becoming uncoiled ; periphery acute and keeled in 
the early portion; later chambers nearly circular in section; 
sutures more or less obscured but the ornamentation of the 
surface which consists of elongate costse continuing through- 
out the length of the test unbroken at the sutures, terminal 
face smooth; aperture in the adult terminal, radiate, with a 
slight neck. Length of figured specimen, 0.90 mm. ; breadth 
0.36 mm. ; thickness 0.27 mm. 



(*■ 



508 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

This species is known from the upper Cretaceous of various 
parts of Europe and is recorded by Chapman from the Gault. 



Genus Vaginulina d'Orbigny, 1826 

17. Vaginulina simondsi Carsey 

Plate 38, figure 10 

Vaginulina simondsi Carsey, Bull. 2612, Univ. Texas, 1926, p. 40, pi. 2, 
fig. 4. 

Test elongate, very much compressed, dorsal edge straight, 
ventral convex; chambers numerous, very elongate, curved, 
on ventral side extending far toward the base; sutures dis- 
tinct, raised, broken by short cost£e which are, in general, 
parallel to the dorsal edge which is itself thickened and bicari- 
nate ; aperture terminal, radiate. Length nearly 2 mm. 

This species occurs commonly in the upper part of the upper 
Cretaceous of Texas in the Navarro formation. The speci- 
men figured here is very similar to Texas ones in its general 
characters. 



Genus Frondicularia Defrance, 1824 

18. Frondicularia decheni Reuss 

Plate 38, figures 11, 12, 13 

Frondicularia decheni Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, 
p. 191, pi. 4, fig. 3; Palaeontographica, vol. 20, pt. 2, 1872-75 
(1874), p. 96.— Egger, Ber. Nat. Ver. Passau, 1907, p. 28, pi. 1, 
figs. 13, 14.— Franke, Verh. Nat. Hist. Ver., vol. 59, 1912 
(1913), p. 273.— Chapman, Bull. Geol. Surv. W. Australia, No. 
72, 1917, p. 24, pi. 6, fig. 53. 

Test very much compressed, the proloculum thicker than the 
remainder of the test; sides nearly parallel, but slightly 
increasing in width as chambers are added; periphery con- 
cave; sutures slightly depressed, distinct; wall ornamented by 
a few longitudinal costae, those of each chamber somewhat 
independent of each other; aperture terminal, radiate. 

This species is known from the upper Cretaceous of central 
Europe, and from Australia. It probably also occurs in the 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA 509 

upper Cretaceous of Mexico, and the Coastal Plain region of 
the United States. 



19. Frondicularia sp.? 
Plate 38, figure 14 

There are broken specimens, one of which is here figured, of 
a large Frondicularia not well enough preserved for a full 
description. It is figured here for future reference. 

Genus Dentalina d'Orbigny, 1826 

20. Dentalina sp.? 

Plate 38, figure IS 

This fragment of a spinose species is figured here for refer- 
ence. No complete specimens were obtained. 

21. Dentalina catenula (?) Reuss 

Plate 39, figure 1 

The figured fragment representing the terminal chambers 
of a large species is close to this species of Reuss known from 
the upper Cretaceous of Europe. 

22. Dentalina polyphragma Reuss 

Plate 39, figure 2 

Dentalina polyphragma Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, 
p. 189, pi. 3, fig. 1. — Beissel, Abhandl. kon. Preuss. geol. Landes, 
n. sen, vol. 3, 1891, p. 38, pi. 7, figs. 53-65.— Franke, Verh. Nat. 
Hist. Ver., vol. 59, 1912 (1913), p. 271. 

Nodosaria polyphragma Egger (?), Abhandl. kon. bay. Akad. Wiss. 
Munchen, CI. II, vol. 21, 1899, p. 74, pi. 8, fig. 26 ; pi. 24, fig. Z7. 

There are fragmentary specimens similar to that figured 
which have numerous cost^e, and the aperture toward one side 
which may be referred to this species of Reuss known from 
the upper Cretaceous of numerous localities of Europe. 



510 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Paoc. 4th See. 

23. Dentalina commutata Reuss 

Plate 39, figure 3 

Dentalina commutata Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, p. 183, 
pi. 2, fig. 4; vol. 44, pt. 1, 1861 (1862), p. 306; vol. 46, pt. 1, 
1862 (1863), p. 42. 

The specimen figured is close to Reuss's species which is 
known from the upper Cretaceous of Germany. The whole 
test is slightly curved, and the chambers increasing regularly 
in size as added ; wall smooth and the sutures depressed. 



Genus Nodosaria Lamarck, 1812 

24. Nodosaria nuda Reuss 

Plate 39, figures 4, 5, 6 

Nodosaria nuda Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 46, pt. 1, 1862 
(1863), p. 38, pi. 2, figs. 8, 9. — Egger, Abhandl. kon. bay. Akad. 
Wiss. Miinchen, Cl. II, vol. 21, 1899, p. 64, pi. 7, fig. 17; 1907, 
p. 23, pi. 5, fig. 26. — Franks, Abhandl. geol. pal. Instit. Univ. 
Greifswald, vol. 6, 1925, p. 40, pi. 3, fig. 32. 

Test small, slender, composed of a few, 5-8, chambers, the 
earlier ones slightly more involute than later ones; sutures 
distinct, depressed; wall smooth; aperture terminal, radiate. 
Length 0.60 mm. ; diameter 0.10 mm. 

Reuss and others have recorded this species from the upper 
Cretaceous of central Europe. 



25. Nodosaria ewaldi ( ?) Reuss 
Plate 39, figure 7 

There are a few elongate, cylindrical chambers of a Nodo- 
saria in this California material, but no complete specimens 
were found. 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA ^\\ 

Genus Glandulina d'Orbi^ny, 1826 

26. Glandulina cylindracea Reuss 

Plate 39, figures 8, 9 

Glandulina cylindracea Reuss, in Haidinger's Nat. Abhandl., vol. 4, pt. 1, 
1851, p. 23, pi. 1, fig. 5; Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, 
p. 190, pi. 4, fig. 1; vol. 44, pt. 1, 1861 (1862), p. 307; Palaeonto- 
graphica, vol. 20, pt. 2, 1872-75 (1874), p. 89.— Egger, Abhandl. 
kon. bay. Akad. Wiss. Munchen, CI. II, vol. 21, 1899, p. 84, pi. 5, 
figs. 19, 20. 

Nodosaria cylindracea Reuss, Verstein. bohm. Kreide, 1845, p. 25, pi. 13, 
figs. 1, 2. 

Nodosaria (Glandulina) cylindracea Cushman, Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petr. 
Geol., vol. 10, 1926, p. 594, pi. 18, fig. 1. 

Figures of two specimens are given, one with the initial end 
having a spine, the other bkmtly rounded. Such forms are 
common in the upper Cretaceous of many parts of Europe, 
and occur in the upper Cretaceous of America. 



/ 



27. Glandulina manifesta Reuss 

Plate 39, figure 10 

Glandulina manifesta Reuss, in Haidinger's, Nat. Abhandl., vol. 4, pt. 1, 
1851, p. 22, pi. 1, fig. 4. 

The form figured is a megalospheric one and as a result the 
initial end is broadly rounded whereas in the microspheric 
form the initial end is much more pointed. The amount of 
overlap of the chambers is very variable. This form is abun- 
dant in the upper Cretaceous of many parts of the world and 
many names have been applied to the same species. It may be 
noted that Nodosaria larva Carsey (Bull. 2612, Univ. Texas, 
1926, p. 31, pi. 2, fig. 2) from the Navarro formation of 
Texas is the same species, and varies in form in that forma- 
tion as it does elsewhere. 




512 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Genus Lagena Walker & Jacob, 1798 

28. Lagena (?) sp. (?) 

Plate 39, figure 11 

The specimen figured has some characters which make it 
seem that it may be a costate Glandulina, but the details are 
obscure, and full determination must await further and better 
material. 

29. Lagena sp. ( ?) 
Plate 39, figure 16 

This form is too rare to allow full designation of charac- 
ters, and it must be left under the genus without name for the 
present. 

Family Heterohelicid^ 

Genus Ventilabrella Cushman, 1928 

30. Ventilabrella ornatissima Cushman & Church, 

new species 

Plate 39, figures 12, 13, 14, 15 

Test compressed, all chambers in one plane, subglobular, the 
early ones biserial, later ones spreading out irregularly, sides 
in the adult nearly parallel, periphery rounded ; sutures dis- 
tinct, somewhat depressed; wall calcareous, perforate, the 
earlier ones ornamented by longitudinal costae, each some- 
what beaded ; aperture in the adult irregular, near the base of 
the chamber. 

Holotype: No. 4746; paratype: No. 4745, Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci. from Loc. 1421 (C. A. S.), California Northern 
Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Sec. 2, T. 21 S., R. 14 E., 
M. D. M., Fresno County, California; depth, 1135 feet; upper 
Cretaceous. 

This is one of the most striking species of the collection. It 
is in some respects nearer the European than the Coastal 
Plain Cretaceous species, but is distinct from them all. 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA 5^3 

Family Buliminid^ 

Genus Bulimina d'Orbigny, 1826 

31. Bulimina obtusa d'Orbigny 

Plate 39, figures 17, 18, 19 

Bulimina obtusa d'Orbigny, Mem. Soc. Geo!. France, ser. 1, vol. 4, 1840, 
p. 39, pi. 4, figs. 5, 6. 

Both microspheric and meg-alospheric forms of this species 
are figured. There are numerous Cretaceous records for this 
species but not usually accompanied by illustrations, so with- 
out comparing the original material, it is difficult to determine 
whether or not they all represent one species. 

This is apparently the same as the very abundant large 
species in the middle portion of the upper Cretaceous, Navarro 
formation of Texas. 



Genus Chrysalogonium Schubert, 1907 

32. Chrysalogonium cretaceum Cushman & Church, 

new species 

Plate 39, figures 23, 24 

Test uniserial, at least in the adult; chambers elongate, ellip- 
tical in side view, the sutures depressed; wall smooth, finely 
perforate; aperture consisting of numerous pores in a sieve 
plate at the tip of the last-formed chamber. Length of last- 
formed chamber 0.40 mm. ; diameter 0.18 mm. 

Holotype: No. 4762, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from Loc. 
1421 (C. A. S.), California Northern Petroleum Company 
Well No. 19, Sec. 2, T. 21 S., R. 14 E., M. D. M., Fresno 
County, California; depth, 1135 feet; upper Cretaceous. 

This is one of the most interesting species of the collection. 
The only other known species is Chrysalogonium polystoma 
(Schwager) described from the Pliocene of Kar Nicobar 
(Schwager, Novara Exped., Geol. Theil, vol. 2, 1866, p. 217, 
pi. 5, fig. 39.) and recorded from the late Tertiary of Kabu, 
Java (Koch, Bericht Schweiz. Pal. Ges., vol. 18, 1923, p. 
346). The Tertiary species has pyriform chambers and the 

October 4, 1929. 



514 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Ser. 

apertures are more in a ring. The Cretaceous one has 
elongate, elliptical chambers, and the apertures are scattered 
over the whole disc composing the apertural face. 



Family Ellipsoidinid^ 

Genus Nodosarella Rzehak, 1895 

33. Nodosarella coalingensis Cushman & Church, 

new species 

Plate 39, figures 20, 21, 22 

Test elongate, tapering, greatest breadth made by the last- 
formed chamber; early chambers biserial, later ones irregu- 
larly uniserial ; sutures distinct, depressed ; wall smooth 
throughout; aperture terminal, semicircular with a curved 
portion forming the inner margin and standing well above the 
general contour of the apertural end of the test which is some- 
what drawn out. Length of largest specimen 1.15 mm.; 
diameter 0.40 mm. 

Holotypc: No. 4751; paratypc: No. 4750, Mus. Calif. 
Acad. Sci. from Loc. 1421 (C. A. S.), California Northern 
Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Sec. 2, T. 21 S., R. 14 E., 
M. D. M., Fresno County, California; depth, 1135 feet; upper 
Cretaceous. 

