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Full text of "Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences"

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PROCEEDINGS 



California Academy of Sciences 



FOURTH SERIES 



Vol. I 



1907-1912 



SAN FRANCISCO ^ 

PUBLISHED BY THE ACADEMY 

1912 



^ai4-<^3 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME I. 
Plates I-XXXIV. 

PAGE 

Title-page i 

Contents iii 

No. I. Preliminary Description of Four New Races of Gigantic 
Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands. By John 
Van Denburgh I 

(Published December 20, 1907) 

No. II. A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands. By Alban 

Stewart. (Plates I-XIX) 7 

(Published January 20, 1911) 

No. III. The Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of the Galapagos 

Islands. By Francis X. Williams. (Plates XX-XXI).. 289 
(Published October 7, 1911) 

No. IV. The Snakes of the Galapagos Islands. By John Van 

Denburgh. (Plates XXII-XXX) 323 

(Published January 17, 1912) 

No. V. Notes on the Botany of Cocos Island. By Alban Stewart. 

(Plates XXXI-XXXIV) 375 

(Published January 19, 1912) 

No. VI. The Geckos of the Galapagos Archipelago. By John Van 

Denburgh 405 

(Published April 16, 1912) 

No. VII. Notes on the Lichens of the Galapagos Islands. By Alban 

Stewart 431 

(Published December 17, 1912) 

Index 447 

December .30, 1914. 



PROCEKDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA" ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 1-6. - December 20, 1907. 



Expedition of the California Academy of 

Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 

19054906. 

I. 

Preliminary Descriptions of Four New Races of Gigantic 
Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands. 



BY 

John Van Denburgh, 

Curator of the Department of Herpetology. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
Published by the Academy 

1907 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

Leverett Mills Loomis, Chairman 
Alfred L. Kroeber Joseph W. Hobson 



THE HICKS-JUDD PRESS 
SAN FRANCISCO 




F»ROCEEDINQS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 1-6. December 20, 1907. 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906. 

I. 

PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTIONS OF FOUR NEW RACES 

OF GIGANTIC LAND TORTOISES FROM 

THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS. 

BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH, 
Curator of the Department of Herpetology. 

Early in 1905 the California Academy of Sciences decided 
to send an expedition to the Galapagos Islands. The general 
purpose was to explore this group more thoroughly than the 
opportunities of previous investigators had permitted, and to 
secure large collections of the plants, mollusks, insects, birds, 
mammals, and reptiles in the hope of throwing more definite 
light upon the origin of the archipelago. Particularly, it was 
determined to study the geology of the islands, to make a 
very careful search for fossils, and to spare no effort to secure 
specimens or remains of those laces of the gigantic land 
tortoises which long had been thought extinct. 

Study ot aie published results of previous expeditions had 
convinced me not only that these islands must all, at some 

December 19, 1907. 



2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

former period, have been parts of a single land-mass, becom- 
ing later, by partial submersion, separated into the various 
islands, but that Albemarle Island, which possesses several 
races of tortoises and on which Heller and Snodgrass found 
evidence of an elevation amounting to several hundred feet*- 
had much more recently been formed by the union of several 
smaller islands corresponding, probably, to its five great vol- 
canoes. Accordingly, the members of the expedition were 
instructed to collect on Albemarle exactly as though it still 
were five islands. 

The expedition set sail from San Francisco, on the twenty- 
eighth of June, 1905, in the schooner "Academy," which 
had been purchased and rechristened for the purpose. The 
scientific staff of the expedition consisted of eight young men. 
Mr. R. H. Beck, who has had more experience in these 
islands than any other collector, this being his fourth expe- 
dition to them, was in charge. Mr. Alban Stewart went as 
botanist; Mr. W. H. Ochsner, as geologist; Mr. F. X. Will- 
iams, as entomologist; while Mr. E. W. Gifford and Mr. 
J. S. Hunter were to study and collect the birds, and my 
assistant Mr. J. R. Slevin, with the aid of Mr. E. S. King, 
was to care for the reptiles. 

Having made brief stops at various islands near the coast 
of Lower California, as well as at San Benedicto, Socorro, 
Clipperton, and Cocos Islands, the party reached the Galapagos 
Archipelago and landed upon Hood Island, September 24, 
1905. During the months which followed the most arduous 
collecting was vigorously carried on in all the islands of the 
group, many of the larger being visited several times, and 
on September 25, 1906, after a full year of work, the 
"Academy" left Culpepper Island and set sail for San Fran- 
cisco, where she arrived in safety Thanksgiving Day, Novem- 
ber 29, 1906. 

The collections brought back are by far the largest and most 
important ever gathered in these islands. The reptiles num- 
ber over forty-five hundred specimens, of which nearly four 
thousand are from the Galapagos. The search for land tor- 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH-GIGANTIC LAND TORTOISES 3 

toises met with far greater success than I had dared anticipate. 
All of the races which had been supposed extinct were found 
still living, with the exception of that of Charles Island. Tor- 
toises were also found living on two islands which they had 
not previously been known to inhabit. On Barrington Island, 
also not hitherto known to have supported tortoises, por- 
tions of the remains of fourteen individuals were secured. It 
is probable that the tortoise of this island, like that of Charles, 
is really extinct. A single tortoise was secured on Cowley 
Mountain, Albemarle Island, and others were found living 
in all of the other localities from which these huge reptiles 
have ever been recorded. In all over three hundred tortoises 
are represented in the collection, some forty of them, however, 
only by more or less fragmentary remains. 

A complete report upon this collection can only be issued 
after an immense amount of work. Meanwhile, it seems 
best to publish this brief statement and the following pre- 
liminary descriptions of the tortoises of Hood, James, Chat- 
ham, and Narborough Islands, which seem never to have been 
described. 

Testudo hoodensis new species. 

Type. — Adult (?) female (?) now living in Golden Gate Park, San 
Francisco. California Academy of Sciences No. 8121. Hood Island, 
Galapagos Archipelago. Joseph R. Slevin and E. S. King. Caught June 
27, 1906. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; front of carapace high, little 
lower than middle, height at nuchal notch more than 41% (45%) of 
straight length; difference between percentages of heights at third 
vertebral and at nuchal notch less than 9 (5) ; carapace saddle-shaped, 
narrow anteriorly, width at margin of junction of second and third 
marginals not more than 54% (45%); first marginals not greatly 
enlarged, not much everted, their ventral surfaces not vertical, their 
most prominent points separated by less than 30% (20%); length 
over curve not more than 123% (122%), greater than width over 
curve; vertical distance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge 
of lateral marginals great, 12%; general size rather small, straight 
length (June, 1907) 22.2 inches; plastron long, median length 89%; 
plates striated, central portions of vertebrals and costals much 
elevated; pectoral plates forming a suture on median line; lower jaw 
and throat marked with yellow. 



4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Testudo darwini new species. 

Type. — Adult male. California Academy of Sciences No. 8108. James 
Island, Galapagos Archipelago. R. H. Beck and Joseph R. Slevin. 
July 31, 1906. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical vertebra 
biconvex;^ carapace high, elongate, somewhat dome-shaped but high 
in front; posterior declivity beginning about middle of third verte- 
bral; height at nuchal notch more than 41% (45%) of straight length; 
difference between percentages of height at third vertebral and at 
nuchal notch more than 9 (10); carapace not saddle-shaped, width 
at margin of junction of second and third marginals 55%; width 
over curve in male not greater than length over curve; vertical 
distance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge of lateral 
marginals moderately great (9%); general size large, straight length 
38 inches; shell heavy; pectoral plates forming a suture on median 
line; the sum of the measurements of the length over curve, length 
of plastron, height at nuchal notch, and height at third vertebral, 
equals or exceeds the sum of the measurements of the straight 
length, straight width, and width over curve; jaws and throat black. 

Testudo chathamensis new species. 

Type. — Skeleton of adult male. California Academy of Sciences No. 
8127. Found in a cave on Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 
R. H. Beck and Joseph R. Slevin. February 12-14, 1906. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical vertebra 
biconvex; carapace depressed, front elevated in male; height at 
nuchal notch less than 41% of straight length (male 34, female 27%); 
male flat-backed, female dome-shaped, difference between percentages of 
heights at third vertebral and at nuchal notch 6 in male, 24 in female; 
carapace of male slightly saddle-shaped but broad, width at margin 
of junction of second and third marginals 53% in male; anterior 
marginals but little everted; length over curve in male 112%, female 
126%; vertical distance from lower surface of plastron to lower 
edge of lateral marginals small, 4% in male, 6% in female; general 
size moderate, straight length in male 35.25 inches, female 22.5 inches; 
pectoral plates much reduced, not meeting on mid-line; jaws and 
throat of female black. 

Testudo phantasticus new species. 

Type. — Adult male. California Academy of Sciences No. 8101. Nar- 
borough Island, Galapagos Archipelago. R. H. Beck. April 5, 1906. 

'It is probable that this is the normal arrangement in all the races of the Galapag-os 
Islands. The third cervical vertebra has been found biconvex in the types of T. galaiiago- 
ensis and T. becki; but in seven specimens of the latter the fourth is biconvex, as in other 
races. 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH-GIGANTIC LAND TORTOISES 5 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical vertebra 
biconvex; front of carapace high, not lower than middle, height at 
nuchal notch more than 41% (54%) of straight length; difference 
between percentages of height at third vertebral and at nuchal 
notch less than 9 (2); carapace saddle-shaped, narrow anteriorly, 
width at margin of junction of second and third marginals not more 
than 54% (46%); first marginals much enlarged, everted more than 
in any other race, their ventral surfaces nearly vertical, their edges 
from nuchal notch to prominent point nearly horizontal, prominent 
point almost a right angle; distance between prominent points of 
first marginals more than 30% (32%); length over curve more than 
123% (124%), greater than width over curve; vertical distance from 
lower surface of plastron to lower edge of lateral marginals small, 
6%; general size moderate, straight length 34.5 inches; plastron 
short, 70% ; pectoral plates forming a suture on median line ; lower 
jaw and throat marked with yellow. 

A few words in explanation of the measurements given in 
the foregoing descriptions may be necessary. In attempting 
to avoid the indefiniteness which has too largely characterized 
descriptions of these tortoises it was quickly found necessary 
to devise some means of expressing and comparing upon paper 
their individual variation in shape. This, it was found, could 
best be done by taking numerous measurements of each tor- 
toise and reducing all these measurements to percentages of 
the (straight) length of the tortoise. In this way, the measure- 
ments of tortoises of all sizes may be directly compared. The 
tortoise is placed upon a level board or table in such a position 
that it rests naturally upon, as nearly as possible, the entire 
length of the plastral bridge of each side. With the tortoise 
in this position, the straight length is the distance between 
verticals erected at the nuchal notch and at the posterior 
border of the supracaudal plate. The straight width is the 
distance between verticals erected at the sides of the tortoise 
opposite the line of meeting of the second and third costal 
plates. The curved length is measured with a tape-measure 
over the midvertebral line from the nuchal notch to the pos- 
terior edge of the supracaudal plate. The curved width is 
taken from the bend in the marginal plates up along the line 
of meeting of the second and third costals, across the middle 
of the third vertebral, down between the second and third 
costals, to the line of bending of the marginals. The width 



6 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

second to third marginals is the straight width at the level 
of the lateral margins of the sutures between the second and 
third marginal plates of each side. The middle height is 
the vertical distance between the board or table and the middle 
of the third vertebral plate, and is taken with a square and 
spirit-level. The front height is taken in the same manner 
at the nuchal notch. The height to marginals is the vertical 
distance from the table to the lower border of the marginal 
plates at about the middle of the plastral bridge. The plastron 
is measured with a tape along the median line, the tape is not 
pushed into plastral depressions and when the plastron is 
notched the projections are not measured. 

San Francisco, 

November 18, 1907. 



The Academy cannot supply the back numbers 
of its pubHcations, its entire reserved stock having 
been destroyed in the conflagration of April, 1906. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 7-288 January 20, 1911 



Expedition of the California Academy 
Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 
19054906 

II 

A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands 



Alban Stewart 

Botanist to the Expedition 




SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

1911 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

Leverett Mills Loomis, Chairman 
Alfred L. Kroeber Joseph W. Hobson 



"-) 



THE HICKS-JUDD PRESS 
SAN FRANCISCO 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 7-288 January 20, 1911 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906 

II 

A BOTANICAL SURVEY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 

BY ALBAN STEWART 
Botanist to the Expedition 

CONTENTS 
Plates I-XIX 

PAGE 

Introduction 8 

Account of the Species of Vascular Plants .... 11 

Botanical Regions 206 

General Features of the Flora 211 

Ecological Factors 219 

Origin of the Galapagos Islands 233 

Origin of the Flora 239 

Bibliography of the Botany of the Galapagos Islands . . 246 

Index 249 

Explanation of Plates 254 

January 14. 1911 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Introduction 



In the spring of 1905 I received the appointment of botanist 
of the scientific expedition sent to the Galapagos Islands by 
the California Academy of Sciences. In preparing for this 
expedition the California Academy purchased the U. S. 
Ship "Ernest," a two masted schooner of eighty-seven tons 
burden, and after refitting, rechristened her the "Academy." 
Our party consisted of eleven members, as follows: R. H. 
Beck, chief; F. X. Williams, entomologist; W. H. Ochsner, 
geologist and conchologist ; J. R. Slevin, herpetologist ; J. S. 
Hunter and E. W. Gifford, ornithologists; E. S. King, 
assistant herpetologist; Frederick T. Nelson, mate; J. J. 
Parker, navigator; James W. White, cook; and myself, 
botanist. All of the scientific members of the expedition 
shipped as seamen, so that the expedition was made up mostly 
of sailor-scientists. 

The expedition left San Francisco on the morning of June 
28, 1905, and arrived at Hood Island, the most southern 
member of the Galapagos group, on September 24, nearly 
three months having been consumed on the trip, during which 
short stops were made at Ensenada, Lower California, and 
on San Martin, San Benito, San Geronimo, Cerros, Natividad, 
San Benedicto, Socorro, and Clipperton islands, Mexico, and 
Cocos Island, Costa Rica, on the most of which small collec- 
tions of plants were made. The expedition left the Galapagos 
Islands on the 25th of the following September, so that a year 
and one day was spent in the archipelago, during which time 
all of the islands were visited at least once, and the larger 
and more important ones two or more times at different 
seasons of the year. 

Up to the present time our knowledge of the flora of the 
V Galapagos Islands has been due mainly to the collections of 
Darwin, Andersson, Baur, and Snodgrass and Heller, and to 
the writings of Hooker, Andersson, and Robinson.^ 

^ For a table of the botanical collections made on the Galapagos Islands, see Robin- 
son, Flora of the Galapagos Islands, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, v. 38, no. 4, pp. 221-223. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 9 

Unfortunately many of the former collectors of plants 
remained but a short time upon the islands, and as most 
of them were not botanists, our knowledge of the general 
botanical conditions has remained rather meager. 

It was the intention at first to incorporate the entire botani- 
cal results of the expedition in a single paper, but as the 
present paper has assumed greater proportions than was 
expected, it seems best to divide the subject and publish the 
parts separately. The present paper consists of a rather 
detailed account of the different species of vascular plants, 
including their range in elevation and their distribution on 
the different islands ; a brief description of the different botani- 
cal regions; an account of the general features of the flora; 
an account of the factors governing the growth of vegetation ; 
and an account, so far as possible, of the evidence offered by 
the collection concerning the origin of the islands and of the 
flora. A second paper will deal entirely with a description 
of the botanical conditions on each island of the group, and 
short papers will treat of the lichens and mosses. 

The plan of treatment of the first part of this paper is in 
general the same as that pursued by Robinson in his "Flora 
of the Galapagos Islands," as I was unable to devise a plan 
which I thought would be better. Many of the statistical 
tables are simply revisions of the tables as given by Dr. 
Robinson, although a few new ones have been added where it 
seemed necessary. The entire nomenclature has been carefully 
gone over and revised to make it conform with the new rules 
of the Vienna conference. The ferns have been treated as 
a single family and not split up into several different families 
as has been done by some authors. Treating the group in 
this manner has enabled me to handle it to better advantage 
in the latter part of this paper. With but one exception the 
nomenclature of Christensen, "Index Filicum," has been used 
in this family. Unfortunately none of our instruments of 
measurement were graduated with the metric system, other- 
wise it would have been used. In order to economize space, 
the names of former collectors are only mentioned where there 



10 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

are neither specimens or notes of a species from a given 
locality in the collection under consideration. 

The collections of vascular plants were identified by myself 
at the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University under the 
direction of Dr. B. L. Robinson, Curator of the Gray 
Herbarium. I wish here to express my thanks to Dr. 
Robinson for his kindness in giving me free access to 
the excellent collections of plants from the Galapagos Islands 
which are in the Gray Herbarium, as well as for advice and 
assistance in innumerable places, rendered doubly valuable 
on account of his intimate knowledge of the flora of these 
islands. Dr. Robinson has also been kind enough to read and 
criticise the manuscript and to give advice about the arrange- 
ment of the same. I wish also to express my thanks to Dr. 
W. G. Farlow of Harvard University for identifying the 
lichens and mosses, and to Miss Mary A. Day, Librarian of 
the Gray Herbarium, for assistance in looking up the rather 
large amount of literature made necessary in revising the 
nomenclature. I wish further to acknowledge the kindness 
of Prof. M. L. Fernald of the Gray Herbarium for assistance 
in many places, of Mr. Casimir de Candolle of Geneva, Switz- 
erland, for assistance on Peperomia, of Mr. A. S. Hitchcock 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for aid in regard to 
the Gramineae, of Mr. H. D. House for assistance in the 
identification of some of the members of the Convolvulaceae, 
of Mr. W. H. Ochsner, geologist of the expedition, and Mr. 
E. W. Gifford, joint ornithologist of the expedition, for infor- 
mation about their particular subjects, and of Mr. H. H. 
Bartlett of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for assistance 
in translating many of the descriptions of the new species, 
varieties, and forms into Latin. 



Vol. I] STEWART—BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS H 

Account of the Species of Vascular Plants 

PTERIDOPHYTA 

FILICES 

Acrostichum L. 

A. aureum L. Sp. PI. 1069 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 104.— Albe- 
marle IsL. : Villamil, occasional in protected places at 31. SO 
ft. (nos. 773-774). Further distr. general in tropical countries. 

Adiantum L. 

A. aethiopicum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1560 (1763); Rob. (1), 
105. — Galapagos Ids. : ace. to Moore. Further distr. general 
in tropical countries. 

A. Alarconianum Gaud. Voy. Bon. Bot. t. 99 (1846). 
A. incisum Presl, Rel. Haenk. I. 61, t. 10, f. 3 (1830) ; Rob. 
(1), 105. — Galapagos Ids.: ace. to Moore. Further distr. 
Hex., S. Am. 

A. concinnum H. & B. in Willd. Sp. V. 451 (1810) ; Rob. 
(1), 105. — Abingdon Isl. : common in lava cracks at 550 ft. 
(no. 776). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, common among 
shady rocks at 2000 ft. (no. 779) ; Iguana Cove, common on 
side of the cliff above the cove (no. 780) ; Tagus Cove, com- 
mon in lava cracks at 1600 ft. (no. 778) ; Villamil, common in 
lava caverns at 1350 ft. (nos. 781-782). Charles Isl.: on 
moist shady rocks at 1000 ft. (nos. 783-784). James Isl.: 
Darwin; Scolder. Narborough Isl. : south side, Snodgrass 
and Heller. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., northern S. Am. 

A. diaphanum Bl. Enum. 215 (1828). — Albemarle Isl.: 
Villamil, occasional in moist places on the south side of the 
mountain at 3150 ft. (no. 785). Further distr. Old World. 

A. Henslovianum Hook. f. (3), 169; Rob. (1), 105.— Ab- 
ingdon Isl. : common in shady places 1500-1650 ft. (nos. 
786-788). Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, occasional at 400 



12 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ft., abundant at 4000 ft., (no. 790) ; Villamil, common in lava 
caverns at 1350 ft. (nos. 789, 791-793). Charles Isl. : Dar- 
win. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional at 1700 ft. (no. 
794). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common in shady 
places at 550 ft. (no. 795). James Isl. : James Bay, common 
on moist shady banks at 2150 ft. (nos. 796-797). Further 
distr. Andean S. Am. 

A. macrophyllum Sv^. Prodr. 135 (1788). — Albemarle 
Isl. : Villamil, common in lava caverns at 1350 ft. (no. 799). 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional in dense shade 
above 500 ft. (no. 800). James Isl.: James Bay, on shady 
banks at 2100 ft. (no. 801). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
northern S. Am. This fern is alv^ays found in the densest 
shade where there is a considerable amount of moisture. 

A. parvulum Hook. f. (3), 168; Rob. (1), 106. — Charles 
Isl. : Darzvin. Endemic. 

A. patens Willd. Sp. V. 439 (1810) ; Rob. (1), 106.— Gal- 
apagos Ids. : ace. to Moore. Further distr. Mex., northern S. 

Am. 

A. petiolatum Desv. Berl. Mag. V. 326 (1811). A. Kaul- 
fussii Kunze, Linnaea, XXI. 221 (1848); Rob. (1), 105.— 
Chatham Isl. : ace. to Moore. Indefatigable Isl. : Acad- 
emy Bay, common in shady places at 500 ft. (no. 798). Fur- 
ther distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

A. tetraphyllum H. B. Willd. Sp. V. 441 (1810). A. prio- 
nophyllum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. I. 20 (1815); Rob. (1), 
106. — Chatham Isl. : ace. to Moore. Further distr. Mex. 
W. Ind., S. Am. 

Anogramma Link 

A. chaerophylla (Desv.) Link, Fil. Sp. 138 (1841). Gym- 
nogramme chaerophylla Desv. Berl. Mag. V. 305 (1811) ; Rob. 
(1), 109. — Charles Isl.: Darwin. Further distr. Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am. Robinson, 1. c, expresses doubt as to the identity 
of the Darwin specimen. 

A. leptophylla (L.) Link, Fil. Sp. 137 (1841). Poly podium 
leptophylla L. Sp. PI. 1092 (1753). Gymnogramme lepto- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 13 

phylla Desv. Jour. Bot. I. 26 (1813); Rob. (1), 109.— 
Charles Isl. : Baiir. Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

Aspidium Sw. 

A. martinicense Spr. Anleit. III. 133 (1804). Nephrodium 
macrophyllum Bak. Syn. Fil. 300 (1874); Rob. (1), 110.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common in protected places on 
the south side of the mountain at 3150 ft. (no. 902). James 
Isl. : James Bay, common in moist situations at 2000 ft. (no. 
901). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., northern S. Am. 

Asplenium L. 

A. anisophyllum Var. latifolium, Hook. Sp. Fil. III. Ill 
(1860); Rob. (1), 106.— Galapagos Ids.: Capt. Wood. 
James Isl. : Darwin. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., 
Old World. 

A. cristatum Lam. Ency. II. 310 (1786). A. cicutarium 
Sw. Prod. 130 (1788); Rob. (1), 107.— Abingdon Isl.: 
common around 1950 ft. (no. 820). Albemarle Isl. : Villa- 
mil, common in lava caverns at 1350 ft. (no. 821). Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional in protected places around 
1800 ft. (no. 822). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, 
common in shady places above 550 ft. (no. 823). James Isl. : 
James Bay, rare in lava caverns at 1000 ft., common on moist 
shady rocks at 2150 ft., (nos. 824-827). Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., S, Am., Africa. 

A. formosum Willd. Sp. V. 329 (1810) ; Rob. (1), 107.— 
Abingdon Isl. : abundant at 1400 ft. (no. 825). Albemarle 
Isl.: Iguana Cove, abundant in shade at 250 ft. (no. 833) ; 
Tagus Cove, common in lava crevices, 1600-2800 ft. (nos. 
832, 834) ; Villamil, common among rocks at 1300 ft. (nos. 
835-836). Charles Isl.: abundant on moist shady rocks at 
1000 ft., and to some extent on the walls of the main crater at a 
somewhat higher elevation, (nos. 830, 844, 845). Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in moist shady places at 650 
ft. (no. 837). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, in leaf 
mold among rocks 400-600 ft., larger and more abundant at 



14 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the higher elevation, (nos. 841-842) ; northwest side, among 
rocks at 900 ft., (no. 1027) ; southeast side, common on shady 
rocks at 625 ft. (no. 843). James Isl. : James Bay, abundant 
in lava caverns at 900 ft., and in moist shady places at 2150 ft., 
where it reaches a height of 18 inches, (no. 838). Narbor- 
OUGH Isl.: in the upper moist regions (no. 840). - Further 
distr. general in tropical regions. 

A. laetum Sw. Syn. Fil. 79, 271 (1806) ; Rob. (1), 107.— 
Chatham Isl. : Capt. Wood. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

A. lunulatum Sw. Syn. Fil. 80 (1806); Rob. (1), 107.— 
Charles Isl. : Lee. Further distr. general in tropical regions. 

A. myriophyllum (Sw.) Presl, Rel. Haenk. I. 48 (1825). 
Caenopteris myriophylla Sw. Schrad. Jour. 1800, 2, 60 (1801). 
Asplenium rhizophyllum Kze. Linnaea, IX. 71 (1834); Rob. 
(1), 107. — Galapagos Ids.: Capt. Wood. James Isl.: Dar- 
win. Further distr. general in tropical regions. 

A. praemorsum Sw. Prod. 130 (1788). A. furcatum 
Thunb. Prodr. Fl. Cap. 172 (1800); Rob. (1), 107.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, in lava caverns on the west side of 
the mountain at 2200 ft. (no. 847) ; Villamil, occasional on 
trees in the upper moist regions, specimens taken at 1350 ft. 
(no. 846). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, occasional 
in leaf mold at 425 ft. (no. 848). Narborough Isl.: (no. 
852). James Isl. : James Bay, occasional on the branches of 
trees at 2150 ft (nos. 850-851) Further distr. general in 
tropical regions. 

A. pumilum Sw. Prod. 129 (1788). — Charles Isl.: in 
moist lava crevices at 1000 ft. (no. 853). Indefatigable 
Isl. : Academy Bay, common in leaf mold in open places in 
the vegetation at 425 ft. (no. 854). Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., northern S. Am. 

A. rutaceum (Willd.) Metten. Asplen. 129, t. 5, f. 32-33 
(1859). Aspidium rutaceum Willd. Sp. V. 266 (1810). 
Asplenium rutaceum Metten. 1. c. : Rob. (1), 108. — Gala- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 15 

PAGOS Ids. : ace. to Hook. &' Bak. Syn. Fil. 220. Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

A. Serra Langsd. & Fisch. Fil. 16, t. 16 (1810-1818) ; Rob. 
(1), 108. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common on moist 
rocks in protected places at 1500 ft. and in similar situations 
at 3150 ft. (nos. 856-857). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
abundant in a dense growth of Lycopodium clavatum and other 
ferns at 2050 ft. (no. 858). Duncan Isl.: common in a 
restricted area among rocks at 1300 ft. (no. 859). James 
Isl.: James Bay, occasional above 2000 ft. (no. 860). Fur- 
ther distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Africa. 

A. serratum L. Sp. PI. 1079 (1753); Rob. (1), 108.— 
Galapagos Ids. : Capt. Wood. Chatham Isl. : ace. to 
Moore. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Polynesia. 

A. sulcatum Lam. Eney. II. 308 (1786). A. auritum Sw. 
Fl. Ind. Oec. 1616 (1806); Rob. (1), 106.— Abingdon Isl.: 
common on the south side of the mountain at 1950 ft. and to 
some extent lower down (no. 806). Albemarle Isl.: Villa- 
mil, common on the trunks and branches of trees, 500-1300 ft., 
(no. 804). Charles Isl.: common on moist shady rocks at 
1000 ft. and on the branches of trees in protected places around 
1700 ft. (nos. 808-811). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, fairly 
common on the branches of trees at 700 ft. (no. 805). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common on the branches of 
trees above 600 ft., especially abundant on trees of Pisonia 
Horihunda, (nos. 815-816). James Isl.: James Bay, abund- 
ant in lava caverns at 1000 ft. and on the branches of trees 
above 2000 ft. (nos. 812-814). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. The Galapagos form of this species is considered a 
variety by some authors. 

Var. macilentum Moore, Ind. Fil. 115 (1859); Rob. (1), 
107. — Galapagos Ids. : ace. to Moore. Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

Blechnum L. 

B. blechnoides (Lag.) C. Chr. Ind. 151 (1905). Asplen- 
ium blechnoides Lag. Sw. Syn. 76 (1806). B. unilaterale 



15 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

Sw. Bed. Mag. 79, t. 3, f. 1 (1810).— Chatham Isl. : 
Wreck Bay, common in open country and on exposed rocks 
1700-2000 ft. (nos. 780-781). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
northern S. Am. 

B. occidentale L. Sp. PI. 1077 (1753); Rob. (1), 108.— 
Abingdon Isl. : south side, common above 1000 ft. Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, common in lava caverns at 2200 
ft. where the rocks are kept constantly moist from a seepage 
of water (no. 863) ; Villamil, in lava caverns, on the sides of 
moist cliffs, and in open woodland at 1350 ft. (no. 862). 
Charles Isl. : in protected places around 1600 ft. (nos. 864- 
866). Chatham Isl.: Baur. Duncan Isl.: in protected 
places at 1250 ft. (no. 867). James Isl.: James Bay, com- 
mon on moist shady rocks at 2150 ft. (nos. 868-869). Fur- 
ther distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Var. caudatum Hook. Sp. Fil. III. 51 (1860); Rob. (1), 
108. — Galapagos Ids. : Capt. Wood. Further distr. Mex., 
S. Am., Philippines. 

Ceropteris Link 

C. tartarea (Cav.) Link, Fil. Sp. 142 (1841). Acrosti- 
chum tartaraeum Cav. Desc. 242 (1802). Gymnogramme 
tartarea Desv. Berl. Mag. V. 305 (1811); Rob. (1), 109.— 

^Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus 
Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, occasional on the floor 
of the crater at 2750 ft., form with very coriaceous fronds, 
(no. 893). Bindloe Isl.: near steam jets in the interior of 
the island (no. 888). Charles Isl.: occasional above 1400 
ft. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, fairly abundant in open 
grassy country above 1700 ft. (no. 889). Duncan Isl.: in 
moist shady places in vegetable mold at 1300 ft. (No. 890). 
James Isl. : James Bay, occasional in lava caverns at 900 ft. 
and in moist places at 2150 ft. (nos. 891-892). Further distr. 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., tropics of the Old World. 

Cheilanthes Sw. 

C. microphylla Sw. Syn. Fil. 127 (1806) ; Rob. (1), 108.— 
Abingdon Isl. : occasional on rocks at 450 ft., common at 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 17 

1050 ft., (nos. 872-873). Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, 
common at 2000 ft. (no. 877) ; Iguana Cove, abundant in 
shady places near the shore (nos. 874-875) ; Tagus Cove, 
common in lava crevices around 2100 ft. (no. 876). Charles 
Isl.: rare at 1400 ft. (no. 878). Chatham Isl.: Wreck 
Bay, Baur. Indefatigable Isl. : southeast side, occurs first 
at 350 ft. where a few stunted specimens were found growing 
in lava crevices, common in woodland at 625 ft., (nos. 879- 
881). Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

C. myriophylla Desv. Berl. Mag. V. 328 (1813) ; Rob. (1), 
109. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snod grass and Heller. 
Further distr. Mex., Ecuador to Peru, India. 

Cyclopeltis J. Sm. 

C. semicordata (Sw.) J. Sm. Bot. Mag. 72, Comp. 36 
(1846). Polypodium semicordatum Sw. Prodr. 132 (1788). 
Aspidium semicordatum Sw. Syn. Fil. 45 (1806) ; Rob. (1), 
106. — Galapagos Ids. : Capt. Wood. Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

Cystopteris Bernh. 

C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. in Schrad. Neues Jour. Bot. I. pt. 
2, 26, 49, t. 2, f. 9 (1806). Polypodium fragile L. Sp. PI. 
1091 (1753). C. fragilis Bernh. I.e.; Rob. (1), 109.— 
Charles Isl. : ace. to Wolf. Robinson 1. c. has already ex- 
pressed some doubt about the identity of the Galapagos Island 
specimen. As this was one of the islands most thoroughly 
explored by our party, and as this species does not appear in 
the collection, it seems very likely that Wolf was wrong in 
his determination. Widely distributed. 

Doryopteris J. Sm. 

D. concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kuhn. v. Deck. Reis. III. 
3 Bot. 19 (1879). Pteris concolor Langsd. & Fisch. Ic. Fil. 
19, t. 21 (1810). Pellaea geraniaefolia Fee Gen. Fil. 130 
(1850-1852); Rob. (1), 111.— Galapagos Ids.: Douglas. 



18 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Owing to the fact that this fern has not reappeared in any of 
the recent collections from these islands it seems not at all 
unlikely that the specimen collected by Douglas was D. pedata 
which resembles this species very much in general appearance. 
Further distr. general in tropical regions. 

D. pedata (L.) Fee Gen. Fil. 133 (1850-1852). Pteris 
pedata L. Sp. PI. 1075 (1753); Rob. (1), 114.— Abingdon 
IsL. : occasional above 1000 ft., reported by F. X. Williams. 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional in shady places 
above 2100 ft. (no. 1001); Iguana Cove, common in shady 
places at 250 ft. (no. 1003) ; Tagus Cove, occasional in lava 
crevices at 4000 ft.; Villamil, common in woodland, 450-1300 
ft. (no. 1011). Charles Isl.: rare at 1650 ft. (no. 1006). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional in shady woodland at 
650 ft., and in open country at 2100 ft. around the summit of 
the mountain, (nos. 1004-1005). Indefatigable Isl. : Acad- 
emy Bay, occasional in rather open places in the vegetation 
around 300 ft., above 600 ft. it is found growing among dense 
vegetation where it is more abundant and larger than at the 
lower elevation, (no. 1008) ; southeast side, above 600 ft. (no. 
1007); northwest side, first seen at 650 ft. James Isl.: 
James Bay, occasional among rocks at 900 ft., abundant in 
woodland at 2100 ft., (nos. 1009-1010). Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am. 



Dryopteris Adans. 

D. brachyodus (Kze.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL II. 812 
(1891). Poly podium brachyodus Kze. Linnaea IX. 48 
(1834). Nephrodium hrachyodon Hook. Sp. Fil. IV. 83 
(1862); Rob. (1), 110.— Galapagos Ids.: Capt. Wood. 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

D. furcata (Kl.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. II. 812 (1891). 
Aspidium furcatum Kl. Linn. XX. 371 (1847). Poly podium 
paleaceum Hook. f. (3), 166; Rob. (1) 112. — Albemarle 
Isl.: Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, occa- 
sional in lava caverns at 1350 ft. (no. 959). Charles Isl.: 
occasional on moist rocks at 1000 ft. (no. 957). Chatham 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 19 

IsL. : Wreck Bay, occasional in moist shady places at 650 ft. 
(no. 960). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional 
in open places in the vegetation at 550 ft. (no. 963). James 
Isl. : James Bay, common on moist shady banks at 2750 ft. 
(nos. 961-962). Further distr. S. Am. 

D. parasitica (L.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. II. 811 (1891). 
Polypodium parasiticum L. Sp. PI. 1090 (1753). Nephro- 
dium molle Desv. Mem. Soc. Linn. VI. 258 (1827) ; Rob. (1), 
110. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Villamil, in lava caverns at 1350 ft. and in protected places 
at 3150 ft. (nos. 904-905). Charles Isl. : common on moist 
rocks at 1000 ft. (nos. 908-910). Chatham Isl.: Wreck 
Bay, occasional in shady places at 1000 ft., abundant at 2100 
ft. (nos. 906-907). Duncan Isl.: occasional in moist 
shady places at 1300 ft. (no. 911). James Isl.: James Bay, 
abundant around 2000 ft. (nos. 912-913). Further distr. 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., tropics of the Old World. 

D. pseudotetragona Urban, Symb. Ant. IV. 20 (1903). 
Nephrodium tetragonum Presl, Rel. Haenk. I. 35 (1825). — 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common in dense shade 
above 550 ft. (nos. 884-885). Further distr. southern U. S., 
Mex., northern S. Am. 

D. reticulata (L.) Urban, Symb. Ant. IV. 22 (1903). 
Polypodium reticulatum L. Syst. Nat, ed. 10, 2, 1352 (1759). 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, rare in shady places 
above 550 ft. (no. 900). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., north- 
ern S. Am. 

D. rudis (Kze.) C. Chr. Ind. 289 (1905). Polypodium 
rude Kze. Linnaea XIII. 133 (1839); Rob. (1), 113.— 
Galapagos Ids. : Capt. Wood. Further distr. Mex., northern 
S. Am. 

D. tricholepis (Bak.) C. Chr. Ind. 298 (1905). Nephro- 
dium tricholepis Bak. Hems. Biolog. Cent. Am. Bot. III. 651 
(1885). — Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common in moist 
places at 2000 ft. (no. 914). James Isl.: James Bay, com- 
mon at 2150 ft. (no. 915). Further distr. Mex. 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

D. villosa (L.) O. Kze. Rev. Gen. II. 814 (1891). Poly- 
podium villosum L. Sp. PI. 1093 (1753). Nephr odium villo- 
sum Presl, Rel. Haenk. I. 38 (1830); Rob. (1), 110.— 
Chatham Isl. : Capt. Wood. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

Elaphoglossum Schott 

E. muscosum (Sw.) Moore, Ind. Fil. 362 (1857). Acros- 
tichum muscosum Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1591 (1806) ; Rob. (1), 
104. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, abundant on the sides of 
steep banks on the south side of the mountain at 3150 ft. (no. 
775). James Isl.: Darwin. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

E. petiolatum (Sw.) Urban, Symb. Ant. IV. 61 (1903). 
Acrostichum petiolatum Sw. Prod. 128 (1788). A. viscosum 
Sw. Syn. Fil. X. 193 (1806); Rob. (1), 105.— James Isl.: 
Darwin. Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

Gleichenia Sm. 

G. linearis (Burm.) Clarke, Trans Linn. Soc. II. Bot. I. 
428 (1880). Polypodium lineare Burm. Fl. Ind. 235, t. 67, 
f. 2 (1768). G. dichotoma Hook. Sp. Fil. I. 12 (1846); 
Rob. (1), 109. — Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occasional in 
shady protected places at 1300 ft., abundant 1800-2100 ft., 
(no. 886). Duncan Isl.: rare at 1300 ft. (no. 887). Fur- 
ther distr. general in tropical regions. 

Hemitelia R. Br. 

H. multiflora (Sm.) R. Br. Prod. Fl. N. Hoi. 158 (1810). 
Cyathia multiiiora Sm. Mem. Ac. V. 416 (1793). — Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, common on the south, east, and south- 
east inner walls of the crater at 3150 ft. and occasional on the 
outside above 2450 ft. (no. 894). Chatham Isl.: Wreck 
Bay, trees 6-10 ft. high common on the south and southeast 
sides of the main mountain at 1800-2000 ft. (no. 895). 
James Isl. : James Bay, trees 8-10 ft. high on south and 
southeast sides above 2750 ft., forming a well marked belt, 
(no. 896). Further distr. W. Ind., S. Am. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 21 

Histiopteris Agardh. 

H. incisa (Thbg.) J. Sm. Hist. Fil. 295 (1875). Pteris 
incisa Thbg. Fl. Cap. 733 (1823); Rob. (1), 114.— Abing- 
don IsL. : occasional around 1950 ft. (no. 997), Albemarle 
IsL. : Villamil, common in the upper moist regions (nos. 
998, 1000). James Isl. : James Bay, abundant in the moist 
regions (no. 999). Further distr. general in tropical regions. 

Hymenophyllum Sm. 

H. hirsutum (L.) Sw. Schrad. Jour. 1800, 2, 99 (1801). 
Trichomanes hirsutum L. Sp. PI. 1098 (1753). — Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant in moist shady places around 
1750 ft. (no. 898). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., Brazil, 
Mascarine Ids. 

H. polyanthos Sw. Schrad. Jour. 1800, 2, 102 (1801).— 
Duncan Isl. : in dense tufts on the southeast sides of rocks 
at 1300 ft. (no. 899). Widely distr. in tropical regions. 

Hypolepis Bernh, 

H. repens (L.) Presl, Tent. Pterid. 162 (1836). Lon- 
chitis repens L. Sp. PI. 1078 (1753). H. repens. Presl, 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 109. — Galapagos Ids.: Capt. Wood. Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Nephrolepis Schott 

N. biserrata (Sw.) Schott, Gen. Fil. ad t. 3 (1834). As- 
pidium biserratum Sw. Schrad. Jour. 1800, 2, 32 (1801). N. 
acuta Presl, Tent. Pterid. 79 (1836); Rob. (1), 110.— Ab- 
ingdon Isl. : forming heavy brakes above 1650 ft. (nos. 916- 
917). Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, abundant in the vicinity 
of the shore, forming brakes 6 or more ft. in height. The 
area in which this fern occurs at this place is very limited and 
its presence here is due to several seepages of comparatively 
fresh water coming down from the upper parts of the island 
through crevices in the lava. This is one of the very few 
places on the islands where ferns occur at sea level, (no. 921). 



22 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

BiNDLOE IsL. : common in moist places in the interior (no. 
920). James Isl. : James Bay, occasional in lava caverns 
around 1000 ft. (no. 918). Wenman Isl.: common in lava 
caverns and on the sides of the cliffs (no. 919). Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., tropics of the Old World. 

N. pectinata (Willd.) Schott, Gen. Fil. ad t. 3 (1834). 
Aspidium pectinatum Willd. Sp. V. 223 (1810). N. pectinata 
Schott. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 110. — Abingdon Isl.: covering tree 
trunks and sides of banks around 1950 ft. (no. 992). Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, abundant on the sides of lava crevices 
at 1350 ft. (no. 928). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common 
on the trunks of tree ferns, Hemitelia multHiora, at 1800 ft. 
and in dense growths of Lycopodium clavatum and ferns at 
2100 ft. (no. 926). Duncan Isl.: in shady protected places 
on the south side of the island at 1300 ft. (no. 924). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional in shady woodland 
above 500 ft. James Isl. : James Bay, occasional at 150 ft. 
in crevices in the recent lava south of the bay, occasional in 
lava caverns at 900 ft. From 2150-2850 ft, it is very abundant 
on the trunks of trees, often completely covering them with a 
dense network of fibrous roots. The roots of this fern seem to 
contain a volatile oil, as they burn with great intensity when 
ignited, (nos. 923-925). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. 
Am., Old World. 

Notholaena R. Br. 

N. sulphurea (Cav.) J. Sm. Bot. Voy. Herald 233 (1852- 
1857). Pteris sulfurea Cav. Descr. 269 (1802). Notho- 
chleana sulphurea J. Sm. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 111. — Albemarle 
Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, mountain north of, Snodgrass and Hel- 
ler; Cowley Bay, on rocks at 1450 ft. (no. 932) ; Iguana Cove, 
abundant above 200 ft. (no. 930) ; Tagus Cove, in lava crev- 
ices 300-2900 ft. (no. 931). James Isl.: James Bay, occa- 
sional on the walls of a small tufa crater, south of the bay, at 
75 ft., (no. 933). Narborough Isl.: common on the north 
side above 500 ft. (no. 934). This is usually one of the first 
ferns to be seen in going up the sides of the mountains. Fur- 
ther distr. S. W. U. S., Mex., Andean S. Am. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 23 

Polypodium L. 

P. angustifolium Sw. Prod. 130 (1788) ; Rob. (1), 111.— 
James Isl. : James Bay, on the trunks and branches of trees 
around 2100 ft. (no. 935). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

P. aureum L. Sp. PI. 1087 (1753); Rob. (1), 111.— Al- 
bemarle Isl.: Villamil, common on rocks at 1500 ft., also 
common on the trunks and branches of Zanthoxylum F agar a 
at 3150 ft., (nos. 936-937). Duncan Isl.: occasional on 
the sides of perpendicular cliffs at 1250 ft. (no. 939). James 
Isl. : James Bay, common on the trunks of trees at 2150 ft. 
and in similar situations at 2800 ft. (no. 938). Further distr. 
S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., "Australia" ace. to Rob. 
(1), 111. 

P. crassifolium L. Sp. PI. 1083 (1753); Rob. (1), 112.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, in the upper regions on the 
southeast side of the mountain (no. 941). Indefatigable 
Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional in dense shade at 550 ft. (no. 
940). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., northern S. Am. 

P. lanceolatum L. Sp. PI. 1082 (1753); Rob. (1), 112.— 
Abingdon Isl.: common on trees above 1650 ft. (no. 946). 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common on trees above 400 
ft. (no. 948) ; Villamil, common on the trunks and branches 
of trees, 350-3150 ft, (no. 951). Charles Isl.: common 
on trees at 1000-1700 ft. (no. 950). Duncan Isl.: occa- 
sional on bushes and small trees at 1300 ft. (no. 949). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common on tree trunks above 
400 ft. (no. 947). James Isl.: Darwin. Further distr. 
tropics of both hemispheres. 

P. lepidopteris (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kze. Linnaea XIII. 132 
(1839). Acrostichum lepidopteris Langsd. & Fisch. Ic. Fil. 
V. t. 2 (1810). P. lepidopteris Kze. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 112.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common on trunks and branches 
of trees, 500-600 ft., (no. 952). Duncan Isl. : occasional on 
bushes and small trees at 1200 ft. ; nearly all of the specimens 
are small, a fact which is probably due to the somewhat xero- 
phytic conditions which prevail around the top of this island, 

January 14, 1911. 



24 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

(no. 954). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, on trees, 
375-450 ft., (no. 956) ; southeast side, rare on trees at 625 
ft. James Isl.: James Bay, on trees at 1300 ft. (no. 955). 
This fern is usually found in the transition and lower moist 
regions. Further distr. Mex., S. Am. 

P. loriceum L. Sp. PI. 1086 (1753); Rob. (1), 112.— 
Galapagos Ids.: Moore. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. 
Am. 

P. pectinatum L. Sp. PI. 1085 (1753); Rob. (1), 113.— 
Abingdon Isl. : occasional among rocks in the wooded region 
above 1000 ft. (no. 961). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, 
occurs first among rocks in shady woodland at 2000 ft. Below 
this elevation the soil is composed entirely of pumice, which 
is not well adapted to support a fern flora; Iguana Cove, 
among rocks in woodland near the shore; Tagus Cove, com- 
mon in lava caverns at 2200 ft. and on the west side of the 
mountain at 4000 ft. (no. 967) ; Villamil, common among 
rocks 100-3150 ft. (no. 969). Charles Isl.: common in 
lava crevices on the inner walls of the main crater at 1400 ft. 
(no. 968). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, fairly abundant in 
shady woods at 700 ft. (no. 966). Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, common in vegetable mold among rocks, 350- 
500 ft., (no. 962); northwest side, occasional at 1000 ft.; 
southeast side, common among rocks at 625 ft. James Isl. : 
James Bay, common above 1300 ft. (no. 966). This fern is 
most abundant in the lower part of the moist region but 
usually disappears when the vegetation becomes dense. Fur- 
ther distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

P. percussum Cav. Prael. 243 (1801); Rob. (1), 113.— 
Galapagos Ids. : Capt. Wood. Further distr. Mex., S. Am. 

P. Phyllitides L. Sp. PI. 1083 (1753); Rob. (1), 113.— 
James Isl. : James Bay, common in open woodland above 
1500 ft. (no. 969). "Large sword ferns" were reported from 
the upper regions of Abingdon Isl., and Banks Bay, Albe- 
marle Isl. by Mr. F. X. Williams, the entomologist of the 
expedition. From his description it seems very likely that it 
was this species that he saw. Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 25 

P. pleiosoros Hook. f. (3), 166 (as pleiosorum) ; Rob. (1), 
113. — James IsL. : Darzvin. Endemic. 

P. polypodioides (L.) Hitchcock, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. IV. 
156 (1893). Acrostichum polypodioides L. Sp. PI. 1068 
(1753). P. incanum Sw. Prod. 131 (1788); Rob. (1), 112. 
— Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common on the trunks of trees 
at 600 ft. (no. 944). Charles Isl.: Darwin. Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : Academy Bay, on the trunks and branches of trees 
above 425 ft. (no. 942) ; southeast side, common on tree 
trunks at 625 ft. (no. 943). Widely distributed. 

P. squamatum L. Sp. PI. 1086 (1753); Rob. (1), 113.— 
Abingdon Isl. : common on rocks at 450 ft., occasional on 
the trunks and branches of trees on the upper parts of the 
island, (no. 978). Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snod grass 
and Heller; Tagus Cove, common in lava crevices at 2800 ft. 
(no. 986) ; Villamil, common on recent lava near the shore 
and in woodland above 350 ft. Bindloe Isl. : common on 
lava in the upper interior parts of the island (no. 971). 
Charles Isl. : occasional in open woodland at 1000 ft., 
abundant at 1400 ft, (no. 972). Chatham Isl.: Basso 
Point, first seen at 900 ft. ; Wreck Bay, abundant in shady 
woodland at 600 ft., fairly common in open country at 1700 
ft., occasional at 2100 ft, (nos. 973-974). Duncan Isl.: 
occurs first at 1000 ft. on the north side of the island, and at 
700 ft. on the south side where the vegetation is bathed by 
the fog-laden wind, common at 1300 ft. on the south side, 
(no. 975). Hood Isl.: occasional on the southeast side of 
cliffs at 600 ft (no. 979). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy 
Bay, occasional at 50 ft., abundant, covering rocks in open 
woodland, at 350-500 ft., (no. 985) ; northwest side, occa- 
sional at 650 ft.; southeast side, occasional at 600 ft., forming 
low brakes around 700 ft., (no. 987). James Isl.: James 
Bay, abundant on recent lava beds above 500 ft., apparently 
one of the first vascular plants to invade the recent lava above 
this elevation, (no. 977). Jervis Isl.: occasional in a very 
limited area around 1050 ft (no. 984). Narborough Isl.: 
south side, common in the upper regions. Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., northern S. Am. 



26 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

P. thyssanolepis A. Br. Kl. Linn. XX. 392 (1847).— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, abundant at 600 ft., on trees at 
1300 ft., (nos. 989-990). James Isl. : James Bay, occasional 
on the trunks of trees at 2750 ft. (no. 991). Further distr. 
S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., northern S. Am. 

Polystichum Roth. 

P. aculeatum (L.) Schott, Gen. Fil. ad t. 9 (1834). Poly- 
podium aculeatum L. Sp. PI. 1090 (1753). Aspidium acu- 
leatum Sw. Schrad. Jour. 1800, 2, 37 (1801). — Albemarle 
Isl. : Villamil, occasional on the south side of the mountain 
at 3150 ft. (no. 802). Widely distributed. 

P. adiantiforme (Forst.) J. Sm. Hist. Fil. 220 (1875). 
Poly podium adiantiforme Forst. Prod. 82 (1786). Aspidium 
coriaceum Sw. Syn. Fil. 57 (1806); Rob. (1), 106.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, occasional on the south side of the 
mountain at 3150 ft. (no. 803). James Isl.: Darwin. Fur- 
ther distr. W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

P. apiifolium (Sw.) C. cL Ind. 64 (1905), 578 (1906). 
Dicksonia apiifolia Sw. Schrad. Jour. 1800, 2, 91 (1801). — 
James Isl. : James Bay, occasional at 2000 ft. (nos. 882- 
883). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., Andean S. Am. 

Pteris L. 

P. aquilina var. esculenta Hook. f. Fl. N. Zeal. II. 25 
(1855); Rob. (1), 114. — Abingdon Isl.: forms extensive 
brakes on the south side of the island above 1600 ft. (no. 
992). Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Hel- 
ler; Villamil, common in open woodland, 1200-1400 ft. ; also 
common on the southeast side of the mountain at 3150 ft., 
and on the floor of the crater at 2750 ft., where it forms exten- 
sive brakes, (no. 993). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occurs 
first at 1000 ft., forming extensive brakes at 1700 ft., common 
at 2100 ft., (nos. 994-996). Further distr. general in tropical 
regions. 

P. propinqua var. Cumingiana Ag. Sp. Gen. Pterid. 65 
(1839); Rob. (1), 115.— Galapagos Ids.: Capt. Wood. 
Further distr. Mex., northern S. Am. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 27 

Trachypteris Andre 

T. pinnata (Hook, f.) C. Chr. Ind. 634 (1906). Hemion- 
itis pinnata Hook. f. Trans. Linn. Soc. XX. 167 (1847). 
Acrostichum aureonitens Hook. f. Ic. PI. X. t. 933 (1854); 
Rob. (1), 104. — Abingdon Isl. : abundant on rocks at 600- 
1000 ft. (no. 772). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, common 
around 2000 ft. ; Iguana Cove, abundant on shady rocks near 
the shore (no. 768) ; Tagus Cove, abundant at 500-4000 ft. 
(nos. 766-767) ; Villamil, on rocks in shady places, 100-1300 
ft, (no. 771). Charles Isl.: common on moist rocks at 
1000 ft. (no. 1026). Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, on rocks 
at 900 ft. ; Wreck Bay, occasional at 900 ft. Indefatigable 
Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional on the sides of steep bluffs at 
50 ft., abundant above 350 ft., (no. 766) ; southeast side, 
rare at 450 ft., abundant above 500 ft. James Isl. : James 
Bay, on rocks in open woodland, 800-1300 ft., (no. 770). 
Narborough Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. 

Trichomanes L. 

T. pusillum Sw. Prod. 136 (1788). — James Isl.: James 
Bay, common on moist tufa walls at 2050 ft. (no. 1012). 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., northern S. Am., Africa. 

Vittaria J. Sm. 

V. angustifolia (Sw.) Bak. Fl. Bras. I. 2, 544 (1870). 
Pteris angustifolia Sw. Prod. 129 (1788), Taenitis angusti- 
folia R. Br. Prod. 154, in note (1810); Rob. (1), 115.— 
Galapagos Ids. : Capt. Wood. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 



SALVINIACEAE 

^ AzoUa Lam. 

A. caroliniana Willd. Sp. V. 541 (1810) ; Rob. (1), 115.— 
Charles Isl. : abundant on mud and floating in water around 
springs at 1000 ft. (no. 3441). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
common in small streams, 1000-1700 ft., (no. 3442). Further 
distr. U. S., Mex., S. Am. 



28 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Salvinia L. 

S. sp. Wolf, (1), 284; Rob. (1), 115.— Charles Isl. : in 
brooks near the hacienda, ace. to Wolf 1. c. 

EQUISETACEAE 

Equisetum L. 

E. bogotense HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. I. 42 (1815).— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, rare on the south rim of the crater at 
3150 ft. (no. 3443). Further distr. Mex. (Cent. Am.), W. 
Ind., S. Am. 

LYCOPODIACEAE 

Lycopodium L. 

L. clavatum L. Sp. PI. 1101 (1753); Rob. (1), 115.— 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, forming thick tangled masses 
2-3 ft. high above 1500 ft. (no. 1014). James Isl.: James 
Bay, rare around 2500 ft. (no. 1015). Widely distributed. 

L. complanatum L. Sp. PI. 1104 (1753). — Albemarle 
Isl.: Villamil, occasional at 3150 ft. (no. 1016). Widely 
distributed. 

L. dichotomum Jacq. Enum. Vindob. 314 (1762); Rob. 
(1), 115. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common on the higher 
branches of trees, 500-700 ft, (no. 1017). Indefatigable 
Isl. : Academy Bay, on the trunks and branches of trees, 400- 
500 ft., (no. 1019) ; northwest side, common on the higher 
branches of Psidium galapageium trees above 1000 ft. Fur- 
ther distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Madagascar. 

L. reflexum Lam. Encyc. III. 653 (1789). — Albemarle 
Isl.: Villamil, common at 3150 ft. (no. 1020). Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. ^, 

L. taxifolium Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. III. 1573 (1806).— 
Charles Isl. : abundant on branches of Acnistus ellipticus 
trees at 1700 ft. (no. 1021). Wolf 1. c. 283 refers to two un- 
determined species of Lycopodium from this island and it 
seems likely that this is one of them. James Isl. : James Bay, 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 29 

common on the branches of Zanthoxylum Fagara trees at 2150 
ft. (nos. 1023-1024). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., northern 
S. Am. 

SPERMATOPHYTA 

MONOCOTYLEDONEAE 

POTAMOGETONACEAE 

Potamogeton Tourn. 

P. pectinatus L. Sp. PI. 127 (1753); Rob. (1), 115.— Al- 
bemarle IsL. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. Widely 
distributed. 

Ruppia L. 

R. maritima L. Sp. PI. 127 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 116.— Albe- 
marle IsL. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Widely 
distributed. 

NAJADACEAE 

Najas L. 

N. marina L., var. latifolia A. Br. ex Schum. in Mart. Fl. 
Bras. III. pt. 3, 725 (1894); Rob. (1), 116.— Albemarle 
IsL. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. 
tropical S. Am. 

GRAMINEAE 

Ammophila Host. 

A. arenaria (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. I. 105 (1827). Arundo 
arenaria L. Sp. PI. 82 (1753). — Seymour Isl.^ south: form- 
ing a patch about one-fourth mile long on a sand beach on the 
west side of the island. The specimen is sterile and somewhat 
doubtful as to species, (no. 1195). Further distr. N. Am., 
Europe. 

Anthephora Schreb. 

A. hermaphrodita (L.) O. Kze. Rev. Gen. II. 759 (1891). 
Tripsacum hermaphroditum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1397 (1763). An- 
thephora elegans Schreb. Beschr. Gras. II. 105 t. 44 (1810) ; 
Rob. (1), 116. — Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, occasional in 



30 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

tufaceous soil in open sunny places on the lower parts (no. 
1196). Charles Isl. : rare at 850 ft., common in tufaceous 
soil at 1200 ft, (nos. 1197-1198). Chatham Isl.: north 
side, Baur. Indefatigable Isl. : northwest side, Andersson. 
James Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Aristida L. 

A. divulsaAnderss. (1), 143, and (2), 49; Rob. (1), 116.— 
Abingdon Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Bindloe Isl. : Baiir. 
Chatham Isl. : Sappho Cove, occasional in bunches on the 
recent lava in the vicinity of the cove, (no. 1200). James Isl. : 
James Bay, common in lava crevices near the shore (no. 1199). 
Endemic. 

A. repensTrin. Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. VI. I. 87 (1831) ; 
Rob. (1), 117. — James Isl. : Douglas. Endemic. 

A. subspicata Trin. & Rupr. Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. VI. 
I. 125 (1842); Rob. (1), 117.— Abingdon Isl.: common in 
lava crevices in the vicinity of the shore and also sparingly at 
1100 ft. (nos. 1201-1203). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, 
common in soil of pumiceous origin at 1000 ft. (no. 1207) ; 
Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, common 
on the side of the cliffs above the cove, also common in open 
places around 300 ft., (no. 1206) ; Tagus Cove, common in 
open country near the shore and around 1000 ft. (no. 1208) ; 
Villamil, common in lava crevices near the shore (nos. 1204- 
1205). Barrington Isl.: occasional in loose soil among 
masses of lava (no. 1210). Bindloe Isl.: common near the 
shore and on the crests of tufa ridges in the interior of the 
island (no. 1211). Brattle Isl.: (no. 1212). Charles 
Isl.: abundant at 850 ft, occasional at 1750 ft, (nos. 1213, 
1214, 1216, 1217); Cormorant Bay, occasional in lava crev- 
ices (no. 1215). Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, occasional on 
lava and in open places in the dry region where the soil is very 
loose in texture (no. 1218). Gardner »Isl. (near Hood 
Isl.) : common everywhere (no. 1219). Hood Isl. : occasional 
among rocks (no. 1220). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy 
Bay, abundant in open places in the vegetation on the lower 
parts (no. 1221); north side, abundant in ashy soil on the 



Vol. I] STEWART-BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS SI 

lower parts (no. 1224) ; northeast side, abundant on the flat 
area near the shore (no. 1222) ; northwest side, common in 
tufaceous soil (no. 1225). James Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass 
and Heller; northeast side, occasional in sand and in lava crev- 
ices (no. 1226). Narborough Isl.: north side, abundant in 
lava crevices (no. 1227). Seymour Ids., north and south: 
Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. S. Am. This is one of 
the most abundant and wide spread grasses of the dry region. 
It occurs commonly where the soil is too porous to support 
much large vegetation, and in such situations it often covers 
considerable areas. 

A. villosaRob. & Greenm. (1), 144, 149; Rob. (1), 117.— 
Duncan Isl. : abundant on the lower and dry parts of the 
island (nos. 1228-1229). Jervis Isl. : Baiir. Endemic. 

Bouteloua Lag. 

B. pilosa (Hook, f.) Benth. ace. to Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
XVIII. 179 (1883). Eutriana pilosa Hook. f. (3), 173. B. 
pilosa Benth. 1. c. : Rob. (1), 117.— Abingdon Isl.: occa- 
sional in open places at 1050 ft. (no. 1230). Albemarle Isl. : 
Iguana Cove, in spreading bunches among thick vegetation at 
250 ft. (no. 1231) ; Tagus Cove, abundant in tufaceous soil on 
the lower parts of the island (no. 1232) ; Villamil, occasional 
m woodland at 250 ft. (no. 1233). Barrington Isl. : Snod- 
grass and Heller. Chatham Isl.: north side, Andersson. 
Indefatigable Isl.: north side, Snodgrass and Heller. 
James Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Jervis Isl. : 
Baur. Narborough Isl. : north side, abundant on lava beds 
near the shore (no. 1234). Seymour Ids., north and south : 
Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Cenchrus L. 

C. distichophyllus Griesb. Cat. PI. Cub. 234 (1866); Rob. 
( 1 ) , 1 18. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, Baiir. Chatham Isl. : 
Sappho Cove, forming dense mats on sand beaches (no. 1236). 
Hood Isl. : fairly common on sand beaches (no. 1235). Fur- 
ther distr. Cuba. 

C. granulans Anderss. (1), 140, and (2), 47; Rob. (1), 
118. — Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, common at 100-4000 ft. 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

(nos. 1237-1238). Charles Isl. : rare at 900 ft (no. 1240). 
Chatham Isl. : Andersson ; A. Agassis. Narborough Isl. : 
north side, abundant on lava beds (no. 1239). Seymour Isl., 
south : Snodgrass and Heller. 

C. platyacanthus Anderss. (1), 139, (2), 47; Rob. (1), 118. 
— Abingdon Isl.: occasional on the lower parts (no. 1241). 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, in spreading bunches on the 
sides of the cliffs above the cove (no. 1242). Barrington 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Bindloe Isl. : Snodgrass and 
Heller. Brattle Isl.: (no. 1244). Charles Isl.: Snod- 
grass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant near 
the shore and in open places in the vegetation to 150 ft. (nos. 
1245-1246). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Hood Isl. : Baur. Indefatigable Isl. : Acad- 
emy Bay, abundant in sandy soil near the shore; north side, 
Snodgrass and Heller. James Isl. : northeast side, occasional 
in lava crevices ; James Bay^ Snodgrass and Heller. Narbor- 
ough Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

C. sp. Rob. (1), 118. — Chatham Isl. : Snodgrass and Hel- 
ler. 

Chloris Sw. 

C. anisopoda Rob. (1), 118. — Charles Isl.: occasional 
among rocks near the shore (no. 1250). Indefatigable Isl. : 
north side, fairly abundant in lava crevices near the shore (no. 
1251); southeast side, on the lower dry parts (no. 1252). 
Endemic. 

C. elegans HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. I. 166, t. 49 (1815) ; 
Rob. (1), 119. — Charles IsL. : Snodgrass and Heller. Sey- 
mour Isl., north : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. S. 
W. U. S., Mex. 

C. radiata (L.) Sw. Prodr. 26 (1788). Agrostis radiata L. 
Syst. 10, ed. 2, 873 (1759). C. radiata Sw. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 
119. — Charles Isl.: Baur. Further distr. W. Ind., S. Am. 

Dactyloctenium Willd. 

D. aegyptium(L.) Richter, Plan. Eur. I. 68 (1890). Cyno- 
surus aegyptius L. Sp. PI. 72 (1753). Eleusine aegyptica 
Desf. Fl. Alt. I. 85 (1798); Rob. (1), 119.— Charles Isl.: 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 33 

abundant near the shore (no. 1253). Chatham Isl. : Wreck 
Bay, abundant in dry sandy soil near the beach (no. 1254). 
Hood Isl. : Baur. Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, 
abundant in sand near the shore (no. 1255). Widely distrib- 
uted. 

Digitaria Scop. 

D. sanguinalis (L.) Scop. F. Carn. ed. 2, 1, 52 (1772). 
Panicum sanguinale L. Sp. PI. 57 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 123. — 
Charles Isl.: occasional in open places at 1100 ft. (no. 
1304). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common in open sunny 
places to 450 ft. (nos. 1303, 1305). Of wide distribution. 

Eleusine Gaertn. 

E. indica Gaertn. Fruct I. 8 (1788); Rob. (1), 120.— 
Charles Isl. : abundant in open meadows at 1000 ft., also 
common at 1500-1750 ft., (nos. 1255-1258). Chatham Isl. : 
Wreck Bay, abundant at 300-800 ft., occasional at 1300 ft., 
(nos. 1259-1261). Widely distributed. Probably an intro- 
duced species on the islands. 

Eragrostis Host. 

E.bahiensis Roem. & Sch. Mant. II. 318 (1824) ; Rob. (1), 
120. — Abingdon Isl. : occasional in bunches around 1000 ft. 
(no. 1262). Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, Snod grass and 
Heller. Further distr. S. Am. 

E. ciliaris (L.) Link, Hort. Berol. I. 192 (1827). Poa cili- 
aris L. Syst. ed. 10, 875 (1760). Eragrostis ciliaris Link, 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 120. — Abingdon Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Al- 
bemarle Isl. : Macrae; Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. 
BiNDLOE Isl. : on the upper parts (no. 1263). Charles Isl. : 
abundant 430-1100 ft. (nos. 1264-1265). Chatham Isl.: 
Darwin; Andersson ; Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl. : 
Snodgrass and Heller. James Isl. : James Bay, common in 
dry places on sides of cliffs around the bay (no. 1266). Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl. : north side, abundant on recent lava beds (no. 
1267). Tower Isl. : Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. Widely 
distributed. 

E. megastachya (Koehl.) Link, Hort. Berol. I. 187 (1827). 
Poa megastachya Koehl. Descr. Gram. 181 (1802). Eragros- 



34 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Us major Host. Gram. IV. 14, t. 24 (1809) ; Rob. (1), 120.— 
Barrington Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Brattle Isl. : (no. 
1268). Charles Isl.: common above 450 ft. (nos. 1269- 
1270). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common in dry sandy 
soil near the shore (no. 1271). Duncan Isl.: occasional 
near the shore. Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Hood Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : Academy Bay, fairly abundant near the shore (no. 
1272). Seymour Isl.^ south : Snodgrass and Heller. ^Tower 
Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. Wenman Isl.: (no. 1273). 
Widely distributed. 

E." pilosa(L.) Beauv. Agrost. 71 (1812). Poa pilosa L. Sp. 
PI. 68 (1753). E. pilosa Beauv. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 120.— James 
Isl. : Darzvin. Widely distributed. 

Eriochloa HBK. 

E. distachya HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. I. 95, t. 30 (1815); 
Rob. (1), 121. — Chatham Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Fur- 
ther distr. northern S. Am. 

E. punctata (L.) Desv. in Ham. Prod. PI. Ind. Occ. 5 
(1825). Milium punctatum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 91 (1763).— 
Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, occasional in open places at 900 
ft. (no. 1274). Further distr. U. S., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Leptochloa Beauv. 

L. albemarlensis Rob. & Greenm. (1), 145, 149; Rob. (1), 
121. — Abingdon Isl. : common on lava beds at 450 ft. (no. 
1275). Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, 5ai<r; Iguana Cove, 5wo6/- 
grass and Heller. Endemic. 

L. filiformis (Lam.) Roem. & Sch. Syst. II. 580 (1817). 
Festuca filiformis Lam. Illust. I. 191 (1791). L. -filiformis 
Roem & Sch. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 121. — Duncan Isl. : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Seymour Isl.^ south : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

L. Lindleyana Kunth, Rev. Gram. 11. 655, t. 215 (1829) ; 
Rob. (1), 121. — Abingdon Isl.: occasional on lava beds in 
the lower dry region (no. 1276). Albemarle Isl. : Macrae; 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 35 

Cowley Bay, Baur; Tagus Cove, (no. 1277). Bindloe Isl. : 
Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : Andersson. Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl.: north side, abundant on lava beds (no. 1278). 
Endemic. 

L. mucronata (Michx.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. I. 91 (1829). 
Eleusine mucronata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 65 (1803). L. mu- 
cronata Kunth, 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 121. — Barrington Isl. : (no. 
1279). Gardner Isl., (near Hood Isl.) : (no. 1281). Hood 
Isl. : common in scant soil among rocks (no. 1280). Further 
distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

L. virgata (L.) Beau v. Agrost. 71 (1812). Cynosurus vir- 
gatus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 106 (1762). L. virgata Beauv. 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 121. — Charles Isl.: upper grassy region ace. to 
Andersson. Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occurs first at 650 
ft. (no. 1282). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Oplismenus Beauv. 

O. setarius (Lam.) Roem. & Sch. Syst. II. 481 (1817). 
Panicum setarium Lam. 111. I. 170 (1791). O. setarius Roem. 
& Sch. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 121. — Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, in 
shady places in cultivated ground around 1000 ft. (no. 1283). 
Probably an introduced species. Further distr. U. S., Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am. 

Panicum L. 

P. colonum L. Syst. ed. 10, 870 (1760) ; Rob. (1), 122.— 
Charles Isl. : Darzvin; Andersson. Further distr. general in 
tropical regions. 

P. fasciculatum Sw. Prodr. 22 (1788) ; Rob. (1), 122. P. 
fnsciim Sw. Prodr. 23 (1788); Rob. (1), 122. — Albemarle 
Isl. : Turtle Cove, in dense patches 4-6 ft. high in moist places 
near the shore (no. 1284) ; Villamil, in dense patches 5-6 ft. 
high in low places 2-3 miles back from the beach. The soil in 
these areas is kept moist the greater part of the time by the 
underflow of water from the interior of the island, (nos. 1285- 
1286). Charles Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant on the sides of the road leading to 
the hacienda. This grass was only seen in January and Feb- 
ruary, when there is considerable water standing in the low 



36 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

places where it occurs, (no. 1286). Indefatigable Isl. : 
north side, Andersson. James Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass 
and Heller. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

P. geminatum Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 18 (1775). P. Huitans 
Retz. Obs. III. 8 (1783); Rob. (1), 122.— Charles Isl.: 
abundant on the sides of a moist cliff above a spring at 1000 ft. 
(nos. 1287-1288). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common in 
large bunches at 450 ft. (no. 1290). Duncan Isl.: common 
in bunches at 900 ft. (no. 1291). Hood Isl. : on the margin 
of a mud lake ace. to Snodgrass and Heller. The dry culms of 
a grass, probably this one, were noticed in the dry bed of this 
lake in June. Further distr. W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

P. hirticaulum J. & C. Presl, Rel. Haenk. I. 308 (1830); 
Rob. (1), 122. — Barrington Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Charles Isl.: Andersson. Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
common in open places on the lower parts of the island, (no. 
1293). Gardner Isl., (near Hood Isl.): dried remains of 
this grass were found in June (no. 1294). Hood Isl. : abund- 
ant (no. 1297). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, abund- 
ant (no. 1297) ; north side, Snodgrass and Heller; northeast 
side, common on the table land above the beach (no. 1296). 
Seymour Ids.^ north and south : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Robinson, 1. c, suggests that this grass is a recent introduction 
to the islands. It might be mentioned in this connection that 
the islands on which it occurs are frequently visited by the 
inhabitants of both Albemarle and Chatham Ids. Further 
distr. Mex. 

Var. minus Anderss. (1), 135, and (2), 44; Rob. (1), 123. 
— Charles Isl. : Andersson; Snodgrass and Heller. Chath- 
am Isl. : Andersson. Endemic. 

P. moUe Sw. Prod. 22 (1788) ; Rob. (1), 123.— Chatham 
Isl. : Chierchia. Further distr. W. Ind., S. Am., tropical Asia. 

P. multiculmum Anderss. (1), 133, and (2), 43; Rob. (1), 
123. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Turtle Cove, occasional in scant soil near the shore (no. 1298) ; 
Villamil, occasional in lava crevices near the shore (no. 1299). 
Barrington Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : in 
open places near the shore (no. 1300). Chatham Isl.: 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS Sy 

Wreck Bay, occasional in low places around 300 ft. The soil is 
very wet in this region during the season in which the species 
occurs, (no. 1301). Duncan Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.): Snodgrass and Heller. 
Hood Isl. : common among rocks (no. 1302). Endemic. 

P. serotinum (Michx.) Trin. Gram. Panic. 166 (1826). 
Digitaria serotina Michx. Fl. I. 46 (1803). P. serotinum 
Trin. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 123.— Charles Isl. : Edmonston. Rob- 
inson 1. c. suggests that there may have been some mistake in 
the identification of this specimen. Further distr. S. U. S. 

P- sp. — Charles Isl. : (no. 1306). 

P. sp. — Chatham Isl. : (no. 1308). 

P. sp. — Duncan Isl. : (no. 1307). 

All three of the above specimens are in too poor a condition 
for determination. They probably represent three distinct 
species. 

Paspalum L. 

P. canescens Anderss. (1), 132, and (2), 42; Rob. (1), 123. 
P. longe-pedunculatum Rob. (1), 124, not Le Conte. — Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Andersson; Iguana Cove, in bunches 
on the sides of the cliffs above the cove (nos. 1317-1318) ; 
Tagus Cove, in large bunches, 600-4000 ft., (nos. 1309, 1319- 
1320); Villamil, common at 3150 ft. (no. 1311). Bindloe 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : Darwin; Anders- 
son. Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occasional, 450-2100 ft, 
(nos. 1321-1322). Narborough Isl.: north side (no. 1310). 
Endemic. 

P. conjugatum Berg. Act. Helv. VII. 129, t. 8 (1772) ; Rob. 
(1), 123. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, one of the commonest 
grasses in the region above 1500 ft. It also occurs to some 
extent below this elevation, (no. 1312). Charles Isl. : com- 
mon on the sides of moist tufa walls around 1000 ft. (no. 
1312). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common in the grassy 
country above 700 ft. (nos. 1314-1315). James Isl.: James 
Bay, abundant in open places and in open woodland above 1500 
ft. (no. 1316). This is the principal forage grass on the 
islands where it occurs. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., 
Tropical Africa. 



38' CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

P. distichum L. Amoen. Acad. V. 391 (1760); Rob. (1), 
123. — James Isl. : Orchilla Bay, Baur. Further distr. tropical 
and subtropical regions. 

P. penicillatum Hook. f. (3), 171; Rob. (1), 124.— 
Charles Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

P. scrobiculatum L. Mant. I. 29 (1767); Rob. (1), 124.— 
Chatham Isl. : Chierchia. Further distr. general in tropics 
of old world. 

P. sp. Rob. (1), 124. — Indefatigable Isl.: north side, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Probably a new species, ace. to Robin- 
son, 1. c. 

Pennisetum Rich. 

P. exalatum (Anderss.) Hook. f. & Jacks. Ind. Kew. I. 112 
(1893). Amphochaefa exalata Anderss. (1), 137, (2), 45, t. 1, 
f. 2. P. pauperum Nees ace. to Steud. Syn. 102 (1855) ; Rob. 
(1), 119. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Andersson ; Iguana 
Cove, occasional in dense patches 6-7 ft. high on the sides of the 
cliffs above the cove (no. 1323) ; Tagus Cove, a considerable 
area is covered with a dense growth of this grass around the 
top of the mountain, 3850-4000 ft., (no. 1324). The dried 
culms, collected at Elizabeth Bay and ascribed to Chusqnea sp. 
by Robinson, (1), 119, no doubt belong to this species. Nar- 
BOROUGH IsL. : Mr. R. H. Beck reported a heavy growth of 
grass around the top of this island. From his description it is 
probably of this species. Endemic. 

Setaria Beau v. 

S. floriana Anderss. (1), 138, (2), 46; Rob. (1), 124.— 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. Endemic. 

S. setosa (Sw.) Beauv. Agrost. 51 (1812). Panicum seto- 
sum Sw. Prodr. 22 (1788). 5. setosa Beauv. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 
124. — Albemarle Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Iguana Cove, (no. 1091) ; Tagus Cove, abundant in tufaceous 
soil around the base of the mountain (no. 1090) ; Villamil, 
occasional in bunches on the lower parts (no. 1092). Bar- 
RiNGTON Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : abund- 
ant around 1750 ft. (nos. 1293-1294). Chatham Isl.: 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 39 

Sappho Cove, on lava beds near the shore (no. 1295) ; Wreck 
Bay, grows in shady places at 250-600 ft. (nos. 1296-1297). 
Duncan Isl. : dried remains (no. 1179). Hood Isl. : occa- 
sional around 600 ft. (nos. 1180-1181). Indefatigable Isl. : 
Academy Bay, abundant in open woodland around 350 ft. ; 
southeast side, in rather open country around 500 ft. (no. 
1182). James Isl.: James Bay, common on the lower parts 
(no. 1183). Narborough Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Fur- 
ther distr. tropical regions. 

S. n. sp.? Hook. f. (3), 172; Rob. (1), 125.— Albemarle 
Isl. : Macrae. Endemic. 

Sporobolus R.. Br. 

S. domingensis (Trin.) Kunth, Enum. I. 214 (1833). Vilfa 
domingensis Trin. in Spreng. neue Ent. II. 59 (1821). S. 
domingensis Kunth 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 125. — Abingdon Isl.: 
Snodgrass and Heller. Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snod- 
grass and Heller; Tagus Cove, occasional on the lower parts 
and at 4000 ft. (nos. 1184-1185). Hood Isl. : Snodgrass and 
Heller. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind. 

S. indicus (L.) R. Br. Prod. I. 170 (1810). Agrostis indica 
L. Sp. PI. 63 (1753). 5. indicus R. Br. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 125.— 
Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, common at 3150 ft. (no. 1186). 
Charles Isl.: occasional at 1600 ft. (no. 1187). Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional in bunches at 1700 ft. (no. 1188). 
Widely distributed. 

S. virginicus (L.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. I. 67 (1829). Agros- 
tis virginica L. Sp. PI. 63 (1753). 5. virginicus Kunth, 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 125. — Albemarle Isl.: Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass 
and Heller; Villamil, covers a considerable area on the low 
flat just back of the beach (no. 1 189) . Charles Isl. : common 
on sand beaches (no. 1190). Chatham Isl.: Andersson; A. 
Agassis; Snodgrass and Heller. Indefatigable Isl. : Acad- 
emy Bay, in dense mats on sand beaches (no. 1191) ; southeast 
side, common on the shore and around the borders of salt water 
lagoons where the soil is strongly impregnated with salt (no. 
1191). James Isl. : northeast side, on sand beaches. Further 
distr. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

January U, mi 



40 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Stenotaphrum Trin. 

S. secundatum (Walt.) O. Kze. Rev. Gen. II. 794 (1891). 
Ischaemum secundatum Walt. Fl. Car. 249 (1788). Stenota- 
phrum glabrum Trin. Fund. Agrost. 176 (1820); Rob. (1), 
126. — ^Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, forms thick mats in open country 
around 650 ft. (no. 1193). Further distr. tropical shores of 
both continents. 

Stipa L. • 

S. rostrata Anderss. (1), 142, (2), 48; Rob. (1), 126.— 
Charles Isl. : in open places near the beach, evidently a 
younger specimen than the one described by Andersson, (no. 
1194). Chatham Isl. : Andersson. Endemic. 

CYPERACEAE 
Cyperus L. 

C. aristatusRottb. Descr. Nov. PI. 23, t. 6, f. 1 (1786) ; Rob. 
(1), 126. — Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, common in lava 
cracks near the shore (no. 1028) ; Tagus Cove, common on 
lava beds at 4000 ft. (no. 1027). Charles Isl.: Darzvin. 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, in swampy places, 1000-1750 ft, 
(no. 1029). James Isl. : Scouler. Narborough Isl. : 5wo£/- 
grass and Heller. Widely distributed. 

C. brachystachys Anderss. (2), 53, t. 13, f. (2); Rob. (1), 
126. — Abingdon Isl. : occasional at 600 ft., common in open 
places in the vegetation at 1400 ft., (no. 1030). Albemarle 
Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, com- 
mon above 300 ft. (no. 1032) ; Villamil, Baur. Charles Isl. : 
occasional on rocks near the shore (no. 1033). Chatham 
Isl. : Baur. Duncan Isl. : common around 1300 ft. (no. 
1034). James Isl. : occasional on lava at 850 ft. (no. 1035). 
Jervis Isl. : (no. 1036). Tower Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Endemic. 

C. confertusSw. Prodr. 20 (1788) ; Rob. (1), 127.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common to above 400 ft. ; Tagus 
Cove, occasional on lava beds, 100-600 ft.," (nos. 1038-1039) ; 
Villamil, occasional at 650 ft. (no. 1040). Bindloe Isl.: 
Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : occasional at 1000- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 41 

1250 ft. (nos. 1042-1244). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, on 
rocks at 500 ft. (no. 1041), Duncan Isl.: Snodgrass and 
Heller. Hood Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Indefatigable 
Isl. : northwest side, Andersson. James Isl. : Andersson. 
Widely distributed, 

C. esculentusL. Sp. PI. 45 (1753); Rob. (1), 127.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, occasional on rocky cliffs at 100 ft. 
(no. 1045), Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional in sandy 
soil near the shore (no. 1046). Widely distributed. 

C. galapagensis Caruel (1), 621; Rob. (1), 127. — Chath^ 
am Isl. : Chierchia. Endemic. 

C. grandifolius Anderss. (1), 157, (2), 56; Rob. (1), 127. 
— Charles Isl.: occasional among rocks at 1550 ft. (no. 
1047). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common in large 
bunches above 1800 ft. (no. 1048), Endemic, 

C. laevigatus L. Mant. II. 179 (1771); Rob. (1), 127.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Villa- 
mil, occasional in brackish pools on the lower parts of the 
island (no. 1049). Indefatigable Isl.: southeast side, 
abundant in brackish pools near the shore (no. 1050). Further 
distr. tropical regions, 

C. ligularisL. Amoen. Acad. V. 391 (1760) ; Rob. (1), 127, 
— Albemarle Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, Snodgrass 
and Heller; Villamil, common in lava crevices near the shore 
and to some extent around 650 ft. (nos. 1051-1053). Bindloe 
Isl.: (no. 1054), Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, in 
pools of slightly brackish water near the shore (no. 1055). 
Further distr. W. Ind., tropical S. Am., Africa. 

C. Mutisii (HBK.) Anderss. (2), 53. Mariscus Mntisii 
HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. I. 216, t. 66 (1815). Cyperus Mutisii 
Anderss. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 128. — Abingdon Isl.: abundant 
around steam jets at 1000 ft. (no. 1056). Albemarle Isl.: 
Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, abundant 
in open places in the vegetation above the cove (no. 1057) ; 
Tagus Cove, (nos. 1059-1061) ; Villamil, common in lava crev- 
ices on the lower parts and at 500 ft. Bindloe Isl. : occasional 



42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

in tufaceous soil on the lower parts (no. 1062). Charles Isl. : 
rare among rocks at 50 ft., common at 1450 ft, (no. 1063). 
Chatham Isl. : Andersson; Baur. Gardner Isl. (near 
Hood Isl.): (no. 1065). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy- 
Bay, occasional at 100 ft. (no. 1067) ; southeast side, common 
at 450 ft. (no. 1066). Narborough Isl.: south and east 
sides, Snodgrass and Heller; north side, common on lava beds 
near the shore (no. 1068). Seymour Isl., south : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Tower Isl. : dried remains, the specific identity 
of which is somewhat in doubt, (no. 1069). Wenman Isl.: 
common on tops of the cliffs. Possibly this is the species of 
which Mr. Heller noticed dried remains on the islet north of 
Wenman, mentioned by Robinson ( 1 ) , 25 1 . Endemic. 

C. polystachyusRoth. Desc. & Ic. 39, t. 11, f. 1 (1786). C. 
fugax Liebm. Mex. Halv. 8 (1850) ; Rob. (1), 127.— Chath- 
am Isl. : Wreck Bay, Baur. Widely distributed. 

C. rotundus Hook. f. (3), 177; Rob. (1), 128.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Macrae. The specific identity of the Macrae 
specimen is somewhat in doubt. Endemic? 

C. rubiginosusHook. f. (3), 178; Rob. (1), 128.— Charles 
Isl.: Darwin. Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, abundant in 
moist places, 450-700 ft., (no. 1070). Duncan Isl.: abund- 
ant among rocks at 1000 ft. (no. 1071 ) . Endemic. 

Var. cornutus Rob. (1), 128. Mariscus cornutus Anderss. 
(1), 151. C. cornutus Anderss. (2), 53, t. 13, f. 1.— Bar- 
rington Isl.: common around dried pools (no. 1074). 
Charles Isl.: Andersson. Duncan Isl.: Snodgrass and 
Heller. Seymour Isl., south : Snodgrass and Heller. En- 
demic. 

C. strigosus L. Sp. PI. 47 (1753); Rob. (1), 128.— 
Charles Isl. : Darzvin. Chatham Isl. : Andersson. Fur- 
ther distr. U. S. 

C. suranimensis Rottb. Descr. Nov. PI. 35, t. 6, f. 5 (1786) ; 
Rob. (1), 129.— Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, in open grassy 
areas at 1750 ft. (no. 1075). James Isl.: Darzvin. Further 
distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 



Vol. I] STEWART-BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 43 

C. tristachyus Boeck. Linnaea XXXV. 454 (1867-1868); 
Rob. (1), 129.— Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, Baur. Further 
distr. Mex., northern S. Am. 

C. sp.— Barrington Isl. : dried remains of a Cypems were 
found growing quite abundantly in coarse sandy soil in the 
vicmity of the shore. It seems to be different from any of the 
other species collected on the islands, (no. 1076). 

C. sp. Rob. (I), 129.— Narborough Isl.: Snodgrass and 

C. sp. Rob. (1), 129.— Wenman Isl. : Snodgrass and Hel- 
ler. Probably C. Mutisii. 

Dichronema Michx. 

D. colorata (L.) Hitchk. Baham, in Mo. Bot. Card. IV. 141 
(1893). Schoenus coloratusL. Sp. PI 41 (1753). Dleuco- 
cephala Michx. Fl. I. 37 (1803); Rob. (1), 129.-Chatham 
ISL. : Wreck Bay, covers the ground in dense mats in the open 
country around 650 ft. (no. 1077). Further distr S U S 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. " " "' 

Eleocharis R. Br. 

E. capitata (L.) R. Br. Prodr. 225 (1810). Scirpus capi- 
tatus L. Sp. PI. 48 (1753).— Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, occa- 
sional in rather loose dry soil on the south side of the rim of the 
crater at 3150 ft. (no. 1078). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
abundant in marshy ground around 1700 ft. (no. 1079). Fur- 
ther distr. tropical regions. 

E. fistulosa (Poir.) Schult. Mant. II. 89 (1824). Scirpus 
iistulosa Poir. Encycl. VI. 749 (1804). E. fistulosa Schult. 1. 
c; Rob. (1), 129.— Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common in 
pools of water at 1000-1750 ft. (no. 1080). Widely distrib- 
uted. 

E. mutata(L.) R. Br. Prodr. 224 (1810). Scirpus mutatus 
L. Syst. ed. 10, 867 (1759). E. mutata R. Br. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 
129.— Albemarle Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Hel- 
ler; Villamil, abundant in brackish swamps and in other moist 
situations in the vicinity of the shore. The inhabitants of this 



44 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

island use the dried stalks of this species for making pads for 
pack-saddles, and sleeping mats, (no. 1081). Further distr. 
U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Fimbristylis Vahl 

F. capillaris (L.) A. Gray, Man. Bot. ed. 5, 567 (1869). 
Scirpus capillaris L. Sp. PI. 49 (1753). F. capillaris A. Gray, 
1. c. ; Rob. (1), 129. — Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, abund- 
ant in lava crevices, 500-4000 ft., (nos. 1083-1084) ; Villamil, 
occasional in lava crevices on the floor of the crater at 2750 ft. 
(no. 1082). BiNDLOE Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles 
Isl. : common among rocks near the shore (no. 1085). Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl. : Mangrove Point, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Widely distributed. 

F. diphylla (Rtz.) Vahl, Enum. II. 289 (1805). Scirpus 
diphyllus Rtz. Obs. V. 7 (1789). F. diphylla Vahl, 1. c. ; Rob. 
(1), 129. — Hood Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. Widely dis- 
tributed in tropical regions. 

Hemicarpha Nees 

H. micrantha (Vahl) Britton, Bull. Torr. Club. XV. 104 
(1888). Scirpus micranthus Yahl Enum. 11. 254 (1805). 
H. subsquarrosa Nees, in Mart. Fl. Bras. II. pt. 1, 61 (1824) ; 
Rob. (1), 130. — Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, Baur. Further 
distr. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Kyllinga Rottb. 

K. pumila Michx. Fl. I. 28 (1803); Rob. (1), 130.— 
Charles Isl. : in moist shady places around 1000 ft. (nos. 
1086-1087). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional in open 
country around 600 ft. (no. 1088). Further distr. Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am. 

Scleria Berg. 

S. pterota Presl in Oken, Isis, XXI. 269 (1828). 5. praten- 
sis Lindl. ex Nees, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. XIX. Suppl. I. 121 
(1843); Rob. (1), 130.— Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occa- 
sional patches at 650 ft. (no. 1089). Further distr. Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am, 



Vol. I] STEWART-BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 45 

LEMNACEAE 
Lemna L. 
L. minor L. Sp. PL 970 (1753).— Albemarle Isl. : Villa- 
mil, common in pools of slightly brackish water near sea level 
(no. 1100). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, abundant on the 
surface of pools and streams, 1000-1800 ft., (no. 1101). 
Widely distributed. 

L. sp.. Wolf (1), 284.— Charles Isl. 

BROMELIACEAE 
Tillandsia L. 
T. insularisMez in DC. Monog. IX. 756 (1896) ; Rob. (1), 
130. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, rare above 2500 ft. on 
the west side of the mountain; on the southeast side it often 
covers the ground in great profusion over considerable areas; 
Villamil, common on the branches of trees and on the ground 
in vegetable mold, 350-1300 ft. Charles Isl.: common on 
bushes, on small trees, among rocks in vegetable mold at 1400 
ft. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, among rocks in vegetable 
mold, and covering the branches of Hippomane Mancinella 
trees around 700 ft. Duncan Isl. : on rocks and in vegetable 
mold, 1150-1250 ft. Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, on 
the branches of trees and in vegetable mold, 350-550 ft., (no. 
1119) ; northwest side, occasional at 550 ft., abundant in the 
region around 700 ft., where it often forms large patches on 
the ground in places where the vegetation is not too dense for 
its growth. James Isl. : James Bay, occasional on the sides of 
the bluffs, 1300-1500 ft. Narborough Isl. : south side, upper 
regions ace. to R. H. Beck. This is the only tank epiphyte 
found on the islands. Specimens often contain as much as a 
pint of water, from which they seem to obtain their entire sup- 
ply of moisture during dry weather. The root system is so 
poorly developed that a slight push will uproot a specimen 
when found growing on the ground. Endemic. 

COMMELINACEAE 
Commelina Plum. 
C. nudiflora L. Sp. PL 41 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 130.— Abing- 
don Isl.: common in the upper regions (no. 1122). Albe- 



46 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

MARLE IsL. : Iguana Cove, common on the sides of the cliffs 
above the cove (no. 1124); Tagus Cove, occasional on lava 
beds at 1400 ft. (no. 1123). Charles Isl. : common at 1750 
ft. (no. 1127). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common at 350- 
2100 ft. (nos. 1125-1126). Duncan Isl.: common on the 
sides of cliffs at 1250 ft. (no. 1128). Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, abundant above 100 ft. (nos. 1130-1131); 
southeast side, occasional in open woods at 450 ft. (no. 1129). 
James Isl. : Darwin. Further distr. general in tropics. 

Commelinacea, Caruel (1), 621; Rob. (1), 131. — Charles 
Isl. : Chierchia. Same as the preceding, ace. to Rob. 1. c. 

IRIDACEAE 

Iris L. 

I. sp. Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, a few sterile specimens of 
a small Iris were collected on the south rim of the crater at 
3150 ft. (no. 1133). 

CANNACEAE 

Canna L. 

C. sp. Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, occasional at 700 ft. In- 
defatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, ace. to /. S. Hunter. James 
Isl.: James Bay, occasional in woodland at 1500 ft. The 
specimens are all sterile. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE 
Furcraea Vent. 

