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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



California Academy of Sciences 



3r 



FOURTH SERIES 



Vol. II 
Part One 



1913-1917 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

[1926} 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

George C. Edwards, Chairman 

C. E. Gkunsky Edwin C. Van Dyke 

Barton Warren Evermann, Editor 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II, PART ONE 
Plates I— CXXIV 



Title-page 
Contents 



Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences 
to the Galapagos Islands, 1905- 1906 

No. VIII. The Birds of the Galapagos Islands, with Observations on 
the Birds of Cocos and Clipperton Islands (Columbi- 
formes to Pelecanif ormes) . By Edward Winslow 
Gifford. (Plates I— VII) i 

(PubHshed August 11, 1913) 

No. IX. The Galapagoan Lizards of the Genus Tropidurus ; with 
Notes on the Iguanas of the Genera Conolophus and 
Amblyrhynchus. By John Van Denburgh and Joseph 
R. Slevin. (Plates VIII— XI) 133 

(Published September 19, 1913) 

No. X. The Gigantic Land Tortoises of the Galapagos Archipelago. 

By John Van Denburgh. (Plates XII— CXXIV) 203 

(Published September 30, 1914) 

No. XI. Preliminary Descriptions of New Species of Pulmonata of 

the Galapagos Islands. By William Healey Dall 375 

(Published December 31, 1917) 
Index 383 



December 13, 1926. 



F»ROCEEDINGS 

OF THE . 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. II, Pt. I, pp. 1-132, pis. 1-7 August 11, 1913 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906 

VIII 

THE BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, WITH OBSER- 
VATIONS ON THE BIRDS OF COCOS AND CLIPPERTON 
ISLANDS (COLUMBIFORMES TO PELECANIFORMES) 



BY EDWARD WINSLOW GIFFORD 
Assistant Curator of the Department of Ornithology 



The Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to 
the Galapagos Islands was planned and organized through the 
untiring efforts of Mr. Leverett Mills Loomis, Director of the 
Museum of the Academy. Fortunately for the Academy, the 
Expedition was in the archipelago at the time of the San Fran- 
cisco earthquake and fire of April, 1906. All of the collec- 
tions of the Academy in San Francisco were destroyed in that 
catastrophe, so that the material gathered by the Galapagos 
Expedition formed the nucleus for the present extensive col- 
lections of the Academy, which have likewise been accumu- 
lated under the direction of Mr. Loomis. The collection of 
greatest bulk and importance brought back by the Expedition 
was, without doubt, the reptile collection, for which the Expe- 
dition was primarily organized. The bird collection was also 

' 'August 8, 1913 



^^^^,.«.ar7: 







2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

of large size, skins alone numbering 8,691. The unqualified 
success of the Expedition as a whole was unquestionably due 
to the ability and sagacity of its leader, Mr. R. H. Beck. 

The personnel of the Expedition was as follows: R. H. 
Beck, chief; Alban Stewart, botanist; F. X. Williams, ento- 
mologist; W. H. Ochsner, geologist and conchologist ; J. R. 
Slevin, herpetologist ; J. S. Hunter and E. W. Gifford, 
ornithologists; E. S. King, assistant herpetologist; F. T. 
Nelson, mate; J. J. Parker, navigator; J. W. White, cook. 
The scientific members of the Expedition shipped in the 
capacity of seamen, so that in addition to collecting, the duties 
attending the working of the vessel likewise fell in a large 
measure to their lot. 

The schooner "Academy," of eighty-seven tons burden, 
sailed with the Expedition from San Francisco on June 28, 
1905, returning on November 29, 1906, after an absence of 
seventeen months and one day. During the southward voyage 
ten stops were made, while on the home voyage from Culpep- 
per, Galapagos Islands, to San Francisco none were made. The 
home voyage was a slow one of sixty-five days. On the 
voyage south, short stops were made during the month of 
July, 1905 : at Ensenada, San Martin Island, San Geron- 
imo Island, San Benito Islands, Cerros Island, and 
Natividad Island, Baja California; and at San Bene- 
dicto and Socorro, Revilla Gigedo Islands. August 
10 was spent on Clipperton Island, Mexico, which was 
reached only after many days of beating against contrary 
winds and currents. The early part of September, 1905, was 
spent at Cocos Island, Costa Rica. On September 13, the 
schooner set sail from Cocos with the Galapagos Islands as 
her destination. No intermediate stop was made; although 
two days were spent sailing down the coast of Ecuador from 
Perdenales in the Province of Esmeraldas, to Manta and Cape 
San Lorenzo. At Manta, on September 19, the schooner was 
put on the westward tack, and stood out along the north coast 
of the great headland. Hood Island, the southernmost of the 
Galapagos group, was reached at 9 A. M., September 24, after 
less than four days' voyage from Manta. 

When calm weather afforded the opportunity, a great deal 
of collecting was done on the ocean, both on the outward voy- 
age and on the homeward voyage, during our numerous jour- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 3 

neys from island to island, and also during two extended 
cruises to the southward of the Galapagos group. Only- 
islands of the Galapagos group, however, are included in the 
enumeration at the head of the account of each species. In 
order to give a clear conception of the amount of time and 
the time of year spent on each island, the following table has 
been prepared : 

DAYS SPENT ON THE VARIOUS ISLANDS OF THE 
GALAPAGOS GROUP 



Island 


cg2 


o 


>" 

o 

2 


6 

v 
Q 


CO 




i 
s 


p. 

< 


>> 


C 
3 
*-> 


•-1 


d 
< 


i'i 

c^2 




Abingdon 


























6 

5 


6 


Albemarle 




2 
5 


4 








27 


25 


3 






16 


8'' 


Barrington 










3 


8 


Bindloe 




















3 


7, 


Brattle 




1 

1 

10 

5 






















1 


Champion 










1 
4 
11 
















? 


Charles 










2 




13 


4 








3S 


Chatham 








7 


6 




4 


3^ 


Cowley 
















1 


Culpepper 
























1 


Daphne 






2 
















1 




^ 


Duncan 






17 














2 




1Q 


Enderby 
















1 






1 


Gardner-near-Charles. . 


7 


1 

2 

4 






















1 


Hood & Gardner-near- 
Hood 






1 

11 
5 


6 








8 


3 
15 

5 






?7 


Indefatigable 


23 


12 

4 












53 


James 














9 




31 


Jervi"? . 


















4 


Narborough 














7 












8 


Onslow 












1 












I 


Seymour 






4 














3 






7 


Tower 






















3 

1 


3 




























1 












■ 



















In spite of the fact that more time was spent on Albemarle 
and Indefatigable islands than on any others, the most work 
remains to be done on those two islands. On Albemarle 
Island, Banks Bay Mountain, Cowley Mountain, and Iguana 
Cove Mountain yet remain to be climbed and explored — the 
last being the loftiest in the archipelago. The vast upland 
country of Indefatigable Island is in a similarly unexplored 
state. A third large island, Narborough, is practically un- 
touched. All of the low country and the greater part of the 
mountain slopes of this island are lava wastes. High up on 



4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

the south side, however, there is considerable fertile green 
country. It was there that Mr. Beck found a very distinct 
new species of tortoise, Testudo phantasticus. As far as birds 
were concerned, not a single specimen was obtained there. 
The reasons for the failure of the Expedition properly to 
explore the mountains on Indefatigable, Albemarle, and Nar- 
borough islands, were primarily lack of pack animals, and 
secondarily lack of proper shelter from the drenching rains 
and fogs of the mountains. Nevertheless, the collections 
brought back are more extensive than any heretofore obtained. 
New territory was explored, and in some instances long jour- 
neys of three and four days' duration were made. For in- 
stance, on southeastern Albemarle the interior was penetrated 
for a distance of thirty miles. 

The physical characteristics of the Galapagos Islands have 
been so well described by Messrs. Stewart and Williams in 
papers of this same series that the reader is referred to their re- 
marks,^ for the writer has nothing additional to offer. Mr. 
Stewart's classification of botanical regions has been followed 
in this paper. In the second part the matter of botanical re- 
gions in relation to the birds will be taken up. 

Mr. Stewart likewise furnishes a good description of the 
physical characteristics of Cocos Island,^ the bird-fauna of 
which is here treated along with that of the Galapagos Islands, 
The coral atoll of Clipperton has no land-birds, and hence but 
little interest attaches to it in connection with a study of the 
birds of Cocos and the Galapagos Islands. A description of 
Clipperton Island is omitted, although accounts of the birds 
are given along with those of Cocos Island and the Galapagos 
group. For an excellent description of Clipperton the reader 
is referred to Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller's paper on The 
Birds of Clipperton and Cocos Islands.^ 

For the sake of convenience, Dr. Sharpe's Hand-List of 
Birds has been followed in the matter of names and sequence 
of species throughout this paper. The seven species of petrels 
known to occur among the islands are to be treated by Mr, 
Loomis in a separate paper. 

^See Stewart, A Botanical Survey of the Galapagos Islands, Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 4th ser., v. 1, pp. 206-245; and Williams, The Butterflies and Hawk-Moths of 
the Galapagos Islands, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th ser., v. 1, pp. 290-296. 

^See Stewart, Notes on the Botany of Cocos Island, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
4th ser., v. 1, pp. 375-383. 

^Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 4, pp. 501-504. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 5 

In the few places where moults and plumages have been dis- 
cussed, the plan followed is essentially Dr. Dwight's as set 
forth in various papers. A few changes in names of moults 
and plumages were necessitated by the fact that the Galapagos 
Islands are under the equator, and the word "winter" cannot 
be used to advantage. The appended list gives the order of 
plumages and moults. The unnumbered plumages and moults 
placed in square brackets are those peculiar to certain birds, 
such as some of the Galliformes, the Procellariiformes, the 
Lariformes, the Phoonicopteriformes, and the Anseriformes. 
Wherever the nomenclature differs from that of Dr. Dwight, 
his is placed in parentheses. 

1. Natal Plumage. 

2. Postnatal Moult. 

[Second Downy or Postnatal Plumage.] 
[Prejuvenal Moult.] 

3. Juvenal Plumage. 

4. Postjuvenal Moult. 

[Preliminary Postjuvenal Plumage (Dvi^ight's First Win- 
ter Plumage — Preliminary).] 
[Supplementary Postjuvenal Moult.] 

5. Postjuvenal Plumage (Dwight's First Winter Plumage; also 

his First Winter Plumage — Supplementary). 

6. First Prenuptial Moult. 

7. First Nuptial Plumage. 

8. First Postnuptial Moult. 

[First Preliminary Postbreeding Plumage (Dwight's Sec- 
ond or Adult Winter Plumage — Preliminary; Eclipse 
Plumage).] 

[First Supplementary Postnuptial Moult.] 

9. First Postbreeding Plumage (Dwight's Second Winter 

Plumage; also his Second or Adult Winter Plumage — 
Supplementary). 

10. Second Prenuptial Moult. 

11. Second Nuptial Plumage. 

12. Second Postnuptial Moult. 

The following remarks are necessary in regard to the meas- 
urements given. Lengths and extents were taken in the field 
from specimens before skinning. Wing-measurements are 
from the "bend" or carpal joint to the tip of the longest 
primary, the rule being laid along the outer or convex side, and 
the wing brought up close to it for its entire length. In four 
cases {Nesopelia galapagoensis, Creciscus spilonotus, Gallinula 
galeata, and Spheniscus mendicuhis) , however, the wing was 
measured with dividers, one point resting against the anterior 
side of the bend, the other touching the extremity of the long- 
est primary. 



6 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Mr. Ridgway's A Nomenclature of Colors was used in 
determining colors. 

In closing, I would say that since April 1, 1904, the day I 
first began the study of ornithology, there has always been at 
my hand a gentleman who has never withheld from me the 
fruit of his own labors. To Mr. Leverett Mills Loomis, as 
head of the Department and friend, I owe a deep debt of 
gratitude. 



Nesopelia galapagoensis : Galapagos Dove 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Charles, Chat- 
ham, Culpepper, Daphne, Duncan, Gardner-near-Charles, 
Gardner-near-Hood, Hood, Indefatigable, James, Jervis, Nar- 
borough, Seymour, Tower, and Wenman islands. 

The Galapagos Dove was common on Hood, Gardner-near- 
Hood, Duncan, James, and Abingdon islands. On Indefatig- 
able Island it was abundant on the northwestern portion, and 
common on other parts. On Duncan Island it appeared to be 
restricted almost entirely to the floors of the two craters. On 
the remaining islands it was not common — particularly on 
Chatham, where it was decidedly rare. 

The doves appeared to vary in abundance about the springs 
and water-holes at different times of the year, being more 
plentifttl in the dry season than in the wet. During the latter 
season they are no doubt dispersed more widely over the coun- 
try on account of the generally distributed water-supply. 

Except on Charles Island, this dove appeared to occur 
almost entirely in the dry region of the islands. On that island, 
however, it was found, in all but one instance, about the 
springs in the rather humid interior. Its presence in the 
moist region of southern Indefatigable seemed to be governed 
by the weather; on warm, clear days it was met with, while 
on overcast, rainy days it was not seen. 

Specimens taken on Hood Island, September 25, 1905, 
showed no particular enlargement of the reproductive organs. 
Nevertheless, the organs of birds taken on Wenman Island, 
September 24, 1906, were large, the breeding season for this 
species being later in the northern than in the central and 
southern islands — a point also noted in other species. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 7 

Except on Wenman Island, the nests of this dove were in 
small rocky cavities, usually in sloping ground. Eggs and 
nests were noted as follows : 

On April 4, near the top of Narborough Island, at an alti- 
tude of about five thousand feet, Mr. Beck found a nest con- 
taining one fresh tgg. The nest was in a slight hollow in the 
crevice of a cliff, and was lined with fern-stems and pieces of 
grass. 

On Wenman Island on September 24, 1906, two nests with 
eggs were found — one with two fresh eggs, the other with 
two that were incubated. The nests were slight depressions 
in the ground, lined with grass and protected by the broad 
leaves of cactus (Opuntia Helleri), the plants growing very 
close to the ground. Mr. Hunter discovered a nest in a like 
position, and Mr. Beck found one lined with twigs and simi- 
larly sheltered on the edge of a sea-cliff. When flushed, the 
owners of the nests fluttered away as though wounded. 

Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller found a nest with one fresh 
egg on James Island in April, and on Barrington Island they 
found the doves nesting during the latter part of May.^ 
Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert make the following state- 
ment : "Mr. Beck writes : 'Nesopelia was nesting on Bind- 
loe in the last week of March, and several deserted eggs were 
found on Daphne.' "^ 

It appears that the breeding-season, taken as a whole 
throughout the archipelago, extends over seven months, from 
March to September inclusive. 

On the rough lava of northeastern James Island, and on 
the steep tufaceous sides of the larger Daphne Island, a great 
many deserted nests, crudely lined with grass, were noted in 
little cavities in the rocks, usually sheltered from the weather 
by overhanging ledges or shelves. 

Young of all ages were seen more or less commonly. On 
September 19, 1906, Mr. Beck found a partially naked young 
one, about a week and a half old, in a small cave on the south 
side of Abingdon Island ; while a young bird, scarcely from the 
nest, was shot on Wenman Island on September 24, 1906. 
Mr. Beck found two nests with young on the latter island. 
One contained a naked nestling and an infertile egg, and the 

iProc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 5, p. 263. 

=Nov. Zool., V. 9, p. 411. 



8 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Other a pair of newly-hatched young. Several fully fledged 
young birds were seen on Hood Island on July 1, and two 
or three at Academy Bay on July 14. On northwestern Inde- 
fatigable, July 21, quite a number -yj^ere noted among the hun- 
dreds of doves feeding about the grassy, tufaceous, coastal 
region. Two were seen on the south side of Abingdon Island, 
September 20 and 21, 1906. 

The extreme lack of wariness of this species is undoubtedly 
the cause of its scarcity on Charles, Chatham, and Albemarle 
islands, where cats are common. On Chatham Island two 
doves were taken on July 7, while they were feeding in the 
wagon road. The next day the mutilated remains of one 
freshly killed were noted beside the road, and also a large black 
cat not far distant. Another specimen was taken on October 
20. On Charles Island they were easy of approach, in spite 
of the fact that that island has been much frequented by man. 
From our experience, it would seem that this bird is rather 
slow in recognizing its enemies. In fact, they were so unso- 
phisticated that we noosed many, and caught many in hand- 
nets. One day on Hood Island, Mr. King and I noosed twenty- 
one. The nooses were of thread, and were fastened to the 
ends of sticks six or eight feet long. The birds were followed 
about until an opportune moment arrived, when the noose was 
slipped over the head of one. We found we were more suc- 
cessful when barefoot than when wearing shoes, as the noise 
caused by the contact of shoes with rocks startled the birds. 
The males proved warier than their mates. On northwestern 
Indefatigable we killed a great many doves for food with 
sticks and stones. 

They were frequently seen during the day, sitting in the 
trees and bushes and in the tree cactuses (Opuntia), and once 
or twice, during rains, taking shelter beneath overhanging 
rocks. During a brief interval of sunshine one day, on 
Gardner-near-Hood, I observed a flock of a dozen or more 
lying on their sides and stretching one wing up to sun them- 
selves — a common habit among doves. 

The daily flights of this bird seemed to take place chiefly in 
the mornings and evenings, and were evidently made to and 
from water and roosting-places. Single birds and straggling 
flocks were seen. Perhaps the largest flight was noted at 
James Bay, James Island, where, on the evenings of August 6 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 9 

and 7, scores flew by towards the black lava south of the bay. 
They flew along the beach and over the water at an elevation 
of twenty or thirty feet, some much higher, coming from the 
direction of the lofty promontory at the north end of the bay. 
Occasionally doves were seen flying from Hood Island to the 
neighboring Gardner, and vice versa; and on July 25 two were 
encountered at sea flying from Daphne towards Indefatigable. 

On the ground, the gait of the Galapagos Dove was similar 
to that of the Mourning Dove. Its flight, however, was 
neither as swift nor as graceful. In alighting, a whistling 
sound was often produced, apparently with the wings. 

Their chief food was seeds and occasional pieces of green 
grass. Once some were seen eating cactus pulp from a fallen 
tree, and on another occasion several were seen feeding on the 
ocean-beach among the mangroves. 

When killed, considerable water sometimes escaped from 
their mouths, as was also the case with Passerine Doves 
(Chamcepelia passerina) killed on Socorro, Revilla Gigedo 
Islands. Their drinking places were found to be rather 
varied. In some instances they were noted drinking from a 
tank epiphyte (Tillandsia insidaris) which grew in the transi- 
tion and forested moist regions, and which sometimes con- 
tained as much as a pint of water. On Bindloe Island they 
quenched their thirst with the water that condensed about the 
steam-holes in the craters. On other islands they resorted to 
springs, ponds, and water-holes, although some of the last at 
times contained rather salty water. 

In passing from the plumage of the young bird, described 
by Mr. Ridgway,^ into that of the adult, the first feathers of 
the adult plumage to appear are the vinaceous-chocolate feath- 
ers on the sides of the breast. 

In nearly adult birds the last traces of immaturity are 
shown by a few wood-brown feathers in the breast, by the 
russet tips and edges of the alula, the primary coverts, and 
the small feathers along the edge of the wing near the carpo- 
metacarpal joint, and by the wood-brown edges of the second- 
aries and tertiaries. In this stage the inner primaries of the 
immature plumage are usually replaced by those of the adult 
plumage, while the light rusty margins of the remaining old 
primaries, characteristic of the young bird, are pretty well 

iProc. U. S. N. M., V. 19, p. 617. 



10 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

worn off and faded. The primaries are therefore not renewed 
entirely until the adult plumage is practically assumed in all 
other particulars. Occasionally there are specimens in this 
stage with old, worn, faded feathers in the forehead. The 
Academy's series of immature birds contains specimens in all 
stages of moult. 

The postnuptial renewal of the plumage is shown very well 
by a series of birds from Duncan Island taken in August. A 
similarly large series taken on that island in December is in 
rather worn plumage, including primaries. Evidently there 
is a partial prenuptial renewal of the plumage, for several of 
these specimens show a few new feathers appearing about the 
head, the neck, and the interscapular region. A few of the 
specimens taken on Hood Island in latter September and early 
October, 1905, give similar evidence. Several birds taken 
there in early February have well-worn rectrices and remiges, 
apparently evidencing that these feathers are moulted only 
annually. These specimens show pin-feathers in the head, 
breast, abdomen, and back. They are all females, no males 
being taken at that time. 

In adults, as in immature birds, the last trace of moult is in 
the small coverts near the carpo-metacarpal joint. It is also evi- 
dent that the young moult into the adult plumage, excepting 
primaries, at practically the same time (or perhaps a little 
later,) that the postnuptial moult takes place in the adults. 
The complete renewal of the primaries seems to be somewhat 
later, as shown by specimens of nearly adult birds taken on 
Duncan Island in December. In other words, birds in the 
post Juvenal plumage are practically indistinguishable from 
adults in postbreeding plumage. 

A male, taken by Mr. Beck on Narborough Island on April 
18, is evidently a breeding bird, and is in worn plumage 
without signs of moult. A female from Jervis Island, De- 
cember 21, shows a large patch of pin-feathers on one side 
of the abdomen. This renewal was evidently caused by an 
accidental loss of feathers. 

Birds showing albinistic tendencies were not uncommon, 
and were collected on Abingdon, Duncan, Gardner-near-Hood, 
and Hood islands.^ In one of the most extreme cases in the 
series, a female (No. 252 C. A. S.), the black of the tertiaries, 

^See also BuU. B. O. C, v. 10, p. 84. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 11 

scapulars, and wing-coverts has been largely replaced by very 
light gray, while the brown of those feathers is but very little 
lighter in color than normal. The four outermost primaries 
of each wing are worn, and are those of the normal immature 
plumage ; while the remaining primaries are fresh feathers of a 
very pale gray color with darker tips. The tail and tail-coverts 
are also of an abnormal light gray, and there is a mottled ap- 
pearance on the breast, due to the partial exposure of the pale 
bases of the feathers. The iridescent patches on the sides of 
the neck show feathers subterminally white. The head, how- 
ever, is normal. Some albinistic specimens have all of the 
primaries pale gray with darker tips ; others are variously, but 
less conspicuously, marked. The one showing the least 
abnormal coloration is a bird with several pure-white downy 
feathers in the abdominal region, completely hidden by the 
contour feathers. It is perhaps significant that all of the 
albinistic birds taken are adult, or are moulting into the adult 
plumage, the albinistic feathers being of that plumage. No 
albinistic young were found. 

The Academy's series of skins of this species numbers 226, 
ninety-three of which are adult males, and eighty-one adult 
females. The extreme and average measurements of these in 
millimeters are as follows: Males — Wing 118-143 (132); 
tail 63-82 (73); culmen 16-19.5 (17.7); tarsus 22-27.3 
(24.5) ; middle toe 20-25 (23.2). Females— Wing 114-131 
(121); tail 55-73 (64); culmen 14.6-18.2 (16.3); tarsus 
19.8-24.7 (22) ; middle toe 18.3-22 (20.5). 

Table I, p. Ill, shows the measurements of adults by islands. 
It will be noted that birds from Wenman and Culpepper 
islands are the largest, a fact noticeable in life. The males 
from Jervis Island are the longest-billed, and the females from 
Jervis are, in this regard, second only to females from Cul- 
pepper. The sexes are usually recognizable in life, males be- 
ing decidedly the larger. 

The four eggs of this dove possessed by the Academy are 
pure white in color and elliptical-oval in shape. The egg from 
Narborough Island measures in millimeters 26.4X20.4. The 
three from Wenman Island measure respectively 27X20.2, 
26X19.7, and 26.3X19.6, the last two being from the same 
nest. 



12 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Creciscus spilonotus: Galapagos Rail 

Porzana galapagoensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 113 

(Galapagos Archipelago). 
Creciscus sharpei Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., vi, 1899, 185 

(Indefatigable Island). 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Indefatigable, James, Narborough, 
and Seymour islands. 

This rail is scarce on Abingdon, Albemarle, and Seymour 
islands; fairly common on James and Narborough, and very 
common on Indefatigable. Occurring both at sea level and at 
high altitudes, it is found under a variety of conditions, in 
the mangroves of the littoral region and in the dense and 
luxuriant vegetation of the moist region. 

Two were shot by Mr. Beck on March 17, 1902, among 
thick ferns near fresh water in the vicinity of Villamil, Albe- 
marle Island. One was taken in a mangrove swamp on the 
southern end of South Seymour in November, 1905. On 
Abingdon Island (altitude 1950 feet), it was found during 
September, 1906, just below the fern-belt which caps the 
highest portion of the island. In this situation it occurred 
among small plants about a foot in height, the spreading tops 
of which grew so close together as to obscure the ground. On 
Narborough Island, April 4 and 5, 1906, Mr. Beck heard it 1 

several times in the tall grass on the rim of the great crater at 
an elevation of between four and five thousand feet. 

On Indefatigable Island, in November and January, this 
species was taken in the mangroves of the northern coast oppo- 
site Daphne, and in the mangroves at Academy Bay. In 
both places they were fairly easy to shoot, as the ground was 
not much hidden by the roots of the trees. On the south 
side of the island, from about 450 to 1100 feet — the highest 
altitude reached — they were common, and, because of the | 

open spaces under the bushes and trees, quite easy to obtain. . 
Below seven hundred feet they gradually diminished in num- 
bers, owing to the increasing sparsity of- the vegetation, and to 
its transition from humid to arid. In the forests these rails 
were far from wild, coming very close and peering with their 
little red eyes into the intruder's face. If a sudden move- 
ment or noise was made, they disappeared like a flash. Often 
many were heard, but few seen. On the first trip inland from 
Academy Bay, in November, 1905, only twelve were seen; 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 13 

while on a trip in January, 1906, thirty were taken in one 
morning. When we traveled through the heavy undergrowth, 
their cackling calls were heard on all sides. To obtain speci- 
mens, it was usually necessary to stand quietly under a tree 
and clap the hands at intervals. The rails would cackle in 
response, and, as a rule, the collector would be rewarded by 
seeing one, or sometimes three or four, step stealthily into the 
open. 

On James Island, in December, January, and August, they 
were found in the tall grass, which grew abundantly on the 
main peak (altitude 2,850 feet). It was a much more diffi- 
cult matter to capture them than on Indefatigable Island, a 
long hunt often furnishing only one, or none at all. They 
traveled through little runways in the grass, and often, when 
seen, were too close to shoot. Their call notes were similar to 
those of the rails of Indefatigable Island, and they also re- 
sponded to the clapping of hands. 

The reproductive organs of specimens taken in November, 
1905, on Indefatigable Island, and in early January, 1906, on 
James Island, were somewhat enlarged. A female taken by Mr. 
Hunter on Abingdon Island on September 21, 1906, contained 
a well-developed egg, and a male and a female taken by Mr. 
Beck had enlarged sexual organs. 

There is great variation in the degree of white markings on 
the lower parts, and on the wing-coverts, back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts. The three specimens from Abingdon 
Island are very sparsely spotted, while the specimen from 
South Seymour is pretty heavily marked. Birds from Inde- 
fatigable and James islands show about an equal range of 
variation — from specimens with practically no spots on the 
upper parts, to those that are heavily spotted. Both sexes 
vary equally in this regard. 

The characters^ given to distinguish Crecisciis sharpei from 
Creciscus spilonotus break down in the Academy series. These 
characters are : a slight difference in the shade of brown of 
the back, with difference in size and in amount of white spot- 
ting. The James Island rails average slightly larger than those 
from Indefatigable Island, as is shown in Table II, p. 112. 

The male from Abingdon Island measured in the flesh 157.8 
mm. in length, and 241.3 in extent; while the only male from 

^Nov. Zool., V. 6, p. 185. 



14 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Indefatigable Island so measured proved to be 145 mm, in 
length, and 228 in extent. Two males from James Island 
were 160 and 156 mm. in length, and 245 and 240 in extent. 
A female from Indefatigable Island was 138 in length, and 231 
in extent; while a female from James Island was found to be 
somewhat larger, being 150 in length, and 240 in extent. No 
others were measured in the flesh. 

The Academy's series of skins of this species numbers 
seventy-nine, thirty-nine of which are males, thirty-eight 
females, and two unsexed. Extreme and average measure- 
ments in millimeters are as follows : Males — Wing 61-72 
(68.3); tail 20-26 (24.6); culmen 15-17.7 (16.13); tarsus 
19.5-23.4 (21.53); middle toe 22-26 (24.2). Females- 
Wing 61-72 (66.6) ; tail 21-27 (23.6) ; culmen 14.7-16.6 
(15.46); tarsus 19.7-22.6 (21.28); middle toe 21.8-25.4 
(24). 

Measurements in millimeters of a series of nine Black Rails 
{Creciscus jamaicensis), consisting of one male and eight 
females from about San Francisco Bay, California, are as 
follows: Male — Wing 66; tail 29; culmen 15.1; tarsus 19.5; 
middle toe 20.8. Females— Wing 65-68 (66.6) ; tail 29-34 
(30.9) ; culmen 13-14.8 (14) ; tarsus 18.1-19.8 (19.04) ; mid- 
dle toe 19.5-21 (20.46). 

Comparing the average riieasurements of the Galapagos Rail 
with those of the Black Rail, it appears that the length of wing 
of the two species is practically the same, while in length of 
tail the Black Rail exceeds the Galapagos Rail by several milli- 
meters, in spite of the fact that it is a smaller bird otherwise; 
viz., in length of culmen, length of tarsus, and length of mid- 
dle toe. In other words, the bill and feet of the Galapagos 
Rail are larger in proportion to the other parts than are the 
corresponding members in the Black Rail. In the Black Rail, 
the development of wing and tail, as compared with that of the 
bill and feet, is much greater than in the Galapagos Rail. 

The following remarks on the moults and plumages of the 
Galapagos Rail are made after a thorough study of the material 
in hand. 

One male and two females from Abingdon Island show 
some wear, but no sign of moult. These specimens all had 
enlarged sexual organs, and were taken in September, which 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 15 

is apparently the beginning of the breeding-season of this 
species there. 

A male taken on Seymour Island, on November 22, shows 
wear, but the feathers of the breast seem to be fresh, and 
among them are a few just bursting from the sheath. A few 
pin-feathers are to be found among the scapulars. 

All of the December and January specimens from James 
Island show a mixture of fresh and somewhat worn feathers 
in the body-plumage. In some specimens a few new brown 
feathers are just appearing from their sheaths in the anterior 
part of the brown mantle, and other new feathers are appear- 
ing in the sides of the breast. There is perhaps a prenuptial 
renewal of feathers in certain tracts, as apparently indicated 
by the above facts, for the specimens were obviously taken 
before the breeding-season; or else they indicate a somewhat 
belated postnuptial moult. Age may also be a factor. Three 
August specimens are very much worn. 

The results of an examination of sixty-three specimens from 
Indefatigable Island, taken in November, 1905, and in Janu- 
ary and July, 1906, may be summarized as follows : 

November specimens, as a rule, show a mixture of fresh 
and somewhat worn feathers. Pin-feathers are appearing in 
the anterior part of the brown mantle in a few specimens. 
Some also show new feathers in the breast as well as in the 
back. An occasional specimen, such as No. 271, seems to be 
in entirely fresh plumage, including wing-coverts, which in 
practically all other specimens seem to show wear. Whether 
the new feathers, which are appearing in some, are the last 
of a postnuptial moult or the first of a prenuptial moult, is 
difficult to say. Again I am unable to tell what part age plays 
in the scheme of moults. 

With one exception, twenty-seven specimens from Inde- 
fatigable Island, taken in January, exhibit no signs of moult; 
but all show wear in varying degree. These specimens are 
evidently in about the same category as the three specimens 
from Abingdon Island^ above mentioned. The one exception 
has pin-feathers in the back and in the sides of the breast. 

Specimens from Indefatigable Island, taken in July, are as- 
suming fresh plumage, and in most cases pin-feathers are still 
in evidence in the back and in the breast. In the majority of 
cases the new dress has been quite completely donned. 



16 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The examination of specimens for signs of moult brought 
to light five cases of feathers lacking pigment. In each bird 
so affected there was but one white feather; in four of the 
cases the feather was in some part of the neck, and in the 
fifth in the breast. Four of the specimens are from Indefat- 
igable Island and one from James. The bird from James was 
taken in December, and the birds from Indefatigable, in No- 
vember, January, and July. 

Gallinula galeata: Florida Gallinule 

Albemarle and Chatham islands. 

Florida Gallinules proved to be tolerably common in the 
large salt-water lagoons fringed with mangroves, in the vicinity 
of Villamil, Albemarle Island, in November and August. 
They were wary and secretive. Usually they kept out of gun- 
shot, and not more than two or three were seen at a time. An 
apparently immature male was shot by Mr. Hunter on a fresh- 
water pond at about one thousand feet elevation near Progreso, 
Chatham Island, on October 17. 

In a high-plumaged male taken on southern Albemarle on 
March 6, the amount of white on the edge of the wing is ex- 
tensive, but it is equaled in a specimen from Merced County, 
California. The tarsi of the Galapagos bird, however, have 
dried of a variegated orange-and-red color, while those of the 
California examples have dried chiefly of a dark olive-green. 

The measurements in millimeters of the adult male from the 
Galapagos Islands are as follows : Wing 183 ; tail 73 ; culmen 
and frontal shield 47; greatest width of frontal shield 15.3; 
tarsus 53; middle toe 64. 

The extreme and average measurements in millimeters of a 
series of seven adult males from Merced County, California, 
are as follows: Wing 175-190 (182) ; tail 70-74 (72) ; cul- 
men and frontal shield 40-44.9 (42.4) ; greatest width of 
frontal shield 10.2-15 (13.1) ; tarsus 48-57 (53.1) ; middle toe 
63-70.7 (65.8). 

Spheniscus mendiculus: Galapagos Penguin 

Plate I, Fig. 1 

Albemarle, Brattle, Charles, Duncan, James, Jervis, Nar- 
borough, Onslow, and Seymour islands. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 17 

The chief rendezvous of this penguin was Iguana Cove, 
Albemarle Island, where it was not unusual to see thirty or 
forty at a time. Several were seen at each of the following 
places, viz. : Cormorant Bay, Post Ofifice Bay, and Black Beach 
Roads, Charles Island; northeastern Duncan; the west side 
of South Seymour; the east, north, and west sides of James 
Island ; the east and north sides of Narborough ; and at Banks 
Bay and Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. One was seen on 
the northeastern side of Jervis, and another on Onslow. None 
were seen at Seymour in November, 1905, when the surf along 
the rocks was quite heavy ; but in July, 1 906, when the bay was 
tranquil, a few were noted. Careful search will probably 
show that this species occurs north of the equator, as it is not 
rare a few miles to the southward. 

At Iguana Cove it was common to see eight or ten together 
on one rock, at other places never more than two or three. As 
a rule they could be approached closely. One was caught at 
Cormorant Bay on a flat rock several feet from the water. 
When seized, it turned on its captor with a snarl, and tried to 
bite. At Banks Bay a picture of three on a rock was taken at 
a distance of about ten feet. They evinced considerable curi- 
osity, one swimming off a short distance and then returning 
to have another look. 

In getting over the rough rocks the Galapagos Penguin 
uses both flippers and feet. The bird which was caught at 
Cormorant Bay and kept alive several days, sat upright most 
of the time. When moving about on deck, it progressed by 
small jumps, with its head and neck bent forward and down- 
ward, giving it a stooping appearance. In climbing a beam 
six inches high, it used its flippers as arms, placing them on 
top of the beam, and raising itself with the additional aid of 
its feet. 

Small fish, up to four inches in length, constituted the food 
of this species so far as discovered. Often, when fishing, 
penguins would be followed closely by a small flock of Noddies, 
which would hover over them excitedly when a catch was 
made. 

Nothing definite is known of the nidification of this species. 
A nest of sticks laid loosely together on the floor of a cave 
at Iguana Cove, was attributed to it. As additional evidence 
might be mentioned the fact that three birds were seen to enter 

August 8, 1913 



18 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

a small inaccessible cave, which had its opening at the water's 
edge. T^yo females taken at Iguana Cove on March 21, 1906, 
contained well-developed eggs. 

Nearly all of the specimens taken were very fat, and occa- 
sionally a bird was taken in which the webs of the feet were 
slit. In an immature specimen (No. 342 C. A. S.) the 
anterior edge of each flipper shows a healed injury, which in 
the right flipper is a deep indentation. Each of these injuries 
appears to have been caused by a severe bite when the bird 
was small. 

The description of the immature plumage by Messrs. 
Rothschild and Hartert^ fits four of the Academy's specimens 
exactly. The measurements of the Academy's series of thir- 
teen adults, however, do not confirm their statement that "The 
female differs from the male at a glance in being much smaller." 
A large male might be distinguished from a small female, but 
a medium-sized or small male could not be distinguished from 
a large or medium-sized female. 

Every specimen in the Academy's series of seventeen exhibits 
anywhere from two to about thirty-three dusky feathers 
among the pure-white ones of the breast and abdomen. An 
apparently similar condition, attributed to melanism, is stated 
by Sir Walter Buller^ to exist in certain specimens of the Yel- 
low-crowned Penguin (Megadyptes antipodum). 

None of the specimens in the Academy's series show moult 
in progress. When in worn feather, the dusky portions of the 
plumage assume a brownish cast, while in fresh plumage they 
are grayish. Table III, p. 112, gives the general condition 
of the plumage of each specimen, as well as the measurements 
of the specimen in millimeters. 

In the flesh. No. 343 measured 480 mm. in length, and 375 
in extent; while No. 354 measured 490 in length, and 394 in 
extent. 

The extreme and average measurements in millimeters of 
the adult males and females follow: Males — Flipper 149-166 
(156) ; tail 23-39 (27) ; culmen 57.4-61.1 (60.2) ; tarsus 26- 
31.6 (29) ; middle toe and claw 56.8-62.5 (60.2). Females— 
Fhpper 140-155 (149); tail 19-30 (26); culmen 56-57.4 



^Nov. Zool., V. 6, p. 199. 
^Supplement Birds N. Z., v. 1, p. 94. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 19 

(56.7) ; tarsus 25.7-29 (27.2) ; middle toe and claw 56.3-60.7 
(59.1). 

The colors of the naked parts of the adults in life were as 
follows : Upper mandible mostly black ; lower mandible black- 
ish, becoming fleshy pink at base ; iris claret-brown ; feet black, 
usually mottled with grayish white. 

Sterna fuliginosa: Sooty Tern 

Grossman, Culpepper, and Wenman islands. 

Although confined almost exclusively to Culpepper and 
Wenman islands and their vicinity, this tern was observed 
near the Crossman Islands on August 19, 1906. None were 
seen at Wenman on September 24, 1906, although they have 
been reported from that locality.^ Several, however, were 
heard during the night between that island and Culpepper. 
On the north side of Culpepper on the following day, the air 
swarmed with these birds, most of them flying very high, and, 
judging by the incessant twittering sound which reached our 
ears, apparently all calling. This species nests on the top 
of Culpepper Island, which is inaccessible on account of the 
high clififs on all sides. 

During September, 1905, from latitude 3° 6' North, longi- 
tude 84° 9' West, southeast to Manta, Ecuador, and from 
there west to the Galapagos Islands, no Sooty Terns were 
seen. South of the Galapagos Islands during the months of 
May and June, 1906, they were met with three times : 

May 8, latitude 2° 29' South, longitude 90° 4' West — one. 
June 9, latitude 3° 39' South, longitude 93° 1' West — two. 
June 13, latitude 3° 6' South, longitude 91° 26' West — one. 

Inasmuch as we were cruising off and on south of the archi- 
pelago, for two months, we had ample opportunity for obser- 
vation. The almost total absence of this species in this region 
and off the coast of Colombia and Ecuador as far south as 
Manta bears out Mr. Saunders' statement that it is "Almost 
unknown on the South American side of the Pacific."^ 

On the voyage from San Francisco to the Revilla Gigedo 
Islands, the Sooty Tern was met with on two occasions. On 

^Nov. Zool., V. 6, p. 191. 

^Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., v. 25, p. 110. 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMV OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

July 20, 1905, the first one was seen about noon, when in 
latitude 25° 56' North, longitude 114° U' West. A young 
one was seen five days later, the schooner's position then being 
latitude 19° 37' North, longitude 111° 11' West. 

The first breeding-place of this species visited was Oneal 
Rock, near Socorro, Revilla Gigedo Islands. There, on July 
27, 1905, they and the Noddies were about equally abundant, 
thousands flying overhead as Mr. Beck and I landed on the 
rock. Whenever a shot was fired they arose in a cloud, and 
the calling was incessant. No fresh eggs of the Sooty Tern 
were discovered, but a number of well- feathered young were 
taken. 

After leaving the Revilla Gigedo Islands, the species was 
not again encountered until in latitude 10° 43' North, longi- 
tude 109° 10' West, on August 3, 1905, when about a dozen 
were seen. This was in the vicinity of Clipperton Island, 
Mexico, where this tern breeds abundantly. They were seen 
quite commonly every day after that, while we were beating 
back and forth against contrary winds and currents in an at- 
tempt to reach the island, which we finally succeeded in doing 
on August 10. Very frequently the Sooty Terns were fishing 
in company with other b.irds such as Brewster's Boobies, Nod- 
dies, Clipperton Noddies, and Blue-faced Boobies, and often 
all were mixed indiscriminately in one large flock. 

Messrs. Beck and Hunter reported Sooty Terns nesting by 
thousands on several low, flat islets in the brackish lagoon at 
Clipperton Island. On one islet, about eight hundred 
square feet in area and ten inches in elevation above the 
water of the lagoon, there were over a thousand eggs. They 
were laid on the bare coral with no semblance of a nest, and 
were so closely placed that it was necessary to step with ex- 
treme care to avoid crushing them. The owners were very 
fearless, and allowed themselves to be handled freely. They 
were also very noisy, and kept up a great din. On the 9th 
four hundred eggs were collected by the two residents of the 
island from a space twenty by twenty feet, and by 11 A. M. 
on the 10th over one hundred fresh ones had been laid in the 
same area.^ The week before we arrived, a rise in the water 
of the lagoon had submerged some of the lower islets, ruining 

^Cf. Hull, Birds of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, P. L. S. N. S. W., v. 34, 
p. 6S3. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 21 

hundreds of eggs. In addition to a large number used for 
food, we preserved 379, representing as many sets. A num- 
ber of downy young of various ages were also taken. 

After leaving Clipperton, Sooty Terns were not often ob- 
served, only six being seen on the voyage to the Galapagos 
Islands : 

August 16, latitude 8° 1' North, longitude 105° 22' West — 
one. 

August 19, latitude 7° 21' North, longitude 103° 40' West — 
one. 

August 26, latitude 3° 41' North, longitude 94° 16' West — 
two. 

September 2, forty miles south of Cocos Island, Costa Rica 
— an immature male taken. 

September 16, latitude 3° 6' North, longitude 84° 9' West — 
an immature one. 

On the homeward voyage Sooty Terns were observed twice. 
The first instance occurred on September 27, 1906, two days 
after leaving Culpepper, our position being latitude 5° 34' 
North, longitude 95° 27' West. About noon a flock of thirty 
or forty, with three or four Man-o'-war Birds following them, 
were seen working in a southeasterly direction. The second 
instance occurred on October 18, in latitude 16° 55' North, 
longitude 112° 55' West, when a single individual flew by the 
vessel. 

Fifty-two skins of this species were brought back, twenty- 
seven of which are adult. Fourteen are downy young of vari- 
ous ages from Clipperton Island. The remaining eleven are 
immature birds. Of these, seven are in the dusky juvenal 
dress; with buff tips to the dorsal feathers posterior to the 
hind neck, and vinaceous-cinnamon tips to the under tail- 
coverts. They were taken from nests on Oneal Rock, and, 
although their wings were not full grown, they were probably 
able to fly. An immature male (No. 1351 C. A. S.) taken in 
latitude 19° 40' North, longitude 112° West, on July 25, 1905, 
shows considerable dark coloration below and on the sides of 
the head, and is evidently going through the first prenuptial 
moult. The old dorsal feathers are so worn that it is impos- 
sible to distinguish any pale tips. At any rate the new scapu- 



22 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

lars and interscapulars are dark gray with conspicuous white 
tips. New inner primaries, new upper wing-coverts, new tail- 
coverts, and new feathers on the under parts and about the 
head are also appearing. Some alternation is manifested in the 
replacement of the upper wing-coverts. An examination of 
the tail shows the two inner and the two outer rectrices to be 
new. The outer ones are not those of the full adult, but are 
dusky save for a terminal whitish spot on the outer web. 

No. 1350 C. A. S., male, from forty miles south of Cocos 
Island, September 2, 1905, is very much like the bird just 
described, and has in addition some whitish streaking on the 
fore part of the crown. This specimen seems to exemplify 
more fully the plumage developed during the first prenuptial 
moult. The three outer primaries of one wing and the two 
outer of the other have not been replaced, nor have the two 
rectrices nearest to each of the outermost rectrices. Nos. 1348 
and 1349, taken near Clipperton Island on August 5 and 8 
respectively, are adult in every particular, save for a few dark 
feathers in the lower parts. 

The fourteen downy nestlings collected on Clipperton Island 
on August 10, show some variation in age and size, which can 
perhaps be best indicated by the measurements of the culmen 
and tarsus of the largest and the smallest. Largest : Culmen 
15.6 mm.; tarsus 17.1 mm. Smallest: Culmen 11.8 mm.; 
tarsus 13.9 mm. All exhibit the egg-tooth. Mr. Saunders' 
description of a chick^ about three days old does not quite 
describe the conditions which exist in the Academy's series of 
chicks. The specimens are "streaked with grayish brown and 
dull white on the upper surface," but the white down is tipped 
with rufous. All the down of the upper surface appears as 
though the ends of the filaments of each tuft were twisted 
together, giving the surface a bristled appearance. There is 
more or less variation in the relative amounts of dark and light 
coloring, producing accordingly either a darker or a lighter 
dorsal aspect. 

Two adults from the Revilla Gigedo Islands are in plumage 
quite worn, and show new feathers appearing in the back, 
among the upper wing-coverts, and in the breast. In one 
specimen the moult of the body-plumage is more advanced 

^Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., v. 25, p. 109. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 23 

than in the other, although both were taken on July 27, 1905. 
New proximal primaries are appearing in both, and in one, 
new middle rectrices. In the other, the outer rectrices are ap- 
pearing first. Undoubtedly this is the postnuptial moult, as 
proved by the presence of a few large-sized young on the 
nesting-site. 

The Clipperton Island adults, taken during the first half of 
August, 1905, are all in somewhat fresher plumage; for the 
breeding-season was not over, as it was at Oneal Rock. With 
one exception, none show signs of feather-growth. In No. 
1330 C. A. S., a few new interscapulars are appearing, their 
bases being still enveloped in the sheath. 

Extreme and average measurements in millimeters are as 
follows: Fifteen adult males— Wing 275-295 (285); tail 
142-194 (168); culmen 40-44.5 (42.4); tarsus 20.6-22.9 
(21.9) ; middle toe 17.5-21.5 (20). Twelve adult females- 
Wing 278-300 (288); tail 170-216 (189); culmen 40-43 
(41.2); tarsus 20.7-23 (21.6); middle toe 18.4-20.9 (19.6). 

The following lengths and extents in millimeters were 
taken by Mr. Beck from birds in the flesh. The lengths of 
four males were 390, 450, 455, and 465 ; the extents were 838, 
880, 882, and 899. A female measured 460 in length, and 870 
in extent. 

The following remarks are based entirely upon the series 
of fresh eggs collected on Clipperton Island, August 10, 1905. 

They vary a great deal in shape, the majority being ovate, 
elliptical-ovate, and elongate-ovate. The rarer shapes are 
short-ovate, cylindrical-ovate, oval, elliptical-oval, and nearly 
ovate pyriform. 

The ground color is likewise subject to great variation. 
The majority of the eggs vary in this regard from white to 
cream-color, cream-buff, and pinkish buff. In a number of 
cases the white ground color has a slight bluish cast. One 
abnormally-colored egg has a vinaceous-cinnamon ground with 
cinnamon-rufous spots and blotches, and suffused dull purplish 
blotches which appear to be beneath the surface. Another is 
vinaceous-buff, with bay spots of varying size and the usual 
faint suffused blotches. Still another is pale vinaceous-buff, 
almost immaculate save for several dark brown spots at the 
larger end, and a few pale suffusions. All of the eggs of the 



24 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

series have these faint spots and blotches of dull purplish or 
brownish, which appear to be below the surface, just as 
though a coat of the ground color had been put over them. 

The external spots and blotches vary greatly in size, number, 
and color. In size they range from minute dots to blotches 
the area of a dime. In number they vary greatly — some eggs 
being dotted over the entire surface, others being marked with 
both large and small spots, others with a few large 
spots and blotches, and in addition to these styles 
there is every conceivable sort of intermediate. How- 
ever, no absolutely immaculate eggs occur in the series. 
As a rule, the markings are heaviest at the larger end of the 
egg, and very often the majority of the spots are at that end. 
In some specimens they are most numerous just below the 
larger end, forming sort of a wreath or zone. 

The markings of a single egg may vary much or little in 
color. Usually there are several different shades of brown 
and reddish brown on a single specimen. In one case the 
markings range from cinnamon to seal-brown. In specimens 
with a white ground they partake more of brown than of red, 
while in specimens with a cream ground the reverse is true. 
On three or four specimens the reddish brown markings have 
a blurred aspect. Mr. A. F. Basset Hull, in his paper on 
The Birds of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, describes and 
figures similar variations.^ 

Three hundred and seventy-six eggs in the Academy's series 
yield the following extreme and average measurements : 
Length 44-59.2 mm. (50.6 mm.); breadth 33.2-38.5 mm. 
(35.9 mm.). 

Anous stolidus : Noddy 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Brattle, Cham- 
pion, Charles, Chatham, Culpepper, Dalrymple, Daphne, Dun- 
can, Gardner-near-Charles, Gardner-near-Hood, Hood, Inde- 
fatigable, islet off northeast James, James, Jervis, Nameless, 
Narborough, Onslow, Seymour, Tower, and Wenman islands. 

Noddies of the indigenous dusky variety were quite com- 
mon throughout the archipelago, and were seen on the sur- 
rounding sea to a distance of about sixty-five miles. 

'P. L. S. N. S. W., V. 34, p. 655. pi 50. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 25 

They nested in crevices and holes, and on ledges of cliffs 
and caves, not more than thirty feet above the water. The 
single Q.gg was usually placed in a slight depression, and sur- 
rounded by a few bones, seaweed, sticks, remains of crabs, and 
feathers, which composed the nest. 

This species has been found breeding on Albemarle Island 
in February, March, and April ; on Culpepper in July and Sep- 
tember; on Hood in February; on Indefatigable in January; 
and on James in April — in all, during six months of the year. 
Eggs about to be laid were taken from birds captured at 
Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, on January 22, and at 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, on April 6 and 9. 

Of four nests examined at Tagus Cove on March 24, one 
contained an tgg in an advanced stage of incubation, another 
contained a lively chick two or three days from the shell, and 
the remaining two contained pretty well-developed young. The 
same day two young birds just able to fly were shot. A young 
one was taken from a nest on Culpepper Island on September 
25, 1906. 

It was not uncommon to see a Noddy sitting on the head of 
a Brown Pelican, while the latter was resting on the water 
swallowing fish. Once I saw two on a pelican's head at one 
time. Several often accompanied the young pelicans in their 
excursions along the coasts. 

On the outward voyage from San Francisco in 1905, the 
first Noddies were met with on July 24 in latitude 19° 40' 
North, longitude 112° West, several passing us that evening. 
A few were next seen along the coast of Socorro, Revilla 
Gigedo Islands, on July 27. That same day we visited Oneal 
Rock, which lies about a mile from Cape Henslow, Socorro. 
There Noddies and Sooty Terns were assembled in thousands. 
Only Noddies seemed to be nesting, and they were found all 
over the rock, each tgg being deposited in a little depression. 
We caught many adults with our hands, while they were sit- 
ting on their nests, in addition to two well-feathered young. 

After leaving the Revilla Gigedo Islands, Noddies were 
again seen on July 31 in latitude 13° 47' North, longitude 109° 
15' West. In latitude 10° 43' North, longitude 109° 10' West, 
on August 3, one came aboard the vessel in the evening. 



26 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

We landed on Clipperton Island, Mexico, on August 10. I 
worked about Clipperton Rock, where Noddies were nesting 
commonly, and were as unafraid as on Oneal Rock. Messrs. 
Beck and Hunter, who landed on some of the islets in the 
lagoon, stated that both this species and the Sooty Tern were 
nesting abundantly, and they obtained eggs and young of both. 

Between Clipperton Island and Cocos Island, Costa Rica, 
the first certainly identified Noddies were seen on September 
1, about thirty miles south of Cocos. An immature one was 
taken on the following day. 

During our thirteen-day stay at Cocos Island, the Noddy 
was common along our rout-e of travel by water between Chat- 
ham Bay and Wafer Bay. There was usually a good-sized 
flock on the point opposite Nuez Island, and also a colony on 
the small island between Nuez and Cascara islands. A small 
nesting colony was located on a rock near Conic Island. Their 
nests consisted of a few twigs, and were occupied by young 
birds which, with one exception, were nearly able to fly. 

The Academy's series of skins of this species numbers 132. 
A downy young one from Clipperton Island is entirely white, 
save for a few black contour feathers appearing on the back, 
crown, and sides of the breast. The black feathers are tipped 
with white down. The only specimen in the down from the 
Galapagos Islands is of a brownish-gray color all over, shad- 
ing into a paler gray on the abdomen, in contradistinction to 
the downy young one from Clipperton Island. This fact 
probably has no geographic significance, for young in both 
white and black natal down are found in the same colony.^ 

Two young from Oneal Rock are fairly well feathered ex- 
cept for the throats, which are covered with white downy 
teleoptiles. In one specimen the contour feathers appearing 
in the throat are tipped with grayish downy neossoptiles, and 
in the other with white. All of the young from Cocos Island 
are pretty well feathered, but show both white and gray down 
at the tips of the feathers, while the downy teleoptiles are pale 
gray in most cases. 

Four specimens, Nos. 1439, 1473, 1475, and 1501, taken at 
Tagus Cove on April 5 and 7, were at that time going through 

^Watson, Papers Tortugas Lab. Carnegie Inst. Wash., v. 2. p. 237, footnote, plate 
4 (Watson). 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 27 

what is probably the first prenuptial moult, involving the wings 
as well as the body. The newly-acquired feathers of the top 
of the head are darker than those of adults taken at the same 
time, and the ventral aspect of the body-plumage is browner. 

Five adults from Oneal Rock, taken July 27, 1905, are in 
nuptial plumage somewhat abraded, and showing no indica- 
• tions of recent feather-growth, except in one case, where a pin- 
feather was found in the side of the neck. 

Nine adults from Clipperton Island were taken on the 
breeding-ground, August 10, 1905. In No. 1416, male, the 
moult is in full progress. New primaries have replaced all 
but one of the old ; new tail-feathers and new body- feathers 
are appearing. The white downy teleoptiles beneath the 
contour feathers are also being shed. Six other specimens 
show the moult under way; in the most it is just started, two 
or three pin-feathers usually appearing at the base of the hind 
neck. Two remaining specimens show no moult and are 
comparable to the specimens from Oneal Rock. Without a 
doubt, the moult which is beginning is the postnuptial. Two 
individuals taken at sea near Clipperton Island on August 8, 
are in the same stage as those from the island ; one shows con- 
siderable new feather-growth, while the other exhibits but one 
pin-feather. 

No. 1412, captured on August 3, ten miles north of Clipper- 
ton Island, has a great many remarkably abraded and faded 
feathers in the back, wings, and under parts. The new 
plumage is that of the adult, as shown by the feathers of the 
top of the head. The question is whether the worn feathers 
are of an immature or of an adult plumage, also whether the 
bird has not skipped a moult, or at most undergone only a 
partial moult. The extremely dilapidated condition of the 
old feathers would seem to indicate something of the sort. 
Furthermore I can find no feathers that may be attributed to 
a plumage appearing between the much worn one and the pres- 
ent new one. 

In adults from Cocos Island taken during the first half of 
September, 1905, the postnuptial moult is in progress; pri- 
maries and rectrices are being renewed in some instances, as 
well as the body-plumage. In certain cases the moult is just 
starting. 



28 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The results of an examination of a series of adults from 
the Galapagos Islands may be summarized as follows : 

A pair taken on Hood Island in latter September, 1905, seem 
to be just completing a moult which has involved the entire 
plumage. I cannot say whether it is prenuptial or postnuptial. 

Eight specimens taken at Brattle Island on October 30, 
show, in the majority of cases, some feather-renewal about the 
head, back, and breast. The primaries and rectrices in all 
show varying degrees of wear. Apparently a moult is begin- 
ning, and it is likely that it is prenuptial, since the species has 
been found breeding on other southern and central islands in 
January and February. To six November specimens taken at 
Indefatigable and Daphne islands the same remarks are ap- 
plicable. In one a new lateral rectrix is appearing. 

A male from Duncan Island, December 6, shows no feather- 
growth and very little abrasion. 

Fourteen January specimens, one from James Island and 
thirteen from Indefatigable, are evidently in nuptial plumage, 
and show no signs of feather-growth except in three specimens 
from Indefatigable. One is evidently a brooding male, and 
shows two new feathers appearing in the anterior part of the 
abdominal region; a second shows a new tail-feather and one 
or two new interscapulars; while in the third specimen the 
moult has gained considerable headway in the ventral tract. 

A male from Hood Island, February 1, is evidently in 
nuptial dress. 

On March 20 eleven adults were taken at Iguana Cove, 
Albemarle Island. All are in fairly fresh plumage, about 
half of them showing no pin-feathers. Of those with pin- 
feathers, two or three are getting new inner primaries. 

A male from Tagus Cove, captured March 24, shows re- 
newal of the primaries, rectrices, lesser wing-coverts, and body- 
plumage. 

Nineteen examples from Tagus Cove, shot during the first 
half of April, show the postnuptial moult under way, and in- 
volving in most instances the wings as well as the body- 
plumage. 

A female from south Albemarle, April 28, is undergoing a 
moult of the body-plumage, probably postnuptial. All but the 
two outer primaries of each wing have been renewed. A fe- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 29 

male, taken May 9 in latitude 2° 20' South, longitude 90° West, 
is in a somewhat similar condition. 

A male, captured on May 21 at sea south of Duncan Island, 
is in worn plumage, but with renewals taking place both in 
the body-plumage and in the flight-feathers. Two males from 
Indefatigable Island captured in July, are in a like state; but 
the replacement has progressed farther. 

In all cases the pin-feathers appear black in contrast to the 
feathers of the disappearing plumage. 

The Academy's series of adults, forty-six males and fifty- 
three females, gives the dimensions in millimeters of the 
species as follows: Males— Wing 250-291 (279); tail 136- 
173 (161); culmen 37.5-43.6 (40.8); tarsus 21.6-25.5 
(24.2) ; middle toe 27.6-33 (31). Females— Wing 249-280 
(272) ; tail 131-167 (155) ; culmen 35.5-42.8 (39.3) ; tarsus 
21-25 (23.4); middle toe 27.3-31.7 (29.8). 

Table IV, p. 113, shows the measurements of adults from 
the four localities visited. The Galapagos specimens average 
somewhat smaller in certain respects than their northern 
relatives. 

Four males from the Galapagos Islands measured in milli- 
meters in the flesh as follows: Lengths 396, 400, 401, 440; 
extents 824, 839, 845, 855. Six females from the same lo- 
cality measured : Lengths 380 , 380, 392, 396, 400, 400 ; 
extents of five 784, 809, 813, 813, 821. 

The Academy's series of seventy-eight eggs exhibits no 
noteworthy variation in either coloration or form. It shows 
the variation in size to be : Length 47.4-56 mm. (51.1 mm.) ; 
breadth 32.2-38.5 mm. (35.5 mm.), 

Micranous diamesus : Clipperton Noddy 

This species was often seen in company with the Noddy, 
and in many cases, when the birds were seen at sea, it was 
impossible to distinguish the species with certainty. 

On August 7, 1905, off Clipperton Island, Mexico, the first 
Clipperton Noddy was observed, and on the 9th the species 
was again certainly identified. 

On August 10, Clipperton Island was visited, and this 
species was found nesting very commonly on Clipperton Rock. 
The nests, built of algfe from the lagoon, were placed on little 



30 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

juttings of rock on the walls of the cliffs and of caves, and 
sometimes they were built on top of old nests. They were 
all damp, and about two-thirds of them contained eggs, some 
of which were incubated. Of eight eggs collected, two were 
fresh, while in the remaining six incubation had begun. With 
this species one egg constitutes a clutch. The owners were 
all lacking in timidity and several were caught by hand. 

On September 1, 1905, the Clipperton Noddy was met with 
about thirty miles south of Cocos Island, Costa Rica, and the 
following day one was captured. 

During our stay at Cocos Island in the first half of Sep- 
tember, this species was found commonly along the shore 
line between Chatham and Wafer Bays. Three were seen fly- 
ing up the fresh-water creek at Wafer Bay. They roosted 
in the trees as well as on the rocks along the shores. Indi- 
viduals often circled about the small boat four or five times, 
keeping too close for shooting. Like the Noddy this species 
is quite readily decoyed to wounded birds. So far as noted 
neither species dives for its food. In two instances Man-o'- 
war Birds were seen in pursuit of Clipperton Noddies. 

Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller^ report this species as nesting 
in the tall trees near Chatham Bay in July. During our stay 
in September, young, a-wing, appeared to be more numerous 
than adults, evidencing that the breeding-season had passed. 
The two ornithologists referred to above report only imma- 
ture birds at Clipperton in November. 

The specimens in the Academy's series agree very well with 
the descriptions^ of the adult and immature males given by 
Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller. There seem to be no charac- 
ters, aside from length of culmen, which differentiate the males 
and females, either adult or immature. All of the young birds 
taken were able to fly, and all were captured at Cocos Island, 
with the exception of one secured on Clipperton, August 10. 

Of a series of thirty specimens taken on Clipperton on 
August 10, one (No. 1593 C. A. S.) is completing the juvenal 
plumage, for the primaries and rectrices are yet in an imma- 
ture state. Growing feathers are also to be seen in both the 
dorsal and ventral tracts. Two specimens, Nos. 1525 and 
1548, are immature, and are going through a belated first 

^Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 4, p. 510. 
Hbid, p. 509. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 31 

prenuptial moult, or else through the first postnuptial moult. 
The moult involves the entire plumage in both cases. It is to 
be noted that, in No. 1525, the two lateral and several of the 
median rectrices have been renewed, while in No. 1548, the 
renewal seems to be starting with the median rectrices. The 
remaining twenty-seven specimens are to all appearances 
adults in worn nuptial plumage. Nearly all are entering upon 
the postnuptial moult, as attested by pin-feathers in the back 
and breast and, in a few cases, by new inner primaries and 
new rectrices. No. 1523 exhibits a pure white feather at the 
base of the hind neck ; aside from this, no trace of albinism was 
noted in the species. 

Twenty-three Cocos Island adults are in a state somewhat 
similar to that of the Clipperton Island specimens, the breed- 
ing-season on the latter island evidently being later. In some 
cases the moult of the body-plumage, particularly anteriorly, 
seems to be farther advanced. Four immature specimens 
from Cocos Island, Nos. 1528, 1573, 1591, and 1592, seem to 
be comparable to Nos. 1525 and 1548 from Clipperton. It is 
presumed that the moult in this case is the first postnuptial. 
One specimen, No. 1528, seems to have recently acquired new 
primaries ; in fact, the distal primary in each wing is just ap- 
pearing from its sheath. Thirty-four Cocos specimens are in 
the Juvenal plumage, and give no evidence of postjuvenal 
moult except an occasional pin-feather in the crown and back 
of several. September 13 is the latest date on which specimens 
were taken. 

Certain adults show to some extent the character ascribed 
by Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller to Micranous hawaiiensis in 
the following sentence: "In M. hazuaiiensis the pale slaty 
plumbeous color of the back of the head and neck reaches so 
far ventrally on the sides of the head and neck, and even on 
the upper part of the breast, that there is distinctly marked off 
on the chin and throat a median longitudinal area of dark 
plumbeous-brown well defined on each side against the paler 
lateral parts. "^ 

The Academy's series of the Clipperton Noddy numbers 
ninety-three specimens, twenty-six of which are adult males, 
and thirty adult females. The adult males average in milli- 

^Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 4, p. 510. 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

meters as follows: Wing 232; tail 124; culmen 44.7; depth 
of bill at base 9; tarsus 20.2; middle toe 27.8. The adult 
females average as follows: Wing 229; tail 121; culmen 
42.2; depth of bill at base 8.4; tarsus 19.7; middle toe 27.5. 

Four adult males and two adult females from Clipperton 
measured in millimeters in the flesh as follows : Males — 
Lengths 345, 355, 357, 370; extents 675, 677, 685, 700. Fe- 
males — Lengths 353, 358; extents 672, 680. 

Table V., p. 113, gives separately measurements of birds of 
both sexes from Cocos and Clipperton islands. 

Seven eggs collected on Clipperton Island are elliptical-ovate 
and elongate-ovate in shape, and in color and style of mark- 
ings resemble the eggs of the common Noddy. They measure 
in millimeters as follows: 44.8X31.5, 47.3X32.7, 43.7X32, 
44.6X31.5, 46X30.8, 45.2X32.5, 45.6X30.8. 

Gygis alba: White Tern 

Tower Island. 

A White Tern passed close to the vessel on September 14, 
1906, when off Tower Island. Another was captured by Mr. 
Beck on Oneal Rock, near Socorro, Revilla Gigedo Islands, on 
July 27, 1905. It was the only one observed among 
thousands of Sooty Terns and Noddies. 

On August 9, 1905, the second specimen for the expedition 
was seen near Clipperton Island, Mexico. The following day, 
on that island, a dozen were found, in company with Brew- 
ster's Boobies, roosting on the crossbeams of a shed, one end of 
which had an opening, giving the birds access. 

During the voyage from Clipperton Island to Cocos Island, 
Costa Rica, White Terns were noted as follows: 

August 29, 1905, latitude 5° 22' North, longitude 87° 5' 
West — two. 

August 31, 1905, latitude 4° 5' North, longitude 88° 3' 
West — a few. 

September 2, 1905 ; forty miles south of Cocos Island — 
two or three. 

At Cocos Island they were commonest in the forests, roost- 
ing in the trees both inland and along the coast. They were 
seen also among the trees on the small outlying Nuez Island. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 3Z 

The forests on Cocos Island are very luxuriant, and the island 
is well watered, streams flowing down on all sides. It is in this 
setting that the terns appear to greatest advantage. As a rule, 
the first intimation a person gets of their presence is a startling 
clucking over his head. Upon looking up he will find two or 
three of these beautiful inhabitants of the forest hovering 
within a yard of his head. After flying about him four or 
five times, they will dart away among the trees with a flight 
as sure as that of any woodland bird. 

Over the water their flight was very swift and erratic, and 
usually at a considerable elevation. None were seen on the 
water. They paid but little attention to a boat, seldom ap- 
proaching to examine it. At times they were seen in pursuit 
of each other, and then their evolutions were the swiftest. 
One day eight or ten were seen pursuing an Osprey. 

Mr. A. F. Basset Hull, in The Proceedings of the Linnean 
Society of Nczv South IVales,^ takes exception to the remarks 
of Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller^ on the method of nesting of 
this species at Cocos Island. 

A young female (No. 1617 C. A. S.) in juvenal plumage, 
was obtained at Clipperton. The scapulars, interscapulars, 
and tertials are strongly washed with russet. The lesser 
coverts, some of the feathers of the crown and of the sides of 
the breast, and the two middle rectrices are edged with rus- 
set terminally. The forehead has a faint tinge of the same 
color. A few tufts of grayish down still adhere to some of 
the feathers of the top of the head. The shafts of the pri- 
maries are olive brown. Three outer rectrices on each side 
of the tail have pure white shafts, and the remaining rectrices 
have shafts that are white for the greater part of their length, 
being olive brown only subterminally. In length of wing and 
of tarsus this specimen exceeds the average of ten adult females 
given beyond. It measures in millimeters as follows : Wing 
250; tail 115; culmen 33.5; tarsus 13; middle toe 21. 

In the Academy's series of twenty adults, dark-shafted 
rectrices are a marked feature. With a few exceptions, the 
specimens are in somewhat abraded plumage. No. 1604, 
male, Oneal Rock, July 27, seems to be in fresh feather ; occa- 
sional pin-feathers in the crown, back, and rump, are appar- 

'V. 34, p. 662, footnote. 

^Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 4, p. 511. 

August 8, 1913 



34 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES TProc. 4th Ser. 



ently bringing the moult to a dose. Nine Clipperton skins, 
August 10, are passing through what I take to be the post- 
nuptial moult. In some cases it seems to be almost completed, 
and, with the exception of No. 1619, it has reached the remiges 
in every case. Renewal of rectrices seems to proceed from 
the center laterally, renewal of primaries from the proximal 
to the distal, and renewal of secondaries apparently from the 
distal to the proximal. There are exceptions to these rules, 
certain feathers coming in out of turn. Ten Cocos specimens, 
taken during the first half of September, are in a similar state, 
but, if anything, are not quite so far advanced as the Clipper- 
ton specimens. 

The bill of the adult bird in life is black at the tip, shading 
through purple to indigo blue at the base. 

MEASUREMENTS (in millimeters) 



No. 


Sex. 


Locality 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 


Tarsus 


Middle 
Toe 


1604 


cf 


Oneal Rock 


240 


115 


37.4 


12.9 


20.4 


1619 


d" 


Clipperton 


223 


110 


38 


12.1 


21.3 


1620 


c? 


Clipperton 


252 


122 


38.6 


12.7 


21.8 


1621 


& 


Clipperton 


234 


120 


41 


12.7 


22.5 


1624 


cf 


Cocos 


240 


119 


38.6 


11.9 


22 


1623 


& 


Cocos 


251 


118 


43 


12.5 


21.2 


1607 


& 


Cocos 


248 


112 


41.8 


12.1 


22 


1606 


6" 


Cocos 


239 


120 


41 


13.2 


22.1 


1605 


& 


Cocos 


248 


111 


40.5 


12.6 


21.6 


1608 


cf 


Cocos 


260 


119 


42.2 


12.4 


22.2 


1613 


9 


Clipperton 


241 


122 


41 


12.8 


22 


1622 


9 


Clipperton 


231 


129 


39 


12 


22 


1612 


9 


Clipperton 


236 




37 


11.6 


21 


1615 


9 


Clipperton 


235 


107 


36.7 


12.5 


21.2 


1616 


9 


Clipperton 


240 


118 


40.8 


12 


22 


1618 


9 


Clipperton 


237 


111 


38.3 


12.2 


21.4 


1614 


9 


Cocos 


254 


124 


40 


12.8 


21.9 


1611 


9 


Cocos 


237 


116 


39 


11.7 


21.2 


1610 


9 


Cocos 


251 


126 


41.6 


11.1 


22 


1609 


9 


40 miles south of 
















Cocos 


245 


122 


38.9 


12.1 


22.4 



The 
Males — Win 



following 



is a summary of the above measurements: 
.g, 223-260 (244); tail 110-122 (117); culmen 
37.4-43 (40.2); tarsus 11.9-13.2 (12.5); middle toe 20.4- 
22.5 (21.7). Females— Wing 231-254 (241); tail 107-129 
(119); culmen 36.7-41.6 (39.2); tarsus 11.1-12.8 (12); 
middle toe 21-22.4 (21.7). 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 35 

Creagrus furcatus: Swallow-tailed Gull 

Albemarle, Brattle, Champion, Charles, Chatham, Cowley, 
Crossman, Culpepper, Dalrymple, Daphne, Delano, Enderby, 
Gordon, Guy Fawkes, Hood, Indefatigable, islet off northeast 
James, James, Kicker, Narborough, Seymour, Tower, and 
Wenman islands. 

This fine gull has been observed in the archipelago during 
every month of the year, and is found commonly about the 
small tufaceous islands and some of the high sea-cliffs of the 
large islands. None were observed about Elizabeth Bay, 
Tagus Cove, or Banks Bay, Albemarle Island, nor on east and 
north Narborough in March and April. It is a bird of pow- 
erful flight, often being seen many miles from land. The 
farthest south it was observed was about 160 miles south- 
west of Albemarle on June 9, 1906, and the farthest east was 
about 150 miles east of Chatham on September 22, 1905. No 
examples were met with north of the islands. 

The single tgg was usually laid in a slight depression lined 
with bits of stone. When disturbed the gulls generally flew 
off, leaving their eggs and young to the mercy of the intruder. 
In one case, however, a parent remained on the nest and al- 
lowed itself to be petted, not offering to bite. In many in- 
stances, when a bird was caught, its main effort was to escape 
rather than to defend itself. The young generally snapped 
their bills threateningly when molested. 

The Swallow-tailed Gull is known to nest in the Galapagos 
Islands during eight months^ of the year, as follows : On 
Brattle in October; on Culpepper in July;" on Hood in Janu- 
ary, February, June, Jul}'-, and October;^ on Tower in Sep- 
tember and December;* and on Wenman in July,^ August,^ 
and December.^ The Academy's series of eggs was taken 
on Hood in February and June, and on Tower in September. 

The eggs observed on Tower Island in the middle of Sep- 
tember, 1906, were quite fresh, although a newly-hatched 

^On page 190, volume 6, of Novitates Zoologicae, Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert 
state that this species was "found breeding * * * in October on Tower, and in 
December on Hood Island." This is undoubtedly a mistake, as the Webster-Harris 
Expedition visited Tower in December and Hood in October. See pp. 99, 103, 124. 
135. 

2Nov. Zool., V. 6, p. 190. 

^Ibid., pp. 99, 127. 

*Ibid., pp. 104, 135. 

^Ibid., V. 6, p. 190; v. 9, pp. 412, 413. , 

^Ibid., V. 6, p. 90. 

»Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 5, p. 238. 



36 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

chick was also seen. A number of young birds in the down 
were encountered at Hood Island in February, all running 
about in a lively manner. Two or three young just able to 
fly were also noted walking about in hunched-up attitudes 
among the adults, and apparently begging for food. 

As a rule these gulls could be approached fairly closely. 
After two visits to the islet off northeast James, however, the 
birds of that place became quite wary, often flying before the 
boat arrived within shot-gun range. As a rule this gull is 
not lured to a decoy; but exceptions were observed south of 
the archipelago, when two approached, one to examine a 
wounded Dark-rumped Petrel, the other a wounded Peruvian 
Booby. 

Their enemies on land seemed to be the Galapagos Hawks. 
Two young birds on Hood Island, which were tied up and 
left for a short time, were killed and torn to pieces by one of 
these birds. The Man-o'-war Birds often pursued the adult 
gulls to make them disgorge, and the evolutions gone through 
by both species were very surprising, the victim dashing about 
in all directions. One poor gull was observed with two of 
its enemies in pursuit. It did not disgorge, and as a result 
one of the pirates seized its foot, injuring it so that it hung 
down, after which the tormentors desisted. 

When flying, birds of this species seemed to have alternate 
upward and downward movernents of the body with 
each stroke of the wings. Usually they flew singly 
or in flocks not exceeding half a dozen. On north- 
east Indefatigable some were seen circling high in the air 
without any discernible movement of the wings. They never 
circled about the vessel except at sea. Birds were seen rest- 
ing on the water in only two instances, once at Daphne and 
once at sea. In the latter case a bird, which was flying close 
to the water, alighted. Three others very high in the air 
then came swooping down in long spirals, as Man-o'-war 
Birds do, and sat on the water with the first bird. Whether 
or not they were feeding, could not be ascertained. 

I have never for a certainty observed them feeding, and 
rather suspect that as a rule they do so at night. Their diet 
seems to consist chiefly of squids, which both young and old 
often disgorge when being killed. At Daphne five or six 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 37 

were seen hovering over a school of fish. Two birds taken 
in latitude 2° 29' South, longitude 90° 4' West, had each a 
specimen of water-strider of the family Hydrometridse in its 
stomach; otherwise, save for wing-discs of pteropods, their 
stomachs were empty. 

On the cliffs of northeastern Indefatigable Island in No- 
vember, and on Daphne in November and July, only adult 
gulls were seen. The same remark applies to Tower Island 
in the middle of September, 1906, save for one very young 
chick. 

In their descriptions of this species, both Mr. Ridgway^ 
and Mr. Saunders^ fail to mention a pinkish blush on the 
white of the under parts. This is quite marked in a number 
of fine fresh-plumaged Academy specimens of both sexes, 
taken about the first of August from the islet off northeast 
James. All the birds captured at that place at that time had 
enlarged reproductive organs, although some did not have the 
pinkish blush. It was not noted to any extent in specimens 
taken elsewhere. 

This gull differs from Xeina sabinii and other small 
hooded gulls in its moult. The dark hood is apparently kept 
the year around after the bird attains maturity. Nothing in 
the Academy's series would indicate the contrary, and the sub- 
joined notes on this series seem to show that such is the case. 
The study of moults and plumages in this species is compli- 
cated by the fact that it has been found breeding on various 
islands during eight months of the year. 

Two specimens taken on Hood Island in latter September, 
1905, are in fresh plumage. Scattered pin-feathers are yet 
to be found in the white under parts and in the interscapular 
region. In one specimen the distal primary of each wing is 
still in the sheath basally. As this gull nests on Hood both 
in June and October, the question is whether this moult, which 
is just closing, is postnuptial or prenuptial. I am inclined to 
believe it is the latter. 

Two specimens from Brattle Island, male and female, Oc- 
tober 30, are in fairly fresh plumage. No feather-growth is 
indicated, however, and the feathers of the mantle show 
slight wear in places. At the time of our visit to Brattle 

iProc. U. S. N. M., V. 19, p. 638. 
^'Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., v. 25, p. 166. 



38 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Island, the birds were nesting, and an incubated ^gg was ob- 
tained. These specimens may be safely said to exemplify the 
breeding-plumage of the species. 

The examination of twenty-one adults from Daphne Island 
and northern Indefatigable, latter November, proves that the 
birds are in fresh plumage. Feather-growth is attested in 
many by the presence of pin-feathers in the back and the 
breast, and by the sheaths at the base of the distal primaries. 
Evidently the rectrices in this species are entirely renewed be- 
fore the distal primary is fully grown. The question of 
whether the moult just being completed is postnuptial or pre- 
nuptial again comes to the front. The only light on the nest- 
ing of this gull on Daphne is as follows : "Mr. Beck found 
it very common on Daphne Island, where it was preparing for 
nesting by the end of March."^ 

Twenty-two adults taken on Hood Island in early Febru- 
ary, when nesting operations were at their height, for the 
most part show more or less wear. In a few cases pin-feath- 
ers are appearing in the interscapular region, but they are 
appearing more commonly in the white under parts. These 
pin-feathers evidently indicate the beginning of the postnuptial 
moult. 

Of a pair of birds, taken at sea on April 24 off southwest 
Albemarle, the male is in worn adult plumage, and exhibits no 
new feathers. The female. No. 1675, is apparently an immature 
bird coming into its first adult plumage. Whether the moult 
is prenuptial or postnuptial is impossible to say. The feet 
are much paler than those of full adults. The tail is pure 
white and the outer rectrices quite worn. The primaries also 
show wear. Several white feathers in the sides of the head 
are hidden by the dark ones, while numerous dark feathers 
are appearing from their sheaths. This individual is evi- 
dently in a stage somewhat similar to that shown by No. 1721, 
mentioned below. 

A female with small breeding-organs, taken at sea on May 
8, is in rather worn plumage, and shows new dark feathers 
replacing the old ones of the crown. 

Three adults with enlarged reproductive organs were taken 
at Hood Island about the first of July, the opening of a nest- 

iRothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool., v. 9. p. 412. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 39 

ing season. One specimen was in slightly worn plumage 
dorsally, with pin- feathers still appearing in the breast; an- 
other was in fresh plumage, apparently with no growing 
feathers; the third, No. 1628, was in fresh plumage, with pin- 
feathers in the white lower parts and the remains of a sheath 
at the base of each distal primary. Now as these specimens 
are, in all likelihood, in nuptial plumage, the presence of a 
sheath at the base of a distal primary, in connection with the 
freshness of all the primaries, would seem to indicate a pre- 
nuptial moult of the flight-feathers as in the terns. Nothing 
in the entire series contradicts this assumption, but, neverthe- 
less, I do not feel that I have enough light on the subject to 
assert positively that such is the case. 

Thirty-three adults with enlarged sexual organs, from an 
islet off the northeast coast of James Island, were taken late 
in July and early in August. All are in fresh or slightly 
worn plumage (primaries included) and exhibit but little or 
no feather-growth. In these as well as in all other adults 
examined, some of the tertials and longer scapulars are worn, 
and not in harmony with the rest of the plumage. This is 
undoubtedly due to two causes ; first, that some of the feathers 
are hold-overs, and second, that they are more subject to wear 
than other parts of the plumage. 

Of three specimens from Cowley Island, August 13, two 
are quite fresh and show no pin-feathers. The third is some- 
what worn, and has pin-feathers appearing in the back and in 
the white under parts. 

A female from Culpepper Island, September 25, 1906, is in 
full fresh plumage, except for a much abraded long scapular 
and somewhat ragged outer rectrices. No pin-feathers or 
other indication of feather-growth are to be found. As this 
species breeds on Culpepper in July, this specimen is probably 
in postbreeding plumage. 

A female (No. 1721 C. A. S.) taken at sea on May 8 is 
adult in every particular, save that the hood is mottled with 
pure white feathers, and the naked parts in life were paler 
than they are in the average adult. Numerous new dark 
feathers are appearing on the head to replace the worn white 
ones. A few pin-feathers are also to be found in the back 
and breast. The primaries and rectrices are slightly worn 



40 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

and are not those of the juvenal plumage, but are similar to 
those of adults. The assertion might be ventured that this 
specimen is assuming the first nuptial plumage. A few worn 
feathers in the mantle, similar to those of adults, are of no 
significance, since a few such feathers are common in birds in 
juvenal plumage. 

Quite a few white-headed young similar to the one de- 
scribed^ by Mr. Saunders from Paracas Bay, Peru, were seen 
at sea in May and June, and at Hood Island in February, June, 
and September. Some have brownish tips to the crown-feathers, 
but these disappear as the birds grow older, the crown becom- 
ing pure white. The pale tips of the feathers of the back wear 
off to some extent with increasing age, giving the upper parts 
a much duskier appearance. There are gray feathers in the 
backs of young birds in juvenal plumage, foreshadowing the 
beautiful mantle of the adult stage. As remarked by Mr. 
Saunders^ the primaries of the young are like those of the 
adult in markings, even in the very youngest in which they 
are developed enough for examination. They seem, how- 
ever, to be more pointed and less rounded terminally than 
those of the adult. Five June specimens fom Hood Island 
are in juvenal plumage, more or less worn, but showing no 
evidences of moult. The same remarks apply to a male taken 
on Hood on September 28, 1905. Mr. Beck gives the fol- 
lowing colors for the naked parts of a young female just 
fully fledged : Bill blackish ; feet grayish white. 

In a downy young one (No. 1658 C. A. S.) taken on Hood 
Island on February 6, the scapulars are just appearing, being 
fawn-color with dark brown bases. The down of the upper 
parts is brownish gray. Below it is chiefly white, shading to 
pale gray on the throat and chin. Much of the white down 
on the anterior part of the body has grayish hair-like tips. 
On the posterior portion of the body the down seems to be in 
two sections. The upper section in some cases is gray, and 
the lower white. The gray grows from the tip of the white, 
and at the junction of the two the filaments are gathered into 
a single, slender, compact stem. 

An examination of young Larus occidcntalis at approxi- 
mately the same age as the downy Creagrus furcatus was 

iCat. Birds Brit. Mus., v. 25, p. 166. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



41 



fruitless as far as finding another case of double down was 
concerned; nor did the examination of the downy young of 
other Lariformes (Hydrochelidon nigra, Sterna forsteri, 
Sterna antillaruni, Sterna fuliginosa, and Anous stolidus) 
develop another instance. Dr. Dwight makes no mention of 
such a condition in any of the Lariformes examined by him 
in the preparation of his paper on The Sequence of Moults 
and Plumages of the Laridce {Gidls and Terns)} 

In the following table are given measurements of eleven 
young gulls (in downy and juvenal plumages) taken from 
the colony on southeastern Hood during the first week of 
February, 1906. 





MEASUREMENTS 


(in 


millimeters) 








Number 


1658 


1640 


1684 


1652 


1695 


1642 


1732 


1726 


1731 


1729 


1728 


Sex 


9 


& 


& 


9 


9 


9 


d^ 


9 


9 


9 


d^ 


Culmen 

Tarsus 

Middle Toe 


28 

30.3 

32.4 


29.7 
31.3 
34 


31.3 

34.5 
36.1 


38.5 
48.2 
44 


39.2 
45.7 
44 


40.5 
46.3 
45 


41.8 
51.1 
46.7 


42.5 

48 

43 


43.9 

48 
45 


44 

47.2 

46.9 


47.2 
49.5 

47 



The colors of the naked parts of the adults in life were as 
follows : Bill black, tip gray pea-green ; rictus crimson ; skin 
in interramal space salmon-colored; orbital ring crimson; iris 
dark brown ; tarsus and toes peach-blossom pink ; webs gerani- 
um pink shaded with black at edges. 

Forty-three adult males measure in millimeters as follows : 
Wing 410-442 (424); tail 181-216 (196); culmen 50-55.5 
(52.8); tarsus 45-56.5 (50.2); middle toe 44-51.3 (47.5). 

Forty-seven adult females measure in millimeters as fol- 
lows : Wing 406-432 (417); tail 181-210 (192); culmen 
48.4-53.9 (51) ; tarsus 44.3-51.9 (48.1) ; middle toe 43-49.4 
(45.8). 

Five males in the flesh yielded the following measurements 
in millimeters: Lengths 571, 580, 590, 591, 606; extents 
1362, 1375, 1382, 1390, 1392. Three females gave the fol- 
lowing results: Lengths 550, 560, 573; extents 1241, 1318, 
1330. 



^Auk, V. 18, pp. 49-63. 



42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The remarks^ by Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert as to the 
markings and shape of the eggs of this species apply ad- 
mirably to the Academy's series of thirty-six eggs. The ex- 
treme and average measurements of this series are summar- 
ized as follows: Length 62.1-72.5 mm. (66.3 mm.) ; breadth 
44-47.6 mm. (45.9 mm.). 

Larus franklini: Franklin^s Gull 

Albemarle, Chatham, and Narborough islands. 

Three specimens of this gull have been taken in the islands ; 
the first by Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller^ at Mangrove Point, 
Narborough Island, in March; the second by Mr. Hunter at 
Sappho Cove, Chatham Island, on February 10, 1906; and 
the third by Mr. Hunter at Villamil, Albemarle Island, on 
March 6, 1906. 

Both the Albemarle and the Chatham specimens were in 
worn plumage. The former was an immature male, infested 
with mallophaga, and the latter an immature female. Com- 
pared with the Sooty Gull, they were quite wild, 

Larus fuliginosus: Sooty Gull 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Harrington, Bindloe, Brattle, Cham- 
pion, Charles, Chatham, Cowley, Grossman, Daphne, Dun- 
can, Hood, Indefatigable, islet off northeast James, Jervis, 
Narborough, Seymour, and Tower islands. 