This is a much more tapering species than others of the 
genus. The early biserial portion includes several chambers 
and when the irregular uniserial chambers are added, they at 
once start to greatly enlarge in size over the earlier ones. 

Genus Ellipsobulimina A. Silvestri, 1903 

34. Ellipsobulimina (?) sp. (?) 

Plate 40, figures 1, 2, 3 

The figured specimens may belong to this genus, but were 
not in sufficient quantity to section. There is a possibility that 
they may represent the largest megalospheric form of the 
preceding. It is sufficient at present to note their occurrence 
until more material is available. 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA 51 5 

Family Rotaliid^ 

Genus Discorbis Lamarck, 1804 

35. Discorbis cretacea (Franke) (?) 

Plate 40, figures 4, 5, 6 

Discorbina cretacea Franke, Abhandl. geol. pal. Instit. Univ. Greifswald, 
vol. 6, 1925, p. 91, pi. 8, figs. 12 a-c. 

The figured specimen may belong to this upper Cretaceous 
species described by Franke. The original figures do not 
show the complete details and our figured specimen is some- 
what broken so that the identification cannot be positively 
made. The figured specimen is but 0.25 mm. in diameter. 



Genus Eponides Montfort, 1808 

36. Eponides umbonella (Reuss) 

Plate 40, figures 7, 8, 9 

Rotalia umbonella Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 40, 1860, p. 221, 
pi. 11, figs. 5 a-c. 

Test trochoid, biconvex, seven or eight chambers in the last- 
formed whorl, periphery acute; chambers distinct, slightly 
inflated on the ventral side ; sutures distinct, on the dorsal side 
flush with the surface, very slightly limbate, curved, strongly 
oblique to the periphery, on the ventral side nearly radial, 
slightly curved ; wall smooth ; aperture ventral, under the 
border of the chamber margin. Diameter 0.45 mm. ; height 
0.22 mm. 

Reuss described this species from the upper Cretaceous of 
Westphalia. 

Genus Gyroidina d'Orbigny, 1826 

37. Gyroidina depressa (Alth) 

Plate 41, figures 4, 5, 6 

Rotalina depressa Alth, in Haidinger's Nat. Abhandl., vol. 3, 1850, p. 266, 
pi. 13, fig. 21. 



515 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Test much compressed, trochoid, biconvex, the dorsal side 
often nearly flat, periphery rounded, umbilicus often open; 
chambers numerous, ten to twelve in the last whorl, distinct; 
sutures distinct, on the dorsal side nearly flush, slightly lim- 
bate, curved, ventrally slightly curved, nearly radial, slightly 
depressed ; wall smooth ; aperture on the ventral side between 
the periphery and the umbilicus, low. Diameter of figured 
specimen 0.25 mm. ; height 0.12 mm. 

Alth described and figured this species from the upper Cre- 
taceous of Lemberg. The form has since had other names. 
This same species is common in the upper Cretaceous of the 
Coastal Plain region of the United States. It is the Rotalia 
cretacea of Carsey (Bull. 2612, Univ. Texas, 1926, p. 48, pi. 
5, figs. 1 a, h). 



38. Gyroidina quadrata Cushman & Church, new species 

Plate 41, figures 7, 8, 9 

Test small, trochoid, six chambers making up the last- 
formed whorl, dorsal side concave, with a deep sulcus at the 
spiral suture in the last-formed whorl, ventral side strongly 
convex, in peripheral view test nearly quadrate, periphery very 
broad and only slightly curved; chambers distinct, slightly 
inflated; sutures distinct, depressed, dorsally slightly limbate, 
slightly curved, ventrally radiate ; wall smooth ; aperture ven- 
tral, between the umbilicus and the periphery. Diameter of 
holotype 0.20 mm.; height 0.13 mm. 

Holotype: No. 4754, Mus. Calif. Acad. Sci. from Loc. 
1421 (C. A. S.), California Northern Petroleum Company 
Well No. 19, Sec. 2, T. 21 S., R. 14 E., M. D. M., Fresno 
County, California; depth, 1135 feet; upper Cretaceous. 

This is a very distinctive small species with its deeply exca- 
vated spiral suture, concave dorsal side and quadrate shape in 
side view. 



Vol. XVIII] CUSHMAN & CHURCH— CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA 5^7 

Genus Epistomina Terquem, 1883 

39. Epistomina caracolla (Roemer) 

Plate 41, figures 10(?), 11, 12, 13 

Gyroidina caracolla Roemer, Verstein. Norddeutsch. Kreide, 1840-41, p. 97, 

pi. IS, fig. 22. 
Pulvinulina caracolla Chapman, Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc, 1898, p. 7, pi. 1, 

figs. 9 a-c. 
Epistomina caracolla Franke, Abhandl. geol. pal. Instit. Univ. Greifs- 

wald, vol. 6, 1925, p. 88, pi. 8, figs. 10 a-c. 

The large specimen figured on Plate 40, figures 11, 12, 13 
has many of the characters of Roemer's species although later 
figures give various interpretations of the specific characters. 
The sutures are limbate and well marked and there is a 
thickened keel and large umbo in the ventral umbilical region. 
The small irregular specimen, figure 10, is figured largely for 
comparison. It is a slightly eroded specimen, and its charac- 
ters are not well shown. 



Family Chilostomellid^ 

Genus Allomorphina Reuss, 1850 

40. Allomorphina cretacea Reuss 

Plate 41, figures 12, 13 

Allomorphina cretacea Reuss, in Haidinger's Nat. Abhandl., vol. 4, 1851, 
p. 43, pi. 4, fig. 7; Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 44, pt. 1, 1861 
(1862), p. 320. — Franke, Abhandl. geol. pal. Instit. Univ. Greifs- 
wald, vol. 6, 1925, p. 28, pi. 2, fig. 26. 

The figured form is an irregular one and tends somewhat 
toward A. obliqua Reuss. Both species were described by 
Reuss from the upper Cretaceous of Lemberg. 






A- 



Genus Pullenia Parker & Jones, 1862 

41. Pullenia quinqueloba (Reuss) 

Plate 41, figures 10, 11 

Nonionina quinqueloba Reuss, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges., vol. 3, 1851, 
p. 71, pi. 5, fig. 31. 



518 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Although described by Reuss from the Middle Oligocene 
of Germany, this name has been applied to most forms of 
Pullenia that have five chambers in the last-formed coil. Its 
apparent range is from Cretaceous to Recent at least, and an 
examination of large series from different formations should 
be studied to determine the relationships of all these forms. 
The figured specimen is somewhat collapsed. 



Family Globorotaliid;e 

Genus Globotruncana Cushman, 1927 

42. Globotruncana area (Cushman) 

Plate 41, figures 1, 2, 3 

Pulvinulina area Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 2, 
1926, p. 23, pi. 3, figs. 1 a-c. 

Globotruncana area Cushman, 1. c, vol. 3, 1927, pi. 19, fig. 11; Journ. 
Pal., vol. 1, 1927, p. 169, pi. 28, fig. 15. 

This abundant and characteristic species of the American 
upper Cretaceous occurs in the California material. The 
edges of the chamber are not as ornamented as usual. 

Family Anomalinid^ 
Genus Cibicides Montfort, 1808 
43. Cibicides convexa (Reuss) 

Plate 41, figures 14, 15, 16 

Truncatulina eonvexa Reuss, in Haidinger's Nat. Abhandl., vol. 4, 1851, 
p. 36, pi. 3, fig. 4. 

The figured specimen is very typical of this species figured 
and described by Reuss from the upper Cretaceous of Lem- 
berg. The dorsal side is concave and the ventral strongly 
convex. The wall is coarsely perforate and the periphery very 
broadly rounded. 



520 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

Plate 36 

Fig. 1. Spiroplectammina anceps (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4710, C. A. S., 
X 60; front view; p. 500. 

Fig. 2. Spiroplectammina anceps (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4710, C. A. S., 
X 60; apertural view; p. 500. 

Fig. 3. Gaudryina oxycona "Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4711, C. A. S., X 60; 
front view; p. 501. 

Fig. 4. Gaudryina oxycona Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4711, C. A. S., X 60; 
apertural view; p. 501. 

Fig. 5. Gaudryina ruthenica Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4712, C. A. S., X 60; 
front view; p. 501. 

Fig. 6. Gaudryina ruthenica Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4712, C. A. S., X 60; 
apertural view; p. 501. 

Fig. 7. Quinqueloculina sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4716, C. A. S., X 60; side 
view; p. 503. 

Fig. 8. Quinqueloculina sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4716, C. A. S., X 60; side 
view; p. 503. 

Fig. 9. Quinqueloculina sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4716, C. A. S., X 60; end 
view; p. 503. 

Fig. 10. Silicosigmoilina californica Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotype, 
No. 4714, C. A. S., X 60; side view; p. 502. 

Fig. 11. Silicosigmoilina californica Cushman & Church, n. sp. Paratype, 
No. 4713, C. A. S., X 60; side view; p. 502. 

Fig. 12. Silicosigmoilina californica Cushman & Church, n. sp. Paratype, 
No. 4715, C. A. S., X 60; transverse section of young specimen; 
p. 502. 

Fig. 13. Lenticulina williamsoni (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4719, C. A. S., 
X 60; side view; p. 503. 

Fig. 14. Lenticulina williamsoni (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4719, C. A. S., 
X 60; apertural view; p. 503. 

Fig. 15. Robulus lepidus (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4718, C. A. S., X 60; side 
view; p. 504. 

Fig. 16. Robulus lepidus (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4718, C. A. S., X 60; 
apertural view; p. 504. 

All of the specimens illustrated on this plate are from Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Loc. No. 1421 ; California Northern Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Section 2, 
T. 21 S., R. 14 E., near Coalinga, Fresno County, California; depth 1135 feet, 
upper Cretaceous. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 16 [CUSHMAN & CHURCH ] Plate 36 




October 4, 1929. 



^9? CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 37 

Fig. 1. Lenticulina rottdata Lamarck. Plesiotype, No. 4717, C. A. S., X 60; 
side view; p. 503. 

Fig. 2. Lenticulina rottdata Lamarck. Plesiotype, No. 4-717, C. A. S., X 60; 
apertural view; p. 503. 

Figt 3. Marginulina huniilis (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4725, C. A. vS., X 6C; 
side view; p. 505. 

Fig. 4. Marginulina humi! is (Keuss). Plesiotype, No. 4725, C. A. vS., X 60; 
front view; p. 505. 

Fig. 5. Marginulina humilis (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4725, C. A. vS., X 60; 
apertural view; p. 505. 

Fig. 6. Rohulus trachyomphalus (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4720, C. A. S., 
X 30; side view; p. 504. 

Fig. 7. Robulus trachyomphalus (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4720, C. A. S., 
X 30; apertural view; p. 504. 

Fig. 8. Marginulina modesta Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4723, C. A. S., X 60; 
side view; p. 506. 

Fig. 9. Marginulina modesta Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4725, C. A. S., X 60; 
front view; p. 506. 

Fig. 10. Marginulina modesta Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4723, C. A. S., X 60; 
apertural view; p. 506. 

Fig. 11. Lenticulina sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4721, C. A. S., X 60; side view; 
p. 504. 

Fig. 12. Lenticulina sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4721, C. A. S., X 60; apertural 
view; p. 504. 

P'ig. 13. Saracenaria triangularis (d'Orhigny). Plesiotype, No. 4738, C. A. S., 
X 60; side view; p. 505. 

Fig. 14. Saracenaria triangularis {d'Orhigny). Plesiotype, No. 4738, C. A. S., 
X 60; apertural view; p. 505. 

All of the specimens illustrated on this plate are from Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Loc. No. 1421; California Northern Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Sec. 2, 
T. 21 S., R. 14 E., near Coalinga, Fresno County, California, depth 1135 feet; 
upper Cretaceous. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 16 [CUSHMAN & CHURCH] Plate 37 




5^4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Skr. 



Plate 38 

Fig. 1. MarginuUmi elongata d'Orbigny. Plesiotype, No. 4726, C. A. S., 
X 60; side view; p. 506. 