F. cubensis Vent, in Bull. Soc. Philom. I. 66 (1793).— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, around habitations. Charles 
Isl.: around former habitations (no. 1134). Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, formerly used as hedges around the plantation. 
Indefatigable Isl. : northwest side, occurs first at 450 ft. and 
extends to above 1000 ft. This species was introduced on this 
island many years ago by the tortoise hunters who planted it at 
their plantation above 1000 ft. Capt. Thomas Levick, of 
Chatham Isl, told us that on one of his trips to Indefatigable, 
a few years ago, he took some of the seed with him and scat- 
tered it along the trail as he came down the side of the moun- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 47 

tain. From these seeds the plant has grown abundantly and 
now forms impenetrable thickets, many acres in extent, along 
the trail. The inhabitants of Chatham Isl. use the fiber of this 
plant for rope, of which it makes a very good quality. Widely 
distributed in tropical regions through cultivation. Probably 
introduced on the islands. 

Hypoxis L. 

H. decumbens L. Amoen. Acad. V. 396 (1759) ; Rob. (1), 
131. — Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, common in open woodland 
at 600 ft., rare at 1300 ft, (nos. 1135-1136). Charles Isl.; 
Darwin. Chatham Isl, : Wreck Bay, Bmir. Further distr. 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

H. sp. — Abingdon Isl. : an Hypoxis, which is probably the 
last mentioned, occurs on this island. No specimens were 
taken. 

ORCHIDACEAE 

Epidendrum L. 

E. spicatum Hook. f. (3), 180; Rob. (1), 131.— Abingdon 
Isl. : on the trunks and branches of trees around 1900 ft. (no. 
1137). Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, abundant on the trunks 
and branches of trees, 1200-3150 ft., (no. 1138). Charles 
Isl. : Lee. James Isl. : James Bay, on trees above 2100 ft. 
(no. 1139). Endemic. 

Eulophia R. Br. 

E. sp. — Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, a sterile 
specimen of an Orchid, with foliage similar to an Eulophia, 
was found growing in vegetable mold in densely shaded places 
at 600 ft. Hemsley, Card. Chron. 177 (1900), refers to an 
Eulophia from the Galapagos Ids. It is possible that the speci- 
men Mr. Hemsley refers to and the one under consideration 
belong to the same species, (no. 1144). 

lonopsis HBK. 

I. utricularioides (Sw.) Lindl. Coll. Bot. t. 39 A (1821- 
1825). Epidendrum utricularioides Sw. Prodr. 122 (1788). 
— Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common on the trunks and 



48 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

branches of trees, 300-700 ft, (no. 1141). Charles Isl. : 
fairly common on trees at 1300 ft. (no. 1142). Duncan Isl. : 
rare on bushes at 1250 ft. (no. 1144). Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, on the branches of trees, 350-500 ft. ; northwest 
side, occasional at 800 ft. ; southeast side, common on bushes 
and trees above 450 ft. (no. 1145). James Isl. : James Bay, 
occasional on the branches of trees at 1000 ft. It is not abund- 
ant and does not seem to extend above this elevation, (no. 
1 1 46 ) . Further distr. W. Ind. 

Ponthieva R. Br. 

P. maculata Lindl. in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. I. XV. 385 
(1845). — James Isl.: James Bay, rare on the branches of 
trees in the upper moist regions. Specimen collected by Mr. 
R. H. Beck, identified by the late Mr. A. A. Eaton, (no.. 1147). 
Further distr. Mex., northern S. Am. 



D/CO TYLEDONEAE 

PIPERACEAE 

Peperomia R. & P. 

P. flagelliformis Hook, f . ex. Miq. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 
IV. 423 (1845), and (3), 181; Rob. (1), 131.— James Isl.: 
Darwin. Endemic. 

P. galapagensis Hook. f. ex. Miq. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 
IV. 426 (1845), and (3), 180; Rob. (1), 131.— Abingdon 
Isl. : occasional on trees at 1500 ft. (no. 1153). Albemarle 
Isl. : Villamil, common on the branches of trees above 400 ft. 
(no. 1158). Duncan Isl.: on rocks and bushes at 1275 ft. 
(no. 1149). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, on rocks 
and trees above 350 ft. (no. 1152) ; southeast side, on trees and 
bushes at 625 ft. (no. 1151). James Isl. : James Bay, on the 
branches of trees above 1300 ft. (no. 1150). Specimens de- 
termined by Mr. Casimir de Candolle. Endemic. 

P. galioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. I. 71, t. 17 (1815) ; Rob. 
(1), 131. — Abingdon Isl.: common in woodland at 1650 ft. 
(no. 1154). Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, occasional in vegeta- 
ble mold among rocks, 1300-1500 ft., (no. 1156). Chatham 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 49 

IsL. : Wreck Bay, on rocks, 650-700 ft, (no. 1158). Inde- 
fatigable IsL. : Academy Bay, occasional in vegetable mold 
among rocks in open woodland at 400 ft. (no. 1159) ; north- 
west side, common above 500 ft. (no. 1155). The specimens 
from Albemarle and Indefatigable Ids. were determined by Mr. 
Casimir de Candolle. Further distr. Mex., S. Am. 

P. obtusilimba C. DC. nov. sp. 

Foliis ternis-quaternis breviter petiolatis subovato-ellipticis basi et 
apice rotundatis utrinque glabris superne minutissime in margine 
ciliatis, 5-nerviis, nerviis tenuissimis; nervulo marginali obscuro ab 
apice fere usque ad medium decurrente; petiolo margine minute cilia- 
tis ;_spicis axillaribus terminalibusque, pedunculis minutissime puberulis 
petiolos superantibus; spicis ipsis limbos multo vel pluries superan- 
tibus filiformibus sublaxifloris, bractea orbiculari centro subsessili; 
ovario obovato emerso fere in apice stigmatifero, stigmate minuto 
glabro; bacca subovato-globosa glandulis asperulata. Caulis Vz mm. 
crassus minutissime puberulus. Limbi in sicco membranaceis rufes- 
centes epunctati, usque ad 10 mm. longi et 5 mm. lati. Petioli VA mm. 
longi. Pedunculis usque ad 6 mm. longi. Spicae terminales 5 cm. 
axillares 2j^ cm. longae, ^ mm. crassae. Bractea diametro >4 mm. 
brevior. Bacca >4 mm. paululo longior. 

Charles Isl. : common on rocks and low bushes at 1400 ft. 
(nos. 1160-1161). Endemic. 

P. petioIataHook. f. (3), 181 ; Rob. (1), 131.— James Isl. : 
Darwin. Endemic. 

P. ramulosa Anderss. (1), 158, and (2), 57; Rob. (1), 131. 
— Charles Isl. : common in decayed moss on the branches of 
trees at 1700 ft. (no. 1162). Endemic. 

P. Snodgrassii C. DC. in Rob. (1), 131. — Albemarle Isl.: 
Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

P. Stewartii C. DC. nov. sp. 

Foliis sat longe petiolatis oblongo-ovatis basi acutis apice subacutis, 
utrinque glabris superne margine ciliolatis, 6-nerviis, nerviis tenuis- 
simis; petiolo margine crispulo-hirtello; pedunculis terminalibus gla- 
bris petiolos fere aequantijjus; spicis folia pluries superantibus sub 
densifloris; bractea obovata supra centrum longiuscule pedicellata; 
antheris rotundatis quam filamenta multo brevioribus; ovario emerso 
ovato apice obtuso, stigmate puberulo; bacca ovata glandulis globosis 
asperata. 

Caulis crispulo-hirtellus filiformis fere ^^ mm. crassus. Folia 
alterna, internodia 6-7 mm. longa. Limbi in sicco membranacei, superi 
15-18 mm. longi et 8-9 mm. lati, inferi magis ovati. Petioli circiter 6 
mm. longi. Spicae circiter 5 cm. longae et 1 mm. crassae. Bracteae 
infimae orbiculares, aliae ut in diagnosi. Ovarium paullo sub apice 
stigmatiferum. Bacca 1 mm. longa, sessilis. 



50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Abingdon Isl. : common on rocks at 1050 ft. (no. 1163). 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common among rocks in woodland, 
350-1500 ft, (nos. 1164-1165). Charles Isl. : in moist 
shady places at 1000 ft. (no. 1166). Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, in shady places, 50-400 ft., (no. 1168, Type) ; 
northwest side, common in shade at 950 ft. (no. 1 170) . James 
Isl. : James Bay, in woodland at 850 ft., not common, (no. 
1171). This is one of the most common species of Peperomia 
found on the islands and is usually the first species to be seen 
in ascending the sides of the mountains. Endemic. 

P. n. sp. Rob. (1), 132. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

P. sp. Rob. & Greenm. (1), 148. — Chatham Isl.: Baur. 

URTICACEAE 

Fleurya Gaud. 

F. aestuans Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 497 (1826); Rob. 
(1), 132.— Abingdon Isl. : common, 800-1100 ft, (no. 1172). 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, abundant from the beach to 
600 ft. (no. 1325) ; Tagus Cove, common in lava crevices in 
shade, 300-2900 ft., (no. 1177); Villamil, abundant among 
rocks, 300-1300 ft, (nos. 1174-1175). Charles Isl.: occa- 
sional among rocks at 1550 ft. (no. 1326). Chatham Isl.: 
Basso Point, occasional in shady places at 900 ft. (no. 1327). 
Duncan Isl. : common on the sides of steep lava cliffs at 1000 
ft, also common around 1250 ft., (no. 1328). Hood Isl.: 
occasional in lava crevices, 400-600 ft., (no. 1329). Indefat- 
igable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional among rocks at 50 ft. 
At this elevation the specimens are low and with many stinging 
hairs on the stem. This same species also grows very abund- 
antly around 600 ft., where it attains a height of 3-4 ft. and 
has fewer stinging hairs on both the stems and leaves than 
do the specimens taken from the lower elevations, (nos. 1130- 
1331 ). James Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Nar- 
borough Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. This species 
shows much variation both in size and in the arming of the 
stem and leaves, but the differences are not sufficient to be of 
formal value. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 51 

Parietaria L. 

P. debilis G. Forst. Fl. Ins. Aust. Prodr. 73 (1786) ; Rob. 
(1), 132. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, in protected places 
on the sides of the cliffs above the cove (no. 1334) ; Tagus 
Cove, occasional at 1000 ft., common in lava crevices at 2850 
ft, (no. 1333) ; Villamil, common among rocks at 550 ft. (no. 
1332). Charles Isl.: in shady places among rocks at 1550 
ft. (no. 1335). James Isl.: Darwin. Widely distributed in 
tropical regions. 

Pilea Lindl. 

P. Baurii Rob. (1), 133. — Abingdon Isl.: common in 
moist shady places around 1650 ft. (no. 1336). Charles 
Isl. : Baur. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in open 
country around 1000 ft. (no. 1338). James Isl. : James Bay, 
occasional around 2000 ft. (no. 1339). There is much varia- 
tion in the specimens found growing in sun and in shade, those 
growing in the shade having a green stem, thinner leaves, and 
a much less branched inflorescence. Endemic. 

P. microphylla (L.) Liebm. in Vidensk. Selk. Skr. ser. 5, II. 
296 (1851). Parietaria microphylla L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1492 
(1763). Pilea muscosa Lindl. Coll. Bot. t. 4 (1821); Rob. 
(1), 133. — James Isl.: Darwin. Further distr. Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am. 

P. peploides (Gaud.) Hook & Arn. Bot. Beech. 96 (1832). 
Dubreulia peploides Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 495 (1826). 
P. peploides Hook & Arn. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 133. — Albemarle 
Isl.: Tagus Cove, in lava crevices at 2850 ft. (no. 1340). 
Charles Isl. : common on moist rocks at 1000 ft., occasional 
at 1550 ft, (nos. 1339,"l341). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
rare in shady places at 700 ft. (no. 1342). James Isl. : Dar- 
win. Further distr. Pacific Ids., Asia. 

Urera Gaud. 

U. alceaefolia (Poir.) Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 497 
(1826). Urtica alceaefolia Poir. Suppl. 227 (1816). — Albe- 
marle Isl.: Villamil, common bushes, 650-1500 ft. The 
leaves of many of the specimens are variegated, (no. 1343). 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common bushes above 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

500 ft. They increase in size and abundance above this eleva- 
tion, according to Mr. F. X. Williams, of the Academy's expe- 
dition, (no. 1344). James Isl. : James Bay, occasional bushes 
in open woodland around 2000 ft. (no. 1345), Further distr. 
Mex., S. Am. 

LORANTHACEAE 

Phoradendron Nutt. 

P. florianum (Anderss.) Rob. (1), 133. Viscum Horianum 
Anderss. (1),219, (2), 92. — Charles Isl. : Andersson. En- 
demic. 

P. galapageium (Hook, f.) Rob. (1), 133. Viscum galapa- 
geium Hook. f. (3), 216. — Chatham Isl. : Darwin; Anders- 
son. Endemic. 

P. Henslovii (Hook, f.) Rob. (1), 133. Viscum Henslovii 
Hook. f. (3), 216. — Abingdon Isl.: common on trees and 
bushes, 450-1000 ft., (no. 1102). Albemarle Isl.: Cape 
Rose, on trees near the shore (no. 1103); Cowley Bay, on 
trees and bushes above 400 ft. (no. 1106) ; Iguana Cove, com- 
mon on trees above 300 ft. (no. 1104) ; Tagus Cove, on trees 
and bushes, 400-4000 ft. ; Villamil, common on bushes near the 
shore. It also occurs throughout the wooded regions to 1500 
ft. and is present on small trees and bushes on the rim of the 
crater at 3150 ft., as well as on trees of Zanthoxylum Fagara 
on the floor of the same at 2750 ft., (no. 1105). Charles 
Isl. : common on bushes of Lipochaeta laricifolia, 600-1000 ft., 
also common on trees of Zanthoxylum Fagara and Scalesia 
pedunculata at 1100 ft., (no. 1108). Chatham Isl.: Basso 
Point, occasional on trees at 900 ft. (no. 1107) ; Sappho Cove, 
on trees and bushes near the shore ; Wreck Bay, Baur. Dun- 
can Isl. : occasional on bushes at 1250 ft. (no. 1109). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, abundant on trees and bushes 
near the shore. It increases in size and abundance with the 
elevation above sea level, (no. 1102) ; southeast side, common 
on trees and bushes above 400 ft. ; northwest side, abundant 
above 700 ft. James Isl. : James Bay, abundant on bushes to 
2500 ft.; northeast side, on trees and bushes above 100 ft. 
Jervis Isl. : occasional on bushes above 700 ft. This species 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 53 

varies greatly in size at different elevations. Specimens from 
the moist region are usually much larger than those found in 
the dry and transition regions. Endemic. 

P. uncinatum Rob. (1), 134.— Narborough Isl. : Snod- 
grass and Heller. Endemic. 



POLYGONACEAE 

Polygonum L. 

P. acre HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. II. 179 (1817).— Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in pools of water at 1000 ft. (no. 
1121). Further distr. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

P. acuminatum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. II. 178 (1817) ; Rob. 
(1), 134. — Galapagos Ids.: according to Griesb. Fl. W. Ind. 
161. It is probable that the next species has been mistaken for 
this one, as the two resemble each other rather closely. Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

P. galapagense Caruel (1), 624; Rob. (1), 134.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, occasional above 2500 ft. Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in large bunches 2-4 ft. high in the 
open grassy country above 1700 ft. (no. 1120). Endemic. 

CHENOPODIACEAE 

Atriplex L. 

A. sp. Rob. (1), 134. — Indefatigable Isl. : north side, low 
shrubs on sand beaches (no. 1346). Seymour Isl., north: 
Snodgrass and Heller. All of the specimens are sterile and in- 
determinate as to species. 

A. sp. Rob. (1), 134. — Wenman Isl.: Snodgrass and 
Heller. 

Salicornia L. 

S. sp. ( ?). — James Isl. : northeast side, a plant resembling 
a Salicornia in habit and inflorescence was seen growing on 
the shores of salt lagoons. No specimens were secured. 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

AMARANTACEAE 
Alternanthera Forsk. 

A. radicata Hook. f. (4), 261, 262; Rob. (1), 134.— 
Chatham Isl. : Darwin. Charles Isl. : abundant in barren 
places among lava boulders near the shore (no. 1347). Hood 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

A. rigida Rob. & Greenm. (1), 143, 148; Rob. (1), 135.— 
James Isl. : northeast side, occasional bushes 6-10 inches high 
on lava beds near the shore, and to some extent at 700 ft., (no. 
1348). Endemic. 

A. subscaposa Hook. f. (3), 189; Rob. (1), 135. — Charles 
Isl. : Darwin. Duncan Isl. : rare in moist protected places 
around 1250 ft. (no. 1349). Endemic. 

Amaranthus L. 

A. caracasanus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. II. 195 (1817) ; Rob. 
(1), 135. — Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, rare on the sides 
of the cliffs above the cove (no. 1351) ; Tagus Cove, Snod- 
grass and Heller; Villamil, fairly common in open places on the 
lower parts (no. 1350). Charles Isl.: abundant from the 
beach to 1000 ft. during the rainy season (no. 1354). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant near the shore (no. 
1356). Indefatigable Isl.: northwest side, Andersson. 
One of the common spring weeds of the islands where it occurs. 
Further distr. northern S. Am. 

A. celosioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. II. 194 (1817) ; Rob. 
(1), 135. — Charles Isl.: Darwin; Andersson. Chatham 
Isl. : Andersson. Further distr. northern S. Am. 

A. sclerantoides Anderss. (2), 59, t. 2, f. 1; Rob. (1), 135. 
— Barrington Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : 
common in open sunny places at 450 ft. (no. 1357). Chatham 
Isl.: Wreck Bay, common near the shore (no. 1358). Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl. : east side, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Forma abingdonensis nov. forma. 

Ramulis diflfusis; foliis linearibus late patentibus circa 2.5 cm. longis, 
ad apicem 1 mm. latis. 

Abingdon Isl. : occasional among rocks at 700 ft. (no. 
1359). Plate II, fig. 1. .Endemic. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 55 

Forma albemarlensis nov. forma. 

Foliis subappressis ad apices dilatis 1.9 cm. longis, 5 mm. latis. 

Albemarle Isl. : Turtle Cove, common on sand beaches, 
(no. 1360). Plate II, fig. 2. Endemic. 

Forma chathamensis Rob. & Greenm. (1), 140; Rob. (1), 
135. — Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, Baur. Endemic. 

Forma hoodensis Rob. & Greenm. (1), 140; Rob. (1), 135. 
— Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : common on sand beaches 
(no. 1361). Hood Isl.: Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. En- 
demic. 

A. spinosus L. Sp. PI. 991 (1753); Rob. (1), 135.— 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. Of wide distribution. 

A. squamulatus (Anderss.) Rob. Proc. Am. Acad. XLIIL 
22 (1907). Scleropus squamulatus Anderss. (1), 162, (2), 
60. A. squarrulosus Uline & Bray, Bot. Gaz. XIX. 270 
(1894); Rob. (1), 135. — Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, 
occasional at 2000 ft. (no. 1363) ; Tagus Cove, occasional in 
tufaceous soil at 100 ft. (no. 1362). Charles Isl.: Snod- 
grass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : Andersson. Duncan 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Indefatigable Isl. : Academy 
Bay, (no. 1364) ; north side, Snodgrass and Heller; northeast 
side, fairly abundant in loose ashy soil near the shore (no. 
1365). James Isl. : James Bay, fairly common in rocky soil 
on the lower parts (no. 1356). Jervis Isl. : ^awr. Seymour 
IsL.^ north : Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

A. urceolatus Benth. Bot. Sulph. 158 (1844); Rob. (1), 
136. — Indefatigable Isl. : Andersson. Further distr. adja- 
cent S. Am. from Peru northward. Lower California ace. to 
Rob. 1. c. 

A. viridis L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1405 (1763) ; Rob. (1), 136.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, occasional to 650 ft., abundant at 
1300 ft., (nos. 1357-1359). Barrington Isl.: Snodgrass 
and Heller. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant in sandy 
soil near the shore and in clay soil in open sunny places at 50 
ft. (nos. 1360-1361). Further distr. general in warm coun- 
tries. 

January 11. 1911 



56 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Froelichia Moench. 

F. juncea Rob. & Greenm. (1), 143, 148; Rob. (1), 136.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, in dense some- 
what prostrate clumps on lava beds near sea level (no. 1362). 
Indefatigable Isl. : southeast side, low bushes at 450 ft. (no. 
1363). Endemic. 

F. lanigera Anderss. (2), 63; Rob. (1), 136. F. lanata 
Anderss. (2), t. 3, f. 1. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, pros- 
trate bushes in pumice soil near the shore (no. 1364) ; Tagus 
Cove, abundant on the sides and top of the mountain at 4000 
ft. (no. 1365). Duncan Isl.: low bushes on the sides and 
top of the island (no. 1366). Narborough Isl,: north side, 
low bushes on recent lava. Endemic. 

F. nudicaulis Hook. f. (3), 192; Rob. (1), 136. — Charles 
Isl. : Darwin; Andersson. Chatham Isl. : Andersson. En- 
demic. 

F. scoparia Rob. (1), 136. — James Isl.: James Bay, com- 
mon bushes on the lower parts (no. 1367). Narborough 
Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Iresine L. 

I. Edmonstonei Hook. f. (3), 190; Rob. (1), 137.— 
Charles Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

Pleuropetalum Hook. f. 

P. Darwinii Hook. f. (1), t. 2, (3), 221; Rob. (1), 137.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villa- 
mil, occasional bushes 2-3 ft. high in woodland at 400-700 ft. 
(no. 1358). James Isl.: James Bay, common bushes in 
woodland above 1500ft. (nos. 1369-1370). Endemic. 

Telanthera R. Br. 

T. echinocephala (Hook, f.) Moq.-Tand in DC. Prodr. 
XIII. pt. 2, 373 (1849). Brandesia echinocephala Hook. f. 
(3), 189. T. echinocephala Moq.-Tand. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 137. — 
Abingdon Isl. : common in thickets of Laguncularia race- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 57 

mosa near the shore, common bushes at 1000 ft. The speci- 
mens taken from the vicinity of the shore have much smaller 
leaves than do those taken at 1000 ft., (nos. 1371-1372). 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, common bushes at 2100 ft. 
(no. 1376) ; Iguana Cove, bushes 3-4 ft. high, all over the 
lower parts, (no. 1374) ; Villamil, common bushes to 600 ft. 
(no. 1375). Barrington Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Charles Isl. : Darwin; A. Agassis; Andersson; Snodgrass 
and Heller. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional bushes 
4-5 ft. high to 250 ft. (no. 1377). Duncan Isl. : A. Agassis; 
Baur; SnodgraSs and Heller. Gardner Isl. (near Hood 
Isl.): Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl.: common bushes 
(nos. 1378-1380). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, com- 
mon bushes 5-6 ft. high in the vicinity of the shore, occasional 
to 300 ft.,_ (no. 1381); north side, Snodgrass and Heller; 
southeast side, common bushes on the lower parts (no. 1382)'. 
James Isl.: James Bay, common bushes to above 1000 ft 
(nos. 1383-1.384). Endemic. 

T. filifolia (Hook, f.) Moq.-Tand. in DC. Prodr. XIII. pt. 2, 
368 (1849). Bucholtsia illifolia Hook. f. (3), 192. T. filifolia 
Moq.-Tand. 1. c; Rob. (1), 138.— James Isl.: Scouler. En- 
demic. 

T. flavicoma Anderss. (1), 166, (2), 61, t. 5, f. 2; Rob. (1), 
138. — Abingdon Isl.: prostrate bushes, common, 900-1400 
ft, (nos. 1386-1387). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, occa- 
sional bushes at 2000 ft. (no. 1393) ; Villamil, species in doubt 
(no. 1392). Charles Isl.: Andersson. Chatham Isl.: 
Basso Point, low bushes in open places at 875 ft. (no. 1388) ; 
Sappho Cove, occasional on lava flows and in the vicinity of the 
coast (no. 1389) ; Wreck Bay, low bushes near the beach (no. 
1390). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.): Snodgrass and 
Heller. Hood Isl. : abundant in crevices of the lava (no. 
1391). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, occasional low 
bushes near the beach and in the interior to 100 ft. (nos. 1394- 
1395). James Isl.: James Bay, occasional bushes 12-18 
inches high to 2150 ft. (nos. 1396-1397). Endemic. 

T. galapagensis nov. sp. 

_ Suffrutescens circa 2.5 dm. alta; ramis oppositis vel alternis tere- 
tibus stnatis glaucescentibus ad nodos lanuginoso-ciliatis- foliis oppo- 
sitis 1.2-2.8 cm. longis, 0.6-1.3 cm. latis, oblanceolatis apice obtusis basi 



58 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

cuneatis sessilibus vel brevi-petiolatis integerrimis glaberrimis glau- 
cescentibus; spicis densifloris 3-9 mm. longis terminalibus et axillaribus 
sessilibus; bracteis ovatis carinatis acutis hispidis; sepalis exterioribus 
lanceolatis plerumque 3-costatis bruneis hispidis apice subflavis; sepalis 
interioribus lineari-lanceolatis acutis carinatis margine hyalinis; stam- 
inodiis ad apices laciniatis elongatis. 

This species is closely related to T. Snodgrassii Rob. but dif- 
fers in the glabrous glaucous character of the leaves and in the 
smaller size of the spikes. Gardner Isl. (near Charles 
IsL.) : (no. 1403). /. R. Slevin, collector. Plate II, figs. 3-4. 
Endemic. 

T. glaucescens (Hook, f.) Moq.-Tand. in DC. Prodr. XIII. 
pt. 2, 369 (1849). Bucholtzia glaucescens Hook. f. (3), 191. 
T. glaucescens Moq.-Tand. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 138. — Charles 
Isl. : Andersson. Chatham Isl. : Darwin; Andersson. En- 
demic. 

T. halimifolia (Lam.) n. comb. Achyranthes halimifolia 
Lam. Diet. I. 547 (1783). T. frutescens Moq.-Tand. in DC. 
Prodr. XIII. pt. 2, 365 (1849) ; Rob. (1), 138.— Albemarle 
Isl. : Villamil, common in moist places in the upper regions, 
especially in open woodland around 1300 ft, (no. 1398). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in woodland above 200 
ft. (no, 1399). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, small 
specimens of this species occur at 300 ft., but at 600 ft. the 
specimens are larger and more abundant, (no. 1401) ; north- 
west side, common at 400 ft. (no. 1400) ; southeast side, 
abundant in shady places at 625 ft. (no. 1402). Further distr. 
S. Am. 

T. Helleri Rob. (1), 138. — Culpepper Isl.: low bushes 
among rocks near the shore (no. 1404). F. X. Williams, col- 
lector. Endemic. 

Var. obtusior Rob. (1), 139. — Wenman Isl.: common 
bushes, 2-3 ft. high, (no. 1424). 

T. nudicaulis (Hook, f.) Moq.-Tand. in DC. Prodr. XIII. 
pt. 2, 369 (1849). Bucholtsia nudicaulis Hook. f. (3), 191. 
T. nudicaulis Moq.-Tand. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 139. — Abingdon 
Isl. : common bushes on the lower parts (no. 1405). Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Baur; Tagus Cove, common bushes 
at 4000 ft. (no. 1407) ; Villamil, low and somewhat prostrate 
bushes (no. 1406). Brattle Isl.: (no. 1408). Charles 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 59 

IsL. : common bushes (no. 1409). Chatham Isl. : north 
side, Baur. Duncan Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. Hood 
Isl.: species in doubt (no. 1411). Indefatigable Isl.: 
northeast side, occasional low shrubs (no. 1410). Jervis Isl. : 
occasional low bushes at 1050 ft. (no. 1412). James Isl.: 
James Bay, fairly abundant to 1200 ft. (no. 1413); Orchilla 
Bay, Baur. Further distr. S. Chili. 

T. rugulosa Rob. (1), 139.— Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
occasional low trees 10-12 ft. high around 1800 ft. (no. 1414). 
Endemic. 

T. Snodgrassii Rob. (1), 140.— Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, 
low bushes, fairly common at 550 ft., (no. 1415). James Isl. : 
James Bay, (no. 1416). Seymour Isl., north: Snodgrass 
and Heller. Endemic. 

T. strictiuscula Anderss. (1), 166; Rob. (1), 140.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common bushes near the shore (no. 
1418) ; Villamil, low bushes at 550 ft. (no. 1417). Charles 
Isl. : bushes 2-3 ft. high among rocks at 1400 ft. (no. 1420). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common bushes 3-6 ft. high at 
500 ft. (no. 1419). Indefatigable Isl.: southeast side, low 
bushes at 600 ft (no. 1421). Narborough Isl. : south side, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

T.vestita Anderss. (1), 169, (2), 63, t. 4, f . 1 ; Rob. (1), 
140. — Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common bushes on 
the lower parts (no. 1423) ; north side, common in lava crev- 
ices (no. 1422). Endemic. 

BATIDACEAE 

Batis L. 

B. maritima L. Syst Nat. ed. 10, 1376 (1760); Rob. (1), 
141. — Charles Isl.: common on sand beaches (no. 1425). 
Chatham Isl. : Sappho Cove, common near the shore (no. 
1426). Indefatigable Isl.: north side, common on sand 
beaches (no. 1427) ; southeast side, common on sand beaches 
(no. 1428). James Isl.: James Bay, common around salt 
lagoons and around the borders of a crater lake south of the 
bay (no. 1430). Widely distributed on tropical shores. 



60 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

BASELLACEAE 

Boussingaultia HBK. 

B. baselloides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. VII. 196, t. 645 
(1825); Rob. (1), 141. — Charles Isl. : Darwin. Duncan 
IsL. : trailing vines covering rocks at 1150 ft. (no. 1431). 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

PHYTOLACCACEAE 

Phytolacca L. 

P. octandra L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 631 (1762). P. decandra 
Hook. f. (3), 193, not L.; Anderss. (1), 227, (2), 97; Rob. 
(1), 141. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, prostrate bushes, com- 
mon around 3150 ft, (no. 1433). James Isl.: James Bay, 
common bushes 4-5 ft. high above 2150 ft. (no. 1432). Rob- 
inson, 1. c, suggested that this species might possibly be P. 
octandra. The specimens secured confirm this suggestion. 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Rivina Plum, 

R. humilis L. Sp. PI. 121 (1753).— Albemarle Is.l. : Villa- 
mil, low bushes in dense woodland at 500 ft. (no. 1434). 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, rare near sea level, com- 
mon in dense woodland at 300-450 ft, (nos. 1435-1436). 
James Isl. : James Bay, fairly abundant in woodland around 
2100 ft. (no. 1437). Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

NYCTAGINACEAE 

Boerhaavia L. 

B. erectaL. Sp. PI. 3 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 141.— Albemarle 
Isl. : Macrae. Charles Isl. : common to 600 ft. during 
the spring months; during the autumn it was found 
occasionally among rocks at 1450 ft., (no. 1438). Chatham 
Isl. : Andersson. Indefatigable Isl. : Andersson. Further 
distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

B. paniculata Rich. Act. Soc. Nat. Hist. Par. I. 105 (1792) ; 
Rob. (1), 141. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, common in 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 61 

Open sunny places in tufaceous soil on the lower parts (no. 
1440). James IsL. : Darwin. Narborough Isl. : north side, 
occasional in lava crevices (no. 1441). Further distr. S. U. S., 
Mex., S. Am. 

B. scandens L. Sp. PI. 3 (1753); Rob. (1), 141.— Albe- 
marle Isl.: Iguana Cove, abundant near the shore (no. 
1443) ; Villamil, abundant in open places on the lower parts of 
the island (no. 1442). Charles Isl. : common in open grassy- 
places around 1000 ft. (no. 1444). Chatham Isl.: Anders- 
son; Snodgrass and Heller. Duncan Isl. : occasional among 
bushes at 1150 ft. (no. 1466). Indefatigable Isl.: north- 
west side, common to 800 ft., very abundant in woodland 
around 650 ft., where it often forms the principal undergrowth, 
(no. 1445) ; southeast side, fairly common at 600 ft. (no. 
1446). James Isl.: James Bay, common in open woods at 
850 ft. (no. 1447). Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

B. viscosa Lag. & Rod. Anal. Cienc. Nat. IV. 256 (1801) ; 
Rob. (1), 142. — Abingdon Isl.: common on lava beds near 
the shore (no. 1448). Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, com- 
mon in open sunny places in tufaceous soil to 1000 ft. (no. 
1449) ; Villamil, abundant in light ashy soil and on lava beds 
on the lower parts (no. 1450). Brattle Isl.: (no. 1455). 
Charles Isl. : common in tufaceous soil to 650 ft. (no. 1451 ) . 
Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, common on sand beaches (no. 
1454). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.): Snodgrass and 
Heller. Hood Isl. : common on hillsides at 250 ft. (no. 1456). 
Indefatigable Isl. : north side, Snodgrass and Heller; south- 
east side, common in tufaceous soil at 600 ft. (no. 1458). 
James Isl.: James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. A species 
which is rather characteristic of open sunny places in the dry 
region. Further distr. S. W. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Cryptocarpus HBK. 

C. pyriformis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. II. 188, t. 124 (1817) ; 
Rob. (1), 142. — Abingdon Isl.: forming low thickets on 
sand beaches (no. 1458). Albemarle Isl.: Elizabeth Bay, 
Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, in dense thickets near the 
shore; Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Turtle Cove, cover- 



62 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ing large areas with a dense growth of low bushes in the 
vicinity of the shore; Villamil, common on sand beaches and 
to some extent in the interior around brackish water pools (no. 
1459). Barrington Isl. : forming low thickets on sand 
beaches (no. 1462). Bindloe Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Occasional thickets of this species were noticed at various places 
along the north shore. Charles Isl. : bushes 3-6 ft. high, 
forming tangled thickets on sand beaches, (no. 1460). 
Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, on sand beaches and on lava 
flows in the interior; Sappho Cove, bushes on the beach and 
in the interior (no. 1461) ; Wreck Bay, fairly common near the 
shore. Duncan Isl. : bushes near the shore. Gardner Isl. 
(near Hood Isl.): low bushes on the beach. Hood Isl.: 
very abundant in dense low thickets on sand beaches, and to 
some extent in the interior at 600 ft., (no. 1463). Indefat- 
igable Isl. : Academy Bay, common on the beach and occa- 
sional at various places in the lower dry region ; north side, low 
bushes on the beach ; southeast side, common in thickets among 
rocks and in sand (no. 1465). It was also noticed in various 
other places on the shore, while the "Academy" was sailing 
around the island. James Isl. : James Bay, common bushes 
on the beach and around the shores of salt water lagoons (no. 
1456). Jervis Isl. : low bushes on the beach. Narborough 
Isl. : east side, Snodgrass and Heller. Seymour Isl., south : 
occasional on the beach and in thickets of Discaria pauciHora 
and Maytenus obovata bushes. Further distr. Ecuador, Bo- 
livia. 

Mirabilis L. 

M. Jalapa L. Sp. PI. 177 (1753).— Albemarle Isl. : Villa- 
mil, in gardens, and undoubtedly introduced, (no. 1459). 

Pisonia L. 

P. floribunda Hook. f. (3), 193; Rob. (1), 143.— Abing- 
don Isl.: common trees, 450-1650 ft., (no. 1460). Albe- 
marle Isl.: Cowley Bay, common trees above 1300 ft.; 
Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, forest trees 
above 1500 ft.; Villamil, large trees, 100-900 ft. Charles 
Isl.: trees 10-30 ft. high, occasional around 1000 ft., (no. 
1461). Duncan Isl.: low trees and bushes around 1150 ft. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 63 

(no. 1463). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, small trees 
near the shore, one of the common forest trees above 350 ft., 
(no. 1463); north side, trees above 1000 ft.; northwest side, 
small trees at 150 ft., forming large forest trees at 500-800 ft. 
James Isl.: James Bay, common trees, 450-1700 ft., (nos. 
1464-1465) ; northeast side, trees above 600 ft. This species 
forms one of the most common forest trees in the transition 
and moist regions on the islands where it occurs. Hooker, op. c. 
194, describes it as an almost leafless tree, but we found it to be 
usually covered with a dense growth of leaves. As a rule the 
trunk is short and the branches are large and broadly spread- 
ing. Owing to the rough nature of the bark it is usually cov- 
ered with epiphytes when it occurs in the moist regions. En- 
demic. 

AIZOACEAE 
MoUugo L. 

M. flavescens Anderss. (1), 226, (2), 96, t. 15, f. 2; Rob. 
(1), 143. — Albemarle Isl.: Darwin; Macrae; Baur. 
Charles Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : 
Sappho Cove, in lava crevices at 800 ft. (no. 1466) ; Wreck 
Bay, Baur. Indefatigable Isl. : north side, Snodgrass and 
Heller. Endemic. 

Var. floriana Rob. (1), 143. — Charles Isl.: Cormorant 
Bay, abundant in coarse gravelly soil near the shore (no. 
1467). Endemic. 

M. gracillima Anderss. (1), 226, (2), 96; Rob. (1), 143.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, occasional in ashy soil on 
sides of the cliff above the cove (no. 1468) ; Tagus Cove, 
abundant in tufaceous soil (no. 1470) ; Villamil, common in 
open places at 550 ft. (no. 1469). Brattle Isl. : (no. 1471). 
Charles Isl. : common in open grassy areas at 600 ft. The 
specimens taken here are very small, but they seem to possess 
the characters of this species, (no. 1472). Chatham Isl.: 
Basso Point, occasional in lava crevices (no. 1473). Duncan 
Isl. : common in dry places near the shore (no. 1474). James 
Isl. : Orchilla Bay, Baur. Narborough Isl. : north side, 
common on lava beds (no. 1476). Wenman Isl.: (no. 
1477). Endemic. 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

M. Snodgrassii Rob. (1), 144. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley 
Bay, bushes 1 ft. and more in height, rare in pumice soil, (no. 
1478) ; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, 
Snod grass and Heller. Narborough Isl. : Mangrove Point, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Sesuvium L. 

S. Edmonstonei Hook. f. (3), 221; Rob. (1), 144.— Bar- 
RiNGTON Isl.: common covering rocks along the shore (no. 
1479). Brattle Isl. : (no. 1480). Charles Isl. : common 
on sand beaches, forming bright red patches when seen from a 
distance, (no. 1481). Culpepper Isl.: common on the sides 
of cliffs. Duncan Isl. : common among rocks along the 
shore and in occasional patches up to 250 ft. (no. 1482). 
Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Hood Isl. : very abundant on the tops of the cliffs at the east 
end of the island (no. 1483). The stems and leaves of this 
plant are usually bright red when it grows in open sunny 
places, but are green with but a small amount of the red color 
when it grows in the shade. Endemic. 

S. Portulacastrum L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1058 (1760) ; Rob. 
(1), 144. — Abingdon Isl. : occasional on sand beaches. Al- 
bemarle Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Turtle 
Cove, abundant on sand beaches (no. 1484). Barrington 
Isl. : on sand beaches. Charles Isl. : forms thick mats on 
sand beaches. It also occurs around the shores of salt lagoons 
where the water is saturated with salt. In such situations the 
leaves are somewhat reduced. in size, (no. 1485). Chatham 
Isl.: Sappho Cove, common on sand beaches (no. 1486). 
Indefatigable Isl. : southeast side, common on sand dunes 
(no. 1487). James Isl.: northeast side, on sand beaches. 
Seymour Isl.^ north : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. 
S. U. S., W. Ind., S. Am., China. 

Trianthema L. 

T. Portulacastrum L. Sp. PI. 223 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 144.— 
Albemarle Isl.: Turtle Cove, fairly abundant on sand 
beaches (no. 1488) ; Villamil, in dry sandy soil in open places 
near sea level (no. 1489). Barrington Isl.: Snodgrass and 



Vol. I] STEWART—BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 65 

Heller. Charles Isl. : common near the shore and in loose 
ashy soil at 450 ft. (nos. 1490-1491). Chatham Isl.: An- 
dersson. Duncan Isl.: (no. 1492). Gardner Isl. (near 
Hood Isl.) : abundant in loose soil mixed with fragments of 
lava (no. 1493). Hood Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Andersson. James Isl. : Andersson. Sey- 
mour Ids.^ north and south : Snodgrass and Heller. Widely 
distributed on tropical shores. . 

Aizoacea (?) sp. Sterile specimens of bushes 4-5 ft. high 
with succulent leaves were collected on Brattle Isl. and on 
the beach at Cormorant Bay, Charles Isl. The family is 
doubtful (nos. 1494-1495). 

PORTULACACEAE 

Portulaca L. 

P. oleracea L. Sp. PI. 445 (1753); Rob. (1), 145.— 
Abingdon Isl. : common among rocks on the lower parts of 
the island (no. 1496). Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, 
abundant on the sides of the cliffs above the cove (no. 1498) ; 
Tagus Cove, common in tufaceous soil on the lower parts; 
Villamil, abundant in open places in the lower parts (no. 1497). 
Charles Isl.: common around 1750 ft. during the dry sea- 
son; during the rainy season it occurs abundantly all over the 
lower parts of the island, (no. 1499). Chatham Isl. : Wreck 
Bay, common at 450 ft. (nos. 1500-1501). Gardner Isl. 
(near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl. : occa- 
sional at 250 ft. (no. 1502). Narborough Isl.: north side, 
common in crevices in the lava (no. 1503). The fact that this 
species is found on such unfrequented islands as Abingdon 
and Narborough would seem to indicate that it might not have 
been distributed by intercommunication among the islands as 
suggested by Robinson, 1. c. At the time Dr. Robinson's paper 
was written it had only been found on the more frequented 
islands. Widely distributed. 

P. sp. ( ?). Sterile specimens of a species of Porhdaca ( ?),, 
were found on Abingdon, Barrington, Brattle, Charles, 
Iervis, and Wenman Islands. It is the P. sp. ?, mentioned 
by Robinson, 1. c. 145. (nos. 1504-1510). 



66 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

P. sp. — Chatham Isl. : Sappho Cove, low bushes on lava in 
the vicinity of the coast. The specimen has a brownish-gray 
succulent stem, linear leaves, and rather large pinkish-white 
flowers. It is a new species to the islands and possibly to 
science, but the specimen is too poor for accurate description 
(no. 1511). 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

Drymaria Willd. 

D. cordata (L.) Willd. ex Roem. & Sch. Syst. V. 406 
(1819). Holosteum cordatum L. Sp. PI. 88 (1753). Dry- 
maria cordata Willd. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 145. — Albemarle Isl.: 
Tagus Cove, abundant in open places on the inner wall of the 
crater at 4000 ft. (no. 1512); Villamil; common in moist 
places, 600-1300 ft., (no. 1513). Charles Isl.: occasional 
in vegetable mold among rocks, 1000-1450 ft., (nos. 1514- 
1516). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common above 900 ft. 
(no. 1517). James Isl. : Darzvin. Widely distributed. 

MENISPERMACEAE 
Cissampelos L. 

C. galapagensis nov. sp. 

Scandens lignosa, caulibus canaliculatis glabris subtus glaucis; folio- 
rum laminis peltatis triangularibus vel subcordatis 4.3 cm. longis 4.7 
cm. latis apice obtusis vel rotundatis mucronatis utrinque subglaucis, 
petiolis 8-44 mm. longis canaliculatis; inflorescentia mascula axillari 
cymosa longipedunculate ad pedunculi basis bractea membranacea 
praedita; sepalis orbiculari-rhombeis 1.5 mm. longis, nervo medio 
prominulo; corolla disciform! 1.2 mm. lata. 

Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, abundant on bare lava 
in rather open woods near the coast. A species which is closely 
related to C. glaberrima St. Hil. but differs principally in hav- 
ing the male flowers in cymes instead of panicles, and in the 
sepals being orbicular rhombic instead of lanceolated, with a 
medium rib on each, (nos. 1518-1519). Plate III, figs. 9-10. 
Endemic. 

C. Pareira L. Sp. PI. 1031 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 146.— Abing- 
don Isl.: common above 500 ft. (no. 1523). Albemarle 
Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional at 1600-2000 ft., abundant on 
trees above 2000 ft. ; Iguana Cove, common on trees and 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 67 

bushes everywhere (no. 1522) ; Tagus Cove, common at 2000 
ft. ; Villamil, abundant covering rocks in a moist area on the 
lower parts some distance back from the shore, abundant 
throughout the transition and moist regions, (nos. 1520-1521). 
Charles Isl. : abundant in woodland at 1000 ft., covering 
rocks and trees at 1450 ft., (nos. 1524-1526). Chatham 
Isl. : Basso Point, abundant in woodland above 900 ft. ; 
Wreck Bay, common throughout the wooded areas below 1000 
ft. (no. 1527). Duncan Isl.: occasional on bushes at 1200 
ft. (no. 1528). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, abund- 
ant on trees above 100 ft., around 600 ft. it covers the trees 
and bushes with a dense growth, (nos. 1530-1531) ; northeast 
side, common above 300 ft. ; southeast side, fairly common on 
bushes at 600 ft. (no. 1529). James Isl. : James Bay, abund- 
ant on trees and bushes above 1000 ft. (no. 1532) ; northeast 
side, fairly common above 400 ft. Narborough Isl. : north 
side, (no. 1533). This species shows much variation in the 
size, shape, and amount of pubescence on the leaves. Further 
distr. general in tropical regions. 

ANONACEAE 
. Anona L. 

A. cherimolia Mill. Card. Diet. ed. VIII. n. 5 (1768).— 
Charles Isl. : forming a small grove at 1000 ft. Probably 
introduced, (no. 1535). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

A. glabra L. Sp. PI. 537 (1753). — Albemarle Isl.: Villa- 
mil, bushes and small trees in low moist places in the vicinity 
of the shore (no. 1536). Further distr. S. U. S., W. Ind. 

CRUCIFERAE 
Brassica L. 

B. arvensis (L.) Kze. Rev. Gen. I. 19 (1891). Sinapis 
arvensis L. Sp. PI. 668 (1753). B. Sinapistrum Boiss. Voy. 
Esp. II. 39 (1839-1845); Rob. (1), 146.— Charles Isl.: 
Andersson. Widely distributed. 

B. campestris L. Sp. PI. 666 (1753); Rob. (1), 146.— 
Charles Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : Wreck 



58 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Bay, around habitations at 900 ft. Probably introduced. 
Widely distributed. 

Coronopus Ludw. 

C. didymus (L.) Sm. Fl. Brit. II. 691 (1800). Lepidium 
didymum L. Mant. 92 (1767). Senehiera pinnatiUda DC. 
Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Par. VII. 144, t. 9 (1799) ; Rob. (1), 
146. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, abundant in open grassy 
country around 1300 ft. (no. 1540). James Isl.: Darwin. 
Widely distributed. 

Lepidium L. 

L. virginicum L. Sp. PI. 645 (1753). — Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, around habitations, probably introduced, (no. 
1538). Widely distributed. 

Raphanus L. 

R. sativus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 935 (1763); Rob. (1), 146.— 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, in 
cultivated ground. A species concerning whose introduction 
there can be but little doubt, (no. 1539). Widely distributed 
through cultivation. 

CRASSULACEAE 
Crassuvia Comm. 

C. floripendia Comm. ex. Lam. Encycl. II. 141 (1786). 
Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. Parad. Lond. t. 3 (1806). — 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, around habitations. Probably 
introduced. Further distr. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

LEGUMINOSAE 
Acacia Willd. 

A. famesiana (L.) Willd. Sp. IV. 1083 (1806). Mimosa 
farnesiana L. Sp. PI. 521 (1753). A. famesiana Willd. 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 147. — Albemarle Isl. : Darwin; Macrae. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : north side, small trees at 250 ft. (no. 1541). 
Further distr. Mex., S. Am. 

A. macracantha H. & B. in Willd. Sp. IV. 1080 (1806); 
Rob. (1), 147. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, small trees 
and bushes in tufaceous soil, lower parts, (no. 1544) ; Villa- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 69 

mil, bushes and small trees below 100 ft. (nos. 1542-1543, 
1545). Charles Isl. : common below 700 ft., varying in size 
from low bushes to trees 25 ft. in height, (nos. 1547-1549). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, bushes 6-7 ft. high at 300 ft. 
(no. 1550). Duncan Isl.: prostrate bushes at 1275 ft. (no. 
1551). Hood Isl.: occasional bushes and small trees (no. 
1552). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, low trees and 
bushes below 100 ft. (no. 1556) ; north side, bushes and low 
spreading trees above 100 ft. (no. 1557) ; southeast side, com- 
mon bushes, often prostrate, (nos. 1559-1560). Further distr. 
W. Ind., S. Am. 

A. tortuosa (L.) Willd. Sp. IV. 1083 (1806). Miinosa 
tortuosa L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1505 (1763). A. tortuosa Willd. 
1. c. ; Rob. (1), 147. — Charles Isl.: Andersson. Chatham 
Isl. : Andersson. Indefatigable Isl. : northeast side, low 
bushes near the shore (nos. 1615-1616) ; southeast side, occa- 
sional bushes. James Isl. : northeast side, (no. 1667) ; James 
Bay, small trees 10-12 ft. high on the lower parts. Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

A. sp. affin. A. macracantha H. & B. ; Rob. (1), 147. — 
Albemarle Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. 

A. sp.? Hook. f. (4), 261; Rob. (1), 147.— Charles Isl.: 
Edmonston. 

A. sp. Rob. (1), 147. — James Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 

Astragalus L. 

A. Edmonstonei (Hook, f.) Rob. (1), 148. Phaca Edmon- 
stonei Hook. f. (3), 227. — Charles Isl.: Edmonston. En- 
demic. 

Caesalpinia L. 

C. Bonducella (L.) Fleming in As. Res. XI. 159 (1810). 
Guilandina Bonducella L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 545 (1763). C. Bon- 
ducella Fleming 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 148. — Albemarle Isl.: 
Villamil, bushes 4-6 ft. high in low moist places near sea level 
(no. 1619). Further distr. general in warm countries. 

C. pulcherrima (L.) Sw. Obs. 166 (1791). Poinciana pul- 
cherrima L. Sp. PI. 380 (1753). C. pidcherrima Sw. 1. c. ; 



70 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Rob. (1), 148. — Charles Isl. : common in the vicinity of 
former habitations. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, in gardens 
around 1000 ft. Further distr. general in tropics. 

Canavalia Adans. 

C. obtusifolia (Lam.) DC. Prodr. II. 404 (1825). Dolichos 
obtusifolius Lam. Diet. II. 295 (1786). C. obtusifolia DC. 
1. c. ; Rob. (1), 148. — Bindloe Isl.: on the shore and in the 
interior of the island (no. 1620). Further distr. general in 
tropics. 

Cassia L. 

C. hirsutaL. Sp. PI. 378 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 148.— Charles 
Isl. : Lee. Further distr. Mex., S. Am. 

C. occidentalis L. Sp. PI. 377 (1753); Rob. (1), 148.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, occasional low bushes (no, 
1622) ; Villamil, occasional low bushes in lava crevices on 
the lower parts of the island to 600 ft. (nos. 1621, 1623). 
Charles Isl. : Andersson; Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham 
Isl.: Wreck Bay, low bushes, 150-800 ft., (nos. 1624-1625). 
Widely distributed. 

C. pictaDon. Syst. II. 444 (1832) ; Rob. (1), 149.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, common bushes in open country, 
1500-2000 ft., (no. 1628) ; Iguana Cove, low bushes at 200 ft. 
(no. 1629) ; Tagus Cove, low bushes, 1500-2200 ft., (no. 
1626) ; Villamil, low bushes in woodland, 100-550 ft., (no. 
1627). Charles Isl. : rare at 350 ft. (no. 1630). Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional bushes 4-5 ft. high at 200 ft. 
(nos. 1631-1632). Further distr. Ecuador. 

C. sericea Sw. Prodr. 66 (1788); Rob. (1), 149.— 
Chatham Isl. : Andersson. Indefatigable Isl. : Anders- 
son. Seymour Isl., south : Snodgrass and Heller. Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Crotalaria L. 

C. glabrescens Anderss. (1), 248, (2), 109; Rob. (1), 149. 
— Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, common in tufaceous soil on 
the lower parts (no. 1633). Chatham Isl.: Andersson; A. 
Apassiz. Endemic. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 71 

C. pumila Ort. Dec. II. 23 (1797) ; Rob. (1), 149.— Abing- 
don IsL. : occasional at 1100 ft. (no. 1634). Albemarle 
IsL. : Iguana Cove, common at 500 ft. (no. 1640); Tagus 
Cove, occasional on lava beds at 600 ft., common at 4000 ft., 
(no. 1637) ; Villamil, occasional to 550 ft. (nos. 1636, 1639, 
1643). Charles Isl. : occasional in protected places at 1650 
ft. (no. 1644). Chatham Isl. : Andersson; Baur; Snodgrass 
and Heller. Indefatigable Isl. : southeast side, occasional 
in tufaceous soil at 550 ft. (no. 1645). James Isl.: James 
Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Narborough Isl. : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Seymour Isl.^ south : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind. 

C. setifera DC. Prodr. II. 131 (1825); Rob. (1), 149.— 
Abingdon Isl. : fairly common at 400 ft. (no. 1646). Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, abundant at 4000 ft. (no. 1647) ; 
Villamil, occasional, 250-800 ft., (no. 1648). Indefatigable 
Isl. : Academy Bay, common, 4-6 ft. high, in a dense growth 
of vines and bushes, 500-600 ft., (no. 1650) ; northwest side, 
occasional in tufaceous soil near the shore. Further distr. 
Mex. 

Dalea L. 

D. domingensis DC. Prodr. II. 246 (1825). — Chatham 
Isl.: Basso Point, bushes 5-6 ft. high at 900 ft. (no. 1651). 
Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

D. parvifolia Hook. f. (3), 225; Rob. (1), 150.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. Charles 
Isl. : bushes 5 ft. high at 550 ft. (no. 1652). Chatham Isl. : 
Andersson. Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common 
bushes on the lower parts (no. 1654) ; southeast side, occa- 
sional bushes 4-5 ft. high at 400 ft. (no. 1653) ; northwest 
side, Baur. James Isl. : Darwin; Baur. Endemic. 

D. tenuicaulis Hook. f. (3), 226; Rob. (1), 150.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, bushes 4-5 ft. high to 2500 ft. (no. 
1655); Villamil, Baur. Chatham Isl.: Andersson. En- 
demic. 

Desmanthus Willd. 

D. depressusH. & B. ex. Willd. Sp. IV. 1046 (1806) ; Rob. 
(1), 150. — Abingdon Isl.: occasional among rocks at 550 

January 12, 19n 



72 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ft. (no. 1656). Charles Isl. : common near the shore, and 
at 550 ft, (nos. 1657-1658). Chatham Isl.: A. Agassis; 
Baiir. Duncan Isl. : among rocks on the lower parts (no. 
1659). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snod grass and 
Heller. Hood Isl. : occasional among rocks (nos. 1660- 
1661). Jervis Isl.: (no. 1662). Further distr. S. U. S., 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Desmodium Desv. 

D. galapagense Rob. (1), 150. D. Uliforme Hook. f. (3), 
227. — James Isl. : Darzvin. Endemic. 

D. incanum (Sw.) DC. Prodr. II. 332 (1825). Hedysarum 
incanum Sw. Prodr. 107 (1788). D. incanum DC. 1. c. ; Rob. 
(1), 150. — Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occasional in open 
woodland at 350 ft., very abundant in the open grassy country 
above 700 ft, (nos. 1663-1664). Further distr. Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

D. molle (Vahl.) DC. Prodr. II. 332 (1825). Hedysarum 
molle Vahl. Symb. II. 83 (1790). D. molle DC. 1. c. ; Rob. 
(1), 150. — Abingdon Isl.: occasional around 600 ft. (no. 
1665). Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, common in tufaceous 
soil around the sides and base of the mountain (no. 1666). 
Bindloe Isl. : Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : 
Andersson ; Baur. Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snod- 
grass and Heller. Hood Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : north side, Snodgrass and Heller; northwest 
side, rare in tufaceous soil near the shore (no. 1667). Jervis 
Isl. : Baur. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

D. spirale (Sw.) DC. Prodr. II. 332 (1825). Hedysarum 
spirale Sw. Prodr. 107 (1788). D. spirale DC. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 
151. — Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, abundant on the sides 
of the cliffs above the cove (no. 1562) ; Tagus Cove, occasional 
on the lower parts (no. 1 561 ) . Bindloe Isl. : Baiir. . Charles 
Isl.: rare near the shore and from 500-800 ft. (nos. 1563- 
1565). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.): Snodgrass and 
Heller. Hood Isl. : . Snodgrass and Heller. James Isl. : 
Snodgrass and Heller. Seymour Isl., north : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Further distr. Mex.. W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 73 

D. uncinatum (Jaq.) DC. Prodr. II. 331 (1825). Hedy- 
sarum uncinatum Jaq. Hort. Sch. III. t. 298 (1798). D. un- 
cinatum DC. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 151. — Albemarle Isl. : Tagus 
Cove, common above 3,000 ft. (no. 1566). Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, Baur. Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, 
among a dense growth of vines and bushes at 500 ft. (no. 

1567). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

■*■ 

Erythrina L. 

E. velutina Willd. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Neue Schr. III. 426 
(1801); Rob. (1), 151. — Albemarle Isl.: Banks Bay, ace. 
to F. X. Williams. Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, 
small trees in the vicinity of the shore; northeast side, small 
trees about two miles inland (no. 1668) ; northwest side, small 
trees to 750 ft. James Isl. : James Bay, large forest trees 
from near the shore to 1200 ft.; northeast side, small trees 
above 300 ft. Wen man Isl. : the grove of leafless trees, men- 
tioned by Heller, Rob. (1), 251, belongs to this species. This 
species sometimes forms forest trees three feet in diameter at 
the base and more than sixty feet in height. It is the largest 
tree found in the dry regions. Further distr. W. Ind., S. Am. 

Galactea P. Br. 

G. Jussiaeana Kunth, var. glabrescens Benth. in Mart. Fl. 
Bras. XV. pt. 1, 143 (1859); Rob. (1), 152.— Chatham 
Isl.: Basso Point, occasional at 1000 ft. (no. 1585) ; Wreck 
Bay, (no. 1586). Hood Isl.: generally distributed over the 
island but not common (no. 1587). Further distr. Brazil. 

Var. volubilis Benth. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 151. — Abingdon Isl.: 
occasional vines on the lower parts of the island (no. 1571). 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common on bushes on the 
lower parts (no. 1574) ; Tagus Cove, occasional on bushes on 
the sides of the mountain (no. 1572) ; Villamil, common on 
bushes to 400 ft. (no. 1573). Charles Isl. : on bushes, 575- 
1000 ft., (nos. 1576-1577). Chatham Isl.: Sappho Cove, 
abundant in lava crevices (no. 1579). Duncan Isl.: occa- 
sional at 700 ft., abundant on rocks at 1275 ft., (no. 1580). 
Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : (no. 1582). Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : north side, common on lava near the shore (no. 
1583). James Isl.: James Bay, on the lower parts of the 



74 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

island. Jervis Isl. : occasional at 1000 ft. (no. 1584). Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl. : north side, Snodgrass and Heller. Seymour 
IsL.^ NORTH : Snodgrass and Heller. None of the specimens 
of this species from the Galapagos Islands, either in the Gray 
Herbarium or in the Academy's collection, shows the ciliated 
standard as described and figured by Kunth, Mimos. 197, t. 55. 
There is also much variation in the size and shape of the leaves, 
as well as in the amount of pubescence. Further distr. S. Am. 

G. tenuiflora (Willd.) Wight & Arn. Prodr. I. 206 (1834). 
Glycine tenuiflora Willd. Sp. HI. 1059 (1801-1803). Galactea 
dubia DC. Prodr. II. 238 (1825). — Indefatigable Isl.: 
southeast side, common vines at 600 ft. (no. 1569). James 
Isl. : James Bay, occasional on the lower parts of the island 
(no. 1570). All of the specimens collected are sterile, but they 
closely resemble specimens of this species in the Gray Herb- 
arium in the foliage and in the length of the racemes. Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

G. n. sp. Hook. f. (4), 261; Rob. (1), 152.— Charles Isl.: 
Edmonston. 

Geoffroea Jacq. 

G. striata (Willd.) Morong, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sc. VII. 87 
(1893), as Geoff roya striata. Robinia striata Willd. Sp. III. 
1132 (1803). Geoffraea superba H. & B. PI. Aequin. II. 69, t. 
100 (1809) ; Rob. (1), 152.— Charles Isl.: a grove of low 
spreading trees of this species is found in the vicinity of an old 
habitation at 450 ft. The specimens collected by Snodgrass 
and Heller are probably from this locality and not Hood Isl., 
as there are evidently no trees of this species there. The grove 
on Charles Isl. is just to the right of the main trail leading into 
the interior of the island, and is so situated that it would 
hardly be missed by any one collecting plants in the locality, 
(no. 1588). Further distr. trop. S. Am. 

Inga Scop. 

I.edulis Mart. Herb. Fl. Bras. 113 (1837).— Charles Isl.: 
trees 20-30 ft. high in wet soil around a spring at 1000 ft. (no. 
1589). Further distr. Mex.. S. Am. 

I. sp. — Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, in gardens. Probably 
introduced. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 75 

Mimosa L. 

M. asperata L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1312 (1760); Rob. (1), 
152. — Charles Isl. : Edmonston. Widely distributed in 
tropical and sub-tropical regions. 

Mucuna Adans. 

M. rostrata Bentli. in Mart. Fl. Bras. XV. 1, 171 (1859- 
1862). — Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, vines on trees 
at 700 ft. Frederick T. Nelson collector, (no. 1590). Further 
distr. Brazil. 

Neptunia Lour. 

N. plena (L.) Benth. in Hook. Jour. Bot. IV. 355 (1842). 
Mimosa plena L. Sp. PI. 519 (1753). A^. plena Benth. 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 152. — Charles Isl. : Edmonston (?) ; Andersson; 
Cuevas Bay, Baur. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, in open 
places among rocks to 200 ft. (no. 1591). Gardner Isl. 
(near Hood Isl.) : common among rocks. Indefatigable 
Isl. : north side, Snod grass and Heller; northeast side, in 
loose ashy soil near the shore (no. 1594) ; northwest side, 
abundant in tufaceous soil near the shore. Jervis Isl. : Baiir. 
Seymour Ids.^ north and south: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind.. S. Am. 

Parkinsonia L. 

P. aculeata L. Sp. PI. 375 (1753); Rob. (1), 152.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, small trees abundant in rather low 
places near the shore (no. 1595). Charles Isl. : Post Ofifice 
Bay, occasional small trees near the shore, and in the low fiat 
country for some distance inland, where they form dense low 
forests with Prosopis didcis. The craters around 450 ft. are 
often filled with these trees, (no. 1596). Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, small trees, abundant to 200 ft, (no. 1597). 
Duncan Isl. : abundant in ci deep canyon on the northeast 
side of the island. Hood Isl. : occasional bushes and small 
trees (no. 1598). Indefatigable Isl.: southeast side, fairly 
common all over the lower parts of the island (no. 1600). 
Seymour Isl., south : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. 
S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 



76 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Phaseolus L. 

P. adenanthus G. F. W. Mey. Prim. Fl. Esseq. 239 (1818) ; 
Rob. (1), 153. — Hood Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Further 
distr. tropics of New World, introduced ( ?), in E. Ind. 

P. mollis Hook. f. (3), 228; Rob. (1), 153.— James Isl.: 
Darwin. Jervis Isl. : Baur. Specimen from Jervis Isl. some- 
what doubtful ace. to Rob. 1. c. Endemic. 

P. semierectus L. Mant. I 100 (1767); Rob. (1), 153.— 
Charles Isl. : occasional in open thickets of Lipochaeta larici- 
folia at 850 ft. (no. 1601). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
common in sandy soil near the shore (no. 1602). Further 
distr. general in tropics. 

P. vulgaris L. Sp. PI. 723 (1753). — Albemarle Isl.: 
Iguana Cove, common on the sides of the cliffs above the cove 
(no. 1603) ; Tagus Cove, common in thickets at 4000 ft. This 
species was probably introduced. Widely distributed. 

P. (?) sp. — Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, sterile specimens 
with large leaves, the genus of which is in doubt. 

Piscidia L. 

P. ErythrinaL. Sp. PL ed. 2, 993 (1763) ; Rob. (1), 153.— 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common trees on the lower parts 
(no. 1608). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, forest trees, 
fairly common to 350 ft., (no. 1607) ; north side, common 
bushes in sand and in lava crevices near the shore, small trees 
around 500 ft., (no. 1606) ; northwest side, fairly common 
from the vicinity of the shore to 800 ft., small near the shore, 
but increasing in size with elevation, forming good sized trees 
at the upper limit of distribution, (no. 1607). James Isl. : ( ?) 
ace. to Rob. 1. c. Further distr. Mex., W, Ind., S. Am. 

Prosopis L. 

P. dulcis Kunth, Mimos. 110, t. 34 (1819) ; Rob. (1), 153. 
— Abingdon Isl. : common bushes on lava beds near the shore 
(no. 1609). Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, common in low 
thickets on the lower parts, where it forms a very important 
element of the flora in places. Barrington Isl. : occasional 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 77 

decumbent bushes around dried pools in the interior of the 
island (no. 1610). Charles Isl. : common bushes, forming 
open thickets near the shore, and trees around 650 ft., (nos. 
1611-1613). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occasional low 
spreading trees in sandy soil near the shore (no. 1614). Dun- 
can Isl.: occasional near the shore; at 1000 ft. it is very 
abundant as prostrate and decumbent bushes, often covering 
considerable areas on the floor of the crater; occasional at 
1275 ft. The prostrate habit on the upper parts is probably 
due to the wind, (no. 1668). Gardner Isl. (near Hood 
Isl.): common bushes (no. 1670). Hood Isl.: common 
bushes all over the island (nos. 1671-1673). Indefatigable 
Isl. : southeast side, common bushes to 600 ft. (nos. 1674- 
1675) ; northeast side, small stunted trees near the shore (no. 
1676). James Isl.: James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Jervis Isl. : occasional prostrate bushes at 1050 ft. (no. 
1677). Seymour Isl., south: occasional bushes (no. 1678). 
Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., S. Am. 

Rhynchosia Lour. 

R. minima (L.) DC. Mem. Leg. IX. 363 (1825). Dolichos 
minimus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1020 (1763). R. minima DC. 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 154. — Abingdon Isl.: common to above 1000 ft. 
The series of specimens from this island show well the 
marked foliar differences which occur between individuals from 
the dry and moist regions on practically all of the islands 
where this species is found at low and high levels. The speci- 
mens from the dry region have the leaflets villous on both sur- 
faces, margins strongly reflexed, resin dots numerous and dark 
brown in color, venation prominent on the under surface ; size 
of leaflets, 5.5 by 7 mm. Specimens from above 1000 ft. have 
the upper surface of the leaflets atomiferous, the lower softly 
pubescent, margins but slightly reflexed, resin dots few and 
amber colored, venation not prominent; size of leaflet, 31 by 43 
mm. Specimens from 600 and 700 ft. show characters which 
closely correspond with the specimen from 1000 ft. except that 
the leaflets are smaller, (nos. 1679-1682). Albemarle Isl.: 
Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, common 
in the vicinity of the cove; Tagus Cove, abundant in open 
areas in tufaceous soil all over the lower parts (no. 1683). 



78 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Barrington Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Bindloe Isl. : 
abundant near the shore, rare in the interior, (no. 1685). 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, 
occasional at 900 ft. (no. 1688) ; Wreck Bay, abundant all 
over the lower parts (nos. 1686-1687). Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, common all over the lower parts. All of the 
specimens taken in this locality are xerophytic in character, 
except a few which were found growing around a brackish 
water spring near the coast. These were mesophytic in char- 
acter, closely resembling specimens taken from the transition 
or moist regions of other islands, (nos. 1691-1692) ; north 
side, common on rocks at 300 ft. (no. 1690) ; northwest side, 
common in tufaceous soil near the shore (no. 1693). Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. Further 
distr. tropical and subtropical regions. 

R. reticulata (Sw.) DC. Prodr. II. 385 (1825). Glycine 
reticulata Sw. Prodr. 105 (1788). R. reticulata DC. 1. c. : 
Rob. (1), 154. — Chatham Isl.: Darzvin. Further distr. 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

R. sp. Rob. (1), 154. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, 
Snodgrass and Heller. 

R. sp. Rob. (1), 154. — Bindloe Isl.: Snodgrass and Hel- 
ler. 

Stylosanthes Sw. 

S. scabra Vog. Linnaea XII. 69 (1838) ; Rob. (1), 154.— 
Abingdon Isl. : occasional on lava beds on the lower parts 
(no. 1694). Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, forming spread- 
ing bunches in tufaceous soil near the shore (no. 1695). 
Bindloe Isl. : occasional in tufaceous soil near the beach (no. 
1696). Charles Isl.: common in ashy soil, 450-1000 ft., 
(no. 1697). Duncan Isl.: occasional in shady protected 
places near the shore (no. 1698). Indefatigable Isl. : north 
side, Snodgrass and Heller; northwest side, common in tufa- 
ceous soil near the shore (no. 1699). Jervis Isl.: Baur. 
Further distr. Cent, and S. Am. 

Tephrosia Pers. 

T. cinerea (L.) Pers. Syn. II. 328 (1807). Galega cinerea 
L. Syst. ed. 10, 1172 (1760). T. cinerea Pers. 1. c. ; Rob. (1). 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



79 



155. — Abingdon Isl. : common to 400 ft. (no. 1700). Albe- 
marle IsL. : Tagus Cove, abundant in open places at 250 ft. 
Barrington Isl. : Snod grass and Heller. Bindloe Isl. : 
Baur; Snod grass and Heller. Charles Isl. : common on the 
lower parts, occasional at 600 ft., (no. 1703). Chatham 
Isl. : Sappho Cove, occasional on recent lava near the shore 
(no. 1704). Duncan Isl. : in shady places on the lower parts 
(no. 1705). Hood Isl. : rare around 250 ft., specimens being 
small and rather stunted, (no. 1706). Indefatigable Isl.: 
north side, Snodgrass and Heller. Narborough Isl. : Snod- 
grass and Heller. Seymour Isl.^ south : Snodgrass and 
Heller. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Vigna Savi. 

V. owahuensis Vog. Linnaea X. 585 (1836) ; Rob. (1), 155. 
— James Isl. : Darwin. The identity of this plant is ques- 
tioned by Rob. 1. c. 

Zomia Gmel, 

Z. diphylla (L.) Pers. Syn. II. 318 (1807). Hedysarum 
diphyllum L. Sp. PI. 747 (1753). — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus 
Cove, common in tufaceous soil, 300-500 ft., (no. 1707). 
Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

OXALIDACEAE 

Oxalis L. 

O. carnosa Molina, Sagg. Chile, ed. 2, 288 (1810); Rob. 
(1), 156. — Abingdon Isl. : common on exposed rocks in open 
grassy areas around 1100 ft. (no. 1708). Charles Isl.: 
common among rocks at 1550 ft. (no. 1709). Duncan Isl.: 
on rocks at 900 ft. and in vegetable mold, on side of cliff at 
1250 ft. (no. 1710). This species usually inhabits rather 
sterile places in the transition and moist regions, the roots 
finding a lodgement in small crevices in the lava. Further 
distr. Chili. 

O. Cornelli Anderss. (1), 246, (2), 108; Rob. (1), 156.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common in open places on the 
lower parts (no. 1713). Barrington Isl.: Snodgrass and 
Heller. Charles Isl. : common among rocks near the shore 



80 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

and in open country, 500-1100 ft, (nos. 1716-1717). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, fairly common, 500-2050 ft., 
(nos. 1714-1715). Duncan Isl.: A. Agassis; Snodgrass 
and Heller. Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Hood Isl. : Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : north side, Snodgrass and Heller; northwest 
side, Andersson ; Baur. James Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass 
and Heller. Endemic. 

O. corniculataL. Sp. PI. 435 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 156.— Al- 
bemarle Isl. : Villamil, common in open grassy country at 
1500 ft. (no. 1718). Charles Isl.: common at 1700 ft. (no. 
1719). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, Baur. Widely distrib- 
uted. 

LINACEAE 
Linum L. 

L. oligophyllum Willd. ex. Schult. Sys. VI. 758 (1820); 
Rob. (1), 156. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, low bushes, 
2900-3850 ft., (no. 1720). Further distr. Ecuador and Peru. 



ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 

Kallstroemia Scop. 

K. adscendens (Anderss.) Rob. (1), 156. Trihidus adscen- 
dens Andierss. (1),245. — Charles Isl. : Andersson. Chath- 
am Isl. : Andersson. Duncan Isl. : A. Agassis. Gardner 
Isl. (near Hood Isl.): Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl.: 
Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Tribulus L. 

T. cistoidesL. Sp. PI. 387 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 157.— Abing- 
don Isl. : rare among rocks near the shore. The specimen is 
sterile, but agrees with other specimens of the species in foliage, 
pubescence, etc., (no. 1721). Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, in 
broadly spreading bunches in light ashy soil near sea level ( no. 
1722). Prattle Isl. : (no. 1723). Charles Isl. : common 
near the shore, and in open places in the vegetation, 600-700 
ft, (nos. 1725-1727). Daphne Isl.: F. X. Williams, col- 
lector, (no. 1728). Hood Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Inde- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 81 

FATiGABLE IsL. : AndeTssofi. James Isl. : Darwin. Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl. : north side, common on lava beds. Seymour 
IsL.^ SOUTH : Snodgrass and Heller. Widely distributed. • 

Var. anacanthus Rob. (1), 157. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus 
Cove, common in tufaceous soil on the tops and sides of the 
hills surrounding the cove (no. 1730). Endemic. 

T. sericeus Anderss. (1), 245, (2), 107; Rob. (1), 157.— 
Charles Isl. : occasional among rocks along the shore (no. 
1732). Chatham IsL. : Andersson. Endemic. 

T. sp. Rob. (1), 157. — Culpepper Isl.: sterile specimens, 
evidently of the same species as those collected by Snodgrass 
and Heller at this place, were found by F. X. Williams, (no. 
1731). 

RUTACEAE 
Zanthoxylum L. 

Z. Fagara (L.) Sarg. Card. & For. III. 186 (1890). Schin- 
us Fagara L. Sp. PI. 389 (1753). Z. Pterota HBK. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. VI. 3 (1823); Rob. (1), 158.— Abingdon Isl.: 
common bushes above 450 ft. ; above 1000 ft., small trees 
which are much covered with epiphytes. In the region around 
1650 ft. they are scattered and somewhat stunted in appear- 
ance, (no. 1733). Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional 
bushes at 600 ft., larger and more abundant above 1000 ft., 
(no. 1734) ; Iguana Cove, common bushes, forming dense 
thickets in places, (no. 1735) ; Tagus Cove, common bushes, 
300-2200 ft. ; Villamil, bushes on lava near the coast, increas- 
ing in size with the elevation until they form small forest trees 
around 1300 ft.; above 1500 ft. they form bushes or low 
stunted trees. A few specimens were found on the rim of the 
crater at 3150 ft., and on the floor at 2750 ft., (no. 1737). 
Charles Isl. : common bushes on the lower parts, small trees 
around 1000 ft., very abundant on the leeward sides of most 
of the craters 1000-1450 ft., (nos. 1738-1739). Chatham 
Isl, : Wreck Bay, common bushes and small trees, 150-800 ft., 
(no, 1740). Duncan Isl.: common bushes above 900 ft.; 
around 1200 ft. it forms low trees, (no. 1741). Hood Isl.: 
low trees in a very restricted area around 600 ft. where it 
forms a belt around the top of the island (no. 1742). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, bushes in the vicinity of the 



82 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

shore, forest trees 20-40 ft. high above 350 ft., (no. 1744) ; 
northwest side, common bushes above 100 ft., trees above 700 
ft., (no. 1743) ; southeast side, common bushes, forming 
almost impenetrable thickets, above 450 ft. It does not grow 
as large here as it does at Academy Bay. James Isl. : James 
Bay, common bushes on the lower parts, small forest trees 
around 2000 ft., stunted bushes around 2850 ft. where it is 
exposed to the wind ; northeast side, common bushes above 350 
ft. (nos. 1745-1746). Narborough Isl.: south side, Snod- 
grass and Heller. This species seems to be one of the favorite 
host plants for Phoradendron Henslovii. Owing to its long 
recurved thorns it is one of the most disagreeable bushes to 
contend with when traveling on the lower parts of the islands. 
Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

SIMARUBACEAE 
Castela Turp. 

C. galapageia Hook. f. (3), 229, (4), 262; Rob. (1), 158.— 
Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, low bushes to 1100 ft. 
Chatham Isl. : Darwin; Baur. Hood Isl. : low bushes 
around 600 ft. ; no specimens were taken. Endemic. 

Forma albemarlensis Rob. (1), 158. Forma jervensis Rob. 
(1), 159. — Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, common bushes on 
the lower parts (no. 1747) ; Villamil, common bushes on lava 
beds to 200 ft. (no. 1762). Indefatigable Isl.: northeast 
side, common bushes 6-8 ft. high in loose ashy soil near the 
shore. Stem unarmed ; leaves for the most part cuneate with 
revolute margins, but some are obtusely oblong and mucronate 
as in the specimens from Albemarle, (no. 1748) ; northeast 
side, occasional bushes on the lower parts. The specimens 
from this part of the island are armed, leaves usually oblong 
obtuse mucronate, but some are lance-oblong acute, (no. 
1749) ; southeast side, common bushes to 600 ft. Stem un- 
armed; leaves oblong obtuse mucronate, (no. 1750). Jervis 
Isl. : Baur. Considering the great variability of the forms as 
shown by subsequent specimens, the form jervensis seems to 
agree rather too closely with the type specimen of form albe- 
marlensis to be considered as a good form. Narborough 
Isl.: north side, bushes 5-6 ft. high on lava beds (no. 1651). 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 83 

Forma bindloensis Rob. (1), 158. — Bindloe Isl. : common 
bushes. The specimens have the stem armed and many of the 
leaves are obtuse cuneate, (no. 1752). 

Forma carolensis Rob. (1), 158. — Abingdon Isl.: common 
bushes to 500 ft. (no. 1753). Charles Isl.: bushes 6-7 ft. 
high to 700 ft. Specimens taken below 350 ft. have larger 
leaves than do those from around 700 ft., (nos. 1758-1759). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common bushes on the lower 
parts. The type specimen of the species was collected on this 
island by Darwin and is described by Hook, f., 1. c, as being 
unarmed with the leaves linear lanceolate acute. The specimen 
under consideration has the stem armed with the leaves varying 
from oblong obtuse to spatulate. It resembles the form caro- 
lensis very much, (no. 1757). Seymour Isl., south : occa- 
sional bushes. Stem unarmed, leaves similar to those described 
byRob. 1. c, (no. 1760). 

Forma duncanensis Rob. (1), 159.— Barrington Isl.: 
bushes with procumbent armed branches, leaves oblanceolate 
acute with revolute margins, .4-1 cm. long, (no. 1754). Dun- 
can Isl.: prostrate bushes above 300 ft. The specimen is 
armed with very strong spines, leaves oblanceolate with mar- 
gins strongly revolute, .9-1.6 cm. long. The type specimen is 
evidently a young branch, the leaves at the base of which tend 
to assume the revolute form. There is a single weak spine on 
the type specimen, (no. 1755). Jervis Isl.: occasional pros- 
trate bushes to 1050 ft. Stem armed, leaves attenuate obtuse, 
.6-1.9 cm. long, (no. 1756). There is much variation in the 
arming of the stems and in the size of the leaves in the speci- 
mens from the different islands, as well as in specimens from 
the same island. The specimen from Barrington has the larg- 
est leaves and spines intermediate in size, that from Duncan 
has the leaves intermediate in size and the largest spines, while 
the specimen from Jervis has the smallest spines. The most 
important character which the specimens from the different 
islands have in common is the procumbent habit. 

Forma jacobensis Rob. (1), 159. — James Isl. : James Bay, 
bushes 4-5 ft. high, fairly common below 300 ft. Stem armed, 
leaves broadly oblong obtuse to lance-oblong acute, with or 
without revolute margins on the same specimen, (no. 1761). 



84 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

From the above it can be seen that if formal differences occur 
in this species, such differences are not confined to a single 
island, as it often happens that specimens from different parts 
of the same island show quite as marked variations as do speci- 
mens from different islands. 



BURSERACEAE 
Bursera L. 

B. graveolens (HBK.) Trian. & Planch. Ann. Sci. Nat. 5, 
XIV. 303 (1872). Elaphrium graveolens HBK. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. VII. 31 (1825). B. graveolens Trian. & Planch. 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 159. — Abingdon Isl. : common trees to 1000 ft., 
below 400 ft. they are small and scattered, (no. 1762). Albe- 
marle Isl. : Banks Bay, common trees to 1700 ft., according 
to F. X. Williams; Cowley Bay, small trees above 400 ft., com- 
mon trees, 3-4 inches in diameter and 12-15 ft. high, around 
1200 ft., large spreading trees much infested with Usnea lon- 
gissima above 2000 ft. ; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Iguana Cove, occasional small trees to 400 ft. The small size 
and scarcity of this species here may be due to the more moist 
conditions which prevail, (no. 1765) ; Tagus Cove, common 
trees in tufaceous soil on the lower parts and on the sides of 
the mountain to 2000 ft. ; Villamil, low spreading trees com- 
mon to 550 ft. Barrington Isl. : small trees, leafless in Octo- 
ber and July, much infested with Roccela peruensis. Bindloe 
Isl. : northeast side, common trees in tufaceous soil. Charles 
Isl. : common trees to 1000 ft. Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, 
common trees to above 1000 ft. ; Sappho Cove, common trees 
to above 800 ft. ; Wreck Bay, common trees to 700 ft. Cul- 
pepper Isl. : low spreading trees, apparently of this species, 
were seen around the top of the island. Gardner Isl. (near 
Hood Isl.) : small trees all over the island (no. 1767). Hood 
Isl. : trees 12-18 ft. high, common on all sides of the island 
except the south, where they seem to be rather scarce, (no. 
1768). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common trees to 
350 ft. (no. 1769) ; north side, small trees and bushes on lava 
beds; northwest side, common trees to 750 ft., attaining their 
largest size around 600 ft. ; southeast side, common trees below 
500 ft. James Isl. : James Bay, abundant below 1000 ft. ; 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 85 

north side, extending to above 1800 ft. according to F. X. 
Williams. Jervis Isl. : small trees on the lower parts (no. 
1771). Narborough Isl.: north side, small trees on lava 
beds (no. 1772). Tower Isl. : small trees, much infested with 
lichens. This species forms one of the most common trees in 
the dry and transition regions on the islands where it occurs. 
It seldom attains a great height, usually having a broadly 
spreading crown and a short thick trunk. Its absence from 
Duncan Island is rather peculiar, as it is found on all of the 
adjacent islands, and the conditions here do not seem to be 
such as would inhibit its growth. Further distr. Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am. to Peru. 

B. malacophylla Rob. (1), 160. — Seymour Ids., north (?) 
and SOUTH : Snod grass and Heller. ' At both the times our 
party visited south Seymour, viz. in July and November, the 
Bursera trees were out of foliage. So far as is known this 
species does not occur on the north side of Indefatigable 
although this island is separated from Seymour by a channel 
which is only about a half mile in width and is probably of 
comparatively recent origin. Endemic. 



POLYGALACEAE 

Poly gala L. 

P. Anderssonii Rob. (1), 160. P. puberula Anderss. (1), 
232, (2), 100. — Indefatigable Isl. : northwest side, Anders- 
son; Baur. Endemic. 

P. galapageia Hook. f. (3), 233; Rob. (1), 160.— Abing- 
don Isl. : fairly abundant on the lava beds on the lower parts 
(no. 1773). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, not abundant 
(no. 1775) ; Tagus Cove, abundant from the beach to 600 ft. 
(no. 1774). BiNDLOE Isl.: occasional in tufaceous soil near 
the shore (no. 1776). Charles Isl.: Darzvin; Andersson; 
Baur. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant in sandy soil 
near the shore (no. 1777) ; north side, Baur. Indefatigable 
Isl. : north side, abundant in light ashy soil near the shore (no. 
1778) ; northwest side, abundant in tufaceous soil near the 
shore (no. 1779). James Isl.: northeast side, specimens seen 
at 200 ft. Jervis Isl. : Baur. Endemic. 



86 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Var. insularis Rob. (1), 161. P. obovata Hook. f. (3), 233. 
— Albemarle Isl. : Macrae. Charles Isl. : Cormorant Bay, 
abundant on sand beaches (no. 1780). Chatham Isl.: 
Sappho Cove, abundant on sand beaches (no. 1782). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common on the lower parts 
(no. 1783). James Isl. : northeast side. Jervis Isl. : Baur. 
Endemic. 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Acalypha L. 

A. Adamsii Rob. (1), 161. — Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
Baur. Endemic. 

A. albemarlensis Rob. (1), 163. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana 
Cove, occasional among dense vegetation at 300 ft, (no. 
1784) ; Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

A. Baurii Rob. & Greenm. (1), 144, 148; Rob. (1), 163.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common in open woodland at 1300 
ft. (no. 1793). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, Baur. En- 
demic. 

A. chathamensis Rob. (1), 163. — Chatham Isl.: Basso 
Point, occasional among rocks at 800 ft. (no. 1785) ; Wreck 
Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

A. cordifolia Hook. f. (3), 186; Rob. (1), 163.— Charles 
Isl. : Darwin. Chatham Isl. :' Andersson. Identity doubt- 
ful ace. to Rob. 1. c. Endemic. 

A. diffusa Anderss. (1), 240, (2), 104, t. 14, f. 4; Rob. (1), 
163. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Andersson. Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, A. Agassiz. Endemic. 

A. flaccida Hook. f. (3), 186; Rob. (1), 164.— James Isl.: 
Darwin. Endemic. 

A. parvula Hook. f. (3), 185; Rob. (1), 164.— Albemarle 
Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, com- 
mon above 1500 ft. (no. 1786) ; Villamil, Baur. Charles 
Isl. : common in rather open brushy country around 1,100 ft. 
(no. 1787). Endemic. 

A. reniformis Hook. f. (3), 187; Rob. (1), 164.— Charles 
Isl. : Darwin. Endemic, 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 87 

A. sericea Anderss. (1), 238, (2), 103, t. 14, f. 1 ; Rob. (1), 
164. — Abingdon Isl. : occasional to 500 ft., abundant above 
this elevation. The specimens from the different elevations are 
similar in the size of the leaves and in the pubescence, (nos. 
1788-1791). Albemarle Isl. : Andersson. Bindloe Isl. : 
Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

A. spicata Anderss. (1), 239, (2), 104, t. 14, f. 3; Rob. (1), 
164. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, abundant on the sides 
of the cliff above the cove (no, 1792). Charles Isl.: occa- 
sional at sea level and at 1200 ft. (nos. 1794-1795). Chatham 
Isl. : north side, Andersson. Duncan Isl. : Baur. Gardner 
Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : (no. 1796). Hood Isl. : rare around 
300 ft. (no. 1797). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, 
occasional below 75 ft. (no. 1800) ; northwest side, occasional 
in tufaceous soil near the shore (no. 1799). Jervis Isl. : Baur. 
Endemic. 

A. strobilifera Hook. f. (3), 187; Rob. (1), 164.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Baur. Chatham Isl. : north side, 
Darwin; Andersson ; Baur. Endemic. 

A. velutina Hook. f. (3), 186; Rob. (1), 164. — Charles 
Isl. : Darwin; Andersson; Baur. Chatham Isl. : Wreck 
Bay, common in open shady woods around 700 ft. (no. 1801). 
Endemic, 

Var. minor Hook. f. (3), 187; Rob. (1), 165. — Charles 
Isl. : Darwin; Baur. Endemic. 

A. sp. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional below 
300 ft. Sterile and indeterminate, (no, 1802). 

A. sp. — Indefatigable Isl. : north side, common at 250 
ft. Indeterminate. Both of the above specimens probably be- 
long to species already described from the islands, 

A. sp. Rob. (1), 165. A. parvula var. cordifolia ? Rob. & 
Greenm. (1), 148. — Barrington Isl.: Baur. Endemic. 

A. sp. Rob. (1), 165. — Barrington Isl.: Snodgrass and 
Heller. Endemic. 

A. sp. Rob. (1), 165. — Barrington Isl.: Baur. Endemic. 

A. sp. Rob. (1), 165. — Indefatigable Isl. : south of Con- 
way Bay, Baur. Endemic, 

January 12. 1911 



88 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

A. sp. Rob. (1), 165. — A. parvula var. Haccida Rob. & 
Greenm. (1), 148. — Duncan Isl. : Baur. 

Croton L. 

C. Scouleri Hook. f. (3), 188; Rob. (1), 165. — Albemarle 
Isl.: Villamil, common bushes, 100-350 ft, (no. 1804). 
Barrington Isl. : bushes 6-8 ft. high all over the island (no. 
1805). BiNDLOE Isl.: common bushes in tufaceous soil (no. 
1806). Brattle Isl. : low bushes, nearly leafless in October, 
(no. 1807), Charles Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller, approach- 
ing var. incanus according to Rob. 1. c. Chatham Isl. : north 
side, Darwin; Baur. Hood Isl. : bushes 10 ft. and more in 
height all over the island (no. 1808). Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, occasional bushes to 550 ft. ; southeast side, 
common bushes all over the lower parts, (nos. 1809-1810). 
James Isl. : Douglas; Scouler; Andersson; James Bay, Snod- 
grass and Heller. Jervis Isl. : bushes 4-5 ft. high all over the 
island (nos. 1812-1814). Narborough Isl.: south side, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Tower Isl. : Baur. Endemic. 

Var. albescens Muell. Arg. in DC. Prodr. XV. pt. 2, 605 
(1862); Rob. (1), 165. — Albemarle Isl.: Andersson; Eliz- 
abeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, occasional 
bushes to 4000 ft. (no. 1816). Bindloe Isl. : Baur. Charles 
Isl. : Andersson ; A. Agassis. Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, 
common bushes to above 900 ft. (no. 1819) ; Wreck Bay, 
small trees and bushes on the lower parts (nos. 1817-1818). 
Indefatigable Isl. : north side, bushes 6-7 ft. high at 300 ft. 
(no. 1820). James Isl.: Andersson; northeast side, small 
bushes on lava beds (no. 1821). Endemic. 

Forma microphyllus Muell. Arg. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 166. — 
Albemarle Isl. : Andersson. Endemic. 

Var. brevifolius Muell. Arg. 1. c. C. hrevif alius Anderss. 
(1), 241, (2), 105. Var. brevifolius Muell. Arg. 1. c. ; Rob. 
(1), 166. — Abingdon Isl. : common bushes 4-5 ft. high below 
1000 ft. (no. 1822). Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, Snod- 
grass and Heller. Bindloe Isl. : common bushes (no. 1832). 
Charles Isl. : bushes rather characteristic of the region be- 
tween 650 and 1100 ft. This species becomes more abundant 
with the increase in elevation and forms a belt, around the base 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 89 

of the central mountain, which is noticeable from Black Beach 
Road during the dry season when most of the other vegetation 
is leafless or has the leaves very much reduced, (nos. 1823- 
1824). Culpepper Isl. : F. X. Williams, collector. Croton 
bushes appear to be very abundant on the top of the island. 
Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass and Heller. Hood 
Isl.: common bushes (no. 1826). Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, occasional bushes and small trees 10-15 ft. high 
to 300 ft. (nos. 1828-1829) ; northwest side, bushes 6-10 ft. 
high (no. 1827). James Isl. : James Bay, common bushes to 
1000 ft. (no. 1830). SeymoiJr Isl.^ north: Snodgrass and 
Heller. Wenman Isl.: slender trees and bushes (no. 1833). 
Endemic. 

Var. glabriusculus nov. var. 

Foliis ovatis denticulatis acutis utrinque sparsim pubescentibus; 
pilis aliis simplicibus aliis stella;tis lamina circa 4 cm. longa 2.4 cm. lata. 

Abingdon Isl. : small trees and bushes, 1000-1650 ft., (no. 
1834). A variety closely related to var. hrevifolius, differing 
in the slightly denticulate margins of the leaves and in the 
presence of simple trichomes. Endemic, 

Var. grandifolius Muell. Arg. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 166. — Abing- 
don Isl.: bushes 6-10 ft. high, 1000-1650 ft, (no. 1835). 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, bushes and small trees, abundant 
at 300-1300 ft, (no. 1836). It should be noted that C. Scou- 
leri extends up to 350 ft., so there is a slight overlapping of 
the two forms. Charles Isl. : common bushes, 1000-1350 ft., 
(no. 1837). Var. hrevifolius extends up to 1100 ft. here, and 
the leaves increase considerably in size with the elevation, so 
that there is a close resemblance between var. grandifolius and 
the more mesophytic form of var. hrevifolius. Chatham Isl. : 
Wreck Bay, low bushes in open country around 700 ft. (no. 
1838). James Isl.: James Bay, small trees and bushes 6-12 
ft. high above 1000 ft., very abundant in woodland around 
2000 ft., (nos. 1839-1840). It should be noted again that 
the lower limit of this variety, at this place, is also about the 
upper limit of var. hrevifolius. Tower Isl. : Snodgrass and 
Heller. Endemic. 

Var. Macraei Muell. Arg. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 166. — Albemarle 
Isl. : Cowley Bay, common bushes, 250-1300 ft., (no. 1842) ; 



90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Tagus Cove, trees and bushes in tufaceous soil around the base 
of the mountain. In protected places in canyons it sometimes 
attains a height of over 20 ft. (no. 1841). Charles Isl. : 
low trees and bushes on the lower parts (no. 1843). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, bushes and small trees form- 
ing dense thickets in the vicinity of the shore (nos. 1844- 
1845) ; southeast side, bushes and small trees common below 
500 ft. (no. 1846). James Isl.: James Bay, Andersson; 
Orchilla Bay, Baur. Endemic. 