Unlike the Swallow-tailed Gull, the Sooty Gull is not a 
bird of the sea-cliffs and ocean, but instead is found com- 
monly about the shores and lagoons of many of the islands. 
Although taken at Hood Island by other expeditions, we did 
not meet with it there during any of our three visits. At 
Barrington, Brattle, Cowley, Grossman, Daphne, Duncan, and 
Jervis islands it was not common. Evidently birds fly from 
island to island, as their occurrence at places where they do 
not seem to be resident would show. On August 13, while 
we were en route from Cowley Island to Duncan, two or 
three were seen several miles from land. 

More than once during the breeding season a pair of gulls 
would swoop several times at a human intruder in an evident 

^Nov. Zool., V. 6, p. 190. 

2Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 5, 237. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 43 

attempt to frighten him away from a nest near by, which, 
however, was never discovered. The only egg- known was 
taken by the Webster-Harris Expedition on November 10, 
1897,^ from a bird shot on Albemarle Island. 

Sexual organs of birds taken in October and November 
were large, while some adult birds taken off south Albemarle 
about the 1st of May were in fresh plumage and had large 
sexual organs. Mr. Beck wrote on the label of a male from 
Seymour, taken July 25, "testes large." 

Wherever they were at all common, they came about the 
vessel, usually circling many times and often alighting on 
the water or on the booms, railings, etc., of the vessel, being 
fully as bold as the Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larns glauces- 
cens) about San Francisco Bay, California. 

The flight of this species is similar to that of other gulls of 
the same genus. They can walk and run quite swiftly, and, 
when rising from the ground, usually run three or four feet 
and rise against the wind. Like most other gulls they are 
readily attracted to wounded or dead birds. 

The Sooty Gull is certainly a scavenger of the first order. 
Whenever tortoises or turtles were skinned on board the 
schooner, several gulls would loiter about picking up refuse. 
At Villamil, Albemarle Island, it was a common sight to see 
them feeding with the chickens about the village and under 
the houses, which in most cases were placed on timbers sev- 
eral feet above the ground. On the beach west of Villamil, 
forty or fifty gulls were one day observed feeding on the 
putrid remains of a turtle. 

The following notes were made at Villamil on August 20 : 
There were a dozen gulls feeding near a house where a bull 
had been slaughtered. Some were tugging away at bits of 
fat and flesh, often bracing themselves with their feet. Oth- 
ers were feeding on a fresh hide that had just been staked out 
to dry. Two or three adults were bullying the younger birds. 
Whenever an adult desired a piece of meat on which one of the 
younger ones was pulling, he would lower his head, arch his 
neck, and give a long cackling call, at the same time making 
a short rush at the enemy. The young birds always got out 
of the way when such tactics were pursued. There was one 

iNov. Zool., V. 6, p. 189; v. 9, p. 413. 



44 ' CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

immature bird imitating the calls of the adults, its voice, how- 
ever, being harsher. Both young and adults had a wholesome 
respect for dogs and chickens. They would allow a man to 
approach within four or five feet of them before flying or 
running. 

At Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, about three weeks later, I 
saw three adults chasing other adults about and making the 
same long cackling calls, always standing very erect for a mo- 
ment before giving the call. In this case their actions may 
have been a form of courtship. 

This species calls throughout the year, uttering a short 
squawk as well as the long cackling call, which latter can best 
be described as beginning with a chuckle and then breaking 
into a cackling laugh. 

Not infrequently this species was seen in company with 
various other birds. Of such association the three following 
instances are good examples: 1. One day in early March 
there were a good many paddling about and calling in one 
of the lagoons near Villamil, Intermingled with them were 
Egrets, Galapagos Herons, Bahama Pintails, and Black- 
necked Stilts. 2. At southeast Narborough this species was 
noticed in company with Blue-footed Boobies, Flightless Cor- 
morants, Brown Pelicans, and Galapagos Herons, on a small 
islet about ten by thirty feet in dimensions, 3. On a rocky 
point on the northeast side of James Island a gull was seen 
standing in the midst of a compact flock of Blue-footed 
Boobies. 

Their competitors on the water seemed to be chiefly the 
Graceful Petrel and the Man-o'-war Bird. These two species 
were usually present whenever there was any refuse about. 
Other petrels of the Dusky Shearwater also entered in a 
lesser degree into the competition. About the settlements, 
chickens, dogs, cats, and pigs were their chief rivals. 

The feet of individuals of this species seem to be subject to 
a good many accidents, for specimens with split webs were 
frequent and those with deformed toes occasional. 

The plumages of this species have been so thoroughly de- 
scribed by previous writers that there is little to add, so far 
as the Academy's series is concerned. The white streak on 
each eyelid, which characterizes the adults, is represented in 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 45 

the young birds by a faint gray streak, which gradually whit- 
ens with successive moults. 

In the manner and extent of its moults and plumages this 
species seems to accord strictly with Lariis heermanni and 
the other larger gulls treated of by Dr. Dwight in his paper 
on The Sequence of Moults and Plumages of the Larid(F 
{Gidls and Terns). ^ The study of the moults and plumages 
is of course complicated by the lack of definite data concerning 
the breeding of the species. It is very evident from the 
Academy's series that there is great latitude in the time at 
which different individuals start on a stated moult. Birds 
taken on the same day and in the same locality sometimes 
differ widely in their state of plumage. Further indication 
of an extended breeding season is found in two birds in Juve- 
nal plumage, one taken on south Albemarle on November 1, 
the other taken on Chatham on July 7. A pair of adults 
taken on Charles Island, October 5, were evidently nesting, 
judging from the bare skin in two places beneath the feathers 
of the abdominal region. The absence of growing feathers 
shows that the postnuptial moult had not commenced. The 
adults of this species do not lose the dark hood at the post- 
nuptial moult as do the smaller hooded gulls, but on the con- 
trary replace it with another. 

The following examples of albinism were noted in handling 
the Academy's series: No. 1759; nearly adult male; white 
feather in foreneck. No. 1735; adult male; conspicuous 
white streak in one web of scapular on right side. No. 1770; 
adult male; white feather in crown. 

Colors of naked parts in life were noted as follows: 1. 
High-plumaged adult — Bill dark bay shading into black near 
tip; tip of maxilla burnt sienna; feet dark prune purple, with 
webs bay beneath and toes rufous beneath; orbital ring dark 
crimson. 2. Nearly adult female (No. 1793 C. A. S.) with 
some dark markings in the tail — Bill and feet black; tip of 
maxilla burnt sienna. 3. Immature — Bill, orbital ring, and 
feet black ; under sides of webs gray. 

The following condensed measurements in millimeters are 
taken from forty-nine males and fifty-five females. There 
seems to be no appreciable difference in the dimensions of 



»Auk, V. 18, pp. 49-63. 



46 . CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

adult and immature birds. Two females measured respect- 
ively in the flesh 445 and 450 millimeters in length, and 1075 
and 1095 in extent. 

Males— Wing 343-373 (357) ; tail 133-154 (145) ; culmen 
40.5-47 (43.9); tarsus 47-54.8 (51.7); middle toe 38.5-45 
(42). Females— Wing 330-358 (344) ; tail 130-147 (138) ; 
culmen 37.5-45 (41.4) ; tarsus 45.3-53.5 (49.9) ; middle toe 
36.5-44.3 (40.3). 

Stercorarius pomatorhinus : Pomarine Jaeger 

Albemarle Island. 

Mr. Beck shot a female Pomarine Jaeger off northern Albe- 
marle Island^ on December 15, 1897. 

North of the Galapagos Islands this jaeger was occasionally 
met with, three being taken by Mr. Beck during the home- 
ward voyage. Two females were captured on October 5 in 
latitude 14° 28' North, longitude 107° West. A young male 
(No. 1849 C. A. S.), taken on November 14 in latitude 33° 
7' North, longitude 134° 6' West, had the naked parts in life 
as follows : Iris dark brown ; orbital ring black ; nasal shield 
gray ; bill broadly tipped with very dark brown ; lower mandi- 
ble lavender-gray, except distal portion; tarsi very pale blue; 
webs and toes almost entirely black, save at junction with 
tarsi. 

Two Parasitic Jaegers (Stercorarius crepidatus) were 
taken at sea — one about thirty miles west of San Martin 
Island, Baja California, on July 10, 1905, and another in lati- 
tude 15° 36' North, longitude 110° 12' West, on October 13, 
1906. On September 30, 1906, in latitude 10° North, longi- 
tude 100° 25' West, one followed the schooner for several 
minutes. 

Arenaria interpres: Turnstone 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Brattle, Charles, 
Chatham, Culpepper, Daphne, Gardner-near-Hood, Hood, 
Indefatigable, James, Jervis, Narborough, Seymour, Tower, 
and Wenman islands. 

Although nowhere found breeding, this species was ob- 
served by us on all of the above islands and in every month 
of the year. It proved to be the commonest shore-bird of the 

^Nov. Zool., V. 6, p. 192. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 47 

archipelago, and was found in the uplands as well as along- 
the seashore. Between May 28 and June 23, however, but 
one individual was seen, and that was at Charles Island on 
June 1. 

A few were seen at Wafer Bay, Cocos Island, Costa Rica, 
on September 4 and 13, 1905. 

Of several individuals killed at Tagus Cove, March 29, 
some were in high plumage, while the majority were in transi- 
tion. The sexual organs, however, showed only slight en- 
largement. A male, taken on southeastern Albemarle on 
May 1, was in high feather. Specimens captured on Hood 
Island, on June 23, had small reproductive organs, as did three 
or four obtained at Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, on 
July 14. 

Haematopus galapagensis : Frazar's Oyster-catcher 

Hcematopiis frazari Brewster, Auk, v, 1888, 84 (Carmen 
Island, Gulf of California). 

Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Charles, Chatham, Gard- 
ner-near-Hood, Hood, Indefatigable, James, Narborough, 
Seymour, and Tower islands, Delano Rock, and islets east 
of Jervis Island. 

As suggested^ by Mr. Ridgway, Hcematopus galapagensis 
and Hcematopus frazari are undoubtedly one and the same 
species. Mr. Ridgway "reduces the alleged color differences 
between that bird [HcEniatopus galapagensis] and the Lower 
Californian form described as H. frazari by Mr. Brewster to 
two, namely, the smaller amount of dark color on the under 
surface of the wing and the partially spotted or barred under 
tail-coverts of the latter."^ 

A thorough examination of the Academy's material, twenty 
specimens from Baja California and forty- four from the 
Galapagos Islands, demonstrates that the "greater amount of 
white on the under primary coverts" of the so-called Hcemato- 
pus frazari is an absolutely worthless character, as the series 
from both regions show an almost equal range of variation in 
respect to the coloration of these coverts. Twelve of the 
forty-four Galapagos specimens exhibit partial dark edgings 
on certain of the under tail-coverts; all, however, to a much 

iProc. U. S. N. M., V. 19, p. 623. 
Hbid., p. 624. 



48 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



less degree than shown by the average Baja Cahfornia speci- 
mens. One female (No. 1941 C. A. S.) from the latter 
region, has no dark edgings on the under tail-coverts — a con- 
dition perhaps due to wear. 

As shown by the measurements of Table VIj p. 114, there 
are but slight differences between average specimens from 
the two localities. The Galapagos birds average larger in 
length of culmen and length of middle toe, while the Baja 
California birds average larger in length of wing and length 
of tail. The measurements of the two series, however, over- 
lap, and in the absence of constant color characters, it is im- 
possible to find in the slight differences in the average meas- 
urements any basis for specific distinction. 

Three young males from the Galapagos Islands (Nos. 
1893, 1902, and 1930 C. A. S.) have down adhering to 
some of the juvenal feathers, considerable gray down on the 
throat, and primaries not full grown. Many of the scapulars, 
interscapulars, tertials, and wing-coverts are marked termi- 
nally with a narrow light-brown edge, and subterminally with 
a narrow dark-brown or black bar. The tarsi are very much 
swollen near the suffrago. This swelling, however, disap- 
pears as the birds grow older. In dried skins the young have 
the naked parts of a much darker color than the adults. 

In two older specimens (Nos. 1891 and 1892) still show- 
ing traces of down on the rectrices, the brown edgings are 
yet present on the wings, but have disappeared from the back, 
having evidently been removed by wear. New feathers are 
appearing in the back, head, neck, and breast of these 
two specimens. The new feathers have no brown margins, 
but appear indistinguishable from those of adults. Inasmuch 
as the birds still show traces of neossoptiles, it is assumed that 
this moult is postjuvenal and not prenuptial. 

The measurements of the five young birds are given below. 



MEASUREMENTS OF YOUNG BIRDS (in millimeters) 



Number 


Sex 


Island 


Date 


Culmen 


Tarsus 


Middle Toe 


1930 
1902 
1893 
1891 
1892 


9 
9 


Hood 

Hood 

Narborough 

Seymour 

James 


February 1 
February 1 
March 22 
July 26 
August 4 


52 

59.8 

63.1 

80 

76 


46.8 

50.8 

50.7 

49 

48.1 


36 

39.6 

36.5 

37.5 
38.2 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 49 

No. 1913, female, Hood Island, September 28, 1905, is 
evidently a young bird starting on its first prenuptial moult. 
The primaries are old and worn, and some feathers much 
bleached and worn remain among the lesser coverts. In addi- 
tion to the dusky bill and feet, this bird has a sharp line of 
demarcation between the black and the white on the upper 
breast. 

No. 1909, male, Indefatigable Island, July 16, is in fresh 
plumage. The distal primary in each wing, however, is not 
full grown, but is pulpy at the base. The feet are dusky com- 
pared with those of adults, and it is probable that the specimen 
is a young bird going through either its first prenuptial or 
first postnuptial moult. Again the line of demarcation of the 
black and white on the breast is sharp, while in adults such is 
not the rule. 

No. 1888, male, Abingdon Island, September 18, 1906, is 
in about the same state as the specimen just discussed, or per- 
haps a little younger. The line of demarcation on the upper 
breast is sharp, and the naked parts are dusky. It is difficult 
to say whether this bird is completing its first prenuptial or its 
first postnuptial moult. 

The following notes are on obvious adults : Five speci- 
mens taken on Hood Island and Gardner-near-Hood in latter 
September, 1905, are all in moult, and have primaries in some 
stage of growth. As the sexual organs of these birds showed 
signs oj. activity, and as we obtained young on the first of the 
following February, it seems as though the moult in progress 
is the prenuptial, and that this species moults its flight-feathers 
twice a year. 

Four specimens from Indefatigable Island, secured during 
the second half of October, are moulting. One has worn pri- 
maries, another has new full-grown primaries, while the re- 
maining two have the distal primaries still pulpy basally. 
Three November individuals, however, are in fresh plumage, 
the primaries just having attained full growth. In two cases 
traces of a sheath are discernible at the base of the distal 
primary. 

The next specimen in order of capture is a male taken on 
James Island on December 26. Except for somewhat worn 
primaries, this bird is in fairly fresh plumage, and has a con- 
August 8, 1913 



50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

siderable number of pin-feathers in the body plumage. It is 
perhaps completing its prenuptial moult, or possibly starting 
on its postnuptial. 

Four January birds, three from Indefatigable Island and one 
from Hood, are in all likelihood beginning the postnuptial 
moult. All show pin-feathers and newly-expanded feathers 
in the body, and one shows new inner rectrices. 

Two specimens from Hood Island and three from Chat- 
ham were taken during February. All show a moult in prog- 
ress, and in one case the primaries have been renewed in 
part. Undoubtedly these birds were engaged in the post- 
nuptial moult. The sexual organs of two of the specimens, 
obtained on February 14, were noted as small. 

In addition to the young one shot on Narborough Island on 
March 22, a female (No. 1914) in worn plumage was se- 
cured. This bird showed the renewal of the body-plumage to 
be taking place. It was in practically the same state as the 
two adults taken on Flood Island on February 1, while the 
young one was of about the same age as the two young taken 
on Hood on February 1. This would seem to indicate a later 
breeding-season on Narborough than on Hood, or at least an 
extended breeding-season. No. 1925, Tagus Cove, Albemarle 
Island, March 29, is in the same stage as No. 1914. 

A gap of nearly four months occurs in the dates of the series, 
the next specimens being five July adults from Indefatigable 
and Seymour islands. All show pin-feathers. Three are in 
fresh plumage: one with full-grown primaries, one with the 
distal primary growing, and one with it not yet renewed. A 
fourth specimen has worn feathers in the wings, tail, etc., and 
has only the two inner primaries new. The fifth bird has 
many worn feathers in the wings and interscapular region, 
and shows only the proximal primary and a central rectrix 
new. 

A male and a female from James Island, taken on July 28 
and August 3, respectively, are in the midst of a moult involv- 
ing body, wings, and tail. Five individuals from Tower, 
Bindloe, and Abingdon islands, secured from the 15th to the 
18th of September, 1906, are in the last stages of a moult in- 
volving the entire plumage. It is impossible to say whether 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 51 

it is prenuptial or postnuptial, as I have no observations on 
the reproductive organs. 

It not infrequently occurs that some of the middle wing- 
coverts, when fresh, have a narrow white margin. I do not 
know of what significance these are. 

Specimens from Baja California obtained about the middle 
of July, 1905, are in worn plumage. All are beginning the 
postnuptial moult. In one case a bird is getting a new rectrix, 
but in all others nothing beyond the body-plumage has been 
affected. 

Frazar's Oyster-catcher was found to be quite evenly dis- 
tributed on all of the islands named above, but seldom more 
than three or four individuals were seen at one time. Singly 
or in pairs, we met with them along the rocky coasts, where 
they did most of their feeding. Occasionally they were seen 
on the sandy beaches, wdiich are quite extensive on the larger 
islands. As a rule they were very fearless, and several were 
killed with stones. 

In traveling over the smooth beaches this species either 
walks or runs, being able in the latter case to travel quite 
rapidly. One day on South Seymour two kept just ahead of 
us for about one hundred yards along a beach, running slowly 
all the time. AVhen anchoring at James Bay, James Island, 
on August 6, three flew by the vessel, and later we met them 
on the beach. They alighted a hundred yards or so above us, 
and then started on the run in our direction. They acted as 
though the}^ were racing, keeping abreast most of the time, 
and maintaining a steady pace. When among the rocks, these 
birds do considerable jumping from one rock to another, often 
using their wings to aid them. 

Their flight is nothing like that of a snipe for swiftness and 
gracefulness, nor is it as erratic as the Hudsonian Curlew's. 
Usually, when over the water, the birds fly at a height of ten 
or twenty feet, while along the shores they keep lower down. 
Their wing-beats are more rapid than a gull's. 

On two occasions this species was observed swimming, but 
not through choice. In one case a wounded one took to the 
water, and, upon being approached with the boat, dived three 
or four times. Another individual, wounded while flying 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

over the water at the San Benito Islands, Baja California, did 
the same thing and was captured only with great difficulty. 

Aside from one instance, these oyster-catchers are always 
noted feeding on the rocks from which they pick their food. 
The food consists of small chitons, small crabs, sea-slugs, and 
key-hole limpets, which are chiefly obtainable at low tide. 
These creatures are all swallowed whole. 

Many times the presence of this species is made known, not 
by the eye, but by the ear. As a rule they call when disturbed, 
and when flying from place to place. The call is loud and 
piercing, and consists of a series of piping notes given in 
quick succession, and slightly resembles the call of the Wan- 
dering Tattler. Single short staccato notes are also uttered 
when a bird is approached. 

Three specimens, which showed signs of breeding, were 
taken on Gardner-near-Hood on September 28, 1905. Sex- 
ual organs of birds taken at Sappho Cove, Chatham, February 
14, and at Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, July 16, were 
small. A female with medium-sized ovaries was taken on 
Narborough on March 22. 

On February 1, two young ones scarcely able to fly were 
taken on southeast Hood. They were feeding in company 
with two adult birds, presumably their parents. On March 
22 a young one of about the same age was taken on Narbor- 
ough. Another was taken on South Seymour on July 26, and 
still another on northeast James on August 4. 

While I was approaching a wounded one on northwest In- 
defatigable, one of several Galapagos Hawks roosting in the 
vicinity made a sudden swoop at it. Uttering a shrill cry, the 
oyster-catcher sought safety by jumping into the water close 
beside a sheltering rock. It is doubtful whether the oyster- 
catchers are harassed by the hawks under normal conditions. 

Like the Wandering Tattler, but not to such a great extent, 
this species has the habit of bobbing the posterior portion of 
the body up and down. 

One bird taken had the outer covering of the upper mandi- 
ble loose and apparently ready to shed, for it was very easily 
detached, leaving a new, hard, and darker-colored bill beneath. 
Another specimen was minus the greater part of its tongue, 
having only about one quarter of an inch of it left. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS Of THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 53 

In Baja California the species was first met with on San 
Martin Island, July 11, 1905, where one was seen in com- 
pany with seven Black Oyster-catchers {Hcematopus niger) 
on the shores of the lagoon. At the next stop, San Geronimo 
Island, July 13, eight of the first species and twelve of the 
second were observed, all on the rocks along the beaches. 
They proved fairly easy of approach, and when flying kept up 
a continual calling. At the San Benito Islands, July 14 and 
15, Frazar's Oyster-catcher was in the ascendency, ten or a 
dozen being seen each day to only one of the Black, while at 
South Bay, Cerros Island, July 18, it was fairly common, and 
only two or three Black Oyster-catchers were encountered. 

Squatarola helvetica: Black-bellied Plover 

Albemarle, Charles, Chatham, Hood, Indefatigable, and 
James islands. 

The Black-bellied Plover was not common, but was ob- 
served a dozen or more times on the above islands, where it 
was very wild. There was an interval of three months dur- 
ing which the species was not seen — April 25 to July 28. 

Mr. Beck reports^ having seen two Black-bellied Plovers 
on Clipperton Island on November 19, 1901. 

Two Wilson's Plovers (Ochthodromus wilsoni) were taken 
on Cocos Island, Costa Rica; a male on September 4 and a 
female on September 11, 1905. 

.ffigialeus semipalmatus : Semipalmated Plover 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Bindloe, Charles, Chatham, Inde- 
fatigable, James, Jervis, and Narborough islands. 

Quite a number of this species were observed about the 
islands from July to April. The earliest bird was noted on 
July 17 and the latest on April 25. Like the Turnstone, they 
were found in the grassy uplands as well as on the coast. 

On September 4, 6, and 11, 1905, a few were seen on the 
beach at Wafer Bay, Cocos Island, Costa Rica, where three 
males were secured. 



^Condor, v. 9, p. 109. 



54 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Himantopus mexicanus: Black-necked Stilt 
Plate I, Fig. 2 

Albemarle, Charles, Chatham, Hood, Indefatigable, James, 
and Seymour islands. 

This noisy bird we found to be rather common on the above- 
mentioned islands with the exception of Hood and Seymour. 

On February 25 a nest containing four eggs incubated 
about seven days, was found on a small flat lava-islet in the 
large lagoon at Cormorant Bay, Charles Island. The islet 
projected less than five inches above the surface of the lagoon. 
The nest was composed of twigs, small pieces of moss taken 
from the lagoon, and bits of lava placed in a slight depression 
in the rock. Close by were seven Flamingo nests in use. 
The eggs measure in millimeters, respectively: 41X29.5, 
42.4X29.5, 41.9X29.8, 41.6X29.9. The Academy has of 
this species twenty clutches of four eggs each, from Merced 
County, California. All were taken by Mr. Beck in May and 
June, 1908, showing that, so far as known, the breeding-sea- 
son in the Galapagos is much earlier than in California. 

Numenius hudsonicus: Hudsonian Curlew 

Albemarle, Charles, Chatham, Hood, Indefatigable, James, 
and Narborough islands. 

This species was observed quite commonly about Albemarle, 
Charles, Indefatigable, and James islands, proving to be a 
bird of the interior as well as of the shore. On Charles Island 
it was found in considerable numbers in the open stretches 
among the low trees and bushes at an altitude of a thousand 
feet on the west side of the island, as well as in the pasture 
lands of the interior. At Villamil, Albemarle Island, it was 
not infrequently seen perching in the tall, bare, dead trees 
close to the village and about the large lagoon. 

From the time we arrived at the islands up to the latter part 
of April, curlews were fairly common. One or two individu- 
als were noticed at Villamil as late as May 2. One was shot 
on Hood Island on June 25. From July 14 on, they were 
seen frequently. 

Only one was encountered at Cocos Island, Costa Rica — a 
i female in worn plumage, shot on the beach at Wafer Bay on 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 55 

September 12, 1905. Mr. Beck reports^ having seen one on 
Clipperton Island on November 19, 1901. 

Symphemia semipalmata: Willet 

Abingdon and Albemarle islands. 

On November 1, 1905, a Willet was seen on the ocean 
beach near Villamil, Albemarle Island. Another was ob- 
served in the same locality with a small flock of Hudsonian 
Curlews on September 3 of the following year. 

A male (No. 1980 C. A. S.) was captured on a beach on the 
south side of Abingdon Island, September 21, 1906. 

Helodromas solitarius: Solitary Sandpiper 

Chatham Island. 

Two specimens are reported from Chatham Island, October 
12, 1897, by Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert in the Novitates 
Zoologicae^ for the year 1899. I know of no other record of 
this species from the Galapagos Islands. 

Heteractitis incanus : Wandering Tattler 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Brattle, Cham- 
pion, Charles, Chatham, Culpepper, Duncan, Gardner-near- 
Hood, Hood, Indefatigable, James, Jervis, Narborough, Sey- 
mour, Tower, and Wenman islands. 

The shrill, piping call of the Wandering Tattler was a very 
characteristic sound of the Galapagos coasts. As a rule lone 
birds were seen, but on February 1, 1906, a flock of nine was 
noted on Hood Island, while a flock of a dozen was seen on 
Clipperton Island, Mexico, on August 10, 1905. In the Gala- 
pagos Islands the species proved to be a common one, and 
was observed throughout the year except from April 11 to 
June 25. At Cocos Island, Costa Rica, during the first half 
of September, 1905, a few were seen along the rocky shores. 

On two occasions Wandering Tattlers were seen in unusual 
situations. On Indefatigable Island several were seen feed- 
ing in the salt lagoons, while on south Albemarle I saw one 

^Condor, v. 9, p. 109. 
=V. 6, p. 188. 



56 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

alight in a bare dead tree on the shore of a lagoon at least a 
quarter of a mile inland.- 

Tringoides macularius: Spotted Sandpiper 

Abingdon and Albemarle islands. 

A male (No. 1990 C. A. S.) shot at Villamil, Albemarle 
island, on May 2, 1906, was in fairly high plumage. A sec- 
ond individual was seen on the south shore of Abingdon Island 
on September 22, 1906. 

In 1905, two females, Nos. 1991 and 1992, were taken on 
Cocos Island, Costa Rica, on September 4 and 7 respectively. 
Several examples were observed daily on September 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, and 11, at both Chatham and Wafer Bays. 

On September 13 a female Semipalmated Sandpiper 
(Ereunetes pusillus), No. 1993 C. A. S., was taken on the 
beach at Wafer Bay. 

Calidris arenaria: Sanderling 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Bindloe, Charles, Chatham, Hood, 
James, Jervis, and Seymour islands. 

The Sanderling was seen only two or three times in the 
saline coastal lagoons, but was fairly common on certain occa- 
sions on the ocean beaches. It was observed in July, August, 
October, November, February, and March. Like the Black- 
bellied Plover, it was very shy and difficult of approach. 

Limonites minutilla : Least Sandpiper 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Charles, Indefatigable, 
and James islands. 

The Least Sandpiper was not infrequent, being noted on 
all of the above-mentioned islands during the months of July, 
August, September, October, November, and February. On 
July 28 several were observed in a large lagoon on northeast- 
ern James ; with them were a number of Hudsonian Curlews, 
Black-bellied Plovers, and Semipalmated Plovers. They 
haunted the ocean beaches as well as the lagoons. 

A few were seen at Wafer Bay, Cocos Island, Costa Rica, 
on September 4 and 11, 1905, specimens being secured. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 57 

Heteropygia bairdi : Baird's Sandpiper 

Barrington Island. 

The Webster-Harris Expedition captured a male on Bar- 
rington^ on October 6, 1897. 

A male (No. 2004 C. A. S.) was taken at Wafer Bay, Cocos 
Island, Costa Rica, on September 4, 1905. 

Phalaropus hyperboreus: Northern Phalarope 

Albemarle, Indefatigable, James, and Narborough islands. 

No specimens of the Northern Phalarope were taken, but 
we saw the species at times about the archipelago. Two or 
three bands of about twenty each were seen on the water on a 
very foggy morning, April 10, in Banks Bay, Albemarle 
Island. 

On August 13, while sailing from Cowley Island to south 
James, hundreds of phalaropes, apparently of this species, were 
seen near the latter island. They were flying south close to 
the water, while a few were seen on the water. It was a 
cool day with a brisk southeast wind. 

In the early afternoon of September 12, when about ten 
miles southwest of Indefatigable Island, we came upon thou- 
sands of phalaropes in large compact flocks, mostly on the 
water. The flocks were close together, and as far as one 
could see, looking from the deck towards Indefatigable, the 
water was dotted with them. The sky was overcast, the 
temperature moderate, and the usual southeast trade wind was 
blowing. 

On August 18, 1905, in latitude 7° 24' North, longitude 
103° 52' West, three Red Phalaropes (Crymophilus fulicarius) 
were seen, two of them being taken. 

Steganopus tricolor: Wilson's Phalarope 

Albemarle Island. 

On November 3, 1905, two males and one female were shot 
on a small saline lagoon about half a mile inland from the 
village of Villamil, Albemarle Island. They were very tame 
and unsuspicious. 

^Nov. Zool., V. 6, p. 188. 



58 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The specimens are in process of moult from the juvenal 
plumage to the post juvenal plumage, being in about the same 
stage as a young female (No. 13475 C. A. S.) taken in Mer- 
ced County, California, on September 3, 1908. The upper 
parts, particularly the wing-coverts, still contain a good many 
of the feathers edged with light sandy-buff that characterize 
the young. 

Ardea herodias: Great Blue Heron 

Albemarle, Charles, Chatham, Duncan, Hood, Indefati- 
gable, James, Narborough, and Seymour islands. 

Although usually solitary. Great Blue Herons are not un- 
common on the central and southern islands. They seemed 
to be confined to the vicinity of tide-water, and did not fre- 
quent the salt lagoons, which were the haunts of the Flamin- 
goes and Egrets. 

They lacked the wariness of northern birds, and at times 
would allow approach to within a few yards. On one occasion 
an individual followed me about on wing in a mangrove 
swamp, apparently from curiosity. Each time I moved away a 
short distance, it would leave the tree on which it had settled, 
and fly to another near by, and crane its neck and peer down 
at me. At another time one was attracted to a dead bird of 
the same species, although a party from the schooner was 
standing in plain view within twenty-five yards. 

A bird with enlarged sexual organs was shot on the north- 
western part of Indefatigable Island on July 23. Three 
months later Mr. Hunter obtained on southeastern In- 
defatigable a nearly naked young one, with pin-feathers just 
appearing, while Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert report a 
clutch of three fresh eggs on that island on September 2} 
Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller found a set of three eggs on 
Narborough Island in January.- As with the Frazar's Oyster- 
catcher, the breeding-season appears to be quite extended, or 
else it is later on Narborough than on the islands to the 
eastward of Albemarle. 

There seem to be no color characters distinguishing Gala- 
pagos specimens of the Great Blue Heron from middle-Cali- 

■■•Nov. Zool., V. 6, pp. 93, 115, 180. 
=Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 5, p. 254. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 59 

fornia specimens, except that the colors of the latter average 
a trifle darker. A comparison of the measurements of adults 
from the two localities (Table VII, p. 114) show that the Gala- 
pagos specimens average smaller in length of wing, tail, and 
tarsus, and larger in length of culmen/ 

Herodias egretta: Egret 

Albemarle and Indefatigable islands. 

Unlike the Great Blue Heron, this species was wary and 
very difficult to obtain, perhaps on account of the fact that the 
natives hunted it somewhat for its plumage. It could be ap- 
proached only under cover. A few individuals were often seen 
about Villamil, Albemarle Island, perching in some high tree 
in the midst of an impenetrable mangrove swamp, or else 
standing in some inaccessible part of a lagoon. 

Unlike the Great Blue Heron, the Egret frequented the 
saline coastal lagoons, which are unaffected by tides. At Vil- 
lamil, one day in March, I saw fifteen of them in the large 
lagoon. On November 29 one was taken in a lagoon on 
northern Indefatigable Island, opposite Daphne. 

The measurements of Table VIII, p. 115, show that the Cali- 
fornian specimens average slightly larger than those from the 
Galapagos Islands; the series, of the latter, however, is very 
small. 

Nyctanassa violacea: Yellow-crowned Night Heron 

Plate II, Fig. 1 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Bindloe, Brattle, Champion, Charles, 
Chatham, Duncan, Gardner-near-Hood, Hood, Indefatigable, 
James, Jervis, Narborough, Seymour, and Tower islands. 

The Yellow-crowned Night Heron was fairly common in 
the archipelago, being found along the shores of the above- 
mentioned islands, while on Albemarle and Tower it was seen 
in the interior as well. Like the Galapagos Heron, it fre- 
quented rocky and cliff-bound coasts, as well as those fringed 
with mangroves. At Villamil, Albemarle Island, it was ob- 
served about the large saline lagoons. On Tower Island, Sep- 
tember 14 and 15, 1906, two or three were noted a quarter of a 

^Cf. Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, v. 3, pp. 99, 100; Oberholser, Proc. 
U. S. N. M., V. 43, pp. 549, 550, 559. 



60 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

mile inland among the rocks and bushes. On the east side of 
Cowley Mountain, Albemarle Island, on August 10 and 11, 
the tracks of these birds were noted in the dust of the donkey 
trails at an altitude of about twenty-four hundred feet, and an 
immature bird was seen. On August 30, at the village of 
Santo Tomas, Albemarle Island, at an altitude of about 
twelve hundred feet, a peon brought in an immature one which 
he had caught early that morning. On other islands they 
were often found in the brush a short distance from the beach, 
but never up in the mountains, as on Albemarle. Like the 
Galapagos Heron, this species proved a very easy one to 
approach. 

A male, taken on Duncan Island on December 2, and show- 
ing traces of immaturity, had enlarged testes. Four adults 
taken on June 25 on Hood Island had small sexual organs, as 
had an adult male taken at Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, 
on July 16. The same remarks also apply to a specimen taken 
in a cavern gn Abingdon Island on September 22, 1906. 

A nest of this species was found on March 10, on a point 
thickly clothed with mangroves, which jutted into the large 
lagoon beside the road leading inland from Villamil. The 
nest was a bulky affair placed in a low flat bush about two and 
a half feet above the ground. It was built of twigs and lined 
with grass, and contained four pale greenish-blue eggs, nearly 
ready to hatch. On March 15 another nest was found a short 
distance from the beach about two miles west of Cape Rose, 
Albemarle Island, and it contained two very small young. 

On July 28, 1905, three Yellow-crowned Night Herons 
were seen in the brush near Braithwaite Bay, Socorro, Revilla 
Gigedo Islands, and one was secured. On Cocos Island, 
Costa Rica, during the first half of September of the same 
year, they were not infrequent, being seen in the trees and 
along the fresh-water streams. 

The material from Socorro and Cocos in the Academy's col- 
lection is very inadequate. An adult male from Socorro and 
one from Cocos are both slightly paler than adults from the 
Galapagos Islands. The measurements given in Table IX, p. 
115, are all from adults, except those of Cocos specimens, in 
which case an adult male and an immature male were meas- 
ured. The two Cocos males have larger bills than the Gala- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFOTW— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 61 

pagos males, a difference which strikes the eye instantly when 
looking over the series. The measurements of a female from 
Camden County, Georgia, in the collection of Mr. Joseph 
Grinnell, are included in the table. 

In the Academy's series are six Galapagos specimens in 
Juvenal plumage, and showing no signs of postjuvenal moult. 
They are as follows : No. 2064, Seymour, November 22 ; No. 
2063, Charles, February 26; No. 2065, Hood, June 25; No. 
2066, Indefatigable, July 16; No. 2061, Albemarle, August 
11; No. 2058, Albemarle, August 31. Of these six speci- 
mens, three still have the remains of down attached to the 
feathers of the crown; viz., Nos. 2064, 2065, and 2058. The 
above series would seem to indicate that the breeding-season 
for the species continues throughout the year. 

No. 2062, Cocos Island, September 4, 1905, is beginning to 
moult the juvenal plumage, pin-feathers appearing in the back 
and about the head and neck. I am unable to say whether the 
moult is the postjuvenal or the prenuptial. No. 2054, Albe- 
marle, March 5, is evidently undergoing a similar moult, which 
likewise has not proceeded beyond the body-feathers, although 
it has been pretty well completed on the head and neck. The 
same remarks apply to No. 2060, Albemarle, March 5, and to 
No. 2059, Albemarle, March 10. " , 

Three specimens are in a striped immature plumage, which 
evidently completely replaces the juvenal plumage, but wheth- 
er by a postjuvenal or a prenuptial moult, I cannot say. In 
this plumage, pale-brown occipital plumes and dusky scapular 
plumes are present, and the black chin and throat of the adult 
are faintly indicated. Our specimens were taken as follows : 
No. 2057, Hood, September 29, 1905 ; No. 2056, Brattle, Oc- 
tober 30; No. 2055, Indefatigable", November 20. 

Birds .with the black of the throat unbroken, but showing 
immaturity otherwise, were not uncommon. This immaturity 
usually took the form of a generally duskier and more brown- 
ish (rather than bluish) cast to the entire plumage, and also 
of more or less streaked under parts. No. 2052, Hood, June 
25, is evidently passing from the plumage last described into 
this one. No. 2053, from Cocos Island, September 8, 1905, 
has white feathers intermingled with the black ones of the 
throat and chin. 



62 • CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

No. 2030, a fine adult male from Cocos Island, is in fresh 
plumage and still shows numbers of pin-feathers. No. 2032 
from Socorro, July 28, is in worn feather. 

Butorides sundevalli: Galapagos Heron 
Plate II, Fig. 2 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Champion, 
Charles, Chatham, Daphne, Delano, Duncan, Gardner-near- 
Hood, Hood, Indefatigable, islet off northeast James, James, 
Jervis, Narborough, Seymour, Tower, and Wenman islands. 

This fearless, and to our minds ludicrous, heron frequented 
the rocky and cliff-bound coasts as well as those clothed with 
mangroves, its dusky color blending admirably with the lava 
rocks and rendering it very difficult to see, especially when not 
in motion. It was also observed quite commonly in the large 
saline lagoons near Villamil, Albemarle Island. 

In two or three instances individuals were observed sitting 
on the bowsprit of the schooner while anchored at Tagus Cove, 
Albemarle Island. One day at Charles Island, upon returning 
from a short trip inland, we found an immature one in the 
bottom of the skiff, which was drawn up on the beach. It was 
quietly investigating the water under the grating. When we 
threw our things into the boat, it jumped up on a thwart, where 
it remained until one of the members of the party got a stick 
and dispatched it. 

When a stone is thrown close to one of these birds, or it is 
come upon suddenly, it often jumps two or three feet to a 
neighboring rock, raising its crest and cackling and squawking 
in great alarm. Often if a person rows by one in a skiff at a dis- 
tance of thirty or forty feet, it will make a great racket, craning 
its neck absurdly all the while — a habit which affords much 
amusement to the onlookers. When excited or disturbed, 
these herons bob their tails up and down continually with a 
short twitching motion. 

Very often they were observed flying across bays and toward 
adjacent islands. They do not fly with the neck outstretched, 
but carry the head close to the shoulders, giving the body a 
hunched appearance. The same is true of their walk. One 
was watched carefully one day on Indefatigable Island. It 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 63 

walked along, jumping from rock to rock and keeping hunched 
up all the time. Upon sighting its prey, it advanced slowly 
and stealthily, keeping behind rocks as much as possible until 
within striking distance, when suddenly its head shot forth 
and the fish was caught. On another day in the same locality 
I watched for fully ten minutes one trying to swallow a crab, 
and then had to leave without witnessing the conclusion. 
The crustacean was held crosswise in the bird's bill, and to 
all appearances was too large to be swallowed. Nevertheless 
the bird stood tenaciously in one spot, and made occasional 
unsuccessful gulps. 

Enlargement of the sexual organs was noted in adults taken 
on Hood Island in September, on Indefatigable and Seymour 
in November, on Chatham in February, and on Abingdon in 
September. The sexual organs of two birds taken at Iguana 
Cove, Albemarle Island, on March 17 were small. 

The only occupied nest discovered was in a mangrove thicket 
on a small islet at Sappho Cove, Chatham Island, February 
10. It was about twenty-five feet from the outer edge of the 
thicket, and perhaps four or five feet above high water. It 
was composed of twigs, was not particularly bulky, and con- 
tained three greenish eggs, pipped and ready to hatch. Both 
of the adults were present and kept up a continual squawking 
while the nest was being examined. One stayed on the nest, 
except when approached very closely, when it would move 
away two or three feet, darting its bill at us continually. 

On Narborough on April 18, I killed, with a stone, a young 
one which was just able to fly and fish for itself. Immedi- 
ately its parent flew towards it screaming and with crest up- 
raised. A similar instance was observed two or three days 
before at Banks Bay, Albemarle Island. 

The Academy's series of adults exhibits a dichromatism. 
Three adult males from Chatham Island are of the pale phase, 
one (No. 2166 C. A. S.) extremely pale; a fourth male (No. 
2137 C. A. S.) is rather intermediate, as is the only female 
from that island. A male (No. 2167 C. A. S.) from Banks 
Bay, and a female (No. 2168 C. A. S.) from Indefatigable, 
closely resemble the Chatham males. Throughout the series 
of adults there is considerable variation in color, most of the 
birds inclining to the dark extreme. From the Academy's 



64 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

series and from the remarks by Mr. Ridgway/ it would appear 
that the extreme pale phase of this species is known only from 
Chatham, Indefatigable, and Albemarle Islands. In the ex- 
treme pale examples, the under tail-coverts are white or very 
pale gray with subterminal black spots, and there is a more or 
less distinct grayish-white postocular streak. The pileum and 
occipital crest are of the same color as in the dark phase, while 
the throat is white instead of gray. In many of the specimens 
of the dark phase the chin and throat have absolutely no white, 
but are pale gray mottled with darker gray. Breeding indi- 
viduals of the pale phase seen at Sappho Cove in February 
had noticeably red tarsi and toes. 

The series of young and immature birds shows considerable 
variation also. In the majority of cases the ventral aspect is 
dusky as described by Mr. Ridgway. Two specimens, how- 
ever, from Cowley Bay, Albemarle Island, and from Nar- 
borough respectively, are noticeably white below. Some speci- 
mens have the terminal triangular white spot on the four outer- 
most primaries as well as on the others. In very dusky ex- 
amples the rusty shaft-streaks are lacking in the feathers of 
the pileum and occipital crest. In some specimens the back 
and scapulars are not of uniform deep sooty brown, but have 
broad cinnamon-rufous mesial stripes, and the wing coverts 
are similarly marked. No. 2144, Jervis, December 18, is an 
excellent example. No. 2152, Indefatigable, July 23, has 
narrow pale mesial stripes. No. 2148, Indefatigable, January 
22, in which the juvenal plumage is not yet fully developed, 
shows beautiful green reflections on the feathers of the upper 
parts. 

Two adults showing albinistic feathers were taken on In- 
defatigable Island in latter November. One had a white 
feather in the side of the neck, the other a white secondary. 
No. 2119, adult male, from south Albemarle, has the tertia- 
ries a dark shining green, like the end of the tail, for about one 
quarter-inch at the distal end. This color is in the form of a 
terminal band. A similar terminal band, much interrupted, 
is formed by this color on the tail. 

The Academy's series of skins of this species numbers 102. 
Forty-five adult males show the dimensions, in millimeters, 

iProc. U. S. N. M., V. 19, p. 60S. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 65 

of that sex to be: Wing 176-198 (186) ; tail 57-71 (63) ; 
culmen 62-71 (67.3) ; tarsus 44.3-52.3 (48.6) ; middle toe 
42.9-49 (45.6). Thirty-six females yield the following meas- 
urements: Wing 169-192 (183); tail 56-70 (63.8); cul- 
men 58.1-69.2 (65.4); tarsus 43.4-51.2 (47.4); middle toe 
39.3-46.5 (44). 

Table X, p. 116, giving measurements of specimens by 
islands, shows that there is no variation in size with locality, 
but that obviously all the variation in size is individual. It 
cannot be correlated in any way with the color phases. 

Birds in juvenal plumage showing no signs of moult were 
taken during nine months of the year, and consequently prove 
to a certain degree the wide range of the breeding-season of 
this heron. They were taken as follows : November 25, 
Indefatigable; December 18, Jervis; January 22, Indefati- 
gable; March 24, Albemarle; April 18, Narborough; May 23, 
Charles; June 28, Hood; July 14 and 23, Indefatigable; Sep- 
tember 22, Abingdon. 

Birds in juvenal plumage with the renewal taking place 
chiefly in the scapular and interscapular regions were taken 
as follows: September 27, 1905, Gardner-near-Hood ; Octo- 
ber 24, Barrington ; November 8, Indefatigable ; November 
22, Seymour; January 5, James; July 16, Indefatigable; 
August 11, Albemarle; September 22, 1906, Abingdon. No. 
2163, Indefatigable, January 11, is somewhat farther along 
than the above specimens, and has a good many new gray 
feathers in the lower parts. No renewal seems to have yet 
taken place on the wings, the feathers being those assumed 
with the juvenal plumage. 

A study of the Academy's series of adults reveals the two 
following points : The immature birds assume the adult 
plumage at the first prenuptial moult, which evidently involves 
the wings and tail as "well as the body. The adults also have 
a complete prenuptial moult. 

Butorides virescens: Green Heron 

The Green Heron was not an uncommon bird on Cocos 
Island, Costa Rica, where a number were seen in the tall for- 
est trees and along the streams in September, 1905. 

August 8, 1913 



66 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



The following table gives the measurements of seventeen 
specimens in the Academy's collection. 







MEASUREMENTS 


(in millimeters) 






Number 


Sex 


Age 


Locality 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 


Tarsus 


Middle 
Toe 


18396 


cT 


Adult 


Ohio 


181 


60 


65.1 


49. 


44.2 


13703 


cT 


Adult 


California 


195 


66 


60.8 


49.9 


46.6 


13705 


rf 


Adult 


California 


198 


61 


57 


50.8 


46.5 


13704 


cT 


Adult 


California 


196 


73 


62.2 


50.5 


46.2 


12959 


rf 


Immature 


California 


201 


68 


61 


51.7 


45 


12408 


cf 


Immature 


California 


193 


66 


56 


50.9 


45.6 


2172 


d' 


Immature 


Cocos 


172 


60 


61.8 


46.9 


42.8 


2173 


<^ 


Immature 


Cocos 


180 


63 


59.8 


49.4 


42.5 


2170 


cf 


Immature 


Cocos 


176 


61 


58.6 


49.1 


45.1 


2169 


ff 


Immature 


Cocos 


174 


59 


55 


49 


45 


13702 


9 


Adult 


California 


201 


70 


56.5 


49 


45 


12411 


9 


Immature 


California 


198 


67 


59.1 


50.6 


45.8 


12409 


9 


Immature 


California 


185 


65 


56 


50.1 


44 


12410 


9 


Immature 


California 


192 


64 


52.5 


51.7 


46 


12220 


9 


Immature 


California 


192 


67 


56.3 


49.3 


44.6 


2174 


9 


Immature 


Cocos 


174 


59 


58.1 


48.1 


43.3 


2171 


9 


Immature 


Cocos 


177 


61 


56.3 


50.5 


47.8 



The following summary of the above measurements shows 
that Cocos specimens average decidedly smaller than Califor- 
nia specimens in length of wing and of tail, closely approach- 
ing the Ohio specimen in this regard. These averages are 
made without regard to age. 

SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS (in millimeters) 



Locality 


Sex 


Number of 
Specimens 


Wing 


TaU 


Culmen 


Tarsus 


Middle 
Toe 


Ohio .... 

California. . . 

Cocos 

California . . . 
Cocos 


9 
9 


1 

5 
4 
5 
2 


181 
197 
176 
194 
175 


60 
67 
61 
67 
60 


65.1 
59 

58.8 
56.1 

57.2 


49 

50.8 

48.6 

50.1 

49.3 


44.2 
46 
43.9 
45.1 

45.5 



Phoenicopterus ruber: American Flamingo^ 
Plate III 

Albemarle, Charles, Chatham, Indefatigable, James, and 
Jervis islands. 

^Cf. Chapman, "A Contribution to the Life History of the American Flamingo 
{Phoenicopterus ruber), with Remarks upon Specimens," Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
V. 21, pp. 53-77. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 67 

Flamingoes were not abundant. Albemarle, Charles, and 
James seemed to be the most frequented islands, and about 
thirty was the largest number of birds seen in one flock at one 
time. On Indefatigable Island they were very scarce, only 
two being taken; and likewise on Jervis, where a young one 
was found in the small lagoon on the north side of the island. 
On Chatham Island a dead one was found on the shore of the 
tidal lagoon near the warehouse at Wreck Bay. This bird, 
we were told, had been brought over alive from Charles 
Island. The lagoon at the base of the precipitous mountain 
known as Finger Point, near Sappho Cove, Chatham Island, 
appeared to be a suitable one for flamingoes; but none were 
found there. 

The salty coastal lagoons seemed to be the sole haunts of 
these birds. These lagoons are unaffected by the tides, and 
are therefore saturated solutions of salts, their shores often 
being paved with crystalline deposits. Their beds are usually 
composed of reddish mud, sometimes quite hard and firm. 
The shores, as a rule, are fringed with mangroves and salt- 
loving bushes, which in many cases grow in almost impene- 
trable thickets. Some of these lagoons are bounded by bare 
lava. 

With only one or two exceptions, it was not difficult to get 
within shot-gun range of the flamingoes, and the discharge 
of a gun usually caused them to fly only a short distance. 

Where the ground is clear, and the bird's movements are 
unimpeded by rocks and bushes, the flamingo is a good runner, 
being able to cover ground very rapidly, and giving a person 
a lively chase. At James Bayj James Island, a young bird 
not quite able to fly got through the bushes from the lagoon 
to the ocean beach. I pursued it for nearly half a mile south 
along the beach late one afternoon. I was, however, unable 
to overtake it before it reached the rocks at the end of the 
beach. Perceiving that it would be caught if it remained on 
the beach, the bird stepped into the water and struck boldly 
out from shore, swimming over an eighth of a mile. As soon 
as I left the beach, it returned and commenced walking up 
and down again in the attempt to find its way back to the 
lagoon. The following morning it had disappeared. 



68 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

In the lagoons I have seen them walking both in long Indian 
files, and, when disturbed, in compact bunches. Early one 
morning we came upon a flock of twenty-eight in the lagoon at 
Cormorant Bay, Charles Island. The placid surface of the 
lagoon, overshadowed by a high and steep mountain on its 
southeast side and surrounded by rocks and trees, together 
with the beautiful roseate birds following one another in solemn 
procession the whole length of the lagoon, made a very at- 
tractive picture. 

At a lagoon four or five miles northwest of Sullivan Bay, 
James Island, on July 28, an adult bird was found without 
flight feathers.^ New ones were just appearing, which were 
very tender, bleeding profusely when bruised. This bird was 
a fast runner, racing up and down the smooth beach of the 
lagoon, until finally it was chased into a cul-de-sac. It tried 
to escape through the brush, but of course tripped and fell, 
bruising its wings, feet, and bill. It realized its inability to 
fly, for it did not make any attempt to use its wings until the 
very last. When carried under the arm it kept its head at a 
level with mine, and did not try to strike with its heavy bill, 
but simply looked at me wonderingly. This bird was taken 
aboard the schooner, where it had great difficulty in standing, 
owing to the rolling of the vessel. It managed to do so, how- 
ever, by using its head and neck as a third leg. The same 
thing was noted later with the young. The head and neck 
are used in a like manner to assist a bird in steadying itself 
when arising from a sitting posture. 

As compared with the adults, the young walked clumsily. 
In running in the shallow water as well as on the land, they 
kept their wings outspread, flapping them at each step, appar- 
ently balancing themselves by this means. I saw one stumble, 
and one youngster, partially in the down, stepped in a hole 
in the beach and broke one of its tarsi. 

We first saw this species at Cormorant Bay, October 4, 
when three or four flocks of about a dozen birds each flew by 
the vessel, having been disturbed by some of the party who 
had gone ashore. They seemed to be all neck and legs when 
flying, as they carried those members stretched out hori- 
zontally. Their wing beats were not rapid, but were moderate 

iCf. Beck. Condor, v. 4. p. 99: v. 6. p. 10: Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 310; Chap- 
man, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., v. 21, p. 76. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 69 

— being faster than those of the Great Blue Heron, but slower 
than those of the Bahama Pintail. When forced to fly from 
a lagoon, they usually circled about several times, apparently 
very reluctant to leave, and often settling again instead of fly- 
ing off. They were seldom, if ever, seen in flight except when 
disturbed. Nevertheless they must move about considerably, 
for the numbers in the respective lagoons varied at different 
seasons, and in several instances varied overnight. 

These birds were always observed feeding in the water, 
often standing in it up to and even above the lower edge of 
the feathered portion of the tibiae. In this position they feed 
upon the bottom of the lagoon, affording a strange spectacle 
with neither head nor legs in sight. Specimens were taken 
with the gullet full of what appeared to be reddish mud. 

Nests of this species were found on Charles and James 
Islands, at Cormorant Bay on the former island and at James 
Bay and near Sullivan Bay on the latter. The nests were 
built of earth and mud scraped together into a pile with steep 
sides, sometimes being as much as a foot in height and the 
same in diameter across the top. Usually they were about 
seven or eight inches high. The depressions in the tops were 
about an inch or an inch and a half deep. The nests were al- 
ways built near the water, either on some very low, flat, rocky 
islet or on a beach. On the east side of the lagoon at James 
Bay, there were thirty-five nests on the narrow beach at the 
edge of the brush. Twenty-five were strung along close 
together, and a few feet to the northward were ten more. When 
we visited that locality in early August many of them showed 
signs of recent use, to which the presence of the young birds 
also testified. Some, however, had not been occupied that 
year. About a dozen addled eggs were found, one to a nest, 
while the remaining nests were vacant. On our previous visit 
in December there were no eggs, so without a doubt these 
were laid in 1906. Evidently at least a third of the eggs laid 
in that locality during that year were infertile. 

At Cormorant Bay, on February 25, we found six mounds 
of earth between four and eight inches high, each with one 
fresh tgg. They were on a low lava-islet in the northeast cor- 
ner of the large lagoon. No nests were found with lining 
other than mud and earth. A seventh fresh ^gg was laid on 



70 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

a level bit of lava rock, with mud half an inch deep scraped 
around it. The birds all left when approached within thirty 
yards. 

In a lagoon about four miles northwest of Sullivan Bay, on 
July 28, nine unoccupied nests were found, seven of which 
were on a small, low, lava-islet, the remaining two being on 
the adjacent mainland. They were built in the usual style, 
but were, however, only four or five inches high. An addled 
egg was found in one. Undoubtedly the nests of the flamin- 
goes in the Galapagos Islands are not endangered to any 
great extent by the rise of the water, as are the nests of their 
Bahama relatives ; hence, perhaps, many are built very low. 

The following notes were made at James Bay in August: 
August 6, there were twelve flamingoes in the lagoon, one 
adult and eleven young, three of the latter being large enough 
to fly. The remaining eight still showed more or less down. 
Two or three dead young with nearly straight bills were 
found. They were considerably younger than the ones taken. 
Two full-grown young were feeding apart from the others. 
They were approached quite closely and photographed, proving 
less wary than the adults. August 7, an additional adult had 
arrived during the night. One of the larger young birds was 
observed to go through a strange performance; it seemed to 
be butting an adult. They were all on the beach at the time. 
The young one would lower its head and bump against the 
adult with its shoulders; the latter paid very little attention, 
merely trying to get out of the way. The performance was 
kept up for about five minutes. Was the young bird begging 
to be fed ? I had seen it feeding itself — in fact they all seemed 
to do so, the young apparently being left to themselves most 
of the time, judging from the absence of the parents. August 
8 revealed four adults in the lagoon. There were two lagoons 
south of the one here mentioned, but they did not seem to be 
used by the flamingoes for breeding purposes. 

The chief associate of the flamingo was the Bahama Pin- 
tail, while the Black-necked Stilt ranked second. 

The colors of the naked parts in life were as follows : 

Adult — Terminal third of bill black ; remainder of mandible 
whitish tinged with scarlet; remainder of maxilla, throat, and 
skin in front of the eyes whitish ; orbital ring buff ; iris straw- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 71 

yellow; tarsus and toes scarlet; under side of toes and webs 
flesh-colored. Maxillse of very high-plumaged adults are 
tinged with scarlet from the black of the anterior portion to 
the posterior end of the nostrils. 

Juvenal plumage — Iris dark brown; orbital ring olive-buff; 
bill olive-buff, tipped with plumbeous; skin in front of eyes 
and throat cinereous; tarsus and toes olive-gray, blackish 
slate at joints; under side of toes and webs mouse-gray. As 
the birds age the tip of the bill becomes darker. 

The Academy's series of flamingo skins, all from the Gala- 
pagos Islands, numbers seventy, and includes specimens taken 
in every month of the year except March, April, and June. 

The series of young birds is passing into the plumage called 
by Mr. Chapman the "third or juvenal plumage."^ The 
youngest bird matches No. 3 of Fig. 16 of Mr. Chapman's 
paper. As the grayish-brown down disappears from the tips 
of the feathers of the under parts, the pale pink plumage is 
more clearly disclosed, showing many of the feathers on the 
breast and flanks with dark shafts. By lifting the feathers 
of the under parts, the gray downy teleoptiles can be seen. 
The youngest bird shows these very distinctly. With the next 
moult these become paler, and in birds fully adult are white. 
The feathers of the upper parts, particularly the scapulars and 
interscapulars, show wear very quickly, for even in the young- 
est bird they are somewhat abraded. Pale pink feathers put 
in an appearance on the head, whence they seem to work 
by degrees down the neck, appearing here and there and giv- 
ing it a pink-and-gray mottled appearance. At this stage the 
scapulars and interscapulars are much worn and pointed, and 
the primaries are developed enough to enable the bird to fly. 
All of the young thus far mentioned were taken at James Bay, 
August 6 to 9, showing that there must be considerable varia- 
tion in the time of egg-laying in a colony. No. 2236, James 
Island, December 26, is in very much worn and faded juvenal 
plumage, but shows no signs of moult. 

Two specimens (No. 2234 from Jervis Island, December 
18, 1905, and No. 2237 from James, December 28, 1905) 
are moulting from the juvenal or third plumage into a fourth 
plumage — not the full adult plumage, however, but a pink 

iBull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., v. 21, p. 72. 



72 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

plumage with dusky mesial stripes on many of the feathers of 
the upper parts. These two specimens also show pink feath- 
ers replacing the worn faded feathers of the head and neck, 
and apparently working from the head downward. The 
bases of the new feathers appearing in the head and neck are 
gray as in the ju venal plumage, and not white as in fully 
adult specimens. No. 2232, October 5, and No. 2238, Feb- 
ruary 26, both from Charles Island, seem to show this fourth 
plumage somewhat farther advanced. Scarlet upper wing- 
coverts, occasionally with dark shafts, are appearing, and pink 
feathers are replacing the worn, faded feathers of the under 
parts. Pinkish-white feathers are also taking the places of 
the long bicolored scapulars, and new upper tail-coverts are 
appearing. No. 2238 shows the old and new upper wing- 
coverts in alternating rows. No. 2208, south Albemarle, May 
1, is still farther along, yet shows outward signs of imma- 
turity in the wing-coverts, scapulars, tertials, upper tail-coverts, 
tail, and the dark color of the naked parts. Many old worn 
feathers of the third plumage are still to be found in the neck, 
hidden beneath the new feathers, which, as mentioned above, 
have dark bases. To sum up, the five immature birds just dis- 
cussed are all in moult, apparently from the juvenal plumage 
to a plumage superficially adult, but distinguished from the 
full adult plumage by its paleness, by the dusky bases of the 
feathers of the head and neck, by the dark shafts of the axil- 
laries, and by the more or less frequent occurrence of dorsal 
feathers with a dark mesial stripe or at least a shaft partially 
dusky subterminally. For the sake of convenience this 
plumage will be spoken of as the fourth plumage. 

The following table gives the measurements in millimeters 
of all the young and immature specimens, referred to in the 
foregoing account, arranged according to age, as apparently 
indicated by the plumage. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



73 



MEASUREMENTS OF IMMATURE BIRDS (in millimeters) 



t-l 


















<u 


^ 

"Z 




Date 


Island 


Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 


Tarsus 




2203 


Aug. 


6, 1906 


James 


& 


145 




93 


139 


71 


2200 


Aug. 


9, 1906 


James 


cf 


203 




95 


142 


72 


2202 


Aug. 


7, 1906 


James 


9 


241 


49 


99 


154 


69 


2231 


Aug. 


7, 1906 


James 


9 


244 


37 


99 


153 


68 


2230 


Aug. 


8, 1906 


James 


9 


261 


50 


102 


145 


70 


2204 


Aug. 


7, 1906 


James 


9 


322 


69 


113 


157 


70 


2205 


Aug. 


7, 1906 


James 


9 


305 


74 


111 


167 


73 


22061 


Aug. 


8, 1906 


James 


9 


367 


106 


118 


190 


86 


2201 


Aug. 


7, 1906 


James 


9 


340 


99 


115 


177 


77 


2233 


Aug. 


6, 1906 


James 




361 


112 


114 


180 


75 


2235 


Aug. 


7, 1906 


James 


9 


348 


95 


119 


183 


76 


2236 


Dec. 


26, 1905 


James 


c^ 


361 


111 


115 


187 


77 


2234 


Dec. 


18, 1905 


Jervis 


9 


359 


114 


113 


202 


73 


2237 


Dec. 


28, 1905 


James 


9 


368 


112 


118 


190 


80 


2232 


Oct. 


5, 1905 


Charles 




353 


102 


111 


215 


76 


2238 


Feb. 


26, 1906 


Charles 


9 


367 


107 


116 


252 


78 


2208 


May- 


1, 1906 


Albemarle 


& 


408 


123 


127 


295 


90 



Birds showing the fourth plumage, usually mixed with 
either the third or the fifth, are common in the Academy's 
series, and have been included in the measurements of adults, 
for to all outward appearances they are adult. Occasional 
specimens in this plumage have dark edges to the rectrices, 
but this was also noted in one full adult. I am not prepared 
to say positively whether the primaries of this fourth plumage 
are those of the third, but apparently they are, as are also the 
axillaries. Just how long a time elapses between the hatching 
of the chick and the assumption of the adult plumage is hard 
to say, as the birds evidently breed at different times of the 
year on different islands, making it exceedingly difficult to 
judge from a series of skins alone. However, I believe that 
the full adult plumage is assumed at the first postnuptial moult. 

Nineteen specimens in the Academy's collection show the 
fourth plumage in some stage. One October specimen from 
Charles Island retains' tertials of the third plumage, and has 
worn feathers of that plumage hidden beneath the feathers of 
the neck. Otherwise it is in worn fourth plumage, with new 
feathers of the fifth plumage putting in an appearance in the 

^No. 2206 has not lost the down from the tips of the feathers of the breast, yet 
it is a larger bird than No. 2201. which has lost it. 



74 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

interscapular region and on the breast. The axillaries are 
dark-shafted and worn, and are evidently retained from the 
third plumage. Another October specimen from Charles 
Island is in almost complete fresh fifth plumage, including 
axillaries, but still shows a good many dark-based feathers in 
the neck and worn feathers in the back. Four other Charles 
Island specimens, taken in early October, are in transition 
also; the two individuals just mentioned, however, give the 
extremes. It would seem from the second individual, that 
some specimens at least attain the full adult plumage in latter 
October or November. Other transition birds, some showing 
remains of the third plumage in the neck, were taken in Janu- 
ary, February, May, and July. No. 2196, male, James Island, 
July 28, is assuming the fifth or adult plumage — new abdomi- 
nal feathers, axillaries, primaries, upper wing-coverts, and 
rectrices are appearing, the primaries and rectrices not being 
full grown. Elsewhere the moult is in progress. The new 
axillaries have red instead of dusky shafts, a characteristic 
of the adult bird. Evidently the first loss of the primaries 
occurs during the moult from the fourth to the adult plumage. 
One specimen. No. 2225, has an abnormal black feather at 
the base of the neck; this feather belongs to the fourth 
plumage. It would seem that the plumage which I call fourth 
is either the postjuvenal or the first prenuptial, and is obtained 
by a partial moult. The fifth plumage is evidently the first 
postbreeding plumage. 

Thirty specimens are fully adult. The feathers of the head 
and neck have white bases, the axillaries have red instead of 
black shafts, the body-down is white, and, in some February, 
July, and August specimens, the lower mandible is tinged with 
red just posterior to the black of the outer third. These thirty 
specimens were taken in October, November, December, Janu- 
ary, February, July, and August. 

Three October specimens from Charles Island are worn, 
and exhibit feather-growth in the head, 'neck, back, breast, and 
abdomen. 

No. 2187, Indefatigable Island, November 25, is in worn 
faded plumage. New feathers, paler than normal, are appear- 
ing in the head, neck, back, and lower parts. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 75 

Of three specimens from James Island, taken in latter De- 
cember, one is a female in fine fresh plumage save for a few 
old scapulars and interscapulars, which are being replaced. 
The other two specimens are worn birds in process of moult, 
one being also much faded. The new feathers appearing in 
this bird are abnormally pale. 

This brings us to a fine male taken on southern Indefatigable 
Island on January 11. This bird has pretty well renewed its 
plumage, although the moult is still in process on the back and 
in the tail. Both wings show the primary coverts being re- 
newed, while in the right wing the two outer primaries are 
lacking, and new ones are just appearing, still enveloped in 
their sheaths. This is evidently not a normal state, and it 
may have been brought on by an accident. 

Fourteen adults were taken on Charles Island on February 
26. These all show some wear in varying degree, but ap- 
parently very little fading; for the color of the breast and 
lower neck is much intensified in some by the wearing away 
of the pale margins of the feathers, leaving them pointed in- 
stead of rounded. Some specimens show remnants of the 
previous plumage. One or two others show a few new feath- 
ers appearing in the back and breast, either belated arrivals of 
the present plumage or early heralds of the next plumage. 

Seven specimens from James Island, taken in late July and 
early August, show new feathers, and seem to be coming into 
full fresh plumage (undoubtedly the postbreeding), although 
they are by no means all at the same stage. Two are much 
faded, and, as in other very pale specimens, the new feathers 
appearing in the neck, breast, and back are paler than normal. 
Both have worn red feathers at the base of the fore-neck, 
among which new pale feathers are appearing in conformity 
with other new pale feathers. One specimen also exhibits a 
large amount of red on the lower mandible. The other speci- 
men shows some new pinkish white feathers appearing among 
the bright red ones of the abdomen. In pale specimens the 
wings and tail seem to be normal in coloration, and four such 
specimens show patches of worn red feathers on the lower 
fore-neck. The pallor elsewhere is not that of immaturity, 
for the birds are fully adult. 



76 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

One specimen, taken on south Albemarle on September 3, 
is in about the same stage as some of the July and August birds 
from James, in which the moult is well along. 

From the evidence given above, it appears that in adults 
the plumage is entirely renewed during the latter half of each 
year after the breeding season,^ which occurs in the first half 
of the year. 

The measurements (in millimeters) of' twenty adult males 
and twenty-three adult females yield the following extremes 
and averages: Males— Wing 381-439 (413); tail 122-154 
(139); culmen 117.4-132.3 (125.6); tarsus 253-322 (295); 
middle toe 80-91.9 (86.4). Females— Wing 370-412 (384) ; 
tail 120-143 (132); culmen 115-126 (119.5); tarsus 241- 
306 (258) ; middle toe 73.9-89 (77.9). 

Five fresh eggs from Charles Island measure in millimeters 
as follows: 83.5X50.9, 87.3X52.4, 89.4X51.1, 85.8X52.6, 
86.9X52.5. They all fall below the average given by Mr. 
Chapman for ten eggs from the Bahama Islands — 90.2X53.9.^ 

Poecilonetta bahamensis: Bahama Pintail 

Albemarle, Barrington, Charles, Chatham, Duncan, Hood, 
Indefatigable, James, Jervis, and Seymour islands. 

The Bahama Pintail was common on Albemarle, Charles, 
Chatham, Indefatigable, James, and Seymour islands, as many 
as one hundred being seen together on south Albemarle. Other 
expeditions have reported them from Barrington, Duncan, and 
Hood islands, localities in which they were not observed by 
us. In the crater-lake at Tower Island, four ducks were ob- 
served swimming about, but as I was on the rim of the crater 
two or three hundred feet above them, they could not be posi- 
tively identified. 

The species was most common about the salt lagoons of the 
low coastal regions, where it associated largely with the Ameri- 
can Flamingo and the Black-necked Stilt, and, to a lesser de- 
gree, with the Sooty Gull, the Blue-winged Teal, the Egret, 
and the Galapagos Heron. It also frequented the fresh-water 

^"Mr. G. M. Green of San Francisco reports having found the flamingoes breed- 
ing in the salt marshes about James Bay on James Island, and he obtained eggs in 
August." (Snodgrass & Heller. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci.. v. 5, pp. 253, 254.) _ It is 
not stated whether the eggs were fresh. Those found by the Academy expedition at 
James Bay in August, 1906, were addled. 

^Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., v. 21, p. 61. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 11 

ponds and lakes in the elevated portions of some of the islands. 
Only once were any seen on tidal water, and that was when a 
pair alighted in a quiet cove about three miles west of Cape 
Rose, Albemarle Island. Often they were noted sitting about 
on small lava islets and rocks in the lagoons, standing on one 
foot a good part of the time. 

The haunts of these ducks must vary, as the smaller lagoons 
and ponds often dry up. In November, thirteen were encoun- 
tered in a lagoon on South Seymour, where during the follow- 
ing July only the dry bed of the lagoon was to be seen. Some- 
times one or two ducks would be seen in a locality, while at a 
later or an earlier visit they were more abundant — all this go- 
ing to show that they must move about from place to place. 
In fact, on several occasions they were observed in flight along 
the coasts, usually, however, only one or two at a time. 

In a flock seen at South Seymour in November, males were 
noted chasing each other, apparently in jealousy, and some- 
times one would chase a female. Some low quacking is heard 
during the mating season, and it was particularly noted at 
Charles Island in February. 

The following remarks on the reproductive organs tend to 
show a long breeding-season : 

October 5 and 6, Cormorant Bay, Charles Island. Two 
males with swollen testes. 

November 6, Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island. A fe- 
male with enlarged ovary. 

January 11, south Indefatigable. Four skinned, all but one 
having enlarged genital organs. 

July 28, four miles northwest of Sullivan Bay, James Island. 
Nine taken with large genital organs. 

We never found what was beyond doubt the nest of this 
species. At Cormorant Bay on February 25, a single fresh 
egg was found on the bare rock of a low lava-islet in the large 
lagoon at that place. Stilts and flamingoes were nesting on 
the same islet. 

Young in the down were observed only near Villamil, 
Albemarle Island, in the salt lagoons about the cultivated low- 
lands. On March 5 a parent bird was noted swimming with 
three or four downy ducklings, and on the 6th several more 
young were seen. Four days later a few were encountered in 



78 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

another lagoon accompanied by both parents. They kept well 
to the center of the sheet of water when they perceived us, 
traveling just as fast as their feet could propel them. Half a 
dozen ducklings, accompanied by their mother, were discov- 
ered in another pond about half a mile inland on August 24. 
As she swam out from the mangroves, they tailed after her. 
The above dates point to two broods being hatched during a 
season, or else to a wide range of time in the breeding-season 
in one locality. 

For the most part these ducks were fearless, and usually 
would swim towards a person, sometimes close enough to be 
killed with a stone. After the first discharge of a gun, those 
of a flock not killed or injured would sit on the water be- 
wildered, thus giving ample time to reload. Sometimes they 
flew off a short distance and occasionally circled close to the 
hunter. On Charles and Chatham islands they were somewhat 
wary at times, perhaps because of persecution by the natives. 
They were also cautious when in charge of their young. In 
one case, when the parent observed me, it led the ducklings into 
some thick grass, and then came out and swam back and forth 
in an obvious effort to decoy me from them. 

A drake, caught on Seymour Island in November, and kept 
alive a couple of weeks in a cage, was accustomed to hiss at 
me every time I approached, and he would also threaten to 
bite. 

In living specimens, the space on each side of the upper 
mandible near its base is yellowish or orange in the female, 
and reddish in the male, being brightest in the breeding-sea- 
son. In the male, at least, some of the redness ■ is perhaps 
caused by blood, for when pressed the patch loses its red 
color just as does one's finger when squeezed. The reddish 
color returns in a like manner when the pressure is removed. 

In some males, notably No. 2287 C. A. S., the dusky 
grayish-brown feathers of the upper-back are trisected by two 
transverse bars of pale brown, the outer one distinct, the 
inner one less so. In other males and all the females, these 
feathers are dusky grayish-brown with paler margins, usually 
without transverse bars, or with only the outer one faintly 
indicated. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 79 

In four specimens taken on south Albemarle on November 
1, the post Juvenal or the first prenuptial moult is started. The 
Juvenal plumage is a very weak washed-out copy of the usual 
plumage of the female. 

Cases of partial albinism are not infrequent in this species. 
The several examples in the Academy's series show white 
feathers among the colored ones at the base of the neck and 
on the breast. 

A number of specimens have a distinct rusty wash on the 
tips of the feathers of the breast and abdomen. 
" The females average somewhat smaller than the males, as 
shown by the following extremes and averages in millimeters, 
which are condensed from the measurements of forty-five 
males and thirty-five females, all from the Galapagos Islands : 
Males— Wing 190-215 (203) ; tail 72-94 (83) ; culmen 40- 
45 (43) ; tarsus 31.1-36 (33.1) ; middle toe 37.5-43.9 (40.4). 
Females— Wing 180-202 (192); tail 67-81 (72); culmen 
37-43.4 (40.1); tarsus 29-33.7 (31.3); middle toe 36-40.5 
(38.1). _ 

The single egg of this species taken on Charles Island meas- 
ures 51X35.1 mm. 

Querquedula versicolor: Brilliant Teal 

In a nominal list of the Galapagos birds brought home by 
the Swedish Frigate "Eugenie," Professor Carl J. Sundevall 
includes ''Anas macidirostris/'^ The "Eugenie," while on a 
voyage round the world, visited the islands in May, 1852, with 
Dr. Kinberg as zoologist and surgeon of the expedition. 

There is apparently no other record of this species from the 
Galapagos Islands. 

Querquedula discors: Blue-winged Teal 

Albemarle and Chatham islands. 

The presence of the Blue-winged Teal in the Galapagos 
Islands was first detected on February 8, 1906, by Mr. Beck, 
who saw nine in the company of a flock of Bahama Pintails in 
a pond above sixteen hundred feet elevation on Chatham. 

iP. Z. S., 1871, p. 126. 



80 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

They were quite wild, and flew upon close approach, while 
the native ducks remained. 

Three were next seen by Mr. Hunter on March 6, as they 
were flying about the large salt lagoon near Villamil, Albe- 
marle Island. On August 22 a male and a female were seen 
three or four times during the forenoon in that locality. They 
were very wary, however, and always kept out of shot-gun 
range. The next day a very long wing-shot brought down a 
drake. A little later in the day half a dozen were found feeding 
in a lagoon about half a mile from the sea, and a second bird 
was shot, but lost in a mangrove thicket. The people at Villa- 
mil readily distinguished this species from the Bahama Pintail, 
and had a name for each. They said that the Blue-winged 
Teal occurred there regularly every year. 

The drake (No. 2336 C. A. S.) taken on August 23 was in 
practically full plumage, including new primaries. The rec- 
trices and many of the feathers of the abdomen, however, 
were old and worn. 

On August 10, 1905, a wing-tipped female Shoveller {Spa- 
tula- clypeata), No. 2337 C. A. S., was shot in the brackish 
lagoon of Clipperton Island, Mexico. The specimen was in 
moult, new feathers appearing in the breast, abdomen, crissum, 
rump, and back. The primaries had not been moulted. 

According to Mr. Beck, ducks occur in considerable num- 
bers at Clipperton Island during the northern winter. He 
visited the island on November 19, 1901. "Several hundred 
ducks were seen, the majority being of the following species : 
Dailla acuta (Pintail) ; Mareca Americana (Bald pate) ; 
Querquedula discors (Blue-winged Teal) ; Spatula clypeata 
(Shoveller) ; and a single Fuligula vallisneria (Canvasback)." 
He also reports seeing two specimens of Fidica americana. 
On Cocos Island, Costa Rica, on January 26, 1902, he shot 
one Querquedida discors and saw two more.^ 

Nannopterum harrisi: Flightless Cormorant 

Plate IV 

Albemarle and Narborough islands. 

With a more restricted range than any other water-bird in 
the archipelago, the Flightless Cormorant frequents the coast 

^Condor, v. 9, p. 110. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 81 

of Narborough Island and the adjacent coast of western Albe- 
marle. We saw it commonly about the east coast of the former 
island, and at Banks Bay on the latter. At Tagus Cove two 
were seen, one on April 7 and the other on April 19. We 
never saw as many together at one time as we did of the 
penguins at Iguana Cove, the limit being less than a dozen. 
The extreme lack of wariness of these birds will probably 
cause their total extinction when man more commonly fre- 
quents this portion of the archipelago. Their small numbers 
and their much restricted habitat would seem to indicate that 
they are on the verge of extinction. 

As the name denotes, these creatures are flightless ; and we 
never observed them attempt to fly even when hard pressed. 
While sitting in their usual upright position, the wings are 
often held half spread and away from the body, as shown in 
plate 10, volume 9 of Novitates Zoologicae. 

They are expert swimmers and divers. In diving, the bird 
acts differently from the Galapagos Penguin; for instead of 
merely submerging itself like a seal, it makes a sort of jump, 
throwing its head and neck forward at the same time, dis- 
appearing head first. One bird, when finally driven from its 
nest, swam under water very swiftly for fifty feet or more. 

When it comes to progression on land, however, they are 
not so agile, their large bodies and short legs greatly impeding 
their progress. On level ground they waddle, but where 
rocks or other obstacles are in the way, they proceed by short 
jumps, keeping in an upright position all the time. They 
were seen to jump up on rocks six or seven inches high, but 
sometimes had to make two or three trials before getting over 
difficult places. Upon leaving the water they always stood 
and shook themselves. It was not uncommon to see several 
sitting upon some black lava-point or islet, usually near their 
nests. 

On land they were easy of approach, and one could usually 
walk up to them and kill them with a stick. On" the water 
they w^ere warier, but were usually approached within shot- 
gun range. We observed none in the surf as reported by 
other visitors, for the simple reason that there was no surf 
at the time of our visits. 

August 8, 1913 



82 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Their weapon of defense is the bill, which they can use very 
effectively. One bit a member of our party on the breast, 
cutting through his shirt and drawing considerable blood. A 
number were carried alive in sacks from Narborough to Tagus 
Cove. Holes were cut in the sacks, allowing their heads and 
necks to protrude ; each sack became a veritable Hydra. When 
they were not biting each other in their rage, they were mak- 
ing vicious passes at us with their long snake-like necks. At 
the nest, both birds were usually loyal to each other, and put 
up a good fight against the intruder. Once or twice the mate 
of a bird at the nest was observed to come out of the water 
and climb laboriously up to its nest, and, finding an enemy 
there, valiantly help to defend it. 

These cormorants were seen swallowing fish upon coming 
to the surface after a dive. An eel fourteen inches long was 
taken from the gullet of one bird. 

In sleeping, they throw the body forward slightly from the 
usual upright position, and place the head and neck over the 
shoulder, thrusting the bill down the side of the body under 
the secondaries. One of the most ridiculous sights I saw in 
the Galapagos Islands was one of these clumsy creatures 
scratching its head. Balancing itself on one foot, it care- 
fully lowered its head so that it could reach it with its free 
foot, and proceeded very solemnly to scratch for perhaps half 
a minute. 

When on a visit to southeastern Narborough on March 22, a 
bird was observed pursuing another about a small tidal lagoon. 
Perhaps this was a case, similar to that mentioned by Messrs. 
Snodgrass and Heller,^ of a young bird pursuing an adult 
for food, although in this instance it was not successful. 
They were heard to utter two or three harsh croaking notes. 

On April 16th at Banks Bay, several were seen, and two 
pairs were found with nests without eggs situated at an 
elevation of about ten feet in a sandy place just back of 
the black lava of the shore. There were three nests about 
three feet apart, one an old one, and all placed close to a 
small cactus. A fourth was seen some fifty yards away, also 
in the sand. The nests with birds at hand were mere depres- 

iProc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 5, p. 250. 



Vol. II, Ft. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 83 

sions in the sand, lined around the edges with a few sticks and 
seaweed, some of which was fresh. The owners held their 
ground resolutely, opening their mouths at us menacingly and 
uttering harsh guttural croaks. The voices of both males and 
females seemed to be alike. 

On northeastern Narborough on April 17, 18, and 19, two 
colonies were found nesting — three pairs in one colony, and 
four or five in the other. In the first colony, two sets of three 
eggs each were taken; and in the second, one set of two. In 
each set there were one or two fresh eggs, and one or two with 
incubation begun. The nests were of sticks and seaweed, 
mostly fresh, and were placed on the bare black lava about ten 
feet above the water. In both instances the nesting-place 
seemed also to be the haunt of sea iguanas. The nests were 
five or six inches high at the rim, with a depression an inch 
deep in the center. 

Parasitic worms were found in the alimentary tracts of sev- 
eral birds. 

The colors of the naked parts of breeding adults were as 
follows : Iris bluish green ; feet black ; lower mandible drab- 
gray; upper mandible slate-color, drab-gray at tip; gular sac 
drab-gray, with whitish dots; lores dusky with parallel longi- 
tudinal ridges of pale dots. 

All of the Academy's skins, which were taken in March and 
xA.pril, are in fresh body-plumage, and many — particularly 
birds taken in March — show pin-feathers and newly expanded 
feathers. The wings and tails of all are more or less worn, 
and in almost every case new rectrices are appearing; new 
remiges, however, are not so common. With one exception, 
all of the specimens have filoplumes on the sides of the head, 
and similar white filoplumes are to be found hidden among the 
body feathers, particularly those of the under parts. 

One specimen was found with a white feather in the tibia, 
another with one in the back, and still another with two in 
the back. 

A dark-brown specimen. No. 2358, without filoplumes, was 
taken on Narborough on March 22. The middle rectrices are 
fresh, the others much worn. The wings are also worn, but 
the body-plumage has been pretty well renewed. The old 
feathers still remaining in the breast are very soft and downy. 



84 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



In fact the whole plumage of the under parts is softer than 
that of adult birds. 

MEASUREMENTS (in millimeters) 



Number 


Sex 


Length 


Extent 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 


Tarsus 


Outer Toe 


2354 


d" 






185 


145 


75 


65 


105 


2355 


cf 






192 


144 


83 


68 


112 


2356 


d" 






190 


146 


80 


66 


111 


2357 


& 






201 


160 


79 


70 


110 


2358 


c^ 






196 


147 


77 


65 


101 


2360 


& 






190 


142 


78 


65 


107 


2364 


& 






189 


145 


82 


65 


115 


2365 


c? 






198 


160 


90 


67 


115 


2368 


& 






200 


150 


89 


68 


115 


2369 


d" 






193 


156 


77 


65 


115 


2373 


& 


1000 


840 


192 


140 


80 


68 


110 


2376 


& 






197 


147 


83 


65 


104 


2378 


cf 






186 


156 


85 


72 


112 


2359 


9 






188 


149 


76 


59 


101 


2361 


9 






175 


142 


75 


55 


95 


2362 


9 






181 


142 


82 


57 


97 


2363 


9 






176 


145 


73 


56 


97 


2366 


9 






177 


144 


75 


61 


98 


2367 


9 






176 


145 


73 


58 


102 


2370 


9 






180 


139 


75 


60 


101 


2371 


9 






178 


138 


76 


60 


99 


2374 


9 


830 


730 


178 


140 


69 


57 


97 


2375 


9 






187 


147 


80 


65 


103 


2377 


9 






176 


147 


76 


57 


97 


2379 


9 






182 


145 


77 


60 


103 • 


2380 


9 


910 


735 


196 
193 


156 
149 


73 
81 


61 
67 


98 


Average 


110 


Average 


9 






181 


145 


75 


59 


99 



The three sets of eggs taken by the Expedition measure in 
millimeters as follows: 64X39, 66X40.5, 69X41; 59.5X 
40.5, 63X44, 65X44; 69X42, 70X42. 



Sula cyanops: Blue-faced Booby 

The Blue-faced Booby is one of the common boobies of the 
eastern tropical Pacific north of the Galapagos Islands. The 
Academy's expedition first encountered it on July 23, 1905, 
in latitude 20° 59' North, longitude 111° 57' West. The last 
one noted on the southward voyage was seen on August 18 in 
latitude 7° 24' North, longitude 103° 52' West. During a stiff 
blow off Clipperton Island, Mexico, I noted an immature one 
on the water exhausted. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



85 



At San Benedicto, Revilla Gigedo Islands, the species was 
common and nesting on July 26, 1905, eggs and naked young 
being seen. At Clipperton Island on August 10, there were 
large colonies scattered about among the Brewster's Boobies, 
but none were nesting. 

On the northward voyage the species was first noted on 
September 29, 1906, in latitude 9° 22' North, longitude 98° 25' 
West, when half a dozen immature birds with brown heads 
were seen singly during the day. Individuals of this species, 
usually immature, were seen almost daily until October 25, 
latitude 19° 53' North, longitude 118° 1' West. 

Life-colors of naked parts of brown-headed immature birds 
are: Bill olive-bufT; gular sac and face dark plumbeous with 
light spot under eye; feet cinereous with toes olive-buff on 
under side. 

Life-colors of naked parts of adults: Bill straw-yellow; 
gular sac and face bluish black with light spot under eye ; feet 
lavender, toes edged with olive-buff. 

In the following table are the measurements of thirteen 
adults taken by the Expedition. 

MEASUREMENTS (in millimeters) 



Number 


Sex 


Locality 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 


Tarsus 


Middle Toe 


2381 


d^ 


10°20'N., 108° 44' W. 


423 




106 


54 


77 


2383 
2384 
2385 
2387 




Vicinity of Clipperton 
Vicinity of Clipperton 
Vicinity of Clipperton 
10° 20' N., 109° W. 


426 
418 


170 

177 
176 


99 
106 
102 
103 


52 
54 

55 
54 


73 
76 

77 
78 


2388 
2398 
2382 


d" 
9 


Vicinity of Clipperton 
Vicinity of Clipperton 
10°20'N., 109° W. 


414 
428 


176 
178 
176 


100 
102 
100 


51 
54 

54 


73 
76 

75 


2386 


9 


19°37'N., 111°11'W. 


440 


181 


100 


57 


79 


2389 
2390 


9 
9 


Vicinity of Clipperton 
13°28'N., 108° 52' W. 




180 
173 


104 
103 


53 
54 


80 

77 


2391 


9 


10°20'N., 108° 44' W. 




185 


106 


57 


79 


2392 


9 


Vicinity of Clipperton ■ 


428 


187 


103 


57 


79 



Sula piscatrix: Red-footed Booby 

Plate V, Fig. 1 

Abingdon, Bindloe, Culpepper, Gardner-near-Charles, 
Hood, Indefatigable, Tower, and Wenman islands. 