Fig. 2. Marginulina elongata d'Orbigny. Plesiotype, No. 4726, C. A. S., 
X 60; front view; p. 506. 

Fig. 3. Marginulina elongata d'Orbigny. Plesiotype, No. 4726, C. A. S., 
X 60; apertural view; p. 506. 

Fig. 4. Marginulina bullata Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4724, C. A. S., X 60; 
side view; p. 507. 

Fig. 5. Marginulina bullata Reuss. Plesiotype No. 4724, C. A. S., X 60; 
front view; p. 507. 

Fig. 6. Marginulina bullata Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4724, C. A. S., X 60; 
apertural view; p. 507. 

Fig. 7. Margi)iulina jonesi Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4722, C. A. vS., X 60; 
side view; p. 507. 

Fig. 8. Marginulina jonesi Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4722, C. A. S., X 60; 
front view; p. 507. 

Fig. 9. Marginulina jonesi Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4722, C. A. S., X 60; 
apertural view; p. 507. 

Fig. 10. Vaginulina siniondsi Carsey. Plesiotype, No. 4742, C. A. S., X 45; 
p. 508. 

Fig. 11. Frondicularia decheni Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4740, C. A. S., X 45; 
front view; p. 508. 

Fig. 12. Frondicularia decheni Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4740, C. A. S., X 45; 
apertural view; p. 508. 

Fig. 13. Frondicularia decheni Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4740, C. A. S., X 45; 
p. 508. 

Fig. 14. Frondicularia sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4739, C. A. S., X 30; p. 509. 

Fig. 15. Dentalina sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4736, C. A. S., X 60; p. 509. 

All of the specimens illustrated on this plate are from Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Loc. 1421; California Northern Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Section 2, 
T. 21 wS., R. 14 E., near Coalinga, Fresno County, Cahfornia; depth, 1135 feet; 
upper Cretaceous. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIIl, No. 16 [ CUSHMAN & CHURCH ] Plate 38 




526 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 39 

Fig. 1. Dentalina catenida Rcuss. Plesiotype, No. 4729, C. A. S., X 60 
p. 509. 

Fig. 2. Dentalina polyphragma Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4731, C. A. S., X 60 
p. 509. 

Fig. 3. Dentalina commutata Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4734, C. A. S., X 60 
p. 510. 

Fig. 4. Nodosaria nnda Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4733, C. A. S., X 60; p. 510. 

Fig. 5. Nodosaria nnda Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4727, C. A. S., X 60; p. 510. 

Fig. 6. Nodosaria nuda Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4728, C. A. S., X 60; p. 510. 

Fig. 7. Nodosaria eivaldi (?) Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4729, C. A. S., X 60; 
p. 510. 

Fig. 8. Glandulina cylindracea Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4735, C. A. S., X 60; 
p. 511. 

Fig. 9. Glandulina cylindracea Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4732, C. A. S., X 60; 

p. 511. 
Fig. 10. Glandulina manifesta Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4737, C. A. S., X 60; 

p. 511. 

Fig. 11. Lagena (?) sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4743, C. A. S., X 60; p. 512. 

Fig. 12. Ventilabrella ornatissima Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotype, No. 
4746, C. A. S., X 60; front view; p. 512. 

Fig. 13. Ventilabrella ornatissima Cushman & Church, n. sp., Holotype, 
No. 4746, C. A. S., X 60; side view; p. 512. 

Fig. 14. Ventilabrella ornatissima Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotvpe, No. 
4746, C. A. S., X 60; end view; p. 512. 

Fig. 15. Ventilabrella ornatissima Cushman & Church, n. sp. Paratype, 

No. 4745, C. A. S., X 60; front view; p. 512. 
Fig. 16. Lagena sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4744, C. A. S., X 60; p. 512. 

Fig. 17. Bulimina obtusa d'Orbigny. Plesiotype, No. 4748, C. A. S., X 60 
megalospheric form; p. 513. 

Fig. 18. Bulimina obtusa d'Orbigny. Plesiotype, No. 4747, C. A. S., X 60 
microspheric form; p. 513. 

Fig. 19. Bulimina obtusa d'Orbigny. Plesiotype, No. 4747, C. A. S., X 60 
apertural view; p. 513. 

Fig. 20. Nodosarella coalingensis Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotype, 
No. 4751, C. A. S., X 45; front view; p. 514. 

Fig. 21. Nodosarella coalingensis Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotype, 
No. 4751, C. A. S., X 45; apertural view; p. 514. 

Fig. 22. Nodosarella coalingensis Cushman & Church, n. sp. Paratype, 
No. 4750, C. A. S., X 45; side view; p. 514. 

Fig. 23. Chrysalogonium cretaceum Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotype, 
No. 4762, C. A. S., X 60; front view; p. 513. 

Fig. 24. Chrysalogonium cretaceum Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotvpe, 
No. 4762, C. A. S., X 60; apertural view; p. 513. 

All of the specimens illustrated on this plate are from Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Loc. No. 1421; California Northern Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Sec. 2, 
T. 21 S., R. 14 E., near Coalinga, Fresno County, California; depth 1135 feet; 
upper Cretaceous. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 16 [CUSHMAN & CHURCH ] Plate 39 




528 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 40 

Fig. 1. Ellipsobiilimina (?) sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4749-a, C. A. S., X 60; 
front view; p. 514. 

Fig. 2. Ellipsobiilimina (?) sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4749-a, C. A. S.. X 60: 
apertural view; p. 514. 

Fig. 3. Ellipsobulimina (?) sp. (?). Plesiotype, No. 4749, C. A. S., X 60; 
front view; p. 514. 

Fig. 4. Discorbis cretacea (Franke) (?). Plesiotype, No. 4752, C. A. S., X 60; 
dorsal view; p. 515. 

Fig. 5. Discorbis cretacea (Franke) (?). Plesiotype, No. 4752, C. A. S., X 60; 
ventral view; p. 515. 

Fig. 6. Discorbis cretacea {¥ra.nke){'^). Plesiotype, No. 4752, C. A. S., X 60; 
peripheral view; p. 515. 

Fig. 7. Eponides umbonella (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4757, C. A. S., X 60; 
dorsal view; p. 515. 

Fig. 8. Eponides umbonella (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4757, C. A. S., X 60; 
ventral view; p. 515. 

Fig. 9. Eponides umbonella (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4757. C. A. S., X 60; 
peripheral view; p. 515. 

Fig. 10. Epistomina caracolla (?) (Roemer). Plesiotype, No. 4756, C. A. S., 

X 45; (?);p. 517. 

Fig. 11. Epistomina caracolla (Roemer). Plesiotype, No. 4755, C. A. S., X 45 ; 
dorsal view; p. 517. 

Fig. 12. Epistomina caracolla (Koemer). Plesiotype, No. 4755, C. A. S., X 45; 
ventral view-; p. 517. 

Fig. 13. Epistomina caracolla (Roemer). Plesiotype, No. 4755, C. A. S., X 45; 
peripheral view; p. 517. 

All of the specimens illustrated on this plate are from Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Loc. No. 1421; California Northern Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Sec. 2, 
T. 21 vS., R. 14 E., near Coalinga, Fresno County, California; depth 1135 feet; 
upper Cretaceous. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 16 [CUSHMAN & CHURCH ] Plate 40 




\ 












'^^ 




r.'> 




10 



12 




530 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Plate 41 

Fig. 1. Globotnincana area (Cushman). Plesiotype, No. 4760, C. A. S., X 60; 
dorsal view; p. 518. 

Fig. 2. Globolruncana area (Cnshman). Plesiotype, No. 4760, C. A. S., X 60; 
ventral view; p. 518. 

Fig. 3. Glohotnincana area (Cushman). Plesiotype, No. 4760, C. A. S., X 60; 
peripheral view; p. 518. 

Fig. 4. Gyroidina depressa (Alth). Plesiotype, No. 4753, C. A. S.. X 60; 
dorsal view; p. 515. 

Fig. 5. Gyroidina depressa (Alth). Plesiotype, No. 4753, C. A. S., X 60; 
ventral view; p. 515. 

Fig. 6. Gyroidina depressa (Alth). Plesiotype, No. 4753, C. A. S., X 60; 
peripheral view; p. 515. 

Fig. 7. Gyroidina quadrata Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotype No. 4754, 
C. A. S., X 60; dorsal view; p. 516. 

Fig. 8. Gyroidina quadrata Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotype, No. 4754, 
C. A. S., X 60; ventral view; p. 516. 

Fig. 9. Gyroidina quadrata Cushman & Church, n. sp. Holotype, No. 4754, 
C. A. S., X 60; peripheral view; p. 516. 

Fig. 10. PuUenia quinqueloha (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4759, C. A. S., X 60; 
side view; p. 517. 

Fig. 11. PuUenia quinqueloha (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4759, C. A. S., X 60; 
peripheral view; p. 517. 

Fig. 12. Allomorphina cretacea Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4758, C. A. S., X 60; 
side view; p. 517. 

Fig. 13. Allomorphina cretacea Reuss. Plesiotype, No. 4758, C. A. vS., X 60; 
opposite side; p. 517. 

Fig. 14. Cibicides convexa (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4761, C. A. S., X 60; 
dorsal view; p. 518. 

Fig. 15. Cibicides convexa (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4761, C. A. S., X 60; 
ventral view; p. 518. 

Fig. 16. Cibicides convexa (Reuss). Plesiotype, No. 4761, C. A. S., X 60; 
peripheral view; p. 518. 

All of the specimens illustrated on this plate are from Calif. Acad. Sci. 
Loc. No. 1421; California Northern Petroleum Company Well No. 19, Sec. 2, 
T. 21 S., R. 14 E., near Coalinga, Fresno County, California; depth, 1135 feet; 
upper Cretaceous. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. XVIII, No. 16 [CUSHMAN & CHURCH ] Plate 41 




PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 17, pp. 531-541 April 8, 1930 



XVII 

REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE ACADEMY 

FOR THE YEAR 1929 

BY 

C. E. GRUNSKY 
President of the Academy 

In last year's annual report attention was called to the needs 
of the Academy for the proper functioning of the different 
departments. An appeal was made to public-spirited citizens 
in California to consider carefully and sympathetically the 
matter of helping the Academy in one or more of its activities. 
It is regretted that this appeal has not received the attention 
that it should. It is, therefore, necessary again to call atten- 
tion to the opportunity which the Academy would afford 
any one who is able, to render financial assistance in a manner 
which would prove of lasting benefit to the community and 
the state. The opportunity for helping to advance popular 
education and science is one which should appeal strongly to 
many of our public-spirited citizens. 

The membership of the Academy is made up of persons 
interested in science. It should have a membership of 5,000 to 
10,000 instead of the 1,100 at which membership has stood for 

April 8, 1930 



532 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

some years. Dues are not onerous — only $5.00 per annum, 
and no admission fee. 