Croton bushes form one of the most striking elements of the 
flora of the dry region and it is seldom that one can go very 
far away from the shore without encountering thickets of them. 
The bark is grayish white and the leaves grayish green in 
color, on most of the varieties found on the lower parts of the 
islands. The characteristically gray color of the vegetation in 
the dry regions is largely due to the number of these bushes. 

In general C. Scouleri and the varieties albescens and Mac- 
raei are found in the dry regions, var. brevifolius in the transi- 
tion region, and varieties grandifolius and glabriusculus in the 
moist regions, with occasional overlapping of the varieties as 
mentioned above. 

Euphorbia L. 

E. amplexicaulis Hook. f. (3), 183; Rob. (1), 166.— Ab- 
ingdon Isl. : occasional low shrubs near the shore (no. 1847). 
Bindloe Isl. : low shrubs in tufaceous soil near the shore (no. 
1848). Brattle Isl.: (no. 1849). Chatham Isl.: Dar- 
win. Daphne Isl.: (no. 1851). Gardner Isl. (near 
Charles Isl.): (no. 1850). Indefatigable Isl.: north 
side, common on sand beaches (no. 1852). James Isl. : on a 
small islet about one-half mile off the northeast side (no. 
1853). Seymour Isu, south: Snodgrass and Heller. Tower 
Isl.: occasional low shrubs on the tops of cliffs (no. 1854). 
Wenman Isl.: (no. 1855). This species is always found in 
close proximity to the shore. Endemic. 

E. apiculata Anderss. (1), 234, (2), 101; Rob. (1), 166.— 
Chatham Isl. : Andersson. Endemic. 

E. articulata Anderss. (1), 236, (2), 102, t. 12, f. 2; Rob. 
(1), 166. — Abingdon Isl.: low bushes on lava beds on the 
lower parts of the island (no. 1856). Albemarle Isl.: 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 91 

Cowley Bay, common to 1200 ft. (no. 1857) ; Elizabeth Bay, 
Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, common in tufaceous soil 
to 600 ft. (no. 1858). Bindloe Isl. : low shrubs near the 
shore (nos. 1859-1860). Charles Isl.: common bushes in 
loose soil among rocks (nos. 1861-1863). Chatham Isl.: 
Sappho Cove, abundant in lava crevices near the coast (no. 
1864) ; Wreck Bay, A. Agassis. Indefatigable Isl. : north- 
west side, bushes 2-3 ft. high common below 250 ft. (no. 
1865). James Isl. : northeast side, common near the shore 
(no. 1866) ; Orchilla Bay, Baur. Seymour Isl., south : 
Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Var. bindloensis nov. var. ; E. sp. aff . E. articulata Anderss. ; 
Rob. (1), 169. 

Foliis ovatis basi cordatis 5 mm. longis 3 mm. latis; ramulis rigidis 
divaricatis. 

Abingdon Isl. : occasional low shrubs near the shore (no. 
1867). Bindloe Isl.: low shrubs in tufaceous soil in the 
vicinity of the shore (no. 1868). Plate III, fig. 5. Endemic. 

E. diffusa Hook. f. (3), 184; Rob. (1), 167. — Albemarle 
Isl. : Cowley Bay, Andersson; Tagus Cove, common in tufa- 
ceaus soil on the sides of the hills surrounding the cove (no. 
1869). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, in dry sandy soil near 
the shore (no. 1872). Duncan Isl.: occasional in protected 
places on the lower parts (no. 1870). Indefatigable Isl.: 
north side, Snodgrass and Heller. Jervis Isl. : Baur. Nar- 
borqugh Isl. : north side, abundant in lava crevices near the 
shore (no. 1871). Endemic. 

E. equisetiformis, nov. sp. 

Fruticosa glabra; caulibus erectis teretibus ramosis ad nodos per- 
fragilibus; ramis ultimis in fasciculum ramulorum 2-3 pallido-viridum 
complanatorum terminantibus; foliis oppositis squamiformibus; involu- 
cris terminalibus solitariis rufo-bruneis brevipedunculatis bibracteatis; 
glandulis ellipticis appendiculas fimbriatas gerentibus; floribus mas- 
culis numerosis; squamis fimbriatis gracilibus truncatis numerosis; 
floribus femineis erectis, capsula obtuse angulata, involucro trilobato. 

Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, occasional bushes 3-4 ft. high on 
the floor of the crater at 2750 ft. Most of the other vegeta- 
tion in the vicinity is quite xerophytic in character, (no. 1873). 
Plate III, figs. 1-2. Endemic. 

E. flabellaris Anderss. ace. to Boiss. in DC. Prodr. XV. pt. 
2, 17 (1862); Rob. (1), 167. — Abingdon Isl.: Snodgrass 



92 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

and Heller. Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, abundant on the 
sides of the diffs above the cove (no. 1874). Barrington 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Identity doubtful ace. to Rob. 1. 
c. Charles Isl. : Darwin. Chatham Isl. : Sappho Cove, 
occasional on the beach (no. 1876) ; Wreck Bay, occasional in 
open vegetation around 200 ft. (no. 1875). Gardner Isl. 
(near Hood Isl.) : common in loose soil mixed with small 
particles of lava (no. 1878). Indefatigable Isl. : northwest 
side (no. 1879). James Isl.: James Bay, Snodgrass and 
Heller. Identity doubtful ace. to Rob. 1. c. Seymour Isl.^ 
NORTH : Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

E. galapageia Rob. & Greenm. (1), 144, 148; Rob. (1), 167. 
— Charles Isl. : Baur. Endemic. 

E. nesiotica Rob. (1), 167. — Seymour Isl._, south: Snod- 
grass and Heller. Endemic. 

E. nummularia Hook. f. (3), 183; Rob. (1), 168.— Chatham 
Isl. : north side, Andersson; Baur; Wreck Bay, common in 
dry sandy soil near the shore (nos. 1880-1881). Endemic. 

Var. glabra Rob. & Greenm. (1), 144, 148; Rob. (1), 168. 
— Charles Isl. : procumbent shrubs among rocks near the 
shore (no. 1882) ; Cuevas Bay, Baur. Endemic. 

E. pilulifera L. Amoen. Acad. HI. 115 (1756); Rob. (1), 
168. — Charles Isl. : abundant in open places near the shore, 
occasional in rather open brushy country around 900 ft., rare 
in meadows around 1000 ft., abundant on the sides of the 
main mountain at 1250 ft. The specimen from the upper eleva- 
tion is larger and less pubescent than the specimens taken lower 
down, (nos. 1883-1886). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
abundant in dry sandy soil near the beach (no. 1887). James 
Isl. : Darwin. Further distr. general in warm countries. 

E. punctulata Anderss. (1), 235, (2), 102; Rob. (1), 168. 
— Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Andersson. Duncan Isl. : 
Baur. Hood Isl. : Baur. Endemic. 

E. recurva Hook. f. (3), 182; Rob. (1), 168.— Chatham 
Isl. : north side, Darwin; Andersson. Endemic. 

E. Stevensii nov. sp. 

Caulibus erectis gracilibus teretibus glaberrimis; ramis divaricatis 
teretibus glaberrimis vel subtiliter pubescentibus; foliis oppositis Ian- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 93 

ceolatis acutis basi obliquo-cordatis integerrimis vel crenatis supra 
pallido-viridibus subtus albidis utrinque glaberrimis pellucido-maculatis 
breviter petiolatis, laminis 1.9 cm. longis, 4.5 mm. latis; floribus axillar- 
ibus 3-umbellatis breviter pedunculatis; glandulis 4 nigris inappendicu- 
latis; capsula 3 cocca parva puberula longipedunculata nutante acute 
angulata; seminibus subrufescentibus 4-angulatis rugulosis. Differs 
from E. cumbrae Boiss. in the pellucidly marked leaves, the black invol- 
ucral glands, and the puberulent capsule; otherwise very similar. 

Abingdon Isl. : occasional at 1100 ft. (no. 1888). Albe- 
marle IsL. : Iguana Cove, occasional in shady places (no. 
1890, type) ; Tagus Cove, common in moist shady places at 
the summit of the mountain, 4000 ft., (no. 1889). Plate II, 
figs. 3-4. Endemic. 

E. thymifolia L. Sp. PL 454 (1753).— Duncan Isl.: occa- 
sional in moist vegetable mold at 1250 ft. (no. 1891 ). Further 
distr. tropics of both hemispheres. 

E. viminea Hook. f. (3), 184; Rob. (1), 168. — Albemarle 
Isl. : Cowley Bay, one of the most abundant bushes above 1200 
ft. (no. 1899) ; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus 
Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, bushes 2-3 ft. high, 
abundant on beds of basaltic lava below 100 ft., (no. 1892). 
Bindloe Isl. : common everywhere, very abundant on exposed 
tufa ridges in the interior of the island below 500 ft., (no. 
1896). Indefatigable Isl.: north side, low and somewhat 
procumbent bushes in lava crevices in the vicinity of the shore 
(no. 1895) ; southeast side, bushes 3-5 ft. high, forming tang- 
led thickets around 450 ft., (no. 1894). Endemic. 

Forma barringtonensis Rob. & Greenm. (1), 139; Rob. (1), 
168. — Barrington Isl. : bushes about 3 ft. high, common on 
flat areas in the interior of the island. The specimen is too 
poor for accurate determination, (no. 1897). Bindloe Isl.: 
Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Forma carolensis Rob. Si Greenm. (1), 139; Rob. (1), 168. 
— Charles Isl. : common bushes around 625 ft., (no. 1898). 
Endemic. 

Forma castellana Rob. & Greenm. (1), 138; Rob. (1), 168. 
— Abingdon Isl. : bushes 2-3 ft. high, common on lava beds 
to 800 ft., (nos. 1899.-1900). Gardner Isl. (near Hood 
Isl.) : low bushes among rocks near the shore (no. 1901). 
Tower Isl. : low spreading bushes common everywhere (no. 
1902). Endemic. 



94 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Forma chathamensis Rob. & Greenm. (1), 138; Rob. (1), 
168. — Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, spreading bushes on lava 
fields near the coast (no. 1903) ; Wreck Bay, common bushes 
on sand beaches (no. 1904). Endemic. 

Forma jacobensis Rob. & Greenm. (1), 138; Rob. (1), 169. 
— ^James Isl. : Orchilla Bay, Baur. Endemic. 

Forma jervensis Rob. & Greenm. (1), 139; Rob. (1), 169. 
— Jervis Isl. : occasional low bushes on the sides of the island, 
and around the top at 1050 ft., (no. 1905). Endemic. 

Var. abingdonensis Rob. & Greenm. (1), 139; Rob. (1), 169. 
— ^Abingdon Isl. : Baur. Endemic. 

E. sp. — Charles Isl. : Post Office Bay, occasional below 
300 ft. (no. 1906). Probably endemic. 

E. sp. Hook. f. (3), 185; Rob. (1), 169.— Charles Isl.: 
Darwin. 

E. sp. Anderss. (1), 237, (2), 102; Rob. (1), 169.— 
Chatham Isl. : Andersson. 

Hippomane L. 

H. Mancinella L. Sp. PI. 1191 (1753); Rob. (1), 169.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Cape 
Rose, common in the vicinity of the shore ; Iguana Cove, a few 
small trees at the end of the cove ; Turtle Cove, low spreading 
trees near the shore; Villamil, islands of low spreading trees 
in the vicinity of the shore; in low areas, some distance back 
from the shore, the soil of which is kept constantly moist by 
telluric waters; and forming a belt of low trees in a rather 
dense forest of Sapindus Saponaria trees around 600 ft. No 
connection was found between the lower and upper belts of this 
species and so far as is known the lower belt ends a very little 
above sea level. Charles Isl. : a few trees on a sand beach 
(no. 1907). Chatham Isl.: Sappho Cove, dense groves of 
rather small trees in the interior; Wreck Bay, common trees 
in low places around 200 ft., and also in open forests around 
700 ft., (no. 1908). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, a 
few trees in sandy soil near the shore; southeast side, low 
dense groves around brackish lagoons (no. 1909). James 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 95 

IsL. : James Bay, fringing a crater lake, south of the bay, the 
water of which is so saturated that a layer of pure white salt 
has crystallized out on the bottom; also occasional on the 
mountain side at 900 ft., (no. 1910). 

From the above it is seen that this tree is found under the 
most varied conditions, from halophytic to mesophytic, without 
any perceptible change in its general appearance. In many 
respects it is a very unpleasant tree with which to come in 
contact. The milky sap has a very strong peppery taste and 
will blister the parts which it touches, if not soon removed. It 
is also very unpleasant, and in fact dangerous, to be under these 
trees during a rain, for if the water from the leaves gets into 
one's eyes, the sensation is very painful and the pain lasts for a 
considerable time. The fruit has a very pleasant odor when 
ripe, and resembles a small yellow apple in size and color, but it 
is extremely poisonous, according to the inhabitants of the 
islands. The tortoises around Cape Rose, Albemarle Island, 
eat the fruit in great quantity ; but we found in cleaning some 
of these tortoises for specimens, that this diet had weakened 
the tissues of the alimentary canal greatly. But little vegeta- 
tion is found under the trees of this species, as a rule, a condi- 
tion which is probably brought about by the dense shade. 
Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., N. S. Am. 

Jatropa L. 

J. curcas L. Sp. PI. 1006 (1753). — Charles Isl. : near 
former habitations and probably introduced (no. 1913). 
Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

Manihot Adans. 

M. utilissima Pohl. PI. Bras. Ic. I. 32, t. 24 (1827) ; Rob. 
(1), 169. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, in gardens (no. 1911), 
Charles Isl. : Chierchia. Indefatigable Isl. : northwest 
side, a few specimens at 750 ft. (no. 1912). No doubt an in- 
troduced species. Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

Phyllanthus L. 

P. carolinensis Walt. Fl. Car. 228 (1788) ; Rob. (1), 169.— 
Abingdon Isl. : occurs first at 725 ft., common above 1000 ft., 



96 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

(no. 1914). Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, common in wood- 
land above 2000 ft.; Iguana Cove, abundant on side of cliff 
above the cove; Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, 
common in the moist region above 400 ft. and on the rim of 
the crater at 3150 ft. The specimens from the rim of the crater 
have smaller leaves than do the specimens collected lower 
down, (nos. 1915, 1917-1919). Charles Isl.: occasional 
around 1700 ft. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, fairly abundant 
in the grassy region above 900 ft. during the rainy season 
(nos. 1920-1921). Duncan Isl.: occasional in moist shady 
places among rocks at 1300 ft. (no. 1922). James Isl. : James 
Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Narborough Isl. : north and 
south sides, Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. S. U. S., 
Mex., W. Ind., northern S. Am. 

Ricinus L. 

R. communis L. Sp. PI. 1007 (1753); Rob. (1), 170.— 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, 
around habitations, probably introduced. Widely distributed. 

CALLITRICHACEAE 

Callitriche L. 

C. sp. Wolf, (1), 284; Rob. (1), 170.— Charles Isl. : in a 
brook near the hacienda, according to Wolf. Probably around 
1000 ft. elevation. 

CELASTRACEAE 

Maytenus Feuill. 

M. obovata Hook. f. (3), 230; Rob. (1), 170.— Albemarle 
Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional bushes near the beach ; Elizabeth 
Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and 
Heller; Tagus Cove, common bushes on the lower parts and 
on the sides of the mountain, occasional at 4000 ft. ; Villamil, 
common bushes below 300 ft. (no. 1928). Barrington Isl. : 
low bushes in the vicinity of the shore (no. 1925). Charles 
Isl. : common bushes in the vicinity of the shore, occasional 
as high as 1000 ft. The specimens from around the upper limit 
of distribution have much larger leaves than do the specimens 
taken near the shore, (nos. 1925-1926). Chatham Isl.: 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 97 

Basso Point, common bushes to above 900 ft. (no. 1929) ; 
Wreck Bay, common bushes to 700 ft. The leaves are much 
larger on the specimens taken at 700 ft. than on the specimens 
from near the shore. Duncan Isl. : occasional procumbent 
bushes at 1000 ft. Bushes small and with leaves reduced in 
size. Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.): common bushes. 
Hood Isl. : common bushes on sand beaches, and occasional 
bushes all over the island, (no. 1927). Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, common bushes near the shore, small trees 
around 450 ft.; north side, common on sand beaches. The 
roots of many of these bushes are in contact with the sea water 
at high tide, and when found under such conditions the trunks 
are usually short and much twisted, while the leaves are more 
succulent than on specimens taken further away from the shore. 
James Isl. : James Bay, common in sandy soil around salt 
lagoons, sometimes forming trees 25-30 ft. in height ; northeast 
side, common bushes on sand beaches and around salt lagoons. 
Jervis Isl. : bushes 5-7 ft. high near the shore, low procumbent 
bushes around 1050 ft. Narborough Isl. : Snodgrass and 
Heller. Seymour Isl., south : abundant in thickets with 
Discaria pauciiiora in sandy soil near the shore. Endemic. 

SAPINDACEAE 
Cardiospermum L. 

C. CorindumL. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 526 (1762) ; Rob. (1), 170.— 
Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, around 1450 ft.; Elizabeth 
Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl.: Andersson. 
Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, common at 900 ft. (nos. 1933- 
1934) ; Wreck Bay, common at 700 ft. Duncan Isl. : cover- 
ing rocks and bushes at 1300 ft. (no. 1935). Indefatigable 
Isl.: north side, on rocks and trees at 250 ft. (no. 1936); 
northwest side, occasional at 200 ft. James Isl. : James Bay, 
Andersson; Snodgrass and Heller. Wenman Isl.: on the 
upper parts, R. H. Beck collector. Further distr. S. W. U. S., 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

C. galapageium Rob. & Greenm. Proc. Am. Acad. XXXII. 
38 (1896) ; Rob. (1), 171. — Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, very 
abundant on bushes near sea level (no. 1938). Indefatigable 
Isl. : Academy Bay, common near sea level (no. 1940) ; south- 



98 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

east side, on rocks and bushes at 600 ft. (no. 1939). James 
IsL. : James Bay, abundant below 1300 ft. Endemic. 

Dodonaea L. 

D. viscosa Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 19 (1762); Rob. (1), 
171. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, low bushes in disinte- 
grated pumice near the shore (no. 1943) ; Villamil, occasional 
bushes on lava beds below 100 ft. (no. 1942). James Isl.: 
James Bay, occasional bushes 4-5 ft. high on basaltic lava at 
850 ft. (no. 1944). Further distr. general in warm countries. 

Var. spathulata Benth. Fl. Aust. I. 476 (1863); Rob. (1), 
171. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, small trees and bushes 
around 1800 ft. (no. 1946) ; Tagus Cove, bushes 4-5 ft. high, 
abundant on lava beds above 2000 ft., (no. 1945). There are 
occasional clumps of bushes, which apparently belong to this 
species, on the floor of the crater. Further distr. general in 
warm countries. 

Sapindus L. 

S. Saponaria L. Sp. PI. 367 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 171.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, forest trees, abundant at 350-700 ft., 
scattering specimens to 1300 ft. The largest forest tree found 
on the islands, (no. 1947). Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am. 

RHAMNACEAE 

Discaria Hook. 

D. pauciflora Hook. f. (3), 229; Rob. (1), 171.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional bushes from the shore to 
1300 ft.; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Cape Rose, 
occasional low bushes ; Tagus Cove, occasional bushes near the 
coast ; Villamil, common bushes on the lower parts. Barring- 
ton Isl.: common bushes near the shore (no. 1949). 
Charles Isl.: common bushes near the beach (no. 1951). 
Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, common bushes to 900 ft.; 
Wreck Bay, abundant near the shore, occasional at 900 ft., (no. 
1952). Duncan Isl.: procumbent bushes at 700 ft. Hood 
Isl. : common bushes on sand beaches. The spines are unusu- 
ally large and the leaves reduced on the specimens taken at this 
place, (no. 1950). Indefatigable Isl.: north side, Snod- 
grass and Heller; southeast side, common bushes on the lower 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 99 

parts, especially abundant in gullies and small canyons, where 
they often form impenetrable thickets. James Isl. : James 
Bay, common bushes to 1350 ft. Jervis Isl. : abundant near 
the shore, occasional at 1050 ft. On the upper part of the 
island the branches are procumbent, the spines short and weak, 
and the leaves rather large, (no. 1954). Seymour Isl.] 
NORTH : Snodgrass and Heller; south : common in thickets 
of Maytenus ohovata bushes. Further distr. Ecuador. 



VITACEAE 

Cissus L. 

C. sicyoides L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 897 (1760); Rob. (1), 
172. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common on rocks near 
the shore (no. 1955) ; Villamil, rare on the trunks of trees at 
600 ft. (no. 1956). Bindloe Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Charles Isl. : common on moist rocks at 1000 ft. (nos. 1957- 
1958). Narborough Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Vitis L. 

V.vinifera L. Sp. PI. 202 (1753); Rob. (1), 172.— 
Charles Isl. : Chierchia. Further distr. Old World. 



TILIACEAE 
Corchorus L. 

C. pilobolus Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. II. 72 (1822) ; Rob. 
(1), 172. — Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and 
Heller. Charles Isl. : occasional in dry ashy soil at 1200 
ft. (no. 1959). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Triumfetta L. 

T. semitriloba Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 22 (1762) ; Rob. (1), 
172. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Turtle Cove, fruit of a Triumfetta was found attached to the 
hair of a cow killed by a member of the party in this vicinity. 
It probably belongs to this species. Widely distributed in warm 
countries. 



100 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

MALVACEAE 
Abutilon Gaertn. 

A. depauperatum (Hook, f.) Anderss. (1), 230, (2), 98. 
Sida depauperata Hook. f. (3), 232. A. Anderssonianum 
Garcke in Anderss. (1), 230, (2), 98, t. 15, f. 1; Rob. (1), 
173. — Abingdon Isl. : occasional low bushes around 650 ft. 
(no. 1960). Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and 
Heller. The sterile specimen collected at this place by Snod- 
grass and Heller and called Sida cordifolia by Robinson 1. c. 
no doubt belongs to this species; Tagus Cove, low bushes 
around the base of the mountain at 200 ft. ; Villamil, common 
bushes below 500 ft. (no. 1961). Barrington Isl.: Snod- 
grass and Heller. Bindloe Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Charles Isl. : bushes 2-3 ft. high around 450 ft. (no. 1962). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, bushes 2-3 ft. high in shady 
places around 300 ft. (nos. 1963-1964). Duncan Isl. : occa- 
sional low shrubs at 1300 ft. (no. 1965). Gardner Isl. (near 
Hood Isl. ) : Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl. : common 
bushes in the interior of the island (no. 1966). Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : north side, Snodgrass and Heller. Tower Isl. : 
occasional bushes (no. 1967). The principal differences be- 
tween this species and A. Anderssonianum, as given by Garcke 
1. c, are the number of carpels, the number of seeds in each, 
and the shape of the lobes of the calyx. One specimen in the 
collection has seven carpels, which is intermediate in number 
between the two species, and there is considerable variation in 
the shape of the calyx lobes throughout. The fact that A. 
depauperatum has 3-5 seeds in a carpel, and A. Anderssonian- 
um always 3, is hardly sufficient ground for the formation of 
two distinct species. It is likely that the specimens described 
as A. Anderssonianum are more mesophytic than the typical 
A. depauperatum. Endemic. 

A. crispum (L.) Medic. Malv. 29 (1787). Sida crispa L. 
Sp. PI. 685 (1753). — Champion Isl.: /. R. Slevin collector 
(no. 1971), Charles Isl.: occasional at 450 ft. (nos. 1972- 
1973). Daphne Isl. : (no. 1970). Further distr. tropical re- 
gions. 

A. sp. — Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional low 
bushes on the lower parts of the island, differing from A. de- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 101 

pauperatum in having the stem and leaves covered with a dense 
white tomentum. The specimen is sterile, (no. 1968). 

A. sp. — ^Indefatigable Isl, : northeast side, sterile and in- 
determinate (no. 1969). 

Anoda Cav. 

A. hastata Cav. Diss. I. 38, t. 11, f. 2 (1790) ; Rob. (1), 
173. — Charles Isl. : fairly common in open meadows around 
1200 ft. (nos. 1974-1975). Further distr. U. S., Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am. 

Bastardia HBK. 

B. viscosa (L.) HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. V. 256 (1821). 
Sida viscosa L. Syst. ed. 10, 1145 (1760). B. viscosa HBK. 
1. c. ; Rob. (1), 173. — Abingdon Isl. : common in open brushy 
country around 600 ft. (no. 1976). Albemarle Isl. : Iguana 
Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, 
abundant to above 900 ft. (no. 1977). Duncan Isl.: occa- 
sional low bushes all over the lower parts of the island (nos. 
1979-1980). Hood Isl. : on the margin of a dried lake in the 
interior of the island and at 600 ft. (nos. 1981-1982). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional at 100 ft. (no. 
1985) ; north side, common above 100 ft. (no. 1986) ; north- 
east side, (no. 1984) ; northwest side, bushes 2-3 ft. high in 
tufaceous soil near the shore. James Isl. : James Bay, low 
bushes to 1000 ft. (no. 1987). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

Gossypium L. 

G. barbadense L. Sp. PI. 693 (1753); Rob. (1), 173.— 
Abingdon Isl. : occasional bushes on the lower parts (no. 
1989). Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and 
Heller; Tagus Cove, common bushes in the flat country around 
the base of the mountain and in deep canyons on its sides (no. 
1990). Barrington Isl. : Baur. Charles Isl. : Andersson; 
Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : north side, Darwin; 
Baur; Wreck Bay, common bushes to 550 ft., very abundant in 
rocky soil in the vicinity of the shore. Duncan Isl. : bushes, 
100-1300 ft., (no. 1993). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : 
Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl. : common bushes to 450 
ft. (nos. 1994-1995). Indefatigable Isl.: southeast side, 
common bushes to 625 ft. (no. 1996). James Isl.: Darzvin. 



102 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Jervis Isl. : occasional bushes (no. 1998). Seymour Isl., 
SOUTH : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. general in 
tropics. 

G. Klotzschianum Anderss. (1), 228, (2), 97; Rob. (1), 
174. — Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, Andersson. Bindloe 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : Andersson. 
Chatham Isl. : north side, Andersson. Indefatigable Isl. : 
Academy Bay, bushes on the lower parts of the island (no. 
1999) ; north side, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Hibiscus L. 

H. diversifolia Jacq. Col. Bot. II. 307 (1788).— Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, bushes 3-4 ft. high on north hill-side at 2000 
ft. (nos. 2000-2001). Further distr. Mex., tropics of Old 
World. 

H. Manihot L. Sp. PI. 696 (1753).— Albemarle Isl.: 
Villamil, around habitations. Called "Saiho" by the inhab- 
itants, and probably introduced, (no. 2002). Further distr. 
Mex., Old World. 

H. tiliaceus L. Sp. PI. 694 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 174.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Turtle Cove, low spreading trees near the beach 
(no. 2003). Charles Isl.: Edmonston. Indefatigable 
Isl.: Academy Bay, low trees near the beach (no. 2004). 
Further distr. general in tropics. 

Malachra L. 

M.capitata L. Syst. ed. 12, 458 (1767); Rob. (1), 174.— 
James Isl. : Darwin. Further distr. general in tropical re- 
gions. 

Malvastrum A. Gray 

M. americanum (L.) Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 38 (1859). 
Malva americanum L. Sp. PI. 776 (1753). Malvastrum tri- 
cuspidatum A. Gray. PI. Wright, I. 16 (1852).— Charles 
Isl. : abundant in rather open bushy country around 800 ft., in 
meadows at 1100 ft., and on the sides of the main mountain at 
1750 ft, (nos. 2005-2008). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
common in woodland, 400-500 ft., (nos. 2009-2010). Further 
distr. general in tropical regions. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 103 

M. spicatum (L.) A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. N. S. IV. 22 
(1849). Malva spicata L. Syst. ed. 10, 1146 (1760).— 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional bushes, 250-450 ft., 
(nos. 2011-2013). Indefatigable Isl. : southeast side, occa- 
sional low bushes around 600 ft. (nos. 2014-2015). Further 
distr. general in tropical regions. 

Sida L. 

S. acuta Burm. var. carpinifolia K. Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
XII. pt. 3, 326 (1891) ; Rob. (1), 174.— Charles Isl.: An- 
dersson. Further distr. general in tropical regions. 

S. paniculata L. Syst. ed. 10, 1145 (1760) ; Rob. (1), 175.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Charles Isl. : common above 450 ft. during the rainy season, 
in February and March ; at other times it was not seen below 
1000 ft, (nos. 2016-2018). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
abundant in rather moist places (no. 2019). Further distr. 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

S. rhombifolia L. Sp. PI. 684 (1753); Rob. (1), 175.— 
Charles Isl.: Edmonston; Lee; Snodgrass and Heller. 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in woodland at 300-450 
ft., and in open country around 900 ft., (nos. 2020-2022). 
Further distr. general in warm countries. 

S. spinosa L. Sp. PI. 683 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 175. 5. angus- 
tifolia Lam. Diet. I. 4 (1783); Rob. (1), 175.— Abingdon 
Isl.: occasional around 1100 ft. (no. 2023). Albemarle 
Isl. : Cowley Bay, common in pumice soil around 1800 ft. 
(no. 2028) ; Iguana Cove, common on sides of cliff above the 
cove and occasional in woodland at 300 ft. (nos. 2024-2025) ; 
Tagus Cove, common in tufaceous soil on the lower parts (no. 
2029) ; Villamil, common above 500 ft. (no. 2027). Charles 
Isl.: occasional in open country around 450 ft. (nos. 2030- 
2031). Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, (no. 2032); Wreck 
Bay, rare near the shore (no. 2033). Duncan Isl. : common 
among rocks at 1000 ft. (no. 2034). Gardner Isl. (near 
Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass and Heller. Indefatigable Isl.: 
northwest side, rare in tufaceous soil near the shore (no. 2035). 
James Isl. : Darivin. Narborough Isl. : north side, common 
in lava crevices (no. 2036). Further distr. general in warm 
countries. 

January 12, 19U 



104 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

S. supina L'Her. Stirp. Nov. 109bis t. 52 (1785).— Abing- 
don IsL. : common above 1000 ft. (no. 2037). Albemarle 
IsL. : Tagus Cove, common, 1000-4000 ft., (nos. 2038-2041) ; 
Villamil, common in woodland, 500-1300 ft., (no. 2039). 
Charles Isl. : occasional in open country around 1000 ft. (no. 
2042). Duncan Isl.: rare at 1250 ft. (no. 2043). Further 
distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

S. veronicaefolia Lam. var. humilis (Cav.) K. Schum. in 
Mart. Fl. Bras. XII. pt. 3, 320 (1891). 5. humilis Cav. Diss. 
V. 277, t. 134, f. 2 (1788). Var. humilis K. Schum. 1. c; Rob. 
(1), 176. — Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and 
Heller. Further distr. general in warm countries. 

Malvacea sp. — Abingdon Isl. : common in woodland above 
1000 ft. Specimen sterile and indeterminate (no. 2044). 



STERCULIACEAE 

Waltheria L. 

W. reticulata Hook. f. (3), 231 ; Rob. (1), 176.— Abingdon 
Isl. : bushes, usually procumbent, to 1100 ft., (no. 2045). Al- 
bemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional procumbent bushes on 
the lower parts, common bushes 2-4 ft. high around 2,000 ft., 
(no. 2046) ; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus 
Cove, bushes 2-4 ft. high, 300-600 ft., (no. 2047) ; Villamil, 
common bushes on lava beds to 200 ft. (no. 2048). Charles 
Isl. : Andersson; Baur. Duncan Isl. : low bushes at 1275 
ft. (no. 2049). James Isl.: Douglas; Macrae; James Bay, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Jervis Isl. : occasional bushes at 350 
ft. (no. 2051). Endemic. 

Forma Anderssonii Rob. (1), 176. Forma acawato Rob. (1), 
176. — Barrington Isl. : Baur. Chatham Isl. : north side, 
Andersson. Indefatigable Isl. : north side, low bushes above 
100 ft. (no. 2063) ; northeast side, low bushes near the coast 
(no. 2052). Narborough Isl.: north side, Snodgrass and 
Heller. Tower Isl. : procumbent bushes, common, (no. 
2053). The more abundant material seems to show that the 
characters which distinguish forma acamata, Rob. 1. c, apply 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 105 

equally well to specimens of forma Anderssonii, on which ac- 
count the two forms should probably be considered as one. 
Endemic. 

Forma intermedia Rob. (1), 177. — Abingdon Isl. : Snod- 
grass and Heller. Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, bushes 
6-10 ft. high at 300 ft. (no. 2054). Bindloe Isl.: low 
bushes in tufaceous soil (no. 2055). Charles Isl. : common 
bushes at 600 ft. (no. 2056) ; Cuevas Bay, Baur. Chatham 
Isl. : Basso Point, low spreading bushes on recent lava flows 
(no. 2057). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : common 
bushes 3-4 ft. high, sometimes procumbent, (no. 2062). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional low bushes on the 
lower parts, (no. 2059) ; northwest side, common bushes to 750 
ft. ; southeast side, common bushes to 650 ft. James Isl. : 
James Bay, bushes 5-7 ft. high to 1300 ft. (no. 2060). Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl. : north side, common bushes on lava near the 
coast (no. 2061). Endemic. 

HYPERICACEAE 
H3rpericum L. 

H. thesiifolium HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. V. 192 (1821).— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common in loose ashy soil on the 
rim of the crater at 3150 ft, also found occasionally on the 
floor of the crater at 2750 ft. (nos. 2064-2065). Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, in dry exposed places at 1700 ft. (no. 2066). 
Further distr. Mex., S. Am. 

TURNERACEAE 
Turnera L. 



T. ulmifolia L. Sp. PL 271 (1753); Rob. (1), 177.— 

HARLES 

countries. 



Charles Isl. : Edmonston. Further distr. general in warm 



PASSIFLORACEAE 

Passiflora L. 

P. foetida L. Sp. PI. 959 (1753); Rob. (1), 177.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, on the lower parts of the island and 
on the side of the mountain at 2800 ft. (no. 2067) ; Turtle 



106 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Cove, in open places along the beach (no. 2069) ; Villamil, 
abundant on rocks near the shore (no. 2068). Charles Isl. : 
common to 1200 ft. (nos. 2070-2071). Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, common on bushes and rocks on the lower parts of 
the island (no. 2072). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, 
covering bushes near the beach (no. 2073). Further distr. 
S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

P. lineariloba Hook. f. (3), 222; Rob. (1), 177.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, occasional among rocks, 400-2000 
ft., (no. 2074). Charles Isl.: Darwin f; Andersson. 
Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : (no. 2075). Hood Isl. : on 
trunks of Opuntia galapageia at 450 ft. (no. 2076). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : southeast side, occasional at 600 ft. (no. 
2077). James Isl.: James Bay, common on bushes on the 
lower parts (no, 2078). Narborough Isl.: Snodgrass and 
Heller. Endemic. 

P. subrosa L. Sp. PI. 958 (1753). P. puberula Hook. f. 
(3), 223; Andersson (1), 221, (2), 93; Rob. (1), 177.— 
Abingdon Isl.: common in the moist region (no. 2079). 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, on rocks and bushes near sea level 
(no. 2080). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional, 400-650 
ft, (no. 2081). Duncan Isl.: on rocks at 1275 ft. (no. 
2082). James Isl.: Darivin. Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am. 

CARICACEAE 

Carica L. 

C. Papaya L. Sp. PI. 1036 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 178.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, around habitations in the region adja- 
cent to the shore. Charles Isl. : around former habitations. 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, in gardens. Introduced into the 
islands. Further distr. general in the tropics. 

LOASACEAE 

Mentzelia L. 

M. aspera L. Sp. PI. 516 (1753); Rob. (1), 178.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common on bluff above the cove 
(no. 2083) ; Tagus Cove, common in shady places in tufaceous 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS ' 107 

soil to 1000 feet. (no. 2084). Charles Isl. : common in open 
places among rocks near the shore (no. 2085); Cuevas Bay, 
Baur; Chatham Isl. : north side, Andersson; Wreck Bay, 
rare on sand beaches (no. 2086). Duncan Isl.: Snodgrass 
and Heller. Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Hood Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : Academy Bay, common in lava crevices near sea 
level (no. 2087) ; north side, Snodgrass and Heller. James 
Isl.: Andersson; James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Tower 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. U. S., Mex., W. 
Ind., S. Am. 

Sclerothrix Presl 

S. fasciculata Presl, Symb. Bot. II. 3, t. 53 (1858); Rob. 
(1), 178. — Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, (no. 2089); 
Tagus Cove, abundant at 4000 ft. (no. 2088). James Isl.: 
James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Narborough Isl. : south 
side, Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. Mex., S. Am. 

CACTACEAE 
Cereus Mill. 

C. galapagensis Weber, Bull, du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris 
1899, 312 (1899) ; Rob. (1), 179. C. Thouarsii Weber, 1. c. 
312; Rob. (1), 180. — Charles Isl.: common in the vicinity 
of the shore (no. 2090). Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, occa- 
sional specimens were seen up to 800 ft. ; Sappho Cove, grows 
very abundantly on the recent lava beds between the cove and 
Finger Point, as well as on the older lava on the east side of the 
cove, where it occurs abundantly in forests of Bursera graveo- 
lens. This species reaches its largest size at this place, often 
attaining a height of 25 or more feet. The articulations are 
unusually thick here, sometimes being as much as 10-12 inches 
in diameter ; Wreck Bay, common on the rocky coast and on the 
sides and tops of exposed lava hills (no. 2091). Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : Academy Bay, no specimens of this species were 
secured, but a photograph taken here shows a specimen very 
similar to this species in general appearance. Its presence, 
however, is doubtful. Endemic. 

Weber, 1. c, described two species of Cereus from Charles 
Isl., viz., C. galapagensis and C. Thouarsii, but gave no charac- 



108 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ters by which they could be recognized. As there is evidently 
but one species of Cereus on this island, it seems necessary to 
reduce them to one, C. galapagensis, which can be recognized 
by the following characters. Arborescent, often 8 or more 
meters in height; trunk cylindrical, 15-30 cm. in diameter; 
stems diverging; articulations short, robust, obtusely rounded 
at the extremities, with deep indentations at the points of union 
of the articulations, 18-angled, costae prominent. Flowers 
chocolate brown with yellow stripes. Outer petals broadly 
spatulate cochleariform, 2.3 cm. long, 2 cm. broad at tip, mu- 
cronate, margins entire to denticulate; inner petals cuneate 
mucronate, 2.4 cm. long, 8 mm. broad, margins dentate. Stig- 
mas 11, fruit oval rounded, resembling a large prune, as de- 
scribed by Weber, 1. c. A flower from a specimen of this 
species from Chatham Isl. shows considerable divergence from 
the above description in that the outer petals are narrowly spat- 
ulate, 3.1 cm. long, 8 mm. broad, abruptly acuminate, somewhat 
cochleariform; inner petals narrowly lanceolate, 3.2 cm. long, 5 
mm. broad, acuminate, margins irregularly dentate. Excellent 
photographs of this species were published by Agassiz ( 1 ) , PI. 
XVI and XX, where specimens from both Charles and 
Chatham Ids. are shown. 

C. nesioticus K. Sch. in Rob. (1), 179. — Abingdon Isl.: 
fairly abundant on old cinder beds along the south side of the 
island. No other vegetation occurs near where the specimens 
were taken, (no. 2092). Albemarle Isl.: Black Bight, 
Snodgrass and Heller; Christopher Point, Snodgrass and 
Heller; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : 
Sappho Cove, reported by E. S. King, one of the members of 
the expedition. James Isl. : James Bay, common on recent 
lava south of the bay and along the south side of the island. 
Narborough Isl. : northeast side, common on recent lava (no. 
2093) ; south side, occurs to above 500 ft. ace. to /. 5. Hunter. 
Tower Isl. : a few isolated bunches of this species were found 
on a small deposit of cinders around a blow-hole in the interior 
of the island (no. 2094). 

This species is always found in the most sterile and desert 
situations and never occurs where there is much if any other 
vegetation. On both Narborough and James Islands it was 
found growing abundantly on beds of lava apparently as fresh 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 109 

and uneroded as when first cooled, and it is usually in such 
situations that it is the most abundant. The branches of this 
species radiate upward and outward to a height of 2-3 ft., form- 
ing candelabra-like masses. The cactus with the habit of C. 
periivimms, mentioned by Henslow, Mag. Zool. and Bot. 476 
(1837), probably belongs to this species. Plate V. Endemic. 

C. sclerocarpus K. Sch. in Rob. (1), 179. — Albemarle Isl. : 
Banks Bay, an arborescent species of Cereiis was reported from 
this place by F. X. Williams; it most likely belongs to this 
species ; Black Bight, Snodgrass and Heller; Christopher Point, 
Snodgrass and Heller. It was noticed, in sailing by this por- 
tion of the island, that this species grows very abundantly on 
the barren lava fields near the coast; Tagus Cove, occasional 
on cinder beds in the vicinity of the cove and at various places 
on the side of the mountain. It also occurs fairly abundantly 
on the floor of the crater at about 3600 ft., where the conditions 
are desert in the extreme; Villamil, in barren rocky places in 
the vicinity of the shore, and in similar situations around the 
base of the mountain to 100 ft. A few specimens were noticed 
on the inside of the crater at 2750 ft., along with other xero- 
phytic plants, (no. 2095). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy 
Bay, abundant in dry rocky places near the coast, seldom 
occurring any distance inland, (no. 2096). James Isl.: 
James Bay, abundant on recent lava flows to 900 ft. south of 
the bay. It occurs most abundantly along the edges of the 
flows, but stops abruptly as soon as other large vegetation 
begins to appear, (no. 2097). Narborough Isl.: south side, 
a species of Cereus was reported by /. vS. Hunter from this side 
of the island. It was probably this species. 

This species can be distinguished from C. galapagensis by 
the following characters : branches few and usually parallel ; 
articulations usually elongated, somewhat slender, 15-angled. 
All of the flowers secured were smaller than those described by 
Schumann, op. c. 180. The great variability in the flowers of 
this species is well illustrated by two flowers taken from the 
same plant on Indefatigable Isl. One of these has most of the 
petals broadly spatulate, truncate, and slightly emarginate, 
while the other has them mostly narrowly oblong and rounded. 

All of the species of Cereus which grow on these islands are 
found only in the most open and desert situations. One may 



110 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

often go for a mile or more inland without seeing a single 
specimen, but when an exposed lava ridge or a barren field of 
lava is encountered, where conditions are such that very little 
other vegetation will grow, specimens will occur abundantly. 
The probable reason for this is that the species of Cereiis are 
shaded out as soon as any considerable amount of other vegeta- 
tion appears. Plate VI. Endemic. 

C. sp. — BiNDLOE IsL. : Heller. Probably C. sclerocarpus 
ace. to Rob. (1), 180. No specimens of Cereus were seen by 
any of the members of our party when this island was visited. 

Opuntia Raf. 

O. galapageia Hensl. Mag. Zool. and Bot. I. 467, t. 14, f. 2 
(1837); Rob. (1), 180. — Abingdon Isl. : common on lava 
beds to 1000 ft., occasional above this elevation to 1300 ft. The 
specimens from the lower parts form trees 8-10 ft. high and 
have the branches closely arranged, giving the crown a very 
dense appearance, while those from the upper parts have the 
branches rather loosely arranged. In general the specimens 
from the upper parts are much infested with lichens, and have 
a more sickly appearance than do the specimens on the lower 
parts, (no. 3001). Champion Isl. : specimens low, with very 
thick trunks, and apparently very much more abundant than on 
the adjacent shores of Charles Island, (no. 2098). Charles 
Isl. : abundant below 500 ft., occasional to 1300 ft. on the west 
side of the main mountain. One of the specimens from this 
place is peculiar in that the fascicles are made up mostly of 
capillary bristles but in addition have one or two long pungent 
spines. There are fewer Opuntias here than on most of the 
other larger islands, a fact that is probably due to the presence 
of cattle, hogs, and burros which eat the smaller and less pro- 
tected specimens. Duncan Isl. : occasional at 450 ft., 
abundant around 1000 ft., especially on the floor of the main 
crater, occasional to 1250 ft. The specimens on this island 
have the branches openly arranged and often covered with 
various species of lichens. See Plate X. Gardner Isl. (near 
Hood Isl.) : an interesting variation of this species occurs 
here in that some of the specimens are stemless and have the 
branches procumbent. One individual of this kind was found 
growing immediately underneath a specimen with a stem 6-7 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS Hi 

ft. high, the relative positions of the two being such that one 
would judge that the taller was the parent of the procumbent 
specimen. A short distance away from these there was another 
individual, with a stem approximately 2 ft. high and 1 ft. in 
diameter. The general arrangement of the branches, and the 
arming of the articulations in all three of these specimens, was 
the same, so that there seems to be but little doubt of their all 
belonging to the same species, (no. 3002). None of these low 
forms were noticed on the adjacent Hood Island, a fact that 
may be due to the presence of goats on the latter. It might be 
well to mention in this connection that stemless Opuntias also 
occur on Bindloe, Culpepper, Gardner (near Charles), Tower, 
and Wenman Islands, and with the exception of the Seymour 
Islands these are the only islands of importance in the group 
from which land-tortoises or their remains have not been 
reported. When this is considered together with the fact that 
the branches of Opuntias form the principal article of food of 
these animals on the lower parts of all of the islands where they 
occur, a suggestion is given as to the possible origin of the 
arborescent forms, or at least why the low forms have persisted 
on the islands where they have been undisturbed. Hood Isl. : 
generally distributed all over the island except on the southeast 
side, where they appear to be almost entirely absent for a mile 
or more back from the shore, (no. 3003). James Isl. : north- 
east side, abundant on lava beds to above 700 ft. Above 450 
ft. the spines are more capillary than they are on specimens 
seen lower down. 

This species has a relatively short trunk, which is usually 
1-1^ ft. in diameter, but sometimes as much as 4^ ft. 
Branches are usually sent off 6-7 ft. above the ground, and as 
they all come off from about the same level, the crown is regu- 
larly rounded, broadly spreading, and somewhat umbrella- 
shaped. The outer articulations are disk-like and covered with 
fascicles of capillary bristles, while the proximal ones are 
thickened, unarmed, and covered with the same kind of brown- 
ish periderm that covers the trunk. The flowers are yellow, 
7.5 cm. in diameter, contrary to Henslows' description, 1. c. 
The fruit is green, and not red as mentioned by Andersson, see 
Hemsley, (3), 31. A Cereus was no doubt mistaken for an 
Opuntia in this instance, as Cereus is the only genus of this 



]^ 1 2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

family found on the islands, which has red fruit and forms 
candelabra-like objects. 

The young of this species first appears as a flattened disk- 
shaped mass, dark green in color, and heavily covered with 
long rigid spines. This first articulation is followed by another 
above, which has its short axis at right angles to the corre- 
sponding axis of the articulation below, a process which is 
repeated until the plant has attained a height of 5-6 ft., when 
lateral branches, from which the crown of the tree is developed, 
are put out. In the meantime the articulations forming the 
trunk have been increasing in diameter, and as growth takes 
place more rapidly on the faces than on the edges of the articu- 
lations, the trunk soon assumes a more or less rounded form. 
The development is shown in Plates VII to IX. The trunk is 
heavily armed with long, ridged, and somewhat deflected 
spines, when the plant is in the young condition; but by the 
time the trunk has attained a diameter of a foot or more, most 
of these have been shed in the following manner. In the young 
segments the fascicles occupy deep pits in the surface. These 
pits extend into the cortical parenchyma from which the spines 
receive their nutrition. By the formation of periderm, inside 
of this, the nutrition is soon stopped and the spines drop off, 
remaining attached, however, for a considerable time after their 
physiological connection with the stem has ceased. The pits 
which contained the fascicles remain visible as slight indenta- 
tions through the greater part of the life of the plant. The 
bark is reddish-brown in color, and is made up of alternating 
layers of cork and stone cells which slough off in large sheets, 
one-half inch or more in thickness. After the disintegration 
of the layers of cork cells, the stone cells remain as loosely 
arranged plates somewhat resembling the ordinary shellac of 
commerce in general appearance. Much of the calcium oxalate 
is got rid of through the bark, as cross sections show a large 
number of rosette-like crystals of this salt. Plates VII, fig. 2 ; 
VIII ; IX, fig. 2 ; X ; XI ; and XII. Endemic. 

O. Helleri K. Sch. in Rob. (1), 180.— Bindloe Isl. : ( ?), a 
species of low Opimtia occurs on this island, which is very 
similar in general appearance to the one on Tower and Wen- 
man Ids. It is very likely the same. Culpepper Isl. : owing 
to the fact that the low Opuntias which occur on this island are 



VOL.1] STEWART-BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 113 

on the inaccessible parts, no specimens were taken, but seen 
from a distance they had the general appearance of this species. 
Tower Isl. : common in various places, forming dense thickets 
3-4 ft high The specimens on this island are more erect than 
they are on Wenman, (no. 3005). Wenman Isl. : common 
in thickets on tops of the cliffs, and hanging down the sides of 
the same, (no. 3006). Plates XIII, fig. 1 ; XIV. Endemic. 

O. insularis, nov. sp. 
floribus fructuque ignotis. , • i j 

A species easily distinguished from the others on the islands 
by its smaller size, and the shorter and more numerous spines. 
Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, common on the sides of the 
tufa hills surrounding the cove. A low Opunha with numerous 
short stiff spines was reported from the Banks Bay region of 
this island by Mr. F. X. Williams. From his description it 
seems likely that it is this species, (no. 3014). Plates IX, fig. 
1 ; XV. Endemic. 

O myriacantha Weber in Bois, Diet. d'Hort. 894 (1898) ; 
R.. (U 181 -Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional on 
fhe lowerparts, and up to within a few hundred feet of the top, 
ace to^. H. Beck; Iguana Cove, rare in the immediate v.cm.ty 
of ihe cove but abundant a short distance O" ^''h^^'d^i ''' 
TaUs Cove, fairly abundant on the rim of the crater at 4000 
I 'and at vakous places on the sides of the mountain the spec - 
mens which occur here are smaller than is "="^1 ^ 'he ca e 
Turtle Cove, common near the shore, specimens of large size, 
vXmit ve y abundant on beds of basaltic lava on the lowe 
parts, often forming forests 25-30 ft. in height ; most abundant 
below 100 ft., but found to some extent as high up as 550 ft. 
where the specimens are smaller in size than lower down 
occasional on the floor of the crater at 2750 ft, (no. 3008) 
Baerington Isl.: abundant everywhere, forming trees 12 or 
more feet in height. The photograph of the so-called O. gala- 
pageia. published by Hemsley, (5), fig. 75, is evidently of this 
species, as it does not show the broadly spreading crown so 
characteristic of 0. galapageia. The photograph shows the 



1 14 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

trunk to be heavily covered with spines, which is rather un- 
usual for a specimen of the size visible in the photograph. 
Charles Isl. : Du Petit Thouars (Dr. Nehoux). The pres- 
ence of this species on Charles Isl. is doubtful in the extreme. 
Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, occasional to above 900 ft. ; 
Sappho Cove, common all over the lower parts; Wreck Bay, 
occasional to 400 ft. Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, 
abundant below 200 ft., in many instances forming trees 30 
or more feet in height. It extends up to 350 ft., but the speci- 
mens here are very scattered and small in size, 4-6 ft. being 
about the average height. At this place the species attains its 
largest size where the conditions near sea level are less xero- 
phytic than is usually the case, Dr. Baur's statement, that' 
Opuntias reach their largest size where conditions are most 
sterile, being incorrect so far as this species at least is con- 
cerned. The probable reason why this and other species do not 
attain their maximum size at higher altitudes is the greater 
amount of other vegetation, which tends to shade them too 
much, (no. 3009) ; southeast side, abundant on the lower parts, 
occasional and small at 600 ft. This species occurs most 
abundantly here in the region betA^een 300 and 450 ft., where it 
forms a portion of a well-marked belt of Opuntias which ex- 
tends along the south, southeast, and east sides of the island to 
within a short distance of that portion of the shore opposite 
Gordon Rocks, (no. 3011). James Isl.: north side, common 
all over the lower parts; south side, occasional all over the 
lower parts to 900 ft. Many of the specimens here have very 
long slender trunks and but few branches, (no. 3012). Jervis 
Isl. : abundant on the lower parts, where it is 3-7 ft. in height. 
It also occurs around the top of the island at 1050 ft., but the 
specimens here are all low, and it is likely that Dr. Baur, (2), 
247, refers to these upper specimens when he says that the 
Opuntias from this island are very low, (no. 3013). 

This species can be recognized by the following characters : 
stem long, relatively slender, and irregularly branched near the 
top, which forms an irregularly shaped crown owing to the 
fact that the branches arise at different elevations and that 
many of them are inclined to be pendant. Articulations mostly 
large, the outer ones oblong to oval and covered with fascicles 
of slender pungent spines. Corolla large, yellow, 6 cm. broad. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS US 

and set in a deep cup-like depression in the ovary. Ovary 
pyramidal, rounded, and covered with fascicles of short stiff 
spines set in a bunch of short velvety bristles. Style thickened, 
terminating in 9-11 stigmas variable in number on the same 
plant. Stamens numerous. Segments of the young plant ellip- 
tical oblong, yellowish green in color, and covered with fasci- 
cles of slender and rather flexible spines. This species can be 
readily distinguished from O. galapageia by the long slender 
trunk, irregularly shaped crown, pendant branches, and 
pungent spines. Plates VII, fig. 1 ; XIII, fig. 2 ; and XVI to 
XVIII. Endemic. 

O. sp. — Albemarle Isl. : Cape Rose, common on lava cin- 
ders near the coast. Indefatigable Isl. : north side, abund- 
ant ; northeast side, occasional in loose ashy soil near the coast, 
abundant one or more miles inland. Seymour Isl., south : 
abundant, forming low tree-like bushes 5-6 ft. high, (no. 
3015). 

This appears to be entirely distinct from any of the other 
species of Opuntia found on the islands, but as there is so much 
variation among the species of this genus here, it may prove to 
be an interesting variation of O. myriacantha, to which it is 
evidently most closely related. As no flowers were secured, its 
specific identity must remain in doubt. The stem is short, 1 to 
1.5 m. high, and covered with fascicles of long stiff spines 
which remain attached to the plant throughout its life. The 
branches are short, segments yellowish green in color, and 
covered with fascicles of long and very stiff spines, some of 
which reach 7.5 cm. There are usually one or two of these 
long spines and 10 to 25 shorter ones in each fascicle. The 
branches sometimes show a tendency to droop, .a character 
which is also common to O. myriacantha. As the present spe- 
cies is only found on Albemarle and Indefatigable Islands, 
where O. myriacantha also occurs, and on Seymour Island, 
which was evidently connected with Indefatigable at some not 
remote period, one is led to suspect that it may possibly be only 
a more xerophytic form of O. myriacantha. Plate XIX. En- 
demic. 

O. sp. — Narborough Isl. : a species of an Opuntia was 
reported from the south side of this island b)^ /. 5. Hunter. 
It is probably one of the above. 



1 16 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

LYTHRACEAE 
Cuphea P. Br. 

C. patula St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. III. 101 (1832-1833); 
Rob. (1), 182. — Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, fairly common 
in grassy areas around 1700 ft. Further distr. Brazil. 

Punica L. 

P. Granatum L. Sp. PI. 472 (1853). — Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, common bushes and small trees around 700 ft. 
Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions through 
cultivation. 

P. sp. ? — Charles Isl. : specimen too poor for accurate 
determination. 

RHIZOPHORACEAE 

Rhizophora L. 

R. Mangle L. Sp. PI. 443 (1753); Rob. (1), 182.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Banks Bay, small mangroves occur along the 
shore at this place ace. to F. X. Williams; Cape Rose, small 
swamps in this vicinity ; Cowley Bay, a small mangrove swamp 
occurs about one-half mile south of this place ; Elizabeth Bay, 
extensive swamps occur in this vicinity and in several other 
places along the north side of the island; Tagus Cove, no 
mangroves occur at this place, but there are swamps a short 
distance north of it ; Turtle Cove, specimens are not numerous 
at this place, but they are often of large size, sometimes attain- 
ing a height of 40 or more feet; Villamil, low swamps fring- 
ing the shores of the bay and in one or two places on the open 
coast, (no. 3016). Charles Isl.: small patches of low trees 
occur on the north side (no. 3017). Chatham Isl. : Sappho 
Cove, low trees surrounding the cove in places (nos. 3018- 
3019). Duncan Isl.: a small patch of rather stunted speci- 
mens occur in a cove on the northeast side of the island (no. 
3020). Hood Isl. : a few specimens occur on the north shore 
(no. 3021). Indefatigable Isl.: in occasional swamps 
around the shores of bays, lagoons, and on the open coast on 
all sides of the island except the east. The most extensive 
mangrove swamps occur on the north shore of this island, 
which may be due to the fact that this part of the island is 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 117 

entirely shut off from the action of the southeast swell. In 
regard to the distribution of mangroves Schimper, Pflanzen- 
geographie, 437, says : "Within the tropics its distribution 
nearly agrees with that of the rain forests. The mangrove is 
absent or poorly developed on coasts the inland vegetation of 
which possesses a xerophilous character, except where, as at 
the mouth of the Indus and other large rivers, there is a con- 
siderable freshening of the sea water." The vegetation of the 
interior, along the north shore of this island, is xerophilous in 
the extreme, and with the exception of a few showers in the 
spring and early summer no rain ever falls. James Isl. : com- 
mon in swamps on the south shore, occasional on the north 
shore. Narborough Isl. : forming large swamps of low trees 
around the quiet shores of a shallow bay on the northeast side, 
common at Mangrove Pt. Tower Isl. : a small patch on the 
shore of the crater lake near the center of the island. No 
mangroves occur on the shores of this island, (no. 3023). 

Epiphytic plants, other than marine algae, do not attach 
themselves to the mangrove trees, although it is often the case 
that non-halophytic plants, only a short distance away, are 
heavily covered with lichens. Seedling plants are seldom seen 
underneath mangrove trees the roots of which are exposed to 
the action of sea water between tides, the reason for this being 
that the embryo plants are carried away before they have time 
to take root. Further distr. general on tropical shores. 

MYRTACEAE 

Eugenia L. 

E. Jambos L. Sp. PI. 470 (1753).— Chatham Isl. : Wreck 
Bay, trees in gardens, introduced, (no. 3034). Widely dis- 
tributed in tropical regions. 

Psidium L. 

P. galapageium Hook. f. (3), 224; Rob. (1), 182.— Abing- 
don Isl. : occasional small trees, 500-1000 ft., on the south- 
west side of the island. On the south and southeast sides the 
species apparently does not occur below 1000 ft., (no. 3030). 
Albemarle Isl. : Banks Bay, at 2300 ft., according to F. X. 
Williams; Cowley Bay, low bushes at 1250 ft. At 2000 ft. 



llg CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

they increase somewhat in size, but do not form trees as is 
usually the case at this elevation; Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and 
Heller; Villamil, bushes at 100 ft., low forest trees common at 
350-600 ft., (no. 3025). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, com- 
mon bushes and low trees, 150-400 ft., (nos. 3026-3027). 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, bushes at 300 ft., grad- 
ually increasing in size to 600 ft., where the species occurs 
abundantly as forest trees often 2 ft. or more in diameter, (no. 
3028). James Isl.: James Bay, occasional small trees, 350- 
2800 ft., (no. 3029). There are usually no epiphytic plants 
found on this species, probably owing to the fact that the bark 
is so smooth that spores and small seeds would have difificulty 
in finding a lodgement. The wood is dark brown in color and 
is very close grained. It is used by the natives of Albemarle 
Island in making the hubs and felloes for their carts, a use for 
which it seems well adapted. Endemic. 

COMBRETACEAE 
Conocarpus Gaertn. 

C. erectus L. Sp. PI. 176 (1753); Rob. (1), 182.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Turtle Cove, 
bushes in low dense thickets just back of the beach; Villamil, 
common in thickets near the shore, trees 25 ft. and more in 
height around brackish pools some distance back from the 
shore, (no. 3031). Chatham Isl.: Sappho Cove, bushes on 
sand beaches (no. 3032). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy 
Bay, occasional low bushes on the beach (no. 3033). James 
Isl. : James Bay, low bushes forming thickets on sand beaches 
(no. 3034). Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

Laguncularia Gaertn. 

L. racemosa (L.) Gaertn. Fruct. III. 209, t. 217, f. 2 (1805). 
Conocarpus racemosus L. Syst. ed. 10, 930 (1760). L. race- 
mosa Gaertn. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 183. — Abingdon Isl.: forming 
dense low thickets on sand beaches (no. 3035). Albemarle 
Isl. : Cowley Bay, forming a grove of small trees on a gravel 
beach; Christopher Point, Snodgrass and Heller; Elizabeth 
Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Turtle Cove, low dense thickets 
on the beach ; Villamil, abundant, forming low dense forests of 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 119 

bushes and small trees on sand beaches around the bay. 
Charles Isl. : low dense thickets on the beach (no. 3036). 
Chatham Isl. : Sappho Cove, bushes and small trees on sand 
beaches (no. 3037). Duncan Isl.: a few stunted bushes on 
the shore of a cove on the northeast side (no. 3038). Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common bushes and small trees 
around the shores of the bay (no. 3039) ; southeast side, low 
spreading trees, with rounded tops, near the shore ; also noticed 
in various other places on the north and northwest sides of the 
island, (nos. 3040-3041). James Isl.: James Bay, common 
on sand beaches (no. 3043). It also occurs in various other 
places on the north and south shores. Jervis Isl. : bushes and 
small trees around a salt lagoon (no. 3042). Narborough 
Isl. : northeast side, common bushes around bays and lagoons ; 
east side, Snodgrass and Heller. Seymour Isl., south : 
groves of mangroves, either of this species or Rhizophora 
Mangle, possibly both, were noticed on the south shore of this 
island while we were cruising along the north shore of Inde- 
fatigable Island on one of our numerous turtle-fishing expedi- 
tions. 

MELASTOMACEAE 

Miconia R. & P. 

M. Robinsoniana Cogniaux in Rob. (1), 183. — Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, in ditches, 1000-1700 ft. In various places 
in this region there are deep ditches with perpendicular walls, 
apparently dug. These bushes, along with several species of 
ferns, are usually found in such ditches, (no. 3044). En- 
demic. 

ONAGRACEAE 

Jussiaea L. 

J. repens L. Sp. PI. 388 (1753). — Chatham Isl.: Wreck 
Bay, in pools and in small streams, 1000-1700 ft., (no. 3045). 
Widely distributed in tropical countries. 

HALORRHAGIDACEAE 
Myriophyllum L. 

M. sp. Wolf. (1), 284; Rob. (1), 183.— Charles Isl.: in 
a brook near the hacienda, according to Wolf, 1. c. At the times 

January 12. 19U 



120 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

we visited this island there were no brooks except in the imme- 
diate vicinity of two small springs. 

UMBELLIFERAE 
Apium L, 

A. laciniatum (DC.) Urb. in Mart. Fl. Bras. XI. 1, 343 
(1879). Helosciadium laciniatum DC. Mem. Soc. Phys. 
Genev. IV. 495 (1828). A. laciniatum Urb. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 
184. — Charles Isl. : on the rim of a crater at 1550 ft. (no. 
3046). Further distr. W. S. Am. 

A. leptophyllum (DC.) F. Muell, ace. to Benth. Fl. Aust. 
III. 372 (1866). Helosciadium leptophyllum DC. Mem. Soc. 
Phys. Genev. IV. 493 (1828). A. leptophyllum F. Muell. 1. c. ; 
Rob. (1), 184. — Abingdon Isl.: common among rocks in 
open grassy country around 1100 ft. (no. 3049). Albemarle 
Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, abund- 
ant in shady places at 4000 ft. (no. 3048) ; Villamil, common, 
700-3150 ft, (no. 3047). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, in 
open grassy country around 900 ft. (no. 3050). James Isl. : 
Darwin. Widely distributed. 

Centella L. 

C. asiatica (L.) Urb. in Mart. Fl. Bras. XL 1, 287 (1879). 

Hydrocotyle asiatica L. Sp. PI. 234 (1753). C. asiatica Urb. 
1. c. ; Rob. (1), 184. — Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, common in 
moist protected places among rocks at 1500 ft. (no. 3050). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant in grassy country above 
1200 ft. (no. 3052). Duncan Isl.: in protected places 
around 1250 ft. (no. 3053). Widely distributed. 

Hydrocotyle L. 

H. galapagensis Rob. (1), 184. — Chatham Isl.: upper 
regions, Baur. Endemic. 

Petroselinum Koch 

P. sativum Hoffm. Gen. Umb. 177 (1814) ; Rob. (1), 184. 
— Charles Isl. : Andersson. Introduced from the Old 
World, according to Rob. 1. c. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 121 

PLUMBAGINACEAE 

Plumbago L. 

P. scandens L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 215 (1762) ; Rob. (1), 185.— 
Abingdon Isl. : common in woodland at 1300 ft. (no. 3054). 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, common around 1900 ft. (no. 
3059) ; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, 
common near the shore (no. 3058) ; Tagus Cove, common in 
shady places to 2000 ft. (no. 3055) ; Villamil, common near 
sea level and in various places throughout the moist region (no. 
3057). Charles Isl.: occurs to some extent near sea level, 
but is most abundant in shady places at 1000-1400 ft., (nos. 
3061-3063). Chatham Isl.: Andersson; Snodgrass and 
Heller. Duncan Isl. : a few specimens were taken at 1300 
ft. (no. 3064). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : (no. 3066). 
Hood Isl.: occasional to 400 ft. (no 3067). Indefatigable 
Isl.: Academy Bay, occasional to 400 ft. (no. 3070) ; north- 
west side, occasional to 400 ft. ; southeast side, rare at 600 ft. 
(nos. 3069-3071). James Isl. : James Bay, fairly common in 
the moist region (no. 3065). Further distr. general in tropical 
countries. 

APOCYNACEAE 

Vallesia R. & P. 

V. glabra (Cav.) Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. I. 207 (1821). 
' RauwolUa glabra Cav. Ic. III. 50, t. 297 (1795). V. cymbae- 
folia Ort. Hort. Matr. Dec. 58 (1798); Rob. (1), 185.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Christopher Point, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : bushes on 
the beach (no. 3073). Chatham Isl.: Sappho Cove, bushes 
on the beach (no. 3072) ; Wreck Bay, bushes 4-6 ft. high on 
the beach (no. 3071). Hood Isl.: bushes on sand beaches 
(no. 3074). Indefatigable Isl.: southeast side, common 
bushes on the shore and to some extent in the interior in the 
dryer parts of the lower regions (no. 3075). James Isl.: 
northeast side, common bushes near the shore (no. 3091). 
Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

V. pubescens Anderss. (1), 195, (2), 79; Rob. (1), 185.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional bushes near the 
beach (no. 3076). Charles Isl. : common on the beach and 



122 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

to some extent in the interior to 600 ft. (no. 3081). Hood 
IsL. : bushes at 600 ft. (no. 3077). Indefatigable Isl. : 
Academy Bay, low bushes near the shore (no. 3078) ; north 
and northeast sides, on the beach. Endemic. 



ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Asclepias L. 

A. angustissima Anderss. (1), 196, (2), 79; Rob. (1), 185. 
Vincetoxicum ?, Rob. (1), 186. — Abingdon Isl.: above 450 
ft. (no. 3082). Albemarle Isl.: Banks Bay, according to 
F. X. Williams; Christopher Point, Snod grass and Heller; 
Cowley Bay, at 800 ft. ; Tagus Cove, occasional on lava beds 
at 300 ft. (no. 3083) ; Villamil, abundant on bushes and rocks 
near sea level (no. 3084). Charles Isl. : occasional on lava 
fields. Duncan Isl. : vines covering rocks at 1275 ft. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : southeast side, vines on rocks at 600 ft. (no. 
3086). James Isl.: James Bay, common to 900 ft., one of 
the first phanerogamic plants to invade the recent lava at this 
place, (no. 3087). Jervis Isl. : occasional vines, 650-1050 ft., 
(no. 3088). Narborough Isl. : (no. 3089). Further distr. 
S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

A. curassavica L. Sp. PI. 215 (1753). — Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, abundant in the grassy region around 900 ft. (no. 
3090). Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

CONVOLVULACEAE 
Argyreia Lour. 

A. tiliaefolia (Desr.) Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. IV. 1, 12, t. 1358 
(1850). Convolvulus tiliaefolius Desr. Lam. Ency. III. 544, 
no. 20 (1789). Ipomoea campanulata Rob. (1), 187, not L. — 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common on trees and bushes ; 
Turtle Cove, abundant in woodland near the shore (no. 3136) ; 
Villamil, on trees and completely covering large masses of lava 
in the vicinity of the shore, abundant, covering bushes in great 
profusion in open places in the vegetation, at 600-1000 ft., 
and occasional among rocks at 3150 ft., where the specimens 
have smaller leaves than on the lower levels, (nos. 3137-3140). 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 123 

Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional, 400-500 ft., 
forming a thick and almost impenetrable mass of vines on trees 
and bushes, 500-650 ft, (nos. 3141-3142). 

Calystegia R. Br. 

C. Soldanella R. Br. Prodr. 483 (1810) ; Rob. (1), 186.— 
Charles Isl. : Edmonston. Widely distributed. 

Cuscuta L. 

C. acuta Engelm. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis I. 497 (1859) ; 
Rob. (1), 186. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, common on 
Rhynchosia minima in open flat areas near the shore (no. 
3092). Binb-lobIs-l.: Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : 
on Boerhaavia viscosa on the lower parts (no. 3094) . Chath- 
am Isl. : Sappho Cove, occasional on small Scalesia bushes at 
800 ft. (no. 3093). Narborough Isl. : south side, Snodgrass 
and Heller. Endemic. 

C. gymnocarpa Engelm. 1. c. 496 (1859) ; Rob. (1), 186.— 
Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, Baur. James Isl.: James 
Bay, fairly common (no. 3095). Endemic. 

Evolvulus L. 

E. hirsutus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. III. 117 (1818). E. 
glaber Spreng. Syst. I. 862 (1825); Rob. (1), 186.— Abing- 
don Isl.: occasional among rocks near the shore (no. 3096). 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Andersson; Iguana Cove, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl.: abundant in open 
places in the vegetation above 450 ft. (no. 3097). Chatham 
Isl. : Basso Point, occasional in open woodland above 450 ft. 
(no. 3099) ; Wreck Bay, abundant among rocks on the lower 
parts (no. 3098). Duncan Isl. : common on the lower parts 
(no. 3100). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common in 
open woodland at 350 ft. (no. 3101); northwest side, occa- 
sional at 200 ft. (no. 3102). James Isl. : >Sco?</^r. Seymour 
Isl., north : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

E. simplex Anderss. (1), 211, (2), 87; Rob. (1), 187.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, occasional in the flat area near 
the shore and on the tufa hills surrounding the cove (nos. 



124 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

3105-3107). Charles Isl. : common in rocky soil near the 
shore (no. 3104). Chatham Isl. : Andersson; Baur. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : northwest side, common in tufaceous soil ; 
north side, Snodgrass and Heller. James Isl. : James Bay, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Ipomoea L. 

I. Bona-nox L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 228 (1762) ; Rob. (1), 187.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, a species, similar to this one, 
was reported from the upper regions by R. H. Beck; Iguana 
Cove, covering bushes and small trees with a thick tangled 
mass of vines (nos. 3108-3109) ; Villamil, common on bushes 
in the open country, 600-1000 ft, (no. 3110). James Isl.: 
James Bay, rare at 2100 ft. (no. 3111). Widely distributed. 

I. Habeliana Oliv. in Hook. Ic. t. 1099 (1871) ; Rob. (1), 
188. — Abingdon Isl. : common on lava fields near the shore 
(no. 3112). Bindloe Isl. : occasional near the shore, abund- 
ant around 300 ft., where it ascends into trees of Bur sera gra- 
veolens, forming quite a conspicuous liane. Charles Isl. : 
occasional among rocks near the shore (no. 3113-3114). 
Duncan Isl. : fairly abundant in rocky places at 1200 ft. (no. 
3115). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : common on rocks at 
the south end of the island (no. 3116). Hood Isl. : common 
at 600 ft. (no. 3117). James Isl.: James Bay, common on 
rocks around 900 ft. Tower Isl. : (no. 3118). 

I. Kinbergi Anderss. (1), 212, (2), 88; Rob. (1), 188.— 
Abingdon Isl. : common on lava beds near the shore, occa- 
sional at 800 ft, (no. 3119). Brattle Isl.: (no. 3120). 
Chatham Isl. : north side, Andersson. Indefatigable Isl. : 
northwest side, Andersson; Banr. Jervis Isl. : occasional on 
the sides and at the top of the island at 1050 ft. (no. 3121). 
Tower Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Wenman Isl. : common 
on Opuntia Helleri (no. 3122). Endemic. 

I. linearifolia Hook. f. (3), 204; Rob. (1), 188.— James 
Isl. : Darzvin. Further distr. Cape Verde Ids. according to 
Index Kewensis. 

I. Nil Roth, Catalect I. 36 (1797); Rob. (1), 188.— 
Charles Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 125 

Wreck Bay, Baur. Indefatigable Isl. : Andersson. Doubt- 
ful. Further distr. general in warm regions. 

I. pentaphylla (L.) Jacq. Coll. II. 297 (1788). Convolvulus 
pentaphyllus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 223 ( 1762) . /. pentaphylla Jacq. 
1. c. ; Rob. (1), 188. — Abingdon Isl.: occasional at 500 ft. 
(no. 3123). Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, common in tufa- 
ceous soil near the shore and on the hills surrounding the cove 
(no. 3124). Charles Isl.: Andersson. Chatham Isl.: 
north side, Andersson. Duncan Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Hood Isl. : Baur. Indefatigable Isl. : northwest side, occa- 
sional in tufaceous soil on the lower parts ; north side, Snod- 
grass and Heller. James Isl. : Andersson. Jervis Isl. : 
Baur. Seymour Isl., north : Snodgrass and Heller. Tower 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. general in tropics. 

I. Pes-caprae (L.), Sweet, Hort. Suburb. London, 35, 
(1818). Convolvuhis Pes-caprae I.. Sp. PI. 159 (1753). /. 
hiloha Rob. (1), 187, not Forsk. — Albemarle Isl.: Black 
Bight, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and 
Heller; Villamil, on sand beaches (no. 3126). Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : southeast side, common vines, 75-100 ft. long, on 
the beach and in salt-incrusted sand around the shores of salt 
lagoons, (no. 3127). Widely distributed on tropical shores. 

I. triloba L. Sp. PI. 161 (1753). /. galapagensis Anderss. 
(1), 213, (2), 88; Rob. (1), 187.— Albemarle Isl.: Iguana 
Cove, occasional on rocks at 200 ft. (no. 3135) ; Tagus Cove, 
common on the lower parts (nos. 3128-3129). Charles Isl. : 
rare among rocks near the shore (no. 3130). Chatham Isl. : 
Wreck Bay, abundant on the lower parts, occasional at 700 ft., 
(nos. 3131-3133). Duncan Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Hood Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. Indefatigable Isl.: 
Academy Bay, abundant on bushes and small trees in the open 
areas, 450-600 ft., and probably higher, (no. 3134). James 
Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Seymour Isl., 
SOUTH : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am. 

I. tubiflora Hook. f. (3), 204; Rob. (1), 189.— James Isl.: 
Darwin. Endemic. 



126 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

HYDROPHYLLACEAE 

Hydrolea L. 

H. dichotoma Ruiz & Pavon, Fl. Per. III. 22, t. 244 (1802). 
— Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, occasional in lava crevices 
at 4000 ft. (no. 3144). Further distr. Mex., W. S. Am. 

BORAGINACEAE 

Coldenia L. 

C. Darwini (Hook, f.) Giirke in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflan- 
zenf. IV. Ab. 3a, 90 (1893). Galapagoa Darwini Hook. f. 
(3), 196. C. Darwini Giirke 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 189.— Abingdon 
Isl. : common on lava beds near the shore (no. 3144). Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, common in tufaceous soil on the 
lower parts (no. 3146) ; Villamil, abundant in loose ashy soil in 
open places near sea level (no. 3145). Bindloe Isl.: com- 
mon near the shore (no. 3147). Charles Isl. : abundant on 
sand beaches (no. 3148). Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, com- 
mon on the beach (no. 3149). Indefatigable Isl.: north 
side, abundant on sand beaches (no. 3151); northwest side, 
Baur; southeast side, common on sand beaches and to some 
extent in dry open places in the interior (no. 3150). James 
Isl. : Orchilla Bay, Baiir. Jervis Isl. : a few specimens were 
seen at 950 ft. (no. 3152). There is much variation in the size 
of the glomerules, these being large in some specimens and 
small in others. The arrangement of the glomerules varies 
from closely crowded to well separated. Some of the speci- 
mens are without rigid setae, a character which such specimens 
share with C. fusca. Endemic. 

C. fusca (Hook, f.) Giirke 1. c. Galapagoa fusca Hook. f. 
(3), 196. C. ftisca Giirke 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 189.— Albemarle 
Isl. : Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, Baur. 
Barrington Isl.: covers a small area at 350 ft. (no. 3155). 
Brattle Isl.: (no. 3156). Charles Isl.: occasional among- 
rocks in the vicinity of the shore (no. 3154). Chatham Isl. : 
Wreck Bay, Baur. Hood Isl. : abundant on sand beaches (no. 
3153). Indefatigable Isl.: northwest side, Andersson. 
Seymour Isl.^ south : Snodgrass and Heller. The two spe- 
cies of Coldenia found on these islands are so closely related to 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 127 

each other that it is often difficult to decide to which species a 
specimen belongs. While the extremes present very pronounced 
specific characters, the intermediate forms often partake of the 
characters of both species to a greater or less extent. Endemic. 

Cordia L. 

C. Anderssoni Giirke, op. c. 83; Rob. (1), 189.— Charles 
IsL. : Andersson; Lee. Chatham Isl. : north side, Anders- 
son. James Isl.: James Bay, occasional bushes (no. 3157). 
Endemic. 

C. galapagensis Giirke, op. c. 83; Rob. (1), 190. — Abingdon 
Isl.: common bushes above 450 ft. (no. 3158). Albemarle 
Isl.: Cowley Bay, common bushes at 2000 ft. (no. 3163); 
Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, common 
near the shore (no. 3159); Tagus Cove, common bushes to 
4,000 ft. (nos. 3161-3162). Barrington Isl. : bushes 6-8 ft. 
high at 350 ft. (no. 3164). Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, low 
spreading bushes on recent lava (no. 3166) ; Wreck Bay, occa- 
sional bushes to 650 ft. (no. 3165). Duncan Isl. : occasional 
bushes to 650 ft. (no. 3167). Hood Isl.: occasional bushes 
all over the island (no. 3168). Indefatigable Isl.: north- 
west side, Andersson; Baur. Narborough Isl. : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Endemic. 

C. Hookeriana Giirke, 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 190. — Albemarle 
Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional bushes near the shore (no. 
3171); Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, 
slender bushes on the side of a steep cliff above the cove (no. 
3173) ; Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, common 
bushes 6-8 ft. high on lava beds in the vicinity of the shore and 
up to 350 ft. (no. 3172). Charles Isl. : occasional bushes in 
tufaceous soil mixed with small pieces of lava at 1000 ft. (no. 
3174). James Isl.: James Bay, common bushes fringing 
recent lava flows on the lower parts (no. 3175); northeast 
side, occasional bushes 10-12 ft. high (no. 3176). Narbor- 
ough Isl. : north side, bushes 4-6 ft. high on lava beds ; south 
side, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

C. leucophlyctis Hook. f. (3), 199; Rob. (1), 190.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Macrae; Darwin. James Isl. : Scouler; Baur. 
Endemic. 



128 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

C. lutea Lam. 111. I, 421 (1791) ; Rob. (1), 190.— Abing- 
don IsL. : common bushes on lava beds to 450 ft., occasional 
to 700 ft. Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional low 
bushes in the vicinity of the shore; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass 
and Heller; Iguana Cove, low trees at 200 ft. (no. 3179) ; 
Cape Rose, low bushes on lava cinders (no. 3180) ; Tagus 
Cove, bushes and small trees all over the lower parts and up 
to 1500 ft., especially abundant on the edges of recent lava 
flows, (no. 3181) ; Villamil, low trees and bushes near sea level 
(no. 3182). Barrington Isl.: bushes in the vicinity of the 
shore, small trees at 350 ft., (no. 3184). Bindloe Isl. : com- 
mon bushes on the borders of cinder flows (no. 3185). 
Charles Isl. : Andersson; A. Agassis; Baur; Snodgrass and 
Heller. Chatham Isl.: north side, Darwin; Andersson; 
Wreck Bay, common bushes in rocky soil near the shore (no. 
3187). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : occasional low 
bushes (no. 3188). Hood Isl.: occasional low bushes and 
trees to 500 ft. (nos. 3189-3191). Indefatigable Isl.: 
southeast side, abundant near the shore and at 600 ft. (no. 
3192). James Isl.: James Bay, (no. 3193). Jervis Isl.: 
(no. 3194). Seymour Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Tower 
Isl.: occasional low bushes (no. 3265). Further distr. W. 
S. Am. 

C. revoluta Hook. f. (3), 199; Rob. (1), 191.— Charles 
Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

Var. nigricans Hook. f. (3), 199; Rob. (1), 191.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Macrae. Endemic. 

C. Scouleri Hook. f. (3), 200; Rob. (1), 191.— Albemarle 
Isl.: Villamil, bushes 10-12 ft. high, 100-550 ft, (no. 3195). 
Chatham Isl. : north side, Andersson; Wreck Bay, Baur. 
James Isl. : Andersson. Endemic. 

C. n. sp. ? Rob. (1), 191. — Charles Isl.: Edmonston. 

Heliotropium L. 

H. Anderssonii Rob. (1), 192. H. asperrimum Anderss. 
(2), 86, not R. Br. — Indefatigable Isl.: Andersson. En- 
demic. 

H. curassavicum L. Sp. PI. 130 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 192.— 
Abingdon Isl.: abundant on sand beaches (no. 3196). Al- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 129 

BEMARLE IsL. : Villamil, on sand beaches and around brackish 
pools (no. 3197). Bindloe Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. 
Brattle Isl.: (no. 3198). Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, on 
sand beaches (no. 3199) ; Wreck Bay, abundant near the 
beach (no. 3200). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : on sand 
beaches (no. 3201). Hood Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. In- 
defatigable Isl. : southeast side, on sand beaches ; north side, 
Snodgrass and Heller. James Isl. : northeast side, common 
on sand beaches and on a rock one-half mile off the shore (no. 
3204). Seymour Isl., south : Snodgrass and Heller. Widely 
distributed. 

H. indicum L. Sp. PI. 130 (1753); Rob. (1), 192.— 
Charles Isl.: in mud near a spring at 1000 ft. (no. 3208). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, in shady places, 450-900 ft., (no. 
3206). Widely distributed in warm countries. 

H. parviflorum L. Mant. 201 (1771); Rob. (1), 192.— 
Abingdon Isl. : common on the lower parts, occasional above 
1000 ft., (no. 3209). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, occa- 
sional at 1800 ft. (no. 3210) ; Iguana Cove, common near the 
shore (no. 3213) ; Tagus Cove, common to 1600 ft. (nos. 
3211-3212). Barrington Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Brattle Isl.: (no. 3214). Champion Isl.: /. R. Slevin 
collector (no. 3215). Charles Isl.: abundant in various 
situations all over the island (no. 3218). Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, common near the shore and to 350 ft. (nos. 3216- 
3217). Gardner Isl, (near Hood Isl.) : (no. 3219). Hood 
Isl.: occasional at 200 ft. (nos. 3220-3221). Indefatigable 
Isl. : northwest side, Andersson ; southeast side, common on 
the lower parts and in the vicinity of the shore (no. 3222). 
James Isl. : James Bay, abundant on the lower parts (no. 
3223 ) . Narborough Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Tower Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Wen man Isl. : (no. 
3224). Widely distributed in warm countries. 

Tournefortia L. 

T. hirsutissima L. Sp. PI. 140 (1753); Rob. (1), 193.— 
Chatham Isl. : Chierchia. Robinson, 1. c, suggests that this 
specimen may belong to Tournefortia riifo-sericea, a possibility 
which seems very likely, as subsequent collections have failed 
to show the species. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 



130 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

T. psilostachya HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. III. 78 (1818); 
Rob. (1), 193. — Abingdon Isl. : common bushes, 1200-1300 
ft, (no. 3225). Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, forming 
dense thickets near the shore ; Tagus Cove, common bushes on 
the side of the mountain (no. 3227) ; Turtle Cove, common 
bushes on lava beds near the beach (no. 3228) ; Villamil, one 
of the commonest shrubs, 350-1300 ft., (no. 3226). Charles 
Isl.: common bushes in woodland at 1000 ft. (no. 3231). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common bushes in the vicinity of 
the shore (no. 3234). Duncan Isl.: common at 1275 ft. 
(no. 3230). Hood Isl. : occasional bushes above 450 ft. (no. 
3232). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, bushes 6-7 ft. 
high at 100 ft. (no. 3233). James Isl.: Douglas; Scouler; 
Snod grass and Heller. This species was probably overlooked 
by earlier collectors and has not become more abundant 
recently as suggested by Robinson, 1. c. Further distr. trop- 
ical S. Am. 

T. pubescens Hook. f. (3), 198; Rob. (1), 193.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, 
Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, common bushes above 100 ft. 
(nos. 3235-3236). Charles Isl.: common bushes in wood- 
land at 1000 ft. Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, occasional 
bushes at 750 ft. (nos. 3237-3240) ; Wreck Bay, bushes 6-10 
ft. high at 450 ft. Duncan Isl. : low bushes around 1300 ft. 
(nos. 3241-3242). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, com- 
mon bushes on the lower parts (no. 3243) ; northwest side, 
Andersson; southeast side, occasional bushes at 600 ft. (nos. 
3244-3246). James Isl.: James Bay, low bushes, abundant 
at 1000 ft., (no. 3247). Endemic. 

T. rufo-sericea Hook. f. (3), 197; Rob. (1), 193.— Abing- 
don Isl.: common bushes above 900 ft. (no. 3248). Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, forming dense thickets in the flat 
area near the shore (no. 3250) ; Tagus Cove, common bushes 
at 1600 ft. (no. 3252) ; Turtle Cove, common bushes in thick- 
ets near the beach (no. 3251 ) ; Villamil, occurs at various eleva- 
tions on the lower parts, but most abundant in open areas above 
600 ft., also common in the grassy region above 1500 ft., and 
on the rim of the crater at 3150 ft., (no. 3249). Charles 
Isl. : common bushes in open woodland around 1000 ft. and on 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 131 

the sides of the craters above this elevation to 1700 ft. (nos. 
3253-3254). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common bushes 
above 400 ft. (no. 3255). Duncan Isl.: at 1275 ft. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common bushes in a dense 
growth of vegetation in the open areas around 550 ft. and 
above (no. 3256). James Isl.: James Bay, occurs to some 
extent on the lower parts, abundant at 2100 ft., occasional at 
2850 ft., (nos. 3257-3258). There is much variation in the 
amount of pubescence. Endemic. 

T. strigosa Anderss. (1), 207, (2), 85, t. 9, f. 3 ; Rob. (1), 
194, — Albemarle Isl. : Turtle Cove, occasional low spread- 
ing bushes in the vicinity of the shore (no. 3259) ; Villamil, 
Baur. Charles Isl. : Andersson. Chatham Isl. : Anders- 
son. Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional bushes 
in sandy soil near the shore (no. 3262) ; north side, occasional 
bushes at 250 ft. (no. 3261) ; southeast side, bushes at 550 ft. 
(no. 3260). James Isl.: James Bay, common bushes 4-7 ft. 
high (no. 3263). Endemic. 

T. syringaefolia Vahl, Symb. III. 23 (1794). T. laurifolia 
Vent. Choix. PI. 2 (1803) ; Rob. (1), 193.— Chatham Isl.: 
Chierchia according to Caruel. James Isl.: Andersson. 
Possibly a less pubescent form of either T. psilostachya or T. 
puhescens. Further distr. Mex., tropical S. Am. 

VERBENACEAE 

Avicennia L. 

A. officinalis L. Sp. PI. 110 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 194.— Albe- 
marle Isl.: Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Turtle 
Cove, common on pebble beaches, sometimes attaining the size 
of large trees, (no. 3266) ; Turtle Point, common, according 
to /. 5. Hunter; Villamil, common trees around salt lakes, and 
to some extent on sand beaches. Charles Isl. : common on 
the beach and around a salt lake (no. 3267). Chatham Isl. : 
Sappho Cove, occasional small trees around salt pools (no. 
3268). Duncan Isl. : a single small tree of this species was 
found in a cove on the northeast side of the island (no. 3269). 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, low trees on the beach 
and around salt marshes (no. 3270) ; southeast side, small 



132 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

trees around a brackish lake (no. 3271) ; north side, abundant 
in various places along the shore. Occasional isolated trees 
were seen on the shore at various places between Academy and 
Conway Bays. James Isl. : James Bay, low spreading trees 
around a salt lake near the shore (no. 3272). Jervis Isl.: 
low trees around a salt lagoon (no. 3273). Seymour Isl._, 
SOUTH : low trees around a salt lake on the west side of the 
island (no. 3274). Widely distributed on tropical shores. 

Clerodendron L. 

C. molle HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. II. 244 (1817) ; Rob. (1), 
194. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, common bushes near 
the shore (no. 3275) ; Villamil, occasional bushes on lava beds 
near sea level and up to 500 ft. (no. 3276). Charles Isl.: 
common bushes, forming thickets, 450-650 ft., (no. 3277). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional bushes at 650 ft. (no. 
3278). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occasional bushes 
in woodland on the lower parts (no. 3279) ; northwest side, 
bushes to 550 ft. James Isl. : Scouler; Andersson; Snodgrass 
and Heller. Further distr. Ecuador. 

C. sp. Hook. f. (4), 261; Rob. (1), 195.— Charles Isl.: 
Edmonston. 

C. sp. Hook, f., 1. c. ; Rob. 1. c. — Charles Isl. : Edmonston. 

Duranta L. 

D. repens L. Sp. PI. 637 (1753). D. Plumieri Jacq. Stirp. 
Am. 186, t. 176, f. 76 (1763); Rob. (1), 195.— Albemarle 
Isl. : Tagus Cove, occasional bushes, 2100-3600 ft., (no. 
3280) ; Villamil, low bushes on the rim of the crater at 3150 
ft. (no. 3281). Duncan Isl.: common bushes 6-8 ft. high 
at 1275 ft. (no. 3283). , Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

Lantana L. 

L. peduncularis Anderss. (1), 200, (2), 81; Rob. (1), 195. 
— Abingdon Isl. : common bushes on the lava beds on the 
lower parts, occasional at 1550 ft. Albemarle Isl. : Cowley 
Bay, common bushes at 2100 ft. (no. 3288) ; Elizabeth Bay, 
Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 133 

Tagus Cove, common in tufaceous soil on the lower parts, occa- 
sional at 4000 ft., (no. 3285) ; Turtle Cove, (no. 3286) ; 
Villamil, occasional bushes on lava beds (no. 3287). Bar- 
RiNGTON IsL. : Suodgrass and Heller. Bindloe Isl. : com- 
mon bushes to 300 ft. (no. 3289). Charles Isl. : (no. 3290). 
Champion Isl. : /. R. Slevin collector (no. 3291). Chatham 
Isl.: Wreck Bay, bushes 3-4 ft. high (no. 3292). Duncan 
Isl.: occasional bushes at 1100 ft. (no. 3293). Gardner 
Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : (no. 3294). Hood Isl.: one of the 
commonest bushes, often forming thickets 5-7 ft. high. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, low bushes near the shore (no. 
3295). James Isl. : James Bay, forming thickets 3-6 ft. high 
near the shore, occasional at 1000 ft., (no. 3298). Jervis 
Isl. : Baur. Narborough Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and 
Heller. Tower Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. "Endemic" 
according to Rob., 1. c, who suggests that it may ultimately be 
identified with one of the continental species, (cf. L. lilacina 
and L. canescens HBK.), or segregated into several more or 
less distinct forms. 

Lippia Houst. 

L. canescens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. II. 263 (1817) ; Rob. 
(1), 196. — Charles Isl.: common in open meadows around 
1000 ft. and on the side of the main mountain at 1600 ft. (nos. 
3299-3301, 3303). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occasional 
in moist shady places on the lower parts in January (no. 3302). 
Duncan Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl. : a few 
specimens were seen in a flat area in the interior of the island, 
which is probably the mud lake from which Snodgrass and 
Heller obtained their specimens. Further distr. S. Am. 