86 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

This booby, the boldest and most inquisitive of the five 
species met with on the Expedition, was found commonly at 
Culpepper, Tower, and Wenman islands. One example was 
observed close to Gardner-near-Charles on October 3, 1905, 
and one near South Abingdon on September 22, 1906. On 
September 14, 1906, I noted two about twenty miles south of 
Tower Island. None were encountered at Hood Island, 
where Messrs. Snodgrass and Heller found them nesting in 
May.^ One in the dark phase was seen south of the archi- 
pelago on June 15, in latitude 2° 17' South, longitude 90° 58' 
West. Most of the birds seen in the Galapagos Islands were 
in the dark phase, although a number in the light phase were 
noted at Culpepper, Tower, and Wenman islands — chiefly at 
Culpepper. Birds in all sorts of pied or intermediate stages 
were observed. At Cocos Island, Costa Rica, birds in the 
light phase or in pied stages were very rare, even more so than 
in the Galapagos Islands. 

In 1905 the northernmost locality in which we saw the Red- 
footed Booby was latitude 20° 59' North, longitude 111° 57' 
West, on July 23. This was in the general vicinity of San 
Benedicto, Revilla Gigedo Islands, where the light phase of 
the species occurs commonly. After leaving San Benedicto 
the species was next met with in latitude 5° 43' North, longi- 
tude 98° 44' West, on August 23, when a bird in the dark 
phase was seen. Another was seen on the 24th, one on the 
28th, and two on the 31st. On September 1st, when in the 
vicinage of Cocos Island, they became common; all were in 
the dark phase. 

In 1906, from the time we left Culpepper Island on Sep- 
tember 25, until we were in latitude 19° North, longitude 116° 
41' West, on October 24, Red-footed Boobies were seen daily 
with but two exceptions. The first individual in the light 
phase was seen on October 7, in latitude 14° 38' North, longi- 
tude 109° 12' West, after which they were seen with more or 
less frequency, particularly in the vicinity of Clarion Island, 
Revilla Gigedo group. Judging from the dull colors of the 
naked parts, practically all of the birds of the dark phase seen 
after leaving the Galapagos group were immature. An occa- 
sional immature bird with pale under parts was encountered. 

^Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 5, p. 247. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 87 

At Tower, Wenman, and Culpepper islands, Red-footed 
Boobies were sitting in the bushes and low trees both singly 
and in pairs. In one or two cases a white adult was seen in 
company with a gray adult. The nests were composed of 
loose sticks placed in a bush or low tree. On Tower Island, 
the nests were found all over the island, and two or three fresh 
eggs were seen on September 15. Only an occasional bird, 
however, was found on a nest. On Wenman Island, on Sep- 
tember 24, the majority of the birds seemed to have no nests, 
but were simply sitting about in the trees and bushes. No 
eggs were discovered. A young bird just able to fly was taken 
on Wenman, and one was seen on Tower. 

Three females taken forty miles south of Cocos Island on 
September 2, 1905, had large ovaries. At Cocos, the birds 
were very common on the wing and in the trees growing along 
the rocky precipitous shores. In the forest I noticed several 
breaking off twigs for nests. On September 13 Mr. Beck 
took a fresh tgg from a nest in a small tree on a rocky island 
occupied by a nesting colony of Brewster's Boobies. 

When a bird alighted at its nest or beside its mate, it craned 
its neck and, swinging its head from side to side, uttered a 
long, harsh, cackling call consisting of a short guttural note 
repeated fifteen or twenty times in quick succession. This 
call resembled somewhat the call given by the Man-o'-war Bird 
when on the nest, only that it was harsher. At Cocos Island 
the birds in the trees kept up a continual loud cackling noise. 

When these boobies were asleep or pluming themselves in 
some tree, a person could walk right up to them before being 
noticed. They usually straightened up with a startled ex- 
pression, often uttering a short squawk of surprise. If one 
continued to disturb them they would squawk vociferously 
.and try to fly away, frequently floundering about among the 
branches. 

The flight of the Red-footed Booby is more graceful than 
that of the Blue-faced and the Peruvian, and somewhat resem- 
bles that of a large shearwater. When in the vicinity of Cocos 
Island and of Clarion Island, flocks of Red-footed Boobies 
were seen flying away from the islands in the morning and 
towards them in the evening. The flocks contained from six 
to fifteen birds. The birds fly with the same gentle, wave-like 



88 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 

rise and fall that characterizes the flight of other members of 
this genus. The wing-strokes occur on the rise ; on the down- 
ward swing the bird sails, in calm weather often going sev- 
eral yards very close to the surface of the water. The mem- 
bers of a flock are practically synchronous in every action. 

In fishing, the Red-footed Booby pursues the same tactics as 
the Blue-footed, diving, with wings half closed and rigid, 
from a height of twenty or thirty feet. On one occasion, how- 
ever, I saw one catching flying-fish on the wing by swooping 
into schools which were skimming along above the water. 

Over half of the Academy's series of fifty-eight skins is 
made up of adult birds. Some of these, in the dark phase, 
show new dusky feathers replacing old, faded, dusky feathers. 

In No. 2440 (male, dark phase, from Cocos), the bill has 
dried of a bright-red color. This bird has the black gular sac 
and is evidently adult. In most cases the bill dries mainly of 
a dusky bluish black. 

The colors of the naked parts of a freshly-killed adult dark- 
phase bird were as follows: Bill pale blue, except at base, 
where it was peach-blossom pink ; skin around eyes azure blue ; 
gular sac black ; feet poppy-red. 

The colors of the naked parts of a freshly-killed brown- 
plumaged immature bird were as follows : Bill brownish with 
pinkish blotches near base; skin around eyes dark blue; gular 
sac French-gray, blackish at posterior edge; feet dull pinkish 
with dirty bluish shade in webs. 

The colors of the naked parts of a freshly-killed immature 
bird with pale under parts were as follows : Bill pale bluish 
and pinkish with dark tip; skin around eyes blue; gular sac 
pale blue with black along sides next the mandibular rami; 
feet pinkish vinaceous. 

The single tgg taken at Cocos Island measures 58.7 mm. X 
40.8 mm. It is dull chalky white in color. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 89 

MEASUREMENTS OF ADULTS (in millimeters) 



Number 


Sex 


Locality 


Phase 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 


Tarsus 


Middle Toe 


2408 


c? 


Revilla Gigedo 


Light 


413 


224 


86.7 


35 


63 


2411 


d" 


Revilla Gigedo 


Light 


406 


219 


85.1 


34.2 


59 


2429 


cf 


Cocos 


Dark 


404 


232 


88.8 


33.1 


61 


2430 


d^ 


Cocos 


Dark 


395 


205 


87.1 


33.1 


61 


2433 


c? 


Cocos 


Dark 


390 


216 


82.9 


32 


58 


2434 


& 


Cocos 


Dark 


388 


230 


87.7 


31.1 


61 


2448 


& 


Cocos 


Dark 


398 


218 


90 


33.4 


60.6 


2414 


& 


Galapagos 


Pied 


381 


192 


87.9 


31.4 


57 


2415 


& 


Galapagos 


Pied 


414 


230 


91.7 


3$ 


62.6 


2416 


<f 


Galapagos 


Pied 


404 


207 


91 


37.1 


61 


2432 


cf 


Galapagos 


Dark 


422 


217 


88 


36 


64 


2437 


d^ 


Galapagos 


Dark 


395 


214 


87.8 


35.1 


63.5 


2441 


cf 


Galapagos 


Dark 


395 


217 


88.3 


34.1 


61.8 


2445 


cf 


Galapagos 


Dark 


399 


191 


89 


33.3 


60.5 


2449 


d" 


Galapagos 


Dark 


390 


214 


84.4 


32 


58 


2409 


9 


Revilla Gigedo 


Light 


411 


213 


90.2 


35 


65.6 


2410 


9 


Revilla Gigedo 


Light 


385 


216 


90 


32.7 


61 


2422 


9 


Cocos 


Dark 


411 


212 


91.3 


37 


65.1 


2425 


9 


Cocos 


Dark 


395 


215 


82.5 


32.3 


60.7 


2428 


9 


Cocos 


Dark 


412 


214 


87.4 


35 


63.1 


2431 


9 


Cocos 


Dark 


418 


223 


94.2 


35 


61 


2438 


9 


Cocos 


Dark 


391 


214 


87.3 


34 


61.4 


2420 


9 


Galapagos 


Pied 


390 


195 


88.7 


35 


59.6 


2421 


9 


Galapagos 


Dark 


419 


212 


92 


33 


60 


2423 


9 


Galapagos 


Pied 


399 


212 


84 


33.7 


60.8 


2426 


9 


Galapagos 


Dark 


402 


212 


84.5 


32 


57.8 


2427 


9 


Galapagos 


Pied 


412 


198 


90.5 


38.9 


63.1 


2435 


9 


Galapagos 


Dark 


410 


215 


92.7 


33 


60 


2436 


9 


Galapagos 


Dark 


397 


205 


93.1 


34.4 


61.9 


2439 


9 


Galapagos 


Dark 


408 


211 


86 


31.9 


60.9 


2443 


9 


Galapagos 


Dark 


385 


199 


86.5 


32.7 


62 



Sula variegata: Peruvian Booby 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Brattle, Cham- 
pion, Charles, Chatham, Cowley, Crossman, Culpepper, 
Daphne, Duncan, Enderby, Gardner-near-Charles, Gardner - 
near-Hood, Hood, Indefatigable, islet off northeast James. 
James, Nameless, Narborough, Seymour, Tower, and Wen- 
man islands. 

This booby was found pretty commonly throughout the 
archipelago, and chiefly about the islands on which it bred. 
It frequented the open sea rather than the sheltered bays, 
differing in this respect from the Blue-footed Booby. The 
farthest south we saw it was latitude 3° 39' South, longitude 
93° r West. Off the coast of Colombia and Ecuador, we 



90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

saw on two occasions a large white booby, which we took to 
be this species. The day after leaving Culpepper Island, Sep- 
tember 26, 1906, we saw one in latitude 3° 29' North, longi- 
tude 93° 6' West; while on October 13, 1906, a nearly adult 
bird was taken in latitude 15° 36' North, longitude 110° 12' 
West. Mr. Beck records two .at Clipperton Island, Mexico, 
and two at Cocos Island, Costa Rica.^ 

The breeding-places and breeding-dates for this species in 
the Galapagos Islands, so far as known are as follows: Cul- 
pepper in July and December ; Daphne in November ; Enderby 
in May; Gardner-near-Charles in October; Hood in February, 
May, and October; Wenman in February and December. 

The nest was a mere depression in the soil, usually sur- 
rounded with pebbles and bits of rock, and invariably situated 
close to the sea, often on the edge of some precipice or on a 
ledge of a cliff. A sitting bird was frequently seen picking up 
bits of rock with its bill and placing them around the nest. 
When both male and female were at a nest they had the 
habit of touching bills. 

Whenever a bird was driven from a nest, it left with great 
reluctance, and usually returned in a minute or two with much 
squawking, and fondly covered its charge. When the mate 
arrived to relieve the nest bird, there was also a great deal of 
squawking. One day I was sitting in front of a nest when 
the second owner arrived. The nest bird immediately drew 
its attention to me, and apparently tried to induce it to join in 
an attack on me. 

The first place in which we encountered Peruvian Boobies 
breeding, was the larger Daphne Island, where they were' 
nesting on the steep seaward slopes and on the rim of the 
crater, but not within the crater itself, which was occupied by 
Blue-footed Boobies. On November 23 some had eggs, and 
others had young. 

They were nesting abundantly on Hood Island in early 
February. On February 1st some birds were seen with fresh 
eggs, some with one egg and one young, others with two very 
young ones, and others still with one young one only. All of 
the young were either naked or in the down. The adults seem, 
however, to rear only one young one, for I have never seen 

^Condor, v. 9, p. 110. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 91 

more than one in a nest when they approach the feathered 
stage. The great difference in size between the two nestlings 
in the same nest is particularly noticeable as their age increases ; 
one is small and puny, the other robust and strong. When we 
visited Hood Island again in latter June, there were a number 
of young about, which still had some down on them. 

A young bird in down was taken on Enderby on May 14. 
Its bill and feet were olive-gray. 

On one occasion Mr. Beck saw an adult Peruvian Booby 
taking care of a downy Man-o'-war Bird in a nest of the 
latter species. 

Unless continually persecuted, these boobies exhibit practi- 
cally no fear of man. The young particularly show consid- 
erable curiosity. Just south of Hood Island, on June 23, we 
encountered large numbers of them, many of which kept 
alighting within two or three feet of the schooner. Fifty or 
sixty were seen on the water intermingled with as many Dusky 
Shearwaters. 

On Hood Island, Peruvian Boobies were to be seen sprinkled 
about among the Man-o'-war Birds, Blue-footed Boobies, and 
Galapagos Albatrosses, which had nesting-sites close to the 
cliffs. When asleep at the nest, these boobies thrust the bill 
down the middle of the back under the feathers. 

Apparently the boobies are bothered somewhat by the Gala- 
pagos Hawks, for I noticed an adult booby, with a young one 
in the nest, show considerable alarm when a hawk alighted on 
a rock close by. In defence against human intruders, the 
boobies use their bills with telling effect. 

During March, when on the south coast of Albemarle 
Island, Peruvian Boobies were noted each evening flying to- 
ward Brattle Island. The flight was not particularly swift or 
graceful. Several slow wing-beats were succeeded by a long 
sail. Single birds usually flew somewhat higher than the 
flocks. When three or four were together they kept time in 
all their movements, usually following a leader, sometimes one 
behind another, sometimes bunched. One was observed fol- 
lowing a Blue-footed Booby in a similar manner. At sea 
they not infrequently circled about the vessel. On land they 
waddle, usually with the tail scraping the ground. 



92 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

I have never seen the adults dive, but I once saw an imma- 
ture bird do so. It shot obHquely into the water from a dis- 
tance of only a few feet, entering at a very small angle and 
making a semicircle while in the water. It came up facing 
in the direction just opposite to that in which it entered. One 
day I saw one sitting on the water with head immersed for a 
long time, and apparently looking for food. Fish seem to con- 
stitute their chief diet. Once I saw a Peruvian Booby at- 
tack a wounded Blue-footed Booby and force it to disgorge. 
On another occasion I saw one catch a flying-fish by skim- 
ming close over the water after it. 

The colors of the naked parts of the adults in life were as 
follows : Bill vinaceous-pink, shading into ochre-yellow at tip 
and along tomia; gular sac slate-gray; iris gamboge-yellow; 
feet dark olive-buff. 

An immature bird shot at Cormorant Bay, Charles Island, 
on May 17, had an olive-buff bill; the gular sac and feet were 
of about the same color as those of adults. Gular sacs of 
young in down were flesh-colored. In fully fledged young 
they were dark blue or blackish blue. 

Although the Academy's series of skins of this species num- 
bers sixty-nine, and is well supplied with birds both in juvenal 
plumage and in adult plumage, specimens are lacking to show 
the complete transition from juvenal to adult. One speci- 
men, No. 2478, taken on October 12, 1906, in latitude 15° 40' 
North, longitude 110° 12' West, is apparently just completing 
the assumption of the adult plumage, for a number of partially 
dusky feathers are still to be seen in the upper parts. 

An examination of the adult males in the collection revealed 
birds with new outer primaries appearing, as follows : From 
Hood Island in June and October ; from Culpepper in Septem- 
ber. Only one female (No. 2510) was found in a like condi- 
tion — an individual taken on Hood on October 2. In most 
cases the males seemed to be somewhat in advance of the 
females in the progress of the moult. 

In conjunction with the measurements of twenty-three adult 
males and twenty-five adult females, there are given for the 
sake of comparison, in Table XI, p. 117, the measurements of 
seven adult males and six adult females of Sula cyanops. The 
average Sula variegata has a decidedly longer wing, and has 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 93 

a relatively shorter tarsus in comparison with the middle toe, 
than has the average Sula cyan ops. Males seem to average 
decidedly smaller than females in most respects. 

Fifteen eggs of the Peruvian Booby, taken by Mr. Beck 
on Hood Island on February 4, yield the following maximum, 
minimum, and average measurements in millimeters : Length 
55-68.4 (63.5) ; breadth 38.6-49.5 (44.8). These fifteen eggs 
comprise eleven sets, four of two eggs each and seven of one 
each. The sets of two eggs each measure as follows: 61. 6X 
44.5, 62.5X46; 65.5X45.6, 55X38.6; 62.8X46, 65X46.6; 
62.6X45.8, 61.7X44.7. On several of the data-sheets Mr. Beck 
states that the nest had been occupied four months before by 
Neboux's Booby (Sula neboiLvi). 

In addition to eggs of Sula variegata from Hood Island, 
Mr. Oates has referred a number of eggs of Sula cyan ops 
from San Benedicto and Clarion, Revilla Gigedo Islands, to 
this species.^ 

Sula nebouxi: Blue-footed Booby 

Plate V, Fig. 2 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Brattle, Cham- 
pion, Charles, Chatham, Cowley, Crossman, Daphne, Duncan, 
Enderby, Gardner-near-Charles, Gardner-near-Hood, Hood, 
Indefatigable, islet off northeast James, James, Jervis, Kicker, 
Narborough, Onslow, Seymour, Tower, and Wenman islands. 

The Blue-footed Booby was by far the commonest and most 
generally distributed of the three species occurring in Gala- 
pagos waters. Like the Dusky Shearwater, the Graceful 
Petrel, and the Sooty Gull, it seemed to prefer to be in close 
proximity to the land, rather than to haunt the open ocean as 
do the Red-footed and the Peruvian Boobies. Except for a 
single specimen taken at the San Benito Islands, Baja Califor- 
nia, on July 15, 1905, we saw no Blue-footed Boobies outside 
of the archipelago. 

When not fishing, the Blue-footed Boobies frequently con- 
gregated on the low black lava-points which jut into the sea, 
the assemblages varying from two or three to thirty or forty, 
Single birds and pairs are often seen standing on the ledges 

iCat. Coll. Birds' Eggs Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 211. 



94 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

and on the tops of sea-cliffs. On south James they were seen 
in the mangroves. It was not unusual to find them asleep in 
broad daylight. An entire flock, however, was never caught 
napping, two or three birds always being awake and on the 
lookout. 

When offshore and on a journey, the Blue- footed Boobies 
frequently flew in single file, all following the undulations of 
the leader. On the south coast of Albemarle Island, in May, 
they were noted flying towards Brattle Island each evening. 
Single birds met with offshore usually circled about the 
schooner. The birds noted about the bays and coves had the 
habit of continually looking downward when flying, appar- 
ently in search of fish. 

The fish were almost invariably caught by diving, although 
an occasional flying-fish was chased and caught while in the 
air. It was a common thing to see Blue-footed Boobies fish- 
ing in flocks, often all diving simultaneously. They dive with 
wings half-closed and neck rigid and straight, striking the 
water with great force. As all would not get fish when div- 
ing in a flock, there was usually considerable squabbling over 
captures. One day a booby was seen to enter the water 
obliquely at a very small angle, appearing quickly on the sur- 
face again and continuing its line of flight without a pause. 

At Finger Point, Chatham Island, in the middle of Febru- 
ary, there were several Blue-footed Boobies standing about in 
the vicinity of some old nests three or four hundred feet above 
the ocean. Whenever a bird alighted, there was a great deal 
of squawking and bowing and waddling carried on by it and 
its mate. In latter March during the mating-season at Tagus 
Cove, Albemarle Island, they were quite demonstrative, the 
mated birds seeming to talk to each other, and managing to 
keep up an incessant racket. One of them as a rule did con- 
siderable strutting about, lifting its feet very high with each 
step, and appearing to us very ridiculous. They made a very 
elaborate bow, uttering one or two short notes at the same 
time. With the breast almost touching the ground, the neck 
stretched upwards, and the wings outspread but held verti- 
cally, the ceremony of bowing would last for about half a 
minute.^ 



^Cf. Beck, Condor, v. 6, pp. 6-8. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 95 

The nest of this species was like that of the Peruvian Booby, 
a mere depression in the earth in which two eggs were laid. 
On Hood and Champion Islands Blue-footed Boobies nested 
in the vicinity of the shore, sometimes along the tops of cliffs, 
at other times close to the water. The birds at Hood Island 
in September, 1905, were nesting beside white glazed rocks 
and in the broiling sun, with no shelter whatsoever. Many 
of them were sitting on their nests with mouth open, panting 
with heat and thirst. On Daphne they nested on the sandy 
floor of the crater, which is three or four hundred feet deep 
and very hot, as it is protected on all sides from the wind. 
Only one pair was seen nesting outside the crater. At Tagus 
Cove they nested on the broad ledges and tops of the low 
tufaceous cliffs. 

The following notes on the time and place of breeding of 
the Blue-footed Booby, taken in conjunction with the observa- 
tions of other expeditions, point to an almost continuous 
breeding-season. We found eggs, young in the down, and 
fully fledged young at Hood Island, in September and Octo- 
ber; both naked young and young assuming juvenal plumage 
at Hood in February ; eggs, birds in down, and well-feathered 
young at Champion in October; young in the down at Cham- 
pion in February; naked young at Brattle in October; eggs 
and downy young at Daphne in November; large young of 
various ages at Daphne in July; fresh eggs at Tagus Cove 
in March ; and one large young one at Tower in September. 
There are two young hatched ; but by the time they reach the 
partially-feathered state, seldom more than one has survived. 

The half-fledged young exhibited considerable pugnacity. 
When one was shoved into a neighbor's domain, a fight en- 
sued, the birds seizing each other by the beak and then- having 
a tug-of-war for perhaps a minute. 

An adult taken at Academy Bay, Indefatigable, had its 
right foot deformed. At the junction of the toes with the 
tarsus the foot was enlarged and immovable, the toes were 
bent under and altogether rigid, and one claw was much 
elongated. 

Breeding adults taken at Tagus Cove had the following 
life-colors : Feet pale blue ; bill plumbeous ; gular sac china- 
blue. 



96 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The Juvenal plumage of Sula nehouxi at first glance resem- 
bles somewhat that of Sula variegata, but is readily distin- 
guished from it by the narrow feathers of the neck, as well as 
by the pale brown of the upper breast. The specimen men- 
tioned by Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert in their first Gala- 
pagos paper as "probably not in the first plumage, but in a 
transitional one,"^ is evidently a bird in juvenal ("first") 
plumage. In the Academy's series there are a number of 
specimens passing from the down into this plumage. 

In their second paper these gentlemen seem to have been 
more seriously misled, for the description they give for the 
"first" (juvenal) plumage of Sula nehouxi fits the young of 
Sula variegata and not the young of Sula nehouxi. "These 
birds in the first plumage differ from the adult ones in having 
the feathers of the head and neck (which in adult birds are 
narrow and pointed, giving these parts a streaked white-and- 
brown appearance) shorter, soft, wide and rounded, and of a 
uniform deep smoke-brown colour, so that the neck is in a 
striking contrast to the white breast and abdomen."^ Every 
point here given fits Sula variegata rather than Sula nehouxi. 
The young of Sula nehouxi have the upper breast pale brown 
and "the whole neck smoky brown, with paler tips to the 
feathers,"^ which are long and narrow. There is not the 
striking contrast between the neck and the upper breast as in 
Sula variegata. 

Again, in their second paper, Messrs. Rothschild and Har- 
tert state that in the "first" plumage of Sula nehouxi "the 
white interscapular saddle, which is so conspicuous in adult 
wS". nehouxi, is not developed." In every one of a series of 
thirteen Academy specimens — some partly in the down, others 
in full, juvenal plumage — the white interscapular saddle is 
more or less conspicuous, being even more noticeable than in 
adults on account of the sharper contrast of colors. The 
young of Sula variegata lack this saddle. 

In the Academy's series of adults, three have the outer 
primaries in a pulpy state basally: No. 2543, a male taken 
at Duncan Island on December 9; No. 2570, a female taken at 
Duncan on December 14; No. 2579, a female taken at In- 



iNov. Zool., V. 6, pp. 178, 179. 
Hbid., V. 9, p. 407. 
Hbid., V. 6, pp. 178, 179. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 97 

defatigable on July 18. Inasmuch as the breeding-season 
extends practically throughout the year, the various plumages 
do likewise. 

The measurements given below of twenty adult males and 
twenty-seven adult females reveal the fact that on the average 
the female is somewhat superior to the male in size. The 
measurements of length of tail are not very dependable, for 
the central tail-feathers in this species are very long and hence 
suffer much from wear. The maximum, minimum, and aver- 
age dimensions in millimeters are: Males — Wing 412-460 
(433); tail 200-239 (222); culmen 101-118 (108); tarsus 
47-55 (50) ; middle toe 64.9-78 (70). Females— Wing 428- 
465 (447); tail 207-250 (227); culmen 110.6-121 (115.4); 
tarsus 51-57 (53.7); middle toe 69.4-81 (74.2). 

The eggs of Sula nehouxi, like those of other boobies, have 
a very pale bluish ground-color over which there is a chalky- 
white coating. One specimen lacks this coating, and is a pale 
blue all over. The other G.gg in the same clutch has the 
coating. 

Seventeen eggs (ten of them composing five sets of two 
each, the remaining seven composing seven sets) collected by 
Mr. Beck from a colony on southeast Hood on September 28, 
1905, yield the following minimum, maximum, and aver- 
age dimensions in millimeters: Length 57.6-67.7 (62.3); 
breadth 40.2-45.4 (43.1). The eggs comprising the sets of 
two each measured by sets: 64.5X41.1, 63X42.9; 61.4X43.6, 
63.5X44.5; 63.5X43.5, 61.6X42.6; 57.6X42, 59X40.2; 
61.9X43.6, 61X43.9. 

Sula brewsteri : Brewster's Booby 

It is not unlikely that the birds reported from the Galapa- 
gos Archipelago as Brewster's Boobies were either the young 
of the Peruvian Booby or the young of the Blue-footed Booby. 

The three centers of abundance of Brewster's Booby visited 
by the Galapagos Expedition were San Benedicto, Revilla 
Gigedo Islands, on July 26; Clipperton Island, Mexico, on 
August 10; and Cocos Island, Costa Rica, September 3-13, 
1905. 

We first encountered Brewster's Boobies on July 24, lati- 
tude 19° 40' North, longitude 112° West. They were com- 

August 8, 1913 



98 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

mon, especially toward evening, when they passed in flocks 
of ten or more. One came aboard the schooner after dark 
and was captured. At San Benedicto they were fairly com- 
mon. Two nests were found ; on one a male was brooding a 
young bird ; on the other a female was brooding two eggs. 

A number of Brewster's Boobies were observed daily on the 
voyage from San Benedicto to Clipperton Island. There ap- 
peared to be no decrease in numbers to indicate where the 
birds from one colony ended and those from the other began. 
In the vicinity of Clipperton Island they were observed in 
mixed flocks of birds, consisting of such species as the Dark- 
rumped Petrel, Wedge-tailed Shearwater (PuMnus chloro- 
rhynchus), Noddy, Clipperton Noddy, Blue- faced Booby, and 
Sooty Tern. On a squally day I noted an adult male dead 
on the water, evidently struck down by a wave. 

At Clipperton Island Brewster's Boobies were nesting 
abundantly all around the island, here and there interspersed 
with colonies of Blue-faced Boobies, which, however, were 
not nesting. Of the Brewster's Boobies, some had eggs and 
others naked young. The nests were mere depressions lined 
with wing-quills. 

The first birds of the Cocos Island colony were seen on 
September 1st, when some thirty or forty miles south of that 
island. On the 2nd they were fairly common ; in the morning 
they were noted flying away from the island, and in the 
evening towards it. In this region their headquarters were on 
a small island oflfshore, situated between the small outlying 
islands of Nuez and Cascara. Only two or three individuals 
were observed on the main island. On September 13 we 
found them nesting abundantly, little hollows in the soil 
amongst the rocks and grass on the steep slopes of the island 
being utilized for nesting-sites. Naked and downy young 
and eggs, sometimes one, sometimes two, were found. 

On the voyage home from the Galapagos Islands in 1906, 
from one to three birds were seen on October 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, and 
13. On October 4 the "Academy" was in latitude 14° 24' North, 
longitude 107° 5' West; on October 13 in latitude 15° 36' 
North, longitude 110° 12' West. One bird taken had a num- 
ber of ticks attached to its gular sac. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 99 

Adult Clipperton birds had the following colors of the 
naked parts in life: Males — Bill glaucous blue; gular sac 
indigo-blue; feet pea-green; iris silvery gray, distinct on the 
outer edge, but nearly obscured by black on the inner edge. 
Females — Bill olive-buff; gular sac indigo-blue, washed with 
pea-green ; feet pea-green. 

Although the Academy's series of Revilla Gigedo birds is 
very small, what few there are seem to be intermediate in 
color between the Cocos and the Clipperton birds, leaning 
distinctly toward the latter. 

None of the Academy's series are moulting the primaries. 
Clipperton birds, however, have their primaries and tails 
extremely abraded in many cases; in fact, among the females 
it was impossible to obtain measurements of the length of tail, 
as it was broken off in every case. Clipperton birds probably 
renew their plumage by a postnuptial moult about September 
and October. 

In the vicinity of San Benedicto and of Clipperton, we cap- 
tured a number of birds which were passing from a brown 
immature plumage into the adult plumage. Two small white 
downy young from Cocos show the tip of the upper mandible 
to be more abruptly decurved in birds of that age than in 
adults. 

The measurements in Table XII, p. 117, show that Clipper- 
ton birds average slightly larger than Cocos birds. 

A series of twenty-four eggs from Cocos Island are all 
stained a dirty brown, evidently on account of the dampness 
of the nests, which is incidental to the rains which deluge the 
island daily. Sixteen of these eggs compose sets of two each, 
while the remaining eight compose sets of one each. The 
extreme and average measurements, in millimeters, for the 
whole series are as follows: Length 50.3-63.1 (58.7); 
breadth 37.5-42.5 (39.8). 

The measurements of the eight sets of two eggs each show 
that there is some variation in size in the eggs of each set. 
By sets these eggs measure as follows: 53.6X40, 54.5X40; 
63X41.6, 58.9X39.5; 58.3X40, 55.5X38.2; 62.5X39, 59.7X 
37.5; 62X39.9, 60X39.6; 60X40.2, 58.5X39.5; 63.1X42.5, 
60.1X42; 62.2X40.7, 62.5X39. From the above it is plainly 
seen that there is considerable variation in the ratio of length 



100 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

to breadth, or in other words, that the eggs vary considerably 
in shape. The extreme forms are ovate and elliptical-ovate. 

Fregata aquila: Man-o'-war Bird 
Plates VI and VII 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Brattle, Cham- 
pion, Charles, Chatham, Culpepper, Daphne, Duncan, 
Enderby, Gardner-near-Charles, Gardner-near-Hood, Hood, 
Indefatigable, James, Jervis, Kicker, Narborough, Onslow, 
Seymour, Tower, and Wenman islands. 

The Man-o'-war Bird is present at all times about the coasts 
and waters of the Galapagos Islands, often being seen flying 
over the land as well as the sea, usually at a considerable 
height. At the fresh-water crater-lake, "El Junco," on Chat- 
ham Island, at an elevation of about twenty-six hundred feet, 
several were observed bathing, or perhaps drinking,^ by 
swooping down and letting their feathers touch as they passed 
over the surface of the water. They frequently came about 
the vessel in company with the Graceful Petrel, particularly 
when turtle or tortoise fat was thrown overboard. One taken 
off southern Albemarle on April 27 had a very small turtle in 
its stomach. 

I have never seen this species resting voluntarily on the 
water; in fact, the feathers become wet in a very short time if 
immersed. It was seldom observed on shore except at the 
nesting-places, where it was abundant. Outside of these 
resorts, an occasional bird was seen sitting on the top of some 
mangrove or on a jutting rock of a sea-cliff. 

The Academy's Expedition found Man-o'-war Birds nest- 
ing on the following seven islands : Brattle in October ; Cul- 
pepper in September; Enderby in May; Gardner-near-Hood 
in September; Hood in February, June, and September; 
Tower in September; Wenman in September. 

In the latter part of September, 1905, there was quite a 
large colony nesting near the southeast extremity of Hood 
Island. The majority of the nests contained well-feathered 
young, although three fresh eggs were taken on September 

iCf. Fisher, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1903, p. 31; Bonhote, Ibis, 1903, p. 312; 
Lowe, Ibis, 1909, p. 334. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 101 

27. The nests rested on the tops of small shrubs (Sesuvium) 
and were made of the dried stems of those plants. At the 
same time on the neighboring Gardner Island there was a 
small colony nesting in some bushes on the side of a cliff on 
the north side of the island. The nests were built of twigs 
and contained downy young. 

On Brattle Island, October 30, they were likewise found 
nesting in low bushes. The nests were built of twigs and 
contained only well-feathered young. 

In early February the Man-o'-war Birds were just begin- 
ning to nest again on southeast Hood. As in the preceding 
September, the nests were placed on the tops of small shrubs 
about six inches above the ground. Many nests were almost 
touching each other, so close together were they built. At 
this time nesting had evidently only begun, for we saw a male 
carrying nesting material, and all the eggs observed were 
fresh. Males as well as females were sitting on the nests, 
many of the former having their bright red pouches distended. 
The majority of the males were in the iridescent black plum- 
age. When sitting on the nest, the male often gives a call, 
which resembles a chuckling laugh, I have never heard this 
call except in the mating season. Both males and females on 
the nest were silent when approached, but often defended 
their homes quite vigorously, using their bills with telling 
effect. During our February visit a pair were observed in the 
act of coition on the nest, the male balancing himself quite 
adroitly. 

A very small young one in the down was taken on Enderby 
Island on May 14. 

On our third visit to Hood Island in the latter part of 
June, a great many young which had just left the nest were 
observed, all having pale brownish heads and necks and white 
under parts. These were undoubtedly hatched from the eggs 
laid in February. A good-sized flock of young birds re- 
mained constantly over us, without beating their wings, as 
we sailed along the coast, keeping the decks of the schooner 
spattered with their droppings. On the southeast part of 
the island we found a good many nests which contained 
young still in the down. One youngster was being cared for 
by a Peruvian Booby. Of the Man-o'-war Birds, males as 



102 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

well as females were guarding the young. When approached 
they usually remained quiet, only making a few passes at one 
with their beaks. The youngsters, however, were quite noisy 
and anxious to bite. An examination of the stomachs of sev- 
eral young disclosed the remains of flying-fish. One adult male 
was observed with a bright red distended pouch, which seemed 
to be unusual at that time, as all the others had dull-colored 
ones. This same male also uttered the chuckling call so com- 
monly heard during the mating season. Other males gave an 
occasional harsh scream. The air above the nesting-site was 
constantly alive with birds flying hither and thither. 

In the middle of September, 1906, Man-o'-war Birds were 
found nesting all along the north coast of Tower Island, and 
as far inland as the top of the island and the rim of the crater. 
The nests were small, built of sticks, and placed in low Bur- 
sera trees at an average of about seven feet from the ground. 
Young in the down in all stages were found. When ap- 
proached, the youngsters would open their bills and squeak in 
a threatening manner. 

On Wenman Island, on September 24, 1906, a few young 
in down were noted on the ground and on small shrubs grow- 
ing on the ledges of a steep hillside on the northwest side of 
the island. On the plateau on the same side, several pairs 
were found nesting in bushes about three feet above the 
ground. One pair had a fresh ^gg, another a newly-hatched 
youngster. 

On a visit to Culpepper Island on September 25, 1906, a 
number of young in the down were seen. 

A very young bird in the down, taken on Enderby Island, 
had china-blue feet and bill, the latter tipped with white. The 
entire skin over the body was also china-blue. 

The colors of the naked parts of birds taken on Hood in 
the latter part of June, when the adults were in worn plumage 
and the organs of reproduction small, were as follows : Orbital 
ring black in adult males, red in adult females, and pale blue 
in immature birds. Bills were pale blue in all but adult males. 

Three birds with large sexual organs were taken at 
Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, on July 16. Two were 
adult females with orbital rings dark blue, gular sacs purplish. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 103 

and feet red. The remaining bird, an adult male, had a bright 
red gular sac. 

The farthest south we .saw the Man-o'-war Bird was lati- 
tude 3° 41' South on June 12, 1906. East of the archipelago 
we met with it occasionally on the ocean, but it was nowhere 
seen in any numbers except at Manta Bay, Ecuador. 

On the voyage out from San Francisco we saw the first 
Man-o'-war Bird at the Tropic of Cancer on July 22, At San 
Benedicto, Revilla Gigedo Islands, they were nesting abun- 
dantly on July 26, the nests being situated on the low land as 
well as on a high mesa. The nests were built on the top o£ 
clumps of grass, and in most cases contained a single white 
fresh egg. Six nests out of about two hundred contained 
two eggs each. 

On July 27 and 28 we saw a number of Man-o'-war Birds 
about the coast of the neighboring Socorro Island. On the 
voyage from Socorro to Clipperton Island, Mexico, they were 
seen occasionally. At Clipperton, August 10, we saw none 
on the island, but there were two or three hundred sailing 
over it during the forenoon. About noon they all headed 
out to sea in an easterly direction. 

Between Clipperton and Cocos Island, Costa Rica, a few 
were seen. At Cocos, during the first half of September, they 
were very common over the water and in the high trees in the 
forest. Many males in fine glistening black plumage were 
observed flying about with their bright red pouches distended ; 
so, evidently, September was the opening of the breeding- 
season, and undoubtedly the nests were placed in the tops of 
the tall trees, where so many of the birds could be seen and 
heard. At Cocos they persecuted the small Clipperton Nod- 
dies as well as the boobies. 

On the voyage home from Culpepper Island, we saw several 
on September 26th in latitude 3° 29' North, longitude 93° 6' 
West; on the 27th in latitude 5° 34' North, longitude 95° 27'. 
West. Then came a hiatus until October 7th, when one was 
seen in latitude 14° 38' North, longitude 109° 12' West. After 
that they were seen every day or so until October 24th, lati- 
tude 19° North, longitude 116° 41' West. They frequently 
made unsuccessful attempts to alight on the topmast of the 
schooner. 



104 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

With one exception all the specimens of Fregata aquila in 
the Academy's collection are from the Galapagos Islands. 
Birds in juvenal plumage, and assuming juvenal plumage, 
have the entire head and neck a rich cinnamon-rufous. No 
exception to this is found in the Academy's series. 

Five adult males and six adult females from the Galapagos 
Islands measure in millimeters as follows: Males — Wing 
595-660 (633) ; tail 400-490 (463) ; culmen 90-114 (104) ; 
tarsus 18.6-23 (21.2) ; middle toe 46-51.4 (49.1). Females- 
Wing 680-710 (696); tail 480-515 (503); culmen 122- 
127 (125) ; tarsus 21-23.7 (22.7) ; middle toe 51-57 (54.8). 

A series of sixty-seven eggs from San Benedicto and a series 
of thirty-seven from the Galapagos Islands give practically the 
same average length and breadth. Among the sixty-seven 
San Benedicto eggs, however, the difference between the ex- 
tremes is greater, as can be seen from the following measure- 
ments in millimeters: San Benedicto — Length 63.1-77 (69.6) ; 
breadth 43-50.6 (47.2). Galapagos— Length 64.1-74.6 
(69.3); breadth 45.5-49.4 (47.5). A set of two eggs from 
San Benedicto measured 68.9X47.2, 71.1X46.2. 

Phaethon aethereus: Red-billed Tropic-bird 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Brattle, Champion, 
Charles, Chatham, Culpepper, Daphne, Hood, Indefatigable, 
Onslow, Tower, and Wenman islands. 

Red-billed Tropic-birds were not seen in any numbers ex- 
cept at Daphne, Hood, and Tower islands. They, were seen, 
however, through the entire year. Usually they travelled 
singly or in couples, but not in flocks. When met with away 
from land, they frequently flew about the vessel two or three 
times, keeping quite high in the air. The farthest point south 
of the Galapagos Islands at which we saw these birds was in 
2° 36' south latitude. 

During the breeding-season at Daphne Island I saw birds 
circling about holes on the hillsides without beating their 
wings. Whenever they came opposite certain holes they 
would flutter their wings to check their flight, and come to a 
standstill for an instant, as though about to alight, but they 
would continue their circle. This was repeated ten or twelve 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 105 

times before the bird finally entered the hole. On Hood Island 
they usually went directly to their holes without hesitation. 

Only twice in the archipelago were these birds seen on the 
water; once I saw three off Daphne Island, and on another 
occasion one off Mt. Pitt, Chatham Island. In the latter case 
the bird flew as we passed and shook itself just after getting 
out of the water. As far as we observed, the tropic-birds are 
practically immune from the attacks of Man-o'-war Birds. 
On one occasion only did I see Man-o'-war Birds harass a 
tropic-bird, and then without success. 

The food of the Red-billed Tropic-bird, as shown by the 
stomachs examined, consists of fish and squids. These were 
very often disgorged by both young and old when they were 
taken from their burrows. This species dives for its food 
somewhat, like a tern. 

Red-billed Tropic-birds could be recognized at almost any 
time by their cry, which is long and shrill and consists of a 
lot of short, high, rasping notes given in quick succession. 
Birds flying about the nesting-places often gave it, and birds 
disturbed on the nest also gave it. The young when taken 
from the nest uttered the same cry, and I have even heard a 
young bird only a day or so old give three or four notes of it 
when handled. 

The nesting-places were usually holes in cliffs and hillsides 
in the vicinity of the sea. As a rule the single egg was laid 
at the end of a short burrow or in a cavity under a rock, but 
sometimes it was laid in an open depression. I have found 
them nesting two or three hundred feet above the sea, as for 
instance, on Daphne Island, where they nest from top to bot- 
tom of the island. Often two birds would be taken from a 
burrow ; when such was the case no eggs or young were found. 
One bird which I disturbed on its nest was in a good light so 
that I could see it. It was sitting on its egg with wings droop- 
ing at its sides, feathers raised, and every feature showing 
rage at my intrusion. 

The following are some of the breeding-places : Daphne 
in April and November; Hood in February, September, and 
October; Onslow in February. Young birds and eggs were 
taken on Daphne in the latter part of November; a fresh egg 



106 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

was taken on Hood, September 28, 1905, and eggs and young 
in early February, 1906. On Hood I took a bird and a fresh 
egg from a nest, in which five days before a pair of Swallow- 
tailed Gulls held sway. Many tropic-birds were occupying 
nests the owners of which had been killed less than a week 
before. These facts give some idea of the great demand for 
nesting sites on southeast Hood. At Onslow Island on Febru- 
ary 25, I noticed two birds in holes in a rock about twenty 
feet above the water, and I also saw a bird enter a hole. 

On the voyage south from San Francisco we first met with 
the Red-billed Tropic-bird to the west of San Martin Island, 
Baja California, on July 9 and 10. We again saw one on 
July 22 in latitude 22° 25' North, longitude 112° 40' West. 
At San Benedicto, Revilla Gigedo Islands, they were fairly 
common, and we saw some in holes in cliffs over the ocean. 
On the coast of Ecuador, in the vicinity of Manta, on Septem- 
ber 18, 19, and 20, we saw several. So all in all, it did not 
prove a common species at sea on the voyage from San Fran- 
cisco to the Galapagos Islands. 

On the homeward voyage from the Galapagos, we saw 
single birds on seven occasions, beginning on September 28, 
1906, in latitude 7° 23' North, longitude 97° 48' West, and 
ending on November 4, in latitude 26° 50' North, longitude 
126° 47' West. 

In life, the adults have the bill of a crimson color; outer 
part of toes and webs black; tarsi and inner part of toes and 
webs ochraceous buff; under sides of toes and webs pearl- 
gray. The bills of the unfledged young are grayish and yel- 
lowish, while the bills of the fully fledged young are a distinct 
yellow. 

An examination of the Academy's series of adults from the 
Galapagos Islands shows specimens from Daphne in Novem- 
ber, which are apparently just completing a postnuptial moult, 
as testified by new and growing primaries. The same remarks 
apply to a specimen taken at Hood in February. 

From the measurements given below, it appears that the 
sexes are evenly matched in size. The long tail-feathers, 
however, are so subject to wear and tear that it is doubtful 
if any one measurement represents the total length of the 
longest tail-feather in an absolutely perfect state. Of the 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 107 

series of thirty-six males measured seventeen Had tail-feathers 
from 600 to 790 millimeters in length (average 658), while 
of thirty-four females only two had tail-feathers over 600 
millimeters in length (one measured 610, the other 667; aver- 
age 639). The remaining measurements, in millimeters, are 
as follows: Thirty-six males — Wing 301-332 (314); cul- 
men 60.1-69.7 (64.7); tarsus 24.8-28.2 (26.5); middle toe 
33.5-38.1 (36.2). Thirty-four females— Wing 304-335 
(314) ; culmen 59-70 (63.9) ; tarsus 25-28 (26) ; middle toe 
34.2-39.5 (36.5). 

The Academy's series of fifteen eggs shows apparently the 
full variation in markings and shape ascribed in the books to 
the eggs of this species. The fifteen eggs, representing as 
many sets, yield the following extreme and average dimen- 
sions: Length 54.5-67.2 (61) ; breadth 41.1-45.1 (43). 

Phaethon rubricaudus : Red-tailed Tropic-bird 

The Red-tailed Tropic-bird was positively identified on 
three occasions. On July 30, 1905, we saw one in latitude 
14° 58' North, longitude 110° West. On August 21, 1905, in 
latitude 7° 3' North, longitude 101° 36' West, one was shot, 
but we failed to pick it up because of the speed at which the 
schooner was sailing. On October 22, 1906, in latitude 17° 
53' North, longitude 114° 45' West, one circled about the ves- 
sel several times. 

On two occasions we saw birds which were unquestionably 
of this species far north of the Tropic of Cancer. The first 
case occurred on November 7, 1906, in latitude 29° 38' North, 
longitude 129° 2' West, when three flew about the vessel. The 
second case was on November 13, in latitude 32° 38' North, 
longitude 133° 32' West, when one flew about the vessel. 

Pelecanus fuscus: Brown Pelican 

Abingdon, Albemarle, Barrington, Bindloe, Brattle, 
Charles, Chatham, Cowley, Daphne, Duncan, Gardner-near- 
Hood, Hood, Indefatigable, James, Jervis, Narborough, Sey- 
mour, and Tower islands. 

When travelling along the rocky shores of the larger 
islands, we frequently met with the Brown Pelican, usually 



108 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

singly. When not fishing, this bird roosts on the rocks and 
on the mangroves which are in many places found growing 
along the sea-coast proper. Once or twice it was seen on the 
ledges of sea-cliffs. Although quite easy to approach, it was 
somewhat warier than the boobies. Occasionally one could 
be surprised while standing asleep with its bill stuck down 
the middle of its back. When approached closely, this species 
keeps its wings trembling as if nervous. The habit is perhaps 
similar to the twitching of the tail in certain herons. 

In the Galapagos Islands Brown Pelicans serve as scaven- 
gers. On several occasions they were observed to pick up the 
bodies of large birds, after we had skinned them and thrown 
them overboard. In one case an immature pelican had got 
the bodies of two Galapagos Hawks into its pouch, and was 
unable to swallow them. Likewise it was unable to fly on 
account of the weight. It was probably grateful when we 
rowed up to it, where it was sitting on the water, and removed 
the impedimenta, for it flew away joyfully enough after- 
wards. 

We never saw a pelican make a graceful dive. Invariably 
they just tumbled into the water from a few feet above it. 
They often fished along the line of small breakers close to the 
shore, and after making such a dive, frequently had to get up 
hurriedly to avoid being overwhelmed by a wave. 

No noise was ever heard from this species, except from the 
young birds in the nests ; and they can squawk vociferously — 
the squawk being long and hoarse. 

When nesting, the adult will frequently allow a person to 
approach within two or three feet of it before leaving the nest, 
which it makes no attempt to defend. I saw a pair copulating 
on their nest at Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, on April 1. 
They had no eggs in the nest. All of the other nests of the 
colony of ten or twelve had single birds on them. Some had 
eggs, others none. The nests were bulky affairs of sticks 
built in bushes on a steep hillside close to the water. The area 
occupied was about one hundred yards by twenty-five yards. 
The birds were somewhat wary, some flying upon the near 
approach of the boat. 

At South Seymour Island, on November 22, three nests 
were seen in a low tree near the shore. Two had one young- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 109 

ster each, and the third two. On northern Indefatigable, No- 
vember 25, nests with young were observed in the mangroves 
and also on the ground. On Jervis Island, December 18, a 
young bird in the down was found in a nest in a low bush at 
the top of a beach. At Academy Bay, Indefatigable Island, 
in early November, young were observed in nests built at least 
twenty feet above the ground in the mangroves. In the mid- 
dle of the following January the same birds were observed 
fishing, apparently under the supervision of their parents, 
whose example they followed in diving into the water. 

On March 12, a few miles west of Villamil, Albemarle 
Island, four occupied nests were found in the low mangroves 
fringing the rocky shore. They were built in the usual bulky 
style, and the two which were examined each contained three 
incubated eggs. At Banks Bay, Albemarle, April 11, three 
nests were found in some small mangroves about eight feet 
high. They were shallow, built of sticks, lined with grass, 
and placed very little above the high-water mark. One had 
naked youngsters in it; the second contained three eggs; and 
the third was new. 

In the middle of July, at Academy Bay, the same nests 
which had young in them the previous November, again con- 
tained partly-fledged, squawking youngsters, eight months 
only having elapsed since the previous brood. They were 
fed by running their bills well into the parent's pouch and 
gulping in the food. 

Brown Pelicans bathe after the manner of most water-birds, 
by beating the water with their wings. They were occa- 
sionally "decoyed" to wounded birds. One day two or three 
of this species and several Man-o'-war Birds flocked about 
when a Blue-footed Booby was shot. As a rule the pelicans 
did not associate with other species. Once or twice, how- 
ever, they were observed fishing along with Blue-footed 
Boobies, and at times roosting with them. 

It was not unusual to see several Noddies fluttering ex- 
citedly about a pelican when it was fishing, and often sitting 
on its head^ while it swallowed the fish. Once I saw two on 
a pelican's head at one time. The pelicans never seemed to be 
annoyed, nor did the Noddies ever get any fish so far as I 

iCf. Audubon, Orn. Biog., v. 3, pp. 379. 380; v. 5, p. 213; Wells, Auk, v., 19, 
p. 242. 



110 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc 4th Ser. 

could see. Dusky Shearwaters would occasionally fly about 
a pelican, apparently to pester it, for one day I observed a 
pelican take refuge on the top of a cliff from a number of 
them. 

A comparison of the average measurements of a small 
series of Galapagos and California birds shows the California 
birds to be slightly the larger. The maximum, minimum, and 
average measurements in millimeters of the Academy's series 
of adults from these two localities are given in Table XIII, p. 
118. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



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Vol. II, Pt. I] GIFFORD— BIRDS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 



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CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



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120 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I 

Fig. 1. Sphcniscus mendiculus (pp. 16-19). 

Fig. 2. Nest and eggs of Himantopus mexicanus (p. 54). Charles 
Island; February 25, 1906. 



Prdc CalAcad. Sci. 4™ Ser.Vdl II Pt.I. 



[Giffdrd] Plate 





^'^^'^'^K^lZ 



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122 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II 

Fig. I. Nest and eggs of Nyctanassa violacea (pp. 59-62). Albemarle 
Island; March 10, 1906. 

Fig. 2. Butorides sundevalli on nest (pp. 62-65). Chatham Island; Feb- 
ruary 10, 1906. 



Prdc CalAcad. Sei 4™ Ser.Vdl II Pt.1 



[GiffdrdI Plate [1 




124 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE III 
Fig. L Salt lagoon with nests of Phosnicop terns ruber at the edge of the 
brush. Note crystalline deposits at the water's edge (pp. 66-76). 
James Island. 

Fig. 2. Nest and egg of Phcznicopteriis ruber (pp. 66-76). Charles 
Island; February 25, 1906. 



Prdc CalAcad Sci 4™ Ser. Vdl II Pt.I 



[Giffdrd] Plate IU 




126 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV 
Fig. L Nannopterum harrisi and nest (pp. 80-84). Albemarle Island; 

April 16, 1906. 
Fig. 2. Nannopterum harrisi and nest (pp. 80-84). Albemarle Island; 

April 16, 1906. 



Prdc CalAcae. Sci 4™ Ber.Vdl II Pt.I 



[Giffdrd] Plate IV 




128 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V 
Fig. \. Sula piscatrix (pp. 85-89). Tower Island. 

Fig. 2. Sula nebouxi on nest (pp. 93-97). Hood Island; October 1, 
1906. 



Prdc CalAcad Sci 4™ Ser.Vdl IIPt.I 



[Giffdrd] Plate V 




130 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI 
Fig. 1. Fregata aquila on nest (pp. 100-104). Hood Island; June 25, 1906. 
Fig. 2. Fregata aquila on nest (pp. 100-104). Hood Island; June 25, 1906. 



PrdcCalAc^ Sei 4™Ser.VdlII Pt.I 



[Giffdrd] Plate VI 




132 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII 
Fig. 1. Fregata aquila (pp. 100-104). Hood Island. 
Fig. 2. Fregata aquila (pp. 100-104) . Tower Island ; September 14, 1906. 



Prdc CalAcad. Su 4™ Ser. Vol II PtJ 



[Giffdrd] Plate VI] 




F>ROCEEDINQS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. II, Pt. I, pp. 133-202, pis. 8-11 September 19, 1913 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 

OF SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906 



IX 

THE GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS OF THE GENUS TROPIDURUS; 

WITH MOTES ON THE IGUANAS OF THE GENERA 

CONOLOPHUS AND AMBLYRHYNCHUS 

BY JOHN VAN DENBUEGH 

Curator of the Department of Herpetology 

AND JOSEPH R. SLEVIN 

Assistant Curator of the Department of Herpetology 
CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction : 

Prefatory Remarks 134 

Previous Collections and Studies ..... 135 

List of Names Proposed . . . . . . .137 

Relations and List of Kinds Recognized .... 138 

Origin and Distribution of Galapagos Tropiduri . . . 139 

Origin and History of Galapagos Islands .... 140 

Systematic Account: 

Key to the Species 142 

Tropidurus paciUcus 143 

Tropidurus duncanensis ....... 147 

Tropidurus habelii . 150 

Tropidurus bivittatus ....... 155 

Tropidurus delanonis ....... 159 

Tropidurus grayii . . . . . . . . 164 

Tropidurus albemarlensis barringtonensis .... 168 

Tropidurus albemarlensis . . . . . . .172 

Conolophus subcristatus ....... 188 

Conolophus pallidus 190 

Amblyrhynchus cristatus 192 

September t7, 1913 

NOVtl Wh 



134 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

INTRODUCTION 
Prefatory Remarks 

In two previous papers by the senior author the Snakes and 
the Geckos of the Galapagos Archipelago have been studied, 
and an attempt has been made to trace the history of these 
islands from the evidence afforded by these two groups of their 
reptilian inhabitants. It is now proposed to publish the re- 
sults of a similar investigation of the lizards of the genus 
Tropidurus — an investigation undertaken for the purpose of 
confirming or disproving the conclusions reached through 
study of the Snakes and Geckos. 

The material upon which this paper is based consists of 
more than two thousand specimens from twenty-four islands. 
The study of this collection has been an enormous task. Many 
of the differences between species are differences in the size 
and number of the scales. To show as clearly as possible all 
differentiation along these lines, the scales around the middle 
of the body, along the back, and along the belly have been 
counted in fifteen hundred specimens, and the counts have 
been charted island by island. This has involved the counting 
of more than a quarter of a million scales. These counts have 
all been made by Mr. Slevin in the following manner: 1. 
Scale-rows — The number of rows of scales around the body 
counted about midway between the fore and the hind limbs. 

2. Crest — The number of scales in the crest-row from the 
point where the crest begins back to a line drawn across the 
back at the level of the anterior surfaces of the thighs, the 
thighs being held at right angles to the main axis of the body. 

3. Belly — The scales in a row along the middle of the belly 
are counted from a line joining the anterior surfaces of the 
arms when the fore limbs are held at right angles to the main 
axis of the body, back to the anus. All measurements given 
are in millimeters. All specimens are in the collection of the 
Academy, and the numbers attached to them refer to the cata- 
logue of specimens of the Department of Herpetology. Field 
notes and descriptions of the coloration of living specimens are 
in part by Mr. Slevin, and in part are quoted from Heller's 
paper on the reptiles of the archipelago. While the specimens 
are recorded as males and females, this determination of sex 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 135 

rests only upon external characters. The internal organs have 
not been examined. 

The Galapagos lizards of the genus Tropidnnis have been 
much better known than any of the other reptiles of the archi- 
pelago. This is due chiefly to the studies of the late Dr. 
George Baur, from whose writings we shall quote. 

Previous Collections and Studies 

The presence of lizards in these islands probably was 
recorded first by Amasa Delano in A Narrative of Voyages 
and Travels published in Boston in 1817. He mentioned the 
land "guana," the sea "guana," and lizards. 

The largest kind of lizards found here resembles the land guana in 
everything except size ; they being only a little more than half the length. 
Their color and coarse appearance are the same with exception of a 
bright vermilion red throat ; which makes it appear as if bloody. There 
are to be found there also two smaller kinds of lizards. The smallest is 
not much larger than a man's finger. The size of the other kind is be- 
tween the two. There is no particular difference in the shape of the three 
kinds, but the color of the two latter is gray. 

Charles Darwin, in 1835, during the voyage of the 
"Beagle," collected the specimens upon which Thomas Bell, 
in 1843, based the first scientific description of a Galapagos 
Tropidurus. These specimens "were taken in Chatham Island 
and in Charles Island." They were named by Bell Leio- 
cephalus Grayii. 

In 1851, Dumeril recorded, under the name Holotropis 
Grayii, some Galapagos specimens without definite locality 
labels, which were collected during the visit of the "Venus." 

Dr. Kinberg, during the voyage of the "Eugenie," secured 
lizards on Chatham, Charles and Albemarle islands. Dr. 
Peters, in 1871, described the Chatham specimen as a new 
species, Craniopeltis bivittata; and recorded the Charles and 
Albemarle examples under the name Craniopeltis Grayii. 

In 1872, Dr. Steindachner visited the Galapagos in connec- 
tion with Louis Agassiz and the "Hassler" expedition. He ob- 
served these lizards on Albemarle, Indefatigable, James, and 
Jervis islands. Four j^ears later Dr. Steindachner published 
an account of the lizards and snakes of the Galapagos islands. 
Dr. Habel, in 1868, had collected some lizards on "Indefati- 
gable [ ?] and Bindloe" islands. These were described by 
Dr. Steindachner, as Tropidurus (Craniopeltis) paciUcus and 



136 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

T. paciiicus (var. Habelii). Craniopeltis bivittata Peters was 
regarded as a synonym of Tropidurus (Craniopeltis) Grayii, 
which was said to occur on Chatham, Charles, Albemarle, 
James, Indefatigable, and Jervis islands. 

In 1877, Dr. Giinther recorded the specimens secured by 
Cookson, during the visit of the "Peterel." The Albemarle 
lizards were regarded as Liocephalus Grayii (Bell), while 
those from Abingdon were referred both to this species and 
to L. paciiicus (Steind.). Steindachner was followed in re- 
garding Craniopeltis bivittata Peters as a synonym of L. 
Grayii. 

Boulenger in his Catalogue of Lizards, 1885, accepted the 
views of Giinther, but placed these lizards in the genus Tropi- 
durus. 

In reporting upon the collections made by the "Albatross" 
in 1887-88, Professor Cope, in 1889, recorded Tropidurus 
grayi from James, Gardner, Hood, Indefatigable, Albemarle, 
and Duncan islands. The Duncan specimens were mentioned 
as a variety with a dark lateral band not very distinct. Speci- 
mens from Abingdon were referred to Tropidurus pacificus, 
while those from Chatham were described as a new species, 
Tropidurus lemniscatus. 

The following year, Dr. George Baur studied these speci- 
mens collected by the "Albatross," one hundred and twenty- 
eight in number, and published his conclusion that nearly 
every island has its peculiar variety or species of Tropidurus, 
and no island has more than one kind. He described five new 
species, and stated the distribution of Tropidurus, in the archi- 
pelago to be as follows : 

Tropidurus Grayii Bell Charles Island 

" lemniscatus Cope Chatham Island 

" paciiicus Steindachner Bindloe Island 

" Delanonis Baur Hood and Gardner islands 

" Alhemarlensis Baur Albemarle Island 

" indefatigabilis Baur Indefatigable and James islands 

" Duncanensis Baur Duncan Island 

" Ahingdonensis Baur Abingdon Island 

The name Tropidurus Delanonis was changed in the reprints to T. 
Hoodensis. 

Dr. Boulenger reviewed the subject in 1891, and concluded 
that Craniopeltis bivitta Peters differed from Leiocephalus 
Grayii Bell ; that Tropidurus lemniscatus Cope is a synonym of 
Craniopeltis bivittata Peters ; that T. habelii and T. abingdonii 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



137 



are synonyms of T. paciUcus; and that Baur's other new spe- 
cies were not worthy of separation from T. grayii. 

During 1891, Dr. Baur visited the Galapagos Archipelago, 
and made large collections. His final study of the genus Tro- 
pidurus was published in 1892 in the Festschrift fiir Leuckart. 
In this article Dr. Baur recognizes the following species of 
Tropidurus from the Galapagos Islands : 



1. Tropidurus Grayii Bell 

2. " Barringtonensis 

new species 

3. " indefatigabilis Baur 

4. " Jacobii new species 

5. " Albemarlensis Baur 

6. " Delanonis Baur 

7. " Dimcanensis Baur 

8. " paciftctis Steindachner 

9. " Habelii Steindachner 
10. " bivittatus Peters 



Charles Island 
Barrington Island 

Indefatigable Island 
James and Jervis islands 
Albemarle Island 
Hood and Gardner islands 
Duncan Island 
Abingdon Island 
Bindloe Island 
Chatham Island 



The Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedition secured large 
series of these lizards, which were studied by Edmund Heller. 
His paper, published in 1903, is the most recent review of the 
subject. Heller had no specimens from Charles Island. He 
recognized eight forms, as follows : 



T. grayi grayi Bell 

T. grayi magnus new subspecies 
T. grayi barringtonensis (Baur) 
T. duncanensis Baur 
T delanonis Baur 

T. bivittatus (Peters) 
T. habeli (Steindachner) 
T. paciUcus Steindachner 



Charles, Indefatigable, James, 
Jervis, and Albemarle islands 

Narborough Island 

Barrington Island 

Duncan Island 

Hood Island and Gardner-near- 
Hood 

Chatham Island 

Bindloe Island 

Abingdon Island 



List of Names Proposed 



The following is believed to be a complete list of the names 
proposed for Galapagos lizards of the genus Tropidurus, with 
their dates and type-localities : 



1843 T. grayii (Bell) 

1871 T. bivittatus (Peters) 

1876 T. paciUcus Steindachner 

1876 T. habelii (Steindachner) 

1889 T. lemniscatus Cope 

1890 T. delanonis Baur 
1890 T. albemarlensis Baur 



Charles Island 

Chatham Island 

Abingdon Island 

Bindloe Island 

Chatham Island 

Hood Island 

Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island 



138 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

1890 T. indefatigahiUs Baur Indefatigable Island 

1890 T. duncanensis Baur Duncan Island 

1890 T. abingdonensis Baur Abingdon Island 

1890 T. hoodensis Baur Hood Island 

1892 T. harnngtonensis Baur Barrington Island 

1892 T. jacobii Baur James Island 

1903 T. grayi magnns Heller Narborough Island 

T. hoodensis is merely a substitute name. T. lemniscatus is 
a synonym of T. hivittatns, as T. abingdonensis is of T. pa- 
cificus. Thus we have left eleven names, which have been 
given to the lizards of as many different islands. How many 
of these are entitled to recosj-nition ? 



Relations and List of Kinds Recognized 

There can be no doubt that Baur was right in his belief that 
only one kind of Tropidurus occurs on any one island. It is 
true also that many of the islands have distinct and peculiar 
forms of Tropidurus. But when we come to study these liz- 
ards we find that differentiation has proceeded much farther 
upon some islands than upon others. The most distinct of all 
are the Abingdon, Bindloe, Duncan, and Chatham lizards. 
There can be no doubt that they should be regarded as four 
species. The next in point of distinctness is the Hood Island 
form. Then comes the Charles Island lizard, which in cer- 
tain characters resembles that of Hood, while in others it is 
more like that of Barrington. The last mentioned (Barring- 
ton form) stands next as a sort of connecting link between 
the lizards of Hood and Charles islands on the one hand, and 
its still closer relatives of the central and western islands, as 
yet unmentioned, on the other. The lizards of these three 
islands (Hood, Charles and Barrington) certainly are distinct, 
but there easily may be some difference of opinion as to 
whether they should rank as full species or as subspecies. The 
Tropiduri of Indefatigable, James, Jervis, Albemarle, and 
Narborough islands are most closely related. Very large 
series enable us to show that the lizards of these islands are not 
absolutely identical, but differentiation is as yet so slight that 
it seems best to use but one name for all. 

We, therefore, shall describe the Tropiduri of the Galapagos 
Islands under the following names : 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 139 

1. T. paciUcus Abingdon Island 

2. T. duncanensis Duncan Island 

3. T. habelii Bindloe Island 
A..T. bivittatus Chatham Island 

5. T. delanonis Hood and Gardner islands 

6. T. grayii Charles, Gardner, Champion, 

and Enderby islands 

7. T. alhemarlensis barringtonensis Barrington Island 

8. T. albemarlensis Indefatigable, S. Sej^mour, N. 

Se3-mour, Daphne, James, 
Jervis, Cowley. Brattle, Albe- 
marle, and Narborough is- 
lands 

Origin of the Galapagos Lizards of the Genus 
Tropidurus 

The genus Tropidurus, 2.5 at present understood, is confined to 
the Galapagos Archipelago and South America. It has been re- 
ported from Paraguay, iVrgentine, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Equa- 
dor, Brazil, Dutch Guiana, and Venezuela. The closely allied 
genus Leiocephaliis occurs in Bolivia, Peru, Equador, Colom- 
bia, Brazil, the Greater and Lesser Antilles and the Bahamas. 
It is evident, therefore, that the affinities of these Galapagos 
lizards are South American and A¥est Indian. Either the 
lizards of the Galapagos have been derived from South 
America, or those of both localities have common ancestors. 

In the Galapagos Archipelago, Tropiduri occur on almost 
every island, islet, and rock. The notable exceptions are Cul- 
pepper, AA^enman, and Tower islands. They have been found 
on Abingdon, Bindloe, Chatham, Hood, Gardner-near-Hood, 
Charles, Enderby, Champion, Gardner-near-Charles, Barring- 
ton, Indefatigable, North and South Seymour, Daphne, James, 
Bartholomew, Jervis, Duncan, Cowley, Brattle, Albemarle, and 
Narborough islands. 

The fact that these lizards occur on nearly every island of 
the archipelago can be explained only in one of two ways. 
These Tropiduri must have reached these islands either by 
land or by w^ater. Either they have been carried to each 
island, islet, and rock by some such means of dispersal as float- 
ing driftwood driven by the winds and currents, or else they 
were already on each island at the time when it became sep- 
arated from a larger land-mass. The former view has been 
held by those "who believe that these islands never have been 
connected, but have been independently thrust above the sur- 
face of the ocean. The latter explanation finds favor with 



140 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seh. 

those who beheve that these islands all formerly were con- 
nected, and formed part of a single large island which, some- 
time, must have been connected with continental America. 

We can see but little to commend the former view, for the 
means of dispersal from continent to island or from island to 
island over the intervening water must, in the nature of things, 
be but accidental or occasional, and must seem quite inade- 
quate to account for the wide distribution of these lizards in 
the archipelago. Again, Wenman and Culpepper islands lie 
directly in the path of the currents from the other islands, yet 
both are without Tropiduri. Furthermore, were such means 
of dispersal sufficient to bring about the wide distribution of 
these reptiles, we must believe that the interchange of lizards 
between the islands would result either in preventing differ- 
entiation on the various islands, or in the transportation of 
differentiated races from island to island. Thus we should 
expect to find either one kind of lizard on all the islands, or a 
tendency toward the distribution of all kinds of lizards to each 
island. But many of the islands have each its peculiar kind 
of Tropidurus, and no island has more than one kind. Even 
in the case of Duncan Island, almost surrounded as it is by 
other close-lying islands, the evidence all points to complete 
isolation during a long period of time. 

Origin and History of the Galapagos Islands 

We, therefore, adopt the other theory: that there formerly 
was a single large island inhabited by one species of Tropi- 
durus; that through partial and gradual submersion this island 
became divided into the many islands of the present archi- 
pelago; that each island after its separation was occupied by 
those animals which inhabited it before; and that the present 
fauna of each island is directly descended from its original 
inhabitants. 

It is probable that the separation of the various islands oc- 
curred at different times rather than simultaneously. 

If it be admitted that the degree of differentiation in a single 
group, under conditions such as obtain in these islands, may 
be regarded as an index to the period of isolation, we may pro- 
ceed to sketch the history of the archipelago as indicated by 
the lizards of this genus. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 141 

The Tropidiiri of Abingdon, Bindloe, Duncan, and Chat- 
ham islands show the greatest differentiation. Accordingly, 
we may believe that these islands early became separated from 
each other and from the remaining portions of the group, and 
have maintained independent existence ever since. 

The next lizard, in point of distinctness, is that of Hood 
Island. Hence it would seem probable that this southern 
island was the one next separated. The closest relationship 
of this Tropidiirus seems to be with that of Charles Island. 
This relationship is not nearly so striking as in the case of 
the snakes and geckos of these two islands, but it nevertheless 
may be interpreted as indicating some connection between 
these islands in the past, probably subsequent to their separa- 
tion from the rest of the archipelago. 

The Tropidurus of Gardner-near-Hood appears to be 
identical with that of the main island, so that the separation 
of this islet from Hood doubtless is of recent date. 

The Charles Island lizard is, in a sense, intermediate be- 
tween those of Hood and Barrington islands. This apparent 
relationship with the Barrington form inclines one to believe 
that the former connection of the Hood-Charles island with 
the remainder of the archipelago may have been by way of 
Barrington. 

The lizards of Enderby, Champion, and Gardner-near- 
Charles do not differ from those of the larger island. The 
separation of these islets from Charles Island, therefore, may 
be regarded as having occurred much later than the separation 
of Charles from Hood. 

Barrington Island probably was the next to assume an in- 
dependent existence. 

The lizards of the remaining islands — Indefatigable, the 
Seymours, Daphne, James, Jervis, Cowley, Brattle, Albemarle 
and Narborough — show so little differentiation that we are 
led to the conclusion that all of these islands were connected, 
and formed a single large island for some time after the sep- 
aration of Barrington. It is probable that a large bay ex- 
tended from the south toward the center of this island, com- 
pletely surrounding Duncan Island with water. 

The history of this large central island cannot be clearly 
traced farther from evidence afforded by the Tropiduri. 



142 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Nevertheless, the examination of very large series discloses 
certain average differences, and certain resemblances, which 
lead us to believe that, during a considerable period of time 
after this large island was broken up, Narborough Island re- 
mained connected with Albemarle, as did James with Jervis, 
and Indefatigable with the Seymours. Brattle and Cowley 
islands doubtless were joined to Albemarle, and Bartholomew 
to James. Curiously enough, the Tropiduri of Daphne Island 
seem to resemble those of James Island more closely than they 
do those of the Seymours and Indefatigable, although the lat- 
ter lie much nearer. 

Thus we find that the evidence gathered from a study of 
the Tropiduri points to the gradual depression and partial sub- 
mersion of a former Galapagos Land, resulting in its division 
into many smaller islands and islets. The story agrees in al- 
most every detail with that which we have previously gathered 
from an investigation of the snakes and geckos. The chief 
points of difference are that the snake of Barrington is less 
differentiated than the lizard, and the Tropiduri afford less 
evidence than do the snakes of a former division into an 
Albemarle-Narborough Island and a James-Jervis-Indefati-, 
gable Island, 

SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT 
Key to the Galapagos Tropiduri 

a. — Sides of neck scaly, with fewer folds. 

b. — Scales around body not more than 65; males longitudinally 
striped. Chatham. 

T. bivittatus. — p. 
b.2 — Scales around body more than 65; no longitudinal stripes. 
Bindloe. 

T. habelii. — p. 
a. 2 — Sides of neck granular between folds; folds more numerous. 

bb. — Hind legs of males with definite blackish spots; interparietal 
plate seldom much broader than long; scales around body 
not more than 80. 
c. — 36 to 48 scales in crest; smaller; Httle red in coloring. 
Charles. 

T. grayii. — p. 
c.2 — 50 to 61 scales in crest; larger; usually much red. Hood. 
T. delanonis. — p. 
bb. — Hind legs without definite blackish spots; interparietal 
usually much broader than long; or scales around body 
more than 80. 
cc.^ — Scales around body more than 75. 

d. — Head above speckled with lighter spots ; no red in general 
coloration; scales around body 85 to 101. Abingdon. 



Vol. II, Ft. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 143 

T. pacificus. — p 

d.- — Head not speckled above; more or less suffused with 
red; scales around body 76 to 92. Duncan. 
T. duncanensis. — p. 
CC.2 — Scales around body fewer than 76. 

dd. — Scales smaller, 61 to 76 around body. Barrington. 
T, albemarlensis barringtonensis. — p. 
(ld.=— Scales larger, 50 to 69 around body. Indefatigable, 
James, Jervis, Albemarle, Narborough, etc: 
T. albemarlensis. — p. 

Tropidurus pacificus Steindachner 
Abingdon Island Lizard 

1876, Tropidurus {Cranio peltis) pacificus, Stfindachner, Festschrift 
Zool-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 313, pi. II, fig. 3 (type locality Indefati- 
gable [?] and Bindloe Islands, Galapagos Archipelago), 

1877, Liocephalus pacificus, Gunther^ Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 
67 (part). 

1885, Tropidurus pacificus, Boulenger, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus., II, 1885, 
p. 173; Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XTI, 1889, p. 147; Boulenger, Ann. 
and Mag. Nat. Hist, (6), VII, p. 501 (part); Baur, Festschrift fiir 
Leuckart, 1892, p. 270; Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V. 1903, p. 83. 

1890. Tropidurus abingdonii, Baur, Biol. Centralbl., X, 1890, p. 479 
(type locality Abingdon Island, Galapagos). 

Diagnosis. — Sides of neck with numerous folds; skin be- 
tween neck- folds granular; hind legs without definite blackish 
spots; interparietal usually much broader than long; 83 to 101 
scales around middle of body ; top of head mottled or speckled 
v/ith light color ; a middorsal light streak in males. 

Type. — Vienna Museum. Collected by Dr. Habel on "In- 
defatigable [ ?] and Bindloe Islands," Galapagos Archipelago. 
Specimens with the high scale counts given by Dr. Steindach- 
ner, however, could only have come from Abingdon. 

Distribution. — This species occurs only on Abingdon Island, 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — The Academy's collection contains about one 

hundred and fifty specimens, of which fifty-seven males and 

sixty-five females have been included in the scale counts. 

Description of adult male. No. 12587. — The head is covered above with 
smooth scales; interparietal largest, broader than long; five or six large 
supraoculars ; superciliaries imbricate ; five superior and five inferior 
labials to below middle of eye ; rostral very broad and low ; symphyseal 
broad, followed by a series of large sublabials, of which all but the first 
are separated from the infralabials by a row of smaller plates. Ear- 
opening large, with an anterior denticulation of five or six Jong, narrow 
scales. Side of neck between ear-opening and fore limb with numerous 
folds, covered with granular scales. A strong antehumeral, but no com- 
plete gular, fold. A well-developed medium dorsal crest begins half the 
length of the interparietal behind this plate, and runs continuously to and 
along the tail, being highest on the proximal fourth of the tail. The 
dorsal regions of the neck, body, and tail are covered with rather small, 
keeled, mucronate scales, which, on the body, change gradually to smaller. 



144 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

keeled, mucronate laterals. These again change gradually into the 
smooth ventrals, which are a little smaller than the dorsals. The gular 
scales are smooth, smaller posteriorly, smallest below the ears. The 
scales on the chest are largest, smooth, and imbricate. The limbs are 
provided above with keeled, and below with smooth, scales. The posterior 
surface of the thigh is covered with smooth sub-granular scales, between 
which smaller granules may often be seen. The lateral caudals are 
strongly keeled and mucronate, while the inferior caudals are smooth 
proximally, but become keeled on the distal portion of the tail. 

The general coloration in alcohol is grayish brown, spotted with 
black on the fore limbs, back, and sides of neck and body, temples, chin, 
throat and chest. These black markings tend to form vertical bars on 
the neck and anterior dorsal region. There is an antehumeral black 
blotch, and the posterior gular region is mostly black. The head, neck, 
body, limbs, and tail are speckled with light bluish gray, and a band of the 
same color runs along the median dorsal region. The hind limbs are not 
distinctly spotted with black. 

Length to anus mm. 100 

Length of tail 143+ 

Snout to ear 22 

Width of head 17 

Fore limb 45 

Hind limb 69 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 25 

Height of crest on nape 1.2 

Height of crest on midbody 1.2 

Height of crest on tail 2.3 

Coloration in life of adult male. — Dorsum grayish brown; 
the back crossed by several series of transverse black bars, most 
distinct anteriorly, interrupted medially and on sides. Dorsal 
crest and the scales at its base light greenish gray; dorsum, 
tail, and limbs spotted with same. Top of head reddish brown, 
nape olive brown. Fore limbs brownish, barred above like the 
back. Tail becoming dusky toward tip, without lighter spots. 
Chin and sides of mandible pinkish ; throat deep brown ; chest 
light brown, dark-spotted, the scales with light margins; fore 
limbs below like the chest, slightly more buffy. Belly, hind 
limbs, and tail inferiorly light olive gray. Sides of head from 
snout to ear-opening red, shading into seal brown on the neck. 
A black antehumeral spot. Sides of body reddish, black- 
spotted. 

Coloration in life of adult female. — Whole, head, nape, shoul- 
ders, back anteriorly, and sides of body brick red; fore limbs 
reddish, becoming olive gray distally. Dorsal crest and median 
line of back greenish gray; dorsum from middle of back, tail, 
and hind limbs above olive brown, spotted with the color of 
the dorsal crest. Belly, tail, and hind limbs inferiorly light 
olive gray. Breast and sides of body light brick red; throat 
dark red; lower jaw light like the breast. Fore limbs below 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



145 



brick red proximally, lighter grayish distally. Antehumeral 
spot black. 

Variation. — There is much variation in the size, number and 
arrangement of the head scales. The characteristic coloration 
in the males is fairly constant. Females show few or no 
black markings, though traces of them may often be made out 
as spots of brown darker than the ground color. The belly 
usually is slaty or bluish gray, sometimes yellowish. Many 
females have the head and sides of neck suffused with brick 
red. The number of scales around the middle of the body 
varies from 83 to 101 ; in the crest from 46 to 61 ; and along 
the belly from 70 to 85. Variation in these respects will be 
found in the following: 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Abingdon Island 







Scale 










, Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


12475 


d^ 


88 


54 


81 


12476 


9 


86 


47 


80 


12477 


c? 


86 


51 


78 


12478 


9 


88 


59 


78 


12479 


c? 


89 




79 


12481 


9 


87 


53 


84 


12480 


& 


86 


58 


82 


12484 


9 


87 


55 


83 


12482 


& 


88 


57 


83 


12511 


9 


92 


54 


79 


12483 


c? 


97 


55 


81 


12512 


9 


90 


56 


78 


12485 


& 


86 


56 


85 


12513 


9 


90 


58 


79 


12486 


cf 


93 


57 


79 


12514 


9 


90 


48 


74 


12487 


& 


85 




77 


12515 


9 


88 


47 


70 


12488 


cf 


92 


55 


83 


12516 


9 


89 


59 


80 


12489 


d^ 


86 


54 


79 


12517 


9 


88 


56 


81 


12490 


& 


90 


55 


83 


12518 


9 


97 


60 


83 


12491 


6" 


88 


56 


81 


12519 


9 


95 


61 


82 


12492 


& 


96 


54 


80 


12520 


9 


87 


60 


79 


12493 


cf 


93 


52 


77 


12521 


9 


88 


53 


74 


12494 


c/ 


90 




74 


12522 


9 


91 


58 


78 


12495 


c? 


87 


57 


83 


12523 


9 


88 


57 


82 


12496 


^ 


90 




83 


12524 


9 


90 


61 


76 


12497 


c? 


88 


53 


79 


12525 


9 


88 


58 


75 


12498 


c? 


91 


57 


76 


12526 


9 


88 


55 


75 


12500 


cf 


93 


54 


83 


12527 


9 


88 


53 


74 


12501 


cf 


91 


51 


77 


12528 


9 


97 


60 


83 


12502 


cf 


88 


58 


78 


12529 


9 


97 


61 


80 


12503 


d^ 


91 




79 


12530 


9 


96 


59 


77 


12504 


cf 


92 


5i 


82 


12531 


9 


93 


52 


75 


12505 


d' 


96 


46 


83 


12532 


9 


86 


56 


79 


12506 


cf 


95 


49 


81 


12533 


9 


89 


60 


83 


12507 


d' 


93 


51 


80 


12534 


9 


94 


57 


77 


12508 


d' 


97 


55 


79 


12536 


9 


92 


58 


78 


12509 


^ 


91 


52 


80 


12537 


9 


86 


54 


82 


12585 


c? 


89 




85 


12538 


9 


94 


59 


79 


12586 


cf 


91 


54 


79 


12540 


9 


93 


59 


82 


12587 


cf 


90 


56 


85 


12541 


9 


91 


60 


82 


12588 


c? 


89 


56 


85 


12542 


9 


90 


59 


78 


12589 


cf 


93 


51 


79 


12543 


9 


91 


53 


77 


12590 


& 


85 




77 


12544 


9 


86 


54 


71 


12591 


& 


88 


58 


83 


12545 


9 


87 


54 


82 



146 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Abingdon Island— ConiwMeti 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


12593 


& 


91 


54 


85 


12594 


9 


88 


52 


80 


12598 


& 


91 


54 


82 


12596 


9 


86 




74 


12600 


C? 


84 


48 


78 


12597 


9 


90 


52 


74 


12604 


c^ 


87 


52 


82 


12599 


9 


84 


53 


79 


12605 


& 


87 


58 


81 


12603 


9 


94 


54 


78 


12606 


c? 


90 


53 


83 


12609 


9 


92 


55 


80 


12608 


& 


90 


55 


83 


12611 


9 


92 


51 


84 


12610 


d^ 


89 


54 


83 


12615 


9 


84 


52 


79 


12612 


d^ 


88 


55 


83 


12617 


9 


88 


55 


80 


12613 


cf 


92 


53 


83 


12618 


9 


83 




76 


12614 


cf 


90 


55 


83 


12619 


9 


90 


56 


80 


12616 


c? 


91 


58 


83 


12620 


9 


91 




80 


12622 


& 


90 


57 


79 


12621 


9 


88 


57 


77 


12626 


d" 


86 


53 


81 


12623 


9 


86 


55 


77 


12627 


d' 


88 


54 


80 


12624 


9 


89 


58 


76 


12628 


cf 


90 


58 




12632 


9 


85 


56 


74 


12629 


d 


90 




78 


12633 


9 


83 


55. 


76 


12630 


& 


87 


55 


76 


12634 


9 


87 


56 


80 


12631 


& 


91 


55 


79 


12636 


9 


92 


56 


78 


12640 


d 


85 




75 


12637 


9 


95 


56 


82 












12638 


9 


90 


56 


77 












12644 


9 


89 


51 


74 












12645 


9 


91 


56 


79 












12646 


9 


84 


55 


76 












12647 


9 


89 


54 


78 












12649 


9 


90 


56 


80 












12652 


9 


93 


53 


84 












12653 


9 


88 


58 


77 



Habits.— Ahmgdon Island, Sept. 18 and 22, 1906. Went 
ashore on the south side of the island. Landed on a good sand 
beach and worked inland about a mile. About half way up 
the mountain a distinct green zone is plainly visible, while the 
lower part is brown lava, not very rough, and covered spar- 
ingly with cactus and trees. The lizards are abundant in this 
lower portion, especially near the beach, which swarms with 
seal-flies. Several stomachs examined contained these flies 
and the leaves of a succulent plant which grows on the beach. 
Lizards are most abundant near the beach, but their range ex- 
tends up to 1500 feet, where they are rather scarce. 

"The food is chiefly vegetable, varied with insects, etc. 
Stomachs examined contained berries, hard seeds, and blos- 
soms, with an occasional grasshopper, beetle or other insect. 
The seed capsules and berries are eaten for the fleshy part sur- 
rounding the seeds, which is the only part digested, the seeds 
passing unchanged through the alimentary canal." (Heller.) 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 147 

General remarks. — The Abingdon Island Tropidunis is a 
very distinct species. It has smaller scales than any other 
species found in the archipelago. In scale characters it most 
resembles the species of Duncan Island, but has rather smaller 
scales and a very different coloration. The peculiar light 
speckling of the upper surfaces, and particularly of the head, 
seems to be quite characteristic, and is shown by both sexes. 

Tropidurus duncanensis Baur 
Duncan Island Lizard 

1889, Tropidunis grayi, Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 1889, p. 145 
(part) ; Boulenger, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, (6), VII, 1891, p. 502 
(part). 

1890, Tropidurus duncanensis, Baur, Biol. Centralbl., X, 1890, p. 479 
(type locality Duncan Island Galapagos Archipelago) ; Baur, Fest- 
schrift fiir Leuckart, 1892, p. 270; Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 
V, 1903, p. 77. 

Diagnosis. — Sides of neck with numerous folds; skin be- 
tween neck folds granular; hind legs without definite blackish 
spots; interparietal usually much broader than long; 76 to 
92 scales around middle of body; top of head unicolor; no 
middorsal streak; often much red in coloration. 

Types.— U. S. National Museum Nos. 14941 to 14944. 
Collected by the U. S. Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross," 
on Duncan Island, Galapagos Archipelago, between April 4 
and 16, 1888. 

Distribution. — Duncan Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — The Academy collection contains about one 
hundred specimens, of which thirty-nine males and forty-eight 
females have been included in the scale counts. 

Description of adult male No. 12203. — The head is covered above with 
smooth scales; interparietal largest, broader than long; four or five su- 
perior and as many inferior labials, to below middle of eye ; rostral very 
broad and low ; symphyseal much narrower, followed by a series of large 
sublabials, of which all but the first are separated from the infralabials 
by a row of somewhat smaller plates. Ear-opening large, with an an- 
terior denticulation of six or eight long, slender scales. Side of neck be- 
tween ear-opening and fore limb with numerous folds, covered with 
granular scales. A strong antehumeral, but no complete gular, fold. A 
well-developed median dorsal crest begins four scales behind the inter- 
parietal, and runs continuously to and along the tail, being highest on the 
proximal third of the tail, and absent toward its tip. The dorsal regions 
of the neck, body, and tail are covered with rather small, keeled, mucronate 
scales, which, on the body, change gradually to smaller, keeled, mucronate 
laterals. These again change gradually into the smooth ventrals, which are 
much smaller than the dorsals. The gular scales are smooth, smaller 
posteriorly, smallest below the ear. The scales on the chest are about as 
large as the dorsals, smooth and imbricate. The limbs are provided above 



148 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

with keeled, and below with smooth, scales. The posterior surface of the 
thigh is covered with imbricate scales, a few of which are keeled. The 
lateral caudals are strongly keeled and mucronate, while the inferior 
caudals are smooth proximally, but become keeled on the distal portion 
of the tail. 