Special effort should be made during the ensuing year to 
increase the membership roll which has not changed materially 
during the year 1929. The membership is now made up of: 

Patrons 17 

Honorary Members IS 

Life Members 85 

Fellows 63 

Members 911 

Junior Members 5 

1096 

5 of the Life IVIembers are also Fellows 5 

2 of the Patrons are also Life Members 2 

1 Fellow is also an Honorary Member 1 

2 Fellows are also Patrons 2 

Less 10 

1086 



On January 1, 1929, the number of members stood at 1096 

New members added during the year 53 

Members lost by death 23 

Members resigned 27 

Members dropped for non-payment of dues 13 

63 

Net loss during the year 10 

Leaving the membership on January 1, 1930, at 1086 



The Academy carries on its list of benefactors the following 
names : 

Deceased 
Mr. James Lick Mr. Ignatz Steinhart 

The Academy carries on its list of patrons the following 
names : 



Vol. XVIII] 



GRUNSKY— PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 1929 



533 



Living 



Mr. George C. Beckley 
Dr. Frank E. Blaisdell 
Mr. William B. Bourn 
Hon. William H. Crocker 
Mr. Peter F. Dunne 
Dr. Barton Warren Evermann 
Mr. Herbert Fleishhacker 
Hon. Joseph D. Grant 
Mr. Edward Hohfeld 



Mrs. Albert Koebele 
Mr. A. Kingsley Macomber 
Mr. John W. Mailliard 
Mr. Joseph Mailliard 
Mr. M. Hall McAllister 
Mr. William C. Van Antwerp 
Mr. Edward P. Van Duzee 
Dr. E. C. Van Dyke 



Mr. William Alvord 
Mr. Charles Crocker 
Mr. W. M. Giffard 
Mr. John W. Hendrie 
Mr. William F. Herrin 
Mr. Henry M. Holbrook 



Deceased 

Mrs. Charlotte Hosmer 

Mr. Ogden Mills 

Mr. Alexander F. Morrison 

Mr. Amariah Pierce 

Dr. John Van Denburgh 



Academy members who were called by death in 1929 are as 
follows : 



Mr. Harry Aldous Member March IS 

Mr. R. Curtis Baird Member November 22 

Mrs. Mary D. Barker Member January 20 

Miss Katherine D. Burke. . . . Member January 10 

Mr. W. M. Fitzhugh Life Member May 18 

Mr. Walter M. Giffard Patron and Fellow June 30, 

Mr. Harry D. Hawks Member July 15 

Judge Frederick W. Henshaw. Member June 8 

Mr. Edgar L. Hoage Member April 19 

Mrs. William E. Keith Life Member April 28 

Dr. John Sterling Kingsley. . . Fellow August 29 

Mr. George R. Kleeberger. . .Life Member Deceinber 11 

Dr. E. Ray Lankester Honorary Member.. . .August 15 

Mr. Frank A. Leach Member June 19 

Dr. F. A. Lucas Honorary Member. . February 10 

Mr. Ogden Mills Patron January 29 

Mrs. Louis F. Monteagle. . . . Member June 26 

Judge W. W. Morrow Member July 24 

Mr. George A. Newhall Life Member December 22 

Professor Robert Ridgway. . .Honorary Member. . . .March 25 

Mr. William T. Sesnon Member June 30 

Mr. James A. White Member July 15 

Mr. William K. Winterhalter . Mem_ber Januar\' 28 



1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 
1929 



534 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



In the year 1929 eleven free lectures were delivered at the 
stated meetings of the Academy, as follows : 

January 2. "Reasons why an Elk Refuge should be established in the 

San Joaquin Valley." By Dr. Barton Warren Ever- 
mann, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 

March 6. "The Work of the Food, Drug, and Insecticide Administra- 

tion." By Mr. Perry Bruce Clark, Assistant Chemist, 
United States Food, Drug and Insecticide Administra- 
tion, San Francisco. 



April 3. 



"The vStory of the California State Geological Survey under 
Whitney and Brewer." By Mr. Francis P. Farquhar, 
San Francisco. 



May 1. 



"The Big Trees of the High Sierra." Illustrated. By Mr. 
Harold Stein, Field Executive, Boy Scouts of America, 
San Francisco. 



June 5. 



July 3. 



August 7. 



September 4. 



"The Cahfornia Valley Quail." Illustrated. By Mr. Don- 
ald D. McLean, Field Naturalist, California Fish and 
Game Commission, San Francisco. 

"Flora of the Apache Trail and adjacent country." By Miss 
Alice Eastwood, Curator, Department of Botany, Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 

"The Pistache Tree, its history, culture, and economic im- 
portance." Illustrated. By Mr. G. P. Rixford, Physi- 
ologist, Bureau of Plant Industry, United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, San Francisco. 

"Reminiscences of old Cahfornia." By Mr. Otto von Gel- 
dem. Second Vice-President, California Academy of 
Sciences, San Francisco. 



October 2, "Some Peculiarities of the California Flora." By Miss Alice 

Eastwood, Curator of Botany, California Academy of 
Sciences, San Francisco. 

November 6. "In the By-paths of Chamisso in Alaska." By Dr. George 

Haley, Professor of Biology, St. Ignatius College, San 
Francisco. 



December 4. 



"Experiences with Hawks in Cahfornia." Illustrated. By 
Mr. Donald D. McLean, Field Naturalist, Cahfornia 
Fish and Game Commission, San Francisco. 



Vol. XVIII] 



GRUNSKY— PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 1929 



535 



The Sunday lectures at the Museum of the Academy in 
Golden Gate Park retain their popularity, and the kindness 
and good-will of those who contribute of their knowledge and 
experience on these occasions is sincerely appreciated. The 
following 33 Sunday lectures were delivered at the Museum 
of the Academy in Golden Gate Park during the year 1929: 



January 6. 
January 13. 
January 20. 
January 27. 

February 3. 
February 10. 
February 17. 

February 24. 

March 3. 

March 10. 
March 17. 

March 24. 
March 31. 



"Western Reptiles and Amphibians." Illustrated. By 
Dr. C. L. Camp, University of California, Berkeley. 

"A Zoological Student in Germany." By Dr. J. S. Kingsley, 
Berkeley. 

"Fossil Hunting in New Mexico." Illustrated. By. Dr. C. L. 
Camp, University of California, Berkeley. 

"Educating the Summer Vacationists." Illustrated. By 
Dr. Harold C. Bryant, State Fish and Game Com- 
mission. 

"The Stars." Illustrated. By Dr. J. H. Moore, Astronomer, 
Lick Observatory, Mount Hamilton, California. 

"The Nebulae." Illustrated. By Dr. J. H. Moore, Astron- 
omer, Lick Observatory, Mount Hamilton, California. 

"Systems of the Stars." Illustrated. By Dr. R. G. Aitken, 
Astronomer and Associate Director, Lick Observatory, 
Mount Hamilton, California. 

"Stars and Atoms." Illustrated. By Dr. S. F. Meyer, Pro- 
fessor of Astro-Physics, University of California, 
Berkeley, California. / 

"Minor Planets and Comets." Illustrated. By Dr. N. T. 
Bobrovnikoff, Martin Kellogg Fellow, Lick Observa- 
tory, Mount Hamilton, California. 

"The Distance of the Sun." Illustrated. By Dr. R. H. 
Tucker, Palo Alto, California. 

"Variable Stars." Illustrated. By Dr. S. D. Townley, 
Professor of Mathematics, Stanford University, Cali- 
fornia. 

"Twins and Monsters, Their Etiology." Illustrated. By 
Dr. Charles E. von Geldem, Sacramento, California. 

"The Deer Problem in California." Illustrated. By Mr. J. 
S. Dixon, Economic Mammalogist, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley. 



536 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



April 7. "The Elk Problem in California." Illustrated. By Mr. J. S. 

Dixon, Economic Mammalogist, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley. 

April 14. "Personal Observations on a Recent Trip in Europe." By 

Mr. C. B. Lastreto, San Francisco. 

April 21. "Forestry in Switzerland, Sweden and California." Illus- 

trated. By Prof. Walter Mulford, Professor of Forestry 
University of California, Berkeley. 

April 28. "California's Fishery Resources." Illustrated. By Dr. H. 

C. Bryant, California Fish and Game Commission, San 
Francisco. 

May 5. "Literary Trails and Tracks." Illustrated. By Mr. Win- 

field Scott, Forest and Park Club of California, San 
Francisco. 

May 12. "Choosing a State Bird for California." Illustrated. By 

Mr. C. A. Harwell, Chairman for Northern California, 
State Bird Commission. 

May 19. "How the Yosemite Region was formed." Illustrated. By 

Mr. Harold Stein, Field Executive, Boy Scouts of 
America, San Francisco. 

May 26. "History of the Yosemite Region." Illustrated. By Mr. 

Harold Stein, Field Executive, Boy Scouts of America, 
San Francisco. 

June 2. "Plant and Animal Life of the Yosemite." Illustrated. By 

Mr. Harold Stein, Field Executive, Boy Scouts of 
America, San Francisco. 

October 6. "Forestr>' and Reforestation in California." Illustrated. By 

Mr. Winfield Scott, California Forest Protective Asso- 
ciation, San Francisco. 

October 13. "The Redwood in Sentiment, in Industry and in Reforesta- 

tion." Illustrated. By Mr. Winfield Scott, California 
Forest Protective Association, San Francisco. 

October 20. "Forestry and Reforestation in the Sierran Region." Illus- 

trated. By Mr. Winfield Scott, California Forest Pro- 
tective Association, San Francisco. 

October 27. "Asan Astronomer Sees the World." Illustrated. By Prof . 

Earle G. Linsley, Director, Chabot Observatory, Oak- 
land, California, and Professor of Astronomy and 
Geology, Mills College, California. 



Vol. XVIII] 



GRUNSKY—PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 1929 



537 



November 3. 



November 10. 



November 17. 



November 24. 



December 1. 



December 8. 



December 15. 



"Impressions of Java." Illustrated. By Prof. Earle G. 
Linsley, Director, Chabot Observatory, Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, and Professor of Astronomy and Geology, Mills 
College, California. 

"The Historical Development of Surgical Anaesthesia." 
Illustrated. Bj- Dr. C. D. Leake, Professor of Pharma- 
cology, University of California Medical School, San 
Francisco. 

"Food Poisoning." Illustrated. By Dr. J. C. Geiger, Asso- 
ciate Professor of Epidemiology, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley. 

"The Quarantine Service and Control of the Mediterranean 
Fruit Fly." Illustrated. By Mr. C. A. Colmore, Presi- 
dent, San Francisco High School Teachers' Association, 
San Francisco. 

"The proposed new building of the California Academy of 
Sciences with particular reference to the Simson African 
Mammal Hall." Models of the habitat groups shown. 
By Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Director, California 
Academy of Sciences and Mr. Frank Tose, Chief of Ex- 
hibits, California Academy of Sciences. 

"Human History of the Lassen Region." Illustrated. By 
Mr. Harold Stein, Field Executive, Boy Scouts of 
America, San Francisco. 

"Experiences on a Journey to Nias, an Island Southwest of 
Sumatra." Illustrated. By Prof. Olaf P. Jenkins, 
Chief Geologist, State Division of Mines. 



List of Academy Publications in 1929 

That the Academy is actively prosecuting scientific research 
is evidenced by its publications. The following have been 
issued within the year : 



Proceedings, Fourth Series 

Vol. XVII, Nos. 11 and 12, pp. 297-360. No. 11 — Report of the President 
OF THE Academy for the Year 1928, by C. E. Grunsky. No. 12- — Report 
of the Director of the Museum for the year 1928, by Barton Warren 
Evermann. (Issued May 22, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 1, pp. 1-27, plates 1-3 — A New Species of Corambe from 
the Pacific Coast of North America, by Frank M. MacFarland and 
Charles H. O'Donoghue. (Issued Januaiy 29, 1929.) 



538 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Vol. XVIII, No. 2, pp. 29-43, 6 text figures — A New Bird Family (Geospizidse) 
from the Galapagos Islands, by Harry S. Swarth. (Issued January 29, 
1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 3, pp. 45-71, plates 4-7 — A Contribution to Our Knowl- 
edge OF THE Nesting Habits of the Golden Eagle, by Joseph R. 
Slevin. (Issued January 29, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 4, pp. 73-213, plates 8-23— Marine Miocene and Related 
Deposits of North Colombia, by Frank M. Anderson. (Issued March 
29, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, pp. 215-227, plate 24. No. 5, p. 215, plate 24, figs. 
10-11 — A New Pecten from the San Diego Pliocene, by Leo George 
Hertlein. No. 6, pp. 217-218, plate 24, figs. 7, 8, 9 — A New Species of 
Land Snail from Kern County, California, by G. Dallas Hanna. 
No. 7, pp. 219-220, plate 24, figs. 5, 6— A New Species of Land Snail 
from Coahuila, Mexico, by G. Dallas Hanna and Leo George Hertlein. 
No. 8, pp. 221-227, plate 24, figs. 1-4 — Some Notes on Oreohelix, by 
Junius Henderson. (Issued April 5, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 9, pp. 229-243, plates 25, 26— Notes on the Northern 
Elephant Seal, by M. E. McLellan Davidson. (Issued April 5, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 10, pp. 245-260 — On a Small Collection of Birds from 
Torres Strait Islands, and from Guadalcanar Island, Solomon 
Group, by M. E. McLellan Davidson. (Issued April 5, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 11, pp. 261-265 — The Generic Relationships and Nomen- 
clature of the California Sardine, by Carl L. Hubbs. (Issued April 
5, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 12, pp. 267-383, plates 27-32, 7 text figures— The Faun.\l 
Areas of Southern Arizona: A Study in Anim.\l Distribution, by 
Harry S. Swarth. (Issued April 26, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 13, pp. 385-391 — The Esc.vllonias in Golden Gate Park, 
San Francisco, California, with Descriptions of New Species, by 
Alice Eastwood. (Issued September 6, 1929.) 