L. rosmarinifolia Anderss. (1), 198, (2), 80; Rob. (1), 196. 
— Abingdon Isl. : occasional bushes at 650 ft., common at 
1300-1550 ft, (no. 3304). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, 
occasional bushes near the shore (no. 3306) ; Elizabeth Bay, 
Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, bushes 5-6 ft. high on the 
sides of the mountain to 4000 ft. (no. 3307) ; Villamil, occa- 
sional bushes on lava beds near sea level (no. 3308). The 
specimens from this place have the leaves slightly toothed, 
while those from Tagus Cove have this character very strongly 
marked. Also noted by Robinson, 1. c. James Isl. : (no. 



134 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

3309). Narborough Isl. : north side, occasional bushes on 
lava beds (no. 3310). Endemic. 

L. salicifolia Anderss. (1), 198, (2), 80; Rob. (1), 196.— 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. Endemic. 

Priva Adans 

P. lappulacea (L.) Pers. Syn. PI. II. 139 (1807). Verbena 
lappulacea L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 28, (1762). P. echinata Juss. Ann. 
Mus. Par. VII. 69 (1806). — Charles Isl.: occasional in 
shady places around 1000 ft. (no. 3312). Further distr. S. 
U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Stachytarpheta Vahl 

S. dichotoma(Ruiz & Pavon) Vahl, Enum. I. 207 (1804). 
Verbena dichotoma Ruiz & Pavon, Fl. Per. I. 23, t. 34, %. b 
(1798). 5. dichotoma Vahl, 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 196.— Charles 
Isl.: common, 1000-1200 ft., occasional at 1300 ft. This 
plant grows very abundantly on the southeast slopes of the 
large craters in the interior of the island, and in such places it 
forms the bulk of the vegetation, (nos. 3313-3314). Further 
distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Verbena L. 

V. Carolina L. Syst. ed. 10, 852 (1760) ; Rob. (1), 196.— 
James Isl. : Darwin. Further distr. U. S., Mex., S. Am. 

V. grisea Rob. & Greenm. (1), 142, 147; Rob. (1), 197.— 
Duncan Isl.: rare around 1250 ft. (nos. 3315-3316). En- 
demic. 

V. litoralis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. II. 276, t. 137 (1817) ; 
Rob. (1), 197. — Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, common at 
2000 ft. (no. 3318) ; Tagus Cove, common on lava beds at 300 
ft. (no. 3320) ; Villamil, common, 600-1400 ft., and on the 
floor of the crater at 2750 ft. (no. 3317). Charles Isl.: 
common in wet soil near a spring at 1000 ft. (nos. 3321-3322). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant in open country around 
900 ft. (no. 3324.) Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., S. Am. 

V. officinalis L. Sp. PI. 20 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 197.— James 
Isl. : Darwin. Widely distributed in tropical regions. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 135 

LABIATAE 
Hyptis Jacq. 

H. capitata Jacq. Ic. PI. Rar. 1. 1. 114 (1781-1786), Col. Bot. 
L 102 (1786); Rob. (1), 197.— Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, 
occasional in open places around habitations at 650 ft. (no, 
3324). Charles Isl. : Edmonston. Further distr. Max., W. 
Ind., S. Am. 

H. spicata ? Poit. Ann. Mus. Par. VII. 474, t. 28 (1806).— 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional at 1200 ft., common 
at 2000 ft. Species doubtful, (no. 3326). Further distr. S. 
U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

H. subverticillata Anderss. (1), 197, (2), 80; Rob. (1), 197. 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Andersson; Tagus Cove, in 
lava crevices around 2100 ft. (no. 3325). Indefatigable 
Isl. : Baur. James Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Nabrorough Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

Salvia L. 

S. occidentalis Sw. Prodr. 14 (1788); Rob. (1), 197.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, one of the most common herbs 
to 500 ft. and above (nos. 3327-3330) ; Tagus Cove, common 
around 1600 ft. (no. 3331) ; Villamil, common around 650 ft. 
(no. 3332). Charles Isl. : occasional at 800 ft., common at 
1000-1200 ft, (nos. 3333-3334). Chatham Isl.: Wreck 
Bay, occasional in open woodland at 350 ft. (nos. 3335-3336). 
James Isl. : James Bay, occasional in woodland at 850 ft., 
common at 2100 ft, (nos. 3337-3338). Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am. 

S. prostrata Hook. f. (3), 200; Rob. (1), 198.— Charles 
Isl. : occasional in protected places, 1200-1550 ft., (nos. 3339- 
3340). James Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

S. tiliaefolia Vahl, Symb. III. 7 (1794); Rob. (1), 198.— 
Charles Isl. : Darwin. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Teucrium L. 

T. inflatum Sw. Prodr. 88 (1788) ; Rob. (1), 198.— Albe- 
marle Isl.: Villamil, abundant above 500 ft (no. 3341). 

January 13. 1911. 



136 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Charles Isl. : common among rocks at 1450 ft. (nos. 3342- 
3343). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in open places 
at 650 ft. (no. 3344). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., 
Polynesia. 

SOLANACEAE 
Acnistus Schott 

A. ellipticus Hook. f. in Miers, Lond. Jour. Bot. IV. 343 
(1845); Rob. (1), 198. A. insularis Rob. (1), 198.— Albe- 
marle Isl.: Villamil, bushes and small trees, 1200-1500 ft, 
and inside of the crater at 2750 ft. Calyx 5-crenate, stigma 
entire, leaves as described by Hook, f., 1. c, (no. 3347). 
Charles Isl. : small trees on the steep inner wall of the main 
crater at 1700 ft. Calyx 5-dentate, stigma obscurely bilobed, 
leaves mostly ovate and glabrous, although a few are some- 
what elliptical, (no. 3347). Chatham Isl. : occasional bushes 
around 2000 ft. Calyx truncate, stigmas bilobed and entire 
on the same plant, leaves orbicular to obovate, somewhat at- 
tenuate at base, sparingly pubescent above, tomentose below, 
(no. 3348). Duncan Isl.: small trees at 1300 ft. Calyx 
somewhat truncate, obscurely dentate, stigmas entire, leaves 
orbicular to obovate, mostly glabrous, although some show a 
slight tomentum on the lower surface around the veins. Both 
the flowers and leaves are smaller than is usually the case in 
this species, a fact that may be due to the more xerophytic con- 
ditions around the top of this island where the specimens were 
found, (no. 3349). James Isl. : James Bay, small trees above 
2200 ft. Calyx 5-crenate, stigmas bilobed and entire on the 
same plant, leaves agreeing with Hooker's description, 1. c, 
(no. 3350). In consideration of the above varied characters 
which the more abundant material has brought to light, it 
seems best to combine A. insularis Rob. with A. ellipticus Hook, 
f. It is another instance of a very variable species, examples 
of which are common on the Galapagos Islands. It is hardly 
likely that the above variations are of formal value, as the 
specimens from Charles Isl. show nearly as much variation 
from the typical A. ellipticus as do the specimens from other 
islands. Endemic. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 137 

Brachistus, Miers 

B. pubescens, nov. sp. 

Fruticosus 2 dm.-l m. altus, ramis teretibus dichotomis flavo-pubes- 
centibus; ramulis teretibus divaricatis saepe geniculatis flavo-pubes- 
centibus; foliis alternis ovatis acuminatis basi cuneatis integris utrinque 
flavo-pubescentibus petiolatis, laminis 3.2-5 cm. longis, 1.3-2.2 cm. latis; 
floribus axillaribus solitaribus pedunculatis; calyce pubescenti S-angu- 
lato, 2.6 mm. lato; corolla rotata, limbo 5-lobo, lobis acutis margine 
denticulatis; staminibus limbo inclusis; stylo incrasato stigmate capi- 
tato integerrimo; bacca orbiculari compressa viridi 6-seminata, semini- 
bus flavo-bruneis. 

Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, bushes in woodland, 450-600 
ft., (nos. 3351-3352). James Isl.: James Bay, occasional 
bushes above 1600 ft. (no. 3353). This species resembles B. 
Pringlei Watson in many respects, differing principally in the 
presence of a yellow tomentum on both branches and leaves, 
and in the absence of the linear tooth at each angle of the calyx. 
Plate III, figs. 6-8. Endemic. 

Cacabus Bernh. 

C. Hookeri (Anderss.) n. comb. Thinogeton Hookeri An- 
derss. (1), 217; Rob. (1), 201. — Indefatigable Isl.: north- 
west side, Andersson. Endemic. 

C. Miersii (Hook, f.) Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflan- 
zenf. IV. Ab. 3b, 16 (1891). Dictocalyx Miersii Hook. f. (3), 
203. Thinogeton Miersii Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 2, IV. 
359 (1849); Rob. (1), 201. — Abingdon Isl.: occasional 
among rocks near the shore (no. 3417). Albemarle Isl.: 
Black Bight, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, common 
near the shore (no. 3418) ; Tagus Cove, abundant in tufaceous 
soil on the tops of the cliffs near the shore (no. 3420) ; Turtle 
Cove, fairly abundant on lava near the beach (no. 3419) ; Villa- 
mil, occasional near brackish pools several miles inland (no. 
3421). Barrington Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles 
Isl. : Darwin; Andersson. Chatham Isl. : Andersson; 
Snodgrass and Heller. Culpepper Isl. : Snodgrass and 
Heller. Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : among rocks just 
above high tide mark (no. 3422). Hood Isl.: occasional on 
sand beaches (no. 3423). Narborough Isl.: Mangrove 
Point, Snodgrass and Heller; north side, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Endemic. 



138 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Capsicum L. 

C. annuum L. Sp. PI. 188 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 199.— Charles 
IsL. : occasional at 450 ft., and on moist rocks at 1000 ft., (nos. 
3354-3355). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional at 350 
ft. (nos. 3356-3357). 

Datura L. 

D. Tatula L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 256 (1762) ; Rob. (1), 199.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, occasional at sea level, common at 
600 ft., (no. 3358). Charles Isl. : common in the vicinity of 
former habitations (nos. 3359-3360). Widely distributed. 

D. sp. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and 
Heller. 

Lycium L. 

L. geniculatum Fernald, ? Proc. Am. Acad. XXXV. 566 
(1900). A/'3;c/a^mac^a.^Rob. (1), 143. — Duncan Isl. : occa- 
sional bushes (no. 3362). Hood Isl.: bushes 4-6 ft. high 
around 600 ft. (no. 3361). Seymour Isl., north: Snod- 
grass and Heller. Further distr. Mex. 

L. sp. Rob. (1), 199. — Abingdon Isl.: common bushes, 
forming thickets 2-3 ft. high near the shore, (no. 3363). Al- 
bemarle Isl. : Turtle Cove, bushes near the shore (no. 3364) ; 
Villamil, common bushes on lava beds near the shore (no. 
3365). Charles Isl. : bushes near the shore. Duncan Isl. : 
occasional bushes at 1000 ft. (no. 3366). Gardner Isl. (near 
Hood Isl.) : (no, 3367). Hood Isl. : (no. 3368). Unfor- 
tunately all of the above specimens are sterile and indetermin- 
ate as to species. 

Lycopersicum Hill. 

L. esculentum Mill. var. minor Hook. f. (3), 202; Rob. (1), 
199._Abingdon Isl.: common, 700-1600 ft, (no. 3369). 
Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional at 2100 ft. (no. 
3371) ; Christopher Point, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, 
Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, common near sea level (no. 
3372). Chatham Isl.: Sappho Cove, occasional on recent 
lava (no. 3374). Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : (no. 
3373). Hood Isl.: Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : north side, common among rocks at 200 ft. 
(no. 3376) ; southeast side, rare at 550 ft. (no. 3375). James 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 139 

IsL. : James Bay, fairly abundant to 1000 ft. (nos. 3377-3378). 
Narborough Isl. : Mangrove Point, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Further distr. S. Am., Polynesia. 

L. peruvianum (L.) Mill., var. parviflorum Hook. f. (3), 
202; Rob. (1), 199. — Chatham Isl. : Darzvin. Further distr. 
Andean S. Am. 

L. pimpinellifolium Mill. Diet. ed. 8, no. 4 (1768) ; Rob. (1), 
199. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, abundant on the side 
of the cliff above the cove (no. 3379) ; Villamil, common at 
650 ft. (no. 3380). Charles Isl.: Andersson. Chatham 
Isl. : north side, Darwin; Andersson. James Isl. : An- 
dersson. Further distr. Andean S. Am. 

L. sp. Rob. (1), 200.— Chatham Isl.: Snodgrass and 
Heller. 

Nicotiana L. 

N. glutinosa L. Sp. PI. 181 (1753); Rob. (1), 200.— 
Charles Isl. : Edmonston; Darwin; Andersson. Further 
distr. Andean S. Am. 

N. Tabacum L. Sp. PI. 180 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 200.— Albe- 
marle Isl.: Iguana Cove, (no. 3383) ; Villamil, common in 
gardens and escaped from cultivation (no. 3382). Charles 
Isl. : Chierchia. Widely distributed through cultivation. 

N. sp. Hook. f. (4), 261; Rob. (1), 200.— Charles Isl.: 
Edmonston. 

Physalis L. 

P. angulata L. Sp. PI. 183 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 200.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, fairly abundant on the lower parts (no. 
3384). Charles Isl. : common in open country, 450-1100 ft, 
(nos. 3385-3386). Chatham Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Widely distributed. 

P. ixocarpa Brot. in Hornem. Hort. Hafn. Suppl. 26 
(1819); Rob. (1), 200.— Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, occa- 
sional at 550 ft. (no. 3388). Charles Isl.: occasional near 
the shore (no. 3387). Widely distributed. 

P. pubescens L. Sp. PI. 183 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 200.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional in woodland at 2100 ft. 



140 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

(no. 3395) ; Ig-uana Cove, occasional in shady places at 300 ft. 
(no. 3392) ; Tagus Cove, in shady places around 900 ft. (nos. 
3389, 3393); Villamil, common above 600 ft. (nos. 3390, 
3396). BiNDLOE IsL. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : 
occasional in shady places near the shore (nos. 3397-3398). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional in shady places at 400 
ft. (no. 3399). Duncan Isl.: rare around 1000 ft. (no. 
3400). Hood Isl. : occasional in shady, places. Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : northwest side, occasional in tufaceous soil near the 
shore. Dried remains, somewhat doubtful as to species, (no. 
3401 ) . James Isl. : James Bay, in shady places near the shore 
(nos. 3402-3403). Narborough Isl.: south side, Snodgrass 
and Heller. Further distr. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

P. sp. — Abingdon Isl. : dry remains at 500 ft. 

Solanum L. 

S. Edmonstonei Hook. f. (3), 201; Rob. (1), 201.— 
Charles Isl. : Edmonston. Endemic. 

S. nigrum L. Sp. PI. 186 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 201.— Abing- 
don Isl.: common in woodland, 1400-1550 ft., (nos. 3405- 
3406). Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, common, 500-1300 ft, 
(no. 3409). Charles Isl.: occasional among rocks at 1550 
ft. (no. 3408). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, abundant at 
2050 ft. (no. 3407). Duncan Isl.: rare at 1275 ft. (nos. 
3410-3411). James Isl.: Scouler; Darwin; James Bay, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Widely distributed. 

S. Quitoense Lam. 111. 16 (1793). — James Isl.: James 
Bay, occasional on the southeast side of the main crater at 
2800 ft., /. S. Hunter collector, (no. 3412). Possibly an in- 
troduced species, although there has never been a permanent 
settlement on this island. Further distr. western S. Am. 

S. verbascifolium L. Sp. PI. 184 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 201.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common bushes in low moist areas 
near sea level, small trees in open woodland at 1300 ft., bushes 
on the rim of the crater at 3150 ft., (nos. 3414-3416). 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. James Isl. : Darwin. Narbor- 
ough Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. Widely dis- 
tributed in tropical regions. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 141 

S. sp. Hook. f. (4), 261; Rob. (1), 201.— Charles Isl. : 
Edmonston. 

S. sp. Hook, f., 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 201. — Charles Isl.: Ed- 
monston. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Bacopa Aubl. 

B. monniera (L.) Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf. 
IV. 3b. 77 (1891). Gratiola monniera L. Amoen. Acad. IV. 
306 (1759). Monniera calycina (Forsk.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 
462 (1891). — Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, occasional at 3150 
ft. (nos. 3437-3438). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, rare at 
1300 ft. (no. 3439). Further distr. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. 
Am. 

Capraria L. 

C. biflora L. van pilosa Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 427 
(1861); Rob. (1), 202. — Charles Isl.: common bushes, 
6-18 inches high, throughout the open brushy country, 450- 
1750 ft., (nos. 3425-3427). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
common in sandy soil near the shore (nos. 3424, 3428). Fur- 
ther distr. S. U. S., Mex.. W. Ind.. S. Am. 

C. peruviana Benth. in DC Prodr. X. 430 (1846) ; Rob. 
( 1 ) , 202. — Charles Isl. : common bushes 4-6 ft. high, 450- 
1400 ft., (nos. 3429-3431). Further distr. Ecuador, Peru. 

Galvezia Domb. 

G. fruticosa Domb. Gmel. Syst. 937 (1791). — Jervis Isl.: 
occasional near the shore and from 500-950 ft. (nos. 3440- 
3442). No flowering specimens were secured, so that the 
species is somewhat doubtful. Further distr. Peru. 

Scoparia L. 

S. dulcis L. Sp. PI. 116 (1753); Rob. (1), 202.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, occasional bushes at 1800 ft. (no. 
3432). Charles Isl.: low bushes common in open country 
above 1000 ft. (nos. 3433-3434). Chatham Isl.: Wreck 



142 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Bay, abundant in shady woodland at 250 ft. (no. 3435). 
James Isl. : James Bay, low bushes in woodland around 2500 
ft. (no. 3436). Further distr. tropical and subtropical 
America. 

BIGNONIACEAE? 

Tecoma Juss.? 

T. sp.? Caruel (1), 622; Rob. (1), 202.— Chatham Isl.: 
Chierchia. 

ACANTHACEAE 
Dicliptera Juss. 
D. peruviana (Lam.) Juss. Ann. Mus. Par. IX. 268 (1806). 
Justicia peruviana Lam. Diet. I. 633 (1783). D. peruviana 
Juss. 1. c. ; Rob. ( 1 ) , 203. — James Isl. : James Bay, common 
in shady places at 850 ft. (nos. 3443-3444). Further distr. 
W. S. Am. 

Justicia L. 

J. galapagana Lindau, in Rob. (1), 203. — Abingdon Isl.: 
common, 550-1450 ft., (nos. 3445-3447). Albemarle Isl.: 
Iguana Cove, common above 500 ft. (no. 3448) ; Villamil, 
occasional in woodland, 400-1300 ft., (nos. 3449-3452). In- 
defatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common in woodland, 350- 
500 ft, (nos. 3454-3455). James Isl.: James Bay, occa- 
sional, 350-2850 ft, (nos. 3458-3460). Endemic. 

Ruellia Plum. 
R. paniculata L. Sp. PI. 635 (1753). — Chatham Isl.: 
Basso Point, occasional at 750 ft. (no. 3461). Further distr. 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Tetramerium Nees 
T. hispidum Nees in DC. Prodr. XL 468 (1847) ; Rob. (1), 
204. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, common around 2000 
ft. (no. 3462) ; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana 
Cove, a few specimens on the side of the clifif above the cove 
(no. 3464). Charles Isl. : common in flat country near Post 
Office Bay at 200 ft., and in crevices of the lava at 650 ft., 
(nos. 3465-3466). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, common in 
open sunny places around 200 ft. (nos. 3467-3468). Inde- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 143 

FATiGABLE IsL. : Academy Bay, occasional on the lower parts 
(no. 3469); north side, common above 200 ft. (no. 3470). 
James Isl. : James Bay, fairly common at 1300 ft. (no. 3472) ; 
north side,, common on lava beds on the lower parts (no. 3471 ) . 
Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., S. Am. 

PLANTAGINACEAE 
Plantago L. 
P. major L. Sp. PI. 112 (1753); Rob. (1), 204.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, common in swamps near the shore (no. 
3473). Charles Isl.: occasional at 1500 ft. (no. 3474). 
Chatham Isl, : Wreck Bay, abundant, 800-1800 ft., (no. 
3475). Widely distributed. 

P. tomentosa var. (?) pumila Hook. f. (3), 194; Rob. (1), 
204. — James Isl. : Darwin. Identity doubtful, according to 
Rob. 1. c. 

RUBIACEAE 
Borreria Meyer 

Tardavel Adans. Fam. II. 145 (1763), and Chenocarpus 
Neck, Elem. I. 202 (1790) are doubtful synonyms of this 
genus. 

B. basalis Anderss. (1), 191, (2), 76, t. 8, f. 4; Rob. (1), 
204. — Chatham Isl. : Andersson. Endemic. 

B. Baurii Rob. & Greenm. (1), 140, 146; Rob. (1), 204.— 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, Baur. Endemic. 

B. dispersa Hook. f. (3), 217; Rolj, (1), 204. — Albemarle 
Isl. : Iguana Cove, a few specimens were found in the open 
vegetation at 150 ft. (no. 3476) ; Tagus Cove, occasional on 
hill-sides in tufaceous soil at 400 ft. (no. 3477). Charles 
Isl. : Darwin; Baur. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, Baur. 
Indefatigable Isl. : northwest side, Andersson. James Isl. : 
Darwin. Endemic. 

B. divaricata Hook. f. (3), 219; Rob. (1), 204.— Charles 
Isl. : Darwin; Baur. Endemic. 

B. ericaefolia Hook. f. (3), 218; Rob. (1), 205.— Abingdon 
Isl.: common bushes near the shore, occasional at 1100 ft., 



144 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

(nos. 3478-3479). Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, low bushes 
in pumice soil at 300 ft. (no. 3480) ; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass 
and Heller; Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, 
low bushes, fairly common, 300-4000 ft., (nos. 3482-3483) ; 
Villamil, low bushes on lava near the coast (no. 3481). 
Charles Isl. : Baur. Chatham Isl. : Sappho Cove, occa- 
sional bushes on lava (no. 3484). Indefatigable Isl. : south- 
east side, low bushes at 600 ft. (no. 3486). James Isl. : James 
Bay, bushes 1-3 ft. high, abundant on recent lava flows, (no. 
3487). Jervis Isl. : occasional bushes at 1050 ft. (no. 3488). 
Narborough Isl. : north side, occasional bushes on lava beds 
(no. 3489) ; Mangrove Point, Snodgrass and Heller. En- 
demic. 

B. falcifolia Hook. f. (3), 219; Rob. (1), 205.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Macrae ? ace. to Hook, f., 1. c. Endemic. 

B. galapageia Rob. & Greenm. (1), 140, 146; Rob. (1), 
205. — Duncan Isl.: occasional among rocks at 1250 ft. (no. 
3490). Endemic. 

B. linearifolia Hook. f. (3), 217; Rob. (1), 205.— James 
Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

B.ovalis Anderss. (1), 192, (2), 76, t. 8, f. 3; Rob. (1), 
205. — Charles Isl. : bushes among rocks near the shore (nos. 
3491-3492). Endemic. 

Forma abingdonensis Rob. (1), 205. — Abingdon Isl.: 
Baur. Endemic. 

B. pacifica Rob. & Greenm. (1), 140, 146; Rob. (1), 205.— 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, common bushes near the 
shore (no. 3493) ; northwest side, Baur. Endemic. 

B. parvifolia Hook. f. (3), 218; Rob. (1), 205.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Macrae. Endemic. "A pubescent form of B. 
ericaefoliaf" ace. to Rob. (1), 205. 

B. perpusilla Hook. f. (3), 218; Rob. (1), 206.— James 
Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

B. rotundifolia Anderss. (2), 77; Rob. (1), 206. — Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : northwest side. Andersson. Endemic. 

B. suberecta Hook. f. (3), 217; Rob. (1), 206.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, fairly abundant among rocks on 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 145 

the sides of the cliffs above the cove (nos. 3494-3495) ; Tagus 
Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, on lava beds near the 
coast (no. 3496). Barrington Isl. : Baur. Identity doubt- 
ful ace. to Rob. 1. c. Endemic. 

B. sp. Rob. (1), 206. — Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, Snod- 
grass and Heller. It is likely that some of the above species, 
which have not been found by more recent collectors, will prove 
to be synonyms of B. ericaefolia or some of the other more 
common species. 

Chiococca P. Br. 

C. alba (L.) Hitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. IV. 94 (1893). 
Lonicera alba L. Sp. PI. 175 (1753). C. racemosa L. Syst. ed. 
10, 917 (1760); Rob. (1), 206.— Abingdon Isl.: common 
bushes above 450 ft. (nos. 3497-3498). Albemarle Isl.: 
Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Iguana Cove, (no. 
3499) ; Villamil, occasional bushes on the lower parts (no. 
3501). BiNDLOE Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : 
occasional bushes at 600 ft. (no. 3502). Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, common bushes to 500 ft. (no. 3503). Duncan 
Isl. : low bushes at 1275 ft. (no. 3504). Indefatigable Isl. : 
Academy Bay, bushes and small trees on the lower parts (no. 
3505) ; southeast side, common bushes to 600 ft. (no. 3506). 
James Isl. : James Bay, occasional bushes on the lower parts, 
small trees and bushes at 2150 ft, (nos. 3507-3509). Nar- 
BOROUGH Isl. : north side, occasional bushes on lava (no. 
3510). Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Coffea L. 

C. arabica L. Sp. PI. 172 (1753). — Chatham Isl.: Wreck 
Bay, in cultivated ground and escaped from cultivation (no. 
351 1 ). Coffee is exported from this island to Guayaquil, Ecua- 
dor. Widely distributed through cultivation. 

Diodia L. 

D. Radula (Roem. & Sch.) Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea III. 
342 (1828). Spermacoce Radula Roem. & Sch. Syst. III. 531 
(1818). D. Radula Cham. & Schlecht. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 206.— 
Albemarle Isl.: Villamil, on the rim of the crater at 3150 
ft. (no. 3512). Charles Isl.: fairly abundant at 1250 ft. 



146 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

(no. 3513), Chatham Isl. : common, 900-1000 ft, (no. 
3514). James Isl.: James Bay, common in moist woodland 
at 2100 ft. (no. 3515). Further distr. Brazil. 

Psychotria L. 
P. angustata Anderss. (1), 193, (2), 78, t. 9, f . 1 ; Rob. (1), 
207. — Charles Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

P. rufipes Hook. f. (3), 220; Rob. (1), 207.— Abingdon 
Isl.: common bushes around 1500 ft. (no. 3517). Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, 
common bushes in woodland around 500 ft. Charles Isl. : 
occasional bushes in woodland around 1000 ft. Chatham 
Isl. : Wreck Bay, occasional bushes in woodland, 300-700 ft. 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, bushes 5-6 ft. high above 
400 ft., one of the most common bushes in the open areas 
around 550 ft.; northwest side, occasional bushes at 450 ft., 
abundant above 700 ft. James Isl. : James Bay, occasional 
low bushes at 900 ft., more or less abundant in woodland 
above this elevation, forming dense thickets around the top of 
the mountain at 2800 ft., (no. 3523). Endemic. 

Relbunium Endl. 

R. hypocarpium (L.) Hemsl. ? Biolog. Cent.-Am. Bot. II. 63 
(1881-1882). Valantia hypocarpia L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 149 
(1763).— Charles Isl.: rare at 1300 ft. (no. 3524). The 
specimen is sterile but agrees closely in other respects with 
specimens of this species in the Gray Herbarium. It is possi- 
ble that this may be the Rubia sp. which was collected on 
Charles Isl. by Darwin and was mentioned by Hooker f. (3), 
216. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Spermacoce L. 
S. tenuior L. Sp. PI. 102 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 207.— Chath- 
am Isl. : Baur. James Isl. : Darwin. Further distr. S. U. S., 
Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

CUCURBITACEAE 
Citrullus Neck, 

C. vulgaris Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh. Enum. 279 (1836); 
Rob. ( 1 ) , 207. — Albemarle Isl. : Turtle Cove, near the 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 147 

shore; Villamil, in gardens. Charles Isl. : Andersson. 
Widely distributed through cultivation. 

Cucurbita L. 

C. Pepo L. Sp. PI. 1010 (1753); Rob. (1), 207.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, in gardens. Charles Isl. : in culti- 
vated ground, upper region, ace. to Andersson. Widely dis- 
tributed. 

Elaterium Jacq. 

E. cordatum Hook. f. (3), 224; Rob. (1), 208.— Abingdon 
Isl.: common in woodland, 600-1600 ft., (no. 3535), Albe- 
marle Isl. : Tagus Cove, occasional, 500-1500 ft. Chatham 
Isl.: Wreck Bay, abundant at 2050 ft. (no. 3536). James 
Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

Momordica L. 

M. Charantia L. Sp. PI. 1009 (1753); Rob. (1), 208.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, Baur. Widely distributed in trop- 
ics. 

Sicyos L. 

S. villosus Hook. f. (3), 223; Rob. (1), 208.— Charles 
Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

CAMPANULACEAE 

Lobelia L. 

L. Cliffortiana L. Sp. PI. 931 (1753). L. xalapensis HBK. 
Nov. Gen. & Sp. III. 315 (1818); Rob. (1), 208.— Albe- 
marle Isl.: Villamil, rare at 3150 ft. (no. 3537), Charles 
Isl.: occasional in moist soil at 1000 ft. (no. 3538), James 
Isl. : according to Hook. f. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. 
Am. 

GOODENIACEAE 

Scaevola L. 

S. Plumieri (L.) Vahl, Symb. II. 36 (1791). Lobelia Plu- 
mieri L. Sp. PI. 929 (1753). 5. Lobelia Murr. Syst. ed. 13, 
178 (1774) ; Rob. (1), 208.— Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, low 
bushes on sand beaches (no. 3539). Charles Isl. : occasional 
bushes on the beach at Cormorant Bay (no. 3540). Chatham 



148 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

IsL. : Basso Point, fruiting in February. Indefatigable Isl. : 
southeast side, bushes on the beach. Widely distributed in 
warm countries. 

COMPOSITAE 
Acanthospermuni Schrank. 
A. lecocarpoides Rob. & Greenm. (1), 141, 146; Rob. (1), 
208. — Chatham Isl. : Sappho Cove, common bushes 3-4 ft. 
high in woodland at 800 ft. Except for the presence of spines 
on the achenes the specimens from this island are more like 
Lecocarpus foliosus than an Acanthospermum, (no. 700). 
Gardner Isl. (near Hood Isl.) : common bushes 2 ft. high. 
Some of the specimens from this island have some of the leaves 
deeply cut, as do the specimens from Chatham Isl., while others 
have them shallowly pinnatifid, as described by Rob. & Greenm., 
1. c, from specimens taken on the adjacent Hood Island, (no. 
701). Hood Isl. : Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

A. microcarpum Rob. ( 1 ) , 208. — Charles Isl. : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Endemic. 

Ageratum L. 

A. conyzoides L. Sp. PI. 839 (1753). A. latifolium Hemsl. 
Biolog. Cent.-Am. Bot. II. 82 (1881) ; Rob. (1), 209.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Villamil, common at 1800 ft. and on the south- 
east rim of the crater at 3150 ft. (no. 702). Charles Isl.: 
occasional, 1250-1550 ft, (nos. 703-705). Chatham Isl.: 
Wreck Bay, fairly abundant in the open grassy country around 
1700 ft. (no. 706). Further distr. Costa Rica. 

Ambrosia L. 
A. artemisiaefolia L. Sp. PI. 988 (1753). — Charles Isl.: 
abundant in a restricted area in the open bushy country at 1000 
ft. (no. 708). Widely distributed. 

Aplopappus Cass. 

A. lanatus Hook. f. (3), 215; Rob. (1), 209.— Galapagos 
Ids. : Du Petit-Thouars. Endemic. 

Baccharis L. 

B. pilularis DC. Prodr. V. 407 (1836); Rob. (1), 209.— 
Charles Isl.: Edmonston. Further distr. Pacific Coast of 
U. S. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 149 

B. Pingraea DC. var. angustissima DC. Prodr. V. 420 
(1836); Rob. (1), 209.— Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, 
bushes 2-3 ft. high around 1050 ft. (no. 709) ; Villamil, occa- 
sional bushes at 250 ft. (no. 710). Indefatigable Isl.: 
southeast side, low bushes at 600 ft. The specimen is sterile 
and doubtful as to species, (no. 710). Further distr. coast of 
Chili, according to Rob. 1. c. 

B. Steetzii Anderss. (1), 177, (2), 68; Rob. (1), 209.— 
Charles Isl.: bushes 5-8 ft. high, 1000-1200 ft., (nos. 711- 
712). Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, low bushes around 800 
ft. (no. 713). Endemic. 

B. sp.— James Isl. : James Bay, bushes 7 ft. high. Sterile 
and doubtful, (no. 714). 

Bidens L. 
B. chilensis DC. Prodr. V. 603 (1836); Rob. (1), 210.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, occasional near the shore (no. 
715) ; Tagus Cove, abundant in thickets at 4000 ft. (no. 716). 
Further distr. Chili. 

B. pilosa L. Sp. PI. 832 (1753); Rob. (1), 210.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, Andersson; Villamil, above 1500 ft. 
(no. 717). Charles Isl.: occasional, 1000-1400 ft., (nos. 
718-720). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, occasional at 1000 
ft. (no. 721). Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

B. refracta Brandegee, Zoe, I. 310 (1890) ; Rob. (1), 210.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, abundant in open places at 
200 ft. (no. 743) ; Tagus Cove, common on the lower parts 
(no. 742). Charles Isl.: common on the lower parts (no. 
744). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, abundant in open wood- 
land at 1000 ft. (no. 745). Hood Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. 
James Isl. : James Bay, common on the lower parts of the 
island (no. 746). Narborough Isl.: south side, Snodgrass 
and Heller. Further distr. Mex. 

Blainvillea Cass. 

B. dichotoma (Murr.) Cass. ace. to Hemsl. Biolog. Cent.- 

Am. Bot. IV. 112 (1886-1888). Verhesina dichotoma Murr. 

Comm. Goett. II. 15, t. 4 (1779). B. rhomboidea Cass. Diet. 

XXIX. 493 (1823); Rob. (1), 210.— Abingdon Isl.: com- 



150 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

mon on the lower parts (no. 747). Albemarle Isl. : Iguana 
Cove, common in woodland (no. 748) ; Tagus Cove, common 
on the lower parts, rare at 3500 ft., (no. 749). Barrington 
Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : common in open 
bushy country, 450-1000 ft, (nos. 751-752). Chatham Isl. : 
Wreck Bay, abundant at 250 ft. (no. 753). Duncan Isl.: 
Baur. Hood Isl.: (no. 754). Indefatigable Isl.: north 
side, Snodgrass and Heller; .northwest side, Andersson. 
James Isl.: James Bay, abundant near the shore (no. 755). 
Narborough Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. Sey- 
mour Isl., north : Snodgrass and Heller. The fact that this 
plant occurs on such a remote and unfrequented island as 
Abingdon would seem to show that it was not a recent intro- 
duction as suggested by Rob. 1. c. Widely distributed in trop- 
ical regions. 

B. tenuicaulis Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. II. 370 (1873- 
1876) ; Rob, (1), 211. — Albemarle Isl. : Macrae. Charles 
Isl. : Edmonston. Identity doubtful according to Rob. 1. c. 
Endemic. 

Brickellia Ell. 

B. diffusa (Vahl.) A. Gray, PI. Wright. I. 86 (1852). 
Eupatorium diffusum Vahl, Symb. III. 94 (1794). B. diffusa 
Gray, 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 211. — Albemarle Isl.: Iguana Cove, 
common near the shore (nos. 757-758) ; Tagus Cove, common 
to 1800 ft. (no. 756). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Chrysanthellum Rich. 

C. erectum Anderss. (1), 188, (2), 74; Rob. (1), 211.— 
Chatham Isl. : A. Agassiz; Snodgrass and Heller. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : northwest side, Andersson. Narborough 
Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

C. pusillum Hook. f. (3), 214; Rob. (1), 211.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Darwin. Charles Isl. : common, 700-1000 ft., 
occasional, 1700 ft., (nos. 759-760). Chatham Isl.: Wreck 
Bay, occasional in dry sandy soil near the shore (no. 761). 
Endemic. 

Eclipta L. 

E. erecta L. Mant. II. 286 (1771); Rob. (1), 211.— 
Charles Isl. : occasional on moist shady rocks at 1000 ft. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 151 

(no. 764). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in open 
grassy country above 800 ft. (nos. 762-763). Hood Isl.: 
Snodgrass and Heller. Widely distributed. 

Elvira Cass. 

E. inelegans (Hook, f.) Rob. (1), 212. Desmocephalum 
inelegans Hook. f. (3), 209. — Charles Isl.: Darwin. En- 
demic. 

E. repens (Hook, f.) Rob. (1), 212. Microcoecia repens 
Hook. f. (3), 209. — Albemarle Isl.: Tagus Cove, Snod- 
grass and Heller. James Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

Encelia Adans. 

E. hispida Anderss. (1), 186, (2), 73; Rob. (1), 212.— 
Barrington Isl.: common bushes, 2-3 ft. high, (no. 722). 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. Chatham Isl. : north side, An- 
dersson. Endemic. 

Erigeron L. 

E. lancifolius Hook. f. (3), 208; Rob. (1), 212.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Christopher Point, Snodgrass and Heller; Eliz- 
abeth Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, spreading 
bushes 3-4 ft. high, abundant on lava beds and tufa deposits 
above 500 ft, (no. 723). Narborough Isl.: south side, 
Snodgrass and Heller. The involucral bracts of this species 
vary from glabrous to pilose. Endemic. 

Var. glabriusculus var. nov. 

Foliis lanceolatis, sparsa glabriusculus subtus tomentosis, margini- 
bus recurvis, remotis denticulatis. 

Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, bushes 3-4 ft. high on the rim of 
the crater at 3150 ft. (no. 724). Endemic. 

E. linifolius Willd. Sp. III. 1955 (1804) ; Rob. (1), 212.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, occasional in open grassy country 
above 1800 ft. (no. 725). Charles Isl.: common in open 
places at 1250 ft, occasional at 1650 ft., (nos. 726-727). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common in grassy country 
around 1400 ft. (no. 728). Widely distributed in warm coun- 
tries. 

January 13, 1911. 



152 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

E. tenuifolius Hook. f. (3), 207; Rob. (1), 212.— Abing- 
don IsL. : common bushes 3-4 ft. high, 600-1650 ft., (nos. 
729-730). Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, low bushes on 
pumice soil, 600-2000 ft., (no. 731); Elizabeth Bay, Snod- 
grass and Heller; Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villa- 
mil, common bushes on lava beds and in woodland below 550 
ft. (no. 732). Charles Isl.: common bushes, 800-1400 ft., 
one of the commonest bushes in the wooded area around 1000 
ft, (nos. 733-734). Duncan Isl.: common bushes around 
1000 ft. The specimen has short linear leaves and differs 
considerably in appearance from the specimen collected on 
this island by Baur, (no. 735). Indefatigable Isl.: north- 
west side, rare in woodland at 850 ft. (no. 738) ; southeast 
side, bushes 6-8 ft. high in woodland, 450-650 ft., (nos. 736- 
737). James Isl.: James Bay, commop bushes on the edges 
of lava fields around 450 ft. The specimen from this place has 
the bracts of the involucre slightly tomentose, (no. 739). This 
species shows a considerable variation in the length and pubes- 
cence of the leaves, in some instances on specimens from the 
same island, but the floral characters are fairly constant 
throughout. Endemic. 

Variety tomentosus nov. var, 

Foliis anguste acuminatis, marginibus recurvis supra subglaber- 
rimis vel pilosis subtus tomentosis, 2.5-7.5 cm. longis, 1 mm. latis; 
involucris squamis oblongis vel linearibus exterioribus tomentosis. 

James Isl. : James Bay, bushes 4-7 ft. high above 900 ft. 
One of the commonest bushes in the forests of Scalesia pedun- 
culata on the upper parts of the island, (nos. 740-741). En- 
demic. 

Eupatorium L. 

E. filicaule Sch. Bip. in Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. XXI. 384 
(1886); Rob. (1), 213. — Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, 
common bushes at 2000 ft. (no. 630) ; Iguana Cove, Snod- 
grass and Heller. Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, 
abundant in a dense growth of vines and bushes, 450-650 ft., 
(nos. 626-629). Further distr. Mex., W. S. Am. 

E. ? sp. Hook. f. (4), 261 ; Rob. (1), 213.— Charles Isl. : 
Edmonston. Endemic. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 153 

E. sp.— Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, bushes to 400 ft. 
The specimen is too immature for accurate determination, but 
it differs from E. niicaide in the looser inflorescence, the longer 
and stiffer panicles, and in the more filiform involucral bracts, 
(no. 631). 

Flaveria Juss. 

F. bidentis (L.) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. III. pt. 2, 148 (1893). 
Ethulia bidentis L. Mant. I. 110 (1767). Milleria Contra- 
yerba Cav. Ic. PI. I. t. 4 (1791). F. Contrayerba Pers. Syn. 
11. 489 (1807); Rob. (1), 213.— Charles Isl.: Andersson. 
Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., S. Am. 

Gnaphalium L. 

G. luteo-album L. Sp. PI. 851 (1753).— Albemarle Isl.: 
Villamil, forming large patches on the floor of the crater at 
2750 ft. and on the southeast rim of the crater at 3150 ft. The 
specimens from the floor of the crater have the leaves smaller 
and more closely arranged and the tomentum more copious than 
do "the specimens from the rim, a fact which may be due to the 
more xerophytic conditions inside of the crater, (nos. 632- 
633). Widely distributed in warm countries. 

Hemizonia DC. 
H. squalida Hook. f. (3), 208; Rob. (1), 213.— Galapagos 
Ids. : Du Petit-Thouars. Endemic. 

Jaegeria HBK. 

J. gracilis Hook. f. (3), 213; Rob. (1), 213.— Charles 
Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. Rob. 1. c. suggests that this can 
hardly be a Jaegeria. 

J. hirta (Lag.) Lees. Syn. Gen. Comp. 223 (1832). Acmella 
hirta Lag. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 31 (1815).— Albemarle Isl.: 
Tagus Cove, abundant at 4000 ft. (no. 635) ; Villamil, com- 
mon in grassy country above 1500 ft. (no. 634). Chatham 
Isl.: Wreck Bay, abundant in moist places, 1700-2050 ft., 
(nos. 636-637). Further distr. Mex., S. Am. 

J.prorepens Hook. f. (3), 214; Rob. (1), 213.— James 
Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 



154 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Lecocarpus Decaisne 

L. pinnatifidus Decaisne, Bot. Voy. Venus, Atlas t. 14 
(1846). L. foliosus Decaisne, op. c, text, 20 (1864); Rob. 
(1), 213. — Charles Isl. : low bushes, abundant in open 
places among lava boulders near the shore and up to 700 ft. 
(nos. 638-639). Chatham Isl. : Darwin. Endemic. 

Lipochaeta DC. 

L. laricifolia (Hook, f.) Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. V. 131 
(1862). Macraea laricifolia Hook. f. (3), 210. L. laricifolia 
Gray, 1. c. ; Rob. ( 1 ) , 214. — Abingdon Isl. : occasional bushes, 
700-1000 ft., (no. 640). Albemarle Isl.: Cowley Bay, 
occasional stunted bushes in the vicinity of the shore, bushes 
3-4 ft. high, 300-2000 ft. ; Tagus Cove, common bushes on 
tufaceous soil near the shore and on the sides of the mountain. 
Above 2500 ft. it is by far the most predominant species, (no. 
642); Villamil, occasional bushes, 75-600 ft, (no. 641). 
Charles Isl. : occasional clumps of bushes near the shore, 
abundant in scattering bunches, 450-1000 ft., and forming 
dense thickets of bushes 6-8 ft. high, 1000-1450 ft., except on 
the windward sides of the craters, where it does not occur 
above 1200 ft., (no. 643). Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, 
bushes at 800 ft. ; Wreck Bay, common bushes at 450 ft. (no. 
644). Indefatigable Isl.: southeast side, common bushes 
at 600 ft. James Isl. : James Bay, bushes 6-8 ft. high on the 
edges of recent lava flows at 850 ft. (no. 645) ; northeast side, 
abundant above 225 ft. Narborough Isl. : south side, Snod- 
grass and Heller. Endemic. 

Pectis L. 

P. Anderssonii Rob. (1), 214. P. linearis Rob. & Greenm. 
(1), 147, not La Llave. Lorentia linearis Anderss. (1), 174, 
(2), 66. — Indefatigable Isl.: northwest side, abundant in 
dry open areas below 300 ft. (no. 646). Endemic. 

P. Hookeri Rob. (1), 214. Lorentia gracilis Hook. f. (3), 
206. — Albemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, fairly abundant on the 
tops of tufa cliffs (no. 648). Barrington Isl. : Baur; Snod- 
grass and Heller. Charles Isl. : in crevices of the lava near 
the shore (no. 647). Hood Isl.: Snodgrass and Heller. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 155 

James Isl. : James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Jervis Isl. : 
Baur. Narborough Isl. : north side, occasional on lava beds 
(no. 649). Seymour Isl., south: Snodgrass and Heller. 
Endemic. 

P. linifolia L. Syst Nat. ed. 10, 1221 (1760); Rob. (1), 
215. — Chatham Isl.: north side, Andersson. Indefatiga- 
ble Isl. : northwest side, Andersson. Seymour Isl., south : 
Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., N. S. 
Am. 

P. subsquarrosa (Hook, f.) Sch. Bip. in Seem. Bot. Herald, 
309 (1852-1857). Lorentia subsquarrosa Hook. f. (3), 206. 
P. squarrosa Sch. 1. c; Rob. (1), 215. — Galapagos Ids.: 
Habel. Chatham Isl. : north side, Darwin. Endemic. 

P. tenuifolia (DC.) Sch. Bip. in Seem. Bot. Herald, 309 
(1852-1857). Lorentia tenuifolia DC. Prodr. V. 103 (1836). 
P. tenuifolia Sch. 1. c. ; Rob. (1), 215.— Albemarle Isl.: 
Black Bight, Snodgrass and Heller; Cowley Bay, common in 
pumice soil on the lower parts (no. 651); Elizabeth Bay, 
Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, common on the tufa hills 
around the cove (no. 650) ; Villamil, common in lava crevices 
near the coast (no. 652). Charles Isl.: Andersson; Snod- 
grass and Heller. Chatham Isl. : Basso Point, occasional 
in lava crevices (no. 653) ; Wreck Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. 
Indefatigable Isl.: north side, in lava crevices near the 
beach (no. 654). Narborough Isl. : (no. 655). Seymour 
Isl., north : Snodgrass and Heller. Further distr. shores of 
Peru ? according to Robinson. 1. c. 

Porophyllum Vaill. 

P. ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. Diet. XLIIl. 56 (1826). Kleinia 
ruder alis Jacq. Enum. 28 (1762). P. ellipticum Cass. 1. c; 
Rob. (1), 215. — Abingdon Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. Al- 
bemarle Isl. : Tagus Cove, abundant in tufaceous soil on the 
lower parts (no. 656). Charles Isl. : rare among rocks near 
the shore (no. 658). Chatham Isl.: Basso Point, occa- 
sional on recent lava (no. 659). Duncan Isl.: Snodgrass 
and Heller. Hood Isl. : Baur; Snodgrass and Heller. Inde- 
fatigable Isl. : northwest side, common on the lower parts 



156 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

(no. 660) ; north side, Snod grass and Heller. James Isl. : 
James Bay, Snodgrass and Heller; Orchilla Bay, Baur. Jervis 
Isl. : Baur. Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Scalesia Arn. 

S. affinis Hook. f. (3), 212; Rob. (1), 216.— Charles Isl. : 
bushes 5-6 ft. high at 550 ft. (no. 661). Indefatigable Isl. : 
southeast side, bushes 7-10 ft. high around 600 ft. (no. 662). 
Endemic. 

S. affinis Anderss. (1), 180, (2), 70, t. 7, f. 3; Rob. (1), 
216. — Indefatigable Isl. : north side, low bushes 2-3 ft. high 
in lava crevices near the coast (no. 665) ; northwest side, low 
bushes near the shore (no. 664) ; southeast side, occasional 
bushes in the vicinity of the shore (no. 663). Endemic. 

S. atractyloides Arn. in Lindl. Introd. Nat. Ord. ed. 2, 264, 
443 (1836) ; Rob. (1), 216. — James Isl. : James Bay, bushes 
5-7 ft. high on the borders of recent lava flows, where it often 
grows to the exclusion of all other large vegetation, (no. 666) ; 
northeast side, bushes 4-8 ft. high on lava beds near the coast 
and above 700 ft. The leaves of the specimens from this local- 
ity are more scabrous and less pubescent on the lower surface 
than are the specimens taken in the vicinity of James Bay. 
The specimens agree with the rather brief description of this 
species, except that the heads are considerably smaller, (no. 
667). Endemic. 

S. Baurii Rob. & Greenm. (1), 141, 146; Rob. (1), 216.— 
Duncan Isl. : abundant bushes on the upper parts of the 
island (no. 668). Endemic. 

Var. (?) glabrata Rob. (1), 216. — Duncan Isl.: Snod- 
grass and Heller. Endemic. 

S. cordata nov. sp. 

Arborescens circa 9 m. alta; ramulis teretibus griseis puberuHs; 
foliis ovatis subintegerrimis attenuato-acutissimis penninervis basi 
cordatis supra hispidis subtus puberulis, lamina 8.8 cm. longa, 4.8 cm. 
lata; petiolis gracilibus puberulis 4.7 cm. longis; capitulis pluribus 
gummiferis corymbosis; squamis involucri campanulati angustis lan- 
ceolatis acutis hispidis; paleis conduplicatis glaberrimis argute 3-den- 
tatis; acheniis compressis oblongis glaberrimis 3 cm. longis, 1. mm. 
latis, nigris cum maculatis griseis variegatis 2-dentatis, dentibus sub- 
equalibus. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 157 

Closely related to S. microcephala Rob., differing in the size 
and shape of the leaves, the broader involucral bracts, and in 
the variegated and glabrous achenes. The specimen is too 
mature to show good floral characters. S. n. sp. ? Rob. (1), 
220. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; 
Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, occasional trees 
at 175 ft., abundant at 250-600 ft., smaller and less abundant 
at 1300 ft. So far as is known this is the only arborescent 
species of Scalesia found on this island, (no. 669). Plate IV, 
figs. 4-6. Endemic. 

S. Darwinii Hook. f. (3), 211 ; Rob. (1), 216.— James Isl. : 
James Bay, small trees 8-10 ft. high around 1000 ft. Con- 
cerning this species Hook, f., 1. c, remarks as follows : "Char- 
acteristic of the vegetation of James Isl., forming woods of 
straight trees in the alpine or damp region. — Darwin, Ms." 
Darwin evidently meant this statement to apply to 5. peduncu- 
lata, as it is the only species of Scalesia that forms trees on this 
island, (no. 670). Endemic. 

S. decurrens Anderss. (1), 182, (2), 71; Rob. (1), 216.— 
Albemarle Isl. : Baur. Charles Isl. : low bushes abundant 
in barren rocky places in the vicinity of the shore. The low 
Scalesia bushes figured in Agassiz (1), PI. XX, belong to this 
species. Endemic. 

S. divisa Anderss. (1), 179, (2), 70, t. 7, f. 1 ; Rob. (1), 
217. — Chatham Isl. : Sappho Cove, bushes 2-4 ft. high on 
lava beds near the coast (no. 672). Endemic. 

S. gummifera Hook. f. (3), 212; Rob. (1), 217.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Cowley Bay, bushes from the vicinity of the 
shore and to 1200 ft. (no. 673) ; Elizabeth Bay, Snodgrass 
and Heller; Tagus Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Villamil, 
bushes 3-6 ft. high in shady places, and on lava beds below 100 
ft., (no. 674). Indefatigable Isl.: Academy Bay, bushes 
in woodland below 100 ft., species somewhat in doubt. En- 
demic. 

S. Helleri Rob. (1), 217. — Barrington Isl.: occasional 
bushes 6-8 ft. high all over the island (no. 675). Endemic. 

S. Hopkinsii Rob. (1), 217. — Abingdon Isl.: common 
bushes 6-8 ft. high from the vicinity of the shore to 1500 ft. 



158 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

They are much less abundant on the southwest side and do not 
extend below 500 ft. Specimens from near the shore have 
smaller and more closely arranged leaves than do the speci- 
mens from above 1000 ft., (nos. 676-677). Endemic. 

S. incisa Hook. f. (3), 210; Rob. (1), 217. — Chatham 
IsL. : Darwin. Endemic. 

S. microcephala Rob. (1), 218. — Albemarle Isl. : Cowley 
Bay, bushes and low trees, 1200-1650 ft., (no. 679) ; Tagus 
Cove, common bushes above 1200 ft. (no. 678). Narbor- 
OUGH Isl. : south side, Snodgrass and Heller. Endemic. 

S. narbonensis Rob. (1), 218, PL 3, figs. 4-7.— Narbor- 
ouGH Isl. : north side, bushes 2-3 ft. high, abundant on lava 
beds near the coast, (no. 680) ; south side, Snodgrass and 
Heller. Endemic. 

S. ovata^ Anderss. (1), 181, (2), 70; Rob. (1), 219.— 
Charles Isl. : Andersson; Lee. Endemic. 

S. pedunculata Hook. f. (3), 211 ; Rob. (1), 219.— Charles 
Isl. : trees with umbrella-shaped crowns, on exposures of 
basaltic lava, 1000-1200 ft. The most common forest tree in 
the upper regions, (no. 681). Chatham Isl.: Wreck Bay, 
low spreading trees, abundant above 600 ft., (no. 684). In- 
defatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, forms dense forests of trees 
40-60 ft. high, 400 to probably 1500 ft. This species attains 
its largest size at this pla,ce, (nos. 685-686) ; northwest side, 
trees 20-30 ft. high above 700 ft. (no. 678) ; southeast side, 
trees 15-20 ft. high above 450 ft. It apparently extends up 
higher at this place than at Academy Bay, (nos. 689-690). 
James Isl. : James Bay, trees 25-40 ft. high above 950 ft. (no. 
688). This species forms the Scalesia forests, on all the islands 
where such forests occur, except on Albemarle. Endemic. 

S. retroflexa Hemsl. in Hook. f. Ic. PI. XXVIII. t. 2715 
(1901); Rob. (1), 219.— Indefatigable Isl. : Hah el. En- 
demic. 

S. Snodgrassii Rob. (1), 219, PI. 3, fig. 8.— Wenman Isl. : 
bushes 2-3 ft. high on sides of cliffs (no. 691). Endemic. 

S. villosa nov. sp. 

Fruticosa circa 2 m. alta; ramulis teretibus bruneis griseo-punctatis 
ad apices sericeo-villosis; foliis ad apices ramulorum confertis lanceo- 
latis integerrimis longe attenuatis basi cuneatis utrinque sericeo-villosis 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 159 

sessilibus 9.3 cm. longis, 1.4 cm. latis; capitulis subglobosis multifloris 
2.7 cm. latis longe-pedunculatis; pedunculis bruneo-puberulis 6.7 cm. 
longis; squamis involucri lanceolatis 8 mm. longis sericeo-villosis; 
paleis conduplicatis carinatis apice puberulis 3-dentatis; acheniis ob- 
longis compressis glaberrimis bruneo-griseis 4 mm. longis, 2 mm. latis; 
corollis ignotis. 

S. Darzvinii Rob. (1), 216, not Hook, f., Type no. 107 Gray 
Herbarium. — Charles Isl. : common bushes in the vicinity of 
the shore at Cormorant Bay, and in the interior of the island 
at 550 ft, (no. 692). Plate IV, figs. 1-3. Endemic. 

Var. championensis nov. var. 

Foliis revolutis utrinque sparse villosis 8.3 cm. longis, 1.8 cm. latis. 

Champion Isl.: /. R. Slevin collector (no. 1025). En- 
demic. 

S. sp. — Culpepper Isl. : bushes, evidently of a species of 
Scalesia, were noticed on the upper and inaccessible parts of 
the island. The bushes were of about the same size as those of 
S. Snodgrassii on Wenman Isl. Endemic. 

Sonchus L. 

S. oleraceus L. Sp. PI. 794 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 220.— Albe- 
marle Isl. : Iguana Cove, abundant among rocks near the 
shore (no. 694) ; Tagus Cove, common at 4000 ft. (no. 695) ; 
Villamil, common at 700 ft., occasional at 1300 ft., (no. 693). 
Charles Isl. : occasional among rocks at 1550 ft. (no. 696). 
Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common, 800-1200 ft., (nos. 
697-698). Widely distributed. 

Spilanthes L. 

S. Acmella Murr. Syst. ed. 13, 610 (1774) ; Rob. (1), 220. 
— Charles Isl. : Edmonston. Narborough Isl. : south side, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Widely distributed in tropics. 

S. diffusa Hook. f. (3), 214; Rob. (1), 220.— Charles 
Isl. : in moist places at 1700 ft. (no. 699). James Isl. : Dar- 
win. Endemic. 

Tagetes L. 

T. erectaL. Sp. PI. 887 (1753) ; Rob. (1), 220.— Chatham 
Isl. : Chierchia. Widely distributed. 



160 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



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STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



175 



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STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



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181 



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CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



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Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



183 



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184 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



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Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



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200 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



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Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



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CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



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203 



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CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



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Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



205 



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206 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Botanical Regions 

Those who have written on the phytogeography of the Gala- 
pagos Islands in the past, have often mentioned the great 
difference in the character of the vegetation on the higher and 
lower parts of many of the islands, a difference that is very 
marked and can often be readily seen at a mere glance from 
the shore or a few miles out at sea by the contrast in the color 
of the vegetation in the several regions. In fact it is often 
easier to make out the limits of the regions from a distance 
than close at hand, for they frequently grade imperceptibly 
into each other, and the variations in color can not be so readily 
distinguished when one is going through the islands. On 
certain islands some of the regions are often ill defined or 
entirely lacking, a fact that is probably due mostly to climatic 
but sometimes to edaphic factors. 

Above the strand vegetation, which forms a narrow belt 
along the shores in many places, four botanical regions can 
be recognized, the Dry, Transition, Moist, and Grassy. 

Dry Region 

The lower slopes of the higher islands and the whole slopes 
of the lower ones are covered with a vegetation which is very 
xerophytic in character. The most striking plants in this 
region are the arborescent cacti, which often occur in large 
numbers and sometimes attain a height of forty or more feet. 
Except the cacti, the trees in this region are for the most part 
rather low, deciduous in character, and very much scattered. 
Between the trees, where they occur, the ground is usually 
covered with low bushes, which either shed or greatly reduce 
their leaves during the greater part of the year, and those 
which retain their leaves usually have them covered with a 
heavy coating of plant hairs. The landscape accordingly pre- 
sents a dreary gray aspect, which is greatly accentuated by 
the color of the trunks of both the Croton bushes and Bursei-a 
trees. 

During the spring months this region takes on a green 
appearance, but is lighter in color than the moist region above. 
During this season most of the annual plants spring up rapidly, 
and mature before the dry season sets in again. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 207 

While it is difficult to give a list of plants which are strictly 
characteristic of this region, the following includes those spe- 
cies which are most common. Those which are followed by 
an asterisk in this and the following lists are, so far as is 
known, characteristic of the region to which they are referred. 

Acacia macracantha* Desmanthus depressus 

Aristida divulsa* Discaria paucMora* 

subspicata* Erythrina velutina* 

Borreria ericaefolia* Euphorbia amplexicaulis* 
Bursera graveolens articulata* 

Castela galapageia viminea 

Cenchrus platyacanthus* Gossypium barbadense 

Cereus galapagensis* Lantana peduncularis 

nesioticus* Maytenus obovata 

sclerocarpus* Mentzelia aspera 

Clerodendron molle Opuntia galapageia* 
Coldenia Darzvini* myriacantha* 

fusca* Parkinsonia aculeata* 

Cordia galapagensis Piscidia erythrina 

Hookeriana Prosopis dulcis 

lutea Scalesia atractyloides* 

Croton Scouleri* Telanthera echinocephala 

var. brevifolius nudicaulis 

var. Macraei* Waltheria reticulata 



Transition Region 

As the name would indicate, the vegetation in this region 
is transitional in character, being made up of a mixture of 
xerophytic plants from the dry region below and the more 
hardy of the mesophytic plants from the moist region above. 
There is usually a great thickening of the vegetation in this 
region, and a considerable number of the evergreen species 
appear, so that the landscape has a mottled appearance when 
seen from a distance. In fact the deciduous character of the 
vegetation in the dry regions, the evergreen character in the 
moist regions, and the mixture of the two in the transition 
regions, are the principal causes of the well marked appearance 
of zonation on many of the islands. 

The trees in this region are taller, as a rule, and closer • 
together than they are in the dry region, while underneath 
the trees the bushes and undergrowth are larger and thicker 
on the ground. A few species of epiphytic plants are found, 



208 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

among which fruticose lichens are most abundant, often occur- 
ing in such large quantities as to give a distinct color to the 
vegetation. A few of the more xerophytic species of ferns, 
as well as a number of herbaceous perennial plants, occur. 
The annual herbaceous forms are rather in the minority as 
compared with the perennials. The following list includes the 
plants which are most common in this region. 

Adiantum concinnum Lantana peduncularis 

Bursera graveolens Lipochaeta laricifolia 

Castela galapageia Maytenus obovata 

Ceropteris tar tar ea Pisonia tloribunda 

Chiococca alba Polypodium lepidopteris 
Cissampelos Pareira pectinatum 

Clerodendron molle squamatum 

Cordia galapagensis Psidium galapageium 

Hookeriana Psychotria ruHpes 

lutea Scalesia pedunculata 

Croton Scouleri var. brevifolius Telanthera echinocephala 

Doryopteris pedata Tillandsia insularis 

Erigeron tenutf alius Tourneforfia rufo-sericea 

Euphorbia viminea Trachypteris pinnata 

Gossypium barbadense Waltheria reticulata 

lonopsis utricularioides Zanthoxylum Fagara 



Moist Region 

The vegetation of the moist region is of a decidedly meso- 
phytic character, all the xerophytic species which persist in the 
transition region having disappeared, except in a few rare 
instances. In these cases there may be an occasional straggler 
from below, or conditions of soil or exposure are such that 
mesophytic plants will not grow. In general this region is 
characterized by the presence of large forests, made up for the 
most part of trees of Psidium galapageium, Pisonia Horihunda, 
and Scalesia pedunculata, which it seems well to call the 
''Scalesia forests." The undergrowth is often dense in these 
forests, and is made up mostly of larger species than are found 
in the two lower regions. Epiphytic ferns and orchids, as well 
as several species of leafy hepatics, grow abundantly. Lianes 
also abound, although belonging largely to a single species. 
The mesophytic species of ferns are very common, and often 
form brakes of considerable size. In general, the vegetation 



Vol. I] 



STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



209 



of this region presents an appearance very similar to that 
which is usually found in the moist tropics, the rain-forest 
type being closely approached in places. While forests pre- 
dominate, there are a few localities in which they are absent 
or only represented by an occasional tree. In such places the 
vegetation is made up mostly of bushes and ferns, over which 
there are tangled masses of lianes, mostly of the herbaceous 
type. The following list includes the species of plants which 
are most noticeable in the moist region. 



Acrostichunt aureum 
Adiantum concinnum 

Henslovianum 

macro phyllwm 
Argyreia tiliae folia 
Asplenium cristatum 

formosum 

praemorsum 

Serra 

sulcatum 
Blechnum occidentale 
' Ceropteris tar tar ea 
Cheilanthes microphylla 
Chiococca alba 
Cissampelos Pareira 
Croton Scouleri var. grandifolius 
Doryopteris pedata 
Dryopteris parasitica^ 
Epidendrum spicatum 
Erigeron linifolius 
Hemitelia multiUora 



lonopsis utricularioides 
Nephrolepis biserrata 

pectinata* 
Pisonia Uoribunda 
Polyp odium, aureum 

lanceolatum 

lepidopteris 

pectinatum 

Phyllitides* 

squamatum 
Psidium galapageium 
Psychotria ruApes 
Pteris aquilina var. esculenta* 

incisa* 
Scalesia pedunculata 

cordata 
Tillandsia insularis 
Tournefortia rufo-sericea 
Trachypteris pinnata 
Urera alceaefolia* 
Zanthoxylum Fagara 



Grassy Region 

This region lies above the moist region, and is characterized 
by considerable areas covered with perennial grasses, the most 
common of which is Paspalum conjugatum. Trees are almost 
entirely absent except in protected places, the probable cause 
of their absence being the greater velocity of the wind at the 
higher elevations, combined with a somewhat less amount of 
precipitation. A number of bushy and shrubby plants are 
found in this region, the most common of which are Tourne- 
fortia rufo-sericea and Zanthoxylum Fagara. There are also 
a considerable number of species of ferns, but it is seldom that 



210 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



brakes of any size are formed by them. There are but two 
islands in the group on which this region is well developed, 
Albemarle and Chatham, On both of these the belt in question 
is used for grazing purposes by the inhabitants. The upper 
part of the highest crater on Charles Island is also covered by 
this region, but the area here is so small as to be negligible. 
The following table shows the elevations in feet at which the 
different regions end at the various places on the islands visited 
by our party. The islands not mentioned are either too low to 
possess more than the dry region, or their regions are so ill 
defined as to render the exact limits impossible of determina- 
tion. Elevations which are followed by an asterisk are esti- 
mated, the estimates often having been made from a few miles 
out to sea by comparing the elevation of the place in question 
with that of some other place the elevation of which was 
known. 

Zonal Elevations 



Locality 


Dry 

Region 


Transition 
Region 


Moist 
Region 


Grassy 
Region 


Abingdon Island, north side 




1500* 






south side 


450 


1000 


1950 




Albemarle Island, Banks Bay 




1500* 






Cowley Bay ... . 


1000 


3000* 






Iguana Cove. . . 












Villamil 


150 


350 


1500 


3150 


Charles Island, Black Beach Road 


450 


1000 




1780 


Chatham Island, Wreck Bay 


650 


800 




2100 


Duncan Island 


900 


1300 






Indefatigable Island, Academy Bay. 


350 


500 


1500* 




north side .... 


1500* 


2000* 






northwest side 


450 


700 






southeast side. 


400 


800* 






James Island, north side 


1500* 


2000* 






south side 


900 
1300 


1600 
2000* 


2850 
2850 




James Bay 





From this table it appears that there is often a great differ- 
ence in the elevations at which a region begins and ends on the 
same sides of different islands as well as on different sides of 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 211 

the same islands. In the first instance it seems likely that the 
size of the island and the degree of slope are involved. On 
large islands, like Albemarle and Indefatigable, the southern 
sides slope very gradually, and the transition and moist regions 
extend down much lower than on Abingdon and James, which 
are smaller and have steeper sides. A notable exception 
occurs, however, at Iguana Cove on the southwest side of Albe- 
marle Island, where the conditions are very peculiar indeed. 
This is the only place on the islands, outside of a few isolated 
spots near brackish springs, where there is sujfficient moisture 
at sea level to support a mesophytic vegetation. But the extent 
of the moist region at this place is very limited, for at Christo- 
pher Point, only five miles north, and at Essex Point, four 
miles south, the vegetation at sea level is again very xero- 
phytic. The great difference in elevation of the different 
regions on the leeward and windward sides of the islands, is 
due to the fact that the fog in passing over the tops of the 
mountains rolls down but a short distance on the leeward sides, 
and leaves the islands at a much higher level than it struck 
them on the windward sides. The lower limits of the moist 
regions are usually as well marked, by the difference in the 
color of the vegetation, on the leeward as on the windward 
slopes of the islands. 

General Features of the Flora 

pteridophyta 

Filices are the family that contains the largest number of 
species, but at the same time the smallest number of endemic 
forms in proportion to the number of species represented, of 
any family of vascular plants found on the islands. Ferns 
occur mostly in the transition and moist regions, where they 
sometimes grow in great profusion. They are not confined to 
these regions, however, as there are instances of their occur- 
rence under decidedly xerophytic conditions in the dry region. 
The species which occur thus are Ceropteris tartarea, Cheilan- 
thes micro phylla, Notholaena sulphur ea, Poly podium squam- 
atum, and Trachypteris pinnata. Hydrophytic ferns are few 
in number, and are confined to a few rather restricted areas, 
in the moist regions on several islands, where the amount of 



212 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES LProc. 4th Ser. 

moisture present is greater than is ordinarily the case. Those 
species which are decidedly hydrophytic, or show tendencies 
in this direction, are some of the species of Adiantum, Asplen- 
ium cristatum, and the species of Hymenophyllum and Tricho- 
manes. Epiphytic species include Asplenium praemorsum and 
sulcatum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Polypodium angustifolium, 
aureum, lanceolatum, lepidopteris, polypodioides, and thyssan- 
olepis. Over one half of the species of Polypodium found on 
the islands are epiphytic in habit, all but one, in fact, being 
habitually so. Fern brakes of considerable size are formed 
by Nephrolepis hiserrata, and Pteris aquilina var. esculenta, 
while Polypodium squamatum often forms low brakes one to 
two feet high in moist shady places in the transition region. 
Hemitelia midtiHora is the only tree fern, and is confined to 
the upper parts of three of the higher islands. Ferns have 
now been found on all of the important islands of the group 
except Barrington, Culpepper, Seymour, and Tower, the con- 
ditions on these islands being too dry to support even the more 
xerophytic species. The water ferns are of relatively little 
importance in the archipelago, being represented by a species 
each of Asolla and Salvinia. 

The Lycopodiaceae are represented by five species of Lyco- 
podium, all of which occur in the moist and grassy regions of 
the islands. Two of the species are epiphytic and the remain- 
ing three terrestrial. The Equisetaceae are represented by a 
single species, Equisetum hogotense, which occurs in a very 
small area on the top of one of the mountains on Albemarle 
Island. 

SPERMATOPHYTA 

Monocotyledoneae 

The Cramineae are the fourth largest family, in number of 
species, found on the islands. By far the largest number of 
the species are confined to the dry and transition regions, the 
moist region being too shady, in most places, to support an 
abundant growth of grass. The only grass of any importance 
which occurs above the transition region is Paspalum conju- 
gatum, which often covers extensive areas in the grassy region 
and forms an important forage grass for the cattle and other 
domesticated animals on the islands. Grasses which occur 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 213 

under halophytic conditions are a species of Ammophila, prob- 
ably A. arenaria, and Sporobolus virginicus, the last of which 
covers some of the sand beaches with heavy tangled mats. 
Great numbers of land birds were often found feeding in the 
grassy areas in the dry and transition regions, a fact which 
suggests the possible origin of this rather important element of 
the flora. 

The second largest family of the Monocotyledons is the 
Cyperaceae, which are the seventh largest family, in number of 
species, found on the islands. The best represented genus is 
Cyperus, of which there are more than sixteen species and 
varieties, one or more of which occur on all of the islands 
except Brattle. They form a noticeable but not important 
element of the flora in the dry and transition regions, but with 
the exception of C. grandifolius are not conspicuous in either 
the moist or grassy regions. In the Voyage of the Beagle, 
Darwin speaks of beds of Cyperus on the upper parts of James 
Island, in which he found a species of water rail. We were 
able to secure several specimens of this rather rare bird, but 
without exception they were found in beds of Paspalum con- 
jugatum, which grows abundantly in open places throughout 
the moist region on this island. Of the remaining genera of 
sedges Dichronema is represented by one species, Eleocharis 
by three, Fimbristylis by two, and Hemicarpha, Kyllinga, and 
Scleria by one each, none of which are widely distributed over 
the islands or form an important element of the flora in the 
regions where they occur. 

Outside of the grasses and sedges the remaining monocotyle- 
donous families are of little importance. The Orchidaceae 
are represented by four genera of one species each, all of which 
are found above the dry region. The Bromeliaceae are repre- 
sented by Tillandsia, of which there is a single endemic species 
that in places forms a noticeable element of the flora. Other 
monocotyledonous plants are for the most part small and 
rather rare of occurrence. 

Dicotyledoneae 

The Piperaceae and Urticaceae are both small families, the 
first being represented by eight species of Peperomia, all but 
one of which are endemic. These include both epiphytic and 



214 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

terrestrial forms and are all confined to the transition and moist 
regions of the islands. The Urticaceae are represented by six 
species, one of which is endemic. They are all herbaceous 
forms except Urera alceaefolia, which forms large sized bushes 
and is rather an important element of the flora in the moist 
regions of both Albemarle and Indefatigable Islands. 

The Amarantaceae are the sixth largest family of vascular 
plants found on the islands, being represented by thirty-three 
species, varieties, and forms. The two most important genera 
are Amaranthus and Telanthera. The species of the first of 
these are herbaceous in character and furnish some of the 
most noticeable of the spring weeds in the dry and transition 
regions. The species of Telanthera are woody in character 
and the genus is represented in all the regions by species which 
are shrubby or bushy in form. Of the thirteen species and 
varieties of this genus all are endemic but two. 

The Nyctaginaceae are represented by four genera, three of 
which form rather important elements of the flora. Crypto- 
carpus pyriformis is usually found in the neighborhood of the 
coast, where it often forms rather conspicuous thickets of light 
green bushes which stand out in strong contrast with the gray 
colored vegetation farther inland. Boerhaavia is represented by 
four species in the dry and transition regions, and Pisonia by 
one that forms one of the important forest trees in the transi- 
tion and moist regions. 

The family of Aizoaceae is noteworthy in that it contains 
two of the important elements of the halophytic flora, namely 
Sesuvium Edmonstonei and 5. P ortulacastrum. The first of 
these species is endemic, while the second has a wide distribu- 
tion on tropical shores. 

The Menispermaceae contain but two species : Cissampelos 
galapagensis and C. Pareira. The latter is one of the most 
noticeable plants in certain parts of the transition and moist 
regions, where it often covers the branches of the trees in 
great profusion, while the large number of absorbing roots 
which are put down from above may form tangled masses and 
render traveling very difficult. It is the only plant on the 
islands that approaches the woody liane type. 

The Legnminosae are the fifth largest family in number of 
species on the islands, being represented by forty-five species, 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 215 

six of which are endemic. This family contains some of the 
largest forest trees, as well as many herbaceous and shrubby 
forms. All of these are most abundant in the dry and transi- 
tion regions, and many of the species are armed with spines. 
Several of the smaller Lianes being to this family. In the 
moist and grassy regions the woody species are almost entirely 
absent, but there remain a considerable number of herbaceous 
forms, among which Desmodium is most conspicuous. 

The Rutaceae are represented by a single species, Zanthoxy- 
liim Fagara, which occurs in all of the regions on many of the 
islands. This species varies greatly in size, often occurring as 
small bushes in the dry region, while in the moist zone it 
assumes the height of a tree, the increase in size being gradual 
with the increase in elevation. In many places in the dry and 
transition regions this plant forms dense low thickets of bushes 
which, owing to the strongly recurved spines that cover the 
branches, are very hard to penetrate. It is one of the favorite 
host plants for Phoradendron Henslovii on the parts of the 
islands where this parasite occurs. 

The Simaruhaceae have but one representative, Castela gala- 
pageia, which occurs as bushes in both the dry and transition 
regions. This species varies greatly in the size of the leaves 
and in the arming of the stem, so that several forms have been 
based on these characters. 

Bursera graveolens and B. malacophylla are the only repre- 
sentatives of the Burseraceae found on the islands. The first 
of these is one of the most abundant forest trees in the dry 
region, and is found on all of the more important islands of 
the group but Duncan. It never occurs above the transition 
region except as an occasional straggler. The second species 
is endemic, and so far as known occurs only on the Seymour 
Islands. 

In number of species, varieties, and forms, the Euphorbia- 
ceae are the third largest family of vascular plants found on 
the islands, and are of prime importance in that they furnish 
many of the characteristic species of all of the regions. The 
various forms of Croton Scouleri constitute conspicuous ele- 
ments in all of the regions where this species occurs, and in the 
dry region dense thickets of Croton bushes often cover consid- 
erable areas almost to the exclusion of all other perennial vege- 

January 14. I9U. 



216 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

tation. The forms of this species which occur in the dry region 
are usually rather low and covered with small leaves of a 
decidedly gray color, due to the heavy covering of trichomes. 
Those forms which occur higher up in the transition and 
moist region are larger, sometimes attaining the size of small 
trees. On these the leaves are larger and with a much lighter 
covering of plant hairs. Species of Euphorbia occur to some 
extent in all of the regions, but are most abundant in the dry 
and lower transition, the species which occur here being for 
the most part bushy in character with small and inconspicuous 
leaves. The species which occur above the transition region 
are mostly procumbent herbaceous forms. Of the remaining 
genera Acalypha and Hippomane are the most important. 
Acalypha is represented by fourteen species and varieties, all 
of which are endemic. They are found for the most part in 
the transition and moist regions. Hippomane Mancinella 
occurs in various habitats, halophytic, xerophytic, and meso- 
phytic, with apparently no decided change in form in any of 
them. 

The Celastraceae have but a single representative, Maytenus 
ohovata, bushes of which form a very important element of the 
flora of the dry regions, especially in the neighborhood of the 
coast. It occurs more or less abundantly throughout the dry 
and transition regions, in the first of which it is about the only 
green bush of any size during a great part of the year. 

The Sapindaceae are one of the smaller families in number 
of species, but are important from the fact that Cardiospermum 
furnishes a rather important herbaceous liane and Sapindus 
Saponari the largest forest tree found on the islands. The 
Rhamnaceae are represented by Discaria pauciHora, bushes of 
which occur abundantly in the lower parts of the dry regions. 

Outside of a few herbaceous forms, Gossypium barbadense is 
the most important member of the Malvaceae. Bushes of this 
species occur in greater or less abundance in the dry and transi- 
tion regions. 

The Cactaceae are represented by several species of Cereus 
and Opuntia, most of which form rather striking elements of 
the flora. Both genera have both bushy and arborescent 
species, and are found for the most part in the dry and transi- 
tion regions. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 217 

The Rhizophoraceae and Comhretaceae include some of the 
most important elements of the littoral vegetation. Rhizophora 
Mangle of the first of these families forms dense low forests 
below high tide mark, while Conocarpus erectus and Laguncu- 
laria racemosa of the second occur farther back as bushes and 
small trees. 

The various species of Ipomoea are the most significant 
members of the Convolvulaceae in that some of the most im- 
portant of the herbaceous lianes of the islands are members 
of the genus. This genus also furnishes species which occur 
under all conditions, halophytic, xerophytic, and mesophytic. 

The Boraginaceae furnish some noteworthy elements of the 
flora in all of the regions. The various species of Cordia con- 
stitute important factors of the flora in the dry and transition 
regions, while the species of Tournefortia provide some of the 
most common bushes in all of the regions, especially in the 
moist and grassy. 

Avicennia, Clerodendron, and Lantana are the three genera 
of the Verbenaceae which are of prime importance. Avicennia 
oificinalis forms an important element of the littoral vegetation 
in the form of low forest trees, while the two remaining genera 
furnish some of the most characteristic bushes of the dry and 
transition regions. 

The Solanaceae are the eighth largest family in number of 
species on the islands, but are of rather secondary importance, 
as the species for the most part are herbaceous and not espe- 
cially abundant in any of the regions except during the spring 
season. At that time they furnish several of the common 
weeds. 

The Ruhiaceae stand next in importance to the Solanaceae 
in number of species, but most of these are relatively small in 
size. This is one of the most important families represented in 
the archipelago in that it contains common species in all of the 
regions. The various species of Borreria are very frequent in 
the dry regions, some of them inhabiting the most desert situa- 
tions, even to the exclusion of almost all other species of plants. 
Bushes of Chiococca alba often form an important element of 
the flora in the transition regions, and Psycho tria ruHpes is of 
prime importance in the Scalesia forests in the moist regions, 
where it is one of the most abundant bushes. 



218 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The Compositae stand second in number of species of all of 
the families of vascular plants occurring on the islands. Many 
of the common herbaceous annuals of the dry and transition 
regions, as well as some of the most important bushes, belong 
to this family. The Compositae are however most strikingly 
represented in the moist regions, where extensive forests of 
Scalesia, made up for the most part of 5. pedunculata, occur. 
This genus is also well represented in both the dry and transi- 
tion regions by shrubby species, which sometimes occur in 
large numbers over considerable areas. Other noteworthy 
members of the family are the species of Erigeron and Lipo- 
chaeta, both of which are important where they occur. 

The remaining families of vascular plants represented on the 
islands contain but few species and for the most part are of 
relatively little importance. 

The plants which occur under halophytic or semihalophytic 
conditions are included in the following genera : Ammophila, 
Atriplex, Avicennia, Batis, Cacahus, Conocarpus, Coldenia, 
Cryptocarpus, Eleocharis, Heliotropium, Hibiscus, Hippomane, 
Ipomoea, Laguncularia, Lycium, Maytenus, Najas, Rhizo- 
phora, Ruppia, Salicornia, Scaevola, Sesuvium, and Sporo- 
bolus. 

Hydrophytes are comprised in Asolla, Callitriche, Eleo- 
charis, Lemna, Myriophyllum, Jussiaea, and Salvinia, all of 
which are of little importance in the composition of the flora, 
as they mostly occur periodically when there is a supply of 
fresh water in the pond's and brooks. 

Outside of a few species of ferns, the only vascular epiphytes 
are three species of orchids, two or three species of Peperomia, 
and a Tillandsia, the last of which is the most common and 
largest of the epiphytic plants. All of the above are practically 
confined to the transition and moist regions, occurring above 
the last in only a few instances. Phanerogamic parasites are 
represented by four species of Phorodendron, only one of which 
is sufficiently abundant to be of importance in this respect, and 
two species of Cuscuta. The first of these parasites is found in 
all of the regions, but is most abundant in the moist, while the 
second is confined to the dry and transition zones and so far 
as was observed only appears for a short time during the spring 
months. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 219 

Lianes occur in the following genera: Argyreia, Asclepias, 
Boussingaultia, Canavalia, Cardiospermum, Cissampelos, 
Cissus, Elaterium, Galactea, Ipomoea, Momordica, Mucuna, 
PassiHora, Phaseolus, Rhynchosia, and Sicyos. Most of these 
are herbaceous. 

Those plants which attain the size of trees are included in the 
following genera : Acacia, Acnistus, Avicennia, Bursera, 
Cereus, Conocarpus, Erythrina, Hibiscus, Hippomane, Opun- 
tia, Piscidia, Pisonia, Psidium, Prosopis, Rhisophora, Sap- 
indus, Scalesia, Solanum, and Zanthoxylum. More than one 
half of these are confined to the regions below the moist, con- 
trary to the general belief that the lower parts of the islands 
support only a low and bushy vegetation outside of the arbor- 
escent cacti. A few of the above attain sufficient size to be of 
economic importance for lumber, among which the species of 
Erythrina, Psidium, and Sapindus are the most important. 

The greater number of species of plants have small and 
rather inconspicuous flowers, a fact that has been mentioned by 
other travelers who have visited the islands. There are a few 
plants, however, that possess rather showy flowers. Such are 
comprised in the genera Argyreia, Cacabus, Cereus, Cordia, 
Datura, Erythrina, Gossypium, Hibiscus, Ipomoea, Kallstroe- 
mia, Miconia, Mvicuna, Nicotiana, Opuntia, Parkinsonia, Passi- 
Uora, and Tribulus. Most of these genera include species of 
wide distribution. By far the largest number of endemic spe- 
cies have very small flowers, a fact that may be due to the 
relatively small number of species of insects on the islands. 

Ecological Factors 

Water 

Great differences in the amount of precipitation are often 
found within short distances on the Galapagos Islands, some- 
times within a change of elevation of two or three hundred feet. 
The lower parts of the islands adjacent to the shore are as a 
rule very dry and only receive moisture in any considerable 
quantities during about three months of the year, while the 
middle and upper parts are quite moist most of the time. 
Between the two extremes of moisture there are all sorts of 
gradations. 



220 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

During the year our party remained on the islands there 
were nineteen rainy days at sea level, eleven of which were 
during the months of January, February, and March, and it 
was only during these months that the rains were heavy enough 
to make the ground muddy. During the remaining months of 
the year the days on which there was rain at sea level were 
distributed as follows : April one, June one, July three, Sep- 
tember two, and December one. None of these rains were 
heavy, being more in the nature of light showers of short dura- 
tion. These observations were taken at different places on the 
islands, but they probably represent approximately the condi- 
tions at sea level on any one island during this time. They do 
not include days on which there were but slight sprinkles of 
rain or mist. 

There were no very heavy rains at sea level during the entire 
year, but heavy rains must occur here at times, for many of the 
valleys show considerable erosion. The dry beds of streams 
are often covered with water-worn boulders, showing that at 
some time the streams have carried a considerable amount of 
water. Furthermore the sides of many of the tufa craters are 
deeply furrowed with gullies, and have much the general 
appearance of steep hillsides in a country of frequent heavy 
rains. The people who live on Chatham Island told us that 
1906 was an exceptionally dry year. There was no rain on this 
island from March until July, in consequence of which much 
of the vegetation was dried up even on the highest parts of the 
island around 2100 ft. elevation. Similar parched conditions 
were noticed on the upper part of Charles Island during the 
months of May and June. 

Heavy dews, as well as a considerable amount of mist, often 
occur at sea level during the spring months. We were anchored 
at Tagus Cove, on the west side of Albemarle Island, during 
the greater part of the month of April, and during this time the 
late nights and early mornings were so misty that any article 
left exposed over night would usually be quite wet in the 
morning. The mist would clear away soon after sun-rise, and 
the remainder of the day would be clear. 

The places where precipitation is great enough to support a 
mesophytic vegetation, are mostly confined to the middle and 
upper parts of the islands. The moisture here is derived from 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 221 

the fog banks which strike the windward sides of the mountains 
at various elevations, whereupon the fog is thrown down as 
fine mist and sometimes rain. These fog banks, however, do 
not always extend to the tops of the mountains, as these are 
often clear while the region a few hundred feet below may 
be entirely enveloped in fog. The soil at the tops of the 
mountains is sometimes dusty, while a little below the top it 
may be very moist or even muddy. From February until June 
inclusive there is much less fog in the upper regions than 
during the remainder of the year. During these four or five 
months the tops of the mountains may be entirely clear for 
several days at a time; but during the remainder of the year 
they are enveloped in fog, with only occasional clear days. L^ 
sometimes happens that the fog will clear away in the early 
evening to reappear again the following morning. 

The direct effect of the fog on the growth of vegetation is 
well shown on some of the islands, especially so on Duncan 
above 1000 ft. elevation. The south sides of many of the large 
lava boulders here are covered with a heavy growth of Poly- 
podium squamatum, while the other sides are entirely bare. 
This condition is due to the fact that the southern exposures 
are more directly bathed by the fog-laden wind than are the 
others. Such instances as this are rather common; the wind- 
ward sides of trees and bushes often have a heavier growth of 
epiphytic lichens and mosses than the leeward sides. 

Streams and springs of water are very scarce on the islands, 
in fact entirely absent on most of them. There are several 
springs on Chatham Island above 1000 ft. elevation, one of 
them large enough to supply a sugar mill as well as all the 
various needs of a population of some three hundred. There 
is also on this island a crater lake of considerable size and 
depth. Furthermore a few small streams occur in the upper 
regions of this island, but as they are mostly fed by surface 
water they quickly dry up as soon as the rainy season is over. 
Charles Island has two springs of fair size, and several seep- 
ages of water around the base of a tufa crater at 1000 ft. ; 
but none of these affords sufficient water to form more than 
a small brook that sinks from sight a short distance away from 
its source. There are also several small basins in the plateau 
region of this island around 1000 ft. elevation, but they were 



222 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

all dry at the times this island was visited by our party. With 
the exception of two small springs at Tagus Cove on Albe- 
marle Island, there are no springs of fresh water on any of the 
other islands, so far as was observed. On the southeast side 
of the mountain at Villamil on Albemarle Island, a short dis- 
tance below the top, there are indeed one or two small lakes, 
but the inhabitants of the settlement about half way up the side 
of the mountain, depend entirely on the rain for their water 
supply. Captain Thomas Levick, an Englishman who has 
lived on the islands for some thirty-five years, told us that there 
were small streams in the upper interior region of Indefati- 
gable Island, as well as a crater lake of considerable size, but 
we were not fortunate enough to get far enough into the 
interior of this island to find them. Both Duncan and Hood 
Islands have broad flat basins in their interiors which appear 
to have been recently filled with water. 

There is evidently enough precipitation on all of the higher 
islands to form springs if there were enough soil to hold it. 
But as the soil usually forms only a comparatively thin layer 
over the surface, practically all of the water that falls sinks 
very shortly into the cracks in the lava and comes out at various 
places along the shore. Some of these springs are large, and 
their water, as a rule, is quite brackish, owing to the fact that 
it consists partly of sea water that has percolated through the 
lava for a considerable distance inland. 

Seasons 

The rainy season, and with it the usual spring vegetation, 
usually come between January and June, and in 1906 were 
confined to the first three of these months on most of the 
islands. There is however no absolute certainty when spring 
will come, and it sometimes misses a year entirely. The time 
at which the rainy season arrives in a given year varies con- 
siderably on different islands. It sometimes commences at 
different times on adjacent islands, and even two sides of the 
same island may show a considerable amount of variation in 
this respect. In 1906 the spring season was at its height at 
Wreck Bay, on the south side of Chatham Island, in the month 
of January, while at Sappho Cove, on the north side of this 
island, it evidently began three weeks to a month later. Some- 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 223 

what similar conditions were noticed on both Hood and Charles 
Islands. On the first of these the spring season was just 
beginning in February, and on the second it appeared to be 
about as far advanced in March as it had been on Chatham 
in January. The greatest difference in the time at which this 
season occurs on two adjacent islands, was noticed on Abing- 
don and Bindloe Islands, which are separated from each other 
by a distance of only about thirteen miles. The vegetation on 
the lower parts of Bindloe was very dry and parched indeed in 
the month of September, as it is on the lower parts of most 
the other islands at this time of year ; while on Abingdon most 
of the deciduous vegetation was coming into leaf and the 
common spring weeds were springing up all over the lower 
parts of the south side of the island. Whether this condition 
of affairs occurs yearly or not, is impossible to state, but it is 
evident that the seasons were very much reversed on these two 
islands in 1906. 

Heat 

Considering the fact that these islands lie directly on the 
equator, the average temperature is quite low, ranging from 
70°-80° F. throughout the greater part of the year. It never 
becomes extremely hot, and at times is really too cool for 
comfort. We arrived at Hood Island, the most southern 
member of the group, on Sunday morning, September 24, 
1905. After coming to anchor and getting the vessel generally 
ship-shape, we hoisted an awning over the forward deck and 
the members of the party collected under it to read or other- 
wise pass the day. It was not long, however, until we began 
to move out from under the awning into the sun, as it was 
really too cool for comfort in the shade, somewhat lightly clad 
as we were. The sun was not hot, but just comfortably warm, 
and felt as it does on an early day in spring in temperate 
latitudes. The rather remarkable thing about the incident 
was that we were but eighty-two miles south of the equator, 
with the sun almost directly overhead at this time of year. 

It was the intention at first to get daily maximum and 
minimum temperatures throughout the year, but as the only 
maximum temperature thermometer we had, was broken soon 
after we arrived at the islands, this plan had to be abandoned 
and air and water temperatures were taken instead at intervals 



224 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



of a few days apart. The temperatures were taken at 6 a. m., 
6 p. M.^ and, when it was possible to do so, at 12 m., water 
temperatures being taken at the surface with a standard Fah- 
renheit thermometer. The results of these observations are 
given in the following table. 

Table of Galapagos Temperatures, 1905-1906 





Date 


Morning 


Noon 


Evening 


Station 


Water 


Air 


Water 


Air 


Water 


Air 


Hood Isl. 


Sept. 25 


71.5 


71.5 






73 


73 




Sept. 26 


71.5 


73 






73 


73 




Sept. 27 


73 


73 






73 


73.5 




Sept. 28 


73 


73.5 






73 


73 




Sept. 29 


73 


73.5 






73 


73 


Charles Isl. 


Oct. 6 


69 


69 






68 


70 




Oct. 7 


68 


67 






68 


70 




Oct. 8 


67 


70 


69 


73 


68 


70 




Oct. 9 


67 


69 






68 


70 




Oct. 10 


70 


70 






71.5 


74 




Oct. 12 


69.5 


70 






70 


71 


Chatham Isl., Wreck 
















Bay 


Oct. 16 


67 


70 


69 


73 


67.5 


70 




Oct. 17 


66 


71 


67.5 


72.5 


67.5 


70 


Barrington Isl. 


Oct. 20 






67.5 


69 


70.5 


71.5 




Oct. 21 


70 


70 


71 


72.5 


70 


72 




Oct. 22 






71 


74 


71 


72 




Oct. 23 


70 


70 






70.5 


71.5 


Indefatigable Isl., 
















Academy Bay 


Nov. 10 


73 


73 


75 


78 


74 


74 




Nov. 13 


71.5 


72 


74 


77.5 


74 


75.5 




Nov. 15 


72 


70 






73.5 


74 




Nov. 16 


72 


71 


74.5 


76.5 


74 


75 


Seymour Isl. 