The general coloration in alcohol is grayish brown, with very small 
scattered black spots on the body, neck, and fore limbs. Some larger 
black spots on chest and throat, the center of which is dark blackish 
brown. No vertical dark blotches or distinct rounded spots or light 
medium band on back. There is a black antehumeral blotch. The top 
and sides of the head are dark olive brown, unicolor. The hind limbs and 
tail are lighter olive brown, unspotted. The chest and center of belly 
are grayish white. The throat and sides of belly, head, and body are 
suffused with red. 

Length to anus mm. 95 

Length of tail 132 

Snout to ear 19 

Width of head 15 

Fore limb 37 

Hind limb 64 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 25 

Height of crest on nape 1.1 

Height of crest on midbody 1 

Height of crest on tail 2 

Coloration in life of adult male. — Above olive brown, black- 
spotted except the head; tail more brownish with few dark 
spots; hind limbs and tail light blue, gray-spotted; fore limbs 
dark-spotted like the back. Sides of head and body, from 
snout to tip of tail, brick red, finely black-spotted on sides and 
along the belly, where the red is brightest; a black ante- 
humeral spot. Throat black; breast, mandible, and fore limbs 
reddish, black-spotted; chin, belly, hind limbs, and tail in- 
feriorly red. 

Coloration in life of adult female. — Above olive brown. 
Sides of head and body from snout to tip of tail brick red, 
darkest dorsally where the red extends high up and encroaches 
on the dorsum, brightest along the belly; a black antehumeral 
spot. Below red from mandible to tip of tail, darkest an- 
teriorly on lower jaw, brightest on tail; breast and belly 
lighter, breast dark-spotted. 

Variation. — Females have more of the red suffusion than 
the males, and show fewer black spots on the sides and back, 
and less black on the throat. In some females the red covers 
not only the lower surfaces of the belly, sides, and tail, but 
extends up on the back. 

The head-scales are subject to considerable variation. The 
interoccipital is always very large, though it sometimes is only 
a little wider than long. There seems to be but little variation 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



149 



in the keeling and arrangement of the body-scales, 
range in scale counts is given in the following table : 



The 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— DUNCAN ISLAND 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10561 


& 


76 


55 


84 


12176 


9 


76 


53 


82 


10562 


& 


89 


57 


86 


12177 


9 


84 


52 


91 


10565 


& 


82 


53 




12178 


9 


82 


55 


91 


10566 


c? 


84 


50 


86 


12183 


9 


84 


58 


92 


12172 


cf 


86 


52 


87 


12185 


9 


91 




89 


12173 


c^ 


81 


50 


80 


12186 


9 


89 


55 


90 


12174 


& 


91 


59 


^% 


12187 


9 


80 


53 


82 


12175 


& 


82 


57 


86 


12188 


9 


85 


59 


86 


12179 


d' 


92 


49 


88 


12189 


9 


80 


55 


82 


12181 


6" 


85 


51 


86 


12193 


9 


80 


56 


85 


12182 


& 


82 


53 


87 


12194 


9 


84 


54 


90 


12184 


& 


92 


53 


84 


12195 


9 


82 


55 


87 


12188 


& 


79 


51 


80 


12197 


9 


80 


56 


81 


12190 


c? 


76 


54- 


87 


12198 


9 


79 


52 


83 


12191 


cf 


81 


55 


89 


12201 


9 


82 


52 


85 


12192 


cf 


86 


56 


88 


12204 


9 


82 


52 


86 


12196 


cf 


86 


53 


90 


12208 


9 


87 


57 


90 


12199 


& 


81 


56 


87 


12209 


9 


79 


56 


87 


12200 


6" 


84 


53 


87 


12210 


9 


84 




88 


12202 


& 


80 


52 


85 


12212 


9 


82 


52 


82 ' 


12203 


c? 


86 


52 


84 


12218 


9 


81 


54 


83 


12205 


cf 


88 


52 


91 


12219 


9 


81 


51 


81 


12206 


c? 


87 


53 


88 


12220 


9 


80 






12207 


c? 


83 


53 


84 


12225 


9 


87 


50 


84 


12217 


c? 


80 


47 


84 


12226 


9 


82 


54 


87 


12221 


& 


79 


53 


86 


12227 


9 


83 


51 


80 


12222 


& 


85 


54 


84 


12228 


9 


82 


50 


81 


12223 


& 


83 


54 


86 


12229 


9 


88 


50 


67 


12224 


<f 


82 


51 


87 


12230 


9 


80 


52 


86 


12235 


c? 


81 


47 


82 


12231 


9 


85 


57 


84 


12239 


c? ■ 


78 


45 


80 


12232 


9 


79 


51 


79 


12241 


c? 


83 


54 


85 


12233 


9 


82 


54 


86 


12243 


c? 


83 




86 


12234 


9 


80 


51 


78 


12245 


& 


89 


53 


80 


12236 


9 


81 


53 


85 


12248 


cf 


81 


51 


83 


12237 


9 


80 


50 


84 


12251 


6" 


84 


52 


83 


12238 


9 


80 


50 


81 


12254 


c? 


82 


52 


86 


12240 


9 


79 


54 


87 


12257 


& 


84 


44 


82 


12242 


9 


81 


54 


86 


12258 


c? 


83 


46 


82 


12244 
12246 


9 
9 


81 
81 


51 

52 


80 












88 












12247 


9 


80 


54 


87 












12249 


9 


76 


51 


80 












12250 


9 


80 


53 


79 












12252 


9 


81 


53 


78 












12253 


9 


79 


54 


80 












12256 


9 


77 


52 


82 












12259 


9 


84 


58 


84 












12260 


9 


80 


53 


88 



Habits. — Duncan Island, Dec. 11 to 16, 1905. Lizards were 
fairly common in the brushy portion. I have not been in the 



September 17, 1913 



150 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

crater as yet, but Mr. Beck says they were not more abundant 
there than elsewhere. Aug. 14, 1906. Went ashore after 
hzards. I found them by no means abundant — if anything 
rather scarce. I cohected on the N.E. slope of the island to 
about 800 feet. The Tropidiiri are -very wild, and keep close 
under cover. They generally were found under the thorn 
bushes or on piles of old lava, under which they get on one's 
approach. Secured about thirty during the day. Aug. 15. 
Went down into the large crater at the north end of the island. 
The floor of the crater is 450 feet above sea-level and is com- 
posed of red loam covered with large thorn bushes and old 
stumps. The vegetation is thickest around the edges, while 
the central portion is almost bare. Lizards were the only 
reptiles seen, and were more plentiful there than elsewhere, 
but by no means abundant. The numerous hawks make them 
wilder than those of any other island where we have collected, 
except Charles Island. Some of the males have a rich salmon, 
coloring, but I find little or no difference between those taken 
in the crater and those taken outside, although the color of 
their surroundings in the crater is quite red. In several stom- 
achs examined I found portions of beetle wings and grass- 
hoppers. The latter seem to form one of the principal articles 
of food, for I saw several lizards chasing them. I saw quite 
a number of young, and presume the breeding season has not 
been over very long. 

"Their food consists exclusively of insects. The stomachs 
examined contained grasshoppers, caterpillars, grubs, beetles, 
etc." (Heller.) 

General remarks. — The small size of its scales causes this 
species to bear a general resemblance to the Tropidurus of 
Abingdon Island. The coloration, however, is very different: 
the Duncan lizards are the reddest of the Tropiduri, while the 
Abingdon species is of a bluish-gray tone. The Duncan lizard 
does not show the speckled head so characteristic of the 
Abingdon form. The scales on the belly of Duncan specimens 
are smaller than in any other species. 

Tropidurus habelii (Steindachner) 

Bindloe Island Lizard 

1876, Tropidurus paciUcus (var. habelii), Steindachner, Festschrift 
Zool.-Bot Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 314, pi. II, fig. 2 (type locality Inde- 
fatigable [?] and Bindloe Islands, Galapagos Archipelago). 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 151 

1877, Liocephalus paciiicus, GiJNTHER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 
67 (part). 

1890, Tropidurus pacificus, Baur, Biol. Centralbl., X, 1890, p. 479; 
BouLENGER, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), VII, 1891, p. 501 (part). 

1892, Tropidurus habelii, Baur, Festschrift fur Leuckart, 1892, p. 271 ; 
Heller, Proc. Wasliington Acad. Sci., V. 1903, p. 81. 

Diagnosis. — Neck folds fewer, sides of neck covered with 
scales instead of granules; more than 65 scales around mid- 
dle of body ; no light longitudinal dorsolateral stripes ; no red 
in coloration ; dorsal crest in males higher than in any other 
race. 

Types. — Vienna Museum. Collected by Dr. Habel on "In- 
defatigable [ ?] and Bindloe Islands," Galapagos Archipelago. 

Distribution. — This species is peculiar to Bindloe Island, 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — The Academy's collection contains about one 
hundred and seventy-three specimens, of which forty males 
and seventy-five females have been included in the table of 
scale counts. 

Description of adult male No. 12397. — The head is covered above with 
smooth scales; interparietal largest, broader than long; five or six large 
supraoculars ; superciharies imbricate ; five superior and five inferior 
labials, to below middle of eye ; rostral very broad and low ; symphyseal 
broad, followed by a series of large sublabials, of which all but the first 
are separated from the infralabials by a row of smaller plates. Ear- 
opening large, with an anterior denticulation of five or six long, narrow 
scales. Side of neck between ear-opening and fore limb with compara- 
tively few folds, covered with keeled, imbricate scales. A strong ante- 
humeral, but no complete gular, fold. A well-developed median dorsal 
crest begins about half the length of the interparietal behind this plate, 
and runs continuously to and along the tail, being highest on the proximal 
fourth of the tail. The dorsal regions of the neck, body, and tail are 
covered with rather small, keeled, mucronate scales, which, on the body, 
change gradually to smaller, keeled, mucronate laterals. These . again 
change gradually into the smooth ventrals, which are a little smaller than 
the dorsals. The gular scales are smooth, smaller posteriorly, smallest 
below the ears. The scales on the chest are largest, smooth and imbri- 
cate. The limbs are provided above v/ith keeled, and below with smooth, 
scales. The posterior surface of the thigh is covered with rather small 
scales. The lateral caudals are strongly keeled and mucronate, while the 
inferior caudals are smooth proximally, but become keeled on the distal 
portion of the tail. 

The general coloration in alcohol is grayish brown, with little evidence 
of darker markings except a black blotch in front of the shoulder. The 
posterior gular region is darker. The head, neck, body, limbs, and tail 
are very slightly specked with Hght bluish gray, but there is no band of 
the same color along the medium dorsal region. The hind limbs are not 
distinctly spotted with black. The lower surfaces are yellowish white 
more or less suffused with brown. 



152 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Length to anus mm. Ill 

Length of tail 140+ 

Snout to ear 23 

Width of head 18 

Fore limb 48 • 

Hind limb 81 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 31 

Height of crest on nape 5 

Height of crest on midbody 4 

Height of crest on tail 5 

Coloration in life of adult male. — Above dark brown, 
spotted with light gray; crest grayish; tail and nape olive 
brown; limbs above lighter, more spotted; top of head olive 
brown. Belly grayish; breast red with dark blotches; throat 
and lower jaw also dark, but with more red than the breast. 
Sides of body and neck lake red ; a black antehumeral spot. 

Coloration in life of adult female. — Above dusky greenish 
spotted with black, becoming dusky on the tail, and brown on 
the head; limbs above with much light olive. Sides of body 
dark lake red, chest lighter red; lower jaw and throat dark, 
like the sides. Belly and limbs below clay yellow; tail 
inferiorly dusky yellow. Sides of head light brown; sides of 
neck dark red like throat; a black antehumeral spot. 

Variation. — Males may have the throat quite light, but it 
usually is dark, and this coloring extends down over the un- 
der surface of the shoulders. Females have light or dark 
gray throats, sometimes with a slight showing of red. The 
dark coloring of the back may extend down on the lower sur- 
faces of the body and limbs, so that these surfaces may be 
everywhere dark gray, or may show only a little gray. 

The interoccipital is as wide as long. Variation in the scale 
counts is shown in the following table: 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Bindloe Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


12275 


rf 


75 


49 


75 


12282 


9 


71 


50 


69 


12277 


(^ 


74 


51 


75 


12287 


9 


68 


47 


71 


12278 


rP 


71 


54 


78 


12298 


9 


73 


50 


74 


12279 


cP 


69 


47 


75 


12305 


9 


70 


53 


72 


12280 


rf 


75 


51 


76 


12306 


9 


68 


50 


70 


12284 


rf 


70 


51 


77 


12307 


9 


68 


46 


72 


12285 


rf 


70 


46 


74 


12308 


9 


73 


50 


70 


12288 


cP 


66 


49 


75 


12311 


9 


73 


47 


74 


12291 


^ 


68 


47 


71 


12312 


9 


71 


51 


71 


12293 


rP 


73 


52 


80 


12313 


9 


70 


45 


73 


12295 


& 


72 


51 


76 


12314 


9 


72 


53 


76 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH 


—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 


153 


TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS- 


— BiNDLOE 


Island — Continued 






Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Cr^st 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


12297 


& 


66 


49 


75 


12315 


9 


70 


47 


76 


12304 


& 


66 


48 


76 


12316 


9 


75 


55 


77 


12317 


& 


70 


52 


76 


12319 


9 


71 


49 


73 


12318 


d" 


70 


50 


73 


12320 


9 


72 


49 


73 


12323 


cf 


70 


51 


76 


12321 


9 


72 


46 


75 


12325 


c? 


70 


49 


74 


12322 


9 


68 


48 


75 


12327 


c^ 


70 


49 


76 


12324 


9 


68 


46 


72 


12333 


c^ 


70 


52 


75 


12326 


9 


74 


48 


71 


12337 


d' 


67 


46 


73 


12328 


9 


70 


51 


70 


12350 


& 


70 


50 


73 


12329 


9 


69 


50 


72 


12353 


& 


71 


48 


72 


12330 


9 


70 


50 




12354 


& 


71 


47 


74 


12331 


9 


75 


48 


70 


12362 


d" 


72 


50 


75 


12332 


9 


67 


43 


72 


• 12374 


d" 


72 


49 


77 


12334 


9 


69 


52 


76 


12380 


cf 


75 


50 


78 


12335 


9 


71 


45 


74 


12383 


d^ 


69 


49 


80 


12338 


9 


70 


47 


71 


12384 


& 


69 


47 


78 


' 12339 


9 


68 


50 


76 


12385 


& 


74 


46 


70 


12340 


9 


68 


48 


72 


12389 


d' 


69 


51 


71 


12341 


9 


69 


48 


72 


12390 


d" 


72 


47 


70 


12342 


9 


67 


43 


74 


12395 


& 


75 


48 


78 


12343 


9 


68 


48 


71 


12397 


d" 


72 


46 


74 


12344 


9 


67 


51 


69 


12402 


d' 


71 


53 


74 


12345 


9 


69 


47 


69 


12419 


d" 


70 


47 


71 


12346 


9 


68 


49 


71 


12420 


d 


70 


51 


77 


12348 


9 


69 


50 


76 


12427 


d' 


71 


52 


73 


12349 


9 


68 


50 


68 


12429 


& 


68 


53 


80 


12351 


9 


70 


47 


70 • 


12430 


d' 


69 


46 


76 


12358 


9 


68 


51 


72 


12435 


& 


71 


51 


74 


12361 
12363 


9 
9 


67 
69 


51 

45 


72 












73 












12365 


9 


68 


48 


70 












12367 


9 


68 


47 


69 












12373 


9 


69 


45 


68 












12375 


9 


66 


50 


70 












12376 


9 


70 


46 


71 












12377 


9 


69 


53 


75 












12378 


9 


71 


53 


76 












12381 


9 


67 


52 


71 












12387 


9 


68 


47 


72 












12388 


9 


68 


48 


69 












12393 


9 


69 


47 


68 












12394 


9 


68 


45 


70 












12396 


9 


70 


50 


73. 












12398 


9 


67 


51 


72 












12400 


9 


73 


49 


75 












12401 


9 


71 


44 


74 












12403 


9 


69 


49 


74 












12404 


9 


70 


48 


74 












12406 


9 


71 


52 


74 












12407 


9 


75 


49 


72 












12408 


9 


71 


48 


73 












12409 


9 


70 




75 












12410 


9 


74 


51 


75 












12412 


9 


71 


50 


76 












12413 


9 


72 


48 


74 












12414 


9 


73 


54 


76 



154 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— BliN-DLOE ISLAND— Continued 









Scale 








Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 




12415 


9 


75 


50 


75 




12417 


9 


69 


50 


75 




12418 


9 


71 


49 


73 




12421 


9 


72 


50 


77 




12422 


9 


71 


46 


77 




12423 


9 


68 


49 


71 




12424 


9 


74 


48 


77 




12432 


9 


71 


48 


71 



Habits. — Bindloe Island, Sept. 17, 1906. We rowed down 
the coast about a mile to where the brush came down to the 
beach, and then worked inland toward the rim of the crater. 
Near the coast the ground is black ashes covered with low 
brush and a few small trees. Farther inland the brush be- 
comes very thick, and cactus appears. About one mile inland 
we found the lizards abundant all through the brush. They 
keep well under cover, and rarely come into the open. The 
numerous hawks make them very wild. They are all dark in 
color, the males being about the color of ' the black ashes. 
Some have a very prominent dorsal crest. The stomachs of 
several examined contained vegetable matter. Insects seem 
to be scarce ; sprouts and green leaves, though not particularly 
plentiful, form their principal articles of diet. The ovaries of 
several females were well developed. King worked along the 
rocks near the water, and found Tropiduri abundant. They 
seem to range over the rocks along the coast. The belt near 
the shore where the brush is not thick seems to be deserted. 
Beginning a mile inland, one finds them again, and they range 
thence to the top of the island. 

Their "food appears to be wholly vegetable. All stomachs 
examined contained blossoms, seed-capsules, and berries." 
(Heller.) 

General remarks. — This is one of the larger species. The 
males have higher crests than found in any other of the Gala- 
pagos Tropiduri, and show fewer black markings. The crests 
of the females are much lower. The sides of the neck are 
covered with imbricate scales, as in the case of the Chatham 
Island lizard. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 155 

Tropidurus bivittatus (Peters) 
Chatham Island Lizard 

1843, Leiocephalus grayii, Bell, Zool. Beagle Rept, 1843, p. 24 (part) ; 
Gray, Cat. Lizards, 1844, p. 218 (part) ; Gunther^ Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1877, p. 67 (part). 

1871, Craniopeltis bivittata, Peters, Mon. Berlin. Acad., 1871, p. 645 
(type locality Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago). 

1876. Tropidurus (Craniopeltis) grayii, Steindachner, Festschrift 
Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 310 (part). 

1885, Tropidurus grayi, Boulenger, Cat. Lizards, II, 1885, p. 172. 

1889, Tropidurus lemniscatus, Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 1889, 
p. 145 (type locality Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago); Baxjr, 
Biol. Centralbl., X, 1890, pp. 478, 479. 

1891, Tropidurus bivittatus, Boulenger, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Mus., (6), 
VII, 1891, p. 501; Baur, Festschrift fiir Leuckart, 1902, p. 272; Heller, 
Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V. 1903, p. 80. 

Diagnosis. — Neck with fewer folds, sides of neck covered 
with scales instead of granules ; not more than 65 scales around 
middle of body; males longitudinally striped; no red in 
coloration; crest of males not very high. 

Types. — The material upon which Peters based his descrip- 
tion of Craniopeltis bivittata was secured on Chatham Island 
by Dr. Kingberg, in 1852, and probably is in the Museum of 
Stockholm. Cope's Tropidurus lemniscatus was described 
from specimens collected by the naturalists of the "Albatross," 
in 1887-88, upon Chatham Island. These specimens are now 
Nos. 14945 to 14964 of the U. S. National Museum collection. 

Distribution. — This species is restricted to Chatham Island, 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — The Academy's collection contains about two 
hundred and eighty specimens of this species, of which 
seventy-three males and forty-two females have been included 
in the table of scale counts. 

Description of adult male No. 9920. — The head is covered above with 
smooth scales; interparietal largest, broader than long; five or six large 
supraoculars; superciliaries imbricate; four superior and five inferior 
labials, to below the middle of the eye; rostral very broad and low; 
symphyseal broad, followed by a series of large sublabials, of which all 
but the first are separated from the infralabials by a row of smaller 
plates. Ear-opening large, with an anterior denticulation of five or six 
narrow scales. Side of neck between ear-opening and fore limb with 
few folds, covered with keeled, imbricate scales. Strong antehumeral, but 
no complete gular, fold. A well-developed median dorsal crest begins a 
short distance behind the interparietal, and runs continuously to and along 
the tail, being highest on the proximal fourth of the tail. The dorsal 
regions of the neck, body, and tail are covered with keeled, mucronate 
scales, which, on the body, change gradually to smaller, keeled, mucro- 
nate laterals. These again change gradually into the smooth ventrals, 
which are much smaller than the dorsals. The gular scales are smooth, 



156 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

smaller posteriorly, smallest centrally. The scales on the chest are about 
as large as the dorsals, smooth and imbricate. The limbs are provided 
above with keeled scales, and below, except on the forearms, hands, and 
feet, with smooth scales. The posterior surface of the thigh is covered 
with smooth imbricate scales. The lateral caudals are strongly keeled and 
mucronate; while the inferior caudals are smooth proximally, but become 
keeled on the distal portion of the tail. 

The general coloration in alcohol is brown, with a very dis- 
tinct greenish-yellow dorsolateral light stripe, and a somewhat less dis- 
tinct lateral stripe, along each side of the body. There are slight indica- 
tions of darker brown cross-bars. The head, limbs, and tail are brown, 
unicolor or with a few small light spots. The lower surfaces are white 
clouded with brown on the chin, throat, and limbs. There is a black 
antehumeral blotch. Females lack the light longitudinal streaks. 

Length to anus mm. 79 

Length of tail 127+ 

Snout to ear 17 

Width of head 14 

Fore limb 36 

Hind limb 60 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 22 

Height of crest on nape 1.5 

Height of crest on midbody 1 

Height of crest on tail 1.8 

Coloration in life of adult male. — Above olive brown, top 
of head darker brown; a light stripe two and one-half scales 
wide beginning behind the eye, running slightly upward above 
the ear and along the sides to the base of the tail; a narrow 
stripe of the same color beginning at the axilla and extending 
along sides to base of thigh. Belly yellowish, red-tinged; 
breast, tail, and hind limbs below soiled whitish or grayish; 
throat and lower jaw the same; sides of head grayish; sides 
of body below the lateral stripes barred yellow and brick red ; 
a black antehumeral spot. Limbs above spotted with brown 
and gray ; tail posteriorly light brown. 

Coloration hi life of adult female. — Above golden brown, 
darker on top of head and along base of dorsal crest; limbs 
above like the back. Sides of head brownish; sides of throat 
and body bright brick red; a slaty antehumeral spot with 
black center. Belly and inferior surfaces of limbs cream; tail 
yellowish below. Chin greenish; rest of lower jaw, throat, 
and breast buffy. Eyelids dark blue-green. 

Variation. — The females agree in the faintness or absence 
of the light dorsolateral band, which is so characteristic of the 
males of this species. They also lack the black blotch in front 
of the arm, which the males constantly show except when 
young. The dark cross-lines on the sublabial region may be 
indistinct or absent. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



157 



The interoccipital plate is wider than long. The crests are 
higher in males than in females, and increase in height with 
age. The scale counts are given in the following table : 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Chatham Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


9916 


cf 


59 


44 


70 


9866 


9 


55 


46 


75 


9919 


cf 


58 


44 


71 


9867 


9 


60 


49 


71 


9920 


& 


63 


46 


73 


9868 


9 


62 


46 


74 


9922 


& 


54 


47 


64 


9869 


9 


56 


47 


76 


9923 


C^ 


61 


50 


75 


9870 


? 


58 


50 


71 


9924 


d' 


60 


46 


72 


9871 


9 


53 


44 


72 


9925 


d" 


57 


47 


70 


9872 


9 


58 


50 


71 


9926 


& 


58 


45 


75 


9882 


9 


58 


46 


73 


9927 


d 


63 


42 


71 


9900 


9 


56 


47 


73 


9928 


& 


57 


52 


72 


9901 


9 


54 




73 


9929 


& 


64 


44 


77 


9902 


9 


53 




67 


9930 


d 


62 


47 


70 


9903 


9 , 


i 58 


45 


74 


9931 


& 


60 


44 


70 


9904 


9 


57 


51 


73 


9932 


& 


56 


47 


72 


9905 


9 


55 


49 


70 


9934 


d 


57 


45 


71 


9917 


9 


59 


44 


67 


9935 


d 


59 


45 


72 


9918 


9 


56 


48 


73 


9936 


d 


59 


45 


71 


9921 


9 


57 


51 


75 


9938 


d 


60 


43 


72 


9943 


9 


62 


50 


73 


9939 


d 


58 


45 


71 


9944 


9 


53 


44 


70 


9940 


d 


58 


45 


71 


9946 


9 


58 


50 


70 


9941 


& 


58 


45 


67 


9956 


9 


61 


45 


66 


9942 


d 


59 


46 


68 


9969 


9 


56 


48 


73 


9949 


d 


54 


42 


67 


9971 


9 


57 


45 


69 


9951 


d 


58 


43 


70 


10005 


9 


55 


47 


70 


9952 


& 


59 


45 


67 


10006 


9 


58 


50 


72 


9953 


d 


62 


41 


73 


11022 


9 


61 


49 


75 


9954 


& 


59 


42 


67 


11023 


9 


58 


50 


75 


9955 


d 


58 


42 


73 


11024 


9 


61 


49 


68 


9958 


d 


57 


50 


72 


11028 


9 


60 


51 


69 


9959 


& 


58 


47 


71 


11032 


9 


60 


50 


72 


11025 


d 


55 


48 


71 


11037 


9 


60 


52 


75 


11026 


& 


56 


46 


71 


11038 


9 


60 


47 


73 


11027 


d 


56 


47 


70 


11041 


9 


55 


49 


67 


11029 


d 


57 


47 


74 


11047 


9 


58 


50 


74 


11030 


cf 


58 


46 


74 


11050 


9 


57 


47 


71 


11031 


d 


58 


44 


70 


11971 


9 


59 


46 


75 


11033 


d 


61 


45 


68 


11972 


9 


57 


47 


73 


11034 


& 


62 


44 


77 


11978 


9 


61 


45 


74 


11035 


& 


56 


47 


62 


11979 


9 


57 


47 


72 


11036 


d 


58 


48 


69 


11980 


9 


56 


42 


69 


11042 


& 


59 


48 


67 


11985 


9 


61 


42 


73 


11043 


d 


56 


50 


72 


11988 


9 


59 


50 


75 


11044 


d 


57 


43 


68 












11045 


d 


57 


45 


72 












11046 


& 


53 


42 


67 












11048 


& 


55 


48 


62 












11049 


d 


58 


48 


70 












11955 


& 


64 


49 


72 












11956 


& 


58 


39 


70 












11958 


& 


59 


45 


71 













158 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Peoc. 4th Ser. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— CHATHAM IShKiiTt— Continued 







Scale 








Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 




11959 


C^ 


63 


45 


69 




11960 


c? 


62 


45 


68 




11961 


& 


62 


42 


69 




11962 


d" 


63 


47 


74 




11964 


& 


59 


46 


74 




11965 


& 


63 


48 


75 




11966 


& 


56 


41 


62 




11967 


& 


57 


47 


66 




11968 


d' 


60 


40 


67 




11969 


d 


61 


44 


73 




11970 


cf 


64 


45 


71 




11973 


d 


63 


42 


72 




11974 


d 


57 


42 


68 




11975 


d 


58 


43 


71 




11976 


d 


59 


50 


73 




11977 


& 


53 


45 


67 




11981 


d 


59 


45 


75 




11982 


& 


63" 


44 


73 




11983 


& 


61 


47 


73 




11984 


d 


60 


45 


74 




11986 


d 


59 


44 


72 




11987 


& 


61 


43 


70 




11989 


d 


56 


47 


75 





Habits. — Chatham Island, Oct. 16, 1905. I went ashore at 
Wreck Bay, and worked near the coast. Tropiduri were fairly 
common. I found one (No. 1355) with a piece of crab's leg 
in its mouth, and another (No. 1380) with a large worm. A 
great many were small, and I saw no very large ones. Jan. 
15, 1906. Saw several Tropiduri shedding their skins. The 
females contain eggs now in January. Jan. 29. Went to the 
top of Chatham Island. The soil is damp, and no reptiles were 
observed. Beyond a mile from the shore no Tropiduri are to 
be seen. Feb. 8. Went ashore at Fresh Water Bay, and 
worked up to about 1000 feet. I saw only six lizards, all very 
wild, probably owing to the presence of numerous cats, of 
which we saw many signs. I suppose the highest altitude at 
which the lizards were observed was 600 feet. Feb. 10. Went 
ashore at Sappho Cove and worked inland. Lizards are very 
scarce. Feb. 23. Went collecting at Wreck Bay, and got 
only a few Tropiduri and geckos. The lizards seem to be 
fewer in number at this season. One female was obtained 
with large eggs. July 5. Went up to the road at Wreck Bay 
collecting. Find the lizards rare now, and most of them are 
very small. The island is very dry now, it being the winter 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 159 

season, and the natives report having had no rain for some 
time. 

General remarks. — The Chatham Island Tropidiirus is one 
of the smaller species. The males are very prettily striped, 
while the females are nearly unicolor. The crest is moderately 
well developed in the males, low in the females. This species 
agrees with the Bindloe lizard in having scales instead of 
granules on the sides of the neck, a character which distin- 
guishes these two species from all the other species of the 
archipelago. 

Tropidurus delanonis Baur 
Hood Island Lizard 

1889, Tropidurus grayi, Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 1889, p. 145 
(part) ; Boulenger, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, (6), VII, 1891, p. 502 
(part). 

1890, Tropidurus delanonis, Baur, Biol. Centralbl, X, 1890, pp. 478, 
479 (type locality Hood Island, Galapagos Archipelago) ; Baur, Fest- 
schrift fiir Leuckart, 1892, p. 270; Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 
V, 1903, p. 78. 

1890, Tropidurus hoodcnsis, Baur, reprints from Biol. Centralbl., X, 
1890, pp. 478, 479 (substituting name) ; Baur, Festschrift fiir Leuckart, 
1892, pp. 265, 270. 

Diagnosis. — Sides of neck with numerous folds; skin be- 
tween folds covered with granules, some small scales on ridges 
of folds of large males; hind legs of males with definite dark 
spots; interparietal plate seldom much broader than long; not 
more than eighty scales around middle of body; 50 to 61 
scales in crest; back not definitely spotted as in T. grayi; 
much red in coloration; old males larger than in other 
species. 

Types. — This species was described by Dr. Baur from thir- 
teen specimens, numbered 15014 to 15026 of the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum collection, which had been secured on Hood 
Island by the naturalists of the "Albatross," in April, 1888. 

Distribution. — This species has been found only on Hood 
Island and Gardner-near-Hood, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — The Academy's collection contains about two 
hundred and forty specimens from Hood, and twenty-three 
from Gardner ; of which seventy males and sixty-eight females 
from Hood, and seven males and six females from Gardner 
have been included in the tables of scale counts. 

Description of adult male No. 11802. — The head is covered above with 
smooth scales; interparietal largest, little if any broader than long; five 
to seven large supraoculars ; superciliaries imbricate ; five superior and 



150 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

five inferior labials, to below middle of the eye ; rostral very broad and 
low ; symphyseal broad, followed by a series of large sublabials, of which 
all but the first are separated from the infralabials by a row of smaller 
plates. Ear-opening large, with an anterior denticulation of five or six 
long, narrow scales. Side of neck between ear-opening and fore limb 
with numerous folds, mostly covered with granular scales. A strong 
antehumeral, but no complete gular, fold. A well-developed median 
dorsal crest begins a short distance behind the interparietal plate, and runs 
continuously to and along the tail, being highest on the proximal fourth 
of the tail. The dorsal regions of the neck, body, and tail are covered 
with keeled, mucronate scales, which, on die body, change gradually to 
smaller, keeled, mucronate laterals. These again change gradually into 
the smooth ventrals, which are considerably smaller than the dorsals. 
The gular scales are smooth, smaller posteriorly, smallest below the ears. 
The scales on the chest are largest, smooth, and imbricate. The limbs 
are provided above with keeled, and below with smooth, scales. The 
posterior surface of the thigh is covered with smooth sub-granular scales, 
between which smaller granules may often be seen. The lateral caudals 
are strongly keeled and mucronate ; while the inferior caudals are smooth 
proximally, but become keeled on the distal portion of the tail. 

The coloration in alcohol is olive brown above, spotted, except on the 
head and tail, with small, rounded, discrete blackish spots, each covering 
one or more scales. The chin is grayish slate. The gular region and 
chest are black. The other lower surfaces are grayish yellow. 

Length to anus mm. 137 

Length of tail 163+ 

Snout to ear 16 

Width of head 21 

Fore limb 54 

Hind limb 85 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 30 

Height of crest on nape 1.5 

Height of crest on midbody 1 

Height of crest on tail 3 

Coloration in life of adult male. — Above olive brown, 
spotted, except the head, with light yellowish; tail dark red- 
dish, the crest light brown; hind limbs reddish, light-spotted 
distally ; fore limbs like the sides of fhe body. Belly medially, 
and hind limbs and tail inferiorly, dusky-yellow; the belly 
anteriorly and laterally red. Mandible dark greenish gray, 
throat black, chest black with large straw-yellow blotches. 
Fore limbs below proximally like the breast. Sides of head 
and neck light brown with black blotches; sides of body red- 
dish, spotted with light yellow; tail brick red on the sides. 

Coloration in life of adult female. — Body and tail above 
olive brown ; limbs similar in coloration. Sides of belly and 
tail reddish; a black antehumeral spot. Whole head, throat, 
and chest brick red, becoming darker on nape and top of 
head, fading to dull orange on anterior belly; belly and tail 
and hind limbs inferiorly cream yellow; fore limbs below 
proximally like the breast. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



161 



Variation. — The two sexes from this island differ more 
than in other species; but there is little variation among the 
females, and still less among the males. The females all agree 
in having the black blotch in front of the shoulder and brick 
red coloring of the throat, which in some specimens extends 
down to the under surface of the shoulders. The males show 
little or no variation. Some specimens show red on the sides 
and the under surface of the tail. They all agree in the black 
throat and scattered black markings extending down past the 
shoulders. Specimens from Gardiner-near-Hood are like 
those from Hood. A few females taken there show a darker 
red, but this is not constant. 

The interoccipital usually is as long as wide, but in a few 
specimens is wider than long. Scale counts are shown in the 
following table: 

TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— HooD ISLAND 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


9252 


d' 


67 


54 


77 


9250 


9 


76 


60 


85 


9254 


d" 


71 


51 


81 


9322 


9 


68 


51 


78 


9256 


& 


69 


53 


77 


9330 


9 


70 


53 


74 


9257 


& 


70 


56 


82 


10888 


9 


71 


54 


73 


9258 


(f 


69 


51 


77 


10889 


9 


73 


57 


79 


9259 


& 


69 


55 


77 


10890 


9 


71 


56 


81 


9260 


& 


68 


55 


80 


10892 


9 


73 


54 


77 


9261 


cf 


67 


60 


84 


10894 


9 


71 


57 


79 


9262 


C? 


70 


59 


81 


10895 


9 


72 


54 


78 


9264 


C? 


70 


52 


79 


10896 


9 


69 


56 


73 


9265 


c? 


69 


60 


83 


10900 


9 


69 


53 


76 


9266 


c? 


72 


56 


77 


10903 


9 


70 


56, 


83 


9267 


& 


69 


56 


78 


10904 


9 


69 


54 


73 


9268 


& 


69 


51 


81 


10905 


9 


69 


53 


78 


9310 


d 


69 


55 


85 


10906 


9 


70 


55 


83 


9311 


d' 


67 


52 


78 


10908 


9 


73 


59 


71 


9312 


d 


69 


55 


74 


10909 


9 


76 


57 


79 


9317 


d 


67 


51 


80 


10910 


9 


70 


53 


79 


9318 


& 


74 


60 


79 


10913 


9 


77 


58 


75 


9319 


& 


73 


58 


77 


10914 


9 


70 


56 


79 


9324 


d 


68 


55 


80 


10915 


9 


70 


54 


75 


9325 


d 


67 


52 


84 


11829 


9 


70 


61 


74 


9326 


d 


71 


51 


81 


11830 


9 


66 


55 


76 


9327 


& 


67 


53 


79 


11831 


9 


70 


54 


78 


10886 


d 


64 


56 


82 


11832 


9 


71 


53 


79 


10887 


d 


76 


51 


83 


11833 


9 


73 


56 


84 


10891 


& 


68 


57 


81 


11834 


9 


68 


57 


74 


10893 


d 


69 


52 


78 


11835 


9 


74 


55 


77 


10897 


d 


74 


51 


83 


11836 


9 


76 


55 


80 


10898 


d 


69 


57 


82 


11837 


9 


76 


57 


74 


10899 


d 


72 


53 


78 


11838 


9 


75 


57 


78 


10901 


d 


68 


58 


81 


11839 


9 


69 


56 


78 



162 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— HOOD iQ-LK-HT)— Continued 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Numbei- 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10902 


& 


72 


57 


86 


11843 


9 


70 


58 


83 


10907 


C? 


71 


52 


79 


11844 


9 


72 


57 


76 


10911 


& 


70 


54 


81 


11845 


9 


73 


56 


79 


10912 


d' 


68 


58 


83 


11846 


9 


66 


57 


75 


10916 


d 


70 




78 


11847 


9 


71 


58 


86 


10917 


cf 


69 


57 


76 


11848 


9 


69 


61 


77 


10918 


cf 


71 


56 


81 


11850 


9 


78 


59 


86 


11798 


c^ 


69 


55 


73 


11852 


9 


69 


61 


81 


11801 


& 


67 


51 


77 


11854 


9 


76 


61 


83 


11802 


c^ 


68 


52 


75 


11855 


9 


66 


52 


76 


11804 


& 


71 


55 


75 


11859 


9 


72 


58 


82 


11805 


& 


72 


52 


67 


11860 


9 


69 


59 


80 


11806 


cf 


70 


54 


75 


11861 


9 


77 


57 


83 


11807 


c? 


76 


61 


81 


11862 


9 


68 


51 


74 


11808 


& 


72 


53 


78 


11863 


9 


68 


55 


80 


11810 


c? 


76 


50 


80 


11864 


9 


69 


57 


74 


11811 


c? 


71 


57 


75 


11865 


9 


76 


54 


82 


11812 


& 


70 


54 


73 


11866 


9 


72 


57 


78 


11813 


cf 


70 


50 


70 


11867 


9 


72 


58 


76 


11816 


& 


68 


51 


76 


11868 


9 


70 


57 


84 


11817 


d' 


69 


52 


75 


11869 


9 


73 


54 


80 


11820 


& 


67 


54 


73 


11870 


9 


68 


55 


83 


11821 


d 


68 


51 


76 


11872 


9 


71 


58 


78 


11824 


& 


74 


56 


76 


11873 


9 


72 


57 


75 


11825 


d 


67 


53 


73 


11874 


9 


72 


53 


71 


11826 


& 


69 


55 


80 


11878 


9 


76 


56 


74 


11827 


d 


71 


52 


79 


11881 


9 


75 


54 


74 


11828 


d 


70 


57 


76 


11882 


9 


75 


54 


83 


11900 


d 


74 


58 


80 


11883 


9 


72 


54 


82 


11902 


d 


72 


56 


79 


11884 


9 


71 


56 


74 


11904 


d 


73 


50 


76 


11885 


9 


78 


61 


83 


11905 


d 


71 


52 


72 


11888 


9 


70 


56 


77 


11906 


d 


70 


51 


77 


11889 


9 


73 


55 


79 


11907 


d 


70 


53 


80 


11890 


9 


70 


57 


82 


11908 


d 


68 


55 


77 


11891 


9 


78 


57 


80 


11909 


d 


73 


52 


80 


11894 


9 


77 


57 


75 


11910 


d 


70 


51 


75 












11928 


d 


69 


54 


77 













TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Gardner-near-Hood 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


9347 


d 


73 


55 


82 


9353 


9 


76 


55 




9348 


r? 


70 


56 


79 


9354 


9 


76 


62 


81 


9350 


<f 


72 


55 


84 


9356 


9 


68 


52 


83 


9351 


rf 


74 


56 


S3 


9359 


9 


71 


60 


83 


9355 


(f 


71 




80 


9360 


9 


73 


52 


78 


9358 


d 


73 




82 


9363 


9 


71 


52 


83 


9361 


d 


73 


52 


81 













Habits. — Hood Island, Sept. 25, 1905. I found the lizards 
very common. They can be obtained easily with a stick. They 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 163 

occurred all through the brush, and sometimes climbed up into 
the cactus trees. Although they were scattered everywhere, 
I found them more numerous near the beach, in the sand and 
brush, than on rocky soil. As a rule, they would stand per- 
fectly still and gaze at one, but I noticed a few of the large 
males bobbing their heads up and down. Sept. 26. I took 
the eggs from a female Tropiduriis and preserved them. They 
were five in number. These lizards were abundant and ex- 
tremely tame. I saw some eating green leaves on the shrubs, 
and some would pick up crumbs from our lunch. Feb. 2, 
1906. Found the Tropidiirus common near the coast, but 
none to speak of near the top of the island. The vegetation 
is well dried up now, there being only one or two plants in 
leaf. I examined the stomachs of six males and one female 
Tropidiirus, and found that all contained the leaves of a juicy 
green shrub that grows along the shore and is common on all 
the islands. > June 25, 1906. Went down to the albatross 
colony and gathered in a few sea-iguanas and lizards. I find 
Tropiduri abundant everywhere, and occasionally see them 
on top of the cactus trees, where they go probably in search of 
insects. They have few enemies ; hawks are not very plentiful, 
and the only birds that seem to harm them much are the mock- 
ing birds (Nesomimus). These can be seen picking at the 
lizards' tails, breaking them off in the middle, and flying away 
with the ends. 

Gardner-near-Hood, Sept. 27, 1905. Found the Tropiduri 
fairly common, but a little more shy than on Hood Island. As 
a rule, the females seemed to be a little smaller than those on 
Hood, and a little darker under the throat, where the color is 
almost chocolate. Feb. 23, 1906. Saw a Tropidurus feeding on 
maggots on a dead seal, and others eating flies; but they ap- 
pear to eat leaves more than anything else. 

Heller states that the food of the Hood Island Tropidurus 
consists of grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars, seed-capsules 
and berries. 

General remarks. — The Hood Island Tropidurus attains a 
greater size than is reached by any other species of the archi- 
pelago. It seems to be most nearly related to the Charles 



164 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

Island species, but is quite distinct. It is still fairly common. 
No difference has been noted between specimens from Hood 
Island and those from Gardner-near-Hood. Five eggs taken 
from a female on Hood Island, Sept. 26, 1905, measure 12X 
20, 13X21, 13X22, 12X23, and 12X24 mm. They have 
tough white, non-calcareous shells. 

Tropidurus grayii (Bell) 
Charles Island Lizard 

1843, Leiocephalus grayii, Bell, Zoology Beagle, Rept., 1843, p. 24, pi. 
XIII, fig. 1 (part) (type locality Chatham and Charles Islands, Gala- 
pagos Archipelago) ; Gray, Cat. Lizards, 1845, p. 218 (part); Gunther, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 67 (part). 

? 1851, Holotropis grayii, Dumeril, Cat. Meth. Rept., 1851, p. 70 
(part) ; Dumeril, Arch. Mus., VIII, p. 538 (part). 

1871, Craniopeltis grayii, Peters, Mon. Berl. Acad., 1871, p. 645 (part). 

1876, Tropidurus {Craniopeltis) grayii, Steindachner, Festschr. 
Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 310, pi. II, fig. 1 (part). 

1885, Tropidurus grayii, Boulenger, Cat. Lizards, II, 1885, p. 172 
(part) ; Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 1889, p. 145 (part) ; Baur, 
Biol. Centralbl., X, 1890, pp. 478, 479; Boulenger, Ann. & I^ag. Nat. Hist, 
(6), VII, 1891, p. 502 (part) ; Baur, Festschrift fiir Leuckart, 1892, p._ 265. 

1903, Tropidurus grayi grayi. Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 
1903, p. 69 (part). 

Diagnosis. — Sides of neck granular with numerous folds, 
hind legs of males with definite dark spots; interparietal plate 
seldom much broader than long; not more than eighty scales 
around middle of body; 36 to 48 scales in crest; back with 
very definite discrete rounded blackish spots; little or no red 
in coloration. 

Types. — The original specimens were collected by Charles 
Darwin in 1835 during the voyage of the "Beagle," and are 
now in the British Museum. They were said to have been 
collected in Chatham and Charles islands, but the description 
is of the Charles Island species. 

Distribution. — This species appears to be restricted to 
Charles Island and its neighboring islets, Gardner, Champion, 
and Enderby. 

Material. — Besides the types collected by Darwin, this spe- 
cies has been secured only by Kinberg and Dr. Baur. It ap- 
pears to be nearly extinct on Charles Island, where Baur col- 
lected his specimen. The Academy's collection contains fif- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 165 

teen from Charles Island, twenty-seven from Gardner-near- 
Charles, sixteen from Champion, and thirty-one from En- 
derby. Of these, one male and fourteen females from Charles, 
thirteen males and fourteen females from Gardner, seven 
males and nine females from Champion, and thirteen males 
and eighteen females from Enderby are included in the tables 
of scale counts. 



Description of adult male No. 9536. — The head is covered above with 
smooth scales; interparietal largest, broader than long; four or five large 
supraoculars ; superciliaries imbricate ; five superior and five inferior labials, 
to below middle of the eye ; rostral very broad and low ; symphyseal 
broad, followed by a series of large sublabials, of which all but the first 
are separated from the infralabials by a row of smaller plates. Ear- 
opening large, with an anterior denticulation of five or six long, narrow 
scales. Side of neck between ear-opening and fore limb with numerous 
folds, covered with granular scales. A strong antehumeral, but no com- 
plete gular, fold. A well-developed median dorsal crest begins half the 
length of the interparietal behind this plate, and runs continuously to and 
along the tail, being highest on the proximal fourth of the tail. The 
dorsal regions of the neck, body, and tail are covered with rather small, 
keeled, mucronate scales, which, on the body, change gradually to smaller, 
keeled, mucronate laterals. These again change gradually into the 
smooth ventrals, which are a little smaller than the dorsals. The gular 
scales are smooth, smaller posteriorly, smallest below the ears. The scales 
on the chest are largest, smooth and imbricate. The limbs are provided 
above with keeled, and below with smooth, scales. The posterior surface 
of the thigh is covered with keeled, imbricate scales. The lateral caudals 
are strongly keeled and mucronate ; while the inferior caudals are smooth 
proximally, but become keeled on the distal portion of the tail. 

The color above is olive brown, unicolor on the top and sides of the 
head, but relieved with dark brown or black spots or cross-bars on the 
body, limbs, and base of tail. The lower surfaces are greenish white. 
The gular region is suffused with dark gray, and the throat and chest 
bear discrete, rounded spots of blackish brown. 

Length to anus mm. 65 

Length of tail 120 

Snout to ear 15 

Width of head 13 

Fore limb 34 

Hind limb 54 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 21 

Height of crest on nape 1 

Height of crest on midbody .8 

Height of crest on tail 1.2 

Variation. — The lizards of Charles, Champion, Enderby, 
and Gardner-near-Charles islands seem to differ in no respect. 
The sexes agree in coloration, except that the males have 
darker throats and larger dorsal spots. Females may have 
either white or grayish throats, spotted with black. The inter- 

September 17, 1913 



166 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser, 



occipital plate seldom is much wider than long. Variation in 
scale counts is shown in the following tables : 





TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Charles 


Island 








Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


BeUy 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


9536 


rf 


62 


44 


73 


9533 


9 






66 












9534 


9 


64 


40 


69 






9535 


9 


60 


43 


67 






9537 


9 


61 


41 


67 






9538 


9 


60 


42 


67 






9539 


9 


64 










9540 


9 




42 


69 






9541 


9 


62 


43 


65 






9542 


9 


60 




70 






9543 


9 


60 


40 


67 






11057 


9 


58 


42 


70 






11058 


9 


59 




69 






11059 


9 


62 


43 


69 










1 


11060 


9 


60 


44 


74 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Gardner-near-Charles 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


9422 


cf 


67 


38 


68 


9421 


9 


67 


38 


67 


9423 


C^ 


69 


38 


68 


9424 


9 


67 


45 


72 


9425 


d" 


72 


38 


71 


9426 


9 


70 


43 


72 


9427 


d' 


70 


44 


72 


9429 


9 


67 


42 


68 


9428 


cT 


66 


38 


72 


9431 


9 


69 


45 


66 


9430 


c? 


69 


42 


70 


9432 


9 


67 


39 


70 


9433 


cf 


69 


42 


71 


9437 


9 


63 


42 


72 


9434 


c? 


67 


43 


70 


9439 


9 


69 


43 


73 


9435 


d^ 


72 


44 


71 


9440 


9 


69 


41 


70 


9436 


cf 


69 


41 


72 


9441 


9 


70 


44 


73 


9438 


c^ 


66 


41 


70 


9442 


9 


69 




66 


. 9444 


cP 


70 


43 


72 


9443 


9 


70 


43 


66 


9445 


cf 


69 


40 


70 


9446 
9447 


9 
9 


69 


45 
45 


73 
70 



TABLE OF|SCALE'COUNTS— Champion Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


9449 


cf 


67 


45 


72 


9452 


9 


64 


48 


76 


9450 


cP 


66 


43 


73 


9455 


9 


62 


46 


74 


9451 


d 


68 


40 


73 


9456 


9 


64 


45 


72 


9453 


cf 


61 




70 


9457 


9 


62 


43 


69 


9454 


cf 


65 


42 


71 


9458 


9 


62 




68 


9461 


cf 


63 


43 


69 


9459 


9 


62 


41 


72 


11054 


cf 


62 


42 


76 


9460 


9 


64 


41 


75 












11055 


9 


61 


45 


71 












11056 


9 


64 


43 


73 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



167 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Exderby Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


11601 


& 


71 


41 


68 


11605 


9 


70 


45 


75 


11602 


C? 


73 


39 


77 


11615 


9 


72 


44 


73 


11603 


C^ 


67 


43 


67 


11616 


9 


73 


46 


72 


11604 


(^ 


69 


41 


74 


11617 


9 


70 


43 


73 . 


11606 


& 


72 


40 


73 


11618 


9 


77 


41 


75 


11607 


& 


67 


36 


69 


11619 


9 


74 


42 




11608 


C? 


72 


43 


74 


11620 


9 


75 


42 


73 


11609 


C? 


73 


40 


73 


11621 


9 


71 


43 


70 


11610 


& 


74 


40 


75 


11622 


9 


73 


43 


70 


11611 


d' 


65 


40 


75 


11623 


9 


73 


44 


70 


11612 


d" 


68 


40 


75 


11624 


9 


68 


43 


72 


11613 


d 


70 


36 


77 


11625 


9 


68 


40 


70 


11614 


d 


72 


43 


75 


11626 


9 


69 


44 


70 












11627 


9 


71 


42 


74 












11628 


9 


76 


43 


71 












11629 


9 


67 


45 


71 












11630 


9 


71 


42 


70 












11631 


9 


71 


46 


70 



Habits. — Charles Island, Oct. 4, 1905. Went ashore at 
Post Office Bay and worked toward the interior. The country 
is mountainous, but there are some large spaces of level land. 
Found animal life of every description scarce. I did not see 
a Tropidurus or a snake the whole day. Saw lots of cat 
tracks, so I suppose the lizards have been pretty well cleaned 
out, although there are beds of lava where they easily could 
escape by going underneath the blocks. Oct. 5. Went ashore 
on the northeast end of the island near the lagoon. Got one 
Tropidurus, and King got two, on a lava pile. King saw one 
more, but could not get it. Ochsner reports seeing one also, 
but failed to catch it. These were all that were seen by any 
of our party. Oct. 6. Went ashore for half a day at the la- 
goon on the northeast end of the island. Had better luck 
with the Tropiduri, getting five. They were in a large lava 
bed near the lagoon. Oct. 9. Went ashore at Black Beach, 
and worked into the interior up to some springs south of the 
highest peak. I saw no Tropiduri or snakes. Oct. 10. 
Worked up to the top of the crater on the highest mountain, 
but saw no reptiles whatever. Tropidurus is extremely rare 
on Charles. I have not seen any since we arrived at Black 
Beach. Feb. 26, 1906. Went ashore at Cormorant Bay and 
collected four Tropiduri. I saw seven altogether, but missed 
three on account of defective shells. The particular spot where 



J58 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

these lizards were taken is on a lava bed which surrounds the 
lagoon. No specimens were seen outside of this. They are 
very rare and shy, and at one's approach go under the lava 
and into crevices. Signs of cats are seen everywhere, and they 
probably are the principal cause of the scarcity. 

Gardner-near-Charles, Oct. 2, 1905. Gardner Island is an 
old crater. We landed on the N.W. side, which is the 
only one accessible. It is very steep and covered with 
broken lava and cactus shrubs. Tropiduri were shy and not 
very common. They were found in about the same numbers 
from the rocks on the coast to the top of the crater. It was 
a bad place to hunt, and we stayed only a couple of hours, but 
secured fifteen Tropiduri. 

Champion Island, Oct. 3, 1905. We then sailed on to 
Champion Island, which is a very small crater and easily got 
around. We covered this island in an hour and a half. Tro- 
piduri were scarce here, and were found on the west side, 
where all the seals stayed, as there is a little beach there. 
There are lots of flies that go on the seals when they sleep on 
the beach, and the lizards, therefore, find more food at this 
place. 

Enderby Island, May 14, 1906. This island is part of the 
ruin of an old crater and is composed of tufa. One side is too 
steep to work on, so we went only along the top. The only 
things seen in the way of reptiles were Tropiduri and a 
gecko. The former were fairly common. Thirty-one were 
secured in about an hour spent on the island. 

Tropidurus albemarlensis barringtonensis (Baur) 
Barrington Island Lizard 

1892, Tropidurus barringtonensis, Baur, Festschrift fiir Leuckart, 1892, 
p. 268 (type locality Barrington Island, Galapagos Archipelago). 

1903, Tropidurus grayi barringtonensis, Heller, Proc. Washington 
Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 75. 

Diagnosis. — Sides of neck granular, with numerous folds; 
hind legs of males without definite dark spots; interparietal 
plate usually much broader than long ; not more than 76 scales 
around middle of body ; scales smaller than in T. albemarlensis, 
61 to 76 around middle of body. 

Type. — Dr. Baur's original description was based upon 
thirty-eight specimens of this species from Barrington Island. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 169 

None of these were designated as types. I have been unable 
to learn their present location. 

Distribution. — This lizard has been found only on Barring- 
ton Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — The Academy's collection contains one hundred 

and fifty-five specimens, of which fifty-seven males and 

seventy-four females have been included in the table of scale 

counts. 

Description of adult male No. 10196. — The head is covered above with 
smooth scales ; interparietal largest, broader than long ; five or six large 
supraoculars ; superciliaries imbricate ; four superior and five inferior 
labials, to below middle of eye ; rostral very broad and low ; symphyseal 
broad, followed by a series of large sublabials, of which all but the first 
are separated from the infralabials by a row of smaller plates. Ear- 
opening large, with an anterior denticulation of four or five long, narrow 
scales. Side of neck between ear-opening and fore limb with numerous 
folds, covered with granular scales except on tops of folds. A strong 
antehumeral, but no complete gular, fold. A well-developed median dorsal 
crest begins half the length of the interparietal behind this plate, and runs 
continuously to and along the tail, being highest on the proximal fourth of 
the tail. The dorsal regions of the neck, body, and tail are covered with 
rather small, keeled, mucronate scales, which, on the body, change gradu- 
ally to smaller, keeled, mucronate laterals. These again change grad- 
ually into the smooth ventrals, which are much smaller than the dorsals. 
The gular scales are smooth, smaller posteriorly, smallest below the ears. 
The scales on the chest are largest, smooth and imbricate. The 
limbs are provided above with keeled, and below with smooth scales. The 
posterior surface of the thigh is covered with weakly keeled, imbricate 
scales. The lateral caudals are strongly keeled and mucronate ; while the 
inferior caudals are smooth proximally, but become keeled on the distal 
portion of the tail. 

The color above is olive brown, somewhat mottled on the top and 
sides of the head. The dorsal surfaces of the body, neck, and fore limbs 
show numerous dark brown or black spots or cross-bars. The lower sur- 
faces are greenish white, lightest on the chin. The gular region is suf- 
fused with dark gray, and the throat, chin and chest bear discrete, rounded 
spots of blackish brown. 

Length to anus mm. 95 

Length of tail ..., 113 + 

Snout to ear 20 

Width of head 16 

Fore limb 41 

Hind limb 69 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 28 

Height of crest on nape 2 

Height of crest on midbody 1.5 

Height of crest on tail 2.8 

Coloration in life of adult male. — Above light grayish 

brown, tail darker grayish; whole upper surface except the 

head spotted with blue-gray; the dorsum anteriorly and fore 

limbs black-barred and spotted ; hind limbs and tail without 

dark bars. Head above olive green, grayish on sides and 

neck, black-spotted. A black antehumeral spot. Sides of 



170 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 



body behind the axilla reddish, black-barred and spotted; 
belly yellowish, spotted with pinkish and dusky on sides; 
breast and lower jaw brick red, spotted with black; chin y&\- 
lowish without darker spots; throat black; fore limbs in- 
feriorly red, black-spotted proximally like the breast; tail and 
hind limbs below light grayish green. 

Coloration in life of adult female. — Above grayish brown, 
the dorsum crossed by dusky transverse bars; whole dorsal 
surface except head spotted with blue-gray; limbs above 
dusky-barred like back ; head above olive brown, sides of snout 
grayish. Sides of head and neck from the eye to the ante- 
humeral spot brick red; sides of body behind the axilla pink- 
ish, obsoletely spotted with dusky; a black antehumeral spot. 
Belly and inferior surfaces of hind limbs and tail light gray- 
ish; breast lemon yellow, spotted with black; throat medially 
like the breast, spotted with dark brown; sides of body red- 
dish; lower jaw pinkish, spotted with dusky; fore limbs in- 
feriorly colored like breast, the forearm unspotted. 

Variation. — The black spots on the back tend to form cross- 
bars. Fem.ales are colored similarly to the males, but the 
black dorsal spots usually are somewhat smaller. The throat 
may be white with black spots, or may be suffused with gray. 
Large males may have some red on the throat; but this is 
seen in few specimens, and seems to be always absent in 
females. The interoccipital plate is wider than long. Varia- 
tion in scale counts appears in the following table : 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Barrington Island ' 








Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10065 


& 


67 


52 


72 


10067 


9 


63 


48 


76 


10066 


& 


68 


48 


76 


10068 


9 


67 


49 


74 


10069 


& 


66 


46 


77 


10071 


9 


63 


50 


72 


10070 


& 


65 


50 


72 


10072 


9 


67 


52 


74 


10075 


& 


65 


52 


77 


10073 


9 


69 


51 


71 


10086 


& 


63 


47 


75 


10074 


9 


65 


51 


75 


10088 


d" 


71 


50 


80 


10076 


9 


66 


51 


72 


10093 


& 


69 


54 


78 


10077 


9 


62 


45 


70 


10096 


c^ 


70 


52 


79 


10078 


9 


63 


54 


75 


10098 


cf 


65 


53 


79 


10079 


9 


71 


52 


73 


10102 


& 


68 


50 


76 


10080 


9 


64 


49 


74 


10106 


& 


67 


48 


78 


10081 


9 


67 


49 


80 


10109 


c? 


68 


52 


76 


10082 


9 


61 


49 


71 


10111 


& 


63 


49 


74 


10083 


9 


70 


48 


76 


10114 


cf 


66 


48 


76 


10084 


9 


67 


50 


77 


10115 


c^ 


62 


48 


73 


10085 


9 


65 


48 


76 


10117 


cf 


67 


50 




10087 


9 


65 


49 


76 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



171 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Barrington Island— 


-Continued 






Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10119 


& 


70 


51 


80 


10089 


9 


64 


50 


70 


10120 


cf 


68 


50 


80 


10090 


9 


69 


47 


73 


10122 


c^ 


68 


53 


79 


10091 


9 


66 


52 


74 


10123 


c^ 


64 


49 


77 


10092 


9 


68 


48 


76 


10125 


6" 


65 


50 


79 


10094 


9 


64 


56 


80 


10127 


c? 


62 


47 


76 


10095 


9 


67 


51 


73 


10128 


& 


63 


51 


79 


10097 


9 


71 


48 


71 


10130 


d" 


61 


45 


73 


10099 


9 


69 


51 


75 


10136 


d" 


66 


52 


76 


10100 


9 


69 


54 


74 


10137 


d 


63 


48 


74 


10138 


9 


66 


48 


76 


10164 


& 


66 


48 


77 


10139 


9 


65 


48 


77 


10166 


& 


64 


54 


77 


10140 


9 


63 


48 


70 


10179 


d 


65 


48 


78 


10141 


9 


61 


49 


77 


10196 


cf 


66 


47 


77 


10142 


9 


67 


52 


77 


10197 


cf 


66 


50 


75 


10143 


9 


67 


48 


79 


12019 


6" 


66 


51 


79 


10144 


9 


67 


49 


73 


12020 


d" 


66 


54 


77 


10145 


9 


66 


48 


76 


12025 


cf 


65 


48 


73 


10148 


9 


65 


45 


77 


12026 


c^ 


64 


49 


79 


10149 


9 


67 


47 


79 


12029 


d" 


68 


48 


80 


10153 


9 


69 


50 


76 


12031 


d' 


63 


48 


74 


10154 


9 


63 


50 


73 


12032 


cf 


72 


54 


82 


10155 


9 


67 


50 


77 


12033 


d" 


68 


50 


79 


10156 


9 


64 


52 


74 


12034 


& 


66 


51 


77 


10157 


9 


65 


50 


76 


12035 


& 


67 


50 


78 


10158 


9 


66 


47 


70 


12036 


d" 


66 


51 


76 


10159 


9 


65 


48 


75 


12037 


d" 


64 


51 


72 


10160 


9 


66 


49 


78 


12038 


c? 


71 


53 


78 


10161 


9 


64 


47 


72 


12039 


c? 


64 


48 


75 


10162 


9 


69 


49 


75 


12040 


c? 


66 


51 


71 


10163 


9 


65 


45 


73 


12041 


<? 


66 


51 


75 


10165 


9 


64 


51 


74 


12042 


& 


62 


55 


74 


10167 


9 


63 


50 


72 


12043 


d" 


66 


58 


73 


10168 


9 


66 


47 


72 


12044 


d 


68 


52 


76 


10180 


9 


66 


49 


74 


12045 


& 


67 


51 


75 


10181 


9 


65 


50 


76 


12046 


d" 


67 


47 


70 


10198 


9 


66 


46 


77 


12051 


d" 


63 


49 


70 


10199 


9 


70 


46 


78 


12052 


d" 


65 


46 


73 


10200 


9 


67 


52 


76 


12053 


d" 


68 


50 


78 


10201 


9 


68 


48 


74 


12054 


& 


65 


50 


78 


10202 


9 


64 


48 


75 












10203 
10204 


9 
9 


71 
68 


52 
48 


75 












74 












10205 


9 


64 


44 


74 












10206 


9 


64 


45 


72 












10207 


9 


67 


48 


71 












10208 


9 


70 


51 


80 












10209 


9 


68 


49 


75 












10210 


9 


71 


46 


76 












10211 


9 


64 


44 


75 












12023 


9 


67 


49 


77 












12024 


9 


69 


50 


80 












12027 


9 


64 




78 












12030 


9 


70 


47 


70 












12047 


9 


62 


46 


72 












12048 


9 


65 


51 


74 












12049 


9 


70 


47 


77 












12050 


9 


62 


48 


74 



172 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Habits. — Barrington Island, Oct. 20, 1905. Went ashore 
on the N.E. coast, and traveled about a mile to the iguana 
colony. Tropidiiri were common near the beach, but plentiful 
inland. July 9, 1906. Tropiduri seem to be less abundant 
now than at the time of our former visit. July 10. Lizards 
are fairly abundant and rather wild. 

''All stomachs examined contained insects, chiefly Orthop- 
tera." (Heller.) 

Tropidurus albemarlensis Baur 
Galapagos Lizard 

? 1851, Holotropis grayi, Dumeril^ Cat. Meth, Rept., 1851, p. 70 (part) ; 
DuMERiL, Arch, d' Mus., VIII, p. 538 (part). 

1871, Craniopeltis grayii, Peters, Mon. Berlin. Acad., 1871, p. 645 
(part). 

1876, Tropidurus {Craniopeltis) grayii, Steindachner, Festschr. 
Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 310, pi. II, fig. 1 (part). 

1877, Liocephalus grayi, Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 
67 (part). 

1885, Tropidurus grayi, Boulenger, Cat. Lizards, II, 1885, p. 172 
(part) ; Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XH, 1889, p. 145 (part) ; Boulenger, 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, (6), VII, 1891, p. 502 (part). 

1890, Tropidurus albemarlensis, Baur, Biol. Centralbl., X, p. 478; Baur, 
Festschrift fiir Leuckart, 1892, pp. 265, 269 (type locality, Tagfus Cove, 
Albemarle Island, Galapagos Archipelago). 

1890, Tropidurus indefatigabilis, Baur, Biol. Centralbl., X, p. 478 ; Baur, 
Festschrift fiir Leuckart, 1892, pp. 265, 268 (type locality, Indefatigable 
Island, Galapagos Archipelago). 

1892, Tropidurus jacobii, Baur, Festschrift fiir Leuckart 1892, p. 269 
(type locality James Island, Galapagos Archipelago). 

1903, Tropidurus grayi grayi. Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 
1903, p. 69 (part). 

1903, Tropidurus grayi magnus. Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 
V, 1903, p. 74 (type locality Narborough Island, Galapagos Archi- 
pelago). 

Diagnosis. — Sides of neck granular, with numerous folds; 
hind legs of males without definite dark spots; interparietal 
plate usually much broader than long ; not more than 76 scales 
around middle of body; scales larger than in T. albemarlensis 
barringtonensis, 50 to 69 around middle of body. 

Types. — Dr. Baur described T. albemarlensis from eleven 
specimens collected by the naturalists of the "Albatross" at 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, in April, 1888. These lizards 
are Nos. 15003 to 15013 of the U. S. National Museum col- 
lection. T. indefatigabilis was described from ten examples 
from Indefatigable Island. T. jacobii was based upon a con- 
siderable number of specimens from James and Jervis islands. 
The type of Heller's T, grayi magnus was collected on Nar- 



Vol. II, Ft. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



173 



borough Island, and is No. 3974 in the collection of Leland 
Stanford Junior University. 

Distribution. — This lizard has been collected on Indefa- 
tigable, South Seymour, Daphne, James, Jervis, Cowley, Brat- 
tle, Albemarle, and Narborough islands, Galapagos Archi- 
pelago. On Albemarle Island it has been found at Bank's 
Bay, Tagus Cove, Cowley Mountain, Iguana Cove, and the 
southeast coast near Vilamil or Turtle Cove. 

Material. — The Academy's collection contains specimens 
about as follows : 

Indefatigable Island, 72; scales counted in 24 males, 42 females. 



S. Seymour ' 


47 


Daphne ' 


52 


James ' 


239 


Jervis ' 


22 


Cowley ' 


1 


Brattle 


43 


Albemarle Island 


at: 


Banks Bay 


50 


Tagus Cove 


45 


Cowley Mt. 


1 


Iguana Cove 


4 


Vilamil 


217 



" 12 


' 31 


" 27 


' 24 


" 59 


' 96 


" 6 


' 16 


" 1 





" 21 


' 16 


" 12 


' 34 


" 18 


' 26 


" 1 





" 2 


2 


" 61 


' 60 


" 41 


' 51 



Narborough Island 101 

Description of adult male No. 12287, Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. — 
The head is covered above with smooth scales ; interparietal largest, 
broader than long; five or six large superoculars ; superciliaries imbricate; 
five superior and five inferior labials, to below middle of the eye; rostral 
very broad and low ; symphyseal broad, followed by a series of large sub- 
labials, of which all but the first are separated from the infralabials by a 
row of smaller plates. Ear-opening large, with an anterior denticulation 
of four or five long, narrow scales. Sides of neck between ear-opening 
and fore limb with numerous granular folds. A strong antehumeral, but 
no complete gular, fold. A well-developed median dorsal crest begins half 
the length of the interparietal behind this plate, and runs continuously to 
and along the tail, being highest on the proximal fourth of the tail. The 
dorsal regions of the neck, body, and tail are covered with rather small, 
keeled, mucronate scales, which, on the body, change gradually to smaller, 
keeled, mucronate laterals. These again change gradually into the smooth 
ventrals, which are much smaller than the dorsals. The gular scales are 
smooth, smaller centrally, smallest below the ears. The scales of the 
chest are largest, smooth and imbricate. The limbs are provided above 
with keeled, and below with smooth, scales. The posterior surface of the 
thigh is covered with imbricate scales, which, toward the dorsal surface 
of the thigh, become keeled. The lateral caudals are strongly keeled and 
mucronate ; while the inferior caudals are smooth proximally, but become 
keeled on the distal portion of the tail. 

The coloration in alcohol is olive brown above, spotted, except on the 
head, tail, and hind limbs, with small rounded, blackish spots, each cover- 
ing one or more scales. The chin is yellowish. The throat is black. The 
other lower surfaces are greenish or yellowish, marked on the chin, gular 
region, chest, and sides of body with discrete, rounded spots of black or 
dark brown. 



174 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Length to anus mm. 85 

Length of tail 116+ 

Snout to ear 18 

Width of head 22.5 

Fore limb 35 

Hind limb 59 

Base of fifth to end of fourth toe 23 

Height of crest on nape 2 

Height of crest on midbody 2.2 

Height of crest on tail 3 

Coloration in life of adult female, Tagus Cove. — "Above 
brown, spotted with lighter brown except on tail, which is 
grayish brown. Hind limbs like the tail, fore limbs colored 
like the back. Belly light grayish, hind limbs and tail in- 
feriorly the same. Breast pale yellow spotted with black; 
throat dark, with yellow-edged scales; chin lighter, grayish, 
dusky spotted; infralabials and mental pinkish. Sides dull 
brick red, black-spotted; a dark stripe from the ear to the 
thigh, and another fainter one from the axilla to the thigh. 
Sides of head and neck brighter red, with a dark antehumeral 
spot." 

Coloration in life of adult male, Iguana Cove. — "Above 
olive brown, flecked with pale greenish gray, dorsal crest like 
spots except on the nape, where it is dark-spotted ; limbs above 
like the back. Head uniform brownish, sides of body the 
same, but dark-spotted. Sides of neck tinged with reddish; a 
black antehumeral spot. Belly pale greenish gray, bordered 
with brick red on the sides; limbs and tail inferiorly like the 
belly. Breast chrome yellow spotted with black, the throat 
clay-yellow, much spotted with black, mandible grayish, labials 
greenish." 

"The males secured in Iguana Cove show much variation. 
Those inhabiting the light soil in brushy areas are lighter; in 
some, the breast being yellowish with a few scattered spots, 
and the throat grayish. Others taken near the beach, on 
black basaltic lavas, have the breast, throat, and mandible 
solid blackish, and the belly plumbeous. Some of the light 
specimens are considerably lighter above than the one de- 
scribed, the dorsal crest being entirely light grayish, and sides 
of the belly dark-spotted, with the dark markings of the back 
arranged in transverse bars," 

Coloration in life of adult female, Iguana Cove. — "Much 
darker brown above than the male, with light dorsal crest, 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 1 75 

black-Spotted above; tail somewhat lighter, with a greenish 
dorsal crest and light spots; fore limbs like the back; hind 
limbs like the tail, light-spotted. Belly pale greenish gray, 
breast golden, black-spotted; throat and mandible brick red. 
Tail and hind limbs inferiorly like the belly; fore limbs like 
the breast, black-spotted. Sides of throat, mandible, and body 
brick red; a black antehumeral spot." 

Coloration in life of three adult males, James Island. — 1) 
"Above dark brown, spotted with blackish and light grayish 
spots ; dorsal crest and the scales at its base light grayish ; hind 
limbs and tail above lighter dusky brown, the former light- 
spotted; head above olive brown. Belly, thighs, and tail in- 
feriorly light grayish; breast buffy and pinkish, sparingly 
black-spotted; throat black, mandible pinkish, black-spotted 
posteriorly. Sides of head light brownish, preoculars light- 
spotted, lower eyelid bluish; sides of neck bright red, black- 
spotted; a black antehumeral spot, light-bordered anteriorly; 
shoulders blotched with yellowish and brown. Sides of the 
body lake red, spotted with black and whitish spots except 
about the axilla and along the sides of the belly." 

2) "The back is brownish, with black spots which extend 
down to the light bluish coloration below. Dorsal crest very 
prominent, of a light greenish tint. Sides of neck reddish, 
with black spots. Black blotches in front of each shoulder. 
Chin and lower jaw pale red. Gular region black. Chest 
with faint black spots. Below light blue." 

3) "Back brown with scattered black spots. Upper sur- 
face of fore limbs also with black spots. Folds on neck red 
with large black spots. Antehumeral spot black, larger than 
in females. Chin light straw color with a few small black 
spots. Gular region black. Chest brick red with small black 
spots. Belly and lower surfaces of hind limbs and tail dull 
light blue." 

Coloration in life of three adult females, James Island. — 1) 
"Above golden-brown, crest grayish-white, nape and tail 
lighter without golden coloration; limbs above like dorsum. 
A dark brown band, two scales wide, extending from the ear 



176 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

to above the thigh; a lighter or fainter one from the axilla 
to the thigh. Belly, hind limbs, and tail inferiorly light gray- 
ish; breast, throat, and mandible canary yellow, black-spotted. 
Sides of head orange red ; sides of neck and body red, bright- 
est anteriorly, lake red posteriorly, on body the scales light- 
edged, sparingly dark-spotted; a black antehumeral spot." 

2) "Back brownish. Sides of neck reddish with black 
blotch in front of shoulder. Gular region lemon color with 
black spots. Lower surfaces pale blue." 

3) "Back light bronze. A row of small black spots runs 
along the side, starting behind the fore limb and ending a little 
in front of the hind limb. The folds on the side of the neck 
are brick red. There is a black antehumeral spot. Throat 
and chest bright lemon color with black spots. Belly and 
lower surfaces of hind limbs and tail dull light bluish." 

Variation. — Although the lizards which are here included 
under one name have been described as several distinct species, 
we have not been able to find any differences which are con- 
stant enough to justify us in making any division. The scale 
counts agree quite closely in specimens from all these islands. 
Females from South Seymour and Indefatigable islands show 
most red suffusion about the chin and throat, but red is shown 
also by specimens from Daphne, James, Jervis, and Albemarle 
islands. Jervis and Seymour specimens of both sexes may 
show red. Specimens from Indefatigable Island vary but 
little. The black dorsal spots may be present or absent on fe- 
males, but are constant on males.. Gular folds and under 
surface of shoulders in both sexes may show a faint coloring 
of red. Interoccipital wider than long. 

South Seymour Island. Females may have indistinct dor- 
sal markings, otherwise there is little variation. The gular 
folds and sides of the belly back of the shoulders are distinctly 
marked with red, those without it being the exception. The 
males have all the under surface of shoulders and chin dis- 
tinctly marked with red spotted with black. Throats of fe- 
males are white, spotted with black. Interoccipital wider than 
lonsr. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 177 

Daphne Island. Black cross-bars over the shoulders and 
black spots on the front limbs are present in males, but always 
absent in females. Throats of males are always black, while 
those of females are white, spotted with black. Some speci- 
mens may have a slight showing of red on the gular folds. 
This rarely occurs, but may be seen in either sex. Interocci- 
pital wider than long. 

James Island. Females lack the black throat which is con- 
stantly present in the males. They may be sparingly spotted 
with black, but usually are uniform brown. Throats may be 
white or grayish, spotted with black. Gular folds may have 
a slight showing of red, but this occurs more often in the fe- 
males. Interoccipital wider than long. 

Jervis Island. Females with or without indistinct dorsal 
spots. Adult males show red on sides of the belly just back 
of the shoulders. Interoccipital wider than long. 

Brattle Island. Specimens show little variation. The 
throats of females are, as usual, white or grayish, spotted with 
black. The black dorsal spots are present in some females, 
but not as prominent as in the males. Interoccipital wider 
than long. 

Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. Females may show indis- 
tinct dorsal spotting, which is constant in the males. Throats 
may be red or slate color, spotted with black. Some female 
specimens have the gular folds and sides of the belly reddish 
spotted with black. Some few males have red coloring like 
the females, but not so bright. Interoccipital wider than long. 

Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. Females may have throats 
white or grayish, spotted with black, and some specimens are 
faintly red on gular folds. They may have faint dorsal 
markings similar to the prominent ones of the males. Inter- 
occipital wider than long. 

Vilamil, Albemarle Island. Females differ little in coloration, 
but a few may have red on the gular folds and a trace on top 
of the head. The throats are white or grayish, spotted with 
black. A black blotch in front of the shoulders is common in 
both sexes. The black dorsal spots are constant in males, but 
rare and indistinct in females. Interoccipital usually wider 
than long. 



178 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Narborough Island. Throats of females may be either 
slate color or blackish like the under surfaces of the body, 
with or without black spots. Those of males are usually 
black, but may be slate color with large black spots. The 
black dorsal spots are present in both sexes, but indistinct in 
the females. Some females may have a very faint showing of 
red along the sides of the belly. Interoccipital wider than 
long. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Indefatigable Island 








Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10228 


C^ 


53 


40 


67 


10236 


9 


56 


42 


67 


10229 


cf 


56 


44 


67 


10374 


9 


52 




69 


10373 


c? 


55 


47 


66 


10382 


9 


55 


45 


68 


10376 


(^ 


55 


44 


59 


10384 


9 


56 


43 


60 


10377 


& 


55 


41 


67 


10389 


9 


57 


48 


65 


10385 


& 


53 


42 


61 


10390 


9 


57 


43 


68 


10386 


& 


53 


42 


63 


10392 


9 


56 


44 


63 


10391 


cf 


54 


47 


65 


10397 


9 


57 


40 


60 


10394 


c? 


56 


38 


65 


10400 


9 


56 


41 


68 


10398 


& 


53 


43 


64 


10401 


9 


54 


43 


64 


10399 


& 


57 


43 


68 


10402 


9 


55 


42 


63 


10403 


6" 


57 


44 


66 


10404 


9 


57 


42 


67 


10407 


c? 


56 


43 


65 


10405 


9 


56 


41 


68 


10410 


c? 


56 


42 


67 


10406 


■ 9 


55 


40 


62 


10419 


& 


56 


44 


67 


10408 


9 


57 




68 


10424 


c? 


56 


40 


68 


10409 


9 


55 


40 


66 


10546 


& 


54 


41 


66 


10411 


■ 9 


54 


47 


68 


10549 


d^ 


55 


43 


63 


10412 


9 


53 


44 


60 


10550 


& 


54 


47 


63 


10413 


9 


53 


40 


64 


10551 


& 


54 


40 


67 


10414 


9 


55 


41 


66 


10552 


c? 


53 


42 


61 


10415 


9 


52 


41 


62 


10793 


c? 


54 


44 


63 


10416 


9 


57 


43 


67 


12066 


d" 


53 


46 


60 


10417 


9 


57 


43 


67 


12067 


& 


54 


40 


69 


10418 
10420 


9 
9 


57 
53 


41 
40 


66 
63 






















10421 


9 


57 


43 


64 












10422 


9 


54 


42 


66 












10423 


9 


53 


42 


63 












10425 


9 


57 




65 












10426 


9 


52 


40 


62 












10427 


9 


54 




64 












10547 


9 


53 


43 


64 












10548 


9 


56 


42 


69 












10553 


9 


50 


40 


62 












10554 


9 


54 


41 


66 












10555 


9 


55 


41 


63 












10556 


9 


56 


44 


69 












10557 


9 


54 


44 


63 












10558 


9 


55 


43 


64 












10794 


9 


57 


40 


65 


s 










12068 


9 


55 




68 












12069 


9 


55 


40 


64 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



179 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— South Seymour Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10434 


C^ 


56 


44 


69 


10430 


9 


56 


45 


66 


10435 


c? 


56 


46 


68 


10431 


9 


57 


44 


67 


10439 


& 


59 


41 


68 


10432 


9 


52 


46 


66 


10440 


& 


54 


38 


68 


10436 


9 


55 


43 


66 


10445 


& 


56 


45 


73 


10438 


9 


55 




68 


10456 


& 


54 


39 


68 


10441 


9 


57 ■ 


44 


69 


10457 


d" 


60 


42 


71 


10443 


9 


54 


44 


66 


10458 


cf 


52 


41 


66 


10444 


9 


57 


46 


72 


10480 


c? 


52 


39 


68 


10446 


9 


54 


43 


66 


10481 


& 


59 


43 


69 


10447 


9 


55 


45 


66 


12080 


& 


55 


44 


67 


10448 


9 


57 


42 


65 


12081 


& 


54 


43 


68 


10449 


9 


57 


40 


69 












10450 


9 
9 


54 


41 


66 
65 












10451 


55 


44 












10452 


9 


60 


46 














10453 


9 


60 


40 


7i 












10454 


9 


57 




69 












10455 


9 


58 


44 


68 












10459 


9 


55 


44 


69 












10460 


9 


58 


40 


70 












10461 


9 


56 


45 


67 












10462 


9 


56 


45 


66 












10463 


9 


57 


44 


70 












10464 


9 


60 


42 


66 












10465 


9 


55 


44 


66 












10466 


9 


58 


41 


70 












10467 


9 


58 


42 


67 












10468 


9 


58 


45 


67 












10469 


9 


56 




65 












10470 


9 


59 


44 


65 












10471 


9 


55 


45 


67 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Daphne Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10487 


c^ 


61 


47 


72 


10492 


9 


60 


49 


70 


10488 


& 


59 


44 


72 


10493 


9 


60 


45 


71 


10489 


& 


61 


43 


72 


10494 


9 


63 


44 


72 


10490 


r? 


59 


49 


71 


10498 


9 


65 


44 


71 


10491 


<f 


62 


49 


72 


10499 


9 


64 


47 


71 


10496 


cf 


65 


46 


72 


10501 


9 


65 


43 


71 


10497 


r^ 


58 


48 


72 


10502 


9 


63 


48 


71 


10500 


(f 


62 


47 


72 


10504 


9 


62 


51 


72 


10503 


cf 


61 


48 


70 


10506 


9 


63 


48 


70 


10505 


ff 


62 


44 


72 


10507 


9 


65 


47 


71 


10509 


cP 


64 


45 


73 


10508 


9 


55 


45 


66 


10510 


f? 


62 


48 


70 


10512 


9 


61 


47 


72 


10511 


n^ 


58 


47 


71 


10515 


9 


66 


46 


72 


10513 


cP 


60 


46 


70 


10516 


9 


61 


50 


75 


10514 


rf 


63 


47 


71 


10517 


9 


63 


45 


70 


10518 


r? 


63 


47 


74 


10521 


9 


63 


44 


70 


10519 


rf 


65 


49 


71 


10524 


9 


66 


50 


72 


10520 


& 


61 


44 


73 


10526 


o 


62 


44 





180 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



£Proc. 4th See. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— DAPHNE IS^K-^T)— Continued 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10522 


cf 


61 


48 


74 


10528 


9 


61 


49 


70 


10523 


c^ 


61 


46 


72 


10531 


9 


60 


43 


68 


10525 


c^ 


62 


44 


70 


10534 


9 


65 


49 


73 


10527 


<f 


62 




73 


10536 


9 


66 


46 


72 


10529 


c^ 


58 


45 


68 


10537 


9 


65 


48 


72 


10530 


cf- 


60 


47 


72 


10538 


9 


60 


49 


72 


10532 


<f 


62 


45 


69 












10533 


(f 


59 


47 


68 












10535 


6" 


60 




71 













TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— James Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10587 


C? 


58 


39 


75 


10593 


9 


63 


43 


74 


10588 


6" 


67 


43 


74 


10595 


9 


63 


42 


72 


10591 


C? 


63 


40 


74 


10596 


9 


60 


43 


72 


10592 


C^ 


64 




73 


10597 


9 


60 


41 


72 


10594 


& 


54 


40 


68 


10599 


9 


64 


43 


74 


10602 


d" 


63 


42 


72 


10604 


9 


63 


42 


74 


10618 


& 


60 


41 


73 


10619 


9 


58 


41 


72 


10624 


& 


60 


40 


68 


10620 


9 


61 


43 


72 


10631 


c? 


60 


46 


70 


10621 


9 


55 




70 


10635 


d' 


58 


42 


70 


10622 


9 


60 


44 


74 


10652 


cf 


61 


43 


68 


10623 


9 


59 


42 


70 


10653 


c? 


59 


42 


66 


10625 


9 


62 


37 


68 


10655 


c? 


62 


38 


70 


10627 


9 


61 


42 


69 


10656 


cf 


59 


45 


66 


10628 


9 


61 


40 


74 


10657 


cf 


58 


38 


70 


10629 


9 


59 


42 


69 


10658 


d^ 


62 


41 


77 


10630 


9 


59 


43 


68 


10661 


& 


56 


40 


73 


10632 


9 


61 


44 


68 


10662 


c? 


62 


43 


70 


10633 


9 


62 


40 


71 


10666 


d^ 


63 


42 


68 


10634 


9 


58 




74 


10667 


c? 


57 


44 


76 


10636 


9 


60 


44 


73 


10669 


& 


60 


39 


73 


10637 


9 


57 


44 


71 


10670 


& 


63 


42 


69 


10638 


9 


58 


38 


68 


10672 


& 


60 


44 


74 


10639 


9 


56 


42 


66 


10673 


c? 


58 


42 


71 


10640 


9 


62 


44 


75 


10674 


d^ 


60 


43 


69 


10641 


9 


52 




69 


10676 


& 


64 


46 


79 


10642 


9 


62 


44 


72 


10678 


cf 


61 


42 


70 


10643 


9 


59 


42 


73 


10681 


& 


58 


40 


70 


10644 


9 


59 


44 


73 


10682 


<^ 


57 


47 


73 


10646 


9 


63 


42 


72 


10683 


& 


58 


42 


71 


10647 


9 


61 


44 


71 


10684 


d' 


60 


40 


69 


10648 


9 


57 


42 


68 


10691 


& 


63 


39 


73 


10649 


9 


59 


43 


72 


10694 


c? 


62 


43 


77 


10650 


9 


63 


41 


73 


10695 


cf 


59 


39 


69 


10654 


9 


61 


39 


73 


10698 


cf 


60 


42 


71 


10659 


9 


59 


43 


71 


10700 


d^ 


64 


43 


72 


10660 


9 


60 


43 


68 


10706 


cf 


58 


45 


74 


10663 


9 


58 


41 


72 


10707 


c? 