Vol. XVIII, No. 14, pp. 393-484, plates ?,i, 3.4— Studies in the Flora of 
Lower California and Adjacent Islands, by Alice Eastwood. (Issued 
September 6, 1929). 

Vol. XVIII, No. 15, pp. 485-496, plate 35— Drepania, A Genus of Nudi- 
branchiate Mollusks New to C^vlifornia, by F. M. MacFarland. 
(Issued October 4, 1929.) 

Vol, XVIII, No. 16, pp. 497-530, plates 36-41— Some Upper Cretaceous 
Foraminifera from Ne.\r Coaling.\, California, by J. A. Cushman 
and C. C. Church. (Issued October 4, 1929.) 



Vol. XVIII] GRUNSKV—PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 1929 539 

Items of Interest 

The Treasurer's report presents the facts relating- to the 
Academy's financial standing. There has been, during the 
year, a further reduction of the Academy's indebtedness by 
$10,000, leaving a balance of $195,000 mortgage on the Com- 
mercial Building. 

On December 7 a new mortgage was placed on the Com- 
mercial Building for $450,000 at 5^ per cent. The new 
mortgage was placed with the Pacific Mutual Life Insurance 
Company of California. The placing of the new mortgage of 
$450,000 was undertaken for the purpose of paying ofif the old 
mortgage of $195,000 to the Hibernia Savings and Loan 
Society, which leaves a balance of $255,000 for building pur- 
poses. The membership already is acquainted with the fact 
that the Academy is proposing to build an east wing to the 
present building, a portion of which will be "The Leslie 
Simson African Mammal Hall." This is being made possible 
by the generous ofifer of Mr. Leslie Simson which was 
explained in last year's report. The Architect is now working 
upon the plans for this new building. 

The Academy possessed 319 shares of American Company 
stock. This was deposited with the American Trust Com- 
pany for exchange for stock of the Goldman Sachs Trading 
Corporation August 7, 1929. In this transfer the Academy 
received 410 shares of stock of the Goldman Sachs Trading 
Corporation. October 1 a stock dividend of six shares was 
received, making a total of 416 shares, which were sold by Mr. 
William H. Crocker, acting for the California Academy of 
Sciences, October 11 at $105 per share, the net proceeds being 
$43,557.92. Had the stock been held a few weeks longer only 
about one-third as much could have been realized. 

In June 1929 a reappraisal of the land on which the Com- 
mercial Building is located was made. In 1909, for the pur- 
poses of the lease, the land was valued at $544,000. A reap- 
praisal in 1919 placed its value at $580,000. The reappraisal 
in 1924 advanced the value to $820,000. In 1929 the land 
was valued at $860,000. 

In July an appraisal was made of the Commercial Building 
which resulted as follows : 



540 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

New replacement value $666,504.33 

Depreciated value 469,414.57 

Insurable value 407,682.55 

Under this appraisement the total amount of insurance that 
the Academy can carry on the basis of 80 per cent is $325,000. 
Formerly the Academy carried $525,000, but the Trustees 
voted to reduce the insurance to $325,000, the legal maximum. 

It is with sorrow that I report the death of one of our 
Trustees, Mr. William M. Fitzhugh, who died May 18, 1929. 
The Academy has also lost by death three Honorary members, 
viz: Dr. F. A. Lucas of New York, who died February 10; 
Prof. Robert RidgA\'ay of Olney, Illinois, who died March 
25 ; and Dr. E. Ray Lankester of London, England, who died 
August 15. The Academy has suffered another great loss in 
the tragic death in an automobile accident. June 26, of Mrs. 
Louis F. Monteagle, wife of Mr. Louis F. Monteagle, a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees. 

At a meeting of the Trustees August 26 Mr. Norman B. 
Livermore was unanimously elected a Trustee to serve for the 
remainder of the term caused by the death of Mr. William M. 
Fitzhugh which expires in February 1931. The Academy is 
very fortunate in securing Mr. Livermore as a member of the 
Board of Trustees. 

Certain amendments to the Constitution were adopted May 
25, 1929, which changed the manner relating to the method 
of electing members. Under these amendments members are 
now elected by the Council. Three new classes of members 
were established, viz : Benefactors, Sustaining and Junior 
Members. 

In September the Director, Dr. Evermann, accompanied by 
the Assistant Curator of Fishes, Mr. H. Walton Clark, left for 
Indiana to superintend the packing and shipping to the Mu- 
seum of the Jordan-Eigenmann Indiana University Collection 
of Fishes which had been purchased by the Academy. They 
were joined at Bloomington by the Superintendent of the Aqua- 
rium, Mr. Scale, who assisted them. The collection came 
through to San Francisco in perfect condition and is now 
temporarily stored in the basement of the Aquarium. 



Vol. XVIII] GRUNSKY— -PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 1929 54I 

In December, Mr. M. Hall McAllister, our Treasurer, and 
also Chairman of the Committee on the Conservation of Wild 
Animal Life, donated $100 to that fund. Mr. McAllister has 
been very efficient in looking after this committee. 

Mr. Edward Hohfeld of the law firm of Morrison, Hohfeld, 
Foerster, Shuman and Clark has continued to look after the 
legal affairs of the Academy and I feel sure that I voice a 
unanimous sentiment when I take this opportunity to express 
our appreciation of his deep interest in the Academy. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. XVIII, No. 18, pp. 542-586 April 8, 1930 



XVIII 

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE MUSEUM 
AND OF THE AQUARIUM FOR THE YEAR 1929 

BY 

BARTON WARREN EVERMANN 
Director of the Museum and of the A quarium 

The Annual Report of the Director for the year 1928 was 
presented to the Academy at the Annual Meeting, February 
20, 1929. 

The present report submitted at this Annual Meeting, 
February 19, 1930, sets forth briefly the scientific and educa- 
tional activities of the Academy for the calendar year 1929. 

Personnel 

The employees of the Museum as of January 1, 1930, were 
as follows: Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Director and 
Executive Curator of the Museum and of the Aquarium, and 
Editor of the Academy publications; Susie M. Peers, Secre- 
tary to the Board of Trustees ; Joseph W. Hobson, Recording 
Secretary of the Academy ; Alice Eastwood, Curator, Kate E. 
Phelps and John Thomas Howell, assistants, Department of 
Botany; Edward P. Van Duzee, Curator, J. O. Martin and 
Amy Williamson, assistants. Dr. Edwin C. Van Dyke, Honor- 
ary Curator, Dr. Frank E. Blaisdell, Reasearch Associate, and 
Dr. Frank R. Cole, Associate Curator in Dipterology, Depart- 
ment of Entomology ; Frank Tose, Chief, and Richard Cayzer, 
Russell Hendrick and Cecil Tose, assistants. Department of 
Exhibits; Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Curator, and H. 



Vol. XVIII] EVERM ANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 543 

Walton Clark, Assistant Curator, Department of Fishes; 
Joseph R. Slevin, Curator, Department of Herpetology; Dr. 
Walter Kendrick Fisher, Curator, Department of Invertebrate 
Zoology ; Thomas Cowles, Assistant Librarian, and May Peffer 
assistant; Harry S. Swarth, Curator, Mary E. McLellan 
Davidson, Assistant Curator, and Joseph Mailliard, Curator 
Emeritus, Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy; Dr. 
G. Dallas Hanna, Curator, Dr. Leo George Hertlein, Assistant 
Curator, John L. Nicholson, Jr., assistant, Frank M. Anderson, 
Honorary Curator, and Dr. Roy E. Dickerson, Research Asso- 
ciate, Department of Paleontology: Constance W. Campbell, 
stenographer, part time ; Evelyn Larsen, ' office assistant, part 
time ; Raymond L. Smith, general assistant ; Mabel E. Phillips, 
check-room attendant; William C. Lewis, janitor; Hugh 
Jones, assistant janitor; Robert L.Thompson, Jr., lecture atten- 
dant; Patrick O'Brien, day watch; Archie McCarte, night 
watch. 

The Aquarium staff and employees as of January 1, 1930, 
were as follows : Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Director ; 
Susie M. Peers, Secretary, part time ; Constance W. Campbell, 
stenographer, part time; Evelyn Larsen, office assistant, part 
time; Alvin Scale, Superintendent; Phyllis Beardslee, door- 
keeper; Clynt S. Martin, chief engineer; B. T. Culleton, first 
assistant engineer; John A. Dwyer, second assistant engineer; 
Clyde E. Guidry, chief attendant; Jack Solini, first assistant 
attendant; L. R. Solini, second assistant attendant; J. N. 
Angelucci, third assistant attendant; Frank J. Maxwell, relief 
engineer and attendant; S. J. Shenefield, carpenter and gen- 
eral utility man; Charles W. Hibbard, assistant collector; 
Patrick O'Neill, janitor; Patrick McArdle, assistant janitor; 
James Cavanaugh, day watch. 

Only a few changes have taken place in the personnel. Mrs. 
Johanna E. Wilkens, who had been employed as charwoman 
by the Academy for many years (in fact ever since 1895), 
met with a rather severe accident in which her shoulder was 
broken May 6, since which date she has been unable to return 
to her regular duties. 

Aris Partidos, who served as usher at the Sunday lectures 
from March 13, 1927, to January 31, 1929, when he resigned. 
His place was taken February 3, 1929, by Robert Thompson, Jr. 



244 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Day-Officer Patrick O'Brien, after a protracted illness, was 
able to return to duty April 24. 

Miss Clara Tose, preparator, Department of Exhibits, 
resigned October 6. Miss Dora Arnold, who had been door- 
keeper and typist in the Aquarium since November 10, 1925, 
resigned August 31, to accept a better position, and Miss 
Phillis Beardslee was appointed to the position September 12. 

The most important change in the personnel was the resig- 
nation, December 31, of Mr. Wallace Adams, Assistant Superin- 
tendent of the Steinhart Aquarium, a position which he had 
held since July 20, 1923. Mr. Adams leaves the Academy to 
accept the position of Chief of the Division of Fisheries, 
Bureau of Science, Manila, PhiHppine Islands. 

During the years that Mr. Adams was with the Academy 
as Assistant Superintendent of the Steinhart Aquarium, he 
showed himself a faithful and efficient employee, and it is with 
great regret that we lose him. 



Cooperation with Public and Private Schools, with 
Other Institutions, and with Individuals 

The Museum continues to be of service to the schools, other 
institutions and individuals in their educational and scientific 
work. 

In spite of the fact that all space available for public exhibits 
has long since been occupied, we have nevertheless continued 
to add to our educational exhibits, in the hope that facilities 
for putting them on exhibition may be provided in the near 
future. 

Our research collections in several departments have 
increased greatly, as may be seen from the reports of the 
respective curators. 

The Museum continues to loan portable habitat animal 
groups for circulation in the public schools, particularly in the 
Berkeley schools, where real interest in that form of education 
is strong. 



Vol. XVIII] 



EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 



545 





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546 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th S*k. 



Visitors to the Aquarium 



Jan... . 