Nov. 22 


72.5 


72 






75.5 


76 


Indefatigable Isl., 
















north side 


Nov. 24 


73 


73.5 






75.5 


76 




Nov. 26 


75.5 


76 


76.5 


78 


76.5 


77.5 




Nov. 29 


74 


71.5 


75.5 


78 


75 " 


77 




Nov. 30 


72.5 


69.5 


75 


77 


73.5 


76.5 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 225 

Table of Galapagos Temperatures, 1905-1906 — Continued 





Date 


Morning 


Noon 


Evening 


Station 


Water 


Air 


Water 


Air 


Water 


Air 


Duncan Isl. 


Dec. 


3 


69 


73 


72 


74 


70 


73 




Dec. 


4 


70 


70 






70 


72.5 




Dec. 


6 


71.5 


71 






74 


74 




Dec. 


13 


72 


73 






73 


74 




Dec. 


14 


72 


72 


73 


75 


72 


72 


James Isl., James 


















Bay 


Dec. 


22 


73 


71 


73.5 


71 


73 


72 




Dec. 


23 


72.5 


72 


73 


78.5 


73 


75 




Dec. 


28 


70 


71 


71.5 


77 


71 


75 


Indefatigable Isl., 


















Academy Bay 


Jan. 


15 


76 


75.5 


79 


80 


77 


78.5 


Hood Isl. 


Feb. 


2 


75.5 


76 


78 


79 


78 


78 


Chatham Isl., Sappho 


















Cove 


Feb. 


14 


76 


77 


80 


84 


79 


79 


Charles Isl. 


Feb. 


26 


77 


76 


78 


82 








Feb. 


28 


76 


75 






79 


81 


Albemarle IsL, Vil- 


















lamil 


Mar. 


6 


78 


75 






79 


80 


Albemarle Isl., Cape 


















Rose 


Mar. 


15 


72 


71 






71 


79.5 


Albemarle Isl., Ig- 


















uana Cove 


Mar. 


18 


73 


74 






75 


80 




Mar. 


20 


77.5 


75 






81 


81 


Albemarle Isl., Ta- 


















gus Cove 


Mar. 


23 


79 


78 


79 


88 


80 


83 




Mar. 


24 


78 


78 






71 


79 




Mar. 


26 


78.5 


72 












Mar. 


28 


74 


75 


78 


88 


74.5 


78 




Apr. 


1 


71 


72 


74 


84 


74 


78 




Apr. 


2 


70.5 


72 


74 


81 


74 


79 




Apr. 


3 


1z 


74 


75 


80 


73.5 


77.5 




Apr. 


8 


69 


70.5 


66 


75 


70 


78 




Apr. 


9 


69 


71 


65 


75 


64 


77.5 




Apr. 


10 


63 


67 


66 


76 


64 


70 




Apr. 


11 


65 


67 


67 


77 


65.5 


77 




Apr. 


13 


65 


70 


69 


79 


66 


74 



226 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Table of Galapagos Temperatures, 1905-1906 — Continued 





Date 


Morning 


Noon 


Evening 


Station 


















Water 


Air 


' Water 


Air 


Water 


Air 




Apr. 14 


65 


69 


69 


80 


66 


74 




Apr. 16 


65 


71 


68 


79 


68 


74 




Apr. 17 


68 


69 


71 


76 






Albemarle Isl., Cape 
















Rose 


Apr. 26 


71.5 


71.5 






74 


77 


Albemarle Isl., Vil- 
















lamil 


May 1 


69.5 


71 






71 


72.5 




May 2 


70 


71 






72 


74 


Charles Isl. 


May 16 


69 


73 






69 


75 




May 24 


70 


71 


65 


72 


66 


73 


Hood Isl. 


June 24 


68 


69 


69 


72 


69 


70 




June 25 


6.8 


69 


69 


72 


69 


70 




June 26 


68 


68 






69 


70 




June 27 


69 


71 


70 


72 


69.5 


70.5 




June 29 


69 


70 


70 


72 


69 


70.5 


Chatham Isl. 


July 7 


66 


68 






64 


68.5 




July 8 


63 


66 


64 


69 


63 


68 


Indefatigable Isl., 
















Academy Bay 


July 12 


68 


67.5 






69 


68 




July 13 


67 


66 


68 


68 


67 


68 


James Isl., James 
















Bay 


Aug. 7 


66 


65 






67 


68 




Aug. 8 


66 


66 






68 


68 


Albemarle Isl., Cow- 
















ley Bay 


Aug. 10 


66 


66 






68 


68 




Aug. 11 


67 


66 


67 


73 


68.5 


68 




Aug. 12 


67 


66 


69 


71 


68 


68 


Duncan Isl. 


Aug. 15 


66 


65 






67 


67 


Albemarle Isl., Vil- 
















lamil 


Aug. 25 


64 


64 


68 


68 








Aug. 26 


65 


64 


68 


69 


69 


68 




Aug. 31 


67 


65 


69 


69 


69 


68 




Sept. 1 


67 


65 


69 


70 


69 


68 


Chatham Isl., Wreck 
















Bay 


Sept. 7 


63 


65 






63 


67 




Sept. 8 


63 


65 


63 


69 


64 


66 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 227 

Table of Galapagos Temperatures, 1905-1906— Continued 





Date 


Morning 


Noon 


Evening 


Station 


Water 


Air 


Water 


Air 


Water 


Air 


Tower Isl. 


Sept. 14 










73 


71 




Sept. 15 


71 


68 


73 


74 


73 


70.5 


Bindloe Isl. 


Sept. 16 










72.5 


71 




Sept. 17 


72 


69 






72.5 


72 




Sept. 18 


71 


69 










Abingdon Isl. 


Sept. 18 










73 


72 




Sept. 19 


71 


70 






73 


72 




Sept. 20 


72 


68 






72 


70 




Sept. 21 


70 


69 






72 


70 




Sept. 22 


70 


70 






72 


69 


Wenman Isl. 


Sept. 24 






76 


74 






Twelve miles west of 
















Wenman Isl. 


Sept. 24 










76 


73 


Culpepper Isl. 


Sept. 25 






76 


74.5 







From this table it is seen that the warmest weather of the 
year occurs in the months of February and March, and the 
coldest during the months of July, August, and September. 
There is no great amount of difference in the temperature of 
the air morning and noon, 5° F. being about the average, 
while the difference in the temperature of the water is even 
less than this. The air is usually 1° to 3° warmer than the 
water in the morning, except during the spring months, when 
the opposite is the case. 

The uniformly low temperature for an equatorial region is 
due to the coolness of the water which surrounds all but the 
northernmost islands of the group. The Humboldt current, 
which sweeps up from the antarctic regions along the west 
coast of South America, turns outward at about the latitude 
of these islands and bathes their shores with unusually cool 
water for several months of the year. The water remains 
cool until the sun reaches well south of the equator, in the 
autumn and winter months, when it begins to become warmer 
until it reaches its highest temperature in February and March. 
After the sun passes the equator on its way north, the water 
rapidly becomes cooler, the colder water seeming about to keep 



228 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



pace with the sun on its way north. When we were anchored 
at Tagus Cove on the west side of Albemarle Island during 
portions of the months of March and April, a decrease of 14° 
in the temperature of the water was noticed in nineteen days. 
The northern islands of the group were visited but once, and 
that for a period of eleven days. During this time the water 
was on the average 6.5° warmer than at the southern islands 
for the corresponding period just preceding. The difference 
was due to the fact that the northern islands lie in the lower 
limits of the Panama current. The following table shows the 
continued rise in the temperature of the water for some dis- 
tance north of this part of the Galapagos. These observations 
were taken on the homeward voyage at 12 m. on the dates 
mentioned in the table, this being the only time during the 
day when we knew our position with any degree of accuracy. 
Of course many of these observations have no bearing on the 
climatic conditions in the Galapagos Islands, but they may 
nevertheless be of interest. 



Surface Temperatures, 1906 



Lat 


.N. 


Long. 


W. 


Date 


Water 


Air 


2° 


29' 


93° 


6' 


Sept. 26 


78 


76 


5° 


34' 


95° 


27' 


Sept. 27 


80 


79 


7° 


23' 


97° 


48' 


Sept. 28 


80 


76 


90 


22' 


98° 


25' 


Sept. 29 


81 


79 


90 


59' 


100° 


25' 


Sept. 30 


82 


80 


11° 


53' 


102° 


9' 


Oct. 1 


81 


81.5 


12° 


19' 


104° 


3' 


Oct. 2 


81 


81 


14° 


24' 


106° 


42' 


Oct. 3 


82 


81 


14° 


24' 


107° 


5' 


Oct. 4 


82 


83 


14° 


49' 


107° 


2' 


Oct. 5 


83 


83 


14° 


45' 


108° 


30' 


Oct. 6 


77.5 


81 


14° 


38' 


109° 


12' 


Oct. 7 


75 


81 


14° 


40' 


109° 


26' 


Oct. 8 


79 


81 


14° 


11' 


109° 


38' 


Oct. 9 


78 


81 


14° 


26' 


109° 


26' 


Oct. 10 


79 


82 


14° 


36' 


109° 


42' 


Oct. 11 


79 


82 


15° 


16" 


110° 


1' 


Oct. 12 


81.5 


82.5 


15° 


36' 


110° 


12' 


Oct. 13 


83 


83 


15° 


31' 


110° 


43' 


Oct. 14 


82 


82.5 



Vol. I] 



STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



229 







Surface Temperatures, 1906 


— Continued 




Lat 


. N. 


Long. W. 


Date 


Water 


Air 


15° 


54' 


112° 8' 


Oct. 15 


82 


82 


16° 


25' 


113° 40' 


Oct. 16 


80 


81 


16° 


43' 


113° 9' 


Oct. 17 


79.5 


81 


16° 


55' 


112° 55' 


Oct. 18 


81 


81 


17° 


10' 


113° 27' 


Oct. 19 


81 


80 


17° 


30' 


114° 6' 


Oct. 20 


80 


79 


17° 


44' 


114° 58' 


Oct. 21 


80 


79 


17° 


53' 


114° 45' 


Oct. 22 


79.5 


79 


18° 


16' 


115° 46' 


Oct. 23 


79 


80 


19° 




116° 41' 


Oct. 24 


78 


78 


19° 


53' 


118° 1' 


Oct. 25 


77 


75 


20° 


20' 


118° 44' 


Oct. 26 


75.5 


76 


20° 


37' 


119° 17' 


Oct. 27 


75.5 


76 


, 21° 


45' 


120° 32' 


Oct. 28 


73 


74.5 


23° 


2' 


121° 45' 


Oct. 29 


73 


73 


24° 


31' 


122° 52' 


Oct. 30 


71 


71 


25° 


25' 


124° 20' 


Oct. 31 


71 


71.5 


26° 


24' 


126° 23' 


Nov. 1 


67 


67 


26° 


50' 


126° 30' 


Nov. 2 


68 


69 


26° 


51' 


126° 52' 


Nov. 3 


67 


70 


26° 


50' 


126° 47' 


Nov. 4 


68 


68 


28° 


20' 


127° 58' 


Nov. 6 


66 


67 


29° 


38' 


129° 2' 


Nov. 7 


67 


65 


30° 


23' 


129° + 


Nov. 8 


66.5 


66 


30° 


33' 


130° 58' 


Nov. 9 


67 


67.5 


30° 


48' 


131° 9' 


Nov. 10 


67.5 


66 


31° 


54' 


132° 11' 


Nov. 12 


67.5 


68 


33° 


7' 


134° 6' 


Nov. 14 


66 


66 


33° 


47' 


132° 21' 


Nov. 15 


67 


66 


34° 


30' 


130° 42' 


Nov. 17 


64.5 


64 


35° 


40' 


133° 14' 


Nov. 19 


64.5 


64.5 


36° 


49' 


133° 41' 


Nov. 21 


60.5 


61 


38° 


10' 


134° 35' 


Nov. 23 


60 


57.5 



higkt 

While we were unprovided with instruments for measuring 
the intensity of Hght, it could readily be seen by general 
observation that the light is normally much stronger on the 



230 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

lower parts of the islands than in the middle and upper regions. 
The weather is often practically clear at sea level, while a few 
hundred feet up it may be dark and gloomy, the clouds being 
arrested as they strike the mountains and thus hanging as fog- 
banks around the sides. Owing to the generally more open 
arrangement of the vegetation, there is not the same intense 
struggle among plants to get to the light that was noted in the 
rain-forests of Cocos Island, some three hundred and fifty 
miles northeast of the Galapagos. 

The most marked effect of light on vegetation is seen among 
some of the species of the Cactaceae, which seldom grow in 
shaded places, and, when they do so, are much stunted in 
growth. Specimens of Plumbago scandens usually have a deep 
red color when they grow in direct sunlight, a character that 
is usually not developed on specimens in the shade. 

Winds 

The prevailing winds blow from the southeast, east-south- 
east, and south-southeast, and are the regular trade winds of 
this part of the Pacific Ocean. They blow quite regularly 
from June until January, but during the remainder of the year 
are very uncertain, and the waters surrounding the islands are 
subject to long periods of calm. Our vessel had to depend 
entirely on sail, and at one time it required from May 3rd until 
June 23rd to go from Villamil, on the south side of Albemarle 
Island, to Hood Island, a distance of about eighty-five miles. 
We spent two weeks of this time anchored at Charles Island 
waiting for wind, so that we were actually under way thirty- 
six days. The calm was so complete at one time during this 
trip that a flour tin, which was thrown overboard and which 
happened to light right side up, was still in sight forty-eight 
hours afterward. There are often light winds during the day 
in the calm season, but they usually go down in the 
evening, and unfortunately do not always come up again on 
the following morning. It is very seldom that the winds come 
from a northerly direction, and when they do they are usually 
of short duration. Storms are very rare, but short squalls 
sometimes occurred several times a day at Tagus Cove on 
Albemarle Island during the months of March and April. 
Wolf, in his paper on the Galapagos Islands, mentions similar 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 231 

squalls on Charles Island during the months of August and 
October, but none occurred on this island at the various occa- 
sions we visited it, one of which was in the early part of 
October. A thunder storm occurred around the top of Nar- 
borough Island on March 21st, being the only one seen during 
the entire year we spent among the islands. 

The effect of wind on the growth of vegetation is well shown 
on the upper parts of Charles Island, where there are several 
old tufa craters that rise from 500 to 800 ft. above the sur- 
rounding table land in the interior of the island. The northern 
sides of most of these are covered with a heavy growth of lime 
and lemon trees, on the branches of which there are mosses 
and other epiphytic plants. The southern and southeastern 
sides of these craters, on the other hand, have only low peren- 
nial herbs and bushes on them above 1350 ft., and only scat- 
tered trees for two or three hundred feet below this elevation. 
The change in the character of the vegetation is so abrupt in 
these places that the two extremes often occur within a few 
feet of each other. A somewhat similar but less pronounced 
condition of affairs is found on the upper part of Chatham 
Island, where the highest peak is covered on the leeward side 
with a thick growth of Lycopodium clavatum and ferns. 
Many of these are absent on the windward side, and those 
species that do persist are only a few inches in height when 
exposed directly to the action of the wind. Many species of 
lichens are found growing on the rocks and twigs on this side 
which are absent on the other. The trees of Bursera graveolens 
lean in a northwesterly direction when they are exposed to the 
wind, and their branches are often so bent and twisted as to 
give the trees much flattened' crowns. 

Soil 
The substratum for the most part consists of basaltic lava, 
lava cinders, tufa, ashes, pumice, products derived from the 
disintegration of these, sand, or vegetable mold. There are 
many places in the dry regions where the lava flows are com- 
paratively recent and there is practically no soil at all. Such 
vegetation as is found there grows entirely from the crevices 
in the lava. Basaltic lava or lava approaching basalt m char- 
acter seems to form the best substratum for plants, as the 

January 16, 1911. 



232 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

densest vegetation in the dry regions, and the largest forest 
trees in the transition and moist regions, are usually found on 
lava of this kind or on soil which has been derived from it. 
On the other hand pumice forms the poorest substratum, and 
supports only low scattering bushes in places where the moist- 
ure is sufficient to support plants of a much larger size. Tufa 
makes a fairly good soil for the growth of bushes and other 
shrubby vegetation, but when forest trees occur on soil of this 
nature they are usually rather scattered and small in size. 
Where the soil is composed of ashes there usually are grassy 
areas with scattering clumps of bushes. On beds of cinders 
there is often very little vegetation of any kind, while beds of 
basaltic lava adjoining and apparently of about the same age 
may be covered with a considerable growth of plants. 

Vegetable mold only occurs in quantity in the transition and 
moist regions, the reason being that there is much more vege- 
tation in these regions to form mold, and that this vegetation 
decays very quickly owing to the larger number of fungi and 
other low organisms present. This more rapid decay of plants 
has a corresponding effect upon the disintegration of the lava, 
which takes place more rapidly than in the dry region. In his 
paper on the Galapagos Islands, Wolf mentions the great differ- 
ence in the condition of a single lava flow on the lower and 
upper parts of Charles Island. Similar conditions can be 
found on several of the other islands, notably Abingdon, Albe- 
marle, and James, on which there are lava flows the lower 
parts of which are very barren, while the upper portions are 
heavily covered with vegetation. 

Outside of the lower cryptogamic plants, certain species of 
the Cactaceae seem to be about the first plants to invade the 
recent lava in the dry regions, while some of the more xero- 
phytic species of ferns are the first in the transition and moist 
regions. Cereus nesioticus was usually found growing on 
lava, either recent or comparatively recent in origin, on which 
there were seldom any other higher plants of any size. There 
are often abrupt changes in the character of the vegetation 
on the line of contact between two different lava flows, even 
when the flows are old and both more or less heavily covered 
with vegetation. A condition of this kind is well marked on 
the sides of the mountain at Iguana Cove on Albemarle Island, 



Vol.1] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 233 

where each flow of lava can be traced for a distance of several 
miles by the difference in the color of the vegetation. Similar 
conditions were noticed at Villamil on the south side of this 
island. 

Growth 

Owing to the short vegetative period on the lower and drier 
parts of the Galapagos, growth is very slow among the peren- 
nial forms, but correspondingly rapid among the annuals. 
This fact was observed especially on Chatham Island in Jan- 
uary and February. While the greater portion of the spring 
weeds were well advanced in growth at this place, in the later 
part of January, some of them were just coming through the 
ground; while upon a return to the same place, three weeks 
later, it was found that most of the latter had matured and 
dried up. In fact most of the vegetation had gone into the 
resting condition during this time, so that the change in the 
appearance of the vegetation was very striking. 

Some insight was gained into the rate of growth of the 
Opmitias at Academy Bay on Indefatigable Island. In making 
a trail into the interior in the early part of November, many 
of the smaller specimens were cut off three or four feet above 
the ground. It was found in July that many of the cut ends 
had put forth branches, some of which were as much as sixteen 
inches long. Many of the absorbing roots of Cissampelos 
Pareira were cut at the same time, and many of these had put 
forth several rootlets from the cut ends, about one sixth of an 
inch in diameter and from four to seven feet long. These 
rootlets do not seem to increase in diameter very rapidly after 
they are once formed, for the same condition was noticed on 
an old trail, on the northwest side of this island, that had not 
been touched for several years. 

Origin of the Galapagos Islands 
Two different theories have been advanced to explain the 
origin of these islands. Until the appearance of Dr. Baur's 
paper : "On the Origin of the Galapagos Islands," ' it was gen- 
erally conceded among naturalists that they were of oceanic 
origin, each island having been built up separately from all of 
the rest by volcanic activity. In this paper Dr. Baur expressed 
an entirely different view concerning their origin, basing his 

lAm. Nat. v. 25, 1891, pp. 217-229, 307-326. 



234 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

theory principally on the harmonic biological relations which 
exist between the different islands of the group. In brief Dr. 
Baur's theory was that the islands had all been connected with 
each other at some not remote geological period, and at a still 
earlier period had been attached to the North American con- 
tinent, possibly in the region of Central America. This view 
has been supported by some naturalists and vigorously opposed 
by others. During the year our party remained on the islands 
excellent opportunities were offered to study the situation from 
an impartial stand-point, and after having made a careful study 
of the collections of plants formed on the different islands, the 
author is led to a view concerning their origin which is slightly 
at variance with both of the above theories. 

If these islands are continental in origin, as was maintained 
by Dr. Baur, one would naturally expect to find a close faunal 
relationship between them and the mainland, a condition, how- 
ever, that does not exist. There are neither large mammals 
nor batrachians, both of which should be present in greater or 
less quantity if the islands had been connected with the main- 
land within even comparatively recent geological times. Fur- 
thermore, with the exception of the large land tortoises, which 
are found on most of the larger islands of the group, the fauna 
is about what one would expect to find on almost any group 
of oceanic islands. 

It might be maintained that during the great volcanic dis- 
turbances that have taken place since the islands were sep- 
arated from the mainland, both the mammals and batrachians 
were exterminated. While this might be true as far as the 
mammals are concerned, it would hardly be true for the 
batrachians, as they would very likely be able to withstand as 
adverse conditions as the reptiles, and it is hardly probable 
that a combination of circumstances would come about which 
would obliterate one of these groups and leave the other in a 
more or less flourishing condition. 

One of the strong arguments in favor of a former land 
connection is the presence on the islands of the well-known land 
tortoises, which are rather closely related to certain fossil 
tortoises from some of the later geological formations of North 
America. The presence of land tortoises on the islands is not 
so difficult to explain as it appears to be at first sight. While 



Vol. I] 



STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



235 



these animals are large and unable to swim, they are able to 
keep afloat for a considerable time, long enough to float them 
from the mainland to the islands if we assume that the ocean 
currents were as strong and had the same general trend in past 
geological times as they have now. The ability that these 
animals have of living without food for a considerable time 
greatly strengthens this view. During our homeward voyage 
from the islands, in the autumn of 1906, our live specimens of 
tortoises went for over a month without food, a time suffi- 
ciently long, under favorable conditions, to float an individual 
from the mainland of North America to the islands, if one 
should happen to get adrift. It would not be absolutely neces- 
sary that both male and female tortoises should be introduced 
on the islands to start the race, for this could be accomplished 
if a single female specimen containing fertilized eggs should 
be cast upon the shores of the islands. 

Turning to the botanical side of the question, we would natu- 
rally expect that of the eighty families of vascular plants found 
on the islands some few at least would have approximately the 
same number of genera and species as are found in these same 
families on the mainland. The following table shows all of 
the families of vascular plants which contain ten or more 
species, varieties, forms, and indeterminate species. 



Families of Galapagos Plants with Ten or More Species, 
Varieties, or Forms 



Rank 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



Family 



Filices 

Compositae .... 
Euphorbiaceae . 

Gramineae 

Leguminosae . . . 
Amarantaceae. . 
Cyperaceae. . . . 

Solanaceae 

Rubiaceae 

Malvaceae 

Boraginaceae . . . 
Convolvulaceae 
Verbenaceae . . . 



No. of Species, 

Varieties, and 

Forms 



77 
65 
50 
49 
45 
33 
25 
19 
22 
19 
20 
15 
13 



Indeterminate 



4 

10 

6 



Total 



77 
69 
60 
55 
53 
33 
28 
26 
23 
22 
21 
15 
15 



236 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Of the above thirteen families of vascular plants, the Filices 
contain the largest number of species ; and these, owing to the 
small size of their spores, would obviously possess greater 
opportunity of being disseminated over considerable stretches 
of water than the plants of any other family in the list. Fur- 
thermore the small number of endemic species of ferns leads 
naturally to the supposition that there is a more or less con- 
stant introduction of spores from the mainland, thus checking 
any strong tendency for the species of ferns on the islands to 
vary greatly from those on the mainland. This supposition is 
supported by the fact that each collecting expedition brings to 
light more continental species that were not previously known 
to occur on the islands. 

While it is no doubt true that great changes in the biological 
conditions must have taken place on the islands if there had 
been sufficient subsidence to separate them from the mainland 
by the depth of water that now exists, it is nevertheless not 
likely that the changes thus brought about would have been 
great enough to exterminate many families completely and to 
reduce all others so greatly in number of genera and species 
as is the case. Some genera and species would have probably 
become extinct if there had been a great disturbance in the 
biological conditions ; but at the present time most families are 
represented by more genera on the mainland than species on 
the islands. 

From the above facts there appears to be little evidence to 
show that there has ever been a land connection between the 
islands and the mainland, yet there is no very strong evidence 
opposed to the view that the islands may have been connected 
with each other, at some not distant geological period, either 
as one large island or as two or three smaller ones. The rather 
remarkable harmonic zoological relationships existing between 
the different islands, as shown by Dr. Baur, are more easily 
explained by supposing such a condition, than if each island 
had been formed separately. The following table, which shows 
the Pteridophytes and Spermatophytes common to the different 
islands, lends support to this theory. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



237 



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238 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Another fact which agrees with the theory that there has 
been a former land connection between at least many of the 
islands, is the shallowness of the water between most of them. 
An elevation of one hundred fathoms would connect all the 
southern islands, and a rise of seventy-one fathoms would 
bridge all of these except Chatham, Hood, and James, so far as 
the soundings that have been taken show. The only deep 
soundings known are between Abingdon and Wenman, 1189 
fathoms, between Bindloe and James, 684 fathoms, and between 
James and Tower Islands, 885 fathoms, depths of water which 
are not difficult to account for if one does not maintain too 
strongly that all of the islands were formerly connected into a 
single large one. 

Considering the volcanic nature of the islands, the general 
shallowness of the intervening water lends support to the sub- 
sidence theory, for it is hardly likely, if all of the bed of the 
ocean between the islands had been formed by marine volcanic 
activity, that the lava would have been so evenly distributed 
over this bed without leaving at least a few abysses. The grad- 
ual deepening of the water away from the shores of many of the 
islands also supports the subsidence theory, especially when we 
consider the fact that the slope of the submerged portions of 
some of the islands approximates the slope of the lower parts 
above water. 

While all of the above facts seem to point to a general sub- 
sidence of the islands, there are a few evidences of elevation. 
On both Indefatigable and Seymour Islands there are deposits 
containing a considerable number of marine fossils which have 
been elevated a few feet above the level of the sea. The great- 
est amount of elevation seems to have taken place on Albemarle 
Island. Snodgrass and Heller, of the Hopkins-Stanford Expe- 
dition to the Galapagos Islands, thought that they detected 
signs of elevation at Tagus Cove on the west side of this 
island. There is evidence of some elevation at the south end of 
Albemarle, concerning which Mr. W. H. Ochsner, the geolo- 
gist of the Academy's expedition, has been kind enough to 
furnish the following information : 

"About one and one half miles inland from the settlement near 
Turtle Cove on the south shore of Albemarle Island, there is exposed 
a rather large remnant of an old sea beach. The deposit exists as 
white sands several feet thick and composed entirely of the fragments 
of coral, molluscan and echinoid, and other calcareous marine forms. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 239 

The deposit rests on a nearly level and extensive lava flow with a 
greatest observed elevation of about 60 ft. above the present sea-level. 
Where the sands have been hardened into crusts in thin layers, they 
carry abundant and nicely preserved specimens of marine molluscan 
and echinoid forms. ,.,,,, 

"Toward the interior and higher levels of the island the deposit 
exists only as little island-like exposures which have escaped the great 
recent flow of lava that has poured down over this old beach to conceal 
its exact and higher levels of distribution. This deposit should be 
placed as late Pliocene or early Quarternary." 

Outside of the few localities mentioned above, there is no 
evidence of a general elevation, so far as has been observed, 
and it is not improbable that during the period of general sub- 
sidence there might have been times in which it ceased and 
during which local elevation took place. Mr. Ochsner states 
further: "I am much in favor of the theory of subsidence. 
With additional thought and study given the matter I feel that 
the testimony of my collected facts and observations will go to 
prove this theory nearly a fact." 

In conclusion it might be said that however true Dr. Baur's 
theory may be in regard to the union of the islands into one 
large one, there is no strong evidence to show that they were 
ever connected with the mainland. The biological conditions 
at the present time are more against this theory than for it. 
The botanical conditions do not offer absolute proof that the 
islands have ever been connected with each other, but the 
weight of the evidence is more in favor of this theory than 
against it. 

Origin of the Flora 

If it be assumed that the Galapagos Islands are of 
oceanic origin, there are but three means by which seeds and 
spores could have been brought to the islands, outside of the 
agency of man. These are: winds, oceanic currents, and 
migratory birds. 

Winds 

If winds were an important agent in bringing seeds and 
spores to these islands, those families of plants which have the 
smallest seeds and spores would be the most apt to be dis- 
tributed in this way. Of all the families of vascular plants 
none are better adapted for wind distribution than are the ferns. 
Such being the case, there should be a larger number of species 
of ferns on the islands common to the region from which the 
prevailing winds blow than from any other. As the winds 



240 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



around these islands are almost constantly from the southeast, 
the fern flora should be most closely related to that of the cen- 
tral and southern part of South America. Such is not the case, 
however, for outside of fifteen species which are of wide distri- 
bution, the fern flora shows nearly as strong affinities with that 
of Mexico as it does with that of South America. There are 
on the islands fifty-four species common to Mexico and fifty-six 
to South America. Moreover, the majority of the latter belong 
only to the northern part of the continent. 

Devices for wind dissemination are not common on the seeds 
of Galapagos plants, the Compositae being the only one of the 
larger families which has this character pronounced to any 
extent. 

Oceanic Currents 

The northern islands of the group, viz. Abingdon, Bindloe, 
Culpepper, Tower, and Wenman, lie in the direct path of the 
Panama current, and the water surrounding them is several 
degrees warmer than that around the southern islands, which 
are bathed by the Humboldt current. If oceanic currents were 
an important factor in the transport of seeds to the Galapagos, 
those islands which are washed by the Panama current should 
be more closely related botanically to the Mexican and Central 
American regions than the islands lying in the Humboldt 
current ; and the latter islands, on the other hand, should have a 
flora more closely related to that of the western coast of South 
America. Furthermore, the several islands of each group 
should have a larger floral element common among themselves 
than with any of the islands of the other group. The following 
table shows the percentages of floral relationships between the 
islands of the northern group, as well as their relationships with 
some of the more important islands of the southern group. 



Floral Relationships 


OF Northern Islands 






§ 

-a 

a 
< 




o 

m 


a 


pq 


(U 

6 


S 

si 
O 




Abingdon 

Bindloe 

Tower 

Wenman 


55.3 
72.7 
38.5 


83.1 

76.5 

68.1 

50 


48.4 


48.4 
35.7 


35.7 


66.3 
68.5 
72.7 
38.6 


67.2 
61 

81.8 
50 


38.5 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 241 

From the above table it is seen that in the majority of 
instances the islands of the northern group have a larger per- 
centage of their floras common with the islands of the southern 
group than with each other, a condition hardly to.be expected 
if oceanic currents were an important factor in transporting 
seeds to them. Robinson (1), p. 258, has already mentioned 
the small chance that many seeds would have of surviving even 
if they were washed up on the shores of the islands, a fact that 
can not be too strongly emphasized. While it is entirely possi- 
ble that the seeds of xerophytic plants might be able to grow if 
they were cast up in this way, it is hardly likely that mesophytic 
plants would be able to survive, because there are but two 
places on the islands — at the present time — where conditions at 
sea level are such as to offer them a suitable habitat. One of 
these places is Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island, and the other is 
Villamil on the same island, at neither of which places are 
there plants which do not have a wide distribution over the 
islands. While it is possible that the Humboldt current may be 
responsible for much of the xerophytic flora, it is hardly likely 
that the Panama stream could have played much of a role in 
this respect, as it flows from a region in which the flora is any- 
thing but xerophytic in character. 

Birds 

I am indebted to Mr. Edward W. Gifford, joint ornithologist 
to the expedition, for the following list of birds occurring as 
migrants and stragglers on the Galapagos Islands. 

Arenaria interpres Turnstone Common 

Heteractitis incanus Wandering Tattler Common 

Phalaropus hyperboreus Northern Phalarope Great numbers of phal- 

aropes, probably this 
species, were seen pass- 
ing through the archi- 
pelago. 
Mgialeus semipalmatus Semipalmated Plover Fairly common 
Numenius hudsonicus Hudsonian Curlew Fairly common 
Calidris arenaria Sanderling Fairly common 

Limonites minutilla Least Sandpiper Fairly common 

Querquedula discors Blue-winged Teal Fairly common 



242 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Squatarola helvetica 
Tringoides macularius 
Dolichonyx orysivorus 
Hirundo erythrogaster 
Larus franklini 
Stercorarius pomatorhinus 
Symphemia semipalmata 
Helodromas solitarius 
Pandion haliaetus 
Heteropygia bairdi 

Steganopus tricolor 
Querquedula versicolor 



Black-bellied Plover 

Spotted Sandpiper 

Bobolink 

Barn Swallow 

Franklin's Gull 

Pomarine Jaeger 

Willet 

Solitary Sandpiper 

Osprey 

Baird's Sandpiper 

Wilson's Phalarope 
Brilliant Teal 



Not common 

Not common 

Not common 

Not common 

A chance visitor 

A chance visitor 

A chance visitor 

A chance visitor 

A chance visitor 

Rare; one taken by 

Harris Expedition 
Rare; three taken 
Rare; one said to have 

been taken by Kinberg 

Mr. Gifford states further : "With the exception of Querque- 
dula versicolor, all of these species occur in the United States. 
Q. versicolor is a straggler from South America. The others 
probably occur each year in about the numbers indicated. The 
Galapagos Islands seem to be out of the general route of migra- 
tory birds, being too far out to sea." 

Of the twenty birds of Mr. Gifford's list, three are com- 
mon, five are fairly common, nine are not common, and three 
are rare. While this list of birds is not large, the number of 
species of plants that are found on the islands is correspond- 
ingly small, and when one considers the fact that almost any 
kind of plant, whether halophytic, xerophytic, or mesophytic, 
which should happen to be introduced, would find a suitable 
habitat on some part of many of the islands, it is not unreason- 
able to suppose that if the islands have been visited pretty con- 
stantly by a small number of birds for a long time, quite a large 
number of plants might have been introduced by them. While 
migratory birds must not be considered as the only factor in 
distribution, they seem in this instance to be the most important 
cause, as the presence of many of the plants found on the 
islands, especially those of a mesophytic character, can be 
explained in no other way. 

The following table, which has been compiled from various 
sources, shows the number of species, varieties, and forms in 
each family that are endemic, and also those which are common 
to the regions indicated at the heads of the different columns. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



243 



The next to the last column shows the total number of species, 
varieties, and forms in each family of vascular plants found on 
the islands, while the final column gives the number of species 
that are indeterminate. 

Affinities of the Galapagos Flora 



Filices 

Salvinaceae 

Equisetaceae ..... 
Lycopodiaceae .... 
Potamogetonaceae . 

Najadaceae 

Gramineae 

Cyperaceae 

Lemnaceae 

Bromeliaceae 

Cannaceae 

Commelinaceae . . . 

Iridaceae 

Amaryllidaceae . . . 

Orchidaceae 

Piperaceae 

Urticaceae 

Loranthaceae 

Polygonaceae 

Chenopodiaceae . . , 

Amarantaceae . . . . 

Batidaceae 

Basellaceae 

Phytolaccaceae . . . 

Nyctaginaceae . . . . 

Aizoaceae 

Portulacaceae . . . 

Caryophyllaceae . 

Anonaceae 

Menispermaceae . 

Cruciferae 



16 
6 



1 

7 
1 
4 
1 

26 



54 
1 
1 
3 



11 



47 

1 
3 

14 



57 
1 
1 
3 

1 

15 
9 



21 






M> cS 



15 

2 
2 

11 



77 
1 
1 
5 
2 
1 
49 
25 
1 



2 
3 
8 
6 
4 
3 

33 
1 
1 

2 
7 
7 
1 
1 
2 
2 
5 



244 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Affinities of the Galapagos Y-LOViK— Continued 



Crassulaceae . . . . 
Leguminosae . . . . 

Oxalidaceae 

Linaceae 

Zygophyllaceae . . 

Rutaceae 

Simarubaceae 

Burseraceae 

Polygalaceae . . . . 
Euphorbiaceae. . . 
Callitrichaceae.. . 

Celastraceae 

Sapindaceae 

Rhamnaceae 

Vitaceae 

Tiliaceae 

Malvaceae 

Hypericaceae .... 
Sterculiaceae .... 

Tumeraceae 

Passifloraceae 

Caricaceae 

Loasaceae 

Ly thraceae 

Cactaceae 

Rhizophoraceae . . 

Myrtaceae 

Combretaceae . . . 
Melastomaceae . . 

Onagraceae 

Halorrhagidaceae 
Umbelliferae . . . . 
Plumbaginaceae . 
Apocynaceae . . . . 
Asclepiadaceae . . . 



C 




o 


1-1 


1 

CO 


3 

u 

•a 
S 


1 
g 
o 






1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


6 


3 


22 


17 


27 


4 


10 


45 


1 








1 
1 




1 


3 
1 


3 












1 


4 




1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


6 














6 


1 




1 


1 


1 






2 


3 














3 


43 


2 


2 


2 


2 




5 


50 


1 














1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


5 


1 














1 






1 


1 


2 


1 




2 






1 


1 


1 




1 


2 


2 


2 


6 
1 


4 


4 

1 


3 


10 


19 
1 


3 












1 


3 
1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 




1 


3 
1 




1 


2 


1 


2 

1 




1 


2 
2 


7 












1 


7 

1 


1 












2 
2 


2 
2 


1 












1 


1 
1 


1 








1 


1 


2 

1 


5 
1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






2 



10 

1 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 245 

Affinities of the Galapagos Flora — Continued 





o 

1 


t3 


8 






3 

'in 

O 


C 

O 




ID 
l-H 


Convolvulaceae 


6 


1 


1 


3 


2 


2 


5 


15 




Hydrophyllaceae 






1 




1 






1 




Boraginaceae 


13 




2 


2 


4 




3 


20 


1 


Verbenaceae 


4 
2 


4 
2 


5 
5 


3 

5 


7 
5 


1 


2 


13 

7 


? 


Labiatae 




Solanaceae 


5 


1 


2 


1 


6 


7 




19 


7 


Scrophulariaceae 




3 


3 


3 


5 






5 




Bignoniaceae 


















1 


Acanthaceae 


1 
1 


1 


2 


1 


3 




1 


4 

2 




Plantaginaceae 




Rubiaceae 


17 

2 


2 


3 


3 


4 




1 
3 


22 
5 


1 


Cucurbitaceae 




Campanulaceae 




1 


1 


1 


1 






1 




Goodeniaceae 














1 


1 




Compositae . 


44 


2 


8 


3 


9 




9 


65 


4 


Total 


252 


62 


171 


149 


207 


49 


123 


615 


67 






Percentage 


40.9 


10.08 


27.8 


24.22 


33.65 


7.96 


20 







Total number of species, varieties, forms and indeterminate species 



682, 



New Hampshire College 

Durham, New Hampshire, U. S. A. 
March 25, WO 



246 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

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BY M. A. DAY. 

With Additions by Alhan Stewart. 
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Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 247 

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(1). Voyage autour du Monde sur la Fregate "La Venus" pendant les 
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(2). Die Organische Mischung der Vulkanischen Gebirgsarten beson- 
ders des Palagonits auf den Galapagos-Inseln. Op. c. pp. 180- 
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(1). Versuch einer Entwicklungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt inbeson- 
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(1). Fungi, in Robinson, op. c, pp. 82-83. 

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(3). Cactaceae in the Galapagos Islands. Nature, vol. 53, 1895, pp. 31, 
249. 

(4). Insular Floras. Science Progress, vol. 1, 1894, pp. 400-401 ; vol. 5, 
1896, pp. 298-302. 

(5). The Cactaceae of the Galapagos Islands. Card. Chron. ser. 3, 
vol. 24, 1898, p. 265, fig. 75. 

(6). The Vegetation of the Galapagos Islands. Card. Chron. ser. 3, 
vol. 27, 1900, p. 177, figs. 56, 61. 

(7). Cactaceae of the Galapagos Islands. Card. Chron. ser. 3, vol. 28, 
1900, p. 7. 

(8). Opuntia Myriacantha. Card. Chron. ser. 3, vol. 28, 1900, p. 220. 

(9). In Hook. Icones Plantarum, vol. 28, 1901, t. 2715-2719. 

(10). The Flora of the Galapagos Islands. Card. Chron. ser. 3, vol. 32, 
1902, p. 469. 

January 16. 1911 



248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 

(1). Description of Pleuropetalum, a new Genus of Portulacaceae from 
the Galapagos Islands. Land. Jour. Bot., vol. 5, 1846, pp. 108- 
109. 
(2). Enumeration of the Plants of the Galapagos Islands with Descrip- 
tions of New Species. Linn. Soc. Proc, vol. 1, 1849, pp. 276-279. 
(3). An Enumeration of the Plants of the Galapagos Archipelago with 
Descriptions of those which are New. Linn. Soc. Trans., vol. 
20, 1847, pp. 163-233. 
(4). On the Vegetation of the Galapagos Islands as compared with 
that of some other Tropical Islands of the Continent of 
America. Linn. Soc. Trans., vol. 20, 1847, pp. 235-262. 
Hooker, William Jackson. 

(1). Species Filicum. 5 vols., 1846-1864. (Isolated species described.) 
PiccoNE, Antonio. 

(1). Alghe del Viaggio di Circumnavigazione della Vettor Pisani. 

Genova, 1886, p. 97, t. 1-2. 
(2). Nuove Alghe del Viaggio di Circumnavigazione della "Vettor 
Pisani." Mem. Acad. Lincei, vol. 286, 1889, pp. 10-63. 
Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, and Greenman, Jesse More. 

(1). On the Flora of the Galapagos Islands as shown by the Collec- 
tions of Dr. Baur. Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 3, vol. 50, 1895, pp. 
135-149. 
Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln. 

(1). Flora of the Galapagos Islands. Proc. Am. Acad., vol. 38, 1902, 
no. 4, pp. 77-269, pis. 1-3. 
Rose, Joseph Nelson. 

(1). List of Plants from Galapagos Islands. Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb., 
vol. 1, 1892, pp. 136-138. 
Tuckerman, Edward. 

(1). Observations on North American and other Lichens. Proc. Am. 
Acad., vol. 12, 1877, pp. 166-181. (Isolated species described). 
Wallace, Alfred Russel. 

(1). Flora of the Galapagos. In his Island Life, London, 1880, pp. 
276-279. 
Weber, Alb. 

(1). Les Cactees des lies Galapagos. Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1899, pp. 309-314. Review, Monatsschr. Kakteen, vol. 10, 1900, 
p. 173. 
Wolf, Theodor. 

(1). Ein Besuch der Galapagos Inseln, mit drei Kartchen. Sammlung 
von Vortrdgen fiir das deutsche Volk, vol. 1, 1879, pp. 259-300. 
(2). Die Galapagos Inseln. Verhandl. d. Gesellsch. f. Erdk. su Berlin, 
vol. 23, 1895, pp. 246-265. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY- OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



249 



Index. 



(Roman numbers indicate pages where 
their principal treatment; italic numbers 
mentioned or occur as synonyms.) 
Abutilon, 100, i88. 
Acacia, 68, 178, 207, zig. 
Acalypha, 86, 183, 216. 
AcANTHACEAE, 142, igg, 245. 
Acanthospermum, 148, 20i. 
Achrosticum, 11, i6, 20, 23, 25, 27, 160, 

2og. 
Achyranthes, 58. 
Acmella, 153. 
Acnistus, 28, 136, ig6, 2ig. 
Adiantum, 11, 160, 208, 209, 212. 
Ageratum, 148, 201. 
Agrostis, 32, 39. 
AizoACEAE, 63, 176, 214, 243. 
Alternanthera, 54, 173. 
Amarantaceae, 54, 173, 214, 235, 243. 
Amaranthus, 54, 174, 214. 
Amaryllidaceae, 46, 171, 243. 
Ambrosia, 148, 201. 
Ammophila, 29, 165, 213, 218. 
Amphochaeta, 38. 
Anoda, 101, 188. 
Anogramma, 12, 160. 
Anona, 67, 177. 
Anonaceae, 67, 177, 243. 
Anthephora, 29, 165. 
Apium, 120, 192. 
Aplopappus, 148, 201. 
Apocynaceae, 121, 192, 244. 
Argyreia, 122, 193, 209, 219. 
Aristida, 30, 165, 207. 
Arundo, 29. 

Asclepiadaceae, 122, 192, 244. 
Asclepias, 122, 192, 219. 
Aspidium, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 26, 160. 
Asplenium, 13, 14, 15, 161, 209, 212. 
Astragalus, 69, 178. 

Atriplex, 53, 173, 218. 

Avicennia, 131, J95, 217, 218, 219. 

Azolla, 27, 164, 2i8. 

Baccharis, 148, 202. 

Bacopa, 141, 198. 

Basellaceae, 60, 176, 243. 

Bastardia, 101, J88. 

Batidaceae, 59, 175, 243. 

Batis, 59, 175, 218. 

Bidens, 149, 202. 

Bignoniaceae, 142, 198, 245. 

Blainvillea, 149, 202. 

Blechnum, 15, 161, 209. 

Boerhaavia, 60, 123, 127, 214. 

BoRAGiNACEAE, 126, 194, ^17, ^35, 245- 

Borreria, 143, 199, 207, 217. 

Boussingaultia, 60, 176, 219. 

Bouteloua, 31, 166. 



the respective genera and families receive 
show the pages on which the names are 

Brachistus, 137, 196 

Brandesia, 56. 

Brassica, 67, 178. 

Brickellia, 150, 202. 

Bromeliaceae, 45, 170, 213, 243- 

Bryophyllum, 68. 

Bucholtzia, 57, 58. 

Bursera, 84, 107, 124, 182, 206, 207, 208, 

215, 219, 231. 
Burseraceae, 84, 182, 215, 244. 
Cacabus, 137, 197, 218, 219. 
Cactaceae, 107, 190, 216, 230, 232, 244, 

246, 247. 
Caenopteris, 14. 
Caesalpinia, 69, 178. 
Callitrichaceae, 96, 186, 244. 
CalHtriche, 96, j86, 2j8. 
Calystegia, 123, I93- 
Campanulaceae, 147, 201, 245. 
Canavalia, 70, 179, 219. 
Canna, 46, 171. 
Cannaceae, 46, 171, 243- 
Capraria, 141, 198. 
Capsicum, 138, 197. 
Cardiospermum, 97, 187, 216, 219. 
Carica, 106, ipo. 
Caricaceae, 106, 190, 244. 
Caryophyllaceae, 66, 177, 243. 
Cassia, 70, 179. 
Castela, 82, 182, 207, 208, 215. 
Celastraceae, 96, 187, 216, 244. 
Cenchrus, 31, 166, 207. 
Centella, 120, 192. 

Cereus, 107, in, 190, 207, 216, 219, 232. 
Ceropteris, 16, 161, 208, 209, 211. 
Cheilanthes, 16, 162, 209, 211. 
Chenocarpus, 143. 
Chenopodiaceae, 53, 173, 243. 
Chiococca, 145, 200, 208, 209, 217. 
Chloris, 32, 166. 
Chrysanthellum, 150, 202. 
Cissampelos, 66, 177, 208, 209, 214, 219, 

233- 
Cissus, 99, 187, 219. 
Citrullus, 146, 201. 

Clerodendron, 132, 195, 207, 208, 217. 
Coffea, 145, 200. 
Coldenia, 126, 194, 207, 218. 
Combretaceae, 118, 191, 217, 244. 
Commelina, 45, 171. 
Commelinaceae, 45, 171, 243. 
Compositae, 148, 201, 218, 235, 240, 245. 
Conocarpus, 118, 191, 217, 218, 219. 
Convolvulaceae, 122, 193, 217, 235, 245. 
Convolvulus, 122, J2S, 217. 



250 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Corchorus, 99, 187. 

Cordia, 127, 194, 207, 208, 217, 219. 

Coronopus, 68, 178. 

Crassulaceae, 68, 178, 244. 

Crassuvia, 68, 178. 

Crotolaria, 70, 179- 

Croton, 88, 184, 206, 207, 208, 209, 215. 

Cruciferae, 67, 178, 243. 

Cryptocarpus, 61, 176, 214, 218. 

Cucurbita, 147, 201. 

Cucurbitaceae, 146, 201, 245. 

Cuphea, 116, 191. 

Cuscuta, 123, 193, 218. 

Cyathia, 20. 

Cyclopeltis, 17, 162. 

Cynosurus, 32, 35. 

Cyperaceae, 40, 169, 213, 235, 243. 

Cyperus, 40, 169, 213. 

Cystopteris, 17, 162. 

Dactyloctenium, 32, 166. 

Dalea, 71, 179. 

Datura, 138, 197. 

Desmanthus, 71, 179, 207. 

Desmocephalum, 151. 

Desmodium, 72, 179, 215. 

Dichronema, 43, 170, 213. 

Dicksonia, 2(5. 

Dicliptera, 142, 199. 

Dictocalyx, 137, 

Digitaria, 33, 37, 166. 

Diodia, 145, 200. 

Discaria, 62, 97, 98, 187, 207, 216. 

Dodonaea, 98, 187. 

Dolichos, 70, 77. 

Doryopteris, 17, 162, 208, 209. 

Drymaria, 66, 177. 

Dryopteris, 18, 162, 209. 

Dubreulia, 51. 

Duranta, 132, 195. 

Eclipta, 150, 202. 

Elaphoglossum, 20, 162. 

Elaphrium, 84. 

Elaterium, 147, 201, 219. 

Eleocharis, 43, 170, 213, 218. 

Eleusine, 32, 33, 3s, 166. 

Elvira, 151, 202. 

Encelia, 151, 202. 

Epidendrum, 47, 171, 209. 

Equisetaceae, 28, 164, 212, 243. 

Equisetum, 28, 164, 212. 

Eragrostis, 33, 166. 

Erigeron, 151, 203, 208, 209, 218. 

Eriochloa, 34, 167. 

Erythrina, 73, 180, 207, 219. 

Ethulia, 153. 

Eugenia, 117, 191. 

Eulophia, 47, 171. 

Eupatorium, i^o, 152, 203. 

Euphorbia, 90, 185, 207, 208, 216. 

EUPHORBIACEAE, 86, I83, 21$, 23$, 244. 



Eutriana, 31. 

Evolvulus, 123, 193. 

Festuca, 34. 

FiLiCES, 11, 160, 211, 235, 236, 243, 248. 

Fimbristylis, 44, 170, 213. 

Flaveria, 153, 203. 

Fleurya, 50, 172. 

Froelichia, 56, 174. 

Furcraea, 46, 171. 

Galactea, 73, 180, 219. 

Galapagoa, 126. 

Galega, 78. 

Galvezia, 141, 198. 

Geoffroea, 74, j8o. 

Gleichenia, 20, 162. 

Glycine, 74, 78. 

Gnaphalium, 153, 203. 

GOODENIACEAE, 147, 201, 24$. 

Gossypium, 101, i88, 207, 208, 216, 219. 

Gramineae, 29, 165, 212, 235, 243. 

Gratiola, 141. 

Guilandina, 69. 

Gymnogramme, 12, 16. 

Halorrhagidaceae, 119, 192, 244. 

Hedysarum, 72, 73, 79. 

Heliotropium, 128, 194, 218. 

Helosciadium, 120. 

Hemicarpha, 44, 170, 213. 

Hemionitis, 27. 

Hemitelia, 20, 163, 209, 212. 

Hemizonia, 153, 203. 

Hibiscus, 102, 188, 218, 219. 

Hippomane, 94, 186, 216, 218, 219. 

Histiopteris, 21, 163. 

Holosteum, 66. 

Hydrocotyle, 120, 192. 

Hydrolea, 126, 194. 

Hydrophyllaceae, 126, 194, 245. 

Hymen ophyllum, 21, 163, 212. 

Hypericaceae, 105, 189, 244. 

Hypericum, 105, 189. 

Hypolepis, 21, 163. 

Hypoxis, 47, 171. 

Hyptis, 135, 196. 

Tnga, 74, 180. 

lonopsis, 47, 171, 208, 209. 

Ipomoea, 122, 124, 193, 217, 218, 219. 

Iresine, 56, 174. 

Iridaceae, 46, 171, 243. 

Iris, 46, 171. 

Ischaemum, 40. 

Jaegeria, 153, 203. 

Jatropa, 95, 186. 

Jussiaea, 119, 191, 218. 

Justicia, 142, 199. 

Kallstroemia, 80, 182, 219. 

Kleinia, 155. 

Kyllinga, 44, 170, 213. 

Labiatae, 135, 196, 245. 

Laguncularia, 56, 118, 191, 217, 218. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



251 



Lantana, 132, jp5, 207, 308, 217. 

Lecocarpus, 148, 154, 203. 

Leguminosae, 68, 178, 214, 235, 244. 

Lemna, 45, 170, 218. 

Lemnaceae, 45, 170, 243. 

Lepidium, 68, 178. 

Leptochloa, 34, 167. 

LinaceaEj 80, 181, 244. 

Linum, 80, 181. 

Lipochaeta, 52, 76, 154, 203, 2o8, 218. 

Lippia, 133, Jp5. 

LOASACEAE, 106, IpO, 244. 

Lobelia, 147, 201. 
Lonchitis, 21. 
Lonicera, 145. 

LORANTHACEAE, 52, I73, 243. 

Lorentia, 154, 15$. 

Lycium, 138, 197, 218. 

Lycopersicum, 138, ip7. 

Lycopodiaceae, 15, 28, 165, 212, 243. 

Lycopodium, 28, i6s, 212, 231. 

Lythraceae, 116, i()i, 244. 

Macraea, 154. 

Malachra, 102, 188. 

Malva, 102, 103. 

Malvaceae, 100, j88, 216, 235, 244. 

Malvastrum, 102, 188. 

Manihot, 95, 186. 

Mariscus, 41, 42. 

Maytenus, 62, 96, pp, 187, 207, 208, 216, 

218. 
Melastomaceae, 119, 191, 244. 
Menispermaceae, 66, 177, 214, 243. 
Mentzelia, 106, Jpo, 207. 
Miconia, 119, 191, 219. 
Microcoecia, i^i. 
Milium, 34. 
Miliaria, 153. 
Mimosa, 68, 69, 75, 180. 
Mirabilis, 62, 176. 
Mollugo, 63, 176. 
Momordica, 147, 20j, 219. 
Monniera, 141. , 

Mucuna, 75, 180, 219. 
Myriophyllum, 119, 192, 2i8. 
Myrtaceae, 117, 191, 244. 
Najadaceae, 29, 165, 243. 
Najas, 29, 165, 218. 
Nephrodium, 13, 18, 19, 20. 
Nephrol epis, 21, 163, 209, 212. 
Neptunia, 75, 180. 
Nicotiana, 139, 197, 219. 
Notholaena, 22, 163, 211. 
Nyctaginaceae, 60, 138, 176, 214, 243. 
Onagraceae, 119, J91, 244. 
Oplismenus, 35, 167. 
Opuntia, 106, 110, jpo, 207, 216, 219, 233, 

247. 
Orchidaceae, A7, J71, 213, 243. 

OXALIDACEAE, 79, l8l, 244. 



Oxalis, 79, i8i. 
Panicum, 33, 35, 38, 167. 
Parietaria, 51, 172. 
Parkinsonia, 75, 180, 207, 219. 
Paspalum, 37, 168, 209, 212, 213. 
Passiflora, 105, 189, 219. 
Passifloraceae, 105, 189, 244. 
Pectis, 154, 204. 
Pellaea, 17. 
Pennisetum, 38, 168. 
Peperomia, 48, 172, 213, 218. 
Petroselinum, 120, 192. 
Phaca, 69. 

Phaseolus, 76, 180, 219. 
Phoradendron, 52, 83, 173, 21s, 218. 
Phyllanthus, 95, 186. 
Physalis, 139, 197. 
Phytolacca, 60, 176. 
Phytolaccaceae, 60, 176, 243. 
Pilea, 51, 172. 

PiPERACEAE, 48, 172, 213, 243. 

Piscidia, 76, 181, 207, 219. 
Pisonia, 62, 176, 208, 209, 214, 219. 
Plantaginaceae, 143, Jpp, 244. 
Plantago, 143, jpp. 
Pleuropetalum, 56, 175, 248. 

PlU M B AGIN ACE AE, 121, Ip2, 244. 

Plumbago, 121, 192, 230. 
Poa, 33, 34. 
Poinciana, 69. 
Polygala, 85, 183. 

POLYGALACEAE, 85, I83, 244. 

Polygonaceae, S3, 173, 243. 

Polygonum, 53, 173. 

Polypodium, 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 26, 163, 

208, 209, 211, 212, 221. 
Polystichum, 26, 164. 
Ponthieva, 48, ///. 
Porophyllum, 155, 204. 
Portulaca, 65, 177. 
Portulacaceae, 65, 177, 243, 248. 
Potamogeton, 29, 165. 
Potamogetonaceae, 29, 165, 243. 
Priva, 134, 196. 
Prosopis, 75, 76, 181, 207, 219. 
Psidium, 117, 191, 208, 209, 219. 
Psychotria, 146, 200, 208, 209, 217. 
Pteris, 17, 18, 21, 22, 26, 27, 164, 209, 212. 
Punica, 116, 191. 
Raphanus, 68, 178. 
Rauwolfia, I2i. 
Relbunium, 146, 200. 
Rhamnaceae, 98, 187, 216, 244. 
Rhizophora, 116, 119, 191, 217, 218, 219. 
Rhizophoraceae, 1 16, J91, 217, 244. 
Rhynchosia, 77, 123, 181, 219. 
Ricinus, 96, 186. 
Rivina, 60, 176. 
Robinia, 74. 
Roccela, 84. 



252 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Rubia, 146. 

RuBiACEAE, 143, 199, 217, 235, 245- 

Ruellia, 142, 199. 

Ruppia, 29, 165, 218. 

RuTACEAE, 81, 182, 213, 244- 

Salicornia, 53, 173, 218. 

Salvia, 135, 196. 

Salvinia, 28, 164, 218. 

Salviniaceae, 27, 164, 243. 

Sapindaceae, 97, 187, 216, 244. 

Sapindus, 94, 98, 187, 216, 219. 

Scaevola, 147, 201, 218. 

Scalesia, 123, 156, 204, 207, 208, 209, 

217, 2i8, 219. 
Schinus, 81. 
Scirpus, 43, 44- 
Scleria, 44, 170, 213. 
Scleropus, 55. 
Sclerothrix, 107, 190. 
Scroparia, 141, 198. 
Scrophulariaceae, 141, 198, 245. 
Senebiera, 68. 
Sesuvium, 64, 177, 214, 218. 
Setaria, 38, 168. 
Sicyos, 147, 201, 219. 
Sida, 100, loi, 103, 188. 
Simarubaceae, 82, 182, 215, 244. 
Sinapis, 67. 

Solanaceae, 136, 196, 217, 235, 245. 
Solanum, 140, 198, 219. 
Sonchus, 159, 205. 
Spermacoce, 14s, 146, 200. 
Spilanthes, 159, 205. 
Sporobolus, 39, 168, 213, 218. 
Stachytarpheta, 134, 196. 
Stenotaphrum, 40, 168. 
Sterculiaceae, 104, 189, 244. 
Stipa, 40, 168. 
Stylosanthes, 78, 181. 
Tagetes, 159, 205. 



Tardavel, 143. 

Tecoma, 142, 198. 

Telanthera, 56, 175, 207, 2o8, 214. 

Tephrosia, 78, 181. 

Tetramerium, 142, 199. 

Teucrium, 135, 196. 

Thinogeton, 137. 

TiLiACEAE, 99, 187, 244. 

Tillandsia, 45, 170, 208, 209, 213, 218. 

Tournefortia, 129, 195, 208, 209, 217. 

Trachypteris, 27, 164, 208, 209, Sti. 

Trianthema, 64, 177. 

Tribulus, 80, 182, 219. 

Trichomanes, 21, 27, 164. 

Tripsacum, 29. 

Triumfetta, 99, 187. 

Turnera, 105, 189. 

Turneraceae, 105, 189, 244. 

Umbelliferae, 120, 192, 244. 

Urera, 51, 173, 209, 214. 

Urtica, 5/. 

Urticaceae, so, 172, 213, 214, 243. 

Usnea, 84, 

Valantia, 146. 

Vallesia, 121, 192. 

Verbena, 134, 196. 

Verbenaceae, 131, 19s, 217, 235, 243. 

Verbesina, 149. 

Vigna, 79, 181. 

Vilfa, 39. 

Vincetoxicum, 122. 

Viscum, 52. 

ViTACEAE, 99, 187, 244. 

Vitis, 99, 187. 

Vittaria, 27, 164. 

Waltheria, 104, 189, 207, 208. 

Zanthoxylum, 23, 29, 52, 80, 182, 208, 

209, 215, 219. 
Zornia, 79, 181. 
Zygophyllaceae, 80, 182, 244. 



New Species, Forms, and Varieties Described 

Amaranthus sclerantoides joryna, abingdonensis, 54. 

Amaranthus sclerantoides forma albemarlensis, 55. 

Brachistus pubescens, 137. 

Cissampelos galapagensis, 66. 

Croton Scouleri var. glabriusculus, 89. 

Erigeron lancifolius 'oar. glabriusculus, 151. 

Erigeron tenuifolius var. tomentosus, 152. 

Euphorbia articulata var. bindloensis, 91. 

Euphorbia equisetiformis, 91. 

Euphorbia Stevensii, 92. 

Opuntia insularis, 113. 

Peperomia obtusilimba C. DC, 49. 

Peperomia Stewartii C. DC, 49. 

Scalesia cordata, 156. 

Scalesia villosa, 158. 

Scalesia villosa var. championensis, 159. 

Telanthera galapagensis, 57. 



Prdc.Cal.Acad. Bci 4™ Ber Vdl I 




Prdc CalAcat). Sci 4™ See Vdl I 



Stzwart] Plate 



ZA.CiriC OCEAN 



THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



Sound /r^os //v fathoms 

Under /irmd f/guresmfhff >^a^€f in parenmt'ses mdicafe 
fhe fie/ghto/?oi^e me p/ane Qf high wafer or fhe adjacent 
Js/ancf orrtfck s^r- ^ ^ Off^n 




254 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II 

. Drawn by F. S. Mathews 

Fig. \. Amaranthus sclerantoides Anderss. forma abdingdonensis Stew- 
art n. forma. X 1. 
Fig. 2. Amaranthus sclerantoides Anderss. forma alhemarlensis Stewart 

n. forma. X 1- 
Fig". 3. Telanthera galapagensis Stewart n. sp. XI- 
Fig. 4. Telanthera galapagensis Stewart, dissected flower. X 4. 

a bracts. 

b external sepals. 

c internal sepals. 

d stamens. 

e pistil. 



Prdc CalAcad. Sci. 4™ Ser Vdl.I 



Steaatart] Plate II 




'F.Schuylerl^theuti. del. l^o8 



256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE III 

Drawn by F. S. Mathews 

Euphorbia equisetiformis Stewart n. sp. X -5. 

Euphorbia equisetiformis Stewart^ flower. X 2. 

Euphorbia Stevensii Stewart n. sp. X 1- 

Euphorbia Stevensii Stewart, flower. X 4. 

Euphorbia articulata Anderss. variety bindloensis Stewart n. var. 

X 1. 
Brachistus pubescens Stewart n. sp. X 1- 
Brachistus pubescens Stewart, dissected flower. X 2. 
Brachistus pubescens Stewart, fruit. X 2. 
Cissampelos galapagensis Stewart n. sp. X -5. 
Cissampelos galapagensis Stewart, flower. X 4. 



Prdc.Cal.Acai]. Sei 4™ Ser Vdl.I 



Stewart] Plate III 




258 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV 

Drawn by F. S. Mathews 

Fig. I. Scalesia villosa Stewart n. sp. X -5. 

Fig. 2. Scalesia villosa Stewart^ squame. X 4. 

Fig. 3. Scalesia villosa Stewart, flower head. X -5. 

Fig. 4. Scalesia cordata Stewart n. sp. X -5. 

Fig. 5. Scalesia cordata Stewart, squame. X 4. 

Fig. 6. Scalesia cordata Stewart, fruit. X 4. 



PrdcCalAcad. Sei 4™ Ber Vdl.I 



Stewart] Plate IV 




TJchuL/lerTidtkeivs del -l^os 



250 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V 
Photographed by R. E. Shuey 
Cereus nesioticus K. Sch., branch and fruit. X -38. 



Pj?dc CalAcad. 5li 4™ Ber VdlJ 



Stewart] Plate V 




262 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI 

Photographed by R. H. Beck 

Cereus sclerocarpus K. Sch., covering the side of a clifif at Academy Bay, 
Indefatigable Island. 



< 



w 
Ln 




January 17, 1911. 



264 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII 
Photographed by R. E. Shuey 

Fig. 1. Opuntia myriacantha Weber, young specimen from Indefatigable 

Island. X .436. 
Fig. 2. Opuntia galapageia Hensl., young specimen from Hood Island. X 

.42. 



Prdc CalAcad. Sei 4™ 5er VdlJ 



Stewart 1 Plate VII 




256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII 
Photographed by E. W. Gifford 

Fig. L Opuntia galapageia Hensl., young specimen from Hood Island. X 

ca. .105. 
Fig. 2. Opuntia galapageia Hensl., partly grown specimen from Hood 

Island. X ca. .033. 



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268 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX 

Photographed by E. W. Gifford 

Fig. 1. Opuntia insularis Stewart, specimen from Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Island. 

Fig. 2. Opuntia galapageia Hensl., mature specimen from Hood Island 
with closely arranged branches. 



Prdc CalAcac. Sci 4™ Ser VnL.I 



Stewart ] Plate IX 





270 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE X 

Photographed by R. H. Beck 

Opuntia galapageia Hensl., mature specimen from Duncan Island with 
open branching. 



X 




272 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI 

Photographed by R. E. Shuey 

Opuntia galapageia Hensl., specimen of a branch from Abingdon Island. 
X .393. 



Phdc CalAcad. Sci 4™ Ser Vdl.I 



Stewart] Plate XI 




274 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII 

Photographed by R. E. Shuey 

Opuntia galapageia Hensl., specimen of a branch from Charles Island. 
X -38. This specimen contains both stiff and capillary spines in the 
fascicles, in which respect it is intermediate between O. galapageia and 
O. myriacantha. 



Prdc CalAcad. Sci 4™ Ser.Vdl.I 



Stewart ] Plate XII 




276 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII 

Fig. \. Opuntia Helleri K. Sch., thicket on Tower Island. Photographed 
by E. W. Gifford. 

Fig. 2. Opuntia myriacantha Weber^ specimens from Academy Bay, Inde- 
fatigable Island, showing the pendant branches. Photographed 
by R. H. Beck. 



PR DC CalAcad. Si: I 4™ 5er Vdl I 



Stewart] Plate XIII 





278 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV 

Photographed by R. E. Shuey 

Opuntia Helleri K. Sch., branch of a specimen from Wenman Island. 
X .444. 



Prdc CalAcad. Sci 4™ Ser.Vdl I 



Stewart i Plate XIV 




January 17, 1911. 



280 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Psoc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV 

Photographed by R. E. Shuey 

Opuntia insularis Stewart, n. sp., specimen of a branch from Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle Island. X -437. 



PRQC CAL.ACAD Sci 4™ Ser Vdl I 



[ Stewart ] Plate X^/ 





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282 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI 

Photographed by R. H. Beck 

Opuntia myriacantha Weber, specimen from Academy Bay, Indefatigable 
Island, showing the character of the trmik and pendant branches. 



284 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII 

Photographed by R. E. Shuey 

Opuntia myriacantha Weber, bark from a specimen on Barrington Island. 



PR DC CalAcad Sci 4™ Ser Vol I 



Stewart] Plate XVII 




286 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII 

Photographed by R. E. Shuey 

Opimtia myriacantha Weber^ specimen of a branch from Barrington 
Island. X -365. 



Prqc CalAcad^ Sci 4™ Ser Vdl I 



Stewart ] Plate XVIII 




288 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX 

Photographed by R. E. Shuey 

Opuntia species, specimen of a branch from South Seymour Island. 
X .444. 



PRDC Cal.Acad Sci 4;^" Ser Vql.L 



Stewart] Plate XIX 



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PROCEEDINGS 

Fourth Series ^ 

VOLUME I 

Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

Pagep 1-6. I. Preliminary Description of Four New Races of 
Gigantic Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands. By John 
Van Denburgh. {Issued December 20, 1907) I -25 

Pages 7-288. II. A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands. 

By Alban Stewart. {I sstied January 20, 1911) 1 .75 



VOLUME II 

Expedition of the Cahfornia Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

{In progress.) 



VOLUME III 

Pages 1-40. A Further Stratigraphic Study in the Mount Diablo 
Range of California. By Frank M. Anderson. {Issued October 
31, 1908) 35 

Pages 41-48. Description of a New Species of Sea Snake from the 
Philippine Islands, with a Note on the Palatine Teeth in the 
Proteroglypha. By John Van Denburgh and Joseph C. Thomp- 
son. {Issued December 31, 1908) 25 

Pages 49-56. New and Previously Unrecorded Species;of Reptiles 
and Amphit^ians from the Island of Formosa. By John Van 
Denburgh. {Issued December 20, 1909) -25 

Pages 57-72. Water Birds of the Vicinity of Point Pinos, California. 

By RoUo Howard Beck. {Isstied September 17, 1910) 25 



The Academy cannot supply any of its publications jssued before the 
ye. 1907, its entire reserve stock having been destroyed in the conflagra- 
tion of April, 1906. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 289-322 October 7, 1911 



Expedition of the California Academy of 

Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 

19054906 

III 

The Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of the Galapagos Islands 



Francis X. Williams 

Assistant Curator of Entomology, Kansas University, 
Entomologist to the Expedition 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

1911 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

George C. Edwards, Chamnan 
C. E. Grunsky Edwin C. Van Dyke 



THE HICKS-JUDD PRESS 
SAN FRANCISCO 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 289-322 October 7, 1911 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906 



III 

THE BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS OF THE 
GALAPAGOS ISLANDS^ 



BY FRANCIS X. WILLIAMS 

Assistant Curator of Entomology, Kansas University, 

Entomologist to the Expedition 



CONTENTS 
Plates XX-XXI 

Page 

Introduction 290 

Rhopalocera 296 

Heterocera 3Q5 

Concluding Remarks .- 313 

Table Showing Insect Seasons 320 

Explanation of Plate XX 322 

^ Unless otherwise stated all the specimens collected on this expedition are in the 
collection of the California Academy of Sciences, at San Francisco. 

September 18, 1911 



290 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Introduction 

The author regrets that he is unable to include in this paper 
all the species of Lepidoptera collected on the islands, for while 
this order is scantily represented in the region under considera- 
tion, the smaller and less conspicuous forms present difficulties 
which would cause considerable delay; and rather than to 
permit this, he has deemed it advisable to publish at present the 
butterflies and Sphinges with such observations on other Gala- 
pagos Lepidoptera as may assist in showing the facies of this 
fauna and in rendering an explanation of its origin and devel- 
opment. 

A single fauna need not be treated in its entirety to show 
its relationships with others, though where possible, the whole 
fauna should be studied. 

The Galapagos Archipelago (belonging to Ecuador) is sit- 
uated on the equator, about 600 miles from the west coast of 
South America, and a little more than 700 miles from Veragua, 
with Cocos and Malpelo Islands intervening. This group is 
therefore considerably closer to the mainland than are some 
other oceanic islands, as the Hawaiian Islands, 2350 m. ; St. 
Helena, 1100 m. ; the Azores, about 900 m. ; and the Bermudas, 
about 700^ m. I have considered the Galapagos as oceanic as 
regards their natural history; whether they issued in the first 
place from the bed of the ocean, or whether they were of con- 
tinental origin, provided they were once completely submerged,^ 
or all living organisms thereon otherwise totally destroyed 
simultaneously by volcanic activity, as the flora and fauna 
would still be of oceanic character, i. e., transported across 
water to the islands, a condition that the writer believes has 
happened. To quote Wallace in his "Island Life," the Gala- 
pagos Archipelago "occupies a space of about 300 by 200 miles. 
It consists of five large and twelve small islands; the largest 
(Albemarle Island) being about eighty miles long and of very 

1 These figures are taken from Wallace's "Island Life." According to F. M. Jones 
(Ent. News XXI, 16S, 1910), the Bermudas are 575 nautical miles from Cape Hat- 
teras, North Carolina. 

- There is good evidence that the Galapagos Archipelago was once one large island 
which by subsidence has formed the many smaller islands. This view makes it easier 
for us to explain the existence on all or most of the islands of closely allied species 
or varieties. 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 291 

irregular shape, while the four next in importance — Chatham, 
Indefatigable, James, and Narborough Islands, are each about 
twenty-five or thirty miles long, and of a rounded or elongate 
form — these are situated in a comparatively calm sea, where 
storms are of rare occurrence, and even strong winds almost 
unknown. They are traversed by ocean currents which are 
strong and constant, flowing towards the northwest from the 
coast of Peru." This, a portion of the great antarctic drift, 
has the effect of making the climate of these islands, tropically 
situated, quite temperate. Seldom indeed, then, is the heat 
excessive, and it appears never to become really cold during any 
period of the year. The northern extremity of the group is 
influenced somewhat by the Panama current, so that it is 
noticeably warmer there than farther south, though the natural 
history does not appear to be modified in any manner thereby. 
Lava of various ages occurs on all the islands, and forms 
at least their exterior surface in a large measure. Narborough, 
for instance, is covered almost entirely, from its huge crater 
over 4000 feet high to the very sea-level, with a layer of recent 
lava. Only here and there along its sides and base and perhaps 
summit exist strips or patches of older layers, supporting a 
meager flora and fauna. All the larger islands, especially 
Albemarle, have great fields of lava. Charles and Chatham, 
two of the more southern islands, could be, and are sometimes 
considered (as regards external appearance) as the oldest 
islands of the group. They have plenty of good rich soil and 
their various craters are well rounded and sometimes almost 
obliterated. The upper areas of the higher islands, especially 
on their weather side (S. E. in this case) where the moisture 
first strikes them, have an abundance of humus and vegetation. 
With a few exceptions, the lowlands are quite arid and of 
desert character. 

For some hundreds of years, the Galapagos Islands have 
been visited by various ships and were formerly a favorite 
resort of the buccaneers who were numerous in the region. 

In 1835, the Galapagos were visited by Charles Darwin in 
the "Beagle" ; in 1852, by Prof. N. J. Andersson, in the Swed- 
ish frigate "Eugenie"; in 1868-9, by Dr. A. Habel; in 1871, 
by Prof. A. Agassiz of the "Hassler Expedition"; in 1875, by 



292 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Dr. Theodor Wolf, State Geologist of Ecuador, and by Com- 
mander Cookson of the "Petrel"; in 1884, by Lieutenants 
Chierca and Marcacci; in 1888, by L. A. Lee of the "Albatross 
Expedition"; in 1891, by Prof. A. Agassiz on the "Albatross," 
also by Prof. Geo. Bauer and his assistant; in 1898-99, by 
Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller of the Hopkins-Stanford Expe- 
dition; and finally in 1905-06, by the Expedition of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences. The last expedition had, besides 
the navigator and the first mate and steward, a staff of eight 
men representing the departments of Zoology, Entomology, 
Conchology, Botany, Geology and Palaeontology. A full year, 
of the seventeen months of the Expedition, was spent in the 
Archipelago, and although much time was lost by reason of th6 
little two-masted schooner "Academy" drifting about the 
Pacific in calm weather, all the islands and many of the "mere 
rocks" of the group were visited at least once, and a number, 
several times, and from different points and during various 
seasons. Thus the Expedition, equipped for the special purpose 
of studying and collecting specimens of natural history, was 
able to bring together a far larger and more varied assemblage 
of specimens than was collected perhaps by the sum total of all 
the previous expeditions to these islands. It is only fair to 
bear in mind, however, that a number of the earlier expeditions 
were handicapped by lack of time, equipment, and sufficient and 
capable collectors ; nevertheless, the results of their labors are 
very creditable when we consider the paucity of the Galapagos 
fauna, the general rough character of the country, and the fact 
that in some cases, the collecting and studying of specimens of 
natural history was but a secondary or incidental matter. 

The zonal divisions of the fauna and flora of the Archipelago 
are very interesting. The plant zones on the windward (S. E.) 
side of the more lofty islands are often quite distinctly defined 
and can be observed from several miles at sea. The Zoological 
regions conform in a greater or less degree to those of the flora. 
The south and southeast sides of Indefatigable Island, show 
these zones very nicely,^ and a brief discourse on them will give 

^ While the zones may be distinct on the weather side of an island, the opposite or 
dry side of the latter displays no such well-defined areas, hence the arid belt de natura 
extends much higher up on that side, while the humid areas are forced far up the 
slopes and are of quite limited extent, if at all present. 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 293 

the reader an idea of their character (Plate XXI). The upper 
or humid portion of the island (500 feet and up) is very diffi- 
cult of access owing to the dense tangle of vines and scarcity of 
water. The island was not explored above 1000 feet altitude, 
therefore the character of the vegetation above about 1400 feet 
was not satisfactorily ascertained, but by means of observations 
through binoculars and by observing the slopes and summits of 
other high and more accessible islands of the group, a doubtful 
idea of the "Brown Zone" was obtained.^ Indefatigable Island 
is about twenty-five miles in diameter and nearly circular in 
outline, and is situated a little south of the center of the main 
Archipelago. Its height is estimated at a little over 2200 feet, 
but it appears fully 3000 feet high. The slope from shore to 
summit is very gradual and comparatively uniform, and the 
lower or arid area of much greater extent than the more 
elevated humid regions. The summit of Indefatigable Island 
probably contains a large crater. This portion of the island is 
very commonly enveloped in clouds. The two well-defined life 
areas, the arid and the humid, can each be subdivided into 
regions of a less distinct character, and the former are connected 
with each other by a species of transition or "Big Tree" zone 
which has a lighter green appearance than the "Green" zone 
above it. 

Commencing at the shore line, we find the "Arid" zone 
skirted by a littoral flora composed largely of such trees as 
Rhisophora mangle/' Avicennia officinalis. Hibiscus tiliaceus, 
the poisonous Hippomane mancinella, and the stout creeping 
vine, Ipomoea pes-caprcB. Usually the above mentioned plants 
do not occur inland any distance, except sometimes about bodies 
of water. 

Proceeding towards the interior of the island, one passes 
through nearly two miles of rough desert-like country where 
there is but little soil but an abundance of lava. Here the two 
genera of Cactacecs {Cereus and Opuntia), Croton scouleri, 

^ Indefatigable Island has been selected for the illustration of the zones on account 
of the well-defined appearance of the latter there. It must be borne in mind that 
elsewhere in the Archipelago, they are on the whole, far less distinct. 

^ I am indebted to Mr. Alban Stewart, botanist to the expedition, for a number of 
the botanical names given in this paper. In the proceedings of the California Academy 
of Sciences, Vol. I, 4th Ser., pp. 206-211, Mr. Stewart gives the botanical regions and 
zonal elevations more in detail. 



294 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the majority of the AcacicB, Gossypium, Cordia lutea, etc., 
occur plentifully, sometimes forming thickets. Roughly esti- 
mated, this zone extends to a height of about 200 feet where 
it merges into the "Big Tree" zone, in which we find the hand- 
some Guava tree (Psidium galapageium) , Pisonia Horihunda, 
and one or two others. Here is a thin covering of soil, small 
ferns cover the rocks, and the country loses a great deal of its 
desert aspect. This zone is somewhat ill-defined as to its lower 
limits. From the "Big Tree" zone, one enters quite abruptly 
into the "Dark Green" or really humid zone where the soil is 
rich and the conspicuous vegetation made up in large part of 
delicate ferns, several species of ConvolvulacecB among the 
vines, and Scalesia pcdimculata, a tall composite of graceful 
form. The growth here is really luxuriant, and being com- 
posed of matted vines and some shrubs (the mass reaching a 
height of about eight feet), it is nearly impenetrable without 
the aid of a machete. Every now and then, a pretty little grove 
of tall Cannas is met with ; going higher up, the Scalesia thins 
out and the dreary slope presents a rather gloomy appearance. 
This is a very extensive zone, reaching from 400 or 450 feet to 
far up the mountain. Above this to the summit, the slope 
appears equally or more impenetrable, but the color of the 
above "Brown Zone" suggests lichen-covered trees, taller ferns, 
with perhaps here and there an open grassy space. Above 400 
or 500 feet, there is much humidity and the precipitation must 
be considerable throughout the year. 

The rainy season which lasts from about December to about 
April, has the effect of making the lower zones fresh and 
verdant for a short period, and of awakening the insect life 
which lies dormant there. A little while after the commence- 
ment of the rainy season (at which time it is a little warmer), 
insects appear in comparative abundance; and various shrubs 
and vines support large numbers of Lepidopterous larvae, prin- 
cipally Sphingidce and NoctuidcB, which though not of many 
species, are conspicuous by reason of their abundance. At the 
same time, the enemies of these insects appear. The large 
greenish Calosomas (Calosoma Hozvardi, Linell), search the 
bushes diligently for larvae, and do not hesitate to attack and 
overcome large Sphingid caterpillars. The giant centipedes 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 295 

{Scolopendra) some 9>^ inches long, must also destroy num- 
bers of the larvae. 

By the month of May or June, the lower levels resume their 
desert aspect and insect life is largely dormant. The upper 
regions however, enjoy a more continued rainfall and have 
seasons that are necessarily more continuous, so that in the 
late months of the year, insects do not appear to be much 
diminished in numbers. There are certain portions of the 
lower levels, especially about the brackish bodies of water at 
sea level, which are not sufficiently affected by the rainless 
season to be unproductive at that time of the year. 

From observations and by deduction from the seasonal 
table of Rhopalocera (at the end of this paper), I have arrived 
at the conclusion that from the middle of February to the 
middle of March, is the height of the season for adults, in 
those regions at least which are influenced by the seasonal 
rains, i. e., the lower areas; while above in the mountains, as 
heretofore stated, the seasons are not well marked, for insects 
in general appear more or less continuously. 

On the whole, the lower zones seem richer in insect life, 
the densely verdant portions of the islands not yielding very 
much entomologically, but the more open summits of some of 
the islands support a good variety of insect life. The tall 
graceful Scalesia growing in the humid regions, supports quite 
a beetle fauna, as do the various Acacics, the Crotons, and the 
Bur sera of the "Arid" zone. Inasmuch, however, as a single 
insect will sometimes feed on one species of plant in the dry 
zone and upon another in the humid, as often happens, it 
results that the ranges of such insects are more extensive than 
that of the flora. Other insects which do not appear to be 
directly dependent upon the flora, are nevertheless confined to 
a well-defined area. This is true of some of the species of the 
littoral or coast fauna. The climate of the Galapagos is not 
really tropical (as regards rainfall, heavy atmosphere, etc.), 
neither is the insect fauna typically tropical ; and this is prob- 
ably also true to a degree with regard to the rest of the fauna 
as well as the flora. 

If we compare the Galapagos Islands with the small but 
beautiful Cocos Island lying several degrees to the northeast, 



296 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

it will be found that though the latter is in warmer waters 
than the Galapagos and much nearer the mainland, the insect 
fauna of this little island although quite meager, is of a dis- 
tinctly more tropical aspect. The island is covered with good- 
sized trees festooned with vines, and apparently possesses a few 
clear areas. The climate is warm, the atmosphere heavy, and 
there is water everywhere in the form of creeks and cascades, 
but dense forests do not support a rich insect fauna. Only 
two species of butterflies were taken on Cocos Island, and 
neither of them occur in the Galapagos. One is an Aganisthos 
(probably odius), the other is a species of delicate build which 
has not yet been determined. Two Sphinges were seen there, 
one the wide-spread Phleg. cingulata, the other which was not 
taken, suggested the large Pachylia iicus. 

The butterflies of the Galapagos Archipelago number six 
species, two of which were taken for the first time on this 
expedition. These latter species are Pyrameis hunt era and 
carycB. Both are rare in the islands. The Sphingidce number 
eight, two, Triptogon lugubris and Theretra tersa, are here 
reported for the first time from the islands, the former species 
being plentiful, the latter rare. 

RHOPALOCERA 

Callidryas eubule, Linn. 

Agraulis vanillse, Linn. var. Galapagensis, Holland. 

Pyrameis huntera, Fabr. 

Pyrameis caryse, Hubner. 

Cupido parrhasioides, Wallengren. 

Eudamus galapagensis, N. Sp. (Williams). 

PIERIDAE 

1. Callidryas eubule Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 743, 1766. Hol- 
land. Proc. U. S. N. M., XII, 195, 1889. 

Holland (Proc. U. S. N. M., XII, 195, 1889), says: "Dif- 
fers in no respect from the forms taken commonly in the 
Southern United States and West Indies." The Galapagos 
specimens are certainly more referable to the form senncB as 
described by William H. Edwards (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. IX, 
9, 1881), being "generally smaller than eubule/' the 9 having 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 297 

the deeper color of the senncs. There are a number of Calli- 
dryas from the Galapagos Islands in the Leland Stanford 
University Collection, including sixteen ? 5 . Mr. E. J. New- 
comer has kindly examined these specimens for me and is of 
the opinion that all the 9 2 are senncB, as probably also the 
S $ . The insects, as can be seen from the measurements 
below, average considerably smaller than those from Southern 
California and some other portions of the United States, and 
some of the small specimens seem to indicate the dwarfing 
effects of the arid regions of the islands. SenncF according to 
Edwards, inhabits Brazil, Central America, Mexico, Texas, 
Jamaica, Hayti, etc., and is taken in Southern California. 
Following the smaller size of the Galapagos Callidryas, is the 
blunter apex of the primaries and inner angle of the second- 
aries. 

Euhule is an abundant insect and the most conspicuous but- 
terfly of the Archipelago, having about the same distribution 
as Agraulis vanillcB galapagensis, and in favorable years, is 
probably to be found on all but the two northern islets. Wen- 
man and Culpepper, and the other mere rocks. It occurs 
abundantly at moderate and low altitudes, and is rarer on 
summits. From February to April, 1906, it was plentiful in 
the vicinity of Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, and on Albemarle 
in the vicinity of the Villamil settlement, where it was some- 
times seen gathered in numbers about cattle droppings. At 
Tagus Cove (Albemarle), it was common during March and 
April, especially at the yellow flowers of Cordia lutea and 
Gossypium Sp., resting on the blossoms of the latter in dull 
weather. At Bank's Bay (Albemarle), in April, they were 
observed feeding at the flowers of Opuntia growing near the 
seashore. 

The season for adults ended in general, in May, at the 
lower levels. During early October however, the insect was 
abundant at 1000 feet elevation; a few were seen during the 
same month on Charles Island in the dry zone, and in the 
"Green Zone" on South Albemarle.' 

1 1 have noticed that the Galapagos eubule do not possess as strong or rapid a flight 
as those found on the mainland, where I have observed them in Lower California and 
in Kansas, and this inferiority in flight is quite striking. 



298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

But little of the early stages were noted. Oct. 15, 1905, 
a 2 was observed ovipositing on the legume Cassia picta, and 
several half-grown larvae were found feeding on the same plant 
in the "Green Zone," of South Albemarle, in early September, 
1906. Occurs on Charles, Chatham, Indefatigable, Albemarle, 
James, Narborough, Abingdon Islands, and probably on 
Hood, Duncan, Bindloe, Jervis, and Barrington Islands. 

Taken also on the Albatross Expeditions in 1888 and 1891 
(where it is referred to by Agassiz as Colias^), Hopkins- 
Stanford Expedition, and perhaps also on some of the earlier 
expeditions. 

Alar expanse: S 44, 44, 51, 56, 56, 56, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 
64, 64, 64, 65, 66, 66, 67, 67, 70, 72 mm.=:60.6 mm. 

? 38, 60, 61, 63, 70 mm.=58.4 mm. 

26 specimens. 

NYMPHALIDAE 

2. Agraulis vanillae Linn., Syst. Nat., 482, 1758, var. Gala- 
pagensis, Holland., Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus. XII, 194-5, 1889. 

Holland's description reads : "The form of A. vanillcB in 
the collection ticketed 'Chatham Island' differs in some 
respects so decidedly from the typical form ^s to well deserve 
a varietal name. It is characterized by its smaller size, by the 
darker and more fuscous tint of the basal half of the wings, 
by the great increase in breadth of all the black markings on 
both surfaces, and the almost entire obliteration of the white 
dots by which the spots in the cell on the upper surface of the 
primaries are pupiled in typical specimens. One specimen, 
Galapagos, Chatham Islands." 

It is therefore quite a different appearing insect from typ- 
ical A. vanillce and might rightly be raised to specific rank. 
In Galapagensis, the less sinuate outer margin of the primaries 
(probably resulting from the dwarfing of the insect), gives 
the latter a much blunter aspect than those of our A. vanillcu. 
From Holland's description of the species, I judge the type to 
be a male. The female varies somewhat in color, for it may 
be as in typical vanillcB, darker with heavier black markings 

^Bull Mu";. Comp. Zool., XXIII, 68, 1892. 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 299 

and the ground color yellowish beyond the cell of the pri- 
maries; or perhaps more commonly the pale yellow color 
occupies the greater portion of the primaries, becoming darker 
and mingled with fuscous basally, and at the inner margin; 
the pattern is as in typical A. vanillce but the markings are a 
good deal heavier. 

A. vanillce galapagensis is a fairly common butterfly, occur- 
ring on all the larger islands of the group where it is ordi- 
narily restricted to the dryer levels where its food-plant (Passi- 
Hora), is to be found. The butterfly flies low and rather 
slowly and alights but rarely. At Tagus Cove (Albemarle), 
it was quite plentiful during March and April, both in the 
valley and on the west slope of the high mountain which was 
comparatively dry even to its summit, 4000 feet above the sea. 
In a strip of vegetation at an altitude of 1500 feet where 
PasMora was abundant, a few larvae of this butterfly were 
seen. They were mostly in the final instar, and from them, I 
succeeded in rearing but one butterfly, the other larvae perish- 
ing before pupation. 

The butterfly was observed perhaps most plentifully on the 
rounded summit of Charles Island (May and June). On this 
island, during the month of October, 1905, a female was 
observed ovipositing in the dry thickets, and this would sug- 
gest that the species passes the dry season in the egg state or 
as very young larvae.^ Occurs on Charles, Chatham, Inde- 
fatigable, Albemarle, James, Narborough, and Abingdon 
Islands. It may also occur at times, on some of the other 
islands. 

Alar expanse: $ 45, 49, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 
60=53.5 mm. 

9 48, 52, 52, 54, 55, 55, 55, 56, 60, 61=54.8 mm. 
22 specimens. Plate XX, figs. 1-2. 

3. Pyrameis huntera Fabr., Syst. Ent., 499, 1775. 

One fresh specimen, taken on the treeless summit of Villamil 
Mountain, 3000 feet altitude (Albemarle Island), August, 
1906. The insect is typical and expands 52 mm. Several 

1 Collected on the Albatross Expedition in 1888 and 1891 (where it is referred to by 
A. Agassiz as Argynnis), the Hopkins-Stanford Expedition, and perhaps also on some 
of the earlier expeditions. 



300 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Other rather worn examples were seen flying briskly about the 
summit, and one or two fresh specimens were observed in 
late March, 1906, on Tagus Cove Mountain, at an altitude of 
3500 feet. At this locality, was found a species of Gnaphaliiim 
which was without doubt the larval food-plant of huntera. 

4. Pyrameis caryae Hubner, Samml. ex. Schmett., I, 1806. 
One flown example taken at Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, 

January, 1906. Does not differ from Calif ornian specimens. 
Several species of UrticacecB and Malvaceae occur in the Gala- 
pagos, and on one or more of these the larva must feed. 

LYCAENIDAE 

5. Cupido parrhasioides Wallengren (Lye. par.). Wein. 
Ent. Mon. IV, p. 37, No. 15, 1860. Eug. Resa. p. 355 (1861). 

This pretty "blue" was described from specimens taken on 
the voyage of the Swedish frigate "Eugenie," in 1852. 

Wallengren's description is as follows^ (p. 355) 10. Ly- 
caena parrhasioides : 

"Alis ecanudatis, infra canescentibus lineis albis duplicatis subundulatis, 
posticarum irregularibus ; posticis ocellis 3-4 analibus, nigris coeruleo- 
foetis; oculis hirtis. 

Mas: Alis supra violaceo-caerulescentibus, posticis punctis 2-3 analibus 
nigris, sub-obsoletis. 

Femina: Alis supra fuscis, ad basin plus minus coerulea-pulverulenti- 
bus ; anticis macula discoidali fusca, obsoleta ; posticis punctis 4 analibus 
nigris, antice coeruleo-limbatis. 

Patria: Puna mense Martii. Insula St. Joseph mense Aprilis; ins. 
Galapagos mense Maji. 