64 


42 


71 


10664 


9 


57 


40 


68 


10708 


cT 


60 


42 


69 


10665 


9 


56 


44 


68 


10713 


d^ 


60 


42 


70 


10668 


9 


63 


43 


74 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



181 



TABLE 


OF SCALE COUNTS— James Island— Cow/iwwed 








Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10720 


& 


59 


38 


71 


10675 


9 


58 


42 


70 


10723 


cf 


58 


40 


70 


10677 


9 


62 


42 


70 


10735 


c^ 


64 


42 


70 


10679 


9 


63 


43 


70 


10737 


& 


60 


44 


75 


10680 


9 


64 


43 


70 


10739 


(^ 


61 


40 


71 


10685 


9 


59 


40 


67 


10740 


& 


60 


37 


72 


10686 


9 


62 


37 


75 


10741 


& 


61 


43 


67 


10687 


9 


58 




72 


10742 


cf 


58 


43 


71 


10688 


9 


64 


40 


68 


10743 


cf 


64 


44 


68 


10689 


9 


56 


44 


72 


10747 


c^ 


60 


42 


70 


10690 


9 


60 


43 


70 


10748 


d^ 


59 


44 


70 


10692 


9 


57 


42 


70 


12101 


c? 


62 


40 


71 


10693 


9 


64 


44 


73 


12103 


cf 


61 




68 


10696 


9 


60 


42 


74 


12107 


cf' 


57 


35 


71 


10697 


9 


61 


42 


72 


12108 


c? 


60 


40 


72 


10699 


9 


60 


40 


73 


12109 


c? 


57 


41 


70 


10701 


9 


61 


41 


72 


12125 


c? 


56 


41 


68 


10702 


9 


61 


42 


71 


12132 


cf 


61 


45 


74 


10705 


9 


60 


40 


72 


12133 


cf 


58 


46 


74 


10709 


9 


60 


40 


74 












10711 
10712 


9 
9 


61 
63 


46 
44 


69 












75 












10714 


9 


63 


41 


75 












10715 


9 


57 


41 


67 












10716 


9 


59 


44 


69 












10717 


9 


61 


40 


71 












10718 


9 


61 


38 


70 












10751 


9 


62 


43 


70 












10755 


9 


62 


43 


67 












10757 


9 


60 


43 


70 












10760 


9 


61 


42 


73 












10761 


9 


61 


43 


72 












10762 


9 


61 


43 


70 












10764 


9 


58 


42 


69 












10768 


9 


56 


44 


68 












10769 


9 


62 


41 


74 












10772 


9 


62 


40 


72 












10773 


9 


60 


44 


70 












10778 


Q 


56 


39 


65 












12099 


9 


62 


41 


76 












12100 


9 


62 


41 


77 












12102 


9 


64 


42 


77 












12104 


9 


57 


44 


73 












12105 


9 


60 


41 


69 












12106 


9 


61 


37 


73 












12110 


9 


63 


42 


74 












12111 


9 


61 


43 


77 












12112 


9 


59 


41 


73 












12113 


9 


58 


35 


74 












12114 


9 


61 


41 


73 












12115 


9 


60 


39 


71 












12124 


9 


60 


42 


69 












12126 


9 


63 


43 


71 












12127 


9 


61 


41 


72 












12129 


9 


59 


40 


68 












12130 


9 


61 


41 


72 












12131 


9 


60 


43 


71 



September 17, 1913 



182 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— JERVIS ISLAND 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10574 


rf 


65 


43 


71 


10569 


9 


63 


43 


71 


10575 


cT 


64 


41 


72 


10570 


9 


60 


46 


71 


10577 


cf 


62 


40 


70 


10571 


9 


60 


38 


72 


10578 


ff 


68 


40 


76 


10572 


9 


60 


39 


70 


10607 


c^ 


64 


48 


77 


10573 


9 


65 


43 


74 


10608 


ff 


61 


43 


71 


10576 


9 


61 


42 


71 












10579 


Q 


61 


43 


70 












10580 


9 


62 


45 


69 












10581 


9 


60 


42 


70 












10582 


9 


62 


43 


70 












10583 


9 


59 


42 


64 












10584 


9 


69 


40 


76 












10585 


9 


60 


43 


70 












10586 


9 


61 


39 


69 












10606 


9 


63 


42 


75 












10609 


9 


65 


40 


75 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Brattle Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10238 


d^ 


61 


43 


66 


10237 


9 


60 


40 


67 


10239 


(f 


64 


40 


66 


10242 


9 


61 


40 


67 


10240 


<T 


62 


41 


67 


10245 


9 


61 


42 


69 


10241 


ff 


64 


41 


67 


10249 


9 


61 


, 38 


64 


10243 


r? 


64 


42 


65 


10252 


9 


60 


40 


68 


10246 


f? 


63 


41 


69 


10253 


9 


60 


40 


64 


10247 


cT 


61 


40 


65 


10254 


9 


62 


41 


67 


10248 


rf 


61 


39 


66 


10258 


9 


62 


42 


64 


10250 


ff 


67 


40 


67 


10262 


9 


61 


40 


68 


10251 


r?" 


61 


40 


63 


10263 


9 


62 


39 


68 


10255 


rf 


63 


38 


67 


10267 


9 


61 


45 


68 


10257 


f^ 


66 


44 


69 


10270 


9 


67 


38 


69 


10259 


(f 


62 


39 


67 


10274 


9 


65 


43 


69 


10260 


cf 


61 


37 


66 


10276 


9 


59 


39 


66 


10261 


<f 


63 


40 


65 


10277 


9 


65 


40 


68 


10264 


cf 


62 


42 


67 


10278 


9 


61 




63 


10266 


c^ 


61 


40 


66 












10268 


ff 


63 


40 


66 












10269 


r? 


62 


40 


64 












10272 


rf 


63 


41 


65 












10275 


cf 


65 


42 


65 













TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— CoWLEY ISLAND 



Number 


Sex 


Scale 
Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


12167 


& 


61 


42 


67 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



183 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


11356 


& 


58 


35 


60 


11355 


9 


58 


37 


64 


11358 


c? 


59 


37 


62 


11357 


9 


58 


41 


61 


11385 


& 


58 


42 


63 


11360 


9 


62 


38 


68 


11388 


& 


57 


39 


66 


11361 


9 


60 


40 


63 


11389 


& 


63 


39 


63 


11362 


9 


61 


43 


68 


11390 


c? 


62 


36 


64 


11363 


9 


56 


38 


64 


11391 


& 


59 


39 


60 


11364 


9 


58 


36 


61 


11396 


& 


63 


39 


63 


11365 


9 


62 


39 


67 


11397 


cf 


58 


40 


62 


11384 


9 


55 


41 


61 


11400 


& 


60 


43 


68 


11386 


9 


59 


39 


63 


11401 


& 


59 


40 


63 


11387 


9 


59 


38 


60 


11429 


& 


60 


40 


66 


11392 


9 


61 


39 


55 












11395 


9 


57 


40 


66 












11398 


9 


61 


43 


64 












11402 


9 


63 


43 


65 












11403 


9 


57 


37 


61 












11404 


9 


58 


39 


64 












11406 


9 


58 


37 


63 












11407 


9 


64 


40 


67 












11408 


9 


59 


36 


67 












11409 


9 


64 


43 


67 












11410 


9 


61 


38 


60 












11411 


9 


57 


40 


65 












11414 


9 


64 


39 


66 












11416 


9 


59 


39 


66 












11417 


9 


58 


45 


68 












11418 


9 


60 


38 


68 












11420 


9 


63 


39 


65 








, 




11421 


9 


57 


41 


62 












11424 


9 


61 


42 


62 












11425 


9 


58 


39 


65 












11426 


9 


62 


37 


61 












11427 


9 


60 


36 


65 












11428 


9 


58 


40 


66 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


11275 


d^ 


59 


35 


63 


11277 


9 


59 


36 


63 


11276 


ff 


58 


36 


65 


11279 


9 


60 


39 


64 


11278 


C^ 


60 


33, 


65 


11282 


9 


58 


38 


63 


11280 


d^ 


57 


34 


63 


11283 


9 


57 


41 


60 


11281 


& 


62 


41 


65 


11285 


9 


58 


42 


64 


11284 


C^ 


60 


38 


62 


11286 


9 


61 


39 


65 


11287 


d^ 


58 


40 


63 


11288 


9 


60 


36 


60 


11289 


rf 


59 


38 


68 


11290 


9 


58 


35 


62 


11291 


c^ 


60 


38 


65 


11292 


9 


56 


36 


63 


11294 


f? 


60 


39 


58 


11293 


9 


58 


37 


62 


11295 


^ 


60 


35 


60 


11298 


9 


57 


40 


64 


11296 


& 


61 


36 


66 


11299 


9 


57 


43 


62 


11297 


& 


60 


40 


65 


11301 


9 


56 


42 


65 


11302 


r^ 


58 


34 


61 


11303 


9 


55 


38 


61 


11370 


& 


58 


37 


59 


11304 


9 


60 


43 


62 



184 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th See. 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Tagus Cove.Albemarle ISLAND— Cont'd 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


11372 


cf 


58 


36 


60 


11369 


9 


60 


43 


62 


11381 


c^ 


59 


38 


61 


11371 


9 


61 


39 


61 


11383 


O^ 


62 


37 


63 


11373 


9 


57 


37 


65 












11374 


9 


56 


37 


61 












11375 


9 


60 


37 


64 












11376 


9 


57 


39 


65 












11377 


9 


60 


37 


65 












11378 


9 


58 


36 


60 












11379 


9 


55 


36 


65 












11380 


9 


54 


39 


63 












11382 


9 


54 


37 


61 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Cowley Mountain, Albemarle Island 



Number 


Sex 


Scale 
Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


12157 


C^ 


60 


41 


65 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island 



Number 


Sex 


Scale 
Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Scale 
Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


11249 
11250 




59 
59 


42 
38 


67 
64 


11251 
11261 


9 

9 


56 


40 
37 


67 
68 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Vilamil, Albemarle Island 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


10310 


(f 


58 


42 


65 


10308 


9 


57 


41 


68 


10313 


r? 


61 


40 


68 


10309 


9 


56 


38 


65 


10314 


(f 


57 


38 


64 


10311 


9 


56 


41 


62 


10315 


ff 


60 


37 


65 


10316 


9 


56 


38 


66 


10322 


cP 


57 


36 


63 


10317 


9 


55 


39 


62 


10324 


cf 


56 


37 


62 


10318 


9 


60 


37 


68 


10325 


rP 


56 


37 


66 


10319 


9 


58 


42 


65 


10326 


ff 


62 


42 


69 


10320 


9 


61 


45 


66 


10329 


cf 


58 


36 


65 


10321 


9 


59 


43 


64 


10344 


r^ 


58 


36 


65 


10323 


9 


58 


37 


63 


11558 


rf 


60 


39 


69 


10327 


9 


60 


37 


61 


11559 


rf 


60 


44 


67 


10328 


9 


58 


40 


65 


11134 


cT 


58 


40 


69 


10330 


9 


57 


40 


67 


11136 


rf 


56 


40 


60 


10332 


9 


56 


43 


63 


11137 


rf 


57 


41 


68 


10333 


9 


56 


37 


63 


11138 


ff 


61 


32 


70 


10335 


9 


56 


44 


64 


11143 


rf^ 


64 


39 


66 


10336 


9 


59 


38 


60 


11148 


c^ 


57 


39 


64 


10337 


Q 


62 


37 


64 


11153 


rP 


61 


39 


70 


11133 


9 


64 


41 




11154 


c^ 


60 


41 


65 


11135 


9 


61 


40 


66 


11157 


cP 


61 


39 


67 


11141 


9 


62 


44 


64 


11158 


& 


60 


36 


67 


11151 


9 


56 


39 


68 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 



185 



TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— ViLAMiL, Albemarle Island— Continued 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


11160 


O^ 


62 


42 


69 


11152 


9 


56 


38 


67 


11163 


C^ 


59 


41 


71 


11162 


9 


59 


39 


63 


11167 


c? 


62 


35 


63 


11166 


9 


61 


39 


62 


11179 


<f 


60 


43 


68 


11169 


9 


58 


38 


66 


11183 


& 


57 


39 


69 


11170 


9 


62 


43 


69 


11185 


o^ 


59 


39 


66 


11171 


9 


60 


40 


68 


11186 


& 


62 


36 


69 


11173 


9 


64 


38 


67 


11198 


& 


61 


36 


60 


11175 


9 


59 


43 


69 


11202 


cf 


60 


40 


64 


11176 


9 


53 


39 


63 


11209 


cf 


58 


32 


57 


11177 


9 


63 




69 


11211 


& 


59 


36 


65 


11181 


9 


63 


42 


66 


11216 


d" 


59 


42 


68 


11182 


9 


60 


41 


63 


11218 


& 


57 


36 


66 


11544 


9 


60 


39 


67 


11219 


cf 


57 


34 


60 


11546 


9 


57 


40 


66 


11224 


& 


55 


37 


65 


11548 


9 


55 


42 


65 


11225 


& 


60 


40 


64 


11550 


9 


58 


40 


64 


11226 


cf 


59 


39 


65 


11551 


9 


57 


39 


60 


11227 


& 


59 


40 


66 


11552 


9 


57 


40 


70 


11229 


& 


62 


37 


67 


11553 


9 


59 


36 


66 


11545 


d' 


62 


42 


67 


11554 


9 


60 


42 


69 


11547 


d 


57 


43 


70 


11555 


9 


59 


39 


63 


11549 


& 


64 


38 


64 


11556 


9 


57 


39 


60 


11557 


d 


62 


39 


66 


11561 


9 


56 


38 


67 


11563 


o^ 


57 


41 


65 


11562 


9 


56 


40 


64 


11565 


d 


62 


41 


71- 


11564 


9 


57 


41 


64 


11568 


& 


56 


40 


68 


11566 


9 


60 


38 


68 


11570 


d 


59 


42 


66 


11567 


9 


61 


43 


64 


11572 


d 


57 


36 


64 


11569 


9 


59 


37 


67 


11573 


& 


60 


40 


67 


11571 


9 


58 


40 


62 


11574 


d 


59 


37 


67 


11576 


9 


57 


40 


67 


11575 


& 


57 


39 


63 


11578 


9 


64 


40 


62 


11577 


& 


57 


40 


62 


11579 


9 


63 


41 


62 


11580 


& 


56 


41 


63 


11584 


9 


55 


39 


64 


11581 


d 


56 


41 


66 


11588 


9 


55 


41 


63 


11582 


d 


58 


42 


62 


11590 


9 


60 


38 


63 


11583 


& 


55 


40 


62 


11591 


9 


56 


39 


67 


11585 


d 


56 


39 


61 


11592 


9 


60 


40 


71 


11586 


& 


63 


36 


66 


11594 


9 


58 


41 


68 


11587 


d 


60 




65 













TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Narborough ISLAND 







Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


11272 


d 


58 


38 


69 


11319 


9 


60 


40 


63 


11273 


ff 


61 


38 


67 


11320 


9 


58 


37 


65 


11317 


r? 


54 


42 


67 


11328 


9 


55 


37 


63 


11318 


d 


56 


41 


71 


11329 


9 




35 


68 


11321 


d 


55 


37 


64 


11330 


9 


62 


39 




11322 


r? 


61 


40 


70 


11331 


9 


58 


35 


66 


11323 


ff 


58 


38 


72 


11332 


9 


61 


37 


65 


11324 


o^ 


55 


38 


66 


11335 


9 


54 


41 


67 


11325 


d 


54 


41 


68 


11336 


9 


59 


42 


64 


11326 


& 


56 


39 


65 


11337 


9 


57 


40 


65 


11327 


d 


60 


43 


76 


11338 


9 


59 


38 


67 



i»t) 




CAL 


IFORNI 


A ACAl 


DEMY OF 


SCIE 


WCES 


[Proc. 


4th Sf.b. 


TABLE OF SCALE COUNTS— Narborough Island- 


—Continued 






Scale 










Scale 






Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


Number 


Sex 


Rows 


Crest 


Belly 


11333 


cf 


54 


38 


68 


11339 


9 


57 


36 


63 


11334 


c^ 


58 


2>8 


66 


11340 


9 


55 


38 


61 


11343 


cf 


57 


37 


67 


11341 


9 


58 


42 


67 


11345 


& 


64 


39 


65 


11342 


9 


60 


42 


64 


11346 


& 


61 


38 


70 


11344 


9 


56 


39 


67 


11349 


& 


60 


37 


69 


11347 


9 


54 


36 


61 


11350 


d' 


55 


35 


62 


11348 


9 


55 


40 


67 


11352 


& 


55 


36 


64 


11351 


9 


58 


41 


72 


11353 


& 


53 


35 


65 


11430 


9 


55 


36 


62 


11452 


& 


58 


39 


63 


11431 


9 


55 


36 


61 


11453 


d^ 


59 


37 


66 


11433 


9 


57 


37 


63 


11454 


c? 


56 


37 


63 


11434 


9 


55 


39 


64 


11455 


& 


59 


37 


65 


• 11435 


9 


58 


35 


62 


11456 


c? 


55 


31 


60 


11436 


9 


60 


37 


66 


11457 


c^ 


54 


35 


62 


11437 


9 


59 


37 


68 


11458 


& 


62 


35 


67 


11438 


9 


57 


39 


65 


11459 


& 


58 


36 


62 


11440 


9 


60 


35 


64 


11463 


& 


59 


42 


67 


11442 


9 


55 


40 


63 


11464 


& 


58 


39 


69 


11444 


9 


56 


34 


67 


11465 


& 


58 


38 


68 


11446 


9 


55 


36 


61 


11469 


cf 


54 


36 


67 


11447 


9 


59 


36 


64 


11470 


cf 


61 


40 


71 


11448 


9 


55 


36 


62 


11471 


cT 


57 


42 


62 


11449 


9 


54 


38 


63 


11475 


<^ 






63 


11450 


9 


57 


37 


66 


11477 


& 


57 


41 


65 


11451 


9 


55 


38 


63 


11478 


& 


58 


39 


68 


11460 


9 


58 


37 


68 


11483 


d' 


58 


36 


67 


11461 


9 


55 


40 


69 


11484 


d 


55 


32 


60 


11462 


9 


60 


39 


66 


11485 


d 


55 


39 


65 


31466 


9 


62 


39 


71 


11486 


^ 1 


59 


39 


70 


11467 
11468 


9 
9 


55 

55 


37 
40 


66 












66 












11472 


9 


58 


35 


65 












11473 


9 


54 


38 


67 












11474 


9 


56 


35 


61 












11476 


9 


60 


39 


61 












11479 


9 


59 


35 


65 












11480 


9 


60 


40 


66 












11481 


9 


55 


39 


63 












11482 


9 


55 


36 


62 












11487 


9 


58 


36 


62 



Habits. — The eggs vary from four to six in number. They 
are white and elHptical with leathery shells. Females were 
seen on various islands, in May and June, digging short 
oblique burrows in the sand. 

Stomachs of specimens from Indefatigable Island con- 
tained insects and spiders; those from the Seymours, insects, 
seed-cases, and berries; those from James contained spiders, 
insects and seeds. On Narborough they are said to feed on 
crustaceans near the shore, while farther inland insects and 
the seed capsules and ovaries of various flowers are eaten. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 187 

Dec. 27, 1905. — Went ashore at James Bay to collect liz- 
ards. Worked in the country back of the lagoon. I found 
the lizards common though the brush and on the lava blocks. 
Several were about six or seven feet up in the trees, probably 
looking for insects to eat, and some were feeding on the green 
leaves which are just sprouting. They were fairly tame, the 
females being more active than the males. 

July 28, 1906. — Followed up a valley toward Bartholomew 
Island. Lizards are scarce inland, but common near the beach. 
The mate reports them abundant on Bartholomew Island. 

Aug. 8, 1906, James Bay. — Found the lizards somewhat 
rarer than on our former visit. I examined the stomachs of 
two females and found that they contained small fragments of 
beetle wings. Hunter reports seeing lizards on the top of the 
mountain, but they are somewhat scarce there. 

Nov. 23, 1905. — Sailed for Daphne Island in the morning. 
There are two islands : one a mere rock which it is impossible 
to land on, the other a crater of a volcano. We landed on 
the crater, and worked up to the top. I saw few lizards on 
the outer slope, but they were common on the bottom of the 
crater, which is a bed of white sand with a few scattered cactus 
plants. Many of the Tropiduri kept in the shelter of the cac- 
tus for protection from the hawks, which we saw sailing over 
the island. Others were caught under lava blocks whither 
they ran when frightened. 

Narborough Island. — Lizards are common, but seem smaller 
than those on the south side of the island. They are more 
abundant near the coast. The females are wilder than the 
males. The dark bodies of the lizards show distinctly against 
the red lava. 

August 22, 1906, Vilamil, Albemarle Island. — Went up with 
our outfit to the hacienda to start up the mountain. The 
weather at this elevation (1300 feet) is constantly rainy and 
foggy, and the prospect of camping is not very pleasant. 
There is nothing visible in the way of reptiles, Tropiduri do 
not seem to go much higher than 200 or 300 feet — the begin- 
ning of the green zone. The country seems very wet for 
them, just as Chatham Island does, and I did not see any as 
far up as the crater, although they occur in the crater itself. 



183 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th See. 

The grassy area commences at about 1500 feet and extends to 
the rim of the crater at 3150 feet. 

General remarks. — While the lizards of these islands are so 
similar that we have been able to find no characters which will 
serve to distinguish them, they nevertheless are not absolutely 
identical. The Indefatigable Island lizards have scales some- 
what larger than those of the James Island specimens. A 
similar average difference probably exists between the hzards 
of Narborough and Albemarle. As may be seen when the 
counts of the scales about the body are plotted, the curves for 
the various islands do not coincide, although their bases over- 
lap. It thus becomes evident that differentiation has begun on 
these islands also, although it still is too intangible to be recog- 
nized in momenclature. 

Conolophus subcristatus (Gray) 
Land Iguana 

Trachycephahis subcristatus Gray^ Cat., p. 188. 

Amblyrhynchus subcristatus Gray^ Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 6, and Zool. 
Beechy's Voyage, Rept, p. 93; Darwin, Journ. Beagle, p. 469. 

Amblyrhynchus demarlii Dum & Bibr., IV, p. 197; Bell, Zool. Beagle, 
Rept, p. 22, pi. XII. 

Hypsilophus {Conolophus) demarlii Fitzinger, Syst. Rept., 1843, p. 55. 

Conolophus subcristatus Steindachner, Festschr. Zool.-Bot. Ges. 
Wien, 1876, p. 322, pis. IV-VII; Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 67; 
BouL, Cat. Lizards, II, p. 187, 1885; Garman, Bull, Essex Inst., XXIV, 
1892, p. 5 (part) ; Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 85. 

Conolophus subcristatus pictus Roth & Hart, Novit, Zool., VI, 1899, 
p. 102. 

Diagnosis. — Rostral once and a half times as broad as 
high; dorsal crest not so high as in C. pallidus; snout less 
pointed; coloration above, yellow on head, neck and fore 
limbs ; red, brown, or olive on back, hind limbs, and tail. 

Distribution. — The land iguana was formerly abundant on 
James, Indefatigable, South Seymour, Albemarle, and Nar- 
borough islands. It now is very rare on Albemarle, and prob- 
ably extinct on James and Indefatigable. 

Material. — A few bones were collected on James. Sixteen 
or eighteen specimens were secured on South Seymour, two 
at Tagus Cove, Albemarle, and twenty-one on Narborough. 

There seem to be no constant differences between the speci- 
mens at hand from these islands. The Narborough iguanas 
have red backs, while the South Seymour ones usually have 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 189 

this region dark olive; but a few from Seymour are colored 
like those from Narborough. 

Variation. — The supralabials are 9 to 13 (Seymour 9-13, 
Narborough 9-13, Albemarle 11), the usual number being 
eleven. The femoral pores are 20 to 27 (Seymour 20-24, 
Narborough 20-27, Albemarle 21-22). The rostral is twice 
as broad as high in thirty-one per cent of the specimens from 
Seymour, seventy-five per cent of those from Narborough, and 
fifty per cent of those from Albemarle; being less than twice 
in all the other specimens. The large spines of the crest 
usually begin nearer the skull in Seymour specimens than in 
those from Narborough. 

Field Notes. — South Seymour Island, Nov. 21, 1905. — 
Land iguanas are common, and are scattered all about, not 
living in colonies like those on Barrington Island. There are 
a few burrows, but most of the iguanas live in the broken 
lava. Some are red like the lava, and others are dark olive 
above. The under surfaces of body and legs are yellow, and 
the head is light yellow. The males here are very large. I 
saw one large male eating on a cactus, and our mate, Mr. 
Nelson, said that one came and drank the blood of a goat he 
had shot. July 26, 1906. — Found iguanas common, the males 
predominating. They have taken on a blackish color now, 
and are not so brilliant as on our former visit. Several stom- 
achs examined were found to contain cactus and the leaves 
of a shrub (Maytenus) which resembles a scrub oak. 

Indefatigable Island, Oct. 25, 1905. — Just back of the beach, 
on the side of the island near Barrington, we found the de- 
serted burrows of what must at one time have been a large 
colony of land iguanas. The species seems now to be extinct 
on this island. 

James Island, July 28, 1906. — No iguanas were seen, but 
I found some bones in a crack in the lava on the coast opposite 
Bartholomew Island. 

Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, March 23, 1906. — Beck re- 
ports seeing about six land iguanas, of which he secured one. 
They are extremely wild. He noticed one very large brightly 
colored male. The one taken was a female in the act of 
shedding its skin. March 24, 1906. — I saw only one iguana 
today. They are very rare; probably only six or eight are 



190 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

left in the colony. Judging from the number of burrows one 
may safely say there were at one time as many as a thousand 
in this colony. The survivors keep well in the brush, and 
when once they start running do not stop until they get into 
a burrow. Mr. Beck found a few more iguanas at the end of 
a valley running along the foothills. April 7, 1906. — King 
and I secured an iguana near the foot of the mountain oppo- 
site Tagus Cove. He evidently was a stray one, as no other 
signs of them were seen so far to the north. They do not, 
however, any longer live in colonies. The one secured was a 
male. He allowed us to approach fairly near, but went fast 
when we chased him, and finally was caught in a hole in the 
lava. He was shedding his skin. 

Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island, April 9, 1906. — Large num- 
bers of deserted iguana burrows were seen all over the level 
country. 

Narborough Island, April 6, 1906. — Land iguanas are com- 
mon. They are brightly colored yellow and red. They live 
in cracks in the lava. No colonies of burrows were observed. 
April 17, 1906. — We made a landing on a slope of cinders 
and lava, over which we climbed to the top and reached a 
plateau with some vegetation and a little soil, the country be- 
ing mostly broken lava of a reddish color. This plateau 
extended about two and a half miles to the base of the moun- 
tain. Here we found iguanas scattered over the lava. They 
were wild and had to be shot. All were of a uniform color, 
males and females, brick reddish body and tail, head bright 
yellow, and lower surfaces light-yellow. A few burrows were 
seen, but most of the iguanas here live in holes in the lava. 
The stomachs of those examined all contained Scalesia, a plant 
growing some two feet high, and scattered abundantly over 
the surrounding country. The females taken had no enlarged 
ovaries, and their breeding season is possibly over. Males 
and females were about equally common. 

Conolophus pallidus Heller 
Barrington Island Land Iguana 

Conolophus subcristatus, Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 77 
(part). 

Conolophus pallidus, Hbxler, Pros. Wash. Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 87. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 191 

Diagnosis. — Rostral not less than twice as broad as high; 
dorsal crest higher than in C. subcristatus; snout more pointed ; 
coloration above clay yellow. 

Type.— Adult female, Stanford University No. 4749. Bar- 
rington Island, Galapagos Archipelago, May 1899. 

Distribution. — Barrington Island. 

Material. — The Academy collection includes twenty-five 
adult specimens in alcohol, and some skins and bones. 

Variation. — The supralabials range from 9 to 11, the usual 
number being eleven. The femoral pores vary from 19 to 25, 
the most frequent numbers being 21 and 22. The rostral is 
not less than twice as broad as high in any specimen. The 
coloration is constantly of the light yellowish type. 

Field Notes.— Oct. 20, 1905.— Anchored on N. E. coast 
of Barrington, and went ashore and a mile inland to 
the iguana colony on a plateau at an elevation of 
about three hundred feet. The ground is composed of soft 
red volcanic dust which is easily dug by the iguanas. The 
burrows resemble those of a ground-squirrel only larger. We 
found the iguanas common here. As a rule they were sitting 
at the mouths of their burrows, and would run in on near 
approach. They were awkward in their movements but cov- 
ered ground at good speed. They lose their heads when 
chased by several persons, and don't make for their burrows, 
but run around and get caught in the brush, where they are 
easily captured by their tails. They are very vicious, seizing 
one another by the jaws and drawing blood. One we caught 
tore the whole lower jaw off another. They are bright buff 
to orange in coloration, the eyes being bright red with round 
black pupil. 

Oct. 23, 1905. Found three or four females containing 
large eggs. The stomachs contained cactus, which grows 
abundantly all over the island. 

Oct. 24, 1905. Found the males rare, not living in the 
colony, but outside in the lava piles. I think I have three 
males altogether. 

July 9, 1906. We found that some of the natives had vis- 
ited the island and cleaned out the entire iguana colony where 
we secured our specimens on our first visit. However, we saw 
a few iguanas scattered about. 



192 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

July 10, 1906. King and I visited the valleys on the north 
coast. We saw numbers of iguanas scattered all about, but 
none in colonies. They are still plentiful on this island, 
despite the visits of the natives, who kill them for food. 

We did not see any young specimens. Ten eggs were 
taken from one female and seven from another. They are 
large, with white, leathery shells. The ten measure 51X77, 
53X77, 54X75, 54X77, 54X79, 54X79, 54X80, 54X82, 56X 
77, and 57X77 mm. Some of the other set measure 50X74, 
51X75, 51X78, 52X78, and 53X73 mm. 

Amblyrhynchus crista tus Bell 

Sea Iguana 

Amblyrhynchus cristatus Bell, Zo'dl. Journ., II, 1825, p. 206, Supl., pi. 
XII, and Zool. Beagle Rept., p. 23 ; Dum & Bibr., IV, 1837, p. 195 ; Dar- 
win, Jour. Beagle, p. 466; A. Dum., Cat. Meth., Rept., p. 62; Steindach- 
NER, Festschr., Zool-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1876, p. 316, pis. Ill, V, VI, VII; 
GiJNTHER, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 67; Boulenger^ Cat. Lizards, II, p. 
185 ; Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 1889, p. 147 ; Carman, Bull. Essex 
Inst., XXIV, 1892, p. 79 (part) ; Heller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., V, 1903, 
p. 89. 

Oreocephalus cristatus Gray, Cat., p. 189, 1845. 

Iguana (Amblyrhynchus) cristatus Gray, Griff. A. K., IX, Syn., p. 37. 

Iguana {Amblyrhynchus) ater Gray, Griff. A. K., IX, Syn., p. 37. 

Amblyrhynchus ater Dum & Bibr., p. 196. 

Hypsilophus (Amblyrhynchus) cristatus Fitzinger, Syst. Rept., 1843, 
p. 55. 

Hypsilophus (Amblyrhynchus) ater Fitzinger, Syst. Rept., 1843, p. 55. 

Amblyrhynchus cristatus var. ater. Garman, Bull. Essex Inst., XXIV, 
1892, p. 8. 

Amblyrhynchus cristatus var. nanus Carman, Bull. Essex Inst., 
XXIV, 1892, p. 80. 

Distribution. — This species is restricted to the Galapagos 
Archipelago, where it has been collected at, or reported from, 
the following islands : Culpepper, Wenman, Abingdon, Bind- 
loe, Tower, Chatham, Hood, Gardner-near-Hood, Charles, 
Champion, Enderby, Barrington, Indefatigable, South Sey- 
mour, Daphne, James, Jervis, Duncan, Brattle, Narborough, 
and on Albemarle at Bank's Bay, Tagus Cove, and Iguana 
Cove. 

Material. — The present collection includes some one hun- 
dred and eighty specimens, from Culpepper, Wenman, Abing- 
don, Bindloe, Tower, Chatham, Hood, Champion, Indefati- 
gable, James, Jervis, Brattle, Narborough islands, and Iguana 
and Tagus coves on Albemarle Island. 

General remarks. — Careful comparison of the considerable 
number of specimens at hand has revealed no constant differ- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENB URGH—SLEVIN—GALAPAGOAN LIZARDS 193 

ences between those from the various islands. The sea 
iguanas of Tower and of Duncan islands have been given 
separate names by some authors, but we are unable to regard 
them as distinct. Even the iguanas of widely separated 
islands, such as Culpepper and Hood, seem not to differ upon 
direct comparison. 

Variation. — The femoral pores vary from twenty to thirty- 
one. In all (7) specimens from Culpepper Island the mental 
separates the infralabials. This same conditions is found in 
three out of seven from Wenman Island, in twenty-seven out 
of forty-four from Hood Island, in twenty-three out of 
twenty-seven from Bindloe Island, in six out of eight from 
Albemarle Island, in all (6) from Indefatigable Island, in 
four out of five from Jervis Island, in twenty-nine out of 
thirty-eight from Abingdon Island, in five out of six from 
Brattle Island, in one from Champion Island, two from James 
Island, one from Chatham Island, and four from Narborough 
Island. 

Field notes. — Hood Island, Feb. 5, 1906. The iguanas 
now are very brightly colored — green, red, and black. They 
are common on the coast, and are seen lying close to the 
water, their long claws enabling them to hang on to the rocks 
in spite of the strong wash of heavy surf which breaks over 
them. I saw none swimming or feeding today, in fact one 
seldom sees them in the water. They lie in the sun on the 
rocks, and never make for the water when pursued, but run 
along the rocks and get into crevices. 

Gardner-near-Hood, Oct. 1, 1905. Found sea iguanas com- 
mon on Gardner. At low tide, they feed on the green sea- 
weed which covers the rocks, while at high tide the}^ take to 
the higher places and lie in the sun. 

Charles Island. No sea iguanas were seen by any of the 
party. 

Chatham Island, Feb. 16, 1906. Sea iguanas are very rare 
on this island, where the natives formerly ate them and even 
their eggs. Ochsner reports seeing about three in the vicinity 
of Finger Point, and King secured one. 

Barrington Island, Oct. 23, 1905. I saw only two sea 
iguanas, and tried to catch one but failed. The other was on 
a small rock a few hundred yards off the main island. 



194 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island, April 5, 1906. Sea iguanas 
are common on the rocks, and can be seen feeding on the sea- 
weed at low tide. They eat with the sides of their mouths, 
much as a dog would chew a bone. 

Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island, April 9, 1906. Sea iguanas 
were abundant along the rocks. I saw none brightly colored 
like those on Hood Island. None of the females had enlarged 
ovaries, so the breeding season probably is over. I saw a 
great many nests in the sand. These were little hollows about 
a foot in dfameter and six inches deep, sloping to a point at 
the bottom. I could find no eggs. I saw iguanas here in the 
water more than at any other place. They swim like our 
water-dogs, (Diemictylus) with the legs carried close to the 
body, and propelling themselves by sinuous movements of the 
body and tail. The head and crest to the middle of the body 
can be seen above the water. 



196 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII 

Chart of the counts of scales around the middle of the body in Tropi- 
Each dot represents the count on one specimen. In the counts 
from each island, or locality, the males are represented on the upper line, 
the females on the lower line. The crosses represent the extreme counts 
given by previous authors. 



Prdc CalAead. Sci. 4™ S; 
^-9 jr/ J. 



Narborough 

Bank's Bay 

Tagus Cove 

Cowley Mt. 

Iguana Cove 

Viiamil 

Cowley Island 

Biattle 

Charles 

Gardner 

Enderby 

Champion 

Hood 

Gardner 

Chatham 

Barrington 

Indefatigable 

Daphne 

S. Seymour 

Duncan 

fervis 

James 

Bindloe 

Abingdon 



r—\ t :•••■■' 

» \ i I \ 

\ \ f I ; 



Denburghand Slevlm] Plate A/III 
93 fA- 9^ f? y^, yo3 

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lit t t 



ProcCalAcad.Sci4-''Ser.VdlI1Pt.: 



[VanDenburgh; 






Narborougli 

Bank's Bay 

Tagus Cove 

Cowley Mi. 

Iguana Cove 

Vilamil 

Cowley Island 

Biattle 

Charles 

Gardner 

Enderby 

Champion 

Hood 

Gardner 

Chatham 

Barringlon 

Indelatigable 

Daphne 

S. Seymour 

Duncan 

lemii 

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198 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX 

Chart of the counts of scales in the crest in Tropidurus. Each dot 
represents the count on one specimen. In the counts from each island, or 
locality, the males are represented on the upper line, the females on the 
lower. 



Prdc CAL.ACAD. Bei 4™ Ser.Vd: 



^"^ ^^ ■ •^*' ■ 



Narborough 
Bank's Bay 
Tagus Cove 
CowleySMt. 
Iguana Cove 
Vilamil 
Cowley Island 
Brattle 
Charles 
Gardner 

Enderby 

Champion 

Hood 

Gardner 

Chatham 

Barrington 

Indefatigable 

Daphne 

S. Seymour 

Duncan 

Jervis 

James 

Bindloe 

Abingdon 



'4U.4- 



a 



•j M » 

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PR DC CalAcad. Be I 4™ Ser. Vol II Pt.1 , 



[ i/ANDENBURGHANDSLEVIN] PLATE K 



■ii^ 



^ — fc£ — tiL i^c yr ^^ s^ ^y. ^^ ^^ gj g^ 



Narborough 
Banlt's Bay 
Tagus Cove 
CowleyJMl. 
Iguana Cove 
Vil.mil 

Cowley Island 
Bratlle 
Charles 

Gardner 

Enderby 

Champion 

Hood 

Gardner 

Chatham 

Barrington 

Indelatigable 

Daphne 

S- Seymour 

Duncan 

Jetvii 

J>me« 

Bindloe 

•'^''iogdon 



JUL- 



ty C6 



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200 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Chart of the counts of scales along the belly in Tropidurus. Each dot 
represents the count on one specimen. In the counts from each island, or 
locality, the males are represented on the upper line, the females on the 
lower. 



Prdc CalAcad 



S£ 



Narborough 

Bank's Bay 

Tagus Cove 

Cowley Mt. 

Iguana Cove 

Vilamil 

Covtrley Island 

Brattle 

Charles 

Gardner 

Enderby 

Champion 

Hood 

Gardner 

Chatham 

Barrington 

Indefatigable 

Daphne 

S. Seymour 

Duncan 

Jervis 

James 

Bindloe 

Abingdon 






i-1 



i... 



L. 



I... 



Prdc CalAcad Bci 4"™ Ser. Vdl II Pt.I . 



[VanDenburghand Slevin] Plate X 



Narbotough 

Banff Bay 

Tagui Cove 

Cowley Mt. 

Iguana Cove 

Vilamil *■ 

Cowley Island 

Brattle 

Charles 

a 

Gardner 

Enderby | 

Champion 

Hood I 

Catdnet 

I 
) 

Chiihtm } 

Btrrington 

ludeitligsble 

Daphne 

S- Seymour 

IXinciB 

Jaifia 

Junea 

Biadloc 



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202 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI 

Chart of counts of scales around the middle of the body in one hun- 
dred specimens each from : 

A. — Indefatigable and South Seymour islands. 

B. — James Island. 

C. — Narborough Island. 

D. — Albemarle Island. 



Prdc CalAcad Sci 4"™ Ber.Vdl.IIPt.I. 



[Van Denburgh AND Slevin] Plate XI 



s-o r/ J'^ r4 ^fc j-r 4-e. ^7 ^-/ V? ^O 6/ 6J. 6s 6f^ 66 



••••— +• ;....*.—.i — •■' 



..'i— i- ;.— 4"-4—i-4 \ 



••» • ♦■■•.-• 




PROCEEDINGS 

OP THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Voi,. II, Pt. I, pp. 203-374, pis. 12-124 September 30, 1914 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS J905-J906 

X 

THE GIGANTIC LAND TORTOISES OF THE GALAPAGOS 
ARCHIPELAGO 

BY JOHN VAN DENBURGH 

Curator of the Department of Herpetology 
CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction 206 

Gigantic Land Tortoises^ Fossil and Recfnt 206 

Indian Ocean Races 206 

Galapagoan Races 209 

Early History 209 

First Discovery, 1535 209 

Cowley, 1684 210 

Dampier, 1684 210 

Rogers, 1708 211 

Clipperton, 1720 211 

Colnett, 1793 212 

Delano, 1800 212 

Porter, 1813 215 

Hall, 1822 219 

Morrell, 1823 219 

First Settlement, 1832 219 

Downes, 1833 220 



September 30, 1914. 



Ay;. , ... ,cMu^ 



204 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

Later Visits 220 

Darwin, 1835 220 

"Venus," 1838 226 

"Herald," 1846 226 

"Eugenie," 1852 226 

Dr. Habel, 1868 226 

Hassler, 1872 226 

Cookson, 1875 226 

"Challenger," 1875 228 

"Albatross," 1888 and 1891 228 

Baur and Adams. 1891 228 

Webster-Harris, 1897 228 

Snodgrass and Heller, 1898-1899. 234 

Captain Noyes, 1900 237 

Beck, 1901 and 1902 237 

Academy Expedition, 1905-1906 241 

Present Status 243 

Number of Races 243 

Living 243 

Extinct 243 

Systematic Account 244 

1. Nomenclature 244 

Names proposed 244 

Discussion of names 244 

Testudo nigra 244 

calif omiana 245 

elephantopu's 245 

nigrita 249 

planiceps 251 

ephippium 251 

microphyes 252 

vicina 253 

galapagoensis 255 

gUntheri 256 

wallacei 257 

Application of names 259 

2. Description 259 

Characters available for classification 259 

The shell 259 

Variation in plates 260 

Variation in shape -- 289 

Measurements used - 289 

Charts of each measurement 289 

Table of averages 289 

extremes 289 

Differences with age 289 

sex 289 

distribution 290 



V«i,. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 205 

The head, neck and limbs 291 

Variation in proportions 291 

color 291 

Osteological 292 

Key to the Galapagoan Races 293 

Description of each Race 295 

The gaddle-backed Races 295 

1. Testudo abingdoni; Abingdon 295 

2. phantastica; Narborough 299 

3. becki; North Albemarle 302 

4. ephippium ; Duncan 305 

5. hoodensis; Hood 312 

6. elephantopus ; Charles 316 

The Intermediate Races 319 

7. Testudo darwini; James 319 

8. Chatham ensis ; Chatham 323 

9. microphyes; Albemarle 3^ 

10. giintheri; S. E. Albemarle 335 

11. vicina; South Albemarle 344 

12. wallacei; Jervis 351 

The Dome-shaped Races 354 

13. Testudo porteri; Indefatigable 354 

14. species ? ; Cowley Mountain, Albemarle 362 
The Unknown Race 365 

15. Testudo species ?; Barrington 365 

General Conclusions 366 

Bibliography 369 



2Q6 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The gigantic land tortoises do not differ essentially, in any- 
other respect than in size, from the numerous small species 
of the genus Testudo which exist in Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
the Western Hemisphere. They are typical chelonians, modi- 
fied, as are the other members of the genus, for a purely ter- 
restrial life, but differing from the ordinary type in their 
gigantic proportions. Even in size, however, there is no very 
sharp line of division between the smallest adults of some 
"gigantic" races and the largest individuals of certain species 
that are not so designated. 

The geological history of the gigantic tortoises is still but 
fragmentary. We know that in the Tertiary period they were 
far more widely distributed than during historic times. Their 
remains appear as early as the Eocene, but become more num- 
erous in Miocene and Pliocene formations. They have been 
found in Nebraska and Wyoming, in France, Germany, Malta, 
on the Lebanon, in the Sivalik Hills in India, and perhaps 
also in Brazil. It thus appears that these huge tortoises were 
formerly widely distributed over the earth ; but it yet remains 
to be shown whether these giant races are closely related one 
to another, or have been independently developed from smaller 
species in situations where climate and food and the absence 
of enemies were most favorable to their growth. 

In recent and historic times gigantic land tortoises have 
existed only in certain isolated groups of islands in the Indian 
and Pacific oceans, where the early explorers found them in 
almost incredible numbers. The rapidity with which they 
have disappeared from these islands upon the advent of man, 
and even upon the advent of the smaller predatory mammals, 
sufficiently explains their earlier extinction upon all the con- 
tinents where they formerly occurred. 

Although this paper will be immediately concerned only 
with the tortoises native to the Galapagos Archipelago, in the 
eastern Pacific, it will be well to review the history and distri- 
bution of the tortoises of the islands of the Indian Ocean. I 
therefore quote a few paragraphs from Dr. Giinther's excel- 
lent presidential address to the Linnean Society (1898). 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES £07 

"The historical evidence of their existence in Madagascar is 
extremely scanty and vague. They had been cleared off from 
the inhabited parts of the island at the time when the first 
Europeans landed. If any of them had existed near the dis- 
tricts occupied by the French settlers of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, they would have been mentioned in some of the reports 
on the natural productions of the country which these people 
sent home. But their osseous remains, some in very perfect 
condition and of comparatively recent appearance, show that 
these animals were at one time widely spread over the island; 
they are often found associated with bones of ^pyornithes. 
Hippopotamus, cattle, and belong to two or three species. 
Their extermination probably began with the arrival of man 
in Madagascar; and it is highly improbable, though by no 
means impossible, that some individuals have survived and 
still linger in the vast tracts of country which are still unex- 
plored. 

"Very different were the conditions of life in the islands 
which are scattered over the ocean in a semi-circle round the 
north of Madagascar. With the exception of the Comoro 
group, none of these islands were inhabited by man or large 
mammals. Consequently the tortoises lived there in absolute 
security for ages, and multiplied to a degree which excited the 
admiration of all the early European visitors. They occupied 
in incredible numbers not only the larger islands of the Aldabra 
group, the Seychelles, Reunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez, but also 
the small ones with an area of a few square miles only, and with 
their highest points raised scarcely 100 feet above the level of 
the water, provided that the coral soil produced a sufficient 
amount of vegetation to supply them with food and shelter 
from the sun. Of this we have not only the testimony of trust- 
worthy voyagers of the last two centuries, but the direct evi- 
dence of remains which accident now and then brings to the 
surface. A short time ago I received from my friend, Dr. 
Bruce, a resident at Mahe, to whom many a naturalist is 
indebted for assistance and hospitality, the well-preserved egg- 
shells of a gigantic land tortoise, imbedded in a conglomer- 
ated mass of coral-sand. They came from a small island of the 
Amirante group, on which Dr. Bruce fonned a plantation of 
Cocoanut-palms, and on which no tortoise had ever been known 



208 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



to live. In order to secure the moisture requisite for germina- 
tion and the growth of the seedling, it was necessary to plant 
the nuts in pits dug through loose sand to a depth of about 
three feet, and then through a crust of solidified coral-sand of 
one foot thickness. It was below this crust that the eggs were 
found, showing that probably centuries had elapsed since the 
eggs were deposited, and indicating at the same time that we 
shall have to go below the surface, if we want to become 
acquainted with the extinct autochthont races of these 
islands. 

"The sad history of the extermination of the Mascarene tor- 
toises is so well known that I may dispense with a repetition of 
its details. I will only allude to some facts with which I have 
become recently acquainted. The tortoises, as you know, have 
proved excellent and more wholesome food than the turtles. 
Therefore every passing ship stowed away for her long voyage 
as many as she could carry. With the increase of the popula- 
tion of the settlements, augmented by military and naval forces, 
the indigenous supply was rapidly exhausted ; it was then sup- 
plemented by importation from other islands; and we can 
form an idea of the extent to which this inter-insular transport 
was carried from official reports to the French Indian Company. 
In 1759 four small vessels were especially appointed for the 
service of bringing tortoises from Rodriguez to Mauritius ; one 
vessel carried a cargo of 6000; and altogether more than 
30,000 were imported into Mauritius within the space of 
eighteen months. 

"The result of this prodigality was that, at the beginning of 
our century, the tortoises had been pretty well swept off the 
whole of the islands in the Indian Ocean, so that at the present 
time only one spot remains where they have survived in a wild 
state, viz., the south island of the Aldabran atoll. Although 
only 18 miles long and about one mile wide, it offers by its 
rugged, deeply fissured surface, which is overgrown with 
impenetrable bush, a safe retreat to the small number of the 
survivors, Aldabra has never been inhabited, and only 
within recent years a station has been established on it for a 
few men who are engaged in industrial pursuits for the lessee, 
who rents the island from the Mauritian Government." 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 209 

Turning now to the islands of the Pacific Ocean we find evi- 
dence of the natural existence of land tortoises only in the 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

The Galapagos Islands form a fairly compact group lying 
under the equator, some five or six hundred miles west of the 
coast of Ecuador. There are some twenty-four named islands, 
and numerous islets and rocks. The principal islands are Albe- 
marle, Indefatigable, Narborough, James, Chatham, Charles, 
Hood, Bindloe, Abingdon, Barrington, Duncan, Tower and 
Jervis. All are volcanic. There are said to be at least two 
thousand craters, some of which, on the larger islands, are of 
immense size, rising to a height of from three to four thousand 
feet. A terrific eruption occurred on Narborough in 1825, but 
no great volcanic activity has been reported in any of the 
craters since 1835. 

"Considering that these islands are placed directly under 
the equator, the climate is far from being excessively hot ; this 
seems chiefly caused by the singularly low temperature of the 
surrounding water brought here by the great southern polar 
current. Excepting during one short season, very little rain 
falls, and even then it is irregular; but the clouds generally 
hang low. Hence, while the lower parts of the islands are 
very sterile, the upper parts, at a height of a thousand feet 
and upward, possess a damp climate and a tolerably luxuriant 
vegetation. This is especially the case on the windward sides 
of the islands, which first receive and condense the moisture 
from the atmosphere." 

There is some uncertainty as to who first discovered the 
Galapagos Islands. Some historians think it possible that 
they may have been visited by the Inca, Tupac Yupangi, grand- 
father of the Inca, Atahualpa, whom Pizarro put to death. 
But however this may have been, there were no signs of human 
habitation when the islands were discovered by Europeans in 
the sixteenth century. The credit for this discovery, which is 
said to have occurred on the 10th of March, 1535, has been 
given to the Spaniard, Fray Tomas de Berlanga. The early 
Spanish visitors found these islands occupied by tortoises in 
such numbers that they applied to the group the Spanish term 
for these creatures, — Galapagos. 



21Q CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

During the latter part of the seventeenth, the eighteenth, 
and the earHer part of the nineteenth centuries, the Galapagos 
Islands were visited at more or less frequent intervals by buc- 
caneers, whalers, adventurers, war-vessels, and others, in 
search, often, of water and a supply of tortoises for food. To 
these visits are due the earlier accounts of the tortoises of 
these islands, as well as the specimens which, finding their way 
into museums, have served as a basis for the original descrip- 
tions of many species. It is difficult for us in these days of 
rapid travel, when vessels are supplied with an endless variety 
of canned foods, to appreciate the interest which the early 
navigators, on their long, slow voyages, had in these animals, 
which were easy of capture, could be stowed in numbers in 
the hold of a vessel, kept for months without food, and were 
used as needed to furnish an abundance of fresh meat. When 
we are told that single vessels took on board at one time three 
or four hundred tortoises, we cannot wonder that the number 
remaining on the islands was rapidly reduced. 

It was especially toward the end of the seventeenth century 
that the Galapagos Islands were visted by buccaneers. Their 
accounts have been quoted by Baur and Giinther. Cowley, Wa- 
fer, and Dampier have given accounts of these visits, and Cow- 
ley published a map of the islands. The first visit, by Cowley, 
Cooke, Dampier, and Edward Davis, was in 1684. Davis, 
Wafer, Knight and Harris were there again the next year, and 
in 1687 Davis and Wafer made a third visit. 

It is to Dampier that we owe the first account of the land 
tortoises. He visited the Galapagos Islands several times, and 
in his New Voyage Round the World, published in 1697, 
tells us : 

"The land-turtles are so numerous that five or six hundred 
men might subsist on them alone for several months, without 
any other sort of provision. They are extraordinary large 
and fat, and so sweet that no pullet eats more pleasantly. One 
of the largest of these creatures will weigh 150 or 200 weight, 
and some of them are two foot, or two foot six inches, over the 
callapee or belly." 

In a later edition of his Voyages Dampier states : 

"The oil saved from them was kept in jars, and used instead 
of butter to eat with dough-boys or dumplings. We lay here 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 211 

feeding sometimes on land-turtle, sometimes on sea-turtle, thc-e 
being plenty of either sort ; but the land-turtle, as they exceed 
in sweetness, so do they in numbers; it is incredible to report 
how numerous they are." 

The French Captain, de Beauchesne, visited these islands in 
June, 1700, but his account is said to add nothing to the his- 
tory of the land tortoises. 

The best of the earlier accounts of the tortoises is that of 
Woodes Rogers, who was in the Galapagos Archipelago in Sep- 
tember, 1 707. I quote as follows : 

"Some of the largest of the land-turtles are about 100 pounds 
weight, and those of the sea upwards of 400. The land-turtles 
laid eggs on our deck. Our men brought some from the shore 
about the bigness of a goose egg, white, with a large big shell, 
exactly round. The creatures are the ugliest in Nature, the 
shell not unlike the top of an old hackney-coach, as black as jet ; 
and so is the outside skin, but shriveled and very rough. The 
legs and necks are very long, and about the bigness of a man's 
wrist; and they have club-feet, as big as one's fist, shaped 
much like those of an elephant, with five thick nails on the 
fore-foot and but four behind, and the head little, and visage 
small like snakes, and look very old and bleak. When at first 
surprised they shrink their neck, head, and legs under their 
shell. Two of our men, with Lieutenant Stratton and the 
trumpeter of the Duchess, affirm they saw vast large ones of 
this sort, about four feet high. They mounted two men on 
the back of one of them, which, with its usual slow pace, car- 
ried them and never regarded the weight. They supposed this 
could not weigh less than 700 pounds. I do not affect giving 
relations of strange creatures so frequently done by others; 
but when an uncommon creature falls in my way, I cannot 
omit it. The Spaniards tell us, they know of none elsewhere in 
these seas, but they are common in Brazil." 

Different islands were visited by Rogers. He continues : 

"I saw no sort of beast, but there are guanos [iguanas] in 
abundance, and land-turtles almost on every island. It is 
strange how the latter got here, because they cannot come of 
themselves, and none of that sort are found on the main." 

In 1720, Clipperton was for ten days in these islands. Van- 
couver, who determined the position of some in 1795, did not 
go to land. 



212 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 



Captain James Colnett, whose Voyage to the South Atlantic 
was published in 1798, surveyed the Galapagos Archipelago in 
1793. He was the first to mention the presence of tortoises on 
Abingdon Island. 

Amasa Delano first visited the Galapagos Islands in 1800 
but returned there later. He reports tortoises still abundant 
on Hood, Charles, James, and Albemarle islands. In his Nar- 
rative of Voyages and Travels, published in Boston in 1817, 
with a second edition in 1818, he says : 

"The terrapin, or, as it is sometimes called, the land tortoise, 
that is found here, is by far the largest, best, and most numer- 
ous of any place I have ever visited. Some of the largest 
weigh three or four hundred pounds, but their common size is 
between fifty and one hundred pounds. They have a very long 
neck, which, together with their head, has a very disagreeable 
appearance, very much resembling a large serpent. I have 
seen them with necks between two and three feet long, and 
when they saw anything that was new to them, or met each 
other, they would raise their heads as high as they could, 
their necks being nearly vertical, and advance with their mouths 
wide open, appearing to be the most spiteful of any reptile 
whatever ; sometimes two of them would come up to each other 
in that manner, so near as almost to touch, and stand in that 
position for two or three minutes, appearing so angry that 
their mouths, heads, and necks appeared to quiver with pas- 
sion ; when by the least touch of a stick against their necks or 
heads, they would sink back in an instant, and draw their 
necks, heads, and legs into their shells. This is the only quick 
motion I ever saw them perform. I was put in the same kind 
of fear that is felt at the sight or near approach of a snake at 
the first one I saw, which was very large. I was alone at the 
time, and he stretched himself as high as he could, opened 
his mouth, and advanced toward me. His body was raised 
more than a foot from the ground, his head turned forward in 
the manner of a snake in the act of biting, and raised two feet 
and a half above his body. I had a musket in my hand at the 
time, and when he advanced near enough to reach him with it, 
I held the muzzle out so that he hit his neck against it, at 
the touch of which he dropped himself upon the ground and 
instantly secured all his limbs within his shell. They are per- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 213 

fectly harmless, as much so as any animal I know of, notwith- 
standing their threatening appearance. They have no teeth, 
and of course cannot bite very hard. They take their food into 
their mouths by the assistance of the sharp edge of the upper 
and under jaw, which shut together one a little within the 
other, so as to nip grass, or any flowers, berries, or shrubbery, 
the only food they eat. 

"Those who have seen the elephant have seen the exact 
resemblance of the leg and foot of a terrapin. I have thought 
that I could discover some faint resemblance to that animal in 
sagacity. They are very prudent in taking care of themselves 
and their eggs, and in their manner of securing them in their 
nests; and I have observed on board my own ship, as well as 
on others, that they can easily be taught to go to any place on 
the deck which may be fixed for them to be constantly kept in. 
The method to effect this is by whipping them with a small 
line when they are out of place, and to take them up and carry 
them to the place arranged for them, which being repeated a 
few times will bring them into the practice of going themselves, 
by being whipped when they are out of their place. They can 
be taught to eat on board a ship as well as a sheep or a goat, 
and will live for a long time if there is proper food provided 
for them. This I always took care to do when in a place where 
I could procure it. The most suitable to take on board a ship is 
prickly pear-trees, the trunk of which is a soft, pithy sub- 
stance, of a sweetish taste, and full of juice. Sometimes I pro- 
cured grass for them. Either of these being strewed on the 
quarter-deck, the pear-tree being cut fine, would immediately 
entice them to come from all parts of the deck to it; and they 
would eat in their way as well as any domestic animal. I have 
known them to live several months without food; but they 
always in that case grow lighter and their fat diminishes, as 
common sense teaches, notwithstanding some writers have 
asserted the contrary. If food will fatten animals, to go 
without it will make them lean. 

"I carried at one time from James Island three hundred 
very good terrapins to the island of Massa Fuero, and there 
landed more than one-half of them, after having them sixty 
days on board my ship. Half of the number landed died as 
soon as they took food. This was owing to the stomachs 



214 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



having got so weak and out of tone that they could not digest 
it. As soon as they eat any grass after landing they would 
froth at the mouth, and appeared to be in a state of insanity, 
and died in the course of a day or two. This satisfied me that 
they were in some degree like other animals, and only differed 
from them by being slower in their motions, and that it takes a 
longer time to produce an effect upon their system than upon 
that of other creatures. Those that survived the shock which 
was occasioned by this sudden transition from total abstinence 
to that of abundance, soon became tranquil, and appeared to 
be as healthy and as contented with the climate as when they 
were at their native place, and they would probably have lived 
as long had they not been killed for food. Their flesh, 
without exception, is of a sweet and pleasant flavor as any that 
I ever ate. It was common to take out of one of them ten or 
twelve pounds of fat when they were opened, besides what was 
necessary to cook them with. This was as yellow as our best 
butter, and of a sweeter flavor than hog's lard. They are the 
slowest in their motions of any animal I ever saw except the 
sloth. They are remarkable for their strength; one of them 
would bear a man's weight on his back and walk with him. 
I have seen them at one or two other places only. One instance 
was those brought from Madagascar to the Isle of France, but 
they were far inferior in size, had longer legs, and were much 
more ugly in looks than those of the Galapagos Islands. I 
think I have likewise seen them at some of the Oriental Islands 
which I visited. 

"I have been more particular in describing the terrapin than 
I otherwise should have been, had it not been for the many 
vague accounts given of it by some writers, and the incorrect 
statements made of the country in which it is to be found. The 
frequent political comparisons and allusions which have been 
made by our public papers and orators to this animal, may 
have led the people of this country into incorrect notions con- 
cerning them. It has been publicly said that terrapins are 
common to China, which I am confident is incorrect; for I 
have carried them to Canton at two different times, and every 
Chinese who came on board my ship was particularly curious 
in inspecting and asking questions about them, and not one, I 
am positive, had any knowledge of the animal before." 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 215 

During the War of 1812, Captain, afterward Admiral, 
Porter of the United States navy, spent some time in the 
Galapagos Archipelago. He has given, in his Journal of a 
Cruise Made to the Pacific Coast, the most complete of the 
earlier accounts of these tortoises. It was he who first called 
attention to differences existing between the tortoises of the 
different islands. Tortoises were found in greater or less 
abundance in all the larger islands of the group which he 
visited, viz. : Hood, Marlborough, James, Charles, and Inde- 
fatigable (Porter's) islands. On Chatham Island, where he 
made a short stay, a few of their shells and bones were seen, 
but they appeared to have been long dead; and on Albemarle 
Island, the largest of the group, none was observed by him, 
evidently because he landed here only a few hours on the south- 
western point. Abingdon, Bindloe, Downe, and Barrington 
islands were not visited by him. Some of the tortoises cap- 
tured weighed from 300 to 400 pounds. On Indefatigable 
Island land tortoises were in the greatest abundance, of an 
enormous size, one of which measured five feet and a half long, 
four feet and a half wide, and three feet thick, and others were 
found by some of the seamen of larger size. On Hood Island 
he obtained tortoises in great numbers. On another visit he 
could not procure more than fifty tortoises, and they were 
small, but "of a quality far superior to those found on James 
Island." In regard to Charles Island he says : 

"It abounds with tortoises, which frequent the springs for 
the sake of the water, and upwards of thirty of them were 
turned on their backs by us, as they came down to drink, 
during the short time we remained there, which was not more 
than an hour and a half. But we were enabled to bring down 
only one, and he was selected more for his antiquated appear- 
ance than for his size or supposed excellence. His weight was 
exactly one hundred and ninety-seven pounds, but he was far 
from being considered a large size. Later, between four and 
five hundred were taken on board. They were brought the dis- 
tance of from three to four miles, through thorns and over 
sharp rocks, yet it was no uncommon thing for them to make 
three and four trips a day, each with tortoises weighing from 
fifty to a hundred weight. 



216 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seu. 

"Although the parties in this employment (which were 
selected every day, to give all an opportunity of going on 
shore), indulged themselves in the most ample manner on tor- 
toise meat (which for them was called Galapagos mutton), 
yet their relish for this food did not seem in the least abated, 
nor their exertions to get them on board in the least relaxed, 
for everyone appeared desirous of securing as large a stock of 
this provision as possible for the cruise." 

Two vessels captured by Porter — "had been in at James 
Island, and had supplied themselves abundantly with these 
extraordinary animals, the tortoises of the Galapagos, which 
properly deserve the name of the elephant tortoise. Many of 
them were of a size to weigh upwards of three hundred 
weight. Numbers of them had been thrown overboard by the 
crews of the vessels before their capture, to clear them for 
action. A few days afterwards, at daylight in the morning, we 
were so fortunate as to find ourselves surrounded by about 
fifty of them, which were picked up and brought on board, as 
they had been lying in the same place where they had been 
thrown over, incapable of any exertion in that element, except 
that of stretching out their long necks." 

Two other English vessels captured later, had been only a 
few days from James Island. Porter — "found on board them 
eight hundred tortoises of a very large size, and sufficient to 
furnish all the ships with fresh provisions for one month." 

At another time Porter laid in a very large stock of tor- 
toises from James Island. 

"Four boats were dispatched every morning for this pur- 
pose, and returned at night, bringing with them twenty to 
thirty each, averaging sixty pounds. In four days we had as 
many on board as would weigh about fourteen tons, which 
was as much as we could conveniently stow. They were piled 
up on the quarter-deck for a few days, with an awning spread 
over to shield them from the sun, which renders them very 
restless, in order that they might have time to discharge the 
contents of their stomachs ; after which they were stowed away 
below, as you would stow any other provisions, and used as 
occasion required. No description of stock is so convenient for 
ships to take to sea as the tortoises of these islands. They 
require no provisions or water for a year, nor is any farther 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 217 

attention to them necessary, than that their shells should be 
preserved unbroken. * * * x^g most of those we took 
on board were found near a bay on the northeast part of the 
Island, about eighteen miles from the ship. Among the whole 
only three were male, which may be easily known by their 
great size, and from the length of their tails, which are much 
longer than those of the females. As the females were found 
in low sandy bottoms, and all without exception were full of 
eggs, of which generally from ten to fourteen were hard, it is 
presumable that they came down from the mountains for the 
express purpose of laying. This opinion seems strengthened 
by the circumstance of there being no male tortoises among 
them, the few we found having been taken a considerable dis- 
tance up the mountains. One remarkable peculiarity in this 
animal is, that the blood is cold, I shall leave it to those better 
acquainted with natural history to investigate the cause of a 
circumstance so extraordinary, my business is to state facts, 
not to reason from them. 

"Nothing, perhaps, can be more disagreeable or clumsy than 
they are in their external appearance. Their motion resembles 
strongly that of the elephant; their steps slow, regular and 
heavy, they carry their body about a foot from the ground, 
and their legs and feet bears no slight resemblance to the 
animal to which I have likened them; their neck is from 
eighteen inches to two feet in length, and very slender; their 
head is proportioned to it, and strongly resembles that of a 
serpent. But, hideous and disgusting as is their appearance, no 
animal can possibly afford a more wholesome, luscious and 
delicate food than they do; the finest green-turtle is no more 
to compare to them in point of excellence than the coarsest beef 
is to the finest veal ; and after once tasting the Galapagos tor- 
toises, every other animal food fell greatly in our estimation. 
These animals are so fat as to require neither butter nor lard 
to cook them, and their fat does not possess that cloying quality, 
common to that of most other animals. When fried out, it 
furnishes an oil superior in taste to that of the olive. The 
meat of this animal is the easiest of digestion, and a quantity 
of it exceeding that of any other food, can be eaten without 
experiencing the slightest inconvenience. But what seems the 
most extraordinary in this animal, is the length of time that it 



228 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

can exist. without food; for I have been well assured that they 
have been piled away among the casks in the hold of a ship, 
where they have been kept eighteen months, and when killed 
at the expiration of that time, were found to have suffered no 
diminution in fatness or excellence. They carry with them a 
constant supply of water, in a bag at the root of the neck, 
which contains about two gallons, and on testing that found in 
those we killed on board, it proved perfectly fresh and sweet. 
They are very restless when exposed to the light and heat of 
the sun, but will lie in the dark from one year's end to the 
other without moving. In the daytime, they appear remark- 
ably quick-sighted and timid, drawing their head into their 
shell on the slightest motion of any object; but they are 
entirely destitute of hearing, as the loudest noise, even the 
firing of a gun, does not seem to alarm them in the slightest 
degree, and at night or in the dark they appear perfectly 
blind. * * * 'pj^e shells of those of James Island are 
sometimes remarkably thin and easily broken, but more par- 
ticularly so as they become advanced in age; when, whether 
owing to the injuries they receive from their repeated falls in 
ascending and descending the mountain, or from injuries 
received otherwise, or from the course of nature, their shells 
become very rough, and peel off in large scales, which renders 
them very thin and easily broken. Those of James Island 
appear to be a species entirely distinct from those of Hood 
and Charles islands. The form of the shell of the latter is 
elongated, turning up forward in the manner of a Spanish 
saddle, of a brown color and of considerable thickness. They 
are very disagreeable to the sight, but far superior to those of 
James Island in point of fatness, and their livers are consid- 
ered the greatest delicacy. Those of James Island are round, 
plump, and black as ebony, some of them handsome to the eye, 
but their liver is black, hard when cooked, and the flesh alto- 
gether not so highly esteemed as the others. * * * [The 
tortoises of Hood's Island] were of a quality far superior to 
those found on James Island. They were similar in appearance 
to those of Charles Island, very fat and delicious." 

Porter proceeded, after his cruise round the Galapagos, to 
the Marquesas Islands, making a prolonged stay at Madison 
[Rotumah] Island, where he "distributed from his stock sev- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 219 

eral young tortoises among the chiefs, and permitted a great 
many to escape into the bushes and among the grass." 

Captain Basil Hall found tortoises plentiful on Abingdon 
Island in January, 1822. 

Captain Benjamin Morrell, in 1823 and again in 1825, 
hunted fur-seals in the Galapagos Archipelago, taking some 
five thousand skins in about two months. He states that tor- 
toises "grow to even a greater size than that mentioned by 
Commodore Porter, as I have seen some that would weigh from 
six to eight hundred pounds. They are excellent food, and 
have no doubt saved the lives of thousands of seamen employed 
in the whale-fishing in those seas, both American and English- 
men. I have known whale-ships to take from six to nine 
hundred of the smallest size of these tortoises on board when 
about leaving the islands for their cruising grounds ; thus pro- 
viding themselves with provisions for six or eight months, and 
securing the men against the scurvy. I have had these animals 
on board my own vessels from five to six months without their 
once taking food or water; and on killing them I have found 
more than a quart of sweet fresh water in the receptacle which 
nature has furnished them for that purpose, while their flesh 
was in as good condition as when I first took them on board. 
They have been known to live on board of some of our whale- 
ships for fourteen months under similar circumstances, without 
any apparent diminuation of health or weight." 

In February, 1825, Morrell observed a terrible eruption on 
Narborough Island. One hundred and eighty-seven tortoises 
were taken on Indefatigable between October 27 and Novem- 
ber 10, 1825. 

During all this time the Galapagos Islands remained with- 
out permanent inhabitants, with the exception of an Irishman, 
Patrick Watkins, who lived on Charles Island in 1809. It was 
in 1832 that the first colony was established. This was due to 
the exertions of J. Vilamil, who, although a native of Louis- 
iana, had long been resident in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Political 
difficulties delayed his enterprise some twenty years, but finally, 
in 1831, the Government of Ecuador granted him a charter 
conceding possession of the islands and authorizing the estab- 
lishment of a colony. 

September 30, 1914. 



320 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

In January of the following year Colonel Hernandez, with 
twelve colonists, was sent to take possession of Charles Island, 
and settlers of both sexes followed in April and June. In 
October, 1832, Vilamil himself, with eighty colonists, arrived 
and "at once assumed his station as proprietor and governor 
of the island." The colony grew until it numbered several 
hundred persons, many of whom, it is said, had been banished 
from the mainland. These people and the domestic animals 
introduced, many of which multiplied and roamed at large, 
reduced the number of tortoises upon Charles Island so rapidly 
and to such an extent that within three years the people were 
obliged to send hunting parties to other islands to procure a 
supply for food. This colony later was removed to Chatham 
Island, where there still is a considerable settlement. 

In 1833, Commodore John Downes visited Charles Island 
in the U. S. Frigate "Potomac." He obtained tortoises there, 
and carried some to Boston. 

In the year 1835 the Galapagos Islands, for the first time in 
their history, were visited by a naturalist. In that year, 
Charles Darwin, during the voyage of the "Beagle," spent the 
weeks from September 15 to October 20 in this archipelago. 
In his classical Journal he has given by far the best account of 
the habits of the tortoises that has been written. 

"The 'Beagle' sailed around Chatham Island, and anchored 
in several bays. One night I slept on shore on a part of the 
island, where black truncated cones were extraordinarily numer- 
ous : from one small eminence I counted sixty of them, all sur- 
mounted by craters more or less perfect. The greater number 
consisted merely of a ring of red scoriae or slags, cemented 
together: and their height above the plain of lava was not 
more than from fifty to a hundred feet: none had been very 
lately active. The entire surface of this part of the island 
seems to have been permeated, like a sieve, by the subter- 
ranean vapors : here and there the lava, while soft, has been 
blown into great bubbles; and in other parts, the tops of 
caverns similarly formed have fallen in, leaving circular pits 
with steep sides. From the regular form of the many craters, 
they gave to the country an artificial appearance, which vividly 
reminded me of those parts of Staffordshire where the great 
iron foundries are most numerous. The day was glowing hot. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 221 

and the scrambling over the rough surface and through the 
intricate thickets was very fatiguing; but I was well repaid by 
the strange Cyclopean scene. As I was walking alone I met 
two large tortoises, each of which must have weighed at least 
two hundred pounds : one was eating a piece of cactus, and as 
I approached, it stared at me and slowly stalked away; the 
other gave a deep hiss, and drew in its head. These huge rep- 
tiles, surrounded by the black lava, the leafless shrubs, and 
large cacti, seemed to my fancy like some antediluvian animals. 
The few dull colored birds cared no more for me than they 
did for the great tortoises. 

"The 'Beagle' proceeded to Charles Island. This archi- 
pelago has long been frequented, first by the buccaneers, and 
latterly by whalers, but it is only within the last six years that 
a small colony has been established here. The inhabitants are 
between two and three hundred in number : they are nearly all 
people of color, who have been banished for political crimes 
from the Republic of the Equator, of which Quito is the capital. 
The settlement is placed about four and a half miles inland, and 
at a height probably of a thousand feet. In the first part of the 
road we passed through leafless thickets, as in Chatham Island, 
Higher up, the woods gradually became greener ; and as soon 
as we crossed the ridge of the island we were cooled by a fine 
southerly breeze, and our sight refreshed by a green and thriv- 
ing vegetation. In this upper region coarse grasses and ferns 
abound ; but there are no tree-ferns : I saw nowhere any mem- 
ber of the Palm family, which is the more singular as, 360 
miles northward, Cocos Island takes its name from the number 
of cocoanuts. The houses are irregularly scattered over a flat 
space of ground, which is cultivated with sweet potatoes and 
bananas. It will not easily be imagined how pleasant the sight 
of black mud was to us, after having been so long accustomed 
to the parched soil of Peru and northern Chile. The inhabi- 
tants, although complaining of poverty, obtain, without much 
trouble, the means of subsistance. In the woods there are 
many wild pigs and goats; but the staple article of animal 
food is supplied by the tortoises. Their numbers have of 
course been greatly reduced in this island, but the people yet 
count on two days' hunting giving them food for the rest of 
the week. It is said that formerly single vessels have taken 



222 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pro<: 4th Ser. 

away as many as seven hundred, and that the ship's company 
of a frigate some years since brought down in one day two 
hundred tortoises to the beach. 

"October 8th. — We arrived at James Island: this island, as 
well as Charles Island, were long since thus named after the 
kings of the Stuart line. Mr. Bynoe, myself, and our servants 
were left here for a week, with provisions and a tent, while the 
'Beagle' went for water. We found here a party of Spaniards, 
who had been sent from Charles Island to dry fish and to salt 
tortoise-meat. About six miles inland, and at the height of 
nearly 2,000 feet a hovel had been built in which two men lived, 
who were employed in catching tortoises, while the others 
were fishing on the coast. I paid this party two visits, and 
slept there one night. As in the other islands, the lower 
region was covered by nearly leafless bushes, but the trees were 
here of a larger growth than elsewhere, several being two feet 
and some even two feet nine inches in diameter. The upper 
region being kept damp by the clouds supports a green and 
flourishing vegetation. So damp was the ground that there 
were large beds of coarse Cyperus, in which great numbers of 
a very small water-rail lived and bred. While staying in this 
upper region we lived entirely upon tortoise-meat : the breast- 
plate roasted (as the Gauchos do came con cuero), with the 
flesh on it, is very good ; and the young tortoises make excellent 
soup ; but otherwise the meat to my taste is indifferent. * * * 

"Of sea-turtle I believe there is more than one species; and 
of tortoises there are, as we shall presently show, two or three 
species or races. 

"I have not as yet noticed by far the most remarkable 
feature in the natural history of this archipelago; it is, that 
the different islands to a considerable extent are inhabited by a 
different set of beings. My attention was first called to this 
fact by the Vice-Governor, Mr. Lawson, declaring that the 
tortoises differed from the different islands, and that he could 
with certainty tell from which island any one was brought. I 
did not for some time pay sufficient attention to this state- 
ment, and I had already partially mingled together the col- 
lection from two of these islands. I never dreamed that 
islands, about fifty or sixty miles apart, and most of them in 
sight of each other, formed of precisely the same rocks, placed 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 223 

under a quite similar climate, rising to a nearly equal height, 
would have been differently tenanted; but we shall soon see 
that this is the case. It is the fate of most voyagers, no 
sooner to discover what is most interesting in any locality 
than they are hurried from it; but I ought, perhaps, to be 
thankful that I obtained sufficient materials to establish this 
most remarkable fact in the distribution of organic beings. 

"The inhabitants, as I have said, state that they can distin- 
guish the tortoises from the different islands; and that they 
differ not only in size, but in other characters. Captain 
Porter has described those from Charles and from the nearest 
island to it, namely, Hood Island, as having their shells in 
front thick and turned up like a Spanish saddle, while the 
tortoises from James Island are rounder, blacker, and have a 
better taste when cooked. M. Bibron, moreover, informs me 
that he has seen what he considers two distinct species of tor- 
toise from the Galapagos, but he does not know from which 
islands. The specimens that I brought from three islands were 
young ones; and probably owing to this cause, neither Mr. 
Gray nor myself could find in them any specific differences. 

"I will first describe the habits of the tortoise (Testudo 
nigra J formerly called Indica), which has been so frequently 
alluded to. These animals are found, I believe, on all the 
islands of the archipelago; certainly on the greater number. 
They frequent in preference the high damp parts, but they 
likewise live in the lower and arid districts. I have already 
shown, from the numbers which have been caught in a single 
day, how very numerous they must be. Some grow to an 
immense size : Mr. Lawson, an Englishman, and Vice-Governor 
of the colony, told us that he had seen several so large that 
it required six or eight men to lift them from the ground ; and 
that some had afforded as much as two hundred pounds of 
meat. The old males are the largest, the females rarely grow- 
ing to so great a size; the male can readily be distinguished 
from the female by the greater length of its tail. The tor- 
toises which live on those islands where there is no water, or 
in the lower and arid parts of the others, feed chiefly on the 
succulent cactus. Those which frequent the higher and damp 
regions eat the leaves of various trees, a kind of berry (called 
guayavita) which is acid and austere, and likewise a pale 



224 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



green filamentous lichen ( Usnea plicata) that hangs in tresses 
from the boughs of the trees. 

"The tortoise is very fond of water, drinking large quan- 
tities and wallowing in the mud. The larger islands alone 
possess springs, and these are always situated toward the cen- 
tral parts, and at a considerable height. The tortoises, there- 
fore, which frequent the lower districts, when thirsty, are 
obliged to travel from a long distance. Hence broad and well- 
beaten paths branch off in every direction from the wells down 
to the sea-coast; and the Spaniards, by following them up, 
first discovered the watering places. When I landed at Chat- 
ham Island, I could not imagine what animal traveled so 
methodically along well-chosen tracks. Near the springs it 
was a curious spectacle to behold many of these huge creat- 
ures, one set eagerly traveling onward with outstretched necks, 
and another set returning, after having drunk their fill. When 
the tortoise arrives at the spring, quite regardless of any spec- 
tator, he buries his head in the water above his eyes, and 
greedily swallows great mouthfuls, at the rate of about ten in 
a minute. The inhabitants say each animal stays three or four 
days in the neighborhood of the water, and then returns to 
the lower country; but they differed respecting the frequency 
of these visits. The animal probably regulates them according 
to the nature of the food on which he has lived. It is, how- 
ever, certain that tortoises can subsist even on those islands 
where there is no other water than what falls during a few 
rainy days in the year. 

"I believe it is well ascertained that the bladder of the frog 
acts as a reservoir for the moisture necessary to its existence: 
such seems to be the case with the tortoise. For some time 
after a visit to the springs, their urinary bladders are dis- 
tended with fluid, which is said gradually to decrease in vol- 
ume, and to become less pure. The inhabitants, when walking 
in the lower district, and overcome with thirst, often take 
advantage of this circumstance, and drink the contents of the 
bladder if full : in one I saw killed, the fluid was quite limpid, 
and had only a very slightly bitter taste. The inhabitants, 
however, always first drink the water in the pericardium, 
which is described as being best. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 225 

"The tortoises, when purposely moving toward any point, 
travel by night and day, and arrive at their journey's end 
much sooner than would be expected. The inhabitants, from 
observing marked individuals, consider that they travel a 
distance of about eight miles in two or three days. One large 
tortoise, which I watched, walked at the rate of sixty yards 
in ten minutes, that is 360 yards in the hour, or four miles a 
day — allowing a little time for it to eat on the road. During 
the breeding season, when the male and female are together, 
the male utters a hoarse roar or bellowing, which, it is said, 
can be heard at the distance of more than a hundred yards. 
The female never uses her voice, and the male only at these 
times ; so that when the people hear this noise they know that 
the two are together. They were at this time (October) 
laying their eggs. The female, when the soil is sandy, deposits 
them together, and covers them up with sand; but when the 
ground is rocky she drops them indiscriminately in any hole: 
Mr. Bynoe found seven placed in a fissure. The egg is white 
and spherical; one which I measured was seven inches and 
three-eighths in circumference, and therefore larger than a 
hen's Qgg. The young tortoises, as soon as they are hatched, 
fall a prey in great numbers to the carrion-feeding buzzards. 
The old ones seem generally to die from accidents, as from 
falling down precipices : at least several of the inhabitants 
told me that they had never found one dead without some 
evident cause. 

"The inhabitants believe that these animals are absolutely 
deaf; certainly they do not overhear a person walking close 
behind them. I was always amused when overtaking one of 
these great monsters, as it was quietly pacing along, to see 
how suddenly, the instant I passed, it would draw in its head 
and legs, and uttering a deep hiss fall to the ground with a 
heavy sound, as if struck dead. I frequently got on their 
backs, and then giving a few raps on the hinder part of their 
shells, they would rise up and walk away — but I found it very 
difficult to keep my balance. The flesh of this animal is 
largely employed, both fresh and salted; and a beautifully 
clear oil is prepared from the fat. When a tortoise is caught, 
the man makes a slit in the skin near its tail, so as to see 
inside its body, whether the fat under the dorsal plate is thick. 



226 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



If it is not, the animal is liberated; and it is said to recover 
soon from this strange operation. In order to secure the tor- 
toises, it is not sufficient to turn them like turtle, for they are 
often able to get on their legs again. 

"There can be little doubt that this tortoise is an aboriginal 
inhabitant of the Galapagos; for it is found on all, or nearly 
all, the islands, even on some of the smaller ones where there 
is no water ; had it been an imported species, this would hardly 
have been the case in a group which has been so little fre- 
quented. Moreover, the old buccaneers found this tortoise in 
greater numbers even than at present : Wood and Rogers also, 
in 1708, say that it is the opinion of the Spaniards that it is 
found nowhere else in this quarter of the world." 

The visit of the French frigate "Venus," from June 21 to 
July 15, 1838, needs merely to be mentioned; while that of 
the English "Herald," from January 6 to 16, 1846, is chiefly 
of interest because of the statement of its naturalist, B. See- 
mann, that "no turpin, or terrapin, are living" on Charles 
Island where wild dogs, pigs, goats and cattle had increased 
wonderfully. Terrapin or galapago were bought on Chatham 
Island at the rate of six shillings apiece, and were two feet 
two inches in length, one foot ten inches broad, and stood one 
foot two inches off the ground." 

Dr. Kinberg in the Swedish vessel "Eugenie," in 1852, col- 
lected reptiles on Charles, Chatham, Indefatigable, James and 
Albemarle islands. Nothing of importance was discovered 
regarding the tortoises. The same may be said concerning the 
researches of Dr. Habel, who, from July 22, 1868, to January 
1, 1869, made collections of birds, fishes, snakes, lizards, 
insects, mollusks, and radiates on Abingdon, Bindloe, Hood, 
and Indefatigable islands. 

From June 10 to 19, 1872, the Hassler Expedition, under 
Professor Louis Agassiz, collected chiefly fishes, at Charles, 
Albemarle, Indefatigable, James, and Jervis islands. It is 
said that a female tortoise was purchased by Professor Agassiz 
on Charles Island. 

In the year 1875, Commander Cookson of the British navy, 
visited the Galapagos in the "Peterel." He obtained tortoises 
on Albemarle and Abingdon islands. The following notes are 
extracted from his report to Rear-Admiral Cochrane who, at 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DEWBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 227 

the suggestion of Dr. Gunther, had instructed him to obtain 
the desired information and specimens. 

"These tortoises are extinct in Charles Island; and only a 
very few individuals are supposed to survive on Chatham 
Island. In Hood, James, and Indefatigable islands the num- 
bers are so reduced that they are no longer hunted, the few 
left being in the most inaccessible parts of the islands; and I 
was assured that a search of a fortnight might not result in 
finding a single individual on either of these islands. Albe- 
marle and Abingdon are the only remaining islands in which 
they have ever been found. In parts of Albemarle Island 
they are still very abundant, especially at the south-east end. 

"They are still tolerably numerous near Tagus Cove. Land- 
ing a party of twenty-four men about half a mile south-east 
of Tagus Cove, we found in a few hours thirty tortoises; the 
three largest weighed respectively 241 pounds, 185 pounds, 
and 173 pounds; these, I was told, were as large as they are 
commonly found now. 

"Tagus Cove is a favorite resort of whalers for the purpose 
of getting tortoises. The anchorage is perfectly secure; and 
the custom is for almost the entire crew to be landed until as 
many tortoises are secured as can be conveniently taken on 
board, some whalers going to sea with as many as 100. 

"We found a good trail leading from the landing-place (at 
one of the gullies before mentioned as having pools of fresh 
water at its mouth) to the ground where tortoises are found, 
a distance of about three miles; quantities of tortoise-shells 
and traces of fires showed the numerous camping-grounds. 

"Tortoises were never, I believe, very abundant on Abing- 
don Island: our searching party found four on this island. 
They were on the high ground; and it was a work of great 
labour getting them down to the boats. The distance was 
about four miles; but the ground was exceedingly rugged, 
and covered with thick brush, through which a trail had to be 
cut for the entire distance. The largest found on this island 
weighed 201 pounds, and the smallest 135 pounds. 

"In consequence of the extent of Albemarle Island, and the 
inaccessibility of many parts of it, I have no doubt these 
animals are still very numerous on it, and likely to be so for 
a long period, even at the present rate at which they are 



228 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

destroyed ; but I have already shown the havoc made amongst 
them by the oil-makers. This is the cause of their being 
nearly extinct on James and Indefatigable islands, where they 
used to be so numerous. Admiral Fitzroy found a party on 
James Island making oil in 1835. 

"In Abingdon Island, where they are not numerous, I 
believe they are doomed to destruction directly the orchilla- 
pickers are placed on the island ; for a party of sixty or eighty 
men will soon hunt over this small island and discover every 
individual on it." 

The "Challenger" reached the Galapagos Islands shortly 
after the "Peterel." It carried home some of the tortoises 
secured by Commander Cookson, but obtained no additional 
information. 

In April (4-16), 1888, the United States Fish Commission 
steamer "Albatross" collected reptiles on Albemarle, Charles, 
Chatham, Duncan, and Indefatigable islands. Tortoises were 
secured on Albemarle and Duncan. A second visit by the 
"Albatross" with Professor A. Agassiz, from March 28 to 
April 4, 1891, resulted in no new information concerning tor- 
toises. 

On June 10, 1891, Dr. George Baur and Mr. C. F. Adams 
reached the Galapagos Islands. They remained until Septem- 
ber 6 of the same year, and collected on Albemarle, Abingdon, 
Bindloe, Barrington, Charles, Chatham, Duncan, Hood, Inde- 
fatigable, James, Jervis, and Tower islands. Tortoises were 
found only on Duncan and in southern Albemarle. Twenty- 
one specimens were collected — eight on Duncan and thirteen 
from southeastern Albemarle. 