Feb. . . 
March. 
April. . 
May. . 
June. . 
July... 
Aug.. . 
Sept. . . 
Oct. . 
Nov. 
Dec. . . . 
Totals for 
the years 



7P2J IQ24 

82,283 

119,001 

88,172 

83,245 

97,083 

112,785 

145,703 

148,899 

29,800 116,032 

209,671 71,273 

145,434 67,500 

96,757 48,376 



1925 

72,153 

61,213 

97,986 

79,021 

75,187 

94,717 

128,261 

144,208 

106,492 

72,350 

59,074 

52,929 



ig26 
38,259 
66,032 
82,153 
64,830 
94,521 
91,451 
127,999 
124,635 
86,645 
79,108 
49,741 
48,423 



1927 
44,300 
39,515 
58,151 
65,337 
87,961 
70,151 
142,738 
115,230 
87,909 
66,117 
44,643 
43,582 



1928 

53,454 

54,105 

57,083 

78,735 

104,230 

110,206 

151,881 

115,915 

92,755 

51,521 

50,554 

36,406 



1929 

41,160 

44,070 

75,876 

50,583 

92,048 

91,936 

115,018 

106,681 

121,143 

68,304 

72,149 

53,658 



481,662 1,180,352 1,043,591 953,797 865,634 956,845 932,626 



Grand total since opening of the Aquarium September, 1923 6,414,507 

Schools Visiting the Museum and the Aquarium in 1929 

A detailed report of the schools whose classes, accompanied 
by their teachers, and the number of pupils that visited the 
Museum and the Aquarium in 1929, is in the files and may be 
consulted by anyone interested. Following is a summary : 



Museum 

In 
San Francisco Outside 

Number of schools represented 71 32 

Number of classes represented 181 38 

Number of teachers accompanying the 

classes 184 40 

Number of pupils 5,416 1,202 

Total 5,852 1,312 

Aquarium 

Number of schools represented 82 34 

Number of classes represented 236 75 

Number of teachers accompanying the 

classes 216 51 

Number of pupils 6,113 1,318 

Total 6,647 1,478 

Total for Museum and Aquarium 12,499 2,790 



Total 
103 
219 

224 
6,618 

7,164 



116 
301 

267 
7,431 

8,115 

15,279 



Vol, XVIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 547 

Department Activities 

The year has been marked by more than normal activity in 
the different departments, as is shown in detail by the reports 
of the respective curators. The growth of the research col- 
lections in each department has been very gratifying. 

In the Department of Botany more than 10,000 sheets were 
added to the Herbarium, which raises the total number of 
sheets to over 171,000. 

The Department of Botany can always be depended upon to 
make very great growth every year, and its accomplishments 
in 1929 have not fallen behind those of previous years. Miss 
Eastwood seems to be an adept in securing and holding the 
enthusiastic support and cooperation of botanists all over the 
country, among whom are always to be found one or more 
friends of means who are so enthusiastic and so anxious to be 
with Miss Eastwood in the field that they insist on paying all 
the field expenses themselves, as Miss Eastwood will no doubt 
set forth in her report. 

In Entomology more than 32,000 specimens were added to 
the research collections. These include the J. O. Martin collec- 
tion of Coleoptera numbering 11,200 specimens, a miscel- 
laneous collection of about 4,000 specimens donated by Dr. 
Van Dyke, and 2,000 specimens, many of them very desirable 
moths, donated by Mr. Louis S. Slevin of Carmel. 

The growth of this department in recent years under Mr. 
Van Duzee's direction has been phenomenal, and it can now be 
said that the California Academy of Sciences has become the 
entomological center for the Pacific area. Any entomologist 
who wishes to carry on studies of the insect faunas of the 
Pacific area must make use of the collections in the California 
Academy of Sciences. 

The activities of the Department of Exhibits are fully set 
forth in the report of Mr. Tose. From his report it may be 
seen that the Department has been active in caring for the 
exhibits, adding new ones, and in improving the general 
attractiveness of the Museum. 

The Department of Fishes has, in a single bound, come to 
be one of the most important departments of the Academy, 
through the acquisition of the Jordan-Eigenmann collection of 

April 8, 1930 



548 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

fishes of about 220,000 specimens. The Academy and Stan- 
ford University with its more than 100,000 specimens, will 
thus become the ichthyological center for the Americas and the 
Pacific area. No one can do satisfactory work on the fishes of 
South America, western North America, the islands of the 
Pacific, or Japan without consulting the collections here and at 
Stanford. 

The Library, under Assistant Librarian Cowles's efficient 
manag-ement, is rapidly becoming accessioned, catalogued and 
properly arranged on the shelves. The number of accessions 
for the year, through exchange, donation and purchase, has 
been about 9000. including parts of volumes, pamphlets, and 
unbound volumes. The most urgent needs of the Library are 
more funds for completing sets of the publications of learned 
societies, for binding, and for additional clerical help. 

The Department of Ornithology and IMammalogy has been 
very active during the year, not only in field work, in securing 
large and important additions to its research collections, but in 
scientific research, as is fully set forth in the Curator's report. 

Two very important expeditions were in the field for the 
Department in 1929, one in the Lake Atlin region in northern 
British Columbia, the other in the Republic of Panama. Each 
of these expeditions secured large and valuable collections of 
birds greatly needed in the Department studies of avifauna of 
those regions. 

The Academy has been fortunate in securing a number of 
important collections of bird skins, the most important being 
the PL S. Swarth collection of 3150 specimens and the G. 
Frean Morcom collection of 3000 specimens. The details of 
these valuable donations are given in the Curator's report. 

The Department of Paleontology has been active in field 
work and in scientific research, for which the research collec- 
tions of the Department are growing more and more attractive 
every year. 

It is very gratifying to note that the members of the staff of 
this Department are called upon so frequently by oil companies 
and other commercial interests for assistance and advice. They 
have come to realize that the Academy can be of real service to 
them in many ways. 



Vol. XVIII] EVERM ANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 549 

Department Reports 

Department of Botany 

The herbarium now numbers over 171,000 mounted sheets of specimens, an 
increase of about 10,000 during the year. Besides, there are many duplicates 
to be used as exchange material when time permits their distribution to other 
institutions. 

Several collecting trips were made by the curator with no expense to the 
Academy. In March the curator was invited to Santa Barbara to address 
the members of the Museum of Natural History and the Garden Club. On 
the return a day 'rt^as spent at San Luis Obispo and 40 specimens were collected, 
among them being specimens of a most interesting cypress. The month of 
May was spent in Arizona in the region of the Apache Trail as the guest of 
Mrs. S. D. McKelvey and Mr. and Mrs. Roland Still of the Apache Lodge. 
Railroad transportation was furnished by the Southern Pacific Railroad. The 
results of the trip will be published later. 829 specimens were added to the 
collection besides many duplicates. A short trip to the Calaveras Grove of 
Big Trees was made in early September with the Alpine Club which added 
2)i specimens. Mrs. E. C. Van Dyke made a collection of 60 specimens on 
Mt. Hood and Three Sisters in Oregon and was aided by a small contribution. 

Duplicates have been sent to the following institutions: Dudley Herbarimn, 
vStanford University, 35 from Lower California; Royal Herbarium, Kew, 
Surrey, England, 36 specimens of Lessingia; Arnold Arboretum of Harvard 
University, 473 exotics; University of Montreal, Canada, 200 from Alaska and 
the Yukon; University of Asiae, Mediae, Turkestan, 456 miscellaneous; 
Charles Piper Smith, San Jose High School, 20 lupines. 

Specimens have been received in continuation of exchange from the follow- 
ing institutions : 

Dudley Herbarium, 110 from Southern California collected by Prof. LeRoy 
Abrams; Field Museum, Chicago, 913 unmounted and 247 mounted miscel- 
laneous; University of Montreal, 502 chiefly from Northern Canada; Pomona 
College, Claremont, Calif., 230, chiefly duplicates from the Jones Herbarium; 
Universit}' of Asiae Mediae, 175 from Turkestan. Arnold Arboretum, Har- 
vard University, 150; J. F. Rock's collection in China, 54 from Australia and 
18 North America; University of California, 385 flowering plants and 38 fungi; 
Dr. S. F. Blake, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 51 miscellaneous. 

The following have been received by purchase: S. Venturi, 403, Argentina, 
South America; J. W. Blankinship, 599, Lake County; J. Aug. Kusche, 100, 
Southern Arizona; Ines Mexia, 351 Mt. McKinley National Park, Alaska. 

The following gifts have been received: William Vortriede, 138 from Sacra- 
mento and mountains adjacent; The Swarth family, 179 from Lake Atlin 
region, British Columbia, collected on H. S. Swarth Ornithological Expedition 
to the region; Eric Walther, 500 exotics from Califomian gardens; Mrs. Sidney 
Eastwood, 22 from Colorado; Mrs. S. D. McKelvey, 137 from Arizona; Mrs. 
Geo. H. Phelps, 100 from Idaho, Utah and Colorado; Julia McDonald, 32 from 
Fresno County, Calif. ; Gwendolan Newell, 50, Silver Lake, Amador County, 
Calif.; Ines Mexia, 35, Mexico; Ivan Branson, 51, Tuolumne County, Calif.; 
John Thomas Howell, 1103 miscellaneous California plants; S. Jussel, 127 



550 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

from Lake Tahoe region, Calif.; Ralph Hoffmann, 304 chiefly from the islands 
of Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz, Calif.; George Kramer, 25 from near Mt. Las- 
sen. Several smaller gifts have been received, chiefly specimens for identifi- 
cation, and the names of the donors will be found in the general list. 

The California Botanical Club has given a collection of water-color paintings 
of California flowers and also the case on which they will be exhibited in the 
Museum. 

The herbarium has become the only reference place for the numerous exotics 
that are cultivated in the parks and gardens of California, and is consulted 
by gardeners and botanists from all parts of the state. The collection of Cali- 
fomian species is now necessary to those making special studies, and loans 
are sent to institutions and individuals for revisions and monographs. 

The curator continues to give popular addresses on botanical subjects to 
schools and clubs, carries on the California Botanical Club which has meetings 
or excursions almost every week. The class of gardeners meets twice a month 
in the evenings at the herbarium. It enables the more ambitious gardeners 
to leam the names of the plants in the park. 

The exhibition of native and the exotic flowers growling out-of-doors is kept 
up throughout the year by my assistant, Mrs. George H. Phelps. Mrs. E. C. 
Sutcliffe and JVIr. Ivan Branson have helped greatly bj^ collecting native species 
while Eric Walther is very faithful in furnishing the exotics, chiefly from the 
park. Hundreds of species are exhibited at the entrance of the Museum dur- 
ing the year, each labelled with scientific and common name also where col- 
lected, or, in the case of exotics, the native country. These exotics come from 
all parts of the world and the exhibit is one of the most valuable educational 
features of the Academy. My assistant also mounts all the specimens, does 
most of the distributing into the herbarium, attends to the care of fresh speci- 
mens that need drying, and in every way relieves the curator of much detail. 
During the past year John Thomas Howell has been employed as extra assis- 
tant for three months, doing valuable work in rearranging the herbarium, and 
in labelling and distributing specimens. 

Alice Eastwood, Curator. 