L. parrhasio, God. affinis videtur; L. optileti magnitudine sequalis, sed 
interdum L. also baud major. %Mas: Alas supra violaceo-coeruleae, mar- 
gine exteriore tenuissime infuscato ; posticse puncta 2-3 analia nigra gerunt. 
Alse omnes infra canescentes ; anticae per discum lineas subundulatas, 
transversas 6 albas, per paria sitas, quarum par externum postice abbre- 
viatum, gerunt; alse posticae etiam lineas ejusmodi ostendunt, sed par 
intermedium saepissime bis interruptum, et externum tantum inter costas 
2-6 locum tenet, et cum pari intermedio ad finem tam antice tarn postice 
cohasrit. Ad basin alarum posticarum linea albo unica se prsebit. Ad 
marginem exteriorem alarum omnium circuli oblongi et intra illos anguli 
confluentes albi locum tenet. Circuli 3-4 alarum posticarum anales sunt in 
medio nigri caeruleo-foeti, ocelliformes. A basi alarum anticarum usque 
ad medium, prope marginem anticum, striga fusca, postice albo-marginata, 
locum tenet. Interstitia inter lineas transversa alarum anticarum fundo 
obscuriora. iFemina mari infra similis, supra fusca, et ad finem cellulae 
alarum anticarum maculam transversam, fuscam, obsoletam gerit. Alae 
ejus omnes sunt supra ad basin cseruleo-pubverulentes et posticae puncta 
analia 4 nigra, antice caeruleo-limbata, gerunt." 



^ Furnished me through Dr. Henry Skinner. 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 301 

The above states that the wings are without tails, below 
grayish with subundulate, double, white lines, those of the 
secondaries irregular ; secondaries with three to four black anal 
spots full of blue ; eyes hairy. 

Male : Wings above violet bluish, the secondaries with from 
two to three black anal spots, which are sub-obscure. 

Female: Wings fuscuous above, more or less powdered 
with blue towards the base, the primaries with the fuscous dis- 
coidal spot obscure, secondaries with four black anal spots, 
bordered anteriorly with blue. 

Habitat Puna (March), the island of St. Joseph' (April), 
Galapagos Islands (May). 

Related to L. parrhasio God. It is equal in size to L. 
Optileti, but now and then it is not larger than L. Also. 

Male : Wings above violet blue, exterior margin very nar- 
rowly infuscated. Secondaries bear two to three black anal 
points. All the wings beneath are grayish. The primaries 
are traversed by six white subundulate lines arranged in pairs, 
the external pair of which is shortened posteriorly ; secondaries 
also have lines of this kind, but the intermediate pair is very 
often twice interrupted, and the external pair only occupies the 
space between veins 2-6, and is joined together with the inter- 
mediate pair at the end anteriorly as well as posteriorly. There 
is a single white line at the base of the secondaries. There 
are oblong circles along the exterior margin of all the wings 
and within these the space is occupied by confluent white 
angles. Three to four of the anal circles of the secondaries 
are ocelliforme, black in the middle, and full of blue. There 
is a fuscous streak edged posteriorly with white, extending 
from the base of the primaries up to the middle field, near the 
front margin. Spaces between the transverse lines of the 
primaries more obscure at the base. 

Female : Similar to the male beneath ; above, fuscous, with 
an obscure transverse, fuscous spot at the end of the cell of 
the primaries. Above, all the wings of the 2 are powdered 
v/ith blue at the base, and the secondaries have four black anal 
points edged anteriorly with blue. 

* This must be S. Jose I., one of the Pearl Islands, in the Bay of Panama. 



302 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This species, according to Wallengren, is related to L. parr- 
hasins of Java. Its nearest ally and perhaps the one from 
which it was derived, is probably Lye. marina of America, 
from which it can be separated by its somewhat smaller size 
and darker shade, and by the possession on the under side of 
the secondaries of three (with traces of one or two more) 
distinct velvety black spots ringed by metallic blue and then 
by orange, whereas marina has but two such spots. The sec- 
ond spot from the anal angle is the largest. The undulating 
white lines of the wings beneath are finer than in marina. 

C. parrhasioides is common in the Galapagos, where it was 
found on Charles, Chatham, Albemarle, Narborough, James, 
Hood, and Duncan Islands. It seems to be more restricted to 
the arid district than are the other butterflies, and occurs 
commonly where its food plant, Cardiospermum corindum 
and perhaps C. galapageium (Sapindacece) is found. 

Near the shore at Cape Rose (Albemarle Island), in 
March, 1906, the little butterfly was plentiful in the vast field 
of jagged black lava which supported a somewhat scant vege- 
tation — C rot on, Biirsera, Opuntia, Cereus, etc., and its vine- 
like food plant. The butterfly was here observed to oviposit 
on the young leaves of this plant. At the lower levels, about 
James Bay (James Island), parrhasioides was abundant 
where Cardiospermum flourished, which was especially on lava. 
The butterflies were at this season (August, 1906), in a gen- 
erally faded condition, and the tgg shells of the species were 
plentiful on Cardiospermum, then in leaf. 

As the imagines were fresh and common at a much earlier 
date than August, we may infer therefrom that parrhasioides 
is double-brooded, the February-March specimens emerging 
from pupae formed in about September of the preceding year; 
or perhaps that the insect passes the dry season as an egg or 
small caterpillar. 

A female parrhasioides from Iguana Cove, Albemarle, is 
aberrant in having the undulating white lines beneath diffusing 
and disappearing. 

The insect was also taken on the voyage of the "Eugenie" ; 
by A. Agassiz in 1891 ; and by Snodgrass and Heller of the 
Hopkins-Stanford Expedition. Its occurrence on Puna Island 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 303 

in the Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador), and on St. Joseph Island 
in the Bay of Panama, is interesting and suggestive. Sphingo- 
notus fusco-irroratus (Orthoptera), is also reported from 
Puna as well as the Galapagos Islands. 

25 specimens, including one S sent to Dr. Henry Skinner 
for his opinion on the species. 

S 20, 20, -20, 22, 22, 23, 23, 25, 25, 25, 26, 26, 26, 28 mm. 
=23.6 mm. 

9 18, 21, 22, 23, 23, 24, 24, 24, 24, 25 mm.=22.8 mm. 
Plate XX, figs. 3-5. 

HESPERIDAE 

6. Eudamus galapagensis n. sp. 

Male : Head brownish, with some yellowish-white scales which pre- 
dominate ventrad ; Antennae strongly hooked, dark smoky brown, indis- 
tinctly annulate with v/hite towards the base, hook of antennae tawtiy 
below; labial palpi with distal joint dark brown; thorax greenish olive 
with long hairs ; abdomen blackish with purple tinge and with pale yellow- 
ish or yellowish-green scales, numerous ventrad and along the edge of the 
segments. Legs brownish with purple reflections, and with long hairs of 
lighter color. Length of body 16 mm. Above, — Wings dark brown with a 
slight greenish-olive gloss and enclosing the small yellowish-white diaph- 
anous spots arranged as follows : three small ones before apex, i. e., 
one subquadrate at base of and on each side of Sc. i, the third which is 
subtriangular, at base of SCs, and beyond the others ; two small rather 
elongate ones, one on either side of the costal vein and situated at about 
the middle of the wing. Immediately below these two is a larger spot in 
the middle of the discal cell. Outwardly below in cell M2 is a still larger 
subrectangular spot. This is the largest spot. In the outer third of cell 
Ml is a square spot not extending half way down to the submedian nervure. 
Inside the middle of cell Ms is a large rectangular spot exteriorly sinuate. 
The three spots before the apex and those in cells Mi &3 are in line. 
Fringes pale brown, brownish black from nervures. A fine double, 
blackish brown line on edge of wings. Secondaries without spots ; with a 
short slightly curved and tapering tail of a blackish brown color, its basal 
hairs long and greenish. Under a lens, the nervures are largely metallic 
purple. 

Below — The spots are repeated on the primaries. A rather obscure_ 
lilac marginal band, becoming obsolete at anal angle ; a lilac patch with 
some pale blue scales from the end of discal cell and in the discocellular 
area. No markings on space overlapped by secondaries. Secondaries 
blackish brown, with a basal, mesal, extradiscal and marginal band of lilac, 
tinted with pale bluish scales, these bands reducing the ground to two 
somewhat narrower bands and a spot near the base of the wing. The 
extra-discal (=submarginal) lilac band is curved, especially where it 
disappears at the tail where it becomes almost whitish. There are a 
number of pale straw yellow scales on the secondaries, fewer on the 
primaries. Expanse 43 mm., length of tails (exterior measurement) 
6.25 mm. 

Female: Like the male, but with broader tails, 5 mm. long and about 
straight, no costal fold on primaries, expanse— 46 mm. (Tagus Cove, 
March-April, 1906). 



304 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

In some specimens, the diaphanous spots are smaller and 
the lilac bands on the underside tend more to a pale bluish or 
lavender, or rarely are replaced by lighter brown or yellowish 
scales. The insect much resembles E. Santiago but is not quite 
so dark as that species and the spots, similarly disposed, are 
usually larger. Below, the pattern agrees rather closely with 
that of Santiago, but the latter replaces the lilac of galapagensis 
with purplish. The purplish and pale scales are in smaller 
proportion in Santiago and the tails of the latter are longer. 

Type 1 $ (Chatham Island 700 ft. altitude, October 15, 
1905), and 1 9 Tagus Cove, March- April, 1906, Galapagos, 
in possession of the California Academy of Sciences. Cotypes, 
1, Phil. Acad. Sci. ; 10, Cal. Acad. Sciences. 

One pupa of this butterfly found lying exposed on the 
ground at Banks Bay, Albemarle Island, in April, 1906. 
Pupa : Of the usual stout Eudamus form ; rugose under a lens, 
pale brown speckled with darker brown, a brown stripe above 
the spiracles. Head very nearly as wide as thorax, not very 
convex on vertex giving it a square aspect. Cremaster darker 
brown, rounded at extremity, excavate ventrad. Length 16 
mm,, width at shoulders 5 mm. Pupa preserved in spirits. 

This is a common Skipper, especially on Chatham and Albe- 
marle Islands, appearing quite early in the season, being rather 
distinctly double-brooded, the first flight beginning in January 
or thereabouts, while the butterfly again makes its appearance 
in the dry season, in about August. Seasonal conditions often 
vary somewhat on different islands and different slopes of the 
group, and this makes it rather difficult to determine the 
number and time of appearance of the insects there. The 
seasons then are not strictly contemporaneous in the Archi- 
pelago. During April, 1906, the skipper was fairly abundant 
at Bank's Bay (Albemarle), and half- to full-grown larvae 
were found feeding on a trifoliate leguminous annual; the 
larvae making a sort of nest for themselves with the leaves 
after the manner of other members of the genus. The butter- 
fly has a swift flight, and when it occurs in the dry and almost 
barren lava beds (as it frequently does), it likes to alight in 
the shade of some projecting piece of rock. Such localities, 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS^BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 305 

were parts of South Albemarle Island and Cowley Mountain, 
on the same island. 

E. galapageiisis was also secured on the Albatross Expedi- 
tion in 1888, but in too poor condition to be described; it is 
also reported by A. Agassiz. There are ten specimens in good 
and fair condition in the U. S. National Museum, labeled 
Hood, Chatham, and Duncan Islands, Galapagos, 1891, and a 
series was also taken on the Hopkins-Stanford Expedition in 
1898-9. It is not improbable that other expeditions also 
secured it. 

Thirteen specimens were taken on the California Academy 
of Sciences Expedition, one of these being in possession of Dr. 
H. Skinner to whom it was referred. The specimens are from 
Chatham, Albemarle, and Charles Islands, others seen but not 
taken on James, Indefatigable, and Duncan Islands. 

Expanse : $ 37, 38, 40, 40, 41, 43, 43=40.3 mm. 

9 42, 45, 46, 47, 48=45.6 mm. Plate XX, fig. 6. 

HETEROCERA 
SPHINGIDAE 

The following are the Hawk-Moths known to occur in the 
Galapagos Archipelago : 

Triptogon lugubris Linn. 

Deilephila lineata Fabr. 

Theretra tersa Linn. 

Dilophonota ello Linn. 

Dilophonota obscura Fabr. var. conformis Roth, and Jordan. 

Phlegathontius rustica Fabr. form calapagensis Holland. 

Phlegathontius rustica Fabr. var. nigrita Roth, and Jordan. 

Phlegathontius leucoptera Roth, and Jordan. 

Phlegathontius cingulata Fabr. 

1. Triptogon lugubris Linnaeus, Mant. Plant 537, 1771. 

The specimens are somewhat smaller than the continental 
examples with which I have compared them, otherwise they 
cannot be said to differ from the latter. 

Abbot and Smith's description of the mature larvae of this 
insect, as quoted by Morris in his "Synopsis of the Described 
Lepidoptera of North America" reads : "Head dark green, 
with a yellow frontal band. Body pale green, with vascular 
dark green dashes, and a dark green subdorsal line bordered 

September 28, 1911 



306 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

beneath with whitish; nine short lateral, pale yellow bands; 
horn dark green; stigmata reddish." This description answers 
well for the ordinary form, but many of the Galapagos speci- 
mens (and probably from elsewhere as well) are blotched 
obliquely with chocolate brown from the subdorsal line laterad, 
from segments 6-10 inclusive. The thorax, a part of segment 
5, and segments 10 and 11, have also patches of the same 
color. 

Larvae were observed in several instars at Iguana Cove, 
Albemarle Islands, March 17-21, 1906, feeding upon Cissus 
sicyoides, one of the VitacecB which flourished in that locality. 
The pupa is rather dark reddish brown, with the head-case 
obtusely rounded, and the cremaster quite stout. By digging 
in the loose mouldy soil near some rocky barrier, a living pupa 
and several pupa shells of lugubris were obtained. 

The moths were observed on the wing, at Iguana Cove, in 
March, 1909, as flown specimens, the second brood coming 
out in April and May, the pupal period for this brood evidently 
being of short duration. 

The insect is rather partial to the more tropically-clothed 
portions of the islands, as the "Green Zone" of the mountains, 
and those littoral areas where fairly fresh water stands and 
which harbor a somewhat luxurious vegetation, including its 
food plant. 

Triptogon lugubris was observed most plentifully at Iguana 
Cove, whence it was found to extend along the coast to Villa- 
mil, thirty miles to the west. At the latter place, several speci- 
mens were taken at the flowers. of Cordia lutea in the bright 
sunshine, where they were comparatively slow in their flight. 
However, high up on the dreary rain-sodden and vine-cov- 
ered slopes of South Indefatigable Island, this little sphinx 
might be seen now and then flying with great speed and with a 
loud humming noise over the subtropical vegetation, pausing 
but rarely to plunge out of sight into a large convolvalaceous 
flower, but before you can scramble to it net in hand, it is 
skimming far up the mountain side. During April and May, 
the moth was several times observed flying low over the sandy 
shores below Villamil settlement, Albemarle Island, and darting 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 307 

out to sea, being also seen from the schooner "Academy" 
which was at anchor over a mxile from shore. 

Lugubris was observed on the higher portions of Indefat- 
igable Island (November, 1905), Albemarle (March, April 
and May, 1906), while an old pupal shell which seemed refer- 
able to this species, was found high up on Charles Island (June, 
1906). It is a common insect in the American tropics. 

There is some variation in color among the ten examples 
taken, the scallops of the wings seem deeper than in some speci- 
mens from Florida with which I compared them. 

Galapagos— Alar expanse. $ 49, 53, 63 mm.=55 mm. 

5 53, 53, 58, 60, 60, 60, 63 mm.=58.1 mm. 

Florida— Alar expanse. S 60, 62, 62 mm.=61.3 mm. 

2 72, 78, 79 mm.=76.3 mm. 

The three smallest 9 5 from the Galapagos were reared, 
which probably accounts for their size. There are several 
larvae and one pupa preserved in spirits. 

2. Deilephila lineata Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 541, 1775. 

The "White-lined" Sphinx, which is by no means the com- 
monest of the Hawk-moths of the islands, has heretofore been 
collected in the Galapagos, by the Albatross Expedition (1887- 
88), which secured one male from Charles Island. Of the five 
specimens secured by me in 1906, three were reared from larvae ; 
and the series when compared with lineata from Shasta county, 
California, averages considerably smaller in size. 

Lineata larvae were found at Wreck Bay, Chatham Island 
(February 20, 1906), where the two-color forms were 
observed ; on Charles Island in early March, as less advanced 
in growth than on the preceding island; and at Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle Island, in late March, when many of the caterpillars 
had already pupated. 

Adults were observed in March (Charles Island), and at 
Villamil (Albemarle Island), in early May, and in both cases, 
in the early afternoon. The insect is certainly double-brooded 
and probably triple-brooded in the Galapagos ; a small per cent 
of the late insects probably passing the dry season as pupae. 

Distribution: Charles, Chatham, and Albemarle Islands, 
and probably elsewhere in the Archipelago. It occurs also in 
the Hawaiian Islands, and is the best known North American 



308 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

Hawk-moth. Also reported by Holland, and Rothschild and 
Jordan, from the Galapagos Islands. 

There are several larvse and one pupa of lineata, from the 
Galapagos, preserved in spirits. 

Galapagos — Alar expanse. $ 51,^ 67 mm.=:59 mm. 

9 62, 67,' 78' mm.=69 mm. 

California, U. S. — Alar expanse. $ 77, 78, 79, 88 mm.= 
80.5 mm. 

9 90, 96, 98, 101 mm.=96.2 mm. 

3. Theretra tersa Linnaeus, Mant. Plant., H, 538, 1771. 
This handsome insect appears to be still rare in the islands, 

the only specimen secured being reared from a larva discovered 
by lamplight, feeding upon the leaves of Clerodendron molle, 
Chatham Island, February 23, 1906. 

The larva of tersa, which is of the "Hog" caterpillar type, 
has several times been described, while the pupa corresponds 
well to Hy. Edwards' description of it in Entomologica Ameri- 
cana, III, 164, 1887. The pupa was formed in a shallow 
depression in the soil, and sheltered by a leaf or two. 

This sphinx may be a recent arrival to the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago, judging from its rarity there, and from the fact that it 
was taken only from the most windward (except Hood Island) 
island of the group, viz., Chatham. It does not differ from 
continental specimens, which are quite common in the Tropics. 

One Male — Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, altitude 500 feet, 
February 23, 1906. 

Alar expanse, 66 mm. 

4. Dilophonota ello Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 491, 1758. 

This species was found quite plentifully on Charles, Chat- 
ham, and Albemarle Islands. 

Imagines were taken at flowers on the three above-named 
islands, during the rainy season. The first larva taken, was 
found at the base of a Guava tree (Psidium) , on Chatham 
Island, January, 1906. It pupated a short time after its cap- 
ture. Small specimens of the larvse were observed at South 
Albemarle, in early March, 1906, and in numbers at Iguana 
Cove, a few days later. The food plant of ello is Hippomane 

^ Ex larva. 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 309 

mancinella (a poisonous tree, which is common along the 
shores), and Psidium. At Iguana Cove, the larvae were 
observed in several instars and were either of a pale sea-green 
or reddish-brown color, as described by Edwards, Holland, 
and others. The larva has a habit of stretching itself appressed 
to a twig, and is thus often difficult of detection. The pupa 
has been well described by Edwards (Ent. Americana, III, 167, 
1887), and a number of these prettily striped objects were 
found beneath Hippomane trees (Iguana Cove), by disturbing 
the loose mouldy soil and by overturning pieces of lava. 

D. ello is an exceedingly abundant insect in the American 
tropics and occasionally ventures well up into the temperate 
latitudes of North America. It is also recorded from the 
Galapagos Islands by Rothschild and Jordan. 

There are nine $ and eight 5 in the Academy's collection, 
besides three pupae and several larvae preserved in spirits. 

Alar expanse: $ 67, 70, 71, 72, 72, 73, 73, 74, 78=7.22 
mm. 

$ 72, 72, 74, 76, 78, 79, 82, 91=78 mm. 

5. DilophonotaobscuraFabricius, Syst. Ent., 538, 1775. 
Subsp. conformis, Rothschild and Jordan, Novitates Zoolog- 
ies, Supplement Vol. IX,^ 369, 1903. 

The description of the insect in Novitates Zoologicae, reads : 

"Erynnis obscura conformis, subsp. Nov. $ 2 . Sexes similar ; $ with- 
out a longitudinal streak on the forewing, and having the thorax as gray 
as 9 . Distal margin of hindwing rather darker in the upper half than in 
the ordinary form, and the post-discal line of dots more distinct. Hah. 
Galapagos Island, Albemarle; end of March to May, 1902 (Beck); type: 
Top of crater, S. E. Albemarle, 27, III, 1902. In the Tring Museum 
4 5^,4 $ 5." 

There are 4 $ $ and 32 2 9 in the collection of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, and there is but one 5 among 
these which has the thorax as dark as in the $ $ . These have 
the thorax slightly darker than in the 2 . The thorax of the 
latter sex, is nearly concolorous gray, while in the $ , several 
longitudinal lines of brownish gray are evident, which are 
almost or entirely absent in the 2 2. Quite a common insect 
in the Tagus Cove region, Albemarle Island, in March and 
April. It was easily attracted by light and a number were 



310 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

taken throughout the night, at a campfire, on the mountain 
slope. 

There were but few larvse of this species to be found by the 
end of March, but the evidence of their ravages was discernible 
on their food plant, a species of Asclepiad vine (Asclepias 
angustissima) , which was abundant at Tagus Cove, especially 
on lava. As in D. ello, there are two color forms of the larva, 
one being purplish gray, the other pale green. There is no 
pink spot on the third and fourth segments as in D. ello, and 
the anal horn is quite short. 

The insect has been taken only on Albemarle Island. 

Alar expanse : $ 56, 59, 60, 62=59.25 mm. 

5 54, 57, 58, 58, 59, 60, 60, 60, 60, 60, 60, 60, 60, 61, 61, 
62, 62, 62, 62, 62, 62, 62, 62, 63, 63, 63, 63, 64, 64, 65, 66= 
61.12 mm. Plate XX, fig. 11. 

6. Phlegathontius rustica Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 540, 1775; 
var. calapagensis Holland, Proc. U. S. N. M., XII, 195, 1889 
(Galapagos, Charles Island). 

Sysygia galapagensis Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het. I, p. 685, No. 2, 
1892 (Galapagos). 

Protoparce calapagensis Rothschild and Jordan, Novitates 
Zoologicse, Suppl. Vol. IX,^ 85, 1903 (Charles and Chatham 
Islands, Galapagos). 

This common Galapagos Sphinx was first described by Hol- 
land, from one 9 secured on the Albatross Expedition, in 
1889. He thinks it entitled to specific rank, but Rothschild and 
Jordan in their great work on the Sphingidae of the world, 
consider calapagensis a subspecies of rustica. 

Holland's description of calapagensis reads : 

"Protoparce calapagensis sp. nov. (Holland). Upper surface — Anterior 
wings white, traversed by double, undulate, black transverse anterior, pos- 
terior, and submarginal lines, the latter terminating near the exterior angle 
in a conspicuous black spot. A row of marginal black spots, those nearest 
the apex protracted in the form of dashes; the second from the apex 
coalescing with the submarginal line, further ornaments the wing. 
Fringes white, interrupted at the end of the nervures by black. The discal 
dot is pure white, large, narrowly margined with black. Upon the costa, 
near the base, is a black dash, followed by some confused "pepper and salt" 
markings near the transverse anterior line. Posterior wings gray, shading 
into white at anal angle, and traversed by three black bands, of which the 
two on the discal space are narrow, while the submarginal band is broader, 
widening rapidly from the anal angle toward the anterior margin. Head, 
antennae, and thorax white. Patagiae white, marked in the middle with a 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 311 

deep black curved line extending from the insertion of the anterior wings 
about two-thirds of their length. Abdomen light gray, almost white, orna- 
mented by two large tufts of black hair at base, and by a narrow dorsal 
hne consisting of a black dash upon each segment. Each segment is further 
margined by a transverse line of black at its insertion, and the second, 
third, and fourth are mark'ed by lateral spots of pale yellow surrounded 
with black. 

Under Surface — Palpi, thorax, and abdomen snowy white. Upper ends 
of tibiae and tarsi light brown, ringed with white. Wings gray, obscurely 
marked, and banded as on upper surface. Expanse of wings, 90 mm. 

Described from one female specimen in fair condition, labeled 'Gala-- 
pagos, Charles Island.' " 

Rothschild and Jordan's description : 

"52 smaller and paler than Rustica rustica. The tenth abdominal ter- 
gite of the $ not so distinctly sinuate, and harpe shorter than in Rustica 
rustica, otherwise the same. In Tring Museum 2 $ $ , 2 9 2, Chatham 
Island, 14, III, 1901 (R. H. Beck) ; Charles Island (Markham)." 

The insect is quite variable, the female described by Holland, 
is evidently a pale specimen, while the sphinx referred to by 
him as being "too badly worn to permit of a proper descrip- 
tion," may belong here. While some of the specimens in the 
California Academy of Sciences' collection, approach the var. 
nigrita R. & J. quite closely, they can be separated from it by 
the constant presence of the ochraceous coloration, and usually 
by the conspicuous yellow abdominal spots which are wanting 
in nigrita. A male calapagensis from Charles Island, is very 
heavily marked with ochraceous; in several other specimens, 
this color is scarcely observable; while in the duskiest indi- 
viduals, the yellow abdominal spots are almost obsolete. 

Mature larva — Head pale green, body paler green, roughly 
granulated, the granules yellowish white and most prominent 
on the thorax, where they are arranged in a subdorsal row with 
rnore or less scattered granules between. Seven oblique stripes 
of purple lake, below which are cream colored stripes ; stigmata 
with yellow discs. Tarsi black, with one or two pale yellow 
granules basally ; anal horn stout and curved, yellowish, rough- 
ened with tubercles. Approximate length 70 mm. Described 
from several well preserved alcoholic specimens. 

Considerable color variation exists among these larvae ; some 
of them have a yellowish ground color, others are adorned with 
large purplish patches, while fewer are blackish purple, the 
head being purplish with green about the clypeus. In all cases, 
the granules are conspicuous and of a pale yellowish color. 



312 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The larva of typical rustica, differs somewhat from that of 
the island form, as can be seen from the following description 
of rustica rustica by Rothschild and Jordan : "Larva finely 
granulated, with seven side-bands, which are white and bor- 
dered green in front." The larva illustrated by Smyth in Ent. 
News, XI, 486, 1900, resembles much more another rarer form 
of larva taken, which is nearly smooth, and may or may not 
belong to this species, and which is described later. 

The pupa is reddish brown, with a short detached tongue- 
case applied to the breast by its pear-shaped extremity. The 
tongue-case is roughened subdorsally by sharp transverse 
ridges. Length 50 mm. 

Larva and adults of P. rustica calapagensis were observed 
at Chatham in February, 1906, the latter being rather worn, 
and the former in several instars, but scarcely mature (Feb- 
ruary 23, 1906). A few days later, on Charles Island, eggs 
and adults were secured. The height of the larva season, is 
March and early April, when they were to be found in numbers, 
at Iguana and Tagus Coves, Albemarle Island. At the latter 
cove, they were found up to an altitude of 3000 feet, but were 
commoner at lower levels, where Cordia lutea, one of the 
BorraginacecB abounded. This is the most popular of its food 
plants, while Clerodendron molle (Verbenaceae) appeared to 
replace it as a food-plant, on Charles and Chatham; and in 
some localities on Albemarle, the large arboreal Heliotrope, 
Tournefortia rufo-sericea, was preferred. That the caterpillar 
is not particular as regards its food-plant, may be further 
inferred from the fact that it was also found feeding on Eri- 
geron lancif alius, one of the CompositcB, Croton scouleri var. 
Macrcsi, and Bastardia viscosa (Malvaceae). The larva of 
rustica calapagensis was found to be more frequently parasit- 
ized than those of the other Sphingidco. 

Pupation took place in March and April, especially in the 
latter month, when pupse could be readily obtained at Tagus 
Cove, by digging among the roots of Cordia lutea. The adults 
emerge two or three weeks after pupation, though a small pro- 
portion seem to remain in the pupal stage until the next rainy 
season. The moths were plentiful at dusk, at the flowers of 
Cordia lutea, Clerodendron molle, etc., and were not difficult 



& 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 313 

to net. It is widely distributed in the Archipelago as is the 
case with its favorite food-plant. An old pupal shell, found on 
the ground, among the dry leaves of Cordia, on Tower Island, 
undoubtedly belonged to this species. (About September 15, 
1906.) This insect was taken on the Albatross Expedition 
(1889), from Charles Island. There are two males and two 
females in the Tring Museum, England, and taken by R. H. 
Beck 3-14-1901. Snodgrass and Heller took it on Hood and 
Albemarle (Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedition). There 
are nine males and five females in the Academy's collection. 
Taken on Charles, Chatham, and Albemarle Islands. 

Alar expanse : $ 74, 82, 84, 85, 88, 89, 89, 90, 92=85.88 
mm. 

9 82, 92, 98, 102, 103=95.4 mm. Plate XX, fig. 8-9. 

6a. Phlegathontius calapagensis Holland. 
Aberration nigrita, Rothschild and Jordan, Novitates Zoo- 
logicae, Suppl., Vol. IX,^ 85, 1903. 

This dark form is thus described by Rothschild and Jordan: 

"A $ from Chatham Island in the Tring Museum is abnormal, having 
''he body above and the wings nearly entirely brownish black, except the 
double series of dorsal dots on the abdomen, the stigma of the forewing 
and the marginal spots of both wings, which are white, besides feeble traces 
of white markings on both wings. The first segment of the palpus is much 
less extended white than in normal specimens. We call this aberrant indi- 
vidual — ab. nigrita nov." 

I obtained ex larvae, three 2 5 and one $ of nigrita at 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, end of April, 1906. These 
four specimens have no yellowish patches but three dirty white 
ones instead, the first two in the largest 5 , have a shade of 
brownish yellow however. The double row of abdominal 
white dots are more or less connected by interspersed white 
scales. 

This form appears to be quite rare, but its presence would 
seem to indicate that the variable P. calapagensis may resolve 
itself into two or more species in the distant future. 

Alar expanse : $ 82 mm. 

5 80, 88, 100=89.33 mm. 

A sphinx larva evidently that of a Phlegathontius, and prob- 
ably belonging to calapagensis but differing remarkably from 
and rarer than the usual form of that larva, was taken by me 



314 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

at Tagus Cove. The fact that this form confined itself ahnost 
entirely to devouring the leaves of Erigeron lancifolius (a few 
being also found feeding on Croton Scouleri), is significant. 
The larvae were most plentiful from 1500 to 2000 feet eleva- 
tion and were not found below 600 feet, at Tagus Cove. Their 
range is apparently controlled by Erigeron. 

The following is a description of the larva : 

Mature larva — Smooth; head rather rugose with scant pile, 
color apple green, with a basal stripe of paris green and an 
anterior stripe of olive green with brown; clypeus, the same 
color as latter stripe; ocelli green, in a brown blotch. Body 
stouter than in P. rustica calapagensis, dark green with seven 
oblique prune purple stripes, each with a streak of emerald 
green above and one of creamy yellow below, the latter bor- 
dered by duller prune purple merging into dark green and 
duller purple. Dorsum creamy yellow, median line green; 
anal flap, dark olive encircled with Paris green ; anal horn stout 
and curved, ochre yellow, roughened with small dark tuber- 
cles. On segment 1 are two irregular rows of dorsal tuber- 
cles, in a field of dark green. Description based on several 
alcoholic specimens, in poor condition, and on field notes. 

Judging from the description and illustration of P. rustica 
rustica, by E. E. Smyth (Ent. News, XI, p. 486, 1900), the 
above described insect corresponds much more to it than does 
the usual plainer and rough form of calapagensis. From this, 
one might be tempted to infer that the smooth form of larva 
is the more ancient one which is being replaced by the more 
omnivorous rough form. Unfortunately these two forms were 
not kept separate and both calapagensis and its aberration 
nigrita were produced from this lot. Plate XX, fig. 10. 

7. Phlegathontius leucoptera Rothschild and Jordan, Novi- 
tates Zoologicae, Supplement Vol. IX\ p. 79, and 805, 1903, 
figure Vol. IX,^ plate XI, fig. 2, $ . 

The description reads : 

"Protoparce leucoptera spec. nov. (PI. XI f. 2, 2) ? Antenna very- 
slender, faintly incrassate distally, scaling white. Body whitish grey, 
mixed with brown, sides of palpus near eye, a dorso-lateral patch on 
metanotum and first abdominal segment, bases of apical edges of abdom- 
inal tergites on sides, brown ; white dorso-lateral dots of abdomen widely 
separate (not distinct in our unique individual) ; five large yellow 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 315 

side-patches to abdomen, gradually decreasing in diameter, a trace of a sixth 
spot on seventh segment ; posterior ventral angles of tergites white ; abdo- 
men below with traces of brown mesial spots. First segment of protarsus 
about as long as segments 2 and 3 together, with a few short spines at 
base, and three long ones, situated at base, in middle and at end respect- 
ively. No pulvillus. Wings, upper side — Forewing: greyish white; a 
white stigma; submarginal area shaded with brown; a brown post-discal 
undulate line, an oblique black apical line, and rather indistinct brown 
submarginal halfmoons; fringe not well preserved, apparently the white 
spots smaller than the brown portions. Hindwing: grey, shaded with 
brown, marginal area brown, a blackish, irregular, postdiscal band; 
between it and base four indistinct bands or lines, the most proximal 
broadest, situated between base and M2. Underside drab grey — Forewing: 
disc slightly paler ; grey marginal spots ; a thin oblique brown apical line ; 
scaling in front of this line grey; scattered grey scaling also along outer 
margin. Hindwing: paler grey, especially a broad ill-defined discal band- 
like space and abdominal area; distal marginal area brown, especially in 
submarginal area ; a faint brown band between this border and cell. Length 
of forewing : 5 , 45 mm. 

Hab. Chatham Island, Galapagos Islands, 14, III, '01 (Beck). AlHed to 
petunice and sexta. The dorsum of the thorax is mutilated in the speci- 
men." 

Further description in the appendix of the same volume 

reads : 

"Two 2 ? from S. E. Albemarle, collected by Mr. Beck on March 26th 
and 27th, 1902, are rather better preserved than the specimen described and 
figured. The forewing bears the antemedian lines of the allied species, and 
three dentate discal ones, besides the postdiscal one. On the underside 
there are two discal lines on the hindwing, and one or two on the fore- 
wing." 

I secured ex larva, two $ S and three 5 2 , one 2 being 
from Chatham Island, March, '06, and the remaining specimens 
from Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, April 29-30, 1906. These 
specimens have the dorso-lateral patch on metanotum and 
first abdominal segment almost black, and the former patch 
is interspersed with pale yellow hairs in its inner corner. 

Larva — Smooth, moderately stout; head somewhat rugose, 
rounded, about 5.5 mm. wide; segments of body with about 
eight transverse deeply incised folds or wrinkles. Body, pale 
green, with seven oblique blackish dashes running above into 
the furrows, bordered below by a yellow dash. Thorax, nearly 
plain concolorous green, feet, circled with black. A thin 
dorsal line and transverse streaks in the folds form a rough 
triangle on each segment from four to ten inclusive. Spiracles 
large, dusky. There is much blackish at base of legs and on 
segments four and five, and suggesting pen scratches. No 
blackish about anal claspers ; horn slender curved and pointed, 



316 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Paoc. 4th See. 

reddish, and somewhat roughened by small tubercles. Length 
66 mm., width about 9 mm. Described from two nearly 
mature, rather poorly preserved alcoholic specimens. Wreck 
Bay, Chatham Island, February, 1906. 

Pupa of the usual form, light reddish brown, the short 
ridged tongue-case applied in a curve to breast, length 40 mm. 
The specimen is undersized. 

This pale colored Sphinx appears to be the rarest of the 
genus, no adults being taken at flowers, and the larvae were 
rather local and were found feeding on a low, succulent Solana- 
ceous plant at low altitude, at Wreck Bay, Chatham Island 
(February); Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island (March), and 
Tagus Cove, April 30, 1906. 

Alar expanse: $ 90, 93 mm.=91.5 mm. 

5 74, 94, 98 mm.=88.7 mm. Plate XX, fig. 7. 

8. Phlegathontius cingulata Fabricius Syst. Ent., 545, 1775. 
Protoparce cingulata, Holland, Proc. U. S. N. M., XII, 195, 
1889 ("Galapagos, Chatham Island"). Herse cingulata, 
Rothschild and Jordan, Novitates Zoologicse, Suppl. Vol. IX\ 
p. 10 & 11, 1903 (Galapagos). 

The "Pink-spotted" Hawk-moth is by far the commonest 
and perhaps the most widely distributed sphinx in the Archi- 
pelago, having been taken by several of the previous expedi- 
tions to these islands. 

In common with several of the other Galapagos hawk-moths, 
cingulata is often seen in the daytime at flowers, and in the 
evening it may be taken in numbers. It flies rather sparsely 
before sunrise. 

The Convolvulacese, upon which the larva of this moth 
feeds, are common plants in the Archipelago, and of several 
species, among which are Ipomcea galapagensis, pes-caprce, and 
campanulata. The larvae present a considerable number of 
varieties reducible to two types, those of a green and those of a 
brown ground color. These two types have several vars. and 
intergradations. A common form is dark chocolate brown, 
with two dorsal stripes of straw color, and a creamy white 
super- and substigmatal stripe, the lower connected with the 
upper by eight oblique stripes of the same color, widened 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 317 

basally and frequently broken. The stigmata, bordered by 
dark brown, are contained in the base of the oblique stripes. A 
number of larval varieties are described by J. A. Lintner (Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Phil., Vol. Ill, pp. 650-651, 1864). 

These monstrous caterpillars occurred in great numbers on 
Chatham Island, in February, 1906, when the roadside in the 
vicinity of Wreck Bay was swarming with them. They were 
also plentiful at Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island, in March. 

The pupa, as is well known, is remarkable for its very long 
recurved tongue-case. 

The moths do not differ from those of the mainland, but a 
few of the bred specimens, perhaps owing to under-feeding, 
are quite small and lack much of the usual rosy tinge. 

P. cingulata is usually considered distinct from convolvuli of 
the Old World, but like it enjoys a wide range, being very 
common in the American tropics and occurring also in the 
Hawaiian Islands. A specimen of this insect was taken by 
Mr. S. J. Hunter of the Expedition on Cocos Island, Septem- 
ber, 1905. 

Specimens were found on Chatham, Albemarle, and Inde- 
fatigable Islands, and it doubtless occurs on most of the other 
islands of the group. 

Taken also on the Albatross Expedition in 1889, the Hop- 
kins-Stanford Expedition (the specimens being in Stanford 
University) ; and also by Mr. Beck in 1901. 

There are ten $ $ and thirteen 2 ? from these islands, in 
the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Alar expanse: S 81, 81, 82, 82, 84, 86, 88, 88, 94, 97= 
86.3 mm. 

? 77, 78, 82, 87, 87, 92, 93, 93, 97, 103, 103, 105, 112= 
92.2 mm. 

One 9 specimen from Cocos Island=114 mm. 



318 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS 

The fauna under consideration is oceanic in its character; 
very few of the species are wholly tropical, but are also repre- 
sented in the more temperate regions (where they occur as 
stragglers or as well established insects) by the identical spe- 
cies, or the one from which they were probably derived. That 
this fauna, inhabiting islands situated on the equator, is not 
typically tropical, is quite to be expected, since the climate of 
the Galapagos cannot be termed tropical but rather temperate ; 
with much aridity, that would suggest the survival of the fittest, 
the immigration largely of migratory forms which de natura 
must be hardy, and the elimination of more delicate and fastid- 
ious species which were not perpetuated there owing to the 
climate, enemies, or lack of food-plant, for it is not improb- 
able that some fragile species once reached the Galapagos 
Archipelago. 

With the possible exception of the Lycsenid, Cupido parrha- 
sioides, the rest of the species treated here are strong fliers and 
hardy insects, and some, as Callidryas eubule and Deilephila 
lineata, are widely distributed and of migratory habits, Phleg- 
athontius cingulata having been caught at sea 500 miles from 
the nearest land (Holland). 

An island of continental origin, whose fauna has not been 
once obliterated by some catastrophe, would contain a com- 
paratively large number of species, since in this case there 
would have been no water for the species to cross over, and 
barring a change of climate and a long period thereafter, the 
flora would remain about the same as that of the mainland 
from which it was separated, and at least a goodly number of 
the insects would persist, whereas we have seen that the insect 
fauna of the Galapagos is very scant. The mainland, whether 
we consider the Mexican, Isthmian, or South American region, 
is undoubtedly very rich in Lepidoptera, as compared with that 
order as represented in the Galapagos. 

The inferior size of a number of the Galapagos Lepidoptera 
as compared with the same species on the mainland, suggests 
that the climate is largely responsible for this change ; and the 
fact that in some cases they are subspecifically or specifically 



Vol. I] WILLIAMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 319 

distinct from their progenitors, shows that at least some of the 
fauna is of considerable antiquity, and that migrations to 
these islands have not been frequent or often successful. Cli- 
mate and environment and isolation seem to be responsible for 
the evolutionary changes. 

The study of the fauna of oceanic islands is an excellent 
guide for the determination of hardy migratory forms. We 
find Pyrameis huntera also inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands; 
likewise the moths, Deilephila lineata, Phlegathontius con- 
volvuli {cmgulata Fabr.), Agrotis ypsilon, etc. The Hawaiian 
and Galapagos Islands are separated from each other by a vast 
expanse of ocean, yet they have some forms in common. 
There are only seven butterflies and seven hawk-moths known 
from the Hawaiian Islands, and this fauna is also compara- 
tively meager in the Azores, Bermudas, Samoan, Friendly 
Islands, etc. 

The almost ubiquitous Anosia plexippus, which is found on 
a number of the oceanic islands, does not yet occur in the 
Galapagos, although a Milkweed (Asclepias angustissima, 
Andersson), is plentiful on some of the islands, 

Utehesia ornatrix (Arctiidae), Erebus odora (whose food- 
plant, a large leguminous tree has probably been introduced), 
Agrotis ypsilon, Meliopotis nigrescens and sinualis, and spe- 
cies of Prodenia (Noctuidse), are among the Galapagos 
insects which are familiar to many collectors in the United 
States and elsewhere. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the flora and fauna of the 
Galapagos are fairly well known, there still remains an 
immense field for further investigation there, and the only 
manner in which a satisfying knowledge of the natural history 
of these interesting islands could be obtained, would be by 
residing in the Archipelago for several years, and studying 
the fauna in all its relations in a most thorough and systematic 
manner. This little paper does not claim therefore to be much 
more than an imperfect study of the subject; yet it is based, 
however, on rather ample field notes and observations by the 
writer himself. 



320 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Table Showing the Insect Seasons as Illustrated by Notes on Four 
Species of Butterflies, Galapagos Archipelago 



1 


Island 


BUTTERFLY 


Season 


Callidryas 
eubule 


Agraulis 
galapagensis 


Leptotes 
parrhasioides 


Eudamus 
galapagensis 


Dec. 1-16 

18-20 
" 23-31 


Duncan 

Jervis 

James ( James 
Bay) 


Too early 
Moderate 


Too early, re- 
mains on sum- 
mit 

Moderate 


Rare 
Rather rare 


Few at high al- 
titude 


Jan. 1- 4! 

11-14; 

" 24-31 


James ( James 

Bay) 
Indefatigable 

(South part) 
Chatham 

(Wreck Bay) 


Moderate 


Moderate 


Rather rare 


Few at high al- 
titude 


Feb. 1- 6; 

8-13 

20-24 
26-28} 


Hood 
Chatham 

Chatham 
Charles 


Very common 


Common and 
fresh 


Common and 
fresh 


Passing season 


March 1- 2| 
5-15j 

•■ 17-2li 

" 23-31 


Charles 

Albemarle 
(South) 

Albemarle (Igu- 
ana Cove) 

Albemarle 
(Tagus Cove) 


Common, mid- 
season 
Common 

Common and to 
summit 


Common 

Fairly common 

Quite common, 
esp. at 1500 ft. 


Common, ovi- 
positing 
Very common 

Common 


Common 

Common and 
fresh 


April 1- 9 
" 10-16 

18-19 
" 24-26 


Albemarle 

(Tagus Cove) 
Albemarle 

(Bank's Bay) 

Narborough 

Albemarle 

(South) 


Common and 

to summit 
Very common 

but passing 

season 
Few seen 
Scarcer than in 

March 


Quite common, 
esp.at 1500 ft. 

Common but 
passing season 

Quite common 
mid-season 


Common 
Common 

Fairly common 
Common, pass- 
ing season 


Common and 
fresh 

Common, Lar- 
vae and pupa 
found 


May 1- 3 
•• 14-17 
•• 23-31 


Albemarle 
(South) 

Charles 
Charles 


Not common, 
flown speci- 
mens 

Rather c o m - 
mon, passing 
season 

Rather c o m - 
mon, passing 
season 


Rather c o m - 
mon, passing 
season 

Very common at 
1700 ft., pass- 
ing season 

Very common at 
1700 ft., pass- 
ing season 


Common, mid- 
season 

Common, mid- 
season 


Rare 
Rare 


June 1- 4 
23-30 


Charles 
Hood 


No 


Butterflies see 


n 










July 1- 2 

3-8 

9-10 

•■ 11-24-26 

28-31 


jHood 
Chatham 
Barrington 
Indefatigable 

and South 

Seymour 
James (Sullivan 

Bay) 


No 
Rare 

Fairly common, 
mid-season 


Butterflies see 
Rare 


n 
Rare 

Rather common 


Rare 

Common.in sea- 
son 


August 1- 5 
7-8 

•• 10-12 

•• 14-15 
■ 20-31 


James (Sullivan 

Bay) 
James (James 

Bay) 

Albemarle 
(Cowley Mt.) 

Duncan 

Albemarle (S. & 
St. Tom as 


Scarce 

Few, both fresh 
and faded 

Rather rare, 
found about 
food plant, 
passing season 

Moderately 
common lar- 
vae at high 
altitude 


Scarce 

Fairly common 

Fairly common, 
appears to be 
searching for 
place to ovi- 
posit 

Not common 


Scarce 

Common , but 
rather worn, 
hatched ova 

Fairly common 

Not at summit 


Scarce 
Rather scarce 

Rather rare, 
mid-season 

Rare 

Common. lowal- 
titude; scarce 
and old, high 
altitude 



Vol. I] 



WILLI AMS— BUTTERFLIES AND HAWK-MOTHS 



321 



Table Showing the Insect Seasons as Illustrated by Notes on Four 
Species of Butterflies, Galapagos Archipelago— C<?«//««<?^ 





Island 


BUTTERFLY 


Season 


Callidryas 


Agraulis 


Leptotes 


Eudamus 






eubule 


galapagensis 


parrhasioides 


galapagensis 


Sept. 1- 5 


Albemarle (S. & 
St. Tomas 










1906 " 7-10 


Chatham 


Rather rare 


Scarce 


Fairly plentiful 




" 14-15 


Tower 










" 17-18 


Bindloe 










" 19-22 


jAbingdon 




Rare 


Rather rare , at 
1000 ft. 




1905 " 25-30 


Hood 






Scarce 




1905 Oct. 1- 2!'Hood 






Scarce 




" 3-12 Charles 


Common, ovi- 


Rather rare,ovi- 


Passing season. 


Rare, 1200 ft. 




positing 


positing 


common at 
1100 ft. 




" 15-18 Chatham 


Common, at 


Rather rare 


Common, pass- 


Common, at 


1 (Wreck Bay) 


1000 ft. 




ing season 


1000 ft. 


" 20-24 Barrington 










'• 24-28, Indefat. (South) 


Rather rare 


Rare 




Rather rare 


1905 Nov. 1- 3i'Albemarle 


Moderately 


Moderately 


M Oder at ely 




|| (South) 


common 


common 


common 




" " 5-17iIndefatigable 


Common and 


Rare 




Common, mid- 


1 (South) 


fresh,at600ft. 






sea on 


'• 18-20lndefat. (NE.) 










" 21-30 Indefat. and S. 










11 Seymour 




1 





Kansas University, 
November 29, 1910. 



September 28, 1911 



322 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX 

Fig. 1. Agraulis vanillce Linn. $ Old Colony Settlement, Albemarle 
Island, April 24, 1906. 

Fig. 2. Agraulis vanillce Linn. $ Under surface. Tagus Cove, Albe- 
marle Island, March, 1906. 

Fig. 3. Cupido parrhasioides Wallengren. $ Chatham Island, October, 
1905. 

Fig. 4. Cupido parrliasioides Wallengren. $ Chatham Island, Oct. 1905. 

Fig. 5. Cupido parj-hasioidcs Wallengren. $ Under surface. Chatham 
Island, October, 1905. 

Fig. 6. Eudamus galapagensis Williams. $ Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, 
Octcrber, 1905. 

Fig. 7. Phlegathontius lencoptcra Roth, and Jordan. $ Wreck Bay, Chat- 
ham Island. Raised from caterpillar caught March 12, 1906. 

Fig. 8. Phlegathontius (Protoparce) Calapagensis Holland. 5 Light 
phase. Charles Island, February, 1906. 

Fig. 9. Phlegathontius (Protoparce) Calapagensis Holland. $ Dark 
phase. Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, April 12, 1906. 

Fig. 10. Phlegathontius (Protoparce) Calapagensis aberration nigrita 
Roth, and Jordan. $ Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, April 12, 
1906. 

Fig. 11. Dilophonota obscuris Conformis Roth, and Jordan. $ Tagfus 
Cove, Albemarle Island, March, 1906. 



Prdc CalAcad, 5ei 4~" 5er.^,''dl 



[ WiLLiAivis ] Pu^ri: XX 




9RITTON a REY ENG. & PRINT. S. F. 



Phdc.Cal.Acad. Sci 4™ Ber Vdl.I 



■ SI. 



4 



Chiefly tall Scale sia 



Tall iScalesia, various Convolvulaceae , ~ 
Canna, many ferns, and a species of 
Uriicaceae c 



Psidlum, Pisonla 



Acacia, Croton , Cordia, Cactaceae ,Bursera, Gossj/plum 

,1,111. Ill iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ii«««™ ■«"i«iii««iii"iiii iiii 



'lllllllllHI 
1 



The Weather fS.E.) Side of Tnidefatigjwle Jslanl 
1 Dry Zone- to 200ft., ZLi^fit Green Zone - to 400 fl. J Gi 



[Williams J Vlkte XXI 




ofli^ht color 

Taller ferns, grass, andhchens, 
or perhaps trees covered mlh lichens 

c — -"^Green area 



- — X' 



Open area 



{IIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIII 



^^Qties Tiol so well defined here 



— Cliff 



,.' fill oral Flora -Avicennia, Ilh2ZophorcL,IGppomane ^Uiscaria, 
/ Hibiscus , fpomoe a Pes - caprae 



^wiNG THE Plant Zones f sketched from nature ) 
Zone-tofSOOfi., 4BrownZone- to summit, about 3000ft. 



PR DC CalAcad. Scr 4™ Ser Vol. I 



[Williams ] Vlkte XXI 




Chiefly tall Scale sia 



Canna,niany ferns, and a species of 
Urlicaceae J 



Psidium, Pjsonia 



Acacia, Croton , Cordia, Cactaceae ^Bursera, Gossypiiim 

iiiiii 



2 
1 



Open area 



^Q^ies nol so well defined here 



iiiiiiiniiiiiiH 



1 



II- Cliff 

,- Littoral Flora -Avicennia, '"Miz'oplioraMlppomane^fliscana, 
Hibiscus , fpomoea Pes - caprae 




PheWejither fP.E.) Side or Pndeeatigable Islamj showing the Plant Zones f sketched If om nature ) 
fPiyZone- to 200/t., 2LiyM Green Zone - to 400Pt, J Green Zone - to f 50 OP., 4Brown Zone- to summit, about 30 00 P. 



PROCEEDINGS 

Fourth Series 

VOLUME I 

Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

Pages 1-6. I. Preliminary Description of Four New Races of 
Gigantic Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands, By John 
Van Denburgh. {Issiied December 20, 1907). % .25 

Pages 7-288. II. A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands. 

By Alban Stewart. {Issiied Jamiary 20, 1911) 1 .75 

Pages 289-322. III. The Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of the 

Galapagos Islands. {Isstied October 7, 1911) 50 



VOLUME II 

Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

{In progress. ) 



VOLUME III 

Pages 1-40. A Further Stratigraphic Study in the Mount Diablo 
Range of California. By Frank M. Anderson. [Isstied October 
31, 1908) 35 

Pages 41-48. Description of a New Species of Sea Snake from the 
Philippine Islands, with a Note on the Palatine Teeth in the 
Proteroglypha. By John Van Denburgh and Joseph C. Thomp- 
son. {ls,sued December 31, 1908) .25 

Pages 49-56. New and Previously Unrecorded Species of Reptiles 
and Amphibians from the Island of Formosa. By John Van 
Denburgh. {Issued December 20, 1909) .25 

Pages 57-72. Water Birds of the Vicinity of Point Pinos, California. 

By Rollo Howard Beck. {Issued September 17, 1910) 25 



The Academy cannot supply any of its publications issued before the 
year 1907, its entire reserve stock having been destroyed in the conflagra- 
tion of April, 1906. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 323-374 January 17, 1912 



Expedition of the California Academy of 

Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 

19054906 

IV 
The Snakes of the Galapagos Islands 



<^:i 



•aO^ 



John Van Denburgh // 

I 

Curator of the Department of Herpetology v •, 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

1912 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

George C. Edwards, Chairman 
C. E. Grunsky Edwin C. Van Dyke 



THE HICKS-JUDD PRESS 
SAN FRANCISCO 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 323-374 January 17, 1912 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 

OF SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906 

IV 
THE SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH 
Curator of the Department of Herpetology 



CONTENTS 

Plates XXII-XXX 

Page 

Introduction 324 

Previous Collections and Studies 324 

The Genus Dromicus Bibron 327 

Key to the Galapagos SPEaES 329 

The Material for this Study 329 

Origin of the Galapagos Snakes 331 

Suggestions to Future Students 336 

Discussion of the Species 336 

Dromicus hiserialis (Gunther) 336 

Dromicus hoodensis, new species 338 

Dromicus dorsalis (Steindachner) 341 

Dromicus occidentalis, new species 347 

Dromicus occidentalis helleri, new subspecies .... 349 

Dromicus slevini, new species 351 

Dromicus steindachneri, new species 353 

Hydrus platurus (Linnaeus) 355 

Explanation of Plates • 356 

January 15. 1912 



324 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Introduction 

In reporting upon the snakes secured by the Academy 
through its expedition of 1905 and 1906, I wish first of all 
to express my appreciation of the energy and care of my 
assistant, Mr. Joseph R. Slevin, upon whom, as chief herpet- 
ologist of the expedition, rested the responsibility of gathering 
and preserving the collection which has made this paper pos- 
sible. I am indebted to him also for the counting of many 
scales. To Mr. E. S. King, and to other members of the 
expedition who aided in the collection of reptiles, my thanks 
are due. Professor Charles H. Gilbert, as so often in the past, 
has aided me by kindly permitting me to make use of speci- 
mens in the collection of Stanford University. From Dr. 
George A, Boulenger I have received, regarding certain speci- 
mens in the British Museum, information which has been 
most useful. 

All measurements are given in millimeters. The numbers 
by which specimens are designated are the serial numbers of 
the reptile collection of the Academy, except such as are pre- 
ceded by the letter S. These latter are the numbers attached 
to specimens in the collection of Stanford University, and 
refer to the register of its reptile collection. 

The sea snake Hydrits platurus is here first recorded from 
the Galapagos. The following snakes are described as new : 

Dromicus hoodensis 
Dromicus slevini 
Dromicus steindachneri 
Dromicus occidentalis 
Dromicus occidentalis helleri 

Previous Collections and Studies 

It is probable that the presence of snakes in the Galapagos 
Archipelago was first recorded by Dampier, who, in his Voy- 
ages, mentions green serpents seen there in 1684. Delano, 
Porter, and Darwin refer to them briefly in their Narrative 
and Journals. 

Darwin, I believe, was the first to carry back to Europe a 
specimen of this snake. It was caught on Charles Island, and 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH— SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 325 

Bibron considered it identical with a Chilian species. It was 
so regarded until 1860, when Giinther, in the Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society of London, pointed out certain differ- 
ences between the mainland and the Galapagos snakes, and 
named this Charles Island specimen Herpetodryas hiserialis. 

In 1869, Peters recorded a specimen in the Museum of 
Stockholm, collected in the Galapagos by Dr. Kinberg, as 
identical with the mainland Dromictis chamissonis. Giinther 
in the Zoological Record for 1869, remarks that he "can con- 
firm Professor Peters's observations, having now seen a series 
of examples of this snake from these islands. There were two 
varieties, one very similar to the common continental form, 
the other identical with the snake described by him from a 
young specimen under the name of Herpetodryas hiserialis. 
Some examples were intermediate between the varieties, so 
that there is no doubt about their specific identity. The syn- 
cranterian character of the dentition is not well developed in 
this species." 

The Hassler expedition secured no snakes in the Galapagos 
Islands, but one was seen upon Jervis Island, in June, 1872. 

Stiil later. Dr. Steindachner secured for the Vienna Museum 
five snakes which Dr. Habel had collected in the Galapagos 
Archipelago in 1868, and which, he says, are the specimens to 
which Dr. Giinther referred in his note in the Zoological Rec- 
ord for 1869. These specimens showed two types of colora- 
tion—spotted and striped— and Dr. Steindachner regarded 
them as two varieties of the continental Dromicus chamissonis. 
The spotted form he called Dromicus chamissonis var. dorsalis, 
while the striped specimens were named Dromicus chamissonis 
var. hahelii. These snakes were said to have been found on 
Indefatigable, Hood, Charles and Jervis islands ; but the gas- 
trostege counts given by Dr. Steindachner, and his description 
of the post oculars and temporals, differ from the conditions 
found in the snakes of Charles and Hood islands to an extent 
which enables us to say that his specimens must have come 
from Indefatigable or Jervis. 

No other names have been proposed for Galapagos snakes. 
As the years have passed, and snakes have been found on 
Charles, Hood, James, Jervis, Barrington, Indefatigable, Albe- 
marle, and Narborough islands, authors have sometimes 



326 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

regarded them as identical with the mainland Dromicus chani- 
issonis, sometimes as one or two distinct varieties (spotted 
and striped) of this mainland species, sometimes as a distinct 
species, D. hiserialis, with or without a subspecies, D. biserialis 
habelii. As Garman put it, "there is nothing in the published 
evidence to show that the striped form, the spotted form, that 
with two postorbitals, and that with three do not occur 
amongst the individuals of any of the localities inhabited by 
this snake. Giinther's type has three postorbitals and is spot- 
ted, Dr. Baur's specimen has three postorbitals and is striped, 
and Steindachner's varieties, both striped and spotted, have 
but two postorbitals." 

Even as regards the generic term to be applied to these 
snakes, there has not been agreement among herpetologists. 
Giinther at first placed them in the genus Herpetodryas, but 
later followed Peters in referring them to the genus Dromicus 
of Bibron. Here they have been placed also by Steindachner 
and Boulenger. Cope, in 1889, applied to them the generic 
name Opheomorphus Fitzinger, but Garman has shown that 
this is a synonym of Liophis Wagler, being founded on the 
same type. Garman reverted to Fitzinger's Or o phis of 1843 — 
the type of which he states is Coronella chamissonis Wiegm. — 
because he held that the species of the Galapagos Archipelago 
of Chile, and of Peru differed generically from the West 
Indian species, which he retained in Bibron's genus Dromicus. 
Still later. Cope divided all these snakes into three genera: 
Dromicus Bibron, with no scale-pits; Monobothris Cope, with 
one scale-pit; and Alsophis Fitzinger, with two scale-pits. 
Monobothris Cope has as type Dromicus chamissonis, and is 
therefore a synonym of Fitzinger's Orophis which was based 
upon the same species. Stejneger has called attention to the 
fact that Bibron's Dromicus, 1842, is preoccupied by Dromica 
Dejean, 1826, and has revived Fitzinger's Leimadophis for 
the species which normally have no scale-pits; but the recent 
ruling of the Committee on Nomenclature of the International 
Congress sanctions the use of the name Dromicus. Leima- 
dophis therefore must revert to the synonymy. 

We thus have left three generic names — Dromicus Bibron, 
1842, based upon a West Indian species without scale-pits; 
Orophis Fitzinger, 1843, established upon the Chilian species 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH— SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 2)27 

with one scale-pit; and Alsophis Fitzinger, 1843, the type of 
which is a West Indian snake with two scale-pits. The only 
character which has been held to distinguish these genera is 
the number of scale-pits. However, since the snakes of the 
Galapagos Archipelago are certainly congeneric, and since it 
will be shown that they have scales with two or one or no 
pits, there seems to be no good reason for recognizing more 
than one genus for all these snakes— West Indian, Chilian and 
Galapagos — which agree in every other respect. Any other 
course would mean the establishment of genera which were 
in no sense natural groups; for the Hood Island snakes are 
certainly more closely related to the other Galapagos serpents 
than they are to the West Indian species which have no scale- 
pits. It would seem that as differentiation has proceeded, 
certain of the species in the Galapagos have lost their scale- 
pits, as others have in the West Indies. 

The Genus Dromicus Bibron 

1842, Dromicus (not Dromica Dejean, 1826) Bibron, in Sagra's Hist 
Fis. Pol Nat. Cuba, IV, Rept., 1842, p. 133 (type Coluber cursor) ; Bou- 
LENGER, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus., II, 1894, p. 118. 

1843, Alsophis, Fitzinger, Syst. Rept., 1843, p. 26 (type Psammophis 
anhllensis Schlegel) ; Stejneger, Report U. S. Nat. Mus. for 1902 1904 
p. 699. ' 

1843. Leimadophis, Fitzinger, Syst. Rept., 1843, p. 26 (type Coronella 
almadensis=D. regmce) ; Stejneger, 'Report U. S. Nat. Mus. for 1902 1904 
p. 694. ' ' 

. ^^'^^.' Orophis, Fitzinger, Syst. Rept., 1843, p. 26 (type Coronella cha- 
mtssonis Wiegm.). Carman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 86. 

1843, Calophis, Fitzinger, Syst. Rept., 1843, p. 26 (type ' Herpetodrvas 
cursor). 

1854, TcBniophis, Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, p. 226 (type 
T. tanhllus=^D. chamissonis) . 

1862, Haliophis Cope, Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 77 (emend.). 

1882, Alophis, Stahl, Fauna Puerto-Rico, 1882, p. 70 (err.). 

1884, Ocyophis, Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, XXIII, 1884, p 491 (type 
O. ater). 

1887, Halsophis, Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., X, 1887, p. 439 (emend ) • 
Cope, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc, XVIII, 1895, p. 201. 

TT ^.??1' ^«^M'-^ (not of Wagler, 1830), Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus.. 
II, 1894, p. 126 (part). 

1894, Monobothris, Cope, Amer. Nat., 1894, p. 841 (type Dromicus 
chamtssoms) ; Cope, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc, XVIII, 1895, p. 201. 

All of the land snakes of the Galapagos Archipelago agree 
in their dental and hemipenial characters. The maxillary 
teeth vary from ten to twelve in number, followed, after an 



328 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

interspace, by two larger ones. Thus, counting all sockets as 
well as teeth: — 

No. 11935, Dromicus hoodensis, from Hood Island, has 12 
and 2. 

No. 11800, Dromicus hoodensis, from Hood Island, has 12 
and 2. 

No. 11926, Dromicus hoodensis, from Hood Island, has 12 
and 2, 

No. 11930, Dromicus hoodensis from Hood Island, has 10 
and 2. 

No. 10782, Dromicus dorsalis, from James Island, has 11 
and 2, 

No. 10483, Dromicus dorsalis, from South Seymour Island, 
has 10 and 2. 

No. 1 1488, Dromicus occidentalis, from Narborough Island, 
has 11 and 2. 

No. 10281, Dromicus occidentalis helleri, from Brattle 
Island, has 10 and 2, 

No. 10617, Dromicus steindachneri, from Jervis Island, has 
11 and 2. 

The hemipenes of Dromicus hoodensis (No. 9336) from 
Hood Island, of Dromicus slevini (No. 12216) from Duncan 
Island, and of Dromicus dorsalis (No. 10483) from South 
Seymour Island, all are divided, with furcate sulcus, calyculate, 
spinous proximally, and with no apical disc. They agree in 
every respect with the figures given by Cope of these organs 
taken from "Monohothris" chamissonis, "Alsophis" angulifer 
and Dromicus parvifrons of Peru, Cuba and Hayti. 

Scale-pits do not occur in all the scales of any specimen 
from the Galapagos. When they are present, they are most 
constant in the scales in or near the region of the lateral stripe 
and on the upper surface of the tail. Most careful examina- 
tion has failed to disclose any trace of pits in any scale of any 
of the Galapagos snakes having fewer than one hundred and 
ninety gastrosteges. The Hood Island. and the Charles Island 
species also normally have no scale-pits ; but long search on 
the thirty-six specimens at hand from Hood resulted in the 
discovery of a single scale with one pit. Excepting the species 
from these two islands, all of the snakes of the Galapagos with 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH—SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 329 

more than two hundred gastrosteges bear scales with two pits. 
They also have scales with no pits, and usually others with 
one pit. In some cases large scales on the tail have three or 
four pits. While these pits, therefore, are not of generic 
value, they are of great use in the separation of species, as 
shown in the following: 

Key to Galapagos Species of Dromicus 

a. — No scale-pits. 

b.— Gastrosteges more than 195 (203-214). 

c. — General coloration in spots; scales in 19 rows. Charles and 
Gardner-near-Charles. 

Dromicus biserialis. — p. 336. 
C.2 — Striped, the stripes fading out posteriorly; scales in 17 or 19 
rows. Hood and Gardner-near-Hood. 

Dromicus hoodensis. — p. 338. 
b.2— Gastrosteges fewer than 195 (169-183). 

cc. — Postoculars two; no longitudinal light stripes. Duncan, 
Albemarle, Narborough. 

Dromicus slevini. — p. 351. 
CC.2 — Postoculars normally three (rarely two) ; longitudinal light 
stripes present. Jervis, South Seymour, Indefatigable. 
Dromicus stejndachneri. — p. 353. 
a.2 — Scale-pits present. 

bb.— Gastrosteges more than 210 (213-252). 

ccc. — Gastrosteges usually not more than 232 (213-236). James, 
Jervis, Harrington, Indefatigable, South Seymour. 
Dromicus dorsalis. — p. 341. 
ccc.2 — Gastrosteges not fewer than 236 (236 to 252) ; prominent 
light markings on nape spots or transverse blotches, 
d. — Usually striped ; light nuchal blotches and a series of dark 
spots on tips of gastrosteges and on lower lateral scales 
very distinct. Narborough. 

Dromicus occidentalis. — p. 347. 
d.2 — Spotted, without longitudinal light stripes; no series of 
definite rounded blackish spots on lateral scales of first 
and second rows ; light nuchal markings less prominent. 
Albemarle and Brattle. 

Dromicus occidentalis helleri. — p. 349. 
bb.2— Gastrosteges fewer than 210 (178-201). Chile and Peru.i 

Dromicus chamissonis. 



The Material for this Study 

It will be seen that I have recognized seven kinds of land 
snakes from the Galapagos Archipelago. This has been made 

^ There can be little doubt that more than one species occurs in Chile and Peru. 
The wide range in the number of gastrosteges would indicate this, and Dr. Boulenger, 
who most kindly has examined the scale-pits in the specimens in the British Museum 
in response to my request, writes me that most of the Chilian and Peruvian specimens 
have scales with single pits, while those from Chiloe have scales with two pits. These 
specimens from Chiloe doubtless represent a distinct species, as yet unnamed. 



330 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

possible only by the large number of specimens secured. The 
collection included ninety-eight snakes from these islands, and 
I have also had the privilege of examining eight in the Stan- 
ford University collection, making, in all, one hundred and six 
specimens, distributed as follows: 

Hood 36 

Indefatigable 24 

Barrington 15 

James 8 

Narborough , 7 

South Seymour 5 

Jervis 4 

Brattle 2 

Gardner-near-Hood 

Gardner-near-Charles 

Duncan 

Cowley. Mt., Albemarle 

Cape Berkeley, Albemarle 

Although this material seems large, it is quite inadequate 
for the final settlement of many of the questions which present 
themselves. The series from Hood is the only one that really 
is satisfactory. The Indefatigable series might at first seem 
so, but one of the species found on that island is represented 
only by a single specimen; and the twenty-three examples of 
the other species are not enough to furnish a satisfactory 
explanation of the presence of both spotted and striped styles 
of coloration. The numbers secured on the other islands are, 
of course, still less satisfactory, especially when one recalls 
that we have two distinct species from several of the islands. 

It is probable, too, that larger series from many of the 
islands would enable us to recognize specific or subspecific 
differences which are now hidden by individual variation. 
Thus, the snakes which I am forced to group together as 
Dromicus slevini may very well represent at least two different 
races. Similarly, the snakes of James and Jervis may be found 
to differ from those of Barrington and Indefatigable, as is 
pointed out under the head of Dromicus dorsalis, and those 
of Brattle possibly will be found to be not identical with those 
of northern Albemarle. The solution of these problems, how- 



Vol. I] VAN DENBVRGH— SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 331 

ever, must await the gathering of larger series from all the 
islands except Hood, and perhaps Charles. 

No snakes ever have been taken on Culpepper, Wenman, 
Abingdon, Bindloe, Tower, or Chatham islands. One of the 
residents of Chatham told Mr. Slevin that snakes were not 
uncommon there, but careful search failed to bring one to 
light. They must now be quite rare on Charles ; for no mem- 
ber of our expedition saw one on Charles Island itself, although 
one was secured on the close-lying islet known as Gardner- 
near-Charles. 

Origin of the Galapagos Snakes 

The closest relatives of the serpents of the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago are a number of distinct species native to the Bahamas, 
Greater and Lesser Antilles, Costa Rica, and all of South 
America — species which Boulenger includes in the genera 
Dromicus and Liophis. Whether or not all of these species 
actually belong in the genus Dromicus cannot be positively 
stated until the hemipenial structure of each has been exam- 
ined. The results of such an examination, however, cannot 
be expected to affect the truth of the statement that the Gala- 
pagos snakes have very close relatives throughout the West 
Indies and South America. 

This being true, the snakes of these localities must have had 
a common origin. Either the West Indian and Galapagos 
snakes have been derived from South America, or else all 
must be descendants of species which, in a former geological 
period, occupied a great central land-mass which has sunk 
below the level of the sea, leaving mere remnants in Central 
America, northern South America, the Antilles, and the Gala- 
pagos. Much may be said in favor of each of these theories. 
I believe that the data are not yet at hand which will enable 
us to choose between them. 

Either view implies a former land connection and a conti- 
nental origin of the Galapagos ophidian fauna. I cannot 
bring myself to share the opinion of those who believe that 
the fauna of the Galapagos has reached these islands by the 
more or less accidental agency of the winds and ocean currents. 
The various species must have spread slowly over some conti- 



332 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

nental mass with which the Galapagos were connected or of 
which they formed a part. 

When the Galapagos finally became separated from the rest 
of the world, it is probable that most or all of the present 
islands remained for a time united. The northern islands 
must have been the first to establish an independent existence, 
and it is possible that their separation may have occurred 
before snakes reached the Galapagos, and, therefore, before 
the old continental bridge was broken; but I think it more 
probable that snakes once inhabited these islands also. Cul- 
pepper and Wenman islands are, of course, unfavorable for 
the continued existence of snakes. Just why they never have 
been found on Abingdon and Bindloe is indeed hard to under- 
stand. 

While all of the snakes of the Galapagos Archipelago are 
closely related, they nevertheless are of two distinct types. 
These are the small snakes with no scale-pits and fewer than 
one hundred and ninety gastrosteges, and the group of species 
with more than two hundred gastrosteges. 

These two groups I believe to be the descendants of. two 
species which originally occupied the Galapagos. My chief 
reasons for this opinion are the absolute distinctness of the 
two groups, and the fact that representatives of both have 
been found upon the same islands. 

The snakes with more than two hundred gastrosteges fall 
naturally into three subgroups. These are: first, the snakes 
of Charles and Hood ; second, those of Narborough, Albemarle 
and Brattle; third, those of James, Jervis, Indefatigable and 
Barrington. 

The first of these subgroups is the most distinct. Differenti- 
ation has progressed much farther on Charles and Hood 
islands than elsewhere in the archipelago. Therefore, we may 
believe that these southern islands were separated from the 
central ones before the latter were divided one from another. 

The snakes from Charles and. Hood islands are very closely 
allied. They agree in all essential characters except color. 
They alone of the larger Galapagos snakes lack the scale-pits, 
and both have the same number of gastrosteges. Dififerenti- 
ation could hardly have occurred along lines so absolutely 
parallel in two unconnected islands. We are therefore led 



Vol. I] VAN DEN BURGH—SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 333 

to believe that Charles and Hood islands were connected, and 
formed a single island for a long time after their separation 
from the more northern or central islands. 

The snakes of the two Gardner islands agree in every detail 
with those of the larger islands to which these are adjacent, 
so that the separation of the one Gardner from Charles, and 
of the other Gardner from Hood, must have occurred still 
more recently. 

The second and third subgroups are much more closely 
related to each other than to the first. This may be considered 
to indicate that all of the central islands from Narborough 
to Barrington and from James to Brattle — with the possible 
exception of Duncan — remained connected for a considerable 
period after the separation of the northern and the southern 
islands. 

The distribution of the second and third subgroups, and 
of D: slevini and D. steindachneri, indicates that there occurred 
at a still later date the separation of this central land into two 
large islands; an eastern, including the present James, Jervis, 
Indefatigable and Barrington Islands ; and a western, of which 
Narborough, Albemarle and Brattle formed parts. 

The more recent changes are much less clearly indicated by 
the ophidian fauna, but certain color-differences render it 
probable that Narborough became separated from Albemarle 
before breaks in the eastern island occurred, first between 
Barrington and Indefatigable, then between James and Inde- 
fatigable, and lastly between James and Jervis. 

The snakes of Albemarle are at present known only from 
two specimens — one Dromictis slevini from Cowley Moun- 
tain, and one Dromicus occidentalis helleri from Cape Berkeley. 
Under such conditions little can be deduced as to the past 
history of this island without the use of evidence furnished 
by other groups of its inhabitants. This evidence I do not 
now wish to use; for I believe more accurate results can be 
attained by attempting to read the story of each group sep- 
arately, and then comparing results. The mixing of evidence 
here, it seems to me, would be only less confusing than the 
jumbling together of data derived from distribution, geology, 
paleontology, and ocean-soundings. Each should be worked 



334 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

out separately before comparing results, in order that one 
may serve to confirm or disprove the other. 

If we have read this story of the snakes correctly, there is 
nothing in the least suggestive of an unconnected group of 
volcanic islands thrust independently above the surface of 
the ocean, to become the home of such animals as might reach 
them through more or less accidental or occasional agencies of 
dispersal. Instead of telling of the elevation of new islands, 
the evidence points to the gradual depression and partial sub- 
mersion of a more extensive land-mass which must have had 
direct or indirect connection with continental America. 

When we consider the snakes from the various islands as 
regards the style of their coloration — whether spotted or 
striped — we find an interesting fact. On almost every island 
only one style of coloration is present. Thus, all the snakes 
of Hood, James, and Jervis are striped; while on Charles, 
Albemarle, and Brattle only spotted snakes have been found. 
But when we come to Narborough, Indefatigable and Bar- 
rington islands, we find that each island has both spotted and 
striped snakes. Why should a difference of coloration so 
constant on other islands be inconstant here? 

We have seen that the snakes of Charles and of Hood are 
alike, except that those of Charles are spotted while those of 
Hood are striped. If these two islands should now become 
connected for a time, we might expect spotted snakes to 
wander to Hood, and striped ones to appear on Charles. If 
these islands again became separated, we should find both 
spotted and striped snakes on each island ; but if the connection 
had been short, we might expect a majority of the snakes 
of Charles, and a minority of those of Hood, to show the 
spotted coloration. 

Fifty-three per cent of the fifteen snakes from Barrington 
are spotted. Seventy-four per cent of the twenty-three speci- 
mens from Indefatigable are striped. More numerous speci- 
mens might change the proportion and show that the sug- 
gested explanation is quite wrong, or that differentiation is 
now for the first time developing between the Indefatigable 
and the Barrington snakes. The parallelism between the con- 
ditions actually found on Barrington and Indefatigable, and 
the conditions which we might expect to find upon Charles 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH—SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 335 

and Hood, should they now become connected and later sep- 
arated again, is strongly suggestive. It might be thought to 
point to an elevation and depression of Barrington and Inde- 
fatigable subsequent to the general depression of the archi- 
pelago. This view might be strengthened by the fact that 
all of the snakes of South Seymour Island are striped. Certain 
slight peculiarities of coloration, however, distinguish most 
of the Barrington Island specimens from those of Indefat- 
igable. With respect to these peculiarities, the striped snakes 
of Barrington differ from the striped snakes of Indefatigable, 
and agree with the spotted snakes from their own island. 
Similarly, the spotted snakes of Indefatigable differ from the 
spotted snakes of Barrington, but agree with striped specimens 
from Indefatigable. Therefore, we must regard this as a 
case of dichromatism, occurring in the snakes of these two 
islands ; but if similar proportions hold in larger series, it will 
be evident that specific differentiation has already begun, and 
may ultimately lead to the formation of spotted and striped 
races here as it has on Charles and Hood and on Albemarle 
and Narborough islands. 

The following diagram will serve to show the probable 
relationship of the snakes of the Galapagos. 




J>. o. Aeile-fL 






J>. ^le vinL 



336 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Suggestions to Future Students 

Future collectors in these islands should strive to secure 
specimens of the snake of Chatham Island, if such there be. 
Doubtless, it will prove to be a most interesting new species. 
Duncan Island is one of the most difficult to understand of 
all the islands of the archipelago. Its snakes are represented 
in collections only by a single specimen of D. slevini, although 
there can be little doubt that a larger species, probably with 
two scale-pits, remains to be found there. Other specimens 
of D. slevini have been seen on Duncan Island ; and, since these 
agreed perfectly in coloration with the type, it is almost certain 
that additional specimens from Duncan, Albemarle, and Nar- 
borough will show that more than one species is here referred 
to D. slevini. Many more specimens of D. steindachneri also 
are needed. Much remains to be learned of the larger snakes 
of Albemarle, which now are known from only one or two 
specimens. Dr. Boulenger writes me that the British Museum 
has a specimen with 222 gastrosteges, which is said to have 
been collected at Tagus Cove. I am inclined to doubt the 
correctness of this label; but if no error has crept in, there 
must be more than one species with two scale-pits in this 
island. The question then arises : Is there in Albemarle a 
distinct race of snake on each of the five principal mountains, 
as there is of tortoise? The answer must be based on many 
specimens yet to be collected. The question of the necessity 
of further division of Dromicus dorsalis also remains for 
future collectors to solve. 



Discussion of the Species 
Dromicus biserialis (Giinther) Charles Island Snake 

1860, Herpetodryus biserialis Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, 
p. 97 (type locality Charles Island). 

1869, Dromicus chamissonis Gunther, Zool. Record, 1869, p. 115 (part) ; 
Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus., II, 1894, p. 119 (part). 

1876, Herpetodryas dorsalis, Steindachner, Festschr. Zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien., 1876, p. 304 (err). 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH— SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 337 

1892, Orophis biserialis Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 85 
(part). 

1903, Dromicus biserialis biserialis Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. 
Sci., V, 1903, p. 93 (part). 

Diagnosis. — No scale-pits; scales in 19 rows; gastrosteges 
209; urosteges 108 to 110, all paired; postoculars three; tem- 
porals usually 2+2 ; spotted. 

Type. — British Museum. Charles Island, Galapagos Archi- 
pelago. Charles Darwin. 1835. 

Distribution. — Charles and Gardner-near-Charles islands, 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — Only two specimens of this species are in collec- 
tions. These are : the type, a young specimen from Charles 
Island, preserved in the British Museum, and one female speci- 
men from Gardner Island — No. 9448 of the Academy collec- 
tion. 

Description of No. 9448. — Head rather long, with flattened top and 
rounded snout. Rostral plate large, a little broader then high, hollowed 
below, and bounded behind by internasal, anterior nasal and first labial 
plates. Plates on top of head are : a pair of internasals, a pair of pre- 
frontals, supraocular and part of preocular of each side, a frontal, and a 
pair of large parietals. Internasals much smaller than prefrontals. Frontal 
longer than parietal suture. Anterior and posterior nasals distinct. Loreal 
well developed, longer than high. One large preocular with a very small 
one below it on each side of head. Postoculars three. Temporals two 
followed by two or three. Eight superior and ten inferior labials, sixth 
upper and sixth or seventh lower largest, fourth or fourth and fifth upper 
reaching eye, first pair of lower meeting on median line. Genials in two 
pairs, posterior a little longer, anterior touching five labials. Scales on 
body smooth, without pits, in nineteen rows. Anal plate divided. Gas- 
trosteges two hundred and nine. Tail complete. Urosteges one hundred 
and eight, all paired. 

The color above is a pale grayish olive. A dark streak runs back from 
the eye. The infralabials and the posterior superior labials are blotched 
with yellowish white. There is a yellowish-white blotch on each side of 
the nape. There are no traces of longitudinal bands on the body, but along 
the back is a series of irregular dark brown cross bars or alternating spots. 
A few indications of similar spots may be made out on the sides. The tail 
is unspotted except near its base. The lower surfaces are creamy white, 
plentifully dotted or clouded with dark gray. There are no very distinct 
blackish-brown lateral spots on the anterior gastrosteges. 

Length to anus, 590 mm. 
Length of tail, 220 mm. 

Variation. — The type specimen from Charles Island has 
two hundred and nine gastrosteges, one hundred and ten uros- 



338 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

teges, three postoculars, scales in nineteen rows, and the spot- 
ted style of coloration. 

General Remarks. — Snakes must be very rare on Charles 
Island, for none were seen there by any member of our expe- 
dition, although careful search was made for them. It is 
probable that the ravages of the smaller kinds of mammals 
that have been introduced there — particularly rats and cats — 
have pushed them to the verge of extinction, as they have the 
Tropidurus. It is probable that a longer search would show 
that snakes are still to be found on Champion and Enderby 
as well as on Gardner, for Tropiduri still are fairly abundant 
on all these islets. 

The Charles Island snake is most closely related to the 
Hood Island species. It differs from that species in having 
numerous dorsal spots, no dorsolateral bands, and no definite 
dark spots on the anterior gastrosteges. 



Dromicus hoodensis new species. Hood Island Snake 

1892, Orophis hiserialis Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 85 
(part) . 

1903, Dromicus hiserialis habeli Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 
V. 1903, p. 93. 

Diagnosis. — No scale-pits ; scales in 17 or 19 rows; gastros- 
teges 203 to 214; urosteges 91 to 114, usually all paired; post- 
oculars three; temporals usually 2+2; never spotted; striped, 
the stripes becoming obsolete posteriorly. 

Type. — Male. California Academy of Sciences No. 11799. 
Hood Island, Galapagos Archipelago. J. R. Slevin. June 23, 
1906. 

Distribution. — Hood and Gardner-near-Hood islands, Gala- 
pagos Archipelago, 

Material. — One specimen collected by Dr. Baur on Hood 
Island has been recorded by Garman. Two secured on Hood 
by Heller are Nos. 4970 and 4971 in the collection of Stanford 
University. The Academy has thirty-four from Hood and 
one from Gardner-near-Hood. 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH—SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 339 

Description of the type. — Head rather long, with flattened top and rounded 
snout. Rostral plate large, a little broader than high, hollowed below, and 
bounded behind by internasal, anterior nasal and first labial plates. Plates 
on top of head are : a pair of internasals, a pair of prefrontals, supra- 
ocular and part of preocular of each side, a frontal, and a pair of large 
parietals. Internasals much smaller than prefrontals. Frontal slightly 
longer than parietal suture. Anterior and posterior nasals distinct. Loreal 
well developed, longer than high. One preocular. Postoculars three. 
Temporals two followed by two. Eight superior and nine inferior labials, 
sixth upper and fifth or sixth lower largest, fourth and fifth upper reaching 
eye, first pair of lower meeting on median line. Genials in two pairs, 
posterior a little longer, anterior touching five labials. Scales on body 
smooth, without pits, in seventeen rows. Anal plate divided. Gastrosteges 
two hundred and seven. Tail complete. Urosteges one hundred and thir- 
teen, all paired. 

The color above is deep olive brown becoming paler posteriorly and 
seal brown toward the head. A light dorsolateral band, about two scales 
wide, arises on the upper postocular, crosses the parietal, and continues 
along the fifth and sixth rows of scales. This yellowish-brown band 
becomes less distinct on the middle third of the body and nearly obsolete 
posteriorly. The tail is unicolor, olive, becoming yellowish olive toward 
the tip. The dark brown postocular or temporal bar is continuous with 
the brown band on the side of the neck. There is no light nuchal blotch. 
The labials are yellowish white marked with blackish olive. The first and 
second rows of scales on the neck are whitish, marked anteriorly with a 
row of blackish spots, continuous with a similar row formed of one spot 
near the lateral extremity of each gastrostege from about the fourth to 
twenty-second. The lower surfaces are yellowish dotted or clouded with 
grayish olive. 

Length to anus, 518 mm. 

Length of tail, 217 mm. 

Variation. — All the males have seventeen rows of scales, 
while all of the females have nineteen rows. Careful search 
of every specimen failed to disclose any scale-pits except in 
the case of No. 9306, on which one scale showing a single 
pit was found. The gastrosteges range in number from two 
hundred and three to two hundred and fourteen. The uros- 
teges in specimens with complete tails vary from ninety-four 
to one hundred and fourteen in males and from ninety-one to 
one hundred in females. All of the urosteges are paired except 
in the specimen from Gardner Island, which has two undi- 
vided. The postoculars are always three. The temporals 
normally are 2-1-2, and the supralabials eight. The following 
table shows the scale-counts. In the urostege column c indi- 
cates that the tail is complete, while -|- is affixed to counts 
when the tip of the tail is missing. 



January 15, 1912 



340 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus hoodensis 



9336 

9370 

9420 
10920 
10957 
11799 
11800 
11896 
11921 
11923 
11931 
11932 
11934 
11936 
11937 
11939 

9304 

9305 

9306 

9335 

9384 

10919 

10921 

10922 

10958 

11895 

11920 

11922 

11924 

11925 

11926 

11930 

11933 

11935 

11938 

Garman 

S.4970 

S.4971 

Brit. Mus 

Brit. Mus. 

Brit. Mus 



$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

S 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

$ 

5 

5 

5 

? 

5 

5 

5 

5 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 
$ 
$ 
$ 
2 



o 



206 
211 
208 
204 
214 
207 
206 
208 
208 
205 
207 
207 
209 
208 
205 
208 

205 
208 
210 
210 
210 
207 
206 
208 
211 
207 
211 
204 
209 
205 
207 
203 
210 
209 
209 
212 
206 
203 
199 
211 



105 
109 
110 
112 
113 
113 
107 

68 
106 
105 
108 

94 
112 
114 

33 
107 



84 + 
93 c 



89 
96 
80 
90 
92 
94 
90 
96 
95 
95 
95 
96 
93 
91 
94 
90 
100 



94 + 
98 c 

104 

105 



2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 ■ 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2-1+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2 

2+2-2+2 
2+2 



8-9 



Type 



Gardner Island 



Stanford Univ. 
Stanford Univ. 



There is very little variation in coloration. All specimens 
are striped without trace of dorsal spots ; and in all, the stripes 
fade out posteriorly. In specimens with nineteen rows of 
scales the stripes are on the sixth and seventh rows. All 
specimens but one show the characteristic spotting on the 
anterior gasi:rosteges only, with the white continuation of the 



Vol. I] VAN DEN BURGH—SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 341 

labial streak just above. In the one exception, a young speci- 
men, there are mere traces of the dark spots. 

The largest specimen measures 820 mm. from snout to vent, 
and has a tail 253 mm. long. 

Habits. — Nothing is known of the breeding habits of any 
of the Galapagos snakes. One of the Hood Island specimens 
(No. 9306) contained the tail of a large Tropidurus which 
it had eaten. 

General remarks. — Snakes still are abundant on Hood 
Island. They seem to differ from those of Charles Island only 
in coloration; but, since the differences are constant in the 
large series at hand, they must be regarded as a distinct 
species. 

The sexual difference in the number of scale rows in the 
snakes of this one island is worthy of note. 



Dromicus dorsalis (Stsindachner). Galapagos Snake 

1869, Dromicus chamissonis Peters, Mon. Berlin. Acad., 1869, p. 719; 
GiJNTHER, Zool. Record, 1869, p. 115 (part) ; Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. 
Mus., II, 1894, p. 119 (part). 

1876, Dromicus chamissonis var. dorsalis Steindachner, Festschr. 
Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 306, pi. I, fig. 1 (type localitieslndefatigable 
[probably] or Jervis islands). 

1876, Dromicus chamissonis var. Habelii Steindachner, Festschr. Zool.- 
bot. Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 306, pi. I, fig. 1 (type localities Indefatigable 
[probably] or Jervis islands). 

1889, Opheomorphus chamissonis Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 
1889, p.' 147. 

1892, Orophis biserialis Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 85 
(part). 

1903, Dromicus biserialis biserialis Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. 
Sci., V,'l903, p. 93 (part). 

Diagnosis.— Sca\e-^its present; scales in 19 rows; gastros- 
teges 213 to 236; urosteges 95 to 119, usually some unpaired; 
postoculars two, rarely one; temporals usually 1+2 or 1+1; 
usually striped, sometimes spotted (on Barrington and Inde- 
fatigable). 

Types.— Vienna IMuseum. Galapagos Archipelago, prob- 
ably Indefatigable (or Jervis). Dr. Habel. 1868. 



342 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

■ Distribution. — James, Jervis, Indefatigable, South Seymour 
and Barrington Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — Five specimens collected by Dr. Habel, probably 
on Indefatigable or Jervis Islands, are in the Vienna Museum. 
I have examined fifty-one specimens in the Academy collec- 
tion, as follows : twenty-three from Indefatigable, fifteen from 
Barrington, eight from James, three from South Seymour, 
and two from Jervis. 

Description of No. 12062. — Adult male. Indefatigable Island. J. R. 
Slevin. July 16, 1906. 

Head fairly broad, with flattened top and rounded snout. Rostral plate 
large, much broader than high, hollowed below, and bounded behind by 
internasal, anterior nasal and first labial plates. Plates on top of head 
are : a pair of internasals, a pair of prefrontals, supraocular and part of 
preocular of each side, a frontal, and a pair of large parietals. Internasals 
smaller than prefontals. Frontal longer than parietal suture. Anterior 
and posterior nasals distinct. Loreal well developed, little longer than 
high. One preocular. Two postoculars. Temporals one followed by two. 
Eight superior and ten inferior labials, sixth upper and fifth or sixth lower 
largest, fourth and fifth upper reaching eye, first pair of lower meeting on 
median line. Genials in two pairs, posterior a little longer, anterior touch- 
ing five labials. Scales on body smooth, many with pits, in nineteen rows. 
Anal plate divided. Gastrosteges two hundred and twenty. Tail complete. 
Urosteges one hundred and thirteen, the second to seventh undivided. 

The upper surface of the head is yellowish olive dotted with brown. 
There is a brown band from the rostral to the eye and from the eye to 
the side of the neck. The labials, chin, and throat are yellowish white 
dotted with dark brown. The body is longitudinally striped. The lower 
three (or, on the posterior part of the body, two) rows of scales are gray- 
ish brown. The next row is dark brown. The fifth, sixth, and seventh 
rows are yellowish white. The eighth row is dark brown, and the three 
rows along the middle of the back are lighter olive brown. The stripes 
are continued on to the tail, but the distal portion of this region is plain 
yellowish olive. The lower surfaces are yellowish white irregularly dotted 
and spotted with dark brown. 

Length to anus, 670 mm. 
Length of tail, 248 mm. 

Variation: Indefatigable Island. — Only two specimens 
(Nos. 10233 and 10796) have all the urosteges divided. 
Some specimens have only the second urostege undivided. At 
the other extreme is No. 10232 in which the second to twenty- 
second, forty-fifth to forty-eighth, and sixty-third to sixty- 
fifth, are unpaired. The urosteges range from one hundred 
and five to one hundred and nineteen, and the gastrosteges 
from two hundred and seventeen to two hundred and thirty. 



Vol. I] VAN DEN BURGH— SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



343 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus dorsalis (Steindachner) 
INDEFATIGABLE ISLAND 



B 




e 


0) 

s 


o 


1 
g 

o 

u 


"3 

o 

o 

o 


u 

o 
p. 

a 


2 
a 

02 


(D 

o 


10232 


$ 


19 


224 


118 c 




2 


1+1 


8 




10234 


$ 


19 


222 


117 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




10235 


$ 


19 


226 


98 + 




2 


1+2 


8 




10303 


S 


19 


219 


95 + 




2 


1+2 


8 




10304 


$ 


19 


224 


99 + 




2 


1 + 1 


8 




10305 


$ 


19 


221 


105 + 




2 


1+2 


8 




10375 


$ 


19 


225 


114 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




10378 


$ 


19 


225 


107 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




10379 


$ 


19 


223 


117 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




10395 


$ 


19 


226 


119 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




10396 


$ 


19 


221 


110 + 




2 


1+2 


8 




10559 


$ 


19 


227 


107 + 




2 


1+2 


8 




12056 


s 


19 


224 


116 c 




2 


1 + 1 


8 




12059 


s 


19 


229 


105 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




12062 


$ 


19 


220 


113 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




12063 


$ 


19 


218 


102 + 


1 


2 


1+2 


8 




12064 


$ 


19 


217 


112 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




12065 


s 


19 


225 


102 + 




2 


1+2 


8 




10233 


5 


19 


228 


10 + 




2 


1+2 


8 




10429 


5 


19 


230 


107 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




10560 


? 