Acting for the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Mr. Frank B. Web- 
ster, in 1897, organized an expedition to search for tortoises in 
the Galapagos Archipelago, under the leadership of Mr. C. M. 
Harris. The original party having been broken up at Panama 
by the death from yellow fever of three of its five members, a 
second party was gathered at San Francisco, where Harris 
had chartered the "Lila and Mattie," a small schooner com- 
manded by Captain Linbridge. Those composing the collect- 
mg force of the second party were Mr. Harris, Mr. F. P. 
Drowne, Mr. G. D. Hull, and Mr. R. H. Beck. They set sail 
from San Francisco June 21, and arrived at the Galapagos 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 229 

Islands July 25, 1897. Collections were made on Culpepper, 
Wenman, Abingdon, Bindloe, Indefatigable, Duncan, Jervis, 
James, Barrington, Chatham, Hood, Charles, southeastern 
Albemarle, Tagus Cove, Narborough, and Tower islands. Set- 
ting sail from Tower Island December 28, 1897, the return to 
San Francisco was accomplished February 8, 1898. Tortoises 
were secured only from southeastern Albemarle and from 
Duncan islands. The following extracts from Mr. Drownc's 
journal tell the difficulties overcome in collecting tortoises on 
Duncan Island: 

"Sept. 5, 1897. After a long walk I arrived at the edge 
of the crater at about 1 1 a. m. Harris was already inside. We 
climbed down the side, I should say 250 feet, and reached the 
bottom, which was level and covered all around with thick 
bushes on the border. Grass, 2 feet high or more, covered 
the entire centre. Geospiza, Certhidea, and Camarhynchus 
were abundant, and occasionally Pyrocephalus and Myiarchus 
were seen. Soon after reaching the bottom I heard Harris 
calling out that he had caught a tortoise. Hull and myself 
got there as soon as possible, and we tied the tortoise up. 
The grass was full of tortoise trails, and we set out in search 
of others. Harris found two more, and Hull and myself each 
two. We turned them all over, and weighted them down with 
heavy rocks. After fixing the last one, we revisited the first 
and found it loose. This made it necessary to revisit the 
others, which we did, finding that they had all got loose. We 
weighted them down again with more and heavier rocks, and 
returned to the starting-place. Some of the tortoises which 
we found feeding were eating the blossoms from a creeping 
vine, rising upon their forelegs and stretching their necks out 
to full extent. The odor from them reminded me very much 
of that from an elephant. After tramping about so much and 
lifting so many heavy rocks, we were very tired, but had to 
brace up and climb out of the crater, and walk to the shore 
over a long distance of broken rock. The crater was quite 
three-quarters of a mile in diameter, with a very flat bottom, 
surrounded by a high wall or embankment, making it resemble 
greatly pictures of the old Roman amphitheaters. Arrived on 
board at 6 :30, very tired and very thirsty. 



230 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4ra Ser. 



"Sept. 7. — Another hard day's work. Got up at 4:45 a. m. 
and started to heave up anchor. Sailed over to Duncan Island. 
Had breakfast at 6 :30, and went ashore soon after, starting 
immediately up to the crater, with poles, ropes, etc., to get the 
tortoises out. Managed to recover our tortoises of last Sunday, 
some of which had got away. Found one dead, a rock having 
fallen on his neck during his struggles and shut off his wind. 
Found one more, making a total of eight. The work of 
making them fast lasted till about 2 o'clock, when we started 
for the shore with a tortoise strung on a pole between each 
two men, one of the sailors and myself taking one. It was 
very hard getting them up the side of the crater, walking 
being so rough and thorns so plentiful. But this was nothing 
to be compared with going down on the other side, which was 
very steep and terrible walking. The sailor had on a pair of 
wooden clogs, which soon began to chafe his feet. After a 
long time spent in tumbling over lava blocks, tearing through 
thorn bushes and other such pleasantries, we reached a point 
as near the shore as we could, tied the creatures up securely, 
and left them. Now came a long walk before we could get 
to the skiff. We were all so tired, having had nothing to eat 
since breakfast, that the distance seemed terribly long. It was 
a rough road, up and down, over broken lava and through 
thorns. Reached the skiff about 6 p. m.^ every one being well 
tired out. A good drink of wine and water was served with 
the lunch that was in the boat. We got aboard the schooner 
a little later. This was the hardest day's work thus far, with 
the possible exception of last Sunday's. The trip was very 
hard on the tortoise also, and they acted as if 'played out.' 
Two of them being set down close together got their poles 
somewhat tangled up, and by the way they opened their 
mouths at each other it looked as if they were going to have a 
fight. 

"Sept. 8. — We went ashore quite early, and started immedi- 
ately for the crater, after looking in vain for more tortoises 
for a short time. The mate took a small one on his back. 
Harris and myself, Hull and Beck carried one swung on a 
pole between us, and we started for the boat by a much easier 
route than yesterday, and got two of them right aboard the 
skiff. The other one and the three brought down yesterday 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 231 

were tied up in a sack, one at a time, and then lowered down 
to the skiff from the top of a bluff 75 feet high. Getting them 
into the skiff, at 4 p. m. we were aboard the schooner with six 
live tortoises. The small one which was found yesterday 
appeared to be nearly dead when visited today. The soil at the 
bottom of the crater is full of cracks in places, showing that 
probably during the wet season there is water there. There 
were several rocks with depressions in their tops, and the 
prints of tortoise feet near them showed that the animals 
probably relied on these places for their supply of water during 
the dry season. It rained last Sunday while we were in the 
crater, and in one of these holes quite a little water had col- 
lected. 

"Sept. 9. — Went ashore at about 8 a. m.^ or rather started 
at that time, it being a long pull to the island. Harris, Hull, 
and Beck carried the guns, while the mate and a sailor (Her- 
man Jahnke) and myself were to bring down the two tor- 
toises. We got into the crater at about 11 a. m. ; picked up 
the bones of a tortoise that had been found some time before. 
We saw a snake that was about 1^ ft. long, slender and 
blackish, with white rings. The mate noticed it first and 
called me, but I only arrived in time to see it disappearing 
under the grass, from which we were unable to dislodge it. 
The mate was afraid of snakes. We ate lunch in the crater. 
Just as we were commencing, Harris brought in a small tor- 
toise which had escaped last Sunday, the one first caught. 
The mate claimed that this one bit him while he was tying 
it up. After lunch we started out of the crater, a sailor and 
myself carrying the large dead one on a pole, and the mate the 
live one in a pack on his back. We got down to the bluff m 
good time, when we lowered them down, and then climbed 
down ourselves. At a little after 4 p. m. the rest of the party 
appeared, bringing in another dead tortoise and the small live 
one, the sack of bones, and some birds. Beck carried a big 
tortoise from the other side of the island, and reported seeing 
five others in a gulch on the other side of the crater, three of 
them being larger than any secured thus far. He said that one 
of the big ones was feeding on an old dead cactus. We got 
on board after a long pull, and started over to Conway Bay, 
where we anchored at 7 p. m. 



232 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

"Sept. 13. — Got up at 4:30, and, after having coffee, hoisted 
anchor and set the sails. Weather very foggy, and fine rain. 
We sailed over to Duncan, went ashore rather late, and all 
hands started at once for the crater, the idea being to work 
over the other side of it, and look for the tortoises that Beck 
had seen as well as others. We found in one of the craters 
(a section so thickly covered with bushes that it had not been 
so carefully examined) a good-sized tortoise. This find altered 
the plans somewhat. The mate and the sailor took the tortoise 
on a pole, I a sack of bones and their surplus baggage, and 
after eating lunch started back, the others having gone on. 
We reached the skiff after a long walk, the others arriving at 
about the same time. They reported six tortoises tied up, and 
the remains of another found. We got aboard the vessel about 
6 p. M._, and sailed for Conway Bay, coming to anchor at 7 :30. 

"Sept. 16. — Arose at 5 a. m. and had breakfast; then both 
parties started for the first station with a big tortoise. Reach- 
ing there, the mate and myself started down for the beach 
after water and provisions, there being only half a canteen of 
water to leave the others for their morning's work. We got 
to shore in 50 minutes, and started immediately to pack up. 
The mate took the five-gallon breaker of water, and I the 
knapsack, well loaded with canned fruit, meat, sardines, bread, 
sugar, butter, coffee, rice, etc., and three canteens of water. 
We started back right in the heat of the day, and the mate's 
load soon exhausted him. We decided that I should go ahead 
and get to the boys with the water in the canteens, while he 
came on by short stages. I reached the camp about 1 p. m.^ 
very tired by the long walk in the sun. Beck and Hull had 
carried out three tortoises to the first station. We lunched, 
and later the mate reached the camp. Hull and myself got a 
good-sized tortoise into the camp in the afternoon (the farthest 
away), while Beck brought in a little one on his shoulder. A 
little later Beck and myself took one of the big ones around 
the trail to the first station, while Hull brought another little 
one into the camp, and the mate got several. We sat around 
the camp-fire awhile after supper, and then retired. 

"Sept. 18. — Arose about 5 a. m., it being then quite rainy. 
After breakfast we got the tents, blankets, etc., packed up, and 
started for the shore, Beck and the mate each taking a little 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 233 

tortoise, while Hull and myself carried the tents, etc., all on a 
pole. Arrived at the shore, after quite a short rest we started 
up again to bring down some more tortoises. Beck and the 
mate went up again after dinner, bringing down two more. 
Meantime Hull and myself got the stuff packed up, the tor- 
toises in the boat, and things arranged for leaving. We then 
took the skiff, leaving the camp outfit ashore, as we were to 
return on Monday. The schooner had left Conway Bay some 
time before, and was quite close by the island; and in a short 
time we were all on board with our seven tortoises. 

"Sept. 20. — Went ashore quite early. We pitched tents and 
went up to the first station; brought down two tortoises half 
way, ate a little lunch we had taken up with us, and took a 
short rest. We went up to the first station again and brought 
the tortoises down to the shore. The mate cooked a good 
supper of rice, coffee, meat (canned corned beef), and bread 
and butter, canned fruit for dessert. We sat around the camp- 
fire till 8 o'clock. The seals kept up a continual noise all night. 

"Sept. 21. — Had an early breakfast, and all went to the first 
station. The mate and myself brought a tortoise down to the 
camp (moved down to shore). While Hull and Beck brought 
one half way and returned for another, mate and myself ate 
lunch, then went to half-way station and brought another one 
down to the shore. Meantime Beck and Hull got theirs down. 
It was getting late in the afternoon, so we lay off for the 
remainder of the day. 

"Sept. 22. — Got up early. After breakfast we went up to 
the half-way station and brought down two tortoises ; went up 
again immediately and brought down two more. Had dinner 
and took a rest. At about 3 p. m. we went up again and 
brought down two more, which made the last of the twenty- 
nine tortoises from Duncan Island. 

"Sept. 23. — Did not get up quite as early. After breakfast 
I worked a little around the beach, turning over rocks for 
marine animals; then secured several lizards. We got the 
eleven tortoises down on the beach. We then put six into 
the skiff, together with the outfit. Beck steering, the mate and 
myself pulled to the vessel, which had come over from Conway 
Bay. We got aboard all right, and shortly after the rest of 
the tortoises and Hull were taken aboard. Then we headed off 



234 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

for Jervis, and anchored at the north side of the island at 5 
p. M. We are doubtful if more than two or three tortoises 
are left on Duncan Island, because our party covered practi- 
cally all the part of the island where they would be found. 

"Sept. 24. — Went ashore on Jervis Island. Fine beach, with 
a little lagoon right behind it, around the edge of which we 
found tracks of a tortoise, but were unable to find it after 
thoroughly searching the island. There is more soil on this 
island than on any visited thus far. We secured about 115 
birds in all." 

In the fall of 1898, the Department of Zoology of Stanford 
University sent to these islands two collectors, Mr. Robert E. 
Snodgrass and Mr. Edmund Heller. Sailing on the sealing 
schooner "Julia E. Whalen," they were given an opportunity 
to collect on every island of the group. Their visit extended 
from December 10, 1898, to June 26, 1899. Some twelve hun- 
dred reptiles were collected. Tortoises were found only on 
Duncan Island and at Tagus and Iguana Coves, Albemarle 
Island. Heller thought them extinct on all the other islands 
except Abingdon. He gives the following account of the 
habits, based on observation of the three species collected, viz., 
Testiido microphyes, T. vicina and T. ephippium: 

"Their food consists of various species of grasses and cactus 
(Opuntia). During the rainy season, and in the moist portions 
of the islands the year round, grass forms their chief food, 
especially a large, woody-stemmed, perennial species. During 
the dry season in the arid portions of the islands, as at Tagus 
Cove, Albemarle, and on Duncan Island, the Opuntia becomes 
quite an important food plant. The green succulent leaf-like 
stems of this cactus and its fruit, the prickly pear, are eagerly 
devoured by the tortoises, regardless of the sharp spines with 
which they are armed. One specimen collected near Tagus 
Cove had the whole palate and pharynx bristling with the 
cactus spines, from which there was apparently no suffering. 
The juicy cactus stems supply the tortoises with the necessary 
water in the dry regions where springs are absent, and thus 
make possible its existence in such localities. Cactus seems to 
be preferred, when it can be easily secured; all the tortoises 
we took on board the schooner would take no other kind of 
food except when compelled by hunger. The Opuntia are tree- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 235 

like in habit, growing- usually to a large size, and it is only the 
young and smaller plants that are within reach of the tortoises. 
Grass can be secured much easier, and it is perhaps due to this 
fact that it forms a larger proportion of their food. 

"The tortoises do a great deal of apparently unnecessary 
traveling; and, though slow, are so persistent in their journeys 
that they cover several miles a day. Most of the traveling is 
done early in the morning and late in the afternoon, the hot 
hours of noon being spent in the shade of some bush, wallow- 
ing in the damp soil. The wallowing probably cools them, and 
incidentally relieves them of a few of the numerous wood ticks 
(Amblyoma pilosum) which infest them at the joints and wher- 
ever the skin is thin enough to allow them to pierce it. After 
heavy rains they delight to wallow in the mud. They are very 
determined travelers, and once started in a certain direction no 
obstacles can stop them. Not infrequently they ascend very 
steep, rocky hills. Sometimes their shells are broken, and 
occasionally they are killed, by rolling down these inclines, but 
if uninjured after these falls they will make repeated efforts to 
reascend until crowned by success. They retire early for the 
night, drawing in their limbs and neck, and after sunset do 
not move from the place chosen for the night. Darwin, how- 
ever, states that they travel both day and night when on their 
periodical visits to the springs. 

"All three of the species we observed make seasonal vertical 
migrations. Soon after the rainy season they descend the 
mountains to the grass-covered flats at their bases, to feed and 
deposit their eggs in the light soil. After the grass has with- 
ered, they again ascend the mountains to the moist meadows 
produced by the trade winds at an elevation of 2,000 feet and 
above. These migrations are most marked in the dry regions, 
as at Tagus Cove, Albemarle ; but even at Iguana Cove on the 
same island, where there is an abundance of moisture at lower 
elevations, a nearly complete migration takes place. On Dun- 
can Island the tortoises scatter out so in the dry season that 
their movements can scarcely be called a vertical migration. 
In their seasonal pilgrimages they follow well-established trails 
used perhaps for generations. These trails radiate from the 
higher plateaus as a center and usually follow the floors of 
the canyons to the flats below. Some of the trails are of 

September 30, 1914. 



236 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

considerable length, requiring several days of persistent ef- 
fort on the part of the tortoise to cover them. 

"When surprised they draw in their limbs and necks with a 
deep hiss, and suspend operations until they think the danger 
past. No amount of noise seems to frighten them and the 
Ecuadorians assert that they are deaf. A small one, however, 
taken at Iguana Cove, Albemarle, learned to recognize the 
voice of its keeper in a few months, and would come to the 
gate of its pen when called though the keeper was hidden from 
its sight. 

"The males are sometimes quarrelsome, especially in the 
breeding season. In fighting the jaws are opened widely, and 
the animals, raised by outstretched necks and limbs to their 
greatest height, attack one another. Superior height seems 
to be quite an advantage in a combat, allowing the taller to 
bite down upon the head of his adversary. In these fights 
they seldom succeed in doing much damage. When turned 
over on their backs they right themselves by swinging their 
limbs all in the same direction, which causes the animal to 
rotate and clear the ground, so that by thrusting out their 
long necks to the ground and pushing with them the body 
falls over on the plastron. During this operation they usually 
indulge in much grumbling and groaning as if it were a terri- 
ble tax on their anatomy. During the breeding season the 
males are said to 'bellow like bulls.' The 'bellowing' which 
we heard consisted of a rather low prolonged note which could 
not have been heard more than a few yards away. 

"The young do not take on their specific characters until 
nearly adult; they remain very similar in shape, in all the 
species for a considerable time. All the young observed pos- 
sessed striated shells, but adults seem to retain or lose this 
character indifferently in most of the species. 

"Growth takes place by additions to the outer border of each 
plate along the soft white seams, and probably continues as 
long as life exists ; the largest specimens possess the whitish 
seams which mark the growing edges of the plates. In youth 
the annual increase is probably much greater than later. A 
specimen from Iguana Cove, weighing 29 pounds when taken, 
doubled its original weight in twelve months, accompanied 
by an increase to the margin of each plate of the carapace of 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 237 

about half an inch or an inch to the diameter of the plate. Its 
total gain during the year was : in length of carapace, four 
inches; in breadth, three inches; and in height, one and one- 
fourth inches. During the colder winter months the consump- 
tion of food was greatly lessened and growth correspondingly 
retarded. The increase in weight during the summer months 
amounted to nearly three pounds monthly. This tortoise now 
[1902] weighs 130 pounds, having gained 100 pounds in three 
years. This rapid increase may be abnormal, but it shows 
how rapid their growth may be under favorable conditions of 
food and warmth, which we believe are even more favorable in 
the Galapagos where no cool winter season retards their 
growth." 

In 1900 Captain Noyes again visited the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago. He searched for tortoises on Duncan Island, but 
found only four; and stated that he thought no more would 
be found there. In the southern part of Albemarle, however, 
he had better luck, securing nineteen tortoises. These were 
delivered to Mr. Frank B. Webster, who sent seven of them to 
Rothschild. Mr. Webster states : 

"In all about a hundred and twenty-five tortoises from the 
Galapagos Islands have passed through my hands, the great 
majority of which were for the Honorable Walter Rothschild. 
I consider, now that these creatures are so nearly extinct, that 
any remaining ones will be only stragglers, and will only be 
secured at a great expense of time, hardship and money." 

Early in 1901, Mr. Beck returned to the Galapagos Islands 
to hunt for tortoises for Mr. Rothschild. One small specimen 
was taken on Indefatigable February 16, 1901. Duncan 
Island yielded five tortoises. Three were taken at Tagus 
Cove, and one at Cape Berkeley, Albemarle Island, and two 
were secured on Abingdon. The single specimen from Cape 
Berkeley proved to be a new species and was named by Roths- 
child Testiido becki. 

In November of the same year, Mr. Beck again visited the 
Galapagos Islands, in the little schooner "Mary Sacks." He 
returned to San Francisco August 15, 1902, with twenty-three 
dead and twenty-seven living tortoises. Eight or nine of these 
were from Indefatigable, six from Bank's Bay, three from 
Tagus Cove, five from Iguana Cove, and the rest from Vilamil. 



238 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

These tortoises also went to Rothschild's museum at Tring, 
England. Mr. Beck has published in the seventh report of the 
New York Zoological Society some interesting notes on the 
habits of the tortoises. He says, in part : 

"The tortoise seemed to have no regular time for feeding, 
being at all hours of the day eating or walking about. During 
the middle of the day, if the sun is shining, they keep in the 
shade of the trees, but if it is cloudy many spend the time wan- 
dering back and forth on the trails. We were told by the 
natives that in the summer the tortoises go up to the top of 
the mountain; and this statement confirmed my observations 
of similar habits of other species in the Archipelago. 

"We found that the tortoise trails extend up and down the 
[Vilamil] mountain side for miles, one of the objective points 
at the lower part of the range being a rocky basin where 
water collects during rains. By centuries of constant use 
these rocks have been worn so smooth that it is almost impos- 
sible to walk over them after a rain, while they are wet. Once 
we noticed four tortoises slaking their thirst at a rocky pool 
near the trail, but during our stay at the ranch the rainfall was 
so great that every little hollow in the ground held water, and a 
tortoise could get a drink anywhere. 

"One afternoon, while standing under a tree during a heavy 
downpour, I was surprised to see a big tortoise come slowly 
down the hill through the wet grass, walk into a rapidly- 
forming pool of water, take a long drink, and then lie down in 
the pool. When he settled down, the depth of the water was 
only two inches ; but in a few minutes it had increased to eight 
inches ; and he seemed entirely content, until his attention was 
attracted to a female tortoise, which also came to the pool to 
drink. That attraction was the stronger, so he left the water 
and set out to make her acquaintance. 

"After the rain had ceased, I went down the trail some dis- 
tance and saw another tortoise living in a hollow filled with 
water. He remained there all night, apparently, for on our 
return the next morning he was still in it. These two observa- 
tions rather tended to disprove my theory regarding one of 
the causes of the annual migration which affects nearly all the 
species of the Galapagos tortoises. I had formed the opinion 
that the migration was partly due to the slightly colder 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 239 

weather and heavy rains high up on the mountains during the 
winter season, but it would seem from the actions here cited 
that these causes have but Httle to do with it after all. With 
this species (Testudo vicina), it might be the mating instinct 
that causes them to wander down three or four miles from 
their summer home. 

"Love affairs were in full progress during our stay [March 
20 to April 2], and the amorous exclamations of the males 
could be heard at a distance exceeding 300 yards, even in the 
thick forest. The actions of the tortoises living in the hollows 
and small valleys along the mountain top were very similar to 
those of the cattle that occupied the same range. Walking 
cautiously over a rise we would see perhaps three or four at i 
water-hole, drinking, and dispersed in the open valley would be 
others busily nibbling at the short grass. During the heat of 
the day many would be seen lying in the shallow pools of 
water that the heavy rains had formed, or under the bushes 
near by them. One hot day I saw two large tortoises and two 
young bulls lying side by side under a small tree. Nearby were 
other cattle, and another large tortoise was headed for the 
tree, having just left a water-hole a few rods away. 

"After seeing on this mountain dozens of tortoises of good 
size, one wonders where the small ones are ; but after spending 
a few days a-foot and seeing the many wild dogs in that 
region — descendants of those left years ago by sailing vessels — 
we can only wonder that so many of the large ones remain. 
From the time that the ^gg is laid until the tortoise is a foot 
long, the wild dogs are a constant menace, and it is doubtful if 
more than one out of 10,000 escapes. We certainly saw none, 
and the natives told us that the dogs ate them as fast as they 
were hatched. 

"In November, 1897, we found several nests in the lower 
edge of the forest. Of these, two had been rifled, and the 
broken egg-shells were what first attracted our attention to 
them. All the eggs found on that date (November 12th) were 
perfectly fresh, and we saw two or three newly dug holes 
with tortoises but a few feet from them. Most of the nests 
found were in well-traveled cattle or tortoise trails. They 
were so placed that the sun shone on them but a few hours 
each day ; when it did it was very hot. Ordinarily it was very 



240 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

difficult to recognize the site of a nest, the very slight elevation 
in the trail, or slightly fresher-looking earth being our sole 
guide. Several times we imagined that we had discovered 
nests, and prodded about with our sticks and dug with our 
hands, until finally we realized that we had misinterpreted the 
signs. 

"On finding our first nests in the trail, the old adage, 'Don't 
put all your eggs into one basket,' was forcibly brought to 
mind. This is the rule that is followed by the tortoise, for 
within a radius of 15 feet four nests were found, each contain- 
ing 8 to 17 eggs. The holes were about 15 inches in depth, 
and nearly a foot in diameter. The eggs were placed in layers 
of 3 to 6, the first layer being on the soft soil on the bottom, 
separated from the next by an inch or so of dirt, and the sec- 
ond layer separated from the third in the same manner. The 
dirt surrounding the eggs was loose, but the top of the hole 
was covered to a depth of 3 or 4 inches with a very hard crust 
that had probably been formed by the tortoise lying on it and 
working from side to side in the same manner that we fre- 
quently noticed them working down a form to lie in. 

"Judging by the size and number of the eggs found in sev- 
eral of the tortoises that we dissected, it would seem that one 
or two nests are finished at a given period, and a week or two 
later the remainder of the eggs are laid. From 10 to 20 eggs 
were ready for extrusion together, while 20 or 30 more were 
from one-half to two-thirds the normal size. 

"At the rate of destruction now in progress it will require 
but a few years to clear this entire mountain of tortoises ; and 
when we see the methods pursued by the proprietor in getting 
tortoise oil for shipment to the mainland, we know that the 
large tortoises can last but a few months after the work of the 
oil-hunter begins in earnest. 

"To show what has already been done by oil-hunters, I took 
two photographs at the water-hole, where lay the largest num- 
ber of tortoise skeletons. There were about 150 skeletons at 
this pool, and a half mile away, in another depression, were 
about 100 more. While there were more skeletons at these 
two places than we saw elsewhere, frequently 10 or 15 were 
observed in other basins where the tortoises had gone for 
water. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 241 

"The outfit of the oil-hunter is very simple, consisting merely 
of a can or pot in which to try out the oil, and three or four 
burros for carrying the five- or ten-gallon kegs in which it is 
transported to the settlement. After making a camp near a 
water-hole, and killing the tortoises there, the collector brings 
up a burro, throws a couple of sacks over the pack-saddle, and 
starts out to look for more tortoises, killing them wherever 
found. A few strokes of the machete separate the plastron 
from the body, and 10 minutes' work will clear the fat from 
the sides. The fat is then thrown into the sack, and the outfit 
moves on. 

"When the burro is well laden, man and beast travel back 
to camp, where the oil is tried out. Each large tortoise yields 
from one to three gallons of oil. The small ones are seldom 
killed, because they have but little fat. By daily visits to the 
few water-holes during the driest season, in the course of a 
month the hunters get practically all the tortoises that live on 
the upper part of the mountain. 

"When we first stepped ashore at the settlement we saw a 
number of casks lying on the beach, and learned on inquiry 
that they contained 800 gallons of tortoise oil. In a large 
boat, under a nearby shed, were 400 gallons more. While we 
were there, the boat sailing between the island and Guayaquil 
left for the port with those casks and a cargo of hides. The 
value of the oil in Guayaquil was about $9.00 (American) per 
100 pounds. While the tortoises are so plentiful as we saw 
them, this price yields a fair profit to the hunters, but two 
more raids such as that shown in the photograph will 
clear that mountain of all the fair-sized tortoises upon it, and 
then the oil business is ended." 

The statements of the various authors to whom we have 
referred, indicate that tortoises had been found upon Abing- 
don, James, Duncan, Indefatigable, Chatham, Charles, Hood, 
and Albemarle islands ; that they remain in considerable num- 
bers only in parts of Albemarle, and perhaps Duncan; that 
they reached the verge of extinction on Charles Island as 
early as 1846; and that none had been seen in recent years 
upon James, Chatham, Charles, or Hood island. 

It was largely for the purpose of gathering further informa- 
tion regarding tortoises that an expedition was sent to the 



242 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Galapagos Archipelago by the California Academy of Sciences. 
This expedition set sail from San Francisco on the twenty- 
eighth of June, 1905, in the schooner "Academy," which had 
been purchased and rechristened for the purpose. The scien- 
tific staff of the expedition consisted of eight young men. Mr. 
R. H. Beck, who has had more experience in these islands 
than any other collector — this being his fourth expedition to 
them — was in charge. Mr. Alban Stewart went as botanist; 
Mr. W. H. Ochsner, as geologist; Mr. F. X. Williams, as 
entomologist; while Mr. E. W. Gifford and Mr. J. S. Hunter 
were to study and collect the birds, and my assistant, Mr. J. R. 
Slevin, with the aid of Mr. E. S. King, was to care for the 
reptiles. 

Having made brief stops at various islands near the coast of 
Lower California, as well as at San Benedicto, Socorro, Clip- 
perton, and Cocos islands, the party reached the Galapagos 
Archipelago and landed upon Hood Island, September 24, 
1905. During the months which followed, the most arduous 
collecting was vigorously carried on in all the islands of the 
group, many of the larger being visited several times, and 
on September 25, 1906, after a full year of work, the "Acad- 
emy" left Culpepper Island and set sail for San Francisco, 
where she arrived in safety Thanksgiving day, November 29, 
1906. 

This exploration met with far greater success than I had 
anticipated. Tortoises, or their remains, were found for the 
first time on Barrington, Jervis, and Narborough islands, and 
on Cowley Mountain, Albemarle Island. They were also found 
still living in all the localities from which they had ever been 
recorded except Charles Island, where they appear, as on Bar- 
rington, to be really extinct. Only on Duncan Island and the 
southern portion of Albemarle were they encountered in con- 
siderable numbers, and in the latter region they are being 
rapidly reduced by the raids of the natives who kill them for 
meat and oil. 

It was Captain Porter who first called attention to the fact 
that each of the tortoise-bearing islands of the archipelago 
had its own peculiar race or species. With the exception of 
Albemarle, no island has more than one kind of tortoise. Now 
there is evidence that Albemarle, the largest island of the 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



243 



group, has been formed by the union of several smaller islands, 
corresponding, probably, to its five great volcanoes. Accord- 
ingly, v^e find on Albemarle five distinct races of tortoises, 
each of which, I believe, originated upon one of these con- 
stituent volcanoes prior to their union. If this view be cor- 
rect, some of these races have since spread to other portions 
of Albemarle Island, but each race still is found either in 
greatest numbers or alone upon that portion of the island 
where it originated. Thus one finds at Bank's Bay, in the 
northern part of Albemarle, a kind of tortoise not found else- 
where. The region about Tagus Cove, in north-central Albe- 
marle, has tortoises of but one race, which race, however, 
seems to occur also on the southern coast of Albemarle. The 
same is true of Iguana Cove, while on Vilamil Mountain and in 
the adjoining portions of the island is found still another race, 
which does not occur elsewhere. The Cowley Mountain tor- 
toise seems nearly identical with that of Indefatigable Island; 
but this conclusion is based upon a single female specimen, not 
adult, and I believe that a good series of specimens would lead 
to a different result. 

The present state of our knowledge indicates, then, that 
there once lived in the Galapagos Archipelago fourteen or 
fifteen distinct races of gigantic land tortoises, each occupying 
its own island, as follows: 

ISLAND PRESENT STATUS 

1. Abingdon Rare 

2. James Rare 

3. Jervis Very rare 

4. Duncan Fairly abundant 

5. Indefatigable Not rare 

6. Barrington Extinct 

7. Chatham Nearly extinct 

8. Hood Very rare 

9. Charles Extinct 

10. Narborough Very rare 

11. Vilamil, Albemarle Abundant 

12. Iguana Cove, Albemarle Numerous 

13. Tagus Cove, Albemarle Fairly numerous 

14. Bank's Bay, Albemarle Fairly numerous 

15. Cowley Mt, Albemarle Rare 

It now becomes necessary to consider what names are appli- 
cable to these various races. 



244 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT 
1. Nomenclature 



Eighteen names have been proposed for Galapagos tortoises, 
as follows : 

DATE NAME AUTHORITY LOCALITY 

1. 1824 — Testudo nigra Quoy & Gaimard "California" 

2. 1824 — Testudo californiana Quoy & Gaimard 

3. 1827 — Testudo elephantopus Harlan Galapagos 

4. 183S — Testudo nigrita Dumeril & BibronNo locality 

5. 1855 — Testudo planiceps Gray No locality 

6. 1875 — Testudo ephippium Giinther No locality 

7. 1875 — Testudo microphyes Giinther No locality 

8. 1875 — Testudo vicina Giinther No locality 

9. 1877 — Testudo abingdonii Giinther Abingdon 

10. 1889 — Testudo galapagoensis Baur Charles 

11. 1889 — Testudo giintheri Baur No locality 

12. 1901— Testudo becki Rothschild North Albemarle 

13. 1902 — Testudo wallacei Rothschild No locality 

14. 1904 — Testudo porteri Rothschild Indefatigable 

15. 1907 — Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh Hood 

16. 1907 — Testudo darwini Van Denburgh James 

17. 1907 — Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh Chatham 

18. 1907 — Testudo phantasticus Van Denburgh Narborough 

Eight of these names are based upon specimens whose ori- 
gin is definitely known. There can be no question as to the 
races to which these names apply. The other ten, however, 
were proposed, often with vague descriptions from examples 
which leave much to be desired in respect both to history and 
to condition. It will be necessary to consider each of these 
names in turn to determine, if possible, its proper use. 

1. Testudo nigra Quoy & Gaimard. 1824 

This name was applied by Quoy and Gaimard, in 1824, to 
a very young tortoise presented to M. de Freycinet by Captain 
Meek, of the "Boston Eagle," while the "Uranie" and "Phy- 
sicien" were in the Sandwich Islands, and said to have come 
from California. Owing to the small size of this tortoise the 
differential characters are not developed. Rothschild, who re- 
cently examined the type in the Paris Museum, writes^ that 
it "is a young tortoise with a carapace barely 10^ inches 
long, and so indifferently preserved that it is absolutely impos- 

iNovitates Zool., IX, 1902, p. 618. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 245 

sible to say to what race it belongs. Dr. Albert Giinther, who 
examined the specimen with me, is even more emphatic on 
this point than I am." The exact locality of origin being 
unknown, I think it impossible ever to decide which species it 
represents, and therefore follow Giinther, Baur and Rothschild 
in ignoring the name Testudo nigra. 

2. Testudo calif orniana Quoy & Gaimard. 1824 

This name, also proposed by Quoy and Gaimard in 1824, 
evidently was based upon the specimen which they described 
as Testudo nigra. It is therefore a substitute name. 

3. Testudo elephantopus Harlan. 1827 

This name was first used by Dr. Richard Harlan in a paper 
published in the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, in 1827, and afterward reprinted in Harlan's 
Medical and Physical Researches (1835). The description 
was based upon a living specimen in the possession of Mr. 
Whitton Evans. Beyond the mere fact that it was from th^ 
Galapagos Islands, Dr. Harlan said nothing of the origin of 
this tortoise. 

In 1874, Dr. Giinther, recognizing the fact that Harlan's 
specimen belonged to one of the broad races, associated with 
the name Testudo elephantopus certain specimens of indefinite 
origin. The carapace which he figured is depressed, with some- 
what elevated front, width over curve greater than length over 
curve, height to marginals low, and pectoral plates well 
developed. 

In 1889, after having examined a specimen which he thought 
was the one described by Harlan, Dr. George Baur^ stated his 
conclusion that the specimens which Dr. Giinther had referred 
to Testudo elephantopus did not belong to the species repre- 
sented by Harlan's type. It is probable that the specimen Baur 
examined is a South Albemarle tortoise of the vicina type, for 
Baur states that "a number of specimens collected by the 'Alba- 
tross' agree exactly with" this specimen "and the T. vicina of 
Giinther." 

2Am. Naturalist, Dec. 1889, p. 1043. 



246 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 



Later, Rothschild borrowed this specimen which Baur had 
examined and, having studied it, concluded^ that it was not 
the same as Giinther's Testudo elephantopus, and that it was 
identical with Giinther's Testudo vicina. He, moreover, held 
that Giinther's Testudo elephantopus was the same as Harlan's, 
and, a little later,^ expressed the opinion that it came from 
Hood Island. 

We have, therefore, to consider three questions : 
1. — Is T. elephantopus from Hood Island? 
2. — Is Giinther's T. elephantopus the same as Harlan's ? 
3. — Is it possible to determine what race Harlan's specimen 
represented ? 

These I shall endeavor to answer in the order in which 
they are given. 

1. — I think it may be stated postively that neither Harlan's 
nor Giinther's Testudo elephantopus came from Hood Island. 
Both are of the broad form, in which the width over the curve 
exceeds the length over curve, while in the Hood Island race 
the curved length exceeds the curved width. There are also 
other points of difference. 

2. — I feel equally positive that the specimen figured by Dr. 
Giinther is not identical with Harlan's species. The chief 
points of distinction are: Giinther's specimen has the height 
to marginals low, while, if one may judge from his plate, 
Harlan's specimen belonged to one of those races in which 
this measurement is great. Giinther's specimen has the anterior 
portion of the carapace expanded, while in Harlan's there is 
at least an approach to the laterally compressed, "saddle- 
backed" form. Giinther's specimen, moreover, has a greater 
straight width than Harlan's, and there are minor points 
which also lead to the conclusion that the two belong to differ- 
ent races. The identity of the specimen figured by Giinther 
will be considered under the heading Testudo giintheri Baur. 

3. — Inasmuch as Harlan did not know that there existed in 
the Galapagos Islands more than one kind of tortoise, his de- 
scription is brief and couched in terms so general as to render 

3Novitates Zool., IX, 190'2, p. 448. 
4Loc. cit., p. 618. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOT^iES 



247 



it very difficult to determine positively from it which race his 
specimen represented. This being true, the fate of Harlan's 
specimen becomes of much interest, since only from it can we 
obtain the desired data. Unfortunately, there is little doubt 
that this specimen no longer exists. Baur,^ it is true, men- 
tions examining Harlan's original specimen in the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Sciences, but the specimen to which he 
refers does not agree with the description or measurements 
given by Harlan, and, indeed, has never been regarded as 
Harlan's type by the authorities of the Academy. At my re- 
quest, Dr. Arthur E. Brown has been kind enough to look the 
matter up, and, while the Philadelphia Academy has no com- 
plete records of its museum in those early days, he has found 
in an early volume of the Journal, in the list of donations in 
February, 1827, mention of a "Testudo elephantopus from 
Richard Harlan, M. D." As this was only five months after 
Harlan's paper was read, it seems fair to presume that the 
specimen presented was the one which had served as the basis 
of his description. With Mr. Witmer Stone, Dr. Brown then 
"made a careful search through a lot of odds and ends of old 
material, with the result that we found the cleaned leg bones 
of one side, and a part of the legs of the other side with dried 
skin still on them, of a Testudo about the size of Harlan's type, 
with an index number (366) making it almost certain that it 
came from Harlan." Dr. Brown says, "In the opinion of both 
Mr. Stone and myself, these fragments are probably all that is 
left of the type of T. elephantopus, which had apparently been 
mounted, but long ago became dismembered, leaving only these 
scraps which do not bear any of the specific characters." 

It therefore seems fairly certain that no one ever will know 
from the specimen itself what Harlan's Testudo elephantopus 
really was, and that any opinion must be based upon the meager 
data to be derived from Harlan's original description and plate. 
I have already stated that I believe these to be scarcely adequate. 
The points of value in this connection are : that it was a young 
individual, probably a female, with elevated central areas and 
concentric ridges on the plates, pectoral plates meeting exten- 
sively on the median line — therefore not from Chatham Island ; 
breadth over curve (22.6) greater than length over curve 

5Am. Naturalist, Dec. 1889, p. 1043. 



248 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

(21.6) — therefore, considering its size,^ not from Hood, Ab- 
ingdon, Bank's Bay, Narborough, Tagus Cove, James, Chat- 
ham, or Duncan; vertical diameter nine inches; lateral diam- 
eter fourteen inches ; marginals reflected upward anteriorly and 
over limbs; height to marginals apparently great — therefore 
not from Chatham, Tagus Cove, Bank's Bay, nor Narborough ; 
front of carapace elevated — therefore not from Indefatigable 
Island nor Cowley Mountain, Albemarle. 

In the foregoing list we have excluded most of the races 
of the Galapagos Archipelago. Of all the localities where tor- 
toises ever had been found in the archipelago up to the date 
of the visit of the present expedition, there remain to be con- 
sidered only two — Charles Island and southern Albemarle.''^ 
I doubt if it be possible to decide with certainty from either 
the description or the plate whether Harlan's type came from 
Charles Island rather than from Albemarle ; but there is other 
evidence which throws some light upon the question. First, 
there is the circumstance that most of the early voyagers se- 
cured their tortoise from Charles, James, and Hood islands. 
Second, Porter stated in his journal that the tortoises of Hood 
Island were similar in appearance to those of Charles Island, 
the form of the shell being elongate and turned up forward 
in the manner of a Spanish saddle. Third, Harlan's plate 
strikingly resembles my specimens from Hood Island, although 
his measurements show that he had a different and much 
broader species. Fourth, the few specimens in collections which 
can be pretty definitely traced to Charles Island agree with 
Harlan's specimen in having the length over the curve less 
than the breadth over the curve. 

I hold, therefore, that Harlan's specimen came from Charles 
Island, although we cannot positively prove this to have been 
the case. This being true, the name Testudo elephantopus 
cannot be used for the distinct race to which Giinther applied 
it.^ Some might think it best not to use the term at all, sub- 

6The young are narrower than the adults, so that this statement is true, although 
in some of the races here enumerated adult individuals may have the curved width 
greater than the curved length. 

''The shape of the carapace of the tortoise found on Jervis Island is quite dif- 
ferent from Harlan's plate of T. elephantopus, and although the carapace of the Bar- 
rington Island tortoise is unknown, I think that these islands may safely be ignored 
as possible places of origin of Harlan's specimen, for the reason that tortoises had 
never been found upon them by any of the earlier explorers. 

SSee Testudo giintheri infra. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES £49 

stituting for it Baur's later but more definite name Testudo 
galapagoensis; but to me the evidence seems sufficiently con- 
clusive to justify the retention of Harlan's excellent name for 
the Charles Island tortoise. 

4. Testudo nigrita Dumeril & Bibron. 1835 
Regarding this name I quote from Giinther: 

"No doubt can possibly be entertained as regards the cor- 
rect application of this name to the species which I am about 
to describe. It had been given by Dumeril and Bibron (Er- 
petol. Gener. II, p. 80) to two examples, of which the smaller, 
very young one, is in the Paris Museum, whilst the larger, but 
also of young age, is the property of the Royal College of 
Surgeons. Bibron's description is almost entirely drawn up 
from the latter specimen, which, therefore, must be regarded 
as the type." 

Giinther associated with this specimen a large carapace, with- 
out plastron, belonging to the British Museum. Nothing is 
known regarding the origin of these specimens. Giinther 
figured both the type and large carapace, and states that both 
probably were males. Study of the plates and measurements 
given has developed no reason for doubting the correctness 
of Giinther's conclusion that these two specimens represent 
the same species of tortoise. 

Since the original specimens of Dumeril and Bibron repre- 
sent anim.als too young to have developed distinctive specific 
characters, the attempt to determine to which particular race 
the name Testudo nigrita should apply must rest upon the 
adult specimen with which Giinther later associated it. This 
specimen has the following measurements : 

Straight length 39.25 inches 

Straight width 33.50 " 85% 

Length over curve 50.75 " 129% 

Width over curve 52.25 " 133% 

Width at 2-3d marginals 21. " 53% 

Unfortunately this specimen is incomplete. There remains 
only the upper shell. However, the circular outline and the 
great height of the dome-shaped carapace are so characteristic 
that I have no hesitation in expressing the opinion that it 



250 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

must represent one of two very similar races. These races 
are the one characteristic of Indefatigable Island, and that 
found upon Cowley Mountain in central Albemarle. The ques- 
tion then arises, to which of these can the name Testudo ni- 
grita be applied. 

The differences between the Cowley Mountain tortoise and 
those of Indefatigable are very slight. Indeed, there is no 
measurement of the former which cannot be duplicated in 
some specimen from Indefatigable Island. However, the 
curved length and the width between second and third mar- 
ginals are less, and the middle height and difference between 
curved length and curved width are greater, than is usual in 
the Indefatigable tortoise. If we take, then, the percentages 
of these measurements and add the first two (the curved 
length plus width at second to third marginals), and subtract 
from this the sum of the other two measurements, we have 
as the result 111, a figure which always is exceeded when we 
combine in the same way the measurements of any Indefatiga- 
ble tortoise. 

The fact that I have only one tortoise from Cowley Moun- 
tain, of course, renders unsafe the conclusion that we have 
here two distinct races; but, on the other hand, the fact that 
my 23 specimens from Indefatigable all are alike in this dif- 
ference from the Cowley specimen gives that conclusion con- 
siderable weight. 

Unfortunately, we cannot know the middle height of Giin- 
ther's specimen, but the other measurements enable us to say 
that it agreed with the Indefatigable tortoises and was unlike 
the Cowley specimen, unless it had a middle height greater 
than in any other specimen of any race of Galapagos tortoise. 

We seem justified, then, in saying that Giinther's Testudo 
nigrita agrees with the Indefatigable tortoise. When, in ad- 
dition, it is recalled that the early tortoise-hunters frequented 
Indefatigable Island, but rarely visited Albemarle, I can see 
no good reason for doubting that this specimen really came 
from Indefatigable, and that it belongs to the race which re- 
cently has been called Testudo porteri. However, since con- 
clusions based upon an imperfect specimen of unknown origin 
must always be open to some question, and especially since 
this specimen is not the original type upon which the name was 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 251 

established, it seems best to pass over the name Testudo ni- 
grita, and to use for the Indefatigable Island race the name 
Testudo porteri. 

5. Testudo planiceps Gray. 1855 

This name was established for a skull of unknown origin. 
Dr. Glinther regarded it as representing the race previously 
named Testudo nigrita. The name has since appeared only 
in the synonymy of that tortoise. 

6. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 1875 

The original description of this species was published by 
Dr. Gunther, in 1875, in the Philosophical Transactions. It 
was based upon a single specimen of unknown origin belong- 
ing to the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Arts. Because 
Porter's remarks on the tortoises of Charles Island applied so 
well to this specimen. Dr. Giinther was originally^ of the 
opinion that it represented the Charles Island race, but he 
later^ referred it to Indefatigable Island. 

Dr. George Baur,^ in 1889, was convinced that Testudo 
ephippium represented the Abingdon Island race. This was 
chiefly because of some notes which Dr. Baur found in an 
edition of Captain Basil Hall's Extracts from a Journal.^ 
Captain Hall visited the Galapagos Islands in January, 1822. 
Abingdon was the only island upon which he landed. Speak- 
ing of the tortoises, Captain Hall says: "We took some on 
board, which lived for many months, but none of them sur- 
vived the cold weather off Cape Horn. I preserved one in 
a cask of spirits, and it may now be seen in the Museum of 
the College at Edinburgh; it is about the medium size." 

As Dr. Giinther remarks,^ "this discovery received further 
confirmation when Dr. Traquair, on renewing his inquiries, 
found in the records of the old College Museum an entry of 
a 'Large Turtle from South Sea — Captain Basil Hall.' Un- 

iTrans. Royal Soc. Lond. 1875, pp. 260, 271. 

SGigantic Land Tortoises Brit. Mus., 1877, p. 11. 

3Am. Nat., xxiii, 1889, pp. 1041-1042. 

4Hall, Extracts from a Journal written on the Coasts of Chili, Peru, and 
Mexico, in the Years 1820, 1821, 1822. Part II. London, 1840. (Original Edi- 
tion, Edinburgh, 1824.) 

5Novitates Zool., in. No. 4, 1896, p. 333. 

September 30, 1914. 



252 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



fortunately no mark or label is attached to the specimen by 
which its identification could have been placed beyond ques- 
tion, so that, as Dr. Traquair says at the end of a letter to Dr. 
Baur, "we have no absolute certainty as to whether our Tes- 
tudo ephippium is the specimen from the South Sea presented 
by Captain Basil Hall or not." 

Recently,^ Dr. Giinther has compared the type of his T. 
ephippium directly with three specimens of the Abingdon tor- 
toise and four specimens from Duncan Island. He finds that 
the agreement of the Duncan Island specimens with the type 
of T. ephippium is perfect, while marked differences exist be- 
tween that specimen and those from Abingdon Island. 

After careful study of his descriptions, measurements, and 
plates, in connection with my large series of specimens from 
Duncan Island, I see no reason to doubt the correctness of 
Giinther's conclusion that the name Testudo ephippium may 
properly be applied to the Duncan Island tortoise. 

7. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 1875 

Testudo microphyes was first described by Giinther, in 1875, 
from a small adult individual which he then thought was a 
male, but which he later concluded was a female. This speci- 
men was without definite locality. Giinther at first"^ thought 
it represented the Hood Island race, but later^ identified it 
with specimens from Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. The 
merging of the anterior two marginals of each side into a 
single plate is probably, as Giinther remarked, only an indi- 
vidual variation. 

Some measurements of the type specimen in the British 
Museum were made for me, as follows : 

Straight length 21.3 inches 100% 



Straight width 15.85 

Length over curve 26.45 

Width over curve 26.5 

Width at 2-3d marginals 12.4 

Middle height 10.1 

Front height 6.8 

Height to marginals 9 

Length of plastron 17.6 

BNovitates Zool., in. No. 4, 1896, pp. 329-334. 
TTrans. Royal Soc. Lond., 1875, pp. 260, 275. 
SGigantic Land Tortoises Brit. Mus., 1877, p. 78. 



74.4% 
124% 
124% 
58.2% 
47.4% 
32% 
4.2% 
82.6% 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 253 

These measurements, as well as Giinther's figures, show 
clearly that the height to marginals is very low in the type 
specimen. This being true, it must have come from one of 
three localities, if it represents any of the known non-saddle- 
backed races. These localities are Chatham, Tagus Cove, and 
southern Albemarle. The general shape, the great breadth 
over curve, and the development of the pectoral plates, indi- 
cate that it did not originate in Chatham Island. It must, 
therefore, have come from Albemarle Island. Since there 
occur in southern Albemarle (Cape Rose) tortoises which I 
have been unable to distinguish from those of Tagus Cove, 
any attempt to determine more definitely the place of origin 
of Giinther's type seems needless. If, then, we are right in 
considering that the tortoises from Cape Rose are identical 
with those of Tagus Cove, there are two Albemarle races hav- 
ing the general characteristics of the type of Testudo micro- 
phyes. These are the race found at Tagus Cove (and Cape 
Rose) and the smooth flat-backed race of southeastern Albe- 
marle, for which I employ the name Testudo guntheri Baur. 
Lacking as I do any females from Tagus Cove, I am unable, 
from Giinther's figures and descriptions, or from the measure- 
ments at hand, to indicate any very satisfactory points of dis- 
tinction between the type of T. microphyes and those tor- 
toises from southeastern Albemarle. My opinion, however, 
is that Giinther's type belongs with the Tagus Cove specimens,, 
and my "key" so refers it. 

Until it can be shown that his type specimen differs from 
the specimens taken at Tagus Cove, Giinther's later associa- 
tion of the name Testudo microphyes with this race should 
be followed. I therefore employ the name Testudo micro- 
phyes for the tortoises from Tagus Cove, Albemarle, and for 
a few specimens taken near Cape Rose on the southern coast 
of Albemarle Island. 

8. Testudo vicina Gunther. 1875 

This name was proposed by Giinther^ for the carapace and 
skeleton of a large male of unknown origin. Commander 
Cookson having found at Iguana Cove, Albemarle, a tortoise 

iTrans. Royal Soc. Lond. 1875, p. 277. 



254 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

of different shape and general appearance from those captured 
near Tagus Cove,^ Giinther^ thought it very probable that 
Albemarle was inhabited by at least two distinct races. He 
compared the skull of the type specimen of his Testudo vicina 
with a skull'* brought by Commander Cookson from Iguana 
Cove, and, finding them identical, concluded that Testudo 
vicina was the race native to southwestern Albemarle. Many 
years later, Rothschild obtained specimens from Iguana Cove,, 
and confirmed this opinion, which since then has been ac- 
cepted quite generally. 

The discovery of several races which were not known to 
Giinther, Baur, or Rothschild, makes it necessary to reopen 
the question, and to consider whether Giinther's specimen may 
not belong to one of the latter rather than to the race with 
which it has been associated. I find, however, that the only 
tortoises, aside from South Albemarle specimens, bearing any 
great resemblance to Giinther's type are those from James and 
Jervis islands ; but since I have as yet been unable to find any 
differences sufficient to enable me to distinguish the single 
Jervis specimen from the Iguana Cove tortoises, we need con- 
sider, in the present connection, only those from James Island. 

Giinther's type specimen has the following dimensions,^ in 
inches and percentages of the straight length : 

Straight length 32.9 inches 100% 

Straight width 25 " 76% 

Length over curve 41 " 125% 

Width over curve 40 " 122% 

Width at 2-3d marginals 16.75 " 51% 

Middle height 16 " 49% 

Front height 14.2 ]| 41% 

Height to marginals 2.75 " 8% 

Length of plastron 25.5 " 77% 

These measurements, like Giinther's plate, show that the 
specimen has not the high convex back and other character- 
istics of the James Island race, but that it agrees very closely 
with specimens from Iguana Cove. I can see no good reason 
for not regarding it as identical with specimens from the lat- 
ter locality, and, therefore, shall follow all recent authors in 

2Cookson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1876, p. 524. 
SGigantic Land Tortoises Brit. Mus., 1877, p. 73. 
•*The single living specimen was lost before reaching England. 
SThese measurements have been in part taken for me with the kind permission 
of Dr. Boulenger, and in part are derived from Gunther's writings. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH^GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 255 

the use of the name Testudo vicina Giinther for the race found 
at Iguana Cove and throughout southern Albemarle. 

9. Testudo galapagoensis Baur. 1889 

In 1833, Commander John Downes visited the Galapagos 
Islands in the United States Frigate "Potomac."^ Charles 
was the only island on which he landed. The visit there ex- 
tended from August 31 to September 10. "A large number 
of the crew were daily on shore after terrapin, and frequently 
exposed throughout the day to a hot sun, with these immense 
animals on their backs, traveling over the broken lava." The 
"Potomac" returned to Boston, May 23, 1834. In the fol- 
lowing month. Captain John Downes, of the "Potomac," pre- 
sented to the Boston Society of Natural History two living 
gigantic Galapagos tortoises, weighing nearly three hundred 
pounds each." There would seem to be little room for doubt 
that these specimens originated in Charles Island. 

These tortoises, a male and a female, served as material 
for a paper, by Dr. J. B. Jackson, entitled Anatomical De- 
scription of the Galapagos Tortoise,^ published in 1837. Jack- 
son regarded them as identical with Harlan's Testudo ele- 
phantopus, it being generally thought that all Galapagos tor- 
toises were of one species. 

Of these two specimens, it appears that only the male is 
still in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory. The measurements given by Jackson prove it to be the 
specimen described by him. What became of the female is 
not known. 

In his article published in the American Naturalist for De- 
cember, 1889, Dr. Baur, having compared the skull of the 
specimen remaining in the collection of the Boston Society 
with that of a tortoise belonging to the Philadelphia Academy 
of Sciences, which he mistook for Harlan's original specimen,^ 
stated that the two were specifically distinct. Without stat- 
ing any of the points of difference. Dr. Baur named the 

BReynolds, Voyage of the United States Frigate Potomac, 1835, pp. 464-73, 547; 
c. f. Baur, Am. Nat., xxiii, 1889, p. 1039. 

^Journal Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., i, 1834-37, p. 521. 

8Tom. cit., pp. 443-64, pis. x, xi. 

9Regarding the identity of this specimen see remarks under Testudo elephantopus 
Harlan, 1827, p. 245. 



256 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Sek. 



Charles Island specimen Testudo galapagoensis. Were it not 
for the fact that Baur specifically refers to this particular speci- 
men in the Museum of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
this name might be regarded as a nomen nudum. It remained 
for Dr. Giinther, in 1902/*^ to point out characters distin- 
guishing Testudo galapagoensis from the other races known 
to him. 

To me, the evidence that the type of Testudo galapagoensis 
came originally from Charles Island, although circumstantial, 
is convincing. Also, I believe that it represents a race dis- 
tinct from any known from another locality. While Baur was 
right in his conclusion that it differed from the specimen 
which he thought was Harlan's type of T. elephantopus, he 
was wrong in so regarding the latter specimen, which, it 
seems, is merely a young Testudo vicina and not Harlan's 
specimen at all. Therefore, it never has been shown that 
Jackson's specimens, one of which became the type of Baur's 
Testudo galapagoensis, were not the same as Harlan's T. ele- 
phantopus. I have already^^ given my reasons for thinking 
that Harlan's specimen represented the Charles Island race. 
If I am right in this view, Harlan's Testudo elephantopus 
and Baur's Testudo galapagoensis are synonyms. The former 
is much the older term. 

10. Testudo guntheri Baur. 1889 

In his article on Gigantic Land Tortoises of the Galapagos 
Islands,^^ published in 1889, Dr. George Baur proposed the 
name Testudo guntheri for the species described by Dr. Giin- 
ther as Testudo elephantopus Harlan. The specimen figured 
by Dr. Giinther may be regarded as the type. This specimen, 
as I have stated in discussing T. elephantopus, is of indefinite 
origin. The carapace is depressed, with somewhat elevated 
front ; width over curve greater than length over curve ; height 
to marginals low ; and pectoral plates well-developed. In shape, 
it resembles the Chatham Island tortoise, but differs in the 
greater breadth over curve and in the development of the 
pectoral plates. It, seemingly, is identical with the smooth, 

lONovitates Zool., ix, July, 1902, pp. 184-92, pis. xvi-xxi. 

I2p. 247 ante. 

i3Baur, Am. Naturalist, xxiii, Dec. 1889, p. 1044. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 257 

depressed race found in southeastern Albemarle, in which the 
height to marginals is low. Tesfudo giintheri}'^ therefore, is 
available as a name for that tortoise. 

11. Testudo wallacei Rothschild. 1902 

Rothschild proposed this name for a carapace of unknown 
origin. He says it belongs to the section including T. vicina. 
It is not saddle-shaped, but in other respects seems nearer to 
Testudo galapagoerisis than to any other race. It differs 
from T. galapagoensis in its greater depth, much narrower 
anterior portion of carapace, convex marginal plates, and in 
being strongly declivous in front. The total length in a 
straight line is 32.25 inches. From the fact that between the 
years 1800 and 1835 most of the giant tortoises were got on 
James and Chatham islands, and that Captain Porter says the 
James Island ones were round, Rothschild was of the opinion 
that this carapace represented the Chatham Island species. 

It would be quite impossible, I think, from this brief de- 
scription alone to form an opinion of any value as to the 
identity of Testudo wallacei. Fortunately, however, I now 
have before me a photograph of Rothschild's specimen. Since 
Mr. Rothschild's article appeared we have received tortoises 
from both Chatham and James islands. T. wallacei is very 
different from the Chatham Island race. The only tortoises 
which Mr. Rothschild's specimen at all resembles are those 
of Charles, James, and Jervis islands, and one race of southern 
Albemarle. Rothschild himself has given reasons for regard- 
ing it as distinct from the specimens which are believed to 
have come from Charles Island. We need consider, then, 
only its relationship to the tortoises of James, Jervis and 
southern Albemarle. 

The James Island tortoise is one of the races which may 
be considered as intermediate between the saddle-backed and 
non-saddle-backed groups. It is narrow, with a long plastron , 
and is high in front, with a still higher, somewhat dome- 
shaped, back. The Jervis and Iguana Cove tortoises have more 
horizontal backs sloping down anteriorly. The curved length 

i4Dr. Hans Gadow (Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1894, p. 320) has proposed the 

name Testudo giintheri for certain fragmentary specimens from Mauritius. This 

term being preoccupied by Baur's application of it to a Galapagos tortoise, Dr. 

Gadow's species may be called Testudo gadowi. 



258 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



is less, the straight width is usually greater, the plastron 
shorter. 

In the Iguana Cove tortoises the curved width averages 
greater than the curved length, while in the James and Jervis 
tortoises the reverse is true. 

There is current in the islands a rumor, which I have been 
unable to substantiate, that the tortoises on Jervis Island were 
introduced there by Dr. Baur. If this rumor is founded upon 
fact, the tortoises must have originated in southern Albemarle, 
and are, of course, identical with the T. vicina of that region. 
Certainly the Academy's specimen from Jervis has many points 
of resemblance to those from Iguana Cove. The curved length 
is greater, but I am unable to point out other definite points 
of distinction; although one gets the impression that differ- 
ences exist, and would probably become evident, had one a 
series of specimens to compare. All this being true, it seems 
best, pending further information, to regard the Jervis Island 
tortoise as native to, and characteristic of, that island. I do 
not, however, feel justified in giving it a new name. 

Rothschild gives only the straight length of his type of T. 
wallacei, and without other measurements it is hazardous to 
attempt to say which form it represents. However, the photo- 
graph before me shows a flat-backed shell which differs in 
many respects from my James Island specimens, while it seems 
to agree much more closely with the Jervis Island tortoise and 
the T. vicina from southern Albemarle. Rothschild had speci- 
mens of T. vicina with which to compare his T. wallacei, and 
evidently thought them distinct, although he says they belong 
to the same section. This leaves only the Jervis tortoise. I 
confess it is with a certain lack of confidence that I have con- 
cluded to use the name T. zvallacei for this Jervis Island tor- 
toise. Nevertheless it seems the best way out of two diffi- 
culties. 

Having thus considered these questions of nomenclature 
we may now return to our list of races and apply to them the 
following names : 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 259 

1. Abingdon T. abingdoni Giinther. 

2. James T. darwini Van Denburgh, 

3. Jervis ..T. wallacei Rothschild. 

4. Duncan T. ephippium Giinther. 

5. Indefatigable T. porteri Rothschild. 

6. Barrington T. sp. 

7. Chatham T. chathaniensis Van Denburgh. 

8. Hood T. hoodensis Van Denburgh. 

9. Charles T. elephantopus Harlan. 

10. Narborough T. phantastica Van Denburgh. 

11. Vilamil, Albemarle T. guntheri Baur. 

12. Iguana Cove, Albemarle T. vicina Giinther. 

13. Tagus Cove, Albemarle T. microphyes Giinther. 

14. Bank's Bay, Albemarle T. becki Rothschild. 

15. Cowley Mountain, Albemarle T. sp. 



2. DESCRIPTION. 

It next becomes necessary to investigate the differences 
which distinguish these races of land tortoises one from an- 
other, to endeavor to find the Hmits of their variation, and to 
point out those characters which are available for their classi- 
fication. This investigation we may divide into a consider- 
ation of external characters and an examination for osteo- 
logical differences. The external characters may be divided 
into those of the shell, and those of the soft parts — the head, 
neck, limbs, and tail. 

The Shell — Is covered with horny plates which do not 
differ in number, ^ but which vary in outline according to the 
shape of the bony shell. In young tortoises these plates bear 
striations corresponding to the lines of growth. Older indi- 
viduals become smoother, but in certain races this tendency 
seems to be developed more strongly than in others. Thg 
oldest individuals of almost all races lose these striations. In 
certain races, the central portions of the vertebral and costal 
plates are elevated much more than in others. There are also 
marked differences in the lateral outline of the marginal plates. 
The upper border of the eighth marginal plate in Testudo 
abingdoni is much shorter than in any other race. In the 
Duncan Island tortoises one finds an occasional specimen with 
the pectoral plates reduced in size so that they do not meet on 
the median line. This tendency becomes more constant in 
T. chathamensis. It is unknown in any of the other races. 

lExcept as individual variations. See T. ephippium and T. microphyes. 



250 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

In certain specimens from Vilamil (T. guntheri) one notes a 
curiously pitted surface on some of the plates, as though they 
were diseased. It is due to unequal shedding of the layers 
of the horny plates. Why it should be confined to this region, 
I cannot explain. Differences in color are very slight, but one 
specimen shows on one plate a single diagonal clear yellow 
ray, probably due to the absence of pigment cells at one point 
of growth. 

When one sees side by side tortoises from several islands, the 
differences which are most evident are those in the shape of 
the shell. But, while these differences are noticeable and real, 
they are subject to so much variation that their formulation is 
most difficult, not to say confusing. In order to avoid hopeless 
indefiniteness it is necessary to devise some means of express- 
ing and comparing upon paper these variations in shape. It 
was found that this could best be done by taking numerous 
measurements of each tortoise and reducing all these measure- 
ments to percentages of the (straight) length of the tortoise 
In this way, the measurements of tortoises of all sizes may be 
directly compared. The tortoise is placed upon a level board 
or table in such a position that as nearly as possible it rests 
naturally upon the entire length of the plastral bridge of each 
side. With the tortoise in this position, the straight length 
is the distance between verticals erected at the nuchal notch 
and at the posterior border of the supracaudal plate. The 
straight width is the distance between verticals erected at the 
sides of the tortoise opposite the line of meeting of the second 
and third costal plates. The curved length is measured with 
a tape-measure over the midvertebral line from the nuchal 
notch to the posterior edge of the supracaudal plate. The 
curved width is taken from the bend in the marginal plates 
up along the line of meeting of the second and third costals, 
across the middle of the third vertebral, down between the 
second and third costals, to the line of bending of the margi- 
nals. The width second-to-third-marginals is the straight 
width at the level of the lateral margins of the sutures between 
the second and third marginal plates of each side. The middle 
height is the vertical distance between the board or table and 
the middle of the third vertebral plate, and is taken with a 
square and spirit-level. The front height is taken in the 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 261 

same manner at the nuchal notch. The height to marginals 
is the vertical distance from the table to the lower border of 
the marginal plates at about the middle of the plastral bridge. 
The plastron is measured v^ith a tape along the median line — 
the tape is not pushed into plastral depressions, and when the 
plastron is notched the projections are not measured. 

The actual measurements of the tortoises in the collection 
of the Academy will be given under each species. For pur- 
poses of comparison I have made charts showing each dimen- 
sion as found in all the races represented. The males and 
females are charted on separate lines. Each medium-sized or 
adult specimen is represented by a dot, while the young are 
indicated by crosses. Certain combinations of these measure- 
ments are also charted. 



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PROC. CAL. ACAD. 

Xarboroiigh 

Bank's Bay 

Abingdon 

Duncan 

Hood 

Chatham 

Tagus Cove 

Cape Rose 

Vilamil (flat) 

Vilamil (i,^ flat).... 

James 

Jervis 

Ignana Cove 

Cobos, etc 

Vilamil (dome) 

Cowley Mt 

'"defatigable 



SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pi. I 



(VAN DENBURGH] Plate 23 



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I 




Chart Showing Division into Saddle-Backed and Non-Saddle-Backed Races According to Key Divisions "a" and "a^' 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



287 









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288 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 












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Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES £89 

Examination of these charts shows four kinds of variation 
in shape: 

1. Variation with age. 

2. Variation with sex. 

3. Variation with distribution. 

4. Individual variation. 

1. Variation with age. — Young tortoises of all races are 
similar in shape. The racial characteristics become evident 
only after the tortoises have attained a considerable size. The 
differences between the young and adult are more marked in 
the male than in the female, and in the so-called saddle-backed 
than in the non-saddle-backed races. In other words, the 
young are all more or less dome-shaped, the elevation and 
constriction of the anterior portion of the carapace in the 
saddle-backed races being acquired later in life. 

In the young, the front height averages less; while the 
middle height, the height to marginals, the curved length, the 
length of plastron, and the straight width average more than 
in the adult. The plastron is flat, notched posteriorly, and 
lacks the posterior knob-like thickenings which later develop 
in the males. 

2. Variation with sex. — In the purely dome-shaped races, 
such as that of Indefatigable Island, there is but little difference 
in shape between the sexes. In the intermediate races, such as 
those of Tagus Cove, Iguana Cove, James and Chatham 
Islands, the female retains the high-backed, low-fronted cara- 
pace ; while in the male the anterior portion becomes elevated, 
and the back, in consequence, appears flattened. In the saddle- 
backed races, the males have the anterior portion raised still 
higher, so that it sometimes is higher than the middle of the 
carapace, and the first costal plates with the corresponding mar- 
ginals appear as though pressed inward toward the median line. 
The females of these races show this elevation and constriction, 
but in a lesser degree. 

In adult males the plastron often is quite concave, is shorter 
than in females, and is thickened at its posterior extremity into 
broad knob-like masses. These tumefactions seem to be pecu- 
liar to the males except in one race. In Testudo gilntheri of 



290 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

southeastern Albemarle many of the female tortoises have these 
knobs as highly developed as in any male.-^ 

The females are broader than the males. In them also the 
height to marginals usually is greater. The males attain a much 
larger size than the females. 

3. Variation with distribution. — We have already stated 
that the tortoises from any island differ in shape from those 
from any other. When we consider how close these islands 
are one to another, it is not strange that these differences should 
be slight ; nor are they the less interesting and worthy of study, 
on this account. When we compare Testudo abingdoni with 
the tortoise of Indefatigable, or that of Narborough with that 
of Chatham, the differences are, indeed, great. Had we speci- 
mens from these islands only, we should, without hesitation, 
regard them as very distinct species. But when we have before 
us a large number of tortoises from many islands, we find that 
the matter of their separation becomes most difficult. When 
we chart our measurements, we see at once that, while certain 
forms are very dissimilar, others are much less so, and that 
when the entire group of races is considered the change is so 
gradual that no sharp lines of distinction can be drawn. It is 
evident that there are two main groups : the saddle-backed and 
non-saddle-backed races. But the differences between even 
these are to a great extent bridged by such forms as the James 
(T. darwini), the Tagus Cove {T. microphyes), and the Chat- 
ham Island (T. chathaniensis) tortoises. Nevertheless, the dif- 
ferences are real, and appear in the table of averages. The 
extremes of individual variation in races so closely related 
must overlap and prevent clear diagnosis, unless this variation 
can in some way be hidden. Now, extremes of variation in any 
one tortoise rarely affect more than a few measurements. It 
therefore is possible, by selecting the measurements which best 
bring out the racial differences, and by combining them in 
various ways, to bury, as it were, the extremes of individual 
variation by a process of summation of characters. It is only 
in this way that we can hope to make a key for the separation 
of the various races. Even when thus constructed the key 
must be inadequate for the separation of some specimens. All 

iSince this seems to be true also in the type of Giinther's T. microphyes I was at 
first inclined to associate the latter name with this race, but it seems better to follow 
Gunther's use of the term. See remarks p. 253 ante. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 291 

that can be said for it is that it seems the only solution of a 
most difficult problem, and must be regarded as a necessary evil. 
Although sharp lines cannot be drawn between the various 
races, I shall use binomials in referring to them, since I believe 
nothing is to be gained by a more cumbersome nomenclature 
when dealing with such insular forms. 

4. Individual Variation. — In the shape of the carapace this 
variation is very considerable, as is shown by the charts of 
measurements. There is also much variation in the size attained 
by different specimens. Some very old individuals are much 
smaller than younger ones of the same races. The horny plates 
are remarkably constant in number and shape, but certain indi- 
vidual variations occur. The type of T. microphyes has the 
anterior two marginals of each side merged into single plates. 
One specimen of Testudo vicina (No. 8254) from Vilamil has 
an intergular plate. Another (No. 8196) has a single light- 
yellow ray on one second costal, and an extra plate in the front 
part of the plastron. Van Lidth de Jeude has figured a speci- 
men of T. ephippium in which the pectorals do not reach the 
midline. This variation seems not very rare in this race. I 
have noted it in Nos. 8321 and 8333 ; and Nos. 8332 and 8367 
have the left pectorals not extending to the midline, although 
those of the right side reach it. In this Duncan Island race 
also No. 8375 has five left costals, No. 8326 has five right cos- 
tals, and No. 8361 has five right costals, and also has the third 
vertebral divided into three irregular portions. In No. 8265 
{Testudo gi'mtheri) the pectorals are divided longitudinally. 

The Soft Parts. — These also vary with age, with sex, indi- 
vidually, and with race. The young have proportionally shorter 
necks, limbs, and tails than the adults; and the adult females 
have these parts proportionally shorter than the adult males. 
In the saddle-backed races these parts are longer than in the 
dome-shaped races. Both sexes of the saddle-backed races 
usually have more or less yellow on the lower jaw and throat. 
This coloration appears also in some of the males of T. gUn- 
theri, and is found also in the James Island race. The non- 
saddle-backed forms, the Tagus Cove race, and at least the 
females of the Chatham race are entirely blackish brown. 



292 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



OsTEOLOGiCAL DIFFERENCES. — Those which have been con- 
sidered of taxonomic value are mainly differences which 
appear in the skulls, cervical vertebrae, shoulder-girdle, pelvis, 
and large limb bones. As in the case of the shell, these are 
differences of proportion. It has been stated that Testudo 
hecki and the Charles Island tortoise (T. elephantopus s. gala- 
pagoensis) differ from the other races in having the third 
instead of the fourth cervical vertebra biconvex. This con- 
dition in the type of T. hecki is an individual variation, since 
it is the fourth vertebra which is biconvex in my series of 
seven specimens from Bank's Bay. The condition doubtless 
is anomalous also in the Charles Island specimen. The dif- 
ferences in proportion of the bones of the limbs and neck cor- 
respond with the relative length of these parts in the varioas 
races, the number of bones being the same in all. They are 
proportionally shorter in the dome-shaped races, and longer 
in those in which the carapace is elevated and compressed 
anteriorly. These differences are shown in the measurements 
of the limbs and neck given with the description of each race 
or species. Certain differences in the skulls of the tortoises of 
the various races have been pointed out by Dr. Giinther. I 
believe that the differences he has indicated are all merely 
individual variations. In a series of 24 skulls from Vilamil, 
Albemarle, I find all of the variations which Dr. Giinther 
mentions ; and upon careful comparison of this series with one 
skull from Hood Island (No. 8125), one from Indefatigable 
(No. 8381), one from James (No. 8105), three from Dun- 
can (Nos. 8378, 8379, and 8380), four from Chatham (Nos. 
8127, 8128, 8130, and 8131), and one from Iguana Cove 
(No. 8179), I can find no constant differences in the skulls 
of the various races. In the skulls from Vilamil, the frontal 
region may be flat or somewhat convex. The occipital spine 
may be short or long, not reaching the posterior borders of 
the mastoid processes or projecting far behind them, and 
may or may not rise much above the level of the skull. There 
is much variation in the shape of the tympanic case and cavity. 
The fossa in front of the occipital condyle may be deep or 
very shallow. The tuberosity for the temporal muscle may 
be quite small or very largely developed. The nasal opening 
may be as high as broad, or broader than high. The palatal 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 293 

region varies much in shape. It may be narrow or broad, and 
the pterygoid edges may be sharp or blunt. The alveolar 
ridges also vary in position and degree of development. We 
may safely say that no constant dijfferences exist among the 
skulls of the various races of Galapagoan tortoises. 

Key to Galapagoan Races 

a. — Saddle-backed races. — The sum of the percentage straight width, 
curved width, width between second and third marginals, and the 
difference between front and middle heights is less than, or exceeds 
by not more than 10, the sum of the percentage straight length, front 
height, twice the height to marginals, and length of plastron; or 
else straight width less than 66%. 

b. — Plastron more than 72% ; percentage of plastron exceeds that of 
straight width by not less than 3; distance between prominent 
points of first marginals less than 30% ; front height usually less 
than 53%. 

c. — Plastron more than 88%. Height to marginals 10 to 12%. 
Hood Island. 

T. hoodensis. — p. 313. 
c^. — Plastron not more than 



d. — Width at 2nd to 3rd marginals less than 39%; eighth 
marginal much reduced and wedgeshaped at top ; height 
to marginals 8 to 10%. Abingdon Island. 

T. abingdoni. — ^p. 296. 

d^. — Width at 2nd to 3rd marginals not less than 39%; 
eighth marginal with a considerable superior margin. 
e. — Width at 2nd to 3rd marginals plus middle height 
minus front height equals less than 59% ; 
f. — Height to marginals greater, 7 to 12% ; size small ; 
plastron often shorter. Duncan Island. 

T. ephippium. — p. 306. 

P. — Height to marginals less, 5 to 9% ; size large ; 
plastron often longer. Northern Albemarle. 
T. beeki. — ^p. 303. 

e^. — Width at 2nd to 3rd marginals plus middle height 
minus front height equals not less than 60% (one 
small 2 ). James Island. 

T. darwini. — p. 319. 

b^. — Plastron less than 72% ; percentage of plastron not exceeding that 
of straight width ; distance between prominent points of first 
marginals more than 30% ; front height more than 53% ; curved 
length more than 123%. 
Height to marginals less than 7%. Narborough Island. 

T. phantastica. — p. 299. 

a^. — Non-saddle-backed races. The sum of the percentage straight width, 
curved width, width between second and third marginals and the 
difference between front and middle heights exceeds by more than ten 
the sum of the percentage straight length, front height, twice the 
height to marginals, and plastron. 

bb. — The sum of the curved length, front height, middle height, and 
plastron, equals or exceeds the sum of the straight length, straight 
width and curved width; the front height is more than 41% of 
the straight length. 



294 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Straight width nor less than 72% ; percentage of middle height 
exceeds percentage of front height by not less than six; curved 
length of male more than 122% ; middle height in male not less 
than 54% ; front height in male not exceeding 45%. James 

Island. 

T. darwini. — p. 319. 

bb^, — The sum of the curved length, front height, middle height, and 
plastron, is less than the sum of the straight length, straight 
width, and curved width ; or^ the front height does not exceed . 
41% of the straight length. 

cc. — The sum of the straight width, curved width and half the 
height to marginals is less than twice the straight length; the 
height to marginals is not more than 7% ; the curved length 
does not exceed 126% ; the middle height does not exceed 
51%; the percentage of the curved width does not exceed 
the percentage of the curved length by more than 4. 
dd. — Pectoral plates much reduced medially, (usually) not 
reaching the midline ; plastron longer, its percentage ex- 
ceeding that of straight width by more than 4. Chatham 
Island. 

T. microphyes. — p. 329, 

dd^. — Pectoral plates not more reduced than in most races, 
meeting on the midline ; plastron shorter, its percentage 
rarely exceeding that of straight width by more than 4. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle. 

T. chathamensis. — p. 323. 

cc^. — The sum of the straight width, curved width and half the 
height to marginals is not less than twice the straight length;^ 
or (if not) the height to marginals is more than 7% ; or the 
curved length exceeds 126% ; or the middle height exceeds 
51%; or the percentage of the curved width exceeds the 
percentage of the curved length by more than four; 
ddd. — The sum of the straight width, middle height, differ- 
ence between front and middle heights, and width at 2nd 
to 3rd marginals exceeds 218% ; or the difference between 
percentages of front and middle heights not less than 26; 
or height to marginals more than 10% ; or plastron more 
than 87%. 

ee. — Curved length plus width at 2nd to 3rd marginals 
minus difference between curved length and curved 
width minus middle height equals not less than 112%. 
Indefatigable Island. 

T. porteri. — p. 354. 

ee^. — Curved length plus width at 2nd to 3rd marginals 
minus difference between curved length and curved 
width minus middle height equals not more than 
111%. Cowley Mountain, Albemarle. 
T. sp.— p. 362. 

ddd^. — The sum of the straight width, middle height, differ- 
ence between front and middle heights and width at 2nd 
to 3rd marginals not exceeding 218% ; difference between 
percentages of front and middle heights less than 26; 
height to marginals not more than 10% ; plastron not 
more than 87%. 

iln 2 Indefatigable and 4 dome-shaped ? ? from South Albemarle. 

SThree exceptions to this are 1 Iguana Cove, 1 Cobos, and 1 Vilamil specimen. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



295 



eee. — Marginal border not scalloped; first marginals with- 
out prominent points; height to marginals low, 3 co 
8%; the sum of the curved length, middle height, 
difference between front and middle heights, and 
height to marginals is less than twice the straight 
length. Southeastern Albermarle. 

T, giintheri. — p. 335. 

eee^.— Marginal border scalloped; first marginals with 
more or less prominent points; height to marginals 
greater, 6 to 10% ; the sum of the curved length, mid- 
dle height, difference between front and middle 
heights, _ and height to marginals usually is more 
than twice the straight length. 

ff. — Width over curve greater, usually greater than 
length over curve. South Albemarle. 
T. vicina. — p. 344. 

ff-. — Width over curve less, not equal to length over 
curve. Jervis Island. 

T. wallacei. — p, 351. 

Descriptions of the Races 

In the following pages each race or species of Galapagoan 
tortoise is treated separately. Since these tortoises are structur- 
ally so nearly identical, and differ chiefly in shape and pro- 
portions, it has been thought best to omit long descriptions of 
each race. Instead, brief diagnoses are given, and it is hoped 
that the numerous photographs of specimens, together with 
the tables of measurements, will convey a more accurate and 
comprehensive knowledge of these tortoises than any descrip- 
tions could. 

The field notes were made by Mr. Slevin. 



296 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Testudo abingdoni Giinther 

Abingdon Island Tortoise 

Plates 24 to 29. 

Testudo abingdonii GunthEr, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 66 ; GunthEr, Gigantic 
Land Tortoises Brit. Mus., 1877, p. 85, pis. XI, XII, XIV figs. D-F, 
XLVIII-L; BouLENGER, Cat. Chelonians Brit. Mus., 1889, p. 171; Baur, 
Am. Nat., XXIII, 1889 [1890] p. 1041, 1044 (part) ; Gadow, Cambridge 
Nat. Hist., VIII, 1901, p. 378; Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V. 
1903 p 59; Beck, Seventh Report N. Y. Zool. Soc, 1903, p. 17; SiEbEn- 
ROCK, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 535. 

Type specimens. — British Museum. Three adult males. 
Straight length 38, 34, and 38^ inches. Taken on Abing- 
don Island, by Commander Cookson, in 1875. 

Distribution. — This species seems to be confined to the 
moist district near the southern end of Abingdon Island. 

Material. — The Academy has complete skins of three adult 
males and a nearly complete bony shell of a fourth. There 
is a skeleton in the U. S. National Museum. The British 
Museum contains the types, and the Tring Museum has one 
adult male and one young example. So far as I can learn, 
no female has ever been collected. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace high, higher than, or but 
little lower than, middle; height at nuchal notch more than 
45% (46 to 50%) of straight length; difference between per- 
centage of heights at third vertebral and at nuchal notch 
less than 9 (2 to 5) ; carapace saddle-shaped, very narrow 
anteriorly, width at margin of junction of second and third 
marginals not more than 38% (36 to 38%) ; first marginals 
not greatly enlarged, not much everted, their ventral surfaces 
not vertical, their most prominent points separated by less 
than 30% (20 to 26%); length over curve not more than 
123% (115 to 119%); greater than width over curve; verti- 
cal distance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge of 
lateral marginals great, 8 to 10% ; general size large, straight 
length 29.3 to 36 inches; plastron long, median length 81 to 
82%; plates generally smooth; pectorals forming a suture on 
median line; eighth marginal plate wedge-shaped with very 
short superior border; lower jaw and throat of male marked 
with yellow. 



V»L. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



297 







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298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

General remarks. — This is one of the most "saddle-backed" 
of the Galapagoan tortoises. It is most like T. hecki of north- 
ern Albemarle and T. ephippium of Duncan. The former, 
however, is a larger species, while the Duncan race rarely if 
ever grows as large as the Abingdon one. The shells of the 
Abingdon tortoises are quite thin, and there is much yellow 
about the head in males. 

Field Notes* — 

September 18, 1906. — Sailed this morning for Abingdon, 
where we anchored at 12:30 on the south side of the island, 
which appears to be the highest. 

September 19, 1906. — Went up the mountain after tortoises. 
We commenced to get into good tortoise country at about 
seven or eight hundred feet elevation, the beginning of the 
green zone. There is not much earth, the ground being 
nearly all lava, but there is plenty of water and cactus. The 
top of the mountain is covered with fog most of the time, 
and everything is very wet. We saw fresh signs of tortoises 
soon after getting into the green zone, and soon found a trail. 
This we followed, and came upon a tortoise on the top of a 
large rock which contained a few small water holes. It is 
capital country for tortoises; we did not, however, look far- 
ther, but skinned and carried out our first find. Ochsner went 
up the mountain a little higher, and came upon another large 
male. There are trails all around the mountain side. Beck 
found a male on the southern slope of the mountain, lower 
down. He also found the fresh trail of another tortoise, but 
failed to find the tortoise. We expect to go in tomorrow and 
get the tortoise Oschner found. The one we got out today 
was a very fat male. Its stomach contained cactus. 

September 20, 1906. — Spent the day getting out the tor- 
toise found by Ochsner. Saw several trails but no new tor- 
toises. Today Beck found the one the trail of which he saw 
yesterday, but it is too far in to get out. Expect tomorrow 
to get out the one he found yesterday. The stomach of the 
one skinned today contained cactus and grass. 

September 21, 1906. — Went in after the tortoise which 
Beck found September 19. It was about a mile or two above 
the green zone on the southern slope of the mountain. Up 
there it is continually raining or foggy throughout the morn- 

*A11 the field notes, unless otherwise stated, are by Mr. Joseph R. Slevin. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 299 

ing, but clears off in the afternoon. It is capital tortoise 
country, everything being green, with plenty of water and 
cactus. The three tortoises taken were very fat, and showed 
the effects of good living. We saw no other signs, and they 
probably are very rare on Abingdon Island. The stomach of 
the one collected today contained grass and cactus. Beck 
also found an old shell and a few bones in a cave, where the 
tortoise probably had fallen in and died. We carried these 
down, and they are in fairly good condition. 

Testudo phantastica Van Denburgh 

Narborough Island Tortoise 

Plates 30 and 31. 

Testudo phantasticus Van Denburgh, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4), I, 
1907, p. 4; SiEBENROCK, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., X. 3, 1909, p. 535. 

Type specimen. — California Academy of Sciences No. 8101. 
Adult male. Straight length 34.5 inches. Taken on Nar- 
borough Island, by R. H. Beck, April 5, 1906. 

Distribution. — This tortoise is from Narborough Island. 

Material. — The type specimen is the only one that ever has 
been seen. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace high, not lower than mid- 
dle; height at nuchal notch more than 41% (54%) of straight 
length; difference between percentages of height at third ver- 
tebral and at nuchal notch less than 9 (2) ; carapace saddle- 
shaped, narrow anteriorly, width at margin of junction of 
second and third marginals not more than 54% (46%) ; first 
marginals much enlarged, everted more than in any other 
race, their ventral surfaces nearly vertical, their edges from 
nuchal notch to prominent point nearly horizontal, prominent 
point almost a right angle ; distance between prominent points 
of first marginals more than 30% (32%) ; length over curve 
more than 123% (124%), greater than width over curve; 
vertical distance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge 
of lateral marginals small, 6% ; general size moderate, straight 
length 34.5 inches; plastron short, 70%; pectoral plates form- 
ing a suture on median line; eighth marginal not reduced; 
lower j aw and throat marked with yellow. 



300 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



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General remarks. — This is a "saddle-backed" tortoise with 
the anterior marginal plates very strongly reverted. It seems 
most nearly related to Testudo becki of northern Albemarle, 
but no such enlargement and outward and backward devel- 
opment of the anterior marginals is seen in any other tor- 
toise. The early voyagers did not report the presence of 
tortoises on Narborough Island, so the discovery of this spe- 
cies was rather unexpected. 

Field Notes. — Leaving Tagus Cove, April 2, 1906, Mr. Beck 
and Mr. Hunter set out for Narborough to hunt for tortoises. 
The climbing of the volcano proved most arduous, but Mr. 
Beck, leaving Mr. Hunter at the lower level, pushed on to the 
rim of the crater. The story of the finding of the only tortoise 
known to have been taken upon this island is told by Mr. 
Beck as follows : 

Starting at daylight on April 3, 1906, a point about one- 
half the distance to the top of Narborough Island was 
reached at noon. Here commenced a narrow "island" of 
lava of more ancient eruption than that over which the first 
stage of the journey was made. This "island" had scattering 
cactus and a few bushes and vines. As I worked up through 
this strip of lava I saw a few old droppings of a tortoise, and 
on examination I found he had been eating a considerable 
quantity of Cereus, a cactus that is not often attacked by other 
tortoises, as the spines are much more difficult to make way 
with. Many spines were found in some of the excrement. 
Thinking that if a tortoise were down in this desolate patch, 
there would be many on top, I climbed toward the top, stopping 
on the way at one small mount of much older larva, seemingly 
of about the same age as Tagus Cove Mountain, for there 
was considerable soil. There were no signs of tortoises here, 
though iguanas were plentiful. Reaching the base of the 
main crater at about 5 o'clock, I camped, and next morning; 
climbed up to the top, which was, where I climbed, a plateau 
a half mile across to the edge of the crater. The crater was 
probably over 1000 feet deep and a half mile in diameter. 
The plateau was covered with rank grass with clumps of 
Opuntia near the outer edge and scattering Cereus — an excel- 
lent place for tortoises; but none was seen, nor any signs. 