Department of Entomology 

Additions to the Department of Entomology' during 1929 numbered 32,173 
specimens. This number includes the J. O. Martin collection of Coleoptera 
which was announced as received two years ago but was not then enumerated 
among our accessions. Mr. Martin has now completed the incorporation of 
this collection, numbering 11,200 specimens, into the general collection of the 
Academy. The next largest single addition by gift was a series of 3859 miscel- 
laneous insects other than Coleoptera, presented by Dr. E. C. Van Dyke from 
various localities in California, largely from the Sequoia National Park. 
Another gift of much value was a collection of 2,000 insects received from Mr. 
Louis S. Slevin of Carmel, a considerable portion of which are moths taken by 
him at night. These moths will add to our series of many interesting and 
valuable species and are especially welcome as the department staff has little 



Vol. XVIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 55 [ 

opportunity of doing such collecting. Mr. Gorton Linsley presented to the 
Academy 601 exotic insects, mostly European. From Mr. George Swarth the 
Academy secured by purchase 907 insects from about Atlin, B. C, among 
which was a good representation of the butterflies of that district, heretofore 
very poorly represented in our collection. From Mr. H. S. Parish the Academy 
secured by purchase 1,194 insects, mostly Coleoptera from the Province of 
Czechuen, China. Dr. F. E. Blaisdell gave us 279 insects other than beetles, 
from vSanta Barbara, Calif., and New Hampshire. By exchange we received 
92 South American insects from Dr. F. W. Coding, and by purchase 61 Edessas 
from South America needed to fill vacancies. Other valuable additions were 
109 moths from Glacier National Park presented by Dr. E. H. Nast; 71 from 
Colombia, South America, presented by Mrs. S. C. Capp, 45 moths from 
Nicaragua, mostly beautiful specimens, presented by Mr. J. M. Nicol through 
Dr. G. Dallas Hanna; 17 collected by Mr. G. W. Heid in Sumatra and pre- 
sented by Mr. Graham Heid; 14 Hemiptera from the Orient presented by 
Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell; 37 miscellaneous insects from California presented by 
Mr. E. R. Leach; 20 from Samoa presented by Mr. Alvin Scale, and by field 
work were added 2,336 specimens taken by Mr. J. O. Martin in Texas, and 
8,620 secured by the curator. In addition should be mentioned probably three 
or four thousand beetles taken by Dr. Van Dyke which will be included in the 
final count of the Van Dyke collection and several hundred added by Dr. 
Blaisdell and Mr. L. S. Slevin to their collections of Coleoptera, now a part of 
the Academy collection. 

The Department field work in 1929 consisted of a collecting trip by auto 
through Owen's Valley, going by Bakersfield and returning by Carson City 
and Tahoe. This was a section of the state almost unrepresented in our collec- 
tions. Mr. Robert Usinger accompanied the curator as assistant. He proved 
to be an efficient and enthusiastic collector and should be credited with about 
half of the specimens taken. The curator also made a brief trip to YorkA'ille, 
Mendocino County, and another to Santa Cruz. Mr. Martin spent about 
two months near the former home of G. W. Belfrage near Waco, Texas, with 
the object of securing topotypical material of some of the many species de- 
scribed from material taken by Belfrage. 

In 1929 the Department of Entomology suffered a sad loss in the death of Mr. 
Walter M. Giffard of Honolulu, who in the past, has been a good friend to the 
Academy and an active worker in its interest. It was through his influence 
that the Academy secured the very valuable Koebele collection, and only last 
year he presented to the Academy his large collection of North American 
Delphacidae. 

During 1929 the rearrangement in our unit boxes of the Academy's large 
collections of Coleoptera and Hemiptera progressed as rapidly as the acquisi- 
tion of cases and drawers would permit. Work on the material in other orders 
of insects has had to await the purchase of necessarj' cases. As heretofore, 
Mr. Martin has worked on the Coleoptera, assorting and arranging the ma- 
terial in the various components of the Academy collection. For much of the 
past year Dr. Blaisdell has spent two days each week at the Academy working 
up the Academy material, including his own collection, in certain families of 
beetles, and Dr. Van Dyke has spent one day a week at the same work and has 
studied monographically several families at his home. The curator has found 



552 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

time to study and arrange a few more families of the Hemiptera and has begun 
the arrangement of our butterflies in which work he has had help from Mr. 
Graham Heid. 

The publication of the Pan-Pacific Entomologist has continued. Five 
volumes have been completed and volume six in is course of publication. This 
journal has furnished an outlet for all the shorter papers on the Academy collec- 
tion of insects. 

The need for more insect cases is as pressing as ever. The Academy accepted 
several large private collections of insects when it had no cases in which to 
place them. Each year a large proportion of the funds alloted to the Depart- 
ment of Entomology must go for cases and even that proves hardly more than 
enough to care for the natural growth of the department. A special appropria- 
tion is needed to secure cases for the rich material acquired with the Van 
Dyke, Blaisdell and Koebele collections. 

E. P. Van Duzee, Curator. 



Department of Exhibits 

The work of overhauling the habitat groups in the Bird Hall was completed 
early in the year. Two floor cases were reconstructed to hold groups of Great 
Homed Owl and American Bam Owl respectively. These groups are of the 
same dimensions as our series of panel groups, and can be installed as such 
whenever opportunity offers. 

The collection of modelled Fungi has been placed upon exhibition. 

On May 17 I left San Francisco for the purpose of attending the annual 
meeting of the American Association of Museums in Philadelphia. The object 
of this visit was to organize a section of the association whose purpose 
should be the exchange of knowledge for betterment of all arts and crafts con- 
nected with the making and installation of museum exhibits. Thanks to the 
splendid cooperation received, this object was accomplished, and the Techni- 
cal Section of the American Association of IVIuseums is now functioning to 
the benefit of all concerned. Upon the return trip several eastern museums 
were visited and, thanks to the kindness and courtesy of the directors, curators, 
and preparators of these institutions, much information of value was secured. 

t 

I returned to San Francisco June 8. 

Several months of the year were taken up with the preparation of a scale 
model of our proposed African Mammal Hall. With the help of my assi.stants 
this has been completed. This scale model is as complete as it is possible to 
make it, and depicts one of the three halls that will be necessary to house the 
Simson African Mammal collection. It has been placed on exliibition in the 
California Mammal Hall, and is proving of value in manj^ ways. 

Miss Clara Tose rendered valuable assistance during the greater part of the 
year, leaving the department October 6. Mr. Richard Cayzer has been em- 
ployed as assistant since October 30. Cecil Tose and Russell Hendrick have 
also been employed as part time assistants during the year. 

Frank Tose, Chief. 



Vol. XVIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 553 



Depaktment of Fishes 

In the year 1929 the Curator and the Assistant devoted considerable time 
to reading proof of the new Check-List of the Fishes and Fishlike Vertebrates 
of North and Middle America north of the northern Boundary of Venezuela 
and Colombia, by Jordan, Evermann and Clark, which was published by the 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Februan,' 8, 1930. 

As this Check-List includes 4137 species and subspecies admitted as valid, 
together with the reference to the original description of each, also to each of 
the more than 4,000 synonyms, it is really a check-list of all the names that have 
ever been applied to American freshwater and saltwater fishes. The publica- 
tion contains 670 pages of which 158 are devoted to the Index in which there 
are more than 15,500 page references. This will give some idea of the great 
amount of labor and time that the proof-reading required. 

The report on the fishes collected by the Academy's expedition to the 
Revillagigedo Islands in 1925 was completed in 1929, and the manuscript is 
now ready to send to the printer. 

For several years the Assistant Curator has been assisting Biological 
Abstracts in the preparation and editing of abstracts of current ichthyological 
publications. 

Abstracts prepared by the authors or others are referred to us by Biological 
Abstracts office from time to time for editing or completing. In many cases 
they are prepared here. 

As a side product of this work, all new genera were card catalogued as they 
appeared, for use in a supplement to Jordan's Genera of Fishes, thus bringing 
that publication up-to-date. New species described from the territory cov- 
ered by the new Check-List of Fishes were noted for inclusion in an addendum 
to that Check-List to be published in the near future. 

From June 9 to June 16, was spent by the Assistant Curator with the aqua- 
rium collector on a trip to the desert about Salton Sea in search of desert 
minnows, Cyprinodon macularius. It was found that in the irrigation ditches 
this species had been mostly or altogether replaced by the Mosquito fish, Gam- 
busia affinis. The desert minnows, of which a good number were finally 
secured, were found only in the highly saline waters of the lower stretches of 
San Felipe Creek, and in the Salton Sea itself. The Gambusias were at first not 
recognizable, being a brilliant turquoise blue, which is, indeed, the color of the 
male Cyprinodon. After a half-year's sojourn in the Aquarium they lost much 
of this color. 

The general collection of fishes has been gone over from time to time and 
fresh alcohol added as needed. In addition to the general catalogue of serial 
numbers, a card catalogue has been made of all specimens as they are arranged 
on the shelves. Puzzling specimens when brought in are identified, and if not 
in the collection, or desired for any other purpose, are added, accessioned and 
cared for. 

The most important event of the j^ear in connection with the Department of 
Fishes was the securing of the Jordan-Eigenmann collection of fishes, by pur- 
chase from Indiana University. 

This enormous and valuable collection of more than 220,000 specimens was 
begun in the early eighties by Dr. David Starr Jordan and his students at 



554 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Indiana University. It was greatly enlarged by Dr. Carl H. Eigenmann who 
was professor of zoolog>" at Indiana University from 1891 until his death in 
1927, assisted by his students. Dr. Eigenmann was especially interested in 
the fishes of South America, and the collections resulting from his many ex- 
peditions to that continent form, in the aggregate, the most complete and 
valuable ever assembled by any one ichthj'^ologist. Besides the North Ameri- 
can and the South American components, the Jordan-Eigenmann fish col- 
lection contains large representations of the fish faunas of Europe, Asia, the 
Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands, and many other parts of the world. 

Last September, the Curator, the Assistant Curator and Superintendent 
Scale of the Aquarium went to Bloomington, Indiana, where they, assisted by 
local help, devoted the entire month of October to packing the collection and 
preparing it for shipment to San Francisco. 

The collection was packed in 100 large earthen jars, 13 large boxes, and 500 
large cartons. 

A large freight car, such as is used in which to ship automobiles, was used 
and so securely were the many containers packed in the car that the shipment 
came through to San Francisco without loss or injury to a single specimen. 

This great collection contains many types and cotypes and will be invaluable 
to specialists who are interested in the ichthyological fauna of the Americas 
and other countries of the Pacific area. 

It is now temporarily installed in the basement of the Steinhart Aquarium 
where it is being unpacked, segregated and placed on shelves for further assort- 
ment and study. 

In the East Wing of the Museum, upon which it is hoped construction will 
begin soon, will be provided a basement specially designed and up-to-date in 
every respect in which the fish collections will be installed and which will pro- 
vide proper shelving, laboratory and librarj' facilities and offices. 

Howard Walton Clark, Assistant Curator. 



Department of Herpetology 

Owing to the proposed field work for the year 1929 which would necessitate 
a long period of absence in the field the entire collection of alcoholics was over- 
hauled and specimen jars refilled when necessary to ensure the safety of the 
collection. This occupied considerable time, there being several thou;^and 
jars to be gone over. A thorough overhauling and examination was also given 
the collection of Galapagos tortoises, the work on both collections occupying 
about three months. 

The greater part of the year 1929 was given to field work in Australia, the 
curator being absent in the field from June 27 to the end of the year. By the 
end of December 1,052 specimens from various localities had been collected 
and preparations made to continue the work during January and February of 
1930. 

Friends of the department have been generous during the year and gifts of 
specimens have been received as follows: From L. S. Slevin, 16; D. R, Bull, 2; 



Vol. XVIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 555 

Charles E. Burt, 10; Hans Geyer, 6; Don C. Meadows, 1; Charles Toftley, 2; 
Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, 1; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, 3; Dave G. Gamon, 1; H. S. 
Swarth, 17. 

Joseph R. Slevin, Curator. 

Department of Library 

The work of the Library during 1929 proceeded mainly in accordance with 
the plans announced in last year's report. Temporary wooden shelves were 
installed early in the year. These, together with the space released by moving 
the stock of Academy publications from the store room to the lower corridor, 
and the mass of uncatalogued material from the lower library to the store room 
in turn, furnished room for shifting the whole collection forward, so that the 
badly crowded condition of the shelves could be relieved. 

During the process all separate titles were inventoried by the shelf-list as 
they were moved. This took longer than it was expected to for it was found 
that many of the books had never been shelf-listed and most of those that were 
had no record of accession numbers. Consequently a large number of tem- 
porary shelf-list cards had to be made, thus slowing up the project so that it 
was not quite finished by the end of the year. Sets of serials were not in- 
ventoried at the time of moving. It is planned to begin doing this systematic- 
ally as soon as the shifting is completed, when unbound volumes will be care- 
fully checked and tied up and the missing numbers acquired if it is found still 
possible to get them. 