19 


225 


45 + 




2 


1 + 1 


8 




10792 


5 


19 


229 


74 + 




2 


1+2 


8 




10796 


5 


19 


229 


105 c 




2 


1+2 


8 





The largest snake in the collection is No. 10792 which 
measures 950 mm. from snout to anus. 

All but six of the Indefatigable snakes are colored like the 
one described above. Seventy-four per cent of the specimens 
from this island are striped. Of the remaining six specimens, 
two (Nos. 10233 and 12064) are spotted to the tail, while the 
other four (Nos. 10235, 10305, 10379, and 10792) are spotted 
anteriorly, but become nearly unicolor, or at most show only 
faint spots and bands posteriorly. Nos. 10233, 12064, 10235, 
and 10305 show longitudinal light stripes more or less clearly 
on the posterior part of the body. These stripes are wanting 
in Nos. 10379 and 10792. 

The light stripes or nuchal blotches are continued forward 
very distinctly to the parietals in all Indefatigable specimens 
except 10235, 10305, 10379, 10396, and 10792. The light 
stripes, when present, never are confined to the scales of two 
rows, as is the case in snakes from Barrington. 

South Seymour Island. — Two of the three specimens at 
hand have more numerous gastrosteges than have been found 



344 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



in any specimen from Indefatigable, James, Jervis, or Bar- 
rington islands. The third has a number equaled by only one 
Indefatigable specimen. In other respects these snakes are 
like the Indefatigable striped specimens, except that the color- 
ing is a little lighter and brighter. 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus dorsalis (Steindachner) 
SOUTH SEYMOUR ISLAND 









a 










w 




















a! 








^ 








CO 


CB 


.Q 






























o 




^ 










H 




















t^ 


ca 


S 


O 


O 




B 


ft 


(U 


•z 






O 


t3 


p-i 


Ph 


H 


3 
M 


1-1 


'10483 


$ 


19 


232 


88 + 


1 


2 


1+2 


8 


1 


10485 


$ 


19 


230 


113 c 


1 


2 


1+2 


8 


1 


10486 


5 


19 


236 




1 


2-3 


1+2 


8 


1 



James Island. — The James Island snakes show no important 
differences from the Indefatigable series. Nos. 10782 and 
12153 have all urosteges paired. No. 12091 has the second 
to twenty-first undivided. No. 12092 has a similar condition 
in the sixth to eighth, tenth to fifteenth, seventeenth, nineteenth, 
twenty-first to twenty-third, twenty-seventh, and one-hun- 
dredth to one-hundred-and-third. All the others have some 
unpaired. The temporals usually are one followed by one. 
Variation in other scale-characters is shown in the following 
table : 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus dorsalis (Steindachner) 
JAMES ISLAND 





2 

.2 


6 


CO 


1 


O 


$ 


19 


217 


$ 


19 


215 


$ 


19 


213 


$ 


19 


213 


$ 


19 


213 


2 


19 


226 


5 


19 


221 


5 


19 


220 



12091 
12092 
12094 
12154 
12155 
10782 

12093 

12153 



91 + 

104 + 
68 + 
72 + 

101 c 

74 + 

85 + 
94 + 



1 + 1 
1 + 1 
1+2 
1+1 
1 + 1 
1+2 
1+1 
1 + 1 
1+2 
1 + 1 
1+2 
1 + 1 
1+2 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH—SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 345 



All the specimens are striped. The stripes are clear and 
distinct except in Nos. 12093, 12094 and 12154, in which they 
are more or less obsolete behind the neck. They are continued 
to the parietals, and usually involve the scales of three rows. 

Jervis Island. — Two specimens from Jervis seem to agree 
perfectly in squamation and coloring with the James Island 
snakes. 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus dorsalis (Steindachner) 
JERVIS ISLAND 







s 


60 






2 








u 




2 


O 




"3 


C8 

■3 




•s 




s 




u 








o 


n 


CIj 


"d 


3 

2; 




0! 


o 


o 

5 




o 




p. 

3 


o 


10610 
10611 


$ 

5 


19 
19 


220 

226 


95 + 
81 + 


1 
1 


2 
2 


ri+i 

11+2 

1+1 


8 
8 


1 
1 



Barrington Island. — I have before me fifteen snakes from 
Barrington. All but four of these have a few urosteges un- 
divided. The variation in important scale-characters is set 
forth below. The tendency toward a reduction in the number 
of temporals and postoculars will be noted. 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus dorsalis (Steindachner) 
BARRINGTON ISLAND 







^ 




s 


2 


S 




~a 












































^ 








CU 


a 




o 








K 




■4-3 


2 


o 
o 


o 


a 


s 

ft 




^ 


$ 


19 


o 


t> 


^ 


PLl 


eJ 




O 


10147 


223 


86 + 




2 


1+1 


8 




10152 


s 


19 


220 


95 c 




2 


1+3 


8 




10182 


$ 


19 


218 


41 + 




2 


1+3 


8 




10183 


$ 


19 


218 


98 + 




2 


1+1 


K 




10215 


$ 


19 


218 


52 + 




2 


1+1 


8 




10217 


$ 


19 


222 


104 c 




2 


1+1 


8 




10226 


$ 


19 


219 


56 + 




1-2 


1+1 


8 




12061 


$ 


19 


215 


87 + 




1-2 


/l + l 
11+3 


8 




10150 


9 


19 


227 


81 + 




1-2 


1 + 1 


8 




10151 


5 


19 


229 


86 + 




1-2 


1+1 


8 


1 


10213 


5 


19 


223 


86 + 




2 


1+3 


8 




10214 


5 


19 


229 


61 + 




1-2 


1+3 


8 




10216 


5 


19 


226 


65 + 




2 


1 + 1 


8 




12055 


5 


19 


223 


73 + 




2 


1 + 1 


8 




12060 


5 


19 


227 


76 + 


1 2 


1+1 


8 




Brit. Mus. 


$ 




224 













346 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Two styles of coloration are exhibited by the snakes of 
Barrington. Seven specimens (Nos. 10151, 10152, 10183, 
10213, 10214, 10217, 10226) are striped, while eight (Nos. 
10147, 10150, 10182, 10215, 10216, 12055, 12060, 12061) are 
spotted. The difference here, as on Indefatigable, is due 
neither to age nor sex. It must be regarded as a form of 
dichromatism. In the spotted specimens, the longitudinal light 
stripes are represented only by a pair of short longitudinal 
yellowish-white blotches on the nape. In striped specimens, 
the light stripes are confined to the scales of two rows. In all 
specimens, the light nuchal blotches or the longitudinal stripes 
end anteriorly sharply and definitely several scales behind the 
parietals. In all spotted specimens, the dark brown spots or 
blotches become obsolete posteriorly ; while, in all striped speci- 
mens, the light bands extend to the tail. 

General Remarks. — It is probable that larger series may 
result in the recognition of subspecies of Dromicus dorsalis. 
Even now the peculiarities of coloration, with the frequent 
reduction in temporals and postoculars, almost justify the 
separation of the Barrington Island snakes. The serpents of 
Indefatigable and Seymour appear to differ from those of the 
other islands in the possession of a greater number of uros- 
teges, but so many of the specimens have lost the tips of their 
tails that more evidence is needed. Inconstant as the differ- 
ences may prove to be, I believe that the following tentative 
key may prove useful to future investigators. 

a. — Stripes or nuchal blotches ending definitely several scales behind par- 
ietals ; stripes narrow. 

Temporals usually 1+1; postoculars often 1; urosteges fewer. 
Barrington. 
a.2 — Stripes or nuchal blotches usually continued forward to parietals; 
stripes wider. 
b. — Urosteges more numerous; temporals usually 1+2; spotted or 
striped. 

Indefatigable and Seymour. 
b.2 — Urosteges fewer; temporals usually 1 + 1; striped. 
James and Jervis. 

We do not know why so many of these snakes have lost the 
tips of their tails, but Mr. Slevin reports that the mocking- 
birds were observed picking at the tails of Tropiduri until they 
fell off and could be eaten. 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH—SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 347 

Dromicus occidentalis, new species. Narborough Island 

Snake 

1903, Dromicus hiserialis biserialis Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 
V, 1903, p. 93 (part). 

Diagnosis.— Scsle-pits present; scales in 19 rows; gastros- 
teges 236 to 252; postoculars two; temporals 1 + 1 or 1+2; 
striped (or rarely spotted), light nuchal blotches and series 
of dark spots on tips of gastrosteges and on lower lateral 
scales very distinct. 

Type. — Adult female. California Academy of Sciences No. 
11488. Narborough Island, Galapagos Archipelago. J. R. 
Slevin. April 18, 1906. 

Distribution. — Narborough Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — Mr. Heller has recorded four snakes from Nar- 
borough, now forming a part of the collection of Stanford Uni- 
versity, where I have examined them. The Academy has 
received only two from Narborough. 

Description of the type.—Htad rather broad, with flattened top and 
rounded snout. Rostral plate large, much broader than high, hollowed 
below, and bounded behind by internasal, anterior nasal, and first labial 
plates! Plates on top of head are: a pair of internasals, a pair of pre- 
frontals, supraocular and part of preocular of each side, a frontal, and a 
pair of large parietals. Internasals much smaller than prefrontals. Frontal 
longer than parietal suture. Anterior and posterior nasal distmct. Loreal 
well developed, longer than high. One preocular. Two postoculars. 
Temporals one followed by two, or one followed by one. Eight superior 
and ten inferior labials, sixth upper and fifth or sixth lower largest, fourth 
and fifth upper reaching eye, first pair of lower meeting on median line. 
Genials in two pairs, posterior a little longer, anterior touching four 
labials. Scales on body smooth, many with pits, in nineteen rows._ Anal 
plate divided. Gastrosteges two hundred and forty-seven. Tail incom- 
plete. Urosteges ninety-eight, all paired. 

The top of the head is dark brown mottled with olive gray. A light 
brown band extends from the rostral plate to the eye, and a dark brown 
postocular blotch crosses the temporal region to the side of the neck. The 
labials and lower surfaces of the head and throat are olive gray marbled 
with dark brown. On each side of the body there is a light yellowish-gray 
longitudinal stripe along the sixth and seventh rows of scales. On the 
posterior portion of the body, where there are only seventeen rows of 
scales, this stripe drops to the fifth and sixth rows. It is continued beyond 
the middle of the tail; but on the neck, as far as the twenty-fifth gastros- 
tege, it is represented by a series of nine large, rounded, light spots. Along 
the back between these light stripes is a band of dark brown, darker on the 
scales bordering the Hght stripes. The sides are dark brown close to the 
lateral light stripes, but become grayish oHve toward the gastrosteges. On 
the anterior half of the body, most of the scales of the second_ row, and a 
few of those of the first, bear central spots of dark brown. Similar small 



348 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



blackish-brown spots on the tip of each gastrostege form a row extending 
nearly to the tail. The lower surfaces are yellowish with numerous small 
blackish spots. 

Length to anus, 890 mm. 

Length of tail, 252 mm. 

Variation. — No. 11509 has the first eleven urosteges undi- 
vided. These scales are all paired in all of the other specimens 
except No. 4974 of the Stanford University collection, in which 
the first urostege is unpaired. The following table shows ihe 
principal variation in squamation. 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus occidentalis, new species. 









0) 






„ 




•3 




(H 




o 




0) 


s 


"3 


•3 






XI 






o 


a 




o 


a 


ca 


ca 


a 


ii 


"ca 


% 


■& 


o 


+3 


S 


ft 


o 


2; 


OT 


m 


o 


P 


£ 


Ph 


H 


M 


J 


11509 


$ 


19 


237 


56 + 




2 


/l + l 
\2+2 


8 




11488 


5 


19 


247 


98 + 




2 


[1 + 1 
\2+2 


8 




S.4974 


c^ 


19 


239 


116 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




8.4975 


$ 


19 


236 


112 c 




2 


1+2 


8 




S.4973 


5 


19 


252 


91 + 




2 


fl+1 
11+2 


8 




S.4976 


5 


19 


243 


109 c 




2 


1+2 


8 





All the Narborough specimens have the characteristic light 
nuchal blotches and dark spots on gastrosteges and lower lateral 
scales. The dark spots on the lower laterals are most numerous 
on the scales of the first row in all specimens except the type. 
The row of spots along the tips of the gastrosteges extends to 
the vent in No. S. 4975 and S. 4976, nearly to the vent in 
No. S. 4974, and past the middle of the body in No. S. 4973. 
All the specimens show the longitudinal light stripes except 
No. S. 4975, which is spotted without any trace of stripes. The 
general dorsal coloration of this specimen is similar to that of 
the snakes of Albemarle and Brattle, but it shows the light 
blotches on the nape, and dark spots on gastrosteges and 
laterals, which are characteristic of the Narborough snakes. 
No. 11509 is intermediate in coloration between No. S. 4975 
and the other Narborough specimens. It shows' both stripes 
and spots most distinctly. 

General remarks. — The snakes of Narborough agree with 
those of Albemarle and Brattle in the large number of their 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH—SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 349 

gastrosteges, a character which distinguishes them from all 
other Galapagos snakes. They seem to differ from those of 
Albemarle and Brattle only in coloration ; and, since two speci- 
mens show a tendency to vary in the direction of the Albe- 
marle form, it seems best to regard those from Albemarle as 
a subspecies. 

Dromicus occidentalis helleri, new subspecies. Heller's 

Galapagos Snake 

1903, Dromicus biserialis biserialis Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. 
Sci, V, 1903, p. 93 (part). 

Diagnosis. — Scale-pits present, scales in 19 rows; gastros- 
teges more than 236; postoculars two; temporals 1-1-2 or 2-f2, 
spotted, no longitudinal light stripes; no series of definite 
rounded blackish spots on lateral scales of first and second 
rows; light nuchal markings much less prominent, and dark 
spots on tips of gastrosteges absent or less distinct than in the 
Narborough form. 

Type. — Male. California Academy of Sciences No. 10280. 
Brattle Island, Galapagos Archipelago. J. R. Slevin. October 
30, 1905. 

Distribution. — Albemarle and Brattle Islands, Galapagos 
Archipelago. 

Material. — Mr. Heller has recorded one specimen from near 
Cape Berkeley, Albemarle, which now is No. 4977 of the 
Stanford University collection. The Academy has received 
two from Brattle. 

Description of the type. — Head rather broad, with flattened top and 
rounded snout. Rostral plate large, much broader than high, hollowed 
below, and bounded behind by internasal, anterior nasal, and first labial 
plates. Plates on top of head are: a pair of internasals, a pair of pre- 
frontals, supraocular and part of preocular of each side, a frontal, and a 
pair of large parietals. Internasals smaller than prefrontals. Frontal 
longer than parietal suture. Anterior and posterior nasals distinct. Loreal 
well developed, little longer than high. One preocular. Two ppstocukrs. 
Temporals one followed by two. Eight superior and ten inferior labials, 
sixth upper and fifth lower largest, fourth and fifth upper reaching eye, 
first pair of lower meeting on median Hne. Genials in two pairs, posterior 
longer, anterior touching four or five labials. Scales on body smooth, many 
with pits, in nineteen rows. Anal plate divided. Gastrosteges two hundred 
and forty. Tail complete. Urosteges one hundred and twelve, the first to 
third, seventh to eleventh, and fourteenth and fifteenth not divided. 

The top of the head is olive brown dotted with olive gray. A light 
brown band extends from the rostral plate to the eye, and a brown post- 



550 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



ocular blotch crosses the temporal region to the side of the neck. The 
labials and lower surfaces of the head and throat are yellowish-gray 
marbled with dark gray. There are no light longitudinal stripes on the 
body. The color above shades from brownish olive along the middle of 
the back to pale oHve gray near the gastrosteges. On the neck are large 
round dark brown spots separated by Hght yellowish-gray blotches. On 
the anterior part of the body these dark spots become smaller and more 
numerous, and form three alternating rows on each side. These spots 
become smaller and less numerous posteriorly, and are lacking on the tail. 
They also tend to avoid the sixth and seventh rows of lateral scales. The 
lower surfaces are yellowish mottled with brownish gray except on the 
tail. Many of the tips of the gastrosteges bear not very definite small dark 
brown spots, but there is no series of such spots on the lower lateral scales. 

Length to anus, 542 mm. 

Length of tail, 178 mm. 

Variation. — The Albemarle specimen has the upper post- 
ocular of one side united with the parietal. It has eight supe- 
rior and ten inferior labials, the fourth and fifth upper reaching 
eye, the sixth in each series largest, five inferior in contact 
with the anterior genial. Both it and No. 10281, from Brattle, 
have all urosteges divided. 
TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus occidentalis helleri, new sub-species 















. 




■3 






u 




^ 




<D 


S 


"3 




•s 




>> 


£1 




i-t 


g 








ft 


■3 


tS 


— 


H 










o 


-fj 


g 


ft 







s 






ca 






o 




3 







g; 


w 


w 


O 


t3 


CM 


Oi 


H 


w 


hJ 


1-1 


10280 


$ 


19 


240 


112 c 


1 


2 


1+2 


8 


1 


Brattle 


10281 


9 


19 


248 


98 + 


1 


2 


1+2 


8 


1 


Brattle 


S.4977 


9 


19 


241 


88 -h 


1 


1-2 


/1+2 
12+2 


8 


1 


Albemarle 



The two Brattle snakes are absolutely alike in coloration, 

and the Albemarle specimen is very similar, as will be seen 

from the following description of Stanford University No. 

4977, adult female, from vie. Cape Berkeley, Albemarle Island. 

The head is brownish olive marbled with black. There is a dark post- 
ocular or temporal streak. The labials are mottled with lighter. There 
are no longitudinal light lines. The upper surfaces are dark brown spotted 
with darker brown or black. On the neck, these spots are large, round 
and very distinct and well defined. On the body, they are smaller and 
become perhaps less distinct toward the tail. Still, they form, throughout 
the whole length of the body, two alternating rows usually on the fifth 
and eighth rows of scales of each side, dropping to the fourth and seventh 
rows posteriorly. There are two or three pairs of whitish blotches on the 
nape. The lower surfaces are yellowish irregularly spotted with brownish 
black. Almost every gastrostege on the anterior two-thirds of the body 
shows a definite blackish spot near its outer extremity on each side as in 
the Narborough snakes, but there are no similar spots on the first row of 
scales. 



Vol. I] VAN DEN BURGH— SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 351 

General remarks. — I take pleasure in naming this snake after 
Mr. Edmund Heller who collected the Albemarle specimen 
while a member of the Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedi- 
tion in 1898-99. 

Dr. Boulenger writes me that the British Museum has a 
young spotted snake said to have been collected at Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle. It has one hundred and twelve urosteges, but only 
two hundred and twenty-two gastrosteges. This small number 
of gastrosteges makes me think that an error may have been 
made in the locality label. The specimen has scales with two 
pits, and one would incline to the opinion that it has originated 
on Barrington or Indefatigable. If, however, there has been 
no mistake in the label, the Tagus Cove snakes must represent 
a species distinct from that found at Banks Bay; and it may 
be that larger collections will show that each of the five large 
mountains of Albemarle has its own peculiar race of serpent. 



Dromicus slevini, new species. Slevin's Snake 

1903, Dromicus hiserialis biserialis, Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. 
Sci., V, 1903, p. 93 (part). 

Diagnosis. — No scale-pits; scales in 19 rows; gastrosteges 
170 to 183; urosteges 82 to 104; no longitudinal light stripes. 

Type. — Male. California Academy of Sciences No. 12,216. 
Duncan Island, Galapagos Archipelago. August 14, 1906. 

Distribution. — Duncan, Narborough, and Cowley Moun- 
tain, Albemarle. 

Material. — Three specimens are known. Two are in the 
Academy collection, while the one from Narborough belongs 
to Stanford University. 

Description of the type. — Head rather broad, with flattened top and 
rounded snout. Rostral plate large, broader than high, hollowed below, 
and bounded behind by internasal, anterior nasal, and first labial plates. 
Pktes on top of head are : a pair of internasals, a pair of prefrontals, 
supraocular and part of preocular of each side, a frontal, and a pair of 
large parietals. Internasals much smaller than prefrontals. Frontal 
slightly shorter than parietal suture. Anterior and posterior nasals distinct. 
Loreal well developed, longer than high. One preocular. Two post- 
oculars. Temporals two followed by two, or one followed by one. Eight 
superior and ten inferior labials, sixth upper and sixth lower largest, 
fourth and fifth upper reaching eye, first pair of lower meeting on median 
line. Genials in two pairs, posterior a little longer, anterior touching five 
labials. Scales on body smooth, without pits, in nineteen rows. Anal plate 



352 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



divided. Gastrosteges one hundred and eighty-three. Tail complete. 
Urosteges one hundred and four, all paired except the first to fourth. 

The head is brownish olive above, with whitish spots on the labials and 
a dark brown postocular streak. The back is crossed by about fifty-five 
black cross-bars separated by narrower brownish-white ones. In some 
places the black bars are not quite continuous, tending to alternate at the 
mid-dorsal Hne with those of the opposite side of the body. These black 
cross-bars extend down on the sides to about the second row of scales. 
The other lateral scales are of a brownish-gray color, continuous with the 
light cross-bars, and are sometimes outlined with black. The tail is pro- 
vided with about thirty blackish-brown blotches proximally, becoming uni- 
color toward the tip where it is oHve. The lower surfaces are grayish, 
more or less dotted with slate, and the base of each gastrostege shows a 
more or less concealed blackish cross-bar. 

Length to anus, 228 mm. 

Length of tail, 95 mm. 

Variation. — The principal variation in scale characters is 
set forth in the following table. 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus slevini, new species 









S 










"3 






1-1 




o 




bo 




a! 

3 


b 


2 

ClJ 




• >. 


^ 






o 


V 




o 


P. 


"3 


"3 




a 

3 


K 


H 


1 


O 


o 


o 


S 


p, 

3 


O 


o 


2 


W 


M 


o 


^ 


Ph 


a, 


H 


M 


J 


J 


12216 


$ 


19 


183 


104 c 


1 


2-2 


/2+2 

U+l 




1 


Duncan 


12159 


5 


19 


170 


82 c 


1 


2-2 


2-f2 


8 


1 


CowIeyMt. 


S.4972 


5 


19 


179 


96 c 


1 


2-2 


/2+2 
l2-h3 


8 


1 


Narborough 



In all the specimens except the type all of the urosteges are 
divided, and the frontal is slightly longer than the parietal 
suture. Neither the Duncan nor the Cowley Mountain speci- 
men shows any trace of longitudinal light stripes. . Both are, in 
general, black with vertical light bars on the sides. In the 
Duncan snake most of these light bars cross the back; while 
in the Cowley specimen they do not extend above the lateral 
regions, leaving a black dorsal band three or four scales wide. 
The Narborough specimen agrees in coloration with that from 
Cowley Mountain. The Cowley specimen has about eighty- 
five light bars on the upper part of each side, where the Nar- 
borough snake has only seventy-one, and the Duncan about 
fifty-five. In the Cowley and Narborough snakes these light 
bars fork inferiorly and, joining with branches of the preceding 



Vol. I] VAN DEN BURGH— SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



353 



and succeeding bars, outline alternating dark spots on the 
lower lateral scales. 

The largest specimen of D. slevini is that from Cowley Mt., 
Albemarle Island, which measures 347 mm. from snout to 
anus, and 135 mm. from anus to tip of tail. 

Habits. — The Duncan Island snake contains the foot and 
tail of a gecko which it had eaten. 

General Remarks. — The Cowley Mountain snake was taken 
August 11, 1906, on a field of pumice stone at an elevation of 
about 200 feet. Mr. Slevin's notes state that it was the only 
snake secured on Albemarle, and differed in coloration from 
any taken elsewhere. 

Under date of August 14, 1906, Mr. Slevin wrote : "Anch- 
ored off Duncan about ten a. m. I collected on the northeast 
slope of the island to about 800 feet. Got a snake at about 
400 feet. It appeared different from any taken thus far. It 
was very well colored to prevent detection. It was secured 
on a lava block covered with silver colored lichen which 
matched the snake exactly. One was reported by Mr. Hunter 
during our last stop at Duncan, which, he said, was similar in 
coloring to the one taken today." 

Mr. Drowne of the Webster-Harris Expedition reports^ 
having seen on Duncan Island, September 9, 1897, a snake 
that was about one and a half feet long, slender and blackish, 
with white rings. 

It is probable that more abundant material will show that 
more than one species has been included here under the name 
Dromicus slevini. 

Dromicus steindachneri, new species. Steindachner's Snake 

Diagnosis. — No scale-pits; scales in 19 rows; gastrosteges 
169 to 180; urosteges 96 to 114; longitudinal light stripes 
present. 

Type. — Male. California Academy of Sciences No. 10795, 
Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Archipelago. J. R. Slevin. 
Jan. 16, 1906. 

Distribution. — This species has been found on Indefatigable, 
South Seymour and Jervis islands. It is probable that more 

> Novitates Zool. VI, p. 117. 



354 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



extensive collecting will show that it is present also on James 

and Barrington. 

Material. — We have received five specimens. Two are from 

Jervis, two from South Seymour and one from Indefatigable. 

Description of the type. — Head rather broad, with flattened top and 
rounded snout. Rostral plate large, broader than high, hollowed below, 
and bounded behind by internasal, anterior nasal, and first labial plates. 
Plates on top of head are: a pair of internasals, a pair of prefrontals, 
supraocular and part of preocular of each side, a frontal, and a pair of large 
parietals. Internasals much smaller than prefrontals. Frontal slightly- 
longer than parietal suture. Anterior and posterior nasals distinct. Loreal 
well developed, longer than high. One preocular. Two postoculars. Tem- 
porals two followed by two, or one followed by one. Eight superior and 
ten inferior labials, sixth upper and sixth lower largest, fourth and fifth 
upper reaching eye, first pair of lower meeting on median line. Genials 
in tv/o pairs, posterior a little longer, anterior touching five labials. Scales 
on body smooth, without pits, in nineteen rows. Anal' plate divided. 
Gastrosteges one hundred and sixty-nine. Tail complete. Urosteges 
ninety-six, all paired. 

The head is brownish olive above. There is a dark brown postocular 
streak. The labials and most of the other scales on the side of the head 
are yellowish gray with dark borders. The general color above is blackish 
brown. A light yellowish-gray stripe runs along each side of the neck, 
body, and tail. This streak is on the scales of the sixth, seventh, and eighth 
rows on the neck, and of the fifth, sixth, seventh and sometimes eighth on 
the body, except posteriorly where it drops to the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
rows. Many of the lateral scales have light central spots of the same 
color as the longitudinal stripes. The lower surfaces are light yellowish 
gray. There is a blackish cross-bar at the base of each gastrostege, and 
usually a blackish blotch on each side of the center of each gastrostege. 
The urosteges are light gray outlined with blackish brown. 

Length to anus, 290 mm. 

Length of tail, 130 mm. 

Variation. — The principal variation in scale-characters is set 
forth in the following table. It will be noted that the Jervis 
and South Seymour snakes have three postoculars, while the 
Indefatigable specimen has only two. 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS, Dromicus steindachneri, new species . 









w 










m 






c3 




o 


bo 


^ 




S 

3 


2 

o 


01 

oi 




s 


























(D 

xn 


"3 

o 


o 


o 
u 



O 

Oh 


S 






o 


8 


10612 


$ 


19 


180 


114 c 




3-3 


to to to 

+++ 

tocxi to 


8 




Jervis 


10617 


2 


19 


176 


97 




3-3 


8 




Jervis 


10795 


$ 


19 


169 


96 c 




2-2 


/2+2 

ll+l 


8 




Indefatig- 
able 


10482 


2 


19 


176 


72 + 




3-3 


2+2 


8 




Seymour 


10484 


2 


19 


176 


58 + 




3-3 


/2+2 
12+3 


8 




Seymour 



Vol. I] VAN DENBURGH-SNAKES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 355 

The Jervis, Seymour and Indefatigable specimens all have 
light longitudinal stripes. The stripes are similar in position 
and color to those of Dromicus dorsalis. The whole coloration 
is so like that of striped specimens of D. dorsalis that the two 
species readily pass as one, until the scales are examined and 
the gastrosteges counted. On closer examination, however, 
one notes that in D. steindachneri the longitudinal light lines 
are broader, being three or four scales wide, each of the lateral 
scales has a central light area, and there usually is a blackish 
cross-bar at the base of each gastrostege, and often a blackish 
blotch on each side of the center of each gastrostege. The 
dorsal scales also sometimes have light centers. In the Jervis 
specimens the lower lateral scales are nearly as light as the 
light stripe. In No. 10617 a dark brown line runs along the 
lower border of the light stripe. 

The largest specimen measures 365 mm. from snout to vent. 

Habits.— From the stomach of No. 10484 from South Sey- 
mour were taken the remains of a grasshopper. 

General remarks.— This interesting little snake is most 
closely related to Dromicus slevini. It is probable that both 
are either quite rare or very retiring in habits. 

It is a pleasure to associate with this handsome little species 
the name of Dr. Franz Steindachner, who was among the first 
to study the snakes of the Galapagos Archipelago. 

Hydrus platurus (Linnaeus). Bicolor Sea-Snake 
No specimens of this snake have been taken in the Galapagos 
Archipelago, but the following note from Mr. Slevin's diary 
shows that it occurs there. 

"Feb. 24, 1906. Sailed [from Chatham] for Hood Island. 
This afternoon at 4:15, Stewart sighted a sea-snake. King 
also saw it, and the boat was put out immediately, but we 
failed to get it, as it went under. King said it was about 
twenty inches long, black on the top and bright yellow below. 
We had some headway on, so passed it fairly quickly. This 
is the first one seen. Weather is very hot now and has been 
for the last few days. Light winds and strong currents make 
it hard to get around, and we have not made much progress 
during the day. Barrington, Chatham, Hood and Charles 
are in sight." 

January 15, 1912 



356 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ' [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXII 

Chart of the gastrostege counts in specimens of Dromicus. Dots indi- 
cate counts on specimens in the Academy and Stanford collections. Dots 
above the line are males, those below, females. Crosses indicate records 
from specimens not examined by me. 



/ 



[\5inDenburg] Plate X A] I 



lO MJ. AA¥- JtA& JJif Ji30 .133. ^ A^9- ^3G JL32 J.V^ J,iVb ^»5^ <X^6 AYJ JSTO JS^ 



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-r- •: t 



rnt- 



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! j i - r -t ; ' \ t- 



i IP ■ II 1 



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•-■i- ♦ r * 



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i^ ; i : • • i : i 
; — -* 1 » — ■•.....Jk 1....^.. 

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f t i i f i I » • 






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«- ! ♦ i- ♦ :■ *■■ 






Prdc CalAcad Sni 4™ Ser Vdl l 



[Van Denburg] Pi ati-: XXll 



Narborough 

Albemarle 

Brattle 

Duncan 

Jervis 

James 

indefatigable 

South Seymour 

Barring ton 

Charles 

Gardner 

Hood 

Gardner 

Chile and Peru 



ii^o I7J. /f*- /^f />a /fjo yf^ /int- J f^ y^a /9o ^ /^s. /»» /?& /9ir aoo i"!. J-o^ j-^s *of 



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y t iMfy 



t t — ii-^ — t- 



I ■ T 



•JJiL -'^^ J/e , J/J-- , Jin ^4->- JA-h JtA& JLit A 3Q A33. 4f <» J.^e Jk3t J.'M JLVa. -jfy J^ , JVf AS-Q ^a, 

t ■ * — • V : 



t 



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t ft I i t 



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1 ' t 



358 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIII 
Dromicus biserialis (Giinther). 

No. 9448. Gardner Island, near Charles Island. Female, 



PRDC CalAcad. Sci 4*« StR VOL.I 



[YanDenbup.g] Plate X/vHl 




360 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV 
Dromicus hoodensis new species 

No. 11799. Type. Hood Island. Male. 



PR DC CalAcad. Sci 4™ Ser Vol. I 



[\^'VN Denburg] Vlkte XAIV 




362 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Si 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV 
Dromicus dorsalis (Steindachner) 

No. 10303. Indefatigable Island. Male. Striped. 
No. 10233. Indefatigable Island. Female. Spotted. 



PRDC CalAcad. Sei 4™ Ser Vdl 1 



[\5inDenburg] Plate. XAV 




364 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVI 

Dr amicus dorsalis (Steindachner) 

No. 10183. Barrington Island. Male. Striped. 
No. 12061. Barrington Island. Male. Spotted. 



PrdcCalAcad. Bci 4™ Ser Vcl.I 



[VanDenburgJ Plate XA\^ 




366 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVII 
Dromicus occidentalis new species 

No. 11488. Type. Narborough Island. Female. 



PrDC CALACAE. SCI 4™ bER VdlJ 



[Van Denburg] Plate Xa\^I 




368 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIII 
Dromicus occidentalis helleri new subspecies 

No. 10280. Type. Brattle Island. Male. 



Prdc CalAcad. 5ci 4™ Ber VdlJ 



i Van DeI'IBURG] Plate XAVlll 




370 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIX 

Dromicus slevini new species 

No. 12216. Type. Duncan Island. Male. 

No. 12159. Cowley Mt., Albemarle Island. Female. 



Prdc CAL.ACAD. Sci 4™ 5ER VDL.I 



" v'am Demburg] Platc X/.IX 





372 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX 

Dr amicus steindachneri new species 

No. 10795. Type. Indefatigable Island. Male. 
No. 10484. South Seymour Island. Female. 



Prdc CalAcad Sci 4™ Ser Vdl I 



\'Van Denburg 1 Plate XAX 




PROCEEDINGS 

Fourth Series 

VOLUME I 

Expedition o£ the California Academy of Sciences to the 

Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 
Pages 1-6. I. Preliminary Description of Four New Races of 

Gigantic Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands, By John 

Van Denburgh. [Issued December 20, 1907) I .25 

Pages 7-288. 11. A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands. 

By Alban Stewart. [Issued January 20, 1911) 1 .75 

Pages 289-322. III. The Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of the 

Galapagos Islands. By Francis X. Williams. ( Issued October 

7, 1911) .50 

Pages 323-374. IV. The Snakes of the Galapagos Islands. By 

John Van Denburgh. [Issued January 17, 1912) .50 



VOLUME II 

Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

[In progress. ) 



VOLUME III 

Pages 1-40. A Further Stratigraphic Study in the Mount Diablo 
Range of California. By Frank M. Anderson. [Issued October 
31, 1908) 35 

Pages 41-48. Description of a New Species of Sea Snake from the 
Philippine Islands, with a Note on the Palatine Teeth in the 
Proteroglypha. By John Van Denburgh and Joseph C. Thomp- 
son. [Issued December 31, 1908) 25 

Pages 49-56. New and Previously Unrecorded Species of Reptiles 
and Amphibians from the Island of Formosa. By John Van 
Denburgh. [Issued Decemder 20, 1909) 25 

Pages 57-72. Water Birds of the Vicinity of Point Pinos, California. 

By Rollo Howard Beck. [Issued September 17, 1910) .25 

Pages 73-146. The Neocene Deposits of Kern River, California, 
and the Temblor Basin. By Frank M. Anderson. [Issued 
November 9, 1911) 1 -00 



The Academy cannot supply any of its publications issued before the 
year 1907, its entire reserve stock having been destroyed in the conflagra- 
tion of April, 1906, 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
Fourth Series 



Vol. I, pp. 375-404 



January 19, 1912 



Expedition of the California Academy of 

Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 

19054906 



V 



Notes ott the Botany of Cocos Island 



Alban Stewart 
Botanist to the Galapagos Expedition 




SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

1912 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

George C. Edwards, Chairman 
C. E. Grunsky Edwin C. Van Dyke 



THE HICKS-JUDD PRESS 
SAN FRANCISCO 



PROCKEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 375-404 January 19, 1912 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906 

V. 
NOTES ON THE BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 

BY ALBAN STEWART 
Botanist to the Galapagos Expedition 

During the autumn of 1905, while acting as Botanist of the 
scientific expedition sent to the Galapagos Islands by the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, our party stopped at Cocos Island 
from September 3rd to 13th inclusive, during which time a 
considerable collection of plants was made. 

Owing to the fact that Dr. B. L. Robinson of the Gray 
Herbarium, and Professor H. Pittier of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, have a catalogue of the plants of 
this island in preparation, in which all of the scattered refer- 
ences to its' flora will be brought together, the present paper 
will deal mainly with the collection of plants and notes made 
by the author, so as not to infringe upon the work already done 
by these gentlemen. 

The collection was identified at the Gray Herbarium of 
Harvard University some three years ago, but owing to the 
more pressing need of getting the results of the work done in 
the Galapagos Islands ready for publication, the author has 

January 16, 1912 



376 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

not been able to take up the less important results of the 
expedition until the present time. The work of identification 
was greatly facilitated through the kindness of Dr. Robinson 
in allowing me to use the list of plants already compiled by 
him. I wish here to express my thanks to Dr. Robinson for 
this, as well as for his kindness in allowing me to publish his 
description of Cecropia Pittieri, a new species of this genus 
which occurs abundantly on this island. I wish also to 
acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. W. G. Farlow for identi- 
fication of the mosses; to Professor M. L. Fernald for much 
assistance; to Miss Mary A. Day, Librarian of the Gray 
Herbarium, for help in looking up the literature in connection 
with the subject; and to Mr. H. H. Bartlett of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, for identifying the speci- 
mens of Hypolytrum nicaraguense. The photographs were 
made by Messrs. R. H. Beck and E. W. Gifford, members of 
the expedition. 

Cocos is a small island which lies in longitude 86* 59' 17" 
W., latitude 5° 32' 57" N., and is about 300 miles distant from 
Costa Rica, to which country the island belongs. According 
to the chart issued by the Hydrographic Office, it is about 3j4 
miles long in a north and south direction, 3H miles broad east 
and west, and rises to a height of 2788 feet. There are several 
small islets a short distance off shore, beyond which the water 
rapidly deepens, so that the thousand-fathom line is reached 
only a short distance away. 

There are only two places where an anchorage can be 
effected, and the interior of the island can be reached with 
safety. Chatham Bay, which lies on the north side, affords the 
best anchorage for vessels ; since the waters are more quiet on 
this side of the island, and the sand beach at the end of the 
bay affords a good landing-place for boats. A small stream 
of water enters at the head of the bay, and, from the different 
dates cut in the rocks about the mouth of this stream, one 
would judge that it was often visited by vessels during the 
early part of the last century. On either side of this bay, east 
and west, there are tall cliffs heavily covered with tropical 
vegetation. Wafer Bay, on the northwest side of the island, 
is more exposed, and is subject at times to heavy swells which 
render anchorage less safe there than in Chatham Bay. With 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 377 

the exception of these two places and Dampier Head, on the 
southeast side of the island, the remainder of the shore is 
made up of tall cliffs, some of which must be a thousand or 
more feet in height, over the tops of which numerous waterfalls 
come tumbling down into the sea. Ten of these waterfalls were 
counted between Lionel Head and Berthaume Point, within a 
distance of less than a mile, while circumnavigating the island 
in a small boat. 

The settlement is located at Wafer Bay, where Captain 
August Gissler resides with his wife and a number of laborers. 
Several corrugated iron houses have been built there, and a 
small tract of land has been put under cultivation, in which a 
considerable number of domesticated plants and tropical fruits 
are grown. For some years past Captain Gissler has been in 
search of treasure which is supposed to have been buried on 
this island during the early part of the last century. Some 
portions of the treasure are reported to have been found. 
Captain Gissler is the duly appointed governor of the island, 
and is visited periodically by the Costa Rican gunboat to bring 
supplies and mail; but as the island lies out of the general 
track of both sailing vessels and steamers, it is seldom visited 
by other vessels. At the time of our visit the gunboat had not 
been out for some months, and in consequence some of the 
supplies had begun to run low. 

The sides of the mountain rise abruptly to a cone, which 
lies toward the west side of the island, about a mile and three- 
quarters from the settlement at Wafer Bay. Alternating 
ridges and deep canyons cover the mountain sides, rendering 
traveling almost impossible except along the tops of the ridges 
and along the beds of streams. According to Captain Gissler, 
a single ridge can be followed from the base to the top of the 
mountain, the ridges probably representing ancient lava-flows. 
Unfortunately none of the members of the party visited the 
top of the mountain, although an attempt was made to do so 
by following up an old trail. The trail had been made several 
years before, and as it had not been much used since, it had 
become heavily overgrown with vegetation, and could not be 
followed beyond 650 feet elevation. We could get very little 
information about the interior of the island, especially about 
the eastern part of it, which has never been visited so far as is 



378 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

known. A fairly good view of this part of the island was 
obtained from the top of a cliff at Chatham Bay, and it 
appeared to be made up of a broad table-land heavily covered 
with vegetation, as are the remaining portions of the island. 

Rock-exposures occur along the banks of streams and along 
the sides of perpendicular cliffs. So far as could be observed, 
the rocks are basaltic in character. Columns of basalt occur 
frequently near sea-level, and caverns of considerable depth 
have been formed in many places by the action of the waves. 
The soil is composed for the most part of a sticky yellow clay 
and vegetable mold. From the more exposed places the mold 
has been washed off, leaving the clay bare. On the steep sides 
of the mountain erosion is rapid. In the small valleys one 
often encounters large forest trees which have been dislodged 
from the steep hillsides above by the washing away of soil 
from the roots to such an extent that they could no longer 
maintain their position. Land-slides are rather frequent, and 
when they occur, large quantities of earth and boulders are 
brought down along with the vegetation which covers the 
area. After a land-slide Ipomoea cathartica seems to be one 
of the first plants to invade the denuded area, followed by 
Hibiscus tiliaceus. 

The island lies in the moist tropical belt, and has a large 
amount of rainfall, the exact amount of which is not known, 
but it probably amounts to several feet per year. May, June, 
and July are said to be the rainiest months, and January, Feb- 
ruary, and March the driest. It rained eight out of the eleven 
days we were on the island, and some of the rains during this 
time were much harder than those which occur in more tem- 
perate regions. According to Captain Gissler the temperature 
ranges from 68° to 92° F. 

Halophytic plants are very few in number, possibly because 
of the precipitous nature of the shores in most places. Ipo- 
moea Pes-caprae is the most pronounced halophyte, and it 
occurs only to a limited extent on the sand beaches at Wafer 
Bay. Hibiscus tiliaceus forms small groves near the beach in 
a few places ; and Clusia rosea often forms dense thickets along 
the sides of the cliffs some distance above the water, sending 
down absorbing roots into the sea. At several places near the 
shore there are small groves of Cocas nucifera, the nuts of 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 379 

which are used to make oil for lighting purposes when the 
gunboat from Costa Rica delays its periodic trips too long. 
There are no mangroves, possibly because of the absence of 
quiet bays and lagoons. 

The interior of the island is covered for the most part with 
rain-forests, in which the vegetation is usually so dense that 
even at midday, with the sun shining, the light is almost as 
diffuse as at twilight. In such places there is an intense strug- 
gle among plants to gain the light — in consequence of which 
both epiphytes and lianes are very abundant in individuals, if 
not in species. The following list includes the species in the 
collection which are either epiphytes or lianes : 

Anthurium scandens 
Ipomoea cathartica 
Lycopodium linifolium 
Oleandra nodosa 
Philodendron sp. 
Selaginella Galeottii 
Tassadia coluhrina 
Tillandsia sp. 
Trichomanes capillaceum. 

In addition to the above, there are several lianes which are in 
a sterile condition, so that even their generic relations cannot 
be determined. One of these is the most important liane on the 
island, extending in rope-like masses from tree to tree, often 
supporting hanging baskets of Tillandsias and other epiphytes. 

Unfortunately specimens of the large forest trees are but 
poorly represented in the collection, because of the fact that 
the most of the forest trees tower a hundred or more feet 
above the ground. Since the foliage is almost invariably at 
the top, specimens could not be obtained without cutting down 
the trees — which was too much of an undertaking. I used to 
look up longingly at the tops of these trees, wishing that I 
could obtain specimens ; but I have since learned that it is the 
common experience of botanists to be unable to obtain speci- 
mens of the forest trees while collecting in tropical rain- 
forests. 

Besides the trees of Hibiscus and Clusia, mentioned above, 
there is at least one species of Cecropia which commonly 



380 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

occurs along the faces of almost perpendicular cliffs, the roots 
being able to hold on to a mere crevice or shelf of rock, while 
the trunks grow up parallel with the wall of the cliff. There 
is also a species of palm which grows mostly above 400 feet 
elevation. Some specimens of this were collected lower down, 
but they are in a sterile condition. At least two species of 
Ficus occur here, one of which forms banyan trees of some 
size. The largest, and probably the most important tree from 
an economic standpoint, is one which bears the common name 
of "iron wood" according to Captain Gissler, who says that 
there are trees on the island so large that timbers 3X3X60 
feet could be cut from them. The wood of this tree is dark 
brown in color and very hard. 

Underneath the trees there is usually a dense growth of 
bushes, so thick in most places that traveling through them is 
extremely difficult. In fact we found that the easiest way to 
get into the interior of the island was to follow up the beds of 
the larger streams, and occasionally make short excursions off 
to the side. The most common bushes are; Eugenia paciiica, 
Clidemia hirta, C. umhonata, Miconia dodecandra, and Cli- 
badium acuminatum; three of which belong to Melastomaceae, 
and are the most abundant. Ferns also occur abundantly, 
forming a very important element of the undergrowth. Ex- 
tensive brakes are formed by Nephrolepis hiserrata, especially 
where the large vegetation is more or less open. The moist 
banks along the sides of the streams are usually heavily 
covered with ferns, those which occur in such places being: 
Adiantum petiolatum, Asplenium cristatum, Ceropteris calo- 
melanos, Hymenophyllum sp., Polybotrya cervina, Polypo- 
dium aureum, Trichomanes crispum, and T. elegans. Also- 
phila armata is the only tree-fern found on the island. 

Filices are by far the largest family represented in the 
collection, twenty out of the seventy-seven species of vascular 
plants collected belonging to it. Of the remaining families of 
vascular plants there are none that contain more than five 
species, and the majority are represented by but one or two. 

Endemic species are included in the following: Chloris 
paniculata, Kyllinga nudiceps, Cecropia Pittieri, Eugenia 
paciiica, Osscea macrophylla, Ardisia cuspidata, Bertiera 
angustifolia, and Clihadium acuminatum. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 381 

On comparing the above with the number of endemic spe- 
cies found on the Galapagos Islands, one is at once struck with 
the small number of endemic species found on this island ; and 
while the entire flora is not recorded in this paper, it is very 
likely that the number of species omitted is not large. It is of 
course unsafe to draw any very definite conclusions from 
incomplete data, yet it is safe to say that the per cent of 
endemic species on the Galapagos Islands is very much larger 
than on Cocos Island. It is interesting to note that but 8.69% 
of the species mentioned in this paper are endemic, while in 
the Galapagos Islands 40.9% are endemic. There is also an 
evident wide divergence in the total number of species found 
on the two, the Galapagos flora containing 682 species, while 
the Cocas flora very likely contains but little if at all over a 
hundred species. 

The wide divergence between the flora of the Galapagos 
Islands and that of Cocos Island, has been mentioned by 
authors who have written on these floras in the past. The 
following is a list of the species found on Cocos Island which 
are also found on the Galapagos Islands : 

Acrostichum aureum 
Adiantum petiolatum 
Asplenium cristatum 
Asplenium myriophyllum 
Dryopteris parasitica 
N ephrolepis biserrata 
Nephrolepis pectinata 
Polypodium aureum 
Polypodium lanceolatum 
Polypodium Phyllitides 
Polystichum adiantiforme 
Digitaria sanguinalis 
Eleusine indica 
P asp alum conjugatum 
Paspalum distichum 
Setaria setosa 
Commelina nudiflora 
Fleurya aestuans 



382 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

Anona cherimolia* 
Anona glabra 
Caesalpina bonducella 
Euphorbia pilulifera 
Ricinus communis* 
Hibiscus tiliaceus 
Ipomoea Bona-nox 
Ipomoea Pes-caprae 
Coifea arabica* 

From the above presentation it can be seen that the species 
common to the two groups of islands are for the most part 
those of rather wide distribution, and owing to the relatively 
small size of most of them, the general appearance and make-up 
of the two floras is but little influenced by them. The species 
which make up the bulk of the vegetation, especially the larger 
vegetation, are totally different on the two groups of islands — a 
fact which may have some significance. 

In a paper written some years ago by Dr. George Baur,t 
an attempt was made to establish a former land-connection 
between the Galapagos Islands and the American continent, 
the connection presumably having been somewhere in the 
Mexican region. The improbability of such a connection has 
already been shown,! and it seems that the great difference in 
the floras of Cocos and the Galapagos islands strongly opposes 
Dr. Baur's view. 

If there has ever been a land-mass connecting the Galapagos 
Islands with the mainland of North America, it must evidently 
have included the Cocos Island region, since its position is 
such that no considerable land-mass could have existed in this 
part of the ocean without including it. While the climatic 
conditions on the lower parts of the islands of the Galapagos 
group are entirely different from that of Cocos Island, being 
dry in one and moist in the other, the middle and upper por- 
tions of the higher islands of the Galapagos are moist, and 
capable, in places at least, of supporting fully as mesophytic 
vegetation as is Cocos — a fact which is evinced by the pres- 
ence of eleven ferns common to the two. A former land- 



* Probably introduced through cultivation into both the Galapagos Archipelago and 
Cocos Island. 

t American Naturalist, v. 25, 310 (1991). 

t Stewart. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th Ser. v. 1, No. 2, pp. 233-239. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 383 

connection between the two groups of islands should have left 
a much larger number of species common to the two than is 
actually found. 

The flora of Cocos, like that of the Galapagos Islands, is 
distinctly that of an oceanic island. The relatively large num- 
ber of ferns, the much smaller number of species in the 
remaining families, and the total number of species found on 
the island lend support to this view. The flora is probably of 
much more recent origin than is that of the Galapagos Islands. 
While the island lies nearer to the mainland by nearly three 
hundred miles, where presumably the various agents that dis- 
seminate seeds would work to at least as good advantage as in 
the Galapagos Islands, yet the number of species represented 
is probably not more than one-sixth as great. It seems pos- 
sible that the time that has elapsed since conditions on the 
island were suitable for the growth of higher vegetation has 
not been sufficient to stock the island by the slow process of 
seed dissemination, over considerable areas of water, with as 
many species as it is capable of supporting. The small number 
of endemic species on the island might also point to a relatively 
recent origin of its flora. 

The following are the species collected on the island by the 
author : 

FILICES 
Acrostichum L. 

A. aureum L. Sp. PI. 1069 (1753) : very abundant along 
the stream leading into Wafer Bay and on the hillsides up to 
125 ft. It grows in large bunches 6-8 ft. high and with 30 or 
more fronds to a bunch, (No. 225). Further distr. general in 
tropical regions. 

Adiantum L. 

A. petiolatum Desv. Berl. Mag. V. 326 (1811) : in crevices 
or rocks on the banks of the stream leading into Wafer Bay, 
(No. 226). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Alsophila R. Br. 

A. armata (Sw.) Pr. Tent. 62 (1836). Poly podium arma- 
tum Sw. Prod. 134 (1788) : very abundant on the banks of 



384 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the streams and on the hillsides surrounding both Chatham 
and Wafer Bays. It forms trees 8-15 ft. in height, and is 
apparently the only tree-fern on the island, (No. 227). Fur- 
ther distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Asplenium L. 

A. cristatumLam. Encycl. II. 310 (1786) : common on wet 
rocks on the side of a perpendicular cliff near Chatham Bay, 
(No. 228). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

Ceropteris Link. 

C. calomelanos (L.) Und. Bull. Terr. CI. XXIX. 632 

(1902). Acrostichum calomelanos L,. Sp. PI. 1072 (1753): 
common on the sides of moist banks on the stream leading into 
Chatham Bay, (No. 230). Further distr. W. Ind., S. Am., 
Africa. 

Dryopteris Adans. 

D. parasitica (L.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. II. 811 (1891). 
Poly podium parasitkum L. Sp. PI. 1090 (1753) : abundant at 
600 ft. The specimens are sterile and doubtful, (Nos. 231-32). 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

Elaphoglossum Schott. 

E. apodum (Klf.) Schott, Gen. ad. t. 14 (1834). Acros- 
tichum apodum Klf. Enum. 59 (1824) : occasional specimens 
were found growing on rotten logs on the banks of the stream 
leading into Wafer Bay, (No. 229). Further distr. W. Ind., 
northern S. Am. 

Hymenophyllum Sm. 

H. sp : on the side of a wet perpendicular cliff near Wafer 
Bay. The specimen is sterile, (No. 233). 

Nephrolepis Schott. 

N. biserrata(Sw.) Schott, Gen. Fil. ad. t. 3 (1834). Aspid- 
ium biserratum Sw. Schrad. Jour. 1800. II. 32 (1801) : one 
of the most abundant ferns on the island. It grows in great 
profusion on the hills surrounding Chatham Bay, in places 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 385 

forming dense brakes 6-8 ft. high. It is less abundant around 
Wafer Bay and apparently does not occur below 125 ft. (Nos. 
234-37). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 
N. pectinata (Willd.) Schott, Gen. Fil. ad. t. 3 (1834). 
Aspidium pectinatum Willd. Sp. V. 223 (1810) : abundant in 
vegetable mold in moist shady places, (No. 238). Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

Oleandra Cav. 

O. nodosa (Willd.) Pr. Tent. 78 (1836). Aspidium nodo- 
sum Willd. Sp. V. 211 (1810) : growing very abundantly on 
the trunks of trees sea Plate XXXII, (No. 239). Further 
distr. Mex. (Cent, Am.), W. Ind., N. S. Am. 

Polybotrya H. & B. 

P. cervina (L.) Klf. Enum. 55 (1824). Osmunda cervina 
L. Sp. PI. 1065 (1753) : abundant in woodland and on the 
banks of the stream leading into Wafer Bay, (No. 240). 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., N. S. Am. 

Polypodium L. 

P. aureum L. Sp. PI. 1087 (1753) : common on the sides 
of moist banks near Chatham Bay, (No. 245). Widely dis- 
tributed. 

P. Phyllitides L. Sp. PI. 1083 (1753): common, (Nos. 
243-44). Further distr. S. U. S., Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Polystichum Roth. 

P. adiantiforme (Forst,) J. Sm. Hist. Fil. 220 (1875). 
Polypodium adiantiforme Forst, Prod. 82 (1786). Asplenium 
coriaceum Sw. Syn. Fil. 57 (1806): specimens are sterile 
and doubtful, (Nos. 241-42). Further distr. W. Ind., S. Am., 
Old World. 

Trichomanes L. 

T. capillaceumL. Sp. PI. 1099 (1753) : fairly abundant on 
the trunks of trees at 600 ft. (No. 246). Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am. 



386 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

T. crispum L. Sp. PL 1097 (1753) : common on wet shady- 
banks near Wafer Bay, (Nos. 247-49). Further distr. Mex., 
W. Ind., S. Am., Africa. 

T. elegans Rich. Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, I. 114 (1792) : 
rare on wet shady banks, (No. 251). Further distr. W. Ind., 
S. Am. 

T. radicans Sw. Schrad. Jour. 1800, II. 97 (1801) : occa- 
sional on rotten tree-trunks near Wafer Bay, (Nos. 252-54). 
Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

Filices sp. : specimen is sterile and indeterminate, ( No. 
250). 

LYCOPODIACEAE 
Lycopodium L. 

L. linifoliumL. Sp. PI. 1100 (1753) : common on the trunks 
of trees and on the sides of moist banks below 600 ft. (Nos. 
255-58). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

Selaginella Beauv. 

S. Galeottii Spring, Monog. Lycopod. 220 (1842-49) : com- 
mon on the banana trees in gardens at Wafer Bay, (No. 259). 
Further distr. Mex., N. S. Am. 



GRAMINEAE 
Chloris Sw. 

C. paniculata Schribner, in Rob. Fl. Gal. Isl. Proc. Am. 
Acad. XXXVIII. No. 4, 262 (1902): grows abundantly on 
exposed rocky cliffs near the shore, and is also common on the 
small islets in the immediate vicinity of the main island, (No. 
260). Endemic. 

Digitaria Scop. 

D. sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. II. 1, 52 (1772). 
Panicum sanguinale L. Sp. PI. 57 (1753) : in crevices of the 
rocks along the stream leading into Wafer Bay and in culti- 
vated ground, (Nos. 261-62). Widely distributed. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 387 

Paspalum L. 

P. conjugatum Berg. Act. Helv. VII. 129, t. 8 (1772) : com- 
mon in cultivated ground around Wafer Bay, (No. 263). 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am., Old World. 

Setaria Beauv. 

S. setosa (Sw.) Beauv. Agrost. 51 (1812). Panicum seto- 
sum Sw. Prod. 22 (1788) : common in cultivated ground near 
Wafer Bay, (No. 264). Further distribution, tropical regions. 

CYPERACEAE 

Calyptocarya Nees. 

C. longifolia (Rudg.) Kunth, Enum. II. 365 (1837). 
Schoenus longifolius Rudg. PI. Gui. 14, t. 16 (1805). Calyp- 
tocarya palmetto Nees, Cyp. Bras. 195 (1842) : abundant on 
the banks of the stream near Wafer Bay, (No. 265). Further 
distr. Panama, W. Ind., N. S. Am. 

Cyperus L. 

C. prolixusHBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. I. 206 (1815) : abundant 
in the low flat area near Wafer Bay. The specimen is imma- 
ture and somewhat doubtful as to species, (No. 266). Fur- 
ther distr. Mex., N. S. Am. 

C. sphactelatus Rottb. Descr. 26 (1786): in low ground 
near Wafer Bay, (Nos. 267-69). Further distr. W. Ind., N. 
S. Am. 

Hypolytrum Rich. 

H. nicaraguensesLiebm. in Vedinsk. Selsk. Skr. V. ii. 235 
(1851) : common in large bunches in woodland and on the 
banks of the stream leading into Wafer Bay. Also found 
around the top of the island at 2788 ft. according to Capt. 
Gissler, (Nos. 270-71). Further distr. Nicaragua. 

Kyllinga Rottb. 
K. nudiceps C. B. Clark, in Rob. Fl. Gal. Isl. Proc. Am. 
Acad. XXXVIII. 262 (1902) : fairly common in crevices of 
the rocks on sides of cliffs, (No. 272). Endemic. 



388 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

PALMAE 
Cocos L. 

C. nucifera L. Sp. PI. 1188 (1753): very abundant at 
various places along the shores of the island. It is especially 
abundant at Dampier Head on the southeast side of the island. 
No specimens were taken for botanical purposes. Widely dis- 
tributed. 

Palmae sp. : an undetermined species of palmi occurring 
quite abundantly on the hillsides above both Chatham and 
Wafer bays. It seems to be most abundant above 400 ft. ( Nos. 
273-74). 

ARACEAE 

Anthurium Schott. 

A. scandens (Aubl.) Engl, in Mart. Fl. Bras. III. p. 2, 78 
(1878-82). Dracontium scandens Aubl. PL Gui. II. 836 
(1775) : common on trees at 600 ft. (No, 279). Further 
distr. Cent. Am. 

Philodendron Schott. 

P. sp. : occasional, covering bushes and small trees on the 
banks of the stream near Wafer Bay. The specimens are ster- 
ile, (No. 280). 

Spathophyllum Schott. 

S. Wendlandii Schott, in Ostr. Bot. Zeitschr. VIII. 179 
(1858) : common in densely shaded places on the banks of 
streams near sea-level, occasional at 600 ft. (Nos. 275-78). 
Further distr. Cent. Am. 

BROMELIACEAE 

Tillandsia L. 

T. sp. : very abundant on the trunks and branches of trees all 
over the island. The fruiting specimen is fragmentary, but 
seems to be close to T. utriculata L., differing in the broader 
leaves and the shorter pedicels of the flowers. 286-87. A 
specimen doubtfully labeled Catopsis aloides Bak. in the Gray 
Herbarium, which was collected on "this island by Snodgrass & 
Heller of the Hopkins Stanford Expedition, is probably the 
same. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 389 

COMMELINACEAE 

Commelina Plum. 

C. nudiflora L. Sp. PI. 41 (1753) : common on the bank of 
a stream near Chatham Bay, (No. 288). Widely distributed 
in tropical regions. 

PIPERACEAE 

Peperomia R. & P. 

P. nigropunctata Miq. Syst. Pip. 188 (1840) : occasional on 
moist rotten logs, (No. 289). Further distr, Martinique Isl. 

MORACEAE 
Ficus L. 

F. tecolutensis (Liebm.) Miq. ? in Ann. Mus. Bot. Ludg. III. 
299, n. 64 (1867). Urostigma tecolutense Liebm. K. Dansk. 
Vidinsk. series 5, XL 324, [reprint, 40 (1851)] : the specimen 
is sterile and doubtful as to species, (No. 290). Further distr. 
S. Mex. 

F. sp. : a species of Ficus forming large banyan trees occurs 
on the sides of the hills above Chatham Bay. No specimens 
were secured of this species. 

URTICACEAE 

Cecropia L. 

C. Pittieri Robinson, nov. sp. "arborea ; ramis 3-4 cm. crassis 
cavis septatis; foliis orbicularibus magnis 5 dm. diametro pel- 
tatis breviter 10-lobatis supra sparse pilosis glabratis viridibus 
subtus albidis valde reticulatis nervis patente hirsutis; lobis 
brevibus latisque semiorbicularibus margine undulatis apice 
rotundatis vel breviter acuminatis sinubus rotundatis; petiolo 
4 dm. longo 1 cm. diametro tereti albido-arachnoideo basi in- 
crassato sordide hirsuto; stipulis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis 1.6 
dm. longis 6 cm. latis utrinque hirsutis margine integerrima 
tenuiore glabriuscula ejccepta ; spatheis masculis teretibus apice 
longissime attenuatis 1.4 dm. longis extus griseo-pubescentibus, 
pedunculo robusto 8 cm. longo; spicis masculis ca. 19 sessilibus 
1 dm. longis 3 mm. crassis. A true characteristic of the lower 



390 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

region on the east and north coast of the island, alt. 10-150 
m., Pittier, No. 16237 (hb. Gr.). This species like C. peltata 
is distinguished from most of its congeners by its shallowly 
lobed leaves, the sinuses penetrating only a fourth of the dis- 
tance from the margin to the center of the leaf. From C. 
peltata L. of the West Indies and South America it differs as 
follows: Its petioles, instead of having a close tawny or at 
least sordid tomentum as in that species, are covered by a white 
deciduous arachnoid wool. The upper surface of the leaf is 
not at all scabrous, and the nerves beneath are very coarsely 
hirsute. The color of the lower surface of the leaf also is 
decidedly paler than in any specimen of C. peltata at hand. 
From C. obtusa it differs in the acumination of the middle leaf- 
lobes." The specimens secured on this island have younger 
leaves than the type specimen; (No. 291), Endemic. 

Fleurya Gaud. 

F. aestuans Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 497 (1826) : common 
in cultivated ground around Wafer Bay, (Nos. 292-93). Fur- 
ther distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

PHYTOLACCACEAE 

Phytolacca L. 

P. isocandra L. Sp. PL 631 (1753) : occasional on the banks 
of the stream near Wafer Bay, (No. 294). Further distr. 
Mex., W. Ind., N. S. Am. 



ANONACEAE 
Anona L. 

A. cherimolia Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. VIII. n. 5 (1768) : trees 
in gardens and probably introduced, (No. 295). Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

A. glabra L. Sp. PI. 537 (1753) : a few low bushes of this 
species were found growing on the beach at Dampier Head. 
Further distr. S. U. S., W. Ind. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 391 

LEGUMINOSAE 

Cassia L. 

C. reticulata Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 443 (1809) : forms 
occasional clumps of bushes 6-8 ft. high near the beach at 
Chatham Bay, (No. 296). Further distr. Mex., N. S. Am. 

Caesalpinia L. 

C. bonducella (L.) Fleming in As. Res. XL 159 (1810). 
Guilandina bonducellah. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 545 (1763) : occasional 
bushes 6-8 ft. high near the beach at Wafer Bay (No. 297). 
Further distr. general in warm countries. 

Desmodium Desv. 

D. sp. : common at Wafer Bay and at Dampier Head. The 
specimens are sterile, (No. 298). 

Leguminosaea sp. : a tendril-bearing vine, sterile and inde- 
terminate, (No. 299). 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

Acalypha L. 

A. bisetosa Bert. ace. to Spreng. Syst. III. 879 (1826): 
occasional bushes about 8 ft. high, (No. 300). Further distr. 
W. Ind., N. S. Am. 

MALVACEAE 
Hibiscus L. 

H. tiliaceusL. Sp. PI. 694 (1753) : common trees near the 
shore and on the sides of the hills. The specimens found grow- 
ing on the shore were usually low and spreading, while those 
on the hillsides were tall and straight. According to Capt. 
Gissler, the wood of this tree makes excellent paper pulp, and 
at the time our party visited the island, he was trying to 
interest parties in this in order to start a pulp-industry on the 
island, (Nos. 301-04). Widely distributed in tropical regions. 



392 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

BOMBACEAE 

Ochroma Sw. 

O. lagopus Sw. Prod. 98 (1788). Bomhax pyramidale Cav. 
Dis. V. t. 153 (1788): common trees, (No. 281). Further 
distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

HYPERICACEAE 

Clusia L. 

C. rosea Jacq. Enum. 34 (1760) : grows very abundantly 
on the rocks above the sea, forming dense thickets of low 
trees. It often puts out numerous absorbing roots which 
extend down into the sea-water. It also occurs abundantly on 
both Conic and Nuez Islands, from the last of which the speci- 
mens were taken, (Nos. 282-83). Further distr. Panama, W. 
Ind., N. S. Am. 

COMBRETACEAE 

Terminalia L. 

T. Catappa L. Mont. II. 519 (1771) : a few large trees of 
this species occur on the flat area just back of the beach at 
Wafer Bay. It is probably introduced, (No. 331). Widely 
distributed. 

MYRTACEAE 

Eugenia L, 

E. pacifica Benth. Bot. Sulph. 98 (1844) : low bushes on 
the banks of streams, (No. 284). Endemic. 

MELASTOMACEAE 
Clidemia D. Don. 

C. hirta (L.) D. Don. in Mem. Wernerian Soc. IV. 309 
(1822). Melastoma hirta L. Sp. PI. 390 (1753): common 
bushes and small trees in woodland at 600 ft. (No. 285). 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., S. Am. 

C. umbonata Sch. & Mart, in DC. Prod. III. 158 (1828) : 
common bushes in woodland, (No. 305). Further distr. N. 
S. Am. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 393 

Conostegia D. Don. 

a lasiopoda Benth. Bot. Stilph. 96 (1844): small trees, 
abundant, (No. 306). Endemic. 

Miconia Ruiz. & Pav. 

M. dodecandra (Desv.) Cogn. in Mart. Fl. Bras. XIV. pt. 4, 
243 (1887). Melastoma dodecandra Desv. in Lam. Encyc. 
IV. 46 (1796) : bushes abundant in woodland around Wafer 
Bay, (No. 307). Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., N. S. Am. 

Ossaea DC. 

O. macrophylla Cogn. D.C Mon. VII. 1064 (1891) : small 
trees common at 600 ft. (No. 308). Endemic. 



ONAGRACEAE 

Jussieua L. 

J. linifolia Vahl. Ecol. Am. II. 32 (1798) : common among 
rocks on the side of a cliff near Chatham Bay, (No. 309). 
Widely distributed in tropical regions. 

MYRSINACEAE 
Ardisia Sw, 

A. cuspidata Benth. Bot. Sulph. 123 (1844): occasional 
bushes (Nos. 310-12). Endemic. 

A. humilis Vahl. ? Symb. III. 40 (1794) : occasional bushes 
at 600 ft. (No. 313). The specific identity of this specimen is 
doubtful, but it resembles fruiting specimens of this species in 
the Gray Herbarium. Further distr. East Indies. 

Rapanea Aubl. 

R. Guianensis Aubl. PI. Gui. 121 (1775) : bushes about 8 ft. 
high on the banks of the stream near Wafer Bay, (No. 320). 
Further distr. Mex., W. Ind., N. S. Am. 



394 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 
Tassadia Decne. 

T. Colubrina Decne. DC. Prod. VIII. 579 (1844) : common 
at 650 ft. (No. 321). Further distr. Brazil. 



CONVOLVULACEAE 
Ipomoea L. 

I. cathartica Poir. Diet. Supl. IV. 633 (1816) : common on 
open hillsides, often covering the ground and vegetation with a 
dense mass of vines, (Nos. 322-23). Further distr. S. U. S., 
W. Ind., N. S. Am. 

I. Pes-caprae (L.) Sweet, Hort. Sub. Lond. 35 (1818). 
Convolvulus Pes-caprae L. Sp. PI. 159 (1753) : common on 
the beach at Wafter Bay, (No. 324). Widely distributed on 
tropical shores. 

RUBIACEAE 
Bertiera Blum. 

B. angustifolia Benth. Bot. Sulph. 103 (1844) : bushes 6-8 
ft. high at 300 ft. (No. 325). Endemic. 

CofFea L. 

C. arabica L. Sp. PI. 172 (1753) : evidently an introduced 
species. Widely distributed in tropical regions through culti- 
vation. 

Rustia Klotz. 

R. occidentalis (Benth.) Hemsl. Biolog. Cent. Am. Bot. II. 
14 (1881-82). Exostemma occidentale Benth. Bot. Sulph. 104 
(1844) : occasional bushes, (No. 315). Further distr. Cent. 

Am., N. S. Am. 

Spermacoce L. 

S. ocymoides Burm Fl. Ind. 34 (1768) : common in open 
grassy places on the banks of the stream near Wafer Bay, 
(Nos. 316-17). Widely distributed in tropical regions. 



Vol. I] STEWART— BOTANY OF COCOS ISLAND 395 

VERBENACEAE 

Cornutia L. 

C. grandifolia (Ch. & Schl.) Schau. in DC. Prod. XI. 682 
(1847). Hosta grandifolia Ch. & Sch. Linn. V. 97 (1830) : 
bushes about 8 ft. high on the sides of cliffs and on the banks 
of the stream near Wafer Bay, (No. 318). Further distr. 
S. Mex. 

COMPOSITAE 
Blainvillea Cass. 

B. biaristata DC. Prod. V. 492 (1836) : common in culti- 
vated ground, (No. 319). Further distr. Brazil. 

Clibadium L. 

C. acuminatum Benth. Bot. Sulph. 114 (1844): common 
bushes near Wafer Bay, (No. 326). Endemic. 

Rolandra Rottb. 

R. argentea Rottb. Coll. Havn. II. 258 (1775) : common on 
the sides of the cliffs near Chatham Bay, (No. 327). Further 
distr. Panama, W. Ind., N. S. Am. 

Wedelia Jacq. 

W. paludosa DC. Prod. V. 538 (1836) : very abundant in 
open places on the sides of the hills above Chatham Bay, some- 
times covering the ground with a dense mass of vegetation 2-3 
ft. high to the exclusion of almost all other plants. It also 
occurs to some extent at Wafer Bay, occasional specimens 
being seen at 600 ft. in this region, (No. 328). Further distr. 
Cent. Am., N. S. Am. 

The following species of mosses occurring in the collection 
were identified by Dr. W. G. Farlow : 

Pilotrichum bipinnatum (Sch.) Brid. 
Hypnella pallescens (Hook) Jaej. 
Syrrhopodon rigidus Hook, and Grev. 
Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. 
Rhyzogenium spiniforme (L.) Bruch. 



396 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The following vascular plants are mentioned by Robinson,* 
but were not included in the collection : 

Acrostichum caudatum Hook. 
Adiantum intermedium Sw. 
Asplenium rhisophyllum Kunze 
Dicksonia cicutaria Sw. 
Polypodium chnoodes Spreng. 
Polypodium lanceolatum L. 
Trichomanes pyxidiferum L. 
Lycopodium mollicomum Mart. 
Selaginella stenophylla A. Br, 
Eleusine indica Gaertn. 
Paspalum distichum L. 
Paspalum platycaule Poir. 
Euphorbia pilulifera L. 
Ricinus communis L. 
Ipomoea Bona-nox L. 

University of Wisconsin^ 
July 6, 1911. 



* Flora of the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, v. 38, No. 4, 241, 261-63 (1902). 



398 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXI 

Ail opening in the forest, showing Alsophila armata in the center and 
a dense growth of ferns and bushes. 



400 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXII 

Trees along the bank of the stream leading into Wafer Bay, heavily 
covered with epiphytes. 



Prdc CalAcad. Scr 4™ Ser Vol I 



Stewart] Plate ixxn 







402 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIII 
Bushes and small palms near Wafer Bay. 



Prdc CAL.AcAD.Scr 4™ Ser Vcl.I 



Stewart] Platc XXXIII 




404 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIV 

An opening at the edge of the rain-forest, showing a tree heavily 
covered with lianes. 



Prdc. CalAcad. Sci 4™ 5tR Vql.I 



Stewart] Plate XXXIV 




PROCEEDINGS 

Fourth Series 

VOLUME I 
Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

Pages 1-6. I. Prelirninary Description of Four New Races of 
Gigantic Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands By John 
Van Denburgh. {Issued December 20, 1901) % .25 

Pages 7-288. II. A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands. 

By Alban Stewart. {Issued January 20, 1911) 1 . 75 

Pages 289-322. III. The Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of the 
Galapagos Islands. By Francis X. Williams. ( Issued October 
7, 1911) 50 

Pages 323-374. IV. The Snakes of the Galapagos Islands. By 

John Van Denburgh. {Issued January 17, 1912) .50 

Pages 375-404. V. Notes on the Botany of Cocos Island. By 

Alban Stewart. {Issued January 19, 1912 ) .35 

VOLUME II 

Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

{In progress. ) 

VOLUME III 

Pages 1-40. A Further Stratigraphic Study in the Mount Diablo 
Range of Cahfornia. By Frank M. Anderson. {Issued October 
31, 1908) 35 

Pages 41-48. Description of a New Species of .Sea Snake from the 
Philippine Islands, with a Note on the Palatine Teeth in the 
Proteroglypha. By John Van Denburgh and Joseph C. Thomp- 
son. {Issued December 31, 1908) .25 

Pages 49-56. New and Previously Unrecorded Species of Reptiles 
and Amphibians from the Island of Formosa. By John Van 
Denburgh. {Issued December 20, 1909). 25 

Pages 57-72. Water Birds of the Vicinity of Point Pinos, California. 

By Rollo Howard Beck. {Issued September 17, 1910) 25 

Pages 73-146. The Neocene Deposits of Kern River, Cahfornia, 
and the Temblor Basin. By Frank M. Anderson. {Issued 
November 9, 1911) 1 .00 

Pages 147-154. Notes on a Collection of Reptiles from Southern 
California and Arizona. By John Van Denburgh. {Issued 
January 17, 1912) 25 

Pages 155-160. Notes on Some Reptiles and Amphibians from 
Oregon, Idaho and Utah. By John Van Denburgh. {Issued 
January 17, 1912) .25 

The Academy cannot supply any of its publications issued before the 
year 1907, its entire reserve stock having been destroyed in the conflagra- 
tion of April, 1906. 



PROCEEDING^ 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 405-430 April 16, 1912 



Expedition of the California Academy of 
Sciences to the Galapagos Islands 



19054906 



BUREAU OF 



VI 
The Geckos of the Galapagos Archipelago ^ 



fffeRiCAN FTHNOLCGY. 

WH 13 1S12 

to 



John Van Denburgh 

Curator of the Department of Herpetology 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

1912 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

George C. Edwards, Chairman 
C. E. Grunsky Edwin C. Van Dyke 



THE HICKS-JUDD PRESS 
SAN FRANCISCO 



IPROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I., pp. 405-430 April 16, 1912 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 

OF SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906 

VI 
THE GECKOS OF THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 

BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH 
Curator of the Department of Herpetology 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 406 

Origin and Relationship of the Galapagos Geckos . 406 

Origin and History of the Galapagos Islands .... 407 

Systematic Account 410 

Key to the Species . . 410 

Gonatodes collaris 410 

Phyllodactylus tuberculoses . 412 

Phyllodactylus gilherti 413 

Phyllodactylus leei 416 

Phyllodactylus barringtonensis 418 

Phyllodactylus galapagoensis 420 

Phyllodactylus galapagoensis daphnensis ..... 425 

Phyllodactylus galapagoensis duncanensis 426 

Phyllodactylus bauri 426 

April 12, 1912 



406 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Introduction 

In a previous paper^ I have given an account of the snakes 
of the Galapagos Archipelago, and have attempted to trace 
the history of these islands from the evidence afforded by this 
group of their inhabitants. The present article is based upon 
a similar investigation of the geckos of this region, under- 
taken with a view to confirming or disproving the conclusions 
reached in the earlier paper. 

The tortoises and the lizards of the family Iguanidae are 
yet to be studied along the same lines. 

Origin and Relationship of the Galapagos Geckos 

Two genera of Gekkonidae, or the family of geckos, have 
been recorded as inhabitants of the Galapagos Archipelago. 
One of these, Gonatodes, has been found only by Dr. Baur, 
whose collection included four or more specimens labeled 
Wreck Bay, Chatham Island. No other collector has secured 
this lizard in the Galapagos, although most careful search has 
been made for it. It seems probable, therefore, that Dr. Baur's 
specimens either had been recently introduced with the effects 
of the colonists from the mainland, or were collected by Dr. 
Baur at Guayaquil and erroneously labeled. From the stand- 
point of zoogeography, however, the question is of little 
importance, for if this lizard be native to the archipelago it 
would merely afford one more bit of evidence of the close 
relationship of the Galapagoan to the South American fauna. 
Various species of Gonatodes have been reported from the 
West Indies, South America, Australia, the East Indies, and 
southern India. 

The second genus, Phyllodactylus, has even a wider range 
in the tropical world. It has representatives in the Mediter- 
ranean region. South Africa, Madagascar and other islands in 
the Indian Ocean, southern Asia, Australia, Norfolk Island, 
the New Hebrides, western South America, Central America, 
Mexico, and the Antilles. In the Galapagos Archipelago it 
has been found on Wenman, Chatham, Hood, Gardner-near- 

' Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser. v. 1, (4) 1912. 



Vol. 1] VAN DEN BURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 407 

Hood, Charles, Gardner-near-Charles, Enderby, Champion, 
Barrington, Duncan, Indefatigable, Daphne, James, Cowley, 
Albemarle, and Brattle islands. 

Chatham is the only island upon which there occurs more 
than one species of Phyllodactylus. Here, two very distinct 
species have been found. One of these has been regarded as 
identical with Phyllodactylus tuberculosus of the North and 
South American continents. It has no close relatives on any 
of the other islands of the archipelago, and may have been 
introduced on Chatham since the plantation was established 
there. 

The other Galapagoan geckos are all closely related. There 
can be little doubt that all are directly descended from a single 
species which formerly occupied this entire area. We must 
believe that the isolation resulting from the separation of an 
original large island into the various small islands which 
now exist, has made possible the differentiation which we now 
find in these geckos. 

If this be true, we should expect to find that the greatest 
differentiation exists where isolation has been longest main- 
tained, and, conversely, that separation has existed longest 
where the greatest differentiation is found. Thus we may 
proceed to sketch the history of the Galapagos Islands as 
indicated by the geckos of the genus Phyllodactylus. 

Origin and History of the Galapagos Islands 

Phyllodactylus gilberti has been found only on Wenman 
Island. It is the most distinct of all the Galapagoan geckos.^ 
Hence, we may infer that Wenman Island has had an indi- 
vidual existence longer than any of the other gecko-bearing 
islands of the archipelago. 

No geckos have ever been found on Culpepper, Abington, 
Bindloe or Tower Islands. 

The next gecko in point of distinctness is Phyllodactylus 
leei of Chatham Island. This leads us to believe that Chatham 
became a separate island at a time when the other central 
and southern islands still were connected. 



' Except P. tuberculosus, which we shall not consider farther. 



408 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

There may be some difference of opinion as to whether 
Phyllodactylus bauri or Phyllodactylus barrmgtonensis is the 
more differentiated form. P. barringtonensis is intermediate 
between P. leei and P. galapagoensis. It agrees with P. gala- 
pagoensis in the number and arrangement of the postmental 
plates, but has tubercles only on that portion of the back which 
lies between the insertions of the hind limbs. Phyllodactylus 
bauri, on the other hand, has quite a different arrangement of 
the postmentals, which are reduced in number to two, and its 
dorsal tubercles have a distinctive distribution. On cursory 
examination, P. bauri resembles P. galapagoensis much more 
than P. barringtonensis does. Nevertheless, I believe that the 
differences found in P. bauri, involving as they do changes 
in arrangement as well as in number, are of greater import 
than the mere reduction in dorsal tubercles which characterizes 
P. barringtonensis. This view of the case leads to the con- 
clusion that the islands occupied by P. bauri — namely. Hood 
and Charles — probably were the next to become separated in 
the breaking up of the original large island, and that the 
isolation of Barrington occured soon after. 

Phyllodactylus bauri inhabits both Charles and Hood 
islands, with their outlying islets. Since we cannot believe 
that this species has been independently evolved in two separate 
islands, and do not think that it has been carried across the 
water from one island to the other, we are forced to conclude 
that Charles and Hood islands were connected, and formed 
parts of a single large southern island, for a considerable 
time after their separation from the rest of the land area which 
later became the present archipelago. 

The relationship which exists between Phyllodactylus barr- 
ingtonensis and P. leei perhaps may indicate that the last con- 
nection of Chatham with the central island was by way of 
Barrington Island. 

The geckos of the remaining islands have undergone much 
less differentiation than those which we have thus far consid- 
ered. For the present, we must refer them all to one species, 
Phyllodactylus galapagoensis, although it is quite possible that 
more abundant material might enable us to recognize differ- 
ences which now are hidden. We have only the following 
specimens : 



Vol. 1] VAN DENBURGH-GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 409 

4 from Indefatigable 

8 " Daphne 

2 " James 

7 " Cowley 

2 " Duncan 

4 " Brattle 

5 " Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
2 " Cowley Mt., Albemarle 
10 " Iguana Cove, Albemarle 
43 " southeastern Albemarle 

Obviously, this series of specimens is insufficient to enable 
us to point out all the minor differences between the geckos 
of these islands; but it does suffice to permit us to say that 
all are closely related. From this we may conclude that these 
islands all remained connected, and formed a single island, for 
a long time after their separation from those islands already 
considered, where distinct species have been evolved. 

While it is true that all these geckos from the central islands 
are so closely related, they are not all identical. Those of 
Duncan and Daphne islands differ sufficiently to enable us 
to recognize them as distinct subspecies; from which we may 
conclude that these two islands have had an independent insu- 
lar existence longer than the others of the central group, which 
doubtless remained connected until a still later period. 

Farther than this we cannot go, and it is evident that differ- 
entiation in the geckos of the Galapagos Islands has progressed 
neither so rapidly nor so far as it has in the case of the snakes 
of the archipelago. The older and more stable organization 
of these lizards has not changed so quickly. For this reason, 
the geckos throw but little light upon the more recent history 
of the islands. They, as it were, have not kept up to date. 
Their story stops before the separation of Charles Island from 
Hood, at a time when the central islands, excepting Duncan 
and Daphne, yet were one. But so far as it goes, the story 
of the geckos agrees completely with that of the snakes, except 
on one minor point. Our study of the snakes indicated that 
Barrington only recently became separated from Indefatigable 
Island. The evidence afforded by the geckos would lead us to 
place the separation of Barrington at a more remote period. 
In other respects there is complete agreement. 



410 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Systematic Account 
Key to Galapagoan Species of Geckos 

a. — Digits without dilated pads. 

Gonatodes collaris. — p. 410. 
a^. — Digits dilated distally and furnished inferiorly with two large plates, 
b. — Limbs with scattered enlarged tubercles. 

Phyllodactylus tuberculosus. — p. 412. 
b^. — Limbs covered above with nearly uniform granules. 

c. — No rows of enlarged dorsal tubercles on back between levels of 
fore and hind limbs, 
d. — No enlarged dorsal tubercles between hind limbs. 

Phyllodactylus leei. — p. 416. 
d^. — Enlarged dorsal tubercles present between hind limbs. 

Phyllodactylus barringtonensis. — p. 418. 

c^. — Back with rows of enlarged tubercles between levels of fore 

and hind hmbs. 

dd. — Median series of subcaudals enlarged transversely; a 

median dorsal band of granules distinctly smaller thah 

laterals and usually lighter in color; enlarged dorsal 

tubercles much smaller; rows less distinct and fewer 

than five on each side except on sacrum. 

Phyllodactylus gilberti. — p. 413. 
dd^. — No median series of large subcaudals ; no distinct mid- 
dorsal light band of smaller granules ; dorsal rows of 
enlarged tubercles five or six on each side ; very distinct, 
e. — Tubercles in dorsal rows usually separated by at least 
their own length ; postmentals two. 

Phyllodactylus bauri. — p. 426. 
e^. — Tubercles in dorsal rows usually separated by less 
than their own length, or by not more than one 
small granule; postmentals usually more than two. 
f. — Tubercles in upper dorsal rows set as closely as in 
other rows. 
g. — Tubercles of some dorsal rows continued on 
neck anterior to insertion of fore hmbs ; 
snout shorter; dorsal rows of tubercles 
usually six on each side (rarely five). 
Phyllodactylus galapagoensis. — p. 420. 
g2. — Tubercles of dorsal rows absent on neck an- 
terior to insertion of fore limbs ; snout 
longer ; dorsal rows of tubercles five on 
each side. 
Phyllodactylus g. daphnensis. — p. 425. 
f2. — Tubercles in upper dorsal rows set less closely, 
usually separated by two or more granules. 

Phyllodactylus g. duncanensis. — p. 426. 

Gonatodes collaris Garman. 

Gonatodes collaris, Garman^ Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 83 (type 
locality Wreck Bay, Chatham Island) ; Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. 
Sci., V, 1903, p. 60. 

This gecko is know only from Garman's description based 

upon four specimens collected by Dr. George Baur, and labeled 



Vol. 1] VAN DENBURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 411 

Wreck Bay, Chatham Island. It has not been found by any 
other collector, although the members of our expedition 
searched carefully for it, and collected a hundred and sixty- 
nine geckos on Chatham Island. The fact that Dr. Baur 
secured four specimens indicates that the species was not very 
rare where he got it, and the failure of all other collectors to 
secure it in the Galapagos makes one wonder whether Dr. 
Baur's specimens might not have originated at Guayaquil, 
where he also collected, and have been in some way mislabeled. 
I quote Dr. Carman's original description: 

"Head moderate; snout obtusely pointed, longer than the distance 
between the eye and the ear opening, one and one-half times the diameter 
of the orbit, equal the width of the crown at the hinder edge of the orbit ; 
forehead flat; ear-opening small. Digits slender; basal joint slender, sub- 
cylindrical, with larger plates beneath; other joints more slender, com- 
pressed. Head, throat, upper portions of body, limbs and tail covered with 
subequal granular scales, smallest on the occiput, larger on chin and tail. 
Rostral broader than high, pentagonal, incised on the top. A small inter- 
nasal toward each side. Two small shields behind the nostril. Six labials ; 
sixth small, sHghtly behind the middle of the eye. Five infralabials ; 
posterior nearly reaching a vertical from the hinder border of the eye; 
first large, in contact with two submentals ; mental large, with a median 
and two lateral angles posteriorly, in contact with a pair of moderate 
submentals, at each side of which there is one scarcely half as large, from 
which again a diminishing series of three or four passes back along the 
infralabials. Abdominal scales moderate, imbricate, heptagonal, flat, sim- 
ilar to scales in front of thighs and arms. Tail tapering, subround, covered 
with small imbricate scales above and larger ones beneath. The median 
row under the tail is subject to great variation : on two of the specimens 
the scales are about twice as broad as long; on two others they are so 
broad as to reach from side to side of the tail. The granules of the throat 
are fine, quite as small as those of the occiput; near the labials and sub- 
mentals they rapidly increase in size. 

"Body and Hmbs dark brownish ; back darker, with numerous small 
spots of light blue. A dark-edged spot of the blue above the shoulder. In 
front of each shoulder there is a vertical band of bluish that does not reach 
the median line on the top of the neck. Along the vertebral line the back 
is lighter, and along this light band there are five pairs of dark spots, and 
at the hinder edge of each of these spots there is a smaller one of the 
light color. The first pair of the spots lies transversely in front of the 
vertical band, the second behind the shoulders, the third near the middle 
of the body, the fourth in front of the leg, and the fifth across the base 
of the tail. 

"Chin and throat yellow to orange. Top and sides of head brown ; with 
a yellow band from the angle of the mouth to the nape, another from the 
eye to the parietal region, and a third from the nostrils backward over the 
supraorbitals. On the crown the disposition of the yellow is irregular, but 
on each specimen there is a short median streak of the light color. 

"This form is very closely allied to Gray's species G. ocellafus from 
Tobago. The principal differences seem to be in the coloration. The 
vertical streak is in front of the shoulder, and to reach the latter would 
have to turn back at its lower end. The head is not so high, and the 
outline from rostral to occiput is very slightly but quite regularly curved. 



412 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

In the figure given, by Dr. Boulenger, of G. ocellatus, the scales under the 
fourth toe are smaller toward the base ; in our species they are about equal 
in size." 

Phyllodactylus tuberculosus Wiegmann. Tuberculated 

Gecko. 

Phyllodactylus tuberculosus, Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 1889, p. 
145 ; Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 81 ; Heller, Proc. Wash- 
ington Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 60. 

Diagnosis. — Limbs with enlarged tubercles; back with very- 
distinct rows of enlarged tubercles ; a median series of enlarged 
subcaudals. 

Distribution. — In the Galapagos Archipelago, this gecko has 
been found only on Chatham Island. 

Material. — Two specimens collected by the naturalists of the 
Albatross, in 1887-88, are Nos. 14949 and 14956 in the U. S. 
National Museum collection. Dr. Baur secured one specimen. 
The Academy has twenty-one specimens collected by Mr. 
Slevin. 

Description of No. 10848. — Head elongate ; snout depressed, rounded, 
and rather narrow, a little more than one and a half times as long as 
diameter of eye; ear-opening small with slight anterior denticulation of 
small scales, slightly nearer than nostril to eye. Body and limbs moderate, 
somewhat depressed, tail cylindro-conic. Snout covered with subequal, 
smooth, convex granules. Hinder part of head, temples, back of neck, and 
back and sides of body covered with smaller, smooth granules interspersed 
with enlarged tubercles. These large tubercles are smooth and rounded on 
the head, but trihedral and keeled on the neck and body. On each side of 
the middorsal line, there are three or four rows of these large tubercles 
on the neck and between the hind limbs, and from six to eight more or 
less irregular rows near the middle of the body. The tubercles are not 
close together in the rows. The small granules are flattened. Rostral 
much broader than high. Nostril between rostral, first labial, and three 
nasals, of which the upper is largest and meets its fellow of the opposite 
side. Nine or ten upper, and eight or nine lower labials. Mental large, 
a little longer than broad, bordered behind by two postmentals, which are 
followed by polygonal shields which gradually pass into the small gulars. 
Lower surface of body covered with smooth, imbricate scales, which change 
gradually into the granular laterals and small gulars; about forty longi- 
tudinal and seventy transverse series. Tail covered with stnall scales with 
irregular, interrupted whorls of large, keeled tubercles ; an inferior median 
series of broad plates. Limbs with enlarged tubercles ; digits slender, distal 
pads large, truncate ; about fourteen lamellae under fourth toe. 

The color everywhere above is light yellowish gray with irregular spots 
and bars of dark brown. The dark brown markings tend to form irregular 
longitudinal bands on the head, and cross-bars on the body and tail. _ A 
brown band runs from the nostril to the eye, and from the eye to the side 
of the body, passing just above the ear-opening. Other bands run back 
from the mouth and upper part of the eye. The transverse lines on the 
body tend to form reticulations. There are thirteen dark bars on the tail. 
The lower surfaces are yellowish white with minute slate dots. 



Vol.1] VAN DENBURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO /\\o 

Length to anus 61. 

Snout to orbit 7.5 

Snout to ear 15. 

Orbit to ear 5. 

Fore limb 21. 

Hind limb 27. 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 8. 

Variation. — All the specimens agree in the distribution of 
the enlarged tubercles. These usually are in about seven rows 
on each side near the middle of the body; but the rows are 
somewhat irregular, and one sometimes counts six or eight. 
The postmentals in contact with the mental are two in all of 
our twenty-one specimens. All have the broad subcaudal 
series well-developed. 