302 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Returned to camp, and struck down to the place where the tor- 
toise signs were. Reached it at 4 :30 P. M., and laying down 
the pack commenced searching, and in a portion of the 
"island" of old lava found a still older flow where there was 
considerable soil. Here I found a tortoise trail which had 
been travelled the day before. I followed this, and soon found 
in the trail a rock which had been used for the same purpose 
that rocks in similar places on Tagus Cove Mountain have 
served ever since the whalers carried off all the female tor- 
toises. Going on some distance farther the old male was 
found slowly feeding on grass near the trail. Getting my pack, 
I ate supper and skinned the tortoise by moonlight. Starting 
with him next morning, I reached the shore at 4 :30 P. M. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 303 

Testudo becki Rothschild 

North Albemarle Island Tortoise 
Plates 31 to 38. 

Testudo becki Rothschild, Nov. ZooL, VIII, 1901, p. 372; Van 
DENBURGH, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4), I, 1907, p. 4; SiEbenrock, Zool. 
Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 536. 

Testudo hedsi, HEllEr, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 
59 (err. typ.). 

Type specimen. — Tring Museum, England. Adult male. 
Length 40.75 inches. Taken at Cape Berkeley, northern Al- 
bemarle, by R. H. Beck. 

Distribution. — This tortoise seems to be confined to the 
northern end of Albemarle Island, where it has been taken 
near Bank's Bay and Cape Berkeley. 

Material. — The Academy collection contains seven speci- 
mens, of which one is an adult female. The Tring Museum 
contains five adult males collected by Mr. Beck. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace high, in males sometimes 
higher than middle ; height at nuchal notch not less than AA%, 
(44 to 52%) of straight length; difference between percent- 
ages of front and middle heights less than 9 ( — 6 to -|-6) ; 
carapace saddle-shaped, narrow anteriorly, width at margin 
of junction of second and third marginals not more than 54% 
(40 to 54%) ; first marginals not very greatly enlarged, not 
greatly everted, their ventral surfaces not vertical, their most 
prominent points separated by less than 30% (23 to 29%); 
length over curve not more than 123% (114 to 121%), 
greater than width over curve (except in one specimen) ; 
vertical distance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge 
of lateral marginals small — 5 to 8% in males, 9% in female; 
general size large, straight length 34 to 41.5 inches; plastron 
of moderate length, 73 to 84%; plates nearly smooth in 
adults; pectorals forming a suture on median line; eighth 
marginal plate not reduced; lower jaw and throat of males 
marked with yellow. 



September 30, 1914. 



304 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sei. 



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Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 305 

General remarks. — Testudo becki is a very large "saddle- 
backed" tortoise with a thick, heavy shell. The female speci- 
men, however, although evidently an old individual, is small 
and might easily be mistaken for some of the Duncan Island 
females. One of the large males is less compressed in front, 
and somewhat resembles the James Island males. 

Field Notes — April 9 to 16, 1906. — Prepared to go to Bank's 
Bay, and sailed in the boat with the mate. We had light breezes 
and were out all night . The skiff picked us up in the morning, 
and we towed up to the camping beach. The mountain ap- 
pears very much like the one at Tagus Cove, but has two 
recent lava-flows running down the side. The vegetation is 
very dense and green. The flat, however, at this time was 
getting dry, and the tortoises had evidently gone up higher, 
as we got only seven. Their trails were numerous and dis- 
tinct. They fed chiefly on a coarse grass that is abundant at 
the foot of the mountain. No cactus was found in any of the 
stomachs examined, and not much water was found in the sac 
around the heart. This fluid is somewhat oily, and not thin 
like water. The country at the foot of the mountain is brushy, 
with some large trees, quite a bit of reddish soil, and some 
lava-flows fairly well covered. Beck and I went up the coast 
about three miles to an isolated patch of brush and trees to 
see if there were any signs of tortoises, but saw none. I should 
suppose the only chance of their being there would be if they 
had happened to be along the coast during the wet season, and 
were then shut off by the recent lava-flows, for the distance to 
travel from the mountain would be too great. We made a 
stay of seven days at Banks Bay and collected seven tortoises. 
All these tortoises had comparatively longer necks than any 
others measured thus far. We left on the afternoon of the 
sixteenth and got back to the ship about midnight. 



306 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Testudo ephippium Giinther 

Duncan Island Tortoise 

Plates 39 to 52. 

Testudo ephippium GunthEr, Trans. Royal Soc. Lond., CLXV, 1875, p. 
271, pis. 34, 35 fig. B, 37 fig. C, 38 fig. C, 39 fig. C, 42 fig. B, 44 fig. B, 45 fig. 
B ; GuNTHER, Gigantic Land Tortoises Brit. Mus., 1877, p. 81, pis. XXXI B, 
fig. B, XXXIX, XLIV, XLII fig. C, XUII fig. C, XLIV fig. C ; Boulen- 
GER, Cat. Chelonians Brit. Mus., 1889, p. 171 ; Baur, Am. Nat. XXIII, 1889 
(1890) p. 1040; Gunther, Novit. Zool., Ill, 1896, p. 329, pis. XX-XXII; 
LiDTH DE JEUDE, Notes Leyden Mus., XX, 1898, p. 126; pis. III-V; 
Gadow, Cambridge Nat. Hist., VIII, 1901, p. 378 ; HellEr, Proc. Washing- 
ton Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 57 ; Beck, Seventh Report N. Y. Zool. Soc, 1903, 
p. 15 ; SiEBENRocK, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 534. 

Testudo abingdonii (part), Baur, Am. Nat., XXIII, 1889 (1890), p. 
1039. 

Type specimen. — Museum of Science and Arts, Edinburgh. 
Adult male. Straight length 33 inches. Origin unknown. 

Distribution. — This tortoise has been found only on Dun- 
can Island. 

Material. — There are in the Academy's collection eighty- 
six specimens of this tortoise. Twenty-five of these are males. 
This race and those found in southeastern Albemarle are the 
ones most abundantly represented in museums. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace high, higher than or but 
little lower than middle; height at nuchal notch more than 
38% (39 to 54%) of straight length; difference between per- 
centages of heights at third vertebral and at nuchal notch less 
than 12 ( — 11 to +11) ; carapace saddle-shaped, usually nar- 
row anteriorly, width at margin of junction of second and 
third marginals not more than 39 to 59%; first marginals 
sometimes much everted, their most prominent points sepa- 
rated by less than 30% (17 to 29%) ; length over curve not 
more than 123% (109 to 122%) ; usually greater than width 
over curve; vertical distance from lower surface of plastron 
to lower edge of lateral marginals great — 7 to 12% ; general 
size rather small, straight length 18.4 to 29.5 inches; plastron 
of moderate length, 75 to 88%; plates generally smooth in 
adults; pectorals usually forming a suture on median lin^; 
eighth marginal plate not reduced, with a considerable supe- 
rior border; lower jaw and throat in males marked with 
yellow. 



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31Q CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

General remarks. — The Duncan Island tortoise is one of 
the smaller species. The size is by no means proportionate 
to the age, if one may judge from the ossification of the 
points of growth in the bones and the loss of striation of the 
plates of the carapace. Some of the large males seem to be 
quite young, and some of the oldest females are very small. 
The large males are most similar in shape to those of Abing- 
don. There is much variation in shape in both sexes, as is 
shown in the tables and charts of measurements and the pho- 
tographs of specimens. A number of specimens have the 
pectoral plates not meeting on the midline. 

An egg (No. 8423) from Duncan Island measures 2.34x 
2.30 inches. It was found lying on the surface of the ground 
in December, 1905. 

Field Notes — Dec. 1, 1905. — Sailed for Duncan Island in the 
morning, and anchored off the northeast side of the island at 
dusk. Light winds all day. 

Dec. 2, 1905. — Skinned two turtles and a tortoise which 
Hunter brought down from the edge of the crater. Beck 
went ashore looking for tortoises, and found twelve, which 
he tied up. Monday we start to skin them and get them to 
the vessel. I shall clear things up somewhat before going on 
Tuesday to camp with Beck. Beck found the skull of a tor- 
toise in good condition, and brought it down. 

Dec. 4, 1905. — Beck went into camp today on the top of 
the crater. I go up tomorrow to skin tortoises. Stewart, 
Hunter, and Ochsner brought down a tortoise each today ; two 
males and a female. 

Dec. 5, 1905. — Finished the skinning of the three tortoises 
brought down yesterday. All were very fat, and had very 
long necks for their size. The female had eggs in yolk and 
one nearly developed. 

Dec. 6-9, 1905. — I was in camp skinning and carrying tor- 
toises. We had our camp in a valley near the top of the 
island just south of the large crater. The country is very 
rough, and covered in most places with thick brush and thorn 
bushes. No tortoises were found in the crater, but Beck saw 
the tracks of one there. We found several old males, which 
were brought down alive, and which will be kept if possible. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 3^]^ 

The tortoises have lots of moss in their stomachs and a kind 
of thick grass that, when dried, looks somewhat like straw. 
They also feed largely on cactus. I was able to get the tem- 
perature of some, and found them to be warm, but they hap- 
pened to be in the sun. Some measurements were lost be- 
cause my note book got wet. It is not the best kind of country 
for books or tools of any description. We have got about 
twenty-nine tortoises on board up to date and have several 
more tied up ashore which we expect to get next week. The 
tortoises here all have very dark livers, while on Indefatigable 
all were very light-colored and fat. The Duncan tortoises 
are all very fat except the old males, which had no fat or very 
little. I am going back the first thing Monday morning to 
work on tortoises again. 

Dec. 11-16, 1905. — Camped in the central part of Duncan, 
working on tortoises. We have been here two weeks now, 
and probably have about eighty tortoises. They were com- 
mon along the southern and western slopes of the island, where 
most of them were taken. All the females had eggs in yolk 
form, and one with hard shell was found. Mr. Beck found 
two eggs exposed on the ground. We kept them to blow, 
though both were cracked. We had a light rain all night on 
the twelfth, and the tortoises came out from the brush to the 
water holes. Those we found after this were mostly filled 
with water, which seemed to be all through the body, and 
would come out as soon as the plastron was cut into. The 
stomachs contained cactus, grass and moss. Some of the 
old males taken would stretch out their necks and, with mouths 
wide open, would have a somewhat fierce expression, but they 
made no attempt to bite. Several pictures were taken — one of 
an old male which was holding a small female by the hind 
leg. The old tortoises had lichen growing on their backs and 
at a short distance looked exactly like blocks of lava, which 
were covered with the same growth. I shall have to spend 
a few days now getting the tortoises put in shape. With such 
a grand rush they could not well be in the best condition. We 
have to go to Conway Bay tomorrow, and from there to 
Jervis and James. 

Jan. 30, 1906. — The Duncan tortoises are doing well, and 
eat a good portion of cactus. They are very slow and delib- 



312 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

erate in their movements. They take very small bites, scrap- 
ing the inside of the cactus with their horny jaws. 

July 11, 1906. — One of the old Duncan tortoises died to- 
day. He was full of sores (abscesses?) and had something 
the matter with his feet, as the skin nearly fell off them. The 
lungs were very dry and full of hard lumps. The skull was 
broken and several other bones were cracked or very weak. 
Altogether, he was in a bad state, whatever was the matter. 

August 14, 1906. — Anchored off Duncan about ten in the 
morning. I went ashore for lizards, while Beck went in after 
tortoises. 

August 15, 1906. — I went down into the large crater at the 
north end of the island. The floor of the crater is 450 feet 
above the sea level, and is composed of red loam covered with 
large thorn bushes and old stumps. The vegetation is thickest 
around the edge, while the central portion is almost bare. I 
saw old signs of tortoises, but lizards were the only reptiles 
seen in the crater. Beck got seven tortoises down to the 
vessel, some alive and some partly skinned. We shall have to 
clean up the mess tomorrow. Tortoises still are abundant on 
Duncan. We run across them while hunting for other things. 
Former collectors could not have covered very much country, 
if they could say they doubted whether more than two or three 
yet remained on the island. Beck found that one female con- 
tained large eggs with soft white shell nearly ready to lay. 
He brought these down, and I will see if it is possible to pre- 
serve them. We expect to sail for Vilamil early in the morn- 
ing. 

Sept. 8, 1906. — The large male tortoise we took off Duncan 
during our first visit died today. 

Oct. 4, 1906. — A male Duncan tortoise died on board today. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 313 

Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh 

Hood Island Tortoise 

Plates 52 to 55. 

Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh, Proc. Cal Acad Sci (4) I 
1907, p. 3; SiEBENRocK, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3 1909, p. 535. ' 

Type specimen. — California Academy of Sciences No. 8121. 
Male. Straight length 22.2 inches. Taken on Hood Island, 
by Joseph R. Slevin and E. S. King, June 27, 1906. 

Distribution. — This tortoise is known only from Hood 
Island. 

Material. — The Academy has the skins and bones of one 
male and two female specimens, one extra skull and some 
fragments. The Honorable Walter Rothschild writes me that 
there is in his museum at Tring a carapace without plastron 
which he refers to this species. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex ; front of carapace high, little lower than mid- 
dle, height at nuchal notch 42 to 49% of straight length; dif- 
ference between percentages of heights at third vertebral and 
at nuchal notch less than 9 (2 to 6) ; carapace saddle-shaped, 
narrow anteriorly, width at margin of junction of second and 
third marginals not more than 54% (45%); first marginals 
not greatly enlarged, not much everted, their ventral surfaces 
not vertical, their most prominent points separated by less than 
30% (20%) ; length over curve not more than 123% (111 to 
123%) ; greater than width over curve; vertical distance from 
lower surface of plastron to lower edge of lateral marginals 
great, 10 to 12%; general size rather small, straight length, 
22.2 inches; plastron long, median length 89 to 93%; plates 
striated, central portions of vertebrals and costals much ele- 
vated ; pectoral plates forming a suture on median line ; lower 
jaw and throat marked with yellow. 



314 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se». 















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Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 3^5 

General remarks. — The Hood Island tortoise probably never 
attained great size. None of our specimens is fully adult, but 
I should judge that an adult would not be larger than a Dun- 
can tortoise. It is probable that the Charles Island and the 
Hood Island tortoises were very similar in shape, but the 
Hood Island ones are narrower than the specimens which are 
thought to have originated in Charles Island. 

Field Notes — Hood Island was reached September 24, 1905. 
Various parts of the island were explored during this visit 
which ended October 2. On September 27, Mr. Beck found 
some fragments of tortoise bones on the western end of the 
island. They were lying on the ground among the lava blocks 
and were exposed to the sun. These fragments were the only 
signs of tortoises. Hood Island was visited again from Janu- 
ary 31 until February 7, 1906. A piece of tortoise carapace 
and some old droppings were found near the top of the island. 

On June 23, 1906, the anchor was again dropped in Gardner 
Bay. Exploration revealed no evidence of tortoises until June 
26, when, as Mr. Slevin records: [Mr. Ochsner and I] went 
into the interior at the east end of the island and picked up 
some lizards, which are abundant everywhere. We reached an 
elevation of about 300 feet and, in a grove of cactus trees 
about two miles inland from Gardner Bay, ran on to a tor- 
toise. The country here is very brushy, and the ground is 
covered with small rocks, so that no trails can be seen any- 
where. The tortoise was lying in the shade of a large cactus 
at the edge of a thick patch of brush. It appears to be an 
adult female. No other signs were encountered and it is only 
great luck to find a tortoise, as there are no trails to follow. 

June 27, 1906. — Went again after tortoises to the same 
country we visited yesterday. Mr. King had the good fortune 
to find a tortoise, this time in the thick brush near the edge of 
a large open area. It appears to be an adult female. Beck 
went over to the northwest end of the island and says he got 
into good tortoise country. He saw no signs of living tor- 
toises but found some good bones. 

June 28, 1906. — Went in after tortoises again but failed to 
find any. We however found a very fresh sign ; but the brush 
was so thick that we could not find the tortoise, even after a 



316 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pitoc. 4th Ser. 

long search. Examined some fresh droppings, and found it 
contained the red bark of the cactus and coarse grass. The 
tortoises evidently feed poorly, as the goats, which run thick 
all over the island, keep the cactus eaten up as soon as it falls. 

June 29, 1906. — Still searching for tortoises but find no 
signs. 

June 30, 1906. — Went in again after tortoises. No luck. 

July 2, 1906. — Beck was in after tortoises, and found one 
small one about four miles inland from Gardner Bay. Evi- 
dently they have been well cleaned out. 

Testudo elephantopus Harlan 

Charles Island Tortoise 

Plates 55 and 56. 

? Testudo nigra Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. Uranie et Physic, Zool., 
1824, p. 172, pi. XI; Dumeril & Bibron, Erpet Gener., II, 1835, p. 115; 
WiEGMANN, N. Acta Leop.— Carol., XVII, 1835, p. 118, (pi. XTII; 
Strauch, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. (7). V. No. 7, 1862, p. 85. 

? Testudo californiana Quoy & Gaimard, Bull. Sci. Nat., I, 1824, p. 
90, pi. XI [substitute name]. 

Testudo elephantopus Harlan, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., V, 1827, 
p. 284, pi. — ; Harlan, Medical & Physical Researches, 1835, p. 190, pi. ; 
Jackson, Journ. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., I, 1837, p. 443, pis. X-XI. 

? Testudo indica Gray, Syn. Rept., 1831, p. 9 (part). 

Testudo galapagoensis Baur, Am. Nat., XXIII, Dec. 1889 [1890], p. 
1044; GiJNTHER, Nov. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 184, pis. XVI-XXI; HellEr, 
Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 53; SiEbenrock, Zool. Jahrb., 
Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 533. 

Type specimens. — f Testudo nigra : Paris Museum. Young. 
Straight length about 10^ inches. Presented to M. de Frey- 
cinet by Captain IVleek of the "Boston Eagle" while the 
"Uranie" and "Physicien" were in the Sandwich Islands. It 
was said to have come from California. 

Testudo elephantopus: Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. Probably No. 366. Young. Curved length 21.6 
inches. Taken in the Galapagos Islands. 

Testudo galapagoensis: Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory. Skeleton of adult male. Curved length 45 inches. 
Taken, probably on Charles Island, by Captain John Downes, 
in 1833, and presented in June, 1834. 

Distribution. — This tortoise formerly was abundant ovi 
Charles Island to which it was confined. It probably is now 
extinct. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 317 

Material. — The Academy's collection contains no specimens 
of the Charles Island tortoise. In addition to the skeleton in 
the Boston Society of Natural History, three other specimens 
have been referred to this species by Dr. Giinther. These are 
the carapace of an adult male in the Rothschild Museum at 
Tring, England, a female in the Harvard Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, and probably a male in the Peabody Acad- 
emy of Science in Salem, Massachusetts. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; third^ cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex ; front of carapace fairly high ; carapace inclin- 
ing toward the saddle-shape, broad, depressed, flat-backed, 
rather broad anteriorly ; first marginals not much enlarged, not 
everted, their ventral surfaces not vertical, their most prominent 
points not widely separated; length over curve not more than 
125% (120-125%), less than width over curve; vertical dis- 
tance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge of lateral 
marginals great; general size large, straight length 37.5 inches; 
plastron moderate, median length 75 to 80% ; plates generally 
smooth; pectorals forming a suture on median line; eighth 
marginal large with a long superior border. 

General Remarks. — The Charles Island tortoise was closely 
related to that of Hood Island, but was of a somewhat broader, 
and perhaps smoother type. No tortoise has been taken in 
Charles Island for many years and there can be little doubt 
this race is extinct. 

Neither Mr. Slevin nor any other member of the Expedition 
found anything to indicate the presence of tortoises on Charles 
Island. Not even a bit of bone was found, although much time 
was spent in searching on various parts of the island, as the 
following extracts from Mr. Slevin's notes show : 

Field Notes— Oct. 4, 1905. — Went ashore at Post Office Bay 
and worked towards the interior. Found animal life of every 
description scarce. No signs of tortoises, nor any bones, were 
seen. 

Oct. 5-6, 1905. — Ashore at the northeast end of the island. 
No reptiles seen except Tropidurus and geckos. 

iThis probably is an abnormal, individual variation. The same condition has 
been described in the type of T. becki in which the fourth normally is biconvex as in 
the other races. 



318 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Oct. 7, 1905. — Went ashore at Black Beach and followed 
along the road, which is more properly a trail, quite a distance 
inland. I saw no reptiles of any description except geckos. 
This part of the island is thickly wooded, and has no large lava- 
fields ; more green vegetation and soil 

Oct. 9, 1905. — Went ashore at Black Beach and worked into 
the interior up to some springs south of the highest peak. 

Oct. 10, 1905. — Worked up to the top of the crater on the 
highest mountain, but saw no signs of any reptiles whatever. 
It rained quite often near the summit; so I worked down into 
a valley to the south, and found clear open country with plenty 
of cattle trails and everything green. Worked down toward 
the coast with the ocean on the south side in view. No tortoise 
bones were found. Nothing has been seen by any of the party. 

Oct. 11, 1905. — Worked toward the interior southwest of 
Black Beach. The country is fairly open. Saw no sign of any 
reptiles except geckos. 

Oct. 12, 1905. — Worked into the interior to see if I could 
find any lizards or snakes. Found fine open country with 
everything green, wild cattle, hogs, etc. Found no trace of any 
reptiles whatever. 

Feb. 26, 1906. — Went ashore at Cormorant Bay. 

Feb. 27-Mar. 2, 1906.— Black Beach. No reptiles of any 
description, other than geckos, were seen by any of the party 
during their hunting trips on this part of the island. 

May 15-16, 1906. — Went in from Black Beach camping to 
shoot cattle and lay in a supply of meat. Stayed two days, 
and brought down two loads. 

May 17, 1906. — Stopped about an hour at Cormorant Bay. 

May 23, 1906. — Collected near Black Beach. 

May 24-June 1, 1906. — Stayed in camp getting beef. 

June 2, 1906. — Went up to the highest mountain on the 
island, and climbed to the top. This tramp, like a long trip 
around the south side of the island on the 25th of May, showed 
no signs of any reptiles whatever. 

June 4, 1906. — Went up the trail to about 600 feet elevation, 
and collected a few more geckos. 



I 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 319 

Testudo darwini Van Denburgh 

James Island Tortoise 

Plates 56 to 63. 

Testudo darwini Van Denburgh, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4), I, 1907, 
p. 4; SiEBENROCK, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 533. 

Type specimen. — California Academy of Sciences No. 8108. 
Adult male. Straight length 38 inches. Taken on James 
Island, by R. H. Beck and Joseph R. Slevin, July 31, 1906. 

Distribution. — This tortoise seems now to be confined to the 
less accessible parts of James Island. It formerly was very 
abundant, but seems now to be very near extinction. 

Material. — Although this tortoise was taken from the Gala- 
pagos Islands in great numbers by vessels which visited them 
in early days, no specimen of it seems to have been preserved 
in any museum until the recent expedition secured five for the 
Academy. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; carapace high, elongate, somewhat dome- 
shaped but high in front; posterior declivity beginning about 
middle of third vertebral; height at nuchal notch more than 
41% (42 to 45%) of straight length; difference between per- 
centages of height at third vertebral and at nuchal notch in 
male more than 9 (10 to 14); carapace not saddle-shaped, 
width at margin of junction of second and third marginals 48 
to 58% ; width over curve in male not greater than length over 
curve ; vertical distance from lower surface of plastron to lower 
edge of lateral marginals moderately great, 7 to 9% ; general 
size large, straight length 38 inches ; shell heavy ; pectoral plates 
forming a suture on median line ; eighth marginal not reduced ; 
the sum of the measurements of the length over curve, length 
of plastron, height at nuchal notch, and height at third ver- 
tebral, equals or exceeds the sum of the measurements of the 
straight length, straight width, and width over curve; jaws and 
throat black marked with yellow. 



September 30, 1914. 



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Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 32I 

General remarks. — The James Island tortoise is a very large, 
heavy, thick-shelled species which resembles most closely the 
tortoise of Jervis Island and the Testudo vicina of southern 
Albemarle. It is somewhat intermediate in shape between the 
saddle-backed and dome-shaped races. The front of the cara- 
pace is high, but the middle of the back rises still higher. There 
is but little narrowing of the front of the carapace. 

Field Notes. — December 26, 1905. — Went down the coast to 
a place which the Captain says is marked in his epitome as 
Adam's Cove. Beck and Williams went inland to camp and 
look for tortoises. 

Jan. 2, 1906. — Mr. Beck returned on the 29th from a trip 
to the interior. He reports stopping at the camp where the 
hunters for tortosies encamped, and says there were bones scat- 
tered all about. He collected some of the best specimens, 
which will be packed in a box. Williams says he saw an old 
piece of dung at the same place. No fresh signs of tortoises 
have been seen by any of the party so far. 

July 27, 1906. — Sailed from Seymour early in the morning 
and anchored off the coast of the east end of James Island near 
Bartholomew. The country presents a very desolate appear- 
ance. It is all fresh lava with a few cacti and some brush. 
Intend to go in after tortoises tomorrow, 

July 28, 1906. — Went inland for tortoises. Followed up a 
valley toward Bartholomew Island, and found the brush and 
cactus thicker as we got higher. I saw no fresh signs of tor- 
toises, but Beck says he saw some about three weeks old. He 
also picked up a few old bones. 

July 30- August 4, 1906. — Went in after tortoises about five 
miles northwest of Sullivan Bay. The country is extremely 
rough — the worst we have encountered since we arrived in the 
islands. The lava-flows are all comparatively recent, and many 
places have no vegetation whatever. There is a valley opposite 
our anchorage which runs into the interior, and is fairly thick 
with cactus, small trees, and shrubs. We went up this valley 
about a mile, and saw our first signs of tortoises. There is 
no earth whatever here; everything is lava, and it is impos- 
sible to do any trailing. King, Beck and I looked over the 
surrounding country for three or four hours. We saw fresh 
signs, but found no tortoises. I returned to the ship, while 



322 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Beck and King went farther up to camp. When I went in to 
the camp the next day, Beck had found two large male tor- 
toises about five miles up the valley, and in better, or very good, 
tortoise country. We found plenty of earth and cactus here 
and everything in favor of finding tortoises. King had one of 
the males partly skinned, so I helped him finish it, and we 
brought it out to camp. Beck went over toward the main 
mountain, and covered lots of country, finding two more males 
and a female. He went over the next day and skinned the 
female and another small one which he found on the way, and, 
with the assistance of Ochsner and Hunter, who came in to 
help us carry, brought them to the camp. King and I took 
the first male, which we had skinned, part way down to the 
vessel. The country was so rough and hard to get over that 
our shoulders became so sore that we could not hold the tor- 
toise up any longer, so had to leave him in order to get to the 
beach by dark. The rest of the party, who were to help us 
out, missed us on the way, so King and I had to go it alone. 
They found the tortoise on the trail and, carrying it the rest 
of the way, reached the beach just at dusk. These tortoises 
have the heaviest shells and bones of any taken by us. The old 
males were not black (as Porter described them) but the fe- 
males seem to be quite black. They are all very fat, more so 
than any we have seen yet. The fat is of a rich yellow color 
and looks almost like butter. The two males taken are some- 
what unlike in shape. The other two males Beck found are 
far over toward Jervis Island, and it will be impossible for 
us to get them out. It was very difficult to get out the ones 
we did. No wonder people don't find tortoises on James! 
King got the measurements as well as possible, but it is im- 
possible to get accurate measurements for the reason that a 
tortoise can throw a person in any direction he pleases with 
one of his legs. I got the measurements of the second male. 
Beck skinned the females and no measurements were taken. 
Beck found that these females contained large yolks, but there 
were no signs of shell on any of the eggs as yet. We saw no 
signs of any nests, so probably the breeding season commenced 
during June and July. 

August 6, 1906. — Sailed for James Bay, and straightened 
up things on board. Sailing along the coast, we soon lost sight 
of the barren lava-flows, and everything appeared thickly 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



323 



wooded. The green zone on top was plainly visible, as the 
day was fine and clear. We passed by the cove where the tor- 
toise-hunters went in, and saw good tortoise country along 
the hillsides. We anchored about three o'clock. 

August 7, 1906. — Went up some distance into the interior, 
about to the beginning of the green zone — 1200 feet. 

August 9, 1906.— Sailed from James Bay for Cowley 
Mountain. 

Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh 

Chatham Island Tortoise 

Plates 64 to 69. 

Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh, Proc. Cal Acad Sci (4) I 
1907, p. 4; SiEBENROCK, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 533. 

Type specimen. — California Academy of Sciences No. 8127. 
Skeleton of adult male. Straight length 35.25 inches. Found 
in a cave on Chatham Island, by R. H. Beck and Joseph R. 
Slevin, Feb. 12-14, 1906. 

Distribution. — Chatham Island. 

Material. — The Academy has a skin with bones of an adult 
female, the bony carapaces of two adult males and a number 
of skulls and other bones. The Honorable Walter Rothschild 
writes me that he has a young male specimen. It is probable 
that this species is now almost or quite extinct. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; carapace depressed, front elevated in male; 
height at nuchal notch less than 41% of straight length (male 
34 to 36 female 27%) ; male flat-backed, female dome-shaped, 
difference between percentages of heights at third vertebral and 
at nuchal notch 6 to 11 in male, 24 in female; carapace of 
male slightly saddle-shaped but broad, width at margin of 
junction of second and third marginals 53% in male; anterior 
marginals but little everted; length over curve in male 112 to 
117%, female 126%; vertical distance from lower surface of 
plastron to lower edge of lateral marginals small, 4% to 6% ; 
general size moderate, straight length in male 35.25 inches, 
female 22.5 inches; pectoral plates much reduced, not meeting 
on mid-line; eighth marginal plate not reduced; jaws and 
throat of female black. 



324 



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Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



325 



General remarks. — The Chatham Island tortoise is one of 
the lowest, most depressed, of the Galapagoan races. It is 
most similar in shape to Testudo giintheri and Testudo micro- 
phyes of Albemarle Island. It differs from both in the fre- 
quent, or perhaps constant, reduction of the pectoral plates. 
The only living specimen found by our expedition was a small 
but very old female. It is much more dome-shaped than the 
males found in the cave. It had lost one of its fore limbs in 
early life, only the head of the humerus remaining, and the 
shell is not symmetrically developed, being smaller on this 
side. 

Field Notes. — October 15-18, 1905. — Three days were spent 
in hunting near Wreck Bay, Chatham, but only geckos and 
Tropiduri were found. 

Jan. 24, 1906. — Anchor was again cast in Wreck Bay. 

Jan. 25, 1906. — Went ashore for the morning. Pouring 
rain most of the time. No one did much collecting except near 
the beach. Found only a few geckos and Tropiduri. 

Jan. 26, 1906. — Weather dried up a little, and we went 
ashore again. Too wet to do much. 

Jan. 27, 1906. — Went ashore collecting, and made for higher 
altitudes. Went up to about 800 feet, and found everything 
wet and muddy with no signs of any reptiles. 

Jan. 29, 1906.— Went to the top of Chatham Island. Found 
the country different from anything seen so far. It is just 
like large pastures and fields of grass. The soil is damp every- 
where, and no reptiles were seen. The country to the east is 
a large plateau, and seems to be wooded fairly well in some 
portions. There are many small lakes on the opposite side 
from our anchorage (the southwest side). The island is so 
easily accessible that it seems hardly probable that there could 
be a tortoise left on it. The next time we stop here, we prob- 
ably shall be able to explore the other side for a couple of 
days at least, if the weather is good. 

Feb. 7, 1906. — Sailed at day-break for Fresh Water Bay, 
Chatham Island, but on account of wind and currents failed 
to make it ; so made an anchorage east of Stephens Bay. 

Feb. 8, 1906. — Went ashore at our present anchorage, and 
worked up to about 1000 feet altitude. The country is all 
rough lava thickly grown over with trees and shrubs. The 



g2g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

higher portions look like good tortoise country, and are more 
open than below. No signs of tortoises were encountered, 
however, and no bones were found. Everything is very green, 
and the ground had been thoroughly soaked by recent rains. 
We expect to sail for Stephens Bay in the morning. 

Feb. 10, 1906. — Went ashore at Sappho Cove and worked 
inland. The country is a plateau of recent lava, covered spar- 
ingly with cactus and fairly well with trees. Beck worked in 
the same general direction and had the great fortune to run 
on to a tortoise. It was eating cactus (Opuntia) when found. 
The right fore-leg was missing, and it seems hard to tell 
whether this was natural or the result of an accident. The 
ovaries contained eggs in yolk form. The locality where this 
tortoise was found was about four miles inland from Sappho 
Cove, and at about 300 feet elevation. 

Feb. 12-14, 1906. — Went into the interior with Beck to 
search for tortoises. We worked for two days and a half 
around the central portion of the island without finding the 
least sign of a living tortoise. The entire country is rough 
lava overgrown with brush and trees. Cactus is fairly abun- 
dant. Cereus is the most common, while Opuntia is fairly 
common. Tortoises are likely to be found around the Opuntia 
if any are present, for the flat leaves often fall to the ground, 
and the spines are not so tough as those of the Cereus. We 
went to the top of a small hill and took the following bear- 
ings for the position of the living tortoise taken on February 
10th : Mt. Pitt bore N. E. >4 N. ; Finger Point bore N. W. 
by W. Kicker Rock bore W. by N. ; top of island bore S. W. 
^ S. ; East Rock bore S. E. by E. The tortoise lay about 
three miles due west of this position. We had thegood for- 
tune to run across a large cave containing the remains of about 
seventeen tortoises. We made our headquarters in this cave, 
and looked over all the remains, collecting the best specimens. 
I made measurements in all possible cases of those we could 
not take. 

1. — Collected a good set of bones, marked O. [C. A. S. No. 
8128]. The carapace was far gone and not worth taking, 
inasmuch as we got good specimens. The plastron was intact. 
It was sunken like a male tortoise, and the indentation was 
very prominent with a ridge on the back part, as in the male 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



327 



tortoises of Duncan Island. Length of plastron 610 mm.; 
width at front curves 300 mm. ; greatest width of shell 570 
mm. ; length of indentation in plastron 340 mm. ; width 
of indentation 320 mm. Some of the marginal plates were 
loosely attached to the carapace. Some old dried grass from 
the intestines could still be seen and several old plates of a 
brown color but nearly rotted away were near the remains. 

2. — Bones marked X [C. A. S. No. 8129] from remains 
so badly rotted away that no measurements could be taken. 

3.— Skull marked 8 [C. A. S. No. 8130]. No bones or 
shell could be found near by. 

4. — Collected one shell with carapace and plastron in per- 
fect condition [C. A. S. No. 8132], but no bones were found 
with it. 

5. — Found one old shell which measured as follows : Length 
of plastron 440 mm.; width between front curves 230 mm.; 
greatest width of shell 410 mm. Several bones were near by, 
shoulder bones and pelvis, but very soft and crumbling away. 

6, 7. — Saw two more skeletons all crumbled away so that 
no measurements could be taken. 

8. — A shell in fairly good condition. Greatest width of 
shell 523 mm.; greatest length of shell 665 mm.; distance 
between front curves of plastron 270 mm. ; distance between 
hind curves of plastron 310 mm.; width of plastral indenta- 
tion 280 mm. ; length of indentation 340 mm. This was prob- 
ably a male, as the indentation in the plastron is very promi- 
nent with a ridge at the back as in the male Duncan tortoises. 
Skull marked with a star [C. A. S. No. 8131] belongs to 
this tortoise. The other bones were in bad condition. 

9. — One old carapace showed the following measurements: 
length of carapace 670 mm. ; width between front curves of 
plastron 320 mm. ; between hind curves of plastron 400 mm. 

10. — One old piece of plastron found. Width between front 
curves 205 mm. 

11. — Bones and large shell collected [C. A. S. No. 8127], 
marked with a rectangle. Four marginal plates still on the 
front of the carapace. 

12. — One old skeleton in which the front curves of the plas- 
tron measured 200 mm. 

13. — One old skeleton. Greatest width of shell 405 mm. ; 
width between front curves of plastron 215 mm. 



328 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



14-15. — Two more skeletons all crumbling away. 

It appears that the tortoises fell into this cave while in 
search of food or water. Once in, it was impossible for any 
to get out, and consequently they starved to death. Some of 
the shells lay with the plastron upward, while others were in 
a perfectly natural position. They were protected from mois- 
ture and probably had been in the cave many years. 

Feb. 15, 1906.— Sailed for Fresh Water Bay. 

Feb. 21, 1906. — Arrived at Wreck Bay this morning after 
an attempt to reach Fresh Water Bay. 

Feb. 22, 1906. — Met the schooner from Guayaquil and saw 
the Captain, who is an Englishman. He says he has taken 
tortoises on Chatham Island, and that he ate the last one on 
the island some twenty years ago. 

July 3-July 8, 1906, were also spent at Chatham, but noth- 
ing further was learned regarding tortoises. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 329 

Testudo microphyes Giinther 

Tagus Cove Tortoise 

Plates 70 to 83. 

Testudo microphyes Gunther, Trans. Royal Soc. Lond., CLXV, 1875 
p. 275, pis. 36, 37 fig. B, 38 fig. B, 39 fig. B ; Gunther, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 66 
Gunther, Gigantic Land Tortoises Brit. Mus., 1878, p. 78, pis. XXXII 
XXXVIII, XUI fig. B, XLIII fig. B, XUV fig. B, XLV figs. A-C 
BouLENGER, Cat. Chelonians Brit. Mus., 1889. p. 170; Strauch, Mem 
Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. (7), XXXVIII, 2, 1890, p. 53; Vaillant, Bull 
Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 1900, p. 228, Heller, Proc. Washington Acad 
Sci., V, 1903, p. 56; Beck, Seventh Report N. Y. Zool. Soc, 1903. p. 13 
SiEbEnrock, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 534. 

Type Specimen — British Museum. Adult female. Straight 
length 22.5 inches. Origin unknown. 

Distribution. — Giinther and other authors have thought that 
Testudo microphyes was confined to the vicinity of Tagus 
Cove, Albemarle Island. The Academy's collection, however, 
contains specimens from Cape Rose, on the southern coast 
of Albemarle Island, which I am unable to distinguish from 
those secured at Tagus Cove. 

Material. — The Academy has thirteen males and one young 
female from Tagus Cove, and four males and a female from 
Cape Rose. Many museums contain specimens of this tortoise, 
which is not rare in collections. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace low, in males higher than 
in females; height at nuchal notch not more than 44% (34 to 
43%) of straight length; difference between percentages of 
front and middle heights less than 14 (2 to 14) ; carapace 
not saddle-shaped, not narrow anteriorly, width at margin 
of junction of second and third marginals not less than 46% 
(46 to 57%) ; first marginals not enlarged, not everted, their 
ventral surfaces not vertical, their most prominent points sepa- 
rated by less than 25% (15 to 24%) ; length over curve not 
more than 123% (114 to 123%) ; width over curve less than 
length over curve or exceeding it by less than 5%; vertical 
distance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge of 
lateral marginals small, 3 to 7% ; general size large, straight 
length 25 to 40.5 inches; plastron short, 65 to 80%; plates 
nearly smooth in adults; pectorals forming suture on median 
line; eighth marginal plate not reduced; lower jaw and throat 
of males not marked with yellow. 



330 



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332 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

General remarks. — The tortoises of Tagus Cove Mountain 
and vicinity are very different from those of the northern end 
of Albemarle Island. The males have low shells with flat 
backs, the front of the carapace being but little below the level 
of the middle of the back. The shell is thin and light. These 
tortoises bear most resemblance to those of Chatham Island 
and the T. guntheri of southeastern Albemarle. The males 
from Cape Rose seem to be absolutely identical with those 
from Tagus Cove. 

Field Notes. — March 23, 1906. — Anchored at Tagus Cove. 
Beck and King went ashore to hunt for tortoises. Beck found 
two. One of these he skinned and brought on board this even- 
ing. It is a male. 

March 24, 1906. — Went in with King to get the tortoise 
found yesterday. The country in the vicinity of the cove is 
somewhat barren, and, on the hillsides and in the valleys, 
several fresh lava-flows can be seen that have no vegetation 
at all. The place where we saw the signs of tortoises is a val- 
ley about a mile from the shore. Most of it was grown over 
with brush, but thick only in places. We saw several old 
skeletons with the bones crumbled to dust. There were no 
fresh signs of tortoises, other than the two found. The one 
we got today was at the farther end of the valley, right on 
the edge of a barren lava-flow. While King and I got this 
one out, Mr. Beck went hunting for more tortoises, and 
found a large male at the foot of the mountain and directly 
opposite the cove. I suppose we shall go in for him tomorrow. 

March 25-31, 1906. — Worked on tortoises up on the moun- 
tain all the week. We found no fresh trails in the valley, 
so went up the mountain, which presents a similar appearance 
as regards growth of trees, etc. There are two large lava- 
flows extending down the mountain sides, with green patches 
on them, and some of these were well cut up with tortoise 
trails. The tortoises work all through the brush on the moun- 
tain side, and it cannot be said that they are rare ; but it is so 
much work to get them, that people report them scarce. The 
females, however, appear to be rare, as none have been found 
by us so far. They are smaller than the males and have 
more fat, so that they probably have been killed by oil-hunters 
when they came down into the valley. All the tortoises we 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 333 

have taken were heading up the mountain. At Tagus and 
Iguana coves I noticed that the tortoises were covered with 
ticks all over the skin and along the cracks between the plates 
of the plastron. Cactus is somewhat scarce here compared with 
other places, and the chief part of the tortoises' diet is a coarse 
grass that is abundant on the hills and in the valleys. The 
tortoises here seem to be of a uniform size and have thin 
shells. 

April 2, 1906. — During the morning I worked on board 
with tortoises, etc. Mr. Beck went over to Narborough to 
hunt for tortoises. King and I went up to camp this after- 
noon, to carry out a tortoise we had tied up on the mountain. 

April 3, 1906. — Skinned the tortoise and carried him out — 
a good day's work. 

April 4, 1906. — King and I went to the foot of the mountain 
to get a tortoise Beck said he had tied up, but after hunting 
all day failed to find it. We obtained a good view of the 
north side of the mountain, which appears to be all fresh lava 
with very few patches of vegetation. The whole country to 
the north is fresh lava. Cape Berkeley was plainly visible, 
and appeared very high and steep. The mountain at Banks 
Bay was also seen, but the character of the country and vege- 
tation could not be made out. 

April 7, 1906. — Went ashore to get the tortoise Beck tied 
up several days ago. We found him a long way up the moun- 
tain and not where Beck told us to look. His stomach con- 
tained grass. 

March 14, 1906. — We sailed down the coast toward the high 
mountain at Iguana Cove, and anchored at evening about six 
or eight miles east of it. 

March 15, 1906. — Went ashore, about two miles west from 
our anchorage, at a small cove on the coast in the vicinity of 
Cape Rose. We got into a fine tortoise country, where the 
natives had been killing off the tortoises some years ago. There 
was a small plateau, well cut up with cattle trails and having 
abundant cactus (Opuntia). There was also an abundance 
of the trees which produce a fruit that looks like a small apple. 
This fruit appears to have a somewhat poisonous effect, and 
goes through the tortoise like a purge. The tortoises taken 
here were full of this fruit, and the intestines were much 



334 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

swollen and very thin, so that they looked almost membranous. 
The fruit passes through the intestine unchanged except in 
color, which fades from green to a light yellow. The tortoises 
seem to prefer this food to cactus, for there was an abundance 
of the latter all around. The tortoises taken at this particular 
place seem to be much fatter than any taken thus far, and their 
shells are very light for their size. 

July 27, 1906. — Stewart says the plant with the apple-like 
fruit is Hippomane mancinella. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 335 

Testudo giintheri Baur 

Vilamil Mountain Tortoise 
Plates 84 to 92. 

Testudo elephantopus Gunther, [nee Harlan] Trans. Royal Soc, 
CLXV, 1875, p. 261, pis. 33, 37 fig. A, 38 fig. A, 39 fig. A, 40 fig. A, 41 fig. B, 
42 fig. A, 43. 44 figs. A,A', CD ; Gunther, Gigantic Land Tortoises Brit. 
Mus., 1877, p. 63, pis. XXX fig. A, XUI fig. A— XLIV fig. A, XLVI fig. 
A, LI— LIII; Rothschild, Novit. Zool.. IX, 1902, p. 448; Rothschild, 
Novit. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 618; Heller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 
1903, p. S3 ; SiEBENRocK, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 532. 

Testudo nigra BoulEnger, Cat. Chelonians Brit. Mus., 1889, p. 170. 

Testudo giintheri Baur, Am. Nat., XXIII, Dec. 1889 (1890), p. 1044. 

Type specimen. — Oxford Museum, England. Skeleton of 
adult male. Straight length 31 inches. Purchased of a dealer 
in Paris. Origin unknown. 

Distribution. — Vilamil Mountain and vicinity in the south- 
eastern part of Albemarle Island. 

Material. — There are in the Academy's collection forty- 
one specimens which I refer to this race. The Tring museum 
has a number of specimens. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace from 5 to 22% lower than 
middle; height at nuchal notch not more than 44% (29 to 
44%) of straight length; difference between percentages of 
heights at third vertebral and at nuchal notch more than 5(5 
to 22) ; carapace not saddle-shaped, broad anteriorly, width at 
margin of junction of second and third marginals not less than 
46% (46 to 61%) ; first marginals not everted, without promi- 
nent points; length over curve not more than 128% (114 to 
128%), never greater than width over curve; vertical distance 
from lower surface of plastron to lower edge of lateral mar- 
ginals small, 3 to 9% ; general size usually rather small, straight 
length 23.7 to 40 inches; plastron of moderate length, 70 to 
87%, often with posterior knobs even in females; plates gen- 
erally smooth in adults ; pectorals forming a suture on median 
line; eighth marginal plate not reduced, with a considerable 
superior border; lower jaw and throat in males sometimes 
marked with yellow. 



September 30, 1914. 



336 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. •♦th Ser. 



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338 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IProc. 4th Ser. 

General remarks. — The tortoises of southern Albemarle pre- 
sent many difficulties. The specimens from Iguana Cove seem 
to be quite uniform in shape, and it is probable that only 
Testudo vicina occurs there. Somewhat farther east, at Cape 
Rose, are found tortoises which I am unable to distinguish 
from those taken at Tagus Cove, which again appear to be 
constantly of one type. But when one collects still farther 
east, on Vilamil Mountain or in the vicinity of Turtle Cove 
or the old Cobos settlement, tortoises of two distinct types are 
found together. Those of one type agree closely with the tor- 
toises of Iguana Cove, and I therefore include them under the 
head of Testudo vicina. Those of the other type are much 
more depressed, with less elevated backs, with the height to 
marginals very low, and have very smooth shells. These I 
refer to another race, for which the name Testudo gUntheri 
seems available. They resemble both the Tagus Cove and 
the Chatham Island tortoises in many respects. A few speci- 
mens, included in the second table of measurements, are nearly 
intermediate in shape between the typical T. gUntheri and the 
dome-shaped females of T. vicina. Altogether, the problem 
is a difficult one, and I am in some doubt whether these tor- 
toises which I have called T. gUntheri are really a distinct 
race or merely old individuals of the same race as those I 
have referred to T. vicina. I cannot understand, however, 
how age could produce changes in shape such as exist, and I 
therefore think it probable that the two great mountains of 
southern Albemarle — at Iguana Cove and Vilamil — each de- 
veloped its own peculiar race of tortoise, perhaps at a time 
when these mountains were separate islands. If this view be 
correct, T. vicina has spread eastward more rapidly than T. 
gUntheri has wandered toward the west. The following field 
notes are based upon tortoises of both kinds. 

Ten eggs (No. 8426) taken Sept. 1, 1906, from tortoise 
No. 8197, measure 2.38x2.30, 2.37x2.36, 2.37x2.30, 2.37x2.24, 
2.34x2.25, 2.33x2.28, 2.33x2.25, 2.30x2.30, 2.27x2.25 and 
2.21x2.25 inches. The smallest eggs in our collection measure 
2.10x1.87 and 2.01x1.90 inches. They are No. 8430 and were 
taken from tortoise No. 8197. 

Field Notes.— Oct. 30, 1905.— We sailed for Turtle Cove, 
on leaving Brattle, and anchored early in the afternoon. 



Vol. II, Pt. IJ VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



339 



Nov. 1, 1905. — Went ashore at Turtle Cove and worked up 
the trail tov/ard the settlement. Expect to go tomorrow along 
the coast in the direction of Iguana Cove, to look for some 
tortoises that the natives say are near the shore. 

Nov. 2, 1905. — Went down the coast west of Vilamil about 
six miles to look for tortoises where Beck found them before. 
The country is level and cut up with cattle trails. We found 
five tortoises during the day. They all were taken near the 
cattle trails, in small patches they had dug up under the bushes. 
As they were found fairly near the beach, we brought four 
aboard alive, only skinning one that was farthest inland. These 
were the only tortoises seen by the party, but we could not 
well have taken more in the boat. We did not cover a great 
amount of country, and the tortoises may be fairly common 
in this locality. 

Nov. 3, 1905. — I stayed on board all day skinning tortoises 
and iguanas. Mr. Beck bought another small tortoise from 
the natives today. We expect to sail for Indefatigable to- 
morrow to look for more tortoises in a different locality. 

March 5, 1906. — I went up the trail toward the settlement 
(at Vilamil) but saw no reptiles except lizards. The country 
is a large plain of lava covered sparingly with cactus and brush. 

March 6, 1906. — Went down the coast north of the port and 
found nothing. The country is a desert of lava. It was a 
day wasted as far as enlarging the collection was concerned, 
but I at least found out what the country is like. 

March 7, 1906. — Went up the trail toward the settlement 
and collected more lizards, but saw no other reptiles. The 
weather is very hot now and has been so for several days 
past. Hunter and Gifford went up to the settlement collecting. 
They report seeing hundreds of bones of tortoises along the 
trail and at several water-holes where the tortoises used to 
gather. No live tortoises were seen below the settlement, and 
the natives say all have been killed off there, and that they no 
longer are abundant on the mountain. 

March 8-9, 1906. — Worked on board ship. 

March 10, 1906. — I worked on board in the morning, and 
in the afternoon we sailed about ten miles down the coast 
toward Iguana Cove, and anchored at eight o'clock. 

March 11, 1906. — Mr. Beck went ashore and found two 
tortoises. 



340 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

March 12, 1906. — Went ashore about a mile west of our 
anchorage to hunt for tortoises and to get the two Mr. Beck 
found yesterday. This portion of the coast is a large plateau 
which rises very gradually to the mountain at Iguana Cove 
and to lower hills in the distance to the eastward. This plateau 
is densely wooded with large trees and cactus and thick brush 
which, fortunately, is well cut through with cattle trails. The 
tortoises are rather common; at least, large ones are, while 
the smaller ones seem to have been all killed by the natives, 
if one may judge from the numerous skeletons scattered 
through the woods. We saw, during our two days ashore 
here, about ten tortosies, all males I think. They like the 
shade, and in the heat of the day prefer to stay in some hollow 
or under a bush. Judging from the amount of black mud on 
them, they wallow in the mud like swine. We found one tor- 
toise lying in a mud hole with all legs stretched out and his 
head stuck in the mud. We also found one under a bush near 
a cattle trail, and so skinned him and brought him part way 
out. The day was very hot, and we could not make very 
good time. We ran out of water, and felt anything but active. 
Finally we left the tortoise on the beach down the coast and 
made for our boat, breaking through brush and mangroves 
every inch of the way. We reached the vessel after dark 
thoroughly tired out. We expect to go ashore in the morn- 
ing, when the tide is low, and bring the tortoise around by the 
beach. King is pretty well under the weather, having drunk 
too much water from a hole we encountered near the end of 
our journey. The day was altogether too hot for us to carry 
tortoises. 

March 13, 1906. — Beck and I went ashore and carried the 
tortoise down the coast to our boat. The tide was very low, 
so we carried it around by the beach. We went inland again 
from the boat to get another tortoise, and found one late in 
the afternoon. We partly skinned this one, cutting out all the 
heavy meat, and rushed him out to the coast, getting there 
just before dark. In this vicinity, near the old Cobos settle- 
ment, we noticed on some of the cattle trails the excrement 
from the tortoises. They had eaten the fruit of a large tree, 
which is abundant everywhere, and this fruit passed through 
the intestines unchanged without having been chewed or dis- 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 34^ 

figured in any way. This fruit is shaped like an apple, and 
about an inch in diameter. 

April 25-27, 1906. — We drifted up the coast toward Vilamil 
and, in the evening of the 24th anchored off the old Cobos 
settlement which we call Bull Beef Anchorage. Beck says we 
put in just to get some beef to salt. As King and I were the 
only ones working on tortoises here, we could not get more 
than one a day. We found them common near the coast, in 
mudholes under the shade of trees. The ones we found were 
buried in the soft black mud, with just their heads and the 
tops of their carapaces exposed. It would seem that the natives 
have killed off all the females, as we find only males. The two 
tortoises we took had stomachs nearly empty, and evidently 
had been in the mud for some time, since no traces could be 
seen where they went in. There are mudholes and lagoons all 
along the coast here, and cactus and grass are abundant, so 
that it is ideal tortoise-country. 

August 16-19, 1906. — Sailed from Duncan, early on the 
morning of the 16th, for Vilamil, where we arrived on the 
evening of the 19th, after four days spent in beating against 
the wind and strong currents. 

August 20, 1906. — Sailed into Turtle Cove, to our anchor- 
age. We had to anchor outside last night as we arrived about 
dark, too late to get in. We are making preparations to go up 
the mountain to skin tortoises. A few tortoises have been 
brought in by the natives from along the coast toward Cape 
Rose, but they find it too much of a job to get many, having 
to cut a trail for each tortoise brought out. We expect to 
stay here until September 5. I have things ready now to pack 
away. All the tortoise skins are ready to stow away for the 
voyage home. 

August 21, 1906. — Everything was ready to go up after the 
large tortoises on the top of the mountain, but we could not get 
the mules, so will wait another day. 

August 22 to 30, 1906. — We went up with our outfit to the 
hacienda to start up the mountain. At this elevation (1300 
feet) the weather is constantly rainy and foggy, and the pros- 
pects of camping are not very pleasant. There is nothing 
visible, in the way of reptiles. The grassy area commences 
at 1500 feet and extends clear to the rim of the crater, which 
is at an elevation of 3150 feet. We encountered our first 



342 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

living tortoises about two miles from the top of the crater. 
In this place it almost seems as though one were seeing them 
in a park, for they are met simply lying around on the grass — 
some feeding and others sleeping. They follow the trails 
made by the cattle and pack mules, and we often had to turn 
off the trail to pass by them. They are by no means rare 
around this mountain, although great inroads have been made 
upon them by the oil-hunters. Those we saw on the way up 
the mountain were moderate-sized females. The males, being 
the larger, were killed off first for their oil, and consequently 
are rare. 

We reached the top about noon and set our course toward a 
large valley to the southwest of the mountain, where the 
natives killed the large tortoises for their oil. We continued 
to travel through fine pasture land free from fog and damp- 
ness, for on the top of the mountain the weather is perfect. 
On all sides of us were tortoise skeletons — hundreds of them! 
With few exceptions, they all had been killed by the natives. 
The wild dogs have a few to their credit. These may be dis- 
tinguished by the carapace and plastron being intact. The 
natives cut theirs open with axes. We saw no living tortoises 
on this steep slope of the crater, nor did we encounter any 
until we reached the level valley below. Fog hung over this 
valley early in the morning, and lifted a little toward noon. 
The vegetation here was the same as on the mountain — fine 
green grass and small trees. We made our camp in an old 
house the oil-hunters had left, and started on our search for 
tortoises. We soon found two near the house, but they were 
only moderate-sized ones. One of these we killed in order to 
get the liver for lunch, and, while we were eating, our native 
guide slipped out and cut ofif one of its legs for his own lunch. 
This spoilt it for a skin, so we saved only the skull. We 
skinned the other one in the afternoon. On our return to 
camp we found that the dogs had eaten what was left of our 
first tortoise. They ate even the shell, which, by morning, 
was half gone. 

Next morning we started with two mules and our guide to 
follow the trail where the big tortoises used to be abundant, 
but found that they had been slaughtered by wholesale, so 
that we found no large ones. We saw only the ordinary 
females, which were common. We skinned four of them. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURCH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



343 



The following day King and I skinned three, that we found 
near the camp. Beck and the guide went out hunting again, 
but failed to find any large tortoises. The largest skeleton we 
saw measured seven spans. We collected a sack-full of old 
skulls in fairly good condition. Seeing that we could not get 
what was desired. Beck decided to return, and we started 
back Sunday with eight tortoises we had skinned on the trip. 
On the way up the mountain, and about half way to the 
hacienda. King found a large male tortoise that measured 
six spans. We decided to return next day and skin him. This 
we accomplished, and got back to the hacienda by dark with 
our ninth tortoise. This tortoise was a very old male. The 
plates on the side of the carapace were loose in life, and the 
plates on top all chipped up. The fore legs were scarred up 
where they had been chewed by dogs. Altogether, he was a 
regular old patriarch. The principal food of these tortoises 
was the grass that covers the entire country for miles around. 
One of the females contained eggs nearly ready to lay. The 
others had ovaries somewhat less developed, several contain- 
ing large yolks. One female (C. A. S. No. 8189) had a scar 
in the right hind end of the carapace where a hole had healed 
over. Our guide explained that the natives made these holes 
to see whether the tortoises were fat enough to kill. Although 
this wound had grown over, it left a large abscess in the tor- 
toise, the odor from which in skinning was anything but 
pleasant. 

August 31, 1906. — Skinned tortoises collected by the natives 
and brought to the house at Vilamil. I am not sure of the 
exact locality where these tortoises were secured. I saw some 
brought down off the mountain, and most of them came from 
there, but probably a dozen or so came from the coast. 



g^ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Testudo vicina Giinther 

Iguana Cove Tortoise 
Plates 93 to 110. 

Testudo vicina GunThEr, Trans. Royal Soc. Lond., CLXV, 1875, p. 277, 
pis. 35 fig. A, 40 fig. B, 41 figs. A, C, 45 figs. C-D ; Gunther, Gigantic Land 
Tortoises Brit. Mus., 1877, p. 73, pis. XXXI, XLVII, fig. A, LIV, figs. 
C-D; BouLENGER, Cat. Chelonians Brit. Mus., 1889, p. 170; Rothschild, 
Novit. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 448; HellEr, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 
1903, p. 54; Beck, Seventh Report N. Y. Zool. Soc. 1903, p. 7; SiEbenrock, 
Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 534. 

Testudo elephantopus, Baur, Am. Nat., XXIII, 1889, p. 1044; Lucas, 
Smith. Report, 1889 (1891), pp. 643-647, pi. CIV, figs. ; Gadow, Cam- 
bridge Nat. Hist., VIII, 1901, p. 378. 

Testudo nigrita, Cope, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1889, p. 147; Lucas, 
Smith. Report, 1889 (1891), pp. 643-647, pi. CIV, fig. . 

Type specimen. — British Museum. Carapace of adult male. 
Straight length 33 inches. Origin unknown. 

Distribution. — This tortoise probably is distributed through- 
out the whole southern end of Albemarle Island. At Iguana 
Cove it appears to be the only kind, but near Vilamil one finds 
both Testudo vicina and Testudo giintheri. 

Material. — This is one of the commoner species in collec- 
tions. The Academy has six from Iguana Cove, ten from the 
vicinity of the old Cobos settlement in southeastern Albemarle, 
and forty-five from near Turtle Cove and Vilamil Mountain. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace moderately high in males, 
much lower than middle in females; height at nuchal notch 
less than 45% (31 to 44%) of straight length; difference 
between percentages of heights at third vertebral and at nuchal 
notch more than 9 (10 to 23); carapace not saddle-shaped, 
not narrow anteriorly, width at margin of junction of second 
and third marginals not less than 44% (44 to 59%) ; first mar- 
ginals not greatly enlarged, not everted, their ventral surfaces 
not vertical, their most prominent points separated by less 
than 25% (13 to 24%) ; length over curve not less than 115% 
(115 to 134%); usually less than width over curve; vertical 
distance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge of lateral 
marginals great, 6 to 10% ; general size large, straight length 
to 49.5 inches; plastron moderately long, median length 66 to 
87%; plates generally striated; pectorals forming a suture on 
median line; eighth marginal plate not reduced, with well de- 
veloped superior border; lower jaw and throat not marked 
with yellow. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



345 





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3^g CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

General remarks. — See also remarks under T. guntheri. 
Testudo vicina attains a very large size. The shell usually is 
quite thick and heavy. The females are dome-shaped, while 
the adult males have the front of the carapace considerably 
elevated. In this elevation of the front of the carapace these 
tortoises resemble the Tagus Cove and James Island species. 
In Testudo darwini the central portion of the back rises higher 
than in T. vicina. Testudo microphyes is a smoother, lighter 
race, in which the back is nearly flat. Our only specimen from 
Jervis Island is nearly intermediate between T. darwini and 
T. vicina. 

Nine eggs (No. 8425) from tortoise No. 8388, collected 
Nov. 2, 1905, about eight miles west of Vilamil, Albemarle 
Island, measure 2.44x2, 2.30x2.20, 2.25x2.12, 2.25x2.10, 
2.20x2.10, 2.20x2.08, 2.18x2.10, 2.10x1.95, and 2.08x2.04 
inches. 

Field Notes. — March 16, 1906. — Sailing to get around 
to Iguana Cove. Busy all day skinning tortoises, all hands help- 
ing in the morning. There is hardly any wind, and we are 
drifting with the current. We are nearly abeam of the moun- 
tain near the Cove. It rises very abruptly, and seems to be 
well covered with brush. Several black lava-flows can be seen, 
and the plateau to the eastward is all new lava. 

March 17, 1906. — Anchored at noon in Iguana Cove. It is 
a very bad anchorage, having deep water and heavy swells, 
with not much room for the ship to swing. The coast is 
heavily wooded with brush and trees, as at Cocos Island, and 
is very abrupt, with many steep cliffs visible on the mountain 
side. Beck, King, Williams, and I went down the coast to the 
southward about two miles, and landed on a rocky beach to 
hunt for tortoises. The country was covered with thick brush, 
and the tortoise trails went along underneath, so that quite 
often one had to go on hands and knees. The place where we 
hunted was a small flat, where cactus and tall grass were fairly 
abundant. We found three tortoises; all males. We drove 
two of these down to the beach, as they were only seventy-five 
or a hundred yards from the shore. They were too large to 
get them into the boat. We failed to get them in while the 
boat was on the beach. Then we towed one out and tried to 
get him in ; but as the boat was in the breakers and half full of 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 349 

water it sank when we got the tortoise aboard, and he floated 
off while we struggled in the water. Luckily, King was on 
the beach, for he cannot swim. Williams struck out for shore, 
while Beck and I tried to turn the boat over, for by this time 
the swells had rolled it bottom up. The current was too 
strong for Williams to make the beach, so he came back to the 
boat. With his assistance we righted it, and, getting two oars 
that were stuck under the seats, Beck sculled and I pulled till 
we got near the rocks. Then I swam ashore with the painter 
and pulled the boat in, so Beck and Williams got ashore. We 
tried to pull the boat along the rocks to the beach, but the 
swell was so heavy that it was smashed into a thousand pieces. 
All that we saved was the painter and two oars. I had left 
most of my clothes on the beach, so only lost a shirt and a hat. 
Williams lost all of his collecting outfit, canteen, etc. 

By this time it was five o'clock, so we put on what clothes 
we had left, and made back along the coast, while our tortoises 
were drifting away out at sea. We had anything but a pleasant 
walk back. I had lost my shirt, and the thorns and cactus 
spines felt anything but pleasant. We traveled on till about 
eight o'clock, when we saw a light on the water and hailed 
the other boat. The boys on the ship, seeing nothing of us, 
had put off to the rescue in the second boat with some ropes 
and life preservers. They soon found out that we were all 
safe. We told them to go to the Cove and pick us up, as the 
surf was too high elsewhere. We got to the Cove about the 
same time as the boat, and got safely aboard a little after nine. 
Beck says he is going to get what tortoises he can, and pull 
out as soon as possible. All hands are anxious to leave, and 
I won't shed any tears myself. 

March 18, 1906. — Still anchored at the Cove. We sighted 
the two tortoises drifting down the coast and, putting out 
the boat, rescued both of them. One was badly battered 
up, and evidently had been knocked up against the rocks 
by the surf. We also picked up several pieces of our skiff. 
The tortoises had been in the water about eighteen hours, and 
seemed none the worse for it. They would stick their heads 
out of the water occasionally and look around while they 
floated along like corks, nearly all the carapace being out of 
the water. We still keep on the lookout for wreckage, and 



350 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



expect to go back to the same place tomorrow for the other 
tortoise, and more if we find them. 

March 19, 1906. — We went down the coast to the place 
where we lost the boat. The tortoises come down to the 
cactus trees about fifty to seventy-five yards from the bluffs, 
and work around in the flat country near the coast. We found 
three. Beck took two pictures of one of them. So far we 
have brought all our Iguana Cove tortoises on board alive, 
but I think we shall have to skin a large one tomorrow, and 
put two over the cliffs into the sea and tow them to the ship. 
King did not care to go with us today, our experience on 
Saturday having been too much for him, so he went ashore at 
Iguana Cove to hunt tortoises. He failed to find any signs 
whatever. Hunter says he saw an old watering place about 
seven hundred feet up the mountain, but the grass had grown 
over all the trails, and there were no fresh signs of tortoises 
anywhere. The tortoises taken have numerous blood-sucking 
ticks along the cracks between the plastral plates. 

March 20, 1906. — Went down the coast to get the tortoises 
we have tied up. We put them all off into the sea and towed 
them to the ship. Two of them were badly battered up by the 
surf. We had to lower them over the cliffs with ropes and 
let them drift out to the boat. Beck took several pictures of 
the operation. It took up about the whole day. One of the 
tortoises that came floating by on Sunday morning died the 
night of the 19th of the injuries it had received. Its stomach 
contained cactus and grass. We expect to sail tomorrow, as 
the place is rather dangerous to anchor, and all hands will feel 
safer out of here. 

March 21, 1906. — Worked on board all day, skinning two 
tortoises that died from injuries received in collecting them. 
We sailed for Narborough at 10 :30 a. m. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 35 J 

Testudo wallacei Rothschild 

Jervis Island Tortoise 

Plates 111 and 112. 

Testudo zvallacei Rothschild, Novit. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 619; Heller, 
Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., V, 1903, p. 54; SiEbenrock, Zool. Tahrb., 
Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 533. 

Type specimen. — In the Rothschild Museum at Tring, Eng- 
land. Carapace, probably of adult male. Straight length 
32.25 inches. Purchased from the Bullock collection. Origin 
unknown. 

Distribution. — Jervis Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — Our collection includes the skin of one adult male 
and some fragments of bone from another specimen. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace moderately high in males, 
but considerably lower than middle height; height at nuchal 
notch less than 45% (37%) of straight length; difference 
between percentages of heights at third vertebral and at nuchal 
notch more than 13 (17); carapace not saddle-shaped, not 
narrow anteriorly, width at margin of junction of second and 
third marginals not less than 44% (54%) ; first marginals not 
greatly enlarged, not everted, their ventral surfaces not verti- 
cal; length over curve 134%, greater than width over curve 
(129%); vertical distance from lower surface of plastron to 
lower edge of lateral marginals great, 8% ; general size large, 
straight length 36.2 inches; plastron moderately long, median 
length 81% ; pectorals forming a suture on median line; eighth 
marginal plate not reduced, with well-developed superior bor- 
der; lower jaw and throat not marked with yellow. 



September 30, 1914. 



352 



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Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 353 

General remarks. — The single tortoise at hand from Jervis 
Island is very similar in shape to the large males of Testudo 
vicina from Iguana Cove. The length over the curve in the 
Jervis Island tortoise is greater than in those from Iguana 
Cove, so that the curved width is less than the curved length. 
The front height is less than in T. darwini of James Island, 
making the difference between front and middle heights 
greater. Upon the whole it may be said that the Jervis tor- 
toise is intermediate between those of James Island and Iguana 
Cove, and that it seems to resemble the latter a little more 
than the former. My reasons for using the name T. wallacei 
for this tortoise are stated in the introductory portion of this 
paper (see page ). 

Field Notes — December 18, 1905. — Left Duncan Island this 
morning, and made Jervis early in the afternoon. Worked on 
Duncan tortoises all day and got the mess straightened out as 
well as possible. Expect to get ashore on Jervis tomorrow. 
Gifford says he saw a lot of old tortoise trails and old drop- 
pings. The island is very steep, and is composed of red-lava 
blocks. The beach is all red-lava sand or dust, and trees in the 
lagoon are visible from the ship. 

December 19, 1905. — Went ashore on Jervis. A fine sand 
beach with a lagoon back of it. The island is covered with 
red-lava blocks and ashes. The highest peak is 1050 feet by 
barometer. I saw old tortoise trails in the ashes, one of which 
ran up a valley clear to the top. Saw lots of old dung that 
apparently had been rained on, as it was bleached out rather 
white. 

December 20, 1905. — Mr. Beck went ashore on Jervis and 
found a large tortoise on the north side in a small valley. It 
looks like the south Albemarle ones. 



354 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

Testudo porteri Rothschild 

Indefatigable Island Tortoise. 
Plates 113 to 121. 

? Testudo indica (part), Gray, [nee Perrault, 1676] Syn. Rept., 1831, 
p. 9; Gray, Cat. Tort. Croc. Amphis. Brit. Mus., 1844, p. 5; Gray, Cat. 
Shield Rept. Brit. Mus., I, 1855, p. 6; Gray, Suppl. Cat. Shield Rept. Brit. 
Mus., 1870, p. 5 ; Sowerby & Lear, Tortoises, 1872, pi. VI. 

? Testudo nigrita, Dum. & Bibr., Erpet. Gener., II, 1835, p. 80; GuN- 
THER, Trans. Royal Soc. Lond., CLXV, 1875, p. 267, pis. 33 fig. B, 35 fig. C, 
27 fig. D, 38 fig. D, 39 fig. D; GunTher, Gigantic Land Tortoises Brit. 
Mus., 1877, p. 69, pis. XXX fig. B, XXXI5 fig. C, XLII fig. D, 
XLIII fig. D, XUV fig. D; Boulenger, Cat. Chelonians Brit. Mus., 1889, 
p. 169; KammerEr, Blatt. Aquar.— Terr.— Kunde, XIX, 1898, p. 7Z7, figs. 
1-2 [T. vicinaf] ; Waite, Rec. Austral Mus., Ill, 1891, p. 95; Heller, Proc. 
Washington Acad. V, 1903, p. 53; SiebEnrock, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 
1909, p. 531. 

? Testudo planiceps. Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. Brit. Mus, 1855, p. 6, pi. 
XXXIV ; Gray, Suppl. Cat. Shield Rept. Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 5 ; Blephan- 
topus planiceps, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 724. 

? Testudo elephantina, Strauch, [nee Dumeril & Bibron] Mem. Ac. 
St. Petersb., (7), V, No. 7, 1862, p. 83. 

? Testudo elephantopus, Gray, [nee Harlan] Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 708, pi. XII, (part) ; Gray, Append. Cat. Shield Rept. Brit. Mus., 
1872, p. 3. 

Testudo porteri Rothschild, Novit. Zool., X, 1903, p. 119; SiebEn- 
rock, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. X, 3, 1909, p. 532. 

Type specimens. — Testudo nigrita: Paris IVTuseum. Very 
young. Origin unlcnown. And Museum Royal College of 
Surgeons, London. Young. Straight length 22 inches. Origin 
unknown. 

Testudo planiceps: British Museum. Skull of adult. Origin 
unknown. 

Testudo porteri: Tring Museum, England. Adult. Curved 
length 51.5 inches. Taken on Indefatigable Island, by R. H. 
Beck. 

Distribution. — Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Material. — In the Tring Museum are two adult males, two 
adult females, one young, and six skulls. The species also is 
represented in the collection in Vienna. The California Acad- 
emy has twenty-three of both sexes and various sizes. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace low, from 18 to 28% lower 
than middle; height at nuchal notch not more than 40% (30 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 355 

to 40%) of straight length; diflference between percentages 
of heights at third vertebral and at nuchal notch more than 
17 (18 to 28) ; carapace dome-shaped, very broad anteriorly, 
width at margin of junction of second and third marginals 
not less than 53% (53 to 71%); first marginals not everted, 
their most prominent points separated by less than 25% (18 
to 24%); length over curve not less than 125% (126 to 
141%), usually greater than width over curve; vertical dis- 
tance from lower surface of plastron to lower edge of lateral 
marginals great, 7 to 11%; general size large, straight length 
to 41.4 inches; plastron long, 77 to 92%; plates generally 
striated; pectorals forming a suture on median line; eighth 
marginal plate not reduced, with a considerable superior bor- 
der; lower jaw and throat in males not marked with yellow. 



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Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 357 

General remarks. — Testudo porteri seems to be still fairly 
common. It is a very large species with thick, heavy shell. 
The large males are rounder and more dome-shaped than 
those of any other locality, v^ome of the half-grown females 
can only with great difficulty be distinguished from southern 
Albemarle specimens. If one may judge from the condition 
of the bones, the largest specimens in our collection are still 
quite young, in fact none of our Indefatigable tortoises ap- 
pears to be of great age. It is probable that they grow rap- 
idly when in their native haunts, although our smallest speci- 
men grew less than an inch and a half in length in six years 
of life in San Francisco. 

Nine eggs (No. 8421) taken from a nest found on Inde- 
fatigable October 25, 1905, measure 2.50x2.20, 2.45x2.30, 
2.44x2.24, 2.35x2.30, 2.35x2.24, 2.30x2.25, 2.25x2.25, 2.25x 
2.20 and 2.23x2.22 inches. 

Field Notes. — Oct. 25, 1905, went ashore on Indefatigable 
to look for tortoises at the same place where Beck found them 
before, and hunted all day. Early in the morning, soon after 
our arrival at the hunting grounds, we found one small 
female. We then scattered, everybody following different 
trails. The trails are from three to five feet wide. At inter- 
vals the ground may be seen dug up, like a wallow. No fresh 
droppings were seen, but lots of old ones along the trails. I 
saw several apparently fresh wallows, but no tortoises. At 
two o'clock, we all met at the place we found the first tortoise 
and started back for the ship. King and Hunter carrying the 
tortoise. Beck, Williams and myself went a little to the 
north, and soon fell upon a fresh track. We followed this for 
about ten minutes, and soon came upon a big male tortoise 
walking slowly through the brush. While looking at our 
prize, we heard a noise in the brush at one side, and, turning 
around, saw a large female heading the way we had just come. 
We killed the female, and turning the male on his back, tied 
his feet to a tree, as it was too late to do more. The female 
had eggs in the ovaries at different stages of development — 
some already with hard shells and some in yolk. Some va- 
cant spaces were seen from which the eggs had already been 
laid. We found a nest on one of the trails, and Beck dug it 
out, finding ten eggs. The nests look like a little round space 



358 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

scraped clean of brush and leaves. The top is hard earth, but, 
on digging down the earth gets softer, and a small hole is 
found about seven or eight inches in diameter, and thirteen 
inches deep. This is the nest proper and contains the eggs 
buried in loose soil. Beck found one more set earlier in the 
day. We brought both sets back to the ship, and shall try to 
blow them. Shall also try to save those taken from the 
female captured. Beck found part of the skull of a tortoise 
he killed when here before. Also saw bones of one he killed 
on that trip. We are going in tomorrow to try to get out 
the two other tortoises. 

Oct. 26, 1905. — Went in after the tortoises found yester- 
day. The big male had broken loose from the lashings, but 
was only about twenty yards away. We started work skin- 
ning at once ; the mate, Ochsner, King, and myself on the big 
fellow, with Hunter and Williams on the smaller one. Beck 
went around looking for more, but failed to find any. How- 
ever, he reported having seen a fresh trail of a little one, 
about seven or eight inches wide. At about half past three 
we started down toward the coast with the tortoises, having re- 
moved all the heavy meat from them, and arrived at the 
vessel at about half past five. The eggs taken from the 
female were left behind, as we had too much to carry. To- 
morrow I suppose we shall clean out the tortoises ready for 
pickle, and also skin the one brought down yesterday. 

Oct. 27, 1905. — Stayed on board all day skinning tortoises. 
got the two females in pickle, and the big male nearly ready. 
Beck went inland again, and found two more tortoises — one 
a fair-sized female and one little tortoise about nine and one- 
half inches long. King and Williams will go in for the large 
one tomorrow. I hope tomorrow to get the large male into 
pickle, and try to blow some eggs. 

Oct. 28, 1905. — Went ashore with Williams, and carried 
out the other tortoise. King finished the large male and 
blew the eggs. Got embryos out of the eggs from one of the 
nests. Beck searched all day for tortoises, but failed to find 
any, or any traces outside of the grounds where we found the 
others. Will sail tomorrow for South Albemarle. 

Nov. 6, 1905. — Beck went ashore with Ochsner, Stewart, 
and Williams, to cut or find a trail leading into the interior. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 359 

and to look for tortoises. Beck found a large female, and 
killed it. We are going in tomorrow to skin this tortoise. 
Williams and King will bring it back and Beck and I will 
camp over night. 

Nov. 7, 1905. — Went into the tortoise belt with Beck, pre- 
pared to camp for a few days. After hunting all day we 
found three tortoises, tied them up and returned to camp. 
One was a large male, and the other two were females. The 
large male was grazing along in the grass when found, as a 
cow or a horse might do. It appeared to be perfectly deaf, as 
it took no notice whatever of us when we went up to it and 
yelled ; but as soon as it saw us it drew in its head with a loud 
hiss. The tortoise belt is two hundred feet in elevation by 
barometer, and is filled with cactus and brush together with a 
number of large trees. 

Nov. 8, 1905. — Started out from camp early in the morn- 
ing. I began skinning a female taken yesterday, while Beck 
went hunting for more, and made a trail up the mountain. 
He returned in the evening and we went back to camp. 

Nov. 9, 1905. — Started out from camp, and by noon had 
finished the female I worked on yesterday. Hunter and King 
came up today and we three started for the coast with the two 
tortoises. Beck stayed in camp and found another tortoise 
in the afternoon. He also struck the trail of a large one, 
which he came up with toward evening. He killed this one, 
and returned to camp. 

Nov. 10, 1905. — Went back to camp again with Ochsner, 
Hunter and King. Ochsner and King finished skinning a 
small female, and took it down to the coast. Hunter, Beck 
and myself went to the big male found yesterday, and par- 
tially skinned him so that he could be taken out next day. 
We returned to the ship by dark. 

Nov. 11, 1905. — Stayed on board all day and prepared 
tortoises. Blew some eggs and straightened things up in 
general. Beck and the rest of the party went in after the big 
tortoise. Beck took some pictures of the party carrying the 
tortoise down a cliff which has to be climbed in order to 
reach the interior. 

Nov. 12, 1905.— All hands resting. 



3gQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Nov. 13, 1905. — Went in to the camp again, and skinned 
the large male that we left tied up to a tree. Beck searched 
for more tortoises and found three farther inland. We re- 
turned and camped all night at the old place. 

Nov. 14, 1905. — Finished skinning the large male and one 
female which Beck found yesterday. Hunter and Stewart 
took out the male, while King and I took out the female. On 
the way down Williams and Gifford overtook us, and said 
they had killed a small tortoise up the trail just outside the 
cactus belt. Williams and I will go after it tomorrow, while 
the rest help Beck with the other two tortoises. 

Nov. 15, 1905. — Went up the trail with Williams after 
the tortoise found yesterday. He was about half a mile 
beyond the cactus belt, and when found was crossing the trail, 
going around the base of the mountain. His stomach con- 
tained grass and weeds. Beck, Ochsner, and Stewart brought 
out the big male, so there is one small tortoise left to carry 
down. 

Nov. 16, 1905. — Stayed on board all day and finished 
cleaning the tortoises brought down. Have all the tortoises 
pickled now except some of the Albemarle ones, which are 
living in the tortoise pen. Expect to sail in the morning for 
Gordon Rocks and anchor there, so that Mr. Beck and party 
can try to reach the top of the mountain. 

Nov. 17, 1905. — Sailed for Gordon Rocks and anchored 
about five o'clock in a cove on the northwest side of Inde- 
fatigable Island. The country here is a slightly elevated 
plateau and very open, there being a few cacti and scattered 
brush. 

Jan, 11, 1906. — Were becalmed off the coast southwest of 
Puerta de I'Aguada, and anchored with the kedge. Beck and 
Hunter went ashore while I held the boat. Hunter found the 
skeletons of two small tortoises which appeared to have been 
killed by natives. No skulls were found. 

Jan. 12, 1906. — Spent most of the day watering ship. 

Jan. 13, 1906. — Worked on tortoises all day. Beck went 
ashore and found one large male and a female. 

Jan. 14, 1906. — All hands resting. 

Jan. 15, 1906. — Beck, King, and myself went into the in- 
terior, and skinned and carried out the female tortoise found 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 35^ 

Saturday. This tortoise was very fat with large Hght- 
colored liver, just the opposite to those found on Duncan. 
This probably is on account of the difference in food, those 
on this island getting more green food, while the Duncan 
tortoises get dry grass and lichen also. We are going in to- 
morrow for the large male. The female had very few eggs 
in the ovaries, all in yolk form. 

Jan. 16, 1906. — King, Beck, and myself went into the in- 
terior and brought out the big tortoise found on Saturday, the 
13th. This tortoise had more fat than any other male taken 
thus far. As a rule they do not have nearly so much as the 
females. 

Jan. 17, 1906. — King, Beck, and myself went in again 
after tortoises. Found three, but one got away. Skinned a 
small female, and brought her down to the ship. We are 
going in after another female that is tied up. King found the 
big male that got away. 

Jan. 18, 1906. — Went in again after tortoises, and skinned 
and carried out a male tortoise found yesterday. Beck found 
another female today, and also the big male that got away. 
We now have two females and a large male tied up, and are 
going in tomorrow with all hands to get the two females. The 
tortoise skinned today was found eating cactus, and its stom- 
ach was full. The bladder was full of water. Lots of cactus 
spines were stuck in the throat. All the tortoises taken during 
this visit here were found about three and one-half miles 
inland. 

Jan. 19, 1906. — Went in after the two female tortoises 
which had been left tied up. We find the females have much 
larger livers than the males. One of the tortoises taken today 
is about the largest female we have found. 

Jan. 20, 1906.— Went in and brought out the tortoise 
which escaped from us on the 17th. He had traveled about 
two miles in an afternoon. He was fairly fat for a male, and 
had a stub tail, probably due to some accident when small. 

July 11, 1906.— Sailed for Puerta de I'Aguada and an- 
chored at eleven in the mornmg. 

July 12, 1906. — Went in after a tortoise with King and 
Beck. In the same country where we had hunted before we 
found numerous trails and signs of tortoises. We ran across 



362 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 



a good-sized male early in the morning, and skinned and 
brought him out. His stomach contained cactus. 

July 20, 1906. — At anchor at a little cove near Conway 
Bay where the trail that led up to the old settlement com- 
menced. 

July 24, 1906. — Went ashore for a couple of hours in the 
morning and got a mess of doves for food. The country here 
is covered with dry grass and small trees. I saw no reptiles 
of any description. We sailed for Daphne Island at about 
nine o'clock. 

Testudo species? 

Cowley Mountain Tortoise. 
Plates 122 and 123. 

Distribution. — Cowley Mountain, Albemarle Island, Gala- 
pagos Archipelago. 

Material. — The Academy collection includes only one skin 
with bones of a female, and a few fragments of other indi- 
viduals. 

Diagnosis. — No nuchal; gulars paired; fourth cervical ver- 
tebra biconvex; front of carapace low; height at nuchal 
notch 36% of straight length; difference between percentages 
of front and middle heights 25 ; carapace dome-shaped, broad 
anteriorly, width at margin of junction of second and third 
marginals 54% ; first marginals not greatly enlarged, not 
everted; their ventral surfaces not vertical, their most promi- 
nent points separated by less than 25% (17%); length over 
curve more than 123% (128%); width over curve greater 
than length over curve; vertical distance from lower surface 
of plastron to lower edge of lateral marginals great, 10%; 
general size moderate, straight length 26.75 inches; plastron 
moderately long, 85%; plates striated; pectorals forming a 
suture on median line; eighth marginal plate not reduced; 
lower jaw and throat of female black. 



Vol. II, Pt. I J VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 



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364 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

General remarks. — This tortoise is most closely related to 
T. porteri of Indefatigable Island and T. vicina of the south- 
ern part of Albemarle Island. It is more nearly circular in 
outline than any other tortoise. Its high dome-shaped back 
makes it resemble T. porteri very closely, but it is more like 
the dome-shaped females of T. vicina in its curved length, and 
in its width at second and third marginal suture. The differ- 
ence between the front and middle heights is greater than in 
any specimen of T. vicina. The width at suture between sec- 
ond and third marginals is less than in most of my specimens 
of T. porteri; as is also the curved length. The female taken 
had well developed ovaries containing large yolks. With only 
a single female specimen of this tortoise for comparison, it is 
quite impossible to be certain as to whether it really represents 
a distinct race. It, therefore, seems best to leave it without a 
specific name until male specimens have been secured. 

Field Notes. — Aug. 9, 1906. — Sailed from James Bay for 
Cowley Mountain, Albemarle, and anchored off the moun- 
tain at about six in the evening. 

Aug. 10-11, 1906. — Went in after tortoises. Cowley 
Mountain on this eastern side is a vast stretch of pumice 
stone with practically no vegetation for some miles inland. 
It rises with a gradual slope for about five miles, then gets 
quite steep at the elevation of about two thousand feet, where 
the vegetation becomes thick — small trees covered with moss, 
and tall dry grass tramped down in most places by the mules, 
being met with. At about 2200-2500 feet, a level area about a 
mile and a half in width surrounds the rim of the volcano. The 
mules do not get into this area because of a tall grass, growing 
higher than one's head, which it is almost impossible to push 
through. We had a good look at the rim of the crater but could 
not get through to it, so, turning back, we camped for the night 
near the edge of this belt. We searched for tortoises next morn- 
ing in the dry grass below, and found signs about a month old, 
but did not see any tortoises. The trails ran into the mule 
trails, which made it impossible to track them. Beck came 
down the mountain where we were looking, and ran across a 
tortoise a little farther up the hill. He had been over to the 
southward, and found it a little better going, so that he got 
closer to the crater. He found the camp where the natives 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 355 

killed the tortoises, and saw about seventy old skeletons. We 
saw a few to the northward. It is a capital place to use mules, 
and, no doubt, the natives cleaned the tortoises out very thor- 
oughly here. Beck skinned the tortoise out roughly, and 
King and I finished it on Sunday. 

Testudo species? 

Barrington Island Tortoise. 
Plates 123 and 124. 