The accessions for the year were as follows: 

Bd. vols. Unbd. Partsof Pamphlets Maps 

vols. vols. 

Exchange 50 125 4063 89 127 

Gift 54 46 1812 269 53 

Purchase 363 239 1690 17 1 



Total 467 410 7565 375 181 

Among the reference books obtained for the main Library may be mentioned 
the United States Catalog of Books in Print January 1, 1928; the Union List of 
Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada ; the World List of Scientific 
Periodicals; Minerva, Jahrbuch der Gelehrten Welt, 1928; the 12th edition of 
the Dewey Decimal Classification. These have been in almost daily use since 
their acqusition. Other titles of unusual interest are: Index Londinensis to 
Illustrations of Flowering Plants, volume 1; Hegi's Illustrierte Flora von 
Mittel-Europa ; Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 
2d series, 3d series, and volumes 1-7, 9-10 of the 4th series; Donovan's Natural 
Historj^ of British Birds, 1794-1819; Rothschild's Extinct Birds, 1907; Bellardi 
& Sacco's Molluschi del Piemonte e della Liguria, 1873-1904; Bolten's Museum 
Boltenianum, part 2, 1906; Bom's Testacea Musei Caesarei Vindobonensis, 
1780; Martyn's Universal Conchologist, 1784. 

The cataloguing accomplished during the >ear was practically none, due to 
every effort being expended on the shifting of the bookstock. New exchanges 



556 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

added total 27, a small number but also due to the emphasis of the year's work 
elsewhere. The number of volumes boimd was 144. 

Miss Dora Arnold's part-time assistance in the Library ceased early in 
September when she left the Aquarium. The loss of her help, little as it was 
each day, is keenly felt and the amount of unshelved accessions that have 
accumulated in three months seriously congests the available working space 
in the Library-. This will be quickly cleared up, however, early in 1930 upon 
the arrival of a temporary full-time assistant which the Council has kindly 
granted because of the assistant librarian's plans to undertake graduate work 
in bibliography at the University of California. Miss Phyllis Beardslee, Miss 
Arnold's successor, handled the Library's secretarial work very efficiently for 
the remainder of the year. 

An item of passing interest is the adoption by the American Association of 
Museums of the practice of printing the Dewey classification number at the 
head of each article in The Museum News that is sponsored by and published 
for its Technical Section, the group formed by Mr. Tose of the Academy staff 
last Summer. The suggestion of thus printing the Dewey number, made by 
the assistant librarian and proposed by Mr. Tose, was intended as an aid not 
only to hbrarians but also to workers in the field who wish to keep their liter- 
ature systematically arranged. The practice has been in use for some time by 
the American Museum of Natural History in their Novitates. The Dewey 
classification is the one used in the Academy Library, which will be greatly 
benefitted by the plans of the Library of Congress shortly to print the Dewey 
numbers on its catalogue cards. 

The assistant librarian was appointed, in the Fall, secretary of the Special 
Libraries Section of the CaHfornia Library Association, whose annual conven- 
tion will be held next July in Los Angeles in conjunction with that of the 
American Library Association. He also served on the convention committee 
and was chairman of the directorjr committee of the local chapter of the national 
Special Libraries Association, and was elected in December president for 1930. 
The local chapter will be hosts in June to the national Association at their 
annual convention, the first on the Pacific coast. This convention will be 
significant to the Academy for among its meetings will be the first regular one 
to be held by the Museum Group of the Association. 

The crying need of the Library is the same as emphasized in last year's 
report, — namely, sufficient income to provide not only the old and current 
literature so badly needed for the use of both staff and membership, but also 
adequate personnel so that the collection may be made to serve its clientele 
efficiently and constructively by anticipating in many cases its requirements. 

Thom.\s Cowxes, Assistant Librarian. 



Department of Ornithology .\nd Mammalogy 

The Curator and the Assistant Curator each spent about three-fourths of 
the year in curatorial duties and at studies that they have undertaken, the 
remaining quarter being devoted to field work. The Curator has continued to 
allot to the study of the Academy's collection of Galapagos Islands' birds just 
as much time as could possibly be spared from routine office duties for that 



Vol. XVIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 557 

purpose; other minor researches (with the possible consequent publication of 
short papers) have been almost entirely abandoned for the time being. Mrs. 
Davidson's research program has included further work upon Mr. Loomis's 
unfinished "Monograph of the Tubinares," and on fossil whale material from 
the collection of the Department of Paleontology-. 

The Curator spent the period from June 9 to September 26 on a field trip to 
Atlin, in extreme northern British Columbia, making further observations and 
collections in a region wherein he has ptirsued field work on several previous 
years. The Swarth family participated in this trip, and members thereof col- 
lected plants and insects for other Academy departments. A special effort 
was made toward the collecting of Juvenal and other little-known plumages of 
various northern birds, practically all of which material was new to the Acad- 
emy collection. Mrs. Davidson left on October 25 for a three months' stay in 
the Republic of Panama. Her time was spent in Chiriqui Province and collec- 
tions were made near the Costa Rican boundary at various elevations from sea 
level to 4,500 feet. 

. Mr. Joseph Mailliard, Curator Emeritus, has been actively engaged in 
bird-banding during the fall and winter months of the last year, in Golden Gate 
Park and at Woodacre, Marin County. Approximately 800 birds have been 
banded, and information of importance is gradually being accumulated and 
placed in proper shape for future use. An unexpected side-issue of the bird- 
banding was the collection of a series of microscope slides of blood-smears of 
Zonotrichia nuitalli and Z. coronata, gathered at the request of Dr. Clay G. 
Huff of the Harvard Medical School, and, according to information received 
from that gentleman, proving to be of unusual value in the research in which 
he is engaged. 

Two important donations were received during the year. First, the H. S. 
Swarth collection of bird skins (3,150 specimens) was purchased and presented 
to the Academy by a donor who prefers to withhold his name. Then, the G. 
Frean Morcom collection of bird skins (3,000 specimens) was received as a 
gift from Mr. Morcom. These two collections are complementary to each 
other in some respects, and together they contain long series of specimens of 
species that heretofore were poorly represented or not contained at all in the 
Academy collection. The Morcom collection in particular contains many 
specimens of rare, near-extinct, and extinct species, mostly collected by Mr. 
Morcom, himself, forty or fifty years ago. While it is a matter of unqualified 
congratulation that the Academy should receive these rich additions to its 
collection, their acceptance entails heav^^ responsibilities on our part, for these 
gifts serve to emphasize still further the impossibly crowded condition in which 
the bird collection is now housed. As the storage rooms now are it will be im- 
possible to rearrange cases and contents to incorporate the acquisitions of the 
year, so as to have the specimens properly convenient of access and hence of 
greatest possible use. 

The department continues, as heretofore, to sen,^e as a local bureau of in- 
formation on questions pertaining to birds and mammals. Of greater im- 
portance is the use that is being made of our material by research sttidents in 
other institutions. Our entire series of several species of birds and mammals 
are now on loan, giving important aid to studies of just the sort that the 
Academy should foster to the utmost of its ability. On the other hand, it is 



558 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4rH Ser. 

proper to point out that the department is in receipt of quite as generous aid 
from other institutions, in recognition of the value of the work that we are 
carrying on. 

In May, 1929, the annual meeting of the Cooper Ornithological Club was 
held in the Bay region, and on one of the two-day sessions the club was the 
guest of the Academy. About sixty members of the Cooper Club were in 
attendance. 

On the whole, growth of the collections during the year was eminently satis- 
factory', and departmental work progressed about as satisfactorily as could be 
hoped for under existing crowded conditions. The outstanding needs of the 
department continue to be, in increasing measure: (1) Floor space, for storage 
cases and also for tables or benches to be used in cataloguing, studying and 
otherwise handling specimens. (2) A new metal-lined storage room for large 
mammals. (3) An additional assistant, the greater part of whose time could 
be devoted to field work. In addition, it would be desirable if an Assistant 
Curator of Mammals could eventually be appointed. There is not now, and 
never has been, anyone in the department primarily interested in mammals, 
and the mammal collection has not attained to the importance that it should. 

Details of the several accessions are as follows: Birds. Gift: Anonymous, 
3150; C. R. Boatright, 1; F. E. Booth, 4; D. B. Bull, 1; California Department 
of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Game, 1 ; Department of Exhibits, 
California Academy of Sciences, 50; Mrs. Barton Warren Evermann, 315; 
E. E. Ever, 1; E. W. Gifford, 7; F. W. Coding. 5; Hugh Logan, 1; Joseph 
Mailliard, 1; John McLaren, 3; James Moffitt, 2; G. Frean Morcom, 3000; 
Mori Bird Store, 5; J. V. Patton, 2; M. S. Ray, 1; A. W. Robison, 12; W. J. 
Steinbeck, 3; R. L. Thompson, 1; Henry Trost, 6; Henry WaiTington, 1. 
Expedition: H. S. Swarth, 300. Purchase: 114. 

Eggs. Gift: G. Dallas Hanna, 22 sets; Hugo Lotzen, 1 nest. Expedition: 
H. S. Swarth, 6 sets and nests. 

Mammals. Gift: Brooklyn Museum, 2 ; Department of Exhibits, California 
Academy of Sciences, 37; Barton Warren Evermann, 15 (colored plates); Mrs. 
Barton Warren Evermann, 1; H. A. Haskell, 3; Joseph Mailliard, 2. Ex- 
pedition: H. S. Swarth, 32 skins and 33 skulls. 

Harry S. Swarth, Curator. 



Department of Paleontology 

In order to prevent the collections of the department from completely out- 
growing the available space for housing, exploratory work for the time being 
must be confined to the procuring of only such fossil material as will sub- 
stantially aid in projects already under way. IVIuch virgin territor>' remains to 
be examined for fossils and living shells in western North America, but much 
care must be exercised to prevent the acctunulation of such a great amount of 
research material that effective study and orderly arrangement becomes 
impossible. 

Following out the lines of investigation already begun, Mr. F. M. Anderson 



Vol. XVIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1929 559 

made several trips to northern California during 1928 and secured a fine lot of 
Cretaceous fossils. Since the ammonites of this period are to be found at only 
a few favorable localities in the state and are greatly damaged by weathering, 
it is highly desirable that the ground be gone over thoroughly at frequent 
intervals. 

Other important Cretaceous collections weie obtained in Alberta by Dr. Leo 
George Hertlein while engaged in geological investigations for the Hixdson's 
Bay Marland Oil Company of Canada. During this time he was on temporary 
leave of absence from the Academy. 

The work of identification and cataloguing of the collection was continued 
as rapidljr as possible. Through the efforts of Dr. Fred Baker and Mr. A. M. 
Strong several additional families of marine shells fiom Ait.-ican waters were 
classified. As this work progresses the wealth of material obtained by the 
Academy's three recent expeditions becomes more evident. Mr. Strong like- 
wise was responsible for the preparation of lists of the marine shells from 
Guadalupe Island and the Revillagigedo Islands. 

During the summer Dr. H. B. Baker, of the University of Pennsylvania, 
collected land and freshwater moUusca extensively in the west and it was pos- 
sible for Mr. John L. Nicholson and the curator to accompany' him to Klamath 
Lake, Oregon, for a few days. A large amovmt of excellent material was ob- 
tained on this short field trip. 

More valuable collections of foraminifera were added to the collections dur- 
ing 1929 than during any previous j-ear of existence of the department. For- 
tunately such fossils take up little room. The field work was done by ivlr. C. C. 
Church and the curator through the sympathetic cooperation of Mr. L. C. 
Decius, Chief Geologist of the Associated Oil Company. Additional fossil 
diatom material of great value was obtained through many channels. 

The acquisition of the great Baldwin collection of shells has been noted 
in the report of the Director for 1928. This fine accession was a gift to the 
Academy and a direct result of the interest in the institution held by Mr. 
Church. It is a matter of great regret on the part of the staft' of the department 
that sufficient storage cases arc not available for the unpacking of the entire 
collection and there is no available room for them if cases were on hand. By