Young average darker than the adults, and have darker 
markings. The general pattern is similar in all, but, of course, 
is subject to more or less variation. Some specimens are more 
evidently cross-barred, while some are clearly reticulated. 

The largest specimen measures 71 mm. from snout to anus. 

Coloration in life. — "P. tuherculosus is more brightly col- 
ored than P. leei, having black blotches down the back. These 
blotches are seven or eight in number, and almost form bands. 
The large tubercles are very prominent, like little white spots ; 
while the rest of the body is liver-colored, white underneath" 
(Slevin). 

General remarks. — This gecko has been taken only on 
Chatham Island and has no very close relatives elsewhere in 
the Galapagos. It is widely distributed in continental America, 
and it seems probable that it has but recently been introduced 
into the Galapagos. Unfortunately I have no specimens from 
the mainland with which to compare those from Chatham. It 
is possible that minor differences may exist, although the series 
from this island agrees very well with descriptions of conti- 
nental specimens. 

Phyllodactylus gilberti Heller. Wenman Island Gecko. 

Phyllodactylus gilberti, Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 1903, 
p. 61 (type locality Wenman Island), Galapagos Archipelago). 

Diagnosis. — Limbs without enlarged tubercles; back with 
rows of enlarged tubercles, not very distinct except posteriorly ; 



414 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

lateral dorsal granules much larger than median ones ; enlarged 
tubercles on neck but not on occiput; two postmentals; sub- 
caudals considerably enlarged transversely. 

Type. — Adult male. Leland Stanford Junior University 
Museum No. 4549. Wenman Island, Galapagos Archipelago, 
Hopkins-Stanford Expedition. December, 1898. 

Distribution. — Wenman Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — The Hopkins-Stanford Expedition secured at 
least nine specimens. The California Academy has thirty-two 
of these geckos from Wenman Island, collected by Mr. Joseph 
R. Slevin, Sept. 24, 1906. 

Description of the type^ — Dorsal tubercles small, two or three times the 
size of the dorsal granules, rounded, juxtaposed, and feebly keeled, in five 
longitudinal series on each side of sacral region ; back and nape crossed by- 
four rows, the three outer rows on each side disappearing before reaching 
middle of back. Rows of tubercles separated by two or three rows of 
granules; tubercles in the rows juxtaposed with few exceptions. Digital 
pallets wide, four times width of rest of digit, nearly two thirds the 
diameter of eye, trapezoid. Fourth toe with fourteen transverse lamellae 
inferiorly, the distal one divided. Head large, one half as long and two 
thirds as wide as the body. Ear-opening elliptical, obhque, two thirds the 
diameter of eye. Snout rounded at tip, the dorsal profile oblique, length 
slightly less than twice the diameter of eye. Interorbital region more or 
less concave ; occipital region flat. Limbs moderate, the appressed fore 
limb reaching anterior border of eye; hind limb reaching appressed elbow. 
Head covered above with equal granules, smallest on occiput, becoming 
gradually larger anteriorly. Nostril situated between rostral, first superior 
labial, internasal and two posterior nasals. Internasals contiguous. Ros- 
tral twice as broad as high, slightly pentagonal with a median cleft above, 
bordered dorsally by two internasals. Mental subtriangular, longer than 
wide with obtuse angle posteriorly, followed by two hexagonal submentals. 
Superior labials six before middle of pupil, twice as long as high ; five 
inferior labials anterior to middle of pupil, as high as long, first largest 
and more than two thirds size of mental. Belly and lower surfaces 
covered with smooth, rounded, imbricate scales; forty-five transverse 
series between axilla and groins. Tail of type imperfect. In younger 
specimens the tail is cylindrical, tapering gradually, covered above and on 
sides with imbricate, keeled scales about size of dorsal tubercles ; covered 
inferiorly with a median series of enlarged scales. 

Above (in life) pinkish gray with dusky blotches and spots; a median 
light pinkish stripe from nape to tail forking into several faint narrow 
cross-bars on back. Head lighter grayish with irregular dusky blotches 
above, snout faintly dusky-spotted, labials more heavily spotted, a dusky 
stripe beginning at tip of snout, passing through eye above ear-opening and 
becoming obsolete on shoulder, 'widest and most distinct just posterior to 
eye; sides lighter, dusky, spotted. In perfect specimens the tail is light 
hke the head, the dark cross-bands narrower than the light areas and 
anteriorly broken up into spots. Limbs above barred and blotched with 
dusky. Underparts cream or whitish, the scales with minute dark dots. 

» Heller. 



Vol.1] VAN DENBURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 415 

The largest and smallest specimens measure 

Length to anus 55.5 23. 

Snout to orbit 7. 3. 

Snout to ear 13.7 7. 

Orbit to ear 5. 2.2 

Fore limb 19. 9. 

Hind limb 24. 9.8 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 6. 3. 

Coloration in life. — "The back is slate-blue with black mark- 
ings, and a light stripe runs from the neck to the middle of the 
back. The lower surfaces of the body are pale lemon, and the 
throat is light flesh color" (Slevin). 

Variation. — All the specimens before me have two post- 
mentals in contact with the mental. The median band of small 
granules is constantly present, as is the series of enlarged sub- 
caudals. There is much variation in the number and extent of 
the rows of enlarged, keeled, dorsal tubercles. These tuber- 
cles always are smaller than in any other Galapagoan geckos, 
and set close together in the rows. A row is almost always 
present from the neck to the base of the tail immediately out- 
side the middorsal band of small granules. Other rows of 
enlarged tubercles are most in evidence on the sacral region 
and base of tail and between the forelimbs. There may be 
traces of only one or of two or three rows on each side of the 
back anteriorly; on the base of the tail there usually are three 
or four ; while just in front of the hind legs there are four or 
five rows. The internasal plates are separated in several speci- 
mens. The lamellae under the fourth toe vary in number from 
twelve to sixteen. 

The ground color is light yellowish gray in young, darker 
grayish brown or brown in adults. All specimens show at 
least a trace of the light gray middorsal band. This band may 
extend the whole length of the back or may be limited to the 
neck, where it is always most evident. Some specimens have 
no dark markings. The majority show, along the back of the 
neck and body, six or eight pairs of more or less definite dark 
brown blotches, which often are edged posteriorly by lateral 
branches of the light middorsal stripe. A brown band is 
usually present on the side of the face, but sometimes is nearly 
obsolete. 

Habits.— ''Sti^t 24, 1906. Landed on the N. E. end of 
Wenman Island, and climbed up on a small plateau covered 



416 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

with cactus and small trees. We stayed only a few hours, and 
this appeared to be the best collecting ground. Hunted under 
the loose lava, and found geckos fairly common. They were 
most abundant along the edge of the cliffs, where the sea-birds 
nested. They were nearly all. good-sized specimens that seem 
full-grown, and are the first ones on which I noticed claws. 
Lack of time prevented me from collecting more specimens. 
The elevation of this plateau is about two hundred feet" 
(Slevin). 

General remarks. — This is a very distinct species. In it, as 
in the geckos of Chatham and Barrington islands, the en- 
larged dorsal tubercles are much reduced in number. It agrees 
with P. tuberculosus in the possession of enlarged subcaudals, 
but is, I believe, closely related to the other geckos native to 
the archipelago. 

Phyllodactylus leei Cope. Chatham Island Gecko. 

Phyllodactylus leei Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 1889, p. 145, (type 
locality Chatham Island) ; Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 83 ; 
Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 67. 

Diagnosis. — Limbs and entire back without enlarged tuber- 
cles; digital expansions well developed; dorsal granules 
smooth, smaller than those on snout; mental about as long as 
broad, usually in contact with three (often two) postmentals; 
about ten to fourteen lamellae under fourth toe. 

Type.—U. S. National Museum No. 14957. Chatham 
Island, Galapagos Archipelago. Prof. Leslie A. Lee of the 
Albatross. 1887-88. 

Distribution. — Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — This species has been known from the type speci- 
men, one collected by Dr. Baur, and three secured by the Hop- 
kins-Stanford Expedition. The Academy collection includes 
one hundred and forty-eight specimens of various ages. 

Description of No. 11994. — Head elongate; snout long, depressed, and 
rather narrow, a little more than one and a half times as long as the 
diameter of eye; ear-opening small with anterior denticulation of three or 
four scales, about as far as nostril from eye. Body and limbs moderate, 
somewhat depressed, tail cylindro-conic. Snout covered with subequal, 
smooth granules. Hinder part of head, temples, neck, and back and sides 
of body covered with smaller, smooth, convex granules. No enlarged 



Vol. 1] VAN DENBURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 417 

tubercles anywhere. Rostral much broader than high. Nostril between 
rostral, first labial, and three nasals of which the upper is largest and meets 
its fellow of the opposite side. Eight or nine upper and seven or eight 
lower labials. Mental large, a little longer than broad, bordered behind 
by four postmentals which are followed by polygonal shields which grad- 
ually pass into the small granular gulars. Lower surface of body covered 
with smooth, imbricate scales which change gradually into the granular 
laterals and gulars ; about twenty-five to forty longitudinal, and sixty to 
seventy transverse series. Tail covered with whorls of small smooth scales, 
no inferior median series of broad plates. Limbs without enlarged tuber- 
cles ; digits slender, distal pads large, truncate ; about twelve lamellae under 
fourth toe. 

Yellowish or brownish gray above, palest on limbs and tail, irregularly 
dotted with dark brown on head, neck, body, limbs, and tail. A trace of a 
brown band may be made out from the nostril, through the eye and above 
the ear, to the side of the neck. The lower surfaces are yellowish white, 
faintly dotted and clouded with dark brown. 

Length to anus 43. 

Snout to orbit 4.5 

Snout to ear 10. 

Orbit to ear 3.3 

Fore limb 12.6 

Hind limb 17.5 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 4.4 

Variation. — All the specimens agree in the absence of scat- 
tered enlarged tubercles between the hind limbs or elsewhere. 
The number of the labials and the shape and size of the mental 
plate are not constant. The postmentals in contact with the 
mental are two in sixty-one specimens, three in eighty-four, 
and four in three (Nos. 10818, 10826, 11994). The ground 
color varies from a light brownish or yellowish gray to a dark 
brown. Specimens of either light or dark ground color, may 
show darker brown markings merely as scattered dots, as 
indefinite cloudings, spots, or blotches, or as definite cross-bars. 
The dark streak on the side of the face may be obsolete or 
very clearly shown. The smallest specimen measures seventeen 
millimeters from snout to anus. 

Coloration in life. — P. leei are flesh-colored with indistinct 
black markings on the back; white underneath (Slevin). 

Habits. — The following notes by Mr. Slevin are based upon 
both P. leei and P. tuberculosus: 

"Oct. 16, 1905. Geckos are rare at Wreck Bay. I found 
ten during the day. They were under lava blocks. I saw very 
few broken egg shells. Oct. 17. Worked up the road to the 
settlement. Geckos were rare. I secured only seven or eight. 



418 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Found them under stones near the road. When taken they 
make a slight squeaking noise Hke a large beetle. Oct. 18. 
Got quite a number of geckos on an old road that branches off 
from the main one at about six hundred feet elevation. Jan. 
25, 1906. Geckos have eggs in them now. Have not had the 
good fortune to run across the Gonatodes as yet. I find the 
other two kinds rare. Found no geckos shedding skins, as at 
the time of our former visit. Jan. 27. Found a few geckos 
at about 600 feet, all under the bark of trees. Feb. 23. Col- 
lected three geckos. July 5. Today I hunted principally for 
geckos, which I found scarce. July 7. Collected geckos and 
again found them rare. Most were taken under bark of dead 
trees, very few under rocks now. Went ashore in the evening 
with Williams to collect insects with a light, and secured several 
geckos on the edge of the beach. They probably were hunting 
for the little flies and insects which were abundant. They 
have the color of the sand, seem to be very much lighter than 
in the daytime, and are, as usual, very active." 

General remarks. — Although this lizard has no enlarged 
tubercles, it evidently is closely related to the geckos of the 
other islands of the archipelago. The complete absence of 
enlarged dorsal tubercles makes P. leei appear very different 
from such forms as P. hauri and P. galapagoensis, but P. har- 
ringtonensis shows an intermediate stage. The snout is longer 
in P. leei than in P. harringtonensis. 

The eggs are elliptical in outline, white, with very thin, limy 
shells. Their surface is covered with minute granules of lime 
in straight rows which, when magnified, make the shell appear 
covered with parallel scratches. One, taken in July, measures 
9.4X6.5 mm. Others, found under lava blocks October 16-18, 
1905, are 9.X6.8, 9X6.6, 9.2X6.1 and 9.X6.6. An embryo 
taken from one of the October eggs measures 15.2 from snout 
to anus. 

Phyllodactylus barringtonensis new species. Barrington 
Island Gecko. 

Diagnosis. — Limbs without enlarged tubercles; back with 
nearly uniform lepidosis except between insertions of hind 



Vol. 1] VAN DENBURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 419 

limbs, where enlarged tubercles are present ; digital expansions 
well developed ; dorsal granules smooth, smaller than those on 
snout ; mental a little longer than broad, usually in contact with 
three postmentals ; ten or twelve lamellae under fourth toe. 

Type.— CrI Acad. Sci. No. 12057. Harrington Island, 
Galapagos Archipelago. J. R. Slevin. July 10, 1906. 

Distribution. — Barrington Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — This species is known from nine specimens, the 
type and eight young, Nos. 10169-10172, 10212, and 10218- 
10220 of the Academy collection. 

Description of the type. — Head elongate ; snout long, depressed, and 
rather narrow, a little more than one and a half times as long as the 
diameter of eye ; ear-opening small, with anterior denticulation of two or 
three scales, slightly nearer than nostril to eye. Body and limbs moderate, 
somewhat depressed, tail cylindro-conic. Snout covered with subequal, 
smooth, flattened granules. Hinder part of head, temples, neck, and back 
and sides of body covered with smaller, smooth, convex granules. No 
enlarged tubercles except between insertions of hind limbs, where remains 
of two or three rows may be made out on each side. Rostral much broader 
than high. Nostril between rostral, first labial, and three nasals of which 
the upper is largest and meets its fellow of the opposite side. Nine or ten 
upper and eight lower labials. Mental large, a little longer than broad, 
bordered behind by three postmentals, which are followed by polygonal 
shields which gradually pass into the small granular gulars. Lower surface 
of body covered with smooth, imbricate scales which change gradually into 
the granular laterals and gulars ; about twenty to thirty longitudinal, and 
sixty to seventy transverse series. Tail covered with whorls of small, 
smooth scales, no inferior median series of broad plates. Limbs without 
enlarged tubercles; digits slender, distal pads large, truncate; about ten or 
twelve lamellae under fourth toe. 

Yellowish or brownish gray above, palest on head, irregularly spotted 
and blotched with dark brown on head, neck, body, limbs, and tail. A 
brown band runs from the nostril through the eye, and above the ear, to 
the axilla. The lower surfaces are yellowish white faintly dotted with dark 
brown. 

Length to anus 4L 

Snout to orbit 4.6 

Snout to ear 10.5 

Orbit to ear 3.8 

Fore limb 13. 

Hind limb 17.5 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 4.1 

Variation. — All the specimens agree in the possession of the 
few scattered enlarged tubercles between the hind limbs. 
These are not prominent and in small specimens may easily be 
overlooked. No. 10171 has but two postmentals touching the 



420 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

mental; No. 10219 has four; the others all have three. The 
mental may be as wide as, or a little wider than, long. 

Habits.— Mr. Slevin's field notes state: "Oct. 20, 1905. 
Four geckos were taken near the iguana colony. Three were 
under lava blocks, and one in an old cactus stump. Oct. 24. 
Went ashore for the morning, hunting geckos. Got three in 
the interior, beyond the iguana colony. Found them all under 
lava blocks." 

General remarks. — The Barrington Island gecko is inter- 
mediate between Phyllodactylus leei of Chatham Island and 
Phyllodactylus galapagoensis. It agrees with the latter species 
in the number of its postmental plates, but approaches the 
former in the reduction of the enlarged dorsal tubercles. 

Phyllodactylus galapagoensis Peters. Galapagos Gecko. 

Phyllodactylus galapagoensis, Peters, Monatb. Berl. Ac. 1869, p. 720, 
(type locality Galapagos Islands) ;^ Steindachner, Festschr. Zool-bot. 
Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 329; Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 81; 
Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 63. 

Diagnosis. — Limbs without enlarged tubercles; back with 
distinct rows of enlarged tubercles ; no median series of broad 
subcaudals ; large dorsal tubercles set close together in the rows, 
in six or rarely five rows on each side; snout shorter; two or 
usually more postmentals touching mental; occiput with 
enlarged tubercles ; tubercles of some dorsal rows continued on 
neck anterior to insertion of fore limbs. 

Type. — Collected by Dr. Kinberg on Indefatigable, James, 
or Albemarle. 

Distribution. — Indefatigable, James, Cowley, Brattle, and 
Albemarle islands, Galapagos Archipelago. The subspecies 
P. g. diincanensis and P. g. daphnensis occur on Duncan and 
Daphne islands. 

Material. — This gecko was first secured by Dr. Kinberg, 
who collected on Charles, Chatham, Indefatigable, James, and 

^ This specimen was secured by Dr. Kinberg, who collected reptiles on Charles, 
Chatham, James, Indefatigable, and Albemarle Islands. Dr. Peters description enables 
us to say that it did not come either from Charles or Chatham. 



Vol.1] VAN DENBURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 421 

Albemarle islands. Dr. Baur collected ten specimens on Albe- 
marle. Heller records twenty-two from Iguana and Tagus 
Coves, Albemarle, secured by the Hopkins-Stanford Expedi- 
tion. The Academy collection includes seventy-nine specimens, 
as follows: four from Indefatigable, two from James, seven 
from Cowley Island, four from Brattle, five from Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle, two from Cowley Mt., Albemarle, ten from Iguana 
Cove, Albemarle, and forty-three from Vilamil and Cobos Set- 
tlement in southeastern Albemarle. 

Description of No. 11262 from Iguana Cove, Albemarle. Head elongate ; 
snout shorter and less depressed than in other species of Galapagoan 
geckos, a little more than one and a half times as long as the diameter of 
eye; ear-opening small, with very slight anterior denticulation of three or 
four scales, about as far as nostril from eye. Body and limbs moderate, 
somewhat depressed, tail cylindro-conic. Snout covered with subequal, 
smooth rounded granules. Hinder part of head, temples, neck, and back 
and sides of body covered with smaller, smooth granules. No enlarged 
tubercles on limbs. Occiput and anterior part of neck with scattered 
enlarged tubercles. Back, from root of tail to posterior part of neck, with 
very distinct regular rows of enlarged, keeled, trihedral tubercles. These 
large tubercles are in six rows on each side of midline at middle of body. 
The tubercles in each row are set close together, or are separated by not 
more than the diameter of one small dorsal granule. Rostral much broader 
than high. Nostril between rostral, first labial, and three nasals of which 
the upper is largest and is separated from its fellow of the opposite side 
by a small plate. Eight or nine upper and seven or eight lower labials. 
Mental large, a little longer than broad, bordered behind by three post- 
mentals, which are followed by polygonal shields which gradually pass into 
the smaller gulars. Lower surface of body covered with smooth, imbricate 
scales which change gradually into the granular laterals and gulars ; about 
thirty to forty longitudinal and seventy to seventy-five transverse series. 
Tail covered with whorls of small imbricate scales, feebly keeled on the 
dorsal surface of the base of the tail, elsewhere smooth ; no inferior median 
series of broad plates. Limbs without enlarged tubercles; digits rather 
slender, distal pads large, truncate ; about twelve lamellae under fourth toe. 

The general color above is brownish gray, spotted and dotted on the 
limbs, head, neck and body with blackish brown. These dark markings 
tend to form seven or eight irregular cross-bars on the body. There is a 
faint dark streak from nostril to eye, and a very distinct one from the eye 
to the side of the neck. The tail bears seventeen dark brown cross-bars. 
The lower surfaces are hght brown, minutely dotted with dark brown and 
with a few yellow spots and blotches on throat and tail. 

Length to anus 45. 

Snout to orbit 5-3 

Snout to ear 11-2 

Orbit to ear 4. 

Fore limb 16.5 

Hind limb 21. 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 5.5 

Variation. — The number of postmentals in contact with the 
mental plate varies considerably, but usually is more than two. 
The variation in this respect is shown in the following table : 



422 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

POSTMENTALS IN CONTACT WITH MENTAL PLATE. 



Locality 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Daphne 




7 


1 






Indefatigable 


1 


3 








James 




1 


1 






Cowley Island 




1 


5 




1 


Duncan 




2 








Brattle 




4 








Tagus Cove 


1 


3 




1 




Cowley Mt. 




1 


1 






Iguana Cove 


2 


7 


1 






Vilamil 


10 


27 


3 


1 




Cobos Settlement 


1 




1 






Total 


15 


56 


13 


2 


1 



The enlarged tubercles vary considerably. The lower row 
on the body may be well developed, or may be represented by 
only a few tubercles. Counting these, there nearly always are 
six rows on each side of the back. Exceptions are found in 
specimens from Daphne, Cowley Island, Cowley Mt., and 
Tagus Cove. The upper dorsal rows of tubercles are contin- 
ued, more or less irregularly, forward to the back of the neck 
anterior to the insertions of the fore limbs in all the specimens 
except one from Tagus Cove and eight from Daphne. The 
tubercles in the dorsal rows are set much closer together than 
in P. hauri, being usually either in contact or separated by not 
more than the diameter of one small granule. However, the 
two specimens from Duncan Island have many tubercles of 
the upper rows separated by greater spaces often occupied by 
several small granules. A somewhat similar spacing is found 
in one of the Indefatigable specimens (No. 10393), but none 
of the other examples of P. galapagoensis show any approach 
to this condition. 

The Daphne specimens have few or no enlarged tubercles on 
the head, and a similar lack of them is found in the geckos 
from Tagus Cove, Cowley Mt., Cowley Island, and Brattle. 
In specimens from Indefatigable, James, and Duncan there are 
many enlarged tubercles on the head. Examples from south- 
ern Albemarle (Iguana Cove, Vilamil and Cobos Settlement) 
show more variation in this respect, and may have on the head 
many, a moderate number, or few enlarged tubercles. 



Vol. 1] VAN DENBURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 423 

The following table is intended to show the variation in the 
number and distribution of the enlarged tubercles : 



NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF ENLARGED 


TUBERCLES. 




Dorsal Rows 


On Head 


Id 






M 

o 

2 








>. 












^ 




a 








a 


O 1) 




o 


It 


h-) 


in 


v£> 


O 


^Z 


b 


s 


S 


Daphne 


8 








8 


8 








Indefatigable 





4 


4 











4 


James 





2 


2 











2 


Cowley Island 


2 


5 


7 





6 


I 





Duncan 





2 


2 











2 


Brattle 





4 


4 





4 








Tagus Cove 


2 


3 


4 


1 


5 








Cowley Mt. 


1 


1 


2 





2 








Iguana Cove 





10 


10 " 





3 


4 


3 


Vilamil 





41 


41 





5 


22 


14 


Cobos 





2 


2 





1 


1 






While there is much variation in color, I have not been able 
to reach any conclusions of value concerning it. 

The data derived from the study of the postmentals and 
enlarged tubercles may be arranged in the following tentative 
key: 

a- — Tubercles of some dorsal rows continued on neck anterior to insertion 
of fore limbs; snout shorter; dorsal tubercles in six (or rarely five) 
rows on each side, 
b. — Tubercles in upper dorsal rows set less closely, usually separated 
by two or more granules. 

Duncan. 
b2. — Tubercles in upper dorsal rows set closely, as in other rows, rarely 
separated by more than one granule. 
c. — Many enlarged tubercles on top of head. 

Indefatigable, James. 
Some from Iguana Cove and Vilamil. 
c2. — Few enlarged tubercles on head. 

d. — Usually not more than three postmentals touching mental. 
Some from Iguana Cove and Vilamil. 
Brattle, Cowley Mt., Tagus Cove. 
d2. — Usually more than three postmentals touching mental. 
Cowley Island, 
a^. — Tubercles of dorsal rows absent on neck anterior to insertion of fore 
limbs; snout longer; dorsal tubercles in five rows on each side. 

Daphne. 

The Duncan and the Daphne geckos seem to be well worthy 
of recognition as subspecies, and will be named and character- 
ized as such on a subsequent page. Those from some of the 



424 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

other localities may perhaps require similar treatment when 
larger series have been gathered, but it now seems best to use 
but one name for the Indefatigable, James, Cowley, Brattle, 
and Albemarle specimens. 

Habits. — Mr. Slevin's field notes on this species are as fol- 
lows: 

"James Island. Dec. 29, 1905. — I saw three geckos, and got 
two from under the bark of a large thorn tree. These were the 
only ones seen by any of the party. 

"Cowley Island. August 13, 1906. — I collected several 
geckos under the loose lava blocks. 

"Brattle Island. Oct. 20, 1905. — Collected two snakes and 
four geckos. 

"Tagus Cove, Albemarle. March 23 to 31, 1906. — Geckos 
are rare, according to Williams. He has collected three, so 
far, while hunting for beetles under stones. April 4, 1906. — 
I have found no geckos here, nor have I seen any snakes. 

"Cowley Mt., Albemarle. Aug. 10 and 11, 1906. — Williams 
collected two geckos under an old piece of tortoise shell at 
about 400 feet elevation. He also reports seeing one at about 
1800 feet. 

"Iguana Cove, Albemarle. March 19, 1906. — No one of 
the party saw any geckos. March 20. — Williams got a gecko 
today under a rock near the cove. March 21. — Eggs of geckos 
are common under the stones, and Williams collected a few. 
He also secured some geckos, but they are not very abundant 
so far as observed. They were all taken under stones. 

"Vilamil, Albemarle. Nov. 3, 1905. — Williams brought in 
quite a number of geckos. They were found under the bark of 
trees on the trail to the settlement. March 5, 1906. — Two 
geckos were found under the bark of old dead stumps. March 
7, 1906. — Geckos are rare here, and seem to live under the bark 
of trees and in old wood rather than under stones. August 22 
to 30, 1906. — Williams found a few geckos under the bark of 
trees at an altitude of about 1500 feet." 

General remarks. — No geckos have been taken on Narbor- 
ough Island. However, there is no reason for thinking that 
they do not occur there, and I believe that a Phyllodactylus 
either identical with, or closely related to P. galapagoensis will 



Vol. 1] VAN DENBURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 425 

some day be found there. While none of these lizards were 
secured at Banks Bay, Albemarle Island, two eggs collected 
there attest their presence. These eggs were taken, April 
14, 1906, from holes in mangrove trees growing on the beach. 
They were about ten feet above the ground, and measure 
10.3X8.5 and 10.5X8.6 mm. Other eggs, secured under 
stones at Iguana Cove, March 21, 1906, measure 9.9X8.4, 
10X8, 10.4X7.7, and 10.7X8.2 mm. It will be seen that these 
eggs are larger than those of P. leei. They are elliptical, with 
thin, white, limy shells, which appear as though covered with a 
multitude of minute, crossed, more or less parallel scratches 
or rows of minute granules. 

Phyllodactylus galapagoensis daphnensis, new subspecies. 
Daphne Island Gecko. 

Diagnosis. — Limbs without enlarged tubercles; back with 
distinct rows of enlarged tubercles, five rows on each side ; no 
median series of broad subcaudals; large dorsal tubercles set 
close together in the rows, or separated by not more than 
diameter of one granule; tubercles of dorsal rows not contin- 
ued on neck anterior to insertion of forelimbs; snout longer; 
few enlarged tubercles on top of head. 

Type. — California Academy of Sciences No. 10539. Daphne 
Island, Galapagos Archipelago. J. R. Slevin. Nov. 23, 1905. 

Material. — Eight specimens are in the collection of the 
Academy. 

Description and Variation. — The description of P. galapago- 
ensis applies in general, and a statement of variation is included 
under that head. 

General remarks. — It was a surprise to find that the gecko 
of Daphne differed so markedly from that of Indefatigable 
and James. I had been inclined to regard Daphne as an outly- 
ing rock recently separated from Indefatigable, as the Sey- 
mours doubtless have been. The differentiation of this gecko, 
however, indicates a separate insular existence through a con- 
siderable period of time. 

Mr. Slevin states : "Nov. 23, 1905. — I caught several geckos 
under old dead cactus on the inner slope of the crater, near the 
top." 



426 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

Phyllodactylus galapagoensis duncanensis, new subspecies. 
Duncan Island Gecko. 

Diagnosis. — Limbs without enlarged tubercles; back with 
distinct rows of enlarged tubercles, six on each side ; no median 
series of broad subcaudals; large dorsal tubercles set close 
together except in the upper dorsal rows, where they are usu- 
ally separated by two or more granules; tubercles of some 
dorsal rows continued on neck anterior to insertion of fore- 
limbs ; snout shorter than in P. g. daphnensis; many enlarged 
tubercles on top of head. 

Type. — California Academy of Sciences No. 10600. Dun- 
can Island, Galapagos Archipelago. J. R. Slevin. Dec. 9, 
1905. 

Material. — Only two specimens are in the Academy's collec- 
tion. 

Description and Variation. — See P. galapagoensis. 

Habits. — Nothing is known of the habits of the geckos of 
Duncan Island. Mr. Slevin's field notes contain only the fol- 
lowing item: "Dec. 11 to 16, 1905, I got three geckos near 
the camp, but they were rare and I did not have much time to 
look for them." 

Phyllodactylus bauri Garman. Baur's Gecko, 

Phyllodactylus galapagoensis, Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 67; 
BouLENGER, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus., I, 1885, p. 82; Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., XII, 1899, p. 145. 

Phyllodactylus bauri, Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 81 
(type locality Las Cuevas, Charles Island, Galapagos); Heller, Proc. 
Washington Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 63. 

Diagnosis. — Limbs without enlarged tubercles; back with 
distinct rows of enlarged tubercles ; no median series of broad 
subcaudals; large dorsal tubercles not set close together in the 
rows, in five or six rows on each side of back; snout longer 
than in P. galapagoensis; two, or very rarely three, postmentals 
touching mental; occiput with few or no enlarged tubercles; 
tubercles of dorsal rows rarely continued on neck anterior to 
insertion of fore limbs. 

Type. — Collected by Dr. George Baur, at Las Cuevas, 
Charles Island, Galapagos Archipelago, in 1891. I have been 
unable to learn the present location of this specimen. 



Vol. 1] VAN DEN BURGH— GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 427 

Distribution. — Charles, Gardner-near-Charles, Champion, 
Enderby, Hood, and Gardner-near-Hood islands, Galapagos 
Archipelago. 

Material. — Two specimens collected by Commander Cook- 
son of the "Peterel" are in the British Museum. A single 
specimen collected by the naturalists of the "Albatross," and 
now in the U. S. National Museum, probably belongs to this 
species. The type was secured by Dr. Baur in 1891. The 
Hopkins-Stanford Expedition secured this gecko on Charles, 
Hood, and Gardner Islands. This material, recorded by Hel- 
ler, is in the collection of Leland Stanford Junior University. 
The Academy's expedition secured over five hundred of these 
geckos on Charles, forty-seven on Hood, forty-two on Gard- 
ner-near-Hood, three on Gardner-near-Charles, and one each 
on Champion and Enderby islands. 

Description of No. 9766 from Charles Island. Head elongate; snout 
longer and more depressed than in Phyllodactylus galapagoensis, a little 
more than one and three-fourths times as long as diameter of the eye; 
ear-opening small, with anterior denticulation of three or four scales, about 
as far as nostril from eye. Body and limbs moderate, somewhat depressed, 
tail cylindro-conic. Snout covered with subequal, smooth, rounded gran- 
ules. Hinder part of head, temples, neck, and back and sides of body 
covered with smaller, smooth granules. No enlarged tubercles on limbs. 
Occiput and anterior part of neck with no enlarged tubercles. Back, from 
root of tail to posterior part of neck, with very distinct regular rows of 
enlarged, keeled, trihedral or rounded tubercles. These large tubercles are 
in five rows on each side of midline at middle of body. The tubercles in 
each row are set somewhat irregularly, but usually are separated by from 
two to four small dorsal granules, although sometimes only one granule 
intervenes. Rostral much broader than high. Nostril between rostral, 
first labial, and three nasals of which the upper is largest and is in contact 
with its fellow of the opposite side. Eight or nine upper, and seven or 
eight lower labials. Mental large, a little broader than long, bordered 
behind by two postmentals, which are followed by polygonal shields which 
gradually pass into the smaller gulars. Lower surface of body covered 
with smooth, imbricate scales, which change gradually into the granular 
laterals and gulars ; about thirty to thirty-five longitudinal, and seventy to 
seventy-five transverse series. Tail covered with whorls of small imbricate 
scales, feebly keeled on the dorsal surface of the base of the tail, elsewhere 
smooth, no inferior median series of broad plates. Limbs without enlarged 
tubercles ; digits rather slender, distal pads large, truncate ; about eleven 
lamellae under fourth toe. 

The general color above is brownish gray, spotted, dotted, and blotched 
with dark brown on the limbs, head, neck, body, and tail. These dark 
markings form seven cross-blotches on each side of the midline, where they 
are interrupted. A dark streak runs from the nostril to the eye, and from 
the eye to the side of the neck, passing just above the ear-opening. The 
labials are spotted with dark brown. The lower surfaces are yellowish 
white, with a brownish suffusion formed by minute dark dots. 



428 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Length to anus 48. 

Snout to orbit 5.5 

Snout to ear 12.4 

Orbit to ear 4.2 

Fore limb 16.3 

Hind limb 21.5 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 5.4 

Variation. — The number of postmentals in contact with the 
mental is very constant. It is two in every specimen except 
numbers 9800 and 11720 from Charles and 9412 from Hood 
Islands. In these three specimens three postmentals touch the 
mental, while in the other six hundred and sixty-eight exam- 
ples the number is constantly two. 

There is considerable variation in the enlarged dorsal tuber- 
cles. In fifty specimens from Charles, I count five rows in 
thirty-one and six in nineteen. In forty-seven from Hood, the 
counts are five rows in thirty, six in sixteen, and seven in one. 
Of ten from Gardner-near-Hood, six have five rows and four 
have six. In these one hundred and seven specimens, the only 
ones examined in these respects, the dorsal tubercles are con- 
tinued on the neck anterior to the fore limbs very slightly in 
one from Charles, and nearly to the middle of the neck in five 
from Hood, but not at all in any of the others. In a few 
specimens from Charles and Hood the tubercles fail to reach as 
far forward as the fore limbs, and in a few of the Charles 
examples they are as little developed as in the one from Cham- 
pion and two from Gardner-near-Charles, in which only the 
upper row is continued forward much beyond midway between 
the limbs. Occasionally tubercles are found in contact, or 
separated by only one small granule; but in all specimens the 
greater number of tubercles always are separated by from two 
to four granules. 

I have been unable to find any sufficient basis for the separa- 
tion of the geckos of Charles and of Hood islands. Perhaps, 
on the whole, the enlarged dorsal tubercles are less strongly 
keeled in Charles specimens than in those from Hood, but one 
finds many Charles specimens with tubercles keeled as strongly 
as in Hood Island examples. If there is an average difference 
in this respect it is too intangible to use as a means of classifi- 
cation. The only real difference which I have been able to 
detect is in the presence of enlarged granules or tubercles on 
the top of the head. In fifty-eight specimens from Hood and 



V„.. 1, VAU nENBURGH-GECKOS OF GALAPAGOS ARCH.FELAGO 429 

Gardner-near-Hood the granules on the posterior Part of the 
upper surface of the head are quite un.fortn in all but four 
In these four exceptions a very few granules are somewhat 
enlarged In fifty geckos from Charles Island, on the other 
hand only ten have no enlarged granules in th.s reg.on wh.le 
thTrtone have a few, and nine a moderate number of enlarged 
granules. Here, again, the difference is not great enough to 
justify the separation of the geckos of these two islands 

There is so much variation in color that nothing of value 
can be said concerning it. Specimens may be either dark or 
light, heavily blotched or nearly unicolor. 

Habits.— Ur. Slevin's field notes are as follows : 
"Charles Oct 4, 1905.— Collected the geckos on a small 
mountain about two miles inland. Found them all under lava 
blocks. Oct. 6.-Caught several geckos under lava blocks^ 
We found them quite plentiful, but the elevated land is .he 
best olace to get them. They have eggs in them at this date, 
and a great many broken shells can be found under the lava 
blocks Oct 7.-Went ashore at Black Beach. Saw no rep- 
tiles exceot geckos. These were common, especially near the 
btch but frew scarce at 1000 feet elevation. They were 
:*d under'loose lava blocks and dried wood^ A so go tse^ 
eral eggs, in some of which I found geckos. Oct. 9.-I found 
no gefo over 1000 feet elevation. They were all taken on the 
slope facing Black Beach. When captured they make a slight 
snneakinsr sound, somewhat like a mouse. Oct. U.— coi- 
S onVhund;ed and twenty-five geckos along the slope 
under old wood and lava blocks. March 2, 1906.-I found 
the geckos very common under stones or rather large pieces of 
ava They seem at this time to be lower down m the dry belt. 
I found them rare at 200 feet. Higher up the ground now is 
moist under the rocks ; so, as they seem to prefer a dry country 
they apparently have moved down toward the beach. found 
some of the females with eggs well enlarged. May 23, 1906--- 
Found geckos abundant under the loose lava blocks near Black 
Beach Collected sixty-nine during the afternoon. 

"Champion, near Charles. Oct. 3, I905.--Covered the 
island in an hour and a half. I saw two geckos under lava 
blocks and caught one. 



430 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

"Hood. Sept. 26, 1905. — They were found in the holes in 
the wood made by insects ; generally in the smaller branches of 
the brush. They are very quick and can easily escape in the 
brush or under the rocks which cover the ground everywhere. 
Two eggs were found under a stone. Oct. 1. — The geckos 
were found in old wood and cactus stumps. None were found 
under rocks. Feb. 1, 1906. — Williams collected several geckos 
under lava blocks near the shore. 

"Gardner-near-Hood. Sept. 27, 1905. — Found several 
geckos — some under stones and some in old wood. Feb. 3, 
1906. — Found the geckos fairly common under loose lava near 
the beach." 

General remarks. — Enderby, Champion, and Gardner are 
three islets near Charles, while a second Gardner bears the 
same relation to Hood Island. The fact that different, though 
closely related, species of snakes occur on Charles and Hood 
islands has led me to expect to find similar differentiation in 
the geckos. That such differences do not exist, is not less 
interesting, for it emphasizes the close relationship between the 
reptilian fauna of these two islands — a relationship which I 
believe indicates a former connection between Charles and 
Hood, after their separation from the rest of the archipelago. 

Eggs found under loose stones on Charles islands, October 
4 to 11, 1905, measure 9.5X7, 10X7.1, 10X7.8, 10X8, 10.4 
X7.2, 10.4X8.6, 10.5X7.4, 10.7X7.9, 10.9X7.6, 10.9X8, 
11X7.3, 11X8, and 11.3X7.8. One from Hood measures 
10X7.4 mm. The shells are of the same character as those of 
P. leei from Chatham and P. galapagoensis from Albemarle. 



PROCEEDINGS 

Fourth Series 
VOLUME 1 

Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

Pages 1-6. I. Preliminary Description of Four New Races of 
Gigantic Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands. By John 
Van Denburgh. {Issued December 20, 190T) % .25 

Pages 7-288. II. A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands. 

By Alban Stewart. {Issued January 20, 1911) 1 .75 

Pages 289-322. III. The Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of the 
Galapagos Islands. By Francis X. Williams. ( Issued October 
7, 1911) 50 

Pages 323-374. IV. The Snakes of the Galapagos Islands. By 

John Van Denburgh. {Issued January 17, 1912) 50 

Pages 375-404, V. Notes on the Botany of Cocos Island. By 

Alban Stewart. {Issued January 19, 1912). .: .35 

Pages 405-430. VI. The Geckos of the Galapagos Archipelago. 

By John Van Denburgh. ( Issued April 16, 1912) 35 

VOLUME II 
Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

{In progress.) 

^ VOLUME III 

Pages 1-40. A Further Stratigraphic Study in the Mount Diablo 
Range of California. By Frank M. Anderson. {Issued October 
31, 1908) 35 

Pages 41-48. Description of a New Species of Sea Snake from the 
Philippine Islands, with a Note on the Palatine Teeth in the 
Proteroglypha. By John Van Denburgh and Joseph C. Thomp- 
son. {Issued December 31, 1908) .25 

Pages 49-56. New and Previously Unrecorded Species of Reptiles 
and Amphibians from the Island of Formosa. By John Van 
Denburgh. {Issued December 20, 1909) , .25 

Pages 57-72. Water Birds of the Vicinity of Point Pinos, California. 

By Rollo Howard Beck. {Issued September 17, 1910) 25 

Pages 73-146. The Neocene Deposits of Kern River, California, 
and the Temblor Basin. By Frank M. Anderson. {Issued 
November 9, 1911) 1 .00 

Pages 147-154. Notes on a Collection of Reptiles from Southern 
California and Arizona. By John Van Denburgh. {Issued 
January 17, 1912) 25 

Pages 155-160. Notes on Some Reptiles and Amphibians from 
Oregon, Idaho and Utah. By John Van Denburgh. {Issued 
January 17, 1912) .25 

Pages 161-182. Geologic Range of Miocene Invertebrate Fossils of 

California. {Issued April 5, 1912) 50 

The Academy cannot supply any of its publications issued before the 
year 1907, its entire reserve stock having been destroyed in the conflagra- 
tion of April, 1906. 



F»ROCKEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 431-446 December 17, 1912 



Expedition of the California Academy of 

Sciences to the Galapagos Islands 

19054906 

VII 
Notes on the Lichens of the Galapagos Islands 

Alban Stewart 

Botanist to the Galapagos Expedition 
and Instructor hi Botany in the University of Wisconsin 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

1912 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

George C. Edwards, Chairman 
C. E. Grunsky Edwin C. Van Dyke 



THE HICKS-JUDD PRESS 
SAN FRANCISCO 



PROCEEIJINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. I, pp. 431-446 December 17, 1912 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 

OF SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS 1905-1906 

VII 
NOTES ON THE LICHENS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 

BY ALBAN STEWART 

Botanist to the Expedition and Instructor in Botany in the 

University of Wisconsin 

While acting as botanist to the recent expedition sent by 
the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 
I made a considerable collection of lichens. I am not a lichen- 
ologist in any sense of the word, and it is with some hesitation 
that I approach a subject with which I have so little acquamt- 
ance However, as I made a number of notes on the subject 
while collecting there, and as very little has been written on 
the general distribution etc. of the Licheucs of these islands, 
it seems worth while to publish those notes, along with a list 
of the species which were secured. This list is probably far 
from complete, for I was more interested in collecting and 
studying the distribution of the vascular plants; and it was 
often the case that lichens were carefully collected only where 
no vascular plants in good condition were to be found, as 
was sometimes the case when the lower islands were visited 
during the dry season. Notwithstanding the rather neglectful 

December 14. 1912 



432 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

way in which this group of plants was treated, sixteen species 
were found which had not before been reported from the islands, 
and the range of quite a number of species already known was 
considerably extended. There were, however, some fifteen 
species reported by former expeditions to the islands, which 
do not appear in my collection. Some of these have been 
taken but once. 

I wish here to express my thanks to Dr. W. G. Farlow of 
■Harvard University for his kindness in making the identifica- 
tion of the lichens in this collection — a task which, with my 
limited knowlege of the subject, would have been impossible 
for me. In the list of species which follows, bibliographic 
references are omitted — it would have been too great a favor 
to ask of Dr. Farlow to look them up. and I did not feel 
competent to undertake it. 

In order to bring our knowledge of the lichenaceous flora 
of these islands down to date, all species which have been 
reported from them, but which escaped me in my collecting, 
are included in the list. 



When one lands for the first time on almost any of the 
islands, one is immediately struck with the great abundance 
of lichens. This is true not only in the case of the larger 
and higher islands, which reach sufficient elevation to receive 
a considerable amount of moisture from the fog-banks which 
strike their sides, and which consequently support a more or 
less luxuriant vegetation ; but it is also true in the case of the 
smaller and lower islands, where the amount of moisture 
received throughout the greater part of the year is very scanty, 
and where, in consequence, desert or semi-desert conditions 
prevail. On islands of both sorts, lichens often lend a 
striking appearance to the vegetation, the fruitcose forms 
being the most important in this respect. Alectoria sarmentosa 
is one of the most common of these. It is found largely in the 
transition region*, where the branches both of trees and of 
bushes are often heavily covered with masses of this rather 
filmy species. On the south side of Indefatigable Island, it 

* For a discussion of the botanical regions of these islands, see Stewart: Proc. 
Cal. Acad. Sci., 4th Sen, v. I, pp. 208-211. 



Vol. I] 



STEWART^LICHENS OF GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 433 



^ive. a distinct color to the vegetation of the transition region ; 
Ld on Duncan Island above 500 ft. elevation, it occurs to such 
an extent as to give the trees and shrubs on the upper par 
of the island, when seen from a distance, the appearance of 
being covered with a light green foliage, even during the dry 
season, when they are out of leaf. Similar but less marked 
conditions are found at Villamil, Albemarle Island, and on 

Tervis Island. , . ^ -i • 

Next to Alcctoria the Usncas are probably the most striking 
of the fruticose forms, and the two species in the co lection, 
U ceratina and U. longissima, were usually found m situations 
similar to those of Alcctoria. In the transition region 
they cover the branches of trees with 1°"^.^^^^°^"^; "f^^^^^^^^^^^ 
sionally they are found in the moist regions. The greatest 
display of Usncas is at Cowley Bay on the east side of Albe- 
marle Island, where they occur abundantly above 1800 ft 
elevation, mostly on branches of Biirscra gravcolcns Th s 
tree in all. the regions where it occurs, seems to form a favorite 
host (if I may use that tenii in this connection) for a consider- 
able number of lichens, not only of fruticose, but of foliose and 

crustaceous forms as well. ,, ^- z? ^^,^ 

Of the three species of Ramalina m the collection, R com- 
planata is usually found on the dryer parts of the islands 
forming small tufts on dead sticks and twigs. R. farmacca 
occurs where conditions are not so dry as in the last instance, 
and sometimes even in the moist regions; while i?. ^'^^otdcs 
occurs in both dry and moist situations. It was found on both 
Barrington and Charles islands under very dry conditions, 
and on Albemarle and Indefatigable islands, where conditions 

were moist. , . j • 4-u„ 

Both of the species of Rocclla collected were found m the 
dry and lower transition regions. R. pcmcnsis occurs common^ 
on bushes and small trees, forming tufts pendant from the 
branches. There seems to be a great difference m the width 
of the thallus in different specimens, especially toward the ends 
of its branches. In some the branches are very slender, while 
in others they are a millimeter in width near the tips. Ihe 
second species. R. portcntosa, occurs almost exclusive y on 
rocks It often forms large masses, especially m protected 
places on the under side of projecting blocks of lava, where it 



434 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

has a tendency to grow larger than in more open situations. 
It is the largest fruticose lichen found on the islands. 

The Cladonias are found, for the most part, under decidedly 
moister conditions than are the other species of fruticose 
lichens. C. adspersa and C. Hmhriata were found growing near 
the top of the main mountain on Chatham Island, along with 
ferns and other mesophytic plants. At the time the specimens 
were collected, this portion of the island was heavily enveloped 
in fog, and on subsequent visits to this locality the same condi- 
tion prevailed. C. ceratophylla was found under somewhat 
similar conditions near the summit of James Island. The fourth 
species in the collection, C. pycnoclada, is found under both 
xerophytic and mesophytic conditions. It occurs in large tufts 
on the lava on the west side of the mountain at Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle Island; and although it is found at a high altitude 
here, the surrounding vegetation was decidedly xerophytic in 
character — a condition which on this side of the mountain 
continues to the top, because this is the leeward side, and is not 
bathed by the fog-laden wind. It was also found on Chatham 
Island along with lycopods and ferns, and was taken by Snod- 
grass and Heller from the mountain at Iguana Cove on Albe- 
marle Island, at an elevation of 925 m. Although this elevation 
was not reached at Iguana Cove by any of the members of 
our party, the conditions there must be very moist, if one may 
judge from the conditions found nearer the base of the moun- 
tain. 

Parmelia latissima is the most common of the foliose species, 
occurring throughout the transition and the moist regions, 
and often heavily covering branches of trees and bushes, 
sticks, and dead logs. It was specially abundant about the 
summit of Duncan Island, where the vegetation is quite open; 
but in the moister portions of the islands where the vegetation 
is dense, it is found sparingly. Two other foliose species which 
occur both in the upper transition and in the moist regions, are 
Sticta aurata and 5. quercizans, both of which are found usually 
on the bark of trees ; and while in places they are fairly common, 
they never so completely cover the trees as does the Parmelia 
just mentioned. Another species characteristic of both the 
upper transition and the moist regions is Chiodecton san- 
guineum, whose conspicuous red thallus is often found adher- 



Vol. I] STEWART— LICHENS OF GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 435 

ing to branches, dead sticks, grass culms, etc. Two species 
which occur mostly in the dry regions are Physcia picta and 
Lecanora punicea, both of which are found largely on the 
branches of Bursera graveolens, although the first is also one 
of the common forms inhabiting lava-boulders in the dry 
regions. Foliose lichens are neither as abundant as a whole, 
nor do they lend as striking an aspect to the vegetation in 
the places where they occur, as do the fruticose forms. 

Of the rock-inhabiting forms, Placodium murorum and 
Physcia picta seem to be the most common. They often cover 
the lava-boulders on the lower parts of the islands to such an 
extent as to give them, when seen from a short distance, the 
appearance of being covered with paint. Rock-encrusting 
forms are seldom found on lava of recent origin, but rather 
where oxidation has set in, and at least the surface of the lava 
has begun to disintegrate. They are seldom found in the 
moist regions, even where there are exposures of lava which 
apparently would furnish them with a suitable habitat. Two 
forms which encrust the branches of trees are Verrucaria 
ocraceo-flava and Pyrenula aurantica, both of which are 
found in the dry regions. 

From the above it is seen that lichens are common through- 
out the dry and the transition regions, but decrease in numbers 
in the moist regions. The transition is distinctly the region 
for Hchens, probably because there is more moisture in this 
region than lower down; but why they are not more abundant 
in the moist regions where there is a still greater amount of 
moisture, I am unable to say. In the moist regions, in so far as 
the epiphytic forms are concerned, their place seems to be taken 
by the leafy hepatics, which often cover the trees and bushes 
in great profusion. Foliose and fruticose forms present the 
greatest display where there is at least a fair amount of 
moisture, while the encrusting forms seem to have a distinct 
preference for the dryer parts of the islands. 



Alectoria Ach. 

A. sarmentosa Ach. — Abingdon Isl. : very abundant on 
the branches of small trees and bushes at 500-900 ft. (No. 
415). Albemarle Isl. : Cowley Bay, common on the branches 



436 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sf.r. 

of Bursera gravcolens above 1000 ft. (No. 416) ; Villamil, 
common at 200-400 ft. Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common 
on the branches of trees and bushes in the neighborhood of 
700 ft. (No. 417). Duncan Isl. : very abundant above 500 ft. 
Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, very abundant on 
the branches of trees at 100-350 ft.; northwest side, 
common on trees at 950 ft. (No. 420) ; southeast side, covering 
trees and bushes at 350-550 ft. Jervis Isl. : very abundant 
on small bushes, 450-750 ft. (no. 421). 

Arthonia Ach. 

A. gregaria (Weig.) Koerb. — Duncan Isl.: Snodgrass 
and Heller. Not obtained by the Academy's expedition. 

A. nivea Willey — Galapagos Ids. : Hassler Expedition. 
Not obtained by any of the more recent expeditions that have 
visited the islands. 

A. platyspeilea Nyl. — Gardner Isl. (near Hood) : Snod- 
grass and Heller. Not obtained by the Academy's expedition. 

A. sp. Willey — Galapagos Ids. : Hassler Expedition. 



Buellia De Not. 

B. straminea Tuck, in herb. — Albemarle Isl. : Christopher 
Point, Snodgrass and Heller. Not obtained by the Academy's 
expedition. 

B, sp. Farlow — Bindloe Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. 

Chiodecton Ach. 

C. sanguineum (Sw.) Wainio — Abingdon Isl. : Snodgrass 
and Heller. Duncan Isl. : sterile specimens were obtained 
from the culms of grasses on the moister parts of the island 
at about 1300 ft. (No. 422). Indefatigable Isl.: southeast 
side, common on the trunks of trees above 650 ft. (No. 423). 
James Isl. : James Bay, common on the trunks and branches 
of trees in the neighborhood of 2000 ft., but was not noticed 
some eight hundred feet higher up near the summit of the 
island, (Nos. 424-425). 



Vol. i] STEWART— LICHENS OF GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 437 

Cladonia (Hill) Wainio emend. 

C. adspersa Floerke — Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, abund- 
ant covering rocks and moist earth on the southeast side of 
the main mountain at 1900-2000 ft. (No. 426). 

C. ceratophylla Eschw. — James Isl. : James Bay, common 
on dead logs and other decaying vegetation above 2150 ft. 
(No. 427.). 

C. fimbriata Hoffm. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common 
on rocks and dead wood at 500 ft. (No. 428). Chatham Isl. : 
Wreck Bay, common on moist soil at 2000 ft. with C. adspersa, 
(No. 429).- 

C. pycnoclada (Gaud.) Nyl. — Albemarle Isl.: Iguana 
Cove, Snodgrass and Heller; Tagus Cove, in large masses 
1 ft. or more in diameter, on lava beds above 2500 ft. (No. 
430). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, forming occasional masses 
of a considerable size on bushes at about 1700 ft. (No. 431). 

C. sp. — Duncan Isl. : on rocks at 900 ft. (No. 432). 

C. sp. — James Isl. : James Bay, on the trunks of trees and 
on the fronds of dead ferns at 2800 ft. 

Coenogonium Ehrenb. 

C. sp. — James Isl. : James Bay, common on the trunks of 
trees at 2000 ft. (No. 433). 

Lecanora Ach. 

L. glaucovirens Tuck. — Galapagos Ids. : Hassler Expedi- 
tion. Not obtained by any of the later expeditions to these 
islands. 

L. pallescens Ach. — Barrington Isl. : occasional, encrust- 
ing the dead branches of trees, (No. 434). Charles Isl. : on 
the branches of trees at 800 ft. (No. 435). 

L. punicea Ach. — Tower Isl. : common on the trunks and 
branches of Bursera graveolens, (No. 436). 

Lecidea Ach. 

L. flavo-areolata Nyl. — Galapagos Ids. : Hassler Expedi- 
tion. Not obtained by any of the subsequent expeditions to 
these islands. 



438 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ' [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Pannaria Del. 

P. molybdaea (Pers.) Tuck. — Indefatigable Isl. : south- 
east side, rare on trees at 625 ft. (No. 437). 

Parmelia Ach. 

P. carntschadalis Eschw. — James Isl. : James Bay, rare on 
dead trunks of trees at about 2150 ft. (No. 438). 

P. latissima Fee — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, abundant 
on rocks on the side of the cHff above the cove, (No. 439). 
Charles Isl. : common on rocks and tree trunks at 1000 ft. 
(Nos. 440-441). Duncan Isl.: on rocks and dead twigs at 
1200 ft. (Nos. 442-443). James Isl. : James Bay, common on 
the trunks of trees at about 2000 ft. (No. 444). 

P. perlata Krumph. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snod- 
grass and Heller. Charles Isl. : Andersson. 

P. sp. {P. physodi Fries., P. aMnis Andersson) — Charles 
Isl. : Andersson. Not collected by any of the later expeditions. 

Pertusaria DC. 

P. albinea Tuck. — Galapagos Ids. : Hassler Expedition. 
Has not been obtained from these islands since. 

P. leioplaca (Ach.) Schaer. forma bispora — Tower Isl.: 
on the trunks and branches of Bur ser a graveolens (No. 353). 

Physcia (DC.) Th. Fr. 

P. leucomela (L.) Michx. — James Isl.: Darwin. Not 
obtained by any subsequent expedition. 

P. picta (Sw.) Nyl. — Barrington Isl.: common on the 
branches of bushes and trees, (No. 359). Charles Isl.: 
common on the branches of trees at about 1100 ft. (No. 358). 
Duncan Isl.: common on rocks at 900 ft. (No. 357). Sey- 
mour Isl. : south side, very abundant, encrusting rocks. (No. 
360). 

Placodium DC. 

P. murorum DC. — Seymour Isl. : south side, encrusting 
rocks along with Physcia picta, (No. 360). 



Vol. I] STEWART—LICHENS OF GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 439 

Pyrenula Fee. 

P. aurantiaca Fee — Narborough Isl. : southern part, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Tower Isl. : common on the trunks of 
Burscra graveolens, (No. 362). 

Ramalina Ach. 

R. complanata Ach. — Albemarle Isl. : Turtle Cove, com- 
mon on dead branches, (Nos. 363-364). Brattle Isl. : com- 
mon on bushes, (No. 370). Charles Isl. : common on twigs 
at 1000 ft. (No. 366). Chatham Isl. : Wreck Bay, common 
on twigs and bushes, (No. 365). Gardner Isl. : (near Hood), 
Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl. : abundant on dead bushes, 
(Nos. 367-368). Tower Isl. : common on bushes, (No. 369). 

R. farinacea Ach. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common on 
dead twigs at 1350 ft. (No. 372). Duncan Isl. : common on 
bushes at 1200 ft. (No. 373). Indefatigable Isl. : southeast 
side, common on bushes, (No. 371). Jervis Isl.: abundant 
on dead twigs above 450 ft. (No. 374). 

R. indica Fr. — Charles Isl. : Andersson. Not since ob- 
tained from the islands. 

R. usneoides Fr. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, common on 
the trunks of trees up to 600 ft. (Nos. 375-376). Barrington 
Isl.: common on dead bushes, (No. 378). Bindloe Isl.: 
Snodgrass and Heller. Charles Isl. : common on trees up to 
600 ft. (No. 377). Indefatigable Isl. : Academy Bay, occa- 
sional on the trunks of trees at about 450 ft. (No. 379). 

R. sp. — Charles Isl. : covering bushes, indeterminate as to 
species. Indefatigable Isl. : southeast side, on twigs at 
600 ft. probably of the same species as the sterile specimens 
from Charles Isl. 

Rinodina Mass. 

R. mamillana Tuck. — Galapagos Ids. : Hessler Expedi- 
tion. Not obtained b_v any subsequent expedition. 

Roccella DC. 

R. peruensis Kremplh. — Albemarle Isl. : Villamil, abund- 
ant on trees and bushes on the lower and dryer parts of the 



440 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

island, (No. 382). Barrington Isl. : common on trees of 
Burscra graveolens, (No. 392). Brattle Isl.: on bushes, 
(No. 383). Charles Isl.: common on the branches of trees 
on the lower parts of the island, (No. 386). Chatham Isl. : 
Wreck Bay, Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl. : common on 
dead bushes, (Nos. 387-388). Indefatigable Isl. : northeast 
side abundant on bushes, (No. 389) ; southeast side, on dead 
bushes, (No. 390). Jervis Isl. : common on trees of Biirsera 
graveolens, (No. 391). Seymour Isl.: south, common on 
bushes, (No. 385). Tower Isl. : common on trees of Biirsera 
graveolens, (No. 384). A species rather characteristic of the 
dry regions on the islands where it occurs. 

R. portentosa Mont. — Barrington Isl. : common on rocks, 
(No. 393). Charles Isl.: covering the lower sides of pro- 
jecting masses of lava, (No. 396). Gardner Isl.: (near 
Hood), Snodgrass and Heller. Hood Isl.: common on the 
sides of cliffs, (Nos. 394-395), James Isl.: Hassler Expedi- 
tion. Seymour Isl. : south side, Sjiodgrass and Heller. When 
found growing in rather dark protected places on the under 
sides of rocks, it seems to show a pseudo-heilotropism, as it 
grows outv/ard toward the light. 

Sticta Schreb. 

S. aurata Ach. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Covt, Snodgrass 
and Heller. Duncan Isl. : common on dead bushes at 1200 
ft. (No. 398). Indefatigable Isl.: southeast side, common 
on the bark of trees at 625 ft. (No. 399). James Isl. : James 
Bay, abundant on the bark of trees above 1500 ft. (No. 397). 
Narborough Isl. : southern part^ Snodgrass and Heller. 

S. quercizans Ach. — Albemarle Isl. : Iguana Cove, Snod- 
grass and Heller. Charles Isl. : common on the bark of trees 
above 1000 ft. (No. 400). Indefatigable Isl.: northwest 
side, common on the bark of trees above 1000 ft. (No. 401 ) . 

Teloschistes Norm. 

T. flavicans ( Sw. ) Mull. Arg. — Albemarle Isl. : Snod- 
grass and Heller. Charles Isl. : Andersson, Snodgrass and 
Heller. Chatham Isl. : Baur. Not obtained by the Academy's 
expedition. 



Vol. I] STEUART— LICHENS OF GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 441 

Usnea Dill. 

U. arthrocladon Fee — Narborough Isl. : southern part, 
Snodgrass and Heller. Not obtained by the Academy's ex- 
pedition. 

U. ceratina Ach. — Abingdon Isl. : on the branches of trees 
600-1000 ft. (No. 402). Duncan Isl.: on bushes at about 
1200 ft. (No. 403). Indefatigable Isl.: northwest side, on 
the branches of bushes and trees above 600 ft. (No. 404). 
James Isl. : James Bay, occasional on the branches of trees at 
2000 ft. (No. 405). Narborough Isl. : Snodgrass and Heller. 

U. dasypoga (Ach.) Nyl. var. plicata (Hoffm.) Hue. — 
Charles Isl. : Andersson. James Isl. : Darwin. Has not 
since been obtained by the later expeditions to these islands. 

U. longissima Ach. — Abingdon Isl. : common on the 
branches of trees at 1000 ft. (No. 406). Albemarle Isl.: 
Cowly Bay, common on branches of Bursera graveolens above 
1800 ft. The branches are often covered with long festoons 
of this lichen making quite a striking effect, (No. 407). 
Tagus Cove, common on bushes at 3000 ft. (No. 408). 

Verrucaria Scop. 

V. ocraceo-flava Nyl. — Barrington Isl. : common on the 
branches of dead bushes, (No. 411). Charles Isl.: encrust- 
ing dead branches at about 600 ft. (No. 409). Hood Isl.: 
common on dead branches, (No. 412). Tower Isl. : common 
on the branches of Bursera graveolens, (No. 410). 



442 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



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444 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

From the above it can be seen that of the 47 species, deter- 
minate and indeterminate, that have been collected on these 
islands, the greater number have been taken but from one or 
two localities. Careful collecting by one who is familiar with 
lichens, and thoroughly interested in the subject, would 
probably materially increase the number of species known from 
the islands, and extend the range of many of the species 
already known. Especially would this be the case with the 
smaller forms, which easily escape the notice of the ordinary 
collector. I make this prediction from my own experience 
with the vascular plants. It was my good fortune to be the 
only botanist who has had the privilege of collecting on these 
islands for any considerable length of time. Most of the former 
collections of plants from these islands were made by men more 
interested in some other line of biological work. AVhile the 
collections they made were in most respects remarkably good, 
I found that there was a tendency to fail of getting some of the 
species most common on most of the islands. Possibly the 
great abundance of such species caused them to be overlooked. 
The species of Croton, for instance, had not been reported from 
Indefatigable Island until the Academy's expedition visited it; 
yet there is probably no place on the island where one could 
go for any distance from the shore without encountering 
thickets of Croton bushes of greater or less extent. Many 
other instances could be cited of a like nature. Of lichens, two 
species only (or 4.25%) are said to be endemic; which is in 
striking contrast with the conditions found among the vascular 
plants, where 40.9% of the species are endemic. 

Lichens have not as 3^et been reported from either Cul- 
pepper or Wenman Island, the two northernmost islands of 
the group, or from Gardner Island near Charles Island. I 
remember distinctly having seen an abundance of fruticose 
lichens, possibly Alectoria or Usnea, covering the vegetation on 
the upper and inaccessible portions of Culpepper during our 
short stay at this island. There is no anchorage at either of 
these two northern islands so that the vessel had to lie "off and 
on" at Wenman Island while the party went ashore to collect. 
On this account our stay there was brief, and as I was very 
busy getting together during the short time at my disposal as 
many species as possible of vascular plants, I neglected to 



Vol. I] STEWART— LICHENS OF GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 445 

make any collections or observations on the lichen-flora of the 
island. At the time our party visited Gardner Island near 
Charles Island, the sea was rough, making- landing dan- 
gerous. As I was unable to swim, I did not wish to run the 
risk of attempting to go ashore. When careful collections 
are made on them, all three of these small islands will probably 
be found to have quite a lichen-flora. 



INDEX TO VOLUME I, FOURTH SERIES. 



For index to "A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands," (pages 
7-288), see page 249. 



New names in heavy-faced type; Synonyms in italics. 



Acacise, 294, 295 
Acalypha bisetosa, 391 
Acrostichum, 383 
Acrostichum apoduvi, 3S4 
Acrosticlium aureum, 381, 383 
Acrostichum calomelanos, 384 
Acrostichum, caudatum, 396 
acuminatum, Clibadium, 380, 395 
adicmtiforme, Polypodixmi, 385 
adiantiforme, Polystichum, 381, 386 
Adiantum intermedium, 396 

petiolatum, 380, 381, 383 
adspersa, Cladonia, 434, 437, 442 
aestuans, Fleurya, 381, 390 
Aganisthos, 296 
Agraulis vanillae galapagensis, 296, 

297, 298, 320 
Agrotis ypsilon, 319 
albidum, Octoblepharum, 395 
albinea, Pertusaria, 438, 443 
Alectoria, 444 

sarmentosa, 432, 433, 436 
442 
ftloides, Catopsis, 388 
Alophis, 327 

Alsophila armata, 380, 383 
Alsophis, 326 

angulifer, 328 
angulifer, Alsophis, 328 
angttstifolia, Bertiera, 380, 394 

angustissima, Asclepias, 310, 319 

Anona cherimolia, 382, 390 
glabra, 382, 390 

Anonaceae, 390 

Anosia plexippus, 319 

Anthurium scandens, 379, 388 

apodum, Acrostichum, 384 

apodum, Elaphoglossum, 384 

arabica, Coffea, 382, 394 

Araceae, 388 

Arctiidae, 319 

Ardisia cuspidata, 380, 393 
humilis, 393 

argentea, Rolandra, 396 

armata, Alsophila, 380, 383 

armatum, Polypodium, 383 

Arthonia gregaria, 436, 442 
nivea, 436, 442 



platyspeilea, 436, 442 
sp., 436, 442 
arthrocladon, Usnea, 441, 443 
Asclepiadaceae, 394 
Asclepias angustissima, 310, 319 
Aspidium biserratum, 384 
nodosum, 385 
pectinatum, 385 
Asplenium cortaceum, 385 
Asplenium cristatum, 380, 381, 384 
myriophyllum, 381 
rhizophyllum, 396 
aurantiaca, Pyrenula, 435, 439, 443 
aurata, Sticta, 434, 440, 443 
aureum, Acrostichum, 381, 383 

Polypodium, 380, 381, 386 
Avicennia officinalis, 293 
barringtonensis, Phyllodactylus, 408, 

410, 418 
Bastardia viscosa, 312 
bauri, Phyllodactylus, 408, 410, 418, 

422, 426 
Bertiera angustifolia, 380, 394 
biaristata, Blainvillea, 395 
bipinnatum, Pilotrichum, 395 
biserialis, Dromicus, 326, 329, 335, 336 
biserialis biserialis, Dromicus, 337, 341, 

347, 349, 351 
biserialis habeli, Dromicus, 338 
habelii, Dromicus, 326 
Herpetodryas, 325, 336 
Orophis, 337, 338. 341 
biserrata, Nephrolepsis, 380, 381, 384 
biserratum, Aspidium, 384 
bisetosa, Acalypha, 391 
Blainvillea biaristata, 395 
Bombaceae, 392 
Bombax pyramidale, 392 
Bona-nox, Ipomoea, 382, 396 
bonducella, Caesalpina, 382 
bonducella, Guilandina, 391 
Borraginaceae, 312 
Botany of Cocos Island (Notes on the). 

By Alban Stewart, 375 
Bromeliaceae, 388 
Buellia straminea, 436, 442 
sp., 436, 442 



[4473 



"^' 



448 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Sek. 



Bursera, 295, 302 

graveolens, 433, 435, 436, 438, 
489, 440, 441 
Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of the 
Galapagos Islands. By Francis X. 
Williams, 289 
Cactacese (Cereus and Opuntia), 293 
Caesalpinia bonducella, 382, 391 
calapagensis, Phlegathontius rustica, 

305, 310, 314 
calapagensis, Protoparce, 310 
Oallidryas eubule, 296, 297, 318, 320 
calomelanos, Acrostichum, 384 
calomelanos, Ceropteris, 380, 384 
Calophis, 327 
Calosomas, 294 
Calyptocarya longifolia, 387 
Calyptocarya palmetto, 387 
campanulata, Ipomoea, 316 
camtschadalis, Parmelia, 438, 442 
capillaceum, Trichomanes, 379, 385 
Cardiospermum corindum, 302 

galapageium, 302 
carysB, Pyrameis, 296, 300 
Cassia reticulata, 391 
catappa, Terminalia, 392 

cathartica, Ipomoea, 378, 379, 394 
Catopsis aloides, 388 
caudatum, Acrostichum, 396 
Cecropia obtusa, 390 
peltata, 390 
Pittieri, 376, 380, 389 
sp., 379 

ceratina, Usnea, 433, 441, 443 

ceratophylla, Cladonia, 434, 437, 442 

Cereus, 293, 302 

Ceropteris calomelanos, 380, 384 

cervina, Osmunda, 385 

cervina, Polybotrya, 380, 385 

chamissonis, Coronella, 326 

chaniissonis, Dromicus, 325, 336 

chamissonis dorsalis, Dromicus, 325 

chamissonis habelii, Dromicus, 325 

chamissonis Habelii, Dromicus, 341 

chamissonis, "Monobothris," 328 

chamissonis, Opheomorphus, 341 

chathameusis, Testudo, 4 

cherimolia, Anona, 382 

Chiodecton sanguineum, 434, 436, 442 

Chloris paniculata, 380, 386 

chnoodes, Polypodium, 396 

cicutaria, Dicksonia, 396 

■cingulata, Herse, 316 

cingulata, Phlegathontius, 296, 305, 
316, 318 

cingulata, Protoparce, 316 

Cissus sicyoides, 306 

<!ladonia adspersa, 434, 437, 442 

ceratophylla, 434, 437, 442 
fimbriata, 434, 437, 442 



pycnoclada, 434, 437, 442 
sp., 437, 442 
Clerodendron molle, 308, 312 
Clibadium acuminatum, 380, 395 
Clidemia hirta, 380, 392 

umbonata, 380, 392 
Clusia rosea, 378, 379, 392 
Coenogonium sp., 437, 442 
Coffea arabica, 382, 394 
collaris, Gonatodes, 410 
colubrina, Tassadia, 379, 394 
Combretaceae, 392 
Commelinaceae, 389 
Commelina nudiflora, 381, 389 
communis, Ricinus, 382, 396 
complanata, Ramalina, 433, 439, 44.3 
Compositae, 312, 395 
conjugatum, Paspalum, 381, 387 
Conostegia lasiopoda, 393 
Convolvulaceae, 294, 394 
convolvuli, Phlegathontius, 319 
Convolvulus Pes-caprae, 394 
C'ordia lutea, 294, 297, 306, 312 
coriaceum, Asplenium, 385 
corindum, Cardiospermum, 302 
Cornutia grandifolia, 395 
Coronella chamissonis, 326 
crispum, Trichomanes, 380, 386 
cristatum, Asplenium, 380, 381, 384 
Croton, 295, 302, 444 

scouleri, 293, 312, 314 
Cupido parrhasioides, 296, 300, 318, 

320 
cuspidata, Ardisia, 380, 393 
Cyperaceae, 387 
Cyperus prolixus, 387 

sphactelatus, 387 
daphnensis, Phyllodactylus galapagoen- 

sis, 410, 420, 425, 426 
darwini, Testudo, 4 
dasypoga, Usnea, 441, 443 
Deilephila lineata, 305, 307, 318, 319 
Desmodium sp., 391 
Dicksonia cicutaria, 396 
Digitaria sanguinalis, 381, 386 
Dilophonota ello, 305, 308 
obscura, 305, 309 
distichum, Paspalum, 381, 396 
dodecandra, Melastoma, 393 
dodecandra, Miconia, 380, 393 
dorsalis, Dromicus, 328, 329, 330, 335, 

341, 346, 355 
dorsalis, Dromicus chamissonis, 325 
dorsalis, Herpetodryas, 336 
Dracontium scandens, 388 
Dromicus, 326, 327, 331 

biserialis, 326, 329, 335, 336 
biserialis, 337, 341, 

347, 349, 351 
haheli, 338 
habelii, 826 



Vol. I.] 



INDEX 



449 



chamissonis, 325, 326, 329, 336, 
341 
dorsalis, 325, 341 
habelii, 325 
Habelii, 341 
dorsalis, 328, 329, 330, 335, 

336, 341, 355 
hoodensis, 324, 328, 329, 335, 

338, 340 
occidentalis, 324, 328, 329, 335, 
347 

helleri, 324, 328, 329 
333, 335, 349 
parvifrons, 328 
slevini, 324, 328, 329, 330, 333, 

335, 336, 351, 355 
steindachneri, 324, 328, 329, 
333, 335, 336, 353 
Dryopteris parasitica, 381, 384 
duncanensis, Phyllodactylus galapago- 

ensis, 410, 420, 426 
Elaphoglossum apodum, 384 
elegans, Triciiomanes, 380, 386 
Eleusine indica, 381, 396 
ello, Dilophonota, 305, 308 
Erebus odora, 319 
Erigeron lancifolius, 312, 314 
eubule, Callidryas, 296, 297, 318, 320 
Eudamus galapagensis, 296, 303, 320 

Santiago, 304 
Eugenia pacifica, 380, 392 
Euphorbiaceae, 391 
Euphorbia pilulifera, 382, 396 
Exostemma occidentale, 394 
farinacea, Ramalina, 433, 439, 443 
ficus, Pachylia, 296 
Ficus tecolutensis, 389 

sp., 380, 389 
Filices, 380, 383-6 
fimbriata, Cladonia, 434, 437, 442 
flavicans, Teloschistes, 440, 443 
flavo-areolata, Lecidea, 437, 442 
Pleurya aestuans, 381, 390 
floribunda, Pisonia, 294 
fusco-irroratus, Spbingonotus, 303 
galapageium, Cardiospermum, 302 

Psidium, 294, 308 
galapagensis, Agraulis vanillsB, 296, 

297, 298, 320 
galapagensis, Eudamus, 296, 303, 320 
galapagensis, Ipomoea, 316 
galapagensis, Sysygia, 310 
galapagoensis daphnensis, Pbyllodacty- 
lus, 410, 420, 425, 426 

duncanensis, Phyllodactylus, 

410, 420, 426 
Phyllodactylus, 408, 410, 418, 
420-5, 430 
Galeottii, Selaginella, 379, 386 
Geckos (The) of the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago. By John Van Denburgh, 405 



Gekkonidae, 406 , ...o. 

gilberti, Phyllodactylus, 407, 410, 41o 
glabra, Anona, 382 
glaucovirens, Lecanora, 437, 442 
Gnaphalium, 300 
Gonatodes, 406, 418 
collaris, 410 
Gossypium, 294, 297 
Gramineae, 386-7 
grandifolia, C'ornutia, 395 
grandifolia, Hosta, 395 
graveolens, Bursera, 433, 435, 436, 438, 

439, 440, 441 
gregaria, Arthonia, 436, 442 
Guianensis, Rapanea, 393 
Gnilandina bonducella, 391 
habelii, Dromicus biserialis, 326 
habeli, Dromicus biserialis, 338 
habelii, Dromicus chamissonis, 325 
Habelii, Dromicus chamissonis, 341 
Haliophis, 327 
Halsophis, 327 

Hawk-Moths in Galapagos Archipela- 
go, 305 
Hawk-Moths of the Galapagos Islands 
(Butterflies and). By Francis X. 
Williams, 289 
helleri, Dromicus occidentalis, 324, 328, 

329, 333, 349 
Herse cingulata, 316 
Herpetodryas, 326 
Herpetodryas biserialis, 325, 336 

dorsalis, 336 
Hesperidae, 303 
Heterocera, 305 
Hibiscus tiliaceus, 293, 378, 379, 382, 

391 
Hippomane mancinella, 293, 308 
hirta, Clidemia, 380, 392 
hirta, Melastoma, 392 
hoodensis, Dromicus, 324, 328, 329, 338 
hoodensis, Testudo, 3 
Hosta grandifolia, 395 
humilis, Ardisia, 393 
huntera, Pyrameis, 296, 299, 319 
Hydrus platurus, 324, 355 
Hymenophyllum sp., 380, 384 
Hypericaceae, 392 
Hypnella pallescens, 395 
Hypolytrum nicaraguenses, 376, 387 
Iguanidae, 406 
indica, Eleusine, 381, 396 

Ramalina, 439, 443 
intermedium, Adiantum, 396 
Ipomoea Bona-nox, 382, 396 
campanulata, 316 
cathartica, 378, 379, 394 
galapagensis, 316 
pes-capr«, 293, 316, 378, 382, 
I 394 

isocandra, Phytolacca. 390 



450 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Jussieua linifolia, 393 
Kyllinga nudiceps, 380, 387 
lagopus, Ocliroma, 392 
lanceolatum, Polypodium, 381, 396 
lancifolius, Erigeron, 312, 314 
lasiopoda, Conostegia, 393 
latissima, Parmelia, 434, 438, 443 
Lecanora glaucovirens, 437, 442 
pallescens, 437, 442 
punicea, 435, 437, 442 
Lecidea flavo-areolata, 437, 442 
leei, Phyllodaetylus, 408, 410, 413. 416, 

417, 418, 420, 430 
Leguminosae, 391 
Leimadophis, 326 
leioplaca, Pertusaria, 438, 443 
Leptotes parrhasioides, 320 
leucomela, Physcia, 438, 443 
leucoptera, Phlegathontius, 305, 314 
leucoptera, Protoparce, 314 
Lichenes, 431 

Lichens of the Galapagos Islands 
(Notes on the). By Alhan Stewart, 
431 
lineata, Deilephila, 305, 307, 318, 319 
linifolia, Jussieua, 393 
linifolium, Lycopodium, 379, 386 
Liophis, 326, 327, 331 
longifolia, Oalyptocarya, 387 
longifolius, Schoenns, 387 
longissima, Usnea, 433, 441, 443 
lugubris, Triptogon, 296, 305 
lutea, Cordia, 294, 297, 306, 312 

Lycaena parrhasioides, 300 

Lycaenidae, 300 
Lycopodiaceae, 386 
Lycopodium linifolium, 379, 386 

mollicomum, 396 
macrophylla, Ossaea, 380, 393 

Malvaceae, 300, 391 
mamillana, Einodina, 439, 443 

mancinella, Hippomane, 293, 308 

mangle, Rhizophora, 293 

Melastomaceae, 380, 392 

Melastoma dodecandra, 393 
hirta, 392 

Meliopotis nigrescens, 319 
sinualis, 319 

Miconia dodecandra, 380, 393 

molle, Clerodendron, 308, 312 

mollicomum, Lycopodium, 396 

molybdaea, Pannaria, 438, 442 

Monobothris, 326, 327, 328 
chamiisonis, 328 

Moraceae, 389 

murorum, Placodium, 435, 438, 443 

myriophyllum, Asplenium, 381 

Myrsinaceae, 393 

Myrtaeeae, 392 

Nephrolepsis biserrata, 380, 381, 384 
pectinata, 381, 384 



nicaraguense, Hypolytrum, 376, 387 
nigrescens, Meliopotis, 319 
nigropunctata, Peperomia, 389 
nivea, Arthonia, 436, 442 
Noctuidae, 294, 319 
nodosa, Oleandra, 379, 385 
nodosum, Aspidium, 385 
Notes on the Botany of Cocos Island. 

By Alban Stewart, 375 
Notes on the Lichens of the Galapa- 
gos Islands. By Alban Stewart, 431 
nucifera, Cocos, 378, 388 
nudiceps, Kyllinga, 380, 387 
nudiflora, Commelina, 381, 389 
Nymphalidae, 298 
obscura, Dilophonota, 305, 309 
obtusa, Cecropia, 390 
occidentale, E.vostemnia, 394 
occidentalis, Dromicus, 324, 335 

helleri, Dromicus, 324, 328, 
329, 333, 335, 349 
occidentalis, Rustia, 394 
Ochroma lagopus, 392 
ocraceo-flava, Verrucaria, 435, 441, 443 
Octoblepharum albidum, 395 
ocymoides, Spermacoce, 394 
Ocyophis, 327 
odora, Erebus, 319 
officinalis, Avicennia, 293 
Oleandra nodosa, 379, 385 
Onagraceae, 393 
Opheomorphns, 326 

chamissonis, 341 
Opuntia, 293, 297, 302 
ornatrix, Utehesia, 319 
Orophis, 326 

biserialis, 337, 338, 341 
Osmunda cervina, 385 
Ossaea macrophylla, 380, 393 
Pachylia ficus, 296 
pacifica, Eugenia, 380, 392 
pallescens, Hypnella, 395 

Lecanora, 437, 442 
Palmae, 388 

palmetto, Calyptocarya, 387 
paludosa, Wedelia, 395 
Pannaria molybdaea, 438, 442 
paniculata, Chloris, 380, 386 
Panicum setosttm, 387 
parasitica, Dryopteris, 381, 384 
parasiticum, Polypodium, 384 
Parmelia latissima, 434, 438, 443 
camtschadalis, 438, 442 
perlata, 438, 442 
sp., 438, 442 
parrhasioides, Cupido, 296, 300, 318, 
320 

Leptotes, 320 
Lycaena, 300 
parvifrons, Dromicus, 328 
Paspalum conjugatum, 381, 387 



Vol. I.] 



INDEX 



451 



distichum, 381, 396 
platycaule, 396 
Passiflora, 299 

pectinata, Nephrolepsis, 381, 384 
pectinatuni, Aspidiuin, 385 
pedunculata, Scalesia, 294 
peltata, Cecropia, 390 
Peperomia nigropunctata, 389 
perlata, Parmelia, 438, 443 
Pertusaria albinea, 438, 443 

leioplaca, 438, 443 
peruensis, Eoccella, 433, 439, 443 
Pes-caprae, Convolvulus, 394 
pes-caprae, Ipomoea, 293, 316, 378, 

382, 394 
petiolatum, Adiantum, 380, 381, 383 
phantasticus, Testudo, 4 
Philodendron sp., 379, 388 
Ph-legathontius calapagensis, 313 

cingulata, 296, 305, 316, 318 
convolvuli, 319 
leucoptera, 305, 314 
rustica calapagensis, 305, 310, 
314 
rustica, 312, 314 
Phyllitides, Polypodium, 381, 385 
Phyllodactylus, 406, 407 
Phyllodactylus barringtonensis, 408, 
410, 418 

bauri, 408, 410, 418, 422, 426 
galapagoensis, 408, 410, 418, 

420-5, 430 
galapagoensis daphnensis, 410, 

420, 425, 426 
galapagoensis duncanensis, 

410, 420, 426 
gilberti, 407, 410, 413 
leei, 407, 408, 410, 413, 416, 

417, 418, 420, 430 
tuberculosus, 407, 410, 412, 
416, 417 
Physcia leucomela, 438, 443 
picta, 435, 438, 443 
Phytolaccaceae, 390 
Phytolacca isocandra, 390 
picta, Physcia, 435, 438, 443 
Pieridae, 296 

Pilotrichum bipinnatum, 395 
pilulifera. Euphorbia, 382, 396 
Piperaceae, 389 
Pisonia floribunda, 294 
Pittieri, Cecropia, 376, 380, 389 
Placodium murorum, 435, 438, 443 
platurus, Hydrus, 324, 355 
platycaule, Paspalum, 396 
platyspeilea, Arthonia, 436, 442 
plexippus, Anosia, 319 
Polybotrya cervina, 380, 385 
Polypodium adiantiforme, 385 
armatum, 383 



Polypodium aureum, 380, 381, 385 
chnoodes, 396 
lanceolatum, 381, 396 
parasiticum, 384 
Phyllitides, 381, 385 
Polystichum adiantiforme, 381, 385 
portentosa, Roccella, 433, 440, 443 
Preliminary Description of Pour New 
Races of Gigantic Land Tortoises 
from the Galapagos Islands. By 
John Van Denburgh, 1 
Prodenia, 319 
prolixus, Cyperus, 387 
Protoparce calapagensis, 310 
cingulata, 316 
leucoptera, 314 
Psidium galapageium, 294, 308 
punicea, Lecanora, 435, 437, 442 
pycnoclada, Cladonia, 434, 437, 442 
Pyrameis caryae, 296, 300 

huntera, 296, 299, 319 
pyramidale, Bombax, 392 
Pyrenula aurantiaca, 435, 439, 448 
pyxidiferum, Trichomanes, 396 
quercizans, Sticta, 434, 440, 443 
radicans, Trichomanes, 386 
Eamalina complanata, 433, 439, 448 
farinacea, 433, 439, 443 
indica, 439, 443 
usneoides, 433, 439, 443 
sp., 439, 443 
Rapanea Guianensis, 393 
Rhyzogenium spiniforme, 395 
Rhizophora mangle, 293 
rhizophyllum, Asplenium, 396 
Rhopalocera, 296 
Ricinus communis, 382, 396 
rigidus, Syrrhopodon, 395 
Rinodina mamillana, 439, 443 
Roccella peruensis, 433, 439, 443 
portentosa, 433, 400, 443 
Rolandra argentea, 395 
rosea, Clusia, 378, 379, 392 
Rubiaceae, 394 

rufo-sericea, Tournefortia, 812 
Rustia occidentalis, 394 
rustica calapagensis, Phlegathontius, 
305, 310, 314 

rustica, Phlegathontius, 312, 
314 
sanguinalis, Digitaria, 381, 386 
sanguineum, Chiodecton, 434, 436, 442 
Santiago, Eudamus, 304 
Sapindaceae, 302 
sarmentosa, Alectoria, 432, 433, 435, 

442 
Scalesia, 295 

pedunculata, 294 
scandens, Anthurium, 379, 388 
scandens, Dracontimn, 388 
Schoenus longifolius, 387 



452 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Scolopendra, 295 

scouleri, Croton, 293, 312, 314 

Selaginella Galeottii, 379-386 

stenophylla, 396 
Setaria setosa, 381, 387 
setosa, Setaria, 381, 387 
setosum, Panicum, 387 
sicyoides, Cissus, 306 
sinualis, Meliopotis, 319 
slevini, Dromicus, 324, 328, 329, 330, 

333, 351, 355 
Snakes (The) of the Galapagos Isl- 
ands. By John Van Denburgh, 323 
Spathophyllum Wendlandii, 388 
Spermacoce oeymoides, 394 
sphactelatiis, Cyperus, 387 
Sphingidae, 294, 296, 305 
Sphingonotus fusco-irroratus, 303 
spiniforme, Rhyzogenium, 395 
steindachneri, Dromicus, 324, 328, 329, 

333 
stenophylla, Selaginella, 396 
Stewart, Alban: 

A Botanical Survey of the 
Galapagos Islands, 7-288 

Notes on the Botany of Cocos 
Island, 375-404 

Notes on the Lichens of the 
Galapagos Islands, 431-446 
Sticta aurata, 434, 440, 443 

quercizans, 434, 440, 443 
straminea, Buellia, 436, 442 
Syrrhopodon rigidus, 395 
Syzygia galapagensis, 310 
Taniophis, 327 
Tassadia colubrina, 379, 394 
tecoliitense, Urostignia, 389 
tecolutensis, Ficus, 389 
Teloschistes flavicans, 440, 443 
Terminalia Catappa, 392 
tersa, Theretra, 296, 305, 308 
Testudo chathamensis, 4 

darwini, 4 

hoodensis, 3 

phantasticus, 4 
Theretra tersa, 296, 305, 308 



tiliaceus, Hibiscus, 293, 378, 379, 382, 

391 
Tillandsia utriculata, 388 

sp., 379, 388 
Tournefortia rufo-sericea, 312 
Trichomanes capillaceum, 379, 385 
crispum, 380, 386 
elegans, 380, 386 
pyxidiferum, 396 
radicans, 386 
Triptogon lugubris, 296, 305 
Tropidurus, 338, 341 
tuberculosus, Phyllodactylus, 407. 410, 

412, 416, 417 
umbonata, Clidemia, 380, 392 
Urostignia tecohitense, 389 
Urticaceae, 300, 389 
Usnea, 433, 444 

arthrocladon, 441, 443 
ceratina, 433, 441, 443 
dasypoga, 441, 443 
longissima, 433, 441, 443 
usneoides, Ramalina, 433, 439, 443 
Utehesia ornatrix, 319 
utriculata, Tillandsia, 388 
Van Denburgh, John: 

Preliminary Descriptions of 

Four New Races of Gigantic 

Land Tortoises from the 

Galapagos Islands, 1-6 

The Snakes of the Galapagos 

Islands, 323-374 
The Geckos of the Galapagos 
Islands, 405-430 
vanillas galapagensis, Agraulis, 296, 

297, 298 
Verbenaceae, 395 

Verrucaria ocraceo-flava, 435, 441, 443 
viscosa, Bastardia, 312 
Vitaceae, 306 
Wedelia paludosa, 395 
Wendlandii, Spathophyllum, 388 
Williams, Francis X. : 

The Butterflies and Hawk- 
Moths of the Galapagos 
Islands, 289-322 
ypsilon, Agrotis, 319 



PROCEEDINGS 

Fourth Series 

VOLUME I 
Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

Pages 1-6. I. Preliminary Description of Four New Races of 
Gigantic Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands. By John 
Van Denburgh. {Isstced December 20, 1907). I .25 

Pages 7-288. II. A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands. 

By Alban Stewart. {Issued /anuary 20, 1911) 1 .75 

Pages I'i^-Zll. III. The Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of the 
Galapagos Islands. By Francis X. Williams. (Issued October 
7,1911) 50 

Pages 323-374. IV. The Snakes of the Galapagos Islands. By 

John Van Denburgh. {Issued January 17, 1912) 50 

Pages 375-404. V. Notes on the Botany of Cocos Island. By 

Alban Stewart. {Issued January 19, 1912) .35 

Pages 405-430. VI. The Geckos of the Galapagos Archipelago. 

By John Van Denburgh. ( Issued April 16, 1912) 35 

Pages 431-446, VII. Notes on the Lichens of the Galapagos 

Islands. By Alban Stewart. {Issued December 17, 1912) 25 

VOLUME II 
Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906. 

{In progress.) 

VOLUME III 

Pages 1-40. A Further Stratigraphic Study in the Mount Diablo 
Range of California. By Frank M. Anderson. {Issued October 
31, 1908) 35 

Pages 41-48. Description of a New Species of Sea Snake from the 
Philippine Islands, with a Note on the Palatine Teeth in the 
Proteroglypha.. By John Van Denburgh and Joseph C. Thomp- 
son. {Issued December 31, 1908) .25 

Pages 49-56. New and Previously Unrecorded Species of Reptiles 
and Amphibians from the Island of Formosa. By John Van 
Denburgh. {I sstied December 20, 1909) .25 

Pages 57-72. Water Birds of the Vicinity of Point Pinos, California. 

By Rollo Howard Beck. {Issued September 17, 1910) 25 

Pages 73-146. The Neocene Deposits of Kern River, California, 
and the Temblor Basin. By Frank M. Anderson. {Issued 
November 9, 1911) 1 .00 

Pages 147-154. Notes on a Collection of Reptiles from Southern 
California and Arizona. By John Van Denburgh. {Issued 
January 17, 1912) ' 25 

Pages 155-160. Notes on Some Reptiles and Amphibians from 
Oregon, Idaho and Utah. By John Van Denburgh. {Isstied 
January 17, 1912) 25 

Pages 161-182. Geologic Range of Miocene Invertebrate Fossils of 

California. By James Perrin Smith. {Issued April 5, 1912). . . .25 

Pages 183-186. Description x)f a New Genus and Speciesof Sala- 
mander from Japan. By Surgeon f. C. Thompson, U. S. Navy. 
{Issued May '3, 1912) 25 

Pages 187-258. Concerning Certain Species of Reptiles and Am- 
phibians from China, Japan, the Loo Choo Islands, and Formosa. 
By John Van Denburgh. {Issued December 16, 1912.) 50 

The Academy cannot supply any of its publications issued before the 
year 1907, its entire reserve stock having been destroyed in the conflagra- 
tion of April, 1906. 



.,: •*;> 



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