Nothing has been known of the presence of tortoises on 
Barrington Island. None of the early navigators mentions 
having seen them there, and no recent visitor to the archi- 
pelago has made note of them. Our expedition secured evi- 
dence that tortoises formerly were fairly abundant on this 
island. Fragmentary remains of some fourteen individuals 
were found. These are mostly very old bones — pelves, 
femora, humeri, etc. — and leave us completely ignorant of the 
shape and relationship of the tortoises of Barrington Island. 
A few of these bones are figured in the plate given. Two very 
old semi-fossil eggs also were found, one of which is shown, 
photographed together with eggs from Albemarle, Duncan, 
and Indefatigable islands, in Plate 124. These eggs are 
larger than any that I have seen from other islands. They 
(No. 8424) measure 2.55x2.25 and 2.50x2.40 inches. Some 
of the bones evidently came from very large tortoises, while 
some with well-united sutures are quite small. It would thus 
appear that the tortoises of Barrington Island varied consid- 
erably in size. 

Field Notes. — Feb. 22, 1906. — We met the schooner from 
Guayaquil, and saw the Captain, who is an Englishman. He 
says he has taken tortoises on Chatham, and says he ate the 
last one on the island some twenty years ago. He also reports 
having taken them off Barrington Island about fifteen years 
ago, but that they are now extinct. None of our party saw 
any remains while staying there. He got tortoises from Hood 
some years ago, probably before 1897. There was an Albe- 
marle tortoise tied up at the wharf, and the Captain says the 
tortoise changes his shell completely, but he doesn't know 
how often ! This one had a plate on the carapace loose. 



356 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

July 9, 1906. — Sailed for Barrington Island about 5 a. m. 
and arrived at 11 a. m. Captain Levick, of the schooner that 
runs between the islands, informed us that thirty years ago 
tortoises were found scattered all over Barrington, and that 
he had taken them off that island. He doubted very much 
whether we would find any as, he says, they were all killed 
off long ago. We landed after dinner and proceeded on a tor- 
toise hunt. For lack of time, we could not go far or cover 
much ground, but we had good luck. Beck found some old 
bones, and Mr. Nelson, the mate, found two old eggs on the 
north side of the island. He said they were near an iguana's 
hole, whence they had been dug out and were lying on the 
ground. They appear to be not more than a year old. We 
are going in again tomorrow. Mr. Nelson says he will try to 
find the spot again where he took the eggs, and we will dig 
down and see if any more can be found. He was in too much 
of a hurry to look, as it was nearly dark and he was heading 
for the boat at full speed. 

July 10, 1906. — Made another search for tortoises, but 
found no live ones. Beck found some more bones on the 
higher portions of the north end of the island. He mentions 
having seen a very old piece of dung yesterday. Mr. Nelson 
tried to find the place where he found the old eggs, but failed 
to do so. We have come to the conclusion that the eggs prob- 
ably are more than a year old, and were lately dug up by 
iguanas and exposed to the sun. King and I visited the valleys 
on the north coast, but found no signs whatever of tortoises. 

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. 

The various races of tortoises of the Galapagos Islands 
differ from one another chiefly in shape. There are no real 
differences in structure, such as are found in the lizards and 
snakes of the archipelago. The relative values which should 
be attached to these differences in shape are extremely dif- 
ficult to estimate. Therefore the tortoises do not throw much 
light upon the history and development of the archipelago. 
Some points, however, are of considerable interest. 

Tortoises either live, or are known to have lived, upon 
Abingdon, Chatham, Hood, Charles, Barrington, Indefatiga- 



Vol. II, Ft. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 357 

ble, James, Jervis, Duncan, Narborough, and Albemarle 
islands. The last named island supports several races of tor- 
toises. The tortoises of Barrington are practically unknown. 
Each of the other nine islands had its own peculiar race of 
tortoise, and on none of these nine islands has evidence of more 
than one race been found. This lends particular interest to 
the fact that several races of tortoises occur on Albemarle 
Island. 

Although these tortoises can live for at least several days 
floating on the surface of the ocean, they are absolutely help- 
less in the water. They are unable to swim, and can only 
float and drift at the mercy of the winds and currents. When 
they drift on island shores, they usually are so battered and 
injured on the rocks that they only live a few days there- 
after. The fact that each island, except Albemarle, has one 
and only one race of tortoise, is evidence that interchange of 
tortoises between the islands has not occurred, for such inter- 
change would result either in preventing differentiation or in 
the presence of more than one race on an island. 

If the transportation of tortoises from one island to another 
does not occur, there is little reason to believe that tortoises, 
at some time in the past, have drifted over the vastly greater 
distance from some continent, and have reached each of the 
eleven islands on which they have been found. Nor do we 
know whence they could have come. The evidence offered by 
these tortoises, therefore, seems to be against the view that 
these are oceanic islands, which have been independently 
thrust above the surface of the water, and have received such 
animals as have drifted to them. We must rather adopt the 
view that the islands are but the remains of a larger land- 
mass which formerly occupied this region, and was inhabited 
by tortoises, probably of but one race ; that the gradual partial 
submersion of this land separated its higher portions into vari- 
ous islands; and that the resulting isolation of the tortoises 
upon these islands has permitted their differentiation into dis- 
tinct races or species. 

If isolation plays so prominent a part in the differentia- 
tion of species in the Galapagos Archipelago, and each island 
has its one distinct race, what is the explanation of the fact 
that on Albemarle Island five distinct races of tortoises occur ? 

September 30, 1914. 



368 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

The fact that each of the five great mountains of Albemarle 
seems to have been the original home of one of these five races, 
suggests that these volcanoes formerly were separated by 
water and formed five islands. These five islands must have 
remained separate long enough to permit the development of 
the differences which distinguish the five kinds of tortoises 
now found upon Albemarle. Then these five small islands 
must have been elevated until they merged to form the present 
Albemarle Island. 

If there has been such an elevation of Albemarle Island in 
recent times, we might hope to find some record of it in the 
rocks, either in the form of fossils or of elevated beaches. Mr. 
Ochsner, the geologist of our expedition, found such evidence ; 
but, since his results have not yet been published, I shall con- 
tent myself by calling attention merely to Heller's statement: 

"Near Iguana Cove, Albemarle, there are several old 
sea-cliffs now situated a considerable distance inland. At 
Tagus Cove on the same island a series of terraces, still con- 
taining the characteristic cavities made by sea-urchins, are 
now several hundred feet above the present sea-level." 

This is positive proof of the recent elevation of Albemarle 
Island, and favors our explanation of the presence of several 
species of tortoises upon this island. 

Our studies of the reptiles of the Galapagos Archipelago, 
therefore, all point to the conclusion that these are not oceanic 
islands. We must regard the present islands as made up of 
the higher portions of a much more extensive land-mass which 
formerly existed in this region. This Galapagos Land was 
the home, probably, of one race of giant tortoises, of one kind 
of gecko, of one species of Tropidurus, of two kinds of 
iguanas, and of two species of snakes. Gradual depression 
resulted in the submersion of much of this Galapagos Land. 
As the lower portions were covered by water the higher parts 
became, at intervals, separate islands, inhabited, after isolation, 
by the same kinds of reptiles which had occupied them before. 
Variation through a long period of time produced specific and 
sub-specific changes in these isolated colonies of reptiles, until 
each island upon which tortoises remained sustained its own 
peculiar kind. Similarly, the snakes, the gecko, and the 
Tropidurus, of various islands became differentiated. Since 



Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 359 

this differentiation varies in degree on the various islands — 
being greatest usually on the more out-lying islands — it may 
be regarded as an index to the order of separation of the 
various islands, and evidence of their gradual depression. Only 
on Albemarle Island do the reptiles suggest that there has been 
land elevation, and even here the recent period of rising must 
have been preceded by a long period of depression, during 
which the present Albemarle Island was represented, prob- 
ably, by five separate islands corresponding to its five great 
volcanoes. 

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Vol. II, Pt. I] VAN DENBURGH— GALAPAGOS TORTOISES 37^ 

1892— Baur, G. — Ein Besuch der Galapagos Inseln. Miinchen, 1892, 16mo., 
pp. 46. (From the Beilage sur Allgemeinen Zeitung, Nos 26-29, 
Feb. 1-4, 1892). Also Biolog. Centrdblatt, 1892, pp. 221-250. 

1892 — Baur, G. — The Galapagos Islands, Proceedings American Antiquarian 
Society, Annual Meeting, Oct. 21, 1891, Worcester, Mass. p. 6. 

1892— Agassiz, A. — General Sketch of the Expedition of the "Albatross" 
from February to May, 1891. The Galapagos Islands. Bulletin of 
the Museum of Comparatize Zoology, XXIII, No. 1, pp. 56-74. 

1895 — Baur, G. — The Differentiation of Species on the Galapagos Islands 
and the Origin of the Group. Biological Lectures delivered at The 
Marine Biological Laboratory of Wood's Holl in the Summer Ses- 
sion of 1894. Boston, 1895, pp. 67-78. 

1896 — Rothschild. — Further Notes on Gigantic Land Tortoises. Novitates 
Zoologicae, III, No. 2, June 1896, pp. 85-90. 

1896 — Gijnther, A.— Test-ado ephippium. Novitates Zool, III, 1896, pp. 
329-334, pis. 20-22. 

1897 — Baur, G. — New^ Observations on the Origin of the Galapagos Islands, 
with Remarks on the Geological Aee of the Pacific Ocean. Ameri- 
can Naturalist, 1897, pp. 661-680, 864-896 [not completed]. 

1898 — Giinther, A. — The President's Anniversary Address. Proceedings 
of the Linnean Society of London, pp. 14-29. 

1898— von Lidth de Jeude, Th. W.— On Abnormal Pectoral Shields in 
Testudo ephippium Gthr. Notes Leyden Museum, XX, pp. 126-128, 
pis. 3-5. 

1899 — Waite, Edgar R. — Observation on Testudo nigrita Dum. & Bibr. 
Records Australian Museum, III, p. 95, pis. XX-XXII. 

1899— FuYis.— Nature, LX, p. 199. 

1899— Rothschild, W. & Hartert, Ernest— A Rcvifw of the Ornithology 
of the Galapagos Islands. With Notes on the Webster-Harris Ex- 
pedition. Novitates Zoologicae, Vol. VI., No. 2, Aug., 1899, pp. 
85-136. 

1900 — Vaillant, L. — Carapaces du Testudo microphyes Giinther, apparte- 
nant au Musee du Havre, par M. Leon Vaillant. Bulletin du Mu- 
seum d'histoire naturelle, 1900, No. 5, 228-229. 

1901— Gadow, H.— Cambridge Natural History, Vol. VIII, Amphibia and 
Reptiles. 8vo. 

1901 — Holder, C. F. — The Turtles of Galapagos. Scientific American, Vol. 
85, pp. 139-140, fig. . 

1901 — Rothschild, W. — On a New Land Tortoise from the Galapagos Isl- 
ands. [Testudo becki]. Novitates Zool., VIII, p. 372. 

1902 — Giinther, A. — Testudo galapagoensis. Novitates Zool., IX, pp. 184- 
192, pis. XVI-XXI. 

1902 — Rothschild, W. — Note regarding Testudo elephantopus. Novitates 
Znnlogicae, IX, p. 448. 

1902 — Rothschild, W. — Further Notes Regarding Testudo elephantopus. 
Novitates Zoologicae, IX, p. 618. 

1902 — Rothschild, Walter — Description of a New Species of Gigantic Land- 
Torto'se from the Galapagos Islands. Novitates Zool, IX., p. 619. 

1902— Ditmars, R. L.— The Giant Tortoises. Sixth Annual Report New 
York Zoological Society, pp. 120-127, 2 pis. 

1903— Hamilton, F.— Hunting the Giant Tortoise. V/idc-World Magazine, 
London, II, No. 61, May, 1903, pp. 25-30, figs. 

1903— Beck, R. H.— In the Home of the Giant Tortoise. Seventh Annual 
Report New York Zoological Society, pp. — Reprint pp. 1-17, figs. 



372 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Se«. 

1903 — Heller, Edmund — Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos Ex- 
pedition, 1898-1899, XIV, Reptiles, Proceedings Washington Academy 
of Sciences, V, pp. 48-59. 

1903 — Vaillant, Leon — Les Tortues de terre gigantesques. Revue Scien- 
tifique, June 6, 1903. Reprint pp. 1-38. 

1903 — Rothschild, Walter — Description of a New Species of Gigantic Laind 
Tortoise from Indefatigable Island. Novitates Zoologicae, X, p. 119. 

1907 — Van Denburgh, John — Preliminary Descriptions of Four New Races 
of Gigantic Land Tortoises from the Galapagos Islands. Proceed- 
ings California Academy of Sciences, (4), I, Dec, 1907, pp. 1-6. 

1908— Kammerer— 5/aff. Aquar.—Terr.—Kunde, XIX, 1908, p. 737, fig. 1-2. 

1909 — Siebenrock, F. — Synopsis der rezenten Schildkroten, mit Beziicksich- 
tigung der in historischer Zeit ausgestorbenen Arten. Zoolog. Jahrb. 
Suppl. X, Heft 3, pp. 427-618. 



INDEX 
(Synonyms in italics; new names in black face type.) 



Abingdon Island Tortoise, 296 
abingdoni, Testudo, 296 
abingdonii, Testudo, 296 
Adams, C. F., 228 
Agassiz, Professor A., 228 

Professor Louis, 226 
Atahualpa, 209 

Harrington Island Tortoise, 365 
Baur, Dr. George, 210 
Beck, R. H., 242 
becki, Testudo, 303 
bedsi, Testudo, 303 
Berlanga, Fray Tomas de, 209 
Bibliography, 369 
Bibron, M., 223 
Brown, Dr. Arthur E., 247 
Bynoe, Mr., 222, 225 
calif orniana, Testudo, 245, 316 
Charles Island Tortoise, 316 
Charts showing variation, 289 
chathamensis, Testudo, 323 
Chatham Island Tortoise, 323 
Clipperton, 211 
Cochrane, Rear Admiral, 226 
Colnett, Captain James, 212 
Conclusions, General, 366 
Contents, 203 
Cooke, 210 

Cookson, Commander, 226, 228 
Cowley, 210' 

Cowley Mountain Tortoise, 362 
Dampier, 210 
Darwin, Charles, 220', 235 
darwini, Testudo, 319 
Davis, Edward, 210 
de Beauchesne, Captain, 211 
de Freycinet, M., 244, 316 
de Jeude, Van Lidth, 291 
Delano, Amasa, 212 
Description, 259 
Descriptions of the Races, 295 
Downes, Commodore John, 220, 255 
Drowne, F. P., 228, 229 
Dumeril and Bibron, 249 
Duncan Island Tortoise, 306 
elephantina, Testudo, 354 
elephantopus, Testudo, 245, 316 
ephippium, Testudo, 251, 306 
Evans, Whitton, 245, 246 
Expedition to the Galapagos Islands, 203 
Fitzroy, Admiral, 228 
Fray Tomas de Berlanga, 209 
Gadow, Hans, 257 
gadowi, Testudo, 257 
galapagoensis, Testudo, 255, 316 
Galapagos Archipelago, Gigantic Land 

Tortoises of the, 203 
Galapagos Islands, Expedition to the, 203 



General Conclusion, 366 

Gifford, E. W., 242 

Gigantic Land Tortoises of the Gala- 
pagos Archipelago, 203 

Gray, M., 223 

Giinther, Dr. Albert, 245, 249, 251, 252 

glintheri, Testudo, 256, 335 

Habel, Dr., 226 

Hall, Captain Basil, 219, 251 

Harlan, Dr. Richard, 245 

Harris, 210' 

Harris, C. M., 228 

Heller, Edmund, 234 

Hernandez, Colonel, 220 

hoodensis, Testudo, 313 

Hood Island Tortoise, 313 

Hull, G. D., 228 

Hunter, J. S., 242 

Indefatigable Island Tortoise, 354 

indica, Testudo, 316, 354 

Iguana Cove Tortoise, 344 

Introduction, 206 

Jackson, Dr. J. B., 255 

Jahnke, Herman, 231 

James Island Tortoise, 319 

Jervis Island Tortoise, 351 

Key to Galapagoan Races, 293 

Kinberg, Dr., 226 

King, E. S., 242 

Knight, 210 

Land Tortoises of the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago, Gigantic, 203 

Lawson, Mr., 222. 223 

Levick, Captain, 366 

Linbridge, Captain, 228 

Measurements of Abingdon Island Tor- 
, toises, 297 

Measurements of Bank's Bay Tor- 
toises, 304 

Measurements of Cape Rose Tortoises, 
331 

Measurements of Chatham Island Tor- 
toises, 324 

Measurements of Cowley Mountain Tor- 
toise, 363 

Measurements of Duncan Island Tor- 
toise, 307, 308, 309 

JNIeafurements of Hood Island Tortoises, 
314 

Measurements of Iguana Cove Tortoises, 
345 

Measurements of Indefatigable Island 
Tortoises, 356 

Measurements of James Island Tortoises, 
320 

Measurements of Jervis Island Tortoise, 
352 



INDEX 



Measurements of Narborough Island 
Tortoises, 300' 

Measurements of Old Cobos Settlement 
Tortoises, 345 

Me3surements of South Albemarle Tor- 
toises, 337, 346, 347 

Measurements of Tagus Cove Tor- 
toises, 330 

Measurements of Vilamil Tortoises, 336 

Meek, Captain, 244, 316 

microphyes, Testudo, 252, 329 

Morrell, Captain Benjamin, 219 

Narborough Island Tortoise, 299 

Nelson, Mr., 366 

nigra, Testudo, 244, 316 

nigrita, Testudo, 249 

Nomenclature, 244 

North Albemarle Island Tortoise, 303 

Noyes, Captain, 237 

Ochsner, W. H., 242 

Osteological differences, 292 

phantastica, Testudo, 299 

planiceps, Testudo, 251, 354 

Plates, 373 

Porter, Captain, 215 

porteri, Testudo, 354 

Quoy and Gaimard, 244 

Rogers, Woodes, 211 

Rothschild, Walter, 228, 313 

Seemann, B., 226 

Slevin, J. R.. 242 

Snodgrass, Robert E., 234 

Stewart, Alban, 243 

Stone, Witmer, 247 

Systematic Account, 244 

Table of Measurements of Tortoises, 
287, 288 

Tagus Cove Tortoise, 329 



Testudo abingdoni, 296 

becki, 303 

bedsi, 30'3 

calif orniana, 245, 316 

chathamensis, 323 

darwini, 319 

elephantina, 354 

elephantopus, 245, 316 

ephippium, 251, 306 

gado-wi, 257 

galapagoensis, 255, 316 

giintheri, 256, 335 

hoodensis, 313 

indica, 316, 354 

microphyes, 252, 329 

nigra, 244, 316 

nigrita, 249 

phantastica, 299 

planiceps, 251, 354 

porteri, 354 

species ?, 362, 365 

vicina, 253, 344 

wallacei, 257, 351 
Tortoises of the Galapagos Archipelago, 

Gigantic Land, 203 
Traquair, Dr., 251, 252 
Tupac Yupangi, 209 
Vancouver, 211 
Van Denburgh, John, 203 
Variation vifith age, 289 

distribution, 290' 
individual, 291 
sex, 289 
vicina, Testudo, 253, 344 
Vilamil, J., 219, 220 
Vilamil Mountain Tortoise, 335 
Wafer, 210 

wallacei, Testudo, 257, 351 
Watkins, Patrick, 219 
Webster, Frank B., 228, 237 
Williams F. X., 242 
Wood and Rogers, 226 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 24 




Fig. 1. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 36 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 36 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 25 




Fig. 1. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 36 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 35 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 26 




Fig. 1. TestLido abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 35 incb male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 35 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 27 




Fig. 1. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 32 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 29.3 inch bony carapace. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 28 




Fig. 1. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 29.3 inch bony carapace. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 29.3 inch bony carapace. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 29 







n 






^^^^^fi^i»^^^^^H 


HHr^'JI' 


-.- ' ^ :^JB«&^BLiri jig'^^J 






'^ ^^^^^^^l^^abi^^^^LE 'l^^^HdHfl^rT^^K^H^I 


IHh 


'WHi^ ^ 


^^^^^^^^^^HbjI^H^. < 


4- '■^811^' 


' 


■^ 





Fig. 1. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 29.3 inch bony carapace, from below. 




Fig. 2. Testudo abingdoni Giinther. 
Abingdon Island. 29.3 inch bony carapace. From behind. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 30 




Fig. 1. Testudo phantastica Van Denburgh. 
Narborou.a;h Island. 34.5 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo phantastica Van Denburgh. 
Narborough Island. 34.5 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 31 




Fig. 1. Testudo phantastica Van Denburgh. 
Narborough Island. 34.5 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bav, Albemarle Island. 2>7 .i inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 32 




Fig. 1. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Ba}^ Albemarle Island. 37.3 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo becki Rothschild, 
bank's Baj', Albemarle Island. 2)7.i inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 33 




Fig. 1. Testudo becki Rothschild, 
kink's Bav. Albemarle Island. 34.25 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. 34.25 inch male. From side 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 34 




Fig. 1. Tcstudu bc'cki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. 34.25 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. 34 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 35 




Fig. 1. Testudo hecki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bav, Albemarle Island. 34 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. 34 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 36 




Fig. 1. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. 41.5 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. 41.5 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 37 




Fig. 1. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
5ank's Bav, Albemarle T.sland, 41.5 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bav. Albemarle Island. 21.75 inch adult female. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 38 




Fig. 1. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. 21.75 inch adult female. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo becki Rothschild. 
Bank's Bay, Albemarle Island. 21.75 inch adult female. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 39 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 29.5 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Gunther. 
Duncan Island. 29.5 inch male. From side. 



1 



ROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 40 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 29.5 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 29.5 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 1 



IVAN DENBURGHl Plate 41 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Gunther. 
Duncan Island. 29.5 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Gunther. 
Duncan Island. 29.5 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 42 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Gunther. 
Duncan Island. 27.1 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 27.1 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 43 




Fig. 1. Tcstudo ephippium Giintlier. 
Duncan Island. 27.1 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 26.4 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 44 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 26.4 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 26.4 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 45 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 23.4 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 23.4 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 46 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Gitnther. 
Duncan Island. 23.4 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 22.75 inch female. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 47 




Fig. 1. Tcstudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Lsland. 22.75 inch female. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 22.75 inch female. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 48 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 21.7 inch female. From above. 




^ 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 21.7 inch female. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 49 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 21.7 inch female. From in front. 





8366 



Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 21.4 inch female. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 50 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium GiintlK-r. 
Duncan Island. 21.4 inch female. From side 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 21.4 inch female. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 51 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Lsland. 20.8 inch female. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 20.8 inch female. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 52 




Fig. 1. Testudo ephippium Giinther. 
Duncan Island. 20.8 inch female. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh. 
Hood Island. 22.2 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 53 




Fig. 1. Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh. 
Hood Lsland. 22.2 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh. 
Hood Island. 22.2 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 54 




Fig. 1. Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh. 
Hood Island. 21 inch female. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh. 
Hood Island. 21 inch female. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 55 




Fig. 1. Testudo hoodensis Van Denburgh. 
Hood Island. 21 inch female. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo elephantopus Harlan. 

Charles Island. Adult male. From above. Copied from 

Giinther's plate in Xovitates Zoologicfe, Vol. IX. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 55 




Tl'iS'I'lJOU -"ij^uAI'AGOEMSIS. 



Fig. 1. Testudo elephantopus Harlan. 

Charles Island. Adult male. From side. Copied from 

Giinther's plate in Xovitates Zoologic?e, Vol. IX, 




Fig. 2. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 40.25 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 57 




Fig. 1. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 40.25 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 40.25 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 58 






Fig. 1. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 38 inch male. From above. 












» 


*W8J[ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^I^^^^Ihe^''' 


^ 


i 




Fig. 2. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 38 inch male. From side. 







PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 59 




Fig. 1. Testudo darwini Van Denhurgh. 
James Island. 38 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 21 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 60 




Fig. 1. Testudo darwini Van .Denburgh. 
Jame.s [.^land. 21 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 21 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 61 




Fig. 1. Tcstudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 30 inch female. From above. 





^ 


^i'^^HJt' 






^^^H 




}•• 




^^B 


^ B^ 




8106 











Fig. 2. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 30 inch female. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 62 




Fip-. 1. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 30 incli female. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 25.75 inch female. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 63 




Fig. 1. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 25.75 inch female. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo darwini Van Denburgh. 
James Island. 25.75 incli female. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 64 




Fig. 1. Tcstudo chathamensis Van Denburgh. 
Chatham Island. 35.25 inch bony carapace of male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh. 
j Chatham Island. 35.25 inch bony carapace of male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHj Plate 65 




Fig. 1. Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh. 
Chatham Island. 35.25 inch bony carapace of male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh. 
Chatham Island. 35.25 inch bony carapace of male. From below. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN CENBURGH] Plate 66 




Fig. 1. Testudo chathamen.'-.is Van Deiibnrgh. 
Chatham Island. 25.25 inch bony carapace. From above. 




Fig-. 2. Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh. 
Chatham Island. 25.25 inch bony carapace. From side. 



p 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH1 Plate 67 




Fig. 1. Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgli. 
Chatham Island. 25.25 inch bony carapace. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testndo chathamensis Van Denburgh. 
Chatham Island. 25.25 inch bony carapace. From below. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 58 




Fig. 1. Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh. 
Chatham Ishmd. 22.5 inch adnlt female. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh. _ 
Chatham Island. 22.5 inch adult female. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 69 




Fig. 1. Testudo chathamensis Van Denburgh. 
Chatham Island. 22.5 inch adult female. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo chathamensis Van Denliurgh. 
Chatham Island. 22.5 inch adult female. From below. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 70 




Fig. 1. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Tasus Cove, Albemarle Island. 40.5 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Gunther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 40.5 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 71 




Fig. 1. Testudo microphyes Gunther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 40.5 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Gunther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 37.8 inch male. From above. 



3R0C. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 72 




Fig. 1. Te.studo microphyes Giinther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Lsland. 37.8 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 37.8 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



IVAN DENBURGH] Plate 73 




Fig. 1. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 37.5 inch male. From aliove. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Tagus Cove. Albemarle Island. Z7 .Z inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 74 




Fig. 1. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 27.2) inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphj-es Gunther. 
Tagus Cove. .-Clbemarle Island. 27.2 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 75 




Fis'. 1. Tcstudo micropliycs Giintlicr. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 36.25 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Grinther. 
Taaus Cove, Albemarle Island. 36.25 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 76 




Fig. 1. Testudo microphyes Guntlicr. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 36.25 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Tagns Cove. Albemarle Island. 36 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 77 




Vig. 1. Testudo microphyes GiiiTther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 36 inch male "P 



rom .'-Kle 



idt 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 36 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 78 




Fig. 1. Testudo microphyes Giinthor. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 34.5 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Gihither. 
Tagus Cove, Albemarle Island. 34.5 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 79 




Fig. 1. Te.stndo microphyes Giinliicr. 
Taaus Cove, Albemarle Island. 34.5 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Cape Rose, x^lbemarle Island. 38 inch male. From above. 



ROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 80 




Fig. 1. Testiulo micropliyes GiintlKT. 
Cape Ro.se. Albemarle l.slaiid. 38 incli male. Im-oih .side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Cape Rose, Albemarle Island. 38 ineh male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 81 




Fig. 1. Testudo microphyes Gunther. 
Cape Rose, Albemarle Island. 35.25 inch male. From al)0\e. 




Fir. 2. Testrdo microphyes Giinther. 
Cr.ne Rose. Albemarle Island. 35.25 incii male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 82 







J 




^_ ..■-if}***.,,..... 


<^l 


'^^^^^^ 




1^ •f',' ..;;.- . .'i^^^^^^^^^^H 


-.^w- 


^^^^^^K>', ^^^^^^1 


IB!P 



I'ig". 1. Tcstudo micropln-e.s Giinther. 
Cape Rose. Albemarle Lsland. 35.25 inch male. From in front. 







8173 



Fig. 2. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Cape Rose, Albemarle Island. 25 inch female. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 83 




Fig". 1. Testudo microphyes Giinther. 
Cape Rose, Albemarle Island. 25 inch female. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo microph\-es Giinther. 
Cape Rose, Albemarle Island. 25 inch female. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt, I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 84 




Fig. 1. Testudo gihuheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle. 40 inch male. From above. 




Fia\ 1. Testudo giintheri Barr. 
Vilamil, Albemarle. 40 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 85 



..^^M^^^ 





Fig. 1. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil. .\lbemarle. 40 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle. 39 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 85 




Fig. 1. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil. Albemarle. 39 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil. Albemarle. 39 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 87 




Fig. 1. Testudo giintheri Baiir. 
Yilamil. Al])eniarlc Island. 28 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil. Albemarle Island. 28 inch male. From side 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VANiDENBURGH] Plate 88 




Fig. 1. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 28 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 25.1 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 89 




Fig. 1. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, zA.lbemarle Island. 25.1 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil. Albemarle Island. 25.1 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 90 




Fig. 1. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 28.8 inch female. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 28.8 inch female. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 91 




Fig. 1. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil. Albemarle Island. 28.8 inch female. From in front. 




Wl 



J. 



M^^ 



Fig. 2. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 27.9 inch female. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



iVAN DENBURGH] Plate 92 




Fig. 1. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 27.9 inch female. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo giintheri Baur. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 27.9 inch female. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 93 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Gihither. 
louana Cove, Albemarle Island. 43 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island. 43 inch male. 



From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 94 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
lauana Cove, Albemarle Island. 43 inch male. From in front. 




Fig'. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island. 41 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 95 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island. 41 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove. Albemarle Island. 41 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. 11 Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 95 



■*?^, kHiiW'J '«**.- -■'*•»». 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island. 38.5 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island. 38.5 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 97 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
lo'uana Cove. Albemarle Island. 38.5 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island. 2,1 2 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 98 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island. 37.2 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giintlier. 
Iguana Cove, Albemarle Island. 37.2 incb male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 99 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
louana Cove. Albemarle Island. 35.25 inch male. From a!)ove. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Iguana Cove. Albemarle Island. 35.25 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 100 




Fig. 1. Testiido vicina Giinther. 
lo'iiana Cove, Albemarle Island. 35.25 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Cobos Settlement, Albemarle Island. 40.5 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 101 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Cobos Settlement. Albemarle Island. 40.5 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testndo vicina Giinther. 
Cobos Settlement, Albemarle Island. 40.5 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 102 




Fip'. 1. Testudo vicina Gihither. 
Cobos Settlement. Albemarle Island. 33.3 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Cobos Settlement, Albemarle Island. 33.3 inch male. From side. 



4 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. 11 Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 103 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Cobos Settlement. Albemarle Island. 33.3 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testndo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 33 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 104 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 33 inch male. From side. 

















(: 




^^^^^ 




i 


A 


m^^^^k 




■i 









1 


m -^ 






\ 




WtKB/^^ - "'* 


m 




" 










Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 






Vilamil, 


Albemarle Island. 33 inch male. From in front. 







PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DEMBURGH] Plate 105 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Gunther. 
Vilamil. Albemarle Island. 26.8 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giintber. 
Vilamil. Albemarle Island. 26.8 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 106 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 26.8 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil. Albemarle Island. 24.4 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 107 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinthcr. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 24.4 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 24.4 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 108 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 28.75 inch female. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 28.75 inch female. 



From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 109 











x« '>^^^^^^^^H 


HHfel^ 


^■1 






^m 






^^ ^^ 


^^^^^^^ 


^— 3P 



Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil. Albemarle Island. 28.75 inch female. From in front. 





^^^B^P^^^^^^^^^I 


m^ 1 




mtf^' ^^^'mH 


^^^li^^^_ ' 1 






j4 






_ ^25? 



Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 27.5 inch female. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 110 




Fig. 1. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil. Albemarle Island. 27.5 inch female. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo vicina Giinther. 
Vilamil, Albemarle Island. 27.5 inch female. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 111 




Fig. 1. Testudo wallacei Rothschild. 
Type specimen in the Tring Museum. 




Fig. 2. Testudo wallacei Rothschild. 
Tervis Island. 36.2 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 112 




F"ig. 1. Testudo wallacei Rothschild. 
Jervis Island. 36.2 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo wallacei Rothschild. 
Jervis Island. 36.2 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 113 




Fig. 1. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 41.4 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 41.4 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. li Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 114 




Fig. 1. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 41.4 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 40.3 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 115 




Fig. 1. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 40.3 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 40.3 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. li Pt. I 



;VAN DENBURGH] Plate 115 




Fig. 1. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable I.sland. 39.6 inch male. From above. 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rothschild. . 
Indefatigable Island. 39.6 inch male. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 117 




Fig. 1. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 39.6 inch male. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatioable Island. 35.5 inch male. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. 



[VAN DENBURGHl Plate 118 




Fig. 1. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 35.5 inch male. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rotlischild. 
Indefatigable Island. 35.5 inch male. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol, II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 119 




Fig. 1. Testuclo porteri Rcthschikl. 
Indefatigable Island. 35.8 inch female. From ahcvi 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 35.8 inch female. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 120 




Fig. 1. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 35.8 inch female. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 28.75 inch female. From above. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 121 




Fig. 1. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 28.75 inch female. From side. 




Fig. 2. Testudo porteri Rothschild. 
Indefatigable Island. 28.75 inch female. From in front. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 122 




Fig. 1. Testudo, species. 
Cowley Alountain, Albemarle Island. 26.75 incii female. From aljove. 




Fig. 2. Testudo. species. 
Cowlev [Mountain. Albemarle Island. 26.75 inch female. From side. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI. 4th Series Vol. II Pt. I 



[VAN DENBURGH] Plate 123 




Fig. 1. Testudo, species. 
Cowley jNIountain. All^emarle Island. 26.75 inch female. From in front. 




Fig. 2. Testudo, species. 
Barrington Island. Bones of tortoises. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. II, Pt. I, No. 11, pp. 375-382. December 31, 1917 



EXPEDITION OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCES TO THE GALAPAGOS 

ISLANDS, 1905-1906 



XI 

PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES 
OF PULMONATA OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 

BY WILLIAM HEALEY BALL 



A full discussion of, and report upon, the collection of 
landshells and Tertiary fossils collected by Mr. W. H. Ochs- 
ner has been prepared and submitted for publication. But 
the publication seeming likely to be delayed, it was thought 
best to print diagnoses of the new species in order that the 
credit due to the collector and to the Academy might not be 
diminished by later researches carried on by other agencies. 

The types of these new forms form part of the Academy's 
collection; cotypes have been deposited in the collection of 
the U. S. National Museum at Washington. 

It is expected that when the complete report is issued the 
species will be suitably figured, and that report contains a 
full discussion of their relations to other previously described 
species and to the conditions under which they live. 

The descriptions of the new species of fossils are less likely 
to be anticipated and are therefore left for appearance in the 
final report. 

December 31. 1917 



376 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

1. Bulimulus (Nassiotus) elaeodes, new species 

Shell small, ovate-conic, with six whorls separated by a 
well marked suture, the nucleus strongly striated, the apex 
dimpled, thin, fragile, with low feeble wrinkles, sometimes 
strong on the base; color oily white, with irregular brownish 
axial streaks, and a concentration of reddish brown in a nar- 
row space in front of the suture and on the pillar; aperture 
less than half as long as the shell, body without enamel, outer 
lip very thin and sharp, pillar thin, short, straight with a 
slight reflexion over a narrowly perforate umbilicus. Length 
of shell 13.5 ; of last whorl 6.5 ; diameter 7.0 mm. 

Albemarle Island, on leaves, hibernating, at 1500 to 2300 
feet elevation, near Banks Bay; Ochsner. 

2. Bulimulus (Nassiotus) hemaerodes, new species 

Shell small, livid pinkish brown, of five and a half whorls; 
the apex dimpled, the nuclear whorls distinctly transversely 
minutely ribbed; surface of spire polished, with microscopic 
spiral striation not beaded; the transverse sculpture varying 
in individuals from faint incremental lines to regular narrow 
riblets or irregular ridges; on the last whorl especially the 
most extremely rugose sculpture has a worm-eaten appear- 
ance, while in other individuals the rugosities may be minute 
and regular, or deferred to the last quarter of a whorl. Nor- 
mal specimens show a pale, narrow peripheral band, but in 
very rugose individuals this is lost ; the last whorl, especially 
when very rough, is whiter than the rest of the shell; mar- 
gin of the aperture thin, sharp, the outer lip not reflected, the 
umbilicus a narrow perforation; the axis continuously tubu- 
lar, simple, not twisted. Length of shell 12 • ; of last whorl 
9 ; diameter 7 mm. 

Hibernating under dead wood on Cowley Mountain, Albe- 
marle Island, between 2100 and 2300 feet elevation, in the 
grassy zone ; and hibernating on the grassy rim of the crater 
of Narborough up to 4500 feet ; Ochsner. 

3. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) perrus, new species 

Shell small, shiny, ruddy brown, a narrow pale area in 
front of the suture; apex blunt, dimpled nucleus faintly 



Vol. II, Pt. I] DALL— GALAPAGOS PULMONATA 377 

transversely striated ; whorls rounded with a deep suture ; 
sculpture of rather irregular feeble axial wrinkles, stronger 
on the last whorl ; base rounded, with a minute umbilical per- 
foration ; aperture with a thin sharp, not reflected margin ; 
pillar short, reflected over the umbilical perforation : there 
are a few obscure spirals on the upper whorls, but no dis- 
tinct or regular spiral striation. Length of shell 12.0 ; of 
last whorl 8.0 ; of aperture 5.5 ; diameter 6.0 mm. 

Narborough Island, in the grassy area at the rim of the 
crater, 2000 to 4500 feet elevation; Ochsner. 

4. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) cucullinus, new species 

Shell wnth a dimpled apex of livid slate-color, two strongly 
transversely striated nuclear whorls and about four subse- 
quent moderately convex whorls separated by a distinct but 
not deep suture ; color of the shell grayish white, covered 
by an olivaceous brown periostracum, smooth but not lus- 
trous; sculpture only of inconspicuous incremental axial 
lines, more or less irregularly disposed; base produced, with 
a very narrow umbilical perforation largely covered by the 
reflected inner lip; aperture subovate, the margin callous, 
expanded and almost reflected ; the pillar and outer lips 
united across the body by a thin layer of vitreous enamel, the 
rest of the margin of the aperture conspicuously white, the 
throat livid. Length of shell 19 ; of last whorl 12 ; of 
aperture 9 ; diameter 9.5 mm. 

Found by Mr. Ochsner on Hood Island hibernating under 
stones between 200 and 600 feet elevation; a variety with 
faint indications of a peripheral band, with the others and 
also on Charles Island in the moist area under moss and 
grass at 1650 feet; and on Barrington Island under stones 
in hibernation at 200 feet; lastly a paler variety on Hood 
Island at 380 feet elevation. 



5. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) albemarlensis, new species 

Shell of the general aspect of fortiigamis but larger; solid, 
stout, inflated, short-spired, with six rapidly increasing 
whorls; apex dimpled, nuclear whorls small, transversely 



378 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

striated ; sculpture of upper whorls of retract! vely inclined 
close-set rather vermiculate axial wrinkles crossed by numer- 
ous fine sharp spiral striae; in some specimens this sculpture 
covers the whole shell but in most the last whorl becomes 
rudely and irregularly coarsely wrinkled and punctate to a 
greater or less extent; the normal sculpture retains the pink- 
ish light brown color which follows the rose pink of the 
apical turns, but when the abnormal wrinkling begins the 
surface becomes of a dirty white color; a pale peripheral 
band on the last whorl is preserved in most specimens; the 
suture is deep but not channelled ; the base rounded, with an 
almost imperforate umbilical pit partly covered in the adult 
by the reflexion of the pillar lip; aperture subquadrate, the 
margin thickened but the outer lip not reflected, showing a 
slight thickening in fully adult specimens on its inner side 
medially; the pillar has a thick lump of white callus upon it, 
and is joined to the outer lip over the body by a deposit of 
enamel; the throat is of a dark flesh-color. Length of shell 
15 ; of last whorl 12 ; of aperture 8 ; diameter 9 mm. 
On bushes and grass near Villamil at 2300 to 3300 feet 
elevation ; Ochsner. 

6. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) akamatus, new species 

Shell solid, chocolate brown, of six and a half whorls; 
apex dimpled, dark crimson, nuclear whorls transversely stri- 
ated; sculpture of rather irregular moderately prominent in- 
cremental lines, except on the last half of the last whorl 
which is irregularly malleated and indented the whole 
crossed by very faint and minute spiral striae; suture dis- 
tinct, not deep, base rounded with a rather wide subcylindric 
umbilical perforation; aperture small with a continuous, 
thickened, not reflected margin; callosities white, that on the 
pillar continued halfway through the last whorl, diminish- 
ing around the axis; the medial thickening of the outer lip 
is also continued backward some distance, as is a very promi- 
nent narrow tubercle on the body between the two lips; the 
upper part of the axis is slender and simple. Length of shell 
15 ; of last whorl 10 ; of aperture 5.5 ; diameter 8 mm. 

Found by Ochsner on Indefatigable Island, under blocks 
of lava, at 200 to 650 feet elevation, in the arid zone. 



Vol. II, Pt. I] DALL— GALAPAGOS PULMONATA 2>79 

7. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) adelphus, new species 
Shell of the same general type as the preceding from which 

it is best distinguished by a differential diagnosis; it is of 
a light or very pale yellowish brown with a paler peripheral 
band, six whorls, retractively, closely, axially threaded, the 
threads cut into granules by sharp spiral stride, the last half 
of the last whorl irregularly corrugated; the axial perfora- 
tion larger, the aperture subquadrate with continuous margin 
thickened but not reflected, a large tubercle on the pillar, a 
prominent one medially on the inside of the outer lip, a much 
smaller one on the body deeper in the throat ; the axis is 
simple, tubular and not twisted. Length of shell 14.5 ; of 
last whorl 10.0 ; of aperture 5.5 ; diameter 9 mm. 

Found with the preceding species by Ochsner in the arid 
zone. 

8. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) lycodus, new species 

Shell small, solid, subacute, white, or yellowish white, with 
a rose pink or bluish apex and six rapidly enlarging whorls ; 
upper whorls finely, retractively, axially, closely threaded, 
with fine spiral striation, the suture appressed ; last whorl 
very coarsely, irregularly corrugated and punctate; base 
rounded with a narrow umbilical perforation ; aperture with 
a thick continuous white margin slightly expanded but not 
reflected ; the mesial thickening of the outer lip obsolete, per- 
ceptible in only a few specimens ; pillar with a very anterior 
strong anteriorly inclined tubercle, continued into the throat 
as a diminishing ridge around the axis of the last whorl ; on 
the body is a sharp prominent narrow tooth also prolonged 
backward as a narrow ridge ; axis in the upper whorls very 
slender and conspicuously twisted. Length of shell 11 ; of 
last whorl 8 ; of aperture 4.5 ; diameter 8 mm. 

Found by Ochsner on Indefatigable Island on tree trunks 
at 450 to 550 feet elevation. 

9. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) alethorhytidus, new species 

Shell small, resembling the preceding but with the promi- 
nent characters exaggerated and the size much reduced ; 
v/horls five, rapidly enlarging, nucleus sparsely transversely 
minutely lamellose, dimpled, the first three whorls rather 



380 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

irregularly retractivel}^ axially finely wrinkled ; last two 
coarsely irregularly strongly wrinkled all over; umbilicus 
minutely perforate, base rounded; aperture small, contracted, 
thickened, with continuous not reflected margin; pillar and 
body with prominent tubercles, that on the pillar continued 
backward into the penultimate whorl as an obscure plait, that 
on the body also continued for a shorter distance in the last 
whorl, the axis in the earlier whorls slender, perforate. 
Length of shell 8.0 ; of last whorl 5.5 ; of aperture 
3.5 ; diameter 5.5 mm. 

Indefatigable Island, in the moist area on the south side 
at 350 to 400 feet, and at all altitudes in the interior; Ochs- 
ner. 

10. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) cymatias, new species 

Shell small, solid, uniform yellowish brown, with nearly 
seven whorls, rapidly enlarging; surface uniformly sculp- 
tured with slightly irregular retractive narrow, close-set 
wrinkles crossed by extremely fine spiral threads of which 
at regular intervals one is more prominent than the rest; 
near the aperture are some irregular rugosities or indenta- 
tions in some specimens but no change of color; there is a 
narrow inconspicuous pale peripheral band ending behind 
the median tubercle of the outer lip ; base rounded, umbilicus 
narrowly perforate ; aperture with a continuous thickened 
margin, a well defined tubercle inside the outer lip, a strong 
tooth anteriorly on the pillar, and one on the body; both 
these are continued into the shell, the one on the pillar as a 
strongly undulated ridge which extends, diminishing into the 
penultim.ate v^diorl. while the parietal tooth also extends in- 
ward about half a whorl, but less distinctly undulated and 
rapidly diminishing; the tubercle on the outer lip is hardly 
extended. Length of shell 14 ; of last whorl 8 ; of 
aperture 5 ; diameter 8 mm. 

Indefatigable Island, under lava blocks in a moist area be- 
tween 400 and 650 feet elevation; Ochsner. 

11. Bulimulus (Naesiotus) ochsneri, new species 
Shell chocolate brown, with no indications of a peripheral 

band, solid, stout, with six and a half whorls ; apex dimpled, 
closely transversely sculptured, tinged with deep carmine; 



Vol. II, Pt. I] DALL— GALAPAGOS PULMONATA 33l 

sculpture of the upper whorls much like that in B. cyiiiafias 
but the spiral sculpture more or less broken into dots; last 
half of the last whorl with the surface irregularly coarsely 
corrugated, but with no change of color; suture distinct, not 
appressed; aperture with a thickened white, not reflected, 
continuous margin; umbilical perforation small: outer lip 
straight, not reinforced in the middle by any ridge or tu- 
bercle; pillar with a large shapeless tubercle on the middle 
which is not produced backward into the whorl ; body with 
a small tubercle moderately produced inward in a feeble way; 
axis of the upper whorls, simple tubular. Length of shell 
17.5 ; of last whorl 13.0 ; of aperture 8.0 ; diameter 
10.0 mm. 

Indefatigable Island, under lava blocks at 200 to 650 feet 
altitude ; Ochsner. 

12. Bulimuius (Nsesiotus) jervisensis, new species 

Shell rude, showing remnants of a brovrn periostracum, 
short-conic, with five and a half whorls ; nucleus crimson. 
dimpled, transversely irregularly feebly wrinkled ; the last 
one irregularly more or less corrugated ; spiral sculpture of 
fine sharp close-set stride over the whole shell ; aperture 
slightly thickened at the margin, not reflected, the pillar and 
outer lips united by a layer of enamel on the body ; umbilical 
perforation very small ; an obscure small tubercle on the 
body, and in most specimens a slight ill-defined thickening 
on the pillar; axis slightly twisted, very slender in the upper 
whorls. Length of shell 17 ; of last whorl 13.5 ; of 
aperture 9 ; diameter 11 mm. 

A few dead specimens were collected on Jervis Island at 
an elevation of 900 to 1000 feet, by Mr. Ochsner. 

13. Bulimuius (Nassiotus) rabidensis, new species 
Shell rather elongate, its profile more cylindrical than in 

sculptiiratus, thin, of about seven slightly convex whorls, 
separated by a distinct, not appressed, suture; apex dimpled, 
nucleus transversely minutely ribbed; the next tvro or three 
whorls sharply closely spirally threaded, the threads slightly 
pustular when they cross axial irregularities; the subsequent 
whorls irregularly subaxially rugose with low broken ridges, 
increasing in number and strength toward the aperture; the 



382 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Spirals continue to the aperture; the color of the last whorl 
dirty white, the earlier whorls dull flesh color, the apex usu- 
ally pale, and in rare instances a pale peripheral band is pres- 
ent; umbilical perforation minute; aperture with a thickened 
not reflected, continuous margin, the pillar and body as well 
as the outer lip without projecting callosities ; the axis very 
slender and distinctly twisted, probably not tubular. Length 
of shell 15.5 ; of last whorl 9.0 ; of aperture 5.5 ; 
diameter 7.0 mm. 

Obtained by Mr. Ochsner in "a fairly dry" region on Jer- 
vis (or Rabida) Island, at an altitude of 900 to 1000 feet. 

14. Helicina (Idesa) ochsneri, new species 
Shell much resembling H. nesiotica in a general way but 
higher, more conical and slightly larger; while nesiotica has 
a thin smooth periostracum and the specimens are clean when 
living, the present species has a blackish periostracum which 
is raised on the spire between the sutures into two or three 
fringed short spiral threads. The periostracum appears to 
be of an adhesive nature and all the specimens in their origi- 
nal condition are more or less covered with a blackish coat- 
ing. When this is cleaned off the underlying shell has much 
the coloration and surface of nesiotica. Maximum diameter 
of shell 4.7 ; height 3.5 mm. 

Albemarle Island, eight miles west of Turtle Cove, near 
salt lagoon; and at Cowley Mountain on moist ground, 350 
to 500 feet above the sea; Ochsner. 

15. Williamia galapagana Dall. 

Shell small, ovate, conical, the apex curved forward and 
situated at about the anterior third of the length; surface 
probably with a thin periostracum when fresh, but in all spec- 
imens seen this has been lost and the surface is brilliantly 
polished ; the color is of a rosy brown with numerous paler 
radial streaks; margin simple, often slightly irregular from 
adapting itself to the sustaining surface; muscular scar in- 
terrupted as usual in the family. Length 9.0 ; height 
3.5 ; breadth 7.0 mm. 

Station on floating seaweed at the Galapagos Islands; 
specimens collected on the beach at Hood and Chatham 
Islands. 



INDEX TO VOLUME II, PART ONE (FOURTH SERIES) 

New Names in Blackface Type 



Abingdon Island Lizard, 143-147 

Tortoise, 296-299 
abingdonensis, Tropidurus, 136, 138 
abingdoni, Testudo, 259, 290, 293, 296-299 
abingdonii, Testudo, 244, 296, 306 

Tropidurus, 136, 143 
"Academy," 2, 98, 242 
acuta, Dafila, 80 
Adams, C. F., 228 

adelphus, Bulimulus (Naesiotus), 379 
jEgialeus semipalmatus, 53 
jEpyomithes, 207 
aethereus, Phaethon, 104-107 
Agassiz, A., 228 

Louis, 135, 226 
akamatus, Bulimulus (Naesiotus), 378 
alba, Gygis, 32-34 
"Albatross," 136, 147, 155, 159, 172, 228, 

245 
Albatross, Galapagos, 91 
albemarlensis barringtonensis, Tropi- 
durus, 133, 139, 143, 168-172 

Bulimulus (Naesiotus), 377-378 

Tropidurus, 133, 136, 137, 139, 143, 
168, 172-188 
alethorhytidus, Bulimulus (Najsiotus), 

379-380 
Amblyoma pilosum, 235 
Amblyrhynchus ater, 192 
(Amblyrhynchus) ater, Hypsilophus, 192 

Iguana, 192 
Amblyrhynchus cristatus, 133, 192-194 

ater, 192 
(Amblyrhynchus) cristatus, Hypsilo- 
phus, 192 

Iguana, 192 
Amblyrhynchus cristatus nanus, 192 

demarlii, 188 

subcristatus, 188 
American Flamingo, 66-76 
Americana, Mareca, 80 
"Anas maculirostris," 79 
Anous stolidus, 24-29, 41, 113 
Anseriformes, 5 
antillarum. Sterna, 41 
antipodum, Megadyptes, 18 
aquila, Fregata, 100-104, 130 (pi. 6), 132 

(pl. 7) 
Ardea herodias, 58-59, 114 
arenaria, Calidris, 56 



Arenaria interpres, 46-47 
Atahualpa, 209 
ater, Amblyrhynchus, 192 
cristatus, 192 
Hypsilophus (Amblyrhynchus), 

192 
Iguana (Amblyrhynchus), 192 
Audubon, 109 (footnote) 



B 



Bahama Pintail, 44, 69, 70, 76-78, 79, 80 

bahamensis, Pcecilonetta, 76-78 

Baird's Sandpiper, 57 

bairdi, Heteropygia, 57 

Baldpate, 80 

Bangs, 59 (footnote) 

Barrington Island Land Iguana, 190-192 
Lizard, 168-172 
Tortoise, 365-366 

barringtonensis, Tropidurus, 137, 138, 
168 

albemarlensis, 133, 139, 143, 

168-172 
grayi, 137, 168 

Baur, 135, 136, 137, 138, 159, 164, 168, 172, 
210, 228, 245, 246, 247, 249, 251, 252, 
254, 255, 256, 257, 258 

"Beagle," 135, 164, 220, 221, 222 

becki, Testudo, 237, 244, 259, 292, 293, 
298, 301, 303-305, 317 

bedsi, Testudo, 303 

Bell, Thomas, 135 

Bibliography (Gigantic Land Tortoises), 
369-372 

Bibron, 223 

and Dumeril, 249 

Bindloe Island Lizard, 150-154, 159 

Birds of the Galapagos Islands, with 
observations on the birds of Cocos 
and Clipperton islands (Columbi- 
formes to Pelecaniformes), by Ed- 
ward Winslow GiflFord, 1-132 

bivittata, Craniopeltis, 135, 136, 155 

bivittatus, Tropidurus, 133, 137, 138, 139, 
142, 155-159 

Black-bellied Plover, 53, 56 

Black-necked Stilt, 44, 54, 70, 76 

Black Oyster-catcher, 53 

Black Rail, 14 

Blue-faced Booby, 20, 84-85, 87, 98 



384 



CAUFORKIA ACADEMY OF SCIEHCES 



[Proc. 4th See., 



Blue-footed Booby, 44, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 

93-97, 109 
Blue-winged Teal, 76, 79-80 
Booby, Blue-faced, 20, 84-85, 87, 98 

Blue-footed, 44, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 

93-97, 109 
Brewster's, 20, 32, 8S, 87, 97-100 
Neboux's, 93 

Peruvian, 36, 87, 89-93, 95, 97, 101 
Red-footed, 85-89, 93 
"Boston Eagle," 244, 316 
Boulenger, 136, 254 
Brewster, 47 

Brewster's Booby, 20, 32, 85, 87. 97-100 
brewsteri, Sula, 97-100, 117 
Brilliant Teal, 79 
Brown, Arthur E., 247 
Brown Pelican, 25, 44, 107-110 
Bruce, 207 
Bulimulus cymatias, 381 

(Nsesiotus) adelphus, 379 
akamatus, 378 
albemarlensis, 377-378 
alethorhytidus, 379-389 
cucuUinus, 377 
cymatias, 380, 381 
elaeodes, 376 
hemaerodes, 376 
jervisensis, 381 
lycodus, 379 
ochsneri, 380-381 
perms, 376-377 
rabidensis, 381-382 
sculpturatus, 381 
tortuganus, 377 
Buller, 18 
Bursera, 102 

Butorides sundevalli, 62-65, 116, 122 
(pi. 2) 

virescens, 65-66 
Bynoe, 222, 225 



Calidris arenaria, 56 

californiana, Testudo, 244, 245, 316 

Camarhynchus, 229 

Canvasback, 80 

Cereus, 301, 326 

Certhidia, 229 

"Challenger," 228 

Chamspelia passerina, 9 

Chapman, 66 (foot), 68 (foot), 71, 76 

Charles Island Lizard, 164-168 

Tortoise, 316-318 
Chatham Island Lizard, 154, 155-159 

Tortoise, 323-328, 338 
chathamensis, Testudo, 244, 259, 290, 

294, 323-328 
chlororhynchus, Puffinus, 98 



Clipperton, 211 

Noddy, 20, 29-32, 98, 103 

clypeata. Spatula, 80 

Cochrane, 226 

Colnett, Capt. James, 212 

(Conolophus) demarlii, Hypsilophus, 188 

Conolophus pallidus, 133, 188, 190-192 
subcristatus, 133, 188-190, 191 
subcristatus pictus, 188 

Cooke, 210 

Cookson, 136, 226, 228, 253, 254, 296 

Cope, 136, 155 

Cormorant, Flightless, 44, 80-84 

Cowley, 210 

Cowley Mountain Tortoise, 362-365 

Craniopeltis bivittata, 135, 136, 155 
Grayii, 135, 164, 172 

(Craniopeltis) Grayii, Tropidurus, 136, 
155, 164, 172 

pacificus, Tropidurus, 135, 143 

Creagrus furcatus, 35-42 

Creciscus jamaicensis, 14 
sharpei, 12, 13 
spilonotus, 5, 12-16, 112 

crepidatus, Stercorarius, 46 

cristatus, Amblyrhynchus, 133, 192-194 
ater, Amblyrhynchus, 192 
Hypsilophus (Amblyrhynchus), 

192 
Iguana (Amblyrhynchus), 192 
nanus, Amblyrhynchus, 192 
Oreocephalus, 192 

Crymophilus fulicarius, 57 

cucuUinus, Bulimulus (Nsesiotus), 377 

Curlew, Hudsonian, 51, 54-55, 56 

cyanops, Sula, 84-85, 92, 93, 117 

cymatias, Bulimulus (Naesiotus), 389, 
381 

Cyperus. 222 



Dafila acuta, 80 

Dall, William Healey, Preliminary de- 
scriptions of new species of Pul- 
monata of the Galapagos Islands, 
375-382 

Dampier, 210 

Dark-rumped Petrel, 36, 98 

Darwin, 135, 164, 220 

darwini, Testudo, 244, 259, 290, 293, 294, 
319-323, 348, 353 

Davis, Edward, 210 

De Beauchesne, 211 

De Berlanga, Fray Tomas, 209 

De Freycinet, 244, 316 

Delano, Amasa, 135, 212 

delanonis, Tropidurus, 133, 136, 137, 139, 
142, 159-164 

demarlii, Amblyrhynchus, 188 

Hypsilophus (Conolophus), 188 



Vol. II. Pt. 1] 



;>ID£X 



385 



diamesus, Micranous, 29-32, 113 
Diemictylus, 194 
discors, Querquedula, 79-80 
Dove, Galapagos, 6-11 

Mourning, 9 

Passerine, 9 
Downes, Commodore John, 220, 255, 316 
Drowne, F. P., 228, 229 
Dumeril, 135 

Dumeril and Bibron, 249 
Duncan Island Lizard, 147-150 

Tortoise, 306-312 
duncanensis, Tropidurus, 133, 136, 137, 

138, 139, 143, 147-150 
Dusky Shearwater, 44, 91, 93, 110 
Dwight, 5, 41, 45 



Egret, 44, 58, 59, 76 

egretta, Herodias, 59, 115 

elseodes, Bulimulus (Njesiotus), 376 

elephantina, Testudo, 354 

elephantopus, Testudo, 244, 245-249, 255, 
256, 259, 292, 316-318, 335 (as syno- 
nym), 354 (as synonym) 

ephippium, Testudo, 234, 244, 251-252, 
259, 291, 293, 298, 306-312 

Ereunetes pusillus, 56 

"Eugenie," 79, 135, 226 

Evans, Whitton, 245 



Fisher, 100 
Fitzroy, 228 
Flamingo, 54, 58 

American, 66-76 
Flightless Cormorant, 44, 80-84 
Florida Gallinule, 16 
forsteri, Sterna, 41 
Franklin's Gull, 42 
franklini, Larus, 42 
Frazar's Oyster-catcher, 47-53, 58 
frazari, Haematopus, 47 
Fregata aquila, 100-104, 130 (pi. 6), 132 

(Pl. 7) 
fulicarius, Crymophilus, 57 
fuHginosa, Sterna, 19-24, 41 
fuliginosus, Larus, 42-46 
Fuligula vallisneria, 80 
furcatus, Creagrus, 35-42 
fuscus, Pelecanus, 107-110, IIS 



Gadow, 257 

gadowi, Testudo, 257 

Gatmard, and Quoy, 244, 245 

galapagana, Williamia, 382 

galapagensis, Haematopus, 47-53, 114 



Galapagoan lizards of the genus Tropi- 
durus; with notes on the Iguanas of 
the genera Conolophus and Ambly- 
rhynchus, by John Van Denburgh 
and Joseph R. Slevin, 133-202. 
galapagoensis, Nesopelia, 5, 6-11, 111 
Porzana, 12 

Testudo, 244, 249, 255-256, 257, 
292, 316 
Galapagos Albatross, 91 
Dove, 6-11 

Hawk, 36, 52, 91, 108 
Heron, 44, 59, 60, 62-65, 76 
Lizard, 172-188 
Penguin, 16-19, 81 
Rail. 9, 12-16 

galeata, Gallinula, 5, 16 
Galliformes, 5 
Gallinula galeata, 5, 16 
Gallinule, Florida, 16 
Geospiza, 229 

Gilford, Edward Winslow, Birds of the 
Galapagos Islands, with observations 
on the birds of Cocos and Clipperton 
islands (Columbiformes to Pelecani- 
formes), 1-132 
Gigantic land tortoises of the Galapagos 
Archipelago, by John Van Denburgh, 
203-374 
glaucescens, Larus, 43 
Glaucous -winged Gulls, 43 
Graceful Petrel, 44, 93, 100 
Gray, 223 

grayi barringtonensis, Tropidurus, 137, 
168 

grayi, Tropidurus, 137, 164, 172 
Holotropis, 172 
Liocephalus, 172 

magnus, Tropidurus, 137, 138, 172 
Tropidurus, 136, 147, 155-159, 172 
grayi, 137, 164, 172 
grayii, Craniopeltis, 135, 164, 172 
Holotropis, 135, 164 
Leiocephalus, 135, 136, 155, 164 
Liocephalus, 136 

Tropidurus, 133, 136, 137, 139, 142, 
164-168 

(Craniopeltis), 136, 155, 164 
Great Blue Heron, 58-59, 69 
Green, G. M., 76 
Green Heron, 65-66 
Grinnell, Joseph, 61 
Gull, Franklin's, 42 

Glaucous -winged, 43 
Sooty, 42-46, 76, 93 
Swallow-tailed, 35-42, 106 
Giinther, 136, 206, 210, 227, 245, 246, 248, 
249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 290, 
292, 317, 329 



386 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMT OF SCIEHCES 



[Proc. 4th See. 



guntheri, Testudo, 244, 246, 253, 256- 
257, 259, 260, 289, 291, 295, 325, 332, 
335-343, 344, 348 

Gygis alba, 32-34 



H 



Habel, 135, 143, 151, 226 

habeli, Tropidurus, 137 

habelii, Tropidurus, 133, 136, 137, 139, 

142, 150-154 
(Habelii), Tropidurus pacificus, 136, 150 
Hsematopus frazari, 47 

galapagensis, 47-53, 114 

niger, S3 
Hall, Capt. Basil, 219, 251, 252 
Harlan, Richard, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 

255, 256 
Harris, 210, 228, 229, 230, 231 
harrisi, Nannopterum, 80-84, 126 (pi. 4) 
Hartert (and Rothschild), 7, 18, 35, 38, 

42, 55, 58, 96 
"Hassler," 135 
Hassler Expedition, 226 
hawaiiensis, Micranous, 31 
Hawk, Galapagos, 36, 52, 77, 91, 108 
heermanni, Larus, 45 
Helicina (Idesa) ochsneri, 382 

nesiotica, 382 
Heller, 134, 137, 146, 150, 154, 163, 172, 

234, 368 
Heller (and Snodgrass), 4, 7, 30, 31, 33, 

42, 58, 76, 82, 86 
Helleri, Opuntia, 7 
Helodromas solitarius, 55 
helvetica, Squatarola, S3 
hemaerodes, Bulimulus (Nsesiotus), 376 
"Herald," 226 
Hernandez, Col., 220 
herodias, Ardea, 58-59, 114 
Herodias egretta, 59, 115 
Heron, Galapagos, 44, 59, 60, 62-65, 76 

Great Blue, 58-59, 69 

Green, 65-66 

Yellow -crowned Night, 59-62 
Heteractitis incanus, 55-56 
Heteropygia bairdi, 57 
Himantopus mexicanus, 54, 120 (pi. 1) 
Hippomane mancinella, 334 
Hippopotamus, 207 
Holotropis grayi, 172 

Grayii, 135, 164 
Hood Island Lizard, 159-164 

Tortoise, 313-316 
hoodensis, Testudo, 244, 259, 293, 313-316 

Tropidurus, 136, 138, 159 
Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedi- 
tion, 137 
Hudsonian Curlew, 51, 54-55, 56 
hudsonicus, Numenius, 54-55 



Hull, 24, 33, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233 
Hydrochelidon nigra, 41 
Hydrometridae, 37 
hyperboreus, Phalaropus, 57 
Hypsilophus (Amblyrhynchus) ater, 192 
cristatus, 192 
(Conolophus) demarlii, 188 



(Idesa) ochsneri, Helicina, 382 

Iguana, Barrington Island Land, 190- 

192 

Land, 188-190 
Sea, 192-194 
Iguana Cove Tortoise, 344-350 
Iguana (Amblyrhynchus) ater, 192 

cristatus, 192 
incanus, Heteractitis, 55-56 
Indefatigable Island Tortoise, 354-362 
indefatigabilis, Tropidurus, 136, 137, 138, 

172 
indica, Testudo, 223, 316, 354 
insularis, Tillandsia, 9 
interpres, Arenaria, 46-47 



Jackson, J. B., 255, 256 
Jacobii, Tropidurus, 137, 138, 172 
Jaeger, Parasitic, 46 
Pomarine, 46 
Jahnke, Herman, 231 
jamaicensis, Creciscus, 14 
James Island Tortoise, 319-323, 348 
Jervis Island Tortoise, 351-353 
jervisensis, Bulimulus (Naesiotus), 38t 
"Julia E. Whalen," 234 

K 

Kinberg, 79, 135, 155, 164, 226 
Knight, 210 



Land Iguana, 188-190 

Barrington Island, 190-192 
Lariformes, 5 
Larus franklini, 42 

fuliginosus, 42-46 

glaucescens, 43 

heermanni, 45 

occidentalis, 40 
Lawson, 222, 223 
Least Sandpiper, 56 
Leiocephalus, 139 

Grayii, 135, 136, 155, 164 
lemniscatus, Tropidurus, 135, 137, 138, 

155 
Levick, Capt., 366 



Vol. II, Pt. 1] 



IHDEX 



387 



"Lila and Mattie," 228 

Litnonites minutilla, 56 

Linbridge, 228 

Liocephalus grayi, 172 
Grayii, 136 
pacificus, 136, 143, 151 

Lizard, Abingdon Island, 143-147 
Harrington Island, 168-172 
Bindloe Island, 150-154, 159 
Charles Island, 164-168 
Chatham Island, 154, 155-159 
Duncan Island, 147-150 
Galapagos, 172-188 
Hood Island, 159-164 

Loomis, Leverett Mills, 1, 4, 6 

lycodus, Bulimulus (Naesiotus), 379 



M 



macularius, Tringoides, 56 
"maculirostris, Anas," 79 
magnus, Tropidurus grayi, 137, 138, 172 
mancinella, Hippomane, 334 
Man-o'-war Bird, 21, 30, 36, 44, 87, 91, 

100-104, 105, 109 
Mareca Americana, 80 
"Mary Sacks," 237 
Maytenus, 189 
Meek, 244, 316 
Megadyptes antipodum, 18 
mendiculus, Spheniscus, 5, 16-19, 112, 120 

(pl. 1) 
mexicanus, Himantopus, 54, 120 (pl. 1) 
Micranous diamesus, 29-32, 113 

hawaiiensis, 31 
microphyes, Testudo, 234, 244, 252-253, 

259, 290, 291, 294, 325, 329-344, 348 
minutilla, Limonites, 56 
Morrell, Capt. Benjamin, 219 
Mourning Dove, 9 
Myiarchus, 229 



N 



(Naesiotus) adelphus, Bulimulus, 379 
akamatus, Bulimulus, 378 
albemarlensis, Bulimulus, 377-378 
alethorhytidus, Bulimulus, 379- 

380 
cucullinus, Bulimulus, 377 
cymatias, Bulimulus, 380 
eleeodes, Bulimulus, 376 
hemsrodes, Bulimulus, 376 
jervisensis, Bulimulus, 381 
lycodus, Bulimulus, 379 
ochsneri, Bulimulus, 380-381 
perms, Bulimulus, 376-377 
rabidensis, Bulimulus, 381-382 
Nannopterum harrisi, 80-84, 126 (pl. 4) 
nanus, Arablyrhynchus cristatus, 192 
Narborough Island Tortoise, 299-302 



Neboux's Booby, 93, 97 

nebouxi, Sula, 93-97, 128 (pl. 5) 

nesiotica, Helicina, 382 

Nesomimus, 163 

Nesopelia galapagoensis, 5, 6-11, 111 

niger, Haematopus, S3 

Night Heron, Yellow-crowned, 59-62 

nigra, Hydrochelidon, 41 

Testudo, 223, 244, 245, 316, 335 
nigrita, Testudo, 244, 249-251, 344, 354 
Noddy, 17, 20, 24-29, 30, 32, 98 

Clipperton, 20, 29-32, 98, 103, 109 
North Albemarle Island Tortoise, 303- 

305 
Northern Phalarope, 57 
Noyes, 237 

Numenius hudsonicus, 54-55 
Nyctanassa violacea, 59-62, 115, 122 
(pl. 2) 

O 
Oates, 93 

occidentalis, Larus, 40 
ochsneri, Bulimulus (Naesiotus), 380-381 

Helicina (Idesa), 382 
Ochthodromus wilsoni, S3 
Opuntia, 8, 234, 301, 326, 333 

Helleri, 7 
Oreocephalus cristatus, 192 
Osprey, 33, 193 
Oyster-catcher, Black, S3 

Frazar's, 47-53, 58 



pacificus, Liocephalus, 136, 143, 151 

Tropidurus, 133, 136, 137, 138, 139. 
143-147, ISl 
pallidus, Conolophus, 133, 188, 190-192 
Parasitic Jaeger, 46 
Parker, J. J., 2 
passerina, Chamaepelia, 9 
Passerine Dove, 9 
Pelecanus fuscus, 107-110, 118 
Pelican, Brown, 25, 44, 107-110 
Penguin, Galapagos, 16-19, 81 

Yellow-crowned, 18 
perrus, Bulimulus (Naesiotus), 376-377 
Peruvian Booby, 36, 87, 89-93, 95, 97, 101 
"Peterel," 136, 226, 228 
Peters, 135, 155 
Petrel, Dark-rumped, 36, 98 

Graceful, 44, 93, 100 
Phaethon athereus, 104-107 

rubricaudus, 107 
Phalarope, Northern, 57 

Red, 57 

Wilson's, 57-58 
Phalaropus hyperboreus, 57 
phantastica, Testudo, 259, 293, 299-302 
phantasticus, Testudo, 4, 244, 299 
Phcenicopteriformes, 5 



388 



CALIFOKHIA ACADEMY OF SCIEHCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Phcenicopterus ruber, 66-76, 124 (pi. 3) 

"Physicien," 244, 316 

pictus, Conolophus subcristatus, 188 

pilosum, Amblyoma, 235 

Pintail, 80 

Bahama, 44, 69, 70, 76-78, 79, 80 
piscatrix, Sula, 85-89, 128 (pi. 5) 
Pizarro, 209 

planiceps, Testudo, 244, 251, 354 
plicata, Usnea, 224 
Plover, Black -bellied, 53, 56 
Semipalmated, 53, 56 
Wilson's, 53 
Poecilonetta bahamensis, 76-78 
Pomarine Jaeger, 46 
pomatorhinus, Stercorarius, 46 
Porter, 215, 216, 218, 219, 223, 242, 248, 

251, 257, 322 
porteri, Testudo, 244, 250, 251, 259, 294, 

354-362, 364 
Porzana galapagoensis, 12 
"Potomac," 220, 255 
Preliminary descriptions of new species 

of Pnlmonata of the Galapagos 

Islands, by William Healey Dall, 

375-382 
Procellariiformes, 5 
PufBnus chlororhynchus, 98 
pusillus, Ereunetes, 56 
Pyroccphalus, 229 



Querquedula discors, 79-80 

versicolor, 79 
Quoy and Gaimard, 244, 245 



rabidensis, Bulimulus (Nsesiotus), 381- 

382 
Rail, Black, 14 

Galapagos, 9, 12-16 
Red Phalarope, 57 
Red-billed Tropic Bird, 104-107 
Red-footed Booby, 85-89, 93 
Red-tailed Tropic-bird, 107 
Reynolds, 255 
Ridgway, 6, 9, 37, 47, 64 
Rogers, Woodes, 211, 226 
Rothschild, 228, 237, 238, 244, 245, 246, 

254, 257, 258, 313, 323 
Rothschild and Hartert, 7, 18, 35, 38, 42, 

55, 58, 96 
ruber, Phcenicopterus, 66-76, 124 (pi. 3) 
rubricaudus, Phaethon, 107 



S 



sabinii, Xema, 37 
Sanderling, 56 



Sandpiper, Baird's, 57 
Least, 56 
Semipalmated, 56 
Solitary, 55 
Spotted, 56 

Saunders, Howard, 19, 22, 37, 40 

Scalesia, 190 

sculpturatus, Bulimulus, 381 

Sea Iguana, 192-194 

Seemann, B., 226 

semipalmata, Symphemia, 55 

Semipalmated Plover, S3, 56 

Sandpiper, 56 
semipalmatus, Mgialeas, 53 
Sesuvium, 101 
Sharpe, 4 

sharpei, Creciscus, 12, 13 
Shearwater, Dusky, 44, 91, 93, 110 

Wedge-tailed, 98 
Shoveller, 80 

Slevin, Joseph R., with John Van Den- 
burgh, Galapagoan lizards of the 
genus Tropidurus ; with notes on 
the iguanas of the genera Cono- 
lophus and Amblyrhynchus, 133-202 
Snodgrass, 234 
Snodgrass and Heller, 4, 7, 30, 31, 33, 42, 

58, 76, 82, 86 
solitarius, Helodromas, 55 
Solitary Sandpiper, 55 
Sooty Gull, 42-46, 76, 93 

Tern, 19-24, 25, 26, 32, 98 
Spatula clypeata, 80 
Spheniscus mendiculus, 5, 16-19, 112, 

120 (pi. 1) 
spilonotus, Creciscus, 5, 12-16, 112 
Spotted Sandpiper, 56 
Squatarola helvetica, S3 
Steganopus tricolor, 57-58 
Steindachner, 135, 136, 143 
Stercorarius crepidatus, 46 

pomatorhinus, 46 
Sterna antillarum, 41 

forsteri, 41 

fuliginosa, 19-24, 41 
Stilt, Black-necked, 44, 54, 70, 76 
stolidus, Anous, 24-29, 41, 113 
Stone, 247 
Stratton, 211 

subcristatus, Amblyrhynchus, 188 
Conolophus, 133, 188-190, 191 

pictus, Conolophus, 188 
subcristatus, Trachycephalus, 188 
Sula brewsteri, 97-100, 117 

cyanops, 84-85, 92, 93, 117 

nebouxi, 93-97, 128 (pi. 5) 

piscatrix, 85-89, 128 (pi. 5) 

variegata, 89-93, 96, 117 
Sundevall, 79 



Vol. II, Pt. I] 



mpEx 



389 



strndevalli, Butorides, 62-65, 116, 122 

(pl. 2) 
Swallow-tailed Gull, 35-42, 106 
Symphetnia semipalmata, 55 



Tagus Cove Tortoise, 329-334 
Tattler, Wandering, 52, 55-56 
Teal, Blue-winged, 76, 79-80 

Brilliant, 79 
Tern, Sooty, 19-24, 25, 26, 32, 98 

White, 32-34 
Testudo abingdoni, 259, 290, 293, 296-299 

abingdonii, 244, 296, 306 

becki, 237, 244, 259, 292, 293, 298, 
301, 303-305, 317 

bedsi, 303 

californiana, 244, 245, 316 

chathamensis, 244, 259, 290, 294, 
323-328 

darwini, 244, 259, 290, 293, 294, 
319-323, 348, 353 

elephantina, 354 

elephantopus, 244, 245-249, 255, 

256, 259, 292, 316-318, 335 (as 
synonym), 344 (as synonym), 
354 (as synonym) 

ephippium, 234, 244, 251-252, 259, 

291, 293, 298, 306-312 
gadowi, 257 
galapagoensis, 244, 249, 255-256, 

257, 292, 316 

giintheri, 244, 246, 253, 256-257, 
259, 260, 289, 291, 295, 325, 
332, 335-343, 344, 348 

hoodensis, 244, 259, 293, 313-316 

indica, 316, 354 

Indica, 223 

microphyes, 234, 244, 252-253, 259, 
290, 291, 294, 325, 329-334, 348 

nigra, 244, 245, 316, 335 

nigrita, 244, 249-251, 344, 354 

phantastica, 259, 293, 299-302 

phantasticus, 4, 244, 249 

planiceps, 244, 251, 354 

porteri, 244, 250, 251, 259, 294, 354- 
362, 364 

sp. (Barrington), 259, 365-366 

sp. (Cowley Mountain, Albe- 
marle), 259, 294, 362-365 

vicina, 234, 239, 244, 245, 246, 253- 
255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 291, 295, 
321, 338, 344-350, 353, 354, 364 

wallacei, 244, 257-258, 259, 295, 
351-353 
Tillandsia insularis, 9 
Tortoise, Abingdon Island, 296-299 

Barrington Island, 365-366 



Tortoise, Charles Island, 316-318 

Chatham Island, 323-328. 338 
Cowley Mountain, 362-365 
Duncan Island, 306-312 
Hood Island, 313-316 
Iguana Cove, 344-350 
Indefatigable Island, 354-362 
James Island, 319-323, 348 
Jervis Island, 351-353 
Narborough Island, 299-302 
North Albemarle Island, 303-305 
Tagus Cove, 329-334, 338, 348 
Vilamil Mountain, 335-343 
tortuganus, Bulimulus, 377 
Trachycephalus subcristatus, 188 
Traquair, 251. 252 
tricolor, Steganopus, 57-58 
Tringoides macularius, 56 
Tropic-bird, Red-billed, 104-107 

Red- tailed, 107 
Tropidurus, 317, 325, 368 

abingdonensis, 136, 138 
abingdonii, 136, 143 
albemarlensis, 133. 136, 137, 139, 
143, 168. 172-188 
barringtonensis, 133, 139, 143, 
168-172 
barringtonensis, 137, 138, 168 
bivittatus, 133, 137, 138, 139, 142, 

155-159 
(Craniopeltis) grayii, 155, 164, 172 

pacificus, 143 
delanonis, 133, 136, 137, 139, 142, 

159-164 
duncanensis, 133, 136, 137, 138, 

139, 143, 147-150 
grayi, 136, 147, 155. 159, 172 
barringtonensis, 137, 168 
grayi grayi, 137, 164, 172 
magnus, 137, 138, 172 
grayii, 133, 136, 137, 139, 142, 155, 

164-168, 172 
habeli, 137 
habelii, 133, 136, 137, 139, 142, 

150-154 
hoodensis, 136, 138, 159 
indefatigabilis, 136, 137, 138, 172 
iacobii, 137, 138, 172 
iemniscatus, 136. 137, 138, 155 
pacificus, 133, 135, 136, 137. 138, 
139, 143-147, 151 
(Habelii), 136, 150 
Turnstone, 46-47, 53 



U 



"Uranie," 244, 316 
Usnea plicata, 224 



390 



CAUFOKHIA ACADEMY OF SCIEHCES 



[Proo. 4th Se». 



vallisneria, FuHgula, 80 

Vancouver, 211 

Van Denburgh, John, The gigantic land 
tortoises of the Galapagos Archipel- 
ago, 203-374 

Van Denburgh, John, and Joseph R. 
Slevin, Galapagoan lizards of the 
genus Tropidurus; with notes on the 
iguanas of the genera Conolophus 
and Amblyrhynchus, 133-202 

Van Lidth de Jeude, .291 

variegata, Sula, 89-93, 96, 117 

"Venus," 135, 226 

versicolor, Querquedula, 79 

vicina, Testudo, 234, 239, 244, 245, 
253-255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 291, 
321, 338, 344-350, 353, 354, 364 

Vilamil, J., 219, 220 

Vilamil Mountain Tortoise, 335-343 

violacea, Nyctanassa, 59-62, 115, 
(pi. 2) 

virescens, Butorides, 65-66 



246, 
295, 



122 



W 

Wafer, 210 

wallacei, Testudo, 244, 257-258, 259, 295, 

351-353 
Wandering Tattler, 52, 55-56 
Watkins, Patrick, 219 
Webster, Frank B., 228, 237 
Webster-Harris Expedition, 43, 57 
Wedge-tailed Shearwater, 98 
White, J. W., 2 
White Tern, 32-34 
Willet, 55 

Williamia galapagana, 382 
Wilson's Phalarope, 57-58 

Plover, S3 
wilsoni, Ochthodromus, S3 
Wood, 226 



Xema sabinii, 37 



Yellow-crowned Night Heron, 59-62 

Penguin, 18 
Yupangi, Tupac, 209 



PROCEEDINGS 

Fourth Series 

VOLUME III— Continued 

Pages 155-160. Notes on Some Reptiles and Amphibians from 
Oregon, Idaho and Utah. By John Van Denburgh. {Issued 
January 17, 1912) 25 

Pages 161-182. Geologic Range of Miocene Invertebrate Fossils of 

California. By James Perrin Smith. {Isstied April 5, 1912). . . .25 

Pages 183-186. Description of a New Genus and Species of Sala- 
mander from Japan. By Surgeon J. C. Thompson, U. S. Navy. 
Plate XIV. {Issued May 3, 1912) 25 

Pages 187-258. Concerning Certain Species of Reptiles and Am- 
phibians from China, Japan, the Loo Choo Islands, and Formosa. 
By John Van Denburgh. {Issued Dece?tiber 16, 1912.) 50 

Pages 259-264. Notes on Ascaphus, the Discoglossoid Toad of 
North America. By John Van Denburgh. {Issued December 
21, 1912) 25 

Pages 265-390. A Distributional List of the Mammals of California. 

By Joseph Grinnell. Plates xv-xvi. {Issued A ufruit ?x 7Qiy\ i c\c\ 

Pages 391-454. 
with Notes c 
By John Vai 
XXVIII. {Issu 



Pages 1-13. I. 

II. 

Pages 15-112. L 
fornia, and '. 
Frank M. Ai 
December 30, 

Pages 113-128. 1 
in the Rosebi 
Plates xi-xii. 

Pages 129-152. ^ 
W^est Coast ( 
Joseph R. Sk 

Pages 153-160. \ 
San Jacinto F 
December 30, lyi't). 



VOLUME V 



Pages 1-31. I. Report of the President of the Academy for the 
year 1914. 
II. Report of the Director of the Museum for the 

year 1914. {Issued, March 26, 1915) 25 

Pages 33-98. III. Fauna of the Type Tejon: Its Relation to the 
Cowlitz Phase of the Tejon Group of Washington. By Roy E. 

Dickerson. Plates i-xi. {Issued June IS, 1915) 50 

Pages 99-110. IV. A list of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Utah, 
with Notes on the Species in the Collection of the Academy. 
By John Van Denburgh and Joseph R. Slevin. Plates xii-xiv. 

{Issued June 15, 1915) 25 

Pages 111-161. V. Description of a new subgenus (Arborimus) 
of Phenacomys, with a Contribution to Knowledge of the 
Habits and Distribution of Phenacomys longicaudus. By Walter 

P. Taylor. Plate xv. {Issued December 30, 1915) 50 

Pages 163-193. VI. Tertiary Deposits of Northeastern Mexico. By 

E. T. Dumble. Plates xvi and xix. {Issued December 31, 1915). .50 
Pages 195-223. VII. Report of the President of the Academy for 
the Year 1915. 
VIII. Report of the Director of the Museum for 

the Year 1915. {Issued May 4, 1916) ... .25 



PROCEEDINGS 

Fourth Series 

VOLUME VI 

Pa'3-es 1-17. 1. Eocene of Lower Cowlitz River Valley, Washing- 
*ton. By Charles E. Weaver. Plate 1. {Issued May 6, 1916). 
Pages 19-40. IL The Post-Eocene Formations of Western Wash- 
ington. By Charles E. Weaver. (Issued May 6, 1916). 
Pages 41-52. III. The Oligocene of Kitsap County, Washington. 
By Charles E. Weaver. {Issued May 6, 1916). Price for the 

three papers. .50 

Pao-es 53-85. IV. The Pacific Coast Races of the Bewick Wren. 

'^ By Harry S. Swarth. Plate 2. {Issued May S, 1916) 25 

Pages 87-128. V. Monograph of the North American Species of 
Orthotylus (Hemiptera). By Edward P. Van Duzee. {Issued 

May 8, 1916) 30 

Pages 129-213. VI. A Catalogue and Host List of the Anoplura. 

By G. F. Ferris. [Issued May 12, 1916) 50 

Pao-es 215-221. VII. Four Species of Salamanders new to the State 
''of California, with a Description of Plethodon elongatus, a New 
Species, and Notes on other Salamanders. By John Van Den- 
burgh. {Issued May 12, 1916) 25 

Pages 223-294. VIII. Rpp.. . of the President of the Academy for 
the Year 1916. 
IX. Report of the Director of the Museum for 
the Year 1916. Plates 3-17. {Issued 
June 23, 1917) 25 

VOLUME VII 

Pacr-^c \-,A. I. Archaeological Notes on Western Washington and 
' Adjacent British Columbia. ByAlbertB, Reagan. Plates 1-6. 
{Issued Jtify IS, 1917) 30 

Pages 33-39. H and III. Concerning the Origin of the Soft-shelled 
Turtle, Aspidonectes californiana Rivers, and Notes on the 
Herpetology of Guam, Mariana Islands. By John Van Den- 
burgh. {Issued July 23, 1917) .10 

Pages 41-124. IV. Stratigraphic and Faunal Relations of the Mar- 
tinez to the Chico and Tejon of Southern California. By Clarence 
A. Waring. Plates 7-16. {Issued July 30, 1917) .50 

Pages 125-156. V. The Fauna of a Medial Tertiary Formation ■ 
and the Associated Horizons of Northeastern Mexico. By Roy 
E. Dickerson and William S. W. Kew. Plates 17-26a. {Issued 
July 30, 1917) 25 

Pages 157-192. VI. Climate and its Influence upon the Oligocene 
Faunas of the Pacific Coast, with Descriptions of some new 
species from the Molopophorus lincolnensis Zone. By Roy E. 
Dickerson. Plates 27-31. {Issued July 30, 1917). 

Pages 193-196. VII, Climatic Zones of Martinez Eocene Time. 
By Roy E. Dickerson. {Issued July 30, 1917). 

Pages 197-205. VIII. Ancient Panama Canals. By Roy E. Dick- 
erson. {Issued July 30, 1917). Price for the three papers 45 

Pages 207-227. IX. Geology of a Portion of the McKittrick Dis- 
trict, a typical Example of the West Side San Joaquin Valley 
Oil Fields, and a Correlation of the Oil Sands of the West Side 
Fields. By G. C. Gester. Plates 32-33. {Issued July 31, 1917). .10 

Pages 229-248. X. Notes on West American Chitons— I. By 

S. Stillman Berry. ( Issued September 1, 1917) 30 

Pages 249-318. XI. Report upon a Collection of Hemiptera made 
by Walter M. Giffard in 1916 and 1917, chiefly in California. 
By Edward P. Van Duzee. {Issued December 31, 1917.) 75 

The Academy cannot supply any of its publications issued before the 
year 1907, its entire reserve stock having been destroyed in the conflagra 
tion of April, 1906. 

THE HICKS-JUDD PRESS 
SAN FRANCISCO 



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